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qA Semi' Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


January 1 to June 16, 1909 







Acadia, Beginnings of Lawrence J. Burpee 20 

Actor, Biography of a Great Munson Aldrich Havens ... 12 

Actress, Fifty Years an Percy F. Bicknell 41 

Africa, Darkest, and other Lands H. E. Cohlentz 364 

America and the Far Eastern Question Payson J. Treat 324 

American History in American Poetry Isaac B. Pennypacker .... 135 

American Libraries through an English Monocle 73 

American Opera, Chapters of . George P. Upton 398 

American Poetry, Recent . WiUiam Morton Payne .... 48 

America's First Representative Body Walter L. Fleming 226 

Apostle of Good Citizenship, An 385 

Asian Art, Esthetic Value of Frederick W. Gookin .... 257 

Birds, The World's Family of Leander S. Keyser 361 

Book, The World's Wickedest . . • Lawrence C. Wroth 315 

Canada, Feudalism in Clarence Walworth Alvord . . 229 

Carlyle-Welsh Love-Letters, The Percy F. Bicknell 290 

Characters of the Last Century, Celebrated . . . Percy F. Bicknell 134 

Chaucer and his Times Clark S. Northup 185 

Child, The Century of the Caroline L. Hunt 325 

Chinese Women and Ways Percy F. Bicknell 254 

Colonial History, A Century of St. George L. Siou^sat . . . . 327 

Concord Memories Percy F. Bicknell S96 

Confederacy, Right Arm of the James M. Garnett 255 

Copyright Advance, The 217 

Courts, Congress, and Executive James Wilford Garner .... 138 

Creation and Criticism Charles Leonard Moore . . . 129 

Eastern Example, A Far 127 

English Literature, Cambridge History of ... . Lane Cooper 227 

Faust, The Ellen C. Hinsdale 188 

Fiction, Recent William Morton Payne . 84, 262, 368 

FitzGerald, Time, Poetry, and Warren Barton Blake .... 177 

Fur Trader, Empire of the Lawrence J. Burpee 139 

Garden Paths, Through Sara Andrew Shafer .... 367 

Germany, The New W. H. Carruth 224 

Hale, Edward Everett 386 

Herculaneum, Story of G.J. Laing 112 

Holland House, The Lady of ........ . Anna Benneson McMahan . . 77 

Home Rule and Public Education • . . 247 

Ideal Democracy, Quest of the F. B. B. Hellems 15 

Inspiring Life, Records of an T. D. A. Cockerell 189 

Ireland of To-day, The Ellen FitzGerald 80 

Letters of the Wife of a Great Political Leader . W. H. Johnson 114 

Library Press of 1908, Gleanings from Aksel G. S. Josephson .... 71 

Library Suggestion, A 69 

Lincoln 101 

Lincoln's Last Days and Death Edwin E. Sparks 297 

Literary Friendships, A Memorial of Annie Russell Marble .... 223 

Lorenzo the Magnificent P. A. Martin 294 

Maid of France, The Laurence M. Larson .... 260 

"Marvel, Ik" 7 

Meredith, George ..." 353 

MiRABEAU, Youth of Henry E. Bourne 46 

Modern Types, Some Richard Burton 327 

MoLiERE IN English Verse H. C. Chatfield-Taylor .... 78 

Moon, Mountains of the HE. Coblentz 184 



Muse in the Mountains, The . . . 

Nature and the Man 

Peace Congress, The 

PoE, Edgar Allan 

Poet of Science, The 

Poet's Study of a Poet, A . . . . 
Psychology and Psychotherapy . . 
Race Friction, Problems of ... . 

Realism, The New 

Rousseau in 1909 

Rousseau the Vagabond 

Santiago de Cuba Campaign, The . . 
ScHURz Reminiscences Concluded . . 
Scientific Research, A Life of 
Searching for What is Close at Hand 
Shelley the "Enchanted Child" 
Spanish Arts and Crafts, Early . . 

Speech and Concord 


Typography, A Masterpiece of . . . 
Unliterary Temperament, The . . . 
United States, The, in World Politics 
Walpole, Sir Spencer, as Historian . 
Whitman, Walt, Individuality of 
Woman, a Noted, Reminiscences of . 

Percy F. Bicknell 355 

May Estelle Cook 362 


Wamren Barton Blake . . . . 103 

Paul Shorey 17 

W. E. Simonds 141 

Joseph Jastrow 292 

J. W. Garner 19 


Warren Barton Blake .... 388 

Charles H. A. Wager .... 283 

James A. Le Roy 186 

W. H. Johnson 82 

Percy F. Bicknell 322 

Edward E. Hale, Jr 296 

Anna Benneson McMahan . 
George Griffin Brownell 

Frederick W. Gookin 



Frederic Atistin Ogg .... 43 

Ephraim D. Adams 110 

W. E. Simonds 404 

George R. Sparks 108 

Announcement of Spring (1909) Books 

Bbiefs on New Books 

Briefer Mention 


Topics in Leading Periodicals . . . 
Lists of New Books ....... 


22, 62, 87, 116, 142, 190, 230, 265, 299, 329, 373, 405 

25, 145, 193, 233, 301, 332, 374, 408 

26, 55, 90, 118, 145, 194, 234, 268, 302, 332, 375, 408 

27, 91, 147, 235, 302, 376 

28, 56, 91, 119, 148, 202, 236, 269, 303, 334, 376, 409 



Abdul Hamid, the Book Collector 393 

Alliance Francaise, Next Lecturer Before 106 

Amateur Librarian, Joys of An 75 

American Culture, An English Conception of 131 

American Culture, Hungarian Impressions of 10 

American Newspapers, French Impressions of 285 

Angell, President, Resignation of 181 

Atlanta Library, Activity of the 250 

Author of Inscriptions, An 391 

Authorship, A Bar to Originality in 287 

Bain, R. Nisbet, Death of 392 

Berlin Royal Library's Ampler Quarters 39 

Biographers, Cruelty of 9 

"Book of Verses Underneath the Bough, A" 219 

"Book-Fakes," Multiplicity of 287 

Book-Lovers' Books, Readable Quality of 130 

Bookstore, Function of the 180 

Book-Titles, Duplication of 286 

Books and Book Schemes, Fake 286 

Books, Hunger for, in the Country 76 

Books, Of Making Many 183 

Books, Rare, Auction Sales of 321 

Brain-Pag, Best Cure for 359 

Buffalo's Book-Readers 288 

Bunyan Memorial, in Westminster Abbey, A 320 

Bureaucracy, The Pride of 132 

Burton's Bequest of Books 75 

Chaucer, An Early Portrait of 106 

Chaucer and the "New Thought" 183 


Chesterton, G. K., Personality of 219 

Children's Story-Hour Conducted by Children 11 

Cipher Microbe, The 393 

Classifying Instinct, The "^4 

College Man in the "Bread Line" 359 

Copyright Question, Aspects of The 357 

Correspondence Schools, Possibilities of 40 

Crawford's Place in Literature 320 

Culture, Democratizing of 359 

Culture, Organization for Spreading 131 

Davidson, John, Suicide of 320 

District of Columbia's Public Library 74 

Dumb Animals' Advocate, The 221 

Educational Endowments, InsuflScient 8 

Encyclopaedia, A Nation Without an 133 

English Critic, Acumen of an 251 

English, Linguistic Conquests of 131 

English Spelling, A Foreigner's Opinion of 392 

Eucken, Professor Rudolf 37 

Europe's Ignorance of America 76 

Fisherman's Solace at Sea, The 131 

FitzGerald, Edward, Secret Enthusiasms of 181 

PitzGerald Centenary,- The 222 

Foresight, A Curious Instance of 319 

Free Library Freely Used, A 286 

French Literary Criticism 249 

French Novels, Signs of Decay in 219 

Genius, Weighing and Measuring 105 

Greek Literature and Art, Achievements of 37 




Handwriting of Culture, The 392 

Harper Memorial Library, The Proposed 358 

Harvard, The New Head of 74 

Herbert, George, as the Originator of Fletcherism . . . 251 

Historian of Rome, The New 75 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, at Ninety 392 

"Hundred Worst Books," Dr. Crothers's 319 

Index, The Excitement of Reading an 38 

"Jew of Malta, The," at Williams College 221 

Journalism In China, The New 38 

Journalism, The Stylist in 318 

Knowledge, Useful, A Purveyor of 132 

Language, Problem of Origin of 105 

Library Activity, Westward Movement of 358 

Library Books, Cost of Circulating 182 

Library Books, Wear and Tear of 287 

Library Economy, The Literature of 40 

Library Habit in Olden Times 38 

Library of Pure Fiction, A 9 

Library on Wheels, A 106 

Library Patrons, Honor among 250 

Library Rules, Our Liberal 319 

Library Tax, The 320 

Librarian, A Strenuous 251 

Librarian, A Variously Gifted 320 

Librarian, Precipitate Removal of a 357 

Librarians, State Certification of 11 

Libraries as Bureaus of Information 183 

Light, Letting in the 11 

Lights to Literature, Contemporary i . . 9 

Lincoln, A Memorial to 76 

Lincoln Bibliography, A Useful 107 

Linotype, Literature of the 250 

Literary Journalism, The Final Word in 288 

Literary Material, Thrifty Utilization of 288 

Literature, A County's Growth in the Love of 250 

Literature as a Profession, Carlyle's View of 318 

Literature, Current, Disparaging 249 

Literature, Linear Measurement Applied to 287 

Literature, Litter and 107 

Mad-House, A Sure Road to the 180 

"Manufacturing Clause" in the Copyright Law 182 


Menander on a Modern Stage 250 

Monographs, The Making of Many 38 

Monthly Magazines, Bewildering Array of 359 

Mystery, Perennial Charm of 320 

Names, A Little Confusion of 288 

National Graduate School, The Proposed 220 

"New Theater," New York's 40 

Newberry Library's New Librarian 133 

News Service, An Up-to-the-MInute 288 

Novel, The Ending of a 220 

Osier as Speaker at a Library Dedication 107 

Parcels Post and the Public Library 132 

Past, Living Reality of the 181 

Philosophy, An Iconoclastic 221 

Plagiarism, Inverted, A Case of 392 

Poetry and Business 75 

Publishers, Mutual Confidence Among 358 

Reading, Age and the Love of 319 

Reading Habit, Hard Times and the 221 

Reading Matter, A Rubbish-Heap of 251 

Reading-room, Sweetness and Light In the 106 

Shakespeare, The Furness Variorum 10 

Shelley, Two Opinions of 391 

Signatures, Thumb-prints for 10 

Signed Review, Defence of the 182 

Spelling-reform, Progress of 107 

Spelling, Up-to-date, "Deformed" 222 

Spoflford, Mr., The Successor of, at Washington ... 39 

Stage Censorship by Reputable Actors 393 

Statistics — Handle with Care ! 220 

Story-teller, The Born 132 

Swinburne, Meredith's Estimate of 321 

Swinburne, The Shelleylsms of 358 

Typography, Needed Improvements In 318 

University, A Husky Young 11 

Veteran of Letters, A Youthfully Active 251 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry, in a New Environment 40 

World-Language, A New 220 

World-Languages to Suit All Tastes 8 

Wright, Carroll D., The Late 181 

Young Folks' Reading, Supervision of 359 



Aflalo, F. G. Sunset Playgrounds 374 

Alden, Raymond M. Introduction to Poetry 194 

"American Commonwealth Series" 115 

"American Crisis Biographies" 255 

"American Fields and Forests, In" 363 

Anderson, Galusha. Story of a Border City during 

the Civil War 23 

Anonymous. The Inner Shrine 370 

Austen, Jane, Novels of. Illustrated edition 146 

Avebury, Lord. Peace and Happiness 142 

Babbitt, Irving. Literature and the American Col- 
lege 889 

Baedeker's "Greece" and "Central Italy and Rome," 

new editions : 332 

Barker, Edward H. France of the French 299 

Barnett, Samuel and Henrietta. Essays toward 

Social Reform 301 

Barrett, Eaton Stannard. The Heroine, new edition 333 
Barrows, David P. History of the Philippines, new 

edition 117 

Bartholomew, J. G. Handy Reference Atlas of the 

World, new edition 90 

Bashford, H. H. The Pilgrims' March 369 

Batson, Mrs. Stephen. A Summer Garden of Pleas- 
are 368 

"B. C. A." My Life as a Dissociated Personality.. 333 
Beale, Harriet S. Blaine. Letters of Mrs, James G. 

Blaine 114 

Beale, S. Sophia. Recollections of a Spinster Auiit! 300 

Belloc, Hllaire. On Nothing and Kindred Subjects . . 143 

Bernard, Augustc. Gecfroj- Tory 401 

Berry, W. Grlnton. France Since Waterloo 406 


Besant, Sir Walter. Early London 267 

Bindloss, Harold. Lorlmer of the Northwest 264 

BInyon, Laurence. Painting In the Far East 257 

Blrdseye, Clarence F. The Reorganization of our 

Colleges 265 

BIthell, Jethro. The Minnesingers 408 

"Book Prices Current, Index to," 1897-1906 338 

Bowker, R. R. State Publications, concluding vol.. 269 

Brahms, Johannes. Herzogenberg Correspondence... 232 
Bralthwaite, William S. The House of Falling 

Leaves 50 

Bray, Olive. The Elder Edda 118 

Brooks, John Graham. As Others See Us 54 

Brown, Alice. The Story of Thyrza 372 

Bulwer's The Lost Tales of Miletus, new edition. . . 375 

Butler, Nicholas M. The American as He Is 25 

Cable, George W. Kincald's Battery 87 

Caffln, Charles H. The Appreciation of the Drama. 25 

Caine, Hall. My Story 223 

Cains, Georges. Walks in Paris 373 

"Cambridge Editions of the Poets" 333 

Carlyle, Alexander. Love Letters of Thomas Carlyle 

and Jane Welsh 290 

Carpenter, George Rice. Walt Whitman 404 

Carr, J. Comyns. Some Eminent Victorians 134 

Carruth, William H. Each in his Own Tongue 50 

Carter, Charles F. When Railroads were New 406 

Channing, Edward. History of the United States, 

Vol. II 327 

Cheney, John Vance. The Time of Roses 49 

Chesterton, Gilbert K. Orthodoxy 52 

"Churchill, Lady Randolph, Reminiscences of" 108 




Thompson, Francis. Shelley 399 

Thurston, E. Temple. Mirage 264 

Thurston, Katharine Cecil. The Fly on the Wheel. 86 
Tompkins, Eugene. History of the Boston Theatre. . 144 

Towler, W. G. Socialism in Local Government 332 

Trevelyan, Sir George. Life and Letters of Lord 

Macaulay, new one-volume edition 302 

Tyler, John M. Man in the Light of Evolution 24 

Uzanne, Octave. Drawings of Watteau 193 

Vernon, William W. Readings on the Paradise of 

Dante 333 

"Viking Club Translation Series," Vol. II 118 

Vlllari, Pasquale. Studies, Historical and Critical.. 232 
Waldsteln, Charles, and Shoobrldge, Leonard. Her- 

culaneum 112 

Wallace, Charles W. Children of the Chapel at 

Blackfriars 55 

Walpole, Sir Spencer. History of Twenty-five Years, 

Vols. III.-IV 110 

Walsh, William S. Abraham Lincoln and the London 

Punch 332 

Walton, George L. Practical Guide to Wild Flowe^-s 

and Fruits 374 

Ward, A. W., and Waller, A. R. Cambridge History 

of English Literature, Vols. I.-II 227 

Warner, Amos G. American Charities, new edition.. 145 
Watson, H. B. Marriott. The Devil's Pulpit 85 


Webster, Henry K. A King In Khaki 371 

Weitenkampf, Frank. How to Appreciate Prints... 144 

Welch, Catherine. The Little Dauphin 89 

Wells, Charles. Joseph and his Brethren 55, 193 

Wells, H. G. Tono-Bungay 262 

Wells, H. G. The War in the Air 85 

Whistler's "Ten O'clock Lecture" 118 

White, Henry Alexander. Stonewall Jackson 255 

Whiteing, Richard. Little People 266 

Wilcox, Walter G. Camping In the Canadian Rock- 
ies, third edition 374 

Wilenkln, Gregory. Political and Economic Organi- 
zation of Modern Japan 333 

Williams, Jesse Lynch. Mr. Cleveland 301 

Williams, Leonard. Arts and Crafts of Older Spain. 45 

Williams, Theodore C. Virgil's "^neid" 52 

Wilson, Woodrow. Constitutional Government in the 

United States 138 

Wilstach, Paul. Richard Mansfield 12 

"Who's Who," 1909 118 

Wollaston, A. F. R. From Ruwenzorl to the Congo. 365 

"World's Classics" 55, 118, 193, 375 

Wright, Horace W. Birds of the Boston Public Gar- 
den 374 

Wright, John. Some Notable Altars. . . : 233 

"Wyllarde, Dolf." Rose-White Youth 86 

Young, William. Baxter's Saints' Rest, new edition. 234 



"Biographized" as a Dictionary Word. Titus M. 

Coan 41 

"Blue Bird, The," at Moscow. Margaret Vance... 322 
Carnegie Institution and Literature. S. Weir 

Mitchell 108 

Carpenter Memorial Library, The Proposed 384 

Chelsea (Mass.) Public Library, The New 234 

Copyright and the Importation Privilege. George 

Haven Putnam 252 

Copyrighted Books, Importation of. George H. 

Putnam 394 

Crawford, Francis Marion, Death of 269 

Cuyler, Theodore L., Death of 195 

Davis, Mrs. M. E. M., Death of 55 

Esperanto and the Esperantists. E. Le Olercq 40 

Hart, SchafEner & Marx Prize Essays 147 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Centennial of 234 

"Ido" and "Pigeon English." O. H. Mayer 76 

"Ido," Esperanto and. Eugene F. McPike 76 

Lamont, Hammond, Death of 375 

LeRoy, James A., Death of 194 

Library Books, Cost of Circulating. O. jB. Howard 

Thomson 253 

Library of Congress, Figures of 146 

Lilllbridge, Will, Death of 145 

Literary Copyright League, From the. Bernard O. 

Steiner and W. P. Gutter 321 

Literature in Libraries, Encouraging. Asa D. Dick- 
inson 183 


Literary Seedsman, Another Charles Welsh 108 

Mathews, William, Death of 146 

Modern Language Association, Fourteenth Annual 

Meeting of the Central Division of the 83 

Newberry Library, Annual Report of 302 

Paine, Thomas, and Roosevelt, Theodore. Inquirer. . 360 
Pennsylvania History in Poetry. Isaac R. Penny- 
packer 288 

Poems of American History. Burton E. Stevenson. 222 
Roosevelt, Theodore, and Thomas Paine. James F. 

Morton, Jr.; Frederic M. Wood 393 

St. Louis During the Civil War. Oalusha Anderson. 133 
Shakespeare's Heroines, Beauty Spots of. Morris 

P. Tilley 360 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, Death of 333 

Sturgis & Walton Co., Organization of 234 

Sturgls, Russell, Death of 146 

Sunday-Opening Movement, A Set-Back to 302 

Tennyson and "The Quarterly Review." Albert H. 

Tolman 108 

Thacher, John Boyd, Death of 194 

Trenton (N. J.) Bibliography 302 

Typographical Reforms, Some Needed. George 

French 395 

Vermont State Library Commission, Increased 

Powers of 302 

Virginia State Library's Fifth Annual Report 268 

Whistler's Portrait of His Mother. I/ydia A. Coon- 
ley Ward 11 



Editbd by \ Volume XL VI. ptlTP A P O T A "NT 1 1 QOQ lOcU.a copy. J Fine Arts Building 

CIS F.BROWNE/ No.BUl. Kj n.l.Kj J\.\X\J ^ O .^Vi. J. ^ l.V\JV. $2. a year. I 203 Michigan Blvd. 

Lewis Rand 

is not only the best novel which Mary 
Johnston has written, but it is the most 
popular book in the United States, and 
vies with one other in being the first 
choice in England. All this in a season 
which includes novels by the leading 
authors on both sides of the Atlantic. 

This only goes to show that the 
critics were right in acclaiming it one 
of the greatest American novels ever 
written, and in comparing Miss John- 
ston's work with that of Hawthorne. 

"Lewis Rand" is a novel of perma- 
nent value, a book to own, to read, and 

to discuss. Illustrated in color by F, C. Yohn. $1.50. 

THE DIAL [Jan. 1, 


A Reference List of A. C. McClurg & Co.'s Library Books of 1908 


My Day and Generation. Over 60 illustrations. Indexed. Large 8vo, gilt top. 

Net $3.00 
The author has known intimately as many of the great men and women of this country as any other 
man now living. Moreover, as Minister to the Court of Denmark, he came to know well various 
members of the Danish Royal Family, and he records his impressions of them in his latest book, of 
which it has been said that " for general interest and timeliness it can be compared only to Andrew 
White's Autobiography." 


Little Books on Art. Each with frontispiece in color and 40 other illustrations. 
Square i8mo Per volume, net $1.00 



These four little volumes have an especial appeal to all persons of artistic discernment. They 
contain in compact form a vast amount of information for the student and collector, and they offer a 
complete history of the several arts of which they treat. 


Health and Happiness; or, Religious Therapeutics and Right Living. i2mo. 

Net $1.50 
This volume is the outcome of Bishop Fallows's experiments in his church in Chicago, where 
wonderful results in the treatment of various afflictions have been accomplished through prayer and faith, 
upon a basis of practice original with him, but founded on the principles laid down by Dr. Hudson. 


How to Identify Old Chinese Porcelain. 40 illustrations and index. Small 8vo. 

Net $2.00 
A book containing much valuable information for collectors and all others interested in porcelain, 
by a capable authority. 

LEE, VERNON (Violet Paget) 

Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy. New edition, enlarged with new 

preface. With 41 full-page illustrations. Small 4to net $6.00 

" Vernon Lee " has long been regarded as one of the most authoritative writers on Italy, and her 

studies of the Italian great of the eighteenth century are worthily supplemented with illustrations 

selected by Dr. Biagi, the learned head of the Laurentian Library at Florence. The book is 

elegantly printed. 


A Series of Popular Biographical Romances. Translated from the German by George 
P. Upton. Each in one volume, illustrated, small square i8mo . . net $ .60 

Neiu Volumes : 
Marie Antoinette's Youth, by Heinrich von Lenk. Arnold of Winkelried, by Gustav Hocker. 

The Duke of Brittany, by Henriette Jeanrenaud. Undine, by Baron de la Motte Fouque. 

Previous Volumes : 


Beethoven Barbarosa Frederick the Great Frithjof Saga 

Mozart William of Orange The Little Dauphin Gudrun 

Johann Sebastian Bach Maria Theresa Hermann and Thusnelda The Nibelungs 

Joseph Haydn The Maid of Orleans The Swiss Heroes William Tell 

The same, pictures hand-colored, special binding, per volume net $i.^o. 


The Amateur Motorist. With 68 illustrations. Large 8vo . ... net $2.75 
The author has written both for those who own cars and for those who would own them — helping 
the former by a record of personal experiences, and the latter by a re-statement of those elementary facts 
which are often obscured by the more scientific discussion. 


1909] THE DIAL 


A Reference List of A. C. McClurg & Co.'s Library Books of 1908 


History of Venice. Translated from the Italian by Horatio F. Brown. 6 volumes, 
8vo, profusely illustrated, frontispieces in color and gold. 

Part I. Venice in the Middle Ages, two volumes. 
Part II. Venice in the Golden Age, two volumes. 
Part III. The Decadence of Venice, two volumes. 
Each part sold separately . . net $5.00 The set of 6 volumes . . net $15.00 
This monumental work on Venice, by one of the leading historians and scholars of present-day 
Italy, was issued simultaneously in Italy, England, and America. The translator is himself an authority 
on Venice, who has held the distinguished position of British archivist in that city. The volumes are 
printed in the beautiful Italian type cut by Bodoni, which was so famous a century ago, and has since 
been revived by the University Press. 


Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character. With 16 illustrations in color, 
from original water-color drawings by H. N. Kern. Crown 8vo, full gilt net $2.75 
The favorable reception which has continuously been given to these Reminiscences since their first 
appearance a little more than fifteen years ago, at home, in America, in India, and in all countries 
where Scotchmen are to be found, warrants this new edition. This work was undertaken to depict a 
phase of national manners which was fast passing away, and social customs and habits of thought, 
characteristic of the race, are illustrated by a copious application of anecdotes. An especially attractive 
feature of this new edition is the beautifully colored illustrations of characters and scenes which are in 
sympathy with the spirit of the text. 


Handbook to the Standard Galleries of Holland. Uniform style "Sojourning 
and Shopping in Paris." Small square i6mo, 50 illustrations . . . net $1.00 
Miss Singleton has recognized fully the special charm afforded by the study of the works of Hobbema, 
Ruisdael, Van Goyen, Rembrandt, and the other great Dutch and Flemish artists, amid the scenes and 
people that inspired their work. Not only does she show her tourist the best which the many large 
galleries contain, blending criticism with concise biographical sketches, but she calls his attention to 
the living types, the interiors of buildings, pictures of still life in the villages, country-houses reminiscent 
of Pieter de Hooch, and the like. Altogether, she has succeeded in formulating a handbook which 
presents an amazing amount of information, and thus enables the student to plan his visits to the galleries 
with the greatest economy of time. 


Musical Memories. My Recollections of Famous Celebrities, 1850-1900. With 

many portraits. Large 8vo, gilt top net $2.75 

In addition to his authoritative musical knowledge, Mr. Upton has had the advantage of a long 
newspaper experience. His ability to avoid technical detail on the one hand and elementary generalities 
on the other, is the secret of his success. He has known more or less intimately nearly every great 
musical artist of the past half-century, and his recollections are as kindly and entertaining as his criti- 
cisms are incisive and just. 

The Standard Concert Guide. A Handbook of the Standard Symphonies, Ora- 
torios, Cantatas, and Symphonic Poems, for the Concert Goer. Profusely illus- 
trated. i2mo $1-75 


The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain. With over 150 full-page illustrations. In 

3 volumes. Small 4to, boxed net $4.50 

A companion work to "The Arts and Crafts of Old Japan ^ 
This work, by the most prominent authority on Spanish art, is the basis of much of the most inter- 
esting modern development in art and decorative design, and is of immense value to every student, art 
library, and school of design. Following is a list of the subjects: Furniture, Leather-work, Wood- 
carving, Iron-work, Bronze-work, Arms, Pottery and Porcelain, Textile Fabrics, Architecture, Glass, 
Gold, Silver, and Ivory-work. 



[Jan. 1, 1909. 


begs to call attention to the list of important 
books in preparation for early publication. 


Edited by Professor LIBERTY H. BAILEY, of Cornell University. 

President of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, Head of the 
special Commission recently appointed by President Roosevelt to investigate the conditions of modern 
country life. 

Cyclopedia of American Agriculture Finai volume 

To he complete in four imperial octavo volumes. The set, cloth, $20.00 ; half morocco, f 32.00. ready 

I. Farms, Climates, Soils, etc. III. Farm Animals. "» January. 

II. Farm Crops (individually in detail). IV. The Farm and the Community. 

The Fascinating History of the Making of a World. 

Mr. Percival Lowell's 

Mars as the Abode of Life 

The theme of the book is planetary evolution in 
general. Professer Lowell's fascinating studies of 
Mars are but a part of his study of planetology. 
bridging the evolutionary gap between the nebular 
hypothesis and the Darwinian theory. 

Mars and its Canals By the same author. 
"Those who have the most vague conceptions of 
astronomical studies will immediately feel the charm 
and earnestness of this unique volume," say the 

£oth volumes are illustrated with plates (some 
of them in colors J reproduced from exceptional 
photographs. Each, $2.60 net; by mail, $2.70. 

Mr. A. Lawrence Lowell's unique work of 
The Government of England 

" Mr. Lowell has successfully mastered a task which 
no other student of political science, English or 
American, has attempted." — The Independent. 

Cloth, $U.OO net; by mail, $A.3i. 

As Others See Us 

By John Graham Brooks 

Author of " The Social Unrest." 
" A book of singular suggestiveness and admirable 
temper . . . which ought to sell by tens of thou- 
sands." — Boston Herald. 

Cloth, illus., $1.75 net; by mail, $1.89. 

Friendship Village By Zona Gale 

Author of'' The Loves of Pelleas and Etarre." 
" A book to smile and sigh over happily, to tuck upon 
the personal bookshelf where stand those favorite 
friends we never mean to part with." — Record- 
Herald (Chicago). Cloth, ISmo, $1.50. 

Ellla Higginson's 

Alaska, the Great Country 

" Mrs. Higginson has put the very soul of picturesque 
Alaska into her pages, and done it with a degree of 
truth, sympathy, and enthusiasm that will make her 
book a classic." — Record-Herald (Chicago). 

Cloth, illus., $2.25 net; by mail, $2.U1. 

By the author of "The Pleasures of Life." 

Peace and Happiness 
By the Rt. Hon. Lord Avebury, P.C. 

better known perhaps even yet to many readers as 
Sir John Lubbock. Ready February 3. 

A New Volume of a Monumental Woi'k 

The Cambridge Modern History 

Vol. XI. The Growth of Nationalities 

The two remaining series of this indispensable refer- 
ence work are actively preparing. 
Cloth, imperial 8vo, price, per volume, $i.00 net 
(carriage extra). Ready January 12. 

The United States as a World Power 

By A. C. Coolidge Harvard University. 

" Intensely interesting . . . practically what he has 
done — and has done extremely well — is to examine 
the relations of the United States to other nations, 
and forecast their probable evolution." — Netv York 
Times. Cloth, $2.00 net; by mail, $2.11,. 

A New Book by the author of " The Inward Light." 

One Immortality 
By H. Fielding Hall 

By the author of " The Soul of a People," etc. 

Ready January 20. 

The Assassination of Abraham 

Lincoln and its Expiation 
By David Miller DeWitt 

the author of " The Impeachment and Trial of 
President Johnson." Ready very shortly. 

By A. Barton Hepburn 
Artificial Waterways and Commercial 

including a history of the Erie Canal. By the author 
of "The Contest for Sound Money." 

Ready shortly. 

The Acropolis of Athens 
By Martin L. D'Ooge 

University of Michigan. 
Illustrated, price, probably $i.00 net. 

Eden Philpotts's new novel 

The Three Brothers 

By the author of " The Secret Woman." " Children 
of the Mist," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 



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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

No. 641. JANUARY 1, 1909. Vol. XLVl. 






Insufficient educational endowments. — World- 
languages to suit all tastes. — Lights of literature 
as viewed by contemporaries. — A public library 
of pure fiction. — The cruelty of biographers. — 
The Fumess Variorum Shakespeare. — Hungarian 
impressions of American culture. — Thumb-prints 
for signatures. — A children's story-hour conducted 
by children. — State certification of librarians. — 
Letting in the light. — A husky young university. 


Whistler's Portrait of his Mother. Lydia Avery 
Coonley Ward, 


Havens 12 


F. B. R. Hellems 15 

THE POET OF SCIENCE. Pavd Shorey .... 17 



Burpee 20 


The teacher and the taught. — The religion of a 
scientific man. — Venice at the coming of Napoleon. 
— Life in a Border city in war-time. — The defects 
of our colleges. — Evolution upside down. — The 
domestic correspondence of Christina Rossetti. — 
The dangers of overcaring for the health. — From 
Hampton Roads to the Golden Gate. — Dramatic 
principles for the playgoer. 






There is a familiar classification of men that 
divides them into idealists and realists, or 
Platonists and Aristotelians. They might also 
be somewhat similarly divided into those who 
look out on life through the window of litera- 
ture, and those who look out on literature 
through the window of life ; or those who never 
can get the full flavor of an action or event till 
it is served up with a literary sauce, and those 
who find no relish in a piece of literature till 
its substance is placed before them in concrete 
and tangible form. As to which of the two 
windows above-named offers the fairer and 
wider and richer view, there is room for differ- 
ence of opinion. Through which one the objects 
seen are less distorted by imperfections in the 
panes of glass, might be considered less open 
to dispute. A third question, whether the lit- 
erary or the unliterary person will write the 
better books, seems at first capable of but one 
answer, and that in favor of the man of letters. 
But let us pause and reflect. 

Professor Kuno Francke has of late been 
cheering his soul with the glad vision of a dawn- 
ing German renaissance, a new birth of Teutonic 
literature and art ; quod honum faustum felix 
fortunatumque sit, say we, with old Livy. The 
Germans, however, are by common consent the 
most inveterately bookish of all nations ; and in 
creative literature there is more hope of an 
unlettered backwoodsman than of a pedantic 
bookman. The Germans are unsurpassed as 
lexicographers and encyclopaedia-makers ; they 
write the most learned and elaborate prolego- 
mena to still more erudite and exhaustive studies 
of all things that eye hath seen, or ear heard, 
or that have entered into the heart of man ; 
they publish huge Bearheitungen (belaborings) 
of earlier books that are only a little less pon- 
derous ; they philosophize voluminously on being 
and not-being, on the pure reason and the 
practical reason, on the finite act or object as 
viewed under the appearance of eternity ; they 
refine on the categories till one is lost in amaze- 
ment at the fearful and wonderful subtlety of 
the human brain ; and they translate and edit, 
compile and revise, annotate and elucidate, till 
the wonder is that the very presses do not break 



[Jan. 1, 

down from excess of toil. In the zeal of scholar- 
ship one German philologist will wax wroth at 
another and shed whole bottles of ink in the 
battle over a disputed iota subscript in Euripi- 
des ; or he will consecrate his life to the study 
of the dative case in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 
or to counting the occurrences of the cognate 
accusative in the post-classical Latin poets. In 
short, your Berlin or Leipzig university pro- 
fessor will put into book form everything imag- 
inable except what will make a book such as 
one would ever dream of reading, from cover to 
cover, in preference to eating or sleeping. 

Even the giants of German literature, Goethe 
and Schiller and Lessing, are by no means free 
from bookishness in the sense that Shakespeare 
and Chaucer and Scott and Tolstoy are free from 
its taint. How much of Homer's charm is due 
to the fresh free atmosphere he breathes ! How 
little bookish is Cervantes ! How unspoiled by 
study the style of Defoe, of Bret Harte, of Mrs. 
Stowe in "Uncle Tom's Cabin," of Mark Twain 
in all his books, of Robert Louis Stevenson in 
the best of his ! On the other hand, who but 
scholars can thoroughly enjoy Virgil or Dante 
or Milton, Dryden or Pope, Keats or Browning ? 
Even Tennyson appeals less irresistibly to the 
great public than does our simpler and homelier 

Is there anything in the world of letters more 
astonishing than the wild fancy that the book- 
man Bacon, learned author of the JVovum 
Organum and the De Sapientia Veterum, 
could by any feat of intellectual gymnastics 
have written the plays of Shakespeare — could 
have even remotely conceived such characters 
as Dogberry and Verges, Falstaff and Dame 
Quickly, Katherine and Beatrice, Jidiet's nurse 
and Lear's fool? Bacon's was a wonderful 
mind, but he had not Shakespeare's unliterary 
temperament, the mind not sicklied o'er with 
the pale cast of thought. When it shall have 
been proved that John Locke, for example, 
wrote the Waverley Novels (which would seem 
to be a psychological as well as a chronological 
impossibility), then we will listen to arguments 
demonstrating the Baconian authorship of 

The literary temperament is much given to 
juggling with words, and very pretty play it 
often is ; but in the end, as was said of Glad- 
stone, words have a way of juggling with the 
juggler, which is as contrary to the fitness of 
things as for the tail to wag the dog. The 
unliterary man deals with things : he craves 
actualities and will not be put off with their 

symbols. At the ordination of Charles Francis 
Barnard, of whom the lamented Francis Tiffany 
wrote so excellent a memoir, William Ellery 
Channing spoke a true word. Its application 
is broader than the special occasion of its utter- 
ance. " The poor," said Channing, " are gen- 
erally ignorant, but in some respects they are 
better critics than the rich, and make greater 
demands on their teachers. They can only be 
brought and held together by a preaching which 
fastens their attention, or pierces their con- 
sciences, or moves their hearts. They are no 
critics of words, but they know when they are 
touched or roused, and by this test, a far truer 
one than you find in fastidious congregations, 
they judge the minister and determine whether 
to follow or forsake him." 

What is it that gives so undying a charm, 
so satisfying a reality, to some autobiographies, 
but the fact that they are written by unliterary 
yet not ungifted men ? John Woolman's jour- 
nal, Wesley's account of his itinerant ministry, 
Cellini's frankly egotistic life of himself. Grant's 
modestly direct and simple ''Personal Memoirs " 
— it is books like these that, in Luther's phrase, 
have hands and feet and take powerf id hold on 
us. How present and real does Grant seem to 
the reader when he explains in his preface the 
circumstances attending the writing of his book. 
" At this juncture," he says, " the editor of the 
Century Magazine asked me to write a few 
articles for him. I consented for the money it 
gave me ; for at that moment I was living upon 
borrowed money. The work I found congenial, 
and I determined to continue it." Again, in the 
later pages of the narrative, most agreeable is 
it to read what occurred when Lee called upon 
Grant to get the terms of surrender for his 
army. " Our conversation grew so pleasant, ' 
declares the undated conqueror, " that I almost 
forgot the object of our meeting." Dr. Charles 
Conrad Abbott somewhere says of his boyhood 
friend and hero, MUes Overfield, whose mind 
hugged the things of daily life with extraor- 
dinary tenacity : " Since his primer was tossed 
aside with a shout of joy, as of a prisoner set 
free, his eyes had seldom rested on a printed 
page, and never quite understandingly ; yet 
Miles Overfield, though unlettered, was not 

There is one glory of the literary tempera- 
ment, and another glory of the unliterary ; and 
which is the more radiant no man will ever be 
able to say. The artful charm of Walter Pater, 
of Charles Lamb, of Cicero and of Horace, is so 
seductive that in their genial company one won- 



ders that other and nider and simpler enter- 
tainers should ever be desired. Why turn one's 
back for a moment on these aristocrats and 
seek plebeian society? Some novelist (was it 
Anthony Trollope?) has pictured a pampered 
epicure who at times was overcome with so 
violent a craving for a crust of dry bread and 
an onion that he would slyly procure these 
homely edibles, shut himself up in his room, 
and, locking- the door even against his valet, 
would in stealthy privacy regale himself on the 
unaccustomed simple fare, before he could be 
induced once more to return to the elaborate 
diet of his ordinary life. The bread and onions 
of literature the healthy mind persists in de- 
manding after a surfeit of banqueting on more 
artfully prepared viands. It is as if the intel- 
lect needed this occasional reminder to check its 
arrogance and recall it to the leVel of common 
things. The most aspiring balloonist cannot 
sever his connection with earth: panting for 
breath in the rarefied atmosphere of the upper re- 
gions, he is forced to open the valve and descend 
to a denser stratum. Mr. Howells's account 
of Lowell's finding, in the failing health of his 
last years, a singular solace in Scott's novels, a 
comfort such as no other fiction could afford, is 
more than a little significant. Lowell's was 
preeminently the literary. Sir Walter's the 
unliterary, or, perhaps better, the unbookish, 


In that glad time before literature had burdened 
itself with the problems of modern life and society, 
and before essayists had conceived it necessary, in 
order to get themselves read, to write in a style that 
would have made Quintilian stare and gasp, and to 
startle their readers by roundly asserting that what- 
ever is is wrong and that what the world has so long 
held true and beautiful is in reality false and ugly, 
we used to take innocent delight in Ik Marvel's 
gentle utterances on "Dream Life," in his "Reveries 
of a Bachelor," and in his agricultural experiences 
at Edgewood. Before ultra-cynicism and super- 
sophistication became so much the fashion, we 
enjoyed, unabashed and unashamed, his charming 
pen-portrait of " A Good Wife," his peaceful medi- 
tations " over a wood fire " and " by a city gate," 
and his harmless pre-matrimonial theorizing on the 
subject of love, "whether " (in the words of Plotinus 
as quoted by Biu-ton) " it be a God, or a divell, or 
passion of the minde, or partly God, partly divell, 
partly passion." Those days are past; but it is 
comforting to note that there is still a considerable 
demand (as evidenced by abundant cheap reprints) 
for the two little books that first made " Ik Marvel " 

known to the world, and that will do more than all 
his subsequent works — now credited to Donald G. 
Mitchell — to keep his memory green. 

To young Mitchell's frail constitution, which could 
not endure the rigors of the law, on the study of 
which he had entered in New York, we owe his 
devotion to the manifestly far more congenial pur- 
suit of literature interspersed with farming and 
travel. Threatened men live long ; and so it was 
that the physically defective young writer, nursing 
his pulmonary weakness at first on his grandfather 
Woodbridge's farm at Salem, Connecticut, and later 
in Europe and on his own estate of Edgewood, lived 
to number his birthdays well into the eighties — 
being, in fact, when death overtook him the other 
day, not far from eighty-seven years old. This 
turning to excellent account of a need for fresh air 
and an unconfined country life was characteristic of 
all Mr. Mitchell's achievement. Familiarity with 
the soil and crops and farm animals led to a literary 
connection with the Albany "Cultivator" (now 
" The Country Gentleman "), and a journey to 
Europe in search of health in 1848 resulted in " The 
Battle Summer," an account of turbulent scenes in 
Paris during that season of revolution. A previous 
European visit had already supplied material for 
" Fresh Gleanings." For at least three of his books 
he did not have to stir beyond Edgewood to find 
material ; and that he could gain inspiration from 
his wood fire, his grate of burning coal, or even from 
his cigar ( which his " Aunt Tabithy " so cordially 
hated), the most popular of his books has made 
abundantly evident. His brief Venetian consulship 
he planned to put to literary use by collecting 
materials for a history of Venice ; but whether the 
shortness of his sojourn allowed him insufficient 
time for the needed study and research, or whether, 
as is far more likely, the writing of formal his- 
tory proved uncongenial to him, he never carried 
out his intention. Less profitable, therefore, in a 
literary way did this appointment prove than in the 
case of one of his successors in office a few years 
later, the author of " Venetian Life " and " Italian 

In this passing notice of Mr. Mitchell's work as 
an author, reference should be made to his one 
novel, "Dr. Johns," the story of a New England 
country parsonage, which appeared originally in 
" The Atlantic Monthly," but which probably very 
few of this generation have read. The " Atlantic " 
stamp is warrant of literary excellence, but the story 
did not convince the world that its author was a 
great novelist. Neither did his much later essays 
in literary criticism show him to be a very original 
or very penetrating critic of others' work. " English 
Lands, Letters, and Kings " and " American Lands 
and Letters " are stimulating and highly readable, 
but hardly more than that. The collection of 
sketches entitled " Seven Stories with Basement 
and Attic " is drawn from the author-traveller's 
" plethoric little note books " of Em'opean wander- 
ings, three of the little narratives being French in 



[Jan. 1, 

theme, one Swiss, one Italian, and one Irish. 
Probably it is true that, as has been alleged, our 
young men would not care to write in this style to- 
day ; and probably it is also true that they could 
not if they wished to. 

The style and methods of Ik Marvel tend to recall 
Washington Irving ; they also remind one of George 
William Curtis as we see him in " Prue and I," 
and they more or less vividly bring back the days of 
Paulding, Halleck, Willis, Bryant, Bayard Taylor, 
and their fellow-craftsmen in letters. A precious 
link with the past has been severed, and the world 
of literature is left the poorer. Yet undoubtedly 
our loss is the less keenly felt from the fact that the 
dead author's best and most characteristic work was 
done half a century before he died. In fact it is 
sixty-one years since " Fresh Gleanings " made its 
appearance, and fifty-eight since the " Reveries " 
first delighted a wide circle of readers. Mr. 
Mitchell's place in American literature was so se- 
curely fixed long before his death that he might 
almost be said to have survived his fame — a not 
altogether enviable fate. 

Appropriate for quotation in any obituary notice 
of Ik Marvel are the subjoined sentences from his 
own " Dream Life." The passage occurs in the 
introductory chapter. 

" What is Reverie, and what are these Day-dreams, bat 
fleecy cloud-drifts that float eternally, and eternally change 
shapes, upon the great over-arching sky of thought ? You 
may seize the strong outlines that the passion breezes of to- 
day shall throw into their figures ; but to-morrow may 
breed a whirlwind that will chase swift, gigantic shadows 
over the heaven of your thought, and change the whole 
landscape of your life. 

" Dream-land will never be exhausted, until we enter the 
land of dreams ; and until, in ' shuffling off this mortal coil,' 
thought will become fact, and all facts will be only thought. 

" As it is, I can conceive no mood of mind more in keeping 
with what is to follow upon the grave, than those fancies 
which warp our frail hulks toward the ocean of the Infinite ; 
and that so sublimate the realities of this being, that they 
seem to belong to that shadowy realm, where every day's 
journey is leading.'' 

It may be a fanciful thought, but it seems not 
unfitting that the author of " Dream Life " and 
" Reveries of a Bachelor " and " Fudge Doings " 
should have chosen " Marvel " for a pseudonym. 
The very name is a protest against the nil admirari 
spirit, the blase cynicism, the unenthusiastic tem- 
perament of the worldly wise, which were so con- 
spicuously and so refreshingly lacking in Donald G. 
Mitchell. He felt warmly, and was not afraid to 
show his feeling; and for that we like him. 


Insufficient educational endowments give 
rise, every now and then, to startling and humiliat- 
ing comparisons. For example, the trustees of the 
University of Pennsylvania, deploring the unsub- 
stantial financial foundation on which that famous 
old institution of learning rests, call attention to the 

fact that the gi'eat and wealthy State of Pennsyl- 
vania — richer, several times over, than all New 
England — has in her educational history provided 
endowments for education that would, collectively, 
about suffice to build two modern battle-ships. And 
it is proposed to ask the legislature to make biennial 
grants of half a million until, with funds raised 
from other sources, the University shall have an 
endowment commensurate with its needs. That is 
all very well ; but we have a far better scheme to 
propose. Legislative purse-strings are inclined to 
tie themselves into hard knots when poor colleges 
and universities and state libraries, and other like 
beneficent institutions, come a-begging up the capitol 
steps. Now a sure and speedy financial return 
would accrue if all our leading universities would but 
suspend for a few years, or even for one year, those 
lesser activities that have to do with books and lec- 
tures and laboratories and examination-papers, and 
would give their undistracted attention to the larger 
interests of the football field and the baseball nine. 
By a carefully-planned and properly advertised 
series of inter-university football and baseball cham- 
pionship games, with reserved-seat and admission 
charges placed at a sufficiently high figure, the great 
sport-loving public could be made to endow all our 
higher institutions of learning, and everyone would 
have a grand good time in the process. On the 
morning after the late Harvard-Dartmouth contest 
on the gridiron at Cambridge, it was reported that 
forty thousand spectators were present. The priv- 
ilege of spectatorship cost about a dollar and a half — 
perhaps more if one occupied a favored position. If 
sixty thousand dollars, more or less, were to flow 
into the college treasury with every match game 
played on its campus, what would there be to pre- 
vent the speedy filling of that treasury ? Our solu- 
tion of what has so long been regarded as a g^ave 
problem is so simple and so satisfactory that we 
wonder it has not occurred to anyone before. But 
the greatest inventions are always the simplest. 
• • • 

World-languages to suit all tastes, unless 
one's taste is unreasonably exacting, have now been 
provided. Choice may be made from a long list of 
tongues, ingeniously and scientifically formed, and 
most delightfully free from exceptions. There are, 
for example, VolapUk, Lingua, Panroman, Inter- 
pretor, Esperanto, Ido, and Tutonish. This last 
ought to appeal irresistibly to Teutons and Anglo- 
Saxons, including, of course, Americans. Its in- 
ventor, one Elias Molee, is a Norwegian, and his aim 
has been to compound a sort of Anglo- Germanico- 
Hollando-Scandinavian compromise speech — a kind 
of North- European linguistic hash the scoffer may 
unkindly call it — for North-European use especially. 
He thinks his predecessors in the fascinating art of 
language-manufacture have been too ambitious : they 
have selected their ingx*edients predominantly from 
the romance languages and then tried to impose 
their latinized compound on Teutonic peoples, or 




they have proceeded the other way about. Mr. 
Molee is less ambitious : he gives us a tongue com- 
prehensible almost without study over a broad belt 
of two continents, and does not trouble himself un- 
duly with the rest of the world. But the rest of the 
world must be reckoned with. Why has it never 
occurred to anyone to develop the large possibilities 
of pigeon-English as an inter-continental, not to say 
an inter-hemispherical, medium of communication? 
Already it serves as a sort of linguistic bond between 
the white and the yellow races. Let the Mongols 
prevail on their neighbors the Slavs to start corre- 
spondence schools for the teaching of this simple, 
flexible, picturesque, and pleasing tongue; let the 
English avail themselves of their present cordial 
understanding with France to introduce the ancient 
and honored Anglo-Chinese commercial language 
into southern Europe ; let the colonies and depen- 
dencies of England and America extend and widen 
the sway of pigeon-English over all the rest of the 
habitable globe, — and very soon our observation, 
with extensive view, will see mankind, from China 
to Peru, discom-sing together in happy harmony and 
enjoying all but millennial blessings. 

• • • 

Lights of literature as viewed by contem- 
poraries have not always been of dazzling bright- 
ness. Often these stars in the literary firmament 
twinkled so feebly to the upturned telescope that it 
is hard to believe them the same as those luminous 
bodies now so resplendent to the naked eye. But 
occasionally an instance is found of a writer of 
genius whose genius received early and fuU recog- 
nition. From the English literary periodical entitled 
" The Author," which publishes monthly a " con- 
temporary criticism," it is pleasant to quote a few 
lines of "The Quarterly Review's" notice of 
"Poems by Alfred Tennyson, pp. 163, London, 
12mo, 1833." For lavish praise couched in some- 
what old-time phraseology, the review is really a 
masterpiece. "This is," says the reviewer, "as 
some of his marginal notes intimate, Mr. Tennyson's 
second appearance. By some strange chance we 
have never seen his first publication, which, if it at 
all resembles its younger brother, must be by this 
time so popular that any notice of it on our part 
would seem idle and presumptuous; but we gladly 
seize this opportunity of repairing an unintentional 
neglect, and of introducing to the admiration of our 
more sequestered readers a new prodigy of genius — 
another and a brighter star of that galaxy or milky 
way of poetry of which the lamented Keats was the 
harbinger. . . . We have to offer Mr. Tennyson 
our tribute of immingled approbation, and it is very 
agreeable to us, as well as to our readers, that our 
present task will be little more than the selection, 
for their delight, of a few specimens of Mr. Tenny- 
son's singular genius, and the venturing to point 
out, now and then, the peculiar brilliancy of some 
of the gems that irradiate his poetical crown." 
When sugar and honey of this sort are offered by a 

Quarterly Reviewer to a young poet of only twenty- 
four, surely that young poet is either more or less 
than human if he is not straightway convinced that 
this world we live in is the very best possible world. 


of nothing but fiction, pure or impure — in its own 
special building, and with its own trained librarian 
and attendants, is a development that seems to Dr. 
Louis N. Wilson, librarian of Clark University, not 
only worth serious consideration, but in a high de- 
gree desirable. "The tendency among librarians," 
he is reported as saying, "as among other edu- 
cational institutions to-day, is to specialize, and I 
would give the fiction library full recognition. . . . 
With properly trained attendants in this field it 
would be possible to classify fiction, and even to paste 
in each volume a typewritten list of other books deal- 
ing with similar subjects to be found in the library. 
Thus historical novels would contain a list of the 
best histories of the countries referred to, or biog- 
raphies of the characters mentioned, or histories of 
battles, and so on." And let us also suggest that 
psychological novels might contain a complete bib- 
liography of the literature of psychology in all 
languages, and sociological novels might contain a 
catalogue of the social-science studies of Carey and 
Maine and Spencer and their thousand and one pre- 
decessors and successors, and religious novels might 
have a manuscript appendix giving the names of 
especially entertaining works in dogmatic theology 
and theological controversy. But do we really wish 
to take our pleasure so seriously as all that, Anglo- 
Saxons though most of us are? The systematic 
study of English prose fiction as a university elective 
somehow has an element almost — perhaps not quite 
— of absurdity in it, and the solemn dedication of a 
library building to the art of the story-writer would 
lack a certain element of dignity. Novel-reading 
is by no means to be frowned down or discouraged, 
but it will probably continue to flourish in the future, 
as it has flourished in the past, without elaborate 
bibliographical aids or a specially designed architec- 
tural environment. , , . 

The cruelty of biographers in making mer- 
chantable copy out of those modestly shrinking but 
irresistibly fascinating men and women of mark who 
have professed a vehement unwillingness to be biog- 
raphized (the word is not in the dictionary, but it 
ought to be), will manifest itself as long as biography 
continues to be one of the most attractive and best 
selling forms of literary composition, as well as one 
of the easiest for the average writer to supply in a 
tolerably acceptable fashion. The more urgently a 
great man begs that the memory of him may be 
interred with his bones, the more insistently will the 
greedy and curious public demand the publication of 
his life, while those who would fain see themselves 
go down to posterity in two volumes octavo (in the 
920-class of Mr. Dewey's decimal system) are nearly 
always destined to speedy oblivion. Sir Leslie Stephen 



[Jan. 1, 

publicly expressed his disinclination to be made the 
subject of a biography, and his published life was 
one of the best and most popular books of the season. 
Mr. Whistler, in a fragment of autobiography writ- 
ten twelve years ago, made a picturesque struggle 
against his all-too-probable fate. " Determined," he 
declares, "that no mendacious scamp shall tell the 
foolish truths about me when centuries have gone by, 
and anxiety no longer pulls at the pen of the ' pupil' 
who would sell the soul of his master, I now proceed 
to take the wind out of such speculator by imme- 
diately furnishing myself the fiction of my own biog- 
raphy, which shall remain and is the story of my 
life." And now, as inevitable sequel to the Pennell 
biography of the dead artist, his sister-in-law, who is 
also his sole executrix and residuary legatee, writes 
to the London " Times " a lively letter of protest, 
which will of course defeat its own purpose by increas- 
ing the sale of the life of the modest Mr. Whistler. 
• • • 
The Furness Variorum Shakespeare, begun 
thirty-seven years ago with the issue of " Romeo and 
Juliet," has advanced to the sixteenth volume, 
" Richard the Third "; but with this latest publica- 
tion the editorship passes from Dr. Horace Howard 
Furness to his son, Mr. Horace Howard Furness, Jr., 
who, born and bred in an atmosphere of Shake- 
spearean studies, and early catching the Shakespeare 
enthusiasm that has possessed his father ever since 
the latter, at fourteen years of age, heard Fanny 
Kemble in one of her Shakespeare readings, steps 
naturally into the place voluntarily vacated by his 
father, and undertakes to carry to completion the 
great work now nearly half finished. The delights 
rather than the drudgery of such work as this will 
present themselves to the imagination of most 
readers in handling these inviting volumes ; but that 
the task entails a vast deal of downright hard work 
admits of no question. If an editor has to collate 
the eight quarto and four folio editions of a play, 
besides all the more important later editions, and 
is obliged to read perhaps two or three hundred 
volumes containing commentaries on or references 
to the play, then a variorum editorship becomes no 
sinecure. To verify a single quotation perhaps the 
better part of a library has to be ransacked. In 
tracing to its exact source one line quoted by Knight 
as illustrating a passage in " Macbeth," Mr. Furness 
read twenty-seven of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
plays. A work in which a single footnote of two 
lines may represent a month's toil is surely a work 
to be viewed with respect. The completion of the 
Furness Variorum Shakespeare will be an achieve- 
ment of which American scholarship may well be 
proud. . , . 

Hungarian impressions of American cul- 
ture, as well as of some things in America not 
coming under the head of culture, are readably 
presented by Monseigneur Count Vaya de Vaya and 
Luskod, who has paid two visits to our shores and 
has caught more than a passing glimpse of the genus 

homo Americamis in his native habitat. Like most 
foreigners who have paid us the compliment of a 
"write-up" — but not exactly like Mrs. TroUope and 
Charles Dickens — he expresses himself as pleased 
with what he has seen. Standing, for example, in 
Copley Square, Boston, he was stimulated and edified 
by those two monuments to letters and art, the Boston 
Public Library and the Museum of Fine Arts. They 
are, to his thinking, unique among their kind and 
most forcibly expressive of the mental qualities of 
the cultured Bostonian. After extended observation 
and comparison, the courteous count reaches the 
conclusion that our American Athens is still pre- 
eminently the city of culture, while New York rep- 
resents wealth, and Chicago commercial activity. 
Furthermore — and perhaps here he lays on the 
honey with a trowel — '' Bostonians are always 
easily recognizable. They have an immistakable 
stamp, entirely their own, which, when travelling 
abroad, distinguishes them at once as citizens of 
New England. Being reserved by nature, it is per- 
haps not always easy to get to know them intimately ; 
but one cannot come in contact with them without 
being conscious of their innate refinement." This 
praise is, to be sure, sectional and partial ; but if, as 
has been seriously maintained, Boston is not so much 
a geographical location as it is a state of mind, what 
is to prevent the country at large from meriting 
and appropriating the Hungarian count's graceful 
encomium ? 

Thumb-prints for signatures are the latest 
things in dactylology as practised in Cheyenne, 
in far-off Wyoming. Readers will remember the 
curious experiments and studies in finger-prints 
conducted by that original genius and shrewd phil- 
osopher, "Pudd'n Head Wilson." In Cheyenne, 
where foreigners of almost every known race and 
color are thicker than blackberries, and where every 
Pole or Bohemian or Lithuanian is as like to his 
fellow Pole or Bohemian or Lithuanian as is one 
blackberry to another, and where also few of these 
swarming sons of toil are expert with the pen, the 
bank in which many of them deposit their savings 
has taken a hint from Mark Twain's book and 
adopted a system of thumb-print signatures that is 
said to give satisfaction to all concerned. Instead 
of written names in every conceivable kind of 
alphabet and degree of illegibility, the immigrant 
depositors leave on file, not their mark, but their 
smudge — the impression made by touching the 
ball of the thumb (the right thumb, presumably) to 
an inked pad and then pressing it against a sheet 
of paper. These impressions — no two alike, and 
defying the most skilful forger — are to be seen 
also as signatures to checks, and so adept has the 
assistant cashier become in reading them that 
he can recognize a great number without referring 
to the record. Which all goes to prove that not 
only is there many a true word spoken in jest, but 
also many a useful and practical thought written in 




A children's story-hour conducted by chil- 
dren is the latest thing in library work for the 
little ones. At the Pratt Institute Free Library, 
where three hours on as many days of each week 
are devoted to story-telling, "the most interesting 
development of the Friday evening story hour " (as 
the Librarian writes in her current Report) "was the 
establishment of two branches of the Junior Story 
Tellers' League, one for the boys of the Friday 
evening story hour and one for the girls. These 
meet on alternate Fridays after the regular story, 
and the children take entire charge of the proceed- 
ings, presiding, deciding, and telling stories. The 
only restriction is that they must let Miss Tyler know 
in advance what stories are to be told. No boy or 
girl has ever tried to 'be funny,' to tell a sUly story, or 
in any way to disturb the meetings. . . . The club 
meetings have averaged twenty-five [in attendance]. 
The stories chosen have often been those already 
told in the regular story hour, and the retelling by 
a boy or girl is especially valuable to the story teller. 
The discipline, the self-control, even the amateur elec- 
tioneering, have all been good for the children. One 
boy who wanted the presidency attempted to smooth 
the way to this important office by largess of candy, 
but he was ignominiously defeated — a real triumph 
of civic righteousness." The children's story-hour, 
for, by, and of the children, is certainly less open to 
some of Mr. Dana's recent objections than the chil- 
dren's hour conducted by library assistants, j j- 

• • ■ 

State certification of librarians, like the 
similar certification of doctors and lawyers, of pilots 
and chauffeurs, and of numerous other more or less 
exalted semi-public officials, has much to recommend 
it. At a recent meeting of the Ohio Library Asso- 
ciation the committee on legislation brought to the 
attention of the assembled library workers a bill that 
it had draughted and that contained the following 
provisions : The appointment of a state board of 
examiners of would-be librarians, the board to con- 
sist of five members, each member to serve five years 
and to receive his appointment from the state board 
of library commissioners. The examiners are to be 
all librarians in good and regular standing, and at 
least two of them must be women. Not fewer than 
two examinations shall be held each year, and, if 
possible, simultaneously in different parts of the state. 
Certificates shall be for a term of years, or for life 
to such as are found duly qualified. Library experi- 
ence and also attendance at a library school shall 
receive credit as the examiners may determine. Other 
minor provisions follow in some detail. All this is 
well, and the public library spirit again shows itself 
to be active in Ohio, greatly to Ohio's credit. We 
may rest assured that the public library which once 
appointed as its librarian the lowest bidder in a com- 
petition for the combined librarianship and janitor- 
ship was not an Ohio public library ; nor will any 
such system of appointment ever find favor in that 
enlightened commonwealth. 

Letting in the light on the foul spots of 
putridity and corruption is the first step toward a 
restoration of cleanness and sweetness and health. 
A new departure in journalism has been taken by 
San Francisco, that city of so wide and so unen- 
viable a notoriety at the present moment. The 
" Municipal Record " shrinks not from revealing to 
the public all that is being done or left undone in 
the various departments of the city government. 
Every meeting of an official body is reported, awards 
of contracts are published, the names and salaries of 
new employees are made known. Spades are called 
spades, and graft is called graft. The " Record " 
was established in response to repeated and by no 
means unnatural demands from many quarters for 
such an organ of municipal publicity and frankness. 
An unvarnished, undistorted account of govern- 
mental activities was insisted upon. " Thus it may 
be," runs the plain and concise announcement, 
" that the publicity of such information may serve 
to stimulate the city's servants to extra endeavor, and 
possibly to incite appreciation by the citizen of all 
actions by the officials that are in any way commend- 
able." Some such publication in every considerable 
city might well be started, and that too without 
waiting for the very strong and rather peculiar 
incentives that have operated in San Francisco. 
• • ■ 

Western slang to describe a Western institution) is 
the twenty-five-year-old University of Texas, which 
recently celebrated its quarter-centennial by inau- 
gurating a new president, dedicating a new law 
building, holding a barbecue (of a Texas steer, 
undoubtedly), and indulging in a football game. 
These events occupied Thanksgiving Day and the 
day before, and were witnessed by a notable gath- 
ering of persons prominent in educational work. 
Sidney Edward Mezes, Ph.D., is the newly installed 
head of the University, and he was inducted into 
office with services in harmony with the time and 
place. Important, indeed, is the institution that 
stands at the head of the educational system of a 
State larger in territory than any European country 
except Russia, and destined in the not distant future 
to support a large population. But before that day 
arrives the recently suggested division of this vast 
territory into two or more States is likely to have 
been accomplished. 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 
In the article ou Modern Painting, page 340 of the 
November 16 number of The Dial, Whistler's portrait 
of his mother is said to hang in the Louvre. It is not 
there, but in the Luxembourg. No paintings find place 
in the Louvre until ten years after the death of the 
artist who produces them. 

Lydia Avery Coonley Ward. 
Dresden, Germany, December 4, 1908. 



[Jan. 1, 

[efo ^00ks. 

A Great Actor's Biography.* 

" Perhaps the saddest spot in the sad life of 
the actor," wrote Richard Mansfield, "is to be 
forgotten. Great paintings live to commem- 
orate great painters ; the statues of sculptors 
are their monuments ; and books are the in- 
scriptions of authors. But who shall say, when 
this generation has passed away, how Yorick 
played? When the curtain has fallen for the 
last time, and only the unseen spirit hovers in 
the wings, what book will speak of all the mum- 
mer did and suffered in his time ? " 

Mr. Paul Wilstach's biography of Mansfield 
goes far toward preserving our recollection of 
his consummate art, and gives us, besides, a 
faithful portrait of Mansfield the man — a por- 
trait that does its distinguished original ample 
justice, without concealing those temperamental 
faults that marred his character. Taken as a 
whole, it is the most satisfying biography of a 
player of which the present reviewer has knowl- 
edge. The book itself, with its wealth of illus- 
trations and its dignified binding, its clear type 
and fine paper, compels a word of favorable 

Richard Mansfield's father was Maurice Mans- 
field, a London wine merchant; his mother, a 
famous singer, Erminia Rudersdorff. Richard, 
their third child, was born on the 24th of May, 
1857. The boy's public life began in his fourth 
year. His mother was dressing for a concert 
at the Crystal Palace. Refusals and threats 
only stimulated Richard's determination to 
accompany her. Finally, the imperious mother 
yielded to the imperious boy. He was hastily 
dressed in his best black velvet skirt and coat, 
a wide embroidered collar falling over his 
shoulders, and together they rattled away in 
her carriage. His mother's dressing room, the 
vastness of the stage, the lights, the strange 
noises and confusion, frightened the child and 
he clung close to his mother. 

" When the stage manager came to the door to say 
that Madame's turn had arrived, and that the orchestra 
was waiting, she strode majestically forth, as was her 
custom, from her own room straight to the centre of the 
stage. Her appearance was greeted hj a roar of ap- 
plause, which she acknowledged with queenly bows. 
She did not observe a subdued ripple of laughter, how- 
ever, and signalled the conductor to begin. The music 
quieted the applause, but it did not hush the increasing 
titter, of which she soon became painfully conscious. 

* Richard Mansfield : The Man and the Actor. By Paul 
Wilstach. Illustrated. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Glancing about to see what could be the occasion, she 
discovered Richie, beside but somewhat behind her, 
frightened to stone, but firmly clutching the hem of her 
long train which his little hands had seized as she swept 
away from him into the presence of the audience." 

Richard's father died in 1861. His mother's 
engagements in the first opera houses of Great 
Britain and Europe continued. As most of her 
time was spent upon the continent, it was 
decided that the children should be sent to Jena. 
There Richard and his brother Felix attended a 
private school, kept by a Professor Zenker, a 
famous master. Early in his school career 
Richard painted one of the class-room doors a 
vivid green, and in the high pride of his achieve- 
ment signed his initials to his handiwork. The 
boy spent two years at the school Am Graben ; 
then two years at Paul Vodos's school in the 
little town of Yvredon, in Switzerland ; and 
later at Bourbourg, France. Early in 1869 he 
entered on the experience which in after years 
remained clearest as a retrospect of boyhood. 
He was sent to Derby School. Here he was 
distinguished in the athletic sports of the period, 
but not as a student ; among the boys he was 
known as " Cork " Mansfield, — perhaps because 
of his remarkable feats as a swimmer. He did, 
however, become the star performer among the 
schoolboys on " Speech Day," acting his first 
role — Scapin, in Moliere's " Les Fourberies de 
Sea pin " — during his first year at the school. 
In the following year he appeared, on the same 
occasion, as Shylock ; and the next year's Speech 
Day witnessed young Mansfield's acting in a 
German, a French, and three English scenes, — 
and taking a leading part in each. 

In the spring of the following year (1872) 
he left Derby. It was his mother's wish that 
he should enter Oxford or Cambridge ; but the 
World's Peace Jubilee in Boston offered her 
opportunities she could not neglect. These 
ripened into attractive offers to make Boston 
her future home ; and, this course being decided 
upon, the children were brought to America, 
and Madame Rudersdorff s rooms in the Hotel 
Boyleston, and her studio, became one of the 
artistic centres of the city, to which artists from 
the four quarters of the globe were attracted as 
certainly as they visited Boston in the course of 
their American tours. For two years young 
Mansfield knew the drudgery of a desk in the 
great Washington Street store founded by Eben 
D. Jordan. It was the young man's duty to 
translate letters destined for or received from 
France, Germany, and Italy ; he exercised his 
originality also upon advertisements for the 
firm. From such prosaic details Richard must 




have escaped eagerly at night to the brilliance 
of the company always gathered in his mother's 

Mr. Wilstach gives us an amusing reminis- 
cence of this period, from the recollections of 
Mrs. Julia Ward Howe. 

" I remember [Mrs. Howe is quoted as saying] a 
surprise party Madame Rudersdoff gave on Richie's 
birthday. They were nearly all young people present 
excepting myself. It was not a surprise party in the 
ordinary sense, but you will understand when I tell you. 
In those days we were continually invited to meet dis- 
tinguished musical artists at Madame Rudersdorff's 
home. She provided unsparingly as a hostess; she was 
really queenly in her hospitality. Hence her invitations 
were snapped up in every quarter. On this occasion we 
were invited to meet a newly arrived prima-donna, — I 
forget her name. The hostess and her distinguished 
guest received together. I remember her as if it were 
yesterday. She was youthful in appearance; uncom- 
monly modest in demeanor. She wore a red and white 
silk dress with a prodigiously long train, and had many 
jewels and an abundance of thick wavy dark hair which 
was the admiration of everyone. Some of us were put 
to it to talk to her, for she spoke only the European 
languages. The announcement finally that the great 
prima donna would sing produced an expectant silence. 
We were all struck by the phenomenal range of her 
voice. She seemed to be able to sing with equal facility 
a soft, dark contralto, or a silvery soprano, capping off 
with an octave in falsetto. After responding to several 
encores, she at length astounded us all by lifting off her 
towering coiffure and announcing imaffectedly : ' I'm 
tired of this, mother. Let's cut the birthday cake.' It 
was Richie. He and his mother had conspired in the 
surprise party." 

Toward the end of his fourth year in Boston, 
Richard became the dramatic and musical critic 
of a feeble daily newspaper, " The News." 
When he resigned, he told the editor it was 
" impossible to criticise for a man who was the 
friend of so many bad actors." 

The pyrotechnical temper of Madame Ruders- 
dorff , and the gradual development of an explo- 
sive capacity on his own part, led eventually 
(1875) to the selection of separate quarters for 
the yoimg bachelor — a modest room at 23 
Beacon Street. Here he disposed his few 
pieces of furniture, bought a piano, and, since 
his allowance did not permit the purchase of 
many pictures, he drew and painted them on the 
walls himself. Painting was supposed to be his 
metier at this time ; his mother gave him an 
allowance ; the position in Mr. Jordan's office 
was given up, and Richard's friends came for- 
ward at intervals to buy his pictures. " But," 
he afterward explained, " when I had sold 
pictures to all my friends, I discovered I had 
no friends." Exhausted credit soon closed 
various streets to him. A knock at his door 
became the sure precursor of an insistent dun. 

Someone suggested that he give lessons in the 
languages he knew so familiarly. For a month 
he had a fashionable class of young ladies who 
were taught French, Italian, or German, and 
were, moreover, stayed with tea and comforted 
with music. At the end of the month the parents 
of the young ladies remitted promptly, and 
Richard had a spread in his studio remembered 
to this day. Two days later he was hungry and 

The Sock and Buskin Club, which had been 
organized in 1875 by Mansfield and some of his 
friends, was now thought of, and the young men 
gave a performance of Robertson's " School." 
It was so successful that Mansfield, who had 
taken the part of Beau Farintosh, announced to 
his friends that for the advantage of himself and 
his creditors he proposed to give a benefit to 
himself. Boston's artistic set had its curiosity 
piqued by learning of " An Entertainment to 
be given at Union Hall, on Thursday evening, 
June 1st, by Mr. Vincent Crummels, on the 
Singers and Actors of the Day." It was whis- 
pered about that Crummels was no other than 
the famous Madame Rudersdorff's son Richard 
Mansfield. Of course the hall was crowded. 
With wonderful effrontery, Mansfield occupied 
the entire evening with imitations of all the 
famous actors and singers known to his audience 
— including his own mother, who witnessed the 
burlesque from her box, and laughed as heartily 
as anyone. 

Early in 1877, with the promise of a contin- 
uance of his mother's allowance, Richard Mans- 
field returned to England, to study drawing 
and painting. But brush and palette were not 
for him. His pocket-book was soon flat — the 
sooner, perhaps, because of the extension of his 
acquaintance with the London bohemians. His 
chambers became one of the popular rallying 
points. For such evenings his scanty allow- 
ance forced him to pay the penalty of abstinence 
and exhausted credit. By April he was over- 
joyed to accept an offer of eight pounds a week 
in the German Reed Entertainments. His 
friends crowded St. George "s Hall for his first 
appearance. He had a small role in the 
comedietta which opened the evening ; later, he 
was expected to occupy the stage for an hour 
by himself. When his time came, he sat down 
at the piano and fainted dead away. He had 
not eaten for three days. Meanwhile, Madame 
Rudersdorff , in Boston, had learned that her son 
had given a few entertainments in English coun- 
try homes for pay. She was superb in her wrath ; 
she would at once cut off his allowance. And 



[Jan. I, 

she did, punctually, in a letter which, " beginning 
in very plain English, emphasized her resent- 
ment in French, German, and Italian, and ended 
in Russian, with a reserve of bitter denuncia- 
tion, but no more languages to express it in." 
The struggle of Mansfield's life began now 
in earnest. Long afterward, when at the 
meridian of his fame, he told the story, 

" For years I went home to my little room, if fortu- 
nately I had one, and perhaps a tallow dip was stuck in 
the neck of a bottle, and I was fortunate if I had some- 
thing to cook for myself over a fire, if I had a fire. 
That was my life. When night came I wandered about 
the streets of London, and if I had a pemiy 1 invested 
it in a baked potato, from the baked potato man on the 
corner. I would put these hot potatoes in my pockets, 
and after I had warmed my hands I would swallow the 
potato. That is the truth." 

The sale of an occasional picture, or the accept- 
ance of a story or a poem by a magazine, were 
the sources of his scanty income. He strove to 
keep his appearance respectable in order to ac- 
cept fortuitous social invitations for the sake of 
the cold collations without which he would have 
gone hungry. Often he stayed in bed and slept 
in order to forget the hunger of the hours of 
wakefulness. Food seen through the windows 
of bakeries and restaurants seemed to him the 
most beautiful sight in the world. 

The year 1878 found him, with a second or 
third rate company, playing the role of Sir 
Joseph Porter, K.C.B., in " Pinafore," in the 
smaller towns of England, Scotland, and Wales. 
His salary was three pounds weekly ; and when 
he demanded an additional six shillings, he was 
cut adrift, and returned to London in desperate 
straits. The turning point of his career was 
accompanied, as he told it, by a remarkable 

" This was the condition of affairs when a strange 
happening befell me. Retiring for the night in a per- 
fectly hopeless frame of mind, I fell into a troubled 
sleep, and dreamed dreams. Finally, toward morning, 
this fantasy came to me. I seemed in my disturbed 
sleep to hear a cab drive up to the door as if in a great 
hurry. There was a knock, and in my dream I opened 
the door and found D'Oyly Carte's yellow-haired secre- 
tary standing outside. He exclaimed : ' Can you pack 
up and catch the train in ten minutes to rejoin the com- 
pany? ' * I can,' was the dreamland reply. There 
seemed to be a rushing about, while I swept a few 
things into my bag ; then the cab door was slammed, 
and we were off to the station. This was all a dream. 
But here is the inexplicable denouement. The dream 
was so vivid and startling that I immediately awoke 
with a strange, uncanny sensation, and sprang to my 
feet. It was six o'clock, and only bare and gloomy 
surroundings met my eye. On a chair rested my 
travelling bag; and through some impulse that I could 
not explam at the time, and cannot account for now, I 
picked it up and hurriedly swept into it a few articles 

that had escaped the pawn-shop. It did not take long 
to complete my toilet, and then I sat down to think. 
Presently, when I had reached the extreme point of de- 
jection, a cab rattled up, there was a knock, and there 
stood D'Oyly Carte's secretary, just as I saw him in my 
dreams. He seemed to be in a great flurry, and cried 
out, ' Can you pack up and reach the station in ten min- 
utes to rejoin the company ? ' 'I can,' said I, calmly, 
pointing to my bag, ' for I was expecting you.' The 
man was a little startled by this seemingly strange re- 
mark, but bundled me into the cab without further ado, 
and we hurried away to the station exactly in accord 
with my dream. That was the beginning of a long 
engagement; and although I have known hard times 
since, it was the turning-point in my career." 

For more than three years Mansfield played 
in minor opera and minor comedy ; engagements 
being now the rule rather than the exception. 
He received the news of his mother's death, and 
of her will, which made him her sole heir but 
contained the capricious proviso that no portion 
of the inheritance should pass into his hands so 
long as he remained unmarried. Then, one night 
in the spring of 1882, in his dressing-room, 
Mansfield heard a familiar voice ; his old friend 
Eben Jordan of Boston grasped his hand, and 
that night persuaded him to return to America. 
It was on the night of January 11, 1883, that 
Mansfield played Baron Chevrial for the first 
time, and woke on the following morning famous. 
There were many ups and downs in the years that 
followed, but " Cork " Mansfield sustained the 
qualities of his cognomen. 

For most of us, the remaining pages of Mr. 
Wilstach's book, which are devoted to Mans- 
field the actor, will stimulate personal reminis- 
cences of the gifted artist. " Prince Karl," 
" Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," " Richard III.," 
" Beau Brummel," " Don Juan," " Monsieur 
Beaucaire," '• Cyrano de Bergerac," " Arthur 
Dimmesdale," " Shylock," " Captain Blunt- 
sehli," " Dick Dudgeon," " Alceste," " King 
Henry v.," "Peer Gynt," — these names repre- 
sent the story of the wonderful years, wonderful 
in the development of his own genius as an actor, 
and wonderful in the development of his equally 
marvellous breadth of view and mastery of detail 
as stage manager and producer. Mr, Wilstach, 
with intimate personal knowledge of his subject, 
with every facility in the way of materials at his 
command, and with a discriminating judgment 
and taste that qualify him perfectly for the task, 
gives us so true a picture of the actor in each 
several part that he essayed as makes him fairly 
live again before our eyes. 

Of Mansfield the man, Mr. Wilstach speaks 
apparently with equal fidelity to truth. He 
does not seek to ignore, or even to condone, those 




outbursts of temper which robbed Mansfield of 
the affection of American playgoers, however 
they might yield him their admiration. Mr. 
Wdstach says : 

" Most of his outbursts were the outbursts of nervous 
despair. At times before acting a new role there were 
moments when his confidence appeared to desert him, 
and he would break down entirely. Then he would toss 
away his part and pace the stage in yoluble agony, 
ieclaring it would be impossible to give the production ; 
everything and everybody, including the play and him- 
self, were beyond hope ; the opening must be postponed, 
etc., etc. At such moments no one had influence with 
him but his gentle wife. With soft words of agreement, 
the tender terms with which a mother would propitiate 
a child, she would calm the spirit of this mighty child, 
and in five minutes have him quieted, comforted, and 
back at work again." 

To say to a workman " You're discharged I " 
meant nothing from Mansfield more than a 
reproof. " It was the habit of exaggerated 
words," according to the biographer. His 
unfailing patience and gentleness during the 
rehearsals of " Ivan the Terrible " were a matter 
of ominous comment among the company. He 
seemed, says our author, to be holding himself 
under a strain which would break him. This 
endured until the dress rehearsal, which passed 
swimmingly up to the fourth act. " There, 
in the passionate confession scene, the tricky 
lines slipped, and with them slipped his seK- 
possession. There were five minutes of realis- 
tically improvised Tzar Ivan before he settled 
down, but the burst was welcomed by everyone. 
An old-timer of fourteen years in the company 
said : ' I was afraid for him. And I was afraid 
for this piece. It seemed as if he hadn't blown 
in the trade-mark. But it's all right now.' " 

« The evolution of a character in Mansfield's mind 
remained unexplained. He retired mto what Pater 
called 'mystic isolation.' Like Rossetti, he became 
' a racked and tortured medium.' But when he came 
to rehearsal, even to the first, it was with full possession 
of the new character, just as later, when he went on the 
stage to give the character to the audience, it had full 
possession of him. His performance of a role — even 
of those which he retamed in his repertoire from his 
early successes — whether in comedy or tragedy, was to 
him a sacred work, almost sacramental. He was first 
in the theater, never less than two and sometimes three 
hours before his first entrance. This time he spent in 
the seclusion of his dressing-room. But the preparation 
did not begin there. In the afternoon he took a long 
walk. When he returned he would see no visitors, none 
of his household, and his servants attended him in 
silence. He ate a light repast at five o'clock, with a 
book for company at table. Then he retired to his own 
apartment for a short nap and a bath, and rode away in 
his unbroken silence to the theater. And so into the 
dressing-room. When the call came for his entrance, 
and he emerged from his room, a metamorphosis had 
taken place. It was not the actor who went upon the 

scene, it was the character. By some process — and it 
has been called self-hypnotism ^ he became the person 
he was playing. He carried the manner to and from 
and into his dressing-room. He acted the role all the 
evening on and off the scene, and it fell from him only 
as he put aside the trappings and emerged from the 
dressing-room his own self, bound for home." 

Mr. Wilstach gives some delightful pictures 
of Mr. Mansfield's home-life, with his charming 
and talented wife (Miss Beatrice Cameron), 
and his little son, George Gibbs Mansfield. 
A number of letters to this little chap from his 
father are given, and they alone are worth the 
price of the book. Mr. Wilstach and his pub- 
lishers, and the family of Mr. Mansfield, and 
all who loved or admired him, may be con- 
gratulated in all sincerity upon the appearance 
of this really notable biography. 

MuNSON Aldrich Havens. 

The Quest of the Ideai^ Democracy.* 

We need a word that should stand in the 
same relation to amicus as socialism to socius, 
a word that all readers might approach without 
bias or nervousness. Socialism was an ideal 
name for a theory and system of political organ- 
ization based on comradeship and cooperation ; 
but strange perversions and confusions abroad 
and certain disagreeable events in our own 
country have brought it into unfortunate dis- 
repute. Fellowship might have been found 
adequate, had it not been for established 
connotations and a flavor of the archaistic. 
Collectivism and Communism are too cold. 
Brotherhood suggests too close an intimacy ; 
and it also carries with it a certain disturbing 
echo from the French Revolution. The Society 
of Friends would be an almost perfect designa- 
tion of the ideal state in question, were it not 
already appropriated by an amiable religious 
denomination. As it is, we see no other alterna- 
tive than the adoption of a new word. Thereby 
we should be freed from the risk of repelling our 
more conservative readers, and could describe 
Mr. Dickinson's latest volume as a dialogue on 
the new term ; for under " Justice and Liberty" 
he has given us a delightful interchange of views 
on some of the questions we commonly find 
emphasized by socialistic writers. 

" If every man thought it his duty to think 
freely and trouble his neighbor with his thoughts 
(which is an essential part of free-thinking), it 
would make wild work in the world," sermonizes 

• Justice AND Liberty. A Political Dialogue. By G. Lowes 
Dickinson. New York : The McClure Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

the irrepressible Dean of St. Patrick's ; and it is 
probably true. The question is whether there 
is not need of " wild work " in some quarters. 
And whatever else may be said of the earnest 
socialist, or the intellectual " perplexed inquirer 
socialistically inclined," he at least promotes 
thought. It is always easy to demolish certain 
features of advanced collectivism ; it is never 
quite possible to destroy the ideal of fellowship 
as cherished by thinking men like William 
Morris or the central speaker in the volume 
before us. There is something appealing in 
the cry, " We open the gates of the Temple of 
Humanity; make yourselves clean that you 
may enter in." There is a genuine ring in the 
challenge, " To unseat things from the saddle of 
destiny and to seat there the human soul." 

Nor does the cause stand still. To-day we 
are a little less sure than yesterday that the 
stimulus of self-interest is as fundamental in 
economic life as the law of gravitation in the 
physical world. Just now we are set thinking 
by a comparison of the most active quarter of 
a century in Mr. Rockefeller's career with the 
twenty-four years covered by Lord Cromer's 
unremitting efforts on behalf of the fellaheen of 
Egypt. There is some evidence for the validity 
of such a stimulus as good citizenship, or love 
of one's fellow creatures. Again, we suspect 
rather frequently that the present arrangements 
as to property may not be as final as the course 
of the earth about the sun. With reference 
to marriage, hardy souls like Galton will even 
point out that mating and procreation are at 
least as important as gambling or some other 
subjects of legislation ; and that there is a pos- 
sibility of improving the quality of the popxda- 
tion. A few of the most daring go so far as 
to dream that marriage might be more happy ; 
and one of them in his plea actually adduces 
the reports of our Illinois divorce courts. As 
to social classes, many Englishmen and most 
Americans have rejected the hierarchic view 
that God placed men in wisely ordered ranks 
and there they ought to remain in outward sub- 
mission and even inward gratitude. Because 
our institutions are an inheritance from the 
past, we no longer believe they are incapable 
of improvement. In short, there is a growing 
recognition of the obvious fact, albeit so long 
and stubbornly disregarded, that human nature 
is " a Being in perpetual transformation." In 
man's struggle up the endless steeps of the 
ages, he comes now and then to a plateau that 
appears to the more short-sighted climbers to 
be the final height, or at worst a fair dwelling 

place of reality not to be hazarded for distant 
goals, seen only in barest outline and often lost 
in cloud. Then the comfortable loiterers are 
either guided upward by the seer with the torch 
of the ideal, or driven reluctantly onward by the 
less fortunate of their feUows, whose cry is no 
less bitter than blind. And between these two 
forces, the reasonable appeal of the leader and 
the unreasoning impulse of the luckless throng, 
it is probable that for the future we shall give 
good heed to the problem of better social con- 

But we must return to our volume, — although 
we have not wandered so far as might be sup- 
posed. In the course of his dialogue, Mr. 
Dickinson treats such topics as Forms of Society, 
the Institution of Marriage, the Institution of 
Property, Government, the "Spirit" of the 
communities under consideration, naturally with 
various subdi^'^sions and incidental topics in- 
evitably suggested by these general subjects. 
Then toward the close we have some rather 
impassioned but orderly passages on " The 
Importance of Political Ideals as Guides to 
Practice " and " The Relations of Ideals to 
Facts." Such a cold summary is of course en- 
tirely misleading. The effectiveness, the justi- 
fication of the volume must depend on the 
winning method of treatment in the dialogue 

Sir John Harrington, a frankly aristocratic 
gentleman of leisure, we remember from " A 
Modern Symposium "; and Henry Martin, an 
idealizing professor, we recall from the same 
volume and " The Meaning of Good " as well. 
The third sharer in the discussion is Charles 
Stuart, a banker of broad experience, who keeps 
his feet stoutly on the earth. "Never mind 
Plato and Aristotle I Modern philosophers are 
bad enough without dragging in the ancients at 
every point." Or, " I am learning from this 
conversation that an ideal standpoint is one from 
which everything is seen out of proportion." 
Stuart and Harrington find the Professor in one 
of his favorite haunts, recalling in spirit rather 
than by topographical detail the scene of the 
" Phaedrus." " I love the sound and sight of 
running water, the great green slopes fragrant 
with pines, and the granite cliffs shining against 
the sky." But if he is dreaming in this idyllic 
spot to-day, he must return to his constituency 
to vote to-morrow. And this contact, this in- 
terplay of the ideal and the actual, runs through 
the whole dialogue. The three friends spend 
their last day together in discussing the value 
of political ideals in general and the relative 




merits of their three preferences. Given the 
personae and the subjects, our readers would 
surmise the general division of the treatment. 

In one sense, the dialogue cannot be said to 
make any contribution to socialistic thought. 
Parts of it, without being in any way copied, 
recall some of the lofty and glowing passages of 
Morris ; and every point could be traced to one 
source or another. But it is a commonplace that 
appropriate setting and effective re-statement of 
problems and arguments often constitute a more 
real service than the introduction of new mat- 
ter. The topics here discussed are of such a 
nature as to justify frequent treatment ; and 
the indirect method of our dialogue is an invalu- 
able auxiliary to the positiveness of the avowed 
apostles of the cause. Sometimes we wish Mr. 
Dickinson were not keeping his English audi- 
ence quite so strictly in mind; and one might 
hazard the conjecture that a more intimate 
acquaintance with some of our Western States 
would not be without value for a man who 
would understand them as quickly as this sym- 
pathetic Cambridge economist. With some of 
their experiments before him, he might intro- 
duce at least a parenthetical modification in one 
or two paragraphs. But herewith we are de- 
scending to details, for which there is no space. 
We may merely say, in closing, that we think 
the book is worthy of Mr. Dickinson ; which 
implies our belief that it deserves to be widely 
read by thinking people. 

It is unnecessary to state that the English of 
" Justice and Liberty " is lucid and attractive. 
It does not seem to us that the finest passages 
reach quite the highest levels of our author's 
" Symposium "; but the style is admirable 
throughout. One sentence, however, on page 
125, made us pause ; and we are still wondering 
whether " He's no worse than you or me " is 
due to deliberate antinomianism or merely to 
human frailty. We hope it is the latter. 

F. B. R. Hellems. 

The Poet of Science.* 

Lucretius, in pure poetic charm and natural 
magic, is probably not the " chief poet on the 
Tiber side " that Mrs. Browning saluted in him. 
There are single cadences of Virgil for which 
the adept would cheerfully sacrifice the whole 
of Latin literature and all the Res Romanoi 
perituraque regna — "Kings and realms that 
pass to rise no more." But Virgil — " light 

•Lucretius, Epicurean and Poet. By John Masson, 
M.A., LL.D. New York: E. P. Button & Co. 

among the vanished ages," inspiration of Dante, 
Racine, and Tennyson — belongs to a past which 
had leisure to appreciate the elegant and the 
exquisite. Lucretius, the supreme, the only, 
poet of science, still influences the thoughts of 
the leaders of thought, and will hold his place 
until the long-heralded epic of evolution is 

More than a century has elapsed since Andre 
Chenier justified the plan of his " Hermes " by 
the now familiar argument that the world of 
science is more poetic than the world of fable, 
and boasted that his Pegasus, soaring on the 
wings of Buff on, should pass with Lucretius, 
by the light of Newton's torch, " La ceiiiture 
d'azur sur le globe etendue.^' But the verse 
of the Roman poet which he thus translates still 
remains the inevitable expression of modern 
pride in the wonders of science. It is still the 
text of our greatest living poet and radical, 
when he hymns the achievements of the liberated 
spirit of man : 
" Past the wall unsurmounted that bars out our vision 

with iron and fire, 
He hath sent forth his soul for the stars to comply 

with and suns to conspire." 

There has been ample time for both the poet 
and his readers to acquire that familiarity with 
the processes and results of science which 
Wordsworth said must precede the effective use 
of scientific matter in poetry. But nothing has 
come of it except Tennyson's cautious experi- 
ments in dainty paraphrase ; and a few crudely 
ambitious epics of evolution and the rise of man, 
which posterity, if it remembers them at all, will 
class with Darwin's " Botanic Garden " and his 
"Temple of Nature." The vein of Shelley's 
" Queen Mab " and Andre Chenier's fragment- 
ary "Hermes" has not been excelled. And 
that at its best is a dilution of the austere sub- 
limity of Lucretius with the optimism of the 
eighteenth century's Utopian faith in progress 
and perfectibility. And so it is to the Roman 
versifier of a second-rate and obsolete Greek 
system of philosophy that our Langes, our 
Tyndalls, and Huxleys will still turn in their 
most exalted and enthusiastic moods, so long as 
the new pedagogy allows them to construe the 

They do not find in him, and they do not seek, 
a formulation of the atomic theory that will fit 
the new synthetic chemistry and the new physics 
of radio-active bodies. But they do find the 
consummate poetical expression of all the large 
moral and imaginative ideas which even the 
most advanced science can contribute to litera- 



[Jan. 1, 

ture and life — ideas for the most part not 
peculiar to the philosophy of Epicurus, but the 
common possession of all philosophically edu- 
cated ancients, even of those who rejected the 
absolutism of their dogmatic Epicurean formu- 
lation ; I mean such ideas as the reign of law, 
the continuity of natural process, the univer- 
sality of mechanical causation, the infinity of 
space and time, the recurrence of cosmogonical 
cycles, and the insignificance of man in the 
face of infinite Mutability. Only the laws 
that determine the apparition of genius could 
explain how it happened that the " De Rerum 
Natura " was written, not by a Greek but by a 
Roman poet, and that under the inspiration of 
what apart from the vigor of its assertion of a 
few fundamental truths was the least scientific 
of the Greek philosophies. But that the poem, 
once written, should not have been superseded 
by any poetic interpretation of nineteenth cen- 
tury science is no paradox except to the most 
superficial consideration. Science may be in 
itself more poetical to the scientific mind than 
myth. But there are only two or three ways 
in which the poet can make use of it. He 
may expound it in a frankly didactic poem ; he 
may experiment in the method of Tennyson ; 
he may try to rival the eloquence of Lucretius in 
the domain where the verified detail of modern 
science gives him no advantage over Lucretius. 

