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c/^ Semi- Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


January 1 to June 16, 1907 







Acton's Ideals of History E. D. Adams 221 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey 211 

America, The Spanish Discovery of Anna Heloise Abel 342 

American History, Stirring Chapters of . . . David Y. Thomas 179 

Animal Life, Studies in Charles Atwood Kofoid 365 

Architecture, Sturgis's History of Irving K. Pond 137 

" Ben-Hur," The Author of Percy F. Bicknell 34 

BuRNEYs, The, in St. Martin's Street .... Edith Kellogg Dunton 177 

Carducci, Giosue 131 

Catechism, The, up to Date T. D. A. Cockerell 341 

Cat's-Cradle in Many Lands . . . . . . . Frederick Starr 336 

Central Asia, England and Russia in ... . Frederic Austin Ogg 311 

Chemistry and Criticism 97 

Confederate Leader, War Memoirs of a . . . Walter L. Flem,ing 332 

Coveted Lands, Journeyings in H. E. Coblentz 43 

Drama, A Clinic on the 3 

Dutch Republic, Lesson of the William Elliot Griffis 250 

Economics^ Elementary, The Teaching of . . . M. B. Hammond 36 

Expatriated American, Home Lvipressions of an Percy F. Bicknell 176 

Fiction, Recent William Morton Payne 13, 142, 225, 314, 375 

French Dramatists, The Greatest of . . . . A. G. Canfield Ill 

Garden-Lovers, Books for Edith Granger 367 

Garrison, Wendell Phillips 173 

German Empire, Dual Structure of the . . . James W. Garner 105 

Gods, Withstanding the T. D. A. Cockerell 79 

Great Editor, Career of a W. H. Johnson 216 

Greece under the Franks : An Unremembered Age F. B. R. Hellems 306 

Hohenlohe Memoirs, The Lewis A. Rhodes 71 

Homeric Queries, Mr. Lang's Pa^d Shorey 248 

Idealist, A Realistic Study of an Percy F. Bicknell 280 

Japan, Religions of William Elliot Griffis 335 

La Salle's Last Voyage, Story of Laturence J. Burpee ....... 283 

Leighton, The Many-sided Edith Kellogg Dunton 309 

Librarian, The, and his Charge P&rcy F. Bicknell 73 

Library, Hours in a . 65 

Literary Apostles, Some Famous Percy F. Bicknell 134 

Literary Censorship, History of Arthur Howard Noll 338 

Literary Conflict, Echoes of a Famous . . . Charles H. A. Wager 39 

Literature, The Master-Note in Charles Leonard Moore 28 

Marie Antoinette, The Flight of Henry E. Bourne 141 

Mars, The Red Planet HerheH A. Howe 75 

Medieval Italy, Trade Organizations of . . . Laurence M. Larson 41 

Meredith, Owen, Letters of Charles H A. Wager 182 

Music and its Votaries Josiah Renick Smith 11 

Musicians and Music, Three Books on ... . Josiah Renick Smith 224 

New-Englanders, The Old, and the Rest of Us . Charles Leonard Moore 299 

Ninety North, Within Three Degrees of . . . Percy F. Bicknell 304 

Octogenarians, Our 241 

Parson and Knight William Morton Payne 102 

iv. INDEX 


Peace, Some Hoped-fok Victories of Percy F. Bicknell 246 

Poetry, Recent WUliam Morton Payne 252 

Public Library, The, and the Children . . . Walter Taylor Field 67 

Quotations, The Abuse OF 327 

Railroads, Justice to the John J. Halsey 282 

Reconstruction, Inside Light on David Y. Thomas 10 

Romance, The Breath of Percy F. Bicknell 359 

Russo-Japanese War, International Law in the J. W. Garner 285 

Scholarly Life, The Record of a . . . . . . Joseph Jastrow 78 

Science and Literature 275 

Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Charles H. A. Wager 220 

Snow and Ice, In the Land of . H. E. Coblentz 185 

Social Sermons for the Times Charles Richmond Henderson .... 12 

Social Unrest, Signs of Charles Richmond Henderson .... 287 

Socialistic Principles and Problems Eunice Follansbee . 110 

Spanish Phantasies, A Book of George G. Brownell 135 

Texas Way, The 171 

Theatrical Autopsy, A 129 

Thoreau in his Journals F. B. Sanborn 107 

Travels Far and Near '. . . . H. E. Cohlentz 371 

Truth-Seeker, Travels of a Percy F. Bicknell 8 

Victorian Literature, The Charles Leonard Moore 242 

Washington Life IN Early Days Sara Andrew Shafer 139 

Western Frontier, Two Bishops of the . . . Arthur Howard Noll 247 

Western Fur-Trade, Literature of the . . . Lawrence J. Burpee 212 

Whistler, The Art of Frederick W. Gookin 218 

Wild, Dramas of the May Estelle Cook 369 

Wild Flowers of England, The Sara Andrew Shafer 364 

Casual Comment 5, 31, 69, 99, 133, 173, 214, 245, 276, 302, 329 361 

Academic Courage, Decay of 99 Fiction, The Serious Study of 5 

Alcohol as a Stimulus to Literary Productivity ... 6 Fiction, Uses of 173 

American Cities, Aspects of 32 Fiction-Reading as a " Rest Cure " 100 

" American-English," Our Much-Decried 245 Fielding Bicentenary, The 215 

Author, A Self-Complacent 303 French Novel, The Yellovr-backed, in Sober Dress . 331 

Authors' Club and Publishing Association 215 Generous Offer Generously Declined, A 363 

Authorship, Emoluments of 133 German and American Reading Habits 214 

Barbarism, A Tendency to Relapse into 329 Good Joke, Longevity of a 362 

" Bentzon, Th.," Death of 175 Great Men, Avocations of 245 

Best Literature, Popularization of the 175 " Greatest Scandal Waits on Greatest State "... 215 

Best Literature, Universality of the , . 330 Helicon Hall, Burning of 278 

Bibliographical Work in Libraries 70 Hero-Worship on the Wane 33 

Book-Advertising, Extraordinary Methods of . . . 302 Hispanic Society of America 330 

Book Publishing, Some of the Problems of 31 Historical Novelist, Inaccuracies of an 101 

Books and the Moral Consciousness 133 Howells, British Appreciation of ^303 

Boston, Mr. H. G. Wells's Reproof of 329 Index Expurgatorius as a Book-Advertiser, The . . 7 

British Museum Reading-Room Dome, The .... 365 Irving's Old Home in New York 133 

Browning in Seattle 133 James, Henry, Literary Methods of 214 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, Death of 33 " Lazyships " at Harvard, The Endowment of ... 31 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, Library of the Late .... 303 Librarian, A, who is also a Human Being 245 

Brunetiere's Successor in the French Academy ... 70 Librarian who Reads, The 215 

Burns, Visible Memorials to, in Scotland 302 Librarians, Misplaced Zeal on the Part of 302 

Charlotte Bronte's Husband, Death of 7 Library of Congress, Annual Report of the .... 101 

Civil Service, Literary Leisure in the 331 Library Workers, An Irritating Practice among . . 69 

Commercial Literature, A Curiosity in 32 Literary Criticism, Amenities of 363 

Contemporary Judgments, Aberrations of ... . 245 Literary Criticism, An Endowed Journal of ... . 99 

Crucifixes, Expulsion of the 329 Literary Outlook, Pessimistic Despondency over the . 215 

Culture, Thirteen Million DoUars for ..... . 278 Literary Wrangle, The Latest 330 

Cultured Ear, A Shock to the 215 Literature, Commercialization of 99 

" Dandy, A Dug-up " 302 London Literary Happenings 33 

Dickens Library, A National 174 Longfellow's Last Photograph 174 

Drama, Revival of Interest in the 31 Low-Priced Novels and the Circulating Libraries . . 101 

Dullards, Encouragement to 363 " Maclaren, Ian," Death of 331 

Emerson as Judged by his Classmates 361 Magazine Poetry, A Year of 100 

Endowed Theatre, Dreams of an 70 Mill, John Stuart, A Posthumous Work of 363 

English Authorship, A Grievance of ...... . 363 Munchausen's Prototype " . . . . 7 

English Novels, Prices of 69 New Englander, an Old, Eighty-eighth Birthday of . 361 

Esperanto, Simplicity of 215 Ninety-six Novels from the Same Pen 133 

"Parmer's Almanac," The Old 6 Oberlin, The Dramatic Awakening at 140 


Casual Comment (continued). p^oj, 

Omar Khayy&m's Bubdiydt, A Hebraization of . . . 175 

Paper and Light for Reading, The Right 331 

Passing Pier Seventy 302 

Pater, Why Mr. Wright is to Give us a New Life of . 69 

Pedigrees Made to Order 330 

People who do not Bead Books 7 

" Phonographic Canned Tongue " 363 

Poets, The Irritability of 362 

Poets' Trade-Union, A 173 

Presidential Praise of Books 214 

Private Letters, Right to Publish 33 

Public Library, An Unappreciated 331 

Public Library as an Educational Force 70 

Puritan Family, Last Representative of a Famous . 277 

Baleigh, Professor, Andrew Lang's Praise of ... 374 

Rare Books, Record Prices for 33 

Reference-Library Idea, The 277 

Robinson Crusoe's Island 215 

Rural Free Delivery for Libraries 70 

Scapegrace of Story, The 278 

Shakespeare, A National Monument to 276 

Shakespeare and Raleigh 133 

Shakespeare as Hero of a Novel 7 

Shakespeare, Mr. Ben Greet's Mode of Presenting . . 278 

Shakespeare, Tolstoy's Attempted Overthrow of . . 6 


Shakespeareana Manufactured in England for the 

American Trade 133 

Sidney's Arcadia, First Draft of 278 

Sixteenth-Century Drama on a Twentieth-Century 

Stage 363 

Smallest Book Ever Printed 70 

Sneeze, The, in Literature 100 

Spanish-American Peoples, New Literary Movement 

among the 174 

Spelling-Reform, Enforced, History and Futility of . 6 

Steerage, Literature of the 245 

" Subterranean Literature " in Germany 69 

Superannuated Authors, Guardians for 173 

Teaching, Less than a Dollar a Day for 278 

Teaching the Young Idea how to Shoot 32 

" Temple Bar," The Demise of 191 

Thefts, Extraordinary, Stories of 362 

Things New but Not True 214 

Tolstoi's Peasant Critics 277 

Traheme, Thomas, Poems of 331 

Warren, Samuel, One Hundredth Birthday of ... 331 

Wells, H. G., An Announcement from 70 

Women Writers of Fiction in England 214 

Words, Innate Depravity of 277 

World-Language, An Artificial 33 

Shakespeareana, Craze for 245 

Announcement of Spring Books, 1907 191 

One Hundred Books for Summer Reading, A Descriptive List of 381 

Briefs on New Books 17, 45, 81, 114, 145, 187, 228, 256, 288, 316, 343 

Briefer Mention 20, 48, 84, 117, 190, 231, 319 

Notes 20, 48, 85, 118, 149, 191, 232, 260, 292, 319, 347, 380 

Lists of New Books 21, 49, 85, 118, 150, 199, 233, 261, 293, 320, 348, 384 



Abbot, Henry L. Problems of the Panama Canal, new edi- 
tion 319 

Acton, Lord. Cambridge Modem History, Vol. IV., The 

Thirty Years' War 223 

Acton, Lord. Lectures on Modem History 222 

Adams, Charles Francis. Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses 319 

Adams, Oscar Pay. Sicut Patribus, and Other Verse 253 

Addams, Jane. Newer Ideals of Peace 246 

" A. L. A. Portrait Index " 46 

Alexander, D. A. Military History of the State of New York 18 

Alexander, E. P. Military Memoirs of a Confederate 332 

Allen, Philip Loring. America's Awakening 116 

Archer, William, and others. Collected Works of Ibsen, 

117, 190, 260, 305 
Avebury, Lord. On Municipal and National Trading, new 

edition 292 

Baldwin, J. Mark. Mental Development, new edition 83 

Balfour, Lady Betty. Personal and Literary Letters of 

Robert, First Earl of Lytton 182 

Barclay, Armiger. The Kingmakers 379 

Barine, ArvMe. Princesses and Court Ladies 116 

Baring-Gould, S. A feook of the Pyrenees 380 

Barker, J. Ellis. Rise and Decline of the Netherlands 2.50 

Barrington, Mrs. Russell. Life, Letters, and Work of 

Frederic Leighton 309 

Bates, Arlo. Talks on Teaching Literature 149 

Battersby, H. F. Prevost. The Avenging Hour 143 

Baughan, E. A. Music and Musicians 12 

Beebe, C. William. The Bird 19 

Bell, Gertrude Lowthian. The Desert and the Sown. : 371 

Bennett, John. The Treasure of Peyre Gaillard 227 

Benson. Arthur Christopher. Beside Still Waters 344 

Berry, Riley M. Fletcher. Fruit Recipes 260 

Bigelow, John. Peace Given as the World Giveth 347 

Black, Ebenezer C, and George, Andrew J. New Hudson 

Shakespeare 292 

Blackmar, Frank W. Economics, new edition 320 

" Blanchan, Neltje." Birds Every Child Should Know 260 

Boardman, Rosina C. Lilies and Orchids 380 

Bourne, Edward G. " Original Narratives of Early Amer- 
ican History" 84, 260 

Bowen, Marjorie. The Viper of Milan 15 

Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt 291 


Briggs, Charles A. International Critical Commentary on 

the Psalms 115 

" Brock, Father Van den. Story of " 292 

Brooke, Emma F. Sir Elyot of the Woods 377 

Brookfield, Frances M. The Cambridge " Apostles " 134 

Brown, Charles Reynolds. Social Message of the Modem 

Pulpit 12 

Brown, Theron. Butterworth's Story of the Hymns and 

Tunes 260 

Browne, J. H. Balfour. Essays Critical and Political, new 

edition 232 

Brunetifere, Ferdinand. Balzac 346 

Bryce, James. Studies in History and Jurisprudence, new 

edition 260 

Burgess, Gelett. Are You a Bromide ? 97 

Burrill, Katharine. Loose Beads 188 

Burton, Theodore E. John Sherman 189 

Butler, Arthur Gray. Charles I., second edition 292 

Butler, Arthur Gray. Harold, new edition 232 

Calvert, Albert F. " Spanish Series " 347 

Campbell, Douglas H. University Text-Book of Botany, 

second edition 347 

Canfleld, Arthur G. Poems of Victor Hugo 84 

Card, Fred W. Farm Management 320 

" Carnegie Library Catalogue " 232, 319 

Carr, Sarah Pratt. The Iron Way 316 

Cams, Paul. Chinese Life and Customs 381 

Cams, Paul. Chinese Thought 381 

Cams, Paul. The Rise of Man 381 

Carus, Paul. The Story of Samson 381 

Cary, Elisabeth Luther. Works of James McNeill Whistler 218 

Chapman, Frederic. A Queen of Indiscretions 147 

Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. Moli^re Ill 

Cheney, John Vance. William Penn's " Fruits of Solitude " 48 

Cholmondeley, Mary. Prisoners 15 

Clark, Andrew. The Shirbura Ballads 319 

Clark, Victor S. The Labour Movement in Australasia — 288 

Clarke, Maud Umfreville. Nature's Own Garden 364 

" Classiques Fran?aise " 292, 380 

Clausen, George. Six Lectures on Painting, and Aims and 

Ideals in Art 232 

Clauston, T. S. The Hygiene of Mind 291 

Clemens, Samuel L. Christian Science 190 




Cleveland, Grover. Pishing and Shooting Sketches 189 

Cobb, John Storer. The Nibelungenlied 20 

Colby, Frank Moore, and Sandeman, George. Nelson's 

Encyclopaedia 259 

Colby, Miss J. Rose. Literature and Life in School 233 

Conway, Moncure Daniel. My Pilgrimage to the Wise Men 

of the East 8 

Cook, Albert S. The Higher Study of English 17 

Cornish, Charles J. Animal Artisans 366 

" Craddock, Charles Egbert." The Amulet 227 

" Craddock, Charles Egbert." The Windfall 315 

Craig, W. J. Shakespeare's Works, Oxford edition 20 

Crawford, F. Marion. A Lady of Rome 15 

Crockett, S. R. The White Plume 144 

Crump, Lucy. Letters of George Birkbeck Hill 78 

Cundall, Frank. Lady Nugent's Journal 316 

Cunynghame, Henry H. European Enamels 230 

Cust, Lionel. Anthony Van Dyck, condensed edition 232 

Dana, John Cotton, and Kent, Henry W. Literature of 
Libraries in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 73 

Dargan, Olive Tilford. Lords and Lovers 253 

Davidson, H. A. Irving's Sketch Book 117 

Davidson, John. Holiday 254 

Davis, Mrs. M. E. M. The Price of Silence 380 

Davis, Richard Harding. Real Soldiers of Fortune' 83 

Dawson, Coningsby William. The Worker 255 

Dawson, W. J. Makers of English Poetry, and Makers of 

English Prose, new editions 20 

De Morgan, William. Alice-for-Short 375 

De Morgan, William. Joseph Vance 13 

De Windt, Harry. Through Savage Europe 374 

Derby, George. A Conspectus of American Biography 259 

Dillon, Mary. The Leader 17 

Ditmars, Raymond L. The Reptile Book 365 

Dobson, Austin. Goldsmith's Poems, revised edition 117 

Dow, Earle W. Emancipation of Mediaeval Towns 347 

Doyle, A. Conan. Sir Nigel 14 

" Drawings of the Great Masters " series 231 

Dreyfus, Lilian Shuman. In Praise of Leaves 254. 

Dudeney, Mrs. Henry. The Battle of the Weak 226 

Dunham, Edith. Fifty Flower Friends with Familiar Faces 381 
Edwardes, Marian. A Summary of the Literatures of 

Modem Europe 381 

Edwards, A. Herbage. Kakemono 19 

Edwards, William Seymour. On the Mexican Highlands 374 

Edwards, William Seymour. Through Scandinavia to 

Moscow 82 

Einstein, Lewis. Da Vinci's Thoughts on Life and Art 259 

Eldridge, William Tillinghast. Hilma 314 

Eliot, Charles W. Four American Leaders 48 

Elliot, Daniel G. Catalogue of Mammals in the Field 

Columbian Museum 319 

" English Music," " Music-Story " series 11 

Esposito, M. Early Italian Piano Music 20 

" European Galleries, Representative Art of " 232 

Fairbanks, Arthur. Mythology of Greece and Rome 117 

Fiala, Anthony. Fighting the Polar Ice 185 

Field, Walter Taylor. Fingerposts to Children's Reading. . 228 

Findlater, Jane H. The Ladder to the Stars 15 

Finot, Jean. Race Prejudice 230 

FitzGerald, Edward. " Agamemnon " of jEschylus, Elm Tree 

Press edition 117 

Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Reconstruc- 
tion 10, 290 

Fletcher, S. W. Soils 117 

Fletcher, William I. Annual Library Index, 1906 260 

Fling, Fred Morrow. A Source Book of Greek History 380 

Flint, Robert. Socialism Ill 

Foord, Miss J. Decorative Plant and Flower Studies 229 

Forbes-Lindsay, C. H. Panama, the Isthmus and the Canal 84 

Forman, H. Buxton. Keats's Poems, Oxford edition 48, 293 

Fox, Herbert F. Westminster Versions 48 

Eraser, John Foster. Pictures from the Balkans 44 

Prazar, M. D. Practical European Guide 381 

Fuller, Hubert Bruce. The Purchase of Florida 19 

Fyvie, John. Comedy Queens of the Georgian Era 188 

Gale, Zona. Romance Island 227 

Gallatin, Albert E. Whistler : Notes and Footnotes 346 

Gardner, Edmund G. The King of Court Poets 84 

Garneau, Alfred. Poesies 256 

Garrod, H. W. The Religion of All Good Men 79 

Gasquet, Abbot. Lord Acton and his Circle 221 

Geddes, J., Jr. La Chanson de Roland 48 

Gilman, Lawrence. Strauss' Salome 118 

Oilman, Lawrence. The Music of To-Morrow 224 

Goetschius, Percy. Thirty Piano Compositions of Men- 
delssohn 190 


Gould, George M. Biographic Clinics, Vols. IV.-V 258 

Gowans, Adam L. The Book of Love 20 

" Great Etchers " series 231 

Greely, A. W. Handbook of Polar Discoveries, third edition 83 

Gruyer, Paul. Napoleon, King of Elba 257 

Gulick, Luther H, The Efficient Life 258 

Guyer, Michael F. Animal Micrology 48 

Hadley, Arthur Twining. Baccalaureate Addresses 290 

Hadow, G. E. and W. H. Oxford Treasury of English 

Literature 292 

Hapgood, Hutchins. The Spirit of Labor 287 

Hapgood, Isabel F. Tourgu6nieff's Works, new subscription 

edition 319, 347 

Harben, Will N. Ann Boyd 16 

Harwood, Edith. Notable Pictures in Rome 347 

Hawker, Mary Elizabeth. Old Hampshire Vignettes 259 

Hay, John, Addresses of 189 

Haydon, A. L. Book of the V. C 118 

Henderson, W. J. Art of the Singer 11 

Hershey, Amos S. International Law and Diplomacy of 

the Russo-Japanese War 285 

Hichens, Robert. The Call of the Blood 143 

Hildrup, Jessie S. Missions of California 232 

Hill, Constance. The House in St. Martin's Street 177 

Hill, David J. History of European Diplomacy, Vol. II 189 

Hill, Frederick Trevor. Lincoln the Lawyer 20 

Hilty, Carl. The Steps of Life 188 

Hoare, G. Douglas. Arctic Exploration 231 

" Hobbes, John Oliver." The Dream and the Business 15 

" Hohenlohe Memoirs, The " 71 

Holdich, Thomas H. Tibet the Mysterious 44 

Holme, Charles. Studio Year Book of Decorative Art 293 

Hope, Anthony. Sophy of Kravonia 142 

Home, Henry. Psychological Principles of Education 46 

Howard, Burt Estes. The German Empire 105 

Hudson, Henry N. Essays on English Studies 232 

Hulbert, Archer Butler. Pilots of the Republic 147 

Hume, Martin. Through Portugal 373 

Hunt, Gaillard. First Forty Years of Washington Society 139 

Huntington, Helen. The Days that Pass 254 

Button, Edward. The Cities of Spain 135 

Hyde, Henry M. The Upstart 314 

Ives, George B. Bibliography of Oliver Wendell Holmes. . . 293 

James, Henry. The American Scene 176 

Jaur6s, Jean. Studies in Socialism 110 

Jayne, Caroline Furness. String Figures 336 

Jenks, Tudor. In the Days of Goldsmith 232 

Jerrold, Walter. Poems of Hood 117 

Jewett, Frances Gulick. Town and City Il8 

Jowett, Benjamin. Interpretation of Scripture, "London 

Library " edition , 232 

Kingsbury, Susan M. Court Book 46 

Klein, Abbe Felix. La D^ourverte du Vieux Monde 289 

Knox, George William. Development of Religion in Japan 335 

Landon, Perceval. Under the Sun 372 

Lang, Andrew. Homer and his Age 248 

Lang, Elsie M. Literary London 48 

" Langham Series of Art Monographs" 48 

" Large Print Library " 293 

Laughlin, Clara E. Felicity 315 

Lawton, Frederick. Life and Work of Auguste Rodin 290 

Layard. George Somes. Sir Thomas Lawrence's Letter-bag 82 

Lee, Sidney. Shakespeare and the Modern Stage 220 

Lefevre, Edwin. Sampson Rock of Wall Street 378 

Leland, Charles G., and others. Collected.Works of Heine. . 48 

Lenotre, M. Flight of Marie Antoinette 141 

Levussove, M. S. New Art of an Ancient People 149 

Lippmann, Fr. Engraving and Etching 846 

Lloyd, Albert B. Uganda to Khartoum 372 

Locke, William J. The Beloved Vagabond 142 

Lodge, John EUerton. "The Agamemnon " 347 

Lodge, Sir Oliver. Substance of Faith Allied with Science. . 341 
Longfellow's " Hanging of the Crane," Centennial edition. . 292 
Longfellow's Inaugural Address at Bowdoin College, limited 

reprint 1*9 

" Longmans' Pocket Library " 380 

Lounsbury, Thomas R. The Text of Shakespeare 39 

" Love- Letters of Henry VIII. to Anne Boleyn " 81 

Lovett, Robert Morss. A Winged Victory 378 

Low, Sidney. A Vision of India 372 

Lowell, Percival. Mars and its Canals 76 

Lucas, E. V. Fireside and Sunshine 288 

McCarthy, Justin Huntly. The Illustrious O'Hagan 146 

McCook. Henry Christopher. Nature's Craftsmen 366 

McCracken, W. D. The Italian Lakes 373 

McCutcheon, John T. Congressman Pumphrey 292 

MacFall, Haldane. Ibsen 116 



McGaffey, Ernest. Outdoors 370 

McMaster, John Bach. History of the People of the United 

States. Vol. VI 179 

Macmillan's " New Classical Library " 118 

McPherson, Logan G. The Working of Railroads 282 

Madden, John. Forest Friends 369 

Maeterlinck, Maurice. Measure of the Hours 346 

Magill, Edward Hicks. Sixty-five Years in the Life of a 

Teacher 258 

Maitland, Frederic W. Life and Letters of Leslie Stephen . . 102 
Maitland, J. A. Fuller. Grove's Dictionary of Music and 

Musicians, Vol. Ill 256 

" Malet, Lucas." The Far Horizon 225 

Marchmont, Arthur W. In the Cause of Freedom 379 

Marsh, George L. Sources and Analogues of ' The Flower 

and the Leaf •. 190 

Martin, Martha Evans. The Friendly Stars 317 

Mason, A. E. W. Running Water 376 

Mason, Daniel Gregory. The Romantic Composers 224 

Massee. Qeorge. Text-Book of Plant Diseases 319 

Mathew, Frank. Ireland, cheaper edition 380 

Maugham, R. C. F. Portuguese East Africa 373 

Maxwell, W. B. The Guarded Flame 14 

" Men of the Kingdom " series 320, 380 

Merrill, George P. Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils, new 

edition 149 

MoUoy, Fitzgerald. Sir Joshua and his Circle 115 

Monroe, William Bennett. The Seignorial System in Canada 318 

Moore, Mrs. N. Hudson. Collector's Manual 81 

Moore, Robert W. German Literature, sixth edition 231 

More, Paul Elmer. Shelbume Essays, fourth series 118 

Morgan, Thomas Hunt. Experimental Zoology 228 

Morley, Margaret W. Grasshopper Land 380 

Morse, Edward S. Mars and its Mystery 75 

Moss, Mary. The Poet and the Parish 16 

Mottelay, Paul F. The Bridge Blue Book 117 

Munro, H. A. J. Translations into Latin and Greek Verse 48 

Munson, J. Reminiscences of a Mosby Guerrilla 145 

Murray, Gilbert. Euripides' Medea, The Trojan Women, 

and Electra 118 

" Musicians' Library " 20, 190, 260, 347 

Neilson, William Allen. Shakespeare's Works, Cambridge 

edition 20 

Nettleship, R. L. Thomas Hill Green • 47 

Nettleton, George Henry. Major Dramas of Sheridan 320 

Nevill, Ralph. Reminiscences of Lady Dorothy Nevill 148 

" Newnes' Art Library " 232 

Nicholson, Meredith. The Port of Missing Men 227 

Nicholson, Watson. Struggles for a Free Stage in London 114 
Nicolay, John G., and Hay, John. Complete Works of 

Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg editon. Vols. XI.-XII 190 

Nicoll, Robertson. The Key of the Blue Closet 47 

Norton, Charles Eliot. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 117 

Noyes, Alfred. Poems 255 

Ogden, RoUo. Life of Edwin Lawrence Godkin 216 

Oxenham, John. The Long Road 376 

"Oxford Editions of the Poets" 117, 293 

" Oxford Library of Translatiohs " 85 

" Oxford Higher French Series " 117, 260 

Page, Thomas Nelson, Collected Works of, "Plantation" 

edition 190 

Page, Thomas Nelson. The Coast of Bohemia 252 

Papinot, M. E. Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Geographic 

du Japon 84 

Parrish, Randall. Bob Hampton of Placer 16 

Parsons, Mrs. Clement. Garrick and his Circle 18 

Pasture, Mrs. Henry de la. The Lonely Lady of Grosvenor 

Square 226 

Paul, Herbert. History of Modem England, Vol. V 114 

Payne, Will. When Love Speaks 228 

Peary, R. E. Nearest the Pole 304 

Peloubet, Francis N. Studies in the Book of Job 318 

Pemberton, Max. The Diamond Ship 377 

Penfield, Frederic Courtland. East of Suez 371 

Philipp, Isidor. Anthology of French Piano Music 347 

Phillips, David Graham. The Second Generation 314 

Phillpotts, Eden. The Whirlwind 376 

Phillpotts, Eden, and Bennett, Arnold. Doubloons 144 

Pier, Arthur Stanwood. The Young in Heart 317 

Plantz, Samuel. The Church and the Social Problem 13 

Piatt, Hugh E. P. A Last Ramble in the Classics 83 

Plumb, Charles S. Types and Breeds of Farm Animals 232 

Plunkett, Charles Hare. The Letters of One 343 

Pond, Oscar Lewis. Municipal Control of Public Utilities. . 117 
Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen. Shakespeare's Works, 

" First Folio " edition 20, 232 

Potter, Margaret. The Princess 315 


Pratt, James B. Psychology of Religious Belief 148 

Prince, Leon C. Bird's-Eye View of American History 347 

Prudden, T. Mitchell. On the Great American Plateau 374 

Putnam, George Haven. Censorship of the Church of Rome 338 

Quiller-Couch, A. T. Poison Island 377 

Quiller-Couch, A. T. Sir John Constantine 144 

Raleigh, Walter. Samuel Johnson 231 

Ravenel, Mrs. St. Julien. Charleston 291 

Rawlinson, W. G. Turner's " Liber Studiorum," new edn. 319 
Raymond, George Lansing. Essentials of .Esthetics, new 

edition 117 

Reich, Emil. Alphabetical Encyclopaedia of Institutions, 

Persons, Events, etc., of Ancient History and Geography 118 

Reich, Emil. Success in Life 230 

Reid, Whitelaw. Greatest Fact in Modern History 319 

Reinecke, Carl. Twenty Piano Compositions of Mozart 260 

Rexford, Eben. Pour Seasons in the Garden 367 

Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States, 

Vols. VI.-VII 180 

Richards, Laura E. Letters and Journals of Samuel 

Gridley Howe : The Greek Revolution 187 

Rickett, Arthur. The Vagabond in Literature 146 

Riedl, Frederick. History of Hungarian Literature 115 

Rivers. W. H. R. The Todas 317 

Roberts, Charles G. D. Haunters of the Silences 369 

Robinson, W. The Garden Beautiful 367 

Rodd, Sir Rennell. The Princes of Achaia and The 

Chronicles of Morea 306 

Root, Robert K. The Poetry of Chaucer 46 

Rose, Elise Whitlock. Cathedrals and Cloisters of the 

South of France ^ 345 

Rose, J. Holland. Napoleon's Last Voyages 257 

Rosebery, Lord. Lord Randolph Churchill 114 

Russell, G. W. E. Social Silhouettes 46 

Russell, George W. E. Seeing and Hearing 316 

Ryan, John A. A Living Wage 288 

Schofield, William H. English Literature from the 

Norman Conquest to Chaucer 115 

ScoUard, Clinton. Easter-Song 253 

Seams, Frank Preston. Life and Genius of Hawthorne 45 

Sedgwick, Mabel Cabot. The Garden Month by Month .... 368 

Seeley, E. L. Stories of the Italian Artists from Vasari 318 

Seignobos, Charles. History of Civilization 47 

Seligman, Edwin R. A. Principles of Economics 36 

Shaw, George Bernard. Dramatic Opinions and Essays 13 

Sheehan, Father. Early Essays and Lectures 84 

Sherring, Charles A. Western Tibet and the British Bor- 
derland 43 

Shoemaker, Michael Myers. Winged Wheels in France 373 

Sidgwick, Mrs. Alfred. The Kinsman • 377 

Sladen, Douglas. Encyclopaedia of Sicily 260 

Slater, J. H. English Book Prices Current, 1905-6 84 

Slicer, Thomas R. The Way to Happiness 231 

Smith, Alice Prescott. Montlivet 17 

Smith, Goldwin. Labour and Capital 287 

Smith, H. Maynard. In Playtime 229 

Smith, Ruel Per ley. Prisoners of Fortune 378 

Snaith, John CoUis. Henry Northcote 143 

Spargo, John. Socialism 110 

Spears, John R. Short History of the American Navy 320 

Staley, Edgcumbe. The Guilds of Florence 41 

Stanley, Caroline Abbott. A Modem Madonna 379 

Stedman, Edmund C, and Thomas L. Complete Pocket- 
Guide to Europe, 1907 edition 380 

Steel, Flora Annie. A Sovereign Remedy 225 

Stephen, H. L. Cobbett's English Grammar 190 

Stephen, Sir James. Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, 

new edition 232 

Stevenson, Burton E. Affairs of State 16 

Stiles, Henry Reed. Joutel's Journal of La Salle's Last 

Voyage, new edition 283 

Stone, Christopher. Sea Songs and Ballads 190 

Sturgis, Russell. History of Architecture, Vol. I . .^. 137 

Swettenham, Sir Frank. British Malaya 343 

Symons, Arthur. Introduction to the Study of Browning, 

new edition 232 

Symons, Arthur. The Fool of the World 254 

Synge, M. B. Short History of Social Life in England 289 

Talbot, Rt. Rev. Ethelbert. My People of the Plains 247 

Taylor, Bert Leston. The Charlatans 228 

Taylor, Mary Imlay. The Impersonator 17 

" Temple Greek and Latin Classics " 48 

Thistleton-Dyer, T. F. Folklore of Women 257 

Thomas, Calvin. Anthology of German Literature 113 

Thomas, Edward. Pocket Book of Poems and Songs for the 

Open Air 380 

Thomas, W. I. Sex and Society 146 




Thrum, Thomas G. Hawaiian Folk Tales 292 

Torrence, Ridgely. Abelard and H6loise 252 

Torrey, Bradford. Friends on the Shelf 145 

Torrey, Bradford. Writings of Thoreau, Walden edition... 107 
Tower, Walter S. History of the American Whale Fishery . . 347 
Tozzer, Alfred M. Comparative Study of the Mayas and the 

Lacandones 117 

Train, Arthur. The Prisoner at the Bar 291 

Trask, Katrina. Night and Morning 254 

Treffry, Elferd E. Encyclopaedia of Familiar Quotations. . . 20 

Trine, Ralph Waldo. In the Fire of the Heart 287 

Tucker, T. G. Life in Ancient Athens 148 

" Tudor and Stuart Library " 257 

Tuttle, Rt. Rev. T. S. Reminiscences of a Missionary Bishop 247 

Underwood, Loring. The Garden and its Accessories 81 

Vambery, Arminius. Western Culture in Eastern Lands. . . 312 

Vaughan, Charles Edwyn. The Romantic Revolt 319 

Waddell, L. Austine. Lhasa and its Mysteries, third edition 43 

Wallace, DUlon, The Long Labrador Trail 374 

Wallace, Lew, Autobiography of 34 

Wallace, Malcolm W. Abraham's Sacriflant 232 

Walters, H. B. The Art of the Greeks 147 

Ward, A. W. Works of Mrs. Gaskell, " Knutsford " edition 231 

Washington, Booker T. Frederick Douglass 345 

Watson, H. B. Marriott. A Midsummer Day's Dream 226 

Watson, H. B. Marriott. The Privateers 226 


Watson, William. Text-Book of Practical Physics 118 

Weingartner, Felix. Symphony Writers since Beethoven . . 48 
"Wellcome's Photographic Exposure RecoVd and Diary" 

for 1907 320 

Wells, H.G. In the Days of the Comet 14 

" Wesley's Journal," abridged edition 179 

Weyman, Stanley J. Chippinge Borough 144 

Whitlock, Brand. The Turn of the Balance 314 

Whitson, John H. The Castle of Doubt 379 

"Who's Who " (English), 1907 117 

Williams, Elizabeth O. Sojourning, Shopping, and Studying 

in Paris 381 

Williams, Henry L. Lincolnics 117 

Woodburn, James A., and Moran, Thomas F. American 

History and Government 118 

Woodrow, Mrs. Wilson. The Bird of Time 345 

" Workingmen, A Practical Programme for " 110 

Wright. Carroll D. The Battles of Labor 287 

Wright, Mabel Osgood. Birdcraft. seventh edition 319 

Wright, Thomas. Life of Walter Pater 280 

Wyld, Henry Cecil. Historical Study of the Mother Tongue 344 
Young, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World 

of his Discovery 342 

Young, Filson. Mastersingers 224 

Zimmern, Helen. Italy of the Italians 187 


Concordance Society, The 233 

German and American Reading Habits. American 

Librarian 279 

London Times, The, and the Publishers. A Scientific Editor 101 

Magazines, On Reading the. 8. P. Delany 175 

Negro American, The " Case " of the. W. E. B. DuBois.. . 278 

Shakespeare for Children. Charles Welsh 303 

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No. 493. JANUARY 1, 1907. 

Vol. XLIL 





The serious study of Fiction. — The history and 
futility of enforced spelling-reform. — The old 
" Farmer's Almanac." — Tolstoy's attempted over- 
throw of Shakespeare. — Alcohol aa a stimulus to 
literary productivity. — The people who do not 
read books. — The Index Expurgatorius as a book- 
advertiser. — Baron Munchausen's prototype. — 
The death of Charlotte Bronte's husband. — A 
novel with Shakespeare as hero. 


F. Bicknell 8 


Y. Thomas 10 

MUSIC AND ITS VOTARIES. Josiah Benick Smith 11 


Richmond Henderson 12 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 13 
De Morgan's Joseph Vance. — Maxwell's The 
Guarded Flame. — Conan Doyle's Sir Nigel. — 
Wells's In the Days of the Comet. — John Oliver 
Hobbes's Dream and the Business. — Miss Find- 
later's The Ladder to the Stars. — Miss Cholmon- 
deley's Prisoners Fast Bound. — Miss Bowen's The 
Viper of Milan. — Crawford's A Lady of Rome. — 
Stevenson's Affairs of State. — Parrish's Bob 
Hampton of Placer. — Harben's Ann Boyd. — Miss 
Moss's The Poet and the Parish. — Miss Taylor's 
The Impersonator. — Miss Smith's Montlivet. — 
Miss Dillon's The Leader. 


Incentives to a higher range of literary study. — 
Garrick and the social life of his time. — The in- 
scrutable problem of New York politics. — The 
structure and activities of birds. — Pleasant scenes 
from familiar Japanese life. — The story of the 
acquisition of Florida. — The legal side of Lincoln's 
life and character. 





" Why have we made such a beggarly mess 
of our drama?" The question is a pertinent 
one, and Mr. Henry Arthur Jones, who first 
puts it and then attempts to find its answer, is 
an expert whose critical opinion is backed by a 
record of very substantial performance in the 
field of dramatic craftmanship, a record cover- 
ing a quarter-century of industrious activity. 
Mr. Jones, who recently visited this country, 
took occasion to deliver himself of certain views 
concerning the art which he represents, views 
which were primarily offered to academic au- 
diences at Harvard and Yale and are now being 
circulated in printed form among the larger < 
American public. The Harvard address, upon 
" The Corner Stones of Modern Drama," is 
published in pamphlet form ; while the Yale 
lecture, called " Literature and the Modem 
Drama," appears in the " Atlantic Monthly" for 
December. Both are thoughtful and weighty 
deliverances, sound in their fundamental con- 
tentions and deserving of the most attentive 

The primary cause of our barrenness in 
dramatic production is naturally provided by 
our inheritance of puritanism. If the better 
elements of our society — or even a large pro- 
portion of these better elements — avert their 
gaze from the drama, or are filled with suspicion 
when they actually give it a share of their atten- 
tion, it becomes a matter of course that support 
of the stage and encouragemeilt of dramatic 
writing will be left to a public of lower average 
quality than would otherwise be the case. This 
lowering of the standards of taste will be notice- 
able all along the line ; it will give everywhere 
an undue advantage to the artificial over the 
natural, to the mediocre over the excellent, to 
vacuity over thought, and to vidgarity over re- 
finement. It is not too much to say, with Mr. 
Jones, — 

" We owe the imbecility and paralysis of our drama 
to-day to the insane rage of puritanism that would see 
nothing in the theatre but a horrible, unholy thing to be 
crushed and stamped out of existence. . . . The feel- 
ing of horror and fright of the theatre, engendered at 
the Restoration, is even to-day widely prevalent and 
operative among religious classes in England and Amer- 
ica. It muddles and stupefies our drama, and degrades 


[Jan. 1, 

it from the rank of a fine art to the rank of a somewhat 
disreputable form of popular entertainment." 

This is surely an unwholesome condition, 
and, what is more to the* point, it is an unnat- 
ural condition for the English-speaking people. 
For our race " is naturally and instinctively a 
dramatic race ; a race of action ; a race fitted 
for great exploits on the outer and larger stage 
of the world's history, and also for great ex- 
ploits on the inner and smaller stage of the 
theatre. We have proved our mettle on both 
stages. We hold the world's prize for drama." 
And yet our estate is now so miserable that even 
the smaller European countries are justified in 
pointing the finger of scorn in our direction. 

Turning from his general arraignment to 
more specific considerations, Mr. Jones proceeds 
to conduct a clinic upon our pitiable case, and 
indicates the " symptoms and conditions " which 
seem to him the " secondary and resultant causes 
and signs " of the disease from which we suffer. 
They are, in the order of statement (which is 
also the order of their importance) the following : 
The divorce of our drama from literature, the 
absence " from modern English plays of any 
sane, consistent, and intelligible ideas about 
morality," the separation of the drama from its 
sister arts, the lack of standards and traditions, 
the want of suitable means for the training of 
actors, the star system with all its attendant 
evils, and the too great " dependence upon trans- 
lations and adaptations of foreign plays." All 
of these discouraging facts are " inextricably 
related to each other ; many of them are, indeed, 
only different aspects of the same facts ; they 
are woven all of a piece with each other, and 
with that puritan horror of the theatre which I 
believe to be the cardinal reason that neither 
England nor America has to-day an art of the 
drama at all worthy the dignity, the resources, 
and the self-respect of a great nation." We 
might discuss each count of this indictment at 
length, but this condensed diagnosis is all that 
space will allow. 

In their attitude toward the stage, Mr. Jones 
distinguishes three classes of people in the Anglo- 
American public. First, there are the mere 
seekers after amusement, " newly enfranchised 
from the prison house of puritanism, eager to 
enjoy themselves at the theatre in the easiest 
way, without traditions, without any real judg- 
ment of plays or acting." This is the largest 
class, and next to it we have the class of those 
who occasionally visit the theatre, but generally 
feel uneasy about the drama, and are " quite 
indifferent to its higher development and to its 

elevation into a fine art." The third class, a 
large one also, containing " some of the sound- 
est and best elements of the Anglo-Saxon race, 
very influential, very respectable, very much to 
be regarded, and consulted, and feared," assumes 
an attitude of active hostility to the stage and 
all connected therewith. This hostile spirit, 
imagining its motives to be of the highest, 
" everywhere sets up a current of ill-wiU and 
ill-nature toward the drama throughout the two 
entire nations ; it everywhere stimulates oppo- 
sition to the theatre ; it keeps alive prejudices 
that would otherwise have died down two hun- 
dred years ago ; and it is, in my opinion, the 
one great obstacle to the rise and development 
of a serious, dignified, national art of the drama." 
This is the spirit against which missionary effort 
should be directed, not so much in the way of 
denunciation as of appeal, for it is, after all, a 
spirit of sincerity, however mistaken in its view 
and however narrow in its knowledge. 

Such an appeal is eloquently voiced by our 
author in a lengthy passage from which the fol- 
lowing sentences may be extracted : 

" The dramatic instinct is ineradicable, inexhaustible; 
it is entwined with all the roots of our nature ; you may 
watch its incessant activity in your own children ; almost 
every moment of the day they are acting some little 
play; as we grow up and strengthen, this dramatic in- 
stinct grows up and strengthens in us; as our shadow, 
it clings to us; we cannot escape from it; we cannot 
help picturing back to ourselves some copy of this 
strange, eventful history of ours; this strange earthly 
life of ours throws everywhere around us and within 
, us reflections and re-reflections of itself; we act it over 
and over again in the chambers of imagery, and in 
dreams, and on the silent secret stage of our own soul. 
When some master dramatist takes these reflections, and 
combines them, and shapes them into a play for us, very 
Nature herself is behind him, working through him for 
our welfare. So rigidly economical, so zealously frugal 
is she, that what is at first a mere impulse to play, a mere 
impulse to masquerade and escape from life — this idle 
pastime she transforms and glorifies into a masterpiece 
of wisdom and beauty ; it becomes our sweet and lovable 
guide in the great business and conduct of life. * . . . 
This, then, is the use of the theatre, that men may learn 
the great rules of life and conduct in the guise of a play; 
learn them, not formally, didactically, as they learn in 
school and in church, but pleasantly, insensibly, spon- 
taneously, and oftentimes, believe me, with a more as- 
sured and lasting result in manners and conduct. . . . 
Look at the vast population of our great cities crowding 
more and more into our theatres, demanding there to be 
given some kind of representation of life, some form of 
play. . . . The effect of your absence, and your dis- 
countenance, will merely be to lower the moral and intel- 
lectual standard of the plays that will be given. Will you 
never learn the lesson of the English Restoration, that 
when the best and most serious c lasses of the nation de- 

• " The little mime which all children delight to play has but 
to wait for ^schylus, Shakespeare, Goethe, in order to receive for 
ts content the whole of human culture." — Thomas Davidson. 



test and defame their theatre, it instantly justifies their 
abuse and becomes indeed a scandal and a source of cor- 
ruption? Many of you already put Shakespeare next to 
the Bible, as the guide and inspirer of our race. Why 
then do you despise his calling, and vilify his disciples, 
and misunderstand his art? " 

These are searching questions, and the foe of 
the theatre, if he will but heed them, shoidd be 
led to an examination of his conscience that can 
hardly fail to soften inveterate prejudice and dis- 
arm hostile purpose. 

Having cleared the ground, as it were, by 
the preliminary exposition of the obstacles with 
which the drama has to contend, Mr. Jones 
proceeds to lay the corner stones of the dramatic 
edifice of the future. They are four in number. 
One is " the recognition of the drama as the 
highest and most difficult form of literature "; 
another is the dramatist's right " to deal with 
the serious problems of life, with the passions 
of men and women in the spirit of the broad, 
wise, sane, searching morality of the Bible and 
Shakespeare"; another is " the severance of the 
drama from popular entertainment " and its 
establishment as an art " in marked and eternal 
antagonism to popular entertainment "; and the 
fourth is the establishment of suitable systems 
of training for actors, and of schools (not in the 
narrow sense) for the encouragement of serious 
dramatic composition. Upon all of these sub- 
jects the author has something to say, and the 
first of them in particular, the relation of the 
drama to literature, is made the theme of the 
entire lecture delivered at Yale. " How many 
American plays," he asks, " are in active circu- 
lation among you, so that on reading them over 
you can put your finger on the fine passages 
that amused you or stirred you when you saw 
them acted ? " The question is too evidently 
ironical to call for an answer. The essence of 
the argument that follows is that our drama may 
acquire the character of literature, not by cloth- 
ing its lines in the verbal garb of imitative blank 
verse, and not by clothing its characters in the 
costumes of past ages, but by plunging into 
the pulsating life of the present, and by por- 
traying real men and women in real relations 
one with another. 

In some respects, Mr. Jones looks upon Amer- 
ica as more favorably predisposed than England 
to foster the reformed drama of the future . Since 
his return, he has unburdened himself of the im- 
pressions made by his visit in the columns of the 
London " Daily Telegraph," noting particularly 
the immense hold which the theatre has upon our 
public, and the urbane spirit of the audiences that 
throng our playhouses. With us, the theatre is 

" much more of an institution, less of an after- 
dinner entertainment " than with the English 
public. This view is flattering, but possibly a bit 
roseate. In similar strain, we read in the Har- 
vard lecture : " Your nation has, what all young- 
nations have, what England is losing, the power 
to be moved by ideas, and that divine resilient 
quality of youth, the power to be stirred and 
frenzied by ideals." We should like to believe 
this, and are inclined to think that there is some 
reason for such a faith. At least, we may do 
much to make it truth by taking to heart the elo- 
quent adjuration which closes this address. 

" Let your lives be fuller of meaning and purpose 
than ours have lately been; have the wisdom richly to 
endow and imceasingly to foster all the arts, and all that 
makes for majesty of life and character rather than for 
material prosperity and comfort. Especially foster and 
honour this supreme art of Shakespeare's, so much neg- 
lected and misunderstood in both countries : endow it in 
all your cities; build handsome, spacious theatres; train 
your actors : reward your dramatists, sparingly with fees, 
but lavishly with laurels; bid them dare to paint American 
life sanely, truthfully, searchingly, for you. Dare to see 
your life thus painted. Dare to let your drama ridicule 
and reprove your follies and vices and deformities. Dare 
to let it mock and whip, as well as amuse you. Dare to 
let it be a faithful mirror. Make it one of your chief 
counsellors. Set it on the siimmit of your national es- 
teem, for it will draw upwards all your national life and 
character ; upwards to higher and more worthy levels, to 
starry heights of wisdom and beauty and resolve and 


The serious study of fiction, so warmly advo- 
cated by Professor Phelps of Yale, is finding favor 
with many novelists of the day — or, one might 
safely affirm, with them all. Mr. Booth Tarkington 
enlarges on the benefits of such study, if devoted to 
novels of a certain type, in familiarizing the student 
with Indiana life and manners. Mr. Upton Sinclair 
is reported as declaring that novel-study will be 
required for a degree from the Jungle University, 
soon to be established at Helicon. M r. George Ada 
says a good word for the movement as one ( we will 
suppose) likely to result in a more serious study of 
college widowhood and other weighty sociological 
problems. Expectation is cherished that a student 
would gladly devote three or four times the number 
of hours to a course in modern novels that he would 
give to one in ancient language and literature, with 
a correspondingly greater intellectual quickening. 
Says Professor Phelps: "The two most beneficial 
ways to study a novel are to regard it, first, as an 
art form, and, secondly, as a manifestation of intel- 
lectual life." To this Mr. Ade adds : " But there 
are other ways. It is desirable to ascertain the 
identity of best sellers, and to study the reasons why 
they sell. The mechanism of publication should be 



[Jan. 1, 

studied also ; as, for example, the methods of pub- 
lishers in negotiating royalties, the best methods of 
street-car and bill-board advertising, the art of 
printing on rotten paper," etc. Manifestly the great 
novel-manufacturing industry must be recognized. 
Mumbling over the mummies of antiquity will no 
longer answer. ^ ^ ■ ^ 

The history and futility of enforced 
SPELLING-REFORM were ably discussed by Professor 
Mark H. Liddell in a recent lecture before the 
Twentieth Century Club of Boston. So-called re- 
form was undertaken as early as 1200 B. C. by 
Orm in his attempt to deVise a method of distin- 
guishing long from short vowels. Queen Elizabeth, 
among countless others possessed of more zeal than 
knowledge, tried her royal hand at revising our 
spelling. (Our own chief magistrate follows a dis- 
tinguished precedent.) In the "classic" age the 
movement halted, but received fresh impulse in the 
middle of the nineteenth century. "The current 
movement," said the lecturer; " furnishes little that 
is new, in spite of a somewhat impossible combina- 
tion of amateur enthusiasm, professional beneficence, 
and executive authority." He well urged that easy 
spelling might prove hard reading. " So many of 
our strong words being monosyllabic, of two or three 
sounds, it would be very difficult to identify them 
rapidly if they were spelled phonetically." " It is the 
eye that reads, not the ear : the value of an eye sug- 
gestion depends upon its distinction from the forms 
about it." Many other arguments were brought 
forward against spelling-reform as at present under- 
taken ; but it was not denied that reform is possible, 
even desirable, if instituted, for example, by a rightly 
constituted National Academy. Significant in con- 
nection with this whole subject, and encouraging also, 
is the recent refusal of Congress to follow the lead 
of the White House in the matter of heterography. 
■ • « 

The old " Farmer's Almanac " is appearing at 
this new-year's season as a welcome visitor in many 
households, especially in the Eastern states. Its 
respectable antiquity and unchanging form make it 
almost an American institution. Worthy of Poor 
Richard himself are some of its maxims, as for ex- 
ample : " Every man should attend well to his own 
business ; but this does not mean that he should 
never go from home." " Economy is a virtue ; but 
there is a true and a false economy." " While the 
hay should n't be shaken out when the morning dew 
is heavy upon it, you need not lie abed for the dew 
to dry ; there is plenty to do." Obvious at a glance 
is the wider application of the following : " It used 
to be thought that anything in the shape of apples 
would do for making cider ; but if you want a first- 
class product, you must use good stock." The house- 
wife is warned that " making mince pies is a serious 
matter and not to be lightly undei-taken. All the 
materials should be of the best quality, each ingre- 
dient have its due proportion, and the aggregate be 
blended into a harmonious whole." Weather pre- 

dictions in this almanac are eminently safe and 
conservative. The likelihood of " cold, raw winds " 
in early March will be disputed by none, nor the 
probability of " a few days of fine weather " later 
on. The occm'rence of " a few warm days " toward 
the middle of May is put down as not beyond the 
bounds of reasonable expectation. The unconscious 
humor of this historic annual makes it very cheerful 
reading. ... 

Tolstoy's attempted overthrow of Shake- 
speare now attracts the attention of the literary 
world. The first instalment of this remorseless dis- 
section of Shakespeare — whereby it is intended to 
tumble him down from a usm*ped eminence — ap- 
pears in the December " Fortnightly Review," and 
consists mainly in a picking to pieces of " King Lear " 
in order to display all its absurdities, anachronisms, 
improprieties, and impossibilities. "The unquestion- 
able glory of a great genius which Shakespeare en- 
joys," declares his latest critic, " and which compels 
writers of om" time to imitate him, and readers and 
spectators to discover in him non-existent merits — 
thereby distorting their aesthetic and ethical under- 
standing — is a great evil, as is every untruth." 
With that the Russian reformer girds himself to his 
self-appointed task of rectifying error and exposing 
sham, with all the narrowness and aU the devotion 
to one idea which we expect in a prophet but hardly 
desire in a literary critic. Of course what this honest 
unbeliever in Shakespeare fails to perceive, and what 
therefore puzzles him, is that literature and life, how- 
ever closely related, are not identical ; that in litera- 
ture the ideal element enters in to color and transform 
the bald reality, else poetry (whether lyric, epic, or 
dramatic) would be impossible. That his attack on 
Shakespeare will be taken seriously is not for a mo- 
ment to be apprehended, so amusing and at the same 
time so pathetic is this misdirection of great powers. 

Alcohol as a stimulus to literary produc- 
tivity is the subject of recent research prosecuted 
by Dr. F. van Vleuten, a German poet and medical 
student. In no country are the delights of wine, 
woman, and song more keenly appreciated than 
among the Teutons ; and as they are preeminently 
a writing and a wine and beer drinking people, 
their ideas on the relation of liquor to literature are 
worth considering. Out of one hundred and fifty 
leading German writers who were questioned on 
their habits and views in respect to the cup that 
cheers and also, occasionally, inebriates, one hun- 
dred and fifteen replied ; and the general nature of 
their replies is published in a Berlin literary journal. 
Ninety per cent avoid all alcoholic stimulants before 
work, but in hours of recreation find a glass of wine 
or beer refreshing and invigorating. The older men 
rather favor a moderate indulgence in drink even in 
working hours, while among the juniors total absti- 
nence is not without its followers. Herr Adolf 
Wilbrandt, the novelist and dramatist, sends in a 
laconic answer : "I drink wine, I also drink beer, 



because they increase my joy of living and intensify 
my emotions ; but I never take a drop of liquor in 
any form before work." On the whole, it is en- 
couraging to note a growing tendency in Germany 
to discriedit alcohol as an aid to good brain-work. 
The cold-water poets are gaining ground. 

• • • 

The people who do not read books are in so 
overwhelming a majority that it is a surprise, and 
a wholesome one, to readers to be reminded now and 
then of their own insignificant minority. One sin- 
gular fact is that writers of the greatest renown may 
have the fewest readers, — as, for example, Chaucer, 
Spenser, Shakespeare, MUton. Among eminent but 
little-read living authors, a clever English critic men- 
tions Mr. Henry James and Mr. Meredith. This 
writer ( Mr. E. V. Lucas ) says : " Few names could 
stand higher than his [Mr. James's], and yet it is prob- 
able that all the readers of his last novel could be 
comfortably housed in a town no bigger than Little- 
hampton. And if Hitchin were reserved for the 
genuine readers of Mr. Meredith there would prob- 
ably still be a number of empty houses." Those who 
really do read are these : " Confirmed spinsters 
read books, studious bachelors read books, invalids 
read books ; dons and schoolmasters read books ; 
young men and women on their way to business 
read books ; school-girls and school-boys read books ; 
old-fashioned folk in the evening read books. And 
that is about all. The vast mass of persons that 
remain . . . read no books. How can they ? Life 
comes first, and after life, play, and after play, sleep. 

Books are embroidery." 

• • • 

The Index Expurgatorius as a book-adver- 
tiser is demonstrating its merits in these days. 
" Eve's Diary," withdrawn fi'om circulation by a 
small country library, has leaped into something 
like national fame, and is in eager demand — all 
because the artist illustrating this harmless skit of 
Mark Twain's showed a natural disinclination to de- 
part from accepted tradition as to Garden-of-Eden 
fashions. Another of the same author's works, a 
book on Christian Science, is awaited with redoubled 
interest because of the unwillingness so long felt, or 
said to have been felt, by the publishers to issue it. 
The Hohenlohe memoirs have been speedily brought 
into world prominence by the German Emperor's 
explosions of indignation and wrath at their publi- 
cation. The Kaiser blames Prince Philip von Ho- 
henlohe, the late chancellor's eldest son ; he in turn 
blames his brother Alexander; Prince Alexander 
throws the blame on Professor Curtius, the literary 
adviser ; the Professor passes it on to the publisher ; 
and the publisher — what can we suppose him to do 
but throw up his cap and shout long life to the 

Baron Munchausen's prototype has been found 
by Professor Wilamowitz-MollendorfP, or, rather, the 
professor has found a number of ancient ingenious 
liars of the Munchausen stripe. One of them is Anti- 

phanes of Berge. Stephen of Byzantium says that 
"to be a man of Berge is to speak nothing true." 
(Burge, by the way, is, as Strabo tells us, " a village 
in the land of the Bisaltians as thou goest up the Stry- 
mon, distant from Amphipolis about two hundred 
stades." ) In a certain city, which is nameless, Anti- 
phanes, in the fourth centmy B.C., " heard the sounds, 
in summer, which had been frozen the previous win- 
ter." Splendidly mendacious also was Antonius 
Diogenes, who lived about the time of Alexander of 
Macedon. His " True History " is a masterpiece of 
plausible lying, though he blundered into an accidental 
verity in describing the midnight sun in Thule, a bit 
of truth inadvertently admitted also to the pages of 
Ctesias of Cnidus. One Timseus, too, and a certain 
Pytheas are said to have been adroit narrators of 
things that were not so. But, after all, there is no 
monopoly in lying, the great lies are not copyrighted, 
and hence probably the preeminence of our amiable 
Baron, who stood on the shoulders of all his prede- 
cessors. ... 

The death of Charlotte Bronti^'s husband, 
in his ninetieth year, would pass unnoticed but for 
the still-living fame of the long-dead wife. And yet 
the curate of Haworth was a remarkable man, if 
only for his half-century and more of reticence in 
regard to his illustrious better half. " I married 
Charlotte Bronte, not Currer Bell," he is reported to 
have declared when questioned about her. A recent 
writer calls him " a marvel of reticence in a garru- 
lous age." It was in 1854 that Mr. Nicholls mar- 
ried the daughter of the Rev. Patrick Brontg, after 
considerable opposition on the father's part. Upon 
her death in 1855 the widower took on himself the 
care of his father-in-law, and protected him against 
biographers too little appreciative of the old man's 
merits. The last part of his life was passed by 
Nicholls on a small estate in Ireland, where he lived 
in seclusion, an enigma to the outside world, or to 
such small fraction of it as chanced to give him a 
thought. . . . 

A novel with Shakespeare as hero, and 
entitled "A Comedy on Kronberg," has just been 
completed by Mr. Sophus Bauditz, a popular Danish 
writer of fiction. The story, which will probably 
appear in English as well as Danish, has to do with 
a company of English actors that went to Denmark 
in 1586. On the voyage one of these actors, named 
WUl, met with an accident, and on landing at Elsi- 
nore was nursed by Iver Kramme and his sister 
Christence. WhUe convalescing he read the Latin 
Chronicle of Saxo Grammaticus, and became much 
interested in the story of Prince Amlet. Christence, 
conceiving an affection for Will, and learning that 
he had a family in England, died, like Ophelia, by 
drowning. Among the characters, besides the En- 
glish actors, are Preben Gyldenstjerne and JOrgen 
Rosenkrands. Years after these events in Denmark, 
Kramme received a copy of " Hamlet " (first quarto ) 
and then first learned the identity of the man he 
had nursed. 


[Jan. 1, 

C^^ |t^to g00ks. 

The Travels of a Truth-Seeker.* 

Mr. Conway's "Earthward Pilgrimage" — 
his bursting of the bonds of superstition and 
supernaturalism — has proved (so most of his 
readers must think) a heavenward pilgrimage, 
a rising into regions of light and freedom, of 
breadth of view and clearness of vision. In the 
" Prolegomena " to his latest book, " My Pil- 
grimage to the Wise Men of the East," a work 
originally designed as a part of his Autobio- 
graphy, occur the following sentences, which well 
indicate the nature of the narrative : 

" Grateful am I to sit at the feet of any master, and 
nothing could give me more happiness than to find a 
master in the field to which the energies of my life have 
been given, — religion and religions. But herein my 
researches and experiences gradually developed eyes of 
my own. Whether they are strong or feeble, exact or 
inexact, they are my own organically, my only ones; 
and if they cannot weigh the full value of what they 
see, there is always the hope that others will derive 
from a truthful report some contribution to knowledge, 
— if only an example of visual perversity ! " 

Here we meet again that most engaging of 
John Stuart Mill's qualities — a willingness, an 
eagerness even, to be found in the wrong, if 
thereby the cause of truth can be served. As 
to the immediate occasion of this circumterres- 
trial voyage in quest of light, it appears that 
in 1882 Mr. Conway was invited to lecture in 
Australia, and as his South Place (London) con- 
gregation consented to give him a vacation after 
almost twenty years of faithfid service, substi- 
tutes were found to carry on his work during 
his absence, and he embarked, July 21, 1883, 
for New York, whence he continued across the 
continent and the Pacific Ocean to Honolidu, 
Australia, Ceylon, India, and thence home by 
way of Aden, Venice, and Paris, reaching Lon- 
don March 13, 1884. His search for wise men 
— .- sages who coidd answer his queries and set 
his doubts at rest — was evidently as vain as 
that of Socrates in his much more restricted 
journeyings, although he does not exactly fol- 
low the example of the son of Sophroniscus in 
asserting as much. Glimpses of the inquiring 
traveller here and there, and bits of anecdote 
and reflection from his pen, will best serve to in- 
troduce and commend his book to such as have 
not yet read it. " How many books are to be 
found," he asks, " which deal with the mental 
and moral facts of human life without prejudice 

* My Pilgrimage to the Wise Men of the East. By 
Moncure Daniel Conway. Illustrated. Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

and without estimating them by some tradi- 
tional standard of authority?" Few enough, 
certainly ; but of those few the volume before 
us may fairly be counted as one. 

In the days of Professor Andrews Norton, 
and of Mr. Conway's preparatory studies for 
the pulj)it, the Harvard divinity students, who 
used a well-known text-book of Norton's, were 
wont to style his daughters the " Evidences of 
Christianity." So also Mr. Conway found in the 
beautiful ladies of the late Colonel IngersoU's 
family, evidences of the benign influence of free 
thought. Of the famous free-thinker's warm- 
heartedness and family affection, and of his at- 
tachment to Walt Whitman, our author writes : 

" On IngersoU's last visit to Walt Whitman, — to 
whom he was bountiful, — he said, « Walt, the mistake 
of your life was that you did not marry. There ought 
to be a woman here,' he added, looking around at the 
poor chaotic room. (IngersoU's address at the funeral 
of Walt Whitman was the grandest and most impressive 
utterance of that kind which I have ever heard.) One 
very intimate friend of the family told me that when- 
ever one of them applied for money, IngersoU never 
asked how much, or what it was for, but pointed to a 
drawer and said, ' There it is; help yourself.' " 

Comparatively brief is the author's account 
of his travels until he reaches Ceylon. To his 
far-eastern impressions let us therefore give the 
most of our attention. A certain highly-educated 
Singhalese gentleman had some interesting 
things to tell the stranger. 

" Mr. Perera, a highly educated Buddhist, told me 
that the story of some English authorities of Buddha's 
birth from a virgin is unknown in Ceylon. Buddha's 
mother, Maia, died some days after Buddha's death, 
and in popular belief she was born a male god. My 
expressed hope that Buddha's father had become a god- 
dess amused him. . . . My friend was a loving reader 
of Emerson, but could not at all feel the interest of our 
phUosopher in immortality. Indeed, he said that he 
thought a belief that death was entire extinction would 
be to the vast majority of the human race glad tidings. 
What he said on this matter reminded me of Shake- 
speare's thoughts as expressed by Hamlet, and also by 
the condemned youth in ' Measure for Measure.' The 
humble millions of the world fear death largely because 
they have been terrified by notions of torment after 
death, or of interminable journeyings through vile 

A reflection with which the author closes 
one of his East-Indian chapters is noteworthy. 
After referring to the repulsiveness of certain 
clauses of the orthodox Christian creed, taken 
in their naked literalness, he concludes : 

" To those who like myself desire to preserve and 
continue all the varieties of religion in their own struc- 
tural development, it is a satisfaction to realize the 
extent to which the literalism of missionaries prevents 
their doing much real harm." 

A visit to the " Countess " Blavatsky and 



her little court of admirers at Adyar is enter- 
tainingly narrated. We quote a few passages. 

" Another person present was Mr. W. T. Brown of 
Glasgow, a young ihan of pleasant manners, who told 
me some of his marvellous experiences; but when I in- 
timated that I would like to carry away some little 
marvel of my own experience, the reply unpleasantly 
recalled vain attempts made through many years to 
witness a verifiable spiritualistic ' phenomenon.' I was 
once more put off with narratives of what had occurred 
before I came, and predictions of what might occur if I 
should come again. There was a cabinet shrine in which 
letters were deposited and swift answers received from 
the wonderful Mahatmas ; but when I proposed to write 
a note, I was informed that only a few days before the 
Mahatmas had forbidden any further cabinet corre- 
spondence. I said that was just my luck in such mat- 
ters; whenever a miracle occurs I was always too soon 
or too late to see it. My experience was that of Alice 
in the Looking-glass, — ' Jam yesterday, jam to-morrow, 
but never jam to-day. . . .' 

" She [Mme. Blavatsky] asked what was my par- 
ticular proposal or desire. I said, ' I wish to find out 
something about the strange performances attributed 
to you. I hear of your drawing teapots from under 
your chair, taking brooches out of flowers, and of other 
miracles. If such things really occur I desire to know 
it, and to give a testimony to my people in London in 
favor of Theosophy. What does it all mean ? ' She 
said with a serene smile, ' I will tell you, because you 
are a public teacher [here she added some flattery] , and 
you ought to know the truth : it is all glamour — people 
think they see what they do not see — that is the whole 
of it.' It was impossible not to admire the art of this 
confession. Mme. Blavatsky, forewarned by Professor 
John Smith of my intended investigation, had arranged 
precisely the one manoeuvre that could thwart it." 

Of course the cunning of the Indian fakirs failed 
to deceive this troublesome investigator, who, 
with persistence backed by rupees, soon arrived 
at an explanation of their mysteries. 

Passing to weightier matters, the author en- 
deavors to clear away some of our false notions 
in regard to various Oriental customs and beliefs. 
One of these erroneous impressions is that Jug- 
gernaut is a cruel god, and that self-immolation 
under the wheels of his car is acceptable to him, 
or indeed practised at all. On the contrary, Mr. 
Conway found him to be a benign and amiable 
deity, the "Lord of Life " and not of death. 
Some accident due to the pressure of a too-eager 
throng of his worshippers may have started the 
rimior of his blood-thirstiness. Another false 
notion is refuted in the following : 

" The most curious and obstinate error in Christen- 
dom is the notion that the Moslems are not Christians, 
and that Mohammed occupies the place of Christ. They 
are not only Christians, but the only ones in the East who 
maintain literally all of the miracles ascribed to Christ 
in the gospels, or relating to his birth. It is very rare 
to find among them a sceptic. " 

Then follows a remarkable conversation with 
Arabi, at that time a prisoner in Ceylon, on the 

expected reappearance of the Mahdi to over- 
throw the powers of wrong ; " and with him," 
added Arabi, " will presently appear Jesus 
Christ, who will rebuke the errors of those who 
claim to be the only Christians, and will unite 
all in the worship of one God." Asked why 
Mohammed himself shoidd not appear instead 
of Christ, he said : 

" ' Mohammed cannot appear again on earth ; he is 
dead.' ' But is not Christ similarly dead ? ' * No, 
Christ never died. There are two men who never died 
— Elias and Jesus. He who hung npon the cross was 
a mere effigy of Jesus. The crucifiers were deceived.' " 

The comparative mythology of religions inter- 
ested the author throughout his journey, and 
many instructive details were gathered together 
by him. The prosecution of his researches in Pal- 
estine was for some reason impracticable, and in 
opening his last chapter he regrets this. " My 
pilgrimage to the Wise Men of the East," he 
writes, " coidd not be continued in Palestine. 
What Wise Men were there ? " And further : 

" But what I had seen and learned in Asia inspired 
me with a feeling that I had not yet come close enough 
for personal recognition to the wise man to whom 
Christendom was crying Lord, Lord, while doing the 
reverse of what he said. I had known him as the cru- 
cified, had recognized him in the oppressed slave, and 
in many a suffering cause, but my occasional tentative 
essays about the individual Jesus — the flesh-and-blood 
man — still left him a sort of figurehead. There re- 
mained then a pilgrimage to be made, and I settled 
myself down to make it on shipboard during our 
week (nearly) of quarantine. But that exploration has 
continued to the day when this volume goes to press, 
and from notes written from time to time during 
twenty years are selected those contained in this final 

Into these still-continuing searchings for re- 
ligious truth there is here no space to enter ; we 
must take a reluctant leave of the book. Like 
its predecessor, Mr. Conway's Autobiography, 
the work shows him in the ripeness of his 
powers, and in the enjoyment of his fearless in- 
dependence as a free-thinker, but never playing 
the part of a scoffer ; a reverent seeker, rather, 
for light and guidance, if such there be other 
than the inner light and the guidance that is, 
after all, self-guidance. His perceptions have 
lost nothing of their keenness, his hand has not 
forgot its cunning in literary craftsmanship. In 
form and appearance the book is patterned 
after the two volumes of the author's Autobi- 
ography, of which it constitutes an essential 
part. It has numerous illustrations, a photo- 
gravure frontispiece portrait of the author, 
facsimile letters addressed to him, copious foot- 
notes, and a good index. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 



[Jan. 1, 

Inside IjIght on Reconstruction.* 

The great problem which confronted the North 
at the close of the Civil War was first of all polit- 
ical, how the States that had attempted secession 
should be restored to their proper places in the 
Union. Closely connected with this was a ques- 
tion at bottom social in its nature, but designedly 
made one of politics, — the future of the slaves 
that had just been freed. The great problem 
confronting the South was primarily economic 
and social. The question of restoration to the 
Union was indeed important, but of greater mo- 
ment was the rebuilding of ruined homes and the 
proper adjustment of relations with the blacks. 
The political features of Reconstruction have 
been studied thoroughly, and have been presented 
fairly well in several cases; but it is doubtful 
if the final word has been said on the subject. 
Indeed, it cannot very well be said until the com- 
paratively neglected field of economic and social 
Reconstruction receives more adequate treatment. 
The comparative neglect of this field is not hard 
to understand. There is a certain spectacidar 
attraction about things done at Washington. 
The material for the political side of the contro- 
versy, consisting of speeches of Congressmen, 
Presidential Messages, Acts of Congress and of 
State conventions and legislatures, has been 
widely published and is easily accessible. The 
economic and social conditions, upon a knowl- 
edge of which legislative action ought always to 
be based, are often imperfectly known at the 
time and are not well described, and hence lose 
importance in the perspective. 

In view of the excellent work done by Mr. 
Edward McPherson in collecting documents on 
Reconstruction, one may naturally ask, Why 
another collection ? In the first place, McPher- 
son's has long been out of print and is now diffi- 
cult to secure. In the second place, compiling in 
the midst of the Reconstruction period, the author 
could not always distinguish the essential from 
the non-essential. And finally, the work is too 
" official," and lays too little stress upon the eco- 
nomic and social features of the case. That Dr. 
Fleming recognizes the importance of this ele- 
ment in our history is shown by the space allotted 
to it in his " Civil War and Reconstruction in 
Alabama." As might reasonably be expected, his 
collection of Reconstruction documents is note- 
worthy for the same reason. 

Most accounts of Reconstruction begin with 
the plans and theories, Lincoln's of course coming 

* DocuMENTAKY HiSTOKY OF Keconstruction. By Walter L. 
Fleming, Ph.D. Volume I. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark 

first. The first chapter of Dr. Fleming's " Docu- 
mentary History of Reconstruction " gives some 
idea of the destruction of property incident to the 
war and of the consequent destitution among both 
whites and blacks, and also of the general temper 
of both races, all consisting of contemporaneous 
accounts by Northern as well as Southern ob- 
servers. Regarding the feeling of the Southern 
whites over the residts of the war, Northern opin- 
ion was divided at the time ; but the verdict of 
history is that they accepted defeat and all it 
meant as gracefully as coidd have been expected. 
Their economic ruin was well-nigh complete. It 
is hard to see how statesmen could ever have 
hoped to improve their feeling for the Union by 
a policy calcidated to prolong this bad condition. 
Yet surrender was followed by confiscation frauds 
and the cotton tax of five cents a pound. The lat- 
ter was believed by the New York Chamber of 
Commerce to be unjust and oppressive, and an 
appeal was made to Congress to remove it, but 
to no avail. Such a policy appears more like one 
of revenge and punishment than of conciliation. 
The so-called " Black Codes " of the South 
called forth many diatribes at the time, and no 
doubt had their influence in bringing on some 
of the harsh legislation of Congress. When one 
studies the laws, as printed by Dr. Fleming in 
connection with a statement of the conditions 
they were designed to meet, they appear far less 
outrageous than when studied through the 
speeches of Congressmen, or in Blaine's " Twenty 
Years in Congress." It is only to be regretted 
that the author did not see fit to print some of 
them in parallel columns with laws then on the 
statute-books of several New England States, 
Maine among them. A negro who lived at the 
time declared that while some of these laws 
were " diabolical and oppressive," many of them 
were passed only to deter freedmen from crime. 
In a prefatory note, Dr. Fleming speaks of 
these laws as never having been in force because 
suspended by the military authorities immedi- 
ately after their passage. In the very document 
from which we have just quoted, they are spoken 
of as being in force in Florida. However, they 
never were extensively or rigidly enforced, — 
conditions might have been better if they had 

Eighty pages of Dr. Fleming's book are 
devoted to the Freedman's Bureau and the 
Freedman's Bank, revealing the good these in- 
stitutions did and the wreck and ruin they finally 
wrought to both whites and blacks. The docu- 
ments relating to the bank, in particular, are 
interesting. At the time of its failure the de- 




posits amounted to f 3,2 99,201. It was simply 
wrecked by " political jobbers, real estate pools, 
and fancy-stock sjseculators " who had no regard 
for the rights of the depositors. 

A document of interest in connection with 
the recent movement to limit the elective fran- 
chise in the South is one entitled " A Southern 
Proposal for a Fourteenth Amendment." After 
the rejection of the amendment proposed by 
Congress, there was a meeting of Southern gov- 
ernors in Washington to propose a form which 
would be acceptable to the Southern whites. It 
differs from the Fourteenth Amendment in that 
it leaves it open to the States to disfranchise on 
account of race or color, but imposes as a pen- 
alty for so doing the exclusion of the entire race 
or color so disfranchised from the basis of rep- 

The first volume of Dr. Fleming's collection 
of Reconstruction documents takes the story 
down "to the readmission of the States. On the 
whole, the work is very creditable to both pub- 
lisher and editor. However, one can regret that 
there were not a few more editor's notes. In 
several cases, these were really necessary to 
throw light on the dociunents used. 

David Y. Thomas. 

Music and its Votaries.* 

In art, as in literature, we are acquainted 
with the phenomenon of an age of learning suc- 
ceeding an age of genius — the original output 
of one period becoming the quarry for the crit- 
ical scholarship of the next. To this law, if it 
be a law, music offers no exception. Grieg and 
Saint-Saens are still with us as stars of magni- 
tude ; the quality of Strauss and Elgar still 
awaits final appraisal ; but on the whole, since 
the passing of Wagner, Tschaikowsky, and 
Brahms, we may be said to have entered the age 
of books about music. " Music — how it came 
to be what it is " — " What is good music ?" — 
" How to listen to music " — are slightly vary- 
ing titles of readable treatises by well-informed 
writers ; and there are dozens more like them. 
Every year the tide of books on musical subjects 
flows fuller and deeper ; and on its surface come 
to us the three volmnes included in this review. 

The musical criticisms of Mr. W. J. Hender- 
son, contributed to di fferent New York news- 

• The Art op the Singer. By W. J. Henderson. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

English Music. (Music-Story Series.) New York: Imported 
by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Music AND Musicians. By E. A. Baughan. New York: 
John Lane Co. 

papers during the past twenty-five years, have 
generally been recognized as candid, fearless, 
and intelligent. Readers have found in him a 
trustworthy guide to what was really best in the 
annual " offerings," and they will be glad to see 
this new book from his pen, addressed primarily 
to the student of singing, but furnishing very 
good reading for the finished artist and the inter- 
ested layman. However, the book is eminently 
practical ; and with a minimum of technical 
phraseology it explains to the student the prin- 
cipal physiological problems in voice-training 
and the best methods of solving- them. Yet 
vocal mechanics is only a means to an end ; and 
this end is found in Mr. Henderson's reiterated 
definition of the art of singing as " the inter- 
pretation of text by means of musical tones pro- 
duced by the human voice." In this definition 
is found the gravamen of his charge against the 
Italian school of teaching — that it made the 
production of beautifid tone the " ultimate pur- 
pose of vocal technic." Mr. Henderson has 
plenty of praise, however, for the great masters 
of teaching in Italy. He recognizes the forma- 
tive period of this art to have been the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries ; its " bloom-time," 
the eighteenth, when " technics were at their 
apogee, in the golden age of the art of singing." 
Two chapters, somewhat broader in their scope, 
may be recommended to many an alleged 
" artist." These are entitled " The Artist and 
the Public " and « The Lyric in Style." A 
short passage from the latter wiU show the 
author s trenchant method of enforcing his dis- 

" Singers vie with one another in differences of style 
and interpretation. Madame Cantando sings Strauss 
after the manner of Milan, and Mademoiselle Chant 
sings Schumami according to the theory of the Boule- 
vardes, while Frau Singspiel delivers herself of " Caro 
mio ben " in the manner of Bayreuth. Each contends 
that the other is wrong. Each proclaims that hers is 
the only true authoritative style. All the world won- 
ders. No one is quite sure of anything, except that 
there are more ways of singing a song than of cooking 
a goose. The critics vainly thunder. No one pays any 
attention to them. The glorified vocalist has her little 
army of worshippers, and in the religion of musician wor- 
ship there is neither conversion nor apostasy. . . Style 
is general; interpretation is particular. Style is the 
character of a school or a master. Interpretation is the 
disclosure of an individuality. Style may embrace all 
the songs of a single composer, though it seldom does; 
but interpretation can apply to only one at a time." 

Probably few Americans are aware of the 
existence of the Worshipf id Company of Musi- 
cians in London. But its tercentenary was 
celebrated in June, 1904 ; for it was in 1604 
that its last definitive charter was granted, by 



[Jan. 1, 

James I. The powers therein assigned of licens- 
ing persons to " use, practice, or teach the arts, 
mysteries, or occupations of music or dancing 
for lucre or gain within the City of London or 
liberties thereof " have naturally lapsed ; but 
the Company has taken an active and honorable 
part in encouraging the art in Great Britain. It 
was very sensibly decided to celebrate the anni- 
versary by a loan exhibition of musical instru- 
ments illustrative of the progress of music in 
England during the three hundred years. The 
exhibition, which lasted three weeks, was a pro- 
nounced success. Seventeen lectures were given 
by well-known artists and musical writers, with 
illustrative programmes — very much the same 
kind of entertainment that Mr. Arnold Dol- 
metsch has made so popular in this country. 
These addresses have been gathered and pub- 
lished in a handsome volume forming one of the 
" Music-Story Series," under the caption " En- 
glish Music," with a reproduction of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's picture " The Heavenly Choir " for 
a frontispiece, and plenty of cuts of quaint old 
instruments, and facsimiles of musical scores. 
Of prime historical interest was the lecture on 
" The Evolution of the Piano-forte," by T. L. 
Southgate, tracing the development of our most 
familiar instrument from the ancient didcimer 
down to the day of Broadwood, Erard, and 
Steinway. Some Americans may hear with sur- 
prise that the tune of " The Star-spangled Ban- 
ner," like that of " Home, Sweet Home," origi- 
nated in England. In his address on " Our 
English Songs," Dr. WiUiam H. Cummings 
reminds his hearers that the words of " Home, 
Sweet Home " were written " by John Howard 
Payne, the American, and the music was com- 
posed by our London-born Henry Rowley 
Bishop, best known as Sir Henry Bishop." He 
then goes on to say : 

" I would fain dwell on this union of race, this mar- 
riage of heart and voice, and will therefore call your 
attention to a song, the product of an Englishman, which 
has, by adoption, become one of the national songs of 
our kith and kin on the other side of the Atlantic. ' The 
Star-spangled Banner,' beloved by all our brethren in 
the United States, was originally composed by John 
Stafford Smith, in London, about 1750, for a club which 
met at the ' Crown and Anchor ' tavern in the Strand. 
The club was called the ' Anacreontic,' and for its social 
gatherings the president, Ralph Tomlinson, wrote an 
ode commencing ' To Anacreon in Heaven.' This was 
first published without a composer's name, but shortly 
afterwards Smith brought out a collection of Canzonets, 
Catches and Glees, which he sold at his house, 7 War- 
wick Street, Spring Gardens. In this volume, which 
contained only compositions by himself, we find * To 
Anacreon in Heaven.' The music of the Anacreon ode 
and that of ' The Star-spangled Banner ' is the same." 

Mr. Baughan's book bearing the much-used 
title " Music and Musicians " is a collection of 
articles contributed during the past dozen years 
to various British periodicals ; some of them 
containing good and enduring work, some still 
unpurged of the haste with which they were 
originally put together. His observations range 
over the whole musical field, from " On Listen- 
ing to Music " to "Is Opera Doomed? " These 
constitute the first half of the book, under the 
head of " Random Reflections "; the rest is 
made up of more detailed criticisms on Edward 
Elgar and his " Apostles," Wagners " Ring," 
and the principal works of Richard Strauss. 
JosiAH Renick Smith. 

Social, Sermoxs for the Times.* 

In the discussion of social subjects, the 
preacher has certain great advantages over all 
other teachers. He is sure of an audience at 
regular times, and sure of general sympathy and 
reverent hearing. There is a momentum of 
moral fervor in the spirit of the place, the hour, 
the theme. In the exposition of a sacred text 
which has a kind of authority even with the 
skeptical, the preacher can touch all aspects of 
human life. These advantages are finely illus- 
trated in the lectures, which are also sermons, 
which Dr. Charles Reynolds Brown delivered 
at Yale University. The main interest of the 
volume lies in the method by which the Biblical 
story of Exodus is made to suggest moral factors 
in the labor problems of our own time and land. 
While the audience is thinking of the ancient 
" walking delegate " who led a strike against 
Egyptian taskmasters, suddenly it finds itseH 
confronting modern instances of the same order. 

The lectures also illustrate the rigid limita- 
tions of the sermonic method of dealing with 
social questions. The audience is mixed, and 
the preacher must address the average man, not 
forgetting the young and the ignorant. The 
time is short ; the atmosphere is charged with 
emotion ; the demand for devotional effect is 
imperative ; and therefore a thorough and sys- 
tematic treatment is impossible. If the man 
in the pidpit, securely fortified against adverse 
reply, selects his illustrations of general prin- 
ciples from the conduct of his neighbors and 
hits them, they may ask for proof, or may quietly 

♦ The Social Message of the Modern Pulpit. By Charles 
Reynolds Brown. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The Church and the Social Problem. By Samuel Plantz. 
Cincinnati: Jennings & Graham. 




absent themselves, or may manipulate agencies 
for securing his resignation. It is not so peril- 
ous to " damn the sins we have no mind to," 
and the wrongs of cosmopolitan oppressors ; but 
the immediate effect may be slight. All this 
points to the necessity of organizing classes of 
young men for the free discussion of social 
ethics. In such classes the general statements 
of the pulpit can be criticized freely, a wider 
range of fact can be exploited, all sides heard, 
and representatives of conflicting interests given 
an opportunity to make defense, and the min- 
ister himself will find new materials for his ex- 
hortations. The sermons in the volume under 
review would be a powerful incitement to such 

In Mr. Plantz's book on " The Church and 
the Social Problem," we follow the same theme : 
What can the Church do to promote the welfare 
of the wage-earners and further social peace ? 
There is no contribution to knowledge in the 
volume ; every fact and opinion has been worked 
over by numerous economic writers, and some 
very important elements of a large practical 
policy are not mentioned. Of this one cannot 
complain, for the title does not promise a doc- 
tor's thesis, but a practical man's counsel in the 
light of contemporary knowledge. The social 
policy must be worked out in details by spe- 
cialists, not by sermon writers. The chapter on 
Socialism does not quite fairly separate the real 
economic issue from the metaphysical and ethi- 
cal eccentricities for which many of the leading 
Socialists have stood. One can believe in col- 
lective control of the instruments of production 
without a thought of atheism. The practical 
counsels to the Church and its leaders are gen- 
erally sane, discriminating, and intelligent, and 
the plea for the thorough instruction of minis- 
ters in social science is enforced by cogent 
reasons and trustworthy authority. 

Charles Richmond Henderson. 

Someone has thought it worth while to resuscitate 
from the " Saturday Review " of ten years ago the dra- 
matic criticisms contributed to that journal by Mr. G. B. 
Shaw. They made sparkling reading in those days, but 
that is hardly sufficient to justify the preservation of 
such current chroniclings in permanent form. We are 
not tempted to read them again, although we read every 
one of them with keen interest when it was written. But 
there are doubtless Shavians enough to provide them 
with an audience — not of the fit but few who knew these 
mad outpourings from the start — but of the gregarious 
multitude who read this author because he is the fashion 
of the day. They make two volumes, called " Dramatic 
Opinion and Essays," are prefaced by Mr. James Hune- 
ker, and published by the Messrs. Brentano. 

Recent Fiction.* 

The fictional surprise of the season is offered by 
a novel entitled " Joseph Vance," a long and delight- 
ful story cast in the form of an autobiography. The 
author is Mr. William De Morgan, said to be a man 
of advanced years, well-known in the industrial 
world besides being related to the learned author 
of " A Budget of Paradoxes," but a stranger to the 
annalist of literary affairs. Hamlet's " And there- 
fore, as a stranger, give it welcome," seems an 
approjjriate text for our reception of this singularly 
rich, mellow, and human narrative, which is gar- 
rulous in the genial sense, and as effective as it is 
unpretending. Possibly the author's frequently re- 
iterated disclaimer of literary intent may be thought 
to savor of affectation, but we cannot find it in our 
heart to say anything that has even the suggestion 
of harshness about a book that has given us so much 
pleasure. It is almost as if a new Dickens had 
swum into our ken, but a Dickens who knows how 
to curb the tendency to indulge in caricature and 
humorous exaggeration, a Dickens whose sentiment 
escapes the touch of artificiality and mawkishness. 
The autobiographer is an Englishman of the peo- 
ple, born amid humble circumstances in the early 
Victorian years, making his mark as an inventor 
and engineer by force of native talent, and display- 
ing a gift for affection and friendship that gi'eatly 
endears him to us. His story is an intensely human 
one, a story of alternating failures and successes, of 
blended joys and sorrows, artfully contrived with 
what seems like an almost total absence of artistic 
design, and holding its readers by its great variety of 
incident and characterization, its humorous flashes 
and satirical sallies, and its deep and genuine pathos. 
The pathetic note is forced almost intolerably in 

•Joseph Vance. An 111- Written Autobiography. By William 
De Morgan. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

The Guarded Flame. By W. B. Maxwell. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. 

Sib Nigel. By A. Conan Doyle. New York: McClure, 
Phillips & Co. 

In the Days of the Comet. By H. G. Wells. New York : 
The Century Co. 

The Dbeam and the Business. By John Oliver Hobbes. 
New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

The Ladder to the Stars. By Jane H. Findlater. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

Prisoners Fast Bound in Misery and Iron. By Mary 
Cholmondeley. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 

The Viper op Milan. A Romance of Lombardy. By 
Marjorie Bowen. New York. McClure, Phillips & Co. 

A Lady of Rome. By F. Marion Crawford. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

Affairs of State. By Burton E. Stevenson. New York: 
Henry Holt & Co. 

Bob Hampton of Placer. By Randall Parrish. Chicago: 
A. C. McClurg & Co. 

Ann Boyd. By Will N. Harben. New York: Harper & 

The Poet and the Parish. By Mary Moss. New York: 
Henry Holt & Co. 

The Impersonator. By Mary Imlay Taylor. Boston : Little, 
Brown, & Co. 

MoNTLivET. By Alice Prescott Smith. Boston; Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

The Leader. By Mary Dillon. New York: Doubleday, 
Page & Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

the later chapters, for we are led to believe that the 
hero's sacrifice of his dearest friendship upon the 
very altar of his affections is to remain undiscovered, 
but the device of certain supplementary documents 
appended to his own life-story relieves us from the 
strain of this apprehension, and the book ends in a 
sort of glow of sunset peace. If any readers have 
fallen into the habit of taking these reviews of ours 
as a means of escape from reading the novels them- 
selves, or as a substitute for that often toilsome and 
thankless task, we m'ge them to make an exception 
to their rule in the present instance, and feel sure 
that they will be grateful for the suggestion. 

Some time ago, in reviewing a novel by Mr. W. 
B. Maxwell, a name then unfamiliar to us, we ven- 
tured the opinion, based upon internal evidence 
only, that it was the work of a woman. This seems 
to have been a mistake, but we shall never cease to 
wonder at the insight with which the author of 
" Vivien " assumed the feminine point of view. His 
new novel, " The Guarded Flame," leads to no such 
suspicion as the earlier one, but has equally remark- 
able qualities, although of a different kind. The 
central figure is that of an English philosopher, 
grown old in the service of thought, the author of 
forty or more volumes that have earned for him the 
reputation of being the profoundest of living think- 
ers. He is a man of whom no one seems able to 
speak without bated breath, and in accents which 
are a mingling of reverence and awe in about equal 
proportions. One thinks of Herbert Spencer at 
times, some of the circumstances of whose life are 
worked into the pattern, and it is more than prob- 
able tliat the author has found some of his material 
in Spencer's "Autobiography." But even the most 
extravagant laudations in which the Spencerians 
indulge seem pale in comparison with the terms in 
which Mr. Maxwell's imaginary philosopher is set 
before us. This paragon of a hero, this superhuman 
incarnation of the intellectual life, is not easy for the 
novelist to live up to ; he is " too bright and good " 
for the companionship of ordinary mortals, and 
there is a striking incongruity between his imputed 
powers and the actual words that are invented for 
his utterance. In a word, Mr. Maxwell has over- 
done his philosopher, much as the poet was overdone 
in Miss Sinclair's " The Divine Fire," and the figure 
is not made convincing. The philosopher's house- 
hold consists of three young persons, and out of 
these the tragedy of the book — for it is essentially 
a tragedy — is woven. They are his young wife, 
married to him out of gratitude before her womanly 
nature has awakened, a still younger niece who is 
practically his adopted daughter, and a brilliant 
young scholar who seryes him as secretary and as- 
sistant. Presently the niece discovers that she loves 
the secretary, and he becomes betrothed to her, 
mainly because it is the philosopher's desire. But a 
guilty love for the philosopher's wife lias been slowly 
taking possession of him, a love which is matched 
by her emotions, all the more violent because of 
their tardy development. The discharge of a Ley- 

den jar would afford an appropriate simile of what 
happens when the psychological moment arrives. 
Then the situation is made horrible by a stroke of 
paralysis that makes the philosopher helpless, and is 
followed by apoplexy, aphasia, and childishness. At 
this point the novel assumes the character of a study 
in morbid psychology, undeniably powerful, but 
almost unbearable to pursue. The girl learns of 
the infidelity of the betrothed, and ends her life 
with strychnine. The secretary departs, and ends 
his days wretchedly in a foreign country. The wife 
alone remains, to expiate her sin by devotion to her 
stricken husband during the long years which are 
needed to bring him back to activity and recollec- 
tion, and to learn in the end that he has all the time 
known and forgiven. " Tout comprendre, c'est tout 
pardonner " might be the text of this strong and 
painful story. The impressiveness with which its 
ethical teaching is enforced is the justification for 
much that seems at the time intolerable in the pre- 
sentation. The effect of the work is considerably 
marred by the frequent use of a scientific jargon 
which is not demanded by any artistic consideration. 

