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THE CAMPAIGNS OF 1866 AND 1870-71 









It has been repeatedly suggested to the under- 
signed publisher by his friends and patrons that 
he should re-edit the Diaries of the august 
Monarch, as pubKshed in " Kaiser Friedrich : 
a New and Authorized Presentment," by Mar- 
f garethe von Poschinger (3 vols., 1899-1900), thus 
making them accessible to a wider circle of the 
German nation. In view of the inestimable 
value which these notes possess, with regard to 
our knowledge of the thoughts and feelings of 
their distinguished Author, and as a contribution 
to the History of his Time, the firm has felt itself 
justified in acceding to the request. 

No one could paint a clear picture of the 
character of this Prince with greater sympathy, 
or make it appear more worthy of respect, than 

Lit is, as it stands out from his own Diaries. The 

vi Preface 

very spirit of his noble soul breathes to us from 
his writings. 

A further reason for the appearance of this 
book is the wish to celebrate the approach of the 
seventieth birthday of our well-beloved Sovereign 
by some adequate publication throughout the 


(Late Ed. Daring's Heirs.) 


October, 1901. 


I HAVE to express my warmest thanks to Fraulein 
Ide Clansius for assisting me in the translation 
of these Diaries. 

For the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71, I have 
also availed myself of the authorized translations 
of the German Eeports, prepared at the Topo- 
graphical and Statistical Department of the War 




October, 1901. 




Introduction xi 

I. From the Diary of the Crown Prince Frederick 

William in the Campaign op 1866 .... 1 

II. From the Diary of the Crown Prince in his 

Journey to the East, in 1869 .... 81 

III. From the Diary of the Crown Prince in the 

War with France, 1870-71 . . . . . 190 

IV. From the Diary of the Crown Prince in his 

Journey to Spain, 188.3 263 

Index 365 


From a very early period, the Emperor Frederick 
formed the admirable habit, to which he re- 
mained faithful all his life, of jotting down in 
Diaries the fugitive images of the moment, its 
events and experiences, perceptions and sensa- 
tions, so as to preserve them from obUvion. If, 
on the one hand, it seemed to him a worthy task 
thus to keep the book of his life, and to be the 
chronicler of his own history, on the other it 
was no less the intimate joy of literary work and 
creation that led him to prosecute the develop- 
ment of the habit. 

The first of the Kaiser's notes in Diary form 
date from his eleventh year, followed by others 
in the next three years. The youthful author 
in these describes, boy-fashion, and with extreme 
brevity, Court functions, a Cadets' manoeuvre, and, 

xii Introduction 

among other things, the laying of the foundation- 
stone, and consecration, of the Memorial to King 
Frederick William III. in Potsdam. Later on 
we find notes of the journeys of Prince Frederick 
WiUiam to Eussia, in the year 1852, which are 
pleasantly written, and give evidence of marked 
literary capacity. 

When, ten years later, the Crown Prince 
Frederick William returned as the victorious 
leader from the Bohemian Campaign, he felt 
impelled to gather up in the form of a Diary the 
epoch-making events of the time, as supplied by 
his notes and letters from the scene of action. 

If the illustrious author herein proved his 
marked capacity for the graphic description of 
severe and terrible scenes ot war, the later notes 
of his journey to the East, in the year 1869, 
exhibit no less a highly developed faculty of 
throwing light upon the conditions and people 
of the countries in which he travelled, under 
the aspects of history and culture. With the 
artist's seeing eye he depicts for us landscapes 
of rare beauty ; with fine perception he describes 
the works of art of a vanished age, now indeed 
lying in ruins, but still commanding admiration. 

Infroductiojt xiii 

The effect of these lively and graphic descriptions 
is enhanced by a remarkably attractive style, rich 
in feUcitous expressions. The evidences of an 
exceedingly clear presentation, and artistic appre- 
hension of things seen, are again pleasantly con- 
spicuous in the Crown Prince's diary of his journey 
to Spain in 1883, and make the reading of it a 
veritable enjoyment. 

The Crown Prince also set down, as a faithful 
chronicler, the memorabilia of the year of war, 
1870-71, in so far as he came day by day into 
personal contact with them. Herein he reveals 
himself as the far-sighted politician in the grand 
style, entirely occupied with the idea of the unifi- 
cation of Germany, and the resolute and liberal 
building up of the Empire. His measures have 
in many respects the character of programmes for 
the future, and are inspired with an imposing 
moral grandeur. , 



In view of the preparations for war on the part 
of Austria, King WilHam I. had, in the days 
between May 3 and 12, 1866, signed a number 
of orders, by which the field-armies collectively 
were mobilized. 

While several corps were concentrating as 
the I. Army, and the Elbe Army, on both banks 
of the Elbe, and in the Lausitz, under the chief 
command of Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia, 
a second army was organized for the protection 
of Silesia, the command of Which was given to 
the Crown Prince. 

This II. Army consisted at first of the 

V. Army Corps (General von Steinmetz) and the 

^VI. Army Corps (General von Mutius), but these 

were soon joined by the I. Army Corps (General 

von Bonin), and the Guard Corps under Prince 


2 ::DidfS^^'pf^\th&>R)nperor Frederick 

August of Wurtemburg. A special Division of 
Cavalry was formed out of different regiments 
of the V. and VI. Army Corps, Major-General 
von Hartmann being appointed Commander. 

The appointment of the Crown Prince to be 
Commander-in-Chief of this Army, with his simul- 
taneous promotion to the rank of G-eneral of 
Infantry, took place on May 17 ; on June 2 the 
military government of the Province of Silesia 
was further entrusted to him. 

The Chief of the General Staff was Major- 
General von Blumenthal; the Quartermaster- 
General, Major-General von Stosch. Captain von 
Jasmund of the Leib-Grenadiers (I. Brandenburg), 
No. 8, and First-Lieutenant Count zu Eulenburg 
of the 1st Foot Guards, acted as personal adjutants 
to the Crown Prince. 

On July 15 followed the declaration of war 
against Saxony, Hanover, and Electoral Hesse, 
after these states had rejected the Prussian offer 
of neutrality. On June 18 King William pub- 
lished his war-manifesto. 

On the evening of June 20 an order from 
the King was received in the Head-Quarters of 
the Silesian Army, directing the Crown Prince 
to send a message on the morning of the 21st 
to the commanders of all the Austrian outposts 

Austrian Campaign of 1866 3 

opposite, to the effect that " through the bearing 
of Austria at Frankfurt-on-Maine, the state of war 
had practically broken out, and that the Prussian 
troops had instructions to act accordingly." 

On the same evening the Crown Prince issued 
an army-order to his troops. 

On June 22 a telegram was sent from the King 
to the Head-Quarters of the Crown Prince, com- 
manding him, in conjunction with the I. Army, 
to take the offensive in Bohemia by concentrating 
in the direction of Gitschin. It was calculated 
approximately, with regard to the enemy, that, 
at the time of the entry of the II. Army into 
Bohemia, it was improbable that its bulk would 
already have advanced far enough on the left 
flank to present any organized resistance to the 
isolated columns of the Crown Prince as they 
debouched from the mountains. 

The junction with the I. Army could only 
be effected by the right wing of the II. Army. 
The Crown Prince ordered, accordingly, that the 
I. Army Corps, followed by the Cavalry Division, 
should form the Advance-guard in this movement 
of the right wing, while the V. Corps was to take 
possession of the Pass of Nachod from Keinerz, 
so as to cover the movements of the army against 
the main strength of the enemy, expected on 

4 Diaries of the E^nperor Frederick 

this side. The Guard Corps was directed to make 
use of the roads between the two Corps above 
mentioned, so as to be used as a reserve by the 
one or the other in case of need, or to occupy the 
third exit from the mountains, the Pass of Eypel. 
The VI. Corps was to remain at Glatz, on the 
look-out for divisions of the enemy who might 
show themselves to the south of this fortress; 
as soon as possible it was to be removed from 
there, and to push on the Hoffman Brigade of this 
Corps to effect junction with the V. Corps at 

On the 26th, the columns of the Guard Corps, 
which now had to push forward from their position 
(the farthest back on the Neisse) so as to be 
available as an immediate reserve on either hand, 
crossed the Austrian frontier at Tunschendorf and 
Johannesberg, amid the cheers of the troops, 
and under the eyes of the Crown Prince. Detach- 
ments of the 3rd Eegiment of the Uhlans of the 
Guard had on this occasion a successful skirmish 
with the Austrian Windischgratz, and Mexico - 
Uhlan Dragoons. The corps bivouacked between 
Politz and Braunau. 

The V. Corps had pushed the 9th Infantry 
Division toward the frontier, in the direction 
of Nachod. The frontier town of Schlaney was 

Crossing the Attstrian Frontier 5 

occupied by the enemy with some sixty inf^^ntry- 
men, two squadrons, and two guns : the bridge 
over the Metau was destroyed. Two guns of 
the 5 -4 -pounder Foot Battery of the Field 
Artillery Kegiment, No. 5, were brought up 
against them, and the first firing from the II. 
Army took place here. The enemy were forced 
to surrender, and by the evening the pass and 
town of Nachod were also occupied by the 

After these preparatory movements on the 
26th, June 27 opened the succession of brilliant 
and arduous days, in which the II. Army effected 
its debouche from the mountains. 

OF 1866 


{Compiled by the Crown Prince after the war, from 
varioics notices and letters to his wife, all political 
and higher military considerations being omitted,) 

On June 26 we passed the Austrian frontier. 
My Head-Quarters on the day before had been at 
Eggersdorf, with Count Magnis, and I went from 

6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

there on the morning of June 26 to the Braunauer 
Strasse, by which the Guard Corps set out on its 
march to Bohemia. 

When we reached the Austrian frontier, there 
was great jubilation. Every division* cheered, 
the bands played, many companies sang their 
national melodies; wherever the people recog- 
nized me, they gave me a hearty greeting, as, for 
instance, when I reached the town of Braunau, 
at the same moment as the Eegiment of Guard- 
Fusiliers. All the villages were deserted by their 
male population; only old men, women, and 
children looked anxiously through the half-open 
doors as we passed, but as soon as they found we 
did nothing to hurt them, they brought water to 
the soldiers, to whom one could not grudge the 
luxury in the fierce heat of the sun. 

About a mile and a half f beyond Braunau we 
threw up outposts, and I waited here, with the 
regiment of the Queen's Guard-Grenadiers. On 
the march we met three men of the Third Guard- 
Uhlans, who had had a skirmish with the Win- 
dischgratz Dragoons, in which two of the latter 

* The word Zug as applied to infantry, is translated as division, of 
which there are two in each company. The large unit of troops is 
distinguished by an initial capital letter— DmsMW. — Tr. (From War 
OfiBce Report.) 

t The German mile is about 6| English miles, or 7^ kilometres. — Tr. 

Battle of Nachod 7 

were severely wounded, and one was taken 
prisoner ; one horse belonging to our Uhlans was 
cut down, but they promptly curbed an Austrian 
steed with a Prussian bridle and saddle, and rode 
off gaily. 

In Braunau I was greeted with loud cheers 
by the Second Battalion of the First Eegiment 
of the Guards ; then the Abbot of the Benedictine 
Monastery made his appearance, and later on I 
returned his visit, at the same time visiting the 
fine Church and Cloisters. 

June 27, 1866. 

We marched forward to-day in the direction 
of Hronow, over steep and difficult mountain-paths. 
Part of the Infantry baggage had to follow after, 
which extended the columns enormously. Every 
one was in good spirits. I sent Major von der 
Burg and Captain Mischke to the I. Army Corps, 
in the direction of the Pass of Trautenau. 

Not far from Hronow we heard the firing of 
cannon, and also met a detachment (^Zug) of eight 
Dragoon Eegiments (Second Silesian), which 
established our communications with the V. 
Army Corps. I rode off at once in the direction 
of the firing towards Nachod, where one could 

8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

already hear in the distance the cheers of the 
columns that were crossing the frontier. At the 
customs-house of Nachod lay a dead infantry- 
man, who had been left on the field last night 
after a short engagement, in which the Ninth 
Division had taken possession of this important 

It was sultry and frightfully dusty ; cannon- 
balls fell round us, yet no one believed that the 
enemy would make any serious resistance at this 
point, the more so as the Pass, with its high and 
very commanding castle, was not occupied. 

The town was like a deserted place : a wounded 
officer of the Dragoons lay in the market-place ; 
just then an orderly came hurrying by, to call up 
the light field-hospital of the Division. After all, 
the fighting was in earnest, and slightly-wounded 
men were already coming towards me. Biding 
further along the chaussee^ I saw a steep hill on 
the left, with fir-trees growing on it ; the artillery 
were going up, and shells were bursting in the air. 

Making my way, not without difficulty, between 
the guns and the ammunition waggons. Captain 
Fassong (Fifth Artillery Brigade) overtaking me, 
I was speaking to some of the artillery-men, who 
were rejoicing with me over the beginning of a 
fight, when a shell whizzed over us. A non- 

Battle of Nachod 9 

commissioned artillery officer riding near me said 
with a beaming face, '*That was a good one ! '' 
Just at that moment we stumbled at the very 
edge of the wood, into musketry fire; some 
ammunition waggons, on which the wounded had 
been laid, came wildly towards me; it was not 
easy to get out of this confusion, especially as the 
path was a hollow way. I looked round for a 
better place, which would give a general view, 
and tried to get to another hill, but was suddenly 
caught in a detachment of the Fourth Dragoons, 
who tore over a hill- top in mad confusion, hurrying 
out of the battle, with loose horses and riders of 
different arms running off in all directions. To 
resist the torrent was impossible, especially as I 
found myself between this wild rout and a column 
of infantry, as well as the artillery and ammunition 
waggons ; in fact, just in front of me, and in my 
path, some guns had been dismounted. It was 
only the almost total block of the road that 
checked the Dragoons, whom I ordered perempt- 
orily into arrest, while loose horses crushed me 
between the wheels of the waggons. At this 
moment I perceived at my side Captain von Plotz, 
and Lieutenant Daensch (Sixth Artillery Brigade), 
with drawn swords, expecting a hand-to-hand 
fight with the enemy's cavalry. It did not come 

lo Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

to that : and indeed the worthy dragoons seem to 
have heen overcome with panic, the Lord knows 
why, in this attack (which otherwise would 
certainly have succeeded), when their detachment 
fell in, and advanced with one of the wings. I 
was raging, but could do nothing, so I shouted 
to the infantry column of the 46th Eegiment 
that there was a pretty fight ahead of us, to which 
they replied with enthusiasm. Major-General 
von Stosch manoeuvred the infantry columns with 
great circumspection, to bring them into action 
by the shortest possible route. Eventually I 
reached my hill. Thence one saw the cavalry 
stationed alongside of the half-battalions of 
infantry, changing their position at every moment 
on account of the shell-firing. Lieutenant-General 
V. Lowenfeld, came a message, had been drawn 
late into action with the bulk of the Ninth 
Division, so that he could no longer maintain his 

While I was deliberating with Blumenthal 
and Stosch what would be best to do, the Tenth 
Division had already advanced and mingled in the 
m^Ue^ and the news came shortly after that the 
day was going as well as possible, while the cheer- 
ing could be heard from our own side. 

Captain von Jarotzki, from the Staff of 

Battle of Nachod 1 1 

the General-Commando of the V. Army Corps, 
announced to me that a standard had been taken 
by the Second Silesian Dragoon Regiment, No. 8. 
I fell on his neck for joy, and passed the news on 
at once to the troops standing round me, who 
broke into loud shouts of satisfaction. The 
instant before, Colonel Walker had pointed out 
to me that there were corn-flowers all round us, 
and I had just plucked one for my wife. This 
seemed to be a good omen, and must be added to 
the manifold significances of this flower for us. 
Shortly after, another standard was announced as 
taken by the First Eegiment of Uhlans (West- 

I now rode down, to express my acknowledg- 
ments to the brave fellows. Two soldiers were 
carrying off Count Eittberg, of the 58th Infantry 
Regiment, who was severely wounded in the 
lower abdomen; but he was still conscious, and 
recognized me, rejoicing in a touching manner 
over the standards we had t^tken. I soon reached 
the cavalry. The Second Silesian Dragoons, 
No. 8, had halted on the chaussee. Lieutenant- 
Colonel von Wichmann, Commander of the regi- 
ment, whose face was covered with the clotted 
blood that had streamed down from a sword-cut, 
informed me with a beaming countenance of the 

12 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

deeds of his regiment. The men, looking as 
proud as they were happy, responded to my 
congratulations with a '* Hurrah" that I shall 
never forget. 

Half the corps of officers was unfortunately 
horS'de-combat, I went on to the West-Prussian 
Uhlans, and found the same scene. The Com- 
mander, who was wounded, was missing. In 
order to shake hands with one at least, I gave 
my hand to the standard-bearer. General von 
Wuuck, who had taken over the Brigade the day 
before, had joined in the attack, and had unfortu- 
nately received a cut on the back of his head ; 
luckily the brain was not injured, and the wound 
was harmless. During this exchange of greetings 
the shells whizzed over us, and a dragoon, turning 
to me, christened them the '* Austrian bees.'' 

We went into a neighbouring farm to water 
our horses. Here I met the 47th Infantry and 
the Fifth Battalion of Jagers together, the men 
all in good spirits and happy. At the same 
moment a drummer from the First West- Prussian 
Grenadiers, No. 6, brought me a flag which had 
been captured, or rather, in the hand-to-hand 
tussle, had been taken away from the fallen 
ensign. A wounded Austrian infantry-man ap- 
peared to be wearing a uniform similar to that of 

Battle of Nachod 13 

my own Austrian regiment ; asked by a musketeer 
who spoke Polish, he replied, ** Crown-Prince-of- 
Prussia's Infantry," so that my own name was 
fighting against me. This is a singular coinci- 

1 now rode on to a height, and a shell ex- 
ploded just in front of us, upon a dead horse, 
which was blown into quarters. 

Shortly after, we saw the West-Prussian Uhlans 
make an attack on the cavalry, in which attackers 
and attacked were mixed up together; the regi- 
ment captured two guns. 

I sent Leopold HohenzoUern off to look for 
Steinmetz, and get exact information as to the 
state of the battle, since its successful issue 
seemed no longer doubtful. Shortly after I met 
Steinmetz, whom I embraced, and greeted as the 
victor, for we now saw the enemy drawing off 
on all sides in the direction from Skalitz to 

After discussing the principal matters for the 
next day, and exactly repeating the orders already 
given for the forward march to the Elbe, we 
decided to give the name of "Battle of Nachod '' 
to to-day's achievement. Telegrams were sent 
to the King with news of the victory that had 
been gained. 