Now, though science is a new thing under the 
sun, the didactic poem is not. It has been tried 
from Hesiod's " Works and Days " to Philips's 
" Cider " and Armstrong's "Art of Preserving 
Health." Its literary value has never resided 
in the ostensible theme, but always in the 
episodes or a few informing ideas. The pleas- 
ure derived from the exposition of the nominal 
subject is at most the expert's interest in the 
ingenious expression in verse of what could be 
better said in prose. It is the curiosity of the 
professional latinist who reads Vida's "Game of 
Chess " or Addison's " Battle of the Cranes and 
Pygmies." This aesthetic law is not abrogated 
by the fact that the detail of ancient science was 
erroneous and that of the science of to-day is 
supposed to be true. Minute and didactic expo- 
sition is not poetry, whether the thing expounded 
be true or false. 

The method of Tennyson yields a genuine 
but slight effect of Alexandrian prettiness. 

" There sinks the nebulous star we call the sun, 
If that hypothesis of theirs be sound," 

is intentionally and plajdFully pedantic. 

" Before the little ducts began 
To feed thy bones with lime " 

will serve in a passage of curious philosophic 

" Still as, while Saturn whirls, his stedfast shape 
Sleeps on his luminous ring " 

presents a definite picture, and belongs to the 
science (astronomy) in which the imaginative 
familiarity postulated by Wordsworth is most 
likely to be attained. 

" Break thou deep vase of chilling tears 
That grief hath shaken into frost," 

interests by its subtlety even when not fully 
understood. But these experiments in orna- 
mentation are not the predicted poetry of science, 
and Tennyson's taste seems to have marked the 
limits of their present application. 

It remains for our poets to surpass Lucretius 
in his own domain — if they have the mind to. 
It would be idle to predict that no modem poet 
will ever achieve this. But it is the plain fact 
that no poet has yet done so. Two great clas- 
sical books seem to have expressed once for all 
the two fundamental imaginative conceptions of 
the world — the " Timaeus " of Plato, a " hymn 
to the universe " conceived as the work of benefi- 
cent intelligence subordinating chaos and neces- 
sity to design ; the " De Rerum Natura," a 
hymn to the scientific spirit emancipated from 
superstition, a hymn to Nature manifold in 
works, freed from the yoke of the gods, change- 
less in the sum amid eternal change, and suffi- 
cient unto herself. 

Macaulay marvels that what he deems the 
dreariest and silliest of systems of philosophy 
should have produced the sublimest of philoso- 
phic poems. But the poetry of the " De Rerum 
Natura" owes little to anything specifically 
Epicurean. Its inspiration is first the whole 
scientific and rationalistic tradition of antiquity 
from Empedocles and Democritus down, and 
second the poet's own passionate abhorrence of 
superstition, anthropomorphism, and the petty 
carpenter theories of creation and design which 
the official apologists of religion opposed to his 
picture of the self-sufficing life of universal 
nature. The causes of this anti-theological pas- 
sion, of which there are few traces in the extant 
fragments of Epicurus, we are left to conjecture. 
Its effects on the fortunes of the poem would 
make an interesting chapter of literary history. 
Mythology and religion have always been the 
chief inspiration of poetry and art. But the 
impassioned revolt against superstition and 
sophistical apologetics has played a far greater 
part than the conventional histories of literature 
and philosophy recognize. Every generation 
since the Renaissance has had its Mirandolas, 




its Brunos, its Spinozas, its Shelleys, enthusias- 
tic imaginative rationalists who, beneath transpa- 
rent veils of mysticism, Platonism, or Cartesian- 
ism, have in their inmost souls been dominated 
by this passion for which they could find relief 
only in declaiming the verses of Lucretius. 
Add to these the readers who, like Tennyson, 
are alternately fascinated and repelled by the 
supreme poetic statement of the doctrine which 
they cannot endure to accept, and the chief 
source of the permanent power of the " De Rerum 
Natura " over the minds of men is made plain. 
In spite of the enormous Lucretian literature, 
there is still room for a study of the poem from 
this point of view. 

Professor Masson, whom these introductory 
observations have kept waiting too long, can 
hardly be said to attempt this in his brief study 
of Lucretius's influence on his own age, or in his 
concluding chapter on what the world owes to 
Lucretius. His estimable but not especially pen- 
etrating or original book is not easily reviewed 
with fairness by a specialist. It is in part a 
revision and expansion of the author "s standard 
work on the " Atomic System of Lucretius " 
published in 1884. In seventeen discursive and 
not perfectly welded chapters of very unequal 
merit and fulness of detail, it treats in the 
main competently and readably most of the 
topics that belong to a complete monograph, the 
life and times of the poet, the atomic theory, 
the Epicurean view of the world, the Epicu- 
rean ethics, the Epicurean gods, the sources of 
Epicurus's doctrine, poetry and science, etc. 
The scholarship is sound but old-fashioned and 
not always critical or up to date. Professor 
Masson appears to be unacquainted with recent 
attempts to acquit Democritus of the blimder 
of affirming that a heavy body falls faster 
than a light one in a vacuum. He has appar- 
ently not read Diels, and cites the pre-Socratics 
from the obsolete edition of Mullach, thus 
attributing to Democritus some ethical sayings 
which are plainly spurious. He labors unneces- 
sarily some obvious points, and fails to go to 
the bottom of subtler questions, especially in 
the Epicurean psychology. His literary and 
moral criticism is pleasant and true enough, but 
less trenchantly and vividly expressed than that 
of Mallock or SeUar. He still thinks it neces- 
sary to apologize for Lucretius. The book is a 
good and sufficient monograph for the general 
reader and the undergraduate. But it is not a 
notable contribution to literature or scholarship. 

Paul Shorey. 

Problems of Race Friction.* 

The last few years have seen an increasing- 
accentuation of race-friction in many parts of 
the world, and it is no exaggeration to say that 
the problem of the races is everywhere becoming 
more acute, and must continue to become so on 
account of the greater intermingling of alien 
races where they formerly lived apart. Happy 
indeed is the land which has no such problem ! 
We find it to-day a disturbing element in many 
of the possessions of England, notably in certain 
of the West Indian Islands ; in South Africa, 
in Australia, in India, and in Northwest Canada ; 
we find it in Austria, Hungary, Germany, and 
Russia; and of course it is always with us in 

The nature and causes of race-friction, and 
the possible ways of removing it, are matters 
which are now claiming the attention of more 
thoughtful men than almost any other questions. 
Each year brings us a new group of books deal- 
ing with this peculiar and difficult problem. 
Two of the latest contributions to this group are 
Professor Josiah Royce's " Race Questions, and 
Other American Problems," and Mr. Alfred 
H. Stone's " Studies in the American Race 
Problem." The author of one of these books 
is a Harvard professor ; the other is a young 
Mississippi planter of education and practical 
experience. Professor Royce's volume is a col- 
lection of largely unrelated essays, only two of 
which call for mention in this review. These 
are entitled " Race Questions and Race Preju- 
dices " and " Provincialism." In the former he 
examines into the causes and nature of race- 
prejudice ; in the latter he discusses the meaning 
of provincialism, its uses and its evils. Profes- 
sor Royce contrasts the situation in the United 
States with that in Jamaica and Trinidad, where, 
he asserts, race-friction has been reduced to a 
minimum by the peculiar character of English 
administration and by English reticence. The 
maintenance of an efficient country constab- 
ulary into which negroes are admitted is one 
of the many policies which, in the opinion of 
Professor Royce, have been adopted to secure 
the loyalty and respect of the negro popula- 
tion. Moreover, the English habit of ruling 
the inferior race without publicly claiming 
the virtues of superiority tends very greatly, 
he thinks, to remove a source of irritation 

* Race Questions, and Other American Problems. By Josiah 
Royce. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Studies in the American Bace Problem. By Alfred Stone. 
New York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

which lies at the bottom of much of the trouble 
in North America. 

Mr. Stone's work is a much more elaborate 
study of the negro problem, and is based on his 
experience and observations as an extensive 
employer of negro labor on a Mississippi planta- 
tion. To his personal observation he has added 
ten or fifteen years of systematic and almost 
continuous study of the literature dealing with 
the history of the negro race in America. His 
equipment, therefore, is such as to inspire the 
reader of his volume with a feeling of confidence. 
He contrasts the attitude of the Northern and 
Southern white people, discusses the grounds of 
difference, reviews at length some plantation 
experiments of his own with the negro, describes 
the somewhat remarkable condition of affairs in 
the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta (the great black 
belt of Mississippi, where he declares there is 
but little race-friction), considers the economic 
future of the negro, discourses upon the causes 
and results of the increasing friction between 
the races, criticises President Roosevelt's negro 
policy and compares it with that of President 
McKinley, emphasizes the factor of the mulatto 
element in the question, and considers at length 
the political aspects of the negro problem. On 
the whole, Mr. Stone's point of view is that of 
the Southern white man, though his discussion 
is so free from evidence of passion and his con- 
clusions are based on such wide study and ex- 
tended observation that they command respect 
even where they do not compel conviction. So 
far, no study of the negro problem has been 
produced which throws so much light on the 
whole question of the social, economic, and polit- 
ical life of the negro race in America. It is 
the work of a man who not only knows the 
situation from personal contact with the negro, 
but possesses in addition a rare theoretical 
knowledge based on wide and systematic reading. 

Three chapters of the book are contributed 
by Professor Walter F. Wilcox; these deal 
with the criminality of the negro, the causes of 
its increase, and the resulting influence upon 
race relations ; census statistics relating to 
the wealth, population, occupations, education, 
and death rate of the race ; and the probable in- 
crease of the negro population in America. Mr. 
Wilcox shows that the increase of crime among 
the negroes has been much larger relatively than 
that among the white race. The predicted in- 
crease of population among the negroes, how- 
ever, he declares is not justified by the teachings 

of the census. t ^ht r^ 

J. W. Garner. 

The Begixxings oe Acadia.* 

The Champlain Society of Toronto published 
last year the first volume of Grant and Biggar's 
edition of Lescarbot's " History of New France," 
of which two other volumes are to follow. It 
now issues Nicolas Denys's " Description and 
Natural History of the Coasts of North Amer- 
ica," translated and edited by Dr. WiUiam F. 
Ganong. If it never publishes anything better, 
from every point of view, than these two works, 
it will have more than justified its existence. 
Professor Ganong has brought within reach of 
the ordinary reader one of the essential sources 
of early Canadian history, and one which 
hitherto has been inaccessible to all except a 
few special students — inaccessible for two rea- 
sons : first, because the original edition is 
exceedingly rare ; and second, because it is 
written in old French, and in a manner so faidty 
and confused that more than one scholar has 
dismissed it as unintelligible. The task pre- 
sented to the translator has been ♦' not simply 
to render a book of bad French into one of 
good English, but also to discover, and to show 
by proper annotation, the author's real meaning 
when he is obscure, and the actual truth when 
he is in error. In other words, the book de- 
manded not only a translator, but also a com- 
mentator who had local knowledge of the places, 
the objects, and the contemporary records Ijear- 
ing on the events which Denys describes." How 
happy Professor Ganong has been in fidfilling 
these requirements, an examination of his work 
will abundantly prove. It is not too much to 
say that the Champlam Society could hardly 
have found any other scholar so competent in 
every way to interpret this most difficult of 
early Canadian narratives. 

In spite of its ambitious title, Denys's book 
is confined to the coasts of Acadia, or to what 
now form the provinces of Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick ; but it is nevertheless, within 
this restricted field, a work of the first impor- 
tance. It narrates events, a knowledge of which 
is essential to a clear understanding of the 
history of Acadia in the seventeenth century, 
which are not to be found elsewhere. It 
describes the country and its inhabitants as 
they were in Denys's day ; gives a good deal of 
attention to its natural history, sometimes accu- 
rate, but oftener the reverse ; and devotes nearly 

*The Description and Natitral History of the Coasts 
OF North America (Acadia). By Nicholas Denys. Translated 
and edited, with a memoir of the author, collateral documents, 
and a reprint of the Original, by William F. Ganong, Ph.D. 
Toronto : The Champlain Society. 




half the second volume to an elaborate account 
of the cod-fishery. Despite its apparent tedi- 
ousness and present uselessness, this portion of 
Denys's narrative is, as Professor Ganong says, 
" replete with interest from start to finish." 
It constitutes " by far the most complete and 
authoritative exposition we possess of that sum- 
mer fishery for cod which played so large a 
part in the early relations between Europe and 
North-eastern America. It is, moreover, the 
best and clearest part of the book, the only part, 
apparently, which Denys really enjoyed writing. 
With excellent arrangement and all complete- 
ness, and withal by aid of many a vivid phrase, 
happy turn, and illustrative incident, he brings 
before us with the greatest clearness every de- 
tail of that business of which he was a thorough 
master, and a master in love with his work." 
One of the principal objects which Denys had 
in view in writing his book was, in fact, to 
arouse the government and people of France 
to the possibilities of the cod-fishery of Acadia. 
This portion of the narrative furnishes a rather 
curious illustration of the fact that a man never 
writes so effectively as when he is describing 
something with which he is thoroughly familiar, 
and in which is absorbingly interested. 

Some of the most entertaining pages of the 
book are those in which Denys describes the 
beaver and its wonderful works. None of our 
contemporary " Nature fakirs " — as Mr. Arthur 
Stringer unkindly calls them — could hold a 
candle to this unimaginative chronicler, in the 
more than human intelligence attributed to the 
industrious and long-suffering beaver. 

" It is necessary to know first of all that the Beaver 
has only four teeth, two above and two below. The 
largest are of two finger-breadths, the others have them 
in proportion to their size. They have rocks for sharp- 
ening them, rubbing them on their tops. With their 
teeth they cut down trees as large as half barrels. 
Two of them work together at it, and a man with an 
axe will not lay it low quicker than do they. They 
make it always fall on the side which they wish, and 
where it is most convenient for them. 

" To place all these workmen at their business, and to 
make them do their work well, there is need of an archi- 
tect and commanders. Those are the old ones which 
have worked at it formerly. According to number there 
are eight to ten commanders, who nevertheless are all 
under one, who gives the orders. It is this architect 
who goes often to the atelier of one, often to that of the 
other, and is always in action. When he has fixed upon 
the place where it is necessary to make the dam, he 
employs there a number of the Beavers to remove that 
which could injure it, such as fallen trees, which would 
be able to lead the water underneath the dam, and cause 
loss of the water. Those are the masons. He sets others 
to cut down trees, and then to cut branches of the length 
of about two feet or more according to the thickness of 

the branch. These are the carpenters. Others have to 
carry the wood to the place of the work where the masons 
are, (thus acting) like the masons' men. Others are 
destined for the land; they are the old ones, which have 
the largest tails, and they act as hod-carriers. There 
are some which dig the ground and scrape it with their 
hands; these are the diggers. Others have to load it. 
Each does his duty without meddling with anything else. 
Each set of workmen at a task has a commandant with 
them who overlooks their work, and shows them how it 
should be done. The one who commands the masons 
shows them how to arrange the trees, and how to place 
the earth properly. Thus each one shows those who are 
under his charge. If they are neglectfiU of their duty 
he chastises them, beats them, throws himself on them, 
and bites them to keep them at their duty. 

" Everything being thus arranged, which indeed is soon 
accomplished, every morning each one goes to his work. 
At eleven o'clock they go to find something to eat, and 
do not return until about two o'clock. I believe this is 
because of the great heat, which is against them, for if it 
is bright moonlight they work at night more than by day. 

" Let us watch them now all at work making their 
dam. There are the masons ; their helpers bring them 
the wood cut into lengths. Each brings his piece 
according to his strength upon his shoulders. They 
walk entirely upright upon their hind feet. Arriving 
there they place their piece near the masons. The hod- 
carriers do the same; their tails serve them as hods. 
To load these they hold themselves fully erect, and lay 
their tails quite flat on the ground. The loaders place 
the earth upon the tails, and trample it to make it hold, 
(building it) as high as they can, and bringing it to a 
sharp ridge at the top. Then those which are loaded 
march quite upright drawing their tails behind them. 
They unload near the masons, who, having the materials, 
begin to arrange their sticks one above another, and 
make of them a bed of the length and breadth which 
they wish to use for the foundation of the dam. In 
proportion as some place the wood, others bring hand- 
fuls of earth which they place upon it, packing it down 
to fill up the interstices between the sticks. When it is 
upon the sticks, they hammer it with the tail, with which 
they strike it above to render it firm. This layer being 
made of earth and of sticks the length of the dam, they 
add sticks and then earth on top as before, and go on 
extending it always in height. The side to the water, 
in proportion as it rises, is lined with earth, which they 
place there to fill up the holes which the sticks might 
have made. In proportion as they deposit this earth, 
they place their posterior end on the edge of the dam, 
so that the tail hangs down; then raising the tail they 
strike against the earth to flatten it, and to make it 
enter towards the water, so as to keep that from possi- 
bility of entering. They even place there two or three 
layers of earth, one upon another, beating it from time 
to time with the tail, so that the water cannot pass 
through their dam. When they are beating like that 
with their tails, they can be heard for a league in the 

In addition to the translation, and an exact 
reprint of the original text of Denys's book, 
Dr. Ganong furnishes a very full bibliography 
of material bearing on Denys, to which Mr. 
Victor H. Paltsits has added a bibliographical 
description of the original work. All the maps 



[Jan. 1, 

and plates of the original, as well as those of 
the Dutch translation of 1788, are reproduced 
here, as well as a number of maps drawn by 
Dr. Ganong to illustrate the topography of the 
narrative, and photographs of the sites of 
Denyss establishments at Port Rossignol, 
La Have, Chedabucto, Saint Peters, Miscou, 
and Nepisguit. Lawrence J. Burpee. 

Briefs on New Books. 

The teacher 
and the taught. 

Although Professor George Herbert 
Palmer has chosen " The Teacher " 
as title for the collection of educa- 
tional essays and addresses — twelve of his own and 
four of Mrs. Palmer's — which he issues (through 
the Houghton Mifflin Co. ), he possesses to such a 
degree that essential quality of the good teacher, 
vicariousness, that he has made his book almost 
as attractive and useful to the learner as to the 
instructor. Especially interesting to the general 
seeker for knowledge are his chapters on " Self- 
Cultivation in English," " Specialization," " Doubts 
about University Extension," " The Glory of the 
Imperfect," '' A Teacher of the Olden Time," and 
" College Expenses." Even his paper on " The 
Ideal Teacher " and the two discussing the elective 
system as in use at Harvard are readable as well as 
professionally important and valuable. It is note- 
worthy that this teacher of ethics is opposed to the 
formal teaching of ethics in schools ; the dissection 
of conduct and motives he very sensibly holds to 
be fruitful of nothing but morbid self-consciousness 
and moral indecision, in the young. " I declare," 
he says, "at times when I see the ravages which 
conscientiousness works in our New England stock, 
I wish these New Englanders had never heard moral 
distinctions mentioned. Better their vices than their 
virtues. The wise teacher will extirpate the first 
sproutings of the weed ; for a weed more difficult 
to extirpate when grown there is not. We run a 
serious risk of implanting it in our children when 
we undertake their class instruction in ethics." Yet 
he would have all teaching, in the best and largest 
sense, ethical — instilling, unintrusively, right prin- 
ciples of thought and feeling and action. His " ideal 
teacher " is " big, bounteous, and unconventional," 
and is also endowed with the following four funda- 
mental qualities, — an aptitude for vicariousness, an 
already accumulated wealth, an ability to invigorate 
life through knowledge, and a readiness to be for- 
gotten. The four papers from Mrs. Alice Freeman 
Palmer's pen — three of them reprinted from pe- 
riodicals and the fourth taken from the short-hand 
report of an address — will make the reader share 
Professor Palmer's regret that his gifted wife did 
not oftener give literary expression to her thoughts 
and ideals. The entire volume has a breadth of 
view and of interest and a charm of style such as 
few books on education possess. 

Some months ago the cable that 
r^eS?ml. transmits just and unjust things 

alike, brought the news that Sir 
Oliver Lodge had proved by scientific evidence the 
immortality of the soul. The more complete accounts 
in the English press reflected what had really been 
said more soberly, but sufficiently corroborated the 
trend of it all to explain the cruder interpretation. 
There is accordingly a considerable interest in the 
volume which has just been issued by Messrs. 
Moffat, Yard & Co., with the title " Science and 
Immortality." The book is divided into four dis- 
tinct parts : the first is concerned with science and 
faith ; the second with ecclesiastical problems of 
worship and service in the Church of England ; the 
third with the problem of immortality; the fourth 
with the relations of science and Christianity. It 
thus appears that Sir Oliver Lodge as a layman is 
particularly interested in the church and in religions 
matters ; that he is abundantly persuaded of the 
truth and value of a liberal religious belief ; that he 
is desirous to rationalize his faith with his scientific 
view of the material universe ; that he recognizes as 
equally real and equally a part of the order of nature 
the inner spiritual life, which must once more be 
harmonized with the more objective uniformities of 
nature and which must be made significant in con- 
nection with the historical unf oldment of the religions 
of men, and notably of Christianity. All this is 
clearly stated, and will carry conviction, or fail to 
do so, largely according to the proclivities and con- 
victions of the reader. There is nothing notably 
new in the way of argument, and much of it comes 
suspiciously near to what may be termed special 
pleading. Thus, returning to the report of the 
proof of immortality, it appears that the author is 
already convinced of it on the grounds of faith, and 
yet is sympathetic to such additional truths as may 
come from seeming non-conformities and transcend- 
ings of ordinary experience in the way of telepathy 
and spiritual communications. In all this he quotes 
approvingly from Myers, and sets before us once 
more the combination within one mind of a man 
carrying on rigorous impersonal research by one 
set of methods and standards of evidence, and yet 
equally engaging in another in which he gives ad- 
herence to quite different orders of probabilities. 
As a personal attitude, this is interesting and legiti- 
mate ; what is unfortunate is that the reputation of 
the physicist should become subtly involved in the 
personal predilections of the man of faith. 

,, . , The two closing: volumes of Professor 

Venice at _^ ^.r i ,•» ., -it • » /■»«• 

the coming Pompeo Molmenti s " Venice ( Mc- 

0/ Napoleon. Clurg) deal with Venetian life in the 

age of decadence. The account covers the period 

from the middle of the sixteenth century to the fall 

of the republic in 1797, an age of much splendor and 

outward magnificence, of vast activities and many 

real triumphs, but also a period of positive decline 

in commerce, in industry, in military efficiency, and 

in moral strength. Consequently, when Napoleon 




appeared in northern Italy all power of resistance was 
gone and the terrified patricians hastily abdicated. 
In his essay on the fall of the republic (the closing 
chapter of the work) the author appears to believe 
that the city should have refused to yield to the 
Corsican ; but the story of general decline that runs 
through every chapter in these two volumes is likely 
to convince the reader that aU resistance would have 
been useless. While the author admits that Vene- 
tian weakness was in large measure due to decay of 
character, external factors, he believes, were respon- 
sible to a far greater extent. The discovery of new 
trade routes diverted the Oriental trade to other 
ports ; the competition of England and Holland 
ruined Venetian commerce in the north and the 
west ; incessant wars with the Turks in the Archi- 
pelago consumed the vigor and the resources of the 
state. Of the increasing helplessness, the rulers 
were keenly conscious ; the motion for the abolition 
of the old regime came from the doge himself; of 
the five hundred and thirty-seven patricians present 
at the final meeting of the Great Council, " only 
twenty voted against the sacrifice of their country ; 
five abstained." In general, the plan followed in 
these volumes is the same as in the earlier ones : 
the treatment is topical and descriptive, not chrono- 
logical and narrative. They have all the excellences 
of the earlier parts, and also share in their defects ; 
but these have been discussed in earlier issues of this 
journal (see The Dial for July 16, 1907, and Jan- 
uary 16, 1908), and need not be recounted here. 
However, after all possible points of adverse criti- 
cism have been urged, the fact remains that in no 
other work is the student of Italian society likely to 
find so clear, vivid, and exhaustive a discussion of 
Venetian life, both public and private, as in these 
six volumes by Professor Molmenti. For the pub- 
lishers' part in the production of this work no critic 
can have anything but the highest praise : rarely 
does one find a set of books in which artistic effort 
is evident to such a high degree. The beautiful 
binding, the clear type, and the numerous illustra- 
tions give the publishers an undoubted right to claim 
that this set is " in every respect a monumental piece 
of bookmaking." 

Life in a Books about the Civil War continue 

Border city, to multiply, and for many of them 
in war-time. ^YiQve is genuine need. The recent 
war books of greatest worth are those volumes of 
reminiscences by civilian participators in the con- 
flict — the women and the non-combatant men. To 
this class belongs Dr. Galusha Anderson's " Story of 
a Border City during the Civil War " (Little, Brown 
& Co.). Dr. Anderson was a Baptist minister in 
St. Louis from 1858 to 1866 ; his work is based on 
his own recollections, on the published writings of 
others, and on the material in the great War Records 
collection. The list of subjects treated is compre- 
hensive and attractive. As a story of life in a Border 
State city, the book is valuable. It is easily the best 
and most comprehensive account we have of the 

peculiar conditions in such a community, and much 
of it would apply to conditions that existed in the 
other Border States. The story holds the attention 
from beginning to end. It tells how a city strongly 
Southern in sentiment was held by force in the 
Union ; how Unionism was strengthened ; how the 
neutral and indifferent were converted into Union- 
ists; how the people were divided in religious, 
social, and political matters. Dr. Anderson makes 
it clear that it was the German element in Missouri 
which saved the State to the Union. One of the 
best things in the volume is the account of the psy- 
chological influences brought to bear by the Union- 
ists upon the members of the Convention of 1861. 
The writer aims to be impartial, and is certainly not 
bitter ; but he never sees, probably never saw, the 
other side of the case. On all that concerns the 
troubles in the churches, the fight over secession, 
the question of slavery, of partisan politics, of the 
bitter feelings that resulted from the many contro- 
versies of the time, he is wholly partisan ; he simply 
states one side, and appears never to have heard of 
any other. This causes his text to give the impres- 
sion that the Unionists of Missouri, though in con- 
trol of the state and of the city, were continuously 
persecuted by the Confederate sympathizers; and 
also makes it appear, although without intention, that 
the Southern women were frequently coarse, brutal, 
and at times addicted to the use of profanity. The 
work is worth much as a source which the historian 
may later make use of. Its onesidedness may be 
offset by the opposite bias of Confederate memoirs. 

The most direct method of acquiring a 
^ur colleges'^ pessimistic attitude towards the value 

of American education is to attend a 
few teachers' meetings. A vaguely enthusiastic 
audience responds, with a zeal mistaken for loyalty, 
to a wildly extravagant laudation of the teacher's 
calling, or to an oratorically brilliant and empty 
appraisal of education as a panacea for all ills — 
except apparently this vain exhibition of the futility 
of it all. It is accordingly with a very unusual 
cordiality that one greets the little volume by Mr. 
Abraham Flexner, <' The American College : A 
Criticism " (The Century Co.). For it contains a 
serious, large-viewed survey of what is really going 
on in school and college, a sober appreciation of 
what education may be expected to do, a sane per- 
spective of values amid the practical possibilities of 
the situation, and a clear appraisal of the merits and 
defects of current institutions. The emphasis is 
consistently placed upon the college — not the 
specialist's university — as the institution best 
adapted to carry the young man (and young woman) 
across the most vital period of his formative career 
and secure for him the realization of his capabilities 
and their proper training for efficiency. Mr, 
Flexner finds that the American college " is peda- 
gogically deficient, and unnecessarily deficient, alike 
in earnestness and in intelligence ; that in conse- 
quence our college students are, and for the most part 



[Jan. 1, 

upside down. 

emerge, flighty, superficial, and immature, lacking, 
as a class, concentration, seriousness, and thorough- 
ness." The elective system in its unrestrained 
form is held accountable for some of this, the ab- 
sence of clearly conceived ideals on the part of those 
in charge of education for more, and the false strain- 
ing in behalf of graduate study, and the general 
tendency to look to numbers, statistical growth, and 
administrative success, for other aspects of the gen- 
eral failure. Lack of good teaching is recognized 
as at once a cause and an effect of the wrong em- 
phasis of things. " Emphasis of the teaching motive 
will put an end to commercialism. Efficient teaching 
is utterly irreconcilable with numerical and commer- 
cial standards of success." Diagnosis is the first con- 
dition of scientific treatment. Mr. FJexner's analysis 
is essentially of this type ; yet he is not without rem- 
edies, which he prescribes discerningly. The whole 
forms an admirable and timely criticism of an im- 
portant factor in the American problem, and one 
upon which a good deal more remains to be said and 
to be thought and done. 

When one takes up a book dealing 
with man and with evolution, the no- 
tion in his mind is that the discussion 
will in general be about what evolution has done or 
is doing for man. The attitude of Mr. Tyler's 
" Man in the Light of Evolution " (Appleton) is the 
exact opposite of this. It concerns itself with what 
man is doing for evolution! We are told (p. 188) 
that " Man's share and work in the process of 
evolution is the higher development and complete 
supremacy of the moral and religious powers, just as 
it was the business of the worm to develop viscera 
and of the lower vertebrates to add new muscles and 
motor nerve centers." This sentence strikes the 
keynote of the constructive (sociological) portion of 
the book. It well illustrates the author's unique 
outlook on organic evolution. Organisms play a 
very active part in their own evolution. In illus- 
tration of this curious attitude the following passage 
(p. 28), typical of what occurs throughout the book, 
is worth quoting : "Worms lifted life to a plane far 
higher than that of coelenterates. After their 
appearance only muscular and seeing forms could 
hope to play any leading part in the world. They 
developed weapons of offense and defense. Life 
became harder, the struggle more severe, competi- 
tion more marked and harsh. A strong, tough, 
agile, alert body was to be developed. Worms led 
the way toward this. But they had only begun to 
utilize and realize the possibilities of the muscular 
system. As soon as this and the visceral organs 
needed for its support and service had been fairly 
started, the worm began to experiment in building 
a skeleton." It seems almost inconceivable that it 
was intended that this sort of crude anthropomor- 
phism should be taken seriously. Yet if it is meant 
only for a figurative mode of presentation, the facil- 
ity exhibited by the author in long-sustained indirect 
and figurative discourse might well be envied by a 

Chinese potentate. The book is a curious mixture 
of about equal parts of, first, the sort of biology in- 
dicated in the passages quoted; second, a very thin 
and innutritious social philosophy ; and third, per- 
fervid religious enthusiasm. It cannot be regarded 
as a particularly significant contribution to the 
literature of evolution. 

The domestic "The Family Letters of Christina 
of Christina Georgina Rossetti ' ' ( Scribner ) , edited 
Rossetti. by her brother, Mr. William Michael 

Rossetti, reveal, as the editor says in his preface, " a 
beautiful and lovable character." The substance of 
the letters, in truth, is slight ; and of the style noth- 
ing can be said except that it is simple, unaffected, 
sisterly, and daughterly, in tone. Little of import- 
ance is to be gained from the collection that is not 
already known ; but excuse for publishing, if any be 
needed, may be found herein, that, as the Preface 
declares, " Christina Rossetti, by her work in poetry 
and authorship, made herself interesting to a great 
number of persons ; and that anything which tends 
to show forth her genuine self, her personality and 
tone of mind and feeling, cannot therefore be totally 
insignificant. Nothing could evince these more per- 
fectly than her family-letters do." Supplemented 
by a few letters to persons outside the family, by 
some addressed to herself (by Dante Gabriel, by 
Swinburne, Cayley, and others), and by extracts 
from her diary, the correspondence fills an octavo 
volume, which is further provided with appropriate 
portraits, views of houses, facsimiles, and other illus- 
trative matter. A useful index, too, is added. A 
random quotation from a letter to " my dear Gabriel " 
(dated August, 1880) may serve to close this brief 
notice. " Startling, portentous, quasi incredible is 
the climax of Lady Burdett Coutts's noble life. Can 
such ends come of such beginnings ? If so, may I 
never have gift, grace, or glamour, to woo me a hus- 
band not half my age ! ! I I had heard of the intended 
marriage, though I knew not whether truly reported : 
but of the disparity of years I had not an inkling. 
All amazements pale before this." 

Th d -s '^^^ contrast of nature and nurture 
ofovercaring — the biological forces that shape 
for the health. q„j. ends, rough-hew them as we will 
— appears nowhere more characteristically than in 
the making or marring of health. To keep well and 
sane, shall we let ourselves fall back upon a tem- 
pered inclination, or struggle thoughtfully to regu- 
late our ways in obedience to a system? Are we 
more likely to succeed by reason or by instinct ? Dr. 
Woods Hutchinson is a naturalist, not an artificialist. 
In his thesis entitled " Instinct and Heath " (Dodd, 
Mead & Co.) the two are one. He is a bold and 
incisive advocate, and his strokes tell. Like all his 
kind, he frequently overstates his own side of the 
case, thereby missing the benefit of the confidence 
that goes out to the moderate, and bringing upon 
himself the suspicion of less thorough command of 
his data than is essential to an authoritative wisdom. 




Yet it is equally pertinent to remember that his aim 
is practical and his appeal a popular one. His knife 
is out for fads and superstitions, prejudices, and 
the over-zealous regimen. Diets are as apt to make 
dyspeptics as to help them. Pleasant things are not 
inherently noxious, as our Puritanic or proverbial 
misconceptions lay down, but are in the main pleas- 
ant because they are in accord with nature ; pleasure 
is the stamp of approval that nature gives them as 
their reward. Early rising may be economically 
desirable, but physiologically it is better to sleep all 
you can. While one man's meat is another's poison, 
it is so mainly in exceptional instances. For the 
average man meat is jast what he needs, and its 
place cannot be taken by any of the substitutes for 
food. Appetite, reaction, cheer, unconcern, these 
are the signs of health and vigor ; they are normal, 
and to be trusted. All this is sound doctrine, most 
forcibly inculcated. It is a good thing to have so 
much of this side of the health question popularized, 
as against the endless systems that claim in a single 
experience to establish the falsity of generations of 
instinctive wisdom. Dr. Hutchinson's prescriptions 
may be freely taken, though the prudent will add their 
own dose of salt. . . 

jprom Hampton M'*' Franklin Matthews's vivacious 
Roads to the account of our Atlantic fleet's recent 
Golden Gate. cruise from Hampton Roads over the 
waters of two oceans to San Francisco, as contained 
in letters sent from the fleet itself to the New York 
" Sun " (and printed simultaneously in various other 
newspapers throughout the country), is now pub- 
lished in attractive book form, under the title, " With 
the Battle Fleet" (Huebsch). Four of Mr. Henry 
Reuterdahl's drawings of the fleet are reproduced 
from '' Collier's Weekly," and a few illustrations 
from photographs are added. As is already widely 
known, Mr. Matthews does not in this narrative 
confine himself to a bald statement of facts ; he 
clothes the skeleton of more important events with 
the flesh and blood of humor and fancy, of human- 
nature study and portrayal, of bright conversation 
and vivid description. Among his most successful 
chapters are the one describing the ceremonies 
attending the crossing of the equator ; that relating 
the passage through Magellan Strait; the unex- 
pectedly amusing description, from the mouth of a 
boatswain's mate, of a bull fight in Peru ; and the 
account of the social life on a man-of-war. All those 
who like sea-yarns, and probably some who are not 
especially fond of them, will enjoy the book. 

J>ramatic ^^" Charles H. Caffin furnishes the 

principles for sixth volume of the well-known 
thepiavvoer. "Appreciation Series" (Baker & 
Taylor Co.). It is entitled "The Appreciation of 
the Drama," and aims to deduce from the experi- 
ence of the past and the present certain necessary 
principles that will form a basis of critical appre- 
ciation, on which the playgoer may establish his own 
judgment. He treats of the psychology of the 
audience, the plastic and pictorial stage, the actor 

and the play, the genesis and development of a plot, 
etc. The salient points in the general history of the 
drama are lucidly presented with practical succinct- 
ness. Mr. Caffin points out that the American 
dramatist shows a tendency to be an opportunist, 
to take advantage of some theme uppermost in the 
public mind and to treat it from the point of view 
of the man in the street (witness "The Lion and 
the Mouse" and "The Witching Hour"). He 
believes that when the truly characteristic American 
drama arrives it will be distinguished by largeness 
of outlook and treatment, by the equivalent of that 
spirit which has opened up the West and has raised 
the material and political importance of the country 
to its present height ; that it will be essentially a 
drama of liberty — viewing the problems that it pre- 
sents in relation to the national idea of equal chances 
for all, and with an independence of judgment that 
has in it something of prophetic vision. 


" Writings of American Statesmen " is the title of a 
new series of books to be edited by Professor Lawrence 
B. Evans, and published by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
If we may judge from the volume of " Writings of 
George Washington " which now inaugurates the series, 
this enterprise gives much promise of usefulness. Most 
of the statesmen to be included already exist in " Works," 
but in this form are too voluminous for either the ordinary 
library or the average student. Such a selection as is 
now to be provided will do much to extend acquaintance 
with a department of American literature too often 
ignored because of the mass of its material. Each vol- 
ume of the new series will include three classes of 
matter: first, those documents which are of themselves 
important state papers ; second, accounts of important 
events in which the writer participated ; and, third, papers 
expressing the opinions of their writers upon public ques- 
tions of importance. In the case of the Washington 
volume, this three-fold purpose seems to be very satis- 
factorily accomphshed. 

" The American as He Is," by Dr. Nicholas Murray 
Butler, is a small volume published by the Macmillan 
Co. Its contents consist of three lectures given a few 
weeks ago before the University of Copenhagen, in 
pursuance of the exchange arrangement recently made 
between Danish and American professors. The lectures 
are neatly dedicated to the University before which 
they were delivered, an institution " whose beneficent 
activity began before America was discovered." The 
lectures consider the American in his three-fold char- 
acter of a political, social, and intellectual being, and 
are characterized by breadth of treatment and a clean- 
cut style. To draw, in large lines, a picture of that 
part of present-day civilization which the world knows 
as American is the avowed aim of the writer, and he 
reaches it with marked success. The closing sentence 
of his brief introduction is pregnant with meaning : 
" For a genuine understanding of the government and 
of the intellectual and moral temper of the people of 
the United States, one must know thoroughly and 
well the writings and speeches of three Americans, — 
Alexander Hamilton, Abraham Lincoln, and Ralph 
Waldo Emerson." 



[Jan. 1, 


" The Romance of American Expansion," by Mr. H. 
Addington Bruce, which has been appearing in " The 
Outlook " during the past year, will be published in book 
form early in 1909. 

" English Composition," by Professors Franklin T. 
Baker and Herbert V. Abbott, is a small text-book for 
the first years of high school work, published by Messrs. 
Henry Holt & Co. 

Mr. Charles Frederick Carter is soon to publish a 
book entitled " When Railroads Were New," which tells 
the full story of our first railroads with much picturesque 
detail. The illustrations will be a special feature. 

A pretty little anthology of love poems is compiled 
by Miss Emily W. Maynadier, and entitled " A Perfect 
Strength " ( " Are not two prayers a perfect strength ? ") . 
The booklet is published by Messrs. John W. Luce & Co. 

The Francis D. Tandy Co. publish a little book, edited 
by Mr. Tandy, devoted to " An Anthology of the Epi- 
grams and Sayings of Abraham Lincoln." There are 
upwards of two hundred brief passages, collected from 
various sources. 

" Country Walks about Florence," by Mr. Edward 
Hutton, is a charming little book of description, with 
many illustrations, by a writer who has many times 
proved his fitness to write of things Italian. Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons are the publishers. 

Mr. H. G. Wells's new novel, " Tono-Bungay," will 
be published in book form on January 16. " Tono- 
Bungay " is the third real novel that Mr. Wells has 
produced. He has had it in hand and worked at it inter- 
mittently ever since the publication of " Kipps " in 1905. 

Miss Mary Garden, in " The Tumbler of Our Lady," 
is attracting much attention from New Yorkers this 
winter. Massenet s opera is based on a quaint mediieval 
legend of which a translation by Miss Lucy Kemp Welch 
has been published recently in Messrs. Duffield's " New 
Mediaeval Library." 

" The Emmanuel Movement, Its Principles, Methods 
and Results," is announced for spring publication by 
Messrs. Moffat, Yard & Co. The authors are Drs. 
El wood Worcester and Samuel McComb, some of 
whose lectures recently given in New York City will 
form a part of the work. 

The dramatic rights of " A Little Brother of the 
Rich " have been acquired by Messrs. Liebler & Co., 
of New York, who have already arranged with the 
Grand Opera House of Chicago to stage the play for 
the first time at that theatre on January 18 next. Mr. 
Patterson will dramatize the novel himself. 

A new book by the author of that delightful volume, 
" Confessio Medici," is announced by The Macmillan 
Co. The title is "Faith and Works of Christian 
Science," and the various chapters will deal with such 
subjects as The Reality of Nature, Disease and Pain, 
Common Sense and Christian Science, and Authority 
and Christian Science. 

Messrs. Gmn & Co. publish for the " International 
School of Peace " a valuable work containing the " Texts 
of the Peace Conferences at The Hague, 1899 and 
1907." The texts are given in French and English (in 
parallel columns), and certain related documents, such 
as the Geneva Convention and the United States Articles 
of War, are given in an appendix. The work is edited 
by Mr. James Brown Scott, and prefaced by Mr. Elihu 
W. Root. 

As the date of the Lincoln centenary approaches, 
interest in everything connected with Lincoln's life 
increases. An important historical study annoimced for 
early publication is "The Assassination of Abraham 
Lincoln," by Mr. David M. DeWitt, whose scholarly 
work on " The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew 
Johnson " is known to historical students. 

An additional volume in the " Authentic Edition " of 
the writings of Charles Dickens is entitled "Miscel- 
laneous Papers," and is published by Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. The contents of this volume consist of 
contributions to various newspapers and magazines, now 
brought together by Mr. B. W. Matz, and filling a vol- 
ume of over seven hundred closely-printed pages. 

James Dennistoun's "Memoirs of the Dukes of 
Urbino " has long been a standard work, but has for 
many years been unprocurable except from the dealers 
in second-hand books. No apology is needed for the 
handsome new edition, in three volumes, which has been 
edited and amiotated by that approved lover of Italy, Mr. 
Edward Hutton. The John Lane Co. publish this work. 

The Oliver Ditson Co. send us the first of two volumes 
of " Piano Compositions " by Louis Moreau Gottschalk, 
with a biographical sketch by Mr. William Arms Fisher. 
Here we have « The Last Hope," " The Maiden's Blush," 
" The Dying Poet," and a dozen others of the sentimental 
pieces so familiar to the last genei'ation, and so vastly 
better than the " popular " music upon which the young 
people of to-day are surfeited. 

The first fruits of the labors of the recently organized 
Concordance Society come to us in "AConcordance to the 
English Poems of Thomas Gray," edited by Professor 
Albert S. Cook, and published by the Houghton Mifflin 
Co. The volume is of moderate compass, and its early 
appearance has been made possible by the friendly col- 
laboration of a dozen or more scholars who have made 
the excerpts and read the proofs. 

The popularity of Mr. George P. Upton's handbook, 
" The Standard Operas," is evidenced by the announce- 
ment of the publishers that they are just putting to 
press the fifth printing of the new illustrated edition. 
This edition was first issued in October, 1896, at which 
time the book was entirely rewritten and illustrations 
added. The work originally was published in 1885, was 
revised in 1896, then reset in 1906, and the present is the 
twenty-fourth edition of the book since the beginning. 

The Champlain Society of Toronto has decided to 
undertake, with Mr. H. P. Biggar as editor, a transla- 
tion of the complete works of Champlain, and at the 
same time to reprint the French text. The whole 
work will run to four considerable volumes. Mr. 
Biggar is known as the author of " The Early Trading 
Companies of New France," and other historical works. 
The pubhcations of the Society are in limited editions 
of 500 copies — 250 for members and 250 for subscrib- 
ing libraries. 

Following up the success of Dr. Walton's "Why 
Worry ? " which has gone through five editions in six 
months, the Messrs. Lippincott expect to publish this 
month another volume on an allied subject by Dr. 
J. A. Mitchell. It will be called " Self Help for the 
Nei-vous." Among the outdoor books planned by the 
same publishers for the spring season are " The Home 
Garden," a new volume by Mr. Eben E. Rexford, 
author of " Four Seasons in the Garden," and a book 
on the subject of wild flowers by Dr. George L. Walton, 
author of " Why Worry." 




Topics in Leading PERiomcAt,s. 

January, 1909. 

Advertisement. Edward 8. Martin. Atlantic. 
Affinities of History, Famous — I. Lyndon Orr. Munsey. 
Alexander, J. W., Mural Decorations of. W. Walton. Scribtier. 
Alexis, Nord, and His Negro Republic. G.J. M.Simons. Munsey. 
American Art, — Is it a Betrayal ? L. H. Sullivan. Craftsman. 
American Art : Its Future. Birgre Harrison. No. American. 
Am. Democracy and Corporate Reform. R. R. Reed. Atlantic. 
American Painters in Paris, Some New. C. H. Caflfin. Harper. 
American Politics, Passing of the Reactionary in. Munsey. 
American Tariff-Making. Canada and. Review of Reviews. 
Automobile Racers and their Achievements. M. Irving. Putnam.. 
Baedeker, The New — VI. Bookmau. 
Balaclava, Battle of. Robert Shackleton. Harper. 
Balestrieri, Lionello, Art of. Charles H. Caffin. Metropolitan. 
Balkan States : Europe's Storm-Centre. Munsey. 
Balzac in Brittany. W. H. Helm. Putnam. 
Benguet Road, Building the. A. W. Page. World's Work. 
Big Families, — What they Mean to Nations. WorliVs Work. 
Bleaching and Dyeing Foods. E. H. S. Bailey. Popular Science. 
Blind Spot, The. Edwin L. Sabin. Lippincott. 
Botanists, St. Louis— II. Perley Spaulding. Popular Science. 
Budding Girl, The. G. Stanley Hall. Appleton. 
Buffalo, Last of the. J. 0. Jacobs. World's Work. 
Caine, Hall. Autobiography of — V. Appleton. 
California Paradoxes. Frances A. Doughty. Putnam. 
Campaign-Fund Publicity. Perry Belmont. North Am.erican . 
Canadian Manufacturers. E. Porritt. North American. 
Chemistry and Medicine, Modern. T. W. Richards. Atlantic. 
Church, The, and Scholarship. Shailer Mathews. World To-day. 
Civic Betterment, NewCampaignfor. P.N. Kellogg. Rev.ofRex-s. 
Cleveland, Grover, at Princeton. Andrew F. West. Century. 
Commercialism. J. J. Stevenson. Pojndar Science. 
Conti, Cesare : Italian- American Hustler. Outing. 
Converse, F. S.: Composer. F. W. Cobum. World To-day. 
Cornwall, England, Land's End at. Arthur Symons. Harper. 
Country Local Improvement Societies. E. E. Rexford. Outing. 
Cowboy, Photographing the. H. P. Steger. World's Work. 
Crested Robber, The. Charles L. Bull. Cosmopolitan. 
Darwin, Poetry and Science in. B. Titchener. Popular 8cie7ice. 
Desert Lineaments. C. R. Keyes. Popular Science. 
Dlwan of Ahmed Ased-Ullah of Damascus. N.Duncan. Harper. 
Doctor, New Mission of the. Ray S. Baker. American. 
Elizabethan Drama, New Books on. W. A. Neilson. Atlantic. 
Employers' Liability. Prank W. Lewis. Atlantic. 
Empress Dowager of China, A Visit to the. World To-day. 
England from an American Viewpoint — I. Scribner. 
England's Unemployed, Salvation Army and. Rev. of Revs. 
English in Singing, The Use of. Francis Rogers. Scribner. 
English Examples at Metropolitan Art Museum. Scribner. 
Farm Brook, Power from the. Donald C. Shafer. Rev. of Revs. 
Farmer whose Son is Also a Farmer. E.Berwick. World's Work. 
Fifteenth Amendment. M. F. Morris. North American. 
Fire Waste, Our Shameless. S. H. Adams. Everybody's. 
Florida: A Winter Playground. Kirk Munroe. Outing. 
Flying-Machine: Key to World Control. Metropolitan. 
Flying Machines, Modern. Maximilian Foster. Everybody's. 
Germany, The Crisis in. Harry Thurston Peck. Munsey. 
Germany, The Year in. William C. Dreher. Atlantic. 
Gospel for the Rich, The. Charles F. Aked. Appleton. 
GospelsofLindau: Famous Jeweled Book. G.Teall. Cosmopolitan 
Graft in San Francisco, People's War against. World To-day. 
Great Blue Heron, The, and his Neighbors. H.R.Sass. Atlantic. 
Guinness, Mrs. Benjamin. R. H. Totherington. Munsey. 
Haystack, A $20,000,000. F. G. Moorhead. Outing. 
Haytian President, Setting Up a New. D. Buffum. Outing. 
Hetch-Hetchy Valley. John Muir. Century. 
Horses, Wild. Will C. Barnes. McClure. 
Hughes, Charles E. William S. Bridgman. Munsey. 
Humor, Every Man in his. H. W. Boynton. Putnam. 
Industrial Education, Need for. M. I. MacDonald. Craftsman . 
Ireland, The New — IX. Sydney Brooks. North A merican. 
Italian Immigrants of Tontitown. J.L.Mathews. Everybody's. 
Kennedy, Charles R., Two Plays by. E. L. Cary. Atlantic. 
Labor,— How it Will Absorb Capital. A. Carnegie. World's Work. 
Life Insurance Legislation. W. J. Graham. World To-day. 
Life Insurance Policies for Special Purposes. World's Work. 
Lincoln and Darwin. A. Sherwood. World's Work. 
Lindsey, Judge, Campaigning for. World To-day. 
Lions that Stopped a Railroad — III. World'* Work. 
Literature. The New. Atlantic. 

Matrimony, A School for. F. W. Crowninshield. Appleton. 
Meat, A New, for the Millions. Eleanor Gat€8. American. 
Milk, Fermented, Effect of. C. A. Herter. Popular Science. 
Milton. George A. Gordon. Atlantic. . 

Milton, The Many-Sided. H. T. Peck. Cosm,opolitan. 

Mission Bungalow in Calf omia, A. H. L. Gaut. Craftsman. 

Mommsen and Ferrero. H. T. Peck. Bookman. 

Mortality of Overweights and Underweights. McClure. 

Mount Huasoaran, First Ascent of. Annie S. Peck. Harper. 

Muck-Raking Trust, Horrors of the. J. L. Ford. Appleton. 

Musician, The, as a Money-Maker. L. M. Isaacs. Bookman. 

National Art, Progress in Our. Robert Henri. Craftsman. 

National Life, New Order in Our. W. A. White. American. 

National Mind Cure, Practicing. World To-day. 

National Societies, Foreign Associates of. Popular Science. 

Navajo Sheep-Herder, A. N. C. Wyeth. Scribner. 

Naval Administration, Our. G.W.Melville. North Am,erican. 

New England's Method of Assimilating the Alien. Putnam. 

New Year's Resolutions, On Making. Lippincott. 

" New York Sun," The. Will Irwin. American. 

Norton, Charles Eliot. Barrett Wendell. Atlantic. 

Old Salem Ships and Sailors — XII. R. D. Paine. Outing. 

Opera, Nationalism in. Katharine Roof. Craftsman. 

Opium Question. Britannicus. North American. 

Orange Grove, In a. E. P. Powell. Outitig. 

Pacific Coast Old Village, A. Clifton Johnson. Outing. 

Panama, Reminiscences of Past Centuries in. Putnam. 

Paris, He St. Louis of. Frances W. Huard. Scribner. 

Pearl, Quest of the. C. Bryson Taylor. Everybody's. 

Penal Code, Our First National. G.Sutherland. No. American. 

Petroleum of the United States. D. T. Day. Rev. of Revs. 

Philippine Teachers' Vacation Assembly. World To-day. 

Pinchot, Gifford : Forester. He wett Thomas. Review of Reviews. 

Playwright, The, and his Players. Brander Matthews. Scribner. 

Poe. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 

Poe, Edgar Allan. Morris Bacheller. Munsey. 

Poe, Edgar Allan. George L. Knapp. Lippincott. 

Poe and Mrs. Whitman. Century. 

Poe as a Critic. Sherwin Cody. Putnam. 

Poe and Secret Writing. Firmin Dredd. Bookman. 

Poe from an English Point of View. Norman Douglas. Putnam. 

Poe in Society. Eugene L. Didier. Bookman. 

Poe's Lost Poem. John H. Ingram. Bookman. 

Poet of the Shadows, The. Agnes Lee. North American. 

Portsmouth Treaty, The. General Kuropatkin. McClure. 

Postal Savings-Banks, Need of. G. V. L. Meyer. Rev. of Revs. 

Potsdam, Picturesque. R. H. Schauflfler. Centtiry. 

Presidential Election, Meaning of the. C. A. Conant. A tlantic. 

Prosperity, Advance Agent of. C. M. Keys. World's Work. 

Puerto Rico, Colorful. Roy M. Mason. Outing. 

Physiology Class, My. Margaret Doolittle. Appleton. 

Reclamation Service, The. Forbes Lindsay. Craftsman. 

Retrospect, The. Ada Cambridge. Atlantic. 

Roosevelt's Opportunity. D. S. Miller. Popular Science. 

Root, Elihu : World Statesman. Walter Wellman. Rev. of Revs. 

Rudovitz Extradition Case, The. S.N.Harper. World To-day. 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus : Reminiscences of. Century. 

Saloon-Keeper's Experience and Observations. McClure. 

Sand, George, and De Musset, Letters of — II. Metropolitan. 

Schneider, Otto J. : Etcher. Arthur Hoeber. Cosmopolitan. 

School and Family. J. McK. Cattell. Popular Science. 

Schools, Outdoor. C. Hanford Henderson. World's Work. 

Shaler, Nathaniel 8., Autobiography of — I. Atlantic. 

Shipsin Millet's Mural Decorations. Leila Mechlin. Craftsman. 

" Shipwrecker," The, and his Work. A. W. Rolker. Appleton. 

Silks, Dyeing of. Charles Pellew. Craftsman. 

Six-Shooter, The American. Emerson Hough. Outing. 

Smithsonian Institution. C.M.Blackford. North American. 

Snake Bite Remedies. R. L. Ditmars. Outing. 

South, The Solid. Hannis Taylor. North American . 

Spanish Corks of San Feliu de Guixols. World To-<lay. 

Spencer, Herbert, Career of. L. P. Ward. Popular Science. 

Stage, Appeal of the. J. L. Ford. McClure. 

St«venson, Some Rare Glimpses of . Bailey Millard. Bookman. 

Stout and Thin, Mysteries of. Eustace Miles. Metropolitan. 

Strathcona, Lord, and Mount Royal. Outing. 

Strobeck, Chess-playing Village of. World To-day. 

Suggestion, About. James J. Walsh. Appleton. 

Summer Cottage in the Ohio Woods. E.A.Roberts. Craftsman. 

Swinburne and the Elizabethans. P. V. Keys. North American. 

Tariff Revision and the Trusts. Herbert E. Miles. Rev. of Revs. 

Tariff Revision, Hon. J. A. Tawney on. Review of Reviews. 

Technical Education, Cooperative Cures in. World To-day. 

Trees, Surgical Treatment of Our. C. A.Sidman. World To-ilay . 

Tropical Island, Town, and River. Marr ion Wilcox. Putnam. 

Truant Boy, Reform for the. Charles Harcourt. Craftsman. 

Trust, The Benevolent. John D. Rockefeller. World's Work. 

Utah's White Canyon. John F. Cargill. World To-day. 

Venezuela. The Real. G. P. Blackiston. World To-day. 

Victoria, Queen — I. Mrs. S. C. Stevenson. Century. 

Water-Power. State Control of. C. E. Lakeman. Rev. of Revs. 



[Jan. 1, 

West, Opportunities of the. Henry P. Cope. World To-dav. 
Whistler, The Pennell Biogrraphy of. H. S. Morris. Uppincott. 
Whitman's Early Life on Long Island. W. Steell. Munsey- 
Woman, Problem of the Intellectual. Avierican. 
Woman, The Inconsequential American. M. H. Vorse. Appleton. 
Woman's Position — I. Duchess of Marlborough. No. American. 
Women of the West, Pioneer. Agnes C. Laut. Outing. 
Women who Work— III. W. Hard and R. C. Dorr. Everybody^t. 
World's Beginnings. The. Robert K. Duncan. Harper. 
Zangwill, Israel. Clarence Rook. Putnam. 

liiST OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 86 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 

The Story of My Life : Recollections and Reflections. By 

Ellen Terry. Illus., 8vo, pp. 407. McClure Co. $3.50 net. 
Jolm Pettie, K..A., H.B..S.A. By Martin Hardie, B.A. Illus. 

in color, large 8vo. pp. 278. Macmillan Co. |6, net. 
Pierre Le Toumeur. By Mary Gertrude Cusbing, Ph.D. 

12mo. pp. 317. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 
BecoUeotions of a New England Educator, 1838-1908. By 

William A. Mowry. Illus., 12mo, pp. 292. Silver, Burdett 

& Co. $1.50 net. 


The Conquest of the Qreat Northwest. By Agnes C. Laut. 

In 2 vols., illus., 8vo. Outing Publishing Co. $5. net. 
The Mystery of the Pinckney Draught. By Charles C. 

Nott. 8vo. pp. 334. Century Co. $2. net. 
The Sloops of the Hudson. By William E. Verplanck and 

Moses W. CoUyer. Illus., 12mo, pp. 171. G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $1.50 net. 
The Adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment. By Horace 

Edgar Flack, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 285. Baltimore : John Hopkins 

Press. $2. net. 
A Noble Company of Adventurers. By Rufus Rockwell 

Wilson. Illus., 12mo, pp. 219. B. W. Dodge & Co. 


A Literary History of Bussia. By A. Bruckner ; edited by 
Ellis H. Minns, M.A. ; trans, by H. Havelock, M.A. With 
frontispiece in color, large 8vo, pp. 558. " Library of Liter- 
ary History." Charles Scribner's Sons. $4. net. 

Letters of Mrs. James Q. Blaine. Edited by Harriet S. 
Blaine Beale. In 2 vols., 12mo, gilt tops. Duffleld & Co. 
$4. net. 

Writings of George Washington. Edited by Lawrence B. 
Evans, Ph.D. With photogravure portrait, 8vo, pp. 567. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50 net. 

The Writings of James Madison, comprising his Public 
Papers and his Private Correspondence. Edited by Gaillard 
Hunt. Vol. VIII.. 1808-1819. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 455. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. (Sold in sets only.) 

The Taming of a Shrew: Being the Original of Shakespeare's 
"Taming of the Shrew." Edited by F. S. Boas. 12mo, 
pp.126. " Shakespeare Library." Duflfteld & Co. $ 

Henry Birkhead and the Foundations of the Oxford Chair of 
Poetry: A Public Lecture. By J. W. Mackail, M.A. 8vo, 
pp. 23. Oxford University Press. 

Self -Measurement. By William DeWitt Hyde. 16mo, pp. 74. 
B. W. Huebsch. 50 cts. net. 


Selected Poenas of Pierre de Bonsard. Chosen by St. John 
Lucas. 16mo, pp. 286. Oxford University Press. $1.75 net. 

Oxford Library of Prose and Verse. New vols. : Selected 
Poems of William Barnes, chosen and edited by Thomas 
Hardy; Echoes from the Oxford Magazine, being reprints 
of seven years; Annals of the Parish, by John Gait, with 
introduction by G. S. Gordon ; Poems by John Clare, with 
introduction by Arthur Symons; War Songs, selected by 
Christopher Stone, with introduction by General Sir Ian 
Hamilton. Each 16mo. Oxford University Press. Per vol., 
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The Well of Saint Clare. By Anatole France ; trans, by Alfred 
AUinson. 8vo, pp. 302. John Lane Co. $2. 

The Fragments of Empedocles. Trans, by William E. 
Leonard, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 92. Open Court Publishing Co. 

As You Like It. Edited by F. J. Furnivall, with Introduction 
by F. W. Clarke. " Old-Spelling Shakespeare." 12mo,pp.82. 
Duffleld & Co. $1. net. 

(Continued on next page) 



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Leaves In the Wind. By Elsa Lorraine. 12mo, uncut, pp. 122. 

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Breath of the World. By Starr Hoyt Nichols. 8vo, pp. 272. 

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[Jan. 1, 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS — continued 
Fresh Water from Old Wells : Being the Wells of the Bible. 

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The Evolution of Modern Germany. By William Harbutt 

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Mars as the Abode of Life. By Percival Lowell, A.B.. LL.D. 

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Some Notable Altars in the Church of England and the 

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No. 543. 

JANUARY 16, 1909. Vol. XLVL 






Professor Rudolf Eucken. — The indisputable 
claims of Greek literature and art. — The excite- 
ment of reading an index. — The new journalism 
in China. — The making of many monographs. — 
The public library habit in olden times. — Mr. 
Spofford's successor at Washington. — The Berlin 
Royal Library's ampler quarters. — New York's 
" New Theatre." — The possibilities of the corre- 
spondence school. — Mrs. Ward in a new environ- 
ment. — The literature of library economy. 


Esperanto and the Esperantists. E. Le. Clercq. 
" Biographized " as a Dictionary Word. Titus M. 

FIFTY YEARS AN ACTRESS. Percy F. Bickndl. 41 


WORLD POLITICS. Frederic Austin Ogg . 43 


Griffin Brownell 45 

THE YOUTH OF MIRABEAU. Henry E. Bourne. 48 


Payne 48 

The Poems of Edmund Clarence Stedman. — The 
Poems of Richard Watson Gilder. — The Poems 
and Sonnets of Louise Chandler Moulton. — 
Hughes's James Vila Blake as Poet. — Cheney's 
The Time of Roses. — Smith's Poems. — Herbert's 
First Poems. — Braithwaite's The House of Falling 
Leaves. — Gibson's The Wounded Eros. — Carruth's 
Each in His Own Tongue. — Middleton's Love Songs 
and Lyrics. — Dalliba's An Earth Poem. — Ives's 
Out-Door Music. — Poole's Mugen. 


Mr. Chesterton's confession of faith. — A new poeti- 
cal rendering of the ^neid. — Factors in the 
creation of the American drama. — Essays on 
Elizabethan dramatists. — Current topics trench- 
antly treated. — An unconvincing theory of mind. — 
A plea for personality in education. — Studies of our 
national life and progress. — The story of our 
whaling industry in America. 




Some twenty years ago, Mr. Howells said, in 
terms that invited much sarcastic comment, that 
" the art of fiction has, in fact, become a finer 
art than it was with Dickens and Thackeray. 
We could not suffer the confidential attitude of 
the latter, nor the mannerism of the former, 
any more than we could endure the prolixity of 
Richardson or the coarseness of Fielding." But 
it seems fair to urge that we do suffer the con- 
fidential attitude of, let us say, Mr. DeMorgan, 
and the mannerism of Sir George Meredith 
without feeling that we are going critically very 
far wrong. And we can without much difficulty 
fancy some critic a score of years hence won- 
dering how it was that much popular fiction of 
the period about 1900 could have been taken 
for serious literature, in view of its lack-lustre 
manner, its photographic hardness of line, its 
preoccupation with trivialities, and its dulness 
of imagination. Our supposititious critic would 
be as wide of the truth, as unjust in his balanc- 
ing of values, as was his actual prototype above 
cited, and both would appear, to a vision trained 
in observation of the ebb and flow of literary 
fashions, to have mistaken the accident for the 
substance, to have failed in discernment of the 
qualities which make literature vital and en- 

The pressure of every age remoulds the stuff 
of life to its own liking, and invests it with the 
garb of what at the given time passes for reality. 
A clothes-philosophy is as needful for the under- 
standing of literature as Carlyle showed it to be 
for the understanding of morals, but criticism 
does not often get far enough away from its 
object to see the trappings for what they are, 
or to distinguish true from sham reality. It is 
universal life that really matters, not the guise 
that life assumes in any particular age. As Mr. 
Woodberry says, " The secret of appreciation 
is to share the passion for life that literature 
itself exemplifies and contains : out of real ex- 
perience, the best that one can have, to possess 
oneself of that imaginary experience which is 
the stuff of larger life and the place of the ideal 
expansion of the soul, the gateway to which is 
art in all forms and primarily literature ; to 
avail oneself of that for pleasure and wisdom 



[Jan. 16, 

and fulness of life." It is well, for most of us 
it is necessary even, that life should be con- 
stantly presented anew, since its familiar modes 
are those which are most likely to bring to our 
consciousness its more secret and intimate mes- 
sage. This principle concerns the historian, 
no less than the novelist or the poet. Signor 
Ferrero just now is giving a new reality to the 
annals of ancient Kome by relating them from 
the sociological angle of vision whence our 
present-day consciousness finds it most natural 
to view human affairs, whether past or present. 
He tells the same old story, but gives it fresh 
effectiveness by linking with it all sorts of 
familiar associations. So the imaginative writer 
will make his strongest appeal by keeping close 
to an idiom that is understanded of the people, 
only he must not, upon peril of swift f orgetf ul- 
ness, lapse from the essential dignity of his 
mission, or forget that he is one of the long 
succession of torch-bearers that are lighting the 
path of humanity pressing toward its ultimate 

Mr. Henry Mills Alden has recently given us 
a whole book about what he calls "the new real- 
ism," " the new literature," and "the new psychi- 
cal era," and he really seems to think that the 
thoughts of men, as expressed in their imagina- 
tive writings, have become so " widened with the 
process of the suns," so clarified by science and 
philosophy, that literature has at last come to 
its full stature. The works of Scott were mere 
literary gropings in comparison with the novels 
of " the greatest master of English fiction," Mr. 
Thomas Hardy, or even with the writings of the 
modern magazinist, whose firm and assured step 
makes the great men of the past seem stumblers 
by comparison. A new " Faerie Queene" wordd 
be unwelcome to-day, and a new " Republic " 
would fall upon dull ears. " We do not want 
another Dickens. We are willing to turn him 
over with that other old playwright, Shake- 
speare, to the tender mercies of Tolstoy." 
The modern magazine, that instrument which 
brings the writer " into intimate accord with the 
idiomatic expression of a general audience," has 
so refined our standards that the present age 
" may be said to be the only one which has the 
complete retrospect within the range of its clear 
vision and catholic appreciation." If we mod- 
erns, in comparison with our predecessors in 
literature, " do not loom up in so singular and 
striking eminences, we strike deeper and have a 
broader vision." 

As these amazing dicta multiply in Mr. 

Alden's pages, we grow more and more bewil- 
dered. One William Smith, an estimable con- 
tributor to " Blackwood's Magazine," was, we 
are told, the author of the " two greatest philo- 
sophical novels in the English language," — but 
we defy all casual readers, and most students of 
English literature, to name them. The phrase, 
" from Sidney Smith to Charles Whibley," is at 
least a singular way of designating the line of 
" the great English essayists." And we never 
saw quite such a jumble of names — some fairly 
noteworthy and some absolutely insignificant — 
as Mr. Alden gives us upon a single page (179) 
by way of exemplifying "the new quality of 
imaginative writing." It would be unkind for 
us even to mention some of them in such a con- 
nection, and the best of them seem but shadows 
when compared with the names of the beacon 
lights of our literature. We can easily agree 
with the author when he says: "Mrs. Ward 
is probably not a greater genius than Fielding, 
any more than the intellect of Herbert Spencer 
was greater than that of Aristotle, or the crea- 
tive power of Tennyson mightier than that of 
^schylus." But what are we to make of the 
implied suggestion that the members of such 
strangely-assorted couples are for one moment 
to be thought of as occupying the same intel- 
lectual plane? 

We have made some effort to find out just 
what are the qualities of " the new realism" that 
Mr. Alden claims to have discovered. As far 
as his elusive method admits of logical statement, 
such passages as the following offer the best 
available clues to his thought : 

" We take the evil along with the good, making no 
problem of their reconcilement, since they are elements 
in a natural solution." 

" Literature, rejecting the unreal, has become homely 
of feature, with home-like sympathies, graces, and 
charms, and at the same time more subtle and wonder- 
ful in its disclosure of the deep truths of life than it ever 
was in its detachment from life or in its reflection of a 
life which has not found its true centre in a spiritual 
harmony and was therefore itself untrue, wearing all 
sorts of illusive or monstrous disguises." 

"The very content of the art, the kind of human 
phenomena emerging at the stage of psychical evolution 
which we have reached, is unprecedented. All the old 
signs fail us ; the well-worn tokens have given place to 
an ever-fresh coinage. The creations of the human 
spirit are wholly its own, born of it, not made in con- 
formity with any logical proposition or mental notion, 
and they bear no stamp of extraneous authority; what- 
ever of divinity they may have is in their purely human 

"Formerly the imagination dwelt in the house of 
Fame, exalting heroic or saintly deeds and personali- 
ties; now it is not busy with things that are memo- 




rable or monumentally lasting; it dwells in the house 
of Life." 

This is the best that we can do in the way of 
exposition. Probably these ideas are all implicit 
in the single phrase, " It is the mild season in 
literature," which evokes our hearty agreement, 
although we cannot interpret the saying in Mr. 
Alden's sense. It is certainly a mild kind of 
literature that is purveyed by the type of maga- 
zine with which the author has been associated 
for forty years, but all its graces and refine- 
ments cannot disguise its obvious lack of virility 
and penetrating vision. 

To support his thesis respecting the new real- 
ism, Mr. Alden is forced to postulate a new 
Jiuman nature, and he does not balk at the 
necessity. Since 1870, he tells us, there has 
been " a new era of psychical evolution, involv- 
ing something far deeper than an increased re- 
finement in manners — a revolution in human 
thought and feeling, a changed attitude toward 
life and the world." Furthermore, " within 
the memory of men who have reached the age 
of fifty the human spirit has found its true 
centre of active development and of interpreta- 
tion — its real modernity, which does not mean 
the depreciation of the past, but a deeper and 
truer appreciation, nor any break in the con- 
tinuity of culture, which is rather led into 
fresher and more fertile fields of expansion." 
We fear that this disclaimer will not avail to 
offset that " depreciation of the past " which is 
implicit in the whole argument of the book. 
However the fashion of literary expression may 
change from age to age, the substance of thought 
remains about the same, and in the deeper sense 
we have no problems that the ancients did not 
ponder. The angle of our vision is shifted, but 
the object viewed remains fixed. Mr. Alden's 
effort to reveal in this twentieth century a new 
literature and a new human nature seems to us 
nothing more than an elaborate mystification. 
And, far from taking our current modes of ex- 
pression to be praiseworthy, we think that they 
err in over-subtlety and preciosity. The London 
" Nation " recently said : " Irrationalism in 
various shapes is for the moment the dominant 
note in every department of life, and it is at 
least as powerful in philosophy as in sociology 
and in literature." As far as literature is 
concerned, we take this fact — since fact it 
seems to us — to be the direct outcome of our 
departure from the approved ways, of our fev- 
erish desire to find new things to say, and new 
ways of saying them. 


Professor Rudolf Euckek, the winning " dark 
horse " in the Nobel-prize race — though it should 
not be for a nnoment thought that he was voluntarily 
or consciously a competitor — is an interesting and 
attractive as well as highly gifted man. Prominent 
in German philosophic and speculative thought for 
the last third of a century, this Jena scholar and 
writer and teacher was little known to the outside 
world until about six years ago. An idealist in 
philosophy, and a Lutheran in religion, he repudi- 
ates the notion, entertained by his friend and 
neighbor, Professor Haeckel, of a mechanical and 
necessarian universe and a materialistic origin of 
spiritual forces. The two men are earnest and 
enthusiastic students of the same great problems ; 
but how different the solutions they arrive at ! 
"Nobody since Martineau," says one who knows 
Professor Eucken well and is thoroughly familiar 
with his writings, " has written more eloquently or 
thought more deeply concerning the reality of a 
super-senaual world, the inevitableness of a self- 
revelation of divine purpose to the human soul, the 
necessity of a spiritual rebirth through ethical en- 
deavor, the freedom of man's moral personality, and 
its continuance beyond the limitations of space and 
time." His published works, which unite depth of 
thought, elevation of tone, and charm of style, are 
as yet little known to English readers ; but his most 
famous book, " The Problem of Human Life as 
Viewed by the Great Thinkers," is even now in 
process of translation into our language, and will be 
published soon. It is not surprising to learn that 
miracles have no place in his universe of law and 
order, that divine attributes have never been granted 
exclusively to any one man, that there has never 
been a special creation of the world or a special 
revelation to any favored race. In personal appear- 
ance, to one who visited him at Jena, Professor 
Eucken appeared as " a square-built man, a little 
under the normal size, blond in type, betraying his 
sturdy Frisian descent from a stock said to resemble 
most among Germans the English race. Threescore 
years have silvered his hair and beard and furrowed 
his brow. Nothing could surpass the simplicity, 
genuineness, and heartiness of his greeting. One 
could well understand the saying of his pupils that 
Professor Eucken wins not only their adniiration as 
a teacher, but their affection as a man." There is 
cause for congratulation in the better acquaintance 
with this man and his works that we are now in the 
way of making. , , , 

The indisputable claims of Greek liter- 
ature AND ART have a valiant champion in Pro- 
fessor Mahaffy, who has come all the way from 
Dublin to remind us once more, in a course of 
Lowell Institute lectures, that if we choose to for- 
get the glory that was Greece, and to make the 
" practical " the idol of our worship, we are likely 



[Jan. 16, 

soon to be confronted with the paradox that the most 
practical of all are the things that are beautiful and 
useless. Some of the lecturer's reported utterances 
outside the lecture room are worth quoting. To him 
Greek is by no means a dead language. " To con- 
sider a language dead which is the medium of com- 
munication of a numerous people is sufficiently 
absurd on the face of things. Its living importance 
is too little considered in the teaching of it. The 
mistake has been that students are not made to hear 
the language. Its study ought to be supplemented 
by discourse in modern Greek." He even maintains 
that the pronounciation of modern Greek is fairly 
close to that of ancient. The doing away with com- 
pulsory Greek in the college course he deplores. 
" An idea gets abroad that Latin wiU do ; but I 
notice that our finest type of scholar stiU takes 
Greek studies. As an examiner, I constantly have 
brought to my attention the difference between those 
who have and those who have not submitted to a 
drill in the classics. Those who come up for exam- 
ination in French and German make mistakes which 
no classical scholar would ever make. The ushers 
who teach the modern languages are not so proficient ; 
their services come at a cheaper rate, and a general 
relaxation of the standards of scholarship sets in." 
Surprising to relate, our Dublin visitor finds one of 
the strongest characteristics of American scholarship 
to be " its extreme laboriousness." He further says : 
" Professor Goodwin set the fashion with his Greek 
Grammar, and the rest have followed. . . . Amer- 
ican scholars tend to be more minute even than the 
Germans, and if they have a failure it is just that, — r 
the emphasis on the grammatical. In one respect, 
however, America ought to take the first rank, and 
that is in the finely systematized and organized 
libraries. I have noticed this wherever I have gone, 
especially at Harvard and Chicago." There is com- 
pliment in both the censure and the praise ; but that 
we are yet conspicuously at fault in being unduly 
minute and painstaking in our scholarship, is open to 
question. ... 

The excitement of reading an index may 
not be the most thrilling in the world, but, given a 
sympathetic and imaginative reader, it is consider- 
able. This is the season of the annual index — the 
way-finder to the past year's treasures of periodical 
literature. In his latest volume of essays Dr. 
Crothers expressed his preference for the dictionary 
if he were obliged to choose one book to relieve the 
tedium of solitary existence on a desert island. Far 
more stimulating, however, and infinitely richer in 
suggestion, would be a volume of Poole's Index. 
Opening the lajtest instalment of that indispensable 
work, we hit upon such attractive and curiously 
juxtaposed entries as the following : — " Revel of 
the Sacred Cats " and, immediately after, " Revela- 
tion, Divine, Need of Belief in "; " Determined 
Celibate " and, just before it, " Deterioration, Nar 
tional " and " ditto. Physical." The causal connec- 
tion between determined celibacy and national as 

well as physical deterioration — race suicide and all 
its horrors — is obvious. " Polly Stevens's Calf's 
Skin " vies in piquancy of appeal with three articles 
on Marco Polo that immediately follow. " Author- 
ship and Artificiality " has fine possibilities ; and 
so, too, it may be, to other eyes than ours, the page 
and a quarter of automobile headings may look 
irresistibly captivating. But the charm of the 
mysteriously suggestive is not confined to Poole. 
Take 80 apparently forbidding an index as that to 
the weekly " Financial Supplement " of the New 
York " Evening Post." In its twelve closely printed 
columns occur such richly potential titles as these : — 
" Hard Times, Meeting with Courage," " Hard 
Times, Enterprises which may be helped by," 
" Magnates, Illness of," " Optimists," " Chelsea 
Fire, Destruction of Capital seen in another Mood," 
" Chicago, one Industry there that is looking up." 
How comforting the assurance that while all other 
Chicago industries go about with eyes downcast, 
there is still one that bravely and hopefully looks 
up and not down, forward and not back, out and not 
in, and lends a hand ! Who, we beg leave to in- 
quire, can find this a dull world as long as there are 
indexes to read ? ... 

The new journalism in China is one of the 
forces making for the enlightenment of that vast 
realm. More than two hundred newspapers have 
been started within the last few years, and active 
measures are taken to ensure their being not only 
published but read. In some of the provinces the 
viceroys provide public halls where the illiterate 
gather to hear the news read aloud. Hitherto the 
chief newspapers of China were conducted by for- 
eigners and were mostly in the English language; 
and even now many native newspapers publish a 
column or more of matter in English. China ought 
to have a vigorous native press, for it is the home of 
what was, until a year ago, the oldest newspaper in 
the world — fifteen centuries or more old. It ceased 
publication because of its resentment at government 
interference with its claimed rights and privileges. 
It is expected that the modern newspaper will act 
as a powerful battering-ram on this Asiatic strong- 
hold of ignorance and superstition and stupid con- 
servatism. But the daily issue of a journal that 
uses type embracing eleven thousand different char- 
acters is an undertaking whose magnitude none but 
a compositor can appreciate. 
• • • 

The making of many monographs on economic 
themes was strongly deprecated by Professor Patten 
of the University of Pennsylvania in his presidential 
address at the late annual meeting of the American 
Economic Association at Atlantic City. In his 
opinion, our libraries are congested with those pon- 
derous volumes of transactions and proceedings, 
technical journals, and special studies, that accumu- 
late so rapidly, take up so much room, are so little 
read — and, let it be adde,d, are often such a source 
of bother aud perplexity to the cataloguer. He 




urges the economist to abandon the dry and tech- 
nical treatment of his subject, to write for the news- 
papers and magazines, and to " arouse the imagina- 
tion by striking phrases and vivid contrasts." 
Furthermore, spurning the pile of learned tomes 
bequeathed to us by the earlier economists, he does 
not hesitate to declare that " there is no renown 
worth having but that of the newspaper and the 
magazine and the class-room," and that "there can 
be no economic literature apart from general litei'- 
ature. We give the content to which others give 
the form. To separate ourselves from the general 
literary movements of the age is to deprive our- 
selves of influence, and literature of content." He 
exalts the editor, advises his hearers to desert the 
library for the sanctum, and speaks with no pro- 
found respect for the reputation based on books 
that no one reads. The economist should take his 
place on the firing line of civilization. "No fact 
is valuable to the economist unless it is also valuable 
to the journalist who summarizes events, the editor 
who comments on them, and the reformer who uses 
them." This manifestation, on Professor Patten's 
part, of a reaction from excessive specialization is a 
wholesome sign ; and yet it is also a danger signal, 
for it may serve as encouragement to superficiality, 
dilettanteism, the courting of popular applause, and 
various other sorts of unscholarly conduct. His 
exhortation is for the Dryasdusts ; let all others 

listen with mental reservations. 

« • • 

The public library habit in olden times 
was rather slow of acquirement, partly for the very 
sufficient reason that public libraries were few and 
far between, and also because, in this country at 
least, so many other things, of more urgent import- 
ance than keeping abreast of the literature of the 
day, were clamoring to be done. In the autumn of 
1754, just after a shipment of books for the New 
York Society Library had arrived from London, 
there appeared in the New York " Mercury " this 
timely and stirring exhortation : " We hope that all 
who have a Taste for polite Literature, and an 
Eager Thirst after Knowledge and Wisdom, will 
now repair to those Fountains and Repositories from 
whence they can, by Study, be collected. And we 
heartily wish that the glorious Motives of acquiring 
that which alone distinguishes human Nature (we 
mean Science and Virtue joined to the noble Prin- 
ciples of being useful to Mankind and. more espe- 
cially to our dear Country) will be sufficient to excite 
the most Lethargic, to peruse the Volumes pur- 
chased for this End by Means of the Advice and 
Endeavours of Gentlemen whom we and future 
Generations will have reason, we hope, to praise 
and extoU : and whom we cannot help saying are 
an Honour to their Country : We finally wish that 
New York, now she has an opportunity, will show 
that she comes not short of the other Provinces in 
Men of excellent Genius, who by cultivating the 
Talents of Nature, will take oft' that Reflection cast 
on us by the neighboring Colonies of being an 

ignorant People." " The History of the New York 
Society Library," with an introductory account of 
" The Library in Colonial New York " from 1698 to 
1776, has been well written by Mr. Austin Baxter 
Keep, and printed, for the Trustees by the De Vinne 
Press. , . . 

Mr. Spofford's successor at Washington as 
assistant librarian appears to be a man of mark. 
Mr. A. P. C. Grifiin, former chief of the division of 
bibliography, is endowed in no small measure with 
some of those qualities of mind and memory that 
distinguished his predecessor. No one has been more 
in demand on the part of congressmen and others 
engaged in " getting up " subjects for oratorical or 
argumentative or literaiy presentation. We are told 
that so much has bibliography become the warp 
and woof of his being that his brain is now a better 
and more complete catalogue than any the library 
possesses. Without a moment's warning he is likely 
to be called upon for information on any conceiv- 
able subject; but he is said to be unfailing in his 
resources. No library in the world enjoys the serv- 
ices of one who takes greater pains to satisfy the 
public ; and this unflagging zeal, and the quickness 
with which books or other material, or verbal in- 
formation, are forthcoming at the applicant's request, 
are a constant source of surprise to foreigners. The 
British Museum, the National Library in Paris, and 
the great Berlin and Munich libraries are justly 
praised for the careful service they render to all 
admitted to their privileges; but it is conceded by 
those who have worked in libraries both here and 
abroad that our methods are simpler and better, and 
our librarians and assistants less bureaucratic than 
those of Europe. It is the quick intelligence, the 
ready sympathy, and the well-stored minds of men 
and women like Mr. Grifiin that help to make the 
practical efficiency of our libraries unequalled. 

The Berlin Royal Library's ampler quar- 
ters, into which it will soon move, if indeed the re- 
moval has not already been accomplished, will make 
possible, one may confidently hope, far better and 
prompter service than was rendered in the old build- 
ing. Some of our readers may recall the tedious 
wait of twenty-four hours between application for 
and delivery of books under the old regime. No 
wonder German visitors to our great libraries are 
astonished at the quickness and informality with 
which the resources of those libraries are placed at 
the applicant's disposal. From the latest annual 
report of Dr. Adolph Harnack, general director of 
the great Berlin institution, it is interesting to learn 
that the library now has a million and a quarter 
volumes, that it employs forty-five librarians, fifty- 
seven assistants of both sexes, forty-five attendants, 
and so on, the whole force numbering more than 
one hundred and fifty. Last year there were lent 
344,000 volumes in Berlin, and 36,000 elsewhere, 
while the average daily demand in the reading-room 
was 888. Sixteen persons are constantly engaged 



[Jan. 16, 

in cataloguing, and the number of leaves added 
during the last twelve months to the catalogue — 
an ungainly, space-filling series of folio manuscript 
volumes — wsis about 6700, the number of titles 
about 18,000. The accessions, in new and old vol- 
umes, amounted to 57,000. The music department, 
now two years old, has received many gifts from 
music-publishers, and is already so important a 
part of the library that it furnishes employment to 
twenty persons. 

New York's " New Theatre," the corner-stone 
of which was recently laid — although the building 
itself is outwardly nearly completed — gives promise 
of achievement long desired by friends of high-class 
drama. And the wealth that is behind the enter- 
prise — wealth pledged to self-denial in the matter 
of pecuniary gain — inspires reasonable hope that at 
least monetary considerations will not bring to igno- 
minious failure this latest and most considerable 
attempt to elevate the stage. The reported plans of 
the administration make agreeable reading, to say 
the least. Only the best plays, whether classic or 
modern, are to be presented ; " stars " will not be 
encouraged to scintillate at the expense of the com- 
pany as a whole, which company, it is hoped, will 
be virtually an " all-star " organization, so that the 
playwright will be enabled to bring his conceptions 
to the fullest development ; a certain low annual 
rental the theatre will be expected to earn, but any 
income above expenses will go toward perfecting the 
work undertaken. The courting of custom is thus 
provided against (it is hoped), and also the necessity 
of earning a certain income will obviate the danger 
of altogether ignoring public opinion and succumb- 
ing to that complacent apathy which unfortunately 
characterizes some of the European subsidized play- 
houses. Further developments, with the opening of 
the New Theatre next November, will be watched 
with interest not unmixed with anxiety. 

The possibilities of the correspondence 
SCHOOL seem not yet to have been half exhausted. 
Not only can everything in languages and literature, 
in art and science, in trades and professions, and in 
almost every conceivable human industry, be taught 
by correspondence ; not only can one become a law- 
yer or a linguist, a painter or a plumber, a carpenter 
or (perhaps) a car-conductor, by subscribing to some 
inter-continental correspondence school ; but one may 
also hope by the same means to learn the most effec- 
tive method of courtship and, finally, to win a wife 
from the school's selected list of candidates for mat- 
rimony. Friendship, too, as well as love-making, is 
now taught by mail. In the advertising section 
of a London literary review occurs this item, most 
alluring to the friendless : — " To secure friends 
and friendships join the Correspondence Club, 
10s. 6d." If the correspondence method proves 
equal to teaching virtues and inculcating abstrac- 
tions, how widely beneficent will be its scope ! Pres- 
ently we may see classes started in the cultivation 

of bravery and modesty, of altruism and self-denial, 
of truthfulness and charity and self-control. The 
lowering of letter-rates, now going on, will help not 

a little in this matter 

• • • 

Mrs. Ward in a new environment excites 
one's curiosity. Will she, in her " Marriage k la 
Mode," which begins in the current number of 
" McClure's Magazine," succeed in avoiding those 
little betrayals of unfamiliarity with our ways and 
traditions that are all but inevitable in European 
pictures of American society? The story opens 
well, with a visit to Mt. Vernon on the part of the 
chief characters, and just about enough of reference 
to the historic interest and the natural beauties of 
the spot ; but a conversation, on the way back to 
Washington, between the hero and heroine, on the 
subject of divorce as practised in this land of free- 
dom, rather tends to wearisomeness and platitude. 
At any rate, it is not exactly novel to American 
readers. A passing reference to a lumber king of 
Illinois might (perhaps unjustifiably) suggest the 
query whether Mrs. Ward conceives of the Prairie 
State as still covered with primeval forest. What 
she will do for lack of English politics and English 
nobility to supply the necessary — shall we say 
longueurs ? — we wait with considerable interest to 

The literature of library economy, already 
considerable in volume, is still growing. Although 
one cannot learn from books, or even by taking a 
course in a correspondence university, how to manage 
a library with entire success, it is indispensable to 
acquire in some way a right theory as the guiding 
principle of one's daily practice. A serial work 
descriptive of the methods pursued by the Newark 
(N. J.) Public Library has been undertaken by Mr. 
John Cotton Dana, with the aid of his assistants in 
the Newark library. " Modern American Library 
Economy " is the title of the work, and the first sec- 
tion of the first part — treating of " The Registration 
Desk," the Part as a whole having to do with " The 
Delivery Department " — is now issued from the 
Elm Tree Press of Woodstock, Vermont. Illustra- 
tions and facsimiles help to make still clearer the 
lucid explanations and rules. Mr. Dana's is no new 
hand in this domain of authorship, and hLs book 
promises well. 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

The argument in your issue of the 16th of December, 
by an Esperantist, against reforms in Esperanto, is 
largely an attack against the person and motives of 
M. de Beaufront, one of the sponsors of the simplified 
Esperanto (" Ido "). These personal remarks I pass 
over without answer. 

It then goes on to aver that Esperanto can no more 
be simplified than English could. What a modest 




comparison! English exists primarily for those nations 
that speak it to-day, the Anglo-Saxons; hence English, 
as a national language, is a fact. Esperanto claims to 
exist for the whole world; and since the whole world is 
still very far from speaking Esperanto, Esperanto as a 
world-language is still a project. English is the natural 
tongue of a hundred and thirty millions of men, and has 
had an individual existence for fifteen centuries; Esper- 
anto does not count a single man among its adepts who 
has learned it as his mother tongue, and it was pub- 
lished but little more than fifteen years ago. 

The correspondent proceeds to name Ostwald of 
Leipsic, the famous chemist, as an approver of primitive 
Esperanto. With the same right Washington could be 
described as a partisan of King George III., ignoring 
all of his later Revolutionary career. The truth is that 
to Ostwald, to the philologist Jespersen of Copenhagen, 
to the philosopher Couturat of Paris, and to some other 
eminent men, the very reform is due ; as they found the 
old Esperanto too full of crudities, cacophonies, and 
illogicalities, to admit of their endorsing it finally as an 
international auxiliary language. 

The contributor, speaking as self-styled advocate of 
the "new generation " (whatever he may mean by that), 
pleads for the stability of an artificial language against 
the reform attempts of "a band of childish malcon- 
tents." This childish band (see the names above) has 
given to Esperanto the firm principles without which it 
would be, and was heretofore, resting on sand, and 
remained at the mercy of any competent critic. In its 
simplified and corrected form, Esperanto is no longer an 
arbitrary mixture of Romance, Teutonic, Slavonic, and 
Utopian (that is, freely invented) roots, but it obeys 
the law of maximum internationality. Instead of 
copying in a slavish way the capricious and inconsistent 
word-building methods of Grerman, it now has a set of 
rules for forming derivatives according to the uniform 
dictates of logic. Instead of forcing on printing-offices 
an alphabet with half a dozen accented letters which are 
not met in any, even the least important, language in 
the world, it can now be printed with the ordinary 
Roman alphabet. Instead of emulating the Slavonic 
languages in sibilants, and an infantine wail in diph- 
thongs, it is now as easily pronounceable and as eupho- 
nious as Italian. Instead of dragging along a system 
of inflections as severe as the dead languages, it has 
now been modernized by applying to it the simple 
common-sense grammar of English. 

Primitive Esperanto was published about twenty 
years ago by a talented young man of no special philo- 
logical knowledge and of no experience ; what unbiased 
examiner can deny that the Parisian experts have ren- 
dered a service to the world by placing that layman's 
attempt on strong scientific foundations, and thus mak- 
ing it safe against the very changes from which the 
zealous correspondent professes to protect the coming 
generations? ^ Lk Clercq. 

Chicago, January 10, 1909. 

t S^to Kooks. 

Fifty Years an Actress.* 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

In The Dial of January 1, page 9, I read: "Bio- 
graphized (the word is not in the dictionary)." But it 
is, and has been since 1887, in the greatest of diction- 
aries — the Oxford: with examples from Southey (1800) 
and the « Spectator " (1868). Titus M. Coan. 

New York, January 7, 1909. 

Thoroughly wholesome, warmly human, im- 
failingly good-tempered, and finely character- 
istic are the " Recollections and Reflections " of 
that long-time stage favorite, Miss Ellen Terry, 
whose book, bearing the main title, " The Story 
of My Life," appears after various complica- 
tions and misunderstandings that at one time 
threatened to cut short its serial issue before 
it had well begun. Reminiscences of the stage 
commonly have something of the glamour and 
fascination of the stage itself, and Miss Terry's 
rich store of professional memories, covering 
more than half a century, forms no exception to 
the rule ; but her notes and comments on persons 
and scenes and events wholly extra-theatrical 
are also full of interest, though necessarily her 
chapters treat most largely of actors and actresses 
and her own dealings with them. 

