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c/7 Semi-Montbly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 

July 1 to December 16, 1903 






Alcohol, Physiological Effects of T. D. A. Cockerell 119 

America's Oriental Diplomacy James Oscar Pierce 34 

America's Place in History James Oscar Pierce 9 

Art, Four Books on Alice Brown 173 

Books for the Young, 1903 429, 476 

Books of the Fall Season of 1903 159 

Book Lover's Small-Talk, A Ingram A. Pyle 413 

Burr, Aaron, The Conspiracy of Laurence M. Larson .... 61 

Children's Books, Illustrating of Walter Taylor Field 457 

Confederate General, Reminiscences of a . . . . James Oscar Pierce 302 

Continental Literature, A Year of 53, 111 

Critical Self-Consciousness, Our 207 

Dante, Books about William Morton Payne .... 418 

Disraeli Self- Portrayed Percy F. Bicknell 461 

Education, Timely Problems in Henry Davidson Sheldon ... 92 

Elers, Captain, of the Twelfth Foot Wallace Rice 212 

Emerson, Letters and Recollections of Annie Russell Marble .... 13 

England in the Nineteenth Century E. D. Adams 255 

Explorations, A Century of Ira M. Price 60 

Fiction, Recent William Morton Payne . 63, 218, 260 

Finance, Private and Public, Recent Discussions in M. B. Hammond 308 

Fox, and his Part in English Politics Charles H. Cooper 417 

Gladstone, Morley's Life of E. D. Adams 410 

Greek Glamour, More George M. R. Twose 91 

Grove, Sir George, Life and Letters of .... Ingram A. Pyle 117 

Happy Few, The 249 

Hawthorne, A New Book about W. H. Johnson 466 

Herder Centenary, The ' 455 

Highways, Historic, of America F. H Hodder 214 

Hoar, Senator, Autobiography of Percy F. Bicknell 343 

Holiday Publications, 1903 421,470 

Jane, Chatter about 29 

Justice and Humanity, A Drama of Edward E. Hale, Jr 257 

Lamb, Charles, Sidelights on Percy F. Bicknell 7 

Lecky, William Edward Hartpole 295 

Letter- Writers and Letter- Writing Percy F. Bicknell 407 

Liberty, Religious and Civil, in America .... James Oscar Pierce .... 345 

Literary Life, Recollections of a Notable . . . Clark Sutherland Northup . . . 299 

Literature Illustrated 5 

Marshall Memorial, The James Oscar Pierce 121 

Middle West, A New History of the Edwin E. Sparks 462 

Mommsen, Theodor 339 

Napoleon at St. Helena Percy F. Bicknell 163 

Nature Chronicles, Recent May Estelle Cook 467 

North Pole, Nearest to the Wallace Rice 31 

Novels, Notes on New 67,220,263 

Orthodoxy, The New T. D. A. Cockerell 415 

Parliament, English, A Thousand Years of . . . Charles H Cooper 172 

Philosophic Thought, Aspects of A. K. Rogers ...*.... 11 

Philosophy, Historical Study of A. K. Rogers 259 

Poe's Contribution to American Literary History . Sherwin Cody 161 

Poetry, Recent William Morton Payne . 36, 123, 355 

Poland, Impressions of William Morton Payne .... 169 

Prehistoric Times, A History of Laurence M. Larson 353 



Presidential Impeachment Trial, The Only 

Quaker in Fiction, The 

Religious Thought, Some Types of ... . 

Robertson, Frederick W 

Saintly Life, Some Ideals of 

School Boards, Education of 

Science, A Martyr of 

Science in the Encyclopaedias 

Shakespeare Criticism and Discussion . . 
Shakespeare, Moral Law in the World of 

Shakespeare's Heir 

Siena, Two More Books about 

Slavery Controversy, The, in America . 
Social Origins and Primal Law .... 

Spectacular, Reign of the 

Stevenson's Religious Faith 

Story, William Wetmore, and his Friends 

Trowbridge's Reminiscences 

University of Chicago, Publications of the 

Velasquez, An Heir of 

Yale, Half a Century of 

Edwin Erie Sparks . 
Caroline Ladd Crew 
T. D. A. Cockerell . 
Percy F. Bicknell 
C A. L. Richards 
William Mc Andrew . 
Herbert A. Howe . 
T. D. A. Cockerell . 
Albert H. Tolman 
Edward E. Hale, Jr. 
Charles Leonard Moore 
Arthur Howard Noll 
W. H. Johnson 
Frederick Starr . 
Annie Russell Marble 

Annie Russell Marble 
Percy F. Bicknell 
Eugene Parsons . 
Henry Charles Payne 
Percy F. Bicknell 








Announcements of Fall Books of 1903 179, 231 

Briefs on New Books 14,41,93,127,175,223,266,314,359 

Briefer Mention 18, 97, 130, 269, 316, 362 

Notes 19, 44, 70, 98, 130, 178, 226, 269, 317, 363, 434, 479 

Topics in Leading Periodicals 19, 131, 228, 318, 481 

Lists of New Books 20, 46, 70, 99, 131, 228, 271, 318, 364, 434, 482 


Abbott. Katharine M. Old Paths and Legends of 

New England 425 

Abruzzi, Duke of the. On the "Polar Star" 31 

Adams, Charles F. Life in a New England Town. . 17 

Addison, Julia. Florestane the Troubadour 264 

Albee, John. Remembrances of Emerson 14 

Aleott, Louisa M. Jo's Boys, illus. by Ellen W. 

Ahrens 431 

Alden, Raymond M. English Verse 177 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. Ponkapog Papers 359 

Allen, James L. Mettle of the Pasture 218 

Annual Register for 1902 98 

Antigone, The, at Stanford University 363 

Appletons' Series of Plain and Colored Books 

178, 227, 269, 317 

Arber's English Garner, Dutton's reissue 130 

Ashley, Roscoe L. American Government 130 

Austin. Mary. Land of Little Rain 421 

Avery. Harold. House on the Moor 477 

Bachelor Bigotries 226 

Bacon, Edwin M. Guide-Book to Boston 45 

Bacon, Edwin M. Literary Pilgrimages in New 

England 15 

Baedeker's Guide Books 227, 364 

Bangs, John K. Derby's rhcenixiana 363 

Banks. Nancy H. Round Anvil Rock 69 

Barbour, R. H. Weatherby's Inning 430 

Barnard, E. W. Conceits of a General Lover 357 

Barnes, Annie M. Little Betty Blew 430 

Barnes, James. The Giant of Three Wars 430 

Barr, Amelia E. Thyra Varrick 222 

Barry, Etheldred B. Little Dick's Christmas 433 

Bates, David. Law of Likeness 306 

Baum, L. Frank. Enchanted Island of Yew 478 

Baum, L. Frank. Magical Monarch of Mo 478 

Baum, L. Frank. New Wizard of Oz 478 

Beardsley, Aubrey. Under the Hill 

Bell, Lilian. The Dowager Countess and the Ameri- 
can Girl 

Belloc, Hllaire. Bad Child's Book of Beasts 

Belloc, Hilaire. The Aftermath 

Benner, Allen R. Selections from the Iliad 

Benson, E. F. Book of Months 

Betts, Lillian W. Story of an East Side Family 

Bignell, Effie. Mr. Chupes and Miss Jennie, holiday 

Billings, J. S. Physiological Aspects of the Liquor 

Bisland, Elizabeth. A Candle of Understanding 

Black, Hugh. Friendship, holiday edition 

Black, Hugh. Work 

Blodgett, Mabel F. The Giant's Ruby 

Bloom, J. Harvey. Shakespeare's Garden 

Bolster, Edith R. Ethel in Fairyland 

Bonde, Baroness. Paris in '48 

Boone, Henry B. The Career Triumphant 

Boone, H. B., and Brown, Kenneth. The Redfields 

Borsdorf, A. T. W. Literary Theories of Taine and 

Bowker, Richard R. Of Education 

Bowker, R. R. Of Religion 

Bradbury, Robert H. Elementary Chemistry 

Brady, Cyrus T. In the War with Mexico 

Brady, Cyrus T. Tittlebat Titmouse 

Brandes, Georg. Poland 

Breckinridge, S. P. Legal Tender 

Brereton, F. S. In the Grip of the Mullah 

Brereton, F. S. The Red Cockade 

Bretherton, R. H. The Beatrice Book 

Brooks. Amy. Dorothy's I'laymates 

Brooks, Amy. Randy and Prue 












Brooks, Geraldine. Romances of Colonial Days 424 

Brooks, Phillips. Christmas Songs and Easter 

Carols 429 

Brown, Abbie F. Curious Book of Birds 479 

Brown, Alice. Judgment 264 

Brown, Anna R. The Millionaire's Son 262 

Brown, Gerard B. Arts in Early England 223 

Brown, W. A. Essence of Christianity 307 

Brown, W. G. A Gentleman of the South 67 

Browne, W. H. Taill of Rauf Coilyear 479 

Browning's Men and Women, illus. by H. Ospovat. . 425 
Bryce, James. Studies in Contemporary Biography 10 

Budge, E. A. W. History of Egypt - 262 

Buell, Augustus C. Sir William Johnson 177 

Bullen, A. H. Poems of Campion 45 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, "Puritan" edition 434 

Burnet, John. Aristotle on Education 269 

Burton, Richard. Message and Melody 37 

Butler, Howard C. Story of Athens 91 

Butterworth, Hezekiah. Brother Jonathan 430 

Cain, Neville. The Fairies' Circus 432 

Cain, Neville. The Fairies' Menagerie 432 

Calendar of Prayers by Stevenson 429 

Canterbury Calendar 429 

Capey, Ernest F. H. Life of Erasmus 95 

Carey, Rosa N. A Passage Perilous 265 

Carlyle's Works, "Edinburgh" edition 226, 363 

Carman, Bliss. From the Book of Myths 36 

Carman, Bliss. From the Green Book of the Bards 37 

Carman, Bliss. The Kinship of Nature 475 

Carpenter, Edmund J. The American Advance 44 

Carpenter, George R., and others. Teaching of 

English 99 

Carrington, Fitzroy. The Shepherd's Pipe 429 

"Carroll, Lewis." Hunting of the Snark, illus. by 

Peter Newell 423 

Carter, Jesse B. Virgil's ^Eneid 177 

Carus, Paul. Surd of Metaphysics 97 

Cary, Elisabeth L. Rossetti's Poems 422 

Cary, Mrs. M. Fairy Legends of French Provinces. . 432 

Carry!, Guy W. The Lieutenant-Governor 69 

Carryl, Guy W. Zut 222 

Cather, Willa S. April Twilights 40 

Catterall, Ralph C. H. Second Bank of the U. S... 312 

Cawein, Madison. Voice on the Wind 38 

Cervantes' Don Quixote, handy volume edition. .363, 428 

Chaillu, Paul du. In African Forest and Jungle 477 

Chambers, Robert W. Maids of Paradise 261 

Chambers, Robert W. Orchard-Land 430 

Champney, Elizabeth W. Romance of the Bourbon 

Chateaux 423 

Channing, Edward. First Lessons in United States 

History 98 

Channing, W. E. Discourses on War, Ginn's reprint 18 

Charles, Frances. Awakening of the Duchess 432 

Charles, Frances. The Siege of Youth 69 

Chatterbox for 1904 433 

Cheever, Harriet A. Gipsy Jane 433 

Cheever, Harriet A. Lord Dolphin 430 

Cheney, C. Emma. Mistress Alice Jocelyn 68 

Cherbuliez V. Samuel Brohl and Company, Omeril 

Co.'s edition 317 

Chesterton, G. K. Robert Browning 223 

Cheyne, T. K., and Black, J. S. Encyclopaedia 

Biblica, Vol. IV 266 

Chiswick Library of Noble Authors 361, 472 

Chittenden, H. M. Early Steamboat Navigation 

upon the Missouri 127 

Clark, Joseph B. Leavening the Nation 360 

Clark, Natalie R. Blake Redding 433 

Clark, T. M. Care of a House 480 

Clemens, Will M. The Gilded Lady 68 

Clemow, F. G. Geography of Disease 176 

Clover, Samuel T. On Special Assignment 431 

Cobb, S. H. Rise of Religious Liberty In America 345 

Cochrane, Alfred. Collected Verses 356 

Cockerell, C. R. Travels in Southern Europe 362 

Cody, Sherwin. Best English Essays 130 

Cody, Sherwin. Selections from Poe 481 

Cody, Sherwin. Writing and Speaking English 98 

Cohen, S. S. Physiologic Therapeutics 361 

Colby, F. M., and others. International Year-Book 

for 1903 41 

Colton, Arthur. Tioba 69 

Comstock, Anna B. Ways of the Six-Footed 431 


Cook, Ruth A. Along Four-Footed Trails 469 

Cook, T. A. Spirals in Nature and Art 174 

Cooke, George W. Poets of Transcendentalism. . 176 

Cordier, Henri. Yule's Marco Polo 269- 

Corelli, Marie. Angel's Wickedness 475 

Cornford, L. Cope. Essay-Writing for Schools.... 481 
Crawford, Mary C. Romance of Old New England 

Churches 42ft 

Crelghton, Mandell. Historical Essays 96 

Crerar Library List of Serial Publications in Chi- 
cago 99* 

Crissey, Forrest. The Country Boy 428 

Crosby, Ernest. Swords and Ploughshares 126- 

Crothers, Samuel McC. The Gentle Reader 360 

Crowley, Mary C. Love Thrives in War 65 

Crowninshield, Frederic. Tales in Metre 357 

Culter, Mary McC. The Girl Who Kept Up 432 

Curtis, W. E. Denmark, Norway and Sweden 434 

Curtis, W. E. The True Abraham Lincoln 16 

Curtis, W. E. The Turk and His Lost Provinces.. 44 

Cuyas, Arturo. Appletons' New Spanish Dictionary 269 

Dalliba, Gerda. Fate and 1 357 

"Danby, Frank." Pigs in Clover 64 

Davidson, Bertha G. Winifred's Neighbors 433 

Davis, Richard H. The Bar Sinister, holiday edi- 
tion 428 

Dawes, Sarah E. Bible Stories 431 

Deane, Sidney N. Writings of St. Anselm 480 

Dearborn, Ned, and Weed, C. M. Birds in Rela- 
tion to Man 128 

Decennial Publications of the University of Chi- 
cago 45, 70, 88, 93, 98, 131, 269, 364 

Delitzsch, Friedrich. Babel and Bible 361 

De Normandie, James. The Beauty of Wisdom.... 479 

Denslow, William W. Picture Books 433 

Desmond, H. W., and Croly, Herbert. Stately 

Homes in America 471 

Despotism and Democracy 261 

Dewey, Davis R. Financial History of the U. S.. 311 

Dewing, A. S. History of Modern Philosophy.... 259 

Dewitt, David M. Impeachment of Johnson 59 

Dick, James C. Songs of Burns 480 

Dickens's Works, "Fireside" edition 19, 70, 317 

Dillon, John F. John Marshall 121 

Dinsmore, C. A. Aids to Study of Dante 418 

Dobell, Bertram. Sidelights on Lamb 7 

Dodd, Anna B. In Palaces of the Sultan 426 

Donnell, Annie H. Camp Fidelity Girls 432 

Dopp, Katharine E. Industries in Elementary Edu- 
cation 93 

Dorman, Marcus R. P. British Empire in 19th Cen- 
tury 255 

Douglas, Amanda M. Helen Grant's Schooldays 432 

Douglas, Langton. History of Siena 217 

Doyle, A. Conan, Works of, "Author's" edition.. 364 
Dubbs, J. H. History of Franklin and Marshall 

College 45 

Dudeney, Mrs. Henry. Robin Brilliant 64 

Dudley, Albertus T. Following the Ball 430 

Duff, M. E. Grant. Out of the Past 314 

Dunbar, iraul L. When Malindy Sings 475 

Dunn, Byron A. Raiding with Morgan 430 

Dwight, Timothy. Memories of Yale 57 

Dyke, Henry van. Joy and Power 363 

Dyke, Henry van, and Chambers, D. L. Selections 

from Tennyson 434 

Eady, K. M. and R. Riverton Boys 477 

Earle, Mabel. New Fortunes 432 

Edey, B. O. Six Giants and a Griffin 478 

Edwards, John H. God and Music 129 

Edwards, Louise B. The Tu-Tze's Tower 67 

Eliot, Charles W. More Money for Tublic Schools 93 

Ellis, Edward S. True Blue 431 

Elhvanger, W. D. The Oriental Rug 360 

Ely, R. T. Evolution of Industrial Society 315 

Emerson's Conduct of Life, Scott-Thaw edition.... 472 

Emerson's Works, "Centenary" edition. .. .130, 253, 363 

Fagnani, Charles P. Primer of Hebrew 479 

Fahie, J. J. Galileo 307 

Faxon, Frederick W. Ephemeral Bibelots 45 

Federn, Karl. Dante and His Time 419 

Fellows, George E. Recent European History 98 

Field, Roswell. Bondage of Ballinger 265 

Finley, Martha. nJsie and Her Loved Ones.... 478 

Fischer, W. J. Songs by the Wayside 357 



Fiske, Isabella Howe. A Field of Folk 358 

Fiske, John. Dutch and Quaker Colonies, holiday 

edition 427 

Fite, Warner. Introductory Study of Ethics 175 

FitzGerald's Polonius, in the "Wisdom beries" 317 

FitzGerald's Works, definitive edition de luxe.... 316 
Fleming, W. H. How to Study Shakspere, third 

series 259 

Flemming, J. A. Waves and Ripples 268 

"Flynt, Joslah." Rise of Ruderick Clowd 69 

Forbes, Cora B. Elizabeth's Charm-String 43:: 

Ford, Paul L. A Checked Love Affair 427 

Forman, Justus Miles. Monsigny 220 

Foster. John W. American Diplomacy in the 

Orient 34 

Fowler, Ellen T. Place and Power 221 

Fowler, Harold N. Roman Literature 98 

Fox, John, Jr. Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come. . 262 

Frankland, Mrs. Percy. Bacteria in Daily Life 17 

Freeman, E. A. Historical Geography of Europe, 

edited by J. B. Bury 480 

Fuller, Margaret, Love Letters of 359 

Gaines, Charles K. Gorgo 264 

Gallatin, A. E. Aubrey Beardsley's Drawings 18 

Gardner. Edmund G. Story of Siena 217 

Garman, Raymond H. Jungle Larks 433 

Garnett, Richard, and Gosse, Edmund. English 

Literature 5 

Garrison, George P. Texas 18 

Gayley, C. M. Representative English Comedies, 

Vol. 1 70 

German, Edward. Just So Song Book 478 

Gerrare, Wirt. Greater Russia 224 

Gilbert, E. L. The Frolicsome Four 433 

Giles, Herbert A. China and the Chinese 16 

Gilman, Bradley. Ronald Carnaquay 220 

Gilman, D. C, and others. New International En- 
cyclopaedia , 41, 130 

Gi'.son. Roy Rolfe. Mother and Father 472 

tJirouard, D. H. Supplement to "Lake St. Louis" 131 
Gissing, George. Private Papers of Henry Rye- 
croft : , 16 

Gladden, Washington. Witnesses of the Light.... 481 
Gordon, George A. Ultimate Conceptions of Faith 415 
Gordon, John B. Reminiscences of the Civil War. . 302 

Gottschalk, O. H. von. In Gnome Man's Land 478 

Gottschalk, O. H. von. Innocent Industries 433 

Graves, Charles L. Life of Sir George Grove 117 

Gray, Arthur. Little Tea Book, and Over the Black 

Coffee 364 

Greene, Roy F. Cupid is King 40 

Gregorovius, F. Lucretia Borgia, trans, by J. L. 

Garner 480 

Griffin, A. P. C. Library of Congress Bibliographies 

45, 480 

Gronau, Georg. Leonardo da Vinci 97 

Guerrier, Edith. Wanderfolk in Wonderland 479 

Haggard, H. Rider. Pearl Maiden 222 

Hale, Edward Everett. We, the People 481 

Hammond, J. L. LeB. Charles James Fox 417 

Handy Volume Classics, new vols 318 

Hann, Julius. Handbook of Climatology 128 

Hapgood, Isabel F. Works of Turgenieff 362 

Harben, Will X. The Substitute 67 

Harker, L. Allen. The Little People 477 

Harkins, E. F. Among the Men Who Have Written 

Famous Books 426 

Harland, Henry. Cardinals Snuff-Box, illustrated 

edition 426 

Harrison. Mrs. Burton. The Unwelcome Mrs. 

Hatch 67 

Harrison, Edith O. The Star Fairies 431 

Hart, Albert B. Actual Government 227 

Hathaway. Charles M. Jonson's Alchemist 99 

Hawkes, Clarence. The Little Foresters 430 

Hawthorne, Julian. Hawthorne and His Circle 466 

Hawtrey. Valentlna. Saint Mary Magdalen 473 

Hay, John. Castilian Days, illus. by Pennell 428 

Hazlitt, W. Carew. Shakespear 169 

Heermans, Josephine W. Stories from the Hebrew 130 

Henderson, C. Hanford. John Percyfield 68 

Henshall, J. A. Bass, Pike, Perch 127 

Henty, G. A. Through Three Campaigns 430 

Henty, G. A. With the Allies to tekin 430 

Hesser, W. Reiff. Joe's Signal Code 431 

Herford, Oliver, and others. Cynic's Calendar for 

1904 47g 

Heverfield, Mrs. E. L. Daddy's Lad 478 

Hewitt, J. F. The Myth-Making Age 353 

Hey wood, W., and Olcott, Lucy. Guide to Siena. . 15 

Hibben, John G. Hegel's Logic 12 

Hichens, Robert. Felix 63 

Higginbotham, Helena. Rover's Story 430 

Higginson, T. W., and Boynton, H. W. American 

Literature 314 

Hill, Elizabeth. My Wonderful Visit 478 

Hilprecht, H. V. Explorations in Bible Lands 60 

Hoar, George F. Autobiography of Seventy Years . . 343 
Hobart, George V. Ll'l Verses for Li'l Fellers.... 433 

Hodder, Alfred. Fight for the City 129 

Hoffman, F. S. Psychology and Common Life 18 

Holbrook, Richard T. Dante and the Animal King- 
dom 420 

Holder, Charles F. Big Game Fishes 127 

Holls, F. W. Correspondence between Emerson and 

Grimm 13 

Holme, Charles. Genius of J. M. W. Turner 475 

Holme, Charles. Masters of English Landscape 

Painting 316 

Holmes, Edmond. Triumph of Love 125 

Home, Gordon. What to See in England 480 

"Hope, Anthony," Works of, "Author's" edition.. 434 

Howe, M. A. De Wolfe. Boston 470 

Howells, W. D. Letters Home 263 

Huart, Clfement. Arabic Literature 316 

Hubbard, Elbert. Little Journeys to the Homes of 

Famous Musicians and English Authors 425 

Huckel, Oliver. Parsifal 479 

Hughes, Rupert. Love Affairs of Great Musicians. . 471 

Hulbert, Archer B. Historic Highways 214 

Huntington, Dwight W. Our Feathered Game.... 268 
Huntington, G. P. Ruskln on the Divina Comme- 

dia 420 

Huntington, Helen. The Solitary Path 41 

Hutton, W. H. Influence of Christianity upon Na- 
tional Character 86 

Hyde, W. De Witt. Jesus* Way 307 

Hyne, Cutcliffe. Mcl'odd 265 

Hyne, Cutcliffe. More Adventures of Captain Kettle 223 

Hyne, Cutcliffe. Thompson's Progress 68 

Ingham, John H. Pompeii of the West 126 

Ingpen, Roger. Autobiography of Leigh Hunt 317 

Ingraham, Prentiss. Girl Rough Riders 432 

Irving, Fanny B. Six Girls, new edition 431 

Isham, Frederic S. Under the Rose 66 

Jackson, Gabrielle E. Big Jack 430 

Jackson, Gabrielle E. Little Comrade 430 

Jackson, Gabrielle E. Three Graces 432 

Jackson, Katherine H. McD. Summer Songs in Idle- 

nesse 358 

James, Henry. William Wetmore Story 348 

James, J. A., and Sanford, A. H. Our Government 363 
Jefferies, Richard. An English Village, holiday edi- 
tion 424 

Jegi, John I. Human Physiology 481 

Jenkins, T. A. Espurgatoire Saint Patriz 45 

Jerrold, Walter. Essays of Douglas Jerrold 473 

Jessup, A., and Ives, G. B. Little French Master- 
pieces 364 

Johnson, Clifton. Land of Heather 424 

Johnson, Francis. Famous Assassinations 316 

Johnson, Rossiter. Alphabet of Rhetoric 480 

Johnson, W. H. Pioneer Spaniards in No. America 476 

Joline, Adrian H. Diversions of a Book-Lover 413 

Jones. L. H. The Jones Readers 99 

Josselyn. Charles. My Favorite Book-Shelf 474 

Judd, Charles H. Genetic Psychology 96 

Kastner, L. E. French Versification 177 

Kelley, Lilla E. Three Hundred Things a Girl Can 

Do 477 

Kelman, John, Jr. Faith of Stevenson 215 

Kempton-Wace Letters, The 69 

Kenyon. James B. Retribution 222 

Kerr. Alvah M. Young Heroes of Wire and Rail.. 431 

"Kerr, Joe." Mr. Sharptooth 433 

King. Charles. An Apache Princess 265 

Kingsley, Maurice. Works of Charles Kingsley.... 

19, 70, 363, 434 

Kipling's Works. "Outward Bound" edition 364 

Kipling, Rudyard. The Five Nations 355 




Kirk, Ellen Olney. Good-Bye, Proud World 221 

Knowles, Frederic L. Story of Little David 431 

Knowles, Frederic L. Story of Tom and Maggie. . 431 

KobbS, Gustav. Famous Actors and Actresses 423 

Kuhns, Oscar. Great Poets of Italy 421 

Kummer, H. Talbot. Semanoud 357 

Laird & Lee's Vest-Pocket Diary for 1904 363 

Landmarks Club Cook Book 225 

Lane-Poole, Stanley. Mediaeval India 93 

Lang, Andrew. Crimson Fairy Book 431 

Lang, Andrew, and Atkinson, J. J. Social Origins, 

and Primal Law 301 

Lanier, Sidney. Shakspere and His Forerunners.. 168 

Latimer, Elizabeth W. Talks of Napoleon 163 

Laughlin, Clara E. Miladi 427 

Laughlin, J. Laurence. Principles of Money 309 

LaughHn, J. L., and Willis, H. P. Reciprocity 128 

Laurie, Henry. Scottish Philosophy 12 

Lavignac, Albert. Musical Education 42 

Lawton, William C. Greek Classical Literature.. 226 

Le Feuvre, Amy. Jill's Red Bag 433 

Le Feuvre, Amy. Two Tramps 433 

Leigh, O. H. G. Index to Voltaire's Works 90 

Leonard, Mary F. How the Two Ends Met 433 

Lewis, Alfred H. Peggy O'Neal 220 

Lewis, C. M. Gawayne and the Green Knight 480 

Lewis, Jocelyn. Adventures of Dorothy 478 

Liddell, Mark H. Elizabethan Shakespere, Vol. I.. 165 

Lloyd, John Uri. Red Head 470 

Locke, William J. Where Love Is 260 

Lodge, George C. Poems 37 

London, Jack. Call of the Wild 261 

Long, John L. Madame Butterfly, "Japanese" edi- 
tion 475 

Long, William J. Little Brother to the Bear 468 

Longfellow's Courtship of Miles Standish, lllus. by 

Christy 474 

Loomis, Charles B. A Partnership in Magic 431 

Louthan, Hattie H. Thoughts Adrift 358 

Loveman, Robert. Gates of Silence 38 

Lowell, Percival. The Solar System 43 

Lyon, Mrs. Dore. Prudence Pratt 223 

Mabie, Hamilton W. Backgrounds of Literature. . 425 

Mabie, Hamilton W. In Arcady 428 

MacGrath, Harold. The Grey Cloak 66 

Mackie, Pauline B. A Voice in the Desert 66 

Macmillan's Guide to Switzerland 45 

Maeterlinck, Maurice. Monna Vanna 257 

Mallock, W. H. Religion as a Credible Doctrine 306 

Mann, W. J. America in its Relation to the Great 

Epochs of History 9 

Marriott, Charles. House on the Sands 260 

Martin, Edward S. Poems and Verses 39 

Martyn, Hazel. Sketches 422 

MS. in a Red Box, The 260 

Mathews, Alfred Ohio and Her Western Reserve. . 348 

Mauclair, Camille. French Impressionists 176 

Mauclair, Camille. Great French Painters 472 

May, Sophie. Joy Bells 432 

Maynadier, G. H. Works of Fielding and Smollett 434 

McCaleb, Walter F. Aaron Burr Conspiracy 61 

McCarthy, Justin. British Political Portraits 96 

McCarthy, Justin H. Marjorie 222 

McCulloch, Hugh. Written in Florence 36 

McCutcheon, George B. The Sherrods 221 

McCutcheon, John T. Boy Calendar 429 

McNeill, Everett. Dickon Bend-the-Bow 431 

McNeill, George E. Unfrequented Paths 127 

McSpadden, J. Walker. Fables of ^sop 431 

Mead, Edwin D. Influence of Emerson 224 

Meade, Edward S. Trust Finance ~44 

Meader, H. L. Reflections of the Morning After. . 475 

Mendes, H. Perelra. In Old Egypt 476 

Mempes, Mortimer and Dorothy. World's Children 421 

Meredith, William H. The Real John Wesley 316 

Mermaid Series, thin-paper edition 317 

Merwin, Samuel. His Little World 265 

Meynell, Alice. Work of John S. Sargent 464 

Meynell, Wilfrid. Benjamin Disraeli 461 

Middeldyk, R. A. History of Puerto Rico 43 

Miller, James R. In Perfect Peace 429 

Mills, W. Jay. Through the Gates of Old Romance 473 

Milman, Mrs. H. Kalendar of Country Delights 42 

Molineux, R. B. Vice Admiral of the Blue 265 

Montgomery, Frances T. Billy Whiskers' Kids 433 


Montgomery, Frances T. Wonderful Electric Ele- 
phant 432 

Monson, Lord, and Gower, George L. Memoirs of 

George Elers 212 

Morley, John. Life of Gladstone 410 

Morley, Margaret W. Insect Folk 430 

Moore, F. Frankfort. Castle Omeragh 63 

Moore, George. The Untitled Field 69 

Moore, N. H. Old China Book 94 

Moran> Thomas F. The English Government 18 

Morris, William. Defense of Guenevere, illus. by 

Jessie M. King 475 

Moses, Montrose J. Everyman 479 

Moss, Mary. A Sequence in Hearts 2(14 

Moulton, R. G. Moral System of Shakespeare 3S1 

"Mowbray, J. P." The Conquering of Kate 68 

Mumford, Ethel W. Limerick Up to Date Book 426 

Munn, Charles C. The Hermit 364 

Murfree, Mary F. A Spectre of Power 65 

Musson, Bennet. Maisie and Her Dog Snip 482 

Myers, Philip Van Ness. The Modern Age 480 

Naylor, James B. Under Mad Anthony's Banner. . 222 

Nesbit, W. D. Little Henry's Slate 47.1 

Newbolt, Henry. Sailing of the Long-Ships 124 

Newell, W. W. Games of American Children, new 

edition .' 478 

Newnes's thin-paper editions 19, 481 

Nicholson, Meredith. The Main Chance 219 

Noyes, Carleton. Enjoyment of Art 173 

O'Connor, J. C. Esperanto 227 

Olcott, Mary. Poems 40 

Old South Leaflets, Emerson series 363 

Olmstead, F. L. Fur Traders of the Columbia 9 

Omond, T. S. Study of Metre 17 

Oppenheim, E. Phillips. A Prince of Sinners «' t -[ 

Oppenheim, E. Phillips. The Yellow Crayon 260 

Orcutt, William D. Princess Kallisto, new edition 482 

Otis, James. With the Treasure Seekers 477 

Overton, Gwendolen. The Captain's Daughter 477 

Packard, Winthrop. Young Ice Whalers 431 

Page, Curtis H. Songs and Sonnets of Ronsard... .12'.i 

Page, Margaret. In Childhood Land 433 

Page, Thomas Nelson. Gordon Keith 66 

Page, Thomas N. Two Prisoners, illus. by Virginia 

Keep 431 

Palmer, Frederick. The Vagabond 262 

Parker, Gilbert, and Bryan, Claude G. Old Quebec 424 

Patten, Helen P. The Year's Festivals 428 

Patterson, Alice J. The Spinner Family 431, 469 

Payson, William F. Triumph of Life 210 

Peabody, Josephine I'. The Singing Leaves 476 

Peary, Marie A. Children of the Arctic 47!> 

Peattie, Elia W. Poems You Ought to Know 480 

Peattie, Elia W. The Edge of Things 264 

Penfleld, Edward. A Stenciled Calendar 429 

Peter Piper'3 Practical Principles 433 

Phillips, Mary E. Laurel Leaves 478 

Pierce, George J. Plant Physiology 97 

Pierson, Clara D. Dooryard Stories 480 

Polhemus, Elizabeth. Jane and John 431, 47N 

l'oore, Henry R. Pictorial Composition 174 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen A. Booke of 

roets' Parleys 481 

Porter, Charlotte. Browning's Return of the 

Druses 19 

Potter, Beatrix. Squirrel Nutkin 479 

Potter, Beatrix. Tailor of Gloucester 479 

Potter, Margaret H. Castle of Twilight 263 

Powell, H. Arthur. Young Ivy on Old Walls 126 

Proctor, Adelaide A., Poems of, Crowell's edition... 480 

Pyle. Howard. Story of King Arthur 476 

Quiller-Couch, A. T. Adventures of Harry Revel 68 

Raleigh, Walter. Wordsworth 266 

Rand, E. A. Fifer Boy of Boston Siege 430 

Rawnsley, IT. D. Lake Country Sketches 96 

Ray, Anna Chapin. Sheba 433 

Ray. Anna C. Ursula's Freshman 432 

Raymond, Evelyn. The Mislaid Uncle 433 

Reed, Helen L. Brenda's Bargain 432 

Reed, Myrtle. Pickaback Songs 433 

Reed, Myrtle. Shadow of Victory 263 

Reynolds, Myra. Poems of Countess of Winchelsea 131 
Rice. Alice C. H. Mrs. Wiggs, and Lovey Mary, 

holiday editions , fV 474 

Richards, Laura E. More Five Minui ... 433 




Richards, Laura E. The Golden Windows 432 

Richards, Laura E. The Green Satin Gown 477 

Richardson. C. F. Webster for Young Americans.. 476 

Richman, Irving B. Rhode Island 347 

Riis, Jacob A. Children of the Tenements 433 

Riis, Jacob A. Peril and Preservation of the Home 315 

Roberts, A. J. R. The Bird Book 469 

Roberts, Charles G. D. Book of the Rose 36 

Roberts, W. K. Divinity and Man 307 

Robertson, L. A. Beyond the Requiems 39 

Robertson, Morgan. Sinful Peck 68 

Robinson. Mary Y. Songs of the Trees 478 

Rodd. Sir Rennell. Myrtle and Oak 124 

Rosecrans, Anita D. Twilight Tales 432 

Rowlands. Walter. Great Masters of the Drama.. 428 

Ruskin's Letters to M. G. and H. G 267 

Russell, Walter. Bending of the Twig 473 

Saintsbury, George. Loci Critici 299 

Sage, Betty. Rhymes of Real Children 478 

Sandras, Courtilz de. Memoirs of D'Artagnan, 

trans, by Ralph Nevill 470 

Sandys, Edwyn. Trapper "Jim" 429 

Saxby, Lewis. Life of a Wooden Doll 479 

Sayce, A. H. Religions of Ancient Egypt and Baby- 
lonia 175 

Schierbrand. Wolf von. The Kaiser's Speeches 41 

Schmidt's Shakespeare Lexicon, third edition 167 

Schopenhauer, Arthur. Basis of Morality, trans, by 

A. B. Bullock 97 

Schouler, James. Eighty Years of Union 317 

Scollard. Clinton. Lyrics of the Dawn 38 

Scott. Florence M. S., and Hodge, Alma. The 

Round Tower 476 

Scott, Frank J. Portraitures of Caesar 42 

Scott, W. A. Money and Banking 311 

Seaweu, Molly Elliott. Fortunes of Fifi 265 

Sedgwick, H. D., Jr. Essays on Great Writers 267 

Seton, Ernest Thompson. Two Little Savages 429 

Sharp, Evelyn. Children Who Ran Away... 433 

Sharp, F. C. Shakespeare's Portrayal of the Moral 

Life 351 

Shaw, E. R. Slocum's Around the World 270 

Shedd, Percy W. The Oceanides 125 

Ship of State, The 477 

Sholl. Anna M. Law of Life 263 

Sidgwick. Henry. Philosophy 11 

Sidney, Margaret. Five Little Peppers at School.. 478 

Silberrad, Una L. Success of Mark Wyngate 68 

Sinclair, Samuel B. Possibility of a Science of Edu- 
cation 93 

Singleton, Esther. Golden Rod Fairy Book 478 

Singleton, Estner. Historic Buildings 474 

Skinner, Charles M. American Myths and Legends 471 

Slater, J. H. Book Prices Current, 1903 479 

Smeaton, Oliphant. Temple Series of Bible Char- 
acters 480 

Smissen. W. H. van der. Poems of Goethe and 

Schiller 269 

Smith, Alice P. The Legatee 66 

Smith, Arthur Cosslett. The Turquoise Cup 19 

Smith. Charles S. Barbizon Days 359 

Smith. Charles S. Barbizon Days, "Fontainebleau" 

edition 427 

Smith. F. Hopkinson. Colonel Carter's Christmas 474 
Smith. F. Hopkinson, Works of, "Beacon" edition.. 98 

Smith, Gertrude. Stories of Peter and Ellen 433 

Smith, Nicholas. Songs from the Hearts of Women 317 

Smith. W. H. Political History of Slavery 33 

Smith, W. Roy. South Carolina as a Royal Prov- 
ince ." 314 

Smyth, Justin H. Arnold's March to Quebec 177 

Soley, James Russell. Admiral Porter 316 

Spears, John R. Anthony Wayne 268 

Spears. J. R.. and Clark, A. H. History of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley 462 

Staley, Edgcumbe. Watteau and His School 226 

Starr, Ida M. H. Gardens of the Caribbees 473 

Stein, Evaleen. Troubadour Tales 476 

Stephenson, Nathaniel. Eleanor Dayton 221 

Stevens. T. W., and Noble, A. C. The Morning 

Road... 38 

Stevenson's Works, Turner's edition 317. 427 

Steward. Ray M. Surprising Adventures of the Man 

In the V 432 

Stickney, ^oull. Dramatic Verses 39 


Stockton, F. R. The Captain's Toil-Gate 222 

Stoddard, C. W. For the Pleasure of His Company 219 

Stoddard, Richard Henry. Recollections 299 

Stoddard, William O. Ahead of the Army 430 

Stoddard, William O. The Spy of Yorktown 430 

Stoeckins, Alfred. Naturalism in Recent German 

Drama 130 

Stokes, Anson P. Cruising in the Caribbean 363 

Stratemeyer, Edward. At the Fall of Montreal 430 

Stratemeyer, Edward. Joe, the Surveyor 431 

Stratemeyer, Edward. Two Young Lumbermen. . 477 

Stringer, Arthur. The Silver Poppy 220 

Strong, C. A. Why the Mind Has a Body 95 

Strong, T. B. God and the Individual 307 

Stuart, Ruth McE. George Washington Jones 477 

Studio Art Album, The 423 

Studio Art Portfolio, The 423 

Stuttaford, Charles. Apuleius' Story of Cupid and 

Psyche 44 

Sunday Reading for 1904 433 

Sunderland, Jabez T. The Spark in the Clod 307 

Sweetser, Kate D. Micky of the Alley 433 

Symons, Arthur. Cities 424 

Symons, Arthur. Essays of Leigh Hunt 473 

Symphony Calendar 429 

Syrett, Netta. Six Fairy Plays 432 

Tabb, John B. Later Lyrics 38 

Taggart, Marion A. At Aunt Anna's 433 

Tappan, Eva M. In Days of Queen Victoria 430 

Tappan, Eva M. Robin Hood 476 

Tappan, Eva M. The Christ Story 431 

Taylor, Edward R. Visions 39 

Taylor, Joseph Russell. The Overture 356 

Temple Autobiographies 270, 480 

Temple Classics 130, 363, 434 

Texas Historical Association Quarterly, Vol VI 70 

Thackeray's Reading a Poem, Wessels' reprint.... 472 

Thackeray's Works, Dent edition 98, 317, 363 

Thatcher, O. J. Studies concerning Adrian IV 45 

Thompson, Adele E. A Lassie of the Isles 430 

Thompson, Vance. Spinners of Life 221 

Thurston, Mabel N. On the Road to Arcady 473 

Tirebuck, William E. 'Twixt God and Mammon.. 222 

Todd, Charles B. The Real Benedict Arnold 43 

Tomlinson, E. T. A Lieutenant under Washington 430 

Tooley, Sarah A. Royal Palaces 423 

Torrey. Bradford. Clerk of the Woods 467 

Travellers' Colloquial Spanish 130 

Treman. E. M., and Poole. M. E. Treman Family. 269 

Trent, W. P. American Literature 175 

Trent. W. P. Works of Spenser 362 

Trotter. Spencer. Geography of commerce 364 

Trowbridge, John T. My Own Story 254 

Turner, William. History of Philosophy 259 

Twitchell. Miss H. Famous Children 430 

Tynan. Katherine. A Red. Red Rose 69 

Until Seventy Times Seven 223 

Upson, Arthur. Westwind Songs 126 

Upton. Bertha and Florence K. Golliwogg's Circus 433 
Vaile, Charlotte M. The Truth about Santa Claus. . 432 

Van Vorst. Marie. Poems 40 

Van Zile, Edward S. Defending the Bank 431 

Vernon, H. M. Variation in Animals and Plants. . 95 
Waddington. Mme. Letters of a Diplomat's Wife. . 14 
Waite. C. B. and Mrs. C. V. homophonic Con- 
versations 18 

Waldstein. Charles. Art in the 19th Century 174 

Waller, Miss M. E. A Daughter of the Rich 432 

Walsh. Honor. The Story-Book House 432 

Walton, Mason A. A Hermit's Wild Friends 468 

Ward. Mrs. Wilfrid. The Light Behind 68 

Warner. Anna B. West Point Colors 477 

Warwick, Countess of. Warwick Castle 471 

Watanna, Onoto. Heart of Hyacinth 428 

Webster, W. C. General History of Commerce 45 

Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, thin-paper edition 362 

Webster's New Standard Dictionary 130. 434 

Weigall. Lady Rose. Correspondence of Lady Burg- 

hersh with Duke of Wellington 225 

Wells, Carolyn. Nonsense Anthology, holiday edi- 
tion 4T."> 

Welsh. Charles. Childhood Classics 431 

Welsh, Charles. Famous Battles of the 19th Cen- 
tury 476 

Wesselhoeft, Lily F. Jack, the Fire Dog 430 




Westcott, Arthur. Life and Letters of Bishop West- 

cott 15 

Wetherald, Ethel wyn. Tangled in Stars 358 

What is Worth While Series, new vols 269 

Whinery, S. Municipal Public Works 128 

Whitaker, Evelyn. Gay 433 

Whitcomb, Merrick. History of Modern Europe.... 97 

White, Eliza Orne. Leslie Chilton 264 

White, Stewart E. The Magic Forest 431 

White, Stewart E. The Forest 474 

Whlteford, R. N. Anthology of English Poetry 98 

Wiener, Leo. Anthology of Russian Literature.... 94 

Wiggiu, Kate D. Haifa-Dozen Housekeepers 477 

Wiggin, Kate D. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm.. 264 

Williams, C. F. Abdy. Story of Notation 315 

Williams, E. R., Jr. Hill Towns of Italy 422 

Williams, Eustace L. The Mutineers 430 


Williams, H. Noel. Madame de Montespan 421 

Williamson, G. C. Bryan's Dictionary of Painters 

256, 363 

Willmarth, Cora D. Widows 479 

Wilson, Harry L. Lions of the Lord 220 

Winans, Ross. One Religion: Many Creeds, new 

edition 480 

WInnington, Laura. Outlook Fairy Book 478 

Woods, Alice. Co-Education 92 

Wright, Arnold, and Smith, Philip. Parliament... 172 

Wright, Mabel O. Aunt Jimmy's Will 477 

Wright, W. J. P. Dante and the Divine Comedy.. 420 

Wrong, George M. The British Nation 227 

Young, Edgerton R. Algonquin Indian Tales 431 

Young, Ella F. Scientific Method In Education 93 

Zangwill, Israel. Blind Children 123 

Zangwill, I. The Grey Wig 221 


"Atlantic Monthly" for 1904 480 

Bonney, Charles Carroll, Death of 131 

"Book-Plates, The Book of" 270 

"Bucko Mate," What Is a. (Albert Matthews) 7 

"Craftsman, The" 269 

English, Literary Method of Teaching. (Sherwin 

Cody) 85 

French, George, and The Imperial Press 227 

Graduate Studies, Some Changes in. (H. Foster 

Bain) 84 

"Harper's Magazine" for 1904 364 

Henley, William Ernest, Death of 45 

Literary "Study," Too Much. (M. F.) 85 

Lloyd, Henry Demarest, Death of 270 

Morris bociety of Chicago, Foundation of 19 

"Philology, English and Germanic, Journal of".... 270 

"Printing Art, The" 178 

"Psychological Review, The" 480 

Sargent's "Trees and Shrubs"— A Correction 19 

Short Story, Modern, Originators of the. (Alexander 

Jessup) 253 

"Village Press," The, Establishment of 178 

Public Lii)i, 



%xiixmcQ (ISrifirism, gismssion, aitir information. 


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31 Srait*iSont!)Ig Journal at ILitrrarg Critirt^ Btsrassum, ano tntormatum. 

No. 409. 

JULY 1, 1903. Vol. XXXV. 





What Is a "Bucko Mate"? Albert Matthews. 


Bicknell 7 


Pierce 9 


Josiah Renick Smith 10 


Rogers 11 

Sidgwick's Philosophy. Its Scope and Relations. — 
Laurie's Scottish Philosophy in its National Devel- 
opment. — Hibben's Hegel's Logic. 


Annie Russell Marble 13 


In court and diplomatic circles. — New England's 
literary haunts. — il Everybody's Bishop."' — A new 
guide to old Siena. — A new Life of Lincoln. — 
Random reflections of a recluse. — China and the 
Chinese. — The human side of Bacteriology. — 
Town-life in New England after the Revolution. — 
A study of English metre. — The Lone-Star Com- 
monwealth. — Principles of the English Govern- 
ment. — The drawings of Aubrey Beardsley. — 
Popular Psychology. 






On the principle that good wine needs no 
bush, the illustration of literature would seem 
to be a work of supererogation. While it is 
theoretically true that pictorial art may prop- 
erly be employed for the elucidation of literary 
art, and while this dual alliance is occasionally 
brought to a successful issue, yet it must be 
confessed that as a general rule the divergence 
of aim and method is so great that the mutual 
heightening of effect to be desired is not achieved. 
Each kind of art may be good in its own way, 
but neither artist has so penetrated into the 
consciousness of the other as to become truly 
interpretative of his work, or entirely sympa- 

thetic in the expression of his spirit. The 
illustrator plays about the text, or, in the less 
common reverse case, the writer plays about 
the picture ; but in neither case is the relation 
other than external, and a genuine interfusion 
of the two idealisms is rarely accomplished. 

When the poet or the novelist becomes his 
own illustrator, a successful marriage of the 
two arts is of course possible, provided that 
the writer be not a mere amateur in design. 
The case of Rossetti naturally comes to mind 
as the one conspicuous modern instance of the 
two forms of genius united in one personality. 
One of Rossetti's sonnets illustrated by one of 
his own drawings offers a perfect example of 
the two arts in happy conjunction. But the 
case of Rossetti is almost unique, for it is gen- 
erally true that pictures for poems are not the 
work of poets, and that poems for pictures are 
penned by hands that have had no practice in 
the use of the brush. If the pictorial art is to 
stand in its ideal relation to the literature with 
which it is occupied, it must be more than the 
mere complement of the printed page ; it must 
add to the meaning of the text, and must in 
turn be itself illuminated by that text. In a 
word, each of the arts thus allied must have a 
far deeper meaning when taken in connection 
with the other than it could possibly have when 
standing by itself. 

Mr. Tedder's series of illustrations made 
for FitzGerald's paraphrase of Omar affords an 
extraordinary example of what it is possible 
for a painter of genius to do for a poet. These 
noble drawings might well claim recognition 
on their own account, but their impressiveness is 
raised to the second power through their asso- 
ciation with the quatrains of the Tent-Maker. 
And it is hardly too much to say that the im- 
pressiveness of the quatrains is similarly raised 
through their association with the drawings. 
But here again we have the exceptional in- 
stance, which serves only to make more glaring 
the shortcomings of all ordinary attempts to 
produce pictures that shall suitably interpret 
works of literary art. Even when we get good 
designs for good literature, as with Flaxman 
and Dante, Kaulbach and Goethe, Cruikshank 
and Dickens, we are somehow made uncomfort- 
ably conscious that the one form of expression 
does not fit in with the other. And we do not 



[July 1, 

always get even this. Sometimes an artist of 
genius will waste his powers upon the illus- 
tration of a third-rate text, and we get such a 
production as Blair's " The Grave " illustrated 
by Blake, which we prize only for the drawings, 
which never tempts us to read the words sup- 
posed to have been their inspiration. On the 
other hand, we sometimes find a great master- 
piece of literature cheapened — as far as such 
a thing is possible — by sensational and mer- 
etricious illustration, of which the most con- 
spicuous modern instance is offered by Dore's 
drawings for Dante, Milton, and the Bible. 
These examples will show sufficiently for our 
present purpose how hazardous a thing it is to 
enlist the one art in the service of the other, 
and how frequently the result of so doing is a 
product that must be called incongruous, even 
if we spare it a harsher name. 

But if the illustration of literature is a ques- 
tionable procedure, it is quite otherwise with 
the illustration of the history of literature. 
That history, while primarily concerned with 
the writings that are cherished by mankind for 
their artistic form or their intellectual grasp, 
must also be concerned to a considerable extent 
with such matters as the personal characters, 
the biography, the homes and haunts, the man- 
ners and customs, and the historical setting of 
the authors dealt with. And, like all the other 
aspects of the history of culture, its interest 
may be greatly enhanced by judicious illustra- 
tion. The history of literature is apt to be dry 
stuff at best, unless illuminated at many points 
by light from the well-stored mind of the read- 
er, and every device should be welcomed that 
tends to make it inherently attractive. This 
principle has long been given practical recog- 
nition by the European writers in this field, 
and nearly every nation of the Continent has 
produced a richly illustrated history of its lit- 
erature, supplementing a scholarly text with a 
great variety of pictorial adornment. Books of 
this class have been of incalculable benefit in 
popularizing literary study, and they have ac- 
complished their purpose in a strictly legitimate 
way, without lapsing unworthily from the 
dignity of their theme. 

A work of this type, dealing with the fifteen 
hundred years of English literature, has long 
been desirable, and it is a wonder that we should 
have had to wait until the twentieth century for 
its performance. Such a work is at last in pro- 
cess of publication, undertaken by competent 
hands, and we give it the most cordial welcome. 
There are to be four volumes altogether, the first 

of them, extending from the Old English period 
to the time of Henry VIII., being the work of 
Dr. Richard Garnett. The remaining three 
have been entrusted to Mr. Edmund Gosse. 
Dr. Garnett's volume, and the second of Mr. 
Gosse's three, covering the period from Milton 
to Johnson, are already at hand ; the two others 
are promised for autumn publication. For this 
praiseworthy enterprise Mr. William Heine- 
mann is primarily responsible, and the publica- 
tion for the United States is in the hands of the 
Macmillan Co. The mechanical execution of 
the work is sumptuous, and in beauty of typo- 
graphy and illustration the volumes leave little 
to be desired. They are open to criticism only 
on account of their extreme bulkiness, which 
results from the use of heavy glazed paper al- 
most as thick as cardboard. We believe that 
the publishers would have been well-advised to 
use paper of half the thickness, and to present 
the work in two volumes instead of four. 

Among the illustrative features of this work, 
portraiture naturally occupies the place of first 
importance. For the earlier centuries of the 
history, this material is of course meagre and 
of doubtful authenticity, but from Chaucer on- 
ward we have portraits in abundance, although 
there must remain serious gaps in complete- 
ness all the way through the Elizabethan period. 
When we come to the age of Milton and the 
eighteenth century, there is no serious lack of 
material, and the third volume presents us with 
a superb series of plates in process and photo- 
gravure that are a delight to the eye. The 
lack of portrait interest in the first volume is, 
however, more than compensated for by the 
use of manuscript facsimiles, many of them 
illuminated. The richest treasures of the muse- 
ums and libraries have been drawn upon for 
these reproductions. Autograph letters are 
also reproduced in great numbers, and pages of 
holograph illustrating the choicest examples of 
our literature. Title-pages of historical interest 
and old wood-cuts are also supplied in great 
profusion. The homes of authors, the places 
associated with them, and the many buildings 
and monuments that have a quasi-literary in- 
terest are pictured for us by hundreds. Such 
things as coins, seals, effigies, old bindings, 
and musical scores are not neglected. There 
are also a number of illustrations of the mod- 
ern imaginative type, such as a page from the 
Keltnscott Chaucer, and Stothard's picture of 
the Canterbury Pilgrims. In short, nothing 
seems to have been omitted that could in any 
way lend itself to the illustration of this aspect 



of history, and help to make vivid the lives, 
the personalities, and the surroundings, of the 
men whose names are remembered in our 

Of the accompanying text, we may say 
briefly that it is competent and pleasing. 
Both Dr. Garnett and Mr. Gosse are graceful 
writers, and neither of them is now dealing for 
the first time with his material. Three sizes 
of type are used ; the largest for the running 
commentary which is the substance of the 
work, a smaller size for the biographies, and 
one still smaller and closer for the extracts. 
These extracts are well-chosen and typical, but 
do not encroach too bulkily upon the narrative 
and descriptive text. The plan of the text as 
a whole has a balance and a proportion that 
have evidently been carefully studied, and to 
which no serious exception can be taken. In 
this general account, we do not wish to indulge 
in microscopic criticisms, of which many might 
doubtless be made. We are too glad to wel- 
come the history to be captious regarding mat- 
ters of minor detail. This work is evidently 
one that no gentleman's library should be 
without, and we fancy that even Charles Lamb 
would have excepted it from his general ex- 
communication of such works. 


( To the Editor of The Dial. ) 

Referring to Mr. Albert Sonnichsen, whose " Deep 
Sea Vagabonds " was noticed in The Dial of June 16, 
page 407, your reviewer says that " the author had the 
wit to avoid American merchantmen and their bullying 
bucko mates." As the word " bucko " is not recognized 
either in the "Century " or the " Oxford " Dictionaries, 
will your reviewer kindly explain exactly what it 
means? Albert Matthews. 

Boston, June 21, 1903. 

[The word " bucko," as applied to the mates of 
American merchant vessels who are distinguished 
for fighting qualities in the handling of their crews, 
is used freely in all recent works dealing realisti- 
cally with deep-sea voyaging, written by American 
authors, Messrs. Paul Eve Stevenson, Morgan Rob- 
ertson, and Frank T. Bullen among them. It is not 
found in any of the standard dictionaries, and a 
conjecture may be risked that it is an adaptation 
of the word "buck," used in the sense of dandy, 
— very much as the word "dandy" is itself used 
colloquially. We have heard it in the mouths of 
Irishmen, — " Ah, me fine bucko," " He's the bucko 
lad for me," etc., — in what seems to be precisely 
this significance The Reviewer.] 

&hj |Uto gooKs. 


Charles Lamb's humor is not exactly of a sort 
to shake the midriff of despair with laughter ; 
it is better than that, — it is gentle, pensive, 
pervasive, sometimes pathetic, and never leaves 
in the reader that feeling of a slight loss of 
self-respect which is apt to follow outbursts of 
more demonstrative merriment. This mirth 
that cheers but not inebriates is not so com- 
mon that we can afford to lose any hitherto 
neglected or unrecognized specimens of it that 
may have made their appearance anonymously 
or pseudonymously in Elia's lifetime. It was 
partly to rescue from the pages of " The 
London Magazine " such unsigned or falsely 
signed productions of the gentle humorist, that 
Mr. Bertram Dobell undertook the compilation 
of his "Sidelights on Charles Lamb." The 
revival of an interest, never really dormant, in 
the inimitable Elia, is attested by the prepar- 
ation now in progress of a new biography and 
of a new and more nearly complete edition of 
his letters; and it is this interest that must 
excuse, if excuse be necessary, a somewhat 
extended notice of a small and unpretentious, 
but scholarly, sympathetic, and entertaining 
volume on Lamb and his circle. 

Though " Elia " was Lamb's recognized 
signature to most of his " London Magazine " 
articles, yet a few of his acknowledged con- 
tributions to that periodical were either anony- 
mous or otherwise signed. By diligent search 
Mr. Dobell seems to have found eleven ad- 
ditional pieces that Lamb may at least be 
strongly suspected of writing. If he did not 
write them, or some of them, he ought to have 
done so. What could be more in the vein of 
the creator of Mrs. Battle than the following 
from " A Hint to Whistplayers "? 

" I can put up with an occasional bad card-hand, as 
Job-like as anyone. A sorry, solitary deuce of trumps, 
now and then, does not put me beside my tenour. I can 
go trumpless even once, twice, or thrice, without an im- 
precation. — I can sort, without pouting, some thirteen 
rabble-cards, and endure, as heroically as Brightelm- 
stone tradesfolk, a temporary privation of king and 

court favour It would be strange if the losses and 

crosses I have suffered in human dealings, had not 
taught me philosophy to endure any reasonable pro- 
portion of Whist adversity. If I can reckon up with- 
out fretting, the niggardly balances that are made out 
to me by my bookseller, — I may surely, without chafing, 

•Sidelights on Charles Lamb. By Bertram Dobell. 
New York : Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[July 1, 

tell over a beggarly account of pips. ... To judge 
from our faces, — 'tis a drawn game, — a fourfold dis- 
appointment — but Whist, as the world knows, is in- 
capable of such lame and impotent conclusions. ' Two,' 
■ays Mrs. Battle, the eloquent encomiast of Whist, • two 
are exalted — two again are mortified ' — but it would 
puzzle a disciple of Lavater to say which was which at 
the close of our melancholy rubbers. As far as physi- 
ognomy goes, the winners protest that they would as 
lief have foregone the double points, and the money. 
— They have not achieved success, but had it thrust 
upon them." 

Besides ferreting out, with much critical 
acumen, articles by Lamb, or very much in his 
manner, Mr. Dobell has brought to light many 
pieces, in prose and verse, relating to him. In 
" An Evening with Charles Lamb and Cole- 
ridge," contributed by " S. Y." to "The 
Monthly Repository " soon after Lamb's death, 
a bit of personal description is of especial 

"The character of Charles Lamb's person was in 
total contrast to that of Coleridge. His strongly marked, 
deeply lined face, furrowed more by feeling than age, 
like an engraving by Blake, where every line told its 
separate story, or like a finely chiselled head done by 
some master in marble, where every touch of the chisel 
marked some new attribute. Yet withal there was so 
much sweetness and playfulness lurking about the 
corners of the mouth, that it gave to the face the ex- 
traordinary character of flexible granite. His figure 
was small even to spareness. It was as if the soul 
within, in its constant restless activity, had worn the 
body to its smallest possibility of existence. There was 
an equal amount of difference in his conversation from 
that of Coleridge, as there was in his person. It was not 
one uninterrupted flow, but a periodical production of 
sentences, short, telling, full of wit, philosophy, at times 
slightly caustic, though that is too strong a word for 
satire which was of the most good-natured kind. . . . 
The perfect simplicity, absence of all conceit, child-like 
enjoyment of his own wit, and the sweetness and benev- 
olence that played about the rugged face, gave to it 
a charm in no way inferior to the poetical enjoyment 
derived from the more popular conversation of his 

Will Lamb's admirers be more shocked or 
amused to learn that he once sat in the stocks ? 
As the malefactor himself scrupled not to make 
"copy " of the experience (see " Delamore's Con- 
fessions " in the third volume of " Blackwood ") 
he evidently wishes us to smile with him at its 
ludicrous features. He protests that his punish- 
ment, which lasted "but for a pair of minutes 
or so," was " for a thing of nought — a fault of 
youth, and warmer blood — a calendary inad- 
vertence I may call it — or rather a temporary 
obliviousness of the day of the week — timing 
my Saturnalia amiss." Mr. E. V. Lucas, au- 
thor of the forthcoming life of Lamb, assures 
Mr. Dobell that the essayist's pseudonymous 
and playful account of this little affair is sub- 

stantially true ; that evidence exists of his hav- 
ing once sat in the stocks ; but that the punish- 
ment was probably as much a jest on the part 
of those ordering it as was the untimely merri- 
ment by which it was provoked. The well-known 
" Reflections in the Pillory " is doubtless a fur- 
ther literary result of this madcap adventure ; 
and thus we have the Bumbles to thank for two 
most characteristic examples of Elian humor. 

A last, and best, quotation shall be from 
" The Monthly Repository," on the character 
of Charles Lamb, as " minuted down from the 
lips of the late S. T. Coleridge." 

" Charles Lamb has more totality and individuality 
of character than any other man I know, or have ever 
known in all my life. In most men we distinguish be- 
tween the different powers of their intellect as one 
being predominant over the other. The genius of 
Wordsworth is greater than his talent, though consider- 
able. The talent of Southey is greater than his genius, 
though respectable; and so on. But in Charles Lamb 
it is altogether one; his genius is talent, and his talent 
is genius, and his heart is as whole and one as his head. 
The wild words that come to him sometimes on religious 
subjects would shock you from the mouth of any other 
man, but from him they seem mere flashes of fireworks. 
If an argument seem to his reason not fully true, he 
bursts out in that odd desecrating way : yet his will, 
the inward man, is, I well know, profoundly religious. 
Watch him, when alone, and you will find him with 
either a Bible, or an old divine, or an old English poet; 
in such is his pleasure." 

The allusion to Lamb's wild words on reli- 
gious subjects recalls his stuttering reply to 
Leigh Hunt's expression of surprise at the pro- 
digality and intensity of Coleridge's utterances 
on religion. " Ne — ne — never mind what Cole- 
ridge says," was Lamb's tranquillizing response ; 
" he's full of fun." 

To correct a very common error of pronunci- 
ation, it may not be amiss to give here once 
more Lamb's phonetic spelling of the mispro- 
nounced word. In a letter to Taylor the pub- 
lisher, having occasion to refer to Elia, he 
perenthetically adds, " Call him Ellia." 

One word of criticism on Mr. Dobell's book. 
Its compilation is a little careless. One page or 
chapter is made to correct or supplement a pre- 
ceding, at the cost of compactness and orderli- 
ness ; and the author (or printer) observes no 
rule in the use of small type, sometimes putting 
quoted extracts in fine print, but oftener not. 
The "sidelights," too, occasionally throw their 
rays somewhat farther outside the circle of 
which Lamb is the centre than might seem de- 
sirable ; but they at least well illustrate the rich- 
ness of unsuspected material lying hid in the 
musty pages of old magazine files. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 




America's Place in History.* 

More than a passing mention is the just 
desert of a book of less than 300 pages, in 
which Mr. William Justin Mann suggests, 
without taking the time or space necessary to 
develop fully, the position of " America in its 
Relation to the Great Epochs of History." 
The epochs during the short life of our republic 
which the author characterizes as " great " are 
designated by the dates 1492, 1620, 1788, and 
1850, — the first-named being the era of the 
Discovery of America ; the second, that of the 
Settlement of our States ; 1788 standing for 
the era of the establishment of the Nation and 
the preparation of its forms of Constitution ; 
and 1850, not so much in the matter of a date 
as in that of an epoch, representing the trial 
of those constitutional forms by the Civil War 
and the political struggles preceding it. These 
several landmarks in American history are 
shown to be very largely correlated with those 
which point us to the leading and crucial phases 
of modern history in general. It is not alone 
political, but scientific, literary, and commercial 
history which are here illustrated. World- 
movements are those to which the commen- 
tator's attention is directed ; the races of 
mankind are blended into one family ; the 
welfare, the interests, and the progress of all 
are interdependent ; and the growth, the rights, 
the privileges, and the liberties of any one race, 
or of any one political section of humanity, 
cannot but affect and influence the mass. To 
illustrate the part which America has played, 
at each one of the great epochs of her own 
history, in accomplishing results beneficial to 
all other political aggregations in the world, 
and thus to show forth her relative place among 
these other aggregations, is the object of the 
thesis which this author has assigned to him- 
self. What John Fiske soberly postulated as 
the " Manifest Destiny " of the United States, 
Mr. Mann now seeks more particularly to elu- 
cidate, with some specifications. Yet within 
the space he has undertaken to occupy, he has 
necessarily confined himself to a generalization, 
that disappoints the hearty interest which his 
treatment of his thesis awakens. 

Federation, which is the form under which 
the United States has found the opportunity 
to discharge its political mission, is recognized 
by the author as the coming form of govern- 

* America in its Relation to the Great Epochs 
OF Histort. By William Justin Mann. Boston: Little, 
Brown, & Co. 

mental operations in all systems which have 
any assurance of success. This proposition is 
advanced by him, time and again, in these 
pages ; yet there is no distinct portion of the 
thesis which seeks to elaborate the proposition. 
Four of the chapters of the small book are 
devoted respectively to the four epochs above 
named, and the fifth and last expounds the 
" Correlations " between the aspects of Amer- 
ican experiences and those of general history, 
during each of those epochs. At least one 
reader would have been pleased, had an addi- 
tional chapter undertaken to trace, throughout 
the entire calendar of these four epochs, the 
office, the usefulness, and the political mission 
of the wonderfully successful principle of Fed- 

To deprecate the fashion of pompous glori- 
fication of America by our own people is not 
to belittle or minimize the value of commen- 
taries, such as this one, upon the salient facts 
of our political progress. A sane and studious 
investigation of the facts of our history, a hum- 
ble acknowledgment of their exceeding im- 
portance, and a calm inquiry into their place 
in the greater history of the human race, — 
these are among the simple duties of those 
patriots who properly appreciate the privileges 
of their American citizenship. It is time that 
inquiries such as these should be propounded 
with dignity and examined with sincerity. 
A new understanding of American history is 
promised to the people of this country, and a 
higher appreciation of their political duties 
will follow. The study of our history will 
proceed along new lines in our colleges and 
schools, and will weave its new. fascinations 
around the intellects of their students. Several 
months ago, one of our Western universities 
announced that, in its presentation of the study 
of the history of the United States, it would 
aim " to illustrate the place and office of this 
Republic in the arena of the world's activities, 
and the relation of our history to the world's 
progress." To the key-note thus sounded, this 
small but weighty thesis by Mr. Mann gives a 
clear and distinct response. 

James Oscar Pierce. 

" The Fur Traders of the Columbia River and the 
Rocky Mountains " is the title given to a new volume of 
the " Knickerbocker Literature Series," published by the 
Messrs. Putnam. The text is mainly an abridgment of 
Irving's " Astoria " and " Captain Bonneville," although 
Mr. Frank L. Olmstead, the editor, has added some new 
matter needed to round out the narrative. The volume 
is attractively illustrated. 



[July 1, 

A Book of Entertaining Biographies.* 

Mr. James Bryce's " Studies in Contem- 
porary Biography " is one of the books to 
which the much abused adjective "fascinating" 
may properly be applied. Good biography is 
the most entertaining form of good literature, 
its only drawback being sometimes its portent- 
ous length ; and from this defect these sketches 
are of course free. They are, in fact, estimates 
of character which assume or give in barest 
outline the necessary personal information ; 
and their rounded brevity is not their least 
charm. Their greatest charm will be found 
in the penetration, the candor, the sympathy, 
and the literary skill of the writer. Anything 
that Mr. James Bryce may choose to write is 
sure to command the attention of all thought- 
ful Americans — long since won for him by 
his " American Commonwealth "; and these 
" Studies," most of which have been separately 
published in the United States, will only add 
to the admiration felt in America for this at- 
tractive Englishman. 

There are twenty essays in the present 
volume. One of these is an estimate of an 
American by adoption, the late E. L. Godkin ; 
the other nineteen are devoted to eminent 
British and Irish statesmen, ecclesiastics, 
scholars, and men of letters, whose deaths fell 
within the years from 1881 to 1902 inclusive. 
The chronological order of the death-years is 
followed, except in the case of Mr. Gladstone 
(died ls98), for whom the concluding and 
longest paper in the book is reserved ; possibly 
this was done to keep him as far as possible 
from Lord Beaconsfield, the subject of the 
opening sketch. The other statesmen are Sir 
Stafford Northcote (Lord Iddesleigh), Robert 
Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), Hugh McCalmont 
Cairns (Lord Cairns), and Mr. Parnell. A 
notable omission is John Bright, whose death 
came in 1889; we must conclude that this 
great man did not fall under the category sug- 
gested in the Preface, where Mr. Bryce says : 
"My aim has been rather to analyse the 
character and powers of each of the persons 
described, and, as far as possible, to convey 
the impression which each made in the daily 
converse of life. All of them, except Lord 
Beaconsfield, were personally, and most of 
them intimately, known to me." Dean Stanley, 
Archbishop Tait, Bishop Fraser, and Cardinal 

♦Studies in Contemporary Biography. By James 
Bryce. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Manning represent the church. Two mighty 
scholars are described in Lord Acton and 
Robertson Smith ; two robust and original W. 
historians in Freeman and J. R. Green. Pro- 
fessors Sidgwick and T. H. Green stand for 
shaping influences at Cambridge and Oxford ; 
and Ernest E. Bowen for a similar power at 
the great public school of Harrow. Anthony 
Trollope, by virtue of his calling as an au- 
thor, was perhaps the most widely known man 
on the list ; probably Bowen and Sir George 
Jessel were least known on this side of the 

A sufficiently wide range of British worthies ; 
to say that Mr. Bryce has treated them all ad- 
equately would be to claim a knowledge of men 
and events equal to his own. He has written 
of them all with the insight that is born in a 
well-trained mind, fostered by unequalled op- 
portunities of observation, and kept steady by 
a wide and impartial sympathy. We shall not 
look for warmth in his estimate of Disraeli or 
Parnell ; nor fail to note it in his loving tribute 
to his friend Sidgwick. But his criticism is 
kind, though keen; these were great men that 
he describes, and served their generation well; 
and Mr. Bryce is not the man to pick enviously 
at their laurels. 

In delivering his judgments, Mr. Bryce is 
frequently rhetorical after the manner of 
Macaulay, though he does not assume the 
" sovereignty of certainty " which issues proc- 
lamations instead of expressing opinions. 
Himself a profound student and profound 
writer of history, Mr. Bryce might well be ex- 
pected to speak with special authority on the 
work of such men as Edward A. Freeman and 
John Richard Green ; and there will be some 
readers to whom the two short studies of these 
men will more appeal than the more elaborate 
treatment of the careers of Gladstone and 
Disraeli. In determining the place of Green, 
Mr. Bryce classes him primarily, as a historian 
des moeurs, with Herodotus, whom Green nat- 
urally rated above Thucydides. " Great as 
Thucydides is, Herodotus is far greater, or at 
any rate far more precious. His view was 
so much wider," — a deliverance which Mr. 
Bryce pronounces " thoroughly characteristic 
of Green's own view of history"; and he pro- 
ceeds to sum up his merits in a passage which 
is quite in the Macaulay vein, even down to 
the unmistakable reference to Froude (whom 
Macaulay, however, would not have scrupled 
to name). 




" He (Green) left behind him no one who combined 
so many of the best gifts. There were among his con- 
temporaries historians more learned and equally in- 
dustrious. There were two or three whose accuracy 
was more scrupulous. But there was no one in whom 
so much knowledge and so wide a range of interests 
were united to such ingenuity, acuteness, and original- 
ity, as well as to such a power of presenting results in 
rich, clear, pictorial language. A master of style may 
be a worthless historian. We have instances. A skilful 
investigator and sound reasoner may be unreadable. 
The conjunction of fine gifts for investigation with fine 
gifts for exposition is a rare conjunction, which cannot 
be prized too highly, for while it advances historical 
science, it brings historical methods, as well as historical 
facts, within the horizon of the ordinary reader." 

Americans will naturally turn with special 
interest to what Mr. Bryce has to say about 
Edwin L. Godkin, the uncompromising editor 
of the " Weekly Day of Judgment," as Charles 
Dudley Warner used to call the New York 
'• Nation," — to which journal Mr. Bryce awards 
the high merit of having been " the best weekly 
not only in America but in the world." Mr. 
Godkin's courage and independence are fully 
recognized ; his undeniable bitterness and oc- 
casional prejudice are not overlooked ; but his 
unique service in establishing a journal which 
did what " The Nation " has done for literature 
and politics is most emphasized in Mr. Bryce's 
closing words : 

" Democracies will always have demagogues ready 
to feed their vanity and stir their passions and exag- 
gerate the feeling of the moment. What they need is 
men who will swim against the stream, will tell them 
their faults, will urge an argument all the more forci- 
bly because it is unwelcome. Such an one was Edwin L. 
Godkin. Since the death of Abraham Lincoln, America 
has been generally more influenced by her writers, 
preachers and thinkers than by her statesmen. In the 
list of those who have during the last forty years influ- 
enced her for good and helped by their pens to make 
her history, a list illustrated by such names as those of 
R. W. Emerson and Phillips Brooks and James Rus- 
sell Lowell, his name will find its place and receive its 
well-earned meed of honor." 

A delightful book ; — and as one lays it 
down, the idle question rises, "What twenty (or 
nineteen) American worthies could we make 
into a corresponding list, of those who have 
passed away in the last score of years ? " Per- 
haps most of us might agree on some such ar- 
ray as this : Grant, Garfield, Blaine, Harrison, 
Reed, and McKinley ; Emerson, Longfellow, 
Whittier, Lowell, Holmes, and Whitman ; 
Brooks, Beecher, and Storrs ; Whitney and 
McCosh ; Dana ; and George Bancroft. But 
where is the American Bryce who " knew them 
all personally, and most of them intimately ? " 
Josiah Resick Smith. 

Aspects of Philosophic Thought.* 

The late Professor Sidgwick occupied a dis- 
tinctive place among modern thinkers. What 
he perhaps lacked in speculative subtlety, he 
more than atoned for by the singular sanity 
and fairness of his judgment, his admirable 
caution, and the firmness with which he held 
to the broad basal facts of common experience. 
After the pyrotechnic displays that character- 
ize some tendencies of recent thought, it is with 
a sense of relief that one turns to a writer who 
eschews paradox, has always a clear and defi- 
nite meaning to convey and conveys it in words 
that mean just what they say, and back of whose 
utterances one can always feel sure there is a 
weight of judicious and deliberate conviction. 
Professor Sidgwick represents the best tradi- 
tions of Common Sense in philosophy ; and 
this has at least certain advantages in a book 
intended, like his recent one on the Scope and 
Relations of Philosophy, to form a general in- 
troduction to the study. The reader here finds 
himself within the range of familiar concep- 
tions ; he is not perplexed by over- subtleties at 
the start ; and the problems raised come home 
to him as real ones. The book has no adventi- 
tious attractions. It is a piece of solid and 
sober reasoning, with no graces beyond clear- 
ness and straightforwardness, and an occasional 
touch of dry humor which usually hits the mark 
very neatly. For example, the following sen- 
tence : " The differences of philosophical 
schools are so fundamental that it would seem 
to be only by a polite fiction that a philosopher 
of one school allows a philosopher of another 
to possess philosophical knowledge on the sub- 
jects that he treats ; and the politeness that 
consents to this fiction is not universal." But 
one who surrenders himself to the interest of 
the problems with which the book deals, will 
find it both interesting and stimulating. Where 
the interest in philosophy can be presupposed, 
it is perhaps as good an introduction to general 
questions about the scope and relationships of 
philosophy as could be found. As a positive 
contribution, also, to philosophical thought, the 
value of the book is due primarily to the gen- 

* Philosophy : Its Scope asd Relations. By the late 
Henry Sidgwick. Professor of Moral Philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Scottish Philosophy in its National Development. 
By Henry Laurie, LL.D. New York: The Macmillan Co. 

Hegel's Logic. An Essay in Interpretation. By John 
Grier Hibben, Ph.D., Professor of Logic in Princeton Uni- 
versity. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[July 1, 

eral sanity of its judgment, and the refusal to 
allow the demands of partial points of view, or 
of mere logic, to lead to conclusions that will 
not stand the test of an appeal to universal 
human convictions. Most philosophers, prob- 
ably, will not hold that in falling back upon 
common-sense dualism, the author has reached 
a finally satisfactory position. But in view of 
the wide-spread haziness in which the domi- 
nant tendencies have enveloped the relation of 
mind and the outer world, and the persistent 
juggling by which the real separateness be- 
tween them has come to be obscured, it is a 
service to have emphasized the actual position 
of our natural judgment in the matter. The 
book falls into two main parts. The first deals 
with questions about the general nature of 
philosophy, its problems and its delimitations. 
In this one would not expect to find much 
that is essentially new. The lines of distinction 
which it draws are, nevertheless, on the whole 
so simple and natural as at times to be really 
illuminating. Mr. Spencer and his conception 
of philosophy are in view pretty constantly in 
the discussion. The latter half of the book is, 
however, the most original and perhaps the most 
important part. It is a forcible argument against 
the extreme claims for the historical method, 
more especially in the form represented by the 
new dogmatism of the sociologists, where it is 
made all-sufficient, not simply as an account of 
the origin and practical utility of beliefs, but 
as a criterion of their truth as well. In vindi- 
cating the necessity of an independent philo- 
sophical criterion of truth, Professor Sidgwick 
has performed a useful and needed piece of 
work. The enthusiasm for a new point of view 
has been the occasion of a plentiful lack of clear 
thinking, which has stood badly in want of a sober 
criticism such as Professor Sidgwick supplies. 
The general type of result which Professor 
Sidgwick represents is that of the philosophical 
development peculiarly associated with Scot- 
land. In his work on " Scottish Philosophy in 
its National Development," Professor Laurie, 
of the University of Melbourne, has given a 
brief and readable account of the part that 
Scotland has played in the history of philo- 
sophical thought. The book was intended 
originally for the projected series, now aban- 
doned, which was to deal with philosophy in its 
various national developments. The present 
volume is sufficiently catholic in its selection 
of names, ranging from Hume to Lord Mon- 
boddo. There is enough of the personal and 
biographical element to give an atmosphere, 

and the summaries are clear, well proportioned, 
and not too lengthy. The purpose is primarily 
historical, and the book does not, accordingly, 
have the interest of a positive contribution to 
philosophical criticism such as attaches to Pro- 
fessor Seth's lectures on Scottish Philosophy. 
But as a brief historical survey, it satisfies 
essentially all the requirements of any save the 
special student of the period. The distinctively 
national philosophy — that which is associated 
with the name of Reid, and whose exposition 
in connection with its various representatives 
occupies over half the present volume — has in 
recent years suffered a very general eclipse, 
although in our own country at least it was for 
some time the dominant tendency. Probably 
it never will get back more than a tithe of its 
former importance. It is lacking in the finer 
qualities of insight, and only the enthusiasm 
of the historian can prevent much of it now 
from being rather dreary reading. Neverthe- 
less it is quite possible we have not even yet 
learned all its lesson. There are worse things 
than Common Sense; and the philosophy which 
affects to despise it is not wholly free from 
danger. The common-sense philosopher is a 
middle-man, who mediates between the more 
daring theorist, and the natural beliefs of man- 
kind which, after all, it is the business of thought 
to interpret, not to reject. And so long as the 
peculiar dangers of the speculative life exist, 
there will always be a function for him to fulfil. 
In Hegel we have what is commonly re- 
garded as the very opposite of the type of mind 
characteristic of a sober and common-sense 
philosophy, and between the representatives of 
the two temperaments there probably always 
will be war. It may be permitted to confess a 
certain sympathy with the mixture of despair, 
ridicule, and indignation, which is apt to be 
the feeling that results from the attempt on 
the part of at least the less persistent reader 
to get at the meaning of Hegel's enigmatic 
utterances. There really is no sense, in this 
busy world, in making a thing harder than it 
needs to be. Hegel can scarcely be acquitted 
of the charge of going out of his way to say 
obscurely what could perfectly well have been 
made clear and intelligible. As a matter of 
fact, he shows himself quite capable of being 
intelligible when he chooses. He can hardly 
complain, therefore, if sometimes there arises 
in the mind of even a moderately sympathetic 
interpreter a sense of futility and weariness, 
and a question whether after all the game is 
worth the candle. In spite of this, however, 




the time has certainly gone by for dismissing 
Hegel contemptuously as a mere charlatan or 
scholastic. That he has a distinct message, and 
that this has vitally influenced the thought of 
his century, it is impossible for the informed 
student to deny. The point of this message 
one may get in other ways than by going to 
Hegel himself. But if he wishes to come into 
more direct contact with the fountain head, and 
has not the time or the inclination to study 
Hegel at first hand, there is perhaps no better 
way than through Professor Hibben's recent 
volume on the Logic of Hegel. It is probably 
quite the clearest exposition for the less ad- 
vanced student that is available, — one might 
almost say, the first clear exposition. In the 
Logic one may find the gist of Hegel's positive 
contribution to modern thought. In so far as 
this stands for a complete philosophy, it has 
indeed aspects which may well be considered 
doubtful. But this does not affect the value 
of the main insight which it represents, an in- 
sight which is by no means so far removed 
from a true empiricism as is popularly sup- 
posed. Professor Hibben makes no attempt 
to complicate the matter by raising questions 
of ultimate criticism. He gives, rather, an 
exposition and commentary, following very 
closely Hegel himself in his more lucid mo- 
ments. The task is done with a high degree 
of success. The book does not pretend to be 
written for scholars, and exception might be 
taken to some of its interpretations. Nor, of 
course, as an elementary exposition, are all the 
parts equally perspicuous. But taking it as a 
whole, the reader ought to be able to get from 
it a good notion of the spirit of Hegel's thought, 
and a possibility of estimating something of its 
value as a tool for attacking the perplexities in- 
volved in any attempt to understand the world. 

A. K. Rogers. 

Letters and Recollections of 

Amid scores of studies of Emerson, inter- 
pretative and critical, which this centenary year 
has produced, the two books whose titles appear 
below merit attention by their material and 
workmanship. The letters of Emerson and 
Grimm appeared in " The Atlantic Monthly " 

* Correspondence between Ralph Waldo Emerson 
and Herman Grimm. Edited by Frederick William Holls. 
With portraits. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Remembrances of Emerson. By John Albee. New, 
revised and enlarged, edition. With portrait. New York : 
Robert Grier Cooke. 

in April last, and are now collated and pub- 
lished in a dainty brochure, that is further en- 
riched by some interesting portraits. This 
more permanent form has an additional ad- 
vantage, for the letters of the German literat- 
teur are here given in the original language as 
well as in translation, and one may thus appre- 
ciate more fully some of the subtle phrases 
which are not perfectly Anglicized. The friend- 
ship which these few letters attest was frank 
and strong in interchange of sentiments as well 
as in philosophic reflections. Though the pages 
are not many, the reader carries from them 
many a vivid impression of the personality of 
the German scholar and not a few rare glimpses 
into unfamiliar phases of Emerson's nature. 
His geniality and sympathy found frequent 
utterance in the letters to the distant philoso- 
pher-historian and his more effusive, gifted wife 
Gisela von Arnim. 

Mr. Holls has written briefly, in the Intro- 
duction, of the circumstances which permitted 
the printing of these letters, — the suggestion 
made to him by Grimm a few days before the 
sudden death of the German author in June, 
1901. To the last he retained his devotion to 
the memory and writings of Emerson, to the 
spiritual tonic therein, — *' but when I read 
his sentences again, the magic breeze seemed 
to touch my heart anew ; the old worked-out 
machinery (Getriebe) of the world seemed to 
be freshened up, as though I had never felt 
such pure air." The correspondence which 
began with a letter from Grimm in April, 1856, 
expressing gratitude for personal inspiration 
from Emerson's essays and humbly proffering 
some of his own essays and poems, was con- 
cluded by a letter from Emerson in December, 

Scattered among sentences of deep thought 
and literary insight, called forth by the his- 
torical essays of Grimm, Emerson interspersed 
an occasional word of familiar and affectionate 
regard : — " Come and see our quiet river, and its 
skiffs, our woods and meadows, in this little 
town, whose chief contribution to the public 
good is, that every farmer sends milk and wood 
to Boston." Again, he concludes a long letter 
of appreciative comment upon the writings of 
Grimm and the dramas of his wife, with the 
hearty remembrance, — " Yet it is not books, 
but sense and sympathy, which I wish to offer 
you." Grimm's " Life of Michelangelo " gave 
Emerson special pleasure. In acknowledging 
a copy of it to its author, he well expressed his 
own literary characteristics : " The book has 



[July 1, 

research, method, and daylight. I hate circular 
sentences, or echoing sentences, where the last 
half cunningly repeats the first half, — but you 
step from stone to stone and advance ever." 

It is a cause of congratulation to American 
readers of to-day that Emerson's centenary 
finds a few of his younger contemporaries still 
active in literary work, and ready to contribute, 
in varied, sincere expressions, their personal 
memories and recognition of Emerson's influ- 
ence upon their own generation. From Colonel 
Higginson, Professor Norton, Mr. Sanborn, 
Mr. Conway, and others, have come graphic in- 
cidents and strong testimony. Among the youth 
who sacrificed much to follow the independent 
and progressive thought of Emerson was the 
Rev. John Albee. Two years ago he pub- 
lished a volume of " Remembrances of Emer- 
son," and this is now reprinted in recognition 
of the theme of the hour. A chance talk with 
Emerson, or a walk by his side, has given 
nucleus for many an elaborated sketch during 
these months of search for some new word or 
impression about his personality. "A Day 
with Emerson," in 1862, affords the author 
material for a chapter of rare interest. The 
happy hours spent in the Emerson home, 
where Thoreau uttered keen and combative 
ideas on college education and literature, and 
" in the evening devoted himself wholly to the 
children and the parching of corn by the open 
fire," are recalled with tender gratitude. In 
addition to the scattered impressions of that 
first visit, Mr. Albee has two chapters of 
reflection and interpretation, — " Emerson's 
Influence on Young Men " and " Emerson as 

In tracing the unequalled influence of Em- 
erson's lectures and essays upon the youth of 
his own time, Mr. Albee expresses many ac- 
cepted truths with new vigor and personal em- 
phasis. Quoting Emerson's words in a letter 
to Miss Peabody, — "My special parish is 
young men inquiring their way in life," — he 
further pictures the dominant leadership of 
the new master : " I see Emerson at our head, 
leading his extraordinary collection of boys ; 
some overbold and opinionated, others facile 
and docile ; some with long locks, poetic and 
melancholy ; others eager to apply literally and 
at once to all existing evils the Emersonian 
remedies. The master has hard work to keep 
us in order, but he allows a considerable lati- 
tude and idiosincracy, and is overflowing with 
confidence in our future. At last he leads us 

smiling to the seat of the Muses, and introduces 
us as worthy of the palm, the oak, the olive, or 
more humble parsley." The methods of pre- 
paration, the wide range of themes, " the ex- 
cursive mind," the beauties and enigmas of form 
in Emerson's Essays, are studied in outline ; 
and in summary the author has well phrased 
their characteristics : " The Essays contain the 
harvests of Emerson's lifetime ; plain food for 
daily life, rare fruit and dainties for life's holi- 
days. Annie Russell Marble. 