14 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

After that I rode over the different points of 
the battle-field; at the station of the right wing 
lay a young Austrian officer of the '* Kaiser's 
Cuirassiers," who was severely wounded in the 
leg, dead horses and the corpses of Austrian 
cavahy lay around him. In a brook lay an over- 
turned Austrian gun, said to have been taken by 
the 6th Brandenburg Eegiment, No. 52. Here 
I met the West-Prussian Uhlans, and made them 
my acknowledgments for the capture of the two 
guns. Further to the left we were confronted by 
a gruesome field of corpses, covered with Austrian 
infantry sacrificed to our percussion-guns. Every- 
where wailing and groaning — whilst our men 
carried the enemy to the ambulance station, 
or shot off the arms they had taken from 
them, so that one ran some risk of being hit 
by our own people. Here I met Adalbert, who 
had been much under fire to-day with the In- 
fantry. Lieutenant- General v. Kirchbach described 
to me the decisive moment for his Tenth Division, 
who lost many brave officers here, their corpses, 
as those of a Captain v. Heuduck, and Lieutenant 
Walter, being borne away before my eyes. I 
shook hands with many of the wounded; they 
accepted their fate with quiet resignation, and 
without audible murmuring. 

Battle of Nachod 15 

Near Skalitz the ground fell away steeply, and 
here about eighty guns were posted ; these, 
although exposed to the enemy's fire, had suffered 
little, because the Austrians had to aim from 
below, and could get no direct effect. 

I spoke words of recognition to many of the 
soldiers, and as I was shaking hands with a non- 
commissioned officer and the corporals of a battery, 
which had had much to do, and had suffered con- 
siderable loss in its station on the left wing, all 
the gunners ran up to me and pressed me by the 
hand. At one part of the wood our infantry of 
the Ninth Division had had a sharp fight ; here 
again the Austrians were lying in heaps, the 
wounded crying out for water, one on the other 
hand was quietly lighting his pipe. 

Further on we found the body of Major v. 
Natzmer of the 8th Dragoon Eegiment, who had 
fallen in the cavalry attack ; his perruhe had 
dropped under his head, one glove was half drawn 
off. Most of the dead Prussians had a peaceful 

On the left wing the infantry had fought along 
a hollow path, and then by the walls of a church, 
where the Austrians lay in heaps, the Kaiser's 
Jager piled three high, again the result of our 
percussion-guns. On the way I met many brave 

1 6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Battalions to whom I spoke grateful words, and I 
also met Lieutenant-General v. Lowenfeld. Major- 
General v. OUech was severely wounded. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel V. Walther, the commander of the 
46th Infantry Eegiment, was wounded in the 

We had been thirteen hours in the saddle, 
evening was coming on, and it behoved us to 
think of turning homewards, seeing that my Head- 
Quarters were still two miles off. 

Passing two ambulance stations, I further 
visited an officers' hospital, near which was a shed 
for the wounded men. What a scene of misery ! 
A sergeant of the 52nd Infantry called to me, 
stretching out his hand, and wanting to know the 
issue of the fight. On hearing my account of our 
achievements, he exclaimed, ** Now, thank God, 
I will gladly bear all my wounds ! " 

Many of the captured officers and men of my 
Austrian regiment now came towards me, and I 
made myself known to them as their commanding 
officer, on which we shook hands — a strange 
meeting ! 

In Nachod itself we found the Commander of 
the regiment. Colonel Baron v. Wimpffen (whom 
I had known in 1852 in Petersburg), lying 
wounded in the arm, and many other officers of 


Battle of Nachod 17 

the regiment were with him. Many of our 
Dragoon officers suffered severely, but were in 
good spirits at our victory, and the prowess of 
the regiment. Major-General v. Ollech was fairly 
comfortable, though heavily wounded in the thigh, 
otherwise the same good fellow as usual. 

I ordered that the Castle of Nachod, which is 
many stories high, and belongs to a Prince Lippe- 
Biickeburg, in the Austrian service, should be 
turned into a hospital. Prince Pless was busy all 
day, rendering St. John's ambulance aid to the 

I must also mention that as I was making in 
the morning for the height above described, I 
ordered a battery to come up, which was not 
accomplished without difficulty, on account of the 
steep slope ; the Infantry of the 1st West-Prussian 
Grenadiers, No. 6, had already occupied the 
summit. I further ordered the opposite hill-top 
to be occupied also, because our left wing appeared 
to be threatened from the side of Neustadt — the 
more so, as the wood shut out any distant prospect. 
The troops had already done three miles before 
they came into battle, and were in some cases so 
exhausted that the men lay down in the trenches 
of the chaussee, I then gave the order to discard 
the baggage, which some of the Advance-guard 

1 8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

had already done of their own accord, and the 
relief to the men was obviously very great. Such 
a measure is, indeed, open to the objection that 
many of the men might not find their knapsacks 
again, or even that, in the case of losing the 
position, these might fall into the enemy's hands ; 
but in the scorching heat it was imperative to give 
alleviations of this sort. 

At sunset I left Nachod, thanking God from 
my heart that He had been pleased to give victory 
to our troops, and thus, on the first day of the 
campaign, to show the world what was meant by 
our officers and soldiers. During the day we 
thought many times that, as on the appointed 
days of prayer and intercession, petitions were 
going up to Heaven in the churches of the 
Fatherland for the success of our arms. A heavy 
weight must have been thrown into the scales this 
day for the future of Germany, under the leader- 
ship of Prussia. 

June 28, 1866. 

Late in the night of yesterday. Major von der 
Burg and Captain Mischke returned from the 
I. Army Corps, to which I had sent them. There 
has been a sanguinary battle at Trautenau with 

Advance on Trautenau 19 

the Austrians, under Gablenz. In this encounter 
our brave East-Prussians took and occupied the 
town of Trautenau till four in the afternoon. 
Then, however, Gablenz came up with fresh troops, 
and Benin had to evacuate the position he had 
gained. So that at night a retrograde movement 
of the I. Army Corps was to be expected, the 
more so as single bodies of troops had already 
retired in disorder. 

It was at once clear to me that the important 
position of Trautenau must, at all cost, be re- 
occupied, so I immediately dictated the order for 
the Guards to march on Trautenau, so as to get 
to the rear of Gablenz' right flank by Eipel, and 
thus repossess ourselves of Trautenau ; * in this 
way giving enormous relief to the I. Army Corps. 
In Blumenthal's room, we four wrote the orders 

* This order ran as follows : — 

" As the issue of the action of the I. Army Corps at Trautenau is 
undecided, the Corps of Guards will continue its march in the direction 
already ordered as far as Keile ; if the action at Trautenau be still going 
on, it will then march on the latter place and engage the enemy imme- 
diately. The Corps will set off as early as possible. 

"(Signed) Frederick Wilhelm, 

" Crown Prince.'^ 

In this connection Sybel remarks, in his book, " Die Begrundung des 
Deutschen JReichs " (p. 143), in order to show the activity which charac- 
terized the Crown Prince, *' Such important and at the same time incom- 
plete intelligence would have incited many, strategists to greater and more 
stringent precautions ; in the Crown Prince it merely called out an instant 
determination to move forward with accelerated and redoubled energy." 

20 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

for the respective Corps, so that it was half-past 
one before we got to bed. 

Early on the 28th, I rode with the whole Staff 
to Kosteletz, a mountain village, three-quarters 
of a mile from Nachod, close to the Josephstadt- 
Schwadowitz railway, where I found myself in 
the centre of my army, and could operate in the 
direction of Nachod or Trautenau, as required. 

Albrecht (son), with the heavy Brigade of 
Guards, the Guard-Eeserve Artillery, and several 
columns, were bivouacking here. Steinmetz asked 
for reinforcements, as he was out-numbered; I 
could, however, only send Albrecht to him, by 
withdrawing the latter from the Guards, since 
the Guard Corps had to be kept together in its 
full strength for the important events of the 
day. At 11.30 there was heavy firing of cannon 
near Skalitz, the smoke of which we saw, without 
being able properly to overlook the operations. 
Steinmetz was obviously engaged in a sharp fight : 
of course I felt very anxious, since I had been 
obliged to refuse him the desired reinforcements, 
and felt sure that he would not have asked for 
more troops without pressing necessity. Forwards, 
towards Eipel, we could also hear and see that 
the Artillery were engaged. Towards 2 o'clock 
such a tremendous dust-cloud was moving in the 

Battle of Tratitenati 21 

direction of Nachod, that for some time we took 
for granted that the V. Army Corps had been 
forced to execute a retrograde movement. Hence 
it was a vast relief, as evening drew on, to see 
the Austrian fire retiring farther and farther in 
the direction of Josephstadt, followed so closely 
by our men that it was evident the day was ours, 
and that the brave Steinmetz and his gallant 
corps had won another victory. 

This was speedily confirmed by Major von 
Gafiron and Captain Kroseck, whom I had sent 
to the V. Army Corps ; and to-day's engagement 
must have been even more severe than that of 
yesterday. Adalbert was fully exposed, especially 
when he was in the thick of the fire with the 
King's Grenadiers, and lost Lieutenant von St. 
Paul of the 3rd Foot Guards, who was acting as 
adjutant for him, in place of his sick brother. 

I also visited our wounded of the 3rd Uhlan 
Guards, who made a splendid attack yesterday, 
at Czerwenagora, upon the Austrian Mexico- 
Uhlans, and then rode to Eipel, to spend the 
night there. It was a magnificent ride along the 
south side of our beloved Kiesen-gebirge, whose 
snow-summits, yesterday as to-day, stood out as 
the witness of our victory. The Guards were 
bivouacking in Eipel, and it was here that I 

22 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

received the first intelligence of the sanguinary 
comhat in which most of the BerHn and Potsdam 
Infantry Eegiments had taken part ; many of 
our dear friends had also fallen. 

Hardly had we arrived, when it was evident 
that Eipel lay fairly open to the enemy, and 
my Head-Quarters appeared to be insecure ; nor 
did I find the general atmosphere more hopeful, 
in spite of our definite successes. Just then 
came Lieutenant v. Eosenberg from the Posen- 
Uhlans, to announce that the I. Army Corps 
had retired last night without a halt over the 
frontier to Liebau, and was bivouacking there 
with Hartmann's Division of Cavalry. What had 
happened to Trautenau had not been ascertained. 

Some painful moments of deliberation as to 
what was best to be done ensued, whilst the 
dawn was already breaking. Then Major von 
der Burg, whom I had sent to the Guard Corps, 
arrived with the announcement that everything 
was going splendidly; the fighting had indeed 
been very severe, but the results were brilUant 
to a degree. Trautenau was in our hands, the 
Prince of Wurtemburg was already quartered 
there, and Gablenz, entirely beaten, was in full 
flight. I immediately ordered Benin to march 
beyond Trautenau to Arnau, and make himself 

Battle of Trautenau 23 

master of the passage of the Elbe at that point ; 
and gave orders that the Prince of Wurtemberg 
should go to Koniginhof, and General von Stein- 
metz to Gradlitz, to occupy the defiles in either 
direction respectively, while General von Mutius 
was to follow the V. Corps. I myself went 
immediately with my two personal adjutants, 
and von der Burg, to Trautenau. The ride in 
an unforgettable moonlight night, enhanced by 
the fragrance of the air from mountain and 
pinewood, was wonderfully beautiful. 

Shortly before reaching Trautenau, these 
enjoyments were dispelled by the stench of 
corpses and dead horses' bodies, and the general 
havoc that characterizes a battle-field glittered 
eerily in the moonUght. At the gate we were 
received by our own pickets of the Elizabeth 
Guard-Grenadiers; their company took a flag 
to-day. Not a single inhabitant was to be seen, 
only soldiers here and there ; on the picturesque 
market-place, surrounded with stone arcades, 
were bivouackers, canteens, prisoners, arms taken 
from the enemy, slightly wounded men, all viewed 
in the moonlight, and the rays from the canteen 

We took up our quarters in the best room of 
the *' Hotel," where the Prince of Wurtemberg 

24 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

was established, after ordering out a tipsy Austrian 
soldier, and then slept soundly, for it was again 
2 a.m. before we got any rest. 

June 29, 1866. 

The Prince of Wurtemberg was in high spirits 
over yesterday's victory, and praised the gallant 
exploits of men and officers in glowing terms. 
The Second Battalion of the Guard- Grenadiers 
(Kaiser-Franz) in particular suffered heavy losses, 
Lieutenant-Colonel v. Gaudy and Captains v. 
Witzleben and v. Wittich being killed. I rode 
out to the bivouacking troops, who greeted me 
with loud acclamations. When I gave my hand 
to some of the Kaiser-Franz men, they all flung 
themselves upon me, and tried to take my hand, 
which moved me deeply. A grenadier planted 
a birch-pole in front of me,- I gazed at him, 
wondering what it meant. " Just look at the 
point of it," they said. It was the head of the 
flag, with the Iron Cross; the staff had been 
broken in the hand-to-hand m^lee^ and could not 
be found, but these brave men had saved the tip, 
and brought it to me thus. I could not help kiss- 
ing the head of it ; honour to all those gallant 
fellows who have fallen ! 

March to Prausnitz 25 

Bonin now came in with his Army Corps. The 
strain on his brave troops during the fight of the 
day before yesterday, as well as the exhaustion of 
the men, must have been extraordinary. I ordered 
the corps to defile before me, my East-Prussian 
Grenadiers at the head of the Advance-guard, and 
commended the men for their brave conduct. 
They looked fresh and energetic, in spite of the 
African heat and the grinding dust. Many of the 
officers wounded the day before yesterday, among 
them Captain v. Lettow, Lieutenant v. Loellhovel, 
Ensign V. Borbstadt of my East-Prussian Kegiment, 
lay in Trautenau. I went to see them. The 
Austrians kept them prisoners for one day, and 
even took their swords away. The whole town 
stank of blood, and it was so crammed with 
wounded and prisoners, that many Austrians had 
to lie under the arcades, not a single Austrian 
surgeon with them! Three Prussian surgeons 
had been made prisoners, and were only left with 
our men on giving their word of honour not to 
carry arms against Austria in this campaign ! To 
be sure, Austria refused to subscribe to the Con- 
vention of Geneva. 

In the afternoon the Head- Quarters were moved 
to Prausnitz, a friendly village lying back on the 
Elbe, between Gradlitz and Koniginhof. The 

26 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

way led over a great part of the battle-field, where 
the Guard Corps had been in action yesterday. It 
presented a ghastly appearance, for along with 
those who fell yesterday lay the rotten corpses 
of the Austrians who were killed on the 28th, 
with heaps of arms and uniforms, like the 
front of a military depot. This was apparently 
the place where the Austrians had rested, or 
formed up, or where they had been taken prisoner. 
Nothing is more awful than a battle-field on the 
day after the fight ! No one who is not wanting 
in sensibility can look on it without profound 
sorrow. Happily our men only lay there for a 
very few hours, for ambulance-bearers and comrades 
hastened to carry wounded and dead alike to the 

Some firing was reported; but at this stage 
every door that bangs sounds like a shot to one's 
excited nerves, and no one would believe it imtil 
I satisfied myself that it was a fact. The news 
soon came that the V. Corps had been engaged 
in a heavy cannonade, while the Advance-guard 
of the Guard Corps had taken the passage of the 
Elbe after some easy fighting at Koniginhof, and 
the 12th Company of the First Foot Guards had 
taken a flag from the Coronini Eegiment. 

My quarters were at the Priest's house ; he, 

Prausnitz 27 

with his flocks and the greater part of the in- 
habitants, having fled into the forest. Since no 
authorities were in the place, and our troops had 
to live while bivouacking in this neighbourhood 
(our provision column not having yet come up), 
we were obliged to resort to commandeering. 
Many poor families had perforce to give up the 
little live-stock left them by the Austrians, but 
this was unavoidable. The Kaiser's troops, 
indeed, had not spared their countrymen, before 
our arrival on the scene. 

After some hours the Priest, a Jesuit of the 
purest water, came in, and bade us welcome. 
With him was a pert and dressed-out lady who 
had ''fled" from Trautenau to her friend the 
Pastor; lastly, the Chaplain, trembling like an 
aspen leaf, and using so many words in his terror, 
that one had to help him to finish his own 
sentence. At last we all got off early to bed, our 
meal having been a late supper rather than 

June 30, 1866. 

In the night Captain v. Hahnke, whom I had 
sent to Steinmetz with orders, waked me to say he 
could not go by the nearest way to the General, 

28 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

because the enemy were still on this side of the 
Elbe ; he would have to make his way by riding 
some considerable distance round. This was 
uncomfortable, as we might be nicely caught in 
our Head-Quarters. Soon after 4 o'clock, Jasmund 
waked me, to say that a lively cannonade had 
begun, and seemed to be coming nearer. To 
jump up, dress, saddle, and breakfast, was the 
work of a moment in the firing. As we were 
riding off, however, Hahnke, who had ridden 
all night, came back, and announced that the 
cannonade meant nothing, but only concerned 
the baggage of the V. Army Corps, which the 
enemy was bombarding from the opposite bank, 
so it was all ''much ado about nothing." I rode 
to the Guard Corps partly in order to hear 
Wurtemburg's report, and subsequently to re- 
connoitre Koniginhof for myself along the high 
banks of the Elbe. A sharp storm had at last 
cleared the air. The town was in our hands ; the 
enemy's Jagers held the opposite bank with some 
inconsiderable defences, the high walls of the 
valley were mounted with guns and batteries, so 
that a passage here would be dearly paid for. 
Hiller, Kessel, and still more Obernitz had much 
to relate. From here I rode to the gallant 
V. Army Corps. On passing the bivouac I was 

The Black Eagle conferred on Steinmetz 29 

greeted heartily by the soldiers of every regiment, 
and was touched when they smiled at me with 
proud and happy faces. In the King's Eegi- 
ment of Grenadiers there are still ten sound 

I embraced Steinmetz, and told him that 
I had begged his Majesty to send him the Order 
of the Black Eagle, which visibly delighted the 
old hero; a great happiness had befallen him in 
the late evening of his life, and he rejoiced that 
my military experiences should be inaugurated 
under such favourable auspices. He ought to 
reckon in yesterday's affair, when he fought hard 
at Schweinschadel, along with the two battles of 
Nachod. This morning there was a sharp cannon- 
ade, and a great barn with the enemy's granaries 
caught fire. The flames blazed up not far from 
his house, and that in which Adalbert was 
quartered. A reservist of the 46th Regiment, by 
name Mersiewski, took another flag yesterday, 
and was at once promoted to the rank of non- 
commissioned officer. 