" A child of the stage " she calls herself, her 
father and mother having been players before 
her, and her own stage experience dating from 
1856, when she was but eight years old. Six 
out of nine brothers and sisters who grew old 
enough to feel the compelling influence of hered- 
ity and environment took to the stage ; and three 
are still treading the boards. There were, by 
the way, eleven children in all — which makes 
one marvel that the mother ever found time or 
strength to assume any other part than that of 
materfamilias. The manifest aptitude of the 
eight-year-old Ellen for the stage, as well as her 
strength of character even as a child, is illus- 
trated by her heroic behavior in a painful acci- 
dent that occurred to her when she was playing 
Puck in " A Midsummer Night's Dream " — 
her second part on any stage. Coming up 
through a trap at the end of the last act to de- 
liver the final speech, she had her foot caught 
by a too-speedy closing of the trap-door, and a 
toe was broken. Nevertheless, when she had 
been extricated, she stifled her screams and sobs 
and went through with her part, even as many 
an older player has been forced to forget per- 
sonal agony and go on with the mimic scene. 
The child showed herself true mother of the 
woman — and she had her salary doubled for 
doing so. 

Of certain malign influences to which all 
followers of the stage are more or less subject 
she thus writes in an early page : 

*Thf. Stoey of my Life. Recollections and Reflections. 
Ellen Terry. Illustrated. New York: The McClure Co. 




[Jan. 16, 

" Another thing I thought cruel j^ this time was the 
scandal which was talked in the thipter. A change for 
the better has taken place in this rq^ect — at any rate, 
in conduct. People behave better ubw, and in our pro- 
fession, carried on as it is in the pu|[lic eye, behavior is 
everything. At the Haymarket tlipre were simply no 
bounds to what was said in the greenroom. One night 
I remember gathering up my skirts (we were, I think, 
playing * The Rivals ' at the time), making a curtsey, 
as Mr. Chippendale, one of the best actors in old comedy 
I ever knew, had taught me, and sweeping out of the 
room with the famous line from another Sheridan play : 
' Ladies and gentlemen, I leave my character behind 
uie! ' I know that this was very priggish of me, but I 
am quite as uncompromising in my hatred of scandal now 
as I was then. Quite recently I had a line to say in 
' Captain Brassbound's Conversion,' which is a very help- 
ful reply to any tale-bearing. ' As if any one ever 
knew the whole truth about anything! ' " 

Charles Reade, who was the means of closing 
Miss Terry's second interegnum and of recalling 
her to the stage a second time, after her second 
trial of married life and domestic happiness, 
plays a conspicuous part in her book. Coming 
upon her by chance as he was riding in Hert- 
fordshire, where she had hidden herself from 
the world, he abruptly offered her the part of 
Philippa in " The Wandering Heir," at the 
New Queen's Theatre, of which he was the lessee. 
A laughing acceptance on what she thought he 
would consider impossible terms — she jokingly 
demanded forty pounds a week — speedily led 
to an actual engagement on those terms ; and 
thus the theatre-going world was not deprived 
of its Miss Terry, before it well knew what it 
would have lost. She thus sums up her impres- 
sions of that many-sided man of genius : 

" Dear, kind, unjust, generous, cautious, impulsive, 
passionate, gentle Charles Reade. Never have I known 
anyone who combined so many qualities, far asmider as 
the poles, in one single disposition. He was placid and 
turbulent, yet always majestic. He was inexplicable 
and entirely lovable — a stupid old dear, and as wise as 
Solomon ! He seemed guileless, and yet had moments 
of suspicion and craftiness worthy of the wisdom of 
the serpent. One moment he would call me 'dearest 
child'; the next, with indignant emphasis, 'Madam!'" 

Intimate memories of other and even more 
famous men than Charles Reade abound. Here 
is a pleasant glimpse of Tennyson, in that brief 
time when Miss Terry was known as " Nellie 

♦' In the evening I went walking with Tennyson over 
the fields, and he would point out to me the differences 
in the flight of different birds, and tell me to watch their 
solid phalanxes turning against the sunset, the compact 
wedge suddenly narrowing sharply into a thin line. He 
taught me to recognize the barks of trees and to call wild 
flowers by their names. He picked me the first bit of 
pimpernel I ever noticed. Always I was quite at ease 
with him. He was so wonderfully simple." 

With this picture of one poet, whom his young 

friend had no difficulty in recognizing as a born 
poet, contrast the following rapid sketch of 
another : 

" That Browning, with his carefully brushed hat, 
smart coat, and fine society manners, was a poet, always 
seemed to me far more incomprehensible than his poetry, 
which I think most people would have taken straight- 
forwardly and read with a fair amount of ease, if certain 
enthusiasts had not founded societies for making his 
crooked places plain, and (to me) his plain places very 

Miss Terry rejoices that, although similar 
attempts have been made in Shakespeare's case, 
they have failed. " Coroners' inquests by learned 
societies can't make Shakespeare a dead man." 
The boundless esteem in which Shakespeare is 
held by the writer, and her thorough familiarity 
with his plays, show themselves repeatedly in 
quotation and allusion throughout the book. 
Miss Terry's quick recognition of living genius 
is again illustrated by the following paragraph : 

" The most remarkable men I have known were, with- 
out doubt. Whistler and Oscar Wilde. This does not 
imply that I liked them better or admired them more 
than the others, but there was something about both 
of them more instantaneously individual and audacious 
than it is possible to describe." 

A good third of the volume has to do with 
Miss Terry's connection with Henry Irving and 
with the plays produced at the Lyceum. Speak- 
ing of Irving's aloofness and reserve and his 
inability or unwillingness to form intimate friend- 
ships, the writer questions whether anyone ever 
" really knew him." She believes that he never 
wholly trusted his friends, and she finds a pos- 
sible cause for this lifelong distrust in two 
experiences of his early days. 

" From his childhood up, Henry was lonely. His 
chief companions in youth were the Bible and Shake- 
speare. He used to study ' Hamlet ' in the Cornish 
fields, when he was sent out by his aunt, Mrs. Penberthy, 
to call in the cows. One day, when he was in one of 
the deep, narrow lanes common in that part of England, 
he looked up and saw the face . of a sweet little lamb 
gazing at him from the top of the bank. . . . With some 
difficulty he scrambled up the bank, slipping often in 
the damp, red earth, threw his arms round the lamb's 
neck and kissed it. The lamb bit him! . . . He had 
another siich set-back when he first went on the stage, 
and for some six weeks in Dublin was subjected every 
night to groans, hoots, hisses, and cat-calls from audi- 
ences who resented him because he had taken the place 
of a dismissed favorite. In such a situation an actor is 
not likely to take stock of reasons. . . . The bitterness 
of this Dublin episode was never quite forgotten. It 
colored Henry Irving's attitude towards the public." 

These are trivial incidents, it is true, but signi- 
ficant as helping to a better understanding of a 
rather enigmatic character. Miss Terry's cor- 
dial admiration, esteem, and even love of her 
illustrious fellow-player, and the whole history 




of her connection with the Lyceum Theatre and 
her noteworthy appearances on its stage, are too 
familiar to the general public to call for further 
reference here. Passing on to the chapter deal- 
ing with America, where Miss Terry made eight 
professional tours, we are tempted to quote her 
impressions of American women : 

"Beautifully as the women dress, they talk very 
little about clothes. I was much struck by their cul- 
ture — by the evidences that they had read fai- more 
and developed a more fastidious taste than most young 
Englishwomen. Yet it is all mixed up with extraor- 
dinary naivete. The vivacity, the appearance, at least, 
of reality, the animation, the energy of American women 
delighted me. They are very sympathetic, too, in spite 
of a certain callousness which comes of regarding 
everything in life, even love, as ' lots of fun.' I did 
not think that they, or the men either, had much nat- 
ural sense of beauty. They admire beauty in a curious 
way through their intellect. Nearly every American 
girl has a cast of the winged Victory in her room. She 
makes it a point of her education to admire it." 

Miss Terry is, naturally enough, attached to 
the old ways and the old days and somewhat 
doubtful of the superiority of the new. Yet 
she wishes not to be thought a fanatical wor- 
shipper of the past. " Let me pray," she ex- 
claims, "that I, representing the old school, 
may never look on the new school with the 
patronizing airs of ' Old Fitz ' and Fanny 
Kemble. I wish that I could see the new school 
of acting in Shakespeare. Shakespeare must be 
kept up, or we shall become a third-rate nation! " 

Again and again the writer laments her lack 
of experience with the pen. But, perhaps partly 
because of that lack, her chapters have a fresh- 
ness and life about them that attract and hold 
the reader's attention. Shrewd reflections and 
bits of keen womanly insight sprinkle her pages 
most agreeably. Speaking of some of Charles 
Reade's early counsel to her, and her own pres- 
ent increased facility as an actress, she says : " I 
am able to think more swiftly on the stage now 
than at the time Charles Reade wrote to me, 
and I only wish I were young enough to take 
advantage of it. But youth thinks sloicly, as 
a rule." And again, of eccentricity she writes : 
" There is all the difference in the world between 
departure from recognized rules by one who has 
learned to obey them, and neglect of them 
through want of training or want of skill or 
want of understanding. Before you can be 
eccentric you must know where the circle is." 

The book has a great abundance of appro- 
priate illustrations, especially portraits of Miss 
Terry and of Henry Irving in divers characters 
and at different periods of their lives. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

The Unite^ 


During the ^nter of 1906-7, the annual 
series of Harvaifl lectures provided at the Paris 
Sorbonne on ther'Hyde foundation was delivered 
by Professor Archibald Cary Coolidge, who, 
being a specialist in international history and 
politics, selected, very appropriately, as his sub- 
ject " The United States as a World Power." 
Under this same title the lectures, liberally 
recast, have lately been put forth in book form. 
With the exception of Professor Latane's 
" America as a World Power," the volume 
constitutes the only attempt that has been made 
to present at length and in a scholarly fashion 
the part which the United States plays, and has 
played, in the great drama of world politics ; 
and though Professor Coolidge's book is devoted 
predominantly to the decade since the Spanish- 
American War, it does undertake, as Professor 
Latane's does not, to bring before the reader 
the whole sweep of American foreign policy and 
diplomatic history since 1789. 

What is a world power ? And at what point 
in her history did the United States become a 
world power ? These are inevitable questions, 
but difficult ones to answer. Twenty years ago, 
the expression " world power " was practically 
unknown. To-day it is a commonplace of poli- 
tical discussion, though admittedly conveying 
often no scientifically exact meaning. World 
powers, as Professor Coolidge conceives them for 
purposes of his treatise, are those " which are 
directly interested in all parts of the world, and 
whose voices niust be listened to everywhere." 
Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and 
the United States belong unquestionably to the 
category ; Japan probably does, or at any rate 
soon will; China, Austria, Italy, Brazil, the 
Argentine Republic may eventually possess such 
world-wide importance, but at present do not. 

As to the point at which the United States 
became a world power, there is the widest pos- 
sible diversity of opinion. Early in the year 
1901 a foreign diplomat at Washington made 
the assertion that, although he had been in 
America but a short time, he had seen two dif- 
ferent countries — the United States before the 
war with Spain, and the United States since that 
war. This was an epigrammatic way of stating 
the generally accepted fact that the war of 1898 
was a turning-point in our national history. 
Whether the great change consisted in the pre- 

* The United States as a World Power. By Archibald 
Cary Coolidgre, Ph.D. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[Jan. 16, 

cipitate conversion of the United States into a 
world power depends pretty largely upon the 
meaning one attaches to the phrase "world 
power." One school of writers maintains that 
the United States has always been a world power. 
Another holds that it has never been such, and 
is not such to-day. And a third contends that 
the dignity, and the perds, of the rank came 
only with the Spanish War and the acquisition 
of our colonial dependencies. 

Professor Coolidge evidently considers the 
United States as approximating very closely 
the status of a world power before the events of 
1898, but as in any case clearly exhibiting that 
character since the epochal changes brought 
about by those events. The first five chapters 
of his book comprise a rapid but suggestive 
sketch of the fundamentals of American foreign 
relations as developed during the first century 
of our national career. Particularly note- 
worthy in a volume of this sort are the discus- 
sions of " Nationality and Immigration " and 
" Race Questions," for these topics constitute 
aspects of America's world relations which are 
seldom taken account of from the present point 
of view. The space allotted to them affords 
evidence of the fact that Professor Coolidge's 
book is concerned, not simply with diplomacy, 
but with the international relations of the United 
States in the broadest sense. Somewhat orig- 
inal, too, is the query which is raised in a chapter 
on the seemingly threadbare topic of the Monroe 
Doctrine, as to whether this phase of American 
foreign policy is to have any bearing upon the 
relations of the United States with the Orient. 
Upon the territorial limits of the Monroe Doc- 
trine, Captain Mahan is quoted approvingly to 
the effect that " Europe construed by the 
Monroe Doctrine would include Africa with the 
Levant and India, but would not include Japan, 
China, nor the Pacific generally." This defi- 
nition, though admittedly arbitrary and not 
necessarily final, is declared to represent fairly 
well the present geographical limits of the 
Doctrine in the American mind. Obviously, 
the Americans, in forbidding Asiatic interfer- 
ence in the western hemisphere, cannot fall back 
upon the argument of reciprocity which they 
apply to Europe. 

The body of Professor Coolidge's volume falls 
into four principal parts, consisting successively 
of four chapters on the Spanish- American war 
and its effects, four on the recent relations of 
the United States with the world powers of 
Europe, three on the dealings of the United 
States with her American neighbors, and, finally. 

three upon the relations of the United States 
with the Orient. The treatment of the vexed 
problems connected with the acquisition and 
government of our colonial dependencies appeals 
to the reader as eminently sane. Prepared, as 
the chapters originally were, for a foreign audi- 
ence, they undertake first of all to recount 
accurately the history of the Spanish war and 
of the colonial acquisitions, and subsequently to 
set forth, in impartial though not colorless 
fashion, the controverted aspects of the Philip- 
pine question from 1898 to the present day. 
The conclusion is that it is yet " too early to 
sum up the results of American ride in the last 
eight years "; but for a clear and brief state- 
ment of the factors involved, one can hardly do 
better than read Professor Coolidge's narrative. 

The most striking assertions of the claim of 
the United States to be a world power are those 
which have been made in the Far East ; and 
probably most readers will agree that those 
portions of Professor Coolidge's volume which 
are concerned with American interests in the 
Orient are not alone the most timely but also 
the most carefidly considered. Following an 
historical chapter on the United States in the 
Pacific, the author analyzes at length the rela- 
tions of the nation, fii'st with China and secondly 
with Japan. With both of these powers, rela- 
tions are declared at present to exceed in intri- 
cacy and in difficulty, when not in actual 
importance, those with any power in Europe. 
And it is also asserted that the position of the 
United States on the Pacific offers it greater 
advantages, and imposes upon it graver respon- 
sibilities, in its dealings with China and Japan, 
than fall to the lot of any European power 
except Russia. With China the prospect of 
American relations is regarded as " clouded, 
though not disheartening," by reason chiefly of 
the inevitable American policy of Chinese ex- 
clusion and the friction which is more and more 
likely to spring from it. With Japan, the out- 
look is also distinctly less serene than formerly. 
Professor Coolidge, in speaking of American- 
Japanese relations, says : 

" We may as well recognize that the two countries 
can never again be on quite the same terms that they 
were ten years ago. Their feelings toward one another 
may be of the most cordial kind, but both have changed 
too much for the old relation, which was almost that 
of benevolent teacher and eager pupil, to be possible in 
the future. The Americans are no longer the mildly 
interested spectators in the Far East that they once 
were, and Japan has outgrown the need of their tutelage. 
In the past they have applauded her successes, some- 
times without stopping to consider whether these would 
in the end be to their advantage; and now they can 




claim no grievance if her altered position gives her new 
interests and inspires her with new ambitious which are 
not invariably in accord with their own desires. Amer- 
ica, who has grown to be the rival of so many older 
states, cannot complain when she in her turn is con- 
fronted by the rivalry of a younger one. The world is 
still large enough for many nations to compete without 
quarrelling; but when the aspirations of one conflict 
with those of another, it serves no good purpose to blink 
the truth. It is saner to accept the situation frankly, 
and to try to see what can reasonably be expected on 
both sides; for without such an understanding, a fair 
adjustment cannot be arrived at." 

One may well wish that Professor Coolidge's 
international philosophy were certain of univer- 
sal acceptance. It is at least comfortable to 
believe that the candor and logic with which 
he has written will not fail of effect wherever 
his volume shall be read. It is not often that 
a book is brought out simultaneously in three 
languages. " The United States as a World 
Power " has had that honor, appearing within 
a few weeks in English, French, and German 
editions. It is distinctly to be hoped that it will 
command the attention which the temper, per 
haps more conspicuously than the scholarship, 
of the volume so abundantly deserves. 

Frederic Austin Ogg. 

EARi,Y Spaxisii Arts and Crafts.* 

The publishers of " The World of Art Series " 
have done well to secure the author of " The 
Land of the Dons " to prepare for them a work 
on " The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain." 
Probably no man to-day, not a Spaniard, is 
equally familiar with that country. Long a 
resident of Madrid as correspondent of the Lon- 
don " Times," and now a corresponding member 
of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Royal 
Spanish Academy of History, and the Royal 
Spanish Academy of Fine Arts, Mr. Leonard 
Williams represents to this generation, as 
Richard Ford did to the last, the chief English 
authority upon Spanish life and customs. The 
present material could have been gathered only 
by one thoroughly conversant with the Spanish 
language and intimately acquainted with the 
libraries, public and private art collections, and 
the people themselves. 

Considered mathematically, the three vol- 
umes contain 834 pages, 173 full-page plates, 
and 97 titles of books consulted. Volume for 
volume the first is the best. In it the author 

•The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain. By Leonard 
Williams. In three volumes. Illustrated. Chicago: A. C. 
McClurg & Co. 

discusses gold, silver, and jewel work, iron work, 
bronzes, and arms. Here he shows himself at 
home, giving us the interesting results of long 
study under most favorable advantages. In 
the second and third volimies, which treat of 
furniture, ivories, pottery, glass, and textile 
fabrics, he quotes largely from Spanish and 
French authorities, accompanying his transla- 
tions however with a valuable running com- 
mentary. Surely a man may be excused for 
not showing the same degree of intimacy with 
all the crafts, from iron to lace ; while inasmuch 
as almost nothing has been published until now 
in English upon Spanish craftsmanship, the 
attempt to spread over the whole ground should 
not be censured too severely. 

Mr. Williams traces the history of each craft, 
and gives descriptions and photographs of its 
earliest and most important examples. Gold 
and silver objects, owing to their durability and 
the care given to their preservation, furnish 
some of the oldest specimens of the skill and 
taste of early craftsmen. Visigothic crowns 
stiU exist which date back to the seventh cen- 
tury. Many royal treasures of later ages, 
caskets, table ornaments, custodia, crosses, and 
altars have been guarded in private palaces or 
in those great storehouses the cathedrals. Often 
the delicacy of form or decoration proves the 
workmanship to be of greater value than the 
precious material. The names, dates, and spe- 
cialties of the most celebrated craftsmen make 
an interesting catalogue, but the list dwindles 
with the expulsion of the Moors and the dis- 
covery of America. By the time that the gold 
and silver of the New World began to pour into 
Seville the whole country was in an impoverished 
state and had lost her best native craftsmen. 

" Foreign artificers in consequence (parti- 
cularly after the royal pragmatic of 1628 
encouraging their immigration), attracted by 
the treasure fleets that anchored in the bay of 
Cadiz, came trooping into Spain and filled their 
pockets from the national purse, fashioning, in 
return for money which they husbanded and sent 
abroad, luxurious gold and silver objects that 
were merely destined to stagnate within her 
churches and cathedrals." A century later for- 
tunes were everywhere spent in luxurious dis- 
play, the very pies at banquets being washed 
with gold or silver. It is to this period that we 
owe some of the finest treasures preserved to-day. 
An inventory of the ducal house of Albu- 
querque is quoted, showing fourteen hundred 
dozen plates, with a corresponding number of 
gold and silver cups, bowls, trenchers, salt- 



[Jan. 16, 

cellars, and spoons, also a mighty sideboard 
mounted by forty silver stairs. This love of 
lavish display, and the satisfaction of it made 
possible by the sudden great wealth from 
America, together with the Spanish tenacity in 
preserving what is old, make Spain a more 
profitable field of study than many a more pro- 
gressive country. 

In iron work the splendid rejas or griRs are 
among the glories of Spain. Mr. Williams 
gives as much space as is possible in a work 
of this character to the subject, which really 
requires a book to itself. Unfortunately, views 
of but two of these fine screens are given, — 
those of Seville and Granada, the latter, enclos- 
ing the tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella, being 
a familiar picture to English readers. 

The chapter on arms is an excellent one. Into 
it the author has put his best work, while at the 
same time he has a most fruitful subject. He 
says : " Lovers of the old-time crafts approach 
a fertile field in Spanish arms ; for truly with 
this war-worn land the sword and spear, obsti- 
nately substituted for the plough, seem to have 
grown wellnigh into her regular implements of 
daily bread-winning ; and from long before the 
age of written chronicle her soil was planted 
with innumerable weapons of her wrangling 
tribesmen." Lovers of the Poem of the Cid 
will be pleased with the picture of a beautiful 
adarga from the Royal Armory. Mr. Williams 
states that the supposed Coladu preserved in 
the same collection reaUy dates from the thir- 
teenth century, and can therefore never have 
been the sword of the famous Campeador. The 
general reader will be somewhat surprised at the 
following information : " The Royal Armoury 
at Madrid is often thought by foreigners to con- 
tain a representative collection of the arms, offen- 
sive and defensive, used by the Spanish people 
through all their mediaeval and post-mediaeval 
history. This is not so. Although it is the 
choicest and the richest gallery in Europe, the 
Armeria Real was formed almost entirely from 
the cdmaras de armas or private armouries of 
Charles the Fifth and of his son, and is, as 
Melida describes it, ' a splendid gallery of royal 
arms,' dating, with very few exceptions, from 
the sixteenth century." 

The term furniture has been construed with 
siiflftcient liberality to include doors, doorways, 
choir-stalls, altar-screens, wood statues, and wood 
carving of all sorts. Perhaps the most typically 
Spanish article is the arcon or chest, of which 
seven classes are described. Respecting the Cid's 
coffer in the Cathedral at Burgos the author 

leaves us our illusion, saying : " It is certain that 
the archives of the cathedral have been deposited 
in this chest for many centuries. Evidently, too, 
it dates from about the lifetime of the Cid, while 
the rings with which it is fitted show it to have 
been a kind of trunk intended to be carried on 
the backs of sumpter-mules or horses." 

Throughout the book many side-lights are 
thrown upon the customs and daily life of older 
Spain by means of excerpts from chronicles, 
fueros, inventories, and municipal ordinances. 
The strict regulations governing the manufac- 
ture of various articles are quoted, and the dis- 
astrous legislation which resulted in the decrease 
of looms at Granada from fifteen thousand to 
six hundred is reviewed. The list of these 
sources and of the printed articles and books 
consulted forms one of the most important por- 
tions of the work. Indeed, this bibliography, 
together with the photographic plates, would 
alone have been well worth publishing. The 
plates are without exception excellent, being also 
refreshingly new and unfamiliar. They receive 
an added value by being labeled with the name 
of the collection in which the objects may be 
found, and together form a Spanish Musee de 
Cluny containing the gems of Spanish crafts- 
manship from the beginning. 

George Griffin Brownell. 

Thjs Youth op Mirabeau.* 

It is rare that an American scholar ventures 
to undertake a work like Professor Fling's 
" Mirabeau and the French Revolution," for he 
realizes that an adequate examination of the 
material, much of which is still in the manu- 
script collections of public and private archives, 
implies a prolonged residence abroad or repeated 
journeys across the Atlantic. The law of neces- 
sity has, therefore, forced American historical 
writing to cultivate alaiost exclusively the field 
of American history, and has left the general 
reader dependent upon " importations " for the 
knowledge he is to gain of European history, 
save as this may be found in manuals and brief 
biographies. Professor Fling should be credited 
with the courage of his undertaking. It has 
been truly a work of " longue haleine," for he 
chose his subject twenty years ago, when he was 
a student in Leipsic. At that time neither the 
biography by Stern nor that by the Lomenies, 

* Mirabeau and the French Revolution. By Fred Morrow 
Fling, Ph.D., Professor of European History In the University of 
Nebraska. In three volumes. Volume I., The Youth of Mira- 
beau. Illustrated. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 




father and son, had appeared. The publication 
of these biographies has not lessened the im- 
portance of this contribution, for there does not 
yet exist in English an adequate treatment of 
Mirabeau's career. Professor Fling has entitled 
his work " Mirabeau and the French Revolu- 
tion," because he intends to deal with the 
Revolution also, at least so far as it is involved 
in the life of its greatest statesman. The seri- 
ous student of this period will find his discussion 
of the value of the- manuscript material, and of 
the printed books, especially opportune and 
instructive. It is characteristic of the thor- 
oughly workmanlike quality of the book. 

The first of the three volumes covers Mira- 
beau's life up to his imprisonment at the 
Chateau d'lf, September 20, 1774, by virtue 
of a lettre de cachet which that pecidiar " Friend 
of Men," his father, had procured from the 
government. Mirabeau was twenty-five years 
old, and this was the fourth time a lettre de 
cachet had placed him under restraint. It is 
evident that he had already accumulated much 
perplexing material for historical investigators 
and psychological specialists, particularly for 
those acquainted with the phenomena of ado- 
lescence. Such a varied experience suggests 
that in the study of this period we may satisfy 
an eager curiosity to learn the foundations of 
that strange character so vividly illustrated in 
the first two years of the Revolution, — a great 
intellect, boundless initiative and force, acting 
apparently without those ordinary restraints 
which we call scruples. In order that we may 
have the whole case before us. Professor Fling 
has devoted careful consideration to the career 
of his father, " I'Ami des hommes," and to that 
of his uncle " the Bailli." 

Several elements of Mirabeau's mature char- 
acter had appeared, Professor Fling believes, 
long before the end of this first period. He 
quotes from a letter which Gilbert Elliott, once 
the schoolmate of Mirabeau in the establishment 
of the Abbe Choquard in Paris, wrote to his 
brother years later when Mirabeau was visiting 
him. " Mirabeau," says this letter, " although 
considerably ripened in abilities ... is as over- 
bearing in his conversation, as awkward in his 
graces, as ugly and misshapen in face and per- 
son, and withal as perfectly sufiicient, as we 
remember him twenty years ago. I loved him 
then, however, and so did you. . . ." This 
refers to a time when Mirabeau was fifteen. 
Three or four years later, in the incidents which 
led to the imprisonment in the He de Re, other 
peculiarities of the boy and man appeared. After 

a love affair, with horrifying possibilities of a 
mesalliance^ Mirabeau had deserted his regiment 
at Saintes and taken refuge in Paris, in order, 
from a secure retreat, to ward off by negotiation 
the effects of parental wi-ath. Incidentally he 
was moved to vilify the colonel of the regiment. 
According to his father, he opened against M. de 
Lambert a " pack of recriminating lies, almost 
convincing by the force of his eloquent effront- 
ery." This marvellous gift of persuasive utter- 
ance, so little dependent upon truth for its 
effectiveness, had, said Lambert, won over to 
Mirabeau's view of the affair half the city of 
Saintes and the province ; and Lambert added, 
he is " believed to have found in the city 20,000 
livres that are no longer there." The mystery 
is where he got these qualities. Was it from 
the stormy race of which he came ? Were they 
the consequences of the unsympathetic and 
pedantic attitude which his father took toward 
the boy almost from the first ? Was it in part 
because at a critical time in his later childhood 
his mother was forced to withdraw from the 
unhappy home in order to make room for a 
mistress? Professor Fling suggests that each 
of these things may have had their influence, 
but he is unwilling to do more than indicate the 
probability, for the references in the letters of 
the father, the principal source of information 
for this early period, are not full enough or 
sufficiently clear to enable him to draw a com- 
plete portrait of this strange youth. He has 
given special care to the history of the father's 
attitude toward the son, tracing its phases with 
greater exactness than have previous biographers. 
Certainly no father ever spoke of a child with 
more brutal frankness. At ten the Marquis 
describes him as bearing " a striking resem- 
blance to Punch, being all belly and back." 
Four years later, when he was out of humor 
with the boy, he wrote that he was " very much 
of a caterpillar," and added, " he will find diffi- 
culty in uncaterpillaring himself." But there 
was a time when he and his son were on good 
terms, the history of which Professor Fling 
gives in the chapter, " In the Confidence of his 

Throughout the volume, the author's attitude 
is that of the sympathetic historian. He is 
not an apologist ; he neither attacks nor defends 
Mirabeau, he tries to explain him so far as this 
may be done historically. In one passage he 
refers to Mirabeau as a " notorious literary 
buccaneer "; bvit this is not said in severity, 
but as a simple statement of fact. The interest 
which his narrative arouses in the youthfid 



[Jan. 16, 

Mirabeau predisposes the reader to look for- 
ward to the appearance of the second volume, 
which will conduct the career to 1789, and to 
the third, which will complete its story. 

Henry E. Bourne. 

Recent American Poetry.* 

Before turning to the consideration of poetry that 
is recent in the literal sense, a few words should be 
said of three recent collections, which give us in 
definitive form and arrangement the complete work 
of three of our most honored American poets. First 
of all, and published within a year from the time of 
his taking-off, we have the new " Household " edition 
of Stedman. In this edition, which includes all of 
his verse which the author deemed worthy of pres- 
ervation, we find the contents of the old " House- 
hold " edition (omitting a few juvenalia) and of the 
" Poems Now First Collected," besides seventeen 
other pieces (including " Mater Coronata ") of later 
date, and two fragments from Theocritus. These 
fragments are all that the poet left in shape for pub- 
lication of his long-contemplated version of the idyls 
of the three Sicilian poets. In accordance with his 
expressed desire, this new edition of Stedman adopts 
a classified arrangement, in which the order of com- 
position is largely ignored. Besides the long poem, 
" The Blameless Prince," there are ten categories, 
" In War Time," " Poems of Manhattan," " Poems 
of New England," " Poems of Occasion," " Poems 
of Greece," "Poems of Nature," "The Carib 
Sea," "Songs and Ballads," "Various Poems," and 
" Shadow-Tiand." Mr. Stedman's work gains greatly 
in effectiveness by this re-arrangement, and no mis- 
take has been made in adopting it. A brief and 
loving memoir gives the essentials of the poet's life, 
and makes clear both the noble fortitude which sus- 

* The Poems op Edmund Clabence Stedman. Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 

The Poems of Eichabd Watson Gildeb. Boston : Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

The Poems and Sonnets of Loitisb ChandiiEB Moulton. 
Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

James Vila Blake as Poet. By Amelia Hughes. Chicago: 
Thomas F. Halpin & Co. 

The Time of Roses. By John Vance Cheney. Portland, 
Me. : Thomas B. Mosher. 

Poems. By Charles Sprague Smith. New York : A. Weasels Co. 

FiBST Poems. By Henry K. Herbert (H. H.Knibbs). Roch- 
ester : The Genesee Press. 

The House of Falling Leaves, with Other Poems. By 
William Stanley Braithwaite. Boston : John W. Luce & Co. 

The Wounded Ebos. Sonnets by Charles Gibson. Boston : 
The Author. 

Each. IN His Own Tongue, and Other Poems. By William 
Herbert Carruth. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Love Songs and Lybics. By J. A. Middleton. Boston: 
John W. Luce & Co. 

An Eabth Poem, and Other Poems. By Gerda Dalliba. 
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

OuT-DooB Music. Songs of Birds, Trees, Flowers, The Road, 
Love, Religion. By Ella Gilbert Ives. Boston : The Arakelyan 

MuGEN. A Book of Verse. By Fanny Runnells Poole. 
Bridgeport, Conn. : The Niles Publishing Co. 

tained him amid the trials of his later years and the 
personal qualities that endeared him to all who had 
the privilege of his friendship. We will quote the 
closing paragraph, which tells us how the end came. 
"Soon after the death of his wife Mr. Stedman moved 
back to New York. He took an apartment up-town and 
settled himself for the last time with his beloved books 
around him. Here, in spite of loss, ill-health, and increas- 
ing age, he enjoyed life as only life's inveterate lovers may, 
and at the end the gods were kind. There came three or 
four days and nights of unusual well-being and high spirits. 
The evening before he died some of his near relatives dined 
with him and his infectious boyish gayety was the life of the 
occasion. The next day, after a morning devoted as usual 
to literary work, he called up an old friend over the telephone 
and demanded that he dine with him, on the plea that his 
dinner was to be an unusually good one that night. The 
invitation was accepted, and he made gleeful preparation 
for an evening of the reminiscent talk that was his favorite 
form of entertainment. In the middle of the afternoon he 
fell without a word. ' Give me to die unwitting of the day,' 
he had sung : his prayer was granted, and for him who had 
fenced with death so long and with such gay oonrage the end 
came with one swift stroke." 

Also included in the "Household" edition, and 
well deserving of admission to that choice company, 
we have the complete poetical works of Mr. Richard 
Watson Gilder. This volume contains no prefatory 
matter, but simply reprints, in the order of their 
original publication, the many small collections of 
refined and graceful verse that Mr. Gilder has been 
producing during the last thirty years and more. 
No less than seventeen copyright entries are in- 
cluded, the first of them dating from 1875, exactly 
a generation ago. It makes us realize for the first 
time how prolific a poet he has been, and also deepens 
our sense of the fine intrinsic quality of his work, 
both early and late. 

The third poet whose work now comes to us in 
collected form is the late Mrs. Louise Chandler 
Moulton, and the pious task of bringing it together, 
and of providing it with the fitting prefatory words, 
has fallen to her friend, Mrs. Harriet Prescott 
Spoffoi'd, who bears a name equally honorable in 
the history of New England letters. The contents 
of Mrs. Moulton's three volumes of verse are here 
put between a single pair of covers, and a few 
additional poems round out the volume. Mrs. 
Spofford's memoir is the work of a devoted friend, 
and is written in the strain of eulogy, but so many 
other voices have borne witness both to the beauty 
of the poet's character and to the exquisite artistry 
of her lyrics and sonnets, that even friendship may 
hardly be said to exaggerate in this instance. Certain 
it is that no writer stands higher upon the roll of 
our woman poets than the gracious personality which 
this volume discloses. 

The Rev. James Vila Blake professes his poetical 
faith in the following sonnet: 

" I know not what my soul hates more and worse 
Than the pale brows of whimpering poets — they 
Who not e'en love but must go ' faint,' ' fall,' say 
' We sicken,' ' pine,' and ' die,' in weeping verse. 
O fine-voiced harmonies, must ye rehearse 
These feeble folk, who swim or swamp in whey 
Like meagre curds, more thin than ghosts by day, 




Or evening scud that caps of wind disperse ? 
What ! must sweet words, fine vocables, and song, 
That link all men and mark mankind, serve them 
Who suck a jaundice from th' inveterate green ? 
Out wi' the pack ! I love bards firm and strong : 
My soul doth void the pulers — broods I 'd hem 
Like bats in rosy fogs, nor seeing nor seen." 

It is clear that the writer of these lines is no " whim- 
pering poet," but it seems also that his love for 
" bards firm and strong " sometimes gets the better 
of his natural sense of smooth diction and flowing 
melody. There may be compact thought, but there 
is no poetry, in such lines as these, suggested by an 
old circus ring : 

" ' Where be your gibes now,' thou chalked mock, 

And thy heart-sick gags ? Art gone of thine old staleness ? 

And all the melancholy players, over whose paleness 

Were dabbed the lies of smiles and ruby stock 

Of health ? Yon old ring, like a ghost, doth knock 

At my heart strangely, with vehement love, and the frailness 

Of our mortal state stares from the painted halenesM 

On the tan where dizzy phantom-riders flock." 

Miss Amelia Hughes, who has made the selection 
of Mr. Blake's poems now before us, calls the son- 
net of which these lines are the octave " a flower of 
perfected genius." In fact, her introductory essay 
rather repels than invites our admiration for the 
poet, and her hope " that the sincerity of its intent 
may retrieve for him any gaucheries of an inhabile 
and unaided pen " is a brave one in the face of her 
strained and unconvincing argument. Mr. Blake's 
verse is also strained, but at the best it is worth 
while. As an example of what is the best, because 
the most unaffected, we may take the following 
sonnet : 

" If I be questioned whether 't be the day 
Doth follow night around the flowery world, 
Or whether night, with sandals dewy pearled 
Pursue the mom, that wooed will not delay, — 
I answer thus : Firat tell me, which makes way, 
My love to me, or I to her, when furled 
The camping light's gold streamers be, and curled 
With spiral vapors falleth twilight ray ? 
If 't is my part to woo with will, hath erst 
Her beauty not pursued me, will or no, 
And natural the more as 't is not willed ? 
Like day and night, a twain without a first, 
True lovers know not either follows so, 
Or either leads — whom both one love hath filled." 

Mr. Blake's lyrical quality may be exemplified by 
stanzas from his " January Song," taken from " The 
Months," his latest production : 

" And O, if I shall tell, my dear. 
If I shall tell the time o' year 
The time that giveth most o* cheer, 

And most 's our own 

And most by love is known. 

What shall it be?" 

The answer to this question is the New Year season, 

" For 0, th' angelic snow, my dear, 
Th' angelic snow, and ice how sheer. 
The ice that tinkles frosty clear. 

And frosty fills 

With frosted light the sills 

O' the opening year. 

" And O, the troops of nuns, my dear, 
The troops of nuns that white appear 
There where the picket rows up-rear, 
In rows where snow 
The rows doth now o'er-blow. 
And hood them here. 

" And 0, the evergreens, my dear, 
The evergreens that mock and fleer, 
That mock at storms, and shine in gear 
Of shining ice. 
That shining in a trice 
Berobes them sheer." 

Mr. Blake's verse is singularly conscientious and 
thoughtful ; it is also strongly individual. It is 
comprised in five collections, printed between 1887 
and 1907, from all of which " James Vila Blake as 
Poet," the little volume now before us, takes judi- 
cious toll. It seems to echo, at times, the accents 
of such old singers as Herbert and Vaughan, at 
others, the more modern notes of Emerson, Lanier, 
and Sir George Meredith. 

Mr. John Vance Cheney's newest book of song, 
" In Time of Roses," gives us thirty-five (Shake- 
spearean) sonnets, with a score of lyrics appended 
or interspersed. From work so exquisite it is 
difficult to select, and it is almost at random that 
we quote this sonnet with its song-commentary : 

" The summer gone, and all the day's desire. 

Thick in the field stand, ranked, the stately sheaves ; 
The woodland blazes with baptismal fire 

Of Horeb's bush, an angel in its leaves. 
Up through the dusk upon the sky I gaze. 

Where flows the molten gold, while from it loom 
The silver cloud-ships of the windless ways, 

Among the lilac islands brushed with gloom. 
These colors all are love and memory's own, 

This near, appealing pomp the summer wore ; 
'Tis wafted back on all the winds that moan. 

Heightened to brightness it had not before. 
The glories of Love's morning, safe they are ; 
Evening shall burn them in her early star." 

" The field wears more than glory of the year. 
Pilgrims, unseen, walk here ; 
Mortals who crossed it long since, still they 
Over the kind, remembering grass, — 
All they once in its smile went by. 
And, now, lapt in its pity lie. 

" The moon wears more than glory of the sun. 
By her is death undone ; 
Forever from the unforgetting skies 
Downward she looks with all the eyes 
Once lifted to her, yearning so, 
In the sweet evenings long ago." 

In this collection of verse, Mr. Cheney seems to 
us to have achieved a more even excellence, a closer 
approach to faultlessness, than in any earlier one, 
and his title to a high place among our lyrists is 
more clearly to be read than ever before. 

Says Mr. Charles Sprague Smith, 

" My muse, thou art a simple thing," 
and her service may be commended to many more 
pretentious versifiers. Mr. Smith's notes are nature- 
worship, patriotism in the good sense, social brother- 
hood, and religious aspiration. These stanzas open 
the longish poem called " Unity ": 



[Jan. 16, 

" By many patt&^an seeks for God, 
And can it be, in error's maze 
All wander sJlve the few whose ways 
Are those our sainted fathers trod ? 

" Lo, deep within its bosky glen, 
Bending in coy humility, 
The faintly flushed anemone 
Would fain, I ween, be hid again. 

'■ The ruddy rose, the garden's pride, 
Unveils her beauty to the sun. 
Exulting in the life new won, 
Casting her chrysalis aside. 

" The cereus in wondrous way, 
Uplifts her chalice pearly white, 
For, in the mystery of night, 
Wakens the force received by day. 

" In varying forms, the life within. 
Bursting the bonds of winter's night. 
To leaf and flower transmutes the light, 
When the moist April days begin. 

'■ So human souls will ever climb 
By separate paths the bristling peak, 
When yearning hearts with patience seek 
To find eternity in time." 

Mr. Smith's pieces are simple, but they are not often 
marred by faulty expression, and his blank verse is 
particularly good. 

Mr. Henry K. Herbert (or H. H. Knibbs), whose 
" First Poems " are printed in a small private edition, 
is, we are told, a stenographer in a railway office. 
That he has kept the freedom of the spirit, even amid 
such surroundings, is made evident by the highly 
imaginative and deeply felt contents of his little book 
of song. " The Wander-Lust " shall be our chief 
example : 

" Thou soft, persuading, still insistent breeze, 

Hiding thy swelling breast within the sail 
That nods across the undulating seas, 

(Prow-kissing seas that lap the dripping rail), 
Thou bearest from unremembered idle isles. 

Within whose harbors alien anchors rust, 
Sweet singing dreams that sleep beneath thy smiles 

And break, — to wake the slumbering Wander-lust. 

" The inward tears, the unavailing word. 

The uplifted tender mouth's unspoken prayer, 
Are things to me unseen, unfelt, unheard. 

When the wild Wander-lust, with siren-rare 
Enchantment, sings my soul to pathless ways 

O'er fields where Hunger, Grief, and Terror ride, 
Pace with my pace, — gaunt wolves of questing days, — 

Must I, with these, explore the Other Side ? 

" What shall I gain when I at last have found 

The secret garden hid behind the hill ? 
An unremembered grave in quiet ground. 

Or trail defined that lures to wander still, 
Till Time's essential ministries shall change 

This atom to diviner flower-dust 
That on the breath of God shall ever range 

His Seas, in soul-immortal Wander-lust ? " 

If only this moving poem were not marred by the 
impossible rhyme at its close ! Here is a pretty 
little thing that seems worth quoting: 

" I am a miller of tranquil mind, 
Content, as my little grist I grind. 
The simple folk in our valley know 
That my meal is pure though my wheel is slow. 

God's clouds loosed the water that turns my wheel, 
His sun grew the maize that I turn to meal. 
Though the toll comes scant to my measure's brim, 
I am well content, for I grind for Him." 

There is a whole philosophy of life in this happy 
expression of a simple thought. 

Mr. William Stanley Braithwaite, in " The House 
of Falling Leaves," shows himself to be a sonneteer 
of thoughtful dignity and an effective poet of occa- 
sions. His ode for the Whittier centenary is strong 
and sympathetic, as may be seen from its third and 
fifth stanzas, here reproduced : 

" In the rough farmhouse of his lowly birth 
The spirit of poetry fired his youthful years ; 
No palace was more radiant on earth, 
Than the rude home where simple joys and tears 
Filled the boy's soul with the human chronicle 

Of lives that touched the soil. 
He heard about him voices — and he fell 
To dreams, of the dim past, 'midst his daily toil ; 
Romance and legend claimed his Muse's voice 

Till the heroic choice 
Of duty led him to the battle's broil. 

" He helped to seal the doom. His hope was peace 
With the great end attained. Beyond his will 
Fate shaped his aims to awful destinies 
Of vengeful justice ; — now valley and hill 
Groaned with the roar of onset ; near and far 

The terrible, sad cries 
Of slaughtered men pierced into sun and star ; 
Beyond his will the violence — but the prize 
Of Freedom, blood had purchased, won to God 

His praise that all men trod 
Erect, and clothed in Freedom, 'neath the skies." 

Mr. Braithwaite, besides giving us his own volume 
of verse, appears also as sponsor for a sonnet se- 
quence, "The Wounded Eros," by Mr. Charles 
Gibson, and writes for the book an elaborate intro- 
ductory essay. Mr. Gibson's sonnets number one 
hundred and thirty, and this is one of them : 

" How sweet to me are these soft days of spring ; 
But how much sweeter, did thy beauty bear. 
Like cherry blossoms o'er the flowering air, 
Its scented fragrance to me ; and did bring 
Some songs of love, like birds upon the wing. 
To tell me that my love, with thine, might share 
These lovers' hours, that in the spring appear. 
And o'er the earth their efflorescence fling. 

Ah, Love ! thy winter's waiting hath well-nigh 
This heart of mine, for love of thee, so broken, 
That it hath scarce the power to beat to-day. 
'T were time, indeed, to compensate my sigh 
At last with Love's unutterable token, 
That shall not with the seasons fade away." 

From this, and the other sonnets, we gather that 
the poet's love is scorned ; else it would not be free 
to languish through one hundred and thirty sonnets. 
We are informed that the book tells " the story of 
an oblation full of inexplicable shadows," which 
seems to be a fairly accurate description. There is 
little subtlety in the imagery, and the poet's senti- 
ment is of the obvious kind, sicklied o'er with the 
pale cast of thought rather than glowing with passion. 
" Each in his Own Tongue " is a poem that was 
printed in a magazine many years ago, and has beeu 
widely copied since then, although not always with 




the acknowledgment due its author. It was written 
by Professor William Herbert Carruth in a happy 
hour of inspiration, and bids fair to keep his name 
in the anthologies for a long time to come. He 
may, in fact, come to share the distinction of Joseph 
Blanco White, whose memory a single sonnet has 
kept alive. For the present, however, we must 
think of Mr. Carruth as more than a man of a 
single poem, for he has just given us a collection of 
some fourscore pieces, many of which approach in 
seriousness of thought and felicity of expression the 
one widely-known example which provides his book 
with its title. Rather than quote the familiar lines 
we will reproduce the stanzas called " Dreamers of 
Dreams ": 

" We are all of us dreamers of dreams ; 
On visions our childhood is fed ; 
And the heart of the child is unhaunted, it seems, 
By the ghosts of dreams that are dead. 

" From childhood to youth 's but a span, 

And the years of our youth are soon sped ; 
Yet the youth is no longer a youth, but a man, 
When the first of his dreams is dead. 

" There 's no sadder sight this side the grave 
Than the shroud o'er a fond dream spread, 
And the heart should be stern and the eyes be brave 
To gaze on a dream that is dead. 

" 'T is as a cup of wormwood and gall 

When the doom of a great dream is said, 
And the best of a man is under the pall 
When the best of his dreams is dead. 

" He may live on by compact and plan 
When the fine bloom of living is shed, 
But God pity the little that 's left of a man 
When the last of his dreams is dead. 

" Let him show a brave face if he can, 
Let him woo fame or fortune instead. 
Yet there 's not much to do but bury a man 
When the last of his dreams is dead." 

One other example of Mr. Carruth's simple and 
sincere workmanship may be given: 

"A carpet all of faded brown, 
On the gray bough a dove that grieves ; 
Death seemeth here to have his own, 
Bnt the spring violets nestle down 
Under the leaves. 

" A brow austere and sad gray eyes, 

Locks in which Care her silver weaves ; 
Hope seemeth tombed no more to rise, 
But God he knoweth on what wise 
Love for Love's sunshine waiting lies 
Under the leaves." 

A fine sense of the essential realities pervades Mr. 
Carruth's verse. He is an academic poet, but one 
whose sensibilities the academic environment has not 

Mr. J. A. Middleton's " Love Songs and Lyrics " 
are pretty trifles which may be illustrated by *' The 
Lost Serenade ": 

" I sang a song. Alas, the nightingale 
A-down the vale 
Sang too ; and as I told my passion's pain 
He nmrmured his, and hushed my humble strain. 

" I blew a kiss, on wings of love to rise 
Unto her eyes ; 
Alas, the wanton breeze before had pressed 
A dozen kisses on her snowy breast. 

" I took a rose — but, ah ! her favorite tree 
Outwitted me ; 
For, kneeling like a saint before a shrine, 
He offered handf uls, lovelier far than mine." 

There are only a scant score of these songs ; the 
rest of the little book is devoted to an incident in 
dramatic form, " Red Sefchen," which readers of 
Heine will not need to have explained. This is the 
poet's declaration upon the occasion of the lovers' 
last clandestine meeting : 

" As dusk to Nightingale, as sun to flower, 
Aa star to some benighted wanderer, 
As cool palm-island in a sea of sand, 
As light to ardent seeker after Truth 
Grappling with Doubt and Error till the full 
Fierce fire of Trial hath refined his faith 
And made it tenfold purer than before : 
As celandine unto the lovesick bee 
That draws, with thrUls of exquisite delight. 
The honey-heart it covets. As the pulse 
To life — so thou to me. Our spirits twine, 
And in one tender growth of mutual love 
Spring upward, bearing fruit of perfect bliss, 
Which shall endure when life itself shall pass." 

The consummation of this tragedy in miniature 
comes swiftly. Feeling herself disgraced by her 
father's unhallowed calling, Sefchen, after the poet 
has left her, slays herself with the executioner's 

Miss Gerda Dalliba (if that is a real name) is the 
author of " An Earth Poem, and Other Poems." 
The intent of " An Earth Poem " is, in the author's 
words, "to express in words Man's needs, capabil- 
ities, and progress, accepting as a premise that, gen- 
erally speaking, his course has been one tending 
from the mere materialism of Nature to a more 
refined and spiritual outlook, as is the case with an 
individual turning from childhood's idealistic pan- 
theism through the material of fact and divergent 
emotions towards the necessity of a formulated 
Deism, or the slow progression of the Mass by the 
care of civilization and cultivation to a penetrating 
view of essential needs." It takes a long breath to 
get through this descriptive sentence, and many of 
them to get through the dithyrambic outpouring of 
the poem itself. We are more than ever inclined 
to think with Poe that the expression " long poem " 
involves a contradiction of terms. It is an amor- 
phous composition, in which nuggets of poetic dic- 
tion may be found imbedded. Here is one of them : 

" If I go on, soul, what will betide ? 
Shall I grow weary of the weight of light ? 
I, who before was novice to the Sun, 
Shall Paradise to me seem dark with prayer 
And ecstacy the dust upon the streets 
Where the man angel, joins the hallowed saint — 
And prophet, the diviner angel meets — 
Where sin, like a pale woman nun, grows faint 
With too divine a beauty, born from tears ? 
Or on the long night's darkness, long and wide 
Become an essence which is spiritualized ? " 



[Jan. 16, 

These questionings leave us baffled. Miss Dalliba's 
other poems are sonnets and miscellaneous pieces in 
about equal measure. Mr. Edwin Markham intro- 
duces the collection with a few ingratiating words 
finding " a rift of genius in this ledge of song." 
But we must call the book the work of a nature at 
present utterly unregulated, from both the intel- 
lectual and the artistic points of view. 

The " Out-Door Music " of Miss Ella Gilbert Ives 
is classified under six categories — Birds, Trees, 
Flowers, The Road, Love, and Religion. *' An 
April Birch" becomes the occasion of this pretty 
simile : 

" The breath of God is in the breeze 
And touches all the quivering trees. 
But one, in maiden mood apart, 
To hold communion with her heart, 
In awe-struck beauty now receives 
The heavenly tidings in her leaves : 
Resistless as the golden shower 
That entered Danae's brazen tower, 
God's sunbeams on her whiteness fall 
And life leaps up to meet his call." 

And here is "The Cardinal Flower." no less 

charming : 

" In dim and cloistered nook, 
Where slips a quiet brook, 
A stolid priest intones — 
To liquid sighs and moans — 
A penitential psalm. 

" The pallid sunrays glide 
Across his vestments, dyed 
In Golgotha's deep hue, 
And damp with chrism-dew 

From Calvary's nailed palm." 

These songs have simplicity and grace, qualities 
often denied to strains of more pretentious flight. 

" Mugen " is the title of a book of verse by Mrs. 
Fanny RunneUs Poole, and the word, we are told, 
is Japanese, meaning " in dream and reality." That 
Mrs. Poole can write tunefully may be evidenced by 
the subjoined stanza : 

" O the heart, the heart hath seasons, 

The heart, memorial flowers, 
And memory wells like vesper bells 

To thrill the dreaming hours ! 
The fancies we have cherished, 

The affections' myriad springs, 
Reach out betimes in rippling rhymes 

To hearts who love such things." 

Several of her pieces are translations, among these 
being versions of five of Heredia's sonnets, done 
with sympathy and intelligence. 

William Morton Payne. 

The anuouncement that the Nobel prize in literature 
has gone to Professor Rudolf Eucken has stimulated 
interest in au author who has hitherto been little 
known outside of academic circles. One of his English 
disciples, Mr. W. R. Boyce Gibson, has written a study 
entitled " Rudolf Eueken's Philosophy of Life," which 
has been published in America by The Macmillan Co. 

Briefs on New Books. 

Mr. Chesterton^ H J^^- Chesterton's reasons for accept- 
confession ing orthodox Christianity are, as a 

of faith. matter of course, thoroughly charac- 

teristic. They are rather brilliantly set forth in his 
little book named "Orthodoxy" (John Lane Co.), 
which is intended to be a companion volume to 
" Heretics " — affirmative and constructive where 
that was negative and critical. The reason for the 
faith that is in him Mr. Chesterton might briefly 
have declared to be this, — credo quia impossibile. 
" All other philosophies," he tells us, " say the things 
that plainly seem to be true ; only this philosophy 
has again and again said the thing that does not 
seem to be true, but is true." And again : it is 
convincing and irresistible for the reason " not 
merely that it deduces logical truths, but that when 
it suddenly becomes illogical, it has found out, so to 
speak, an illogical truth. It not only goes right 
about things, but it goes wrong (if one may say so) 
exactly where the things go wrong." The Chris- 
tian's creed is paradoxical, hence it is incontrovert- 
ible. This, amply elaborated and illustrated, is 
'the substance of the book, and is exactly what a 
careful reading of Mr. Chesterton's previous works 
might have led one to expect. To some the very 
unreason of the whole reasoning will be delightfully 
satisfying ; to others it will be foolishness. Inci- 
dentally some sparks of truth are struck out in 
almost startling fashion ; as, for instance, the essence 
of insanity is not its unreason, but its reason : it 
moves in a perfectly flawless and unbreakable circle 
(a vicious circle) of unanswerable reasons, and can 
only be reduced to sanity by introducing an illogical 
element. Incidentally, too, some refreshingly frank 
self-revelations are made. " Mere light sophistry," 
the author declares, " is the thing that I happen to 
despise most of all things, and it is perhaps a whole- 
some fact that this is the thing of which I am gen- 
erally accused." And on his first page, in explaining 
how his book came to be written, he acknowledges 
himself to be " only too ready to write books upon 
the feeblest provocation." The volume is evidently 
written currente calamo, and with little attention to 
the best order and the most concise form of state- 
ment ; but it is, on the whole, one of the best pieces 
of work Mr. Chesterton has given us. 

,. , Perhaps the best thing one can gay 
A new poetical i' -rrrMT 

rendering of of Mr. Theodore C. Williams s trans- 
the uKneid. j^tion of the " ^neid," now published 

by the Houghton Mifflin Co., is that it tempts to a 
re-reading of the entire epic, no matter how familiar 
it be already. Wherever we have opened the vol- 
ume, the smooth flow and graceful diction of its 
blank verse has beguiled us to linger, and to read a 
page where we had intended to read a passage only. 
The translator's justification of his work is interest- 
ing. He says : " My first experiments grew out of 
the exigencies of teaching. I thought it important 
that a class in Virgil should sometimes lay its Latin 




by, smooth out its frowning forehead, and just ' hear 
Sordello's story told.' But all the rhymed versions 
seemed to have a touch of the comic ; and the prose 
ones, of course, were in that mongrel, base-bred jargon 
of which a man would hardly care to own the paternity 
unless he were a translator of the classics. Even the 
most scholarly and elegant versions did not admit of 
continuous reading aloud. It therefore became my 
rather desperate practice to write out certain selected 
passages, both in prose and verse, in renderings 
intended first of all to appeal to the ear." This 
account of the genesis of the translation prepares us 
for a lucid and easily-moving text, and we could wish 
the school-boy no better fortune than to have his 
Virgil in this form to read side by side with the 
original. He could use it neither as a "pony " nor 
as a lexicon, because the translator's starting-point 
is the phrase rather than the single word, but he 
could get from it much understanding of the power- 
ful appeal which the poet has made to the cultivated 
elect of all ages. No brief quotation can do much 
to exhibit the simple charm of this version, but we 
will permit a few lines to speak for it, taking one of 
the most familiar of passages : 

" ^neas thus replied : 
' Thine image, sire, thy melancholy shade. 
Came oft upon my vision, and impelled 
My journey hitherward. Our fleet of ships 
Lies safe at anchor in the Tuscan seas. 
Come, clasp my hand ! Come, father, I implore. 
And heart to heart this fond embrace receive ! ' 
So speaking, all his eyes suffused with tears ; 
Thrice would his arms in vain that shape enfold. 
Thrice from the touch of hand the vision fled, 
Like wafted winds or likest hovering dreams." 

The translation is truthful in the best sense, avoid- 
ing pedantry and fussiness, preserving the argument 
and the dramatic effect of the long speeches, and 
using a vocabulary rich in suggestiveness and emo- 
tional association. Either this or William Morris 
would be our counsel to the reader, young or old, 
who should ask us for the best approach to Virgil 
by means of the English language, and Mr. Williams 
has over Morris the advantage of closer texture and 
a style more comfortable to the general ear. We 
had not supposed a new Virgil in English could 
prove so welcome. 

Factors in the Some eight years ago Mr. Norman 

creation of the ff i i i 

American xlapgood gave US a work on the con- 

drama, temporary stage, which treated those 

aspects of the acted drama that were then playing a 
leading part in American theatrical history, besides 
presenting a critical consideration of current histri- 
onic notabilities. In "The American Stage of 
Today " (Small, Maynard & Company), Mr. Walter 
Pritchard Eaton has done a like service, giving a 
vital treatment of the drama in America as it is 
developing at the present day, and rescuing from 
unmerited oblivion records of productions worthy of 
a more enduring place than the newspaper. Mr. 
Eaton's book is written in that piquant journalistic 
style which is cultivated through labor on the daily 
press ; and, while it is not characterized by the same 

Estays on 



assimilative power as the earlier work, it is inform- 
ing to the student who feels an intelligent interest 
in the contemporary drama. It treats principally 
of those authors who are bringing to bear on the 
problem of creating an American drama the largest 
amount of dramatic skill, truthful observation, in- 
telligent reflection, and passion for reality, and are 
thus keeping our drama connected with life, leading 
our stage on toward better things by making it a 
vital force in the community. As a corollary, in 
considering the question of reality on the stage, Mr. 
Eaton says : " The world knows that reality is for- 
ever in the making. What we called real yesterday 
is unreal today ; truth is what we would have it ; 
reality will only be perfect as we shape it so. To 
deny the mission of the stage, one of man's most 
cherished fields of aesthetic endeavor, in this high 
task of remoulding the world ' nearer to the heart's 
desire ' — the real world, not the make-believe — to 
call it from the work for which it is above all other 
art-forms fitted, and set it the trivial task of aping 
unrealities, is to deny the laws of change and growth, 
to belittle the power of aesthetic imagination, hope- 
lessly to undervalue the worth of dramatic form." 

A new book by Mr. Swinburne is an 
event, even if, as in the case of " The 
Age of Shakespeare" (Harper), it 
contains little new material. The present volume is 
a collection, with slight changes, of nine scattered 
papers upon Elizabethan dramatists. Most of the 
matter offered was written from twenty to thirty 
years ago, and we have long wished that it might be 
brought together in book form. It seems to us, how- 
ever, that the present collection is less complete than 
it might have been made. If recollection serves, 
Mr. Swinburne's contributions to the English monthly 
reviews during the eighties and early nineties included 
considerably more work than is now brought to- 
gether. However, the volume is too precious for us 
to quarrel with because it is not bigger, and at once 
takes its place beside the author's " Study of Shake- 
speare " and his separate volumes upon Jonson and 
Chapman. The subjects of his nine essays are 
Marlowe, Webster, Dekker, Marston, Middleton, 
Rowley, Heywood, Chapman, and Tourneur. They 
take up, one by one, the important plays of each of 
these dramatists, and discuss them with a penetrative 
insight and a certainty of judgment that no other 
student of the Elizabethan drama would be likely to 
equal. The discussion is, of course, impetuous and 
heated, and at moments unnecessarily discursive, 
but it has the illuminating quality which is the signi- 
ficant thing in criticism, and for which no weight of 
mere scholarship can provide a satisfactory substitute. 
That being the case, we may allow him without too 
much indignation an occasional light-hearted irrel- 
evancy, like the remark about " such constitutions as 
could survive and assimilate a diet of Martin Tupper 
or Mark Twain," or the playful comparison of 
Euripides to "a mutilated moniey." The volume 
has a sonnet-dedication " to the memory of Charles 



[Jan. 16, 

Lamb," whose " Specimens " were published just a 
century ago. It is a tender and beautiful tribute, 
which no one has a clearer right than Mr. Swinburne 
to lay at the feet of the man who rediscovered the 
great Elizabethans for the modern world. 

currnu topics ^^ ^^ Surprising how many things, 
trenchantly new and old, wait only for the right 

treated. person in order to be made the sub- 

jects of interesting and edifying discourse — spoken 
or written. Mr. Edward Sandford Martin, author 
of that alluringly entitled book, "Windfalls of 
Observation," and other volumes, has issued a fresh 
collection of brief essays under the name, " In a New 
Century" (Scribner). A score or more of topics 
currently or even, in many cases, perennially inter- 
esting are handled with adroitness and grace, and 
usually in such a way as to strike out some novel or 
significant thought. Even in his chapter on writing 
for publication — a rather threadbare theme, surely 
— the author is not altogether unsuccessful in avoid- 
ing the hackneyed. He offers a novel and perhaps 
useful suggestion in the following: "A man who 
has been a fairly successful writer for a good many 
years has been heard to attribute his success to 
the exceptionally feeble quality of his mind, which 
brought it about that he always got tired of any line 
of thought he was expounding before the reader 
did." The not very lively topic, " Deafness," is 
responsible for fifteen pages of matter that bears 
evidence of personal experience. Among consola- 
tions for the loss of hearing he fails to emphasize the 
appreciable increase in value gained by the remain- 
ing senses ; and in aids to intercourse he omits to 
include lip-reading — which, however, is incidentally 
mentioned later. His style is so pleasing and so 
suited to his ends that one is surprised and even 
mildly shocked to find him using, wantonly and 
under no sort of provocation, the unlovely adjective 
"dratted." "Would" for "should" is regrettable, 
but, alas, to be expected. A good deal of entertain- 
ment, and not a few pregnant and profitable sug- 
gestions, are to be had from the book. 

It may be said with no undue dis- 

.lr;Tmdr'P^r^g«°^«"t t^at the "Theory of 
Mind " by Professor March of Union 
College will give no higher satisfaction to any reader 
than it did to its author in the writing. There is 
a certain novelty of statement, and emphasis of 
points of view that lead the author to regard the 
whole contribution as profound and novel and com- 
prehensive. All that can be said is that there are 
few types of mind affected by the spirit and the 
methods of modern psychology that will feel at all 
in sympathy with this form of exposition. It re- 
solves itself largely into a matter of terminology and 
emphasis ; and Professor March's attitude in this 
matter repels not alone because it is strange, but 
because it seems to distort and to offer for the most 
part only the consolation of a vocabulary. The 
theory, in brief, is that all essential human traits are 

in the nature of impulses and instincts ; that psy- 
chology must be written wholly in the terms of such 
instincts and impulses, and that we may use such 
terms as ideal impulses, home-building impulses, 
and other specialized impulses, to account for every 
phase of social, personal, or material action. All 
this is further incorporated in terms of a Monistic, 
hypothesis, which helps expression but not interpre- 
tation. In brief, the temptation is irresistible to 
apply to this set of doctrines — not devoid of ability 
or insight — the familiar comment, that persons who 
like this sort of thing will probably find in this sort 
of book the things they like. For the general stu- 
dent of psychology it will carry but moderate mean- 
ing and less conviction. ( Scribner.) 

A plea for Educational experience is difficult to 

personality transform into helpful words ; yet 

m education. |.jjg attempt is worth making, and 
will continue to be made. Though not notable, the 
volume by Mr. James P. Conover, Master in St. 
Paul's School, Concord, N. H., brings the well- 
directed thinking of the schoolmaster to bear upon 
the larger interests of his calling. The general 
emphasis implied by the title — " Personality in Edu- 
cation " (Moffat, Yard & Co.) — contains a timely 
and welcome protest against the machine-made 
pupil and the method-crammed teacher. The spirit 
of it all is sane, the perspective sound, the treatment 
judicious. The several factors of the educative 
process — the teacher, the child, the school, disci- 
pline, studies, and the routines of work, play, and 
examinations — are passed in review with a unity 
of consideration derived from a large and well- 
interpreted experience. A significant though not 
emphasized opinion of the volume is that contained 
in the supplementary chapter on the College, which 
expresses profound disappointment with what that 
institution has been able to accomplish even with 
promising boys from good schools. That here 
again the absence of the personal touch and the 
contact with the really educative relations of life 
has much to do with the failure, is an opinion held 
alike by Mr. Conover and by many who have been 
reflecting upon problems akin to his. 

„, ,. . Professor John Graham Brooks, in 

Studies of our , . , , • ^ ^ * /~w i o 

national life his book entitled " As Others oee 
andprof/ress. ijg " (MacmiUan), has collected a 
great variety of criticisms on American life and 
manners, from English, French, German, and other 
European visitors, during the past century. Now 
and then he uses the lash of the foreigner to chas- 
tise some of the faults which he personally desires 
to correct. The American habit of bragging, and 
of regarding matters from the provincial standpoint, 
is thoroughly dissected and duly castigated. The 
chapters at the close of the work, on the signs of 
progress in this country, are full of optimism, and 
show that the destructive criticism of the earlier 
^chapters was not intended to end in fatalistic nihi- 
lism. Professor Brooks has not only travelled in 




America and Europe with keen powers of observa- 
tion, but he has carried with him a worthy standard 
by which to judge his own countrymen with fair- 
ness and without flattery. The result is a book 
worthy of being read, and wholesome in its lessons. 

Mr. John R. Spears has collected 
from various sources the materials 

The ttorv of 

the whalinp 

industry in 

America. for a book on the American whaling 

industry which is at once fairly comprehensive and 
interesting. It is entitled " The Story of the New 
England Whalers," and appears in the series of 
"Stories from American History" (Macmillan). 
The portions of Mr. Spears's book which relate to the 
origin and conduct of whaling operations in colonial 
days are rather better than the later chapters which 
are principally concerned with the more complex and 
diverse features of the industry in the nineteenth 
century. The purposes of such a work would be 
better served by tracing the connection more closely 
between the whalers and the palmy days of Amer- 
ican shipping, and between the spread of whaling 
activities to the Pacific and the awakei^ng of Amer- 
ican interest in California, Honolulu, the North 
Pacific, the fur trade, and to the Orient in general. 
While all these things are hinted at in the book, their 
relationships in the development of American history 
might well be made plainer for young readers, and 
for some older readers as well. 


Mr. Booth Tarkington's deservedly successful play, 
" The Man from Home," is now published in book form, 
with illustrations, by Messrs. Harper & Brothers. 

A monograph on " George Cruikshank," by Mr. 
W. U. Chasson, with many illustrations, is published by 
Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. in their " Popular Library 
of Art." 

An edition of Dr. Richard Burton's biblical drama, 
" Rahab," illustrated from pictures of Mr. Donald 
Robertson's production of the play, will be issued soon 
by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 

" The Eleanor Smith Music Course," in four graded 
volumes, is a recent publication of the American Book 
Co., who also put forth a " Plane and Sohd Geometry," 
by Professor Elmer A. Lyman. 

" When and Where of Famous Men and Women," 
edited by Messrs. Howard Hensman and Clarence 
Webb, is a vest-pocket biographical dictionary pub- 
lished in the " Miniature Reference Library " of Messrs. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 

" Selections from Don Quijote," edited by Professor 
J. D. M. Ford, is a new volume in " Heath's Modern 
Language Series " of school texts. Eighty pages of 
text to fifty of notes is the scale of proportion, and 
there is a vocabulary. 

With the publication of the sixth volume, the 
" Eversley " Tennyson (Macmillan) is now complete. 
The special feature of this edition is found in the anno- 
tations, which are the poet's own, either left in his 
autograph, or taken down verbatim from his table-talk. 
They are of the utmost value, and make the present 

edition desirable beyond all others. The present Lord 
Tennyson has edited the work, and now and then given 
us an explanatory note of his own. 

" The Taming of a Shrew," edited by Mr. F. S. Boas, 
is published by Messrs. Duffield & Co. in their " Shake- 
speare Classics." To their " Old-Spelling Shakespeare " 
is now added " As You Like It," edited by Messrs. F. J. 
Furnivall and F. W. Clarke. 

" The Independent " has recently begun pubUcation 
of a series of articles on the Great Universities of this 
country, written by Dr. Edwin E. Slosson of the edi- 
torial staff. The articles are critical and comparative, 
with a large amount of new material. 

"Sidney McCall," the author of "Truth Dexter," 
" The Dragon Painter," etc., is at work upon the manu- 
script of her new book, which will be brought out this 
coming season by Messrs. Little, Brown & Co. The 
basic theme of the book will be child labor in the 
Southern mills. 

Continuing their practice of several previous years, 
the Chicago Madrigal Club offers a prize of $50. for 
an original poem which shall be used in its musical 
competition of 1909. Full details of the contest may 
be obtained from Mr. D. A. Clippinger, 410 Kimball 
Hall, Chicago. 

An important addition to the " World's Classics," to 
be published immediately by the Oxford University 
Press, is " Joseph and his Brethren," the famous poem 
by Charles Wells, with an introduction by Mr. A. C. 
Swinburne and a long note on Rossetti and Wells by 
Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton. 

An Oxford edition of the works of Charles and Mary 
Lamb, in two volumes, is to be published immediately by 
the Oxford University Press. An Oxford India paper 
edition in one volume will also be issued. The editor 
is Mr. Thomas Hutchinson, editor of the Wordsworth 
and the Shelley volumes in the " Oxford Poets " series. 

Two centuries ago the Oxford Chair of Poetry was 
inaugurated, and a tribute to its almost forgotten founder, 
Henry Birkhead, was paid when the anniversary came 
round a few weeks ago, by Mr. J. W. Mackail, who 
devoted a public lecture to his memory. The lecture is 
now published in pamphlet form at the Oxford Claren- 
don Press. 

Mrs. M. E. M. Davis, a well-known Southern writer, 
died at her home in New Orleans on January 1 after a 
long illness. She was the wife of Major Thomas E. 
Davis, editor of the New Orleans " Picayune." Her 
last book, " The Moons of Balbanca," a story for young 
people, was published by Houghton Mifflin Company 
last September. 

" The World and his Wife " is, as theatre-goers 
know, the title given to a recent version of Seuor 
Echegaray's " El Gran Graleoto," as enacted by Mr. 
WilUam Faversham s company not long ago. This 
translation, the work of Mr. Charles Frederic Nirdlinger, 
is published in book form, with stage-pictures, by Mr. 
Mitchell Kennerley. 

" The Children of the Chapel at Blackfriars, 1597- 
1603," by Professor Charles William Wallace, appears 
as an issue of the " University Studies " of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. It is the result of an extensive 
original investigation of the history of the Elizabethan 
children-companies of players, and is only a foretaste of 
what is to come, for the writer contemplates extending 
the work until it shall fill three large volumes, including 
the many documents which he will reprint. Some of 



[Jan. 16, 

these documents are of extreme importance to Shake- 
spearean students, and are of the author's ovm un- 
earthing. They are merely referred to in the present 
monograph, but will be published in full when the com- 
plete work is ready. 

In connection with the Lincoln centennial, Messrs. 
Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. have reprinted in their well- 
known " Astor " series the work entitled: "Abraham 
Lincoln: Tributes from his Associates, Reminiscences 
of Soldiers, Statesmen, and Citizens." This book, first 
published in 1895, is one of the most interesting of the 
innumerable volumes on Lincoln. 

An edition of " Robinson Crusoe," intended to com- 
bine " an embodiment of appropriateness and charm 
with an appeal for the booklover, for the sophisticated 
reader," has just been published by the Houghton 
Mifflin Co. This handsome library edition fills two 
volumes, uniform with the James Howell of the same 
publishers, and is illustrated by Stothard's designs, 
reproduced in photogravure. 

Some recent English texts are the following : " Mac- 
beth," " Julius Caesar," and « King Henry the Fifth " 
(Ginn), being new volumes of the " Hudson Shake- 
speare"; the "Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" 
(Heath), edited by H. A. Davidson; Bacon's "Essays" 
(Heath), edited by Mr. Fred Allison Howe; and 
Lowell's " The Vision of Sir Launfal, and Other Poems " 
(Merrill), edited by Professor Julian W. Abernethy. 

Appropriate to the several centenaries recently or soon 
to be celebrated, the Directors of the Old South Work 
announce the following additions to their series of " Old 
South Leaflets": Milton's Treatise on Education; Lin- 
coln s Message to Congress, July 4, 1861; Gladstone's 
"Kin Beyond Sea"; Robert C. Wintlirop's Fourth of 
July Oration, 1876; Dr. Holmes's Fourth of July Ora- 
tion, 1863; Gladstone's Essay on Tennyson; Darwin's 
account of his education, from his Autobiography; 
Winthrop's address on Music in New England. The 
" Old South Leaflets," by the way, now comprise nearly 
two himdred titles. 

In a volume dainty enough to be deserving of the 
text, Mr. St. John Lucas has chosen, and Mr. Henry 
Frowde has published, " Selected Poems of Pierre de 
Ronsard " at the Oxford Clarendon Press. From the 
same source we have a set of five small volumes of good 
literature, being the following: " Poems by John Clare," 
edited by Mr. Arthur Symons; "Select Poems of 
William Barnes," edited by Mr. Thomas Hardy ; " War 
Songs," from the fourteenth-century balladists to Tenny- 
son, selected by Mr. Christopher Stone; Gait's "Annals 
of the Parish," with an introduction by Mr. G. S. 
Gordon; and a new edition of " Echoes from the Oxford 

liisT OF New Books. 

A one-volume Commentary on the entire Bible, 
written by some of the best Biblical scholars of England 
and America, and edited by the Reverend J. R. 
Dummelow, is announced by The Macmillan Company. 
Its purpose is to meet the wants of the ordmary Bible 
reader by furnishing adequate introductions to the vari- 
ous books, and notes explaining the principal diificulties 
which arise in connection with them. The volume 
includes not only a Commentary on each of the Books 
of the Bible, but also a series of articles dealing with 
the larger questions suggested by the Bible as a whole. 
It has been edited on the principle of incorporating the 
assured results of modern scholarship, while avoiding 
extreme or doubtful opinions. 

[TAe following list, containing 36 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.l 

The Maid of France : Story of the Life and Death of Jeanne 

d'Arc. By Andrew Lang. With portraits in photogravure, 

etc., 8vo, pp. 379. Longmans, Green, & Co. $3.50 net. 
Edward Macdowell : A Study. By Lawrence Gilmour. With 

portraits, 12mo, pp. 190. John Lane Co. $1.50 net. 
David Swing: : Poet-Preacher. By Joseph Port Newton. With 

photogravure portrait, large 8vo, uncut, pp. 273. Chicago: 

Unity Publishing Co. $2. net. 
Abraham Lincoln : Tributes from his Associates. With 

introduction by William H. Ward. New edition; with 

portrait, 12mo, pp. 295. T. Y. Crowell & Co. 60 cts. 
Sir William Temple : The Gladstone Essay, 1908. By Murray 

L. R. Beaven. 12mo, uncut, pp. 130. Oxford University Press. 

Old Times on the Upper Mississippi : Recollections of a 

Steamboat Pilot, from 1854 to 1863. By George B. Merrick. 

Illus., large 8vo, uncut, gilt top, pp. 323. Cleveland, O.: 

Arthur H. Clark Co. $3.50 net. 
Calais Under English Rule. By G. A. C. Sandeman. 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 140. Oxford University Press. 


Under Fetraia ; with Some Saunterings. By the author of 
" In a Tuscan Garden." Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 310. John 
Lane Co. $1.50 net. 

The Children of the Chapel at Blackfriars, 1597-1603. By 
Charles William Wallace. Limited edition, large 8vo, uncut, 
pp. 206. Privately printed by the author. $2.50 net. 

Balthaser. By Anat'ole France; trans, by Mrs. John Lane. 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 225. John Lane Co. $2. 

Heart Thoughts : Papers and Addresses. By Mrs. H. B. 
Folk. With portraits, 12mo, pp. 80. Philadelphia: Amer- 
ican Baptist Publication Society. 

The Missioner. By E. Phillips Oppenheim. Illus.. 12mo, 

pp. 312. Little, Brown & Co. $1.50. 
The Red Mouse. By William Hamilton Osborne. Illus. in 

color, 12mo, pp. 320. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
The Confession of Seimiour Vane. By Ellen Snow. 12mo, 

pp. 77. R. P. Fenno & Co. 
Heroines of a Schoolroom. By Ursula Tannenforst. With 

frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 484. John C. Winston Co. 
Every Man His Chance. By Matilda Woods Stone. 12mo, 

pp. 202. Boston : The Gorham Press. 
Reincarnated : A Romance of the Soul. By Charles Gould 

Beede. 12mo, pp. 224. Ames, la.: Newport Publishing 

Co. $1.25. 

The Poems of A. C. Benson. With photogravure portrait, 

12mo. gilt top, pp. 320. John Lane Co. $1.50 net. 
Toward the Uplands : Later Poems. By Lloyd Mifflin. With 

photogravure portrait, large 8vo, uncut, pp. 76. Oxford 

University Press. 
A Florentine Tragedy. By Oscar Wilde ; Opening Scene by 

Sturge Moore. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 66. John W. Luce & Co 
The Tragedy of Man : A Dramatic Poem. By Imre Madach 

trans, from the original Hungarian by William N. Loew. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 224. New York : The Arcadia Press. $1 .50 net. 
A Man of Destiny : The Story of Abraham Lincoln. By 

Ernest Linwood Staples. With portraits, 12mo, pp. 71. 

Springfield, Mass. : Lincoln Publishing Co. 
Sun Time and Cloud Time : Minor Chorda, Verses, Sketches, 

and Tales. By Andrew Harvey Scoble. 12mo, pp. 200. R. F. 

Fenno & Co. 
The Angel of Thought and Other Poems : Impressions from 

Old Masters. By Ethel Allen Murphy. Illus., 8vo, gilt top. 

Boston : The Graham Press. $1. 


The Greek and Eastern Churches. By Walter F. Adeney. 

12mo,pp.634. "International Theological Library." Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $2.50 net. 
The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, especially in its 

Relations to Israel. By Robert William Rogers. Illus., 

large 8vo, pp. 235. Eaton & Mains. $2. net. 




The Church and the £ 

Mission Halls. ByWi 

Eaton & Mains. $1.7 
Stewardship and Hits 

12mo, pp. 170. Philad 


The Iiaw of War beti 

Commentary. By P 

Chicago: Callaghan <S 
Semitic Magrio: ItsOrig 

Thompson. 8vo, pp. 
Phrenolog-y; or. The 

By J. G. Spurzheim; 

Elder. Revised from 

pp. 459. J. B. Lippini 
QiUette's Industrial 

Melvin L. Severy. L 

lishingCo. $1.50 net. 
Human Sody and Hea 

pp. 320. American Be 
Bomier's La Fille de 

and Notes, by C. A. Ne 
Profit and Loss in M.e 

pp. 376. Funk & Wag 
Westward 'round the 

12mo, pp. 245. E. P. I 
Annual Keport of th 

Illus., large 8vo, pp. 7 

ing Office. 
Sardonics : Sixteen Skei 

pp. 225. New York : ] 

Hum : A Study of English Wesleyan 

lliam H. Crawford. Illas.. 12mo, pp. 146. 


sions. By Charles A. Cook. Illus., 

elphia : American Baptist Publication 


ween Belli g'erents : A History and 

ercy Bordwell. Large 8vo, pp. 374. 


ins and Development. By R. Campbell 

286. London : Luzac & Co. 

Doctrine of the Mental Phenomena 
edited, with Introduction, by Cyrus 
second American edition; illus., Svo, 

30tt Co. $3. net. 

Solution : World Corporation. By 

arge Svo, pp. 598. Boston: Ball Pub- 

1th. By Alvin Davison. Illus., 12mo, 
)ok Co. 80 cts. 

Boland. Edited, with Introduction 
Ison. 16mo, pp. 116. D. C. Heath & Co 
n. By Alphonso A. Hopkins. 12mo 

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My New Catalogue covering 
every title I have published, 
1891-1908 inclusive, is now 
ready, and will be mailed free 
on request. It is without ques- 
tion a bibelot in itself and as 
choice a production as I can 
hope to offer. 

Thomas B.MosHER 


F)OOK publishers and book journals are 
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No8. 42 BROADWAY and 55 NEW STREE T 

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lates more widely among retaiIi book- 
sellers than any other journal of its class ; 
it is the accustomed literary guide and aid 
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covering every section of the country. 

The Bed Rock of Religious Liberty. The Origin of the Golden Rule. 
Who is Responsible for Present Moral Conditions ? The Philosopher's 
Solution of the Devil Problem. JesusChrist's One Church for the World. 
The Philosopher's Protest Agamst the Illogical Teaching of the Atone- 
ment Doctrine. These booklets are all along new lines of thought. 
All sent postpaid for 25 cents. Address H. G. LYONS, 

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P A pp and unusual BOOKS on South America, 
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Catalogue on application. 203 Front St., New York City. 



[Jan. 16, 

The Home 
Poetry Book 

We have all been 
wanting so 

lonO* ^^^^^ Edited by 


Editor "Poems of the Civil War," 
Laurel Crowned Verse," etc. Author 
'Everyday Life of Lincoln," etc., etc. 

"GOLDEN POEMS" contains more oi everyone' a 
favorites than any other collection at a popu- 
lar price, and has besides the very best of the 
many fine poems that have been written in 
the last few years. 

Other collections may contain more poems of owe 
kind or more by one author. 

"GOLDEN POEMS" (by British and American 
Authors) has 550 selections from 300 writers, 
covering the whole range of English literature. 

"Golden Poems' 

" GOLDEN POEMS " is a fireside volume for the 
thousands of families who love poetry. It is 
meant for those who cannot afford all the col- 
lected works of their favorite poets— it offers 
the poems they like best, all in one volunte. 

The selections in " GOLDEN POEMS " are classi- 
fied according to their subjects : By the Fire- 
side; Nature's Voices; Dreams and Fancies; 
Friendship and Sympathy; Love; Liberty and 
Patriotism; Battle Echoes; Humor; Pathos and 
Sorrow; The Better Life; Scattered Leaves. 

" GOLDEN POEMS," with its wide appeal, at- 
tractively printed and beautifully bound, 
makes an especially appropriate Christmas 

In two styles binding, ornamental cloth and flex- 
ible leather. Of booksellers, or the publishers, 
Price, fi.50. 



" Able Hugo criticism." — Courier •Journal. 
" Deeply interesting literary criticism." — The Dial. 
"A fine specimen of literary criticism of the inductive 
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[Feb. 1, 

Indispensable Books for Every Library 
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T TAVING secured the entire remaining stock of the original 
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Two volumes. 

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1909] THE DIAL 67 



WOMEN OF ALL NATIONS : A Record of their Characteristics, Habits, Man- 
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The text is written in a fascinating style, instructive and pleasing. The following are some of the contributors : 
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Whilst the text is of the highest value the illustrations are fully as remarkable both for their originality and 
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securing the best and most striking photographs. Ninety-eight per cent of these illustrations have ne'ver before been 

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A new book on Napoleon can only be justified by the fact that it contains interesting new material or material 
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A rare pamphlet, privately printed by Lord Littleton, gives an account of interesting conversations with 
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GEORGE BORROW By R. A. J. Walling. With Frontispiece. $1.75 net. 

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" 'Byways of Collecting' is recommended alike to the connoisseur, the neophyte, and the outer barbarian." 
— Chicago Tribune. 





[Feb. 1, 1909. 


Abraham Lincoln: The Boy and the Man 

By James Morgan with specially interesting portraits, etc. Cloth, fl.50. 

The Chicago Tribune editorially recommends reading some account of the whole of Lincoln's life, suggests 
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The Assassination of Abraham 
Lincoln and Its Expiation 
By David Miller De Witt 

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Lincoln : A Centenary Ode 
By Percy MacKaye 

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Mr. Crewe's Career 
By Winston Churchill 

Author of " Coniston," etc. Illustrated. Cloth, $1 SO. 


The Singer Trilogy 

By Mr. F. Marion Crawford 

Fair Margaret The Set, 

The Primadonna Boxed, 

The Diva's Ruby $i.BO. 

Miss Zona Gale's 
Friendship Village 

By the Author of " The Loves of Pelleas and Etarre." 

Cloth, $1.50. 

Mr. Robert Herrick's Together 

By the author of "The Common Lot," etc. Cloth, $1.50. 

The Three Brothers 

By Eden Phillpotts author of 

"The Secret Woman," " The American Prisoner," 
" Children of the Mist," etc. Cloth, $1.50. 

One Immortality 
By H. Fielding Hall 

Author of " The Inward Light.' 

Cloth, $1.50. 


By Algernon Blackwood 

A fantasy woven about a child ; the sort of book that 
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The Straw 

By Rina Ramsay 

Alive with the swing and go of good sport in an 
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The Ancient Greek Historians 

By John B. Bury (Harvard Lectures) 

Author of "The History of Greece," etc. 

Cloth, 8vo. 

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The Acropolis of Athens 

By Martin L. D'Ooge University of Mich. 

Cloth, Svo. Illustrated. $l,.00 net; by mail, $U.Z8. 

Applied Mechanics for Engineers 

A Text-Book for Engineering Students. 

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Artificial Waterways and 
Commercial Development 
By A. Barton Hepburn, LL.D. 

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Cloth, Svo. $1.00 net; by mail, $1.06. 

The Psychology of Singing 
By David C. Taylor 

"Of unusual value and may mark the beginning of a 
new epoch in vocal instruction." — The Nation. 

Cloth, $1.50; by mail, $1.6^. 

Col. J. H. Patterson S illustrated stories of 

The Man-Eaters of Tsavo 

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story of a running fight between railroad builders 
and man-eating lions in Uganda. 

New edition. $1.75 net; by mail, $1.87. 


Mr. F. Marion Crawford's 
Southern Italy and Sicily 

is the fullest, most tangible, and vivid description of 
the region about Messina obtainable; among its 
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shaken district. Cloth, $2.50 net; by mail, $2.72. 

The Cyclopedia of American Agriculture 

edited by L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University, Editor of "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture," chairman of the 
Commission on Country Life, is completed by the issue of the fourth volume, soon to appear. 

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II. Farm Crops (individually in detail) IV. The Farm and the Community 

Com,plete in four kto volumes, the set $20 in cloth, half morocco $32. 



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No. 543. FEBRUARY 1, 1909. Vol. XLVL 





1908. Aksel G. S. Josephson 71 



The classifying instinct. — The Public Library of 
the District of Columbia. - — The new head of Har- 
vard. — The joys of an amateur librarian. — The 
new historian of Rome. — Poetry and business. — 
Robert Burton's bequest of books. — The hunger 
for books in the country. — A memorial to Lincoln. 
— Europe's ignorance of America. 


" Ido " and " Pigeon English." O. H. Mayer. 
Esperanto and " Ido." Eugene F. McPike. 


Benneson McMahan 77 


Taylor 78 

THE IRELAND OF TO-DAY. Ellen FitzGerald . 80 
CENCES. W. H. Johnson 82 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 84 
Mallock's An Immortal Soul. — OUivant's The 
Gentleman. — Wells's The War in the Air. — Par- 
tridge's The Distributors. — Masefield's Captain 
Margaret. — Watson's The Devil's Pulpit. — Mrs. 
Thurston's The Fly on the Wheel. — "Dolf 
Wyllarde's " Rose-White Youth. — Miss Mon- 
tague's In Calvert's Valley. — Miss Murfree's The 
Fair Mississippian. — Payson's Barry Gordon. — 
Cable's Kincaid's Battery. 


Evidences of life on the red planet. — Ian Maclaren 
portrayed by a fellow Scotsman. — President Eliot 
on University administration. — The latest hero of 
the nations. — The origin and growth of American 
polity. — A reader's vade-mecum. — Sixteenth cen- 
tury French portraits. — A Shelley translation from 





The chief factor in recent library develop- 
ment, viewed from the standpoint of material 
equipment and the extension of facilities for 
reading, is undoubtedly that provided by the 
unexampled benefactions of Mr. Carnegie. Like 
all good works, this particularly good work has 
been met in some quarters with grudging accept- 
ance and ill-natured criticism, but its positive 
beneficence is not to be minimized merely be- 
cause some captious people think the money 
might have been put to better uses, or because 
some penurious communities resent the condi- 
tion of maintenance wisely attached to Mr. 
Carnegie's gift of library buildings. Those who 
take exception to the largess thus generously 
bestowed usually do so upon one or the other of 
the above grounds, and their fault-finding, while 
it may properly take the form of an occasional 
pleasant jest, should excite only indignation 
when it is put forward in the form of serious 

The objection of the sentimentalist, to whom 
any benefaction that is not a charity is rela- 
tively ill-advised, may be the product of a warm 
heart but is not the conclusion of a clear intelli- 
gence. The fundamental principle of all wisely- 
directed effort to improve social conditions and 
provide real benefits to mankind is that consid- 
eration for the future is more important than 
concern for the present. Charities we must 
have, and do have in abundance ; most people, 
in fact, who conjoin wealth with philanthropic 
purpose, first turn their thoughts toward soup- 
kitchens and hospitals and asylums. The 
appeal of suffering humanity is so urgent that 
comparatively few philanthropists can resist it, 
and devote their gifts to the removal of the 
underlying causes of present misery. With this 
emotional bias so widely prevalent, charity is 
at all times sure of getting even a larger share 
than it should of the total of wealth that is avail- 
able for the amelioration of the conditions of 
existence. It takes both foresight and resolu- 
tion to apply to the processes of gradual regen- 
eration the means whereby many immediate 
needs might be speedily relieved. And yet 
nothing is more certain than the fact that direct 



[Feb. 1, 

charity accomplishes little for the future, and 
that it tends to magnify the very evils which it 
would diminish. On the other hand, increased 
provision for education (and the library is second 
in importance only to the school as a means of 
education) is a sure means of helping the com- 
ing generation to a better footing than the 
present generation occupies, and the judgment 
that makes it is of all judgments the best- 

Glancing at the other of the two chief criti- 
cisms of Mr. Carnegie's library gifts, it is easy 
to see that, just as no individual likes to have 
his philanthropies forced, there are sure to be 
many communities that will receive grudgingly 
a gift to which is attached the condition of a 
continuing contribution oh their own part. The 
community that adopts the fara da se attitude, 
and courteously declines the offered gift, may 
have our respect, but hardly the community that 
accepts it, and then grumbles about the new tax 
which it imposes. The acceptance, if made at 
all, should be made in good faith, and include 
an acceptance of the responsibility ; indeed, a 
gift that does not bring with it a responsibility 
is not likely to accomplish a useful purpose in 
any direction, philanthropic or other. Hence we 
think that Mr. Carnegie's condition is as wise as 
his primary aim of supplying the multitude with 
good reading ; and if the possession of one of his 
library buildings puts a little moral pressure 
upon the town that gets it, the pressure is of the 
right sort and in the right direction. Com- 
munities, no less than the individual members 
of which they are composed, are apt to be made 
the better by the spur of a little compulsion. 
This principle, which is the foundation of our 
political existence, always makes for stability of 
character and aim. It is always the part of 
wisdom to guard against temporary inclinations 
and the impulses of the moment. 