Readers of " The White Company " will need to be 
told nothing more of Dr. Conan Doyle's " Sir Nigel " 
than that it deals with the same period, and has the 
same hero, as the earlier romance. It is not a sequel, 
because it tells of the deeds of Nigel Loring's youth, 
and of the services which won for him his spurs. 
These services are connected with the French wars, 
for the period of the romance is from 1348 to 1356 
— from England's slow recovery from the Black 
Death to 

" The glittering horror of the steel-topped wood " 
and the glorious victory of Poictiers. Next to the 
hero, we must praise his horse, who is a most faithful 
and fearsome beast. The figures of King and Black 
Prince appear conspicuously. The author has ac- 
quired great stores of learning respecting the period 
of these two novels, and exhibits it in rather bewilder- 
ing profusion. 

Since Mr. Wells took to imagining Utopias he has 
become very tiresome. He used to spin capital yarns 
after an improved Jules Verne fashion, but his recon- 
structions of society are neither exciting nor plausi- 
ble. We particularly resent the latest of them, because 
it comes in the guise of a novel, fascinatingly called 
"In the Days of the Comet," which at once fills us 
with anticipations of the joy with which we read " The 
War of the Worlds." But we are speedily doomed 
to disappointment, for the sociological pill has only a 
thin sugar-coating of fiction, and its substance is vain 
imagining and indigestible paradox. The comet, it 
seems, causes a chemical change in the atmosphere 
which makes all mankind unconscious for a few hours, 
after which it awakes with a miraculously transformed 
character, and knows henceforth neither selfishness 
nor folly. This is the fantastic invention which the 
author exploits as a device for setting forth his 
equally fantastic social theories. He has deceived us 
by false pretenses, and we shall hereafter regard his 
books with justifiable suspicion. 




Mrs. Craigie's posthumous novel, "The Dream 
and the Business," is prefaced by an " appreciation " 
of the writer from the pen of Mr. Joseph H. Choate, 
in which deserved tribute is paid to her " lightness 
and delicacy of touch," and to the " chaste and fas- 
tidious taste " which was always a controlling ele- 
ment in her work. The book itself gives us increased 
occasion to mourn the loss of this brilliant woman, 
nineteen of whose thirty-eight years were devoted 
to a literary activity that was all the time broaden- 
ing in its scope and deepening in its sympathies. 
The growth in technical artistry during these two 
decades was perhaps not so marked, for Mrs. 
Craigie knew how to write almost from the begin- 
ning, and her instinct for style seems to have been 
born with her rather than laboriously acquired. The 
new novel takes for its text the words of the 
Preacher : " For a dream cometh through the 
multitude of business." It is a study of a group of 
modern men and women, whose relations are made 
to constitute a plot of considerable interest, but whose 
chief significance is to be found in the way in which 
they mirror, from their several points of view, the 
restless striving, the feverish existence, and the in- 
stinctive groping for light which are so characteristic 
of the life of our time. Something of a catholicis- 
ing tendency is perhaps traceable, which the wi'iter's 
faith makes natural enough, but Mrs. Craigie was 
too true an artist to put religious bias into her stories, 
and her fairness in presenting views opposed to her 
own is conspicuous. To this the last of her novels 
a place must be accorded not far below that occupied 
by " Robert Orange " and " A School for Saints," 
her unquestioned masterpieces, and it is possibly a 
more remarkable production than either of those 
two in certain respects, as of its finished style, its 
economy of material, and its nice dramatic adjust- 

"The Ladder to the Stars " gives us the fable of 
the Ugly Duckling as exemplified by a young 
Englishwoman of humble birth and provincial envi- 
ronment. The spark of genius has (after the unac- 
countable fashion of that element) been kindled in 
her soul, and it is fanned into flame by certain for- 
tunate accidents acting in conjunction with her o.wn 
persistency. She escapes from her depressing sur- 
roundings, goes to London, and achieves success as 
a writer. She nearly loses her balance through a 
temporary infatuation for an erratic foreign musi- 
cian, but shi'inks from taking the last fatal step, and 
is thus saved for the amiable young statesman for 
whom fate has really destined her all the while. 
She is an interesting figure, but hardly more so than 
some of the suspicious and vulgar persons who con- 
stitute her provincial entourage — persons whose 
varied pettiness is described for us with searching 

Miss Cholmondeley, after several years of waiting, 
has now given us a successor to her admirable 
novel, " Red Pottage," but we can only characterize 
the new book as a disappointment. " Prisoners Fast 
Bound in Misery and Iron " is about as preposterous 

a title as could be imagined, and the story to which 
it belongs is both thin and unreal. There is, more- 
over, much padding in the form of neat but futUe 
description and vapid philosophizing. The narrative 
deals with a young Englishman and the English wife 
of an Italian nobleman. There is a love affair be- 
tween them, the product of feeling on his part and 
of fancy on hers, but it remains an innocent com- 
plication. Unfortunately, he happens to be paying 
her a secret farewell visit at just the hour when a 
murder is being committed outside the palace, and 
the man accepts the imputation of the crime to save 
the reputation of the woman. He is sentenced to a 
long term of imprisonment, and she is contemptible 
enough to permit the sacrifice. Thus we have the 
prisoners, one " bound in iron " and the other " bound 
in misery " — the misery of such remorse as her 
shallow nature is capable of experiencing. Both 
escape from prison at last, he through the discovery 
of the assassin, and she by the confession which 
brings her relief, but the outcome is anything but 
satisfactory, for the woman gets into another senti- 
mental tangle and the man dies of a haemorrhage. 
It makes a dull and unconvincing tale that leaves 
no lasting impression. 

The reader of " The Viper of Milan " has supped 
full of horrors when he has reached the close of this 
ingenious romance. The tale is of that monster of 
iniquity, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, and of his war 
with the Scaligeri and their allies. It closes fitly with 
the assassination of the tyrant, whereby the ends of 
poetic justice are attained, but this consummation is 
deferred (as history records) until the catalogue of 
his crimes has been lengthened out, and the imagin- 
ation has been given abundant opportunity to revel 
in their detail. The story makes up in action for the 
shortcomings of its style. Since it is the work of a 
young woman in her teens, it would be unreasonable 
to expect from it anything more than the lively in- 
vention and garish color with which it is well supplied. 

Mr. Crawford has been writing books for a quar- 
ter of a century, and now has about fifty volumes 
(mostly fiction) to his credit. This is an evidence of 
his industry and of the fluency of his pen, at least, 
while some of the fifty offer evidence of something 
approaching distinction in conception and treatment. 
Few would deny that his best work is that concerned 
with the social life of modern Italy, and that the 
" Saracinesca " series of novels represents the high- 
water mark of his invention, description, and analyti- 
cal powers. Little need be said of his new novel, " A 
Lady of Rome," beyond the statement that it moves 
in the social circles already depicted in many of its 
predecessors, and writes of them with the same sure- 
ness of knowledge and decorous interest of manner. 
It has perhaps rather less of plot and rather more of 
psychology than the author is wont to give us, but the 
story has both texture and strength, besides being 
thoroughly praiseworthy in its ethical implications. 
It is not often that the situation offered by a loveless 
union and an unlawful passion is handled with such 
delicacy and firmness of grasp. 



[Jan. 1, 

The "Affairs of State" which constitute the basis 
of Mr. Stevenson's mildly entertaining story relate 
to the succession of the Principality of Schloshold- 
Markheim. It is a case of Gulielmus contra 
mundum, for the German Emperor favors one can- 
didate, and the rest of Europe supports the other. 
Affairs approach a crisis when the allied opposition 
sends a diplomatic representative to the secluded 
Dutch watering-place where the head of the English 
foreign office is supposed to be recovering from an 
attack of influenza. In point of fact, this official is 
not. there at all, but has sent his younger brother to 
impersonate him, thus drawing, as it were, a herring 
across his trail. Now it so happens that an Amer- 
ican millionaire and his two charming daughters are 
sojourning at the same seaside resort, and the two 
young women are destined to become the dece ex 
machind in the solution of the diplomatic puzzle. 
Two courtly noblemen : two attractive and roman- 
tically-disposed young women — the outcome is 
obvious. Mr. Stevenson does not disappoint our 
expectations ; he settles the case of Schloshold- 
Markheim in the right way, and he makes four young 
persons happy. There are humorous episodes 
a-plenty, with a dash of the serious now and then, 
besides any amount of crisp dialogue. It makes a 
pleasant comedy. 

Mr. Randall Parrish has mastered the trick of 
popular narrative after a comparatively bi'ief ap- 
prenticeship to the trade, and is to-day one of the 
most effective of our story-tellers; effective, that 
is, in the way of entertainment and excitement, and 
in the. skilful management of plot and dramatic sit- 
uation, for he makes no pretense of looking beneath 
the surface of character, or of exhibiting a style of 
any significance. His list now includes two romances 
of Indian days in the old Northwest, one of the 
Civil War, and his new book, " Bob Hampton of 
Placer," which is a story of the seventies, and has 
for its climax the Sioux uprising which resulted in 
the massacre of Custer and his men on the Little 
Big Horn. The hero is a disgraced army officer 
who has become a " bad man " in the Western sense 
— a gambler, brawler, and dare-devil generally. 
He had not been guilty of the crime which was 
charged against him when he was dismissed from 
the service, but the appearances were all against 
him, and he was unable to offer anything in rebuttal 
of their damning testimony. The heroine is his 
daughter, whom he has not seen since she was a 
child, and who, grown to be a young woman, is 
rescued by him from the Indians before he has dis- 
covered her identity. That discovery made, he un- 
dertakes to provide for her, reforms himself in va- 
rious ways, and renews the effort to trace out the 
history of the crime which has ruined his reputa- 
tion. The girl is placed in refined surroundings, 
and with amazing rapidity learns the speech and 
manners of the cultivated. But all this time Bob 
does not reveal his relationship to her or tell her of his 
history. The necessity of doing so becomes urgent 
when she falls in love with a young officer who is a 

son of the man whom Bob is reputed to have killed. 
Of course, the mystery is all cleared up in the end, 
the girl marries her lover, and her fathei*, having 
cleared his name, fights gallantly with Custer and 
dies with his chief. 

" Ann Boyd " may be described as a sort of minor 
masterpiece, and easily the strongest piece of work 
that Mr. Harben has thus far produced. We have 
known him hitherto as the author of books in which 
various types of rustic Georgians entertained us by 
their quaint characteristics and the shrewd humor 
of their speech, but we have hardly thought of him 
as possessing the gifts of the construction novelist. 
" Ann Boyd," however, is a book with a well-contrived 
framework of plot to which all of its incidents and 
episodes are properly subordinated. It is, of course, 
a study of character also — and in the case of the 
woman who furnishes a name to the book a very re- 
markable piece of characterization — but the author 
keeps well in check the tendency of his imagination 
to indulge in desultory meanderings, and also holds 
himself fairly free from the control of sentimental 

Given, a young man who knows life as it really is, 
and a young woman who has never viewed it except 
through the smoked glasses of convention, and join 
the two in matrimony : you will then have material 
for a comedy or a tragedy, according to the degree of 
seriousness with which the situation is handled. In 
the case of " The Poet and the Parish," by Miss Mary 
Moss, there is at fii-st comedy of a very crisp and de- 
lightful sort, and then the situation develops until it 
verges closely upon tragedy, and is only saved from 
that consummation by a tonic application of common 
sense to relations that have been strained almost 
to the breaking point. The poet is Felix Gwynne, 
who has spent his youth abroad, and returns to his 
American home to enter into an inheritance. He 
is a lovable but rather irresponsible person, the 
creature of impulse, but serious enough at heart to 
engage our sympathies. The young woman whom 
he marries is distinctly bornee, and her family and 
social environment are even more so. This makes 
difficulties, especially when Felix goes wandering 
about the country with a band of gypsies, and be- 
comes entangled (innocently enough) in the affairs 
of a masquerading actress whom he meets in the 
gypsy camp. His wife, with the thoughtful aid of 
her outraged parents and most of the neighbors, 
magnifies these indiscretions into huge proportions, 
and abandons the hapless poet. It is the situation 
of "El Gran Galeoto " lowered somewhat from the 
tragic plane of the Spanish dramatist, but still seri- 
ous enough. It takes some plain speaking (or rather 
writing) on the part of Felix to bring his wife back, 
but his plea is effective. "We are mismated, but 
we are mated. . . . How can you be so cruel to that 
unlucky girl? . . . Why, the poor child hardly 

knows me, yet I'm supposed There we sat, side 

by side, pelted by every filthy insinuation, ticketed, 
yoked. Was n't it enough to drive her — and she 's 
pretty, Adelaide, very pretty, and far cleverer than 




you — into my arms ? . . . Now I am waiting because 
there is an obstinate girl, twenty miles away, who 
is my wife, and to whom I 'm bound by a tie that 
does n't readily break. It seems to me, at this 
minute, that you have almost every fault in the world, 
dear. All but one I You are real ! But in the name 
of the love we have felt for each other, do n't let the 
fragments of our happiness be shattered beyond re- 
pair, for unreality, for other people's ugly dreams I " 

One cannot feel quite comfortable in reading Miss 
Taylor's " The Impersonator," because the heroine 
(who naturally demands our sympathies) is placed 
by her own deliberate act in a position for which no 
justification is possible. A wealthy woman in Wash- 
ington has written to a niece in Paris, whom she 
has never seen, inviting her for a lengthy visit. The 
niece in question, who is dabbling in art, does not 
want to go, and asks a friend to make the visit in 
her place and character. This friend, who is beau- 
tiful and accomplished, but extremely poor, weakly 
consents to engage in this proposed deception, 
allured by the prospect of a few months of luxury. 
The main body of the story tells us of this imper- 
sonation, successfully sustained through the social 
season, and at last rudely revealed by the sudden 
appearance of the woman to whom the name really 
belongs. But the heroine has played her cards skil- 
fully, and some of her friends remain loyal after the 
exposure of the fraud. One of these is a rising 
statesman who has fallen in love with her, and who 
at last persuades her, in spite of all, to become his 
wife. This consummation is facilitated by the dis- 
covery that the young woman (whose parentage has 
hitherto been a mystery) is the legitimate daughter of 
the Spanish minister, and that she is not plain Mary 
Lang, but may claim the far more resounding name 
of Maria Fraucesca Luisa Quevedo, Countess Por- 
tucarrero. Miss Taylor's novel moves in a milieu 
with which she is well acquainted, and, barring the 
fundamental obstacle to complete sympathy, is a 
work of animated interest. 

" Montlivet," by Miss Alice Prescott Smith, is a 
romance of the old Northwest in the days when 
France was so strengthening its strategic position in 
America as to forbode stubborn resistance when the 
inevitable struggle for supremacy should come. The 
exact year is 1695, and the scene opens with Cad- 
illac in doubtful power at Michillimackinac. The 
future founder of Detroit is not, however, the hero 
of th^s story, but the French trader Montlivet, who 
has a magnificent plan for a league of the Indian 
tribes in support of the French cause. So much for 
the historical setting. The fictional romance (aside 
from the historical) is provided by an English cap- 
tive, rescued from Indian captors by the hero, and 
taken with him on his mission to the tribes in the 
neighborhood of the Bale des Puants — for thus 
pleasantly was Green Bay styled by its pioneer 
explorers. The captive turns out to be a woman in 
disguise — a woman of proud birth and spirit — and 
this the hero discovers after the expedition is well 
away into the wilderness. A variant upon the usual 

treatment of this theme is offered by their marriage 
early in the narrative, but the union is of expediency 
alone, and leaves all the wooing to be done. There 
are many exciting adventures and hairbreadth 
escapes from peril, with a suitably sentimental end- 
ing. Miss Smith has produced an exceptionally 
interesting piece of work, one which may perhaps 
be described as similar to the romances of the late 
Mrs. Catherwood with an added infusion of vu-ility. 
Mrs. Dillon insists that her new novel, " The 
Leader," is " in no sense history." Nevertheless, it 
is chiefly concerned with the history of the St. Louis 
Democratic Convention of 1904, and tells the whole 
story of the struggle between radicals and conservar 
tives, of the nomination, of Judge Parker's famous 
telegram, and of Mr. Bryan's activities. The hero 
is obviously Mr. Bryan in disguise ; that is, in just 
enough of disguise to permit him to combine love 
with politics, and thus satisfy the imperative demand 
of the reader for a love-story. Although based upon 
familiar historical happenings, the story is artificial 
in a stagey fashion, and its vein of invention is too 
thin to yield anything very rich in the way of 
romantic ore. William Morton Payne, 

Briefs ox New Books. 

Incentives to a P^ofessor Albert S. Cook of Yale 
hiiiher ranf/e of University has done well to unite 
literary study, under a suggestive title four " occa- 
sional" papers on "The Higher Study of English" 
(Houghton). By the word "higher" is implied 
not merely the sort of systematic and philosophical 
research which Professor Cook has done much to 
promote in this country. Two of the essays, the 
first and the last, do indeed bear more directly 
upon graduate study and teaching. Yet the obvious 
note in all four is a general elevation of standards, 
both ethical and aesthetic, throughout the entire cur- 
riculum of English — a broadening and deepening 
of our national culture through an intensive appre- 
ciation of the best that has been handed down to us 
in literature. Higher study means study of the best 
things in the best way. The best way is not always, 
or perhaps often, the easiest, above all in the case of 
those who are to be teachers of English. For them 
the higher superstructure means the broader, deeper, 
more carefully laid foundation. Like specialists in 
other fields, they must know their subject from the 
bottom up ; they must know what is more important 
without slighting what the layman's imperfect sense 
of values may deem to be less ; and they must know 
the relations existing between their own and allied 
disciplines. They must neglect neither the origins 
of the language in which their literature is enslirined, 
nor the ancient classics and the Scriptures from 
which it has drawn its chief inspiration, nor the 
brotherhood of languages and literatures among 
which it has grown up. They must strive to com- 
pass an ever widening realm ; to rise to an ever 



[Jan. 1, 

mounting ideal ; and nobly to despise the so-called 
limit of the attainable. Yet they must be modest, 
too, and moderate, not hoping to exercise authority 
in scholarship until they are proved faithful in atten- 
tion to detail, nor by frantic haste to win the prizes of 
equable speed. It is not sufficient, thinks Professor 
Cook, to say to the gi'aduate student, " Here is the 
body of English literature ; come and read it, and 
then go and teach it." There must be order, dis- 
cipline, regulated toil. The professional teacher 
must possess the professional orderly will. Never- 
theless, "he who has not been a passionate reader 
of good literature from the age of ten . . . and who 
does not give promise of remaining a passionate 
reader of good literature to the end of life, should 
be gently, but firmly, discouraged from entering 
our profession." With reference to this volume we 
have but one regret : we wish that the author liad 
been able to include his notable essay on " The 
Artistic Ordering of Life," which is germane enough 
to the papers here contained, in that it represents 
the final philosophy of a thinker who is also a great 
teacher of English. 

^ . ,' . It has been said that each successive 
Qarrick and . , , . 

the social life epoch of theatrical history presents 
of his tune. the Same picturesque image of sto- 

ried regret — memory incarnated in the veteran, 
ruefully vaunting the vanished glories of the past. 
Gibber, surviving in the best days of Garrick, Peg 
Woffington, and Kittie Clive, praised the days of 
Wilks and Betterton ; aged playgoers of the period 
of Edmund Kean and John Philip Kemble believed 
that the drama had been buried, never to rise again, 
with the dust of Garrick and Henderson, beneath the 
pavement of Westminster Abbey. But even to-day 
many of us still cling to the belief that Garrick was 
the greatest of English actors, while realizing that 
he is as much a centre of legend as King Arthur and 
that the ordinary Garrick story rests on a veritable 
morass. Garrick lived in an age when public and 
national life was in a condition of great flux and pro- 
gress — mirroring the decay of Jacobitism, the soften- 
ing of religious bigotry in England, and the growth 
of modern forms of political discontent. In " Garrick 
and his Circle " (Putnam), Mrs. Clement Parsons has 
embodied a true picture of the social life of the day, 
while weaving a portrait of her subject, a record of 
his triumphs and a study of his methods. In a strict 
sense, her book is not a biogi'aphy, — her aim has 
been to make each one oi a series of vignettes illus- 
trate Garrick's character or career in contact with this 
or that group of outside characters or events. She 
points out that the actor's personality is an elusive 
one. Apart from his theatric art, Garrick's vivacity 
is his individualizing label for all time ; he was born 
with such a fund of animal spirits as rarely occurs in 
association with high mental gifts. He was a genius 
with the right amount of worldly ballast for worldly 
success, and remains the ruling figure of the stage in 
eighteenth-century annals. In Burke's words, " He 
raised the character of his profession to the rank of a 

liberal art." To quote Mrs. Parsons, "There have 
been many great actors, but never another great actor 
who was at the same time so great a personality out- 
side of the theatre. Garrick belongs to the history 
of England." With vivacity, fidelity, and keen dis- 
crimination, the author has presented a study of the 
theatrical society of the period — its whimsicalities, 
vulgarities, frailities, and manners, as well as its esti- 
mable qualities. Her portraits have that fulness and 
unity which impart a conclusive notion of personality, 
set with a due sense of perspective against a well- 
balanced background. 

The inscrutable A book which undertakes to solve 
'New 'vork *^® problem of what James Parton, in 

politics. his Life of Andrew Jackson, written 

fifty years ago, described as " that most unfathom- 
able of subjects, the politics of the State of New York " 
is the Hon. D. A. Alexander's two-volume " Political 
History of the State of New York" (Holt), which 
we are told grew out of the difficulty experienced by 
the author in obtaining " an accurate knowledge of 
the movements of political parties and their leaders 
in the Empire State." Oliver Wolcott, a member of 
Washington's Cabinet and later governor of Con- 
necticut, once wrote: "After living a dozen years 
in New York, I don't pretend to comprehend their 
politics. It is a labyrinth of wheels within wheels, 
and is understood only by their managers." Mr. 
Alexander, himself a prominent figure in the polit- 
ical life of New York, does not claim to understand 
the politics of the State any more then did Wolcott, 
but he may justly lay claim to the distinction of 
possessing intimate knowledge of its political move- 
ments and familiarity with its leading politicians. 
He is not the only historian who has cherished the 
ambition to write an elaborate political history of the 
Empire State. Jabez Hammond's " Political History 
of New York," completed in 1848, covered the early 
field with remarkable thoroughness, although with 
less accuracy and system than characterized Mr. 
Alexander's work. The latter's method is rather 
that of the biographer than the historian. He clus- 
ters his facts around the careers of the great leaders, 
and makes them the central theme of his discussion 
of particular movements ; for, according to his view, 
" the history of a state or nation is largely the his- 
tory of a few of its leading men." It is true, as he 
says, that it would be difficult to find in any common- 
wealth of the Union a more interesting or picturesque 
leadership than is presented in the political history 
of New York. Some of those whose careers he traces 
through " the tangled web of New York politics " are 
Alexander Hamilton, George Clinton, Aaron Burr, 
DeWitt Clinton, Martin Van Buren, and Thurlow 
Weed, each of whom successively controlled the 
political destinies of the State. In addition to the 
portraitures of these great leaders, the work is en- 
livened with entertaining sketches of the struggles 
between " Bucktails " and " Clintonians," "Hunkers " 
and "Barnburners," and other factions into which 
the leading parties were at different times divided. 




Books dealing with the classification 
and activities of hirds, or handbooks to local or to 
of birds. more extended faunas, are numerous, 

and studies of birds afield with gun or camera have 
multiplied almost to the limit of popular interest. 
Fortunately, we have in Mr. Beebe's " The Bird, its 
Form and Function " (Holt) a worthy treatise on the 
bird itself considered from the standpoint of its 
structure. The book is no dry assemblage of descrip- 
tive anatomical detail couched in technical terms 
which only the sj)ecialist in comparative anatomy 
can analyze. It is, rather, an untechnical study of 
the bird as a product of the process of organic evo- 
lution ; of a living structure wonderf idly adapted in 
manifold ways to the complex environments in which 
birds are found. Although the author deals constantly 
with the structural elements of the various organs 
of the animal — with shaft and barb, feather and 
claw, syrinx and gizzard — the anatomical skeleton 
is always clothed with a living interest and rendered 
full of meaning as illustrative of some broad bio- 
logical law, and is related to the significant funda- 
mental principle of the evolution of all life. The 
author marshalls his facts with the skill and judg- 
ment which are evidently the result of an adequate 
training in the biological sciences, and he has added 
to his knowledge the zeal of an enthusiastic lover 
of the feathered tribes. He loses no opportunity to 
inculcate a love for ••' the little bundles of muscle and 
blood which in this freezing weather can transmute 
frozen beetles and zero air into a happy, cheery little 
Black-capped Chicadee," and to engender a respect 
for the living brain which " can generate a sympathy, 
a love for its mate, which in sincerity and unsel- 
fishness suffer little when compared with human 
affection." The illustrations in the work are mainly 
from photographs — most of them presented here 
for the first time, — drawn often from sources in 
the New York Zoological Gardens or the American 
Museum of Natural History. With a few possible 
exceptions, they really illustrate the text, and are 
well chosen and well executed. The work is a wel- 
come addition to the popular literature of ornithol- 
ogy, of substantial merit and permanent value for 
every lover and student of denizens of the air. 

Pleasant scenes ^he fascination of Japan finds a sym- 
from familiar pathetic interpreter in A. Herbage 
Japanese life. Edwards. The sketches that make 
up the volume entitled "Kakemono" — upon the 
supposition, it may be assumed, that the word, liter- 
ally " hang-up-thing," signifies a picture or pictures, 
there being no plural form in Japanese, whereas it 
denotes the manner of mounting rather than the 
pictures themselves — are charming word-paintings, 
wrought with a light touch and true poetic feeling. In 
their daintiness and half-veiled impressions, many of 
them seem to have been inspired by the hokku or 
short odes that play such an important part in the life 
of the people of that unique country. The subjects 
are all familiar; indeed, nothing else could be ex- 
pected, so thoroughly have Japan and its inhabitants 

been written about. But in literary art, as in pictorial, 
it is the treatment that makes the difference. De- 
scriptions of the ascent of Fuji-san are so common 
that one's first inclination is to skip another relation 
of the toilsome climb. Yet to pass by the account 
here given woidd be to leave unread what is perhaps 
the most delightfully written of them all. Even more 
impressive is the story of a trip to the summit of the 
ever active volcano Asamayama. The dismal horror 
of the experience, in striking contrast to the more 
arduous but tamer journey to the top of Fuji, is made 
very real by a recital of the pleasing anticipations 
with which it was undertaken. These episodes occupy 
but a small part of the book. Religion, art, travel, 
the people and their customs, and personal experi- 
ences of the author, furnish the material for most of 
the sketches. Especially striking is the one entitled 
" The Altar of Fire," in which the Shinto ceremony 
of hiwatari, or walking barefoot over a bed of live 
coals, is graphically described. No attempt is made 
to explain the seemingly impossible phenomenon: 
for that, the reader must have recourse to the pages 
of Percival Lowell. The essay upon " The Art of 
the People " contains many observations worthy of 
serious consideration. A complete view of Japan, the 
book does not give ; the unpleasant features are left 
for others to portray. But that omission makes it the 
more agreeable to read. (A. C. McClurg & Co.) 

The story of ^^' Hubert Bruce Fuller's account 
the acquisition of "The Purchase of Florida," even 
of Florida. ^j^h ^j^g g^b-title "Its History and 

Diplomacy" (Burrows Bi'others), does not quite 
comprehend the subject-matter of the work. What 
the author has attempted to do is to give an account 
of the conditions that made the acquisition of Florida 
by the United States imperative for her own peace 
and safety, and of the forcible seizures and diplo- 
matic negotiations that finally accomplished this 
result. He has given a very ftdl account of some . 
things which, so far as the main thesis is concerned, 
might have been dealt with much more briefly. On 
the whole, however, the work has been well done, 
and the book is a valuable contribution to our his- 
torical literature on this important subject. The 
style is easy and readable, and the author's judg- 
ments are well balanced, in spite of occasional sharp 
words about the conduct of such men as Jackson, 
J. Q. Adams, Pickering, and EUicott. Of positive 
errors the writer has discovered only a few, and 
these are of minor importance. The change of the 
boundary of West Florida from 31° to 32° 28' was 
made in the commission of George Johnstone, Gov- 
ernor of West Florida, June 6, 1764, instead of in that 
of Governor Elliott (p. 34 ). (See Commons Jom-nal, 
vol. 39, p. 174.) Owe could wish for a little more 
exactness in some of the statements, — for example, 
that Amelia Island "was soon abandoned by the 
American marines " to escape yellow fever (p. 236). 
How soon? It was occupied December 24-26, 
1817, and General Gaines was there more than a 
year later. The chief defect of the book lies in its 



[Jan. 1, 

paucity of references. Such a book must appeal 
first of all to the specialist ; and the specialist must 
have footnotes. The author has brought out a good 
deal of new and interesting matter for which he has 
given no authority whatever. References to diplo- 
matic papers are abundant, but often details are 
given which can hardly have been gathered from 
this source. 

The legal side ^} ^« ^ pleasure to readers of Lincoln 
of Lincoln's life literature to come upon a really in- 
and character, structive book in that much-worked 
field. There are books and articles without number, 
largely the result of working over the same old 
material, many of them with the same old miscon- 
ceptions and the dubious or disproved anecdotes. 
Mr. Frederick Trevor Hill, in his " Lincoln the 
Lawyer " ( The Centm-y Co. ) , has developed some 
new points of interest in Lincoln's life. Taking well- 
known facts and adding to them important new ones 
of his own discovery, he has combined what is known 
of Lincoln's legal career in such a way as to show 
conclusively that he was a lawyer of very superior 
ability both in working out his cases and in liis 
success in the courts. In competition with a bar 
remarkable for force and talent, he became the 
acknowledged leader, manifesting in the highest 
degree the various qualities demanded for success in 
his exacting profession. But more important than 
the fact of Lincoln's professional success is the bear- 
ing of his legal attainments on his great public 
career. It was his insight into the fundamental 
principles of law and logic, and the training that he 
had received from his long and successful practice, 
that enabled him to triumph over Douglas in debate, 
to make the Cooper Institute Speech that carried his 
reputation into the East, to " dissect the slavery 
question so thoroughly, and to meet the various diffi- 
cult problems of his later career. Mr. Hill has done 
well in bringing out this important side of Lincoln's 
training and equipment. Incidentally, he destroys 
some of the myths that have been handed down 
from one writer to another, some of them detracting 
from the real dignity of the man ; and for this also 
we are grateful. 


Sig. M. Esposito is the editor of a collection of " Early 
Italian Piano Music," just added by the Oliver Ditson 
Co. to their " Musicians' Library." The introductory 
matter consists of biographical sketches of the composers 
represented, and descriptive notes on the harpsichord and 
clavichord, with full-page photographic plates. The 
composers, seventeen in number, range from Ercole Pas- 
goini (1580) to Muzio Clementi (1752-1832). The two 
Scarlattis have a large share of the space, Alessardro 
being represented by six pieces, and Domenico by the 
series of nineteen sonnets, with the " Cati Fugue " as an 
appendix. Readers of " Cousuelo " will be interested 
in the specimen fugue from Porpera, and students of 
Browning by the piece from Galuppi — a sonata and 
not a toccata. 

A new translation of " The Nibelungenlied," made by 
the late John Storer Cobb, and now edited by his widow, 
is published in a handsome volume by Messrs. Small, 
Maynard & Co. The form is a rhymed four-line stanza 
in iambic octometer, the rhymes being in couplets. It 
is a jog-trot movement, and grows very monotonous after 
a few pages. But a great poem, in the higher sense, tliis 
epic is not, and a fair sense of its historical importance 
is obtainable from the present version. 

Two new editions of Shakespeare, each complete in a 
single volume, call for a word of hearty praise. One is 
added to the " Cambridge " poets of Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin, & Co., and the editorial work has been done by 
Mr. William Allan Neilson. There are upward of twelve 
hundred pages, with portrait, biography, glossary, and 
special introductions to the several plays. The other 
edition comes from the Oxford Clarendon Press, and is 
edited by Mr. W. J. Craig. This volume, with about one 
himdred more pages than the other, has portrait and 
glossary, but practically no editorial matter. Both edi- 
tions are clearly printed on thin paper, two columns to 
the page. 


" As You Like It " and « Henry the Fift " are the 
latest additions to the " First Folio " Shakespeare, as 
edited by Misses Porter and Clarke, and published by 
Messrs. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

" The Lodging House Problem in Boston," by Dr. 
Albert Benedict Wolfe, is a volume of " Harvard Eco- 
nomic Studies," published at the expense of the Baldwin 
endowment by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

The Fleming H. Revell Co. publish new and revised 
editions of the Rev. W. J. Dawson's " Makers of En- 
glish Poetry " and " Makers of English Prose," two 
volumes of agreeable and for the most part sound and 
sensible literary criticism for popular consumption. 

James Russell Lowell and Mr. Henry James are the 
subjects of two new volumes in the series of beautifully- 
printed bibliographies of American authors published 
by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. For the former, 
Mr. George Willis Cooke is responsible, and Mr. Le 
Roy Phillips for the latter. 

A new " Encyclopedia of Familiar Quotations," com- 
piled by Mr. Elferd Eveleigh Treffry, is published by 
the Frederick A. Stokes Co. The selections niunber 
five thousand, and if many of them may not properly 
be styled " familiar," they are all likely to prove usefid 
for purposes of pointed illustration, and this is very 
largely what such collections are for. 

" The Book of Love," compiled by Mr. Adam L. 
Gowans, and published by Messrs. George W. Jacobs 
& Co., is described as a collection of " one hundred of 
the best love-poems in the English language." The 
description is fairly justified by the contents, although 
it would not be difficidt to collect another hundred 
lyrics of equal, or nearly equal, beauty. 

The Chicago Madrigal Club, which has offered yearly 
prizes for musical compositions to accompany poems 
chosen by it for a musical setting, will this year vary 
its programme by offering its prize for an original 
lyric poem to be hereafter set to music. The prize is 
fifty dollars, and the competition is open to all writers 
residing in the United States. A printed circular giv- 
ing conditions of the contest may be had by addressing 
Mr. D. A. Clippinger, 410 Kimball Hall, Chicago. 




IjIST or l!^E\v Books. 

[The following list, containing 82 titles, include books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 

Memoirs of Prince of Chlodwigr Hohenlohe-Schillingrs- 

fuerst. Authorized by Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe- 

Schillingsfuerst, and edited by Priedrich Curtius. English 

edition supervised by George W. Chrystal, B.A. ; in 2 vols., 

with photogravure portraits, 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan 

Co. $6. net. 
The Life and liOtters of Liafcadio Heam. By Elizabeth 

Bisland. In two vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., 8vo, gilt 

tops, uncut. Hoiighton, Mifflin & Co. 16. net. 
Princesses and Court Ladles. By Arv6de Barine. Illus., 

8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 360. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3. net. 
Honore de Balzac. By Ferdinand Brunetiere. With portrait, 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 316. "French Men of Letters." 

J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.50 net. 
John Sherman. By Theodore E. Burton. With portrait, 12mo, 

gilt top, pp. 449. "American Statesmen," second series. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25 net. 
Heroes of the Army in America. By Charles Morris. 

Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 344. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25 net. 
Heroes of Progress in America. By Charles Morris. 

Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 344. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25 net. 
Heroes of European History. By Louise Creighton. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 196. Longmans, Green & Co. 50cts. 
Qlacomo Puccini. By Wakeling Dry. Illus., 12mo, gilt top. 

uncut, pp. 114. " Living Masters of Music." John Lane Co. 

$1. net. 

History of the United States, from the Compromise of 

1850 to the Final Restoration of Home Rule at the South in 

1877. By James Ford Rhodes, LL.D. Vols. VI. and VII., 

large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan Co. Per vol., $2.50 net. 
Napoleon's Last Voyagres. With Introduction and Notes 

by J. Holland Rose, Litt. D. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 247. Charles Scribner's Sons. |3. net. 


Thoughts on Art and Life. By Leonardo da Vinci ; trana. 
by Maurice Baring. 8vo, uncut, pp. 202. " Humanists' Li- 
brary." Boston : The Merrymount Press. $6. 

The Tudor and Stuart Library. First vols. : Howell's De- 
vises, 1581, with introduction by Walter Raleigh ; The Defence 
of the Realme, by Sir Henry Knyvett, 1596, with introduction 
by Charles Hughes; Pepys' Memoires of the Royal Navy, 
1679-1688. edited by J. R. Tonner ; Evelyn's Sculptura, edited 
by C. F. Bell. Each 12mo, uncut. Oxford University Press. 
Per vol., $1.75. 

Translations into Latin and Greek Verse. By H. A. J. 
Munro ; Prefatory Note by J. D. Duff. With photogravure 
portrait, 8vo. uncut, pp. 113. Longmans, Green, & Co. $2. 

Westminster Versions : Renderings into Greek and Latin 
Verse, Reprinted from the Westminster Gazette. Edited by 
Herbert F. Fox, M.A. 12mo, pp. 106. Oxford: B. H. Black- 

The Humor of Love, in Prose and Verse. By Tom Masson. 
In two vols., 12mo, uncut. Moffat, Yard & Co. $2.50 net. 

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FOR 1907 

"This first number comes into the library like a well= 
bred person who knows how to sit before the fire and 
talk at ease; who has seen the world, who knows 
books, and has learned and practises the art of human 
intercourse. The magazine starts quietly, and puts into 
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good literary traditions, matter which is worth reading." 

— The Outlook. 


THE .JANUARY NUMBER contains a fvill account, by Robert F. Gilder, of his recent 
finding, in a grave-mound in Nebraska, of the skull of a human being of lower cranial develop- 
ment than any other yet unearthed in America. A similar discovery, some years since, in Java, 
and another in Switzerland, give special significance to this skull as indicating the existence of a 
race of inferior intelligence to any other of which records exist, and Mr. Gilder's important find is 
attracting the attention of the leading biologists of the country. The discoverer's personal narrative, 
together with the supplementary papers of a scientific character, is appropriately illustrated. 

ftr^TT vi^r--rr:. •• 

X.. .".^ 


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i :, 

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In connection with a similar article by Richard 
B. Knight, printed in January, 1853, in the first 
number of " Putnam's," this paper strikingly 
marks the first as an interesting prophecy of 
Cuban history. 

Great Characters of Parliament 

By Henry W. Lucy, the well-known " Toby 
M. P." of " Punch." Illustrated by a distinctive 
series of portraits. 


By Professor Henry L. Nelson. The writer 
was associated with Mr. Schurz in the manage- 
ment of " Harper's Weekly " and succeeded him 
as editor of the paper. 


By President Schurman of Cornell University. 


Miss Carolyn Wells allows her humorous pen 
to make a series of piquant sketches of her first 
impressions of England and France during the 
summer of 1906. 


George S. Street, in a series of papers, presents 
noteworthy figures who have been coimected with 
London's thoroughfare. The illustrations are 
characteristic of the sketches. 


A series of essays on matters connected with their 
art, by Signor Salvtni, the most eminent living 
actor, and by the late Mme. Ristori, the most 
famous actress of the recent past. The latter 
discusses the question of the endowed theatre, 
while the former gives his views on the famous 
characters he has impersonated. 


Professor H. Parker Willis, under this title, 
pays a tribute to the life and service of the late 
William L. Wilson. 


By Hester Ritchie, the granddaughter of W. M. 


"Shattered Idylls," by Fogazzaro, the author 
of « The Saint" ; " Mortmain," by H. G. Dwight ; 
and " The Barge," by Arthur Colton. 


Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Henry 
Holt, Ford Madox Hueffer, Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich, Arthur C. Benson, Frederick 
Trevor Hill, Agnes Repplier, W. J. Rolfe, 
Montgomery Schuyler, Charles de Kay, 
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Corea: The Hermit Nation 


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The Cambridge Apostles 

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[Jan. 16, 1907. 

The companionships of books 









Dr. Hale's 

at Home 


Mr. Lucas's 

A Wanderer 

in London 





Mars and 

its Canals 

SUPPOSE you could sit down and listeh for an entire evening to the intimate 
conversation of a man who had been Grennan Ambassador to France just 
after the Franco-Prussian War; who knew Bismarck well, and was Emperor 
William's right hand man ! Would you not • think it worth the price of 
this book? 

The Memoirs of Prince von Hohenlohe 

Cloth, 8vo, loith portraits, two volumes, $6.00 net. 

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be found in the 

Personal Reminiscences of Henry Irving 

In two volumes, cloth, illustrated with portraits, etc. $7.50 net. 

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results ! It would be worth the cost of a set of 

Rhodes's History of the United States 

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Tarry at Home Travels 

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Mrs. Ravenel's Charleston 

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Highways and Byways of the Mississippi Valley 

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Percival Lowell's Mars and its Canals 

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No. 494. JANUARY 16, 1907. Vol. XLII. 





Leonard Moore 28 


Some of the problems of book publishing. — The 
revival of interest in the drama. — The endowment 
of " lazyships " at Harvard. — Teaching the young 
idea how to shoot. — Aspects of American cities. — 
A cariosity in commercial literature. — London lit- 
erary happenings. — An artificial world-language. — 
Hero-worship on the wane. — The right to publish 
private letters. — The death of Ferdinand Brune- 
ti^re. — Record prices for rare books. 

THE AUTHOR OF " BEN-HUR." Percy F. Bicknell 34 

ICS. M. B. Hammond 36 


Charles H. A. Wager 39 


ITALY. Laurence M. Larson 41 


Coblentz 43 

Waddell's Lhasa and its Mysteries. — Sherring's 
Western Tibet and the British Borderland. — 
Holdich's Tibet the Mysterious. — Eraser's Pictures 
from the Balkans. 


Education, is it a science or an art ? — Aftermath 
of the Hawthorne centenary. — Good work by the 
Library of Congress. — Sketches from the note- 
book of a journalist. — A sensible appreciation of 
Chaucer. — So saith the Preacher. — Begiiming of 
a history of Civilization. — Memoir of a philosopher 
and historian. 





In one of the lectures which he gave in this 
country, when he visited us several years ago, 
Brunetiere used the following words : 

" The first condition of disinterestedness is never to 
follow one's tastes, and to begin by distrusting the 
things which give ns pleasure. The most delicious dishes 
are not the most wholesome ; we never fail to distinguish 
between our cooks and our doctors. In the moral world 
the beginning of virtue is to distrust what is most natu- 
ral to us, and the same is true in the intellectual world. 
To distrust what we like is the beginning of wisdom in 
art and literature." 

We quoted this passage at the time when the 
distinguished Frenchman was our guest, and 
we now quote it again because it illustrates so 
clearly the fundamental characteristic of Bru- 
netiere's critical attitude toward literature. 
First and last he stood for authority in criticism 
as opposed to impressionism and caprice, for 
objective standards as opposed to subjective 
fancies, for law as opposed to anarchy in the 
appreciation of books. 

As the chief champion in our time of the 
principle of authority in criticism, Brunetiere 
occupied a distinguished position, and his loss 
is one of the most serious possible to the world 
of letters. He stood like a rock amid the flood 
of critical writing that has been steadily swelling 
of recent years, and that has no other creden- 
tials to offer for its acceptance than the posses- 
sion of verbal charm, the display of intellectual 
agility, and the appeal to the hedonistic impulses 
of our nature. In his resistance to the disinte- 
grating forces that seemed to him to be threat- 
ening disaster to the fine art of literature, he 
grew more and more uncompromising in his 
pronouncements, more and more reactionary in 
his attitude, and the end found him sending 
apart, in grim isolation, from most of the ad- 
vancing movements and liberalizing tendencies 
of his age. It was a stand that challenged admi- 
ration, even when it revealed him as the foe of 
justice in the Dreyfus affair, as the enemy of 
social and political progress in his ultramontane 
partisanship, and as the opponent, in the name 
of the classical seventeenth century, of those 
literary developments which, not wholly for good 
but assuredly not wholly for ill, were bestowing 



[Jan. 16, 

a distinctive character upon his own age, and 
were preparing the way for the age that should 
come after him. 

The man who commits himself to the prin- 
ciple of authority in criticism incurs certain 
dangers, no doubt, which Brunetiere's career 
illustrates. He is sure to be a conservative, and 
extreme conservatism is almost as much to be 
avoided as extreme radicalism. The conserva- 
tive view is pretty sure to be the soimd one in 
the majority of cases, because it results from 
the tested opinions of many minds ; whereas the 
radical view is always experimental, and stands 
a fair chance of being proved untenable. But 
no lesson drawn from the history of thought is 
plainer than that radical views are sometimes 
right, and that the conservative ideas they op- 
pose may be crusted prejudices rather than rea- 
soned judgments. The critic of to-day is the heir 
of all the ages, but he is also an observer from 
the vantage-point of the new time, with its more 
refined instruments and its broadened horizons. 
There can hardly be a doubt that Brimetiere set 
his gaze too resolutely toward the past, and that 
his devotion to the ideals of Bossuet and Racine 
made him incapable of doing full justice to 
Renan and Hugo. 

There was, moreover, an irreconcilable con- 
tradiction between the critic in his character of 
laudator temporls acti and his character as the 
expositor of the principle of literary evolution. 
This principle was the philosophical basis of his 
later writings, and his defence thereof constitutes 
his chief claim to a permanent place in the his- 
tory of criticism. One of the many statements 
that he made of it may be quoted. 

" A given variety of literature, for instance, the En- 
glish drama of the sixteenth century, or the French 
comedy of the seventeenth century, or the English 
novel of the eighteenth century, is in process of devel- 
opment, slowly organizing itself under the double influ- 
ence of the interior and exterior ' environment.' The 
movement is slow and the differentiation almost insen- 
sible. Suddenly, and without its being possible to give 
the reason, a Shakespeare, a Molifere, or a Richardson 
appears, and forthwith not only is the variety modified, 
but new species have come into being: psychological 
drama, the comedy of character, the novel of manners. 
The superior adaptability and power of survival of the 
new species are at once recognized and proved, indeed, 
in practice. It is in vain that the older species attempt 
to struggle: their fate is sealed in advance. The suc- 
cessors of Richardson, Molifere, and Shakespeare copy 
these unattainable models until, their fecundity being 
exhausted — and by their fecundity I mean their apti- 
tude for struggling with kindred and rival species — 
the imitation is changed into a routine which becomes 
a source of weakness, impoverishment, and death for 
the species. I shall not easily be persuaded that this 
manner of considering the history of literature or art 

is calculated to detract from the originality of great 
artists or great writers. On the contrary, as is doubt- 
less perceived, it is precisely their individuality that is 
responsible for the constitution of new species, and in 
consequence for the evolution of literature and art." 

It is not difficult to see that the principle thus 
formulated must act as a solvent of the tra- 
ditional criticism of authority, and that its ac- 
ceptance must render obsolete, in very large 
measure, the method of judging contemporary 
products by the closeness with which they meas- 
ure up to classical standards. And it is also 
fairly evident to the reader of Brunetiere's crit- 
icism of contemporary literature that his admi- 
ration of the past deadened his alertness to the 
possibilities of the present, and to no inconsid- 
erable extent dulled in him the prophetic sense. 
But the extremes to which modern impres- 
sionism has gone are such as to drive almost 
any judicially-minded critic into the camp of 
reaction ; and it is small wonder that Brune- 
tiere's balanced intellect, with its sense of his- 
torical perspective and its temper of essential 
sanity, should have been repelled by the restless 
extravagances of current critical expression, and 
should have sought refuge in the haven of a past 
of defined and realized ideals. The tide of recent 
criticism has set so strongly against any form 
of law or any sort of acceptance of authority 
that we cannot but be grateful for the steadying 
influence exerted — always forcibly if not ex- 
actly gracefully — by the great critic who has 
just died. He has fought stoutly for thirty years 
in what must be admitted, despite certain defects 
of sympathy and aberrations of judgment, to 
have been a good cause, and his memory is de- 
serving of all honor. Whether or not his books 
will continue to be read far into the future, we 
cannot foretell ; if they fall too speedily into 
neglect and forgetfulness, we feel bound to 
believe that it will be so much the worse for 
the future. 


Death is the shadow which defines light. It is 
the mystery which underscores and emphasizes life. 
It is the negation which makes the assertion of 
existence valuable. The poetry of life, even the 
poetry of love, cannot compare with the poetry of 
death. At the touch of death the common masks 
of life are dropped, the vulgar veils of flesh dissolve, 
and high and stately forms step forth, — imagina- 
tions unembodied on earth, possibilities unhinted in 
the race we know. 

I have no desire to add a page to Drelincoiu*t on 
Death. But impatience consumes one at our modern 
attitude to the great, serious, and tragic themes of 




thought and art. Especially does our American 
hedonism, our love of pleasure, our fear of pain or 
shock, rebel at the best and highest in literature. 
We g^asp at the shallow criticism which speaks of 
the pessimistic, the melancholy, the gloomy, as the 
minor note. Even in music, from which this term 
is borrowed, it is not true that melancholy themes 
or notes which excite sad impressions are secondary. 
Most of the great symphonies, oratorios, requiems, 
are sad and stormy and terrible. And the same 
conditions are so plain in literature that a critic 
must apologize for pointing it out. But, our childish 
readers say, there is enough that is painful and 
shocking and horrible in life, — why reiterate it in 
literature? Wordsworth prayed for frequent sights 
of what is to be borne. We do not acquire fortitude 
by running away from danger, and a literature of 
lollipops is not likely to make a strong race. The 
tragic part of literature is the most tonic and most 

But to our task, which is to try to draw out the 
themes and situations in literature which have to do 
with death. First, there is the bier, the tomb, the 
grave themselves. Shakespeare frequently intro- 
duces the dead upon a bier. Antony comes to bury 
Caesar, not to praise him. Richard wooes Anne over 
the bier of her husband. King Lear's heart cracks 
as Cordelia is borne in. Then there is the tomb of 
the Capulets, Hamlet at Ophelia's grave, the funeral 
of Imogen. Hugo has Hernani amid the tombs of 
the kings ; and in Byron's " Prisoner of ChUlon " 
the prison becomes a grave. The grave yawned at 
every step in English eighteenth-century literature. 
Gray's " Elegy," Blair's " Grave," Young's " Night 
Thoughts," testify to the nerves of a people who 
were not afraid to face death. The Romantic school 
in Germany dealt so much in shrouds and cerements 
and fleshless bones that their literature is like an 
undertaking establishment. 

Burial alive is a theme which so fascinated the 
imagination of our greatest American literary artist 
that he made it the basis of several of his stories. 
Its possibilities are summed up, however, in Juliet's 
speech. Suspension of life by means of drugs is a 
common enough factor of plot. Juliet herself simu- 
lates death in that way. The deception of death is 
used by Shakespeare in the " Winter's Tale " and 
" Much Ado about Nothing." 

Temples, cathedrals, churches, are man's tribute 
altars to deatli. From Delphi and Stonehenge down 
they have been favored haunts of fiction, and in 
"Notre Dame" Victor Hugo has summed up and 
expressed the sentunent tliat attaches to them. 

Dead cities, ruins, relics of the past, these breathe 
forth the very odor of death. Marius meditating 
over the ruins of Carthage, Ossian apostrophising 
Balclutha, ChUde Harold wandering among deserted 
fanes, — these are figures that occur in this con- 

Waste places, deserts, mountain tops, — these are 
nature's monuments of death. The first Christian 
anchorites, each one of whom was a memento m^ri, 

a living denial of life, retired to the edge of the 
Egyptian desert. Balzac's " Passion in the Desert " 
expresses some of the sentiment of such places, and 
Flaubert's Tentation de St. Antoine gives the hal- 
lucinations which arise in them. Leopardi's " Ode 
to the Ginestra " expresses the mountain desolation 
and much besides. 

Men are subject to partial deaths — loss of limbs, 
decay of faculties, paralysis, age. Invalidism is in 
literature in a thousand forms. Two of its oddest 
figures are the hero of Balzac's Peau de Chagrin 
who had his life shortened every time he made a 
wish, and Peter Schlemihl.who lost his shadow. 

There is a vast deal of poetry dedicated to the 
death of the year — Autumn. I am inclined to 
think that the Spring poets are not so prolific, nor 
have they so good a subject. 

World engulfments, such as earthquakes, tidal- 
waves, volcanic destructions, are, like great wars, 
on too big a scale for literature to handle easily. 
Bulwer's " Last Days of Pompeii " is an effort in 
this field, and there is a story of Jules Verne's about 
the partial destruction of the earth by a comet. 

All these matters, however, are the mere fringe 
of our subject, the penumbra of the black eclipse. 
The centi-al body of tragedy is concerned with the 
agonies and deaths of single figures and selected 
groups. The wholesale massacres of war are, as I 
have said, at once too vast and too business-like to 
be of much use in fiction. The execution done by 
the ancient epic heroes was more interesting than 
anything of the kind since. As a fighter in the Iliad 
or uSneid, you had a rather intimate and engaging 
task before you. You met your opponent face to 
face ; you could select the special joint or organ you 
wished to carve or aim at ; you saw the blood gush 
and the death-spasm convulse him, — and then you 
passed on to other work. In the middle ages, when 
your foe was a moving tower of steel, you were a 
great deal less in touch with him ; and in modern 
times, when unseen you pump lead at an invisible 
enemy a mile away, there can be no personal inter- 
est in the business at all. 

In the main, epic poetry is outward rather than 
inward, physical rather than spiritual, martial rather 
than tragic. The glitter of arms, sounding of trum- 
pets, neighing of horses, descriptions of apparel, 
houses, .cities, — all the panorama of earth, ocean, 
air, — these, ordered of course by some great event, 
are its subject matter. The deaths in it are inci- 
dental rather than inevitable. But in tragedy every- 
thing draws onward to the final stroke of fate. In 
the Agamemnon, all the incidents, — the first glare 
of the beacon, the murmuring of the chorus about 
the dreadful past of the House of Atreus, the 
shrinkings and vaticinations of Cassandra, — lead 
up to the moment when the doors are thrown open 
and Clytemnestra is seen leaning on the blood- 
stained axe. The whispers of the Witches on the 
blasted heath fearfully presage the horrors that are 
to come in Macbeth. The ghost appears to Hamlet, 
and then there can be nothing but death and deso- 



[Jan. 16, 

lation at Elsinore. It is this concentration of all 
effects upon a certain point, and that point the death 
of one or more great characters, which makes 
tragedy the most impressive work of man. 

There are deaths of high and holy mystery, — 
such as that of Moses, rapt away to his unknown 
grave ; Elisha, caught up hy the fiery chariot ; and 
CEdipus at Colonus, whose death, " if ever any was, 
was wonderful." Another is the living death of 
Prometheus, chained to the rock, his vitals continu- 
ally eaten and continually renewed, until he consents 
to yield his secret to Zeus. 

Death scenes which hardly amount to high tragedy 
may yet rank as most pathetic and effective pages 
of fiction. How many tears have been shed over the 
death of Little Nell er Paul Dombey ! What rather 
higher emotions have been roused by the passing 
away of Lefevre or Colonel Newcome ! And the 
death of Porthos, — that scene alone would make 
Dumas immortal. 

Newspaper writers invariably condemn the inter- 
est in murders as morbid. I am not sure I know 
what morbidity means, for I continually find myself 
applauding things in literature which persons of 
more delicate sensibilities tell me are tainted with 
that quality. I suppose the morbid is the abnormal, 
the unnatural. If this is so, the whole human race 
must be steeped in it, for there is nothing that so 
attracts and interests mankind as a murder. De 
Quincey's grotesque papers on " Murder considered 
as a Fine Art" hardly overstate this interest. I 
suppose the feeling of the many in this matter is a 
compound of sympathy with the victim whose per- 
son and past is suddenly lifted into a glare of light, 
a sickening sense that the same thing might happen 
to themselves, a desire for revenge, and a shock of 
excitement which raises them for the moment above 
the dull routine of life. All these feelings are nat- 
ural. Probably three-fourths of the tragic pieces of 
the world, and a goodly share of the novels, are 
based on murder or suicide themes. 

Death overhanging but evaded, as in hair-breadth 
escapes, heroic histories, adventures by land and 
sea, forms a main strand of fiction. 

But death is the gate to the other world. Man- 
kind marches through its open portals, and comes 
not back. What do come back are troops of ghosts 
and gods, philosophies and religions, thoughts that 
assuage and assure. 

The scientific method has of late been applied 
to animism — to occult and spiritual phenomena. 
Cases have been counted and tabulated, the credi- 
bility of witnesses investigated ; a vote has been 
taken, as it were, on the subject. Probably the re- 
sults will not convince anybody who did not believe 
before. But it is made certain that animism is as 
deeply rooted in the modern world as it ever was. 
And it is equally certain that its manifestations 
afford the best kind of literary material — that they 
are the very bi-ood of awe and wonder and mystical 

Ghosts are the most natural, the simplest, of the 

spirit tribes. The human being desires or dreads 
companionship with the departed, and the Appear- 
ance comes. Or more frequently the Apparition is 
driven to walk the earth to expiate crimes commit- 
ted there, or to relieve itself of the burden of some 
secret. The ancients had such a fully equipped 
establishment of spiritual agencies that they did not 
have much recourse to ghosts. And these were too 
tame and gentle for the demonologists of the Dark 
Ages. Shakespeare really did most to propel them 
into literature. The ghost in Hamlet, Banquo's spirit, 
the apparitions that rose before Richard, these estab- 
lished the standing of the family in literature. 

The opposition between Good and Evil in the 
world was largely the origin of Demonology. People 
saw plainly enough that Evil usually had the upper 
hand, so they proceeded to worship or propitiate its 
deities. Eiirope kept a huge standing army of these 
things on foot for centuries, reaching from Beelzebub 
himself down to the humblest gnome or elf, with 
witches and warlocks for their human intermediaries. 
The Djinns, Afreets, Genii, Ghouls of Persia and 
Arabia, were an allied race. Folk-lore and popular 
legend are full of such imaginations, and Goethe has 
pictured their Olympus in Faust. 

Magicians, miracle-workers, interpreters of sig^ns, 
infest all ages. Such were the Enchanters who 
failed before Aaron, or the Magi who had to give 
place to Daniel. The early men of science were not 
only accounted miracle-workers by the populace, 
but themselves struggled to acquu'e occult powers. 
Pythagoras, Empedocles, ApoUonius of Tyana, Par- 
acelsus, Friar Bacon, and even in recent times 
Mesmer and Cagliostro, were probably half impos- 
tors, half seekers for the truth. The whole spirit of 
such personages is summed up in fiction by the single 
figure of Faust. Dumas's " Memoirs of a Physician " 
is an immense and amusing explication of it. 

Gods are an integral part of the greatest litera- 
ture. In the big times of poetry, writers began from 
Jove and not from their neighbor in a street-car. 
And audiences took it as a compliment to them- 
selves to see divinities fighting, or conversing with, 
or making love to, their own ancestors. The vast 
elemental mythologies of India or Greece or Scan- 
dinavia tell yet on our imaginations. They tell 
more profoundly than anything that can be devised 
to-day. It cannot too often be repeated that religion 
and philosophy and literature are one. They are 
synonymous terms for the same thing. Religion is 
sometimes the text, philosophy the comment, and 
literature the visualising agency ; but sometimes one 
precedes and sometimes another. The theogany of 
Hesiod came after the creation of' Homer. The 
hymns of the Rig- Veda, the Upanishads, and the 
Hindu epics, followed in unknown order ; but they 
are all literature, and all religion, and all philosophy. 
The vast Catholic mythology was built up with scant 
reference to the Scriptures. 

The religious principles which have to do with 
death and the hereafter, the ideas of resurrection 
and immortality, have their philosophic counterparts 




in Plato's Theory of Ideas and the Hindu thought 
of Maya or Illusion. But the philosophical schemes 
are comparatively barren for literature ; whereas 
the religious ones burst out into creation everywhere. 
The final scenes of the Maha-bharata, the episodes in 
the Greek and Latin poets dealing with Hades and 
Elysium, and, final summation of the whole, Dante's 
great poem, testify to the fruitfulness of those ideas. 

Multiplicity rather than unity is the ruling spirit 
of literature. It must have opposing forces, strife, 
varied pictures of life. The tribal systems of Indian 
cosmogany, the dualism of Zoroaster, the delicately 
divided mythology of Greece, are all conformable 
to its laws. Even when it gets a pure monotheism 
like the Jewish, it pi-oceeds as quickly as possible 
to transform it into a dualism and then into a trinity 
of good opposed to multiple powers of evil. For 
this reason, the Buddhistic idea of Nirvana can 
work little good for literature. There is a question 
whether the true doctrine of Nirvana is annihila- 
tion, or only resumption into God and the being 
freed from the pain of new birth. The latter inter- 
pretation is probably the Hindu one, while Euro- 
pean thinkers who have accepted the doctrine — 
Schopenhauer above all — lean to the first. It is 
obvious that neither branch of this principle has any 
possibilities of literary growth and efflorescence. 

Modern science is also in some sense paralyzing 
to literature. When it discovers myriads of organ- 
ized creatures in a drop of water, and divides these 
again unto infinity into atoms and units of force, 
the human imagination is appalled and dismayed. 
Similarly, when it shows us streams of stars, clouds 
of nebulae, universe upon universe, floating like 
bubbles on the bosom of ether — which substance 
itself is like death, a negation, yet the most potent 
thing there is — we may be inspired, but it is with 
an insjiiration which cannot realize itself in concrete 

In beginning this series of brief inquiries into the 
root-ideas of fiction, I said that all literature is buUt 
up from a few scraps of nature and human experi- 
ence. This is not to say that it is, in its results, simple. 
Many, perhaps most, writers have a predilection for 
a certain set of impressions, a certain sphere of action 
or thought. They write love lyrics, and they think 
that love lyrics are the whole of poetry ; they pho- 
tograph contemporary life, and they insist that such 
work is all that is worth doing. But if from the two- 
score or more of syllabled sounds all the languages of 
the world have been built up, if from the eighty sim- 
ple elements there is made the whole universe, what 
are the possibilities of scheme and combination with 
the individual units of the human race ? The count 
of those that are or have been rise in their myriads to 
numbers beyond name. Yet no two have been alike. 
Each human being has viewed and reflected the uni- 
verse at a different angle and has been shuffled among 
his compeers in a different way. The possibilities 
of character and situation and plot are practically 

limitless. ^ -r 

Charles Leonard Moore. 


Some of the problems of book publishing are 
brought out in a forcible way by Mr. John Murray, the 
veteran London publisher, in an article in the December 
" Contemporary Review." Referring to the " Times 
book- war," and intimating that the "Thunderer" is 
grievously in error as to divers book-trade matters, Mr. 
Murray passes on to points of general interest in con- 
nection with his business. Some of its difficulties are 
experienced in the sudden and mysterious dead stop 
that may occur in the sale of almost any book at any 
time; in the unacknowledged and impaid-for editorial 
supervision that a work may call for after acceptance ; 
in the large demand for free copies of books (five for 
copyright purposes alone, in England); and m the 
doubling, in the last thirty years, of a publisher's gen- 
eral establishment expenses. The popular belief that 
Gladstone could secure the success of any book was 
proved false in the failure of three promising biographies 
published by Mr. Miu-ray, two of them at Gladstone's 
instigation, and all three puffed by reviews, speeches, and 
private commendation from the great statesman. Pride 
in producing works of lasting value prompted the issue 
of the " Dictionary of Christian Biography," the " Dic- 
tionary of Hymnology," and the " Classical Atlas "; but 
these praiseworthy undertakings still show a deficit of 
more thousands of pounds than the publisher cares to 
name. No business in London^ concludes the writer, 
except perhaps the management of a great newspaper, 
demands so much imremitting labor, alertness, and atten- 
tion to infinite detail, as the business of publishing books. 

• • • 

The revival of interest in the drama manifests 
itself in more ways than one. An encouraging symptom 
is the establishment in Berlin of a " chamber theatre " 
for the elect of cultured and discriminatingly apprecia- 
tive play-goers, those who enjoy " intimate " acting and 
to whom the conventional clap-trap of the stage is 
wearisome. In an oblong room panelled with mahogany, 
with no galleries or boxes, and without painted decora- 
tions, the spectator sinks into a luxurious arm-chair 
(for which he has paid twenty marks, by the purchase 
of eight tickets for the season) and is entertained by 
(let us say) a presentation of Ibsen's " Ghosts," in which 
the actors depend for effect wholly on their own intel- 
lectual and emotional equipment, foregoing the adven- 
titious aid of false hair on head or face, of paint, and of 
all the arts and devices employed in the ordinary stage 
" make-up." Any forcing of the note would be out of 
harmony with the smallness and the tasteful simplicity 
of the " chamber theatre," and there is nothing to mar 
the enjoyment of the play as the production of a master 
mind interpreted by gifted and sympathetic artists. 
The only regret is that the sphere of immediate influence 
of so praiseworthy an innovation should, of necessity, 
be so restricted. Yet even thus some measure of leav- 
ening downward may be looked for, as always in move- 
ments that make for the elevating of art and literature. 

• • • 

The endowment of " lazyships " at Harvard was 
once recommended by Lowell. The wisdom of the 
learned man which cometh by opportunity of leisure, as 
the Preacher puts it, is not exactly the wisdom striven 
for by the late President Harper's ideal professor who 
was to toil strenuously and gladly eleven months of the 



[Jan. 16, 

year in order to recuperate (in a sanatorium) during the 
twelfth — or perhaps to be cut off in his prime, as was 
Dr. Harper himself. The decay of academic leisure is 
deplored by Mr. Irving Babbitt in the current " Har- 
vard Graduates' Magazine." This writer aptly quotes 
Professor Bosanquet's words : " Leisure — the word 
from which our word ' school ' is derived — was for the 
Greek the expression of the highest moments of the 
mind. It was not labor; far less was it recreation. It 
was that employment of the mind in which, by great 
thoughts, by art and poetry which lift us above our- 
selves, by the highest exertion of the intelligence, as 
we should add, by religion, we obtain occasionally a 
sense of something that camiot be taken from us, a real 
oneness and centre in the universe; and which makes 
us feel that whatever happens to the present form of 
our little ephemeral personality, life is yet worth living 
because it has a real and sensible contact with some- 
thing of eternal value." The lesson is an old one, but 
not the less timely: what we are is more important 
than what we do; wise passiveness is sometimes better 
than bustling activity. The present low estate of poetry 
has been ascribed to our lack of that contemplative 
leisure which is more and more difficult to find in the 
strenuous conditions of our modern life. 

Teaching the yoxxng idea how to shoot (with 
rifles) is a development that probably the poet did not so 
much as dream of when he penned his familiar line. 
Yet the advocates of general conscription in England, 
the " Blue Funk School," as they have been styled, 
appear to have inflamed the patriotic frenzy to such a 
pitch that the phrase " children in arms " now takes on 
a new meaning. A Devonshire vicar, evidently a repre- 
sentative of the church militant, is even quoted as de- 
claring : " I would have every girl as well as every boy 
taught the use of the rifle, so as to be prepared, in case 
of emergency, to defend their homes, together with 
their brothers, husbands, and fathers. This is the spirit 
I inculcate in my parish. We want patriotic men and 
women, not cowards and sneaks." This reminds one of 
the turbulent paterfamilias and his blustering pronun- 
ciamento, " I will have peace in the family if I have to 
fight for it." The educational imbroglio in England 
has its amusing aspects, especially as viewed from oiit- 
side; but even an outsider can sympathize with the 
editor of " The Westminster Review," who thus frees 
his mind: "That rifle shooting should be taught in our 
elementary schools with the sanction of a Liberal Min- 
ister for education, affords an astonishing commentary 
upon our much-vaunted principles of ' Peace, Retrench- 
ment, and Reform.' " He trusts that the permission to 
add this new study to the curriculum will be speedily 
withdrawn — a consummation devoutly to be wished by 
all who hold that the reading-book is mightier than the 

Krag-Jorgenson rifle. 

• • • 

Aspects of American cities, as seen by an English 
visitor, Mr. Charles Whibley, best known as a sprightly 
essayist and the author of " A Book of Scoundrels," 
" The Pageantry of Life," and " Studies in Frankness," 
have lately been receiving attention in " Blackwood's 
Magazine." Of New York this observer says that " the 
most vivid and constant impression that remains is of a 
city where the means of life conquer life itself, whose 
citizens die hourly of the rage to live." Visiting Boston, 
he is moved to declare that no more sudden or striking 

contrast can be found in America than between these 
two cities. The comparative quiet and decorous aspect 
and conduct of the New England capital pleased him. 
" Nowhere in Boston," he affirms, '< will you find the 
extravagant ingenuity [in architecture] which makes 
New York ridicidous." Beacon Street he pronounces 
one of the most majestic streets in the world. Boston 
Common, the Old South Meeting-House, Faneuil Hall, 
the great university across the Charles — these and 
other places and institutions he warmly admires ; but in 
asserting that Harvard " still worships the classics with 
a constant heart" he must be deceived as to how little 
of Latin and how much less of Greek (or is it now none 
at all ?) are at present required for a B. A. degree from 
our oldest imiversity. " Culture," he says, " has always 
been at once the boast and the reproach of Boston"; 
and he proceeds to criticise, with some deserved ridi- 
cule, the Boston passion for lectures, an American 
eagerness to acquire much in the least possible time. 
But he adds, referring to culture: " Even now Boston, 
its earliest slave, is shaking off the yoke ; and it is taking 
refuge in the more modern cities of the West. Chicago 
is, I believe, its newest and vastest empire. There, 
where all is odd, it is well to be thought a ' thinker.' 
There, we are told, the elect believe it their duty ' to 
reach and stimulate others.' But wherever culture is 
found strange things are done in its name, and the time 
may come when by the light of Chicago's brighter lamp 
Boston may seem to dwell in the outer darkness." 


same time a gratifying bit of evidence that, in these 
days of mammon-worship, of graft, of investigating 
committees, and of mud-rakers, we are not all gomg 
straight to perdition, is found in a seedsman's trade 
catalogue from an Eastern business house. With a sub- 
lime trust in man's (and woman's) better nature, the 
head of this establishment has built up a prosperous 
business with none of the modern appliances of book- 
keeping and auditing, checks and balances, that seem 
to rest on the theory that everybody is presumably a 
rogue until he is proved honest. The following reads 
like a page from the description of trade methods in 
some Utopian Spotless-Town: "The head clerks (they 
are ladies) pay themselves each week from the funds 
received by the one acting as treasurer. From year's 
end to year's end no receipt passes between us. When- 
ever the treasurer finds more money on her hands than 
she needs she passes it over to me, and I put it in my 
pocket without counting it. It is the same with the 
clerk below ; he pays off the men, and from time to time 
passes over to me the surplus, no receipt for moneys 
received or paid out ever being passed between us. The 
clerks at large have always been paid by the hour; they 
keep their own accounts, hand these in to the lady in 
charge of their department at the close of each week, 
and are paid accordingly. During all my fifty years in 
business there has never been any reason to doubt the 
honesty of these weekly accounts." AH this, and more 
in the same pleasant strain, is in reply to a customer 
who, having sent money in an unregistered letter and 
failed to hear of its receipt, imputed dishonesty to some 
clerk in the firm's employ. We are tempted to contrast 
with these humane methods the system in use at an 
institution of quite another sort, an institution dedicated 
to the cause of polite literature, — a public library, in 
short, — where the assistants are not free from the 




irksome and humiliating, if not demoralizing, restraints 
and checks that are so happily miknown and unneeded 
in this other institution whose avowed object is the 
piirsuit of gain. ... 

London literary happenings, past, present, and 
future, are claiming attention with the coming in of 
the new year. Miss Mary Cholmondeley's " Prisoners " 
is pronounced to have been " the novel of the year " in 
England. The last twelvemonth has seen the death of 
many eminent English authors, including Dr. Richard 
Garnett, Mrs. Craigie ("John Oliver Hobbes"), Mrs. 
Chesson (" Nora Hopper "), William Sharp (a dual or 
multiple personality, " Fiona Macleod " being but one 
of his phases), and F. W. Maitland, the biographer 
of Leslie Stephen. While we are prepariag for our 
Longfellow centenary in February, the English are 
planning to celebrate, two months later, the two hun- 
dredth birthday of a genius of quite another order — 
Henry Fielding. The London literary correspondent 
of a leading New York journal proclaims, in addition, 
the forthcoming observance, in December, of still 
another bicentenary — that of Jolm Wesley. But this 
good man and ever-enjoyable diarist was duly belauded 
and be-written three years and a half ago. Probably 
the correspondent means John's brother Charles (he 
says his man wrote 6500 hynms), and the hymn- writer 
was indeed born in December of the year 1707 — incor- 
rectly given in the old reference books as 1708. 

An artificial world-language, even for business 
uses, may be an impossibility, but the claims of Espe- 
ranto as a medium of international intercourse among 
Aryan peoples are not inconsiderable. Such is its sim- 
plicity that with only two thousand roots (the greater 
part of them intelligible even to one who knows only 
English) seventy thousand words may be easily formed 

— enough, surely, for every-day purposes. Professor 
Greorge Macloskie, writing in the " North American 
Review," considers the new language a work of genius, 
and takes exception to the late utterances of Professor 
Munsterberg, who, he avers, condemns Esperanto for 
the sins of Volapuk. Dr. Zamenhof's address at the 
recent Esperanto congress is published in the same mun- 
ber of the " Review." The inventor of this tongue is 
an idealist as well as a practical linguist. He hopes 
great things for humanity from the spread of Espe- 
ranto: it will help to break down international barriers 
and to promote " brotherhood and justice among man- 
kind." Even so cool a head as Professor Wilhelm 
Ostwald has caught the enthusiasm. Speaking at the 
Aberdeen University celebration last September, he 
regretted the existing diversity of tongues as a hin- 
drance to international peace, and added: "I express 
my strong conviction that this problem is on the way of 
being solved by means of an international auxiliary 

Hero-worship on the wane is the lament wafted 
to our ears from across the water. Shelley's notebooks 

— three little leather-covered memorandum books given 
by the poet's widow to Sir Percy Shelley, and by him to 
the late Dr. Richard Garnett — have been suffered to 
pass under the auctioneer's hammer in London to a rich 
American bibliophile, for $15,000. In Scotland Lord 
Rosebery has been trying, with no very brilliant success, 
to persuade the canny Caledonians to " chip in " and 
save the " Auld Brig o' Ayr " immortalized by Robert 
Burns — before some odious American multimillionare 

shall appear on the scene and have the stones of the 
bridge numbered and carried off, to be built up again in 
his own back-yard. Another Scotchman whom it was 
some time ago proposed to honor with a monument in 
his native land is the great hero- worshipper himself; for 
him a replica of the Chelsea statue was suggested, but at 
last accounts the originators of this plan were disposed 
to accept with thanks enough money to pay for a me- 
dallion portrait. As a gratifying exception to the rule, 
the preservation of the Coleridge cottage at Nether 
Stowey by an English society with a characteristically 
long name (The National Trust for the Preservation of 
Places of Natural Beauty and Historical Interest) seems 
now not imlikely to become an assured fact. 
• « . 

The right to publish private letters has re- 
cently become an interesting subject of discussion in 
England. A late decision of the Court of Appeal, 
whereby the right to publish certain letters of Charles 
Lamb was declared to reside with their present pos- 
sessor or his agent, seems to entitle, in England, the 
receiver of letters to publish them without the consent 
of the writer, or of his executor or other legal represen- 
tative if he be dead. This, in the opinion of many, is a 
perilous state of affairs, and calls for legislative cor- 
rection. The persons most interested in the correspon- 
dence of a recently deceased celebrity are, manifestly, 
the surviving relatives and near friends, and not, in all 
cases, the recipients of the letters, or even the literary 
executor; but the famUy and friends have at present 
no legal right to interfere with the publication of post- 
humous matter of this sort. Will the frankness and 
freedom of friendly correspondence suffer from all this 
something like a cold chill, and lose the charm of its 
careless informality? 

The death of Ferdinand Brunetiere is appro- 
priately noticed in a black-bordered leaflet inserted, 
evidently at the last moment, in the mid-December 
Revue des Deux Mondes, with which the eminent littera- 
teur was so long connected as contributor and editor. 
The obituary notice, from the pen of M. Paul Leroy- 
Beaulieu, president of the magazine's supervisory coun- 
cil, is merely preliminary to a longer and more studied 
article that is soon to follow. The Revue justly prides 
itself on havmg extended to Brunetifere the hospitality 
of its pages when he was poor and friendless, and on 
having retained and honored him until his death. That 
even in bodily suffering and decay he could still handle 
with an assured touch and a calm judgment the literary 
questions and contemporary problems that interested 
him, was evidenced by his latest contributions to the 
magazine which he conducted, and whose very last 
number of the year dying with himself was made up 

under his direction. 


Record prices t-OR rare books, so far as this 
country is concerned, were paid in the year just closed 
— another proof of commercial prosperity, if not of 
increased interest in literature. It was at Libbie's, 
in Boston, that the highest price for a single volume 
(Poe's " Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems," 
Baltimore, 1829) and also for a lot (the four folios of 
Shakespeare, first and third imperfect) was paid at 
public auction. The Poe brought $1560, the Shake- 
speare $8950. An uncut copy of the former sold in 
1901 for $1300, and a perfect set of the latter realized 
£10,000 at private sale in 1905. 



[Jan. 16, 

Ch |ttto §O0ks. 

The" Author of " Ben-Hur." * 

It is nearly a twelvemonth since General Lew 
Wallace died, in his seventy-eighth year. A 
full account of his long and remarkably eventful 
life, down to the summer of 1864, had been 
written by him in the preceding eight or nine 
years ; and this autobiography his widow, 
assisted by a friend. Miss Mary H. Krout, now 
edits, with a continuation of the narrative. The 
whole is published in two octavo volumes of five 
hundred pages each, the final two hundred being 
the continuation. Portraits, facsimile letters, 
maps, and other illustrative matter, are amply 
provided, and the result is a work of more than 
ordinary interest, especially to the veterans of 
our great Civil War and to the survivors of the 
Mexican conflict. This earlier war takes up a 
hundred pages of the book, while the later one 
fills the last half of the first volume and two- 
thirds of the second. Besides being spirited 
and well written, this military narrative throws 
light on several matters of historic controversy. 

The pages devoted to the author's early lit- 
erary aspirations and activity, and those describ- 
ing his rise and progress as a lawyer, a politician, 
and a diplomat, are thus cut down to compara- 
tively small proportions ; but this smaller sec- 
tion of the whole, especially the fraction of it 
that deals with the writer's literary interests, 
may perhaps best be more particularly consid- 
ered in this review. The general outline of the 
author's public life is too familiar, or at least 
too easily accessible in books of reference, to 
detain us here. What is less known is his early 
indication of artistic talent, which, combined 
with an equally early and pronounced passion 
for the paraphernalia of armed encounter — a 
passion nourished by the Black Hawk War then 
in progress — resulted in a series of battle- 
pictures such as by no means every boy could 
have drawn. Two of these spirited sketches are 
reproduced in the opening pages of the book. 
A fondness for poetry and romance, as for lit- 
erature generally ; a love of nature, especially 
of rivers, with an incurable tendency to play 
truant from sunrise to sunset ; and a delight in 
public oratory, whether set off by the imposing 
surroundings of a law-court or by the more 
turbulent accompaniments of a political gather- 
ing — these youtlaful likings and affinities fore- 
shadow the varied pursuits and achievements 

•Lew Wallace. An Autobiography. Illustrated. In two 
volumes. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

of the grown man. His education and shaping 
were largely his own. Though the son of one 
who rose to be governor of liis state (Indiana) 
and was afterward sent to Congress, young 
Wallace's early environment was of the rudest, 
and the untimely death of his mother removed 
one of the few gentler influences that had soft- 
ened its asperities. Although he goes so far as 
to attribute wholly to his wife " what of success 
has come to me, all that I am, in fact," a reser- 
vation must be made in favor of the mother, to 
whom he also pays tribute as follows : 

" My mother, the Esther French Test already men- 
tioned, died in her twenty-seventh year, leaving me so 
young that her sweet motherliness is a clearer impres- 
sion on my mind than either her qualities or her appear- 
ance. Of the latter, all I can now recall are her eyes, 
large, sparkling, and deeply brown. They follow me 
yet. Indeed, through my seventy years there has never 
been a day so bright or a night so dark that, upon re- 
currence of the thought of them, I have been xmable to 
see them seeing me." 

The reminiscences of a rejected suitor supply us 
with details of her beauty and grace, the charm 
of her innocent coquetry, her fondness for dan- 
cing, and with it all her Puritan devoutness, 
her goodness and charity. The father too 
deserves more than a passing word. He had a 
fine taste in literature and could render effec- 
tively the productions of the great writers. A 
description is given of one of these family read- 
ings, of rare occurrence in summer, " rather 
sovereign graces reserved for winter evenings," 
when solemn preparation was made by piling 
high the old-fashioned fireplace with fuel, and 
putting in place the table, lamp, and easy chair. 
Then at last " we were ready ; so was the reader." 

" My father had a face complementary of a beautiful 
head. A more serviceable voice for the carriage of 
delicate feeling I never heard. It was of all the mid- 
dle tones, and remarkably sensitive to the touch of the 
thought to be rendered. ... He delighted, for ex- 
ample, in the Essays of Elia ; Shakespeare and Milton 
he regarded with a kind of awe. It was from him 
I first had the full effects of " The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel " and " Childe Harold." He fixed my standard 
of pulpit eloquence by the sermons of Dr. Chalmers, 
Robert Hall, Bossuet, and Bourdaloue. Once he gave 
an evening to Thucydides, and so powerful was his ren- 
dition of the retreat of the Athenians from Syracuse 
that it has since been one of my exemplars in historical 

Another pen-portrait must be given. Lawyer 
Wallace and his friend Daniel W. Voorhees — 
both of them recently established in their pro- 
fession at Coving-ton, Indiana — had taken 
advantage of a leisure day to hire a horse and 
buggy and drive to Danville, Illinois, where 
court was in session. In the tavern bar-room, 
after supper, sat three of the best story-tellers 




of Indiana, " swapping anecdotes " with two 
" famous lawyers and yarn-spinners of Illinois." 
" The criss-crossing went on till midnight, and for a 
long time it might not be said whether Illinois or 
Indiana was ahead. There was one of the contestants, 
however, who arrested my attention early, partly by his 
stories, partly by his appearance. . . . His hair was 
thick, coarse, and defiant; it stood out in every direc- 
tion. His features were massive, nose long, eyebrows 
protrusive, mouth large, cheeks hollow, eyes gray and 
always responsive to the humor. He smiled all the 
time, but never once did he laugh outright. His hands 
were large, his arms slender and disproportionately long. 
His legs were a wonder, particularly when he was in 
narration ; he kept crossing and uncrossing them ; some- 
times it actually seemed he was trying to tie them into 
a bow-knot. His dress was more than plain; no part 
of it fit him. . . . About midnight his competitors were 
disposed to give in; either their stores were exhausted, 
or they were tacitly conceding him the crown. From 
answering them story for story, he gave them two or 
three to their one. At last he took the floor and held 
it. And looking back I am now convinced that he 
frequently invented his replications ; which is saying he 
possessed a marvellous gift of improvisation. Such was 
Abraham Lincoln." 

Other reminiscences of Lincoln occur later. It 
was in one of the debates with Douglas that the 
author first heard him address a large audience. 
After the first ten minutes all inclination to 
laugh at the orator's grotesque appearance 
vanished. " He was getting hold of me," says 
the writer. " The pleasantry, the sincerity, the 
confidence, the amazingly original way of put- 
ting things, and the simple, unrestrained man- 
ner withal, were doing their perfect work ; and 
then and there I dropped an old theory, that 
to be a speaker one must needs be graceful and 
handsome." More follows, graphically descrip- 
tive of this memorable debate. 

Mrs. Wallace has inserted a pen-picture, 
from an early friend of her husband, of his ap- 
pearance at the age of twenty-one. To complete 
this series of portraits, it may be well to give 
this one also. It is from an old letter of Miss 
Mary Clemmer (afterwards the brilliant news- 
paper correspondent and author, Mary Clemmer 

" He is fashioned of the refined clay of which nature 
is most sparing, nearly six feet high, perfectly straight, 
with a fine fibred frame all nerve and muscle, and so 
thin he cannot weigh more than a hundred and thirty 
pomids. He has profuse black hair, a dark, beautiful 
face, correct in every line, keen, black eyes deeply set, 
with a glance that on occasion may cut like fine steel 
Black beard and mustache conceal the firm mouth and 
chin. His modest, quiet manner is the only amende that 
can be made for being so handsome. In a crowd any- 
where you would single him out as a king of men. 
Marked for action rather than words, he is habitually 
reticent, yet when the time comes for speech is ready 
with eloquent words, given with a voice at once sweet 

and strong. A man of convictions, earnest in every 
nerve of his being, intensely earnest." 

Wallace's early writing of "The Fair God " 
under the immediate suggestion of Prescott's 
"Conquest of Mexico," with no thought of 
printing, and its resurrection and publication 
long afterward, make a good story, but cannot 
here be retold. One incident, however, con- 
nected with the book is too amusing to be passed 
by. A smooth-tongued gentleman, announcing 
himself as agent for a well-known New York 
publishing house, approached the young lawyer, 
engaged him in conversation on literary matters, 
incidentally betrayed a wonderful and enviable 
intimacy with aU the foremost writers of the 
day, then veered off to the subject of competi- 
tion among publishers, indicated the earnest 
desire of his house to hunt up and bring forward 
hidden talent, and finally begged to see the un- 
published novel which Mr. Wallace was known 
to have in his desk. Then followed an exami- 
nation of the manuscript, enthusiastic praises of 
its merits, a promise to recommend it warmly 
for publication, and, last of all, a courteous 
demand of a fee (fifteen dollars) for services 
rendered. The fee was cheerfully paid, and the 
velvet- voiced gentleman departed. One knows 
not which to admire more, the ingenuity and 
skill of the self-styled agent or the frankness of 
his victim in telling the story. 

The Mexican War, whose outbreak the young 
Indiana law-student eagerly awaited, that he 
might be among the first volunteers to hasten 
to the front, he in his sober maturity does not 
hesitate to pronounce justifiable. Despite much 
inglorious hardship endured by him in a wretch- 
edly misanitary camp at the mouth of the Rio 
Grande, where hundreds died of a loathsome 
disease, and despite his smallness of opportunity 
to smell gunpowder, he unfalteringly declares, 
" From that day to this I have never regretted 
the year left behind me as a soldier in Mexico ; 
neither have I at any time since been troubled 
with a qualm about the propriety even to right- 
eousness of the war." In his detailed account 
of his Civil War experiences — a military his- 
tory to be placed beside Grant's and Sherman's 
and Sheridan's similar reminiscences — the 
author gives a verbatim report (published prob- 
ably for the first time) of the findings of the 
commission that inquired into the conduct of 
the army under Buell in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. Wallace, then a Major General, pre- 
sided at the sessions of this commission. His 
report, forwarded to Washington, was lost or 
stolen ; but luckily he had kept a copy, and this 



[Jan. 16, 

copy is now printed. Its general tenor, as has 
long been known, was not favorable to Buell. 

The book is excellent reading, especially for 
those fond of military history. Brisk and vivid 
in style, it has, if one may say so without un- 
kindness, the swing and vigor of " a soul con- 
fident in itself | almost] to the superlative of 
vanity " — as the author writes in description 
of his yoimg manhood. Even Mrs. Wallace's 
continuation of the narrative is so largely com- 
posed of letters and other matter from her 
husband's pen — including a reprint from " The 
Youth's Companion " of " How I Came to Write 
Ben-Hur^' — that we hardly notice the transi- 
tion. Errors of haste or negligence, including 
even lapses in grammar, and other more delib- 
erate faults, can be found by the critical ; but 
their enumeration would be a thankless task, 
and, now that the author is no longer living to 
profit by a friendly word of criticism, a motive- 
less one. Let the last word, then, be one of 
praise for this apparently faithful record ; for, 
as Carlyle has said in words now familiar to 
many, " There is no life of a man, faithfully re- 
corded, but is a heroic poem of its sort, rhymed 
or unrhymed." Percy F. Bicknell. 

The Teaching op El,ementarx 

Few fields of college and university activity 
have had so remarkable a development in Amer- 
ica during the last two decades as that enjoyed 
by the department 'of Economics. Although 
Political Economy had for years prior to 1885 
held a place in the currictda of our colleges and 
universities, it was seldom pursued for more 
than one term, and its teaching usually devolved 
upon the professor of history, or more likely 
upon the president, who in addition to his ad- 
ministrative duties gave instruction in this sub- 
ject and in " Moral Philosophy " to the college 
seniors. Rarely indeed was the institution to 
be found which had the work in Political Econ- 
omy organized as a separate department. 

The character of the teaching in this subject 
was almost, if not quite, as backward as the 
organization of the work. The subject of Eco- 
nomic Theory was in all essentials the same as 
it had been left by Kicardo, MiU, and Senior. 
The cost theory of Value, the abstinence theory 
of Interest, the Wage-fund theory, all had 

•Principles of Economics. With Special Reference to 
American Conditions. By Edwin R. A. Seligman. New York : 
Longmans, Green, & Co. 

been subjected to little modification by the ep- 
igones who undertook to re-write and expound 
the doctrines of the masters. The discussion 
of most practical problems was equally ready- 
made. Only the subject of Protection awakened 
keen controversy, and here the teaching was that 
of the doctrinaire. The student might choose be- 
tween the free-trade doctrines of Sumner, Perry, 
and Wayland, or the protectionism of Bowen 
and Thompson ; there was no middle ground. 
Bimetallism received some attention, and Tax- 
ation was not wholly neglected. The " trust " 
question had not yet begun to loom big on the 
horizon, trade-unionism was merely noticed as 
a desperate device of laborers to overthrow the 
laws of God and man, and railway rates and 
discriminations perplexed the shippers and the 
legislators more than they did the economic 

In 1885 the American Economic Association 
was founded by a small body of young men who 
had for the most part received their training in 
Germany, and who on their return to America 
placed themselves on record as opposed to the 
traditional methods of teaching Political Econ- 
omy then current in our coUeges. It is chiefly 
the work of these men which has made itself felt 
in the later-day instruction in economic science. 
There is no place within the limits of this re- 
view to discuss the ways in which the work of 
these men has modified the older doctrines and 
methods. This much, however, may be said : 
the teaching of Economics has ceased to be the 
work of doctrinaires, and is now almost every- 
where pursued according to the same methods 
tliat have proved so fruitful in the domain of the 
physical and natural sciences. 

This change in the methods of instruction has 
met with a hearty response on the part of both 
the general public and the student body. Peo- 
ple are boimd to become interested in a subject 
which occupies the attention of most men during 
the majority of their waking hours, and men of 
affairs welcome an analysis of business relations 
and institutions based upon historical research 
and statistical observation. There is abundant 
evidence of the growing confidence which busi- 
ness men and statesmen feel in the methods 
and conclusions of economic investigators and 
teachers. In all branches of the government 
service there is a pronounced tendency to utilize 
the services of men trained in the universities to 
conduct thorough and elaborate investigations 
into the workings of business institutions ; while 
within the university the latest development of 
the field of Economics is that which has been 




prompted by the demands of the business world, 
viz., the expansion of the work so as to include 
instruction in accountancy, banking, commercial 
geography, commercial and industrial organi- 
zation, corporation finance, insurance, transpor- 
tation, etc., for the purpose of training men for 
administrative positions in the industrial world. 
If we consider the fifteen or twenty leading 
universities in the country where the elective 
system has made most headway, we shall find 
that the elections within this department usually 
equal, if they do not exceed, those of any other 
department. Such an interest in the subject 
would not appear, were it not for the feeling 
that instruction in it is capable of yielding infor- 
mation which has for its possessors great practi- 
cal importance. 