The bivouacs of the V. Army Corps were 
collectively within the range of the enemy's fire, 
which I objected to. Steinmetz, however, would 
not alter the place he had once taken up, and 
accordingly in the afternoon the enemy threw 

30 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

shells into the bivouacking troops, happily without 
wounding many of them. 

The Austrian General v. Fragner had fallen 
at Skalitz : in his pocket we found important 
papers. In the first place, Ramming's report to 
Benedek of the Battle of Nachod, in which he 
begged for reinforcements, as in all probability he 
would be attacked again on the morrow, and had 
been obliged to retire to-day, with serious losses. 
Next, Benedek's order in consequence of this 
despatch, that Archduke Leopold should proceed 
to the VIII. Corps next day, and take over the 
command. Finally, a long proclamation, to be 
distributed " on crossing the Prussian frontier " ! 
Steinmetz handed me over these papers, which 
I at once made known, and then forwarded to 

Sunday, July 1, 1866. Head-Quarters at Prausnitz. 

A day of rest, and no thundering of cannon, 
a thing unheard-of ! 

I sent the Catholics to mass ; the priest seems 
to have prayed for our King as **the present 
Sovereign " — he deserves to be hung ! 

Alexander arrived ; in the evening I rode round 
the bivouacs of the Advance-guard, where the 

A Rest-day 31 

Guard-Fusiliers, in particular, who had also taken 
a flag yesterday, greeted me with the greatest 
enthusiasm. Helldorf, of the 1st Foot Guards, was 
proud of the exploit of the 12th Company, and 
would not admit that the Guard-Fusiliers had 
accomplished the same thing. He wanted to fling 
on to Vienna in his usual go-ahead manner. 

Anton HohenzoUern was whole and sound, and 
had led his column all day with the greatest 
fortitude and devotion ; his men adore him. 

I returned with Colonel Walker. I cannot 
insist enough on the extent to which this amiable, 
intelligent, and experienced ofiicer has won my 
heart and confidence. Everything he says is 
practical, and hits the nail on the head, and his 
interest in our army and its future must attract 
every one who comes across him. 

To-day Count Schweinitz, the Chief Justice 
{Oher-Appellations-Gerichts-Prdsident) from Posen, 
leaves us : as an old tourist he had kindly offered 
to show us the paths over th6 Eiesen and Glatzer 
mountains, which I had accepted. We owe him 
the indication of many marching routes, which 
we should not otherwise have discovered, on the 
advance to Bohemia. 

Flirst Pless and Herr v. Salisch visited the 
hospitals at Nachod and Skalitz, and were pleased 

32 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

with the arrangements for the wounded. Un- 
luckily, the Cavalry Division bivouacking in our 
vicinity had committed some excesses; certain 
individuals even penetrated into the quarters of 
Leopold HohenzoUern and Colonel Walker. 

July 2, 1866. Head- Quarters at Prausnitz. 

On establishing our Head-Quarters at Konigin- 
hof we saw plainly how sharp the fighting must 
have been in the streets of the town, and how many 
dwellings had been damaged. Whether, however, 
our people alone were responsible for this, may be 
doubted, since the Austrians are notoriously bad 
tenants. My lodging was at a manufacturer's, 
who had apparently fled in the greatest haste with 
his belongings, for unpaid bills were lying every- 
where, with unfinished bits of writing, and the 
crockery was still covered with half- eaten food. 
Some Guard-Jagers must have looked round here 
before we came in; one of them had written on 
a lady's photograph that there was no cause for 
alarm at the Prussians, they were honest people. 
Signed — '^ A Guard- Jager ! " 

I visited the hospital in a large manufactory, 
where, among others, was the badly wounded 
ensign of the 3rd Battahon of the Guard-Fusiliers ; 

Ride to Plateau 33 

when he was wounded, Sergeant Graser at once 
seized the flag and led several sections against 
the enemy. After this I rode over to the opposite 
side; the enemy had gradually evacuated this 
since yesterday morning, so that our Advance- 
guard had already taken possession of the opposite 

Then a Pioneer officer met me with the in- 
telligence that he had seen some Peld-Jagers, who 
assured him that Josephstadt was evacuated by 
the Austrians. I sent immediately to the V. 
Army Corps, and ordered a reconnaissance to 
determine the truth of this news, and gave the 
same order to Lieutenant- General v. Hiller. The 
latter was not sufficiently informed from the out- 
posts, so that it was important that I should get 
definite intelligence. Steinmetz had thrown up 
a pontoon bridge, and some two battalions had 
been ordered over to the right bank of the Elbe. 

We had a pretty ride to Plateau, from which we 
could see first Josephstadt, and in the far distance 
the conical summit with the castle of Pardubitz, 
and so came to our outposts, where, however, 
nothing had been seen of the enemy, hardly even 
a patrol. Strange, quaint figures from the Passion- 
story, along with shrines to the Saints, stood 
hewn out of the rock in the forest, and on the 

34 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

precipices, and seemed to be the tasteless, costly 
expression of some soaring fancy of the seventeenth 

On this road I met Fusilier Bochnia of the 
1st Foot Guards, who had taken the flag at 
Koniginhof. He carried the case of it over his 
shoulder, and is a handsome Ober-Silesian, in 
his fourth year's service, slightly wounded by 
some bayonet-cuts. Colonel Walker treated him 
to cigarettes, and I gave him some ducats, which 
I happened to have by me. On the heights we 
were taken round by Lieutenant Chorus, of the 
2nd Foot Guards, who was well orientated. Major 
von Petery of this regiment commanded a portion 
of the outposts, and I met him here for the first 
time since his gallant behaviour of the last few 

Our dinner, from want of room, had to be out- 
of-doors. Adalbert, and Anton von HohenzoUern 
were there. Lieutenant von Schleinitz in the 
2nd Foot Guards, an orderly-officer from Berlin, 
came with positive intelligence that the King was 
close to us ; indeed, already in Gitschin. 

I was very tired, and hoped to get to bed early, 
but was not to be let off so easily. In the first 
place. Prince Friedrich Karl sent to say he wished 
to-morrow to make a reconnaissance, and begged 

The Night before Kbniggrcitz 35 

me to reinforce him with the Guards, as he had 
intelligence that troops were collecting on his 
front. While I was talking to Colonel v. Kessel 
about the fight at Sohr, Major Count Groben 
from the General Staff at the King's Head-Quarters 
was announced, to take part in to-morrow's recon- 
naissance. As yet I knew nothing officially about 
this reconnaissance, for First-Lieutenant Count 
Blumenthal, my orderly-officer, who was to bring 
me the order, had not yet returned with his 
over-tired horse from the King's Head-Quarters. 

Scarcely had I gone to bed, when a fresh 
orderly-officer arrived from Prince Friedrich 
Karl, followed shortly by General v. Blumenthal. 
The latter had been yesterday to Gitschin, and 
reported that Prince Friedrich Karl laid great 
weight on the concentration of the enemy, 
nothing of which had been reported by our 
reconnaissances. After some hours' sleep. General 
V. Blumenthal and Major Count Finkenstein, the 
aide-de-camp, waked me with the King's order 
not to reconnoitre on the 3rd, but, as several 
Corps of the enemy's troops were marching on 
Horzitz, to cross the Elbe with my army, and 
support the I. Army, which was moving forward 
at 3 a.m. this night. And thus the night went 
by ; the night before Koniggratz. 

36 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

July 3, 1866. 

The Battle of Koniggratz. It had rained hard 
in the night. My orders, sent out at daybreak 
to the Corps, directed them to march off by 
8.30 a.m. At this hour I joined the bulk of the 
Guard Corps, and with them made the exces- 
sively heavy march, in pouring rain, over the 
steep bank of the Elbe and the mountains lying 
to the back of it. The paths were obliterated, 
which terribly hindered the advance of all the 
regiments, and made the march difficult to a 
degree. I did not believe in the possibility of 
a big engagement, because I was of the opinion 
that the Austrians would not attempt to give 
battle, with their backs to the Elbe. 

Far off, however, we heard intermittent 
cannon-shots, and at length we reached the 
highest point, not far from the neighbourhood 
in which we reconnoitred yesterday. It then 
became clear that a sharp artillery fight, at any 
rate, was in progress, for we could hear single 
cannon-shots quite plainly, and distinguish the 
enemy's from our own batteries. On this plateau 
the march in the sopping ground was frightfully 

Then came the message, Lieut.-General v. 

Battle of Kbniggrdts 37 

Fransecky was nearest to our right wing with 
his 7th Division ; he had a difficult position, and 
begged for reinforcements of artillery. The 
reserve artillery of the Guard Corps was at once 
ordered out. 

At the village of Zizeloves the Advance-guard 
of the Guard Corps went in the direction of 
Masloved, and after some three-quarters of an 
hour the battery itself opened fire, taking up 
its station on this side. It seemed as if the 
firing was rapidly increasing in our right flank, 
and as if a forward movement of our men was 
simultaneously taking place. 

Half an hour straight in front of us, at the 
height of the village of Horenoves, stood an 
enormous and solitary tree. This I gave to the 
different corps as their main point de vue, for 
the enemy seemed to have taken up a very 
strong artillery position there, which jutted out 
hook-wise upon the I. Army. The firing indeed 
seemed to stop at times. Only to begin again 
with renewed activity, and it seemed to be 
gaining ground in that direction. The bulk of 
the Guard Corps followed slowly, in particular 
the Second Division of the Guards, because they 
were all marching along one route, instead of 
in several columns, so as to save time and space. 

38 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

The Advance-guard went forward slowly, but 
decidedly gained ground, whilst in our right 
flank the artillery fire steadily retreated ; the 
enemy's battery at the big tree fired once hotly, 
then the guns were silent ; the enemy must have 
felt us within their flank. 

On reaching the plateau, especially on halting 
at Zizeloves, I at once recognized that my task 
was to surround the enemy's right flank and dis- 
lodge them. I shouted this order to the single 
columns, as they defiled before me, and many a 
sturdy answer from the sections assured me that 
I was understood. 

General v. Mutius with a portion of the VI. 
Army Corps must now — it was about 1 o'clock — 
have attacked the rear of the enemy's right flank, 
for, on further advance towards the aforesaid tree, 
I could discover nothing of the VI. Army Corps, 
and yet I heard firing in the left flank. The 
ground was shocking, hindering all rapid move- 
ment, and only too easily tearing the shoes off 
the horses' feet. Nowhere could one get a good 
point of view; the wet and rain, moreover, 
deceived us very much as to the distance, so that 
the big tree never came any nearer. 

The wounded were carried by, the dead lay 
round, several villages on our right were in flames, 

Battle of Kbniggrdtz 39 

aud the thunder of the cannon continued in the 
same place. We often looked round for the 
I. Army Corps, which had to march some two and 
a half miles, hut was due on the field at 2 o'clock. 
Major von der Burg went to meet it, but brought 
the unwelcome news that General v. Hartmann 
with the Cavalry Division was behind the I. Army 
Corps, and could not move his position on account 
of the columns. At length the heads of the 
Infantry columns appeared, and my army was 
now complete. 

General v. Steinmetz, whom I had directed 
to follow to-day with his V. Army Corps, as the 
reserve, had orders to join the VI. Army Corps 
immediately. I met their Infantry and Cavalry 
columns ; and was greeted with loud cheers, when 
I informed them how serious was the day's work, 
and informed them that our King was present, 
and to-day commanded the army in person. 

As soon as we heard the significant firing 
of the cannon. General Blumenthal at once said 
to me, '* This is the decisive battle/' and we 
became more convinced of this every quarter of 
an hour. The advent of my army had broken 
the enemy's right flank, and this gave the I. 
Army an opportunity to take the offensive. Since 
my arrival on the field of battle, the advance had 

40 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

once more become general; soon after, it was 
rumoured that the order to withdraw had been 
given just before our appearance, because after 
fighting for hours the I. Army had not been able 
to move from its place. 

When we finally reached the famous tree, 
which really consisted of two colossal limes stand- 
ing one on either side of a giant crucifix, fresh 
hills prevented us from obtaining any view of the 
fight that was raging in front of us. We were in 
the immediate neighbourhood of two battalions of 
Guard- Grenadiers (Konigin-Elisabeth) when some 
dispersed Austrian cavalry came by us ; a section 
which was pretty far off from them fired and shot 
them down, man for man, so that the horses tore 
by riderless. 

Some Guard-Hussars, who saw this from afar, 
swooped down on the horses, and claimed them 
as booty. Then a considerably larger body of 
cavalry came up to us. We could not see from 
their white cloaks whether they were Dragoons or 
Cuirassiers ; I was preparing to ride down into one 
of our battalions, in case they formed a square, 
but our percussion-guns once more cleared the 
ground, and diverted the danger. 

Beaching the height of Masloved, where 
Austrian corpses of all regiments lay alongside 


Battle of Koniggratz 41 

of the badly wounded, I heard that Colonel v. 
Obernitz lay here in a farm with a wound in 
his head. 

I at once looked him up, and found him 
fortunately only slightly wounded in the head; 
near him, however, was Lieutenant v. Strantz, 
of the 1st Foot Guards, who had had several fingers 
of his left hand shot off. In the farm our own 
and the Austrian wounded lay in heaps; one 
could not, and must not, however, stop, for to-day 
one's thoughts had to be wholly bent on the enemy. 
Obernitz thought he had narrowly escaped being 
taken prisoner. 

A few shells fell near us, and it must be said 
that the Austrian artillery shoot splendidly, for 
the missiles nearly always hit the mark at which 
they were first aimed. 

A short quarter of a mile before us at the 
highest point lay the village of Chlum ; musketry- 
fire, cheers, and infantry-salvos were being dis- 
charged there, and it was evident that the fighting 
was desperate in that direction. The Guards 
were engaged there, and though I still had no in- 
telligence, I conjectured that the Second Division 
must already be beyond Masloved. The Advance- 
guard from the I. Army Corps, consisting of my 
East-Prussian Grenadier Regiment, and the 5th 

42 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

East-Prussian Kegiment, No. 41, came up at the 
right moment to help the Guards in Chlum; it 
was high time, for they were in a very difficult 
position. I sent Eulenburg to the Advance-guard 
to give them the exact direction in which they 
were to march. 

Lieut.-General von Boyen came from His 
Majesty, from Sadowa. He had galloped round 
half a mile of byways to call my attention to the 
necessity of commanding the village of Chlum, 
which we were apparently no longer occupying; 
and he arrived at the right moment to be an eye- 
witness of the final taking of the place; while 
Major von Gravenitz, of the 8th Hussars, Adjutant 
of the I. Army Corps, came up simultaneously 
with the announcement that Chlum was taken by 
the Advance-guard of the I. Army Corps. It 
must have been just at that moment that a very 
exhausted and ragged infantry column came out 
from Chlum, whom I even took at first to be 
prisoners. Some prisoners were with them, but 
the column was going round under the shelter of 
a hill by Chlum, in order to occupy the right 
flank of the place more easily, since our station 
on that side was still under a sharp fire. 

And now at last the bulk of the I. Army Corps 
came up : the advance in such weather, and many 

Battle of Koniggrdtz 43 

other hindrances, had not permitted the march 
to be properly directed upon Chlum. 

I now rode myself to the I. Army Corps, gave 
the direction of the march-forward to the flank- 
battahon, and, while many shells were bursting 
in our neighbourhood, greeted the troops of the 
East-Prussian province! It was an inspiriting 
moment ! 

From here I rode on, past an advanced battery, 
freshly thrown-up, which showed by what impor- 
tant outworks the Austrians had fortified their 
position, and not far from which two Prussian 
4-pounders were standing abandoned, to the steep 
heights of Chlum. In the vicinity of a battery 
that was still firing, surrounded by the men of my 
East-Prussian Regiment, I surveyed the three 
miles of battle-field, and acquired the certainty 
that the victory was ours, and the enemy in full 

Such moments must be lived through; de- 
scription is impossible ! Hearty thanks — I might 
say ejaculations — went up to God. Then it was 
necessary to plunge once more into actualities, to 
look into everything, to go everywhere, hardly 
daring to glance at the ground, where old acquaint- 
ances, whom one had just before seen in full 
vigour of life in the battle, were stretched out. 

44 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

The fight was raging at our feet, round Kosberitz ; 
but the Kear-guard was already in unmistakable 
retreat ; while at my left flank, which was nearest 
to Koniggratz, Boyen was still actively engaged 
with the VI. Army Corps, and the cannon from 
the fortress had also begun to fire. 

The sky was beginning to clear, and rays of 
sunshine fell across the bloody battle-field. Just 
as the heroic death of Lieut.-General von Hiller 
and his second Adjutant, the promising Lieutenant 
Theissen of the 4th Foot Guards, was announced 
to me, and the feeling of grief at these losses was 
beginning to assert itself, I heard some cheering. 
We thought the King must be coming, but it was 
Fritz Karl.* 

We waved our caps to each other from afai', 
and then, amid the hurrahs of the troops of my 
extreme right, and his extreme left wing, with 
whom I raised an enthusiastic cheer for our King, 
we fell into each other's arms. Such greetings, 
again, must be lived through; two years ago 
I embraced him before Diippel as a victor, to-day 
we were both conquerors, and when his troops | 
were hard pressed I had decided the day with the 
advent of my army. 

* Prince Frederick diaries of Prussia, Commander-in-Chief of the ; 

I. Army and Army of the Elbe. I 

After the Victory 45 

My thoughts were now with my wife, my 
children, my mother and sister. My little Sigis- 
mund, who had gone home, hovered before me, 
as though his death had been the forerunner of 
a great event in my life. Yet no victory com- 
pensates for the loss of a child; far rather does 
the gnawing grief first make itself fully felt, amid 
such powerful impressions. 

But I had to remind myself that this was no 
time to give way to such feelings ; that, on the 
contrary, all one's thoughts must be turned to the 
defeated enemy, to the proper use to be made of 
the victory for which we had fought. I pointed 
out to my Adjutants the pressing necessity of 
immediate pursuit of the Austrians, and sent 
Jasmund to Steinmetz with instructions to set 
out at once after the enemy. I gave the same 
order to the 2nd Hussars, who had just arrived 
upon the heights of Chlum ; and directed that 
the command should be repeated to General v. 
Hartmann by Captain Count Eodern, as also 
by Major-General v. Borstell. 