Briefs on Njew Books. 

i rtand That Madame Waddington's engag- 

dipiomatic ing personality, her intelligent inter- 

drciet. e8 fc m CU rrent events, her exquisite 

tact, her perfect command of three languages, and 
her ever-fresh enthusiasm, contributed materially to 
her distinguished husband's success as a diplomat, is 
evident to the reader of her truly delightful memoirs, 
" Letters of a Diplomat's Wife," recently published 
in handsome form by the Scribners. Americans may 
well be proud to claim her as their fellow-country- 
woman by birth. She is a daughter of the late 
Charles King, president of Columbia College from 
1849 to 1864, a sister of Captain Charles King, and 
a granddaughter of Rufus King, our second minis- 
ter to England under the Constitution. From the 
last-named she appears to have inherited her apti- 
tude for the duties of her high station, and it seems 
the most natural thing in the world that she should 
enjoy something like intimacy with the English royal 
family and be on the best of terms with noble and 
distinguished personages the world over. Her let- 
ters, written to members of her family, are dashed off 
amid the hurry of diplomatic functions, and record 
freshly and vividly the impressions of the moment. 
They thus have a value that no premeditated records 
could possess. They date from 1883 to 1900, and 
give us, among other lesser matters, excellent ac- 
counts of the coronation of Alexander III. at Moscow, 
whither M. Waddington was sent as ambassador- 
extraordinary, and of Queen Victoria's jubilee in 
1887, the writer's husband being then French am- 
bassador to England. The requirements regarding 
costume and ceremony, imposed by her exalted posi- 
tion, Madame Waddington gives in considerable de- 
tail, — a feature that will make her book peculiarly 
interesting to women. The male reader notes with 
approval the writer's occasional superiority to these 
unessentials, and her good-humored indifference when 
she finds herself not quite correct in some matter of 
dress or equipage or attendance. Her taking eighteen 
gowns with her to the coronation, however, shows 
that she by no means slighted the conventionalities. 
Some of her bits of travel are excellent. We journey 
delightfully with her through Russia, and thence to 
Sweden and Denmark. Her account of the three 




and one-half hours of standing at the Czar's corona- 
tion makes one very willing to substitute her vividly 
picturesque description for actual attendance at so 
leg-wearying a ceremony. Not the least remarkable 
feature of this noteworthy book is the accomplished 
writer's repeated assertion of her hatred of the pen 
and her preference for viva voce communication. If 
she writes so well, what must her conversation be ! 

The popular cravings for books of 
New England's the H haunts and homes " and "little 

literary haunt*. . „ , . . , . . , 

journeys type seem to be insatiable, 
so much easier and pleasanter is it for most people 
to read about authors and their works than to set 
about mastering the works themselves. The suc- 
cess of Mr. Edwin M. Bacon's " Historic Pilgrim- 
ages in New England " has encouraged him to 
put forth a companion volume, " Literary Pilgrim- 
ages in New England" (Silver, Burdett & Co.), 
wherein our old friend Percy Denison, " grown 
from a handsome lad into a manly youth," is pi- 
loted by the author over much the same ground as 
in the earlier volume, but with a different end in 
view. One is inclined to question whether anything 
is gained by adopting this Rollo-book plan. The 
fictitious Percy is created only for younger readers, 
and they are the very ones to detect the fraud im- 
mediately and to refuse to have anything to do 
with a book that begins as a story and straightway 
turns out to be " improving reading." To them this 
" fine type of the high-bred American youth of to- 
day " will seem an insufferable prig, with his Gargan- 
tuan appetite for literary items. It is, then, we 
think, in spite of, and not because of, the manner 
of presentation adopted, that the genial author suc- 
ceeds in making his matter so interesting. Elimi- 
nate Percy Denison and let the book stand simply 
for what it is, a series of well-informed chats on 
literary New England, and the work would be by 
so much improved. Massachusetts, of course, claims 
the most space ; New Hampshire is represented by 
Portsmouth and the Isles of Shoals ; Portland and 
Brunswick in Maine receive attention ; and the 
Nutmeg State has considerable of interest to offer 
in Hartford and New Haven. The Green Moun- 
tain State and Little Rhody are left out in the cold. 
A map of New England and more than one hundred 
and fifty illustrations, including portraits of varying 
excellence, and a few facsimiles of manuscript, add 
to the book's attractiveness and value. 

The nickname, "Everybody's Bishop," 
BUh^^* be8towed on the lat e Bishop Westcott, 

was fairly descriptive of his warm and 
generous nature, and of his liberal unsectarian atti- 
tude in all matters pertaining to his calling. He is 
perhaps best known to the general reader as the co- 
editor, with Dr. Hort, of the authoritative edition of 
the Greek New Testament. But, brilliant as was his 
scholarship, he expresses a positive distaste for the 
very sort of work he has so admirably performed 
in textual criticism, affording apparently an ex- 

ceptional instance of a man's doing well what he 
heartily dislikes. He was two large a man to find 
refreshment and inspiration in the study of Greek 
enclitics. His work as a writer was devoted chiefly 
to Bible studies, and he made himself recognized as 
an authority on the writings of St. John. Seven 
pages of his biography are filled with the titles of 
his published works. " Build solidly and don't stuff 
up holes with putty," was his advice to his son 
Arthur, who has acted as his biographer ; and most 
faithfully and lovingly has he performed his self- 
imposed task. He wisely leaves his father to tell 
his own story, in large measure, in his letters. 
They convey the impression of an earnest, ener- 
getic, reverent nature. An important service ren- 
dered by Bishop Westcott, outside his proper field 
of work, was his mediation between miners and 
mine-owners, eleven years ago, to settle a strike, — 
a service that he performed to the hearty satisfac- 
tion of both parties. Although the workmen had 
their wages reduced by ten per cent., they cheered 
him until they were hoarse. Among his other ac- 
complishments, Westcott was unusually skilful as a 
draughtsman, as is made evident by a number of 
bis sketches reproduced in the Life. He also made 
his mark as a mathematician (as well as in the 
classics) at Cambridge. He was an all-round scholar 
and a large-souled man, and his life is well worth 
studying. The biography is published in substantial 
two-volume form by the Macmillan Co. 

Under the modest title " A Guide 
A new guide to gj ena » (Torrini, Siena) has been 

to old Siena. . . . v , . _ A . 

published a book on Italian art of 
such importance that it deserves to be brought to 
the attention of all lovers of Medieval and Renais- 
sance painting. The first portion — 150 pages — is 
written by Mr. William Hey wood, well known as an 
authority on the history, the life, and the customs 
of old Siena. His chapters are the result of many 
years of research, and are a marvel of compact in- 
formation, as well as a necessary preparation for 
the second part. This part — practical and artistic 
— is written by Miss Lucy Olcott, a serious art- 
critic in her own right, who has enjoyed through- 
out the preparation of her work the personal aid of 
the best authorities on the subject, Mr. F. Mason 
Perkins and Mr. Bernhard Berenson. The intro- 
ductory essay, on the Architecture, Sculpture, and 
Painting of the city, brings out the charm of this 
comparatively neglected subject; while in the 
practical part, where Miss Olcott takes the readers 
through the streets, or guides them in the churches 
or galleries of Siena, she is as accurate as she is 
suggestive. The uninitiated will not realize the 
amount of special and valuable information this lit- 
tle book contains. In dealing with the works of 
art, it does not retail uncertain legends as facts, 
but gives in attractive form the latest results of 
modern scientific criticism, and this not as an end 
in itself, but as a means toward the greater under- 
standing and appreciation of a charming school of 



[July 1, 

art. Moreover, the author is certainly the first 
writer of a guide-book to give due prominence to 
the hitherto neglected quattrocento painters and 
sculptors, to Vecchietta, to Francesco di Giorgio, 
and to Neroccio di Landi. Not the least impor- 
tant part of the guide-book is the list of English 
works on Siena, with valuable critical comments on 
each. In a word, this is at once the most accurate 
and best informed guide to Siena, and a serious 
contribution to the history of art. The book is 
well printed, with type so clear and large that it is 
a pleasure to read it. 

Horace Greeley once said of the 
oflAnein biographers of Lincoln, that many 

attempts had been made on the life 
of Abraham Lincoln, that of Booth being a little 
worse than some of the others. He had in mind 
the many persons who came in contact with the 
strong individuality of Lincoln and tried to meas- 
ure it by the usual yardstick. A picturesque and 
unusual character is always a good mark for anec- 
dotes. Lincoln has been selected by William Eleroy 
Curtis, the well-known newspaper writer, as a fit 
subject for that ephemeral phase of composition 
known as "true" biography (Lippincott). The 
volume is an indiscriminate collection of striking 
passages from Herndon, Lamon, Nicolay, Carpen- 
ter, Ben. Perley Poore, and McClure, interspersed 
with reminiscences and anecdotes probably culled 
from newspaper clippings. All the old Lincoln 
stories may be found here, regardless of the num- 
ber of times they have been denied or disproved. 
Douglas still arrives with the thirty-seven cents, and 
Lincoln is still after "bigger game" in the sena- 
torial debates. This newspaper method of writing 
biography does no particular harm except to the 
feelings of Lincoln's ultra admirers. Indeed, it is 
quite readable. But the present volume is marred 
by those inexcusable errors of haste which unfortu- 
nately characterized a previous " true " biography 
from this writer. For instance, to say that the 
compromise on the admission of Missouri forbade 
slavery "north of its northern boundary, 36° 30V 
is to mislead. Even the few lines in the Ordinance 
of 1787 which prohibited slavery in the Territory 
cannot be quoted correctly. Many other things will 
be disputed, where the author turns from story- 
telling to statements. Long since it would seem 
that Americans had abandoned the ground that 
England's proclamation of neutrality in 1861 
"practically recognized the Confederate States as 
an independent government and conceded it the 
privileges of a belligerent power." 

Under the thin disguise of editorship, 
TaZuu^^ Mr - George Gissing has collected, in 

"The Private Papers of Henry 
Ryecroft " (Dutton), musings on life and literature, 
with now and then a chapter on art or philosophy 
or religion. Introspective and retrospective, the 
book may be assumed to give, with some degree of 

faithfulness, glimpses of Mr. Gissing's own struggle 
with untoward conditions and his toilsome ascent 
from obscure hack-writership to successful author- 
ship. A sombre, almost depressing, tone is given 
to his pages by the persistence with which the au- 
thor emphasizes the harsh and repulsive features in 
tliis battle of life. A certain tendency to material- 
ism and selfishness in his philosophy shows the uses 
of adversity to have been to the writer less sweet 
than might have been wished. " I think," he de- 
clares, " it would scarce be an exaggeration to say 
that there is no moral good which has not to be 
paid for in the coin of the realm." And again : 
" It is all very well to talk about doing moral good, 
in practice there is little scope or hope for any- 
thing of that kind in a state of material hardship." 
His strivings and aspirations begin and end with 
himself. " For me," he does not hesitate to admit, 
" it is a virtue to be self-centred ; I am much better 
employed, from every point of view, when I live 
solely for my own satisfaction, than when I begin 
to worry about the world." The semi-fictitious 
character of these confessions is betrayed by an oc- 
casional note that lacks the true ring. Hunger and 
weariness and other ills are dwelt upon with a little 
too much unction, a little too much of the literary 
artist's delight in the cleverness of his workman- 
ship. Who, moreover, after spending half a life- 
time over books, would have eyes strong enough to 
finish reading Walton's life of Hooker by moonlight, 
having begun it under the fading rays of sunset ? 
This, Henry Ryecroft is represented as doing, sitting 
in his garden " amid the evening scent of roses." 
What one likes best in this supposititious recluse is 
his passionate love of literature and learning, his 
almost equal delight in painting and music, and his 
abhorence of the meaningless conventionalities of 
polite society. 

The distinguished Professor of Chi- 
nese at the University of Cambridge, 
Dr. Herbert A. Giles, has prepared 
for publication the series of lectures delivered by him 
at Columbia University last year, and they are now 
presented in a volume of 200 pages with the title 
"China and the Chinese" (Macmillan). The lect- 
ures, six in number, are on the following topics : 
" The Chinese Language," " A Chinese Library," 
" Democratic China," " China and Ancient Greece," 
"Taoism," and "Some Chinese Manners and 
Customs." It will be seen that these lectures do not 
comprise a systematic treatise on the subject-title 
of the book, but are somewhat desultory, although 
their value is by no means impaired by that fact. 
The first two sentences in the book naturally at- 
tract attention, and strikingly depict the massive- 
ness of Chinese civilization : " If the Chinese people 
were to file one by one past a given point, the inter- 
esting procession would never come to an end. Be- 
fore the last man of those living to-day had gone by, 
another and a new generation would have grown up, 
and so on for ever and ever." That first chapter, 

China and 
the Chinese 




moreover, is a very clear though brief statement of 
the peculiarities of the Chinese language, especially 
the written language. The second chapter gives a 
good bird's-eye view of the immense literature that 
a Chinese " scholar " must master before he is well 
equipped for his career. " Democratic China " is a 
vivid picture of the political and social conditions 
of the empire ; and the last chapter sets forth some 
of the peculiar manners and customs of the people. 
The chapter on " Taoism " is a very careful explan- 
ation of the doctrines of Lao Tzu. Too is a word 
meaning " Way," which appears to be sufficiently 
broad to include a great variety of speculations and 
superstitions. The most suggestive chapter, to some, 
is the one in which the lecturer makes some in- 
teresting comparisons between the civilizations of 
China and Ancient Greece, in which he makes this 
claim : " Those mental gymnastics, of such impor- 
tance in the training of youth, which were once 
claimed exclusively for the languages of Greece and 
Rome, may be performed equally well in the Chinese 


The microbe plays an important rdle 
of Baeierioioyy. m ^ e ^ e °* civilized nations to-day 
as the servant of man. The part 
that it has always played as man's insidious and 
secret foe is being rapidly exposed, thanks to the 
unceasing labors of many investigators in our own 
and other lands. The pathogenic germ has found 
its place even in the fiction of the day, and its capa- 
bilities in this field are as yet but imperfectly real- 
ized. It is this pathogenic germ with which Mrs. 
Percy Frankland is most concerned in her little 
volume on " Bacteria in Daily Life " (Longmans). 
The author outlines the birth and subsequent growth 
of the science of bacteriology in the Victorian Era, 
and then in the interesting chapters which follow 
she describes the sources of disease and death which 
lurk in the air, water, ice, milk, and other human 
necessities. The book is free from unnecessary 
technicalities, and is well written. It will make a 
valuable non-technical but reliable souree of infor- 
mation for the school and public library, because 
of its relative simplicity and directness. The sup- 
pression of germ diseases, such as typhoid fever 
and tuberculosis, will be much more feasible when 
people are fully aware of the possibilities and dan- 
gers of contagion which science has revealed. Books 
such as this are much needed to make possible the 
growth of social and individual responsibility in 
these matters of public and personal hygiene. 

Tovm-ii/ein The twelve volumes comprising the 

yew England "Memoirs" of John Quincy Adams 

after the Revolution. &TQ made up l argely of his diary . 

These memoirs have been for many years of para- 
mount value for writers and students. J. Q. Adams's 
grandson, Charles Francis Adams, now gives to the 
public an earlier portion of the diary under the cap- 
tion, "Life in a New England Town, 1787-1788 " 
(Little, Brown, & Co.). During these two years, 
young Adams was a law student at Newburyport, 

Massachusetts, following the custom of days when 
law-schools were unknown. The diary for these 
years, portions of which have appeared from time 
to time in the publications of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, shows an earnest student, an- 
noyed sometimes by his fellow-readers, occasionally 
joining them in revels which leave a flagellating 
headache, and always taking a very serious view of 
young women and of life in general. For instance, 
this young man of twenty found himself opposed to 
the Federal Constitution as framed. " My feelings," 
he wrote, "upon the occasion have not been pas- 
sionate or violent ; and as upon the decision of this 
question I find myself upon the weaker side, I think 
it my duty to submit without murmuring against 
what is not to be helped." At another time, he was 
indignant because the men who participated in the 
Shay's Rebellion were pardoned, while a man who 
stole silverware to the amount of twenty pounds was 
sentenced to death in the same courts. An exhaust- 
ive set of foot-notes explains each proper name. 
The volume is of value to those interested in New 
England genealogy and those seeking local color of 
the early days. Necessarily, political and public life 
is not touched upon to any extent by this young 

Writers on English versification are 
BngfuSLtr*. usually dogmatic, and sure that 

everybody else is hopelessly wrong. 
Indeed, one comparatively recent prosodist admitted 
at the outset that his views would hardly find ac- 
ceptance, and another only last year reprinted his 
magazine articles chiefly because they had fallen 
flat — an unfair infliction upon posterity. Mr. 
T. S. Omond's " Study of Metre " (Grant Richards, 
London), however, appears in book form because 
the essays that compose it have already met with 
approval. Mr. Omond has not been hasty in making 
his book ; he published an article on prosody so long 
ago as 1875. Moreover, he is neither dogmatic nor 
revolutionary. He points out, much more clearly 
than anyone else thus far has done, how hopelessly 
misleading is our use in English of the terms of classic 
prosody. To be sure, when you read "duple rising" 
in the table of contents, it sounds rather strange, but 
after you have read his exposure of " iambic," the 
new term sounds fairly satisfactory. The best of 
the book, fortunately, is constructive. The " period," 
or foot, occupies a definite and regular space of time, 
which may or may not be completely filled by syl- 
lables. In "duple rising" measure, for instance, 
you may have from one to three syllables in each 
period, with indefinite variations of stress, accent, 
and pitch. It is true that this explanation leaves 
the individual to think as he pleases about the rela- 
tive importance of a good many things, and in that 
respect it seems to dodge the issue. The reviewer, 
however, cannot help thinking that Mr. Omond has 
come pretty close to the heart of the matter, and 
that he does not dodge any question of fundamental 



[July 1, 

The Lone-Star 

In the preface to one of the earlier 
volumes of the " American Common- 
wealths " series (Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co.), it was asserted that " the changes of sovereign 
as well as subordinate jurisdiction have been greater 
in Michigan than in any other part of the Ameri- 
can Union." The writer of that volume must have 
been forgetful of Texas, which was under the juris- 
diction successively of France, Spain, and both Im- 
perial and Republican Mexico, before becoming an 
independent Republic, preparatory to its admission 
to the American Union. And while Michigan of- 
fered an opportunity for a history of governments, 
Texas and the exceedingly interesting train of events 
by which Latin institutions therein gave way at last 
to those of Anglo-Saxon origin present the best field 
upon the North American continent for a study of 
a contest of civilizations. It is such a study based 
upon history, rather than the history itself, that Prof. 
George P. Garrison, of the University of Texas, has 
contributed to the above-named series, in his book 
on Texas. For the writing of the book he has had 
peculiar advantages in his access to the archives pre- 
served in the capital of the State, and he has made 
good use of the rich materials at hand. His style 
is crisp and clear, and he has presented the history 
of the Lone-Star State in most readable form. If, 
however, the average Texan is disappointed in 
the author's rather calm treatment of such heroic 
incidents as the slaughter of the Alamo defenders 
and the battle of San Jacinto, and in his neglect of 
biographical details regarding the heroes of Texan 
history, many readers will be grateful to him for the 
sidelights he has thrown upon the whole course of a 
great commonwealth in its relation to the expansion of 
our territory to the Rio Grande and westward to the 


Mr. Thomas Francis Moran is the 
author of a brief book on the 
" Theory and Practice of the En- 
glish Government " (Longmans). In common with 
many similar publications, the purpose of the work 
is to present in condensed yet attractive form the 
general principles of government rather than exact 
details. The danger of such an attempt lies in its 
very generality, in the impossibility of accurate 
description where exceptions to general rules are 
not noted. Mr. Moran has not escaped this danger, 
and in this respect his book is no better than its 
predecessors. On the other hand he shows himself 
gifted in clear, entertaining statement, and apt in 
historical illustration. His work is very readable, 
and if not regarded as a complete and authoritative 
analysis of English government — and a claim to 
any such merit would probably be denied by the 
author — should meet with general appreciation. 

The publication of Mr. A. E. Galla- 
AubreTBel'dley. tin ' 8 work entitled « Aubrey Beards- 
ley's Drawings : A Catalogue and a 
List of Criticisms " (Godfrey A. S. Wieners ), shows 
that interest in that eccentric genius was something 

Principle* of 
the English 

more than a passing fancy. The compiler has done 
his work well, and in his effort to be comprehensive 
has included miscellaneous reviews and even casual 
mention of Beardsley in books and periodicals. We 
note, however, the omission of any reference to the 
review by Mr. Twose entitled " Aubrey Beardsley 
in Perspective," in The Dial of June 16, 1899, and 
the communication called forth by it entitled " A 
Reviewer out of Perspective," which appeared in 
the issue of July 16, 1899. Mr. Gallatin's book is a 
handsome quarto printed on hand-made paper. It 
is illustrated with two portraits of Beardsley, one of 
them a hitherto unpublished drawing by Mr. Will 
Rothenstein. There are also several drawings by 
Beardsley, one of which is also published for the 
first time. 

Professor Hoffman, of Union Col- 

pZfZogy. le 8f' ha8 P ut i0X } h a 8ma11 book in 

which the sub-title, " A Survey of 

the Present Results of Psychical Research, with 
Special Reference to their Bearings upon the Inter- 
ests of Every-day Life," is perhaps more significant 
than the main title, " Psychology and Common Life " 
(Putnam). The series of chapters set forth in a 
somewhat irregular fashion the relations of mind 
and body, the functions of memory and attention in 
health and disease, and culminate in a presentation 
of hypnotism, faith-cures, and the alleged phenom- 
ena of telepathy and clairvoyance. The data are 
accumulated with industry rather than with discre- 
tion ; and the fatal defect of the book is the absence 
of an illuminating and firm critical grasp of the 
status of present-day psychological discussion. The 
book is likely to catch the popular ear, but is as 
likely to mislead as to interest. 


A volume of " Discourses on War," selected from 
the writings of William Ellery Charming, has just been 
published for the International Union by Messrs. Ginn 
& Co. This is a volume of peace literature in the series 
which already includes the work of Jean de Bloch and 
the orations of Charles Sumner. These works are 
published in substantial form, but at a merely nominal 
price, and are deserving of a very wide circulation. Mr. 
Edwin D. Mead contributes an elaborate and eloquent 
introduction, and the work of Channing which is thus 
prefaced is itself surprisingly applicable to the needs of 
the present day. The peace movement, now so rapidly 
growing, has had no abler exponent than this New En- 
gland divine of the early nineteenth century. 

"Homophonic Conversations in English, German, 
French, and Italian " is a small manual compiled and 
published by Mr. C. B. Waite and Mrs. C. V. Waite. 
The phrases included are such as bear a marked resem- 
blance to one another in all four of the languages, 
which accounts for the " homophonic " of the title. 
The following is an example: " Let me see your assort- 
ment of books "= " Lassen Sie mich Ihr Sortiment der 
biicher sehen " = " Faites-moi voir votre assortiment de 
livre's " = " Mostratemi il vostro assortimento di libri." 





A new edition, revised and rewritten, of Mr. T. M. 
Clark's manual of " Building Superintendence " is 
published by the Macmillan Co. 

Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. publish "El Haz de 
Lena," a verse drama by Don Gaspar Nunez de Arce, 
edited by Mr. Rudolph Schwill. 

" The Hittites," by Dr. L. Messerschmidt, is published 
by Mr. David Nutt in his series of pamphlet mono- 
graphs entitled " The Ancient East." 

■ A Text Book of Organic Chemistry," by Professor 
William A. Noyes, is among the latest educational pub- 
lications of Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 

"Bamaby Rudge," "Christmas Books," and "A 
Child's History of England " have just been added to the 
" Fireside " Dickens published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

Messrs. L. C. Page & Co. publish a handsome new 
edition, with illustrations by Mr. Charles Li vingstonBull, 
of " Earth's Enigmas," by Mr. Charles G. D. Roberts. 

" The Oldest Code of Laws in the World," imported 
by the Messrs. Scribner, is a translation, by Mr. C. H. 
W. Johns, of the recently discovered Hammurabi Code. 

The American Book Co. publish a small volume of 
" Selections from Latin Prose Authors for Light Read- 
ing," prepared by Misses Susan B. Franklin and Ella 
C. Greene. Caesar, Cicero, and Livy are the authors 
chiefly drawn upon for this work. 

Ainsworth's " Old Saint Paul's " is imported by the 
Messrs. Scribner in the " Caxton " thin paper reprints of- 
famous English novels. We have also Evelyn's " Diary " 
in similar form. Both volumes have flexible leather 
covers and are exceedingly attractive in execution. 

■ Humanities Gone and to Come," a Phi Beta Kappa 
address given by Professor Felix E. Schelling, is pub- 
lished in pamphlet form by the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. The pamphlet also contains " Ad Astra," an ode 
prepared for the same occasion by Mr. Francis Howard 

An announcement of especial timeliness and interest, 
in view of the recent tragedy in Servia, is a book of 
" Famous Assassinations," to be published shortly by 
Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. The volume will give 
accounts of some thirty of the most significant political 
assassinations in the world's history. 

Messrs. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. publish in pamph- 
let form a stage version of Browning's " The Return 
of the Druses," arranged by Miss Charlotte Porter. 
This commemorates the first performance of the tragedy 
" on any stage," which was given by the Boston Brown- 
ing Society on the 25th of March, 1902, and afterwards 
twice repeated. 

"The Novels and Poems of Charles Kingsley " are 
being reissued in a " Library Edition " by Messrs. J. F. 
Taylor & Co. Four volumes are now at hand, two of 
them being " Hereward the Wake," and the other two 
■ Alton Locke." The special feature of this edition is 
found in the introductions to the several works, prepared 
by Mr. Maurice Kingsley, the oldest son of the author. 

In the notice of Professor Sargent's work on " Trees 
and Shrubs," in our last issue (p. 406), an error of 
statement occurred which we are glad to correct. The 
statement that the new work supplements, and, when 
completed, will add two new volumes to, Professor Sar- 
gent's " Silva of North America" is incorrect; for the 
work on "Trees and Shrubs" is quite independent of, 
and only in a general way supplementary to, the earlier 

work. " The Silva of North America " was originally 
planned for twelve volumes, but the discovery of new 
arboreal species during its publication made necessary 
two additional volumes, which, with the Index, were 
published late last Fall. Our notice confused these two 
volumes with the two parts of " Trees and Shrubs " 
now issued. 

An examination of the principles on which Poe con- 
structed his metrical work will be made anew in a vol- 
ume of his critical writings, prepared by Mr. Sherwin 
Cody, to be issued next Fall by Messrs. A. C. McClurg 
& Co. The volume will contain a considerable number 
of Poe's best poems, but the greater part of it will be 
filled with selections from his critical writings, which, 
embodying as they do the principles that governed his 
own poetic compositions, ought to aid greatly in a 
study of his creative work. 

A growing interest in the work and influence of Wil- 
liam Morris is indicated by the recent organization of the 
Morris Society of Chicago, with a general programme 
which provides for the dissemination of Morris's ideas 
by means of publications, a library and museum, and 
workshops and schools of design. The purposes of 
the society are chiefly educational, and relate to the 
social and artistic ideals of Morris. Dr. E. J. James is 
President of the society, and Prof. Oscar L. Triggs its 
Secretary. Persons interested are requested to address 
the latter official, at 5634 Madison Avenue, Chicago. 

Two novelettes of real merit, even though they fall 
a little short of the author 's previous work, appear in 
a single volnme, by Mr. Arthur Cosslett Smith, " The 
Turquoise Cup " and " The Desert " (Scribner). Each 
serves as a foil for the other, — the former dealing with 
an Italian cardinal, an English nobleman, and a beauti- 
ful Irish girl; while the latter concerns itself with the 
love of a caravan leader in the Sahara and a Bedouin 
maid whom her own father is selling into the most de- 
graded slavery. Both possess the charm of delicate 
material when delicately handled, the atmosphere be- 
ing admirably reproduced and the style clear and bold. 
That both depart a little from the ordinary convention, 
is rather in their favor under Mr. Smith's treatment. 

Topics ix L.eadixg Periodicals. 

July, 1903. 

Antarctic Explorations, Latest. C.C.Adams. Rev. of Revs. 
Antelope, The Last. Mary Austin. Atlantic. 
Babcock, Stephen Monlton. H. F. John. World's Work. 
Biography, Recent. H. W. Horwill. Forum. 
Birds, Texas and Arizona. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic. 
Bridges, American, in Mid-Africa. World's Work. 
Canadian Rivermen, The. Arthur Heming. Scribner. 
Cedars of Lebanon, The. Lewis G. Leary. Scribner. 
Chamberlain's Protection Scheme. Harold Cox. No. Amer. 
Church, Business Organization of a. D. O. Phillips. Harper. 
Codfishers, Newfoundland. Norman Duncan. World's Work. 
College Curriculum, Reconstruction of. G. T. Ladd. Forum. 
College Students, Preparation for Business. World's Work. 
Congo Misgovernment. W.M.Morrison. Review of Reviews. 
Constitutional Initiative. L. F. C. Garvin. No. American. 
Cuban Self-Government, First Year of. Atlantic. 
Culture, A National Type of. B. I. Wheeler. Atlantic. 
Dramatic Season, The. Henry Tyrrell. Forum. 
Educational Research, Society of. J. M. Rice. Forum. 
English " Commercial Gentlemen." F. J. Pool. World's Work 
Erie Canal, The. M. M. Wilner. Review of Reviews. 
Eve. The Curse of. Margaret Bisland. North American. 
Factory Fires, Preventing. George lies. World's Work. 



[July 1, 

Farmers' Trust, A. H. A. Wood. World's Work. 
Fiction, Red Blood in. Churchill Williams. World's Work. 
Floods, The Recent. C. M. Harper. Review of Reviews. 
Forest Fires. H. M. Suter. Review of Reviews. 
Forum, Roman, Recent Excavations in the. Forum. 
Gettysburg. Gen. John B. Gordon. Scribner. 
Gold- Hunters of the North. Jack London. Atlantic. 
Hammurabi, Who Was? William H. Ward. Century. 
Hayti, Truth about. J. N. Leger. North American. 
Hoier, Andreas, A Night in the Room of. Scribner. 
Human Personality, Survival of . A. F. Chamberlain. Harper. 
Immigration, This Year's High Tide of. Review of Reviews. 
Jewish Massacres, The. A. Cahan. North American. 
Jewish World, The. Richard Gottheil. World's Work. 
Kishineff. Richard Gottheil. Forum. 
Leopold II. W. T. Stead. Review of Reviews. 
Librarian's Day's Work. Adele M. Shaw. World's Work. 
Literature, Comparative, What is ? C. M. Gayley. Atlantic. 
Manufactures, American, in World's Markets. No. Amer. 
Motor Cycle, The. Henry Norman. World's Work. 
Mountain Observatory, Life at a. Ethel F. Hussey Atlantic. 
Navigation above the Cloulds. E. C. Rost. Harper. 
New York, Port of. George B. Fife. Harper. 
Pacific Coast, Literary Development of the. Atlantic. 
Panama Canal Question. Raul Perez. North American. 
Plant and Animal Intelligence. N. S. Shaler. Harper. 
Pronunciation in English. T. R. Lounsbury. Harper. 
Revolution, New View of the. Emil Reich. No. American. 
Roman Holiday, A. Maud Howe. Lippincott. 
"Romeo and Juliet." Arthur Symons. Harper. 
Ruskin, Some Letters of. North American. 
Russia and the Nations. W. M. Ivins, Jr. World's Work. 
Sargent's Silva. John Muir. Atlantic. 
Scholar, Voice of the. David S. Jordan. Atlantic. 
School Administration, Municipal. W. H. Burnhara. Atlantic. 
School, An American. G. L. Kittredge. North American. 
Scott, Unpublished Letters by. Century. 
Servian Tragedy, The. Charles Johnston. North American. 
Trolley, Short Vacations by. A. B. Paine. World's Work. 
Typhoid, Prevention of. J. C. Bayles. World's Work. 
Uganda, American Invasion of. J. M. Rogers. Rev. of Revs. 
Venezuela, Anglo-German Intervention in. North American. 
War Department, Civil Administration of. Scribner. 
" Welfare Work " in a Great Industrial Plant. Rev. of Revs. 
Wesley, John. C. T. Winchester. Century. 
Whaler's Log, An Old-Time. J. R. Spears. Harper. 

List of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 73 titles, includes books 
received by Thb Dial since its last issue. J 


Life and Letters of Sir George Grove, C.B., Hon. D.C.L. 
(Durham), Hon. LL.D. (Glasgow), formerly Director of 
the Royal College of Music. By Charles L. Graves. Illus. 
in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, uncut, pp. 484. Mac- 
millan Co. $4. net. 

The Autobiography of Joseph Le Conte. Edited by 
William Dallam Amies. Illus., 12mo, pp. 337. D. Apple- 
ton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Memories of Yale Life and Men, 1845-1899. By Timo- 
thy Dwight. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 500. Dodd, 
Mead & Co. $2.50 net. 

David Hume and his Influence on Philosophy and Theology. 
By James Orr, M.A. 12mo, pp. 246. " World's Epoch- 
Makers." Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 

Erasmus. By Ernest F. H. Capey. Illus., 16mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 226. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1. net. 


Home Life under the Stuarts, 1603-1649. By Elizabeth 
Godfrey. Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 312. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3.50 net. 

Buddhist India. By T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 332. "Story of the Nations Series." G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

History of Franklin and Marshall College. By Joseph 
Henry Dubbs, D.D. Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 402. Lancaster, Pa. : Published 
by the Franklin and Marshall Alumni Association. 
$2.50 net. 

The History of France. By Arthur Hassall, M.A. 24mo, 
pp.246. " Temple Primers." MacmillanCo. 40cts. net. 


English Literature: An Illustrated Record, in Four Vol- 
umes. Vol. I., From the Beginnings to the Age of Henry 
VIII., by Richard Garnett, C.B. Vol. III., From Milton 
to Johnson, by Edmund Gosse. Each illus. in photogra- 
vure, color, etc., 4to, gilt top, uncut. Macmillan Co. Per 
vol., $6. net. 

Correspondence of Lady Burghersh with the Duke of 
Wellington. Edited by her daughter, Lady Rose Wei- 
gall. Illus. in photogravure, etc., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 220. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 

Lake Country Sketches. By Rev. H. D. Rawnsley. Illus., 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 241. Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

Thoughts from Maeterlinck. Chosen and arranged by 
E. S. S. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 283. Dodd, Mead & Co. 
$1,20 net. 

The Espurgatoire Saint Patriz of Marie de France. With 
a Text of the Latin Original. By T. Atkinson Jenkins. 
4to, pp. 95. " Decennial Publications." University of 
Chicago Press. $1.25 net. 


Essays, Second Series. By Ralph Waldo Emerson. " Cen- 
tenary " edition ; 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 358. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. $1.75. 

Works of Charles Dickens, " Fireside " Edition. New 
vols. : Christmas Books, Child's History of England, and 
Barnaby Rudge. Each illus., 12mo. Oxford University 
Press. Per vol., $1. 

Alton Locke, Tailor and Poet : An Autobiography. By 
Charles Kingsley ; with Introduction by Maurice Kings- 
ley. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, 12mo, gilt tops, 
uncut. J. F. Taylor & Co. 


The Captain's Toll-Gate. By Frank R. Stockton; with 

a memorial sketch by Mrs. Stockton, and a bibliography. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 359. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
A Gentleman of the South : A Memory of the Black Belt. 

By William Garrott Brown Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 232. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Felix. By Robert Hichens. 12mo, pp. 432. F. A. Stokes 

Co. $1.50. 
Anne Carmel. By Gwendolen Overton. Illus., 12mo, gilt 

top, pp. 335. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
The Lions of the Lord: A Tale of the Old West. By 

Harry Leon Wilson. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp.520. Lothrop 

Publishing Co. $1.50. 
The Twilight of the Gods, and Other Tales. By Richard 

Garnett. New and augumented edition ; with frontispiece, 

12mo, uncut, pp. 328. Jane Lane. 
Sinful Peck. By Morgan Robertson. 12mo, pp. 355. 

Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
Despotism and Democracy : A Study in Washington 

Society and Politics. 12mo, pp. 311. McClure, Phillips 

& Co. $1.50. 
Stay-at-Homes. By L. B. Walford. 12mo,pp.344. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 
The Sacrifice of the Shannon. By W. Albert Hickman. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 323. F. A. Stokes Go. $1.50. 
Ethel. By J. J. Bell. 16mo,pp.l97. Harper & Brothers. $1. 
The Song of the Cardinal : A Love Story. By Gene 

Stratton-Porter. Illus., 8vo, pp. 163. Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

Mr. Keegan's Elopement. By Winston Churchill. Illus., 

18mo, uncut, pp. 73. " Little Novels by Favourite 

Authors." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 
Mara. By "Pansy" (Mrs. G. R. Alden). Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 341. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1.50. 


Norwegian Byways. By Charles W. Wood. Illus., 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 384. Macmillan Co. $2. 

Guide to Switzerland. With maps, 16mo, pp. 235. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.60 net. 




PilgTimagea to Methodist Shrines. By William Henry 

Meredith. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 335. Jennings & 

Pye. $1.25. 

Babel and Bible : Two Lectures. By Friedrich Delitzsch ; 

edited, with Introduction, by C. H. W. Johns, M.A. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 226. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Sl.50. 
The Higher Realism. By Duston Kemble. 12mo, pp. 167. 

Jennings & Pye. 75 cts. net. 
The Davis Parallel Gospels : Being the Three Synoptic 

Gospels and Some Portions of John. By E. D. Davis. 

Large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 160. New York: Peter Eckler. $1. 
The Gentle Art of Making Happy. By G. H. Morrison, 

M.A. 12mo, uncut, pp. 60. Fleming H. Revell Co. 


Sociology: The Science of Human Society. By J. H. W. 
Stnckenberg, LL.D. In 2 vols., 8vo, gilt tops. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $4.50 net. 

Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem: Inves- 
tigations Made by and under the Direction of W. 0. 
Atwater, John S. Billings, H. P. Bowditch. R. H. Chit- 
tenden, and W. H. Welch. In 2 vols., illus., large 8vo, 
gilt tops, uncut. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $4.50 net. 

Social Origin, by Andrew Lang; and, Primal Law, by 
J. J. Atkinson. Large 8vo, nncut, pp. 311. Longmans, 
Green, & Co. $3.60 net. 

The Finances and Administration of Providence. By 
Howard Kemble Stokes. Ph.D. Large 8vo, pp. 464. 
Baltimore : Johns Hopkins Press. $3 50. 

The Anglo-Saxon Century, and the Unification of the 
English-Speaking People. By John R Dos Paasos. 
Large Svo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 242. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$•2.25 net. 

German Ambitions as They Affect Britain and the United 
States. By "Yigilans sed JSauus." 12mo, pp. 132. 
" Questions of the Day." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 

The Teachings of Jesus concerning Wealth. By 
Gerald D. Heuver ; with Introduction by Herrick Johnson, 
D.D. 12mo, uncut, pp. 208. Fleming H. Revell Co. 
$1. net. 

-God's Children : A Modem Allegory. By James Allman. 
ltinio, pp. 113. Chicago : Charles H. Kerr & Co. 50 cts. 


The Geography of Disease. By Frank G. Clemow, M.D. 
8vo, uncut, pp. 624. " Cambridge Geographical Series." 
Macmillan Co. $4. net. 

New Conceptions in Science. With a Foreword on the 
Relations of Science and Progress. By Carl Snyder. 
Bins., 8vo, pp. 361. Harper & Brothers. $2. net. 

Birds in their Relations to Man : A Manual of Economic 
Ornitholoey for the United States and Canada. By Clar- 
ence M. Weed. D.Sc.. and Ned Dearborn, D.Sc. Illus., 
8vo, pp. 380. J. B. Lippincott Co. $2.50 net. 

Voltaire : Index to his Works. Genius, and Character. 

With an Appreciation of Voltaire by Oliver H. G. Leieh. 

With photogravure portrait, Svo, gilt top, nncut, pp. 302 

Chicago: E. R. Du Mont. 
New International Encyclopaedia. Edited by Daniel 

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It is now more than twenty years since the 
death of Carlyle, and nearly as many years 
since Fronde completed his publication of the 
nine volumes of Carlyle biography, autobiog- 
raphy, and correspondence, that resulted from 
the discharge of the trust imposed upon him by 
his dead friend and master. The controversies 
excited by that publication constitute a memor- 
able episode in our literary annals, but one not 
altogether pleasant to remember, and certainly 
not deserving resuscitation, except under the 
plea of the strongest necessity. Unfortunately, 
although no such necessity has been proved to 
exist, the controversy is again upon us in all its 
former acrimony, and " chatter about Jane " 
bids fair to usurp the places hitherto held in 
quasi-literary discussion by the " chatter about 
Harriet " which once loomed up so unpleasantly 
in the foreground when the genius of the great- 
est of English lyric poets came up for discus- 

The prime cause of the present offending was 
offered, a few weeks ago, by the publication of 
two volumes of " New Letters and Memorials 
of Jane Welsh Carlyle." For this publication, 
Mr. Alexander Carlyle is responsible; and to 
it Sir James Crichton- Browne has contributed 
an introduction which abuses Fronde with even 
greater virulence than was displayed by the 
bitterest of his antagonists in the early eighties. 
Since Froude is as dead as Carlyle, the case has 
to be conducted by counsel on both sides, and 
the rebuttal in the present instance comes from 
the members of Froude's family, taking the 
shape of the publication of certain manuscript 
matters left by the historian to provide for his 
personal vindication. With great self-restraint, 
Froude kept these matters unprinted, in spite 
of the attacks made upon him during his last 
years ; but his family has now thought it best 
to give them to the world. In a certain sense, 
their interest is petty (except for the patho- 
logical element), but the attack upon Froude 
has all along been characterized by pettiness of 
spirit, and the defense, if any were resorted to, 
must needs be in kind. 



[July 16, 

The underlying animus of the whole attack 
upon Froude has been occasioned by the single 
fact that, in his portraiture of the man whom 
he so loved and honored, he employed the 
methods demanded by Carlyle's own grim 
hero, Oliver Cromwell, and enjoined upon him 
by Carlyle's express behest. In a word, he 
painted the warts as well as the general con- 
tours of the visage. The sleek and decorous 
form of biography made no appeal to him, 
and his artistic conscience revolted from the 
methods of the easy hero-worship that idealizes 
its subjects out of all recognition. Unfortu- 
nately, his scholarly conscience did not keep 
pace with his artistic conscience. As a histo- 
rian, he was deplorably careless, and even 
wanton in his disregard for exactness of state- 
ment and quotation. We do not need to 
instance in support of this proposition the long 
list of inaccuracies in his transcription of the 
Carlyle correspondence and memoirs ; it may 
be proved with equal certainty from almost 
any part of his other work, from his treatment 
of the archives at Simancas or of the letters of 
Erasmus. His defense on this point is inade- 
quate. He says of the Carlyle papers : 

" I copied out the greater part of the ' Reminiscences ' 
myself. A large part of them I copied twice ; I had 
to work at them with a magnifying glass, and in many 
hundred instances I was at a loss to know exactly what 
particular words might be. My own hand is not a good 
one, and there was a further source of error in the 
printer's reading of this." 

We may make some allowance for these condi- 
tions, but they do little to weaken the force of 
the charge that Froude was constitutionally in- 
accurate in his scholarly habit, and that he re- 
sorted to an unjustifiable degree of license in 
all his dealings with documentary material. 

Admitting all this, we still believe that the 
attacks made upon him, both before and since 
his death, by the injudicious partisans of the 
Carlyles, have been unwarrantably unfair and 
brutal. The charge of inaccuracy, which is 
one thing, has been quite unjustifiably per- 
verted into the charges of sensationalism and 
treachery, which are wholly different matters. 
It is proper to protest against the method of 
relentless setting-forth and unsparing exposure 
in biographical writing ; but it is highly im- 
proper, when a man employs that method in 
all sincerity, to accuse him of making a de- 
liberate attempt to pull his subject from the 
pedestal. This accusation, indeed, carries its 
own refutation to those who read Froude's 
frequently expressed admiration for his friend 
and teacher. "Falsehood and concealment," 

he says, " are a great man's worst enemies ; 
such at least is the doctrine about the matter 
which I learnt from Carlyle himself." The 
man whose warfare upon shams was lifelong 
would have been the last to sanction a sham 
account of his own life, and there is abundant 
evidence that Carlyle knew what he was doing 
when he placed his private papers in Froude's 
bauds, to be made use of at his discretion. 
The following words, from the author's state- 
ment now for the first time published, deserve 
to be pondered by those who have been hasty 
in their judgment. 

" My book, if it is still to be condemned at present, 
will be of use hereafter. A hundred years hence, the 
world will better appreciate Carlyle's magnitude. The 
sense of his importance, in my opinion, will increase 
with each generation. The unwillingness to look closely 
into his character will be exchanged for an earnest de- 
sire to know all which can be ascertained about him, 
and what I have written will then have value. It may 
not be completely correct, but it will have made con- 
cealment impossible, and have ensured that the truth 
shall be known. The biographies of the great men of 
the past, the great spiritual teachers especially, with 
whom Carlyle must be ranked, are generally useless. 
They are idle and incredible panegyrics, with features 
drawn without shadows, false, conventional, and worth- 

It is peculiarly unfortunate that the Carlyle 
controversy should have excited to such exces- 
sive partisanship almost everyone who has 
shared in it. It is amusing, but not altogether 
edifying, to read in Mr. Swinburne's prose of 
" the eminent writer who chose to make his en- 
try into literary life under the self-selected 
name of Devilsdung," and for whom "the com- 
paratively inoffensive designation of Coprostom 
or Cloacinus " is suggested as not unbecoming, 
or in the same author's verse to read of " this 
dead snake," 

" Let worms consume its memory with its tongue, 
The fang that stabbed fair Truth, the lip that stung 
Men's memories uncorroded with its breath." 

But we prefer even this violence of invective to 
the shameful insinuations of Mr. W. S. Lilly, 
who in a recent article suggests that Froude 
wished above all else to make his biography a 
succes de scandale, and that " the practicality 
of Judas covenanting for the thirty pieces of 
silver " offers a fair parallel to the mean mer- 
cenary motives imputed to the biographer. This 
is all very distressing, and yet how typical it is 
of much that has been said and written about 
Froude and Carlyle since the publications that 
precipitated the controversy ! It is obvious 
that neither fairness nor sanity is to be expected 
from the partisans of either camp when they 
indulge in such empty rhetoric. Sir James 




Crichton-Browne has sinned heavily in again 
opening the flood-gates of this sort of intem- 
perate talk, and in personally adding to its 
muddy volume. The letters for which he stands 
sponsor have nothing that is essentially new to 
tell us about the Carlyles, and he himself has 
for us nothing more convincing than stale re- 
petitions of the old abusive language for their 
literary executor. It would have been far bet- 
ter to let the whole matter rest where it was 

As it is, the facts which Froude himself con- 
cealed, or at least obscured, have been brought 
into the light by the printing of his own self- vin- 
dication, hitherto kept from the public. While 
" My Relations with Carlyle " does not perform 
the impossible task of revealing patient and ac- 
curate scholarship beneath the impressionism of 
Froude's literary methods, the pamphlet does 
make it clear that his portrait of Carlyle was, if 
anything, softened in outline rather than made 
unduly harsh. It also makes clear the fact that 
Froude suffered in silence during the last years 
of his life from calumnies that he might have 
refuted by a little plain speaking, but that he 
preferred to bear with dignity rather than re- 
veal certain matters intimately touching the re- 
lations of the Carlyles — matters which, with all 
his hatred of concealment, he had yet thought 
it wise to suppress. The pamphlet also clears 
him completely of the accusation that he was 
in any way actuated by a sordid motive in his 
publication of the manuscript material left by 
Carlyle so unreservedly at his disposal. 

But, although the net result of these new 
publications, on both sides, is to leave Froude's 
reputation in better shape than it was before, 
we cannot but regret their appearance. They 
have reopened the whole question of the ill- 
assorted Cheyne Row menage, and have given a 
renewed opportunity for vulgar persons, curi- 
ous in malicious gossip and petty personalities, 
to roll their tongues over the private affairs of 
the irritable Thomas and the exasperating Jane. 
Twenty years ago we were treated to more than 
enough of moralizing upon these unprofitable 
themes, and now the tongues are all set wag- 
ging again, and " chatter about Jane " is once 
more to the fore in conversation. It is a sad 
business, and the worst of it is that the affair 
seems more likely than ever before to become 
imbedded in the history of English literature, 
although everything essential to that history 
might very well be set down without so much 
as mentioning the fact that Carlyle was 

&ty gtfo g00ks. 

Nearest to the North Pole.* 

Two quarto volumes, profusely illustrated, 
contain the unabridged account for popular 
reading of the expedition of the Duke of the 
Abruzzi to the Arctic regions, in which Com- 
mander Umberto Cagni of the Italian Royal 
Navy succeeded in attaining a higher latitude 
than any recorded, in company with three com- 
panions, Giuseppe Petigax and Alessio Fenoil- 
let, Alpine guides, and Simone Canepa, an 
Italian mariner. No better summary of the 
expedition can be made than that written by 
the Duke of the Abruzzi to the King of Italy, 
at Hammerfest, Norway, on the return of the 
ship on the 6th June, 1901, reading in trans- 
lation as follows : 

"To His Majesty King Victor Emmanuel III: The 
Polar Star has arrived, and goes on to Tromso and Chris- 
tiania. She passed through British Channel last sum- 
mer, went beyond Cape Fligely in Prince Rudolph 
Island, and came down to pass the winter in Teplitz 
Bay, in 81° 47' N. lat. On September 8th a strong 
pressure of the ice crushed the ship, and caused much 
leakage. Being unable to keep down the water, we 
abandoned the ship. We bnilt a hut on the shore with 
the spars, the sails, and the tents, in which we passed 
the winter very well. At the beginning of the year the 
ends of two fingers of my right hand were obliged to 
be amputated on account of frost-bite. I left the com- 
mand of the sledge expedition to Cagni. It set out on 
February 20th (1901). The intense cold forced it to 
return after two days. It left again, under Cagni, on 
March 11th, and was composed of Querini, Cavalli, the 
engineer of the ship, two Italian sailors, four guides, 
thirteen sledges, and 104 dogs. Three Norwegians 
helped them for the first two days. The first detach- 
ment, composed of Querini, the engineer, and a guide, 
was sent back after twelve days' march, and never re- 
turned to the hut. The second detachment, composed 
of Cavalli, a sailor, and a guide, was sent back after 
twenty days' march, and arrived at the hut in excellent 
health on April 18th. Cagni pushed on to the north 
with two guides and a sailor until April 25th, and 
reached 86° 34' N. lat. A strong drift of the ice and 
the want of food made the return of this detachment 
difficult and laborious. For several weeks it fed on its 
dogs, and reached the hut on June 25th, after passing 
104 days on the ice-pack. Petermann Land and King 
Oscar Land do not exist. The Polar Star was held up 
by the ice and did not sink. A faint hope of saving her 
had made us undertake at the end of autumn whatever 
measures were most necessary to repair her; they were 
continued in July, and after many efforts I succeeded 

*0» the " Polar Stab " nr thb Arctic Ska. By H. 
R. H. Luigi Amedeo of Savoy, Dnke of the Abruzzi. With 
the Statements of Commander U. Cagni upon the Sledge 
Expedition to 86° 34' North, and of Dr. A. Cavalli Molinelli 
upon hia Return to the Bay of Teplitz. Translated by Wil- 
liam Le Queux. In two volumes, illustrated. New York : 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 



[July 16, 

in floating her on August 6th. We left Teplitz Bay 
on the 16th. We were blocked up by the ice in British 
Channel for fourteen days. We reached Cape Flora 
on August 31st, and Hammerfest to-day. Querini was 
sent back by Cagni while still within sight of Prince 
Rudolph Island. The weather was cold, but fine, dur- 
ing the following days, the ice was in contact with the 
coast, and everything was exceptionally favorable to 
his return. It is with great grief that I must suppose 
that his loss and that of his two men must have been 
caused by some accidental mishap. The steadfast cour- 
age and determination manifested by the leader of the 
sledge expedition and by all who composed it, in spite 
of immense hardships, assured its success, and acquired 
fresh glory for our country, by making its flag wave at 
the highest latitude which has hitherto been reached. 
All present are in excellent health. May your Majesty 
deign to accept the loyal homage of all the members 
of the expedition." 

This succinct report not only summarizes 
the actual deeds of the most successful of all 
polar expeditions, but between its lines may be 
read the sorrows and joys and varied personal 
experiences which humanize such an under- 
taking. Apart from the actual tragedy under- 
lying the total and unaccounted for disappear- 
ance of the three unfortunates of the first 
detachment, the manly surrender, by the Prince 
of the Abruzzi himself, of all his longings to 
lead, when he learned, after repeated trials, 
that his frost-bitten hand incapacitated him for 
the task to which all his energies had for sev- 
eral years been directed, is quite the finest thing 
in the book. Yet it does not appear from any- 
thing he himself writes (and the first volume 
is wholly given up to his personal account of 
*he voyage and journey) that he took this de- 
privation much to heart. Indeed, if it were not 
known that he had shown the utmost possible 
courage, determination, and perseverance, in 
his mountain climbing, especially in his ascent 
of Mount St. Elias in Alaska, it might be pos- 
sible to think unworthily of his staying behind 
when confiding the lives of his subordinates to 
the pitiless rigors of the ice-pack. 

The Prince is free to ascribe much of his 
success to the counsels of Dr. Nansen, who 
manifested in the most practical way his in- 
terest in the undertaking through a series of 
months while the preparations for it were in 
hand. The Prince's own contribution to its 
success, indeed, lies chiefly in his selection of 
guides from the Val d'Aosta, men to whom 
snow and ice, in a form more difficult than the 
ice-pack ever presents, were affairs of daily life. 
The testimony of Commander Umberto Cagni, 
whose personal narrative occupies two-thirds 
of the second volume, to the qualifications of 
his three companions in the attainment of their 

ambition, is unqualified ; and it may be hoped 
that all future explorers in the far North will 
be so fortunate as to provide themselves with 
equally useful and efficient aids to success. 

Though the Pole was not reached, the man- 
ner of carrying on the task prescribed the con- 
ditions for ultimate success. As will be seen 
from the summary, the plan of operations was 
for three several detachments to set forth at 
once, their joint and several tasks being thus 
outlined : 

"The first detachment was to advance from Cape 
Fligely to the 85th parallel, carrying supplies to feed 
the entire expedition during the first stage of its march, 
and for its own food during its return to the ship. The 
second detachment was to go on farther to the north, 
up to the 88th parallel, with provisions for the rest of 
the expedition in its march to the north, and for itself 
when on the way back; and, lastly, the third detach- 
ment was to advance from the 88th parallel to the Pole." 

The circumstances of the expedition of the 
Prince of the Abruzzi, though fortunate in 
some respects, were by no means ideally fitted 
for the achievement of success. It is quite 
within the possibilities that another expedi- 
tion, similar in every respect, might have stood 
upon the spot men call the North Pole. It is 
quite within the possibilities that, even under 
the conditions here, had a fourth detachment 
been practicable to advance the final body 
somewhat farther, the Pole would have been 
attained. In any event, it is doubtful if there 
is anything more to be learned of the Arctic 
zone than has now been disclosed. Barely two 
hundred miles now separate man from this 
hardly profitable spot, the men of the "Polar 
Star " having surpassed those of the " Fram " 
by 20', no more. This being true, it is the 
South Pole which remains to be conquered ; 
and if human energies and the desire for 
adventure are to be exhibited outside of the 
ordinary walks of life at all, who shall say that 
such trials and glories are not better than 
those of war or the subjugations of " inferior " 
peoples ? 

The company was composed of twenty men, 
eleven Italians and nine Norwegians, four from 
each nationality being officers. There was per- 
fect harmony and sacrifice of self for common 
ends on the part of both nationalities, widely 
differing in racial characteristics as they might 
be supposed to be. The exigencies of princely 
and naval etiquette forced the two classes 
to occupy different sleeping apartments and 
tables, but the accommodations and food were 
alike for all. Though less democratic in this 
respect than Dr. Nansen's arrangements, every- 




thing worked out satisfactorily, all hands 
joining in the festival days of both Italy and 
Norway, the differences of faith manifesting 
themselves not at all. It really seems to be 
true that one Gino Gini of Acquapendente, an 
Italian cook picked up in Norway, showed no 
less straightforward courage in the perform- 
ance of his arduous daily tasks in and out of 
health than any member of the ship's company. 
Interest naturally attaches to the diary of 
Commander Cagni, and an extract from his 
diary on April 24, 1901, the day when the 
highest latitude achieved by man was reached, 
is worthy a place here. He writes : 

" We go out into the open air. The thermometer 
indicates -35°; hut, nevertheless, I see, for the first 
time, the guides walking np and down after the soup. 
They are talking of their country! Of their Cour- 
mayeur, where at this moment the meadows appear 
covered with verdure, after their long rest under the 
white mantle of winter. We all remain outside for a 
long time, our minds enchanted by oar great happiness. 
We have reached the end of all our fatigues; our re- 
turn seems to ns now like an excursion, our eyes turn 
no more with eagerness towards the north, but to the 
south, where, beyond so much ice, beyond a cold sea, 
and the rugged mountains of Scandinavia, and farther 
on again, our loved ones are waiting for us. 

"The air is very clear; between the north-east and 
the north-west there stand out distinctly, some sharply 
pointed, others rounded, dark or blue or white, often 
with strange shapes, the innumerable pinnacles of the 
great blocks of ice raised up by the pressure. Farther 
away again, on the bright horizon, in a chain from east 
to west, is a great azure wall, which from afar seems 
unsurmountable. It is our « Terra ultima TkuU ! ' " 

Praise should be awarded to Mr. Le Queux 
for his idiomatic translation and its freedom 
from Latinity. For their selection for this im- 
portant task, as well as for the general excel- 
lence of the book in a mechanical sense, much 
praise must be awarded the publishers. 

Wallace Rice. 

The Slavery Controversy nr America.* 

The work before us, "Political History of 
Slavery," sees the light seven years after the 
death of its author, the well-known newspaper 
writer, author of "The St. Clair Papers," and 
Manager of the American Associated Press. 
Mr. Smith had been requested by President 
Hayes to act as his literary executor and to 
prepare an account of his life and times. This 

*A Political History of Slavzbt. Being an Ac- 
count of the Slavery Controversy from the Earliest Agitations 
in the Eighteenth Century to the Close of the Reconstruction 
Period in America. By William Henry Smith. With an In- 
troduction by Whitelaw Reid. New York : G. P. Putnam's 

led to extended preliminary studies in the great 
Slavery controversy, and the biography of Mr. 
Hayes was finally postponed to allow the pre- 
paration of these two volumes. They were 
practically ready for the press when their au- 
thor died, leaving the original task unfinished. 
The portion which had been put into form was 
turned over to Mr. Smith's son-in-law, editor 
Charles R. Williams of " The Indianapolis 
News," who has the biography now in course 
of active preparation. As this severed to 
some extent the close connection originally 
intended between the two works, certain por- 
tions of the " History of Slavery," particularly 
those concerning President Hayes, were turned 
over to Mr. Williams for use in the biography. 
The manuscript has also received an addition 
in the form of a chapter on " The Failure of 
Reconstruction," by John J. Halsey, Professor 
of Political Science in Lake Forest University. 
We understand, indeed, that the entire work 
has had the advantage of Professor Halsey 's 
scrutiny and suggestions, though there is not 
the recognition of this fact that one would 
naturally expect. 

In the Introduction, by Mr. Whitelaw 
Reid, the distinguishing feature of the work is 
claimed to be " the relatively smaller impor- 
tance attached by the author to sentimental 
agitations and agitators, and in the greater 
honor awarded to those who instead of bril- 
liantly saying things that alienated support 
soberly did things that compelled it." Nothing 
is easier than to throw stones at the man who 
gives his life to agitation for some neglected 
moral principle. The " foe of compromise " 
can never be a popular man, and as the reform 
for which he works is pretty sure to come, if 
at all, through channels not of his choosing, it 
is a very easy thing to overlook or deny his 
causal relation to its coming. To suppose, 
however, that ordinary political agencies would 
have emancipated and enfranchised the Amer- 
ican negro during the third quarter of the past 
century, or for many generations thereafter, 
without the preceding decades of fiery agitation 
by Garrison and his kind, is to suppose what is 
contrary to human nature and experience. We 
are not sure, therefore, that Mr. Reid might 
not better have said that the most conspicuous 
defect in the work is the author's failure to 
appreciate the relative importance of the early 
Anti-Slavery agitators in building up an ele- 
ment of determined moral opposition to the 
system large enough to compel the attention of 
the masses and force the question into practical 



[July 16, 

politics, in spite of the efforts of machine poli- 
ticians to keep it out. 

The subject has been worked over too much 
to leave Mr. Smith anything essentially new for 
these volumes. Occasionally we get a letter 
never before in print, — as, for instance, a letter 
from Richard Smith, of the Cincinnati Gazette, 
deploring the second candidacy of Lincoln ; but 
it is always of a class already well known. The 
real value of the work lies in its massing together 
of so large a store of material not otherwise 
readily accessible. The author has not divested 
himself of partisanship, and yet he is open to a 
recognition of the better characteristics of lead- 
ers of the opposition, and to the faults of promi- 
nent Whigs and Republicans. The power of 
Stephen A. Douglas as a debater receives due 
credit, as well as his sturdy and effective loyalty 
to the Union at the outbreak of the war. The 
moral deficiency of Webster's famous seventh 
of March speech is noted, and the incompetence 
and insubordination of Fremont's course in 
Missouri receives some attention. The deserved 
criticism of the War Department under Bu- 
chanan, however, is not followed by a similar 
treatment of the glaring mismanagement and 
dishonesty which was rife in the same depart- 
ment during the early portion of the Civil War 
and compelled the retirement of Simon Cameron 
from the Secretaryship. 

Professor Halsey's chapter on " The Failure 
of Reconstruction " is a renewed exposition of 
the patent fact that the drastic legislation for 
the enforcement of the War Amendments did 
not prove able to secure the ends which its sup- 
porters in Congress and the country had in view. 
He is convinced, and reasonably enough, that 
either the Congressional or the Presidential 
plan put in force without any serious clash be- 
tween the two would have secured much better 
results than were possible in the midst of the 
bitterness engendered during the struggle be- 
tween the President and the Republican major- 
ity in the Senate and House. The great harm 
done by the " carpet-bag " rule which the poli- 
tical disqualifications of the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment and the Reconstruction acts made possible 
is fully recognized, and Hon. Daniel H. Cham- 
berlain's scathing record of this disgraceful 
episode in American history is referred to and 
heartily endorsed. 

In the light of subsequent history, one can- 
not read these volumes without continual cause 
to reflect upon the short-sightedness of our poli- 
tical vision. Our authorities rushed forward to 
annex Texas at the cost of a war, when we now 

know that a little waiting would have seen it 
fall into our lap with no outside opposition. Our 
people were wrought into frenzy over the Mexi- 
can accessions, — the one party in fear, and the 
other in hope, that they might be filled with 
slaves, — when we can now see that the Slavery 
interest was utterly powerless to colonize any 
material part of the territory in question, and 
was destined to remain so, even if Slavery itself 
had not been abolished when it was. Much 
blood, both good and bad, was spilled to decide 
the question whether Kansas should come into 
the Union with a slave or a free constitution, 
though the backward glancing eye can now de- 
tect at once the certainty that the population 
was to be so overwhelmingly free as to be able 
to wipe Slavery out of existence at its will be- 
fore as many years should have elapsed as may 
be counted on one's fingers. What shall be 
done to give us the clear insight, in the midst 
of our political struggles, that we may apply 
our energies to better purpose? 

W. H. Johnson. 

America's Oriental, Diplomacy.* 

" Whenever the American representatives have ap- 
proached the governments of China, Japan, Korea, and 
Siam, it was with the statement that their far-away 
people cherish no scheme of territorial aggrandizement 
in that region of the world, and that their only desire 
was to secure mutual benefit from the establishment 
of trade, and to extend the influence of Christian civ- 

This passage, taken from the last chapter 
of Mr. John W. Foster's recent monograph on 
"American Diplomacy in the Orient," states 
well the proposition which it has been his aim 
to sustain and illustrate in his book. By his 
extended public services as an official of the 
United States government, and his studies in 
its diplomacy, he was well equipped for the 
service of preparing this monograph. It is a 
timely supplement and companion to his his- 
torical sketch of two years since, " A Century 
of American Diplomacy," which was at once 
accorded a high position. Mr. Foster's present 
effort is more than a sketch, — it is a series of 
thirteen sketches on as many different episodes 
of America's experiences in Oriental diplo- 
macy, during the period covered in a more gen- 
eral form by his earlier work. Each sketch 
aids in sustaining the general thesis. 

American diplomacy is now generally recog- 

* American Diplomacy in the Orient. By John W. 
Foster. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 




nized as peaceful in its general methods, scope, 
and operations. That it has been such from 
the beginning, has not been so fully under- 
stood. Mr. Foster carefully reminds his readers 
that the Oriental policy of national exclusion, 
which the western powers have had to com- 
bat, was of modern origin, but was in full 
operation when the United States, in 1783, 
assumed a position among the commercial 
nations ; that this young State at once en- 
tered into the campaign for the opening of the 
closed Orient to trade, and in time became a 
leader therein ; and that we have waged peace- 
ful contests for such opening, in strong con- 
trast to the forceful operations of the European 

That the ports of the Orient, which had been 
formerly open to free trade, were closed in the 
seventeenth century to the vessels of the western 
nations, was due to the aggressive and often vio- 
lent conduct of their Occidental visitors. Seclu- 
sion became the fixed policy of the leading Ori- 
ental powers, as a measure of self-defense. The 
United States mariners were under this handi- 
cap at the beginning of their eastern voyages. 
It took time to demonstrate that the Yankees 
were neither marauders nor land-grabbers, but 
were simply peaceful traders. When they finally 
achieved this reputation, the progress to the pres- 
ent high position of the United States in Asia- 
tic sentiment was steady and sure. With but 
one exception, the advances made by the Ameri- 
cans toward a sustained commercial intercourse 
in the far East have been eminently pacific. 
The ill-starred attempt of 1871, to inflict sum- 
mary punishment upon Korea for resisting an 
American effort to open trade between the two 
countries, Mr. Foster characterizes " the most 
serious blunder of American diplomacy in the 

The first American vessel entered the port of 
Canton in August, 1784. Our merchants at 
once sought to take advantage of the limited 
facilities for commerce with that one port, al- 
lowed by the Chinese ; in 1789 they began to 
construct vessels expressly for the Canton trade, 
and thereafter they soon began to compete with 
Great Britain, the leading nation in Eastern 
traffic. Fairness, justice and courtesy won for 
the westerners the good opinion of the Chinese 
merchants and some of their neighbors ; so that, 
whereas Great Britain compelled China by force 
of arms to enter into the treaty of 1842, the 
United States secured, in her peaceful treaty of 
1844, advantages not theretofore granted by the 
Chinese to the Occidentals. With equal ease, 

an American treaty of commerce was arranged 
with the Sultan of Borneo in 1850. America 
was thus attaining to a capacity for melting 
away by kindness, in the fulness of time, the 
icy isolation of Japan and Korea. 

Mr. Foster details graphically the successive 
triumphs of the United States, in Perry's open- 
ing of Japan in 1854, and the Harris treaty 
with that empire in 1858, of which he says : 
" The genius of Perry had unbarred the gate 
of the island empire and left it ajar ; but it was 
the skill of Harris which threw it open to the 
commercial enterprise of the world." These 
triumphs were shown also in the subsequent 
transformation of Japan in conscious conform- 
ity to American National ideals; in the just 
popularity of Burlingame's management of the 
interests of the United States in China, and in 
the new treaties and the Burlingame embassy 
to the western powers which followed ; in the 
wise and firm disapproval by America of the 
odious opium traffic ; in Commodore Shufeldt's 
Korean treaty of 1882 ; and in the rapid but 
sure advance of our nation to favor and influ- 
ence in the affairs of Korea. The eminent posi- 
tion which the United States occupied in the 
Chinese imbroglio of 1900, and the opportu- 
nities thus granted to her for guiding the Pow- 
ers toward a fair settlement with the Chinese 
Empire, are thus shown to be the result of a 
gradual evolution, traceable from the date of 
the entry of the western republic into the 
world's politics. 

Mr. Foster makes it clear that these Ameri- 
can successes have been due primarily to two 
causes, — skill and energy in developing mer- 
cantile traffic, and wisdom and discrimination 
in pushing missionary enterprises. The mer- 
chant and the missionary have, hand in hand, 
advanced the United States flag in the far East. 
This author's recognition of the value of the 
work of the American missionaries is hearty 
and unstinted ; and it is the more worthy to be 
noted here, because it comes from the point of 
view, not of the sentimentalist or the philan- 
thropist, but of the historian and the diplomat. 
He gives cordial endorsement to the tribute of 
Minister Denby to the missionaries in China, 
" that their influence is beneficial to the natives ; 
that the arts and sciences and civilization are 
greatly spread by their efforts ; that many use- 
ful Western books are translated by them into 
Chinese ; that they are the leaders in all chari- 
table work ; and that in the interest, therefore, 
of civilization, missionaries ought not only to 
be tolerated, but ought to receive protection." 



[July 16, 

In the concluding chapter, on " Results of 
the Spanish War," Mr. Foster traces into our 
recent national experiences as a world-power the 
natural effect of the restraint, suavity and dis- 
crimination with which our earlier and smaller 
efforts in Oriental diplomacy were ventured. 
James Oscar Pierce. 

Recent American Poetry.* 

The last verses of the late Hugh McCulloch have 
"Written in Florence" for a title, — in Florence, 
"Where even Winter brings a soft caress, 
And all the flowers of art together cling." 

The verses are reflections from a cultivated mind, 
susceptible of the charms of art, nature, and his- 
torical association, and tinged with a not unnatural 
hue of melancholy. They have little of the singing 
quality, and their diction is often merely prosaic, but 
at their best they please, and exhibit a talent that 
now we may only mourn. A poem " To the Medi- 
terranean," seems to us one of the most genuine in 
the collection, and we quote from it a pair of stanzas : 
" All memories which hannt the heart of man 
Cluster on yon like bees about a rose ; 
Upon your shores our history began, — 

Perchance your smile will hover o'er its close. 
Spouse of the sun, beloved of the dawn, 
Sole monument of ages past and gone. 

You yet may lie 'neath mantling Arctic snows. 
" And many a time my soul has shrunk aghast 
(On mornings clouded in September's mist) 
To dream upon your immemorial past ; 
For you alone of earthly things resist 
Th' insidious offices of dusty time. 
To-day you are enthralling and sublime 
As when upon your shore the Immortals kissed." 

Love lyrics and Nature lyrics divide pretty evenly 
between them the contents of "The Book of the 
Rose," which is the latest verse-collection by Mr. 
Charles 6. D. Roberts. Mr. Roberts has undoubtedly 
the lyric gift, as many a preceding publication testi- 
fies, and he now and then achieves a rare degree of 
simple perfection. Such a gem of purest ray serene 
as " The Falling Leaves," for example, might shine 

*Wkitten in Florence. The Last Verses of Hugh 
McCulloch. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

The Book of the Rose. By Charles G. D. Roberts. 
Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

Pipes of Pan. From the Book of Myths. By Bliss 
Carman. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

Pipes of Pan. From the Green Book of the Bards. By 
Bliss Carman. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

Poems (1899-1902). By George Cabot Lodge. New York: 
Cameron, Blake, & Co. 

Message and Melody. A Book of Verse. By Richard 
Burton. Boston : Lothrop Publishing Co. 

Lyrics of the Dawn. By Clinton Scollard. Clinton, 
New York : G. W. Browning. 

A Voice on the Wind and Other Poems. By Madison 
Cawein. Louisville : John P. Morton & Co. 

Later Lyrics. By John B. Tabb. New York : John 

The Gates of Silence, with Interludes of Song. 
By Robert Loveman. New York : The Knickerbocker Press. 

unabashed in the crown of a far greater poet. We 
find nothing of that distinction in the new volume, 
but much that is graceful and musical, which quali- 
ties the following lines shall serve to illustrate : 
" Pipers of the chilly pools 
Pipe the April in. 
Summon all the singing hosts, 
All the wilding kin. 
" Through the cool and teeming damp 
Of the twilight air 
Call till all the April children 
Answer everywhere. 
" From your cold and fluting throats 
Pipe the world awake, 
Pipe the mould to move again, 
Pipe the sod to break. 
" Pipe the mating song of earth 
And the fecund fire, — 
Love and laughter, pang and dream, 
Desire, desire, desire." 
Mr. Bliss Carman is gathering into a series of 
volumes, with " Pipes of Pan " for a collective 
title, his verse of recent years. Some of it has 
been published in periodicals, some in earlier books, 
and some of it is new. The first volume of this 
series is called "From the Book of Myths," and 
contains eight or ten pieces upon such classical sub- 
jects as Marsyas, Daphne, and PhaBdra. One poem, 
"The Tidings to Olaf," stands by itself, for it 
tells how the message of the Christian faith was 
brought to the Norse king. We quote an exquisite 
passage from the poem " At Phaedra's Tomb." 
" Have ye not seen the fog from land 
Blow out to sea, and leave the band 
Of orange marsh and lilac shore 
To brood in Autumn peace once more ? 
"So there survives the magic fame 
Of her imperishable name, — 
Light from a time when love was great, 
And strong hearts had no fear of fate. 
But lived and strove and wrought and died, 
With beauty for their only guide. 
" And yet this temple, raised and wrought 
With prayers and tears, availed her naught, 
The years with it have had their will ; 
Her soft name is a by-word still 
For thwarted spirit, vexed and teased 
By yearnings that cannot be eased, — 
The soul that chafes upon the mesh 
Of tenuous yet galling flesh." 

The Morning Road. Verses by Thomas Wood Stevens 
and Alden Charles Noble. Chicago : The Blue Sky Press. 

Dramatic Verses. By Trumbull Stickney. Boston: 
Charles £. Goodspeed. 

Visions and Other Verse. By Edward Robeson 
Taylor. San Francisco : A. M. Robertson. 

Beyond the Requiems, and Other Verses. By Louis 
Alexander Robertson. San Francisco: A. M. Robertson. 

Poems and Verses. By Edward Sandford Martin. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. , 

Cupid is King. By Roy Farrell Greene. Boston : 
Richard G. Badger. 

Poems. By Mary Olcott. New York : John Lane. 

Poems. By Marie Van Vorst. New York: Dodd, 
Mead, & Co. 

April Twilights. Poems by Willa Sibert Cather. 
Boston : Richard G. Badger. 

The Solitary Path. By Helen Huntington. New 
York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 




Mr. Carman's second volume is called " From 
the Green Book of the Bards," and is frankly a 
volume of nature lyrics, in which the spirits of 
Wordsworth and Emerson seem compounded with 
the mysticism of the latter-day Celts. The poems 
in this book are briefer than those in the other, and 
about three times as numerous. We have been 
particulary impressed with "The Madness of 
Ishtar," for thus does the poet personify the passion 
of Springtime. 

" She will gather the moonlight and starshine, 
And breathe on them with desire, 
And they shall be changed on the moment 
To the marvel of earth's green fire, — 

"The ardour that kindles and blights not, 
Consumes and does not destroy. 
Renewing the world with wonder, 
And the hearts of men with joy. 

" For this is the purpose of Ishtar, 
In her great lone house of the sky 
Beholding the work of her hands 
As it shall be by and by : 

" Out of the passion and splendour, 
Faith, failure, and daring, to bring 
The illumined dream of the spirit 
To perfection in some far spring." 

These may be called wild and whirling words, and 
we are not sure that we know what they are all 
about, bat they have the true singing quality, and 
the essence of poetry is in them. 

Mr. George Cabot Lodge's second volume of 
poems is, if anything, more Swinburnian than his 
first. He imitates with fair success nearly all of Mr. 
Swinburne's metrical schemes, and reproduces the 
sensuous and pagan spirit of Mr. Swinburne's early 
work, with an occasional touch of the austere ideal- 
ism that afterwards so completely replaced it. He 
even ventures to write a " Song of Man," in bold 
imitation of the great poem suggested to the older 
singer by the (Ecumenical Council of 1870. 

" To the gods who are sure and sufficient, who are free and 

more fatal than Fate, 
Who can tally the love of a virgin or the heart of a man in 

his hate, 
Who are wise with a perfect remembrance, who reject not 

a creed nor a crime, 
Who compassionate all, who interpret the ways and the 

wonders of Time ! 

" Who have builded and broken all laws of the Heaven and 
Earth, who are free. 

Who have lifted the seals from the sunrise, made pregnant 
the womb of the sea. 

Who have scattered the phantoms of heaven, wrecked the 
thrones of the world and their spell, 

Who have sown and reaped harvest of flowers in the fire- 
waste deserts of hell ! 

" For my God is the friend that I cherish, and my God is the 

woman I love, 
My God is the Spring on the hillsides, the Sea and the 

marvel thereof, 
My God is the justice of sunlight unhindered by power or 

And vast beyond all and inclusive of all things, my God is 


This is the tacit creed of many a young poet, im- 
patient of the old restraints upon reckless living, 

but it does not often receive so frank an expression. 
Mr. Lodge has a certain mastery of the long-drawn 
anapaest that would challenge our admiration were 
it not so obviously imitative. 

" Let us press in the hidden wet ways of the forest filled full 

of the shadows and sounds of the past, 
Let us travel the fields by the River of Years till the ways 

of the waters are open at last ; 
And our steed shall be staunch tho' he weary and wince at 

the spur, tho' his nostrils are purple with blood, 
For the craving of Soul and the power of Love, for the 

freedom of Faith and the friendship of God ! " 

It is no easy matter to keep this sort of movement 
up for pages at a time, as Mr. Lodge more than 
once does. The following is perhaps the finest verse 
he offers us: 

" Life's choice is this : the world or all the rest," 
but we are more than once made suspicious of his 
' own ethical interpretation of the terms of this choice. 
His " all the rest " seems to be self-indulgence more 
than anything else. Here is where he has studied 
his Swinburne to little profit, and where his fail- 
ure to comprehend the spirit of " The Pilgrims " 
and " Super Flumina Babylonis " is most noticeable. 
••Message and Melody" is Mr. Richard Bur- 
ton's fourth book of verse, and we are inclined to 
think that it is the best of the four. It shows more 
ripeness of experience than the earlier ones, and a 
deepening of the human sympathies. We quote 
" The Reformer," a piece which suggests the grave 
thoughtfulness of Sill. 

" A man once stood before a frowning wall 
Whereon was writ a lie since ancient days. 
And threw his heart's blood by the cupful straight 
Against the legend, so to wipe it ont 
Tapping his veins of all their purple yield 
In his desire. At last he grew so weak 
That, tottering-limbed, he heaved glazed eyes to heaven, 
Sighed like a weary child, smiled once, and fell. 
And when his dust was mingled with the mould 
That giveth birth to flowers, the people woke 
One morn, and looked upon the wall, to see 
A clean erasure of the glozing words 
Had grieved the man so, he that calmly slept. 
Oblivious alike of loves and lies 
That make our human story. 

Then there ran 
A whisper, soon a cry, across the land : 
' God urged him to the act, and he was glad 
To spill his blood and make us clearer-eyed.' 
Whereat the very folk who carelessly 
Passed by that day he drained his throbbing strength 
And paled his flesh, upreared a cenotaph 
And deified his name to after-times." 

We could wish that Mr. Burton had taken his own 
teaching sufficiently to heart to prevent him from 
penning the following apology for imperialism : 

" Yet the earth's stern law is spoken 
In the march of centuries. 
That the weak for good are broken, 
That the strong must rule the seas. 

" We ru iv conquer in all gladness 
If the cause be pure and high ; 
We can bear the passing sadness 
For the blessing by and by." 

These are "glozing words," if ever such were 
spoken, and this " lie writ since ancient days " 



[July 16, 

should not find among its defenders the author of 
so fine and true a poem as the one which we first 

Mr. Clinton Scollard's " Lyrics of the Dawn " is 
a companion volume to " The Lutes of Morn," 
published a year or two ago. Like the earlier 
volume, it is a collection of poems mostly upon 
Oriental themes, the aftermath of a sojourn in the 
East which seems to have left a deep impression 
upon the poet's imagination. Mr. Scollard has a 
touch that frequently suggests the lyrics of Mr. 
Aldrich, and his Eastern pictures have the advan- 
tage of a basis of close observation in place of the 
bookish stimulus upon which the elder poet relied. 
We select " At Ephesus " for our quotation. 
" ' Great is Diana ! ' Ah, the mockery 

It seems to-day, the old Ephesian cry ! 
Beholding what a waste the highways he, 

And how downthrown the mighty temples lie. 

"On shattered columns build the storks their nests; 
Stealthy as fate the slinking jackals prowl : 
Where poured the plaudits at the actors' jests 
In-ghostly irony declaims the owl. 

" The silt of centuries chokes the harborage ; 

And where the pharos beaconed from the height, 
Guide to great galleys, weighed with outland wage, 
Now broods, unchallenged, immemorial night. 

" Nothing the vision rests upon reveals 
ffiifc The temporal grandeur that once here had birth ; 
And, gazing on the desolate scene, one feels 
How mutable are all the things of earth." 

This is a weak enough ending, but the image of 
the owl with his " ghostly irony " redeems the 
poem and makes it noteworthy. " The Count of 
Mirandel," a mediaeval tale too long for repro- 
duction, is one of the most effective pieces in this 
volume, and one of the few that depart from its 
general Eastern subject-matter. 

We are inclined to think that Mr. Madison Cawein 
writes too freely and publishes too frequently for 
the best interests of his reputation, although we 
never take up a new volume from his pen without a 
sense of anticipatory satisfaction. We know what 
it will be about, but we also know that it will have 
much nature-imagery of an exquisite sort, and that 
it will offer us a highly spiritualized conception of 
life. Mr. Cawein's latest volume is called ** A Voice 
on the Wind, and Other Poems." It may be rep- 
resented fairly by " The Dead Day." 

" The West builds high a sepulchre 

Of cloudy granite and of gold, 
Where twilight's priestly hours inter 

The day like some great king of old. 
" A censer, rimmed with silver fire, 

The new moon swings above his tomb ; 
While, organ-stops of God's own choir, 

Star after star throbs in the gloom. 
And night draws near, the sadly sweet — 

A nun whose face is calm and fair — 
And kneeling at the dead day's feet 

Her soul goes up in silent prayer. 

" In prayer, we feel through dewy gleam 
And flowery fragrance, and — above 
All Earth — the ecstasy and dream 
That haunt the mystic heart of love." 

Such poetry as this is not to be discredited merely 
because the author has given us much work of the 
same quality before. And we cannot fail to notice 
in Mr. Cawein's latest volume the slow but sure 
ripening of his art. 

Father Tabb's " Later Lyrics " are delicate verse- 
cameos of the sort to which he has accustomed us. 
Rarely exceeding a dozen lines each, these little 
poems embody simple thoughts and sentiments, 
sometimes merely commonplace, and at others 
touched with such imagination as we find in the 
following example : 

"The world, they tell us, dwindles, 
When matched with other spheres ; 
And yet in all their amplitudes 
No place for human tears. 

" How sterile is the sunshine, 
How masculine the blue, 
That breeds no shadow, nor betrays 
A memory of dew ! " 

Mr. Robert Loveman is like Father Tabb in the 
choice of a form for his poetical expression, and 
the following bit might as readily have been found 
in the one poet as in the other. 

" Old and yet young, the jocund Earth 
Doth speed among the spheres, 
Her children of imperial birth 
Are all the golden years. 

" The happy orb sweeps on 
Led by some vague unrest, 
Some mystic hint of joys unborn 
Springing within her breast." 

Mr. Loveman's little book is called "The Gates 
of Silence, with Interludes of Song." It is made up 
of such pieces as that above quoted, all voicing the 
eternal enigma of being, but relieved every now 
and then by a joyous lyric that forgets problems 
and simply sings. 

" The Morning Road " is a collection of verses 
by Messrs. Thomas Wood Stevens and Alden 
Charles Noble. We understand that the authors 
are also the designers and manufacturers of the 
book, which is produced in a simple but singularly 
attractive form, and in a limited edition. There 
is much thoughtfulness about their metrical work, 
and a delight in the themes that appeal to the cul- 
tivated mind. The imagery is often striking, and 
the diction at times has a touch of distinction. 
Yet the total effect is one of hollowness, of high- 
sounding phrase that a close analysis does not 
justify, of an endeavor to be impressive at the cost 
of clear thinking and verbal restraint. Our mean- 
ing may be illustrated by an excerpt from the 
characteristic poem called " The Sphinx," which 
also illustrates a stanzaic form much affected by 
the authors. 

"The womb of all the world is parched beneath the tropic 
The earth 's a flameless furnace that taints the outer air, — 
Beneath that sand no man may say what cities lie at peace, 
Within that breast no man can guess what brand of soul is 
there ; 
" Hidden behind that stolid brow were spun ;the vast in- 




That swayed the arms of Empire to conquest — and to 

The silent voice that calls and calls across the barren leagues 
Doth hover in that throat that lacks the benison of breath ; 

" Trusting the lips that never ope, the tongue that murmurs 

Within that heart the phantoms lie of countless empty 

Around those feet the wrecks of wills are foundered and 

Across that face the winds have hurled the dust of pow- 
dered years." 

We confess that a feeling of bewilderment is the 
chief impression which we receive from this pre- 
tentious piece, and the others of similar character 
which go with it ; but bewilderment, far from being 
the proper purpose of poetry, is something that 
should be shunned as absolutely fatal to the success 
of the poetic art. 

Mr. Trumbull Stickney's "Dramatic Verses" 
make up another volume which is exceptionally 
praiseworthy from the mechanical point of view, and 
whose contents must be described in terms nearly 
similar to those which we applied to the volume just 
before considered. Yet we will add that there are 
in this work more frequent touches of distinction, 
and that the straining for original effects is more 
fully justified. The opening piece, " Kalypso," 
yields an extract which is illustrative of both the 
author's strength and his weakness. 
" Over his head she stooped. Her odorous hair 
Fell thickly o'er his face. She kissed him 
With all the sleepy honeys of her soul. 
Her arms did slip along his neck, his breast ; 
She kissed him lazily upon the lids 
And languorously on the brow, she kissed him 
Trembling and fiery on the opened mouth. 
And slowly — 

Wind rose. Rustles crept to 's ear, 
Thro' meshes of her hair he saw gray-blown 
The thick tumultuous cloud blotted and streaked 
With witchery of dead moon. The midnight whirred. 
Sparsely the windy stars and feebly hung. 
A little withered leaf blew by ; it scratched 
Him with its frittered edge. For it was autumn. 
Autumn it was. Then did he know. No more 
That year would he return, that year no more ; 
Rather, locked by the vastly circular 
Walls o' the sea, the quashing roof of heaven, 
Still suffocated in the changeless air, 
Still vexed by incessant memory and recall, 
Would stand in pain desirous of that dear 
Fireside and her more dear and beautiful." 