The expansion of the field of Economics and 
the change in the mode of treating its subject- 
matter covdd not but react upon the pedagogical 
methods of the instructors. For some years after 
the revival of interest in the " dismal science " 
— now no longer dismal — the method of teach- 
ing was mainly by lectures. This was partly 
due to the fact that the text-books in existence 
were little more than re-statements of the doc- 
trines of the classical economist ; and, as already 
stated, these doctrines did not commend them- 
selves to the yoimger school. Another consid- 
eration which led to the selection of the lecture 
method was the fact that the majority of these 
younger teachers had been trained in the German 
universities and were desirous of introducing 
German pedagogical methods into this country. 
Experience showed, however, that the " pouring 
in " process did not succeed well with the aver- 
age undergraduate whose mind may be likened 
to a sieve rather than to a mould. The weak- 
ness of the lecture method became more appar- 
ent as the growth of the elective system pro- 
ceeded, and the ambition to increase the number 
and the size of the classes led to the gradual 
admission into the courses in Economics, first 
of the juniors, then of sophomores, and even in 
some cases of freshmen. The demand for a 
suitable text-book which should either displace 
the formal lecture or supplement this method of 
instruction made itself felt. The first works 
of this character to present modern views were 
those of the late Francis A. Walker, in many 
respects the most original of American econo- 
mists. These text-books of General Walker 
were weU written and were full of suggestion to 
pupil and teacher. They were produced, how- 
ever, before the more recent theories of Value 
had made their influence felt on this side of the 

water, and as these theories gradually met with 
acceptance the Walker texts were not easily 
reconciled with them. Furthermore, there were 
many points in Walker's theory of Distribution 
— in particular, his residual claimant theory 
of wages — which, while marking a decided 
advance over the older theories, proved unsatis- 
factory to many economists. An English trans- 
lation of one of the earlier editions of Gide's 
" Principles of Political Economy " also met 
much favor for a time, but it too had been writ- 
ten before its author was thoroughly familiar 
with the marginal-utility theory of Value, and 
it represented a very unsatisfactory attempt to 
harmonize the utility and cost theories. Pro- 
fessor Marshall's weighty treatise on Economics 
was abridged for text-book purposes, but it 
covered only a part of the field, and proved 
difficult for many beginners. Professor Ely's 
" Outlines " furnished a clear and concise state- 
ment of economic principles ; and the same may 
be said of Professor Bullock's " Introduction." 
Both of these books were widely used as text- 
books for some years, and are still in use in 
many of the smaller colleges where perhaps only 
one term's work can be given to the elements of 
Economics. In the larger universities, however, 
where it is the custom to give four or five hours 
a week during a semester or even three hours for 
an entire year, these books furnished too brief 
an outline of the subject. Hadley's " Econ- 
omics " served the purpose better, but this 
excellent work possesses some peculiarities of 
arrangement which have seemed to hinder its 
general adoption. 

Within the last two or three years there have 
appeared four text-books prepared with especial 
reference to their use in university classes. A 
new translation of Professor Gide's book, which 
had been largely amplified and given an Ameri- 
can dress by its translator, Professor Veditz, 
and two books written by two of the most bril- 
liant of our younger economists, Professor 
Seager of Columbia and Professor Fetter of 
Cornell, made their appearance about the same 
time. These works were well received and have 
been widely adopted in university classes. The 
last of the four books to leave the publishers is 
that of Professor Seligman of Columbia Uni- 
versity. Professor Seligman is the youngest of 
that group of scholars who, as already men- 
tioned, introduced the historical method of 
treatment of Economics into this country, and 
thus began a new epoch in its teaching and 

The value of any text-book will largely de- 



[Jan. 16, 

pend upon the teacher who handles it ; and for 
this reason it is impossible to criticise such a 
work in a way which shall do much more than 
reflect the personal judgment of the critic. Of 
Professor Seligman's scholarly abilities in this 
line of work there can be no difference of opin- 
ion. He has long ranked as one of the most 
patient investigators and keenest of critics now 
engaged in this field of knowledge. Having an 
easy command of four or five languages, and 
possessing the largest private library in Econ- 
omics in the world, Professor Seligman has had 
splendid opportunities for becoming familiar 
with economic literature, and these opportunities 
have not been neglected. The advantages of 
his wide reading, probably not equalled by that 
of any other scholar on this side of the Atlantic, 
are in the present work shared with his readers. 
Perhaps the feature which commends it most 
strongly to the teacher is the carefully selected 
and well classified lists of books, periodicals, 
and government documents, which serve as an 
introduction to the book or appear at the head 
of the various chapters. Even the man who is 
pretty familiar with the literature of the sub- 
ject will be grateful for this accurate list of 
authorities and for the brief but pointed com- 
ments which accompany many of the titles. 

In the present reviewer's opinion. Professor 
Seligman's volume is likely to prove of more 
value to the teacher of Economics than to the 
beginner in the subject for whose benefit pri- 
marily it was written. This is not because of 
any lack of clearness or other defects of style. 
It is due rather to the fact that the author has 
attempted to cover too much ground and to 
introduce the student to too great a variety of 
subjects. It is true that a complete compre- 
hension of principles cannot be had without 
considering all their ajjplications and all the 
institutions to which economic activities have 
given rise. This does not necessitate, however, 
introducing a beginner to a piecemeal consid- 
eration of all these subjects in order to furnish 
him an opportunity to get a firm grasp of fun- 
damental notions. In the present work, besides 
the subjects ordinarily covered in elementary 
treatises on Economics and formerly arranged 
under the general headings of Production, Ex- 
change, and Distribution, we have chapters on 
" Economic Law and Method," " The Economic 
Stages," " The Historical Forms of Business 
Enterprises," including a discussion of theories 
concerning the clan and the family, " The De- 
velopment of Economic Thought," " Private 
Property," " Competition," " Freedom," " Pov- 

erty and Progress." As brief statements, these 
chapters are excellently well done ; but in the 
case of most of these subjects it is not possible 
in the space allotted to give to the beginner such 
information as will enable him to comprehend 
the significance of these institutions or the part 
they play in economic life. The most unfortu- 
nate result of their introduction, however, lies 
in the fact that this necessarily curtails the space 
assigned to the treatment of the unsettled prob- 
lems of Economics, and this in turn leads to a 
rather dogmatic treatment of these problems. 
The discussion of the many vital and difficult 
questions which, taken together, constitute the 
so-called " labor problem " is compressed within 
nineteen pages. This means in the case of many 
of these questions only the barest outline. The 
subject of Industrial Cooperation, for example, 
covers less than a page of the text. Professor 
Seligman expects very little from this move- 
ment ; but whatever one's attitude of mind may 
be toward the practical results to be obtained, 
it is at least desirable that enough space shoidd 
be given to the subject to make the student 
realize the high ideal which Cooperation offers 
as a solution of the labor problem. 

The treatment of Credit is too briefly stated 
to be comprehended by a beginner, while the 
discussion of Socialism is almost superficial. In 
some instances, however, this brevity of treat- 
ment has proved conducive to lucidity, as, for 
example, in the case of the discussion of the rate 
of international exchange. The difficult subject 
of Value, fortunately, commands more space 
than is assigned to it in any of the other text- 
books to which we have referred ; not less than 
one hundred pages — one sixth of the book — 
being taken up with its discussion. Nor is this 
a disproportionate emphasis when one takes into 
consideration the fundamental character of the 
subject and its difficulties for beginners. The 
discussion is not only thorough but clear. Espe- 
cially commendable is the section which deals 
with Social Values. It has been the experience 
of the reviewer that most text-book writers have 
failed to make clear to the student the distinc- 
tion between individual and social valuations ; 
or, rather, they do not make clear the fact that 
an individual's valuation of a commodity is 
completely altered whenever it is possible to 
take advantage of other people's valuations of 
the same commodity. 

One of the striking features of the book is 
the large place which is given to the influences 
of the physical and historical environment on 
the economic activities and theories of a people. 




Professor Seligman seems to have been influ- 
enced, more than most American economists, by 
the German historical school, though he is no 
blind follower of that school. As a general rule, 
there is no criticism to be passed upon this part 
of the book, but in some instances the author 
seems to have taken an extreme attitude, as 
when he seeks to explain the change from En- 
glish individualism to Australian socialism by 
mere differences in climate. 

Professor Seligman follows closely the lead 
of his colleague, Professor Clark, in his devel- 
opment of the theory of Distribution. Like the 
latter, he seeks to show the universality of the 
law of rent, and the return to each factor in 
production is calcidated according to the yield 
of its final unit employed. While not an un- 
qualified supporter of a protective tariff, the 
author attaches more weight to the arguments 
for protection than most economists have done, 
and he believes that a protective policy has been 
and still is a wise policy for the United States. 
His defense of what has come to be called the 
" dumping policy " of leading American manu- 
facturers, whereby a surplus at home is unloaded 
upon the foreign market at lower prices than 
these goods are sold for at home, is very weak. 
" It does not follow," he says, " that the lower 
foreign prices make the domestic price higher 
than it would otherwise be." But the price is 
certainly higher when a portion of the supply is 
withdi-awn to sell abroad than it would be if it 
were kept at home. It was because the whiskey 
producers coidd not prevent over-production 
during the early '80s that a pool was formed 
for the purpose of selling the surplus abroad in 
order to maintain prices at home. 

Always careful to avoid the criticism of being 
a blind partisan. Professor Seligman does not 
hesitate to declare his position in regard to the 
perplexing problems of the present. His own 
treatment of these problems throughout the 
present work well illustrates the attitude of 
mind which on the closing page of his book he 
urges the student of Economics to take. " The 
economic student, if he is worthy of his calling, 
will proceed without fear or favor ; he will be 
tabooed as a socialist by some, as a minion of 
capital by others, as a dreamer by more. But 
if he preserves his clearness of vision, his open- 
ness of mind, his devotion to truth, and his 
sanity of judgment, the deference paid to his 
views, which is even now beginning to be appar- 
ent, will become more and more pronounced." 

M. B. Hammond. 

Echoes of a Famous IjIterary 

In his preface to " The Text of Shakespeare," 
Professor Lounsbury virtually admits that the 
title is a misnomer.. The volume is primarily 
a contribution to the literary history of the 
eighteenth century, and it wiU stand in our 
libraries among the commentaries on Pope. It 
is a long arraignment, based on the most ample 
evidence, of Pope's mystifications and falsifica- 
tions of fact, his cowardly fighting from behind 
masked batteries, his unscrupulous malevolence 
in attack, and his astounding assumption of a 
severe and unassailable morality. " His repu- 
tation as a poet, he asserted, or intimated, was 
but little in his thoughts ; what he desired to be 
considered was a man of virtue " (p. 470). " It 
is my morality only," he wrote to Aaron Hill, 
" that must make me beloved or happy " (ibid.). 

The occasion for this new exposure of Pope's 
" indirect, crook'd ways " is the story of his 
long quarrel with Theobald over the constitu- 
tion of the text of Shakespeare — if that can be 
called a quarrel which consists of unremitting 
and malignant depreciation and calumny on the 
one side, and an almost entire dependence upon 
the plain statement of facts on the other. The 
present volume is an attempt to reverse the 
decision of Pope's case by his enlightened con- 
temporaries, and by aU but experts at the present 
day. The preternatural cleverness of Pope, the 
reverence in which he was held as the first poet 
of his age, the unscrupvdous zeal of his disciples, 
and the tendency of an uncritical public to 
accept as true whatever is rejjeated with suffi- 
cient frequency and emphasis, all contributed to 
bring about a miscarriage of justice. In the 
minds of any intelligent and attentive jury. 
Professor Lounsbury, though he declares that 
he does not hold a brief for Theobald, must be 
considered to have secured a judgment for him, 
though at the eleventh hour. 

The book has, therefore, the additional merit 
of being an attack upon what its author calls, 
not unjustly, " that collection of notions and 
fancies and prejudices and traditional beliefs 
which we dub with the title of literary criticism " 
(p. 485). For it is tmdoubtedly true that the 
current opinion of Theobald, so far as his name 
is known at aU, is the one of Pope's creating. 
Many of his admirable emendations and inter- 
pretations of the text of Shakespeare have been 

• The Text of Shakespeare. Its History from the Publica- 
tion of the Quartos and Folios down to and including the Pub- 
lication of the Edition of Pope and Theobald. By Thomas R. 
Lounsbury, L.H.D. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[Jan. 16, 

apjDi-opriated by editors who have depreciated 
t^e man whom they phmdered. His own scru- 
pulosity in giving full credit to anyone from 
whom he took a suggestion has been so effectu- 
ally used against him that, as Professor Louns- 
bury wittily puts it, " anyone who familiarizes 
himself with the practice he pursued, and the 
treatment which he received as a consequence of 
it, will become thoroughly disabused of any 
belief in the truth of the maxim that honesty is 
the best policy" (p. 639). The authoritative 
edition of Pope's works by Elwyn and Court- 
hope says of Theobald : " He was pedantic, 
poor, and somewhat malignant. He had at- 
tempted with equal ill-success original poetry, 
translation, and play- writing ; and had indeed 
no disqualification for the throne of Dulness 
except his insignificance " (vol. iv., p. 27). Yet 
Professor Lounsbury makes it clear that Theo- 
bald was no pedant, unless exact and extensive 
scholarship be pedantry, that he was not poor, 
and that his " malignancy," when compared with 
Pope's, strangely resembles generosity ; that his 
poetic gift was regarded as sufficient to entitle 
him to be considered for the laureateship, and 
that a play, written when he was twenty, was 
performed by the two principal tragedians of 
the time ; and finally, that he was as little en- 
titled to the " bad eminence " to which Pope 
raised him in the original Dunciad as the great 
Bentley himself. Theobald's " childlike confi- 
dence in the fairness of future generations," 
says Professor Lounsbury, " was never born of 
insight " (p. 537), nor was his vmderstanding 
of human nature very acute when he wrote 
of his corrections of Pope's text : " Wherever 
I have the luck to be right in any observa- 
tion, I flatter myself Mr. Pope himself will 
be pleased that Shakespeare receives some 
benefit" (p. 191). But Mr. Pope was not 
pleased. Instead, he prefixed, apparently for 
all time, the epithet " piddling " to Theobald's 

The story of the quarrel is so interesting an 
illustration of " the amenities of literature " that 
a brief summary of Professor Lounsbury's am- 
ple treatment may perhaps be welcome. In 
1725 appeared Pope s long-heralded edition of 
Shakespeare, about which, as Professor Louns- 
bury remarks, " everything was excellent but 
the editing " (p. 82). Despite his professions. 
Pope had entirely failed to perform the plain 
duties of an editor. He had made no carefid 
collation of the original texts, and indeed had 
so little perception of the value of the First 
Folio as to write, "It is from it that almost 

all the errors of succeeding editions take rise " 
(p. 82). He ignored or suppressed variants, 
he made silent emendations, he neglected to ex- 
plain difficulties in the text, or explained them 
wrongly. His chief contributions of value were 
certain verbal re-arrangements in the interest of 
metre, the addition to the Folio text of many 
lines taken from the quartos, and the elimina- 
tion from the canon of six non-Sliakespearean 
plays that had been included in the Third Folio. 
Even the much-lauded poetical taste displayed 
by Pope as an editor, in which, despite his de- 
fects, he was and still is regarded as supreme, 
did not prevent him from suspecting that " The 
Winter's Tale" and "Love's Labour's Lost" 
were not wholly Shakespeare's work. Theo- 
bald's " Shakespeare Restored : or, a Specimen 
of the many Errors, as well committed, as un- 
amended, by Mr. Pope in his late Edition of 
this Poet," etc., which appeared in 1726, was 
not, therefore, an impertinence. Moreover, says 
Professor Lounsbury, " his treatise surpasses in 
interest and importance any single one of its 
numerous successors " (p. 155). It abounds in 
felicitous and what now seem inevitable emen- 
dations, among them the famous " a babied of 
green fields "; and these emendations are not the 
resvdt of mere conjecture but are supported by 
parallels drawn from other plays. " In short," 
as Professor Lounsbury says, " his method was 
the method of a scholar, and wherever he erred 
it was the error of a scholar, and not of a hap- 
hazard guesser " (p. 160). But one serious error 
he made from which scholarship could not save 
him, — of which, indeed, scholarship was the 
direct cause, — he proved himself to be, as an 
editor of Shakespeare, the manifest superior 
of the leading poet of the age. This would 
probably have been sufficient to gain Pope's 
enmity, which was never merely passive ; but it 
must be granted that Theobald was not inclined 
to depreciate or conceal his superiority to the 
poet in this particular, — a failure, as the sequel 
proved, not more in civility than in discretion. 
For, in 1728, he found hmiself elevated by the 
Dimciad to the very throne of Dulness. He was 
dethroned, to be sure, by the edition of 1743, in 
favor of CoUey Gibber, but this was too late 
for his fame. Thanks to Pope's diligence and 
influence, most of the men whom he stigmatized 
as dimces are to-day regarded as deserving the 
title, and Theobald is no exception to this rule. 
Nevertheless, it shovdd be remembered that, in 
Pope's mind, Bentley too was a dimce, and 
Theobald may well have felt consolation, if not 
pride, in being pilloried with that great scholar. 




In 1734, he made a reply to Pope's charges that 
all competent judges must deem sufficient : he 
brought out his own edition of the works of 
Shakespeare, which, for correctness of method 
and felicity of emendation and explanation, was 
as superior to Pope's as to most of its successors. 
Some of Professor Lounsbury's most interesting 
and valuable pages are devoted to illustrations 
of these excellences. The attacks upon Theo- 
bald were not, however, on this account remitted, 
but continued in the pages of " The Grub Street 
Journal," which "owed its conception and crea- 
tion . . . maiidy to Pope " (p. 385). 

Such, in brief, is the history of the great 
" Shakespearean War " of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the outcome of which was far enough from 
being a " Judgment of God." " The fate of 
Theobald," concludes Professor Lounsbury, " is 
likely to remain for all time a striking instance 
in the annals of literary history, of how suc- 
cessfully, to use the words of the author he did 
so much to illustrate, malice can bear down 
truth " (p. 567). 

In style, this volume is delightfully clear and 
entertaining, despite some rather painful lon- 
gueurs. Professor Lounsbury wears his learn- 
ing lightly, and the reader, therefore, feels no 
burden. It is full of the personal touches, 
keenly or blandly satirical, which his readers 
always expect, and in which no American lit- 
erary scholar surpasses him. His luminous and 
personal style should be an example to all who 
practice the difficult art of criticism. 

Charles H. A. Wager. 

The Tkade Organizations of 
MEDiiEVAL Italy.* 

To the general reader of history, mediaeval 
Florence is the city of Dante and Petrarch, the 
home of the Renaissance, the birthplace of mod- 
ern culture. Early Florentine history is to him 
a long and important chapter in the story of 
European civilization ; from the city on the 
Arno the popular imagination views at the same 
time the splendors of the Athenian past and the 
still grander accomplishments of our own age. 
While it is true that the achievements of Flor- 
ence in the field of intellect constitute her chief 
glory, still her history is not wholly concerned 
with letters and art. Even genius has certain 

• The Guilds of Florence. By Edgcumbe Staley. 
trated. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 


material wants that somehow must be satisfied. 
The city that first acquainted western Europe 
with the treasures of Greek learning was the 
city that coined the florin. In commerce and 
industry, as well as in matters of culture, Flor- 
ence was for several centuries one of the leading 
centres of Europe. 

The material side of Tuscan history has been 
made the subject of an extended study by Mr. 
Edgcumbe Staley, an enthusiastic student of 
the Florentine past. Mr. Staley's investigations 
make a volume of about six hundred pages ; it 
is provided with a large number of splendid 
illustrations, nearly all of which are reproduc- 
tions of miniatures and are consequently of 
great historic value ; it also contains several 
excellent photographs of buildings and other his- 
toric survivals. The author groups his sources 
under four heads : manuscripts, printed matter, 
letters from authorities and friends, and per- 
sonal knowledge of the city and its people. The 
work is, however, to some extent a compilation 
merely, as the author, instead of making a per- 
sonal examination of the manuscript sources, 
seems to have depended largely on the conclu- 
sions of earlier students. 

There can be no doubt that the intention of 
the publishers was to produce a popular history 
rather than a strictly scientific work. The 
author's intentions are not so clear, though the 
volume closely resembles the popular type in 
many respects. It is not provided with notes 
of any sort, and the literary style is too exu- 
berant to be that of an historian writing pri- 
marily for students. In his opening paragraphs 
the author speaks of the three young sisters 
that were fostered in the vale of Arno, — Art, 
Science, and Literature, — and continues as 
follows : 

" No question ever arose as to whose was the subtlest 
witchery, but each developed charms, distinct and rare, 
yet not outrivalling one the other. With harmonious 
voices blended, and ambrosial tresses mingled, the three 
interlaced their comely arms, and tossing with shapely 
feet the flowing draperies of golden tissue, which softly 
veiled the perfect contours of their beauteous forms, 
they gaily danced along. Their enchanting rhythm was 
the music of the new civilization : — it we know — and 
them — but what of their origin ? whence came they ? 
and who were their forebears ? " 

It would only be doing justice to the author 
to say, however, that rhetorical outbursts like 
the one quoted are not general throughout the 
volume. The spirit of the writer seems in the 
main to be that of the true historian : he quotes 
freely from his sources, and at least aims to be 



[Jan. 16, 

accurate in his statement of facts. To such an 
extent has he fillecl the work with details of 
all possible sorts, with dates and statistics, with 
Italian words and phrases, with allusions to 
laws and constitutional changes, with lists of 
merchants and bankers, and with other data 
both historic and scientific, that the reading of 
even these beautifully printed pages after a 
time becomes somewhat tedious. The author 
has presented top much of his materials in an 
undigested form : as a popular historian, he 
has not been entirely successfiU. 

The author introduces his subject in two 
chapters of a general nature in which he dis- 
cusses the extent of Florentine commerce and 
the methods of the mediaeval merchant. In the 
first he sketches the rise of Florence from com- 
parative obscurity in the days of Charlemagne 
to the high place that she held seven centuries 
later. " From the twelfth to the sixteenth cen- 
turies Florence easily held the first place in the 
life and work of the known world : she was in 
fact Athens and Rome combined." This pre- 
eminence is ascribed to " accidents of climate, 
geographical position, and pequliarities of race." 
" The cumulative energies of the Florentines 
had their focus in the corporate life of the trade 
associations, and in no other community was the 
guild system so thoroughly developed as it was 
in Florence." The general history of this sys- 
tem is the principal theme of the second chapter. 
Ab to the origin of the guilds, the author be- 
lieves they have been " rightly traced to the 
corporations of merchants and artisans which 
existed in Rome under Numa Pompilius." Ap- 
parently Mr. Staley has no doubts as to the 
existence of that venerable monarch, or the 
credibility of the early traditional accounts of 
him. These corporations were revived in the 
Lombard region in 825, although more than 
two centuries passed before they secured a firm 
footing in Florence. As the years went by and 
the guilds grew in importance they developed an 
elaborate constitution, or rather a type of guild 
government, as the various corporations had 
their own constitutional peculiarities ; of these 
matters the author gives us a fairly clear state- 
ment. In the same connection he also discusses 
the authority , exercised by the guild officials in 
the general government of the city. 

In the course of time the trade organizations 
of Florence came to be grouped into seven 
greater, five intermediate, and nine minor guilds. 
To each of the seven greater guilds the author 
devotes a chapter. First in rank was the cor- 

poration of judges and notaries ; next in impor- 
tance were the dealers in foreign cloth and the 
merchants engaged in the wool trade ; important 
also was the g-uild of bankers and the dealers 
in silk ; the guilds of doctors and apothecaries 
and of furriers and skinners held a somewhat 
lower place, but were still counted among the 
seven. In each case the author tries to famil- 
iarize us not only with the history of the guild, 
but with its work as an organization, with its 
opportunities and its limitations, with its meth- 
ods and its importance at home and abroad. 
We are told how cloth was woven and silk was 
dyed ; how furs were prepared and drugs were 
mixed ; how banks were conducted and lawyers 
were trained. The reader is taken into the 
courts, the counting-house, the apothecary shop, 
the market, and the factory, and in each par- 
ticular place the work is inspected with consid- 
erable care. 

Two chapters are devoted to the five inter- 
mediate guilds : those of the butchers, the black- 
smiths, the shoemakers, the masters of stone 
and wood, and the retail cloth-dealers. Three 
chapters are given to the nine minor trades. The 
same style of treatment is employed throughout, 
though naturally the lesser trades, which were 
of local importance only, are not discussed so 
fully as the gTeater guilds, whose agents and 
representatives were found in every commercial 
centre in the known world. 

It is not likely that very many readers will 
be able to plough through all of the twenty 
chapters of " The Guilds of Florence." Too 
much technical matter has been inserted, and 
the details are often uninteresting and unim- 
portant ; at least they will seem so to all who 
have not made a closer study of the Renaissance 
period. But no one with any interest in the 
general subject can afford to miss the last hun- 
dred pages of the book, in which the author 
treats such matters as the market, the streets, 
the squares, and the bridges ; the religion, the 
patronage, and the charity of the guilds; and 
the wealth and power of the great Tuscan city. 
In these pages, as well as elsewhere in the work, 
the reader is given a close view of Florentine 
life, and he cannot fail to understand the later 
middle ages better from having read them. No 
doubt the author's enthusiasm has led him at 
times to employ strong and vivid colors ; but 
the Florentine student can hardly avoid being 
enthusiastic, and the world understands and 
judges accordingly. 

Laurence M. Larson. 





Amidst the almost numberless books of travel, 
there are some of the better sort that rise above the 
mere interest of commonplace descriptions and the 
ordinary experiences of the traveller. They awaken 
in us a lively sense of the untried and the unknown ; 
they quicken our minds and arouse our emotions by 
the evidences of energy, self-reliance, foresight and 
heroism which they display. As long as there 
remains an unexplored foot of ground, or an uncon- 
quered race, so long will mankind feel an absorbing 
interest in books which depict vividly man's con- 
quests over man as well as over the obstacles of 
nature. The books in our present group, dealing 
with exploration and travel in little known or mys- 
terious regions of the Far East and the Near East, 
satisfy this higher interest, and present many engag- 
ing racial, religious, and political problems for our 

Lieutenant - Colonel Waddell's volume entitled 
" Lhasa and Its Mysteries " tells the story of the 
Younghusband Mission, in 1903-04, to Lhasa, the 
sacred city of the Tibetans. In a graphic and lucid 
style it portrays the strange life and strange religion 
of a people who have been but recently introduced 
to the world. Colonel Waddell's account of his first 
sight of this wonderful place is a good example of 
the impressionistic method of travel-writing. 

" The first glimpse of the sacred metropolis is dramatic 
in its suddenness. As if to screen the holy capital from view 
tmtil the last moment, Nature has interposed a long curtain 
of rock which stretches across between the two bold guardian 
hills of Potala and the Iron Mountain. . . . The vista which 
then flashes up before the eyes is a vast and entrancing 
panorama. On the left is the front view of the Dalai Lama's 
palace, which faces the east, and is now seen to be a mass of 
lofty buildings covering the hillside — here about 300 feet 
high — from top to bottom with its terraces of many-storied 
and many-windowed houses and buttressed masonry, battle- 
ments, and retaining walls, many of them 60 feet high, and 
forming a gigantic building of stately architectural propor- 
tions on the most picturesque of craggy sites. The central 
cluster of buildings, crowning the summit and resplendent 
with its five golden pavilions on its roof, was of a dull crim- 
son, that gives it the name of the ' Red Palace,' whilst those 
on the other flank were of dazzling white ; and the great 
stairway on each side, leading down to the chief entrance and 
gardens below, zig-zagging outwards to enclose a diamond- 
shaped design, recalled a similar one at the summer palace 
of Peking. A mysterious effect was given to the central 
portion of the building by long curtains of dark purple yak- 
hair cloth which draped the verandahs, to protect the frescoes 
from the rain and sun, but which seemed to muffle the rooms 
in scenery." 

Of the thirty thousand people living in the vicinity 
of this splendor, two-thirds are monks. Although 
in a state of miserable poverty and isolation, they 
have much of the human in them ; they are given to 

•Lhasa and Its Mysteries. By Lieut.-Col. L..Austine 
Waddell. Illustrated. Third and cheaper edition. New York : 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 

Western Tibet and the British Borderland. By George 
A. Sherring. Illustrated. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 

Tibet the Mysterious. By Col. Sir Thomas H. Holdich. 
Illustrated. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

Pictures from the Balkans. By John Foster Fraser. 
Illustrated. New York : Cassell & Co. 

games, sports, sacred theatrical performances, and 
have an inordinate love of jewelry. There are but 
few children and few old people among them, the 
rigorous climate permitting only the survival of the 
strongest. The greatest interest that Colonel Wad- 
dell found in this city of the Great Buddha was 
connected with the religious rites and ceremonies of 
the monks and the explorations among the scrupu- 
lously guarded secret places of the great palace. 
Here the author is most impressive, and does much 
toward lifting the veil that has so long hung over 
the mysteries of Lhasa. 

The connection between the book just noticed and 
the one entitled "Western Tibet and the British 
Borderland," by Mr. Charles A. Sherring, is more 
intimate than at first appears. That the treaty of 
Lhasa, consummated by the Younghusband mission, 
marked a new era in the political and commercial 
relations between Tibet and India is evident from 
the cordiality and friendship extended by the native 
officials of Western Tibet, or Nari, toward the mem- 
bers of Mr. Sherring's mission. This mission, which 
was sent into Nari for the purpose of inquiring into 
the commercial possibilities of that little-known 
country, met with a friendliness hitherto unknown. 
Its connection with the mission described in Colonel 
Waddell's book is thus explained by Mr. Sherring : 

" These officials of ' The Forbidden Land ' were at first a 
little anxious to cast a veil of mystery over things generally, 
and especially over all matters religious ; and it was not for 
us to intrude where we were not wanted. But when the 
Jongpen came to our camp another day I took Waddell's 
' Lhasa and Its Mysteries ' and systematically took him 
through all the photos, pictures of persons, officials, temples, 
and all the most sacred spots, and the most private details of 
the highest functionaries. . . . When he had seen pictures 
of all that used to be so secret and mysterious in Lhasa, 
there was, in the words of Holy Scriptures, ' no spirit left 
in him.' " 

Mr. Sherring asserts that "the concessions that 
have been obtained by the treaty at Lhasa in regard 
to Gartok [the capital of Western Tibet] are of 
greater importance to the native subjects of His 
Majesty than the whole of the concessions in 
Eastern Tibet. By far the larger part of the popu- 
lation of India is composed of Hindus, who are not 
traders or miners, to whom wool and borax do not 
appeal. . . . But the Hindu is first and foremost 
a devotee, and to him the claims of this religion 
incomparably outweigh all else that is secular." 
Hence this treaty, which permits free ingress into 
Tibet, invites the Hindu to make pilgrimages to 
holy Kailas and to other equally sacred slu-ines in 
Western Tibet. Out of these pilgrimages may come, 
so thinks the author, an increase in commerce. But 
if Mr. Sherring's own descriptions of Western Tibet 
are to be taken as evidence, it will be a long time 
before that country will be productive enough to 
repay commercial encouragement. Surrounded by 
rugged mountains, with a scanty population living 
on the wide wind-swept and waterless plateaux, and 
with an extreme elevation. Western Tibet offers lit- 
tle inducement to the trader. There is, to be sure, 



[Jan. 16, 

gold in the mountains, but the physical difficulties 
are too great to mine it with profit. For these rea- 
sons it will probably remain, for a long time at least, 
only a dwelling-place of the Hindu gods. The best 
parts of Mr. Sherring's volume are the chapters 
devoted to the legends and myths of the natives, 
especially the Bhotia tribes of the frontier, and to 
the quaint customs and manners of the British 
Borderland. Here Mr. Sherring, who has for some 
years been Deputy Commissioner of Almora, is 
more at home than he is at Tibet, and he knows his 
subject so thoroughly that he writes with more 
fulness and freedom than when discussing the pos- 
sibilities of Nari. Dr. T. G. Longstaff, who accom- 
panied the author on his journey, contributes an 
account of a week's climb on Gurla Mandhata, the 
highest mountain in Western Tibet. Like nearly 
all recent books on Tibet, this volume is exceedingly 
attractive in its make-up : there is an abundance of 
good pictures and excellent maps — features that 
no doubt suggest the importance of Tibet to stay-at- 
home Britishers. 

The literature of Tibet has grown to large pro- 
portions in the past few years, and the imme- 
diate interest in the Tibetan situation is sufficiently 
acute to demand a handbook which will serve both 
as an introduction to and a summary of the various 
expeditions and travels, and of the geographical 
and political features of that well-nigh impregnable 
land. Such a book is " Tibet the Mysterious," by 
Colonel Sir Thomas H. Holdich. Colonel Holdich, 
although not an explorer or traveller in Tibet, has 
made an exhaustive investigation of all the litera- 
ture relating to that country, and has summarized 
his studies in an accurate and systematic manner. 
For those who wish to plunge in medias res con- 
cerning Tibet, his book will be most acceptable. 
The book opens with a description of the geo- 
graphical situation of Tibet. With the excellent 
map of the country before him, the reader can 
readily understand the various routes which open 
the way to the " roof of the world." By far the 
most interesting and valuable part of the book is the 
summary of the classics of Tibetan adventure and 
exploration. All these expeditions — from the time 
of the earliest Mongolian invasion, the eighteenth- 
century explorations by the monks, the mission of 
the Englishman Bogle, Thomas Manning's visit to 
Tibet and Lhasa, Moorcroft's mysterious attempt. 
Hue and Gabet's journey, and the more modern at- 
tempts of Rockhill, Prjevalski, Needham, Chandra 
Das, Wellby, Bower, Littledale, Bonvalot, Sven 
Hedin, Ryder, Rawling, and Younghusband — are 
chronologically described and amply examined for 
historical, geographical, political, and ethnological 
data. With Lhasa itself, however, the book has 
little to do. "It is intended to illustrate to some 
extent the sequence of exploration in that great 
wilderness of stony and inhospitable altitudes which 
lie far beyond Lhasa." While Colonel Holdich 
does not pose as a commercial prophet, he too, in 
agreement with Messrs. Waddell and Sherring, 

holds forth the tantalizing bait of the great wealth 
of gold which lies so near the surface in many parts 
of Tibet. We note an easily corrected error on page 
102, where the author says that Bogle's Mission 
returned from Tibet in 1874, — the correct date 
being 1784. He evidently accepts the story that 
Moorcroft reached Lhasa and lived there for some 
time before his death in the first quarter of the last 
century ; but it should be remembered that the story 
is founded on circumstantial evidence. His assertion 
that " the Tibetan men and women never wash their 
faces " is contradicted by Colonel Waddell, who tells 
about a Saturnalian feast where the women washed 
their faces, revealing their rosy cheeks. These minor 
errors, however, detract but little from the otherwise 
scholarly work of the author, which will be held in 
high esteem as a general reference-book for the his- 
tory of exploration and travel in Tibet. 

One need not go to the Far East, however, to 
find the spirit of mystery. The Near East — in the 
Balkans — presents a politico-religious problem as 
difficult as may be foimd anywhere in the world. 
Mr. John Foster Eraser, an English newspaper cor- 
respondent, is one of the most recent travellers in 
that section of Europe, and his book entitled " Pic- 
tures from the Balkans " intensifies the general opin- 
ion that some sort of interference must be brought 
about to stop Turkish misgovernment on the one 
hand and the internal dissension of the Balkan 
States on the other. Mr. Eraser went through the 
country, from Belgrade to Sofia, to Plevna, Tirnova, 
Philippolis,to Adrianople, thence southward through 
the ill-defined boundaries of Macedonia to Salonika, 
to Monastir, Ochrida, Elbasan, and Berat, and then 
northward to Uskup, and departed from the Balkans 
on the line he had entered. Montenegro was not 
visited. The keynote to the book is struck in the 
opening paragraph : 

"Riding in Macedonia, I passed the village of Orovsji. 
The inhabitants had just buried seven Bulgarians and four 
Turkish soldiers who had killed each other the previous day. 
Otherwise all was quiet." 
Near the close of the book we read : 

" Everybody is jolly. Murder is so commonplace that it 
arouses no shudder. In the night is the little bark of a 
pistol, a shriek, a clatter of feet. ' Hello ! somebody killed ! ' 
That is all." 

These truly picaresque descriptions are indicative 
of Mr. Eraser's style and tone. But in describing 
a land where democracy and aristocracy are in a 
death-grapple, where religion and bloodshed are 
synonymous terms, where " natives occasionally die 
from disease, but generally from differences of 
opinion," and where the Powers are playing the part 
of hungry vultures waiting for the time of feasting, 
it is permissible for an author to be picturesque, 
cynical, and pessimistic, — especially if he be a 
European. When the real struggle comes in the 
Balkans, it will be precipitated, asserts Mr. Eraser, 
by the dour, sullen, stolid, unimaginative, unsenti- 
mental, but hard-working, plodding, and ambitious 
Bulgarians, who, he thinks, will prevail in the con- 
test. But when Bulgaria acquires the fruits of her 




energy and victory over Turkey, then will come the 
tug of war among the European Powers ; for neither 
Austria nor Russia nor Germany, nor perhaps Italy, 
will acquiesce in the creation of another Power in 
the Near East. And when this political Ragnarok 
is fought out to the bitter end, says Mr. Eraser, 
Germany, in the event of the defeat of Turkey, 
expects to be the Power that will subjugate the 
rivals. On the other hand, if Turkish arms should 
prevail, Germany will demand as her price for aid- 
ing Tm-key, first concessions, then protectorates, 
then possessions. The only glimmer of hope for the 
Balkan States lies in the great dream of perfection 
— a Balkan Confederation with the Turks a party 
to the confederation. Mr. Eraser's pictures of the 
Balkans are in oscuro — so much so that two of the 
illustrations which reveal horrible scenes are printed 
on leaves provided with perforations, that they may 
he easily torn from the book by squeamish readers. 
Mr. Eraser adds nothing particularly new to our 
knowledge of affairs in the Balkans, and for this 
reason we wish he had given us more chapters simi- 
lar to his pleasing and diverting ones entitled " The 
Rose Garden of Europe " (meaning thereby the rose 
plantations near Kasanlik) and "His Majesty's 
Representative," a description of a British consulate 
in the Balkans. jj. E. Coblentz. 

Briefs on Ne^v Books. 

Education, - Professor Home's new book on " The 
is it a science Psychological Principles of Educa- 
oranartf tion " (MacmiUan) contains much 

that is of uncommon value and significance. It is 
unfortunate that the first part of the book consists 
of a discussion of the somewhat worn question, " Is 
there a Science of Education?" and adds nothing 
of importance to the debate, falling into the common 
error of confusing the question of the existence or 
possibility of scientific study of education with that 
of the existence of a science of education. The 
existence of a science of education does not dejjend 
upon the methods of educational study, but upon the 
question whether education constitutes an independ- 
ent and intrinsically unitary body of knowledge 
such as to form the groundwork of a science. We 
believe this question must be answered in the nega- 
tive ; nor is the dignity and importance of education 
one whit lessened by such a conclusion, — indeed, 
its place is rather elevated by the belief that it is 
not a science, but a great life-art, ministered to by 
a circle of auxiliary sciences. The very question 
with which Professor Home's discussion opens is 
damaging evidence : " Is there a science of educat- 
inff?" (page 3). If so, why not a science of box- 
ing, or any other indubitable art ? The conception 
of normative science falls into confusion in that the 
normative is declared to be based upon the descrip- 
tive. "The best in the descriptive," we read, "is 
the basis for the normative" (page 17). But how 

can we have any knowledge of what is best without 
first possessing the norms ? Again, we are told that 
universal validity is not one of the inalienable char- 
acteristics of science (page 9). On the contrary, 
universal validity is just the one characteristic that 
marks the truth for which science strives ; whereas, 
as Dr. Home agrees, the knowledge at which edu- 
cation aims is relative and changing. The fact that 
both science and the arts must be always content 
with approximations does not affect the fundamental 
difference in their ideals. The definition of " con- 
cept" in Chapter XII. wavers perceptibly. First 
we read, " Conception is the knowledge of general 
objects " (page 155) ; on the next page, " We can 
now have a concept of the John Smith we perceived 
on the street." What we have in this case is of 
course a memory ima(/e, — or, in the better and more 
recent phrase, a centrally excited perception. The 
real strength of Dr. Home's book is found in its 
treatment of emotional, moral, and religious educa- 
tion ; these vital subjects are handled with breadth, 
warmth, and frankness, and with an unusually full 
comprehension of their supreme importance. Par- 
ticularly refreshing is the emphasis laid upon aesthetic 
culture, in Chapter XX.; the author reproves our 
neglect, in these industrial days, of the education of 
those powers of higher appreciation which the Greeks 
so well knew how to value and to nourish. Our only 
disagreement with the author would be that he does 
not go far enougli, either in the scope of the field or in 
the appraisal of its value for economic, social, and eth- 
ical development. But he has taken a commendable 
step in the right direction. The style of the book 
is clear, simple, straightforward ; we have not found 
an obscure or ambiguous sentence. But why should 
any educated man, even an American, say mad 
when he means angry (pages 220 and 224). 

Aftermath of ^^^- ^^^.^^ Preston Stearns's "Life 
the Hawthorne and Genius of Nathaniel Hawthorne " 
centenary. (Lippincott) has Somewhat the air 

of a belated contribution to the Hawthorne centen- 
nial literature. Perhaps its length and its fulness 
of detail may partly explain its tardiness. The lack 
of critical comment in previous lives of Hawthorne 
is given as the raison d'etre of this additional bio- 
graphy. Messrs. Lathrop, Julian Hawthorne, and 
Conway are, however, the only biographers men- 
tioned ; while Mr. Henry James, whose work, con- 
tributed to the " English Men of Letters " series, is 
of the very essence of literary criticism, and Pro- 
fessor Woodberry, whose study of Hawthorne in 
the " American Men of Letters " series is nothing 
if not scholarly and critical, are wholly overlooked. 
Mr. Stearns's book contains much interesting mat- 
ter, and shows marks of faithful and loving labor; 
its citations and references and illustrations are 
varied and sometimes illuminating ; but its style is 
rambling and diffuse — a fault not offset by any 
keenness of criticism in the chapters devoted to what 
he proclaims as the distinctive feature of his work. 
Little less than wanton are such divagations as that 



[Jan. 16, 

on the London fog, which, we are gravely informed, 
" is composed of soft-coal smoke, which, ascending 
from innumerable chimneys, is filtered in the upper 
skies, and then, mixed with vapor, is cast back upon 
the city by every change of wind. It is not unpleasant 
to the taste, and seems to be rather healthful than 
otherwise." He suggests that Hester Prynne may 
have been modelled after the author's younger sis- 
ter, and compares (not explicitly but by tentative 
suggestion) Hester's position with that of George 
Eliot in her relations with Lewes — which at least 
has the merit of startling novelty. " Fannie Kem- 
ble, as she was universally called," looks a bit strange 
in that spelling. In her the author thinks he dis- 
■ covers Hawthorne's " antipodes." Horatio Bridge's 
offer to guarantee the publisher against loss on a 
volume of Hawthorne's short stories is called a 
" proposition." Why will educated writers and 
speakers persist in making this word do double 
duty, to the neglect of " proposal," which we cannot 
afford to lose ? The portraits and other illustrations 
in this volume constitute its not least valuable feature. 

„ , , , The Librarian of Congress is to be 

Oood work by , ^ ^ 

the Library congratulated upon the recent mani- 

of Congress. f estations of publishing enterprise on 
the part of the institution which does its work under 
his efficient administration. We have been com- 
menting, from time to time, upon the journals of the 
Continental Congi-ess, as the volumes of that note- 
worthy undertaking have come to us from the 
Government Printing Office ; and we now have 
much satisfaction in calling attention to another 
work of similar character and almost equal impor- 
tance. This is nothing less than the full text of the 
manuscript called the " Court Book," which contains 
the records of the Virginia Company of London 
from 1619 to 1624. This manuscript was pur- 
chased, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
by Colonel William Byrd, from the estate of the 
Duke of Southampton, to whom it had come by 
inheritance from the Earl of Southampton, whom 
we all know as Shakespeare's friend and patron. 
Colonel Byrd's descendants owned it for about a 
century, and then it came into the possession of 
Thomas Jefferson, the Library of Congress buying 
it after his death. It is a work of fundamental im- 
portance to the student of American history, and its 
present publication has the special timeliness of just 
preceding the tercentenary of the first settlement 
made by the Virginia Company. The editorial work 
of this publication has been done by Miss Susan 
Myra Kingsbury, under the general supervision of 
Professor Herbert L. Osgood. Miss Kingsbury pro- 
vides a historical and bibliographical introduction 
of over two hundred pages. There are two large 
quarto volumes, handsomely printed on special paper 
with broad margins. Another important publication 
from the same source is the " Portrait Index " upon 
which the American Library Association has been 
engaged for some ten years. A few figures will 
give an idea of the comprehensiveness of this 

work. It fills over 1600 pages, indexes 1181 titles 
and 6216 volumes, and tells the inquirer where to 
find about 120,000 portraits of about 40,000 people. 
Both of the works which we have here described are 
withdrawn from free distribution, but may be pur- 
chased at nominal prices from the Superintendent 
of Documents. They will prove a boon to workers 

of many kinds. 

Sketches from Mr. G. W. E. Russell's pen-portraits 
tJie note-book of of a great variety of social types are 
a Journalist. reprinted in a handy and attractive 
volume with the title " Social Silhouettes " (Dutton), 
which well fits the unelaborate form of the sketches. 
The chapters average but seven pages in length, 
and the method of treatment, as well as the space 
devoted to each type, is nearly uniform. A rapid 
backward glance, with references to and brief quo- 
tations from standard authors, especially Dickens, 
Thackeray, and Matthew Arnold, is followed by 
more immediate and personal observations and illus- 
trations — the whole executed in a brisk, chatty, 
effective style that shows the facility engendered of 
long practice. Besides being an able journalist, the 
author is something of a reformer, and confesses 
that he has pleaded "with equal passion for all (or 
nearly all) the Fads." Thus we find him deploring 
the unequal lot of the servants of the Church : 
" Such are the conditions of life in the ministry of 
a Church which enjoys a secm*ed and acknowledged 
income of nearly six millions, and of which the chief 
pastor has £15,000 a year, the finest house in Lon- 
don, and an agreeable residence at Canterbury." In 
justifying his choice of " The Quidnunc " rather 
than " The Gossip " as heading to his 38th chapter, 
the author incidentally remarks : '' Shakespeare, as 
far as I remember, recognizes no male gossips." 
The captious critic might reply by citing Helena's 
speech in " All 's Well," i. 1, where Cupid is spoken of 
as gossipping ; also the Duke's speech in " Comedy 
of Errors," v. 1, " With all my heart I '11 gossip at 
this feast"; and again (a not very apt illustration 
from a doubtful play) King Henry's words to his 
courtiers in " Henry VIII.," v. 4, " My noble gos- 
sips, ye have been too prodigal." The skilful coining 
of needed words is often pardonable, but " hubristic " 
seems superfluous ; and moreover, being evidently 
from the same Greek word that gives us " hybrid," 
it should, consistently, be " hybristic." 

' .. , Good wine needs no bush and a great 

A sensible . • • i i 

appreciation poet no interpreter — provided you 
of Chaucer. ^j.q j^q stranger to the wine or the 

poet. But as there is always a first time when the 
coming connoisseur of both wine and poetry needs 
direction, there are bushes over wine-shops and 
" interpretations and appreciations " in the book- 
shops. Of the latter, one of the most satisfactory of 
recent publications is Mr. Root's "The Poetry of 
Chaucer" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). This inter- 
esting study avoids both the iridescent foam of 
clever but shallow appreciation and the dead calm 
of unanimated learning. It devotes just so much 




attention to the demands of pure scholarship in 
matters of form, dates, sources, etc., as is necessary 
to make clear the nature of Chaucer's development. 
Disputed questions are touched upon briefly or rele- 
gated to the footnotes, but not without a succinct 
statement of the author's position. Each poem is 
taken up separately, single chapters being given to 
"The Romaunt of the Rose," "Troilus and Cris- 
eyde," "The House of Fame," and "The Legend 
of Good Women," and four — nearly half the book 
— to " The Canterbury Tales." In his treatment of 
Chaucer's literary art, Mr. Root is eminently suc- 
cessful ; throughout he is sane and impartial. Not 
all that Chaucer did is on that account good, not 
even some of the things for which the ungodly 
praise him. Our author has high ideals for art, and 
not even Chaucer may violate them with impunity. 
It is with peculiar affection that Mr. Root regards 
his author, and we are not surprised that he should 
take issue with the Wordsworthians for Chaucer's 
right to the third place after the matchless two, 
Shakespeare and Milton. It is because Chaucer 
grips our affections that we give him this place, so 
much more of our own human nature has he than 
the rapt and solitary Wordsworth. 

A streak of the preacher, the ser- 
Freacher. ^ monizer, runs through us all, and 

most of us dearly love to hold forth 
in an edifying strain if we can only capture an 
audience, or even a single auditor, to listen. To 
this rule Dr. Robertson NicoU, the accomplished 
editor of the London " Bookman," is no exception ; 
but his congregation is made up of willing hearers. 
His late collection of essays, or sermonettes, or edi- 
torial homilies, whichever one chooses to call them, 
has the oddly alluring title, " The Key of the Blue 
Closet" (Dodd), and is composed, at least in part, 
of reprinted pieces, as readable as they are brief. 
The chapter that gives the book its title is the third, 
which opens with a reference to " The Mill on 
the Floss " — to Mrs. Pullet's apprehension lest her 
husband should fail to find the key of the Blue 
Closet after her death. " The Blue Closet " seems 
to mean, in Dr. NicoU's book, the inner and secret 
chamber of the soul, and also the less obvious side 
of things in general, although the title is only loosely 
and partially applicable to the chapters grouped 
under it. Four good personal sketches — of Alex- 
ander Bain, R. H. Hutton, James Payn, and Robert 
A. Neil — based on some actual acquaintance with 
these men, and written on the occasion of their sev- 
eral deaths, are particularly to be commended. The 
late George Macdonald is also noticed in a rather 
more perfunctory sketch. The essayist's high praise 
of the letters of his intimate friend Neil, of which he 
possesses many, and which he finds more Lamb-like 
(so to speak) than any he has ever read, makes one 
wish they might be published, under his editorship. 
So wholesome and enjoyable a book as this little 
volume of essays should find many readers, as it 
doubtless will. 

Beainning of ^ /«^ J^^"^ ^go Professor Charles 
a history of Seignobos, the well-known French 

Civilization. historian, published a three-volume 
History of Civilization designed for use in secondary 
schools. The work was popular from the beginning, 
and soon became widely used. Not long ago the 
Messrs. Scribner announced an English version of 
this history, the translation to be the work of Pro- 
fessor A. H. Wilde. The first volume of the series 
has appeared. It is a plain straightforward account 
of civilized life in the Orient, Greece, and Rome,, 
one that is easily within the intellectual range of the 
average high school pupil. The translation seems 
to have been carefully made, and the editor's notes, 
though not numerous, are of distinct value. Never- 
theless the book is something of a disappointment. 
In his effort to cover the entire field the author has 
naturally been compelled to include a great deal 
that is already found in the high-school text-book. 
The advanced student will probably not find very 
much material that is new to him, at least not so 
much as a book designed for supplementary reading 
ought to contain. It may be that in France the 
makers of text-books content themselves with giving 
an account of political matters only ; and in such a 
case this work would be found very satisfactory. 
But our own authors are more ambitious, and insist 
on making the growth of culture a prominent part 
of their manuals. Their discussions need to be sup- 
plemented with more detailed accounts of the more 
important topics and periods, rather than with a 

general survey. 

The short life of Thomas HiU Green, 
written by his pupil and friend the 
late R. L. Nettleship, and prefixed to 
the third volume of Green's works published twenty 
yeai's ago, is now issued in separate form by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. with a brief preface by 
Mrs. Green. As a thinker who reconciled philosophy 
with religion on the one hand and with practical poli- 
tics on the other, the distinguished professor of moral 
philosophy and author of " Prolegomena to Ethics " 
and other writings is an interesting figure to readers 
of serious and speculative turn, and they will wel- 
come this convenient and attractive reprint. Nettle- 
ship's memoir of Green, as an authoritative reviewer 
said at the time of its first appearance, " fairly finds 
him out." He was a man, his friend Leslie Stephen 
has observed, " whose homely exterior, reserved 
manner, and middle-class radicalism were combined 
with singular loftiness of character. He recalls in 
different ways Wordsworth, of whom he was to some 
degree a disciple even in philosophy, and Bright, 
whom he followed in politics. In youth he was 
impressed by Carlyle and Maurice. He developed 
the philosophical ideas congenial to him from the 
first, ' by a sympathetic study of Kant and Hegel.' " 
Readers of " Robert Elsmere " may not yet have 
forgotten " Mr. Gray," who is Thomas Hill Green 
as portrayed by the novelist. An apparently excel- 
lent portrait of a different sort appears as frontis- 
piece to this inviting volume. 

Memoir of a 
and historian 



[Jan. 16, 


Mr. B. H. Blackwell, Oxford, sends us a small volume 
called " Westminster Versions," being translations of 
English verse into Latin and Greek made by a score or 
more of scholars, and collected under the editorial super- 
vision of Mr. Herbert F. Fox. The translations are from 
many poets, including such moderns as Henley and 
Swinburne, and one venturesome Oxonian has even done 
Lowell's " The Courtin' " in Latin elegiacs. A second 
volmne of similar character comes from Longmans, 
Green, & Co., and contains the " Translations into Latin 
and Greek Verse " made by the late H. A. J. Mimro. 
These versions were printed for private circulation in 
1884, but are now published for the first time. Dante 
and Goethe, besides a great number of English poets, 
are included among the subjects of these experiments. 

Messrs. E. P. Button & Co. are the American pub- 
lishers of the translation of Heine's works which was 
undertaken by the late Charles G. Leland, and carried 
to completion after his death by other hands. The edi- 
tion makes up a set of twelve volumes, the first eight of 
which give us the prose writings in Leland's version. 
Of the four volumes of verse, one (the " Book of Songs ") 
was translated by Mr. T. Brooksbank, who died before 
the volume was published. The remainmg three have 
been done by Miss Margaret Armour (Mrs. W. B. 
Macdougall), and, considering the extraordmary diffi- 
culty of the task, in an unexpectedly satisfactory man- 
ner. The best of Heine evaporates in translation, no 
doubt, but readers who possess no German may be con- 
gratulated upon having offered to them so close an 
approach to the original as is found in the present 

The Macmillan Co. pubUsh a translation, in modern 
French prose, of " La Chanson de Roland," edited by 
Professor J. Geddes, Jr. The apparatus, consisting of 
introduction, bibliography, notes, manuscript readings, 
and index, is very extensive, and there is also a series 
of highly interesting illustrations from various sources. 
Other French texts are Racine's " Les Plaideurs," edited 
by Professor C. H. C. Wright, and published by Messrs. 
D. C. Heath & Co., and a volume of " FeuiUetons 
Choisis," edited by Mr. Cloudesley Brereton, and pub- 
lished by Mr. Henry Frowde. Two German texts from 
the Messrs. Heath are " Wilkommen in Deutschland," 
a reader prepared by Professor W. E. Mosher, and 
" Munchhausen's Reisen und Abenteuer," edited by 
Professor F. G. G. Schmidt. Messrs. Henry Holt & 
Co. publish " Das Edle Blut," a tale by Herr Ernst von 
Wildenbruch, edited by Professor Ashley K. Hardy. 

The new edition of Keats's poems prepared by Mr. 
H. Buxton Forman for the Oxford Clarendon Press 
is neither an exhaustive variorum edition nor a mere 
unedited text; but aims to present the complete body 
of Keats's verse illustrated by the most significant of 
existing variant readings and cancelled passages. Thus 
the reader is able to obtain a good general view of the 
processes and results of Keats's creative faculty without 
becoming submerged in minutice. A long and inter- 
esting introduction describes the various sources and 
materials upon which the authoritative text of Keats 
now rests. Needless to say, no one is more thoroughly 
familiar with this material than Mr. Buxton Forman, 
and it is not likely that his labors in Keats's behalf will 
ever be superseded. The present volume is uniform in 
make-up with the recent Oxford editions of Shelley and 

Blake, which is to say that it is in every detail a model 
of conservative book-making. There is a photogra^ 
vure frontispiece of Keats at Wentworth Place, after 
Severn's painting; a title-page vignette from a tracing 
by Keats of a Grecian urn (not the urn, however) ; an 
etching on steel by William Bell Scott of Severn's 
poignant death-bed portrait of the poet; a reproduction 
of Haydon's life-mask of Keats placed in the position 
of Severn's death-bed sketch; and a facsimile leaf from 
a holograph draft of " The Eve of St. Mark," containing 
sixteen lines not hitherto published in any other edition. 


The Macmillan Co. publish an advanced text-book on 
" Qualitative Analysis as a Laboratory Basis for the 
Study of General Inorganic Chemistry," by Professor 
William Conger Morgan. 

Heywood's " The Royall King and Loyall Subject," 
reprinted from the quarto of 1637 and edited by Miss 
Kate Watkins Tibbals, is a recent piiblication of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

The " Antigone," in a verse-translation by Mr. Robert 
Whitelaw, with introduction and notes by Mr. J. Chur- 
ton Collins, and intended for school-study as a literaiy 
classic, is published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

" Animal Micrology," by Dr. Michael F. Guyer, is a 
recent publication of the University of Chicago Press. 
It is a practical manual of microscopical technique as 
applied to the preparation and study of animal tissues. 
Two new volumes in the " Langham Series of Art 
Monographs," imported by the Messrs. Scribner, are 
« Hokusai: The Old Man Mad with Painting," by Mr. 
Edward F. Strange, and " Oxford," by Mr. H. J. L. J. 

Herr Felix Weingartner's essay on " Symphony 
Writers since Beethoven," translated by Mr. Arthur 
Bles, has been made (with the help of portraits and 
thick pages) into a sizable book, which is now imported 
by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Four commemorative addresses by President Eliot 
are collected into a small volume and published by the 
American Unitarian Association. The subjects are 
Franklin, Washington, C banning, and Emerson, and the 
book is entitled " Four American Leaders." 

For the fourth issue of their "Lakeside Classics," 
Messrs. R. R. Donnelley & Sons have chosen William 
Penn's " Fruits of Solitude," which comes in a tastefully- 
printed volume with a portrait in photogravure. An 
editorial note is supplied by Mr. John Vance Cheney. 

Miss Elsie M. Lang's " Literary London," introduced 
by Mr. G. K. Chesterton, and illustrated by many pho- 
tographs, will prove useful to the tourist who is in 
search of the spots associated with the great English 
writers. The arrangement is alphabetical. Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons publish the volume. 

Gifford's translation of Juvenal faces the Latin text 
on alternate pages of the latest volume to be published 
in the " Temple Greek and Latin Classics." The intro- 
duction and notes are credited to Mr. A. F. Cole. The 
freedom of this old translation is brought out by the 
leading required to enable Juvenal to keep pace with 
Grfford, the average being three English for two Latin 




The quest of American literature for the British 
market is an interesting sign of the times. In estab- 
lishing a New York branch of its business, the well- 
known publishing house of Chatto & Windus, which has 
existed for over two hundred years in London, frankly 
announces that it has been " moved to take this step by 
the fast-increasing importance of American literature, 
both grave and gay, which is now eagerly sought by 
British readers." This is a decided reversal of the old 
order prevailing in the days when it used to be scorn- 
fully asked, " Who reads an American book? " 

IjIst of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 52 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 

The Cambridere "Apostles." By Frances M. Brookfield. 

With portraits, 8vo, grilt top, uncut, pp. 370. Charles Scrib- 

ner's Sons. 
A Queen of Indiscretions: The Tragedy of Caroline of 

Brunswick, Queen of England. Trans, by Frederic Chapman 

from the Italian of Graziano Paolo Clerici. With portraits in 

photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 363. John 

Lane Co. |7. net. 
Sidney Herbert, Lord Herbert of Lea : A Memoir. By Lord 

Stanmore. In 2 vols., Ulus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, 

gilt tops. E. P. Dutton & Co. f7.50 net. 
Personal BecoUeotions of Johannes Brahms : Some of his 

Letters to and Pages from a Journal Kept by (Jeorge Henschel. 

With portraits, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 94. Qorham Press. 


Early Enerlish and French Voyasres, chiefly from Hakluyt, 

1534-1608. Edited by Henry S. Burrage, D.D. With maps, 

large 8vo, pp. 451. " Original Narratives of Early American 

History." Charles Scribner's Sons. |3. net. 
The Liombard Communes : A History of the Republics of 

North Italy. By W. F. Butler, M.A. Illus., large 8vo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 495. Charles Scribner's Sons. $3.75 net. 
Dlctionnaire D'Histolre et de G6ogrraphie da Japon. By 

E. Papinot, M.A. Illus., with supplementary maps, 8vo, 

pp.992. Yokohama: Kelly & Walsh, Ltd. 


The Letters ofWilliam Blake, together with a Life by Fred- 
erick Tatham. Edited from the Original Manuscripts, with 
Introduction and Notes by Archibald G. B. Russell. Illus., 
8vo, gilt top, pp. 237. Charles Scribner's Sons. |2. net. 

A Last Bamble in the Classics. By Hugh E. P. Piatt, 18mo, 
gilt top, pp. 205. Oxford : B. H. Blackwell. 


The "Works of Heinrich Heine. Trans, from the German by 
Charles Godfrey Leland and others. In 12 vols., each with 
photogravure portrait, 12mo, gilt top. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
Per set, $25. 

The Meditations of Harcas Aurelius Antoninus. Trans, 
by John Jackson ; with Introduction by Charles Bigg. 16mo, 
uncut, pp. 238. Oxford University Press. $1. net. 

When Yesterday Was Young'. By Mildred I. McNeal- 

Sweeney. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 147. Robert Grier Cooke, 

Songs from the Capital. By Clara Ophelia Bland. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 89. Gorham Press. $1.25. 

Andrew Ooodfellow : A Tale of 1805. By Helen H. Watson. 

12mo, pp. 358. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
The Squaw Kan. By Julie Opp Faversham; adapted from 

the Play by Edward Milton Royle. Illus., 12mo, pp. 294. 

Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
The Time Machine : An Invention. By H. G. Wells. New 

edition ; with frontispiece, 18mo. pp. 216. Henry Holt & Co. 
The House of the Hundred Doors. By Will M. Clemens. 

12mo, pp. 41. New York: The Hawthorne Press. 50 cts. 

Hierhways and Byways in Berkshire. By James Edmund 

Vincent. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 443. Macmillan Co. $2. 
Literary London. By Elsie M. Lang; with Introduction 

by G. K. Chesterton. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 349. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net, 


Christian Theologr in Outline. By William Adams Brown, 
Ph.D. Large 8vo, pp. 468. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50 net. 

The New Appreciation of the Bible : A Study of the Spirit- 
ual Outcome of Biblical Criticism. By Willard Chamberlain 
Selleck, D.D. 12mo, pp. 409. University of Chicago Press. 
$1.50 net. 

Modem Poets and Christian Teaching. New vol. : James 
Russell Lowell, by William A. Quayle. With photogravure 
portrait, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 155. Eaton & Mains. $1. net. 

Througrh the Sieve : A Group of Picked Sayings Shortly Told. 
By Addison Ballard, D.D. 12mo, pp.150. Robert Grier Cooke. 
$1. net. 

The Methodist Year Book, 1907. Edited by Stephen V. R. 
Ford. Illus., 12mo, pp. 246. Eaton & Mains. Paper, 25 cts. 


Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Develop- 
ment: A Study in Social Psychology. By James Mark 
Baldwin. Fourth edition, enlarged; large 8vo, gilt top, 
pp. 606. Macmillan Co. $2.60 net. 

American Problems : Essays and Addresses. By James H. 
Baker, M.A. 12mo, pp.222. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.20 net. 

Four Aspects of Civic Duty. By William Howard Taft. 
12mo, imcut, pp. 111. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1. net. 

The Investments of Life Insurance Companies. By Lester 
W. Zartman. 12mo, pp. 259. Henry Holt & Co. $1.25 net. 

Politics and Disease. By A. Goff and J. H. Levy.. 12mo, 
pp. 291. London : P. S. King & Son. 


Symphony Writers since Beethoven. By Felix Weingart- 
ner ; trans, trom the German by Arthur Bles. New edition ; 
with portraits, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 163. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $1.75 net. 

Hokusai, the Old Man Mad with Painting. By Edward F. 
Strange, M.J.S. Illus. in color, etc., 18mo, gilt top, pp.71. 
"Langham Series of Art Monographs." Charles Scribner's 
Sons. Leather, $1. net. 

Bocks, Bock- Weathering and Soils. By George P. Merrill. 

New edition ; illus., 8vo, pp. 400. Macmillan Co. $6. net. 
Annual Beports of the Archaeological Institute of 

America, 1905-1906. In 2 vols., illus., large 8vo, uncut. 

Macmillan Co. Paper. 


Eight Secrets. By Ernest IngersoU. Illus., 12mo, pp. 338. 

Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 
Tales of Jack and Jane. By Charles Yoimg. Illus in color, 

8vo, pp. 131. John Lane Co. 
"Boy Wanted": A Book of Cheerful Counsel. By Nixon 

Waterman. Illus., 8vo. pp. 106. Forbes & Co. $1.25. 
Old-Fashioned Bhymes and Poems. Selected by Mrs. 

Roadknight. 12mo, pp. 96. Longmans, Green, & Co. 50 cts. 

Beport of the Connecticut State Board of Education. 

together with the Report of the Secretary of the Board. 

Illus., large 8vo, pp. 732. Hartford Press, 
dualitative Analysis as a Laboratory Basis for the Study of 

General Inorganic Chemistry. By William Conger Morgan, 

Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 351. Macmillan Co. $1.90 net. 
A Short Course on Differential Equations. By Donal 

Francis Campbell, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 96. Macmillan Co. 

90 cts, net. 
Heath's Modem Language Series. New vols.: Selections 

from Pascal, edited by F. M. Warren: Quatre-Vingt-Treize, 

by Victo Hugo, edited by C. Fontaine, B.L. ; Teja, by Hermann 

Sudermann. Each with portrait, 16mo. D. C. Heath & Co. 
Sophocles' Antigone. Trans, by Robert Whitelaw ; edited by 

J. Churton Collins, Litt.D. 16mo, pp. 56. Oxford University 

Press. 35 cts. net. 
Bacine's Les Plaidenrs. Edited by Charles H. Conrad 

Wright. With portrait, 16mo, pp. 104. " Heath's Modem 

Language Series." D. C. Heath & Co. 30 cts. 



[Jan. 16, 

Himohausen's Reisen und Abentener. B7 F. G. G. 

Schmidt, Ph.D. 16mo, pp. 123. D. C. Heath & Co. 30 cts. 
Poems of Victor Hug-o. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 

by Arthur Graves Canfleld. 18mo, pp. 358. Henry Holt c& Co. 
Songrs for Schools. Compiled by Charles Hubert Farnsworth. 

Large 8vo, pp. 141. Macmillan Co. 60 cts. net. 
A Qenuan Primer. By Lewis Addison Ehoades, Ph.D., and 

Lydia Schneider. Illus., 8vo, pp. 109. Henry Holt & Co. 


The Garden Beautiful : Home Woods, Home Landscape. By 
W. Robinson. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 394. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $4. net. 

A. Ij. a. Portrait Index : Index to Portraits Contained in 
Printed Books and Periodicals. Edited by William Coolidge 
Lane and Nina E. Browne. 4to, pp. 1600. " Library of Con- 
gress." Washington: Government Printing OflBce. 

What Is Japanese Morality P By James A. B. Scherer. 
With frontispiece in color, 12mo, pp. 87. Philadelphia: 
Sunday School Times Co. 

"Ye Miniature Calendar of Homely Maxims for 1907. 
Printed in colors. Paul Elder & Co. 

Farmingr Almanac, 1907. Compiled by Claude H. Miller, 
Ph.D. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 96. Doubleday, Pa«e & Co. 26 cts. 


Made in all New York Libraries 
on any subject. 
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TRANSLATIONS made from French and Italian. 

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The Study-Guide Series. 

FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOLS: The study of Ivan- 
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of the King, — college entrance requirements. 


study of Romola ; The Study of Henry Esmond ; The Crea- 
tive Art of Fiction ; ready in January, The Study of Idylls of 
the King, full series ; the Study of Shakespeare's King John 
and King Richard Second. Address, H. A. DAVIDSON, 
The Study-Guide Series, Cambridge, Mass. 

STUDY and PRACTICE of FRENCH in 4 Parts 

L. C. BoNAME, Author and Pub., 1930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 
Well-graded series for Preparatory Schools and Colleges. No 
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A collection of what has been written in criticism of the works 
that constitute the literature of the English language — intro- 
ducing the authors in chronological order and realistic treat- 
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We now have the most efficient department for the 
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1. A tremendous miscellaneous stock. 

2. Greatly increased facilities for the importation of 
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All this means prompt and complete shipments and 
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THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO., wholesale Booksellers 
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Beginning Tliursday, Jan. 17 

"The Wooing of Eve 

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as " Eve " 

OOOK publishers and book journals are 
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people who read book journals are the ones 
who buy books. Daily papers and miscel- 
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vated class. 

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Every Book-lover should have his own and make his library distinctive 
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Wrire for informalion and samples to BUCKELMUELLER. buffalo ny 



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of the season at liberal discounts. Mr. Grant has been 
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52 THE DIAL. [Jan. 16, 1907. 


without giving all one's time to them is a task of ever-increasing 
difficulty. CThis is decidedly the magazine age. The number, 
variety, and high quality of our periodicals are nothing less than 
amazing. The master-minds of the world go to their making, — the 
greatest of living thinkers, workers, story-tellers, poets, and artists. 
One must fall hopelessly behind the times if he fails to keep in touch 
with this treasure realm of knowledge and entertainment ; yet so vast 
is its extent that few can hope to cover it first hand. By limiting 
oneself to a few periodicals taken by the year, all but a very small 
portion of the field is overlooked. C.The only sensible plan is to 
buy each month single copies of those magazines that contain the 
things one wants most to see. This plan has been made practicable by 
What 's in the Magazines, a monthly publication which renders the 
mass of current magazine literature completely accessible to the busy 
every-day reader. Each issue presents a bird's-eye view of the maga- 
zine-contents of the month, with the aid of which one may gain in 
ten minutes as good an idea of what the current periodicals contain as 
though he had personally examined a copy of each. C. It is not a mere 
list of contents; neither is it a complicated and confusing library 
index. Everything is arranged and classified, simply but exactly; 
whether one is hunting up special subjects or the work of special writ- 
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is equally convenient. C. It is a vest-pocket Baedeker to magazine- 
land, — a periodical that brings all other periodicals into a nutshell; 
and so must prove indispensable to every busy intelligent person. 

We could fill ^ genuine inspiration. — Emily Huntington Miller. Englewood, N. J. 

manv vaees of '"dispensable to any busy man. — San Francuco Chronicle. 

*u:^ ^,.ui;^^*!^^ A splendid thine, and most helpful to anyone whose time is limited. 

this publication f * f ^ -Melville E. Stone. New York. 

with enthusiastic \ regard my subscription as the best literary investment 1 ever made. 
commendations —Eugene L. Didier. Baltimore. Md. 

f u/uAT'Q lu A veritable boon. Why has no brilliant mind been inspired to this plan long 
or iVHAT !> IN before ? — Los Angeltt Evening News. 

Just what 1 have been needing always. — Gelett Burgess. Boston. 

Should be of incalculable value. — Chicago. Record-HeraU. 

THE Magazines. 
Here are a few 

good specimens: ^ priceless boon to a busy man. — Henry Turner Bailey. North Scituatc. Mass, 

TijDpp MO NTH S ^" order that every reader of THE DIAL may become 

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Address What's in the Magazines, 203 Michigan Ave., Chicago 


1 lihii 

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'^lUxRxv Cnlifism, giscussiott, aittr ditfcrinatioit. 

Edited BY \Volume XLII. f^JJlf^ \r^r\ TTTTTi 1 1 Qrt7 10 cts . a copy . J Fine Arts Building 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE/ No. m. ^nH^AUW, J? Jl.r>. 1, 1»U < . $2.avear. \ 

203 Michigan Blvd. 



" An authoritative and thoroughly modem edition . . . superb presswork throngrhout , . . the best sinele-volume 

Shakespeare in existence." — Chicago Record- Her aid. 

Edited by Prof. W. A. Neilson of Harvard, in the Cambridge Poets Series. With portraits. Cloth, $3.00. Postpaid. 


"The best thing of its kind in the English language. . . . An indispensable tool to the student and a standard of 
authority." — The Interior. Pull sheep binding. $8.00 net. Postpaid. 


A handbook of diplomacy as illustrated in the foreign relations of the United States, by the greatest American 

authority. Contains information of interest to every American citizen. 

" An important work . . . very readable and entertaining." — Chicago Inter Ocean. $3.00 net. Postage, 20 cents. 


"One of the most notable publications of the season." — Louisville Evening Post. 
Two volumes. Illustrated. |6.00 net. Postage 40 cents. 

CHARLES GODFREY LELAND By Elizabeth Robin. Pennell 

" A work of exceptional interest gracefully and sympathetically vwitten ... a full-length portrait of one of the 
most picturesque of American personalities." — Philadelphia Press. Illustrated. 2 vols. $5.00 net. Postage 31 cents. 


" In dealing with the most difficult of all subjects In our literary criticism, Mr. Perry has done our very best piece 
of work." — Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Illustrated. $1.50 net. Postage, 12 cents. 


" A more interesting book of miscellaneous reading on Rome we have not met in a long time. — New York Tribune. 
Illustrated. Boxed, $5.00 net. Postage, 31 cents. 


"Of great value and interest . . . full of the wisdom that comes from large knowledge of human nature." — San 
Francisco Chronicle. Illustrated. $3.00 net. Postage, 20 cents. 


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"A fresh, vigorous statement, a new appreciation of great literature . . . many striking and stimulating definitions." 
— Willimantic Chronicle. $1.50 net. Postage, 13 cents. 

TO THE LIBRARIAN. — There has been prepared and prmted for free distribution, a descriptive list 
of the vohrmes exhibited in the Model Library at the St. Louis Exposition, selected by the American Library 
Association under the direction of Mr. Melvil Dewey, and published by Houghton, Mifflin ^ Co. The list 
includes about 750 volumes embracing all branches of literature, and forms a valuable and accurate guide 
to the more recent and important books. 

Send a postal giving your name and address, and we will take pleasure in mailing you a copy free of charge. 


54 THE DIAL [Feb.l, 




Golden Poems by British and American Authors. New revised (ninth) edition from new plates. 
With complete Indexes. $1.50. 

This is one of the best and most standard anthologies for the library — as it is comprehensive, carefully classified, 
and wide in its appeal. 


The Glory Seekers. The Romance of Would-be Founders of Empire in the Early Days of the Great 
Southwest. With 16 portraits, and drawings by W. J. Enright. Indexed. Square 8vo. Net $1. so. 

" Adventurers who sought to weld an empire or to found a republic have left a trail of romance after them in the 
memoirs of their times, but no book contains so compact or so interrelated an account as Mr. Brown's." 

EDWARDS, A. HERBAGE " ^*'"'^'' ^'"'"'"'^ ^"'- 

iCakemono. Japanese Sketches. With frontispiece. Crown 8 vo. Net$i,'j$. 

As an epitome of the Japanese attitude toward life, " Kakemono " will charm all who have once felt the fascination 
of the " Land of Sunrise." 

" It matters not where one dips into the book's quiet richness, it is all Japan." — Chicago Record-Herald. 


The Ghost in Hamlet, and Other Essays in Comparative Literature. i6mo. Net $1.00. 

" Professor Egan's style is always clear, reasonable, polished. The first seven essays in the volume are on various 
aspects of Shakespeare, to which are added three on other literary themes. Every page bears witness to the learning 
and critical acumen of the author." — Chicago Record-Herald. 


Future Life, in the Light of Ancient Wisdom and Modem Science. Second Edition. 

With portrait of author. lamo. Net f 1.20. 

" Of unusual interest, not only for its topic, but because it is handled in a truly scientific way, yet in terms the 
ordinary reader can understand." — Book Neivt. 


Komola. An Historically Illustrated Edition. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Dr. Guido 
Biagi, librarian of the Laurentian Library, Florence. With 160 illustrations. 2 volumes, i2mo, in slip 
case. Net $3.00. Uniform luith McMahan's "Shelley in Italy." 

" This edition will leave no wish unfulfilled ; no spot unrepresented which furthers the comprehension of the 
reader of a masterpiece of a master mind." — Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 


Japan As It Was and Is: A Handbook of Old Japan. By Richard Hildreth. In 

two volumes. A reprint edited and revised, with notes and additions, by Ernest W. Clement, and an 
Introduction by William Elliot Griffis. With maps and 100 illustrations. Indexed. 2 volumes, i2mo, 
in slip case. Net $3.00. Uniform luith Clement's "Modern Japan." 

" This new edition of the old and valuable work is of the highest value. The revision has been done by a man 
thoroughly competent to do it well, and the result is worthy of the highest commendation. And the publishers have 
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Pilots of the Republic. The Romance of the Pioneer. Promoters in the Middle West. With 
portraits and drawings by Walter J. Enright. Indexed. Net $1.50. 

" Mr. Hulbert has a capital style, and tells the stories of these gallant men in a most interesting way. His is not 
formal history, nor yet formal biography, but a happy medium between the two." — New Orleans Picayune. 


Edouard Remenyi : Musician, Litterateur, and Man. An Appreciation. With portraits. 

Indexed. Large 8 vo. Net$i.-js- 

" It is a thoroughly personal book, such a sketch of a great man as one likes to read, for one then gets next to the 
soul, indeed, the inspiration that has moved many audiences." — Chicago Tribune. 


Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by John Cotton Dana, Librarian of the 
Newark Public Library, and Henry W. Kent. Assistant Secretary of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Six volumes, thin iSmo, boards. Four volumes now ready. Send for descriptive circular. Regular 
edition limited to 250 Sets. The set, net $12.00. Sold only in complete sets. 

" The two volumes before us and the four that are promised, form together a collection that should be studied by 
all library workers." — The Nation. 

"As specimens of bookmaking these charming little books are worthy of special note." — Chicago Evening Post, 


1907] THE DIAL 65 




Hawaiian Yesterdays. Chapters from a Boy's Life in the Islands in the Early Days. With 27 
illustrations from photographs and 2 maps. Indexed. Large 8 vo. Net $2.00. 

" The author gives some delightful pictures of the islands, the people, and the manner of living. There is a good 
deal of life and color and much interesting statement, particularly as to the life of the kings and queens who ruled like 
despots over the tiny kingdom." — Philadelphia Inquirer. 


TVlth Byron in Italy. Being a Selection of the Poems and Letters of Lord Byron which have to 
do with his Life in Italy from 1816 to 1823. Edited, with Introductions. With over 60 illustrations 
from photographs. Indexed. i2mo. Net $1.40. 

" The letters are all characterized by a dash and piquancy which reveal the author as among the great letter-writers 
of all time. They contain little comment upon Italian scenery or art, but much about the Italian people and their cus- 
toms. They reveal, moreover, the poet's intense love for Italy, which is less generally known or appreciated than his 
devotion to Greece. ... It is altogether a delightful book either for reference or for gift purposes." 

— Chicago Daily Neivs. 


Venice. Its Individual Growth from the Earliest Beginnings to the Fall of the Republic. Translated 
from the Italian by Horatio F. Brown, British Archivist in Venice and author of "In and Around Venice," 
etc. Six volumes, 8vo, with many illustrations. Indexed. Section I. Venice in the Middle Ages, two 
volumes. Sold only in t'wo-'volume sections. Per section, »^/ $5.00. 

" To one interested in Venice it is from the nature of things indispensable. . . . The two volumes are particularly 
well illustrated, not only from pictures of archaeologic interest, but from a still greater number of reproductions from 
paintings and contemporary photographs of living interest. A word should also be said of the appearance of the volumes. 
The paper and type are excellently chosen and the binding is very handsome and simple." — Chicago Evening Post. 


The Makers of Japan. With 24 illustrations. Indexed. Large 8 vo. Net $z.oo. 

" Mr. Morris is well acquainted with his subject, from long residence in Japan and near-at-hand knowledge of the 
men he describes and the situation he pictures." — William. Elliot Griffis. 


The True Story of George Eliot: With Especial Reference to "Adam Bede." 

With 86 illustrations. i2mo. Net $1.7 s- 

"William Mottram, the author of this illuminating study of greatness, was a cousin of George Eliot and the 
grand-nephew of Adam and Seth Bede. ... It may be seen that he has exceptional opportunity for placing George 
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judge of her character and her actions by clearer vision." — Louisville Courier-Journal. 


Panama to Patagonia. The Isthmian Canal and the West Coast Countries of South America. 
With 4 maps and 50 illustrations. Indexed. Large 8vo. Net I2.50. 

"We have every reason to expect from him first hand information both valuable and interesting. This, indeed, 
his volume contains ; it is one of the exceptional books of travel made up of vital facts and not of trivialities." 

— Lot Angeles Times. 


The Guilds of Florence. Historical, Industrial, and Political. With many illustrations. Indexed. 
Tall royal 8vo. Net $5.00. 

" When he is bestowing information, which he does both copiously and clearly, his style is concise and business-like, 
and he says well what he has to say." — London Times. 


Folk-Lore of Women. Indexed. i2mo. Net $1.50. 

"The proverbial sayings, folk-rhymes, superstitions, and traditionary lore associated with the fair sex. He has 
made exhaustive search of many sources and has culled his material from writers of many countries." 
.._^^.. — Chicago Record-Herald. 


The Standard Operas : Their Plots, Their Music, Their Composers. Neiu revised 

{nineteenth) edition, from new plates. With over 75 illustrations of leading characters. Indexed. 
i2mo. I1.75. 

" It is undoubtedly the most complete and intelligent exposition of this subject that has ever been attempted. From 
an educational point of view its value cannot be overestimated." — St. Louis Republic. 




[Feb. 1, 


PUBLISHED BY LITTLE, BROWN, & CO. boston, mass. 

Travel and Description 

(Southern California). By George Wharton 
James. With colored frontispiece, 32 full-page 
plates, and three hundred pen and ink sketches by 
Carl Eytel. 2 vols. 8vo. $5.00 net. 

" Twenty-five years of observation and experience in the 
desert have resulted in a remarkable and valuable work," 
says The Dial of these authoritative volumes. 

By Henry C. Shelley. With twenty-four full- 
page plates and one hundred smaller illustrations 
from photographs. 8vo. $3.00 net. 

"Rarely does one come upon so charming a literary 
sketch-book as this." — The Outlook. 

LANDS. By Mary E. Waller. With twenty- 
four photogravure plates. 8vo. $3.00 net. 

" She takes the reader into the very heart of Dutch life ; 
when the volume is finished one feels that he too has 
lived for a time among these people." 

— Providence Journal. 

Peak to the Pacific. By Lilian Whiting. Fully 
illustrated from photographs. Svo. $2.50 net. 

"Miss Whiting's book is likely to remain the best de- 
scription of the Southwest as a whole." 

— Springfield Republican. 

Miscellaneous Books 

Morse. Illustrated. Small Svo. $2.00 net. 

" A plain account of the controversies over the interpre- 
tation of the curious markings of Mars, and of the diver- 
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references to original sources of information." 

— New York Times. 

AMERICAN FLAGS. By Peleg D. Harrison. 
With eight illustrations in color. Svo. $3.00 net. 

" A work which must become practically a national text- 
book on all-matters relating to the country's flags." 

— Boston Herald. 

LAST VERSES. By Susan Coolidge (pseud.). 
With Introduction by her sister, Mrs. Daniel C. 
Gilman. 16mo. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

" All her uncollected verses and some never before printed 
are included. They have true poetical feeling." 

— Boston Transcript. 

By (jeneral A. W. Greely of the United States 
Army. Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

"An authoritative record of the most important polar 
expeditions, by the most reliable and best informed 
writer." — St. Louts Globe- Democrat. 


THE DRAGON PAINTER. A Japanese Romance. 
By Mary McNeil Fenollosa (Sidney McCall). 
Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

" It bears as plainly the marks of its author's knowledge 
and comprehension of Japanese nature and sympathy 
with Japanese motives and ideals as does the work of 
Lafcadio Heam." — New York Times. 

SOME CHINESE GHOSTS. By Lafcadio Heakn. 

New edition. 12mo. $1.50 net. 

" One of the best books ever written by this master of the 
weird and occult." — San Francisco Chronicle. 

Wharton James. Illustrated. 12mo. $1.00. 

The Dial classes this touching autobiography of a song 
sparrow with Jack London's " White Fang," as deserving 

THE SILVER CROWN. Another Book of Fables 
for Old and Young. By Laura E. Richards. 
12mo. $1.25. 
" Worthy of Hawthorne." — Pittsbura Gazette- Times. 

Books for the Young 

STARTING IN LIFE. What Each Calling Offers 
Ambitious Boys and Yoimg Men. By Nathaniel 
C. Fowi^R, Jr. With 33 illustrations. 12mo. 
$1.50 net. 

"It will prove of excellent and needed service to many 
young men. It is on different lines from any other book 
of coimsel that I know, and gives information and sugges- 
tion which few could obtain otherwise." — JosepJms M. 
Lamed, Ex-President of the American Library Associ- 
ation,late Superintendent of Education at Buffalo, N. Y. 

Johnson. Profusely illustrated by Willard Bonte. 
12mo. $1.75. 

A worthy companion book to the " Oak-Tree Fairy Book," 
which was approved by the American Library Association 
for small libraries. 

lotte Chaffee Gibson. Illustrated from photo- 
graphs. 12mo. $1.50. 

" A charmingly written story of a real trip made around 
the world by three children." — Chicago Tribune. 

LONG AGO IN GREECE. A book of Golden 
Hours with the Old Story Tellers. By Edmund 
J. Carpenter Fully illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 
" It has the particular merit that it follows the originals 
very closely and preserves something of the atmosphere 
as well as the subject-matter of the famous old stories 
that it presents. " — i\^eu» York Times. 




OESIDES being a book that "will long remain the standard work on 
the Colorado Desert" f San Francisco Chronicle), Mr. James's descrip- 
tion of "one of the most fascinatingly interesting places in the world" 
(New York Mail) contains exceedingly timely chapters on the overflow of 
the Colorado River into the mysterious Salton Sea. 

The story of how Mr. James and a few pioneer companions, in roughly constructed boats, 
followed the new course of the Colorado into the Salton lake, at one time cutting their way 
through an almost impenetrable mesquite forest, at others shooting turbulent rapids and 
narrowly escaping foundering as huge sections of the undermined banks fell into the rushing 
stream, raising gigantic waves, is full of thrilling interest. Those who desire to learn the 
precise facts in regard to the Salton Sea will find them carefully assembled as a result of 
the author's special investigation. — New York Tribune. 



Its River and Its Mountains, Its Canyons and Its Springs, 
Its Life and Its History, Pictured and Described 

Including an Account of a Recent Journey Made Down the Overflow of the 
Colorado River to the Mysterious Salton Sea 


Author of " In and Around the Grand Canyon," "The Old Missions of California," etc. 

" Greorge Wharton James writes with imexampled 
authority. The two vohxmes are of extraordinary 
interest. Mr. James had a marvellously interesting 
subject and he has treated it skilfully and attrac- 
tively." — Philadelphia Press. 

" Mr. James is able to bring knowledge of much 
that is absolutely unknown to the average American 
reader." — The OtUlook. 

"A fascinating work, with minute descriptions of 
every phase of the Sahara of California and Arizona. 
What strikes the reader is the variety of informa- 
tion." — Chicago Tribune. 

" The most elaborate work he has yet done." 

— • New York Evening Post. 

" The illustrations are conspicuously good and 
add to the intrinsic interest of Mr. James's valuable 
volumes." — Brooklyn Times. 

THE DIAL says : 

"Twenty-five years of observation and experience in the desert have resulted in a remark- 
able and valuable work. 

'< Besides the very full and painstaking descriptive and historical matter of these volumes, 
there are given more than three hundred admirable drawings from nature, including a delicately 
beautiful colored frontispiece, by Mr. Carl Eytel, and numerous full-page photographic prints." 

With map, index, etc. 2 vols., 8vo, in box. $5.00 net. 




[Feb. 1, 

^ Ready in January 



Author of " Hurricane Island," etc. 

The story of the fight between two unscrupulous stock 
gamblers for the possession of a charming English 
girl, who, unknown to herself, is the heiress to the 
controlling interest in an American railroad. Illus- 
trated by Cyrus Cuneo. fl.50. 

RFTTTNA ^y eleanor hoyt brainerd 

'^*-^ *■ * ll>l/x Author of " The Misdemeanors of Nancy," etc. 

If a man is standing at the ferry and is suddenly greeted by a cliarming girl he 
has never met and told to run for the boat with her, is it fair to expect him to 
sternly imdeceive the young lady, who has mistaken him for an expected chum of 
her brother ? A delightfully humorous tale. Illustrated by Will Grefe. $1.25. 


1 riXJ OVy V XJlVlJ/lVJiN IVlJiViJjU 1 Author of " On the Face of the Waters." 

" Written with all Mrs. Steel's brilliance of coloring and felicity of phrase. The 
atmosphere of the Welsh valley is finely reproduced ; we have read few descriptions 
so full of idyllic beauty as the first picture of Aura's home." — Spectator. $1.50. 

MY LIFE AS AN INDIAN By j. w. schultz 

Mr. Schultz as a young man went to the Blackfoot country, near Fort Benton ; 
and there, enamored of the life, became in fact an Indian, and won the hand of 
Njit-ah'-ki, a beautiful squaw. Illustrated from photographs. Ready Feb. 12. $1.50. 


Ready February 26 

Friday the 13th 

This powerfully human novel 
would have an immense ap- 
peal, no matter who wrote 
it. But the name of its au- 
thor makes it doubly inter- 


Ready March 7 

Nearest the Pole 

The discoveries of an Amer- 
ican explorer who has done 
more to solve the mystery 
of the North Pole than has 
any other man. Many pho- 

$5.14, postpaid. 

Ready in March 

The Traitor 

Nearly half a million copies 
have been circrdated of Mr. 
Dixon's former books, and it 
is safe to say that the " best- 
seUing books" of March will 
be headed by "The Traitor." 








The Spirit of Democracy 


Contains chapters on " Suffrage," " Taxation," 
"Party Rule," "Immigration," "Labor Unions," 
" Socialism," and other important themes. 
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Wagner's music-drama retold in English verse. 

A companion book to the same author's highly 
successful paraphrases of " Parsifal " and " Lohen- 
grin " — a pleasing narrative blank verse. Special 
type designs. 

75 cents net. Postage 8 cents. 

Famous American Songs 

An interesting and valuable accoimt of the origin 
of "Home, Sweet Home," "Dixie," " Star Spangled 
Banner," and other beloved songs. 

$1.60 net. Postage 15 cents. 

The Spirit of the Orient 

Dr. Knox — traveller, lecturer, writer of note — 
here describes life and conditions in India, China, 
and Japan from within outwardly. 

$1.50 net. Postage 15 cents. 

Every Man a King 

Or, Might in Mind Mastery 


The latest of Dr. Marden's popular books is a 
powerful plea for mental control, the mastery of self, 
and the training of latent forces to the highest ends. 
$1.00 net. Postage 10 cents. 

Famous Actor Families 
in America 

Gives for the first time an accurate, comprehensive 
account of the rise of the American stage,and the great 
groups that have made it famous. With 40 illustra- 
tions. $2.00 net. Postage 20 cents. 

The Open Secret of Nazareth 


An intimate study of Palestine and the local 

environment of Jesus. Full of color, enthusiasm, 

and enlightenment. Special type and illustrations. 

$1.00 net. Postage 10 cents. 

The Hope of Immortality 

IngersoU lecturer before Harvard University, for 1906. 
One of the ablest summings-up of belief in after- 
life that has ever been presented. 

75 cents net. Postage 8 cents. 

Prescott's Works 

A new complete authoritative edition, in large 
type, from new plates. Special indexes, illustra- 
tions, and editorial work. The best popular text 
ever presented. 12 library volumes. 
$12.00 to $36.00. 