The artillery fire was still continuing, but was 
retiring to a distance, and there was now a little 
pause, in which we collected intelligence, and 
were able to identify the dead and wounded. 
Anton Hohenzollern was severely wounded; 


46 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Count Dohna, of the East-Prussian Jager Bat- 
talion, lay shot through the breast, not far from 
the body of Theissen, whose scarf and neck-chain 
we took off for his family. Dohna charged me 
with greetings to his father, and was still able to 
say that only two officers of the battalion were 
left uninjured after an appalling volley from the 
Austrian Jagers. 

Lieutenant v. Pape, of the 2nd Foot Guards, 
the only son of the Commander, was carried by, 
hit with three bullets; I embraced him in his 
father's name, as I had known him from a child, 
while Lieutenant Chorus, of the 2nd Foot Guards, 
informed me that he had captured a gun ! 

Never shall I forget the earnest expression of 
Kessel's countenance, when we met here, as he 
was mustering the First Eegiment of the Guards 
from Chlum. From him I received the first 
particulars : on our right, the 7th Division, more 
especially the Magdeburg Eegiments, Nos. 26 
and 27, must have had a desperately hard 

Around us lay or limped so many of the well- 
known figures from the Potsdam and Berlin 
garrison! Each had something to tell. Those 
who were using their weapons as crutches, or were 
being supported up the heights by their comrades. 

Pttrstdt of the Enemy 47 

looked sadly woe-begone. The grimmest sight, 
however, was an Austrian Battery, whose entire 
equipment of men and horses had been shot down. 
And thus the most diverse sensations chased 
through one's brain in a second. 

Now came an order from the King that 
General v. Herwarth was to pursue the enemy 
with his VIII. Army Corps, while all the rest 
were to bivouac on the field. 

After quite unexpectedly meeting the Grand- 
Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Chlum, of 
whose presence in the army I was ignorant, I next 
rode to the villages, to obtain further inteUigenoe, 
and to visit the King. I talked some time to the 
men of the 27th Infantry Eegiment. They said, as 
out of one mouth, *^ We aU knew that you would 
come to-day ; we had a hard stand in the wood at 
Sadowa, tiU all at once we heard. He is coming ! 
He is coming ! Then everything went well again, 
but it was high time that you did come.'' 

This simple, homely account of the situation 
made a deep impression on me. 

In Kosberitz, where the battle must have been 
truly desperate, to judge from the masses of dead 
and wounded, and where the farms were stiU 
blazing, I found Anton HohenzoUern, who was 
hit in the leg by three bullets. He was quite 

48 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

beaming, and at the same time touchingly naif in 
the way he depreciated his wounds : he wished me 
luck, and said he had been under a furious fire 
with his detachment, had ordered rapid file-fire, 
was then wounded, and even thus taken prisoner, 
so that his sword was taken away in spite of his 
wounds ; but was then on our advance set free 
again. He was lying in a peasant's house, among 
dying Austrians, but was at once transported to a 
S. John's ambulance. 

It is a gruesome thing to ride over a battle-field, 
and the ghastly mutilations that meet one's eye 
are indescribable. 

War is an appalling thing, and the man who 
brings it about with a stroke of his pen at 
the *' green table," little recks what he is conjur- 
ing with. 

I first unexpectedly met some wounded from 
the 51st Infantry Regiment, among them Captain 
Hiebe, one of my former subalterns in the 11th 
Infantry, who was shot in the foot. A badly 
wounded Grenadier of the 2nd Guards called out 
to me, *' Oh, dear Crown Prince, do have me 
taken away." 

Major V. Eckart of the 2nd Guards, who seemed 
to be fatally wounded, passed us in an ambulance- 
waggon. He could only reply to my inquiries in a 

Potty le Mdrite 49 

weak voice. Then I met the Kolberg Grenadiers, 
and the Blucher Hussars of my Pomeranian Army 
Corps : an unexpected pleasure, to find them 

I also met Uncle Karl and Wilhelm Mecklen- 
burg. The latter had received a slight sword-cut. 
Finally, after much seeking and asking, we found 
the King. I informed him of the presence of 
my Army on the field, and kissed his hand, and 
then he embraced me. Neither of us could speak 
for some time ; then he was the first to find words, 
and told me he rejoiced that I had so far achieved 
successful results, and had shown capacity for 
command. As I must already know by his tele- 
gram, he had given me the Pour le Merite for the 
preceding victories. This telegram I had not 
received, and thus it was on the battle-field, where 
I had with him decided the victory, that my King 
and Father presented me with our highest military 

* The order Pour le Merite had already been conferred on the Crown 
Prince for the 27th and 28th of June. It came, however, as a complete 
surprise, singe the telegram intended for the Crown Prince had fallen into 
the hands of the Austrians. It ran as follows : — 

"Victory! Thanks to you and your splendid troops. Repeat to 
General Steinmetz' Fifth Corps the thanks you have already expressed 
in my name, and give my royal thanks to the Guard Corps for their 
incomparable valour, and for their prompt realization of my parting 
words. To-morrow I am going to the army by Goerlitz. I send you the 
order Four le Mirite. — William." 


50 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

I was deeply moved, and those standing by 
seemed also to be touched. It had been a 
wonderful evening, and just while we were ex- 
changing our greetings, the sun was setting in 
full splendour. Bismarck, with all the officers of 
the King's Head-Quarters, as well as my entire 
Staff, were present. I met Schweinitz and Keuss 
VII. again here. 

I further had a long talk with the King, 
in which I particularly recommended Generals 
Blumenthal and Steinmetz to him, for these two 
high military authorities had taken an active part 
in all my arrangements. His Majesty had granted 
my request that he would give the Order of the 
Black Eagle to General v. Steinmetz for his 
services, and ratified my proposal to give the name 
of Koniggratz to this battle. 

We now rode back by Chlum, to seek for night- 
quarters in Horenowes, but the baggage, which 
had been left in Koniginhof, could not arrive 
before the early morning. After many wanderings, 
in which all the horrors of the battle-field pursued 
us into the darkness, we at length reached the 
above-mentioned place, where 3000 Austrian 
prisoners were already lodged. 

The troops were bivouacking in every part of 
the field ; only a few of them were singing. 

Campaigning Quarters 51 

Here, as so often, the comic was lurking near 
the tragic. A number of infantry-men were 
following a tame pig, so as to enjoy roasting it 
before the camp-fire! The hunt went in all 
directions, till at last the revolvers came into 
play : — and close to this scene lay the corpses of 
cavalry-men from the hot fight that had raged 
that afternoon at the foot of Chlum, and in 
which the two Eegiments of Dragoon Guards, 
the Neumark Dragoons, both the Brandenburg 
Uhlans, and also the Zieten Hussars had taken 

It was astonishing how quickly our men 
managed to carry off their fallen comrades, so 
that there were far fewer bodies of Prussian than 
of Austrian soldiers. The ambulance-bearers, too, 
conducted themselves splendidly in this respect. 

We settled ourselves on straw and the like, 
in an entirely empty house with no furniture, and 
after living the whole day on bread and cognac, 
had to feed ourselves again* in the evening on 
cheap ammunition-bread, which we had bought at 
a canteen ; a la guerre comme d la guerre, is accom- 
plished here in the full sense of the words. We 
ourselves had been on horseback from 8 a.m. till 
8.30 p.m., and so slept well in spite of the 
impossible lodging — in as far as the excitements 

52 Diaries of the Ejnperor Frederick 

of such an adventure allowed one to sleep in 

We were not able either to feed or to water 
our poor horses. Whenever I met baggage-waggons 
I pulled out some hay, and gave it to my faithful 
Cairngorm to eat out of my hand. The chestnut 
has done me good service again to-day. 

I felt that this had been one of the most signi- 
ficant days for Prussia, and prayed God to en- 
lighten the King and his Council, as well as to 
bring about the right conclusion for the welfare 
and future of Prussia and Germany. In the night 
I had vivid dreams of my wife and children ! 

July 4, 1866. Head- Quarters at Horenawes, 

One of our Feld-Jager lieutenants (Krieger) 
who had already been useful to us yesterday 
evening, from his zeal and discretion, discovered a 
coffee-canteen. The rest of yesterday's canteen- 
bread still held out, and so we had a successful 
breakfast ; coffee out of beer-glasses, and the 
spoons each man made for himself out of twigs. 
Then I visited our wounded in this place, 
among them Colonel v. Zychlinski, Commander 
of the brave 27th, who insisted on returning 
to his regiment, until I formally forbade it; 

Proposals of Armistice 53 

further, Captain Count Groeben of the Guard- 
Hussars, whose horse had been shot, v. Fabek 
of the 3rd Guards. None of our men were 
repining, to-day as little as yesterday; the 
Austrians, on the contrary, murmured a great 
deal. A captured Hungarian spoke half in 
German, half in Danish, because he had been in 
the campaign of Schleswig, in 1864. At length 
our things arrived, and I was able to have clean 
linen. Then Captain v. Wrangel of the Guard- 
Hussars announced that he had ridden to Konigin- 
hof, had demanded entrance in my name, had 
been led in with his eyes bound, and had de- 
manded a capitulation in my name, which was 
not refused unconditionally; so that a written 
demand would very probably be successful. I at 
once sent Major von der Burg on this errand, and 
Captain Mischke on a similar errand to Joseph- 
stadt. The latter, however, in spite of beckoning 
with the flag of truce, and signalling by trumpet, 
was fired at, his own and the trumpeter's horses 
being wounded, and this happened indeed some 
half-mile from the fortress. Burg was more 
fortunate, for he brought a written acceptance 
of capitulation with him. The Commandant 
asked to have till 12 at noon to-morrow to 
consider and make enquiries. I refused. 

54 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

In the afternoon, Prince August of Wurtem- 
burg announced to me through his Orderly-officer, 
Prince Croy, that Lieut. -Field-Marshal von 
Gablenz was with him, and urgently desired to 
speak with the King and myself. I ordered that 
he should be brought with bandaged eyes to the 
King's Head-Quarters at Horzitz, and at once 
rode off myself by a nearer way to His Majesty. 
The King, however, had already gone off to the 
bivouacs, met Gablenz on the way, offered an 
armistice, and sent him on again to Horzitz, to 
Boon, Moltke, and Bismarck. It was accordingly 
there that I met him. After an embrace and 
exchange of reminiscences from 1864, he told us 
quite openly that the Austrian army was totally 
destroyed, and was in a most melancholy condi- 
tion. All this had been clearly and openly stated 
to the Kaiser; he, Gablenz, came on his own 
responsibility, only authorized by Benedek to 
appeal to the King's feelings : a three days' truce 
could not do us any material harm, and would 
also give them no advantage ; in the mean time, 
however, much might possibly be arranged. 

I told him quite openly that as a soldier I 
never could entertain such propositions. If 
Austria handed over the fortresses of Josefstadt 
and Koniggratz, along with the Elbe, to us as the 

Visit from Gablenz 55 

lines of demarcation, we might certainly give a 
three days' armistice, otherwise not. He did not 
feel himseK authorized to accept this. He then 
told us that the Arch-Dukes Wilhelm and Joseph 
were sKghtly wounded; Count Festetics badly 
wounded in the leg, Count Thun in the head. 
Colonel Binder was dead. The loss through our 
percussion-guns was enormous. Even at Trautenau 
he had conceived a vast respect for our brave 
troops ; yesterday, however, I had come up quite 
unexpectedly in his flank, and when he heard the 
firing of my batteries, it became clear to him that 
the day was lost for the Austrian army. This 
whole embassy I took to be a ruse^ without, how- 
ever, feeling sure what lay behind it ; the Austrians 
either wanted to gain time, or to get some informa- 
tion as to our disposition of troops. Both physi- 
cally and mentally Gablenz was the picture of 
exhaustion, but he must indeed have been tired 
out, as he had ridden over from a place two miles 
behind Koniggriitz. 

The King only returned at 11.30 at night; 
Gablenz had to wait till then, and only to depart 
without having effected his business. Bismarck 
invited me, with my Adjutant, and General v. 
Stosch, to dine with him. As it was midnight 
before His Majesty allowed me to depart, I could 

56 Diaries of the E^nperor Frederick 

not do the two miles back in the darkness with 
my tired horses to Horenowes, especially in the 
hostile disposition of the inhabitants, so I spent 
the night in the quarters of the Duke of Coburg, 
who had just arrived. In the King's Head- 
Quarters the most essential things were still 
wanting, seeing that there was a lack of food and 
drink. The King, namely, had not gone back 
to Gitschin, his Head-Quarters of yesterday, but 
had taken up his quarters after the battle in 
Horzitz, with Prince Friedrich Karl, while the 
baggage was still in Gitschin. A few wounded 
officers came in late yesterday evening from the 
battle-field, among them Colonel v. Wietersheim, 
Commander of the 6th Pomeranian Infantry, 
No. 49, who is said to be very severely wounded. 

July 5, 1866. 

Early, at 6 a.m., I went back from Horzitz to 
Horenowes, and went to bed by daylight. I now 
learnt for the first time, from Captain v. Franken- 
burg of the Guard-Landwehrs, the Orderly-officer 
of Mutius, how splendidly the brave VI. Army 
Corps on my left wing had worked, and how 
materially their prompt surrounding of the right 
Austrian flank, where, among others, the Black- 

Sights of the Battle-field 57 

and- Yellow Brigade was fighting, had aided in 
the result. Through Frankenburg I conveyed 
to General v. Mutius my sincere wishes for his 
success. He well deserves the Pour le Merite, In 
the afternoon I rode with the Staff over the field 
of battle to Opatowitz, our night-quarters. 

Horrible sights at the burial of half-dressed 
corpses, or rotten and mortified bodies, were to be 
seen in appalling variety ; never shall I forget the 
corpses from which the head had been torn off or 
mangled. The very horses shrank from these 
cadavers. The Commandant of Koniggratz, who 
had doubtless spoken with Gablenz during the 
night, had changed his tune, and gave no answer, 
so that for an hour he had to be talked to with 
field-guns. I rode to the bivouac of the 2nd 
Division, where I received hearty greetings, and 
was able on the way to convince myself of the con- 
fused flight of the Austrians, since at every moment 
the overturned waggons, discarded knapsacks, and 
similar traces, showed how hurriedly the troops 
had departed. The suburbs of Koniggratz were 
burning ; the Commandant had tried to raze them 
to the ground. Not far from a railway-crossing at 
the friendly village of Opatowitz, we were met by 
a captured gendarme of Benedek's Staff- Watch, 
who, however, could only speak Italian. I talked 

58 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

brokenly with him as best I could in his mother- 
tongue, and ascertained that he had deserted 
because they had nothing to eat nor drink. In 
the place itself I found Colonel v. Pape, Com- 
mander of the 2nd Guards, who was just returning 
from the funeral of his only son, the same whom 
I had found wounded at Chlum. I also spoke to a 
non-commissioned officer, who had just come out 
of captivity. In effect, seventy men of different 
regiments were made prisoners the day before 
yesterday during the battle, and were at once 
conveyed by the Austrians to Koniggratz. These 
prisoners, therefore, had to accompany the entire 
flight, which this sub-officer called a regular rout, 
and were compelled to swim through the inun- 
dated environs of the fortress, as well as through 
the Elbe. At Pardubitz, Benedek saw our men, 
shook his head, and ordered their release, because 
the Kaiser's people had not enough for themselves, 
let alone the feeding of prisoners. An Austrian 
officer said to another non-commissioned officer, 
with his revolver at his breast, ^' Confess, fellow, 
that you were led by French officers in disguise, 
for of yourselves you would never have succeeded 
in getting such results ! " No one could have 
paid us a greater compliment. 

I found some badly wounded Austrian officers 

March to Pardubitz 59 

in a peasant's house, in which I was looking for 
the wounded Prince Windischgratz, the son of 
the Field-Marshal. He had, however, already 
been transported. .The others lay upon straw, 
longing for hospital comforts. An Austrian 
surgeon, who had apparently been taken prisoner, 
wished to go after his troop, and was not to be 
persuaded to remain with his countrymen, al- 
though not a single Austrian surgeon had stopped 
to take care of the Kaiser's men. Of course I 
did not let the fellow go. The officers would only 
sign a bond ^*not to serve against us in this war," 
with the inclusion of the clause, " until after the 
exchange of prisoners." Our night's quarters 
were in a friendly mill. 

July 6, 1866. Head-Quarters at Pardubitz, 

Uncle Ernst* met us in the act of marching 
off; we rode to-day to Pardubitz, being much 
delayed on the way by the marching troops. Once 
more we crossed the Elbe on pontoon-bridges, in 
place of the permanent bridges that had been 
burned by the Austrians. Here I learned what a 
splendid charge the Neumark Dragoons had made, 
the entire officers' corps being wounded. I further 

* Duke 'Ernest II. of Coburg. 

6o Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

heard how boldly Prince Krafft of Hohenlohe had 
joined in with the Keserve Artillery of the Guard 
Corps at Maslowed and Chlum, and that he had 
effected important results. Men of the VIII. Army 
Corps were looking for their companies. A painter 
of stained glass, from Cologne, a reservist, had 
succeeded in taking fifty-four prisoners to a 
Prussian ambulance station, after they had made 
him prisoner in the first instance. I told him he 
should some day work at the window of Cologne 
Cathedral, which we have designed for the main 
entrance. In the evening the King Arrived, and 
I brought him the flag captured at Schweinschadel 
by the 46th Infantry, which was handed to His 
Majesty by Mersiewski, who had actually taken 
the flag, and had been promoted to the rank of 
non-commissioned officer in recognition ; and by 
FusiHer SchelUn of the First Guards. 

July 7, 1866. Head- Quarters at Chroustowitz. 

Kode to the charming Thurn-and-Taxis hunt- 
ing castle of Chroustowitz, where we made our 
night-quarters. The neighbourhood was infinitely 
picturesque. Wheat land is here in perfection. 
The castle is of an imposing size, in the earlier 
rococo style, with the corresponding arrangements 

Gablenz again I 6i 

of garden. The stables are splendid, and a real 
treat for our horses. 