We did not, however, start out with the in- 
tention of making an elaborate defence of the 
Carnegie libraries, which may well give mute 
but eloquent testimony for themselves, needing 
no apologist. What we really had in mind was 
a suggestion concerning the books that go into 
them. It is, in brief, that the donor should 
supplement his gift of buildings by occasional 
gifts of books that are worthy of being placed 
in the collections, and that would otherwise not 
be likely to be added to many of them. The 
purpose of such gifts should be not so much 
that of swelling the ranks on the shelves as 
of encouraging authorship in certain needed 

directions. Most of the books that go into a 
library of moderate size are fairly popular pub- 
lications, or publications of recognized standing, 
that may very well be left to make their own 
way. On the other hand, there are many works 
of high character that are too narrow in their 
appeal to belong to the average public library 
on any terms. But besides the books of these 
two kinds there are others occupying a sort of 
intellectual borderland between popular writing 
and the literature of specialism, that find the 
struggle for existence difficidt, and that would 
be mightily encouraged by a plan that should 
seek them out, give them a helping hand, and 
lift them just above the margin of commercial 
possibility. Books of this kind, that have 
somehow failed to get adequate attention from 
reviewers, and yet are highly meritorious, and 
would prove their usefulness in the small library, 
exist in considerable numbers, and it would be 
a praiseworthy act to make some sort of system- 
atic provision for putting them within the reach 
of more readers than they are likely to attract 
by their own unaided merits. 

To put the case a little more concretely, let 
us assume that Mr. Carnegie has a thousand 
public libraries in full operation. Let us then 
suppose that he entrust to a committee of ex- 
perts the duty of examining the current literary 
output, and of recommending, from time to 
time, such books as are found to be notable for 
sound workmanship and educational value, but 
which, for some reason or other, do not seem 
to be getting the support which they deserve. 
Books answering to this description are all the 
time making their modest debut, finding a few 
appreciative readers, and then disappearing from 
view without reaching more than a small part 
of what should be their real public. It is acci- 
dent or caprice (to say nothing of advertising) 
that largely determines the popularity of a book. 
Of two biographies, the one sincere and pains- 
taking, the other careless and sensational, the 
latter will have the satisfactory sale. Of two 
histories, the one scholarly and the other flashy, 
the former will not be the popular favorite. Of 
two collections of essays, the one frothy and the 
other clarified, the latter will suffer neglect. 
Of two volumes of verse, the one slangy or 
sentimental, the other expressing high ideals of 
beauty and conduct, the latter will not find 
enough purchasers to cover the cost of its man- 
ufacture. Now our suggestion is that in each 
of these typical cases, and in other similar cases, 
our supposed committee should discover the 




deserving book — the literary Cinderella — 
recommend it for purchase, and that straight- 
way an order for a thousand copies, one for 
each of the thousand libraries, should go to the 

L-The sale of a thousand copies more or less is 
a trifling matter for the novel of the hour, but 
it is a matter of life and death for many a good 
book. Moreover, the cachet given a book by 
thus singling it out for approval would further 
advance its fortunes. " Approved by the 
Carnegie Committee " might come to mean in 
this country what " Crowned by the Academy " 
means in France ; no guaranty, perhaps, of any 
very large demand, but certainly the stamp of a 
distinction that would be highly prized. The 
system might profitably be extended to manu- 
scripts, since the sale of a thousand copies 
secured in advance, with the knowledge of 
their distribution to a thousand libraries, would 
insure the printing of almost any kind of a 
manuscript that might otherwise have to go 
begging for a publisher. The successful working 
of the plan which we have proposed woidd, of 
course, depend upon the good judgment of the 
committee entrusted with the delicate task of 
selection, and upon the authority with which it 
could appeal to the public. Probably the safest 
course that could be taken would be to place 
the whole matter in the hands of the National 
Institute of Arts and Letters, with full power 
to examine and award. 

The cost of putting this plan into effect woidd 
not be great. In comparison with Mr. Car- 
negie's huge expenditures for library buildings, 
it would be inconsiderable. Fifty thousand 
dollars a year applied to this purpose would 
enrich neither publisher nor author beyond the 
dreams of avarice, but it would provide for the 
publication or the encouragement of perhaps 
fifty volumes of good literature upon conditions 
that would at least protect the former from loss 
and cheer the heart of the latter in better than 
pecuniary fashion. It would also add fifty books 
to the shelves of every library in the Carnegie 
system ; and they would be books profitable for 
instruction and the elevation of taste. Objectors 
will doubtless urge that our suggestion is too 
artificial and academic, to which we can reply 
only by saying that we believe in the academic 
idea (despite its " forty-first chairs " and other 
miscalculations), and that the policy of encourag- 
ing good work by artificial stimuli has on the 
whole thoroughly justified itself in the annals 
of mankind. 

PRESS OF 1908* 

The most significant change in the character of 
the professional library press during the past few 
years, at least in England and America, is the par- 
ticular emphasis laid on questions of Extension, — 
how to reach the various classes of readers, how to 
give the library its proper place in the community, 
and the relegation to the background of the more 
technical questions of cataloguing and classification, 
the disappearance even of the minutiae of library 
technique, the renewed emphasis on the book itself. 
(See in this connection Mr. Koopman's articles in 
" Public Libraries ": " Lest We Forget, in the Mul- 
titude of Books, the Few Great Books.") The 
question of open access to the shelves, once vehe- 
mently discussed on both sides of the Atlantic, is 
the subject of only four papers, two American and 
two English, none of them particularly significant. 
The fiction problem, though the subject of only two 
or three papers, still attracts, and the last word has 
not yet been said ; the same is true of the problem 
of the children, which seems on the way to be rele- 
gated to its proper dimensions. Cooperation in 
cataloguing having been solved, at least in America 
and Germany, the larger question of inter-library 
loans enters the field again. The interest in for- 
eign affairs is reasonably lively in this country and 
in Germany, while England takes on the role of 
greater self-satisfaction, which is shown in the few 
cases where American conditions are incidentally 
touched upon. 

* The following survey of the main articles in two American 
library periodicals ("Library Journal " and " Public Libraries "), 
two English ( ' ' Library Association Record " and Library World " ) , 
and two German (" Zentralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen " and 
"Blatter fur Volksbibliotheken und Lesehallen"). during the 
past year brings out some interesting matters about the tenden- 
cies and activities in the library field of the three countries. 

Questions of Administration (including such questions as 
Open Shelves, Specialization, Circulation, as well as the aiih- 
iectot Buildings). L. J.: 15 — P.L.: 7 — L. A.R.: 5 — L.W.:7 — 
Z.f.B.: 5 — B.f.V.: 2 — 

Extension, Relation to readers and to public bodies, Co- 
operation with other institutions as well as with other libraries, 
work with children. L. J.: 25 — P.L.: 18 — L. A.R.: 5 — Z.f. B.: 
3 — 

Special classes of libraries (and Special Collections). L. J. : 
3 — P.L.: 2 — L.A.R.: 3 — Z.f.B.: 3— B.f.V.: 2 — 

Historical features (including Descriptions of individual 
libraries a,nd Biographical sketches). L. J.: 8 — P. L. : 2 — 
L.A.R.: 2 — L.W.: 9 — Z.f.B.: 4 — B.f.V.: 1 — 

Book selection and collecting (including Relations with the 
book trade and the Fiction question. L. J. : 8 — P. L. : 2 — 
L.A.R.: 3 — L.W.: 5— Z.f.B.: 1 — B.f.V.: 6 — 

jBoo/cs and aw^/iors (literary articles). P.L,: 3 — B.f.V.: 5 — 

Bibliography and. Cataloguing. L.J. : 6 — P. L. : 2 — L.A. R. : 
3 — L.W.: 7 — Z.f.B.: 10 — B.f.V.: 1 — 

Classification. L.J.: 2 — L.W.: 1 — B.f.V.: 1 — 

Manuscripts and paleography. L. J. : 1 (a translation) — 
Z.f.B.: 5 — 

Printing (history). Z.f.B: 3 — 

Physical aspect of the Book (paper, binding). 
L.A.R.: 3 — Z.f.B.: 2 — 

Library profession and Staff questions. 
1 — L.A.R.: 2 — L.W.: 5 — 


P.L.: 1 — 

L.J.: 3— P.L. 

Instruction and training. 
L.W.: 1 — B.f.V.: 2 — 

Foreign library affairs. 
Z.t.B.: 5 — B.f.V.: 1 — 

3— P.L.: 

■L.A.R.: 2- 

L. J.: 10 — P.L.: 3 — L. W. 



[Feb. 1, 

Turning now to the individual articles, we find, 
naturally enough, the most significant to be those 
dealing with extension of the work and influence of 
the library. Easily first in importance under this 
head is Professor L. H. Bailey's address at the 
Lake George meeting, — " Library Work for Rural 
Communities" (L. J., Oct.). Here are new prob- 
lems presented in a forceful and attractive way, and 
the work of libraries put in relation with the whole 
movement to improve rural conditions. The partic- 
ular message of Professor Bailey we find in the 
statement that while '' to a large extent the effect 
of library work is to cause persons to read for en- 
tertainment," the needs of the countryman are 
different. He is, consciously or. not, a fatalist. " His 
work is largely in the presence of the elemental 
forces of nature." This develops in him either " a 
complacent and joyful resignation" or "a species 
of rebellion which leads to a hopeless and pes- 
simistic outlook on life." " The countryman," 
therefore, " needs to read for courage." It is sig- 
nificant that the rural problem has been touched in 
England also, in the address before the Library 
Association at Brighton by its President, Mr. C. 
Thomas-Stanford (L. A. R., Sept.). To make 
country life attractive to men and women " emanci- 
pated by education from the ascriptio glehce which 
was the lot of their fathers," is one of the great 
problems of the day, and one way to meet it is to 
increase among them the opportunities for reading. 

A further extension of the possibilities for use- 
fulness of libraries has been effected in England 
through the cooperation of the Library Association 
with the National Home Reading Union, an organ- 
ization of somewhat the same character as the 
Chautauqua Reading Circles. The October " Li- 
brary Association Record " contains a statement of 
the new developments of the Union, including the 
agreement between it and the Library Association. 
A feature of this cooperation is the publication of 
a " Readers' Review " issued by the two bodies, 
through which the readers in public libraries receive 
guidance in the choice of books and subjects for 

Closely related to these phases of library extension 
are the questions of how to select the most suitable 
books for the public library and how to arrange 
them. The classification of fiction is not a new 
matter in this country, or in England ; but it would 
seem that the article by Professor C. Lausberg of 
Dtlsseldorf, on " Die Gliederimg der schOngeistigen 
Literatur "* (B. f. V. July- Aug. and Sept.-Oct.), is 
the first serious discussion of the subject in the 
German professional press. The librarian of the 
Dtlsseldorf Volksbibliothek has convictions of his 
own on the subject, and his articles are directed 
against adverse criticisms of the system used in the 
library of which he has charge. He claims that in 
a popular library the borrowers are looking chiefly 

• Issued in separate form by O. Harrassowitz in Leipzig 
together with another article: " Allerlei Qedanken viber das 

for recreative reading, and the books should be 
arranged on the shelves so as to help them to select 
that which suits their taste. In fiction the reader 
is led in his choice " by temperament rather than 
by intellect. The tastes are as a rule permanent." 
And the author goes on to cite several instances 
of highly cultivated men and women, by no means 
adverse to " heavy " reading even outside of their 
professional work, but who, when choosing books 
for recreation, select writers of a decidedly light 
character. " And if a poor seamstress or a down- 
trodden saleswoman asks for books of the Heimburg 
and Schobert kind for her lonely, tired evenings, let 
her have them to the end of her days." " I have 
never," he says, "thought much of the education of 
readers to ' higher things.' " Reviews of books 
suitable for popular reading have always been a 
special feature of '' Blatter fttr Volksbibliotheken." 
Each issue contains a number of notices of current 
books, both fiction and others, short and to the point, 
enabling one to see at a glance the character and 
point of view of each. Besides this regular depart- 
ment, most issues contain special articles about 
well-known writers, estimating especially their work, 
as " Volksschriftsteller." Among the writers dis- 
cussed during the past year we find Gottfried Keller, 
Heinrich Steinhausen, and Karl Emil Franzos. 

Mr. Ernest E. Savage, in a paper read at a 
monthly meeting of the Library Association, dis- 
cusses " Some Difficulties in the Selection of Scien- 
tific and Technical Books " (L. A. R., Ap.). He 
deprecates the lack of competent guides to the best 
books. He seems rather too much given to the cult 
of the books "hot from the press," and presents 
incidentally his compliments to the " A. L. A. Book- 
List," which he finds to contain chiefly "evaluative 
gush." Criticism of American methods is found in 
another paper in the " Library Association Record " 
for June, by Mr. James D. Stewart, on " The Cult 
of the Child and Common Sense." Mr. Stewart 
opposes the introduction of exaggerated work with 
children from American to British libraries ; the 
story hour especially he thinks should be avoided. 
" The library is primarily for the adult and second- 
arily for the juvenile, and if this is kept in mind the 
efficiency of the institution will gain, and much money 
and energy will be saved." Mr. Stewart quotes with 
approval from the report of the Examining Committee 
of the Boston Public Library, which, he says, " pos- 
sesses one of the most sanely managed children's 
departments." It is interesting to find, in the April 
" Library Journal," a paper by a former chairman ©f 
the subcommittee on branches of the Boston com- 
mittee, Miss Caroline Matthews, on " The Growing 
Tendency to Over-Emphasize the Children's Side," 
in which the writer says: "Nothing has astonished 
me more than this new development in library prac- 
tice — the placing of the child in importance before 
the adult." As chairman of the subcommittee on 
branches. Miss Matthews has especial opportunity to 
study the children's rooms and the work with children 
generally. She sums the matter up in this sentence : 




'* I grew to have a horror of children's rooms — as 
distinct from children's departments. Intellectually, 
physically, morally, I believe them harmful. Neither 
can I see their necessity." 

If tendencies are apparent to relegate the work 
with children to a less prominent place, the needs 
of the workingmen and the industrial classes in 
general are receiving more attention. It is evi- 
denced, however, by the articles on this subject that 
appeared in the March " Public Libraries," that 
American librarians here stand before a problem 
that is new to many, and one which they do not 
quite understand. Mr. Sam Walter Foss hits the 
nail on the head when he says that " we are not 
keeping step in this country to the new industrial 
music as are some of the European nations." His 
suggestion that the library " mix a little masculinity 
in its over-feminized collections " is to the point, and 
might be made to cover methods and surroundings 
as well. 

While the journals whose contents have hitherto 
passed in review discuss mainly the questions of 
everyday life in public libraries, the case is different 
with " Zentralblatt fUr Bibliothekswesen." This 
journal caters to the workers in the large libraries, 
or at least to those of scholarly character. The 
problems under discussion are therefore to some 
extent, though not altogether, different. The ques- 
tion of local collections, for instance, which was 
presented by Dr. Keysser of Cologne at last year's 
meeting of the German librarians, is of interest to 
the workers in any public library, and Dr. Keysser's 
paper should be read with profit by them. He is 
particularly competent to speak on the matter, as 
the City Library of Cologne not only makes par- 
ticular effort to coUcict books of local character, but 
is one of a group of libraries along the middle course 
of the Rhine which have joined together for the 
collecting of printed matter relating to their common 
district. Besides the proceedings at the annual 
conference of German librarians, this journal con- 
tains the papers read at the library section of the 
eighth International Historical Congress in Berlin. 
The general subject for deliberation at the section 
was Cooperation, — union catalogues, inter-library 
loans, and the like. Dr. R. Fick, the head of the 
Bureau of Information of the Prussian Union Cat- 
alogue, Dr. F. Eichler in Graz, and Dr. H. Escher 
in Zurich, reported, respectively, on the work in 
Prussia, Austria, and Switzerland. Dr. Aksel 
Andersson of Upsala presented, after a survey of 
the present situation in matters of inter-library 
loans, a resolution, which was adopted by the section 
for presentation to the International Association of 
Academies, which organization has lent its powerful 
aid to the development of direct relations between 
the libraries of Europe. The resolution expressed 
the appreciation of the section for the efforts of the 
Association, and presented some desiderata tending 
to a further simplification of the direct lending of 
books from library to library. The question of 
inter-library loans, which for some time has been 

dormant in this country, was revived by Mr. W. C. 
Lane in his address at the dedication of the new 
library building of Oberlin College, the concluding 
portion of which was printed in the December 
" Library Journal " under the title : " A Central 
Bureau of Information and Loan Collection for 
College Libraries." It is a carefully worked out 
plan for the organization of a central office or agency 
for loans between libraries, which gradually should 
collect a library of such works, chiefly long sets of 
serials and other expensive works, as are not avail- 
able for loan through other libraries. 

Aksel G. S. Josephson. 


English and American library efficiency is a sub- 
ject for good-tempered and helpful, and also for 
acrimonious and futile, debate. By a well-known 
weakness of human nature, a weakness rather comi- 
cal than tragic, our own virtues loom large, and our 
neighbor's vices even larger. The January number 
of "The Library World" (London) opens with a 
carefully studied and highly readable editorial com- 
parison of " European and American Libraries," 
dealing especially with libraries in England and the 
United States. The recognized fact that library 
workers are better paid in this country than abroad 
is made much of to demonstrate the greater cost of 
per capita service here. It is true that, like all new 
countries, America has incurred the charge of lavish- 
ness and waste, and our library economy may not be 
the strictest economy in one sense of the word. We 
may, too, fail to adopt some of our English cousins' 
library methods and reforms that are richly deserv- 
ing of adoption. But are we quite so blind and 
foolish, so arrogant and ignorant, as this English 
editor seems to think ? Possibly he has indulged the 
literary artist's fondness for rhetorical effect, while 
cherishing none but the most cordial and friendly and 
admiring sentiments toward us. At any rate, here 
are a few of his most picturesque utterances : " As a 
matter of fact, what ails the average American library 
invalid is simply indigestion, caused by lack of active 
employment, and having emoluments large enough to 
enable him (her more often) to eat pumpkin pie, 
clams, baked beans and canvas-back duck all the year 
roimd ! The enormous sums frittered away in Amer- 
ica on unproductive and useless library ' activities ' 
have no parallel in Europe, where common-sense 
takes the place of hysteria in such matters, for 
example, as the treatment of children. . . . The 
mingled bounce and twaddle which garnish the aver- 
age American library report prove somewhat comical 
reading to those who really know what library 
conditions are in various parts of the world. . . . 
Thus we may have the report of the ' superintendent 
of the page's brass buttons '; the statement of the 
marble polisher ; the special report of the torn leaf 



[Feb. 1, 

department ; the statistical abstract of the steno- 
graphic department, and all the empty and costly 
parade which distinguishes these preposterous docu- 
ments. ... In library matters American ideals are 
decidedly stale. Her methods were more or less 
standardized between 1878 and 1888, and since then 
not an atom of progress has been made save in the 
piling up of immense revenues and the establishment 
of unnecessary staffs which have to attempt to justify 
their existence by launching out into equally need- 
less and futile ' missionary ' enterprises." Not an 
atom of progress ! Far less, then, a molecule ; and 
some of us thought we had crept forward a good inch, 
if not half a foot. The article from which the fore- 
going excerpts are taken honors The Dial, among 
other American journals, with special mention ; but 
the charge that certain statements of ours " are not 
only written with a most lofty sense of American 
superiority, but are manifestly based on ignorance 
of library conditions in Europe," seems a little harsh. 
It is true that in a recent issue we quoted Professor 
Mahaffy *s commendation of our " finely systematized 
and organized libraries "; but he is a Briton, and we 
were too proud of his good opinion to keep silent. 
And we have occasionally alluded to a certain dis- 
inclination to cut loose from red tape as noted in 
some of the great royal or imperial libraries of 
Europe. On the other hand, we not long ago (see 
vol. 42, p. 214) commented adversely on our own 
libraries' inferior efficiency as compared with a 
certain German public library, and were called to 
account for it in this country ; and we also (see 
vol. 43, p. 198) took pleasure in chronicling the 
convention of British librarians at Glasgow, with 
approving comment on the unselfish devotion of 
British library workers, and regretful note of their 
inadequate remuneration. We were not consciously 
writing in a spirit of loftiness, condescension, or 
ignorance ; but who can understand his errors ? We 
are glad to be cleansed of some of our secret faults. 


The classifying instinct is in some degree present 
in all of us. We feel that if we can only get the heter- 
ogeneous and confusing objects and facts and events of 
this bewildering world divided into classes and sub- 
classes, all neatly labelled and pigeon-holed, they will 
give us no further trouble. To systematize the uni- 
verse is to explain it, we are tempted to believe. This 
mama for classification, for making everything fit into 
a catalogue (preferably decimal in its scheme of divi- 
sion) , is very naturally, and not altogether improperly, 
encouraged in the training of librarians. "It has for 
so long been supposed," writes Director Wyer of the 
New York State Library, in his current Report, " that 
cataloguing is the backbone of effective library admin- 
istration, that this subject always looms far larger than 
any other in the program of either a summer or a winter 
school. In the former case, however, the excessive 
time given to cataloguing seems to be at the expense of 
the more inspirational features of the work, and the 

faculty is seriously considering either the omission of 
all cataloguing from the general course in 1909 and 
offering it as a special elective course covering about 
four weeks, or a considerable reduction in the time and 
work given to the subject. So many of those who come 
to a summer session are from libraries too small to find 
use for any catalogue at all, or at least too small for 
any but the briefest author and title list, or they fill 
positions which never have demanded and probably 
never will permit any or much experience in catalogu- 
ing. The omission of this subject from the required 
work of the summer session will give a very welcome 
increase of leisure time which may be devoted with 
profit to book selection, personal work with readers, the 
actual study of the inside of the books themselves, and 
the larger phases of library administration which are 
related to the community which it serves." The pro- 
posed change is commendable. Almost any course of 
mental training might profit the would-be librarian (so 
miscellaneous will be the demands made on his intelli- 
gence) as long as it does not nourish in him (and in 
her) the notion that mankind in general and library- 
users in particular are machines, and that the whole 
world, especially the library world, is wound up once 
for all and runs like clock-work. 

The Public Library of the District of Columbia 
is so much younger, so much smaller, and so much less 
important in every way than the Library of Congress in 
the same city, that few even of those interested in such 
things are fully aware how large and excellent a library 
it really is. The Librarian's Tenth Annual Report gives 
the last year's circulation as over half a million, and tells 
in detail what is being done and being planned to increase 
still further the library's usefulness. A piatter of general 
interest is touched upon in the following: " It is gratify- 
ing to be able to report that the percentage of fiction 
circulated has been fvu-ther reduced. In 1903-4, when 
no books except fiction were on open shelves for direct 
access, fiction formed nearly 84 per cent of the total 
circulation. Gradually during the last four years more 
and more books from non-fiction classes have been put 
on open shelves, and more and more help and guidance 
has been given to readers requiring assistance, with the 
result that the fiction percentage has been reduced to 
65. The new Useful Arts and Science room is an open- 
shelf room, where those classes are directly accessible 
to readers. ... In spite of too frequent thefts from 
open shelves, the value of putting the people in direct 
contact with the books, instead of forcing their approach 
through a card catalogue, is so well attested by the grad- 
ually falling fiction percentage as to justify the recom- 
mendation still further to extend open-shelf facilities 
imtil it is possible to have the cream of all classes of the 
library directly accessible to readers." A life-like por- 
trait of the late A. R. Spofford, who served for eleven 
years on the library's board of trustees, and views, 
exterior and interior, of the handsome library building 
adorn this variously-informing Report, which of course 
bears the imprint of the Government Printing Office. 

The new head of Harvard, chosen to succeed 
President Eliot next May, is a man already favorably 
known in education, as well as in letters and in law. 
Professor Abbott Lawrence Lowell is the son of 
Augustus Lowell, cotton manufacturer, shrewd Boston 
business man, and honored founder of the Lowell 
Institute. Born December 13, 1856, Professor Lowell 




has hardly more than begun his sixth decade, but has 
had ample opportunity to display his initiative and force 
as an educator, both in a term of service on the Boston 
school board and as Eaton Professor of the Science of 
Government at Harvard. With a successful law prac- 
tice behind him, and known as the author of a two- 
volume work on governments and parties in continental 
Europe, he accepted a call from his alma mater twelve 
years ago and began there his lectures on government 
which have become so popular with his large classes of 
students. His success as lecturer and teacher has been 
attributed " not only to his thorough grasp of the sub- 
ject and to his complete confidence in it as a field of 
study, but to his unfailing self-control in the class-room, 
his mastery of the art of speaking fluently yet with 
dignity ; above all, perhaps, to the wealth of apt illustra- 
tion and illustrative anecdote which he has at ready 
command." His reputation as a scholar and writer in 
his chosen field has lately been increased by the publi- 
cation of still another learned and illuminative work, 
" The Government of England," a book worthy to stand 
beside Mr. Bryce's " American Commonwealth " as a 
foreigner's lucid exposition of a great country's polity 
in theory and practice. Professor Lowell's administra- 
tive ability has conspicuously attested itself in these 
active and fruitful years at Cambridge, so that there is 
every reason to feel confidence in his wise and progres- 
sive management of the great institution committed to 
his chai'ge. ... 

The joys of an amateur librarian are enlarged 
upon by a writer in the December " Bulletin of the 
Vermont Library Commission." She chooses to call 
herself an amateur, but is one only in the best sense of 
the word, — an enthusiastic devotee of her calling. 
Before being drawn into the work, suddenly and com- 
pellingly, she confesses herself to have been " like many 
others on the outside who felt that library work was 
simple, was work in a straight line, more or less me- 
chanical, and just with a daily routine to meet." But 
she soon, and to her increasing delight, discovered her 
mistake. " There is," she declares, " no limit for orig- 
inality and adaptation of well-known library contrivances 
and suggestions, and the outlook is so broad and the 
road branches into so many paths that it cannot fail to 
be of vital interest to one engaged in it." In recoimt- 
ing some of her enjoyable experiences she says : " Great 
pleasure comes with choosing new books, conferring 
with the trustees, ordering and receiving them [i. e., the 
books, not the trustees]. In a large library where new 
books are without novelty, though of great interest in 
themselves, this joy is lost, and I am sorrj' for the peo- 
ple who cannot have it, and thankful that my lot was in 
a bypath." Only a desire for larger experience and for 
the training that comes with working under veteran 
librarians induced the writer to exchange her happy 
lot for what finally proved to be a different sort of 
employment in a great city; but she writes : "My in- 
terest in library work is very vital, and the large libra- 
ries mean more, the small ones mean more, every 
bookstore means more, and every working g^irl means 
more than they would if I had never had my place 
among them." Well for her, perhaps, that the ama- 
teur spirit did not have time to become transformed 
into the professional. When the amateur's zest has 
departed from one's calhng, it is time to step out and 
look around for another sphere of usefulness. When 
we have thoroughly learned a trade, that is sometimes 
the psychological moment for giving it up. 

The new historian of Rome, Signor Guglielmo 
Ferrero, who has made so favorable an impression as 
lecturer and scholar in his visit to this country, and 
whose history of " The Greatness and Decline of Rome " 
is received with such approval, is a comparatively young 
man. Born near Naples in 1871, the son of a Pied- 
montese railway engineer, he studied law at Pisa and 
belles-lettres at Bologna, where he received his academic 
degree. He early began his travels and entered upon 
those studies of foreign countries and foreign manners 
that bore fruit in his " Young Europe," a collection of 
observations made in Germany, Russia, England, and 
Scandinavia. The book was immediately successful 
and called forth many solicitations from Italian and 
foreign periodicals for contributions from its author's 
pen. A leading Milan jottmal engaged him to write a 
weekly article, and the Lombard Peace Society invited 
him to deliver a course of lectures on militarism, which 
were widely discussed. It was in 1902 that the first 
volume of his great work now in course of publication 
appeared. In person our distinguished visitor is tall 
and thin and ascetic, but with an imperious bearing that 
marks him as not exactly the midnight-oil-burning 
recluse which his depth of learning may have led us to 
expect. With the best years of his life still ahead of 
him, Signor Ferrero will disappoint us if he does not go 
far before he finishes. ... 

Poetry and business mix about as well as oil and 
vinegar. Nevertheless there is here and there a busi- 
ness man who is fond of poetry, and, still more rarely, 
there may be found one who makes poetry of his busi- 
ness, which is a very different thing from making a 
business of poetry. The Marblehead seedsman whose 
annual catalogue we have already twice noticed with 
approval again greets his seed-planting, vegetable- 
raising, and flower-cultivating patrons with a yearly 
schedule of good things in embryonic plant-life, — that 
is, with his annual " Vegetable and Flower Seed Cata- 
logue, Free for All." It is a most welcome and cheer- 
ing reminder of the approach of spring, or rather of 
summer, with its pictures of plethoric potatoes and 
pumpkins, of bursting pea-pods and sleek-skinned to- 
matoes, of daintily-fringed carnations and thickly- 
clustering verbenas. But best of all is the retiring 
senior partner's " Word to Old Friends," with its con- 
cluding poem entitled "At Eighty-One." Its four 
stanzas are all good, especially the final one: 
" Happy the life that bears upon its wings 
All hope and joy, yet aims at higher things ; 
Takes from each passing hour its priceless share, 
And scatter's Love's rich blessings everywhere." 
To have preserved through the wear and tear of busi- 
ness, the spirit of this poem up to the age of four-score 
and more, and to have breathed something of that 
spirit even into one's business, is no small achievement 
to look back upon. ... 

Robert Burton's bequest of books to Christ 
Church, Oxford, is now, after two hundred and sixty- 
nine years, duly catalogued and arranged. The author 
of " The Anatomy of Melancholy," — now not exactly 
a " best seller," but named by Dr. Johnson as the only 
book that ever took him out of bed two hours before his 
usual time, — studied both at Brazenose College and at 
Christ Church, but it was at the latter that he may be 
said to have lived and died, holding his ecclesiastical 
appointments by proxy. To Christ Church and to the 
Bodleian Library he left his books — such as they did 
not already possess; and we infer that the college 



[Feb. 1, 

received the larger share. Burton, too, as we read, was 
for a time librarian at Christ Church, which strengthened 
his interest in its library. English officials are admit- 
tedly slower than our own, and their library methods 
are more deliberate. Nevertheless two centuries and a 
half seems a long time to take for cataloguing a small 
collection of books; but if they comprise all the books 
quoted from in the " Anatomy," the collection cannot be 
so very small, after all. There is a rumor, we believe, 
of a legacy or purchase of books from President John 
Adams that has been slumbering uncatalogued, and so 
practically non-existent, in the Boston Public Library 
for half a century, more or less. At the end of another 
two centuries perhaps it, too, will be available for use 
• ■ • 

The hunger for books in the country, where 
time hangs heavy and people go mad from pure ennui, 
is evinced by the reported circulation of public library 
books in fifty-eight places of less than 500 population 
each, in New York State. With an average population 
of 290 and an average book-supply of 48 volumes per 
capita, there was an average circulation of 6.5 volumes 
to each inhabitant. To equal this creditable record, such 
representative city libraries as those of Utica and of New 
York would have to increase their present circulation two 
and one-half times. Their per capita supply of books, 
too, falls very far short of forty-eight. These figures 
are cited by the Maryland State Library Commission 
in its Report for 1908, the sixth year of its existence. 
Maryland is still a very poor State in the matter of free 
libraries, and the results attained in the far larger and 
richer commonwealth, on which it may well cast eyes of 
envy, will not soon be achieved among its more scatter- 
ing and less opulent population. But the Commission 
appears to be putting forth earnest efforts toward so 
desirable an end. ... 

A MEMORIAL TO LINCOLN, which will have educative 
influence, has been proposed by the Lincoln Educational 
League, an incorporated body with headquarters in 
New York. Funds have been or are being raised for 
the purpose of placing in the schoolhouses of the coun- 
try bronze tablets bearing as inscription the complete 
text of Lincoln's Gettysburg address, that brief but 
almost perfect example of noble elegiac prose. Read 
and pondered by the school-going youth of the land, 
what might it not, by its daily though unobtrusive pres- 
ence before the children's eyes, effect in the way of 
mental and spiritual uplift? Besides its noble thought, 
it would set a standard of concise and dignified expres- 
sion, and would probably be of more value to the pupil, 
first and last, than the irksome writing of a hundred 
themes or compositions. A more worthy method of 
marking this centennial year of one of the world's 
greatest men could hardly be devised. 

Europe's ignorance of America has more than 
once contributed to the gaiety of at least one nation — 
namely, our own. A German lady that we know of 
took occasion to comment on the causes of our Civil 
War by remarking: "Well, how could you expect the 
North and South not to disagree, with nothing to con- 
nect them but a narrow isthmus? " And now we find 
a London weekly review printing a notice of Miss Mary 
Johnston's " Lewis Rand " in which the reviewer sums 
up his impression of the hero as "a kind of South 
American Bonaparte." How many more intelligent 
persons are there across the Atlantic, we wonder, who 
conceive of Virginia, and what we in general call " the 
South," as situated in South America? 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

In suggesting, in a recent issue of your journal, that 
the international language-makers turn their attention 
to " Pigeon English," you overlook the fact that an 
international language should serve not merely for the 
primitive needs of travellers, but also for scientific inter- 
communications between the nations of western civiliza- 
tion. These nations have in the space of two thousand 
years developed a common international vocabulary, 
based in the main on Latin, and to some extent on Greek. 
Even German and Russian possess this Romance vocab- 
ulary; but how much of it is to be found in the Saxon- 
Chinese jargon on which you wish to turn us loose ? A 
Teutonic world-language, such as Mr. Molee proposes, 
is impossible, for similar reasons. An international 
language must be something more than inter-Teutonic. 
Moreover, the idea of having a union tongue between 
English, German, Dutch, and Scandinavian speakers, to 
supplant their respective native idioms, is the direct 
opposite of the desire to have an auxiliary tongue, the 
second for all nations. 

Only the systems that are based on international roots 
fulfil this condition; and among them Ido, the simplified 
Esperanto, ranks by far the highest in regularity, sim- 
plicity, logic, exactness, flexibility, and euphony. No 
arguments of a personal character, such as those offered 
by a correspondent in one of your recent numbers, will 
prevent this fact from becoming more generally recog- 
nized, as Ido becomes better known. The fittest must 
survive. q. H. Mayer. 

Chicago, January 20, 1909. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

In The Dial for Dec. 16, some remarks were made 
by Mr. Julian Park, against the already consummated 
reform of Esperanto by the system called " Ido." 
Exactly why Mr. Park should wish to discourage 
progress in that direction is not clear. He takes oc- 
casion to say that a previous note by me was neither 
consistent nor convincing. I beg leave to return the 
compliment, for Mr. Park himself admits that " Ido " 
has taken all that is good in Esperanto. Therefore, — 
inferentially and truly, — the old Esperanto contains 
much that is bad, which, of course, does not appear in 
" Ido." The latter is the first and only international 
language coming to us with the stamp of scholarship. 
It is not necessary to ascribe its authorship to the 
Marquis de Beauf rout, who is not " a mere plagiarist," 
as alleged by Mr. Park. I would like to ask any well- 
informed Esperantist where his " kara lingvo " would be 
to-day, were it not for the valuable propaganda work 
performed for it, in France, during many years, by that 
same Marquis de Beaufront, who, however, is well able 
to defend himself. 

The quickest and best way to end the whole discus- 
sion is to leave the final choice of an international lan- 
guage in the hands of the public, where, indeed, it must 
eventually rest. Eugene F. McPike. 

Chicago, January 22, 1909. 




t H«fe %aokn. 

The liADY OP Holland House.* 

Beautiful, clever, imperious, — these are the 
adjectives repeatedly applied by her contem- 
poraries to the hostess of Holland House, who 
for forty years presided there over a coterie of 
the brightest and most distinguished men of her 
time. The glimpses we have had of this en- 
gaging personality through the pages of Moore, 
Rogers, and Macaiday lead to high expectation 
when we are offered the opportunity of hearing 
the lady herself speak through the pages of her 
own Journal. 

We know what the guests thought of her — 
this third Lady Holland — in her best moods 
and in her worst, when everything was to her 
mind or when her dinner-party went badly — 
as dinner-parties will at times, even with great 
ladies. We have been charmed with Macaulay's 
picture of that wonderful drawing-room, in all 
its stately grandeur, where " the last debate was 
discussed in one corner and the last comedy of 
Scribe in another ; while Wilkie gazed with 
modest admiration on Sir Joshua's Baretti ; 
while Mackintosh turned over Thomas Aquinas 
to verify a quotation ; while Talleyrand related 
his conversations with Barras at the Luxem- 
bourg, or his ride with Lannes over the field of 
Austerlitz." What revelations, then, may we 
not expect when we are invited to another and 
more confidential view? Shall we not learn 
what the hostess thought of her guests, as well 
as what the guests thought of the hostess ? Shall 
we not gain more minute details of this brilliant 
circle where every art and science was hospit- 
ably entertained and given a hearing ? 

But alas! the Journal ends in 1811, thirty 
years before the time of which Macaulay wrote ; 
and consequently not one of the poets, essayists, 
or wits of his time whose portraits we had hoped 
to behold is even mentioned in its pages. This 
is the first great disappointment of the book. 

The second great disappointment is like unto 
the first, though not of equal extent. In these 
two volumes of about three hundred pages each, 
the political is almost as lacking as the literary 
interest. We do indeed find many allusions to 
men and events during the years when Holland 
House was the rallying place for the Whig 
rebels, but all in so rambling and indefinite a 
manner that the Journ al cannot be said to throw 

•The Journal of Elizabeth Lady Holland (1791-1811). 
Edited by the Earl of llchester. In two volumes. Illustrated. 
New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

much light upon this stirring time. The lady 
of the manor is said to have prided herself on 
her command of the English language ; but her 
Journal, certainly, bears little evidence of pic- 
turesqueness of phrase or even clearness of 
statement. Moreover, it requires about half 
of Volume I. to reach the date (1797) when 
the writer becomes Lady Holland. When the 
record begins she is Lady Webster, and although 
only twenty years old has been already married 
five years to a man more than twice her age and 
utterly uncongenial in every way. It is a pa- 
thetic story, based on a perfunctory marriage 
arranged by parents, ending in desertion on the 
wife's part and divorce sought and obtained on 
the husband's. At the age of twenty-two, Lady 
Webster writes : 

" This fatal day seven years gave me, in the bloom 
and innocence of fifteen, to the power of a being who 
has made me execrate my life since it has belonged to 
him. Despair often prompts me to a remedy within 
my reach. . . . Nature is assisted to relieve us in our 
diseases — why not terminate those of the mind ? My 
mind is worked up to a state of savage exaltation, and 
impels me to act with fury that proceeds more from 
passion and deep despair than I can in calmer moments 
justify. Oftentimes in the gloom of midnight I feel a 
desire to curtail my grief, and but for an unaccountable 
shudder that creeps over me, ere this the deed of rash- 
ness would be executed." 

" My tormentor " is her usual form of allusion 
to the man whose name she bore ; and a most 
fitting one it is, judging from the sacrifices 
she continually made to keep him in passable 
humor. In travelling, if but one bed is to be 
had, the husband makes himself comfortable in 
that, while the wife sleeps on the floor and the 
maid in the carriage outside. Settling in a 
palace at Florence where English habits have 
not been provided for, and there are but three 
rooms with fireplaces, she goes without, while 
" my tormentor has one, the nursery and sitting 
room the others." 

Most of the eleven years of the married life 
of this ill-assorted pair was spent abroad, in 
France and Italy. Naturally, the lady writes 
a good deal about the places she visits, the 
works of art she sees, etc. But her descriptions 
and reflections are not more valuable or signifi- 
cant than the opinions of the average young 
woman in the early twenties, and it seems a pity 
and something of an injustice to publish them in 
this day of eyes trained for art and familiar with 
foreign lands by much travel. Nevertheless, our 
sympathies are all with the young woman when, 
at the age of twenty-six, a divorce is granted, 
with the custody of her children denied. 

But the misery of this first experience of 



[Feb. 1, 

marriage seems to have been more than com- 
pensated by the happiness of the second, when 
she became the wife of Henry Richard, third 
Earl of Holland. If anything more were needed 
to add to our admiration of this delightful gen- 
tleman and distinguished statesman, we should 
have it here, in the adoring wife's Journal. 
" Imperious " as she is said to have been, espe- 
cially in her later years, there are few signs 
of it in her Journal, and never in her do- 
mestic relations. She seems to have been a 
tender mother to the ten children of her two 

Possibly it is unfair, when offered a peep at a 
lady's Journal a century after it is written, to 
complain because it fails to fill certain gaps 
which, reasonably or unreasonably, the modem 
reader would like to see filled. And although 
lacking indeed in the ways we have suggested, — 
being too diffuse at the beginning and too cur- 
tailed at the end, — there is now and then a bit 
of happy characterization of persons of whom 
we can never hear too much. Charles James 
Fox, Lord Holland's uncle, is her great favorite 
as he was the favorite of all his contemporaries. 
Sheridan she does not love over much, and reports 
Hare as saying that Sheridan was always play- 
ing a game when with women ; his forte being at 
a club over wine, and in debate. She reports 
several of his happy retorts, however, such as his 
reply when someone ran after him at the theatre 
to ask if algebra was not a language. "To be 
sure," said Sheridan, " an old language spoken 
by an ancient people called the Classics." She 
describes Parr's vanity and Knight's pedantry, 
and adds they " fell upon a doubtful Greek word 
and pulled at it like hungry curs." Dr. Davy, 
Master of Caius, is dubbed a "good-natured, tri- 
fling, insignificant man." Wordsworth she found 
" much superior to his writings, and his conver- 
sation is even beyond his abilities. I should 
almost fear he is disposed to apply his talents 
more towards making himself a vigorous conver- 
sationist in the style of our friend Sharp, than 
to improve his style of composition." 

Much allowance has occasionally to be made 
for the lady's personal bias, the editor sometimes 
bringing evidence from others to put us on our 
guard. But when all possible deductions have 
been made, the fact remains that to be a hostess 
of such power as to attract and hold the kind 
and the numbers of persons that gladly accepted 
her invitations to Holland House implies social 
gifts of a very high order ; and social gifts are 
not so common as to be spoken of lightly. The 
editor says : " She possessed to the full the gift 

of drawing out her guests. Conversation never 
flagged at her table, and however diverse were 
the sentiments of those who met under her roof, 
they felt that they were there able to fraternize 
on neutral ground." 

Two charming pictures of Lady HoUand, 
copied from paintings made while she was still 
in her youthfid grace and beauty, are given in 
the first volume. They aid us to realize some- 
what of her personal fascination, which, combined 
with " as warm a heart as ever beat in woman's 
breast," perhaps furnishes a clue to the charm 
that gave Holland House its reputation and still 
surrounds it with a distinction shared by few 
other houses on English soil. 

Anna Benneson McMahan. 

MoLiERE IN English Verse.* 

Learning from the title-page of Professor 
Curtis Hidden Page's translation of Moli^re that 
the verse plays are here for the first time rendered 
into English verse, one turns with mistrust the 
pages until convinced by favorite passages of 
"Tartuffe" or "The Misanthrope" that the 
arduous task of rendering the Master's rhymed 
hexameters into the heroic blank measure of the 
English classic drama has been adequately 
accomplished. So Gallic is the wit of Moli^re's 
comedies, so replete with French subtlety are 
their lines, that no one of the dozen or more 
English translations made heretofore has suc- 
ceeded in giving the English reader a true per- 
ception of either the finesse or the purely Gallic 
humor in which they abound. 

Of these, the best, as Professor Page himself 
agrees, is that by Charles Herron WaU in the 
Bohn Standard Library. Next in attractive- 
ness, the present writer is inclined to place the 
selection of seventeen plays made by Katharine 
Prescott Wormeley ; for, although the more 
complete translation by A. R. Waller is accom- 
panied by the French text and many notes, and 
that by the late Henri van Laun contains a val- 
uable introduction and appendices, the English 
of each of these writers is more laborious and 
stilted than is that of either Mr. Wall or Miss 
Wormeley. Earlier editions, or selections, of 
Moliere's plays in English were published in 
1714, 1732, 1748, 1762, and 1771 ; and one 
of these (the edition of 1732-1748) Professor 

* MoLiEKB. A New Translation, the Verse Plays being for 
the first time rendered into English verse, by Curtis Hidden 
Page. With Introduction by Brander Matthews. In two vol- 
umes. Foreign Classics for English Readers. New York: G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 




Page proclaims " a storehouse of apt words and 
phrases which I, like all modem translators that 
I know of, have pillaged freely." After ac- 
knowledging the aptness of this early transla- 
tion and the sufficiency of Van Laim's, it may 
be said without hesitation that Professor Page's 
is the first to which the word " excellent " may 
be justly applied. Were it not for the fact that 
but eight of the plays are to be found in the two 
volumes in which his text is presented, " defin- 
itive " would be the word to qualify this alto- 
gether admirable translation. 

Since these volumes form a part of the Messrs. 
Putnam's " French Classics for English Read- 
ers " series, the offence of incompleteness may 
not be laid entirely at the translator's door ; yet, 
when it is announced that in this series " the 
best and most representative works of each 
author are given in full," either he or his editor 
should be held accountable for the failure to 
include among Molidre's " best and most repre- 
sentative " plays " L'Etourdi." The best it is 
not, assuredly ; yet it represents the metamor- 
phosis of Moli^re, the hack-writer of a troupe 
of strolling players, to Molidre, the master of 
the art of comedy. Furthermore, it is typical 
of the first phase of his development — the time 
when his work was entirely influenced by Italian 
comedy ; when he had not realized that his duty 
was to attack the foibles and hypocrisy of soci- 
ety " with ridiculous likeness "; the time before 
he had exclaimed, " Let us cease to be Italian, 
let us disdain being Spanish, let us be French ! " 
Furthermore, one notes with regret the absence 
of " L'Ecole des maris," "L'Ecole des femmes," 
" George Dandin," and, above all, of " Le 
Malade imaginaire." Still, if but eight plays 
must be selected from the thirty-three existing, 
it is difficult to cavil at the choice Professor 
Page has made ; i. e., " Les Precieuses ridicules," 
"Don Juan," " Le Tartuffe," " Le Misan- 
thrope," "Le Medecin malgre lui," " L'Avare," 
" Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme," and " Les 
Femmes savantes." 

Three of these plays are in verse, and to 
these one turns, as has been said, with mistrust 
— not, be it added, of Professor Page's ability as 
a translator, but of the possibility of rendering 
adequately in English Moliere's alexandrines. 
Although in one or two instances verse trans- 
lations of important passages have been made, 
it has remained for Professor Page to render 
" Le Tartuffe," " Le Misanthrope," and " Les 
Femmes savantes " into English verse. Only 
one who has attempted the verse translation of 
occasional passages of Moliere's may appreciate 

thoroughly the almost insurmountable difficul- 
ties in Professor Page's path. These he has 
himself set forth in his illuminating preface. 
" It seems strange," he exclaims, " that in all 
these years no attempt has been made to trans- 
late Moliere's plays into English verse. . . . 
Yet should not the ideal of the translator be to 
produce in his own tongue a work as nearly as 
possible equivalent to the original ? And if so, 
how can he, handicapped as he necessarily is by 
the difference between two languages, accept the 
still greater handicap of the contrast between 
verse and prose?" 

" When it became necessary to include ' Tar- 
tuffe ' and ' The Misanthrope ' in this series of 
French Classics," he goes on to say, " I could 
not accept a prose translation as at all truly 
reproducing them for English readers. . . . 
The ideal which I set before myself was there- 
fore to say in good English dramatic verse 
(if I could) exactly what Moliere has said in 
good French dramatic verse.^' 

A praiseworthy ideal, yet difficult in its attain- 
ment. Indeed, so different are the geniuses of 
the two languages that the translator is met at 
the outset by prosodial obstacles in themselves 
almost insurmountable. Rhymed alexandrines 
have, as Professor Page says, " never been good 
English dramatic verse and never can by any 
possibility be so." It is a metre ill according 
with the spirit of our language, and wisely he 
has selected the unrhymed pentameter measure 
of our own dramatic poetry. It was impossible, 
of course, to retain by this means the melodious 
rhythm of the original, yet, by using the five- 
accent iambic of our heroic measure, he has at 
once suggested to the English ear dramatic 
poetry, thus overcoming the greatest difficulty 
of all translation, — to wit, the avoidance of 
foreign construction in the English rendering. 
Indeed, so thoroughly English is iambic blank 
verse, with its shifting of accents and occasional 
extra syllables, that the form itself conveys the 
suggestion of idiom rather than of translation. 
It is, moreover, our classic equivalent of the 
French rhymed alexandrines . Being the medium 
of all good English dramatic verse, it is histori- 
cally and dramatically equipollent to the French 
measure used by Moliere ; therefore it is the 
correct translation of that metre, the one above 
all others with which to convey the spirit, if not 
the letter, of Moliere's rhymed verses to the 
English ear. The phrasing, too, is a matter 
requiring nicety on the translator's part. It 
should be suggestive of the English comedy con- 
temporaneous with Moliere ; yet not so archaic 



[Feb. 1, 

as to destroy the surprising modemness of the 
great Frenchman's thought. 

Having indicated the obstacles in the path of 
the translator of Moli^re, it becomes a pleasure 
to state that Professor Page has surmounted 
them admirably. Nowhere does he give the 
fatal impression of translation. Indeed, so 
idiomatic is his verse, so suggestive of the 
English comedy of the time when Moliere wrote 
his masterpieces, that, if one were to venture a 
criticism, it would be to suggest that it is too 
English. In other words, in " avoiding all effort 
for ' poetical ' ornament," he has occasionally 
so " wilfully broken up the too regular move- 
ment of the French lines " that the rhythm 
suffers. A little more rhythm might have sug- 
gested more completely the French alexandrine 
gliding upon its classic course like a mighty 
river of harmony. Moreover, Moliere's verse 
is so singularly lacking in the imagery which is 
the charm of Shakespeare that, shorn of its 
rhythm, it is often too suggestive of metrified 
prose to be satisfying. But as Professor Page 
has so successfully avoided all appearances of 
translation, this criticism of his verse becomes 
so captious that one is tempted to apologize for 
having made it. Indeed, so acceptably has his 
task been accomplished that a just critic should 
only exclaim, " Well done I " 

In the prose plays, too, he has been so suc- 
cessful in his choice of apt words, so conscien- 
tious in his endeavors to avoid all Latinity, that 
they read like English comedies. Throughout 
them, he has used quips and expressions of the 
corresponding English period, and avoided 
Latin etymologies so thoroughly that they re- 
tain no flavor of translation. This is the highest 
praise that may be awarded a translator ; yet, 
while bestowing it, one cannot resist saying that 
he has occasionally been too faithful to the 
methods of, shall we say, Congreve or Mrs. 
Behn. For instance, when, in " Les Precieuses 
ridicules," Gorgibus, discovering the cruel trick 
that has been played upon his daughter and his 
niece, exclaims, " Oui^ c'est une piece sang- 
lante, mats qui est un ejfet de voire impei'ti- 
nence, infantes ! " Professor Page translates 
the passage in this wise, " Yes, it 's a cruel trick, 
but you may thank your own foolish impudence 
for it, you sluts ! " This rendering is doubtless 
suggestive of the restoration period of our 
drama ; yet Moliere, studied as he is in schools 
by young girls, should not be so restorationized 
as to have his Gallic epithet " inf antes " ren- 
dered in English by a word such as Professor 
Page has selected. Surely the unsullied term 

" wretches " would have expressed more thor- 
oughly the Frenchman's meaning. 

Still, in spite of such occasional lapses. Pro- 
fessor Page's work is a credit at once to his 
erudition and to his skill as a writer of English. 
To him all credit is due for an arduous task 
skilfully performed. Of the plays in his trans- 
lation it may be said truthfully that never 
before have they been so well rendered in our 
language, and that, in all probability, no suc- 
ceeding translator will surpass his admirable 
presentation of Moliere to the English reader 
in unlabored language. 

The book contains a comprehensive bibliog- 
raphy, in which the more vital works are indi- 
cated by asterisks ; furthermore, each play is 
accompanied by a scholarly notice in which 
salient features of its sources and presentation 
are adequately set forth. Professor Page's work 
itself is worthily introduced by Professor Brander 
Matthews, his scholarly prelude being a succinct 
biography of Moliere. The volumes, like the 
others of this series, are edited by Professor 
Adolphe Cohn. These three scholars, all mem- 
bers of the faculty of Columbia University, stand 
preeminent among American Molieristes. It is 
no small credit to them that so satisfactory and 
able a translation of Moliere should be the result 
of their joint labor. 

H. C. Chatfield-Taylor. 

The Ire lax d of To-day.* 

It is almost impossible at the present day to 
interest Americans in Ireland. The Irish, like 
the poor, they have always with them ; and there 
is little desire to know more than that, like all 
foreigners, the Irish are here on a hazard of new 
fortunes. Excepting the fine verses of Walt 
Whitman, Americans have written little about 
Ireland more serious than good-natured raillery 
growing out of habitual holiday touring in that 
country; or, if any more serious treatment is 
attempted, it shows a lamentable lack of acquaint- 
ance with the vital sources of Irish life and 
thought. Other peoples have found Ireland 
well worth their study. Even the English, from 
Edmund Spenser to Mr. Sydney Brooks, have 
not failed on the score of gravity in writing 
about Ireland, however much some of them 
have failed on the side of truth. The Germans, 
with their instinct for s cholarship, have gone to 

• CoNTEMPOBABY Ibbland. By L. Paul-Dubois. An English 
Translation, with an Introduction, by T. M. Kettle, M.P. New 
York : The Baker & Taylor Co. 




Ireland to study the Irish mind in the only 
proper sources of such study — Irish manuscript 
literature. Thus, Zeuss, Zimmer, and Kuno 
Meyer have a lasting part in what may be, not 
only for Irish literature but for all literature, 
the discovery of a rich vein of poetry. 

It is to the French, however, that the Irish 
owe the salutary but perhaps thankless service 
of social and political criticism . ' ' Contemporary 
Ireland," by M. L. Paul-Dubois, a writer 
already having to his credit important works 
on social and economic questions, should be 
peculiarly acceptable to Americans who prefer 
a condensed survey of a subject rather than an 
exhaustive review. This work is the third 
important study of its kind for which the Irish 
are indebted to the French. In 1839 Gustave 
De Beaumont, with strict adherence to a cause- 
and-effect method of inquiry, revealed the social 
and political conditions in Ireland, when, under 
Daniel O'Connell, the Irish were first emerg- 
ing into democratic consciousness. A few 
decades later, Adolphe Perraud achieved the 
dismal task of chronicling the aftermath of the 
Famine by a history of the Irish as emigrants. 

In writing of the Ireland of to-day, M. Paul- 
Dubois had a problem not less complex than 
that of De Beaumont, and scarcely less discourag- 
ing than that of Perraud. For, in spite of 
many economic reforms, Ireland shows signs of 
fast-spreading national decay ; the Irish, though 
steadily winning concessions from England, are 
emigrating in an unceasing tide. M. Paul- 
Dubois had, however, a peculiar advantage over 
his predecessors. There is in the Ireland of 
to-day an opportunity for a criticism fascinat- 
ing to a student of things of the mind. Dreary 
as the outlook is for an Ireland economically 
vigorous, the Irish are for the first time develop- 
ing a national literature ; they are creating, too, 
schools of painting and of art criticism which 
have little to do with the Royal Academy in 
Piccadilly. To solve the problem of a race 
intellectually active in the midst of material 
decay is well worth the serious study of a pub- 
licist. M. Paul-Dubois skilfully meets the 
difficulty of this paradox ; he treats both phases 
of it by a method of outline, summary, and 
report, rather than by discussion. He knows 
that the secret of brevity in a comprehensive 
subject lies in the large grasp, the inclusive sur- 
vey, rather than in minute amplification. His 
book is thus valuable as a compendium, an ency- 
clopaedic reference ready for the student seeking 
the original sources of Irish history. 

The use M. Paul-Dubois himself makes of 

these sources is instructive. He adopts De 
Beaumont's conclusion, which fixed the cause of 
Ireland's decay on an alien aristocracy, respon- 
sible for the whole misgovernment of Ireland. 
Pressing his search no further than this, he 
touches upon the main movements and leading 
personalities of Irish history, with a definiteness 
and vigor typical of the entire book. Irish mind 
and character are treated authoritatively rather 
than critically. In sketching the material de- 
cline of Ireland, resulting from confiscation of 
the land, the author is at his best. He knows 
how to make statistics illuminating. His esti- 
mate, too, of the Irish Nationalist Party is dis- 
criminating, and vitally constructive as criticism. 
For these, and for an unequivocal sympathy 
with all the Irish still hope for as a nation, the 
author deserves the enthusiastic commendation 
which his translator, Mr. Kettle, gives him in 
the Introduction. It is not with the spirit of 
the book that fault may be found. Its tone is 
perhaps too temporizing in treating of some 
phases of Irish life, but a frank heartiness to- 
ward the people written of is everywhere 
apparent. What one deplores is that the jour- 
nalistic plan of the book works ill to its most 
vital topic — the regenerative influences now in 
progress in Ireland. This part of the discussion 
is too vital to be disposed of with the brevity of 
a business document. It needed keen reaction 
to the material at hand ; an editorial treatment 
large, free, conclusive. Moreover, the Irish 
themselves offered ample help in what they are 
publishing every day. Fond as they are of 
flight and fancy, they are not disdainful of se- 
vere statistics, rigid facts, lashing self-criticism, 
to prove that if they cannot survive as a race they 
at least understand why they are about to fail. 
To what extent M. Paul-Dubois has contributed 
to an understanding of this impending failure, 
depends on how much his readers can amplify 
his compact resume. 

It is to be regretted that M. Paul-Dubois's 
plan forbade a searching history of institu- 
tional life in Ireland. Humble as Ireland is, 
her history is in a measure analogous to all 
European history. For centuries she has had 
her Guelf and Ghibelline wars, not fought on 
battlefields, but in cabinets, in petty intrigues, 
in compromises and collusions, in every way 
but the one which leads to gain or glory to the 
Irish people. No Dante could symbolize this 
struggle ; it is without poetry, though not with- 
out pathos. Social life in Ireland at the present 
time requires, too, a fresh analysis. An aris- 
tocracy almost denuded of power, a middle class 



[Feb. 1, 

democratic but unstable, a rural population just 
entering upon a slight measure of independence, 
a pauper community hopeless and helpless — 
these afford fine material for a study by the 
publicist of large resource and keen judgment. 
Besides these classes, which are common to all 
European countries, Ireland has a social life 
based almost wholly upon sectarian distinctions 
— a condition unknown elsewhere. This is why 
Irish patriotism, however sincere, is always in- 
effectual. Here is a subject for a sociological 
writer to explore, to enlarge upon. In treating 
of Ireland's common-school system, M. Paul- 
Dubois has compressed into a single chapter 
what might have been the main theme of his 
book. Education in Ireland is less a subject 
for the statistician than it is a call to a real 
crusade. On its reformation, particularly in its 
elementary phases, depends the rehabilitation of 
a wasting Ireland. 

It is also to be regretted that some estimate 
of the present literary movement as a regenera- 
tive force in Ireland lay outside the purpose of 
M. Paul-Dubois's skiKully compressed treatise. 
A trenchant presentation of this movement as 
a national force, by a foreigner, might act as a 
stimulant and a corrective to a group of writers 
inclined too much to dreaming and not enough 
to thought. Irish writers of to-day, excellent as 
they are, learn too much of one another. They 
are withdrawing too much into a narrow coterie ; 
they have their hearts too much in ethnic Ire- 
land, and not enough in the Ireland, weak and 
desolate, of to-day. Much more important to 
an understanding of contemporary Ireland, how- 
ever, than a criticism of her poets is some gen- 
uine appreciation of her thinking men. Ireland 
has a saving remnant, but those comprising it 
win scant sympathy from M. Paul-Dubois, who 
dismisses them as " intellectuals," " Voltaireans," 
" men who ape the French." Had he come 
closer to the heart of Ireland's mystery, he 
would have understood that these are the men 
who are plucking it out. It is true that some 
of them ape the French. He as a Frenchman 
lost an opportunity to show how they can more 
effectually do this to the saving of Ireland. 
This is seen in his attitude toward Mr. George 
Moore. This gifted Irishman's history, per- 
sonal and artistic, is one of the most signifi- 
cant facts in the Ireland of to-day. Not till 
he imitated the erotic in Theophile Gautier, 
not till he had spent the prime vigor of his 
genius on novels contributive to English fiction, 
did he discover that his own country needed 
him. What he has done for her is in the nature 

of a plea for liberal thought, a more humanistic 
interpretation of life. A Frenchman is the last 
man to despise an effort of this kind. Others, 
too, are eager in this enterprise of creating a 
real zest for life among a people to whom prayer 
is work rather than work prayer ; whose women 
have the soul of Mary but not the thrift of 
Martha ; who as a race love art and neglect 
comfort. It is the " intellectuals " who under- 
stand and love the soul of their race. It is they, 
groaning because of the morass of backwardness 
into which Ireland has fallen, who will wish that 
M. Paul-Dubois's sympathy had been broader as 
weU as more intense. Ellen FitzGerald. 

Conclusion of the Schurz 

When near the end, Mr. Schurz told his 
friends that his only deep regret was the neces- 
sity of leaving his memoirs unfinished. As 
he had only reached the period of the first term 
of President Grant when his pen was laid down, 
every reader must keenly feel the same regret. 
Of this concluding volume, a little more than 
three himdred pages are from the hand of Mr. 
Schurz ; and this is followed by about one hun- 
dred and fifty pages by Mr. Frederic Bancroft 
and Professor WiUiam A. Dunning, devoted to a 
sympathetic and very satisfactory sketch of his 
career from 1869 to the end. In our notice of 
the first two volumes of these Reminiscences, 
tribute was paid to those qualities of mind and 
heart which made of Carl Schurz, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that his birth and early training 
were in a foreign land, one of the most admir- 
able fruitages so far secured from the tree of 
American institutions and citizenship. 

The great lesson of his life, as of that of 
Curtis, Godkin, and others of his circle of 
friends and fellow- workers, is that of independ- 
ence and intelligent idealism. He was never 
daunted by the fact that none of his high ideals 
in American politics was ever wholly attained. 
Temporary reverses were always to be expected, 
and each rebuff or delay was only an incentive 
to renewed effort. He had lived to see slavery 
wiped out, and the spoils system successfully 
beaten back from the larger part of the terri- 
tory which it had usurped ; and though protec- 
tionism and imperialism combined had taken 
fast hold upon the reins of government in the 

• The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz. Volume III., 1863- 
1869. With a Sketch of his Life and Public Services from 1869 
to 1906, by Frederic Bancroft and William A. Dunning. New 
York : The McClure Co. 




closing years of his life, he never wavered in the 
faith that farther sighted and less selfish coun- 
sels would in the end prevail. 

To the blind party man of either side, his 
political career of course seemed wholly erratic. 
As a matter of fact, the annals of American 
public life present few examples of such 
thorough-going consistency. In every crisis the 
possible courses of action open to him were 
brought to the test of the fundamental aims 
toward which his political life was directed, and 
that course was chosen which, on the whole, 
seemed likely to do most for the honorable fur- 
therance of those aims. He was never one of 
those doctrinaire reformers who lose sight of 
actual conditions and disdain the small gains 
which are possible in a vain effort for the 
immediate attainment of more than is within 
immediate reach. And yet no small concession 
to his demands ever blinded his eyes to other 
shortcomings on the part of the politician or 
party by whom it was made. The half-loaf 
which is better than no bread could never be 
palmed oif on him as the whole. The high- 
tariff policy of the Republican party was always 
repugnant to him, on moral as well as economic 
grounds ; but that did not hinder him from 
supporting the candidates of that party so long 
as its attitude on the questions growing out of 
slavery and the Civil War seemed fairly correct 
and of predominant importance. With the sink- 
ing in relative importance of these war questions 
under the wise policy of Hayes, it was inevitable 
that his views on the civil service and the tariff 
should draw him to the support of Cleveland, as 
against a Republican with the personal record 
of James G. Blaine. But when the Democratic 
party repudiated Cleveland for Bryan and the 
free-silver craze, his long and frequently attested 
belief in the vital importance of a sound money 
system drove him to the support of McKinley. 
The imperialism into which McKinley was 
driven, against his own original inclination, was 
of course deeply repugnant to the man who had 
done more than any other to thwart a similar 
project in the days of Grant; and as other 
questions seemed temporarily of less significance 
than this, he gave his support to Bryan in the 
election of 1900. But in none of these cases 
did he ever stultify himself by saying a word in 
favor of any part of the platform which was not 
in harmony with his own judgment. Of course 
all this should have left him wholly without 
influence on public opinion, according to ordinary 
party theories ; but the fact of political history 
is that throughout his public career there was 

no man in the land whom political committees 
were more anxious to put on the stump in behaK 
of their candidates than Carl Schurz. Keen 
insight, high ideals, moral fervor, strict adher- 
ence to fundamental principles, and absolute 
freedom from partisan shackles, were his distin- 
guishing characteristics. Of course, even this 
cannot guarantee absolute inerrancy of judg- 
ment ; but it would be hard to find any com- 
bination of qualities calculated to leave a record 
to which posterity will turn with more unfailing 
respect and less necessity for apologies. 

We are glad to notice in the preface of this 
volume an implied promise of further publica- 
tions. It is well known that the epistolary 
correspondence of Mr. Schurz was enormous. 
This must have a high value both personally 
and historically, since he had among his corre- 
spondents many of the most prominent men of 
his time, and made constant use of the private 
letter as an indirect means of influencing public 
opinion on questions of the day. Letters of 
this latter sort are doubtless amply numerous 
for separate publication, and we would suggest 
to his literary executors the propriety of pre- 
senting them in this way, thus giving the more 
personal correspondence a better chance to 
impress upon the reader the more intimate 
personal characteristics of a man whose charm 
ing personality had no opportunity to make 
itself known to more than a small fraction of 
those who knew and admired him in his public 

^^^^^^- W. H. Johnson. 

The fourteenth annual meeting of the Central Division 
of the Modern Language Association of America was 
held at the Northwestern University Building, Chicago, 
late in December. English, Germanic, and Romance 
philology received each its proportion of attention. 
Among the more noteworthy contributions to accurate 
scholarship was a collection of new source-material 
relating to the liturgic Easter drama, made by Professor 
Neil C. Brooks of the University of Illinois. Professor 
Brooks threw much new light upon the raise en scene of 
the liturgic plays, and brought new evidence to bear 
upon the question of the relations between the early 
drama and pictorial art. Professor Weeks's discussion 
of the Boulogne manuscript of the " Chevalerie Vivien " 
was in line with his previous studies. Professor Beatty's 
discussion of the Resuscitation Motive in popular liter- 
ature, Mr. Fortier's brief survey of certain departments 
of French literature in Louisiana, and Professor Brown's 
Irish parallels to the Bleeding Lance of the Grail 
Legend, were all of particular interest. As business of 
special interest, should be mentioned a report from the 
Committee on the Photographic Reproduction of Early 
Texts, and the organization, during the session, of an 
Illinois Branch of the American Folk-lore Society, with 
Professor A. C. L. Brown as President and Dr. H. S. V. 
Jones as Secretary and Treasurer. 



[Feb. 1, 

Recent Fiction.* 

It is several years since we have had a novel by 
Mr. Mallock, whose pen has been chiefly busied with 
exposing the fallacies of socialism, or revealing the 
underlying antinomies of current doctrine in science, 
philosophy, and religion. That the hand of the nov- 
elist has not, however, lost its cunning, becomes 
sufficiently evident by the time we have read fifty 
pages of "An Immortal Soul." The story thus 
alluringly entitled opens engagingly upon an English 
country scene, and soon finds us deeply interested 
in a social group which has for its principal figures 
the local clergyman, the returned traveller who is 
standing for Parliament, a famous specialist in 
nervous diseases, and a young girl who is clearly 
intended to be the heroine. The elderly traveller 
finds in her more than a passing attraction, and the 
clergyman, who has marked her for his spiritual 
child, and whose sub-consciousness views her in a 
more human light, finds his influence weakened, 
and his hardly formulated hopes threatened by the 
advent of the stranger. Thus far, we are dealing 
with a novel simply, finished in style and descrip- 
tion, admirable in invention and characterization. 
But the author's " affair " has a much wider scope 
than this, and he no sooner gets us thoroughly inter- 
ested in his heroine and her associates than he 
approaches his special problem, which is that of 
diagnosing a case of dual personality. For one day 
his heroine is spirited away, and a young woman 
reputed to be her sister appears in her stead. The 
delicate and spiritually-minded Vivian gives place 
to Enid, who appears as a girl of sensual disposition, 
cunning in deception, and instinctively vicious. For 
a time we take her to be in reality another person, 
but at last it appears that she represents the tem- 
porary emergence of another personality ; and that 
from childhood Vivian and Enid have alternated the 
tenancy of the same body. Even physically, the 
change is sufficient to deceive, and Mr. Mallock 
contrives to surmount this crucial difficulty of his 
task. The eminent specialist is the only one who 

• An Immortal Soul. By W. H. Mallock. New York: Harper 
& Brothers. 

The Gentleman. A Romance of the Sea. By Alfred Ollivant. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

The War in the Air. By H. G. Wells. New York: The 
Macmillan Co. 

The Distributors. By Anthony Partridge. New York: The 
McClure Co. 

Captain Margaret. A Romance. By John Masefleld. Phila- 
delphia : The J. B. Lippincott Co. 

The Devil's Pulpit. By H. B. Marriott Watson. New York: 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

The Ply ON the Wheel. By Katherine Cecil Thurston. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Rose- White Youth. By Dolf Wyllarde. New York : John 
Lane Co. 

In Calvert's Valley. By Margaret Prescott Montague. New 
York: The Baker & Taylor Co. 

The Fair Mississippian. By Charles Egbert Craddock. 
Boston : Houghton MiflBin Co. 

Barry Gordon. By William Farquhar Payson. New York: 
The McClure Co. 

Kincaid's Battery. By George W. Cable. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

has all the facts in his possession, and to him the 
girl's dual nature becomes a study of absorbing 
interest. From about the middle on, the book be- 
come essentially a scientific treatise, and elaborate 
discussion figures more and more largely in its pages. 
Yet even this discussion is so fitted into the novelistic 
machinery that both human and dramatic interest 
are fairly well preserved throughout. The chief 
element of this interest is provided by the impact 
of the revelation upon the clergyman, who finds 
that he must reckon with facts hitherto undreamed 
of in his philosophy, and who feels the very founda- 
tions of his belief tottering beneath him. He be- 
comes perplexed in the extreme when he is forced 
to realize that this " immortal soul " which has been 
the object of his special solicitude is in reality a 
two-fold thing, and that its one aspect is as abhor- 
rent to him as its other is appealing. Which of the 
two is the real woman, the spiritual individuality ? 
The theory of possession sustains him for a time, 
but even that has to be abandoned in the light of a 
complete record of the girl's history, which makes 
it clear that her evil nature is, on the whole, the 
more predominant and masterful of the two. Mr. 
Mallock offers us no solution of the problem he has 
propounded. Science is not yet prepared to solve 
it, or to suggest a reconciliation between such phe- 
nomena and the older doctrines of psychology and 
religion. The subject is one after the author's 
heart, and he has never played more brilliantly his 
favorite rMe of the destructive critic. All his life 
he has been pointing out the logical defects in sys- 
tems of thought that seem superficially coherent, 
and in the present instance, although his form is that 
of fiction, he has given us one of the keenest and 
most merciless of his many analyses. Readers who 
do not expect this sort of thing in a novel may well 
complain that he does not play the game, and will 
be justified if their quest is for entertainment only. 
But if they are sufficiently serious of mind to enter 
into the spirit of the author's speculations, they will 
give, if anything, a more absorbed attention to his 
psychological discussion than to the fictive frame- 
work in which it is set. 

A romance of Napoleon and Nelson, and of the 
projected invasion of England in 1805, written in a 
style as choppy as the waves of the Channel which 
baffled the conqueror's ambition, is given us by Mr. 
Alfred Ollivant in the merry invention which he 
has labeled "The Gentleman." There are some 
four hundred pages of staccato sentences, chronic- 
ling the events of about ten days, and things are 
happening all the time. The happenings, moreover, 
are of the most exciting nature, whether by sea or 
by land, and someone is in mortal peril every hour. 
There are several heroes, including the "gentle- 
man," who is an Irish soldier of fortune acting as 
Napoleon's lieutenant, the midshipman (aged fif- 
teen ) who saves his country by ingenious and heroic 
devices, and the fighting parson whose death-dealing 
sword causes countless- Frenchmen and traitors to 
bite the dust. The story turns about a plot to 




kidnap Nelson, through the double dealing of Lady 
Hamilton, and the author prudently appends to 
the tale a declaration to the effect that he will 
answer no questions concerning it. The charac- 
terizations are extraordinarily vivid, and this is a 
remarkable feature when we consider the variety of 
types presented. There are a great many horrors 
on exhibition, and they are depicted with relentless 
realism, but they are also softened by an infusion 
of sentiment that makes them endurable, and they 
often become almost beautiful in the poetic light of 
the author's imagination. The spirit in which this 
work is conceived is made clear by the verses on 
" Our Sea " which serve as a preface. It is the 
spirit of invincible pride in the deeds of English 
seamen from the days of Drake to the days of 
Nelson, and the story itself reveals the composite 
inspiration of such diverse novelists as Marryatt 
and Kingsley and Blackmore, such diverse poets as 
Mr. Newbolt and Mr. Kipling and Mr. Swinburne. 

" The War in the Air " is a forecast of the develop- 
ment of atrial navigation which is extremely vivid, 
as are all of Mr. Wells's imaginings, and not so far 
removed as most of them have been from what we 
may admit to be possible. The air-ship is c^^tain to 
be used for military purposes in the next chapter of 
warfare, and will doubtless bring with it new possi- 
bilities of destruction. Mr. Wells makes of it a ter- 
rible instrument indeed, and describes its operations 
with a degree of technical realism that gives us a 
shuddering anticipation of what may happen when 
this new menace to civilization is developed only a 
little more than at present. Unlike most writers of 
fiction who allow their imagination to revel in dead- 
lier means of destruction than those heretofore avail- 
able, Mr. Wells does not assume that the common 
sense of mankind will abandon warfare when it comes 
to mean annihilation, but pictures for us an increased 
frenzy of strife which does not cease its fury until 
civilized society is blotted from the earth's surface, 
and what is left of mankind reverts to primitive con- 
ditions of savagery. Civilization suffers final collapse 
as a logical consequence of its own ingenious refine- 
ments, and the thought that it bears within its bosom 
the seeds of its own destruction is strongly impressed 
upon us. The protagonist of this world-tragedy is no 
heroic figure, but simply the sort of average cockney 
Englishman who has before served as the medium of 
the author's social satire. All the amazing things 
that happen in the book are exhibited in their reflec- 
tion in the consciousness of this pitiful example of 
humankind, and this proves the most effective part 
of the author's realistic machinery. 

" The Distributors," by Mr. Anthony Partridge, 
is a choice tale of a group of men and women, of 
the highest rank in English society, who, having 
exhausted all the obvious pleasures of life, resort to 
the unlawful in their quest for new sensations. They 
form a coterie known as the " Ghosts," ostensibly for 
the discussion of esoteric philosophies, but actually 
for the purpose of planning and executing what we 

may call high-class burglaries. Their victims are the 
selfish rich, who possess more jewels than is good 
for them, and the loot, when converted into money 
through the agency of a mysterious " fence " — as 
free from selfish motives ^s the " Ghosts " themselves 
— is bestowed anonymously upon various charities. 
All goes well with their plans until an American girl, 
piqued because her request to be made a member of 
the exclusive coterie is denied, and knowing nothing 
of the criminal side of their activity, sets a detective 
on their track, and uncovers things of which she had 
not dreamed. The exposure is averted by an appeal 
to her generosity, the society goes out of existence, 
and the most conspicuous of its members surprises 
himself by falling in love, which for him, at least, 
makes the further quest of illicit sensations quite 
unnecessary. There are numerous thrills in the fan- 
tastic romance, and much sprightliness of dialogue. 
The author of the " New Arabian Nights " would 
have found in Mr. Partridge a kindred spirit. 

" Captain Margaret," by Mr. John Masefield, is 
a romance of adventure in Virginia and on the 
Spanish main, the action being placed in the late 
seventeenth century. Charles Margaret is the com- 
mander of a ship equipped by certain London adven- 
turers for trade with the colonies. He is also a man 
with a broken heart, for the woman whom he loves 
has taken to herself a husband, and has been so 
deceived in the bargain that she mistakes a selfish 
brute of criminal instincts for a hero to be wor- 
shipped. Now it so happens that just as Captain 
Margaret is setting sail for America, this woman 
and her husband take refuge upon the ship, for the 
man has been guilty of forgery, and the officers of 
the law are hot in pursuit. The voyage is a long 
one, but not long enough to open the woman's eyes, 
either to the true character of her husband, or to 
the unselfish devotion of Captain Margaret. Then 
follow several chapters of a sojourn in Virginia, and 
a second hasty escape when the Governor receives 
orders from England to arrest the fugitive. The 
final episode is an expedition to the Isthmus in 
search of treasure, including a highly graphic ac- 
count of the sacking of one of the Spanish settle- 
ments. When the fugitive is dastardly enough to 
seek to betray his rescuers into the hands of the 
enemy, even his wife realizes a situation long before 
apparent to everyone else, and is not altogether heart- 
broken when he meets the fate he so richly deserves. 
Whereupon Captain Margaret comes into his own. 
It is a leisurely tale, but there is a great deal of 
life in it, and it is informed by the spirit of genuine 

Curiously enough, " The Devil's Pulpit," which is 
also the tale of a semi-piratical expedition in search 
of treasure, is provided with a heroine by a device 
similar to that adopted by the author of " Captain 
Margaret." But this time the heroine is a girl, and 
it is in the company of her uncle, an absconding 
French banker, that she seeks refuge on the ship 
just as it is leaving England. The ship is sent out 


[Feb. 1, 

by a syndicate, acting apon the information conveyed 
by a mysterious chart of the kind familiar to all 
readers of tales concerning treasure-seekers. Its des- 
tination is somewhere in the West Indies, and the 
ship's company, crew and owners alike, constitute a 
motley and picturesque assemblage of ruffians. Of 
course, there is a hero who saves the situation when 
matters become critical, and there are a few other 
decent fellows to stand by him. Equally of course, 
the treasure is found, the ruffians discomfited, and 
the affections of the heroine properly bestowed. As 
contrasted with " Captain Margaret," this romance 
is modern, and its exciting happenings are conceived 
in the spirit of comedy, commingled with melodrama. 
Mr. H. B. Marriott Watson is the writer, and we all 
know how inventive he can be, and with what high 
spirits he can carry his action through. 

Mrs. Thurston's "The Fly on the Wheel " is a 
simple story of Irish life and character, admirable in 
its fidelity to fact, and incisive in its delineation of 
middle-class character. The parish priest, the wife 
and mother of domestic instincts, her shrewish sister, 
the busybodies and gallants of the town, are all put 
before us in natural and life-like guise. And then, 
upon this bourgeois backgroimd is projected a great 
passion, which shipwrecks a family's happiness, and 
brings the heroine to suicide. This heroine is a young 
woman whose career is shaped rather by instinct than 
reason, and for whom the moral obligations upon 
which society is based have no effective influence. 
Returning home from her French convent, she falls 
in love with a staid man of affairs, the head of a 
peaceful household, and her infatuation makes him 
for a time forgetful of his honor. His life hitherto 
has been one of self-repression, and the impulses she 
evokes get the better of him. It seems to be a case 
of opposite electric charges, needing only contiguity 
to effect a union. In her case, it is the longing for 
ease and luxury ; in his, it is the craving for a richer 
life. These motives, acting in connection with a 
strong element of sensual allurement, prove the com- 
plete undoing of the woman, and the all but complete 
ruin of the man. It is the parish priest who inter- 
poses, and, by a few fitly-chosen words of admoni- 
tion, halts the man's steps upon the brink of the 
precipice. The story is strong, but not altogether 

The heroine of " Rose- White Youth " is fifteen, 
and she dies of a broken back (supplemented by a 
broken heart) on her sixteenth birthday. The man 
in the case is a bronzed explorer, known to scientific 
fame, a guest of her family at their country house. 
It is a wretched misunderstanding that causes him 
to misjudge her, and it is not cleared up (for the 
girl) in time to save her from that last reckless ride 
along the cliff. The tragedy of her taking-off is 
singularly wanton, and we cannot quite forgive the 
author for thus shaping the story. For Betty is a 
nice girl with long red hair (mentioned upon nearly 
every page), and her youth does not prevent her 
from being a highly attractive heroine. This story is 

the work of " Dolf Wyllarde," and is marred by the 
frequent employment of sensual suggestion, a fault 
which has marked the earlier books of this writer, 
seeming to indicate an inherent vulgarity of mind. 

" In Calvert's Valley " is a story of the moun- 
tains of West Virginia, introducing us to much the 
same types of scenery and character as those of 
which Mr. John Fox makes the substance of his 
novels. Miss Montague has neither the humor nor 
the dramatic incisiveness of the writer with whom 
her work is thus inevitably brought into comparison, 
but she tells an effective story in her more leisurely 
way. Page Emlyn, a young business man from 
Cincinnati, comes to the Valley, and is at once in- 
volved in a tragedy. He is led to believe that, in 
the semi-consciousness of intoxication, he has pushed 
James Calvert over a cliff to his death. Meanwhile, 
the young woman with whom Calvert was in love is 
led to believe that her rejection of his advances has 
impelled him to suicide. Presently, these two young 
persons, each bearing a secret burden of imagined 
guilt, learn to love one another. The outcome 
remains long in suspense, and there are many search- 
ings of conscience on both sides before the accidental 
nature of Calvert's death is revealed, and all ends 
happUy for hero and heroine. The whole story is 
conscientious rather than brilliant, but it sustains a 
reasonable degree of interest throughout, and is 
clearly the product of close observation of the moun- 
tain folk and the mountain setting. 

It is natural to turn from this novel to " The Fair 
Mississippian," which is Miss Murfree's latest pro- 
duction. But Miss Murfree seems to have abandoned 
her mountaineers of late, and with this defection to 
have lost much of the singular power displayed in 
her earlier books. The present story, although it 
shows intimate acquaintance with its plantation scene, 
must be described as essentially commonplace. It is, 
moreover, so weighed down with irrelevant descrip- 
tion and incident that the action drags, and the criti- 
cal situations miss much of the effectiveness that 
might have been given them. We can find in this 
work little indication of the grip upon character 
which the writer once had, and still less of the flash 
of poetic imagination which used to light up her 
tales of the Great Smoky Mountains. The hero is a 
young man of fine education and broken fortune, who 
becomes the tutor of three boys on a Mississippi 
plantation. The excitement is furnished (in diluted 
form) by an attack of river-pirates, and by the antics 
of a ghost. The ghost turns out to be a member of 
the household, and his prowlings are concerned with 
the hiding of certain documents which affect the 
ownership of the estate. The chatelaine of the 
plantation is a creature of the most radiant beauty, 
in consequence whereof the tutor falls in love with 
her, and the fact that she is ten years his senior is 
not permitted to interfere with the conventional 
romantic outcome. 

The development of ancestral qualities, inherited 
from a long line of Virginian forbears, is the psy- 




chological problem worked out in Mr. Payson's 
story of " BaiTy Gordon." These qualities in- 
clude masterful energy, unregulated character, and 
a strong disposition to over-indulgence in drink. 
We first meet Barry as a schoolboy, reckless but 
engaging, and knowing little of his inheritance. 
Summoned to his home in Virginia, he finds his 
father at the point of death, and learns from his 
lips the burden of the family heredity. The knowl- 
edge sobers him, and does much to develop his 
manhood, but we feel that he will have a hard strug- 
gle to win victory over his unruly self. A period of 
life in New York follows, which comes to a dramatic 
climax one evening when he yields to temptation, 
becomes intoxicated, and is disgraced in the eyes of 
his friends. For his own good, his guardian cuts 
off his income, and he sets out to make his way in 
the world. A long period of wandering in many 
quarters of the globe gives him self-discipline, and 
saves his character from wreck. A final episode 
discovers him engaged in a wild adventure in 
Morocco, where his brother, a civil engineer, has 
been held captive. He effects his brother's rescue 
by deliberately offering his own life in exchange. 
Fortunately, this ultimate sacrifice is not required, 
but his willingness to make it shows how complete 
is the work of regeneration. In the end, his victory 
is crowned by the love of the woman whom he has 
worshipped, afar and hopelessly to his seeming, 
through all the years of exile. It makes a stirring 
tale, effectively told, and fine in its idealism. 

Mr. Cable's new novel is called " Kincaid's 
Battery," and is a story of New Orleans in the first 
years of the Civil War. History plays but a small 
part in it, however, and the interest is essentially 
private. We cannot describe it as a successful 
work of fictive art. Mr. Cable's style is as charm- 
ing as ever, and his power of characterization re- 
mains considerable, but he has so succumbed to the 
temptations of the allusive manner that nothing 
which may be called straightforward remains to his 
narrative. The effort needed to make out the 
pattern of his plot is greater than may legitimately 
be required of the reader, who is likely to get from 
it only vivid bits of color set in relief upon a nebu- 
lous background. For example, an early chapter 
is entitled " One Killed," and we are not sure, after 
reading it, who is killed, or why. Indirection carried 
to this extent becomes a literary vice, and all the 
author's charming geniality cannot atone for such a 
neglect of the story-teller's primary duty. The love 
story which drags through the four hundred pages 
is one of the most exasperating we have ever en- 
countered, made so by the extraordinary and unnat- 
ural effort on the part of each of the lovers to 
conceal from the other the state of his affections. 
A certain amount of misunderstanding and playing 
at cross-purposes is quite proper as a means of hold- 
ing the reader's interest in suspense, but the device 
is absurdly overworked in the present instance. 

William Morton Payne. 

Briefs on Ne^v Books 

Evidences of Two years ago there appeared Mr. 
life on the Percival Lowell's exceedingly attrac- 

red planet. ^ive book on "Mars and its Canals." 

This was so exhaustive in its treatment of the 
author's observations and his deductions from them 
that one is at first surprised at the appearance of a 
new work on Mars from the same pen, after so 
short an interval. The title of the new contribu- 
tion to Martian literature is " Mars as the Abode of 
Life" (Macmillan). Two years ago Mr. Lowell 
delivered a series of eight lectures at the Lowell 
Institute, in which he set forth his views as to 
planetary evolution in general and illustrated them 
by the example of the ruddy planet. These lectures 
were subsequently published in the " Century 
Magazine," and are now republished, with some re- 
vision, in book form. The author accepts the planet- 
esimal theory of the origin of the solar system ; from 
this starting point a planet, when it becomes suffi- 
ciently cool to be provided with water, begins to 
develop the lowest forms of life ; these, increasing 
in complexity as the process of evolution goes on, 
finally find issue in rich flora and fauna such as our 
earth possesses. As the surface of the planet loses 
its original heat the warmth necessary to varied 
manifestations of life is derived from the sun, which 
now becomes dominant in the production and pre- 
servation of life. Man appears, and brain begins 
to be a factor of the greatest significance. But the 
reign of brain cannot be so complete as to arrest 
the chain of changes due to the sun's action. The 
oceans begin to disappear, and the air to decrease 
in density ; extensive deserts come into being ; the 
inhabitants dig canals to utilize to the utmost the 
failing resources of water. In such a state as this 
Mr. Lowell believes the planet Mars now to be ; the 
" canals " seen there he thinks to be evidences of 
the handiwork of intelligent beings. He foresees 
the time when, on account of the loss of the supply 
of water on our neighbor, life will become extinct 
there ; this doom foreshadows that of man on the 
earth. For the earth slowly but surely is following 
the path which Mars is pursuing. The foregoing 
theory is elaborated by the author with the wealth 
of language, aptness of illustration, and power of 
exposition, manifested in his many preceding writ- 
ings. The book closes with sixty-odd pages of notes 
of a mathematical character, which are for the en- 
lightenment of astronomers. The outward appear- 
ance of the book is as delightful to the eye as its 
subject matter is to the mind. 

lanMaciaren The best ministers of religion are 
portrayed t, i t. -j o i 

by a fellow very much else besides, oo much 

Scotsman. was there to the late Dr. John Wat- 

son ("Ian Maclaren ") as man and author and 
humorist that the biographer might well despair of 
presenting any full and satisfactory likeness of him 
between the two covers of a book. Dr. W. Robert- 
son NicoU, in prefacing his life of his old friend — 



[Feb. 1, 

'"Ian Maclaren': The Life of the Rev. John 
Watson, D.D." (Dodd, Mead & Co.) — acknowl- 
edges the difficulty of his task, but assures the 
reader that there is nothing in the book that is not 
strictly true and based on indisputable authority. 
Also, he has wisely allowed his friend to exhibit his 
own character and his own opinions as far as possi- 
ble in letters and other writings of his own. The 
cooperation of Dr. Watson's son, Mr. Frederick W. 
Watson, is an additional voucher for the authenticity 
of the volume. Among other things to be noted in 
reading the book are the suddenness and unprepared- 
ness with which young John Watson, at the close 
of his university course at Edinburgh, received his 
father's behest that he should enter the church ; the 
zeal with which he threw himself into the work after 
some five years of preparation: the account of his 
literary work, which one might wish fuller and 
longer ; the description of his three visits to Amer- 
ica ; the extraordinary and militant patriotism which 
he, a minister of the gospel of peace, displayed on 
the outbreak of the Boer War ; and the very engag- 
ing picture of him as a member of society and an 
unrivalled teller of good stories. One is not sur- 
prised to read his own assertion that he knew not a 
word of the language of the church when he was 
called upon to become a preacher, and that he never 
really acquired its accent even after he had famil- 
iarized himself with its language. Dr. Nicoll has, 
acceptably enough, put something of himself into 
his book, as well as a good deal of " Ian Maclaren." 
It is all highly interesting and worth reading ; but 
does not, for some reason, have that indescribable 
quality of the " inevitable," the best possible, the 
complete and final, which the greatest biographies 
seem to possess. Perhaps the subject was too diffi- 
cult, too Protean, too impossible to master. 

President Eliot ^hat any treatment of a topic so 
on university professionally close to his interests by 
admtnistratto7i. g^ recognized a leader of academic 
thought as President Eliot will be received with 
widespread and keen attention is obvious. President 
Eliot delivered the Harris lectures, for 1908 at 
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111., and selected 
for his topic the problems arising from the career 
in which he is about to complete his fortieth year of 
service. These lectures, now reprinted (Houghton 
Mifflin Co.), form a serviceable statement of the 
several constituent factors that make the American 
University and its administration distinctive, com- 
plex, and engrossing. To the interested outsider, 
and particularly, it may be surmised, to the foreign 
student of American institutions, the volume will 
prove helpful. The style is direct, terse, orderly, 
trenchant ; and thus reflects the clear-minded execu- 
tive. Having chosen so objective, almost detached, 
a point of view. President Eliot has accomplished 
his pm'pose with the success belonging to poise, 
insight, experience. Also, as was inevitable, are 
there many forcible opinions scattered through the 
descriptions of the status quo. Yet while it may 

appear ungracious to find fault with the author for 
not doing what he did not set out to do, the regret 
is too keen, and too close at hand to be suppressed, 
that the venerable president of Harvard University 
did not choose to take the public into his confidence, 
and write with less reserve, substituting analysis 
and criticism for mere description, and thus making 
available the vast resources of wisdom to justify 
policy and action, which he more than any other has 
at command. A volume not so able, doubtless, yet 
serving adequately the same purpose, could have been 
written by any one of a score of University presi- 
dents. The volume that President Eliot alone could 
have written is the source of regret, — one that 
might have really discussed the vital issues upon 
which not practice alone but sound policy must in 
the future be based. 