The First Folio Shakespeare 

The only popular text which reproduces the orig- 
inal First Folio of 1623. With full notes. New 
volumes : Twelfe Night ; As You Like It ; Henry 
THE FiFT. 11 volumes ready. 

Pocket size, 75 cents each. 



75 cents ea«h. 

Joey at the Fair. By james Otis. 

Meg and the Others. By Harriet t. com- 


The Tenting of the Tillicums. By Her- 
bert Bashford. 


60 cents each. 

Stories from Dickens. By j. walker 


Stories from Scottish History. By m. l. 


Tales from Herodotus. By h. l. havell. 


60 THE DIAL [Feb. 1, 


Oxford University Press— American Branch 


Edited, with a collotype and seven facsimile title-pages, by J. Chttrton Collins. In two volumes. 8vo. $6.00. 


Edited by 6. Birkbeck Hill. With a memoir of Dr. Birkbeck Hill, by his nephew, Harold Spencer Scott, 
and a full index. Three vols. Half roan, $10.50. 


Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Glossaries, by F. Victor Dickins, C.B., sometime Register of the University 
of London. Vol. I. Texts. Vol. II. Translations. Two vols. 8vo, cloth, $6.75. 


From AlcmsBon to Aristotle. By John I. Beare, Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin ; Regius Professor of Greek 
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Edited, with an Introduction and Textual Notes, by H. Buxton Forman, C.B. Cloth, with paper label or gilt 

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By Fbrnand Bernard. Translated by Charles P. Sherman, D.C.L. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS — American Branch, 91-93 Fifth Ave., New York 




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THE DIAL [Feb. 1, 



Tliis book is the result of years of careful investigation of Mrs. Eddy's cult and writings, 
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questions which the public generally have been asking about Christian Science. And while 
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GOOD HUNTING By Theodore roosevelt 

This volume offers for young folks a series of fascinating tales of big game hunting and out- 
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Vol. 20. The Appeal to Arms ) ^^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ 

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Send for Special Prospectus. 

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64 THE DIAL [Feb. 1, 190T. 

NEW Macmillan Books 

Miss Jane Addams's new book 
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Life in Ancient Athens By Professor t. q. tucker 

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Emerson By qeorqe edward woodberry 

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A History of the Inquisition in Spain volume hi. 

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The International Law and Diplomacy of the 
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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 


No. 495. FEBRUARY 1, 1907. Vol. XLII. 





Walter Taylor Field 67 


The prices of English novels. — Why Mr. Wright 
is to give us a new life of Pater. — " Subterranean 
literature " in Germany. — An irritating practice 
among library workers. — Dreams of an endowed 
theatre. — Brunetiftre's successor in the French 
Academy. — An announcement from Mr. H. G. 
WeUs. — Bibliographical work in libraries. — Rural 
free delivery for libraries. — The public library as 
an educational force. — The smallest book ever 



Bicknell 73 

THE RED PLANET MARS. Herbert A. Howe . . 75 


Jastrow 78 



For a hunter of antiques. — The love-letters of a 
king. — A flight through Scandinavia. — The letters 
of a famous artist and gallant. — Planning the gar- 
den and its accessories. — Pleasant rambles in the 
classics. ^ — Six noted heroes of adventure. — The 
vital part of psychic processes in evolution. — An 
up-to-date handbook of Polar research. — Problems 
and progress of the Panama Canal. 





A good many readers have lately been renew- 
ing their acquaintance with Leslie Stephen's 
" Hours in a Library," that series of sane and 
delightful essays in literary criticism, — readers 
whose attention has been thus happily reclaimed 
by reason of the reappearance of the four vol- 
umes in a new edition, and the recent publication 
of the author's " Life and Letters." His own 
opinion of the work, as expressed in a letter to a 
friend, was characteristically modest. 

" I did not send it because — it is a very foolish rea^ 
son — I am — do not mention it to any one — rather 
ashamed of it. I don't know why, but I have a sus- 
picion that I am not a good critic, or perhaps it is merely 
a case of distorted vanity. Lowell bullied me out of a 
copy; but I regretted it, and could wish that the book 
should not have crossed the Atlantic. However, you 
will be merciful as a critic of mine. Don't say anything 
about the book when you write again, or it will seem to 
me as though I had been fishing for a compliment. This 
is written on the understanding that you will preserve 
a judicious silence in the interests of my moral health. 
Publicity, as you truly say, is a poison, and private flat- 
tery is not much better." 

The whole tenor of Stephen's thought makes it 
obvious that theie was no affectation in these 
words of self-deprecation, but justice to a book 
depends upon the public's verdict rather than 
the author's, and it has been rendered, in this 
instance, in terms that emphatically contradict 
Stephen's own estimate. 

We are not, however, at this late day reviewing 
the " Hours in a Library," but have merely taken 
the title as a peg upon which to hang a few dis- 
cursive general remarks . The expression ' ' hours 
in a library " means many things to many minds, 
and what it means in any particular case depends 
wholly upon personal associations and experi- 
ences. To readers of old memoirs, and even more 
to those fortunate men and women who have the 
precious memory of a quiet period of youth and 
adolescence spent in some old-fashioned house 
with generous furniture of old-fashioned books, 
it means rich treasures of recollection, fond remin- 
iscences of exploration and discovery and wonder, 
as the mind reciu-s to those old days with their at- 
mosphere of delightful studies. To others, again, 
whose early joy in the companionship of books 
has been preserved as something more than a 
fading memory, who have not permitted the cares 



[Feb. 1, 

of the workaday world to sever them from that 
source of primary inspiration, but still keep them- 
selves surroimded by good literature and their 
daily lives sweetened by its ministry, the thought 
of " hours in a library " has a vital content, and 
expresses the occupation which still makes life 
best worth the living. A few are themselves pro- 
ducers of literature, and pay direct tribute to its 
beneficence, as Mr. Allen to Malory in " The 
Choir Invisible," and Mr. Quiller-Couch to 
Rabelais in " Sir John Constantine." But most 
of those who continue through all their lives to 
find in literature an ever-availing solace are con- 
tent to absorb without giving out — except in the 
natural reactions of thought upon environment, 
— and the world never learns what their "hours 
in a library" have meant, and still mean, to them. 

But the lapse of time works portentous 
changes in most human conditions, and in none 
more so than in this relation between men and 
books. The connotations of the term " library " 
have become so transformed that most men now 
advanced in years find themselves compelled to 
readjust both their ideas and their habits . In the 
old days, the word meant the private collection 
of books, upon which the personality of the col- 
lector was impressed, and which was hallowed 
by all sorts of tender and intimate associations. 
The qualifying adjectives " public " and " circu- 
lating " were used to indicate inferior kinds of 
libraries, that might be found usefid upon occa- 
sion, but that could not touch the heart. They 
represented the utilitarian as opposed to the sen- 
timental, and whenever those two appeals come 
into rivalry, we know which will win with all 
persons of gentle instincts. But to-day the li- 
brary, in the good old sense, has become a rare 
phenomenon ; for the word would surely be mis- 
applied to these simulacra of libraries, filled with 
expensive and unread sets of " standard authors," 
which occupy certain conventional quarters in 
the homes of the rich, and are obviously nothing 
more than a part of the general scheme of lux- 
urious decoration. And the public library in its 
typical form ( Bibliotheca Carnegiana), which 
is what most men think of nowadays when they 
think of libraries at all, is not a good substitute. 
It is housed in an imposing but cheerless build- 
ing ; it buys the books named in the A. L. A, 
model catalogue ; it classifies them upon the 
Dewey system ; and it has rules. To spend 
" hours " in such a place may be profitable for 
many practical purposes ; it is not likely to feed 
the contemplative spirit, or prove stimulative to 
the production of essays in Stephen's manner. 

Along with this (probably inevitable) evolu- 

tion of the library into an institution, there has 
come into existence the modern librarian, — a 
very useful person, highly accomplished as an 
administrative officer, an expert in accession- 
listing and catalogue-making, a man alert to 
grasp and weigh every idea new to his craft, an 
admirable factor in an admirable scheme of 
organization. And yet something seems to be 
lacking. He is so completely a custodian of 
books, he is necessarily so occupied with their 
accidents, that he does not have the time, even 
if he have the disposition, to become their inti- 
mate. And since this is so, he cannot become the 
wise and helpful intermediary that his old-time 
predecessor was wont to be. The seeker for 
counsel will get from him bibliographical infor- 
mation in copious draughts ; he will hardly get 
that fertilizing inspiration which flows from a 
mind saturated with humanistic culture. In this 
respect, the evolution of the type of the modem 
librarian has been analogous to that of the modem 
type of university president ; it has been an in- 
evitable evolution, we repeat, but it leaves us 
with a sort of wistful regret for the type that has 

This subject was brought to the attention of 
the Narragansett Conference last summer in the 
address of President Hill of the American Li- 
brary Association, who used the following words : 

" There are those who claim that the old style libra- 
rian who knew books has disappeared and his place has 
been taken by the modern librarian, who acts as the 
executive officer of the institution. Such critics sigh for 
the library of old, with its musty tomes and its air of 
seclusion and repose ; they long for the return of the 
librarian with his quiet, dignified, studious air, and they 
resent the change to the utmost." 

And then the speaker suggested a possible re- 
conciliation of the two ideals, probably the only 
one possible for the large municipal library of 
our times. 

" To reach the highest degree of perfection the great 
public library must have not only its executive whose 
guiding hand will steer the craft through all kinds of 
business dangers, but also scholarly, studious men and 
women who know books and how to use them. Both are 
necessary to the welfare of the large library. The wise 
administrator is the one who, while keeping his eyes upon 
the needs of the whole system, has the ability to discover 
the specialists who are needed to round out the work 
of the library, and to place each in his own particular 

This is what Mr. Putnam has done with excel- 
lent results in our national library at the cap- 
ital ; it is what several of our larger cities are 
doing to the extent of which their resources will 
permit. -r"^ 

Discussing the same subject upon still broader 
grounds, President Faunce urged upon the Asso- 




elation the importance of encouraging the old 
" fattening " use of libraries as no less important 
than their use for purposes of research. 

" The library must encourage slow, painful, thoughtful 
reading. . . . The habit of reading as a substitute for 
thinking is worth nothing, but is sheer damage to the 
mental fibre. . . . Our students need to use books not 
only as tools, but as friends. In the old days, when the 
reading of college students was far more promiscuous 
than to-day, they were accustomed to regard books al- 
most as personal acquaintances, and there was a genuine 
exchange and reaction of writer ai\d reader. The modern 
method of reading is far more accurate and definite than 
the older method, and is obviously eft'ective in securing 
results. But it must be supplemented by the ' browsing ' 
of former days, by the large horizons which come from 
being set free in the companionship of great minds." 

The " hours in a library " which are spent in 
hunting down references and verifying citations 
are by no means wasted, but they are not the 
hours that contribute to the strengthening of the 
tap-root of the intellectual life, nor are they the 
hours which, in the retrospect, are recalled as 
hours of unadidterated delight. 


It was not so very long ago that children in the 
public libraries, like dogs in the parks, were unwel- 
come unless kept in leash by a responsible attendant. 
If one of tender years happened to stray into those 
awful precincts alone, he was gently but firmly 
shown to the door and told to run away. But all 
this is changed now, and some of our public library 
authorities are even raising the question whether the 
children are not getting more than their just share 
of attention, to the neglect of their elders. 

The " story hour " which has come to be a recog- 
nized institution in our best libraries is doing 
as much as any other library influence to interest 
children in good reading. A certain period is set 
aside, — sometimes regularly each week, sometimes 
on special occasions or holidays, — when the chil- 
dren's librarian, or an expert story-teller from with- 
out who has both sympathy and discrimination, 
gathers the children about her and tells them the 
tales that form the basis of our best literature. 
Listening to stories is the natural approach to 
reading from books, and is the first step toward the 
acquisition of cultiu'e. 

But it is not only in the reading-room that chil- 
dren are made to know and to love books. As 
Mahomet to the mountain, so the library goes to the 
child if the child will not come to it. The idea of 
the peripatetic library — the " travelling library " 
as it is now generally called — is in line with mod- 
ern progress. In these twentieth-century days, space 
has been annihilated by rail and steam, inertia has 

been overcome, locality has been destroyed ; the 
world is on wheels. What, then, so natural as the 
travelling library? 

We are probably indebted to the Scotch for the 
germ which has developed into this important sys- 
tem of book-distribution. Early in the last century 
(in 1810, I believe it was), a collection of religious 
tracts was circulated in Scotland, augmented a few 
years later by books of standard literature and 
science. These " itinerant libraries," so-called, 
flourished for more than two decades, but finally 
died a natural death. Thirty years after their disap- 
pearance, Australia developed a peripatetic system, 
and somewhat later the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge sent out university extension libraries ; 
but the travelling library in this country dates from 
1889, and owes its origin to Mr. Melvil Dewey, 
Director of the New York State Library at Albany. 

The travelling library is simply an extension of 
the state library, or in some cases (as in Wisconsin) 
of the county library, twenty-five or fifty or a hun- 
dred books being sent out at once and entrusted for 
three months or six months to the care of a respon- 
sible person who becomes a local or sub librarian. 
This local librarian loans the books — to children 
as well as to adults — under a simple code of regu- 
lations, returning the entire library when it has 
served its purpose, and receiving in exchange a new 
selection of books, thus keeping alive the interest of 
the readers and stimulating them to read. Stations 
are established in village shops and postoffices, often 
in farm-houses at some distance from the towns but 
conveniently located with reference to the rural 
population. In a number of states, travelling libra- 
rians are employed. The travelling librarian is 
a real literary evangelist, preaching the gospel of 
good books. He strengthens the hands of the local 
librarian, revives the flagging interest, establishes 
new centres of culture, and carries light into the 
dark places. What a field of usefulness is open to 
him ! Coming into personal contact with hundreds 
of people, young and old, to whom the world of 
books is a terra incognita, he rescues many a country 
youth from intellectual starvation, fans in some the 
spark which shall kindle into genius, and in others 
not so gifted stimulates the intelligent use of the 
powers which they possess — insuring at least better 
crops and broader citizenship. 

The transportation of the libraries from place to 
place offers a problem which each state is working 
out for itself. In some localities, notably in the 
South, the railroads, recognizing the philanthropy 
in the idea which underlies this library movement, 
are shipping the libraries without charge. In other 
parts of the country, the local centre pays a nominal 
amount to cover the cost of freight. Mr. Dewey 
strongly advocates, and has already put into commis- 
sion in New York, a type of library wagon, driven 
by a trained librarian, who, after the manner of the 
religious colporteur of a former generation, goes 
from station to station carrying his books with him. 

It may be asked how large a part the children have 



[Feb. 1, 

in the travelling library. I answer, a very large part. 
In most libraries from one-foui*th to one-third of the 
books are adapted particularly to children's use, and 
children are among the most devoted readers. In 
a small village in New York State, a girl of thirteen 
recently drew from a travelling library during the 
six months of its stay thirty-two books. A boy of 
fifteen drew twenty-five books. The statistics at 
other points show an interest almost as great. 

Several of our large city libraries, notably the 
Carnegie Library of Pittsburg and the New York 
City Public Library, have adapted the travelling 
system to urban conditions, and are sending out into 
the tenements trained children's librarians bearing 
good books. The books, in libraries of from twelve 
to twenty volumes, known as " home libraries," are 
placed in the hands of certain families who agree to 
take care of them for a specified time and to loan 
them to such neighbors as may wish to read. Little 
circles are thus formed — for the most part of chil- 
dren, though grown-up members of the families join 
in them too. The library visitor comes once a week 
and talks to them, telling them stories, such stories 
as are told to the library children dm-ing the " story 
hour." Then she makes the connection between the 
story and the book, taking a volume from the case 
and reading a few interesting pages from it. After a 
friendly hour, she goes away leaving the seed to 
germinate. When one set of books are read through, 
she brings a new set and takes the old ones back — 
a little soiled, perhaps, but the city can well afford 
to burn them and buy more, for the books are mak- 
ing citizens, and these children who are learning 
to read good literature will not need as many police- 
men to loojt after them a few years hence, thanks to 
the library visitor. 

Nor does this far-reaching philanthropy stop with 
the reading of books. The library worker gains the 
confidence of parents as well as of children. She 
learns the troubles and discouragements of the lower 
strata of society, and is able to give help. She does 
much of the work usually accomplished by the 
" friendly visitor " of the charitable organizations, 
and does it more effectively ; for the class that of 
all others is most in need of aid and sympathy is 
shy in the presence of charity and often suspicious 
of the church. 

Another important movement in library extension 
has to do with the placing of libraries in the schools, 
its aim being to bring into accord the work of the 
two great educational influences of the present age 
— the public library and the public school. When 
one stops to consider the many points at which the 
work of the librarian and the teacher overlap, it will 
be seen that a great saving of energy and an enor- 
mous gain in efficiency must result from this union. 
The function of the library is to put the right book 
into the right hands, — not only into the hands that 
are outstretched for it, but into those that most need 
it. The librarian, busied with the details of admin- 
istrative work, — purchasing, classifying, catalogu- 
ing, keeping in order, — though she may have, and 

must have, sympathy with the children who frequent 
the library, cannot come into that close relationship 
with them which is enjoyed by the teacher, who has 
them with her six hours in every day, Sundays and 
holidays excepted, who directs their intellectual 
progress and comes to know their needs more intel- 
ligently and often more sympathetically than even 
the parent. 

These considerations have led to the development 
of a system in which the public library places its 
resom'ces at the command of the schools, the libra- 
rian giving of her practical knowledge of the books 
and the teacher of her knowledge of the child. The 
librarian visits the school and talks to the children, 
tells them how to " find things " in books, tells the 
younger ones a few good classic stories and suggests 
where they may find others, tells the older ones how 
to use a card catalogue, how to run down a refer- 
ence, where to find good material to help them in 
their history and geography. The teacher makes 
individual application of the librarian's generalities, 
and fits a particular book to a particular want. The 
librarian is the specialist : she has at her fingers' 
ends the entire literary pharmacopoeia, and is skilled 
in the uses of all sorts of material ; but the teacher 
is familiar with the child's constitution and habits — 
a sort of knowledge quite as important. Consulta- 
tion of this sort is in accord with modern practice, 
and is yielding pronounced results in schoolrooms 
where it has been tried. The books are supplied 
from the school library so far as the school library 
can meet the demand, but beyond that point the 
public library is drawn upon, and offers from its 
greater resources a wide range of reference material, 
and books on special subjects appropriate either to 
the work of the class or to the celebration of the 
annual festivals and the birthdays of great men and 
women. These books are sent to the schoolroom for 
reference or distribution, and the school is thus 
made, in effect, a branch library, — or, if you please, 
a travelling library station. 

If the public library is convenient to the school, 
and in villages it always should be, — the refer- 
ence work is often best done in the library itself. 
This method has the double advantage of affording 
a quiet place in which the pupil may work without 
distraction, and of familiarizing him with the library 
— helping him to acquire the " library habit." If 
the alliance of school and library accomplished 
nothing beyond this, it would be well worth all the 
efforts that have been put forth in its behalf. 

The object sought by both librarian and teacher 
is the culture of the child, particularly the develop- 
ment in him of a discriminating love of books ; for 
this is the straight road to culture. The child is 
placed, by law, under the influence of the teacher 
during just those years when, if ever, the reading 
habit is formed and the trend given which deter- 
mines the child's intellectual life. It is a critical 
period, and no agency shoidd be overlooked which 
can contribute toward the end in view. 

In such ways as these the public library is reach. 




ing out after the children. In the country farm- 
house, in the city tenement, and in the schoolroom, 
as well as under its own roof-tree, it is bringing to 
them the knowledge of a gi'eat new world — a world 
of opportunity, of encom-agement, of delight. It is 
extending their vision over distant lands and bygone 
centuries, acquainting them with the secrets of 
nature and the mysteries of science, opening their 
hearts to the sweet influences of poetry, and point- 
ing out to them the paths of wisdom and of right- 
eousness. Walter Taylor Field. 


The prices of English novels, more particularly 
the prices at which they sell best, are discussed in a re- 
cently reported interview with that veteran publisher of 
sixty years' experience, Mr. Edward Marston, whose 
octogenarian reminiscences were lately reviewed in our 
pages. His observations are pertinent at tliis time of a sup- 
posed demand for a reduction in book-prices — in strik- 
ing contrast with the marked advance in all the costs of 
manufacttu-e. Many of Wilkie Colluis's novels were pub- 
lished by the firm with which Mr. Marston was so long 
connected; and it is a curious fact that, whereas these 
works had an enormous sale in their three-volume form 
at half a guinea a volume, and generally a good sale in 
the one-voliune form at six shillings, at two shillings they 
fell flat. (Query: might not this have been partly diie 
to their having been already widely read in periodicals?) 
In the same way, all of Mr. Blackmore's novels were 
very successful as "three-deckers," and afterward not 
unsuccessful as six-shilling one- volume books ; but they 
sold much less readily when offered for half a crown 
— with the single exception of " Lorna Doone." And 
thereby hangs a tale. The issue of this ever-charming 
story chanced to fall at the time of the marriage of 
Princess Louise to the Marquis of Lome, and the im- 
pression prevailed that Lorna and Lome were in some 
way connected, — a mistake that proved advantageous 
to all concerned. In the case of Black's novels the same 
pronoimced disinclination to buy cheap editions mani- 
fested itself, and the half-crown reprints caused a serious 
loss to the publishers. Mr. Marston's experience seems to 
show that, leaving out of accoimt the " penny dreadfuls " 
and the " shilling shockers," the British public prefers 
to buy its favorite fiction at a fair price, or about six 
shillings ; and this preference is further illustrated by the 
poor sale of short novelettes unless they are made up and 
offered in six-shilling form, even though the matter con- 
tained be but a third or a quarter of that in the ordinary 
novel. . . . 

Why Mr. Wright is to give us a new life of 
Pater is explained in the publisher's announcement of 
the forthcoming volume. The biographer wishes to 
correct a number of " staggering errors " said to have 
been committed by previous biographers. " (1) It has 
been asserted that ux boyhood and youth Pater showed 
no precocious signs of a desire to write. Mr. Wright 
shows that he was perhaps the most voluminous boy- 
author who ever lived. (2) It has been asserted that 
in childhood Pater never wrote poetry except a few 
humorous verses. Mr. Wright has in his own posses- 
sion many hundreds of lines of serious poetry written 

by Pater in his early years, and can show that he wrote 
thousands of such lines. (3) It has been said without 
contradiction that Pater was popular at school. Mr. 
Wright shows on the contrary that nobody could have 
been more unpopidar there. (4) It has been set down 
again and again in print that Pater's chief interest in 
his early life was philosophy. It was not so. His chief 
interest durmg his youth and early manhood was En- 
glish literature. (5) Students of Pater will remember 
that a biographer asserts that his metaphysical studies 
did not destroy his strong religious instinct. On the 
contrary they did, and for many years Pater was quite 
severed from religion. (6) The legend fotmd in most 
accounts of Pater — the legend that he wrote very few 
letters — is proved quite a falsification of the facts in 
Mr. Wright's ' life.' He wrote an enormous number of 
letters — as many as four hixndred to a single friend, 
and most of them long letters." Well, we shall see 
what we shall see. As to the fifth item, Mr. Wright 
would seem to have set himself a difficult task, — to 
read the mind's construction in the writings of a man, 
and to read it so accurately as to tell just when faith 
and when skepticism predominated. It is pretty well 
known that at Pater's death he was thinking seriously 
of taking orders, , » • 

"Subterranean literature" in Germany appears 
to have as large a sale as in our own and other coun- 
tries. The monster editions of such hair-raisers as 
" Jack the Ripper," and similar manuals for the fitting 
of vagrant youth to follow careers of crime, pass unno- 
ticed, in fact imsuspected, by the readers of Walter 
Pater, of Mr. Meredith, and of Mr. Henry James. But 
a German authority says that issues of seven himdred 
thousand copies of what we used to know here as " dime 
novels " are not unusual. Indeed, the dime novel, now 
apparently suffering a decline in this country, is ravag- 
ing the land of the Teutons, where most of the boys are 
said to prefer an American Indian story to any other 
tale. The frontier adventures of trappers and scouts, 
the prairie perils from wolves and redskins, the mighty 
encounters with the formidable grizzly bear — all these 
make the young heart of Germany beat with rib-rending 
throbs. This interest in stories of the Mohawk brand 
dates back as far as 1823, when Cooper's novels began 
to fire the blood of the juvenile reader. Imitators were 
not slow in following the trail blazed by the master ; and 
now he is a feeble writer who cannot out-Cooper Cooper 
by several hundred thrills per volume. There are said 
to be at present in Germany some five hundred firms 
engaged in the production of Cooperesque tales, with 
three thousand travelling salesmen to place the direful 
output on the market. The illustrations vie with the 
text in sensational quality, and (alas ! ) a book of about 
two hundred and fifty pages can be bought for less than 
our dime. . , , 

An irritating practice among library workers 
is touched upon by the Boston " Transcript " in the 
coui'se of some recent commendatory remarks about 
that energetic and indispensable library monthly, 
"Public Libraries," which has just entered upon its 
twelfth year. The practice referred to is that of libra- 
rians and library journals in the use, or rather the non- 
use, of capital letters and quotation marks. "What 
good does it do," asks the " Transcript," " to omit 
these from book titles, until an appearance of almost 
entire illiteracy is obtained ? If it saves the time of 
the compositor it wastes that of the reader, for he has 



[Feb. 1, 

to go back and read the title a second time to find out 
where it begins and ends. We know that this is the 
result of a library philosophy which taught that anything 
on earth could be sacrificed in order to save a few 
seconds' time, but that does not endear it to us. . . . 
Because our ancestors used what seems now an unnec- 
essary number of capital letters, we are not justified in 
trying to abolish them altogether, any more than the 
fact that those ancestors wore lace, frills, and long wigs 
justifies us in suddenly rushing into the street without 
any clothes at all." It is sincerely to be hoped that 
" Public Libraries " may see fit to take the lead in doing 
away with some of these confusing, distressing, and 
freakish practices which, along with certain orthograph- 
ical deformities, have crept into tolerance among library 
workers. • . . 

Dreams of an endowed theatre may still be per- 
mitted to hopeful souls, in spite of the fact that some 
recent local experiments in that direction could hardly 
be called inspiring. It may be that the idea may yet 
be worked out on a national basis; and it is to this 
form of it that Mme. Ristori addresses herself in her 
article in the January " Putnam," written but a few 
weeks before her death, — - an article prompted by her 
interest in and her enthusiastic recollections of Amer- 
ica, and by her reading in the theatrical journals some 
annoimcements of a project to establish an endowed 
national theatre in New York. She deplores the present 
state of affairs in the theatrical world, with its numerous 
" stars " and countless companies, all scrambling for a 
livelihood, to the detriment of high art and the dis- 
comfort of artists. " Should the example of Rome and 
Milan be generally followed," she writes, in very hope- 
ful vein, after referrmg to the endowed theatres in 
those two cities, "the art of acting will steadily advance; 
we shall have fewer stars, but more really good com- 
panies. This is the solution of the difficulty that we 
have reached in Italy, and I shall be deeply interested 
in seeing how the same problem is solved in America." 
» • • 

Brunetiere's successor in the French Academy 
is yet vmnamed, and the question of a choice is of 
interest to many outside of France as well as within. 
Mistral has been spoken of, and doubtless deserves the 
honor. But there is a difficulty. Our Provence poet 
is seventy-six years old, and at that age the grooves 
are commonly worn so deep that there is a rude jolt in 
getting out of them. He would have to visit Paris at 
least once if he accepted Academic honors, and Paris 
he has never loved. In fact, he has seldom left his pa- 
ternal acres since the day when, asked what he meant 
to be, he replied, " A poet." With remarkable and 
admirable persistency he has remained true to his high 
calling and has lived the life he purposed to live. A 
lonely and even pathetic figure he may appear, holding 
himself aloof from the great world and deploring the 
mad rush of his countrymen from rural quiet and peace 
to urban din and strife; but there is grandeur in his 
solitude, and sublimity in his high ideal of religion and 
beauty as inseparably connected with a peaceful coimtry 

An announcement from Mr. H. G. Wells which 
will interest Americans, and especially those who are 
students of the race question, is found in the following 
words attributed to him. " I have dealt," he says, in 
speaking of his writings on America, " very frankly with 
the color question, and it is quite possible that I may 

ultimately make it my subject and give a large portion 
of my life to it." Surely there is need of a prophet's 
wisdom in treating our vexed negro problem, and who 
knows what this prophetic novelist may accomplish if 
he carries out his half-formed plan ? Half the serious- 
ness he bestows on his mammoth rats and long-tailed 
comets and all the marvellous creations of the marvel- 
lous future might well be given to a few of the pressing 
problems of the living present. 

• • • 
Bibliographical work in libraries can be made 

both creditable and useful, as is shown by the Cambridge 
(Mass.) Public Library, which has expended a part of 
its surplus energy in preparing and publishing a biblio- 
graphy of Colonel Higginson. Few writers live to see 
a bibliography of their work that covers sixty-three years 
of literary activity, as this one does ; and it is still more 
remarkable that in using this little book, as the veteran 
author has used it since its appearance, he is reported 
as unable to find a single error of importance. Four of 
Mr. Higginson's books have been translated into French, 
three into German, one into Italian, and one into modem 
Greek. Considering the difficulty, the impossibility 
rather, of turning dialect into another tongue, one notes 
with surprise a French " Vie Militaire dans un Regiment 
Noir." Seventy-eight books and articles about Mr. Hig- 
ginson are entered in this interesting list. 

• • • 

Rural free delivery for libraries is following 
in the wake of rural free delivery of letters, and, ac- 
cordmg to reports, with equally happy results. A good 
illustration is furnished by the Free Library of Hagers- 
town, Maryland, whose library-wagon is now in the third 
year of its beneficent work of dispensing intellectual 
pabulum to the neighboring rural regions. Besides this, 
over sixty deposit stations are maintained throughout 
the county, and supplies of books are sent out regularly 
to numerous day schools and Sunday-schools. Although 
but five years old, this enterprising library circulates 
more than eighty-five thousand volumes annually with 
only about seventeen thousand volumes wherewith to 
achieve this result. Can a better record than this be 
shown ? ... 

The public library as an educational force 
is evidently growing in importance. An aggressively 
managed institution of this sort is that at Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, as appears from a recent circular issued by 
it under the title, " The Right Start," which is sent out 
to the yomig people of the city, with a personal letter 
from the librarian. " Have you ever thought of con- 
tinuing your education while you are at work ? " asks 
the circular; and it proceeds to make known the great 
educational opportimity open to all who choose to fre- 
quent the library, attend its free lecture courses, inspect 
its exhibitions, and read its books and periodicals. Such 
enterprise speaks well for the institution, and for the 
community in which it is located. 

• • • 

The smallest book ever printed has just been pub- 
lished at Padua by the Salmin Brothers. This miniature 
curiosity measures only ten by six millimetres (about 
three-eighths by one-quarter of an inch) — a veritable 
thumb-naU volume, or in fact much smaller than any but 
a Tom Thumb's thumb-nail. Each page has nine lines, 
and though the print is extremely small it is perfectly 
clear and legible — to good eyes. This tiny booklet 
contains a hitherto unpublished letter from Galileo to 
Christina of Lorena. 




t l^to l00ks. 

The Hohenlohe Memoirs.* 

Since the publication of Busch's life and let- 
ters of Bismarck, no book has created the stir 
in official Germany that has been roused by the 
" Memoirs of Prince Chlodwig of Hohenlohe- 
Schillingsfuerst." Lieutenant Bilse's "//i einer 
kleinen Garnison " provoked indeed a tempest, 
but the teapot was small and soon emptied. 
This time, however, the matter is more serious. 
The Emperor has reproved the eldest son of the 
late Prince for permitting the indiscretion of 
publication ; he has shifted the responsibility 
upon his brother, Prince Alexander, and he in 
turn upon Professor Curtius ; while the latter 
blames the importunate publisher. Doubtless 
the printer's devil is the one idtimately to blame. 

Prince Chlodwig von Hohenlohe-Schillings- 
fuerst was a Bavarian statesman, and during 
the important years 1867-1870 was at the head 
of the Bavarian ministry. Prior to that time he 
had filled a series of diplomatic positions that 
took him, first or last, to nearly every European 
capital. As a prince of the blood and related 
to various royal houses, connected by intimate 
family ties with Protestantism though himself 
a Roman Catholic, possessed of great wealth 
and broad culture, he was not only brought into 
intimate connection with all the leading men of 
his time, but in his diplomatic career he was 
informed as to the negotiations that led to many 
a check and counter-check in the political game 
of modern Europe. As a member of the Reichs- 
tag after the establishment of the Empire, then 
as Ambassador at Paris from 1874 to 1885, and 
from 1885 to 1894 as governor at Strassburg, 
he was not only in close touch with Bismarck 
up to the latter's retirement from office, but 
was intimately associated with the Emperor 
William I. and his successors. From 1894 tiU 
almost the end of his life he was Imperial 
Chancellor, resigning from that office in the 
Autumn of 1900. 

Upon the occasion of his eighty-second birth- 
day, in March following his retirement from 
office, the Prince requested Professor Friedrich 
Curtius to help him write his memoirs. He did 
not, however, live even to begin the work, and 
the task of fulfilling his wishes was left to his 
son, Prince Alexander, with whom Professor 

• Memoirs of Prince of Chlodwig Hohenlohe-Schillings- 
FUEKST. Authorized by Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Schil- 
lingrsfuerst, and edited by Friedrich Curtius. English edition 
supervised by George W. Chrystal, B.A. In two volumes, with 
photogravure portraits. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Curtius collaborated. We have, then, not an 
autobiography, nor in the ordinary sense a bio- 
graphy, but instead an annotated compilation 
of material upon which the Prince had expected 
to draw in refreshing his memory and in round- 
ing out the story of his life. Private letters and 
journals constitute the bulk of this material, 
which has been made public, " so far," to quote 
Curtius, "as publication seems advisable." This 
limitation appears to have been taken somewhat 
easily, for certainly very much is included that 
so tactful a diplomat as Prince von Hohenlohe 
would have hesitated to give to the public. The 
struggle, resulting from aggression, compro- 
mise, and concession, out of which the national 
unity of Germany was born, is still so recent 
that it possesses personal rather than historical 
interest. To the historian of the next century 
these memoirs will be invaluable in portraying 
the characters of William I., Bismarck, and 
other leaders and participants in it ; but to-day 
many a statement must seem to those person- 
ally interested as a slur upon the memory of 
dear friends. 

A few instances of such indiscretion may be 
of interest. Thus, in speaking of the eightieth 
birthday of William I., the Prince mentioned 
in his diary a dinner at Bismarck's at which 
Marie von Bismarck told him that he was the 
only man upon whom her father could rely, and 
that he had often thought of him when he was 
tired of vexations and wanted to resign. The 
diary continues : 

" Afterwards I spoke with Gontaut. I think the Im- 
perial Chancellor attaches much too much importance 
to him. He is, after all, an insignificant chatterbox. In 
the same way Bismarck makes too much of the claptrap 
of the Empress." 

Agaui, in 1880, he sketches the situation as 
follows : 

" The Chancellor is at Varzin in a nervous state, and 
hesitates to come because he is afraid that the Kaiser 
and everyone else will give him too much to do here. 
The Kaiser is losing his memory to some extent, does 
not remember what he has signed, and becomes rude at 
times when he hears that something has happened which 
he thinks he has not been told about." 

Bismarck's feigning illness, and his continual 
threats of resigning, are repeatedly mentioned. 
Thus, in 1872 the Prince states : 

" Yesterday a rumor was spread that Bismarck was 
again unwell, and that he would have to retire to the 
country for six months. As I had seen him some few 
days previous looking fresh and healthy, I thought this 
was curious, and I expected he was simply playing 
truant. This was the case. Bismarck has difficulties 
with the Emperor. His powerful and imperious nature 
cannot stand the pressure which the old gentleman 
brings to bear upon him." 



[Feb. 1, 

But enough ; such passages are of frequent 
occurrence. Whatever else they amount to, 
they certainly tend to obscure " the awe and 
majesty of kings " by bringing them down to a 
very human level ; and so they certainly do not 
tend to further the desire of William II. to 
have his grandfather go down to posterity as 
" WiUiam the Great." Indeed, one most inter- 
esting thing in the book is the way in which 
Prince von Hohenlohe was constantly called 
upon to be the " buifer " between Bismarck and 
William I. Sometimes his influence was sought 
by one party, sometimes by the other. Thus, 
in 1879, in the matter of the alliance with Aus- 
tria, Bismarck summoned the Prince, talked 
him over to his view, and then sent him to the 
Emperor. Bismarck was threatening to resign, 
the Emperor to abdicate ; but the Prince was 
able to settle the matter. In October, 1874, 
the Chancellor and the Emperor had some diffi- 
culty over the speech from the throne. The 
Emperor wished to " water down " what Bis 
march had written in regard to foreign affairs. 
The Prince thus reports his conversation with 
the Emperor : 

"The Emperor quoted the passage from memory, 
and said he feared it was open to the construction that 
we were prepared to make war again upon France. And 
this was out of the question. He was too old to begin 
another war, and feared that Prince Bismarck was try- 
ing to drag him little by little into fresh hostilities. 
This was why he was so suspicious. I said that if the 
Prince had any such intention I must have been the first 
to know of it, but that I had not the faintest inkling of 
anythmg of the kind. That passage of the speech 
referred not to coalitions against us, but to the insinua- 
tions that had been got up against us. The Emperor 
stroked his beard, and said, without replying to my 
argument, * I shall fall out with Prince Bismarck again 
over this matter, and it would gratify me if you would 
put it before him once more from my point of view.' " 

But to turn from this phase of the memoirs 
to those features that give the book more per- 
manent interest. One of the characteristics of 
statesmanship is the ability to read the signs of 
the times. This ability Prince von Hohenlohe 
possessed. Thus, in an article on the political 
condition of Germany in 1847 he points out that 
"It is a mistake to try to dam the Revolution 
by liberal reforms in the individual States with- 
out reforming Germany as a whole." He sin- 
cerely desired a united Germany, but what he 
wanted was " a real, politically efficacious unity," 
and till the various governments would approach 
the problem in a serious and self-sacrificing 
spirit he was opposed to the so-called progress 
and to concessions which he felt led directly to 
revolution. At this time he took the ground of 

an ultra-Conservative and opposed the Frank- 
furt resolution calling for a Constituent National 
Assembly, for he regarded it as practical an- 
archy. The subsequent course of events fuUy 
justified his position. His feeling toward the 
Church was much the same. In faith, he wanted 
something vital. Speaking of the fact that many 
educated men are either devoid of faith or accept 
the ordinances of the Church only as a matter 
of form, he says : 

" But will such conventional homage to the Church 
endure? Will not the effects of this knowledge without 
faith spread to those classes of society which can have 
no interest in subordinating themselves to the Church 
and hei^ dogmas, to the discipline and mortification 
which she imposes? Will not a total collapse be the 
end, or rather has it not even now begun to spread 
among the lower classes? . . . And if this result comes 
about, we must face the bankruptcy of faith, a catas- 
trophe which must infallibly lead to the collapse of the 
whole structure of modern civilization. For all that, it 
would be childish to regret the discoveries of natural 
science. They are for a wise and useful end, because 
they have their place in the development of mankind." 

At about the same date the Prince said, in 
another discussion of the same problem, " I be- 
lieve that mankind will create for itself a form of 
faith adapted to it, and become religious again." 
This certainly shows a broader outlook upon re- 
ligious matters, as well as a saner forecast of half 
a century's development, than can be claimed for 
many less orthodox believers than was Hohen- 
lohe ; indeed, he never seems to have shrimk 
from any advance that meant true progress. 

His attitude as a member of the Catholic 
Church and as a German patriot is strikingly 
shown in the following paragraph regarding the 
expulsion of the Jesuits : 

" I can never admit that a Jesuit can do anything 
independently of his superiors. The discipline of the 
Order is much too strict for that. ... If the Jesuits 
agitate in Posen and in Alsace, they do this under the 
command of their superiors, empowered by their Order; 
and for this it is answerable. When the Jesuit Father 
Schrader, in his book, The Pope and Modern Ideas, 
advanced a whole system of theories dangerous to the 
State ; if the Civilta Cattolica and the Korrespondenz of 
Geneva — the first under the eyes of the Pope, and the 
latter with his expressed approval — both being edited 
by Jesuits, both proclaim the sovereignty of the Church 
over the State ; when the local Bavarian papers, under 
the control of the Jesuit Father Weisser, daily preach the 
shattering of the State ; when the Osservatore Homano, 
conducted by Jesuits, reminds us that no heretic can be 
Emperor of Germany, that the Pope must dethrone him 
and the people drive him away, — then these are no 
'rash journalistic excesses,' but facts of such impor- 
tance that no one can shut his eyes to them. From the 
Catholic standpoint, it may be regrettable that we are 
not a Catholic country with a Catholic dynasty. But 
this objective complaint must not be made the spring 
of political action, and it can still less be tolerated that 




anyone in Germany makes it the starting-point of an 
attack upon the Empire. Tliis the Jesuits have done 
since the institution of their Order, and to this they 
are committed, — that is, to the violent extermination 
of Protestantism. What will happen if we tolerate ten- 
dencies for which we have to thank the Thirty Years' 
War, and which can lead to nothing else than a renewal 
of the Wars of Religion? I am therefore always of the 
opinion that the German people must expel the Jesuits 
in self-defence ; and if you object that I, as a Catholic 
Prince, have no right to participate in this, I answer that 
I am in all things a German Prince, and as svich must do 
my duty." 

One exceedingly interesting feature of the 
memoirs is the light thrown upon the relations 
of Bismarck and the present Emperor of Ger- 
many. The question has been much discussed 
and much befogged, but in a passage in the 
journal is an account of a conversation in which 
the Emperor gives his version of the affair. 

" The Emperor related the whole story of his differ- 
ence with Bismarck without interruption. He said that 
relations had become strained as early as December. 
The Emperor then desired that something should be 
done upon the question of the workmen. The Chancellor 
objected. The Emperor's view was that if the Govern- 
ment did not take the initiative, the Reichstag — in 
other words, the Socialists, the Centre, and the Pro- 
gressives — would take the matter in hand, and that the 
Government would be forced to follow them. The 
Chancellor desired to bring the Socialist law, including 
the provisions of exjiulsion, before the new Reichstag 
once again, to dissolve the Reichstag if it rejected the 
law, and to take energetic measures in the event of a 
revolt. The Emperor objected to this policy, saying 
that if his grandfather had been forced to deal with 
rebels after a long and glorious reign, no one would 
have thought the worse of him. But he was himself in 
a different position, for he had as yet achieved nothing. 
. . . He was ready enough to act, but he wished to be 
able to act with a clear conscience, and first to make an 
attempt to satisfy the legitimate grievances of the 
workmen, and at least to do everything that was possi- 
ble to fulfil their justifiable demands. In a conference 
with his ministers, the Emperor therefore demanded 
that decrees should be drafted containing those pro- 
visions which the decrees afterward secured. Bismarck 
declined to hear of it. The Emperor then brought the 
matter before the Cabinet Coimcil, and eventually se- 
cured the proposal of the decrees notwithstanding Bis- 
marck's opposition. Bismarck, however, was secretly 
working against him. . . . This friction had consider- 
ably disturbed the relations between Bismarck and the 
Emperor, and these were further strained by the ques- 
tion of the Cabinet Order of 1852. Bismarck had often 
advised the Emperor to grant the ministers access to 
himself; and this was done. But when communication 
between the Emperor and his ministers became more 
frequent, Bismarck took offence, became jealous, and 
revived the Cabinet Order of 1852 in order to break 
communications between the Emperor and the minis- 
ters. The Emperor protested, and demanded the repeal 
of the Cabinet Order; Bismarck made a show of con- 
sent, but nothing was done in the matter. The Emperor 
therefore demanded that he should either issue an order 
of repeal or hand in his resignation. This decision the 

Emperor communicated through Hahnke. The Prince 
hesitated, but gave in his resignation on March 18. • . . 
The question at issue was, as the Emperor went on to 
say, whether the HohenzoUern dynasty or the Bismarck 
dynasty should reign." 

The memoirs afford delightful glimpses of the 
Prince's private life, of his genial and imperturb- 
able good temper, of his cultured appreciation 
of poetry and art. Space forbids further cita- 
tions, even when that is the only way to give a 
just impression of the work. The translation, 
supervised by Mr. George W. Chrystal, B. A., 
is satisfactory and apparently adequate. The 
typography is worthy of special commendation. 
The chief source of regret is that Prince von 
Hohenlohe did not live to supervise the prepa- 
ration of the work ; in that case those elements 
that have provoked censure would doubtless 
have been omitted, and the whole work rounded 
out into a biography in the ordinary sense of 
the term. Lewis A. Ehoades. 

The IjIbrariast and his Charge.* 

As long ago as the middle of the seventeenth 
century, to go no further back, the " librarie- 
keeper " was conscious of the dignity of his call- 
ing and the precious nature of his charge. A 
quaintly interesting series of reprints, styled 
collectively, " Literature of Libraries in the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," is now 
appearing, under the careful editorship of Mr. 
John Cotton Dana, public librarian at Newark, 
N. J., and Mr. Henry W. Kent, librarian of the 
Grolier Club in New York. The first four num- 
bers of the set of six are Cotton des Houssayes's 
Sorbonne address on " The Duties and Qualifi- 
cations of a Librarian," John Durie's two letters 
to Samuel Hartlib on " The Reformed Librarie- 
Keeper,"' Rev. James Kirkwood's two tracts on 
founding parochial libraries in Scotland, and 
Sir Thomas Bodley's autobiography and first 
draft of statutes of the library founded by him 
at Oxford. 

It was in December, 17 80, that the modest and 
learned scholar, the Abbe Cotton des Houssayes 
(1727-1783), delivered his brief address, in 
Latin, on assuming a librarian's duties at the 
Sorbonne. Publication speedily followed, and 

* Literature op Libraries in the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by John Cotton Dana and 
Henry W. Kent. 1. The Duties & Qualifications of a Librarian, 
By Jean-Baptiste Cotton des Houssayes. 2. The Reformed 
Librarie-Keeper. By John Dury. 3. Two Tracts on the Found- 
ing and Maintaining of Parochial Libraries in Scotland. By 
James Kirkwood. 4. The Life of Sir Thomas Bodley, written 
by himself, together with the First Draught of the Statutes of 
the Publick Library at Oxon. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

translations, in both French and English, have 
appeared. The version now printed claims to 
be only partly new, but it commends itseK to the 
reader as a scholarly piece of work. A selected 
passage emphasizing the librarian's high calling 
and needed qualifications will convey an idea of 
the whole. Throughout the treatise, its author 
shows himseK awake to his possibilities of use- 
fulness, and at the furthest possible remove from 
the position taken by that ease-loving Bodleian 
librarian who felt that his post would not be 

so very disagreeable if only the ed visitors 

would keep away. 

" Your librarian, gentlemen, is in some sort your 
official representative. To him is remitted the deposit 
of your glory. . . . Thus, therefore, your librarian 
should be, above all, a learned and profoimd theologian; 
but to this qualification, which I shall call fundamental, 
should be imited vast literary acquisitions, an exact and 
precise knowledge of all the arts and sciences, great 
facility of expression, and, lastly, that exquisite polite- 
ness which conciliates the affection of his visitors while 
his merit secures their esteem. A librarian truly worthy 
of the name should, if I may be permitted the expression, 
have explored in advance every region of the empire 
of letters, to enable him afterwards to serve as a faithful 
guide to all who may desire to survey it." 

Emerson's slighting reference to the librarian 
as a man in whom we are not to look for learning 
merely because he lives among books, would 
have certainly incensed the erudite Abbe. His 
discourse, though not exceeding two thousand 
words in length, is full of sensible ideas, and 
ideas which, however familiar now, must have 
appeared " advanced " in the speaker's day. 
The editors' bibliographical and prefatory mat- 
ter is all that could be desired ; and the compo- 
sition, press-work, and binding of the book are 
equally excellent. 

The Letters of John Durie (1596-1680) on 
" The Reformed Librarie-Keeper " antedate the 
Abbe's little tract by a century and a quarter. 
The writer's active and somewhat troubled life 
as a religious reformer receives due attention 
in an introductory " Biographical Sketch " by 
Miss Ruth Shepard Granniss ; but the occur- 
rence of the word " graft," even in quotation 
marks, tends to give one a slight shock, as a 
little out of keeping with the tone, the atmos- 
phere, the sober decorum of the little volume as 
a whole. Durie's friendship with Samuel Hart- 
lib, and his family connection, as father-in-law, 
with Henry Oldenburg, bring him indirectly 
into interesting association with Milton. The 
biographical sketch informs us that " in 1649 
Bidstrode Whitelock was appointed keeper of 
the king's medals and library," and that John 
Durie was soon afterward named as his assistant. 

Strictly speaking, of course, at the time of 
these appointments the medals and library could 
not be called " the king's ",- but whether serv 
ing king or parliament or commonwealth, Durie 
was assistant library-keeper for a few years 
before he resumed his restless wanderings and- 
his unsuccessful labors for Protestant unity. 
No whit less than our French Abbe did he feel 
the dignity of his calling and the great future 
opening to all library workers, as a brief extract 
will make evident. 

" For if Librarie-keepers did understand themselvs 
in the nature of their work, and would make themselvs, 
as they ought to bee, useful in their places in a publiek 
waie; they ought to becom Agents for the advancement 
of universal Learning: and to this effect I could wish, 
that their places might not bee made, as everie where 
they are, Mercenarie, but rather Honorarie; and that 
with the competent allowance of two himdred pounds 
a year; som emploiments should bee put upon them 
further than a bare keeping of the Books." 

What some of these " emploiments " are, he 
proceeds to specify; and it almost startles the 
reader to find how many modem ideas are 
clothed in his quaint and antique phraseology 
and spelling. He very sensibly favors an expan- 
sive system of book location, but his scheme of 
classification is amusingly rudimentary to a 
twentieth-century librarian. This little volume, 
like its companion, is irreproachable in style 
and finish. Yet one queries why the editors 
chose to depart from the old spelling of Durie's 
name, printing it " Dury," which would have 
looked strange to its owner. 

" An Overture for Founding and Maintain- 
ing Bibliothecks in every Paroch throughout 
the Kingdom," published anonymously at Edin- 
burgh in 1699, is now, we are assured by its 
present editors, a tract of great rarity. Its 
authorship is traced to the Presbyterian minister, 
James Kirkwood (1650-1708), a brief sketch 
of whose life precedes the reprint of the above- 
named tract, to which is added a second, dealing 
with the same general subject, and entitled " A 
Copy of a Letter anent a Project for erecting a 
Library in every Presbytery, or at least County, 
in the Highlands." It is by means of this second 
little treatise that the authorship of the first is 
determined, but when or where it was originally 
published, the editors do not say ; nor do they 
venture any assertion as to whether our philan- 
thropists endeavors bore fruit. Undoubtedly 
he was ahead of his age : the times were not ripe 
for public libraries. Yet the ultimate results of 
his zeal may have been considerable. Among 
other curious details of his scheme is one whereby 
the time allowed for retaining each volume was 




to depend on its size and the distance of the 
borrower s home from the library. Our first 
subscription library, that founded by Franklin 
in Philadelphia, had a somewhat similar rule. 
The exalted motives to Kirkwood's exertions in 
this field find partial expression in the following 
sentence : 

" Seeing God hath made all men by nature desirous 
pf Knowledge, undoubtedly the satisfying of this desire, 
must be a considerable part of our natural felicity; for 
the only delight of our Souls, which are our better part, 
in which the Body doth not partake, is the delight She 
taketh in Knowledge and Contemplation." 

Mr. Birrell's pleasant essay, " In the Name 
of the Bodleian," which forms 'the title-chapter 
to his latest collection of essays, must have 
aroused in many readers a fresh interest in Sir 
Thomas Bodley (1544-1613), foimder of the 
famous Oxford University library that bears 
his name. The fourth number of the series 
under review contains his " Life," written by 
himself, and his " First Draught of the Statutes 
of the Public Library at Oxon." A preface by 
Miss Granniss gives further details about both 
the man and his library to eke out the modest 
record he himself has given of his doings. Of 
his benefactions to the imiversity where he both 
studied and taught, he says very little, according 
more space to his honors and achievements as a 
diplomat, but limiting his entire autobiography 
(written in 1609) to some three thousand words. 
His " Statutes " run to nearly twice that length, 
and from them we take a short passage to 
illustrate the benevolent writer's old-fashioned 
charm of style. 

" Above all things, that may concern the Preservation 
of this our publick Place of Study, or the Benefit, Use, 
and Ease of those that shall frequent it, it is deemed 
expedient, that some one be deputed to the Custody of 
it, that is noted and known for a diligent Student, and in 
all his Conversation to be Trusty, Active, and Discreet ; 
a Graduat also, and a Linguist, not encumbred with Mar- 
riage, nor with a Benefice of Cure. For it cannot stand 
with piety, that such a Charge should admit the continual 
Society of other publick Imployments ; and Marriage is 
too full of Domestical Impeachments, to afford him so 
much time from his private Affairs, as almost every 
Day's necessity of his private Presence will require." 

Bodley's regard for books amounted almost 
to reverence. Remembering the sad fate of 
previous public collections of books at Oxford, 
he prescribed a penalty of instant and igno- 
minious ejection from the university for so 
much as making " any Change in any Line or 
Lines, Word or Words, Syllable or Letter, in 
any Author whatsoever," or for being even an 
involuntary witness to such wicked act without 
denouncing the offender within three days. This 
volume is marked by the same excellence of 

workmanship that characterizes the other three. 
As a whole, this series promises to be a delight 
to the bibliophile as well as to the librarian. 
The two numbers stiU to appear are : a transla- 
tion of Justus Lipsius's " De Bibliothecis Syn- 
tagma," Antwerp, 1602 ; and Gabriel Naude's 
" News from France. Or, A Description of the 
Library of Cardinal Mazarini," London, 1652. 
Percy F. Bicknell. 

The Red Planet Mars.* 

During the present year the planet Mars, 
which has given astronomers so merry a chase 
during the past few years, arrives at one of the 
favorable oppositions when its distance from 
the earth will be less than forty millions of 
miles, and details upon its surface will therefore 
be more easily seen than they usually are. 
Since public curiosity will soon be aroused, 
there is a certain timeliness in the nearly sim- 
ultaneous publication of two books upon our 
interesting neighbor. 

The first of these is an essay by Professor 
E. S. Morse, who has spent most of his long life 
in zoological studies. The study of life upon the 
earth has produced in him an intense interest in 
the question as to whether intelligent life exists 
in other worlds. Believing that any man pos- 
sessing a fair amount of intelligence is compe- 
tent to make a critical estimate of the work of 
astronomers upon Mars, he has essayed the task 
of sitting as judge upon their labors, of sifting 
the observational evidence at hand and pro- 
nouncing judgment in no hesitant fashion. The 
reader must not expect to find in the book the 
calm attitude of the man of science who looks 
at the matter in hand from all sides, examines 
the evidence pro and con, and then states his 
conclusions with the modesty which befits one 
who is aware of the uncertainties pertaining to 
the subject. The present author takes the view- 
point, rather, of the special pleader, marshals 
the evidence that bolsters up the theory he is 
advancing, ridicules opinions divergent from his 
own, and leaves the reader in a state of wonder 
as to what argmnents might be advanced on the 
other side of the question. Such a course, how- 
ever, when adopted by a man whose rhetorical 
ability is undoubted, at least leads to the pro- 
duction of a very readable book. 

The general trend of Professor Morse's argu- 

♦ Mars and Its Mysteby. By Edward 8. Morse. With 
Illustrations. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

Mars and Its Canals. By Percival Lowell. Illustrated in 
photogravure, etc. New York: The Macmillan Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

ment is as follows : First, life in other worlds 
is inherently probable. Second, a network of 
lines marks the surface of Mars. Third, the 
lines are most easily accoimted for on the sup- 
position that they mark the courses of irrigating 
canals. Fourth, these irrigating canals have 
been constructed by intelligent beings. This 
simple line of argument the author elaborates, 
enlivening nearly every chapter with personal 
allusions to well-known astronomers who have 
had the fortime, or the misfortune, to express 
opinions upon Mars. He has apparently 
overstepped the limits of polite language vhen 
he makes the following comments upon some 
astronomers and astronomical writers whom he 
mentions by name : 

" But what could we expect of the mentality of the 
senior assistant of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, 
who, with the great vault of heaven crowded with 
enigmas awaiting an answer, should waste a particle of 
gray matter in trying to ascertain precisely where Joshua 
stood when he commanded the Sun to stand still so that 
he could have a little more time for his bloody work." 

" I appeal to any honest and unprejudiced mind if a 
more incompetent person of the class to which he belongs 
could have been foxmd in England for the Directorship 
of such a body." 

"His attempt is as childish and ridiculous as the 
theory he conjures up." 

" This is certainly a happy thought of the reverend 
author, only it would seem in this case that a larger and 
more diversified corps of specialists, including alienists, 
is needed to attend to that class of astronomers who are 
suffering from mental strabismus. It might be advisa- 
ble to call in the services of a bacteriologist to make 
cultures of new forms of microbes which may be in- 
volved in rendering men incapable of estimating the 
value of evidence." 

Professor Morse spent a month at the Lowell 
Observatory in Arizona, where he was given 
opportunity to observe Mars on every clear night 
with the 24-inch telescope. Here he came to ap- 
preciate the difficidties connected with the study 
of the system of canals. On pages 80-81 he 
describes his initial sensations. 

" Imagine my surprise and chagrin when I first saw 
the beautiful disk of Mars through this superb telescope. 
Not a line ! not a markuig ! The object I saw could only 
be compared in appearance to the open mouth of a cru- 
cible filled with molten gold. Slighter discolorations 
here and there and evanescent areas outlined for the 
tenth of a second, but not a determinate line or spot to 
be seen. Had I stopped that night, or even a week 
later, I might have joined the ranks of certain observers 
and said ' Illusion,' or something worse. And right here 
it was that my experience with microscopic work helped 
me ; for, remembering the hours — nay, days — I had 
worked in making out structural features in delicate 
organisms which my unprofessional friends could not see 
at all, I realized that patient observation would be re- 
quired if I was to be successful in my efforts. My despair, 
however, was overwhelming when Professor Lowell and 
his assistants, looking for a few moments at the same 

object, would draw on paper the features which had been 
plainly revealed to them, consisting of definite shaded 
regions, a number of canals and other markings, of which, 
with the utmost scrutiny, I could hardly detect a trace." 

In replying to the natural objection that 
physical conditions on Mars may be so very 
different from those on the earth that such forms 
of life as we know may not be able to exist 
there, the author has written a very interesting 
chapter in which he shows the astonishing va- 
riety of circmnstances under which life of various 
forms exists upon the earth. Animals of mar- 
vellous delicacy live at the bottom of the ocean 
in darkness and imder a pressure of many tons 
to the square inch. Some forms of plant-life 
thrive in water nearly at the freezing point, and 
others exist in that which is almost ready to 
boil. Even men live in temperatures ranging 
from 130° in the shade to 70° below zero ; they 
can work at an altitude of 19,000 feet, or under 
an atmospheric pressure of twenty-five or thirty 
pounds to the square inch, without injury. 

Anyone who is at all interested in the ques- 
tion of the existence of intelligent life in other 
worlds may well pass a pleasant evening in 
perusing the pages of this entertaining book. 

Of a very different sort is Professor Lowell's 
latest book on " Mars and Its Canals." Eleven 
years ago he issued a very attractive popular 
work on this subject, and during this interval 
he and his assistants have assiduously observed 
the ruddy planet at every favorable opportunity. 
These observations have strongly confirmed the 
opinions originally expressed by Professor 
LoweU, and have enabled him to fill in details 
in gratifying fashion. The observations have 
been made at his private observatory at Flag- 
staff, Arizona, where a 24-inch glass, of Alvan 
G. Clark's workmanship, is mounted at an ele- 
vation of eight thousand feet above the sea. In 
order to make out delicate planetary detail, it 
is absolutely necessary that the atmosphere at 
the observing station be both clear and steady. 
One who merely works with a microscope in 
the quiet air of a laboratory has no adequate 
conception of the difficulty of seeing minute 
details when one has to look through many miles 
of an agitated atmospheric ocean, laden with 
dust and water vapor, and often charged with 
ice-spiculae in its upper layers. 

Apart from the question of the existence and 
function of the Martian canals, the author be- 
lieves that the following conclusions, from his own 
observations and those of others, are reasonable : 
First, that Mars has days and seasons substan- 
tially like our own. Second, that its enveloping 




atmosphere contains water vapor, carbonic acid, 
and oxygen, and is quite rare, the barometric 
pressure being probably no greater than four 
inches. Third, that water is very scarce, as 
shown by the infrequency of clouds and the 
rapid melting of the polar caps in summer. 
Fourth, that the temperature is colder than ours, 
but above the freezing point of water except in 
winter and the extreme polar regions. Fifth, 
that vegetation springs up when the polar snows 
melt, and dies away in due course. 

The difficulty of the observations which lie 
at the basis of all reasonable theorizinsr about 
the much-discussed system of canals and the 
existence of intelligent beings on the planet, 
may weU be described in Professor Lowell's 
own words. 

" When a fairly acute-eyed observer sets himself to 
scan the telescopic disk of the planet in steady air, he 
will, after noting the dazzling contour of the white 
polar cap and the sharp outlines of the blue-green seas, 
of a sudden be made aware of a vision as of a thread 
stretched somewhere from the blue-green across the 
orange areas of the disk. Gone as quickly as it came, he 
will instinctively doubt his own eyesight, and credit to 
illusion what can so unaccountably disappear. Gaze 
as hard as he will, no power of his can recall it, when, 
with the same startling abruptness, the thing stands 
before his eyes again. Convinced, after three or four 
such showings, that the vision is real, he will still be 
left wondering what and where it was. For so short 
and sudden are its apparitions that the locating of it is 
dubiously hard. It is gone each time before he has got 
its bearings. By persistent watch, however, for the best 
instants of definition, backed by a knowledge of what 
he is to see, he wiU find its comings more frequent, 
more certain, and more detailed. At last some partic- 
ularly propitious moment will disclose its relation to 
well-known points and its position be assured. First, 
one such thread and then another will make its presence 
evident ; and then he will note that each always appears 
in place. Repetition in situ will convince him that these 
strange visitants are as real as the main markings, and 
are as permanent as they. . . . Not everybody can see 
these delicate features at first sight, even when pointed 
out to them; and to perceive their more minute details 
takes a trained as well as an acute eye, observing under 
the best conditions." 

Our author has devoted haK his book to a 
detailed description of observations of the canals 
and to theories as to their nature and origin. 
These tantalizing objects were even photo- 
graphed ; joyfvd was the day when this feat was 
accomplished ! 

" The eagerness with which the first plate was scanned 
as it emerged from its last bath may be imagined, and 
the joy when on it some of the canals could certainly 
be seen! There were the old configurations of patches, 
the light areas and the dark, just as they looked through 
the telescope, and never till then otherwise seen of hu- 
man eye, and there more marvelous yet were the grosser 
of those lines that had so piqued human curiosity, the 
canals of Mars. ... By chance on one of the plates a 

temporal event was found registered too, the first snow- 
fall of the season, the beginning of the new polar cap, 
seen visually just before the plate happened to be put 
in and reproduced by it unmistakably. Upon the many 
images thirty-eight canals were counted in all, and one 
of them, the NUokeras, double. Thus did the canals at 
last speak for their own reality themselves." 

We are now ready to ask for an explanation 
of the nature of these delicate markings. The 
author shows that their complex behavior may 
be accounted for by a theory which he unhesitat- 
ingly advocates. This theory is that there are 
narrow waterways extending in a complete net- 
work over the surface of Mars ; when the polar 
snows melt, the released water flows equator- 
wards through these waterways, quickening 
vegetation along their banks and causing it to 
develop from the polar regions onward. This 
vegetation flourishes for a time, dies out, and is 
again renewed seasonally. If we grant that 
vegetation somewhat similar to our own exists, 
the author asks us to admit that animal life, 
which is closely coexistent with vegetable life on 
the earth, is likewise associated with it on Mars. 
On page 358 he says : 

" Once started, life, as palaeontology shows, develops 
along both the floral and faunal lines side by side, taking 
on complexity with time. It begins so soon as secular 
cooling has condensed water vapor into its liquid state; 
chromaceafe and confervse coming into being high up 
toward the boiling point. Then with lowering temper- 
ature come the sea-weeds and the rhizopods, then the 
land plants and the lunged vertebrates. Hand in hand 
the flora and fauna climb to more intricate perfecting, 
life rising as temperature lowers." 

Professor Lowell believes that the water 
would not flow along the canals from a pole 
downward across the equator unless artificially 
helped ; this help he ascribes to beings of a high 
order of intelligence, who have fashioned the 
canal system. He calls particidar attention to 
the fact that the canals connect small round 
dark spots which are scattered over the planet's 
face, going with geometrical precision straight 
from one " oasis " to another. These " oases " 
he considers centres of population. The popu- 
lation he esteems " necessarily intelligent " and 
of a " non-bellicose character." How firm his 
conviction is may be judged from the first sen- 
tence of the last chapter, which reads as follows : 

" That Mars is inhabited by beings of some sort or 
other, we may consider as certain as it is uncertain what 
those beings may be." 

Whether the reader can accept the author's 
conclusions or not, he will at least be forced to 
admit, after reading " Mars and Its Canals," 
that the book is an exceedingly able and inter- 
esting exposition of the subject. 

Herbert A. Howe. 



[Feb. 1 

The Record oe a Scholarly Life.* 

The life of a scholar in nineteenth-century 
England, inclined by temperament and iU-health 
to the quiet content to be sought far from the 
madding crowd, leaves a literary record without 
stir of adventure or thrill of triumph, but one 
eagerly appreciated by such as are sympathetic 
with the charm of letters. George Birkbeck Hill, 
best known for his notable edition of Boswell's 
Johnson, found in heredity and environment a 
potent shaping of his fate. Son and grandson 
of a schoolmaster, he, along with his brothers, 
was early initiated into preceptorial service in 
the family's large boarding-school for boys, of 
which for eighteen years he in turn served as 
partner or master. The natural path for the 
career led through Oxford, which he entered in 
1855 at the age of twenty. There the deter- 
mining influences — a not uncommon experi- 
ence — were his companions, a notable group of 
young men who presently formed themselves 
into a club which they called the " Old Mor- 
tality." The names of the original members 
are, almost without exception, now in the rolls 
of the distinguished : Professor Nichol, Pro- 
fessor Dicey, Mr. Swinburne, Professor Thomas 
Hill Green, the Right Honorable James Bryce, 
Dr. Caird (Master of Baliol), Dr. Birkbeck 
Hill, and Mr. Justice Wright. An equally 
intimate companion was William Morris. A 
contemporary, not of the club, records that 
"they were a revolutionary set, and read 

Young Hill's Oxford letters were divided 
between his father and Miss Scott (to whom he 
was early engaged, and who became his helpful 
life-mate), with a natural preponderance, both 
in number and intimacy, in favor of the latter. 
Here is one of them : 

" Yesterday I was in Swinburne's rooms. I wish yon 
knew the little fellow ; he is the most enthusiastic fellow 
I ever met, and one of the cleverest. He wanted to read 
me some poems he had written, and have my opinion. 
They are really very good, and he read them with such 
an earnestness, so truly feeling everything he had 
written, that I for the first time in my life enjoyed 
hearing the poetry of an amateur." 

In 1857 the " Old Mortality " club became 
responsible for a magazine, to the first issue of 
which Birkbeck Hill contributed his maiden 
literary effort in the form of a story. Mr. Swin- 
burne's contributions were essays on " Early 
Dramatists " and " Modern Hellenism " (aimed 

* Letters op George Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L. Arranged by 
his daughter, Lucy Crump. With portraits in photogravure. 
New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. 

at " our Professor of Poetry, Matthew Arnold "), 
and the poem " Queen Yseult "; and it was 
Swinburne who assembled the enthusiastic com- 
pany in his rooms "to welcome in the little 
stranger." But the printer was late. 

" Though we had not the satisfaction of having the 
paper itself, we still managed to drink its health in very 
good claret, as well as the health of each contributor, 
and the absent editor [Nichol] also. So we made very 
merry indeed; and though the baby was not there, still 
the christening was very successful." 

The arduous labors connected with the man- 
agement of the school at Bruce Castle, Totten- 
ham, and the cares of their own large family, 
became ever more wearing. In 1877 Dr. Hill 
and his wife gave up the ^chool and removed to 
Burgfield, near Reading. His life from now on 
was that of a man of letters with precarious 
income, rendered more so by the almost chronic 
interruptions of ill-health. While yet a school- 
master he had become a constant reviewer, and 
in 1874 had brought out a little book, " Dr. 
Johnson, his Friends and his Critics," a venture 
upon which, according to Mrs. Hill's careful 
accounting, he lost just <£3. In 1879 his uncle 
Sir Rowland Hill died, and Birkbeck Hill be- 
came the biographer of the founder of Penny 
Postage. The next year he performed a similar 
service in bringing out the Letters of Colonel 
Gordon from Central Africa. The three years 
from 1883 to 1886 were devoted wholly to the 
magnum opus, the six-volume edition of Boswell; 
and in the last of those years, in the interests 
of the work, he removed to Oxford. An edition 
of "Rasselas," also of "The Traveller" and 
the Letters of Hume, and a selection of John- 
son's writings imder the title " The Wit and 
Wisdom of Dr. Johnson," were the contribu- 
tions of 1888 ; in 1890 appeared the " Foot- 
steps of Dr. Johnson," and in 1892 a collection 
of Dr. Johnson's Letters. Some lectures given 
by Dr. HiU in 1891 were made up into a little 
volume, "Writers and Readers." In 1893 Dr. 
Hill visited America ; and the experience bore 
fruit in an accoimt of "Harvard College, by 
an Oxonian," while his contributions to " The 
Atlantic Monthly " became a sheaf of " Talks 
about Autographs." 

The charm of Dr. Hill's personality instantly 
made itself felt in almost any company. His 
comment upon his coUege friend Faulkner — 
later of the famous art firm of Morris, Marshall, 
Faulkner & Co. — " It would never occur to him 
whether a man were a duke or a chimney-sweep," 
may appropriately be applied to himself. On 
the whole, he woidd have preferred the chimney- 




sweep, if we may judge by the following letter 
to the same Faulkner (1879) : 

" Can you not give me a day or two here on your way 
back to Oxford ? . . . I met Morris in coming here 
yesterday, and travelled down with him. . . . Have you 
any work to do, here is your place to do it. We have 
risen a step — a very great step in the world — since we 
last saw you. The County has at last called on us, in 
the shape of the Right Honourable I re- 
turned the call, and was plunged in the midst of a lawn- 
tennis party. I was taken past a bench of young ladies 

and seated by Mrs. . When once there, I 

dared not move. I was conscious that I was staying too 
long, but I could not face the young ladies again. There 
were some military swells there in great yellow mus- 
taches. I was in a flannel shirt. How I suffered ! Lord ! 
— I mean Right Hon! — what is man that thou so re- 

gardest him ! Old himself was not bad, but the 

swells and swellesses ! I will introduce you to them, 
and we will talk in our most Radical style, and damn all 
parsons and squires, and speak disrespectfully of the 
House of Lords. The worst of me is that while I can 
roar like a lion in writing, I am as fearful and weak- 
voiced as a mouse before respectable people. You shall 
be Moses and the spokesman, and I will be a chorus." 

Dr. Hill's candor and sincerity of thought and 
speech made it quite impossible for him to deal 
tolerantly with presumption, duplicity, privilege, 
or dogmatism. He was liberal in politics and re- 
ligion, as in letters. Accurate, considerate, with 
a scholar's standards and ideals, the whole- 
80uledn6ss of his interest made him as eager in 
one occupation as in another. The most delightful 
of companions, an adored friend of children (some 
of his charming writings to the little ones have 
been gathered in " Letters of a Grandfather " ), 
he carried with him the subtle attraction of hav- 
ing only to be himself to be at once your friend. 
Straightforward in thought, and with keen in- 
sights, his opinions were sound as well as incisive, 
while over all there played the genial humor of a 
kindly simplicity. Good talk he enjoyed, and 
practised his own preaching. 

" It ought to be taught as one of the chief duties of 
life that each one is bound so to train and store his mind 
that he may take his part in pleasant and general talk. 
' Thou shalt not bore thy neighbor ' might well be added 
to the Commandments." 

These qualities impart to his letters (which, it 
must be remembered, are for the most part the 
intimate communion of husband and wife, of a 
father with his children) at once a sterling interest 
and a personal charm. Always ready for foolery 
and the lighter vein, he ever gave a serious sub- 
ject serious attention. Thoughts, as men, he 
valued for their real worth. Reputation, conven- 
tion, the sanction of majorities or superficial 
consideration, influenced him little. His com- 
ment upon a bit of fine writing in Renan is char- 
acteristic : " There is one passage about beautiful 

women which might have been written by at least 
ten thousand French fools, and so should not have 
been written by Renan." 

His interest in America, though brought to the 
venture of two trans- Atlantic journeys through 
the marriage of a daughter to Professor Ashley, 
sometime professor at Harvard University, was 
dominantly in a land in which worth had an un- 
trammelled chance to assert itself. " There are 
four great cradles of liberty in the world — so I 
reckon them — Greece, Holland, England and 
New England." He focussed his attention upon 
one of our institutions which it was well that the 
English cousin should comprehend . He willingly 
records, " What progress Harvard is making ! 
She strides while our Universities crawl." Yet 
he equally brought forward the benefits of seeing 
ourselves as others see us ; and a dozen years' 
experience vindicate the sharp-sightedness of the 
Oxonian spectacles. Not the least of our short- 
comings — the reviewer may be permitted to add, 
not out of harmony with the spirit of Dr. Hill's; 
strictures — is that we offer so little incentive 
and provide so sparingly for the living of such 
scholarly lives as that so pleasantly recorded in 
the letters of George Birkbeck HlU. 

Joseph Jastrow. 

Withstanding the Gods.* 

" Love thou the gods and withstand them, lest thy fame 
should fail at the end, 
And thou be but their thrall and bondsman, who wast 
bom for their very friend." 

With this quotation from Sigurd the Volsung, 
Mr. Garrod begins his book, " The Religion of 
all Good Men." " I could ahnost think," he 
says on a later page, " I could almost think it 
the last word in religion." 

It is the great merit of this little work, that 
it excites those very sentiments which its author 
regards as appropriate to religion. As we read, 
we not only admire the writer's eloquence and 
originality, but we come to have a sympathetic 
affection for his personality ; and yet we are 
stirred up to wrestle with his arguments, in 
default of that personal encounter for which we 
instinctively yearn. In the preface we are offered 
a sort of excuse for the book. 

" What I want to say needs, I think, at this time to be 
said by somebody ; and it is better that I should say it 
imperfectly than that nobody should say it at all. . . . 
And let me here say this: there is a danger that I may 
change my opinions. But there is also a danger that I 

*The Religion of all Good Men, and Other Studies in 
Christian Ethics. By H. W. Garrod, Fellow and Tutor of Merton 
College, Oxford. New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

may lose the courage of them. Ten years hence I may 
have the courage only of other people's opinions. My 
environment [Oxford] is one where the ' shades of the 
prison-house ' too early close in upon youthful enthusi- 
asm. Sooner than elsewhere, one ceases to be * on his 
way attended by the Vision splendid,' and begins to think 
and feel and speak conventionally and academically. 
Everywhere around me I hear the praise of the ' middle 
course,' of compromise, of suspended judgment; and I 
see the love of truth corrupted into the sophistic pas- 
sion for believing both sides of a contradiction. I see 
the folks of my little world the victims, all of them, of 
one or two diseases — the disease of having no opinions 
(' the balanced mind ') or the disease of not expressing 
them (' moderation '). Yet we all know that the just 
balance is motionless: nor have we ever seen in history 
intellectual progress born of an elegant laissez-faire." 

And so, secretly aware of the cheerful — nay, 
enthusiastic — permission of the discriminating, 
and scornful of the protests of the multitude, 
this extraordinary Fellow proceeds to correct 
some of the most ancient misunderstandings of 
our Christian world. In the first section, headed 
" Christian, Greek, or Goth," it is maintained 
that in addition to Christianity and Hellenism 
we have a third but little-recog-nized force, which 
is Northern or Gothic in origin. It is suggested 
that whereas historical Christianity has in the 
past come in for a great deal of criticism, it is 
now rather ethical Christianity that is being 
called into question. Both Christianity and 
Hellenism have been tried and found wanting ; 
or if not so found, it has been because they have 
been combined with another element essentially 
distinct in its nature and origin, though not 
recognized as such. 

" The ideal of Christianity is what we may call holi- 
ness. The ideal of Hellenism may be said to be under- 
standing, or intelligence. . . . Two ideals, chivalry and 
honor, are neither Greek nor Christian: I take them to 
be the peculiar property and creation of the northern 
races. I may call them the cardinal virtues of Gothic 

And again : 

" Christianity has said, ' In my flesh dwelleth no good 
thing.' . . . Against that, chivalry is a brilliant and pow- 
erful, though erratic, protest. ... It had also accounted 
those alone blessed who, in the cause of Christ, had 
made themselves * as the filth of the world and the off- 
scourings of all things unto this day.' . . . Against all 
that, so unnatural, so pusillanimous, so impossible, the 
ideal of honor is a righteous and necessary and enduring 
protest. ' I am a man of peace,' says Clough's Dipsychus : 

' I am a man of peace, 
And the old Adam of the gentleman 
Dares seldom in my bosom stir against 
The mild plebeian Christian seated there.' 
But it is to the motions in the blood of this old Adam 
that European society, as I believe, owes, and has always 
owed, its salvation." 

To most, this will seem in some degree ex- 
travagant,; and yet, who can suppose that the 

northern civilization, so rich in the mingling 
currents of humanity, has not contributed some- 
thing to the religious life of its members? In 
the language of the naturalist, should there not 
be some endemic forms within this territory ? — 
and if so, are they not likely to be the most 
characteristic, the most precisely adapted to this 
pecidiar environment ? 

In a later chapter, " Christ the Forerunner," 
Mr. Garrod sets forth a new view of Christ and 
his mission, which explains in many ways his 
attitude toward Christianity, and his circum- 
scription of it regarded as an original force. 
Christ, it is urged, taught and believed that the 
end of the world, or at least the end of ordinary 
human institutions, was close at hand. Paul 
was of the same opinion. Consequently, their 
religion, as actually held and presented, is by 
no means applicable to the life of normal men 
and women. Nor is this all. Numerous and 
apparently plausible reasons are adduced for 
believing that Christ did not so much as claim 
to be the Messiah, and that the " Son of Man," 
so frequently referred to by him, was not him- 
self but another. It is impossible here to sum- 
marize the argiunent, but the least we can say 
of it is that it is extremely interesting ; and we 
cannot deny the fact, urged by the author, that 
whereas the Gospel is everywhere read, few there 
are who examine it critically. 

What, then, of Christianity, after all ? If it 
has been crassly misunderstood, and made to 
cover in name quite other things, if it is in itself 
unsuited for human needs, what of it ? Was the 
mission of Christ a failure ? Not so. 

" In the long and learned introduction prefixed to his 
edition of the Bible (dated 1813), by the Rev. John 
Brown, I read that ' Perhaps about A. D. 2860 or 3000 
Satan will be again loosed from his long restraint; 
and, after corrupting the members of the Church, will 
assemble the Turks, Russians, or others of a savage 
temper, to destroy her: but the fearful vengeance of 
God shall overtake them in their attempt. Then cameth 
the end of the world, at what distance we know not.' This 
irruption of Satan, tliis high-handed action of Turkey 
and Russia, this end of all things, those who read these 
lines will be able to await with equanimity in a different 
place from this. The Rev. John Brown has gone thither 
before us ; but he may be allowed to speak to us a kind 
of allegory. 

" The year 2860 is ever upon us daily: daily is Satan 
unloosed, and peoples ' of a savage temper ' arm them- 
selves against the truth of God: the end of aU things is 
ever staring us in the face. John was right, Jesus was 
right, St. Paul was right, when each proclaimed the imme- 
diate coming of the Kingdom of God. It comes daily 
when Satan (that is. Sin and Ignorance and the Pride 
which either engenders) is cast down by the power of 
Justice and Right, Knowledge and Simplicity: when 
' men of a savage temper ' are diverted from their wrath 




by the soft answer of good-sense. It comes daily to all 
who, without losing interest in life, or the healthy sense 
of the world, yet feel that all their actions look to an end 
that is not on earth; to the man who through the day 
keeps his eyes upon the duties of the day to do them, 
who is just, kind, moderate, healthy-minded, who also 
at the close of each day goes out at his door, and, lifting 
his eyes from the earth, looks awhile at ' the unnumbered 
stars of God,' though he stand there without speech or 
prayer — to such an one the Kingdom of Heaven comes 
daily. For that which sent John to the dungeon, Christ 
to the Cross, Paul to the block, each filled with the faith 
of the instant coming of the Lord, was none else than 
this — the sense, which should be in each one of us, of 
a perfection ever about to be attained, a joy and peace 
ever about to be realized. He who has not this sense 
of the ideal may, as truly as he that lacks ' charity,' be 
counted dead before God." 

I have tried to present all this without dis- 
pute, not because there is any lack of oppor- 
tunity for controversy, but because I think the 
worth of the book very far outweighs such 
faults as it may possess — these latter being, 
indeed, such necessary accompaniments of per- 
fect straightforwardness that we could not wish 
them absent. It will do any man good to read 
such virile words, — and if they harm him, he is 
not worthy to withstand the gods. 


Briefs on Neav Books. 

For the hunter 
of antiques. 

" The true collector," says Mrs. N. 
Hudson Moore in one of the chapters 
of her delightful " Collector's Man- 
ual " (F. A. Stokes Co. ), " when once embarked on his 
career, is seldom content to keep in one narrow path, 
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with Mrs. Moore, and be grateful to her for offering 
him in one volume information about a number of 
the main branches of that complex and fascinating 
subject, the collecting of antiques. Mrs. Moore has 
already written in separate volumes, and more ex- 
haustively, of china, brass and pewter, lace, and old 
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because of the temptations that collecting offers, and 
he will be glad, particularly if he is a beginner in need 
of general information, to be able to get so much of 
it, concisely put and lavishly illustrated, in one mod- 
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animals, particularly sheep and dogs. This is a field 
comparatively new to the average collector, and almost 
nothing has hitherto been written about it. Old glass- 
ware, brass and copper, pewter, and a few of the 
best-known English chinas, are Mrs. Moore's other 
topics. These are all subjects which a lover of an- 
tiques, in pursuit of his own particular hobby, is sure 
to become interested in, or at least to want a little 
information about. Mrs. Moore writes definitely and 
concisely, and her wide acquaintance among English 
and American collectors enables her to offer her 
readers a particularly complete and helpful set of 

A curious little book, fraught with 
S^aS"'^"^'* interest both as a historical study 

and a human document, is the collec- 
tion of the " Love-Letters of Henry VIII. to Anne 
Boleyn," now issued by Messrs. John W. Luce & 
Co. in a small leather-bound volume, with fanciful 
frontispiece and incidental decorations in black and 
white. A note by Mr. Halliwell Phillips, reprinted 
from another edition of the letters, gives an account 
of the earliest appearance of the letters in print, and 
a justification for the accepted order of arrangement. 
The order in the present edition, which is explained 
in a second note of anonymous authorship, is radi- 
cally different, following that of Mr. Brewer's Cal- 
endar of State Papers. Each letter is dated as 
exactly as the evidence warrants, and there are a 
•few textual notes. A perusal of the letters shows 
Henry in the character of a fairly ardent though not 
passionate lover, with a strong tendency to moralize 
and to lay emphasis upon the practical rather than 
the sentimental aspects of his affection. There is 
nothing here to kindle Anne's cold heart, but much 
to assure her of her royal lover's devotion, and of his 
pious dependence upon divine Providence to bring 
their affairs to a happy issue. These emotions seem 
a little forced in view of the facts, and the colorless 
phrasing is due, possibly, to the fact that more than 
half of the letters were written in French. Besides, 
Henry lived before the dawn of the art of letter- 
writing. He evidently regards correspondence as a 
mere necessary means of communication, and does 
not dream of being personal or expansive in a letter. 
His scholarship shows only in a polished style and in 
chance bits of Latin ; while of the wit and versatility 
that made Erasmus wonder, there is no sign. So 
there is nothing in these rather commonplace epistles 
to cause the most sensitive reader to raise a cry of 
confidence violated. And yet, as a work of a moral 
monster and a great king, the collection is not with- 
out a unique interest for modern readers, though 
most of that interest must be read between the lines. 



[Feb. 1, 

To journey through Denmark, Nor- 
iSn«;r '^ ^^y' ^«d Sweden, to cross the Baltic 

Sea and the Gulf of Finland, getting 
a glimpse of Helsingf ors, to ^o to St. Petersbiirg and 
Moscow, and then to scamper back to London, the 
starting-point, by way of Berlin, Hamburg, Amster- 
dam, and Den Haag, all in five weeks, is to invite some 
musty comparisons with the personally conducted 
tourist who helter-skelters round Europe in a limited 
vacation time. Mr. William Seymour Edwards took 
his honeymoon trip over the route outlined, and de- 
spite the shortness of the time given to it he appears 
to have seen much more and to have assimilated it 
better than the average tourist does. His book en- 
titled "Through Scandinavia to Moscow" (Robert 
Clarke Co. ) , while commonplace in many respects, 
is saved from mediocrity by the author's remarks on 
the people he observed — especially in Scandinavia. 
In Norway he was struck with the sight of many 
newly-built farm-houses and their substantial and 
modern improvements, all made with the aid of 
American dollars sent home by prosperous Nor- 
wegians living in our Northwest. An interesting 
contrast between the Norwegian and the Swede is 
pointed out. " The Norwegian looks out upon the 
Twentieth Century and finds his inspiration in the 
example of free America and the universal equality 
of man. The Swede looks ever backward to the 
glorious days of Gustavus Vasa, Gustavus Adolphus, 
and Charles XII., and sighs for a return of the good 
old times when the half of Europe trembled before 
Sweden's military might. . . . Thus have the cousin 
peoples swung wide apart. The one, free and open- 
minded ; the other, still dazed by the faded glories 
of a long dead past, turns ever a wistful eye toward 
the military tyrannies of Czar and Kaiser, and finds 
in the inequalities of landed noble and landless yokel, 
in official military caste and enthralled peasantry, 
the realization of his Fifteenth Century ideal." Mr. 
Edwards's comments on the relations of the Slav and 
the Jews, and their much advertised conflicts, are very 
sensible, much more so, indeed, than many accounts 
which purport to treat the matter at great length with 
more extended data. The Jew in Russia, according 
to Mr. Edwards, " prospers without and in spite of 
the fostering care of the autocracy," and hence he 
incurs the Slav's envy and jealousy. Like a loyal 
American, Mr. Edwards closes his book with thank- 
fulness that he and his bride were '' born and bred 
beneath the Stars and Stripes." 

Th letters of a " ^^^ Thomas LawTcnce's Letter-bag" 
famous artist (Longmans), edited by Mr. George 
a7id gallant. Somes Layard, and supplemented by 
some pleasant recollections of the artist by a con- 
temporary. Miss Elizabeth Croft, is offered as a sort 
of corrective to " An Artist's Love Story " which 
Mr. Oswald G. Knapp edited two years ago from 
certain of Lawrence's letters, and those of Mrs. 
Siddons and her daughters, that had to do with the 
painter's coquettish attentions to the two Misses 
Siddons. This earlier work has already been noticed 

in these columns. Now, out of " five immense vol- 
umes " of unpublished letters to and from the artist 
his present editor and apologist has selected a goodly 
number of very correct and proper epistles wherein 
affairs of the heart are seldom mentioned, to show 
us the man in a more favorable light. That Law- 
rence was now and then vexatiously dilatory in filling 
orders for his pictures, is made plain ; but no worse 
charge can be brought against him from this pub- 
lished correspondence. Of Mr. Layard's book it 
may truly be said that the end crowns the work : the 
concluding " Recollections " of the painter's friend 
Elizabeth Croft, who survived him by twenty-six 
years, give a more intimate and attractive picture of 
him than do his own letters. Twenty-two illustra- 
tions, mostly from Lawrence's paintings, enliven the 
volume and convey a good idea of the artist's peculiar 
excellence — that of an incomparable draughtsman 
of faces and hands. These prints are all the better 
for leaving out, by necessity, the painter's defects of 
coloring, which has been censured as hard and 
glassy, though brilliant and effective. Campbell 
used to say of his work : " This is the merit of Law- 
rence's paintings — he makes one seem to have got 
into a drawing-room in the mansions of the blest, 
and to be looking at oneself in the mirrors "; and 
Opie, less kindly : " Lawrence made coxcombs of his 
sitters, and his sitters made a coxcomb of him." Of 
the " dangerous fascination " of the old flirt, Fanny 
Kemble long ago told us her experience. 

Planning the ^^^ modest volume by Loring Un- 
garden and its derwood, entitled " The Garden and 
accessories. j^g Accessories" (Little, Brown & 

Co.), is not so much out of season as it might ap- 
pear, for it is the often reiterated advice of expert 
gardeners to plan the garden well in advance in 
order to have it a success. If this is the case with 
the trees, shrubs, and flowers, certainly it is even 
more important where the permanent settings of the 
garden are concerned ; since on those, as not only 
landscape gardeners but home-builders are beginning 
to see, the final beauty of the picture and its satis- 
fying qualities are most apt to depend. The book 
contains only about a hundred pages of text, but 
there is an illustration, and an excellent and really 
illustrative one, for nearly every page of reading 
matter. The author, who is a landscape architect, 
writes with knowledge and love of his subject, and 
emphasizes a point too often lost sight of — the 
necessity of proportion, harmony, suitability, if the 
result is to be beauty. The descriptions and pictures 
of the different types of garden-houses, pergolas, 
trellises, and arches, the garden gazing-globes, sun- 
dials, stone lanterns, seats, tables, bird-houses, and 
what-not, the lily-ponds, the walls, terraces, and 
fences, will be studied with interest by those who 
are planning a garden, whether large or small, for- 
mal or informal. Likewise the chapter on suitable 
materials for these accessories may be read with 
profit. But the most important advice is given in 
the beginning, — on the wisdom of providing our 




gardens with such permanent settings as shall make 
them attractive all the year round, and of not copy- 
ing the styles of other times and lands, but so adapt- 
ing them that American gardens shall have a charm 
and an individuality of their own. 

It is not every reader that can sym- 
^ZTa:Z''"V^thize with Charles Lamb in his 

avowed preference for books about 
books ; and even of those that can, comparatively 
few will be familiar enough with the ancient classics 
to turn with intelligent interest the leaves of Mr. 
Hugh E. P. Piatt's ciirious little volume entitled "A 
Last Ramble in the Classics " (Oxford : B. H. Black- 
well). This is not merely a book about books, but 
it is even to some extent a book about books that 
are themselves about books — bookishness raised to 
the third power, so to speak. Among all sorts of 
matters pleasantly treated, with apt quotations from 
authors classical and post-classical, we meet with 
sections devoted to " Sport in the Poets," " Melo- 
dious Verse," " False Quantities," '' Some Quaint 
Mistakes," "More Proverbial Phrases" (in addi- 
tion, that is, to similar phrases in the same author's 
" Byways in the Classics ") , " Words and Manners," 
" Sundry Questions," etc. The following legal wit- 
ticism, classic in flavor, is one of the many quotable 
things in the book. " Once, when plaster came 
tumbling down as he was hearing a case, Mr. Justice 
Chitty ejaculated, ' Fiat justitia, ruat ceiling ! ' " 
Lacking Mr. Piatt's professed fondness for verify- 
ing references, and also the time necessary to verify 
his very numerous references — which might claim 
more hours of work than he spent in writing the 
book — we must assume, as we gladly do, that his 
careful scholarship has kept him from error in his 
multitudinous citations. His zeal and industry in 
this his chosen field of labor (or relaxation) are 
admirable, although to most readers his little book 
may well appear to bear somewhat the same relation 
to live literature of real life as it is to-day that 
cherry-stone carving does to sculpture. But it is 
not given to everyone to carve cherry-stones with 

The remarkable deeds of six remark- 
able men, told by a writer also ac- 
counted remarkable, furnish reading 
that should be and is remarkably interesting. " Real 
Soldiers of Fortime " (Scribner), from the same pen 
that has already depicted the imaginary " Soldiers 
of Fortune," presents in brief compass the striking 
adventures of Major-General Henry Ronald Douglas 
Maclver, Baron James Harden-Hickey, Mr. Winston 
Spencer Churchill, Captain Philo Norton McGiffin, 
General William Walker, and Major Frederick Rus- 
sell Burnham " the king of scouts." Not in every 
instance does Mr, Richard Harding Davis write from 
intimate personal knowledge of his hero ; but he always 
seems so to have caught the spirit of the man he is 
describing that dulness and unreality have no place in 
his pages. The chapter on Mr. Churchill (the English 

Six noted heroes 
of adventure. 