Juhj 8, 1866. Head' Quarters at Chroustowitz- 

This morning, at 4 a.m., I was awakened by 
the rattle of a carriage. Gablenz had come back 
again ! He brought conditions of armistice, based 
on Moltke's idea of the evacuation of the fortresses 
of Josef stadt and Koniggratz. I sent him to 
Pardubitz, with the Kaiser's aide-de-camp. Count 
Fratzavari, a knight of the Theresien Order, who 
escorted him (evidently Baron v. Fejervary). I 
went to the King by another route. Gablenz 
brought papers to Moltke ; these were the signed 
** instructions " from Mensdorff, at Zwittau, to 
Gablenz, to hand over the above fortresses, after 
the previous free and honourable withdrawal of 
the garrisons, military stores, and war material ; 
further, an eight weeks' armistice, with fourteen 
days' warning of re-commencement of hostilities ; 
and, lastly, a new line of demarcation, to be here- 
after regulated more precisely, behind which the 
Austrians might retire without any danger! A 
victorious conqueror could not have dictated other 
conditions to the vanquished. The King, of 

62 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

course, declined to receive Gablenz under these 
conditions ; on the contrary, he was politely con- 
ducted away, with a document from Moltke to 
the effect " that w^e were ready to enter into 
direct peace negotiations with Austria." The 
newspaper reports of the cession of Yenetia are 
fully confirmed. Henry VII. of Eeuss has gone 
to Paris with an autograph letter from the King 
to express our willingness to consider negotia- 
tions for peace. But that we remain in marching 
form is, of course, understood. Schweinitz was 
sent to Petersburg. On the return journey, one 
of my black horses fell, and I had to take a 
baggage horse from the first good waggon we 
met. Eeturned to Chroustowitz. Gablenz was just 
leaving. He stopped my carriage, took me aside, 
and said he hoped to be in Vienna to-morrow 
morning, and that peace would soon be ar- 
ranged. After a few remarks on the singularity 
of the cession of Venetia to France, he repeated 
his professions of ignorance. ^*But," said I, 
" Mensdorff is with you in Zwittau; he must 
surely know it; and the fact has been known 
since the 4th of this month ! " *' Mensdorff has 
been there since the 5th," he replied, "but I 
have heard nothing ; for the rest, your Eoyal 
Highness must not forget that Bismarck has also 

JVallensteifi s Castle 63 

been treating with Italy.'' Upon this we parted 
with all our old cordiality and friendliness. 
Wrangel appeared. In the evening I reached 
our Head-Quarters at Hohenmauth on horseback. 
A nasty, dirty little hole. 

July 9, 1866. Head- Quarters^ Leitomischel, 

A little rain; a ride of some 2| miles, to 
Leitomischel ; sunshine on the way ; met a few 
Saxon prisoners. Leitomischel was the famous 
seat of Wallenstein, adorned with a magnificent 
castle with three rows of open arcades one above 
the other, recently squandered by the worthless 
heirs of the great name. In the castle were 5000 
Austrian wounded, without a single Austrian 
surgeon, or any instruments. Isolated cases of 
cholera have occurred among them. . . . Benedek 
had lodged in my room, and related with great 
depression that he had led the infantry columns 
himself at Chlum, but they refused to do any 
more — so he had been forced to retire. We heard 
that Anton HohenzoUern's wound was very 
severe, as the thigh-bone is said to be splintered 
above the knee. He is in Koniginhof, under the 
care of the excellent Dr. Middeldorpff, who has 
offered his services gratuitously in this war, as 
already in 1864. . . . 

64 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

July 10, 1866. Head-Quarters, Mdhrisch-Truhau. 
We marched off on horseback in pouring rain, 
4J miles to Mahrisch-Triibau. High boots and 
rain-cloaks were in request to-day. As we 
crossed the steep passes of the mountain, Mahren 
lay charmingly in the sun before us ; the rain 
kept to Bohemia. The Second Division met us, 
and I marched with the Infantry to Mahrisch- 
Triibau. In the afternoon I convinced myself 
that whole companies in the I. Army Corps did 
not know that I was leading them, the talk being 
still only of Prince Karl and von Wrangel. 

July 11, 1866. Head' Quarters, Mdhriscli-Trilhau. 
At last a rest-day ! Intercepted Austrian 
letters describe in plain language the disorganiza- 
tion of the army during the flight. The initiated 
write that the generalship was miserable, and 
*' even surpassed that of Solferino " ! There was 
a strange concurrence in the sense of being fully 
beaten, which turned high and low alike to their 
homes. One hears rumours that Count Alexander 
Mensdorff, who undoubtedly has a close enough 
acquaintance with the army to instruct the 
Kaiser, as an eye-witness, as to its real constitu- 
tion, is to be Benedek's successor. . . . 

state of the Prussian Anny 65 

From the Biirgermeister with whom I was 
lodged, I heard that the Austrians had withdrawn 
the day before yesterday, in the afternoon, with 
the Saxons, under the Crown Prince of Saxony, 
Benedek, and Mensdorff. In the evening we 
sat in a Bier-Garten with the garrison. 

Julij 12, 1866. Head-Quarters^ Mdhrisch'Trilhau, 

Still here on account of the march towards 
Olmiitz ; the enemy will certainly entrench them- 
selves there, and wait for us. The V. Army 
Corps marched through — the King's Eegiment 
of Grenadiers, with more than half its officers 
killed or wounded, so that an ensign had to act 
as Adjutant. The men looked at me with proud 
self-consciousness. Steinmetz messed with me, 
and I drank his health as '^the Hero of Nachod 
and Skalitz.*' General v. Hartmann followed 
the V. Corps with the Cavalry Division. The 
condition of the horses in the West-Prussian 
Cuirassiers was more especially excellent. The 
2nd Landwehr Hussars looked very smart. Hart- 
mann has unfortunately been able to do nothing 
so far, and looked extremely crestfallen. At 
Chlum he only received my orders to follow 
the enemy in the night. Steinmetz has not yet 

66 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

received the promised Order of the Black Eagle, 
and feels a keen desire for it, as he knows 
through me that His Majesty has granted it to 
him, at my particular request, for his three 
victories. In the evening back to the Bier- 
Garten. The day before yesterday, the 2nd 
Pomeranian Uhlans, No. 9, had a nice little 
fight at Zwittau, when two Billows were wounded. 
The King's Head-Quarters are moved to Brunn, 
where Fritz Karl has already arrived. It will 
depend upon the results of the reconnaissances 
and the subsequent intelligence whether I shall 
have to remain with my army before Olmiitz, or 
foUow the I. Army with two of my Corps to 
Vienna. We have been without any home- 
letters or papers since the 8th of this month, 
and our tobacco has quite given out. At 
length a belated and uninjured packet of four 
days has turned up to-day, so that we have 
plenty to read. Four letters at once from my 
wife ! Coburg is occupied by the Bavarians^ 
and will be administered. At Schmalkalden, 
as previously at Dermbach, Falckenstein and 
Groeben have had successful encounters with the 
Bavarians, but at the penalty of considerable 
losses. It is said that the intervention of France 
is to the advantage of Austria. 

Summer Marching 67 

July 13, 1866. Head-Quarters, Opatowitz, Count 
Herber stein's Schloss, 

We marched painfully out of Mahrisch-Trlibau 
in the sweltering heat, because the Guard Corps, 
co-operating with the Columns of the V. Army 
Corps, blocked the exits. Quartered in the 
charmingly situated, exceedingly spacious, and 
many-roomed little castle of Count Herberstein, 
who also has properties on Glatz. I inhabit the 
Boudoir de Madame. We sat long in the shade, 
and dined al fresco, M. Lefebre, of the French 
Embassy in Berlin, has betaken himself to the 
Austrian outposts, there to treat of proposals for 
an armistice. 


Jul^ 14, 1866. Head-quarters at Konitz, 

Again a sweltering heat, and terribly steep 
paths; met Kirchbach's Division, the gallant 
1st West-Prussian Grenadier Kegiment, No. 6, 
and the 46th Infantry Eegim^nt. The latter in 
particular had many fagged out, who remained 
behind. The stiff close collars are no good 
for mountain and summer marching ; I always 
permit the neckcloths to come off altogether, but 
heard to-day that Steinmetz had expressly for- 
bidden this on the march, but ordered it, on the 

68 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

contrary, in action. The mountain pass we came 
over resembles the Thiiringerwald. I heard to- 
day of the death of Colonel v. Wietersheim, Com- 
mander of the 6th Pomeranian Infantry Eegiment, 
No. 49, who has died of the wounds he received 
at Koniggratz. The loss of such a talented Com- 
mander in my Pomeranian Army Corps distresses 
me very much. Quarters in the market-place 
of Konitz, in the ruined town-hall. Benedek, 
Mensdorfif, Arch-Duke Ernest have come through. 
The Infantry are stiU marching in disorder. The 
gardeners say the taxes were becoming unbear- 
able. The Government was doing nothing to 
help the increasing poverty. . . . 

Major von der Burg is to assist to-morrow 
in Benin's expedition, which is to go south to 
Olmiitz by Tobitzschau, while General v. Hart- 
mann is to push forward to Prerau. We hear, 
indeed, that the Austrians have already left 
Olmiitz, and are retiring upon Vienna; this 
must absolutely be put a stop to. As the I. 
Army is to march upon Lundenburg, it might 
perhaps be possible to cut off a portion of the 
Austrian army. Lieutenant v. Wintzigerode, of 
the 2nd Eegiment of Leib-Hussars, rode while 
reconnoitring right up to the redoubts of Olmiitz, 
without encountering a single shot. He was 

Steinmetz and the Black Eagle 69 

even able to ascertain the march-off of an im- 
portant number of columns towards the south. 
I immediately sent him my approval. In the 
evening rode to Steinmetz, to invest him, on 
the part of His Majesty, with the Order of the 
Black Eagle, for which I had asked the King, 
since it has been conferred so long without the 
old hero actually possessing it. Steinmetz kissed 
the star, and then my hand, before I could pre- 
vent him. "Would that I could thank my 
King thus also; the greatest wish of my life 
is fulfilled.'' Two very gracious autograph letters 
from the King moved him deeply. Afterwards 
I read these aloud to the Staff, as well as to 
the Secretaries, Watch, etc., and all rejoiced 
at the well-deserved distinction of the valiant 
leader. The evening was unprecedently beautiful 
for the homeward ride. I have sent Mischke to 
Briinn to His Majesty. 


July 15, 1866. Head-Quarters at Konitz. 

The reconnaissance has succeeded; Benin led 
the engagement at Tobitschau with great success. 
Major-General v. Malotki distinguished himself 
in it. A sortie from Olmutz was driven back, 
many hundreds being taken prisoners. A Brigade 

70 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

of the enemy, said to be that of General v. 
Eothkirch, which had not fought with us till 
now, has been intercepted on the way south. 
The West-Prussian Cuirassiers took fifteen guns ; 
the Silesian Cuirassiers, No. 1, three dismounted 
cannon ; Hartmann went as far as Prerau, where, 
notwithstanding that the place was still occupied 
by the enemy, he managed to damage the rail- 
way. The 2nd Leib-Hussars, as well as the 
Landwehr Hussars, had broken into the squares, 
and captured many men and horses; but they 
also suffered heavy losses. Colonel v. Glase- 
napp, the Commander of the Landwehr Hussars, 
fell, covered with sword-cuts. Yesterday evening 
the Silesian Cuirassiers fell on a square of Saxons 
in the darkness, but unfortunately lost three 
officers in the action. To-morrow Steinmetz is 
going to Prerau to reconnoitre, and will be sup- 
ported by the I. Army Corps. Hartmann, too, is 
ordered to the front. 

July 16, 1866. Head-Quarters at Prodlitz. 
Countess Kalnoky's Schloss. 

Pouring rain ; mounted march to Prossnitz, in 
the hope of joining in the action at that place. 
On the way we met and stopped some men with 

A^nbtilance Stations 71 

blackened faces, who seemed to us to be deserters 
in disguise. The reconnaissance of the V. Army 
Corps came to nothing, for Benin, who was 
nearest to Prerau, only marched off in the after- 
noon, owing to a misunderstanding. The two 
Divisions of the V. Army Corps therefore marched 
back to their cantonments. The men looked 
in splendid condition, especially the gallant 
King's Grenadiers, No. 7. In Prossnitz our 
arrival excited a great commotion among the 
very courteous inhabitants ; sultry heat had suc- 
ceeded to the rain. In the Hospital of the 
Barmherzigen Bruder, our officers and men were 
being very well taken care of. Most of them 
had been wounded with the sword, from which 
one could see that it had been a hot encounter. 
Among others of our officers, we found here 
Lieutenants v. Estorff and v. Blumenthal of 
the 2nd Leib-Hussars, also v. Eothkirch of the 
Landwehr, who had six sword-cuts on the head, 
and two in the neck, without, however, being 
dangerously wounded. Many officers of the 1st 
Leib-Hussars, too, were being tended here. From 
Prossnitz we had to do two miles further to the 
pretty rococo country-house of a Countess 
Kalnoky, whose eldest son was an attache in 
Berlin, but is now in London. A Herr von 

72 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Wattwyl did the honours. The Countess had 
withdrawn with her daughters to a neighbouring 
forester's house, leaving us in possession of 
everything, even the beds, adorned with innu- 
merable pictures of Saints, wreaths of roses, 
consecrated tapers, etc. Herr v. Wattwyl at 
first took me for General v. Blumenthal, and 
almost collapsed when he afterwards heard my 
name. In Vienna people seem to be expecting 
our speedy advent, and the Empress has already 
retired to Pesth. 

July 17, 1866. Head-Quarters at Prodlitz, 

A so-called rest-day, in which at least we 
did not have to march. The troops, and notably 
the horses, required rest. The boots of the 
infantry need repair, otherwise the whole of this 
important section of our army would go to pieces. 
The heat is African. The I. Army Corps is going 
in a direction south of Olmiitz ; I ordered the 
Y. Corps to prepare to march to Lundenburg along 
the March ; the Guard Corps and VI. Corps are to 
march to Briinn, in a straight line by Biskopitz. 
The Commissariat, thank God, seems to have 
been well managed so far; for this we have to 
thank, along with the wise arrangements of my 

Rest-day 73 

Army-Tntendant, the Cabinet Minister for War, 
KoUner. I paid a visit to Countess Kalnoky, 
whose husband has been out of his mind for 
ten years. The eldest son is attache in London^ 
and known to the Berlin Embassy; the other 
four sons are fighting on the opposite side, one 
as Adjutant to the Arch-Duke Joseph. All the 
ladies are living together bivouac fashion in the 
little forester's lodge. In the evening I went 
with the Uncles and most of the Adjutants to 
an adjacent hill, the central point of Moravia, 
to look in the direction of Olmiitz, which, how- 
ever, was invisible. It appears that the Emperor 
of Austria has proclaimed that Vienna is to be 
treated as an open town, not as a fortress. 
Further, that the Austrian army is to march off 
to Hungary, there to be organized anew, so that 
in two to three months it may be ready to tako 
the field again. 

July 18, 1866. Head-Quarters^ Brunn, 

We wanted to transport our Head-Quarters to 
the Castle of Austerlitz, so as to be about in 
the middle of my marching corps. Since, how- 
ever, it appeared possible from the intelligence 
we had received that the Austrians might attempt 

74 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

a desperate attack upon us, and then upon 
our centre, from the side of the Carpathians, 
Briinn seemed more prudent. In the midst of 
our discussions of the 'pros and cons^ came a 
telegram from Bismarck, expressing a wish that 
I would not delay too long in coming to Briinn. 
I at once got ready, and did the journey of four 
and a half miles by carriage, one of the maddest 
sorts of high-road that I have ever seen, from 
the point of view of being unpractical; it went 
steeply up and down the mountain, instead of 
using the valleys that lay half a mile away. 
Kaiser Joseph once ploughed this road, and the 
deed has been immortalized in a memorial. The 
battle-field of Austerlitz is partially visible from 
the chaussee. Briinn makes an imposing appear- 
ance from afar, with its notorious Spielberg, its 
high church towers, and many luxurious dwell- 
ings, corresponding with its industrial prosperity. 
In former times the nobility of Moravia resorted 
hither for their winter season; these times are 
over, and the richly decorated palaces stand 
deserted. On arriving, the first thing I heard 
was that His Majesty had just ridden off half an 
hour before with Bismarck to the Dietrichstein 
Schloss at Nikolsburg. So there I sat without 
any intelligence, and only heard quite casually 


state of Atistinan Affairs 75 

from Count Frankenburg, one of General v. 
Mutius' orderly-officers, that it had been known 
since yesterday evening that, after a battle won 
by our side, General v. Falckenstein had entered 
Frankfurt- on-Main with flying colours, and drums 
beating, demanding from the rich and anti- 
Prussian city an indemnity of 25 millions. Thus 
our success endures ! God keep us from reverses ! 
Keports from Vienna say that the proffered truce 
has been rejected, so that we may well come to 
a fresh encounter before the capital. Austrian 
levies, especially from Croatia and in the border- 
districts, have been commanded; it is moreover 
said that 50,000 men are already on their way 
from Italy. It is thought that Benedek has been 
deposed, and Arch-Duke Albrecht made Gene- 
ralissimo in his place. Burgermaster Giskra, a 
well-known liberal delegate to the Vienna Eeich- 
stag, greeted me, recommending the town to me, 
as it had conceded whatever had been demanded, 
and would soon be entirely exhausted. I dis- 
cussed the state of Austrian affairs with this 
clever lawyer. 

July 19, 1866. Head^Quarters, Gross- Seelowitz. 

This is a family place of the Arch-Duke 
Albrecht, and his brothers and sisters ; they seem 

76 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

to care very Kttle for air or cleanliness. The style 
recalls Schonhausen, but otherwise only an oil- 
painting of the famous Arch-Duke Karl Ferdinand 
and his wife are remarkable. The truce is in the 
air ; Benedetti has gone from Briinn to the King's 
Head-Quarters at the castle of Nikolsburg. They 
are talking of renewed negotiations at the out- 
posts, through M.' Lefebre of the French Embassy. 
Eeuss VII. travelled through here on his way to 
Nikolsburg. On the way between Briinn and this 
place we encountered two showers, which resem- 
bled water-spouts, the like of which I have never 
seen before. In a train column a horse was 
drowned, and a man was only saved with difficulty. 
We fled with the carriage into a sheepfold. The 

cooling was wanted ! 



July 20, 1866. ^ Head- Quarters, Schloss Eisgruh. 

At night came the news that Austria had 
agreed to withdraw from the Confederation, and 
that an armistice was requested. I drove to the 
King's Head-Quarters at Mensdorff's, formerly 
Dietrichstien's, castle of Nikolsburg. On the way 
we found the bridges over the Thaya burned; 
the Pioneers were restoring a sunken temporary 
bridge just as I came up, and in order to help me 
over, a number of the men undressed at once. 