" William the Conqueror and the 
XetZoZ: R'^le of the Normans," by Mr. Frank 

Merry Stenton, M.A., late Scholar of 
Keble College, Oxford, is volume No. 43 of the 
"Heroes of the Nations" series (Putnam). This 
is one of the more serious biographies in a series 
whose authors are not quite at one in their methods 
of treatment ; which fact does not prevent its being 
extremely readable, as well as valuable in content. 
An elaborate Introduction makes it clear that the 
native government lost control because it was utterly 
inadequate to the task of governing, and that the 
Normans did more in a generation than their pre- 
decessors had done in a century toward unifying the 
social customs of England. The concluding chapter, 
which deals with the Domesday Book, is a notably 
thoughtful piece of work. The general reader will 
probably be somewhat startled to learn that this 
remarkable fiscal census, although it '' may claim to 
rank as the greatest record of mediaeval Europe," 
is based on earlier apportionments which are evi- 
dently arbitrary and far from accurate, so that " a 
fiscal arrangement which can be traced back to the 
time of Alfred " was still " utilized in the days of 
Richard I. and Hubert Walter." The secret of 
William's success seems to have been largely the 
tact that taught him to keep his hands off. The 
volume is elaborately equipped with charts and 
maps, and represents original investigation of much 

The origin and ^^ ^ ^andy volume of three hun- 
growth of dred pages, entitled " Ideals of the 

^meWcanpoJttv. Repuijiig" (Little, Brown, & Co.), 
Dr. James Schouler has collected a dozen chapters 
— based on "occasional lectures given by the author 
in 1906-8 at the Johns Hopkins University, to close 
a connection of seventeen years with its Historical 
Department" — whose purpose is "to trace out 
those fundamental ideas, social and political, to 
which America owes peculiarly her progress and 
prosperity, and to consider the application of those 
ideas to present conditions." He begins with a 
chapter on " The Rights of Human Nature," and 
discusses the historic assertion of our Declaration, 




" That all men are created equal," etc. A not very 
convincing defense is made of this remarkable 
pronouncement ; it amounts in brief to this, that in 
personal and civic rights all men stand on a level. 
"Types of Equality" is the heading of the next 
chapter, which considers, without offering any new 
solution, the problem of alien races within our bor- 
ders. Discussions of such subjects as civil rights, 
government by consent, written constitutions, parties 
and party strife, and servants of the public, succeed 
one another, with the due and expected exhibition 
of ripe scholarship, but with little of a new, striking, 
or unusually important nature. Perhaps the topics 
selected hardly admit of very original treatment; 
and doubtless, too, the printed page is not so favor- 
able a medium for these lectures as was oral delivery. 
Somewhat remarkable, however, and having a note 
almost of prophecy in it, is the following passage 
from the author's presidential address before the 
American Historical Association in 1897. The 
address itself, or rather a part of it, under the title 
"A New Federal Convention," closes the volume. 
" In no respect, as it seems to me," says Dr. 
Schouler, "is it plainer that more than our present 
bare majorities of a quorum should be required, 
than in such momentous legislation as disturbs our 
national equilibrium by admitting new States into 
the Union or by sanctioning the acquisition of alien 
territory with an alien population. In the latter 
respect we seem simply to have gone forward with- 
out clear warrant from our Federal charter at all." 
Safe, sane, and scholarly are the proper adjectives 
to apply to the book as a whole. 

To young readers and to old readers, 
iade-^Icum. ^^^^^r than to readers half-way be- 
tween, books on reading and the 
choice of books are often peculiarly attractive. 
Middle-aged bookmen are commonly too busy, either 
in reading books or in writing books, or both, to let 
their thoughts dwell expectantly on a paradise of 
books that lies in the radiant future, or to linger in 
fond retrospect on an Augustan age of books that 
has its place in the golden past. " Books and 
Reading" (Baker & Taylor Co.), compiled by 
Messrs. Roscoe Crosby Gaige and Alfred Harcourt, 
is an excellent collection of essays and fragments 
from the great bookmen of modern times — stimu- 
lating to the young reader and full of pleasant 
memories to the old. The compilers have braved 
the charge of repetitious platitude and have gathered 
together "the most human things written about 
books," no matter if now and then somewhat trite 
and tiresomely familiar. Of course every reader 
will take the liberty to say to himself that if he 
had edited the volume he would have included some 
things omitted, and omitted some things included. 
Among the more conspicuous omissions is Richard- 
son's " Choice of Books," a veritable little classic of 
its kind, which might well have contributed one 
brief chapter at least. Of less important exclusions 
may be noted Willmott's " Pleasures of Literature," 

which went through five editions between 1851 and 
1860, was at least five times issued in German, and 
has lately been republished in this country. The 
compilers' acknowledgments include one to the 
publishers of T. B, Pond's (meaning J. B. Pond's) 
" Eccentricities of Genius "; but neither in the index 
nor in the table of contents nor in the body of the 
book do we discover any trace of the genial Major. 
The book is one of the handiest and usefulest and 
most attractive of such manuals. 

Sixteenth "^^^^ Edith Sichel has added to her 
century French Studies on the French women of the 
portraits. sixteenth century a volume on " The 
Later Years of Catharine de' Medici " (Dutton). 
In it she gives the history of the religious wars by 
sketching the portraits of the principal personages 
of the period, emphasizing by anecdotes, which are 
often of unusual interest, their individual charac- 
teristics. Much of the material has been drawn 
from contemporary memoirs and Archives curieuses. 
At times the reader may feel that the portraits would 
have gained in significance if the background of 
conditions and tendencies in politics and literature 
had been drawn with greater fulness. The chap- 
ters on Charles IX. and Queen Margot possess a 
special interest, partly because their history is less 
familiar, but mainly because their characters were 
so strangely complex. In describing her person- 
ages the author seems occasionally to force the note 
and to go beyond the evidence of her documents. 
One becomes a little skeptical in regard to her accu- 
racy when she repeatedly dates the peace of Amboise 
in 1562. In dealing with the marriage negotiations 
of 1565 between Catharine, in behalf of the boyish 
Duke of Anjou, and Queen Elizabeth, it is as a 
woman rather than as an historian that the author 
records Elizabeth's age, stating that she was twenty- 
five, although she was born in 1533. The volume 
is enriched with prints taken from the great Paris 
collections. The bibliography should have men- 
tioned the new "Histoire de France," edited by 
Lavisse, for the volume on this period is done with 
masterly skill. ____^ 

The latest addition to the liouis XVII. 
'S'th^BZS. ™y«tery is a volume entitled "The 

Little Dauphin," written by Miss 
Catherine Welch, and published by Messrs. Scrib- 
ner's Sons. It would seem that a problem which, 
beginning with the " Question importante sur la 
Mort de Louis XVII.," has called forth more than 
a thousand printed solutions and even maintained 
several monthly periodicals, would be pretty thor- 
oughly threshed out by this time. The new book 
claims to be a distinct addition to the literature on 
the subject, not because it contributes additional 
information, — it is for the most part merely a rep- 
etition of matter that can be found in other easily 
accessible volumes, — but because it offers no solu- 
tion at all, simply a catalogue of the solutions that 
other writers have concocted or preserved. The 
book is bright and eminently readable ; the author 



[Feb. 1, 

has steeped herself so thoroughly in the work of the 
magical historical " restorer " LenStre that she has 
caught a little of his wizardry. Notable illustra- 
tions are the famous Thackeray picture supposed to 
represent the Little Dauphin, now iu the possession 
of Lady Ritchie, and the hitherto unpublished por- 
trait of the pretender Naundorff, from the collection 
owned by M. Foulon de Vaulx. 

A Shelley ^^^ " Symposium " is considered the 

translation most perfect in form of the Platonic 

fi-om Plato. dialogues, and also one of the pro- 

foundest and most suggestive in its thought and 
specidation. Shelley's translation of it is regarded 
as one of the best examples of his prose style. 
Under the title, " The Banquet of Plato," this trans- 
lation appears in a limited edition from the Riverside 
Press (Houghton Mifflin Co.), beautifully printed 
from Montaigne type on Batchelor hand-made paper, 
and bound in plain boards, with paper label. It 
was in the summer of 1818 that Shelley, then at the 
Baths of Lucca, occupied his mornings for nine or 
ten successive days in turning this dialogue on love 
(the only one besides the " Phaedrus " that discusses 
the theme in detail) into English. The subject was 
congenial, and his love of Greek and familiarity 
with it, combined with his intuitive sympathy with 
literary genius wherever found, made the task of 
translation a light one. His version is skilful and 
fluent, and is perhaps even above the Platonic level 
in nobility of expression. But while it well catches 
the spirit, it is not always accurate in the letter ; for 
which, of course, Shelley has long since been for- 
given. The external appearance of the present 
reprint is in every way worthy of the text. 


Mr. J. C. Snaith, author of " William Jordan, Jr.," has 
a new novel ready for immediate publication. 

Mr. William de Morgan's new book, " Blind Jim," is 
now ready for the printer, but will not be brought out 
until next Spring. 

A new book by Mrs. Jennette Lee, author of " Uncle 
William," will appear this month. The new book is 
called " Simeon Tetlow's Shadow." 

A new volume (the third) in the " Cambridge History 
of English Literature " will appear this month. Its sub- 
ject is " The Renascence and the Reformation." 

Mr. John Reed Scott, author of " The Colonel of the 
Red Huzzars " and " The Princess Dehra," has written 
a new novel, to be published in the Spring, under the 
title, " The Master of Fairlawn." 

Mr. H. C. Chatfield-Taylor, author of the standard 
biography in English of Moli^re, has written a novel 
dealing with the early life and love affairs of the great 
French dramatist. The book, entitled "Fame's Path- 
way," will appear in March. 

When the Pennells' « Life of Whistler " was Erst 
brought out it was the understanding, both in London 
and Philadelphia, that the work would be limited to 
the original edition, but the demand for the book has 
been so unexpectedly large that arrangements have 

been made for another impression. The American 
publishers annoimce that the new edition will be ready 
immediately. It will contain all the original plates 
and reproductions. 

Last Spring Professor J. B. Bury of Cambridge was 
the guest of Harvard University, where he delivered the 
Lane Lectures. The substance of these lectures has been 
incorporated into a book entitled " The Ancient Greek 
Historians," which the Macmillan Co. will publish this 

" Balthasar " (the titular story in a collection of seven) 
and " The Well of St. Clare " are two new volumes in 
the English edition of the writings of M. Anatole France, 
now in course of publication by the John Lane Co. Mrs. 
John Lane translates the former of these volumes, while 
we owe the latter to Mr. Alfred AUenson. 

Mr. J. G. Bartholomew's "Handy Reference Atlas of 
the World " is now in its eighth edition, imported by 
Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. It is a compact volume, 
and its maps, although small, are clearly printed and 
artistically agreeable. They include a large number 
which give us small areas on a relatively large scale. 

Mr. Owen Seaman, editor of " Punch," has collected 
some forty pieces, mostly of his recent humorous verse, 
into a volume called " Salvage," which Messrs. Holt will 
soon publish. As was the case with the author's " A 
Harvest of Chaff " and " Borrowed Plumes," most of 
the verses in the new volume first appeared in " Punch." 
It is interesting to note, in connection with the recent 
award of the Nobel Prize for literature, that " Rudolph 
Eucken's Philosophy of Life," by Professor W. R. Boyce- 
Gibson, is already in a second edition. Professor and 
Mrs. Gibson have almost ready for publication in the 
Spring a translation of Eucken's "The Meaning and 
Value of Life." 

Miss Margaret Symonds's " Days Spent on a Doge's 
Farm " is, as the publishers say, a book which " makes 
of every reader a friend." It is now republished by 
the Century Co. in an enlarged edition, with enough 
additional illustrations to bring the number close to three- 
score. The introduction supplied for this new edition 
takes the form of a memoir of the Countess Pisani, whose 
coimtry estate is the scene of the volume. 

" German Literatvu-e in American Magazines, 1846 to 
1880 " is the title of a monograph by Mr. Martin Henry 
Haestel now published by the University of Wisconsin. 
It continues the work of Dr. S. H. Goodnight upon the 
same subject prior to 1846, published two years ago in 
the same series. The last year considered by Mr. 
Haestel is the first year of The Dial, and four refer- 
ences are given to our first voliune, but curiously enough 
the only index entry of the periodical refers to the late 
Moncure Conway's Cincinnati "Dial" of 1860, from 
which eight articles on German literature are catalogued. 
Among the more important books on Messrs. A. C. 
McClurg & Co.'s Spring list are the following: A history 
and forecast of the Panama Canal, entitled " The World 
United," by Mr. John George Leigh, a London engineer 
and specialist on the canal; "Letters from China," by 
Mrs. Sarah Pike Conger, wife of the late Minister to 
China; " The Empire of the East," an illustrated de- 
scription of Japan, by Mr. H. B. Montgomery; "A 
Summer in Tomaine," a profusely illustrated study of 
the old chateaux of the Loire, by Mr. Frederick Lees; 
and " A Summer Garden of Pleasure," by Mrs. Stephen 
Batson, with thirty-six colored illustrations by Mr. 
Osmund Pittman. 




Topics in IjEAding PERiODiCAiiS. 

February, 1909. 

Aerial Warfare, Menace of. H. B. Hersey. Century. 
Amalfian Cornice Road, The. Arthur Ck)lton. Putnam. 
American Art and Its Past. W. L. Price. Craftsman. 
American Artists, A Plea for. A. Hoeber. North American. 
American Commerce, Extension of. A. L. Bishop. Atlantic. 
American Diplomatic Service. Herbert H. D. Peirce. Putnam. 
American MarineTo-day.The.G. A. Chamberlain. TToridro-dav. 
American Riviera, The. Charles F. Holder. Outinp. 
American Social Life in Illustration. A. Hoeber. Bookman. 
Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign, The. O.F.Lewis. World's Work. 
Arabian Horse in England, The. David Buffum. Outing. 
Armours, The. Arthur Brisbane. Cosmopolitan. 
Art Collections of Chicago, Private. G, D'Unger. World To-day. 
Art, Modernism in. Christian Brinton. Putnam. 
" Bahai Revelation," The. Jean Masson. Review of Reviews. 
Banking and Currency Problem. M. W. Hazeltine. No.Amer. 
Barnard, GeorgeQ. M.TwomblyandW.Downes, World'sWork. 
Baudelaire Legend, The. James Huneker. Scribner. 
Berlin, Tenements of. Madge C. Jenison. Harper. 
Botanists at St. Louis. P. Spaulding. Popular Science. 
Broadway's Thousand Miles. A. H. Ford. World To-day. 
Broward, Napoleon, Career of . R. D. Paine. Everybody's. 
Brunswick, Romantic. R. H. Schauffler. Century. 
Caine, Hall, Reminiscences of — VI. Appleton. 
Calabrian Disaster, The Latest. W.H.Hobbs. Popular Science. 
Camel Experiment, Jefferson Davis's. W.L.Fleming. Pop.Sci. 
Canada, Race Prospects in. C. R. Henderson. World To-day. 
Caribbean, Our Commerce in the. R. A. Wilson. World's Work. 
Cats, The Aristocracy of . Virginia Roderick. Everybody's. 
China That Is, The. D. Lambuth. Review of Reviews. 
Christianity, The Salvation of. Chas. P. Aked. Appleton. 
Church and Social Service. Shailer Matthews. World To-day. 
Cleveland the Man. George F. Parker. McClure. 
Cliff Dwellers' Club of Chicago. Bookman. 
Cotton-Grower's Plight, The. D.J.Sully. Cosmopolitan. 
Country Life Commission, The. A. Inkersley. World To-day. 
Democracy, The Trend Toward. W.A.White. American. 
Desert, Reclaiming the. Forbes Lindsay. Craftsman. 
Deserter-Hunting. John S. Wise. Putnam. 
Digestion, Young's Observations on. L. B. Mendel. Pop. Sci. 
Dime Museum, The. R. L. Hartt. Atlantic. 
Dyeing Silk. Charles Pellew. Craftsman. 
Educational Emphasis, A Change of. E. A. Birge. Atlantic. 
Eliot, George, and Lewes. Lyndon Orr. Munsey. 
Emmanuel Movement, Dangers of. J. M. Buckley. Century. 
England, The Beaten Track in. W.G.Brown. Atlantic. 
English from an American Viewpoint, The. Scribner. 
English Spelling, Simplifying. Max Eastman. No. American. 
Faerie Queene: Where It was Written. A. Meynell. Atlantic. 
Farm Movement, A Stay-on-the. W.P.Kirkwood. Wo7-ld To-day. 
Florida, The New. H. N. Casson. Munsey. 
Food of the City Worker. HoUis Godfrey. Atlantic. 
Fuegian Archipelago, In the. C. W. Furlong. Harper. 
German Painting To-day. Christian Brinton. Scribner. 
Gothenberg System, The. H. S. Williams. McClure. 
Gothic Architecture, Lesson of. E. A. Batchelder. Crafttvuan. 
Greek Marbles, Some Recent Finds in. Putnam. 
Hack, The, and his Pittance. John Walcott. Bookman. 
Hanks, Nancy. Harriet Monroe. Century. 
Hazing, A History of. Harry Thurston Peck. Munsey. 
Helena, Queen, Italy's Heroine. Review of Reviews. 
House of Representatives' Rules. A. P. Gardner. No. American. 
Hysteria and Faith Cures. Pearce Bailey. Appleton. 
" Ik Marvel." Joseph B. Gilder. Review of Reviews, 
Indians of the Stone Houses. E. S. Curtis. Scribner. 
Insurance Legislation, Defective. J.P.Ryan. North American. 
Italy's Exhausting Emigration. W. E. Weyl. Review of Revs. 
Japan, Southernmost. R. Van V. Anderson. Popular Science. 
Jewish History, What Is? A. 8. Isaacs. North American. 
Kaiser, Younger Children of the. Theodore Schwarz. Munsey. 
Kipling Poem, The Last. R. D. Pinkerton. Bookman. 
Labor and the Railroads. J. O. Fagan. Atlantic. 
Lifelnsurance, Romance of —IX. W.J.Graham. World To-day. 
Life on Earth, Origin of. W. Kaempffert. McClure, 
Lincoln. George L. Knapp. Lix)pincott. 
Lincoln, An Audience with. T. B. Bancroft. McClure. 
Lincoln and Darwin, Emancipators. Appleton. 
Lincoln at the Helm. John Hay. Century. 
Lincoln Centennial Celebration, The. Review of Reviews. 
Lincoln Correspondence, A. W. H. Lambert. Century. 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Hannis Taylor. North American. 
Lincoln, If Russia Had a. E. Tobenken. World To-day. 
Lincoln Literature, Old and New. Review of Reviews. 
Lincoln, Mrs. Abraham, and Her Friends. W. Steell. Munsey. 

Lincoln, Our Heritage in. World To-day. 
Lincoln, Recollections of. James G. Wilson. Putnam. 
Lincoln, Roosevelt's Tribute to. Review of Reviews. 
Lincoln the Leader. Richard Watson Gilder. Century. 
Lincoln, What I Saw of . Grenville M. Dodge. Appleton. 
Lincoln's, A Letter of. World To-day. 
Lincoln's Nomination. Mary King Clark. Putnam. 
Lowell, A. Lawrence. F. A. Ogg. Review of Reviews. 
Maeterlinck and his Home. A. F. Sanborn. Munsey. 
Maine Faces Bitter Facts. Holman Day. Appleton. 
Margin Gambling in Wall St. F. S. Dickson. Everybody's. 
Messina: A City That Was. H. F. Alexander. World To-day. 
Mexico, American Invasion of. E. H. Talbot. World's Work. 
Mexico, Legends of the City of. T. A. Janvier. Harper. 
Mississippi, A Trip through. B.T.Washington. World's Work. 
Modernism. Newman Smyth. Scribner. 
Monorail Road for N. Y. F. C. Bryant. World To-day. 
Moulton, Louise C, in London. J. B.Rittenhouse. Bookman. 
Musical Suggestion. Redf em Mason. Atlantic. 
National Academy of Design. G. Edgerton. Craftsman. 
National Arts Club of New York. Gardner Teall. Craftsman. 
Navy of the Land, Our. G. K. Turner. McClure. 
New York at Table. Richard Duffy. Putnam. 
Night-riders, The. Edward A. Jonas. World's Work. 
Niimberg, The Spell of. P. Van Alstyne. Craftsman. 
Opera and the People. Mary Garden. Everybody's. 
Opium, Japan's Crusade against. K. Midzuno. No. American. 
Paris, The Dark Side of. Bertha P. Weyl. World To-day. 
People's Institute, The. J. Collier. World To-day. 
"Pericles." Theodore Watts-Dunton. Harper. 
Philippines, American Rule in. W.C.Forbes. Atlantic. 
Poe, The Weird Genius. Elisabeth E. Poe. Cosmopolitan. 
Population, An Experiment in. Walter Weyl. Atlantic. 
Radium and the Earth's Internal Heat. J. Joly. Harper. 
Railroad Terminal, The. E. Hungerford. Harper. 
Railroads, An Bra of Better. C. M. Keys. World's Work. 
Religio-Medical Movement. A. McL. Hamilton. No. American. 
Renaud, Abb6 Maurice. H. C. Finck. Century. 
Research, Instruments of. L. A. Bauer. Popular Science. 
Rio de Janeiro, Exposition at. R.De C.Ward. Popular Science. 
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Review of Reviews. 
Rockefeller Institute, Work at. B. J. Hendrick. McClure. 
Rockefeller, J. D., Reminiscences of — V. World's Work. 
Rosebud Reservation, Opening. Lindsay Denison. American. 
Rosecrana, The Conference over. E. P. Oberholtzer. Scribner. 
Saint-Gaudens, The Student. Homer Saint-Gaudens. Century. 
Salem Ships and Sailors, Old — XIII. R. D. Payne. Outing. 
School, The Choice of a. Frederick Winsor. Appleton. 
Sembrich, Marcella, Career of. L. Reamer. Munsey. 
Shaler, Nathaniel S., Autobiography of — II. Atlantic. 
Shaw, Bernard, Philosophy of. A.Henderson. Atlantic. 
Sloan, John, Etchings of. C. R. Barrell. Craftsman. 
Slums as a National Asset. C. E, Russell. Everybody's. 
Smoke Nuisance and Railroads. C.R.Woodruff. Pop. Science. 
Smoke Problem and Government. J. L. Cochrane. Rev. of Revs. 
Spain, A Second-class Trip into. E. C. Allen. Outing. 
Speech of the Uneducated, Archaic. T. R. Lounsbury, Harper. 
Stock Exchange : If It Should Close. J. H. Gannon, Jr. Appleton. 
Stockholdersof the U.S., Report to. A.W.Page. World's Work. 
Tariff, Future of the. R. P. Porter. North American. 
Tariff Revision, Perplexities of. A. H. Washburn. No. Amer. 
" Tidal Waves " after Earthquakes. T. J. J. See. Munsey. 
Treves, Sir Frederick. Wilfred T. Grenfell. Putnam. 
Truck Farming in Florida. E. P. Powell. Outing. 
Victoria, Queen : An American View. 8. C. Stevenson. Century. 
Welles, Gideon, The Diary of — T. A tlantic. 
White Plague, The Great. C. Harcourt. Craftsman. 
Wisconsin University. Lincoln Steffens. American. 
Woman's Invasion of the Working World — IV. Everybody's. 
Woman's Position — II. Duchess of Marlborough. No. A mer. 
Woman's Problem. Annie Nathan Meyer. Appleton. 
Women of the West, Pioneer. Agnes G. Laut. Outing. 
Yankee Notions, Millions in. G. E. Walsh. World To-day. 

liiST OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 62 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.'] 


William Morris. By Alfred Noyes. 12mo, pp. 156. " English 
Men of Letters." Macmillan Co. 75 cts. net. 

The Life of James Robertson, Missionary Superintendent 
in the Northwest Territories. By Charles W. Gordon (Ralph 
Connor). Illus., 8vo, pp. 403. F. H. Revell Co. $1.50 net. 



[Feb. 1, 


The Hakingr of Canada. By A. G. Bradley.! 8vo, pp. 396. 

E. P. Button & Co. $3. net. 
The True Story of the Axnerioan Flagr. By John H. Fow. 

Illus. in color, 8vo. Philadelphia: William J. Campbell. 

75 cts. net. 


On Nothing: and Kindred Subjects. By H. Belloc. Second 
edition ; 16mo, pp. 261. E. P. Button & Co. $1.25 net. 

G. K. Chesterton : A Criticism. With portraits, 12mo, pp. 272, 
John Lane Co. $1.50 net. 

Some New lilterary Valuations. By William Clever Wil- 
kinson. 12mo, pp. 411. Funk & Wagnalls Co. $1.30 net. 

The Works of James Buchanan : Comprising: his Speeches, 
State Papers, and Private Correspondence. Collected and 
edited by John Bassett Moore. Vol. VI., 1844-1846. 8vo, 
pp. 509. J. B. Lippincott Co. (Sold in sets only.) 

Peace, Power, and Plenty. By Orison Swett Harden. With 
portrait, 12rao, pp. 335. T. Y. Crowell & Co. $1. net. 

Lincoln's Use of the Bible. By 8. Trevena Jackson. With 
portrait, 16mo, pp. 35. New York: Eaton & Mains. Paper, 
25 cts. net. 


The Works in Prose and Verse of Charles and Hary 
Lamb. Edited by Thomas Hutchinson, M. A. In two vols., 
with portraits, 12mo. ' ' Oxford Edition." Oxford University 
Press. $1.50 net. 

Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. Translated 
into English by T. Rice Holmes, Litt.B. With map, 12mo, 
pp. 297. Macmillan Co. $1.40 net. 

The Complete Poetical Works of James Thomson. Edited 
by J. Logie Robertson, M.A. With portrait, 12mo. pp. 515. 
"Oxford Edition." Oxford University Press. 75 cts. net 

The Novels and Tales of Henry James. New York Edition. 
New vols. : Lady Barbarina, The Siege of London, etc. ; The 
Reverberator, Madame de Mauves, etc. Each with frontis- 
piece in photogravure, 12mo. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
(Sold only in complete sets.) 

North and South. By Elizabeth Gaskell, with Introduction 
by Clement Shorter. 16mo, pp. 528. "World's Classics." 
London: Henry Frowde. 

Tono-Bun8:ay. By H. G. Wells. 12mo, pp. 460. Buffield & 

Co. $1.50. 
Septimus. By William J. Locke. Illus., 12mo, pp. 315. John 

Lane C!o. $1.50. 
Catherine's Child. By Mrs. Henry de la Pasture. 12mo, 

PP..394. E. P. Button & Co. $1.20 net.i -» 
The Fashionable Adventures of Joshua Craigr. By Bavid 

Graham Phillips. Illus., 12mo, pp. 365. B. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
Fifty-Four-Forty or Fig:ht. By Emerson Hough. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 402. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.50. 
Open House. By Juliet Wilbor Tompkins. With frontispiece 

in color, 12mo, pp. 276. Baker & Taylor Co. $1.50. 
Banzai I By Parabellum. Illus., 12mo. Baker & Taylor Co. $1.60. 
The Three Miss Graemes. By S. Macnaughtan. 12mo, 

pp. 340. E. P. Button & Co. $1.50. 
Dreaming: River. By Barr Moses. 16mo, pp. 262. Frederick 

A. Stokes Co. $1. 
The Jesuit. By Felicia Buttz Clark. 12mo. pp. 282. New York : 

Eaton & Mains. $1.25. 
Philo's Daug:hter : The Story of the Baughter of the Thief 

with Whom Christ was Crucified. By Nellie G. Robinson. 

12mo, pp. 287. Cincinnati: Jennings & Graham. $1. 


Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes : Being 
Records of Travel on the Amazon and Its Tributaries, and 
to the Cataracts of the Orinoco, during the Years 1849-1864. 
By Richard Spruce, Ph.B. ; edited and condensed by Alfred 
Russel Wallace. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., 8vo. 
Macmillan Co. $6.50 net. 

The Shores of the Adriatic : The Austrian Side. By F. 
Hamilton Jackson, R.B.A. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 420. B. P. 
Button & Co. $6. net. 

Days Spent on a Doge's Farm. By Margaret Symonds (Mrs. 
W. W. Vaughan). New edition, with new preface and new 
illustrations ; 8vo, pp. 288. Century Co. $2.50 net. 
(Continued on next page) 



General Editor, REV. P. H. BITCHFIBLB, M.A., F.S.A., 
F.R.Hist.S., F.R.S.L. 

Each volume is edited by some well-known Antiquary and 
Historian, and contains special articles contributed by eminent 
writers connected with the County, and is beautifully illus- 
trated. Bemy 8vo, cloth extra, gilt top. Price $3.75 each, net. 

Volumes for EIGHTEEN COUNTIES have already been 
issued, and others are in active preparation. 

" Messrs. Bemrose's famous Series of books dealing with the 
archaeology of English Counties. Printing, illustrations, and 
matter leave nothing to be desired." — Daily Graphic. 


(The Values of) 

By J. W. CALBICOTT. Edited by J. Starkie Gardner, P.S.A. 
3,000 Selected Sale Auction Records; 1,600 Separate Valua- 
tions; 600 Articles. Illustrated with eighty-seven Collotype 
Plates. 300 pp., royal 4to, buckram. Price $10.50 net. 

" A most comprehensive and abundantly illustrated volume. 

. . . Enables the most inexperienced to form a fair opinion of 

the value of a single article or a collection." — Daily Teleyraph 

Full particulars may be obtained from 

any Bookseller, or direct from 




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Libraries, than any other dealer in 
the entire country. This is because 
our book stock, covering all classes 
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plete than that of any other book- 
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this special branch of the business. 

A. C. McCLURG & CO. 





LIST OF NEW BOOKS — continued 

The Uystlcal Element of Beligrion : As Studied in Saint 
Catherine of Genoa and her Friends. By Baron Friederich 
von Hiigel. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, 8vo. E. P. 
Button & Co. $6. net. 

The Works of Theodore Parker. Centenary edition. New 
vols. : The Transient and Permanent in Christianity ; Ser- 
mons of Religion ; Historic Americans. Each 12mo. American 
Unitarian Association. Per vol., $1. net. 

Anaehn's Theory of the Atonement : The Bohlen Lectures, 
1908. By George Cadwalader Foley, D.D. 12mo, pp. 327. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50 net. 

A Little Lower than the Angrels. By Charles H. Parkhurst, 
D.D. 12mo, pp. 287. F. H. Revell Co. 11.25 net. 


Who's Who, 1909: An Annual Biographical Dictionary. 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

No. 544- 

FEBRUARY 16, 1909. Vol. XLVl. 




LOOK. Warren Barton Blake 103 


The weighing and measuring of genius. — The 
fascinating problem of the origin of language. — A 
library on wheels. — An early portrait of Chaucer. 
— The next lecturer before the Alliance Frangaise. 
— Sweetness and light in the reading-room. — Litter 
and literature. — The progress of spelling-reform. 
— Dr. Osier as chief speaker at the coming library 
dedication. — A useful Lincoln bibliography. 


Tennyson and "The Quarterly Review." Albert 

H. Tolman. 
The Carnegie Institution and Literature. S. Weir 

Another Literary Seedsman. Charles Welsh. 


Robert Sparks 108 


Ephraim D. Adams 110 


ICAL LEADER. W. H. Johnson 114 


Essays by Thackeray's daughter. — Short studies 
in medical biography. — The building of a great 
State in the Northwest. — Some simple annals of 
the poor. — Dolls and doll-lore. — A colleague's 
tribute to Carla Wenckebach. — Backward glances 
of a veteran educator. — A fascinating page of 
Greek history. — A history of the Philippines. — 
A Lincoln centennial souvenir. 

NOTES 118 



Nearly forty-four years have passed since that 
"startled April morning " when the word went 
forth from Washington that our great President 
was no more. For close upon half a century he 
has been numbered among the small company 
of immortals who " sit with their peers above 
the talk," and the fitness of the words, " Now 
he belongs to the ages," spoken by Stanton in 
the hushed chamber when the assassin's victim 
had drawn his last breath, are now perhaps just 
beginning to be realized. This centennial year 
of Lincoln's birth has rightly been singled out 
to signalize his achievements, and still more to 
emphasize the value of the example offered by 
his life and character. The record of his words 
and deeds has long been, and will long remain, 
one of the chief springs upon which our national 
idealism is fed ; and purer waters never flowed 
into the current of a people's life. 

Those of us whose lives overlapped his, 
whether we ever saw him in the flesh or not, 
have a sense of personal possession in which the 
younger generation cannot share. Even if we 
have nothing more than childish recollections of 
the tragic day of his death, of the awed silence 
that surrounded us when the tidings came, and 
of the grief that might be expressed in sobs but 
not in words, we have a memory that has grown 
precious as it has become chastened, and that 
makes Lincoln in very truth a part of our own 
lives. No one can ever quite efface from con- 
sciousness the very real distinction between past 
and present, between the world which we may 
know from books alone, and the world upon 
which our own eyes and ears have been opened. 
To all Americans who have roimded the half- 
century cape there exists to-day a Lincoln 
essentially although perhaps indefinably differ- 
ent from the Lincoln known to those born since 
the year of Appomattox. And as long as such 
Americans shall survive, it will be their sacred 
obligation to do what they may to keep vital 
an image which is fast receding into the ghostly 
realm of legend. 

For it is quite clear that mythopoetic forces 
are already busied with the deeds and the char- 
acteristics of the Emanipator, and that the man 
is fast becoming invested with the attributes of 



[Feb. 16, 

the tutelary hero and the demigod. The trans- 
formation is inevitable, and idealism becomes 
the gainer from it by so much as reality suffers 
loss. Every age has thus dealt with the com- 
manding figures of the past which have been 
singled out as its exemplars. It has been so 
with Caesar and Charlemagne, with Dante and 
Milton. The characters of these men, and of 
countless others of similarly resounding fame, 
is figured in our modern consciousness under a 
guise that would have seemed strange indeed to 
their contemporaries. So with Lincoln, the new 
generation is already coming to view him in a 
light very different from that in which he stood 
revealed in the days of the nation's fiery trial. 
The figure of a hero thus recreated by the 
idealizing instinct of a whole people takes on 
outlines that bear little relation to the man in 
his habit as he lived ; it reveals, however, with 
unerring certainty the image of what we would 
fain believe him to have been. The figure 
which was in process of reconstruction from the 
time of Lowell's ode and Whitman's threnody 
to the time of the statue by Saint-Gaudens, and 
which is being still more definitely shaped in 
this centennial year, is far more the expression 
of our ideal than it is of our memory, and it 
speaks well for the national character in the 
twentieth century that this ideal is so pure 
and wholesome and altogether worthy of our 

" What a piece of work is a man ! " What 
a bewildering complex of acts and moods and 
impulses and compromises with existence is any 
given individual, and what insight it requires 
to disengage the essentials of a character from 
its many confusing accidents ! Perhaps, after 
all, we may come to have clearer knowledge of 
a man when his muddy vesture of decay has 
been cast aside, and time has withdrawn us far 
from his presence. Do we see the real Lincoln 
when we read of the country store-keeper, the 
itinerant lawyer, the petty politician, and the 
retailer of coarsely humorous anecdote, or do 
we first really know him when he speaks to us 
in the Inaugurals and the Gettysburg address ? 
lu biography as in history there are many de- 
grees of reality, ranging from the lower to the 
higher levels, and the sound instinct — par- 
ticularly the collective instinct — learns in time 
to discriminate between these various orders of 
fact, to care little for what is merely trivial and 
commonplace, to discern the shining life of the 
spirit as a thing apart from the didl life shaped 
by material environment. We are still making 
too much of the lower realities of Lincoln's life 

in this memorial season, but time will rectify 
that miscalculation, and fix our thought more 
and more f idly upon the things which are worthy 
of immortal remembrance. 

The celebration whose echoes are stUl ringing 
in our ears has had, like all similar outpourings 
of feeling, the defects of its qualities. There 
has been a good deal of splurge about it, a good 
deal of the perfunctory or insincere, a good deal 
of empty parade and display of self-seeking. 
How much of it has been genuine reverence 
and how much lip-service it would be hard to 
say ; the admixture of the two elements has 
been obvious enough, although we may not be 
able to state the proportions. But on the 
whole, the demonstration has made for good. 
It has doubtless been the occasion of some soul- 
searching on the part of men and women, and 
of much seed-sowing in the minds of the young. 
To what moral disaster the nation has in recent 
years forsaken Lincoln's teachings and departed 
from the example of his life must have been 
brought home to those who have renewed the 
study of his career, and out of all this multitude 
there surely will be some, perhaps there will be 
many, who will " highly resolve " that he shall 
not have lived and died in vain, and that the 
" new birth of freedom " which he helped to 
give the nation shall be reaffirmed in deed no 
less than in word. His political principles, 
now cynically flouted in the high places of our 
government, and his ideals of social obligation, 
now made a mockery by predatory and selfish 
wealth, would soon become controlling influ- 
ences in our national life if we really meant 
one-half of what we have been saying during the 
past week. If our words had purpose behind 
them, in any sort of proportion to their vehem- 
ence and volume, the day of regeneration would 
be now at hand. 

Once more our thoughts go back to that 
spring day " when lilacs last in the door-yard 
bloomed," when there was given 

" To death's own sightless-seeming eyes a light 
Clearer, to death's bare bones a verier might, 
Than shines or strikes from any man that lives." 

On the last Sunday of his life, Lincoln had 
read aloud, and, after a pause, repeated these 
lines from " Macbeth": 

" Duncan is in his grave ; 
After life's fitful fever he sleeps well; 
Treason has done his worst: nor steel, nor poison, 
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing 
Can touch him further." 

A few days later, treason's worst had been done 
upon him also, and the apotheosis proclaimed 




by Stanton's words haxi become his portion. 
There is a sense in which we may be glad that 
death came to him at sueh a time and in such 
a manner. His life and death were thus given 
a unity which appeals to the artist in us ; they 
seem to constitute a tragedy of faultless design. 
Lincoln would have served his country wisely 
had he been spared, but perhaps we may say 
that fate, through the agency of the assassin's 
weapon, made him the instrument of a better 
and more enduring service by bestowing upon 
his career that supreme consecration. No words 
can be fully adequate to express the significance 
of such an end as was Lincoln's, but music is 
always ready to aid us when words fail, and the 
sublime strains of " Death and Transfiguration " 
completely interpret for us that transition from 
life to death, or, as the mystics of all ages have 
it, from illusion to reality, from death-in-life to 
life itself, true and everlasting. 


"The real Poe," writes his latest biographer, "is 
a simple, intelligible, and, if one may dare say it, 
a rather insignificant man. To make a hero or a 
villain of him is to write fiction." And yet to have 
to waU, 

" Romance beside his unstrung lute lies stricken dead," 
abandoning the legend so long cherished, — this 
seems too numbing to our sensibilities. Happy the 
suburbs of sound criticism, where he who mourned 
Lenore, and told of murders in a Paris street, and 
brought the gooseflesh to young limbs and old with 
Ligeia's eeriness and Morella's ghost, is still the 
Poe who died in hospital after a wild Byronic life, 
adventurous and perverted ; the Poe, in fine, for 

" The sickness, the nausea, 
The pitiless pain, 
Have ceased, with the fever 
That maddened my brain, 
With the fever called ' Living ' 
That burned in my brain, — " 

since now a new and unfamiliar figure has stalked 
stiff and unasked into our company : a Poe who 
overworked at book-reviews, and whose worst vice 
would seem to be a weakness for " superior women." 
Surely, " we have sold our birthright for a mess of 
facts ! " As Thomas Wentworth Higginson put it 
long ago : " If Poe fared ill at the hands of his enemy, 
he has fared worse, on the whole, at those of his 
friends." For, without failing to establish, with a 
different emphasis, most of the unpleasant facts 
recorded but only half-proved by the " perfidious " 

Griswold, his later biographers have raised him to 
a demi-respectability too nearly bourgeois to be 
poetic, — have deprived him, then, of the compan- 
ionship of Heine and Musset and Byron, for which 
he was a candidate. The first man of letters to 
romanticize his strange unhappy life was Poe him- 
self. It was he who recounted adventures that 
were never his, in countries that he never visited — 
in France, in Greece, in Russia even. Taking the 
cue, his French biographers have hailed in Poe the 
poete-nSvrosS, the ffSnie morhide ; Germans have 
ascribed his productivity to alcoholic epilepsy or to 
paranoia ; but now we needs must read : " The 
warmth of Bohemia, boulevard mirth, however 
stimulating to other mad bards of New York and 
Philadelphia, never fetched a song from him." And 
it is true ! Poe was less a drunkard than we — 
comforted by the thought that a New England con- 
science mates not with dark eyes " in a fine frenzy 
rolling," consoled by our utter respectability for our 
want of genius — have fondly made him out ; and 
in so far as he was ever drunkard, his craving came 
from lust of Lethe, or from the insistence of a 
decadent organism. If alcohol but made Poe ill, 
then it is clear that here was a poet as dreary in 
his vice as the rest were in their virtue. 

Perhaps there is a moral profit in our seeing the 
poet stripped of all illusion, — great in spite of his 
weakness, and not on its account. And yet the 
letting in of daylight on the dark places of a Rous- 
seau's career, or of a Poe's, seems almost as grievous 
an offence against aesthetics as the absurdities of 
pseudo-scientific criticism. The romance spun around 
Chatterton or our American has been the poesy of 
those who take their poesy in prose. " I 've an idea," 
wrote Aldrich to Stedman, " that if Poe had been 
an exemplary, conventional, tax-oppressed citizen, 
like Longfellow, his few poems, striking as they are, 
would not have made so great a stir." Cheap as is 
the quality of fame springing from sentimentalism, 
if it has brought the heedless crowd under a poet's 
spell it may be better than truth itself. If one can- 
not throw the white veil over the passions of a 
Rousseau in France, a Hearn or a Poe in America, 
let us ignore the life and look but to the fine achieve- 
ment. More than once has genius stood distinct from 
moral greatness, — though we may hold, with Lowell, 
that all great geniuses have that greatness too. It 
is an unimportant question, here ; for Poe, whatever 
the personality, was a great artist. There need have 
been no sullying of his memory, or hovering over 
those last and painful years. " He was never the 
same again," wrote the gentle Mitchell who has just 
left us, of the Poe who had lost his Virginia. '•' We 
have hardly a right to regard what he did after 
this — whether in the way of writing, of love-making, 
or of business projects — as the work of a wholly 
responsible creature. It were perhaps better if the 
story of it all had never been told." 

Without his finishing touch of dying in the garret, 
Chatterton would never have come so near to being 



[Feb. 16, 

read by a generation as late and antipathetic as our 
own. Without his vagabondage, de Nerval might 
by this time be forgotten. But Poe needs nothing of 
this histrionic glamor ; and so it matters little how 
he died — or lived. New England critics have always 
seemed a little overweighted by their own sublimity 
in writing of this man ; but if, as Lowell says, he 
was " three-fifths of him genius and two-fifths sheer 
fudge," we are grateful that the genius in his com- 
position gave to the world, along with those poems 
that have won the popular admiration, others less 
obvious but more beautiful, — " To Helen," and 
" Annabel Lee," and even " Ulalume," with tales that 
prove Poe, too, cognizant of " that element which, 
for want of a better name, we call character" — 
the "William Wilson" or "The Tell-tale Heart." 

It is upon the tales that present emphasis is placed ; 
and among them " William Wilson " with its doppel- 
gdnger, " Valdemar " and " Mesmeric Revelations " 
with their hypnotism, " Ragged Mountain " with its 
hypnotism and metempsychosis mingled in one dis- 
turbing whole, have made almost as wide a stir and 
an even deeper impression than the cruder tales of 
horror, like "The Black Cat," or the stories of 
what their author called "ratiocination." Thus it 
is strange, to say the least, that in what must be 
regarded as the standard memoir of Poe, that by 
Professor Woodberry in the "American Men of 
Letters " series, no mention is made of him who, 
before Poe, most consistently made use of these 
devices — hypnotism habitually, and auto-duplication 
until Brandes writes of him, "To Hoffmann, the 
Ego is simply a disguise worn on the top of another 
disguise, and he amuses himself by peeling off these 
disguises one by one." In Hoffmann's diary one 
may read : " Possessed by thoughts of death and 
doppelgdnger. . . . Seized by a strange fancy at 
the ball on the sixth, — imagined myself looking 
at my Ego through a kaleidoscope, — all the forms 
moving round me are Egos, and annoy me by what 
they do and leave undone. . . . Why do I think 
so much, sleeping and waking, about madness?" 
Though there is no proof that Poe, who shared these 
thoughts of multiple Ego and of madness, ever read 
"The Devil's Elixir," or Hoffmann's other tales, 
the " phantasy-pieces " whose name he gave to his 
own excursions in the same weird field, it is certain 
enough that he knew them indirectly through the 
work of Scott and others, — quite as he professed 
to know the tales of Tieck, whom he hailed as 
Hawthorne's master. And there is no difficulty in 
exaggerating the debt of Poe and Hawthorne to the 
Germans, whose fiction remained Gothic, whUe that 
of the Americans struck a new note — not national 
so much as universal. As Poe said, " If in many 
of my productions terror has been the thesis, I 
maintain that terror is not of Germany, but of the 
soul." It is not merely in the deeper simplicity, the 
higher art, of our own story-tellers, that they differ 
from their German models — if models they ever 

found in the Hoffmanns and Tiecks and Novalis. In 
this very circumstance that their terror is of the soul, 
and not of Germany, we may find the secret of their 
freshness and power to-day. The disposition to 
regard Poe as a " Germanic dreamer," however 
natural to continental criticism, seems to the nearer 
witness totally mistaken. As was pointed out in 
Poe's own lifetime, while occupying that dim land 
stretching from the outer limits of the probable into 
the " weird confines of superstition and unreality," 
he combined qualities that are seldom united ; " a 
power of influencing the mind of the reader by the 
impalpable shadows of mystery, and a minuteness 
of detail which does not leave a pin or a button 
unnoticed." There is, in " The Facts in the Case of 
M. Valdemar," that blending of science and romance 
which makes us shiver in reading it to-day, when 
Tieck has become to us exciting only to the risibili- 
ties, and Hoffmann but a weaver of idle fantasies. 

" The breeze, the breath of God, is still, 
And the mist upon the hill 
Shadowy, shadowy, yet unbroken. 
Is a symbol and a token ; 
How it hangs upon the trees, 
A mystery of mysteries ! " 

So in the work of Hearn, in our own generation, is 
there a blending of the mystic and the tangible — 
the matter-of-fact, almost — which moves us as true 
ghostliness, when ghastliness would not suffice. 

To-day we praise Poe as the true inventor of a 
class of fiction variously estimated and everywhere 
enjoyed. The writer himself belittled his tales of 
ratiocination, and complained that they should ever 
have had more vogue than what we hold with him 
his greater achievement. But for the crowd which 
sees in the poet only the writer of " The Raven " 
and " The Bells," he will ever be, in prose fiction, 
the writer of " The Murders in the Rue Morgue," 
" The Purloined Letter," and « The Gold-Bug." It 
is on this side that he is most easily followed by less 
gifted craftsmen ; and if " an entire literature " has 
been founded upon " The Raven," it is no less 
remarkable that, although Poe was the initiator of 
a new genre in these tales, he has never been im- 
proved upon. In the elegant phrase of Professor 
Brander Matthews, Poe " rang the bell the very first 
time he took aim." If, as this critic of the " short- 
story " has pointed out, Poe's tale differs from older 
tales of terror, seeking to interest us not in the 
horrors of a mystery but in the steps taken to untie 
a knotty problem, it is no less true that it differs 
from its developments in the hands of modern prac- 
titioners. We have the word of Sherlock Holmes's 
most clever manufacturer, that while his own crea- 
tion is bloodless and mechanical, Poe's figures are 
neither mere automata nor beings " fantastically 
inhuman," and that " one story by Edgar Allan Poe 
would be worth a dozen " such as his. If Poe's 
tales are too strange not to be true, perhaps the par- 
adox of Oscar Wilde is not without its meaning, — 




perhaps literature does sometimes anticipate, not 
copy, life, and mould it to its purposes : life the 
mirror, art the reality. 

Poe himself might have enunciated some such 
mad doctrine. Literature was his religion, said his 
employer, Graham, — paraphrased by an ungentle 
essayist who has said, "In the place of moral 
feeling, he had the artistic conscience." Surely, 
he had both : and therein lurked a world of woe. 
In this early epoch of our literature was marked 
the passage from superstition over into a shadowy 
symbolism, most properly vague ; the allegory was 
here more used by Hawthorne, but Poe used it too — 
and with a perfect artistry. There are, to be sure, 
tales which we ignore. In the exigencies of a hand- 
to-mouth existence, Poe wrote his arabesques, — 
his "Omelettes" and his "Spectacles," — such as 
a kindly editor leaves out when he collects the fic- 
tion. It is in an absence of humor — and, alas ! 
an apparent ignorance that the humor is lacking — 
that Poe is most deficient when we compare him 
with the man of Salem. Yet what a record is 
his for the short life he had, and the difficulties 
he faced ! " It was he," writes a foreign critic, 
"who opened up, in his 'Hans Pfaal,' the way of 
the scientific novel ; he who invented the detective 
story with the ' Rue Morgue,' and the novel of spirit- 
ism with his stories of Bedloe and M. Valdemar." 
And there remains his verse. 

Incidentally mentioned here, that passing notice 
shall suffice. It is the poetry which least needs 
explanation, — and its body is so small, its perfection 
at its best so unmistakable, there is no need to recapit- 
\ilate either the monstrous praises or the petty blame 
which it has oft evoked. " Once as yet," in Swinburne's 
well-remembered word, " once as yet, and only once, 
has there sounded out of it all [all America] one pure 
note of original song — worth singing, and echoed 
from the singing of no other man; a note of song 
neither wide nor deep, but utterly true, rich, clear, 
and native to the singer." Let that estimate stand. 
And while it would be grateful to linger over one's 
favorites in the slender volume of Poe's poetry, and 
to discuss his theory, real and pretended, in things 
poetical and critical, all has been said in these hun- 
dred years which have elapsed since his birth there 
in Boston — chUd of the stage. His mysterious 
death, sixty years ago, is but the slightest of the bonds 
between him and the one name that precedes his on 
the roll of American poets. There was a premoni- 
tion of Poe's coming, when the poet of our Revolution, 
Philip Freneau, composed his " House of Night " : 

" Trembling I write my dream, and recollect 
A fearful vision at the midnight hour ; 
So late, Death o'er me spread his sable wings, 
Painted with fancies of malignant power. 

" Let others draw from smiling skies their theme, 
And tell of climes that boast unfading light ; 
I draw a darker scene, replete with gloom, 
I sing the horrors of the House of Night." 

Warren Barton Blake. 


The weighing and measuring of genius is 
not often attempted, and is sure to be found a 
baffling undertaking. Nevertheless Dr. Frederic 
Lyman Wells has had the zeal and persistence to 
carry through "A Statistical Study of Literary 
Merit "; for thus he entitles his account of certain 
minute and marvellous investigations of the peculiar 
properties of ten leading American authors. The 
English Graduate Club of Columbia University aided 
him in his work, and the results are printed by the 
Science Press as number seven in the series known 
as "Archives of Psychology." Far be it from a 
non-statistician to decry the virtues of statistics. 
In the first half of the nineteenth century the great 
French physician Louis mightily advanced the 
science of medicine by the statistical or numerical 
study of diseases ; and the value of statistics in vari- 
ous other departments of science is indisputable. 
But to fit the strait jacket of statistical tabulation 
on the gloriously unfettered form of artistic or lit- 
erary genius is even worse than yoking Pegasus 
to the plough. Mr. Wells's pages are packed with 
numbers and letters, with arbitrary markings and 
abbreviations, with tables and headache-generating 
disquisitions thereon. To some it may be illumi- 
nating to learn that the p. e. (probable error ? ) in this 
sort of assaying is capable of mathematical expres- 
sion in the form of a fraction whose numerator is 
.845 A. D., and whose denominator is the square 
root of w — 1. But to us the best thing in the whole 
learned treatise is this : " It is a not uncommon 
observation that we often form judgments for which 
we cannot give satisfactory reasons, and it is per- 
haps not less common to observe that these judg- 
ments are about as likely to be correct as those for 
which we can. To this empirical generalization the 
above figures seem to lend experimental support. 
We are more accurate in our opinions than in our 
reasons for them." . . . 

The fascinating problem of the origin of 
LANGUAGE will tease and baffle, delight and torment 
the curious philologist until the world shall come to 
an end and the heavens shall be rolled together as 
a scroll. A new and plausible and well-defended 
hypothesis is offered by Professor Fred Newton 
Scott in his late address as president of the Modern 
Language Association of America. Perhaps, how- 
ever, it would be dangerous to claim entire novelty 
for his tentative solution of the problem, since 
nothing whatever under the sun is entirely new. 
Be that as it may, he traces the " genesis of speech " 
to respiration. " If we consider," he says, in one sig- 
nificant passage of his address, " how intimately the 
most elementary phenomena of speech are related 
to the musculature of the thorax and diaphragm, we 
shall see some reason for suspecting that the life- 
serving movement from which speech has arisen 
is ordinary respiration. Such, at any rate, is the 
hypothesis which I shall adopt. Speech, in its in- 



[Feb. 16, 

ception, is significantly modified breathing. Just 
as gesture arose from movements of the hand in 
obtaining food or warding off enemies, so speech 
arose from the movements of the muscles of the 
thorax and diaphragm in obtaining a fresh supply 
of oxygen and in rejecting the harmful products of 
physiological combustion." Just how exactly Pro- 
fessor Scott's further elaborated and extremely inter- 
esting explanation of the stages in speech-evolution 
fits the actual truth of the matter, no one will ever 
be able to determine; for no eye-witness, — no 
ear- witness rather, — can be summoned for cross- 
examination. His theory is at least an appreciable 
advance from the amusing tradition which arbi- 
trarily assigned such and such a language to Adam 
and Eve in Paradise, another to the serpent, and 
still another to the Lord. " The Genesis of Speech " 
is issued in pamphlet form by the Modern Language 
Association. ... 

A LIBRARY ON WHEELS, which has already sev- 
eral times attracted our attention and elicited our 
approving comment, may be seen by any interested 
visitor to the rural districts of Washington County, 
Maryland. Its librarian (librarian and coachman 
in one) fills a position that is probably unique. 
The " Seventh Annual Report " of the free library 
at Hagerstown, whence this Book Wagon starts out 
on its sixteen routes of travel, has this (among 
other things ) to say of its activities : " It far exceeds 
the travelling library or deposit station in its use- 
fulness, in that the personal element enters into the 
work. . . . Furthermore, the work of a Library in 
a community is never solely to supply known wants, 
but ever and always to be on the alert to create a 
demand. The gospel of books is like the gospel of 
eternal life for which the world has never hungered 
untU it has been brought to them by the zeal of 
its ministers." Other country districts might well 
adopt the Book Wagon, pending the provision of 
better library facilities. Indeed, why not equip and 
send forth a number of library railway cars to visit 
small railroad towns that have no public libraries? 
We have agricultural schools and roadmaking semi- 
naries, and even churches, rolling over the prairies 
on steel rails and doing an extensive missionary 
work. The library car ought to prove even more 
useful than the book wagon. 

Ak early portrait of Chaucer, painted in oil 
on an oak panel, has been received by the Harvard 
University Library by bequest from the late Charles 
Eliot Norton, with the testator's request that it be 
inscribed as a memorial of two Chaucer-lovers, 
Francis James Child and James Russell Lowell. 
The back of the panel bears the following inscrip- 
tion : " This picture was presented by Miss Frances 
Lambert to Benjamin Dyke on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1803, to perpetuate the memory of her late 
invaluable relation, Thomas Stokes, Esq., of Llan- 
shaw Court, in the county of Gloucester, where it 
was preserved for more than three centuries, as 

appears from the inventory of pictures in the posses- 
sion of that ancient and respectable family." The 
earlier history of the portrait is unknown, but it bears 
a close resemblance to the only authentic likeness of 
the poet, the miniature in Occleve's " De Regimine 
Principum" (written in 1411-12). Professor Nor- 
ton received the panel portrait as a gift from Mr. 
James Loeb, who had bought it of Faixfax Murray. 
To learn through whose hands it had passed, from 
first to last, would not greatly profit us ; but the 
near resemblance of the picture to the face we already 
know so well as Chaucer's is significant. How much 
clearer is our mental image of the great fourteenth- 
century poet than of his still greater sixteenth-century 
compatriot, even though the latter is three hundred 
years nearer to us in time. We may have a truer 
likeness of Shakespeare than of Chaucer, but we are 
not certain which one of several portraits it is. In 
Chaucer's case, however, we are not confused by a 
number of widely differing possibilities. 
The next lecturer before the Alliance 
Fran^aise is to be M. Marcel Poete, librarian of 
the Paris Institute of Municipal History, a writer 
and lecturer of repute, an antiquary of untiring re- 
search, and editor of the Bulletin published by the 
Library of the City of Paris. (That he is not also 
a poet, in keeping with his uncommon and striking 
family name, will hardly surprise anyone ; for libra- 
rianism and verse-making are weaknesses seldom 
united in the same person, although Chicago can 
boast of a poet-librarian, and a suburban library 
within sight of Beacon Hill is in charge of a maker 
of very acceptable and often delightfully humorous 
verse.) The published list of M. Porte's lectures 
in this country promises a rare treat. Among other 
attractive titles are these : " The Pont-Neuf, or the 
Life of the People in the Seventeenth Centmy," 
" The Fashionable Promenades of the Seventeenth 
Century," '' A Picture of Paris in the Time of the 
Revolution," "Madeleine-Bastille, or a Little History 
of the Grands Boulevards," " The Cries of Paris," 
" Artistic Influence : The Primitive Parisian Paint- 
ers," and "Paris in the Time of the Romanticists." 
Numerous and interesting lantern-slide illustrations 
will enliven the lectures, which promise to be every 
way worth while for those who have ever visited 
Paris, those who intend to visit Paris, and (most of 
all) those who despair of ever being able to visit 
Paris. . . . 

Sweetness and light in the reading-room — 
that is, a pure atmosphere and a sufficient natural 
or artificial illumination of the page under perusal — 
should be abundantly provided for in every public 
library. The peculiar smell that greets the wor- 
shipper in old churches, especially country churches, 
the smell that for so many ages was mistaken for the 
odor of sanctity, has its counterpart in the stuffiness 
and closeness of old libraries ; only there it is sup- 
posed to be the fragrance of erudition, the perfume 
from the flowers of poesy and from the various anthol- 




ogies and other specimens of literary efflorescence 
culled by careful hands from belletristic gardens. 
This indescribable "bouquet" has doubtless been 
unthinkingly taken by many as an essential and even 
highly desirable attribute of a well-appointed library. 
At any rate, we all know the shudder of horror that 
so often attests high displeasure when windows are 
opened and it is sought to replace a nineteenth (or 
eighteenth) century atmosphere with a twentieth- 
century one. But not all users of public libraries 
are enemies of light and air. A solicitation of public- 
library suggestions from the laity has been diligently 
conducted by Dr. Louis N. Wilson, librarian at Clark 
University, and among other more or less interesting 
and instructive complaints against the existing order 
are a number of protests against insufficient provision 
of light and air in some of our reading-rooms. Poor 
ventilation is far more prevalent than poor lighting. 
"As for ventilation," declares one respondent, "libra- 
ries do not know what the word means." Too many 
librarians are ignorant, in proportion to their book- 
learning, of the value and need of abundant oxygen. 

Litter and litebature seem to have more than 
an alliterative relation to each other. Looking at 
the working habits of writers, one is almost tempted 
to say, The more litter, the more literature, — although 
there are conspicuous exceptions. Walt Whitman's 
room in Camden was notoriously untidy. De 
Quincey's writing was done in various more or less 
obscure resorts, with no observance of method and 
order. The elder Dumas cannot be imagined as 
sitting at an immaculately tidy desk, with pens, 
paper, inkstand, paper-cutter, reference manuals, 
and so forth, all in their appointed places. On the 
other hand, Thackeray's exquisitely neat and legi- 
ble script suggests nothing so much as well-trimmed 
pens (goose-quills, of course) and a writing-desk in 
proper order. Lowell's study at Elmwood, too, was 
no wilderness of disorder. Walter Pater's rooms at 
Oxford were almost painfully self-conscious in their 
immaculateness. FitzGerald revelled in the chaotic 
and the haphazard. Scott and Shakespeare, we 
can imagine, wrote with piles of manuscript and 
other papers on either hand. In general, can we, 
even the most orderly of us, conceive of the frenzy 
of inspired composition as for a moment vexing it- 
self with considerations of symmetry and balance 
and geometrical regularity in the disposal of books 
and papers and other appurtenances of the study ? 

• • • 

The progress of spelling-reform, as marked 
by the successive lists of " Simplified Spellings " 
sent out from No. 1 Madison Avenue, New York, 
by the Simplified Spelling Board, is interesting, 
though necessarily a somewhat melancholy sight to 
those who cling to the old forms with all their cher- 
ished associations. Happily for the "old fogies," 
however, the new forms in all their shivering naked- 
ness of phonetic spelling are not very rapidly 
invading our current literature. The inevitable 

shock will be eased by this slowness of adoption, 
and it may well be (as, indeed, we hope it will be) 
that the familiar old spellings will, to all intents 
and purposes, last out our time. After us, the 
deluge of heterographic novelties may set in — if it 
must — but we hope to sleep untroubled in our graves. 
List number three of these " Simplified Spellings " 
has appeared. It embraces words having ea pro- 
nounced as short e, preterites and participles ending 
in -ed pronounced -d, words ending in unaccented 
-ice pronounced -is, and words ending in -ve ( after 
I or r) pronounced -v, — about two hundred and fifty 
in all. " In due course," we are informed, " the 
three lists will be printed in one alfabetic order, and 
used as a basis for more extensiv simplifications to 
appear in a larger list or Vocabulary of Simplified 
Spellings." . . . 

Dr. Osler as chief speaker at the coming 
LIBRARY DEDICATION, — the dedication, namely, of 
the fine Medical and Chirurgical Library building 
connected with the Johns Hopkins Hospital and 
expected to be finished this month and opened in 
May, — will be sure to draw a full audience. What- 
ever his subject, which will not fail to be appropriately 
serious, his address will be pointed with epigram 
and enlivened with apt allusion and anecdote. 
Another distinguished participant in the exercises 
will be Dr. S. Weir Mitchell. An unusual but not 
unattractive feature of the new library building will 
be a large room in the basement set apart for pur- 
poses of bodily refreshment and the repair of wasted 
tissues, — a dining room, that is, or banquet hall. 
Whether a kitchen also is to be provided in connec- 
tion with it, does not appear from the reports. The 
structure is expected to be one of the best of its kind 
in existence ; and if its visitors are to find food there 
for both brain and stomach, it will certainly be one 
of the most complete. The dedicatory exercises are 
announced for May 13, 14, 15, and will (one cannot 
but hope) be held in the large auditorium on its 
first floor, to be known as Osier Hall. 
• • • 

A USEFUL Lincoln bibliography, among the 
many such lists now appearing, is issued by the 
Chicago Public Library as " Special Bulletin No. 7." 
In its forty-two pages there must be a thousand titles 
or more, arranged under such headings as these : — 
Genealogy and Family History, Biography (divided 
into eleven sub-classes), Estimates of Character, 
Lincoln as a Lawyer, Lincoln as a Literary Man, 
Lincoln as an Orator, Religion of Abraham Lincoln, 
Lincoln and Temperance, Personal Appearance, 
etc. Books, periodicals, pamphlets, sermons, all sorts 
of printed matter have been consulted in preparing 
the bulletin, which is especially useful to Chicago 
readers as the works cited are all to be found in the 
Chicago Public Library. A bibliography of Lincoln 
bibliographies, all likewise in the Library, forms the 
opening section. The compilation shows care and 
industry, and is a work of permanent value. 



[Feb. 16, 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

I have just read in your issue of January 1 (p. 9) 
your comment upon the " lavish praise " bestowed by 
" The Quarterly Review " upon Tennyson's volume of 
1833 (really printed in 1832). I am surprised that you 
were not suspicious of a quotation which speaks of 
Tennyson as " another and a brighter star of that galaxy 
or milky way [ !] of poetry of which the lamented Keats 
was the harbinger." 

In Vol. I. of the Tennyson Memoir, Arthur Hallam 
speaks of the review now in question as " the infamous 
article " (p. 91); and Hallam Tennyson refers to it as 
"the sneering savage Quarterly attack" (p. 94). It 
was probably this review, more than anything else, 
which caused Tennyson to print almost nothing between 
the so-called volume of 1833 and the triumphant two 
volumes of 1842. Albert H. Tolman. 

University of Chicago, Feb. 5, 1909. 

[We might make the plea that the irony of our 
comment was stiU finer in its subtlety than the 
irony of the Quarterly Reviewer — too fine, in fact, 
to be discernible to the ordinary eye. But an 
unaccommodating frankness compels us to admit 
that though we were surprised and, in a subcon- 
scious way, uneasily suspicious, we allowed the frag- 
mentary quotation to slip through, in the press of 
other matters, without attaching the proper label. 
— Edr. The Dial.] 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

In your recent review of " The Old Yellow Book " 
your critic failed to make plain that this costly volume 
was issued by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 
The need to give this credit arises from the fact that 
this foundation has been much criticised for its failure 
to foster literature. Dr. Hodell's volume is our first 
venture in this direction. It will be followed by two 
volumes of Professor Sommers's rendering of the 
Arthurian legends from the MSS. of the British Mu- 
seum. The publication of Fliigel's great dictionary of 
Chaucerian English will begin shortly and will appear 
in numbers. 

How otherwise and further we can assist literature 
we have been imable to see. §_ Weir Mitchell 

of the Executive Committee of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 3, 1909. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

The note in your issue of the 1st inst. about the 
Literarj' Seedsman of Marblehead reminds me of another 
Seedsman who flourished in Scotland in the latter half 
of the nineteenth century, Peter Drummoiid of Stirling, 
who combined the writing and printing of religious tracts 
with his business. He was not only a shrewd business 
man and a clever advertiser, but a bit of a wag as well, 
for he always placed with the imprint to his little tracts 
the quotation : " For the field is the World, and the seed 
is the Word of God." Charles Welsh. 

Winthrop, Mass., Feb. 6, 1909. 

%\t Jt^to ^00ks. 

Reminiscences of a Noted Woman.* 

In turning the pages of the Reminiscences of 
Lady Randolph Churchill, covering a period of 
nearly thirty years, the reader is confronted 
with such a multiplicity of persons, places, and 
events, as to be wellnigh bewildered. But they 
are presented in so entertaining a fashion that 
the task becomes a delightful one. It is a book 
that one may pick up and lay down, read and 
re-read. The author has a natural talent for 
seeing things, and a charming way of describing 
them. From the time of her debut, in the early 
seventies, into English political and social life, 
she has, by fortuitous circumstances as well as 
by a pleasing personality, made herself an influ- 
ential and powerful factor. As the young wife 
of a Cabinet minister, she discharged her duties 
with tact and delicacy. It was no easy matter, 
in the days of her early career, to overcome the 
resentment shown to Americanism ; but how 
cleverly Lady Randolph played her part is 
shown in these pages. " Thirty years ago," she 
remarks, " there were very few Americans in 
London. In England, as on the Continent, the 
American woman was looked upon as a strange 
and abnormal creature with habits and manners 
between a Red Indian and a Gaiety girl. Any- 
thing of an outlandish nature might be expected 
of her. If she talked, dressed and conducted 
herself as any well-bred woman should, much 
astonishment was invariably evinced, and she 
was usually saluted with the tactful remark, 
' I should never have thought that yoxi were 
an American,' which was intended as a compli- 

One could quote indefinitely from these pages, 
as so many of the stories and hon mots related by 
Lady ChurchiUare worth repeating ; and they are 
given with an air of easy frankness which adds 
greatly to their charm. At Bayreuth she met 
Mrs. Sam Lewis, wife of the well-known money- 
lender ; an excellent musician, and a benefac- 
tress of many institutions. Mr. Lewis, unlike 
his wife, was not artistic. It is told of him that, 
having once made a fortnight's stay in Rome, 
he was asked how he liked it. " You can 'ave 
Rome," was his laconic answer. 

She met the Abbe Liszt at the Russian 
Embassy in London, when M. de Staal was 
Ambassador. " I sat next the great man, whose 
strong and characteristic face, so often deline- 

*The Reminiscences of Lady Randolph Churchill. Illus- 
trated. New York: The Century Co. 




ated both by brush and chisel, seemed strangely 
familiar. He was so blind that he ate his 
asparagus by the wrong end, until I pointed out 
his error. ' Ah,' he exclaimed, — ' merci bien, 
il me semblait tout de meme que cela n'etait 
pas tres bon ! ' " 

On another occasion. Lady Randolph was on 
a visit to Queen Victoria, and tells the story of 
an officer, who, being on guard duty at the 
Castle, was asked to dine there. The whispered 
conversation and the stiffness of the proceed- 
ings beginning to weigh on him, he thought he 
would enliven the party with a little joke. The 
Queen, hearing smothered laughter, asked what 
it was about. Scarlet and stammering, the 
poor man had to repeat his little tale, amid dead 
silence. Fixing a cold eye upon him, " We are 
not amused," was all the Queen said. 

Owing to her husband's position as a Cabinet 
officer. Lady Randolph had many opportunities 
of meeting prominent people of both political 
parties. The years 1880-1884 were stirring 
ones, and, she says, " full of excitement and 
interest for me. Our house became the rendez- 
vous of all shades of politicians. . . . Sir Charles 
Dilke and Mr. Joseph Chamberlain came fre- 
quently. The Duke of Marlborough, my father- 
in-law, was particularly incensed, and took 
Randolph seriously to task for having had Mr. 
Chamberlain to dinner, ' a man who was a 
socialist, or not far from one ; who was reputed 
to have refused to drink the Queen's health 
when Mayor of Birmingham.' " It was a strange 
irony of fate that Mr. Chamberlain some years 
later became one of the leading figures in English 
parliamentary life, honored and feted by King 
Edward and his courtiers, and but for impaired 
health might probably still be one of the giants 
of the political arena. At that time the names 
of Gladstone, Salisbury, Hartington, Churchill, 
Harcourt, and Stafford Northcote, were those 
to be conjured with. Balfour was then com- 
paratively unknown. He and Sir John Gorst, 
with Sir Henry Drummond Wolff and Randolph 
Churchill, constituted what was known as the 
Fourth Party, and many a lively tilt was 
exchanged between those obstreperous gentle- 
men and the occupants of the Government 
benches. It is related that Mr. Gladstone con- 
fided to an intimate friend that he feared Lord 
Randolph Churchill in debate even more than 
Disraeli. Lady Randolph, in speaking of the 
banquet in honor of Lord Beaconsfield and Lord 
Salisbury on their return from the Berlin Con- 
ference, says that Disraeli, pointing with a scorn- 

ful finger at Mr. Gladstone, declared he was 
" inebriated with the exuberance of his own 
verbosity." We believe that it was at the 
House of Commons, and not at this banquet, 
that Disraeli made these memorable remarks, 
and that Gladstone later on retorted that it was 
"the hair-brained chatter of irresponsible fri- 

Lord Randolph was just then at the zenith of 
his power, and much of his success may be 
attributed to his clever and vivacious wife. She 
assisted him in every possible manner, and was 
active on his behalf in public meetings and in 
canvassing for votes. In the autumn of 1883 
the Primrose League was formed, and Lady 
Randolph was enrolled as one of the dames. She 
spoke in Manchester just before the general elec- 
tion of 1886, and prophesied the downfall of 
Mr. Gladstone and the defeat of his famous 
Home Rule bill. Of this period she relates some 
amusing electioneering anecdotes. Being asked 
to help canvass for Mr. Burdett-Coutts, she was 
pleading with a wavering voter for his support. 
Waggishly and with a sly look, he said, " If I 
could get the same price as was once paid by the 
Duchess of Devonshire for a vote, I think that 
I could promise." " Thank you very much," 
Lady Randolph replied, " I '11 let the Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts know at once." 

Notwithstanding that Lord Randolph Chur- 
chill rapidly rose to the highest positions, first 
as Secretary of State for India, and afterwards 
as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of 
the House of Commons, his downfall was equally 
sensational. It was a great surprise and shock 
to the country when he tendered his resignation 
to the Queen. To Lady Randolph Churchill 
it meant the destruction of all her hopes and 
plans. " He went into no explanation, and I 
felt too utterly crushed and miserable to ask 
for any, or even to remonstrate," she writes in 
her journal. It was claimed, at the time, that 
Lord Randolph disagreed with his colleagues on 
some question of expenditure. History may or 
may not be right in this respect ; but it is gen- 
erally believed that the state of his health, 
added to a naturally nervous temperament, was 
mainly responsible for his action. 

Lord Randolph Churchill was a fearless 
fighter in debate, and a thorn in the side of 
his opponents. The press was very bitter 
against him, the " Times " in particular attack- 
ing him on every occasion. One night, after a 
particularly poisonous leader had appeared in 
that paper. Lady Randolph met Mr. Buckle, 



[Feb. 16, 

the editor of the " Times," at a reception. 
Coming up, he half chaffingly asked her if 
she intended to speak to him, or if she was 
too angry. " Not a bit," she replied, " I 
have ten volumes of press-cuttings about Ran- 
dolph, all abusive. This will only be added to 

No record of Lady Churchill's Reminiscences 
would be complete without reference to the 
splendid work she accomplished in helping to fit 
out the hospital-ship " Maine " for service in the 
South African War. No stone was left unturned 
to procure money — much money, and it had to 
be all American money. " It would be useless," 
she says, " to deny the fact that the Boer War 
was viewed with disfavor by my countrymen. 
They had a fellow feeling for the Boers, fight- 
ing, as they thought, for their independence. 
But the plea of humanity overran their political 
opinions, and the fund once started, money 
poured in." As is often the case with char- 
itable appeals. Lady Randolph and her co- 
workers met with rebuffs, — notably in the case, 
as she tells, of an American multimillionaire to 
whom she cabled asking for a subscription for 
the hospital. He replied that he had " no 
knowledge of the scheme." The press by this 
time, in both countries, was full of the enter- 
prise. She cabled back, " Read the papers "; 
but this, alas ! did not untie the rich man's 
purse-strings. It may be asserted with perfect 
truth that Lady Randolph did more to estab- 
lish an entente cordlale, and to help cement a 
friendship between England and America, than 
could have been accomplished by any other 

Of her work in connection with " The Anglo- 
Saxon Review," we regret we cannot speak so 
highly. That she was ill-advised to enter into 
the undertaking, no doubt remains. She did 
all she could to make the " Review " a success, 
and her friends helped her con amove. Advice 
was readily forthcoming, but not the means. 
The reasons for the failure of the enterprise are 
not far to seek ; it is generally conceded that 
the subscription price, for one thing, was pro- 
hibitory. That the scheme as a whole savored 
of snobbishness is self-evident ; and Lady 
Randolph was shrewd enough to let go of it in 

This book is admirably illustrated and well 
made, but lacks an index. This is a great dis- 
advantage, especially as the author has an unfor- 
tunate habit of confusing dates and events. 

George Robert Sparks. 

Sir Spencer Walpole as Historian.* 

The appearance of the two last volumes of Sir 
Spencer Walpole's " History of Twenty-Five 
Years " marks the passing of an historian who, 
if he is not to be classed among the greatest 
historical writers, was yet distinctly gifted in 
the art of historical presentation. Sir Spencer 
Walpole died on July 7, 1907. He was con- 
nected, through both father and mother, with 
the so-called ruling class of England, and his 
life was in many respects the life of other men 
of his class and inherited tastes. Added to high 
culture, breeding, and education, was a consci- 
entious devotion to and interest in the routine 
administrative duties of the State. He was a 
university man, and from early manhood mani- 
fested a desire to make a place for himself in 
the world of letters. Beginning as a clerk in 
the War Office, he held various administrative 
positions, such as Commissioner of Fisheries or 
Governor of the Isle of Man, his last office being 
that of Secretary of the Post Office. These 
administrative labors constituted the everyday 
work of his life, and to them he gave a genuine 
interest and a sane energy. He was a good 
servant of the State, and was always welcome in 
political circles and society. Having an un- 
usually wide acquaintance with leaders in both 
parties, his opportunities for observation and 
judgment were many, while his essentially judi- 
cial and unbiassed mind fitted him peculiarly 
for the writing of contemporary history. His 
work, whether in the earlier history of England 
from 1815 to 1858, or in this present history, 
planned and executed as a continuation, is 
always readable, and moves with a dignified 
precision, presenting its facts always clearly 
and injpressing them by sheer simplicity of 
statement. Indeed, the keynote of Walpole's 
attractive style of writing is simplicity — a 
simplicity which, based upon a wide knowledge 
and true assimilation of facts, gives evidence of 
a logical mind and a discriminating pen. Clar- 
ity is characteristic of all his writing. His 
straightforward clear resume of events reads so 
simply that at first one may lose sight of the 
painstaking effort involved in achieving such 
satisfactory results. Doubtless it is advanta- 
geous to the general historian to be unhampered 
by the masses of tiresome detail that the mono- 
graphists must handle; yet Walpole's sources 
were by no means meagre. Many and careful 

*The History of Twenty-Five Years. 1856-1880. By Sir 
Spencer Walpole. Volumes III. and IV. New York: Long- 
mans, Oreen, & Co. 




footnotes indicate a mastery of the most im- 
portant state papers, and the more accessible 
materials for a broader field than that custom- 
arily included within the labors of a specialist. 
He stands midway, therefore, between the spe- 
cialist and the "popular historian," avoiding 
the dreary detail of the former and escaping 
the accusation of inexact knowledge frequently 
directed with justice against the latter. 

These general considerations apply to the 
two present volumes as well as to earlier 
work, even though these last volumes were 
incompleted at the time of the author's death. 
Sir A. C. Lyall, who had the duty of preparing 
them for the press, explains this when he states 
in the preface that his labor has been confined 
practically to slight alterations in the final re- 
view and arrangement of the manuscript, and 
that " the views and conclusions recorded by 
Sir Spencer Walpole stand untouched as he 
wrote them." No one at all familiar with 
Walpole's method and style could doubt this ; 
for in the opinion of the reviewer it would be 
quite impossible to discover any appreciable 
difference between the method and style of 
these last volumes and those of earlier dates. 
And this is important ; for in addition to the 
value of his work as an exhibition of his his- 
torical study and writing, Walpole's labors have 
the merit and interest of being the product of 
a keen, fair-minded, contemporary observer of 
the events which he narrates, and of one in 
close touch with all political leaders of note in 
England, yet not affected by political change 
and political animosities. His work has, there- 
fore, the value of a personal interpretation, 
representing first of all the view-point of the 
man himself, but going even further and repre- 
senting the view-point of a class, both in society 
and in permanent official position, that con- 
stitutes a steady and important factor in the 
history of England in the nineteenth century. 
The " History of Twenty-Five Years " is not 
merely a narrative of events ; it is also a careful 
presentation of both sides of each debatable 
incident, with a frankly expressed judgment of 
the Governmental treatment of that incident. 
Thus the history becomes itself historical mate- 
rial, as the expression of the historical judg- 
ments of a man and his class. 

When first undertaking this later work, the 
author stated that the period from 1856 to 1880 
was unusually full of events demanding English 
interest in questions of foreign policy. He has 
therefore, in Volumes III. and IV., continued 
to confine his attention largely to such questions. 

treating the topics of English diplomacy during 
the Franco-Prussian War, the Russo-Turkish 
War, and the Berlin Treaty of 1878. These 
volmnes furnish an excellent analysis of condi- 
tions which it is to-day necessary to understand 
if one is to appreciate the strength and import- 
ance of present-day disturbances in the Balkan 
States. Nor is this a merely English point of 
view ; for Walpole, more than most Englishmen, 
knows his Continental politics, and is able to 
avoid the insular limitations of other writers. 
As regards America, the main interest in the 
present volumes centres about the Alabama case 
and the Geneva Award ; and here, as every- 
where, the essentially judicial quality of Wal- 
pole's mind is made evident. He is most fair in 
stating the argument for either side, acknowl- 
edging the impossible dilemma in which Lord 
Russell placed England when he ordered the 
detention of the Alabama, yet denied that he was 
in any way bound to prevent her escape. At 
the same time, from the writer's point of view, 
the proposal of Sumner to claim from Great 
Britain a sum equal to the entire cost of the 
Civil War, is equally preposterous. Walpole 
also points out with care one aspect of the 
Alabama arbitration that our American histo- 
rians are prone to neglect — the important con- 
nection in the minds of English statesmen 
between the demand for damages by America 
and the Russian demand, in 1871, for a reversal 
of the Black Sea provisions of the Treaty of 
Paris. The two demands had no real connec- 
tion save that of coincidence ; but this was not 
perfectly clear to the English Government. 
" British statesmen," says Walpole, " however 
ready they might be to uphold their country's 
cause and their country's honor, could not afford 
to disregard the combination of the great Empire 
of the East, with the gi'eat Republic of the West. ' ' 
The importance here attributed to the effect of 
the Russian announcement upon the situation, 
in regard to the Alabama case, but illustrates 
the necessity of much deeper study than has 
hitherto been given to American diplomatic inci- 
dents. Our historical students and writers as a 
class have very largely lost sight of any save the 
two contending parties, when the United States 
has been one of the disputants ; whereas in fact, 
in incident after incident of American diplo- 
matic history, the foreign country with which 
we as a nation were in dispute was more largely 
controlled in its final action by concurrent poli- 
tical conditions in other European countries than 
by its disposition towards the United States. 
In connection with the Alabama case, it is 



[Feb. 16, 

customary to say that the United States might 
have acquired British America, but preferred a 
litigious dispute for cash. This idea is but 
touched upon by Walpole, and at that in such 
a way as to create the impression that such an 
arrangement was never seriously entertained in 
England, even though the British minister at 
Washington and the London " Times " did 
quite openly hint at it. This aspect of the 
case is not brought specifically forward, however, 
and the author enters no explicit denial for 
England. His great interest is in the European 
rather than in the American situation ; and here 
we find him at home in his estimates of men 
and in his analysis of events. 

Briefly recapitulated, the essential merits of 
Walpole's History are lucidity of statement 
and style, fair-mindedness, and a true assimila- 
tion of such material as was easily accessible. 
These qualities will render his work profitable 
and pleasant reading for many years, while the 
personal testimony of the author's own opinions 
places his writing in the class of indestructible 
historical material. Ephraim D. Adams. 

The Story of HERCuiiANEUM.* 

In setting forth the importance of Hercula- 
neum as a site for archaeological excavation. 
Professor Waldstein rides effusissimis habenis. 
He goes so far as to say that authorities con- 
cerned with classical antiquity are agreed that 
of all ancient sites, without exception, Hercula- 
neum promises to yield the richest treasure to 
the excavator. He believes that " the artistic 
treasure to be found there and the intellectual 
harvest to be reaped is greater than at Rome 
or Athens, Delphi or Olympia, Alexandria or 
Pergamon." Herculaneum, moreover, is of 
greater archaeological importance than the other 
cities near Vesuvius — Cumae, Naples, Stabiae, 
and Pompeii — although each of these was 
larger. An instance is cited where a single villa 
excavated at Hereidaneum in the eighteenth 
century yielded greater treasure in original 
ancient bronzes, and more ancient manuscripts, 
than the excavation of Athens or Rome, Olympia 
or Delphi, Alexandria or Pergamon. 

The reasons given by Dr. Waldstein for his 
belief in the preeminence of Herculaneum as 
an archaeological site are of various kinds. The 
first and most important lies in the conditions 

* Herculaneum — Past, Present, and Future. By Charles 
Waldstein and Leonard Shoobridge. Illustrated. New York: 
The Macmillan Co. 

under which the burial of the ancient town took 
place. The disaster which overtook it arrested 
its ancient life exactly as it was ; the city was 
hermetically sealed — much more so than any 
other of the cities near Vesuvius. Its nearness 
to the volcano must be borne in mind ; for 
while Pompeii was five and three-fourths miles 
distant, Herculaneum was only four and a half 
miles. Moreover, we know from the letters of 
the younger Pliny (Ep. VI., 16 and 20) that 
Pompeii was buried by the rain of ashes which 
the wind, blowing from the northwest, gradu- 
ally sent over the city. Even ultimately, Pom- 
peii was not completely buried, the lapilli and 
ashes not reaching a greater height than twenty 
feet, so that the upper stories of the houses were 
still uncovered after the eruption had ceased. 
Consequently, there was ample time in which 
to remove valuables. Hardly a house now 
remains whose walls were not broken into so as 
to admit those who were bent on carrying off 
its contents. In Herculaneum, on the other 
hand, there was no time to save valuables. The 
city was completely and immediately buried to 
a depth of from sixty to eighty feet. It was 
not gradually covered by a rain of ashes lasting 
for days, but suddenly, by a stream of mud 
which rolled down the slope over it. There 
was time for the inhabitants to escape from the 
town (and it may be noted in passing that very 
few human bodies have been found at Hercula- 
neum), but time for collecting and carrying off 
valuables there could not have been. 

A second cause that makes Herculaneum 
Tinique among archaeological sites is the singu- 
larly preservative quality of the mud that flowed 
through the streets and into the innermost 
recesses of the houses and other buildings. This 
mass of mud became a kind of matrix, covering 
and preserving th(; forms it enveloped. The 
bronzes in the Naples Museum that have come 
from Herculaneum show a most delicate surface 
patina ; glass is not melted, marble is not cal- 
cined, even manuscripts are not damaged beyond 
the possibility of restoration. The mention of 
the manuscripts found in the villa of Piso (there 
were eight hundred of them) arouses the author's 
imagination — a quality in him, it would seem, 
of uncommon sensitiveness and power of respon- 
siveness ; and we have a flight of rhetoric, con- 
spicuous even in this rather over-rhetorical 
volume. " In some viUa there," he writes, 
" may be waiting for us aU the great Greek 
tragedians and writers of comedy, including 
Menander ; the works of the early Greek phil- 
osophers, Heracleitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, 




Democritiis, Anaxagoras ; the missing works of 
Plato and Aristotle ; the whole of Roman liter- 
ature, the lost books of Livy." 

A further reason upon which Professor 
Waldstein lays emphasis in developing the 
theme of Herculaneum's importance is the evi- 
dence that it, unlike commercial Pompeii, was 
the home of many cultured families — the Balbi, 
for example. Other illustrious Romans who 
lived here were Servilia, Agrippina, Appius 
Claudius Pulcher, and L. Calpurnius Piso. It 
was, in brief, a sort of Roman Newport. Finally, 
says our author, Herculaneum was originally a 
Greek settlement, as we see from its name ; and 
even if we cannot go so far as to say that it 
preserved a pure Greek tradition from its earliest 
days, we may at least assume that it was more 
susceptible to the influence of Greek culture 
than Pompeii, which was of Oscan origin. At 
any rate, whatever the cause, the objects actually 
found in those parts of Herculaneum that have 
been excavated indicate a high degree of Greek 

Over the chapters dealing with the past and 
present of Herculaneum we must pass briefly. 
The accounts of its topography, of the inhabit- 
ants, and of the disasters of 63 and 79 a. d., 
give a sufficiently serviceable summary of our 
present knowledge of these subjects, without 
adding anything new. The contents of Chap- 
ter IV., the " History of the Site since the 
Eruption," will probably be less familiar to a 
majority of readers. It was in the eighteenth 
century that excavations of importance were 
first instituted, and were carried on under the 
auspices of Charles III. of Naples. With the 
exception of the underground passages of the 
Theatre, these excavations no longer exist for 
us. Further attempts were made from 1828- 
1855, and again from 1869-1875. To this last 
period belong the parts which are now visible — 
the so-called scavi nuovi, near the sea. Since 
1 8 7 5 no further excavations have been attempted. 
The causes which led to the abandonment of the 
site are (1) the unusual facility of excavation at 
Pompeii, which promised immediate results for 
a comparatively small expenditure of money ; 

(2) the fact that there is a flourishing modern 
town, Resina, right over the ancient city ; and 

(3) the current belief that Herculaneum was 
covered with lava. This belief, the error of 
which has been pointed out, seems to have been 
partly due to the fact that there are patches of 
lava to be found here and there on the site of 
Resina. These, however, have come from erup- 
tions of Vesuvius in more recent times. 

The most noticeable part of Professor Wald- 
stein's volume — the part that manifestly lies 
closest to the interest of the author — is that on 
" The Future of Herculaneum." His elaborate 
scheme for the international excavation of the 
site, a project upon which he worked with great 
energy from 1903 to 1907, fell through. From 
the documents given in the Appendix it appears 
that he had succeeded in interesting King Victor 
Immanuel, King Edward, Emperor William, 
the King of Sweden, President Roosevelt, and 
many ambassadors and financiers. His plan was 
to form in each of the great countries a national 
committee, of which the King, Emperor, or 
President, as the case might be, would be 
honorary chairman. This committee was to be 
broadly representative ; it was to include not 
only the rich and the cultured, but even mem- 
bers of labor-unions ; for, according to Dr. 
Waldstein, the workingman should be per- 
mitted, even stimulated, to contribute his penny 
to the great cause. These various national 
committees were to have their representatives 
on an international committee under whose 
immediate direction the excavation would be 
carried on. The honorary chairman of this 
international committee was to be the king of 
Italy, The actual work on the site was to be 
performed by a corps of a hundred experts of 
different nationalities, with workmen hired by 

It is the belief of the author that the plan 
almost succeeded. Its failure, he thinks, was 
due mainly to a misunderstanding on the 
part of Italian officials and the Italian press, 
who accepted as authoritative a garbled report 
of it which appeared in a London newspaper. 
But whatever the immediate occasion of the 
apparently sudden change of feeling among 
Italian officials, the underlying cause was obvi- 
ously the jealousy which Italy has always shown 
toward excavation by foreign archaeologists on 
Italian sites. She wishes to i. discover her own 

With the main thesis of the book, that Her- 
culaneum should be excavated, everyone will 
agree ; but in regard to Professor Waldstein's 
extremely positive assertions concerning the rich- 
ness of the treasure buried there, and his insist- 
ence on the preeminence of this over all other 
ancient sites, there will hardly be the same 
unanimity. Undoubtedly many valuable dis- 
coveries would be made there ; even a library 
that would be less disappointing than that of 
Piso's villa might be found ; but few kinds of 
prophecy are more delusive than that which 



[Feb. 16, 

forecasts the finds in an archaeological excava- 
tion. The book contains much material that is 
interesting; but we believe the author would 
have been more convincing, and would have pro- 
moted his cause more effectively, if he had stated 
the facts in the case more soberly, — if, in other 
words, he had given his readers more archae- 
ology and less rhetoric. 

Professor Waldstein's efforts have not been 
wholly in vain. The Italian government lias 
announced that it will excavate Herculaneum, 
and has appropriated 15,000 francs as a begin- 
ning. In his plan of complete excavation, 
Professor Waldstein estimated that the cost 
would be X40,000 a year. 

On the mechanical side, the book is beauti- 
fully made. The illustrations are numerous 
and unusually well executed ; paper, printing, 
and binding leave nothing to be desired. 

G. J. Laing. 


Political, Ijeader.* 

The rush of really important events of the 
past few years, as well as their excess of empty 
din, causes the letters of Mrs. Blaine to seem 
like an echo from a much remoter period than 
their dates attest. There is real rest to the 
weary soul, however, in dropping back into 
a political field even no more quiet, compara- 
tively, than that upon which Blaine deployed 
his forces. 