Churchill, be it noted), soldier, war correspondent, 
lecturer, author, and politician, gains pecvdiar fresh- 
ness and actuality from the writer's near acquaint- 
ance with and admiration for his bold and talented 
young hero. But the last chapter of aU, that on Major 
Burnham, rivals it as an interest-awakener. The 
sketch of General Maclver, which opens the book, 
might perhaps have gained by the addition of fuller 
details concerning his life since 1884, when he pub- 
lished his autobiography entitled " Under Fourteen 
Flags." Brought up to date, says Mr. Davis, the 
book would properly be called " Under Eighteen 
Flags." What are the four additional flags? The 
twenty-one illustrations, especially the portraits, add 
much to the attractiveness of these true stories of 
daring deeds. 

The vital part of ^ new edition of Professor J. Mark 
psychic processes Baldwin's well-known volume with 
m Evolution. which, ten years ago, he began his 
exposition of a genetic psychology is appropriate and 
welcome. As an aid to the dissemination of interest 
in and appreciation of the vital share that psychic 
processes occupy in evolution, his books on " Mental 
Development " (Macmillan) have done good service ; 
and it is well that the opportunity has been embraced 
to incorporate such modifications and amendments 
of the text as the increasing insight of recent knowl- 
edge makes possible. The systematic appearance 
which it is attempted to give to this volume, and to 
those that followed it in the author's writings, is some- 
what misleading. They form a record of the author's 
successive change of interests in the several problems 
capable of attack from the genetic point of view ; as 
such they are suggestive, and the treatment of some 
of the problems is distinctly valuable. It is, however, 
quite impossible for one so devoted to following the 
bent of his own interests, and of giving himself great 
latitude in the prominence of favorite phases of dis- 
cussion, to achieve a fair perspective of the field as 
a whole. The announcement is accordingly timely 
that the author is engaged upon a single volume that 
will have for its central object the setting forth of 
the principles of genetic psychology. It is always 
fairer to record an appreciation of a work for what 
it really accomplishes than to render it subject to 
criticism by setting it in a class to which it does not 
belong. ^ 

An up-to-date ^ ^^'^^^ y^^^^ ^?«' General Greely 
handbook of issued the first edition of his " Hand- 
Polar research, ^^^y^ ^f -polsiT Discoveries." The 
third edition has been revised and enlarged, and 
now appears brought down to 1906 (Little, Brown 
& Co.). The book is, as its name implies, simply 
a. compendium, in preparing which 70,000 pages of 
original narrative have been summarized and classi- 
fied. Polar expeditions have been carried on from 
three motives. At first commercial interests fur- 
nished their incentive, as when England and Spain 
competed in endeavors to find a short route to the 
Indies. Later, the desire to enlarge geographical 



[Feb. 1, 

knowledge gave the needed impetus. At the present 
time all expeditions are equipped with scientific 
instruments and are expected to add to the sum of 
scientific knowledge. The actual contributions to 
science which have been made by polar ex;peditions 
are by no means inconsiderable, but the irresistible 
desire for conquest and the spirit of adventm-e are 
powerful factors in recent expeditions as well as in 
many a past exploit in the frozen North. The last 
thirty pages of General Greely's book are devoted 
to Antarctic research. An extensive bibliography 
and an excellent index enhance the value of this 
handbook, and serve to indicate to the reader the 
sources of practically our entire knowledge of Arctic 

Problems and ' ^^- ^- H- Forbes-Lindsay has written 
progrets of the a Very useful and instructive little 
Panama Canal, volume on " Panama, the Isthmus 
and the Canal " (J. C. Winston Co.). In his preface 
the author writes : " I have endeavored to relate the 
story of the Panama Canal from the earliest explo- 
rations to the present time, with as much avoidance 
as possible of technics, and in a manner that shall 
be comprehensible to the general reader." Every 
feature of this vast undertaking is pictured in detail 
with simplicity and intelligibility, and without undue 
argumentative discussion. In an appendix the author 
tells the story of the " Great Canals of the World," 
a story extracted from a monograph under this title 
issued by the Department of Commerce and Labor 
at Washington. The book will serve a useful pur- 
pose as an introduction to a study of the problems 
involved in the construction of the canal, and in sum- 
marizing the things already done there. Although 
the book is written in topical style, an index would 
enhance its usefulness. Two excellent maps help 
one to understand the discussion concerning the re- 
spective merits of the sea-level and the lock systems 
of construction. 


Readers of Father Sheehan's admirable novels of 
Irish life and character (to say nothing of his striking 
poems) will be glad to make his acquaintance as an 
essayist. For this the opportunity is nowoffered by the 
publication (Longmans) of a volume of his " Early Es- 
says and Lectures," wherein he discourses instructively 
and with fine intelligence upon such men as Emerson, 
Arnold, and Aubrey De Vera, and upon such themes as 
" The German Universities," " The German and Gaelic 
Muses," and " Irish Youth and High Ideals." 

Mr. Edmund G. Gardner's book on Ariosto, which he 
calls by the rather cheap title "The King of Court 
Poets " (Button), is a continuation of his " Dukes and 
Poets of Ferrara." It treats, in the first part, of the 
political conditions in Italy in the early decades of the 
sixteenth century ; and in the second, of Ariosto's works, 
the " Orlando Fm-ioso," the minor Latin poems, and the 
comedies. The poet is at times so lost sight of in the 
complex manoeuvres of Italian politics that the work 

reminds one of the famous criticism of Masson's " Mil- 
ton." Mr. Gardner, however, seeks to keep us in touch 
with his subject by illustrating, from the " Orlando " 
and other works, the poet's attitude toward the events 
of his time. The chapters dealing with the poetry of 
Ariosto are pleasing, but on the whole rather inconclu- 
sive. The style of the book is without distinction, and 
it occasionally lapses into inelegance. 

The twentieth annual volume of " Book Prices Cur" 
rent," covering the English auction season of 1905-6> 
comes to us from Mr. Elliot Stock of London. The sea- 
son here dealt with has not been a sensational one; hut 
a number of important collections, such as those of the 
late Mr. Truman and Sir Henry Irving, were disposed 
of, and the prices realized showed a very fair average. 
Full descriptive entries of over seven thousand items 
are recorded. The excellent editorial judgment and wide 
bibUographical knowledge displayed in the preparation 
of " Book Prices Current " are too well known to call 
for comment here. For the librarian and collector it is 
an invaluable reference work ; to the bookseller it is quite 

A work much needed, not by students alone, but by 
general readers as well, has been done by Professor 
Arthur G. Canfield in his selection from the '< Poems of 
Victor Hugo " (Holt). Although the book is published 
as an educational text, with the usual apparatus of in- 
troduction and notes, we hope that it will find its way 
into the hands of many people who are out of school, 
for the work of the greatest of French poets is scattered 
through so many volumes that English readers have 
scant chance of knowing it at all, unless they avail 
themselves of the sort of help Mr. Canfield offers them. 
The various volumes of the poems are taken in their 
chronological order, and from each of them a brief but 
judicious selection is made. 

From the Librairie Sansaisha, Tokyo, we have a 
" Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Geographic du Japon," a 
substantial volume of a thousand pages with three hun- 
dred cuts, the work of M. E. Papinot. The words 
" history " and " geography " are hardly adequate to 
describe the contents of this work, which is also a bio- 
graphical dictionary and a compact encyclopsedia of 
most Japanese matters. It contains articles, for ex- 
ample, upon such subjects as Bushido and Harakiri, 
to name two of those most familiar to Western rea- 
ders. An appendix of eleven " Cartes G^ographiques," 
which are excellent specimens of cartography, comes 
with the work as a separate pamphlet, not having been 
completed in time for their insertion in the bound 

" Original Narratives of Early American History " is 
the title of a new collection of reprints, fathered by the 
American Historical Association, and published by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. The first volume has 
for its subject " The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot," 
the editing of the Norse texts being the work of Pro- 
fessor Julius E. Olson, and that of the Columbus and 
Cabot texts being done by Professor Edward G. Bourne. 
The volume could not have fallen into more competent 
hands than these. The second volume gives us " Early 
English and French Voyages," largely taken from 
Hakluyt, and covering the period from Cartier's first 
journey up the St. Lawrence to the ill-fated Popham 
Colony. In between, we have the voyages of Hawkins 
and Gilbert, and the early voyages to Virginia. Dr. 
Henry S. Burrage is the editor of this volume. 





A translation, by Mr. Charles Henry Meltzer, of 
Hauptmann's play " Hannele " is announced for early 
publication by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

A volume on Francois Rabelais by Mr. Arthur Tilley, 
Fellow and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge, will 
be published this month by Messrs. Lippineott Co. in 
their " French Men of Letters " series. 

" The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius," in Mr. John 
Jackson's translation, with an introduction by Mr. Charles 
Begg, is now added to the " Oxford Library of Trans- 
lations," published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

The February publications of Messrs. Duffield & 
Company include a new novel by Charles Egbert Crad- 
dock entitled " The Windfall," and a volume on " The 
Spirit of Labor " by Mr. Hutcliins Hapgood. 

The interesting articles on Jay Cooke and the nan- 
cing of the Civil War, now appearing in the " Century 
Magazine," will be included in the forthcoming Life of 
Cooke by Dr. Ellis P. Oberholtzer, annoimced by 
Messrs. George W. Jacobs & Co. 

" The Horizon," " a journal of the color line," is a 
little monthly publication written and printed by negroes, 
the first number of which has recently appeared. Pro- 
fessor W. E. B. Du Bois is associated with the enter- 
prise, which has its offices in Washington, D, C. 

The series of common-sense health articles in the 
" World's Work," by Dr. Luther H. Gulick, which have 
attracted- a great deal of attention, will be embodied 
with many others in a book, entitled, " The Active Life," 
which Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. will bring out in 

Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. have concluded arrange- 
ments to publish this year a new novel by William 
de Morgan, whose " Joseph Vance " has received such 
remarkable praise from leading critics both here and 
abroad. The new book (about which no particulars have 
as yet been given out) will bear the rather striking title 
« Alice for Short." 

The Harpers have arranged for publication during 
1907 new books by President Roosevelt, William Dean 
Howells, Sir Gilbert Parker, Mark Twain, Norman 
Duncan, Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, Robert Hichens, 
Margaret Potter, Henry James, May Sinclair, Theodore 
Watts-Dunton, Thomas A. Janvier, Frederick Trevor 
Hill, Gertrude Atherton, Florence Morse Kingsley, and 
numerous others. 

The second volume of the "Cambridge English 
Classics " edition of Matthew Prior, to be published by 
the Messrs. Putnam this spring, will increase the known 
works of this writer by nearly a fifth. The hitherto un- 
printed prose " Dialogues," seen and praised by Pope 
but not hitherto allowed to be printed, will, by the kind 
permission of the Marquis of Bath, be included in the 
new volume, which, in addition to this, will contain a 
large number of hitherto unprinted poems by Prior. 

"Sex and Society: Studies in the Social Psychology 
of Sex," by Professor William I. Thomas, will be 
published at once by the University of Chicago Press. 
Some of the chapters comprising this work excited 
wide-spread discussion upon their first publication in 
the " American Journal of Sociology." Another book 
to be issued immediately by the same press is Mr. 
J. Dorsey Forrest's "Development of Western Civ- 
ilization," a study in ethical, economic, and political 

Two biographical works of unusual interest an- 
nounced for early publication by the Macmillan Co. 
are "The Life and Letters of Edwin Lawrence Godkin," 
by Mr. Rollo Ogden, editor of the " New York Evening 
Post " ; and a volume on Emerson, by Professor George 
E. Woodberry, in the " English Men of Letters " series. 

Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. will celebrate the 
centenary of Longfellow's birth on February 27 by 
publishing a volume entitled " Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow: A Sketch of His Life," by Professor Charles 
Eliot Norton. The autobiographical matter included in 
the poet's notes written for the later editions of his 
poems, his correspondence, and his journals, will be laid 
under contribution for this book. 

The March announcements of Messrs. T. Y, Crowell 
& Co. include the following: "The Ministry of David 
Baldwin," a novel dealing with the conflict between old 
school theologians and modern critics, by Mr. Henry T. 
Colestock; "Orthodox Socialism," by Professor James 
Edward Le Rossignol, of the University of Denver; 
" Christ's Secret of Happiness," by Dr. Lyman Abbott; 
"The Greatest Fact in Modern History," by Hon. 
Whitelaw Reid; " The Religious Value of the Old Tes- 
tament," by Professor Ambrose White Vernon, of Dart- 
mouth College. 

The following well-known authors will contribute 
new books to the spring list of Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. : Kate Douglas Wiggin, author of " Re- 
becca of Sunnybrook Farm"; Norah Davis, author of 
" The Northerner"; Ellen Olney Kirk, author of " Our 
Lady Vanity"; Mrs. M. E. M. Davis, author of "The 
Little Chevalier"; Andy Adams, author of "The Log 
of a Cowboy"; Edward Waldo Emerson, editor of the 
"Centenary" edition of Ralph Waldo Emerson's works; 
and Thomas Wentworth Higginson, author of " Part of 
a Man's Life." 

A uniform handy-volume edition of the great writers 
of fiction, issued at a low price, has long been a desid- 
eratum. Such a series is now announced by Messrs. 
A. C. McClurg & Co., who will publish early next fall 
the first ten volumes of a doUar-a-volume series of re- 
prints from Dickens, Thackeray, Scott, George Eliot, 
and others, printed from new plates and issued under 
the general name of " The Prairie Classics." The vol- 
umes are to be the handy size of 4i x 7| inches; the 
type used is the excellent " Scotch face " made by the 
MUler & Richard foundry at Edinburgh; and the paper 
is the famous English " Bible " paper. Each volume 
will have a frontispiece in colors from the brush of Mr. 
George Alfred Williams. These first ten titles will be 
followed during 1908 by another group, and the plan 
contemplates eventually completing each group. 

List of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 63 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.'] 


The Life, Letters and Work of Frederic Leigrhton. By 
Mrs. Russell Barrington. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, 
color, etc., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan Co. 
$10.50 net. 

dueen Mar grot. Wife of Henry of Navarre. By H. Noiel 
Williams. With photogravure portraits, 4to, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 409. Charles Scribner's Sons. $7.50 net. 

Birket Foster, B.W.S. By H. M. Cundall, I.S.O. Illus. in 
color, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 216, Macmillan Co. | 



[Feb. 1, 


Engrlish Colonies in America. By J. A. Doyle, M.A. Vol. 
IV., The Middle Colonies; Vol. V., The Colonies under the 
House of Hanover. Each 8vo. Henry Holt & Co. Per vol., 

The History of Engrland, from the Accession of Henry VH. 
to the Death of Henry VIII. (1485-1547). By H. A. L. Fisher, 
M.A. With map, large 8vo, pp. 518. Longmans, Green & Co. 
$2.60 net. 

The Appeal to Arms. By James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D. 
With maps, 8vo, gilt top, pp. 354. "American Nation." 
Harper & Brothers. |2. net. 

The Qreat Days of Versailles : Studies from Court Life in 
the Later Years of Louis XIV. By G. F. Bradby. With por- 
traits in photogravure, etc., 8vo, pp. 384. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 11.75 net. 


The Censorship of the Church of Home and its Influence 
upon the Production and the Distribution of Literature. By 
George Haven Putnam, Litt.D. Vol. I., large 8vo, gilt top, 
pp. 375. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50 net. 

A Literary History of the Engrlish People. By J. j. 
Jusserand. Vol. II., Part I., From the Renaissance to the Civil 
War. With photogravure frontispiece, large 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 551. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50 net. 

Iiiteratore of Libraries in the Seventeenth and Eight- 
eenth Centuries. Edited by John Cotton Dana and Henry 
W. Kent. New vols. : Sir Thomas Bodley's Life of Himself, 
and Two Tracts on the Founding and Maintaining of 
Parochial Libraries in Scotland. Each 18mo, uncut. A. C. 
McClurg & Co. Sold only in sets of 6 vols, at $12. net. 

Shelbume Essays, Fourth Series. By Paul Elmer More. 
12mo, pp. 283. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25 net. 

The Voice of the Machines : An Introduction to the Twen- 
tieth Century. By Gerald Stanley Lee. 12mo, pp. 190. 
Northampton, Mass.: Mount Tom Press. $1.25. 

The Praise of Hypocrisy : An Essay in Casuistry. By G. T. 
Knight, D.D. New edition, with a Preface by D. L. Maulsby ; 
16mo, pp. 85. Open Court Publishing Co. 

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By ANDREW FLEMING WEST, Dean of the Graduate School of Princeton University. 75 cts. net. 
An able discussion of some of the most important problems in modern colleges, including such subjects as " The Tutorial 
System," " The Length of the (College CJourse," " The Present Peril to Liberal Education," etc. 


By H, NOEL WILLIAMS. Illustrated. $2.00 net. 
A brilliant account of the life of Madame Recamier and her friends, who included Chateaubriand, Madame de Stael, Benjamin 
Constant, and other distinguished people. A very lively and entertaining picture of the early part of the 19th Century, full 
of anecdotes and gossipy side-lights on the men and events of those times. Well written by the author of " Queens of the 
French Stage," " Mme. Du Barry," etc. 


FELICITY : The Making of a Star 

By CLARA E. LAUQHLIN, Literary Editor of The Interior. Illustrated in color. $1.50. 
A story of intense emotional power. The rise of an American actress whose talent as a comedienne develops through a 
series of absorbingly interesting experiences with all kinds of people and places. A love story in the midst of the 
emotional, picturesque, tense life of the theatre, full of humor and humanness, keen understanding, and the broadest, 
kindliest philosophy. 




[Feb. 16, 



By Margaret Prescott Montague, author of "The Poet, Miss Kate, and I." 

With a frontispiece in color. $1.50. 

A story of the fundamental passions, with the West Virginia mountains for a background. Miss 

Montague's story has a largeness of theme, a dignity of handling, and an intensity of interest that 

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Six illustrations by Otto Lang. $1.50. 
A charming story of a young wife,who finds life's 
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Many illustrations by Bleekman. $1.25. 
The collaboration of playwright and manager- 
playwright has resulted in a book of fairy tales, 
full of graceful fancy and gay charm. 


By Russell Sturgis. Three Volumes. VOLUME I. READY. One Thousand 

Illustrations. Cloth, per set, net $15.00. Half Morocco, per set, net $22.50. 

The first satisfactory history of architecture written in English. Send for Special Prospectus. 


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Containing Captain Brassbound's Con- 
version, which is included in Ellen Terry's 
repertory for her season's tour, and also the 
dramatic success, C^sar and Cleopatra. 

$1.25 net. 


Containing The Philandebeb, The Man of 

Destiny, etc 2 vols. $2.50 net. 


In these two volumes the author describes 
with telling force theatrical men and women 
that we know. Scattered throughout the 
book are also many of his famous anti- 
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Conceding to Ibsen a place in the theatrical 
world Shaw seriously discusses Hedda Gab- 
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1907.] THE DIAL 95 

Prizes for Economic Essays 


In order to arouse an interest in the study of topics relating to commerce and industry, and 
to stimulate an examination of the value of college training for business men, a committee com- 
posed of 

Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, University of Chicago, Chairman; 

Professor J. B. Clark, Columbia University ; 

Professor Henry C. Adams, University of Michigan ; 

Horace White, Esq., New York City, and 

Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Clark College, 

have been enabled, through the generosity of Messrs. Hart, Schaffner and Marx, of Chicago, to 
offer again in 1908 four prizes for the best studies on any one of the following subjects: 

1. An Examination into the Economic Causes of Large Fortunes in this Country. 

2. The History of One Selected Railway System in the United States. 

3. The Untouched Agricultural Resources of North America. 

4. Resumption of Specie Payments in 1879. 

5. Industrial Combinations and the Financial Collapse of 1903. 

6. The Case against Socialism.* 

7. Causes of the Rise of Prices since 1898. 

8. Should Inequalities of Wealth be Regulated by a Progressive Income Tax? 

9. The Effect of the Industrial Awakening of Asia upon the Economic Development 

of the West. 

10. The Causes of the Recent Rise in the Price of Silver. 

11. The Relation of an Elastic Bank Currency to Bank Credits in an Emergency. 

12. A Just and Practicable Method of Taxing Railway Property. 

* other phases of Socialism were suggested in previous years. 

A First Prize of One Thousand Dollars, and 

A Second Prize of Five Hundred Dollars, in Cash 

are offered for the best studies presented by Class A, composed exclusively of all persons who 
have received the bachelor's degree from an American college in 1896, or thereafter ; and 

A First Prize of Three Hundred Dollars, and 

A Second Prize of One Hundred and Fifty Dollars, in Cash 

are offered for the best studies presented by Class B, composed of persons who, at the time the 
papers are sent in, are undergraduates of any American college. No one in Class A may compete 
in Class B ; but anyone in Class B may compete in Class A. The committee reserves to itself 
the right to award the two prizes of $1000 and $500 to undergraduates, if the merits of the 
papers demand it. 

The ownership of the copyright of successful studies wiU vest in the donors, and it is expected 
that, without precluding the use of these papers as theses for higher degrees, they wiU cause them 
to be issued in some permanent form. 

Competitors are advised that the studies should be thorough, expressed in good English, and 
although not limited as to length, they should not be needlessly expanded. They should be 
inscribed with an assumed name, and whether in Class A, or Class B, the year when the bachelor's 
degree was, or is likely to be, received, and accompanied by a sealed envelope giving the real 
name and address of the competitor, and the institution which conferred the degree, or in which 
he is studying. The papers should be sent on or before June 1, 1908, to 

J. Laurence Laughlin, Esq., 

University of Chicago 

Box 145, Faculty Exchange Chicago, Illinois 

96 THE DIAL [Feb. 16, 1907. 

New Books Which Make for Happiness 

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No. 496. FEBRUARY 16, 1907. Vol. XLII. 




The comiuercialization of literature. — The decay 
of academic courage. — An endowed journal of lit- 
erary criticism. — A year of magazine poetry. — 
The sneeze in literature. — Fiction-reading as a 
" rest cure." — Low-priced novels and the circulat- 
ing libraries. — The annual report of the Library 
of Congress. — The inaccuracies of an historical 


The London Times and the Publishers. A Sct- 
entific Editor. 

PARSON AND KNIGHT. William Morton Payne . 102 


EMPIRE. J. W. Garner 105 



Eunice Follansbee 110 

Spargo's Socialism. — Jaur^s's Studies in Socialism. 

— Practical Programme for Workingmen. — Flint's 


A. G. Canfield Ill 


A summary of contemporary English history. — 
Lord Rosebery's interpretation of Lord Churchill. 

— The fate of a theatre monopoly in England. — 
English literature to Chaucer. — A feast of scraps. 

— The most majestic of all poetry. — The authors 
and literature of Hungary. — Belated admirers of 
Ibsen. — Some brilliant and eccentric court ladies. 

— Workers for public good in America. 


NOTES 117 



The classification of human beings as bro- 
mides and sulphites, a product of the whimsical 
invention of Mr. Gelett Burgess, is explained 
in considerable detail in his suggestive little 
book, " Are You a Bromide ?" For those not 
yet acquainted with this contribution to anthro- 
pology (or psychology), a few words of explana- 
tion may be offered. Bromides, who are the 
majority of mankind, " all think and talk alike," 
their " minds keep regidar office hours," and 
they " may be depended upon to be trite, banal, 
and arbitrary." They are known by their use 
of such " bromidioms" as these : " I don't know 
much about Art, but I know what I like." " I 
want to see my own country before I go abroad." 
" It isn't so much the heat (or the cold) as the 
humidity in the air." Sulphites, on the other 
hand, " are agreed upon most of the basic facts 
of life, and this common luiderstanding makes 
it possible for them to eliminate the obvious 
from their conversation." A sulphite is a per- 
son who does his own thinking ; he is a person 
who has surprises up his sleeve. He is ex- 
plosive. One can never foresee what he will 
do, except that it will be a direct and spontan- 
eous manifestation of his own personality." 
Hamlet, Becky Sharp, and Mr. G. Bernard 
Shaw are typical sulphites ; examples of equally 
typical bromides may be foimd in Polonius, 
Amelia Sedley, and Miss Marie Corelli. 

Since reading the author's instructive expo- 
sition of this new method of classification, our 
thought has been taking a chemical cast, and 
we have found a certain satisfaction in dwelling 
upon other symbolisms of the same general na- 
ture, having in view books rather than persons, 
— a distinction without much difference, how- 
ever, since (to use a common bromidiom) a 
man's writing is sure to be the reflection of his 
personality. There is the old fancy of the four 
elements, for example, now superseded by the 
fourscore of which we have exact knowledge, 
with occasional additions to the list. Is not a 
parallel offered by the structural simplicity of 
the older literatiu-e as compared with the com- 
plexity of the modern product? May we not 
suggest that the old books — the primitive sagas 
and epics and myths — are compounded of four 



[Feb. 16, 

elements ? It does not seem to be forcing the 
analogy overmuch to discover the element of 
earth in the hunger-motive, that of air in the 
love-motive, that of fire in the fighting-motive, 
and that of water in the nature-motive. These 
fundamental motives, as embodied in literature, 
have been ricHly illustrated in Mr. Charles 
Leonard Moore's recent contributions to our 
pages. On the other hand, modern books are 
inadequately described in such simple terms. 
They exhibit the fundamental elements, but 
also many others, and the variety of their com- 
pounds would be bewildering were we not sup- 
plied with a critical chemistry for their proper 
ordering. Take the element of love alone : it is 
a comparatively simple matter in Homer and 
the Niebelungenlied and the balladry of the 
middle ages, but in the modem novel its forms 
are innumerable. Here is the opportunity for 
our suggested chemical method of criticism, 
which trimnphantly responds to the exigency. 
For in the new chemistry of the carbon-com- 
pounds we have an exact parallel to the new 
amorism of our ingenious modern novelists and 

Once started upon this flight of chemical 
analogy, fancy finds abundant material for exer- 
cise. Collaborative books, for example, usually 
illustrate the fundamental fact of chemical com- 
bination, the fact that the elements in such a 
union lose their distinctive properties, the pro- 
duct being like neither of its constituents. 
Again, many a writer exhibits the phenomenon 
of aUotropism, having under different conditions 
modes of expression so diverse as hardly to 
suggest the same personality. Isomerism is fre- 
quently exemplified in literature. We may find 
two books compoimded apparently of the same 
elements in the same proportions ; yet one of 
them may be an inspired creation of genius, and 
the other but the dullest of fabrications. The 
old theory of phlogiston affords another parallel 
of highly suggestive character. According to 
that ingenious doctrine, combustion (which 
modern chemistry knows to be oxidation) meant 
the loss of phlogiston — an element having 
negative gravity — whereby the resultant sub- 
stance was made heavier than the unconsumed 
original. How many a writer, by a similar loss, 
has grown ponderous and inert ! Wordsworth 
was evidently dephlogisticated when he wrote 
the " Ecclesiastical Sonnets," and most sequels 
to works of genius show that the volatile 
element has escaped. 

The synthesis of organic compounds, which 
so definitely separates the new chemistry from 

the old, has its literary analogies. The work of 
literature, which was once supposed to be a 
work of creation, springing from the personality 
of its maker, now tends more and more to be- 
come the product formulated by rule and shaped 
from materials collected for the purpose. The 
old injimction of poet to poet, "Look in thy 
heart, and write," has given place to the modern 
counsel (not of perfection), " Look in thy scrap- 
book, and piece together." Thus are produced 
the countless imitations of old patterns that 
now clamor for our attention, imitations having 
a nicety of adjustment calculated to deceive all 
but the elect few. No " vital principle " is 
longer needed for the production of song or 
ballad ; the literary laboratory has become inde- 
pendent of that old-fashioned agency, reproduc- 
ing all the old typical forms in flask or alembic, 
and supplementing them with countless varia- 
tions of its own devising. 

Just as scientific chemistry has taken the 
place of romantic alchemy, so has the craftsman 
method of literary production taken the place 
of the old free play of creative imagination. 
And the cherished impossibilities which were 
the ideals of the alchemist — if we may be per- 
mitted a still greater confusion of metaphor 
than has hitherto been indulged in — are now 
realized in literature. Is not the modern maga- 
zine the exact analogue of that universal solvent 
which the alchemist sought in vain, and is not 
the modern novel the very type of his philoso- 
pher's stone that should transmute the baser 
forms of matter into gold ? If his ideal of the 
elixir of life still eludes our modern poets, there 
are at least many of them who are fully con- 
vinced of having made that discovery also ; and 
this cheerful delusion is a very fair substitute 
for the reality. 

As a conclusion to this series of f ancif id diva- 
gations, we wish to bring forward, by way of 
supplement to the Bourgeois philosophy of 
bromides and sulphites, a classification of our 
Ours is a classification of writings rather 


than of persons, — which does not, however, 
set it essentially apart from the other, for it is 
by expression that the bromide and the sulphite 
are respectively indicated. There is known to 
chemists a classification of substances into crys- 
talloids and colloids, and the method of strain- 
ing through a membrane whereby they may be 
distinguished and separated is called dialysis, 
which fact seems to justify us in claiming a cer- 
tain proprietorship in the critical analogue of 
this physical process. Only the briefest of 
characterizations is here possible. Crystalloid 




writing has a distinctive form which it usually 
assumes if free to make the proper molecular 
adjustments, and which it always tends to as- 
sume. It has angles and facets, is subject to 
laws of internal strain, and offers marked re- 
sistance to external forces. Colloid writing, 
on the other hand, is essentially amorphous and 
gluey ; its molecules seem to recognize no laws 
of symmetry, and are ready to shape themselves 
in accordance with whatever pressure, internal 
or external, may be exerted upon them. To 
name a few contrasted pairs of writers is the 
best way to illustrate our meaning. Tennyson 
and Browning, Tourguenieff and Tolstoy, 
Brunetiere and Lemaitre, Schopenhauer and 
Schelling, may be suggested as such pairs. 
Himdreds of others will occur to the reader 
upon a little reflection. Since the function of 
this journal, as we take it, is dialytical in the 
sense here indicated, we have allowed ourselves 
the above exposition ("Marry, how? Tropi- 
cally") of an original principle of applied 
chemistry as related to literary criticism. 


The commercialization of literature is 
again forcibly treated by Mr. Henry Holt, the vet- 
eran publisher, whose paper in the current " Put- 
nam's " is a sort of supplement to his earlier 
utterance on the subject which was published in the 
"Atlantic" of November, 1905, exciting much 
comment and discussion. His latest word is in the 
nature of a reiteration, with courteous replies to 
hostile critics. Many slurs upon publishers are 
rightly resented by him as a self-respecting member 
of the guild, while he also undertakes to plead the 
cause of self-respecting authors and to show that 
the literary agent is a personage that can commonly 
be dispensed with. The distinction between matter 
that can place itself and matter that needs placing 
goes to the bottom of the whole question : matter of 
the first kind needs no agent ; that of the second no 
agent has any use for. But Mr. Holt admits that 
the agent can sometimes be of service in selling 
serial and dramatic rights, and the rights to publish 
in foreign countries or in the colonies. With these 
exceptions any business between author and pub- 
lisher that the author prefers not to attend to in 
person can better be placed in an honest lawyer's 
hands than in a literary agent's. The " some of the 
time " that all the people can be fooled by the lit- 
erary agent has passed, says Mr. Holt; and the 
"some of the people" that can be fooled all the 
time are too few to fxu-nish the agent lucrative 
employment. Answering the objection that Mr. 
Holt's publisher is an ideal creation, non-existent in 
the flesh, he says : " I have suggested no ideal that 

I have not known in actual practice, and although 
the publishing business in America is in a lower 
estate than it has been before since I knew it, I 
have had, and have, the privilege of knowing sev- 
eral men in it who live up to the best that I have 
claimed, and find their account in it despite the com- 
petition of methods that they scorn." If all pub- 
lishers and all authors lived up to Mr. Holt's high 
ideals of commercial honor, what a happy life the 
literary life would be ! 

• • • 

The decay of academic courage is the subject 
of some plain words by a college professor, in a 
recent number of the " Educational Review." The 
sting of the text lies not in the implication that the 
professor is losing his valor, but that the conditions 
of control in the higher education are so autocratic 
and intolerant that it requires an uncommon amount 
of courage to stand up and point out the dangers 
and injustice of the status quo. The editor of the 
" Review " rejects these conclusions, and declares 
that " It must be an unquestioned fact to any but 
the totally and wilfully blind that the academic 
career was never so dignified, so respected, so hon- 
ored, so courageous, so independent, so free, as at 
the very moment of writing these words. Any 
statement to the contrary is absolutely unjustified, 
unwarranted by the facts, contrary to the facts." 
Notwithstanding the sweeping and vehement char- 
acter of this rejoinder, we can hardly regard the 
discussion as thereby closed. There are various 
ways of conducting the complex affairs of state, and 
in any fair consideration of the dignity and comfort 
of the college professor's position this useful if 
modest functionary has a right to say how the thing 
looks to him. The enormous progress of our uni- 
versities and colleges appeals to the popular admi- 
ration of success, and there is little danger of a lack 
of appreciation of the man with his hand on the 
throttle — the man who makes things go. But there 
are some burning questions (particularly as to the 
woeful poverty of teachers' and professors' incomes) 
that must soon occupy, in a very practical temper, 
a prominent place in the discussions of academic 
welfare. . , . 

An endowed journal of literary criticism 
has appeared, and in a quarter where we should 
perhaps least look for it — the Republic of Mexico. 
It is the Revista Critica, and makes the interesting 
announcement that the government of Vera Cruz 
has extended to it a generous financial support. It 
is thus probably the first periodical of its kind in our 
hemisphere to receive State aid. It is also the official 
organ of the Associacion Literaria Internacional 
Americano, a society which has for its purpose the 
fostering of literature in all the Spanish American 
countries. The headquarters of this Association are 
at Havana. In Havana, too, there is just launched 
a new magazine, " America," in whose pages the 
poets and romance writers of the league will try to 
gain a public. There seems to be a genuine awak- 



[Feb. 16; 

ening of literary interest and literary talent in the 
great Southlands. There is a stirring of many 
wings and a chorus of voices. But indeed, to one 
who knows anything of these beautiful regions, who 
remembers their picturesque history, it is a matter 
of wonder that they have not sooner challenged 
and caught the world's attention by great works. 
These peoples inherit the Latin art instinct, and in 
the Spanish language have one of the most beautiful 
and harmonious instruments of expression mankind 
has yet invented. And their special qualities of 
bravery, courtesy, and hospitality, which rise to 
romantic heights, are a guarantee that there will be 
no failure of literary material or makers. It is time 
that our North American indifference to the intel- 
lectual life of our nearest neighbors should cease. 
" 'Tis ignorance which makes a barren waste 
Of all beyond ourselves." 

Perhaps the real Athens or Florence or Weimar 
of our Occidental world may some day find itself 
located on the borders of the Gulf of Mexico, in an 
island of the Carribean Sea, or under the shadow of 
the Andes. ... 

A TEAR OF MAGAZINE POETRY is the Subject of 

an interesting study contributed by Mr. William 
Stanley Braithwaite to the Boston " Transcript." 
Six leading American monthlies, the same half 
dozen that furnished material for a similar article 
last year, have again been overhauled, their poems 
counted and graded and classified, and some gen- 
eral deductions drawn. The writer declares that 
" students and lovers of poetry know conclusively 
there is written to-day infinitely better verse than 
nine-tenths of what gets printed in magazines. And 
they know that these pieces are being constantly 
rejected by editors." This exclusion of good poetry 
is supposed to be due to an editorial regard for what 
the public presumably demands, and also to space 
requirements in the make-up of a magazine page 
according to traditional rules. In matters of more 
detail, let us quote : " The space devoted to verse by 
these periodicals against that of prose in 1906 varies 
little from that of 1905. The average is about 9700 
pages of prose to 220 of verse. The poems in the 
six magazines numbered 340, the total being appor- 
tioned as follows : Lippincott's 88 pieces. Harper's 
78, Century 61, Scribner's 51, Atlantic Monthly 
35, McClure's 27. Lippincott's, publishing the 
largest number, presented the lowest order of ability 
or merit ; 8 out of the 88 come within the standard 
of acceptance by intrinsic merit, though only 3 pos- 
sess any distinction to appeal impressively through 
some single quality. Harper's is second by num- 
bers, printing 78, 11 attaining the merit class from 
which 4 elevate themselves through essentially 
poetic achievement. The Century stands third with 
61, 10 of which above the merit average include 8 
of decided poetic distinction. Scribner's follows in 
fourth place with 51, 7 of which are worthy of 
classification, with 4 distinctively excellent. The 
Atlantic Monthly contained 35, 9 having merit, of 

which 5 possess distinction." These poems of " dis- 
tinction " are then named, their authorship -given, 
and the magazines in which they appeared desig- 
nated. Of course the element of personal bias is 
not to be overlooked in all this ; but Mr. Braith- 
waite has already done good work for the cause of 
poetry — witness his recent excellent compilation of 
" Elizabethan Verse " — and his authority as a 
critic is not contemptible. 

• • • 

The sneeze in literature, and more especially 
in folk-lore, might be made the subject of a curi- 
ously interesting and probably voluminous treatise. 
To begin with, the Arabs tell us that the universe 
itself is the happy result of a sneeze by AUah, which 
at once delivers us from a tangle of philosophical 
and metaphysical argument and disputation. A 
Norwegian scholar has lately made some researches 
in the customs and superstitions that have to do 
with sneezing, and a few of his discoveries are worth 
noting. In China, where etiquette rules supreme, 
whenever the premonitions of a sneeze make them- 
selves manifest all present fold their hands in prayer 
and bow to the earth until the explosion is over; 
then they all voice their pious hope that the bones 
of the sneezer's illustrious ancestors have not been 
disturbed by the earth-spirit. Contrariwise, the 
Japanese consider it not good form to take any 
notice of a sneeze unless its author chance to belong 
to the Fox Clan, in which case sacrifices are offered 
to the Fox God. This is not unlike our own polite 
practice of repressing or muffling the sneeze if 
possible, and of taking little notice of it if it escapes 
control. Some European nations, as the Germans, 
have a formula to avert the ill omen of a sneeze, 
or to make sure that it be of happy omen to the 
sneezer. ''■Prosit!" greets the ears of the aston- 
ished Anglo-Saxon upon his first sneeze in Teutonic 
territory. Some peoples use a phrase equivalent 
to " God help you ! " or " God bless you ! " — ^the 
latter form dating from Saint Gregory's time. It 
was while he was pope that an epidemic (probably 
the influenza, or, as we should say now, the grippe) 
broke out in Italy and set aU the people to sneez- 
ing. This attack was called " the death-sneeze," 
and Pope Gregory issued an edict that all who sur- 
vived this paroxysm of sneezing should exclaim, 
"God bless my soul!" All of this, and much else 
more marvellous, may be read in the book of the 
sneezer out of Norway. 

• • • 

Fiction-reading as a " rest cure " is not likely 
soon to go out of vogue. Indeed it may be said to 
have a great future before it. The hurried and 
worried, the nervous and distracted, the business 
and professional men who see much of the seamy 
side of life, all demand, and will continue to de- 
mand, in the leisure hour of dressing-gown and slip- 
pers, a bright and brisk and optimistic picture of 
things as they should be but are not, in the form 
of fiction. In addition to these classes of novel- 




readers is the large number of ladies (and gentlemen 
too) of elegant leisure who make a serious business 
of novel-reading, visiting the circulating library pei'- 
haps every day but Sunday to exchange the next- 
to-the-last for the very latest new novel. A bright 
young lady, entering a London library and asking 
for the very latest new novel, was requested to be 
more specific, as eight new novels had come in that 
morning, " Oh," she replied, " then I '11 have the 
one that came in last." Ste. Beuve used to deplore 
the increasing vogue of the novel, as a form of lit- 
erature destined to swallow up all other varieties ; 
and already it has encroached on the domain of 
history, of sociology, of psychology, of religion, of 
finance (witness Mr. Lawson's forthcoming "Friday 
the Thirteenth"), and even of natural science. 
Those who watch the signs of the times in the lit- 
erary world predict an increasing demand for books 
in the coming years ; and of these books the greater 
number must, while human nature continues to be 
human nature, be books that amuse rather than 
instruct. The outlook for the novel is therefore a 
bright one. In the increasing complexity and inten- 
sity and strenuosity of modern life, the novel's chief 
mission may well prove to be that of a " rest cure " 
— a name first applied to it by Mrs. Cecil Thurston. 

• • • 

Low-priced novels and the circulating li- 
braries seem to represent conflicting interests in 
England. Word comes from London that one large 
publishing house is now issuing works of fiction at 
half-a-crown instead of six shillings — a reduction 
of over half its former price and the price still 
asked by other publishers. With this reduction, the 
standard of manufacture being kept up, it is evident 
that only large editions will pay ; hence novels 
unlikely to command a good sale would be barred 
from publication. This low price could be afforded 
only if the novel-reading public should cease to de- 
pend so largely on the circulating library, and buy 
books direct. A general reduction of price among 
publishers of fiction would thus become a serious 
matter to the circulating libraries. 
• • • 

The annual report of the Library of Con- 
gress is not the least interesting reading imaginable. 
As was recently remarked of this library by a Lon- 
don literary journal, its size and importance do not 
seem to be generally realized, at least outside the 
United States. According to Librarian Putnam's 
latest figures, the library now has 1,379,244 books, 
89,869 maps and charts, 437,510 pieces of music, 
214,276 prints, besides a large number of manu- 
scripts that are not yet counted and catalogued. 
Among the many interesting additions of the year are 
Professor J. P. MacLean's collection of Shaker litera- 
ture, believed to be the largest in existence ; a mass of 
Van Buren papers, comprising about 1700 letters and 
political documents ; and some five hundred letters 
and other documents dating from 1777 to 1810, from 
the papers of Senator James Brown of Louisiana. 
The daily average attendance of readers was 2243. 

The inaccuracies of an historical novelist 
— namely, Mr. Winston Churchill — are resented 
by a newspaper of Mr. Churchill's adopted state. 
He is reported from Washington as sending back 
word to New Hampshire that he is still alive, and 
as telling the reporter in the same breath that " ever 
since New Hampshire has been a state it has been 
owned by the railroad. " To this a Concord (N. H. ) 
newspaper indignantly replies: "Mr. Churchill of 
late never loses his character as an historical novel- 
ist, and his interviews, like his novels, are curiously 
and unnecessarily inexact. New Hampshire has 
been a state since 1784. Its first railroad was 
chartered about 1840. Yet Mr. Churchill says 
the railroad has owned us ' ever since we have been 
a state.' " This is inexact enough, surely ; but some 
allowance is doubtless to be made to a young man 
so recently defeated by the railroad in his heroic 
effort to purify the politics of his state and to get 
himself elected its chief magistrate. 



(To the Editor of The Dial.) 
Having followed the " Times Book War " with keen 
interest, I naturally read your recent article " O Tem- 
pora ! O Mores ! " with much appreciation. Two state- 
ments in it, however, do not accord with the facts so far 
as I have been able to gather them. 

(1) " The book publishers made the modest request 
that ' The Times ' shoidd not resort to under-cutting dur- 
ing a period of six months from the date of a book's first 
appearance. This was flatly refused. ..." On this I have 
to remark, (a) that the request referred only to net books ; 
(b) that it was not a modest request confined to under- 
cutting the sale of new books, but an ultimatum that no 
net book, however damaged by wear or otherwise second- 
hand, should be retailed at one farthing less than its full 
price within six months of its publication ;'(c) that neither 
the modest request nor the dictatorial rule were flatly 
refused, for " The Times " claims that it has not sold 
and does not sell new net books on any other terms than 
those laid down by the publishers. In this matter I have 
every reason to believe that " The Times " is speaking the 
truth; and the PubUshers' Association has faUed to prove 
the contrary. 

(2) " ' The Times ' retorted by declaring a boycott." 
This is very nearly the opposite of the truth. So far 
from " The Times " boycotting the pubhshers, it has 
made every effort to obtain their books, and has pur- 
chased them at full retail prices rather than disappoint 
its subscribers. It has, indeed, appealed to its subscribers 
not to force it to purchase these books at such a loss; 
but I repeat, it has not boycotted the book publishers, 
either in trade, or in its reviews, or in its correspondence 

Forgive this intrusion by a stranger; but your senti- 
ments are so admirable that I thought you might be 
glad to have your facts correct as well. 

A Scientific Editor. 

Wimbledon, England, Feb. 2, 1907. 



[Feb. 16, 

C^« ^^te g00ks. 

Parson axd Kj^ight.* 

A book published in 1861, called "The 
Alps," was ascribed on the title-page to " the 
Rev. Leslie Stephen." The volume on Hobbes, 
contributed to the " English Men of Letters " 
series in 1904, was declared to be the work of 
" Sir Leslie Stephen." Few of us recall the 
earlier designation, and the later one never be- 
came widely familiar, because it was the visible 
sign of an honor conferred near the close of the 
author's life. But the name " Leslie Stephen," 
unadorned by any mark of artificial distinction, 
has meant a great deal to readers of many kinds, 
from mountaineers to philosophers, for the past 
thirty or forty years ; and when the famous 
Alpinist, literary critic, biographer, historian, 
and agnostic died, not quite three years ago, 
there must have been many thousands, in both 
England and America, who felt that his death 
was a serious loss to humanity. Even the most 
favorable conditions of native aptitude and cul- 
tural environment do not often produce so rare 
a combination of scholarly equipment, keenness 
of logical perception and philosophical analysis, 
grace of persuasive style, sincerity of purpose, 
and sanity of mind. His life was an example 
of so many of the virtues that it afPords an 
imusually worthy object for our contemplation, 
and the biograplxy now published should be the 
most welcome of books to all whose interests 
are engaged in the highest ideals of thought and 

The task of portraying this rich and many- 
sided life has fallen into the best of hands. The 
late Frederic William Maitland, who completed 
the work last October, and whose own death we 
have since been called upon to deplore, was one 
of Stephen's most intimate friends during the 
last quarter-century of his life. He was one of 
that goodly company of " Sunday tramps " who 
for fifteen years explored under Stephen's lead- 
ership the highways and byways of England ; he 
became Stephen's kinsman by marriage ; and he 
was designated in Stephen's dying message to his 
children as the one who should prepare whatever 
" short article " or " appreciation " or " notice " 
might be called for. Almost the last words 
pencilled by Stephen upon his death-bed were 
these : " Any sort of ' life ' of me is impossible, 
if only for the want of materials. Nor should 
I like you to help anybody to say anything ex- 

* The Life and Letters op Leslie Stephen. By Frederic 
William Maitland. Illustrated. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

cept Maitland. He might write a short article 
or so.' That the " short article " has become 
a stout volume, telling in much detail the story 
of Stephen's life, and preserving a large amount 
of his revealing and altogether delightftd corre- 
spondence, will hardly be held chargeable as 
a fault to the biographer, although in under- 
taking so large a task he exceeded Stephen's 
modest instructions. He says : 

" I feel that in writing so much as I propose to write, 
I shall go beyond, though certainly I shall not trans- 
gress, the letter of his expressed wish; and it seems 
well for me to say why this is done. That 'short 
article or so ' about somebody else he could have writ- 
ten to perfection; but I cannot write it even imperfectly! 
The powers, natural and acquired, which enabled him 
to sum up a long life in a few pages, to analyze a char- 
acter in a few sentences, are not at my disposal, nor did 
I observe Stephen as some expert in psychology, or as 
some heaven-born novelist might have observed him. 
... I do not think that the public will be entitled 
to complain if it gets some first-hand evidence instead 
of my epitome of it, and if Stephen himself saw the 
' short article or so ' swelling to the size of a book, he 
would shake his head, it is true, but he would acquit 
me of anything worse than clumsiness and verbosity." 

One of the most interesting chapters in this 
book is that which is devoted to Stephen's first 
visit to the United States. It was undertaken 
chiefly for the purpose of studying the Civil 
War at close range, and collecting controversial 
anununition for use at home. Stephen had a 
deep-seated (and even hereditary) hatred of 
slavery and aU its works, and he was one of 
the small group of Englishmen, the group which 
included MiU and Bright, who understood the 
American situation clearly, and who knew that, 
whatever questions of theoretical politics might 
be raised to obscure the issue by Southern 
sympathizers, the practical question at stake 
was that of the " peculiar institution." In the 
summer of 1863, having stoutly championed the 
Northern cause during the first two years of the 
conflict, Stephen started for America that he 
might make observations on the spot. He knew 
little of American public men and writers, and 
" had not any notion that he was going to make 
acquaintance with American men of letters, 
still less that some of them were to be his most 
intimate friends." If it were not for his later 
correspondence with the friends whom he made 
during this visit, the volume now under review 
would have a greatly diminished interest, and 
not for Americans alone. The score of letters 
addressed to Lowell, and the fourscore to Mr. 
Charles Eliot Norton, make up a highly impor- 
tant part of Mr. Maitland's work. 

Stephen reached this country just after Lee's 
retreat from Pennsylvania and Grant's capture 




of Vicksburg. He landed at Halifax, and at 
once proceeded to Boston. His first letter home 
speaks of meeting " Holmes, a rather well-known 
literary gent," and receiving cards from Field 
and Lowell. A week later he finds himself much 
at home with his new friends, and describes 
them as " really very pleasant, well educated 
men, like the best class of Cambridge men." 
Lowell " really is one of the pleasantest men I 
ever met." Holmes is " very kind and wonder- 
fully talkative, but with a good deal of sense 
and really impressing me as an extremely clever 
man." The note struck by this repeated use of 
the word " really " is a sufficient index of that 
" condescension in foreigners " about which 
Lowell wrote with such lambent satire ; and we 
make no doubt that it was many times uncon- 
sciously sounded by Stephen during these early 
New England days. It is amusing to come upon 
the ending to the letter from which we have just 

" I know you will think I have spoken too favourably 
of my friends over here. I am, of course, in the best 
and most English part of the country. Perhaps I shall 
find things worse as T go on." 

This apprehension became sadly justified when 
Chicago was reached a few weeks later. He says 
of the denizens of that frontier community that 
" their manners are those of bagmen and their 
customs are spitting." A few other fragments 
relating to this visit may be quoted. Newport 
was responsible for a splenetic outburst : 

" It is hatefully flat and apparently devoid even of 
good bathing. However, I could not stay in it long, for 
I felt that disgust arising which always comes to me at 
Interlaken or any of those vile haunts of all that is most 
contemptible in humanity, called watering-places." 

A few days in Washington brought him into 
contact with Seward and Lincoln. Of the latter 
we read : 

" In appearance he is much better than I expected. 
He is more like a gentleman to look at than I should 
have given him credit for from his pictures. He has a 
particularly pleasant smile, a jolly laugh, and altogether 
looks like a benevolent and hearty old gentleman." 

Seward did not make so good an impression. 

" He is a little, rather insignificant-looking man, with 
a tendency to tell rather long-winded and rather point- 
less stories, and to make those would-be profoundly 
philosophical observations about the manifest destiny 
and characteristics of the American people, of which 
Americans have got a string ready for use on all occa- 
sions, and all of which I now know by heart. He . . . 
rather provoked me, as I was telling him something of 
the friends of the North in England and mentioning 
Mill, by calling him ' Monkton Mill ' — a depth of de- 
liberate ignorance to which I should have hoped no 
decent human being on the other side of the Atlantic 
would have descended." 

Stephen found it hard work explaining to 
Americans the state of English " barbarian " 
opinion upon the subject of the war. 

" 1 rjeally don't know how to translate into civil laur 
guage what I have heard a thousand times over in 
England : that both sides are such a set of snobs and 
blackguards that we only wish they could both be 
licked, or that their armies are the scum of the earth 
and the war got up by contractors, or that the race is 
altogether degenerate and demoralized, s^nd it is pleasant 
to see such a set of bullies have a fall. I really can't 
tell them all these little compliments, which I have heard 
m private conversation word for word, and which are a 
free translation of ' Times ' and ' Saturday Review,' even 
if I introduce them with the apology (though it is a 
really genuine apology) that we know nothing at all 
about them." 

Stephen made a trip to Philadelphia and was 
oppressed by the hospitalities of his lawyer-host. 
" Whenever we meet any one he knows in the streets, 
he clutches hold of him and introduces ' the Rev. Mr. 
Stephen, the nephew of the celebrated lawyer,' or ' the 
son of the celebrated historian,' according to the sup- 
posed proclivities of the victim, and begs him to take 
me to his extensive coalyard or to his lunatic asylum or 
his world-famous book-store, or his church, or in fact to 
anything that is Ids." 

An invasion of Girard College was escaped by 
pleading benefit of clergy. 

" The founder, gaining my eternal gratitude thereby, 
but being, I fear, a shocking old scapegrace, declared 
in his will that no clergyman was ever to set foot in 
this building, and you have to give yoiir honour that you 
are not in any sense a priest before entering it. I joy- 
fully declined, and avoided presentation to the orphans." 

After making a brief visit to the seat of war in 
Virginia, Stephen returned to England, and 
poured hot shot into the " Times " by publish- 
ing a pamphlet on the American War. 

The story of Stephen's separation from the 
church in which he had taken orders was related 
in the deeply interesting reminiscences which he 
wrote several years ago, and the present biog- 
raphy supplements in various ways the personal 
confession made upon that occasion. The process 
does not seem to have been a particularly distress- 
ing one. He sloughed off the theological integu- 
ment of his early life as naturally as a crustacean 
casts off its outworn shell, and if there were any 
" growing pains " attendant upon the change, he 
kept them to himself. " In truth, I did not feel 
that the solid groimd was giving way beneath 
my feet, but rather that I was being relieved of 
a cumbrous burden. I was not discovering that 
m}^ creed was false, but that I had never really 
believed it." The separation did not take place 
with any startling dramatic accompaniment, but 
was a gradual process covering a period of several 
years. It was nearly completed at the time of 
the first visit to America. He wrote to his mother 



[Feb. 16, 

that subscription to the Episcopal Church in 
America " must be pleasingly lax." 

" A bishop asked a candidate for ordination the other 
day whether he believed the thirty-nine Articles. Can- 
didate said he didn't. Bishop asked whether he agreed 
with the principal articles. Candidate replied that he 
would rather not commit himself. Candidate was passed, 
the bishop saying that he had no authority to inquire 
into anything but his willingness to use the Liturgy. I 
wish bishops had as much sense in England." 

When Stephen ceased to be a parson and be- 
came a philosopher he had perhaps, all told, 
preached some twenty-five sermons. An amus- 
ing incident of the parliamentary campaign for 
the election of his friend Fawcett seems to show 
that while still a clergyman he was a human 
being. It was the day of the election. 

" The language became loud ; the ' chairman of the 
room,' one X, not a tall man, scattered his big D's 
about freely. Stephen entered, he had lost himself, and 
his language was such that it sobered X, who crept up 
to him, took his left arm in both hands, and said : ' Oh, 
Mr. Stephen, don't take on so ; the General Election will 
come in a year, when we shall want a second candidate 
to run with Fawcett, and we have made up our minds 
that you are the man we should like.' Stephen tore his 
left arm so roughly away that he nearly threw X on 
the ground, while he shouted [something about X's soul, 
and then] * Don't you know that 1 'm a parson ? ' " 

It was in 1866 that Stephen became engaged 
to Miss Thackeray, and we may quote a few 
characteristic remarks from the letter in which 
he announces the event to Mr. (now Justice) 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

" As for Miss Thackeray, I believe that it would be 
proper that I should give you some description of her, 
or, at least, quote poetry about her. I 'U see you damned 
first. . . . 

" Do you know what it feels like to be engaged ? 
The experience of three days or so of the state enables 
me to say that it is psychologically interesting: (1) 
Because it is incredibly pleasant — I did not think four 
days ago that I could contain so much happiness. (2) 
Because it makes an absohite breach of continuity in 
time. About December 3, in this year, the current of 
my life was parted by a chasm of inappreciable breadth. 
I should say at a guess that about ten years came in 
between two consecutive seconds, or rather, though we 
metaphysicians say that time should be represented by 
a line, this part of time seems to be fairly represented 
thus. [A diagram.] Intelligisne domine f (3) Ever since 
this dislocation, time has been going Uke a clock with 
the pendulum off, at the devil's own pace. How many 
weeks or months go to a day is beyond my arithmetic. 
I won't bother you with any more of my feelings, but 
I know that you are an admirer of H. Spencer, and 
might like a little psychological analysis." 

In a later letter to Mr. Holmes, written just 
after marriage in the following summer, we find 
these philosophical reflections : 

" To say the truth, I believe myself to have been very 
much in want of a wife, and to have been not a little 
spoiled by my donnish existence at Cambridge. It 

always tends to shrivel up a cove's faculties to live as a 
bachelor in a bachelor society with very little external 
communication. One gets rusty and stupid and morose, 
and even a comparatively family and social existence in 
London had not undonned me. I was wanting much to 
take root, and am truly thankful I have done so to my 
heart's content. In short, I am very happy indeed, and 
don't mind saying so." 

A visit to America in 1868 yields many notes 
upon places and personalities, among them this 
about a call from Mr. Emerson : 

" He is considered to be a great prophet in Yankee- 
land, though I don't much worship him. However, he 
has the merit of being a singularly mild, simple kind of 
old fellow, who does not presume in the least upon the 
reverence of his worshippers. . . . He was so kind* and 
benevolent, and talked so much like a virtuous old saint, 
that we could not help liking him." 

In connection with this note, we may quote what 
Stephen wrote a few years later about Carlyle. 
He was speaking of his brother, J. F. Stephen, 
and said : 

" Oddly enough, he has been, in my opinion, a good deal 
corrupted by old Carlyle. I never before had so much 
respect for the extraordinary vigour of that person, till 
I saw how much influence he could exercise over a man 
who is little enough disposed to sit at anybody's feet. I 
see the prophet pretty often myself, and though I am not 
so independent a character as J. F. S., I am almost equally 
repelled and attracted by him. Personally, indeed, I 
am simply attracted, for he is a really noble old cove 
and by far the best specimen of the literary gent we 
can at present produce. He has grown milder too with 
age. But politically and philosophically he talks a good 
deal of arrant and rather pestilent nonsense — • that is, 
of what I call nonsense. He is indeed a genuine poet 
and a great humorist, which makes even his nonsense 
attractive in its way ; but nonsense it is and will remain, 
and, though it is as well to have a man of genius to give 
one the corrective of the ordinary twaddle, it is a pity 
that he is not comprehensive enough to see the other side 
as well." 

Stephen's letters are so rich in so many kinds 
of intellectual and human interest (even more 
human than intellectual) that one is sure of 
"pickings" at whatever page the biography 
may chance to be opened. A few bits, taken at 
random, may give some further idea of its qual- 
ity, and fill up our remaining space. 

" As a matter of fact, Switzerland in the winter is just 
as accessible as England, and much pleasanter in some 
ways, owing to the comparative scarcity of Englishmen." 

" I must now turn to certain wretched MSS. and put 
their authors out of misery. It is not right, I fear, to 
toss up, as it would save me a great deal of trouble, and 
come to much the same thing in the end." 

" I like some particular boys ; but the genus boy seems 
to me one of nature's mistakes. Girls improve as they 
grow up ; but the boy generally deteriorates, and, in our 
infernal system, has to be sent away to school and made 
into more or less of a brute." 

" I said nothing to you of politics ; because, in truth, 
that department of the world seems to me to be given 
over for the present to the devil, in whom I entertain a 




kind of provisional belief, so long as things go on in this 
perverse fashion." 

" The female student is at present an innocent ani- 
mal, who wants to improve her mind and takes orna- 
mental lectures seriously, not understanding with her 
brother students that the object of study is to get a 
good place in an examination, and that lectures are a 
vanity and a distraction." 

" Of other books, I have got on my table William 
James's new essays. They look bright, like all his 
writings. He is the one really lively philosopher; but 
I am afraid that he is trying the old dodge of twisting 
' faith ' out of moonshine." 

" You spoke of the ' X ' critic who took Poe and Walt 
Whitman for the representatives of your literature. 
That seems to me — pardon the remark — that you 
have not kept yourself posted up in the youthful British 
critic. Some time ago he took up the pair in question 
because they were both rather naughty and eccentric, 
and it seemed original to put them above their betters. 
Poe was, I think, as Lowell said, ' 3 parts of him genius 
and 1 part sheer fudge ' (perhaps ' 3 ' is too high a pro- 
portion) — at any rate, a man of genius, though he 
ruined it very soon. W. W. always seems to me Em- 
erson diluted with Tupper — twaddle with gleams of 
something better. But I quite agree with you that the 
critic was silly, or rather a young gentleman misled by 
a temporary ' fad ' — I have written so much criticism 
alas ! that I have acquired a disgust for the whole 
body of it — including my own." 

With these miscellaneous bits we send our 
readers to the storehouse from which they came 
— to the wonderfully discreet and sympathetic 
record of a lovable character and a noble life. 
" Many are alive and will say with me," remarks 
the biographer in closing, " that to have known 
Leslie Stephen is ' part of our life's unalterable 
good.' " And many others, now coming to know 
the man for the first time in the revelations of 
these pages, will give the sentiment a heartfelt 

^^"^' William Morton Payne. 

The Dual Structure of the Germai^^ 

While there is no lack of learned works on 
the constitutional law of the German Empire 
by German writers — such as the commentaries 
of Laband, Zorn, Meyer, and Schulze — we 
have hitherto had no systematic treatise pub- 
lished in the English language. Dr. Burt Estes 
Howard, an American scholar who, we are told, 
has been a close student of German history and 
politics for many years, has done much to sup- 
ply this want in his excellent book on " The 
German Empire," which will probably rank 
among the standard briefer treatises of the Ger- 
mans. It is based entirely on German sources, 

* The German Empire. By Burt Estes Howard. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

mostly original, and afPords abundant evidence 
of wide and painstaking research. The only 
criticism worth mentioning relates to the title 
of his book, which is misleading, since the work 
relates almost entirely to a single aspect of the 
German Empire, its constitution. 

The German Empire is the only nation in 
the world to-day in which a federal system of 
government is combined with the monarchical 
principle. In this respect, and also in the con- 
stitutional inequality of the constituent members 
of which it is formed, it differs widely from the 
federal republics of the western hemisphere. 
But in other notable particulars it possesses 
striking similarities. The difficult problem of 
adjusting the relations between the central 
power and the individual units has there been 
solved in a manner very different from that oi 
any other state having a dual system of govern- 
ment under a common sovereignty. Some of its 
contributions to the solution of the problems of 
this sort of government are wholly original, and, 
we believe, in thorough accord with sound prin- 
ciples of political science. The lessons which 
they teach therefore merit the careful study of 
citizens of the great federal republic of North 
America, who must needs find solutions for some 
of the unsettled problems of our dual political 

The topics of Dr. Howard's treatise are prin- 
cipally these : The founding of the Empire ; its 
relation to the states composing it ; the Impe- 
rial Legislature ( Bundesrath and Reichstag ) ; 
the Emperor ; the Chancellor ; Citizenship in 
the Empire ; the Judicial system ; the gov- 
ernment of the Reichsland (Alsace Lorraine); 
the Imperial Fiscal system ; and the Army and 
Navy. The treatment of each of these subjects 
is lucid, accurate, and discriminating. It is 
especially in the exposition of legal and con- 
stitutional relations that Dr. Howard is at his 
best. He has a preeminently juristic bent of 
mind, as weU as a faculty for clear and concise 

In the brief compass of this review, no at- 
tempt will be made to do more than state the 
position which the author takes on several im- 
portant matters of German constitutional law. 
Concerning the legal structure of the Empire, 
he maintains that its constituent elements are 
not citizens or subjects, but states ; and that 
sovereignty resides not in the Emperor, nor in 
the people, but in the totality of the states, i. e., 
in the Bundesrath. This is the view also of 
the abler German commentators. The Kaiser 
is not monarch q/*the Empire, but monarch in 



[Feb. 16, 

the Empire ; not Kaiser von Deutschland^ but 
Deutscher Kaiser. He is not an authority of 
residuary powers with the customary monarch- 
ical prerogatives, but as Kaiser he possesses only 
derivative powers. He has some of the elements 
of both a monarch and a President ; yet he is 
neither of these. His position is unique, and it 
is impossible to classify him with other rulers. 
But, owing to the importance of the military 
power in Germany, his position as Kaiser, in- 
dependently of his royal office, is one of enor- 
mous power. The office of Imperial Chancellor, 
created by Bismarck for himself, is equally 
unique, and something of a puzzle to political 
students. Dr. Howard insists that the only 
way to avoid misapprehension as to the real 
nature of the office is to distinguish between its 
dual nature — i. e., between the Chancellor's 
position as a Prussian member of the Bundes- 
raili on the one hand, and his position as the 
Emperor's only responsible minister and the 
highest imperial official on the other. Whether 
his responsibility is legal or political, as Dr. 
Howard points out, is purely an academic ques- 
tion, since there is no means of enforcing it. 
The Socialists are demanding that he should be 
made responsible to the Imperial Parliament ; 
but as yet he acknowledges responsibility to no 
one except the Emperor. 

The discussion of German citizenship is full 
and illuminating. Like all states having the 
federal system of government, Germany has had 
to deal with the difficidt problem of a dual 
citizenship — one local, the other national. Most 
commentators recognize the existence of a 
citizenship of the Empire, and also a state 
citizenship. Dr. Howard is among the num- 
ber, although he maintains that the two forms 
of citizenship are not coordinate and independ- 
ent, occupying distinct spheres, but that the re- 
lation is one of subordination and dependence. 
Contrary to the American ride, state citizen- 
ship in Germany is primary and imperial citi- 
zenship secondary ; that is, the latter is derived 
from the former, and is lost when that is lost. 
Nevertheless, it is characteristic of the German 
conception of the importance of uniformity 
among the states, that the conditions govern- 
ing the acquisition of state citizenship (and, in 
consequence, of imperial citizenship) should be 
regulated by Imperial law. This insures a 
common citizenship for all the states of the 
Empire, and does away with local divei"sities 
and inequalities. 

The German theory of centralization in leg- 
islation is also well shown in the organization of 

the judicial and legal system, which constitutes 
the subject of an important chapter in Mr. 
Howard's book. By successive statutes enacted 
since the founding of the Empire, a common 
judicial system for all the states has been pro- 
vided (except for non-contentious jurisdiction); 
and so have codes of law and procedure. Thus 
there is uniformity of law, of judicial organiza- 
tion, and judicial procedure, throughout the 
Empire ; although, with the exception of the 
Imperial Court at Leipsic, all courts are re- 
garded as state courts, the judges being ap- 
pointed and paid by the local governments. 
But here again the states are under certain 
restrictions, for they are required to provide 
the judges with adequate salaries, and the min- 
imum qualifications for eligibility to judicial 
stations are prescribed by imperial law. Dr. 
Howard does not discuss the various special 
courts (hesondere gerichte) wliich are not regu- 
lated by Imperial law, nor the administrative 
courts, nor the bar, nor the state-attorney ship. 
A real defect in his discussion of the judicial 
system is the omision of all reference to the 
questipn of the power of the courts to declare 
statutes unconstitutional. The question is not 
entirely academic, particularly when there is a 
case of conflict between the state law and the 
imperial constitution or an imperial statute. 

In his discussion of the military side of the 
Empire, the author points out the interesting 
fact that there is no imperial army, but only 
a collective imity made up of contingents of the 
several states. This would be considered a fatal 
weakness in the military organization of the 
Empire, were it not for the fact that the con- 
tingent of each state is recruited, organized, 
equipped, and drilled, in accordance with rules 
and regulations prescribed by the Empire. 
Likewise, the liability to military service, as well 
as the whole matter of discipline, rests upon 
Imperial law, and the supreme command of all 
contingents is vested in the Emperor. Another 
weak spot in the military organization of the 
Empire is the special privileges enjoyed by a 
number of the states. The smaller of these 
have ceded their special privileges to Prussia, 
so that reaUy there are but four contingents — 
namely, those of Prussia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, 
and Saxony. The navy, imlike the army, is in 
the strictest sense an Imperial affair. When 
the Empire was formed, Prussia alone had a 
navy ; she brought it with her into the union ; 
and it has remained under the control of the 
King of Prussia, who is at the same time the 
German Emperor. J. W. Garner. 




Thoreaf IX HIS Journals.* 

Seldom does it happen that the journals of 
a private citizen, a quiet man of letters, are 
published in a dozen volumes, especially in the 
United States. The Adams family, with their 
turn for both politics and literature, and their 
im wearied industry with the pen, have given us 
volume after volume of the diaries of the two 
Presidents of that fanaily ; and doubtless much 
is coming of the same sort from the copious 
papers of Charles Francis Adams, first of that 
name. But among literary Americans diary 
publication has been comparatively small. A 
century after his death, the so-called " Literary 
Diary " of President Stiles of Yale has been 
edited at New Haven, and quite recently has 
appeared the first (perhaps the only) volume 
of Dr. S. G. Howe, covering his active youthful 
years in the Greek Revolution. But Emerson's 
journals liave as yet come forth only in frag- 
ments, though they are extensive ; and the fifty 
or sixty volumes of Alcott's Diaries remain on 
the shelves at Concord, undisturbed. Theodore 
Parker's copious Journals of a quarter-century 
have been much drawn upon by his biographers, 
and are to go finally to the Boston Public 
Library, after which publication in fidl may fol- 
low, — but not, probably, until half a century 
after Parker's death at Florence, in May, 1860. 

Most of the diaries just mentioned are records 
of foreign travel, at least in part. John Quincy 
Adams had ranged over Europe from the Orient 
to Moscow ; Emerson twice or thrice visited 
Europe, and even (in 1872) went as far eastward 
as to the Sphinx of Egypt, though he made few 
notes of that final journey, taken as he was ap- 
proaching the age of seventy, and disinclined to 
write even a journal. Parker had noted, in his 
Journal of 1843-44, his interviews with famous 
scholars, and the lectures he heard in Paris and 
in Germany ; in Florence, where he is buried, 
he met the Brownings, and in Switzerland and 
Italy and the West Indies, in 1859-60, he had 
foreign incidents and manners to relate. Even 
Alcott had one brief visit to England to record, 
as veU as those many volumes which lie filled 
with what his satirical neighbor, Ellery Chan- 
ning, called his '•• Encydopedie de Moi-meme^ 
Cinquante Volumes.'''' But Thoreau's only for- 
eign travel was for ten days, from Concord to 
Canada, and its incidents were left out of his 
Journal of 1850, to appear in a work by itself, 

•The Writings of Henry David Thoreau. Walden Edi- 
tion. Edited by Bradford Torrey. In twenty volumes. Illus- 
trated. Volumes VIII.-XX., The Journals. Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

" A Yankee in Canada," of which a quarter 
part was left unprinted. His longest journey, 
that from Concord to Redwood on the Minne- 
sota river, only found record in notes that never 
got written into his Journal of 1861, and in a 
few letters. 

What, then, is the great interest of Thoreau's 
Journals, to warrant their publication in four- 
teen well printed, illustrated, and indexed vol- 
umes, containing in the aggregate 6700 pages, 
exclusive of 70 pages of Mr.Gleason's admirable 
photogravures, six pages of his map and key, 
and 110 double-columned pages of index In 
all, the volumes faU little short of 7000 pages, 
or eight times as much as White's " Selborne " 
and Izaak Walton's " Compleat Angler," the two 
authors with whom Thoreau is perhaps most 
often compared. What is it that warrants so 
full a publication of writings which in the au- 
thor's own time were so generally overlooked or 
contemned ? Two qualities especially, — their 
wonderful variety of topic and treatment, and 
the charm of their style when at its best. Back 
of both lies Thoreau's chief quality — his power 
of exact and minute observation ; and still fur- 
ther back and deeply original with him, the 
power of profound thought and comprehensive 
imagination applied to the most commonplace 
objects and events. Hardly any writer can be 
named, ancient or modern, who devoted such 
high powers so studiously to such a cyclopaedia 
of themes. Seneca, Pliny, and Aristotle, among 
the ancients, Montaigne and Goethe of the mod- 
erns, come readily to mind, and each has some 
gifts and accomplishments that Thoreau had 
not. But, on the other hand, so had he gifts 
and industries which they had not. Perhaps 
he comes nearest to Montaigne, for, like that 
learned and irregular Gascon, he made the world 
of fact and deed revolve about himseK, instead 
of sharing its revolutions and following its fash- 
ions, like the most of us. Of course there are 
marked divergences one from the other. Where 
Montaigne is nonchalant and obscene, Thoreau 
is fastidious and fuU of exalted sentiment. 
Though their loyalty in friendship is much the 
same, Thoreau has a loftier and more unprac- 
tical ideal of his friend ; while in secular mat- 
ters he was far more widely practical than the 
landlord and magistrate in his chateau or his 
province. Emerson once, in Cincinnati, advised 
a young friend to "know Mr. C, — there is 
nothing he may not say." Of Thoreau it may 
be declared there was nothing he might not do, 
with his hands or with his head. He was a good 
boatman and boat-builder ; a mechanic and phi- 



[Feb. 16, 

losopher ; a stoic, a cynic, a pencil-maker, and a 
poet ; good at mathematics, at merchandizing, at 
abstractions, paradoxes, and land-surveying. To 
none of his many avocations did he surrender 
himself, but stood back of and above them all 
in a proud leisure derived from the simplicity of 
his tastes and the singularity of his ambitions. 
Those foolish critics who call him indolent never 
knew him, nor any of his kind among men. His 
activity, whether physical or intellectual, was 
unceasing. Emerson, his neighbor and friend, 
had intervals of mental inefficiency, when the 
pen refused its task, and even his startling fac- 
ulty of perception seemed to slumber or be far 
away. But Thoreau was always, as the Yankee 
phrase is, " up and coming." His most intimate 
friend and best biographer, Ellery Channing, 
describing his personal traits, says : " His 
clenched hand betokened purpose. In walking 
he made a short cut if he could, and when sit- 
ting in the shade or by the wall-side he seemed 
merely the clearer to look forward into the next 
piece of activity. Even in the boat he had a 
wary, transitory air, his eyes on the outlook, — 
perhaps there might be ducks or the Blanding 
turtle, or an otter or sparrow." 

Thoreau's Journals intimate this tireless 
activity and vigilance ; and yet how many things 
and events, that he might have been expected 
to mention, are passed by in silence ! Thus, in 
the autumn of 1854, when he was making the 
acquaintance of his English admirer, Thomas 
Cholmondeley, who lived with him in the same 
house for weeks, and in December went back to 
Shropshire to enlist volimteers for the Crimean 
war, the Journal contains no allusion to his new 
friend ; and when he came over again in 1859, 
and went with Thoreau to New Bedford to call 
on his friend Ricketson, there is a very slight 
allusion to Cholmondeley in the Journal. In 
the same way, when John Brown of Kansas was 
introduced to Thoreau in 1857, dined with him, 
and made a vivid impression, so that his con- 
versation was recalled in the Journal two and 
a half years afterward, there is no mention of 
Brown in the entries of 1857. Nor is Whit- 
man much mentioned in the Journal of 1856, 
when Thoreau first met him and described him 
in a letter to Blake. His letters are often sub- 
stitutes for the Journal entries, and sometimes 
are copied from the Journal, as was Emerson's 
habit occasionally. 

Thoreau's use of his Journals, which he be- 
gan to keep regularly about 1838, was original, 
like everything about him. He used them to 
make magazine articles and books from ; and 

then he destroyed them, reserving such pages 
or fragments as he had not used, and preserving 
these scraps all his life, often using them years 
afterward in essays. In the latter case he did 
not destroy them, so that those who have bought 
his MSS. of late years may often find the scraps 
and pages among them which long since came 
out in some of his posthumous books. In the 
same way it has happened that the publishers 
of these fourteen volumes lack original pages of 
the Journal, enough perhaps to make a small 
volume ; they have been sold, and most of them 
are in the possession of Mr. W. K. Bixby of 
St. Louis, who has allowed the Bibliophile 
Society of Boston to print them in their two 
volumes called " The First and Last Journeys 
of Thoreau." Other Journal pages remain im- 
printed, but may come out hereafter in connec- 
tion with reprints of " Walden " or " A Yankee 
in Canada." There are also many verses that 
have not been brought into any collection, some 
of them in the Journals, and others in loose 
leaves, or written on the back of lecture sheets 
or pages from some destroyed journal. 

But it is time to quote from these rich and 
unusual transcripts of the meditations and ob- 
servations of a man of genius. September 19, 
1854, he writes : 

" Thinking this afternoon of the prospect of my writ- 
ing lectiu'es and going abroad to read them the next 
winter, I realized how incomparably great the advan- 
tages of obscurity and poverty which I have enjoyed so 
long (and may perhaps still enjoy). I thought with 
what more than princely, with what poetic leisure I had 
spent my years hitherto, without care or engagement, 
fancy-free. I have given myself up to Nature: I have 
lived so many springs and summers, autumns and win- 
ters as if I had nothing to do but live them, and imbibe 
whatever nutriment they had for me. I have spent a 
couple of years, for instance, with the flowers chiefly, 
having none other so binding engagement as to observe 
when they opened; I could afford to spend the whole 
Fall observing the changing tints of the foliage. Ah J 
how I have thriven on solitude and poverty ! I cannot 
overstate this advantage. I do not see how I could 
have enjoyed it, if the public had been expecting as 
much of me as there is danger now that they wUl. If 
I go abroad lecturing, how shall I ever recover the lost 
winter ? It has been my vacation, my season of growth 
and expansion, — a prolonged youth." 

This was said in consequence of the good recep- 
tion given to " Walden," then just published, 
and bringing him invitations to lecture here 
and there, even as far away as Nantucket and 
Philadelphia. But he was not a "taking" 
speaker ; his lectures were best heard by a small 
company in a parlor ; the miscellaneous audi- 
ence of a public hall went away unimpressed. 
He was presently left as uninvited as before, 




except in Concord, Worcester, and Plymouth, 
where he had admiring friends. 

In contrast with the above passage, take this 
concerning one of his rather disreputable friends, 
G. M., who had skill in boating, fishing, and 
hunting, but neglected the domestic duties. 
There were several such in his list of ac- 
quaintance : 

" He follows hunting, praise be to him ! as regularly 
in our tame fields as the farmers follow farming. Per- 
sistent Genius ! how I respect it and thank him for it ! 
I trust the Lord will provide us with another G. M. 
when he is gone. How good in him to follow his own 
bent, and not continue at the Sabbath-school all his 
days ! What a wealth he thus becomes in the neighbor- 
hood ! Few know how to take the census. I thank my 
stars for M. I think of him with gratitude when I am 
going to sleep, grateful that he exists, — that M. who is 
such a trial to his mother. Yet he is agreeable to me 
as a tinge of russet on the hillside. I would fain give 
thanks morning and evening for my blessings. Awk- 
ward, gawky, loose-hung, dragging his legs after him, 
— he is my contemporary and neighbor. He is one 
tribe, I am another, and we are not at war." 

Thoreau had, however, more intimate friends 
than these, whose class Channing hit off in his 
" Near Home " — grateful he says, — 

" The while our fisher dreams, or greasy gunner 
Lank, with ebon locks, shies o'er the fences, 
And cracks down the birds, — game-law forgot ; 
And still, upon the outskirts of the town, 
A tawny tribe denudes the cranberry-bed." 

Thoreau's best and longest friends were Chan- 
ning and Emerson, — the latter the earlier, but 
not finally the more intimate, and at one time 
(in 1857) regarded with pathetic aversion, as 
having broken the abiding tie of friendship by 
his lofty manners. The passage referring to 
this was surprising when Mr. Blake printed it, 
some ten years ago ; and here it is again in 
parts, alluding unmistakably to Emerson. The 
date is February, 1857. 

" And now another friendship is ended. I do not 
know what has made my friend doubt me, — but I 
know that in love there is no mistake, and that every 
estrangement is well fomided. What a grand signifi- 
cance the word * never ' acquires ! I am perfectly sad 
at parting from you. I could better have the earth 
taken away from under my feet than the thought of 
you from my mind. ... A man cannot be said to suc- 
ceed in this life who does not satisfy one friend. ... I 
say in my thought to my neighbor who was once my 
friend, ' It is of no use to speak the truth to you; you 
will not hear it. What, then, shall I say to you ? ' . . . 
You cheat me, you keep me at a distance with your 
manners. I know of no other dishonesty, no other devil. 
Why this doubleness, these compliments ? They are the 
worst of lies. A lie is not worse between traders than a 
compliment between friends. Lying, on lower levels, is 
but a trivial offense compared with civility and compli- 
ments on the level of Friendship. . . . Friends ! they 
are united for good and for evil. They can delight each 
other as none other can. They can distress each other as 

none other can. ... I have not yet known a friendship 
to cease, 1 think. I fear I have experienced its decaying. 
Morning, noon, and night, I suffer a physical pain, an 
aching of the breast, which unfits me for my tasks. It is 
perhaps most intense at evening. That aching of the 
breast, — the grandest pain that man endures, which 
no other can assuage. ... If I should make the least 
concession, my friend would spurn me. I am obeying 
liis law as well as my own. ... At the instant that I 
seem to be saying farewell to my friend, I find myself 
unexpectedly near to him; and it is our very nearness 
and dearness to each other that gives depth and signifi- 
cance to that ' forever.' Thus I am a helpless prisoner, 
and these chains I have no skill to break. While I think 
I have broken one link, I have been forging another." 

Naturally, between men so noble, this misimder- 
standing, which had been growing for months, 
soon gave way, and the old relations were re- 
sumed. It may have been in that very call made 
by Emerson on Thoreau, the afternoon of March 
13, 1857, when he found John Brown of Kansas 
talking with Thoreau (to whom I had introduced 
him), that the ice was broken ; for we do not 
find any more of these sad entries in the Journal. 
The occasion for the coldness was, I suppose, 
the occasional roughness of Thoreau's manner, 
which was usually polite, if odd, met by a cer- 
tain formality and suavity in Emerson's manners 
that betrayed a long inheritance of etiquette 
from generations of clergymen. 

Many will read these books for the informa- 
tion they furnish on a thousand points of natural 
history ; many for their singular beauty and 
brevity of description, wherever the common- 
place was shown to have the elements of wonder 
and beauty ; many, but fewer, for their phi- 
losophic or poetic significance ; most of all, 
perhaps, for their racy humor, by which New 
England life and the rustic or mercantile Amer- 
ican character is so sympathetically portrayed.' 
But they also have the interest of an autobiog- 
raphy, and will be read for more light upon one 
of the most piquant and romantic careers among 
American scholars and reformers. For the full 
understanding of this part of the copious work, 
many more notes and explanations are needed 
than the editors had room to afford even had 
they the needful knowledge. The five and forty 
years since Thoreau's death have removed most 
of his coevals in literatiu-e and life ; and, while 
they have brought the Concord school of au- 
thors (among whom may be included, for certain 
traits, Jones Very, Walt Whitman, and John 
Burroughs) more into the foreground of our lit- 
erature, they have deprived the present genera- 
tion of the best means of judging them, whether 
as authors or men. Hence superficial and ridic- 
ulous estimates of the men and their work. The 



[Feb. 16, 

publication of these Journals will do much to 
repair this defect, which shows itself most fre- 
quently in manuals of American literature. 

Much might be said of the good fortune of 
the publishers in securing for the sympathetic 
and pictorial illustration of the twenty volumes 
in this edition of Thoreau's writings the services 
of H. W. Gleason in photographing the scenes 
and natural incidents of his surroundings in Con- 
cord, at Monadnoc, Cape Cod, and in Canada. 
For years before this edition was decided on 
Mr. Gleason had been loyally visiting and iden- 
tifying, with the aid of his excellent camera, the 
places and conditions mentioned, and had accu- 
mulated more than two hundred fine photo- 
graphs. From these a hundred were selected 
to be engraved for this edition. 

F. B. Sanborn. 

Socialistic Principles and Problems.* 

Notwithstanding the amount of attention 
given to modem socialistic movements, there is 
a lack of definite knowledge and understanding 
of the subject on the part of the general public. 
It is with a hope of remedying this condition 
that Mr. John Spargo has written his " Sum- 
mary and Interpretation of Socialistic Princi- 
ples," giving the essentials of this phase of 
modern life as it has evolved historically and 
economically. The key-note of the book is the 
so-called " materialistic conception of history." 
Mr. Spargo states that " Socialism, in the modem 
scientific sense, is a theory of social evolution." 
Having pointed out the distinction between the 
"Utopian Socialism" of Owen, Saint-Simon, 
and Fourier, and the " Scientific Socialism " of 
Marx and Engels as set forth in the " Commu- 
nist Manifesto," he concludes his work by giving 
a chapter on the Outlines of the Socialist State, 
and adds in an appendix the National Platform 
of the Socialist Party in America. Mr. Spargo, 
though tolerant of a certain amount of super- 
vision of private production and exchange, and 
at the same time less speculative as to the pre- 
cise form the state of the future will take than 
were the authors of the " Manifesto," neverthe- 
less is essentially a " Marxist," and regards as 

• Socialism. A Summary and Interpretation of Socialistic 
Principles. By John Spargo. New York: The Macmilan Co. 

Studies in Socialism. By Jean Jaur6s. Translated, with 
Introduction, by Mildred Minturn. Authorized English version. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

A Practical Programme for Wokkingmen. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Socialism. By Robert Flint. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott Co. 

axiomatic the " class-struggle theory." He 
shows himself conversant with current economic 
thought, and in quoting various theories he 
carefully credits them to their originators. In 
spite of the brevity of his work — the result of 
conciseness rather than of superficiality — Mr. 
Spargo gives a satisfactory general view of his 
subject, and his book is to be recommended 
especially as a foundation for a more detailed 
knowledge to be afterwards acquired. 

Of quite a different character from Mr. 
Spargo's work, yet dealing with the same gen- 
eral subject, are M. Jean Jaures's " Studies in 
Socialism." Most of the papers making up the 
volume appeared originally in a Socialist daily 
paper in Paris, from which they have been trans- 
lated into English by Miss Mildred Minturn, 
who has supplied an introduction explaining 
the significance and prospects of Socialism in 
France as well as M. Jaures's position there. 
Extremely eloquent and earnest in upholding 
the Socialist movement, M. Jaures is neither 
a " Marxist " nor a " Revolutionist," but be- 
longs rather to the school of " Reformists," or 
" Opportunists." A follower in many respects 
of Liebknecht, he denounces the scheme of rev- 
olution upheld in the " Manifesto " as both 
unnecessary and ineffectual, and holds that it 
is by " the methodical and legal organization 
of its own forces imder the law of the democracy 
and universal suffrage " that the proletariat 
will gain supreme power. " The transformation 
of all social relations cannot be the residt of a 
manoeuvre." The principle upon which he most 
insists is the universality of the Socialist con- 
ception, urging that under present conditions 
" it can succeed only by the general and almost 
unanimous desire of the commxmity." A de- 
cided growth of the proletariat " in numbers, 
in solidarity, and in self -consciousness," he be- 
lieves to be inevitable. Optimistic yet sane, 
of strong convictions yet conservative, M. Jaures 
has not laid himself open to the familiar accu- 
sation that Socialists beg the question, for he has 
gone to its very roots. The beauty of his dic- 
tion has been well preserved by his translator. 

It requires more than an ordinary amount of 
mental adjustment to descend from the intel- 
lectual regions whence M. Jaures carries his 
readers to " A Practical Programme for Work- 
ingmen," published anonymously. The author 
has divided his work into three parts, only one 
of which, " The Book of Facts," concerns those 
readers who are not searching for trite aphor- 
After discussing the influence of envi- 


ronment upon man, and pointing out the evils 




of private property and competition on the 
one hand and the present impracticability of 
" orthodox " Socialism on the other, he makes an 
amazing suggestion, viz., that the "unwealthy" 
classes organize in order to secure a candidate 
for the next Presidential election, possibly ab- 
sorbing the Democratic party ! The " practical 
programme " itself is then discussed, and a na- 
tionalization and mimicipalization of industries 
is considered expedient in opening the road to 
cooperation. Of the book as a whole it may 
be said that a superabundance of rhetoric has 
somewhat usurped the place of scientific reason- 
ing, and it can hardly be regarded as a serious 
contribution to sociology. 

It is to this spectacular array of the unwealthy 
against the wealthy, more quietly referred to by 
Mr. Spargo as the "class-struggle theory" and 
subtly suggested by M. Jaures in his faith in 
the power of the proletariat, that Mr. Robert 
Flint so strenuously objects in his book on 
" Socialism." The Socialist leaders, he believes, 
by exaggerating the evils of present conditions 
and beguiling their followers by futile hopes, 
have done more harm than good to the work- 
ingman. Written from a non-Socialistic view- 
point, his book is evidently intended as an 
antidote to what he believes to be noxious the- 
ories running riot ; for he states that he proposes 
to discuss Socialism in a way that will be intelli- 
gible to workingmen. It is a keen, scholarly, 
comprehensive work, and presents arguments 
which no Socialist can afford to pass by unchal- 
lenged. It contains, however, one rather serious 
fault as a present-day document : more than half 
of it was written fifteen years ago, when the 
conservative Socialists were less important in 
their class than they now are. Mr. Flint says : 
" It [Socialism] is not a system merely of 
amendment, improvement, reform, — it dis- 
tinctly pronounces every system of that sort to 
be inadequate, and seeks to produce an entire 
renovation of society." This statement is hardly 
applicable to all Socialists to-day, as their pro- 
gramme in England, for instance, bears witness. 
As a criticism of the ideals of Karl Marx and 
his followers, Mr. Flint's work is successful in 
showing their fallacies and in pointing out the 
incompatability of Socialism with Democracy. 
In Socialism, he concedes, there is a large amount 
of good, but " it does not contain any truth or 
any good principle which is exclusively its own." 
In individualism, he sees many faults, but fewer 
from an economic as well as ethical standpoint 
than in any other system yet evolved. It is to 
be noted that the author's attitude toward 

Socialism in its relation to religion — a subject 
to which he attaches very great importance — 
shows the strong influence upon him of the 
Established Church of England. Mr. Flint's 
own arguments are carefully supplemented by 
those of Socialistic and of other non-Socialistic 
writers, making his work comprehensive and 
comparatively free from prejudice. It is a 
valuable asset, not only to sociologists, but to 
all readers who are interested in social problems 
and who are open-minded and intelligent. 

Eunice Follansbee. 

The Greatest of French Dramatists.* 

To judge by the absence of books about 
Moliere in English, the English-speaking world 
has been strangely indifferent to the person and 
life of the greatest of French dramatists, the 
one whose name is most often linked with that 
of Shakespeare. Until very recently, Mr. 
Andrew Lang's article in the "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica " was the most substantial biography 
of Moliere accessible to English readers. Ac- 
counts of the man were few and woefidly inad- 
equate. In English books and periodicals there 
was very little to bear witness to the eager and 
fruitful search for all kinds of personal knowl- 
edge about the great author, manager, and 
actor, which, from 1867 to 1890, brought to- 
gether the materials for the two voluminous 
collections molieresques and kept the monthly 
magazine le molieriste going for ten years. But 
the last few years have seen encouraging signs 
of a wider and livelier interest in the great 
Frenchman. The frequency with which Moliere 
is drawn upon to furnish the repertory of our 
amateur Thespians of the French clubs in our 
universities may be such a sign in one direction, 
and the interesting production of " The Misan- 
thrope " by Mr. Richard Mansfield last year 
may be one in a different quarter. Less im- 
peachable evidences, however, are seen in the 
books on Moliere that have appeared. Mr. 
Leon Vincent, after affording us a little glimpse 
of the satirist of the affectations and over- 
refinements of the precieuses in his Hotel de 
Rambouillet, returned to the theme to offer us, 
in 1902, a full-length portrait of Moliere in a 
slight but weU-inf ormed and readable biography. 
Mr. Henry M. Trollope, whose occasional papers 
in the periodical press had long testified to his 
admiration for the creator of Tartuffe and Har- 

• MoLiKBE. A Biography, By H. C. Chatfield-Taylor. 
trated. New York: Duffield & Co. 




[Feb. 16, 

pagon, and proved how closely he followed the 
course of Moliere study and criticism in France, 
gave to the public, in 1905, a life of Moliere 
that for the first time in English put with ful- 
ness (perhaps with too great fulness) within the 
reach of readers the large mass of detailed fact, 
of gossip and legend, of more or less plausible 
conjecture, and of controversy over moot points, 
that the patient and industrious study of the 
poet's life in France has accumulated. Last 
year we had the Moliere of Mr. Marzials in the 
Miniature Series of Great Writers ; and last, 
and in many ways best, we have the Moliere of 
Mr. Chatfield-Taylor. 