This is about as un-Homeric as anything could well 
be ; yet despite its unpleasant staccato, its surfeit of 
kissings, and its far-fetched epithets, the passage 
has a certain power to grip the imagination and ex- 
cite the nobler emotions. The title of the book is 
not so clearly justified by this poem as by some 
others, notably the story of " Ludovico Martelli," 
which gives us excellent Browning with a differ- 
ence. The volume contains one piece, u Prometheus 
Pyrphoros," which is dramatic in form, and also a 
number of striking sonnets and lyrics. 

Almost any gathering of current verse nowadays 
is sure to include one or more contributions from 
the Pacific coast, and the present review must find 

space for mention of two volumes of far Western 
poetry. Dr. Edward Robeson Taylor is already 
known to many readers, both by his original work 
and by his striking translation of the Bonnets of 
M. de Heredia. His new volume is original, and 
is called " Visions and Other Verse." The chief de- 
fect of Dr. Taylor's work is found in the intrusion 
of an occasional jarring note, such an epithet as 
" immatchle88," or a hopelessly unpoetical phrase 
like " the lightning bug," or a forced license such as 

" He crushed his heart for wine of song 
The sordid souls of men to glad." 

Such things as these are unfortunate, and occur with 
too great frequency. Since the author's favorite 
form is the sonnet, our illustration shall take that 
shape. The sonnet is entitled M Adversity." 

" When glad Fortuna, as a friend to thee, 

Her more than liberal spoils before thee brings, 
Beware the serpent, slyly hid, which stings 
The soul with poison of Prosperity. 

Thou never mayest revealing visions see, 
Nor mount with seraphs on immortal wings, 
Unless within thy deepest being springs 
Some tear-fed fountain of Adversity. 

The steel that Florence drove in Dante's heart 
He fashioned to a lyre, whereon with ease 
He deathless rose above the hells of hate ; 

And when life-wearied Milton sat apart, 
Lonely and blind, he swept those organ keys 
Whose tones from age to age reverberate." 

Such verse as this is of course derivative — in the 
present instance clearly from Goethe and Tenny- 
son — but it is dignified and sincere. 

In Mr. Louis Alexander Robertson's volume, which 
also comes to us from California, " Beyond the Re- 
quiems " is the most ambitious piece, and gives a 
title to the collection. This is also Tennysonian in 
its inspiration, and goes in for cosmic emotion after 
the following fashion : 

" All our knowledge is as nothing ; Reason reels and Science 
Faith below her falling altars lifts her fearless face and 

"Every cherished creed derided, but still mumbles to her 
Dreaming that beyond the requiems deathless life to death 

" Hope's pale star still smiles above us, distant, indistinct, 
and cold ; 
As the primal moth beheld it do we now its beams behold.' 

Lyrics, sonnets, and occasional verses fill out the 
volume, which is a thin one both as to content and 
to thought. 

The verses outnumber the poems in Mr. Edward 
Sandf ord Martin's volume of M Poems and Verses," 
a disparity which does not prove greatly distressing 
when the verses are as pleasant as those which this 
cheery humorist knows how to write. Here is an 
example, snatched midway from a piece which con- 
trasts the old education with the new : 

" The shade austere of Puritan restraint 

Showed sharper outlines, may be, then and now, 
But not to hurt. For now the old complaint 
Of joys curtailed gives place to wonder how 



[July 16, 

'Twixt. stress of sports and pleasant things to do, 
And waxing claims of growing knowledge, too, 
The modern lad gets time to feel the joy 
It was, and still must be, to be a boy." 

A good many of Mr. Martin's pieces are of the 
occasional sort, and display a deftness of touch that 
would not have discredited Dr. Holmes. Even in 
the few instances in which he writes poetry, he 
preserves simplicity of diction, and his bumor is 
lurking somewhere in the near background. 
" To our dim sense God's plan seems often harsh. 
Big fish eats small ; earthquakes and storms destroy.' 

Tennyson phrased it somewhat differently, but the 
matter is the same. Mr. Martin puts his best foot 
(or feet) forward in his titular poem, " The Sea Is 
His," from which we choose these stanzas : 
" Urgent and masterful as here, 

Man dreams and plans, and more and more, 

As ages slip away, Earth shows 

How need by satisfaction grows, 

And more and more its patient face 

Mirrors the driving human race. 
" But he who ploughs the abiding deep 

No furrow leaves, nor stays to reap. 

Unmarred and unadorned, the sea 

Rolls on as irresistibly 

As when, at first, the shaping thought 

Of God its separation wrought. 

" Great nurse of freedom, breeding men 
Who dare, and, baffled, strive again ! 
A rampart round them in their youth, 
A refuge in their straits and ruth, 
And in their seasoned strength, a road 
To carry liberty abroad I " 

Lighter than Mr. Martin's lightest is the vein of 
" Cupid Is King," a volume of rather commonplace 
trifling in verse by Mr. Roy Farrell Greene. The 
following piece has about as much point as any : 

"The second time that Jack proposed, 

'Twas really a surprise, 
Though I still — gossips so supposed — 

Found favor in his eyes. 
His first avowal, months before, 

I'd treated with disdain, 
And laughed at him the while he swore 

He'd try again, again ! 

" The second time that Jack proposed 

I never said a word, 
Though to assent I'd grown disposed — 

I simply overheard 
By accident his earnest plea 

While in the waltz's whirl — 
The second time 'twas not to me, 

But to another girl ! " 

The following piece is fairly representative of the 
volume written by Miss Mary Olcott, and called 
" Poems " without further ceremony. The title is 
"The Unceasing Fight." 

" From the cold North rode out my foe. 
I fought him to the death. And still 
I see him in his mortal throe. 

Urged by his strong, unconquered will 
To fight on with one death-sent blow. 
" Above his grim, white face I made 
The brave sign of the cross. I broke 
His sword, and the two parts I laid 

Upon his neck, like to the yoke 
His soul should feel when sins are weighed. 

" Would God that all mine enemies 

Were stark in death as that one was ! 
But till this life shall fail and cease 
I must fight on. For no man has 
Peace, till the end of life says, Peace ! " 

Miss Olcott's work is earnest and at times finely 
imaginative. We like particularly " Stonehenge " 
and the cycle called " By the Waters of Babylon." 
A quotation from the latter may be given. 

" The light begins to creep, the river flows 
Like a pale streak, while all the rushes lean 

Upon the current, which moves on and on 

Soon shall we march engirdled with our woes, 
Soon reach their God-spurned city all unclean. 
The hour breaks on us, and a trumpeter 
Sounds the known signal for our start and stir: 
How the red dawn strikes fire at Babylon ! " 

In not a few of her pieces the author has caught 
something of the manner of Browning, especially 
the jerky dramatic manner which is a pronounced 
characteristic of the older poet. 

There are many suggestions of Browning in the 
"Poems " of Miss Marie Van Vorst. The dramatic 
Browning is recalled by the group of longer pieces 
with which the volume opens, and Browning the 
love-ly rist by many of the songs that come later on. 
The closing lines of "Three Days More" may be 
quoted in evidence of our statement. 

"Sudden, the spell snaps short to Fate ! 
Till that day — when I see your face — 
There are still three dark days to climb, 
To-day, to-morrow, and its mate." 

A beautiful sonnet, the last of the group of four en- 
titled " Viva ! Anima Carissima," may be taken to 
stand for Miss Van Vorst's achievement at its 
highest reach. 

" When they together saw the Calendar 
Slip by in months that wore Spring all days long, 
He made his lover's verse and roundel song 
The burthen of the rhyme his love of her ! . . . . 
What though the storm swept by with rainy stir, 
And winds, like ghosts, would 'round the windows throng, 
They sat heart-linked, hand-linked ; and bright and strong 
Riot ran through their veins like Mid-summer. 
For palm to palm is exquisite as May ; 
And lip on lip is mad July at best ! 
Where is the fire for this pale Winter's day ? 
For one who sits alone at Death's behest ? 
Ghosts of the storm peer in with charnel mirth 
At ghosts of ashes on the gusty hearth." 

There is a sonnet-ending that has the melancholy 
cadence with whicb Rossetti brought many a similar 
song to its period. The author does not often rise 
to this height of expression, but her work as a whole 
is out of the common, and may be commended to 
all to whom sincere and passionate emotion makes 
an appeal. 

Miss Willa Sibert Cather is a new writer, and 
" April Twilights " is the title of her first book. 
The title has no particular significance, unless it 
suggests the subdued tone of her tranquil musings. 
" Prairie Dawn " is pretty enough to quote. 

" A crimson fire that vanquishes the stars ; 
A pungent odor from the dusty sage ; 
A sudden stirring of the huddled herds ; 
A breaking of the distant table-lands 




Through purple mists ascending, and the flare 
Of water-ditches silver in the light ; 
A swift, bright lance hurled low across the world ; 
A sudden sickness for the hills of home." 

Of such exquisite description there is much in Miss 
Cather's collection ; there are also engaging reflec- 
tions from the world of books, the history and the 
legend of the ages. 

Last upon our list comes " The Solitary Path," 
by Miss Helen Huntington. Here is a pleasing 
quatrain called " After Nightfall." 

" The sunset sky, with whirl of night and flame, 
Sang Passion's fleeting hour ! came night at length, 
And, black against a cold and moonlit sky, 
The lonely mountains told their tale of Strength." 

A longer and more human example is the poem 
entitled " Barbara." 

" You, for an hour, have been dear. 
And till the end shall be dearest, 
Come mistress or wife to divide your life, 
'Tis I will have crept the nearest. 

" ' Farewell ! ' you may cry, as you go. 

You are keen for the world's great track. 
The shout of the crowd, and the love that's allowed ; 
But your thoughts shall turn back, turn back. 

" And the hour which you swear to forget, 
And the love that was idle breath, 
Shall return in their wrath, and arise in your path, 
And follow you on, to Death." 

Miss Huntington works within very narrow limits, 
but her touch is delicate and effective. 

William Morton Payne. 

Briefs ox Xutv Books. 

TU New When the first three volumes of " The 

international New International Encyclopaedia " 

Eneyciopadxa. we re sent us by Messrs. Dodd, 
Mead, & Co., we took occasion to congratulate 
both publishers and editors upon the execution of 
the work, and upon its special adaptation to the 
needs of those who wish information upon specific 
subjects and do not wish to search for the informa- 
tion through elaborate essays or to be bothered by 
too complicated a system of cross-references. 
Since that first notice, additional instalments of 
the Encyclopaedia have come to us from time to 
time, until at the present writing seven new vol- 
umes are at hand. These volumes, numbering from 
IV. to X. inclusive, carry on the alphabetical series 
of topics from Canada Balsam to Larramendi. This 
last-mentioned entry, by the way, is the name of a 
Spanish Jesuit of the eighteenth century who was 
an authority on the language of the Basques. Run- 
ning through the volumes we note the following 
among the more elaborate articles. Chemistry, 
Chicago, Chinese Empire, Costume, Egypt, Elec- 
tricity and allied topics, England and English Lit- 
erature, Europe, Fortification, France, Germany, 
Great Britain, Heraldry, Horse, India, Italy, 
Japan, and Jews. The illustrations are very nu- 
merous, including many full-page plates, all inter- 

esting and some of marked beauty. We note 
particularly the many brief articles upon living 
men and other timely topics, giving just the infor 
mation we want and often find it very hard to get. 
Our previous opinion of the usefulness, as well as 
the readableness, of this work is more than eon- 
firmed by our examination of the new volumes. 
In its own field, this Encyclopaedia hardly has a 
rival among existing publications. — We note at the 
same time the receipt, from the same publishers, 
of " The International Year-Book " for 1903. This 
work is under the same editorial management (ex- 
cept for Dr. Gilman's collaboration) as the other, 
and is an indispensable adjunct to the labors of the 
editor, the teacher, the clergyman, and the publicist. 
There are half a dozen maps and many plates. A 
cumulative index to the volumes of the five preced- 
ing years is a useful feature of this work. 

?f.5 < £r r '* In his latest book, "The Kaiser's 

cfMMtn Speeches" (Harper) Mr. Wolf von 

hutpeeche*. Schierbrand furnishes an admirable 

supplement to his recent volume on Germany. 
That work devoted several chapters to the Em- 
peror's personality, and discussed the potent in- 
fluence of his leadership upon the development of 
the new Empire. The present one not only con- 
tains the sources upon which those chapters were 
based, but gives a large amount of related matter. 
The material for the greater part of this work is 
found in Elausmann's recent authorized compi- 
lation of the Emperor's speeches — a fact that 
the author fully acknowledges. He has, however, 
added several speeches from other sources, — some, 
possibly, that His Majesty might have preferred to 
have forgotten. When needed, explanatory notes 
are given, and the various addresses or extracts on 
related topics are connected by comment or narra- 
tive, into separate chapters. The chapters are in 
turn grouped under three general divisions, dealing 
respectively with the Emperor's efforts to preserve 
both the domestic and the foreign peace of Germany ; 
with his activity in promoting the welfare of his peo- 
ple ; and, lastly, with his private character and per- 
sonal relations. The translation is Mr. von Schier- 
brand's own. The book is readable and interesting, 
and gives an admirable notion of that many-sided 
activity that distinguishes William II. among modern 
sovereigns. Of particular interest are the chapters 
dealing with his tactful efforts to preserve peace 
and to promote educational reform. The whole 
gives the impression of a character dominated 
by a well-formed and consistently developed pur- 
pose — a view quite at variance with the popular 
estimate of the Kaiser. There are occasional in- 
accuracies in statement, such as the reference to 
Frederick the Great as the Emperor's " great sire." 
More striking is the fact that while the author's 
English is ordinarily excellent, the German idiom 
has often been too strong for him to overcome in 
the passages in which he appears as translator. But 
such criticism is, in a work of this sort, pedantic ; 



[July 16, 

the book merits cordial commendation. It is wel- 
come to every student of German affairs, and Mr. 
von Schierbrand deserves cordial recognition for 
the judgment and fairness shown in his selections 
and for his success in presenting a genuine portrait 
of the Kaiser. 

The essential* A volume which, though unpedantic, 
of musical contains the result of long and labori- 

educaiion. 0U8 gtudy^ an( j seems sufficiently 

learned to flatter those who read it in the belief 
that they are masters of the subject, is " Musical 
Education" (Appleton), by M. Albert Lavignac. 
The work, translated from the French by Miss 
Esther Singleton, is divided into six parts, the first 
of which, touching in a general way upon musical 
education, is devoted to music as a language, an art, 
and a science ; hereditary talent and natural apti- 
tudes ; indications of musical talent in young chil- 
dren, and the proper age to begin the study of music ; 
the proper length of time for daily study, and the 
importance of conducting studies methodically and 
logically. The second part refers in particular to 
the study of instruments — the piano, organ, harp, 
string instruments, wind instruments, etc. ; the dif- 
ficulties of the different instruments, and the quali- 
fications of a teacher for advanced pupils. The 
study of singing, dwelt upon in the third part, is 
very interesting, and gives lucid hints on the exami- 
nation of the natural voice, hygiene of the voice, 
methods of vocalization and period of daily studies, 
the accompaniment, studies necessary for the stage, 
and physical requirements for an opera singer. In 
part four we are told of various studies necessary 
for composers — the study of harmony and counter- 
point, orchestration and instrumentation. " Of the 
means of rectifying a musical education that has 
been ill-directed at the beginning, and how to remedy 
it," is the general title of the fifth part ; and, sub- 
servient to this, the closing chapter dwells upon 
private teaching, class instruction and conservatory 
instruction, with a few remarks on American and 
European conservatories. Those portions of the 
essays devoted to the early education of embryonic 
artists contain opinions which we all might well en- 
tertain. There is not only room, but an actual de- 
mand, for a work which, like the present, aims at 
giving not alone an account of each particular branch 
of musical art, but a condensed summary of modern 
criticism upon it — a summary which is not obscured 
or disfigured by a vicious redundancy of words. In 
short, M. Lavignac's volume is a sort of musical vade- 
mecum, sober in tone and replete with information. 

A sumptuous volume on the "Por- 

juViZaZZr ' traitures of J Qli ™ C»sar," by Mr. 
Frank Jesup Scott, is issued by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co. Thirty-seven full- 
page plates and forty-nine inset engravings repre- 
sent to the reader very fairly the alleged likenesses 
of Cesar to be found in the various public museums 
of the present day. We regard it as unfortunate for 

Mr. Scott's discussion of these likenesses that his un- 
bounded admiration for Caesar will allow him to ac- 
cept no representation as adequate which does not 
fill his ideal of the man in every important feature. 
Some will not do because " the suave gentleman, the 
sweet-mannered friend, the philosopher, are not visi- 
ble " in them. The " calm and stately orator," the 
" far-seeing statesman," must always be suggested. 
There can be no good portraiture which does not 
show his " kindly placidity of temper," under which 
must be revealed " a vein of fearless audacity," 
curbed by " calm powers of reasoning." An " im- 
perturbable consciousness of power " is also a sine 
qua non, as well as the evidence of " electric en- 
ergy." Now artists who can understand a really 
great character, and reproduce it, soul, external feat- 
ures, and all, are rare in any age, we are told, and 
there is no evidence that there were any such in the 
age of Julius Csesar. We are thus left free to re- 
ject all portraitures of the Dictator's own time as 
necessarily defective, and to demand as the only 
adequate likeness something which shall display all 
the fine qualities to be detected in any detail of the 
material which has come down to us, plus all the 
noble and heroic traits to be culled out of ancient 
literature, — or, we are tempted to add, to be read 
into it under the influence of a super-heated admira- 
tion. It is to be said, in general, that men do not 
always wear all their good qualities within reach of 
even an artist's eye, and in particular that there is 
good ground for question whether Julius Caesar really 
possessed the almost divine character here attributed 
to him. We may thank Mr. Scott heartily, how- 
ever, for getting this material together, and present- 
ing it in such effective shape. 

" My Kalendar of Country Delights " 

Garden-love m «.• c .1 , 

and garden-lore. ls a compilation, — one of the class 
of books once called Commonplace 
Books, wherein the writer gathered during his 
reading any memorable sentences or chapters or 
thoughts and transcribed them in a book, some- 
times with slight comment or classification. In 
derivative form, and on garden topics, an early and 
charming volume of this class was " The Day-book 
of Bethia Hardacre," published about ten years ago. 
Somewhat varied is Mrs. Milne-Home's more recent 
and more fascinating " Stray Leaves from a Border 
Garden." No volume of which fully half the pages 
are transcribed from the old herbals of Gerarde and 
Parkinson could be dull to any flower-lover ; and 
such is the make-up of this Kalendar. The author 
states that she has culled " from rare books " only. 
In America, these herbals are certainly rare, though 
copies are constantly offered for sale ; but it is a 
large stretch of the signification of a word to term 
Bacon's essay " Of Gardens " rare. We think every 
word of it is quoted somewhere in this " Kalendar," 
sprinkled about on two-score pages. The reader of 
garden-books sighs as he turns the pages of each 
new volume of this class, and encounters therein 
the familiar italics and capitals of Bacon's words, 




" God Almighty first Created a Garden, and In- 
deed," and so on ; pages which he has memorized 
unconsciously from their constant thrusting before 
him. Nor is Forbes Watson's " Flowers and Gar- 
dens " rare ; for it has been reprinted recently. 
Much of it is in this " Kalendar." bat its exquisite 
words never stale. It may be added that for the 
author of five books on gardens to write that she 
" does not know the author of the following poem " 
is surprising indeed, when we find that the verse she 
refers to is Mr. T. E. Brown's gem of poesy, " A 
Garden is a lovesome thing, God wot." This she 
gives as a lonesome thing, — a sad error. Her quo- 
tations from the herbals also have some changes, as 
we compare them with original copies of Gerarde's 
" Great Herbal " (1633) and Parkinson's " Paradisi 
in Sole " (1635). But these need not be errors ; 
for there were three editions of each of these great 
volumes, and Mrs. Milman may have copied from 
other editions than ours. A charming feature of 
the book is the list of old English plant-names. 
These are given as original, but like lists may be 
found in Britten's " English Plant Names " and in 
Prior's " Popular Names of British Plants." The 
author states that she herself has learned much that 
is new in preparing this book. This is doubtless 
true ; but we cannot think she teaches her reader 
much that is unfamiliar. Some of the quotations 
and transcripts may seem new to one of narrow 
garden-craft and scant garden-lore ; but to any true 
garden student, the pages in general are familiar. 
They are none the worse, however, for that ; and 
we can enjoy them even if we do not find the quaint 
and pretty novelties of imaginative thought and 
original experience that sparkle alongside the like 
quotations in Mrs. Milne-Home's pages. 

One looks rather askance at a new 
eompanLfu7 hook on " The Solar System," won- 
dering what of novelty or special in- 
terest can be written on a theme so well worn and 
presumably so adequately treated — from a popular 
standpoint — in many recent works on astronomy. 
But Mr. Percival Lowell has presented us with a 
small treatise quite unlike any other on the subject. 
The fact that it has no preface indicates perchance 
the author's opinion that it can speak for itself; 
while the absence of an index suggests the erroneous 
idea that the book belongs to the domain of sum- 
mer fiction. But the title-page rights these specu- 
lations by advising the reader that six lectures to 
the young men of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology have been bound up together for the 
benefit of a larger audience. However, they are 
apparently intended for the comparatively small 
number of those who are students of matters astro- 
nomical, and who can dig the hidden beauties out 
of the mathematical formulae which start out of the 
pages now and then and interrupt the easy flow of 
description. The planet Mercury is treated in a 
novel manner, from the standpoint of the author's 
own observations, which have revealed to him 

markings best explained as " cracks," whose slowly 
changing positions point to the conclusion that the 
planet always keeps the same face to the sun. 
Saturn and his system are discussed with a fresh- 
ness and suggestiveness which will hold the atten- 
tion of even a blase professional astronomer. The 
interesting chapter on " Jupiter and his Comets " 
is mainly devoted to expounding in popular fashion 
the mathematical principles in accordance with 
which Jupiter snares his prey. Mr. Lowell indi- 
cates that the orbits of certain meteoric showers 
and comets point to the probable existence of a 
goodly planet in those far-away spaces which lie 
beyond the path of slow-footed Neptune. The 
final chapter, upon Cosmogony, is a fresh discus- 
sion along lines little exploited in text-books, and 
serves to stimulate rather than to satisfy ; for the 
questions involved are too recondite for our present 
knowledge. The publishers (Houghton) have given 
an attractive dress of red and gold to this little book. 

Dr. R. A. Middeldyk's "History of 
in <a« Wut indie*. Paerto Rico," the third volume of 

"The Expansion of the Republic 
Series" (Appleton), is the first complete history 
of the island of Puerto Rico ever written either in 
Spanish or English. The fact that Friar Inigo 
Abbad's " Historia de la Isla San Juan Bautista," 
written in 1782, published in 1788, and revised in 
1830 to bring it down to the eighteenth century, 
has been for years the accepted work on the subject, 
shows the need of an authentic up-to-date history of 
the island. In the first half of the present book, 
the author gives a sketch of the Spanish occupation. 
With the beginning of this story, — Columbus's 
experiences in America, the wild hunt which the 
Spanish explorers made for gold, the extinction of 
the native Indians, — general readers are more or 
less familiar ; but the rest will be new to most of 
them. Giving only the salient points, the author 
pictures the social and institutional life of the island 
during a period of four hundred years, describes 
the acts of the reigning government, and points out 
the evils of colonial rule. In the second half of the 
work he gives the status of Puerto Rico under 
American control, aiming to present the matter in 
such a way that the reader can form an accurate 
judgment of past and present conditions. The 
writer, who is the Librarian of the Free Public 
Library of San Juan, tells his interesting story in 
an easy, graphic style. Appended to the work is a 
valuable bibliography of Spanish writings on the sub- 
ject of the island. The book has twelve illustrations. 

In "The Real Benedict Arnold" 
(A. S. Barnes & Co.), Mr. Charles 
Burr Todd, not unfavorably known 
through previous works — notably " The True Aaron 
Burr " — as a writer on Revolutionary history, has 
given us an unbiased account of the causes leading 
up to Arnold's desertion of his country. While the 
author does not in any sense attempt to lessen the 
enormity of Arnold's crime, he emphasizes his sub- 

The character 
and motives of 
Benedict Arnold. 



[July 16, 

ject's invaluable services to America, and points out 
that he four times saved the cause of the Colonies : 
first, at the battle of Valcour's Island on Lake Cham- 
plain (the first naval battle in which our arms were 
engaged) ; second, by raising the siege of Fort Stan- 
wix in the Mohawk Valley and putting to flight St. 
Leger's invading army marching to aid Burgoyne ; 
and, third and fourth, by winning the two battles at 
Saratoga, which, conjoined, Cressy included as one 
of the fifteen decisive battles of the world. Arnold's 
wife was the beautiful " Peggy " Shippen, of Phila- 
delphia, a member of one of the most influential 
families of the Quaker City, who had been a general 
favorite with the British officers before she met 
Arnold, and particularly with the fascinating John 
Andre. In deciding her choice for a husband, she 
saw in the military governor of the city and the 
major-general of the army great opportunities for 
social advancement and leadership. Correspondence 
with Andre and other British officers was carried on 
after her marriage ; and Mr. Todd maintains that 
it was the influence of Arnold's wife, with whom he 
was madly infatuated, and his fear of losing her 
should her treasonable correspondence with his coun- 
try's enemies be discovered, that induced Arnold to 
betray his country, and not the gross injustice of 
Congress nor the calumnies of paper generals — the 
motives generally ascribed. An especially note- 
worthy illustration of the book is the reproduction 
of an old print representing the burning of Arnold 
in effigy. 

To the growing list of books describ- 
ing the steps by which our national 
territory has increased since colonial 
times, is added a volume entitled " The American 
Advance," by Mr. Edmund J. Carpenter. The book 
f ollow8 the conventional plan for such works, a sepa- 
rate chapter of from fifteen to sixty pages being 
given to each of the nine large additions to our do- 
main. Each chapter contains a careful chronological 
account of the negotiations and other steps that led 
to the acquisition of the territory under considera- 
tion, without partisan bias or undue national glori- 
fication. The book is devoted for the most part to 
the older territorial expansion, — Cuba, Puerto Rico, 
Guam, and the Philippines together having but a 
brief chapter of fifteen pages. There are no foot- 
notes, and the book is intended for the general reader. 
(John Lane.) 

The Turk ^ r# William Eleroy Curtis has given 

and hi* us an interesting book about the 

lost province*. Eastern Question, in a series of pen 
pictures, which are really a record of personal ob- 
servations concerning conditions in Constantinople 
and the Balkan States on the occasion of a trip which 
Mr. Curtis made to the East, in 1901, as a news- 
paper correspondent. The letters which he then 
wrote have now been collected and brought out in 
book form under the title of " The Turk and his Lost 
Provinces " (F. H. Revell Co.) Rivalry and jealousy 
on the part of European powers, Mr. Curtis tells us, 

Our older 


make and keep the Eastern Question an open one. 
Each nation, fearing that some other one will get 
more than its share of influence or political privileges, 
stands idly by and disregards human suffering oc- 
casioned by Turkish atrocities committed with im- 
punity in " the Buffer States." War is pending, 
and must come ; the Turk must go. The day is not 
far distant when the Czar of Russia will occupy the 
Sultan's throne. Mr. Curtis's work, done in light, 
easy, sketchy style, with not much of an attempt at 
literary finish, deals quite fully and interestingly with 
these and other phases of a very important subject. 

A treatise on 
Trust* and 

" Trust Finance : A Study of the 
Genesis, Organization, and Manage- 
ment of Industrial Combinations" 
(Appleton), by Dr. Edward Sherwood Meade, of 
the Wharton School of Finance and Economy, is an 
exceedingly sane and luminous discussion of a timely 
topic by one who is familiar with his subject. There 
are so many crude and erroneous notions extant with 
reference to trusts and combinations, that it is de- 
cidedly refreshing to examine a volume which treats 
of these matters in a dispassionate, intelligent and 
scholarly manner. The author says that the trust 
movement began in 1893, following the industrial 
depression of that year. The industrial revival 
gathered strength in 1898, and caused a general de- 
mand for the stocks of good paying corporations. 
Prof essor Meade's work is divided into twenty chap- 
ters, which discuss competition, the function and 
office of the promoter in modern industry, the dis- 
posal of the stock of the trust, accumulation of sur- 
plus, provision of new capital, bond issue, funding 
policy, capitalization of corporations, decline of in- 
dustrial shares, investment possibilities, and sugges- 
tions for national legislation on corporation finance. 
This book supplies a demand not heretofore filled, 
and will command the interest of the practical man 
of affairs. 


" Hamlet," edited by Professor L. A. Sherman, is a 
new ■ Pocket Classic " published by the Macmillan Co. 

" The History of France," by Mr. Arthur H assail, is a 
new " Temple Primer " published by the Macmillan Co. 

" Real Things in Nature," by Professor Edward S. 
Holden, is "a reading-book of science for American 
boys and girls " which has recently been published by 
the Macmillan Co. 

" American Heroes and Heroism," by Messrs. Will- 
iam A. Mowry and Arthur May Mowry, is a book of 
simple biographical reading for children, just published 
by Messrs. Silver, Burdett, & Co. 

New editions of " Fundamental Problems," by Dr. 
Paul Carus, and of the same author's " Karma: A Story 
of Buddhist Ethics," have just been sent us by the Open 
Court Publishing Co. 

Mr. David Nutt is the publisher of a beautifully 
printed volume containing " The Story of Cupid and 
Psyche," translated from Apuleius by Mr. Charles 
Stuttaford, and illustrated by Miss Jessie Mothersole^ 




" A Geography of Commerce," by Messrs. John N. 
Tilden and Albert Clarke, is published by Messrs. B. H. 
Sanborn & Co. 

The works of Thomas Campion, including his songs 
and masques, and the " Observations in the Art of En- 
glish Poesy," have again been edited by Mr. A. H. 
Bullen, this time in a volume of " The Muses' Library," 
of which the Messrs. Scribner are the American pub- 

" A General History of Commerce," by Mr. William 
Clarence Webster, is a recent educational publication 
of Messrs. Ginn & Co., and will do useful work in sup- 
plying the growing demand for modern text-books in 
the commercial courses that our high-schools are set- 
ting up so generally. 

A " Guide to Switzerland " is added to the series of 
travellers' manuals published by the Macmillan Co. The 
maps are numerous and particularly good, while the 
text is both compact and up-to-date. No other guide- 
book can be quite as good as a Baedeker, but the one 
before us has many commendable features. 

" Ephemeral Bibelots " appears on the title-page, and 
" Modern Chap- Books and their Imitators " upon the 
cover, of a pamphlet by Mr. Frederick Winthrop Faxon, 
sent us by the Boston Book Co. In substance, this little 
work is a bibliography of the freakish toy periodicals 
that have sprung up in such numbers during the past ten 
years. But how does an ex-Secretary of the American 
Library Association reconcile with his conscience this 
provision of alternative titles? 

Volume Till, of the " Studies and Notes in Philology 
and Literature," published for Harvard University by 
Messrs. Ginn & Co., is given up to two extensive mono- 
graphs in the Arthurian field. Mr. Arthur C. L. Brown 
is the author of " Iwain : A Study in the Origins of 
Arthurian Romance," which comes first in the volume, 
and this work is followed by " Arthur and Gorlagon," 
a new text, edited with mucb apparatus chiefly relating 
to werewolves by Professor George L. Kittredge. 

The Division of Bibliography of the Library of Con- 
gress is engaged in the very useful work of publishing 
special lists of book and periodical references upon 
timely topics. A batch of these bibliographies just sent 
out includes the following subjects: labor and strikes, 
old age and civil-service pensions, industrial arbitration, 
government ownership of railroads, the Constitution of 
the United States, federal control of commerce and 
corporations, Anglo-Saxon interests, the negro question, 
cabinets of England and America, and a second edition 
of the bibliography of mercantile marine subsidies. Mr. 
A. P. C. Griffin is the division chief under whose direc- 
tion these lists are prepared. 

" The Espurgatoire Saint Patriz of Marie de France," 
by Professor T. Atkinson Jenkins, is a decennial publi- 
cation of the University of Chicago. Nearly ten years 
ago we mentioned an edition of the same work by the 
same editor, but since that publication the author has 
had access to important material which he did not then 
use. The present edition gives us in parallel columns 
both the French text and the Latin of the " Tractatus 
de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii " of Henricus Salteriensis, 
which was the original from which Marie de France 
worked. This edition is thus made much more com- 
plete and valuable than its predecessor, and constitutes 
a highly creditable addition to the series of learned 
publications in which it is included. 

"On the Literary Theories of Taine and Herbert 
Spencer " is the title of a pamphlet published by Mr. 
David Nutt, and containing two lectures by Professor 
A. T. W. Borsdorf. The tendency of the author's crit- 
icism is destructive, as he aims only to help clear the 
way for the constructive work of the future. 

An unusually attractive guide-book to the city of 
Boston, prepared by Mr. Edwin M. Bacon, is issued by 
Messrs. Ginn & Co. Original and authentic material, 
numerous maps in color and in diagram, handy indexes 
and running-titles, and good mechanical execution, help 
to make this one of the best city guides we know. 

A committee of the Franklin and Marshall College, 
of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, has prepared a " Catalogue 
of Officers and Students " of that institution from the 
date of its founding in 1787 to the present time. An 
" Obituary Record " for recent years is also published. 
These two works are pamphlets, but they are accom- 
panied by a substantial bound volume of four hundred 
pages, giving a ■ History of Franklin and Marshall 
College " in ample detail. This is the work of Professor 
Joseph Henry Dubbs, and is handsomely illustrated. 
The earlier chapters of this book, as may easily be under- 
stood, throw many interesting sidelights upon the be- 
ginning of the national period of American history. 

The latest batch of the University of Chicago decen- 
nial publications includes a noteworthy examination, by 
Professor Oliver Joseph Thatcher, of the questions con- 
nected with the papal grant of Ireland to Henry II. 
"Studies Concerning Adrian IT." is the title of this 
monograph, and the author accepts the view that the 
Bull Latidabiliter is a rhetorical exercise of no historical 
value. Other publications in this series are " Scientific 
Method in Education," by Mrs. Ella Flagg Young; 
"Practical Theology," by Mr. Gerald Birney Smith; 
" The Elements of Chrysostom's Power as a Preacher," 
by Professor Galusha Anderson ; « Have We the Like- 
ness of Christ ? " by Professor Franklin Johnson ; " The 
Self-Purification of Streams," by Professor Edwin O. 
Jordan; "Some Paradoxes of the English Romantic 
Movement," by Professor William Darnell MacClin- 
tock ; and " A Stichometric Scholium to the Medea of 
Euripides," by Mr. Tenny Frank. 

William Ernest Henley, who died on the 12th of 
this month, at the age of fifty-four, was distinguished as 
poet, critic, and editor, while his strongly-marked and 
aggressive personality gave him an inspiring influence 
upon many of the younger men with whom he was 
associated. While editor of "The Scots Observer," he 
almost founded a school of writers, so strongly did he 
impose himself upon the aspiring talents that found 
expression in that brilliant journal. He also edited, at 
different times, " London," " The Magazine of Art," and 
" The New Review." He was one of Stevenson's most 
intimate friends, and the two men wrote several plays 
in collaboration. His editions of Burns and Byron were 
enriched with much vigorous and characteristic com- 
mentary of the sort that often arouses violent antag- 
onisms. His place as a poet is high among the minor 
singers of the last half-century, and there are few 
lovers of poetry who do not have associations with his 
"Hospital Rhymes," his "London Toluntaries," and 
his " Hawthorne and Lavender." His verse is hot and 
full-blooded, caring little for nicety of expression, and 
in general exhibitive of far more energy than art. At 
any rate, there is little that is imitative about his work, 
and his originality is as unquestionable as his strength. 



[July 16, 

IjIst of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 61 titles, includes books 
received by Thb Dial since its last issue.] 


A History of American Literature. By William P. Trent, 
M.A.,LL. D. 12mo,pp. 608. " Literatures of the World." 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.40 net. 

Rise and Fall of the Anabaptists. By E. Belfort Bax. 
8vo, pp. 407. Part III., "The Social Side of the Refor- 
mation in Germany." Macmillan Co. $2. 

Raja-Cekhara's Karpura-Manjari : A Drama by the 
Indian Poet Rajacekhara (about 900 A.D.). Critically 
edited by Sten Konow ; trans, into English, with Notes, 
by Charles Rockwell Lanman. 4to, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 289. " Harvard Oriental Series." Published by Har- 
vard University. $1.50. 

My Relations with Carlyle. By James Anthony Froude. 
Together with a Letter from the late Sir James Stephen, 
Bart. 8vo, pp. 79. Charles Scribner's Sons. Paper, 
50 cts. net. 

Letters to M. Q. and H. G. By John Ruskin ; with Preface 
by the Right Hon. G. Wyndham. lllus., 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 149. Harper & Brothers. $1.25 net. 

A History of French Versification. By L. E. Eastner, 
M.A. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 312. Oxford : Clarendon 

The Influence of Emerson. By Edwin D. Mead. 12mo. 
pp. 304. Boston: American Unitarian Association. 
$1.20 net. 

Dramatic Criticism. Three Lectures Delivered at the 
Royal Institution, February, 1903. By A. B. Walkley. 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 125. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Love-Letters of Margaret Fuller, 1845-1846. With an 
Introduction by Julia Ward Howe. With portrait, 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 228. D. Appleton & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Virgin Birth. By Allan Hoben, Ph. D. 8vo, uncut, 
pp. 85. University of Chicago Press. Paper, 50 cts. net. 

Mors et Victoria. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 117. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. $1.20 net. 

Caliban's Guide to Letters. By Hilaire Belloc. 12mo, 
pp. 194. London : Duckworth & Co. Paper. 

Studies concerning Adrian IV. By Oliver Joseph 

Thatcher. 4to, pp. 88. University of Chicago Press. 

Paper, $1. net. 
Sir William Johnson. By Augustus C. Buell. With 

portrait, 16mo, pp. 281. "Historic Lives Series." D. 

Appleton & Co. $1. net. 
Out of the Past : Some Biographical Essays. By the Right 

Hon. Sir Mountstuart E. Grant Duff, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. 

In 2 vols., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 478. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

$5. net. 


The Cambridge Modern History. Planned by the late 
Lord Acton, LL.D. Edited by A. W. Ward, Litt.D., 
G. W. Prothero. Litt.D., and Stanley Leathes, M.A. 
Vol. VII., The United States. 8vo, pp. 884. Macmillan 
Co. $4. net. 

The Annual Register: A Review of Public Events at 
Home and Abroad for the Year 1902. Large 8vo, uncut, 
pp. 550. Longmans, Green, & Co. $6. net. 

Florence: Her History and Art, to the Fall of the Republic. 
By Francis A. Hyett, B.A. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 600. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 

The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Associa- 
tion. Vol. VI. July 1902 to April 1903. 8vo, pp. 338. 
Austin : Published by the Association. 


The Great Hoggarty Diamond, etc. By W. M. Thack- 
eray: edited by Walter Jerrold; illus. by Charles E. 
Brock. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 411. Macmillan Co. $1. 

The First and Second Books of Esdras. Edited by 
Archibald Duff, D.D., LL.D. With photogravure frontis- 
piece, 24mo, gilt top, uncut. J. B. Lippincott Co. Limp 
leather, 60 cts. net. 


A Field of Folk. By Isabella Howe Fiske. 12mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 67. Boston : Richard G. Badger. $1. 
The Mothers. By Edward F. Hayward. 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 27. Boston : Richard G. Badger. 75 cts. 
Young Ivy on Old Walls : A Book of Verse. By H. Arthur 

Powell. 12mo, uncut, pp. 57. Boston : Richard G. 

Badger. $1. 
Unfrequented Paths. Songs of Nature, Labor and Men. 

By George E. McNeill. Illus., 12mo, pp. 115. James H. 

West Co. $1.50. 
The Book of the Rose. By Charles G. D. Roberts. With 

frontispiece in color, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 83. L. C. 

Page & Co. $1. net. 


Love Thrives in War: A Romance of the Frontier in 

1812. By Mary Catherine Crowley. Illus., 12mo, pp. 340, 

Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 
Thompson's Progress. By C. J. Cutcliffe Hyne. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 354. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
'Twixt God and Mammon. By William Edwards Tire- 
buck. With a Memoir of the Author by Hall Caine. 

12mo, pp. 313. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
The Siege of Youth. By Frances Charles. Illus., 12mo, 

pp.293. Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 
Round Anvil Rock: A Romance. By Nancy Huston 

Banks. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 356. Macmillan 

Co. $1.50. 
Rejected of Men : A Story of To-day. By Howard Pyle. 

12mo, pp. 269. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
Peggy O'Neal. By Alfred Henry Lewis. Illus. in color, 

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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 411. 

AUG. 1, 1903. Vol. XXXV. 



HALF A CENTURY OF YALE. Percy F. Bicknell 57 


TRIAL. Edwin Erie Sparks 59 



M. Larson 61 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 63 
Hichens's Felix. — Oppenheim's A Prince of Sin- 
ners. — Moore's Castle Omeragh. — Quiller-Conch's 
The Adventures of Harry Revel. — Mrs. Dudeney's 
Robin Brilliant. — Danby's Pigs in Clover. — Miss 
Murfree's A Spectre of Power.- — Mia« Crowley's 
Love Thrives in War. — Mrs. Hopkins's The Voice 
in the Desert. — Miss Smith's The Legatee. — 
Isham's Under the Rose. — MacGrath's The Grey 
Cloak. — Page's Gordon Keith. — Brown's A Gen- 
tleman of the Sonth. — Harben's The Substitute. — 
Boone and Browns The Redfields Succession. 


Lilian Bell's The Dowager Conntess and the 
American Girl. — Mrs. Harrison's The Unwelcome 
Mrs. Hatch.— Miss Edwards's The Tu-Tze's Tower. 

— Robertson's Sinful Peck. — Hyne's Thompson's 
Progress. — "J. P. Mowbray's'' The Conquering 
of Kate. — Mrs. Cheney's Mistress Alice Jocelyn. — 
Henderson's John Percyfield. — Miss Silberrad's 
The Success of Mark Wyngate. — Mrs. Ward's The 
Light Behind. — Clemens's The Gilded Lady. — 
Mrs. Banks's Round Anvil Rock. — The Kempton- 
Wace Letters. — Miss Charles's The Siege of Youth. 

— Mrs. Hinkson's A Red, Red Rose. — Moore's 
The Untilled Field. — Colton's Tioba, and Other 
Tales. — Canyl's The Lieutenant-Governor. — 
" Josiah Flynt's " The Rise of Rnderick Clowd. 






Following our custom of many years, we pub- 
lish, in this and another issue of The Dial, a 
summary of the reports contributed to "The 
Athenaeum " by various writers, upon the liter- 
ary production of the last twelvemonth in the 
principal European countries. The reports sum- 
marized in the present article are from Belgium, 
by Professor Paul Fredericq, from Bohemia, 
by Dr. V. Tille, from Denmark by Dr. Alfred 
Ipsen, from France, by M. Jules Pravieux, and 
from Germany, by Dr. Ernst Heilborn. 

Professor Fredericq gives us little more than 
a catalogue of the year's production in Belgium. 
M. Maeterlinck comes first, but his new dram- 
atic piece, " Joyzelle," has not been as success- 
ful as the "Monna Vanna " of last year. Other 
plays are "Jericho " and " Fatigue de Vivre," 
by M. Edmond Picard, "L'Imposteur Mag- 
nanime, Perkin Warbeck," by M. Eekhoud; 
and " Les Orties," by M. Sander Pierron. 
The poets are represented by M. Verhaeren's 
" Les Forces Tumultueuses," and M. Gille's 
"La Corbeille d'Octobre." The best novels 
are "Le Petit Homme de Dieu," by M. Camille 
Lemonnier ; and "Les Noces d'Or de Monsieur 
et de Madame Van Poppel," which latter book 
completes the series devoted to the Kakebroek 
family, a Brussels counterpart of Herr Stinde's 
Buchholz family of Berlin. Being himself a 
distinguished historian, Professor Fredericq 
has much to say about writings in his own de- 
partment. Two books are singled out as par- 
ticularly important: Professor Vanderkindere's 
"La Formation Territoriale des Principautes 
Beiges an Moyen Age," and M. Leo Errera's 
" Les Juifs Busses," which declares the alter- 
natives to be emancipation and extermination. 
Flemish writers are also briefly discussed. 
Professor Logeman's reexamination of the 
connection between " Elckerlijk " and " Every- 
man " is of timely interest. Mile. Marie 
Belpaire studies the village novelists, from 
Conscience to Herr Bjornson, in "Het Land- 



[Aug. 1, 

leven in de Letterkunde." " The strongest 
dramatic work of the year has been the social- 
istic play by the well-known novelist M. Buysse, 
* Het Gezin Van Paemel,' which shows small 
Flemish farmers at warfare with their village 
lord, their clergyman, the gamekeepers, and 
gendarmes, all conspiring to grind them down 
and reduce them to despair." 

Since Dr. Tille wrote his last Bohemian ar- 
ticle, the foremost Bohemian poet, Mr. Jaroslav 
Vrchlicky, has celebrated his fiftieth birthday, 
and added three books to his list : " Votive 
Tablets," "The Soul a Mimosa," and "My 
Country." Mr. Svatopluk Cech's poem, "The 
Reapers," is also new, and affords " a welcome 
proof that his creative powers have in no way 
abated." The Hus celebration has led to a pub- 
lication of all the works of the martyr, many 
of them from manuscripts only recently discov- 
ered. Sir Walter Besant would have been glad 
to welcome the following piece of news : 

"Amongst other prominent events in our literary 
world is the realization of a project which was men- 
tioned in last year's report. A number of Bohemian 
writers have formed an independent publishing society 
called Maj, the chief object of which is to improve the 
material situation of literary men and women in this 
country, and it must be acknowledged that the endeav- 
ours of this new society have in a great measure suc- 
ceeded in promoting the interests of authors. They 
have helped to raise the fees for literary work, to ensure 
a greater share in the profits of books for the writers 
of them, and to protect rights in literary property." 
In belles-lettres , the following books are note- 
worthy : "Passion and Strength," a social 
novel by Mr. Hladik ; "From the Native 
Nest," by Mr. Vaclav Vlcek ; " Books of Remi- 
niscences," by Mr. Ladislav Quis ; " A Ballad 
of a Man and His Joys," by the satirist, Mr. 
Victor Dyk ; and two plays based upon early 
Bohemian history, the work, respectively, of 
Mr. Hilbert and Mr. Alois Jirasek. "The 
History of Bohemian Literature in the Nine- 
teenth Century" is a joint work by several 
writers, and Dr. Tille himself has published a 
book on " The Philosophy of Literature Under 
H. Taine and His Predecessors." 

" The first point to notice about Danish lit- 
erature," writes Dr. Ipsen, " is the rapid in- 
crease of its mass." The novels of the year 
have increased to one hundred and eighty, a 
jump of just fifty per cent, from the year before. 
But the quality of this writing seems to grow 
worse. " It is a ruminating sort of literature ; 
the second generation of naturalism seems no 
longer able to produce vital art, but it has 
developed a rage for writing and a technical 
dexterity in the use of the pen which are aston- 

ishing." Historical fiction is coming back into 
favor, but it is now written by naturalists in- 
stead of romanticists. The chief work of this 
class is "The King of All Sinners," by Mr. 
Laurids Bruun, which " deals with the heredi- 
tary sin which is handed down from father to 
son in unbroken line, and shows how the fate 
of a physically and mentally degenerate indi- 
vidual, in collision with the demands of a merci- 
less and impersonal society, must be tragic." 
The number of women writers is constantly 
increasing, and, as Dr. Ipsen puts it, " every 
year they produce new, heavy books." Many 
of them also " affect a rather vulgar taste, and 
luxuriate in pictures of indelicate and ambigu- 
ous love affairs, with details calculated to arouse 
sensation rather than satisfy the demands of 
the psychologist and the poet." At the head 
of this "feministic school " stands Mrs. Agnes 
Henningsen, whose " Spedalske " treats of " love 
as a sort of contagious, leprous condition " — 
truly a charming conception ! A very differ- 
ent sort of book is " The Mountain Priest," 
by Miss Ingeborg Maria Sick, a tale of an 
orthodox clergyman with whom a modern 
young woman falls in love. " She wins him 
but leaves him, seeing that he, through his 
vehement love for her, is being led away from 
his higher calling and becoming an inferior 
man." Herr Valdemar Rordam's " Gudrun 
Dyre " is " a hymn to sensual love in praise of 
the flesh, an epic in verse with scarcely any- 
thing but love in it, and a theory of the free- 
dom thereof." Peasant literature is represented 
by Herr Johan Skjoldborg's " Gyldholm," 
which " has some brilliant pages on the inter- 
course between the small cottagers and servants 
on a noble estate, but afterwards degenerates 
into a socialistic pamphlet." " The edition of 
the collected works of Dr. Georg Brandes in 
twelve volumes has been finished, and is now 
followed by a reprint of his polemical pamph- 
lets, which it would have been better certainly 
to leave uncollected on account of their bitter- 
ness and injustice." Dr. Alfred Ipsen's criti- 
cal study of this author will soon be completed. 
Dr. Vedel has published " Heroic Life," which 
" pictures the primitive life of the ancient world 
in many countries and phases, as it developed 
under the strong and brilliant rule of war 
and the worship of all the warlike virtues." 
A book somewhat similar in subject, but very 
different in treatment, is Herr Axel Olrik's 
" Ancient Heroic Poems of Denmark." It is 
only a first part, and the author tries to settle 
solid principles for dealing with the old lays, 




which often, under the influence of the great 
migration, were changed and remodelled. In 
opposition to the common tendency in the treat- 
ment of the sagas and lays, he tries to carry 
out a poetic and literary principle in his deal- 
ing with them An English edition of the 
book will soon appear." 

In his report upon French literature, M. 
Pravieux begins with the drama. The dram- 
atized novel exists in France also, and is illus- 
trated this year by M. Emile Fabre's stage 
version of Balzac's " Menage de Ganjon," and 
If. Henri Bataille's dramatization of Count 
Tolstoy's " Resurrection." The other note- 
worthy plays of the year are " Theroigne 
de Mericourt," by M. Paul Hervieu ; " Les 
Affaires Sont les Affaires," by M. Octave 
Mirbeau ; " La Chatelaine," by M. Alfred 
Capus : and " L' Autre Danger," by M. 
Maurice Donnay. 

" Novelists, who become more and more numerous 
in France, may be arranged under two heads. Some 
remain faithful to the ancient traditional conception of 
the novel, and confine their studies to one subject only 
— love. But, unfortunately, the public has for a long 
time become blase, and as it is difficult to rejuvenate 
so old a subject as the novel, itself as old as the hills, 
these writers too often think themselves bound to stim- 
ulate the idle curiosity of readers by applying them- 
selves solely to the passions and giving us unwholesome 
pictures in which art has no part. The others, without 
altogether refraining from the portrayal of love either 
in its tragic or its attractive phases, write novels with 
ideas concerning philosophic, social, and religious ques- 
tions. In such cases the novel becomes a pretext, 
or, to be more exact, a process by means of which some 
theme is brought before the general public, which, 
stripped of its fictional covering, would, by its mere 
appearance, scare away the reader. These books are, 
in fact, treatises disguised as novels. This kind of lit- 
erature is now much in vogue in France. Scarcely any 
didactic books are written, or, at least, scarcely any 
that are written are read." 

Among novels of the didactic category we have 
" L'Etape," by M. Paul Bourget ; " Les Deux 
Vies," by MM. Paul and Victor Margueritte ; 
"La Maison du Peche," by Mme. Marcelle 
Tinayre ; " Le Paradis de V Homme," by M. 
Marc Andiol ; " Lettres a Francoise," by M. 
Marcel Prevost ; and "L'Inutile Effort," by M. 
Edouard Rod. In the other category come 
such books as "La Peur de Vivre," by M. 
Henry Bordeaux ; " Le Roman d'un Agrege," 
by M. Leo Claretie ; " Dos d'Ane," by M. Louis 
Boule ; " L'Inconstante," by Mme. Marie de 
Regnier ; and " La Nouvelle Esperance," by 
the Comtesse de Noailles. Of the present 
state of French fiction M. Pravieux says: 

"The critic with sufficient courage to attempt the 
perusal of the innumerable novels published yearly in 

France would doubtless acknowledge that talent is not 
wanting, though genius is not apparent, and master- 
pieces are rare. He would admire the gift of accurate 
and minute observation, the subtle psychology, the force, 
colour, and picturesque quality of the language — ail 
these attributes of our writers' talents; bnt that would 
be the sole profit that our unhappy critic would derive 
from a gigantic task." 

In poetry, factions flourish, and the old order 
is giving place to the new. The Academy now 
crowns verse that violates most of the tradi- 
tional rules, as in the case of volumes by M. 
Fernand Gregh and the Comtesse de Noailles. 
The principal quarrel now is between the 
Parnassians of day before yesterday and the 
Symbolists of yesterday. The latter include 
M. Gustave Kahn, M. Jean More as, and M. 
Henri Regnier. The last-named poet, we are 
informed, " chisels out verse which for sculp- 
tural beauty, clearness of contour, and wisdom, 
is equal to the best work of his master, M. 
Maria de Heredia." Of the method and the 
art of history France is daily approaching a 
cleaner conception. " History has learned the 
lesson of accuracy, and has been initiated into 
the methods of the neighboring sciences — 
natural history, physiology, psychology, and 
social science. At a time when history is get- 
ting more mastery over its methods, and finds 
an increasing popularity among the cultured, 
it also enters into the possession of all sorts of 
hitherto unexploited resources." Noteworthy 
historical works of the year are M. Albert Van- 
dal's " L'Avenement de Bonaparte," M. Paul 
Gautier's " Madame de Stael et Napoleon," 
M. Gabriel Hanotaux's " Histoire de la France 
Contemporaine," and, of particular interest to 
American readers, the work of the Vicomte de 
Noailles, entitled " Marins et Soldats Francois 
en Amerique pendant la Guerre de l'lnde- 
pendance des Etats-Unis." Among works of 
criticism and literary history, M. Gaston Bois- 
sier's " Tacite " is given the first rank. 

" He admires Tacitus without idolizing him. He not 
only praises his merits, but also throws light on his 
weaknesses, taking care to point out, however, that they 
belong more to the age in which he lived than to the 
man himself. This volume arrives in the nick of time 
to correct the false ideas of the illustrious author of the 
1 Agricola ' held by so many. During the second half 
of hist century no one would recognize in him anything 
more than a just judge, a contemner of imperial cor- 
ruption. The next step, to disguise him as a demagogue, 
was one which was quickly taken. I gather from M. 
Boissier's book that Tacitus was not a republican in the 
sense in which we understand the term now." 

Other works in this field are "Andre Chenier," 
by M. Emile Faguet ; " Les Dernieres Annees 
de Chateaubriand," by M. Edmond Bire ; 



[Aug. 1, 

"L'ltalie des Romantiques," by M. Urbain 
Mengin ; " Hommes et Idees du XIX e Siecle," 
by M. Rene Doumic ; " Vus du Dehers," by 
Dr. Max Nordau ; and " Les Ecrivains et les 
Mceurs," by M. Henry Bordeaux. Philosophy 
and social science have been enriched by M. 
Eugene de Roberty's study of Nietzsche, M. 
Bougie's " Les Idees Egalitaires," M. de 
Lanessan's " La Lutte pour l'Existence et 
l'Evolution des Societes," and M. Vander- 
velde's " L'Exode Rural et le Retour aux 
Champs." Three noteworthy books of travel 
are mentioned : " Au Pays d'Homere," by the 
Baron de Mandat-Grancey ; " Siberie et Cali- 
fornie," by M. Albert Bordeaux ; and " Chez 
les Cannibales," by the Comte Testetich de 
Tolna. M. Pravieux concludes his com- 
mentary by saying that France still worships 
science, although no longer with the blind zeal 
of past years. " Fiction, history, criticism, 
philosophy, and the drama can no longer be 
independent of science — in fact, they are not. 
Even the poet, while allowing greater licence 
to his imagination, recognizes the idea of the 
world which modern physics supply." 

Dr. Heilborn, writing from Germany, takes 
literature in the restricted sense which recog- 
nizes only three classes of productions — plays 
poems, and novels. Since he writes at length 
of the works selected for comment, his report 
is the most interesting of the entire series. 
He begins with some remarks on the sub- 
ject of Herr Sudermann's essays upon " Die 
Verrohung in der Theaterkritik," which he 
takes to be the wail of a disappointed play- 
wright, who has failed to fulfil his early promise, 
and who thus scolds the public for its failure 
to appreciate his work. These essays, he says, 
"were characteristic of their author, for they 
showed with terrible clearness that for Suder- 
mann the artist's manifestation of his powers 
means nothing more than the pursuit of out- 
ward success. They showed a man who has 
been overtaken in the race by more fortunate 
competitors, who has grown nervous and irri- 
table, and who looks for some external cause 
to explain his failure." Of the past year as a 
whole, Dr. Heilborn says that " it has not pro- 
duced a single great and conspicuous work, but 
it has brought forth fruits of quiet and honest 
labour." Some would find an exception to this 
sweeping statement in "Der Arme Heinrich " 
of Herr Hauptmann, which even in the present 
discussion, is placed first and given the most 
extended analysis. 

" Even in his earlier productions Gerhart Hauptmann 

showed a leaning toward mysticism, by which he sought 
to subdue, or at least give depth to, realism. He 
believed in death as the great power that transfigures 
life; he cast round the secrets of the dying hour a 
web of hopeful surmise. In his new play, ' Der arme 
Heinrich,' this mysticism of death has, one may say, 
become a mysticism of life. Therein and therefrom 
must life find its regeneration; in mystic self-absorption 
the sick man must be made whole. At the same time 
mysticism claims a place in the action of the play as 
well; it makes a link in the close- wrought psychological 
chain. The unfortunate Heinrich, smitten by leprosy, 
sets out to seek the physician at Salerno, accompanied 
by the maiden who is ready to sacrifice her heart's 
blood for his sake. He is cured through her unques- 
tioning faith and cheerful self-sacrifice. Not in the 
sense in which the miracle takes place in Hartman von 
Aue's poem: there the knight repents at the critical 
moment, overcome with pity for the fair child whose 
naked body he sees threatened by the surgeon's kuife, 
and so he starts with her apon his homeward journey 
as ill as when he came, till finally his deed of mercy 
awakens God's mercy likewise, and he is freed from his 

Next in interest to this work is Herr Arthur 
Schnitzler's " Der Schleier der Beatrice," a 
drama of Bologna and the Renaissance period. 
But this work is a little more than a year old, 
and we cannot spare the space for an account 
of it. " Konig Laurin " is the title of Herr von 
Wildenbruch's new play, which is concerned 
with the Goths after the death of Theodoric. 
Its power is all concentrated in a single scene, 
which is thus described : 

" The Goths, assembled for a carousal, are celebrat- 
ing the memory of their king, Theodoric the Great, 
who has recently died; a young Gothic noble, carried 
away by his enthusiasm, lifts the king's drinking-cup on 
high and speaks — not, however, of Theodoric the Great, 
but of Dietrich of Bern. He has seen Dietrich riding 
in the morning twilight over the sea, his fist clenched 
wrathfully against his foe, and behind him Hildebrand, 
his ancient comrade-in-arms, mounted on a gallant steed. 
He has seen him wrestling with Laurin, King of the 
Dwarfs, in the midst of the downtrodden rosegarden, 
when he robbed him of the cloak of darkness. For 
Dietrich of Bern is not dead any more than his old an- 
tagonist Laurin, the destroyer of all fair men — Laurin, 
who always reappears upon the earth under a new name, 
and who reigns even now as — the Emperor Justinian ! " 

Of Herr Heyse's " Maria von Magdala," we 
read that 

" The conflict he raises in his heroine's breast reminds 
one of Victor Hugo's ' Marion Delorme.' The courtesan, 
who has now expiated the sins of her former life, might 
save Jesus from being crucified, if only she would grant 
an influential Roman access to her chamber; but she 
refuses to do so in the consciousness that unrighteous 
means must needs be abhorrent to Him who is righteous- 
ness itself. But the conflict, as such, seems an impos- 
sible one. It is a degradation of history to combine it 
with motives of such a kind." 

Of plays less weighty in their matter, the fol- 
lowing may be mentioned : " Das Thai des 




Lebens," by Herr Dreyer ; " Die Lokalbahn," 
by Herr Ludwig Thoma ; " Der Heerohme," 
by Herr Josef Lauff ; " Ledige Leute," by 
Herr Dbrmann ; " Gerechtigkeit," by Herr 
Otto Ernst ; " Kaltwasser," by Herr Ludwig 
Fulda; and "Das Dunkle Thor," by Hen- 
Felix Philippi. These pieces are farces or 
melodramas, and have little literary merit. 
The drama of popular life seems to be reviv- 
ing, especially in Austria, and is illustrated by 
Herr Josef Werkmann's " Der Kreuzweg- 
stiirmer '" and Herr Karl Schbnherr's " Sonn- 
wendtag." In lyric production, the new 
poems of Frau M. E. delle Grazie, of Herr 
Hugo Salus, of Frl. Agnes Miegel, and Herr 
Heyse's " Ein Wintertagebuch " are men- 
tioned. Turning to prose fiction, we begin 
with Herr Heyse's new "Novellen vom Gar- 
dasee," but the author's "capacity for produc- 
ing direct effects is gone ; his craftsman's hand 
no longer obeys him with absolute certainty. 
He has declined grievously in power of com- 
position, but he still retains his psychological 
cunning, he still finds the intrinsically right 
and necessary solution of his problems." Frau 
von Ebner-Eschenbach, on the other hand, 
although well past seventy, has remained young 
in comparison with the author of " Im Para- 
diese," and " Agave," her new novel, is a fine 
production. " His story centres round a pupil 
of Masaccio, whose life is a perpetual struggle 
to conquer art and win the woman he loves. 
But the youth who has shown rare skill as a 
potter, and in whose designs Masaccio has 
recognized talent of an unusual order, is denied 
the gift of art in its higher form, and the im- 
petuous, madly jealous wooer is denied his 
love." Other fiction of the year comprises 
" Ein Ungliiekliches Volk" (the Armenians), 
by Herr Rudolf Lindau ; "Vita Somnium 
Breve," by Frau Ricarda Huch ; " Die Gottin- 
nen ; oder die Drei Romane der Herzogin von 
Assy " (a trilogy in imitation of Sig. d'An- 
nunzio), by Herr Heinrich Mann ; " Reigen " 
(which "describes various Viennese types in the 
act of satisfying the desires of love "), by Herr 
Arthur Schnitzler : " Freundschaft," a Nor- 
wegian tale by Herr Georg Hirschfeld ; " Der 
Uebergang," by Herr J. J. David ; and 
" Arbeit," by Frau Use Frapan. Concluding 
his article, Dr. Heilborn says : 

" A comparison taken from Dr. Ibsen's * Master- 
builder ' might be applied to the literature of this year. 
No church spires have been erected, nor yet have fancy 
and desire reared any daring castles in the air; but 
none the less have we built homesteads where men can 
dwell — homesteads with nurseries in them." 

Cjje Jttfo gffoks. 

Half a Century of Yale.* 

No one is better qualified to give an account 
of Yale during the last half-century than Ex- 
President Dwight. As the descendant of a 
former president, as student, tutor, professor 
and president, as acting treasurer for two years 
and occupant of the college pulpit for six and 
a half, he has had every opportunity to become 
thoroughly imbued with the Yale spirit, and to 
make himself master of her traditions and his- 
tory. His intimate personal acquaintance with 
the Yale faculty and Yale men of his time en- 
ables him to present a series of portraits of 
extraordinary interest and fidelity. Even the 
general reader, to whom the university at New 
Haven makes no special appeal, will find these 
pen-portraits well worth examining. The amia- 
ble idiosyncrasies of the old-time college pro- 
fessor are most pleasantly touched upon by a 
sympathetic hand ; and, to him who chooses to 
read between the lines, the artist gives many 
features of his own portrait by showing so in- 
evitably what qualities he most admires in others. 

Yale's remarkable growth in the period under 
review, a growth to which Dr. Dwight contri- 
buted so notably, forms an instructive and en- 
couraging chapter in the history of higher 
education. When Dr. Dwight entered college 
the whole student body was smaller than a 
single class of the present day, and the total 
endowment far less than the annual income 
now enjoyed by the university. The standard 
of scholarship has undergone an equal change 
for the better since the days when the elder 
Silliman, examining candidates in geography, 
made grievous complaint of their defective 
preparation, and cited in illustration the sub- 
freshman's answer to the question, " Who 
founded St. Petersburg ? " " St. Peter," was 
the ingenious answer. (But it parenthetically 
observed, as the author points out, that the 
question had about as little to do with geog- 
raphy as the answer.) Those were the days 
when the Latin professor's task was largely to 
bring Cicero into agreement with Andrews and 
Stoddard's Grammar, and the^teacher of math- 
ematics regarded teaching as the one thing 
farthest removed from his duties. Though 
we are wont to look back upon that period as 
an era of plain living and high thinking, our 

•Memories of Yai.k Life and Men. 1845-1899. By 
Timothy Dwight. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 



[Aug. 1, 

author ventures to question the necessary con- 
nection between the two. As appropriate to 
this season, and as illustrating the author's 
genial style, let us cite what he has to say on 
the subject of vacation, then and now. 

" The summer vacation, at that period, continued for 
only six weeks — Commencement Day being the third 
Thursday of August, and the autumn term beginning 
about the twenty-eighth of September. It was not 
then regarded as necessary for the health of young peo- 
ple that they should finish their yearly studies before 
the hot weather arrived, or to that of older persons, 
that they should spend the warm season among the hills 
or by the seaside. Indeed, for the ordinary citizen, 
vacations were not looked upon as an essential part of 
life. They were, in a certain measure, the privilege of 
boys and their teachers — the teachers having the en- 
joyment granted them because it was deemed needful 
that the boys should have it. Why it was universally 
considered so necessary for the boys, we young fellows 
never put ourselves to the task of finding out. Possi- 
bly the task might have been fruitless, if it had been 
undertaken. We accepted the fact, and, raising no 
troublesome inquiries, we felicitated ourselves on the 
good fortune which the world had consented to give us. 
It is half a century since then — and I may say, in 
passing, that I have in all the years followed the wise 
course of my boyhood and have ever avoided the ques- 
tion which I then put aside — adopting in this regard 
the comforting theory that ' what is, is right, and what 
is right is best.' . . . ' Much study is a weariness to the 
flesh'; and so the resting-time was made to follow the 
working-time. . . . The scholar fancies, in his boyhood 
years, that he knows to the utmost the blessing of vaca- 
tion time. But we may pity his ignorance. It is the 
teacher who has the full understanding." 

Dr. Dwight refers more than once, disap- 
provingly, to the Spartan discipline that pre- 
vailed at Yale for many years after his entrance. 
The weeding-out process was carried to an ex- 
cess. In meeting the freshman class for the 
purpose of administering a word of wholesome 
counsel at the outset of the college course, 
President Day was accustomed to remind these 
young hopefuls, as the simplest and most na- 
tural and perhaps most desirable thing in the 
world, — " Doubtless not more than one-half 
your number will graduate." This cheerful 
prophecy was literally fulfilled in the case of 
Dr. Dwight's class. One hundred and ten en- 
tered ; fifty-five achieved the bachelor's degree. 
Not a little of the reform that subsequent years 
have brought in this matter of discipline is due 
to Dr. Dwight himself. 

As the chief charm of this volume lies in its 
life-like portrayal of illustrious men now de- 
ceased, it will not be amiss to quote somewhat 
largely from these character-sketches. Eefer- 
ring to the elder Silliman's kindly attitude 
toward the students, the author relates the 
following : 

" I had presented myself before him, on a certain 
occasion near the end of my academic course, for an 
examination on studies in his department. He asked 
me to take a chair near him in his room, and then, in a 
way peculiar to himself — a way which was very help- 
ful, rather than embarrassing to the student — he ques- 
tioned me on various points for half an hour. Then, 
rising and going to the table, he looked at some papers, 
and, selecting one, said : ' I suppose you would like to 
have me give you a certificate that your examination 
has been satisfactory, which you may hand to the Presi- 
dent.' I gave him, of course, an affirmative answer. 
He then handed me the paper, saying, « Not doubting 
that you would pass, I wrote the certificate before you 
came in.' These last words that he spoke were better, 
if possible, than my assured success. They have re- 
mained in my memory as a part of my mental picture 
of the man." 

But there was nothing weak or childish in this 
mildness of manner. In all cases of grave im- 
portance the old professor was a wise disci- 
plinarian, " a tower of strength," as President 
Woolsey used to call him. When his son, 
Benjamin Silliman, junior, became an in- 
structor in the college, the two were popularly, 
but not disrespectfully, known as Old Ben 
and Young Ben. As the author observes, such 
student appellations are oftener affectionate 
than disrespectful, and the professor who 
chooses to make a grievance of the matter 
may well be advised to seek some other sphere 
of usefulness. 

Those who knew the late Prof. Othniel C. 
Marsh, and who also know Dr. Dwight, will 
appreciate the humor of the following. Refer- 
ring to Professor Marsh and to his own pres- 
idency, the writer says : 

"In his attitude and in his manner of expressing 
himself, a certain formality was characteristic of him. 
Especially was this manifest in cases where he sought 
an interview with others on matters of business, or on 
subjects of interest with respect to his own particular 
work. The slight and somewhat peculiar hesitation in 
his utterance rendered this formality more conspicuous. 
I was always struck with this singularity of manner 
when he called upon me, as he occasionally did, for 
the purpose of securing some minor appropriation 
of money for his department of the museum. . . . 
Whatever the object might be, the manner of the 
man was the same. It was as if we had been two 
ministers of state having little acquaintance with each 
other, who had met for the settlement of some great 
question of public concern. All was serious, with a 
dignified solemnity, and measured with a diplomatic 
deliberateness. My own bearing was, as of necessity, 
determined by his. One could not talk after the ordi- 
nary method, and with the freedom of a common con- 
versation, when the other party in the interview seemed 
to place the subject and the discussion on a plan* so 
much higher. I was not able fully to equal him, but 
my approaches to his standard were, for the time and 
by reason of effort, so near to it that I think he was 
satisfied. I could, indeed, be as immovably serious in 
my look, as he could himself be. This is a gift for 




which I have sometimes felt that I ought to be grateful. 
My look, also, in a measure, solemnized my speech; 
and so, with the friendly spirit which we always had, 
we moved on with a reasonable success, fiat I used 
often to think, just after such an interview had closed, 
of the possibilities of the thoughts on the two sides re- 
specting it. Did either of the two parties quite under- 
stand tbe impression produced on the mind of the other? 
Was the look of either quite the same that it had been 
a few moments before ? It is enough, no doubt, to know 
that all is well that ends well." 

President Woolsey's personal force is strik- 
ingly illustrated by an anecdote. A certain 
class, dating about forty years ago, had planned 
an entertainment of some sort, accompanied 
with dancing, and much interest was felt in the 
success of the occasion. But, as is not unusual 
in such college events, considerable partisan 
excitement had been aroused, and this excite- 
ment increased as the appointed day drew near, 
until the final issue became a matter of some 

" Without the knowledge of the class, the President, 
at a late stage of the controversy, was made aware of 
the condition of things. He met the emergency at once 
in his own mind, and on the morning of the day before 
the entertainment was intended to be given — when all 
thoughts were eager with expectation and doubtful as 
to a peaceful result — he rose in presence of the as- 
sembled company of students, and said: 'I understand 
that a plan has been formed by the Senior Class for a 
ball to-morrow evening, and that much contention has 
arisen in the class respecting certain matters connected 
with it. There will be no ball.' The question was im- 
mediately settled for every member of the class, and the 
excitement died away because its cause was removed." 

The author's views on various matters of col- 
lege education and administration are set forth 
impressively, not to say convincingly. Speak- 
ing of the measure of power to be granted to 
the executive head of a college or university, 
he refers to the extreme view of those who 
would clothe the president with an authority 
similar to that of the head of a great com- 
mercial establishment ; and he also cites the 
suggestion of President Woolsey that the pres- 
ident's office be superseded by something like 
the rectorship prevailing in German univer- 
sities. The Yale system has ever been, and is 
now, a sort of compromise between these two. 
Although the president has the right of veto on 
all faculty action, he governs with the advice 
and consent of his faculty ; and this plan Dr. 
D wight regards as the best, and as adapted, in 
all essential points, to the spirit of the times. 
On the question of shortening the college course, 
now furnishing matter for considerable dis- 
cussion both wise and foolish, Dr. Dwight 
pronounces emphatically for continuing the old 
order of things, and advises the shortening of 

the preparatory curriculum, so that the boy may 
enter college at sixteen or seventeen, instead 
of eighteen or nineteen. He holds that if a 
young man finishes his academic and his profes- 
sional education, and enters on the serious busi- 
ness of life, at twenty-six, that is early enough. 
To all in any way interested in education, as 
well as to those who take a special interest in 
Yale, Dr. Dwight's book is most heartily to be 
commended. The only regret is that its five 
hundred pages of varied and entertaining mat- 
ter are followed by no index. Portraits, as well 
as views of buildings, are lavishly supplied. 
Percy F. Bicknell. 

The only Presidential, Impeachment 

No gift of prophecy is required to see that, 
as time gives the proper perspective, the period 
of Reconstruction following the Civil War will 
command a paramount interest in the history 
of our country. As a crisis when the scales 
of life or death for representative government 
trembled at the equipoise, it surpasses any 
moment of the great war which produced it. 
During the time of the appeal to arms, there 
could be little question of the outcome after 
the policy of coercion had been determined 
upon and the people had rallied to the call. 
The overwhelming odds in favor of Northern 
numbers, equipment, and resources, made the 
conquest of the protestants a matter of human 
endurance. Free government was never for an 
instant in real danger in the North. The aim 
was simply the preservation of the Union, with 
all its forms intact. 

But Reconstruction changed Northern feel- 
ings and aims completely. Flushed with 
victory, the conquerors, in their attempt to 
"reconstruct" the Union, struck at the vital 
principles of self-government. The building 
was threatened with destruction in the effort 
to restore it. One portion of the people was 
to be held subject to the other. The policy 
decided on required the erection of an auto- 
cratic empire on free soil. No rights were to 
be accorded a conquered minority. 

But suddenly the action checked itself. A 
unanimity of opinion in this sudden perversion 
was not to be hoped for ; and this very dif- 
ference brought on a conflict between two 
branches of the victorious national govern- 

*The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson, 
Seventeenth President of the United States. By David 
Miller Dewitt. New York : Macmillan Co. 



[Aug. 1, 

ment, which, while further jeopardizing free- 
dom, distracted attention from the unfortu- 
nate people of the South. 

If the attention of the radicals, whose exist- 
ence was due to the necessary force- measures 
of the war, had not thus been drawn away 
from the objects of their wrath to centre upon 
President Johnson, one hesitates to predict 
the permanent injury which might have been 
wrought to the principles of free government. 
In this sense, Andrew Johnson was a vicarious 
sacrifice. And as such he is pictured in an 
excellent history of his impeachment and trial 
by Mr. David Miller Dewitt. In this, the 
author has not been blind to Johnson's faults, 
although frequently inclined to gloss them 
over. The President by chance faced a prob- 
lem which would have tried the powers of the 
president chosen by the people ; yet " Andrew 
Johnson was not Abraham Lincoln," as the 
author says. " His personal self-sufficiency, 
his unbounded confidence in the rectitude of 
his public acts, and the steady fire of his com- 
bativeness," are phrases which indicate the 
final estimate of him. 

One must not expect this volume to be 
free from partisanship in behalf of Johnson. 
Sometimes this is shown by writing down his 
enemies, especially Stanton. " The Genius of 
Duplicity " is summoned to guard the shade 
of the ex-Secretary of War, as the testimony of 
Sumner is recalled showing Stanton's private 
opinion of Grant while soliciting an office at 
his hands. John Sherman is accused of jug- 
gling the order of charges in the final vote, 
" to avoid an utter loss of self-respect." The 
cry of Sumner for a verdict of " guilty " is 
compared with the tirades of Robespierre in 
the Convention. Thaddeus Stevens, the most 
implacable of Johnson's enemies, is treated with 
greater leniency, perhaps because he was al- 
ways a fair fighter. The accusation is made that 
" the two Nebraska senators fulfilled the con- 
tract of their admission " by voting " guilty." 

In no part of the book is the author more 
interesting than in his description of the dra- 
gooning to which the doubtful senators were 
subjected just before the vote in the Impeach- 
ment trial. " From Maine, from Illinois, from 
Kansas, from Rhode Island, from West Vir- 
ginia, from Tennessee, — resolutions, letters, 
telegrams, delegates, all demanding the con- 
viction of the President and denouncing the 
least hesitation on the part of his Republican 
triers." He shows the risk a statesman runs who 
pares oppose his personal convictions against 

party policy. This was especially true of Sena- 
tor Ross of Kansas, whose political career was 
cut short by his negative vote. Ross wrote a 
vindication of his action, which was printed at 
Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1896, his place 
of residence at the time, but which the present 
author evidently did not use. Senators Trum- 
bull of Illinois and Doolittle of Wisconsin 
were also conspicuous victims to the vengeance 
of party rule. 

The conclusions from this concise study of 
the trial may be found in these words : 

" Had this first impeachment eventuated in the re- 
moval of the Chief Magistrate, a precedent would have 
been established of the most fatal character — consti- 
tuting a perpetual menace to the stability of our execu- 
tive, a spreading blight upon our character and credit 
as a nation, a standing reproach to the republican form 
of government, and gradually leading to a national habit 
of capricious political convulsions to put one president 
in place of another such as have disgraced some of the 
republics of Central and South America. . . . Never will 
the practice of deposing presidents by political impeach- 
ment become domiciliated in this republic. Centuries 
will pass by before another President of the United 
States can be impeached, unless the offense of which he 
is accused is clearly non-political and amounts unmis- 
takably to a high crime or misdemeanor." 

Edwin Erle Sparks. 

A Century of Explorations.* 

Explorers, archaeologists, philologists, and 
historians have found mines of wealth in the ter- 
ritory commonly designated as " Bible Lands." 
Ruins of ancient cities, temples, palaces, tombs, 
and towers, have yielded large results within 
the past century to the persistent and well- 
equipped explorer. Egypt, Palestine, Syria, 
Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, and Arabia have 
produced rich harvests for the student of an- 
cient oriental times, and of the Bible. 

Professor Hilprecht's bulky volume, of 810 
pages, is an attempt to present in popular 
form the explorations of a century in five 
lands which figure more or less in the Bible. 
The editor has contributed to the book 577 
pages on the " Resurrection of Assyria and 
Babylonia." Of these, the first 288 pages 
summarize the explorations and expeditions in 
those countries from early times down to the 
present, devoting the greater amount of space 
to the activities of the nineteenth century. 
This section traverses largely the same terri- 


Century. Edited by Prof. H. V. Hilprecht, University of 
Pennsylvania. Illustrated. Philadelphia : A. J. Holman & 




tory as Rogers, in his "History of Babylonia 
and Assyria," Vol. I. pp. 1-253. In clearness 
and directness of statement it does not equal 
Rogers, but in the multiplicity of facts that are 
presented it surpasses that earlier work. 

The most elaborate section of the volume, 
very naturally, is that devoted to the American 
excavations at Nuffar (pp. 289-568). It 
discusses with minute detail the history and 
pi-ogress of that series of campaigns from 1888 
to the present time. It is evident to the im- 
partial reader, before he gets far into the nar- 
rative, that this section of the book is taking 
on a controversial character. The editor soon 
pits himself against Dr. John P. Peters, the 
director of the first two campaigns (compare 
pp. 321-2, 327-8-9, 339 note 1, 408, 415). 
Throughout the whole of the treatment, the 
reader is now and then so forcibly reminded 
of an unpleasant controversy that his ardor 
over the recital of brilliant discoveries is 
chilled. Disputes and disagreements as to the 
proper method of conducting excavations may 
always arise between leaders of campaigns, but 
it hurts public confidence and public respect to 
witness such wranglings. Professor Hilprecht 
has done valuable service in publishing the 
texts issued some years ago, and in populariz- 
ing information on discoveries in the Orient, 
and in determining some of the technique of 
ancient Nippur. These are certainly eminent 
services to knowledge. Therefore we are the 
more chagrined to find so much valuable space 
and time, in a work for popular circulation, 
given to the discussion of matters that gratu- 
itously disturb the peace of mind of the reader. 

This whole section reveals to us Nippur as 
one of the great cities of a great past. The 
revelations made through the campaigns of the 
University of Pennsylvania must re-cast our 
conceptions of the civilization of Babylonia in 
the fourth and third millenniums B.C., and con- 
sequently greatly modify all former views of 
the beginnings and growth of the most ancient 
civilization of the world. 

The section (pp. 623-690) on " Excava- 
tions in Egypt," by Professor Steindorff, is 
well written, and gives the reader a very fair 
conception of many of the best results of ex- 
ploration on the Nile within a century. - Of 
course, the space at his disposal is manifestly 
cramped, but it has been wisely employed for 
the benefit of the lay reader. 

Professor Hommel has presented (pp. 691— 
752) a good bird's-eye view of " Explorations 
in Arabia." The hazardous work of Glazer 

within recent years has made this dangerous 
field more fascinating and valuable than ever 
before. With the exception of some technical 
philological matters, the reader will get much 
of value in this story. 

"The So-called Hittites and their Inscrip- 
tions " is the theme discussed by Professor 
Jensen of Marburg. His article is an exposi- 
tion of his own method of deciphering the 
Hittite inscriptions, — a method that finds 
in them kinship with the language of modern 
Armenia. This article will be of least interest 
to the popular reader, because of its technical 

The entire volume is profusely illustrated ; 
the reproductions from photographs are gen- 
erally admirable, while those made from draw- 
ings are quite uneven in value. The four 
maps accompanying the book are excellent, and 
aid the reader in localizing the travels of explor- 
ers and points of explorations. The volume is 
issued in sumptuous form, printed on calen- 
dered paper, with beautiful clear type, with a 
smaller size in the foot-notes. These foot- 
notes are full of valuable bibliographical mat- 
ter, such as the scholar or investigator may 
wish to examine in further research. The vol- 
ume occupies a position quite unique in the his- 
tory of exploration in Bible lands, and gives to 
the public the editor's large service in this 
great work, — a service whose character and 
scope as here represented have unfortunately 
stirred up a warm contention among scholars. 

Ira M. Price. 

The Conspirac y of Aaron Burr.* 
One of the most interesting chapters of 
American history is that which relates the 
conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Perhaps the inter- 
est arises from the fact that this episode seems 
to be so wholly out of keeping with the gen- 
eral character of American events. That a 
man of political influence and ability, a former 
leader in republican councils, engaged in the 
prosy profession of law and living in the rather 
unromantie century just past, should suddenly 
take to knight-errantry and set out to win him- 
self an empire, is a matter that we should hardly 
expect to find recorded in our own matter-of- 
fact annals. And the mystery that pervades 
the whole undertaking serves to heighten the 

For a long time, historians were in doubt as 

*Thb Aabon Burb Conspiracy. By Walter Flavins 
McCaleb. New York : Dodd, Mead, & Co. 



[Aug. 1, 

to what Burr's real purposes were. Did the 
conspirators plan to wrest Mexico from Spain, 
or the Mississippi Valley from the United 
States? Or did their purpose embrace both 
these ends ? For nearly a century the problem 
waited for a satisfactory solution ; but when 
Mr. Henry Adams, in his masterly history of 
the Jeffersonian period, declared Burr a traitor, 
it was thought that the matter had been finally 
disposed of. The evidence seemed conclusive, 
and scholars settled down to the belief that in 
the early years of the nineteenth century a vast 
conspiracy existed in the West looking toward 
the establishment of a mighty empire extending 
from Pittsburg to Panama. 

But the present year has produced a work 
on this subject which students of history will 
read with great interest. Dr. McCaleb's work 
is the result of several years' research; it makes 
a book of about 350 pages, and impresses 
the reader as a remarkably thorough effort. 
In addition to the older, fairly well-known, 
material, the author has made use of sources 
hitherto unknown. His exploitation of Texan, 
Mexican, and British archives, has added much 
to our knowledge, not only of Burr's conspiracy, 
but also of kindred subjects. 

Dr. McCaleb takes the position that Burr's 
plans were directed against Mexico only. The 
evidence formerly relied on to prove Burr's 
traitorous intentions exists in the form of a few 
letters. There is also the testimony of Gen- 
erals Wilkinson and Eaton; but no historian 
who values his reputation would dare depend 
on their statements. The former is infamous 
as the most successful traitor, and one of the 
most consummate prevaricators, that our his- 
tory knows. The latter is also a suspicious 
character. Dr. McCaleb is certainly safe in 
arguing that a man who could urge the Presi- 
dent to send as our minister to Spain or En- 
gland one whom he knew to be intriguing with 
the representatives of those very nations, and 
to have threatened to assassinate the President 
and to loot the capital, can hardly be accepted 
as a trustworthy witness. 

Mr. Henry Adams lays great stress on Burr's 
own statements to the English and Spanish 
ministers. But Dr. McCaleb contends that 
these were but " a consummate piece of impos- 
ture." Burr needed funds, and England and 
Spain were thought willing to assist any ven- 
ture that looked toward the dismemberment of 
our Union. Hence they were asked to finance 
a fictitious revolt or to pay for mythical secrets. 
This interpretation is at least plausible. 

Burr's famous letter of July 29, 1806, in 
which he unfolds his plans to General Wilkin- 
son, has long been looked on as furnishing the 
key to the whole conspiracy. But Dr. McCaleb 
shows that this letter is capable of at least two 
interpretations, of which the older seems the 
least probable. The author also makes good 
use of Clark's letter to Wilkinson, which Mr. 
Henry Adams construes as a warning against 
one Mr. Minor, of Natchez, who was supposed 
to have revealed the secrets of the conspirators. 
But the letter, when cited in full, appears to be 
more than this : it is a warning against' a man 
who invents and circulates absurd tales. 

The author is not satisfied with weakening 
the evidence of the prosecution. He proceeds 
with a positive argument along three principal 
lines: The West hated Spain, and longed for 
an opportunity to help liberate Mexico ; the 
Mississippi Valley was loyal to the Union, not 
even the Creoles at New Orleans plotted sedi- 
tion ; the panic that struck the country when 
Burr's expedition finally started south was 
largely the result of Wilkinson's activity in 
circulating false and alarming reports. The 
parts of Dr. McCaleb's work that deal with the 
state of public sentiment in the West are 
particularly strong and enlightening. 

The older view is manifestly shaken. Burr 
himself may have had traitorous designs, but 
that cannot be known. The author rarely tries 
to apologize for Burr, and succeeds rather 
poorly when he does try. But the New York 
lawyer was not alone in the conspiracy. With 
him were associated such men as Blenner- 
hassett, Dayton, Senator Smith, and perhaps 
Andrew Jackson. It is hard to believe that 
these and others, knowing the opinions of their 
neighbors, would join in a venture that public 
sentiment would not support for a moment. 

In some respects, Dr. McCaleb's book is not 
wholly satisfactory. The author at times al- 
most ceases to be a historian and becomes 
something of an advocate. And in this con- 
nection it should be said that his treatment of 
Jefferson is rather unfair. Burr, on the other 
hand, is permitted to display his better side 
almost continuously ; it is to be feared that the 
picture of the conspirator which would develop 
in the mind of the general reader would be 
decidedly unlike the original. Perhaps the 
literary critic will tell us that the unity of 
style is largely impaired by the introduction of 
documentary material into almost every page 
of the text. But after all these things have 
been said, the fact remains that Dr. McCaleb 




has presented his thesis in a clear, scholarly and 
convincing manner. That he has made a nota- 
ble contribution to American history, cannot be 
doubted. Whether the world of scholarship 
will accept his conclusions, remains to be seen. 
Laurence M. Larson. 