Conditions of Armistice 77 

in the cheeriest way now working in the water, 
now showing off swimming tricks, so that both 
bodies and clothes obtained a much-needed refresh- 
ment. A merry humour is so easily induced in 
our good people ! Nikolsburg, on a dominating 
cone of rock, restored in the style of the Thirty 
Years' War, will, when finishejj^ be very habit- 
able ; the view is more extensive than beautiful. 
Austria consents to payment of an indemnity to 
us, and also to the evacuation of the frontier ; 
further, to the founding of a North-German 
Union, as far as the Maine, with Prussian 
military supremacy ; finally, to the annexation of 
Schleswig-Holstein. On our side it is proposed 
to conclude a truce with Austria, to be shortly 
followed by peace ; then to conclude peace with 
the German opponents also, reserving the partial 
annexation of their territories. I saw the French 
Ambassador Benedetti, and the Italian Ambassador 
Count Barral, at the King's dinner. In the 
evening, late over Felsburg, with a thousand 
difficulties (as we did not know the way nor the 
place), to Eisgrub, the reception-rooms of which 
are much like English castles. My bedroom 
is in the library. Duke Wilhelm of Mecklen- 
burg was here before us, and had a merry time 
with his officers. 

78 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

July 21, 1866. Head-Quarters at Eisgruh. 

Papa came here to the early breakfast, looked 
round the charming English grounds, and went 
with me all through the splendid deer-park, which 
is stocked with the finest herds of red- and roe- 
deer, and also contains wonderfully beautiful 
glades of oak. Already to-day there have been 
conjectures as to the conclusion of peace, in re 
the establishment of a Hne of demarcation, and 
the fulfilment of the conditions of the armistice. 
And late in the night came Major Verdy, who 
had been sent in the direction of Lundenburg, 
where Major-General v. Podbielski was to establish 
the line of demarcation with the Austrians, with 
the intelligence that a fifteen days' truce was to 
come into effect at noon to-morrow. Major 
Wright, Moltke's lieutenant, was in Vienna to- 
day, with a letter to the Due de Gramont; he 
was taken to the Hofburg, and thought people 
were sniffing after war again. Others, indeed, 
think just the contrary. The cholera is every- 
where announcing itself. Even here two men 
died last night from my watch of the Grenadier 
Guards (Konigin-Elisabeth). 

Peace Proposals 


July 22, 1866. Head-Quarters^ Eisgruh. 

A rest-day. Beautiful ride over the innumer- 
able villas and grounds of the enormously ex- 
tended park, through which, sixty years ago, the 
Thaya was diverted in order to make pretty 
situations with lakes. 

The inteUigence about the demarcation is 
correct. There are rumom's of a fight at Presburg. 
A Division was certainly sent there (probably 
Fransecky's), to take the town by a coup de main, 
before the defeated Corps which are said to be 
coming down, by way of the Carpathians, fi-om 
Olmiitz, could arrive. The thing may miscarry 
for us, if, as I suspect, we stumble upon a 
superior force there — that would be an affair before 
the armistice ! It is said that Count Karolyi 
(ambassador to Berlin), Lieutenant Field-Marshal 

^^ Count Degenfeld, and Baron Brenner are on their 

^M way to Nikolsburg. 


July 23, ,1866. Head-Quarters, Eisgrvh, 

Eide of half a mile to His Majesty at Nikols- 
burg. The three gentlemen whom I mentioned 
yesterday have really arrived as commissioners 
from Vienna, and propose the above-mentioned 

8o Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

terms. Austria only stipulates for the geographical 
integrity of Saxony, because it is a point of 
honour with the Emperor not to let his allies 
suffer. Another envoy is expected from Bavaria, 
to make an offensive and defensive alliance with 

Journey to the East, 1869 8r 


In the summer of 1869, invitations were sent 

from the Khedive of Egypt to the King, the Crown 

Prince and Princess, and the Federal Chancellor 

Count von Bismarck, to take part in the function 

of the opening of the Suez Canal. His Majesty 

felt compelled to refuse the invitation on account 

of his age, and of the fatigue of the journey. 

Count Bismarck excused himself likewise on the 

score of his official duties. With regard to the 

invitation sent to the Crown Prince, the King 

sought the advice of Count Bismarck ; he had 

scruples in view of the great expenses that would 

be incurred by such a journey. Count Bismarck, 

however, overcame the hesitation of the King, 

by pointing out the good effect which a visit 

of the Crown Prince to the Emperor of Austria 

on the occasion of this journey must result in. 

It was accordingly communicated by telegraph 
to Vienna, that the Crown Prince had accepted 
the invitation of the Khedive to take part in the 
ceremony of inaugurating the Suez Canal, and 


82 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

would visit the Emperor and the Imperial family 
in Vienna, if agreeable to His Imperial Majesty. 
Kaiser Franz Josef at once replied that it would 
be a great pleasure to him to receive the visit 
of the heir to the Prussian throne. 


After Ismail Pasha, Viceroy or Khedive of 
Egypt, had visited our Court in June, 1869, with 
his youngest son, and had been received with 
great distinction by His Majesty, he addressed 
the following letter to me on July 16 : — 


"Je viens de reiterer a Votre Auguste 
Pere et Souverain la priere quej'aipris la liberte 
de Lui addresser a Berlin. Je sais, Monseigneur, 
que Sa Majeste ne peut pas acceder de Sa 
personne a ma priere ; mais il a eu Textreme 
bonte de me promettre d'autoriser un des 
Princes de son Auguste Famille d^assister a 
Touverture de I'lsthme de Suez. 

" Votre Altesse a dte si gracieuse a mon egard, 
Elle a ^te si pleine de bontds que je prends la 

Preliminary Discttssion 83 

liberie de Lui demander encore, comme una 
faveiir, de vouloir bien honorer I'Egypte de Sa 

*' C'est un pays bien interessant, Monseigneur, 
j'ose le dire, le passe et I'avenir s'y trouvent 
representes par tout ce qu'il y a de plus ancien 
et de plus moderne. II merite de fixer les regards 
de Votre Altesse Koyale. 

** J'espere, Monseigneur, que le Eoi Votre 
Auguste Pere et Souverain agreera ma priere et 
autorisera ce voyage que j'appelle de tout mes 
voeux. Si Son Altesse Eoyale, Madame la 
Princesse Koyale, daignait accompagner Son 
Auguste fipoux, alors mes voeux seront combl^s, 
et I'Egypte pourrait temoigner a Votre Altesse 
Koyale combien elle Lui est reconnaissante pour 
les favours dont Votre Altesse Koyale a bien 
voulu me combler. Je prie Votre Altesse Koyale 
de vouloir bien agreer les hommages. 

'* de Son devoue 
" (signe) Ismail. 

" Eanx-Bonnes, le 16 Juillet, 1869." 

Upon my announcing the arrival of the above 
despatch to the King, His Majesty replied that 
he must first ascertain Count Bismarck's wishes. 

While the great autumn manoeuvres of the 

84 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

II. Army Corps were going on at Stargard in 
Pomerania, the Chancellor arrived at the King's 
Head-Quarters, and on September 11, 1 received 
the order to prepare for a journey to Turkey and 
Egypt. I was first of all to pay an official visit 
to the Imperial Court of Vienna with the object 
of establishing friendly relations after the events 
of 1866 ; next to return, at Constantinople, the 
visit of the Sultan to our King at Coblentz, 
1867; and lastly, to represent our Fatherland 
at the opening of the Suez Canal. A visit to 
Greece, as well as to Palestine and Syria, was 
in addition permitted me. Since the opening of 
the Canal was fixed for November 17, there was 
not much time before that date to become 
acquainted with these countries ; for the journey 
must be over before the function, in order that 
I might subsequently visit Upper Egypt, and 
be back with my own people by Christmas. 

During the King's review, which was in East 
Prussia, the preparations for the journey were 
arranged with Admiral Jachmann, who had been 
summoned to Konigsberg, the all-important point 
being a squadron for my escort. With this 
object, the corvette Hertlia, which had just started 
from Kiel to go to her station in the Pacific 
Ocean, was telegraphed to make arrangements 

Travelling Arrangements 85 

in Plymouth for the accommodation of my person 
and my suite. In addition, the corvette Elizabeth^ 
which had only just left the Dantzic dockyard, 
and had as yet made no trial-trip, was com- 
missioned for service. The corvette Arcona^ as 
well as H.M. yacht Grille^ received orders to go 
to the Mediterranean, while the gunboat Deljphiriy 
which was stationed on the Sulina-estuary, was 
ordered to the Grecian Archipelago. 

It was only on September 23 that the answer 
came from the Hertha, and that from Portsmouth, 
because she had been obliged by contrary winds 
to cross the North Sea; accordingly the pro- 
jected embarkation at Brindisi could not be 
thought of before October 15, and thus I parted 
from my wife and children on the evening of 
October 3. 

My travelling-suite consisted of — 

1. Prince Ludwig zu Hessen und bei Ehein. 

2. Major-General von Stosch, Director of the 
Department of Military Economy in the Eoyal 
War Ministry. 

3. Court-Marshal Count Bulenburg. 

4. Lieut.-Colonel Count Lehndorff, Aide-de- 
camp to His Majesty. 

5. Captain von Jasmund ) ^ 

^ ^ , . o. 1 1 . •. ? Personal Adjutants. 

6. Captain von Schlemitz) "^ 

86 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

7. Surgeon- General and Body-Physician Dr. 

8. Lieutenant von Zitzewitz, appointed to 
my personal service, during my stay on board 

On the 4th I went to Baden-Baden, to say 
good-bye to my parents, and brothers and sisters. 
Here I saw my cousin, Karl von Hohenzollern, 
Prince of Eoumania, for the first time since the 
beginning of his reign. A few days after, he was 
betrothed to Princess Elizabeth of Wied, whom 
in November he brought home as his wife. 

The further journey was undertaken by way 
of Munich, without halting there, and on Oc- 
tober 6 I crossed the Austrian frontier, received 
by Lieut. Field-Marshal Count Huyn, Major and 
Emperor's Aide-de-camp von GroUer, Captain 
Count Wallis of the Prince Friedrich Karl 
Hussars, and a Guard of Honour. 

Guards of Honour greeted me at many stations, 
as well as in Vienna itself, where Kaiser Franz 
Joseph in Prussian uniform was waiting for me 
on the platform,* and led me from thence to the 

* According to the account in the Debatte, the Kaiser said on greeting 
the Crown Prince, " You are heartily welcome " (Seien Sie mir herzlich 
gegrusst) ; on which the Crown Prince answered, ".A long-cherished wish 
is now fulfilled, inasmuch as I respectfully greet your Majesty upon 
Austrian soil." 

Visit to Vienna 87 

Castle. Here, to my complete surprise, I was 
greeted by the beautiful Empress Elizabeth, whom 
I beheved to be still in Ischl, and their two 
Majesties then conducted me to the magnificent 
rooms prepared for me. 

I spent October 7 and 8 in Vienna, the first 
day being taken up with visits, followed by a 
dinner and tUdtre pare. On the next day I 
received the Generals and Staff-officers from 
the garrison, the Diplomatic Body, and some of 
the Ministers. The remaining free time I used 
to see the new buildings, besides the Arsenal, 
the Belvedere, the Votiv-Kirche, and the grave 
of my unfortunate friend, Arch-Duke Max, the 
Emperor of Mexico. A gala-dinner, at which all 
the Ministers as well as the Chief-Burgermeister 
of Vienna appeared, and which was again followed 
by a performance at the theatre, concluded my 

I look back with pleasure to the days I spent 
in Vienna, for they recognized there the good 
intentioDS that prompted my visit, were on that 
account friendly and courteous to me, and, in short, ' 
failed in no external marks of honour. After the 
events of 1866, it could not be easy for any 
Austrian to see the arrival of a representative 
of our King, such as I was, but no one allowed 

88 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

me to perceive this only too comprehensible feel- 
ing. The Kaiser was unchanged in his manner 
towards me, and any one who knows him as well 
as I, could not have a moment's doubt that he 
received me with genuine warmth. 

The Arch-Dukes greeted me with no less friend- 
liness than the Kaiser, and all, according to our 
closer or more distant acquaintance, exchanged 
with me words of old friendship, which were not 
altered by 1866.* 

It was no less a surprise to me, and as I 
thought to the Viennese also, that during my 

* In his book, " The Founding of the German Empire " {Die Begrun- 
dung des Deutschen Reichs), pp. 112, et seq.j Heinrich von Sybel further 
tells us that Arch-Duke Albrecht asserted, as an expert, to the Crown 
Prince, that he (the Crown Prince) had done his duty as a soldier, and 
that every one must recognize this. The Liberal minister Giskra 
expressed his satisfaction at seeing in this visit the precursor of a signifi- 
cant rapprochement ; the results of the mission would make themselves 
felt gi-adually. Count Beust, too, thought no more of revenge, but took 
what was past as past. In fact, Beust protested vigorously against 
Bismarck's accusation, that he influenced the press in a direction inimical 
to the interests of Prussia, adding the remark that, with regard to the 
South German Question, he was by no means opposed to its development. 
As Austrian Minister, however, his first duty was to watch over the 
welfare of the Austrian Crown lands, and hence he was obliged to keep 
a sharp eye upon any denouement of the South German Question that could 
endanger this welfare. With this statement, as well as with the condition 
of affairs in general, corresponds the fact, that both at this time in Vienna, 
and later in Egypt, Kaiser Franz Joseph had no political talk with the 
Crown Prince. Giskra, however, had correctly summed up the attitude 
of this monarch in regard to the future. A first pregnant step towards 
a reconciliation between the former antagonists had been taken, hereby 
opening a new outlook for the maintenance of peace in Europe. 

Venice 89 

stay in Vienna the rumour suddenly arose, and 
was afterwards confirmed by the Kaiser and 
Count Beust, that the former was going to Suez 
for the ceremonial Inauguration of the Canal. 

Vienna is so altered by the demolition of the 
old walls, that one can hardly find one's way 
about in the new quarters ; these are so exactly 
planned after the Parisian Boulevards, that they 
seem to have changed places with them. The 
new Opera House is in particular an ornament 
of the highest rank to Vienna. 

The further journey, in the first place by the 
Semmering-Bahn on October 9, afforded splendid 
views of the scenery, which were the more agree- 
able inasmuch as I had last traversed these parts 
in 1862, on a dull December day. 

After parting with the Austrian functionaries, 
who from General to the lowest servant had 
been full of attention for me, we crossed the 
Italian frontier at night, and with sunrise Venice 
rose from the lagoons. Here nothing is 
altered — in contrast to Vienna, which, with its 
razed walls and magnificent new buildings, has 
become quite another city. 

Here the presence of Count Usedom afforded 
me especial pleasure; I went round with him 
IB daily, and devoted myself to all that was worth 

90 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

seeing. Only the Palazzo Morosini was new to 
me; it still stands unaltered in its brilliant sur- 
roundings, and is rich in memories of the famous 
General of the Eepublic, Morosini. In addition, 
the Church of Santa Maria ai Miracoli, with its 
romantic charm, was previously unknown to me. 

I was obliged to accept a theatrical perform- 
ance in San Carlo, which was lit in my honour 
al giornoy and was filled with an elegant audience ; 
otherwise I preserved my incognito, and this led 
to entertaining scenes, since the very curious 
Venetian public (especially of an evening, when 
the music was playing on the illuminated piazzetta) 
took Count Lehndorff and then Count Eulenburg 
for me, surrounded them, and accompanied them 
with ** JEvvivas,'' while I was lost in the crowd, and 
looked on at the sight. 

The Sindaco was determined to make use of 
my presence, to honour in my person the King's 
representative; for, said he, since Venice had 
feted the Empress Eugenie on account of Sol- 
ferino, it was the duty of the city to do the same 
on account of *' Sadowa " (as Koniggratz is always 
called outside our own country) ! 

Eavenna, which I visited on continuing my 
journey, is richer than I could have conceived 
possible in its undamaged relics of Byzantine 

Ravenna 91 

buildings, from the fifth and sixth centuries. Here 
one fully understands this style for the first 

Bari, October 16, 1869. 

To-morrow we embark, and are bound first of 
all for Corfu, in the hope that H.M. corvette 
Hertha will pick us up there on the 19th. 

My fifth visit to Italy! I look back with 
delight to one of the most beautiful autumn weeks 
that can be granted to any traveller. After the 
dull skies of Vienna, the weather altered in Venice, 
so that no cloud was to be seen, and moonlight 
and starry nights succeeded to the brightest, 
warmest sunshine. 

Corfu, October 18, 1869. 

At the end of our visit to the wonderful anti- 
quities of Eavenna, which took me back to the 
times of the Christian Art of the fourth and fifth 
centuries, and which are unequalled in the colours 
of their mosaics, and the purity of style of their 
basilicas, we took the train to Bari. The railway 
nearly always follows close to the sea-shore, and 
the journey, especially in the neighbourhood of 

92 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the miniature state of San Marino, as also at Pesaro 
(Kossini's birthplace), was particularly charming. 

In Bari we again met with an enthusiastic 
reception, reminding me of my welcome in Upper 
Italy, in 1868. The Russians venerate S. Nicholas 
of this place, as their patron. 

On the 17th we left Brindisi on board an 
Italian passenger-steamer, and reached the much 
be-praised island on the morning of my thirty- 
eighth birthday. Jasmund and Schleinitz had been 
unable to resist the rocking of the vessel, which, 
indeed, for some time was horrible. Unfortu- 
nately, rain came on ; and we could only get an 
approximate idea of the charms of Corfu when, 
towards evening, the sky cleared up. The place 
itself, which lies in a picturesque bay, is sur- 
rounded on all sides by high rocky mountains, 
with charming valleys clothed with olive-woods. 
The town has no definite character ; the hotels 
and public buildings still show many signs of 
English comforts, particularly with regard to their 
furnishing; in other respects, all that is EngHsh 
has quickly vanished, to the great sorrow of the 
inhabitants. The fortifications that had been 
brought from England at enormous cost were all 
blown up when the island was handed over to 
Oreece, so that only the old castles from the 

Brindisi to Corinth 93 

Genoese-Venetian period of the Middle Ages 
remained standing. 

The Greek population, who come into the 
town from the country round, are strikingly 
beautiful in face and figure, and wear with much 
natural grace the well-known tasteful costume 
of the Albanian people — one of the most beautiful 
and picturesque in Europe. 