Mrs. Blaine at her best was a bright and 
witty woman, and her letters would stand on 
their own merits far above many which get into 
print ; but, after all, it is the political connection 
which gives them their chief interest. Hence it 
is the inevitable impression that they have been 
a little too thoroughly culled, for the sake of 
avoiding offense, that will be felt by many as 
their main defect. Mrs. Blaine was no mere 
colorless reflector of her husband's opinions and 
prejudices, and the touches of personal feeling 
which have been preserved in her letters are 
often both amusing and effective. For instance, 
just after Mr. Blaine had written his famous 
letter from abroad withdrawing himself from 
the race for the Republican nomination in 1888, 
she writes : "I had a sweet letter from Mr. 
Morton, calling your Father's letter a master- 
piece, and not seeing how it could be accepted. 
Y^ou can trust John Sherman for seeing^ how- 

• The Letters of Mrs. James G. Blaine. Edited by 
Harriet S. Blaine Beale. In two volumes. New York : Duffield 

ever." Unfavorable comment on various com- 
peting Republican leaders is not infrequent, 
President Hayes suffering perhaps the most 
severe treatment — a fact which in itself helps to 
show that the Blaine point of view of American 
politics was not that which was destined to live. 
With half the country feeling that his title to 
his seat was at least questionable, and a large 
share of his own party in opposition to his dis- 
tinctive policies. President Hayes had a heavy 
load to carry ; but time and thought have 
placed the honor and wisdom of his official con- 
duct out of reach of successful attack. One 
looks in vain for any criticism of the Democrat 
who foiled Mr. Blaine's ambitions in the one 
case in which he succeeded in capturing the 
nomination from opponents within his own party. 
Mrs. Blaine's letters are almost all to members 
of her immediate family, and they were aU at 
home during the 1884 campaign. There were 
ample opportunities for the expression of opinion, 
however, during President Cleveland's admin- 
istration, and one is doubtless safe in the con- 
clusion that he owes his immunity to the kindness 
of the editor, and not to the forbearance of Mrs. 

Her loyalty to her brilliant husband was of 
course too great to allow her to appreciate in 
any adequate degree the defects which marred 
a really great natural endowment ; but no gen- 
erous reader will blame her for that. He would 
be an enemy indeed to the human race who 
would take from love its traditional right to be 
blind. Those who know the whole story, how- 
ever, can hardly avoid the feeling that it would 
have been better to withhold these letters from 
publication. The contrast between the cheerful 
family life of the earlier years and the gather- 
ing gloom toward the end is too painful for the 
public gaze. The editor herself feels the terribly 
depressing effect, and closes with the letters of 
1889, frankly stating that she lacks the courage 
to look farther. " The path that the writer 
was called upon to follow was already passing 
under the shadow of a great grief, and was to 
lead on, from sorrow to sorrow, into a darkness 
that never was lifted in this life." 

There are occasional mistakes in the explan- 
atory footnotes which a proof-reader of ordinary 
intelligence ought to have challenged, — as, for 
instance, a reference to Preston S. Banks as the 
assailant of Charles Sumner. Of course it was 
right to print Mrs. Blaine's letters " wart and 
all," but errors in the notes stand on quite a 

different basis. 

W. H. Johnson. 




Briefs on New Books 

_, , Charles Lamb writes of names in our 

Thackeray's literature that have a iragrance in 
daughter. them — names like Kit Marlowe and 

Drummond of Hawthornden. There are names, too, 
that have echoes in them ; and to those of us who 
care for our English heritage, Lady Ritchie's name 
has in it echoes of all that we delight to honor in 
literary England of the Victorian past — that past 
which was the present so short a while ago, yet seems 
to have receded into the shadow so much farther than 
the actual count by the almanac would warrant. 
Thackeray's daughter is one of the few whose voice 
can make the shadow real to us, and Lady Ritchie's 
new book, " Blackstick Papers " (Putnam), is like 
the gift she tells us of, made by " Jacob Omnium " 
to her father — a cup in which some of us may still 
drink to the past. The quaint title is a reminder of 
that most delightful Thackerayan region, Paphla- 
gonia, the country of "The Rose and the Ring." 
" Readers of my father's works," says Lady Ritchie, 
in her introduction, " will be familiar with the name 
of the Fairy Blackstick who lived in Crim Tartary 
some ten or twenty thousand years ago, and who used 
to frequent the Court of his Majesty King Valoroso 
XXrV. If I have ventured to call the following 
desultory papers by the Fairy Blackstick's name, it 
is because they concern certain things in which she 
was interested — old books, young people, schools of 
practical instruction, rings, roses, sentimental affairs, 
etc., etc." " Felicia Felix" and her admirers (the 
pretty frontispiece shows Mrs. Hemans in her bloom), 
George Sand at Nahant, Horace Walpole's Miss 
Berrys (the elder of whom Lady Ritchie, when a 
child, was taken to see by her father), such "links 
with the past " as the Miss Horace Smiths, the artist 
Bewick and his birds, — these are some of the people 
of whom Lady Ritchie discourses in the graceful 
serene manner which is her own. " She writes like 
a lazy writer who dislikes her work," said Anthony 
TroUope of "Annie Thackeray "in his "Autobiog- 
raphy " more than a quarter of a century ago, adding 
a monitory word to his praise of her talent. To-day, 
with the trail of the journalist over almost all that 
is written for us, we can afford to accept the leisurely 
sentences with nothing but gratitude. 

Short studies ^ "^w book from Dr. Osier, even 
in medical though but a collection of addresses, 

biography. ^^^^ ^f them from ten to fifteen 

years old, is most welcome to all who hunger for 
high thoughts clad in fit language. " An Alabama 
Student, and Other Biographical Essays " (Oxford 
University Press) is a substantial octavo giving the 
general reader a more satisfying taste of the writer's 
quality than has yet been afforded. The title chap- 
ter deals with the least famous, but not therefore 
the least deserving, subject of the thirteen embraced 
in the book. Dr. John Y. Bassett of Alabama, who 
died at forty-six after a useful and active life, 
becomes in Dr. Osier's hands an interesting char- 

acter. Then follow short studies of Thomas Dover 
(of Dover's powders), Keats the apothecary poet, 
O. W. Holmes, John Locke as a physician, William 
Pepper, Alfred Stills, Sir Thomas Browne, Harvey, 
and others less renowned in medicine or surgery or 
literature, but all more or less honorably associated 
with that profession which is the writer's own. Of 
personal interest is it to learn that the " Religio 
Medici," in James T. Fields's edition of 1862, has 
been Dr. Osier's companion since his school days 
and is the most precious book in his library, which 
also contains an " almost complete collection of the 
editions of his [Browne's] works." What Dr. Osier 
notes as true of Burton, Browne, and Fuller — that 
they have " a rare quaintness, a love of odd conceits, 
and the faculty of apt illustrations drawn from out- 
of-the-way sources " — is, by a psychological neces- 
sity, in some measure true of himself. His style, 
too, is enriched with a rare blend of subtle allusion 
and veiled quotation. Probably not every hearer 
of these addresses caught the full flavor of such 
passages as the following incidental reference to the 
coming quater-centenary of the birth of Caius, 
co-founder of Caius College, Cambridge : " As well 
in love as in gratitude, we could celebrate it in no 
more appropriate manner, and in none that would 
touch his spirit more closely, than by the issue of a 
fine edition of his principal works." Among the 
few and fitting illustrations in the book is a portrait 
of Browne from a little-known original at Norwich — 
a most pleasing and satisfying presentment. One 
could wish that Dr. John Brown of Edinburgh had 
bden included among these excellent sketches of 
medico-literary worthies. 

The building of ^he history and development of 
a great State in Minnesota may be taken as typical 
the Northwest, ^f t^e Northwest, and the volume 
on that State in the " American Commonwealths " 
series (Houghton Mifflin Co.) has for this reason a 
general interest that is added to the intrinsic interest 
of the story. The book has been carefully and 
skilfully written by Professor William W. Folwell, 
for many years connected with the State University. 
There are several main currents of interest followed 
by the narrative. First come the dealings of the 
traders and settlers with the former possessors of 
the soil. It is the old story of over-reaching through 
trickery and fraud, through treaties to which the 
simple children of the prairie who knew not what 
they promised were held with literal fidelity, while 
the gi'eedy trader or lumberman could break them 
at his pleasure. Even of the petty sum awarded the 
Indians for the vast stretches of their lands, very 
little reached them, and then only to be squandered 
for whiskey, — the old shameful story. Another 
current of interest is in the rush of settlers, the 
organization of Territorial and State governments, 
and the rainbow schemes for getting land from the 
Government through sham railroad and other com- 
panies. Not at all creditable is the history of the 
five-million loan, the bonds for which the State long 



[Feb. 16, 

endeavored to repudiate because it secured nothing 
of value in return ; but as wealth grew and the pub- 
lic conscience became more sensitive, a fair settle- 
ment was finally reached and the credit of the State 
was saved. A third feature is the serious Sioux 
outbreak of 1862, which occurred while a large part 
of the defenders of the State were at the front in 
the Civil War. This was one of the severest of 
the Indian disturbances, and the tradition of it 
remains to this day among the people. The state- 
ment of the causes of the trouble shows that the 
Indians were not without reasons for anger against 
those who had tricked and cheated them, even 
though much of the vengeance fell in this case, as 
always, upon innocent persons. 

„ , Back to the homely realities eoes 

Some simple -..^ o i t-. it • r- 

annals of Mr. Stephen Keynolds in quest of 

the poor. material for his book, "A Poor Man's 

House" (Lane). In a general way its tone is like 
that of another very real and wholesomely enjoyable 
narrative which is being much read at present, — 
namely, " A Lord of Lands," by Mr. Ramsey 
Benson. But Mr. Reynolds's book is the veritable 
journal of actual adventures and observations among 
the poor fisherfolk of a little Devonshire seaport, 
whereas Mr. Benson, with all his verisimilitude, is 
obviously not hampering his genius with a strict 
adherence to the literal truth. The English writer's 
summer sojourn in the humble home of the Widger 
family is related with minuteness and humor, and 
with no squeamish avoidance of sundry very human 
and lifelike details that hardly admit of much ideal- 
ization. He tells us that he has lived among the 
poor, " neither as parson, philanthropist, politician, 
inspector, sociologist, nor statistician ; but simply 
because I found there a home and more beauty of 
life and more happiness than I had met with else- 
where." It is his firm belief, too, that " as regards 
the things that really matter, the educated man has 
more to learn of the poor man than to teach him." 
It may comfort us a little amid all the appalling 
accounts that reach us of widespread and extreme 
destitution in London and throughout the country, 
to be assured that " the more intimately one lives 
among the poor, the more one admires their amaz- 
ing talent for happiness in spite of privation, and 
their magnificent courage in the face of uncertainty ; 
and the more also one sees that these qualities have 
been called into being, or kept alive, by uncertainty 
and thriftlessness. . . . Extreme thrift, like extreme 
cleanliness, has often a singularly dehumanizing 
effect." There is abundance of homely dialect con- 
versation, not needing a glossary, however; and the 
realistic story throughout is well worth reading. 

Dolls and 

Some years ago Miss Laura B. Starr 
lost her heart to the Japanese dolls in 
the Yokohama shops, and thereupon 
she began collecting dolls and doll-lore. A six years' 
tour around the world gave her unusual opportunities 
to indulge her unusual fad, and now "The Doll Book" 

(Outing Publishing Co.) is the delightful result. 
She dedicates her studies " To all who are interested 
in dolls, from the children who play with them to 
the students of their ethnological and educational 
aspects," — which sounds impossible until one has 
read the book, looked at the pictures, many of them 
in color, and come to realize the universality of the 
passion for dolls and the odd varieties of its expres- 
sion. There are fetish dolls, for instance, and dolls 
of the nativity, puppets, fashion dolls, and dolls with 
supposedly supernatural powers — like the Blessed 
Bambino at Rome, or the dolls in the Asakusa 
Temple in Tokio ; particularly among primitive peo- 
ples, there are doll rites and doll festivals ; and the 
history of the doll, and of some historic dolls, is full 
of interest. Little girls may not care particularly 
for these strange creatures nor for the crude dolls 
of antiquity ; but they will vastly enjoy hearing about 
the tilt-up dolls of the East, the Japanese dolls with 
their five wigs to represent the five stages of woman- 
hood, the wooden dolls that the little Queen Victoria 
dressed, the Dutch and Irish dolls in peasant cos- 
tume, the manufacture of dolls in various parts of 
the world, and the vast possibilities of home manu- 
facture out of such unpromising material as string, 
corn-husks, flowers, or bottles. Miss Starr has been 
skilful in arranging her material, so that in spite 
of its diversity of interests the book seems complete 
rather than heterogeneous. As befits its subject, 
" The Doll Book " is gaily bound, with a Spanish 
doll in sailor costume on the cover, and many pic- 
tures, made largely from the dolls in Miss Starr's 
valuable and interesting collection. 

. „ , Six years have passed since the un- 

A colleague's ,."?,,, / t-. • i • tut i 
tribute to Carla timely death of J^raulem Wencke- 

Wenckebach. jj^ch left in the faculty of Wellesley 
College a gap hard to fill ; and now, after thorough 
preparation for the labor of love, her one-time assist- 
ant and subsequent successor as head of the German 
department, Fraulein Margareth Miiller, presents a 
warmly eulogistic biography of " Carla Wenckebach, 
Pioneer" (Ginn), enlivened with humorous and 
otherwise noteworthy extracts from her lively letters 
to the home folk, and adorned with seven portraits 
of her genuinely German face at various ages from 
thirteen to forty-five. Born at Hildesheim in 1853, 
and educated in that town and at Hannover, fifteen 
miles southward, Fraulein Wenckebach took her 
courage and her destiny in both hands and became 
a wandering teacher of young girls, serving as gov- 
erness in Scotland and Russia before she made the 
still bolder move of seeking her fortune in America, 
where she arrived in the summer of 1879. The 
story of her ups and downs until she unexpectedly 
found herself installed in the enviable position of 
German Professor at Wellesley, in 1883, should be 
read in full in Miss MuUer's brisk and picturesque 
narrative. It is gratifying to find the keenly observ- 
ant young foreigner so enthusiastic in her admiration 
of her adopted country. " She waxes fairly dithy- 
rambic," says her biographer, " in describing the free 




libraries with their royal outfit for King Public." 
Miss Miiller regrets the necessity of writing her 
book in English instead of German, and of trans- 
lating the passages quoted from letters ; but however 
excellent a German biography she might have given 
us, she has certainly succeeded in presenting in 
English a very engaging picture of a strong and 
inspiring character. 

Backward In his "Recollections of a New 

o vetercm England Educator " ( Silver, Burdett 

educator. & Co.) Dr. William A. Mo wry shows 

himself to be, in a pleasant and instructive and 
wholly commendable fashion, a sort of connecting 
link between the old methods of education and the 
new. Born in 1829 at Uxbridge, a small town in 
Worcester County, Mass., he traces his earliest 
schoolboy remembrances back to the little red (in 
his case it was red brick) schoolhouse with hard 
wooden benches and a division of the pupils accord- 
ing to sex, — boys on one side of the room, girls on 
the other. Both as pupil and as teacher he became 
thoroughly acquainted with the New England dis- 
trict school, before continuing his education beyond 
the three R's at the PhiUips Academy, Andover, 
and at Brown University. The Andover years 
fell within the period when such worthies as John 
Willard, Samuel Fiske ("Dunne Browne"), G. N. 
Anthony, Calvin E. Stowe, Austin Phelps, Justin 
Edwards, and Bela B. Edwards walked the elm- 
shaded streets of that beautiful town, and contributed 
their part toward making its atmosphere one of lit- 
erature and learning and orthodox theology. Dr. 
Samuel H. Taylor, affectionately known as " Uncle 
Sam " to old Andoverians, was then principal of the 
Academy, and he receives a glowing eulogy from 
his pupil of fifty-five years ago. From Andover 
young Mr. Mowry went to Brown University, where 
Wayland was nearing the end of his presidency, 
and where such well-known names as Harkness, 
Lincoln, Greene, Angell, Caswell, and Chase shed 
lustre on the faculty list. Mr. Mowry 's experiences 
as student, teacher, captain of volimteers in the 
Civil War, editor of educational journals, superin- 
tendent of schools, lecturer, and head of teachers' 
institutes, are entertainingly presented, with por- 
traits and other illustrations, and numerous remin- 
iscences of famous educators of his time. 

Afascinatina ^^ ^ ^at^er extended notice of 
page of Greek "The Princes of Achaia and the 
history. Chronicles of Morea," which ap- 

peared in The Dial for May 16, 1907, we 
spoke of the reviving interest in the course 
of Greek History from 1204 to 1566. Now we 
have another careful study of the same period, 
bearing the title " The Latins in the Levant " 
(Dutton), by Mr. William Miller, already known as 
the writer of several works on various parts of the 
" Near East." Our author loves his subject, — " this 
most fascinating stage in the life of Greece "; he 
has an enviable familiarity with the geography 

involved ; he understands that he is dealing with 
very living creatures, instead of mere archaeological 
material ; and, above all, he has worked faithfully 
and long at his diverse and often difficult sources. 
The outcome is a volume of nearly seven hundred 
pages, which may be commended to the student or 
the exceptionally earnest traveller. In itself the 
period is not quite so enchainingly attractive as our 
author insists. That " the romance, the poetic haze 
of Greece was in her middle ages, rather than in 
her classic youth," may be entirely true for the 
writer, and partly true for a few of us ; to most 
readers, however, it will seem largely a matter of 
personal predilection. Nor can we altogether agree 
that Frankish Greece has been unduly neglected, at 
least by recent students. Just now it is assuredly 
receiving its proportionate share of attention. Mr. 
Miller writes clearly and succinctly; but he does 
not exhibit the final grace of style that might carry 
the general reader through the inevitable details of 
a painstaking history treating of countless and 
ephemeral petty dynasties. The use of " Levant " 
in the title is rather unfortunate, since most people 
understand the word quite differently, and our 
author himself frequently uses it in the more com- 
mon acceptation. The index and the maps are 
useful ; but the valuable bibliography might have 
been arranged more conveniently. 

A new edition of " A Histoiy of 
P.SS.t"" ^^« Philippines," by Dr. David P. 

Barrows, director of education in 
those islands, comes from the press of The Bobbs- 
Merrill Co. of Indianapolis. It is practically iden- 
tical with the original edition of 1905, the author 
having found himself unable to agree with the 
many criticisms of the book that came from" Roman 
Catholic sources. The history of the Philippines 
has yet to be written, in the modern sense of the 
word. The summary by Mr. John Foreman, the 
work in English that is most commonly cited as an 
authority, is a mere hodge-podge of information and 
misinformation. This little work by Dr. Barrows 
(originally written for a Philippine school text, but 
never so used) and the introduction written by the 
late Edward G. Bourne for the 55-volume work en- 
titled " The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898," are the 
only surveys of the entire field of Philippine history 
which are written by competent scholars and in 
the modern spirit. Both are necessarily brief and 
incomplete ; but that by Dr. Barrows is much 
fuller of data, and based on a wider reading of 
Philippine sources. 

A Lincoln Unique among the host of books 

centennial called forth by the Lincoln centen- 

souvenir. ^j^i ig Messrs. G. p. Putnam's Sons' 

commemorative volume suggested by M. Jules 
Edouard Roin^'s Lincoln medal. Instead of the 
conventional illustration, each copy of the book, 
which is of course issued in a small edition, contains 
an actual copy of the medal in bronze, mounted in 



[Feb. 16, 

a heavy cardboard frame. M. Koine's position as 
one of the great medallists of the world is already 
assured ; his head of Lincoln will no doubt remain 
the authoritative medallic representation, and the 
symbolism of the reverse, with its wreath of palm 
and oak, is fitting and beautiful. Besides the medal, 
the book contains an essay on the origin and sym- 
bolism of medals by Professor George N. Olcott of 
Columbia University, an account of the purpose 
and character of the centennial commemoration by 
Richard Lloyd Jones, and half a dozen of Lincoln's 
most characteristic letters and addresses. 


Mrs. Gaskell's " North and South," with an introduc- 
tion by Mr. Clement Shorter, is now published in " The 
World's Classics " by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. publish a second edition 
of " A Laboratory Course in Plant Physiology," by 
Professor William F. Ganong. The original work has 
been entirely rewritten and considerably extended. 

Dr. T. Rice Holmes has just published, through the 
Macmillan Co., a translation of " Ctesar's Commentaries 
on the Gallic War." This version is a by-product of the 
author's historical labors in dealing with the subject of 
the Roman Conquest of Gaul. 

Mr. Eugene Parsons is the author of " The Making 
of Colorado," published by the A. Flanagan Co., Chicago. 
It is an historical sketch, very readable and attractively 
illustrated, of the Centennial State from the age of the 
cliff-dwellers to that of the suffragists. 

" Hazell's Annual " for 1909, imported by Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, is revised up to the first of 
last December, which is about as nearly up-to-date as a 
work of reference may hope to be. Mr. W. Palmer is 
the editor of this very useful book. 

" The Book of Divine Consolation of the Blessed 
Angela of Foligno," translated by Miss Mary G. 
Steegmann, and provided with an introduction by Mr. 
Algar Thorold, is the latest addition to the " New 
Mediaeval Library" of Messrs. Duffield & Co. 

The volume called " Abraham Lincoln : Tributes from 
His Associates," prepared under the auspices of " The 
Independent " some years ago, and edited by Dr. 
William Hayes Ward, is now republished by Messrs. 
Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. in their " Astor Library of 

Volume III. of the new and superbly illustrated edi- 
tion of Crowe and Cavalcaselle's " History of Painting 
in Italy " is now published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. It is devoted to the schools of Siena, Umbria, 
and North Italy. The reediting has been done by Mr. 
Langton Douglas. 

Issued as Volume II. of the " Viking Club Trans- 
lation Series," we have " The Elder or Poetic Edda," in 
a translation by Miss Olive Bray, with illustrations by 
Mr. W. G. Collingwood. This volume includes the 
mythological poems only, and each page of the trans- 
lation faces one upon which the original text is printed. 
There is an elaborate introduction and commentary, 
besides occasional footnotes. 

« What We Know about Jesus," by Dr. Charles F. 
Dole, is a small book sent us by the Open Court Pub- 
lishing Co. It is a simple popular statement, of " posi- 
tive, ethical, and constructive " intent, of the view which 
modern investigation discloses of the personality of the 
Founder of Christianity. 

" Who 's Who " for 1909, published by the Macmillan 
Co., is thicker than ever, filling nearly twenty-two 
hundred pages. We would suggest the omission from 
future editions of the American names, now so capri- 
ciously selected, and so well provided for in the Amer- 
ican work of similar scope. 

Miss Alice B. Kroeger has prepared a new edition of 
her " Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books " 
for the use of students and library assistants. The 
work has been greatly enlarged and correspondingly 
increased in usefulness. It is a publication of the 
American Library Association. 

"Old English Plate," by W. J. Cripps, published 
thirty years ago, has been for that time a standard man- 
ual for the collector, having gone through no less than 
nine editions. An abbreviation of the work, entitled 
" The Plate Collector's Guide," prepared by Mr. Percy 
Macquoid, is now published by Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

" The Works in Prose and Verse of Charles and 
Mary Lamb," edited by Mr. Thomas Hutchinson, fill 
two volumes of the " Oxford Edition of Standard 
Authors," published by Mr. Henry Frowde. To the 
same series is also added " The Complete Poetical 
Works of James Thomson," in one volume, edited by 
Mr. J. Logic Robertson. This is a variorum edition, 
for which students will be particularly thankful. 

Mr. Whistler's famous " Ten O'clock " has been 
reprinted by Mr. Ernest Dressel North, and issued 
as a booklet, tastefully bound in paper covers of a 
Whistlerian brown with the inevitable butterfly by way 
of decoration. The reprint, which has the rare dis- 
tinction of having been authorized by the author's liter- 
ary executor, is the only separate edition of the lecture 
now in print. The Pennell biography and the remin- 
iscences of Mr. Bacher, — which unfortunately Miss 
Philip did not authorize, — have revived interest in 
Whistler's personality; and that personality never, 
surely, had more final expression than in the crisp, auda- 
cious phrases of this heretical gospel of art, which set 
London agog and forever severed the friendship between 
Whistler and Oscar Wilde. 

Five volumes recently added to the " Belles Lettres 
Series " of Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. range over English 
literature from the earliest to the latest period. Old 
English is represented by the " Exodus " and the 
" Daniel," edited by Professor Francis A. Blackburn. 
The drama is represented by Professor Edgar C. 
Morris's edition of " The Spanish Gipsie " and « All 's 
Lost by Lust," by Middleton and Rowley, and by 
Otway's " The Orphan " and " Venice Preserved," in 
one volume edited by Professor Charles F. McClumpha. 
The section of nineteenth-century poetry is now enlarged 
by volumes of selections from Shelley and Arnold, the 
former edited by Professor George E. Woodberry, and 
the latter by Professor Edward E. Hale, Jr. We do 
not understand why these two volumes should have 
no portraits, or frontispiece illustrations of any sort. 
Otherwise, they follow the general plan of their prede- 
cessors in the series. 




List of New^ Books. 

[The following list, containing 104 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.'\ 

Some Eminent Victorians : Personal Recollections in the 
World of Art and Letters. By J. Corny ns Carr. Illus. in 
photogravure, etc., 8vo, pp. 299. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$3.50 net. 
Bartholomew de Las Casas : His Life, His Apostolate, and 
His Writings. By Francis Augustus MacNutt. Illus. in 
photogravure, 8vo, pp. 472. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50 net. 
The Tragedies of the Medici. By Edgcumbe Staley. Illus. 
in photogravure, etc., 8vo. pp. 297. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$3.50 net. 
Stonewall Jackson. By Henry Alexander White, Ph.D. With 
portrait, 12mo, pp. 378. " American Crisis Biographies." 
George W. Jacobs & Co. $1.26 net. 
Aubrey Beardsley. By Robert Ross. Illus., 12mo, pp. 112. 

John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 
Reminiscences of Abraham Liincoln. By distinguished men 
of his time ; collected and edited by Allen Thorndike Rice. 
Revised edition; with portrait, 12mo, pp. 428. Harper & 
Brothers. $2. net. 
The Death of lancoln : The Story of Booth's Plot, His Deed, 
and the Penalty. By Clara E. Laughlin. Illus., 12mo, pp. 336. 
Doubleday, Page & Co, $1.50 net. 
Abraham Lincoln. By Brand Whitlock. With photogravure 
portrait, 18mo. "Beacon Biographies." Small, Maynard 
& Co. 50 cts. net. 
An Astronomer's Wife : The Biography of Angeline Hall. 
By Angelo Hall. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 129. Baltimore: 
Nunn & Co. $1. 


The Ancient Greek Historians (Harvard Lectures). By 
J. B. Bury, Litt.D., LL.D. 8vo, pp. 281. Macmillan Co. 
$2.25 net. 

New Hampshire as a Royal Province. By William Henry 
Fry, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 525. " Studies in History, Economics, 
and Public Law" edited by the faculty of Political Science 
of Columbia University. Longmans, Green, & Co. $3. net, 

History of Contemporary Civilization. By Charles Seig- 
nobos; translation edited by James Alton James, Ph.D. 
12mo, pp. 464. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25 net. 

The Faith Healer ; A Play in Four Acts. By WUliam Vaughn 

Moody. 12mo, pp. 160. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1. net. 
Joseph and His Brethren : A Dramatic Poem. By Charles 

Wells ; with Introduction by Algernon Charles Swinburne 

and note on Rossetti and Wells by Theodore Watts-Dunton. 

18mo, pp.230. "World's Classics." London : Henry Frowde 
Our Benny. By Mary E. Waller. 12mo,pp. 102. Little, Brown! 

& Co. $1. net. 
Day Dreams of Greece. By Charles Wharton Stark. 16mo, 

pp. 61. J. B. Lippincott Co. 75 cts. net. 

Maurice Guest. By Henry Handel Richardson. l2mo, pp. 562. 
Duffield&Co. $1.50. 

One Immortality. By H.Fielding Hall. 12mo,pp.263. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.50. 

Comrades : A Story of Social Adventure in California. By 
Thomas Dixon, Jr. Illus. in color, 12mo, pp. 320. Doubleday 
Page & Co. $1.50. 

The SpeU. By WUliam Dana Orcutt. Illus. in tint. 12mo 
pp. 362. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 

The Explorer. By W. Somerset Maugham. With frontispiece 
in color, 12mo, pp. 297. Baker & Taylor Co. $1.50. 

The cumber. By E. F. Benson. With frontispiece in color 
12mo, pp. 346. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.40 net. 

The Bridge Builders. By Anna Chapin Ray. 12mo, pp. 407. 
Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 

By the Shores of Arcady. By Isabel Graham Eaton. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 325. Outing Publishing Co. $1.25. 

But Still a Man. By Margaret L. Knapp. 12mo, pp. 376. 
Little, Brown, & Co. $1.60. 

The Magician. By W. Somerset Maugham. 12mo, pp. 310. 
Duffield&Co. $1.60. 

The Other Man's Wife. By Frank Richardson. With frontis- 
piece in color. l2mo, pp. 392. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.50. 

Priests of Progress : An Arraignment of Vivisection. By G. 

Colmore. 12mo, pp. 384. B. W. Dodge & Co. $1.50. 
The Silver Oleek. By John Campbell Haywood. Illus.. 12mo. 

pp.236. Mitchell Kennerley. $1. 
Lincoln's Love Story. By Eleanor Atkinson. Illus., 12mo. 

pp. 60. Doubleday, Page & Co. 50 cts. net. 
Lincoln and the Sleeping Sentinel : A True Story. By 

L. E. Chittenden. With portraits, 16mo, pp. 54. Harper & 

Brothers. 50 cts. net. 


With Rifle in Five Continents. By Paul Niedieck. Illus., 
8vo, pp. 426. Charles Scribner's Sons. $6. net. 

France of the French. By Edward Harrison Baker. Illus., 
12rao, pp. 271. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 

Greece : A Handbook for Travellers. By Karl Baedeker. 
Fourth revised edition ; with maps and plans, 16mo. pp. 447. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.40 net. 

Italy from the Alps to Naples : A Handbook for Travellers. 
By Karl Baedeker. Second edition ; with maps, plans, and 
sketches, 16mo, pp. 398. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.40 net. 

The Acropolis of Athens. By Martin L. D'Ooge. Illus., 

8vo, pp. 405. Macmillan Co. $4. net. 
A History of Painting in Italy from the Second to the Six- 
teenth Century. By J. A. Crome and G. B. Cavalcaselle. 

Vol. III., The Sienese. Umbrian. and North Italian Schools. 

Illus. in photogravere, etc., 8vo, pp. 300. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $6. net. 
The Plate Collector's Guide. Arranged from Cripps's " Old 

English Plate." By Percy Macquoid. Illus., 8vo, pp. 199. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.25 net. 
The Abbeys of Great Britain. By H. Claiborne Dixon. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 204. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 
The History of Engraving from Its Inception to the Time of 

Thomas Bewick. By Stanley Austin. Illus., 12mo, pp. 200. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 


Artificial Waterways and Commercial Development 
(with a History of the Erie Canal). By A. Barton Hepburn. 
12mo, pp. 111. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

The Banking and Currency Problem In the United 
States. By Victor Morawetz. 12mo, pp. 119. North Amer- 
ican Review Publishing Co. $1. net. 

The Faith of a Modem Protestant. By Wilhelm Bousset; 

trans, by F. B. Low. 12mo, pp. 119. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

75 cts. net. 
Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology. By S. Schechter, M. A. 

12mo, pp. 384. Macmillan Co. $2.26 net. 
The Wisdom of Solomon. In the Revised Version, with 

Introduction and notes by J. A. F. Gregg, M. A . 16mo, pp. 192. 

"Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges." G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. 90 cts. net. 
The Sunday School Teacher's Manual. Edited by William 

M. Groton. 8.T.D., and others. 12mo. pp. 391. George W. 

Jacobs & Co. $1. net. 
Sane Evangelism. By W. WIstar Hamilton. D.D. l2mo. 

pp. 216. Griffith & Rowland Press. 76 cts. net. 
Abraham Lincoln's Religion. By Madison C. Peters. 12mo. 

pp. 70. Gorham Press. 75 cts. 
Mioah. By Max L. Margolis, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 104. Philadel- 
phia : Jewish Publication Society of America. 

The Life of the Spirit : An Introduction to Philosophy. By 

Rudolph Eucken ; trans, by F. L. Pogson. 12mo, pp. 403. 

"Crown Theological Library." G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1.50 net. 
The Philosophy of Self-Help. By Stanton Davis Kirkham. 

12mo. pp. 272. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.26 net. 

Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by James Hastings, D.D., 

with the assistance of John A. Selbie, D.D., John C. Lambert, 

D.D., and Shailer Mathews, D.D. Large 8vo, pp. 992. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $6. net. 
A Standard Bible Dictionary. Edited by Melancthon W. 

Jacobus, D.D., Edward E. Nourse, D.D., and Andrew C. 

Zenos, D.D., in association with American, British, and 

German scholars. With maps and illustrations, large 8vo, 

pp. 920. Funk & Wagnalls Co. $6. net. 



[Feb. 16, 

Hazell's Annual for 1909: A Cyclopaedic Record of Men 

and Affairs lor Use in 1909. Revised to November 30, 1908 ; 

editedbyW. Palmer, B.A. 12mo, pp. 624. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $1.50 net. 
United States KEagrnetic Tables and Hagrnetic Charts 

for 1905. By G. A. Bauer. 4to, pp. 154. Washington: 

Government Printing Office. 

The Bishop and the Boogrerman. By Joel Chandler Harris ; 

illus. by Charlotte Harding. 12mo, pp. 184. Doubleday, 

Page & Co. $1. net. 
The Life of Abraham Lincoln for Boys and Girls. By Charles 

W. Moores. Illus., 12mo, pp. 132. Houghton Mifflin Co. 

60 cts. net. 


The Rhetoric of Oratory. By Edwin Du Bois Shurter. 12mo. 
pp. 305. Macmillan Co. $1.10 net. 

Applied Mechanics for Engrineers : A Text-Book for Engi- 
neering Students. By E. L. Hancock. 12mo, pp. 386. Mac- 
millan Co. $2. net. 

Chimes of Childhood : Singable Songs for Singing Children. 
Words by Annie Willis McCullough ; music by Ida Maude 
Titus. 8vo, pp. 48. Oliver Ditson Co. |1. 

Choruses and Fart Songs for High Schools. By Edward 
Bailey Birge. 4to, pp. 183. American Book Co. 85 cts. 

Lectures et Conversations. Par Dubois et De Geer. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 151. New York : William R. Jenkins Co. 76 cts. net. 

Control of Body and Hind. By Frances Gulick Jewett. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 267. Ginn & Co. 50 cts. net. 

Songs Every One Should Know ; Two Hundred Favorite 
Songs for School and Home. Edited by Clifton Johnson. 
8vo, pp. 208. American Book Co. 50 cts. net. 

y van Gall : Le Pupille de la Marine. Par Gabriel Compayr^ ; 
edited by O. B. Super. 16mo, pp. 201. Henry Holt &, Co. 
36 eta. net. 

Der Bibliothehar. By Gustav von Moser. Edited by Hollon 
A. Farr, Ph.D. 16mo, pp. 176. Henry Holt & Co. 40 cts. 

Ultimo. By Gustav von Moser. Edited by Charles Langley 
Crow. M.A. 16mo, pp. 213, Henry Holt & Co. 35 cts. 

Lotti, Die Uhrmaoherin. By Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach. 
Edited by George Henry Weedier. 12mo, pp. 162. Henry 
Holt & Co. 35 cts. 

The Vision of Sir Launf al. By James Russell Lowell ; edited 
by Julian W. Abernethy. With portrait, 16mo, pp. 172, 
New York ; Charles E. Merrill Co. 25 cts. 

French Word-Lists. By B. Frank Carter. 12mo, pp. 74. 
Henry Holt & Co. 25 cts. net. 

Select English Classics. Edited by A. T. Quiller-Couch. 
Comprising: Thomas Hood, Wordsworth, Robin Hood, 
Milton, Boswell's Johnson, Lamb, Walpole's Letters, Napier, 
Goldsmith, Robert Browning, Defoe, Tennyson, Matthew 
Arnold, Early Lyrics, Blake, Bunyan, Crabbe, Shakespeare's 
Songs and Sonnets, Izaak Walton, Marvell, Shelley, Hazlitt 
Everyman, Coleridge, Marlowe, Cowper, Keats. 16mo. Oxford 
University Press. Each, paper, 10 cts. 


Beverages, Past and Present : An Historical Sketch of Their 
Production, Together with a Study of the Customs Con- 
nected with Their Use, By Edward R. Emerson. In 2 vols., 
8vo, pp. 1077. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $6. net. 

Aerial Warfare. By R. P. Hearne, with Introduction by Sir 
Hiram Maxim. Illus., 8vo, pp.237. John Lane Co. $2.50 net. 

Gardens Fast and Present. By K. L. Davidson. Illus. in 
color, etc., 12mo, pp. 232. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 

Utopian Papers: Being Addresses to "The Utopians." By 
Professor Patrick Geddes, S. H. Swinny, Dr. J. W. Slaughter, 
V. V. Branford, Dr. Lionel Tayler, Sister Nivedita, F. W. 
Felkin, and Rev. Joseph Wood ; edited by Dorothea Hollins. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 208. London : Masters & Co. 

The Book of the Divine Consolation of the Blessed 
Angela of Foligno. Trans, from the Italian by Mary G. 
Steegmann, with Introduction by Algar Thorold. Illus. in 
photogravure, etc., 16mo, pp. 265. " New Mediaeval Library." 
Duffield&Co. $2. net. 

The Two Travelers : A Book of Fables. By Carlota Monte- 
negro. 12mo, pp. 124. Poet Lore Co. $1.25. 

When the Wildwood Was in Flower. By G. Smith Stanton. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 130. New York : J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co. 



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Editor "Poems of the Civil War," 
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"GOLDEN POEMS" contains more of everyone's 
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lar price, and has besides the very best of the 
many fine poems that have been written in 
the last few years. 

Other collections may contain more poems of owe 
kind or more by one author. 

"GOLDEN POEMS" (by British and American 
Authors) has 550 selections from 300 writers, 
covering the whole range of English literature. 

"Golden Poems' 

"GOLDEN POEMS " is a fireside volume for the 
thousands of families who love poetry. It is 
meant for those who cannot afford all the col- 
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124 THE DIAL. [Feb. 16, 1909. 

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No. 545. 

MARCH 1, 1909. 

Vol. XLVI. 





Moore 129 


The readable quality of book lovers' books. — An 
English conception of American culture. — The 
linguistic conquests of English. — The fisherman's 
solace at sea. — Organization for the spread of 
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St. Louis during the Civil War. Galusha Anderson. 


LAST CENTURY. Percy F. Bicknell . . .134 


Isaac R. Pennypacker 135 


Wil/ord Garner 138 


TRADER. Lawrence J. Burpee 139 

A POET'S STUDY OF A POET. W. E. Simonds . 141 


A sane manual of hygiene. — Counsels on peace 
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New England leaders in thought and action. — 
Annals of a famous theatre. 


NOTES 145 




We may sometimes get the best instruction 
in our own concerns by going far afield, and 
there is a lesson even for American schools in 
the candid revelations of the writer who, in 
the last " Contemporary Review," describes the 
results of his efforts to teach English literature 
to East Indian students. The Indian Educa- 
tional Service prescribes (how dear is prescrip- 
tion to the managerial heart!) certain English 
classics for use in the instruction of ingenuous 
Mussulman and Hindu youth. " Paradise Lost," 
the odes of Keats and Shelley, " The Vanity of 
Himian Wishes," Macaulay's essay on Warren 
Hastings, and the " Breakfast Table " books of 
Dr. Holmes, are examples of the strangely- 
assorted provender thus provided. The sort of 
mental indigestion caused by this pabulum is 
amusingly illustrated by our writer, who entered 
upon his task with much enthusiasm, determined 
"to demolish what is artificial and affected in 
literature, and reverently to discover and enshrine 
what is spontaneous and true." But East is 
East and West is West, as has been remarked 
before, and our ambitious teacher was not long 
in rediscovering the fact for himself. 

He had been at his post only a few days when 
one of his students made an unconsciously happy 
emendation of Milton : 

" Hail, horrors! hail 
Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell 
Receive thy new Professor." 

A few days later, the " new professor" received 
some insight into the nature of his task when at 
work with a class upon " The Vanity of Human 
Wishes." In a misguided moment he ventured 
a quotation from " Adonais " for the purpose of 
effective contrast : 

" He has outsoared the shadow of our night ; 
Envy and calumny and hate and pain. 
And that unrest which men miscall delight. 
Shall touch him not, and torture not again." 

Then he questioned the class concerning the dif- 
ference in style and treatment. " What would 
you say was the characteristic of this kind of 
poetry ? " " Bombasticity," said one ; " humor," 
said another. " Good heavens ! Where?" Was 
the amazed query of the teacher. " In ' that 
unrest which men miscall delight.' The humor 
depends on incongruity." Whereupon the 



[March 1, 

teacher wrote to the authorities, asking them 
to spare Shelley and Keats. " Let us be sacri- 
ficers, but not butchers." This appeal resulted 
in a prescription of more Keats (on the theory, 
evidently, that the boys must be made to under- 
stand it) including the two great odes. Here 
is a specimen result : 

" Away ! away ! for I will fly to thee 

Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards, 
But on the viewless wings of Poesy," — 

suffered paraphrase as follows : 

" Fly away and I will dog thy steps, but I will not 
come to thee by taking seat in the carriage of God of 
Wine and Leopard. I will accompany you in flying by 
reciting and writing poems." 

All this seems painfully familiar to us, not 
merely as an illustration of baboo English, which 
has amused us many a time and oft, but chiefly 
as a far-off reflection of the experience of all 
teachers here in our own native land. It is the 
same sort of thing as the classical example 
recorded by Matthew Arnold when he told us 
of the English child who gave " Can you not 
wait upon the lunatic ? " as embodying his notion 
of what Shakespeare meant by the question, 
" Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased ? " 
And the explanation, whether offered for India, 
or England, or America, is the same simple one. 
If a child be confronted with literature that is 
absolutely beyond his powers of comprehension, 
and asked to express his opinion, he will make 
just such a mess of his ideas. Yet we persevere 
in our fatuous attempt to make school children 
appreciate the things which we think they ought 
to appreciate, and then hold up our hands in 
horror at the natural consequences. It is a 
hypocritical horror, for we get just what we have 
every reason to expect, and we shall continue to 
get it until we learn the simple lesson that liter- 
ature is not to be taught as we teach algebra, 
and physics, and syntax, and geography ; is not, 
in fact, to be " taught " at all in the accepted 
sense of the word, but rather " imparted " or 
" inculcated " by the contagion of a child's sym- 
pathy, and the free response of his nature to a 
guidance so gentle that he does not feel it to be 
either coercion or restraint. 

The "English" course (we had almost writ- 
ten " curse ") which has come during the past 
quarter-century to have so tenacious a grip upon 
our school machinery demonstrates its own 
ineffectiveness year after year, but its talons are 
not relaxed. Let us rather have more and more 
of it is the cry, and perhaps we shall begin to 
get results worth mentioning. It is as if physi- 
cians should urge that, since average children 

are predisposed to certain ailments at certain 
ages, they should all be dosed alike with certain 
standard drugs, and then, finding the degree of 
ailment not perceptibly diminished, that physi- 
cians should recommend a doubling of the bolus 
or a stiffening of the black draught. Of course, 
no physician of the body could be guilty of this 
absurdity of treating his patients en bloc, but 
our physicians of the developing soul are practis- 
ing this method all the time. It is a matter in 
which individual idiosyncrasy counts for every- 
thing, and yet the individual is almost wholly 
ignored. The humane and intelligent teacher 
can do something to mitigate the evils of a pre- 
scribed literary discipline, but the system rests 
upon him like a dead weight, and the best that 
he is able to accomplish seems trifling in com- 
parison with what he knows that he might accom- 
plish were he given a free hand. 

The two ideals are as unlike as night and day. 
The irrational ideal gives the teacher a class and 
a list of texts and bids him administer the one 
to the other. The rational ideal gives the teacher 
a roving commission to explore the minds of his 
individual students, to use his own means of 
lighting up the dark places, and to experiment, 
by selecting from the whole range of literature, 
until he discovers what will prove most richly 
nutritive in each given instance. Reverting to 
our earlier metaphor, he has the whole pharma- 
copseia at his disposal, instead of being restricted 
to the use of a few standardized preparations, 
and he may engage freely in diagnosis, because 
he knows himself free to provide the proper 
treatment for each individual case. 

We do not hesitate to say that a very large 
part of the instruction in English now given in 
our schools is sheer waste of time and energy. 
It fails to create an intelligent comprehension 
of literary art or a feeling for its beauty and 
emotional significance. The facts of literature 
— its history and its mechanics — may be drilled 
into the mind by ordinary methods of teaching, 
but the spirit that gives them life is to be trans- 
mitted only by some subtler process, not capable 
of formvdation by any sort of pedagogy. As 
long as the teaching of literature is carried on 
in accordance with the rules of the system, by 
means of imposed texts and class-exercises and 
periodical examinations, it is certain to fail of 
its real purpose. Better no instruction at aU 
than instruction of the systematic kind which 
may accomplish admirable results in science, 
but which is worse than useless in aesthetics and 
ethics. If it be urged that the sort of literary 
guidance which we assert to be alone effective 




cannot be fitted into our programmes, or made 
to square with our administrative rules, we can 
only say that both programmes and rules must 
be disregarded if we wish to keep literature in 
our education at all as a vital subject. A great 
deal of pedagogical inertia will have to be over- 
come before this principle shall win practical 
acceptance, but the goal is worth striving for, 
and its ultimate attainment is beyond question. 


I am far from believing that literature is only a 
criticism of life. Creation and criticism are as 
much opposed as synthesis and analysis — the put- 
ting together and the taking apart. Indeed, they 
are further removed ; for the putting together im- 
plies a conscious act, whereas the greatest effects in 
literature are given to the artist. After his work 
in assembling his materials and placing them in a 
mould is done, it requires the fusing fire of inspira- 
tion to weld them together and make them into a 
new whole. 

But it is doubtful whether anything is given to 
the artist who does not strive — whether the light- 
ning flash will descend upon any altar which is not 
heaped with combustibles. Observation, study, con- 
scious judgments, the acceptance or rejection of this 
or that quality or material, all these operations are 
necessary to the construction of a work of art, and 
they are all critical operations. It follows that a 
good literary artist must be a good critic. 

The part which the naive, the unconscious, the 
untrained faculties of man play in the production of 
literature was over-insisted upon in the criticism of 
the last century. It was held then that literature 
was the spontaneous speech of man ; that the folk- 
lores, mythologies, ballad poetry, and early epics were 
the work of natural geniuses. The great existing 
epics of the world were divided into two classes, the 
naive and the artificial. As far as they are con- 
cerned, this position is abandoned to-day. It is 
seen that as much thought and conscious art must 
have gone to the making of the "Iliad" as of 
" Paradise Lost." But still, as regards the slighter 
form of literature, the old idea of spontaneous crea- 
tion lingers. " These books were not made by fools, 
or for the use of fools," said Thomas Moore of the 
early Irish legends and poems. The beginnings of 
most literatures are lost in mist, so that we cannot 
tell how they arose or what manner of men pro- 
duced them. But the Irish and Welsh bardic sys- 
tems are revealed to us in something more than 
glimpses, and we can see that they were keenly 
critical and entirely conscious attempts to produce 
literature. Nothing in our modern world is like 
the consecration, the training, the control which these 
systems suggest — unless it may be De Maupassant's 
apprenticeship to Flaubert. The Celtic bards be- 

lieved that inspiration was a result, not a cause ; 
and their works prove that they were largely right. 
From the example of their schools it may fairly be 
argued that something of the same sort existed in 
the early life of most nations. For it is another 
mistake to suppose that the first poets of any race 
are the best. On the contrary, it takes a long time 
for the language, the ideals, the very life of a people, 
to be got into shape fit for literature. 

Leaving races and coming down to individuals, 
there are two main ways in which a writer begins 
artistic creation. One is the way of imitation : 
something in the literature of the past pleases him, 
stimulates him, and he tries to copy it. The other 
is the way of revolt : the work that is being done 
around him disgusts him, — he says, "That is not 
true, that is not life or beauty as I see them," and 
he strikes out a method of his own. The imitative 
incentive accounts for the long reigns of certain 
types or forms or styles in literature. The rebellious 
motive explains the sudden changes, reversions, or 
originations which every now and then sweep over 
literature. Some writer or group of writers revolts 
against the rule that seemed good to their fathers, 
and, drawing a third part of the kingdom of litera- 
ture after them, set up a new government, which in 
turn becomes conventional or despotic. It is obvious 
that the literature of appreciation and the literature 
of rebellion alike have their beginning in a critical 

The reason that the critical movements in the 
past — the ebb and flow of opinion — are not so 
apparent as they are in modern times, is that there 
was then little market for criticism as such. Authors 
published their main works, but all their preparatory 
studies and sketches were destroyed. Their private 
opinions about life and art, their shop-talk among 
themselves, their letters, were all criticism, and all 
aided in making their works what they are ; but 
whereas now all this is largely caught and preserved 
and published, in olden times it only lived as the 
rain and sunlight of the past live in the corn and 
wine they mature. Imagine a Boswell or an Ecker- 
mann for Shakespeare ! Two-thirds of modern 
criticism would have been superfluous. 

Shakespeare began with the imitative mood, — 
if, as I believe is probable, " Titus Andronicus " and 
"The Two Gentlemen of Verona" are his earliest 
works ; but in " Love's Labour Lost " he sets up the 
banner of critical revolt. Throughout this piece he 
is making fun of the existing styles in dramatic poe- 
try ; and Marlowe, Greene, Lyly, the objects of his 
previous admiration, come in for unsparing satire. 
After this he became so various and universal in the 
excellencies he aimed at and reached, that it is diffi- 
cult to follow the critical trend of his mind — to 
decide whether he is idealist or realist, conscious 
stylist or naive producer of poetry. 

Ben Jonson was a determined critic, and his plays 
are built up with rigid regard to rule and authority ; 
but criticism as a trade was hardly born in English 
literature until Dryden's time. His prefaces, which 



[March 1, 

Swift declared were " writ to fill in, and raise the 
volume's price a shilling," are admirable in the 
quality they profess, and they show that he " learned 
by teaching." 

The eighteenth century in England has been called 
a critical age; but I think it is just the reverse. 
Dominated by two great writers, Dryden and Pope, 
yet not quite satisfied with them, it was afraid to 
trust itself to new or original forms of thought in 
literature, and it vacillated between servile copying 
of its master's work and feeble attempts at some- 
thing different. It was a choppy sea with no g^eat 
ground-swell on. Not until the Romantic revival 
came in sight, with its forerunners in Collins, Gray, 
Chatterton, and Blake, and its culminating kings, 
in Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Byron, was there a 
real critical movement. 

There can be no question that this movement was 
a conscious one. Wordsworth and Coleridge did 
not do their work out of impulse and feeling ; they 
were intellectually alive to the change they desired to 
bring about : Wordsworth's first poems are Popeian 
in form, and Coleridge's early pieces are mainly 
mild imitations of Gray and Collins. But they 
came together, and the flint and steel were struck to 
light a blaze of revolution. As is the case of most 
reformers, they were partly uncertain in their 
principles and partly demonstrably wrong. Late in 
life, Wordsworth declared that he never thought 
very much of his famous preface to the " Lyrical 
Ballads," and that he wrote only it to please Cole- 
ridge ; but at the time it was doubtless real and 
earnest enough to him. 

It is not worth while to go through the histories 
of the other great movements in modern literature — 
the German revolt against French models captained 
by Lessing and Herder and Goethe, the revolt of the 
French themselves under Hugo and Dumas against 
their own classical literature, the advent of the real- 
ists, and so on. My point simply is that creation in 
the main is born of criticism — that artists generally 
know what they are doing, be their deeds ever so 
mistaken ; and also that practically all writers, even 
though not swept away in any great movement, 
begin and continue their work in a critical attitude ; 
that each one has his compass and chronometer, and 
takes his bearings from day to day instead of drift- 
ing idly about on the ocean of art. 

It is an old jest that the critic is the man who 
has failed in creation. Well, then, three-fourths of 
our greatest moderns must have failed, for at least 
that proportion have left vast outpourings of criti- 
cism, either in the form of recorded conversations, 
letters, or formal treatises. Lessing is equally great 
in critical and creative work, and one might almost 
dare to say the same of Goethe. Wagner's critical 
works are a huge reservoir of good, bad, and in- 
different opinions. Hugo's deliverances are com- 
paratively few in number, but they make up in 
intensity what they lack in extent. Coleridge and 
Arnold, the two greatest English critics, are unset- 
ting stars in our poetic field. The letters of Byron 

and Keats are full of glittering nuggets of criticism, 
and there are a good many in those of Tennyson. 
In America, Emerson, Lowell, Poe, and a score of 
others are Janus-faced and have their outlook equally 
on the peace of poetry and the war of criticism. 
Among the best of modern men I can recall only 
one, Dickens, who seems to have written no criti- 
cism ; and only one absolutely great critic, Hazlitt, 
who did nothing that can be called creative work. 

Criticism would therefore seem to be almost a 
necessity to the creative artist. The Greeks sur- 
rounded their pregnant women with beautiful statues 
and pictures ; and the preoccupation with the divine, 
noble, or terrible forms and thoughts of past litera- 
ture should and undoubtedly does aid in the shaping 
of new works. But when all that criticism can do 
for an artist is wrought, there yet remains something 
that he nmst hope and pray for — the daemoniac, the 
inspirational element in art, from which comes its 
intoxicating, its enchanting spell. By this the man 
is lifted to converse with the gods, and he comes 
back with his face aglow and their language upon 
his lips. No amount of critical study or preparation 
can guarantee to him this translation of soul. But 
he can keep himself ready for it, and that is the 
chief object of criticism. 

Charles Leonard Moore. 


The readable quality of book-lovers' books, 
of publications issued by or for associations of biblio- 
philes, is sometimes conspicuously absent. In a 
recent address on " The Functions of the Book 
Club," delivered before the Rowfant Club of Cleve- 
land, Mr. Henry H. Harper, treasurer of the 
Bibliophile Society of Boston, caused his hearers to 
sit up and pay attention by asking the startling but 
pertinent question : " Why do book clubs insist on 
bringing forth books that are the least readable ? " 
Most book-lovers, as he remarked, are collectors to 
a greater or less degree ; but many collectors who 
hoard books in considerable numbers are not book- 
lovers in the true sense. In considering the issue, 
by book clubs, of a particular sort of unfascinating 
literature, he said : " For my part, however, the 
bibliographies will be reserved till the last [in read- 
ing my own collection of books], with the fond hope 
that I shall never reach them." This by way of 
introduction, on our part, to a brief mention of the 
second volume of the " Proceedings and Papers " of 
the Bibliographical Society of America, beautifully 
printed on soft creamy papei*, wide-margined and 
rough-edged, bound in flexible boards with paper 
label — could any exterior and material qualities be 
more irresistibly attractive to bibliophiles and biblio- 
maniacs ? But is there a single one of the tribe who 
would not consider it a hardship to be forced to read 
the volume? Someone may answer that it is not 
meant to be read — only consulted. True enough. 




and well that it is so. The curious consultant will 
find, among other out-of-the-way hits of information, 
the intelligence that if he is interested in the study 
of heredity in pigeons the Concilium Bibliograph- 
icum can furnish him with a list of all extant works 
on the subject. On the whole, these Proceedings 
and Papers are wonderfully scholarly, and are 
packed with information which it would be difficult, 
if not impossible, to find elsewhere. 
• • • 

An English conception of American culture, 
not much nearer the truth than many another trans- 
atlantic notion concerning things on this side the 
water, arrests the eye in the dignified pages of that 
old and authoritative literary review, " The Athe- 
naeum." Our great reading public, it seems, is 
nearly a century behind that of England in its tastes, 
but is making strenuous endeavors to catch up. 
" Naturally," says our critic, speaking of these 
readers, "they have as yet little delicacy or depth 
of taste : they are out in search of general informa- 
tion, and what they really appreciate in literature 
is its instructive qualities. A literary critic who 
intends to inform the minds of a public of this order 
must naturally refrain from writing for amateurs of 
the finer delicacies of literature, in the manner of 
Hazlitt, Lamb, Arnold, or Pater." And who is the 
literary critic that is conceived of as refraining from 
the finer delicacies in order to suit the vulgar taste ? 
It is none other than the author of the " Shelburne 
Essays " and the literary editor of " The Nation," — 
Mr. Paul Elmer More ! Mr. More, it is true, has 
some of the good old-fashioned tastes and something 
of the weighty and erudite manner of the early Edin- 
burgh reviewers, as his English critic affirms, in a 
two-column notice of the Shelburne volumes. But 
there are worse crimes than industry and learning in 
literary criticism, and one of them is harshness and 
lack of sympathy. The article (the " hurticle " one 
might well call it, borrowing Thackeray's term) 
winds up with a good sharp sting in its tail : " They 
[those for whom Mr. More is supposed to write] are 
ineffectual dilettanti in the making, and Mr. More, 
instead of purifying, enlarging, and training their 
taste, reflects it." If there are certain traits of 
readers that date back to " 1820 or thereabouts," 
there is also a certain manner of book-reviewing that 
can claim a like antiquity. 

• • • 

The linguistic conquests of English, as a 
medium of communication, are great and ever- 
increasing. Dr. Alexander Wilder, writing in advo- 
cacy (whether well or ill advised) of simplified 
spelling, notes the spread of our language all over 
the globe as an unprecedented development in the 
history of human speech. "By colonization and 
commercial intercourse," he says, " the English lan- 
guage already holds the lead in the civilized world. 
Great Britain, Canada, the United States, South 
Africa, Australia, and New Zealand are all peopled 
by English-speaking population. It is not necessary 

to enumerate other regions where also it has a firm 
foothold. Enough that where it has penetrated, 
there it has come to stay. It is the language most 
used in commercial transactions, and by the electric 
telegraph. With all its faults thick upon it, these 
agencies are operated to best purpose with its use." 
One cogent reason, ordinarily overlooked, why En- 
glish has become all but a world-language, at the 
expense of French, German, and other candidates 
for this proud preeminence, may be found in the 
British disinclination to chatter in alien tongues. 
The Russian, the Dutchman, the German, and even 
the haughty Spaniard, have a more polyglot pliability 
than the sturdy Briton, who persists in acting on the 
assumption that good Anglo-Saxon, repeated with 
emphasis if necessary, as one reiterates in louder 
tones to a deaf person or an inattentive child, will 
make his meaning clear to any foreigner he may 
encounter in his continental tours. Thus, since John 
Bull will not come to the foreigner in the latter's 
tongue, the foreigner is forced to go to John Bull 
in the language that has now become more or less 
famUiar to so large a fraction of mankind. 

The fisherman's solace at sea, when there is 
" nothing doing " in his field of business, is a good 
story-book ; or, at any rate, thus we are assured by 
Mr. Charles F. Karnopp, who is soon to be stationed 
at St. John's, Newfoundland, in charge of the 
Seamen's Institute which it is proposed to build in 
connection with Dr. Grenf ell's work in Labrador. It 
appears that eighty-five thousand fishermen and 
other toilers of the sea enter the port of St. John's 
every year, and they have a consuming appetite for 
reading matter of a light and entertaining sort, such 
as old magazines with plenty of good stories. Mr. 
Karnopp writes : " Especially during the months of 
September, October and November, hundreds and 
thousands of men are in the harbor where these 
magazines might be distributed with a great deal of 
appreciation on the part of the fishermen ; and again 
during the months of April and May, when they 
prepare for the Labrador fisheries, we could use 
thousands of magazines ; for oftentimes these vessels 
go down the coast with practically no reading matter 
at all." Evidently here is work cut out for the 
marine department of the travelling library indus- 
try ; but individual readers of this appeal will do a 
charitable deed by sending any suitable magazines 
they may be willing to part with to Mr. Karnopp at 
the rooms of the Grenf ell Association, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. . . . 

Organization for the spread of culture is 
often necessary and commendable. Public-school 
education requires machinery and method. No creed, 
however spiritual, secures converts without conde- 
scending somewhat to the necessity of material 
instruments. Public libraries do not grow and 
flourish with the spontaneity of dandelions in spring. 
California, energetic and progressive, even if not 
always most wisely directing her energies, is debat- 



[March 1, 

ing the establishment of county libraries to bring into 
harmonious cooperation all the public libraries of 
each county, while the county libraries themselves 
will look to the State Library as their head, and the 
State Librarian will find himself in a position of 
greatly increased importance and dignity and useful- 
ness in the general administration and supervision 
of the library interests of the entire commonwealth. 
By such completeness of organization, with the hoped- 
for aid of a special parcels post for rural book- 
delivery, it is expected that public-library privileges, 
in some form or other, will be extended to the remot- 
est dweller on ranch or fruit-farm. The beauty of 
this scheme is very appealing. Other States — 
Maryland, Ohio, Oregon — have already accom- 
plished something in the way of county action of 
this sort ; but nowhere has so elaborate a plan been 
so seriously and hopefully discussed as in California. 
Legislative action of an enlightened kind is now 
awaited. Of cotirse there are manifest dangers in 
any such centralized system of library control as that 
proposed ; but with a state librarian of talent, if not 
genius, for the task before him, what beneficial results 
may we not expect to witness ? 
• • • 

The born story-teller (for such there are, as 
well as born poets) will smile at the notion of teach- 
ing the art of writing novels. In a late number of 
" The University Monthly," of Toronto University, 
Mr. Anthony Hope Hawkins discusses the question, 
partly in reply to a newspaper assertion that " there 
are in more than one of the universities of the United 
States classes for the teaching of writing novels and 
stories." He does not call to mind any colleges or 
other schools of higher education, except the omnis- 
cient and (if we may coin the word) omni-didactic 
correspondence schools, that offer novel-writing as 
a part of the curriculum. Some of our larger uni- 
versities do, indeed, give courses in the systematic 
study of fiction as a department of literature, and 
thus may effect something toward strengthening in 
a few of their students a previously existing bent 
toward novel-writing ; but to attempt to teach 
romance would be much like trying to teach the 
wind which way to blow. Mr. Hawkins well says 
that " the idea of novel writing being turned into a 
recognized occupation or profession, such as law or 
engineering, is, to speak frankly, almost appalling "; 
and that " he would be a cruel parent who deliber- 
ately destined a plodding youth to live by the exer- 
cise of a recalcitrant imagination, and his cruelty 
would not be confined to his offspring; it might 
reach the public." ... 


benefactor. How far the public library should spend 
its energies in the purveying of useful knowledge, 
in the form of lecture courses, special exhibitions, 
special bulletins, and so on, is more or less vehe- 
mently debated by tax-payers and others. Yet there 
are far worse uses to which municipal funds have 

been known to be put than the slaking of the thirst 
for knowledge. The Springfield (Mass.) City Li- 
brary is publishing a series of instructive notes on 
local trees that will greatly aid readers in the per- 
plexing task of naming correctly the many kinds of 
trees met with in their walks — more perplexing in 
this leafless season of the year than at other times. 
" Descriptions of, or specimens from, such trees," 
we read in the current '' Bulletin " of the library, 
" were so frequently brought to the museum [which 
is closely allied with the library] by persons wishing 
to know more about them, and so much interest was 
shown, that, in the Bulletin for December, 1906, was 
begfun a series of brief notes descriptive of some of 
the more noticeable species." Only one subsequent 
issue has failed to contain these notes, and back 
numbers are furnished on request, as far as the 
supply permits. The February issue devotes nearly 
three pages to five varieties of the birch. It also 
gives a list of thirty-two winter birds that are now 
" exhibited by themselves " in and about the city. 
• • • 

The pride of bureaucracy, or a consuming 
fondness for red tape, appears to have taken posses- 
sion of the British Museum authorities. The reading- 
room, as many of us have learned with interest from 
recent London despatches and letters, has undergone 
thorough repairs and refurbishings ; and now, it 
seems, the readers are to be no less thoroughly over- 
hauled. A late number of " The Athenaeum " con- 
tains an indignant letter from an " editor and author " 
who for thirty years has enjoyed the freedom of the 
reading-room, and is now, for the first time in almost 
a generation, unceremoniously halted at the door and 
asked to produce the ticket which he obtained so long 
ago that it is now quite worn to nothingness and thin 
air. Of course he is as well known to all the attend- 
ants as they are to one another ; but nevertheless 
he must show his passport. He has written to the 
superintendent, sarcastically recommending that if 
tickets are to be shown at the door during the holder's 
lifetime, they be made mre perenniiis — though he 
did not express himself in these Horatian terms. To 
this the high official has coldly and briefly replied 
that if his correspondent wishes to obtain a new card 
of admission he must apply in person and bring with 
him the letter communicating this ultimatum. They 
do these things differently, if not in France, at any 
rate in America. ... 

The parcels post and the public library 
will before long, it is to be hoped, join hands in 
promoting the cause of good literature. At several 
meetings of the Country Life Commission, appointed 
by President Roosevelt to make a study of rural 
conditions and devise means of improving them, the 
subject of a parcels post for rural deUvery routes 
has been considered. The League of Library Com- 
missions, representing a number of States, has 
appointed a committee to urge the matter ; and this 
committee, besides taking other action to hasten 




the desired end, has petitioned the Country Life 
Commission to include in its report a recommenda- 
tion of the proposed postal service for the following 
reasons : " Under existing conditions a wide dis- 
tribution of books for home study in rural commu- 
nities is made prohibitive through the existing high 
rates of postage, many borrowers, who would pur- 
sue courses of study, being unable to do so through 
postal exactions. Through the establishment of a 
parcels post the educational value of public libraries 
and travelling libraries will be greatly increased, as 
it will enable librarians to send individual volumes 
to patrons on rural routes at less than half the present 
cost, thus encouraging home study." The Commis- 
sion is favorably inclined, and all persons interested 
in the proposed measure are asked to use their influ- 
ence toward its adoption. 

■ • • 


nearly as rare, but perhaps not quite so happy, as a 
nation without a history. Japan appears to have 
reached her present advanced stage of civilization 
unaided by any such compendium of all knowledge. 
But the lack is now to be supplied — in fact, has 
already been in part supplied by the recent publi- 
cation of the first volume of '' The Japanese Ency- 
clopaedia," with the imprint of the prominent 
publishing-house of the Sansei-do. A garden party 
of sixteen hundred guests at Count Okuma's Waseda 
villa celebrated the event, and listened to a gratu- 
latory address from the host. Dr. Inouye Tetsujiro, 
one of the compilers, told how the great work had 
been in preparation for nine years, at the hands of 
two hundred and thirty-nine scholars, and that it 
would be completed in seven volumes of about one 
thousand pages each, embracing in all more than 
one hundred thousand subjects. This epoch-making 
publication — for such it surely is — ought to take 
rank with the immense Chinese encyclopaedia re- 
ferred to by us not long ago as one of the curiosities 
of the British Museum. 

• • • 
The Newberry Library's new librarian, to 
succeed Mr. John Vance Cheney, whose regretted 
resignation will take effect in a few months, is Mr. 
William N. C. Carlton, at present head of the Trinity 
College library, Hartford, Conn. Mr. Carlton is the 
son of an English army officer who moved to Boston 
in 1882, and he had seen service in the Watkinson 
Library of Reference, at Hartford, before taking up, 
ten years ago, his work at Trinity, where he has 
produced a finely organized and equipped library out 
of a chaos of books. Current report represents him 
as a pleasant person to deal with and a fine conver- 
sationist, and also as having a reading acquaintance 
with divers languages, especially those of Scandi- 
navia, whose literature he has made the object of 
special study. To be called to fill the chair occupied 
first by a Poole, and then by a Cheney, is no mean 
honor ; but Mr. Carlton is believed to have earned 
the promotion. 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

Your reviewer of my recently-published book, " The 
Story of a Border City during the Civil War," declared 
that while I am not bitter, I am so extremely partisan 
that it is doubtful if I even knew that there was 
another side than that of the unionists. 

In writing the book it was my cherished purpose to 
be non-partisan ; to relate fairly and truthfully just what 
took place in St. Louis during the period of the war. 
And no one, not even your reviewer, has shown that I 
have distorted any of the facts of that memorable 
struggle. Most of the reviewers of other journals have 
• represented my book as being quite free from partisan- 
ship. Whether it is or not must be left to the judgment 
of those who may read it. 

But as to my ignorance of the other side, permit me 
to say that I have long been quite familiar with the 
political parties and political opinions of leading men 
both North and South, and with the different construc- 
tions of the Federal Constitution. And if I had not 
been, touching elbows as I did with the secessionists of 
St. Louis during the entire period of the war, and hear- 
ing over and over again their views from their own lips, 
I must have been exceedingly didl if I failed to appre- 
hend their position. I not only knew their side but I 
have truthfully stated it in my book, especially in the 
chapter on " The Boomerang Convention." 

Your reviewer also states that I have represented the 
Southern women as coarse. But I have nowhere said 
that in my hook; that is his generalization, not mine. 
In fact, the women of St. Louis during the war were 
not divided into Northerners and Southerners, but into 
unionists and secessionists. A large number of South- 
em women were among the staunchest unionists. But 
I have not characterized the secession women as coarse. 
Many of them, especially at the beginning of the war, 
were intensely bitter, and at times some of them, not 
all, gave vehement expression to their feelings in words 
and acts that were far from ladylike, not because they 
were essentially coarse, but because they were in the 
excitement of the moment unbalanced, and in a tem- 
porary frenzy. In their calmer moments they must 
have deprecated what they had said and done. 

Tour reviewer also says that I have represented the 
unionists as persecuted by the secessionists. This is 
manifestly a mistake. No such thought ever entered 
my head. To be sure, in 1861, some secessionists shot 
down some unionists in the streets, and threatened the 
lives of others; but we never regarded such conduct, 
however dastardly and condenmable, as persecution. We 
were engaged in a desperate fight, which threatened 
the existence of our republic, and we were not so ignoble 
as to regard any suffering on behalf of our country as 

It seemed to me to be only fair that, in a friendly 
spirit, I should be permitted to take exception to these 
declarations of your reviewer, — declarations so foreign 
to my thought and, in my judgment, so misleading in 
reference to the character and spirit of my book. 

Galusha Anderson. 

WaMngton, D. C, February 30, 1909. 



[March 1, 

C^« S«to §00hs. 

Some Celebrated Characters of 
THE liAST Century.* 

Expectation of good reading in a book of 
reminiscences by the well-knowTi and variedly- 
experienced magazine editor and art and dra- 
matic critic, Mr. J. Comyns Carr, is not 
disappointed. " Some Eminent Victorians," 
written at the close of the author's sixth decade, 
is not only pleasantly and intimately reminiscent 
of many celebrated men of the last century, but 
also receives something of added weight and 
value from the interspersed expressions of a ripe 
judgment on divers questions of art, literature, 
and the drama. A natural attachment to the 
approved standards of an earlier day declares 
itself in these carefully considered opinions. 
Science, Mr. Carr admits, has made unexampled 
progress in the last few decades ; but that art 
in its later developments is necessarily more 
excellent, he denies. He also questions the 
exclusive right of the specialist to pass judgment 
on matters of painting and sculpture, poetry 
and drama and music. Wide-ranging in his 
interests and activities, and catholic in his tastes, 
he has small sympathy with passing fads and 
short-lived enthusiasms. 

His literary favorites are designated in his 
opening chapter, where he tells us that under 
the influence of Dr. Birkbeck Hill, to whom he 
went to school, he acquired an early liking for 
Johnson that has continued unabated through 
life and is only equalled by his fondness for 
Dickens. In terms of what might by the mali- 
cious be construed as a doubtful compliment, 
Mr. Carr writes that Boswell and Dickens are 
among the books kept within reach of his bed, 
and that to no other authors does he so con- 
stantly turn when sleep is not easy to win. Early 
in his course as journalist, he enjoyed the stim- 
ulating companionship of the late J. Churton 
Collins, of whom he says : 

" Our little circle on the staff of the Globe was later 
joined by Churton Collins, now the Professor of English 
Literature at the University at Birmingham, then only 
a boy fresh from Oxford, but a boy whose mind was 
already stored with a knowledge of English literature 
such as I suppose few men of his generation boast. His 
prodigious memory both in prose and poetry I certainly 
have never encountered in another; and through many 
an evening, when he dined quietly with us in our rooms 
in Great Russell Street, did we wonder and delight to 
listen to him as he passed from author to author, not 

• Some Eminent Victorians. Personal Recollections in the 
World of Art and Letters. By J. Comyns Carr. Illustrated. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

always reciting things of his own choice, but responding 
with equal readiness to any call that might be made 
upon him by others." 

Mr. Carr's successive connection with not a 
few of the leading London newspapers and 
reviews, and his editorship of " The English 
Illustrated Magazine " in its first years, made 
him acquainted with the chief writers and artists 
and actors of his time and country. More than 
one amusing anecdote is recorded of the unfail- 
ingly amusing Whistler, whose pride in his own 
unpopularity and whose zestful practice of the 
gentle art of making enemies are truly delightful 
to contemplate. This side of his freakish nature 
is thus touched upon by the observant writer : 

" Combat was the delight of his life, and there was 
no violence of assertion he did not love to employ if he 
thought that by no other means could he encourage an 
opponent into the dangerous arena of controversy. As 
a matter of fact, I do not think he was ever quite happy 
unless one of these pretty little quarrels was on hand, 
and whenever he suspected that any particular dispute 
in which he was engaged showed signs of waning, he 
would, I thmk out of pure devilment, cast about to lay 
the foundations of a new quarrel." 

Traits and anecdotes of Tennyson, to whose 
friendship Mr. Carr was admitted, furnish some 
pages of agreeable reading. A well-known 
characteristic of the poet and a suggestive 
observation thereon are thus recorded : 

" At our last meeting he openly expressed his vexa- 
tion at an mifavorable article that had then recently 
appeared. He questioned me closely as to what I 
thought could have been the motive of the writer, who 
for the rest was not of such a rank that his censure need 
have disturbed the poet's equanimity. * What harm 
have I ever done to him ? ' he exclaimed, in tones that 
seemed to me at the time almost childlike in reproach. 
But it is, as I have come to think, a sure hall-mark of 
genius that its weakness is very often frankly avowed. 
It is a part of that inward candour that makes for 
greatness, the petty price that we have to pay for the 
larger and nobler revelation. Lesser spirits can often 
contrive to hide their littleness, but in the greatest it is 
nearly always carelessly confessed." 

The following comparison is worth quoting, 
partly because it is the fruit of a personal expe- 
rience that, in some diegree at least, many will 
find to be the direct opposite of their own : 

" At the time when I first met Tennyson, I think 
Robert Browning had won my larger admiration. I 
thought him the greater poet of the two — I no longer 
think so now; and the very quaUties which so strongly 
attracted me as a youth have since proved in themselves 
t9 be the source of my altered judgment. It seems like 
a paradox, but I believe it to be none the less true, that 
it is the intellectual quality in verse that first most 
strongly attracts the younger student of poetry. So at 
least it was in my case. The complexity of thought, 
even the obscurity of expression which marks so much 
of Browning's work, had for me then the strongest 
fascination. . . . And although the spell he then exer- 




cised over my imagination still in some degree survives, 
I find myself now asking of poetry less and less for any 
ordered philosophy of life, and more and more for life 
itself. ... In every art the last word is simplicity. 
There is no phase of thought or feeling rightly admis- 
sible into the domain of poetry that the might of genius 
may not force to simple utterance. It is this which 
constitutes the final triumph of all the greatest wizards 
of our tongue, of Shakespeare as of Milton, of Words- 
worth no less than of Keats. All of them found a way 
to wed the subtlest music with the simplest speech, 
striving with ever-increasing severity for that chastened 
perfection of form which stands as the last and the 
surest test of the presence of supreme poetic genius." 

Browning, therefore, he in the end found want- 
ing in "that faultless music which alone can 
give to verse its final right of survival." 

Actors and their idiosyncrasies yield matter 
for many an interesting page in the book. On 
one occasion, when W. E. Henley had delivered 
himself of an adverse criticism on Irving's imper- 
sonation of Macbeth, the actor, after patiently 
biding his time, at last caught his opponent off 
his guard and thus insinuated his rapier in the 
other's vitals : 

" ' I notice,' he said, speaking to Henley in that tone 
of reverie which with him always concealed an immi- 
nent blow, * that you do not approve of my conception 
of Macbeth. Tell me now, for I should be interested to 
hear it, how would you play Macbeth if you were called 
upon to present the character on the stage ? What is 
your conception? ' Henley was hardly prepared for such 
an invitation, and as we sat in expectation of what he 
would have to say, it was easy to perceive that the critic's 
destructive method, which at that time was uppermost 
in him, could not suddenly readjust itself to the task of 
offering any coherent appreciation of the character which 
Irving, according to his allegation, had misinterpreted." 

The author's recollections of artist friends, 
especially of Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Holman 
Hunt, Millais,Leighton, and Frederick Walker, 
are among the pleasantest in the book. The 
history of English painting of that period is not 
wanting in incident, and Mr. Carr, as a promi- 
nent art critic of the time, is well equipped to 
tell the story. Some rare and curious illustra- 
tions are reproduced to heighten the interest — 
among them two comical drawings by Burne- 
Jones, executed in a style to suit the supposed 
taste of the great British public. " But even 
in these essays in the grotesque," comments his 
friend, " and in the lighter and sometimes very 
graceful fancies which he would illustrate so 
easily and so rapidly for our amusement, or for 
the delight of our children, there was always an 
unfailing sense of composition and design." 
There was a certain inevitable beauty in the 
ordered arrangement of line that could not de- 
sert him even when, as he often delighted to do, 
he undertook to caricature his own style. 

Mr. Carr enjoys the advantage of being able 
to write, in a book like this latest of his, from 
what might be called a composite standpoint. 
Art, literature, the stage, and the realities of 
many phases of life itself, contend in him for 
supremacy of interest. In him, too, is to be 
found that union of the journalist and the litte- 
rateur now becoming every day more rare as our 
newspapers confine themselves increasingly to 
the sensational reporting of daily horrors and 
other startling events. His long practice as 
writer for such journals as the Manchester 
" Guardian " and " The Saturday Review," 
"The Art Journal" and "The Portfolio," 
insures the quality of his work in the unfortu- 
nately over-crowded domain of autobiography 
and reminiscence. He writes with manifest 
ease and rapidity, and such flaws as a critic 
might detect in his pages are of a trivial nature. 

The clear type, appropriate illustrations 
throughout, and generally attractive appearance 
of the volume are not to be dismissed without a 
commendatory word. Percy F. Bicknell. 

Americax History in American 


From public and private records, letters, and 
other contemporaneous evidence, the student 
arrives at one conception of history; from the 
writings of the general historians he often arrives 
at another ; while from the poetry of a period, 
inspired by public events, he can often see the 
emotions of a people at play, and may come to an 
understanding of the spirit which has produced 
revolutions and wars such as is to be derived 
from no other source. It is of the first import- 
ance, therefore, that the compiler of a poetical 
anthology so ambitious in scope as to cover 
the whole period of American history should 
have an accurate understanding of the different 
influences which have come into play in the 
development of the country, that his sectional 
preferences and sympathies should be kept in 
subordination so that no underlying preconcep- 
tion or purpose shall be permitted to control or 
direct his work, and that his view should be 
as broad as the nation. A certain standard of 
poetic excellence he must maintain, as a matter 
of course ; but this being satisfied, he should use 
his material as it comes to his hand, letting it 
tell its own story, — not shaping it by inclusion 
or exclusion so as to exalt one influence or 

• Poems op American History. Edited by Burton E. 
Stevenson. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 



[March 1, 

undervalue another. To the extent that he 
yields to the temptation to do this latter, to that 
extent he fails in his task. 

It was the yielding to such a temptation 
which so largely destroyed the value of the late 
Edmund Clarence Stedman's " American An- 
thology." Stedman himself was already old and 
ill ; but he seems to have permitted his assist- 
ants to be carried away with two ideas which 
had a basis, partly commercial and partly sen- 
timental, the one idea being that as little as 
possible should be included which was hostile 
to England, and the other that there should be 
excluded poetry which was hostile to the South. 
At the same time, sentiment which was entirely 
ladylike was permitted to give a tone to the 
whole, not calculated to increase public respect 
for the intellectual vigor of American verse. 
Our poetical anthologies of less ambitious de- 
sign, — such as those which relate to the Revolu- 
tion, the war of 1 8 1 2 , or the war for the Union, — 
have been far more satisfactory, because there 
was no instinctive or intentional interference on 
the part of the compilers to prevent the main 
purpose from shaping the end. 

Mr. Stevenson's compilation of poems relating 
to American history begins with the discovery 
of America by the Norsemen, Columbus, the 
Spaniards and their followers, carries on the 
story of the settlement of the Colonies, the En- 
glish in Virginia, the Dutch in New York, and 
after fifty-six pages reaches the coming of the 
Pilgrims to New England, and thence comes 
downward through the development of the coun- 
try, its contests with England, the Mexican war, 
the anti-slavery movement, the great civil strife 
between North and South, and the war with 
Spain, to such recent occurrences as the San 
Francisco earthquake and the death of Grover 

The most noticeable omission — an omission 
of more significance than Stedman's failure to 
include in his Anthology any poem by that true 
New England poet Hiram Rich, or by the New 
York humorist John G. Saxe — is the absence 
of all poetry inspired by the civilization of 
Pennsylvania. As late as Whittier's time, the 
New England poet could write of it that he 
thought it was the highest civilization he had 
ever seen. There is not a line from Francis 
Daniel Pastorius, the author of America's first 
public protest against slavery; or from Whittier's 
fine poem on Pastorius, of which the poet him- 
self wrote that it was a better poem than " Snow 
Bound," but that the public would never find it 
out. There is nothing from Bayard Taylor or 

any other poet relating to the Revolutionary 
battlefields in South-eastern Pennsylvania — 
an omission which assumes greater significance 
when it is recalled that of the nine battles in 
which Washington was in command of the 
American troops engaged, seven of them were 
contests for the possession of Philadelphia, where 
also Washington spent seven of the eight years 
during which he was President. Of Pastorius, 
a recent writer has said that he was not coarse 
like John Smith, uncouth like Peter Stuyvesant, 
or narrow like Cotton Mather. Professor 
Learned's recent life of him, in showing the 
facility with which he used the German, English, 
Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Latin, and Greek lan- 
guages, his training in the universities of Europe, 
and the wide range of topics which he discussed, 
establishes his right to be called the most learned 
of Americas colonists. His patriotic address 
to the posterity of the colony which he founded 
breathes a loftiness of spirit sadly lacking in 
much of the unimaginative verses which have 
crowded his poetry out of the present volume, 
and which have thus been invited to assist in the 
commission of an historical sin that cannot be 

Mr. Stevenson's obvious motive in the elim- 
ination of Pastorius has been to begin the anti- 
slavery movement with Garrison, leading off 
with Whittier's tribute to Garrison in 1833. 
The compiler's note to this poem says: " Finally, 
in December 1833, the American Anti-Slavery 
Society was organized at Philadelphia." His- 
torically, of course, this is a thoroughly unscien- 
tific treatment of the theme. Important as was 
Garrison's work, he was not a forerunner of the 
anti-slavery movement. Following the protest 
framed by Pastorius in 1688, the adoption of 
its principles by the Quakers, and their spread 
through the States, the first Abolition society 
was organized in Philadelphia in 1774. By 
1794 there were enough Abolition societies 
throughout the States to justify a national organ- 
ization, and delegates from Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
and Maryland met in convention in Philadel- 
phia, where they met thereafter annually. Soon 
Rhode Island, Virginia, and Tennessee sent 
delegates. Massachusetts united in the move- 
ment long afterwards, in 1823, and the Under- 
ground Railroad was in full operation at the 
time when it would appear from Mr. Stevenson's 
anthology that the movement had only begun. 
The development of the Abolition movement has 
been weU described in William Birney's Life of 
James G. Birney. Its beginning was most 




adequately reflected in Whittier's poem on 
Pastorius, the absence of which from these 
pages can hardly have been accidental. 

How hard Mr. Stevenson's local predilections 
have required him to strain the course of history 
is earlier shown by his inclusion of Longfellow's 
"Hymn of the Moravian Nuns of Bethlehem " 
in a chapter headed " The War in the South." 
In good poetry, historical inaccuracy may be 
overlooked. Whether Paid Revere carried the 
news of the British march, or his story was but 
an old man's confusion of events, or whether 
Barbara Frietchie actually waved a Union flag 
over the heads of Stonewall Jackson's troops 
in Frederick, is perhaps not of supreme import- 
ance ; but it is required of the compder of so 
ambitious a work as the present one that his 
selections shall not pervert the orderly sequence 
of history, that the poems shall be assigned to 
their proper geographical locations, and that 
the explanatory notes shall be accurate. 

George Parsons Lathrop's ballad, "Keenan's 
Charge," is an example of a poem in which spirit, 
movement, and skiU in construction go far to 
excuse the wdd vagaries of its statement. But 
Mr. Stevenson's notes indorsing the romance 
cannot be overlooked. He says, describing 
Stonewall Jackson's flank attack upon Hooker's 
right at ChanceUorsvdle : 

"For a moment it seemed that all was lost; then 
Pleasanton hurled the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry 
under Major Keenan upon the Confederate flank. The 
regiment was hurled back terribly shattered, but charged 
again and again until nearly all the men were dead or 
wounded. The Confederate advance was checked long 
enough for Pleasanton to get his artillery into position." 

This comment of the editor contains many errors. 
It was not Keenan's charge, because the regi- 
ment was commanded by its colonel, Pennock 
Huey ; Keenan was the Major, and rode with 
other regimental officers. No charge was in- 
tended, and Pleasonton did not order a charge. 
Nor were repeated charges made. The regiment 
in column, moving at a leisurely gait along a 
narrow woods road, suddenly encountered what 
appeared to be a few Confederate troops. There 
was no thought that these were Stonewall 
Jackson's corps. Colonel Huey ordered the 
trot and gallop. No line was formed, or coidd 
be formed in that narrow road. The Union 
troopers rode through a part of the advancing 
Confederate line, and discovering their mistake 
rode back as best they coidd. Many were 
killed, among them Major Keenan. General 
Pleasonton's name is misspelled Pleasanton. In 
the note on Gettysburg (page 488) the name 
of the Commander of the Union army is given 

as General George B. Meade. It is worth not- 
ing that the editor calls the Union troops 
" Federals," and he says of Longstreet's assault 
on the third day at Gettysburg that Pickett 
and his Virginians were in the van, which is 
not correct. Pettigrew's division crossed the 
Emmilsburg road in line with Pickett's troops, 
and with the troops of Trimble advanced to the 
stone wall, stayed there as long as any other 
Confederate troops, and surrendered many 
fewer men than did Pickett. Historically, it is 
as erroneous to attribute this assault to Pickett 
as it is to begin the anti-slavery movement 
with Garrison. D'Amici says that the Dutch 
abhorred that form of apotheosis which attrib- 
uted to the individual the virtues or vices of the 
masses. Mr. Stevenson seems to be fond of it, 
and manifests his fondness once more in the 
note on page 560, when he attributes the Recon- 
struction policy of the country to a '* coterie " 
in Congress. " The leader of this coterie," he 
says, " was Thaddeus Stevens." This statement 
is a reflection of a view frequently asserted by 
writers within the past few years, but it has its 
origin in the feeling of the present day, not in 
the facts of the time, as anyone who will take 
the trouble to read the news and newspaper edi- 
torials printed after the assassination of Lincoln 
may see for himseK. The Reconstruction policy 
was not the work of a coterie, but of a majority 
of Congress. It reflected the attitude of the 
country outside of the Southern States. Whether 
it was a mistaken policy or not, it was a legit- 
imate outcome of a fierce war, and in part it 
was prompted by the early attempts made in 
some of the Southern States to restore a modi- 
fied form of slavery by local laws which would 
have permitted the sale for certain terms of 
negroes convicted of minor offences. History 
can gain nothing for national unity by present- 
ing a false face. The largest tolerance concedes 
to North and South their radically different 
views, partly political, largely commercial, and 
accepts as a matter of course the acts springing 
naturally from the different positions. 

In the consideration of a collection of his- 
torical poems the presentation of history takes 
precedence over the purely poetical quality of 
the product. Mr. Stevenson's standard has been 
an adjustable one. The well-known poems are 
here. Some are preserved to-day merely because 
of their author. The supposed cleverness of 
Lowell's rhymes appealing to New Englanders 
not to enlist in the Mexican war seems to have 
evaporated. Of the unfamiliar poetry which the 
compiler has gathered with much industry, it is 



[March 1, 

to be said that much of it is lacking in poetic 
atmosphere. A number of diffuse ballads by 
Thomas Dunn English are bare of poetic spirit, 
but these appear the work of genius when con- 
trasted with the contemporary verse of the 
colonial period. " The Downfall of Piracy " 
here attributed to Benjamin Franklin, " New 
England's Annoyances " (unknown), " Love- 
well's Fight," "Braddock's Fate," "Brave 
Wolfe," "A New Song Called the Gaspee " 
are a few examples of American verse brought 
to light that might well have been left buried ; 
while " Can't," by Harriet Prescott Spofford, is 
a more modern specimen of the tolerance of the 
editor. He tells the reader that the material 
gathered by him would fill four volumes of the 
size of the present one. If the quality was no 
better than these dreary outpourings of the 
rustic muse, and others like them, no one will 
regret the absence of the other three volumes. 
The conception of this volume was so excellent, 
so much of the formidable task has been accom- 
plished with patience and intelligence, and in 
spite of its faults the outcome is so useful, that 
the errors of omission and commission noted are 
viewed with regret. Isaac E. Pennypacker. 

COTTRTS, Congress, axd Executive.* 

President Woodrow Wilson's volume on the 
important' subject of Constitutional Government 
in the United States is made up of a series of eight 
lectures delivered by him at Columbia University 
last year. In his usual masterful style. President 
Wilson discusses some of the more salient fea- 
tures of the American political system from a 
" fresh point of view and in the light of a fresh 
analysis of the character and operation of con- 
stitutional government." From a consideration 
of the meaning, essential elements, and distinc- 
tive institutions of a constitutional system, he 
passes in review the constitutional development 
and present character of the United States gov- 
ernment. In a chapter on the Presidency he 
analyzes in a searching and logical manner the 
office of President of our Republic, the incum- 
bent of which he says was intended to be a 
" reformed and standardized king, after the 
Whig model." He points out that it is easier 
to write of the President than of the presidency, 
since the office varies in character and import- 
ance with the strength and personality of the 

• Constitutional Government in the United States. By 
Woodrow Wilson. Columbia University Lectures, George 
Blumenthal Foundation, 1907. New York: The Macmillan Co. 

man who fills it. Thus it is one thing at one 
time and something very different at another 
time, depending on the man and on the circum- 
stances under which he is called upon to govern. 
Some Presidents have deliberately refrained 
from exercising the full power which they might 
legally have done, either from conscientious 
scruples or because they were theorists, holding 
to the " literary theory " of the Constitution and 
acting as if they thought Pennsylvania Avenue 
should have been even longer than it really is, 
rather than practical statesmen conscious of 
power and fearless of responsibility. He esti- 
mates the importance of the office in its true 
light, when he concludes that henceforth it must 
be regarded as one of the greatest in the world, 
and that the incumbent must be one of the 
leading rulers of the earth, and not merely a 
domestic officer as was once the case. He must 
stand always, says Mr. Wilson, at the front of 
our affairs ; and the office will be as big and as 
influential as the man who occupies it. 