Recent Fictiox.* 

A book by Mr. Robert Hicbens is sore to offer 
something disagreeable for oar contemplation, and 
■ Felix " offers no exception to the rule. In this 
case it is a woman who is a morphine-eater, and the 
effects of this loathsome rice are studied with un- 
sparing pathological frankness. She is a married 
woman of thirty or thereabouts, and Felix is an 
innocent youth of twenty — so innocent, in fact, 
that he does not discover the failing of his divinity 
until late in the chapter, although it is Polichinelle's 
secret to the rest of the world. The trouble with 
Felix is that he thinks he knows life when he 
doesn't. This delusion is born of the singular cir- 
cumstance that when he leaves the public school, 
instead of going to the university he packs off to 
France, and spends a year in a provincial town. 
While there he makes the acquaintance of a tailor 
who once made a pair of trousers for Balzac, and 
has been daft on the subject of the great man ever 

* Felix. A Novel. By Robert Hichens. New York: 
Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

A Prince of Sinners. By E. Phillips Oppenheim. 
Boston : Little. Brown. ii: Co. 

Castle Omeragh. By F. Frankfort Moore. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co. 

The Adventures of Harry Revel. By A. T. Quiller- 
Couch. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Robin Brilliant. By Mrs. Henry Dudeney. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Pigs in Clover. By Frank Danby. Philadelphia : The 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 

A Spectre of Power. By Charles Egbert Craddock. 
Boston : Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. 

Love Thrives in War. A Romance of the Frontier in 
1812. By Mary Catherine Crowley. Boston : Little, Brown, 
<k Co. 

The Voice in the Desert. By Pauline Bradford 
Mackie ( Mrs. Herbert Mailer Hopkins ) . New York : Me- 
Clure, Phillips, & Co. 

The Legatee. By Alice Prescott Smith. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. 

Under the Rose. By Frederic S. Isham. Indianapolis : 
The Bowen-Merrill Co. 

The Grey Cloak. By Harold MacGrath. Indianapolis : 
The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

Gordon Keith. By Thomas Nelson Page. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

A Gentleman of the South. A Memory of the Black 
Belt, from the Manuscript Memoirs of the late Colonel 
Stanton Elmore. Edited without change by William Garrott 
Brown. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

The Substitute. By Will N. Harben. New York: 
Harper & Brothers. 

The Redfields Succession. A- Novel. By Henry 
Burnham Boone and Kenneth Brown. New York : Harper 
& Brothers. 

since. This starts Felix to reading the " Comedie 
Humaine," which he devours from first to last. 
Thus equipped, he believes that he knows the 
human heart in all its manifestations, and goes 
home to apply his knowledge. He falls an easy 
victim to the morphinomane, and when he learns 
the truth, his faith in books — even in the books of 
M. de Balzac, — is considerably shaken. The story 
is thoroughly unpleasant; it can profit no one to 
read, and may not even be described as enter- 

Mr. E. Phillips Oppenheim, who gave us "The 
Traitors " a few weeks ago, now gives us " A Prince 
of Sinners." On the whole, we prefer the weaver 
of adventurous romance in an imaginary Balkan 
kingdom to the topical novelist of modern London. 
'• A Prince of Sinners " gives us dubious philan- 
throphy of the social settlement type and bad 
economics in a defence of the miserable sophistries 
of protectionism. The hero is a young man who es- 
pouses both these causes, and who at the same time 
carries on two love affairs so skilfully that we are 
kept guessing until the very end. The piince of 
sinners is the father of the youth, who had deserted 
wife and child many years before, and caused a 
fictitious report of his death to be spread abroad 
When he reappears in England, it is as the wealthy 
Earl of Arranmore (he having succeeded unexpect- 
edly to the title and estates), and in his endeavor 
to be helpful to the career of his son (who does 
not recognize him for a time) the relationship is 
discovered. Even then the son will not accept his 
newly-found father, but persists in the attempt to 
carve out his own career under his assumed name. 
It is a case of pride against pride, but in the end 
the older man makes a great concession, and the 
younger man gives in. The lesser social types 
depicted are presented with an easy skill that be- 
tokens familiarity with several phases of modern 
English life. Barring the inherent improbability 
of its scheme, the story is a readable one. 

Mr. F. Frankfort Moore has gone back to Crom- 
well's ravaging of Ireland for the subject of his 
latest novel, " Castle Omeragh." The action covers 
the period from Drogheda to Clonmel, and we are 
given a vivid picture of the horrors which have 
made " the curse of Cromwell" a potent and sinister 
watchword to this day. These dreadful happenings 
are kept mostly in the background, but we are 
made to realize them none the less, and to under- 
stand how they have kept Irish passion inflamed 
ever since. The actual theme of the romance is 
the attempt of a small detachment of Cromwell's 
forces to capture an outlying stronghold, and the 
eventual triumph of its defenders. A double love- 
story figures conspicuously in the plot, which is 
interesting and well-developed, and open to crit- 
icism only on account of its serious use of the 
supernatural motive of crystal-gazing. Cromwell 
himself appears briefly upon the seene in the closing 

Mr. Quiller-Couch is always a welcome visitor 



[Aug. 1, 

to our reading-table, for his mastery of ingenious 
and humorous romance insures us a session of enjoy- 
ment whenever a new book comes to hand from his 
pen. The number of his books is now sixteen — a 
fact which we hardly realized until we counted them 
in the list which accompanies the new volume — and 
nearly every one of the sixteen evokes some memory 
of delight. " The Adventures of Harry Revel " is a 
story of the surprising adventures of a foundling, who 
leaves the institution that has sheltered his child- 
hood to become an apprenticed chimney-sweep. His 
experiences in this capacity soon launch him upon a 
surprising series of adventures, which end by his 
taking ship for Portugal as a bugle-boy in the En- 
glish army. The time is that of the Peninsular 
War, and the capture of Ciudad Rodrigo occupies 
the closing chapters. The story is told in the first 
person, and the hero is only fifteen years of age 
when we take leave of him, but it must not be in- 
ferred from this fact that the book is one of merely 
juvenile interest. Far from this, it deals with such 
matters as the murder of a Jewish miser, a smug- 
gling episode on the Cornish coast, the mock 
marriage of a beautiful girl, and the Virgilian 
translations of her venerable father. With all these 
things the boy becomes mixed up as a witness, and 
occupies the centre of the stage most of the time. 
Nor must we forget the quaint and delightful figure 
of the old maid whose special charge he is at the 
foundling's home, and whose addiction to verse- 
writing provides the author with an opportunity for 
the display of his most genial humor. 

With every new novel by Mrs. Henry Dudeney, 
we feel more and more impressed with the idea 
that a mantle of similar cut to the one worn by Mr. 
Thomas Hardy rests upon her shoulders. This vari- 
ation of the usual metaphor is necessary because Mr. 
Hardy is fortunately still living. Mrs. Dadeney's 
rustics are of the same race as Mr. Hardy's, and 
her account of their environment gives us a similar 
sense of the earthiness that clings to unsophisticated 
humanity everywhere. She gives us with marvel- 
ous fidelity the raciness, the dry humor, the super- 
stitious notions, and the peculiarities of dialect that 
survive in rural England to this day, and that con- 
tact with culture seems powerless to modify. This 
persistence of rude primeval types of life and 
thought in the vicinage of civilized conditions is 
impressed upon us with singular force by the two 
novelists whose names are thus naturally linked to- 
gether, and remains dominant in our recollection of 
their work. Yet " Robin Brilliant," Mrs. Dadeney's 
new novel, is by no means chiefly concerned with 
rustics; on the contrary, its" interest is centred al- 
most wholly about a man and a woman who stand 
for generations of aristocratic culture, and the back- 
ground of village and rural life serves only as artistic 
relief. But somehow the background strikes us as 
being the most genuine part of the book. The char- 
acters of both hero and heroine are wrought with 
exceeding subtlety of analysis — the woman even 
more so than the man, as is inevitable in a woman's 

novel — but the pale cast of thought that comes 
with over-civilization makes it impossible for either 
of them to act with conviction and determination. 
The right path, the path of contentment, if not 
happiness, lies plainly before them both, but the 
man wavers, and the woman balks at decision, and 
the outcome is satisfaction with a lower ideal for 
the one, and a future of proud but dreary isolation 
for the other. Modern life affords such types and 
such situations, no doubt, but they are not creditable 
to modern civilization. 

" Frank Danby " is the pen-name of a woman 
who writes novels under the tutelage of Mr. George 
Moore. At least, this was formerly the case, but 
since a recent acrimonious exchange of discourtesies 
between the two in the columns of " The Saturday 
Review," we presume that the relation of master 
and disciple has been dissolved. We are not ac- 
quainted with the earlier books of this writer, but 
her new novel "Pigs in Clover," is calculated to 
attract attention. The influence of Mr. Moore's 
literary methods is evident in the realism of this 
social study and in its unabashed handling of dis- 
agreeable types and situations. In the interest of 
the story she has to tell, we should say that the 
pupil had outdone the teacher. We do not alto- 
gether approve of the artistic methods which she 
employs, but are all the time impressed by the fact 
that the work is a product of an intensely conscious 
art, in which every effect is carefully planned, and 
nothing left to chance on the impulse of the moment. 
" Pigs in Clover " is not an engaging title, and will 
probably keep many readers from the book thus 
unfortunately christened. It is the contemptuous 
phrase which one of the characters — a blue-blooded 
lady — uses to describe the nouveaux riches of 
English society. The particular application of this 
phrase is to the South African millionaire, for the 
time covered by the novel includes just the years in 
which the mining-fields of the Rand reached their 
highest development, the years preceding and in- 
cluding the raid of Dr. Jamieson and its striking 
consequences. Rhodes and other actual characters 
figure in the novel under their own names ; still 
others appear in easily penetrated disguises. The 
political point of view maintained by the writer is 
that of imperialism, and she justifies the English 
attitude during the years that preceded the out- 
break of the war by pleading the paramount interest 
of a superior over an inferior civilization. The 
brutality of the individual Boer and the corruption 
of the Boer government are painted in colors so 
dark that any measures, whether of defence or 
aggression, seem warranted. The book is not, how- 
ever, in its essence, a novel of Boer and English- 
man in South Africa; it is a novel of Jew and 
Gentile, of parvenu and aristocrat, in London. Still 
more essentially is it a novel of individual passion, 
of the incredible lengths to which a woman's de- 
votion may lead her, even when the object of her 
attachment is a man of the most despicable mean- 
ness and selfishness. For with all its variety of 




other interests, this is the leading motive of the 
novel, and this is the relation which brings it to a 
tragic close. It is hard for as to accept as possible 
a woman so enslaved as Joan, or the power to charm 
of so miserable a wretch as Louis Althaus. That 
the author holds in deadly earnest her belief in the 
reality of the relation she so remorselessly depicts 
is made evident by the striking statement made of 
her thesis in advance of its application : 

"There is a mystery known to all who know men and 
women, to all who have insight into, sympathy with, or 
understanding of, their fellow-travellers, bnt it is blank and 
incomprehensible to the Pharisees, and to all who would read 
and ran at the same time. This is a mystery that fills the 
divorce courts, mocks the incredulous, and sets at naught all 
creeds and convictions. It is that a certain something, subtle, 
sweet, and rare, not a perfume, not a touch, but an echo of 
both, light, elusive, all-pervading, is the special property of 
some loose-living men, a property that is beyond the reach of 
analysis, but recognisable in the freemasonry of the passions 
by all who have realised its existence. It is as the candle to 
the moth, as the rose to the butterfly, as the magnet to the 
steel. It is a surface lure of sex, it is an all-compelling 
whisper, almost it seems that to hear it is to obey." 

This passage, which cannot fail to attract the 
attention of the most casual reader, will doubtless 
be singled out, and rightly so, by every serious 
reviewer as the most noticeable thing in the book. 
And yet, convinced as we may be of its truth, the 
application in the present instance strains our cred- 
ulity to the breaking-point. "We may account for 
the second of the two women whom the man of 
fatal fascination gets into his toils, for she is intel- 
lectually undeveloped, and of the type that falls an 
easy prey to such seductions. But with Joan the 
case is widely different. She is a woman of char- 
acter, will-power, and intellectual ability — to put 
it bluntly, she is Miss Olive Schreiner externally 
modified for the specific purposes of the novel — 
and we are unwilling to admit that a woman of 
this type could be brought permanently under the 
obsession which the author of "Pigs in Clover" 
would have us accept. The situation seems to us 
radically untrue, and for this reason, for this reason 
only, profoundly immoral. 

We commonly think of Wolfe's victory at Quebec 
as ending the struggle between France and England 
for the possession of North America. But it must 
be remembered that for four years after that mem- 
orable engagement on the Plains of Abraham the 
two nations were still at war, and were technically 
enemies in the New World no less than in the Old. 
Their ambitions forever thwarted in Canada, the 
French still had hopes in the Southwest, and were 
intriguing with the Indian tribes of Mississippi and 
Tennessee for the furtherance of their designs. 
Their idea seems to have been to organize a con- 
federacy of Choctaws, Chickasawg, and Cherokees, 
which, in alliance with the French, should oppose a 
formidable barrier to the English advance over the 
mountains, and which should occupy in the South 
a position not unlike that occupied in the North by 
the Long House of the Iroquois nations. These 
plans and this situation form the historical setting 

of Miss Murfree's latest novel, " A Spectre of 
Power." The time is the last year of the Seven 
Years' War, and the scene is placed in those Great 
Smoky Mountains which the author has so often 
described in the glowing language of enthusiasm. 
An exceedingly interesting story is built up about 
these historical and geographical accessories, a story 
of military operations and diplomatic intrigue, of 
romantic love and picturesque Indian adventure. 
Miss Murfree has made a careful study of the 
Tennessee Indians of the eighteenth century, and 
she possibly makes this fact a little too evident, for 
not only are there notes at the back of the volume, 
but there are also interspersed through the text 
many matters of Indian dialect, folk-lore, and cere- 
monial that are not altogether to be justified by the 
exigencies of the plot. A better reason for their 
being may be found in taking them as necessary 
contributions to the study of Indian character which 
is brought into the plot with great ingenuity and 
sympathetic understanding. The author is not con- 
tent with the externals that satisfy most writers of 
this sort of fiction, but must give us the psychology 
of her Cherokees. It is certainly a subtle psychol- 
ogy, fairly supported by the historical evidences 
adduced here and there, and is artistically convinc- 
ing. Of its absolute truthfulness we have no au- 
thority to speak, nor do we greatly care about the 
matter. Considered simply as a story, " A Spectre 
of Power " is extraordinarily interesting and its 
literary workmanship is very fine indeed. We 
rather resent the way in which the affections of the 
captivating Miss Lilias are shifted from the French- 
man to the Highlander, but the latter turns out a 
tolerably acceptable hero after all, although at first 
he appears to be a peculiarly graceless cub. The 
phrases in which the author describes the mountain 
scenery of the country she knows so well have all 
the old charm for us ; they constitute an impassioned 
form of prose that appeals powerfully to the poeti- 
cal sensibilities, while remaining prose in the 
strictest sense, and never degenerating into merely 
rhapsodical utterance. It is many years since Miss 
Murfree has given us as extensive a performance 
as the present one, and her book is very welcome 

English, French, and Indians are again brought 
into romantic relations for us in " Love Thrives in 
War," a story by Miss Mary Catherine Crowley. 
The opening year of the War of 1812 provides the 
historical setting for this romance of Northwestern 
history, which begins with Hull's disgraceful sur- 
render of Detroit, and ends with the reoccupation 
of the city by the American forces. Tecumseh, the 
Prophet, and Tippecanoe are among the many his- 
torical characters who appear. The story as a 
whole is rather lifeless, and suffers severely in com- 
parison with the distinguished work of Miss Mur- 
free. The characters are of the hackneyed conven- 
tional sort, and every incident of the action is of a 
type that has been used hundreds of times before. 

Miss Pauline Bradford Mackie (Mrs. Hopkins) 



[Aug. 1, 

is making marked advances in the pursuit of her 
art. Her new novel, "A Voice in the Desert," has 
both delicacy and charm ; it can hardly be said to 
possess strength. The story is of the Southwest, pre- 
sumably Arizona, and concerns a few transplanted 
Easterners, noting the fascination of desert life for 
each and all of them, and depicting its subtly modify- 
ing influence upon their characters. Life under these 
conditions seems to grow tranquil if not apathetic, 
and the natural human passions assert themselves 
but languidly. One of the characters — the clergy- 
man's wife — indeed revolts, and makes her escape; 
but even she returns after a season, impelled by the 
desert fascination. A sand-storm adventure, graph- 
ically depicted, lends a certain degree of excitement 
to the closing chapters, and helps to bring about 
the final sentimental adjustment. 

Mrs. Alice Prescott Smith's "The Legatee," is 
not unlike the book just mentioned in its general 
characteristics. It has a charm that almost amounts 
to distinction but is somewhat lacking in the elements 
of strength. The scene is a Wisconsin lumber town, 
with its mixed population of Belgians, Swedes, and 
native Americans, and the time is about thirty years 
ago. The characteristics of village life, with its 
petty preoccupations, its dull round of toil, and its 
narrow religious bigotry, are given us from intimate 
knowlege with an unsparing pen. In one respect 
we think that the writer errs. A labor agitation 
occupies an important part in the story, and the 
type of thought and activity portrayed is one fa- 
miliar enough to us nowadays, but one which had 
hardly appeared in this country as early as 1870. 
A wayward and altogether charming heroine is 
found in the daughter of the village physician, and 
the not unsatisfactory hero is the Southerner who, 
as his uncle's legatee in the ownership of the lum- 
ber mills, finds his coming heralded by prejudice, 
and his every act met with suspicion. How he 
eventually conquers respect and sympathy is inter- 
estingly described. The disastrous forest fires of 
the autumn of 1871 are made use of in the final 
chapters, and bring the narrative to a picturesque 
and dramatic close. The author of this novel is a 
young woman, and "The Legatee" is her first book. 
We are bound to say that she has made a more than 
creditable beginning of what we trust may prove a 
successful literary career. 

"Under the Rose," by Mr. Frederic S. Isham, 
is a historical romance of the time of Francis I. 
The Duke of Friedwald, seeking the hand of a 
princess of the royal family, makes all the necessary 
negotiations, and then repairs to the court disguised 
as a jester, in order to make the acquaintance of 
his future consort in an unconventional way. Mean- 
while, a notorious robber baron, learning of the 
Duke's matrimonial ambitions, plots to cut off his 
journey to the court, and himself, impersonating 
the Duke, endeavors to consummate a marriage 
before the imposture shall be discovered. A pretty 
situation is thus developed, but it ends somewhat 
unexpectedly, for the jester-duke, after thwarting the 

schemes of his rival, becomes enamoured of another 
woman, and the princess is tricked of both pros- 
pective husbands. The matter of the romance is too 
thin to keep up a sustained interest, and the trap- 
pings of the various scenes are too artificial to make 
any impression of verisimilitude. In a word, the 
story drags all the way through, and displays little 
of the true quality of romance. 

This quality is provided, on the other hand, in 
superabundant measure by Mr. Harold MacGrath 
in his romance of " The Grey Cloak." This book 
is preeminently an example of " how to do it," as 
contrasted with the "how not to do it" example 
of Mr. Isham's story. It is historical enough to' 
satisfy the conscience of those readers who would 
balk at a work of fiction which was pure invention, 
yet it has invention enough to gratify the most 
ardent passion for exciting adventure. It has, 
moreover, a literary quality that is at least respect- 
able, and that does not suffer overmuch from pad- 
ding and cheap rhetorical devices. The character- 
izations are excellent after the stagy fashion that is 
inevitable in such a story, and the sequence of in- 
cident is surprisingly well-knit. Historically, the 
book is a romance of the time of Mazarin, the scene 
being about equally divided between Old and New 
France. Thus we get court intrigue and roystering 
in the first half, and in the second half garrison 
life and Indian adventure. Taken altogether, this 
romance is one of the best of its kind ; its interest 
is unflagging, and it affords an abundant measure 
of not unprofitable entertainment. 

For the second time, Mr. Thomas Nelson Page 
presents us with a novel of large dimensions. The 
new work is entitled " Gordon Keith," and suffers 
somewhat in the comparison with " Red Rock " for 
the reason that its interest is more scattered, and 
its plan does not have so definite a historical back- 
ground. It is essentially a novel of the personal 
fortunes of the hero, who is the son of a Virginian 
gentleman of the old school. The war has ruined 
the family fortunes, the plantation has fallen into 
the hands of an alien, and the boy is thrown upon 
his own resources. How he achieves success from 
humble beginnings, struggling for an education, 
teaching a country school, getting work as a mining 
engineer, and eventually acquiring large interests 
in the enterprise which his energy has developed 
— this is the outline of his career. The setting is 
greatly diversified, including the life of the planta- 
tion, experiences in the lawless mining community 
of the Virginia mountains, seenes in the homes and 
marts of New York, and episodes of foreign travel. 
There are also characters in almost bewildering va- 
riety, and we barely become acquainted with one set 
when we are hurried away into another company. 
All of these scenes and characters, together with the 
author's many dramatic and sentimental inventions, 
are united in a structure of reasonable coherency, 
yet one that is not easy to keep in view as a whole. 
Ethically, the story always rings true ; its ideals are 
of the sincere and manly type, and the hero in 




whom they are chiefly embodied is one whom it is 
a pleasure to follow on his toilsome path to success. 
Mr. Page is too practised a hand at novel-writing 
to allow the interest to flag, to hold the reader too 
long in suspense at critical moments, or to make 
any of the false moves that so frequently lessen the 
effectiveness of otherwise excellent works of fiction. 

The late Colonel Stanton Elmore, of the Confed- 
erate army, who died in London a few years ago, 
left certain manuscripts, among which was a novel 
called "A Gentleman of the South." This is 
now edited and published by Mr. "William Garrott 
Brown. These facts are gravely stated in the 
preface to the novel, and we record them with 
equal gravity, but we have a dark suspicion that 
the Colonel and his story alike are creations of the 
editor's invention. The story is a simple one, 
related in admirable English, and deals with the 
after consequences of an old family feud originated 
by the father of the leading character. Of this 
character, and the age in which he lived, the puta- 
tive writer says that they belong " to a world so 
completely vanished that I sometimes feel as if I 
never lived in it save in dreams. It was a world 
so different from the present, and governed by such 
different laws that I am not at all confident of get- 
ting any reader's credence for the story I wish to 
tell. Many will doubtless think it impossible that 
men should within this century have lived such 
lives, obeyed such codes, set themselves such 
standards." Although the story is a simple one, 
it is a little difficult in exposition, and inference 
must be kept busy in the opening chapters before 
we come to a clear understanding of the relations 
existing between the small group of persons con- 
cerned. The atmosphere clears after awhile, and 
the narrative then goes straight forward to its 
tragic ending. There is a delicate distinction about 
the author's style that is grateful to the literary 
sense, but Mr. Brown may hardly be said to have 
the gift of the novelist, and his peculiar powers 
appear to better advantage in the essay and the his- 
torical study. 

Mr. Harben's novel ealled "The Substitute" is 
the sort of book that exists chiefly for the opportu- 
nity which it offers for the author to work off a 
collection of long-winded yarns about nothing in 
particular and other examples of homely rustic 
humor. The material thus offered seems genuine, 
and is doubtless for the most part observed rather 
than imagined. The scene is Northern Georgia, 
and most of the characters are plain country folk 
who speak the vernacular. An old man, who has 
committed a crime in his youth, is so filled with 
remorse in remembrance thereof, that he seeks in 
some way to atone for it. He hits upon the original 
plan of picking out a promising youth, educating 
and giving him a start in life, and making a man 
of him generally. This young fellow is to be the 
substitute which he presents to society in place of 
himself. The hero thus brought into being proves 
an interesting personality, and his love affairs come 

out happily. But the thread of the narrative is a 
slender one, and the book must stand or fall by its 
character sketches. Mr. Harben's particular field 
is one that was long ago preempted by Richard 
Malcolm Johnston, but we think that the genial old 
Colonel, could he have lived to read this book by 
his successor, would have bestowed upon it his 
smiling approval. 

Messrs. Boone and Brown, who collaborated in 
the writing of " Eastover Court House," have again 
joined forces in the production of a Virginia novel. 
" The Redfields Succession " is the title of this 
book, which tells how an impecunious newspaper 
reporter comes unexpectedly into possession of a 
Virginian estate, enjoys it for awhile, learns that 
he has no moral right to it after all, sacrifices it by 
resorting to what verges upon a criminal device, 
and in the end is suitably rewarded for what he 
has done. The scene of the story is laid in Vir- 
ginia, for the most part, and has a good deal to do 
with fox-hunting and other less strenuous social 
festivities. The book has no style worth speaking 
of, and its plot is of the most elementary sort, but 
it is the product of intimate first-hand observation, 
and has an easy-going quality that makes it pleasant 

"William Morton Payne. 


Having written an international novelette in which a 
bright but penniless American girl weds a stupid En- 
glishman of family and little else, Lilian Bell (Mrs. 
Arthur Hoyt Bogue) follows it with a sequel, "The 
Dowager Countess and the American Girl " (Harper). 
It is the sort of story that does not make for interna- 
tional amenity. From it one gleans that all the En- 
glishmen of the better class are debauchees, and none 
of their women chaste. The heroine is an undesirable 
ideal of an American woman; generally speaking, she 
acts like a snob, dresses like a cocotte, and speaks a 
various language, partly ungrammatical and partly 
slang, — and that without being in the least aware of 
it. That the book is interesting is, however, unde- 
niable — much in the way in which an en/ant terrible is 
interesting to its parents. 

Mrs. Burton Harrison's new novelette, " The Unwel- 
come Mrs. Hatch " (Appleton), is a story of a woman 
with a past who cannot live it down, although her sin 
was without premeditation, and her career thereafter 
exemplary. The author's motive seems to have been 
divided between her sympathy for the woman and her 
knowledge that she cannot be upheld in the face of our 
literary and social conventions. The result is disastrous 
to the unity of the work, and leaves its conclusion ab- 
solutely impotent. If such a theme is not to be treated 
with the frankness of the French, it had best be left 
alone, — a conclusion reflecting rather upon the author's 
art than her good will. There is no compromise, evi- 
dently, with the Sunday School story. 

" The Tu-Tze's Tower " is the unusual name of an 
unusual book by Miss Louise Betts Edwards, published 
by Messrs. H. T. Coates & Co. The heroine, a woman of 
birth, refinement, and station, is nevertheless possessed 



[Aug. 1, 

of a wanderlust. This has led her to wed an explorer, 
and the book opens with his death in the interior of 
China, stricken down before he could attain his goal in 
the country of the Man-Tze, an independent and preda- 
tory folk on the Chinese frontier. He bequeathes to his 
widow the task of searching out this people and making 
them known to the anthropological world. It will be 
seen that the promise for unusual complications is great 
when it is said that the Tu-Tze, the ruler of this people, 
falls in love with the pretty widow and refuses to take 
" no " for an answer. And, indeed, few fresher and 
more readable stories have been set before the people 
recently. There is abundant humor and considerable 
character study, mingled with the most thrilling events. 
The one drawback to the book will be found in its 
rather desultory beginnings ; these past, it will be diffi- 
cult to lay down. 

Mr. Morgan Robertson has succeeded in writing 
"Sinful Peck" (Harper) with never a feminine char- 
acter in it from cover to cover. The result is rather 
refreshing in these days of insistent "heart interest." 
The book continues the story of the crew of lake sailors 
who once manned the good ship " Almena " and brought 
its voyage to an untimely conclusion, as told in an earlier 
tale by Mr. Robertson. In the present narrative the 
author brings into notice the recent statutes for the 
better protection of seamen, in the enactment of which 
he can assert no small share. The book is eminently 
readable by those who like sea stories — and what man 
does not? 

Having given a weaver and poacher of northern En- 
gland certain heroic qualities, Mr. C. J. Cutcliffe Hyne 
has little difficulty in keeping him heroic in several 
ways, in his new book, " Thompson's Progress " (Mac- 
millan). "Thompson" attains great commercial suc- 
cess, and at the same time is able to marry successfully 
and to keep up his out-of-door habits. Like so many 
recent stories, this is told in episodes, each complete 
in itself, though forming a continuous whole. The book 
is really interesting, its one defect being found in its 
author's failure to eliminate the repetitions that its 
serial publication demanded, wholly needless in the 
printed volume. 

The person who conceals his identity behind the 
initials " J. P. M.," or its partial expansion into " J. P. 
Mowbray," has written a story of the South of to-day 
under the title of " The Conquering of Kate " (Double- 
day). It deals, as did its predecessor, with life in that 
part of Pennsylvania which is rather of the old South 
than of the North. There is a selection of types from 
the folk of the locality, some of them of the "poor 
white " class, and all of them unusual and interesting. 
The book has a tendency to melodrama foreign to this 
writer's earlier work, all of the characters unnecessary 
for the fall of the curtain meeting with sudden death, 
— by no means the most artful of devices. 

A quaint little story of early New England is told by 
Mrs. C. Emma Cheney in " Mistress Alice Jocelyn, her 
Letters: In Which be set Forth an English Maydes 
Voyage to the Province of Maine, and what did Befall 
her Thereafter " (The Blue Sky Press). Told, as the 
title indicates, in epistolary form, the first of the little 
letters is dated at Black Point in the province of Maine, 
August 20, 1642, while the last brings the story down 
to Christmas Day in 1655. They are addressed to 
Philippa, sister of Alice, and are only nine in number. 
It is their peculiar merit that within so small a space 
the full story of a woman's passion coming to its ma- 

turity should find expression, while giving incidentally 
a vivid account of life as it was lived in what was then 
a remote wilderness. Mrs. Cheney has done well with 
her archaisms in idiom and spelling, such exaggerations 
as they exhibit being essential to the atmosphere of 
the work. 

Among books of real delight, Mr. C. Hanford 
Henderson's "John Percyfield" (Houghton) deserves 
high place. It is one of the most charming of love- 
stories, and it is a great deal more. The hero stands as 
a type of the American gentleman, in all the dignity 
and grace of that fine old term, his ancestry being of 
Pennsylvania and New England stock; while the hero- 
ine represents a similar status of cultivation in Louisi- 
ana. They meet in Switzerland, at a, pension filled with 
the spirit of romance. But the pretty story of the love 
of Margaret and John forms but a small part of the 
book. In it may be found the reflections of the hero 
on all sorts of subjects, politics and economics most of 
all. Mr. Henderson, like many another modern Amer- 
ican writer, has not hesitated in using the virile and 
pregnant phrases in our spoken language which have 
not yet found full literary acceptance. 

Miss Una L. Silberrad has given her readers a man 
of complete engrossment in chemistry as the hero of 
"The Success of Mark Wyngate" (Doubleday). So 
complete is this engrossment that there will be a ten- 
dency throughout the book to quarrel with him for 
his density in affairs of the heart. By way of conclu- 
sion, Mark Wyngate attains commercial prosperity, but 
at a fearful and tragic cost. The book as a whole is 
original — " novel " seems to be taking on its older 
meaning in recent writing, — and it presents a series 
of strange pictures of modern life. The sombre under- 
current of the work is relieved by many touches of 
humor, leaving the impression of an art well controlled. 
Since the removal of various disabling acts, the 
Roman Catholics of England are playing a larger and 
larger part in British fiction, as in the national life. 
In "The Light Behind" (John Lane), Mrs. Wilfrid 
Ward has drawn a strong picture of social and political 
life, her protagonist being a woman most unhappily 
wedded to a dissolute nobleman, but strong enough to 
live a life of active good in spite of her lord's wicked- 
ness. Unloved as she is, she centres her interests in 
the advancement of a young Catholic writer, to whom 
her charm as a woman of the world makes an appeal 
too strong for his powers of resistance. He stands 
ready to give up faith, his brilliantly promising future, 
and life itself; but a fate merciful to them both takes 
her away at the psychological moment. The book 
abounds in well-drawn characterizations of the govern- 
ing class in many ramifications, and is enlightening in 
more respects than one. 

Detective stories are usually favorites for summer 
reading, but the number of them that have been based 
on murder mysteries make a story of counterfeiting, 
such as Mr. Will M. Clemens has written in " The 
Gilded Lady " (Dillingham), rather tame by comparison. 
The story is of the United States Secret Service. It 
begins with an attempt on the part of the narrator, a 
member of the force, to ascertain the facts about a 
privately-owned steam yacht. After a little it is dis- 
covered that the owners are engaged in the criminal 
occupation of making silver dollars of real silver and 
somewhat more valuable intrinsically than the author- 
ized coin. At one point in the story it is argued that 
the advocates of the ratio of 16 to 1 are really placing 




the country in the hands of such counterfeiters, though 
the conspirators are making millions out of the existing 
system. The book concludes with a tirade against the 
modern metropolitan newspaper, rather too fierce to be 
convincing, and rather out of keeping in a book appa- 
rently intended to amuse. 

Mrs. Nancy Huston Banks has written a second 
novel, " Round Anvil Rock " (Macmillan), more of an 
historical romance than her previous story, but with 
a surer and more varied art. This, too, is a story of 
Kentucky, but of a Kentucky at the beginning of the 
fourth decade of the last century, when there was but 
one house of two stories in the commonwealth, and that 
built of cedar logs. It is rather authentic history 
turned into romance than romance pure and simple, 
and many historical characters, — General Jackson, Jo 
Daviess, Peter Cartwright, and others, among them — 
will be found described and characterized. The effect 
of the book will be to heighten Mrs. Banks's literary 

Dane Kempton, a poet and man of letters happily 
married and living in London, and Herbert Wace, a 
sociologist studying for his doctor's degree at the Uni- 
versity of California and affianced to a young woman 
graduate, discuss the question of love in an anonymous 
book bearing the title of " The Kempton- Wace Letters " 
(Macmillan). It is apparent, of course, that it would 
be difficult to find points of view more completely antip- 
odal than those occupied by men of such pursuits and 
training. To the poet, love has in it "the awfulness 
and splendour of God," to the other it is something 
susceptible of analysis in all its bearings, a companion- 
ship for purposes of work, its roots founded on the cry 
of the race for perpetuation. How right Kempton is, 
and bow wrong Wace, the last two letters in the vol- 
ume, from Hester, Wace's affianced wife, to her over- 
intellectualized lover, abundantly indicate; and there 
will be few readers of the book to dispute her verdict. 
The debate is an unusual and profitable one, interesting 
from beginning to end, and full of sound philosophy 
and right reasoning. 

In Miss Frances Charles, now that a second novel 
from her hand permits comparison, America has found 
a writer still in the flush of youth, with marked powers 
of discrimination and characterization and a downright 
genius for analysis. " The Siege of Youth " (Little, 
Brown & Co.) is a story of three men and three women 
in San Francisco, and of the working out of three sev- 
eral romances, each along lines quite distinctive. In 
the six protagonists of the narrative there is a mixture 
of races such as this country alone can show, and the 
interplay of temperament has its place in their develop- 
ment. There is a knowledge of life truly profound, 
and, above everything else, a close portrayal of the true 
Bohemia — that land worshipped so by those who can 
never hope to touch its shores because the bark of re- 
spectability that bears them is of too heavy a draught. 
A little method Miss Charles has adopted, of sketching 
her story before giving it in detail, is in her hands a 
means of grace and strength. 

International romances are being written quite as 
much on the other side of the Atlantic as on this, in 
convincing proof of the Anglo-Saxon entente cordiale. 
Katherine Tynan (Mrs. Hinkson), with " A Red, Red 
Rose " (Lippincott), is the last to add to their number. 
A brother and sister, orphaned children of a wealthy 
American manufacturer, buy an estate from an old En- 
glish family, of which the sole survivors are a fathe^ 

impoverished by youthful excesses at the gambling- 
table, and his sadly disappointed son. An Irish rector 
in the neighborhood has a lovely daughter; two dukes 
near-by have, respectively, a brother and a daughter; 
there is a young and wealthy widow close at hand; and 
after twenty-five chapters of getting them all adjusted 
the story closes in one more, appropriately called 
" Marrying and Giving in Marriage." 

A collection of short stories by Mr. George Moore 
can hardly fail to be interesting, though the component 
members of " The Untitled Field " (Lippincott) are, 
with hardly an exception, written for a definite purpose, 
rather than as proofs of their author's undoubted art. 
The stories are, emphatically, stories of the Irish people. 
One doubts neither the author's means of information 
nor his entire good faith, and his readers will be forced 
into an agreement with him much against their will in 
many instances. The Roman Church, throughout the 
stories, takes the puritanical attitude which was observ- 
able in Mrs. Humphry Ward's " Helbeck of Bannis- 
dale," and the result is widely at variance with the 
aspect the Church presents in the United States. So 
far as the Celtic attitude toward art is concerned, Mr. 
Moore is the bearer of bad tidings, for there appears 
to be no real national response whatever to the revival 
in which he has been so forward. The book will be 
certain to provoke discussion, — it would hardly be 
Mr. Moore's if it did not. 

A collection of short stories, remarkably various in 
their themes and interests, have been collected from 
the magazines by Mr. Arthur Colton under the name 
of "Tioba, and Other Tales" (Holt). Some of them 
deal with city life, and these are the best; others find 
place in central New York; one is of the Civil War. 
The length of these tales is as varied as their contents, 
ranging from a mere conte to a novelette. Collectively, 
they leave a pleasant impression, but one which seems 
not to be fixed in any way, as if they were all tentative 
efforts rather than fully matured work. The stories 
are, in fact, too scattered over the literary possibilities 
to argue more than an undeveloped sense of power. 

Mr. Guy Wetmore Carryl, heretofore known only as 
a purveyor of merry tales in rhyme, grows desperately 
serious in " The Lieutenant-Governor " (Houghton), 
and exhibits a knowledge of the labor movement and 
labor contentions in no way an advance upon the views 
in Charles Reade's " Put Yourself in His Place," the 
work of an aristocratically inclined Englishman a long 
thirty-three years ago. Reactionary sentiment of this 
sort is the more curiously belated because of the real 
intelligence shown in the premises by a score of other 
novelists recently. Here, everyone in sympathy with 
labor is a man devoid of principle, respect for law, and 
common-sense; all the sympathizers with capital, on the 
other hand, are not merely rich and well placed, but 
have a monopoly of the virtues as well, whether these 
be individual, social, or civic. The story is short, well 
written, and well put together. But it is woefully be- 
hind the times, and entirely unconvincing to those who 
do not think with their prejudices. 

" Josiah Flynt" reveals anew his wonderful grasp of 
the life led by actual — as distinguished from fictional 
— criminals, in " The Rise of Ruderick Clowd " (Dodd, 
Mead & Co.). The thief, burglar, and all-around crim- 
inal whose deeds the work recounts, is real, and as un- 
like the customary criminal of literary commerce as can 
well be imagined. Much of the consummate vulgarity 
of his life is necessarily concealed in its detail, though 



[Aug. 1, 

it is suggested to those who know, and must color the 
story in the direction of the verities to those who do 
not. Indeed, the most daring parts of it are those deal- 
ing with Roderick's relations with womankind. Not 
many of the man's innumerable crimes are set forth with 
any particularity, Mr. Flynt wisely selecting a few 
typical cases and permitting these to stand for the rest. 
The intention is to describe a career of crime in its en- 
tirety, beginning with the nameless boy who steals first 
to help his mother, and carrying him through the re- 
form school and penitentiary to an old age of sufficient 
respectability, but still untouched by regret or remorse. 


" Martin Chuzzlewit " has been added to the " Fire- 
side " Dickens published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

" Westward Ho ! " in two volumes, is the latest 
issue in the new library edition of Charles Kingley's 
novels published by Messrs. J. F. Taylor & Co. 

" How We Are Fed," by Mr. James Franklin 
Chamberlain, is a new geographical reader in the 
" Home and World Series " published by the Mac- 
millan Co. 

" The Virgin Birth," by Dr. Allan Hoban, is the first 
number in a new series of " Historical and Linguistic 
Studies in Literature Related to the New Testament " 
which is published by the University of Chicago. 

A "Supplementary List of Books for Township 
Libraries " is printed at Madison, Wisconsin, under the 
direction of the State Superintendent of Schools. It 
offers a graded selection of titles from the publications 
of the past year. 

New decennial publications of the University of Chi- 
cago are as follows : " The Essentials of a Written 
Constitution," by Professor Harry Pratt Judson ; " Log- 
ical Conditions of a Scientific Treatment of Morality," 
by Professor John Dewey; "The Definition of the 
Psychical," by Professor George H. Mead; and "New 
Instruments of Precision from the Ryerson Laboratory," 
by Professor R. A. Millikan. 

Volume VI. of •« The Quarterly of the Texas State 
Historical Association " is just published in bound 
form, and includes the four numbers ending with last 
April. It includes much interesting matter, such as 
the reminiscences of Mr. C. C. Cox and other early 
Texans ; an account of " Louis Juchereau de Saint- 
Denis," by Mr. Robert C. Clark; "The Tampico Ex- 
pedition," by Mr. Eugene C. Barker; and "The Dis- 
turbances at Anahuac," by Miss Edna Rowe. 

" From the Beginnings to Shakespeare " is the title 
of the first volume of a collection of " Representative 
English Comedies," now being prepared under the gen- 
eral editorship of Professor Charles Mills Gayley, and 
published by the Macmillan Co. The enterprise has 
long been in hand, and we are glad to note its material- 
ization. This initial volume gives us special essays on 
Heywood, Udall, Stevenson, Lyly, Peele, Greene, and 
Porter. The author of the essay also edits a play in 
each instance, Mr. A. W. Pollard dealing with Hey- 
wood, Professor Ewald Fliigel with Udall, Professor 
Gummere with Peele, etc. Then the volume has a gen- 
eral introduction by the general editor, an essay on 
" Greene's Place in Comedy " by Professor Woodberry, 
and an essay on " Shakespeare as a Comic Dramatist " 
by Professor Dowden. Other volumes of the series are 
reported as being now well under way, 

List of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 49 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 


Notes and Reminiscences of a Staff Officer, Chiefly Re- 
lating: to the Waterloo Campaign and to St. Helena Mat- 
ters During the Captivity of Napoleon. By Lieut.-Col. 
Basil Jackson; edited by R. C. Seaton, M.A. Dins, in 
photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 218. E. P. Dut- 
ton & Co. $2.50 net. 

Chapters from a Musical Life : A Short Autobiographical 
Narrative. By Mrs. Crosby Adams. With portrait, 12mo, 
pp.139. Chicago: Crosby Adams. $1. 


Letters and Literary Remains of Edward FitzQerald. 
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ORDERS. By P. S. Burrell, M.A. 
PHYSICAL LAW AND LIFE, By J. H. Poynting, Sc.D., F.R.S., 

Professor of Physics in the University of Birmingham. 


Rev. Canon T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 

Rev. James Moffatt, D.D. 
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Every school in the country, whether large or small, should be provided with the beginnings, 
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as at the present time. 

What Books to Procure and How to 
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Books of 


and History 

Books of 
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Books of 







Beginning with Eggleston's Stories of Great Americans for Little Americans, for Second 
Reader pupils, we have a wide range of books most valuable as a means of character building 
in the young, and desirable also for the store of information contained in them. 

These to be valuable must be written by persons who travel and who are able to erpress 
themselves in pure, clear English demanded at the present day. Carpenter's North America, South 
America. Asia, and Europe are such books. Other geographical aids will be found in our list 

These must be popular without being unscientific. They should be attractive as well. Dana's 
Plants and their Children. Herrick's Chapters on Plant Life and The Earth in Past Ages, Holder's 
Stories of Animal Life, Bartletts Animals at Home, and many other excellent books of ours are 
especially desirable in this line. 

Frank R. Stockton's Stories of New Jersey, Joel Chandler Harris' Stories of Georgia, Maurice 
Thompson's Stories of Indiana, Musiek's Stories of Missouri, William Dean Howells' Stories of 
Ohio, are all of national interest, and belong to representative literature. The Story of China, The 
Story of Japan, Guerber's Story of the English, of the Greeks, of the Romans, of the Thirteen 
Colonies, and of the Great Republic, Clark's Story of Troy, of Aeneas, and of Ulysses, and other 
new books of history and folklore for young readers are all desirable. 

The Eclectic Series of English Classics, Rolfe's Series of Shakespeare's plays (40 volumes), the 
Literature Primers, and various standard histories of English literature are valuable both for gen- 
eral reading and for special study. 

The Student's Series, including the Student's Hume, the Student's Gibbon, the Student's 
Strickland, etc. 

Special terms for School Library purposes will be quoted on these -md other similar books from 
our catalogue. Your correspondence is solicited. 

New York 

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521-531 Wibash Avenue 

74 THE DIAL [Aug. 16, 

Adopt SCRIBNER Books 

If Considered You Will Adopt These! 

Gordy and Mead's Language Lessons 

(A First Book in English) 

Burt's The Literary Primer 

James and Sanford's Government in State 
and Nation 

James and Sanford's "Our Government" 

(Local, State, and National) 

Gordy's American Leaders and Heroes 
Gordy' s History of the United States 
Ashton's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry 
Miller's Elementary Physics 

A Sufficient Reason in One Sentence 

Qordy's Language Lessons are the simplest, straightest paths to writing, speaking, and knowing 
our English Language. 

Burt's The Literary Primer is based upon word-getting, teaching of sounds, repetition of vocab- 
ulary, child's own activities, and contact with permanent literature. 

James's Government in State and Nation brings pupils face to face with government AS IT 
REALLY OPERATES and conditions as they really exist. 

James and Sanford's Our Government is just as good for elementary classes (either first year 
of High School or last year of Grammar School) as the larger book is for more advanced 

[Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, New York, and Pennsylvania Supplements are in preparation.] 

Gordy's American Leaders and Heroes makes the personal character of our great men stand 
out clear as crystal in an epoch or crisis, and the beginning child learns that history is the 
record of human life. 

Gordy's History of the United States was written by a GRAMMAR SCHOOL MASTER, 
and that is a great distinction nowadays. 

Ashton's Trigonometry moves in a direct line to the solution of triangles. 

Miller's Elementary Physics is elementary, and the experiments ARE the bases of the text. 







1 fit nOoSTClCI OCrlCS Books, Dictionaries 


For the Study of French, Italian, Spanish, German, Dutch, Russian, etc. 



Some are severe, others are easy. 


There are many theories as to the best method of learning a foreign language 
thing is certain, unless the method be interesting to the student it is profitless. 

The Hossfeld Series is probably as successful in its aim " to strike the happy mean " as an educational series can be. It 
neither promises accomplishment without effort nor does it expect drudgery of its students. 

The Hossfeld Series is planned to lead the student by increasing interest from step to step in the mastery of languages, 
keeping in sight all the various points of interest in language-study — the fascination of pronunciation, of suggestive construct- 
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The Hossfeld Series is of equal value to those studying the written and the spoken language. 


English-French Grammar, by Hossfeld's New 
Method, arranged for Classes, Schools, and 

Private Lessons $i oo 

Key to above 30 

Conjugation of French Regular and Irregular 

Verbs 15 

English-French Commercial Correspondent . 60 

English-French Dictionary 30 

French-English Dictionary 30 

The Two Dictionaries in one volume . . 60 

Modern French Dictionary 60 

French Dialogues 45 

French Conversations 45 


English-Italian Grammar, by Hossfeld's New 
Method, arranged for Classes, Schools, and 

Private Lessons 1 00 

Key to above 30 

Conjugation of Regular and Irregular Verbs . 15 

Modern English-Italian and Italian-English 

Dictionary 60 

Italian Pronunciation 60 


Modern English-Latin and Latin-English Dic- 
tionary 60 

Hints on Language, by R. I. Isnard ... 30 


English-Spanish Grammar, by Hossfeld's 
New Method, arranged for Classes, Schools, 

and Private Lessons 1 00 

Key to above 30 

Spanish-English Grammar, by Hossfeld's New 

Method 1 00 

Key to above 30 

Spanish Composition and Idioms .... 75 

Modern English-Spanish and Spanish-English 

Dictionary 60 

SPANISH— Continued. 
Conjugation of Spanish Regular and Irregular 

Verbs $0 15 

English-Spanish Commercial Correspondent . 60 

Correspondencia Comercial 60 

Engineering Translations in English and 

Spanish .... 1 00 

Hossfeld's Spanish Reader 60 

Hossfeld's Spanish Dialogues 45 


Portuguese Grammar 1 00 

Portuguese Dialogues 45 


Russian Grammar 1 00 

Russian Conversations 1 10 

English-Russian and Russian-English Diction- 
ary 110 

Russian Conversation Grammar, by Kinloch 3 00 


English-German Grammar, by Hossfeld's New 
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Private Lessons 1 00 

Key to above 30 

German Composition and Idioms .... 75 
Conjugation of German Regular and Irregular 

Verbs 15 

English-German Commercial Correspondent 60 

English-German Dictionary 30 

German-English Dictionary 30 

The Two Dictionaries in one volume . 60 

Modern German Dictionary 60 


English-Dano-Norwegian and Dano-Norweg- 

ian-English Dictionary 1 10 


Dutch Grammar 1 00 

Dutch Dialogues 45 

English-Dutch and Dutch-English Dictionary 1 10 

If you -xisb to investigate for yourself, write for a specimen copy, wbicb will be sent for your inspection, post-paid, by 


76 THE DIAL [Aug. 16, 

Early in October 



][ This will complete what is conceded by every English-speaking critic in the world to be the most authori- 
tative, comprehensive, accurate, and convenient general work of reference upon English literature in existence. 
It includes the whole range of English literature, from the earliest times to this day, and in all quarters of 
the globe. 

\ It contains over two thousand five hundred pages, 5^x8^ inches in type measure, clearly and handsomely 
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][ It is substantially bound in sober green cloth, with dignified design and lettering in gold, and has gilt tops. 
]f It is edited by DAVID PATRICK, assisted by Mr. Edmund Gosse, Dr. Stopford Brooke, Professor 
Bradley, Professor Hume Brown, Mr. A. H. Bullen, Mr. Austin Dobson, Dr. Samuel R. Gardiner, 
Professor W. P. Ker, Mr. Andrew Lang, Mr. Gregory Smith, Dr. T. G. Law, Mr. Sidney Lee, 
Mr. A. W. Pollard, Professor Saintsbury, Dr. William Wallace, and others. 


The Price of 

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Send for full descriptive circular, showing sample pages 

Publishers .'. J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY .*. Philadelphia 

The Mediaeval Stage. By E. K. Chambers. 8vo, 2 vols., buckram, 

Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship — Germany. By Herbert A. 

L. Fisher, M.A. 8vo, cloth, $4.15. 

Sacred Sites of the Gospels. With Illustrations, Maps, and Plans, by 
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Mathematical Crystallography, and the Theory of Groups of Move- 
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The Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland. By Gra- 
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Aeschylus. Persae. With Introduction and Notes by A. Sidgwick, 

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V J 

1903] THE DIAL 77 


A Selection from 


Illustrative of the History of English Prose Style. With Historical and Critical Introduction by the Editor. 
The student of English prose style, whether he wishes to write prose himself, or to learn its elements, 
that he may judge the style of current writers, will find this a most suggestive and enlightening book. The 
general introduction defines and analyzes the essential elements of artistic prose, and the introductions to the 
different essayists point out the really important characteristic of each style. The selection, too, is fortunate 
in giving examples of ten great styles, all different and individual, which the student of English is invited to 
study and imitate. 

" By reading such a book, with its intelligent historical and critical comments, it is possible for the average reader to get an 
idea of the English essav that cannot be secured elsewhere." — Indianapolis Sentinel. 

•■ His choice, both of writers and their works, may be heartily commended." — 'Boston Transcript. 

" He has written for the book a preface that is a gem." — The Argonaut. 

A Selection from 


Illustrative of the History of Short Story Writing. With Critical and Historical Comments by the Editor. 
Since its publication Mr. Cody's book has been adopted by the following educational institutions, as 
well as many others. 

University of Minnesota. 

University of Pennsylvania. 

University of Chicago. 

University of Georgia. 

State University of Iowa. 

Monmouth College. 

Emory College, Oxford, Georgia. 

Mills College, California. 

Cornell College, Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 

Wesleyan Universitv, Middletown, Conn. 

Vassar College. 

Universitv of Washington. 

University of Kansas. 

Delaware College, Newark, Delaware. 

Guilford College, North Carolina. 

Ogden College, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. 

Butler College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

College for Women, W.R.U., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. 

High School, Chelsea, Mass. 

Ethical Culture School, New York City. 

Chicago Kindergarten College, Chicago, 111. 

Albion College, Albion, Mich. 

Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass. 

Nothing just like it has ever been available, and students of literature have been quick to recognize 
this fact. This volume is far more than a collection of short tales that may as conveniently be read elsewhere, 
as the series of fourteen introductions to the various stories constitute the only comprehensive history of short 
storv writing as an art ever published. 

In form and shape these books are especially convenient, being printed on thin Bible paper, so that in 
spite of their extensive contents they are scarcely three-quarters of an inch thick. 

18mo. Price, $1.00 net; delivered, $1.06. 



The publishers believe that these two volumes, especially the second one, offer the most original and 
striking study of Poe's art and personality ever printed. Even old students of Poe will be surprised to find 
in the new arrangement of Poe's criticism a detailed analysis of the general principles of novel-writing and 
short -story writing, as well as the better known essays on poetry and examples of criticism of poetry, with his 
many pithy remarks on life and literature gathered from his journalistic book reviews. 

The books will be of the same handy form and size as the " Short Stories ** and " Best Essays." 

Price, $1.00 net per volume. 




[Aug. 16, 

The Johns Hopkins University 


TWENTY-EIGHTH YEAR — Beginning October 6, 1903. 

Ira Remsen, President. 
Edward H. Griffin, Dean of the College Faculty. 
Wli.LlAM H. Howell, Dean of the Medical Faculty. 


For Graduate Students : 

(a) In Philosophy and the Arts. (Courses for candi- 

dates for the degree of Ph.D.) 

(b) In Medicine. (Courses for candidates for the 

degree of M.D. ; courses for physicians.) 

For Undergraduates : 

(c) As candidates for the degree of B.A. 

(d) As special students. 


University 110,000 volumes. 

Peabody Institute 150,000 volumes. 

Pratt Library 215,000 volumes. 

Laboratories. Directors. 

Chemistry Ira Memsen. 

Physics Joseph S. Ames. 

Geology and Mineralogy .... William B. Clark. 

Zoology William K. Brooks. 

Anatomy Franklin P. Mall. 

Physiology William H. Howell. 

Pathology and Bacteriology . . . William H. Welch. 

Pharmacology John J. Abel. 

Physiological Chemistry .... John J. Abel. 

Clinical Medicine William Osier. 

Seminaries. Directors. 

Greek Basil L. Gildersleeve. 

Latin Kirby F. Smith. 

Sanskrit Maurice Bloomfield. 

Semitic Paul Haupt. 

German Henry Wood. 

Romance A. Marshall Elliott. 

English James W. Bright. 

History John M. Vincent. 

Political Economy J. H. Hollander. 

Political Science W. W. Willoughby. 

Mathematics Frank Morley. 

Physics Joseph S. Ames. 

Undergraduate Courses (leading to B.A.). 


1. Classical (the " old college course "). 

2. Mathematical-Physical (leading up to engineering). 

3. Chemical-Biological (leading up to medicine). 

4. Geological-Biological. 

5. Latin-Mathematical. 

0. Historical-Political (leading up to law). 
7. Modern Languages. 

Serial Publications. 

American Journal of Mathematics (vol. XXV.) 
American Chemical Journal (vol. XXX.) 
American Journal of Philology (vol. XXIV.) 
Studies in Historical and Political Science (vol. XXI.) 
Modern Language Notes (vol. XVIII.) 
Memoirs from the Biological Laboratory (vol. V.) 
Contributions to Assyriology (vol. IV.) 
Terrestrial Magnetism (vol. VHI.) 
University Circulars (vol. XXII.) 

Programmes of the courses offered to graduate students 
in Philosophy and the Arts and in the department of Medi- 
cine, and also of the undergraduate or collegiate courses, 
Avill be sent on application to the Registrar. 


If you wiBh to brush up on your English, you will find nothing bet- 
ter than Slierwin Cody's "Art of Writing and Speaking the English 
Language," four handy little volumes (time-saving size, 50 cts. each), 
"Word-Study," "Grammar and Punctuation," "Composition" (Ben 
Franklin's Method), and "Constructive Rhetoric." Part I , Business 
Letter-Writing; Part II., Short-Story Writing; Part III., Creative 
Composition. Contains Mr. Cody's famous "Art of Short Story 
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1903] THE DIAL • 79 



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Kellogg's First Lessons in Zoology. By Prof. Versox L. Kellogg, of Leland Stanford University. With 
over 250 illustrations. 303 pp., 12mo. {Ready this month.) 
Xot an abridgment of the author's Elements of Ztiology, but an entirely independent work adapted for high schools which do not undertake 
dissections. It is based on observation of animal life and external structure. No detailed study of internal anatomy is called for and no " laboratory" 
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use of part*. The elements of animal physiology are so treated as to afford a rational basis for the study of human physiology. 
«*« Of the author's ELEMENTS OF ZOOLOGY (4S4 pp., $1.20 net). Prof. E. A. Andrews, of Johns Hopkins, wrote : "I judge it to be one of 
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Noyes's Organic Chemistry. By Prof. Wm. A. Notes, of the Rose Polytechnic Institute. 534 pp.. 12mo, 
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Its most radical departure in method consists in the dropping of the division into "fatty " and " aromatic " compounds and in the adoption 

of what appears to the author a more fundamental and logical classification. 

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Cohen's Physical Chemistry. For Physicians and Biologists. Translated by Dr. Marttx H. Fischer of the 
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A modern and thoroughly scientific discussion of the general principles of plant physiology, intended for the student or general reader 
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Waters' Ferns A Manual for the Northeastern States) by C. K Waters. Ph.D. (Johns Hopkinsl. With an Analytical 
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Scott's Money and Banking. By Prof. W. A. SCOTT, of the University of Wisconsin. 3S1 pp., 8vo. $2.00 net. 

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Cheaper Edition. Adams's Science of Finance. Cheaper Edition. ".73 pp.. -Svo. $2. 75 net. 

80 THE DIAL- [Aug. 16, 1903. 

MR. JACK LONDON'S new novel 

The Call of the Wild 

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heard of. The dog adventures are as exciting as any man's exploits could 
be, and Mr. London's workmanship is wholly satisfying." 

— The New York Sun. 

of a life in its closest relation to nature. Whoever loves the open or adven- 
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book." — The Brooklyn Eagle. 

" IN THE FIRST PARAGRAPHS of this superb story the reader's interest 
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excitement to stir the blood, here is picturesque color to transport the reader 
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44 It is a triumph . . . the story is the thing and 
it is a fine one."— The Evening Sun, New York. 

Illustrated in colors. Cloth, $1.50. Ask any bookseller for it. 

PubHshea THE MACM | LLAN COMPANY 66 ^ h Y A oTK ue 


31 £rau*ilflonti)Ig Journal of Hitcrarg Criticism, Discussion, ano JEttformation, 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

iVo. 412. AUGUST 16, 1903. Vol. XXXV. 

iam McAndrew 81 


Some Changes in Graduate Studies. H. Foster 

Too Much Literary " Study." M. F. 
The Literary Method of Teaching English. Sher- 
win Cody. 


Bickards 86 


CHICAGO. Eugene Parsons 88 

MORE GREEK GLAMOUR. George M. B. Twose 91 


Davidson Sheldon 92 

Miss Woods's Co- Education. — Bowker's Of Edu- 
cation. — Miss Dopp's The Place of Industries in 
Elementary Education. — Eliot's More Money for 
the Public Schools. — Sinclair's The Possibility of 
a Science of Education. — Miss Young's Scientific 
Method in Education. 


India before the British subjugation. — Russian 
■writers of the 19th century. — The book of old 
China ware. — The Problem of Variation in plants 
and animals. — A notable biography of Erasmus. — 
"Why the Mind has a Body." — More sketches of the 
English Lake countrv. — Psychology for teachers. 
— Sketches of British statesmen. — Historical es- 
says and reviews. — Leonardo and his work. 





Teaching children is by no means the most 
difficult part of the educational processes of to- 
day. Traditional home and public sentiment 
pushes them toward docility. To educate the 
men who elect the teachers, who pass upon 
what shall be taught, who decide how much 
one may have to teach with, who are, fre- 
quently in practice and always in law, the 
head of the whole school system, and who not 
uncommonly regard any suggestion of their 
need of instruction as an impertinence, — all 
this is no child's play. 

One of our most successful trainers of school 
boards, Mr. A. P. Blodgett of Syracuse, says it 
takes practically about two years properly to 
educate an average board member. This will 
seem to others who have had experience a 
compliment to the class of men who serve the 
schools of Syracuse, and to Mr. Blodgett him- 
self, more than a sober statement of fact. It 
has taken over a hundred years to bring Amer- 
ican school boards to their present state of 
culture, and few have graduated summa cum 

The fact is that this part of the educational 
system has been woefully neglected. Among 
our colleges for every kind of training, there 
is yet no institution for the education of school- 
boards ; there are no examinations for this 
position, no certificates of fitness, no course of 
study. It is time that some up-to-date pub- 
lisher put upon the market a text-book on 
" How to be a School Trustee." Were I able 
to carry out such movements as produced " The 
Committee of Ten," " The Committee of Fif- 
teen," and other working organizations of ex- 
perts, I would secure such a report from the 
united efforts of Mr. Eliot, Mr. Harper, Mr. 
Greenwood, Mr. Blodgett, Mr. Andrews, Mr. 
Maxwell, Mr. Cooley, Mr. Bright, Mr. Lane, 
and Mr. Jones. Everyone recognizes the need 
of such instruction. It should be given in ac- 
cordance with the best methods of teaching. 
Some of the subjects of the various chapters 
are obviously suggested. For instance: The 
schools are for the children. Any board that 
does not recognize as the chief root and centre 
of its every act the eternal welfare of the chil- 



[Aug. 16, 

dren of the community has no right to exist- 
ence. Any member who does not stand upon 
such a platform should be removed at once 
from a position which he may unworthily oc- 
cupy but can never fill. Membership on a 
school board is not given to start a man in a 
political career. It is not for the purpose 
of caring for any particular ward or district. 
The schools are for the whole people. The 
children will take the effects of their good or 
poor schooling into all districts. The obvious 
purpose of the schools requires a board mem- 
ber to serve children and not men. 

It certainly is remarkable that, from our 
national Senate down, the tendency of repre- 
sentative bodies to discuss so seriously their 
own dignity is irresistible even to the delay 
and exclusion of the service for which they are 
elected. When I was in the Chicago schools, 
the most commonly expressed fear of speakers 
on the floor of the school-board was that they 
might " stultify " themselves. In the case of 
several resolutions which experiment proved 
were unworkable, the members agreed that 
the resolutions should not have been passed, 
but that they could not repeal them without 
"stultifying" the board. When a man first 
becomes a member, he is usually frank in 
avowing that he knows nothing about the 
schools or education ; but very soon he joins 
with the others in the belief that united board 
action transmutes ignorance into sagacity, and 
that the whole board is greater than the sum 
of its parts. You can get for a good measure 
the individual indorsement of each member, 
but you may fail to secure action by the board. 
Thus the whole is less than the sum of its parts. 
Good judges can predict how individuals will 
act. No one knows what a board of trustees 
will do. The supreme need is a policy of work- 
ing only for the welfare of the school children. 
With this there must come a system by which 
the board will have in its membership those 
who can test every proposition in this light. 

Good teaching depends chiefly upon the 
teacher. It is a curious commentary on edu- 
cational progress that most of the advancement 
in the raising of the standards of teaching has 
been made in the teeth of the opposition of 
boards of education. In my school-days, in a 
town distinguished throughout the West for 
its educational facilities, the girls who taught 
us were not required to know how to teach. 
They could work most of the examples in the 
arithmetic, but none of them could develop 
arithmetical skill, or any kind of skill, in their 

pupils. These girls were daughters or nieces 
of men who elected the board of education. 
To bring into those schools especially pre- 
pared teachers cost more than one superintend- 
ent his position. One of the chief features 
in a course of instruction to school boards 
should be the demonstration that everyone 
whose friends ask her appointment is not a 
teacher, and that a board of education selected 
as is now the custom is not a trustworthy 
judge of a good teacher. 

To insure the welfare of school children 
is a business requiring business-like methods. 
School boards are to judge and to legislate, 
not to make speeches before an audience, or be 
reported to an admiring constituency through 
the morning papers. There is no more reason 
why a trustee should make speeches at a meet- 
ing than there is call on a bank director to 
deliver an oration to his business asssociates. 
The better systems are gradually working to- 
ward the entire exclusion of speeches. The 
work is being done by small committees ; the 
school boards are being reduced to seven or 
nine members. In realizing the business nature 
of the work of trustees, we are coming back to 
the view of John Colet, who founded St. Paul's 
School in 1509. After he had built his school, 
says Erasmus, he entrusted the care of the 
property, not to priests, not to the bishop, not 
to the chapter, not to the great ministers of the 
court, but to the married laymen of the silk 
mercers' guild, men of uprightness and repute. 
And when he was asked why he made this dis- 
position of his property, he answered that there 
is no absolute certainty in human affairs, but 
that as far as his experience went he believed 
there was less corruption in such a body of 
merchants than in any other condition or order 
of men. 

The real work of school management must 
be done by experts. School boards, ever since 
I have known them, have claimed that there 
are no educational experts ; they have also done 
their share to prevent the development of such. 
No one knows of a school board that experi- 
ments in a class-room, or that studies instruc- 
tion in neighboring cities ; yet everyone knows 
of many school boards that pass upon the most 
vital questions of educational procedure. Some 
one comes before them and presents the reasons 
for a certain reform ; it is referred to the ap- 
propriate sub-committee. After some time, 
when the arguments have pretty well faded 
away, the thing is discussed in committee from 
the standpoint of the members' own school 




experience, thirty or forty years ago. That set- 
tles it. The text-books and materials desired 
for aid to instruction are not uncommonly 
judged with utter disregard for the end in 
view. It is still rare for a board to say to a 
superintendent : devise the best course pos- 
sible, tell what you need in the way of space, 
apparatus, and books, to carry it out, and we 
will do the best we can for it. The more com- 
mon injunction is : here is a building, books 
and apparatus ; do the best you can with them. 
And yet here is the most complicated process 
in the world to carry out ; the development of 
the minds of children. Here are colleges all 
over the world, holding men year after year 
to study and compare and perfect methods of 
most effectively and economically equipping 
children with mental power. Too often the 
man skilled in these processes finds his main 
obstacle to their employment the very body 
that one would expect to be his chief assistant. 
The experts in engineering, in accounting, in 
law, in medicine, have won their positions. No 
one will win an educational expert's position 
for him but himself. He can't do it by talk. 
He must become more expert in the art of 
proof. The meetings of the school board is his 
natural field. 

You cannot get results if you keep chang- 
ing your teachers. School changes, except in 
the larger cities, are notoriously frequent all 
through the United States. The annual re- 
ports of State superintendents, when they come 
to record the placing of teachers from term to 
term, remind you of a rapid game of chess. 
The interests of our children are everywhere 
made subservient to the fun of a political 
contest. It amounts to nothing more. No 
■one cares much what the school policy of the 
-county superintendent is. He is nominated 
along with the regular ticket, and he is up or 
down with it. Rotation in office for a State 
superintendent for mere rotation's sake, is the 
rule in most of the States. Teachers are 
■elected by the year. They are birds of pas- 
sage. They cannot buy a home and cast their 
lot with the community, or make long plans 
for its welfare. This is one of the most ab- 
surd aspects of school board administration. 
In their fear of putting one or two lazy teachers 
where punishment would be a little more diffi- 
cult to administer, they deprive all the schools 
of that superb increase of efficiency which every 
worker gives when conscious of steady em- 
ployment. I wonder what Harvard, Michigan 
and Chicago Universities would be, were Presi- 

dents Eliot and Angell and Harper, and all 
the members of the faculties, suspended in the 
same uncertain attitudes in which school boards 
hold teachers. 

The superintendent of schools must have 
enough power to secure good teaching. The 
board must keep hands off what has been dele- 
gated to him. To give the head man authority 
seems such an obvious requirement of every 
organization, that the wonder is why board 
members so constantly violate it. Philadelphia 
leads in this policy of reducing the supervising 
and teaching force to proper humility. The 
most curious feature of it all is the strictness 
with which these men in their mercantile con- 
cerns will avoid hampering their superintend- 
ent in his selection of assistants, or in his dis- 
cipline of them. 

These are some of the lessons the school 
boards of America need learning. It is a very 
practical query as to who is going to teach 
them. One of the plainest duties of a super- 
intendent is to educate his trustees. If he 
doesn't speak freely and fully to his board on 
all phases of school administration, if he does 
not fearlessly tell things as they are with the 
design to improve them, he is himself an ob- 
stacle. But it is not necessary for him to go 
around with a chip on his shoulder, or to blow 
his trumpet in the tone of this essay of mine. 
A school fight is usually an act of folly. Di- 
plomacy is not so picturesque, but it goes far- 
ther. To convince the judgments of men, one 
must clear the way by winning their hearts. 
Malcontents who criticize their superiors, even 
though they speak undoubted truth, run the 
risk of a habit of carping which destroys effi- 
ciency. I have worked for school boards so 
long, and have known so many fine men in 
them, that to suggest even in an abstract man- 
ner, as here, some defects in the management 
of schools due to the American school-board 
system, seems something like swearing at one's 

The pleasantest way to educate trustees is 
to entice them into the schools and to have 
them speak to children. There is a very subtle 
truth iuvolved in this. It is an actual return 
to first principles. Some writers have advo- 
cated the education of school boards by means 
of the school-board journal. There are also 
school-board associations for mutual advance- 
ment ; but the most powerful agent of all is 
the daily press. How the teachers have awak- 
ened to its use within the past ten years ! 
When the college men who have gone into 



[Aug. 16, 

teaching keep in touch with their classmates 
who have gone into journalism, the cause of 
education gains a great ally. It is by this 
means, together with constantly improving 
work in the class-room, that the general public 
will be educated to demand the best schooling 
attainable. As school boards are usually in 
advance of the general public, there seems to 
be every reason to believe that the whole edu- 
cational system will continue by various jerks 
and starts to keep moving onward. 

William McAndrew. 


( To the Editor of The Dial.) 

A quarter of a century ago, when Johns Hopkins 
University opened its doors, a new sort of scholastic 
work was introduced in America. Up to that time 
there had been no place in this country where graduate 
studies had been recognized as of primary importance. 
The colleges and universities had been concerned al- 
most exclusively with the undergraduate student, and 
while the old fashioned college course had been very 
materially liberalized it was still designed to meet the 
wants of the immature, to furnish a certain mental dis- 
cipline and a modicum of general culture. The new 
university had other and different ideals. It proposed 
to concern itself with those who had already received 
the training of a college course and attained to the dig- 
nity of a college degree. The hope of the directors of 
the new foundation was that the university would be- 
come a centre of research; that through the opportu- 
nities which it afforded, material additions should be 
made to the sum total of human knowledge; that it 
might become a school of research, as distinguished 
from a school of instruction. To this end, somewhat 
novel plans were followed in the organization of the 
new institution ; unusual sums were spent on equipment 
as distinguished from buildings; eminent men were 
called to the professorships at liberal salaries; and, 
most unusual of all, a system of fellowships was organ- 
ized, the incumbents being elected, not because of 
pecuniary need, but because of ability to carry on the 
actual work of investigation. Provision was made for 
the conferring of the degree of Ph.D. upon resident 
students upon their completion of a thesis embodying 
the results of some worthy piece of research work. 

The new school proved popular, and, almost from 
the first, as many students as could be properly ac- 
comodated were in attendance. Other and older uni- 
versities began to alter their courses and emphasize 
graduate work. Harvard, Yale, and Columbia, among 
others in the East, took it up. In the Middle West, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and other State universities, in 
particular, followed. New schools were organized 
either with a view to encouragement of graduate work 
only, as in the case of Clark University, or proposing to 
make it very prominent, as in the case of Stanford and 
Chicago. To-day the opportunities for graduate work 
are widespread, and in any portion of the country the 
student who wishes more advanced work than even the 

modern college course offers finds the opportunity at 
his door. 

In the period since the opening of Johns Hopkins 
University, very considerable changes have taken place 
not only in the amount of graduate work done but in 
its character and in the attitude of the students and 
the schools toward it. But few years' experience was 
needed to demonstrate that the men who had taken 
graduate courses were better qualified for teaching and 
certain other professional positions than those who had 
not done so. As a result, it has quickly come about that 
the Ph.D. degree is almost a sine qua non for a college 
professorship anywhere in the country. For many posi- 
tions in the government service it is almost equally 
essential; and so, from being courses primarily designed 
to stimulate investigation, the graduate courses have 
become professional courses designed to fit men for 
particular positions, and quite comparable to medical 
and law courses. From being centres of research, our 
graduate schools are becoming schools for professional 

The American mind loves order and system, and 
above all it loves definite accomplishment. The Ph.D. 
degree, intended to be incidental to the accomplishment 
of research work, has become the end for which research 
work is in very many cases at least, undertaken. 

There have been many factors which have operated 
to bring this about. One was, undoubtedly, the need 
of better trained men, better informed men, in the po- 
sitions into which the new doctors of philosophy have 
gone. Another, and possibly the most important factor, 
lay in the circumstance that most graduate work was 
taken up at schools where undergraduate work was 
already important. Harvard, Yale, and all the older 
schools, were primarily colleges. Their traditions were 
all founded on this fact. The teachers were primarily 
concerned with the immature, uninformed under- 
graduates. The courses were designed to meet the 
wants of such students. Where professional schools 
existed, the relations of the new courses were, for 
various reasons, closer with the undergraduate work 
than with the professional. Where the instructor has 
developed his methods to meet the wants of under- 
graduates, he is apt to use essentially the same methods 
when teaching graduates. This is especially true when 
he has in his graduate courses one year the same men 
who were in his undergraduate courses the year before. 
In this manner it has come about that in a broad way 
the undergraduate courses have merely been lengthened, 
and an additional degree is granted. 

The graduate schools, instead of being places where 
men of maturity come together for wider reading and 
for research work, are becoming schools with increas- 
ingly fixed courses of study leading definitely to a 
degree, and, in turn, to a definite class of openings in 
life. Research is a means to an end, and is not the 
pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. An increasing 
number of young men and women upon attaining to 
the bachelor's degree, remain in residence and take 
up graduate work. Often they do so largely because 
nothing else appeals to them as a definite course of 
action, and college graduates are proverbially at a loss 
for an opening upon graduation. 

All this is a matter of fact. Whether or not it is 
also a matter of protest, is another question. Evidently 
the change brings with it both advantages and disad- 
vantages, — the former in the better filling of many 
important positions, the latter in a diminishing emphasis 




on the desirability of knowledge for its own sake. 
Where the balance lies, it will probably require the 
future to determine. jj Foster Bain. 

Washington, D. C, August 5, 190S. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 
"The teaching of literature has planted a terrible 
fixed foot in our schools," wrote Mr. Saintsbury recently, 
in his volume on Matthew Arnold. Mr. Saintsbury can 
afford to indulge in the luxury of convictions, and is 
given to emphatic affirmation, so that one wonders in 
what terms he would have chosen to express his opinion 
had the following item, in the course of study of one of 
our most progressive Eastern universities, chanced to 
meet his eye. 

English Literature. — English Letter -Writers. — Among the 
writers studied in Course 34 will be Howel, Cromwell, 
the Verneys, Swift. Pope. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 
Walpole, Chesterfield, Franklin, Byron, Shelley, Mrs. 
Browning, Carlyle, Emerson, Thackeray, Lowell, Fitz- 
gerald and Stevenson. 

But, after all, one does not need to be a recognized 
authority, and therefore a chartered idol-breaker, to 
question the value of such study for undergraduates, — 
perhaps even the right of the university to offer it. 
And this suggests the whole matter of the propriety of 
taking up for classroom work, in secondary school or 
college, literature which has much of the personal 
element in it. A study of letter writing in itself is not 
likely to be objectionable when the letters are literature 
or history pure and simple, and are intended by the 
writers for such, or at least for something not very 
different. Many of the earlier writers mentioned in the 
foregoing list corresponded with a perfect knowledge 
— some of them in the hope — that their letters might 
become public property, and so are fair game for the 
professor. And in the days when " epistolary corre- 
spondence " was a serious matter, any letter was a dif- 
ferent thing from the careless unreserved talk between 
intimates we listen to when we read the letters of at 
least two of the authors whose names appear at the 
end of the list. " On n'est trahi que par les siens," and 
Stevenson and Thackeray are no doubt sincerely ad- 
mired by the earnest instructor who is analyzing their 
"methods" from his platform. A text-book on rhetoric, 
printed a few years since, was most enthusiastic over 
Thackeray's epistolary style, and recommended all 
students who were desirous of becoming graceful letter- 
writers to take the " Brookfield Letters" for their models. 
" Great honor to the fireflies, but ... !" 

Of course it is the inclusion of Thackeray among the 
letter-writers to be studied which causes us to wince most 
sharply. It is hard to think that to the most sensitive 
of men, — who did his best to escape biography, and 
who wrote to Charlotte Bronte, " If I thought you 
showed my letters to anyone, I would never write you 
another," — should come the fate of having the most 
intimate of the letters he wrote to the friend who 
helped him through his broken life studied, perhaps 
yawned over, perhaps worse, by successive groups of 
undergraduates. A score of passages will occur to 
Thackerayans — pages full of their author's dear non- 
sense, or brave melancholy, — which to think of as 
assigned for " required reading " is to shudder. In the 
case of Stevenson, to be sure, the sin is less indefensible, 
for the public was always more or less in his confidence 

after he had aroused its interest. Still we cannot 
but think that even he, philosopher as he was, would 
have shrunk from having the details of the " discontent 
and rapture and despair " of his youth thrust upon a 
set of lads, the sympathetic and the stolid alike. 

To all this it may be objected that such a course of 
study as this is never prescribed in any college, and so 
need be taken up by no student who is wholly out of 
touch with the writers discussed. But no one who has 
to do with undergraduates will need to be reminded how 
often they " elect " a course because it comes at a con- 
venient hour, or because there is a chance of its proving 
easier than an alternative. In a popular volume of 
Harvard stories we have a pleasing picture of a student 
in a fiction-course removing his troublesome uncertainty 
as to whether Jane Austen was a man or George Eliot 
a woman by memorizing the verses beginning, 

" Good heavens, good heavens ! Miss Mary Ann Evans, 
What made you change your name ? " 
and so on. Perhaps that is only amusing, and not too 
discouraging. There are some literary waters of which 
all may well be made to take at least a single draught. 
But when not merely the work, but the personality, of 
writers who at worst have done nothing to forfeit our 
respect is subjected to possibilities of much that the 
living men would have resented, it seems as if he were 
driving something of a hard bargain for the fame we 
grant our authors. 

The last decade or so has seen as provided with 
countless numbers of what Professor Dowden has 
lately characterized as " funicular railways to the 
summit of Parnassus"; and the incommunicable has 
been communicated, in more or less satisfactory fash- 
ion, by the simple process of applying the methods 
of chemistry or the physical sciences to the study of 
literature. But before we congratulate ourselves too 
unreservedly upon our progress, might it not be well 
to consider whether some few divisions of the field of 
literature ought not, from their very nature, to be 
regarded as exempt from the incursions of at least the 
reluctant among the " personally conducted " ? 

M. F. 

New York, August 3, 1905. 



(To the Editor of Tint Dial. 

Every profession has its jargon. For example, with 
what pride does the business man often produce the 
crabbed, ungrammatical, unintelligible paragraph which 
he calls a " professional business letter " ! And teachers 
have their professional jargon, too. It is the jargon of 
the classroom, and has such a hold on the average 
teacher that it is seldom that any teacher can write a 
readable paragraph for a newspaper or magazine. 

Now nothing special is gained, either by the business 
man or the teacber, in using his or her professional 
jargon, when we have a simple, universal language, 
capable of the most varied expression, and intelligible 
to everybody. 

In the case of the jargon of the classroom, much 
actual harm is done, for the simple reason that the 
average pupil is not going to be a pedagogue and has 
no use for pedagogical phrases. He really needs sim- 
ple, plain, natural English, such as the skilled literary 
artist uses in writing for common readers. 

One most disastrous outgrowth of the pedagogical 


[Aug. 16, 

jargon is the method of trying to teach language by 
meaningless groups of words. Spelling is taught by 
dead lists of words in spellers; grammar by dead sen- 
tences; composition by dead illustrative paragraphs. A 
really interesting connected story can seldom be found 
in any book on English. Yet words mean nothing ex- 
cept as they are used to express ideas (real ideas, not 
fragments). The only object in studying language is 
to become able to express ideas; and apart from ideas 
language is the merest machinery. 

The literary method of teaching English requires, 
first of all, that the teacher shall possess some skill in 
literary expression. We need a school of English in 
which the professors shall be real men of letters, the 
whole atmosphere of which shall be literary, and which 
shall afford the professional teacher of English a pro- 
fessional literary training preparatory to his work. 
Our teachers of English should be trained side by side 
with those who are preparing to become writers of 
English. A person without literary skill should not be 
accepted by any school as a teacher of English. 

Then, when the teacher comes to the classroom, he 
will discard all the rubbishy spelling-books with life- 
less lists of words, all the grammars with lifeless col- 
lections of illustrative sentences, all the rhetorics filled 
with rules and directions in lumbering language (for 
very few rhetorics are decently written). Then he will 
teach spelling by drilling the pupil upon some of the 
fundamental principles of the language, which abso- 
lutely determine the spelling of ninety-nine per cent of 
the 300,000 words of which English boasts; those most 
troublesome words called homonyms will be studied only 
in connection with their meaning (that is, their actual 
use for the expression of ideas) ; while the three or four 
thousand common irregular words remaining will be 
memorized by a rational memory system, which classi- 
fies and gives all the mnemonic aid possible. 

Grammar will be simplified into a practicable little 
machine which the student may master as a carpenter 
masters the use of his hammer or his saw or his square, 
so that it may be used to test the correctness of the 
arrangement of words in sentences. It will be found 
that English grammar is almost wholly a matter of 
word-logic, and that the successful teaching of gram- 
mar consists in cultivating the habit of following the 
logical relationships of words in sentences. This logic 
cannot possibly become apparent except in a complete 
and perfectly logical composition. 

Composition will be taught according to the method 
used by Franklin, Stevenson, Maupassant, and all the 
greatest producers of finished literature, — that is, by 
setting the pupil to imitate simple masterpieces till 
he catches the knack of producing something of the 
same sort. All the rules of rhetoric should be offered 
as concrete essays by real masters, which the student 
will be asked to study and re-write until he learns the 
art of doing it, regardless of whether he can name the 
thing or not. 

This, in brief, is the " method of the masters " — the 
sort of school in which real masters of English have 
learned their art. The first step toward realizing it 
will be to banish all the meaningless lists of words, the 
collections of meaningless detached sentences and para- 
graphs, and substitute the simple, beautiful, interesting, 
and perfectly logical compositions of the great masters 
of English prose. Sherwin Cody. 

Chicago, August 8, 1903. 

%\z JUfo §00ks. 

Some Ideals of Saintly Life.* 

Did it ever occur to the Reverend John 
Bampton, Prebend of Minor Pars Altaris in the 
Cathedral Church of Salisbury from 1718 to 
his death in 1751, that the series of annual 
lectures which he founded might not all be of 
inestimable worth ? Did it ever cross his mind 
that though the Heads of Colleges in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, "and no others," should 
duly assemble on the first Tuesday of Easter 
term "in the room adjoining the Printing 
House between the hours of ten in the morning 
and two in the afternoon," their choice of a 
Bampton Lecturer might not always rest upon 
the right head? Did any uneasy suspicion 
tease his imagination that even a fellow, tutor, 
and precentor of his college, and a bishop's 
examining chaplain to boot, might test candi- 
dates, and lead choirs, and instruct under- 
graduates, and be an active member of a col- 
lege corporation, yet still lack the divine "art 
of putting things," without which in the pulpit 
of S. Mary's his acquirements in music, in 
letters, in theology, and in administration, 
would be all in vain? If such forebodings ever 
haunted him he doubtless brushed them aside 
as idle ; for he made no provision against them. 

The Bampton Lectures have a just fame. 
Yet the student of all the volumes which, by 
the founder's will, must be printed within two 
months of the delivery of the " eight Sermon- 
Lectures," discovers with a sad surprise that 
for the publication of some of them the world 
could have endured to wait for two decades or 
two centuries without serious impoverishment. 
Certainly the volume for the year 1903 makes 
no epoch. It is not precisely of the fibre of 
Hampden or Hatch, of Mosely or Liddon. It is 
some years since any lecturer in the long succes- 
sion has deeply impressed the English Church 
or the Christian public. Can it be that the 
heads of colleges exercise less discrimination in 
their choice, or that the English Church pro- 
duces strong divines less frequently, than of 
old ? In the instance of the volume before us, 
the author seeks to disarm criticism by the 
pleas of haste, over-occupation, and illness. 
Undoubtedly influenza is not an illuminating 

*The Influence of Christianity upon National. 
Character, as illustrated by the Lives aud Legends of 
the English Saints. (The Bampton Lectures for 1903.) By 
William Holden Hutton, B.D. New York : E. P. Button 




or inspiring influence. John Bainpton failed to 
foresee its prevalence, or his insistence upon 
printing within two months had been made less 
stringent. The author may be forgiven ; the 
book remains for impartial criticism to deal 

It must be said, then, that this is not a bril- 
liant or incisive piece of work. If one is look- 
ing for clearly conceived or closely reasoned 
notions of what Christianity has done or can 
do for national life, of how the lives of good 
men and the legends that drape them affect 
the general conscience and conduct of their 
contemporaries or their successors, he will do 
well to look elsewhere. There is an awkward- 
ness about the very title-page which suggests 
that the author had no strong grasp of his sub- 
ject, that he had taken it at haphazard, had 
never grappled with any central or dominating 
idea, but had thrown out tentative lines in 
sundry directions, hoping that stray thoughts 
might take the hook and be drawn in. The 
discussion goes on in a rambling, desultory 
fashion, as if the theme had casually occurred 
to the writer in the process of writing, and 
the materials had arranged themselves as they 
drifted past. As we lay the book down, we are 
not sure that we can put a finger on any pal- 
pable results of the more or less heroic ven- 
tures of S. Adalbert, S. Elizabeth, or S. Louis. 
That they were effective in their own day, need 
not be doubted. But who can be sure that 
what they did, or what the chroniclers say they 
did, has vitally affected the fortunes and char- 
acter of Prussia, of Hungary, of France? It 
is fatally possible to recognize and do homage 
to saints, and to build chapels and churches 
in their memory, while in no way sharing their 
spirit or following where they lead. 