Hunting-weapons, a beautiful bronze frame of 
the period of Frederick I., along with a riding- 
whip, flowers, and cakes with candles, all packed 
up by my wife's care for to-day, come as a greeting 
from home, and from my dear ones, and most 
agreeably soften the pain of separation. 

On the 19th, we hked the Httle Austrian-Lloyd 
steamer, the Lario, to take us as quickly as possible 
to the Bay of Lepanto, and thence to Corinth, so 
as to save the Hertha the detour by Corfu. The 
commander of the Hertha in effect had announced 
that he would reach Corfu on the 20th at 
earliest, and as we wanted to lose none of our time 
in Athens, we proposed to save the two days it 
would take him to get round the Peloponnesus, by 
making the straight journey across Corinth. 

Hardly were we two hours under way, and 
rolling about as never before, in sight of the 
beautiful Albanian coast in brightest sunshine, 

94 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

when a corvette came into view. After looking 
for some time, my brother-in-law Louis was the 
first to discover that it carried the North-German 
standard; it was the longed-for and expected 
Hertlia, As our rocking little Lloyd-pirate carried 
no sort of signalling-flags, we had to steer straight 
for the unsuspecting Hertlia, and endeavour to 
make ourselves known by every form of arm- 
telegraphy. Our attempts at last drew the 
attention of the sailors to us, and we were able 
to make ourselves understood. As regarded board- 
ing her, however, we were dissuaded by Captain 
Kohler, who advised us on the contrary for the 
sake of gaining time, and still more on account 
of the favourable weather, to remain on our 
nutshell, and keep to our arrangements for the 
rest of the voyage. The Hertha profited, inasmuch 
as she escaped the further voyage to Corfu. 

And now began one of the strangest of sea- 
voyages. Although we rolled^ about in every 
direction, no one felt ill, or even uncomfortable. 
Indeed, we leaned over the edge for hours, 
rejoicing in the fine panorama that unfolded 
before us, first in the rays of the setting sun, 
then in the twilight, and lastly, in the clearest 
silvery light of the beams of the full moon. 

Never before have I experienced such pleasure 

First Impressions of Greece 95 

at sea, enhanced by the marvellously mild air, 
like that of an Oriental dream. So we fared past 
the sharp rocky walls of Ithaca and Cephalonia, 
at whose names the Odyssey, with all the child- 
hood's memories that link themselves with the 
glamour of these ancient tales, rose vividly before 
my mind. And if we were not yet on classical 
ground, the rocking element was well calculated, 
by the environment of its shores, to excite our 
soul and emotions powerfully. At length the 
waves went down, as, with Patras, we reached 
the proper entrance to the Bay of Corinth. 

Delphi and Missolungi are the first spots that 
meet one's eye. Yet here the name is every- 
thing, for one sails uninterruptedly between the 
beautiful, but quite uninhabited, and strangely 
overgrown rocky mountains of the Morea and 
Eumelia. The eye can seldom detect even a 
wretched village or a sailing-boat. 

The sunrise which we witnessed to-day must 
be lived through, in order to realize what we 
felt as we saw the highest peaks of Greece glow 
in the rosy dawn, and felt we were approaching 
the mighty rock of Acro-Corinth. 
I In an historic land, in which the scanty vegeta- 
tion of the soil, and the want of aU culture (once 
so rich) almost saddens one, the eternally new 

96 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

and beautiful impressions of the sunrise and sun- 
set, the silver light of the full moon, supply the 
want, and, like faithful travelling companions, 
make good that which is missing. Most keenly 
did we feel the want of everything that the 
traveller's eye seeks upon classical ground, when, 
at midday, we landed at Corinth. Here almost 
nothing is left — not a tree, not a vestige of build- 
ing ! Only the seven columns of a temple, round 
which picturesquely- clad peasants were working 
with their horses, indicated that here there had 
once been a sacred hall, whilst nothing but the 
strangely tall and picturesque cone of rock, on 
which the town is throned, now stands out in 
the eternally-smiling blue ether as a landmark 
of long-vanished days. What the hand of man 
once accomplished here of astonishing value, the 
hand of man has again destroyed, and what 
remained over has been ruined by earthquakes. 

The new site, although it bears the famous 
name of Corinth, can hardly claim the designation 
of " village " ; some excuse for so much disillusion 
is, however, provided in the variety of the rich 
and picturesque national costume, which is proudly 
worn by a marvellously fine race. 

In forty minutes we had traversed the Peninsula 
of Corinth, and, with greetings from the Prussian 

Arrival at Athens 97 

gunboat Delphin, and from Dr. Kohler, legal 
adviser to the Embassy, and a distinguished 
archaeologist, as well as from the Greek escort 
who came to receive us, we went on board our 
ship at Kalamaki, and made across the Bay of 
^gina for the Piraeus, ^gina, Megara, and 
Salamis passed before our eyes, but as proud 
names only, — otherwise the same mountain forms 
we had seen early in the morning, the same lack 
of inhabitants and buildings. Unfortunately it 
was already dark when we neared the Piraeus, 
for night falls suddenly here with the sunset, only 
the lights and illuminations from the other ships 
anchored in the harbour showing us that we had 
almost reached our goal. 

The King received me here with his wonted 
cordiality and friendship, in the midst of an 
enthusiastic crowd, who had collected round a 
number of triumphal arches, adorned with Greek 
inscriptions relating to the events of 1866. In 
ten minutes the railway took tis into an Athens 
illuminated with Bengal lights, where all were 
on their feet, and a constant ^^ IttaW was heard. 
All the ministers, dignitaries, and officers had 
gathered at the station to meet me. 

The Queen, in all the brilliancy of unaltered 
youth and graciousness, received us in the most 


98 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

amiable manner, in the well-lighted, magnificently 
appointed, high, and spacious halls of the Palace, 
which resembles the Konigsbau at Munich. The 
Acropolis looked down with high dignity in the 
light of the full moon upon the gay traffic of the 
modern town below, and wove its stupendous 
glamour around us; for this aspect is of all the 
most imposing, in that the columns still standing 
of the Propylsea, the Parthenon, and the Erech- 
theum are seen clear and transparent, while the 
rubble-heaps, on the contrary, are obliterated. 
That proud Acropolis in the moonlight must have 
given much the same impression as of old, in the 
flower of its prosperity. 

Athens, October 22, 1869. 

The perfect moonlight night of which I wrote 
last, lent to the Acropolis the aspect of a still 
uninjured structure from the old Greek world ; 
even by daylight, however, the great height of 
the ruins prevented one from seeing the full extent 
of the damage. It is only on ascending the rocky 
hill, and climbing the steps that lead to the 
Propylsea, that the beholder is deeply grieved 
at sight of the horrid heaps of ruin, strewn by 
human violence in the place of the finest art- 

Athens 99 

creations of the world. And yet, despite long 
centuries of destruction, the Propylsea, Par- 
thenon, and Erechtheum still convey such wealth 
of noblest grandeur, such unsurpassable beauty of 
form, that I could not gaze my fill of the ruins. 
The Propylsea are much smaller than I had 
imagined; the Parthenon, on the contrary, is 
larger, and reminded me of the Temple at 
Psestum ; no temple ruins present such splendid 
reliefs as those which stand here, notwithstanding 
the thefts of the archaeologists. 

The Erechtheum worked the same charm upon 
me, with its caryatids still partly standing in 
their original place ; while its unique ornaments, 
in their perfect proportions and splendid execu- 
tion, have been the types of pure architecture 
from all antiquity. Here man's hand has, indeed, 
brought perfection into being ; here the spectator 
feels what vast gaps he needs to fill in his lay- 
man's education in art. The simplest description 
of what here meets the eye must seem overdrawn ; 
and, on the other hand, no heights of speech could 
convey the real impression of the magnificent as 
one here finds it. The sea of rubble, with which 
the ground is covered, conceals an incredible 
wealth of beautiful art-forms, many bearing in- 
scriptions. Each stroke of the spade brings new 

lOO Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

relics to the light ; the inhabitants, unfortunately, 
show very little interest in the excavations, and 
when foreigners are willing to undertake the work, 
the export duty upon the treasures discovered is 

And yet I must admit that this regulation is 
fully justified. England, France, and Bavaria 
despoiled the Acropolis some forty years ago, by 
plundering whatever is finest in their museums, 
with little less effect than did the rude peoples 
of antiquity by their gross destruction. King 
Louis I. of Bavaria and Lord Elgin did indeed 
endeavour to replace what they carried off by 
copies, or facsimiles in different materials, and 
yet this only seems to have increased the evil, 
since new patches upon the crown of ancient 
art offend the eye unpardonably. 

The Acropolis Hill is surrounded by several 
magnificent amphitheatres, among them that of 
Dionysus, discovered and excavated some eight 
years ago by Curtius and Strack. This theatre is 
of peculiar interest, inasmuch as a great part of 
the marble seating is not merely intact, but is 
even inscribed with the names of the seat-holders. 

To-day I am constantly thinking of my dear 
tutor Curtius ! It was his brilliant disquisition 
upon the Acropolis, more than twenty-five years 

Athem^ joi 

ago, in the Wissenschaftlichen Verein, that first 
attracted the eyes of my parents to him, and 
led to his appointment as my tutor. 

As to the other antiquities of Athens, there 
remains, firstly, the Temple of Theseus at the foot 
of the Acropolis, which is in perfect preservation ; 
next, the colossal dozen pillars of a Temple of 
Jupiter ; then the charming memorial to Lysicrates 
(familiar to us all, since it stands as the cornice 
to the open pavilion of Glienicke on the long 
bridge) ; and lastly, the Tower of the Four Winds. 

All the famous parts of Athens are gone, yet 
one can trace with certainty the seats of the 
Assemblies of the Areopagus, where once Paul 
preached ; and the Pnyx, at whose rostrum 
Demosthenes gave his powerful discourses. 

The bald mountains of the neighbourhood, and 
more particularly Hymettus, are picturesque in 
their shapes, but present a melancholy aspect on 
account of their total lack of green vegetation. 
In the prime of the Gr^ek age this was quite 
different; but when attempts are made in the 
present day to cultivate the soil, which in itself 
is inexhaustibly fertile, they all fail on account 
of the inhabitants. These picturesque and well- 
grown people, whose proportions are fine as a 
statue, will not take the trouble to plant young 

\07, I^iaries Gf:the^ Emperor Frederick 

oKve trees for the sake of future harvests, but 
content themselves with using what is to hand, 
because it is less trouble to live from day to day 
than be at the pains of providing for the future. 
They are peculiarly apt in external and gracious 
marks of respect. 

The entire external appointments of the Court 
are very dignified, and coupled with a judicious 
splendour. The 'personnel for the most part wear 
the picturesque national costume ; the military 
uniform is very like the Danish, only somewhat 
Franco-Italian. The Infantry at first reminded 
me involuntarily of the Danish Infantry in the 
campaign of 1864. 

Near the Eoyal Palace is a shady garden that 
Queen Amelia has laboriously contrived out of 
the waste arable land, and which afforded us 
grateful refreshment in the fierce heat; a late 
Eoman mosaic of 100 feet in length, which was 
discovered in excavating, forms the principal 
ornament of the place. Lions and monkeys en- 
tertain the public, who are admitted there every 
afternoon. An olive wood, situated some half- 
mile* beyond the town, is otherwise the only 
shade in the whole neighbourhood. 

* The Gennan mile = about 6 J English miles. — Tr. 

In Stainbul 103 

Constantinople, October 25, 1869. 

And so we are really in Stambul, guests of 
the commander of the Faithful^ and personally 
received by him, as only high princely guests 
are honoured after European fashion; and on 
Asiatic soil, for the Beylerbey Palace assigned to 
me lies on the Asiatic side. 

One must give up all attempt at description 
on reaching the Bosphorus, seeing the Golden 
Horn, and making caique-journeys in the radiant 
sunshine and silver moonlight. For, little as 
one's highly strained expectation is gratified in 
the first moment, so much the more powerful is 
the impression, when one gazes at the lines of 
towns and estates that stretch for miles along 
both shores of the sea, and give to Constantinople 
its character of a totally unique city. 

Here again we have been favoured by quite 
exceptional weather. The clouds that threatened 
several times dispersed again, to show us every- 
thing the eye can desire. After a last look at the 
AcropoHs of Athens, whose impress is indelibly 
stamped upon me, we made an incredibly quick 
voyage, in a perfectly calm sea, on board the 
Hertha^ from midday of the 22nd to the morn- 
ing of the 23rd October, when we reached the 

I04 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Dardanelles. We were, however, little edified by 
the contemplation of these Straits, for here on the 
flat shores there is nothing at all to see ; this 
applies more especially to Troy, the name which 
naturally calls up the highest expectations from 
one's memories of early youth, — which, however, 
find no realization. 

The Sultan's Master of the Horse, Kaouf Pasha, 
who proffered us one of the imperial yachts, as 
well as the Governor of the Province, with Count 
Keyserlingk, received me here, whereupon we 
were very agreeably surprised by permission to 
enter the Bosphorus on board the Hertha, As it 
turned out later, we owed this to the fact that I, 
as His Majesty's representative, making a return 
visit for the Sultan's journey to Coblentz, was 
entitled to the highest consideration ; other- 
wise, according to treaty, no corvettes could pass 
the Danube, since war-ships are not allowed in 
the Bosphorus. So we went on past Gallipoli 
into the Sea of Marmora, where a fresh north- 
east breeze was blowing. 

Early on the 24th we arrived in sight of 
Constantinople, at the Princes' Island, but could 
not enter the Bosphorus before 1 o'clock, partly 
because we had to reckon that the thick fog 
that unfortunately concealed everything on this 

The Bosphonts 105 

morning would last till then, but also because the 
Sultan was to receive me first at that hour in 
the palace destined for my dwelling. 

A very edifying and brief Service took place 
on the gun-deck ; immediately after its con- 
clusion, a large steamer crammed with Germans 
arrived, who greeted me enthusiastically, and gave 
escort. We accordingly boarded the imperial 
yacht, and entered Stambul, escorted by the 
Hertha, GrilUy and Delphin. The fog slowly 
lifted, but the air was cold, and we agreed among 
ourselves that we had really expected more from 
the approach. 

Passing the old Serai point, the magnificent 
panorama unrolled before us in greater and 
greater splendour at every splash of the waves, 
while the guns saluted from all sides, and 
the shouts of the men on the rigging was 
audible. Thus we passed the Sultan's residence, 
" Dolmabagdsche^'' leaving the Golden Horn to our 
left, and steered toward the Beylerbey Palace 
built by the late Sultan, and kept up in the 
Kenaissance-Corinthian style. Directly we had 
anchored, the Grand- Vizier, Ali Pasha, and the 
Turkish Ambassador to Berlin, Aristarchi Bey, 
came on board to greet me, and conduct me in 
a gilded caique to the steps of the aforesaid palace. 

io6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Here stood the Sultan in the open air, in 
an embroidered uniform, adorned with the Order 
of the Black Eagle, surrounded by the picturesque 
and rainbow-garbed officers of his body-guard, 
who are selected from among the many popula- 
tions that own his sway. A band of music 
played the Borussia of Spontini, and a company 
of Infantry was posted as a Guard of Honour. The 
Sultan gave me his hand, and we passed silently 
through the rows of bowing officials, all making 
the well-known salaamiy into the interior of the 

Beylerbey is constructed with an indescribable 
profusion of space, colour, and costly ornament ; 
every conceivable manner is employed here, so 
that the eye nowhere finds a resting-point, but 
sees before it a constant dazzle of many-coloured 
splendour. In one of the countless saloons, and 
in front of the porcelain portrait-vase presented 
by our King to the Sultan, the latter took his 
place, and invited Louis and myself to seat our- 
selves, while the Grand- Vizier acted as inter- 
preter. During his inquiries after my parents, 
the Sultan mentioned his visit to Coblentz with 
evident pleasure, and I heard many times that 
he particularly liked to think of that reception. 

After the Sultan had left us, with the same 

Constantinople 107 

formalities with which we had been received, he 
got into a charming caique, decorated with 
gilding, and served by two oarsmen ; opposite to 
him sat two Adjutants, who remained immovable, 
bowed, and with crossed arms, their eyes cast 

Soon after we went to Dolmabagdsche (in Ger- 
man something like '^ cabbage-leaf") to pay our re- 
spects to the Sultan. The sun had now penetrated 
through the mists in full splendour, so that we 
could at last admire the picturesque aspect of 
the shores and cities of the Bosphorus in their 
splendid amphitheatre-like succession. 

The Grand- Siguier's residence is quite European 
in its tenue^ and consists in a series of palaces of 
different sizes, which are built in a sort of Louis 
XIV. style, with many-pillared halls, but with 
no trace of Oriental magnificence. Within, the 
halls, as in Beylerbey, are extraordinarily spacious, 
and magnificent of their kind. Here the order 
of the reception was repeated; the Sultan stood 
at the threshold of the palace when we left the 

We used the rest of the daylight to make 
excursions in a little steamer on the sweet Asiatic 
waters ; then came a dinner, served French- 
fashion, illuminated by hundreds of wax-lights in 

io8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

every room, after which the imperial stables 
belonging to Beylerbey were shown us by gas- 
light. The internal arrangements are so wonder- 
fully contrived with the application of all the 
latest Anglo-French inventions, that one could 
easily live there one's self. The moon now shone 
out in a cloudless sky ; well-conducted European 
music was heard; while we wandered in the air 
on the terraces, and admired the Kiosk, with its 
many stories, shining in the light of tapers. 

At length a caique-ride in the moonlight brought 
the close of this richly occupied day, which had 
seemed to me like an Oriental dream ! 

Constantinople^ October 26 to 29, 1869. 

I have now explored Constantinople on every 
side, sometimes on horseback, sometimes on foot, 
but more especially in the twelve-oared caique, 
and favoured throughout by magnificent weather. 
My constant companion was the very learned, 
clever, and meritorious scholar. Dr. G. Busch, 
Dragoman to our Embassy, who is a master of 
the Turkish language, and whose local knowledge 
is comprehensive. 

To the man who is permitted to enjoy the 
splendours presented by the Bosphorus in peace 

Constantinople 109 

and tranquillity, the view from Constantinople, 
from the entrance at the Serai point to the 
opening into the Black Sea is one of the most 
magnificent pictures to be found upon this earth. 