Following English analogies further, Mr. 
Wilson characterizes Congress as a " reformed 
and properly regulated Parliament." He dis- 
cusses, somewhat in the manner of his earlier 
work on Congressional Government, the legis- 
lative methods of Congress as compared with 
those of the British Parliament, showing how 
Congress has nothing to do with the making or 
immaking of " governments," yet how it takes 
a leading part in the conduct of government 
without assuming the responsibility of putting 
its leaders in charge of it. Evidently Dr. 
Wilson considers the English method by which 
the government (the ministry) — a body of 
experts on the practicability and necessity of 
legislation — are associated with the legislature 
in the work of legislation, a distinct improvement 
upon the American method according to which 
the separation of legislative and executive func- 
tions is strictly maintained. In its effort to 
make itself an instrument of business, to per- 
form its function of legislation without assist- 
ance or suggestion, to formulate its own biUs, 
digest its own measures, originate its own poli- 
cies, Mr. Wilson declares the House of Repre- 
sentatives has in effect silenced itself (p. 109). 
In his estimate of the Senate, the author shows 
a spirit of fairness and insight too often lack- 
ing in treatises on American government. The 
Senate, in his opinion, has been too much mis- 
imderstood and traduced and too little appre- 
ciated. Those who criticize this body because 
in some cases it represents " rotten boroughs ' 
instead of population, fail to grasp the real 




situation. The element of population is duly 
represented in the Lower House ; while the 
Senate is intended to represent regions of 
country, or rather the political units of which 
the nation is composed. It is no argument to 
say that because these units are sparsely settled 
they should be less represented than the older 
and more populous regions. They have the 
same economic interest in the general policy of 
the "government that the older regions have. 
Sections therefore, irrespective of population, 
especially in a country with such physical vari- 
ety as ours, and consequently possessing such 
widely different social, economic, and even polit- 
ical conditions, must be represented as weU as 
masses of population. As a body, moreover, the 
Senate, in virtue of its peculiar construction, 
fills a place and subserves a purpose unique 
and indispensable. 

The discussion of the Senate and House of 
Representatives is followed by a consideration 
of the Courts, which constitute the " balance- 
wheel of the whole constitutional system." The 
distinctive functions and methods of procedure 
peculiar to the American judicial system are 
contrasted with those of England, and the merits 
and demerits of each are analyzed. In discuss- 
ing the efficiency of the American system, Mr. 
Wilson raises the question whether our courts 
are as available to the poor as to the rich, or 
whether, in fact, the poor are not excluded by 
the cost and length of judicial processes. Thus, 
he says : 

" The rich man can afford the cost of litigation; what 
is of more consequence, he can afford the delays of trial 
and appeal; he has a margin of resources which makes 
it possible for him to wait the months, it may be the 
years, during which the process of adjudication will 
drag on and during which the rights he is contesting 
will be suspended, the interests involved tied up. But 
the poor man can afford neither the one nor the other. 
He might afford the initial expense, if he could be secure 
against delays; but delays he cannot abide without ruin. 
I fear that it must be admitted that our present pro- 
cesses of adjudication lack both simplicity and prompt- 
ness, that they are imnecessarily expensive, and that a 
rich litigant can almost always tire a poor one out and 
readily cheat him of his rights by simply leading him 
through an endless maze of appeals and technical de- 
lays" (page 153). 

Most of us will agree with him that it is a 
shame and a reproach that we have not brought 
our courts nearer to the needs of the poor man 
than they are, and that the most pressing reform 
of our system lies in this direction. 

In two final chapters, President Wilson con- 
siders the relation of the States to the Federal 
Government and the subject of Party Govern- 
ment. Apparently he does not sympathize with 

some of the recent tendencies toward Centrali- 
zation. Of the Federal Child-Labor biU which 
was before the last Congress, he observes that 
if the power to regulate commerce between the 
States can be stretched to include the regulation 
of labor in mills and factories, it can be made 
to embrace every particular of the industrial 
organization and activities of the country. 
Doubtless it could ; and it might be better for 
the people, for whose welfare government is 
created, if it did embrace some of them. But 
as to this, there is a wide difference of opinion. 
James Wilford Garner. 

The Northwestern Empire of 
THE Fur Trader.* 

Under the alluring title, " The Conquest of 
the Great Northwest," Miss Agnes Laut tells the 
dramatic story of the adventurers of England 
trading into Hudson's Bay — commonly known 
as the Hudson's Bay Company. The story of 
the Hudson's Bay Company has been told before, 
but not in the same way. The histories of Dr. 
George Bryce and Mr. Beckles Willson were 
based upon what was thought at the time to be 
very full documentary material. Compared 
with the mass of original documents which Miss 
Laut has managed to unearth, by untiring per- 
severence, at Hudson's Bay House and in the 
Public Records Office, the foundation of the 
earlier histories appears meagre and inadequate. 
From the tons of manuscript journals, minute 
books, letter books, and memorial books, in the 
archives of the Hudson's Bay Company, as well 
as from the mass of hitherto unpublished mate- 
rial in the British Public Record Office bearing 
on the history of the Company, Miss Laut 
secured several thousand pages of transcripts. 
Upon these data — the narratives of the actors 
themselves, told in their own words — she has 
built her story of the Great Company, a story 
which for romantic and dramatic interest will 
challenge comparison with that of any similar 
organization in the world's history. The new 
material brought to light, and woven into the 
texture of Miss Laut's narrative, embraces not 
only a number of docimaents of which only frag- 
ments were hitherto available, but also several — 
such as the journals of Peter S. Ogden and the 
invaluable letters of Colin Robertson — whose 
very existence had not before been suspected. 
The work, which is divided into two substan- 

• The Conquest of the Great Northwest. By Agnea C. 
Laut. In two volumeB. Illustrated. New York : The Outing: 
Publishing CompanT'. 



[March 1, 

tial volumes of over eight hundred pages, opens 
with an account of the four voyages of Henry 
Hudson, cuhninating in his tragic end — sent 
adrift by his mutinous crew on the waters of 
Hudson Bay. A brief description of the voy- 
age made to the Bay by Jens Munck, the Dane, 
closes this introductory part of the work — the 
story of the discovery of the gateway to the 
wide-flung territories of the Hudson's Bay 

In succeeding chapters are imfolded the ear- 
liest beginnings of the Company itself, through 
which runs the exceedingly dramatic story of 
Pierre Esprit Radisson, fur-trader, pathfinder, 
prince of adventurers, and founder of the greatest 
and most venerable of trading corporations. 
Miss Laut has on more than one occasion 
entered the lists on behalf of this much-maligned 
explorer, and she here brings together a mass of 
entirely new material bearing upon his relations 
toward France and New France on the one hand, 
and England and the great English Company 
on the other. Not the least interesting of many 
points made clear in this portion of the narrative 
is that relating to Radisson 's second desertion 
of the French for the British flag, a desertion 
hitherto regarded as his crowning piece of 
treachery. Radisson, after serving the Company 
for a time, had gone back to his native country, 
had returned to the Bay, captured Port Nelson 
from the British fur-traders, carried away to 
Canada a fortune in furs, — which were promptly 
confiscated by Governor De La Barre, — and 
was now in Paris seeking restoration of his 
booty. Suddenly he disappears from Paris, 
and is found in London — once more in the 
service of the Hudson's Bay Company. Did he 
go as a double traitor, or was there some more 
creditable motive for his action ? Here is Miss 
Laut's explanation, as gathered from state 
documents : 

" He was sent for by the Department of the Marine, 
and told that the French had quit all open pretentions 
to the bay. He was commanded to cross to England 
at once and restore Port Nelson to the Hudson's Bay 

" ' Openly? ' he might have asked. 

" Ah, that was different! Not openly, for an open 
surrender of Port Nelson would forever dispose of 
French claims to the bay. All Louis XIV now wanted 
was to pacify the English court and maintain that secret 
treaty. No, not openly; but he was commanded to go 
to England and restore Port Nelson as if it were of his 
own free will. He had captured it without a commission. 
Let him restore it in the same way. But Radisson had 
had enough of being a scapegoat for statecraft and 
double dealing. He demanded written authority for 
what he was to do, and the Department of Marine placed 
this commission in his hands: 

" ' In order to put an end to the Differences wh. exist 
between the two Nations of the French & English 
touching the Factory or Settlement made by Mesers. 
Groseillers and Radisson at Hudson Bay, and to avoid 
the efusion of blood that may happen between the 
sd. two nations, for the Preservation of that place, the 
expedient wch. appeared most reasonable and advan- 
tageous for the English company will, that the sd. 
Messrs. De Groseillers and Radisson return to the sd. 
Factory or habitation furnished with the passport of the 
English Company, importing that they shall withdraw 
the French wh. are in garrison there with all the effects 
belonging to them in the space of eighteen months to 
be accounted from the day of their departure by reason 
they cannot goe and come from the place in one year. 
. . . The said gentlemen shall restore to the English 
Company the Factory or Habitation by them settled in 
the sd. coimtry to be thenceforward enjoyed by the 
English company without molestation. As to the indem- 
nity pretended by the English for effects seized and 
brought to Quebec . . . that may be accomodated in 
bringing back the said inventory & restoring the same 
effects or their value to the English Proprietors.' " 

The dashing exploits of Pierre Le Moyne 
d'Iberville,from Canada, against the Company's 
posts on the Bay, form the subject of two very 
interesting chapters ; and another is devoted to 
the last days of Radisson — new facts gathered 
in London disclosing the final scenes in the life 
of the famous pathfinder. Another group of 
chapters tells the story of inland explorations 
from the Bay by men of the Hudson's Bay 
Company; Henry Kellsey's journey to the 
Saskatchewan ; the founding of Henley House ; 
Anthony Hendry's expedition to the country of 
the Blackfeet ; Samuel Hearne's journey to the 
mouth of the Coppermine river ; the founding 
of Cumberland House ; and the beginning of the 
long conflict between the Hudson's Bay and 
North West Companies for the control of the 
vast fur country of the West. In subsequent 
chapters are described the stirring adventures 
and notable explorations of some of the men of 
the Canadian company — David Thompson, 
Alexander Mackenzie, Simon Eraser, and Daniel 
Williams Harmon. Through these narratives 
runs always the underlying theme of bitter and 
ever-increasing hostility between the two com- 
panies, a conflict leading by inevitable degrees 
to such intolerable conditions that only one way 
could be found out of the morass — the union 
of the two companies. Part and parcel of this 
historic conflict, but holding an interest entirely 
its own, is the story of the coming of the col- 
onists — the founding of the Red River Settle- 
ment. Here, as elsewhere, one is struck with 
the prevalence of Scottish names. The central 
figure in the drama of Red River was a Scotch- 
man — Lord Selkirk. So also were the leaders 
of both the opposing factions, the " H. B. men " 




and the " Nor'Westers ": M'Gillivrays and 
MacKenzies and McTavishes, M'Donells and 
Erasers, McLoughlins and Robertsons. Finally, 
in a series of brilliant sketches, we have the story 
of the united companies — the Nor'Westers 
now absorbed in the older Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany — marching triumphantly across the conti- 
nent, and spreading the empire of the fur-trader 
north and south from the Russian dominions in 
Alaska to the Spanish settlements in California. 
Here we read of the imperious rule of the auto- 
cratic little Governor, Sir George Simpson ; of 
the dashing exploits of Ross of Okanogan ; of 
the explorations of Ogden in the Southwest, 
throughout what are now the States of Idaho, 
Montana, Nevada, Utah, and California ; of the 
transmontane empire of Dr. McLoughlin ; and 
of the final merging of the dominion of the fur- 
trader in the era of settlement, and the dawn of 
popidar government. 

Lawrence J. Burpee. 

A Poet's Study or a Poet.* 

Mr. Alfred Noyes's volume on William 
Morris, just issued in the "English Men of 
Letters " series, will prove a disappointment to 
many readers. It is not an easy task, perhaps 
it is impossible, to cover the multifarious activ- 
ities of so many-sided a man within a book of 
one hundred and fifty pages, the scope of which 
is definitely limited by the plan of this useful 
series ; but it is a pity that the vital facts in the 
career of Morris should have to be so scanty, 
and then be so blurred in presentation as to give 
little satisfaction to the reader. Mr. Noyes is 
doubtless justified in his contention that the 
essential factor in all these activities is the 
poetic spirit, and that the essential man is dis- 
cernible " in the poetry which was the fullest 
expression of his real self." At all events the 
author of the book has occupied himself mainly 
with a rather elaborate analysis of Morris's 

Any study of a poet's work by one who is 
himself recognized as a not unworthy brother of 
the guild cannot fail to be interesting whatever 
the limitations of its treatment, and it would be 
unfair to Mr. Noyes to deny him insight or 
appreciation for his theme. At the same time it 
must be stated frankly that his attitude toward 
his subject is sometimes puzzling, and one is 
often in doubt rega rding the sympathy and 

♦William Morris." By Alfred Noyes. "Engrlish Men of 
Letters " Series. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

admiration which he affirms. There is no ques- 
tion of the writer's preference for Tennyson — 
and we have no quarrel with him over his enthu- 
siasm for the last great Laureate ; but we pro- 
test that this is not the place for the avowal of 
such discipleship. The comparison of Tennyson 
with Morris is overdone ; it recurs on page after 
page, until this particular theme almost supplants 
the real theme of the essay, and reaches a climax 
in the brief concluding chapter wherein the biog- 
rapher of Morris devotes three full pages to the 
gratuitous exaltation of Tennyson as " the broad- 
est and fullest voice of his own century." This 
the most of us have long since recognized ; just 
now we are more interested in the achievement 
of the author of " Jason," " The Earthly Para- 
dise," and " Sigurd the Volsung." Indeed, we 
woidd rather hear less of Morris's debt to Tenny- 
son and more of his indebtedness to Chaucer — 
of which Mr. Noyes has surprisingly little to say. 
Perhaps we should be less impatient with these 
digressions had not the essayist expressed with 
much vim his own impatience with Mr. Mackail 
for certain suggestions which he deems " out of 
proportion except in a biography large enough 
to estimate also the exact influence upon him 
[Morris] of Bradshaw's Railway Guide." We 
wonder if Mr. Noyes's sense of proportion and 
of values is represented in the following bit of 
description. He is speaking of the personal 
appearance of Morris (page 106) : 

" He was careless about his clothes ; but it has been 
said that he only looked really peculiar when in conven- 
tional attire. One of the most charming of his sayings 
is that which he made in perfect simplicity to a friend: 
* You see, one can't go about London in a top hat, it 
looks so devilish odd.' " 

Upon the technique of the poet Mr. Noyes 
has a great deal to say that is illuminating ; 
although we think that he strains some lines of 
criticism, as when he discusses the " thin " 
verses and the " lower scale of values " in the 
chapter on " The Life and Death of Jason." 
The error here, if there is an error, lies in the 
suggestion that the verses quoted are adequately 
representative of the poem throughout. Another 
instance of this dangerous habit of generalizing 
is seen in the concluding sentence of this same 
chapter (page 71): "The cry of Medea, 'Be 
happy!' compresses into two words quite as 
much passion, anguish, and love as are con- 
tained in whole pages of Browning." 

We should, however, be doing Mr. Noyes a 
grave injustice to conclude this review without 
quoting some less debatable passage from his 
book, and one which will more clearly show the 
really appreciative position toward his subject 



[March 1, 

which we are sure he would maintain. We 
quote from pages 54-55 : 

"This weaving-process with his thin verse-threads 
Morris carried out with supreme success. He threw 
away all ambition to achieve the kind of direct effects 
at which Tennyson and Wordsworth, and perhaps all 
the greater English poets aimed, and in return he 
gained an indefinable power of suggestion. In spite of 
the vast bulk of his work, it gives the impression of 
great strength in reserve, and it has something of the 
force which we usually associate with reticence. Never 
once do we feel that he is exerting himself or, to put it 
crudely, on his top-note. . . . Never, perhaps, has there 
been so successful an attempt to recapture the childlike 
faith of the pagan world in their immortals as ' The 
Life and Death of Jason.' The gods in Morris have 
something of their old opaque symbolical significance, 
which we lose altogether on the spiritual plane of 
Wordsworth or Tennyson. By reducing his whole 
world to the childlike and primitive scale of values of 
which we have spoken, he was able, alone among the 
moderns, really to 

' Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea ; 
Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.' " 


Briefs on New Books. 

It is an instructive paradox that 
t/nygiTnT''''^ health, like happiness, is best found 

when not sought, — is most enjoyed 
when least the object of concern. In recognition 
whereof, many a cult has arisen proclaiming the 
bliss of ignorance and the yet more exalted bliss of 
denial. But a paradox has two sides ; and the other 
side also has its share of recognition in the popular 
consciousness — the side which holds that health is 
a precious thing, and in these modern days is to be 
maintained by large-minded public provisions and a 
personal wisdom that is prudent but not fretful, 
serious but not fanatical, careful but not worried. 
It is well that popular books on hygiene suitable for 
the readers that frequent public libraries should be 
abundant, attractive, and authoritative. In such a 
list the recent work by Dr. C. W. Saleeby of Edin- 
burgh deserves a conspicuous place. It bears as its 
title " Health, Strength, and Happiness," a worthy 
triumvirate capable of wisely ruling the body and 
the mind. It is, in fact, a fair survey of the essen- 
tials of personal hygiene, very forcibly written, 
under a consistent perspective. The best thing about 
man is his mind, and a §ound body is the mind's 
most indispensable implement. Dr. Saleeby's book 
is full of good advice, and will not add to the 
prevalent hypochondria. Neither will it inculcate 
indifference, or a go-as-you-please attitude. It may, 
however, disappoint many who like their advice in 
pill-like doses with instructions for quick taking. It 
presents both sides of debatable questions, and does 
not make mountains out of mole-hills. Here and 
there it errs on the side of indefiniteness, and else- 
where in strenuous enforcement of personally fav- 

ored doctrines ; but that is true of every book 
reflective of a marked individuality. A popular 
book on health should set forth the point of view 
from which health is a natural issue ; it should sur- 
vey the factors upon which health depends ; it should 
state these in terms of human interest; it should 
maintain a fair perspective of the little things and 
the great; and it should remember the sorts and 
conditions of men and the diversity of human nature 
and human needs. Dr. Saleeby's book meets these 
conditions sufficiently well to warrant its admission 
to the select class of useful manuals of popular 
hygiene. (Mitchell Kennerley.) 

Counsels 07i ^'^^^ Avebury ( Sir John Lubbock he 

peace and will always be to many of us) has 

happiness. ^dded another to his already pub- 

lished volumes on the pleasures of life and the 
beauties of nature ; but his title this time is " Peace 
and Happiness" (Macmillan), and he closes with 
some very practical and pertinent remarks on inter- 
national peace and the reduction of our enormous 
military and naval establishments. The bankruptcy 
and ruin sure to follow the development of present 
tendencies are convincingly presented, as is likewise 
the certainty of violent and destructive European 
revolution, precipitated by the misery of the masses, 
unless the increasing burden of armament is re- 
duced. Jingoism and false patriotism find no friend 
in him. "We talk of foreign nations," he says, 
" but in fact there are no really foreign countries. 
The interests of nations are so interwoven, we are 
bound together by such strong, if sometimes almost 
invisible, threads, that if one suffers all suffer; if 
one flourishes it is good for the rest." Illustrative 
instances are added in proof. The present foolish 
Anglo-Teutonic tension is touched upon in a common- 
sense way. In a province more peculiarly his own, 
the pleasures of nature-study, the author has this to 
say on the much-discussed question of intelligence 
in animals : " My own experiments and observations 
have led me to the conclusion that they have a little 
dose of reason, though some good naturalists still 
deny it." The "peace and happiness " so agreeably 
presented in these chapters are by no means the 
peace and happiness of idleness and cloistered medi- 
tation. " Our clear duty is to work in the world, to 
remain of the world, and yet to keep ourselves as 
far as possible unspotted by the world — though no 
doubt this is far from easy." Health is necessary, 
and "most people will keep fairly well if they eat 
little, avoid alcohol and tobacco, take plenty of fresh 
air and exercise, keep the mind at work, and the 
conscience at rest." As in the author's previous 
volumes on kindred subjects, there is here also an 
abundance of quotation, especially from Shakespeare. 
The familiar six lines on ministering to a mind dis- 
eased are in deserved favor with him, so much so 
that he quotes them twice, as he does also Scott's 
well-known quatrain beginning, " Like the dew on 
the mountain." The well-furnished note-book, one 
cannot but imagine, lies ready at Lord Avebury's 




hand as he writes. The popularity of his work of 
this sort is noteworthy: not far from a quarter- 
million copies of the first part of " The Pleasures 
of Life " are said to have been sold, while the second 
part is in its second hundred thousand, and "The 
Beauties of Nature " lags not far behind. A curi- 
ous appearance is given to the title-page of his new 
book by the nineteen lines (in fine print and mostly 
in abbreviations and initials) of titles and honors 
appended to the author's name — a flourish not 
exactly in harmony with our conception of his 

, , . Ex nihilo nihil fit. Mr. Hilaire 

A volume of ■' 

pleasant Belloc chooses " nothing " as the 
nonsense. subject of a slender volume of 
essays " On Nothing, and Kindred Subjects " 
(Button) — and naturally produces nothing of much 
weight or importance. His essays are little longer 
than Bacon's, and his whimsicalities of style have 
now and then an antique turn that may, however 
remotely, suggest the great Elizabethan. More 
modern in its suggestion, however, is the occasional 
yielding to the present strange fascination of the 
paradoxical and the irrational; so that if Lord 
Bacon is brought to mind on one page, Mr. Chester- 
ton is sure to greet us on turning the leaf. The 
very title of the book is an absurdity, of course, and 
the dedicatory pages (addressed to Mr. Maurice 
Baring) which attempt to explain its selection and 
application, fairly riot in pleasant nonsense. The 
writer pretends to delight in what nature is supposed 
to abhor, — a vacuum. It pleases his humor to say : 
" I never see a gallery of pictures now but I know 
how the use of empty spaces makes a scheme, nor 
do I ever go to a play but I see how silence is half 
the merit of acting, and hope some day for absence 
and darkness as well upon the stage." Among the 
topics chosen for treatment as " kindred " to noth- 
ing are these : " On Ignorance," " On Advertise- 
ment," " On a House," " On a Dog and a Man also," 
" On Railways and Things," " On a ChUd who Died," 
" On the Departure of a Guest," and " On Coming 
to an End." The book is written in a fine spirit 
of carelessness and spontaneity ; nevertheless the 
author need not have pushed laxity to such an 
extreme as in the following : "... As he had 
walked faster than me ... so now I walked faster 
than him." 

An appreciation of the biologist's 
attitude toward the problems of life 
may be admirably acquired, though 
at the usual cost of close attention, by a reading of 
Professor Charles Sedgwick Minot's Lowell lectures 
on the problems centering about the persistent ques- 
tions of age, growth, and final dissolution. The 
painstaking minuteness of observation of the minutest 
units of the microscope seems at first sight remote 
from the arts of regulation of life ; but in such terms 
are the secrets of nature to be deciphered. The 
biological provisions for maturing become in another 
aspect the signs of senescence. We grow old because 

Problems of 
age, growth, 
and decay. 

we have the power to grow. Growth is differentia- 
tion ; and when this has reached its limit, the adult 
state is present. Yet in addition, the maintenance 
of this adult state is in turn conditioned by the rate 
of change to which the cells are still subject. The 
two elements in the vital unit, the nucleus and the 
protoplasm, in Professor Minot's view, play opposite 
parts : rejuvenation depending upon the increase of 
the nuclei, and senescence upon the increase of the 
protoplasm. The problem once formulated, itself 
divides, like the progressive segmentation which it 
uses for illustration. The differentiation between 
lower and higher structures ; the determination of 
the longer-lived and the shorter-lived species and 
individuals ; the conception of death as a biological 
penalty for richness of differentiation ; the limit of 
power as set by age-changes ( the popular discussion 
aroused by Dr. Osier in citation of TroUope's fixed- 
period notion); the curious anomalies of rejuvenation 
and reproduction of parts ; the provision for the con- 
tinuance of life by the sequestration of cells in their 
young stages for transmission to the next generation, 
and so on, — these are the circumstances of which 
we are the creatures, and in these terms must we 
learn to decipher the conditions of our fate so far as 
we are ready to profit by the biologist's attitude. Dr. 
Minot combines with the equipment of technique the 
philosophical power of its interpretation, and thus 
offers to the studious a profitable and clear presenta- 
tion of the motives and methods of modern bio- 
logical research. (Putnam.) 

At first glance it might appear that 
cnr^uTRLe. ^^ofessor Arthur L. Frothingham, 

of Princeton University, in his new 
work entitled "The Monuments of Christian Rome" 
(Macmillan), was but retracing the ground covered 
by Mr. Walter Lowrie's " Monuments of the Early 
Church," which came out about eight years ago. 
More deliberate investigation, however, reveals the 
fact that, while the earlier book dealt with a period 
beginning with the end of the first century of the 
Christian era and ceasing with the development of 
Byzantine Architecture before the end of the sixth 
century. Professor Frothingham treats of the period 
from (ilonstantine in the fourth century to the Renais- 
sance early in the fifteenth. The historical sketch 
contained in the first eight chapters is a history of 
the city, with the changes it underwent in the reigns 
of Constantine and his successors, after the Gothic 
invasion, under the Byzantine influence, as a Carlo- 
vingian city and in the Dark Age from the death of 
Pope Formosus in 896 to the accession of Pope 
Leo IX. in 1049, by the fire of Robert Guiscard, 
under the great mediaeval Popes, and during the 
Papal Exile. This survey of the city, derived from 
a careful and exhaustive study of the documentary 
history and from years of exploration in situ, enables 
the author to present, in the second part of his vol- 
ume, some fascinating chapters on Basilicas, Cam- 
panili, Cloisters, Civil and Military Architecture, 
Sculpture and Painting, with accounts of some of 



[March 1, 

the Roman artists and of art in the Roman Province 
and the Artistic Influence of Rome. It is in his 
chapter on Painting that Professor Frothingham 
discusses the personality of Pietro Cavallini, in the 
light of the recent theories advanced in opposition 
to Vasari's statement that Cavallini was the pupil 
and assistant of Giotto. The more recent view 
makes Cavallini the partner, perhaps the predecessor, 
of Giotto in the revival of painting which goes 
by Giotto's name. Professor Frothingham gives 
ample reasons for the acceptance of the new view. 
The book is of inestimable value as an archaeological 
handbook. Although intended for use in the class 
room, its attractive style and wealth of illustration 
will make it scarcely less acceptable to the general 

reader. . 

Foik.taies and ^^- Richard Gordon Smith is an 
legends of Englishman addicted to wandering. 
old Japan. Yov the last nine years he has spent 
most of his time in Japan, ostensibly collecting ethno- 
logical lore and objects of natural history for the 
British Museum, incidentally coming in contact with 
the Japanese people, — fishermen, farmers, priests, 
doctors, children, governors, — entering into their 
modes of life and thought, and learning their stories 
and legends. Some of these he has now transcribed 
from notes made in his diaries ; and a Japanese friend, 
Mr. Mo-No- Yuki, has elaborated the sketches accom- 
panying the notes into beautiful color-plates. There 
are some sixty of these, — at least one for every 
story, — and their mythical subjects and general 
treatment give them much the effect of reproduc- 
tions of old color-prints. They lend to the volume, 
which is entitled " Ancient Tales and Folk-Lore of 
Japan " (Macmillan), the decorative touch that seems 
to belong by right to everything Japanese, and add 
appreciably to the interest and local coloring of the 
tales. These latter are of miscellaneous subject- 
matter, — stories of trees, flowers, mountains, the sea, 
and historic places. We miss an introductory chapter, 
which should discuss the origin of the tales, their 
relation to western folk-lore, and their place in 
modern Japanese life. In general they may be said 
to have all the characteristic ingredients of the prim- 
itive tale. Ghosts walk, tree-nymphs and mermaids 
marry mortals, beautiful gods steal the love of hapless 
maidens, low-born suitors outwit tyrannical fathers, 
reincarnations and miracles puzzle simple folk. But 
the Japanese flavor gives novelty to the familiar 

It is cheering to learn that there has 
pr^coSr r««««% ^^^^ ^revival of interest 

in the art of etching, with its related 
arts of mezzotint " scraping," wood engraving, and 
lithography ; an interest which seems to have been 
suspended but a few years ago, when the numerous 
photo-mechanical processes for the cheaper and more 
rapid reproduction of pictures came into being. Mr. 
Frank Weitenkampf 's manual entitled " How to 
Appreciate Prints" (Moffat, Yard & Co.), which 
gives us this assurance, is therefore a more timely 
volume than might at first appear. To its chapters 

on the history and technique of the various processes 
by which prints are produced — etching, line engrav- 
ing, stipple, mezzotint, aquatint, wood engraving, 
lithography, etc., upon which the most recent books 
are nearly twenty years old, — he adds a chapter 
on the photo-mechanical processes which caused the 
suspension in the practice of the former methods of 
reproduction, and in the popular interest in prints 
and print collecting. These chapters are all sub- 
servient to the real purpose of the book as implied 
in the title ; and the appreciation of prints, with the 
ways in which intelligent appreciation may be cul- 
tivated, is kept constantly in view. No one can 
read this book without taking a more intelligent and 
discriminating interest in the arts which find their 
expression in the work of the graver. 

New England From "The Harvard Graduates' 
thought^ Magazine " are reprinted in book 

and action. form eleven short sketches — obit- 

uary notices, and eulogistic rather than critical — 
of as many distinguished sons of that university who 
have died within the last fifteen years. " Sons of 
the Puritans : A Group of Brief Biographies " is the 
collective title, and the volume is published by the 
American Unitarian Association, whose president, 
Dr. Samuel A. Eliot, contributes an Introduction. 
The opening chapter is on the late Senator Hoar, a 
typical Puritan of his generation, combining in a 
high degree those two excellent qualities, idealism 
and a sense of responsibility. Mr. Francis C. Lowell 
is the writer, and is followed by Mr. Henry P. Walcott 
in a short account of Dr. Morrill Wyman, Mr. Ezra 
R. Thayer on Judge Horace Gray, President Charles 
W. Eliot on Professor Charles Franklin Dunbar, Dr. 
Charles Carroll Everett on Phillips Brooks, and, 
finally (we omit a few of the titles), by Mr. George 
R. Nutter on that young leader in business enterprise, 
charity organization, and the promotion of education, 
the late William Henry Baldwin, Jr. Each chapter 
is accompanied by a good portrait of its subject, and 
the volume forms a worthy memorial of the eleven 
men whose names adorn its pages. 

What Mr. Cyril Maude did for one 
fZ:us teatre. ^i the most f amous of English play- 

houses, the Haymarket Theatre, Mr. 
Eugene Tompkins has done for one of the cradles 
of the drama in America, in his "History of the 
Boston Theatre" (Houghton), compiled with the 
assistance of Mr. Quincy Kilby. It is a work which 
will interest historians, connoisseurs of old prints and 
photographs, actors, and playgoers. Mr. Tompkins 
points out that no other theatre in the world has 
ever sheltered so wide a range of celebrities, from 
tragedians and grand opera stars to negro minstrels 
and vaudeville performers, from statesmen and clergy- 
men to athletes and pugilists. It has been the recog- 
nized home of operatic representations of the highest 
order, of brilliant ballet spectacles, and of the most 
realistic melodramatic productions. The author draws 
upon his own recollections of twenty-three years as 
manager of the theatre of which he writes, as well 




as memories of many talks with his father, who was 
connected with the Boston Theatre before him and 
from whom he inherited a taste for theatrical mat- 
ters ; and, more fortunate than most chroniclers, he 
had at hand the bound volumes of its programmes, 
as well as the statement-books showing the receipts 
at all performances. So voluminous was the data at 
hand that one wonders how, in the limited space, 
Mr. Tompkins has prevented his work from becoming 
a mere catalogue ; yet, in a sense, he has compiled 
a vade mecum of the drama in America for the last 
half century. The book is divided into practically 
fifty chapters, each chapter being devoted to a yearly 
season. As a work of reference it is invaluable 
because, in addition to its allusions to plays and 
players, it has been indexed with particular care — 
the index of portraits and illustrations approximating 
some 1400 entries. It is a comprehensive record of 
living and departed public idols ; and it is easy to 
perceive that the compilation of the book has been a 
labor of love to its author. Many of the illustrations 
are from rare photographs, obtained through patient 
research, and now reproduced for the first time. 


" Early English Romances in Verse," translated into 
modern prose by Miss Edith Rickert, gives us a collec- 
tion of eight famous love-stories, including " Floris and 
Blanchefleur," « Sir Orfeo," " The Earl of Toulouse," 
and " The Squire of Low Degree." The book is included 
in the " Mediaeval Library," as is also the companion 
volume of romances of friendship, which gives us Miss 
Rickert's versions of " Amis and Amiloun," " The Tale 
of Gamelyn," and four others of like character. Messrs. 
Duffield & Co. are the publishers of these quaint volumes. 

The " Musician's Library " of the Oliver Ditson Co. 
is now notably enriched by two volumes of music by the 
greatest of Norwegian composers. The " Larger Piano 
Compositions of Edvard Grieg " is edited by Mrs. Bertha 
Feiring Tapper, and " Fifty Songs by Edvard Grieg " 
is edited by Mr. Henry T. Finck. The former volume 
includes a group of four " Humoresques," three "Sketches 
of Norwegian Life," the suite " From Holberg's Time," 
the sonata in E minor, the ballade in G minor, and the 
concerto in A minor. Mr. Finck's volume illustrates the 
entire range of Grieg's lyrical composition, the dates of 
the songs running from 1863 to 1900. The introductory 
matter in both these volumes is judicious and interesting. 

The late Amos G. Warner's excellent treatise on 
« American Charities " (Crowell) is without question the 
classic work on the subject, although some phases of the 
field of charity have been treated more recently by other 
writers. This book has great vitality, and its usefulness 
has been prolonged by the admirable editorial service of 
Professor Coolidge, who has brought the statistics and 
other materials up to date in a most careful manner. 
The biography by Professor G. E. Howard is a welcome 
feature of this new edition. The contents of the original 
volimie are too familiar to require a survey at this time. 
The bibliography is a valuable aid in the further study 
of the problem. The book can be recommended to stu- 
dents as one of highest value and importance. 


Mr. W. P. Thomson, for several years with Messrs. 
Doubleday, Page & Co., has joined forces with the 
Francis D. Tandy Company of New York, which firm 
will hereafter be known as the Tandy-Thomas Company. 

From the Cambridge University Press (Putnam) we 
have Volume VI of Beaumont and Fletcher, as edited 
by Mr. A. R. Waller; and an edition of " The Posies " of 
George Gascoigne, edited by Professor John W. Cunliffe. 

"New Hampshire as a Royal Province," by Dr. 
William Henry Fry, is a bulky monograph of over five 
hundred pages, published by Columbia University in the 
series of " Studies in History, Economics, and Public 

As their leading novel of the Spring season, the 
Houghton Mifflin Company will pubh'sh early this month 
" The Story of Thyrza," by Miss Alice Brown, whose 
recent novel, " Rose MacLeod," has had such marked 

" The Rhetoric of Oratory," by Professor Edwin 
DuBois Shurter, is a systematic treatise upon the form 
of composition, with an appendix of specimen college 
orations which students will find useful for practical 
guidance. The work is published by the Macmillan Co, 

Mr. Clarence F. Birdseye will issue in the near future 
through the Baker & Taylor Co. an important pubhcation 
entitled " The Reorganization of our Colleges." Mr. 
Birdseye will be remembered as the author of a recent 
book entitled " Individual Training in our Colleges." 

The sudden death of Will Lilhbridge at his home at 
Sioux Falls, South Dakota, was recently announced. 
Mr. LUlibridge is best known for his story " Ben Blair," 
which was published by Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. 
four years ago, and had a wide success. 

Volume IV. of the " Storia do Mogor," by the 
Venetian Niccolas Manucci, as translated for the 
" Indian Text Series " by Mr. William Irvine, is now 
imported by Messrs. Dutton. This volume completes 
the work, which is a history of Mogul India during the 
last half of the seventeenth century. 

Herr C. Hulsen's handbook of " The Roman Forum," 
translated by Mr. Jesse Benedict Carter, is now pub- 
lished in a second edition by Messrs. G. E. Stechert & Co. 
It is an indispensable book for the tourist in Rome, and 
of almost equal value for reference, since it embodies 
the latest results of excavation and interpretation. 

The J. B. Lippincott Co. publish a revised edition, 
with an introduction by Mr. Cyrus Elder, of Spurzheim's 
"Phrenology," first given to the American pubhc 
seventy-five years ago. Pseudo-science has an evident 
advantage over science in the fact that its expositions 
do not easily become out-dated by the advance of 

The widow of the late William Henry Drummond, 
the poet of the Canadian habitant, has selected from his 
literary remains enough poems and sketches to mako 
a sizable volume, called "The Great Fight," now 
published by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Mrs. 
Drummond writes a memoir, and Dr. S. Weir Mitchell 
provides a tributary poem. 

The first voliune of a work to be called " English 
Literature in the Victorian Era: A Biographical and 
Critical History," by Dr. Robertson Nicoll, will be pub- 
lished in the autumn. The book will run to six volumes, 
and it is hoped that they will be issued at the rate of 
one a week until its completion. We understand that 



[March 1, 

Dr. NicoU has been engaged upon this task for many 
years. His main purpose has been to estimate the value 
and influence of the writers and thinkers who have done 
most to shape the direction of English thought during 
the period treated. 

The edition of Jane Austen's novels published by 
Messrs. Duffield & Co. in the " St. Martin's Illustrated 
Library of Standard Authors " is now completed by the 
addition of " Emma," " Mansfield Park," " Northanger 
Abbey," and " Persuasion," — six volumes, making ten 
altogether. Many charming illustrations in color make 
this a very desirable edition. 

The first of a projected series of encyclopaedias for 
the young, prepared by Professor Edwin J. Houston, 
will be published this year by the American Baptist 
Publication Society. The series will treat of the various 
substances and phenomena connected with such branches 
of natural science as Physical Geography, Natural Philo- 
sophy, Mineralogy, Electricity, Geology, and Chemistry. 

Early this month Messrs. Duffield & Co. will make 
the experiment of issuing a new book in paper covers, 
after the French manner. The volume, a collection of 
picturesque stories of Paris, by Helen Mackay (Mrs. 
Archibald K. Mackay), will copy precisely the French 
scheme of bookmaking in type and make-up, and the 
binding will be of paper in place of the customary 
boards and cloth. 

William Mathews, author and educator, died on Feb- 
ruary 14 at his home in Boston, Mass., in his ninety-first 
year. Among his best-known books are " Getting On in 
the World," " The Great Conversers," " Words, their 
Use and Abuse," " Hours with Men and Books," " Mon- 
day Chats," " Oratory and Orators," " Literary Style," 
" Men, Places, and Things," " Wit and Humor," and 
" Nugse Litterarise." 

"The Tempest" and "The Merchant of Venice," 
both edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall, are recent additions 
to the " Old - Spelling Shakespeare," pubhshed by 
Messrs. Duffield & Co. From the same source we 
have "An Evening with Shakespeare," by Mr. T. 
Maskell Hardy, being a book of directions for a Shake- 
speare entertainment of readings, tableaux, and songs 
set to old-time music. 

Another book on Shakespeare which may be expected 
during the year is Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton's essay, 
" Shakespeare's Adequacy to the Coming Century." 
Mr. Watts-Dimton seems to have quite a number of 
works approaching completion, among them "Rem- 
iniscences of D. G. Rossetti and William Morris at 
Kelmscott," a critical account of the romantic move- 
ment, to be entitled " The Renascence of Wonder," 
and a new novel. 

Among the foremost advocates of universal peace is 
the author of "Ground Arms ! " the Baroness von Suttner, 
who, at the age of sixty-five, has just written an account 
of her life, which has been published by the well-known 
" Deutsche Verlaganstalt " of Stuttgart and Leipzig. 
Messrs. Ginn & Company have secured the rights to 
publish the " Memorien von Bertha von Suttner " in all 
English-speaking countries, and will shortly bring out 
an English edition. 

Mr. John Foster's "A Shakespeare Word-Book," 
published by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co., is not a 
concordance, but a dictionary, with textual examples 
of Shakespeare's archaic forms and words of varied 
usage. Even with this limitation, the work extends to 
upwards of seven hundred double-columned pages. It is 

particularly valuable for reference in the case of words 
which are in common use to-day, but which had in the 
sixteenth century a signification materially different 
from that which we now give them. Such words are 
the real pitfalls of Shakespeare, rather than those 
which we at once see to be old and strange. 

" Recollections of Seventy Years," by Mr. F. B. 
Sanborn of Concord, is announced for publication this 
month. As editor of the Springfield " Republican," 
the Boston " Commonwealth," and the " Journal of 
Social Science," as the last of the founders of the 
famous Concord School of Philosophy, and as the close 
friend of such men as Emerson, Thoreau, Alcott, and 
John Brown, Mr. Sanborn occupies a xmique position. 
The work is divided into two volumes, one devoted to 
his political and the other to his literary life. 

A treatise on " Ethics," the work of Professors John 
Dewey and James H. Tufts, has been added to the 
" American Science Series " of Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 
Its fundamental aim is " to awaken a vital conviction of 
the genuine reality of moral problems and the value of 
reflective thought in dealing with them." Approaching 
their subject by the historical pathway, the authors pro- 
ceed to analyze the leading conceptions of ethical theory, 
and then to apply them to a variety of pohtical and econo- 
mic problems at present largely under discussion. 

The Bibliophile Society, organized in Boston nine 
years ago for the purpose, among other ends, of pub- 
lishing artistic books and noteworthy manuscripts, will 
soon issue Thoreau's " Walden " as Thoreau wrote 
it, unabridged and unchanged. The " Walden " now 
known to the reading public lacks, according to Mr. 
Henry H. Harper, the Society's president, some twelve 
thousand words that were cut out by Thoreau's publish- 
ers from the author's manuscript, which, after devious 
wanderings, has fortimately come into the Society's 

Two new books by Mr. Arthur Symons are a welcome 
feature of Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co.'s Spring announce- 
ment list. The first of these, " The Romantic Movement 
in English Poetry," is an even more ambitious piece of 
work than its title suggests, for instead of an essay or a 
narrative, Mr. Symons gives separate and distinct appre- 
ciations of the personality and poetry of no less than 
eighty-six romantic writers born in the last eighty years 
of the eighteenth century. The other volume is a new 
edition, practically re-written, of the well-known "Plays, 
Acting, and Music." 

Russell Sturgis, well-known as an architect, art critic, 
and writer on architectural subjects, died at his home in 
New York City, on February 11. Mr. Sturgis was bom 
in 1836. Of chief interest among his published writings 
are the following: "European Architecture," "How to 
Judge Architecture," " The Appreciation of Sculpture," 
" The Appreciation of Pictures," and " The Interdepend- 
ence of the Arts of Design." At the time of his death 
one volume of his principal work, a " History of Archi- 
tecture," had been issued, another was in the proofs, and 
the third in manuscript. 

The copyright office of the Library of Congress 
reports for the last calendar year 118,386 entries, of 
which 30,954 were books, 23,022 periodicals (separate 
numbers), and the remainder musical and dramatic 
compositions, maps, engravings, chromes, photographs, 
prints of various kinds, and objects of art. The largest 
number of entries in one day was 3,532, and the smallest 
177. The total copyright fees amounted to $82,045.25, 




while the salaries paid were $76,475.77, and the dis- 
bursements for stationery and supplies, $1,142.30. 
Figures given for the last eleven years show the office 
to be handsomely self-supporting. 

The American Unitarian Association is engaged in the 
publication of a " Centenary Edition " of the writings 
of Theodore Parker. Three of the volumes are now at 
hand: " Sermons of Religion," edited by Mr. Samuel A. 
Eliot; " The Transient and Permanent in Christianity," 
edited by Mr. George Willis Cooke ; and " Historic 
Americans," a group of six lectures devoted to Franklin, 
Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, John Quincy 
Adams, and Daniel Webster. Good reading these 
books are, and we are glad that their burning message 
is thus presented to a new generation. 

The Spring announcement list of the Macmillan Co., 
just issued, is an imposing and interesting list of books 
containing no less than 100 titles. Of this number, 
34 are classified as Educational, and 7 as Scientific or 
Medical, the remainder of the list being distributed as 
follows: Fiction, 7 titles; General Literature, Poetry, 
and Drama, 6; Art, Archaeology, and Music, 5; Books 
of Travel and Description, 3 ; History, 6 ; Biography, 7 ; 
Politics, Economics, and Sociology, 9; Religion and 
Philosophy, 16. A list covering so wide a range of 
topics would in itself constitute the nucleus of a good 
general library. 

The committee to which was assigned the decision 
upon the merits of the papers contesting for prizes 
offered by Messrs. Hart, Schaffner & Marx of Chicago, 
for 1908, has unanimously agreed upon the following 
award: The first prize, of $1000, to Professor Oscar 
D. Skelton for a paper entitled "The Case against 
Socialism " ; the second prize, of $500, to Mrs. Emily 
Fogg Meade for a paper entitled " The Agricultural 
Resources of the United States." Among the contribu- 
tions restricted to college undergraduates, the first 
prize of $300 was won by Mr. A. E. Pinanski, Harvard 
1908, for a paper entitled " The Street Railway of 
Metropolitan Boston," and the second prize of $150 by 
William Shea, Cornell 1909, for "The Case against 
Socialism." It is expected that two, and possibly more, 
of these essays will be published this year by Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 


March, 1909. 

Africa, Into, with Roosevelt. E. B. Clark. Review of Reviews. 
Africa in Transformation. C. C. Adams. Review of Reviews. 
Africa that Roosevelt Will See. C. B. Taylor. Everybody's. 
Africa: Where Roosevelt will Go. T. R. MacMechan. McClure. 
Africa's Native Problem. Olive Schreiner. Review of Reviews. 
Alcohol, Evidence against. M. A. Rosanoft. McClure. 
American Concert of Powers, An. T. S. Woolsey. Scribner. 
American Fleet and Australia. G. H. Reid. North American . 
Anti-Japanese Legislation. S. MacClintock. World To-day. 
Antony and Cleopatra, Romance of. L. Orr. Munsey. 
Art and American Society. Mabelle G. Corey. Cosmopolitan. 
Art in E very-day Life. R. C. Coxe. World's Work. 
Austria-Hungary Situation. 8. Tonjoroff. World To-day. 
Baedeker, The New — VII., Trenton Falls, N. Y. Bookman. 
Bank Issues vs. Government. J. L. Laughlin. Scribner. 
Barnard, GeorgeG., Sculpture of. F. W. Coburn. World To-day. 
Barry, Major-General Thos. H. B. Wildman. World To-day. 
Battleship, Launching a. R. G. Skerrett. World To-day. 
Book-Trade, The Disorganized. H. Miinsterberg. Atlantic. 
Bubonic Rats in Seattle. L. P. Zimmerman. World To-day. 
Buildings, Foundations of High. F. W. Skinner. Century. 
Burns, Poet of Democracy. Hamilton W.Mabie. No. American. 
Caine, Hall, Autobiography of — VII. Appleton. 
Cavour and Bismarck. Wm. R. Thayer. Atlantic. 
Chelsea, Old, and Its Famous People. W. J. Price. Munsey. 

Child, Professor, A Day with. Francis Gummere. Atlantic. 
Christianity and Temperance. C. F. Aked. Appleton. 
Church, The, and the Republic. Cardinal Gibbons. No.Amer. 
Cleveland's Second Campaign. G. F. Parker. McClure. 
Coal as a Conxmercial Factor. C. Phelps. Metropolitan. 
Consular Agents, Training. E. J. Brundage. World To-day. 
Coquelin, The Personal. Stuart Henry. Bookman. 
Cotton Trade. Our. Daniel J. Sully. Cosmopolitan. 
Country Life, Possibilities of. World's Work. 
Craftsmen, Mediaeval. E. A. Batchelder. Craftsman. 
Cuba, Home Rule in. C. N. de Durland. World To-day. 
Democracy, The New American. Wm. Allen White. American. 
Democratic Party's Future. W.J.Bryan. Munsey. 
Desert, Reclaiming the — III. Forbes Lindsay. Craftsman. 
Dramatic Technique, Evolution of. A. Henderson. No. Amer. 
Dyeing Imitation Silk. C. E. Pellew. Craftsman. 
Educational Revolution, An. H. E. Gorst. North A merican. 
Embassies, Government Ownership of . Horace Porter. Century. 
English Sport from an American Viewpoint. Scribner. 
Faria, Abb6, The Real. Francis Miltoun. Bookman. 
Ferdinand, Czar of Bulgaria. Theodore Schwarz. Munsey. 
Fishing off California. C. F. Holder. World To-day. 
Fleet, A Night with Our. Richard Barry. Cosmopolitan. 
Fruit-Handling: New Methods. F.J.Dyer. Review of Reviews. 
Fur Country, In the. Agnes C. Laut. World's Work. 
Fur Traders as Empire-Builders — I. C. M. Harvey. Atlantic. 
German Art. Modern. M. I. MacDonald. Craftsman. 
Germany in Transition. North American. 
Hartzell, Bishop, in Africa. F. C. Inglehart. Review of Reviews. 
Hayes in the White House. M. S. Gerry. Century. 
Health, Value of. F. M. Bjorkman. World's Work. 
Herrick's Home in Devon. Edna B. Holman. Scribner. 
Immigrants, Opportunities for. T. Bartlett. World's Work. 
Immortals, The Forty. Brander Matthews. Munsey. 
Indian Tribes in the Desert. E. S. Curtis. Scribner. 
Infectious Diseases, Preventing. C. Torrey. Harper. 
Innocence, The Heavy Cost of. World's Work. 
Insurance, State Safeguards of. World's Work. 
Ireland, The New — X. Sydney Brooks. North A merican. 
Knox, Philander C. W. S. Bridgman. Munsey. 
Lafayette Statue. Bartlett's. C. N. Plagg. Scribner. 
Leipsic : Home of Faust. R. H. SchaufiBer. Century. 
Life Insurance, Romance of — X. W. J. Graham. World To-day. 
Lincoln, Abraham. Henry Watterson. Cosmopolitan. 
Lincoln, My Reminiscences of. A. J. Conant. McClure. 
Lion Country, Back to the. J. H. Patterson. World's Work. 
Lowell, Professor A. Lawrence. Frederic A. Ogg. Munsey. 
Lowell, Professor A. Lawrence. F. Rice. World To-day. 
McKinley and Cuba. Henry S. Pritchetti North American. 
McKinley at Antietam. John W. Russell. Munsey. 
Man-hunting in Kentucky. R. W. Child. Everybody's. 
Marriages, International. James L. Ford. Appleton. 
Militarism, The Delusion of. C.E.Jefferson. Atlantic. 
Mining, Eccentric. D. Pearson. World, To-day. 
Motor-boat, Uses of the. E. B. Moss. Metropolitan. 
Motor Car, The, and Its Owner. E. R. Estep. Rev. of Reviews. 
Muir, John, Three Days with. F. Strother. World's Work. 
Music, Nationalism in. Reginald De Koven. North American. 
Music, The American Idea in. David Bispham. Craftsman. 
Negro Problem, Heart of the. Quincy Ewingr. Atlantic. 
New York City's Big Debt. Henry Bru6re. Century. 
Ocean Travel, Safe. T. S. Dayton. Munsey, 
Ocean Travel, Safety of. E. A. Stevens. Review of Revietvs. 
Old Age. M. C. Carrington. Appleton. 
Orchestras, Great American. C. E. Russell. Cosmopolitan. 
Orinoco Delta, In the. C. W. and M. B. Beebe. Harper. 
Pekin : The Forbidden City. I. T. Headland. Metropolitan. 
Pennies, Counting the. Ida M. Tarbell. American. 
Physical Life, Our. Wm. H. Thomson. Everybody's. 
Physical Science of To-day. John Trowbridge. Atlantic. 
Ponies, The Kirghiz. Charles L. Bull. Metropolitan. 
Presidents, Changing. John T. McCutcheon. Appleton. 
Presidents, Our, Out-of-Doors. Calvin D. Wilson. Century. 
Press, The, and Professors. G. Stanley Hall. Appleton. 
Profit and Usury. Alexander G. Bell. World's Work. 
Prohibition and Public Morals. Henry Colman. No. American. 
Prosperity-Sharing. Wm. H. Tolman. Century. 
Railroads and Education. James O. Fagan. Atlantic. 
Religio-Medical Movements, The. S. McComb. No. American. 
Remington, Frederic, Art of. G. Edgerton. Craftsman. 
Renaissance Pageant, A., in Chicago. World's Work. 
Rockefeller, John D., Reminiscences of — VI. World's Work. 
Roosevelt as President. M.G. Seckendorft. Munsey. 
Roosevelt, Epoch of. C. Welliver. Review of Reviews. 
Roosevelt, President. Bookman. 

Roosevelt Regime. The. F. W. Shepardson. World To-day. 
Roosevelt's Achievements as President. World's Work. 



[March 1, 

Schools, Public, Plain Facts about. S. P. Orth. Atlantic. 

Scientific Congress, The First Pan-American. World To-day. 

Shakespeare's " Henry VIII." J. Churton Collins. Harper. 

"Society." Rollin Lynde Hartt. Atlantic. 

Stage, Our National. James L. Ford. McClure. 

Stage, The Grip of the. Clara Morris. Munsey. 

Steel, Making. William G. Beymer. Harper. 

Street Railways, Corruption in. F. W. Whitridge. Century. 

Swifts of Chicago, The. Emerson Hough. Cosmopolitan. 

Taft, Turning Points in Career of. W. H. Taft. Century. 

Taft. William H. George Fitch. American. 

Taft, William H. James P. Brown. Everybody's. 

Taft, Wm. H., as Administrator. J. A. LeRoy. Century. 

Taft. William H., Personality of. Century. 

Tariff Revision, Needed. T.H.Carter. North American. 

Telephone, The, and Crime. H. Dickson. Appleton. 

Theatres for Children. Laura Smith. World's Work. 

Tramps, Colonizing. G. Myers. Review of Reviews. 

Trolley Rehabilitation. Robert Sloss. Appleton. 

Union, The New, of States. W. J. McGee. Review of Reviews. 

Victoria. Queen, Impressions of. Sallie C. Stevenson. Century. 

Wall Street " Killings." John Parr. Everybody's. 

Welles, Gideon, The Diary of — II. Atlantic. 

Woman's Position — III. Duchess of Marlborough. No. Amer. 

Women, Work for — V. Wm. Hard. Everybody's. 

Wood Carving, Value of. K. von Rydingsvard. Craftsman. 

Wrangell, Ascending Mount. Robert Dunn. Harper. 

List of New Books. 

[The following list, containing 76 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 


The Ancestry of Abraham Liincoln. By J. Henry Lea 
and J. R. Hutchinson. lUus. in photogravure, 4to, pp. 218. 
Houghton MiiHin Co. tlO. net. 

The Xiife of a Fossil Hunter. By Charles H. Sternberg; 
with Introduction by Henry Fairfield Osborn. lUus., 12mo, 
pp. 286. " American Nature Series." Henry Holt & Co. 
tl.60 net. 

My Inner Liif e : Being a Chapter in Personal Evolution and 
Autobiography. By John Beattie Crozier. New edition ; in 
2 vols., 8vo. Longmans, Green, & Co. 12.50 net. 

The Apprenticeship of Washington, and Other Sketches 
of Significant Colonial Personages. By George Hodges, 
D.D., D.C.L. 12mo, pp. 232. Moffat, Yard & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Iiawrences of the Punjab. By Frederick P. Gibbon. 
With portraits in photogravure, etc., 12mo, pp. 350. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $1 .50 net. 


The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, and Its Expiation. 

By David Miller Dewitt. 12mo, pp. 302. Macmillan Co. 

$2.25 net. 
Napoleon and America : An Outline of the Relations of the 

United States to the Career and Downfall of Napoleon 

Bonaparte. By Edward L. Andrews. With frontispiece, 

8vo, pp. 89. Mitchell Kennerley. $2. net. 
The Roman Forum: Its History and Its Monuments. By 

Ch. Hvilsen ; trans, by Jesse Benedict Carter. Second edition, 

revised and enlarged ; illus., 12mo, pp. 271. G. E. Stechert 

& Co. $1.75 net. 
A History of the United States and Its People from Their 

Earliest Records to the Present Time. By Elroy McKendree 

Avery. Vol. V., illus. in color, 8vo, pp. 431. Cleveland: 

Burrows Brothers Co. 
Storia Do Mogor ; or, Mogul India, 1653-1708. By Niccolas 

Manucci; trans, by William Irvine. Vol. IV., illus., 8vo, 

pp.605. " Indian Text Series." E. P. Dutton & Co. $3.75net. 


Peace and Happiness. By Lord Avebury. 12mo, pp. 386. 
Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Johannes Brahms : The Herzogenberg Correspondence. 
Edited by Max Kalbeck ; trans, by Hannah Bryant. With 
portrait, 8vo, pp. 425. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3. net. 

Readings on the Paradlso of Dante, Chiefly Based on the 
Commentary of Benevenuto Da Imola. By William Warren 
Vernon; with Introduction by the Bishop of Ripon. Second 
edition ; in 2 vols, 12mo. Macmillan Co. $4. net. 

Little People. By Richard Whiteing. With portrait, 12mo, 

pp. 295. Cassell & Co. $1.50 net. 

New Mediaeval Library. New vols.: Early English Ro- 
mances of Love, Early English Romances of Friendship; 
done into modem English, with Introduction and notes, by 
Edith Rickert. Each illus. in photogravure, 16mo. Duffleld 
& Co. Per vol., $2. net. 

An Indian Study of Love and Death. By the Sister Nivedita 
of Ramakrishna-Vive-Rananda. 16mo, pp. 76. Longmans, 
Green & Co. 75 cts. net. 


The Novels of Jane Austen. Edited by R. Brimley Johnson ; 
illus. in color by A. Wallis Mills. New vols, completing the 
set: Emma, in 2 vols.; Mansfield Park, in 2 vols.; Persua- 
sion, Northanger Abbey. Each 12mo. Duffleld & Co. Per 
vol., $1.25 net. 

Works of Beaumont and Fletcher. Vol. VI., The Queen of 
Corinth, Bonduca, The Knight of the Burning Pestle, Loves 
Pilgrimmage, The Double Marriage. Edited by A. R. Waller, 
M.A. 12mo, pp. 420. " Cambridge English Classics." G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $1.50 net. 

The Republic of Plato. Trans., with Introduction, by A. D. 
Lindsay, M.A. 12mo, pp. 370. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Complete Works of George Gascoigne. Vol. I., The 
Posies. Edited by John W. Cunliffe, M.A., D.Lit. 12mo, 
pp.504. " Cambridge English Classics." G.P.Putnam's 
Sons. $1.50 net. 

The Old-Spelling Shakespeare. New vols. : The Merchant 
of Venice, The Tempest; edited by F. J. Fumivall, Ph.D., 
with Introduction and notes by F. W. Clarke, M.A. Each, 
12mo. Duffleld & Co. Per vol., $1. net. 

Salvage. By Owen Seaman. 16mo, pp. 149. Henry Holt & Co. 

$1.25 net. 

Ode on the Centenary of Abraham Lincoln. By Percy 
Mackaye. 12mo, pp. 61. Macmillan Co. 75 cts. net. 

Sisyphus: An Operatic Fable. ByR. C.Trevelyan. 8vo, pp.75. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50 net. 

Champlain : A Drama in Three Acts, with Introduction enti- 
tled Twenty Years and After. By J. M. Harper. With frontis- 
piece. 12mo, pp. 296. John Lane Co. $1.50. 

The Blue and the Gray, and Other Verses. By Francis 
M. Finch ; with Introduction by Andrew D. White. With 
portrait, 12mo, pp. 144. Henry Holt & Co. $1.30 net. 

Abraham Lincoln: A Poem. By Lyman Whitney Allen. 
Centennial (fourth) edition ; 12mo, pp. 142. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1.25 net. 

A Motley Jest : Shakespearean Diversons. 12mo, pp. 64. 
Sherman, French & (k>. $1. net. 

A Wine of Wizardry, and Other Poems. By George Stirling. 
12mo, pp. 137. San Francisco: A. M. Robertson. $1.25 net. 

Araminta. By J. C. Snaith. 12mo, pp. 423. Moffat, Yard & 

Co. $1.50. 
The Three Brothers. By Eden Phillpotts. 12mo, pp. 480. 

Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Christopher Hibbault, Roadmaker. By Marguerite Bryant. 

12mo, pp. 382. Duffleld & Co. $1.50. 
A Prince of Dreamers. By Flora Annie Steel. 12mo, pp. 348. 

Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.25 net. 
The Web of the Golden Spider. By Frederick Orin Bartlett. 

Illus. in color, etc., 12mo, pp. 354. Small, Maynard & Co. 

Rachel Lorian. By Mrs. Henry Dudeney. 12mo, pp. 346. 

Duffleld* Co. $1.50. 
The Pilgrims' March. By H. H. Bashford. 12mo, pp. 320. 

Henry Holt & Co. $1.50. 
Aline of the Grand Woods : A Story of Louisiana. By Nevil 

G. Henshaw. 12mo, pp. 491. Outing Publishing Co. $1.50. 
The Bomb. By Frank Harris. 12mo, pp. 329. Mitchell 

Kennerley. $1.50. 
Bill Truetell : A Story of Theatrical Life. By George H. 

Brennan ; illus. in color, etc., by James Montgomery Flagg. 

12mo, pp. 282. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.50. 
The Climbing Courvatels. By Edward W. Townsend. Illus. 

in color, 12mo, pp. 290. Frederick A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 
Whither Thou Goest : A Romance of the Clyde. By J. J. 

Bell. 12mo. pp. 364. Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.20 net. 




The Iiost Cabin Mine. By Frederick Niven. 12mo, pp. 312. 

John Lane Co. tl.50. 
Old Jim Case of South Hollow. By Edward I. Rice. With 

frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 253. Doubleday, Page & C!o. $1. net. 
The Trailers. By Ruth Little Mason. l2mo, pp.365. Fleming 

H. Revell Co. $1.20 net. 
In the Valley of the Shadows. By Thomas Lee Woolwine. 

Illus. in color, 12mo, pp. 115. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1. 
Unmasked at Last. By Headon Hill. With frontispiece, 

12mo. pp. 314 R. F. Fenno & Co. $1. net. 


Tunis, Kairouan and Carthagre. Described and painted by 
Graham Petrie, R.I. 8vo, pp. 241. Doubleday, Page & Co. 
$4.80 net. 

From Bnwenzori to the Conero : A Naturalist's Journey 
Across Africa. By A. F. R. Wollaston. Illus., 8vo, pp. 313. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. $5. net. 

The South African Nations : Their Progress and Present 
Condition. Edited by the South African Native Races Com- 
mittee. 8vo, pp. 248. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2. net. 


The Kelig^ion of the Common Man. By Sir Henry Wrixon. 

12mo, pp. 188. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 
Apt and Meet : Counsels to Candidates for Holy Orders, at 

the Church Divinity School of the Pacific. By William F. 

Nichols, D.D. 12mo, pp. 161. New York : Thomas Whittaker, 

Inc. $1. net. 
The Book of Filial Duty. Trans, from the Chinese of the 

Hsiao Ching by Ivan Ch6n, together with the Twenty-four 

Examples from the Chinese. 16mo, pp. 60. " Wisdom of the 

East Series." E. P. Dutton & Co. 40 cts. net. 


Collectivism : A Study of Some of the Leading Social Questions 
of the Day. By Paul Leroy Beaulieu ; trans, and abridged 
by Sir Arthur Clay. 8vo, pp. 343. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3. net. 

Outline of Practical Sociology with Special Reference to 
American Conditions. By Carroll D.Wright, LL.D. Seventh 
edition, revised ; 12mo, pp. 431. " American Citizen Series." 
Longmans, Green, & Co. |2. net. 

The Passing of the Tariff. By Raymond L. Bridgman. 12mo, 
pp. 274. Sherman, French & Co. $1.20 net. 

Towards Social Reform. By Canon and Mrs. S. A. Barnett. 
12mo, pp. 352. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 


A Shakespeare Word-Book : Being a Glossary of Archaic 
Forms and Varied Usages of Words Employed by Shake- 
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complete narrative are given in brief, simple, practical form, introductory, interpretative, historical, and 
archieological notes, arranged under descriptive heads. 


1909.] THE DIAL 157 



A Tale of the Western Prairies. By RiDGWELL CuLLUM. 
With frontispiece in color by J. C. Leyendecker. Large 
i2mo, cloth $1.50 

^ ^^B^^^^^^^^^ A story of Dakota in the 70's, depicting one of the Indian uprisings 
that were so frequent and so terrible in those days. It is strong in plot, 
vivid in action, and of great interest. Seth is a character no one can fail 
to admire. 


By Hon. Charles F. Warwick, author of "Mirabeau and 
V^ the French Revolution," etc. Illustrated from rare engravings. 

^^'^ ■ ^^^^^,-^ 8vo, cloth, stamped in gold net $2.50 

This is the third volume of Mr. Warwick's great trilogy on the French 

From Leyendecker's Frontispiece of Revolution. Besides being a complete biography of the great leader whose 

Watchers of the Plains" name it bears, the book also gives a full account of the summary of the 

chief events and happenings of the entire Revolution. Instead of the monster generally depicted, Mr. Warwick makes 

Robespierre very human indeed, — weak, revengeful and selfish it is true, but at heart a man and not a beast. 




The Three Volumes Boxed net 7.50 


By W. Lawler Wilson. 8vo, cloth net $1.50 

The author has taken a prominent part, as writer and speaker, in the campaign against Socialism now being con- 
ducted in England. The book is comprehensive and original. It considers Socialism and Anti-Socialism as the two 
great economic forces which are about to enter into a struggle for supremacy that will decide the political future of the 
Western World. It forecasts a great outbreak of Social Revolution in Europe within the next three or four years. 

"STONEWALL JACKSON" (American Crisis Biographies) 

By Henry Alexander White, Ph.D. lamo, cloth. With frontispiece portrait . . net $1.25 
The value of this book lies in the fact that it is written by the men whose knowledge of the life of the great Southern 
General is everywhere recognized as preeminently authoritative and exhaustive. Indeed, Dr. White's acquaintance 
with the remarkable character of Jackson is so well known that he was requested by Mr. Henderson, Jackson's English 
biographer, to revise the proof sheets of his two-volume Life. 


A simple exposition of the fundamental rules governing the game. By Agnes Henry. Square 

i6mo, cloth net $0.50 

Skat has long been a favorite game in Germany and is now becoming deservedly popular in America. The great 
difficulty that has heretofore confronted the novice is the lack of any text book simple enough to be understood by the 
learner. This difficulty, it is hoped, has been met in this little book by Mrs. Henry. All explanations have been 
made as clear and concise as possible, while some examples of possible hands and the manner of playing same form a 
very practical feature. 


A Book of Advice for the Household, with Practical Hints for the Preservation of Health and the 

Prevention of Disease. Large i2mo. Neatly bound in cloth net $1.00 

This is an attempt, on the part of a reputable physician, to place before the readers, in an intelligible way and 
interesting form, the chief facts of medicine and surgery with which it is proper and useful for this to be acquainted. 
While the directions given can in no way take the place of personal advice, such detailed information has been given 
that, should the reader be far away from the doctor, he may still be able to discoverthe cause of his illness and to select an 
efficient remedy. This book should be a valuable addition to every household, especially those in remote country districts. 


Designed as an Aid to Teachers in Preparing Sunday-School Lessons. Edited by Rev. William M. 

Groton, S.T.D. i2mo, cloth net $1.00 

The purpose of the manual is not only to furnish instruction in approved methods of preparing and teaching the 
lesson, but also to impart the information concerning the Scriptures and the Church which often lies beyond his imme- 
diate reach. The various articles contained in it have been reduced to as small a compass as the usefulness of the 
book will allow. ==^^^==== 




[March 16, 



SPRING 1909 




BAG," etc. 

Illustrations in color by Harrison Fisher. 

ISmo, cloth. $1.50. 

A splendid story of a mystery followed half way round 

the world. A delightfully romantic ending. 



Author of "Graustark," "The Day of the Dog," etc. 

Illustrations in color by Harrison Fisher. 

Decorations by Theodore B. Hapgood. 

12mo, cloth. $1.25. 

Told with Mr. McCutcheon's inimitable knack of turning 

a slight subject into a story which will delight thousands 

of readers. 


Author of " PAM." " PAM DECIDES." etc. 

Frontispiece in color by Will Foster. 12mo, cloth: $1.50. 

As entertaining and vivacious as " Pam." 



Author of "The Cardinal's Snu£f Box," "My Friend 

Prospero," etc. 

l^mo, cloth. $1.50. 

This story, the author's last, has the characteristic charm 

of his other novels. 

An interesting feature of " The Royal End " is the fact 
that Mrs. Harland collaborated with her husband in its 
production, and after his death brought it to completion. 


With full-page illustrations in 
color by the Kinneys and Har- 
rison Fisher. 

12mo, cloth. $1.50. 
One of the " six best sellers." 
An interesting romance of social 
and political adventure. 


Full-page illustrations in color by 
B. Martin Justice. Hmo, cloth. $1.60. 
A story of Washington diplomatic so- 
ciety, with a dash of adventure, and the 
spice of a big political intrigue, a per- 
fectly fascinating heroine, and strong 
and stubborn hero. 


An American story of mystery, 

romance, and adventure. 


With cover design by Harrison 

Fisher, and illustrations in color 

by the Kinneys. 

12mo, cloth. $1.60. 
A series of as thrilling, mystifying, 
and exciting adventures as can be 
crammed into one story. 



Author of "THE LION AND THE MOUSE," etc. 

Full-page illustrations in color by John Mae. 

12mo, cloth. $1.50. 

Novelized from the successful play as produced by 

David Belasco. 


Being the story of the prodigious Hickey. 


Author of " The Arrows of the Almighty," etc. 

Fully illustrated. 12mo, cloth. $1.50. 

" A new character study of the American youngster, fit 

to rank with Aldrich's ' Bad Boy,' and Mark Twain's 

■ Tom Sawyer.' " — Brooklyn Eagle. 



Author of "RED POTTAGE," "PRISONERS," etc. 

Illustrated. IZmo, cloth. $1.25. 

One of the best and strongest books of the season. 



Author of "The Transfiguration of Miss Philura," "The 

Resurrection of Miss Cynthia," etc. 

Illustrations by Alice Barber Stephens. 

l2mo, cloth. $1.50. 

A charming story, healthy and uplifting in tone. 


Author of "The Heart of Penelope," "Barbara Rebel," etc. 

12mo, doth. $1.50. 
The author introduces us to an unfamiliar world — the 
reserved, exclusive, distinguished circle of the old Catholic 
nobility in England to-day. 


Author of "Jan Vedder's Wife," "The Bow of Orange 
Ribbon," etc. 
Frontispiece by Walter Eniett. 12mo, cloth. $1.50. 
This is a story of the Isle of Arran, written with Mrs. 
Barr's intimate knowledge of Scottish people and their 
ways, which has made "Jan Vedder," "A Border Shep- 
herdess," etc., so deservedly popular. 







12mo, cloth. Probably net $1.50. 
Dr. Thomson's name has become famous by reason of the success of his " Brain and Personality." There is every 
reason to believe this new book will also be an epoch-maker. Everyone who wants a clear unteehnical exposition 
of the basis of physical life should read Dr. Thomson's new book. 

MR. CLEVELAND A Personal Impression 

By JESSE LYNCH WILLIAMS, author of " Princeton Stories," etc. 
Illustrated. 16mo, cloth. Net 50 cents. 
Mr. Williams, who' was a close personal friend of Mr. Cleveland, has compiled this appreciative volume with a 
desire to make a real contribution to the memory of the great American. 



Dramatic critic of the New York American. 

100 illustrations by H. B. Martin. Hmo, cloth. Net, $1.50. 

This book, the result of fifty trips across the Atlantic, 
discusses every conceivable phase of life in the big Liner, 
and is thoroughly amusing and unique. Everyone who has 
crossed or is going to cross ought to read it. 


A Fairy Play in Five Acts 
By MAURICE MAETERLINCK, author of "The Life of 
the Bee," " Wisdom and Destiny," etc. 
Translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. 
12mo, cloth. Net, $1.20. 
A play about children, written for adults, and it is alto- 
gether charming. In its atmosphere of wonder and magic, 
and its delightful fidelity to the nature of children, it is 
much like " Peter Pan." 


By D. CADY EATON, B.A., M.A., Professor of the History and Criticism of Art (emeritus) Yale University. 

250 illustrations. 8vo, cloth. Probably net $2.50. 

Here, in compact and convenient form, one can find brief biographies of all French artists of any note whatever, from the 
time of Watt«au to the present day. Besides the biographies, the volume contains interesting and illuminating criticisms 
of the masterpieces of modem French painters, written in a non-technical manner. 



lemo, cloth. Net $1.20. 

The volume contains twelve essays relating to some of the famous books and authors of the world, as well as to several 

literary movements. 


On a literary, an academic, or an 

oratorical career. 
By ROBERT WATERS, author of 
"Culture by Conversation," 
"John Selden and His Table 
Talk," etc. 

12mo, cloth. Net $1.20. 


A Poem. 

By Her Excellency the Princess 


16mo, cloth. Net 50 cents. 


Compared with the Established 
Principles of Justice. 


Author of " Industrial Freedom." 

8vo, cloth. Probably 7iet $2,60. 



[March 16, 



BILL TRUETELL: A Story of Theatrical Life 

By George H. Brennan. With frontis- 
piece in colors, and numerous text and 
full-page drawings by James Mont- 
gomery Flagg. Large 12mo, $1.50. 

IN " Bill Truetell" George H. Brennan a 
"well-known New York theatrical man, 
tells the story of an old-school manager's 
vicissitudes in touring the East. Truetell 
leaves New York with his '• Gay Goth- 
amites." At his first stopping place his 
leading soubrette leaves him, and " the 
little Van Balken,"' a stranded vaudeville 
artist, takes her place and becomes at once 
a new inspiration in Truetell's life. With 
Rupert Steelson, the loyal exponent of 
Shakespeare, Truetell meets more acute 
troubles which threaten to down him alto- 

The book is essentially true in spirit and 

largely in incident. The atmosphere of 
theatrical life is well reproduced in Mr. 
Brennan's characterizations of minor fol- 
lowers of the stage, as well as in the col- 
ored frontispiece and many full-page and 
text illustrations by James Montgomery 
Flagg, who, like Mr. Brennan, was tread- 
ing familiar ground in making these 
graphic studies. 

Heady March 20 


Square 8vo, boards. 60 cents net. 
'pAKING pictures as his starting point, the 
author briefly surveys the field of art the- 
ory in a clear and concrete manner, and the 
reader is given some leading ideas by which 
his future appreciation of pictures will be 
guided and enlarged. 

Published March 6 — Second Edition March 15 


By Florence Finch Kelly, 
author of " With Hoops of 
Steel." With four illustra- 
tions in full color by May- 
nard Dixon. Large 12nio. 

'pHIS is a stirring tale of love 
-*■ and revenge in the pictur- 
esque Southwest. Curtis Con- 
rad, superintendent of a ranch 
near Golden, New Mexico, has 
sworn to kill the man who ruined 
his father's fortunes. He con- 
fides his purpose to his friend 
Aleck Bancroft, who seeks in 
vain to dissuade him from it. 
Meanwhile Conrad falls in love 
with Lucy, Bancroft's daughter, 
and when a shady politician 
tells him that Bancroft is the 
owner of an assumed name and 
is the man he seeks to kill, he 
naturally spurns the idea. Such 
is the situation with which Flor- 
ence Finch Kelly confronts her 
readers in the beginning of 
"The Delafield Affair." 

Published March 6 


By Mrs. A. S. C. Forbes, author of " California Missions and 
Landmarks." With numerous illustrations and decorations 
in tint by Langdon Smith. Large 12mo. $1.50. 

A SERIES of twelve tales that 
■^^ breathe the old-time roman- 
tic atmosphere of earliest Cali- 
fornia. Spanish dons, equally 
proud if untitled Indians, priests, 
and an occasional pirate were 
among the elements that met 
when the Europeans planted the 
cross in token of spiritual sov- 
ereignty over the red men's land. 
Such diverse elements have, per- 
haps, never mingled in any other 
country. Certamly the tales 
handed down from the days when 
the adobe mission houses were 
filled with Indians, have an at- 
mosphere of their own which is 
nowhere else approached. All 
the stories in this book are based 
upon historic incident ; and in 
their telling, the vivid contrasts 
and gentle incongruities of Indian 
and priestly association are sym. 
pathetically shown. 

Ready March IS 


By Mrs. Stephen Batson, author of " A 
Concise Handbook of Garden Flowers." 
With 36 illustrations in color by Osmund 
Pittman. Index. Large 8vo. $3.50 net. 

A GARDEN iu bloom from April to Septem- 
^'^ ber with no August interregnum is the 
ideal set forth in Mrs. Batson's splendidly 
illustrated volume. After a chapter on the 
Wild Garden, the flowers are taken up in the 
order of their flowering and their character- 
istics and care described. Altliough her book 
is, from one standpoint, a practical text book, 
it is far more. Mrs. Batson treats her subject 
with "an intimate knowledge and deliglit," 
every reader. The thirty-sue illustrations by 
delightful studies of the garden, and to city 
stant refreshment as weU as an adequate 
delightful text. 



By Clark E. Carr, author of " The Illini," 
etc. Illustrated. Indexed. 8vo, bound 
in boards. 50 cents iifl. 
'■j""HE first complete history of the railway 
^ mail service is here reprinted from Colonel 
Carr's "My Day and Generation." Though 
primarily demanded by the members of that 
service, this book will be read with interest by 

Ready in April 


By Charlotte M. Poindexter. 
16mo. $1.00. 


which will captivate 
Osmund Pittman are 
dwellers will be a con- 
interpretation of the 

'■pHESE recipes are four generations old, the garnered culinary wis- 
-*- dom of an historic Virginia family. And the housewife who follows 
them in the cooking of staple dishes, as well as in the characteristic 
Southern dishes, will find her results distinctly above contemporary 
efforts. The author is the wife of Lieutenant F. L. Poindexter, U . S. A 

A. C. McCLURG & CO. 








LETTERS FROM CHINA: With Particular Reference to the Empress Dowager 
and the Women of China 

By Sarah Pike Conger 

Profusely illustrated. Index. Crown 
8vo, red cloth, stamped in white, gold, 
and green. $2.75 net. 

'T'HE dismissal from office of Yaun-Shih- 
Kdi, following the death of the Empress 
Dowager, gives a most timely interest to this 
sidelight on Chinese life and politics. Mrs. 
Conger was the wife of the American Min- 
ister in China from 1898 to 1904, a period 
which included the Boxer troubles. Her 
letters to relatives in America form the text 
of this book, which is illustrated by a unique 
collection of photographs including portraits 
of the late Empress Dowager and the ladies 

Prince Vh'ing 

of her retinue, and published by her special 
permission. Mrs. Conger's relations with the 
Dowager Empress were most intimate, and 
these letters reveal her in a new and kindlier 
light. ■ 



By James Cardinal Gibbons. Boards. 

18mo. 50 cents net. 
■ IF you disclose to me your character I 
will reveal to you your destiny." Such 
is the place that character assumes in the 
eyes of Cardinal Gibbons. The book is in no 
■way sectarian, its application is wide-spread, 
and its style is compact and vigorous. 

Ready March 13 


1 It Was, Is, and 
i. Will Be 

'- By H. B. Montgom- 
S- ery. With frontis- 
piece in color and 
16 other illustra- 
tions. Index. Large 
Svo. $2.50 net. 

ERY takes Japan 
seriously. Through- 
out his work he avoids 
the bizarre and pre- 
sents a comprehensive 
picture of an active nation, bending all its energies toward national 
progress and extension of trade. That Japan wUl discourage foreign 
enterprise on her soil, when it is legitimate, or that she 
will enlist China as an engme of destruction against 
the Western world, Mr. Montgomery does not believe. 
His chapters on Japanese art are unusually explicit. 

Ready in April 


By Frederic Lees. With twelve plates in full 
color, and many other full-page illustrations, 
and a map. Large Svo. $2.75 7iet. 

TN this delightfully written and illustrated work, 
Mr. Lees takes us down the Loire, Vienne, and 
Cher, and through the country which Balzac's de- 
scriptions still fit, and in which the Renaissance is a 
living memory of yesterday. The book has all the 
authority of a guide book, and is a veritable picture 
of the background of the Renaissance in Europe. 

Ready in April 

THE ANDEAN LAND By Chase S. Osbom. 

Two volumes, 
with over fifty 
illustrations and 
four maps. In- 
dexed. Large 
Svo. $5.00 net. 
'pHIS description 
-*- of the republics 
and colonies of 
South America com- 
bines a breezy anec- 
dotal style vrith an 
encyclopicdic range 
of subjects, pertain- 
ing to the history, 
geography, trade, and social conditions in the picturesque lands, some 
of which are here described for the first time. The table of distances 
and accounts of currency systems make it an author- 
itative guide book. Mr. Osbom writes with an 
authority born of intimate acquaintance.. 



Talks for Young People. Second Series. 

By Calvin Dill Wilson, author of " Making the 
Most of Ourselves," First Series ; " Canter- 
bury Tales Retold for Young Readers," etc. 
16mo. $1.00 net. 

n^O the end that his readers may not only develop 
-*- but profitably use their personal powers, Mr. 
Wilson discusses many sides of living. Literature 
and the appreciation of poetry, and such matters as 
holding a job, digging information out of books, and 
formmg young men's clubs, are treated in a practi- 
cal manner. 

Ready in April 


The Point of View — A Talk on 
Relaxation — Mental Hygiene in 
Daily Living. By Alice K. Fallows. 
Decorated boards. Square 12mo. 
Elach, 35 cents 7iet. 
ATISS FALLOWS, a co-worker with 
-'-'-'- her father. Bishop Samuel Fallows, 
in the Emmanuel movement, treats the 
practical side of self-help through mind 
cure in these volumes. They are written 
in non-technical language, and as an easy 
introduction to this new method of effi- 
cient living, will be found most valuable. 

Ready in April 


By Anna Morgan 


Compiled by Anna Morgan 
Two vols., 12mo, each $1.50 net. 

TN "The Art of Speech and Deport- 
-*- ment," everythuig that goes to make 
the pleasing and powerful speaker is 
treated in detail. 

From Tolstoi to O. Henry, from 
Boccaccio to Edward Everett Hale, Uter- 
ature pays tribute to " Selected Read- 
ings." In the dramatic section, Shaw 
and Molit're are found side by side. 

A. C. McCLURG & CO. 



162 THE DIAL [March 16, 


Has elicited stronger or more enthusiastic commen- 
dation from thoughtful readers everywhere than 

Peace, Power and Plenty 


Editor of "Success," author of "Every Man a King," etc. 
(l2mo, cloth, $1.00 net. Postage 10 cents.) 

" Will keep readers young," says John Burroughs. 

" You preach a sound, vigorous, wholesome doctrine, and preach it with much 
eloquence. The book will keep your readers young." 

" Vital, uplifting, transforming," says Miss Lilian Whiting. 

" Into what magic do you dip your pen to create so vital, so uplifting, so trans- 
forming a book ? It is indeed a hand-book for every day." 

" A mental and moral tonic," says Mrs. Burton Kingsland. . 

"It is to me a mental and moral tonic, a refreshment and an inspiration. Your 
vigorous and helpful words have roused me." 

" One chapter worth $500," says Samuel Brill. 

"I am so enthusiastic about your book that I have notified my employees in all 
our stores of its publication and asked them to buy it. The chapter on 'Health ' 
alone is worth $500." 

" A forcible presentation," says David Starr Jordan. 

" I have read the book with much interest. I find it very well written, and a forcible 
presentation of the strength involved in calmness and cleanliness." 

" A call to fuller life," says Ralph Waldo Trine. 

" One of those rare books whose every page contains something of great suggestive 
value. It is cheery, alive, inspiring, and it hasn't a dull paragraph in it. It will be 
the call to a new, a fuller life to many thousands." 

" Needed by my race," says Booker T. Washington. 

"I wish I were able to translate its message into the hearts and minds of all my 
people. It preaches the gospel that a race which is trying to get on its feet needs." 

Read the Marden Inspirational Books! 



1909] THE DIAL. 163 



First Folio Shakespeare 


Issued, a play to a volume, with full introductions, notes, glossaries, and variorum readings. 

The only Popular Price Edition which reproduces 
exactly the original First Folio of 1623. 


The Merry Wives of Windsor All's Well That Ends Well 

Measure for Measure . 


A Midsommer Nights Dreame. Henry the Fift. 

Loves Labour's Lost. Much Adoe About Nothing. 

The Comedie of Errors. Romeo and Juliet. 

The Merchant of Venice. The Tempest. 

The Tragedie of Macbeth. The Tragedie of Othello. 

The Tragedie of Julius Caesar. The Winters Tale. 

The Tragedie of Hamlet. The Taming of the Shrew. 

The Tragedie of King Lear. The Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

Twelfe Night, or What You Will. The Tragedie of Coriolanus. 

As You Like It. 

Size of volumes, ^}( x 6%. 
Cloth, 75 cents; limp leather, $i.oo per volume. 

Horace H. Furness says: "My heartiest congratulations on an important and attractive 
undertaking. . . , I think you do Vi^isely and shrewdly in reprinting the First Folio." 

Hamilton W. Mabie says: "A great gain for Shakespearean students." 

Brander Matthews says: " The most useful edition now available for students." 

The Dial says : " It would be difficult to praise this edition too highly." 





[March 16, 



author of 

nancy Stair 

KATRINE is the first novel which Mrs. Lane has publish- 
ed since her brilliant story of "Nancy Stair." Those 

who have read both books agree in recognizing KATRINE as 
the greater successor of a great romance. In KATRINE, as in 
" Nancy Stair," a beautiful, magnetic woman takes the leading 
part. This is a romance of picturesque love-making, of separation, of the woman's 
triumph through her natural gifts, of a man's awakening and his battle with 
realities, and, finally, it is a romance not only of a woman's achievement, but of an 
all-conquering love. 







JVitk Frontispiece. Post 8vo, Cloth, ■$ 



A MAINE youth — full of" ambition and a 
keen zest for life — begins his career on a 
rub'oer plantation in Mexico, as manager of a busi- 
ness concern which in reality is a trickster's enter- 
prise, although he does not know it. He meets and 
loves a beautiful Mexican girl, a revelation after the 
giggles and smirks to which he has been accustomed. 
The romance which follows is full of peril and 
hardships, of love and success. This novel is most 
unusual in its atmospheric charm ; in fact, the 
portrayal is so absolutely new and vivid that 
it is prophesied the book will be the " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin " of this tragedy of Indian ser- 

With Frontispiece. Post 8vo, Cloth, S^-JO. 


IT is by the actress herself — this story of a New 
York girl who gives up her sweetheart for the 
stage. The fun and the tears of stage life — the 
real, not the scandal kind — reveal the actress as an 
original, frank, humorous, likable girl. The man 
is prosperous, level-headed, and knows just what 
the feminine "artistic temperament" really 
needs. Naturally he hasn't much sympathy with 
the " career." 

The girl is determined to be a great artiste, 
and, putting her sweetheart aside — But the 
actress tells her heart-story better than any one 
else can. 

Pictorial Cover. Illustrated. Post 8vo, Cloth, 

The Gorgeous Borgia 


THE t3'rant Caesar Borgia, who turned happiness into 
misery, song into groans, life into death. He was as 
"beautiful as a tiger, and as bright and strong as a tiger, and 
truly as cruel as a tiger." He murders his brother, the Duke 
of Gandia. An unsuspecting girl, in her ignorant beauty, 
adores him. Herself of the rival house of Orsini, she is elect- 
ed to slay the tyrant, not dreaming that he is her lover. The 
story is riotous with the Roman life in this period. 

Pictorial Wrapper in Colors. Post Svo, Cloth, ■$ 


16mo, Gilt Tops and Backs, Decorative 
Carer, Cloth, 75 cents 7iet. 

A RESPONSE lo the special demand of 
the century now opening:. Tiie central 
living thought in the intellectual move- 
ments of the day in permanent book form and 
at a low price. Three volumes now ready: 
Three Plays of Shakespeare. By 

Algernon Charles S'winburne. 
Personal Religion in Egypt Before 
Christianity. By W. M. Flinders Petrie. 
The Teaching of Jesus. By Count Leo 



THIS recognized, complete, and splendid biography of Macaulay comes out this spring in new form, with much new 
matter and in two editions. " Macaulay's Marginal Notes," once published separately, is now incorporated in the 
biography, making Chapter XVI, and bringing in matter of great value. This has made necessary new appendices, 
etc., as well as other changes and improvements. — Two editions : One volume. Crown 8to, Cloth, Gilt Top, ivith 
Portrait, $2.00. Two volumes, Svo, Cloth, Gilt Tops, with Portrait, in a box, $5.00. 






Volume III. Renascence and Reformation. Now ready 

The Cambridge History of English 


Edited by A. W. Ward, Litt.D., and A. R. Waller, M.A. 

To be in 14 Volumes. Price per volume $2.60. 

Subscriptions received for the complete work at $31.50 net, payable at the rate of $2.25, 

on the notification of the publication of each volume. 

Previously issued: Vol. I. From the Beginning: to the Cycles of Romance. Vol. II. The End of the Middle Ages. 

" The editors of this volume . . . have produced a book which is indispensable to any serious student of English 

literature. The individual articles are in several instances contributions of great value to the discussion of their 

subjects, and one of them is of first-rate importance in English literary history." — Athenoium,. 

Send for Descriptive Circular 


By John Qalsworthy 

Author of " The Country House," etc. $1.35 net. 
" A remarkable power of ironic insight combined with 
an extremely keen and faithful eye for all the phenomena 
on the surface of life." — Joseph Conrad. 

Shelburne Essays sixth series 

By Paul Elmer More $1.25 ne<. 

Contents : 
The Forest Philosophy of India — The Bhagavad Glta — 
Saint Augustine — Pascal— Sir Thomas Browne— Bunyan 
— Eousseau — Socrates — The Apology — Plato. 

Fighting the Turk in the 

By A. H. D. Smith illustrated. $1.75 net. 

Narrates the thrilling adventures of a y.oung American 
who for several months joined a band of Macedonian 

" A very remarkable story of adventure." — N. Y. Times, 

The Philosophy of Self Help 

By Stanton Davis Kirkham 

Author of " The Ministry of Beauty," etc. 

Crown 8vo. $1.25 net. 

A book designed to show how, by a training and use of 

the mind, it is possible for every one to secure at least a 

large measure of mental health and: physical well-being. 

The Century of the Child 

By Ellen Key $1.50 Jie*. 

Some of Miss Key's ideas are strongly revolutionary, but 
in educational questions she shows originality, and her 
writings have a wide appeal among progressive people. 
In the matter of the education of children she is the foe 
of mechanical methods and recommends a large liberty in 
the bringing-up of young people. 

The Federal Civil Service as 
a Career 

By E. B. K. Foltz $1.50 net. 

A handbook for the applicant for Federal positions, the 
officeholder, the economist, and the busy citizen. It is a 
book of facts, concisely stated, free from technicalities, 
and arranged with a view to practical use. 

Volume V. Completing the Work 

The Greatness and Decline of Rome 

By Quglielmo FerrerO. Authorized Translation. 5 Volumes. Each, %2.m net. 




The continued large demand has exhausted the edition of Volumes I., II., III., and IV. New impressions of these 
volumes will be ready early in April. 

The Great Lakes 

By James Oliver Curwood Fully illustrated. $3.50 nc<. 

The romance attaching to the past history of the Lakes and not less the romance of the present — the story of the 
great commercial fleets that plough our inland seas, created to transport the fruits of the earth and the metals that are 
dug from the bowels of the earth. Comparatively little has been written of these fresh-water seas, and many readers will 
be amazed at the wonderful story which this volume tells. 

Send for New Announcement Lists 









[March 16, 




The Story of Thyrza 

" A strong book. Presents a study of the Puritan conscience and temperament that is full of penetrating 
insight and clever analysis. . . . Alice Brown's heroine might be said to be a Hester Pryne under contem- 
porary conditions. . . . A fine example of literary craftsmanship." — £roo/cJi/n JSofirie. 

With frontispiece in color by A lice Barber Stephens. $1.36 net. Postpaid, |1.60. 


My Cranford 

A phase of the quiet life, as seen in a country village, which has inspired the author with some delightful 
reminiscences and reflections. Illustrated. $1.25 net. Postpaid, $1.40. 


The Faith Healer 

" A closely knit, steadily cumulative and absorbing drama that engrosses and thrills even in the comparative 
tameness of the printed page. ... A drama of action and of conflict." — Boston Transcript. 

$1.00 net. Postpaid, $1.10. 