In calling his book " a biography," Mr. 
Chatfield-Taylor has put the emphasis upon the 
man rather than upon the works, and he has 
kept it there pretty consistently throughout. 
This does not mean that he has tried to separate 
the man from his works, or has at all forgotten 
or obscured the fact that the main business of 
Moliere's life was the creation of plays. Per- 
haps he has even failed to make the separation as 
clear as in fact it was, and has been too ready 
to see the man and the circiunstances of his 
life reflected in the works, and to make the 
works confessions of their author's dearest hopes 
and bitterest disappointments. He has treated 
the plays as biographical documents that inter- 
pret and portray the man. Whatever dangers 
this may have in the case of a dramatic author, 
— and especially one like Moliere, whose great 
gift and habit of observation our biographer 
rightly dwells upon, and whose art is so largely 
objective, — it has the advantage of keeping us 
in the region of biography rather than of lit- 
erary criticism. It is the man that we keep all 
the time in view. 

This story of Moliere the man, in his mani- 
fold relations as player, manager, author, court- 
ier, lover, husband, friend, of this career so 
crowded with activity, so full of worthy accom- 
plishment, so absorbed in the pursuit and cap- 
tiire of the comic and so touched with profound 
and tragic pathos, Mr. Chatfield-Taylor has 
told on the whole very well, — more adequately 
than Mr. Vincent and Mr. Marzials, more 
clearly and engagingly than Mr. Trollope. 
There was no need of the words of Professor 
Crane, in the Introduction that he contributes 
to the book, to assure us that the author has 
long been a devoted student of Moliere. He 
shows himseK familiar with the large mass of 
special Moliere literature (at least that in 
French ; the neglect of the Germans is of less 
consequence here than it generally is), and his 

a€Coimt is thoroughly well informed. The na- 
ture of his task, — which was to trace a clear 
and life-like portrait of the man for the larger 
public of readers, and not to make a complete 
collection of material for the special student, — 
forbade hmi to burden his pages with a con- 
siderable apparatus of dociunentary evidence or 
to enter into the minute details of the questions 
in dispute, as Mr. Trollope has done ; yet nothing 
essential has been overlooked, and the student 
will find in the book the main evidence on aU 
controverted matters, and the views and argu- 
ments of the opposing advocates. 

The conclusions that Mr. Chatfield-Taylor 
has reached in these debated questions will 
mainly commend themselves as sound. They 
are generally the ones most favorable to our 
good opinion of Moliere's character. We can 
only approve the biographer's wish to believe the 
best of his hero, and we agree that in Moliere's 
case this wish is for the most part justified. 
There has been altogether too much of a ten- 
dency among his compatriots to admit a sub- 
stantial basis of truth for the malicious gossip 
and downright slander of unfriendly tongues. 
It is quite improbable that the critic of society 
who reveals such moral earnestness in the plays 
should have so flagrantly outraged the sense of 
common decency as some of his biographers 
charge him with doing. We may safely agree 
that " his philosophy was certainly too pure, 
his ideals too exalted , for him to have been the 
vile man his enemies and unwitting friends 
portray." We wonder, however, whether this 
consideration has not been pressed too far in 
the discussion of the great crux of Moliere 
biography, — the question of the parentage of 
Armande Bejart, Moliere's wife. It is rather 
overstating the case to say, as the author does 
in summing up : " If Armande was not Marie 
Herve's daughter, then Moliere, his wife, and 
all her family, must be classed together as 
forgers ; and he, the greatest literary genius in 
France, the friend of the King, be accused either 
of the most abject of crimes, or of an utter dis- 
regard of common decency." But just what 
is " common decency"? Is it defined in identi- 
cal terms in America and in France — and in 
Bohemia ? In deciding whether Armande Bejart 
was the daughter or sister of Madeleine, it is 
possible to suspect that the Anglo-Saxon is 
not so likely as the Frenchman to divine the 
truth that lies behind the tangle of conceal- 
ment and falsehood which that fascinating yoimg 
woman seemed from her birth destined to pro- 
voke. Demonstration is here impossible. One 




is left to a balancing of probabilities, and into 
this many subjective elements are likely to enter. 
We wish to believe that which is most favorable 
to Molifere's moral elevation and delicacy of 
feeling. Here is where the French critics have 
the advantage of us ; and the fact that the ma- 
jority of them incline to the opinion opposite 
to that upheld by Mr. Chatfield-Taylor must 
make us think that they would not concur in 
his statement of the alternative. Has not M. 
Maurice Donnay recently, in V Autre danger, 
condoned after a fashion the offense against 
delicacy of feeling that is here in question ? And 
will delicacy of feeling protect Alceste against 
the witchery of Gelimfene, when all his philo- 
sophy and good common sense are powerless to 
do so? But however we may judge in this 
matter, it is comforting to have to do with a 
biographer who is so loth to believe evil, who 
renders such substantial justice to Madeleine 
Be j art, and who finds good things to say even 
of the incorrigible coquette Armande. 

In one respect our author's commendable 
effort for clearness has had an unfortunate con- 
sequence. We question whether, in presenting 
the plays in groups rather than in the order of 
their production, he has not confused a little the 
outlines of his story and given a somewhat wrong 
idea of the relation of the various groups to one 
another. In spite of the accompanying dates, 
it is hard to avoid the impression that the various 
groups mean different periods in Moliere's dra- 
matic career. This impression is distinctly given 
when the " histrionic plays " are referred to the 
last years of his life, " the period when Moliere, 
worldly wise, experienced as a manager, and less 
zealous as a crusader, was content to write plays 
to fill the coffers of his theater." But the truth 
is that in the years here included, 1668 to 1773, 
we have the same kind of plays as he had been 
producing ever since his talent had appeared in 
its maturity, with VEcole des maris. There was 
the comedy with accompaniment of music and 
dancing which he was bound to provide as pur- 
veyor of amusements to his royal patron ; there 
was the play that appealed primarily to the comic 
sense and the source of laughter ; there was the 
serious comedy of satire, whether of local or uni- 
versal weaknesses ; and there was the play that 
united in various proportions the characteristics 
of aU three. One cannot see that the plays of these 
five years show a very marked difference from 
those of the previous seven. An experienced di- 
rector he had been since his return to Paris ; his 
millitant zeal, against the doctors at least, showed 
no abatement in his very last comedy. His va- 

rious types of comedy were first and last dictated 
by his circumstances and his ideals, which re- 
mained constant. Moliere was director of a com- 
pany, and as such was bound to provide for its 
financial maintenance, which meant attracting 
the great public to his theatre. He was, like 
everyone else, a servant of the King's pleasures, 
and was bound to furnish the kind of entertain- 
ment that his master called for. But he was also 
primarily and always a dramatist, holding firmly 
to ideals of dramatic art of great intellectual and 
moral elevation, and pursuing their realization. 
He was never, last nor first, content to write plays 
merely to fill the coffers of his theatre. The fact 
that he found it possible so often to pursue 
the realization of these ideals to the successful 
end without endangering the material prosperity 
of his theatre has a corollary that the bio- 
grapher of Molifere might well point out. It 
testifies in no uncertain way to the quality of 
the great public on whose support the theatre 
depended. When we reflect what large de- 
mands " The Misanthrope" puts upon the intel- 
ligence of the listener, how completely absent 
are all the spectacular features that count for 
so much with us, as well as everything that 
savors of the horse-play of low comedy, how 
single and unsupported is its intellectual appeal, 
we must wonder how many American cities 
would furnish it as long a run as it had on its 
first appearance. Great as was Moliere's gen- 
ius, his achievement was made possible by the 
high intellectual interests of the society around 

But one may challenge Mr. Chatfield-Taylor's 
presentation of his materials in these and other 
points, and still assert that his book is the best 
that we have so far in English for the general 
reader who wishes to know the life and work of 
the master of comedy. May the number of 
such increase. 

The book is mechanically satisfying, — only 
we should be glad to exchange the ten original 
illustrations for as many reproductions of por- 
traits of Moliere, or of old drawings of his 
theatre and of dramatic representations of the 

*™e- A. G. Canfield. 

Professor Calvin Thomas has edited " An Anthol- 
ogy of German Literature " for Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 
The title is misleading (xmless we are to take the present 
volume as a first instalment) for the period covered ex- 
tends only down to the sixteenth century. The selections 
given are not originals, but modern German translations, 
which enables the beginner in German to learn some- 
thing of the quality of the epics, and of such poets as 
Walthes, Wolfram, and Hartmann von Aue. 



[Feb. 16, 

Briefs on ISTeav Books. 

A summary of ^he fifth and concluding volume of 
contemporary Mr. Herbert Paul's "History of 
English history. Modern England " (Macmillan) cov- 
ers the period from 1885 to 1895, and treats pri- 
marily of Ireland, the two Home Rule Bills, the fall 
of Parnell, and of Church affairs. When the first 
volimie appeared there was an inclination to believe, 
from his treatment of free-trade questions, that the 
author had in mind a polemical history that should 
have an influence on the present-day agitation for a 
return to some sort of a protective system in En- 
gland. But this idea was a mistaken one ; and it is 
now evident that Mr. Paul, though inevitably some- 
what biased by his career as a Liberal politician and 
by his present position as a Liberal journalist, has 
merely sought to present a readable chronological 
history of the last fifty years in England. In this 
it may be said that he has succeeded, if one be not 
too critical of what a "history" demands. Mr. 
Paul's work is, in brief, a readable journalistic en- 
terprise, sufficiently accurate in details, but lacking 
in study, in erudition, and in thought, and largely 
deficient in all save avowed political information. 
His sources are simply a few important biographies 
like that of Gladstone by Mr. Morley, and the de- 
bates in Parliament. In the present volume there 
is a note of haste as of one pushing eagerly for- 
"ward toward the end of a task that has grown irk- 
some ; but even here there is attraction for the 
reader, arising from the author's gift in terse and 
striking, if not convincing, characterization. Esti- 
mated as history in its best form, Mr. Paul's work 
has no great value ; but regarded as a rapid sum- 
mary of political events and questions, written in a 
readable style and conveniently arranged for refer- 
ence, it certainly merits commendation. And in 
one particular the author has added to American 
understanding of English contemporary history, — 
for in this volume, as in the preceding ones, he 
emphasizes and makes clear the great political 
significance of , the Church of England, the ques- 
tions that concern it, and its continued importance 
as a political storm centre. 

Lord Rosebery^s Among the many interpretations of 
interpretation of Lord Randolph Churchill that have 
Lord Churchill, appeared since the publication of the 
notable biogi'aphy of him by his son, Mr. Winston 
Churchill, that now presented by Lord Rosebery 
(Harper) is especially valuable for its candid tone 
and its critical judgment. Lord Rosebery was a po- 
litical opponent and yet a close personal friend of Lord 
Cliurchill, and shortly after the latter's death he was 
asked by Churchill's mother to write some estimate 
of her son's career. Until now he has refused to do 
this; but with the appearance of the former biography 
Lord Rosebery feels more free to give voice to his 
own impressions. His book is in reality an essay, to 
be read easily in an hour or so. The historical back- 
ground is very briefly sketched, — so briefly, in fact, 

that to one who has not read the more formal biog- 
raphy much wUl be unintelligible ; so that the main 
interest lies in a comparison of the characteristics and 
abilities here state'd with those emphasized by the 
former biographer. Lord Rosebery brings out, what 
is not clearly indicated in the eai-lier work, the love- 
ableness of Lord Churchill when among his friends ; 
the nimbleness of mind and quickness of wit that 
made him an enjoyable companion; and also the dog- 
matic self-assertion and self-confidence in political 
matters that ultimately wrecked his career. There 
is entire agreement between the two authors, that 
Churchill was one of the cleverest political tacticians 
and one of the best political fighters that England 
has produced in the last half -century. But of his real 
statesmanship Lord Rosebery is not so sure, — by in- 
ference at least leaving the impression that Churchill's 
statesmanship had not yet developed, and that by un- 
fortunately forcing a quarrel with his chief he lost 
forever the chance to make manifest his higher qual- 
ities. In effect, the present author affirms that states- 
manlike qualities of a high order probably existed in 
Lord Churchill, but had not time to ripen ; and here, 
as elsewhere in the essay, the seemingly adverse judg- 
ment is expressed with affection, almost with regret. 
Students of modern English history, especially those 
who have read Mr. Winston Churchill's biogi'aphy 
of his father, will certainly find pleasure and profit 
in a perusal of this discriminating essay. 

The fate of a When, in 1843, a Theatre Regula- 
theatre monopoly tion Bill was passed by Parliament, 
in England. ^^e final step was taken toward put- 
ting an end to an intolerable condition in theatrical 
affairs that had existed ever since Charles II. in 
1660 granted to D'Avenant and Killigrew patents 
conveying exclusive rights to theatrical representa- 
tions. Dr. Watson Nicholson in his " Struggle for 
a Free Stage in London" (Houghton) gives an 
excellent detailed account of the conflict between 
the patentees, the successors of D'Avenant and 
Killigrew, and their opponents, a conflict waged 
with varying success for nearly two hundred years. 
Up to 1720 the sovereigns felt free to interfere as 
they chose with the old patents, and to grant new 
ones. The prerogative of the Crown was unchecked, 
and the Lord Chamberlain had matters wholly in 
his own hands. Exclusive privileges in theatrical 
affairs ceased to be, and the power of the sovereign 
sank into abeyance from lack of exercise. As a 
consequence, unlicensed theatres sprang up, and, 
until they proceeded to attack the government and 
offend public morals, were let alone. Their scurri- 
lous performances, however, led to the Licensing 
Act of 1737, which recognized only the patent 
houses and destroyed all competition. Dm-ing the 
next half century the monopoly was absolute, more 
so than at any previous period of its history. By 
the close of the eighteenth century, however, certain 
minor theatres arose under Parliamentary authority 
to give musical performances and the like, but not 
to present the legitimate national drama. By 1832 




to Chaucer. 

these theatres had become so important, the patent 
theatres having meanwhUe sunk to the level of the 
minors, that it was only a question of proper legis- 
lation to wipe away all distinctions. This came in 
the Theatre Regulation Bill above referred to. The 
history is by no means an uninteresting one, and is 
not without its parallels to-day. 

Professor William H. Schofield's 
"English Literature from the Nor- 
man Conquest to Chaucer " (Mac- 
millan) purports to fill a gap in a series projected 
several years ago, which covered the later periods 
of our literary history with three volumes, the work 
of Messrs. GU)sse and Saintsbury. The series as 
planned was to make four volumes, and the history 
of pre-Elizabethan times was to be done by Mr. 
Stopford Brooke. But when Mr. Brooke set to work 
he adopted a much more comprehensive scale than 
his predecessors, and when his volume appeared it 
was found to come down only to the Norman Con- 
quest. The gap thus left has remained for a long 
time, and Mr. Schofield has now undertaken to close 
it up. Since the volume he now publishes (although 
a large one) fills only a part of the vacant space, 
leaving the age of Chaucer still unaccounted for, it 
is evident that he has gone into even greater detail 
than his predecessor, and that the entire six-volume 
history, when completed by the addition of the 
Chaucer volume, will constitute an extremely ill- 
balanced work. This is to say nothing in dispraise 
of any single section of it, and of the section now 
published we can speak only words of commenda- 
tion. It offers an exceptionally thorough treatment 
of its period, done in the light of a scholarly tradi- 
tion that runs from Gaston Paris to Child, and from 
Child to Professors Kittredge and Norton. Essen- 
tial features of Mr. Schofield's method are the 
inclusion of all works written in mediaeval England 
in whatever language, the grouping of works of 
allied character, and the large use made of the com- 
parative method. The volume has a bibliographical 
appendix of great value. 

A feast 
of scrapS: 

Mr. Fitzgerald Molloy's " Sir Joshua 
and his Circle " ( Dodd, Mead & Co.) 
is in no sense a serious writing upon 
the first President of the Royal Academy of Arts. 
It is rather a collection of anecdote and gossip about 
him, his friends, sitters, and acquaintances ; and is 
thus an entertaining centre-table book, as it could 
not help being when it serves up so many interesting 
things about the leading characters that made the 
golden age of England's drama, literature, and art. 
Thus are paraded before us Gainsborough, Hogarth, 
Allan Ramsay the son of the Gentle Shepherd, West 
the Pennsylvania Quaker for whose career Gait's 
faulty pages have been laid imder tribute and his 
errors and mistakes blindly followed, Northcote, 
Fuseli, and Romney, among the painters ; Garrick 
and Siddons, the Emperor and Empress of the stage ; 
Sam Johnson and Goldsmith, Richardson with his 

" Pamela " and " Clarissa," Fielding with his " Tom 
Jones " and " Joseph Andrews," Sterne with his 
"Tristram Shandy,"and Smollett with his "Roderick 
Random," in the realm of letters ; while Lady Sarah 
Lennox and Lady Bolingbroke and their divorces, 
Mary Moser and "Angel" Kauffmann (the two 
women members of the Royal Academy), Fanny 
Burney (better known as Madame D'Arblay), and 
Emma Lady Hamilton and her "mutable connec- 
tions," give spice to the worldly side of life as here 
portrayed. It is true that we learn nothing about 
these people that we have not known before, and it 
may be true also that there is nothing new to be 
learned about them. Mr. MoUoy has re-told the old 
stories fairly well, and produced the sort of book 
that very many people like to read. The lack of 
an index is a serious disadvantage. 

The most '^^® most majestic of all the ancient 

majestic of oriental poetry is that left us by the 

all poetry. Hebrews; and the choicest of it is 

that found in the Psalms. These lyric productions 
have held their place undisputedly at the head of 
all religious poetry. Their universal character and 
their popularity among all religious bodies of Bib- 
lical believers have led scores of scholars to produce 
commentaries and other treatises for their better 
understanding. The latest and most complete treat- 
ment is " The International Critical Commentary on 
the Psalms " ( Scribners), by Professor Charles A. 
Briggs of Union Theological Seminary. This work 
is encyclopaedic in character. It goes thoroughly 
into a discussion of the text, the higher criticism, 
the canonicity, and the interpretation of the Psalms. 
The Introduction, covering 110 pages, is the fullest 
treatment we have seen on all the questions that 
concern a critical study of the Psalter. Particularly 
noticeable is Professor Briggs's theory of Hebrew 
poetry. For a score of years he has advocated a 
regular metrical form that has continually gained 
favor with Hebrew scholars all over the world. This 
theory is applied with great care in this commentary. 
Professor Briggs follows up the minutiae of every 
word and point in such a manner as to convince the 
reader that his work is exhaustive. Another thing 
that strikes the mind of the reader forcibly is the 
absolute certainty with which he assigns the com- 
position of the Psalms to different periods of history. 
In the commentary proper the author's strength is 
shown, in the main, in his treatment of the theo- 
logical questions that arise in the individual Psalms. 
On this point, rather than on the date or linguistic 
phases, this commentary is of especial value to scho- 
lars, for of course it is a book preeminently for them. 

The authors D^; Frederick Riedl of Budapest has 
a7id literature written " A History of Hungarian 
of Hungary. Literature " for the series of books 
called " Literatures of the World," published by the 
Messrs. Appleton, and now numbering upwards of 
a dozen volumes. The writing of the book was 
commissioned by the Hungarian Academy for the 



[Feb. 16,- 

express purpose of filling a gap in the series, and 
representing the national literature of the Magyar 
by a thoroughly authoritative treatise. " The book 
is unique in its kind in that it has been wi-itten 
entirely for the English public, and has never ap- 
peared in Hungarian ; indeed, no such work exists 
in Hungary, and it will be as new to the Hungarian 
public as it is to the English." The translation of 
the prose text is the work of Mr. and Mrs. C. A. 
Ginever (the latter a daughter of the Hungarian 
poet GjOry), and the interspersed poetical illustra- 
tions are mainly the work of Mr. G. Hagberg 
Wright, upon whose initiative the book was under- 
taken. Upon examination, it proves to be an ex- 
tremely readable volume, exhibiting scholarship 
without pedantry, and resisting the temptation to 
dwell at too gi-eat length upon the formative period 
of the literature. After eighty pages, or thereabouts, 
we get down to the nineteenth century, which gives 
ample space for an adequate account of the really 
significant modern poets, dramatists, and novelists. 
We extract one amusing bit about the poet Csokonai. 
After his death (1805), the inscription " I too have 
been in Arcadia " was suggested for his tombstone. 
" The poet's fellow-townsmen, the worthy matter- 
of-fact burgesses of Debreczen, did not know what 
it meant. They looked up the name Arcadia in 
Barth^lemy's ' Le Jeune Anacharsis,' and there dis- 
covered the following statement : ' In Arcadia there 
were excellent fields for the rearing of domestic ani- 
mals, especially asses.' They felt hurt, and the 
ensuing controversy would have furnished a suitable 
theme for Csokonai's muse." 

of Ibsen. 

Now that Ibsen is dead, and has con- 
sequently " arrived," it is curious to 
note the rush of the critics, profes- 
sional and amateur, to the discussion of his work. 
The former kind of critic, after ignoring the dram- 
atist during all the years of his struggle and his 
slowly-ripening triumph, now seems to be saying : 
" This man was really of considerable importance, 
and it is my professional duty to the public to 
appraise him." The recent essays of Professor 
Dowden and Mr. Arthur Symons are cases in point. 
They have " gotten up " their subject too hm-riedly 
to have anything particularly weighty to say about 
it, but their manner is impressive, and we may credit 
them with the discharge of an obligation imposed 
by the sense of their own importance as mediators 
between poet and public. To the amateur critic, 
Ibsen offers, not so much the chance of performing 
a public duty as the chance of attracting attention 
by exploiting a subject of special timeliness. He 
affords a fine corpse in which to flesh their bright 
new surgical instruments. Mr. Haldane MacFall, 
who has just published a book on Ibsen (San 
Francisco : Morgan Shepard), is a typical example 
of this sort of critic. His method is very simple. 
He takes the plays and the letters of the dramatist, 
and has at hand a few standard books (Jaeger, 
Brandes, Gosse, Archer, Boyesen) ; with these ma- 

terials he concocts a running narrative, composed 
of the plots of the plays and the incidents of the 
biography. His individual contribution is a jerky 
emotional commentary, which makes a brave pre- 
tense of being impressive, but exhibits no particular 
insight or sense of perspective. The one really 
original thing Mr. MacFall does is to give Ibsen's 
great contemporary ( whom he mentions repeatedly ) 
the weird name of " Byornsterne Byornsen." This 
amazing exhibition of bad taste (for we cannot char- 
itably ascribe it to ignorance ) needs no comment. 

Some brilliant ^}^^ readable sketches of five brU- 
and eccentric liant and eccentric ladies, cleverly 
court ladies. translated from the French of M. 
Arvede Barine, are published in a handsome volume 
entitled " Princesses and Court Ladies " (Putnam). 
The title is inclusive enough to make room for Marie 
Mancini, Christina of Sweden, the Duchess of 
Maine, the Margravine of Bayreuth, and an Arab 
princess who left her father's harem and gave up 
her title to become plain Frau Reute, wife of a 
German merchant, — and always regretted it. M. 
Barine is already known to English readers through 
two volumes about another princess, la Grande 
Mademoiselle. He writes in a popular style that 
does not obtrude its background of scholarship, but 
nevertheless depends upon it to avoid any suspicion 
of cheapness or superficiality. He presents mooted 
issues, but does not discuss them, aiming to cast 
verified facts into picturesque and dramatic form 
rather than to propound new theories. He has the 
Gallic eye for type, with evidently a keen interest 
in the particular one that he chooses to delineate. 
All his fine ladies have much in common : a brilliant 
but unbalanced mind, a violent temper, superb ego- 
tism, an irresponsible child-like zest for pleasure, 
and a freakish love of romance, which, coupled with 
their other qualities, often leads to wild extrava- 
gances and strange adventures. 

Workers for ^^ optimistic view of American pub- 
pubiicgood lic morality is taken by Mr. Philip 

in America. Loring Allen in his book entitled 
"America's Awakening" (Revell). "That there 
has been an awakening of the American people 
during the opening years of the twentieth century 
is now an accepted fact," says Mr. Allen ; and he 
might have added that it was certainly time for one. 
This awakening, he thinks, " has manifested itself 
in two main forms, the warfare against political 
bosses and the warfare against specially privileged 
corporations. And yet the story of the great move- 
ment for political and business honesty cannot be 
told in the mere list of rascals jailed and new officials 
elected. Above and beyond these concrete achieve- 
ments, there has been a bracing of the moral sense 
of the country that is none the less real because it 
cannot be accurately measured." The book is an 
attempt to measure the extent and reality of this 
moral bracing, through personal studies of the lives 
and political careers of the men who most aided it, 




— Roosevelt, LaFollette, Folk, Jerome, Weaver, 
Johnson, not forgetting the almost numberless lesser 
men whose names are not on the public records, but 
who have been actively serving in the " humdrum 
work for good." 


Ibsen's " Peer Gynt" is now added to the uniform 
edition of his plays published by the Messrs. Scribner. 
The translation is Mr. Archer's, considerably revised, 
and is provided with an extensive historical and critical 
introduction. Another feature of much interest is an 
appendix which gives us translations of the Peer Gynt 
legends as they appear in Asbjomsen's " Eventyr." 

From the Elm Tree Press, Woodstock, Vermont, 
we have a beautifully-printed copy of FitzGerald's 
(here unfortunately printed Fitzgerald) version of the 
" Agamemnon" of iEschylus. The edition is limited, 
and has two portrait illustrations, besides a sketch-map 
of the path of the travelling lire. There are a few 
notes. Good taste chai-acterizes every feature of the 
make-up of this dignified volume, for which we are 
given to understand that Messrs. C. L. Dana and J. C. 
Dana are responsible. 

Dr. Alfred M. Tozzer, who for three years filled the 
research fellowship of the Archfeological Institute of 
America, has made a report of his work, which is now 
published by the Macmillan Co. His subject is "A 
Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones." 
A publication of allied interest is Mr. Warren K. 
Moorehead's " Narrative of Explorations in New Mex- 
ico, Arizona, Indiana, etc.," published at Andover by 
the Phillips Academy Department of Archaeology. 

" The Mythology of Greece and Rome," by Professor 
Arthur Fairbanks, is published by the Messrs. Appleton 
in their series of " Twentieth Century Text-Books." 
The special pm^ose of the work is " to illustrate the 
wide-reachmg influence of Greek myths first on the 
Latin poets, and, mainly through the Latin poets, on 
later writers." This gives it a general character similar 
to that of Gayley's " Classic Myths," but the illustrative 
material used in the two works is widely different. 

Professor Charles Eliot Norton's Centenary Memoir 
of Longfellow appears in a cheaper edition (price fif- 
teen cents) which will be welcome to many at this time 
of a revival of interest in the poet. The limited large- 
paper edition, with its two photogravure portraits, its 
uncut leaves, and its English cloth covers, will appeal 
to those to whom a work of literature is not always 
more than its raiment. But readers of every class 
must value the book, in whatever shape, both for its 
subject and its authorship. 

Hood and Goldsmith are the latest to take their 
place in the goodly company of " Oxford Poets," pub- 
lished by Mr. Henry Frowde. In his preface to the 
Hood volume, Mr. Walter Jerrold states that he has 
been able to include several hitherto uncollected pieces. 
The arrangement of the poems is in the main chrono- 
logical, — a decided improvement over the usual arbi- 
trary division into " serious" and " humorous" sections. 
The Goldsmith volume is a revision and extension of 
Mr. Austin Dobson's Clarendon Press edition of 1887. 
The whole of Goldsmith's poetry is now included, and 
considerable new editorial material is introduced. A 
portrait in photogravure appears in each volume. 


Mr. A. C. Benson's charming book "The Thread of 
Gold," is now published by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
in a new and highly attractive edition. 

Balzac's " Pierrette, " edited by Miss Theodora de 
S^lincourt, is an addition to the " Oxford Higher 
French Series, " published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

An edition of Irving's " Sketch Book," embodying 
several imique and serviceable features, has been pre- 
pared by H. A. Davidson, and will be issued at once by 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 

" Lincolnics " is the title of a new " Ariel Booklet " 
published by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. It is a 
compilation of the familiar sayings of Abraham Lin- 
coln, edited by Mr. Henry L. Williams. 

A volimae on Ibsen by Mr. Edmmid Gosse and one 
on Goethe by Professor Dowden will soon be issued in 
Messrs. Scribner's series of " Literary Lives." 

" The Praise of Hypocrisy, " being an essay in Cas- 
uistry by Dr. G. T. Knight, is issued as a booklet by 
the Open Court Publishing Co., having originally ap- 
peared in the pages of " The Open Court. " 

Mr. Mitchell Kennerley publishes a new edition of 
the " Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton, B. A., " now ac- 
knowledged as the work of Mr. A. C. Benson, but first 
published anonymously more than twenty years ago. 

The Macmillan Co. continue to issue the English 
" Who 's Who," which in the volume for 1907 contains 
about two thousand closely-printed pages. This is the 
fifty-ninth annual issue of this extremely useful book of 

« The Bridge Blue Book," by Mr. Paul F. Mottelay, 
is the latest candidate for the favor of bridge enthusi- 
asts. It is a compilation of expert opinion upon dis- 
puted matters, and is published by Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

" Municipal Control of Public Utilities," by Dr. Oscar 
Lewis Pond, is published in the Columbia University 
series of studies. The author's special task has been 
the examination of recent judicial decisions upon this 
very live subject. 

Mr. Walter Taylor Field's articles on children's 
reading, several of which have appeared in The Dial, 
will be published next month by Messrs. A. C. McClurg 
& Co., in a volume entitled " Fingei-posts to Children's 

" Soils: How to Handle and Improve Them," by 
Professor S. W. Fletcher, is the latest addition to " The 
Farm Library" of Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. It 
makes a large volume, abimdantly and handsomely 

Two new volumes in the " Oxford Higher French 
Series " are a " Choix de Lettres Parisiennes de Ma- 
dame de Girardin," edited by Mr. F. de Baudiss, and 
Hugo's " Hemani," edited by Mr. C. Kemshead. Mr. 
Henry Frowde is the publisher. 

Professor George Lansing Raymond's " The Essen- 
tials of Esthetics " (Putnam) offers in a single volume, 
and in condensed form, a statement of the author's 
theories about the fine arts, as heretofore embodied by 
him in a series of substantial special volumes. 

Mr. T. S. Osmond has written a volume, which Mr. 
Henry Frowde will pubUsh next mouth, sketching the 
history of prosodical criticism in England and America 
diu-mg the last two hundred years. It is entitled 
" English Metrists of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth 



[Feb. 16, 

Centuries." The author has endeavored not merely to 
enumerate and summarize treatises, but also to trace 
the gradual development of soimder views about verse 

JVIr. Lawrence Gilman has written a small guide to 
the " Salome " of Herr Richard Strauss. The story is 
recapitulated, with illustrations from Wilde's text, and 
the leading motives ate printed in musical notation. 
The booklet is published by the John Lane Co. 

Professor Gilbert Murray's singularly poetic transla- 
tions of the " Medea," " The Trojan Women," and the 
" Electra " of Euripides, three volumes in one, supplied 
with introductions and notes, come to us from the 
American branch of the Oxford University Press. 

« A Text-Book of Practical Physics, " by Dr. Wil- 
liam Watson, is published by Messrs. Longmans, Green 
& Co. It is a reference book for advanced student 
workers m physical laboratories, and a comprehensive 
guide to the methods of modern physical technology. 

" The Book of the V. C. " as compiled from official 
papers by Mr. A. L. Haydon, is a " popular record of the 
deeds of heroism for which the Victoria Cross has been 
bestowed, from its institution in 1857 to the present 
time." It is a good book for boys. Messrs. E. P. Dut- 
ton & Co. are the publishers. 

Mr. Paul Elmer More, who writes too much to write 
as well as he might, now sends out a fourth volume of 
" Shelburne Essays " from the press of the Messrs. 
Putnam. The essays number eleven, and among their 
subjects are Hawker (of Morwenstow), Herbert, Keats, 
Franklin, Whitman, and Blake. 

Book Three of " The Gulick Hygiene Series " is called 
" Town and City," and is made up of chapters for chil- 
dren on such subjects as street-cleanmg, sanitation, parks, 
water-supply, and epidemics. It makes a very useful 
kind of supplementary reading-book. It is written by 
Mrs. Frances Gulick Jewett, and published by Messrs. 
Ginn & Co. 

A new book by Mr. Arthur C. Benson, entitled 
" Beside Still Waters," is annoimced for March publi- 
cation by the Messrs. Putnam. The volume takes the 
form of a record of the sentiments, the changing opin- 
ions, and the quiet course of life of a young man whom 
an miexpected legacy has freed from the necessity of 
leading an active life in the world of afEairs. 

The Spring fiction of Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. 
includes the following volumes : " Langford of the 
Three Bars," by Kate and Virgil D. Boyles, illustrated 
in color by Mr. N. C. Wyeth ; " The Iron Way," by 
Mrs. Sara Pratt Carr ; " Indian Love Letters," by Mrs. 
Marah Ellis Ryan ; and " The Story of Bawn," by Miss 
Katharine Tynan. 

A " Large Print Edition " of standard literature is 
announced by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. The 
series will be printed from bold-faced type on thin 
Bible paper, in a form convenient to hold and to carry 
about. Miss Bronte's " Wuthering Heights " and 
Charles Reade's " Love Me Little, Love Me Long " are 
the first volumes announced. 

Those well-known books of a past generation, " Ten 
Acres Enough " and " Liberty and a Living," are to 
have an up-to-date successor in Mr. Bolton Hall's 
"Three Acres and Liberty," which the Macmillan 
Company will publish shortly. In the preparation of 
his facts and figures as to modern cultivation of the 
soil, Mr. Hall has had the aid of several well-known 
specialists in this field. 

" American History and Government, " published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., is a text book of United 
States history by Professors James A. Woodburn and 
Thomas F. Moran. It is a book for the grammar 
grades, but might be profitably used a little higher up, 
although it falls short of the requirements for senior 
class work in the high schools. 

A " New Classical Library," edited by Dr. Emil 
Reich, is published by the Macmillan Co. The volumes 
are small, and two of them are now at hand. One is 
" An Alphabetical Encyclopaedia of Institutions, Per- 
sons, Events, etc., of Ancient History and Geography," 
and has been prepared by Dr. Reich himself. The 
other offers a translation, by Mr. G. Woodrouffe HaiTis, 
of the first three books of Herodotus. 

Two new volumes will soon be published by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. in « The Chief Poets Series." 
Their titles will be " The Chief English Poets to the 
Time of Chaucer," edited by Professor C. G. Child, of 
the University of Pennsylvania; and "The Chief En- 
glish Poets from Chaucer to Tottel's Miscellany," 
edited by Professor W. A. Neilson and Dr. Kenneth 
G. T. Webster, of Harvard University. 

Beginning with the January number the famous En- 
glish quarterly, " Mind," is to be published by Mac- 
millan & Co., Ltd., London, and The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York. Professor G. F. Stout, who has been 
the editor for more than fifteen years, retains that 
position, and Professor E. B. Titchener, of Cornell 
University, remains the American editorial representa- 
tive. The Advisory Committee includes Dr. Edward 
Caird, Professor Ward, and Professor Pringle-Pattison. 

The alumnfe of Bryn Mawr College have undertaken 
to create within the next two years an endowment fund 
of one million dollars, to be devoted to the strictly 
academic needs of that institution. In furtherance of 
this fund the Bryn Mawr alumnse of Chicago have ad- 
opted the novel and somewhat daring plan of present- 
ing at the Auditorium during the week of February 
18 the San Carlo Opera Company in a varied reper- 
toire. This organization, which includes such capable 
artists as Madame Nordica, Sig. Campanari, and Miss 
Alice Neilson, has met with marked success in its tours 
of the past two years, under the direction of Mr. Henry 
Russell. The week in Chicago promises to be a bril- 
liant one, and should result in the substantial advance- 
ment of a worthy educational cause. Nearly S100,000 
has already been raised for the proposed endowment in 
Boston and other cities. 

Two books of special interest m view of the ap- 
proaching tri-centennial of Jamestown, Va., will be 
published this Spring by the Macmillan Company. One 
is the " Travels " of the famous Captain John Smith, — 
" The Generall Historic of Virginia, New England, and 
the Summer Isles, with the Proceedings of those Sev- 
eral! Colonies and the Accidents that Befel them in all 
their Joumyes and Discoveries. By Captaine John 
Smith, Sometymes Governour in those Countryes, and 
Admirall of New England" The rare works that 
make up this volume are here assembled in convenient 
form for the first time since their original publication 
in 1624-30. The edition will contain facsimile repro- 
ductions of all the maps and illustrations in the origi- 
nals, including the rare portraits of the Duchess of 
Richmond and Pocahontas. The other book is " The 
Birth of the Nation : Jamestown, 1607," by Mrs. Roger 
A. Pryor, author of " The Mother of Washington and 
Her Times," and " Reminiscences of Peace and War." 




liisT OF IS'EW Books. 

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received by The Dial since its last issue.] 

Studies in Biography. By Sir Spencer Walpole. With pho- 
togravure portrait, larg-e 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 378. E. P. 

Dutton & Co. $4. net. 
Salph "Waldo Emerson. By George Edward Woodberry. 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 205. " English Men of Letters." Mac- 

millan Co. 75 cts. net. 
Comedy Queens of the Georgrlan Era. By John Pyvie. 

Illus. in photogravure, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 445. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. $4. net. 
Vittoria Colonna, with an Account of her Friends and her 

Times. By Maud F. Jerrold. With photogravure portraits, 

large 8to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 336. E. P. Dutton & Co. $4. net. 
Queen and Cardinal : A Memoir of Anne of Austria apd 

her Relations with Cardinal Mazarin. By Mrs. Colquhoun 

Grant. With portraits in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt 

top, pp. 268. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3.50 net. 
A Revolutionary Princess : Christina Belgiojoso-Trivulzio, 

her Life and Times (1808-1871). By H. Remsen Whitehouse. 

Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 319. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. 13. net. 
Hadame Becamler and her Friends. By H. Noel Williams. 

New and revised edition ; veith photogravure portrait, large 

8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 350. Charles Scribner's Sons. |2. net. 
Ibsen, the Man, his Art, and his Significance. By Haldane 

Macfall. With portraits, 12mo, uncut, pp. 326. New York: 

Morgan Shepard Co. $1.50 net. 


German Religious Life in Colonial Times. By Lucy 
Forney Bittinger. 12mo, pp. 145. J. B. Lippincott Co. 

liord Milner's Work in South Africa from its Commence- 
ment in 1897 to the Peace of Vereeniging in 1902 ; Containing 
Hitherto Unpublished Information. By W. Basil Worsfold. 
With portraits in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, 
pp. 620. E. P. Dutton & Co. $4.50 net. 

The Enemy at Trafalgar : An Account of the Battle from 
Eye-Witnesses' Narratives and Letters and Despatches from 
the French and Spanish Fleets. By Edward Eraser. Illus., 
large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 436. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3.50 net. 


The Writings of James Madison : Comprising his Public 
Papers and his Private Correspondence, including Nmnerous 
Letters and Documents Now for the First Time Printed. 
Edited by Gaillard Hunt. Vol. VI., 1790-1802. Large 8vo. gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 464. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $5. 

The Thread of Gold. By Arthur Christopher Benson. New 
edition ; 8vo, gilt top, pp. 286. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2. net. 

Loose Beads. By Katharine Burrill. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 222. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Papers and Addresses. By William Gilbert Davies, S.B. 
With frontispiece, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 352. Robert 
Grier Cooke. 

The Golden Sayings of the Blessed Brother Giles of 
Asslsi. Newly trans, and edited, together with a Sketch of 
His Life, by the Rev. Fr. Paschal Robinson. Illus. in pho- 
togravure, etc., 18mo, pp. 141. Philadelphia: The Dolphin 
Press. $1. net. 

Lincolnics: Familiar Sayings of Abraham Lincoln. Collected 
and edited by Henry Llewellyn Williams. With photogra- 
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G. P. Putnam's Sons. Leather, 75 cts. net. 

Agumemnon of iEschylus. Trans, by Edward FitzGerald. 

Limited edition; with portraits and map, large 8vo, pp. 71. 

Woodstock, Vt. : Elm Tree Press. $2. 
Tudor and Stuart Library. New vols.: Sir Pulke Qreville's 

Life of Sir Philip Sidney, with introduction by Nowell Smith ; 

Peacham's Compleat Gentleman, with introduction by G. S. 

Gordon. Each 12mo, \mcut. Oxford University Press. Per 

vol., $1.75 net. 
Complete Works Abraham Lincoln. Edited by John G. 

Nicolay and John Hay; with Introduction by Richard 

Watson Gilder. Gettysburg edition; Vols. XL and XII., 

concluding the work, each with photogravure portrait, large 

8vo, uncut. Francis D. Tandy Co. 

Sonnets from the Trophies of Jos6->Marla de Heredia. 

Rendered into English by Edward Robeson Taylor. Fourth 
edition ; 12mo, pp. 190. Paul Elder & Co. $1.50 net. 
The Collected Works of Henrik Ibsen. Copyright edition. 
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Charles Scribner's Sons. $1. 


Actaeon, and Other Poems. By John Erskine. 18mo, uncut, 

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The Cry of Defeat. By Lisi de Cipriani. With portrait, 

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Guenevere : A Play in Five Acts. By Stark Young. 12mo. gilt 

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The Blind Man at the Window, and Other Poems. By Stark 

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The Port of Missing Men. By Meredith Nicholson. lUus., 

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The Secret of Tonl. By Molly Elliott Seawell. Illus., 12mo, 

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Frost and Friendship. By George Frederic Turner. Illus., 

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The Diamond Ship. By Max Pemberton. Illus., 12mo, 

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The Lonely Lady of Grosvenor Square. By Mrs. Henry 

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A Boy's Marriage. By Hugh de S6lincourt. 12mo, pp. 307. 

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The Messiah Idea in Jewish History. By Julius H. 

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[Feb. 16^, 

The Golden Book of Henry Dnunmond. Selected by Alex- 
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No. 497. 

MARCH 1, 1907. 

Vol. XLII. 






Books and the moral consciousness. — Browning 
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NOTES 149 



After a fitful existence of four months, the 
New Theatre of Chicago has closed its doors, 
and the playhouse which has been the scene of 
its praiseworthy enterprise has fallen into the 
hands of the Philistines, to become the resort 
of those for whom dramatic art means no more 
than vapid or vulgar entertainment. The ex- 
periment thus brought to an untimely end has 
cost its promoters upwards of fifty thousand 
dollars, besides other sacrifices that cannot be 
measured in monetary terms. It was an illus- 
tration of honorable endeavor in a deserving- 
cause ; and if that cause seem lost for the time 
being, the outcome must be attributed to mis- 
taken means and methods rather than to any 
inherent defect in the actuating motive. The 
enterprise was prompted by a fine sense of pub- 
lic spirit, and an unselfish desire to contribute 
toward the redemption of our stage from its 
present low estate ; those who were responsible 
for it, and who have seen their hopes rudely 
shattered, have at least the poet's consoling 

" Not failure, but low aim, is crime," 
to cheer them in the retrospect. 

Readers of The Dial know how persistently 
it has always stood for the higher ideal of the 
drama, both as literature, and, in its stage- 
production, as an ethical agency. The aims of 
the New Theatre were so clearly in the right 
direction, and its purpose so consonant with 
what we have urged for so many years, that we 
should not be misunderstood if, in analyzing 
the present case, we may seem to speak with 
something like severity of the way in which the 
enterprise has been conducted. All the way 
from start to finish, there were such evidences 
of mismanagement, such an obvious lack of 
intelligent direction, that failure was almost a 
foregone conclusion with the impartial outside 
observer. It is best not to mince matters in 
dealing with this subject, because the experi- 
ment which has now failed is going to be tried 
over again — perhaps many times, — and is 
eventually going to prove successful. And the 
best way to hasten its success must be to under- 



[March 1, 

stand the causes of the previous failure, in order 
to avoid their repetition. 

To begin with, there was an element of un- 
due haste in the starting of the New Theatre. 
Eagerness to be first in the field (of which more 
anon) was responsible for a lack of the neces- 
sary deliberation, and for putting into effect a 
plan that had not been carefully matured. This 
haste was manifested in the choice of both busi- 
ness manager and dramatic director. In both 
cases the selection made was unfortimate, 
although for different reasons. The business 
manager was too practical, and the dramatic 
director was not practical enough. The associa- 
tions of the former were entirely with theatrical 
affairs of the type to which the New Theatre 
sought to stand in the sharpest possible con- 
trast, which made his sympathetic furtherance 
of its aims weU-nigh impossible. The latter 
was a gentleman of remarkable knowledge and 
technical equipment, who nevertheless failed in 
comprehension of the immediate problem pro- 
vided for his solution. He offered the best of 
reasons for the things he did, but they often 
proved to be the wrong things in spite of their 
intellectual defence. And the men who stood 
back of these two executive figures constituted 
an ill-assorted body. Their intentions were of 
the best, but their ideas were illustrative either 
of an innocent helplessness or of an excess of 
the academic spirit, which meant confusion of 
counsel and the inability to define their means 
as definitely as their idtimate purpose was de- 
fined. There was thus inherent in its organiza- 
tion such a lack of harmonious coordination 
among its parts that the enterprise was fore- 
doomed, if not to absolute failure, at least to a 
difficidt course and the making of a blurred 
impression upon the public. 

Now the public has to be taken into account 
very seriously in such an experiment as this ; 
but the new venture was so untactfully heralded 
as to alienate the public at the outset, and to 
make it feel, all the time the experiment was 
in progress, that its cooperation was not partic- 
idarly desired. The idea got abroad that the 
new playhouse was the resort of a coterie, that 
it was a " society " affair, that visitors would 
feel uncomfortable unless they wore evening 
clothes and diamonds. Its sponsors were largely 
of a class better known for the possession of 
worldly goods than for other qualities, and their 
names were advertised much more extensively 
than the names of the performers. They seemed 
to think that the sanction of their presence 

was all that was needed for success, that the 
stamp of their approval woidd magnetize the 
undertaking. They made the fatal mistake of 
establishing a scale of prices that only an extra- 
ordinary attraction could justify, and the sup- 
port of the public — even of that section of the 
public which had been in a receptive mood — 
was forever lost. The opening night filled the 
theatre with a briUiant audience ; the night fol- 
lowing found it comparatively empty. It was 
an " endowed " theatre, so the playbUls said. 
" Very well," replied the public, " those who 
have endowed it may keep it for their own play- 
thing ; it does not interest us, and has no need 
of our encouragement." As for the claim of 
" endowment," it was of course unjustified ; 
all it really meant was that a sufficient sum of 
money had been pledged to provide for a part 
of a single season. 

When the doors of the New Theatre were at 
last opened for the initial production, there were 
revealed a prettily-decorated hall, a stage of toy 
dimensions, and a company of actors most of 
whom had good records as individuals, but 
whose collective performance was hopelessly 
mediocre and even amateurish. As for the 
opening bill, its character was such as to leave 
fairly aghast all serious sympathizers with the 
undertaking. Instead of selecting some strong 
and vital play of the sort for which the institu- 
tion was supposed to exist, the director had 
patched up a progrannne by taking Gilbert's 
" Engaged," mutilating it almost beyond recog- 
nition, and associating with it two small pieces, 
one an insignificant trifle from the French, the 
other a character-sketch by a popular humorist 
of the day. The defence urged for this extra- 
ordinary hodge-podge was that it enabled every 
member of the company to have a part in the 
opening performance. We spoke a little while 
ago of the director's gift of finding excellent 
reasons for doing the wrong things ; this is a 
typical illustration of what we meant. Never 
did a mountain's labor bring forth a more 
ridiculous mouse. From that moment the fate 
of the enterprise was sealed. 

During the four months of life for which it 
was destined, the playhouse conducted a series 
of opportunist experiments which discovered no 
trace of unity of purpose. A play a fortnight 
was the ride, which was followed mitil near the 
end. After the unfortunate first fortnight, a 
really great play — Senor Echegaray's " El 
Gran Galeoto " — was produced. Now this is 
exactly the kind of play for which the New 




Theatre was supposed to be created; had it 
been boldly given at the start, or any other 
work of similar rank, the fortunes of the en- 
terprise might have been vastly different. At 
the worst, its eventual failure would have 
been dignified, had such a beginning been made 
and such an ideal been consistently pursued. A 
few good plays were given during the follow- 
ing months — such plays as Herr Fulda's 
"Maskerade," Augier's "Poirier," and Heme's 
"Margaret Fleming" — just such plays as 
should have been given. The other productions 
ranged from the passable through the barely 
admissible to the wholly inexcusable — the 
lowest depth having been reached with a cheap 
melodrama (an adaptation of " The Spoilers "); 
which was not " playing the game," although 
the house was packed for the first and only 
fortnight during its career. 

Further analysis of the case is unnecessary. 
The mistakes already catalogued are enough 
to account for the failure many times over. 
It provides one more example of disinterested 
devotion made futile by hasty effort and faidty 
judgment. The experience has been profitable 
for correction, and the next enterprise of the 
kind will know many definite things to avoid, 
although likely enough to make new mistakes of 
its own. That next enterprise is already much 
more than a dream. It is an effort that has 
been deliberately nurtured for several years, 
that has evolved a comprehensive plan covering 
both the administrative and the artistic aspects 
of the undertaking, and that is now announced, 
with considerable show of definiteness, for in- 
auguration next autumn. It has for its respon- 
sible backing the Chicago Woman's Club, a very 
large and influential organization with many good 
works to its credit, that usually accomplishes 
what it undertakes. The plan would probably 
have been put into practical effect last year, 
had not the New Theatre cut the wind out of 
its sails, for its course was charted long before 
that misadventure was conceived. Its friends 
would not have begrudged the success of the 
rival enterprise, had that been possible ; but 
since it has proved impossible, they expect to 
benefit by the lesson the failure has taught 
them. We are optimistic enough to hope that 
a year from the present date we may be able to 
report the proposed Players' Theatre as an or- 
ganization in active existence, perhaps not over- 
prosperous, but at least assured of continuance 
through the season and through other seasons 
to follow. 


One by one the stars go out in the poetical firma- 
ment ; with each extinction the night grows more 
cheerless, and the pilgrim's track, no longer control- 
led by its guiding skymark, is made less certain of 
its goal. This modern world of ours is not so rich 
in poets that it can mark the passing of one of them 
without a pang, and when the voice that is stilled is 
one of such authentic utterance as the voice which 
spoke from the lips of Carducci, the news brings 
with it a sense of grievous and irretrievable loss. He 
was one of the great poets of modern times ; with 
the single exception of Mr. Swinburne, he was the 
greatest poet living in the world when the nineteenth 
century gave place to its successor. And now he is 
dead, after reaching the scriptural limit of man's 
years, and the whole world joins in paying reverent 
tribute to his memory. 

The association of Carducci's name with that of 
his great English contemporary (less than a year 
his junior) is more than fortuitous. The two poets 
are linked by their common devotion to the cause of 
free Italy, for the years of their early manhood 
were those in which that ideal became realized, the 
years of what Frederic Myers calls " the last great 
struggle where all chivalrous sympathies could range 
themselves undoubtingly on one side." And they 
are also linked by certain fundamental principles 
common to both, by their hatred of all forms of 
tyranny, their efforts to bring poetry back to its 
classical modes of expression, their intimate feeling 
for nature, the high seriousness of their thought, and 
the sustained elevation of their poetical flight. 

Giosu^ Carducci was born in 1836, a Tuscan of 
ancient and distinguished lineage. His father was 
a physician by profession and a Manzonian by intel- 
lectual affinity, which meant that the romantic spirit, 
sought to claim the youth for its own. But the in- 
fluence of that spirit, at least in its mediaevalizing and 
catholicizing aspects, was already far spent in Italy, 
and the boy's idealism slowly groped its way from 
Giusti and Manzoniback to Leopardi, then to Dante, 
and then to the Romans, where it took refuge, not, 
however, in any pedantic or servUe sense, but in the 
sense that the freedom and sanity of the classical spirit 
were instinctively felt by the youthful poet, when he 
came into close contact with them, to be his soul's 
own birthright. Meanwhile, his country was prepar- 
ing for its resui'rection. The leaven of Mazzini's 
gospel was spiritualizing the life of young Italy, and 
the first shock of the upheaval had come with the 
great year of revolution, the memorable year of 
1848, which brought only immediate disaster, yet 
nevertheless thrilled the whole world with hope. It 
left the boy of twelve an ardent republican, urging 
upon the petty political leader of his village the 
duty of raising the war-cry, '■^Abasso tutti i re: viva 
la republica!" And a republican in spirit he re- 
mained all his life, serving his country as such in 
both houses of the legislature, although unwilling 



[March 1, 

to assume the intransigeant attitude of Mazzini, and 
accepting the constitutional monarchy of the Re Gal- 
antuomo as a working compromise in the country's 
political progress to its predestined ultimate good. 
His academic career (for he was a professor more 
continuously and steadfastly than he was a poet) 
hegan at the early age of twenty-three, when he was 
appointed to the University of Pisa. In 1861 he 
entered upon his duties at the University of Bologna, 
which remained the scene of his academic activities 
for upwards of forty years — practically the rest 
of his life. There he lectured year after year, im- 
pressing upon the fortunate youth of new Italy the 
stamp of his rugged and austere personality, incul- 
cating upon their minds his own hatred of shams 
and love of truth, his feeling for all that was worthy 
in the traditions of the race, his devotion to the 
noblest ideals of art and thought and conduct. And 
there, as he grew gray in the service of his nation, 
he drew upon himself, by the might of genius, the 
eyes of Italy and the world, until the Italian people 
came to realize that his modest dwelling in the 
ancient towered city of Bologna housed their greatest 
man, and united in paying tribute to his fame. 

That fame was, of course, for the world at large, 
primarily the fame of the poet ; yet those who knew 
the poet also as teacher and as friend must have 
felt that theirs was a doubly rich possession, for 
there is much testimony to indicate that the mortals 
thus favored were hardly able to tell whether it was 
for Carducci the poet or Carducci the man that they 
felt the greater reverence. And it is well for the 
millions of his lovers who never saw him in the 
flesh to be assured that, had they known him in 
person, or been acquainted with the more intimate 
aspects of his life, their ideal would have suffered 
no impairment. He was, like our own Milton and 
Tennyson, one of the poets who order their lives with 

" Close heed 
Lest, having spent for the work's sake 
Six days, the man be left to make." 

He once wrote that " the poet should express him- 
self and his moral and artistic convictions with all 
the sincerity, the clearness, the resolution in his 
power ; the rest is no concern of his." If we read 
this passage with a heavy emphasis on the word 
" himself," it will be an exact statement of the sum 
of Carducci's poetical activity. 

There was certainly no lack of sincerity, clear- 
ness, or resolution in the famous " Hymn to Satan," 
the poem which first made him a national figure. 
It was written at a single sitting in 1863, and ap- 
pearing in print two years later was hurled like a 
bombshell into the camp of reaction and obscurantism. 

" Salute, o Satana, 
O f orza vindice 
De la ragione ! 

" Sacri a te salgono 
Gl'ineeusi e i voti, 
Hai vinto il Geova 
De i sacerdoti." 

The note of uncompromising defiance sounded in 
these closing stanzas found an echo in all ardent 
and generous soids, and the advance guard of liberal 
thought throughout Italy turned instinctively toward 
its new leader and rallied about his standard. The 
poet was vilified, of course, misrepresented, and mis- 
understood. He became the storm centre of a fierce 
conflict which is even yet something more than a 
memory. Time has softened the earlier asperities 
of that struggle, and now even those who are the 
poet's intellectual opponents are willing to recog- 
nize the sufficiently obvious fact that the hymn is 
by no means a glorification of evil, but merely the 
expression of a firm determination to inarch with 
" the avenging force of reason " upon the intrench- 
ments of superstition. 

The volume of Carducci's poetry is very con- 
siderable. It includes the "Rime" of 1857, the 
" Levia Gravia " of 1867, the " Decennalia," " Nuove 
Poesie," and " Giambi ed Epodi" of the next decade, 
and the three volumes of " Odi Barbare" published 
from 1877 to 1889. These titles represent the 
landmarks in his poetical career ; but the biblio- 
graphy of the subject is very complicated, owing 
to many republications and rearrangements. The 
" Odi Barbare," which occasioned as much con- 
troversy (although in different circles) as the polit- 
ical and philosophical poems, represented a highly 
interesting attempt to write modern Italian verse in 
classical metres — alcaics, sapphics, and elegiacs. 
This subject would need a volume for its discussion; 
but we may reproduce Carducci's statement that he 
called the poems "barbarous," for the reason that 
" they would so sound to the ears and judgment of 
the Greeks and Romans, although I have wished to 
compose them in the metrical forms belonging to 
the lyrical poetry of those nations; and because they 
will, too truly, so sound to very many Italians, 
although they are composed and harmonized in 
Italian verses and accents." The experiments thus 
characterized have certainly borne the practical test 
of public approval ; many of the poems written in 
these "barbarous" measures are among his best- 
beloved productions. 

The majority of Carducci's poems have not been 
translated into English ; many of them it would be 
unwise to attempt to translate. Now and then his 
English readers have found the temptation irresist- 
ible, and thus a number of the poems may be read 
in creditable English versions. The best of these 
versions with which we are acquainted have been 
made by Mr. Frank Sewall, Mr. G. A. Greene, and 
Mr. M. W. Arms. We regret that Mr. Howells 
and Mr. William Everett did not come down as 
far as Carducci in their books on modern Italian 
poetry. There is still an excellent choice remain- 
ing for the judicious and competent translator. 
And of Carducci's prose, which is of large volume 
and great intellectual significance, there is no rea- 
son why we should not have an adequate English 
■ translation. 





Books and the moral coxsciousness have inter- 
relations of more kinds than one. The acquisition of 
coveted volumes by methods other than purchase or 
gift has long been held a venial sin, a mere peccadillo, 
in fact, that should no more cause prickings of con- 
science than do similar modes of acquiring umbrellas. 
The open-shelf system now gaining favor with public- 
library managers and patrons offers extraordinary 
temptations to book-lovers of an easy conscience. The 
librarian of the Oakland (Cal.) Public Library reports 
1808 books missing at the annual inventory — a sad 
testimony to the innate depravity of human nature. 
Comfort, however, may be derived from his confidence 
that these hmidreds of volumes are not all lost to the 
library, but that most of them will come back with the 
same informality that marked their exit. Yet the least 
abuse of a valuable privilege is to be deplored. Do 
open shelves breed contempt for the rights of literary 
property ? A return to chained books would perhaps 
awaken the cidprits to a proper sense of the benefits 
they now so lightly esteem. But there are cheering 
signs in other quarters that not all book-reading com- 
munities are so lax in bibliothecal ethics. The Trenton 
(N. J.) Public Library, for example, allows its patrons 
unparalleled privileges : they have free access to a large 
selection of books and may take home as many as they 
wish — first having them properly charged, of course — 
except that in fiction a borrower must solace himself 
with only one' work at one time. We have, too, the 
librarian's personal assurance that this generosity is not 
abused. And this from the state of New Jersey, almost 
from that palace of political iniquity the New Jersey 
state capitol ! , , . 

Browning in Seattle has as queer a sound as 
"Cicero in Maine," the book-title with which Mrs. 
Martha Baker Dunn startled her readers two years 
ago. But that the city on Puget Sound is not so Klon- 
dike-crazy, so Alaska-mad, so exposition-eager, as not 
to see charms in " Paracelsus " and " The Ring and the 
Book," all may convince themselves by reading, in the 
February " Cornhill," the interesting article on " Brown- 
ing out West " which is contributed by Professor 
Frederick Morgan Padelford at the instance of Dr. 
Furnivall. Mr. Padelford's unexpected and highly- 
gratifying success in conducting a Browning elective at 
the state university of Washington is agreeably narrated 
by him. Browning, he believes, more than any other 
English poet, appeals to the American love of strenuous 
endeavor, to the inquisitive American interest in charac- 
ter-unravelling, the national aggressiveness, curiosity, 
bent for psychological analysis, and fondness for so- 
ciological problems. While the English university ideal 
is culture, and the German university ideal is scholar- 
ship (of the Dryasdust brand), the writer holds that 
the American university ideal is public service, the 
betterment of society. The younger generation wishes 
to become men and women who do things, not who have 
things; and these yoimg men and women find their 
creed worthily formulated in Browning, in his philo- 
sophy of life and his clarion call to spiritual conflict and 
ultimate spiritual triumph. Even his harshness and 
roughness (artistically considered) would seem to work 
for and not against him; at any rate they do not rej^el 
his stalwart disciples of the far Northwest as they tend 
to repel readers in whom the artistic sense predominates. 

The emoluments of authorship have rarely been 
large, but have always furnished a theme for curious 
discussion. Some statistics recently collected con- 
cerning the savings of authors show that seven eminent 
writers, lately deceased, including Edwin Arnold, 
George Gissing, and William Sharp, left estates that 
together amounted to about $65,000, or an average of 
$9,285 apiece — not a prfncely fortime, surely. But 
they have their reward, we must believe, even if it be 
not in the coin of the realm. And of those writers 
whose works are produced solely with a view to mon- 
etary returns, we can truly say that " they have their 
reward " also. The modern saw that " to die rich is to 
die disgraced " has a measure of truth for others besides 
ironmasters. At any rate, the books that have sold by 
the hundred thousand copies, and have filled the authors' 
pockets, are often not the books to look back upon with 
unmixed satisfaction. ... 

Shakespeare and Raleigh are two illustrious 
Elizabethan names that are again to be associated in 
the f oi-thcoming life of the bard of Avon for the " English 
Men of Letters" series by Professor Walter Raleigh. 
Strange enough is it that the greatest name in English 
literature — or in all literature, for that matter — has 
so long been conspicuous by its absence on this roll of 
honor, headed, twenty-nine years ago, by Leslie 
Stephen's life of Johnson» Is it that some dim sense of 
the absurdity of calling Shakespeare a "man of letters" 
has hitherto deterred the publishers from adding his 
name to their list? Or has the difficulty lain in finding a 
biographer of the exceptional qualities requisite for the 
task in hand? Except perhaps Mr. Sidney Lee, no one 
is better fitted to write the projected volume than 
Professor Raleigh. 

Ninety-six novels from the same pen is a remark- 
able record, but that is the number now credited to 
" John Strange Winter," or Mrs. Stannard, as she is 
known in the world of fact. Other work, too, has come 
from her busy hand and brain; and now she confesses 
that she is " tired of writing novels," but that " it does 
not do to be tired of earning one's living." She has 
certainly earned the right to be weary of novel-writing. 
There are those who would be excessively wearied if 
they had even to read ninety-six novels, not to speak of 
writing them. ... 

Shakespeareana manufactured in England for 
THE American trade are now said to lure the dollars 
from the pockets of unwary book-collecting American 
millionaires visiting England — a neat reprisal for our 
heartless carrying off of so many literary treasures from 
that country, notably and very recently the Shelley 
notebooks which our English cousins may well have 
grieved to lose. An ostrich appetite for costly rarities 
can hardly be attended with an Epicurean nicety and dis- 
crimination in picking and choosing. 

Irving's old home in New York, at the corner of 
Irving Place and Seventeenth Street, is in danger of 
being destroyed to make way for modern improvements, 
and a project is now under discussion for its preserva- 
tion, and its conversion into a museum that shall serve 
as a pei-petual reminder of the good old days of literary 
New York. It was this house that Irving occupied 
when his fame was at its height, and the historic struc- 
ture is hallowed by many associations dear to lovers of 
our literature in its early prime. 



[March 1, 

Some Famous IjIteraby Apostles.* 

Mrs. Charles Brookfield, who with her hus- 
band recently gave us a very pleasant account 
of "Mrs. Brookfield and her Circle," has sup- 
plemented this with another volume of the same 
readable, literary-gossipy sort, containing still 
further reminiscences of her father-in-law, Will- 
iam Henry Brookfield, and his friends — chiefly 
those whose friendship dated back to the " golden 
age" at Cambridge and his student days at Trin- 
ity College. The " Apostles," as is well known, 
were certain bright young men, poetic in tem- 
perament, speculative, inquiring, and whoUy 
fearless, who formed an association called the 
" Cambridge Conversazione Society," at whose 
meetings essays and poems were read, and un- 
tramelled discussion was carried on concerning 
all things in heaven and earth, and a few other 
matters besides. Minuses of these meetings 
were never published, if indeed they were reg- 
ularly kept ; and whether or not the club was 
a hot-bed of radicalism, atheism, and worse, 
was left to the anxious or amused conjecture of 
university authorities and others. Its vigorous 
prime covered the years 1824-1840, and it was 
in this period that, as Trinity was observed to 
contribute the main support of the society, its 
meetings came to be held in that coUege ; and 
as its membership was limited to twelve, it ac- 
quired the jocose nickname of " Apostles." 

Of those who were members of the society in 
its golden prime, Mrs. Brookfield gives sketches 
and letters and traditions of thirteen, her father- 
in-law (who, however, another authority de- 
clares, was not a member at all) claiming first 
place and having more space accorded him than 
anyone else. A bright light he undoubtedly was, 
being a popular preacher, a wit whose presence 
enlivened any company, a Shakespearean reader 
hardly excelled by the Kembles, father or daugh- 
ter, and a thoroughly good-hearted, high-minded, 
pleasant-tempered gentleman. But the distinc- 
tive quality of his wit seems to have been untrans- 
ferable to the printed page : we are repeatedly 
assured of its delicate and delectable flavor, but 
somehow never quite succeed in getting a tooth- 
some morsel into our mouth. Other men's good 
things, which he was fond of repeating, are 
offered us in some abundance, and these help 
one to judge of his taste in such matters. For 

•The Cambridge "Apostles." By Frances M. Brookfield. 
With portraits. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

example, concerning an estimable man who 
was said to be of exemplary modesty, someone 
ventured to ask, " What has he done to be 
modest of?" This pleased Brookfield, as also 
did Douglas Jerrold's saying, after reading 
Harriet Martineau, " There is no God — and 
Harriet is his prophet." We can imagine him 
enjoying such Elian absurdities as the famous 
question put to the man carrying home a rodent 
of the genus lepus, ",Is that your own hare or 
a wig?" In short, one surmises that Brook- 
field's wit had that delicately subtle and deli- 
ciously unexpected quality that often expresses 
itself largely in gesture and facial expression 
and tone of voice, and that depends for its 
thorough enjoyment on atmosphere and associa- 
tion — on the context, so to speak. Venables, 
a competent authority, says : " In irresistible hu- 
mor none of the ' Apostles' rivalled Brookfield." 
" He had infinite humor," says Kinglake, " but 
humor resulting — like Shakespeare's — from 
mastering of human characters, and not from 
any love of mere shallow, mindless drollery. . . 
I never heard him say a bitter thing." 

Besides Brookfield, whose biography has been 
fully given in " Mrs. Brookfield and her Circle," 
the " Apostles " selected for notice, each in a 
separate chapter, are Blakesley, Buller, Hallam 
(of "In Memoriam"), Kemble, Lushington, 
Maurice, Milnes, Spedding, Sterling, Tennyson, 
Trench, and Venables. Some excerpts are now 
in order ; first one about the " Apostles " col- 

" But trivial assaults the ' Apostles ' could afford to 
ignore, for if they had detractors they had also admirers 
and imitators. W. E. Gladstone founded an Essay Club 
at Oxford on the model of the ' Apostles ' and boasted 
of it — though he owned it never quite satisfied him. 
' The Apostles,' he said, ' are a much more general soci- 
ety.' Blakesley leaves it recorded that it was Arthur 
Hallam who founded this Club, and he probably thought 
this because Hallam had given Gladstone help in the 
drawing up of its rules. ' The Sterling ' was certainly 
inspired by the ' Apostles,' as were numerous other 
societies; and, indirectly, the London Library, an insti- 
tution of an entirely different kind, grew out of it." 

Thackeray, who, though intimate with mem- 
bers of the society, appears never to have be- 
longed to it, was a warm friend and admirer of 
Brookfield, if one may judge from the following : 

" Thackeray admired Brook eld with the ardour of 
a generous nature; he loved to hear him talk, and 
would unweariedly listen to him a whole night through. 
He went to hear his sermons and his readings whenever 
he could; he loved his wit and took it up and used it 
and illustrated it; as also, by the way, did Leech." 

Thackeray has immortalized Brookfield as 
" Frank Whitestock" in " The Curate's Walk. ' 




And all this warmth of regard was reciprocated 
by its object, even to the extent of disliking the 
novels of Dickens. " Unredeemed trash," is his 
verdict on " The Old Curiosity Shop." Of Brook- 
field as a pulpit orator it may be worth while 
to cite Lord Lyttleton's assertion that he had 
" never heard anyone so easy, almost colloquial, 
insomuch that there was a sort of temptation to 
forget that it was preaching, and get up and 
answer liim." Greville records in his diary : 
" A magnificent sermon from Brookfield. He 
is one of the few preachers whose sermons 
never weary me, however long, . . . and the 
elocution perfect." 

George Stovin Venables is perhaps best 
known as the man who in boyhood, on the 
Charterhouse playground, met his schoolmate 
Thackeray in fistic combat, in response to the 
other's challenge, and did such execution that 
the embryo novelist came out of the engagement 
with a broken nose — and also a lasting affec- 
tion for the breaker, an affection that was 
warmly returned. Venables, barrister and after- 
ward judge, contributed to the literature of his 
day chiefly in the form of anonymous journal- 
ism. The " Saturday Review " and the " Times," 
among other papers, profitted by his scholarly 
attainments. That he had a ready wit, in addi- 
tion to his other accomplishments, is made 
pleasantly apparent. 

" Once when Venables was leaving a dinner party 
where Sir Frederick Pollock also had been he took up 
his hat in the hall, saying, ' Here 's my Castor — 
where 's Pollock's ? ' Always a favoured guest at the 
Grange, he said at a time when he and the world in 
general were much excited over inland travellers, that 
Mr. Parkyns' book on Africa was the most successful 
attempt on record of a man being able to reduce himself 
to the savage state." 

Concerning Hallam, that youth of rare prom- 
ise who died at twenty- two, on the eve of wed- 
ding Emily Tennyson, it must here suffice to 
quote Gladstone's enthusiastic encomium. 

" There was nothing in the region of the mind which 
he might not have accomplished. I mourn in him, for 
myself, my earliest near friend ; for my fellow-creatures, 
one who would have adorned his age and country, a 
mind full of beauty and of power, attaining almost to 
that ideal standard of which it is presumption to expect 
an example. When shall I see his like ? " 

None of the baker's dozen of attractive per- 
sonalities portrayed in Mrs. Brookfield's pages 
is more attractive and more lovable than James 
Spedding, the man who wasted his best energies 
(as many thought) in whitewashing Bacon. To 
Brookfield he was " Spedding the Sublime "; 
FitzGerald called him " old Jem Spedding " 
and " my Sheet- Anchor "; while Thackeray 

playfully dubbed him " Jeames Spending " and 
" that aged and most subtile serpent." Sped- 
ding's early baldness, and the gentle raillery 
evoked thereby, he took with philosophic amia- 
bility. It is pleasant to read FitzGerald's 
friendly and admiring allusions to the Baco- 
nian's lofty and depilated brow, which he some- 
where likens to Shakespeare's. Says Mrs. 
Brookfield : 

" Spedding was a favorite subject for his friend 
FitzGerald's banter. He writes for instance, ' Spedding 
is all the same as ever, not to be improved, one of the 
best sights in London.' When he went to America with 
Lord Ashburnham, FitzGerald said : ' Of course you 
have read the account of Spedding's forehead landing 
in America; English sailors hailed it in the Channel 
mistaking it for Beachy Head.' And later on in this 
visit he mentions that he begins to feel sure that Sped- 
ding would be safe in America, because ' to scalp such 
a forehead was beyond any Indian's power.' " 

Except Henry Lushington, each of the 
" Apostles " sketched by the author's pen is 
also presented in pictorial likeness, the half-tone 
reproductions being from paintings or drawings. 
Spedding's portrait is drawn by his own hand. 
The book, like its predecessor, is handsomely 
made, with clear type, good paper, and an 
index, whose five pages, however, do not con- 
tain all the entries one might have occasion to 
look for — not even all the names of persons 
mentioned in the work. If the book has still 
another fault, it may by the more serious be 
thought to be an unduly generous inclusion of 
pleasant trivialities. However, they entertain 
— or, if not, they may be skipped. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

A Book of Spanish Phantasies.* 

To the lover of Spain, every new book de- 
scriptive of the country comes as a fresh delight. 
" The Cities of Spain," by Mr. Edward Hut- 
ton, is one of the last and outwardly one of the 
most attractive of last year's large output. 
Twenty-four full-page illustrations in color by 
Mr. A. Wallace Rimington, together with a 
nearly equal number of photographic copies of 
paintings from the Prado gallery, make the 
volume well worth possessing. This afPords 
some comfort to the purchaser who, upon open- 
ing the book, reads the following statement of 
the author : 

" It is the art of Literature that I practice, and by my 
achievement or failure in this art I am to be judged. 
Therefore, if I prefer not to speak of Spain at all within 

* The Cities of Spain. By Edward Hutton. With illustra- 
tions in color and photogravure. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[March 1, 

the chapters of my book, it is that I do not wish facts 
to become of too much importance there, of more im- 
portance, that is, than I, the artist, choose, and because 
I will not speak of what I have loved without knowledge." 

Of course if Mr. Hutton prefers not to speak 
of Spain because of insufficient knowledge, well 
and good ; but why, then, label his work " The 
Cities of Spain''? After reading the book, the 
reviewer suggests, as a more fitting title, " Span- 
ish Phantasies " or, " Sobs of the Desert." 

In his practice of the art of literature, the 
author tells us that the country about Toledo 
is '■'-fulfilled with an immense energy, the en- 
ergy of silence." Speaking of a chapel in the 
cathedral at Burgos, he says : " To pray in such 
a place if one were sorry might seem impossible, 
and if one were glad one would go to the hills." 
He gazes upon the " tawny passionate land- 
scape," and the " latent groinings of the hUls.' 
He loves the very look and sound of the words 
"desert,'" "sun," and " stars," and sprinkles 
his pages with them until they resemble a chart 
of the starry firmament itself. " For while 
some have loved women and others have sought 
for fame, and others have flung everything 
away for money," he says, " it is the smi that 
I have loved, the sun which is the smile of God." 
Spain, through this medium, makes an especial 
appeal to Mr. Hutton, who thus further ex- 
presses himself : 

" And, though for no other cause, yet for this I find 
Spain the most beautiful country of Europe: that with 
her abide the mountains and the desert and over all the 
sun. . . . Now, therefore, let us rejoice together, that 
there remains to us a land where these things are; for 
there the wind blows on the mountains, and in the de- 
sert there is silence, and at dawn and at noon and at 
evening we may behold the sun." 

There come times, however, when our author 
finds the sun so hot that he is " afraid "; but we 
feel less concerned about him when we read 
that he is also sometimes frightened at the lack 
of smi. Upon his return to his London home, 
he writes : 

" And a sort of twilight everywhere in this city of 
me^ streets continually makes me afraid and is heavy 
upon me, and there is no sun." 

In other respects he seems an imeasy, restless 
body. When in England, he yearns to escape 
from the " trumpery cities" to the " land of the 
sun and the desert," where " the very boulders 
are writhing in agony to find expression." In 
Spain, however, he longs for England. At the 
Escorial, after wandering through the immense 
corridors, he says : 

" I was thinking of the spring far far away in the 
world where the peach-blossoms flutter over the gar- 
dens like pink butterflies, and the willows are laughing 

together beside the rivers, and the wind is blowing over 
the sea; and I was weary because I was so far away." 

The book, then, is subjective throughout. It 
records Mr. Hutton's sentiments and impres- 
sions, when he is weary, or frightened, or merely 
" sorry." Burgos he finds to be the first city 
he has seen " that verily believes in Christ." 
" She is an image of Faith, of Exaltation in a 
world that is overheated and full of lies and 
greatly desirous." AvUa is " the visible image 
of the word Amen." In the Mosque of Cor- 
dova he " remembered only beautiful things 
and joy." " I lost myself in a new contempla- 
tion ; I kissed the old voluptuous marbles ; I 
touched the strange, precious inscriptions, and 
with my finger I traced the name of God." 

In order better to receive the message that 
Spain has for him, Mr. Hutton frequently 
travelled on horseback. In approaching Avila, 
he says : 

" What she means to those who come to her by rail- 
way, I know not, who saw her like a mirage in the , 
desert after many days. Lost in the infinite silence, 
under the sun and the sky, I had longed for her as of 
old men longed for the Holy City, and when I found 
her at last, I came to her on foot leading my mule over 
the stones." 

Let those disposed to pity Mr. Hutton for the 
hardships that he must have endured upon such 
a trip read the following passage from his Intro- 
duction : 

« Night fell — a night of large, few stars — and cov- 
ered us with her coolness; even yet we were far from 
any city. And at last I could go no further, and told 
my guide so, who without any expression of surprise 
lifted me from my beast, laid me under a great rock, 
covered me with my rug, tethered the mules and began 
to prepare supper. I shall not forget the beauty of that 
night, nor the silence under those desert stars." 

After comforts like these in the open, is it any 
wonder that the failure of the electric light in 
the hotel at Valladolid fairly unmans him ? He 
speaks thus of this fearful experience : 

" The horror of the toilet, in an unknown room, the 
search for the bed with the help of a match, I will not 

It is surprising to note, in a book with the 
title " The Cities of Spain " and containing 324 
pages, the amount of space allotted to each city. 
The chapter dealing with Cadiz numbers two 
and one-haK pages ; that which treats of Jerez, 
one and one-half pages by the author, together 
with a wholly irrelevant quotation from an En- 
glish diary of the seventeenth century. Four 
pages are given to Cordova, and four to the 
Escorial, nearly one-half of which is quoted. 
The description of the Alhambra is reprinted 
from Swinburne's eighteenth century account. 




while eight of the fourteen pages on Madrid are 
taken from James Howell who wrote in 1622. 
There is a chapter of about sixty pages on the 
Prado Gallery, and another shorter one enti- 
tled "Early Spanish Paintings." The art 
criticism here is vague and unsatisfying, with 
somewhat long historical digressions. 

As an excellent example of Mr. Button's 
style and subject-matter, we quote his closing 
paragraph : 

" For me, at least, Spain remains as a sort of refuge, 
a land of sim and desert. If that be the obscure need 
of your spirit, go to her and she will heal you. For in 
the sun everything is true, all we have hoped and be- 
lieved and at last forgone, all the beautiful things of 
old time when Aphrodite at noon loved Adon, and 
Demeter sought for Persephone, and in the woods and 
on the mountains the women, stained with the juice of 
grapes, followed Dionysos; when, in the dusty ways of 
tfie city, Christ gave sight to the blind, and in the heat 
of the day when the almond trees were shedding their 
blossoms He went by the stony ways to Golgotha. 
And we, too, shall be weary at evening, for he made the 
stars also." 

George G. Brownell. 

Stukgis's History of Architecture.* 

The first volume of Mr. Russell Sturgis's 
" History of Architecture " is at hand, and the 
two volumes remaining to complete the work 
are scheduled for the present year. The work 
is large in scope, as a brief summary of the 
contents will serve to show. 

Volume I. treats of those epochs and styles 
which are only half known to the modern stu- 
dent — the Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian, 
and later Western Asiatic styles ; Greek art 
down to the final conquest by Rome ; the earlier 
Italian art in its various forms ; the Roman 
Imperial architecture. 

Volume II. treats of the architecture of India, 
China, Japan, and other oriental nations, and 
includes also that Mohammedan architecture 
which arose out of the Byzantine styles. A 
treatment of the great Gothic school of Central 
and Northern Europe brings the history down 
to the fifteenth century. 

Volume III. deals with the fifteenth century 
remodelling of the art of Europe, the French 
florid Gothic, the English Tudor style, and as 
contemporary with these the beginnings of the 
classical revival in Italy, followed by the Euro- 
pean styles of the revived classic or neo-classic. 
Finally, in this volume will be studied the 

*A History of Architecture. By Russell Sturgis, A.M. 
Volume I., Antiquity. Illustrated in photogravure, etc. New 
York: Baker & Taylor Co. 

" anomalous modern conditions, with an expla- 
nation of the failure of the nineteenth century 
in architecture while it was succeeding in paint- 
ing and in sculpture, and with constant effort 
to disentangle the serious attempts at original 
design from the mass of buUding which is un- 
disguisedly copied from earlier styles, and which 
is wholly commercial in its inspiration." The 
record is brought down to the time of " those 
innovations in building which now foreshadow 
complete changes in all architectural style," — 
which last, probably, instead of " changes " 
means the development or evolution of a new 
architectural style. 

The publishers of the work explain that " in 
all this long inquiry the domestic architecture 
of each period is kept in view as offering a 
necessary corrective of conclusions which the 
grandiose architecture of the temple and the 
church, taken by itself, would suggest. This is 
especially the case in more recent times, when 
it is often found that the design of the dwelling- 
house is more nearly akin to refined and noble 
art than is that of the larger and more notice- 
able buildings." This last is a saving clause, 
for it is only in very modern times that domestic 
architecture and monumental architecture have 
failed to develop harmoniously in all essential 
characteristics, and this harmonious develop- 
ment very probably runs back to the earliest 
times ; though the author regrets his inability, 
through insufficient data, to write critically of 
the domestic architecture of such comparatively 
well-known civilizations as those of Egypt and 
of Greece, fearing to trench upon the domain of 
historical romance. 

Architecture is itself a history — a record of 
human desire and activity, of race movement 
and achievement ; and a history of architecture 
may be one or the other of two things, or a 
blending of them. It may be an interpretation 
of the art and a determination of its relation to 
the life and philosophy of the race, showing the 
effect of modes of life and thought upon the 
ideals of the race as expressed in building in 
the abstract ; or it may be a record of technical 
achievement, made forceful by a comparison of 
concrete examples. If it be a judicious blend- 
ins: of the two, it will hold more of human 
interest and be more effective as an educational 
factor in the general evolution of a sympathetic 
knowledge of art. 

Mr. Russell Sturgis, author, critic, and one- 
time architect, comes well equipped for his task 
of formulating critical and comparative judg- 
ments on such material as would naturally form 



[March 1, 

the basis of a great descriptive history of archi- 
tecture. His great knowledge and infinite 
patience, his keen observation and care for de- 
tails even to the counting and recording of the 
number and disposition of brick or stone courses 
in a monumental structure, his capacity for bal- 
ancing part against part and whole against 
whole, render his judgment as a connoisseur 
highly to be respected. As a record of archi- 
tectural events, this history, as evidenced by the 
volume in hand, leaves nothing to be desired. 
The work so far is an admirable example of 
the second form which a history of architecture 
may take, as above stated. Whether the com- 
pleted work will express that most desirable 
blending of human life with technical achieve- 
ment which constitutes art, remains to be seen. 
In the absence of the remaining volumes, the 
publishers' statement on this point may be given. 

" The History of Architecture which we announce 
will discriminate closely between the natural artistic re- 
sults of construction and those methods of design which 
are quite apart from construction and are the result of 
abstract thinking and of the pure sense of form — or, 
in a few cases, of color. An architectural design of any 
kind may have been conceived much as a piece of sculp- 
ture is conceived, that is, as a piece of pure form; and 
it is in this way that much of Greek architecture took 
shape — the simple requirements of the building of the 
time having but little influence upon it. On the other 
hand, with an energetic race of builders like the French 
of the twelfth century, a race not gifted with the sense 
of form to anything like the degree in which it was pos- 
sessed by the Greeks, the merit of a design would na- 
turally be found in the extraordinary logic and in the 
sincerity of the work, the placing of each stone helping 
at once the artistic results and the construction. Those 
are the extremes. Between them is the wide field of 
styles in which both influences are at work." 

The two extremes thus indicated may be denom- 
inated broadly the architecture of "form" and 
the architecture of " feeling," the architec- 
ture of the intellect and the architecture of the 
emotions. The volume before us is dominated 
by the classic ideal, and the emotions have little 
play. The architecture of Egypt which reaches 
emotional depths is treated with too formal a 
touch, and it is only from the illustrations that 
one can fully understand why Greek art stopped 
at the threshold of Egypt, nor sought to com- 
pete with the intellect against the passions. 

A history of architecture which is based on 
race psychology will explain why the pjo-amids 
express the soul of Egypt and of no other 
country ; will explain not only that the columns 
were of magnificent proportions and the lin- 
telled roofs were massive, but also that the dom- 
inating thought in the mind of the race made 
other proportions and less enduring masses im- 

possible ; that the column was not a column, but 
an everlasting support, — that a lintel was not a 
lintel, but an everlasting roof. A study of the 
mind of Greece will show in the changing di- 
mensions of column and lintel not only a develop- 
ment of architectural form but the birth of an 
idea which becomes clear and clean-cut and is 
evolved to its logical limit. A study of the 
Roman temperament will show how it was re- 
flected in an overpowering architecture in which 
the undeveloped idea of the arch and the fully 
developed idea of the lintel were hopelessly con- 
fused and endlessly entangled. Not all of this 
is set forth in the present volume as fully or as 
vividly as the student could desire. Such treat- 
ment does not necessarily take history into the 
domain of romance. A history of architecture 
which is based on the philosophy of life will ex- 
plain how, when Greece bowed to Egypt, the 
exploiters of Roman classic art could have car- 
ried their wares into the presence of the great 
temples of the north and not have been humbled 
into inactivity. This and kindred matters of 
race psychology should find treatment in the 
final volume. It is needless at this time to 
anticipate this treatment further than to suggest 
that perhaps painting and sculpture in general 
have not in the nineteenth century reached a 
comparatively much higher plane than has ar- 
chitecture. Mr. Sturgis's appreciation of sculp- 
ture, as evidenced in the first volume, is very 
sympathetic ; and its treatment is on the side of 
the relation of this art to architecture. The 
present day has made it a thing apart, which is 
not necessarily elevating it to a higher plane. 
Conditions which now surround architecture are 
very different from those of Egypt, Greece, and 
France of the tweKth century; but that does 
not necessarily relegate to a lower plane that 
architecture which characteristically sums up 
these conditions. But in point of fact, we pro- 
duce no great architecture of form, for our in- 
tellects are devoted to the development of the 
sciences ; nor do we produce great architecture 
of feeling, because our emotions are swamped 
in the strenuous hustle of the commercial life. 
Our intellects do not any longer imagine forms, 
they simply remember; our emotions no longer 
throb passionately, they merely flutter. And 
what applies to art applies with more or less 
equal force to the making of books and even 
the writing of history. 

The specimen pages sent out in advance do 
not fairly represent the work. With these in 
mind, one first opens the book with misgivings. 
However, it is pleasing to note that the style is 




seK-contained and much in the author's earlier 
manner. The task of collating and arranging 
the great mass of detail has been heavy, and 
the outcome is a work of great value and a mat- 
ter of congratulation to both author and pub- 
lisher. In general make-up, the work is very 
attractive. The letter-press is well-nigh perfect ; 
while the illustrations, which number more than 
four hundred in the first volume, are well chosen 
and extremely well reproduced. The full-page 
plates are carbongravures, while the illustrations 
in the text are half-tones from photographs and 
photo-etchings from line drawings and engrav- 
ings, but so harmonized in scale and so well 
placed that the effect of the whole is pleasing 
to an extent that is not always the case when 
varied means of reproduction are employed. 
The most serious mechanical slip seems to be in 
the inversion of the first half-tone plate in the 
chapter on the Corinthian style. Beyond this 
mishap, too much praise can hardly be given to 
the care which has entered into the artistic 
make-up of the initial volume, and which it is 
to be hoped sets a standard to be followed in 
the remaining ones. Irving K. Pond. 

Washington Life in Early Days.* 

It has been said that we are all gossips at 
heart, no matter how we try to conceal our in- 
terest in our fellows. Even if not belonging 
to a class that likes to listen to gossip over a 
back fence, we may still be of those who wel- 
come a fresh bit of scandal " about Queen Eliza- 
beth." And if history be, as Carlyle avers, 
merely the biographies of great men, is it a 
thing to blush for that we are glad of any new 
light upon their daily lives ? 

The best biographers and diarists have been 
men ; but when it comes to letter-writing, the 
honors between men and women are more nearly 
equal. What an array of bright spirits is evoked 
when we call the roll of women whose letters 
have been given to the world to tell us some- 
what of the precious old days that were before 
Leisure died. It is a sorrowful thought that 
regards these writers as having no present suc- 
cessors ; forecasting a barren future for the his- 
torian who is to come after this prosaic day of 
telephone, telegram, type-writer, and picture- 

Since a volume of good old letters is a pos- 

• The First Forty Years op Washington Society. From the 
Letters and Journals of Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith ( Margaret 
Bayard). Edited by Gaillard Hunt. Illustrated. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

session to be grateful for, we must acknowledge 
our obligations to Mr. Gaillard Hunt for his 
careful editing of the correspondence and note- 
books of Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith in the 
volume which he calls " The First Forty Years 
of Washington Society. " To Mrs. Harrison 
Smith's grandson, Mr. J. Henley Smith, we owe 
a prefatory note in which he tells us that in the 
autumn of the year 1800 Samuel Harrison 
Smith of Philadelphia, the son of Col. Jonathan 
Bayard Smith of the Continental Congress and 
the Continental Army, and a signer of the 
Articles of Confederation, married his cousin 
Margaret Bayard, whose father. Colonel John 
Bayard, had had a public record almost parallel 
in importance with that of Colonel Smith. 
The young pair proceeded at once to Washing- 
ton, where Mr, Smith founded and for many 
years conducted the " National Intelligencer," 
a journal of national circulation which acquired 
a great influence in American politics. Later, 
he was for a short time Secretary of the Treas- 
ury ; he was the first Commissioner of the 
Revenue of the Treasury, and was for many 
years president of important banks. It was 
but natural that his wife should take her place 
among the great ladies of the young capital ; 
and as she had some talent for writing, she be- 
came (anonymously, as befitted the taste of the 
day) a contributor to several journals. She 
also wrote a two- volume novel called " A Winter 
in Washington, " now exceedingly rare, which 
is valuable because of its faithful study of 
Thomas Jefferson. 

Such meagre outlines can easily be filled in 
with light, color, and movement, if one recalls 
that in the Washington of those days there were 
peculiarly favorable opportimities for delight- 
ful social intercourse and intimate friendships 
between people of refinement and intelligence, 
such as are no longer possible in the beautiful 
city seething with politics and slowly but surely 
coming under the benumbing influence of the 
modern commercial spirit. 

Our story opens (to use a favorite phrase of 
the Lady's Book age of American letters) with 
a description of the visits paid to the young 
wife, whose guests were " treated to my wed- 
ding cake." In the next sentence we learn 
that " Mrs. B(ell) brought us a large basket of 
sweet potatoes, and some fine cabbages," — an 
astonishing compliment, surely, to a bride ! In 
returning the visit paid by Thomas Law 
(brother to Lord EUin borough) and his wife (a 
descendant of Lord Baltimore, and a grand- 
daughter of Mrs. Washington) Mr. and Mrs. 



[March 1, 

Smith were persuaded to remain " and dine off 
a fine turkey"; and they were conducted to the 
kitchen to see a " contrivance " called a 
" Ranger " on which the fowl had been roasted. 
A few days later, a modest gentleman called to 
arrange about the publication of a MS. "as 
legible as printing," which turned out to be 
the work known as "Jefferson's Manual," the 
modest gentleman who brought it discovering 
himself to be its author. Thus are we brought 
face to face with the real hero of Mrs. Smith's 
writings. Her intimate personal study of Jef- 
ferson covers many years, and was conducted 
in many places and through many scenes, but 
always with a loyalty and sincerity which are 
creditable alike to both. 

Following the inauguration of 1801, the 
President's house was presided over by his 
daughters, Mrs. Randolph and Mrs. Eppes, 
with the grace and dignity tliat have given them 
an enviable position among the great ladies of 
American society. The dinners which were fre- 
quently given by Jefferson were laid on a round 
table at which twelve guests were seated ; and 
the letters are filled with the sayings and doings 
of the brilliant men who were making history 
with every sentence they uttered and every 
page they wrote, — men upon whom we have 
come to look as the giants and ancients of our 
own younger and smaller day. Like a thread 
of bright embroidery worked about the historic 
tapestry the men were weaving, are the names 
of the women who created the society in which 
they shone, — Mrs. Madison, Mrs. Cutts, Mrs. 
Monroe, Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Wirt, Mrs. Clay, 
Mrs. Calhoun. Like a panorama, we behold 
the charming home-life of the Jeffersons at 
Monticello and the Madisons at Montpelier ; 
the burning of the Capitol and other public 
buildings by the British, and the flight of the 
terrified Washingtonians. We smile at Mrs. 
Smith's alarm, which leads her to say : " I do 
not suppose Government will ever return to 
Washington. All those whose property was 
invested in the place will be reduced to poverty." 
Smiles are called forth also by her lively por- 
trayal of the scenes during Mr. Clay's Con- 
gressional speech on the Seminole War, which 
is here partly reproduced. 