Mr. Hutton opens his course by saying that 
the Kingdom of God in each successive period 
depends upon how that period interprets for 
itself the Christian ideal, and how it embodies 
its ideal in human living. Each age freshly 
translates the Gospel into its own vernacular, 
and illuminates the translation with saintly 
lives. As the original colors grow dim, mellow 
legends take their place. What was at first a 
blot blooms out into a halo. The legend, false 
to the facts, transfigures the spirit of the life. 
The miracle of a Christly personality sweeps 
along with it a train of lesser marvels invented 
or magnified by the popular imagination. In 
the first fervor of the New Testament period, 
all believers are assumed to be saints. As 
time goes on, the term seems better reserved 

for those of rare and peculiar eminence in 
holiness. " The Deacon is a good man," we 
say, " but no saint." The saints, then, in com- 
mon usage, are those heroes of faith in whom 
the mood and energy of Christian character 
have been most splendidly revealed. They are 
" single thoughts of God manifested in endless 

Of course there have been many such "sin- 
gle thoughts " which have passed unrecognized, 
saints uncanonized who in the truest Apostolical 
Succession have transmitted from age to age 
their pattern of godlikeness. The earliest 
saints were canonized by popular acclaim. 
The multitude felt the touch and thrill, dis- 
cerned the virtue that went forth from certain 
of their kind and spontaneously declared them 
to be of the holy fellowship. Perhaps they 
stoned them living, but they enshrined them 
dead. Later, the Church authorities, bishops or 
councils, set their seal of approval upon such 
instinctive tribute, as in the Eastern church 
to-day. Not until after the twelfth century 
did the Popes in the Western church succeed 
in reserving this power to themselves. Even 
so late as the fifteenth century, in the case of 
S. Osmund of Canterbury, all that remained 
for Nicholas V. to do was to affix his official 
sanction to the anticipative act of the people. 
There were " ears to the ground " in those days 
as well as in ours, and very sensitive ears. 

It is interesting to be reminded that in the 
matter of national saints, those recognized and 
accepted by a whole race or people, the legends 
sometimes depict as their typical characteristics 
excellences in which the best and wisest spirits 
of the time hold their fellows to be conspicu- 
ously deficient, thus spurring them to strain 
after ideals at present far above them ; while, 
on the other hand, in other times and places, 
the legends but discern and disclose in their 
full beauty and glory virtues already inherent 
in the national character, thus producing, as it 
were, a composite photograph of the nobler 
qualities of the people. Thus, the Slavic Saints 
Vladimir the Great and Alexander Nevski dis- 
play the purity, the placidity, the generosity, 
the self-sacrifice of Russian character. Thus, 
Joan of Arc, a being unique in Christendom, 
at once simple child and soldierly genius, em- 
bodies the chivalry and religion, " the military 
and Catholic and racial aspirations of mediaeval 
France." So, " out of the mass of local Ger- 
man saints emerge the two great names, simple 
and heroic " of S. Boniface in the eighth cen- 
tury and S. Elizabeth in the thirteenth. So 



[Aug. 16, 

Spain has S. Fernando the Christian knight, 
the Crusader, and S. John of the Cross, ex- 
treme ascetic yet genuine reformer, men austere 
and even harsh, absorbed in a world beyond mor- 
tal sight, and S. Teresa, gay, witty, natural, her 
religion a romance, delighting in sacrifice, and 
serving her God with a gladsome heart. So 
Portugal enshrines S. John of God, " shepherd, 
soldier, servant, chained slave, a peddler of 
pious books, tortured as a lunatic, a beggar 
that he might support and nurse the poor, a 
preacher of conversion, a skilled physician of 
the soul, his life a life of active beneficence," 
and also S. Francis Xavier, the great mission- 
ary, embodying his people's M splendid spirit 
of adventure, their determination and reckless- 
ness, their subordination of immediate to far- 
distant fame." 

The exception proves the rule, when we are 
told that the endless divisions of Italy in me- 
diaeval and modern — all but recent — times 
have forbidden her any distinctively national 
saints, S. Catharine of Siena and her name- 
sake of Genoa and S. Francis being treasures 
rather of the Church at large. Of the three, 
the last-named comes nearest to the position 
of patron-saint of the whole peninsula, the 
Fioretti being familiar and dear to the children, 
the most popular of literature throughout the 
land, fit indeed to be styled " the Breviary of 
the Italian people." It is happy to know that 
in the instance of S. Francis the reality sus- 
tains or surpasses the legend. " The main out- 
lines are quite clear, quite historic. About the 
character itself there is no doubt. It is the 
details here and there that have been touched, 
the strange visions that have been amplified." 

These are all historic persons, however legend 
may have used her gold thread to embroider 
and stiffen the choice stuff of reality. But 
what of St. George of England? Must we 
part with him ? No, we may be satisfied that 
though Gibbon managed to confuse him with 
an infamous contractor of Cappadocia, later 
students have established the existence of a 
George, also of Cappadocia, in the fourth cen- 
tury, whose stout battling with the serried 
evils of his time was typified after the Apoca- 
lyptic precedent by a fight with a dragon, until 
through the loving touches of poet and sculptor 
and painter arose the bright ideal of dragon- 
slayer, deliverer of a royal princess, earlier 
Bayard, fearless and stainless, who eight cen- 
turies afterwards was to be taken into the 
Anglican Kalendar and become the patron 
saint of England. Better such a legend, if only 

legend it were, than the sand-heaps of much 
bald and barren history. 

So much has Mr. Hutton to say of Saints 
in general and national saints in particular. 
In the other lectures, the saints of the English 
Conversion, the royal saints, the monks and 
hermits, the statesmen saints, and the saintly 
women and children, are somewhat loosely 
classed and dealt with. It is a Scotch haggis 
with " a deal of fine confused feeding," excel- 
lent material not very well handled. There is 
a valuable appendix, in which for the first time, 
from a manuscript in King's College, Oxford, 
is printed the Passio et Miracula Sancti 
Eadwardi Regis et Martiris. In another 
appendix, upon English mediaeval miracles, 
the writer of the twentieth century is some- 
what at odds with the traditional churchmen ; 
nor is it easy to predict the issue. The author 
sees that the question is partly one of evidence 
and partly one of a general attitude of mind 
towards the miraculous at large. He agrees 
with Dr. Sanday that " of the results of ' the 
contact of personalities filled with the Spirit of 
God with the conditions of the outer world ' 
we have still very much, one is tempted to say 
almost everything, to learn." That safe con- 
clusion does not, however, carry us very far. 

It is to be said that the book is well printed and 
well bound, and that there is a sufficient index. 
Of the remarkable tribute to Charles the First, 
pp. 337-353, perhaps the less said the better. 
Not the goldenest of legends can rehabilitate 
that " Saint " forevermore. 

C. A. L. Richards. 

Publications of the University of 

The founder of the University of Chicago 
intended it to be an institution of higher edu- 
cation. It was to be primarily a school for 
graduate students. Its professors were to be 
not merely teachers, but investigators. They 
were to extend the bounds of human knowledge 
by original research, and the results of their 
studies and experiments were to be published 
from time to time in books and pamphlets. A 
part of their vocation was to train advanced 
students in the use of the scientific method, to 
make specialists of young men and women 
whose writings would be substantial contribu- 

* Decennial Publications. First Series, in ten volumes. 
Chicago : The University of Chicago Press. 




tions to the literature of the subject that they 
undertook to investigate. 

The University of Chicago has had as a 
definite purpose or policy the development of 
an aptitude for investigative work. The uni- 
versity man of to-day is expected to find new 
truth, and to re-state old truth from the point 
of view of the present. He is to explore 
thoroughly some corner of a subject, and, if 
possible, throw fresh light on it. He must 
also cultivate the critical spirit. A part of his 
mission is to correct errors. In the library 
and the laboratory, instructors and students 
-are to seek and find new knowledge. As Pres- 
ident Harper has said, the province of a univer- 
sity is to be " the centre of thought on every 
problem connected with human life and work, 
and the first obligation resting upon the indi- 
vidual members which compose it is that of 
research and investigation." 

The University of Chicago has been, and 
is to-day, a place of investigative work and 
literary activity on the part of teachers and 
students. The professor has only two hours a 
day of class-work ; the rest of the time he is 
free to study and write. He is also given 
occasional leave of absence (six months or a 
year), for travel and study abroad. By the 
system of fellowships and scholarships, a large 
body of picked students are permitted to spend 
laborious days in the interests of learning. 
Upon instructors and fellows rests the obli- 
gation to be productive. For the purpose of 
giving to the world the results of their studies 
and researches, the University has embarked 
in the publishing business. 

The University of Chicago Press issues reg- 
ularly some ten periodicals, edited by the head 
professors and their assistants in the various 
departments — " The American Journal of 
Sociology," "The Journal of Political Econ- 
omy," "The Journal of Theology," "The 
Astrophysical Journal," etc. The University 
Press has also published many pamphlets and 
books. For the most part these publications 
have not been popular in character, although 
interesting to a limited class of readers. By 
their technical treatment of abstruse topics, 
they appeal only to students and specialists. 
They are none the less valuable contributions 
to the literature of science, and deservedly 
rank high in the estimation of scholars the 
world over. 

The University of Chicago opened its doors 
in October, 1892. In commemoration of the 
completion of ten years of its history, last 

October, the University authorities planned a 
series called the " Decennial Publications/' in 
ten volumes, covering the different fields of 
instruction in which its faculties are engaged. 
Volumes I. and II. consist chiefly of President 
Harper's Reports. The remaining eight vol- 
umes are " Investigations," each volume con- 
taining from 300 to 500 pages, royal octavo. 
Each volume has from eight to seventeen 
articles of varying length, dealing with a 
group of allied subjects. The articles also 
appear separately as monographs. There are 
ninety-two articles in all, of which more than 
seventy are in print. Eighty-five writers, in- 
cluding President Harper, have contributed to 
the series. When completed, it will constitute 
a monument of scholarship and scientific re- 
search. Already a considerable number of 
articles have been issued in separate form as 
preprints, each sold at 25 cents and upward. 
It is expected that all of the ten volumes will 
be published during the present year, and most 
of them will be ready in September. The 
character of their contents may be indicated 
to some extent by selecting titles of papers in 
each volume, as announced in the descriptive 
catalogue of the Decennial Publications, First 

Volume III. (ready) has two parts. Part 
I., — comprising Systematic Theology, Church 
History, and Practical Theology, — contains 
three articles : " Have we the Likeness of 
Christ?" by Prof. Franklin Johnson ; "Prac- 
tical Sociology in the Service of Social Ethics," 
by Prof. C. R. Henderson; and "The Ele- 
ments of Chrysostom's Power as a Preacher," 
by Dr. Galusha Anderson. Part II., — com- 
prising Philosophy and Education, — contains 
two papers by Dr. J. H. Tufts, " On the Gen- 
esis of the ^Esthetic Categories " and " The 
Individual and his Relation to Society as Re- 
flected in the British Ethics of the Eighteenth 
Century "; also two by Prof. J. R. Angell, " A 
Preliminary Study of the Significance of Par- 
tial Tones in the Localization of Sound " and 
" The Relations of Structural and Functional 
Psychology to Philosophy." Dr. G. H. Mead 
contributes an article on " Psychological An- 
alysis," and Dr. A. W. Moore one on " Exist- 
ence, Meaning, and Reality in Locke and in 
Present Epistemology." 

In Volume IV. (ready) are nine monographs 
by members of the depaitments of Political 
Economy, Political Science, History, and 
Sociology. Prof. J. L. Laughlin writes on 
" Credit," Dr. T. B. Veblen on " The Use of 



[Aug. 16, 

Loan Credit in Modern Business," Prof. Fred- 
erick Starr on "The Physical Characters of 
the Indians of Southern Mexico," Prof. O. J. 
Thatcher on " Studies concerning Adrian IV.," 
Dr. Ernst Freund on " Empire and Sover- 
eignty," etc. 

Volume V. is made up of eight articles by 
men in the departments of Semitics, Biblical 
Philology, Egyptology, etc. These are chiefly 
translations of ancient documents and lin- 
guistic discussions that can be understood and 
appreciated only by specialists. . President 
Harper contributes to this volume a paper on 
" The Structure of the Text of the Book of 

Volume VI. contains fifteen papers, short 
and long, relating to various matters of signifi- 
cance chiefly to archaeologists and linguists. 
There is, however, one exception. Dr. Carl 
D. Buck, professor of Sanskrit and Indo- 
European Comparative Philology, has written 
an interesting monograph entitled " A Sketch 
of the Linguistic Conditions of Chicago." 
According to Professor Buck, Chicago is the 
most cosmopolitan city in the world. It is " an 
unparalleled babel of foreign tongues," having 
colonies of more than thirty nationalities speak- 
ing some language other than English. He 
says: "Chicago is the second largest Bohemian 
city in the world, the third Norwegian, the 
fourth Polish, the fifth German (New York 
being the fourth). In all, there are some forty 
foreign languages spoken by numbers ranging 
from half a dozen to half a million, and aggre- 
gating over 1,000,000." 

Volume VII. (ready), — The Romance Lan- 
guages and Literatures, the Germanic Lan- 
guages and Literatures, English, Literature 
in English, — has several papers that are 
distinctly literary : " The Treatment of Nature 
in the Works of Nikolaus Lenau," by Prof. 
Camillo von Klenze ; " Studies in Popular 
Poetry," by Prof. P. S. Allen ; " What has 
become of Shakespeare's play ' Love's La- 
bour's Won ' ? " by Prof. A. H. Tolman ; « Some 
Paradoxes of the English Romantic Movement 
of the Eighteenth Century," by Prof. W. D. 
MacClintock ; " Omissions and Insertions in 
Shakespeare's Plays," by Prof. J. M. Manly. 

Volume VIII. is devoted to the subjects of 
Astronomy and Astro-Physics. The papers 
give the results of studies and observations by 
Professors Burnbam, Barnard, Hale, and other 
workers at the Yerkes Observatory. 

Some of the titles in Volume IX. take one's 
breath away. The papers dealing with the 

problems of Mathematics, Chemistry, and 
Physics abound in technicalities that are beyond 
the average reader. They are characterized by 
the exactness of physical science. The eminent 
geologist, Prof. Thomas C. Chamberlin, pre- 
sents a theory of glacier motion based (1) on 
the growth of ice crystals or glacier granules, 
and (2) on the rotation and sliding of these 
granules on one another. It is opposed to the 
current theory of viscosity. 

Volume X. contains seventeen papers by 
men in the different departments of natural 
science — Zoology, Anatomy, Physiology, Neu- 
rology, Botany, Pathology, and Bacteriology. 
At the head of the list is Dr. Jacques Loeb's 
pamphlet " On the Production and Suppression 
of Muscular Twitchings and Hypersensitive- 
ness of the Skin by Electrolytes," which has 
called forth considerable discussion. The in- 
vestigations of Professor Loeb and other biolo- 
gists have a practical bearing. In this paper 
he gives an account of his experiments with 
calcium salts as a cure for paralysis, locomotor 
ataxia, and other nervous diseases. 

In addition to the First Series of Decennial 
Publications, the University announces a Second 
Series in seventeen volumes. These are to be, 
for the most part, extended treatises on such 
subjects as " The Second Bank of the United 
States," by Dr. Ralph C. H. Catterall ; "Light 
Waves and their Uses," by Prof. Albert A. 
Michelson ; " Glacial Studies in Greenland," 
by Prof. Thomas C. Chamberlin; "The 
Finality of the Christian Religion," by Dr. 
George B. Foster, etc. Volumes I. to IX. in- 
clusive are ready. Other volumes will be issued 
in the fall and winter. 

It can be truly said that the University of 
Chicago is carrying out the will of its founder. 
It is training specialists who are productive, 
and its instructors are making valuable contri- 
butions to literature and science, as the De- 
cennial Publications abundantly prove. 

Eugene Parsons. 

Mr. E. R. Du Mont, Chicago, is the publisher, by 
subscription, of " The Works of Voltaire " in English. 
The edition extends to forty-two volumes, the transla- 
tions being partly old, partly new. The publisher has 
just sent us an Index to this edition, which is a stout 
volume in itself. This elaborate piece of work has been 
prepared by Mr. Oliver H. G. Leigh, and its usefulness 
to those who are Compelled to fall back upon the trans- 
lated Voltaire is beyond question. It is more than a 
dictiouary, for it provides analyses of the works, and 
is even interspersed with illustrative quotations. Vol- 
taire's immense correspondence is not included in this 




More Greek Glamour.* 

Mr. Howard Crosby Butler, who is Lecturer 
on Architecture at Princeton University, has 
written " The Story of Athens," and in a state- 
ment which serves as a sort of sub-title an- 
nounces that the volume is, in intention, "A 
record of the life and art of the City of the 
Violet Crown, read in the ruins and the lives 
of great Athenians." 

Ruins presume architecture ; and as archi- 
tecture they are not only the survival for us 
of the rich and vivid background of bygone 
work and days, but something well able, when 
interpreted, to instill a subtler understanding 
of their bygone builders and of the life which 
streamed before them. Translated thus, we have 
architecture in terms of life. The lives of great 
Athenians, in terms of architecture, have the 
serious disadvantage of being merely the pin- 
nacles, or aeroteria, so to speak, of their social 
fabric ; and it is rather a clearer understanding 
of the substructure that we are after, these 
days. Pinnacles, however, must be more or 
less an integral part of the supporting mass ; 
therefore one passes the great men, and al- 
lows that in both the ruins and the lives Mr. 
Butler has legitimate material in which to read 
the record of the life and art of the City of 
the Violet Crown. But reading — to read, — 
even a dictionary insists that it is to interpret; 
and of this quality, when one looks for a sounder 
understanding and a more vivid consciousness 
of all that is pent up for us in the word Athens, 
one looks in vain. " The Story of Athens," as 
Mr. Butler reads it in its ruins and in its 
lives, but makes one intensely aware that the 
Athenian accumulation of both since '"Omer 
struck his bloomin ' lyre " has been enormous ; 
and over this mass of record a gentle erudite 
mind plays in a manner somewhat prolix. 

To anyone quite determined to write a sketch 
dealing with some phase of Greek art and life, 
it must be somewhat discouraging that Pater 
and Mahaffy and Taine already have done so. 
This in no way represents a demand that any- 
one, — Mr. Butler, for instance, — shall com- 
bine in his writing Pater's sympathetic and 
illuminating qualities with Mahaffy's keen and 
stimulating suggestiveness ; but it does indi- 
cate that we have been educated by the '-Greek 

*The Story of Athens : A Record of the Life and Art 
of the City of the Violet Crown Read in its Rnins and in the 
Lives of great Athenians. By Howard Crosby Butler, A.M. 
Illustrated. New York : The Century Co. 

Studies" and the "Social Life," and that the 
standards they have created of historic feeling 
and literary method are the present-day criteria. 
Mr. Butler, as Lecturer on Architecture at 
Princeton University, can hardly be indifferent 
to this condition ; but all the more from his 
position must he be aware of it, and since in 
his volume the Athenian lives do anything but 
live, and there is no exercise of critical faculty 
nor any attempt at interpretative value, one 
must conclude he meant it to be so. On this 
assumption, the book becomes a sort of special 
report, with a good index containing much in- 
formation hitherto dispersed, and if life means 
politics, and art a recital of building operations, 
library- room may be accorded to this " record 
of the life and art of the City of the Violet 

And yet, as one houses it under this classi- 
fication, one knows that many will take the 
book with no such modification, but will accept 
it on the authority of the author's position and 
publisher, and read it as being really the story 
of Athens. So once again is Greek life ex- 
hibited, but not as a whole ; in its refinement* 
but not in its rudeness and cruelty ; in its 
knowledge, but not in its ignorance. Again 
we read of Greek architecture as mines of 
mathematical proportions, but we neither feel 
the breeze that blows between the columns nor 
realize the people passing up and down the 
steps. Homer is incomplete without Hesiod ; 
and the lives of the Athenian great need at 
any rate a mention of the Athenian slave, if 
the reader is to achieve any complete compre- 
hension of the Athenian life. Also, ruins are 
incomplete without some knowledge of the 
ritual which inspired them. But of this there 
is here no hint, nor of any rapport between 
the art and the lives around it, between the 
city and the lives within it. Some day the 
book will be written which will not continually 
refer to the Parthenon as being built on the 
Acropolis, but will show how it grew out of it, 
and will enable us to achieve the broad glance 
which gives as a whole that of which we already 
know too many details. This has not yet been 
done ; and, as already stated, the present vol- 
ume has evidently no such intention. For the 
benefit of the general reader, however, — not 
that I care particularly about him, but suppos- 
ing that Mr. Butler does, — it would seem 
kinder to select a more exact title, or perhaps 
to re-write the story. 

George M. R. Twose. 



[Aug. 16, 

Timely Problems in Education.* 

A number of recent English converts to co- 
education have contributed their testimony to form 
a small volume edited by Miss Alice Woods. Until 
very recently, co-education has been merely tol- 
erated in England, among the lowest elementary 
schools in the rural districts, from considerations of 
economy. In the last few years, however, a small 
group of high-class private and grammar schools 
have cautiously begun the experiment. If the pa- 
pers in tbe present volume are in any sense repre- 
sentative, the experiments must have been unusually 
successful ; for the authors write with the ardor and 
enthusiasm of discoverers. From an intellectual 
standpoint, it has been found that the boys and 
girls supplement each other ; the interest increases 
with the introduction of the new system, and dis- 
cipline is easier than under the old plan. The 
writers spend much of their space in meeting 
& priori moral objections to co-education, which 
seems to be the doubtful point with English parents. 
These teachers all testify that although the in- 
structors maintain strict watch, in an unobtrusive 
manner, the relations between the sexes are in a 
vast majority of cases so healthful that no in- 
terference or additional regulations are needed. 
Indeed, one writer goes so far as to advocate co- 
education on moral grounds, holding the view that 
boys' schools must always be subject to epidemics 
of immorality as long as the boys are maintained 
in separate institutions. These teachers found that 
co-education in no way interfered with the athletic 
efficiency of the boys, or with the cultivation of 
good manners among the girls. 

This view of co-education is, of course, an old 
story to American teachers ; it is also supported 
by the experience of Scotland and the English 
colonies. Hence we can tentatively conclude that 
among English-speaking peoples, at least, expe- 
rience proves the expediency of co-education for 
boys and girls below the age of twelve or thirteen. 
As Dr. Michael E. Sadler, of the English Education 
Department, points out in his introduction to this 
volume, the expediency of co education through ad- 
olescence (from twelve to eighteen) is an entirely 
different problem. He is in accord with the writers 

* Co-Education. A Series of Essays by Various Authors. 
Edited by Alice Woods. With an Introdution by Michael E. 
Sadler. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Of Education. With Appended Addresses on "The 
Scholar" and "The College of To-day." By Richard Rogers 
Bowker. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

The Place of Industries in Elementary Education. 
By Katharine Elizabeth Dopp. The University of Chicago 

More Money for the Public Schools. By Charles 
W. Eliot, President of Harvard University. New York : 
Doubleday, Page & Co. 

The Possibility of a Science of Education. By 
Samuel Bower Sinclair, Vice-Principal of the Normal School 
at Ottawa, Canada. The University of Chicago Press. 

Scientific Method in Education. By Ella Flagg 
Young. The University of Chicago Press. 

in this volume in regard to the advisability of co- 
education during the period of childhood, but for 
the later period he has this to say : 

"No one who is at all aware of the complexity of the 
facts involved or sensitive to the differences in the social 
ideals which consciously or unconsciously, affect people's 
wishes for tbe training of the young, would think of laying 
down a hard and fast line about coeducation. But I for 
one believe that in the greater number of cases to be edu- 
cated in common with boys throughout the latter part of 
her secondary school career would not be the best kind of 
training for a girl. Many of the studies most suitable or nec- 
essary for boys of fourteen and upwards would be a good deal 
out of gear with her future practical needs, at any rate if she 
is to be a a home maker and still more if she is to be a mother 
of children. Again, at the age in question a girl ought not as 
a rule to work at the same pace as a boy, nor ought she to 
play most games as hard as it is good for a robust boy to 
play them." (Pagexiv.) 

One at all alive to the silent drift of opinion 
must have noticed the growth of a public sentiment 
similar to that here expressed by Mr. Sadler, among 
tbe more intelligent classes in our larger towns 
and cities. There is a feeling that the old frontier 
conditions of life which made co-education so neces- 
sary and salutary in high-schools are making way 
for a much more complex environment. The in- 
timate associations of the class-room during the 
emotional period of youth means one thing in a 
small country town, where every pupil knows by 
reputation every other pupil's family and stand- 
ing ; but in a large city it means something far 
different. There is a chapter in the life of many 
co-educational high-schools which is never told, be- 
cause it is to everyone's interest to forget it. The 
success achieved by many ambitious girls in reach- 
ing, and often surpassing, the standard originally 
designed for the greater strength of their brothers, 
is triumphantly used by the co-educationists, re- 
gardless of the well-known fact that many such 
girls enfeeble their health for life by such achiev- 
ments. Until lately, the real issue has remained in 
the background, while coeducation in colleges has 
been the bone of contention. On this question, then, 
it may be said by way of summary, that English 
and American teachers are slowly coming to agree- 
ment, — the advantages of co-education for the ele- 
mentary period, and its disadvantages for the pupils 
of the secondary age, being seen by both. 

Mr. Richard Rogers Bowker has added an edu- 
cational volume to his series of critical essays which 
treat of the different fundamental interests of mod- 
ern life. The first and most important paper in the 
present collection, which discusses education in gen- 
eral, follows in its main outlines the well-known 
treatise of Mr. Herbert Spencer. The style is ex- 
cellent, and the author has a genius for catching 
and phrasing the more subtle tendencies of the age. 
The two remaining essays in the volume, on " The 
Scholar, the Making and Use of Him," and " The 
College of To-day," were written twenty years pre- 
vious to publication, and form an excellent state- 
ment of the old ideal of eollege training. Mr. 
Bowker is a firm believer in the theory that the 




college should equip its graduates with the impor- 
tant results and methods of thought in the entire 
circles of scientific disciplines. This ideal is some- 
times defended to-day, but its realization is seldom 
attempted. The merits of Mr. Bowker's book are 
largely literary ; its appeal is to the general read- 
ing public, and its value is largely that of an in- 

" The Place of Industries in Elementary Educa- 
tion," by Miss Katharine Elizabeth Dopp, contains 
a careful elaboration of the social basis of early 
education as set forth by Dr. Dewey of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. The introductory chapter is a clear 
statement of the main outlines of the Dewey theory. 
In the second chapter on '• The Significance of In- 
dustrial Epochs," we find a careful and suggestive 
study of the reaction of the different industrial 
periods on race intelligence. The third chapter is 
psychological, treating of the origins of Attitudes 
that underlie Industry ; and the fourth is peda- 
gogical, showing how the essential values of early 
industry are to be obtained in the modern city 
school-room. The author directs the attention of 
teachers to anthropological material which can be 
utilized in the schools. The conclusions are briefly 
put in the fifth chapter. The book is provided with 
an excellent index. The author has evidently lav- 
ished time and attention on the logical development 
of a single vein of ideas, and in consequence her 
work is conspicuous among educational books for 
good workmanship. Her thesis is so intertwined 
with Dr. Dewey's ideas, that it must necessarily 
stand or fall with them. 

In three addresses now published in book form, 
President Eliot of Harvard has " taken account of 
stock " as far as the American public-school system 
is concerned. The first chapter might be charac- 
terized as treating of •• What the public-school has 
failed to do." An enumeration of the weak points 
in American life gives us this indictment : as a na- 
tion, we are characterized by excessive alcoholism, 
a vast amount of gambling, municipal misgovern- 
ment. numerous crimes of violence, yellow journals 
and theatres, strikes, faith in patent medicines, and 
the spoils system of appointments. President Eliot 
in his second address shows us the golden side of 
the shield. In the field of education proper, there 
has been much progress in the last generation. 
Among the most important improvements have 
been the introduction of kindergarten methods, the 
expansion of the elementary curriculum, the organ- 
ization of improved systems of secondary education, 
a higher standard of admission to normal schools, 
larger employment of educational experts, and in- 
creased attention to the education of the body. As 
the title states, the book is a plea for more money ; 
and in the last address President Eliot tells us what 
he would do with more money if he had it. Med- 
ical supervision and more sanitary school-houses 
would be secured ; while more male teachers, and 
a smaller number of pupils per teacher, would be 
provided for. Music, drawing, and modern lan- 

guages would be introduced into the curriculum ; 
vacation schools and mechanic arts high-schools 
would be established. 

The recent criticism of a distinguished psycho- 
logist aimed at certain pedagogical thinkers has 
provoked in reaction a large number of protests, 
two of which are now before us. Professor Sinclair, 
vice- principal of the normal school at Ottawa, Can- 
ada, bases his argument on " the possibility of a 
science of education " on the returns to a question- 
naire syllabus which he issued to a number of uni- 
versity professors and presidents. A large majority 
of those responding — forty-five out of fifty-seven — 
favor the professional training of teachers. These 
replies, which Professor Sinclair publishes in an 
appendix, show the drift of opinion among one class 
of professional men, and are interesting reading. 
As professor Sinclair tells us nothing concerning 
the opportunities which these scientists have had 
for observing educational problems and conditions, 
we must assume that in this respect they were 
simply average men ; in which case their opinions, 
except those of the presidents, are about as much 
to the point as would be the judgment of a number 
of expert engineers on the " case method " of study- 
ing law. Professor Sinclair's thesis is developed 
with great care and an abundance of scientific no- 
menclature. He first refutes certain popular fal- 
lacies, then explains what he means by the "dynamic 
conception of educational science," and finally indi- 
cates the value of such a science to school-teachers. 
His conclusions are safe and cautious, and would 
probably be accepted without difficulty by all per- 
sons qualified to express an opinion. As a rule, 
Professor Sinclair's results are too obvious and 
general to be of much service to instructors in ped- 
agogy, and too technically phrased to reach the 
public. The real problems in the professional train- 
ing of teachers are those of concrete methods and 
results, which Professor Sinclair leaves untouched. 

Miss Young's paper on " Scientific Method in 
Education " is an able but brief description of the 
need for a science which shall treat education at 
first hand. It is published as one of the decennial 
publications of the University of Chicago. 

Hexkt Davtdsok Sheldon. 

Briefs on Xew Books. 

India wore The history of India during the 

the Britith mediaeval period is a story of f or- 

tubjugation. e jg n domination. After many futile 

attempts on the part of Western peoples to obtain 
a foothold in the land of the Hindu, finally, at the 
beginning of the eleventh century, the Muslim 
Turks established themselves in Northwestern 
India, and gradually, during the eight hundred 
years which followed, brought under their sway all 
the country from the Himalayas to the Krishna 
River. The story of this foreign occupation is 
now told by Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D., 



[Aug. 16, 

M.B.I.A., Professor of Arabic at Trinity College, 
Dublin, in " Mediaeval India Under Mohammedan 
Rule" (Putnam). The work is a chronicle of 
kings, courts, and conquests, — the story of the 
lives and deeds of a few great men and great wom- 
en. In the history of Western races, we find our 
greatest interest in the people themselves, in the 
development of constitutions, of civic rights, of 
individual liberties, or in the evolution of self-gov- 
ernment. But in Oriental history there is nothing 
of this sort. The masses of India know nothing of 
these things. They have had kings with despotic 
power since time immemorial. They believe that 
" power is a divine gift, to be exercised absolutely 
by God's anointed, and obeyed unquestioned by 
everybody else ; " and, seemingly with no vain 
longings, no murmurings, no dissatisfaction, they 
submit to domination, saying : " Whatever king 
may rule, there will still be plague and famine, and 
constant but not energetic labor ; and so long as 
the rice and millet grow, and salt is not too dear, 
life is much the same, and the gods may be pro- 
pitiated. The difference caused in the rayat's life 
by a good or a bad king is too slight to be worth 
discussing. The good and the ill are alike things 
of a day ; they pass away as the life passes when 
the king decrees a death or massacres a village ; 
but others follow, and the world goes on, and the will 
of God is eternal." Aryan, Hun, Greek, Persian, 
Rajput, Turk, Afghan, and Mongol rulers, with 
their followers, in turn have settled in India, and 
remained there for years ; yet they have scarcely 
touched the soul of the people. There has been no 
assimilation of either foreigners or their ideas. The 
subject-matter of Professor Lane-Poole's book is 
intensely interesting, and, presented in easy, fluent 
style, is delightful reading. It is history with all 
the charm of romance. There is an ample number 
of illustrations, — in all, fifty-eight, — prints of 
portraits of Moghul Emperors, and of their palaces, 
mosques, and tombs. The appendix gives chrono- 
logical and genealogical tables which supply details 
omitted in the narrative. A list of the best works 
of European travellers during the seventeenth cen- 
tury is of especial value to those who wish to go 
more deeply into the subject than does the author 
in a work which aims to be only the outline of a 
long, long story. 

Professor Leo Wiener's " Anthology 

Russian writers * t> • T •*. >» /t» <. \ 

of the wth century. of Bussian Literature (Putnam) 
has now been completed by the 
publication of the second volume, dealing with the 
writers of the nineteenth century. More strictly 
ppeaking, the scope of the work is the first three- 
quarters of the nineteenth century, for the last 
decades and the younger writers of to-day find 
scant representation. Of men born since 1850, only 
seven find a place, the last two being Mr. Pyeshkov 
(Gorki), and Professor Merezhkovski, neither of 
whom could well be omitted. From Karamzin 
and Krylov, who open the volume, to these two 

who close it, fifty-three writers are recognized, each 
being represented by a brief biography, and a selec- 
tion, or group of selections, from his work. An 
important feature of this volume is offered by the 
selections that represent Russian criticism, since 
these provide us with a commentary upon the very 
nineteenth-century Russian literature to which the 
volume is devoted. Professor Wiener's introduc- 
tory essay is thoughtful and suggestive. Perhaps 
its most significant passage is the following : " Lit- 
erature has been in Russia the field in which all 
the battles of progress have been fought. As there 
does not exist a representative government, where 
political opinions may struggle for recognition, and 
as there cannot exist a public opinion based on 
traditions and class interests, literature alone ap- 
pears as the medium for advancing social and 
political ideas; and since scientific treatises reach 
but a vanishing proportion of the nation, belles- 
lettres proper have in Russia become the means for 
inculcating and propagating truths. In the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century this was not yet so 
apparent, and literature for arts' sake could hold 
its own. But with the advancing democratisation 
of society, literature gathered ever more around 
camps with definite ideas, and literary art receded 
more and more and lived out its day in oblivion." 
This Russian anthology that Professor Wiener has 
edited is a very valuable addition to the library of 
the student of literary history, who should be 
extremely grateful for this means of making an 
acquaintance, almost at first hand, with all that is 
most important in the literature of the great and 
little-known Russian people. A minor but very 
genuine cause for gratitude will be found in the 
fact that the pronunciation of proper names is 
indicated throughout the work, a matter of no little 
importance when we take into account the capricious 
distribution of accents in Russian names. 

" On a small plate one may read the 

ZcZL'Lre. hi » t0r y ° f a ™*™" *° ^ *. «' 

Moore, the author of "The Old 
China Book " (Stokes) paraphrases Carlyle's fa- 
mous saying, " From a small window one may view 
the infinite." While the book contains much exact 
information about English pottery and its makers, 
it also possesses literary charm and interest for the 
general reader. The author's treatment of the sub- 
ject is much broader than that of a mere collector, 
and the book gains greatly thereby. He studies 
plates and jugs as "valuable historical documents" 
and his pages are full of interesting details con- 
cerning notable persons and places. Of especial 
interest are extracts from letters of Washington 
and Franklin, showing that in the midst of grave 
affairs they knew the charm of " old blue." The 
china made in commemoration of Lafayette's visit 
receives careful description ; also that celebrating 
the opening of the Erie Canal, and pieces that pic- 
ture landmarks long since removed. " We are too 
anxious to renew, rebuild, pull down and put up 




something larger and better," says Mr. Moore ; and 
he finds in the love of old china a remedy for the 
hurry and unrest of modern life. The history of 
English pottery is traced from the earliest examples, 
made about 1560, through the " golden age "' of 
Wedgwood, down to the present time. China made 
for the American market during the early part of 
last century is especially described, particularly the 
wares made in Staffordshire by Wood, the Clews, 
Stevenson, and others less well known. The ac- 
count of Josiah Wedgwood and his work is very 
full ; while porcelain made at Derby, Worcester, 
and Chelsea receives due attention. Mr. Moore 
discusses at some length processes of manufacture, 
marks of identification, and the present value of 
treasures once stored away in dusty corners of the 
attic. The many fine illustrations and the com- 
plete index add to the usefulness of the book. The 
author frankly acknowledges that he wrote for 
the " happy possessors of a hobby," and surely the 
charm of his book will go far to increase the num- 
ber of those fortunate people. 

The problem Since the time of Darwin, great ad- 

o/ Variation in vances have been made in the study 
plant* and animal*. Q f tne phenomenon of variation in 
plants and animals. Statistics and higher mathe- 
matics have been called upon to define and delimit 
the process as it occurs in nature, and the experi- 
mental method has been utilized to unlock the 
secret causes at its foundation. Dr. H. M. Vernon, 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, has been one of the 
foremost investigators and experimenters in this 
field, and he has summarized his own work and 
that of others upon this problem in his recent book, 
" Variation in Animals and Plants" (Holt), in a 
critical way, and relates his conclusions to the prob- 
lems of evolution and heredity. While thoroughly 
scientific, this book is not over-technical either in 
biological terminology or mathematical methods. 
The intimate relation which variation bears to 
evolution and heredity, and the timeliness and 
thoroughness of Dr. Vernon's treatment of his sub- 
ject, make his book a desideratum to all investiga- 
tors and thinkers on these vital subjects. After a 
discussion of the measurement of variation, the au- 
thor takes up dimorphism and discontinuous vari- 
ation, including De Vrie's theory of Mutation. 
Correlated variations, especially in man. and the 
action of genetic selection in human evolution, com- 
plete his discussion of the facts of variation. The 
causes of variation are treated very fully, including 
amphimixis, reversion, prepotency, sports, monsters, 
bad variation, hybrids, and the recently rediscovered 
Mendelian laws of hybridization. The diminish- 
ing effect of the environment, with age and with 
growth, is formulated into a law. and the effects of 
migration in increasing variability are noted. The 
author is inclined to think that Darwin overesti- 
mated the effect of domestication in causing 
variations, since the study of wild animals has re- 
vealed equal divergences in nature. He also 

A notable 
o/ Eratmtu. 

inclines to a belief in the direct action of the en- 
vironment upon the germ-cells, which differs but 
little from inheritance of acquired characters. This 
is a stimulating book for biologists, sociologists, 

and philosophers 

Certain books are of such a char- 
acter that the reader's first impres- 
sion is not one of details at all, but 
rather of the work as a whole. Such a book is Mr. 
Ernest F. H. Capey's "Life of Erasmus" (Dut- 
ton), and on laying it aside the first thought is, "a 
charming bit of biography." Considering the 
separate chapters, one finds the earlier ones are not 
quite up to the level of the rest. One misses in 
them an adequate statement of those facts of 
heredity and environment that were so potent in 
developing the career of the great humanist. But 
no such criticism of inadequacy can be made of 
those portions of the book dealing with the period 
of his real activity. The emphasis is properly laid 
upon his immense, and now well-nigh forgotten, 
importance as a man of letters, — it is hard to re- 
alize that with the passing of Latin as a universal 
language no modern writer, not even Goethe, has 
enjoyed the general European repution of Erasmus, 
— but his relation to the Reformation is also well 
and clearly discussed. In the pages of this little 
book the man becomes a definite personality. His 
weaknesses are by no means passed over, his sane 
and enlightened views — often so far in advance of 
his age, so strikingly modern — are duly and fairly 
presented. There is no attempt, however, to ex- 
ploit the hero. A wise reticence is also observed 
in dealing with some questions when the evidence 
is not conclusive ; while the mass of legend, both 
creditable and otherwise, is altogether ignored. An 
excellent bibliography, with special mention of En- 
glish translations of the works of Erasmus and a 
selected list of biographical studies and magazine 
articles, is appended ; while an admirable index 
completes the book and makes it an available tool 
for the special student of literature or history, as 
well as a work that will attract the general reader. 

All special students of the subject 
" ha^a'Brtjy are »g r eed that to every mental 

state there somehow " corresponds " 
a state of the brain. But in the interpretation of 
the how, authorities differ to-day almost as widely 
as they did a generation ago. The fact is that the 
problem, despite its paramount importance, has not 
been studied with the circumspection and care it 
deserves. Those who are in any degree interested 
in the subject will accordingly welcome Professor 
C. A. Strong's " Why the Mind has a Body " (Mac- 
millan), for here will be found a comprehensive and 
detailed survey of the field by one who is thoroughly 
equipped for his work. Professor Strong first ex- 
amines, at some length, the more important current 
hypotheses as to the relation of mind and brain. 
Their conflicting claims, he concludes, cannot be 
adjudicated without an inquiry into the real nature 



[Aug. 16, 

of both terms of the relation. To this topic, with 
its ramifications, he accordingly devotes the second 
part of the book. From the vantage-ground thus 
gained he proceeds, in Part Three, to subject the 
reigning theories to a re-examination and to state 
his own solution. The work of the first two parts 
is very well done. The treatment is clear, objective, 
fairly thorough, and in the main convincing. But 
in the last part the author too often shows undue 
haste to arrive at the conclusion of his journey. 
His criticism becomes, at important points, super- 
ficial ; while the formulation of his own position is 
left too abstract, and, apparently, exposed to obvious 
objections. Professor Strong, however, promises to 
develop the positive side of his thesis at length in 
a second volume. There we may expect his theory 
to appear in the needed clearness and concreteness. 
There too the objections that can be urged against it 
will doubtless be considered with the care to which 

they are entitled. 

More etches C .anon Rawnsley has just published 
oftheEngiith his fifth book on the subject of the 
Lake country. La k e Country and the literary lights 

that have added so much to its interest. This 
latest volume, which is charmingly bound and 
illustrated, is called " Lake Country Sketches " 
(Macmillan). The opening essay gives some rem- 
iniscences of Wordsworth that are yet lingering in 
the minds of various humble folk who in their youth 
served in one capacity or another at Rydal Mount. 
All agree that the great poet was wont " to say 
nowt to noabody," and " to bum and boo about," 
— that is, to mumble to himself ; not one of them 
seems to have cared much for him, all found genial 
Hartley Coleridge more to their liking, and all were 
of the opinion that Coleridge and the poet's sister, 
Miss Wordsworth, wrote his poetry for him. It is 
a curious fact that to-day few of the country folk 
round about where Wordsworth lived have read his 
verse or even possess copies of it. One peasant, 
when questioned about the poems, answered : "Well, 
you see, blessed barn, there's pomes and pomes, and 
Wudsworth's was not for sec as us." With the ex- 
ception of a sketch called " Wordsworth at Cocker- 
mouth," the book concerns itself with descriptions 
of the country side, its quaint characters, and bits 
of folk-lore. Character sketches, like "A Skiddaw 
Shepherd," gives one a good idea of the material 
which Wordsworth had at his command when he 
wished to picture men of fine character in the hum- 
bler walks of life. In style, Canon Rawnsley's work 
is delightful. In simple English he tells of his 
loved Lake Country in its varying moods, revealing 
in all that he writes his own charming personality, 
his intense love of and sympathy with nature, and 
with his own human kind. 

Jot teachers. 

Dr. Charles H. Judd, of Yale Uni- 
versity, has put forth a very help- 
ful book, " Genetic Psychology for 
Teachers " (Appleton), that is likely to find, as it 
deserves, a wide circle of readers among those en- 

gaged in the profession that we often laud in theory 
and disdain in fact. It is not easy to offer to that 
large company of workers in the field of letters 
something that will furnish inspiration for the con- 
siderable drudgery of the work, and a guiding light 
through maze-like and unilluminated paths. Dr. 
Judd believes this can best be done by presenting 
concrete illustrations of the growth of mental ac- 
quisition and attainment in the history of the indi- 
vidual and of the race. His success goes far to 
demonstrate the correctness of his aim. His scope 
of topics is wide and # advisedly selective rather that 
systematic. The teacher's world, like that of every- 
one else, is full of a number of things, and its va- 
riety is the antidote to the prescribed monotony of 
the earlier and conventional experience. The story 
of the growth of writing among men, the change of 
educational ideals with the march of the centuries, 
the encounters with fact by which knowledge grows, 
and the analysis of the interpretation of experience, 
furnish a suggestive background for the setting of 
tasks and the training of the young idea. Dr. 
Judd's book, while not achieving an unusual or 
epoch-making importance, is distinctly successful 
in the well-defined field that it covers. 

Few men can write more entertain- 

frfuh statesmen. ' m S}7 0D P° Htic8 and ° ther CU " ent 

topics than Mr. Justin McCarthy. 
His long and intimate acquaintance with the public 
men of Great Britain, his even longer training as a 
journalist, and his always genial spirit, combine to 
make his new volume, " British Political Portraits " 
(The Outlook Co.), a desirable book for the 
hammock or the train. The matter was originally 
written as sketches for " The Outlook." Thirteen 
British statesmen are portrayed, among them Bal- 
four, Morley, Bryce, Labouchere, Lord Rosebery, 
and John Burns. These and others are treated 
with light touch and a full measure of appreciation. 
Whether they were the writer's political foes or 
friends, their virtues are duly set forth and their 
faults are almost shown to be virtues. There is 
little in the book for one whose knowledge of British 
politics is at all extended, but the sketches will be 
of value to those who may desire to become ac- 
quainted with the men whose names are prominent 
in British affairs. 

" Historical Essays and Reviews," 
Historical essays written by Dr> Mandell Creighton, 

and reviews. J o ' 

D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., and edited by 
Miss Louise Creighton, is a volume made up of 
eleven essays on historical subjects and four book 
reviews (Longmans, Green, & Co.). These chap- 
ters, which have no especial connection with each 
other, the editor states in the preface are grouped 
together for the reason that they illustrate the 
author's activities. Six of the eleven essays treat of 
Italian characters, most of whom lived during the 
Renaissance period ; three of the four reviews are 
on Italian subjects ; the rest are English, with the 
exception of descriptions, very elaborate in detail, 




of " The Two Hundred Fiftieth Anniversary Com- 
memoration Exercises at Harvard University " and 
" The Imperial Coronation at Moscow " ; and all 
appeared originally in various English magazines. 
A knowledge of the hooks discussed would add to 
the interest of the reviews, which apart from that 
knowledge depends largely on the author's scholarly 
and briliiaut style. 

The life of Leonardo da Vinci, writ- 
Lemardo ten by Dr. Georg Gronau and trans- 

lated from the original German by 
Frederick Pledge, is a very interesting little book 
issued in the '• Popular Library of Art" (Dutton). 
The author does not attempt to go into the details 
of the numerous controversies concerning the facts 
of Leonardo's biography and the authenticity of 
certain of his works, or rather of the works attrib- 
uted to him, but gives the data for which there is 
authority, his own conclusions on disputed points, 
and descriptions of his work with an ample number 
of illustrations. What he offers in the way of 
biography is all that is really known of the great 
genius, yet the book leaves one with a feeling of 
disappointment. One wishes to know so much more 
of Leonardo the man, and regrets that this versatile 
master left comparatively so little, and that, of what 
he did leave, so much has been lost, or is in a poor 
state of preservation — as, for example, the paint- 
ing of ■ The Last Supper." 


" The Sard of Metaphysics," a volume sent us by 
the Open Court Publishing Co., is one of the most in- 
teresting and valuable of the many philosophical wri- 
tings of Dr. Paul Cams. It is an inquiry into the 
question of the Ding an Sich, and its author, although 
recognizing the importance of the Kantian doctrine, 
and even its necessity at a certain stage in the evolution 
of thought, rejects it as no longer tenable, and as a 
mere philosophical superstition. While we are hardly 
willing to admit that this discussion really eliminates 
the ■ thing-in-itself " from philosophy, we are glad to 
pay tribute to the stimulating and suggestive character 
of the arguments advanced by Dr. Carus, and to the 
interest of his summary of post-Kantian opinion upon 
this subject. 

" The Basis of Morality," by Arthur Schopenhauer, 
is the most important of the philosopher's minor works 
hitherto untranslated into English. A translation has 
now been made by Mr. Arthur Brodrick Bullock, and 
is published by the Macmillan Co. This is the famous 
essay that was not crowned by the Danish Royal Society, 
a rejection upon which Schopenhauer afterwards com- 
mented in his most caustic vein of irony. It is a pity 
that the translator should not have given us these 
comments, which form the introduction to the German 
edition, as well as the text of the essay itself. As for 
the main work, it is one of the soundest and most stim- 
ulating of ethical treatises, and we cannot urge its read- 
ing too strongly upon those who have not yet made its 

Mr. Merrick Whitcomb's " A History of Modern 
Europe " is a new " Twentieth Century Text-Book " 
published by the Messrs. Appleton. We have frequently 
had occasion to commend the books prepared for this 
series, and this latest addition to their number is a work 
of exceptional importance. Its distinctive features are 
found in the selection of illustrations, in the fact that 
more than half of the volume is devoted to the nine- 
teenth century, and in the source-material offered with 
the several chapters. These source extracts are neces- 
sarily brief, bat they are chosen with singular judicious- 
ness, and often illuminate in a quite unexpected way 
the narrative text. A synopsis of " leading events " 
affords a useful method of summary and review. 

A quarter of a century ago, plant physiology was a 
subject that hardly existed for teaching purposes, or 
otherwise than as an abstract division of botanicnl 
science theoretically posited, but not worked out in any 
systematic way. Now, every department of botanical 
a sizable college gives courses in it, and text-books, 
both German and English, exist in numbers. The 
latest addition to them is " A Text-Book of Plant 
Physiology," by Dr. George James Pierce, which has 
just been published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. It 
is a work of considerable dimensions, for advanced 
college use, and is based upon a teaching experience of 
several years with the subject. The author states his 
aim to have been " to express safe views rather than 
to echo the most recent," which is a very wise plan in 
dealing with so rapidly-developing a subject. 

Recent text-books in French include " Easy French " 
(Heath), a reader for beginners, by Messrs. W. B. 
Snow and C. P. Lebon; Augier's and Foussier's "Un 
Beau Mariage" (Holt), edited by Messrs. Stuart 
Symington, L. R. Herrick, and L. E. Cadieux; Augier's 
and Landeau's " Le Gendre de M. Poirier " (American 
Book Co.), edited by Dr. Edwin Carl Roedder; Daudet's 
"La Belle-Xivernaise " (Ginn), edited by Mr. Frank 
W. Freeborn; MerimeVs "Colomba" (Ginn), edited 
by Dr. Albert Schinz; and Hugo's " Les Miserables" 
(Heath), edited and greatly abridged by Professor O. B. 
Super. Recent Spanish texts include ■ Schilling's Span- 
ish Grammar" (Holt), translated and edited by Mr. 
Frederick Zagel; Sefior Galdos's " Electra " (American 
Book Co.), edited by Mr. Otis Gridley Bunnell; and 
the " Marianela " (Heath) of the same author, edited by 
Messrs. J. Geddes and F. M. Josselyn, Jr. 

The following German texts are published by Messrs. 
Henry Holt & Co.: " Beginning German," by Dr. H. C. 
Bierwirth ; Goethe's " Egmont," edited by Professor 
Robert Welles Deering ; and Herr Adolf Wilbrandt's 
Comedy, " Jugendliebe," edited by Professor Theodore 
Henckels. Messrs. Ginn & Co. publish Heine's " Harz- 
reise " with a selection from the " Buch der Lieder," 
edited by Mr. Leigh R. Gregor. Messrs. Scott, Fores- 
man, & Co. publish Schiller's " Maria Stuart," edited 
by Dr. Carl Edgar Eggert. Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 
publish Goethe's " Hermann und Dorothea," edited by 
Professor Arthur H. Palmer. The following French 
texts are published by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co.: 
Saintine's " Picciola," edited by Professor O. B. Super; 
About's " La Me*re de la Marquise," edited by Dr. 
Murray Peabody Brush ; and Erckmann-Chatrian's 
" Le Juif Polonais," edited by Mr. Edward Manley. 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. publish " Simple French," 
edited by Mr. Victor E. Francois and Professor Pierre 
F. Giroud. 



[Aug. 16, 


The two Books of Esdras, edited by Dr. Archibald 
Duff, form a new volume in the " Temple " Apocrypha 
published by the J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Thackeray's " The Adventures of Philip," in two 
volumes, is added by Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. to their 
pretty new edition of the novelist's writings. 

The " New Testament Apocryphal Writings," edited 
by Dr. James Orr, form the latest addition to the 
" Temple " Bible published by the J. B. Lippincott Co. 

" The Harkriders," a novel by Mr. Opie Read, based 
upon the author's popular play of that name, has just 
been published in an illustrated edition by Messrs. 
Laird & Lee. 

" Light Waves and their Uses," by Professor A. A. 
Michelson, is a volume in the octavo series of the 
decennial publications now being issued in such num- 
bers by the University of Chicago. 

Professor Thomas Marc Parrott has edited for 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. a school text of " The 
Merchant of Venice," which makes a creditable addition 
to the " English Readings " series of that house. 

An "Elementary Chemistry," by Dr. Robert Hart 
Bradbury, is a new educational publication of the 
Messrs. Appleton. It has portrait illustrations, and a 
laboratory manual appended and separately paged. 

An addition of especial interest to the " American 
Men of Letters Series" is the Life of Sidney Lanier 
which Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. announce is to be 
written by Professor Edward Mims of Trinity College, 
Durham, N. C. 

"Recent European History, 1789-1900," by Dr. 
George Emory Fellows, is published by Messrs. B. H. 
Sanborn & Co. It is an illustrated text-book suitable 
for the work of secondary schools that offer courses in 
modern European history. 

" Essentials of German," by Professor B. J. Vos, is 
published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. Another Ger- 
man text is Otto Ludwig's " Zwischen Himmel und 
Erde," edited by Professor Edward S. Meyer, and 
published by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 

We are requested by the publishers of Mr. Bliss 
Carman's two new volumes of verse, reviewed in The 
Dial of July 16, to say that the reprinted portions of 
these volumes have appeared in periodicals only, and 
not in earlier books, as erroneously stated in our review. 

" A History of Roman Literature," by Dr. Harold N. 
Fowler, is a new " Twentieth Century Text-Book " 
published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. It is a work 
of moderate dimensions, for school use, with a biblio- 
graphy, a chronological table, and illustrative extracts 
in translation. 

Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. are the publishers 
of "The Annual Register "for 1902. It is a thick 
volume, dealing, as usual, first with English, then with 
foreign and colonial history, and supplemented by a 
chronicle of events, a retrospect of the year's literature, 
and a necrology. 

There is now on exhibition in the Royal Academy, 
London, George Frampton's monument to Sir Walter 
Besant, which will be erected in St. Paul's by the 
Society of Authors. The inscription reads: "Sir Wal- 
ter Besant, Novelist, Historian of London, Secretary of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund, Originator of the Peo- 
ple's Palace and Founder of the Society of Authors. 

This Monument is Erected by his Grateful Brethren 
in Literature. Born 14 August, 1836. Died June, 
1901." The incription conveys some idea of the activ- 
ities of the man outside his books. 

"The Under Dog" volume of short stories by Mr. 
F. Hopkinson Smith, already published in the ordinary 
trade form, has now been added to the " Beacon " sub- 
scription edition of Mr. Smith's writings, making the 
tenth and concluding volume of the set. The Messrs. 
Scribner are the publishers. 

An "Anthology of English Poetry: Beowulf to 
Kipling," has been prepared for the use of schools by 
Dr. Robert N. Whiteford, and is published by Messrs. 
B. H. Sanborn & Co. The book has a sensible intro- 
duction, and there are also notes, critical quotations, 
and suggestions for class exercises. 

A volume on the artist Whistler and his work will 
be among the more important art books of the coming 
autumn. It is the work of Mr. Alfred G. Bell and Miss 
Nancy Bell, and its publishers (Macmillan Co.) will 
furnish it with forty half-tone reproductions of Whist- 
ler's most interesting pictures. 

Dr. D. S. Jordan, President of Stanford University, 
has in press for publication by Paul Elder & Co., San 
Francisco, " The Voice of the Scholar, and Other Ad- 
dresses on the Problems of Higher Education." Various 
practical subjects, as " The Building of the University," 
" College Spirit," and " The University and the Busi- 
ness Man," are among those discussed. 

Amidst the endless succession of new novels, it is 
pleasant to note the continued vogue of that excellent 
work of the late Paul L. Ford, " The Honorable Peter 
Sterling." Its publishers, Messrs. Henry Holt & Co., 
announce the issue of its forty-eighth edition ; this 
record being surpassed by that of but one other novel 
issued by this house — " The Prisoner of Zenda," now 
in its fifty-fifth edition. 

The new volume of poems by Mr. Rudyard Kipling 
— the first collection since 1896 — which Messrs. 
Doubleday, Page & Co. will produce in the early au- 
tumn, will bear the title "The Five Nations." Besides 
those poems which, in the last three years, have become 
more or less familiar to Americans through their cabled 
fragments to this country, the volume will contain about 
twenty-five new and unpublished pieces. 

The American Baptist Publication Society, of Phila- 
delphia and Chicago, will become the American agency 
for the new translation of the Bible into the idiom of 
to-day, by Mr. Ferrar Fenton. It is published in one 
volume containing both the Old aud New Testaments, 
and also in separate parts. This version of the Bible 
is said to " bring before English readers the real mean- 
ing of the text as no other translation has done." 

" First Lessons in United States History," by Edward 
Channing, is attractively gotten up by the Macmillan 
Company. It is very elementary and brief, and its 
statements are so put that the inferences of cause and 
effect, which children are so quick to draw, are often 
inaccurate and distorted. The courts, it may be added, 
decided that the assassin of President McKinley was 
not "an insane person," which is the author's state- 

Four small volumes on "The Art of Writing and 
Speaking the English Language," prepared by Mr. 
Sherwin Cody, are published with the imprint of The 
Old Greek Press, Chicago. One of the volumes is given 
to Word-Study, one to Composition, one to Grammar 




and Punctuation, and one to Constructive Rhetoric. 
The volumes are of a practical, handy sort, compact 
in form, and inexpensive. They are intended for indi- 
viduals needing such instruction as is here sought to 
be given, as well as for use in schools. 

President L. H. Jones is the compiler of " The Jones 
Readers," in five volumes, published by Messrs. Ginn & 
Co. These five graded books contain a total of 1568 
pages, and are praiseworthy as to their typography, 
their illustrations, and the literary character of the 
selections offered. Ethical ideals have been especially 
kept in view by the editor, and a progressive develop- 
ment of the child's vocabulary is the underlying educa- 
tional aim of the volumes. 

Ben Jonson's " The Alchemist," edited, with intro- 
duction, notes, and a glossary, by Dr. Charles Mont- 
gomery Hathaway, is the latest addition to the " Yale 
Studies in English," published for Yale University by 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. The work was prepared as 
a doctoral thesis, and is of the most elaborate character, 
including a lengthy sketch of the history of alchemy, 
a bibliography, a discussion of Jonson's sources, over a 
hundred pages of notes, an extensive glossary, and an 

The John Crerar Library has just published a sup- 
plement to its list of serial publications contained in 
the public libraries of Chicago and Evanston, making 
many additions to the contents of the earlier publication, 
and providing complete information up to the date of 
last April. These two lists are of the greatest useful- 
ness to students in the vicinity of Chicago, and their 
preparation by the authorities of the John Crerar Li- 
brary is a public-spirited undertaking that deserves 
warm recognition. 

We wrote not long ago in praise of Mr. Percival 
Chubb's volume on the teaching of English, and we 
now have occasion to commend a second work upon 
this important subject. " The Teaching of English in 
the Elementary and the Secondary School," just pub- 
lished by Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co. in the 
" American Teachers' Series," is the joint production 
of Professors George Rice Carpenter, Franklin T. 
Baker, and Fred N. Scott. These are the best of 
names for the purpose, and the volume which has thus 
been prepared is a manual of absolutely indispensable 
importance to every teacher of the subject in this 
country. This we say not merely because of the sound 
doctrine which the book preaches, but also because of 
the extreme helpfulness of its practical suggestions, its 
valuable outlines, references, and special bibliographies. 
In these latter respects, the work is more elaborate 
than Mr. Chubb's otherwise similar treatment of the 

IiisT of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 40 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 


Francis Adrian van der Kemp, 1752-1829 : An auto- 
biography, together with extracts from his correspondence. 
Edited with an Historical Sketch by Helen Lincklaen 
Fairchild. Illus. in photogravure, 8vo, nncut, pp. 230. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. §2.50 net. 

Life of Isabella Thoburn. By Bishop J. Thoburn. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 373. Jennings & Pye. $1.25. 


The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803. Edited and anno- 
tated by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robert- 
son ; with Historical Introduction and additional Notes 
by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Vol. V., 1582-1583. Dins, 
large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 320. Cleveland : Arthur H. 
Clark Co. $4. net. 

The Old Glade (Forbes's) Road. (Pennsylvania State 
Road.) By Archer Butler Hulbert. With maps and 
illustrations, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 205. " Historic 
Highways of America." Cleveland : Arthur H. Clark 
Co. $2.50 net. 

Turgot and the Six Edicts. By Robert Perry Shepherd, 
Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 213. " Columbia University 
Studies." Macmillan Co. Paper, $1.50. 

Supplement to " Lake St. Louis," &c., &c. From Many 
Unpublished Documents. By Desire 1 Girouard. English 
Edition. Illus., large 8vo, uncut, pp. 546. Montreal : 
Poirier, Bessette & Co. Paper. 

Arnold' 8 March from Cambridge to Quebec : A Criti- 
cal Study ; Together with a reprint of Arnold's Journal. 
By Justin H. Smith. With maps and plans, 8vo, pp. 498. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. net. 


Prose Works of Thackeray. Edited by Walter Jerrold ; 
illus. by Charles E. Brock. New vols. : Philip, in 2 vols. 
Illus. in photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, uncut. Mac- 
millan Co. Per vol., $1. 

The City of God. By St. Augustine; trans, by John 
Healey. In 3 vols., each with photogravure frontispiece, 
24mo, uncnt. "Temple Classics." Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Works of F, Hopkinson Smith, " Beacon " edition. 
Vol. X., The Under Dog. Illus. in color, 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut. Charles Scribner's Sons. (Sold only in sets by 

New Testament Apocryphal Writings. Edited by 
James Orr, D.D. With photogravure frontispiece, 24mo, 
gilt top, pp. 137. J. B. Lippincott Co. 60 cts. net. 


The Call of the Wild. By Jack London. Illus. in color, 

12mo, gilt top, nncut, pp. 231. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
The One Woman : A Story of Modern Utopia. By Thomas 

Dixon, Jr. Illos., 12mo, pp. 350. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

A Parish of Two : Douglas Dayton Letters by Henry 

Goelet McVickar ; Percy Dashiel Letters by Percy Collins. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 417. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1.50. 
Andy Barr. By Willis B. Hawkins. 12mo, pp. 472. Lothrop 

Publishing Co. $1.50. 
Count Zarka : A Romance. By Sir William Magnay. Illus., 

12mo. uncut, pp. 318. L. C. Page & Co. $1.50. 
In Happy Hollow. ByMaxAdeler (Charles Heber Clark). 

Illus.. 12mo, pp. 337. Henry T. Coates & Co. $1.50. 
Cheerful Americans. By Charles Battell Loomis. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 299. Henry Holt & Co. $1.25. 
The Interference of Patricia. By Lilian Bell. With 

frontispiece, 12mo, nncut, pp. 156. L. C. Page & Co. $1. 
A Victim of Conscience : A Novel. By Milton Goldsmith. 

Bins., 12mo, pp. 318. Henry T. Coates & Co. $1. 
A Duke and his Double. By Edward S. Van Zile. With 

frontispiece, 16mo, pp. 187. Henry Holt & Co. 75 cts. 
The Saint of the Dragon's Dale : A Fantastic Tale. By 

William Stearns Davis. With frontispiece, 16mo, uncut, 

pp. 129. Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 


The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne, B.D., 1636? 
-1674. Now first published from the original manu- 
scripts. Edited by Bertram Dobell ; with a memoir of 
the author. 8vo, uncut, pp. 168. London : Published by 
the editor. 

Tales in Metre, and Other Poems. By Frederic Crown- 
inshield. 12mo, uncut, pp. 119. New York: Robert 
Grier Cooke. 

Gardens of the Caribbees : Sketches of a Cruise to the 
West Indies and the Spanish Main. By Ida M. H. Starr. 
In 2 vols., illus., 16mo, gilt tops, uncut. L. C. Page & Co. 
$2.40 net. 



[Aug. 16, 


Jungle Larks : Funny Stories in Words and Colors, Merry 
Pranks, Odd Scenes, Droll Incidents of Animal Life. By 
"GAR" (Raymond H.Garman). 4to. Laird&Lee. $1. 

Ahead of the Army. By W. O. Stoddard. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 302. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1. net. 

Babel and Bible: Two Lectures on the Significance of 
Assyriological Research for Religion. By Dr. Friedrich 
Delitzsch ; trans, from the German by Thomas J. Mc- 
Cormackand W. H. Carruth. Illus., 8vo, pp. 167. Open 
Court Publishing Co. 75 cts. net. 

Economics and Politics in Maryland, 1720-1750, and 
the Public Services of Daniel Dulany the Elder. By St. 
George Leakin Sioussat, Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 84. 
" Johns Hopkins University Studies." Baltimore : Johns 
Hopkins Press. Paper, 50 cts. 


Selections from Homer's Iliad. With an Introduction, 
Notes, a short Homeric Grammar, and a Vocabulary. 
By Allen Rogers Benner. Illus., 12mo, pp. 522. " Twen- 
tieth Century Text-Books." D. Appleton & Co. $1.60. 

A New German Grammar. By Marion D. Learned, 
Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 407. " Twentieth Century Text-Books." 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.15 net. 

Descriptive Chemistry. By Lyman C. Newell. Ph.D. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 590. D. C. Heath & Co. 
Stories from the Hebrew. By Josephine Woodbury Heer- 

mans. Illus., 12mo, pp. 178. Silver, Burdett & Co. 42 cts. 
Students' Outline for the History of the United States. 

By Arthur D. Cromwell ; with an Introduction by Albert 

Bushnell Hart. 8vo, pp. 127. Chicago : Ainsworth & Co. 


The Exact Science of Health, Based upon Life's Great 

Law. By Robert Walter, M.D. Vol. I., Principles. 8vo, 

pp. 302. New York : Edgar S. Werner Publishing Co. $2. 
Natick Dictionary. By James Hammond Trumbull. 4to, 

pp. 347. Bulletin 25, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Washington : Government Printing Office. 
Webster's New Standard Dictionary of the English 

Language. Based on the most Eminent Authorities, by 

E. T. Roe, LL.B.; Prof. O. H. L. Schwetzky, Editor. 
Illus., 8vo, pp. 738. " Library " edition. Laird&Lee. 

The Origin of American State Universities. By Elmer 
Ellsworth Brown. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 45. " University 
of California Publications." Berkeley : University Press. 
Paper, 50 cts. 

Tools and Machines. By Charles Barnard. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 164. Silver, Burdett & Co. 60 cts. 

An Introductory Study of Ethics. By Warner Fite. 
12mo, pp. 383. Longmans, Green, & Co. 


L. C. Bonamk, Author and Pub., 1930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Well-graded series (or Preparatory Schools and Colleges. No time 
wasted in superficial or mechanical work. French Text : Numerous 
exercises in conversation, translation, composition. Part I. (60 cts.): 
Primary grade; thorough drill in Pronunciation. Pari II. (90 cts.): 
Intermediate grade ; Essentials of Grammar ; 4th edition, revised, with 
Vocabulary : most carefully graded. Part III. (81.00): Composition, 
Idioms, Syntax ; meets requirements for admission to college. 

Part IV. (35 cts.): Handbook of Pronunciation for advanced grade; 
concise and comprehensive. Sent to teachers for examination, with a 
view to introduction. 


Balzac, Bronte, Bulwer, Carlyle, Cooper, Dickens, 
Dumas, Eliot, Fielding, Gibbon, Guizot, Hawthorne, 
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[Aug. 16 


& &tmU$®ont$lv Journal of Eiterarp Crittcigm, 2Dtecu00ion, and information 

IN the flood of books pouring daily from the press there is so much to choose from that 
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The Dial has no superior among the literary 
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The Outlook, New York. 

The Dial is sober, conscientious, and scholarly; 
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Sir Walter Besant. 

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The Dial I think is by far the best of our 
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The Independent, New York. 

The Dial has always stood for character. It has 
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The Dial seems at present the most unbiased, 
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in "A Literary History of America." 

The Dial is the best literary paper in the United 
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THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and l6th of each month. Terms of Sub- 
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The heroine of this dramatic poem is maid of honor to Margaret of Navarre. Persecuted at the court by the 
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104 THE DIAL [Aug. 16, 1903. 

J^eto Hooks for g>rJ)ools ano Colleges 

A History of England for Schools 


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Ffl^V ClPrmfin ^"ffiriP^ Edited with notes and vocabulary by PHILIP S. Allen, Ph.D., The 
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[Sept. 1, 

Crowell's Astor Edition of Poets 

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Arnold (Matthew). (Complete.) 

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Bryant. (Biographical Introduction.) 

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Byron. (With notes.) 

Cambridge Book of Poetry. Bates. 

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Courtship of Miles Standish. 

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Dictionary of Poetical Quotations. Ward. 

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Hiawatha. (With notes.) 

Holmes. (Biographical Introduction.) 


Hugo (Victor). 

Idylls of the King. (Edited by Parsons.) 

Iliad. (Pope.) 

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Ingoldsby Legends. (Complete.) 

Jean Ingelow. (Complete.) 

Keats. (Forman's Text.) 

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Lady of the Lake. (With notes.) 

La 11a Rookh. (With notes.) 

Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

Light of Asia. Arnold. 

Longfellow. (Biographical Introduction.) 

Lowell. (Biographical Introduction.) 

Lucile. Meredith. 


Marmion. Scott. 

Meredith (Owen). 

Milton. (Masson's Text.) 

Moore. (Complete, with notes.) 

Mulock (Miss). 

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Paradise Lost. (With notes.) 

Percy's Reliques. (Complete.) 

Persian Poets (The). (N. H. Dole.) 

Poe. (With Memoir.) 

Poetry of Flowers. 

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Procter. (Introduction by Dickens.) 

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Scott. (Complete, with notes.) 

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Tennyson. (Introduction by Parsons.) 


Virgil. (Conington.) 

White (Kirke). 

Whitman (Walt.) (Intro, by John Burroughs) 

Whittier. (Biographical Introduction.) 

Wordsworth. (Complete.) 

indicated thus : +. 

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Crowell's Handy Volume Classics 

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Abbe Constantin. Hatevy. 

Abbe Daniel. Theuriet. 
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Age of Chivalry. Bulfinch. 

Age of Fable. Bulfinch. 
+ Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland. Carroll. 

Attic Philosopher. Souvestre. 

Aurora Leigh. Mrs. Browning. 

+ Autobiography of Franklin. 


Autocrat. Holmes. 

Bacon's Essays. 
+ Baron Munchausen. Raspe. 

Barrack Room Ballads. Kip- 

Baumbach's Tales. 

Beauties of Shakespeare. 2 

Black Tulip. Dumas. 

Blithedale Romance. Haw- 

Browning, Mrs. (Selections.) 

Browning, Robert. (Selec- 
tions.) 2 vols. 

Bryant's Early Poems. 

Burns. (Selections.) 

Byron. (Selections.) 

Childe Harold. Byron. 

Colette. Schultz. 

Colomba. Merimee. 
+ Colonial Literature. Trent. 
+ Conduct of Life. Emerson. 

Conversations on Old Poets. 


Courtship of Miles Standish. 

Cranford. Mrs. Gaskell. 
Crime of Silvestre Bonnard. 


Crown of Wild Olive. Ruskin. 

Cyrano de Bergerac. Rostand. 

Dream Life. Mitchell. 

Early Sonnets. Tennyson. 

Ekkehard. Scheffel. 2 vols. 
+ Elizabethan Dramatists. Wa- 

Emerson's Early Poems. 

Emerson's Essays. 2 vols. 

English Humorists. Thack- 

English Traits. Emerson. 

Epic of Hades (The). Morris. 


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Ethics of the Dust. Ruskin. 

Evangeline. Longfellow. 
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Fadette. Sand. 

Faience Violin. Champfleury. 

Fanshawe. Hawthorne. 

Favorite Poems. 
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Grandfather's Chair. Haw- 
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+ Heart. De Amicis. 
+ Heidi. Spyri. 

Heroes and Hero Worship. 

Hiawatha. Longfellow. 

Holmes's Early Poems. 

House of Seven Gables. Haw- 

Iceland Fisherman. Loti. 

Idylls of the King. Tennyson. 

Imitation of Christ. Eempis 

In Memoriam. Tennyson. 

Keats. (Selections.) 

La Belle Nivernaise. Daudet. 

Lady of the Lake. Scott. 

Lalla Rookh. Moore. 

L'Avril. Marguerite. 

Legends of Charlemagne. 

Life of Nelson. Southey. 

Light of Asia. Arnold. 

Locksley Hall. Tennyson. 
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Lowell's Early Poems. 

Lucile. Meredith. 

Macaulay's Historical Es- 

Macaulay's Literary Essays. 

Marble Faun. 2 vols. Haw- 
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Mosses from an Old Manse. 
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My Uncle and My Cure. 
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Nature : Addresses, etc. Em- 

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Paul and Virginia. St. Pierre. 

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-Pioneer Literature. Trent. 

Poems by Two Brothers. 
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Poe's Poems. 

Poe's Tales. 

Poetical Quotations. 

Princess. Tennyson. 

Professor at the Breakfast 
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Prose Quotations. 

Prue and I. Curtis. 

Queen of the Air. Ruskin. 

Representative Men. Emer- 

Reveries of a Bachelor. Mitch- 
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Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. 

Sartor Resartus. Carlyle. 

Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne. 

Sesame and Lilies. 

Seven Lamps. Ruskin. 

Shakespeare's Songs and 

Shelley. (Selections.) 

Snow Image. Hawthorne. 

Stevenson's Poems. 
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Tales from Shakespeare. 

Tangle wood. Hawthorne. 

Tartarin of Tarascon. Daudet. 

Tartarinon the Alps. Daudet. 
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Vicar of Wakefield. Gold- 

Voices of the Night. Long- 

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Week on the Concord. Tho- 

Whittier's Early Poems. 

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Wordsworth. (Selections.) 

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Florestane, The Troubadour 

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Planned by the late Lord Acton, LL.D., Regius Professor of Modern History. Edited by A. W. 
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Professor of Literature (in English) in the University 
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[Sept. 1, 1903. 

Important Autumn Announcements 


By Arthur Stringer. 12 mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

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above the average." 

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Sometimes called " Mad Anthony." By John R. 
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31 JSnm'fHonttlo Journal of Uttrrarg Criticism, Discussion, ana Information, 

THE DIAL {founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 413. 

SEPT. 1, 1903. Vol. XXXV. 



FREDERICK W. ROBERTSON. Percy F. Bicknell 115 


Ingram A. Pyle 117 


T. D. A. Cockerell 119 

THE MARSHALL MEMORIAL. James Oscar Pierce 121 

RECENT POETRY. William Morton Payne . . .123 
Zangwills Blind Children. — Rodd's Myrtle and 
Oak. — Newbolt s The Sailing of the Long-Ships. 

— Holmes's The Triumph of Lore. — Shedd's The 
Oceanides. — Powell's Young Ivy on Old Walls. — 
Ingham's Pompeii of the West. — Upson's West- 
wind Songs. — Crosby's Swords and Plowshares. — 
McNeill's Unfrequented Paths. 


Early steamboat navigation on the Missouri river. 

— Game fishes, big and little, of the U. S. — Birds 
in their relation to mankind. — The science of Cli- 
mate. — A volume for city officials and students of 
municipal affairs. — The futility of Reciprocity. — 
Music and Religion. — A notable chapter of muni- 
cipal history. — The Poet of the Renaissance. 


NOTES 130 






Concluding our summary of the " Athe- 
naeum's " annual review of Continental litera- 
ture, we reproduce the leading features of the 
following reports : Holland, by Mr. H. S. M . 
van Wickevoort Crommelin ; Hungary, by Dr. 
Leopold Katscher ; Italy by Dr. Guido Biagi ; 
Poland, by Dr. Adam Belcikowski ; Russia, 
by Mr. Yalerii Briusov ; and Spain, by Don 
Rafael Altamira. We note with regret that 
both Norway and Sweden are missing from this 
year's review, as well as Greece, which also is 
usually included. 

Mr. van Wickevoort Crommelin, writing of 
Dutch literature, says : 

" The year has been most prolific both in promise 
and performance. Such healthy and vigorous books 
have not appeared for a long time. So varied are the 
divided army, obeying no sovereign command. They 
are indeed; there has never been more diversity, and 
ways of expression current among the writers of today 
that the complaint has been heard that theyjare a even an- 
tagonism of groups and personalities. But this only shows 
the strong individualism which everywhere abounds." 

The strength of the Dutch genius is in its ap- 
preciation of the beauty of common things, a 
fact which is illustrated by Dutch art and liter- 
ature alike. Mr. J. van Looy, who is both a 
painter and a man of letters, is the author of 
"Feesten," which "dwells on such humble 
topics as a party in a workman's cottage, fire- 
works, and popular amusements in the slums." 
Mr. Streuvels, in "Langs de Wegen," his last 
great work, tells "the story of a simple and 
lonely labourer who is everywhere elbowed 
out by a harsh world." Mr. Frans Coenen's 
" Zondagsrust " is " little more than the ac- 
count of a rainy Sunday passed by a family of 
three members." 

" The only novel in which a comprehensive plan is 
elaborated by a firm hand is Mr. Louis Couperus's 
' Boeken der Kleine Zielen.' Last year I just men- 
tioned the vast scheme of this book, two new volumes 
of which, ' Zielenschemering ' and ■ Het Heilige Weten,' 
have appeared. Here we meet with a woman who 
grows wearied of « society.' When Constance implores 
her influential brother-in-law, the minister Yan Naghel, 
to invite her to one of his official dinner parties in order 
to rehabilitate her in the eyes of the world, and to give 
her son a start in life, she suddenly becomes aware of 



[Sept. 1, 

the utter futility of her aspirations. She does not re- 
sort to suicide, as a French heroine might, but reforms 
her life and finds worthier ideals." 
A noteworthy play is " Gunlaug en Helga," by 
the Flemish poet, Mr. Victor de Meyere, which 
work, " although it has many good qualities, 
turned out to be rather an obsolete remnant of 
the romantic period." " Nieuwe Geboort," by 
Mrs. Roland Hoist, is " a political glorification 
of socialism." 

Dr. Katscher's Hungarian article opens with 
the following paragraph : 

"Fiction, already last year at a low ebb, has con- 
tinued so during the past twelvemonth. There are 
scarcely any really firstrate productions to be noticed, 
although some good ones have seen the light. Mr. 
M6r J6kai, our oldest man of letters, has brought out, 
after a few years' silence, an interesting novel entitled 
* Our Pole,' by which title he means a Polish Jew who 
is a half-legendary conqueror of hearts from the time 
of the Hungarian struggle for liberty. After a thrill- 
ing love affair with a proud and beautiful noblewoman, 
this man comes to a sad end. He sacrifices love and 
life to his faith. The background of the story is ro- 
mantic, humorous, and well constructed." 

" Ideals " is a political novel by Mr. Lajos 
Beck, a new man. It is a plea for socialism. 
" The King of Beasts at Large," by Mr. Istvan 
Barsony, is an animal story which has some 
points of resemblance to " The Jungle Books" 
of Mr. Kipling. Mr. Ferencz Herczeg is the 
most widely read of Hungarian writers at the 
present day. 

" His latest novel, ' Andrew and Andor,' is an ex- 
tremely ironical and satirical picture of contemporary 
Budapest society, an elegant and charming description 
of certain aspects of Hungarian journalism. In com- 
position it may not be regular, but the dialogue is 
highly spirited and the characterization excellent. Mr. 
Herczeg's newest play, too, is of a satirical turn. It is 
entitled ' Manus Manum Lavat,' and attacks nepotism, 
an evil terribly prominent in this country. This suc- 
cessful comedy exhibits many new sides of a brilliant, 
but somewhat frequently treated, subject." 

"Nero's Mother," by Mr. Victor Tardos, is a 
" grand tragedy " which " ranks higher than 
any Hungarian play performed for many years." 
In poetry, the year's output has been above the 
average ; noteworthy books are Mr. Sandor 
Feleki's " Shadows and Kays," and the "Verses " 
of Miss Renee Erdos, " full of true love, true 
psychology, and true poetry." Serious publi- 
cations include Professor Heinrich's " History 
of the World's Literature," to be the work of 
a number of specialists ; Professor Marczali's 
" Great Illustrated Universal History "; Mr. 
Ignacz Acsady's " History of the Magyar Em- 
pire "; Mr. Jozsef Fekete's " The Philosophy 
of Life"; and Mr. Mor Gelleri's "Social 
Questions of the Day." 

According to Dr. Biagi's account, the chief 
subjects of interest to Italians during the past 
year have been the Marconi telegraph and the 
fall of the Campanile — neither of them having 
any particular relation to literature. He says : 

" I heartily commiserate those who may have to 
write the history of Italian literature during the open- 
ing years of this century. They will find themselves con- 
fronted by an output so abundant, but at the same time 
so uniform, that few works will stand out, owing either 
to their form or to their contents, whilst of tbe mass 
the output itself, as much from the form as from the 
substance, is worthy of observation. It is a fact that 
during this last period great progress has been made. 
Whilst at first, by the side of works of excellence, due 
to a few writers of taste and of refinement, there sprang 
up laughable or pitiable literary abortions, now, if, in- 
deed, notable works are lacking, those also are scarce 
that excite contempt and disgust." 

The recent development of secondary teaching 
and the activity of the universities are influ- 
ences that are having very salutary results in 
the field of literature. The scientific impulse is 
giving way in large measure to the critical and 
artistic impulse. 

"Each of our faculties of letters is a workshop of 
studies where the history of literature and culture plays 
the predominant part. . . . Luckily a famous master, 
Giosue Carducci, showed by example that art and criti- 
cism were not two things in opposition; that on the 
contrary, one dwelt within the other; that if the taste 
was not educated one judged badly even of ancient 
works. So began with him and his disciples — to-day 
professors in many high schools — a salutary reaction 
against the analytical school and the purely corrosive 
criticism. Now the two tendencies balance each other 
and are intermingled, and the new generation has felt 
and understand that if history has its rights, art has 
too, and that serious criticism cannot take away from 
one or the other." 

The great writers are for the most part rest- 
ing on their laurels. " Signor Carducci has 
now bidden a final adieu to his muse ; Signor 
Fogazzaro is satisfied with his political in- 
fluence in his native Vicenza, where also he 
fills with great zeal the office of President of 
the Board of Charity ; Signor de Amicis has 
been silent for some time ; Signor Giacosa is 
directing a monthly magazine, the 'Lettura'; 
and Signor Guerrini is reprinting the ' Rime ' 
of Lorenzo Stecchetti." Signor d'Annunzio 
has a new trilogy in verse, " Laudi del Cielo, 
della Terra, del Mare, e degli Eroe," of which 
the first volume has appeared. Signor Pascoli 
has published the first volume of his " Canti di 
Castelvecchio." "These songs of his, exqui- 
site, perfect in form, express delicate thoughts 
drawn from pure wells of poetic inspiration." 
Other volumes of verse are "Verso l'Oriente," 
by Signor Orvieto ; "Patria Terra," by Signor 




Pitteri ; and " Poemi Lirici," by Signor Tu- 

" The Italian capital is now being formed and con- 
stituted in Rome, but all the elements that certainly 
are there have not yet been able to amalgamate and 
fuse into a single whole. The^ romance-writers who 
describe Rome of to-day speak of the black world and 
the white world, and someone has found there the yellow 
world — Signor Giustino Ferri, for example, who en- 
titled his romance ' Roma Gialla.' There are too many 
strident and discordant colours, too many currents of 
life in perpetual contrast. It is difficult to collect and 
represent in its true aspect a life so multiform. How- 
ever, whilst a really Italian romance and theatre have 
still to be looked for, there are first-rate representations 
of local life and customs." 

A Sardinian writer, Signora Grazia Deledda, 
has ** quickly sprung into great fame " with 
her romances, " Elias Portolu " and " Dopo il 
Divorzio." Other fiction includes " II Maleficio 
Occulto," by Signor Zuccoli ; " Oasi," by Sig- 
nor d'Ambra ; and "Dopo la Vittoria," by a 
new and promising writer who takes " Sfinge " 
for a pen-name. The theatrical successes of 
the year have been Signor Rovetto's " Roman- 
ticism " and Signor Martoglio's "Nica." Lit- 
erary productions of a more sober character 
include Signor Chiarini's "Memorie della Vita 
di Giosue Carducci," Signor Zumbini's "Studi 
sul Leopardi," Signor Turri's " Machiavelli," 
and Signor Bertano's " Vittorio Alfieri Stu- 
diato nella Vita, nel Pensiero, e nell' Arte." 
Dante has been, as usual, the subject of many 
publications, which run all the gamut from a 
magnificent illustrated edition of the M Com- 
media " to a series of Dante postal cards — 
one for each canto! The meeting at Rome 
last April of the International Historical Con- 
gress has given a marked stimulus to historical 
studies, and the history of art particularly has 
taken a renewed lease of life, as is attested by 
a long list of new works. 

Dr. Belcikowski's report from Poland may 
be very briefly summarized. The jubilee of 
Mr. T. T. Jez has led to the first publication 
in book form of his " Memoirs of a Suitor," 
one of his earliest and best romances. Other 
novels are " The Festival of Life," by the 
late A. Dygasinski ; " Rottenness," by Mr. W. 
Berent ; "On the Silver Sphere," the story of 
a journey to the moon, by Mr. J. Zulawski ; 
" In the Land of Rocks," by Mr. K. Przerwa- 
Tetmajer; "Chinese Tales," by Mr. W. 
Sieroszewski ; "Sword and Ell," by Mr. W, 
Gormolucki ; and three Napoleonic novels by 
Mr. W. Gonsiorowski. In lyric production, 
the " Poems " of Mr. G. Danilowski, " In the 
Twilight of the Stars," by Mr. T. Micinski ; 

» A Soul's Day," by Mr. L. Staff ; » To the 
Unknown," by Mr. W. Wolski ; and a volume 
of lyrics by Mr. A. Mironowski, are the most 
important books. The best plays of the year 
have been Mr. S. Wyspianski's M The Libera- 
tion" and "King Boleslaw the Bold," Mr. L. 
Rydel's " For Ever," and Mr. Gorczynski's 
" In a July Night," in which " a wealthy land- 
owner's fatal amour with a peasant girl is de- 
picted in vivid and brilliant colors." Mr. P. 
Chmielowski has written a " History of Liter- 
ary Criticism in Poland," and new editions have 
been published of the histories of Polish liter- 
ature by Professor A. Bruckner and Count S. 
Tarnowski. A sixth and concluding volume 
is soon to be added to the latter work. 

" The religious and philosophical movement 
which increases in Russia with every year has 
caused the appearance of a new monthly maga- 
zine" says Mr. Briusov, who furnishes the report 
from that country. It is called "The New Path," 
and its object " is to give opportunity for the 
expression, in whatever literary form it may 
be, of those new tendencies which have arisen 
in our society with the awakening of religious 
and philosophical thought. The new magazine 
aims at uniting the spirit of religious inquiry 
with sharply defined progress." Professor 
Merezhkovski, who represents this philosoph- 
ical tendency as distinctly as any writer, has an 
important article, giving his " views of a new, 
truly universal apocalyptic church, which will 
unite all Christian beliefs at present in ex- 
istence." The censorship has taken a hand in 
the matter, and the editors find their " new 
path " anything but an easy one. The pro- 
ductions of two young poets, Mr. Alexander 
Blok and " Andrei Bieli " also express these 
ideas, and "are strongly penetrated by a pas- 
sionate mysticism." The critic, Mr. A. 
Zalinski, — 

" Quite independently of these writers, has now for 
more than ten years been preaching idealism in Russian 
literature. . . . Three of his public lectures have been 
published under the title ' A Struggle for Idealism,' 
and have gone through two editions during the year 
with which we are dealing. ... In belles-lettres, 
' Maxim Gorki ' and Mr. L. Andrdev have continued 
to attract the most attention. Each of their new pro- 
ductions has evoked long and noisy discussions, both in 
the press and in society. The number of copies of their 
books which have been sold exceeds what has previously 
been known in Russia." 