Studies in Christianity 

A practical attempt to combine the new theology and the old religion, by a leading American scholar. 

$1.50 7iet. Postage extra. 


The Life of Poe 

The authoritative life of this most interesting of American poets by one of the foremost of living poets and 
critics. Two volumes. Fully illustrated. $5.00 net. Postpaid, $5.30. 


Stickeen: The Story of a Dog 

A stirring story of a faithful dog, actual adventure and perilous escape in the glacier country. The story is 
told in picturesque and almost poetic prose. 60 cents net. Postpaid 67 cents. 


Through Welsh Doorways 

Delightful stories of Welsh life by an author who knows the country and its people intimately, and who 
writes with humor, pathos and affection. What Barrie has done for Scotland Miss Marks has done for the 
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Wild Life on the Rockies 

An interesting account of adventures with snowslides, wild beasts, and wild weather, the animal life of the 
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On the Road to Arden 

A charming romantic tale of a springtime excursion by two willful maids in a runabout. Their repeated 
encounters with an automobile and its impulsive occupants afford an opportunity for a double love story 
full of delightful situations. With sketches by II. M. Brett. $1.00 /ie<. Postage extra. 


State Insurance 

A valuable handbook in which the desirability of state insurance, its effectiveness in other countries, and 
the peculiar problems connected with it for our own country, are set forth with great vigor and lucidity. 

$1.25 net. Postage extra. 


The Cambridge Dryden 

The most complete collection of Dryden's writings yet attempted in popular form. The book is well supplied 
with notes and has a chronological arrangement of contents. 

Cambridge Edition. With photogravure Portrait and Vignette. $3.00. Postpaid. 









l£mo. Illustrated. ^1-50. 

" A more beloved vagabond than ' The Beloved Vagabond.' " — N. Y. Globe' 
"Witty, original, and gay as Sheridan." — Pall Mall Gazette. 
"Locke at his best.'' — Baltimore Sun. 

" A permanent a^idition to the lovable characters of fiction." — Outlook. 
" It appears to be Mr. Locke's province to let light into the dark corners of 
life and show us the bright side of people and things." — Boston Transcript. 

" ' Septimus ' is not a book for prudes to read, although it is in no sense 
immodest. It grows in strength and depth toward the end, until it offers one of the 
most absorbing propositions presented in modern fiction." — Washington Star. 

" One of those rare stories that attract us first of all in our lighter moods and 
then lay hold upon us with the force of a strong ideal." — Argonaut. 
William Lyon Phelps, Professor of English Literature at Yale University : " ' Septimus ' is to my mind the best 
book Mr. Locke has ever written, which means it is one of the most delightful novels published during the last ten 
years. . . . All the whimsical humor of his former stories, with a deep vein of purity and tenderness." 

LOST CABIN MINE A Stirring Tale of the West 

127)10. $1.50. 
" Apache Kid is of the type Bret Harte loved to draw." — Queen. 
"Full of movement and stirring.'" — Brooklyn Eagle. 


By Constance Elizabeth Maud. 12mo. $1.50. 

" Interprets French character to American readers with more success than any recent work 
of fiction. The dash and sunny grace of the French character are inimitably brought out.'' 


By Laurence Hope. Illustrated from Photographs by Mrs. Eakdley Wilmot. 
4to. $S.OO net. Postage, 15 cents. 

" No one has so truly interpreted the Indian mind — no one, transcribing Indian thought into our literature, has 
retained so high and serious a level, and quite apart from the rarity of themes and setting, the verses remain true 
poems." — London Daily Chronicle. 


By Walter Jerrold. ISmo. $2.50 net. Postage, 12 cents. 

The object of this collection is not only to indicate something of the number of living poets, but also to show 
them in their most characteristic work, and as a consequence, in a certain measure to illustrate at once the range of 
the poetical expression of the time, and something of the thought of the time as rendered in poetry. 

SALOME A Guide to Strauss' Opera 

16mo. Illustrated. $1.00 net. Postage, 6 cents. 


16mo. $1.25 net. Postage, 10 cents. 
Salome, Pelleas and Melisande, Boheme, etc. Ably discussed by Lawrence Oilman. 
"For constant opera-goers a timely transcript." — New York Sun. 


By Lawrence Oilman. Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50 net. Postage, 12 cents. 
" Every appreciator of MacDowell's music should possess himself of this study of the composer." 

— Washington Star. 


$2.00 per volume. 







[March 16, 


From the List of J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY Philadelphia, Pa, 


CThe fourth volume of the French Men of Letters Series. 
By George McLean Harper, Professor of English 
Literature in Princeton University, and author of 
" Masters of French Literature," Professor Harper believes 
that Sainte-Beuve is now more than ever acknowledged to 
be, with Taine and Benan, one of the intellectiial triumvi- 
rate of modern France, and that he is henceforth to be 
regarded not merely as the greatest French literary critic, 
but as one of the world's chief critics in the broad sense — 
a man who has thrown the light of reason upon all great 
questions of psychology, morality, religion, politics, and art. 
With a frontispiece portrait and a bibliography. 12mo. 
Cloth, paper label, 11.50 net; postpaid, 11.60. 

The Life of 
James McNeill Whistler 

CAn entirely new printing of this authorized biography 
by Elizabeth R. and Joseph Pennell. The Interna- 
tional Studio says: "Those, too, who know him only 
in his paintings, etchings, and lithographs, will learn, 
through the intimacy of Mr. and Mrs. Pennell's pages, 
better to understand the deep-souled religion of beauty that 
inspired all his work. The numerous illustrations, repro- 
ducing practically all his important pictures, are beyond 
praise. Whistler himself would have delighted in this book, 
and proclaimed it ' all beautiful, distinguished, and charm- 
ing, as it should be.' We can hear his joyous, vibrant laugh 
of final triumph." Two volumes. 166 illustrations in half- 
tone, photogravure, and line. Crown quarto. Half-cloth, 
110.00 net per set. 

Wild Flowers and 

CBy George L.Walton, M.D., 
author of "Why Worry?" 
A book of chartsandgroups 
which will facilitate identifica- 
tion of many flowers and fruits 
commonly found in the north- 
eastern section of the United 
States. The pen and ink illus- 
trations were made direct from 
fresh specimens by the author. 
Two color plates and 86 line 
drawings. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50 net. 

The Home Garden 

CBy Eben E. Rexford, author of " Four Seasons 
in the Garden." This book is intended for the 
use of those who have a little piece of land 
upon which they would like to grow vegetables and 
small fruits, but whose knowledge how to go to work 
in the right way, and what to attempt growing, is 
limited, because of lack of experience. It contains 
no theories. It aims to give simply and clearly such 
information as the writer has gathered from his own 
experience in gardening, by which he believes others 
can bring about equally satisfactory results. Eight 
full-page illustrations. 12mo. 198 pages. Cloth, 
ornamental, fl.25 net; postpaid, $1.35. 

Our Insect Friends 
and Enemies 

CBy John B. Smith, Sc.D., 
Professor of Entomology 
in Rutgers College. The 
importance of insects and their 
influence on human life is just 
coming to be appreciated, and 
this volume treats of the rela- 
tions of insects to man, to other 
animals, to each other, and to 
plants. Colored frontispiece and 
121 line cuts in the text. 12mo. 
Cloth, $1.50 net. 

Behind the Veil 
in Persia- 

CBy M. E. Hume-Griffith. With narratives of experi- 
ences by A. Hume-Griffith, M.D. In a residence of 
eight years in Persia and Turkish Arabia the author 
became intimate with a large circle of friends whose life is 
passed behind the veil, and a.s the wife of a medical mission- 
ary she has had unusual opportunities of winning their con- 
fidence and becoming acquainted with their thoughts. As 
a result her book gives an accountof that inner life of the 
East of which a traveller, however keen-sighted and intelli- 
gent, seldom gains more than a passing glimpse. 37 illus- 
trations and a map. 350 pages. Octavo. Cloth, with gilt, 
$3.50 net. 

A British Officer in 
the Balkans 

CBy Major Percy Henderson, late of the Indian Army. 
There lies in Eastern Europe one of the most charm- 
ing districts, as yet unspoiled by tips or exorbitant 
hotel charges, possessing all the variety of scenery of Nor- 
way, the coloring of Italy, with the added glamor of the 
Orient. Major Henderson has written an intensely inter- 
esting record of a lengthy tour through Dalmatia, Monte- 
negro, and Turkey in Austria, Magyarland, Bosnia, and 
Herzegovina. The author's account is not that of a hurried 
traveller, but is the result of careful and appreciative observ- 
ation. The photographs, taken by Mrs. Henderson, are 
unique and add greatly to the interest of the book. Fifty 
illustrations and a map. Octavo. Cloth, gilt top, $3.50 net. 


CBy Stella M. During, author of 
"Disinherited." This novel re- 
cently won a thousand-dollar 
prize in a leading Chicago newspaper 
competition, and was pronounced as 
perhaps the most bafiiing mystery 
story of recent years. The plot is con- 
cerned with a murder which absolutely 
defies solution. Frontispiece in color 
by Frank H.Desch. 12mo. Cloth, with 
colored inset, $1.50. 


The Woman in Question 

^ By John Reed Scott, author of " The Colonel of the Red 
^*» Huzzars," " The Princess Dehra," etc. 

of the Cavalry 

CBy General Charles King, who 
stands sponsor for many fine 
army stories, but it is douTjtful 
if he has ever penned a more stirring 
one than this, his latest romance. The 
plot is laid at a frontier fort where witty 
women and brave men are snowed in 
for months, which isolation is to some 
extent accountable for the remarkable 
happenings. Three full-page illustra- 
tions by Frank McKernan. 12mo. De- 
corated cloth, $1.25. 

Self Help for 
Nervous Women 

C Familiar talks on economy in 
nervous expenditure by John K. 
Mitchell, M.D. Here are plain 
and helpful talks about food and rest, 
air and exercise, self-control, discipline, 
the training of the nervous system, 
etc., intended for the nervous, for those 
who apprehend nervousness, and for 
those who have to do with nervous 
invalids. 12mo. 202 pages. Cloth, 
$1.00 net; postpaid, $1.08. 


The Winning Chance 

^ By Elizabeth Dejeans. Strikingly original in theme 
^^ and treatment — the big problem of the American girl. 





Ellen Terry^s 

The Story of My Life 

A most charmingly individual biography — the informal reminiscences of one of the best-beloved 
women and most gracious personalities that the English-speaking stage has known. "Miss 
Terry had the fortune to come in contact with nearly everyone who counted in art and literature 
as well as in the theatre, and has something worth saying about all." Neixj York Sun. 

" Miss Terry has given us one of the most interesting books of reminiscences we are likely to 
see in our day." Chicago Record-Herald. 

Embellished ivith the greatest collection of theatrical photographs and reproductions of famous 
paintings ever published in one 'volume. Net, Sj JO (postage 2j cents). 

John La Farge^s 

The Higher Life in Art 

This notable resume of the work of Delacroix, Daubigny, Decamps, Corot, Rousseau, and 
Millet, by one who is recognized as the great art figure of the present day, will rank with the 
foremost contributions to art criticism. 

"Mr. La Farge is a rare master of the art of talking about art. Nothing could be less 
academic . . . from these lectures the reader may gain a really helpful artistic stimulus." A'^. Y. 


With 64 plates of famous paintings . Net, $2.^0 {postage 2^ cents). 

A work which 
M US T be in every 
intelligent read- 
er's library. 

German Edition 
ready, complete in 
two volumes. 
Net, I7.60 
40 cts.) 

The whole work of 
three volumes, thus completed, is one' 
of the most inspiring and readable memoirs 
in American literature." Chicago Record-Herald. 

Reminiscences of 

'■''His career 
was an Iliad of 
adventure and 
an Odyssey of 
Felix Adler. 


"Among contemporary memoirs, none are more 
inherenlly vital or of a larger importance histori- 
cally than those •{ the Araericah soldier and 
publicist, product of German revolution, whom we 
knew and respected as Carl Schurz. . . . He 
was one of our greatest and most courageous of 
good citizens." Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

"The Americanization of Schurz was a fortu- 
nate thing for this country. A man of his stripe 
and his courage was needed to tell unwholesome 
truths bluntly, and to hold an ideal of good citi- 
zenship that worked great good in life and that- 
will remain of permanent benefit." Cleveland 

"Teemmg with fine raptures and splendid loyal- 
ties, dramatic and moving throughout, the Remi- 
niscences are among the most readable as well as 

the most important published in recent years." 

Pittsburg Cazctie-Times, 

"To most of us this book reveals a new pha^e 
in his character in that it' is pervaded with a 
gentle humor, with a shrewd discrimination as to 
men's character and motives, and a power of 
direct and forcible narration which is rare in- 
deed. Egotism is strikingly absent from the 
work." Cleveland Plain Dealer. 

" Fewr autobiographies excel this in charm and interest. Force- 
ful, picturesque, frank, it allies literary grace and value v^^ith the 
all-inspiring story of a well-spent-life." Detroit Free 'Press. 

Cut off the 
coupon oppo- 
site and mail 
to Doubleday, 
Page & Co. 

Volume Three published separately 

Price of Volume Three, Net, $3.00 
(postage lie). The set. Three 
Volumes, Net. $9.00 
(carriage 70c.^. 



133 East i6th Street, New York. 

Gentlemen : — Enclosed find $ 

for which send me, carriage paid, volumes 

of the Reminiscences of Carl 


Name ^ _ _ 


170 THE DIAL [March 16, 
t \ 

Little, Brown & Co.'s Spring Books 

RED HORSE HILL By sidney McCall 

An intensely dramatic American novel, by the author of "Truth Dexter," With a 
background of Southern mill life. Illustrated. $1.50. 

THE LITTLE GODS By Rowland thomas 

A book of adventure and military life in the Philippines, by the author of " Fagan," the 
famous Collier $5000. prize story. Illustrated. $1.50. 

THE MISSIONER By e. phillips oppenheim 

Third printing of the most popular novel Mr. Oppenheim has yet written. 

Illustrated. $1.50. 

IN A MYSTERIOUS WAY By anne warner 

A story of love and sacrifice relieved by the wit and humor of the most delightful 
character the versatile author of " Aunt Mary," " Susan Clegg," etc., has ever created. 

Illustrated. $1.50. 

THE STRAIN OF WHITE By ada woodruff anderson 

A powerful story of the Puget Sound country, by the author of "The Heart of the 
Red Firs." Illustrated. $1.50. 

A ROYAL WARD By percy brebner 

A swiftly moving tale of love and adventure, with a captivating heroine, by the author 
of " Princess Maritza." Illustrated. $1.50. 

THE BRIDGE BUILDERS By anna chapin ray 

A strong love story whose development is closely allied with the collapse of the famous 
Quebec bridge. $1.50. 

THE WHIPS OF TIME By Arabella kenealy 

A new novel of great interest with a most unusual theme. Illustrated. $1.50. 

BUT STILL A MAN By margaret l. knapp 

A strong and original American novel dealing with a young man's first parish. $1.50. 

OUR BENNY By mary e. waller 

A narrative poem of national importance by the author of "The Wood Carver of 
'Lympus." ISmo. $1.00 net. 

FRAGMENTS THAT REMAIN By Captain a. t. mahan 

A book of a broadly religious character by the well-known authority on sea power. 

COOKING FOR TWO By janet Mackenzie hill 

A handbook for young housekeepers, containing recipes and menus for two people. 
Profusely illustrated. Cloth. $1.50 net. 

THE PANAMA CANAL By vaughan cornish 

A compact, comprehensive and timely account of this gfreat work by a well-known 
English geographer. With map and 64 illustrations. Cloth. $1.50 net. 

Little, Brown & Co. Publishers Boston 




Leading Spring Fiction 



By JENNETTE LEE, Author of "Uncle William," etc. 

This is the story of a Man and a Railroad — the stirand thrillof lifeina great corporation run through 
it — and a vivid picture of the real things of modern business life — with glimpses of a beautiful home 
life in a little village, and days of healing of mind and body out in the silence of the woods. 
The human quality of the book places it quite beyond any ordinary standard. 

Frontispiece by Ashe. $1.^0 

By the Author of 

AH the magic of the wild, free life of 
the open is caught and held in these 
pages — the story, from his cubhood to 
his splendid prime, of that aristocrat of 
foxes, Domino Reynard ; his happy, ad- 
venturous, sometimes tragic life among 
the Goldur Hills ; the romance of his 
life-union with Snowyruff. 

Biography of a Grizzly 


The telling is Mr. Seton's ripest and 
best ; and the altogether delightful and 
fascinating narrative is made still more 
delightful and fascinating by over one 
hundred of the author's characteristic 
illustrations. Cover design, title-page, 
and general make-up by Grace Gallatin 
Seton. $1 JO 



This is the. homely, humorous, pathetic kind of a tale that touches the heart and keeps the 
reader's lips smiling and his eyes wet. It is the story of an old husband and wife who come to 
lace a divided path — the old folks' home for one, the poorhouse for the other. 

How the "old ladies " adopt Abe; how, as the days go by, the situation develops both humor 
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claims them — these things are delightfully told. $r oo 



Just the cleverest delineation of Celtic character, the jolliest book of Irish-American life and ad- 
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lightful dramatis persona. 

There is a smile on every page and a laugh in each chapter. Illustrations by Keller. $ 

The New Novel by the Author of ** Mrs. Wlggs of the Cabbage Patch ' 




You '11 begin by laughing at Mr. Opp — you '11 grow to admire and love him. He does and says some 
ridiculous things; but he says many things worth weighing; and his days are one uncomplaining 
surrender of self and self's natural hopes and ambitions to the comforting and making happy of those 
who have need. Nothing Mrs. Rice has done approaches the whimsical humor, pathos, and genuine 
heart interest of this story; Mr. Opp is a creation richly worthy of Dickens, and is certain to live as one 
of the most delicious and appealing characters in American fiction. Pictures by Guipon. $/.oo 

The Century Co., Union Square, New York 



[March 16, 

Books Here and Coming 



Edwin J. Houston, Ph.D. (Princeton) 
Illustrated. Price per copy $1.25. 
Volume 1. 


Volume 2. 


Volume 3. 



Price, 3 vols., $1.00 ; postagre 86 cents extra. 




Price 75 cents net. 



Samuel Zane Batten 
Price $1.50 net; postagre 15 cents extra. 


Professor George R. Varney 




LANDS W. C. Griggs, M.D. 


Volume IV., The Pacific Series. 

Edwin J. Houston, Ph.D. (Princeton) 
Price $1.25. 





Some Book Bargains 

MICBOCOSM OF LONDON ; or, London in SCiniatare. 
By Henry Ackermann. With 104 beautiful full-page illustra- 
tions in colours, the Architecture by A. C. Pugin, and the 
Manners and Customs by Thomas Rowlandson and William 
Henry Pine. In three volumes, quarto. London : Methuen 
&Co. Reducedfrom 122. to $12.50. 
The Original Edition of this book is novr rare and costly, and 

is one of the finest and most popular of old colored books, and 

an invaluable description of London a century ago. 

By Henry Aiken. With 50 full-page illustrations, beautifully 
coloured after Nature, 18 x 13 inches. Each illustration is 
accompanied by full and descriptive letterpress in English 
and French. A handsome volume, large folio, buckram back, 
cloth sides. A choice facsimile of the very rare and costly 
original edition of 1821. London: Methuen & Co. Reduced 
from $37. to $15.00. 

CENTTJBY. By '" George Paston " (Miss E. M. Symonds), 
Author of " Little Memoirs of the 18th Century, &c. A 
Comprehensive Survey of the Life and Pastimes of the English 
People during the Eighteenth Century, as portrayed in the 
Caricatures by Hogarth, Rowlandson, Gillray, and others. 
Superbly illustrated by a colored frontispiece and over 200 
plates, beautifully reproduced from the original line en- 
gravings, etchings, mezzotints, stipple, &c., with letterpress 
explaining all the points of the drawings. Large quarto, 
boards, canvas back, gilt top. London: Methuen & Co. 
Reduced from $18.50 to $7.50. 

The Fourth Folio of Shakespeare. Faithfully 

Repmduced in Collotype Facsimile from the 

Edition of 1685, in a limited issue. 

TOBIBS AND TBAGEDIES. Published according 
to the true Original Copies. The Fourth Edition, with 
all the introductory matter, epitaphs, verses, etc., and a fine 
impression of the portrait by Droeshout. Folio, boards, linen 
back. [London : Printed for H. Herringham, E. Brewster, and 
R. Bentley, at the Anchor in the New Exchange, etc., 1685.] 
London: Methuen & Co. Reduced from $30. to $1 5.00. 

Egyptian Mythology. By E. A. Wallis Budge, Litt.D. 
(Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the 
British Museum). A complete history of the worship of 
spirits, demons, and gods in Egypt, from the earliest period to 
the introduction of Christianity. Magnificently illustrated 
by 98 colored plates and 131 illustrations in the text. Two 
volumes, large octavo. London: Methuen & Co. Reduced 
from $22. to $10.00. 

Raoul Lefevre, translated and printed by William Caxton 
(cir. A.D. 1474), and now edited by H. Oskar Sommer, Ph.D. 
A faithful reproduction of the original words, from a unique 
perfect copy of the original, with an historical and critical 
introduction, and including a complete Glossary and Index. 
Two volumes, small quarto. London : David Nutt. Reduced 
from $12.50 to $6.50. 
Two hundred and fifty copies of this Edition were privately 

printed for Subscribers, of which only a few remain for sale. 

DOME (THE): A Quarterly. Containing Examples of all 
the Arts: Architecture, Literature, Drawings, Paintings, 
Engravings, and Music. With contributions by Laurence 
Housman, W. B. Yeats, Arthur Symons, Fiona Macleod, 
Stephen Phillips, Edward Elgar, Liza Lehmann, and others, 
with facsimiles of early woodcuts, and illustrations by 
modem artists, with a number of songs. Complete as pub- 
lished, Ist Series, 5 parts, and 2d Series, 7 vols. Twelve 
volumes, small quarto. London : At the Sign of the Unicorn. 
Reduced from $20. to $7.50. 

Sent prepaid on receipt of price. 



1909] THE DIAL 173 

Union Square, 33 East 17th Street, New York 


The new book by the author of " Dr. Ellen " is repeating the success of that delightful story. Second edition on 
the press. 

BANZAI! PARABELLUM. Illustrated. $1.50. 

The imaginative war between Japan and America is so graphically described as to create a wide and increasing 
interest. This book has sold over a quarter of a million copies in Germany. 

THE EXPLORER. WILLIAM somerset MAUGHAM. illustrated. $1.50. 

This story (recalling Mason's " Four Feathers ") of a brave man who silently bears the consequences of another's 
crime, is meeting with much favor. It is now in its second edition. 

THE REORGANIZATION OF OUR COLLEGES, clarence f.birdseye. Net,$i.7s; 

postage 20 cents. 
An examination into the condition of the administrative departments of our colleges, exposing evils and suggesting 
remedies, by the author of " Individual Training in our Colleges." 

A CHILD'S GUIDE TO AMERICAN HISTORY, henry w. elson. 15 illustrations. 

Net, I1.25. 
The third issue in this successful series, presenting the essentials of our national annals in an attractive form, by 
the author of " History of the United States." 

MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE. Arthur KINGSLEY porter. Net, $15.00; carriage extra. 
A splendid comprehensive work in two handsome volumes of over looo pages, with 284 illustrations, and an intro- 
duction to the buildings themselves as well as to the vast literature which has grown up around them. Special 
circular on application. 

LIFE OF LINCOLN, henry C. WHITNEY. Edited by Marion Mills Miller. 2 vols. 750 pages. 
Boxed. Two portraits. Net, $2.50; expressage extra. 
' ' This is easily among the most important lives of Lincoln , despite its comparative brevity ." — Ne-xvark E'veningNeivs. 
" The book is one which no student of Lincoln can do without. It is, on the whole, a more useful life than 
Herndon's." — The Providence Journal. 


In the style of a supplement the literary section of The Chicago Evening Post will hereafter be presented 
on Friday of each week. 

From the reader's standpoint, from the editorial standpoint, and from the book publisher's, the advantages 
of the weekly supplement are not far to seek. To keep in touch with the new publications a weekly survey is 
ideal. To glance at reviews from day to day is loose ; from month to month is congesting. In a week's per- 
spective one can comfortably take in literary performance; see it steadily and see it whole. 

Besides the greater thoroughness that is possible in a special supplement there are advantages both to reader 
and to editor in arrangement, in proportion, and in authority. 

Its inherent nature as a supplement will render the Friday Literary Review convenient and compact. All 
the criticisms, advance information about books, personal news of authors, and general literary chronicle that have 
been appearing in the body of the newspaper throughout the week, but notably on Saturdays, will now be gro 
and unified in the special supplement. A particular attention will also be possible to the notice and discussion l. 
the leading magazine articles, which to all intents and purposes are literature. And the facilities of The Evening 
Post for the proper reproduction of half-tones will be availed of fully. 

Besides the established critical features that have distinguished the literary columns of The Evening Post 
there will appear in the supplement several additions of importance. A special letter from New York will be 
included each week, containing exclusive literary information, and there will be a weekly London letter by a well- 
known author. 

In its position as the sole literary supplement issue in connection with a daily newspaper outside of New York, 
the Friday Literary Review will lay claim to wide attention. It will bid to be indispensable to the general reader 
who wishes to keep abreast of current English and American literature. Because of its form it can be laid aside 
by the reader who is hurried at the moment he scans his newspaper; and its aim will be to justify its retention in 
the case of the person who wants the books of the day reviewed comprehensively, and judiciously selected. 

To make book reviews interesting. This will be the first editorial aspiration. The slough of the advertisement 
seeker on one hand, and of the academic bore on the other, are always there to engulf the writers of book reviews. 
He can escape these quagmires only by possessing sincerity and authority. Since the practical value of one's sin- 
cerity depends upon authority, and since the union of convictions and sympathies that make a good critic is rare, 
it is not cynical to assert that many book views are incompetent and many insincere. It is the editor's ambition to 
maintain a standard against all mercenary and complacent considerations which will, in a manner by no means 
grim, secure, a genuine service to the book-reading public, and a service to good literature . 



[March 16, 1909. 

The Macmillan Company's Announcements 


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No. 546. MARCH 16, 1909. Vol. XLVI. 





Warren Barton Blake 177 


The function of the bookstore. — A sure road to 
the mad-house. — The living reality of the dead 
past. — The secret enthusiasms of Edward Fitz- 
Gerald. — The late Carroll D. Wright. — President 
Angell's resignation. — A defence of the signed 
review. — The pernicious "manufacturing clause'' 
in our copyright laws. — The cost of circulating a 
library book. — The public library as a bureau of 
information. — Of making many books. — Chaucer 
and the " New Thought." 


The Encouragement of Literature in Libraries. 
Asa Don Dickinson. 


CHAUCER AND HIS TIMES. Clark S. Northup 185 


James A. Le Roy 186 

THE NEWEST FAUST. Ellen C. Hinsdale . . .188 


Cockerell 189 


Our greatest musical genius. — A French translator 
of English classics. — A cry from Macedonia. — A 
hunter of extinct animals. — Ibsen and his work. — 
The belated biography of a great preacher, — 
Cradle-tales of Hinduism. — Student days at the 
University of Virginia. 


NOTES 194 

A classified list of books to be issued by American 
publishers during the Spring and Summer of 1909. 



The American Association for International 
Conciliation is an organization that is doing 
much quiet and effective work for the promotion 
of good feeling among the nations of the earth. 
Organized about two years ago, with pro patria 
per orhis concordiam for a motto, and directed 
by a council of some fifty men who stand high 
in the esteem of their feUow-countrymen, it 
makes the following declaration of its objects : 

"To record, preserve, and disseminate the history 
of organized efforts for promoting international peace 
and relations of comity and good fellowship between 
nations, to print and circulate documents, and otherwise 
to aid individual citizens, the newspaper press, and 
organizations of various kinds to obtain accurate infor- 
mation and just views upon the subjects, and to pro- 
mote in all practicable ways mutual understanding and 
good feeling between the American people and those of 
other nations." 

This is a worthy programme, and it takes the 
practical form of a series of pamphlets, now 
numbering fifteen, which are widely circidated, 
and cannot fail to be helpful in directing public 
opinion along the ways of sanity and restraint. 
These publications are modest in appearance, 
but weighty in matter. Among their authors 
are Mr. Elihu Eoot, Mr. David Jayne Hill, 
Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, Professor 
George Trumbull Ladd, and Professor Barrett 
Wendell. They deal with such subjects as the 
Hague Conferences, the principles of interna- 
tional law, and the relations of this country 
with Canada, Spanish America, Europe, and 
the Far East. The latest of the issues is a 
paper by Mr. J. H. DeForest on "American 
Ignorance of Oriental Languages," which is 
our present text. 

Tout comprendre., c'est tout par donner, runs 
the old saying, and the experience of the cen- 
turies bears witness to its truth. The historian 
knows how many international disputes, to say 
nothing of actual armed conflicts, hav(j been 
based upon misunderstandings rather than upon 
irreconcilable antagonisms. Our own great civil 
conflict was the result of the failure of the two 
sections to understand each other, and might 
have been averted by a little more of the oil of 
sweet reasonableness which Lincoln sought to 
pour upon the troubled waters. We now see 
clearly enough that its ends might have been 



[March 16, 

gained at a fraction of the sacrifice which the 
actual conflict entailed, and the victorious North 
is now coming to realize that the conquered 
South acted in the sincerity of its conviction, 
and was informed by its own exalted ideals of 
conduct. We no longer think it a desecration 
to speak of Lee and Lincoln in the same breath, 
and we are proud to point to both as examples 
of the excellence which we hope is still potential 
in American character. 

That war was fratricidal in the narrower 
sense, as were also our earlier wars with the 
mother country. If strife can so easily arise 
between peoples who speak the same tongue, 
how much greater is the danger when the bar- 
rier of language stands between two nations 
brought into rivalry by a common ambition, or 
set at odds by some passionate grievance. And 
when, as in the case of our relations with the 
peoples of the orient, that barrier is so high as 
to be unsurmountable by more than a few, how 
vitally important it becomes that the few, at 
least, should scale it, and bring report of what 
lies on the further side. This is the plea urged 
by Mr. DeForest, who recalls to us the words 
of the Premier of the Shogunate, " Nothing is 
worse than a barrier to the communication of 
thought," when confronted with the necessity of 
making some kind of a treaty with Commodore 
Perry. Jn these days of reckless scare-mon- 
gering, when yellow newspapers and hot-headed 
politicians seem capable of any sort of inter- 
national indecency, the Japanese statesman's 
words are driven home to us with special force. 

If to understand all is to forgive all, it is also 
true that in many cases perfect comprehension 
will make it clear that there is nothing to for- 
give, for the simple reason that there is no 
offence to be dealt with. Our writer gives us an 
instructive illustration of such a case. About a 
year ago, an American newspaper correspondent 
in Hawaii attended a gathering of Japanese 
upon one of their national holidays, and listened 
to the reading of an Imperial Rescript. He 
knew just enough of the language to get one 
sentence : " In case of emergency give yourself 
courageously to the State." At once he sniffed 
treasons and stratagems, and cabled to his office 
that the Japanese in Hawaii had just received 
orders from the Emperor to be ready for any 
emergency, which of course meant that they 
were ordered to get ready for an attack on the 
United States ! As a matter of fact, tlie reading 
of this rescript was a bit of routine common to 
aU such gatherings, was nothing more than a 
homily upon political ethics, and had precisely 

the significance that a reading of Washington's 
Farewell would have for an American audience. 
Yet such sparks as this are sometimes fanned 
into flame by ignorant patriotic zealots, and be- 
come a serious menace to comity among nations. 

The new phase of American relations with 
the Far East, which began with our subjugation 
of the Filipinos a decade ago, and has since been 
accentuated by our participation in the Boxer 
rebellion and our friction with Japan on the sub- 
ject of Pacific coast immigration, brings with it 
a responsibility which we must recognize if our 
oriental policies are not to be marked by blun- 
dering and a play at cross-purposes. It becomes 
imperative that we should so familiarize our- 
selves with oriental modes of thought as to 
reduce to a vanishing point the danger of misun- 
derstanding that springs from sheer ignorance. 
In other words, since thought and speech are 
one, we must learn the languages of the oriental 
peoples with whom we are sure to be brought 
into closer and closer contact. This does not 
mean that we should set our schoolchildren to 
studying Japanese and Chinese, but it does 
mean that we should have students of those 
languages in sufficient numbers to keep us in 
intelligent touch with our transpacific neighbors. 
Our government should always have at its 
service a body of skilled interpreters, and our 
universities should take measures to produce 
oriental scholars in numbers sufficient to supply 
the needs of the press and to shape public opin- 
ion in the mould of accuracy. What we have 
thus far done in this direction is pitif uUy little, 
and our linguistic helplessness is in striking 
contrast with the efficiency which the English 
have had the good sense to acquire for the pur- 
pose of dealing with their oriental difficulties. 
The number of English diplomatists and ciyil 
servants who know the languages of the peoples 
with whom they have to deal sets us an example 
which we would be wise to follow, and the 
English wealth of private oriental scholarship 
marks out a plain course for our institutions of 
the higher learning. 

Our oriental relations are but one aspect of a 
problem that is world-wide. Mr. Asquith said 
at the London Peace Congress of last summer : 
" The main thing is that nations should get to 
know and understand one another." England 
and the United States now know one another so 
well that a future war between them is almost 
unthinkable ; our common speech and our com- 
mon inheritance of historical glory put that dis- 
aster fairly beyond the compassing of the most 
sinister alliance of politicians and journalists. 




But wars between peoples that do not know each 
other's languages are still melancholy possibil- 
ities. Our own unfortunate war with Spain 
might easily have been averted by a little more 
of mutual sympathy and understanding. The 
platform, the press, and the pulpit, all preju- 
diced because uninformed, brought it upon us, 
and upon the noble people whose arms we 
might overcome, but whose honor we could not 
stain. The Franco-Prussian war was a cause 
of keen distress to all the clear spirits of both 
nations concerned, but the comity of intelligence 
between Germans and Frenchmen was not close 
enough, forty years ago, to spare them the clash. 
In our own time, it is safe to say, a far more 
serious grievance would be required to occasion 
such a conflict. And every year that is added to 
the tale of this twentieth century is making more 
remote the possibility of war between civilized 
peoples. Hague conferences, and international 
scientific organizations, and foreign travel, and 
ententes corcliales, and the development of 
humanistic studies, and the invasion of litera- 
ture by the cosmopolitan spirit, and many other 
agencies of mutual good-wiU, are steadily at 
work, interpenetrating the very warp and woof 
of the world's civilization, making the antics of 
the alarmist, and the rhetoric of the advocate 
of huge armaments, aU the time more and more 
ridiculous. Peace, arbitration, disarmament, 
world-federation, and other terms of like im- 
port, are increasingly upon the lips of men ; 
they are ceasing to be merely academic phrases, 
and are coming into use as the watchwords of 
practical men, enlisted for the holy war of the 
future, the war upon warfare itself. And that 
war will find its most efficient private recruits 
in the men who learn other languages than their 
own, and thus come to realize that men of alien 
speech are, after all, their fellow-sharers in a 
common humanity. 


In an idle moment, a philosopher might do worse 
than examine the poets in their attitude toward 
Time. I say, " in an idle moment," for if the task 
were taken up in working hours, it would be bound 
to result in something forbiddingly German, anno- 
tated in that heavy-handed manner which strikes 
terror to humble intelligences. Amiel is mildly 
metaphysical on the subject. " Twenty-five years ! 
It seems to me a dream as far as I am concerned. 
How strange a thing to have lived, and to feel 
myself so far from a past which is yet so present 

to me ! One does not know whether one is sleeping 
or waking. Time is but the space between our 
memories ; as soon as we cease to perceive this 
space, time has disappeared. . . . Life is the dream 
of a shadow." Thus Amiel, in his " Journal." We 
have all of us felt the tyranny of time, at least, — 
that thing, or thought, which is intangible (we know 
it to be intangible), and which all the same persists 
in getting between us and our highest satisfactions. 
The poets have ever made a little specialty of time- 
pieces. We know them — or some of them — well 
enough to do without quotation, or even so much as 
reading the bills by title. There is one line among 
them which all of us once memoi'ized: it is about 
letting the dead past bury its dead. 

That text might well be the starting-point either 
of the loftiest sermon or of the most shameless 
appeal to our proclivities for pleasure. Besides, in 
letting the dead past bury its dead, one may have 
the present in mind, or the future, or both. Ordi- 
narily, however, both are too much. Musette, 
in Murger's " Vie de Boheme," remarks : " To- 
morrow's a fatuity of the calendar ; a daily pretext 
that men have invented to get out of doing their 
business to-day. To-morrow may be an earthquake. 
To-day, God bless her, is terra firma." Musette 
wins our gratitude by using no Greek roots to elu- 
cidate her little philosophy of life. What is more, 
she never had the chance to read Hazlitt's essay 
" Of the Past and the Future " before having her 
say. " I conceive," wrote Hazlitt, " that the past is 
as real and substantial a part of our being, that it is 
as much a bona fide, undeniable consideration in the 
estimate of human life, as the future can possibly 
be. . . . Nay, the one is even more imaginary, a 
more fantastic creature of the brain than the other, 
and the interest we take in it more shadowy and 
gratuitous ; for the future, on which we lay so much 
stress, may never come to pass at all." 

And now it is high time to see whether these 
paragraphs have any connection with the title set at 
the head of our column, and what reference they may 
possibly bear to the name of Edward FitzGerald, 
whose centenary occurs this year and month. 


First of all, FitzGerald was one of those to whom 
the past — his own past and that of the race — 
always appealed as the chief poetic inspiration. 
This is one of the marks of the dreamer ; a man 
of stronger will is either more purely Epicurean 
(crowning the present moment), or looks more 
boldly to the future. If the verses had only been 
better, we could readily imagine FitzGerald, in one 
of his delightful letters — which were never too 
" literary " to carry something of the human, friendly 
quality that endeared them to Carlyle — citing 
Letitia Elizabeth Landon's " Intimations of Previous 
Existence " : 

" Remembrance makes the poet : 't is the past 
Lingering within him, with a keener sense 
Than is upon the thoughts of common men." 



[March 16, 

Certainly there is evidence enough of FitzGerald's 
feeling in these matters. What wonder that he 
came upon Omar with a sense of ownarship, as it 
were ! The world was old to the one as to the 
other, — " sentient," as Aldrich has written, "with 
the dust of dead generations." It is a conceit grown 
familiar, the potter figure to which one of Fitz- 
Gerald's Quatrains gives ultimate English form : 
'' For I remember stopping by the way 

To watch a Potter thumping' his wet Clay : 
And with its all-obliterated Tongue 

It murmur'd, ' Gently, Brother, gently, pray ! ' " 

The East it is that has most deeply felt the great 
age of our race, and those mysterious bonds of time 
and birth and re-birth that tie us down to destiny. 
One may read the lesson in such a tale of Lafcadio 
Hearn's as " The Mountain of Skulls," which is far 
more than a " fantasy-piece." But, apart from the 
conviction that the world is very old, there is the 
sensibility of the poet to the past which is immedi- 
ately his own, the past of his present existence. 
This, too, is the stuff of poetry. That FitzGerald 
was not blind to it is nowise strange ; it is remark- 
able only that he should have felt it all so young. 
Valetudinary verse came to his pen-point when more 
normally he should have been phrasing with exulta- 
tion the joy of living. 

" One Moment in Annihilation's Waste, 
One Moment, of the Well of Life to taste — 

The Stars are setting and the Caravan 
Stai-ts for the Dawn of Nothing — Oh, make haste ! " 

So sang old Omar, — or so FitzGerald, himself in 
middle life (it is to-day just fifty years since the 
first edition of the Quatrains), made Omar sing. 
But what of the youth who regrets the death of the 
year in its very spring-time? It was almost as 
school-boy that FitzGerald wrote his "Old Beau," 
with a ring to it that is Thackerayan, — Thackeray 
was of his circle, too. Perhaps it is hardly worth 
quoting ; certainly a line or two is enough, — as the 
line wherein FitzGerald's Beau looks the young 
ladies over and ungallantly sighs, 

" You 're nothing to your mothers ! " 
or those that sum the whole piece up : 
"Out on the greybeard Time, Tom, 

He makes the best turned leg grow thinner ; 
He spares nor sex nor clime, Tom, 

Nor MS — the old relentless sinner ! " 
With this rather unfamiliar ballad of the " Old 
Beau," dug out of the "Keepsake of 1834" by an 
industrious two-volume biographer, one would like 
to trill the ringing stanzas of the " Old Song " with 
which the young FitzGerald " hoaxed " the " Athe- 
naeum." It is a beautiful lyric, — " exquisite poe- 
try " which Lamb envied its author as he envied 
Montgomery his " Last Man," because he felt he 
" could have done something like them." We 
wonder less at the "Meadows in Spring" (that is 
the alternate title) for its wistful beauty, than for its 
being written by the boy of twenty-two who so lightly 
conveyed in the stanzas his sentiment of half-tearful, 
half-smiling retrospection. Fancyj^a young Menan- 

der, an Anacreon blanc-becl And fancy FitzGerald's 
composing the " Meadows in Spring " so many years 
before he read and Englished Calderon's lines, — 
" Well, each his way and humour ; some to lie 
Like Nature's sickly children in her lap. 
While all the stronger brethren are at play," — 

before he knew old Jiimf, or felt Omar's spell, — 
passing it on to us I 

" In all the actions that a Man performs, some 
part of his Life passeth," wrote Owen Felltham. 
" Nay, though we do nothing. Time keeps its con- 
stant pace, and flies as fast in idleness, as in employ- 
ment. Whether we play, or labour, or sleep, or 
dance, or study, the Sunne posteth, and the 
Sand runnes." FitzGerald paraphrased Felltham 
in the humorous verses that he named " Chronomos "; 
buried deep in his Suffolk, the Laird of Little- 
Grange (for so he liked to sign himself) could not 
escape the Scythe-bearer, — and turned the matter, 
therefore, to a pleasantry. Read his correspondence, 
and you will be surprised, not at any sameness in it, 
but at the steadiness of the interests and sympathies 
and occupations which it reflects. Part of all this 
may be explained by the want of ambition in the 
man's composition. One can imagine him reading 
with approval Flaubert's youthful confession. " Do 
I long to be successful ? " the future novelist asked 
himself, as student of the law. " Have I ambition, 
like a boot-black, who aspires to be a shoe-maker; 
like a driver, who would be a stud-groom ; like 
footmen, that aim at being masters ; your fellow with 
a future, who would become deputy or minister, 
wear a ribbon or be a town-councillor ? All that 
seems to me very dismal, and as unattractive as a 
four-penny dinner or a humanitarian lecture. But 
it is, after all, everybody's mania : therefore, were 
it only to be singular, not necessarily from taste or 
breeding, or even inclination, it is good to remain in 
the crowd, and to leave ambition to the scum, who 
are forever pushing themselves, and swarm in every 
street. As for us, let us remain at home, watching 
the public pass from the height of our balcony, — 
and if we are bored at times, well, we can spit on 
their heads, and continue our conversation, and 
watch the sunset in the west." Only, FitzGerald 
would have left out one part of Flaubert's pro- 
gramme, we hope. There is nothing so rude in the 
letter he once wrote to Charles Eliot Norton, refer- 
ring to the translations which he made from time to 
time, " partly as an amusement in a lonely life," 
and which were published, he said, " to make an 
end of the matter." 

Fanny Kemble said of FitzGerald that he was 
distinguished by the possession of rare intellectual 
and artistic gifts ; she left it unsaid that he never 
brought these gifts to their highest pitch. Poet, 
musician, painter, and scholar, she called him ; add- 
ing, " If he had not shunned notoriety as studiously 
as most people seek it, he would have achieved a 
foremost place among the eminent men of his day." 




Socially, the poet never had all that was his due. 
This was perhaps well, since he would never have 
tolerated the petting of a " FitzGerald Society "; to 
say nothing of taking pleasure in such a trumpery 
business, as Browning seemed to. Putting it baldly, 
FitzGerald was, besides, socially impossible. That 
was the impression of his unhappy wife (who in- 
sisted on making him as unhappy as she was, 
while that was in her power), and it would be our 
impression too, if we were not sentimental over 
persons who are dead, and honored dead to boot. 
Poetically, FitzGerald was slighted in his own times ; 
that is, his " Rubiiiydt " was slow to win its meed 
of admiration. Popular approval came so late that 
there was no time for the poet to do more than 
lengthen the body of the " Rub^iydt " and to change 
the shape of the sleeves. But all that is handsomely 
atoned for now. He has been duly overestimated, 
and has had his Variorum and Definitive Edition, 
albeit there is little enough worth treasuring in 
those seven fine volumes but the " Rub^iydt " itself 
and the " Meadows in Spring " (vide any anthol- 
ogy), and the description of the rowing-match and 
Christ Church meadows in " Euphranor." His 
earlier neglect has been atoned, as has been said ; 
we are gone, in fine, to quite the opposite extreme. 
When were there school-girls lacking to recite, 
" I sometimes think that never blows so red 
The Rose, as where some buried Caesar bled, — 

tears in their voices and holes in their handker- 
chiefs? There are Omar Khayyam Clubs, also, 
which plant roses from Omar's grave on the grave 
in an English churchyard ! FitzGerald was the 
first to deplore the exaggeration in it all, — the 
exaggeration of his merits " as Translator," he was 
careful to state, "not as Poet, of course." And 
he did not fail to observe that America was the 
chief sinner : even to the pirating of his translation. 


But this is not a literary estimate of Edward 
FitzGerald — not in any formal sense, that is. Were 
it that, it would be one's duty once more to praise 
his rendering of Omar's "desperate beauty," not- 
withstanding the silly overpraise of the poet by ten 
thousand amateurs. The very manner in which he 
fought shy of publicity in his lifetime accentuates 
the circumstance that since his death he has been 
adulated, not merely as the man in a million who 
executed " the work of a poet inspired by a poet," 
but even more, perhaps, as something of a hermit 
and very much of a bear, and altogether as one of 
the really picturesque figures in our prosaic literary 
history. The "Omar" has been so often gushed 
over that there is to-day little gratefulness in the 
gushing. Instead of writing about it, however, there 
always remains the poem itself to be re-read ; even 
though we know it by heart almost as well as we 
know the numerous parodies. One may do worse, 
too, than read what Professor Norton wrote in the 
" North American Review " just forty years ago. 

It was the first adequate recognition that the anony- 
mous translator had won from the critics ; and it 
stands the tests for sound criticism to-day as well as 
in the happy hour when Norton wrote it out. Then 
there is an excellent review by Mr. Gosse. Most 
of the rest is superfluous ; the " Rubdiyd.t " speaks 
for itself. And there 's an end to the matter — and 
to the translator too, as translator alone. 

Happily FitzGerald is, for us, not translator 
alone, nor merely the sentimental gentleman who 
went shares with "Posh" (the bibulous boat-man 
whom we prefer to call "Pish"), nor the lazy and 
erratic personage who spoke to a man one day and 
cut him dead the next. It is our good fortune that 
he was also a great letter-writer — one of the crispest 
and most pleasure-giving in all his century. His 
effects seem less studied (a great consideration in 
letter-writing) than Stevenson's; the personality is 
gentler than Carlyle's ; the body of letters is larger 
and their range wider than Lamb's, which he so 
loved. His letters are, then, worth everyone's reading. 
They make a fine bed-book, or an excellent birthday 
gift. They are warranted to contain a minimum of 
Tennyson anecdotes. Also, how fully have they the 
smell of the soil, and the scent of the garden where 
their writer pottered ; and how rich they are with 
allusions — literary, personal, such as only a poet and 
awide (but dainty) reader knows how to use ! Every- 
where, too, is the reflection of that piquant person- 
ality which never lost itself in the correspondent's. 
It is on the letters that we would dwell ; the bloom 
is on them yet. They form the man's most perfect 
monument, preserving, as they do, the record of his 
rare old friendships. It was in his friendships that 
he was least the dilletante. " They are more like 
loves, I think," was his own phrase for the enduring 
bonds with Thackeray and Tennyson and Cowell and 
the rest. 

And the letters bring us } to the subject. They 
were conditioned by that life FitzGerald led of the 
lighter literary labors. The poet was little over 
thirty when he wrote to Bernard Barton, from 
London, that he would like to live all the days of 
his life in a small house just outside a pleasant 
English town : making himself useful in a humble 
way, reading his books, and playing a rubber of whist 
at night. " Time will tell us," he said ; and quoted : 

" Come what come may, 
Time and the Hour runs through the roughest day." 

" I also am an Arcadian," he wrote to Frederic 
Tennyson, not many years later. " Have been to 
Exeter — the coast of Devonshire — the Bristol 
Channel — and to visit a Parson in Dorsetshire. He 
wore cap and gown when I did at Cambridge — 
together did we roam the fields about Grandchester, 
discuss all things, thought ourselves fine fellows, and 
that one day we should make a noise in the world. 
He is now a poor Rector in one of the most out-of- 
the-way villages in England — has five children — 
fats and kills his pig — smokes his pipe — loves his 
home and cares not ever to be seen or heard out of 



[March 16, 

it. I was much amused with his company ; he much 
pleased to see me : we had not met face to face for 
fifteen years — and now both of us such very sedate 
unambitious people ! " "A little Bedfordshire — a 
little Northamptonshire — a little more folding of 
the hands — the same fields — the same thoughts 
occurring at the same turns of road — this is all I 
have to tell of ; nothing at all added — but the 
summer gone." Not with impunity, as Mr. Benson 
has dared to say in his discriminating memoir of 
FitzGerald, does a man shirk the primal inheritance 
of labor. We cannot think FitzGerald's to have 
been a very happy life. And yet, as one reads the 
letters, and as one reviews the life, with its pleasures 
found in the making of translations (which he sent 
to his friends, and not to the reviews), and in the 
reading of "large still books," one sees what Lowell 
meant when he wrote : " We are so hustled about 
by fortune, that I found solace as I read, in think- 
ing that here was a man who insisted on having life 
to himself, and largely had it accordingly." And 
we could well close our chapter with the verses that 
Lowell wrote in his Epistle to Curtis, some lines 
of which he might have written for this friend that 
lived and died in Suffolk, near the sea : 

'' I love too well the pleasures of retreat 
Safe from the crowd and cloistered from the street, 
The fire that whispers its domestic joy, 
Flickering on walls that knew me still a boy . . . 
Calm days that loiter with snow-silent tread, 
Nor break my commune with the undying dead ; 
Truants of Time, to-morrow like to-day. 
That come unhid, and claimless glide away 
By shelves that sun them in the indulgent past, 
Where Spanish castles, even, were built to last ..." 

May those castles have proved an enduring refuge 
for the poet ! FitzGerald, with another than Lowell, 
could have cried out, " Life is the dream of a 
shadow. What is it which has always come be- 
tween real life and me?" Like the pens6e writers, 
he was more anxious about truths than Truth ; 
more anxious, too, about satisfactions than true sat- 
isfaction. " A prisoner in Doubting-Castle," is his 
own characterization of himself. The curse of the 
nineteenth century lay upon him — upon him, who 
thought himself out of the current of his times. 
Daudet's poet in the story of " Jack " had the fore- 
head of an '' impotent Buddha "; one thinks of him 
even as one admires the fine brows of FitzGerald. 
There is the same reminiscence when one looks at 
the pictures of Flaubert. '' Oh, what a lot of money 
I would give to be either more stupid or less intel- 
lectual!" cried the boy Flaubert in a letter to his 
comrade Chevalier. " Atheist or mystic ! but at any 
rate something complete and whole, an identity ; 
in a word, something." We are waiting to be told 
what it was that doomed these men, these Flauberts 
and FitzGeralds, to an incompleteness that seems 
almost failure. Does the expression, " atrophy of 
the will," help to explain the riddle ? 

Warren Barton Blake. 


The function of the bookstore is pro- 
nounced by Professor Mlinsterberg to be not less 
important than that of the public library. In an 
article on "The Disorganization of the Book-Trade," 
published in the current " Atlantic," he points out 
some interesting though not encouraging facts, and 
suggests a way to revive the declining traffic in 
books. Whereas in any German city of one hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants the visitor is sure to find 
from twelve to twenty well-appointed bookstores, 
and at least one such store in any but the very 
smallest of German towns, in America even large 
cities are often content to make the book-trade a 
mere side-line in the department store or an incon- 
spicuous branch of the stationery shop's business. 
European bookstores are increasing, ours are dying 
out ; and there is a corresponding difference between 
the publishing statistics of a country like Germany 
and the United States. The former nation, with 
its sixty million inhabitants, issued last year 28,703 
new books (including, we assume, new editions, 
which in Germany are as a rule much more than 
mere reprints), while the latter, with eighty million 
inhabitants, put forth only 8112 new works. This 
humiliating difference is traceable to various causes, 
— our devotion to our newspapers and magazines, 
our neglect of the art of leisure, our addiction to the 
motor-car and the bridge-whist table, our lack of a 
proper copyright law, and our wasteful and expen- 
sive methods, in the publishing house no less than 
in the kitchen. The rehabilitation of the bookstore 
in all our cities and villages would, thinks the 
writer, work a revival in the book-trade, and so in 
the publishing industry ; and, since conditions are 
so forbidding to small capitalists, he suggests that 
the great publishing houses themselves establish retail 
stores in as many places as possible. One comment, 
at least, is to be made on all this. Professor Mlin- 
sterberg hardly notes — he certainly does not dwell 
upon — the difference of conditions obtaining in the 
two countries named by reason of the greater devel- 
opment of the public library, with all its varied but 
related activities, in this country. The free library 
with its branches serves some of the ends of the 
bookstore, and it also contributes no little toward 
the support of the publisher. 

• • • 

A sure road to the mad-house is entered, 
opines Mr. Charles F. Lummis of the Los Angeles 
Public Library, by the unwary mortal who essays to 
compile authoritative and useful comparative statis- 
tics from the annual reports published by American 
libraries. A mighty maze without a plan many of 
these reports certainly are ; and more or less defective 
they all seem to the person hunting in haste for some 
particular item of information. Mr. Lummis recom- 
mends that the A. I-. A. " provide a form to be 
filled out by every librarian in the country" when 
he proceeds to draw up his annual statement of 




things achieved and triumphs won. Under present 
conditions, as our California friend well puts it, 
"you don't know whether the 'total registration' 
means the live borrowers, or whether it includes (as 
it does in the case of a good many public libraries, 
and did here until this administration) all the people 
since dead, wounded or missing, who have ever in 
the last half-century or so signed the more or less 
inconvenient registration cards of the library in 
question. You do not know whether the gain for 
the year ' in registration ' is net gain, or is a con- 
tinuation of the obituary list — namely, a mere list 
of the new registration." You do not know, he 
continues, what " circulation " means — whether the 
issue of a book for home use, or, besides that, the 
casual opening of a volume in the library " by any 
patron incidentally thus detected ' in flagrant de- 
light.' " And so on, in varied vocabulary and 
picturesque phrase. A uniform rule and method in 
the statistical section of library reports is indeed to 
be desired ; but elsewhere the librarian may well 
be allowed some of that freedom of fancy which 
Mr. Lummis continues to enjoy — to the refreshment 
of his readers. A prominent library tried for a 
while the dictionary plan for its annual report, and 
the scheme was not a bad one ; but for some reason 
it has now been abandoned. Only give our librarians 
time, however, and they will evolve the perfect 
library report. ... 

The living reality of the dead past is some- 
times made very vivid by a current event of small 
importance in itself to the great preoccupied world. 
The recent death in his ninetieth year of the En- 
glish portrait-painter, Lowes Dickinson, probably 
attracted little attention beyond his circle of acquaint- 
ance. Yet to us it is a forcible reminder that such 
a person as Charlotte Bronte once actually lived 
and toiled and suffered, and then went the way of 
all flesh. Mr. Dickinson married in 1857 the daugh- 
ter of Richard Smith "Williams, who was reader to 
Smith, Elder & Co., the publishers, and who had 
the discernment to recognize the genius of " Currer 
Bell." Some of Miss Bronte's letters to Mr. Will- 
iams are given in Mrs. Gaskell's biography of her, 
and the discovery of a link connecting Currer Bell's 
correspondent with the now living and writing Mr. 
G. Lowes Dickinson (son of the artist), is a pleasant 
thing to readers of Mrs. Gaskell, the late death of 
whose daughter Julia (a favorite of Miss Bronte's 
and fondly mentioned in her letters) is another 
melancholy but vivid reminder of Haworth days and 
Haworth people. Charlotte Bronte herself would 
not have to be of patriarchal age to be alive now 
— a good seven years short of a century, — and 
yet, in a vague way, we are wont to associate her 
chronologically with Miss Austen, Miss Edgeworth, 
Fanny Burney, and other writers of the late eight- 
eenth or very early nineteenth century. The over- 
lapping of Madame D'Arblay's life with Charlotte 
Bronte's, and of hers with Dickinson's, cannot but 
bring Dr. Johnson, Goldsmith, Burke, and all that 

famous company, nearer to us than before. In this 
connection it is curious to think how very few old 
women, joined hand to hand, it would need to con- 
nect us with Shakespeare. 

• • • 

The secret enthusiasms of Edward Fitz- 
Gerald simmered silently, as was proper, in his 
own breast. He held his emotions, his longings, his 
aspirations, well in hand, and had ever the air of 
expecting nothing of fortune, in order never to be 
disappointed by her. He was not one to give host- 
ages to that fickle dame. Whether or not he feared 
his fate too much, he certainly conveys the impres- 
sion of never daring to " put it to the touch, to gain 
or lose it all." So much the more interesting, 
therefore, are those stray indications of unsmothered 
enthusiasm discernible in the yellow pages of a little 
old commonplace book in which he made miscella- 
neous entries, mostly of quoted matter, between 
1831 and 1840. Dr. Robertson NicoU and Mr. 
Thomas J. Wise, in their " Literary Anecdotes of 
the Nineteenth Century," have printed a few sample 
extracts from this "long, thin book, with marbled 
cover, worn leather back, and time-stained pages," 
whose fortunate possessor ought some day to publish 
the whole. The original owner, who was destined 
to an all but solitary life, is found quoting the 
" golden law " from Montrose's '' Song to his Lady ": 
" True love begun shall never end ; 
Love one and love no more." 

In full accord with his own sentiments are the lines 
he quotes from Herrick, beginning : 

" Sweet country life, to such unknown, 
Whose lives are others', not their own." 

The distinctive, the characteristic, the unhackneyed, 
he is quick to seize upon ; the conventional, the 
pompous, and the artificial, he dismisses with scorn. 
This little note-book might well, without fear of 
unwelcome revelations, be given to " old Fitz's " 
wide circle of admirers as a centennial memorial. 

The late Carroll D. Wright was a worker in 
several fields, and he distinguished himself in each 
of them. Some will remember him chiefly as an 
economist, others as a statistician, others again as 
a social reformer, still others as a religious leader, a 
few as an old soldier of the Civil War, where he 
rose to be colonel of a New Hampshire volunteer 
regiment, while to his later acquaintance he will 
be eminent as an educator — as the head, for seven 
years, of Clark College, and the advocate of a three- 
years college course that shall, by eliminating inter- 
collegiate athletics, accomplish all that has hitherto 
been done in four years of undergraduate study. 
As an author, too, mainly in the fields of political 
economy, practical sociology, and industrial evolu- 
tion and statistics, he deserves to be remembered. 
Among his best-known works are : " The Factory 
System of the United States," "The Relation of 
Political Economy to the Labor Question," "The 
Industrial Evolution of the United States," " Outlines 



[March 16, 

of Practical Sociology," and "Battles of Labor." 
Cut off in his sixty-ninth year, he was hoping, 
when first he became conscious of decline, to live 
long enough to accomplish two cherished objects, — 
the completion of the " Economic History of the 
United States " that he was editing for the Carnegie 
Institution, and the celebration of the tenth birthday 
of Clark College. Had he entered upon educational 
work earlier, he could not have failed to achieve 
noteworthy results, despite his lack of special train- 
ing for that work. Of sound judgment, of hopeful 
temperament, loyal to every obligation, and endowed 
with a healthy moral sense as his New England 
birthright, he left a vacancy that cannot easily be 
filled. . , . 

President Angell's resignation as head of 
the University of Michigan, coming so soon after 
President Eliot's similar action at Cambridge, and 
almost simultaneously with Carroll D. Wright's 
termination of his work at Clark College, and also 
at the time when Dartmouth is looking for a suc- 
cessor to President Tucker, makes one acutely sen- 
sible of the transitoriness of things academical. The 
old order does indeed change pretty rapidly ; the 
individual president withers, though the college 
itself is more and more. President Angell's thirty- 
eight years' term of office, following upon other 
successful activities both in education and in diplo- 
macy, cannot in brief space receive fitting appreciar 
tion ; but, in the words of one entitled to pass an 
opinion, his " position on the day of his retirement 
will be one which men of far more spectacular glory 
could envy. His fame — of whatever degree it 
proves — is perfectly secure. The affectionate re- 
gard of two or three generations of citizens is his, 
past the possibility of decay. Dissenting voices are 
infrequent and weak. . . . The teaching staff, which 
is of all best situated for passing judgment, throws 
light on some unpleasant flaws. But the worst of 
these are shallow-based. As for the general inten- 
tion and effect of his work, and especially for the 
man himself, it is doubtful if Michigan has another 
whom his worst enemies can load so little with 
reproach." ... 

A defence of the signed review is made by 
Mr. Clement K. Shorter in a recent issue of " The 
Sphere." "I have seen the full iniquity of the 
anonymous review," he says, "especially when it is 
written by the man who is persuaded that he is a 
great specialist on the subject. In all cases of 
special knowledge the anonymous review is without 
justification. : . . While something may be said 
for the anonymous critic so far as fiction and other 
large areas of book-reviewing are concerned, the 
thing becomes an infamy where any special knowl- 
edge is required. ... It [the signed review] would 
have the further advantage that it would make clear 
to the public that a half-dozen reviews are all written 
by the same pen. At present the innocent reader 
is apt to assume that these journals reflect six indi- 
vidual views, whereas they are often the opinion 

of one man." Times have changed since Sidney 
Smith and Jeffrey founded the "Edinburgh Review," 
and in these days of free thought and a free press 
the critic's excuses for fighting under cover have 
long since disappeared. As for the advantages of 
a signature, we should be inclined to go even further 
than Mr. Shorter. Is there any sort of reviewing 
where " special knowledge," not necessarily of 
subject-matter, but of form, style, literary effect and 
finish, is not required ? And granting that, what 
sort of literary criticism really loses anything by a 
declaration of its authority ? The merely descrip- 
tive book-notice, too often confused in popular 
discussion with the critical review, may reasonably 
be left without signature ; it is valuable because it 
is impersonal. But in matters of taste and opinion 
if a man's word is worth anything, why should he 
not father it ? ... 

The pernicious " manufacturing clause " in 
OUR COPYRIGHT LAWS is to receive an added element 
of perniciousness, if the efforts of certain forces now 
at work prove successful. The bookbinders' unions, 
it seems, desire the clause amended so that to secure 
copyright not only must a book be printed from 
plates manufactured in this country, as is now the 
requirement, but it must also be hound in this coun- 
try. Such a proposal will doubtless be defeated by 
its own absurdity. Indeed, if justice and common 
sense have their way, it is likely that the " manu- 
facturing clause " will be wiped out altogether in the 
next revision of our copyright laws. In such a 
revision there is ample room for strengthening and 
extending the only legitimate function of copyright 
legislation, i. e., the protection of authors. Our 
" infant " book-manufacturing industries are still 
sufficiently " protected " by a tariff tax (levied on the 
American bookbuyer) of twenty-five per cent ad 
valorem. To subsidize them still further, under 
cover of our copyright laws, is an incongruity that 
should no longer be endured, — and especially as 
this concession defeats in many cases the direct 
purposes of copyright by making it impossible for 
all but the most affluent of British and foreign 
authors to protect their work in this country. 

• • • 

The COST of circulating a library book, 
computed by dividing the total of annual salaries 
by the number of volumes issued, has been the topic 
of some recent writing and discussion. "The Li- 
brary World," in its late outburst on the subject of 
American library extravagance, assured us that 
whereas in England the cost of circulation is three 
farthings for each book, in this land of princely 
salaries and lavish expenditure it is fivepence. Some 
interesting comparisons under this head are to be 
found in the current report of the Los Angeles 
Public Library. It appears that in Boston it costs 
almost seventeen cents to lend a book, in Chicago 
nine cents and one mill, in New York twenty-three 
cents and four mills, in Brooklyn eleven cents and 
four mills, in Providence fourteen cents; but in 




thrifty Los Angeles only seven cents and five mills. 
Who will wonder that our British censor was 
shocked (and the least bit touched with envy) at 
beholding the way we spend our public library 
funds? If private circulating libraries can lend 
books at two cents a day each (the average loan 
being perhaps for six or eight days) and make 
money at it, why should it cost a public library more 
than two cents a day per volume, as it seems to in 
some instances, to keep its books in circulation ? 
• • • 

The public library as a bureau of inform- 
ation renders important service, whether or not 
strictly legitimate, to the community. The free 
library of Cardiff is said to stand in the very fore- 
front of progress in one respect : it has established 
a telephone inquiry department, and, if one may 
credit the reports coming from the head librarian, 
the new departure has proved a great success. The 
inquiries received cover a wide range of subjects, — 
conscriptien, cooperation, steam-boilers, hedge-hogs, 
ladies' fans, old-age pensions, tailoring, and many 
other more or less abstruse matters. Where the 
question requires time for answering properly, the 
questioner is rung up again, but many inquiries are 
immediately answerable. Card-holders are enabled 
to ascertain whether any desired book is available, 
and to order its reservation if it is at present out. 
As sample questions the following are given : 
" Number of Protestants and Roman Catholics in 
Wales ? " " What patents have been taken out for 
buffer springs ? " " Who wrote ' Make new friends, 
but keep the old ? ' " These were all answered. The 
number of trivial and senseless questions that come 
in over the wire is gratifyingly small. 
• • • 

Of making many books, we are told on high 
authority, there is no end, and much study is a 
weariness of the flesh. The past year in the book 
world has been one of energetic production and of 
comparatively languid demand for the product. " In 
my opinion," declares Mr. Gerald Duckworth, the 
London publisher, " there are too many authors, too 
many books published, and too many publishers." 
" The market was flooded with mechanical fiction," 
avers another publisher, "and the public detected 
the grinding of the machine." Overproduction is, 
happily, a fault that tends to correct itself ; super- 
fluous producers are crowded out, and only the fittest 
survive — in the world of books as in that of shoes 
or pianos or any other necessities or luxuries. One 
rather encouraging sign of the season, in London at 
least, was the demand for a few books of worth and 
eminence — like Lord Morley's "Gladstone" in 
its less expensive edition and Queen Victoria's " Let- 
ters " — works which are thought to have been at 
any rate partly responsible for the lessened demand 
in other fields of literature. There might be a 
worse catastrophe than a falling-off in the desire for 
mechanical fiction and other machine-made books. 

Chaucer and the "New Thought" may at 
the first blush be deemed very widely separated — 
sundered, in fact, by some five centuries of time. 
Nevertheless, as it isf a wholesome corrective of 
pride, whether spiritual or intellectual, to be re- 
minded every now and then of the antiquity and 
staleness of our fancied up-to-dateness, it may be of 
benefit to turn to the 982d line of " The Romaunt 
of the Rose," where we find that the fifth of the 
" fyve arowes of other gyse " held by the " bachelere 
ycleped Swete-Loking " was named " the Newe- 
Thought." It is to be regretted that the poet 
failed to enlarge on the nature and peculiarities of 
this " newe-tbought," but perhaps his very silence is 
a proof of its being too well-known to his contem- 
poraries to need description. The immediate con- 
text, however, if any care to look up the passage, 
will be found to be rather significant and instructive. 




(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

I am sure that many working librarians have, like 
myself, read with hearty approval the suggestion lately 
made in your journal, that heneflcence toward libraries 
might advantageously be directed toward the inside as 
well as the outside of the institution; that the gift of 
buildings might well he supplemented by occasional 
gifts of books that are worthy and desirable, but would 
otherwise not be likely to be added to the collection. 
We already have many dignified library buildings 
" which are a credit to our fair city," as the President 
of the Board of Directors remarks on dedication day. 
But fuel and light and salaries cost a deal of money; 
so do repairs and " incidentals." The pitifully meagre 
residuum we may spend on books. First of all, we 
mtist buy plenty of copies of the popular novels of the 
day. They are often unobjectional and desirable, and 
the taxpayer is justified in his clamor for them. But, 
alas! too often we have no money left with which to 
purchase the Pennells' " Whistler " or Lowell's " Gov- 
ernment of England " ; while that choice edition of 
" Purchas his Pilgrimes " is simply out of the question, 
even though a copy may be had at a great bargain. 

The object of that splendid endowment, the " General 
Education Fund," is " to promote, systematize and make 
effective the various forms of educational beneficence." 
On investigation the honorable gentlemen charged with 
the disbursement of this fund might discover that many 
a monumental public library is an institiition rather 
ineffective in the higher realms of culture. This is by 
no means the fault of librarians. Our expensive library 
machinery is in good working order. Librarians are 
best pleased when it is working with the best of mate- 
rials. Most of us now refuse to deal with stuff that is 
positively shoddy. The popular demand is for goods 
of a passable quality, even if dyed in rather crude 
colors. Shall we not have an opportunity to handle 
occasionally the more gracious silks and satins — the 
finer and rarer products of literature ? 

Asa Don Dickinson. 

Leavenworth, Kansas, March 3, 1909. 



[March 16, 

C^^ S^to §00ks. 

The Mountains of the Moon.* 

Commercial greed and political schemes no 
longer play an important part in exploration. 
The sand wastes of the Sahara, the rock wastes 
of Tibet, the ice wastes around the Poles, the 
jungles of Africa, and the vast expanses of 
unexplored South America, offer very little 
inducement to the mercenary spirit. But the lure 
of the unknown, the appeal of terr'a incognita^ 
the call of the wild, and the search for the curi- 
ous, are as ever the strong determining factors 
that draw the venturesome to endure the perils 
and the hardships of the almost inconceivable 
places on the earth. If the modern explorer 
may draw a few new and definite geographical 
lines, if he may determine the elevation of an 
isolated mountain, and if happily he may dis- 
cover some new though worthless feature on the 
globe, he is content. His mite of information 
goes toward filling in some bare spots of geo- 
graphical knowledge, though it brings no re- 
wards to the commercially minded or adds no 
breadth to a king's domain. 

Such an explorer is Prince Luigi Amedeo of 
Savoy, better known to fame and newspaper 
advertisement as H. R. H. the Duke of the 
Abruzzi. As an explorer, his record includes 
the ascent of Mount St. Elias, the farthest north 
in Arctic exploration, and finally the actual 
discovery of the mysterious legendary moun- 
tains of Ptolemy — the Mountains of the Moon, 
in Equatorial Africa, upon the borders of Congo 
and Uganda. The account of this last expedi- 
tion is now given in the volume entitled " Ruwen- 
zori," the new name of the old mythical range 
of mountains. 

This moimtain system holds a peculiar posi- 
tion in geographical history. Ptolemy, follow- 
ing the persistent native traditions, located the 
towering snowy range somewhere in the depths 
of central Africa. Generations of succeeding 
geographers have contented themselves with 
either accepting his shadowy statement or deny- 
ing it. Stanley, in 1876, was the first white 
man to be near these mountains, but owing 
to the fog and mist which almost perpetually 
hang over them, he did not see the imposing 
sight. In 1888 Stanley saw the mountains, 
but made no exploration of them. One year 

♦Buwenzori. An Account of the Expedition of H. R. H. 
Prince Luigi Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. By Filippo 
de Filippi, P. R.Q. S. ; with Preface by H. R. H. the Duke of the 
Abruzzi. Ulustrated in color, etc. NewYork: E.P.Dutton&Oo. 

later, Lieutenant Stairs, of Stanley's expedition, 
attempted to ascend one of the great peaks, but 
attained an altitude of only eleven thousand feet. 
In 1905 some members of the British Museimi 
expedition reached a height of sixteen thousand 
feet. It remained for the Duke of the Abruzzi, 
with a carefully prepared expedition, to ascend 
the highest peaks, to map the configurations, to 
locate the watersheds which feed the Nile, to 
determine the extent and the position of the 
glaciers, to note the fauna and the flora, and to 
dispel the mystery which had so long perplexed 
the makers of African geography. 

A summary of the Duke's expedition might 
lead the reader of this review to expect to find 
the book replete with interesting, even thrilling, 
details. This expectation will, however, be dis- 
appointed. Being engrossed with other affairs, 
His Royal Highness was prevented from writing 
the book, and turning over his journals to his 
friend Cavaliere Fillipo de Filippi, he commis- 
sioned him to recount the affairs of the expedi- 
tion. Hence the narrative comes to us at second 
hand. Very unfortunately, too, Cavaliere de 
Filippi was not a member of the party, though 
he had on a former expedition been the Duke's 
companion. Had the explorer told his own 
story, the book would no doubt have been more 
lively in style and more vital in content. But 
these unavoidable defects in the narrative by no 
means disparage the intrinsic merit of the expedi- 
tion, which went forth, not for a story, but to 
discover and catalogue scientific data. And as 
a record of important scientific discovery, no 
possible fault can be found with the book. 

Setting out from Naples, on the sixteenth of 
April, 1906, the expedition began the African 
part of its journey at Mombasa in British East 
Africa, thence extended to Port Florence on 
Lake Victoria, and finally arrived at Entebbe, 
the capital of Uganda. Fifteen days more of 
, travelling through equatorial swamps and jungles 
brought the party to the beginning of its work, 
within sight of the icy peaks of Ruwenzori, 
looming high above the tropic jungle and shed- 
ding their glacial waters into the Nile. By 
September the object of the expedition had been 
accomplished. The different peaks and glaciers 
had been explored ; the summits of two peaks, 
each nearly seventeen thousand feet high, had 
been surmounted by the Duke, who planted an 
Italian flag on one of the peaks and an English 
flag on the other, and named them respectively 
Margherita and Alexandra, "in order that, 
under the auspices of these two royal ladies, the 
memories of the two nations may be handed down 





to posterity — of Italy, whose name was the first 
to resound on these snows in a shout of victory, 
and of England, which in its marvellous colonial 
expansion carries civilization to the slopes of these 
remote mountains." 

No reader of this book can possibly be dis- 
appointed with the many beautiful half-tone and 
photogravure plates made from photographs 
taken by Cavaliere Vittorio Sella. We have 
never seen more remarkable panoramic pictures 
of mountain scenery than are here reproduced. 


Chaucer axd his Times.* 

In giving us a book on so inviting a theme 
as " Chaucer and his England," Mr. Coulton 
has attempted a most useful task, viz.: to fur- 
nish some account of Chaucer the man, with a 
very full description of the world in which he 
lived and some parts of which are reflected in 
his poems. For two reasons a good book on 
this subject is desirable. First, the measure of 
success attained by any literature or literary 
work in interpreting life or a section of it can- 
not be determined until the critic knows some- 
thing of the life presim^iably mirrored in the 
literature. Such a knowledge of the age of 
Edward the Third is not easily accessible. With 
many phases of the history of the period, the 
historians — Trevelyan, Oman, and others — 
have been busy ; yet we know of no book of 
similar compass from which one can learn so 
much of the private life of fourteenth-century 
England as one can from Mr. Coulton's. It is 
weU arranged ; it is not overloaded with general 
statements ; the author writes as a rule with 
steady concentration, and is evidently much in- 
terested in his subject. His work, therefore, 
has not been done perfunctorily ; his book is 
fresh and stimulating. 

Secondly, even for those who read Chaucer 
not with a critical eye but merely for the sake 
of knowledge or inspiration, a body of work 
like his can be much better understood if studied 
in connection with an informal running com- 
mentary such as is afforded by this book. Mr. 
Coulton has worked, of course, in a very different 
field from that of Dr. Root's " Poetry of Chau- 
cer " or of Professor Tatlock's " Development 
and Chronology of Chaucer's Works." He has 
nothing to say of literary sources, theories of 
authorship, or dates ; indeed, he is not exces- 

•Chaucek and his England. By G. G. Coulton. 
trated. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 


sively critical about the facts of Chaucer's life, 
although he rejects Mr. Walter Rye's view that 
Chaucer was a Norfolk man. At some points 
he draws freely upon his imagination — for ex- 
ample in describing Chaucer's childhood ; yet 
the result perhaps is plausible enough. Assum- 
ing that Chaucer was a perfectly normal boy, 
we may suppose that he did play games of ball, 
bring his cock to fight in school on Shrove 
Tuesday, and indulge in football, " leaping, 
dancing, shooting, wrestling, and casting the 
stone "; that he loitered along the busy Thames, 
studying the sailors, and went in due time to a 
grammar school, taking his turn under the rod 
of the pedagogue. In the utter absence of facts, 
this theory will answer well enough ; but we 
must bear in mind that it is only an a prion 

In connection with Chaucer's married life, 
Mr. Coulton has some sensible if unromantic 
things to say about conjugal love in the four- 
teenth century. " However apocryphal," he 
remarks, " may be the alleged solemn verdict of 
a Court of Love that husband and wife had no 
right to be in love with each other [why regard 
it as either apocryphal or solemn ?] , the sentence 
was at least recognized as hen trovato; and 
nobody who has closely studied mediaeval society, 
either in romance or in chronicle, would suppose 
that Chaucer blushed to feel a hopeless passion 
for another, or to write openly of it while he had 
a vnfe of his own." By implication, then, Mr. 
Coulton assumes that the imrequited love which 
had tortured Chaucer for eight years prior to 
1366 (" Blaunche the Duchesse " 30 ff.) was an 
actual and not merely a conventional emotion. 
While this is possible, such an assumption, as 
Mr. Sypherd has shown, is by no means a safe 
one. Nor is the " evidence " of unhappiness in 
his married life conclusive ; it would not be even 
if his literary allusions to wedded life were 
uniformly (instead of "predominantly") dis- 
respectful, for he was under no obligation to 
write autobiography, and even if he did allude 
to actual unhappiness in his own life it may have 
been humorously exaggerated. Finally, are we 
warranted in taking the above lines as an allu- 
sion to a love experience, whether real or feigned? 
The poet himself puts it very vaguely ; he can- 
not tell why he cannot sleep, etc. It is hard to 
see why a real and actual experience should be 
described in such vague terms. Did the poet 
mean that the passage should be understood? 

Concerning the loss of Chaucer's position as 
Clerk of the Works, in June, 1391, after a two- 
year tenure of office, Mr. Coulton thinks " it is 



[March 16, 

difficult to resist the conviction that Chaucer 
was by this time recognized as an unbusiness- 
like person," since at this time " we can find 
nothing in the political situation to account for 
the dismissal." This is not impossible ; yet 
other alternatives suggest themselves. Until 
further evidence is forthcoming, Lounsburys 
remarks ("Studies in Chaucer " i. 85 ff.) must 

We mention these points, not as of great 
importance in themselves, but as illustrating the 
direction in which the book is weak. When the 
author ventures far from the beaten path of 
biography into the attractive by-ways of con- 
jecture, he is not to be taken too seriously. The 
chief value of the book lies in the fresh and 
lifelike pictures it affords of society in town and 
country. The streets of London, its environs, 
its laws, the decay of the old chivalry and the 
rise of an aristocracy of industry and wealth, 
child-marriages, the science of courtly love, the 
Great War and the decline of knighthood, the 
condition of the poor, the cost of books, the 
amusements of the time, the uncertainties of 
justice, the corruption of the clergy, — these 
are among the topics vividly treated. The pic- 
tures Mr. Coulton draws for us form capital 
backgrounds for the actions of Chaucer's poems. 
Moreover, they bring home to us how small a 
section of the life of his day is presented even 
in the whole body of Chaucer's works. His 
fundamental purpose in writing was to enter- 
tain ; and however much he might sympathize 
with the poor and oppressed, their burden finds 
no record and elicits no outburst of sorrow or 
indignation in his pages. For this we must go 
to Langland (or the Langland group, if some 
of our latest writers carry their point) and to 
Gower. Yet Chaucer's limitations, consciously 
or unconsciously imposed, must not be men- 
tioned by way of reproach. Art is never super- 
fluous and ministers to humanity in one way as 
charity does in another. If Chaucer chose to 
restrict himself in his subject-matter, perhaps 
his work is in one sense all the more valuable 
for this reason : his portrayal of a small section 
of life is all the more complete and perfect. 
Mr. Coulton's concluding remarks may well be 
repeated here : 

" As it is, he stands the most Shakespearian figure in 
English literature, after Shakespeare himself. Age can- 
not wither him, nor custom stale his infinite variety. We 
venerate him for his years, and he daily startles us with 
the eternal freshness of his youth. All springtide is here, 
with its green leaves and singing-birds; aptly we read 
him stretched at length in the summer shade, yet almost 
more delightfully in winter, with our feet on the fender; 

for he smacks of all familiar comforts — old friends, old 
books, old wine, and even, by a proleptic miracle, old 
cigars. 'Here,' said Dryden,' is God's plenty';and Lowell 
inscribed the first leaf of his Chaucer with that promise 
which the poet himself set upon the enchanted gate of 
his ' Parliament of Fowls ' — 

" ' Through me men go into the blissful place 
Of the heart's heal and deadly woundes' cure ; 
Through me men go unto the well of Grace, 
Where green and lusty May doth ever endure ; 
This is the way to all good aveiiture ; 
Be glad, thou Reader, and thy sorrow o£Fcast, 
All open am I, pass in, and speed thee fast.' " 

Clark S. Northup. 

The Campaign of Santiago de Cuba.* 

Colonel Herbert H. Sargent, of the United 
States Army, has told the story of the brief 
campaign which speedily ended the war of 1898, 
accompanying his account, chapter by chapter, 
with the comments of a military critic. On the 
practical side of military affairs, the author has 
seen twenty-five years of service, being now a 
captain of cavalry in our regular establish- 
ment, while in 1898 he was colonel of the Fifth 
Volunteer Infantry, and during 1899-1901 was 
lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-ninth Volun- 
teer Infantry which served in the Philippine 
Islands. On the theoretical side, he is a West 
Point graduate who has always kept up special 
studies in military history, and is the author of 
two volumes that have been favorably received 
both by military critics and readers in general, 
" Napoleon Bonaparte's First Campaign " and 
" The Campaign of Marengo." 

The American public derived from the 
journalist-critics of 1898, and still retains, cer- 
tain general impressions as to the management 
of our army during the brief war with Spain, 
and in particular as to the organization of the 
Santiago expedition and the direction of that 
little army in the field. These impressions were 
recorded in hasty but more permanent form in 
a number of books turned out for popular con- 
sumption immediately after the little war that 
for a time made us feel so big. More recently 
they have been repeated, as if they were estab- 
lished upon a sober historical basis, in Professor 
Latane's volume on the decade 1897-1907 
(" Amierica as a World Power ") in the " Amer- 
ican Nation " series. Now that ten years and 
more have passed, anyone who desires an unbi- 
ased verdict on the matter may be advised to 
consiilt Captain Sargent's work. Not that he 

• The Campaign of Santiago de Cuba. By Herbert H. Sar- 
gent. In three volumes. Chicago: A. C. McClurg& Co. 




has constituted himself a defender of the War 
Department as administered in 1898, or of 
General Shafter in Cuba. His is no " official " 
account of the war at all. But he apparently 
believes that in the main the War Department 
and the Army staff corps met the situation 
about as well as could have been expected under 
all the circumstances, and that on the whole the 
land attack on Santiago was pretty well con- 
ducted, considering the conditions that had to be 
met. Doubtless many who have given these 
matters some study will feel that the note of 
criticism is not sufficiently heard in Captain 
Sargent's volumes ; that he has been somewhat 
too complaisant both with the lack of preparation 
and with the actual conduct of the skirmishes 
outside of Santiago that have been called 
" battles." Conceding this to be the case, it 
remains true that he has come much nearer to 
expressing the sober verdict of history upon 
these events than have the writers whose aim 
was partisan or sensation-seeking, or who have 
viewed them with entire lack or disregard of 

The engagements outside of Santiago have 
been called " skirmishes " above ; they would 
have assumed the status of mere " outpost af- 
fairs " in any real battle, — quite as this little 
Santiago campaign would, in a great war, 
speedily have sunk to the level of mere incident. 
The defects due to lack of preparation, the mis- 
takes made, the complaints of soldiers as to 
treatment and sickness during and after the 
campaign, are to be considered in this light; 
and Captain Sargent has the perspective of a 
student of military history. Just from the 
standpoint of historical perspective, however, 
one may offer a leading criticism, viz., that, con- 
sidering the relative unimportance (except in 
results) of the events treated, this history of 
them bulks unduly large. Not that the author 
goes too much into minutiae. The naval opera- 
tions, which really decided the war, occupy a 
good deal of space, even apart from their direct 
connection with the Santiago campaign. A con- 
siderable part of the first volume is devoted to 
the strategical problems as they appeared at the 
outset of the war ; and the " Comments," which 
deal primarily with questions of strategy and 
tactics, sometimes are longer than the text of 
the chapters to which they are appended. This 
involves a good deal of duplication, sometimes 
in connection with matter that seems either ele- 
mentary or very obvious. 

Yet the author's comments, like the narration 

itself, are written in a clear and pleasing style, 
and the work is an enjoyable one to read. The 
twelve sketch-maps scattered throughout are 
very useful, and there is an index which, as 
regards the proper names involved, is good. 
Volume III. also has a string of appendices, 
most of them documents regarding the Spanish 
troops in Cuba, obtained in the main from 
Spanish official sources. They are especially 
interesting as revealing the small number of 
Spaniards engaged in the combats at Caney 
and San Juan. Captain Sargent went to some 
trouble in this respect ; one wonders the more 
that he does not seem to have consulted Spanish 
and other foreign unofficial sources on the war, 
of which a good number were published in 1898 
and the succeeding few years. He does not 
append a bibliography, which is certainly de- 
sirable in such a work ; but from his footnotes 
and appendices it is apparent that he has trusted 
almost entirely to American sources — official 
reports and other writings. In several places 
he has drawn from the Spanish officers, Gomez 
Nunez and MiiUer y Tejeiro, translations from 
whose treatises were published in a government 
bulletin at Washington ; and in Appendix F he 
speaks of them as " the only accessible Spanish 
authorities on the subject." To be sure, most 
of the Spanish writings on the war in 1898 and 
1899 were put out for partisan purposes, or were 
otherwise of a very sensational character. Yet 
even the most ephemeral of these pamphlets has 
some value as showing what was the state of 
affairs among the Spaniards; and no final his- 
tory can be written from one side alone. More- 
over, there are in Spanish and French several 
treatises on the war, which have some value. 
Had he looked into the literature from that side. 
Captain Sargent would not have placed so much 
stress on the mere numerical force of the Spanish 
army in Cuba as it appeared on paper. Lack 
of equipment and care, especially medical care, 
corruption in regard to pay and supplies, like- 
wise the climate, had all played a part in making 
it, effectively, a force very inferior to the veteran 
army he supposes to have been under Blanco's 
orders. Nevertheless, the criticisms passed upon 
the failure to concentrate more men at Santiago, 
and to meet the situation with more energy and 
greater initiative, would hardly be modified in 
their essentials. Indeed, such criticisms would 
in some respects be strengthened by reference 
to the Spanish sources, showing the conduct of 
affairs in Cuba as it appeared from the inside. 

James A. LeEoy. 



[March 16, 

The Newest Faust.* 

When it was announced that Mr. Stephen 
Phillips was at work on the Faust theme, read- 
ers of Goethe wondered what the result would 
be, — whether an original drama based on the 
old legend, or Goethe's " Faust " adapted to the 
English stage. The book turns out to be neither. 
The joint authors (for Mr. Phillips has collabo- 
rated with Mr. J. Comyns Carr) state on the 
title-page that their work is " freely adapted 
from Goethe's dramatic poem." The extreme 
freedom of the adaptation strikes the reader at 
first glance. After turning a few pages he re- 
calls Faust's sarcastic directions to Wagner for 
gaining the ear of the public : " Sitzt ihr nur 
immer ! Leimt zusammen, Braut ein Ragout von 
andrer Schmaus." The ragout which has been 
brewed in the present instance is made of bits 
taken here and there from both parts of the 
German original, stirred up with other bits pro- 
vided by the adapters. 

The intention was obviously so to improve 
upon Goethe's poem by rearrangement, omis- 
sions, and additions that the resulting " adapta- 
tion " would make an effective stage play for 
Mr. Beerbohm Tree. No one can blame Mr. 
Tree for wishing to emulate Henry Irving by 
adding a Mephisto to his achievements. As a 
stage manager he has as many " machines " and 
" prospects " as Goethe's Director, and what 
better use could he put them to than to make 
them serve him as actor in the role of the Devil? 
Reports from London confirm that neither poet 
nor actor were mistaken in their estimate of a 
new Faust as a theatrical success. 

A glance at the contents will show the method 
employed. The prologue is retained, but the 
scene is changed from the original heaven to 
" a range of mountains between Heaven and 
Earth." Mephistopheles, as the Satan of 
Scripture, makes his wager, not with the Lord, 
but with an angel " sent down from bliss." The 
divine messenger assures Mephistopheles of the 
futility of his attempts against Faust, who 
" through the woman-soul at last shall win," a 
prophecy clothed in the famous closing words 
of Part Second. At the end of the prologue 
the machines and prospects have a chance : 
Mephistopheles, amid thunder and darkness, 
" with wings outspread swoops suddenly like 
lightning downwards to the earth." 

At the beginning of Act I. Goethe is allowed 

* Faust. Freely Adapted from Goethe's Dramatic Poem. 
By Stephen Phillips and J. Comyns Carr. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

to have his way with some condensing and re- 
arrangement, untn after the Easter music, 
when Faust, recalled from his suicidal attempt, 
remembers that seeking the light he has not yet 
called upon darkness. He raises the sign of 
the hexagon, speaks his formula ; a flame leaps 
in the hollow of the chimney, followed by a 
vapor from which emerges the form of his future 
friend and tempter. The Easter walk and the 
poodle are thus entirely dispensed with except 
a few lines which for their poetry's sake are 
woven in here and there out of their original con- 
nection. The compact is soon made, the student 
is disposed of in a few lines, and, accompanied 
by a roll of thunder, the pait are whisked away 
to emerge in " a world of cloud and vapour." 
When the clouds have disappeared, we do not 
find the two travellers in Auerbach's Keller or 
the Witches' Kitchen, but on a ledge of rock 
looking into a deep torn fissure in the earth, in 
whose depths is the Witches' Cavern. In a 
neighboring hollow of the rock 

" 'T is said that once ere Eden's lawns had flowered 
The Mother of the Mother of the world 
Lay hidden." 

Now it serves as background for " a vision of a 
figure nearly nude and draped by the growth of 
leaves about her form, in which she seems partly 
incorporate." Faust drinks the witches' cup, 
thunder crashes, there is a blinding flash of 
lightning, after which the rejuvenated Faust 
stands forth clad in rich garments. " Mephis- 
topheles with a red glow upon his face, and the 
witch surroimded by her Attendant Apes," 
join in a wild dance, when the curtain falls. 

This analysis of the first act will serve to 
show the method of the adapters. Goethe has 
been retained where he conforms with the end 
in view ; where not, new matter has been sub- 
stituted. The purpose of the new " Faust " is 
manifestly an attempt so to simplify and unify 
the " Faust " of Goethe that it will not make 
too great a demand upon the intelligence and 
culture of the theatre-going public of to-day. 
To carry out this purpose, it was necessary to 
sacrifice the more subtle ideas of the poet's 
philosophy ; for what does the modern theatre- 
goer care about the ethical content which the 
great world-poet put into the foolish old legend ? 
It is the realism of the love story and the dia- 
hlerie which appeal to him. The Weltschmerz 
of Faust finds no echo within his breast. Hence 
the soliloquies and other passages in which Faust 
gives expression to his trouble have been either 
omitted or greatly condensed. As a result the 
role of the hero has been so much reduced that 




it serves for but little more than the occasion 
for Margaret's love and Mephisto's magic. 

The specta