" When I reached the Hall it was so crowded that it 
was impossible to join my party, and after much hesi- 
tation I consented to allow Mr. Taylor to take me on 
the floor of the House, where he told me some ladies 
already were. In the House, or rather lobby of the 
House, I found four ladies whom I had never before 
seen, all genteel and fashionable, and under the pro- 
tection of Mr. Mercer, who shook hands with me. The 

Senate had adjourned in order to hear Mr. Clay; all 
the foreign ministers and suites, and many strangers, 
admitted on the floor in addition to the members, ren- 
der'd the House crowded. The gallery was full of 
ladies, gentlemen, and men to a degree that endanger'd 
it. Even the outer entries were thronged, and yet such 
silence prevailed that tho' at a considerable distance 
I did not lose a word. Mr. Clay was not only eloquent 
but amusing, and more than once made the whole 
House laugh. . . . Every person had expected him to 
be very severe on the President, and seemed rather 
disappointed by his moderation. \\Tien Mr. Clay fin- 
ished he came into the lobby for air and refreshment. 
The members crowded around him, and I imagine by 
his countenance that what they whispered must have 
been very agreeable. When he saw me he came and 
sat a few minutes by me. I told him I had come pre- 
pared to sit till evening, and was disappointed at his 
speech being so short: he said he had intended to have 
spoken longer, but his voice had given out; he had 
begun too loud and had exhausted himself. . . . The 
gentlemen are grown very gallant and attentive, and 
as it was impossible to reach the ladies through the 
gallery, a new mode was invented of supplying them 
with oranges, etc They tied them up in handkerchiefs 
to which was fixed a note indicating for whom it was 
design'd, and then fastened to a long pole. This was 
taken to the floor of the house, and handed up to the 
ladies who sat in the front of the gallery. I imagine 
there were near 100 ladies there. So these presenta- 
tions were frequent and quite amusing even in the 
midst of Mr. C.'s speech. I saw the ladies near me 
were more accessible, and were more than supplied with 
oranges, cakes, etc. We divided what was brought with 
each other, and were as social as if acquainted." 

No less quotable are passages describing the 
family life of William Wirt ; the excitement 
over the defeat of the now-forgotten Crawford ; 
the social upheaval which has passed into his- 
tory as the Peggy O'Neil incident ; and the 
entertainments given in honor of Miss Marti- 
neau. Upon the deeper character and influence 
of the many notable men about her, Mrs. 
Smith's comments are of no great value. A 
woman's views of men and affairs are at best 
but a woman's views. But a clever woman is 
often able to see and portray the peculiar 
characteristics of an individual or an event in 
a way that is illuminating and valuable. It is 
this quality in the letters of Margaret Bayarh 
Smith that makes their publication well wortd 
while. Sara Andrew Shafer. 

The dramatic awakening at Oberlin, which has 
marked its current college year, gives fresh evidence 
of itself in an announcement, from the classical depart- 
ment, of a projected performance of Aristophanes's 
" Clouds " toward the end of the spring term. This 
will be the first presentation of a Greek play in English 
translation that Oberlin has seen. (How many plays in 
the original Greek Oberlin has given, we are not told.) 
It is claimed, too, that this will be " almost the first " 
performance of " The Clouds " in any American college. 




The FLiIGHT of Marie Axtoinette.* 

An English translation of M. Lenotre's Le 
Drame de Varennes appears with the title 
" The Flight of Marie Antoinette." From the 
bookselling point of view, there is a certain 
utility in the change of title ; but the words 
" Drama of Varennes " suggest more adequately 
the spirit in which M. Lenotre has treated one 
of the most startling and tragic situations of the 
French Revolution. Moreover, in his narrative 
the queen is not the principal figure, although 
she is inevitably the heroine. The interest is 
fitted, from beginning to end, upon the way in 
which every successive obstacle is passed by or 
broken through, until, upon the very threshold 
of security, the royal family is entangled in the 
meshes of new difficulties, which are in part 
simply the debris of previous obstacles swept 
along in the flight. In one sense, the English 
title is more exactly descriptive than the French ; 
for no account is given of the making of the 
plot, the theme is the denouement and the final 
catastrophe, including the humiliating return to 

Those who are acquainted with M. Lenotre's 
other work need not be reminded that he has 
used the historical method as severely in deter- 
mining each detail of the story as if he were 
engaged on a far didler task. He refers to his 
" sources " specifically, and is not afraid to 
insert an occasional long foot-note. But this 
method shoxdd not alarm the general reader. 
The fidness and exactness of the author's in- 
formation has not impaired his sense for the 
requirements of the story. The foot-notes are 
merely pertinent asides, to which the reader 
may refuse to listen. 

The escape from the Tuileries is perhaps the 
most interesting group of incidents in the story, 
though not the most unfamiliar, because a single 
false step might have defeated the design at 
the outset ; and yet the different members of 
the party, in spite of minor mischances, suc- 
cessfully carried out the roles assigned to them. 
The situation was rendered more hazardous by 
the necessity that the royal children be taken 
to Count Fersen's carriage before the coucher. 
The queen personally attended them, with 
Madame de Tourzel, passing through unused 
rooms down toward the brilliantly lighted court- 
yard, where she might be recognized. 

" They paused at the end of an empty room ; through 
the huge glazed door they saw the glimmering lights 

•The Plight of Mabie Antoinette. From the French of 
G. Lenotre. By Mrs. Rodolph Stawell. Illustrated. Phila- 
delphia : J. B. Lippincott Co. 

of the Carrousel and the groups of people moving in 
the court. The Queen looked out for a moment, and 
then hid herself once more in the gloom. Under the 
cold insensibility afPected by the legal documents, one 
can guess at the anguish that must have wrung the 
heart of Marie Thdr^se's daughter at this fatal hour." 

But she went out, saw the children safely in 
the carriage, and was again in her apartments 
by a quarter to eleven. The king's coucher 
began at eleven. Lafayette arrived fifteen 
minutes later. The king talked with him, but 
seemed preoccupied and went several times to 
the window to observe the weather. The mo- 
ment given the king for his escape was while 
his valet was imdressing in an adjoining room, 
after he had assisted the king into bed and had 
drawn the curtains of the bedstead. When the 
attendant returned, he fastened to his arm a 
cord the other end of which was suspended on 
the curtain near the king's hand as he supposed. 
He then lay down on his own cot, " with his 
customary care lest he should awake his master." 
The further adventures of the family before 
they were installed in the berline are better 

If one were inquiring about the dangers of 
historical rhetoric, it would be instructive, after 
finishing M. Lenotre's story, to read Carlyle's 
account. Carlyle's positive errors have already 
been pointed out by Mr. Oscar Browning, or 
by the recent editors of the " French Revolu- 
tion," Mr. Fletcher and Mr. Rose ; but the 
trouble is not in these errors so much as in the 
total impression from the narrative, which is 
that we have here ahnost a comedy or farce, 
rather than a drama which is deeply pathetic. 

Among the results of M. Lenotre's special 
investigations is his conclusion about the recog- 
nition of the king. He discredits Drouet's tale, 
showing from the official report of the muni- 
cipality of Ste. Menehould that Drouet only 
suspected the possible presence of the king and 
did not think of communicating his suspicions 
to the municipality until the carriage was gone 
an hour and a half. The king had already been 
recognized much earlier at Chain trix, where the 
carriage arrived at half-past two in the after- 
noon. The royal family took no pains to deny 
their identity, and received the homage of the 
postmaster and his daughters. They were re- 
cognized again at Chalons, and M. Lenotre be- 
lieves that from " this time forward the news 
of the fugitives' approach preceded them." At 
Ste. Menehovdd, a barmaid spread the rumor 
that the king was going to pass ; " everywhere 
the inhabitants gave signs of being already in 
an anxious and over-excited state, everywhere 



[March 1, 

they crowded along the route of the berline." 
It was this situation, every moment growing 
more ominous, which aggi-avated the difficulty 
of keeping the dragoons at the place where 
Bouille had ordered them to await the coming 
of the royal carriage. 

In one of his supplementary chapters, " The 
Case of Monsieur Leonard," M. Lenotre seems 
hardly consistent with himself. He intimates 
that the alarmist reports spread by Leonard ac- 
count for the failure of the post horses to be at 
their station in Varennes. In the general nar- 
rative, however, he says that the young officers 
in charge of the horses were waiting at the hotel 
Grand Monarque, watching at the open windows 
for the approach of the couriers who should 
tell them that the carriage was nearing the town. 
This statement gives the impression that there 
was a misunderstanding ; for Valory, acting as 
courier, did not enter the town, although he 
reached it a quarter of an hour before the ber- 
line arrived. 

In the supplementary chapters may be found 
examples of the sort of work in M. Lenotre's 
previous books, including four volumes on 
Revolutionary Paris. For the lovers of a good 
story, as well as for those who wish to study 
side-lights on the Revolution, and who may not 
be able to read French, it woidd be fortunate 
were a selection made from these volumes for 
translation. Henry E. Bourne. 

Recent Fictiok.* 

Those who are acquainted with the fascinating 
history of Marcus Ordeyne his morals will need no 
word of commendation for " The Belovfed Vaga- 
bond." Mere announcement of the fact that Mr. 
Locke has produced another novel will be sufficient 
to set them on its trail. And they wUl not be dis- 
appointed, for the new story is no whit inferior to 
its predecessor, which means that it offers the same 

• The Beloved Vagabond. By William J. Locke. New 
York : John Lane Co. 

Sophy of Kravonia. By Anthony Hope. New York : Harper 
& Brothers. 

Henry Northcote. By John CoUis Snaith. Boston : Herbert 
B. Turner & Co. 

The Call of the Blood. By Robert Hichens. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

The Avenging Hour. By H. F. Prevost Battersby. New 
York: D. Appleton & Co. 

Chippinge Borough. By Stanley J. Weyman. New York: 
McClure, Phillips & Co. 

Sir John Constantine. By A. T. Quiller-Couch. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Doubloons. By Eden Phillpotts and Arnold Bennett. New 
York: McClure, Phillips & Co. 

The White Plume. By S. R. Crockett. New York : Dodd, 
Mead & Co. ^ 

The Illustrious O'Hagan. By Justin Huntly McCarthy. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

altogether delightful blend of invention and humor 
and bookishness and tender pathos and subtly iron- 
ical philosophy. The Vagabond is a masterpiece of 
characterization. Once known to respectability as 
Gaston de N^rac, he has long since sloughed off the 
integuments of convention, and become a joyous 
Bohemian, an oracle of the cafe, a peripatetic phi- 
losopher who can adapt himself to any environment 
that does not mean the submission to artificial 
restraints. The manner of his emancipation was 
this : in his early days of respectability he was be- 
trothed to an English girl, having won her from his 
rival, a French nobleman whose wealth was equalled 
by his depravity. Her father being threatened with 
disgrace, Gaston had made a quixotic bargain with 
his rival, whereby the father was to be saved, and 
the self-sacrificing lover was to disappear, apparently 
deserting his betrothed. All this took place many 
years ago. When the story opens, we find the hero 
in a London garret, and in the act of adopting a 
small boy of the slums, in whose breast he has de- 
tected a spark of genius. This boy joins his fortunes 
with those of his benefactor, receives a surprising 
education from this companionship, and becomes the 
chronicler of all that follows. The dull streets of 
London are soon exchanged for the friendly boule- 
vards of Paris and the sunny highways of France. 
There follow many adveirtures of a more or less 
picaresque nature, interspersed with expositions of 
the vagabond philosophy. Toward the close, there 
is an interlude, occasioned by the death of the 
French nobleman, and his widow's discovery of the 
truth about her old-time lover. She seeks him out, 
their love is declared anew, and he makes a des- 
perate effort to become respectable once more. The 
experiment might have worked had it been con- 
ducted in Paris, but a brief sojourn in an English 
provincial town proves fatal to its success. The 
vagabond tries vainly to submit to the regimen of 
clothes and cleanliness, of abstinence and decorum, 
and makes a pathetic attempt to fit his conversation 
to the vacuous thought of his new associates. After 
a few weeks of silent martyrdom, he can endure it 
no longer, and bolts for his beloved Paris, where he 
relieves his pent-up feelings in a glorious spree and 
the congenial companionship of some amazingly 
abandoned rascals. Having thus restored his equi- 
librium, he weds a buxom peasant damsel, and 
prepares to end his days on a small farm which he 
is just able to purchase with what remains of his 
capital. Ilfaut cultiver notre jardin becomes his 
watchword, Voltaire replacing Rabelais. What we 
have written may do well enough for an outline of 
the story, but it can convey no notion whatever of 
the character of the hero, who is one of the most 
genial and human figures ever encountered within 
the pages of a book. It would take a very stern 
moralist indeed to find him, despite his obvious 
faults, anjrthing but sympathetic and lovable in all 
the phases — even the most sordid — of his pictur- 
esque and eccentric career. 

Kravonia is a principality to be sought on the 




map somewhere in the vicinity of Zenda, and is, 
like most of the states of the mythical group to 
which it belongs, the sjjort of diplomatic intrigue. 
Its prince is sorely beset by enemies, but when he 
acquires a princess, in the shape of a beautiful En- 
glish maiden — transformed from a lowly maid- 
servant into a captivating adventuress — his for- 
tunes change, and he gives his foes a run for their 
money. Unhappily, he is killed just when triumph 
is at hand, and his princess goes into exile cherish- 
ing the memory of the glorious weeks of the con- 
flict. Mr. Hope's hand has lost little of its cunning 
since the days when he invented Zenda, and his 
" Sophy of Kravonia" is a capital story, albeit the 
type is now somewhat worn. 

Mr. John CoUis Snaith is a writer comparatively 
new to fame, but his " Henry Northcote " is a book 
to be reckoned with. It is a tragedy of ambition, 
sombre in its coloring and questionable in its mor- 
ality, but possessed of a compelling force that is far 
out of the common. The hero is a penniless bar- 
rister who must be described as a megalomaniac. 
He is fairly bursting with the consciousness of his 
power to become a leader of men, if only oppor- 
tunity may be granted him, but is meanwhile starv- 
ing in a garret. In the lowest deep of misery, the 
coveted opportunity comes to him in the form of a 
brief, which charges him with the defence of a de- 
praved woman, a murderess whose crime is beyond 
the shadow of a doubt. He conducts the defence, 
and secures her acquittal by an appeal of daemonic 
eloquence to the jury. The tragedy of the situa- 
tion is psychological, for he knows in his heart that 
his plea is sophistical and that his motive is sheer 
personal ambition. This consciousness turns the 
victory to dust and ashes in his mouth, and he is 
almost at the point of renouncing the brilliant posi- 
tion which his forensic triumph has won for him. 
But with a mighty resolve, he casts all scruples to 
the winds, murders the woman whose life he has 
just saved, destroys the evidence of his crime by 
burning the building in which her body lies, and 
faces the future without feeling, as far as we are 
permitted to perceive, a tinge of remorse. This does 
not make a pleasant story, but its gi'ip is undeniable. 
It is also remarkable for the way in which it pre- 
serves the classical unities, for the entire action 
covers only a period of three days. We may add 
that no one who begins to read it will be likely to 
delay as long as that in reaching the closing page. 
The " Call of the Blood " is a wortliy successor to 
" The Garden of Allah," hitherto the masterpiece of 
Mr. Robert Hichens. It offers the same combination 
of glowing color, picturesque setting, and psycholo- 
gical interest. The scene is Sicily, which is suffi- 
ciently tropical a country to justify the warmth of 
treatment which characterized the African romance 
first named. Mr. Hichens works up his material 
with great thoroughness, and in this case, as in the 
other, has submitted himself to the influences of 
the environment until he has become saturated with 
its spirit. His hero and heroine are both English, 

but the former has a strain of Italian blood in his 
veins, and it runs riot when he takes his bride to 
Sicily for the honeymoon. Instincts awake in him 
that might never have declared themselves under 
the gray English skies, and he enters into the joy- 
ous existence of the island peasants and fisher-folk 
with results that prove disastrous. The cause of 
his undoing, and of the wreck of the bride's happi- 
ness, is a girl of the people, whose unsophisticated 
charm stirs his dormant passions, and finally lures 
him to death. For this inevitable outcome every 
chapter and episode of the book help to prepare 
the way, and the author, with a fine artistic mar- 
shalling of his materials, brings the long-impending 
tragedy to its appropriate climax. In respect of 
scene-painting, dramatic construction, and emotional 
force alike, the book deserves unusual praise. 

Owen Davenant, the hero of Mr. H. F. Prevost 
Battersby's "The Avenging Hour," is on his way 
from London to South Wales, where Lord St. Osyth, 
the aged kinsman from whom he expects to inherit, 
lives in a remote castle with the young wife who has 
recently accepted the offer of his hand and what 
remained of his heart. The only other occupant of 
the railway carriage in which Davenant travels is a 
woman of such alluring charm that he cultivates her 
acquaintance as speedily as the circumstances will 
allow, and is aided therein by certain fortuitous hap- 
penings, chief among which is an accident to the 
line which considerably lengthens the journey. To 
put the matter bluntly, he has accomplished her se- 
duction before the journey's end, and then learns, to 
his consternation, that they have the same destina- 
tion, and that she is no other than the wife of the 
kinsman whom he is about to visit. This is a start- 
ling situation indeed, yet a situation managed with 
so much delicacy and literary art as to seem far 
less shocking than it ought to seem, and of course 
really is. The next move in the game is to intro- 
duce the aged husband, and to represent him as a 
very vulgar and disagreeable person, thereby creat- 
ing a distinct prepossession in favor of his erring 
wife. This is deftly done, but even then Davenant's 
decent instincts (for he has them) make his stay 
under that roof intolerable, and he departs on a 
military expedition to Africa, where he takes long 
chances, leads forlorn hopes, and escapes unscathed 
in accordance with the accepted conventions of this 
sort of melodrama. While thus far away news 
comes to him that St. Osyth is dead, but that illict 
love has borne its fruit, and that, by the strictest 
poetic justice, his sin has become the instrument of 
his undoing, for the posthumous child is the legal 
inheritor of the estate. Still later, the child dies, 
which somehow seems to make it possible for the 
lovers to come together, and the whole miserable 
business is patched up after the fashion which was 
to be expected — at least by the confirmed reader 
of modern sex-fiction. The teller of this story dis- 
guises its essential repulsiveness by a skilful use of 
the casuistry of sentiment and the grace of literary 
composition — those insidious devices by which the 



[March 1, 

modern novelist contrives to blur every principle 
he pleases, and make almost any atrocious act seem 
ethically plausible. 

" Chippinge Borough," Mr. Weyman's new novel, 
is not unprovided with those elements of per- 
sonal and sentimental interest that go to the making 
of popular fiction, but it is essentially a novel of 
political history, and the Reform Bill is its real 
subject. The hazardous fortunes of that measure, 
and its iiltimate triumph, are matters of such tre- 
mendous importance so vividly set forth that by 
comparison the fortunes of the rather colorless hero 
and heroine seem unexciting. It is not that these 
figures, and the others subsidiary to them, are badly 
done, for Mr. Weyman is too skilled a story-teller 
to give us puppets for human beings ; but they 
somehow tend to become accessories to an action 
which has issues far more fateful than those which 
concern any of the individuals involved. Chippinge 
is one of the rotten boroughs menaced by the Bill, 
and barely escapes being wiped off the political map. 
Its two seats have hitherto been the undisputed 
property of one Robert Vermuyden, who is a most 
uncompromising Tory. His kinsman and putative 
heir is a young man who becomes infected with 
radical notions, and is daring enough to oppose the 
Vermuyden interest by joining with the reformers. 
He is also sentimental enough to fall in love with a 
demure schoolmistress, which complicates matters 
a good deal, since the young woman turns out to be 
old Vermuyden's daughter, long mourned for dead. 
The tangle is straightened out, as a matter of course, 
the Bill passes the Lords, and one of Chippinge's 
seats is saved from the wreck. Among historical 
figures. Brougham figures strikingly in the story; 
and among historical happenings, there is a fine 
picture of the Bristol riots. On the whole, we must 
congratulate the author upon what is very nearly if 
not quite the best of all his novels. 

Corsica in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
struggling under Paoli to escape from Genoese rule, 
offers a fine field for historical romance, and Mr. 
Quiller-Couch has made the most of it in his " Sir 
John Constantine." But Paoli is not the hero of this 
tale, for invention has come to the aid of history, 
and supplied more legitimate claimants for the 
Corsican throne in the offspring of one King Theo- 
dore, an adventurer of somewhat shady character, 
but, according to the novelist's scheme, of unques- 
tionably royal authenticity. Brought to the degra- 
dation of a debtor's prison in London, this exalted 
scapegrace obtains succor from an Englishman, Sir 
John Constantine, an old-time lover of the woman 
who, by marriage with Theodore, had become for 
a brief period Queen Emilia of Corsica. He is a 
quixotic old gentleman with an only son, for whom 
he has conceived great ambitions. Between the 
exiled king and the Englishman a bargain is struck. 
Theodore declares that he has no children living 
(although he knows that he has ) and, in considera- 
tion of certain moneys, makes over to Prosper, Sir 
John's son, the royal title. There now remain only 

the invasion of Corsica, the expulsion of the Genoese, 
and the establishment of Prosper upon the throne 
— an easy matter, in the estimation of our modern 
Don Quixote. The army of invasion (numbering 
seven in all) is collected, and sails merrily for the 
Mediterranean. A skirmish with Barbary pirates 
threatens to imperil the expedition, which, however, 
in somewhat battered condition finally lands upon 
the Corsican shores. Hardly has this haven been 
reached, when Prosper falls into the hands of 
brigands, who turn out to be under the leadership 
of a young man and woman, brother and sister, who 
are the legitimate children of Theodore and Emilia, 
and consequently the real heirs to whatever titles 
and dignities those royal personages have the power 
to transmit. But even these young people are with- 
out honor in their native country, for suspicion 
attaches to their past, and meanwhile the Paolis are 
rallying the patriotic forces of the island to their 
own standard. So we have the situation of the 
legitimate heirs to the kingdom fugitives in the 
macchia, and the innocent English pretender a 
captive in their hands. The plot works out by disclos- 
ing the despicable and treacherous character of the 
Prince, and the passionate and high-hearted temper 
of the Princess. The obvious solution (since his- 
torical fact does not permit either Prince or Princess 
or Pretender to achieve a throne) is for Prosper 
and the Princess to fall in love with one another 
(which they do in course of time) and in the end to 
sail away together from the distracted island. As for 
Sir John, he dies fighting the Genoese, and his end 
is no less heroic than the rest of his career. The 
other figures in the romance awaken our interest ; 
he alone commands our love. 

The names of Mr. Eden Phillpotts and Mr. 
Arnold Bennett appear conjointly upon the title- 
page of ''Doubloons." Reading the story, we find 
it to be the tale of a mysterious crime in London 
followed by a mysterious expedition to the Carib- 
bean in search of buried Spanish gold. This com- 
bination of " Sherlock Holmes " and " Treasure 
Island " is pleasing in its simple fashion, but what is 
Mr. Phillpotts doing in that galley ? We refuse to 
associate him with so preposterous a yarn, and in- 
sist that his literary partner must be held chiefly 
responsible. The London part of the story is bet- 
ter than its sequel, and provides a thrill for every 
chapter. After a while, the complication becomes 
so great that there is nothing for it but to cut loose 
and take refuge in foreign parts. Meanwhile, all 
sorts of loose ends are left hanging, and some of 
them are not gathered up at all. 

"The White Plume," by Mr. S. R. Crockett, 
once more drags long-suffering Henry into the lime- 
light. Among those who surround him upon the 
stage are his easy-going consort, the wicked Queen- 
mother with her flying squadron, the other and 
weaker Henry who is King of France, and the sin- 
ister Guise. Far off in Spain, the spider Philip is 
seen in his web in the Escorial, spinning the threads 
of intrigue. A prologue to the tale gives us St. 




Bartholomew and the murder of Coligny. Given 
these materials, a historical romance of the conven- 
tional type makes itself, and the considerable interest 
of the present example must be attributed in part 
only to the ingenuity of its fabricator. Still, Mr. 
Crockett has put his historical facts (duly supple- 
mented by sentimental inventions) to skilful use, 
and made the old story quite readable again. 

''The Illustrious O'Hagan" is the title of Mr. 
Justin Huntly McCarthy's new novel, and the 
Illustrious O'Hagan is its hero. The first thing to 
be explained about this hero is that there are two of 
him — twins so closely alike that their friends can 
hardly tell them apart. He (or they) became 
" illustrious " by fighting under the French king at 
Fontenoy. Afterwards, one of him goes to the Morea 
and gets killed. The other, resting on his laurels in 
Paris, is summoned to a little German principality 
to rescue a sweetheart of his youth from her brute 
of a husband. He starts blithely on the adventure, 
and is soon followed by his brother, who is conve- 
niently resuscitated at this juncture, being needed 
in the novelist's business. The scene is henceforth 
in Schlafingen, where the maiden is in sore distress, 
and where we learn that her princely husband is 
even more of a brute than we had ventured to 
anticipate. Since the O'Hagan is now doubled — 
a fact unknown to anyone but himself — he is ena- 
bled to work for her rescue in two places at once, 
which gives him a decided advantage in the game. 
Of course the rescue is effected, and then the super- 
fluous O'Hagan and the brutal prince kill each other 
in a welter of gore, which is just as well for both 
parties, since one of them is not fit to live, and the 
other is badly wanted (for a hanging matter) in 
England. Here ends our entertainment, a romantic 
one withal, and a merry. 

William Morton Payne. 

Briefs on New BooKSi 

Something unique in the way of war 
Mosbv'sRanc/ers ^^^^Yiections is Mr. J. W. Munson's 

in the Uivil IVar. ■»-»•• <• -n*- r^ 

" Reminiscences of a Mosby Guer- 
rilla " (Moffat, Yard & Co. ) . Heretofore the public 
has known little of the real life of that famous war 
band commanded by John S. Mosby, who in 1864 
General Grant tried to capture and hang, who in 
1872 was a political lieutenant of President Grant, 
and in 1907 is said to be one of the advisers of 
President Roosevelt on Southern affairs. This book 
throws much light upon the character of the com- 
mand — its leader, the members, and its methods of 
warfare. There is not a word about constitutional 
theories, nothing about State Rights, no latter-day 
historical philosophizing, no description of conditions 
in the South during and after the war, nothing, in 
short, except a lively account of the fighting life of 
the Forty-third Virginia Battalion of Partisan 
Rangers, commonly known in both North and South 

as " Mosby's Guerrillas." The regular troops of 
the Confederacy thought that too many privileges 
were given to Mosby and his men ; the Federal 
commanders thought that the Rangers ought to be 
hanged, and they did hang some of them, — but 
Mosby retaliated, and since he could hang about a 
hundred to one, he thus stopped that plan of deal- 
ing with his men. Mr. Munson, the author of this 
book, joined the Rangers when seventeen years of 
age and served until the final surrender. Judging 
from the tone of his book, he was much in love with 
the life of the Rangers. Most of his narrative is 
about what he himself saw and took part in. He 
informs us that the chief object of Mosby, who 
operated within the Federal lines, was to secure 
information for Lee and Stuart, to protect Southern 
sympathizers outside of the Confederate lines, to 
capture supplies, and to "annoy the enemy." In 
the latter purpose General Grant complained that 
it took 17,000 of his men to look after Mosby's 
four hundred. The region in which the Rangers 
operated embraced Fauquier and Loudoun counties, 
about a hundred and fifty miles from Richmond, 
near the Blue Ridge Mountains. This was called 
" Mosby's Confederacy," and of Mosby's rule here 
the author says : " During the war all local govern- 
ment in that country was suspended. . . . The 
people looked to Mosby to make the necessary laws 
and to execute them ; and no country before, during, 
or since the war, was ever better governed. Mosby 
would not permit a man to commit a crime ... in 
his domain. One of his men, in a spirit of deviltry, 
once turned over an old Quaker farmer's milk cans, 
and when Mosby heard of it he ordered me to take 
the man over ... to General Early with the mes- 
sage that such a man was not fit to be a Guerilla." 
It was a rare body of reckless young fighters whose 
exploits are chronicled in this volume. With the 
help of this description of the possibilities of guerrilla 
warfare, we may gain a conception of the. service 
rendered to both South and North by General Lee 
when he refused to countenance such a method of 
prolonging the contest. The recent statements of 
Mr. Charles Francis Adams on this point have an 
added force when one thinks of the conditions that 
would have followed had there been hundreds of 
such organizations in the remote districts of the 

A taster and ^^^^ non-professional critic is likely 
reiisher of the to be fresher and more inspiring in 
best literature, relating his adventures among books 
than is the practised writer on the same themes, 
with all his critical apparatus of gauges and stand- 
ards and measurements and tests, his stereotyped 
phrases, and the approved cant and jargon of his 
calling. Mr. Bradford Torrey, like his fellow na- 
turalist, Mr. John Burroughs, can chat to us as 
pleasantly about books as about birds. His " Friends 
on the Shelf" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) is chiefly 
a reprint of " Atlantic" essays on literary subjects, 
taking its title from FitzGerald's words in one of 



[March 1, 

his letters, " I must get back to my friends on the 
shelf." He treats of Hazlitt, FitzGerald, Thoreau 
(most admirably, of course), Stevenson, Keats, M. 
Anatole France, sundry matters of style, travellers' 
notebooks, and our alleged lack of a national litera- 
ture. An enamored reader, he writes with a charm- 
ing disclaimer of being anything but a taster and 
relisher. But " self-dispraise goes little ways," as 
the essayist himself admits, and " the good critic is 
he who narrates the adventures of his own mind in 
its intercourse with masterpieces," says M. Anatole 
France, as quoted by Mr. Torrey. Some little mat- 
ters to quarrel over might easily be singled out. For 
instance, when the writer declares that FitzGerald 
"meant to be obscure," is he indisputably in the 
right ? We all know that our English Omar cared 
not for " rank and office and title, and all the 
solemn plausibilities of the world "; but in recalling 
his repeated self-depreciation and his frequent hu- 
morous references to the great world's disregard 
of his literary and critical endowments, one should 
also remember that (to quote Mr. Torrey in another 
connection) "the more considerable a man's gifts, 
the more likely he is to speak disparagingly of 
them." A keen sense of the mocking irony of fate 
in snatching from our reach the very prize we most 
covet and seem to ourselves (in secret) most to 
deserve, is not exactly the same as a deliberate re- 
solve never to win that prize. In his blunt bidding 
of his friends to do no more than acknowledge the 
receipt of his little books, unless they found some- 
thing to censure, may be detected FitzGerald's rec- 
ognition of the perilous sweetness of praise. The 
naturalist peeps forth, welcomely, in many a passage 
of Mr. Torrey's, as for example — a good quotation 
to end with — "If a man is not greater than the 
greatest thing he does, the less said about him and 
them the better. His work should drop from him 
like fruit from a tree. Henceforth let the world 
look after it, if it is worth looking after. The tree 
should have other business." 

, .. What constitutes the vagabond poet 

oowic studies 

of literary or essayist or story-writer ? In his 

vagabonds. ]book, " The Vagabond in Literature " 

(Button), Mr. Arthur Rickett declares the charac- 
teristic qualities to be restlessness, a passion for the 
earth, and constitutional reserve ; and the writers 
whom he finds especially marked by these attributes 
are Hazlitt, DeQuincey, Borrow, Thoreau, Stevenson, 
Jefferies, a;nd Whitman. He distinguishes between 
bohemianism and vagabondage, and though some of 
his distinctions and definitions seem strained, and 
many of his opinions are expressed with the finality 
and certainty of scientific truths, the essays on his 
chosen seven authors are good as literary apprecia- 
tions from a particular point of view, and are likely 
to send more than one reader back again to the 
imperishable pages of the writers discussed. Mr. 
Rickett now and then splits hairs, as in calling De 
Quincey " a simple nature and a complex tempera- 
ment." He speaks of " the frank confidence of his 

Confessions " — as if ingenuous simplicity covdd 
anywhere be found in the rhetorical De Quincey, — 
but later admits that " the difference between the 
editions of De Quincey's ' Opium Eater ' is sufficient 
to show how the dreams have expanded under 
popular approbation." Of the writing of essays on 
Thoreau there is no end in sight. A little search 
discovers half a hundred by authors of more or less 
repute in English and American books and maga- 
zines, besides the increasing number of formal bio- 
graphies. In this field Mr. Rickett says nothing 
strikingly new, but he says enough to betray his 
own unfamiliarity with Thoreau's haunts, if not 
even with his books. We read that " Thoreau turned 
his back on civilization, and found a new joy of 
living in the woods at Maine." The three brief 
excursions into Maine, as related in " The Maine 
Woods," are apparently confused with the sojourn 
at Walden. The expression, " the woods at Maine," 
occurs again later. Perhaps Maine is thought to be 
the town in which Walden Pond lies. Even gram- 
matical slips occur in this unfortunate essay, as 
" The riotous growth of eccentricities and idiosyn- 
crasies are picturesque enough "; and, with a reck- 
less piling up of perfect tenses, " But one would 
have liked to have heard much more about them." 
Borrow is " six foot three " in height. These agree- 
able essays are not epoch-making — how few books 
are ! — but they offer many a page of good reading, 
none the worse for being on well-worn themes. 

Studies in The publishers of Professor W. I. 

the evolution Thomas's volume of studies in the 
0/ Woman. social psychology of sex, " Sex and 

Society" (University of Chicago Press), have 
thought it desirable to issue with it a statement that 
the press notices commenting upon its concluding 
chapter (which appeared earlier in periodical form) 
have caused it to be misinterpreted in the direction 
of an un gallant appraisal of the mentality of the 
gentler and more sensitive sex. It is most unfortu- 
nate that the insatiable reporter should have seized 
upon this material for plying his sensational trade ; 
but since he has done so it is pertinent to state that 
Professor Thomas's volume is a sober and for the 
most part objective study of the influences shaping 
the life of woman, particularly among primitive 
peoples in the longer reaches of uncivilized man- 
kind. So far as deductions go, the conclusion is at 
least equally direct that with the removal of these 
" anthropological " disabilities the mental powers of 
the feminine mind will be released to a freer and 
fuller expression of its capabilities. Apart from 
this concluding chapter, which is indeed open to 
criticism as maintained upon a less consistent plan 
of exposition than pervades the others, the volume 
consists of a group of carefully elaborated and well 
sustained essays upon the organic differences of the 
sexes, the role of sex in primitive social control, 
social feeling, industry, morality, family life, and 
the evolution of modesty ; while the trend of the 
argument is best brought to a focus in the very in- 




terestlng chapter upon the adventitious character of 
woman. In these delicate fields, among mooted data 
and conspicuous temptations to hasty inference and 
convenient though misleading formulae, Professor 
Thomas moves with an expert discernment, discloses 
many a shortcoming in prevalent doctrine, and builds 
up a consistent objective picture of woman's socio- 
logical status. Sociology is a new science, and by 
its invasion of a field in which all who run may 
read, and all who read may write or argue, is beset 
with peculiar liability to misinterpretation which 
may take the shape of ridicule. Professor Thomas 
should not be held responsible for the vagaries com- 
mitted under the name of his science, nor for the 
popular distortion to which his views and his subject- 
matter lend themselves. 

Pioneers of 
our national 

The Westward movement, which in 
spite of its preeminent importance 
has only recently begun to receive 
the attention that it should have from students of 
the history of our country, is narrated in a pleasant 
popular manner by Mr. Archer Butler Hulbert in 
his " Pilots of the Republic : The Romance of the 
Pioneer Promoter in the Middle West" ( McClurg). 
As the title indicates, this movement of our popu- 
lation and institutions across the Alleghanies and 
into the farther West is characterized and described 
through accounts, which may originally have been 
popular lectures, of some of the leading "promoters " 
of these various expeditions or enterprises, — those 
heroes and patriots who personally led these pioneer 
undertakings and endured their toils and dangers, 
or those who, hardly less heroes and no less patriots, 
inspired others to undertake the forward movement 
of our national expansion and to sufi^er in many 
cases the fate of pioneers. These men are well 
worth reading about, and any book that can make 
them live again for us of a quieter $nd less adventur- 
ous time is a useful one. The " promoters " whom 
Mr. Hulbert includes are : Washington, the story of 
whose life-long interest in the West and untiring 
efforts to open it to settlement and commerce make 
the most interesting chapter in the book ; Richard 
Henderson, the founder of Transylvania, that first 
invasion of the red men's country west of the 
Alleghany mountains ; Rufus Putnam, the father of 
Ohio ; David Zeisberger, the devoted missionary ; 
George Rogers Clark ; Henry Clay, the promoter of 
the Cumberland Road ; Morris and Clinton, fathers 
of the Erie Canal ; Thomas and Mercer, rival pro- 
moters of railway and canal farther south; Lewis 
and Clark ; Astor, the promoter of Astoria ; and 
Marcus Whitman of Oregon. Sixteen portraits add 
value and interest to the book. 

" The longest 
tcandal of the 
19th century.''^ 

Professor Graziano Paolo Clerici's 
'■'■II piu Lungo Scandalo del Secolo 
XIX." which appeared about three 
years ago in Italy, has been translated and supple- 
mented by Mr. Frederic Clmpman, and handsomely 
published, with many portraits, by Mr. John Lane 

under the title, " A Queen of Indiscretions." Lives 
of Queen Caroline, ill-starred consort of George IV., 
there were already in abundance ; but it appears 
that Signor Clerici has had access to hitherto unused 
" Italian records, both in public departments and in 
private ownership." Consequently his pages pre- 
sent fresh incidents that may modify opinion as to 
the guilt or innocence of the indiscreet lady who so 
narrowly escaped conviction of something worse 
than indiscretion. The Italian author's severity of 
judgment is balanced by the English editor's lenity ; 
and between the two Caroline comes off rather as 
frivolous and frail than as deliberately profligate 
and licentious. The poor foolishly-reared girl was 
by no means a Messalina of wickedness. The mys- 
tery of her early separation from her royal spouse 
remains a mystery still, though the author attempts 
an explanation by comparing George IV. in certain 
emotional and physiological respects to Rousseau, 
and by finding in both (as he thinks) a congenital 
defect incapacitating them for marriage. Even the 
Princess Charlotte's alleged resemblance to her sup- 
posed father is not allowed to invalidate this fanciful 
theory. The English reader well versed in his naval 
history will note the vague reference to Admiral 
Sii" William Sidney Smith as " a certain Sydney 
Smith." The index calls him " Captain Sir Sydney 
Smith "; but under his portrait the name is correctly 
given. The index, by the way, is evidently not the 
work of an expert, its entries being unwisely chosen 
and grouped, and the page references inexact. Under 
" Pergami, Bartolomeo," for instance, at least four 
page numbers lead one astray. There is a lack, too, 
throughout the narrative, of definite acknowledg- 
ment of sources ; the reader follows his author 
blindly. Fifty-seven portraits and portrait-groups 
are interspersed. 

Art of the Again Mr. H. B. Walters comes be- 

ancient fore the reading world with a book 

Greeks. ^^^ ought to be highly valuable, and 

again that world has good reason to be disappointed. 
In " The Art of the Greeks," no less than in his 
" History of Ancient Pottery," the author falls far 
short of his opportunity. The best of the books in 
the same field is now a decade old, and a decade 
makes great changes in the facts and theories of 
archaeology in such an excavating age as ours. 
The new work is far more imposing than the older 
one, more handsome and ambitious ; but it takes 
no account of the Kaufmann head in discussing 
the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles. It dismisses 
Furtwangler's monumental work at Aegina with 
the remark, " A few additions have been made 
from the recent excavations, but nothing of special 
importance." It says of the Farnese Bull, that 
" It was removed to Rome and there preserved to 
this day," when even the most casual visitor to the 
Naples Museum any time these eighty years must 
have seen that conspicuous group, whatever else 
may have escaped him. Such faults are hard to 
excuse ; but the numerous and handsome illustra- 



[March 1, 

tions do what they can hy way of compensation. 
They are of unusual value, both because of their 
excellence and their variety, and because they repro- 
duce many subjects not otherwise easily accessible 
to the general public. Among such old-time favor- 
ites as the Aphi'odite from Melos, the LaocoOn, and 
the victory from Samothrace, are pictures less often 
seen. Reproductions of vases and of such bronzes 
as the charioteer from Delphi, the youth dredged 
up near the island of Cythera, and Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan's Eros, are so rare except in books designed 
for specialists that it is gratifying to find so many 
and such good ones in this work of more popular 
character. The type is in its way as pleasing to the 
eye as the pictures are in theirs. The publishers 
(Macmillan) have produced such a charming book 
in all external respects that it seems a pity it should 
not be equally satisfying to the mind of the classical 

Sketches of the " ^^^ in Ancient Athens," by Doctor 
golden period T. G. Tucker, Professor of Classical 
of Athenian life. Philology in the University of Mel- 
bourne, is the latest of the Macmillan " Handbooks 
of Archaeology and Antiquities." The volume 
is a treatise on Athenian life at its most attract- 
ive period — that is, roughly speaking, the cen- 
tury beginning with 440 b. c and is presented 

in an easy, readable " footnoteless " form for the 
general reader, although the author endeavors to 
incorporate the results of even the most recent in- 
vestigations. The first sixteen chapters treat of 
such subjects as Public Buildings, Citizens, Out- 
landers, Slaves, Women, Social Day of a Typical 
Citizen, Army and Navy, Festivals, and the Thea- 
tre. The seventeenth chapter deals with the Modern- 
ness of th^ Athenians. The eighty-five illustrations 
are generally well chosen and modern, although not 
a few of them are pretty familiar — the restoration 
of the Acropolis, for instance, being our old friend 
from Schreiber's Atlas. The general style may be 
characterized in the author's words as " the oppo- 
site of pedantic, utilizing any vivacities of method 
which are consistent with truth of fact"; and it must 
be adnjitted that these vivacities are sometimes of 
questionable felicity. On the whole, the volume 
achieves its modest aim, which at once disarms 
criticism ; but it rather suffers from the inevitable 
comparison with some of the other members of the 
same series, as Professor Ernest Gardner's admir- 
able " Handbook of Greek Sculpture," or Professor 
A. H. J. Greenidge's concise presentation of " Roman 

Public Life." 

, Lady Dorothy Fanny (Walpole) 

of " trifiina Nevill, daughter of the third Earl of 

reminiscences." Qrford ( second creation ), and widow 
of the late Reginald Nevill, has published her 
"Reminiscences" (Longmans) — "this volume of 
trifling reminiscence " she modestly styles the book 
in her dedication to the Marquis of Abergavenny 

and her son, Mr. Ralph Nevill, has acted as her 

editor. Though she begins her book with her birth, 

she, woman-like, omits to record when she was born ; 
nor does she present anything like a full account of 
her life, but touches lightly and pleasantly, some- 
times wittily, on persons and events that have in- 
terested her. Among her favorite pursuits are to 
be noted the collecting of old hand-made buttons, 
and the practice of horticultxxre, wood-carving, and 
book-illumination. Well-disposed toward America 
because she has always found American visitors 
" courteous, clever, and altogether most attractive," 
she yet cannot forgive us for luring Sir Purdon 
Clarke over to New York to preside over the 
Metropolitan Museum, A clever characterization 
of the Greville Memoirs is quoted by her : " It is as 
if Judas Iscariot wrote the lives of the twelve 
Apostles"; also Sir William Harcourt's comment on 
his son's marriage: "I have but one objection — 
that I could not marry the bride myself." The 
writer thinks the purchasing power of money 
greater now than in her youth — which, if it be 
true, cannot long remain so with prices advancing 
at the present rate. Of a very tall custodian at the 
Munich Glyptothek she says, " He might, indeed, 
have been a soldier in the great Frederick's famous 
regiment of giants ! " It was the great Frederick's 
father, Frederick William, who collected giants ; the 
son attached more value to brain than brawn. A 
portrait of Lady Dorothy, from a crayon drawing, 
is provided as frontispiece. 

„ „ , , It is no idle use of the term as ap- 

Psycholofjv . T-» c -r» 5 1 <• 

of Reiiuious plied to Prof essor Pratt s study of 
Belief." religious belief, to say that it pre- 

sents a very sane attitude toward the complex data 
involved. Its sanity consists of a wholesome and 
equally a discerning determination to view the facts 
as they are, and as finding an illumination in the 
teachings of modern psychology as embodied in the 
modern man. The sustaining position of the thesis 
is that religious belief, conformably to the status of 
belief as a psychological product, presents itself in 
three forms which are concisely formulated as the 
religion of primitive credulity, the religion of 
thought, and the religion of feeling. The psycho- 
logical foundation of the former is reached in the 
inevitable unanalysed attitude of the psychic novice, 
the child or the savage, — that of acceptance, of 
reaction in a positive and simple manner to the 
situations of life. Among these are beliefs as well 
as customs ; and thus tradition and the religion of 
primitive credulity are formed and preserved. With 
experience comes reason, analysis, and doubt; and 
in the positive religious field, dogma and theology. 
Yet underlying all is the true motive that makes 
mystics of some, brings conversion to others, and 
engenders prayer, devotion, and the sensitiveness to 
the eternal mysteries. These phases are exemplified 
in the great historical religions, as well as in the 
unfoldment of every thoughtful life. They are rein- 
forced in a somewhat novel manner in the present 
volume by an analysis of the responses to a religious 
" questionaire." The author believes strongly in the 




temperamental and emotional natiire of the religious 
experience, which in a measure has thus an organic 
foundation in the subconscious mode of reaction to 
the elemental psychic stimuli. As a simple and direct 
presentation of religious-mindedness, the essay is to 
be commended. (Macmillan.) 

Rocks and That a new edition of Dr. George 

thei7- change P. Merrill's " Rocks, Rock Weather- 
mto soils. i„g^ and Soils " is called for speaks 

for the continued usefulness of this well-known 
book. The present edition (Macmillan) follows 
closely the plan of the first one published in 1897. 
As before, the work is essentially a compilation. 
There has been very little attempt to harmonize 
conflicting views, and almost none at independent 
interpretation. The pages devoted to rocks and 
to soils reflect current views rather than suggest 
new ones. The chapters devoted to rock-weathering 
are the best in the book, and constitute in the 
aggregate our most authoritative treatise on this 
subject. In them Dr. Merrill gives the results of 
personal investigations, and is at his best. His con- 
clusions are interesting and suggestive, but subject 
to all the doubt incident to the necessity of making 
in each case a first assumption as to the stability 
of some one element in the rock. The fact that 
the element chosen differs with each rock indicates 
that there is no great certainty as to this assump- 
tion. The book is especially useful to readers who 
desire a knowledge of the general facts and princi- 
ples involved in the study of rocks and their change 
into soils. 


Mr. Booker T. Washington's biography of Frederick 
Douglass, promised last year by Messrs. George W. 
Jacobs & Co. for the " American Crisis Biographies," 
but unavoidably delayed, is to be issued this month. 

Professor W. H. Crawshaw has prepared a new work 
entitled " The Making of English Literature," which 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. will soon publish. The vol- 
ume covers the whole field chronologically, but gives a 
greater part of its space to the more significant authors, 
who are appreciatively interpreted. 

The success of Mr. Arthur Christopher Benson's 
" Upton Letters," " From a College Window," and 
other books, has led to the reprinting of some of his 
earlier work. An entirely new book by Mr. Benson, 
entitled " Beside Still Waters," will be published this 
month by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Professor Charles E. Garman, who died last month, 
completed last June twenty-five years' service as teacher 
of philosophy in Amherst College. In commemora- 
tion of that occasion, thirteen of his former pupils 
presented him with a book entitled " Studies in Philos- 
ophy and Psychology," which they prepared and pub- 
lished through Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Two years ago, Mr. Arlo Bates gave at the Univer- 
sity of Illmois a series of " Talks on Teaching Litera- 
ture." The book now published with that title by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. contains the substance of those 
" Talks," considerably elaborated for publication. It is 

a very interesting and suggestive book, and we particu- 
larly recommend to the teachers into whose hands it 
falls the chapter which tells how Blake's " Tiger " was 
brought by the author within the comprehension of a 
boy of eight. We have rarely seen as sensible a hook 
upon the subject with which it deals. 

The April issue of " Putnam's Monthly " will contain 
the opening chapters of a three-part serial by Mr. 
Maiirice Hewlett, author of " The Forest Lovers," 
" Little Novels of Italy," etc. It is a romance entitled 
" The Countess of Picpus," and records the stirring 
adventures of Captain Brazenhead in a picturesque 
period of French history. 

Commander Peary's complete story of his great Arc- 
tic expedition which made a new world's record and 
planted the Stars and Stripes " farthest north," will 
be published by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Company 
this month under the title of " Nearest the Pole." 
There will he an introduction by President Roosevelt, 
and the work will be adequately illustrated from the 
collection of 1,200 photographs taken by Commander 

In addition to E, Phillips Oppenheim's new book, 
" The Malefactor," Messrs. Little, Brown & Co.'s early 
publications include novels by George Frederic Turner, 
an English author; Arthur Stringer, who wrote " The 
Wire Tappers "; Amia Chapin Ray, whose romances of 
modern Quebec are well known; Eliza Calvert Hall, 
a Kentucky writer ; John H. Whitson, who has forsaken 
Western scenes for the East; Ellis Meredith, a Colorado 
author; and Lucy M. Thurston, who wrote "A Girl of 

Mr. M. S. Levussove's monograph upon the work of 
E. M. Lilien, published by Mr. B. W. Huebsch, will en- 
able the reader to comprehend the motive of an artist 
inspired by the national renascence of the Jews as 
expressed in the modern Zionistic movement. Four- 
teen reproductions from the black and white designs of 
this artist, whose manner reflects that of the Munich 
" Secessionists," bear witness to a symbolism at once 
lucid and forcible, and to the optimistic confidence for 
the future of the Jews as an agricultural race in Pales- 
tine. The work will appeal alike to those who have an 
interest in the rejuvenation of an ancient race, and to 
those who will be attracted by a technique suggestive 
of the skill of Japanese decorators and of the European 
masters of line-work. 

Longfellow's inaugural address at Bowdoin College, 
delivered by him, September 2, 1830, as professor of 
modern languages, has just been published by the Bow- 
dom College Library in a limited edition of 250 copies, 
and may be obtained from Librarian George T. Little, 
Brunswick, Maine, for two dollars (cloth-bound) or 
three dollars (in full flexible leather). This address, 
on the " Origin and Growth of the Languages of 
Southern Europe and of their Literature," was given 
soon after the young Longfellow's return from abroad, 
where he had been fitting himself for the chair estab- 
lished for him at his college. It was his first extended 
essay in prose, it offers a comprehensive survey of its 
subject, and it also illustrates the writer's attitude 
toward literature and poetry. Brief extracts appeared 
in the well-known biography of the poet by his brother, 
but this is the first publication of the address in fuU. 
Printed from the autograph manuscript, it makes a 
volume of 130 pages, four inches by seven. It is a 
book that should appeal to collectors as well as to 
Longfellow lovers. 



[March 1, 

liiST OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 4^ titles, includes books 
received hy The Dial since its last issue.] 

The Liife of the Empress Eugrenie. By Jane T. Stoddart. 

Third edition ; with photogravure portraits, large 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 311. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3. net. 
Heroines of French Society, in the Court, the Revolution, 

the Empire, and the Restoration. By Mrs. Beame. Illus., 

large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 485. E. P. Dutton & Co. |3. net. 
Hy Life as an Indian : The Story of a Red Woman and a 

White Man in the Lodges of the Blackfeet. By J. W. Schultz. 

Illus., t2mo, pp. 426. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50 net. 
duintin HofiTi: : A Biography. By Ethel M. Hogg ; with Pre- 
face by the Duke of Argyll. Popular edition ; with portrait, 

8vo, pp. 419. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.50 net. 
Henry Wadsworth Lonerfellow : A Sketch of his Life. By 

Charles Eliot Norton. Together with Longfellow's Chief 

Autobiographical Poems. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 121. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 75 cts. net. 
Ameriero Vespucci. By Frederick A. Ober. With portraits, 

12mo, pp. 258. " Heroes of American History." Harper & 

Brothers. $1. net. 

The Rise and Decline of the Netherlands : A Political and 

Economic History and a Study in Practical Statesmanship. 

By J. Ellis Barker. Large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 478. E. P. Dutton 

& Co. $3.50 net. 
Outcome of the Civil War, 1863-1865. By James Kendall 

Hosmer, LL.D. With portrait and maps, 8vo, gilt top. 

"American Nation." Harper & Brothers. $2. net. 

The Heart of Hamlet's Slystery. Trans, from the G)«rman 

of Karl Werder by Elizabeth Wilder ; with Introduction by 

W. J. Rolfe. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 223. Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1.50 net. 
Letters to Youn? and Old. By Mrs. C. W. Earle. 8vo, 

pp. 384. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 
The Steps of Life : Further Essays on Happiness. By Carl 

Hilty; trans, by Melvin Brandow, with Introduction by 

Francis G. Peabody. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 264. Macmillan Co. 

$1.25 net. 
The Ancestry of Chaucer : A Dissertation. By Alfred Allan 

Kern. Large 8vo, pp. 163. Baltimore: Lord Baltimore Press. 

The Rhetoric of John Donne's Verse : A Dissertation. By 

Wightman Fletcher Melton. Large 8vo, pp. 209. Baltimore: 

J. H. Furst Co. Paper. 

Poems. By Allan Brant. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 30. Gorham 

Press. $1. 
The Processional : A Psean. By George Gordon. 12mo. Gor- 
ham Press. $1. 
The Jewels of Kiner Art. By James Connolly. 12mo, pp. 59. 

Gorham Press. $1.25. 
The Dream of HeU. By G. Wilson Duley. 12mo, pp. 32. Gor- 
ham Press. $1. 

The Kinsman. By Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp.384. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Prisoners of Fortune: A Tale of the Massachusetts Bay 

Colony. By Ruel Perley Smith. With frontispiece, 12mo, 

pp.392. L. C.Page & Co. $1.50. 
The Dust of Conflict. By Harold Bindloss. Illus. in color, 

12mo, pp. 321. Frederick A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 
The Sweetest Solace. By John Randal. 12m6, pp. 381. E. P. 

Dutton & Co. $1.50. 
The Caere. By Charlotte Teller. 12mo, pp. 340. D. Appleton 

& Co. $1.50. 
The Issue: A Story of the River Thames. By Edward Noble. 

12mo, pp. 407. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50. 
A Draug'ht of the Blue, together with An Essence of the 

Dusk. Trans, from the Original Manuscripts by F. W. Bain. 

Illus., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 239. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 
Hemoirs of Arthur Hamilton, B.A., of Trinity College, 

Cambridge. By Arthur Christopher Benson . New edition ; 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 226. Henry Holt & Co. $1.25, 
Where the Rainbow Touches the Ground. By John 

Henderson Miller. With frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 253. Funk 

& Wagnalls Co. $1. 


The American Scene. By Henry James. 8vo, gilt top, pp. 

443. Harper & Brothers. $3. net. 
The Desert and the Sown. By Gertrude Lowthian Bell. 

Illus. in color, etc., large 8vo, uncut, pp. 340. E. P. Dutton & 

Co. $5. net. 

Van Dyck. By Lionel Cust, M. V. O. Illus. in photogravure, 

etc., 12 mo, gilt top, pp. 152. " Great Masters in Painting and 

Sculpture." Macmillan Co. $1.75. 
Whistler: Notes and Footnotes and Other Memoranda. By A. 

E. G. Illus. in photogravure, color, etc., large 8vo, pp. 96. 

New York : The Collector and Art Critic Co. 
Felix Mendelssohn: Thirty Piano Compositions. Edited by 

Percy Goetschius ; with Preface by Daniel Gregory Mason. 

4to, pp. 187. " Musicians Library." Oliver Ditson Co. $1.50. 

The Control of a Scourge; or. How Cancer is Curable. By 

Charles P. Childe, B. A. Large 8vo, pp. 299. E. P. Dutton & 

Co. $2.50 net. 
The Hygriene of Mind. By T. S. Clouston, M.D. Second 

edition ; illus., large 8vo, pp. 284. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 
Infant Mortality: A Social Problem. By George Newman, 

M.D. Large 8vo. pp. 356. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 
The Children of the Nation: How their Health and Vigour 

Should Be Promoted by the State. By Sir John E. Qorst. 

Large 8vo, pp. 297. E. P. Dutton & Co. 82.50 net. 


The World Machine: The First Phase of the Cosmic Mech- 
anism. By Carl Snyder. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 488. Lons- 
mans. Green & Co. $2.50 net. 

The Religious Conception of the World: An Essay in Con- 
structive Philosophy. By Arthur Kenyon Rogers, Ph.D. 
12mo, gilt top, pp. 284. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 


Birds Every Child Should Know: The East. By Neltje 
Blanchan. Illus., 12mo, pp. 281. Doubleday, Page & Co. 
$1.20 net. 

Good Hunting: In Pursuit of Big Game in the West. By 
Theodore Roosevelt. Illus., 12mo, pp. 107. Harper & Brothers. 

Sea Yams for Boys: Spun by an Old Salt. By W. J. Hen- 
derson. Illus., 12mo, pp. 195. Harper & Brothers. 60 cts. 

The Teaching of Mathematics in the Elementary and the 

Secondary Schools. By J. W. A. Young, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 

351. " American Teachers' Series." Longmans, Green & Co. 

$1 50 

Christian Science. By Mark Twain. Illus., 8vo, pp. 362 

Harper & Brothers. $1.75. 
Race Prejudice. By Jean Finot; trans, by Florence Wade 

Evans. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 320. E. P. Dutton i& Co. $3. net. 
The Criminal Prosecution and Capittil Punishment of 

Animals. By E. P. Evans, With frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 384. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 
In the Path of the Alphabet : An Historical Account of the 

Ancient Beginnings and Evolution of the Modern Alphabet. 

By Frances D. Jermaln. Illus., 12mo, pp. 160. Fort Wayne, 

Ind. : William D. Page. $1.25. 
The Book of Camping and Woodcraft: A Guidebook for 

those who Travel in the Wilderness. By Horace Kephart. 

Illus., 16mo, pp. 321. Outing Publishing Co. 
The Roman System of Provincial Administration to 

the Accession of Constantine the Great. By W. T. Arnold, 

M.A. New edition, revised from the Author's Notes by E. S. 

Shuckburgh, Litt.D.; with map, 8vo, pp. 288. Oxford: B. H. 

Black well. 
John Wesley's Journal. Abridged edition; 12mo, pp. 433. 

Jennings & Graham. 50 cts. net. 


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T?ie Study of Four Idylls of the Kind. Ready. Topics, 
notes, references, etc.,for Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot 
and Elaine, and The Passing of Arthur. Students'edition, 
single copies, 30 cents. 

The Study of Ivanhoe. Third edition, MapoflvanhoeLand, 
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A Woman's True Life-Story, Cloth, gilt top, handsome cover- 
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"Clever . . . delicious book. I have read it from lid to lid." 
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A collection of what has been written in criticism of the works 
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COME of the most notable things which distinguished 
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A NY one of the ten authors represented would be a safe 
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Words of good coun- 

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[March 1, 1907. 




The Book of 1907. A second edition was ordered and doubled before the 
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A splendid love-story which has already gained such a flying start as a serial 
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APDLLO an Illustrated Manual of the 

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[March 16, 



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Translated from the Russian 



RuDiN AND A King Lear of the Steppes. 
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A Nobleman's Nest. 
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With introduction by WILLIAM ARCHER 

Eleven volumes 

new volumes. 
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The Beginnings of Democracy 

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observation. $1.50 net ; postage extra. 

The result of first hand 





A. C. McClurg & Co. 's Spring Listy 1907 


With pictures in 

color and cover 

design by 

N. C. Wyeth. 

Large 12mo. 



This is a capital story about South Dakota in the days when the " rustlers " held 
sway in the cattle country — when they owned the deputy sheriffs and the juries 
— owned almost everybody except Paul Langford and Gordon, the county attor- 
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hearted and aggressive service as well, into the long and bitter fight. And Richard 
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his law. Then there is Jim Munson, a splendid characterization of the real cowboy, whose whole 
life is bound up in the Three Bars " outfit," and against him the sinister figure of Jesse Black, who 
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ing to the reader. In Mr. N. C. Wyeth the publishers feel that they have an illustrator who now 
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ard that simply compel attention. 



The "Iron Way" is the Central Pacific Railroad. The completion of this 
great enterprise in 1869 provides the material for a story full of action and the 
power of big events. The author has made skilful use of some of the giant 
promoters of that day — Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, 
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Of course it is not all railroad, for there is a most attractive love story involving the fortunes of 
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Miss Tynan has her own field, and her many admirers are perfectly content to 
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of this author's greatest charms. 


With illustrations 

by John W.Norton. 

Large 12 mo. 


With frontispiece 

by George A. 


12mo. $1.25. 

Designed and dec- 
orated by Ralph 
Fletcher Seymour. 

Tall 16mo. 

Net $1.00. 

reversion to type. 


Seldom have love letters been penned which contained more of the beauty of 
pathos, the poignancy of despair, than these messages, which seem literally writ- 
ten with the heart's blood of the noble-minded Indian who sent them to a girl 
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life of an American girl of birth and breeding? Yet he was inspired to these 
letters, which breathe the spirit of renunciation and show how inevitable is 
Each one is a veritable prose poem. 

A. C. McClurg & Co., Publishers, Chicago 

166 THE DIAL [March 16, 

A. C. McClurg & Co. 's Spring List, 1907 




With many full- The wonderful Campanile of San Gabriel's, the cloister courts of Santa Barbara. 

page illustrations the Moorish dome of San Luis — monuments all to the short-lived glory of the 

of the Missions, Spanish power in lovely California — what traveller's heart has not turned to 

from photographs, them at one time or other ; or, having visited them, not longed for some reminder 

Oblong, of his visit? To him this veritable panorama of the old Southwest will be at 

Sx\0% inches, once a delightful souvenir and a valuable book of information, with its admirable 

Net $1.00. pictures emphasizing the romantic beauty of the Spanish survival. 



Illustrated from Antiquity as great as that of the Hebrew and Greek is claimed for the vast store 

photographs, of legends and folk-lore of the most picturesque of islands, and the fact that the 

Large 8vo. present work stands for an attempt to rescue them from oblivion is sufficient 

Net $1.75. warrant for it. The mythology, religious functions, tradition and cosmology, 

are treated by students who are authorities in their several fields, and whose 

researches are worthy of a place beside those of Percy, Herder, and Lang. The poetic quality of 

the native legends is faithfully reproduced in the translations, the musical nomenclature of course 

contributing, and there are frequent references to the famous Fornander manuscript, now in the 

possession of the Hon. C. R. Bishop. 




With map. 16mo. This comprehensive title defines clearly the purpose of a book which is all to the 

Net $1.00. point. Of course " aill good Americans go to Paris before they die," and those 

who go for the first time will find just the things they want to know in Miss 

Williams's practical volume. The author understands exactly what the feminine pilgrims are most 

interested in, and she confines herself within definite limits. 



With frontispiece. This is the true story of a seven-year old lad who came with his parents to the 

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With 100 illustra- Miss Morley's skill as a writer of nature books for children needs no commenda- 
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and asters, where the grasshoppers are blissfully chirping." 

A. C. McClurg & Co., Publishers, Chicago 

1907] THE DIAL 157 

A, C. McClurg & Co. 's Spring List, 1907 


By Rev. C. L. ARNOLD 

12mo. Y)t. Arnold aims to solve the problem as to the range, and especially the con- 
Net $1.20. nection, between mind and matter. He builds a theory that solves many of the 
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be far-reaching. 



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By POMPEO MOLMENTI, Translated from the Italian by Horatio F. Brown, British Archivist in Venice, and 

author of " In and Around Venice." 

With many Xhe second part of this beautiful and monumental work is ready this Spring, 
illustrations. 8vo. The first section, VENICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES was published last Fall, 
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net $5.00. the beauty of its mechanical details, and its authority have excited equal com- 




Edited by John Cotton Dana, Librarian of the Newark Public Library, and Henry W. Kent, Assistant Secretary 

of the Metropolitan Museum of Arts. 

The two volumes completing the series are : JUSTUS LIPSIUS, De Bibliothecis Syntagma. GABRIEL 
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Regular edition limited to 230 sets, net $12.00. Large paper edition, limited to 23 sets, net $25.00. 

^^ Subscriptions received only for the entire set. 

A. C. McClurg & Co., Publishers, Chicago 

158 THE DIAL [March 16, 



Dodd, Mead & Company 


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colors by Harrison Fisher. Illustrations by Martin Justice. 
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Mr. Barnes, American .... a sequel to" Mr. Bames of New York." By Archibald 

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Davenant By albert Kinross, illustrated. 

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12mo, cloth, 2 vols $2.50 





The Whirlpool of Europe . . . . 

Indiscreet Letters from Pekin . . 
American Philosophy 

A History of Scotland. Vol. IV. 
History of Architecture 

George Eliot 

The Many-Sided Roosevelt . . . 

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An Anecdotal Biography. By GEORGE WI LLI AM DOUGLAS . 
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Recollections of Men and Horses 
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A New Edition of a very practical book. 




[March 1, 

A thrilling novel of a great love which endured through tragedy and money madness. It is a 

story which would make its 

LAWSON'S "Friday, the 13th" waywereltbyanmiknown 

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My Life as an Indian 

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Country Lifb 
in america ' 

THE WoRis't Work 


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Commander R. E. PEARY'S 
"Nearest the Pole" 

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Birds Every Child Should Know— The East 


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Country Ufb , 
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D o u B LEDAY Page a^Co. 

133-135-131 East leirSTREBT. New York 

162 THE DIAL [March 16, 

Stttle, llroton, 61 Co/s spring ^ooKs 



A faithful portrayal of rural life in the Blue Grass country, abounding in humor, pathos and homespun 
philosophy. The character drawing is excellent. Every one is sure to love delightful Aunt Jane and her 
neighbors, her quilts and her flowers, her stories and her quaint, tender philosophy. 

Illustrated by Beulah Strong. 12mo, $1.50. 



Like the author's origrinal novel, " The Wire Tappers," this Deals with a talented girl's chances of success in New York, 

new book contains the remarkable adventures of the hero and contains ample delightful romance so that it is whole- 

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A powerful novel with a large theme, the welding of the A novel of life in one of the larger American universities 

nation after prolonged civil strife, that appeals to North embodying a study of social maladjustment with a hero who 

and South. 12mo, $1.50. is a "misfit." 12mo,$1.50. 



This mystifying story of the strange revenge of Sir Wingrave Seton, who suffered imprisonment for a crime he did 
not commit rather than defend himself at a woman's expense, will make the most languid alive with expectant interest. 
The Malefactor ' is an enthralling book, of much more absorbing interest than ' A Maker of History,' and more carefully 
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Blnstrated. 12mo, $1.50. 



A stirring romance of love intrigue and wint«r sports, intro- A novel of the Carolina mountains dealing with the devel- 
ducing as a complete novelty the perils of tobogganing. opment of a poor boy who became rich but selfish. 

Illustrated. 12mo, $1.50. 12mo, $1.50. 



A story of dual personality involving its hero in some sur- New St. Lawrence edition complete, and containing the 

prising adventures and arousing the reader's keenest in- author's last revisions. 

terest. With frontispiece in color. 12mo, $1.50. With frontispiece, 12mo, cloth extra, $1.00. 



Handsome little volumes 6%x41^ (uniform with the Pocket Balzac), printed on light, thin but opaque paper, with 
illustrations, tastefully and durably bound. The translations are faithful and unabridged. Price in cloth, gilt edges, 
$1.00 net per volume ; in limp leather, gilt edges over carmine, $1.25 net per volume. Any story sold separately 
as follows : 

ALEXANDRE DUMAS : Marguerite de Valois, 1 vol. La Dame de Monsoreau, 1 vol. The Forty-Five, 1 vol. The Three 
Musketeers, 2 vols. Twenty Years After, 2 vols. Vicomte de Bragelonne, or Ten Years Later, 4 vols. The Count of Monte 
Cristo, 3 vols. 

VICTOR HUGO : Notre Dame, 2 vols. Les Miserables, 4 vols. Toilers of the Sea, 1 vol. The Man who Laughs, 2 vols. 
Ninety-Three, 1 vol. 

Little, IBroton, Si Co*, pulili$t)er0, 254 ma$t)mgton ^t,, OBoiston 




Croweirs New Spring Books 

The Ministry of David Baldwin 

With four full-page illustrations in color by E. Boyd Smith, 12mo, $1.50. 

This striking story is abreast of the times. Its hero, a young clergyman just out of the 
seminary, endeavors to preach the Bible in terms of modern criticism. He is declared " unsound," 
and is tempted to " suppress his message." The conflict vrhich ensues between his duty and his 
desires is rivalled by the factional fights in the church itself. The characters are strongly and 
faithfully drawn as though from actual types. 

The Greatest Fact in Christ's Secret of Happiness 

Modern History 

The rise of the United States among the 
great powers of the world is the subject of this 
book. A point of unique interest is the fact 
that it is based upon an address delivered by 
Ambassador Reid before an English audience. 

New photogravure portrait, and typography by the 

Merrymount Press. 75 cents net. 

(Postf^e 8 cents.) 


Contains such suggestive titles as: "Three 
Kinds of Happiness," "The Spring of Perpetual 
Youth," and "The Blessedness of Battle." A 
striking book in optimistic vein, written in Dr. 
Abbott's ablest manner, and of special value for 
Easter gifts. 

Typography by the Merrymount Press. 75 cents net. 

(Postage 8 cents.) White and gold, boxed, $1.00. 

Limp leather, $1.50. 

Orthodox Socialism 

By JAMES EDWARD LE ROSSIGNOL, Professor of Economics in the University of Denver. 

One of our ablest writers on economics here defines broadly the creed of socialism, and points 
out its weaknesses. Strikes, labor unions, the struggle of mass with class, and the perpetual ques- 
tions of wages and profit come in for their share of intelligent attention. The book is worth 
pondering over by every earnest voter. 

" Crowell's Library of Economics." 12mo, net, $1.00. (Postage 10 cents.) 

The Religious Value of 
the Old Testament 

at Dartmouth College 

This valuable book compares the earlier 
attitude towards the Bible with the present view 
of modern scholarship. It shows how historical 
research among other early religions verifies 
certain points, and throws light upon others. 
90 cents net. (Postage 10 cents.) 

Much Adoe About Nothing 

First Folio Edition 


"I feel quite at a loss to name an edition 
which packs so much wealth into as little room." 
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"The most useful edition now available for 
students." — Brander Matthews. 

Cloth, 75 cents. Limp leather, $1.00. 


NOTE. — We publish the finest line of standard reprints in the world. Send for catalogue. 



[March 16, 


By CONSTANCE HILL. Being Chronicles of the Burney Famay. With 
numerous illustrations by Ellen G. Hill, and reproductions of contemporary 
portraits, etc. g^^ p qq ^f Postage 22 cents. 

" I love all that breed whom I can be said to know." 

— Dr, Johnson of the Burney Family. 
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By FREDERIC LOLIEE. Translated by Alice Ivimy. With numerous 
Illustrations. g^^ $7.00 net. Postage 20 cents. 

Never was a court more richly dowered with beautiful women than that of Napoleon III. It was a court 
blazing with scandal and gallantry. 


By ALEXANDER GILCHRIST. Edited, with an Introduction, by W. Graham Robertsox 
reproductions from Blake's most characteristic and remarkable designs. 

8vo. $3.50 net. Postage 20 cents. 

" Precisely what was needed." " The standard source." 

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By G. p. CLERICI. The Tragedy of Catoline of Brunswick, Queen of 
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"By minute researches into Italian records, Signer Clerici has reconstructed the life 
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( Extra Number of the International Studio ) 

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A Book for the Carver, the Teacher, the Designer, and the Architect. By ELEANOR ROWE (twenty 
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An Account of his Personal Character and Public Services. By W. N. CRAIG, M.A. Numerous Illustrations 
and Photogravure Portrait. Croton 8vo. $5.00 net. Postage 25 cents. 


By ALBERT F. CALVERT. 80 colored Plates and 300 black-and-white Illustrations. 
Large 8vo. $15.00 net. Express 50 cents. 
A brief history of the Moslem rule in Spain, together with a particular account of the construction, the 
architecture, and the decoration of the Moorish Palace. Companion volume to " Moorish Remains in Spain." 

JOHN LANE CO., The Bodley Head, 67 Fifth Ave., New York 

1907] THE DIAL 165 

From a Notable Spring List 


Ford Madox Hueffer's valuable work 

England and the English 

Composed of three separate but consecutive studies which were issued individually in England — viz. (1) The Soul of London ; (2) 
The Heart of the Country ; (3) The Spirit of the People. Mr. Huefter has interpreted, as far as possible, the intimate inner life of 
the land and of the race ; has endeavored to convey some living vital conception of the Anglo-Saxon character. 
Fully illustrated with photographs. Postpaid, $2.15; net, $2.00. 

G. Lowes Dickinson's tragedy of the Cheat Rebellion 

From King to King 

In a dozen dramatic dialogues in prose and verse, the author of " A Modern Symposium," " The Meaning of Good," etc., reveals, 
with wonderful insight, the inward spiritual significance of this great episode. Cromwell, Laud, "Vane, and Charles himself are 
participants. Cloth. Postpaid, $1.10; net, $1.00. 

Burton J. Hendrick's Ida M. Tarbell's 

The Story of Life Insurance He Knew Lincoln 

In response to a great demand, Mr. Hendrick's articles pub- A new picture of the grand flgrure of our noble President, seen 

lished in McClure's are now issued in book form. This is the through the eyes of a fellow townsman. Tender, touching, 

most successful effort ever made to render life insurance plain sublime in its simple loyalty it is one of the finest bits of 

to the average reader. imaginative writing in our literature. 

Illustrated. Postpaid, $1.32; net, $1.20. Illustrated. Postpaid, 55 cents ; net, 50 cents. 

Cale Young Rice's Martin Hume's 

A Night in Avignon Through Portugal 

A brief play in blank verse, by the author of " Yolanda of In which are chronicled the experiences and observations of an 

Cyprus," "David," etc., dealing with a night in the life of the extended trip through that remote country, little visited by the 

famous Italian lover-poet, Petrarch. tourist, Portugal. Major Hume is an admirable guide. 
Cloth. Postpaid, 55 cents ; net, 50 cents. Fully illustrated. Postpaid, $2.15 ; net, $2.00. 


C. N. and A. M. Williamson's rmmntic novel The Princess Virginia 

A romance of royal love and court lite. It has the piquant, sparkling charm of " My Friend the Chauffeur," the captivating, deli , 
doufl sentiment of " Lady Betty." Six illustratious by Guipon. $1.50. 

Eden Phillpott's intense drama Thc Whirlwind 

A powerful drama of elemental passions, laid in the author's favorite Dartmoor country. The heroine, a fair, sturdy Saxon daughter 
of the soil, wins the immediate sympathy of the readers. Cloth, $1.50. 

Florence Wilkinson's fascinating novel The Silent Door 

The first novel by this widely recognized poet cannot but deepen the appreciation of her poetic gift. It is an interpretation of 
child life of rarely sympathetic quality. Cloth, $1.50. 

Ashton Hillier's novel of English life Fanshawc of the Fifth 

A delightful novel of the rare " Henry Esmond " type, depicting English life at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. It is an 
authentic picture of the time. Cloth, $1.50. 

Helen R. Martin's delicious love story His Courtship 

One of the most dainty and idyllic of recent love stories. The author has conceived a type of the most exquisite girlhood, and set 
H in contrast with the coarse Pennsylvania " Dutch " environment. 

Illustrated by Alice Barber Stephens. $1.50. 

McClure, Phillips & Co., No. 44 East Twenty-third Street, New York 



[March 16, 



^T^HIS Series provides the gems of English Literature for school use at the 
least possible price. The texts have been carefully edited and are accom- 
panied by adequate explanatory notes which will be found appropriate and 
serviceable. The volumes are well printed, from new clear type. They are 
uniform in style and appearance, being bound in boards with cloth backs. 

Addison's Sir Roger de Coverley Papers $o.20 

Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum 20 

Burke's Conciliation with the American 

Colonies 20 

Bums's Poems — Selections 20 

Byron's Poems — Selections 25 

Carlyle's Essay on Burns 20 

Chaucer's Prologue and Knighte's Tale .25 
Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner .20 

Cooper's Pilot 40 

Defoe's History of the Plague in London .40 
DeQuincey's Revolt of the Tartars . . .20 

Dryden's Palamon and Arcite 20 

Emerson's American Scholar, Self-Re- 
liance, and Compensation 20 

Franklin's Autobiography .35 

George Eliot's Silas Marner .30 

Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield and 

Deserted Village 35 

Gray's Poems — Selections 20 

Irving's Sketch Book — Selections . . . .20 

Tales of a Traveler 50 

Macaulay's Essay on Addison 20 

Essay on Milton 20 

Life of Johnson 20 

Macaulay's Second Essay on Chatham 

Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus 

and Lycidas 

Paradise Lost. Books I and II ... . 

Pope's Homer's Iliad. Books I., VI., 


Rape of the Lock, and Essay on Man 
Scott's Abbot 


Lady of the Lake 



Shakespeare's As You Like It .... 


Julius Caesar 


Merchant of Venice 

Midsummer-Night's Dream 

Tvi^elfth Night . 

Southey's Life of Nelson 

Tennyson's Idylls of the King — Selec- 


Washington's Farewell Address and 

Webster's First Bunker Hill Oration . 
Webster's Bunker Hill Orations . . . . 
Wordsworth's Poems — Selections . . 






College Entrance Requirements in English for Study and Practice, 1 906-1 908. Contains 
Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas, 
Burke's Conciliation with the American Colonies, Macaulay's Essay on Addison, and 
Macaulay's Life of Johnson. Cloth, i2mo $0.80 

College Entrance Requirements in English for Study and Practice, 1909-1911. Contains 
Shakespeare's Macbeth, Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas, Burke's 
Conciliation with the American Colonies, Washington's Farewell Address, Webster's 
First Bunker Hill Oration, Macaulay's Life of Johnson, and Carlyle's Essay on Burns. 
Cloth, i2mo 






1907] THE DIAL 16T 






Additional episodes in the girlhood of "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm." Illustrated by F. C. Yohn. $1.25. 


A love story of strength and power by the author of " The Northerner." With frontispiece in Color. $1.50. 


A romance of modern New Orleans with an exciting plot. Illustrated by Griswold Tyng. $1.50. 

MY LADY POKAHONTAS By John Esten Cooke. 

A charming story apropos of the Jamestown Ter-centennial. $1.00. 


The autobiography of a cowboy. With frontispiece. $1.50. 

MARCIA By Ellen Olney Kikk. 

The story of a " land-poor " girl who goes to New York and has a most interesting chain of experiences. $1.50. 



Essays bearing on one or another phase of the ideals and culture of Germany, as revealed by its literature and life. 

THE YOUNG IN HEART By Arthur Stanwood Pier. 

A book of very readable essays on tennis, swimming, and other recreations of men in off hours. 


The biography of a gallant soldier in the Civil War. Illustrated. $2.00 net. Postage extra. 


The real Longfellow by one of his contemporaries, with poems expressive of the poet's individuality. With portraits. 
75 cents net. Postage, 7 cents. 


Edited by George P. Baker. 
These delightful letters of David Garrick are full of the personal charm of the great actor, presenting him in a fresh 
and engaging light. 400 copies for sale. $7.50 ne<. Postpaid. 

The striking career of the former president of Swarthmore College. Crown 8vo. $1.50 net. Postage, 15 cents. 


The interesting experiences of a reporter who sought new paths for his work. With portrait. $1.25 net. Postage extra. 

500 copies for sale. 8vo. $5.00 net. Postpaid. 



A history of the Arthurian legend, readable and complete. Crown 8vo. $1.50 net. Postpaid. 


A brilliant, startling study of educational theories of vital importance to parents and teachers. 

A criticism of the aims and results of current educational theory and practice. 


Studies in the relation of art to life. Crown 8vo. $2.00 net. Postage extra. 


A general outline of the principles of justice in the social relations. 



[March 16, 






First of a Series of Biographies of Leading Americans. 

SOLDIERS* Biographies of Washing^n, Greene, 
Taylor, Scott, Andrew Jackson, Grant, Sherman, 
Sheridan, McClellan, Mead, Lee, " Stonewall " Jack- 
son, and Joseph E. Johnson. By the author of 
" Napoleon," etc. 1 vol. Probable price $1.75 net. 

S^gur (Marquis de): JULIE DE LESPINASSE. 

Translated by P. H, Lee-Warner. $2.50 net. By 
mail $2.68. 

Lankester(E. Ray): THE KINGDOM OF MAN. 

The author is Director of the Natural History 
Department of the British Museum and author of 
" Extinct Animals,' ' etc. Probable price $1. 25 net. 

Travers (Graham): GROWTH. By the author of 

" The Way of Escape," etc. $1.50. 

The story of the intellectual and spiritual develop- 
ment of an Edinburgh student that shows, particularly, 
the dominant effect of the strong personalities with whom 
he comes in contact. 

Watson (Gilbert): A CADDIE OF ST. AN- 
DREWS. By the author of " Three Rolling Stones 
in Japan." $1.50. 

The hero, " Skipper," is an old caddie (oncea fisherman) 
with a humorous turn of speech and a passion for travel 
and adventure. He is a wonderfully vivid figure, humor- 
ous, enthusiastic, warm-hearted, whisky-loving, genial. 
The book is the epic of the golf caddie. 

Two other Important New Books. 

Willis F. Johnson's FOUR CENTURIES OF 
' THE PANAMA CANAL. With 16 illustrations 

and 6 colored maps. $3.00 net ; by mail $3.27. 

Nation: " It is the most thorough and comprehensive 
book that has yet appeared on the Panama Canal . . . 
especially interesting because it opens to view the long per- 
spective of the great enterprise . . . fuller detail than in 
any other single work on the subject ... a valuable refer- 
ence book." 

Hobhouse's MORALS IN EVOLUTION. By the 

author of " The Labor Movement," " The Theory of 
Knowledge," etc. 2 vols., $5.00 net ; by mail $5.30. 
" Eeplete with data for the student and material of 
unique interest for the less informed layman. . . . The 
early religion of Egypt furnishes much so grotesque as to 
be undeniably amusing. . . . Fascinating sections are de- 
voted to tracing religion in India . . . intensely readable. 
It is impossible to suggest the multitude of quaint reflec- 
tions evoked by a perusal of the work and the general 
widening of one's mental horizon. One cannot but enjoy 
•the curious side lights thrown on our own beliefs and 
superstitutions. . . . Most entertaining." — Times Satur- 
day Review. 

Recent Reprints. 


HAMILTON. Uniform with the author's "From 
«, College Window." $1.25. 

Sinclair (May): THE TYSONS. New uniform 
edition. $1.50. 

Wells (H. G.): THE TIME MACHINE. By the 

author of " In the Days of the Comet," etc. $1.00. 

Weils (D. D.): PARLOUS TIMES. This strong 
novel by the author of " Her Ladyship's Elephant" 
has been taken over by Henry Holt & Co. $1.50. 




" This is the first complete life of the great 
writer, interwoven with a thorough critical 
analysis of his works." — Congregationalist. 

" Mr. Steams has built up a figure which 
seems more of a real flesh-and-blood Haw- 
thorne than any that has hitherto been 
dia,wa."— Boston Transcript. 

"Probably the most satisfactory critical 
estimate that we have on the greatest 
American novelist." — St. Louis Republic. 

" He has evidently given the works of 
Hawthorne exhaustive study, and interprets 
them in a most fascinating and enlightening 
manner." — Nashville American. 

10 Illustrations. 8vo. Cloth. $2.00 net. 
Postpaid, $2.14. 






THE DEMETRIAN By ellison harding 



Author of " The Lunatic at Large " 



Author of " Thalassa " 




$1.00 net 



1907.] THE DIAL. 169 


THE MYSTICS By Katherine Cecil Thurston 

Romance and mystery are delightfully mingled throughout. The tale has the same 
persistent excitement and breathless fascination which marked the author's earlier 
work. — The Masquerader. Illustrated. Price $1.25 


By the author of " Wall Street Stories." It has remained for Mr. Leffevre to write 
the first real novel of Wall Street life, fuUy describing the " wheels within wheels " 
of the exciting stock-market game. Illustrated. Price $1.50 


The romance of the daughter of an American multi-millionaire who falls in love with 
a portrait painter whose family fortunes have been wrecked by the heroine's father. 

Price $1.50 

BY THE LIGHT OF THE SOUL By Mary E. Wilkins Freeman 

A delightful heroine of New England parentage ; an unusual plot which hinges on a 
youthful marriage that is never revealed ; scenes of vUlage life — pathos and humor 
— all make up a story of unflagging interest. Illustrated. Price $1.50 

THE PRINCESS By Margaret Potter 

That wonderful woman, Princess Catherine, is the central figure. Her dissolute 
husband, the Grand-Duke Dmitri, and her son, the dashing young Constantine, play 
antagonizing parts in a daring plot of intrigue. Price $1.50 



The most serious and extensive criticism of the subject that has yet been made. 

Illustrated. Price $1.75 


Mr. James' impressions of America on revisiting his native land after twenty-five 
years absence Price $3.00 

NATURE'S CRAFTSMEN By Henry C. McCook, D. D., Sc. D., LL. D. 

An entertaining book about the picturesque in insect life, pointing out unsuspected 
marvels at our very doors. Illustrated. Price $2.00 net 

THE SUBSTANCE OF FAITH By Sir Oliver Lodge, Sc. D., LL. D. 

The author feels the basic harmony that exists between science and religion, and 
attempts their reconciliation. The volume is addressed especially to those who have 
become confused in the flood of modern criticism. Price $1.00 net 

THE FRIENDLY STARS By Martha Evans Martin 

How to learn, without a telescope, all that is most interesting about the stars. 

Illustrated. Price $1.25 net 


170 THE DIAL [March 16, 1907. 



Cyclopedia of American Agriculture 

Edited by L. H. BAILEY, Editor of the ^^ Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture," Director of the School of Agriculture, Cornell University. 

Among the special features of this valuable work are these: 

1. It is the work of experts throughout, and its articles are signed. 

2. Every article is strictly new and is the latest word of authority upon its subject. 

3. Its illustration is profuse and specially prepared for the articles it accompanies. 

4. Its topics are so arranged as to make it a thoroughly readable book. 

To he complete in four royal octave volumes, with about SOOO cuts in the text and 
100 full-page plates. The price of sets in cloth is $20.00 ; in half morocco, $32.00. 


Mr. Bolton Hall's Three Acres and Liberty 

A practical solution for the difficulties of the man whose strength is drained by commercial or financial life just 
a little faster than he can rebuild it. Illustrated, cloth, 12mo, $1.75 net (postaye 13 cents). 

Mr. E. Parmalee Prentice's " thorough, paimtahng, and valuable " hook on 
Federal Power Over Carriers and Corporations 

Cloth, 2lJi octavo pages, $1.60 net (postage 11 cents). 

Mr. Franklin Pierce's The Tariff and the Trusts 

Miss Ida M. Takbell calls it " unusually interesting and important " ; Mr. Qoldwin Smith, " not only a most 
decisive confutation of the Protectionist fallacy, but a rich repertory of illustrative facts." 

387 IZmo pages, cloth, $1.50 net (postage IS cents). 

Professor Charles De Qarmo's important new book on 

Principles of Secondary Education The Studies 

It discusses the best combinations of studies in relation to after life and the way to combine education for 
insight with training for efficiency. Cloth, $99 12mo pages, $1.25 net (postage 11 cents). 

Mabel Osgood Wright's Birdcraft New and cheaper edition — the seventh. 

A field book of 200 song, game, and water birds, with eighty full-page plates by Louis Agassiz Puertes. " One 
of the best books that amateurs in the study of ornithology can find . . . direct, forcible, plain, and pleasing." 
— The Chautauquan. Cloth, small 8vo, $2.00 net. 

Mr. Jack London's new novel Before Adam 

" A remarkable achievement . . . the vitality and realism of the story beget fascination which ultimately 
reaches conviction. . . . Purely a work of fiction and tinged with no devitalizing touch of scientific investigation. 
. . . Jack London has performed a wonderful feat." — JVew York Times Saturday Review. 

Illustrated in colors. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 

Mr. Owen Wister's delicious skit How Doth the Simple Spelling Bee 

He has written nothing so delightfully humorous since some of the chapters in " The Virginian." 

With seven full-page plates. Cloth, 16mo, 50 cents. 

Mr. John Oxenham's new novel The Long Road 

Opens with a love story of unusual tenderness, sincerity and charm ; and in the working out of its main idea 
there is more than a strong dash of originality. Cloth, with frontispiece, $1.50. 

Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians Revised, enlarged edition 

Among the additions are articles which make the work at last adequate on the history of modem music, and on 
American music and musicians. 

To be complete in five volumes. Volume III., with illustrations. Just ready. Cloth, 8vo, $5.00. 



31 Setnt-i!Sontf)lg Sournal of Hiterarg Crittciam, ©iscuagion, anb Enformatt0n. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th 
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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 


No. 498. 

MARCH 16, 1907. 

Vol. XLII. 






A poets' trade-union. — Guardians for superan- 
nuated authors. — The uses of fiction. — The new 
literary movement among the Spanish-American 
peoples. — The last photograph of Longfellow. — 
A national Dickens library. — The popularization of 
the best literature. — The death of " Th. Bentzon." 

— A Hebraization of Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat. 


On Reading the Magazines. 8. P. Delany. 


AMERICAN. Percy F. Bicknell 176 


Edith Kellogg Dunton 177 


David Y. Thomas 179 


H. A. Wager 182 


Coblentz 185 


Life and manners of " the third Italy." — A cham- 
pion of liberty and philanthropy. — Essays on 
happiness. — A handful of colored beads loosely 
strung. — A group of 18th century comedy queens. 

— European international relations. — The diver- 
sions of an Ex-President with rod and gun, — The 
public addresses of John Hay. — John Sherman as 
an American statesman. — Twelve volumes of 
Lincoln's works. 


NOTES 191 

A complete classified list of books to be issued by 
American publishers during the Spring of 1907. 



Comment is frequently made upon our na- 
tional character as an easy-going people. We 
are so tolerant of abuses, until they become 
unbearably acute, that we submit to all sorts of 
discomforts and petty impositions rather than 
exert the energy needed for their remedy. When 
matters come to a really serious pass, we are 
apt to assert ourselves emphatically enough ; 
but until such a crisis is reached, we are accus- 
tomed to bear the ills we have (and might easily 
be spared) as if they were inherent in the natu- 
ral order. This national trait of ours is respon- 
sible for a great deal of petty annoyance, of 
which we cannot reasonably complain, since we 
make no serious effort to get rid of it. We 
submit to the theatre hat, and the tipping sys- 
tem, and the vulgar newspaper, not indeed 
without a murmur, but without any overt act of 
protest indicative of the courage of conviction. 

Being in this supine and craven state, it may 
be worth our while to heed the lesson of a 
recent happening in a Texas town. Upon the 
occasion in question, an opera company gave a 
performance of " II Barbiere di Siviglia." 
Confiding in the proverbial simplicity of back- 
woodsmen, the director of the company short- 
ened the performance by omitting one act of 
the work. But he reckoned without his host. 
Cidture is abroad in these days, and it hums 
even in darkest Texas. This artistic affront 
caused the worm to turn, and the Texas audi- 
ence expressed its resentment with characteristic 
frontier strenuosity. Riot was incipient ; and 
without mincing words, these Texas champions 
of the artistic ideal expressed themselves with 
point and emphasis, concluding with a demand 
for the return of the money that had been be- 
guiled from their pockets by a delusive prospect. 

The Texas way of dealing with such offences 
may be rough, but it is sharply effective, and 
other communities shoidd profit by the example. 
The same opera company was guilty of the same 
offence in Chicago a fortnight earlier, and also 
of a similar offence in the presentation of still 
another opera. We are not particularly con- 
cerned to exalt " Les Huguenots " as a musical 
masterpiece, but when its performance is an- 
nounced, and when the playbills describe it 
truthfully, as " an opera in five acts," there is, to 



[March 16, 

put the matter mildly, a good deal of bad faith, if 
not actual dishonesty, in omitting the fifth act 
altogether. This is the trick that was played 
upon the Chicago audience ; and there is no de- 
fence in saying that others have played the same 
trick before. Even a Meyerbeer opera deserves 
more respectful treatment than that ; whatever 
artistic quality " Les Huguenots " may have is 
utterly destroyed by abruptly ending the per- 
formance before it reaches its dramatic climax 
in the tragedy of the street scene. It is high 
time for the long-suffering opera-loving public 
to express its resentment at the false pretenses 
(of which the above is one out of many instances) 
that have gone practically unrebuked for as 
many years as we can remember. 