" Gorki " has put upon the stage a new play 
called "In the Depths," and Mr. Andreev has 
published a number of striking tales in the mag- 
azines. One of them, " In the Mist," evoked 
a severe criticism from the Countess Tolstoy, 



[Sept. 1, 

who published a letter in which she found fault 
with the tale, and considered it likely to cor- 
rupt youth. She found some supporters in the 
press, but a great number of people defended 
Mr. Andreev, and reminded her that literature 
does not exist for the education of schoolboys. 
A vigorous polemic was carried on in the news- 
papers for about two months. Among writers 
of an earlier generation may be mentioned Mr. 
P. Boborykin, whose story "The Law of Life," 
devoted to the marriage question, is noticeable. 
We also mention "The Secret of Glaphira," 
by Mr. M. Aldov, and " Quite Gentle," by Mr. 
V. Korolenko, both important novels. 

" The supporters of the ' new poetry,' the ' modern- 
ists,' in the spring of the year of which we are treating, 
undertook a regular campaign in Moscow for the diffu- 
sion of their ideas. They have advocated them in public 
lectures and readings (of these the five lectures of Mr. 
K. Balmont, delivered in different places, were among 
the most conspicuous), and in public meetings on literary 
questions convened on Tuesdays by the Moscow Liter- 
ary and Artistic Circle. These Tuesdays attracted such 
a number of hearers that frequently the premises of the 
club could not contain them. The disputes became 
lively, and even violent. There were sharp conflicts 
between the representatives of opposite opinions." 

"Northern Flowers" is the title of an annual 
volume which represents the work of these 
" modernists." Mr. Ivanov's " Pilot Stars " is 
the work of a poet who has " an independent 
and original vocabulary." He " loves a word 
as some love precious stones. He polishes it 
carefully, chooses the suitable setting, and 
frequently makes it glitter with unexpected 
splendour." Professor Balmont is engaged 
upon a complete translation of Shelley, and 
many other important foreign works are being 
turned into Russian by various hands. 

" In the history of literature there has been much 
activity in what concerned Pushkin. Although more 
than sixty-five years have elapsed since his death, and 
during that period two such giants in Russian literature 
as Count Tolstoy and Dostoievski have been active, 
Pushkin maintains his vitality and influence upon his 
contemporaries. He is still the foundation upon which 
Russian literature stands. During the year under re- 
view two new editions of his works have been begun, 
and are being vigorously carried on." 

Important historical writings are a "History 
of Moscow," by Mr. T. Zabielin ; an " Intro- 
duction to the History of Greece," by Professor 
V. Buzeskul ; and a volume of " Essays on 
Russian History," by Professor S. Platonov. 
During the year, " the jubilee was celebrated 
of the literary activity of Count Tolstoy. With- 
out a dissenting voice all the press and all 
society unanimously saluted the great veteran. 
Such a jubilee also Mr. A. Pypin celebrated, 

the author of the most circumstantial ' History 
of Russian Literature.' On the occasion of 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the death of 
Nekrasov, and the tenth of that of A. Fet, 
festivals were held in honour of these poets." 
Among the deaths of the year have been those 
of K. Staniukovich, who wrote stories of sailors, 
of Professor Kirpichnikov, the literary histo- 
rian, of E. Markov, the writer of travels, and 
of A. Aksakov, the spiritualist. 

Last in our list we come to Spanish litera- 
ture, of which Don Rafael Altamiro discourses 
at much length. 

" The twelve months that have elapsed since my last 
chronicle was writtten have been characterized by a 
decidedly interesting revival of literary activity, thus 
offering a curious contrast to the preceding twelve. In 
that period, coincidentally with what was taking place 
throughout the rest of the Continent, more especially 
in the Latin countries, there was remarked a certain 
indisposition on the part of authors to cultivate fiction 
and poetry, while the public evinced a decided weari- 
ness of, and distaste to, both those branches of liter- 
ature. Now there has ensued a rapid resumption of 
interest in both, and the production of tales and poems 
may be said, at least as far as numbers go, to be the 
most important that I have had occasion to speak of." 

The " Episodios Nacionales " of Senor Galdos 
have entered upon their fourth series, begin- 
ning with the year 1848. There are three new 
volumes, "Las Tormentas del 1848," "Nar- 
vaez," and "Los Duendes de la Carmarilla." 
Senor Valdes has written "Le Aldea Perdido," 
a tale addressed to his native Asturia. Senora 
Bazan has published " Misterio," following in 
the track of our Mrs. Catherwood in choosing 
for a subject the fate of the son of Louis XVI. 
A new "Biblioteca de Novelistas del Siglo 
XX." represents the younger novelists of to- 
day. " The most striking characteristic of the 
collection is the variety of styles, tastes, and 
tendencies expressed by the authors, which 
accentuate the individuality of each ; and the 
intellectual bearing of the problem that forms 
the predominant feature in most of them." 
The drama has been marked by a Catalonian 
revival, with several new pieces accompanied 
by much discussion. Plays of the year in Cas- 
tilian include " Pepita Reyes " and " La Dicha 
Ajena," by the brothers Quintero ; " Alma 
Triumpante " and " La Noche del Sabado," 
by Senor Benavente ; and " El Loco Dios " 
and " La Escalinata de un Trono," in which 
Senor Echegaray " repeats once more the 
splendours of his style and is again guilty of 
his customary defects." The first place among 
volumes of verse " belongs to a book called 
1 Musgo,' which is written by Senor Peres. 




Apart from his merit as a metricist and the 
intensity of his poetical inspiration, Senor 
Peres contributes to the Spanish Parnassus an 
original note — that of the feeling for nature — 
in a form which may be deemed novel among 
us, and which makes a profound impression 
on the reader." Two new volumes by the late 
Castalan poet Verdaguer have been published. 
A new author, Senor Galan, " has sung with 
deep feeling in 4 Extremenas ' the customs and 
the home of his native district."' Literary his- 
tory has been enriched by many writers, chief 
among them being Senor Menendez y Pelayo's 
" Tratado de los Romances Viejos," Don Juan 
Valera's critical essays entitled "El Superhom- 
bre," and Professor Farinelli's lecture on the 
influence of Spanish literature upon the rest 
of the world. Concerning books of erudition, 
the writer says : " The group of works refer- 
ring to social, philosophical, and political ques- 
tions, although limited, is of much interest. 
Three topics dominate it : the character of the 
Spanish people (both treated generally, and 
limited to one line of subjects), Spain's inter- 
national relations, and the regional agitation." 
The enumeration that follows gives us many 
titles, but they are mostly of exclusively Span- 
ish interest, and it is hardly worth while for 
us to reproduce them here, even in a selection, 
which, du reste, would be difficult to make. 


To no one do we so readily yield our confidence 
as to him who shows himself deeply read in the 
mysteries within as, who has penetrated where we 
believed Omniscience alone had access, and who 
reveals to as weaknesses that we had hardly dared 
to confess even in thought. Such a person, weep- 
ing our very tears, breathing our most secret hopes 
and aspirations, possesses the quality that above all 
others gives one mind power over another. When 
the living voice speaks to us in tones that betoken 
this initiation into the inmost recesses of our com- 
mon human nature, we hold our breath and listen 
as to a voice from heaven. When the printed page 
addresses the inner ear in the same accents, the 
marvel is greater still, — that one perhaps never 
seen and long sinee dead should lay open to our 
wondering gaze the hidden depths of our being, 
and show himself acquainted with thoughts and 
feelings we ourselves had never dared to pass in 
review. In such a person we recognize genius, and 
we exclaim, " Surely, never man spake like this 
man ! " 

Such was the secret of Frederick W. Robertson's 
power as a speaker, and it will also explain the en- 

during value and charm of his printed utterances. 
Warm-hearted and craving human sympathy, he 
exhibited that most perfect type of character which, 
as Martineau puts it, begins in beauty and ends in 
power ; which leans on the love of fellow-beings 
while it may, and, when it may not, stands upright 
in the love of God. Battling for the troth as he 
saw it, irrespective of sects and parties, and dying 
what may be called a .martyr's death, at the age 
of thirty-seven, Robertson of Brighton paid the full 
price, in loneliness and suffering, for the fair re- 
nown that is now his beyond the possibility of dis- 
pute. Fifty years have passed since he dropped 
his task, and, the victim of misunderstanding and 
abuse from all sections of the church, lay down to 
die in an agony of mental and physical torture that, 
even in the reading, and at this distance of time, 
wrings the very soul. The message he delivered to 
his generation is a message no less fitting for ours. 
From the torpor of material prosperity we cannot 
be too sharply aroused to a renewed sense of the 
things of the spirit. From an increasing tendency 
toward caste we need to be recalled to a feeling of 
the oneness of humanity. 

But it is more appropriate, in these pages, to 
dwell on the value of Robertson's published works 
as literature, — literature that sets the reader to 
thinking from its own depth of thought, and compels 
admiration from its beauty of style and conciseness 
of expression. While Robertson was called by Dean 
Stanley the greatest of modern English preachers, 
he has also been likened, as a letter-writer, to 
Cowper and to Eugenie de Gue*rin. His eight 
volumes of sermons and addresses, some of them 
many times republished, are still the delight of 
numerous readers in both England and America, 
while he is known through translations to a smaller 
body of admirers on the Continent. In his earnest- 
ness, his ardor, his power of mental analysis, and 
his apt, logical, and striking expression, lies the 
secret of his undying literary charm. The soldier 
blood that ran in his veins and all but determined 
his own career, often gave his utterances a martial 
ring that is indeed quickening. Wherever wrong 
seeks redress, his chivalrous and combative nature 
speak? out with impetuosity and vigor. But better 
than all else, his warm humanity and his marvellous 
insight into the mysteries of the human heart and 
soul infuse with life and meaning all that he has 
to say. When it is remembered that most of his 
addresses were published from imperfect notes 
either taken by others or jotted down afterward 
by himself, the wonder increases that they should 
still speak to us with so much of the eloquence of 
the living voice. 

Other personal qualities that add charm to his 
published works — we avoid the word writings — 
are a purity that administers words of withering 
rebuke to the unchaste, a passionate desire for 
perfection, an eagerness to sacrifice self for the 
good of his fellows, and, in general, an ardent de- 
votion to all high ideals. Although he began his 



[Sept. 1, 

fight against wrong by adopting the destructive 
method, by assailing iniquity and wrestling with 
sin, he soon pursued the wiser course of upbuilding, 

— of overcoming evil with good. This is expressed 
in the first of his "principles" of teaching, "the 
establishment of positive truth instead of the neg- 
ative destruction of error." The remaining five 
principles, though not bearing directly on his style, 
may be given in this connection, slightly abridged : 
" That truth is made up of two opposite propo- 
sitions, and not found in a via media between the 
two. That spiritual truth is discerned by the spirit, 
instead of intellectually in propositions, and there- 
fore should be taught suggestively, not dogmatic- 
ally. That belief in the human character of Christ's 
humanity must be antecedent to belief in his divine 
origin. That Christianity, as its teachers should, 
works from the inward to the outward, and not vice 
versa. The soul of goodness in things evil." 

Still more admirable does Robertson's style 
appear when the reader bears in mind that almost 
everything published from his spoken words was 
delivered extempore as to all but the main thoughts 
involved. His extraordinary facility in apt ex- 
pression and logical arrangement is traceable to his 
fine sense of rhythm and of order. Like many who 
have no ear for music, he was keenly sensitive to 
the melody of words harmoniously arranged. Yet 
he gave no conscious attention to style, but was 
thoroughly possessed by, as well as in possession of, 
his subject alone. Self-consciousness vanished, and 
when the sermon or lecture was over and the re- 
action came, he had forgotten, like a dream, words, 
illustrations, telling phrases, almost everything. It 
is curious to hear this born orator declare, in con- 
tempt of oratory, " I believe I could have become 
an orator, had I chosen to take the pains. I see 
what rhetoric does, and what it seems to do, and 1 
thoroughly despise it. I think it makes people 
worse instead of better ; exposes the feelings to 
tension, like the pulling constantly of a spring back, 
until the spring loses its elasticity, becomes weak, 
or breaks; and yet perhaps I do it injustice: with 
an unwordly noble love to give it reality, what 
might it not do ? " For an answer to this question 
we need only look to the example of the speaker 
himself. In modest disparagement of his own 
power in the pulpit and on the platform, he uses a 
striking image when he says of his hearers, " They 
watch by hundreds for my halting, and the mass 
of beings over whom I wield a temporary influence 
for a brief half-hour, are only chained by fluency, 

— held together as a column of sand is supported 
by the breath of desert wind. When that wind 
•ceases it resolves into its atoms again." In pictu- 
resque and forcible, almost too forcible, terms he 
expresses his admiration for Channing, and at the 
same time shows his own freedom from religious 
bigotry. A lady had betrayed her horror at find- 
ing on Robertson's table the recently published life 
of the famous Unitarian. " I told her," writes the 
English churchman to a friend, " that if she and I 

ever got to heaven, we should find Dr. Channing 
revolving round the central Light in an orbit im- 
measurably nearer than ours, almost invisible to 
us, and lost in a blaze of light ; which she has, no 
doubt, duly reported to the Brighton inquisition 
for heretics." Another and longer citation may be 
given, both for its substance and its form. Writing 
to a friend who was reading Alfieri's life, he says : 

"The misfortunes of genius, its false direction, its misery, 
I suppose rise partly from the fact of the life of genius heing 
that which is chiefly given to the world. Many a soldier died 
as bravely and with as much suffering as Sir John Moore at 
Corunna ; but every soldier had not a Wolfe to write his 
death-song. Many an innocent victim perished, — yes, by 
hundreds of thousands, — on the scaffolds of France, and in 
the dungeons of the robber barons, but they died silently. A 
few aristocrats whose shriek was loud have filled the world 
with pity at the tale of their sufferings. Many a mediocre 
boy have I seen spoilt at school, — many a commonplace des- 
tiny has been marred in life : only these things are not mat- 
ters of history. Peasants grow savage with domestic troubles, 
and washerwomen pine under brutal treatment : but the for- 
mer are locked up for burying their misery in drunkenness, 
— the latter die of a broken heart, with plenty of unwritten 
poetry lost among the soapsuds. I fancy the inarticulate 
sorrows are far more pitiable than those of an Alfieri, who 
has a tongue to utter them. Carlyle in this respect seems to 
me to hold a tone utterly diverse from that of the Gospel. 
The worship of the hero, that is his religion : condescension 
to the small and unknown, that is His ! " 

Hear him still once more, in his address to the 
Brighton working classes on " The Influence of 
Poetry." He is dissuading from the use of alcoholic 
stimulants. What he says has an autobiographic 

" I know something myself of hard work ; I know what it 
is to have had to toil when the brain was throbbing, the mind 
incapable of originating a thought, and the body worn and 
sore with exhaustion ; and I know what it is in such an hour, 
instead of having recourse to those gross stimulants to which 
all worn men, both of the higher and lower classes, are 
tempted, to take down my Sophocles or my Plato (for Plato 
was a poet), my Goethe or my Dante, Shakspere, Shelley, 
Wordsworth or Tennyson ; and I know what it is to feel the 
jar of nerve gradually cease, and the darkness in which all 
life had robed itself to the imagination become light, discord 
pass into harmony, and physical exhaustion rise by degrees 
into a consciousness of power. I cannot, and I will not, believe 
that this is a luxury, or rather a blessed privilege, reserved 
for me, or my class or caste, alone." 

One is tempted to give further quotations, espe- 
cially from the delightful letters, as they are re- 
produced in Mr. Stopford Brooke's excellent life 
of Robertson. Pathetic indeed is it to read of the 
" azure demons " to which the writer is in constant 
danger of falling a prey ; amusing, as well as touch- 
ing, to find him exclaiming, " I wish I did not hate 
preaching so much, but the degradation of being a 
Brighton preacher is almost intolerable. ' I cannot 
dig, to beg I am ashamed.' " Of course it was not 
the being a preacher, but figuring as a popular 
preacher at a fashionable watering place, that he 
felt to be degrading. 

It may be well, in closing, to temper praise with 
candid criticism, and to caution the reader not 
to look for certain excellences in Robertson that 
are not to be found in him. Humor we search his 
pages for in vain ; he was too tremendously in 




earnest. Bat in what leader of religion who is some- 
thing more than a popular preacher shall we find 
this quality ? Not in Calvin or Edwards or Chan- 
ning or Savonarola or Wesley or Fox. Robertson 
distinctly says that he rates Wordsworth none the 
lower for his lack of humor, a sense which he counted 
it folly to cultivate in himself when so many nobler 
qualities of mind and heart demanded nurture and 
training. He was by temperament irritable, im- 
petuous, given to exaggeration when deeply moved, 
and in his earlier years not free from intolerance. 
These defects he strove manfully to overcome, and 
at the last we find him singularly open to the truth 
from whatever source, and holding temporarily 
many of his own opinions in a state of suspension. 
The pity is that such capacity for endless growth 
and development should have come to so untimely 
an end, mortally speaking. But we may well be 
thankful for the volumes of his spoken and written 
words that still remain to us, and, together with his 
" Life and Letters," invite reperusal on this fiftieth 
anniversary (Aug. 15) of his lamented death. 

Percy F. Bickxell. 

Cbe H*fo Stocks. 

IjIfe ajstd Letters of Sir George 

Of Sir George Grove's noble labors in the 
service of Biblical research, and of the rich 
fruits which his labors have also borne in the 
annals of English music, no one can write ex- 
cept in terms of respect and admiration. The 
results of his studies proved more than a suffi- 
cient reward for years of earnest work. If Mr. 
Charles L. Graves's present biographical me- 
moir contains of necessity many more facts that 
are true than are new, let no one suppose the 
work is wanting in freshness or interest. Grove, 
though often urged to write his life, never did 
more than dictate, in 1897, a number of dis- 
cursive anecdotal reminiscences, filling a half- 
dozen copy-books. In addition to these, he left 
a quantity of autobiographical material in his 
letters, in the diaries kept during his tours in 
the Holy Land, in his speeches and addresses, 
and, above all, in the numerous little pocket 
note-books that he invariably carried about 
with him. 

Sir George Grove was born August 13, 1820, 
at London. He received but an ordinary school 
education, and at sixteen years of age was ap- 
prenticed to Alexander Gordon, a civil engi- 
neer, in which position his duties took him to 

* Life aito Letters of Sib George Grove. By Charles 
L. Graves. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

the continent, Jamaica, and Bermuda. In 1851 
he was married to Harriet Bradley, sister of 
George Granville Bradley, subsequently Dean 
of Westminster. Out of office hours music was 
his chief hobby. 

It was in 1854 that Grove made the acquaint- 
ance of Tennyson and Stanley. His admira- 
tion for the former was both deep and lasting ; 
later, he published some admirable studies of 
Tennyson's lyrics in " Macmillan's Maga- 
zine " — where under his editorship "Lucre- 
tius " first saw the light. But the introduction 
to Dean Stanley was far more momentous in 
its consequences. It not only brought Grove 
into contact with the man whom of all he ever 
knew he reverenced most highly, but it practi- 
cally determined the main course of his life for 
the next dozen years. The story of this is best 
told in an interesting autobiographical speech 
delivered by Grove in 1880. After giving 
various instances of the manner in which the 
turning-points in his career had been deter- 
mined by friends, he continued: 

"What was it that started me to the study of the 
Bible? I had been brought op to know the Bible well, 
bat the study of it was quite distasteful to me. What 
was it that altered my feeling? Why, the bitter com- 
plaint of James Fergusson (distinguished antiquarian 
and historian) that there was no index of the proper 
names of the Bible. He was engaged then in an inter- 
necine warfare with everybody who doubted his splen- 
did theory that the round church in Jerusalem — the 
Mosque of Omar — was the church which Constantine 
built over the tomb of our Lord — or what Constantine 
believed to be the tomb of our Lord. Fergusson and I 
used to meet at the Assyrian Court of the Crystal Palace 
and talk about many things, and this among them; and 
it was in one of these talks that he lamented that he 
could find no such list to support his argument. We 
set to work, ray wife and I, and made a complete index 
of every occurence of every proper name in the Old 
Testament, New Testament, and Apocrypha, with their 
equivalents in Hebrew, Septuagint Greek, and Latin. 
Soon after this came a great event in my life — I saw 
the Dean of Westminster (Dean Stanley) for the first 
time. It was while he was Canon of Canterbury, and 
he was just finishing ' Sinai and Palestine.' He showed 
me what he was then engaged on — the appendix. He 
showed me that in Hebrew there were distinct words for 
all the different kinds of natural objects — for moun- 
tains and hills, and rocks and plains — and that while 
in Hebrew these terms were never interchanged, in the 
English Bible they were used indiscriminately, and that 
a great deal of light might be thrown on the narratives 
if they were set right in our Bibles, and other things 
of the same sort rectified. He set me alight in a mo- 
ment, and I fairly blazed up. I rubbed up my Hebrew, 
of which I had learned the alphabet at Elwell's School. 
I got up German enough to plough through Ewald and 
Ritter, and plunged with delight into a sea of Biblical 

It was to Stanley that Grove owed his con- 



[Sept. 1, 

nection with the great " Dictionary of the 
Bible." Dr. William Smith, lexicographer, 
had already conceived the scheme of his greatest 
work. Stanley pointed out Grove as the best 
Old Testament theologian he knew ; and the 
zeal with which Grove threw himself into the 
work may be judged from a letter to Smith, 
dated Crystal Palace, January 16, 1857, in 
which he submitted a list of upwards of two 
hundred words and names in A and B alone. He 
visited Palestine twice — in 1858 and 1861 — 
so that his topographical and geographical 
articles might rest on the solid basis of close 
personal survey; and, according to his own 
account, he wrote no fewer than 1100 pages 
out of the 3154 contained in the Dictionary. 
Grove was engaged on this work for seven 
years; but during this period he contrived not 
only to prosecute his musical studies with great 
zeal, but to play a part in the organization of 
the musical performances of Crystal Palace far 
larger and more important than was demanded 
of him by the ordinary discharge of his duties 
as secretary. 

The origin of the analytical programmes 
which made Grove's name a household word 
amongst all friends of music, and endeared the 
familiar abbreviation of "G" to two genera- 
tions of concert-goers, dated from a Crystal 
Palace concert given to celebrate the birthday 
of Mozart in 1856. He says: 

*« I wrote about the symphonies and concertos because 
I wished to make them clear to myself, and to discover 
the secret of the things which charmed me so ; and then 
from that sprang a wish to make others see them in the 
same way." 

For upwards of forty years, Grove contrib- 
uted the lion's share of the analyses of 
these programmes, — those of the works of 
Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, 
and Brahms being with hardly an exception 
from his pen ; the analyses of the nine sym- 
phonies of Beethoven were eventually expanded 
into an important volume published in 1896. 
His work in this line was characterized by an 
enthusiasm, a charm of exposition, and a wealth 
of illustrative detail, that were all his own ; 
there may have been better analysts, anatomists 
and dissectors of the organism and structure of 
the classical masterpieces than " G," but there 
has never been so suggestive and stimulating 
a commentor upon their beauties. 

In 1865 Grove suggested a society for the 
systematic exploration of Palestine ; and in this 
way began the famous Palestine Exploration 
Fund, of which he was made secretary. In May, 

1868, after having acted as assistant editor to 
Professor David Masson for several months, 
Grove undertook the sole editorship of " Mac- 
millan's Magazine," to which he had been a 
contributor for fifteen years. With his wide 
range of interests, and his extensive acquaint- 
ance among the leading men of letters, science, 
and art, he was admirably fitted for the post ; 
and, while securing the cooperation of many 
writers of established repute, he was no fetish- 
worshipper of names, but was always on the 
alert to recognize unknown writers. In 1871 
Mrs. Humphry Ward made her debut in 
" Macmillan's," with a paper on " The Poem of 
the Cid." It was about this time that Grove's 
Saturday evening gatherings of intimates and 
notables became a weekly occurence of consider- 
able interest. The present Bishop of Lichfield 
gives a charming picture of these gatherings. 

"No one who has enjoyed the hospitality of Sir 
George and Lady Grove in their picturesque old wooden 
house in Lower Syndeuham can forget the delightful 
Saturday evenings when friends, and men of letters, 
and musicians would meet at the table of the Editor of 
' Macmillan's Magazine.' But however interesting and 
eminent the guests might be, it was the host who was 
the soul of the company. He literally bubbled over 
with anecdote, enjoying his stories as much as any 
member of the party. He was always ready at repartee. 
His humor was abundant, his versatility remarkable. 
There were few subjects upon which he could not dis- 
course; and he was able to produce his knowledge, not 
only without effort, but with a certain enthusiasm which 
enlisted the keen interest of all who heard him. There 
were quiet Sunday evenings as well, when he welcomed 
his more intimate friends, and held sweet converse with 
them on the highest and deepest subjects." 

In January, 1874, the prospectus of the 
" Dictionary of Music and Musicians " — per- 
haps the most notable of musical works, — the 
editorship of which was entrusted to Grove, 
was issued by the Messrs. Macmillan. Need- 
less to say, no editor ever entered on his task 
with greater enthusiasm or carried it through 
with more laborious industry. In speaking of 
his association with the Macmillan firm, Mr. 
George A. Macmillan says : " After all the 
' Dictionary of Music ' remains as a splendid 
monument of his work with us, and, apart from 
actual product, it was no small advantage to a 
publisher to have at hand a man of his keen 
literary sense and varied knowledge." 

Grove's visit to America, in 1878, was due 
to the realization of a long-deferred scheme on 
the part of Stanley. Grove was a keen observer, 
and Mr. Graves has given us many anecdotes 
of his trip in this country. He visited most of 
the great Eastern cities, was interested in all 
he saw, and met many of the leaders of thought 




in the various States. A propos of his visit to 
Concord, he said : 

■ I am writing to you from Emerson's home at the 
end of a delightful day which I shall not easily forget. 
What is left of him is quite charming, and there is 
much left, though very much has gone. His memory 
has almost entirely fled, and he has to speak very slowly, 
and appeal to his daughter, not only for names of peo- 
ple and places, but for very ordinary words; but, on the 
other hand, his face is one of the most expressive and 
lovable I ever saw. He has been reading to us, for 
more than an hour, his own poems and things of Words- 
worth's and others. He says nothing worth remember- 
ing, but it is impossible not to carry away the image of 
the greatest goodness and sweetness. I have got a 
photograph of him, but it really gives no idea of the 
beauty of his face." 

A tangible recognition of Grove's services 
was shown in a testimonial, contributed by three 
hundred literary and musical friends, in the 
shape of a gold chronometer and a purse of a 
thousand guineas, presented to him in the ban- 
quet room of St. James Hall, July 19, 1880. 
Two years later he was offered the directorship 
of the Royal College of Music, at the urgent 
request of the Prince of Wales ; and during the 
years that he occupied this chair he labored 
industriously in the interest of music in the 
United Kingdom. In January, 1899, his 
strength began to fail, while his memory grew 
progressively worse ; he died May 28, 1900. 

In forming the present biography, the author 
has endeavored as far as possible to confine 
himself to autobiographical material placed at 
his disposal — to let " G " reveal himself with 
as little comment as possible. The pocket note- 
books kept by his subject, always full of inter- 
esting obiter dicta, are fully utilized. His 
habits, as was natural in a man who filled so 
many different posts in a long life, varied in 
accordance with the work on which he was en- 
gaged. One cannot but marvel at the amount 
of work he achieved in the domain of Biblical 
research, belles lettres, musical biography, and 
criticism, considering that he was not a scholar 
or a linguist or a technical musician. When 
a friend congratulated him on the high stan- 
dard attained by " Macmillan's Magazine," he 
replied : " To me the magazine is nothing but 
a monthly failure," explaining that he never 
succeeded in achieving his aim, which was not 
to please the initiated but to touch outsiders. 
As a traveller he confessed that he belonged to 
" that class which looks about in all directions, 
fascinated not only with the grand sights above, 
but also with some humble aspect of nature at 
their feet." 

We may add that the present biographer has, 

in a fascinating manner, achieved his aim,which 
was to give some notion of the man, his work 
and character, to those who never met him, as 
well as to refresh the affectionate memories of 
those who came within his sphere of influence. 
A number of photographs, showing Grove at 
different stages of his life, are reproduced in 
the memoir. Ingram A. Pyle. 

The Physiological Effects of 

The two substantial volumes containing a 
study of the " Physiological Aspects of the 
Liquor Problem" are the fourth of a series of 
reports on the Liquor Problem, by the Com- 
mittee of Fifty charged with the scientific in- 
vestigation of that perplexed and perplexing 
subject. "Like its predecessors," we are told, 
" this report is preliminary in its nature." It 
has been prepared by the sub-committee on 
the physiological and pathological aspects of 
the drink problem, and is edited by Dr. J. S. 
Billings. The book contains altogether ten 
reports, or essays, dealing with different mat- 
ters investigated by the sub-committee. All of 
these are full of valuable and interesting in- 
formation, and must be carefully studied to be 
appreciated. There are numerous summaries 
of the conclusions reached, but the perusal of 
these leaves an impression upon the mind which 
is colorless compared with that produced by 
reading the full details. In some cases the re- 
ports seem unduly lengthened by the narration 
of experiments which have to be dismissed as 
misleading or worthless ; but the sub-committee 
has thought it necessary to go into all these de- 
tails, because there is a whole forest of current 
errors to fell before daylight can be let in upon 
the subject. 

The first report in the book (after the gen- 
eral report of the sub-committee) is, rather to 
our surprise, pedagogical rather than physio- 
logical. It deals with the present instruction 
on the physiological action of alcohol, and is by 
Doctors H. P. Bowditch and C. F. Hodge. It 
mainly consists of a vigorous attack on what 
may be called the Black Bogie system of in- 
struction, as promoted by the W. C. T. U. 
After detailing the history of the movement, 

•Physiological Aspkcts of this Liquor Problem. 
Investigations made by and under the direction of W. O. 
Atwater, John S. Billings, H. P. Bowditch, R. H. Chittenden, 
and W. H. Welch, Snb-committee of the Committee of Fifty 
to Investigate the Liquor Problem. In two volumes. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



[Sept. 1, 

and describing the character of the " author- 
ized" text- books on physiology, the writers say : 
" It is thus apparent that under the name of ' Scien- 
tific Temperance Instruction ' there has been grafted 
upon the public school system of nearly all our states 
an educational scheme, relative to alcohol, which is 
neither scientific, nor temperate, nor instructive" (p. 44). 

There are appended many letters from Amer- 
ican and European physiologists, most of them 
supporting the views of Messrs. Bowditch and 
Hodge in general, though the diversity of opin- 
ion and the general uncertainty as to many 
details are conspicuous. The following state- 
ments may be selected as illustrative. 

" In my opinion, alcohol is not a food, nor even a con- 
diment."— Dr. H. G. Beyer. 

" I believe that we have abundant evidence that al- 
cohol has a certain food value." — Prof. R. H. Chit- 

" I have also experienced the honor of an overdose 
[of alcohol], particularly when experimenting with 
whiskey in association with the late Dr. Anstie. I can 
think of nothing more disagreeable than the effort to 
make observations on one's self when half poisoned. 
But I quite agree with you that, notwithstanding, al- 
cohol is not a poison, as well as with your definition of 
a poison as a thing which can only do harm and never 
good." — Sir. J. Burdon Sanderson. 

" Physiology as an experimental science not only has 
not, but I think never will decide whether the moderate 
use of alcohol is good or bad." — Prof. P. H. Pye-Smith. 

" Alcohol is a poison and not a food." — Prof. A. Forel. 

After perusing these and many other like state- 
ments, the reader may be excused for feeling 
a little bewildered. The fact is, that, as in 
so many heated discussions, the chief things 
needed are common-sense and an agreement as 
to terms. In the second volume, Professor 
Atwater, after describing his numerous and 
elaborate investigations, concludes thus: 

" If we define food as that which, taken into the body, 
either builds tissue or yields energy, alcohol is food, but 
it is a very one-sided food. If we confine the word 
food to materials which, like bread and meat, contain 
protein and build nitrogenous tissue, alcohol is not a 
food; neither is starch, which is the chief constituent of 
such food materials as wheat, corn, rice, and potatoes " 
(p. 314). 

Practically, alcohol is not useful as a food-stuff 
under ordinary conditions ; though in certain 
forms of disease it may so serve. 

As to whether alcohol is a poison, the con- 
tradictory statements of Sir J. Burdon Sander- 
son illustrate the futility of the definition which 
he approves. Elsewhere in the book it is clearly 
pointed out that the most poisonous substances 
may be harmless or beneficial in certain small 
quantities. Hydrochloric acid is a normal con- 
stituent of the gastric juice ; and yet if some- 
one swallows a quantity of that substance, and 
dies in consequence, are we forbidden to say 

that he is poisoned ? That alcohol in any other 
than very moderate quantities has a genuinely 
poisonous action is apparent from the numer- 
ous experiments detailed by Dr. J. J. Abel in 
the second volume. The last mentioned writer, 
in his long report on the Pharmacological Action 
of Ethyl Alcohol, raises some very interesting 
questions. It appears that the supposed stimu- 
lating effect of alcohol may have been quite 
misunderstood. Dr. Abel quotes James as 
saying : 

" We should all be cataleptics, and never stop a con- 
traction once begun, were it not that other processes 
simultaneously going on inhibit the contraction. Inhi- 
bition is, therefore, not an occasional accident; it is an 
essential and unremitting element of our cerebral life " 
(p. 131). 

Now alcohol, by deadening down inhibitory in- 
fluences, may give certain positive reactions a 
free field, and the result is an apparent stimu- 
lation. Thus : 

" In speaking of a certain type of individual James 
says, ' It is the absence of scruples, of consequences, of 
considerations, the extraordinary simplification of each 
moment's outlook, that gives to the explosive individual 
such motor energy and ease.' This description aptly 
applies to the individual who is under the influence of 
a ' moderate ' quantity of alcohol. It tends to turn the 
inhibitive type of mind into the ' hair-trigger ' type" 
(p. 141). 

Suppose a horse to be pulling a heavy load. 
It moves forward slowly and painfully ; but all 
at once the tugs break, and the animal runs off, 
kicking up its heels. Superficially, it might 
seem that there had been a sudden stimulus, 
and that the active gyrations indicated an in- 
crease in the amount of work done. So often 
in the case of persons affected by alcohol. 

The experiments on dogs and rabbits, illus- 
trated by photographs, cannot be properly 
described here. The influence of alcohol in 
producing fear is most significant, as also are 
the effects upon the vitality of the young born 
to alcoholized dogs, and the increased suscepti- 
bility to disease induced by chronic alcoholism. 

Dr. Billings has compiled data relating to the 
use of alcoholic drinks among brain-workers 
in the United States. It appears that of 892 
cases, 18.7% were total abstainers, 64.9% oc- 
casional drinkers, and 16.3% regular moderate 
drinkers. The number of regular drinkers is 
thus quite small ; the " occasional drinkers " 
ought, no doubt, mostly to be classed with the 
abstainers, as the majority of those who do not 
ordinarily use alcohol will drink a little on 
special occasions, and thus could not put them- 
selves down as total abstainers. 

A little chapter by Dr. Bowditch, on " The 




Use of 'Temperance Drinks,'" is sandwiched 
in between discussions of the nutritive and 
pathological effects of alcohol, and is likely to 
be overlooked. It appears that practically all 
the tonics and bitters sold in drug-stores con- 
tain alcohol, and many of them very, large 
quantities. So " it is clear that very large 
quantities of drinks containing a greater per- 
centage of alcohol than the ordinary wines and 
beers are consumed among the most rigorous 
of total abstinence circles, and one of the fore- 
most advocates of total abstinence has permitted 
her picture to be used as an advertisement of 
one of the most alcoholic of these drinks" 
(p. 345, vol. 2). The percentage of alcohol by 
volume in some of the drinks mentioned is as 
follows: Paine's Celery Compound. 21 ; Ayer's 
Sarsaparilla, 26.2 ; Golden's Liquid Beef 
Tonic, " recommended for treatment for alco- 
hol habit," 26.5 ; Hostetter's Stomach Bitters, 
44.3 ; Boker's Stomach Bitters, 42.6 ; and so 

forth : T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

The Marshall Memorial.* 

By the timely action of the American Bar, 
immediately after the death of Chief Justice 
John Marshall in 1835, a fund was provided 
which, with its accretions, was in 1882 so sup- 
plemented by the favorable action of Congress 
as to suffice to present to the country, in 1884, 
a noble monumental portraiture of " the great 
Chief Justice," for the embellishment of the 
grounds fronting the Capitol at Washington. 
Visitors to these classic grounds have thus be- 
fore them an outward reminder of the lofty 
career of this devoted public servant. 

On February 4, 1901, occurred the centen- 
nial of the advancement of this profound jurist 
to be the head of the federal judiciary ; and 
this was made the occasion for erecting another 
monumental tribute to his personal worth and 
his distinguished services. The day having been, 
by pre-arrangement, set apart as " John Mar- 
shall Day," public exercises were held in nearly 
all the States of the Union, in commemoration 
of the event which opened up a great career a 
hundred years previously. Able and eloquent 
speakers, as with one voice, sought to place 
Marshall on the pedestal of his just fame. It 

*John Marshall: His Life, Character, and Judicial 
Services, as portrayed in the Centenary and Memorial Ad- 
dresses and Proceedings thronghont the United States on 
Marshall Day, 1901, and in the classic Orations of Binney, 
Story, Phelps, Waite, and Rawle. Edited by John F. Dillon. 
In three volumes. Chicago : Callaghan & Co. 

was a happy thought to gather together in type 
these manifold tributes of esteem and rever- 
ence, and preserve them permanently in com- 
pendious volumes, for the information and 
delectation of millions of American citizens. 
The monument at Washington points every 
visitor to the Capitol to the inestimable work of 
Marshall as an artificer of the national common- 
wealth. The devoted efforts of the American 
Bar have now erected, in every library in the 
land, a monument equally worthy and equally 
enduring, bringing a like appreciation of the 
great Chief Justice to the mind of every reader 
of our history, the home-dweller and the trav- 
eller alike. 

Much of the significance of this testimonial 
to the character and the virtues of Marshall 
lies in the unanimity of sentiment disclosed by 
the speakers who voiced his praise on this an- 
niversary. When he was appointed Chief 
Justice, a century ago, partisan politics were 
at a white heat. In their bitterness they sought 
to invade the judicial bench, and the new ap- 
pointment wore in part the guise of a partisan 
move. But such partisanship as was involved 
in it has been justified ; for, irrespective of the 
President's motive, the fitness of the appoint- 
ment he made has long been unquestioned, and 
has won the praise of many whose party affili- 
ations made them reluctant to commend. The 
man whom the opening of the nineteenth cen- 
tury saw maligned and stigmatized is now, at 
the opening of the twentieth century, apotheo- 
sized. From all sections of the Union alike, 
from all the learned professions and from all 
political parties, arise eloquent speakers who 
vie with each other in wreathing garlands for 
the name and fame of Marshall. 

These orations and addresses are monumen- 
tal in their extent and their quality, as well as 
in their unanimity. They emanate from thirty- 
eight different states and territories, in some of 
which there were gatherings in several places ; 
they are the voices of the leaders of the bar 
and the community, including the present 
Chief Justice and two of his associates on the 
Supreme Bench, and of clergymen, professors, 
and statesmen ; and they fill three noble vol- 
umes, aggregating upwards of fifteen hundred 
pages. Though the central feature in all of 
these various sketches of Marshall is the jurist, 
yet this feature is not developed out of due 
proportion ; Marshall the man, the patriot, the 
citizen, and the statesman, are held in view ; 
and the result is a well-rounded and sympa- 
thetic portrait of a most engaging character. 



[Sept. 1, 

So it will not be the legal student alone, nor 
yet the professional lawyer, but the American 
citizen in every walk of life, and the general 
reader as well, who may at convenience dip 
into these volumes, sure of finding therein 
congenial and entertaining reading. 

It would be impracticable to give in this re- 
view either fair samples of the matter of these 
discourses or any adequate description of their 
substance or merits. That there is, through- 
out their entire course, generous panegyric of 
Marshall, may go without saying. Let it suf- 
fice here to note that the burden of all this 
wealth of encomium is the inestimable work of 
Marshall in giving life and force, by judicial 
action from time to time, to the provisions of 
the American Constitution. The process of 
vivification of that once feeble document was 
not only necessary to its survival, but was an 
absolutely essential condition of its develop- 
ment and expansion. All that the United 
States has become, in vigor, activity, and 
beneficence, has been due to its Constitution. 
That this Constitution has been vital and en- 
ergetic, and not formal and lifeless, must be 
ascribed to the wise and comprehensive work 
of the Supreme Court ; and it was Marshall 
who opened up the career of that Court in its 
great usefulness. The fathers had drawn with 
fine skill the provisions of the Constitution, 
assigning a leading and important part of the 
work of government to the Federal judiciary. 
A strong and fearless Supreme Court was 
needed to put into operation that judiciary as 
the balance-wheel of the intricate system. It 
was fortunate that the Hour and the Man met, 
when Marshall was assigned to preside over 
this Court; for it is he whom all now concur in 
describing as " born to be the Chief Justice of 
any country in which Providence should cast 
his lot." The details of the character of his 
constructive work, and its relation to the la- 
bors of the early fathers, are perspicuously and 
instructively recounted by his enthusiastic en- 
comiasts of "Marshall Day." Here speaks in 
dulcet tones the gratitude of one republic, giv- 
ing specific reasons for its appreciation of faith- 
ful public service. 

This collection of orations and addresses has 
been issued under the able editorship of Judge 
John F. Dillon, who was himself one of the 
"Marshall Day" speakers, and has furnished 
an appropriate and scholarly introduction to 
the compilation. The volumes are well illus- 
trated, a view of the tasteful Marshall monu- 
ment at Washington being presented, together 

with copies of three fine portraits of the Chief 
Justice. Appended to the collection are repub- 
lications of the eulogies pronounced by Horace 
Binney and Judge Joseph Story on the occa- 
sion of the death of Marshall in 1835, the 
inspiring address of Edward J. Phelps given 
in 1879 as a tribute to Marshall's memory, and 
the oration delivered by William Henry Rawle 
at the unveiling of the monument at Washing- 
ton in 1884. Thus has been woven together 
a " Marshall Anthology." 

Mr. Phelps summed up the value of Mar- 
shall's life-work by saying, with entire truth, 
that " it is upon the entrusting to the judicial 
department of the whole subject of the con- 
stitutional law, for all purposes, that our 
government rests " ; and he added that the 
wonderful success of the system which em- 
bodies that principle "is more largely due to 
Chief Justice Marshall than to any other man, 
or perhaps to all other men, who ever had 
anything to do with it," Herein lay the occa- 
sion and the justification of a Marshall centen- 
nial anniversary ; and Judge Dillon, in his 
Introduction to these volumes, felicitously says 
that " among the chief lessons of ' Marshall 
Day ' is the revelation of the public as well as 
the professional consciousness that the Supreme 
Court is, verily, the living voice of the Con- 
stitution ; and that it is such is due preemi- 
nently to Chief Justice Marshall." 

It is a pleasure to welcome this Marshall 
Memorial as a substantial contribution to the 
historical collections of the United States. It is 
an additional pleasure to note the announce- 
ment in these volumes, that the publishers 
" have arranged to issue, uniform with the 
present work, an edition of Marshall's con- 
stitutional decisions and writings, annotated, 
with the assistance of the present editor, by 
George S. Clay and John M. Dillon of the 
New York Bar." James Oscar Pierce. 

The first four volumes of the Clarendon Press edition 
of the " Letters of Horace Walpole," edited by Mrs. 
Paget Toynbee, will be ready in November. Mrs. 
Toyubee has obtained the use of over 400 letters not 
included in the latest edition of the collected letters, 
and upwards of a hundred of these have never before 
been printed. A careful collation of the text with the 
original MSS. has revealed many curious and interest- 
ing passages hitherto suppressed, and also many serious 
errors in transcription. The notes, except those written 
by Horace Walpole himself, have been compiled anew 
by Mrs. Toynbee, who has also prepared a very full 
analytical index. This new edition, to be complete in 
sixteen volumes, will be illustrated with fifty photo- 
gravure portraits of Walpole and his circle, and with 




Recext Poetry.* 

When a man whose chosen vehicle is prose under- 
takes to write verse, we are apt to look askance at 
the effort and to regret its misdirection. Bat a 
strong writer is worth listening to, even when he 
expresses himself through an unwonted medium ; 
and the occasional verse of a prosateur often has 
qualities of strength and sincerity that are not 
always found in the writings of the poets by pro- 
fession. From such a source we hardly expect lyr- 
ical treasure-trove, but we may have vigorous and 
suggestive imagery, and other of the elements of 
poetic art. The verses of Mr. Thomas Hardy, for 
example, with all their limitations and defects, 
proved a genuine and pleasurable surprise ; and 
something similar may be said of the volume into 
which Mr. Lecky collected his scattered verses sev- 
eral years ago. Mr. Zangwill, as his readers know, 
has occasionally mingled verses with the contents 
of his prose books, and hence we are not surprised 
to find that his activities in this sort have been 
sufficient to furnish forth a volume of respectable 
dimensions. He calls his poems " Blind Children," 

" Are they not verily 

Blind Children, one and all ; 

Wistfnlly haunted by 

That unattainable 

Glamorous sea of light 

True poems float within ? " 

The opening piece is a new version of the old 
theme beautifully dealt with by Schiller in "Die. 
Gotter Griechenlands." It ends with this stanza: 

" The nymphs are gone, the fairies flown, 
The olden Presences unknown, 
The ancient gods forever fled, 
The stars are silent overhead, 
The music of the spheres is still, 
The night is dark, the wind is chill, 
The later gods have followed Pan, 
And Man is left alone with Man." 

The succeeding piece takes this last verse for a text, 
and sermonizes upon the theme " At the Worst," 
reaching this conclusion : 

•Bund Children. Poems by Israel Zangwill. New 
York : Funk & Wagnalls Co. 

Myrtle and Oak. By Rennell Rodd. Boston : Forbes 

The Sailing of the Long-Ships, and Other Poems. 
By Henry Newbolt. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

The Triumph of Love. By Edmond Holmes. New 
York : John Lane. 

The Oceanides. Poems and Translations by Percy W. 
Shedd. New York : The Grafton Press. 

Young Ivy on Old Walls. A Book of Verse. By H. 
Arthur Powell. Boston : Richard G. Badger. 

Pompeii of the West, and Other Poems. By John Hall 
Ingham. Philadelphia : The J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Westwind Songs. By Arthur Upson. Minneapolis : 
Edmund D. Brooks. 

Swords and Plowsharhs. By Ernest Crosby. New 
York : Funk & Wagnalls Co. 

Unfrequented Paths. Songs of Nature, Labor, and 
Men. By George E. McNeill. Boston : James H. West Co. 

" Evil is here ? That's work for ua to do. 
The Old is dying f Let 's beget the New. 
And Death awaits us ? Rest is but our due." 

This seems to be the only gospel left us after the 
passing of the mythologies, but it is not without its 
inspiration. "Love's Bubble" is an exercise in 
one of the artificial forms so favored of late by 
rhymsters of every degree, and it comes near to 
having the charm of a true lyric. 

" If Love be but a bubble, 

Blown from the pipe of Life, 
That bursts and leaves but trouble 

And weariness and strife, 
Then who would cares redouble 
And leave his years as stubble 

And Sorrow take to wife ? 
If Love be but a bubble 

Blown from the pipe of Life. 

" If Love be but a bubble 

Blown from the pipe of years, 
Its beauty is but double 

That it is built of tears, 
And for its tender trouble 
I 'd leave my life as stubble 

And pluck my ripest ears, 
Thongh Love be but a bubble 

Blown from the pipe of years." 

A touch of sardonic humor now and then finds its 
way into Mr. Zangwill's verses, as in his description 
of " The ..Esthete's Damnation." The aesthete finds 
Hell a very satisfactory place. 

" Such subtle sinuous flare, 
Such restful red unrest. 
Half shadow and half glare, 
Like Rembrandt at his best. 

" And while the light is ruddy, 
And while my zeal is hot, 
Oh what a chance to study 
My Dante on the spot ! " 

But these reflections are rudely interrupted, for 

" Then Satan grimly swore : 
I damn you np to heaven. 
Where you HI find life a bore, 
And a day as long as seven. 

" Where the souls sit round and purr 
O'er each soporific blessing, 
Where the music 's amateur. 
And the art is life-depressing." 

Mr. Zangwill comes nearest to being a poet when 
he is inspired by his own racial instincts. From 
the group of poems upon Jewish motives we select 
this striking sonnet on " Moses and Jesus " : 

" Methought on two Jews meeting I did chance — 
One old, stern-eyed, deep-browed, yet garlanded 
With living light of love around his head ; 
The other young, with sweet, seraphic glance. 
Round them went on the Town's Satanic dance, 
Hunger a-piping while at heart he bled. 
Salom Aleikhem mournfully each said, 
Nor eyed the other straight, but looked askance. 

"Sudden from Church outrolled an organ hymn, 
From Synagogue a loudly chanted air, 
Each with its Prophet's high acclaim instinct. 
Then for the first time met their eyes swift-linked 
In one strange, silent, piteous gaze, and dim 
With bitter tears of agonized despair." 

We should like to quote also from " The Hebrew's 



[Sept. 1, 

Friday Night," and from " Yom Kippur," but our 
space forbids. 

It was about twenty years ago that we first saw 
a volume of verse by Mr. Rennell Rodd. At that 
time Oscar Wilde was enjoying his brief vogue as 
a poet, and our chief impression of the new writer 
was that he had taken Wilde for a model and pro- 
duced a rather poor imitation. But Mr. Rodd had 
staying qualities, for he has kept on producing verse 
of winning mien, and has grown in grace as a poet 
during the period that has also witnessed his rise as 
a diplomatist. He is now Sir Rennell Rodd, with 
numerous volumes to his credit, besides a distin- 
guished record in the foreign service. " Myrtle and 
Oak " is the title of a volume of poems which Sir 
Rennell has selected for special publication in Amer- 
ica ; a few of the pieces are new, but most of them 
may be found in his earlier volumes. The collection 
is charmingly introduced by an " Envoi " which 
bids the poet's song 

" Go through that greater England 
The years have reconciled, 
And touch the kindred blood that flows 
Through mother as through child ! 

" And say to that new England 
For you, too, were we sung. 
And in your heart the note must be 
To which our strain is strung ! 

"And greet me that great England 
My feet have never trod. 
Whose heroes are our heroes 
And whose God must be our God." 

The influence of both Browning and Tennyson is 
strongly marked in this volume, the author having 
been inspired by the passion of the one and the 
felicity of the other. It is felicity rather than 
passion that he himself achieves, as may be illus- 
trated by the very lines in which he pays tribute to 
the poet supreme among his contemporaries : 
" Singer of England's saga, back to the misty prime, 
Rolling a morning glamour over the night of time ; 

" Singer of English gardens, poet of English springs, 
Lover of earth's dear beauty, and all elemental things. 

" Never a girl in England, or in England over the sea, 
But wakes to her life's first love-dream sweetlier-sonled 
for thee. 

" Never a boy's young life-blood thirsts for the dawn of deeds, 
But it throbs to a nobler impulse as he turns thy roll and 

If Sir Rennell does not achieve the expression of 
passionate emotion, he is a master of tender senti- 
ment setto flowing and graceful melody. What could 
be more exquisite in its way than this simple stanza : 

" Where did you learn that music ? For it drew 
My dreaming back down autumn paths of years, 
Touched chords long silent and forgotten tears, 
Recalled dim valleys where dead violets grew, 
Soothed me with twilight, as it were it knew 
The very secret of my heart and sighed 
For sympathy, and when at last it died 
It seemed as if my soul were singing too." 

Almost every poem in the volume tempts us to 
quotation, as we linger fondly over the lovely im- 
agery and noble idealism of the pages. What space 

yet remains to us shall be given to extracts from 
Sir Rennell's "Credo," at once the longest and the 
loftiest of his poems. It is a work almost worthy 
to be spoken of in the same breath with Mr. Swin- 
burne's " Hymn of Man " and with the prophetic 
utterances of Tennyson's last years. 

"Turn, turn from the cave's dark hollow! look up to the 
light and see, 
Though thine eyes be dazed in the glory, the man that is 
yet to be ! 
" Time's wings are at pause beside him, and calm is his heart's 
strong beat, 
And the dust of these old dominions is flowerful round his 
"Exult, we have won the midway, and the light has scared 
the gloom, 
And we smile at the old sad sentence, we are freed from the 
endless doom. 

" The arms of the dawn are reaching to gather the mist away, 
And your star that the hill-peaks harbored grows dim in 
the rose of day. 
" I can see as it were in a vision the fullness of day unroll, 
And the light of the sunrise cresting the hills with its 
" First red in the sky at dawning, wild cloud and the bode of 
But the winds are hushed and the clouds dispart for the 
feet of a queenly form. 
"On her brows is a crown of olive, her arms are outstretched 
She is robed in a rainbow's glory, and each of her eyes is a 
" The sword that she bears is broken, the arc of her wings is 
She is throned on the ancient mountains, and her smile goes 
over the world." 

There is no lack of virile energy in the poems of 
Mr. Henry Newbolt, whose stirring ballads of En- 
glish fighting by sea and land have thrilled many 
patriotic hearts, making them stouter in their love 
of country and prouder in the emprise of its heroes. 
From Mr. Newbolt's new volume, " The Sailing of 
the Long-Ships, and Other Poems," we take this 
song of Sir Francis Drake : 

" Drake in the North Sea grimly prowling, 
Treading his dear Revenge's deck, 
Watched, with the sea-dogs round him growling, 
Galleons drifting wreck by wreck. 
' Fetter and Faith for England's neck, 
Fagot and Father, saint and chain, — 
Yonder the Devil and all go howling, 
Devon, O Devon, in wind and rain ! ' 

" Drake at the last off Nombre lying, 

Knowing the night that toward him crept, 
Gave to the sea-dogs round him crying 
This for a sign before he slept : — 
' Pride of the West ! What Devon hath kept 
Devon shall keep on tide or main ; 
Call to the storm and drive them flying, 
Devon, O Devon, in wind and rain.' 

"Valor of England, gaunt and whitening, 
Far in a South land brought to bay, 
Locked in a death-grip all day tightening, 
Waited the end in twilight gray. 
Battle and storm and the sea-dog's way ! 
Drake from his long rest turned again, 
Victory lit thy steel with lightning, 
Devon, Devon in wind and rain ! " 




Mr. Newbolt has advanced in his art since " Ad- 
mirals All " took the public by storm. A grave 
elegiac note has found its way into his song, and 
becomes it exceedingly. 

To "The Silence of Love" succeeds — some- 
times — u The Triumph of Love "; and Mr. Edmond 
Holmes, having voiced the one in an earlier volume, 
now sings the other in a new cycle of sixty-four 
Shakespearian sonnets. The song is worthy of the 
theme, grave and tender, richly emotional, and not 
ostentatiously exultant. We select for quotation 
the twentieth of the series. 

M I love thee less that I may love thee more : 

The refluent wave rolls in with larger sweep, 
And surging up the half-abandoned shore 

Wins a new margin for love's restless deep. 
I love thee less that love may rest his wing 

In drooping circles ere he soar anew, 
Ere be ascend in spiral airy ring. 

To pass from sight into the pathless blue. 
I love thee less that love may be re-born. 

That I may feel the breeze blow fresh and cold. 
May breathe once more the fragrance of the morn. 

May see once more the streaks of green and gold : — 
I love thee less that out of love's dark night 

May break the dawn efa^divhier light." 

" The Oceanides " is a volume of poems and 
translations by Mr. Percy W. Shedd that offer 
much food for reflection. The titular poem is a 
trifling lyric that suddenly breaks into German, and 
represents the Oceanides as scorning the race of 

" Du Sterblicher. was machst Du hier? 

Get heim ! zur tick ! 

Fur Dich zu salzig ist das ' Meeral ' Bier, 

Der Wallfischschnitt zu dick." 

On a later page we find a bit of translation that 
begins as follows : 

" Twilight o'er forest is fallende : 
Over the lakes softly sleepende, 
Over the reeds . . . wild birds callende . . . 
Over the copse it comes creepende." 

The mystery of these participles is explained when 
we say that the translation is from the Danish, and 
that the translator has thus sought to naturalize in 
English the Danish orthography. The same sort 
of freakishness is illustrated many times in the 
author's original verse ; it is not offensive, but 
it is certainly odd. That Mr. Shedd can give us 
serious poetry, in spite of his whims, is a fact dis- 
covered early in the volume, and enforced by many 
examples. One of the finest of them is suggested 
by the last words of the late Cecil Rhodes, and this 
we quote in full, despite its length. 

*' So much to do, so little done : 
The old myopic rune doth run ; 
As though the stars, the sea. the sun. 
Were much concerned at what was done. 

" Life's day is brief, and Art is long : 
Another slumber-banning song ; . . . 
But Nature smiles, and builds a flow'r. 
Whose life is one long sentient hour, 
Whose root winds through the hollow eyes 
Of some brave mortal past surprise ; 
And yet the flow'r is passing fair, 
Though Art had no dominion there. 

" The gods are good ! They drift the sand 
Across the proud Assyrian land ; 
The gods are good ! Their floods are sent, 
And great Atlantis' head is bent ; 
The gods are good ! Their ice-streams creep, 
And where was life, is death and sleep. 
Ye mighty gods, oh grow not pale 
If some vain mortal groan and wail : 
So much to do ! So much to do ! 
The hour hath come ! I'm not half through. . . . 
Oh wait, ye gods. . . . 

" Nay, let him mark the calm deep glance, 
The sternly gentle countenance 
That sayeth : Live thy little day, 
A part for work, a part for play. 
The cell hath birth, the cell doth live. 
And then to death the cell I give ; 
Thereof new forms and strange I build, 
The crystal rock with gold I gild, 
The flow'r with honey have I filled, 
Unto the glow-worm light I lend. . . . 
I gave thee life that thou mightst wend 
Thy little way ; ... be not afraid. 
Of thee yet something shall be made. 
But whether zoon or pearl or worm 
My great decree doth not confirm. 
Thou nor thy work shall go to waste ; 
Naught in my realm is e'er displaced. 
Be calm, and to thy life be true ; 
Thus only payest thou thy due." 

Mr. Shedd's poems include other pieces that will 
reward the attention almost as richly as the one 
just quoted, and some sort of striking quality, be- 
tokening a genuine individuality on the part of the 
writer, may be found upon nearly every page. But 
we must now turn to his translations, which are also 
remarkable, and which make up a full half of his 
collection. These translations are from many lan- 
guages, Russian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, 
Dutch, German. French, Italian, Spanish — even 
Finnish and Persian. They are mostly of unfa- 
miliar matter, although now and then the transla- 
tor tries his hand at the old problems. Here, for 
example, is the song of Raphael in " Faust '": 

" The sun sings joyous as of eld ; 

The spheres antiphonal reply ; 
In circling course forever held. 

He rolls in thund'ring majesty. 
Archangels gaze and gather strength, 

Though fathomless the great design ; 
God's works throughout creation's length 

In pristine splendor rise divine." 

This is almost as good as Shelley, and it is at the 
same time rather closer to the original text. Mr. 
Shedd's gifts as a translator are indeed remarkable, 
and we are grateful for the many lyric jewels from 
foreign tongues that he has put into musical En- 
glish. Most of all are we grateful for his transla- 
tions of the poems of Dr. Ibsen. These versions 
are scattered all along through the volume, and not 
until we approach the close do we realize that Mr. 
Shedd has translated practically the whole of Dr. 
Ibsen's slender volume of poems. All the great 
pieces are here — " Terje Vigen," " Abraham Lin- 
coln's Mord," '• Paa Vidderne," and the others — 
and nearly all of the minor ones as well. And they 
are better done, for the most part, than we could 



[Sept. 1, 

have thought possible. The version of " Terje 
Vigen " is a masterpiece of translation, and for the 
first time that extraordinary poem is put in such a 
form as really to convey to the English reader an 
adequate notion of its fire, its pathos, and its poetic 
beauty. If Mr. Shedd had done nothing more than 
this, he would deserve our heartfelt thanks. 

Magazine verse is a fair description of Mr. H. 
Arthur Powell's "Young Ivy on Old "Walls." It 
exhibits the peculiar type of mediocrity that seems 
to be in favor with all but two or three of the 
popular monthlies, being conventional and without 
salient characteristics. " Death and Derision " is a 
good example. 

" Love have I tasted, and its daring bliss 
Hath bid me chant defiance to the storm. 
Once, cast ashore before the foiled wave's hiss, 
Beneath cold flesh my heart was bold and warm. 

" Wine have I drunk, with perfect throat of youth ; 

The grape's blood flowed with mine the veiny maze ; 
With quickened sense my body glowed, in truth, 
Like startled Dian's 'neath Action's gaze. 

" Joys fugitive, joys fugitive replace — 

All that to youth's fair heritage belong ; 
Perhaps the purest, after fight or chase, 

To swoon in Music's arms, or live with Song. 

" At last, at close of some fierce, bloody strife, 

Powers above ! — when painful comes the breath, 
Grant me this last, this crowning joy of life — 
To laugh at Death ! " 

Mr. John Hale Ingham writes verse that is ob- 
vious and respectable. He can take any kind of a 
theme, and construct upon it a poem in any form, 
and the product becomes tolerable, except to the 
sense that finds all mediocrity intolerable. Mr. 
Ingham is inspired to sing by art, religion, foreign 
travel, and the memory of the great. Music also 
inspires him, and modern science. He is capable of 
writing sonnets on the trolley, the ROntgen ray, and 
liquid air. This is his poetic description of " The 
Trolley ": 

" Not with such steeds as on the Olympic day 
To scorned defeat or sacred victory led, 
Nor by the powers of vapor piloted 
Whose shrieks fill night with discord and dismay, 
We journey here. This monster doth essay 
To clasp with claw of iron overhead 
The chained, invisible lightning and be sped 
By heavenly currents on its earthly way." 

Mr. Ingham's collection is entitled " Pompeii of 
the West and Other Poems." The title piece is a 
comparison of the buried city of Magna Gra?cia with 
the White City of Chicago, built for 1893, and now 
razed to the earth, while 

" Over lake and plain 
The wild birds circle till the night sweeps on," 

a not altogether accurate account of present-day 

It is not every poet who can get a queen to stand 
sponsor for his musings, but Mr. Arthur Upson has 
been thus fortunate with his " Westwind Song?," 
and no less a personage than "Carmen Sylva" has 
introduced them. The introduction is in a fine vein 
of rhapsody. " The Westwind said : Come, sing 

with me, for thou ha6t wept ! Come, sing with me, 
and touch my harp ; for here I bring a Brother- 
soul to thee, with all the Song in it as Chidder's 
song returning when Centuries revolved and Centu- 
ries came back to sing the same unwavering Song 
in India as in Hiawatha's Home — the Song of hu- 
man Tears." We are not acquainted with Chidder, 
but doubt if he could have sung of " Wheat Eleva- 
tors " in such strains as these : 

" Castles, or Titans' houses, or huge fanes 

Of ancient gods that yet compel men's fear — 
What powers, what pomps do these betoken here 
Looming aloft upon the plough-seamed plains?" 

Perhaps this selection is not quite fair to Mr. Upson, 
and we hasten to supplement it by another, this time 
chosen without satirical intent. 

" In Holyrood, up yellow stair 
I sought the turret chamber where 

On summer evenings long ago 

The mandolin of Rizzio 
Made Mary music, rich and rare. 

" And, pausing in the shadows there, 

Methought some echo of his air 
Along the hall came ringing low 
In Holyrood. 

" Ah, 'twas a sighing wind that bare 
The burthen of old heart-despair, 
And trembled at the casement so, 
Like dying hope or love in woe, 
Remembering days when life was fair 
In Holyrood ! " 

This is pretty, but we confess that the " bare " 
puzzles us. 

Mr. Ernest Crosby puts much indignation, and 
fervor, and moral earnestness into his " Swords and 
Plowshares," preaching the Tolstoyan gospel with 
fanatical conviction. Most of the work in this vol- 
ume is in the sort of irregular prose which we asso- 
ciate with Whitman, although without Whitman's 
verbal felicity and inspired phrasing. With these 
pieces we have no concern, for they are not poetry 
in any sense. When Mr. Crosby essays the regular 
forms, he can write such a simple and direct appeal 
to the conscience as the following verses on " Life 
and Death ": 

" So he died for his faith. That is fine — 
More than most of us do. 
But stay, can you add to that line 
That he lived for it, too ? 

" In his death he bore witness at last 
As a martyr to truth. 
Did his life do the same in the past 
From the days of his youth ? 

" It is easy to die. Men have died 
For a wish or a whim — 
From bravado or passion or pride. 
Was it harder for him? 

" But to live : every day to live out 
All the truth that he dreamt, 
While his friends met his conduct with doubt, 
And the world with contempt, — 

" Was it thus that he plodded ahead, 
Never turning aside ? 
Then we'll talk of the life that he led, — 
Never mind how he died." 




Several of Mr. Crosby's poems are inspired by 
passionate indignation at the Philippine piracy 
which has disgraced our nation daring these late 
years. These pieces are not exactly poetry, but 
they have a bludgeon-like quality that makes them 

The " Unfrequented Paths " of Mr. George E. 
McNeill are verses filled, like those of Mr. Crosby, 
with a burning sense of the sufferings of humanity, 
and voice the plea of the common people against 
their oppressors. 

" Lift off the poor man's burden, 
My country, grand and great ; 
The Orient has no treasures 
To buy a Christian State. 
Our souls brook not oppression, 
Our needs — if read aright — 
Call not for wide possession. 
But Freedom's sacred light." 

This verse is mostly of the pedestrian sort, but it 
has the accent of sincerity, and its amiable philan- 
thropy will endear it to uncritical readers. It 
comes nearest to taking flight from earth when it 
celebrates the memory or the fame of such men 
as Lincoln, Webster, and Tolstoy. 

William Mortox Payxe. 

Briefs ox New Books. 

Early steamboat While collecting material for his 
navigation on the '• History of the Fur Trade," pub- 
Musouri river. j^ed a few years ago, Captain 
Chittenden made the acquaintance of the late Joseph 
La Barge, one of the pioneer steamboat men on the 
Missouri River, and wrote out from dictation his 
reminiscences, both for their bearing upon the his- 
tory of the fur trade and with a view of preparing 
a memoir of Captain La Barge. As the reminis- 
cences covered the whole period of steamboat ac- 
tivity upon the Missouri, the projected memoir has 
very naturally expanded into the " History of Early 
Steamboat Navigation upon the Missouri River " 
now published by Mr. F. P. Harper. Beginning 
on the Missouri in 1832. the steamboat business 
was almost exclusively confined to the fur trade 
until 1846. After that, the Mormon migration, the 
Mexican war. the gold fever, Indian missions, and 
railroad surveys increased the traffic, until in 1859 
more boats left St. Louis for the Missouri than for 
both the Upper and Lower Mississippi. During the 
Civil War the trade suffered somewhat, but the Mon- 
tana gold discoveries raised it to its highest point 
during the years immediately following. The rail- 
road reached the Missouri at St. Joseph in 1859, but 
it was not until 1867, the year of greatest prosperity 
in the river trade, that the extension of the North- 
western Railroad to Council Bluffs made the com- 
petition serious. The struggle between road and 
river lasted twenty years. The final blow fell in 
1887, when the Great Northern reached Helena, 
Montana. After that time, the river trade prac- 

tically ceased. Captain Chittenden says that the 
river, contrary to the usual opinion, is as navigable 
as ever, and that the trade failed solely because the 
need for it had passed. In the very year of its fail- 
ure, Congress created the Missouri River Commis- 
sion, which carried on extensive river improvements 
until its termination last year. When the trade 
stopped the improvement began. Captain Chitten- 
den thinks that, notwithstanding their failure to 
effect the object intended, the improvements have 
been worth much more than their cost in the saving 
of property, and that upon this ground they should 
be continued. In his opinion, a future use for the 
waters of the river will be found in the irrigation 
of the arid lands along its upper course. During 
the early period, the history of the navigation of 
the Missouri amounts almost to a history of the 
whole Missouri country, since the river furnished 
the only means of communication and everything 
done in the country depended upon it. • Viewed in 
this light, an apparently local topic covers a dis- 
tinct phase in the development of the West, and 
thus becomes an important part of the history of 
the whole country. Captain Chittenden tells the 
story well. Large type and wide margins extend 
the work to two volumes ; but it is really a short 
narrative, which may be read with interest in a 
few hours. 

Qame/uhet, Two recent volumes of " The Sports- 

bxg and little, man's Library" (Macmillan) are 

devoted to the interests of the ang- 
ler. In " Bass, Pike, Perch, and Others " Dr. James 
A. Henshall treats of all of the game-fishes east 
of the Rocky Mountains except the salmons and 
trouts, and the tarpons, jewfisb, and other fishes of 
large size which are described in other volumes of 
the series. Dr. Henshall writes from the full expe- 
rience of many years of successful angling in waters 
fresh and salt, and from the point of view of the 
trained naturalist as well as that of the skilful 
sportsman. The angler will find minute directions 
concerning the appropriate tackle and other para- 
phernalia of the sportsman, as well as valuable sug- 
gestions concerning methods of angling for each 
species, and a very intelligent discussion of the 
habits of the fish. In this latter feature the book 
is of considerable value as a work in natural history. 
It includes a brief technical diagnosis of each spe- 
cies, and is abundantly illustrated, so that the fish- 
erman may determine the affinities of his catch with 
scientific accuracy. — The second of the two volumes 
is also from the pen of a well-known sportsman- 
naturalist, Mr. Charles F. Holder, who writes of 
"The Big Game Fishes of the United States." Ang- 
ling for the great oceanic game-fishes — the tarpon, 
the tuna, and the black sea-bass — is essentially a 
modern pastime, and its pursuit has led to the estab- 
lishment of the highest standards of sportsmanship 
in such organizations as the Tuna Club of Santa 
Catalina. These giants of the sea are pursued and 
taken — though not without a long and vigorous 



[Sept. 1, 

struggle — with tackle so light that the layman 
who first sees it doubts the evidence of his eyes. 
The author does not give technical descriptions of 
the fishes he treats, but his word-pictures are so 
vivid that even the novice should be able to recog- 
nize his captures. There are also some very good 
plates in color, by Mr. Charles F. A. Mielatz, of 
these large fishes in action, and other illustrations 
which add to the value of the book. This volume 
will be of much interest to those who do not pursue 
the big game of the deep. It is written by a most 
experienced angler, and from his rich store he en- 
livens his account with many an entertaining tale, 
all doubtless true, though nothing is lost in the tell- 
ing. The book affords excellent fishing by proxy 
for those who prefer or who must take their sport 
in this way. The high standard of scientific and 
literary excellence established in some of the earlier 
numbers of the series is well maintained in these 
latest volumes. 

The widespread study of living birds 
relation to m the field has so awakened interest 
mankind. in all their activities that a manual 
of economic ornithology is most opportune. Pro- 
fessor C. M. Weed and Mr. Dearborn, in their 
" Birds in Relation to Man" (Lippincott), have 
compiled from the numerous and widely scattered 
Government and State reports, and from scientific 
journals and their own note-books, a very full ac- 
count of the feeding habits of our more important 
native birds, and of the relation which such habits 
bear to harmful and beneficial insects, to the fruit 
and grain industry, and to the foes and friends of 
the farmer in orchard, field, and meadow. The 
book abounds in statistical details of potato beetles 
slain by the thousand and caterpillars by the tens 
of thousands ; while the broader phases of the sub- 
ject are not overlooked. We find an account of 
the procedure employed in the study of the food of 
birds, and note with pleasure the substitution of 
more humane methods for that of the deadly shot- 
gun. There is an account of the history of economic 
ornithology, a discussion of the proportions of ani- 
mal and vegetable elements in the food of birds, and 
some astonishing statistics as to the amount con- 
sumed. Methods for the conservation of the birds, 
devices for preventing their depredations, and means 
of encouraging their presence in garden and or- 
chard, are discussed, and a full bibliography, prin- 
cipally of American sources, is given. The book 
will be a welcome and valuable addition to many 
school libraries, and to the book-shelf of every na- 
ture lover. 

The first volume of Professor Julius 
Hann's Handbuch der Klimatologie, 
in its second German edition, has 
been translated by Professor R. De C. Ward, and is 
now issued as a complete " Handbook of Climat- 
ology" (Macmillan). It deals with all of the gen- 
eral phases of the subject, and seeks to present as 
graphic a picture as possible of the way in which all 

The science 
cf Climate. 

the atmospheric phenomena work together at any 
place on the earth's surface. Of necessity, separate 
treatment is given to the various climatic elements, 
or factors, — such as temperature, humidity, rain 
and snow, velocity and direction of the wind, influ- 
ence of the ocean and of mountains, and of latitude. 
The main types of climate, — solar, physical, con- 
tinental, marine, and mountain, — are defined, and 
their various differentiating factors are discussed 
with illustrations from meteorological measure- 
ments. The translator has made a number of changes 
in the work. A few unimportant details of purely 
European interest have been omitted, a consider- 
able number of illustrations from American sources 
have been inserted, and such additions have been 
made as are needed to bring the work up to date. 
The American reader will still find the book largely 
foreign in its sources and illustrations ; but this is in 
part due to the greater perfection and duration of 
European meteorological records, and in part to the 
fact that the original author was a German. This 
is not a popular work, but a thoroughly modern 
high-grade scientific treatise on a somewhat techni- 
cal though familiar subject, — the weather. 

a volume/or j n wr Jti n g of " Municipal Public 

and "students of Works, their Inception, Construction, 
municipal affairs, and Management," Mr. S. Whinery, 
a civil engineer of New York, shows a broad out- 
look upon the problems involved, as well as a famil- 
iarity with the details of municipal engineering and 
contracting. The result is a volume of practical 
value, not only to the inexperienced city officials for 
whom it is primarily intended, but to students of 
municipal affairs generally. Mr. Whinery expres- 
ses the unorthodox opinion that municipal contrac- 
tors are not necessarily corrupt, and even holds 
that public work may often be done by contract 
more economically and satisfactorily than by the 
direct employment of labor by the city. There are 
chapters on special assessments and uniform mu- 
nicipal accounting, a well-balanced discussion of 
municipal ownership, and a final chapter offering 
well-considered suggestions for the control of public- 
service corporations. The municipality and the 
quasi-public corporation are likened to the partners 
in an enterprise of common benefit, between whom 
there should be mutual cooperation rather than 
antagonism ; and principles are laid down by means 
of which the public might make sure of its share of 
the benefits resulting from future grants of fran- 
chises. (Macmillan.) 

Professor Laughlin of the Uni- 
T of e ReXrocUy. versity of Chicago, and Professor 

Willis of Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, have prepared a timely and practical ex- 
position of the too little understood subject of 
Reciprocity, particularly as it concerns trade con- 
ditions in this country. The authors quote and 
endorse President Hadley's definition of reciprocity 
as "a relation between two independent powers, 





such that the citizens of each are guaranteed cer- 
tain commercial privileges at the hands of the 
other." They treat of the origin and nature of the 
reciprocity idea, consider the subject historically, 
show that not until the last quarter-century had it 
obtained any great hold upon the public mind as a 
determinate policy, trace clearly and impartially 
Congressional legislation on the subject beginning 
with Canada and Hawaii and following the work- 
ings under the McKinley and Dingley Acts and 
the effects of the Wilson Bill repealing the reci- 
procity clause in the McKinley Act, show the inef- 
ficient and unsatisfactory results under the policy 
generally, and conclude that as the outcome of all 
the attempts " the futility of reciprocity efforts has 
apparently been shown with great conclusiveness." 
They believe that a revulsion of opinion has set 
in, and that tariff-reform sentiment is in the atmos- 
phere and not far distant ; that at most reciprocity 
has been but a poor piece of legislation calculated 
to placate the demand for substantial relief from 
high tariff duties. The subject seems to have been 
handled in a fair and intelligent way. The bibliog- 
raphy is very full and valuable, and the appendix 
contains various treaties and agreements with dif- 
ferent countries growing out of the reciprocity idea. 
(Baker & Taylor Co.) 

In "God and Music" (Baker & 
Taylor Co.), Dr. John Harrington 
Edwards has undertaken a study of 
theology in its relations to music, and of music in 
the possibilities of its adoption to religious life and 
work. He points out that the more thoroughly 
music is studied, in its rhythmical constitution and 
its correlations with other forms of spiritual and 
physical being, the more certainly it is seen to 
be cosmical in itself, and in its interrelations with 
the rest of the universe. " Music," says the au- 
thor, " is the lingua franca of the universe, the 
only known language indigenous to heaven and 
heard in all inhabited worlds. . . . Music, as in- 
volved in Nature, is objective, elementary, me- 
chanical. Innate in man, and evolved by human 
intelligence and effort, it is subjective, intellectual, 
purposed. That its scientific marvels and aesthetic 
beauty are the chance products of purposeless evo- 
lution, let him believe who can." Dr. Edwards 
inquires into the power of music, discusses musico- 
therapy, the law and correlations of music, etc., 
and treats the subject from its scientific and aes- 
thetic points of view, as well as in its theological 
aspects. We are told that no special originality is 
claimed for the present work, except, perhaps, in 
the marshalling of known facts, and the converging 
upon the main point of more or less familiar lines 
of argument in an unfamiliar but legitimate way. 

Mr. Alfred Hodder's volume entitled 
"A Fight for the City" (Macmillan) 
is a narrative of the political cam- 
paign in New York City in the fall of 1901, cen- 
tring around the interesting personality of Mr. 

A notable chapter 
of municipal 


William Travers Jerome, the successful candidate 
for the office of District Attorney on the Fusion 
ticket, and preceded by an account of the series of 
raids of gambling-houses which brought Mr. Jerome 
into prominence as a reformer. It is interesting 
to note that these raids were not begun on Mr. 
Jerome's initiative, but that his determination that 
they should not be farces, backed by the authority 
of his judicial position exercised in impromptu 
court-rooms, was what made all the difference be- 
tween these raids and the ineffectual ones that had 
been made from time to time before. Mr. Jerome's 
fearless honesty and bluntness of speech are well 
illustrated by extracts from his public utterances 
during the campaign, which more than once were 
thought to have alienated more votes than they 
could win, but which proved to be as successful with 
the people as they were satisfactory to the con- 
science of the speaker. The narrative combines 
the fascination of fiction with the value of an inter- 
esting and important section of recent history, and 
may be read with profit by the friends of reform 
everywhere. Mr. Hodder shares to the full Mr. 
Jerome's dislike for "the administrative lie" and 
u the decorative phrase," and is, in short, something 
of a hero-worshipper. 

It is mainly to the half-dozen charm- 
ZJiZl."" in g translations by Mr. Andrew 

Lang that English readers owe their 
knowledge of Pierre de Ronsard. foremost poet of 
the Renaissance in France and known throughout 
the Europe of his own day as " Prince of Poets." 
But these and some other fugitive renderings from 
various hands have only served to whet our ap- 
petites for the feast which is now spread in the 
volume of " Songs and Sonnets of Ronsard," as 
selected, translated, and edited by Mr. Curtis 
Hidden Page, and issued from the " limited edition 
department" of Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
Mr. Page's work seems to us in all ways excellent. 
His translation is graceful and fluent to a marked 
degree, and almost uniformly successful in follow- 
ing the difficult verse-forms and rhythms of the 
French poet. His Introduction is a finished bit of 
critical writing, and the Notes are neither cumber- 
some nor superfluous. To the mechanical form of 
the volume praise may be accorded in equal mea- 
sure. It is in many respects the most pleasing piece 
of book-making yet accomplished by Mr. Rogers in 
his work at the Riverside Press. Typography, 
paper, and binding are so skilfully chosen as to 
produce an antique atmosphere at once delightful 
in itself and in perfect harmony with the delicate 
old-world flavor of Ronsard's verse. For the col- 
lector of fine books, no less than the lover of beau- 
tiful poetry, this little pocket volume will prove a 

Ax interesting study of " George Sand and her 
French Style " is contributed by Mr. Prosser Hall 
Frye to the July number of the " University Studies " 
published by the University of Nebraska. 



[Sept. 1, 


Mr. Sherwin Cody's " Selections from the Best Eng- 
lish Essays" (McClurg) is intended to illustrate the 
development of English prose style by a series of typi- 
cal examples. The authors represented are Bacon, 
Swift, Addison, Lamb, DeQuincey, Carlyle, Emerson, 
Macaulay, Ruskin, and Arnold — an unimpeachable se- 
lection. But Mr. Cody's book is more than a mere 
reprint, for it includes an introductory chapter of some 
thirty pages on " The English Essay and English Prose 
Style," while with each writer represented goes a brief 
special introduction. The selections given are typical 
of their authors, and all belong to English literature in 
the best sense. Mr. Cody, in preparing this volume, 
has done a real service to the busy reader who does not 
hope to be a scholar but who is glad to learn something 
of the development of the chief literary forms. 

Three volumes of the " Centenary " edition of Em- 
erson have now been published by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. "Nature: Addresses and Lectures" is 
the title of the first, which gives us a handsome portrait 
in photogravure, a preface and biographical sketch by 
Dr. Edward Waldo Emerson, and an extensive collec- 
tion of notes, which are of the greatest value. The 
" Essays," first and second series, are given in the two 
other volumes, which also are supplied with the notes 
which form the distinctive feature of this new edition. 
The total number of volumes cannot yet be announced, 
for the pleasant reason that much hitherto unpublished 
material is to be added to Emerson's works, and the 
amount of this is not yet definitely determined. Typo- 
graphically the volumes are all that the most exacting 
taste could wish. 

We have previously spoken of Mr. Roscoe Lewis 
Ashley's "The Federal State" as probably the best 
manual of the subject thus far prepared for secondary 
instruction. The book is somewhat bulky for such use, 
which to some minds constitutes a serious objection, and 
it is with such critics in mind that the author has now 
produced a briefer work on the same subject, entitled 
" American Government," and published, like its pre- 
decessor, by the Macmillan Co. The work has illus- 
trations, which is something of a new departure for 
text-books of civil government. We can recommend it 
in much the same terms that were applied to the earlier 
and larger volume. 


Mr. John Lane will publish shortly a new contribu- 
tion to the Froude-Carlyle controversy, entitled " The 
Nemesis of Froude." 

" A New German Grammar," by Professor Marion 
D. Learned, is a new " Twentieth Century Text-Book " 
published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 

" Descriptive Chemistry," by Dr. Lyman C. Newell, 
is a secondary text- book, with experimental supplement, 
just published by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 

Mr. Samuel Merwin's new novel entitled " His Little 
World," dealing with life on the Great Lakes, will be 
published shortly by Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. 

" The Origin of American State Universities," by 
Mr. Elmer Ellsworth Brown, is published at Berkeley 
in the educational series of " University of California 

Brentano's are the publishers of a small manual of 
" Travellers' Colloquial Spanish," which gives the equiv- 
alent in phonetic pronounciation of all the phrases used. 
An important symposium on the negro problem, 
including contributions from most of the recognized 
leaders of the colored race in America, will be issued 
this Fall by Messrs. James Pott & Co. 

"Naturalism in the Recent German Drama, with 
Special Reference to Gerhart Hauptmann," by Mr. 
Alfred Stoeckins, is a doctoral dissertation that come* 
to us from Columbia University. It has a useful bib- 

Messrs. Laird & Lee are the publishers of " Webster'* 
New Standard Dictionary," a substantially leather- 
bound volume of moderate dimensions for school and 
office use. The work is indexed, has many cuts, and 
comes neatly boxed. 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. publish a little book of " Agri- 
culture for Beginners," the joint work of Professors 
Charles William Burkett, Frank Lincoln Stevens, and 
Daniel Harvey Hill, all of the North Carolina College 
of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

John Healey's translation of St. Augustine's "De 
Civitate Dei," in an edition prepared by Dr. F. N. 
Bussell, somewhat rearranged as to text, and provided 
with notes, is published by the Macmillan Co. as a 
" Temple Classic " in three volumes. 

"Stories from the Hebrew," by Miss Josephine 
Woodbury Heermaus, is a reading-book for schools 
which draws for material alternately upon the books of 
the Old Testament and the works of the modern poets. 
Messrs Silver, Burdett & Co. are the publishers. 

Mr. Ernest L. Briggs, of the former firm of Briggs 
Brothers, Plymouth, Mass., will hereafter conduct a 
general publishing business in Boston under the style 
of "The Fortune Press." His first book will be "A 
Rose o' Plymouth-Town," written by Miss Beulah 
Marie Dix and Miss Evelyn Greenleaf Sutherland. 

A " Biographical " edition of Charles Dickens's works 
is announced for immediate publication by the J. B. 
Lippincott Co. Each of the twenty volumes will con- 
tain a biographical introduction, and the series of 
original drawings by Cruikshank, " Phiz," and others. 
Forster's Life is also to be included in the edition. 

Volume XL of "The New International Encyclo- 
paedia" (Larrey — Maximianus II.), has just been sent 
us by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. Among the note- 
worthy articles are Latin Literature, Libraries, Light, 
Lincoln, London, Lucien, Magnetism, and Man. The 
illustrations are, as usual, numerous and interesting. 

It is announced that Professor W. E. Burghardt 
Du Bois is at work on a novel which Messrs. A. C. Mc- 
Clurg & Co., the publishers of his successful book, 
" The Souls of Black Folk," will bring out in the Fall 
of 1904. Needless to say, Professor Du Bois's story 
will deal with the subject that lies nearest his heart — 
the Negro problem. 

Two more volumes of the reissue of Arber's 
" English Garner " have been sent us by Messrs. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. Mr. C. H. Firth edits the volume of 
"Stuart Tracts," which contains practically no new 
material, in distinction from the volume of " Fifteenth 
Century Prose and Verse," edited by Mr. Alfred W. 
Pollard, nearly half of the contents of this collection 
being now for the first time included. The new matter 
includes " Everyman," from John Skot's edition, circa 
1525, which will be welcome to many readers. 




A new edition of Richard Jefferies' " Wild Life in 
a Southern Village " will be published this Fall by 
Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. under the title " An 
English Village." The special features of the edition 
will be a series of photographs made by Mr. Clifton 
Johnson in the County of Wiltshire, and an Introduction 
by Mr. H. W. Mabie. 

Ten years ago we reviewed M. Desire' H. Girouard's 
valuable historical monograph on " Lake St. Louis." 
A supplementary volume, containing much new matter 
brought to light during recent years, is now published 
by Messrs Poirier, Bessette, & Co., Montreal. The 
work has, we understand, also been published in a 
French edition of which the thick pamphlet now be- 
fore us, which continues the paging of the earlier vol- 
ume, is an English translation. 

For the octavo series of the decennial publications of 
the University of Chicago, Miss Myra Reynolds has 
edited " The Poems of Anne Countess of Winchester." 
Besides the volume of 1713, the editor has had access to 
two important manuscripts, which contain many pieces 
hitherto imprinted. A long critical and biographical 
introduction, compiled from original sources, is contrib- 
uted by the editor, and is a valuable feature of the 
edition. The volume is a stout one, containing upwards 
of four hundred pages. 

Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s list of publications 
for the coming Autumn promises to be rich in interest 
and variety. In the field of fiction there will be new 
books by Kate Douglas Wiggin, Clara Louise Burnham, 
the Baroness von Hutten, Guy Wetmore Carryl, Will 
Payne, Ruth Hall, Mary Hallock Foote, Ellen Olney 
Kirk, and Mrs. M. E. M. Davis, to mention only well- 
known authors. There will be volumes of essays by 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Samuel M. Crothers, Henry D. 
Sedgwick, Jr., and Charles A. Dinsmore ; and new nature 
books by John Burroughs and Bradford Torrey. A 
biography of Henry Ward Beecher, by Lyman Abbott, 
is promised, as well as Prof. Simon Newcomb's " Rem- 
iniscences of an Astronomer," two volumes on " Ameri- 
can Tariff Controversies in the 19th Century," by 
Edward Stanwood, and " Ultimate Conceptions of 
Faith," by Dr. George A. Gordon. There will be six or 
seven new volumes of poetry. 

Charles Carroll Bonney died at his home in Chicago 
on the twenty-third of August, having nearly com- 
pleted his seventy-second year. He was born and 
educated in Hamilton, New York, where he taught 
school for a time. He came to Illinois in 1850, con- 
tinued teaching for two years, and was then admitted 
to the bar. He practised law in Chicago for over thirty 
years, and became eminent in his profession. His chief 
title to fame is based npon his organization and direc- 
tion of the entire series of Congresses held in Chicago 
in 1893, at the time of the World's Fair. To him, far 
more than to any other man, was due not only the in- 
ception but the carrying into effect of this extraor- 
dinarily successful enterprise. The extensive body of 
literature resulting from the Congresses was collected 
by him and is now deposited in the Chicago Public 
Library, where it will remain as a visible memorial of 
what he accomplished. He was a writer of law-books, 
and of many miscellaneous papers on matters of relig- 
ion, political philosophy, and social reform. He was 
also a valued contributor to these pages. A good man 
in the best sense, and a man of remarkable intellectual 
force, his death is a cause for sincere mourning on the 
part of all who enjoyed his acquaintance. 

Topics ry Leading Periodicals. 

September, 190S. 

Anti-Saloon League, The. H. G. Furbay. North American. 
Assiniboine, Mt., First Ascent of. James Outram. Century. 
Balkans, Problem of. A. L. Snowden. North American. 
Berlin Bourse, The. William C. Dreher. Century. 
Bible in Pnblie Schools, The. H. W. Horwill. Atlantic. 
British Naval Progress. A. S. Hurd. North American. 
Canadian College Girls. Archibald MacMechan. Atlantic. 
Census. Twelfth, Results of. W. R. Merriam. Century. 
Composer, An American-Indian. Natalie Curtis. Harper. 
Conclave and the Pope. Talcott Williams. Rev. of Reviews. 
Cotton Crop of Today. R. H. Edmonds. Rev. of Review*. 
Deaf, Teaching the. John A. Macy. World's Work. 
Diaz, Renomination of. L. S. Rowe. Review of Reviews. 
Guns, Making Big. Albert Gleaves. World's Work. 
Hearts, Qneen of. Henry A. Beers. Atlantic. 
Heroes in Black Skins. Booker T. Washington. Century. 
Horse in America, The. John G. Speed. Century. 
Impressions, Some Early. Leslie Stephen. Atlantic. 
Indifferentism. Bliss Perry. Atlantic. 
Italian Progress, Thirty Years of. World's Work. 
Judges, Some Famous. George F. Hoar. Scribntr. 
Lamb's One Romance. John Hollingshead. Harper. 
Land-Run, A Northwest. Ray S. Baker. Century. 
Lefthandedness, Leftsidedneas. C. Lombroso. No. American. 
Leo XIII., Character of. James Cardinal Gibbons. Century. 
Leo XIII., his Work and Influence. North American. 
Libraries, Rural School, in North Carolina. Rev. of Reviews. 
M Literary Centre,'' The. M. A. De Wolfe Howe. Atlantic. 
Mexico, Am. Influence in. E. P. Lyle, Jr. World's Work. 
Military Attaches, Work and Play of the. Scribner. 
Negro Problem in So. Africa. Arthur Hawkes. Rev. of Revs. 
Nicholas V., In the Chapel of. Harriet Monroe. Atlantic. 
North, Christopher. W. A. Bradley. Atlantic. 
Paganism. Harriet Waters Preston. Atlantic. 
Panama Route, — Why Originally Chosen. North American. 
Paris School Colony, A. Stoddard Dewey. Harper. 
Peles, A Wonderful Change in. E. 0. Hovey. Century. 
Plants, Some Successful. A. J. Grout. Harper. 
Pope, The New. W. T. Stead. Review of Reviews. 
Pronunciation, Standard of. T. R. Lounsbnry. Harper. 
Race Problem, The. Lyman Abbott. Review of Reviews. 
Railroad Accidents in America and Europe. World's Work. 
Railroad Engineering, Feats|of Modern. World's Work. 
Reform Results in N. Y. Edward Lowry. World's Work. 
Religious Education, New Movement for. Rev. of Reviews. 
Riches, — Are They Demoralizing Am. Life. World's Work. 
Rival Systems, and Malayan Peoples. No. American. 
School, Model Preparatory. F. T. Baker. World's Work. 
Shakespeare's Trade. Brander Matthews. North American. 
Suffrage, Why Women do not Wish. Lyman Abbott. Atlantic. 
Tammany's New Ruler. Franklin Matthews. World's Work. 
Temperatures, Low, Effects of, on Organic Life. Harper. 
University, Ideal of an. Charles Waldstein. No. American. 
Wage-Earner, An Educated. Jocelyn Lewis. Atlantic. 
Whistler, James McNeill. Joseph Pennell. No. American. 
Whistler's Art. Franklin J. Mather, Jr. World's Work. 
Wordsworth, The Secret of. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic. 
Wyoming Game Stronghold, The. Frederic Irland. Scribner. of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 52 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.' 


Beatrice D'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475-1497 : A Study 
of the Renaissance. By Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Henry 
Ady). Second edition; illus. in photogravure, 8vo, un- 
cut, pp. 387. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3. net. 

Schumann. By Annie W. Patterson, Mus. Doc. Illus. 
in photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 232. 
"Master Musicians." E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.25. 



[Sept. 1, 

Thomas Gainsborough. By Arthur B. Chamberlain. 
Illus., 24mo, gilt top, pp. 228. "Popular Library of 
Art." E. P. Dutton & Co. 75 cts. net. 


A History of the Peninsular War. By Charles Oman, 
M.A. Vol. II., Jan.— Sept., 1809; from the Battle of 
Corunna to the End of the Talavera Campaign. Illus. in 
photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 664. 
Oxford University Press. $4.75 net. 

Stuart Tracts, 1603-1693. With Introduction by C. H. 
Firth. 8vo, pp. 514. "An English Garner." E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Boone's Wilderness Road. By Archer Butler Hulbert. 
Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 207. "Historic High- 
ways." Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Co. $2.50 net. 


Essays and Addresses. By Jules Cambon, Ambassador 
of France to the United States. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 90. D. Appleton & Co. 

Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse. With an Introduc- 
tion by Alfred W. Pollard. 8vo, pp. 324. " An English 
Garner." E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Memoirs of the Life of John Mytton, Esq, By Nimrod ; 

illus. in color by Henry Aiken and T. J. Rawlins. 18mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 206. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
The Tour of Doctor Syntax in Search of the Picturesque : 

A Poem. Illus. in color by Thomas Rowlandson. 16mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 266. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
The Story of Kennett. By Bayard Taylor. " Cedarcroft " 

edition ; illus., 12mo, pp. 469. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 
Works of Charles Dickens, "Fireside" edition. New 

vols.: Dombey and Son; David Copperfield ; Reprinted 

Pieces, etc. Each illus., 12mo. Oxford University Press. 

Per vol., $1. 

An Ode on the Semi-Centennial of Franklin and Marshall 

College. By Lloyd Mifflin. 8vo, pp. 17. Privately 

printed. Paper. 
Hephaestus, Persephone at Enna, and Sappho in Leucadia. 

By Arthur Stringer. 12mo, uncut, pp. 43. Toronto : 

Methodist Book & Publishing House. 
Of Both Worlds. By Herman Scheffauer. With portrait, 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 144. San Francisco: A. M. 

Robertson. $1.25 net. 


Monsigny. By Justus Miles Forman. Illus., 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 246. Doubleday, Page A Co. $1.50. 
The Silver Poppy. By Arthur Stringer. 12mo, pp. 291. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
Whitewash. By Ethel Watts Mumford. Illus., 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 319. Dana Estes & Co. $1.50. 
Under Mad Anthony's Banner. By James Ball Naylor. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 394. Saalfield Publishing Co. $1.50. 
The Millionaire's Son. By Anna Robeson Brown. Illus., 

12mo, uncut, pp. 397. Dana Estes & Co. $1.50. 
The MS. in a Red Box. 12mo, uncut, pp. 329. John Lane. 

The Gentleman from Jay. By George William Louttit. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 235. G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.25. 
The Man in the Camlet Cloak. By Carlen Bateson. Illus., 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 320. Saalfield Publishing Co. $1.50. 
Cirillo. By Effle Douglass Putnam. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 234. New York : Life Publishing Co. 
Out for the Coin. By Hugh McHugh. Illus., 18mo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 107. G. W. Dillingham Co. 75 cts. 


Old Paths and Legends of New England: Saunterings 
over Historic Roads with Glimpses of Picturesque Fields 
and Old Homesteads. By Katherine M. Abbott. Illus., 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 484. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50 net . 

Towards the Rising Sun : A Story of Travel and Adven- 
ture. By Sigmund Krausz. Illus., 12mo, pp. 302. Laird 
& Lee. $1.50. 


The Recovery and Restatement of the Gospel. By 
Loran David Osborn, Ph.D. 12mo, uncut, pp. 253. Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press. $1 50 net. 


The Independence of the South American Republics : 
A Study in Recognition and Foreign Policy. By Fred- 
eric L. Paxson. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 264. Philadelphia : 
Ferris & Leach. $2. 

Limanora: The Island of Progress. By Godfrey Sweven. 
12mo, pp. 711. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

New Harlem, Past and Present : The Story of an Amazing 
Civic Wrong, Now at Last to be Righted. By Carl 
Horton Pierce. Illus., 8vo, pp. 333. New York: New 
Harlem Publishing Co. 

The History of Contract Labor in the Hawaiian 
Islands. By Katharine Coman, Ph.B. Large 8vo. un- 
cut, pp. 68. " American Economic Association Publica- 
tions." Macmillan Co. Paper, 75 cts. 

French Music in the XlXth Century. By Arthur Hervey. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 271. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

$1.50 net. 
Technique of Musical Expression: A Text Book for 

Singers. By Albert Ge"rard-Thiers. 8vo, pp. 108. New 

York : Theodore Rebla Publishing Co. $1. 


The New International Encyclopaedia. Edited by 
Daniel Coit Gilman, LL.D., and others. Vol. XI., illus. 
in color, etc., large 8vo, pp. 1050. Dodd, Mead & Co. 
(Sold only in sets by subscription.) 

Travellers' Colloquial Spanish : A Hand-book for Eng- 
lish-Speaking Travellers and Students. By Howard Swan. 
18mo, pp. 102. Brentano's. 50 cts. net. 


On Special Assignment: Being the Further Adventures 

of Paul Travers. By Samuel Travers Clover. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 307. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1. net. 
A Partnership in Magic. By Charles Battell Loomis. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 270. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1. net. 
Defending the Bank. By Edward S. Van Zile. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 313. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1. net. 
Ethel in Fairyland. By Edith Rebecca Bolster. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 142. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1. net. 
The Mutineers. By Eustace L. Williams. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 291. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1. net. 
Fifer-Boy of the Boston Siege. By Edward A. Rand. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 326. Jennings & Pye. 50 cts. net. 


The British Nation: A History. By George M. Wrong, 
M.A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 616. D. Appleton & Co. 

American Government : A Text-Book for Secondary 
Schools. By Roscoe Lewis Ashley. Illus., 12mo, pp.356. 
Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

Virgil's Aeneid — First Six Books. Edited by Jesse Benedict 
Carter. Illus. in color, etc., 12mo, pp. 400. D. Appleton 

Agriculture for Beginners. By Charles William Burdett, 
Frank Lincoln Stevens, and Daniel Harvey Hill. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 267. Ginn & Co. 75 cts. net. 

Aus dem deutschen Dichterwald : Favorite German 
Poems. Edited by J. H. Dillard. 12mo, pp. 206. Amer- 
ican Book Co. 60 cts. 

Stories of Great Artists. By Olive Browne Home and 
Kathrine Lois Scobey. Illus., 12mo, pp. 157. American 
Book Co. 40 cts. 

Language Lessons from Literature, Book I. By Alice 
Woodworth Cooley, assisted by W. F. Webster. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 200. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 45 cts. 

The Baldwin Speller. By S. R. Shear, assisted by Mar- 
garet T. Lynch. 12mo, pp. 128. American Book Co. 
20 cts. 


The Mental Traits of Sex : An Experimental Investigation 
of the Normal Mind in Men and Women. By Helen Brad- 
ford Thompson, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 188. University of 
Chicago Press. $1.25 net. 

The Women of the Middle Kingdom. By R. L. Mc- 
Nabb, A.M. Illus., 12mo, pp. 160. Jennings & Pye. 
75 cts. net. 




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[Sept. 1, 

Record = Breaking Run 

Of the " Lowe Special " on the Santa Fe. 

21 Days, Chicago to California 

2,265 miles in exactly 52 hours and 49 minutes. 

Left Chicago 10:17 A. M., August 5 — arrived Los Angeles, 1:06 P. M., August 7 — average 
speed nearly 43 miles an hour, notwithstanding four mountain ranges crossed. Establishes 
new long-distance record for American railways. Only possible because of superior track 
and equipment. 

That's the kind of road to travel on ! 

For book about California trip, address 
Gen. Pass. Office, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail-way, Chicago. 

Santa Fe All the Way 



The World Which Emerson Knew. 


Eight new leaflets just added to the Old South Series, 
including the First Number of The Dial ; The Schools of 
Massachusetts in 1824; Boston in 1796, from Timothy 
Dwight's Journal. 

Price, 5 Cents Each. $4.00 per 100. 

If you wish to brush up on your English, you will find nothing bet- 
ter than Sherwin Cody's " Art of Writing and Speaking the English 
Language," four handy little volumes (time-saving size, 75 cts. each), 
"Word-Study," "Grammar and Punctuation," "Composition" (Ben 
Franklin's Method), and "Constructive Rhetoric: Part I, Business 
Letter Writing ; Part II., Short Story Writing; Part III., Creative 
Composition." Contains Mr. Cody's famous "Art of Short Story 
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has yet appeared in England." The set, our special price by mail, 82. 


First-rate books for high school and college review. 
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author of " The Sultan of Sulu," " Peggy from Paris," 





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than that of any other house in the United 

Correspondence and inspection invited. 
Send for our latest "Illustrated Catalogue 
of Standard and Holiday Books," listing 
about 21,000 titles. 


A. C. McCLURG fc? CO. 


Ready Early in September. 

The Thoughtless Thoughts of 


By Isa Carrington Cabell. 12mo. $1.25 net ; i by mail, 


Some thirty genial satires on such topics of general in- 
terest as The New Man, The New Child, One's Relatives, 
Servants, Ignorance is Bliss, Should Women Propose? 
Should Men Marry ? Love and Forty, Nervous Prostration, 
Original Sin, etc. 


A Mannal for the Northeastern States. By C. £. Waters, 
Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins). With an Analytic il Key based 
on the Stalks. With over 200 illustrations from 


Square 8vo. 

A popular bnt thoroughly scientific book. The Plant 
World says : 

" It is likely to prove the leading popular work on ferns ... it 
can be confidently asserted that no finer examples of fern photography 
have ever been produced." 

2d Impression. 

A Duke and His Double 

By Edward S. Van Zile. With Frontispiece by Florence 

Scovel Shinn. 16mo. 75 cents. 

" Buoyant, frolicking, even boisterious farce. ... A book to 
really read when one is in no mood for serious thought." — New York 
Timet Saturday Review. 

"It is the brilliant wit and dash and daring of the thing that 
makes it go."— Philadelphia Telegram. 

2d Impression. 

Cheerful Americans 

By Charles Battell Looms. With 24 illustrations 

by F. S. Shinn, F. Y. Cory, and others. 12mo. $1.25. 

Three whimsical automobile stories, the "Americans 
Abroad" series, "The Man of Putty," "The Men Who 
Swapped Languages," "Veritable Qaidors," etc., etc. 

" It is worthy of Frank Stockton," says the New York Time* 
Saturday Review of one of these stories. The remainder of the 
review cordially recommends the book. 

" He is unaffectedly funny, and entertains us from beginning to 
end." — New York Tribune. 

9th Impression. 

The Lightning Conductor 

By C. N. and A. M. Williamson. 12mo. $1.50. 

An Anglo-American love story, with vivid scenes in 
Provence, Spain, and Italy. 

" Such delightful people and such delightful scenes." — Nation. 


Sd Impression. 

Headed Gill 

By Rye Owen. $1.50. 

A Cornish romance, in which a weird East Indian in- 
fluence figures. 

"A novel of marked power, great originality, and intense inter- 
est. "—Buffalo Commercial. 

Henry Holt and Company 

29 West 23d Street, New York 

136 THE DIAL. [Sept. 1, 1903. 


To be published in October 

Father Louis Hennepin's 

"A New Discovery" 

Exact Reprint of Second Issue of i6q8 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites 

In Two Volumes, with facsimiles of original title-pages, maps, and other illustrations 

TT is believed that A New Discovery — especially the second issue of 1698, which has 
* been chosen for reproduction — is the most representative of Hennepin's works. It is 
a thoroughly readable volume, abounding in quaintly-phrased humor, satire, invective, and 
graphic description ; adventures are related in almost every chapter ; and through it all the 
man himself, a sorry braggart, yet never lacking courage, and possessing powers of keen 
observation, stands out in bold relief. As a human document, it has few rivals in our litera- 
ture. Moreover, it is the only one of the Hennepin books now upon the market ; Shea's 
Louisiane has for twenty years been out of print, and all of the original editions are rare and 
costly luxuries. 

The work of editing this careful reprint has been undertaken by Reuben Gold 
Thwaites, who, in addition to supervising the publication in every detail, furnishes a bio- 
graphical and critical Introduction of some 9000 words, copious Notes, and an analytical 
Index. Mr. Thwaites's eminence as an authority on all matters connected with the his- 
tory of the West, and his well known standing as an editor, will be sufficient assurance of 
the manner in which the enterprise will be carried out. Victor Hugo Paltsits, of Lenox 
Library, New York — one of the most expert of American bibliographers — contributes a 
new Bibliography of Hennepin. 

There seems no doubt, then, that this beautiful, well-appointed, and well-edited edition 
of A New Discovery will at once be accepted as an interesting and very valuable addition to 
American historical sources,and will meet with the large sale which its merits so richly deserve. 

The reprint will be issued in two square octavo volumes of nearly 500 pages each. 
The type used will be a large, clear face of pica old style, admirably adapted to the character 
of the work. Fac-similes of the title-pages of the original edition will be given, together 
with fac-similes of the seven full page illustrations and the two large folding maps. There 
will be two editions : one in regular library style, on an extra quality of soft laid paper, gilt 
top, with uncut edges; and a special large-paper edition, limited to 150 numbered copies on 
the finest quality of Brown's hand-made paper. 

Regular library edition, two volumes, in box, price $6.00 net. 
Limited large-paper edition, two volumes, in box, $18.00 net. 






|£itarg <£rfti:risOT, gistttsshm, anb Ifnformation. 



Volume XX XV, 
No. 414. 

CHICAGO, SEPT. 16, 1903. 10 t ta^S!' 

Fine Abts Building. 
203 Michigan Bird. 

Charles Scribner's Sons' 
early autumn publications 

First edition, 30,000 


Second edition, 20,000 

The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come 

THE great success predicted for this novel before publication has already been assured. 
" It is potent with the wine of life," exclaims World's Work. " Seldom does one meet 
to-dav so fresh and so moving a storv, with so entertaining a mixture of traditional Southern 
refinements and the picturesque crudities of mountain life, the fire and dash of war, and the 
softer play of social motives and love." 

Beautifully illustrated by F. C. Yohn. $1.50 

The Blood Lilies 

The scene of this novel is Canada, beyond Win- 
nipeg. It is dramatic, pathetic, and romantic to a 
remarkable degree. 

Illustrated, $1.50 

A Doctor of Philosophy 


A novel marking a new departure in Mr. Brady's 
rt. Philadelphia is the scene, the period to-day. 



A wholly new story, entitled 

Colonel Carter's Christmas 

ANY who are not acquainted with the celebrated Colonel Carter of Cartersville will make his acquaintance 
under the most fortunate circumstances in this story, which is an entirely new one, not heretofore pub- 
lished, even serially ; while those who know him of old, and of course love him, will find here, in 
addition to the renewal of an old and delightful friendship, quite a new revelation of a character that has 
made a deep and lasting impression. All the old characters are met again : Chad, the Colonel's servant, 
Aunt Nancv, Fitz, Klutchem, and the Major, together with two new ones. In the old story the Colonel 
triumphed financially ; in this one the issue hangs upon sheer courtesy and nobility of heart. 

With 8 full-page illustrations in color by F. C. Yohn. $1.50 




[Sept. 16, 


The Daughter of a Magnate 



Author of "Doctor Bryson" 

12mo, $1.50 

'T'HE romance of that greatest of American "interests," the railway, has never been depicted 
1 with the expertness, sympathy and systematic elaborateness that distinguish Mr. Spearman's 
new book — the successor of his powerful and vivid "Doctor Bryson." The atmosphere of 
"railroading," and that on the largest and most impressive scale, permeates the story, which 
is not only extremely graphic, and illustrative of the perils and difficulties as well as the feats 
and accomplishments of railroad life, but also a love story of peculiar force and great beauty. 
The hero and heroine are typically American and attracted to each other by a natural attach- 
ment that is called upon to overcome the greatest of obstacles. 

The Vagabond 


A vigorous, absorbing story by a man distinguished 
as a correspondent, and known to many by his volume 
of stories, "Ways of the Service." 

Illustrated by Harrison Fisher. $1-50 

Odd Craft 


A new book of stories in the author's own field, 
depicting the sailorman ashore, with a wealth of gen- 
uine humor. 

Illustrated, $1.50 


Late in October we shall publish 

The Weaker SeX By Charles Dana Gibson 

By Henry Van Dyke 
An elaborate new edition of 

Little Rivers 

This classic of the woods and streams is now pro- 
duced uniform with "The Ruling Passion" and 
"The Blue Flower." 

Color drawings by Du Mond. $f-50 

By Richard Harding Davis 
An exquisite edition ot 

The Bar Sinister 

This inimitable dog story, standing alone in its class, 
is here given a beautiful and adequate presentation. 
Color drawings by Ashe. $1.50 


Edith Wharton's distinguished new novel, SANCTUARY, will appear about 

November 1st. 







Reminiscences of the Civil War 

By General JOHN B. GORDON 
With three portraits, large 8vo. $3.00 net (postage additional) 

THESE reminiscences, which are destined to take the place on the Southern side held by 
General Grant's "Memoirs" on the Northern side, were written by General Gordon 
from time to time throughout a great number of years. They are not, therefore, a made-to- 
order book, but the spontaneous recollections of a very full life. From Bull Run to Appo- 
mattox General Gordon was in most of the great fights of General Lee's army. He knew the 
leaders of the Confederacy intimately, and his acquaintance was enlarged during his career as 
a United States Senator by intimate association with leaders of the Union cause. He was the 
friend of General Grant to the end of his life. This is not a narrative history of the war, but 
records, with anecdote, incident, and with eloquence, the personal experiences of General Gordon 
and the eminent leaders who were his friends. No other such intimately personal record has 
been produced by either side. Every chapter contains humorous incidents, and even pathetic 
ones, which will pass into the permanent history of the war. 

Vacation Days in Greece 

By Rufus B. Richardson 
Of the American Archaeological School at Athens 
Fully illustrated 
8<vo, $2.00 net {postage 20 cents) 
DROFESSOR Rufus B. Richardson, during a resi- 
dence of eleven years inGreece as head of the Amer- 
ican Archaeological School in Athens, has had an unex- 
celled opportunity to visit many parts of Greece less 
frequently visited by the tourist, but most picturesque 
and interesting. He describes his excursions into these 
regions in a series of sketches of great informal charm, 
told from the picturesque rather than from the archaeo- 
logical and scholarly point of view, although the two 
are so judiciously combined that the book will be indis- 
pensable both to the student and to the general traveller 
in Greece. 

The Development of the Drama 

By Brander Matthews 

Uniform nuitb the author s former volumes 

l2mo, $1.25 net (postage 11 cents) 

An entirely new volume and one of very wide 

interest in a field which the author has made peculiarly 

his own - CONTENTS : 

The Art of the Dramatist 

Greek Tragedy 

Greek and Roman Comedy 

Mediaeval Drama 

The Drama in Spain 

The Drama in England 

The Drama in France 

The Drama in the Eighteenth Century 

The Drama in the Nineteenth Century 

The Future of the Drama 


Autobiography of Seventy Years 

By Senator GEORGE F. HOAR 
Two volumes, large 8vo, with portrait. $7.50 net (postage additional) 

M OT only for its political importance, but for the unusual personal, social and literary interest of the remi- 
niscences it brings together, Senator Hoar's autobiography will be the most notable contribution of the 
year to memoir-literature. It would be impossible to find another man in the country who has known more 
of the important men and measures of his time than Mr. Hoar; and the charm and piquancy of his style, with 
its range, from the eloquent discussion of his political principles to the humor of his anecdotes, are as remark- 
able as his experiences. The book is refreshingly frank and full of character and individuality — a record of 
opinions as well as events. 




[Sept. 16, 

g>ome of Etttle, Proton & Co.'s JTall Hoofes 

A remarkable case of the deaf -dumb -blind. 

Laura Bridgman 

Dr. Howe's Famous Pupil, and What He Taught Her. 
By Maud Howe and Florence Howe Hall. 
Illustrated, crown 8vo, $1 50 net. 

Tales which suggest Tolstoi at his best. 

The Golden Windows 

A Book of Fables for Old and Young. By Laura E. 
Richards, author of " Captain January," etc. 
Illustrated and decorated, 12mo, SI. 50. 

The domestic lives of popular American stage favorites pictorially presented. 

Famous Actors and Actresses and Their Homes 

By GuSTAV Kobbe, author of "Signora, a Child of the Opera House," etc. Superbly illustrated, with photo- 
gravure frontispiece of Julia Marlowe, and over 50 full-page plates and vignettes, printed in tints. 8vo, 
decorated cloth, $3.00 net. 

A logical sequence oj "The World Beautiful." 

The Life Radiant 

By Lillian Whiting, author of "The World Beau- 
tiful," "Boston Days," etc. 16 mo, cloth, $1.00 
net; decorated, $1.25 net. 

The story of the daughter of a society favorite. 

The Awakening of the Duchess 

By Frances Charles, author of "In the Country 
God Forgot," etc. Illustrated in color by I. H. 
Caliga. 12mo, $1.50. 

First-hand information concerning picturesque Indian tribes, told entertainingly. 

Indians of the Painted Desert Region 

By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES, author of "In and Around the Grand Canyon," etc. With 66 full page and half page 
illustrations from photographs. Crown 8vo, $2.00 net. 

Dr. Hale's collection of typical ballads. 

Ballads of New England History 

Afresh story of country and city life. 

A Daughter of the Rich 

By Edward Everett Hale, and Others. Illustrated, By M. E. Waller, author of " The Little Citizen," etc. 
small 8vo, $2.00 net. Illustrated, 12mo, $1.50. 


Standard American editions of the works of favorite French and English authors, at popular prices. 

Handy Library Sets of Standard Novelists 

Alexandre Dumas, 48 vols.; Jane Austen, 6 vols.; Alphonse Daudet, 16 vols.; Victor Hugo, 14 vols.; 
BULWER-LYTTON, 30 vols.; George Eliot, 10 vols.; 12mo, illustrated, decorated cloth, $1.00 per vol. 

A few of our popular juveniles 

Brenda's Bargain. By Helen Leah Reed. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, $1.20 net. 

Ursula's Freshman. By Anna Chapin Ray. Blus- 
trated, 12mo, $1.20 net. 

Camp Fidelity Girls. By Annie Hamilton Don- 
NELL. Illustrated, 12mo, $1.20 net. 

Jack, the Fire Dog. By Lily F. Wesselhoeft. 
Dlustrated, 12mo, $1.00 net. 

Blake Redding. A Boy of Today. By Nathalie 
Rive Clark. Illustrated, 12mo, $1.00 net. 

The Giant's Ruby and other Fairy Tales. By MABEL 
Fuller Blodgett. Illustrated, $1.25 net. 

Robin Hood: His Book. By Eva March Tap- 
pan. Illustrated in color, 12mo, $1.50 net. 

Jane and John. By Elizabeth Polhemus. Illus- 
trated in color, $1.50 net. 

Elizabeth's Charm String. By Cora B. Forbes. 
Hlustrated, 12mo, $1.20 net. 

Jo's Boys. By Miss Alcott. New edition, with 10 
full-page plates by Ellen Wetherald Ahrens. Crown 

8vo, $2.00. 

Send for Illustrated Fall Announcements 



1903] THE DIAL Hi 

A. C. McCLURG & CO.'S 


By Margaret Horton Potter. With six full-page illustrations in color by 

Charlotte Weber. $1.50. 
For some time Miss Potter has had in mind a book which would give, in some measure, an idea of 
the conditions under which women lived in the days of feudalism. It is difficult for a modern 
mind to realize the loneliness and monotony that were bravely faced by the chatelaines of isolated 
castles when their husbands and sons departed to battle or to the court. Just what this meant to 
them is brought out with notable art by Miss Potter in her new romance. Her story of the life 
of three brave and beautiful women at the Breton castle will reach the sympathy of the reader in 
a way that can be equalled by few recent novels. The pictures in color by Charlotte Weber are 
equally notable for their sympathy with the text and their rare artistic quality. A consistent decor- 
ative treatment has been utilized in the type and binding, and altogether the book is one of remark- 
able distinction and most exceptional interest. (Ready September 26.) 


By Felix Dahn. Translated from the German by Mary J. Safford. I2mo y $ 
This story, published in Germany under the title of " Gelimer," is the third volume in the group 
of romances to which " Felicitas " and "A Captive of the Roman Eagles" belong, and, like them, 
deals with the long-continued conflict between the Germans and the Romans. But in the present 
novel the scene of the struggle is transferred from the forests of Germania to the arid sands of 
Africa, and, in wonderfully vivid pen-pictures, the author displays the marvellous magnificence 
surrounding the descendants of the Vandal Genseric, the superb pageants of their festivals, and the 
luxury, whose enervating influence has gradually sapped the strength and courage of the rude, 
invincible warriors — once the terror of all the neighboring coasts and islands — till their enfeebled 
limbs can no longer support the weight of their ancestors' armor, and they cast aside their helmets 
to crown themselves with the rose-garlands of Roman revellers. Miss Safford, to whom the 
translation has been intrusted, is well known for her English versions of George Ebers's novels. 
(Ready October 14..) 


By Byron A. Dunn. With ten full-page illustrations. $1.25. 
This is a new volume in Mr. Dunn's famous "Young Kentuckians Series," and has the same 
excitement and dash that have made the others popular. Unlike them, this story is told from the 
Southern standpoint. (Ready September JO.) 


Compiled by Frederick W. Morton. i8mo, net 80 cents ; delivered, 85 cents. 
This is the fourth and last volume of the famous "Epigram Series." Mr. Morton has shown, by 
the use of aphorisms and sayings collected from the wits of all ages, that marriage is what he calls 
"the world's greatest paradox — the survival of paradise or a foretaste of purgatory." Whatever 
one's ideas may be on the subject, he is sure to find many a sympathetic touch in this delightful 
little collection. (Ready September 2J.) 


142 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 




Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. An Exact Reprint of the Edition of i6g8. 
With introduction, notes, and an analytical index by Mr. Thwaites. In two vol- 
umes, with facsimiles of original title-pages, maps, and illustrations. Library edition, 
square 8vo, in box, net $6.00 ; delivered, $6.35. Large-paper edition (limited), on 
Brown's hand-made paper, 7% x 10 inches, in box, net $18.00. 
Every collection of Americana should contain at least one of Father Hennepin's famous books. It 
is believed that " A New Discovery" — especially the second issue of 1698, which has been chosen 
for reproduction — is the most representative and readable product of his pen. Moreover, it is the 
only one of the Hennepin books now upon the market. There seems to be no doubt that this 
beautiful, well appointed, and well-edited edition of "Nouvelle Decouverte" will at once be accepted 
as an interesting and valuable addition to American historical sources. (Ready October 3.) 
Note: This reprint is uniform with McClurg's edition of "Lewis and Clark." 


NORTHWEST And Other Essays in Western History 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites. Illustrated. i2mo, net $1.20 ; delivered, $1.31. 
His extended researches and his natural sympathy with the subject, have brought Mr. Thwaites to 
a first place among historians of the West. The several authoritative volumes that he has already 
published are recognized as standard, but in this book he has relaxed somewhat into a more popular 
vein. The majority of the eight papers contained in the volume were first delivered as lectures and 
were later accorded magazine publication. For the present publication they have been radically 
revised and brought down to date, and comprise an exceptionally interesting collection of papers 
covering a wide range of topics under the one general head. (Ready October 3.) 


By Reuben Gold Thwaites. New edition, with twelve full-page illustrations. 

i2mo, net $1.20; delivered, $1.31. 
This trip was undertaken by Mr. Thwaites some years ago, with the idea of gathering local color 
for his studies of Western history. The Ohio River was an important factor in the development 
of the West. He therefore wished to know intimately the great waterway in its various phases, and 
there seemed no better way than to make the pilgrimage as nearly as possible in the manner of the 
pioneer canoeist or flat-boatman himself. The voyage is described with much charm and humor, 
and with a constant realization of the historic traditions on every side. (Ready October 3.) 

Note : The last two books are uniform with Mr. Thwaites's " Down Historic Waterways." 


By Arthur Howard Noll. New revised edition, with new matter. i6mo, 

net 75 cents ; delivered, 84 cents. 
The first edition of Dr. Noll's admirable little book was prompted by the lack of any compre- 
hensive history of Mexico in the English language. General histories pass over the three centuries 
of Spanish rule, the long struggle for independence, the establishment of the short-lived empire, 
followed by a nominal republic and the rise and fall of the second empire, as subjects of but little 
interest, and without giving accurate information regarding them. Dr. Noll's book was the first to 
thoroughly supply this need, and after ten years it is still alone in the field. This new edition has 
been thoroughly revised and brought down to date. (Ready October 10.) 


1903] THE DIAL 143 


Baron Gourgaud. 

Translated from the French by Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer. With eight 

portraits. 8vo, net $1.50; delivered, $1.64. 
These intimate conversations of Napoleon with his faithful friend have long been standard in 
French, but this is the first English translation ever published. As the talks deal with the mon- 
archs, generals, and politicians of his time, the work is of extraordinary historical value. Lord 
Roseberv, in "-Napoleon — The Last Phase," says of Gourgaud's Journal : "In some respects not 
merely the most remarkable book relating to Napoleon at St. Helena, but to Napoleon at any time. 
. . . We feel a conviction that this book is more nearly the unvarnished truth than anything else 
that has been put forth." In a later chapter he calls it " the one capital and supreme record of life 
at St. Helena." (Ready September 30.) 


By Francis Johnson. With 31 portraits. 8vo, net $1.50; delivered, $1.64. 
The thirty assassinations so famous in history, which are narrated in this volume, have never before 
had their stories told in a collected form in any language. They embrace a period of nearly twenty- 
five centuries, from Philip of Macedon to the late episode in Servia. Only those assassinations have 
been included which either had an important and political bearing on the world, or on the nation 
immediately affected, or which left a profound and, it would seem, indelible impression on the im- 
agination of contemporaries and posterity. It has been the object of the writer to make each of 
these " famous assassinations " the central scene of a picture, in which the political, religious, or 
national features of the epoch are portrayed. (Ready September ip.) 


By Ernest W. Clement. Illustrated. 8vo, net $1.40 ; delivered, $1.53. 
Mr. Clement writes of modern Japan — the Japan which has within a few years become a world 
power. There is nothing in history more remarkable than the rapid development of civilization in 
this wonderful country, and this handbook gives exactly the information that is wanted by travellers 
or students. Mr. Clement has devoted his life to a close study of Japanese life and affairs, and knows 
his subject from every point of view. Out of his wide knowledge he has written this book — a 
practical reference work in every sense. There are over sixty illustrations from photographs, in- 
cluding portraits of statesmen, views of public buildings, and of various aspects of Japanese life. 
The usefulness of the work is increased by an elaborate and comprehensive map made especially for 
the volume, from the latest data obtainable. (Ready October 10.) 


By Arthur Howard Noll. With map and frontispiece. 8vo, net $1.40; 

delivered, $1.54. 
The scope of Dr. Noll's earlier volume naturally precluded a very detailed discussion of any one 
period in Mexican history. No succession of events, however, has had a more important effect on 
the development of the country than those concerned with the struggle for Constitutional Govern- 
ment, and the story of the change from Empire to Republic is quite worthy of a volume by itself. 
Dr. Noll has drawn upon his years of study of the subject to give a detailed and accurate account 
of this vital phase. (Ready October 10.) 


H4 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 




Edited by Sherwin Cody. With a series of Critical Introductions. With -photo- 
gravure portrait. i8mo, net $1.00 ; delivered, $1.08. 


Edited by Sherwin Cody. With a Biographical and Critical Study of English 
Prose Style. With photogravure frontispiece from a new photograph of the 
Zolnay Bust. i8mo, net $i.oo ; delivered, $1.08. 
The publishers believe that these volumes, especially the second one, offer the most original and 
striking study of Poe's art and personality ever printed. Even old students of Poe will be surprised 
to find in the new arrangement of Poe's criticism a detailed analysis of the general principles of 
novel writing and short-story writing, as well as the better known essays on poetry and examples of 
criticism of poetry, with his many pithy remarks on life and literature gathered from his journalistic 
book reviews. Mr. Cody has introduced a new method of editing in his "World's Greatest Short 
Stories" and "Best English Essays" — a method in which the editor contributes, in condensed 
form, as much critical originality as is usually expected from the author of a volume of original 
essays. The success of the earlier volumes gives assurance that his presentation of Poe will meet 
with general approbation. (Ready October y.) 

BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA An Introduction to the Three Hundred 
Most Common Birds of the State and Adjacent Islands. 

By Irene Grosvenor Wheelock. With 8 full-page plates and about 75 illus- 
trations in the text by Bruce Horsfall. 8vo, net $2.00 ; postage extra. Student's 
edition, flexible binding, net $1.50 ; postage extra. 
In this excellent volume Mrs. Wheelock, whose "Nestlings of Forest and Marsh " will be remem- 
bered, has prepared a complete survey of the Birds of California. She has covered thoroughly over 
three hundred species in a detailed and practical manner, rather than in a so-called popular style. 
At the same time it is not too technical to be quite as useful to the unscientific bird observer as to the 
scientific student. Separate space is devoted to each species, in which is given the author's personal 
observations of nesting habits, characteristics, and other details of equal interest and pertinency. 
Mr. Horsfall's pictures show a rare combination of absolute technical accuracy with the highest 
artistic merit. A special feature is the pocket edition with limp covers and narrow margins — a 
volume that the tourist, hunter, or trapper can conveniently carry with him. (Ready in November.) 


By Alice Jean Patterson. With frontispiece in color and other illustrations by 

Bruce Horsfall. i2mo, net $1.00 ; delivered, $1.07. 
Young people are especially attracted to the living things about them, and the spiders are always a 
peculiarly fascinating subject of their observation. They are a most interesting family of insects, and 
their ingenuity and patience are astonishing. One is amazed by their skill and craftsmanship. Miss 
Patterson has given the spiders very careful and painstaking study, and has written a distinct, simple, 
and attractive account, which makes an apparently complex and grewsome subject both entertaining 
and instructive. (Ready September 12. ) 


1903] THE DIAL H5 



By Edith Ogden Harrison. With six illustrations in color by Lucy Fitch 

Perkins. Net $1.25 ; delivered, $1.45. 
" Prince Silverwings," Mrs. Harrison's first book, was one of the most popular and successful 
books for children published last Fall. This new collection of fairy tales is similar in character and 
appearance, except that the stories are, if anything, more delightful, and there are more pictures than 
in " Silverwings." The greatest charm of Mrs. Harrison's stories is found in the way they are told. 
They are meant to interest younger children, and are written with that idea in mind, in simple, direct 
language. Mrs. Perkins's pictures are very happv in conception. (Ready October IJ.) 


By Hazel Martyn. Net $5.00; delivered, $5.50. 
Miss Martvn's first exhibition of drawings in Chicago, last Spiing, created an unusual stir in artistic 
circles, as the knowledge of her decided talent was confined almost entirely to her intimate friends. 
But her charming collection or sketches in red chalk and charcoal delighted the most exacting critics 
and entirely captured the public. The portraits of women were particularly commended for their 
charm and delicacy, as well as tor the undeniably dashing style in which they were handled. The 
interest in Miss Martvn's work has been so active that this portfolio containing ten of her delightful 
drawings of girls' heads will undoubtedly be eagerly welcomed. (Ready in November. J 


Famous Hymns and Their Writers 

By Nicholas Smith. Net $1.40; delivered, $1.50. 
No more appropriate subject for a gift book could be imagined than the stories of some of the most 
soul-stirring hymns of the Christian religion, those that have become endeared through long associa- 
tion. Especially is it true that the language of woman's soul has given the church its tenderest and 
most beautiful songs. Mr. Smith feels that from the hearts of women alone have come truly deli- 
cate thought, tenderness of tone, and deeply religious sentiment. (Ready September 2?.) 


By Rt. Rev. J. L. Spalding. With new portrait. Net 80 cents ; delivered, 88 cents. 
Few can equal Bishop Spalding in the creation of helpful every-day philosophy, and its best expres- 
sion is found in a book of this kind — made up of short paragraphs in the same style as his " Aphor- 
isms and Reflections " or two years ago. These new aphorisms represent the Bishop's theories as to 
the conduct of life, written with simplicity of language and convincing sincerity. (Ready November.) 


Reference Manual for the Librarian, Teacher, Elocutionist, etc. 

Compiled by Edith Granger. Three-quarters leather, thumb index, net $5.00 ; 

delivered, $5.33. 
This is one of the most practical and comprehensive reference books ever published. The original 
plan of the volume has been enlarged, and the work will index considerably over three hundred 
standard and popular collections of poetry an! reciations, including dialogues, orations, drills, etc., 
comprising nearly thirty thousand titles arranged alphabetically under three heads — titles, authors, 
and first lines. The title index, being the one most referred to, will be furnished with a thumb 
index. An appendix will contain lists of titles suitable for special occasions, such as Arbor Day, 
Washington's Birthday, etc.; also lists of drills, tableaux, and pantomimes. (Ready in November.) 




[Sept. 16, 

Important Fall Books of 


The Sherrods 

By George Barr McCutcheon, author of 
" Graustark " and " Castle Craneycrow." 
The strongest story ever written by this 

popular author. Strikingly illustrated, by 

C. D. Williams. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50 

An April Princess 

By Constance Smedley. " Full of the cham- 
pagne of youth. Engaging, vivacious, a 
book to drive away the blues." 

12mo, cloth, $1.50 

The Path of Stars 

By Margaret Crosby Munn, author of " A 
Violin Obligate." 
A musical novel of great strength. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50 

Honor D'Everel 

By Barbara Yechton, author of " Young 
Mrs. Teddy," " We Ten," etc. 
A charming and well-told story. 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50 

Katharine Frensham 

By Beatrice Harraden, author of " Ships 
that Pass in the Night," etc. 
A powerful love-story. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50 

The Golden Fetich 

By Eden Phillpotts, author of " Children of 
the Mist," " The River," etc. 
Full of plot and thrilling adventure. 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50 

The Brazen Calf 

By James L. Ford, author of " The Literary 

Shop," " Hypnotic Tales," etc. 

A very amusing satire on the worship, 
creation, and maintenance of the " Four 

Illustrated by Glackens. 12mo, cloth, $1.25 

Barbe of Grand Bayou 

By John Oxenham, author of " Flowers of 

Dust," " God's Prisoner," etc. 

A story of unusual power. Full of the salt 
and strength of the sea. 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50 

The Black Shilling 

By Amelia E. Barr, author of " The Bow 
of Orange Ribbon," " The Maid of Maiden 
Lane," etc. 
A delightful tale of Old Boston town. 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50 

Tea=Table Talks 

By Jerome K. Jerome, author of " The Second 
Thoughts of an Idle Fellow," " Paul Kel- 
ver," etc. 
A collection of humorous essays like " The 

Second Thoughts of an Idle Fellow." 

Liberally illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.00 

In Old Plantation Days 

By Paul Laurence Dunbar, author of "Folks 
from Dixie," " Candle- Ligh tin' Time," etc. 
The best work in prose that Dunbar has 

ever done. 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, probably, $1.50 

Dodd, Mead & Co., Publishers 

1908.] THE DIAL i*T 

Dodd, Mead and Company 


A Checked Love Affair 

By Paul Leicester Ford, author of " Wanted, a Chaperon," " Wanted, a Matchmaker." 

Illustrations in photogravure by Harrison Fisher. 8vo, cloth $2.00 

In Arcady 

By Hamilton Wright Mabie, author of " Under the Trees," etc. Full-page illustra- 
tions by Will Low, decorations in color by Charles L. Hinton. 8vo, cloth . net 1.80 

When Malindy Sings 

By Paul Laurence Dunbar, author of "Candle-Lightin' Time," "Lyricsof Lowly Life," 

etc. With illustrations by the Hampton Institute Camera Club. 8vo, cloth . net 1.50 

Red- Head 

By John Uri Lloyd, author of " Stringtown on the Pike," " Etidorhpa," etc. With 

numerous illustrations and decorations by Reginald Birch. 8vo, cloth . . net 1.60 

The Bending of the Twig 

By Walter Russell, author of "The Sea Children," and famous as a painter of chil- 
dren's portraits. 8vo, cloth, with full-page illustrations and text cuts . . net 2.00 

Historic Buildings 

Described by Great Writers and Travellers, and profusely illustrated. Edited by 

Esther Singleton, author of " Great Pictures," etc. 8vo, cloth, illustrated . net 1.60 

The Oriental Rug 

With a chapter on Oriental Carpets, Saddle-bags, and Pillows. By W. D. Ell w anger. 
With many illustrations in color and in black and white. Indispensable to every 
buyer of rugs. 8vo, cloth net 2.50 

Homes and Their Decoration 

By Lillie Hamilton French. With over 100 illustrations by Katharine C. Budd, and 

numerous photographs. A thoroughly practical book. 8vo, cloth. Probably, net 3.00 

In the Palaces of the Sultan 

By Anna Bowman Dodd, author of "Cathedral Days," "Three Normandy Inns," 
etc. Large 8vo, with numerous illustrations in half-tone and photogravure, 
sumptuously printed net 4.00 

Outlines of the History of Art 

By Wilhelm Liibke, author of " History of Architecture." Edited, revised, and much 
enlarged by Russell Sturgis. Translated from the latest German editions. 
Illustrated, 2 vols., large 8vo, cloth Probably, net 10.00 

This book is of such importance that the publishers have retranslated the last German 
edition and, at great expense, entirely reset the book, adding to it many illustrations. Nearly 
1000 text pictures, over 100 full-page illustrations, and several full-pages in color. 

372 Fifth Avenue, New York 



[Sept. 16, 


Sometimes called "Mad Anthony" 



A new volume in the Historic Lives 
Series. Illustrated. 

12mo. Cloth, $1.00 Net 



" The ' Silver Poppy ' nears the 
greatest eminence of the modern psy- 
chological novel and proclaims its 
author a master of insight and poetic 

— The New York American. 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 



A new volume in Appletons' 
World Series. Edited by H. J. 

"Dr. Partsch has succeeded in 
furnishing an unerring account of 
the movements of the races of Cen- 
tral Europe during the last twenty 
centuries." — London Chronicle. 

8vo. Cloth, $2.00 Net 




Joint author of "Eastover Courthouse " and 
"The Redflelds Succession." 

A charming novel of the social life 
of the present-day Virginia. 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 



Two vols., 500 pages each. Eight 
photogravures and eight half-tones. 

Cloth, gilt top, deckle 
edges, boxed, $5.00 Net 



Assistant Professor of Transportation 

and Commerce in the University 

of Pennsylvania. 

A new volume in Appletons' Busi- 
ness Series. Illustrated. 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 Net 



Completed by him during the year 
before his death. With a Memoir by 
Mrs. Stockton, an Etched Portrait, 
Views of Mr. Stockton's homes, and 
a Bibliography. 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 



Author of " Imperial Germany," 
etc. With portraits. 

Large 1 2mo. Cloth, gilt top, uncut, 

$1.60 Net. Postage 16 cents 



Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

A new volume in the Expansion 
of the Republic Series. Numerous 
maps. {Ready in October.) 

12mo. Cloth, $1.25 Net 



With a memoir of the author 
by Hall Caine. 

" The pastoral scenes are according 
to my judgment among the most 
exquisite pictures of rural life to be 
found in the whole range of modern 
fiction."— Hall Caine. 

12 mo. Cloth, $1.50 





A new edition. Illustrated by E. 
W. Kemble with fifteen full-page 
plates and twenty-five cuts in the 
text, and with an introduction by 
John Eendrick Bangs. 

12mo. Cloth, $2.00 


A Complete Manual of the 
Best Newspaper Methods 


Author of "Steps into Journalism." 

12mo. Cloth, $1.25 Ntt 



An agreeable and entertaining story 
of the stage. 

12mo. Cloth, $1.25 




With an introduction by JULIA 
WARD HOWE. To which are added 
the reminiscenses of Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, Horace Greeley, and Charles 
T. Congdon. 

12mo. Cloth, gilt top, 
uncut, $1.35 Net 

D. APPLE TON & COMPANY, Publishers, New York 

1903] THE DIAL 149 


A Novel, by Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler, author of " Concerning Isabel Carnaby," " The Farring- 
dons," etc. Illustrated, 12mo, Cloth, S1.50. 

The brilliant success of "Concerning Isabel Carnaby" is repeated in this novel by an author whose 
works have met with deserved popularity. It is the story of an excessively ambitious man whose most cher- 
ished aims are frustrated through retributive justice. The story is full of interest and attractive char- 
acterization developing with natural force. 


By Anna McClure Sholl. 12mo, Cloth, $1.50. 

"The writer unfolds an everyday tragedy with that touch of inevitableness that we usually associate 
with the work of the masters." — New York Evening Telegram. 


By Ferdinand Gregorovius. Translated by J. L. Garner. Illustrated, 8vo. {Ready in October.') 

This is the first translation from the German, and furnishes a vast amount of information regarding 
the most remarkable woman of her time. 


By James Russell Soley. A New Volume in the Great Commanders Series. Edited by General 
James Grant Wilson. Portrait. 12mo, Cloth, $1.50 net. 

Few men in our recent naval annals have stood in greater need than Admiral Porter of adequate treatment 
in a popular book. Mr. Soley's knowledge is ample ; much of it having been gained while he was Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy. This new volume is sure to reward the patience of those who have been waiting for it. 


By Prof. William P. Trent, of Columbia University. 12 mo, Cloth, 81.40 net. 


By Clement Huart. 12mo, Cloth, SI. 25 net. 
New Volumes in the Literatures of the World Series, edited by Edmund Gosse. 


With Chronologies of His Life and Writings, and a Bibliography of His Works, by Henry C. 
Sturges. And a Memoir of His Life by Richard Henry Stoddard. Roslyn Edition. Portrait 
and 19 full-page illustrations. Contains 50 Poems never before included in any one-volume 
edition. 8vo, Cloth, §2.00. 


From Colonial Times to the Present Day. By Harry W. Desmond and Herbert D. Croly. 
Profusely illustrated. Royal Octavo, S7.50 net. 

The names of Mr. Desmond, and his associate, Mr. Croly, as the writers of the descriptive and historical 
text accompanying the many illustrations in this book are a guarantee of the authoritative and interesting 
nature of the subject matter. Mr. Desmond has long been known as a writer on architectural topics, and as a 
student of American architecture in particular. 


By Thomas E. Watson, author of " The Story of France," " Napoleon," etc. Illustrated with 
Portraits and Views. 8vo, Cloth, $2.50 net. 

There was no question that a life of Jefferson from the hands of such a writer as Mr. Watson would 
command general attention. Its publication as a serial by two of the best known newspapers in the United 
States during the past summer has caused its appearance in book form to be awaited with interest. 

D. APPLE TON & COMPANY, Publishers, New York 



[Sept. 16, 




of " Outdoorland," etc. 

A BOOK for children, similar in scope to "Outdoorland." In 
**■ the orchard the children make the acquaintance of the birds, 
field-mice, squirrels, insects, etc. All is told in a delightful man- 
ner, which will appeal to children while teaching them much con- 
cerning natural history. 

Companion story to " Outdoorland,"'' illustrated with seven jull- 
page pictures in color and many marginal drawings ; richly orna- 
mented cloth cover. $1.50 net (postage extra). 

The Stories of Peter and 

By GERTRUDE SMITH, author of 
"The Roggie and Reggie Stories," etc. 

A COMPANION volume to "The Lovable Tales of Janey and 
** Josey and Joe." The storytells of where Peter and Ellen go 
on the fat, white pony, and of what they see, of the pet monkey, of 
the visits to " Wyville Pieville," and so on. Sixteen Jull-page 
pictures in color. Square Octavo. Ornamented Cloth. 
$1.30 net (postage extra). 

Two Prisoners 



of " Marse Chan," etc. (Imprint 

of R. H. Russell.) 

THOMAS NELSON PAGE has achieved an enviable rank in 
*■ American literature, and "Two Prisoners" is written in that 
early manner of simple and touching eloquence which made him 
famous. The story concerns a little girl imprisoned by lameness 
in her room, and a mocking-bird whom she longed to set free. 
Through the unconscious agency of this bird the little heroine came 
into a great happiness. Five pictures in color by Virginia Keep. 
Ornamented Cloth, $1.00. 

The Heart of Hyacinth 



Author of 

"A Japanese Nightingale," etc. 

AN exquisite love story of Japan, told with the delicacy of touch, 
•*^ the tender sentiment, and the dainty comedy that charmed so 
many in "A Japanese Nightingale." The story is the romance 
of an American girl born in Japan, reared by a Japanese woman, 
whose half-English son is her companion, and finally, her lover. 

Uniform with "A Japanese Nightingale," beautifully bound 
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every page by Japanese artists. Deckel Edges and Gilt Top. 
In a box, $2.00 net (postage extra.) 

Monna Vanna 

. By 

lated by A. I. Du Pont Coleman. 

A N exquisitely written play in three acts. This is one of the 
^* most beautiful dramas that has yet come from the pen of " the 
Belgian Shakespeare." The scenes are laid at Pisa, at the end of 
the fifteenth century, and centre around heroic Vanna, the beautiful 
wife of the city's ruler. Love, passion, heroism are sublimely de- 
picted in passages in which Maeterlinck's genius is at its height. 

Decorated Bevelled Boards, Untrimmed Edges, Gilt Top, 
Silk Headband, $1.20 net (postage extra). 

A History of the German 
Struggle for Liberty 

Vol. III. 


'THIS, the third volume of Mr. Bigelow's absorbing recital of the 
*■ German fight for nationality, brings the history to an accounting 
of the events that took place between 1815 and 1848. Prussia's 
condition after the battle of Waterloo, a sketch of the first German 
emperor, accounts of the Carlsbad Decrees, and of the difficulties 
in which the Holy Alliance found itself, these are a few of the 
many topics included. A spirited account, told with calm judg- 
ment, fervor, and enthusiasm. Illustrated. Uniform with Vols. 
I. and II. Ornamented Cloth, Uncut Edges, Gilt Top. 
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MR. CHAMBERS'S romances are probably the most satisfying 
*** of their kind now appearing in America. His adventure car- 
ries one along with a sweep and a whirl that are irresistible ; his 
love scenes have a charm, a tenderness, and convincing reality that 
raise them far above the meetings of lovers in contemporary fiction. 
Paradise is an idyllic French village, and the maids thereof live in 
the stirring days of the Franco-Prussian War. Fighting is rife 
through many of these pages, but the dominant note is love, and 
and the romance is the happiest that the author has done. 
Illustrated by Andre Castaigne and others. $1.50. 

The Maids of Paradise 



of " Cardigan," etc. 

A SPARKLING romance of old New York. Mr. Sudgeberry 
** tells the story, and unconsciously depicts himself a hopeless 
prig. He believes he is in love with Sylvia Gray — her beauty, 
her wit, her cherry ribbons dazzle his youthful but already ponder- 
ous and egotistical brain. Finally the pouting Sylvia decides to 
take a momentous step, and Mr. Sudgeberry intrudes at once, 
with officious attempts to save his Sylvia from a direful fate, but he 
learns that there is more than one string to the bow of a pretty 
girl. Sprightly, clever, and amusing comedy. 

Illustrated in Color by A. I. Keller. Title-page and End Papers 
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Author of 

"The Gentleman from Indiana," etc. 

'THESE are six captivating love stories by one of our best-known 
*■ short-story writers, whose cheerful optimism and genuine be- 
lief in the highest ideals make her romances at once inspiring and 
satisfying. The tales deal with gentlefolk, and in each some tangled 
love affair or similar situation is unfolded with delicate ingenuity. 
Ornamented Cloth, $1.25. 

The Change of Heart 



author of " The Sixth Sense," etc. 

A N exceedingly interesting story told in letters written to their 
**■ homes by various people in New York. They not only de- 
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but unfold to the reader a fascinating story of the American me- 
tropolis. Uniform *wit& Mr. Honvells's other ivorks. 

Letters Home 



Author of " Questionable Shapes," etc. 

A NEW romantic novel founded on the legend of King Robert 
'*■ of Sicily, an arrogant ruler, who defied the priest's warning 
that "the unrighteous shall be debased and the pure in heart shall 
be exalted." He fell into a deep sleep and lost his throne. Upon 
this foundation Mr. McCarthy has constructed a vivid romance, in 
which a beautiful woman is the means of King Robert's eventual 
change of heart and happy restoration to the throne. 
Ornamented Cloth. $1.50. 

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Author of 

"If I Were King," "Marjorie," etc. 

(Imprint of R. H. Russell.) 

■"THIS is the story of a wife, who by the unconscious influence of 
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stern conception of justice, and to see the true meaning of human 
charity. The crisis of their lives came through her heroic effort to 
save a young girl from the knowledge of certain behaviour in the 
past of her betrothed, of which he had long repented. The story 
tells how the wife nearly sacrificed her own life to achieve this pur- 
pose, and how, through many strange complications in the lives of 
these people, truth and love finally triumphed. 
Illustrated by W. T. Smedley. Ornamented Cloth. $1.25. 



Author of " The Mannerings," etc. 


152 THE DIAL, [Sept. 16 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co/s 


September 19. 

JEWEL. By Clara Louise Burnham. $ (An entertaining story.) 

MY OWN STORY. By J. T. Trowbridge. $2.50 net. (Delightful reminiscences.) 

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September 26. 


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* a *By the author of " A Romance of the Nursery." 


154 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 



Letters of Horace Walpole 

Edited by Mrs. PAGET TOYNBEE 

The Delegates of the Clarendon Press have arranged with Mrs. Paget Toynbee for the 
publication of The Letters of Horace Walpole, in as complete a form as possible. The work is now in the 
press, and will be issued in sixteen volumes. The first portion (vols, i-iv) will be published in November, 
1903; vols, v-x will be ready in November, 1904, and the remainder (vols, xi-xvi) in November, 1905. 

It is confidently expected that this new edition, the first for nearly fifty years, of the greatest English 
letter-writer of the eighteenth (or perhaps of any) century, will be practically final, no pains having been 
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and on the Continent. 

Mrs. Toynbee has been so fortunate as to obtain the use of over four hundred letters, not included 
in the latest edition of the Collected Letters ; more than a hundred of these have never before been printed. 

The work will be issued in three editions, as follows: 

I. 16 volumes, demy 8vo, on hand-made paper, the number of copies limited to 260, at the 

subscription price of $125.00 net in cloth boards; 

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II. 8 double volumes, crown 8vo, on Oxford India paper, at the subscription price of $35.00 net. 

III. 16 volumes, crown 8vo, on ordinary paper, at the subscription price of $27.00 net. 

Specimen pages and further particulars will be sent on request. 

Baptism and Christian Archaeology. By clement f. Rogers, m.a. 8vo,cioth,$i.75. 
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The Mediaeval Stage. By e. k. chambers. 8vo., 2 vols., buckram, $8.50. 

Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship — Germany. By Herbert a.l.fisher, 

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Mathematical Crystallography, and the Theory of Groups of Movements. By Harold 
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The Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland. By graham 

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Lippincott's Books for the Autumn of 1903 

The True History of the Civil War 

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By Guy Carleton Lee, Ph.D. Illustrated. Royal 8vo. Net $2.00. Half levant. Net $5.00. Postage extra. 

Through the Gates of Old Romance 

/Collected from many out-of-the-way sources, facts 

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Edited by W. Jay Mills 

Author of "Historic Houses of New Jersey." 

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American Myths and Legends 

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By Charles M. Skinner 

Author of "Myths and Legends of Our Own Land." 

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Memoirs of Count Grammont 
T I two volumes, printed on excel- 
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Introduction to History of 
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Now ready: David, the Sweet 
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A Sequence in Hearts 
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A love story of to-day, with the 
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Helen Adair 

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Author of "Yorke the Adventurer," 
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Pigs in Clover 

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Second Edition. 
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A Passage Perilous 

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At the Time Appointed 
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Fourth Edition. Frontispiece. 

By the author of " That Main- 
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Author of " Toby Tyler." A book 
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[Sept. 16, 

Recent and Forthcoming Publications 

By the author of "Lavender and Old Lace" 



A Romance of Fort Dearborn (Early Chicago) 

12mo. With Frontispiece. Net, $1.20 (postage 15 eta.) 

Miss Reed's new novel is preeminently a love story, portraying a true woman whose lot was cast, not in the drawing- 
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the true hearts that garrisoned it. Beatrice is fascinating, possessing all the sweet caprices of Woman, with Woman's strength 
in time of need, while the hero is a man whose character must appeal to every true woman. 

By Elbert Hubbard 


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By Katharine M. Abbott 


Saunterings over Historic Roads, with Glimpses of Pic- 
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By Elizabeth W. Champney 

By Elizabeth W. Champney, author of " Romance of 

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8vo. With colored frontispiece, 7 photogravures, and 

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6 volumes. 16mo. Cloth, each, $1.00. Limp leather, 
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By Julian Klaczko 



Translated by John Dennie, author of "Rome of To-day 
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By Prof. Heinrich Wolfflin 


A Handbook for the Use of Students, Travellers, and 


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Essays in the Philosophy of Religion and in Construct- 
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Its Landmarks and Associations. 
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Studies in Optimistic Philosophy. 

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The Story of a Woman's Love. 
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R O P F I C 


T I O N 

D A R R E L 


By Irving Bacheller, author of " Eben Holden," and "Dr'i and I." 


HON. B. B. ODELL, Governor of New York: "I enjoyed every pageof ' Darrel.' " 


" T HAVE read of late few more de- 
*■ lightful stories than ' Darrel of the 
Blessed Isles.' Entirelv fresh in con- 
ception and plot, it leads one with gentle 
but absorbing interest and with skilfully 
managed surprises and incidents. There 
is a sweetness and strength about the 
whole book rarelv found in the novels 
of the day, and in its own genre unsur- 


'"pvARREL of the Blessed Isles' 
•L^ is at once the latest and the 
best of Mr. Bacheller's stories. It is 
an idvl of love and the story of a great 
happiness that came through a great self- 
sacrifice and expiation. Mr. Bacheller 
has clothed life's simplicities with endur- 
ing charm and beauty, and made honor and 
self-sacrifice, truth and love, seem the 
onlv things that are reallv worth while." 

G O R G O 


By Charles K. Gaines, Ph.D., Professor 

of Greek in St. Lawrence University. 
r^ ORGO is the naive and captivating 
^^ heroine, naming the book, beloved by 
Theramenes, the Athenian, whose stormy 
career in politics, love, and war furnishes 
the motive of the tale. The story is laid in 
a period covering the time of the great 
Peloponnesian conflict, and abounds in strik- 
ing war pictures. Conspicuous historic fig- 
ures of the time, such as Socrates and Alci- 
biades, are delineated in a manner singularly 


"/^\NE of the most brilliant pieces of 
^-^ fiction of the year is 'A Parish of 
Two,' by Henry Goelet McVickar, a well- 
known society man, and Percy Collins, a 
pseudonym which is said to be that of the 
society leader, Price Collier, of New York. 
The book is far above the average in con- 
ception and execution, and will be widely 
read and discussed because of its strong and 
unique plot, its sparkling epigrams, and the 
boldness of its attack on the morality of 
the weaker sex." 


By George Cary Egglestok, author of " Dorothv South," "A Carolina Cavalier." 
BROOKLYN TIMES: "The atmosphere is clean and wholesome, the sentiment pure." 



By Harry Leon Wilson, author of " The Spenders." 
BOSTON HERALD: " The c Lions of the Lord' is one of the most powerful, pur- 
poseful, and instructive novels of the season, and is a credit to American literature." 


158 THE DIAL. [Sept. 16, 1903. 

Important September Publications 


Robert Morris, Patriot and Financier. By MR. ELLIS P. OBERHOLTZER 

An important and attractive biography, which throws a flood of new light on the inner history of the 
Revolution. Illustrated, cloth, large 12mo, $3.00 net. 

The Contest for Sound Money By mr. a. b. hepburn 

An exhaustive history by the Vice-President of the Chase National Bank, New York City, of the 
perennial strife for a sound currency. 8vo, $2.50 net. 

South Carolina as a Royal Province By mr. w. roy smith 

In addition to the ordinarily accessible material, the author has made use of the six volumes of records 
copied from the British Public Record Office. $ 1 .50 net. 

ART, Etc. 

Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers 

A new edition of a work which has no rival for completeness and trustworthiness, thoroughly revised, 
with over 1500 alterations made necessary by modern research. 

Five volumes, fully illustrated. Vol. I. now ready. $6.00 net. 

The Land of Heather By mr. clifton johnson 

An attractively illustrated volume on Scotland, uniform with " Among English Hedgerows," etc. 

Cloth, crown Svo, $2.00 net. 

A Pleasure Book of Grindelwald By daniel p. Rhodes 

A charming volume on the delights of one of the most popular resorts in Switzerland. 

Fully illustrated. Cloth, 12mo, $ 1 .50 net. 

The Care Of a HoUSe By T. M. CLARK, Author of "Building Superintendence," etc. 

The book is of the greatest value to every owner or prospective builder, as preventing the waste of a 
hundred times its cost many times over. Cloth, 12mo, $ 1 .50 net. Just ready. 


McTodd By MR. CUTCLIFFE HYNE, Author of " Thompson's Progress," etc. 

The hero is the Scotch engineer, who is nearly as popular with Mr. Hyne's readers as his peppery chief, 
" Captain Kettle." Cloth, $1.50. 

The Literary Sense By E. NESBIT, Author of u The Red House," etc. 

A collection of such clever and original short stories as might be expected of the author of "The 
Would-be-Goods." Cloth, $1.50. 

On the We-a Trail By miss Caroline brown 

A novel of the love, war and adventure which passed along that famous Indian trail during the early 
struggles for possession of the forts on the Wabash. Cloth, $1.50. 

The Beaten Path By richard l. makin 

Human work-a-day life and the way its burning industrial problem touches the average man and woman 
is dramatically displayed. Cloth, $1.50. 

Blount of Breckenhow By miss beulah marie dix 

Tells of the love of a brave man for a noble woman in the face of a family tragedy as common now as 
in the days of 1642. By the author of " The Making of Christopher Ferringham." Cloth, $1 .50. 

Trapper " Jim " By mr. edwyn sandys 

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31 Snm«fHjjnt!)Ig Jtournal of Eitcrarg Criticism, Discussion, ano Enformatum. 

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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 4U. SEPT. 16, 1903. Vol. XXXV. 





ARY HISTORY. Shencin Cody 161 

NAPOLEON AT ST. HELENA. Percy F. BickneU 163 


Albert H. Tolman 165 

Liddell's The Elizabethan Shakspere. — Schmidt's 
Shakespeare-Lexicon, revised by Gregor Sarrazin. 
— Lanier's Shakspere and his Forernnners. — Haz- 
litt's Shakespear. 


OF POLAND. William Morton 


LIAMENT. Charles H. Cooper 172 

FOUR BOOKS ON ART. Alice Brown .... 173 
Noyes's The Enjoyment of Art. — Waldstein's Art 
in the Nineteenth Century. — Cook's Spirals in Na- 
ture and Art. — Poore's Pictorial Composition and 
the Critical Judgment of Pictures. 


The latest history of American literature. — Two 
ancient Religions. — Introductory study of Ethics. 
— A study of the French Impressionists. — The 
Poets of Transcendentalism. — International prob- 
lems of disease. — Two treatises on Versification. — 
An Indian agent of colonial times. — Arnold's 
march from Cambridge to Quebec. 

NOTES 178 

(A classified list of books announced for publication 
during the coming Fall and Winter season.) 


Once more the publishers have sent oat 
their announcements for the Fall season, and 
once more we attempt to select from the enor- 
mous mass of material thus presented a few 
titles here and there that sharpen anticipation. 
In order to make it possible to choose at all 
from so bewildering an array of forthcoming 
books, we shall set entirely aside the majority 
of the categories represented — science, educa- 
tion, religion, travel, holiday and juvenile pub- 
lications, — and make a scanty selection from 
the groups belonging to biography, history, and 
literature in the narrower sense. 

We presume it will be admitted without 
much question that the book of the year, as 
far as one can determine such a matter in ad- 
vance, will be Mr. Morley's life of Gladstone. 
No man living is better fitted by both knowl- 
edge and sympathy to set forth the life of the 
famous statesman, and Mr. Morley has given 
the greater part of his time ever since Glad- 
stone's death to this pious task. It certainly 
must have been an exacting labor, and we trust 
that it has proved inspiring as well. We may 
certainly depend upon a biography that will do 
justice to Gladstone's great moral and intel- 
lectual force, and to his impressive personal 
qualities, while avoiding the undiscriminating 
eulogy that is not content with the real great- 
ness of the man, but seeks also to claim for 
him a scholarly eminence which cannot pos- 
sibly be allowed by " them that know." The 
figure of Gladstone was so imposing that one 
may dismiss with a smile his ingenious specu- 
lations in theology and archaeology, as well as 
his mistakes in statesmanship, without sensibly 
impairing his significance. 

The great American statesman whose posi- 
tion in public life and whose intellectual bent 
offer many points of comparison with Glad- 
stone may properly be named in the present 
connection, since for American readers the 
autobiography of Senator Hoar cannot fail to 
prove a work of the deepest interest. The 
American Senator, like the English Minister, 
has his marked vagaries, intellectual and po- 
litical, but his earnest stand for righteousness 
in the conduct of the nation's affairs has ex- 



[Sept. 16, 

alted him above the ordinary rules of criticism, 
and made of him a figure almost as command- 
ing as that of his English contemporary. The 
story of his life, as told by himself, must make 
the strongest kind of an appeal to all serious 
Americans. In literary biography, the forth- 
coming volume of Richard Henry Stoddard's 
memoirs, edited by his lifelong friend Mr. 
Stedman, offers a certain store of entertain- 
ment, as does also the autobiography of Mr. 
John T. Trowbridge, which some of us have 
already seen in the pages of " The Atlantic 
Monthly." The authorized life of John Fiske 
cannot fail to be a work of fascinating inter- 
est, for it is to be told largely from Fiske's own 
letters and private papers. The author of this 
biography is not even named in the announce- 
ment, so completely has he sought to merge his 
own identity in that of his subject. Two other 
biographical works that deserve mention are 
the " Reminiscences of an Astronomer," by 
Professor Simon Newcomb, and Mr. Vizetelly's 
account of the life, work, and influence of Zola. 

Turning from biography to history, we may 
mention first of all the publication of Lord Ac- 
ton's lectures on the French Revolution and on 
modern history in general, delivered during the 
author's incumbency of the Regius professor- 
ship at Cambridge. The Reformation volume 
in the " Cambridge Modern History " will also 
appear in a few weeks. Mr. Herbert Paul is 
writing a five- volume history of modern Eng- 
land — "from the point of view of a young 
man " — and two of the volumes are now ready. 
A similar service is being done for the recent 
history of our own country by Mr. William Gar- 
rott Brown, and the first of the two volumes is 
about to be published. M. Hanotaux's work, 
doing much the same thing for the history of 
contemporary France, will soon be complete in 
four volumes. A few other historical works 
announced are Dr. A. H. Noll's account of the 
struggle for constitutional government in Mex- 
ico, editions of Hennepin's " New Discovery " 
and of the journals of Lewis and Clark, and 
several further volumes in the " Expansion 
of the Republic" and "American Common- 
wealths" series. 

Among works of literary history and criticism 
we shall soon have completed the new edition 
of Chambers's " Cyclopaedia of English Litera- 
ture," the illustrated " English Literature " of 
Messrs. Garnett and Gosse, and Mr. W. J. 
Courthope's " History of English Poetry." No 
less than fifteen new volumes of " English Men 
of Letters "are announced, three of the number 

by American writers upon American subjects. 
Two volumes of " New Letters of Thomas Car- 
lyle " will keep alive for another season the 
unfortunate controversy between his partisans 
and those of his biographer. "America in 
Literature," by Professor Woodberry, is a title 
that attracts us, as do such others as " Studies 
in German Literature in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury," by Professor John F. Coar ; " Dante's 
Influence on English Poetry" and " The Great 
Poets of Italy," both by Professor Oscar Kuhns; 
" A Literary History of Scotland," by Mr. J. H. 
Millar; " The Development of the Drama," by 
Professor Brander Matthews ; and the titles of 
the five forthcoming volumes in the "Colum- 
bia University Studies in Romance Literature 
and Philology." 

The two volumes of poetry that will attract 
most attention are Mr. Kipling's collection, 
"The Five Nations," and the "David and 
Bathsheba " drama by Mr. Phillips. Among 
other announcements, the women seem to make 
the best showing, in witness whereof we mention 
"After Sunset," by Mrs. Rosamund Marriott 
Watson ; " The Siuging Leaves," by Miss Jo- 
sephine Preston Peabody, "The Passing Show," 
by Miss Harriet Monroe ; "Songs of Dreams," 
by Miss Ethel Clifford ; and " Poems," by Miss 
Josephine Daskam. We shall probably have 
some poetical surprises besides, for it has been 
our experience that the most interesting work 
in this kind is apt to come without observation, 
and unheralded by its sponsors. 

Novels, like the poor, we have always with 
us, and the comparison is far-reaching. Of 
the hundreds of titles already announced, we 
select a few for the closing paragraph of the 
present forecast, a task not without its diffi- 
culties. Among those that seem the most prom- 
ising the following may be named : " The 
Crossing," by Mr. Winston Churchill ; " The 
Heart of Rome," by Mr. F. Marion Crawford ; 
" Helianthus," by "Ouida"; "Sanctuary," by 
Mrs. Edith Wharton ; " Cherry," by Mr. Booth 
Tarkington ; " The Ambassadors," by Mr. 
Henry James ; " The Maids of Paradise," by 
Mr. Robert W. Chambers ; " Letters Home," 
by Mr. William Dean Howells ; " The Relent- 
less City," by Mr. E. F. Benson ; " The Long 
Night," by Mr. Stanley Weyman ; " Barlasch 
of the Guard," by Mr. Henry Seton Merriman ; 
" My Friend Prospero," by Mr. Henry Har- 
land; "The Napoleon of Notting Hill," by 
Mr. G. K. Chesterton ; "Where Love Is," by 
Mr. William J. Locke; "The House on the 
Sands," by Mr. Charles Marriott ; " The De 




liverance,"' by Miss Ellen Glasgow ; " The 
Castle of Twilight," by Miss Margaret Horton 
Potter ; " Doctor Xavier," by Mr. Max Pem- 
berton ; " The Vineyard," by " John Oliver 
Hobbes "; and " The Little Shepherd of King- 
dom Come," by Mr. John Fox. Here are an 
even score of which we may be reasonably sure 
that they will not disappoint us, since each is 
the work of a practiced hand, skilled in its 
own peculiar craftsmanship. It is a far cry, 
no doubt, from a novel by Mr. Henry James 
to a novel by " Ouida," but whoever takes up 
either to read will do it with his eyes open, 
knowing about what to expect. 


If we may judge from the new editions of Poe 
that have recently been or are about to be put upon 
the market, we may reasonably conclude that Poe's 
day has at last arrived, or at least is within sight. 
Let us, therefore, once more examine his literary 
history and see what ideas he has really contributed 
to the world's stock. 

To the casual reader, Poe is a sort of Mephis- 
topheles. with human weaknesses, who created that 
weird poem "The Raven" and wrote the popular 
detective story "The Gold-Bug." One is pure 
genius, unexplained and unexplainable ; the other, 
clever but somewhat cheap legerdemain. 

To the more careful and thoughtful student, Poe 
offers a bundle of fragments, which afford abundant 
evidence of genius, but are so slight and scattered, 
so imperfect (except in a few instances), that it is 
impossible to accord their author a very high place 
or a very lasting reputation. Not only is his work 
fragmentary, but it is disfigured by extravagance 
and folly of the more pitiable kind. 

But now, more than fifty years after Poe's death 
and nearly a hundred after his birth, we are called 
upon by the Poe enthusiast to reexamine the rec- 
ords, and see if we have not been misled by a series 
of conditions, natural but hostile to appreciation of 
his true worth. 

None can deny that there is some truth in the 
statement that the Literary Powers have been hos- 
tile to Poe. Poe attacked Longfellow violently, 
denied Hawthorne's " originality," finally turned 
against Lowell, and included all the New England 
writers in his sneers at " Frogpondium." Irving 
and Bryant, moreover, according to Poe, were not 
as great as they ought to have been. In a word, 
he set himself against all that we have learned to 
value and consider great in American literature. 
It was hard for any friend of Longfellow to be 
an enthusiastic admirer of Poe. Poe seems to 
force everyone to take sides, — and when sides 
have been taken, we have Poe on one side and 

every other literary man of eminence on the other. 
Professor Woodberry, whose biography of Poe has 
contributed more to our knowledge of the man than 
anything else that has been written, manifestly dis- 
likes Poe. And what critic but has accepted with 
a smile Lowell's epigrammatic characterization, 
Three-fifths of him genius and two-fifths sheer fudge " ? 

All this has been like a wall of ice about any 
attempt to examine Poe in the only way in which 
any great author can be fairly examined, namely, 
with the enthusiasm of a lover who is likewise a 
thoroughly intelligent and just critic. Poe has had 
his devoted friends, it is true ; but for the most part 
they have not been endowed with the highest crit- 
ical ability. 

But we have now a younger generation, owning no 
thralldom to the New England writers, and among 
them a number of keen critical minds. Here, then, 
is work for them. Let us outline, briefly, three lead- 
ing points of the inquiry upon which they must enter. 

1. Poe was a most accomplished literary artist. 
He bad a skill that he had learned by patient study 
and practice. This is clearly shown by the improve- 
ment he made in revising his poems and tales. What 
a world of difference, for instance, do we find be- 
tween " A Pean" of 1831 and "Lenore" of 1843, 
though one is but the developed form of the other ! 
Poe never revised but to improve, and he was an 
habitual reviser of all his work. Have we not here, 
then, a conscious literary artist (whose genius none 
can deny), with methods we might study, with the 
closest attention, for the critical principles they 
would reveal ? 

Poe's literary history in this respect is interesting. 
He published his first volume of poems in 1827, the 
same year and at the same age when Tennyson pub- 
lished his contributions to "Poems by Two Broth- 
ers"; and his volumes of 1829 and 1831 correspond 
closely with Tennyson's early volumes of about the 
same dates. Clearly the first two volumes are alto- 
gether experimental; but in the third (1831) we 
find such gems as " To Helen." From this time on, 
Poe never attempted a serious poem without making 
a pronounced artistic success, with the single excep- 
tion of the dramatic poem " Politian," which was a 
further experiment such as "Tamerlane" and "Al 
Aaraaf " had been. What other great poet, after 
he had once learned his art, practised it so rigor- 
ously? Tennyson may be regarded as almost the 
only other one. 

After the volume of poems of 1831, which con- 
tains proof that Poe had really mastered the poetic 
art, he turned his attention to short story writing. 
We hear nothing of him for two years. Then, in 
1833, he appears as the prize winner in the " Balti- 
more Visiter " contest, and he has on hand at least 
half a dozen stories of the first order. 

The French would doubtless accept Poe as the 
father of the art of short story writing in its modern 
development. In his work we find a genus quite 
different from the narrative tales that had prevailed 
until his day. He begins a story with an essay on 



[Sept. 16, 

some peculiarity of the human mind, and then he 
uses his dramatic plot to illustrate it. In his review 
of Hawthorne, he explains the principle analytically : 

"A skilful artist, has constructed a tale. He has not 
fashioned his thoughts to accommodate his incidents, but 
having deliberately conceived a certain single tfftct to be 
wrought, he then invents such incidents, he then combines 
such events, and discusses them in such tone, as may best 
serve him in establishing this preconceived effect. If his very 
first sentence tend not to the out-bringing of this effect, then 
in his very first step he has committed a blunder. In the 
whole composition there should be no word written of which 
the tendency, direct or indirect, is not to the one pre- 
established design. And by such means, with such care and 
skill, a picture is at length painted which leaves in the mind 
of him who contemplates it with a kindred art, a sense of the 
fullest satisfaction. The idea of the tale, its thesis, has been 
presented unblemished, because undisturbed — an end abso- 
lutely demanded, yet, in the novel, altogether unattainable." 

Of course Poe means " in the novel " of the great 
English writers, such as those of Scott, Dickens, 
and Thackeray, each with its two or three hundred 
thousand words, rambling along a path the end of 
which not even the author himself could see. 

2. A phrase in the paragraph quoted above sug- 
gests another point for our study of Poe. He speaks 
of " him who contemplates it with a kindred art." 
If this means anything, it means that the reading 
public must be educated in the principles of literary 
art if artistic creations are to have any value. 

There have been few hitherto to point out Poe's 
devotion to and permanent interest in the American 
reading public. While English and French writers 
have lamented bitterly that Poe was not born some- 
where, anywhere, not in America, we find in Poe's 
own writing not one word of complaint, not one 
expression of a wish that he had been, or might be, 
anything but an American. 

His magazine project, to which he devoted him- 
self so strenuously throughout his life, — was not that 
much more than an ambitious desire to make money ? 
Poe's real passion was to establish a periodical that 
would educate the American reading public criti- 
cally to appreciate the best in literature, since he 
believed that only with such an educated audience 
could the best works of literary art be produced. 
No other American writer ever devoted himself so 
unselfishly and passionately and persistently to so 
noble an artistic cause. Poe justly accuses Long- 
fellow of literary indolence in " Hyperion," a novel 
totally at variance with the literary principle of 
unity enunciated by Poe in the paragraph previously 
quoted. He says : 

" Works like this . . . are potent in unsettling the popular 
faith in Art — a faith which, at no day more than the present, 
needed the support of men of letters. ... A man of trne 
talent who would demur at the great labour requisite for the 
stern demands of high art — at the unremitting toil and 
patient elaboration which, when soul-guided, result in the 
beauty of Unity, Totality, Truth, — men, we say, who would 
demur at such labour, make no scruple of scattering at ran- 
dom a profusion of rich thought in the pages of such farragos 
as ' Hyperion.' " 

And he ends his review sadly, — "We are indig- 
nant that he [Li ngfellow] too has been recreant to 
the good cause." Poe was faithful unto death. 

3. Poe was first poet, then story-writer and edu- 
cator of the reading public ; finally, toward the close 
of his life, he turned his attention toward a great 
scientific subject, — rather, toward the substance 
of all science, — a conception of the totality of the 
universe. Such scientific stories as " Hans Pfaal " 
and " The Conversation of Charmion and Eiros " 
are light ; and while they serve their purpose, they 
are somewhat fanciful. In " Eureka " Poe made 
a profoundly serious effort, which has never been 
properly studied, and indeed has usually been 
looked on as a curiosity in the literary garret, not 
unlike the flying machine of Darius Green. 

In studying this side of Poe's literary history, 
we must bear in mind, first, that Poe was not a 
scientist, but a literary man, and " Eureka " he 
specifically calls a " prose poem." When he says 
it is "Truth," he does not mean, as Professor 
Woodberry supposes he does, that he believes him- 
self a great scientist and metaphysical thinker, but 
rather that he feels the sublimity of his subject and 
has studied it with the serious reverence which 
Truth requires. There are various kinds of truth, 
and the truth Poe aims at is of a literary, not a 
scientific, character, — that is, it is touched with 
imagination and sentiment. Whether Poe was suc- 
cessful or not in "Eureka," he at any rate gives 
us an ideal of loftiness and immensity as the proper 
subject-matter of literature, and a hint as to how the 
plodding investigations of science may be utilized 
for the most ideal purposes. 

Science has made such immense strides since 
Poe's day that we cannot hold him responsible for 
any inaccuracies or shortcomings in statements of 
scientific truths; but the present writer believes 
that the thoughtful student will find in " Eureka " 
the germs of that modern philosophy which has 
fully reconciled the material and the spiritual, dis- 
covering in mind, matter, God, and man, an unas- 
sailable Unity. In any case, the method of thought, 
the poetic conception, can never be affected by our 
changing knowledge, for they belong to the perma- 
nence, the immortality, of genius. 

We have not yet exhausted Poe. There has 
been but little really sympathetic study of him as 
yet, and therefore no real or permanently valuable 
comprehension of him. Curious circumstances have 
retarded his vogue. Now that those circumstances 
have passed away, we may look forward with re- 
newed hope of his finding his true place in our lit- 
erary history. Sherwin Cody. 

The American Library Association Publishing Board 
has nearly ready for the press and expects to put into 
the printer's hands early in 1904, an " Index of Por- 
traits," edited under the direction of William Coolidge 
Lane, Librarian of Harvard University, by Nina E. 
Browne, Secretary of the Board. For several years the 
Board has been gathering material for this work, with 
the assistance of many collaborators in all parts of the 
country. Over 100,000 references to portraits in pe- 
riodicals, published collections, and illustrated works 
have been brought together. 




Cfe* 3M» goohs. 

Napoleon at St. Helena.* 

When Napoleon was a student at the Acad- 
emy of Lyons he gained a prize for the best 
essay on " The Truths and Principles that 
ought to be Inculcated on Men that they may 
Enjoy Happiness." The prize was a gold 
medal, which he afterward sold for fifty louis. 
Years later, Talleyrand obtained this youthful 
composition from the Lyons Academy and laid 
it before the Emperor. "Have you read it?" 
asked the latter. " No, Sire, I have just re- 
ceived it." Thereupon Napoleon took the pa- 
per and threw it into the fire, pushing it down 
with the tongs. Talleyrand betrayed some sur- 
prise, but the other was determined that what 
he had written in the generous enthusiasm of 
youth should not be allowed to put him to 
shame as Emperor. 