Changing slightly the venue of this discus- 
sion, we may recall the fact mentioned in our 
last issue, when, speaking of the causes which 
led to the failure of the New Theatre, we spoke 
of the director's unconscionable mutilation of 
certain of the plays he undertook to produce. 
This was a particularly wanton proceeding, for 
it was done, not because he thought the plays 
improved by abridgment, but for the inartistic 
purpose of making room on the programme for 
curtain-raisers, — which simply means taking a 
step away from legitimate theatrical enterprise 
in the direction of vaudeville. The chapter of 
theatrical offences of this sort is a long one, and 
every frequenter of the playhouse has suffered 
from them many times. The crimes that have 
been committed against Shakespeare alone would 
require a volume to recount. From Nahum 
Tate and CoUey Cibber to Mr. Mansfield and 
Mr. Sothem, almost every actor or manager 
who has undertaken Shakespearian productions 
has felt perfectly free to make any rearrange- 
ments he might wish, to distort and mutilate 
at his will in accordance with his own crude no- 
tions, of theatrical effect. We may admit, in 
this case, that the conditions of our stage are so 
different from those of the Elizabethan stage 
that some changes are necessary for a modern 
production ; but to say this is by no means to 
condone such perversions as Tate's " Lear " and 
Mr. Mansfield's " Henry the Fifth." Altera- 
tions made in a reverent spirit, with a sense of 
the sanctity of the masterpiece dealt with, may 
be allowed ; alterations made as concessions to 
sentiment or sensationalism, for spectacular pvir- 
poses or the gratification of an actor's personal 
vanity, should be censiired in the strongest 
terms. And in the case of a modern play, 
which has no need of being fitted to modem 
stage conditions, any kind of tinkering is rep- 

rehensible. It is an act of sheer dishonesty 
to advertise a play that already belongs to lit- 
erature, and present something quite different. 
If the play has been changed in any material way, 
the public is entitled to be told beforehand just 
what the changes are, and not left to discover 
them during the course of the performance. 

If dramatic literature suffers severely from 
the sort of treatment here described, those other 
species of literature that make their appeal to 
us solely from the printed page suffer in a far 
greater proportion simply because their volume 
is so much the greater. To catalogue the sins 
of editors and publishers in this respect would 
be an undertaking calculated to stagger the 
most industrious. But we trust that all such 
sinners are finally brought together in Male- 
bolge. They include, among others, the anthol- 
ogists who reprint mutilated forms of famous 
poems, without indicating where omissions have 
been made ; the editors of school and coUege 
texts, who slash their originals right and 
left, with no word of warning for unwary 
students ; the publishers who offer " complete 
works," knowing them to be incomplete, and 
who reprint early editions which they know to 
have been superseded, but without vouchsafing 
a hint of this important fact. The expurgators 
constitute a peculiarly vicious class of these 
criminals, since their sins are so cunningly con- 
cealed as to be almost impossible of detection. 
Does it never occur to these gentlemen that their 
zeal for the suppression of the merely verbal 
forms of literary offence results in a form of 
dishonesty that is far more subtly mischievous 
than the evil (often illusory) which they are 
seeking to minimize ? 

The more we think of the Texas way of deal- 
ing with artistic misrepresentations and false 
pretences, the more we are inclined to applaud 
it. There may be other and better ways, but 
any way is better than none. We should like 
to see every perverter and falsifier of a work of 
art or literature made thoroughly uncomfort- 
able, until the lesson had been so repeatedly 
enforced as to be no longer needed. This is far 
from saying that such works should never be 
altered for any purpose whatever, but it is say- 
ing that they shoidd not be tampered with by 
incompetent bunglers, and it is also saying that 
in the cases which reaUy caU for some judicious 
reshaping or abridgment, the public is entitled, 
as a matter of common honesty, to be exactly 
informed of the nature of whatever changes 
have been made, or whatever liberties taken, 
with the original of the work. 





The causes of sane literary progress and intelli- 
gent citizenship have seldom had a more faithful 
devotee than Mr. Wendell Phillips Garrison, whose 
death occurred on the 27th of last month. Casting 
in his lot with the late Edwin Lawrence Godkin, 
at twenty-five years of age, he gave his strength and 
talents to " The Nation " with a zeal that knew no 
break until failing health forced upon him the un- 
welcome necessity of laying the burden down with 
the close of the eighty-second volimie, a little more 
than eight months ago. As the known author of 
the keenest and most effective political criticism ever 
developed in the history of American journalism, 
Mr. Godkin's personality could never be merged in 
that of his paper. To many, therefore, " The 
Nation " meant Mr. Godkin, and they never knew 
that there sat at his side a colleague whose labors 
from the very start were as vital to the character 
and success of the paper as those of the brilliant 
political critic himself. Of course Mr. Godkin 
realized the worth of his coadjutor, and the recogni- 
tion which Mr. Garrison's impenetrable modesty 
would not permit to be granted in any public way 
was always most amply bestowed in their private 
intercourse and correspondence. Mr. Garrison's 
preeminent service to " The Nation," and through 
it to the causes for which it has stood, lay in the 
remarkable insight displayed in making up his large 
body of reviewers and contributors, and the success 
with which he held them together. As an illustra- 
tion of this we need only mention that Mr. Goldwin 
Smith, Dr. Daniel C. Gilman, and Prof. Charles 
Eliot Norton have been contributors from the very 
first year, a nucleus for forty years of literary 
criticism which would have done honor to any criti- 
cal jom-nal ever published in the English tongue. 
During the summer of 1905, when some two hun- 
dred of his collaborators united in presenting him 
with a beautiful silver vase, as a token of their per- 
sonal esteem no less than their admiration for his 
editorial ability, the general public learned just how 
far and how carefully Mr. Garrison had been ac- 
customed to search for the right man for any par- 
ticular line of review work or correspondence which 
he desired. And the marvel lies not merely in the 
fact that the list contained so many names of known 
eminence in the world of letters and science, but 
even more in the substantial unity of tone which 
steadily marked the body of criticism coming from 
this numerous, widely separated, differently edu- 
cated and differently circumstanced body of men. 
Of course this unity was no forcible creation of the 
coiTective editorial pencil, although no editor ever 
knew better how to wield that pencil, within legiti- 
mate limits. Mr. Garrison would have scorned 
to make a contributor say what he did not think, 
nor would he have wanted any contributor willing 
to continue as such on that basis. It was his wide 
knowledge of men, coupled with extremely careful 

experiment where previous knowledge was not pos- 
sible, enabling him thus to pick men who shared his 
own high ideals and sincerely believed in the funda- 
mental principles on which those ideals were based, 
that gave the literary criticisms of '' The Nation " 
a unity and steadiness of tone rarely if ever sur- 
passed in the history of critical journalism. A foe 
to all sham, insincerity, and corruption, in letters or 
in life, he stood as unflinchingly for his ideals as his 
father before him had stood for the correction of the 
great wrong of human slavery, and at bottom both 
w'fere fighting against the same enemies — ignor- 
ance, preconceived error, and selfish personal in- 
terests. Whatever other token friends may wish 
to establish in his memory, those eighty-two vol- 
umes of " The Nation " into which his virtues and 
energies were so unstintingly poured, with their 
steady appeal to that enlightened intelligence and 
morality upon which the progress of civilization 
must always depend, constitute a monument the 
fitness of which can never be excelled. 


A poets' trade-union has been formed in England, 
or so we are told by Mr. Andrew Lang in a pleasant 
little article contributed to the London " Chronicle " ; and 
when Parliament shall have passed the biU draughted 
by the xmion's secretary, Mr. Baunder, " a gentleman of 
prosperous aspect, with a strong German accent," En- 
gland will speedily become a veritable " nest of singing 
birds." By the provisions of this bill every citizen will 
be forced to buy annually a new volume of poetry — 
or, rather, a volume of new poetry — for every twenty 
poiuids of income that he has over three himdred 
pounds a year. Thus a prosperous merchant, or soap- 
boiler, or tallow chandler, with an income of two thou- 
sand pounds, let us say, will piu-chase eight hundred and 
fifty poetry books of the latest make every twelve 
mouths, at a uniform statute price of six shillings net. 
This protection to poets is considered necessary because 
poetry is at present so much less popidar than, for 
instance, history, archseology, and ethics; whereby it 
has come about that, as Herr Baunder affirms, " the 
poets are remorselessly sweated; thousands of them 
cannot earn any wage at all, not to speak of 'living 
wage.' A guinea for a sonnet; what do you think of 
that ? " Shameful, in good sooth, and we hope for the 
early passage of the Baunder Bill — but with an impor- 
tant additional clause. It should provide for pass exam- 
inations to be undergone by all purchasers of poetry, to 
ensiu-e that such poetry is read as well as bought. Not 
only must the hoi'se be led to water, but he must be 
made to drink, and drink deeply, at the Pierian spring, 
under penalty of a heavy fine, or lingering incarceration, 
or both. How else infuse in the people a true and 
lasting love of divine poetry ? 
• • • 

Guardians for superannuated authors may be 
thought desirable if certain tendencies now discernible 
among some of our veterans of the pen should become 
strongly developed. Mr. Maurice Maeterlinck, in com- 
uig to the defense of Shakespeare and in accusing 
Count Tolstoi of taking imfair advantage of European 



[March 16, 

dense ignorance of the poet, puts the query why the 
venerable Russian has not been prevented by those 
around him from making an unedifying display of him- 
self, and suggests that some friend or relative should 
take steps to spare him the humilation that must attend 
a further exhibition of the decay now undermining his 
mental powers. Another great writer, Mr. George 
Meredith, who has just passed his eightieth milestone, 
is thought by many to have his impulses of unwisdom. 
His prose output, ceasing to take the form of fiction — 
his last novel came out twelve years ago — has of late 
appeared in the shape of rather excited political utter- 
ances, and of a sensational and much-discussed sm- 
gestion as to the expediency of probationary wedlock. 
That an author who toiled so strenuously in early man- 
hood — spending his last guinea on one occasion for a 
sack of oatmeal, on which he subsisted while writing a 
book — and who has done so much good work and 
raised himself to rank as one of the very foremost of 
living English prose writers, and as no mean poet, 
should now be suffered to do anything that may, even 
temporarily, dim the lustre of his renown, is to be de- 
plored. Few are the writers that can wield the pen, as 
did Dr. Martineau and Mrs. Somerville and Alexander 
von Humboldt, with even more power at eighty and 
over than at forty or fifty. 

• • * 

The U8E8 OF fiction, recently referred to in these 
columns under the heading " Fiction as a Rest Cure," 
should have included " Fiction as an Advertising Me- 
dium." The fiction-writer of the future, in order to be 
pecimiarily successful, may have to specialize as rigor- 
ously as does the historian or the scientist of to-day. At 
any rate, this is the opinion which such advertisements 
as the following might incline one to form. The first is 
from a London literary review of the highest standing. 

' ' The Editor of the Talking Machine News requires stobies 
(1,500 to 2,500) with a Talking Machine motif. Technical ac- 
curacy essential. Suitable articles would also be entertained. 
Specimen copy on application." 

The second is from a great city daily of equally high 

"$75 Prize Stories. We want a short story of about 3000 
words covering, in a catchy, readable way, the facts outlined in 
our booklet, ' Some Shoe Beforms.' Address," etc. 
Many an artist, trained in the schools of Paris or 
Munich, has come at last to turn his back on " art for 
art's sake," and now earns a comfortable, sometimes a 
more than comfortable, livelihood as a designer of 
posters, anonymous works of art that are never rejected 
by an examining committee, and if they are elevated to 
the skies are all the more conspicuous. Who knows 
how many zealous and gifted followers of Scott and 
Dickens and Thackeray may be glad some day to 
answer just such advertisements as the foregoing ? 
Fortunately or unfortunately, the crowding of the pro- 
fessions is making such things increasingly possible. 

• • • 

The new uteraky movement among the Spanish- 
American PEOPLES has for one of its first fruits a 
little volume of tales and prose poems, Noche Tragica, 
by the Cuban poet, Senor Arturo R. de Carricarte. It 
is noteworthy how much of the strong, tragic work of 
the day is coming from Southern sources. Out of the 
sunshine, out of the flowers, out of the gay life of 
the semi-tropic lands, come books as terrible and soul- 
shaking as their earthquakes and eruptions. The 
French and Italian tragedians deal less with the outward 
conditions of life — sociological problems, questions of 

reform or change — than do their Northern compeers. 
They are avid of the elemental human passions. As a 
result, their work has a certain beauty and splendor, 
where that of Ibsen and Tolstoi and Turgenieff and the 
German dramatists is homely if not ugly. On the 
other hand, the best work of the North has a mystic 
glamour which the South knows nothing of. Noche 
Tragica is a good example of the school we have been 
describing. It is a tale which M^rim^e would have 
liked. Fate, in it, is masked in flowers, but marches 
onward with implacable tread. All of Sefior de Carri- 
carte's pieces have a sombre soul beneath a bright ex- 
terior. In some of the prose-poems he shows an acute 
sensibility to natural phenomena — like a Maurice de 
Gudrin translated to the tropics. According to a cus- 
tom more observed on the Continent of Europe than in 
England or America, there is prefaced to this little 
book a long essay by Senor Ricardo del Monte, the 
most brilliant of Cuban critics. This discourse is a keen 
examination of modern thought and literary creation. 
It is always instructive to get at a different view-point 
from our own. Senor Del Monte is at the centre of a 
horizon quite other than ours. The stars of modern 
literature arrange themselves to his eyes in a different 
way than they show in our sky. The constellations 
of France since 1830 blaze overhead. Single Italian 
or Spanish or German stars mount or descend. But 
only a few English suns peer above the horizon, 
and the Russian and Scandinavian and American hosts 
of light are invisible. 

The last photograph of Longfellow, not in fin- 
ished form, but in the negative — from which no posi- 
tive had ever been printed — has been accidentally 
discovered by a yoimg lad in South Boston, a photo- 
grapher's assistant. The story of this forgotten photo- 
graph is interesting. In late February, 1882, the poet 
was walking along Brattle street, Cambridge, when he 
was accosted by a friend, a Mr. Allen, photographer, 
who asked him to sit for his likeness before a new lens 
that he, Allen, had just bought for his camera. Long- 
fellow refused to visit the studio, but at last consented 
to pose on his own veranda; and there, only a month 
before his death, he sat for what proved to be his last 
portrait. The negative, filed away and lost sight of, 
passed with the rest of the photographer's outfit into 
other hands, and in a subsequent removal of the busi- 
ness to its present location the precious piece of clouded 
glass was trundled along with a pile of other un- 
considered negatives. Pulled forth very recently by 
chance, and held up to the light by an apprentice in a 
moment of idle curiosity, it was fortunately recognized 
by him; and now its owner would not part with it for 
love or money. Coming to view twenty-five years after 
it was taken, and a hundred years after the poet was 
born, it is a remarkable bit of treasure trove. 
• • • 

A national Dickens library is getting itself estab- 
lished in London, in the heat of the Dickens enthusiasm 
aroused by the ninety-fifth anniversary, last month, of 
the great novelist's birthday. A room in the Guildhall 
Library will be set apart for this collection, the nucleus 
of which has been already formed out of the first 
editions of all the novels, with noteworthy American 
and other reprints and translations, and miscellaneous 
Dickensiana of sundry sorts. The widow of the late 
F. G. Kitton, offers to the library his valuable Dickens 
collection for the moderate sum of £300, and sub- 




scriptions for its purchase are solicited by the editor 
of "T. P.'s Weekly" (which itself gives £25) at 5 
Tavistock Street, W. C. A flourishing periodical, " The 
Dickensian," published once a week by the Dickens 
Fellowship, attests the English determination not to 
forget their immortal " Boz." At the same time, let it 
be gently hinted, there be those to whose delicate senses 
the air of a Thackeray Library would more sweetly 
recommend itself. But patience ! — 1911 is only four 
years distant. , , . 

The popularization of the best literature is to 
be attempted, with a display of childlike confidence 
that is nothing short of touching, by a new magazine, 
whose prospectus does not hesitate to declare that " the 
very highest class and most valuable branches of litera- 
ture can readily be made fully as interesting, attractive, 
and even fascinating to all classes, even to the morbid- 
minded and degenerate, as is now the prevailing 
low order of the great bulk of sensational, exciting, 
stirring so-called ' literature, ' so boimteously scat- 
tered broadcast in its corrupting and demoralizing 
blight upon mankind." One would like to know the 
magic formula for rendering, let us say, Matthew 
Arnold or John Ruskin as irresistible to the multitude 
as the latest murder mystery or sensational romance 
or lui'id detective story. We wait to learn this, but 
not, alas! in a spirit of confidence that is altogether 


• • • 

The death of « Th. Bentzon," or Mme. Th^r^se 
de Solms Blanc, as her friends knew her, will be noted 
with regret by many outside her native France, and 
especially by her American readers. Always friendly 
toward this coimtry and its literary workers, she has 
published, chiefly in the pages of the Revue des Deux 
Mondes, many commendatory reviews of American 
books, eulogistic studies of American authors, and 
pleasant reminiscences of American travel. That she 
wrote also between thirty and forty novels comes as a 
surprise to most of us, who have commonly thought of 
her in connection with her more serious work, on which 
her fame as a writer will probably rest. 

• • > 

A Hebraization of Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat 
has been undertaken by Mr. Joseph Massel of Man- 
chester, England; his version being based on Fitz- 
Gerald's first edition, by many considered the best of 
the four. These haunting quatrains seem to have, in 
some sort, an affinity with the "Wisdom books of the Old 
Testament, and a good Hebrew translation ought to 
prove, not perhaps the best-selling book in the Ghetto, 
but a tolerable literary success. Yet supposing the 
Hebrew version of FitzGerald's stanzas to be faithfully 
turned back into Persian, would old Omar know himself 
at the end of this lingual hocus-pocus ? 


(To the Editor of The Dial.J 
Few publishers of magazines seem to realize the 
frame of mind most people are in when they pick up a 
magazine. I say most people, because there are a few 
who read the magazines religiously, as they might read 
the Bible, regardless of comfort or convenience. But as 
a rule people take up a magazine at a time when they are 

enjoying a few moments of leisure which they wish to 
spend as pleasurably and comfortably as possible. A 
man may be leaning back in his seat on the train, smok- 
ing a cigar, and rejoicing that he is to have a short respite 
from the harassing cares of business ; or he maybe puffing 
his pipe beside a grate fire, mider a green-shaded lamp, 
relaxing cosily after a day's hard work, and taking up 
a magazine for diversion. I do not know so much about 
feminine ways, but I should fancy a woman might be 
reclining for her siesta, and open a magazine for a little 
mental relaxation and composure before she closes her 

Now I maintain that most of our magazines are not 
adapted to such a frame of mind. This is not because 
their contents are too serious, but simply because the 
magazines are so constructed mechanically that it is a 
physical effort to read them. In plain English, it tires 
the thumbs. Why do publishers put their magazines 
together so that they will not lie open on the lap? How 
is a man to smoke his pipe as he reads, when he must 
hold the magazine open by all the strength of both 
hands ? I know of only one or two magazines that are 
properly boimd with thread and glue, instead of those 
irritating wire clasps. No doubt the clasps are cheaper, 
or they would not be used. That is the explanation of 
most of the impositions on a long-suffering public. But 
I believe any magazine publisher could increase his 
circulation by abolishing the clasps. The other day I 
closed my subscription to a magazine I had taken for 
years, and ordered another in its place, chiefly for the 
reason that one would not lie open on the table and the 
other would. The wire clasps were a doubtful economy, 
surely, in that case. 

Another reason why many magazines are unsuitable 
for leisurely reading is that they are too heavy and 
bulky with advertisements. I am aware that there 
must be advertisements to make the magazine pay. I 
would even go further, and maintain that most of our 
magazines are conducted primarily in the interest of the 
advertising department, and that the literary matter is 
sandwiched in merely to get people to read the adver- 
tisements. But why in that case should this not unwor- 
thy commercial end be defeated by making the magazine 
so heavy and forbidding that not even the advertise- 
ments will be read ? Other things being at all equal, 
I always buy the magazines that contain the fewest 
advertisements. When I must read a magazine that is 
so thick with advertisements that I cannot hold it open, 
I tear off the cover, extract the wire clasps, detach the 
advertising pages in front and back, and tlien restore 
the clasps to their places. I thus have a light and 
easily handled collection of reading matter, while the 
detached pages make excellent material for starting 
fires in my grate. A handy mechanical device for per- 
forming this separation quickly and easily would find 
speedy favor with the magazine reading public ; indeed, 
1 should not be surprised to learn that one has already 
been invented. It would not be the first instance of 
greed over-reaching itself and defeating its own ends. 

With all their faults, the magazines of to-day contain 
a great deal of good literature. While there is much 
in them that is worthless or of merely temporary inter- 
est, there is also much of value, which intelligent people 
can ill afford to miss. Publishers certainly owe it to 
their readers, as well as to their own interests, to make 
the contents of their magazines as accessible and as 
conveniently read as possible. g p Delany 

Appleton, Wisconsin, March 10, 1907. 



[March 16, 

t E^to looks. 

Home Impressions of an Expatriated 

It was of course to be expected that Mr. 
Henry James, in recording his impressions of 
the land from which he long ago expatriated 
himself, and which he lately revisited after nearly 
twenty-five years, would give us not so much his 
direct impressions (supposing a mind so subtile 
to be capable of direct and simple impressions) 
as his impressions of his impressions, his con- 
ception of what, in the aesthetic and artistic 
fitness of things, his impressions ought to be, 
and occasionally a side-glance at those impres- 
sions as he conceives they may impress his 
reader, — all intertwisted and interwoven and 
wrought out in a pattern of that labyrinthine 
intricacy that is at once the despair and the 
delight of him who would thread the Daedalian 
mazes of this author's wonderful prose. Even 
as Mr. James drives from the wharf in New 
York, on landing, the extreme difficulty of the 
task before him presents itself as somewhat 

" Yes ; I could remind myself, as I weut, that Naples, 
that Tangiers or Constantinople, has probably nothing 
braver to flaunt, and mingle with excited recognition 
the still finer throb of seeing in advance, seeing even to 
alarm, many of the responsibilities lying in wait for the 
habit of headlong critical or fanciful reaction, many of 
the inconsistencies in which it would probably have, at 
the best, more or less defiantly to drape itself. . . . 
Nothing was left, for the rest of the episode, but a kind 
of fluidity of appreciation — a mild, warm wave that 
broke over the succession of aspects and objects accord- 
ing to some odd inward rhythm, and often, no doubt, with 
a violence that there was little in the phenomena them- 
selves flagrantly to justify. It floated me, my wave, all 
that day and the next ; so that I still think tenderly — 
for the short backward view is already a distance with 
' tone ' — of the service it rendered me and the various 
perceptive penetrations, charming coves of still blue 
water, that carried me up into the subject, so to speak, 
and enabled me to step ashore." 

Already in the preface to " The American 
Scene ' the reader has been made aware of the 
writer's deep sense of the weighty responsibility 
resting on him as a recorder of impressions, and 
of his brave resolve to face the situation, formi- 
dable though it be, with a noble courage. 

" There would be a thousand matters — matters 
already the theme of prodigious reports and statistics — 
as to which I should have no sense whatever, and as to 
information about which my record would accordingly 
stand naked and unashamed. It shoidd unfailingly be 

•The American Scene. By Henry James. New York: 
Harper & Brothers. 

proved against me that my opportunity had found me 
incapable of information, incapable alike of receiving 
and of imparting it; for then, and then only, would it 
be clearly enough attested that I had cared and under- 

Mr. James has been, as he says, all his days 
" artistically concerned with the human subject"; 
and hence it is his impressions of American men 
and women that form the most characteristic 
portion of his volume, and that furnish the best 
passages for quoting. Of our men and women 
in general he says : 

" No impression so promptly assaults the arriving 
visitor of the United States as that of the overwhelming 
preponderance, wherever he turns and twists, of the 
ifnmitigated ' business-man ' face, ranging through its 
various possibilities, its extraordinary actualities, of 
intensity. And I speak here of facial cast and expres- 
sion alone, leaving out of account the questions of voice, 
tone, utterance and attitude, the chorus of which would 
vastly swell the testimony, and in which I seem to dis- 
cern, for these remarks at large, a treasure of illus- 
tration to come. Nothing, meanwhile, is more concom- 
itantly striking than the fact that the women, over the 
land — allowing for every element of exception — - ap- 
pear to be of a markedly finer texture than the men, 
and that one of the liveliest signs of this difference is 
precisely in their less narrowly specialized, their less 
commercialized, distinctly more generalized, physiog- 
nomic character. The superiority thus noted, and 
which is quite another matter from the universal fact 
of the mere usual female femininity, is far from con- 
stituting absolute distinction, but it constitutes relative, 
and it is a circumstance at which interested observation 
snatches, from the first, with an immense sense of its 

This distinction he regards as the feature of 
the social scene, and uncommonly fruitful of 
possibilities. In aU this there is cheer and hope 
for those who are inclined to deplore, as too 
obtrusively prevalent among us, the business- 
woman type, the new woman, and the bachelor 

Any attempt to epitomize Mr. James, or to 
reproduce him in other than his own words, 
would be rashly presumptuous and inevitably 
imsuccessfid. This must be the excuse, if excuse 
were needed, for introducing another consider- 
able passage, one that was inspired by a visit 
to New York's Ghetto. The reader will bear 
in mind that no other city has so many of the 
children of Israel. He will not need to be told 
to admire the skill of the literary artist in the 
following word-picture : 

" There is no swarming like that of Israel when once 
Israel has got a start, and the scene here bristled, at 
every step, with the signs and sounds, immitigable, un- 
mistakable, of a Jewry that had burst all bounds. . . . 
It was as if we had been thus, in the crowded, hustled 
roadway where multiplication, multiplication of every- 
thing, was the dominant note, at the bottom of some 
vast sallow aquarium in which innumerable fish of over- 




developed proboscis, were to bump together, forever, 
amid heaped spoils of the sea. The children swarmed 
above all — here was multiplication with a vengeance ; 
and the number of very old persons, of either sex, was 
almost equally remarkable; the very old persons being 
in equal vague occupation of the doorstep, pavement, 
curbstone, gutter, roadway, and every one alike using 
the street for overflow. . . . There are small, strange 
animals, known to natural history, snakes or worms, I 
believe, who, when cut into pieces, wriggle away con- 
tentedly and live in the snippet as completely as in the 
whole. So the denizens of the New York Ghetto, heaped 
as thick as the splinters on the table of a glass-blower, 
had each, like the fine glass particle, his or her indi- 
vidual share of the whole hard glitter of Israel." 

Of Baltimore, with its bone-rackiiig cobble- 
stone pavements, its alternate dust and mud, 
and its unsightly and unfragrant surface drain- 
age — an ensemble not attractive to most visitors, 
nor by any means inclining them to picture the 
city in retrospect as an " almost unnaturally 
good child " sitting " on the green apron of its 
nurse, with no concomitant crease or crumple " 
— the author, after some playful disparagement 
of the fine Washington monument, is moved to 
exclaim : 

" Wonderful little Baltimore, in which, whether when 
perched on a noble eminence or passing from one seat 
of the humanities, one seat of hospitality, to another — 
a process mainly consisting indeed, as it seemed to me, 
of prompt drives through romantic parks and wood- 
lands that were all suburban yet all Arcadian — I caught 
no glimpse of traffic, however mild, nor spied anything 
* tall ' at the end of any vista. This was in itself really 
a benediction, since I had nowhere, from the first, been 
infatuated with tallness; I was infatuated only with the 
question of manners, in their largest sense — to the finer 
essence of which tallness had already defined itself to 
me as positively abhorrent. . . . Admirable I found 
them, the Maryland boroughs, and so immediately dis- 
posed about the fortunate town, by parkside and lonely 
lane, by trackless hillside and tangled copse, that the 
depth of rural effect becomes at once bewildering. You 
wonder at the absent transitions, you look in vain for 
the shabby fringes — or at least, under my spell, I did ; 
you have never seen, on the lap of nature, so large a 
burden so neatly accommodated." 

No traffic however mild, no shabby fringes ! 
Surely, our traveller must have passed his time 
in grove-embowered villas in the city's most 
favored suburbs, if it has any such. Yet we 
learn from his own narrative that he did not do 
this. The best of health and spirits, then, must 
have been his during the Baltimore sojourn. 

The author's itinerary included, in an autumn 
and winter progress from New England to 
Florida, the intervening cities of Philadelphia, 
Washington, Richmond, and Charleston, be- 
sides New York and Baltimore. Boston, it need 
hardly be added, was not overlooked, nor were 
Concord and Salem and Newport, and other 
interesting parts of New England. The book is 

one to read in at length, if not to read through, 
and cannot be presented by the reviewer in a 
nutshell. Its pages are strewn with the happiest 
phrases and turns of expression. They teem 
with passages of exquisite artistry, which, with- 
out reference to the scenes and objects so deli- 
cately depicted, are a joy to the lover of the 
gracefidly elaborate, the subtilely expressive 
and still more subtilely suggestive, in English 
prose. Those readers whom the end of the vol- 
ume shall leave unsatisfied may take comfort in 
the concluding words of the preface, where the 
author says he has not found his subject-matter 
scant or simple, and intimates that there are still 
further chapters to be told ere his story is done 
— chapters, as he elsewhere hints, that shall 
deal with the Pacific coast, as these earlier ones 
have treated the Atlantic. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

The Burneys in St. Martin's Street.* 

It is impossible not to agree with Miss Con- 
stance HiU, when she speaks, in the preface 
to her new book, " The House in St. Martin's 
Street," of the perennial interest that attaches 
to the letters — and she might have added, to 
the diaries — of the eighteenth century. It is 
this fact that gives validity to Miss Hill's rather 
slender excuse for writing another book about 
the Burney family, whose lively correspondence 
and voluminous journals, themselves easily acces- 
sible, have already been copiously drawn upon 
by present-day chroniclers. 

In " Juniper HaU " Miss Hill has already 
given a detailed account of one period in Fanny 
Bumey's life. The title of her new book limits 
its material to the events of the years between 
1774 and 1783, the period which the Burneys 
spent in the last of their several London 
residences. It was during this time that both 
" Evelina " and " Cecilia " were written, and 
that their girlish author was discovered and 
initiated into the charmed circle at whose centre 
sat Mrs. Thrale and Dr. Johnson. Frequent 
journeys from London took Fanny Burney to 
Chessington to see her dearest friend " Daddy 
Crisp," and to Streatham and Bath to stay with 
her fond but decidedly exacting patroness Mrs. 
Thrale. Miss Hill does not consider it beyond 
her province to detail anecdotes of these visits, 
as well as of the musical and literary gatherings 

* The House in St. Martin's Street. Being Chronicles of 
the Burney Family. By Constance Hill. Illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc. New York : John Lane Co. 



[March 16, 

in St. Martin's Street, the plottings over the 
secret publication of " Evelina " that went on 
there, and all the merry and not in the least 
momentous daily doings of the little circle whose 
private life was so famous for its harmony and 
serene happiness that somebody has called them 
the " most amiable and affectionate of clever 

For novelty of material Miss Hill depends 
upon a very complete description of the St. 
Martin's Street residence, and upon some un- 
published MSS., chiefly a diary kept by Char- 
lotte Burney through part of the year 1781, 
some letters of Susan to her favorite sister 
Fanny, and a few family letters from Mr. Crisp, 
Mrs. Thrale, and other friends. Most notable 
of all is the MS. of Fanny's unpublished play 
called " The Witlings," which is apparently 
newly available, since Mr. Austin Dobson had 
not seen it when he published his life of Miss 
Burney in 1903. None of these items is in itself 
of any particular importance. Together, and 
pieced out from the familiar sources — the 
" Early Diaries," Madame d'Arblay's " Diary 
and Letters," and her " Memoirs of Dr. Bur- 
ney," — they make the bS,sis for a decidedly 
entertaining narrative of over three hundred 

The St. Martin's Street house is still stand- 
ing, and not altered beyond recognition. It is 
easy. Miss Hill tells us, to identify the drawing- 
room, though its " prodigiously painted and 
ornamented " ceiling, in which the Burneys 
gloried, has long since disappeared ; the library, 
which was also their music-room ; and the cheer- 
ful "dining parlour" where the delightfully 
informal tea-drinkings took place. Only the 
quaint observatory, once Sir Isaac Newton's 
study and later Fanny's favorite retreat, has 
vanished. Miss Ellen G. Hill has made many 
interesting sketches of the characteristic features 
of this house, and of other houses and scenes 
connected with the narrative. These, with vari- 
ous reproductions of portraits, form a valuable 
pictorial adjunct to the text. 

It is perhaps natural that a feminine chron- 
icler, and particularly one who has already 
given us a detailed account of Miss Burney's 
real romance, should make a good deal of the 
brief but persistent wooing of her earlier lover, 
Mr. Barlow. Miss HiU quotes from Fanny's 
journal for 1775, and from a letter sent her by 
the enamored gentleman ; and these leave no 
doubt in the reader's mind that Fanny's family 
had an exaggerated horror of her dying an " old 
maid," — for otherwise they surely would not 

have thought of urging her to consider a match 
so manifestly unsuitable. It was, however, small 
wondfer if Miss Burney found even the man of 
average talents without charm, when she com- 
pared him with Dr. Burney and his brilliant 
friends. Every one of these seems to have shown 
his best side to her. Even the gruff and iras- 
cible Dr. Johnson grows actually lamb-like when 
she appears, and treats her with an unfailing 
consideration that he showed to no one else. 
Fanny comments on this in a letter written in 
1782 to her father, while she was staying in 
Brighton with Mrs. Thrale. 

" Our dear Dr. Johnson keeps his health amazingly, 
and with me his good humor ; but to own the truth, with 
scarce anybody else. I am quite sorry to see how 
immercifully he attacks and riots people. He has raised 
such a general alarm that he is now omitted in all cards 
of invitation sent to the rest of us." 

But of all the visitors to St. Martin's street, 
Garrick was the favorite with the Burney sis- 
ters. A call from him sent them into raptures, 
and his friendship they justly considered a 
great honor. As Charlotte Burney, the youngest 
daughter, puts it, more forcibly than elegantly, 
in her journal, " /Split me if I'd not a hun- 
dred times rather be spoken to by Garrick in 
public than by His Majesty, God bless him ! " 

It was at the house of Garrick's genial friend 
Sir Joshua Reynolds that the subject of " The 
Witlings" was first broached. Sheridan was 
one of the guests, and, beginning by praising 
" Evelina," he insisted that its author ought to 
try her hand at a play. Reynolds heartily ap- 
proved the plan. So did Johnson, Mrs. Thrale, 
and the rest of Fanny's friends, when they 
heard of it, save only Mr. Crisp, who was 
doubtful if his " Fannikin " had the tempera- 
ment of a playwright, and who feared for her 
the results of a possible failure or a partial suc- 
cess. Six months later the play was finished 
and sent down to Chessington by Susan and 
Dr. Burney, with a request for an absolutely 
candid opinion. A letter from Susan tells how 
Dr. Burney read it aloud, to the great delight 
of his small audience. Nevertheless, both he 
and Mr. Crisp decided that in spite of its clever 
characterization and spirited dialogue the play 
would better be suppressed. Fanny, who always 
set the approval of her dearest friends far above 
the praise or blame of the public, did not ques- 
tion the judgment. She writes in gay good 
humor to Mr. Crisp, in answer to what she calls 
his "hissing, groaning, cat-calling epistle," a 
letter concluding thus : 

" I won't be mortified and I won't be downed; but I 
will be proud to find I have, out of my own family, as 




well as in it, a friend who loves me well enough to 
speak the plain truth to me." 

Miss Hill prints the fourth act of the play, the 
one, according to Susan, which " seemed least 
to exhilarate, or interest, the audience." It is 
an amusing satire on the affectation of learning, 
so prevalent among the fine ladies of Fanny's 
day when learning itseK was in fashion. But 
it lacks plot interest and dramatic movement. 
We can doubtless estimate, far more easily than 
Fanny's contemporaries, the width of the chasm 
between the majestic progress of the " three 
volume romance " and the sprightly compact- 
ness of the stage comedy. Nevertheless, '- The 
Witlings " has, at the least, a documentary in- 
terest that fully justifies the lengthy citation. 

Dr. Johnson once complained that " the little 
Burney " would not " prattle," though he was 
sure that she could do it well. But she and all 
her family prattle without reserve on paper, 
and they justify the Doctor's suspicion by doing 
it extremely well, making us acquainted with 
themselves and their friends in phrases as artless 
as they are deft and telling. Susan's letters 
are as lively as possible, and Charlotte's frag- 
mentary journal reads as if it might have been 
written yesterday by some bright girl of twenty. 
" He is a genteel-looking man, and full of rattle 
— and I like rattles," she says of a certain very 
unpopular Captain Williamson. She repeats 
many epigrams and lively bits of repartee, calls 
Boswell " a sweet creature," apparently because 
he made a bon mot about her, and complains of 
a certain Mr. Humphrey on the very tenable 
ground that all he ever said to her was, " Pray 
how do all your brothers and sisters do?" 
Little touches like these give reality to the 
chronicle of the life that went on so merrily in 
St. Martin's Street. 

Miss Hill does not attempt criticism or inter- 
pretation. She acts merely in the capacity of 
showman, marshalling her documents and letting 
them tell their own story. Granted the limi- 
tations of her method and of her present oppor- 
tunity, she deserves nothing but praise for her 
conscientious and capable investigation of the 
resources at her command, and for her judicious 
selection and arrangement of her well-chosen 
material. Edith Kellogg Dunton. 

"John Wesley's Journal" is published in an 
abridged edition by Messrs. Jennings & Graham. The 
condensation is considerable but the most characteristic 
and valuable features of this intensely interesting hu- 
man document are preserved, and no liberties (except 
of omission) have been taken with Wesley's text. 

Stirrixg Chapters of American 

Two important additions have recently been 
made to American historical literature by writ- 
ers who are masters in their chosen fields. In 
his sixth volume Professor McMaster brings his 
" History of the People of the United States " 
from the accession of Andrew Jackson in 1829 
to the veto of the Whig Bank bills by Tyler in 
1841. In volumes six and seven Dr. Rhodes 
completes his monumental " History of the 
United States," which covers the period from 
1 85 to 1 8 7 7 . In these two works may be found 
perhaps the best accounts yet written of the 
developments of the American people from the 
close of the Revolutionary War to the restora- 
tion of home-rule in the Southern States. 

The object of Professor McMaster through- 
out his work has been to write the history of 
our people, and not simply that of a set of poli- 
ticians or even statesmen. If the present vol- 
ume seems to make a departure from this plan, 
since very little space is given to matters not 
connected directly or indirectly with politics, it 
finds its justification in the fact that the people 
were at last playing at the political game. The 
advent of Jackson, though neither preceded nor 
followed by any immediate and remarkable 
extension of the suffrage, is commonly looked 
upon as the real beginning of the democratiza- 
tion of the nation. Jackson came fresh from 
the democratic West, where the fight against 
savage foes and wild beasts for a home and sus- 
tenance in the forest left little room for the class 
distinctions and privileges which were charac- 
teristic of older societies. As the representative, 
the very embodiment, of such a democracy, it 
was altogether natural that he shoidd be on the 
lookout for everything which smacked of privi- 
lege. In his eyes, the National Bank was a star 
case of privilege battening on the people ; con- 
sequently he soimded a note of warning at this 
accession, though there was practically no com- 
plaint against the bank at that time. Nothing 
daunted at the general indifference, Jackson, 
ably seconded by Senator Benton, kept up the 
fight, first to arouse the people to a sense of 
wrong and then to right the wrong. In the end 
he compassed the destruction of the bank. The 
resulting derangement of the currency, and the 

• A History op thk People of the United States, from the 
Revolution to the Civil War. By John Bach McMaster. Volume 
VI., 1830-1842. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

History of the United States from the Compromise of 
1850 to 1877. By James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., Litt.D. Volume 
VI., 1866-1872; Volume VII., 1872-1877. New York: The Mao- 
millan Co. 



[March 16, 

wild schemes of State banks, are matters of 
common historical knowledge. These facts are 
all set forth by Professor McMaster in an enter- 
taining manner ; but in speaking of the work of 
destruction, he follows the not uncommon habit 
of using a slightly misleading term when he 
speaks of "removing the deposits" instead of 
"ceasing to make deposits." Though not so 
replete with dramatic interest as the story of 
wild-cat banking in Michigan, the banking 
experience of Florida, at that time practically 
new territory and a sort of ward of the nation, 
certainly is deserving of notice, though it re- 
ceives none. In addition to numerous small 
banks, three were chartered with large capital 
stock. There being no money in the territory 
with which to pay for the stock, the device was 
hit upon of borrowing the capital by the sale 
of bonds. The Territory itself issued three 
millions of dollars of bonds for the Union Bank 
at Tallahassee, where the population within its 
reach probably did not exceed fifteen thousand 
whites and blacks, and guaranteed the bonds of 
two other banks to the extent of nine hundred 
thousand dollars. The laws tmder which these 
schemes were put through attracted little atten- 
tion at Washington until the banks were on the 
road to ruin and the bondholders were getting 
uneasy. A few of the bonds were redeemed by 
the banks, but many of them were left outstand- 
ing, and for these the Territory refused to pro- 
vide payment. 

In dealing with the question of Nullification, 
it is doubtfid if Professor McMaster has laid 
sufficient emphasis on the personal equation in 
the matter. Jackson hated Calhoun, and there- 
fore Nrdlification in South Carolina was treason. 
On the abstract question of States' Rights, it 
would be hard to say just where Jackson stood. 
His attitude toward the bank was the natural 
one of the particidarist ; in the matter of the 
Indians he stood complacently by and saw a 
State nullify a decree of the Federal Supreme 
Court. In neither case, however, was he stand- 
ing for any abstract principle, but simply for 
what he believed to be right in each case. The 
bank charter he believed unconstitutional ; he 
had fought too many» Indians to have much 
sympathy with them. The tariff was a different 
matter. While not at heart a high-tariff man, 
he believed the tariff act constitutional and that 
his arch-enemy Calhoun was at the bottom of 
the effort to nidlify it. 

One of the most interesting things brought 
out by the author in this connection is the atti- 
tude of Virginia which foreshadowed her later 

division. Naturally, South Carolina was de- 
sirous to know the attitude of her sister states. 
In Virginia, it seems, the most that could be 
counted on was the neutrality of the eastern 
section, while the western section was sure to 
stand by the nation. Even more striking is a 
letter written by Jackson to Buchanan, explain- 
ing how he had consigned " nullification and 
the doctrine of secession " to the tomb from 
which they would never rise again. 

It seems now like an anachronism to read of 
a movement in the United States, as late as the 
fourth decade of the nineteenth century, to abo- 
lish imprisonment for debt, or to wipe out 
feudalism as preserved in New York in certain 
remnants of the patroon system. Abolitionism, 
suppression of the right of petition, immigra- 
tion, and other social and economic questions, 
receive due attention. Strange to say, how- 
ever, certain anti-democratic tendencies in this 
age of democratization receive no notice what- 
ever. Some of the states began to lay restric- 
tions on the right of suffrage. North Carolina 
and Pennsylvania disfranchising free negroes 
about the same time. 

The present volume announces that the series 
is to close with one more. If so. Professor 
McMaster will cover more years than he has 
done in any previous volume, and that, too, in 
a period more stormy and significant than some 
of those ah'eady covered. The politics of the 
period are ample enough for extended treat- 
ment, and the social conditions will demand 
much f idler treatment than is given to this sub- 
ject in the present volume. A really great 
opportunity lies before the author, though he 
will be covering in part a period already well 
handled by Dr. Rhodes, and it is to be hoped 
that he wil not cramp himself by too narrow 
limitations in space. If two volumes are ne- 
cessary, let us have them. 

Giving up a promising business career and 
devoting oneself to the writing of history is an 
occurrence not common in this so-called com- 
mercial age. Such, in brief, has been the life 
of Dr. James Ford Rhodes, who has devoted 
nineteen years of the best part of his life to a 
period of our history but little more extended 
in time. The loss to the business world has 
been one of immense gain to the world of his- 
torical literature. The word " literature " is 
used designedly here. Possibly Dr. Rhodes's 
works may not stand a rigid application of all 
the tests invented by the schoolmen to deter- 
mine what is literature, but they certainly carry 




the stamp of verisimilitude and have the force 
necessary to Im-e the reader on and invite him 
to return. Whether describing the scattering 
of fresh firebrands by the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise, or depicting social condi- 
tions in the fifties, bringing into vivid play once 
more those tumultuous emotions which swept 
n^en hither and thither in the closing days of 
one administration and the beginning of another, 
or setting the stage for the fidl tragedy of the 
Civil War, there is in all and over all the deep 
breath of human interest. 

" Sordid " and " mean " are terms that have 
been applied in contempt to American history. 
The blunder-crime of secession was atoned for 
with a mighty effusion of human blood ; but it 
gave to the world examples of heroic daring, 
patriotic devotion, and pathetic seK-sacrifice, of 
statesmanship and military genius, that have 
seldom if ever been surpassed, and, last of all, 
freedom to a branch of the human race. There 
was nothing sordid or mean here. 

But the aftermath of war, that blunder-crime 
against civilization strangely misnamed Recon- 
struction, — was that not sordid and mean ? The 
answer may be found in the last two volumes 
of Dr. Rhodes's history. Not that he has at- 
tempted to reveal the base, — rather that, in 
his fidelity to the truth, he has been unable to 
conceal it. Seldom in all history has a nation 
been confronted with such momentous problems 
and presented with such magnificent possibilities 
in their solution, and more seldom still do we 
find a more miserable failure. Statesmanship 
seems to have died, and selfish political parti- 
sanship at once arose from the corpse. The 
generals of the army had bound up the wounds 
of the prostrate foe ; the politicians opened them 
again and bound them up with vitriol. The 
measures for the re-making of the Union appear 
to have been conceived in hate and born in a 
lust for pelf and power. The really great op- 
portunity which lay before Congress was to fit 
the wards of the nation, the freedmen, for citi- 
zenship, and to help them in adjusting their 
relations with their former masters. Instead of 
doing this they thrust the ballot into the negro's 
hand and turned him and the carpet-bagger 
loose for one of the most shameless orgies of 
political plunder the world has ever seen. Great 
as was the injustice to the intelligent and 
property-owning classes of the South, it was 
perhaps even greater to the negro. This is an 
age of democracy ; at first blush the enfran- 
chisement of the negro might seem to have been 
a part of this movement. The injustice to him 

came not simply in leaving him in the hands of 
designing men, but in actually forcing him to 
look to them for guidance. Wickedness and 
barbarism cannot rule forever over virtue and 
intelligence. The ten years' orgy had created 
a distrust of the negro, and when his rule was 
overthrown he was thrust under foot as unworthy 
of political rights. And now, forty years after 
his nominal enfranchisement, he must begin at 
the bottom and first prove himself worthy of 
these rights. 

Shameless misgovernment in the South re- 
acted upon the whole country and contaminated 
public life everywhere. If some of the Northern 
politicians were above the carpet-baggers in 
order of ability, they were not a whit better in 
point of morality. Concerning Benjamin F. 
Butler, Dr. Rhodes quotes with approval Weed's 
estimate that he was the most influential man 
in Congress (1873), and the worst. One of the 
strangest things in all our history is that the 
intelligent and virtuous state of Massachusetts 
should have honored this man so often and so 
highly. His love of pelf and power has been 
pointed out by Dr. Rhodes in previous volumes. 
Why speak of Oakes Ames and the Credit 
Mobilier, of Babcock and the Whiskey Ring, 
and of Belknap and the Indian-trade frauds, the 
last two of whom were protected by President 
Grant ? After reading the complete exposure 
of the character of Blaine, one shudders to think 
how narrowly he missed the Presidency twenty 
years later. Summing up the story of shame, 
Dr. Rhodes says : " The high- water mark of 
corruption in national affairs was reached dur- 
ing Grant's two administrations." Grant him- 
self is cleared of all personal guilt, in spite of 
Butler's boast that he had a hold over him ; but 
his career as President has beclouded somewhat 
the glory won by the sword. The notorious 
Tweed Ring had no official connection with 
national corruption, but the story of its riot 
and ruin is given as a part of the corruption of 
the age. 

In connection with the Tweed exposure. Dr. 
Rhodes makes a most interesting digression on 
the suffrage. Tweed had maintained himself 
by the vote of ignorant men who had no ma- 
terial interest in the community. The way to 
prevent such corruption, says Dr. Rhodes, is 
to restrict the suffrage by educational and prop- 
erty tests. But no such restriction was put 
in the New York charter, because at that time 
" the country was bowed down in adoration of 
the theory that voting was a right, not a priv- 
ilege." The author thinks that possibly all 



[March 16, 

men should be allowed to vote for President 
and members of Congress, but that state and 
city government is more distinctly a matter of 
business, and in these the rule of an intelligent 
minority is preferable to that of an unintelligent 
democracy. It is not surprising that one who 
has spent a long time in the study of this 
period should turn from it with his confidence 
in democracy shaken. Rightly understood, how- 
ever, it only emphasizes the truth that democ- 
racy must base its hope of ultimate success on 
intelligence and virtue. 

The character of Tilden suffers slightly at 
the hands of Dr. Rhodes. There was no taint 
of corruption, not even to secure the Presidency 
in 1877 ; on the contrary, he was honest, be- 
cause honesty is the best policy, though he did 
dodge the income-tax, but he was lacking in the 
physical and moral courage necessary for lead- 
ership in turbulent times and so vacillating of 
purpose as to destroy his party's enthusiasm. 
As for Hayes, " left to himself, he would have 
been capable of refusing the high office if not 
honestly obtained, and had he declined to ac- 
cept it before the Louisana Retuming-Board 
made their return, though he would never have 
been President, he would have been one of the 
world's heroes. As it actually turned out, hpw- 
ever, he saw with Sherman's eyes, which were 
those of a stubborn partisan." It is the author's 
opinion that " he ought to have stopped the 
action in his favor of the Louisiana Returning- 
Board, but after swallowing this much he stood 
as the avowed representative of his party ; and 
... he had no choice but to take the place." 
From this the reader will infer at once that Dr. 
Rhodes does not think that Hayes was elected. 
He says expressly that Tilden should have 
had the vote of Louisiana and possibly that 
of Florida. His account of this memorable 
contest is clear and remarkably well condensed, 
though it does not appear to add anything new. 
However, it is not likely that anything new will 
be added luitil someone investigates thoroughly 
the frauds at their sources, if it can be done at 
this late day. 

A few years ago, in an article published else- 
where, the present writer, quoting Professor 
Burgess's statement that the " final " history of 
the Civil War would have to be written by a 
Northern man, because the North was in the 
right and because the victor is always more 
generous than the vanquished, undertook to 
say that for this very reason the " final " history 
of Reconstruction would have to be written by 
a Southern man because the South was the 

ultimate victor in that life-and-death struggle. 
The recent achievement of Dr. Rhodes seems 
to indicate that the writer may prove a false 
prophet. Several Southern men have produced 
excellent monographs on this subject, but the 
man who surpasses him will accomplish a note- 
worthy feat. However, in dealing with these 
two periods there is this difference, which gives 
the Southern man no advantage: Men may 
stiU debate about the war and its causes, but 
there is only one side to Reconstruction. Here 
the vanquished, the inventors and supporters of 
Congressional Reconstruction, are universally 
condemned and cast into outer darkness. 

David Y. Thomas. 

The liETTERS OF Owen Meredith.* 

"My estimate of what Lord L3i;ton's rank 
will be is that, as a lyric poet, the position given 
him will be next among his contemporaries after 
Tennyson, Swinburne, and Rossetti." So wrote 
Mr. Wilfrid Blunt in 1892. To a generation 
that knows Owen Meredith only as the author 
of " Lucile," this estimate is sufficiently sur- 
prising. We are not concerned at the moment, 
however, to attack or to confirm it, but only to 
gain, if possible, an accurate impression of the 
man himseK from the two volumes of his 
" Personal and Literary Letters " now before 
us. They contain a record of unusual inter- 
est, — the story of a defeated poet, an exquisite 
amateur of letters, whom circumstances and 
temperament kept on the lower slopes of 
Parnassus. They convince us, not that Lord 
Lytton's public career prevented him from 
becoming a great poet, but that his success as 
diplomatist and administrator was possible be- 
cause his poetic inspiration, though genuine, was 
fitful and limited. He recognized this quite 
clearly himself. " I have at least half a dozen 
different persons in me," he wrote in 1890, 
" each utterly imlike the other — all pidling 
different ways and continually getting in each 
other's way " (vol. ii., p. 395). And in a more 
serious vein, he wrote to his daughter a few 
months before his death: 

" I reflect that if I had acted more selfishly — I don't 
mean in the bad but the best sense of the word, with 
more of that self-assertion which springs from a man's 
confidence in the best of his own nature, and is the dis- 
tinguishing mark of genius -=— I should have resolutely 

* Personal and Literaby Letters of Robert, First Earl 
OF Lytton. Edited by Lady Betty Balfour. In two volumes, 
with photogravure portraits. New York: Longmans, Green, 




eschewed a number of good things not suitable to my 
nature, and should have bent the circumstances of my 
life into conformity with the natural direction of the 
faculties best fitted to render life fruitful. In my 
inability to do this I recognize the absence of that mis- 
sion without which the imaginative faculty is a will-'o- 
the-wisp " (ii., 426). 

This letter is in pathetic contrast with one 
written to his father in 1854, when he was 
twenty-two years old, and had been for four 
years following the profession of diplomacy 
which his father had marked out for him. 

" I certainly feel and own that I have hitherto not 
done justice to myself in the profession, and I see 
many men getting before me to the top of the ladder 
whom I really feel to be not more light of foot or 
steady of hand than myself, so that if I continue to 
follow the career, certainly my amour propre is con- 
cerned in advancement; but I feel that all those great 
and brilliant prizes which allure others, would, even 
were I to obtain them, greatly diminish rather than 
increase my happiness: each step forward would be a 
step further from my own ideal, and would have to 
be trodden over some relinquished dream, or some 
strangled interest. . . . Even Uncle Henry, despite his 
many noble achievements and his costly successes, and 
his great position and reputation, the praise of the 
public press, the confidence of ministers, the envy of all 
his colleagues, and the Grand Cross of the Bath, is an 
example that makes me shudder. I would rather, for 
my part, have been Burns at the Scotch alehouse, than 
Uncle Harry in a ship of war, going out to his post 
Mdth the red ribbon on. As I once said to you when 
we walked along the streets of London by night, and 
you made me proud and happy by asking me the ques- 
tion, my ambition has ever been for fame rather than 
power. ... I have no fear myself of becoming a mere 
literary dilettante " (i., 59). 

This youthful prophecy was fulfilled. The 
" great and brilliant prizes " which he obtained 

— the viceroyalty of India, the Paris embassy 

— did not, if we may trust these letters, bring 
him happiness. Political activity was so far 
from absorbing him that it never really com- 
manded his respect. " The debates of the House 
of Lords," on his return from India, " appeared 
to him 'dreamlike and devoid of real life'; 
those of the House of Commons, ' one vast in- 
sane display of wasted power and passion mis- 
applied ' " (ii., 232). He would certainly have 
accepted John Morley's characterization of 
politics, widely as his political views differed 
from those of the distinguished Liberal : " Poli- 
tics are a field where action is one long second- 
best, and where the choice constantly lies 
between two blunders." 

On the other hand, Lord Lytton was, in the 
strict sense, " a mere literary dilettante " all his 
days. And this he himself early recognized. 
Writing to Mrs. Browning when he was twenty- 
four, he said : 

" ' Art requires the whole man.' Ah, how well I know 
that ! how bitterly I feel it. But why do you say it to 
me who am doomed to be a Dilettante for life ? If 
there is a word of truth in what we are always saying, 
and admitting when said, about the dignity of poetry 
as an art, its high tax on the faculties of the poet, and 
its sublime benefits to mankind, why in Heaven's name 
should we say that the devotion of the poet to his art, 
seriously, earnestly, exclusively ... as a profession 
and a most honorable one, is a waste of time ... a 
sleep in a garden of roses ? " (i., 80). 

This last is an allusion to a warning received 
from his father two years before. And to his 
father he wrote in 1860 : 

" There can be no doubt about real genius. It is sure 
of the world, and the world is sure of it. And this is 
what dismays me on my own account. I am too clever, 
at least have too great a sympathy with intellect, to be 
quite content to eat the fruit of the earth as an ordi- 
nary young man, and yet not clever enough to be ever 
a great man, so that I remain like Mahomet's coffin 
suspended between heaven and earth, missing the hap- 
piness of both. ... A little more or a little less of 
whatever ability I inherit from you would have made 
me a complete and more cheerful man" (ii., 82). 

There is the formula of dilettantism, of that 
gifted mediocrity which lacks the final efficiency 
without which the gTcatest gifts are sterile. 

His father had long before warned him of 
the danger that besets a young man of fortune, 
good looks, and popularity ; but by dilettantism 
the elder Lytton meant " writing only what 
pleases yourself," instead of writing with an eye 
single to popular approval. In fact, the suc- 
cessful novelist's admonitions to the young poet 
are an amusing compoimd of admirable good 
sense and crass Philistinism. 

" One thing I would say, in spite of all you urge about 
being content with a small audience and your own ap- 
proval. That is not the right ambition of a poet who 
means to influence his age. It is not worth the sacrifice 
of all other thought and career for. He should aspire 
to reach a wide public. This is one reason why I de- 
plore the paramount effect that poets who only please 
a few have on your line and manner. Praised as they 
are by critics, Keats and Shelley are very little read by 
the public, and absolutely unknown out of England. 
. . . Now take Charles Mackay's poems. They are 
little praised' by critics, no idols of the refining few, but 
they sell immensely with the multitude — it is worth 
studying why " (i., 55). 

Though this is contemptible enough, many of 
the elder Lytton's criticisms of his son's work 
are thoroughly sound. He pointed out the re- 
dundance and decoration, the absence of " mas- 
culine severity of taste," the fondness for detail 
rather than proportion, that characterized the 
young poet's work, at the same time admitting 
its genius. He thought, however, rather too well 
of " Lucile." " I can remember no work of such 
promise since Werter. ... At times the play 



[March 16, 

of the vocabulary reminds me of Goethe himself 
in his best days of poetry. You may rely on 
fame for the poem " (i., 99). The author's 
own view of it, we may say in passing, was more 
just. " A trashy poem that seems to have be- 
come very popular in America " (i., 93) was his 
best word for it. 

One aspect of the father's relation to the son, 
however, is less amusing than painful. From 
his boyhood, the younger Lytton's craving for 
his father's love and respect is almost pathetic. 
At the age of eighteen he wrote : 

" I have just heard from my father. What an m- 
tense pleasure it gives me to receive a letter of kind- 
ness from him, I cannot tell you. My position and my 
feelings are so strange, my heart is so full of love for 
him, full to overflowing, but it is darkened and choked 
vtith the most fearful and constant doubts, the most 
painful suspicions, the most bitter feelings " (i., 24). 

This is an allusion to the estrangement be- 
tween his father and mother, and the jealousy 
and distrust with which each viewed the son's 
intercourse with the other. At a later period, 
the yoimg poet's desire for his father's literary 
approval was no less keen thail his craving for 
his father's love. In reply to the elder Lytton's 
praise of " Clytenmestra," he wrote : 

" The best thanks I can give you back, my beloved 
father, for the great heartful of gladness you have 
given me must be the assurance of that gladness, and 
how it surpasses all other kinds of happiness, so that I 
could wish that my life should stop here lest anything 
less should follow. . . . My heart seems to open under 
each kind word of yours ; all things seem easy to do, 
and pain even light to bear " (i., 54). 

Yet the father to whom these words were ad- 
dressed was capable of writing a letter that con- 
victs him of cruel suspicion, if not of unnatural 

" I don't think, whatever your merit, the world would 
allow two of the same name to have both a permanent 
reputation in literature. You would soon come to 
grudge me my life, and feel a guilty thrill every time I 
was ill. . . . No. Stick close to your profession, take 
every occasion to rise in it, plenty of time is left to culti- 
vate the mind and write verse or prose at due intervals. 
As to your allowance, I should never increase it till you 
get a step. I help the man who helps himself " (i., 60) . 

To this the son replied: 

" What you have said is quite enough. I shall only 
recur in thought to those suggestions for the future with 
reg^-et that they were ever made. I renounce them. . . . 
I am quite willing to abide in the profession and work 
as well and as cheerfully as I can in it" (i., 61). 

But this was followed by a still more amazing 
renunciation. At his father's request he prom- 
ised not to write ab all for two years. Possibly 
the son's poetical career, his incurable dilet- 
tantism, justify the father's severity. But for 
all that, it was a rash and heartless way to deal 

with a young poet. Suppose someone had 
silenced Keats for two years ! The supposition 
is, of course, absurd ; for Keats could not have 
been silenced. This act of obedience is suffi- 
cient evidence of the slightness of the poet's 
gift. For such a nature, it would probably 
have been the part of wisdom to put into his 
profession the spirit and energy that were in- 
sufficient for his art, and to cease to look with 
longing at heights which he could not climb. 
In middle life, he apparently came roimd to 
his father's opinion that the poet is not injured 
but improved by being combined with the man 
of afPairs, though the following letter, in which 
he expresses this conviction, must be contrasted 
with the one already quoted in which he lament- 
ed that his poetical aim had not been single : 

" For any man of robust moral fibre and unlimited 
intellectual receptivity, I am convinced that occasional 
close contact with (or immersion in) the central move- 
ment of that world, mean and shallow though it be, is 
essential, not perhaps to the development, but to the 
adjustment of his faculties. My belief is that all 
flrst-class genius has in it an element of vulgarity, 
if you will — but certainly of amalgamation with the 
common sense, and common experience and sentiment, 
of commonplace human beings — a fulcrum for its indi- 
viduality in what is generally appreciable. Shakespeare 
had it; Milton, too, in spite of all the narrowness of 
his sublimity; Dante, in spite of all his egotism; and 
Byron and Goethe and Voltaire — and this constitutes 
their immeasurable superiority in the hierarchy of 
genius over such geniuses as Keats and Shelley and 
Wordsworth and Tennyson and Rousseau " (i., 330). 

We have given so much attention to a single 
interesting phase of Lord Lytton's life that we 
have little space to devote to many other phases 
of perhaps greater intrinsic importance. The 
letters seem to us conclusive evidence of his 
diplomatic ability, and of the wisdom and 
tact of his Indian administration, complicated 
though it was by the perplexities of the Afghan 
War. The letters from India, indeed, are so 
full of color and incident, and throw so clear a 
light on the problems of colonial administration, 
that they surpass in interest and value those of 
any other period. On his return to England, 
it became necessary for him to take part in 
a debate of the Lords which was virtually a 
defense of the Government in its conduct of 
Afghan affairs. Lord Lytton never spoke 
readily, and had therefore carefully prepared 
his speech, when, within a few hours of deliver- 
ing it, Lord Beaconsfield begged him to change 
his line of argument. He writes : 

"There was a fidl House, the galleries thronged, 
royalties and peeresses who had staid in town to hear 
me ; the bar and the places behind the throne were also 
filled with Liberal M. P.'s and Ministers, who came up 




from the Commons to hear me out of curiosity. I felt 
very nervous when I got up, and the cheers from my 
own side seemed to me rather faint. But after ten 
minutes I felt that I had the House well in hand, and 
when I sat down 1/elt that the speech had been a de- 
cided oratorical success. Lord Beaconsfield was un- 
stinted in his commendations of what he called its 
' remarkable Parliamentary tact.' The result was, 1 
think, a great relief to him, for his last words as he 
left the House with me were : ' You made a great effect 
without one injudicious word. As for myself, I feel as 
if I had won the Derby. I backed you heavily, and you 
have won my stakes for me — easily. As for you, you 
have established your own Parliamentary position in 
the front rank. From this time forward you may do 
or say anything you please in Parliament. Your posi- 
tion is assured, and you have won it by a single speech ' " 
(ii., 228). 

It is in the same letter that he remarks, " The 
more I see of public life in England, the less I 
like it, and the less I respect the actors in it" ! 

We can merely refer to the bits of literary 
criticism of his contemporaries — often sound 
and always suggestive — that are scattered up 
and down these volumes, and to the fragments 
of literary theory, which are as stimulating as 
those that delight us in the letters of Stevenson. 
We must also confine ourselves to mentioning 
the names of some of the distinguished persons 
to whom Lord Lytton wrote with the utmost 
freedom and intimacy, — John Morley, John 
Forster, Lord Salisbury, the Brownings, the 

So far as Lord Lytton's personality is con- 
cerned, we gain from these letters an impression 
of an unworldly and poetic capacity for friend- 
ship, of almost irresistible social gifts, of an 
entire sincerity of nature, utterly loyal and free 
from subterfuge, and beneath all the charm of 
manner and the gayety of the man of the world, a 
profound and permanent melancholy. He was 
evidently the most delightful and sympathetic 
of fathers, and his daughter writes of him with 
a mixture of the reverence due to his talents 
and position and the tenderness called forth by 
his fundamental imhappiness. In editing the 
letters, she has done her work with admirable 
reticence and skill. It is a far more touchinsr 
and mterestmg record than the biography of 
many a greater man. 

Charles H. A. Wager. 

Gen. Oliver Otis Howard has written his autobi- 
ography, which the Baker and Taylor Co. will publish 
in the Fall. The General's experiences while in the 
Civil War, his services as head of the Freedman's Bu- 
reau during the Reconstruction period and afterwards 
as Peace Commissioner to the hostile Indians, and his 
work and influence as an educator, all combine to make 
this a book of the first importance. 

Ix THE Land of Snow and Ice.* 

When the late Mr. William Zeigler's first 
expedition to the Polar region failed to attain 
any high degree of north latitude, he was not 
disheartened, but immeditely fitted out another 
expedition and sent it northward under the 
command of Mr. Anthony Fiala of Brooklyn. 
Mr. Fiala had been the photographer of the first 
expedition ; he had shown exceptional skill as 
an explorer, and had the experience necessary 
to overcome difficulties encountered by the first 
ill-fated party. Yet the well-laid schemes of 
both promoter and explorer went agley. Their 
vessel, "America," was crushed in the ice the 
first winter ; the unusual climatic conditions of 
the following summer prevented any serious 
advance toward the desired spot ; the relief ship 
failed to appear at the end of the summer ; and, 
finally, many of the men became disaffected, — 
a list of insurmountable difficulties which com- 
pelled the explorer to relinquish his efforts and 
to return without having achieved the object of 
his quest. 

In a minor way, however, the Fiala-Ziegler 
expedition was successful. Charts were made 
of previously unexplored portions of Franz 
Josef Archipelago, and magnetic and meteoro- 
logical observations were recorded by Messrs. 
W. J. Peters and R. W. Porter, the scientists 
of the expedition. The most important result 
of the expedition, however, is the publication 
of the account of it by Mr. Fiala. His book, 
" Fighting the Polar Ice," is doubtless the most 
interesting story of Polar exploration yet written 
in this country. Although it is the record of 
a failure, it is likely to be remembered longer 
than many accounts of more fortunate explorers. 

Mr. Fiala's expedition left Trondhjem, Nor- 
way, June 23, 1903, and on July 13 struck 
the ice-field in Barentz Sea. This sea, lying 
between Norway and Franz Josef Archipelago, 
has been crossed by many expeditions in less 
than a week's time, but it took Fiala's ship, the 
" America," over a month to buck and hammer 
its way to Cape Flora, the most southern point 
of the archipelago. On August 8, by almost 
miraculous good fortune, the ship escaped from 
the ice pack, " steaming between two enormous 
blocks of ice, and escaping just in time, as the 
fields crashed together with tremendous force 
behind us." On August 12 the expedition 
reached Cape Flora, famous in the annals of 
Polar exploration as the place where Jackson 

• Fighting the Polar Ice. By Anthony Fiala. Illustrated. 
New York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 



[March 16, 

and Nansen had their dramatic meeting, and, 
of vastly more importance to Fiala, where the 
Duke of the Abruzzi cached a gi'eat supply of 
provisions. Desiring to winter farther north, 
however, Commander Fiala set out to fight the 
ice of the British Channel toward Cape Dillon. 
After a sturdy contest, the expedition made 
anchor in Teplitz Bay, where the Duke of the 
Abruzzi wintered in 1899 and 1 900, and whence 
Captain Cagni of that expedition started on his 
trip nearest the pole of any explorer until Peary's 
recent achievement broke the record. 

From this time Fiala's account is a cata- 
logue of troubles. The " America," seemingly 
a " fatal and perfidious bark," broke loose from 
her moorings in a storm, and went adrift in the 
awful darkness of an Arctic night. Hardly had 
she been made fast again when she was locked 
in the ice, and was finally wrecked in the ice- 
pressure late in December. 

One little incident which lightens this dark 
story we may here transcribe. 

" The night of disaster was tinged with some flashes 
of humor, stories of which reached me later. While 
the crew were passing the bags over the side of the 
ship, the cook, who was of an excitable nature, suddenly 
appeared at the rail with a large bag which he heaved 
over with all his strength. It struck the ice below with 
a sounding crash; causing several of the sailors to 
exclaim, ' Hello, Cook, what was that? ' ' Oh, that 's all 
right! ' he answered; ' it' s lamp chimneys andjiat irons J " 

After the loss of the ship, the party had to 
accommodate itself to the house which had been 
built on shore at Camp Abruzzi. Then followed 
the long night of preparation for the trial fur- 
ther northward. On March 7, 1904, twenty- 
six men, with sixteen pony-sledges and thirteen 
dog-sledges, set out for the great North apex. 
In five days the party returned to camp, sorely 
tried in spirit, and with a chilled enthusiasm. 
Five men had become disabled, the cookers had 
proved inadequate, a snow-storm had proved 
too much for the party, and complaints were so 
general among the men that Fiala decided to 
return to camp to refit, and to reduce the num- 
ber of men for another attempt. 

This first attempt northward revealed the 
most serious defect in Fiala's appointments. 
Some of his men were of the stuff heroes are 
made of, but many of them were of conunoner 
clay and not fitted to endure the hardships of 
such rigorous work as Polar exploration de- 
mands. The author, who by no means has a 
complaining nature, fittingly says : 

" In Arctic research — as in all undertakings — 
Christian character is the chief desideratum. The 
Polar field is a great testing ground. Those who pass 
through winters of darkness and days of trial above 

the circle of ice know better than others the weakness 
of human nature and their own insufficiencies." 

Could Fiala have had a company of privates 
like his side companion, the Irishman Duffy, he 
might have accomplished more, even in the face 
of the difficulties offered by Nature. 

The second northward attempt was of even 
shorter duration than the first. The party left 
camp on March 25, reached Cape Fligely the 
same evening, but on account of disastrous ac- 
cidents to the sledges they returned on the 
second day. Out of thirty-nine men in camp, 
twenty-five elected to go south to Cape Flora 
to meet the relief ship. Again disappointment 
was to be theirs. Barentz Sea was dead and 
white, with a sullen sheet of rugged ice, so that 
no ship could come to the cape. All hopes of 
relief that year were soon abandoned. Provi- 
dentially, however, the lives of the party were 
saved by the abundant stores cached at Cape 
Flora by the Duke of the Abruzzi, and by the 
discovery of a vein of coal found up the steep 

On September 27, Commander Fiala left 
Cape Flora to march north again to Camp 
Abruzzi. For fifty-four days Fiala and his heroic 
comrades staggered from ice-pack to ice-pack, 
from island to island, across the archipelago. 
It was on this awful return that he and Steward 
Spencer met with the most exciting adventure 
recorded in the book. While walking ahead of 
the sledges, the snow gave way beneath Fiala's 
feet, and with Spencer, who was trying to help 
him, he feU into a glacial crevasse, a distance 
of seventy feet, where the two were wedged into 
a narrow abyss. The story of the rescue is a 
thrilling one. 

" At last I saw above me the end of a rope, which 
gradually neared as I shouted directions to those out of 
sight above who were lowering the line, our only hope 
of escape. 

" My right arm was free, and at last the precious 
line was in my hand. I painfully made a bowline in the 
end of the rope, the fingers of my left hand being for- 
tunately free. Slipping the noose over my right foot, 
I called to those above to haul away. Soon I was swing- 
ing like a pendulum in free space. ... I called to them 
to move the rope to the right and then lower me. I 
swimg aroimd in the black chasm and felt the icy walls, 
but could not discover the Steward. 

" In desperation, as I felt myself growing weaker, I 
called to him, ' Look up and try to see me against the 
light above ! ' He obeyed, saw my suspended form, 
and directed my movements. In answer to my shouts, 
the men above moved the rope along the edge of the 
crevasse and lowered me to where I could reach the 
Steward, though I could not rescue him on account of 
a projection of ice that interfered. But I could pass him 
a foot and a hand, and lift him from his prone position, 
and help him to stand on the cake of ice that had broken 




off when he fell and had jammed, saving him from 
death. Unable to give the Steward further help, I told 
him it woidd be best for the men to haul me up and 
send the rope down for him. He agreed, and I was 
drawn to the surface, — just in time, as I fainted on 
reaching the top. The Steward was hauled up next." 

Again in the fateful month of March, 1905, 
Fiala made his third trial, but reached only 
eighty-two degrees north latitude — his farthest 
point north. Although he thought it possible 
that he and Duffy might exceed Cagni's record, 
he felt that the party which had wintered at the 
South Camp might need his guidance in event 
that the relief ship failed to come the second 
year; so, sinking personal ambitions, he returned. 
On July 30, 1905, the relief ship was sighted. 

Although failure marked the attempt of Mr. 
Fiala to reach the North Pole, that word cannot 
be applied to his book. In many respects it is 
a most notable book of exploration. First of 
all, it is eminently readable : it does not cata- 
logue its author's heroic efforts, but it describes 
them with an imaginative fervor somewhat rare 
in books of this kind. Such sustained descrip- 
tive passages as his account of the grinding of 
the " America " in the ice, the long march of 
two hundred miles in the Arctic night from 
Camp Ziegler to Camp Abruzzi, and the story 
of the descent into the crevasse at Hooker Island, 
can hardly be matched among books of Polar 
exploration. Another feature that gives zest to 
this book is the author's photographs. No 
amount of reading can convey an idea of the 
terrible ice-packs, the tremendous ice-pressures, 
and the hummocks over which the sledges of 
Arctic explorers have to travel, so satisfactorily 
as do the panoramic pictures in this volume. 
Fiala's pictures reveal to us for the first time 
just what those difficulties are. The publishers 
of the excellent " Geographical Library " in 
which series this book appears, are to be con- 
gratulated on producing so picturesque and 
meritorious a volume. It will compare favorably 
with any book describing travel and exploration 
in the Polar region. H. E. Coblentz. 

Briefs on IS^ew Books. 

Life and 
manners of 
"the third 

The recent death of Giosub Carducci 
serves to remind us how much of the 
present literary revival in Italy is due 
to him. That very apt phrase "the third Italy" 
was coined by Carducci to convey the idea of a free 
Italy proceeding on her path toward happier desti- 
nies, in distinction from the first Italy which gave 
birth to the grandeur of ancient Rome, and the 
second Italy, overrun and subdued by barbarians, 

partitioned among strangers, or involved in inter- 
necine warfare. Books about the past of Italy are 
legion ; there are no lack of guides to her towns, 
her lovely landscapes, her art treasures. But now 
arises a new need — to watch the Italy that is now 
in the making, the Italy renewed and re-born in art, 
literature, statecraft, in every manifestation of men- 
tal life. Fortunately, almost the first attempt to 
supply this need is a very successful one. It comes 
in the shape of a handsome volume by Miss Helen 
Zimmern, bearing the title " Italy of the Italians " 
( Scribner) . The author's residence of twenty years 
in this land of her adoption has provided her with the 
adequate point of view ; her equipment as a scholar 
and writer on many subjects, artistic, philosophic, and 
literary, has given her a power of condensed gen- 
eralization which enables her to treat such subjects 
as "The Press," "Literature," "The Painters," 
" Sculpture and Architecture," " Science and Inven- 
tions," " Playhouses, Players and Plays," each in a 
single chapter. Some of these show how little we 
know of modern Italian life, and how easy it is for 
the casual tourist to be mistaken in his hasty deduc- 
tions. For example, we who are accustomed to 
bulky newspapers are likely to look with contempt 
upon Italy's small news sheet of four pages ; but 
scorn turns to praise when we learn of the wholesome 
editorial restrictions that govern the publication. 
No news calculated to disturb the world's peace is 
allowed to be manufactured in the office ; the polit- 
ical leaders are, as a rule, well-argued, well-studied, 
well-informed, and terse in expression ; the standard 
of literary and dramatic criticism is really elevated. 
The sanctity of the home is jealously respected. No 
marriages or births are announced in the Italian 
papers, only deaths. There are no interviews except 
such as concern politics, no man's house is described, 
no society ladies figure ; there is no lifting of the 
veils of privacy. A respectable Italian would be 
pained and scandalized if the picture of his wife or 
mother or sister occupied a full page in a public 
journal. The stock phrase with which the tourist 
comes to Italy, "There is no modern Italian art," 
is also effectually sUenced by a succinct survey 
showing the existence of an active and noteworthy 
Italian art, especially in landscape, where the old 
art was weakest. That so many " Old Masters " 
are continually being made proves the skill, if not 
the honesty, of the modern painter. Some of these 
are so splendidly executed, so exactly reproduce the 
spirit and character of the time and the artist whose 
title they assume, that experts are continually de- 
ceived. The thirty-one full-page illustrations in Miss 
Zimmern's volume are up-to-date and some of them 
are entirely new, increasing the attractions of this 
highly interesting book. 

A champion of ^^^ ^Q^^^sX biographies of Dr. Samuel 
liberty and G. Howe, as well as the more in- 

phtianthropv . formal memories of him evoked by 
the centennial celebration of his birthday less than 
six years ago, have made tolerably familiar his 



[March 16 

philaiithropic, not to say heroic, life on two conti- 
nents ; but his diaries and correspondence are now 
for the first time published, in part at least, under 
the editorship of his daughter, Mrs. Laura E. Rich- 
ards, in an octavo of four hundred pages entitled 
" Letters and Journals of Samuel Gridley Howe " 
(Dana Estes & Co.), to which Mr. Frank B. San- 
born has contributed a short historical introduction 
on the Greek Revolution of 1821-30, and to which 
also Whittier's noble poem " The Hero " is appro- 
priately prefixed. This volume, with its sub-title 
" The Greek Revolution," its closing " End of Vol- 
ume I.," and its lack of index, seems to promise 
most hopefully a continuation of the work beyond 
the year 1832 at which it pauses. Better than any 
attempt of our own to characterize these interesting 
extracts from diaries and letters that breathe the 
energy and ardor of youthful hope and courage and 
self-devotion, is the final paragi'aph of Mr. San- 
born's introduction. " Every reader," he says, " must 
be impressed, as I have been, with the genius, re- 
source, good sense, and chivalry of this young Bos- 
tonian, in the varied and exacting services which 
he could render to the cause of liberty and philan- 
thropy in the eight years covered by these journals 
and letters. His diction is not always classical, 
his knowledge not always exact; but his head is 
clear and his heart in the right place, — his hands 
skilful always to do what is needful at the time. As 
Thoreau said of Osawatomie Brown, ' He would 
have left a Greek accent slanted the wrong way, 
and righted up a fallen man.' And the effect of the 
whole is that of a romance of knighthood." Mrs. 
Richards's prefatory and interspersed notes add no 
little to the value and completeness of the book as 
a detailed account of her father's eventful young 
manhood. A photogravure portrait of the youthful 
Howe, from the painting by Jane Stuart, daughter 
of Gilbert Stuart, faces the title-page. He was a 
strikingly handsome subject for any artist. 

Again under the auspices of Dr. 
Essays on Francis G. Peabody, who contributes 

an introduction. Professor Carl Hilty 
appeals to his English-speaking audience in a second 
" happiness " volume, — " The Steps of Life : Fur- 
ther Essays on Happiness" (Macmillan), trans- 
lated by the Rev. Melvin Brandow. These chapters 
from the pen, not of a professed religious teacher, 
but of " a spiritually-minded man of the world" — 
to use Laurence Oliphant's phrase, as quoted by 
Mr. Peabody — are in the vein of his earlier essays, 
but are (a glad surprise) even better and wiser and 
stronger. Professor Hilty teaches constitutional law 
in the University of Bern, but has a firm belief in 
truths of a more spiritual quality than those on 
the pages of the statute-book. A defender of the 
Christian faith in its fundamental principles, he has 
already proved himself an ethical and religious 
teacher of real helpfulness. The wrestling with 
sin, the bearing of sorrow, the pursuit of culture, 
the cultivation of charity and courage and a simple 

Christian faith — these are his steps leading up the 
arduous ladder of life. Many striking passages in 
his book evoke cordial assent, and some, equally 
striking, call forth the opposite. He affirms that 
" the most trustworthy friendships are those which 
have sprung from a previous enmity, or have been 
once (but not twice) broken off ; " also, that "women 
are in general more easy to understand than men "; 
and that " polyglot speech is, as a rule, a mark 
neither of genius nor of character." Like most 
writings on "the simple life" and allied themes, 
these pages are not free from reiteration ; but that 
is not always a blemish in hortatory discourse. The 
translation is smooth, but has a few unidiomatic 
or awkward expressions, and at least one slip in 
grammar. " Financial " is used for " pecuniary," 
"delusion" where "illusion" would have been 
better, " more easy " for the shorter and preferable 
" easier," and, in one instance, " they " (German 
man) where a passive construction would have been 

A handful of ^^'^^^ ^^^ bright and eminently 
colored beads readable are most of the little essays 
loosely strung, j^ i^igg Katharine Burrill's " Loose 
Beads" (Dutton). Every-day matters, and some 
others, are treated with good sense, cheerful philos- 
ophy, and literary skill. The happy quotation and 
allusion are abundantly in evidence, and the fact 
that two of the chapters had already found favor 
with the readers of " Chambers's Journal" is a sort 
of recommendation for the entire volume. In her 
amusing paper on " Innocence and Ink," the writer 
takes occasion to say : " I am quite sm-e there are 
many days when gi'appling with a swarm of bees 
seems a light and easy task compared to grappling 
with words and sentences that refuse to swarm as 
you wish them to — that are ever incorrigibly wrong 
and will never never come right." But herwords and 
sentences, as a rule, marshal themselves in excellent 
order, although a fussy critic might object to her 
split infinitives, her " as if there was," her " moirS 
antique " (with its superfluous accent), her indis- 
criminate use of "nice," her Scottish shyness (she 
declares herself a Scotchwoman, else we should have 
written "her skittish shyness") of "shall" and 
" should," and other peccadilloes that need trouble 
only the purist. The book is most attractively 
printed and bound. 

Occasionally in, dramatic as well as 

A (f roup of J . 

18th century literary criticism we find an author 

comedy queens, ^f strong and vigorous utterance — 
one who is nothing if not iconoclastic, and hews 
down and builds up idols regardless of conventions 
and creeds. Mr. John Fy vie's " Comedy Queens of 
the Georgian Era " ( Dutton) is a series of sketches 
of some of the most prominent English comedy 
actresses of the period. CoUey Cibber lamented that 
the animated graces of the player could live no 
longer than "the instant breath and motion that 
presents them "; when the curtain falls and the play 
is played, all " the youth, the grace, the charm, the 




glow " pass into oblivion. But behind the mask 
there is always a human being, and the lives of few 
women exhibit such vicissitudes as do those of 
actresses. The present author has given us sketches 
of a dozen women who in the eighteenth cenlhry 
attained to eminence in the only profession open to 
their sex. He points out that we are likely to form 
an erroneous estimate of the characters of those 
whose romantic careers form the subject of his vol- 
ume if we fail to bear in mind the gi-eat difference 
between the social positions of actors and actresses 
in the present day and their status in the eighteenth 
century ; they had then by no means emerged from 
the shadow of traditional classical and ecclesiastical 
degi"adation. Furthermore, these actresses had to 
encounter the tradition of immorality attaching to 
them in consequence of the notoriously scandalous 
lives of earlier English actresses in the profligate 
days of Charles II. The author has painted pictures 
of Charlotte Clarke, Margaret Woffington, Catherine 
Clive, Lavinia Fenton, Frances Abington, Dora 
Jordan, and their contemporaries, as they were, and 
left the reader to do his own moralizing wherever 
necessary. There is wit and genial humor and phi- 
losophy, with occasional cynicism, in these jottings, 
which are miscellaneous in character, — critical, 
biographical, anecdotal, descriptive, according to 
the mood or the circumstance. Eight photogravures 
embellish the volume. 

European "^^^ second volume of Mr. David J. 

international Hill's " History of European Diplo- 
relatwns. macy" (Longmans) brings his nar- 

rative down to the treaty of Westphalia in 1648. 
The period covered by the present volume marks 
the transition from the Middle Ages, with their 
almost chaotic political systems, to the modern 
period during which the permanent traditions of 
Europe took shape, national states succeeded to petty 
principalities, and modern diplomacy had its rise. 
In reality, Mr. Hill's work is not a history of diplo- 
macy as the title indicates, but a political history 
with special reference to European international 
relations during the period covered. Primarily, it 
is a review of the relations of France, Spain, Ger- 
many, and England to Italy, and particularly the 
long struggle of France and Germany for prepon- 
derance in the affairs of the Italian peninsula and 
the resulting effect upon the Papacy and upon 
European political morality. The ascendency of 
the House of Hapsburg, the international influence 
of the Reformation, and the development of the idea 
of a sovereign state system, are other topics treated 
by Mr. Hill. It may be doubted, however, whether 
they properly have a place in a history of diplomacy. 
The truth is that Mr. Hill has given us little on the 
subject of diplomacy during the period covered by 
his volume. We look in vain for any discussion of 
the methods and agencies of diplomatic intercourse 
during the Middle Ages, the rights and privileges 
of ambassadors, diplomatic usages, the conception 
and character of mediaeval diplomacy, and similar 

topics. As a history of Europe mainly from the 
point of view of international relations, Mr. Hill's 
work possesses conspicuous merits ; but it has only 
a very limited value for the student of diplomacy. 

The diversions of Piscator, Venator, and Auceps will 
an ex-President all tliree find entertainment and wise 
with rod and aun.^Q^J^^^l j^ ex-President Cleveland's 
collected papers entitled " Fishing and Shooting 
Sketches," which very appropriately bear the imprint 
of the Outing Publishing Co. The plain Viator also, 
if not strictly on business bent, will derive pleasure 
from these short and unpretentious chapters, writ- 
ten as they are in a humane and enlightened spirit, 
with an occasional touch of humor in its specific 
sense, and a delightful prevalence of good-humor 
throughout. A strong plea is made for out-door 
diversions in general, and for fishing and fowling 
in particular, with one brief chapter on rabbit-shoot- 
ing; and every page breathes a sturdy and manly 
(not to say gentlemanly) protest against unsports- 
manlike sport. The writer professes himself a 
warm friend to all members of the fish and game 
tribe, although so ardent in their pursuit. His 
book makes for the ennoblement of his favorite 
pastimes, and for their perpetuation. The illustrar 
tions, by Mr. Henry S. Watson, are numerous, ap- 
propriate, and daintily executed. A frontispiece 
photographic print of Mr. Cleveland, and also draw- 
ings of him in less formal attire, with rod in hand, 
add interest to this very inviting little volume. 

■The public ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ books that possess the 

addresses of charm, apart from their contents, of 
John Hay. thg recently published "Addresses 

of John Hay " (Century Co. ). The volume contains 
twenty-four addresses ; many of them are brief re- 
sponses to toasts, or remarks on other formal occa- 
sions, each containing an appropriate thought or 
sentiment finely worked out and gracefully phrased. 
But some of them are more elaborate productions. 
The one entitled " Franklin in France " is perhaps 
the finest, with its broad sweep over the historical 
conditions that produced the Revolution, and its 
presentation of the manner in which Franklin took 
advantage of those conditions to accomplish his mis- 
sion. Another elaborate address is that on President 
McKinley, delivered in the Capitol at the invitation 
of Congress. It is, as was to be expected, wholly 
laudatory, but the praise is not without discrimina- 
tion, and it is a noteworthy example of the formal 
eulogy. Others are " Fifty Years of the Republican 
Party," "America's Love of Peace," "The Press and 
Modern Progress," and " American Diplomacy." 

John Sherman ^he career of John Shernian was 
as an American notable for the length of his public 
statesman. service in very prominent positions, 

and for the influence that he exerted upon the set- 
tlement of the great questions of the period from 
1855 to 1898. Within a month after he took his 
seat in Congress he was in the public eye, and there 



[March 16, 

he remained for more than forty years. His in- 
fluence arose not so much from his oratory, though 
he spoke often and well, hut from his efficiency 
in doing things. There was hardly an important 
measure hefore Congress in all that time that he 
did not have a hand in shaping, and in much of the 
legislation he was the central figure. This con- 
spicuous career has been set forth by Congressman 
Theodore E. Burton in his volume on Sherman 
in the second series of "American Statesmen" 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). The book is rather hard 
reading for the ordinary person who has no great 
liking for figures and financial history ; there was 
not much in Mr. Sherman's personality or career to 
give a biographer opportunity to enliven his book 
with anecdote or incident. But it gives a good 
account of a real statesman, and a history of several 
important phases of our national development during 
the last half centuiy. 

^ , , With the publication of volumes 

Twelve volumes ^ , 

of Lincoln's eleven and twelve we have m coni- 

works. pleted form the beautiful and com- 

prehensive " Gettysburg edition " of the " Complete 
Works of Abraham Lincoln" (Francis D. Tandy 
Company) . With its thorough gleaning of the writ- 
ings of Lincoln, adding one-fifth to the contents of 
the former edition, the essays, addresses, and poems 
about him, and the many fine portraits of him and 
the men of his period, it impresses us anew in its 
completed form as a work of great value for the 
student and the reader of our history and of litera- 
ture. Volume XL contains an address by James 
A. Garfield, the remainder of the writings down to 
the last hour of his life, with forty pages of new 
gleanings, and an elaborate and complete bibliogra- 
phy of Lincoln literature covering two hundred and 
forty pages made by Judge Daniel Fish of Minne- 
apolis. Volume XII. contains an anthology of Lin- 
coln's pithy sayings, a chronological index, and a 
general index covering more than two hundred pages. 


" The Collected Works of Henrik Ibsen, " as edited 
(and in large measure translated) by Mr. William 
Archer, is in course of publication by Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. There are to be eleven volumes in 
all, each with its special introduction. Four of the 
set are now at hand, and give us " Brand, " " The 
League of Youth, " " Pillars of Society, " " The Vik- 
ings, " " The Pretenders, " " A Doll's House, " and 
" Ghosts. " There are fourteen other plays for the re- 
mamuig seven volumes. 

An anthology of " Sea Songs and Ballads " has been 
made by Mr. Christopher Stone for the " Oxford Library 
of Prose and Poetry," published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 
The selections range from the earliest songs to Dibdin, 
and are largely chosen from sources not accessible to 
the casual reader. Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge contri- 
butes an interesting introduction to the book. — Another 
volume in the same series is a new edition of Cobbett'g 

" Enghsh Grammar," edited by Mr. H. L. Stephen. 
Although, as the editor points out, this work is now of 
interest mainly from a literary point of view, it still 
holds a certain reputation and authority of its own 
among grammars; and this prettily-made reprint is on 
all accounts to be welcomed. 

A study of the " Sources and Analogiies of ' The 
Flower and the Leaf,' " by Mr. George L. Marsh, is a 
doctoral dissertation prepared for the department of 
English in the University of Chicago. Taking for its 
starting-point the now fairly-settled assumption that 
the poem is not the work of Chaucer, the author of this 
monograph proceeds upon the theory that it was written 
by some imitator of the poet during the first half of 
the fifteenth century. The general conclusion is that 
the poem is an eclectic composition, to which both En- 
glish and French influences contributed. 

The day of Mendelssohn is pretty well past, but we 
may not grudge him a place in such a collection as the 
" Musicians' Library " of the Oliver Ditson Co. The 
volume of " Thirty Piano Compositions," now edited by 
Dr. Percy Goetschius, includes those writings of the 
class in question which have shown the greatest vitality 
— a group of the " Songs without Words," the Sonata 
in E major, the Rondo Capriccioso, and a score or more 
of other composition