This anecdote, recorded by General Gour- 
gaud, in his volume of " Talks of Napoleon at 
St. Helena," furnishes food for reflection, as do 
many other of the reminiscences contained in 
his journal. The gleams of light thrown on 
the great man's character, the fresh revelations 
of his moral and intellectual peculiarities, are 
what most engages the interest in these new 
conversations at St. Helena. Of secondary 
importance are those purely historical recollec- 
tions of the illustrious captive, confirming or 
contradicting what has already been chronicled 
concerning his career. To the book as a pic- 
ture, however imperfect, of Napoleon's most 
intimate personality, the present reviewer ac- 
cordingly wishes to call attention in the brief 
space at his disposal. But first as to Gourgaud 
himself and his claims upon our confidence. 

Gaspard Gourgaud was born of humble par- 
entage in 1783. At nineteen he entered upon 
a military career, in which he distinguished 
himself for bravery, having the good fortune 
to save Napoleon's life at Brienne in 1814. 
He had already advanced rapidly in the favor 
of the Emperor, who said of him in later life: 
" He was my First Orderly Officer. He is my 
work. He is my son." And there was a sin- 
cere attachment between the two. Hence it 
was natural that Gourgaud, at his own earnest 
request, should be chosen by Napoleon as 

•Talks of Napeolon at St. Helena with General 
Baron Gourgaud. Together with the Journal kept hy 
Gourgaud on their Journey from Waterloo to St. Helena. 
Translated, and with Notes, by Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer. 
With eight portraits. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 

one of the companions of his exile. But the 
irksomeness of inactivity told severely on the 
young soldier's temper, and his own record 
shows him to have been of a petulant, moody, 
uneven disposition, which may perhaps some- 
what impair his authority as a chronicler of 
passing events. Yet the artless candor of his 
style insures us against wilful deception. Lord 
Rosebery calls his journal, which appears not 
to have been written for publication, " the one 
capital and superior record of life at St. Hel- 
ena," and, again, speaks of it as " sometimes 
almost brutal in its realism." It was not until 
1898 that the journal was published, by per- 
mission of Gourgaud's son. Forming as it does, 
in the French, a work of twelve hundred pages, 
it is too prolix for unabridged reproduction in 
English. By judicious excision a book of one- 
quarter that bulk has now been produced. 
It is worth noting that the publication of 
these memoirs clears up some hitherto misun- 
derstood points relating to Gourgaud and his 
conduct toward Napoleon at St. Helena. A 
pretended quarrel with his imperial master was 
meant to throw dust in the eyes of the English 
and lead the way to the prisoner's escape from 
the island. 

Let us now follow the fallen conqueror as 
he proceeds, on board the " Northumberland," 
and in charge of Admiral Cockburn, to his 
insular domain. " Ah, if it were only to be 
done over again!" is his pathetic exclamation, 
referring to Waterloo. Choosing somewhat at 
random from his talks with Gourgaud, we find 
him looking back upon his First Consulship as 
a happy period in his life. He was also happy 
upon the birth of the King of Rome, though 
he did not then feel perfectly secure in his 
position. But he thinks perhaps he was hap- 
piest at Tilsit, when, after surmounting many 
difficulties, he found himself dictating laws and 
receiving the homage of emperors and kings. 
The remembrance of his Italian victories, too, 
gives him satisfaction. What cries of " Long 
live the Liberator of Italy ! " and all that, when 
he was only twenty-five ! Then first did he 
perceive what he might some day become, and 
he seemed to see the whole world passing be- 
neath him as if he had been borne aloft in the 
air. Looking into the future, he speaks of 
Russia as the power most to be dreaded by 
England, and even likely to march, safely and 
swiftly, to universal dominion, first making 
herself mistress of the Orient. This opinion 
he repeats again and again. He regards the 
part he played in history as one that would 



[Sept. 16, 

have been played by someone else if he had 
not come. Europe was weary of anarchy, and 
an end of it was desired. " A man is only a 
man," he says. " His power is nothing if cir- 
cumstances and public sentiment do not favor 
him." And so he regards Luther and the 
Reformation merely as products of the times. 
Less sage are his reflections on the origin of 
man. In fact, they are so incredibly absurd 
that one is tempted to believe him falsely re- 
ported. After referring to the beginnings of 
civilization in Egypt and India and China, he 
continues : 

" All this leads me to think that the world is not so 
very old, at least as inhabited by man, and within one 
or two thousand years I am disposed to accept the 
chronology appended to the sacred writings. I think 
that man was formed by the heat of the sun acting 
upon mud. Herodotus tells us that in his time the 
slime of the Nile changed into rats, and that they could 
be seen in process of formation." 

Again and again Napoleon refers to Jose- 
phine, betraying considerable feeling for her 
and much regret that she could not have borne 
him a son. 

" She was full of grace — a woman in every sense of 
the word. She always began by saying ' no ' to every- 
thing, merely that she might gain time to consider her 
final answer; then she would say, 'ah! yes, Monsieur.' 
She- seldom told the truth, but there was something 
charming about her equivocations. I may say that she 
was the woman I have the most really loved. She knew 
me thoroughly. She never asked me to do anything 
for her children. She never begged me for money, but 
she made debts by the million. She had bad teeth, but 
was so careful of showing them that few people per- 
ceived them. She was the wife who would have gone 
with me to Elba." 

Amid much gossip and tittle-tattle, indica- 
tive of anything but a noble mind, there are 
some interesting references to persons about 
whom one always likes to read. Of Queen 
Louisa of Prussia, whom he calls " a cultivated 
and superior woman," and of her husband, 
Frederick William III., whom he styles a 
booby, Napoleon says : 

" The Queen of Prussia was a much superior woman 
to the Queen of Bavaria; but she came to Tilsit too 
late. The king would not summon her until he saw he 
could get nothing from me; but everything by the time 
she came had been settled. I went to call on her, but 
she received me in the tragic style, like Chimene in 
The Cid: <Sire! Justice! Justice! Magdeburg!' She 
went on in this way, and greatly embarrassed me. At 
last to make her stop I begged her to sit down, know- 
ing that nothing is so likely to cut short a tragic scene, 
for when one is seated its continuance turns it into a 
comedy. . . . 

" The King of Prussia was a real booby. Every time 
he came to see me to talk over important affairs, he 
never managed to say anything on the subject. He 
went off about shakos, buttons, skin haversacks, and a 

lot of other nonsense, while I did not know a word 
about such trifling military details." 

Here the translator appends a footnote saying 
that " it is a little remarkable that not one of 
the sovereigns who met to confer on the affairs 
of Europe at Tilsit had a son and heir. Na- 
poleon and Alexander had no legitimate chil- 
dren ; the Emperor of Austria and the King 
of Prussia had no sons." Where, pray, at this 
time (1807) was the boy afterward known to 
history as Frederick William IV.? October 
15, 1795, is the commonly accepted date of 
his birth, and no breath of scandal has yet 
tarnished the fair name of his mother, Queen 

Amusingly frank are Napoleon's character- 
izations of some of his contemporaries. He 
does not spare even his own kith and kin. "I 
made a great mistake," he says, " in putting that 
fool of a Joseph on the Spanish throne." "He 
knows nothing. He likes to enjoy himself." 
His brother Louis he calls a booby, and says 
that in his essays in authorship he was inspired 
by the devil. Comparing his two empresses, 
he calls Marie- Louise as sincere as Josephine 
was diplomatic. The latter would never ac- 
knowledge her age. According to her chro- 
nology, her son Eugene must have been twelve 
years old at birth! Marie-Louise was afraid 
of ghosts and insisted on having five or six 
lighted candles all night in her room. She was 
regarded by Napoleon as having much more 
ability than the Emperor of Austria, her father. 
Still alluding to her, Napoleon declares, " It 
was my having wedded a princess of Austria 
that ruined me. How could I have supposed 
that Austria would act as she has done? " It 
will be noticed that Napoleon found a new rea- 
son every day to account for his downfall. 

Coming down to the last act in his military 
career, he says : 

" I made a great mistake in employing Ney. He 
lost his head. A sense of his past conduct impaired his 
energy. Carnot did not wish me even to make him a 
peer. Had I acted wisely I should have placed Soult 
on the left, but who would have thought that Ney, who 
had spoken to me (you heard him, Gourgaud) of the 
importance of Quatre Bras, would have omitted to oc- 
cupy that position ? . . . I ought to have given Suchet 
the command I gave to Grouchy. More vigor and 
promptness were needed than Grouchy had as a gen- 
eral; he was good only at a splendid charge of cavalry, 
while Suchet had more fire and knew better my way of 
making war. . . . With twenty thousand men less than 
I had we ought to have won the battle of Waterloo. 
But it was Fate that made me lose it. . . . It was the 
good discipline of the English that gained the day." 

Several chapters are devoted to purely mil- 
itary matters, one chapter to anecdotes and 




miscellaneous sayings, and another, the last, 
to religion. Of the miscellaneous observa- 
tions, one at least we may be sure came from 
the heart, — " Deliberative bodies are terrible 
things for a sovereign." Regarding man merely 
as " slime warmed by the sun and vivified by 
electric currents," Napoleon cannot be ex- 
pected to edify us by his remarks on religion. 
" If I had to choose a religion," he declares, 
" I think I should become a worshipper of the 
sun. The* sun gives to all things life and fer- 
tility. It is the true God of the earth." 

Gourgaud's journal forms a noteworthy ad- 
dition to Napoleonic literature of the personal 
and gossippy sort, and the translator has done 
her part well. But in abridging and re- 
arranging she has inadvertently repeated a 
passage (on the origin of man) which appears 
on both page 69 and page 277. Her foot- 
notes and explanatory additions to the text 
are excellent, as a rule, and show her to be 
fully at home in her subject — as, indeed, was 
to be expected from her previous studies and 
training. She was herself, as she records, an 
eye-witness of the second funeral of Napoleon 
in 1840. Percy F. Bicksell. 

Shakespeare Criticism and Discussiox.* 

The publication of the great " Elizabethan 
Shakspere," to comprise about forty volumes, 
edited by Mr. Mark Harvey Liddell, is begun 
with a volume on " The Tragedie of Macbeth." 
Two hundred and fifty copies, at $12.50, are 
to be sold only to those who subscribe for the 
entire set. The first volume is a very attract- 
ive piece of book-making. The size is quarto. 
The typical page shows a portion of the text 
of the play printed in the beautiful " Renner " 
type designed by Mr. De Vinne. The editor's 
comments are set in smaller type as a frame to 
the text, above, at one side, and below. It has 
not been possible, however, to carry out com- 
pletely the plan of having the notes to each 
passage printed on the same page as the pas- 

*The Elizabethan Shakspere. Edited by Mark 
Harvey Liddell. Volume I., The Tbagbdie of Mac- 
beth. New York : Doubleday, Page <fe Co. 

Shakespeabe-Lexicox. By Alexander Schmidt, LL.D. 
Third edition, revised and enlarged by Gregor Sarrazin. In 
two volumes. Berlin : Georg Reimer. New York : G. E. 

Shakspebe and his FoBBBtTNNEBS. By Sidney Lanier. 
In two volumes, illustrated. New York: Doubleday, Pace 

Shakespeab. By W. Carew Hazlitt. London : Bernard 
Quaritch. ( Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons.) 

sage itself, and sometimes the leaf must be 
turned to find the desired comment. The large 
italic letter used in the general introduction is 
an exceptional combination of grace and legi- 
bility. The claim of the publishers that the 
book is "perhaps the most beautiful volume 
ever made in the United States " may well be 
justified if typographical charm be made the 
standard of beauty. 

Perhaps no other feature of this sumptuously 
printed book is so attractive to the special 
student as the attempt "to give as accurately 
as possible the exact shade of meaning which 
Shakspere's words had at the time they were 
written." Mr. Liddell especially delights to 
point out that passages have often been treated 
as " corrupt " solely because of the ignorance 
of editors and commentators. 

Mr. Liddell has made careful use of the 
earlv dictionaries of modern English, and es- 
pecially of the "New English Dictionary," 
more than half of which has now appeared. 

It does not fall within the plan of the work 
to give much direct attention to aesthetic criti- 
cism ; but in the introductory notes to the sep- 
arate scenes, and in many brief comments, the 
editor shows admirable penetration, sugges- 
tiveness, and good taste. He thoroughly ap- 
preciates this tragedy, " which in respect to 
unity and tenseness of interest is unequalled in 
the history of literature " (p. xx). A single 
sentence is here quoted from an admirable 
comment on Macbeth's speech to Lady Mac- 
beth at the close of III. ii. : 

"With a few touches of association, — and it is mar- 
vellous how few they are : the deepening light, the 
cawing rooks, plants and animals drooping and drow- 
sing to healthy rest while the mysterious forces of 
darkness stir themselves to their nightly activity, — 
Shakspere tunes Macbeth's soul into unison with the 
mysterious powers of evil that fly by night." 

Mr. Liddell finds the scene between the wife 
and son of Macduff (in IV. ii.) so unsatisfac- 
tory that some parts of it " could hardly have 
been written by one who imagined the scene 
between Arthur and Herbert" [Hubert, " King 
John," IV. i.]. But Shakespeare could make 
artistic mistakes of this kind. Little Mamillius 
of " The Winter's Tale " in part fails to charm 
us just where charm is imperatively demanded 
(II. i. 1-32). 

At some points objections and criticisms 
must be made. The price put upon the vol- 
ume is staggering. Such a method of publica- 
tion seems almost the ideal way to get the work 
into the wrong hands. The valuable matter 
here presented will be almost equally inacces- 



[Sept. 16, 

sible to the scholars of moderate means who 
do not own the book and to many of the rich 
book-fanciers who do. 

The text is neither that of the First Folio, 
nor the same put into modern English. In 
the opening scene of eleven lines there are at 
least twenty-one departures from the text of the 
Folio ; two of them are " th' set of sunne " 
and " th' fogge," where the Folio prints " the ". 
The suggestions of the various editors concern- 
ing the text are indicated occasionally, but not 
systematically. There is usually nothing to 
show what stage-directions are in the original, 
and what are modern. 

The passages in Holinshed which are the 
source of this play are printed only incident- 
ally and partially, in scattered bits. They 
should have been given in full. The passage 
concerning " Macbeth " in Forman's diary is 
reprinted only in part. Forman's statement 
that, when he saw the play acted, Macbeth and 
Banquo entered at I. iii. 37, " Ridinge thorowe 
a wod " (these words are not cited by Mr. 
Liddell), seems to show that they were on horse- 
back, i. e., on hobby-horses. The use of these 
awkward representations of horses seems to be 
carefully avoided in the case of the struggle in 
which Banquo meets his death (III. iii. 11-14). 
Professor Manly's excellent school edition of 
this play reprints all the desired material from 
Holinshed and Forman. 

An alphabetical bibliography is much needed. 
Since there is no entry in the index under 
"Phipson," such a direction as "see Phipson" 
(p. 147) may provoke some reader to language 
M not loud but deep." 

A number of comments will now be given 
which illustrate the great value of this new 
edition. Citations follow the Globe text so far 
as the interpretations given permit. 

" Thou 'ldst have, great Glamis, 
That which cries ' Thus thou must do ' if thou have it, 
And that which rather thou dost fear to do 
Than wishest should be undone " (I. v. 23-26). 

"None of the emendations and explanations clears 
away the difficulty, which seems to lie in an Eliza- 
bethan dirb koivov construction by which cries is first 
used in its sense of ' exclaiming ' and is then understood 
in its other Elizabethan sense of « demanding ' with a 
direct object after it." 

The editor finds a similar zeugmatic construc- 
tion in the much-emended passage, — 

" I am young, but something 
You may discern of him through me, and wisdom 
To offer up a weak, poor, innocent lamb 
To appease an angry god" (IV. iii. 14-17). 

This is taken to mean " You may perceive 
[discern] what sort of a man Macbeth is from 

my experience, and learn from me [discern] 
the wisdom of offering up," etc. A number 
of these strikiug zftugmatic constructions are 
pointed out in "Macbeth"; the editor holds 
that they have led to a whole crop of uncalled 
for " emendations and assumptions of cor- 

" To be thus is nothing 
But to be safely thus" (III. i. 48-9). 

This is found to be only a normal Elizabethan 
idiom, the last words meaning "if I cannot be 
what I am in security and without fear." 
" Rather than so, come fate into the list, 
And champion me to the utterance ! " (III. i. 71-2). 

"There can be little doubt that Macbeth means that 
fate is to be his champion to maintain his royal title 
against all comers, and not Banquo's champion . . . 
Fate in Elizabethan English is used of death, destruc- 
tion, ruin . . . Here death and ruin are to be Macbeth's 
champions and maintain his claim to the crown < e'en till 
destruction sicken.' The words are not a challenge to 
destiny : Macbeth is not ready for that until the end of 
the play." 

" Revenges burn in them ; for their dear causes 
Would to the bleeding, and the grim alarm 
Excite the mortified man" (V. ii. 3-5). 

The editor accepts none of the previous expla- 
nations, offering instead the following ingen- 
ious but venturesome interpretation : 
"Revenges burn in them: I say burn, because they 
suffer from a fever which needs to be bled, and war's 
stern alarm must furnish the furious incitement to 
rouse from its lethargy their lifeless manhood, so long 
crushed under the heel of the tyrant." 

The comments upon the following expres- 
sions show Mr. Liddell at his best : " in such 
bloody distance " (= enmity), III. i. 116 ; 
"the perfect spy o' the time," III. i. 130 
(Johnson's view, that we have here a reference 
to the mysterious third murderer, is accepted); 
" upon his aid," III. vi. 30 ; " Fillet of a fenny 
snake," IV. i. 12; 

" the chance of goodness 
Be like our warranted quarrel ! " (IV. iii. 136-7). 

(= « May our chance of good success be as 
sure as our cause is just.") 

Apparently this editor is the first to note 
that the " farmer that hanged himself on 
th' expectation of plenty " (II. iii. 5-6) is an 
allusion to the character of Sordido in Ben 
Jonson's " Every Man out of his Humour," 
1699, III. vii. The reasons which have con- 
vinced many that Scene V. of Act III. was 
not written by Shakespeare are forcefully and 
adequately stated. 

Mr. Liddell defends convincingly the suc- 
cessive accents of the line, 

" Toad, that under cold stone " (IV. i. 6), 
against the emendations of normalizing editors. 
He also recognizes that the line 




" Beware the thane of Fife. Dismiss me : enough." (IV. i. 72), 

ends with a three-syllabled measure. But in 
general he is violently opposed to three-syllabled 
measures, and resorts to desperate surgical 
operations to cure them. Such pronunciations 
as " harb'ger " (p. 33), " pit'ful " (110, 181), 
"laud'ble" (167), and "conf'dent" (210), 
seem incredible. 

Macbeth is said to be "essentially mad when 
his acts and words are viewed in the light of 
Elizabethan psychology" (p. xxiv). This opin- 
ion, though oft repeated, need not be taken too 
seriously, since the following passage shows 
that all of Shakespeare's greatest tragic char- 
acters " are as mad as he ": 

" Macbeth's insanity, like Hamlet's, is but suggested 
to the reader: Shakspere is too much of a poet to de- 
clare explicitly what insanity is, or to label Lear, Ham- 
let, Othello, and Macbeth as mad. They have all ' a 
feaver of the madde ' in them that lifts them out of the 
common range of experience and makes them inter- 
esting" (p. 200). 

Mr. Liddell holds that the knocking at the 
gate, in II. ii., " cannot be that which is the 
subject of the Porter's soliloquy in the scene 
that follows." But how does Mr. Liddell know 
that it is not the same ? And how can the au- 
dience learn that it is not ? 

Professor Manly's view of the passage con- 
cerning the touching for the king's evil (IV. 
iii. 140-159) is that, while it may have been 
intended to please James, " it is quite as prob- 
able that it was intended to please the audience 
at the Globe, by supporting the patriotic theory 
of the origin of the healing touch." This sug- 
gestion is not mentioned by Mr. Liddell. 

Many other matters call for notice, bat space 

Schmidt's " Shakespeare- Lexicon " appeared 
in 1874-5. The second edition, 1885, was 
properly "a mere reimpression "; the editor 
confined his attention "to the correction of mis- 
prints and to some small additions for which 
room could be got by expunging what seemed 
less important." The third edition, revised by 
Professor Sarrazin, is now to be considered. 

The one striking new feature is a Supple- 
ment of thirty pages, containing "a selection 
of new renderings and interpretations." These 
have been taken, for the most part, from En- 
glish scholars, " the most legitimate commen- 
tators of the great English poet." In each case 
an asterisk has been inserted in the original 
article calling attention to the supplementary 
matter. Also, about twenty-six lines have been 
added to Part II. of the Appendix, "Provin- 

cialisms "; and nearly twice as many have been 
inserted in brackets here and there in Part III., 
" Words and sentences taken from foreign lan- 
guages." These items seem to comprise all the 
additions to the second edition. 

Schmidt's Lexicon was recognized from the 
beginning as a remarkable piece of work. One 
might sometimes differ from the editor in opin- 
ion, but the material was all gathered, and it 
was usually well explained. The present re- 
viewer once erroneously charged Schmidt with 
having failed to cite under " for to " the line 
in " The Taming of the Shrew ": 
" For to supply the places at the table." (III. ii., 249.) 

But the omission was noted in the " additions 
and corrections." However, the same expres- 
sion in the grave-digger's song in " Hamlet " 
(" a pit of clay for to be made," V. i. 104) is 
not yet cited. Richard Grant White made the 
use of " for to " an important consideration in 
forming his opinion as to Shakespeare's prob- 
able relation to the two older plays on which 
Parts II. and III. of " King Henry VI." were 
based. Since White never acknowledged the 
value of Schmidt's work, it is well to point out 
that if it had been in existence when he wrote 
his " Essay on the Authorship of Henry VI." 
it could have saved him from the mistake of 
saying that Shakespeare never uses " this un- 
couth old idiom "for to. 

White's detailed criticism of the first edition 
of Schmidt was reprinted in his "Studies in 
Shakespeare," pp. 300-363. It seems very 
strange that even this third edition pays no 
attention to many valuable corrections and im- 
provements there suggested, although Professor 
Sarrazin mentions " Grant White " as one from 
whom help has been received. Omitting all 
cases where the American scholar may be 
thought hypercritical, his comments on the fol- 
lowing words should certainly have been taken 
to heart : buckle, lapsed, quill, bacon, beadle, 
Billingsgate, boy (verb), castle (in " my old 
lad of the castle "), crestless, Hob, organ-pipe, 
pregnant (in " crook the pregnant binges of 
the knee," " Hamlet," III., ii., 66), shent, step- 
mother. The definition of clear-stories should 
be much improved now that we have the " New 
English Dictionary." There are too many sub- 
divisions of meaning in treating such words as 
about, to be, to bear; but this can hardly be 
remedied until an edition is made from new 

It is to be hoped that the new matter in 
this third edition can be purchased in separate 
form. Schmidt said, in the preface to the 



[Sept. 16, 

second edition : "It ought to be a law in the 
republic of letters that essential changes in 
books should be separately published in the 
form of supplements." 

"The author did not revise these hastily 
written lectures, and they were penned under 
heavy stress of the illness that was closing in 
upon him, and with no idea of their inclusion 
in a book." This statement concerning Sidney 
Lanier's " Shakspere and his Forerunners " 
fairly disarms criticism, and at the same time 
suggests some inevitable shortcomings in the 
work. The reviewer will therefore turn at once 
to features which seem to him interesting and 

The work is not at all similar to J. A. 
Symonds's standard book, " Shakespeare's 
Predecessors in the English Drama." The 
" forerunners " of Shakespeare here discussed 
include all those poets and poems, from "Beo- 
wulf " down to the death of the dramatist, that 
Lanier chooses to bring into connection with 
Shakespeare by reason of any contrast or re- 
semblance. The sonnet-makers, from Surrey 
to Shakespeare, receive four out of the entire 
twenty-four chapters. Many sonnets are an- 
alysed and interpreted with great delicacy and 
skill. Lanier's declaration that "every sonnet 
should be a little drama " seems fanciful, but 
it is so expounded as to be very illuminating 
(I. 189-193). 

Chapters XIII. and XIV. (Vol. II.) discuss 
" The Music of Shakspere's Time " very 
agreeably, and presumably with as much ac- 
curacy as is practicable in a popular presenta- 
tion. In chapters XX. and XXI. the gradual 
changes in Shakespeare's versification are ex- 
plained, and their significance is well brought 
out. A few words on the omnipresence of lit- 
erature (p. xiv.), a passage concerning Nature- 
communion (I., 72-3), and one that depicts a 
bird building its nest (I., 88), are commended 
to all lovers of Lanier. 

These volumes are very fully illustrated, 
and their external appearance is beautiful in 
every way. The illustrations are interesting and 
valuable, and it must have cost much trouble 
and expense to secure them. The reviewer 
wishes to offer some suggestions concerning 
them that may be of service in a second edition. 
The value of the illustrations is often much les- 
sened by the fact that sufficient information 
about them is not given. At p. 40 of the first 
volume, what is called a facsimile from an 
" Anglo-Saxon MS." shows a passage written 

in Latin. The illustration at p. 76 is a repro- 
duction of p. 50 of Thorpe's edition (1842) of 
the "Codex Exoniensis " or "Exeter Book"; 
that at p. 100 comes from p. 293 of the same 
book. At p. 162 there is " a page from Lay- 
amon's ' Brut,' " — but from which MS. ? Con- 
cerning each portrait of an individual author, 
one wishes to know the source from which it 
was obtained. When undated title-pages are 
reproduced in facsimile, the date of publica- 
tion, exact or approximate, should be given 
(pp. 224, 232). 

The so-called picture of "Shakspere's 
house at Stratford" (Vol. II., p. 74) is not 
the birthplace, which is commonly given this 
name. It seems to be a representation of 
Shakespeare's last home, " New Place "; and 
since the best that Halliwell-Phillipps could do 
for us in the "Outlines" (II., 132) was to 
reproduce the building of 1702, this picture is 
probably imaginary, having no authority what- 
ever. The facts about the illustration should 
have been clearly stated. The pictures of " a 
poticary and a pardoner" (p. 102) are from the 
Ellesmere MS. of Chaucer's " Canterbury 
Tales." Between pp. 104 and 113, five pic- 
tures are marked as "from the ' Coventry Mys- 
teries.' " This phrase is decidedly unfortunate, 
since a cloud of misunderstanding has already 
gathered about the name " Coventry Mys- 
teries." These five illustrations are from 
Thomas Sharp's " Dissertation on the Pageants 
or Dramatic Mysteries anciently performed at 
Coventry " (1825), where some interesting in- 
formation about them may be found. The serio- 
comic picture of the mouth and the interior of 
hell (p. 108), for example, is taken from a 
fresco in " the chancel of the Chapel of the 
Holy Cross at Stratford-upon-Avon, discovered 
in 1804, during a reparation of it." The pic- 
ture called " A Soul in Torment," at p. 112, 
has been misunderstood. It is a " representa- 
tion of Israel Van Mechlin's curious and rare 
copy of the print of the Temptation of St. 
Anthony, by Martin Schoen " (Sharp, p. 60). 
The illustration designated " Morris-dancers " 
(p. 120) is exceptionally valuable. It is a pic- 
ture of " Toilet's painted window," assigned by 
Douce (Illustrations of Shakespeare, II., 445) 
to about 1460-70, and thought to be the oldest 
known representation of a May-game with the 
morris-dance. The early plan of the Bank- 
side at p. 124 is omitted from the introductory 
" list of illustrations." The picture of " Richard 
Tarleton, Actor in Shakesperes Plays " is 
thus endorsed on the original that is here 




reproduced ; but since that famous comedian, 
who was able to make the people laugh exceed- 
ingly " when he first peept out his head," died 
in 1588, the claim cannot be admitted. Mar- 
stons " Tragedies and Comedies " are called 
Pen Jonsoris at p. 148, — apparently because 
the name " Ben Jonson " is written across the 
title-page there reproduced. 

Such a book as this should never be pub- 
lished without an index ; however, the table of 
contents is exceptionally full. 

The purpose of Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt's 
"Shakespear " is to give" the private and liter- 
ary history " of the dramatist. The author 
thinks that Mr. Sidney Lee has " dealt in- 
completely with some biographical points" in 
his life of the poet, and M has left numerous 
others absolutely untouched." Later, we are 
told that the modern editions of Shakespeare, 
" including the Globe and Clarendon Press one- 
volume issues, are disgracefully executed in an 
editorial sense." These attacks upon works of 
thorough scholarship do not prejudice one in 
favor of the production before us ; and a fuller 
examination makes it clear that Mr. Hazlitt's 
book is not likely to replace Mr. Lee's in 
general favor. 

The present work is less systematic in 
arrangement than Mr. Lee's life, and offers 
but six pages of index where that has thirty. 
Among the plays of Shakespeare, only " Titus 
Andronicus " and " Macbeth " (one reference) 
appear in Mr. Hazlitt's index — a really ab- 
surd state of things. 

Mr. Hazlitt constantly makes statements for 
which no authority is given. Thus, we learn of 
Shakespeare's annoyance at the piracy of 
" Jaggard in the case of the Passionate 
Pilgrim " (p. xxvii.), but we are not given the 
detailed information that is properly desired. 
Farther statements are made on pp. 59-61 ; 
but a clear and scholarly presentation of the 
matter, such as that given on pp. 182-3 of 
Mr. Lee's " Life," is nowhere found. 

Mr. Hazlitt offers conjectures about the 
life-history of the dramatist with striking free- 
dom. One of the more probable of these is the 
suggestion that Shakespeare, while living in 
Stratford, was an occasional spectator at dra- 
matic entertainments (p. 6). But what shall 
we say of the following ? " There is no precise 
account [of the poet's life before his marriage], 
no domestic clues even of the slenderest kind to 
assist us, save the warrantable inference that 
once, or possibly more than once, he visited 

London as a mere boy, and met with the Bur- 
bages and Tarlton the actor" (p. 12). 

Mr. Hazlitt is a literary student and anti- 
quary of wide reading and multifarious infor- 
mation. His book furnishes many suggestions 
and side-lights for scholars of some attainment ; 
it cannot be called a good handbook for begin- 
ners or for ready reference. 

Albert H. Tolman. 

Impressions of Poland.* 

For over thirty years, Dr. Georg Brandes 
has been recognized by European scholarship 
as one of the keenest thinkers at work in the 
field of literary criticism. The range of his 
studies, the acuteness of his observation, and the 
brilliancy of his style, offer a combination of 
qualities rarely met with in a critic, and in the 
case of Dr. Brandes these qualities are united 
with a judgment which, if not always entirely 
sound, is always sufficiently reasoned to com- 
mand respectful attention. It is not, however, 
until recent years that this strong and interest- 
ing writer has been properly brought before the 
English-reading public, and it is only within the 
last few months that he may be said to have 
secured an adequate presentation. The first 
of his works to be given us were his study of 
Lord Beaconsfield,and a selection, made by Pro- 
fessor K. B. Anderson, of his miscellaneous crit- 
ical essays. When his great work on Shake- 
speare was published about five years ago, it 
could not be ignored by the translator, and was 
promptly put into English. His "Main Cur- 
rents," the most extensive and important of his 
works, after waiting more than a quarter of a 
century for a translator, is at last being brought 
out in English, volume after volume. His studies 
of Ibsen and Bjornson (partly included in Pro- 
fessor Anderson's volume) have received com- 
plete translation within very recent years, and 
his long-promised history of modern Scandina- 
vian literature, written for the series edited by 
Mr. Gosse, cannot now be long delayed. At 
the present writing, we have before us a trans- 
lation of his " Indtryk fra Polen" (Impres- 
sions from Poland), which is one of the most 
deeply interesting of all his writings. 

This work is made up of five parts. Four 
of them are the records of as many visits to Po- 
land, made between 1885 and 1899; the fifth 
is a study of " The Romantic Literature of Po- 

* Poland. A Study of the Land, People, and Literature. 
By Georg Brandes. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[Sept. 16, 

land in the Nineteenth Century," to which the 
date of 1886 is assigned. Altogether, the vol- 
ume offers us a fascinating mixture of history, 
philosophy, literary criticism and personal ex- 
perience ; it is a volume almost as difficult to 
lay aside, when once started upon, as a novel 
of the more thrilling sort. 

The sympathetic standpoint of all this dis- 
cussion may be illustrated by the following 
extract : 

" Poland, in the historical development of nations, 
has become synonymous with the right of mankind to 
civil and intellectual freedom and with the right of 
nations to independence. Poland is synonymous with our 
hope or our illusion as to the advance of our age in cult- 
ure. Its future coincides with the future of civiliza- 
tion. Its final destruction would be synonymous with 
the victory of modern military barbarism in Europe.'' 

Along with this expression of fundamental 
sympathy with the aspirations of an oppressed 
nation there goes, however, a good deal of frank 
criticism of the weaknesses and defects of the 
Polish people. The author is by no means blind 
to their faults, and in those faults he sees clearly 
the historical explanation of the downfall of the 
ancient Kingdom, and the three partitions. Nor 
can he be hopeful for the future, for he sees that 
many of the old faults persist, and he marks also 
the deadly effectiveness of the brutal measures 
undertaken (especially in Russian Poland), and 
persistently pursued, with the object of destroy- 
ing the Polish national spirit and all that is most 
distinctive in Polish civilization. A people less 
intensely proud of its national inheritance, and 
less passionately patriotic in its endeavor to 
keep glowing the embers of Polish sentiment, 
would have succumbed long ago to the Russ- 
ianizing and Germanizing process. 

The indescribable meanness with which the 
Russian bureaucracy exercises its tyranny over 
its Polish subjects, the arbitrary and heartless 
character of its methods, is such as to put the 
Russian government outside the pale of ad- 
vanced civilization as it is understood in the 
rest of Europe and America. Dr. Brandes 
tells us things about the censorship, and ad- 
ministrative process, and the official crusade 
against the Polish language, and the perversion 
of justice, that we should think simply incred- 
ible were it not for the trustworthiness of the 
writer, and the unimpeachable evidence upon 
which the charges are sustained. What can 
anyone think, for example, anyone living in a 
civilized country, of a government which fines 
a tram car conductor for answering a Polish 
question in the same language, or which expels 
a boy of sixteen from school because he throws I 

a wreath to an actress who is persona non grata 
to the authorities? The latter incident occurred 
in a family which Dr. Brandes visited, and the 
boy felt his punishment so keenly that he went 
home and killed himself. This actress, by the 
way, was Madame Modrzejewska (to give her 
name its proper spelling), and the author pays 
a splendid tribute to her art. 

We are often told that adversity brings out 
the finer qualities of the individual and the 
race. The author finds in the Polish people a 
striking illustration of this principle, with 
whatever consolation it may afford. He speaks 
of the drastic foreign rule as having created 
" an intellectual condition which, however unhappy it 
may be, may in certain ways be called the finest and 
best possible to a nation, a condition which calls to 
mind that of primitive Christendom under the oppres- 
sion of Rome, a conception of the world, pessimistic in 
many points, but not on that account less true. Perhaps 
after all there is no condition more elevating for a race 
than one in which no distinguished man ever has any 
external distinction, title, or decoration, and where the 
official tinsel of honor is regarded as a disgrace, while on 
the other hand the official garb of disgrace, the political 
prison blouse, is regarded as honorable. . . . That 
which is the pith, the true pith of Christian teaching, 
a right estimate of the honors of this world, the igno- 
miny of this world, and the justice of this world, of real 
greatness and real baseness — this estimate, every one 
here, even the least gifted, has accepted. What a school 
for life! Poland is the only country, I believe, where 
primitive Christianity still exists as a power in society 
— and that equally for those who are Christians and 
for those who are not." 

These last words have special reference to the 
fact that the spirit of the Judenhetze, which has 
disgraced most of the surrounding countries, 
has been almost absent in Poland, especially in 
Russian Poland, " where common misfortune 
has united the Polish Jews to their Christian 
fellow-countrymen." This is strikingly illus- 
trated by the following incident : 

" When, in February, 1861, in the square before the 
castle, and in another larger square, shots were fired 
upon the kneeling crowd, who with the mouths of the 
Russian cannon before their eyes, gave utterance to a 
national hymn, and besought God to send to the Poles 
freedom and a Fatherland, the Jews felt impelled to 
manifest their national disposition by an unmistakable 
demonstration. In great numbers they accompanied 
their Rabbis into the Catholic churches, just as the 
Christians in great numbers went into the synagogues 
to sing the same hymn." 

Dr. Brandes thinks that, aside from the 
power of invention or production, the women 
of Poland are superior to the men. 

" The men in Poland are certainly not wanting in 
passion, in courage and in energy, in wit, in love of 
freedom, but it seems as if the women have more of 
these qualities. In Poland's great uprisings they have 
been known to enter into conspiracies, to do military 




duty, and frequently euough of their own free will to 
accompany their loved ones to Siberia. . . . During the 
rebellion of 1830-31 there was not a battalion nor a 
squadron of the Polish army in which there were not 
female combatants, — after a battle or a march the 
soldiers always arranged a bivouac for the women, 
just as they took care that no word was spokeu whicb 
could offend their ears." 

The writer was evidently susceptible to the 
charm of Polish women, as many fragmentary 
observations attest. Speaking of the small feet 
of Polish ladies, he tells us how " it is said in 
Warsaw that in the Vienna shoe-shops they 
have a separate ease of boots and shoes for 
these feet, and that its contents are widely 
different from that of the case designed for 
Euglish ladies." His standards of feminine 
conduct seem to be a little strained, if the fol- 
lowing passage may be taken to illustrate it : 

" At the momeut when the room was thus described, 
I saw the most beautiful of the daughters of the house 
crossing it, and, as if quite justified in doing so, she 
kissed the lips of a young man who stood leaning 
against the mantelpiece, an incident whicb I note, 
partly because it is the only immoral action I witnessed 
during my stay here, partly because it proves that 
Polish women do not lose their presence of mind in 
alarming circumstances." 

It is a pity the distinguished guest should have 
witnessed so shocking a sight. Another per- 
sonal remark appeals to us by its naivete. 
** Here as everywhere on Polish ground one 
now and then meets a young woman so charm- 
ing, that one feels a kind of sadness at the 
thought of never seeing her again." True in- 
deed, but by other men, and elsewhere, the 
same feelings have been entertained. 

The author's account of the censorship, and 
of his ov^n difficulties in obtaining from it the 
permission to give his lectures on Polish liter- 
ature, is highly amusing. It took several weeks 
of red-tape negotiations to obtain the official 
authorization, and then the composition of the 
lectures themselves taxed the author's ingenuity 
to the utmost. 

" There were days when in spite of all my diligence 
I wrote almost nothing, days when I strove in vain to 
find expressions with double meanings, images, in them- 
selves indistinct, which could be understood by the au- 
dience, circumlocutions which could be seen through 
and yet would be unassailable. . . . Gradually I ac- 
quired practice in the rebus style, and wrote so that by 
an accent or a pause I could give a sentence a new and 
more living character. • I became expert in hints and 

How this method worked out in practice is 
shown by an instructive anecdote. At a cer- 
tain point, the lecturer absolutely required to 
use a famous line from Mickiewicz, a line in 
-which the hero of the poem complains to God — 

" Thou art not the father of the world, but its — Txar ! " 

But to quote this line exactly, or even to use 
its idea in connection with its real context, was 
obviously out of the question. The author thus 
tells us how he got over the difficulty : 

" I chose, therefore, to speak of the different attri- 
butes of Polish authors as to the problem of cognition, 
and insinuated this in connection therewith. ■ And as 
the savages of antiquity, when they were angry with 
their gods, discharged an arrow into the vault of the 
heavens, so Conrad flings this taunt out into the uni- 
verse, which he says shall resound frum generation to 
generation : Thou God ! Thou art not the Father of the 
world, but its . . .' Here I made a pause of some sec- 
onds, during which a shudder literally ran through the 
closely packed hall. Then came the word tyrant, and 
they drew breath and looked at one another. No one 
moved a hand. After such passages a deathly silence 
prevails in order not to compromise the speaker. 
They vigorously applaud some innocent comparison as 
others a few minutes later, or they reserve the most 
hearty applause to the close, when no one can determine 
what it is which has specially called forth the storm of 

By such devices as this, the lecturer hood- 
winked the censorship more than once, and 
introduced matters of the most explosive char- 
acter into his discourse. 

The lectures themselves, but in a form re- 
stored from the censor's mutilations, constitute 
the concluding section of the work before us. 
They give a history and philosophical analysis 
of nineteenth-century Polish literature more 
valuable than anything hitherto accessible in 
our language. The following passage, which 
appears in the discussion of the Byronic lean- 
ings of Mickiewicz and his fellow-poets, seems 
to us a remarkable example of speculative 
criticism : 

" Let us suppose, for the sake of argument, that 
Shelley in his lifetime had received the recognition he 
only obtained half a century after his death ; then the 
Polish poets would have found in him the combination 
which nowhere met them — Gothe's lofty and sure con- 
ception of nature in combination with the practical en- 
thusiasm, the strong hope, and the belief in the miracles 
of activity, which they themselves required, and which 
to their sorrow they missed in the old man at Weimar; 
for Shelley was eternally young, and, like them, ap- 
pealed to the youth of the mind. If they had come 
under his influence instead of Byron's, the cause of in- 
tellectual freedom would have a less difficult battle to 
fight now. Without wouuding the religious feelings of 
their readers, they would have been able to transform 
them so far that the inevitable schism in the future 
between the ideas of this century and the emotional life 
of the nation would have been less deep." 

One more extract, and our citations must 
end. It is taken from the closing pages of the 
work, and is a word of reconciliation between 
the opposing factions of romanticism and real- 



[Sept. 16, 

" As a form of art Romanticism is dead, a thing of 
the past. Its heroes and heroines, its spirits and witches, 
in part even its language and style, are antiquated. 
Nevertheless, there is a Romanticism which outlives 
forms of art and schools of art, and which still preserves 
its vitality and worth. It is the element of healthy en- 
thusiasm, which every strong human emotion can assume 
when it is refined and intensified beyond the average. 
Without any background whatever of superstition, our 
feelings for nature, for the woods and fields, the sea 
and the heavens, may assume this form of romantic 
ecstasy, and in even higher degrees emotions like love, 
friendship, love between parents and children, love of 
language and native land, and common memories may 
take a like form." 

Dr. Brandes says this because he sees that 
Polish literature is peculiarly rich in the ex- 
pression of this " abiding Romanticism." We 
have reproduced the passage because it seems 
to us one of the truest words ever spoken upon 
a vexed theme, and because it illustrates so 
clearly the insight and philosophical poise 
which place its author at the very head of liv- 
ing critics of literature. 

William Morton Payne. 

A Thousand Years of the English 

In the Palace of Westminster there centre 
more things of interest, for those who are in- 
terested in history, politics, and the lives of 
great men, than in any other spot on the globe. 
In two large and lavishly illustrated volumes 
entitled " Parliament, Past and Present," the 
authors, accomplished book-makers as well as 
thorough students, have gathered a vast num- 
ber of pictures illustrating in one way or an- 
other the events of the thousand years of En- 
glish parlimentary life, and showing the build- 
ings in which that life has developed in great 
detail. In these volumes there are no less than 
six hundred and forty-three of these illustra- 
tions, including about twenty colored plates. 
There is no one of the five hundred and seventy- 
eight pages that has not at least one picture, 
many of them filling a large part of the page, 
and there are many full-page illustrations. 
The page is very large, nearly eight and a half 
by eleven inches. The paper is heavy, and the 
printing is excellent. These details are given, 
for they are necessary to show the real value 
of the book, which lies largely in the pictures 

•Parliament, Past and Present. A Popular and 
Picturesque Account of a Thousand Years in the Palace of 
Westminster, the Home of the Mother of Parliaments. By 
Arnold Wright and Philip Smith. In two volumes. Illus- 
trated. New York : E. P. Dutton & Co. 

with which it is filled. These include portraits 
of those who have been at all prominent in 
parliamentary life, many views of the build- 
ings in and around the Palace Yard, some fa- 
mous pictures portraying stirring incidents in 
English history, many caricatures of notable 
men, and photographs illustrating the different 
sides of parliamentary life of this and earlier 

The work contains thirty- seven chapters. Of 
these, ten, covering a hundred and eighty pages, 
are entitled " Memories of St. Stephens," and 
give a running sketch of parliamentary history 
from the beginning, in the form of anecdotes 
of the leading actors in parliamentary life. As 
these anecdotes are largely taken from the stock 
found in every history, these chapters form the 
least valuable part of the work, though the 
portraits in connection with the anecdotes give 
them new life. The special value of the text 
of the work lies in the full descriptions of the 
old buildings and the present great structure, 
with the fine illustrations, showing masses and 
details, and in the inside view of parliamentary 
life and custom. As examples of the latter may 
be cited the chapters on " The Speaker as 
Host," " Parliamentary Costume," " Social As- 
pects of Parliamentary Life," " Wining and 
Dining," " The Lobby," " Ladies at the House"; 
and another group in the second volume on 
" The Parliament in Being," " The Speaker," 
" The House of Commons at Work," " Called 
to the Bar," "Parliamentary Privilege," "The 
House at Prayers," "In Committee." One 
chapter gives an account of Coronation Cere- 
monies at the Palace, from William the Con- 
queror to Edward the Seventh. One is tempted 
to quote the account of the coronation banquet 
of George IV. in Westminster Hall as an ex- 
ample of everything that should not be on such 
an occasion ; but lack of space forbids, and it 
is perhaps just as well not to show unnecessarily 
how near the savage instincts were to the surface 
even in court circles in the nineteenth century. 
And that was the last coronation banquet. 

An interesting chapter is that on Westmin- 
ster Hall, its history and traditions. One 
whose imagination was fired in boyhood by 
Macaulay's description of the scene in the great 
hall of William Rufus will be attracted to that 
chapter, and the next on "Memorable Trials." 
The illustrations of these chapters are of special 

From another interesting chapter, that on 
"Ladies at the House," we give some extracts. 

"In the works of John Stow is found a singular 




incident which occurred in the Parliament of 1428. On 
a certain day while Parliament was sitting, ' one Mis- 
tress Stokes, with divers other stout women of London, 
of good account and well apparelled, went openly to 
the Upper House of Parliament and delivered letters 
to the Duke of Gloucester, to the Archbishops, and the 
other lords, because he would not deliver his wife 
Jaqueline of her grievous imprisonment (she being then 
detained as prisoner by the Duke of Burgundy), and 
suffering her there to remain unkindly whilst he kept 
another adultress, contrary to the law of God and the 
honorable estate of matrimony.' " 

These early advocates of women's rights, the 
first of a long line of fair reformers who have 
invaded the legislative precincts to redress the 
wrongs of their sex, seem to have created no 
small sensation, and from the fact that the 
Commons ventured to espouse the cause of 
Jaqueline, we may infer that their remonstrance 
had some effect. The course taken by the 
"Nether House" was cunningly to tack to a 
subsidy granted to the Duke of Gloucester a 
petition in favor of the Duchess. The quaint 
document we cannot give. 

Here is what one well-known lady had to say 
in a letter to a friend written in 1762 : 

" In the House of Commons everybody who can 
articulate is a speaker, to the great despatch of business 
and solidity of councils. They sit late every night, as 
every young gentleman who has a handsome person, a 
fine coat, a well-shaped leg, or a clear voice, is anxious 
to exhibit these advantages. To this kind of beau- 
oratory and tea-table talk the ladies, as is reasonable, 
resort very constantly. At first they attended in sueh 
numbers as to fill the the body of the House on great 
political occasions; but a ghost (the Cock Lane) started 
up in a dirty obscure alley in the City, and diverted the 
attention of the female politicians. From this it is 
pretty clear not merely that ladies had admission to the 
public galleries, but that they actually occupied seats by 
the side of members on the sacred floor of the House." 

The disgraceful scene that led to the abandon- 
ment of the system of uncontrolled freedom in 
favor of absolute exclusion, is described in a 
paragraph too long for quotation. 

■ Afterwards, so rigorous was the ban against the 
ladies, that Mrs. Sheridan was driven to the expedient 
of donning male attire in order to secure the opportu- 
nity of hearing her husband's eloquence. Wraxall also 
mentions in his « Memoirs ' having seen on one occasion 
the beautiful Duchess of Gordon in male attire in the 
Strangers' Gallery." 

Other scenes are described, showing the lack 
of restraint of women in the Houses of Parlia- 

Some of the illustrations in the work are 
rather out of place, the colored plates are 
crude, the arrangement of the chapters is be- 
yond the writer's understanding, and many of 
the incidents related are commonplace ; yet 

the book is full of interest for the reader of 
history, and will serve to make real much that 
is read about some of the most interesting men 
and places in England. 

Charles H. Cooper. 

Four Books on Art.* 

Four books on art, recently issued by dif- 
ferent publishers, have an unusual interest as 
representing four different points of view from 
which art may be regarded. One of the books 
is thoroughly technical, giving information as 
to the structure of a picture which is valuable 
both to the artist and to the critic. Another 
is theoretical, designed to prove a certain de- 
finite principle, and venturing into the realms 
of historical research. The third may perhaps 
be best described as philosophical, as it gives 
an estimate of the scope and value of nineteenth 
century art ; while the fourth, on " The Enjoy- 
ment of Art," is, as the title signifies, entirely 
simple and untechnical, a book for the layman, 
and designed to open the eyes of the unin- 
itiated to the beauty of a picture. A person 
in any way interested in art will be likely to 
find at least one of these volumes helpful. 

The merest lover of pictures, with no pre- 
tensions to knowledge, will delight in Mr. 
Carleton Noyes's volume on " The Enjoyment 
of Art." The work is in the form of answers 
to questions which a young collegian asked 
himself when he first entered the art galleries 
of Europe. "Why are these pictures?" he 
said. " What is the meaning of all this striv- 
ing after expression?" But only when he 
turned to himself, and asked what a picture 
meant to him, did he find his answer, which is 
the keynote to the book : " This work of art 
is the revelation to me of a fuller beauty, a 
deeper harmony, than I have ever seen or felt. 
The artist is he who has experienced this new 
wonder in nature, and who wants to communi- 
cate his joy, in concrete forms, to his fellow 
men." At the beginning of his work, the au- 
thor notes the fact that nearly everyone likes 
pictures ; he then proceeds to analyze the 

* The E>- joymbnt of Art. By Carleton Noyes. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Art in the Nineteenth Century. By Charles Wald- 
stein, Litt.D , Ph.D., L.H.D. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Spirals in Nature and Art. By T. A. Cook, M.A., 
F.S.A. New York : E. P. Dutton & Co. 

Pictorial Composition and the Critical Judgment of 
Pictures. By Henry R. Poore, A.N.A. New York: The 
Baker & Taylor Co. 



[Sept. 16, 

cause of their enjoyment. What the mere 
primitive beholders desire in a picture, as he 
takes it, is clever imitation, or illusion. Others, 
and a larger class, make their demands upon the 
subject ; it must be something pleasing, and 
something which appeals to their experience. 
But to a third class the subject does not mat- 
ter so much as what the artist wanted to say 
about it. It is the additional beauty which an 
artist sees and which the ordinary man does 
not, that, successfully revealed to others, con- 
stitutes the highest enjoyment in art. This 
is the principal thought of the essay, which is 
charmingly written, the only fault being a re- 
petition of idea and of phrase which weakens 
the value of the message. It is, on the whole, a 
book likely to diffuse a wider knowledge of the 
true function of art. 

" Art in the Nineteenth Century " is the 
subject of a lecture delivered by Dr. Charles 
Waldstein, at Cambridge, in a series dealing 
with nineteenth century art, and now produced 
in book form. The work is a scholarly resume 
of the achievements of modern art, in which the 
author presents the conclusions of deep thought 
and of thorough study, without troubling the 
reader with tiresome detail. Art is treated in 
its broadest sense, as including " all forms of 
aesthetic enjoyment," of which painting is only 
one phase. One part of the subject after an- 
other, — literature, music, etc., — is taken up, 
and its progress in the last hundred years 
reviewed. The discussion is mainly with a view 
to proving one point, — namely, that the art- 
tendency of the nineteenth century is toward 
expansion. The subjects, the methods, the in- 
struments of all kinds of art have been en- 
larged, until now there is no phase of life that 
is not considered worthy of the artist, and there 
are few means that he will scorn to use to ob- 
tain his effect. Although the danger of fitting 
facts to one idea is obvious, this principle is 
one that can hardly be denied ; and, as the 
author proves, the past century is as remarkable 
for its artistic achievement as it is for its ad- 
vance in science. 

An art work of a very different kind from 
those just discussed is Mr. T. A. Cook's treatise 
on " Spirals in Nature and Art." The book be- 
gins with a description of a beautiful staircase 
at Blois in Touraine, the architect of which 
has hitherto been unknown ; and a likeness is 
pointed out between this staircase, which is 
illustrated, and a certain sea-shell, scientifically 
known as Voluta Vespertilio. The formation in 
the two cases is exactly similar, and the reader 

willingly follows the author through his explor- 
ations, which end in exploiting Leonardo da 
Vinci as the designer of the stairway. Leon- 
ardo lived in the period in which the staircase 
referred to is supposed to have been built, and 
was the only architect of the time who was 
likely to have studied shells. A minute exami- 
nation of manuscripts and drawings left by the 
great artist confirms the impression in a hundred 
ways ; for instance, Leonardo was left-handed, 
and the spiral of the stair goes round from left 
to right, the opposite of the natural direction. 
The argument is close, exact, and convincing; 
and it leaves small room for doubt that the 
creator of the lovely spiral at Blois has been 
discovered. A study of other spirals in art, 
which are based upon natural formations, is 
included, making the book an extremely inter- 
esting and suggestive one. 

Mr. Henry R. Poore's comprehensive study 
of " Pictorial Composition and the Critical 
Judgment of Pictures " is said, in the preface, 
to have been written for students of painting, 
amateur photographers, and professional art- 
ists ; but no one who desires to judge pictures 
intelligently can afford to pass it by. The work 
is in no way popular, — composition in pictures 
is hardly a popular subject; but the style is 
so direct and the treatment so intelligent that 
the main points cannot fail to become clear to 
the careful reader. Plentiful reproductions of 
masterpieces illustrate each step in the expo- 
sition. After dealing with main principles, the 
writer takes up "The ^Esthetics of Composi- 
tion," " Suggestiveness," "Mystery," etc.; and 
finally leads to the still more interesting theme 
of the judgment of pictures. If every critic 
could be made to read this last chapter alone, 
how much flippant and misunderstanding com- 
ment on art we might be spared ! A strong plea 
for a wider knowledge of art principles is found 
in the fifteenth chapter. " Is it unreasonable," 
writes Mr. Poore, " to ask the many sharers in 
the passing picture pleasures of a great city to 
make themselves intelligent in some other and 
more practical way than by contact, gleaning 
only through a lifetime what should have been 
theirs without delay as a foundation; and to 
exchange for the vague impression of pleasure 
defended in the simple comfort of knowing 
what one likes, the enjoyment of sure authority, 
and a reason for it ? The time is past when 
the intelligent reader is frightened by the word 
technical; and many besides the class he writes 
for will welcome Mr. Poore's well- classified 
principles of art criticism. Alice Brown. 




Briefs on Xje\v Books. 

tu late* history For several years it has been known 
of American that Professor W. P. Trent was en- 

luerature. gaged in preparing for Mr. Gosse's 

series of " The Literatures of the World " ( Appleton ) 
a volume on " American Literature." The work 
has at last appeared, and does the highest credit to 
the taste and scholarship of its author. It seems 
to us, on the whole, to be the best of the three ex- 
tensive treatments that our literature has thus far 
received, although we are by no means insensible 
of the admirable qualities of the works written by 
Professor C. F. Richardson and Professor Barrett 
Wendell. It is a book that bears upon every page 
the mark of patient first-hand investigation. It is 
evident that the author has read the books about 
which he writes, and that even when he does no 
more than set down in a biief paragraph the con- 
ventional estimate of an author, he has arrived at 
this conclusion by a process of independent judg- 
ment. His criticism, in its relation to its predeces- 
sors, seems to have for an aim the reduction of all 
overwrought or exaggerated views to a common 
basis of sober objective appraisal. If a writer has 
been overvalued in the past, Mr. Trent is careful 
to show in what respects the excessive estimate 
needs qualification ; if a writer has not received his 
due, on the other hand, there is a reasoned attempt 
to correct the past injustice. This determination 
to be absolutely fair, to view a writer in every 
possible light, is a marked characteristic of Mr. 
Trent's woik. It frequently involves a nice balanc- 
ing of conflicting opinions, and in the process of 
leveling up or down, as the case may be, so many 
qualifications are admitted that we do not get the 
sharp portraiture given us by other critics, and 
there are moments when we almost wish that the 
author would indulge in a little dogmatism at the 
expense of caution. One important feature of the 
book results from the fact that Mr. Trent's scholar- 
ship in American history is almost on a par with 
his knowledge of our literature. He is thus enabled 
at every point to bring the book into its proper rela- 
tions with the period which produced it, and in this 
respect his treatment of the subject has a marked 
superiority over the best that we have had hereto- 
fore. Compared with the other volumes of the series 
to which it belongs, the present work is upon a 
much larger scale than any of its associated dis- 
cussions. It has nearly fifty per cent more matter 
than any of the others, although it deals with a 
literature which can boast of only one century of 
serious creative activity, and although it makes no 
attempt to deal with the last third of that century, 
but closes with the period of the Civil War. The 
volume is simply packed with names, titles, and 
historical facts, but all so deftly combined in run- 
ning text that every page proves readable. The 
frank and engaging style of the author is pieced 
out, though sparingly, with apt quotations and illus- 

trations, and the author's wide literary allusiveness 
adds not a little to his charm. Nothing could well 
be happier, for example, than to call the "Magnalia 
Christi " " a colossal boulder left behind by the re- 
treating glacier of Calvinism"; nothing could be 
more just than to say of •' The Federalist " that 
" no praise can be too high that does not, like some 
American praise for it, lift it into comparison with 
compositions not in its class." 

The fertile valleys of Egypt and 
SjS^T 1 ' Babylonia have produced many 

kinds of historical fruit during the 
last half-century. Out of their tumuli, tombs, and 
terraces, we have extracted centuries of history, 
scores of magical formulae, and volumes of religious 
beliefs. Professor Sayce of Oxford has been a 
pioneer in this work. In 1887 he delivered the 
Hibbert lectures, on the religion of Babylonia. He 
has just now published the Gilford Lectures, de- 
livered in Aberdeen, Scotland, on " The Ancient 
Egyptian and Babylonian Conception of the Divine" 
(Scribner). Fifteen years have wrought wonders 
in our conception of ancient civilization and beliefs. 
This volume is a long step in advance of that of 
1887. Here we find Professor Sayce at his best. 
Always a pioneer in archaeological research, he 
happily combines clearness of statement with 
breadth and depth of scholarship. This volume 
strikes out more positively than any other into some 
new lines of thought. The religions of both Egypt 
and Babylonia are composites. That of Egypt is 
a fusion of the beliefs of the Semitic conquerors of 
Egypt and the non- Semitic or possibly Libyan ab- 
origines. The Babylonian religion is a fusion of 
the primitive Sumerian beliefs and those of the 
conquering Semitic peoples. Professor Sayce main- 
tains the identity of the conquering Semitic popula- 
tion of Babylonia and the dynastic Egyptians — both 
Semites with common customs and beliefs. He 
goes farther, and attempts to separate the elements 
contributed by each of these elemental peoples. 
This is a hazardous task, in view of the fragmentary 
character of the material already discovered and 
available. Professor Sayce's discussion of the prim- 
itive animism and of the later pantheons of those 
ancient peoples is replete with carefully gleaned 
facts. The entire volume is both attractive in style 
and full of interesting and instructive material. 
This is the best work, from several points of view, 
that Professor Sayce has ever written. 

" An Introductory Study of Ethics " 
22££ELa (Longmans), by Mr. Warner Fite, is 

a college text-book characterized by 
clearness of statement, careful analysis of the lead- 
ing types of ethical theory, and a strong practical 
bent. Mr. Fite protests against the assumption of 
certain writers that the ethical problem is one of 
no practical importance. Granted that opinion is 
practically unanimous in declaring certain element- 
ary lines of conduct to be right, and certain others 



[Sept. 16, 

wrong, it is nevertheless true that the very terms in 
which we state these principles are far from being 
exactly defined, and thus "this practical unanimity 
is largely illusory." Moreover, the ethical field 
abounds in problems that are too complicated to be 
referred with confidence to any one principle, and 
thereby definitely solved. The author passes in 
review, and subjects to close analysis, first the 
various forms of utilitarian or hedonistic ethics, 
then the opposed forms of the system to which 
the general designation of idealism may be given. 
His own leanings are clearly toward the ethics 
of idealism, but he also recognizes the value of 
hedonism as a basis of right conduct, and in the 
end seeks a middle course, the establishment of a 
modus vivendi between the two schools, or perhaps 
the reconciliation of the opposing themes in a 
broader synthesis than has yet been achieved. He 
offers a novelty in his attempt to show that the 
hedonist must accept the Lamarckian view of 
biological evolution, while the idealist is bound to 
be a partisan of the doctrine of Herr Weissmann. 
But we are unable to see that he makes his point. 
And his argument does not shake us in the opinion 
that it is perfectly possible to believe at the same 
time in the ethics of principle or of purpose and in 
the transmission of acquired characteristics. Mr. 
Fite's references throughout the work are almost 
exclusively to English thinkers, and thus his book 
has too narrow a range. The Kantian view, in- 
deed, is discussed at length, but no other Germans 
are mentioned, save for an occasional allusion to 
Paulsen and Wundt. We recommend to the au- 
thor particularly a careful study of Schopenhauer, 
whose ethical theory cannot possibly be ignored. 
And among English writers, the author would have 
been especially well-advised had he taken into ac- 
count Mr. Morley's essay " On Compromise," which 
bears directly upon the very questions of practical 
conduct always to the fore in the present volume. 

A study of The fourth volume in the " Popular 

the French Library of Art" (Dutton) is an 

impresrionisu. attractive little book on the Freneh 
Impressionists, by M. Camille Mauclair. He has 
attempted, he tells us, " to sum up the ideas, per- 
sonalities, and works of a group of artists who have 
remained but little known and who have been 
greatly misjudged." The book is especially ad- 
dressed to the "British Public"; perhaps the au- 
thor considers such an appreciation less needed in 
America. His presentation is clear and sympa- 
thetic, avoiding alike the over- technical and the 
merely popular discussion of the subject. He takes 
the ground that no art manifestation is really isolated, 
and that the Impressionists were the legitimate de- 
scendents of Ruysdael, Lorraine, and Poussin. The 
author finds also in this school much that is related 
to the work of the Preraphaelites, though he regards 
the latter as bound together " by intellectual prin- 
ciples; the Impressionists, by temperament, friend- 
ship, and unjust derision." Of particular interest 

is the chapter on the theories of this group of paint- 
ers, which M. Mauclair sums up as follows: "Study 
of atmosphere, dissociation of tones, study of char- 
acter rather than classic beauty, subordination of 
subject to interest of execution, movement toward 
' symphonisation ' of colors." This discussion of the 
theory of Impressionism is followed by a study in 
detail of the work of its greatest exponents, Edouard 
Manet, Degas, Claude Monet, and Renoir; while 
the lesser painters of the school, and neo-impres- 
sionism, receive due attention. The many good en- 
gravings well illustrate this subject. These were 
made from photographs in the private gallery of 
M. Durand-Ruel, to whom the author makes due 
acknowledgment. The translation, by Mr. P. 6. 
Eonody, is in general carefully done, though show- 
ing a fondness for rare words and at times rendering 
the French idiom too literally. In example, " since 
a long time" and "he revolted the prejudiced." 
But in spite of these and similar blemishes, the ren- 
dering is accurate and merits commendation. 

One of the most interesting phases 
Irlmce'ndwtaium. of American literature is discussed 

and illustrated in Mr. George Willis 
Cooke's anthology of " The Poets of Transcenden- 
talism " (Houghton). Few people realize how much 
poetry (of a kind) the movement produced, and it 
is only by ransacking " The Dial " and other peri- 
odicals of the time that an adequate showing of 
transcendental poetry can be made. This work of 
investigation Mr. Cooke has performed, with the 
result that he has brought together in his interest- 
ing volume not only the well-known pieces of Emer- 
son, Lowell, and a few others, but also a host of 
pieces deserving to be known, but not heretofore 
reprinted from the sources of their original publica- 
tion. No less than forty-two authors are repre- 
sented, a few of whom, however, hardly seem to us 
to have been sufficiently identified with the transcen- 
dental movement to warrant their inclusion. We can- 
not quite see, for example, what Helen Hunt Jackson 
and Edward Rowland Sill are doing in this galley. 
It is only by a broad definition, which shall itself 
transcend geographical and social limitations, that 
these forty-two poets may be brought into the same 
category. Such a definition Mr. Cooke has evi- 
dently adopted, and, indeed, he embodies it in his 
introduction when he calls transcendentalism " de- 
mocracy in contact with Puritanism," and proceeds 
to indicate its connotations as inquiry, revolt, indi- 
viduality, inwardness, and optimism. We are glad 
to have this book, and glad to have the poems which 
it rescues for us from so many scattered quarters. 

international The enormous increase in the facili- 

probiems ties for transportation and in the ra- 

of disease. pidity of travel in the last fifty years 

has not only greatly widened our knowledge of the 
diseases of other lands but has brought many of 
them to our doors; and still more has it devastated 
the defenseless races of uncivilized lands where the 




science of preventive medicine is unknown. The 
position which Great Britain holds as the foremost 
nation in colonization has given her exceptional re- 
sponsibilities and opportunities for dealing with the 
international problems of disease. It is therefore 
fitting that one volume of the Cambridge Geograph- 
ical Series (Macmillan) should be devoted to " The 
Geography of Disease." The author, Dr. Clemon, 
is a member of the Ottoman Board of Health, and 
has had unusual opportunities for observation in 
Russia and the Orient. The volume treats general 
medical and surgical diseases, those of the skin, and 
those caused by animal parasites, giving the history 
of each, with its recent geographical distribution, 
and discussing its relation to climatic factors — 
such as latitude, temperature, altitude, and humidity 
— to social conditions, to race, and to sex. The 
agencies and methods of distribution are set forth 
wherever known, or discussed with candor when 
judgment must still be suspended till research shall 
decide among conflicting opinions. Instructive maps 
and charts show the known distribution of the more 
important diseases. The author's perspective is 
such that the Orient, Russia, Africa, and British 
colonies everywhere, enter largely into his treat- 
ment ; while the United States and the Philippines 
are only casually mentioned, and some of their lead- 
ing authorities are overlooked. This, and the ab- 
sence of an index, are, however, only minor defects 
in an excellent treatise. 

"A History of French Versification," 
fnVJr^i^ian. h J Mr - L - E - Kastner, is published 

by Mr. Henry Frowde for the Oxford 
University Press. At the same time we have from 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co., in their series of " En- 
glish Readings," a work on " English Verse " by 
Dr. Raymond Macdonald Alden. Both these works 
undertake, in their respective fields, to do much the 
same thing. They survey the whole history of verse 
in French and English, discuss the chief technical 
questions of metrical theory, classify the many 
poetic forms, and are at every point illustrated by 
a bewildering array of carefully-chosen examples. 
These examples are in themselves so interesting, 
that in reading the books we have been constantly 
tempted to ignore their real purpose for the sake 
of the simple enjoyment they afford as anthologies 
of two great poetic literatures. Every reader will 
miss some of his own favorite illustrations, no doubt 
(in the case of the French book the absence of 
Baudelaire is inexplicable), but will probably find 
compensation in many unfamiliar citations of great 
interest. Both books give us forms from the ear- 
liest literature as well as from the latest, and Dr. 
Alden often finds it necessary to offset his English 
examples by their French prototypes. Both books 
are productions of wide and accurate scholarship, 
and are deserving of very high praise. Both au- 
thors lean heavily upon the Germans, Mr. Kastner 
uponTobler's "Versbau," Dr. Alden upon Schipper's 
" Englische Metrik." 

The Appleton series of " Historic 

William Johnson, the colonial In- 
dian commissioner for America, by Mr. Augustus C. 
Buell. The well-balanced biography begins with the 
arrival of Johnson, at twenty-two years of age, to 
take control of a large tract of land lying in the 
Mohawk Valley belonging to his uncle, Sir Peter 
Warren. Coming into contact with the Indians at 
this advanced point on the border, he early inaugu- 
rated a policy of just dealing with the savages wjrich 
won them to him by contrast with the tricks used 
by the ordinary trader of the Valley. " He found 
time," says the sketch here presented, "to learn 
to a degree never surpassed, and seldom if ever 
equalled by any white man, the character, ways, 
manner, modes of thinking, and the language of the 
Iroquois Indians." As proof of this, it is stated that 
he never made use of an interpreter even in the 
important proceedings of an Indian conference. 
Johnson's numerous Indian wives and half-breed 
children, for which the agent is usually condemned, 
are here excused because the departure from social 
custom may have been done to bring him influence 
and esteem from his savage brethren. Incidentally, 
the volume treats of the struggle between the 
French and British for the Mississippi Valley, the 
contact of the white men with the savages, and the 
various wars in which the Indians were engaged 
prior to the American Revolution. 

Arnold's march The courage of Benedict Arnold, 
/rom Cambridge plunging with his Canadian expe- 
to Quebec. dition into the wilderness between 

the Maine coast and Quebec, has frequently been 
praised, the endurance of his men eulogized, and 
the purpose and failure of the unfortunate attempt 
commented on. The exact route Arnold took 
through the wilderness has never been fully deter- 
mined. It therefore remained for Professor Justin 
H. Smyth to investigate the matter thoroughly, and 
then to write his account of " Arnold's March from 
Cambridge to Quebec" (Putnam). The materials 
for the investigation are found in old maps and in 
diaries kept on the expedition. Arnold's is the chief 
of these, " the one extant journal that has never 
been printed in full till now." It is from the 
Sparks copy in the Harvard library. The book is 
confined closely to the subject, omitting all details 
foreign to the purpose of ascertaining the exact 
route traversed, and closing abruptly with the ar- 
rival of the expedition on the north shore of the 
St. Lawrence near Quebec. An exhaustive set of 
explanatory notes includes Arnold's diary men- 
tioned above. 

Professor Jesse Benedict Carter has edited as a 
" Twentieth Century Text- Book " for the Messrs. 
Appleton, the first six books of the "JEueid." The 
volume has introduction, notes, vocabulary, and many 
attractive full-page illustrations, including a colored 
frontispiece from a mosaic discovered in Africa only a 
few years ago. 



[Sept. 16, 


" Stories of Great Artists," by Miss Olive Browne 
Home and Miss Kathrine Lois Scobey, is published by 
the American Book Co. in their " Eclectic School 

" Reading a Poem," a charming and hitherto rather 
inaccessible bit of Thackerayana, will be published 
shortly in an attractive limited edition by the A. 
Wessels Co. 

The last book of the late Paul Du Chaillu is an ac- 
count of adventures in the Dark Continent where he 
won his first fame. The title is " In African Forest 
and Jungle," and it will be published by the Scribners 
at the end of the present month. 

Messrs. Harper & Brothers will publish this month 
Mr. Justin Huntly McCarthy's new novel, " The Proud 
Prince." A few days after its publication in book form 
the play made from the story by Mr. McCarthy will be 
presented by Daniel Frohman on the stage, with Mr. 
E. H. Sothern in the title role. 

In view of the discussion, on both sides of the 
Atlantic, of the project to bring Wagner's opera 
" Parsifal " to New York, the announcement of a new 
poetic English version of this text is timely. It is from 
the pen of Oliver Huckel, of Baltimore, who has had 
special advantages in studying the opera at Bayreuth. 
Messrs. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. will publish the 

Miss Margaret Horton Potter's " The Castle of Twi- 
light," Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co.'s leading novel of 
the season, is especially notable for the attractiveness 
of its outward appearance. In cover-design, end-papers, 
and initials, a consistent and distinctive decorative treat- 
ment has been followed, and the illustrations (made by 
Miss Charlotte Weber, a young New York artist) are 
of striking originality. 

Mr. Charles Josselyn, author of " The True Napo- 
leon," has in press for early publication by Messrs. 
Paul Elder & Co., a collection of interesting and in- 
structive selections from famous authors, entitled " My 
Favorite Book Shelf." Unlike the usual book of quota- 
tions, this volume includes passages of readable length 
so chosen and arranged in many cases as to epitomize 
the messages of the voluminous originals. 

"London in the Time of the Stuarts" is the title of 
the new book by the late Sir Walter Besant, which the 
Macmillan Co. will publish in the autumn. Sir Walter 
undertook an important work in several volumes which 
were to be called collectively " The Survey of London." 
The first volume in the series, " London in the Eigh- 
teenth Century," appeared last winter, and it is ex- 
pected that the third volume will be published next 

Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. have undertaken the 
American publication of a new series of English re- 
prints of old-time favorites. " Doctor Syntax " and 
" Mytton's Memoirs " are the two volumes first pub- 
lished, and they are made very attractive by the re- 
production of all the original illustrations, which in both 
these cases are colored. Blake's Illustrations of Job, 
Ainsworth's " Windsor Castle," and Bewick's fables, 
are among the issues soon to follow. 

With the September issue " The Printing Art " en- 
ters upon its second volume, having achieved during 
the half-year of its existence a success not often scored 
by any new periodical. The appeal of this magazine is 

not alone to the practical printer; its interest is no less 
vital to book lovers and those who are but indirectly 
concerned with the making of books. By the sound- 
ness of its teachings and the example of its mechanical 
beauty, " The Printing Art " bids fair to do more to 
raise the standards of American typographic taste than 
any other force now at work. 

Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co., who are now bringing 
out the " National " edition of Daniel Webster's works 
in eighteen volumes, to be sold only by subscription, 
will publish in the Fall a book of Webster's best speeches 
entitled " Daniel Webster for Young Americans." This 
book will contain, in addition to the important speeches 
by the great statesman, an introduction and notes by 
Prof. Chas. F. Richardson of Dartmouth College and 
an essay on Webster as a master of English style by 
Edwin P. Whipple. 

Better things than usually emanate from American 
" private presses " may confidently be expected of the 
" Village Press," lately established at Park Ridge, 
Illinois, by Messrs. F. W. Goudy and W. H. Ransom. 
Both proprietors have had practical experience in the 
printing craft, and Mr. Goudy is in addition a decora- 
tive artist of ability and reputation. The first pro- 
duction of the press will be a reprint of the essay on 
" Printing " by William Morris and Emery Walker, 
from the volume of " Arts and Crafts Essays." 

The next work in the series of notable Americana in- 
augurated by Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. last Fall with 
a reprint of the Lewis and Clark Journals, will be an 
edition of Father Louis Hennepin's " A New Discovery," 
based on the second issue of 1698, and edited by Mr. 
Reuben Gold Thwaites. Besides the regular library 
edition in two octavo volumes, there will be a limited 
edition on hand- made paper which from a typographical 
point of view will probably form the most attractive 
historical reprint yet put forth by an American pub- 

Mr. Henry Frowde has just acquired a series of 
drawings on wood made by George Cruikshank nearly 
fifty years ago to illustrate " The Pilgrim's Progress." 
These drawings have never yet been published, and 
they will form the chief feature of an edition de luxe of 
Bunyan's masterpiece which will be issued from the 
Oxford University Press in the autumn. Some of the 
drawings were cut on wood under the artist's own di- 
rection, and the others have now been similarly pre- 
pared, and each is to be printed as a separate plate on 
Japanese paper. For upwards of thirty years these 
drawings have been in the possession of a well-known 
collector, who was a friend of Cruikshank, and they 
are thoroughly characteristic of the artist's genius. 

Some interesting additions will be made during 
the coming Fall and Winter to the limited " Riverside 
Press editions " published under the imprint of Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. The volumes so far an- 
nounced comprise a work by Mrs. Elizabeth Robins 
Penuell entitled "My Cookery Books," illustrated with 
numerous reproductions of old engravings and titles ; 
" The History of Oliver and Arthur," a mediaeval Latin 
romance translated into English by William Leighton 
and Eliza Barrett, illustrated with fifty engravings re- 
drawn from the old wood-cuts that appeared in the 
original ; " Fifteen Sonnets of Petrarch," selected and 
translated by Mr. Thomas Wentworth Higginson ; and 
the third and concluding volume of the sumptuous folio 
reprint of Montaigne's Essays. 




Announcements of Fall Books. 

The Dial's list of the books announced for publica- 
tion this Fall, presented herewith, is as usual the earli- 
est comprehensive and classified information given to 
the public regarding the important forthcoming books 
of the present season. Entry is here made of more 
than twelve hundred titles, representing the season's 
output of over fifty leading American publishers. The 
list has been prepared entirely from advance informa- 
tion secured especially for this purpose. All the books 
entered are presumably new books — new editions not 
being included unless having new form or matter; and, 
with a few necessary exceptions, the list does not in- 
clude Fall books already issued and entered in our reg- 
ular List of New Books. While no attempt has been 
made to include titles as titles merely, regardless of 
their significance or interest to our readers, yet it is 
believed that no really important title is missing from 
this list. One important exception must be noted, — 
the books to be issued by the Macmillan Co., whose 
list, always of much interest, unfortunately reached us 
too late for insertion here. The announcements of this 
firm will, however, be given in our next issue. Some 
of the more interesting features of the present list are 
commented on in the leading editorial in this issue of 
The Dial. 


My Own Story, by J. T. Trowbridge, illus., $2.50 net; 
also limited uncut edition, $3. net.— Henry Ward Beeeh- 
er, by Lyman Abbott, with photogravure portraits, 
$1.75 net: also limited uncut edition, §2.25 net.— Rem- 
iniscences of an Astronomer, by Simon Newconib, with 
photogravure portrait. $2.50 net.— American Men of 
Letters series, new vol.: John Greenleaf Whittier, by 
George R. Carpenter, with portrait, $1.10 net; also 
limited uncut edition, $1.50 net.— William Wetmore 
->" arid his Friends, by Henry James, 2 vols., with 
photogravure portraits.— Life and Letters of Margaret 
J. Preston, by Elizabeth Preston Allan, with photo- 
gravure portrait, $2. net. — Memoirs of Rufus Putnam, 
edited by Kowena W. Buell, Jllus.— William Ellery 
Channing. by Paul Revere Frothingham, 50 cts. net. 
(Houghton. Mifflin & Co.) 

Autobiography of Seventy Years, by Senator George F. 
Hoar. 2 vols., with portrait, §7.50 net.— Reminiscences 
of the Civil War, by General John B. Gordon, with 
portraits. $3. net. — Memoirs of Madame de Montespan, 
by H. Noel Williams, illus. in photogravure, $7.50 net. 
(Charles Scribner's Sons.) 

Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson, by Thomas E. 
Watson, illus.— Lucretia Borgia, by Ferdinand Gregor- 
ovius. trans, by J. L. Garner, illus.— Spencer Kellogg 
Brown, his life in Kansas and his death as a spy, 1842- 
1863, by George Garuner Smith.— tiistoric Lives series, 
new vols.: Anthony wayne, by John R. Spears; Cham- 
plain, the Founder of New France, by Edwin Asa 
Dix; Sir William Pepperell, by Noah Brooks; each §1. 
net.— The Life of Lord Beaconsfield, by Wilfred Mey- 
nall. 2 vols. — Great Commanders series, new vol.: Ad- 
miral Porter, by James Russell Soley, with portrait, 
$1.50 net.— My Literary Life, by Madame Adam (Ju- 
liette Lamber), with portrait, $1.40 net. (D. Appleton 
& Co.) 

Recollections. Personal and Literary, by Richard Henry 
Stoddard, edited by Ripley Hitchcock, with introduc- 
tion by Edmund Clarence Stedman, illus., $1.50 net; 
limited large-paper edition, $7.50 net. (A. S. Barnes 
ic Co.) 

Memoirs of Henri de Blowitz, illus., $3. net.— Memoirs 
of Madame Vigee Lebrun, trans, and edited by Lionel 
Strachey. illus.. $2.75 net. (Doubleday. Page & Co.) 

Hawthorne and his Circle, by Julian Hawthorne, illus., 
$2.25 net.— The Making of a Journalist, an autobiogra- 
phy, by Julian Ralph, illus., $1.25 net.— A Keystone 
of Empire, the story of Emperor Francis Joseph of 

Austria, by the author of "The Martyrdom of an Em- 
press," with portraits, $2.25 net.— Portraits from the 
Sixties, by Justin McCarthy, $2. net. (Harper & 
Emile Zola, novelist and reformer, an account of his 
life, work, and influence, by Ernest Alfred Vizetelly, 
illus., $3.50 net.— The Life of St. Mary Magdalen, 
trans, from an unknown 14th century Italian writer 
by Valentine Hawtrey, with introductory note by 
Vernon Lee, illus., $1.50 net.— Memoirs of a Royal 
Chaplain, 1729 to 1763, being the correspondence of 
Edmund Pyle, D.D., domestic chaplain to George II., 
with Samuel Kerrich, D.D., vicar of Dersingham and 
rector of Wolverton and West Newton, edited by Al- 
bert Hartshorn, with portraits, $5. net. (John Lane.) 
Philip Schuyler, Major-General in the American Rev- 
olution, by Bayard Tuckerman, illus. in photogravure, 
$1.60 net.— Memoirs of an American Lady, with 
sketches of manners and scenes in America previous 
to the Revolution, by Mrs. Anne Grant, edited by 
James Grant Wilson, new and cheaper edition, $3.50 
net.— A King's Romance, the story of Milan, first 
King of Servia, by Frances Gerard, $4. net.— The Sailor 
King, William IV., his court and his subjects, by J. 
Fitzgerald Molloy, 2 vols., illus., $6.50 net.— Modern 
English Writers series, new vol.; Thackeray, by 
Charles Whibley, $1. net. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Laura Bridgman, Dr. Howe's famous pupil and what 
he taught her, by Maud Howe and Florence Howe 
Hall, illus., $1.50 net.— Memoirs of Monsieurs D'Artag- 
nan, Captain-Lieutenant of the 1st Company of the 
King's Musketeers, now for the first time trans, into 
English by Ralph Nevill, limited edition, 3 vols., with 
portraits, $9. net. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 

Life and Prlncipate of the Emperor Nero, by Bernard 
W. Henderson, illus., $3. net.— Doctor William Pepper, 
by Francis Newton Thorpe, illus. — From Manassas to 
Appomattox, memoirs of General James Longstreet, 
new edition, illus., $3.— Wesley and his Preachers, their 
conquest of Britain, by G. Holden Pike, $1.75 net. 
(J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

The Love Affairs of Mary Queen of Scots, by Martin 
Hume, $4. net.— Contemporary Men of Letters series, 
edited by William Aspenwall Bradley, first vols.: Bret 
Harte. by H. W. Boynton; Walter Pater, by Ferris 
Greenslet; Charles Dudley Warner, by Mrs. James 
T. Field; Gabrielle d' Annunzio, by Joel Elias Spin- 
garn; Maurice Maeterlinck, by the editor; each 75 cts. 
net. (Mcclure, Phillips & Co.) 

George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham, by Lady 
Winifred Burghclere, illus., $6. net.— The Temple Au- 
tobiographies, first vols.: Autobiography of Benjamin 
Franklin; Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini, 2 vols.; 
Autobiography of Hans Andersen; each illus., per 
vol., $.i.25 net.— Little Biographies, new vols.: The 
Young Pretender, by Charles S. Terry; Sir Walter 
Raleigh, by I. A. Taylor; each illus., $1. net.— Life of 
Philander Chase, first Bishop of Ohio and Illinois, by 
Laura Chase Smith, illus., $3. net. iE. P. Dutton & Co.) 

Thirty Years of Musical Life in London, by Hermann 
Klein, illus., $2.40 net.— Theodore Leschetizky, by the 
Comtesse Angele Potocka, trans, by Genevieve Sey- 
mour Lincoln, illus., $2. net. (Century Co.) 

Napoleon I., by August Fournier, edited, with critical 
bibliography of Napoleonic literature, by E. G. Bourne. 
(Henry Holt & Co.) 

Christopher Columbus, his life, work, and remains, by 
John Boyd Thacher, Vols. II. and III., completing the 
work, each illus., per vol., $9. net; limited collector's 
edition, in 6 vols., $90. net. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Stevensoniana, by J. A. Hammerton, limited edition, 
illus., $4.50 net.— Barbizon Days: Millet, Corot, Rous- 
seau, and Barye, by Charles Sprague Smith, new 
"Fontainbleau" edition, illus. in photogravure, etc., 
$3.50 net. (A. Wessels Co.) 

Abraham Lincoln and his Presidency, by J. H. Barrett, 
with portraits. (Robert Clarke Co.) 

The First of the Hoosiers, by George Cary Eggleston, 
$1.20 net. (Drexel Biddle.) 

My Mamie-Rose, the story of my regeneration, by Owen 
Kildare, $1.50 net. (Baker & Taylor Co.) 

Life and Times of Galileo, by J. J. Fahie, illus., $5. 
(James Pott & Co.) 

Marie Corelli, the writer and woman, by T. F. G. 
Coates, illus., $1.50 net. (G. W. Jacobs & Co.) 



[Sept. 16, 

Recollections of Elijah Kellogg, chapters from his life 
and selections from his writings, edited by Wilmot B. 
Mitchell, illus., $1.20 net. (Lee & Shepard.) 

Asser's Life of King Alfred, together with the "Annals 
of Saint Neot," erroneously ascribed to Asser, edited 
by W. H. Stevenson, M.A. (Oxford University 

An Apostle of the Wilderness, the life and labors of 
James Lloyd Breck, D.D. (Thomas Whlttaker.) 


A New Discovery, by Father Louis Hennepin, an ex- 
act reprint of the edition of 1698, with introduction, 
notes, and analytical index by Reuben G. Thwaites, 
2 vols., illus., $6. net; limited large-paper edition, $18. 
net.— How George Rogers Clark Won the Northwest, 
and other essays in Western history, by Reuben Gold 
Thwaites, illus., $1.20 net.— From Empire to Republic, 
the struggle for constitutional government in Mexico, 
by Arthur Howard Noll, with frontispiece, $1.40 net. 
— Famous Assassinations, by Francis Johnson, with 
portraits, $1.50 net.— A Short History of Mexico, by 
Arthur Howard Noll, revised edition, with new ma- 
terial, 75 cts. net. (A. C. McClurg & Co.) 

History of the Civil War In the United States, by W. 
Birkbeck Wood, A.M., and Colonel Edwards, with in- 
troduction by Colonel Henderson, with maps.— Ireland 
under English Rule, a plea for the plaintiff, by Thom- 
as Addis Emmet, 2 vols., $5. net.— Contemporary France, 
by Gabriel Hanotaux, trans, by John Charles Tarver, 
M.A., Vol. II. 1874 to 1878, Vol. III. 1879 to 1889, Vol. 
IV. 1890 to the end of 1900; each with portraits, $3.75 
net.— Story of the Nations series, new vols.: The South 
American Republics, by Thomas C. Dawson, 2 vols.; 
Parliamentary England, by Edward Jenks, M.A. ; each 
illus., per vol., $1.35 net. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Original Journals of Lewis and Clark, edited by Reuben 
Gold Thwaites, probably in 10 vols., illus.— Eighty 
Years of Union, by James Schouler, LL.D., $1.75 net. 
— A Court in Exile, the romance of the Stuarts, by 
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A Book of Verse 

Miss Gillespy is a real p