From without, the great Mosques only present 
the aspect of wide whitewashed buildings, rich 
in cupolas ; their slender minarets, however, are 
exceedingly pretty, and give the chief charac- 
teristic of these Oriental cities. Aja Sofia still 
presents internally the appearance of a splendid 
Christian basilica, along with an inconceivable 
wealth of costly marble, and mosaics to any 
extent. On entering, I felt myself overwhelmed 
by this magnificent wonder of architecture. 

The Mohammedan Mosques have nothing pecu- 
liar inside, and seem to be a mixture of the Oriental 
and European rococo-styles. Everywhere in the 
entrance halls are little saloons with comfortable 
cushions, and invitation is not lacking to make 
one's self comfortable there. The invariably 
latticed upper-galleries, designed for the exclusive 
use of the Sultan, are similarly fitted. I assisted 
in comfort from one such, at the exegetical dis- 
course of an Ulema ; clad in white, his feet cross- 
wise on a divan, and a little marqueterie-table in 
front of him, he spoke quite naturally and without 
emphasis to his hearers. The elder among them, 

no Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

who were all attired in the old Turkish fashion, 
listened devoutly ; the modern youths, on the 
contrary, looked curiously at each other. 

The remains of the old Sultans' residence, 
situated on the beautiful Serai point, with its 
wealth of cypresses, present a quantity of histori- 
cally interesting fragments of walls. 

A single kiosk among the many here has pre- 
served the pure and charming Oriental taste, even 
to its least details ; and as it affords a splendid 
view over the Bosphorus, the Islands of the 
Princes, and the Sea of Marmora, this otherwise 
little-regarded spot of earth has made a deep 
impression on me. The kiosk in which the Sultans 
formerly gave audience to the foreign envoys is 
interesting; but one must not expect anything 
magnificent, for it contains nothing but a small 
dark saloon, in one corner of which, exactly 
opposite the visitor, is an old covered divan, 
adorned with a metal gilded baldachin, all set 
with turquoises and other precious stones : that 
is all. Nor do the now empty courts present 
anything remarkable, while they remind one 
forcibly of the European cloisters. 

In considering the landscape of the Bos- 
phorus, the eye everywhere falls upon what seem 
to be enormous palaces ; a nearer inspection, 

Constantinople 1 1 1 

however, invariably reveals them to be barracks, 
which, from their great extent and strikingly 
beautiful situation, are a real ornament to the 
neighbourhood. Nor are the actual residences 
of the aristocracy less effective. Along with these 
are the imperial country-houses, called Kiosks, 
whose name is legion. 

The Imperial Stables are very well kept, and 
have recently been thoroughly rebuilt. The 
coach-houses contain some ancient gilded coaches, 
otherwise only European carriages. 

As regards the troops, I saw twelve Battalions, 
one Cavalry regiment, and two Artillery regiments. 
The uniform, which was formerly European, has 
during the reign of the present Sultan been 
imitated from that of the French Zouaves. These, 
again, are known to have borrowed their uniform 
from the old Turkish pattern. The result is 
strikingly beautiful, and looks very martial; the 
artillery, as regards arms, material, and regula- 
tions, is remarkably like our own. The Cavalry 
garrisoned here are drawn from the much-discussed, 
exiled Eussian Tcherkesses, who have retained 
their national costume. 

During a four-hour ride all round Constanti- 
nople, we came upon the old Byzantine city-walls, 
which are still in preservation, along with the 

1 1 2 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

breech through which the Turks forced their 
entrance under Mahomet II. in the conquest of 
1453, when the Emperor Constantine IX. fell. 
The way led past the great cemetery. Later, we 
came upon sundry quarters of the city, rigidly 
separated from each other according to their 
creeds, in which it was quite apparent how thinly 
populated were the Mohammedan, in comparison 
with the Christian and Jewish quarters. 

The palaces of the Foreign Embassies make 
a striking effect, while several Legations from 
smaller states have recently established them- 
selves also in pretty buildings. 

I received the Corps Diplomatique officially, 
and thus made the acquaintance of the amiable 
English Ambassador, Mr. Elliot ; the Eussian 
General Ignatieff was already known to me from 
former years. The Persian Ambassador was so 
captivated by the Prussians that he sent me a 
costly Persian carpet on the day after the Kecep- 
tion, for which I had of course at once to make 
him a return present; and he then invested the 
officer who took it, and the midshipman from 
the Hertha who accompanied him, with Persian 

Yesterday the Emperor of Austria arrived from 
Varna ; the Hertha was the first ship that saluted 

Constantinople 1 1 3 

him. Immediately after the salute of ^^ Hertha 
came the thunder of the land-batteries, and of 
the ships lying in the Bosphorus. When, with 
Louis, I visited the Kaiser, he expressed himself 
with much satisfaction as to his first impressions. 

As the Sultan allotted him the state-rooms 
in the Dolmabagdsche for his abode, the former 
himself withdrew into the Seraglio. Here, accord- 
ingly, the Grand- Siguier received me for the 
farewell visit. 

The day before yesterday the Sultan drove 
with us and with Prince Amadeo of Italy to a 
kiosk, situated high above the Bosphorus, with 
a glorious view. I was with him and Raouf 
Pasha, his Master of Horse, in a carriage, and 
the conversation flowed cheerily; then we got 
on our horses, and rode, seated on over-richly 
decorated velvet housings, through new scenes to 
another kiosk, for a breakfast in which all my 
suite participated; then we again took horse; 
till we finally parted from the Sultan in the 
charming valley of the ** Sweet Waters of 
Europe." Here we found richly decorated 
caiques waiting for us, which we boarded, to 
traverse the entire Golden Horn, favoured by 
the most beautiful evening sunshine. Steamers, 
caiques, war-ships, and traders of all kinds were 

114 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

crossing to and fro, decked with the gayest 
fashions of the East, and manned most pic- 
turesquely. On the whole, it must be said that 
the dense population in these countries presents 
a cheerful aspect, because even where the national 
costume does not predominate, the red head- 
coverings, known as the ^Uarhush'' or fez, which 
are worn by all the Faithful, suffice to bring 
variety into the crowds of people, while with us 
nothing but black hats or dark caps are en evidence. 
The Sultan's Friday ride to the Mosques 
to-day was exceptionally charming; because on 
this occasion the mass of spectators, apart from 
the above-mentioned gay crowd, was augmented 
by a large number of women, who, clad in flaring 
colours, and wrapt in quite thin veils, had taken 
up their station under the old plane trees, exactly 
opposite the windows allotted to us as spectators. 
The Sultan's son, Izzedin-Effendi, who has grown 
a great deal since 1867, stood at the head of his 
regiment, which formed the Guard of Honour 
for to-day's function ! Apparently a new custom 
in consequence of the Grand- Siguier's visit to 
Europe! The Grand-Signior himself wore un- 
dress uniform, over which was a kind of long 
paletot, rode a mare, and replied to none of the 
greetings made to him, this being the etiquette. 



Only when he perceived the Emperor of Austria 
and myself at the window did he greet us curtly, 
in military fashion. 

Yesterday I visited the barracks at Scutari, 
where I was able to acquaint myself thoroughly 
with the clothing and provisioning, and was 
astonished to find that a kind of cherry soup, 
with ^^;pillaw,'' containing a great deal of sugar, 
was given as the principal meal. Sixty men slept 
in one place, which is fitted round with a wooden 
shelf, on which man by man arranges himself with 
his blanket and mattress: a grey woollen cloak 
was worn at the upper edge of the knapsack, and 
this also served as the dress in Quarters. The 
married men could not take their families into 
barracks, and were only permitted to visit them 

Not the least part of my pleasure in my stay 
at Stambul was owing to the way in which 
our thoughtful and highly cultivated Premier 
Dragoman, Dr. Busch, knew how to conduct 
us. He speaks Turkish quite fluently, having 
originally learned it only for the sake of his 
scientific studies, and is now the life of the 
Embassy. The whole conduct of business de- 
pends, as is known, exclusively upon the relations 
of the Dragoman with the Grand- Vizier, to whom 

ii6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the former repairs as much and as often as the 
ambassadors in Europe to the Foreign Ministers. 
Consequently everything depends on the per- 
sonality of the interpreter, who, if he be a cultured 
European, can certainly make greater claim to 
reliability than if one has to trust to the natives, 
as was formerly the case. Busch was extra- 
ordinarily active over the Jerusalem expedition, 
and also took the lead as regards all my goings 
and comings, since he is well acquainted with 
city, country, and people. 

Among the Turkish officials and officers I met 
countrymen who left the Prussian military ser- 
vice many years ago for that of the Porte, and 
have notably been of great use to the artillery. 

Aristarchi-Bey, the amiable Ambassador from 
the Porte to our own Court, accompanied us 
daily, and always occupied himself to the utmost 
in making himself useful. 

Each time I crossed the threshold of my 
palace, I found a Guard of Honour, with a band 
of music sixty strong, who struck up, Keil 
Dir^ etc. 

Our Evangelico-German institutions are small, 
but well conducted; the Hospital, managed by 
the Eaiserswerth Sisters, is self-supporting, and 
very well organized by the Superior. 

Tttrkish Cttisine 


The Chapel, which stands under the wing of 
our Embassy, is not large, and is very simple. 
An Altar Bible was presented to it by the late 
King. The present minister, Herr Hulsen, was 
formerly Divisions-Prediger in Berlin. The school 
is very full, and Greek and Armenian children are 
educated there along with the Germans. Among 
our countrymen who were presented to me here, 
I found many from Coblentz. An Armenian 
sect, which long since became evangelical, and 
is directed by a ^^Yekil''' and Superintendent 
who were a long time in America, and speak 
English, makes use of our church for its 

Turkish dishes were freely mixed with the other- 
wise entirely French cuisine. Mostly, however, 
they seemed to me to be too sweet, as well as 
too fat. On the other hand, I enjoyed the Turkish 
coffee, the ^^ pillaw,'" and the roast collops of 
mutton called ^^ clehah,'" It goes without saying 
that we smoked industriously, since one cannot 
pay a visit, nor even enter the barracks, without 
at once being invited to sit down, to drink coffee, 
and to smoke. At my own house, too, when the 
Emperor of Austria came to visit me, the Turkish 
servants at once appeared with the paraphernalia 
for smoking, and everything pertaining, so that 

ii8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

we at any rate flavoured our discourse, which, 
as in Vienna, was kept away from politics. 

On Board KM. Corvette " Hertlia " off Con- 
stantinople, October 29, 1869. 

We have just weighed anchor, and seen 
Stambul vanish quickly in the evening mists; 
the weather seems to be turning to rain, as 
if it had kept fine until our departure for Jeru- 
salem. All the forcible impressions I have re- 
ceived here are chasing through my brain, and 
I think with grateful recollections of the splendid 
and abundant enjoyment which we have had 

The Sultan gave each one of us the impression 
that he was pleased with our visit. The initiated 
had seldom seen him so contented and in such 
persistent good temper as in the hours in which 
he held intercourse with us ; and, after all, that 
is saying something, when one reflects on the 
difficulties of conversation with him through the 
medium of an interpreter only. He has deco- 
rated all the gentlemen of my Suite, as well as 
the superior naval officers, and even my valet; 
and has done the same for all the personnel of 
the Embassy, so that Keyserlingk is making his 
debut with the Grand Cordon. 

Negotiations between Saltan and King 1 19 

I am curious to see what comes out of the 
impulse to progress in the European sense, in 
Turkey, to which even the Sultan is not opposed. 

I am rejoiced that I have succeeded in ful- 
filling the wishes of our King, by obtaining from 
the Sultan a site in Jerusalem, that once belonged 
to the Order of St. John, as a gift for evangelical 
objects. The Grand- Vizier was much surprised 
when I proposed this to him, as it had till then 
been kept very dark; but thanks to his and the 
Sultan's willingness to do a kindness to our King, 
and also to the exertions of Dr. Busch, the affair 
came off. We managed, during the five days 
of my stay in Constantinople, to bring the neces- 
sary negotiations to an end. We succeeded in 
getting telegraphic orders sent off to the Pasha 
of Jerusalem, in re direct negotiations with our 
Consul there, and finally Ali Pasha drew up 
in my palace a sort of ^^ firman^'' by which I 
was confirmed in the transfer of the aforesaid 
bit of ground. 

Aboard H.M. Corvette '^ Hertha'' between Rhodes 
and the Coast of Palestine, October 30 ^0 No- 
vember 1, 1869. 

We have already been floating three days 
upon the high seas, sometimes delayed by the 

1 20 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

south-east wind, as we are steering right in the 
wind's eye, and yet, till now at any rate, unhe- 
rufen, in no wise the worse. To-day the sea 
is actually calm, which seems to us wonderful, 
and we hope that it will remain the same till 
our anticipated landing in Jaffa at daybreak on 
the 3rd, for with west or north wind the landing 
on this harbourless coast is impracticable. 

Yesterday we surveyed the entire length of 
Khodes, passing for hours along the picturesque 
and jagged island, but unfortunately making the 
harbour at nightfall only, so that we could form 
no clear picture of that once important place, 
now reduced to a heap of ruins by earthquakes 
and powder explosions. Since the weather was 
favourable we were advised to push on imme- 
diately; and accordingly we sailed, seeing the 
cypress coasts only in the far distance, towards 
the Promised Land, — bathed in a real July heat, 
that makes writing particularly diJQBicult. 

Our arrangements on board are excellent, and 
every one is cheerful and in good spirits. My 
cabin, **No. 8," is convenient, although I have 
the screw as my immediate neighbour. On the 
other side of it are the general saloon and the 
library. My brother-in-law Louis has the cabin 
next the dining-saloon, on the starboard side. 

Arrival at Jerusalem 1 2 1 

Count Eulenburg's arrangements for the journey, 
as well as, more particularly, for our life on 
board ship, testify anew to his qualifications for 
his post. Most of my companions, who are 
making their first voyage, have so far found the 
swaying element very comfortable ; each, however, 
is anxiously expecting to experience the reverse 
side of this satisfaction before long. 

The days on board afford a welcome rest 
after the fatigues of Stambul, and are par- 
ticularly well adapted for writing down one's 
impressions, for which there was little time on 
dry land. 

Jerusalem, November 4 ^0 9, 1869. 

If I were to attempt in this, the most sacred 
spot of the whole world, to express how deeply 
I am moved at the thought of being in Jeru- 
salem, I should endeavour too much. Each 
must come here for hiniself, for himself live 
through the great disillusioning that attends on 
the first view, and the entrance into the City, 
and for himself at last achieve the deep inward 
peace that comes when calm contemplation and 
reflection have obtained the upper hand, and 
enable one to gi-asp it. 

122 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

It will be the happiness of my entire life 
to have walked in the places in which Jesus 
Christ lived, the places in which His foot has 
trod, to have seen the mountains and the waters 
on which His eye rested daily. This, above all, 
of the Mount of Olives, and Gethsemane with 
the Brook Kedron, as well as the wild rock shores 
of the Dead Sea, with the Valley of the Jordan, 
and the country round Bethlehem. These places 
have undoubtedly retained their original cha- 
racter of landscape and geological formation, and 
they may be viewed as witnesses to the actions, 
teaching, and sufferings of our Saviour, since 
by good fortune no human hand has violated the 
scene, and no religious zeal has presumed to 
replace by buildings what can only keep its 
historical character in the simple growths of 
nature. In contrast to this the *'Holy Sites'' 
have been disfigured and defaced. 

The profound and pious feeling with which 
one approaches the Holy Sepulchre is repulsed 
when one learns from the Greek and Latin 
monks at the entrance to the church, that this 
portion or that stone belongs to the one or the 
other Confession, and that accordingly one must 
first come in this direction, next go in that. 

On entering the great Eotunda, in whose 

The ''Holy Sites'' 123 

midst is the space, now covered over with a 
chapel, that goes by the name of the Saviour's 
Tomb, one at first sees nothing in fi'ont of one 
but a dark and narrow little hall. From this 
the pilgrim proceeds through an opening only 
three feet high to a little chapel, inlaid with 
marble slabs, in which four men could hardly 
stand, and in which is an oblong altar. The 
altar-slab itseK, also of marble, covers the space 
hewn in the rock, in which the Saviour rested, 
so that one is actually at the place of the grave, 
but the hollow in the rock is not visible. The 
monks, for fear the pilgrims should break off too 
many souvenirs in their piety, or by degrees should 
kiss away too much of the rock, prefer that the 
visitor should see no more. If one is next 
taken to Golgotha, there is absolutely nothing 
to be seen. To reach it one must pass from 
the Rotunda of the Sepulchre through the 
Greek church immediately adjacent to it, climb 
up many dark stairs, and then penetrate into 
a chapel illuminated only by lamps. Here a 
monk lifts up a cover under the altar, and 
exhibits a hole in the marble slab below, 
through which a little depression in the rock 
is visible, in which the Saviour's cross is said 
to have been erected. An oval opening in the 

124 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

rock is shown as the cleft that opened in the 
ground at the instant that our Lord expired. 
The visitor can distinguish nothing in the pre- 
vailing darkness, and can hardly see down with 
the help of wax tapers. 

The richest compensation awaits the ascent 
of the Mount of Olives, after one has crossed 
the dried torrent-bed of the Brook Kedron and 
looked into the Valley of Jehoshaphat. I reached 
the summit of Olivet shortly before sunset, and 
took up my station so that the whole extent 
of the city of Jerusalem, following the gradual 
dip of the Kedron, was unrolled before me, 
while on the opposite side the singularly beau- 
tiful formation of the rocky walls of the Dead 
Sea was to be seen, mirrored in the water, 
with a portion of the Valley of the Jordan 
in its attractive grandeur. The rays of the 
setting sun lit up the city and the bare, grey, 
desolate mountains that lie round about Jeru- 
salem, with a golden-red, so that life and warmth 
seemed suddenly to have come into the land- 
scape. At the same moment the rocky walls 
of the Dead Sea, which remind me vividly of 
Loch Muick in Scotland, took on that glow 
from the evening sun, which always gives a 
special glamour to the mountains, and the waves 

The Motmt of Olives 125 

shimmered every minute in brighter light ! Now 
for the first time I was able to picture the 
Saviour, as He tarried here and let His eyes 
rest in compassion on these plains and buildings, 
as He pitied their inhabitants, in that they would 
not hear at the right time the things pertaining 
to their peace. 

Every stranger should go first to the Mount of 
Olives at the time when the sun is declining, and 
then tarry an instant under the ancient trees of 
Gethsemane, which may not improbably have been 
contemporaneous with our Lord, seeing that olive 
trees grow very slowly, and are fabulously old. 
The monks have here laid out little gardens, in 
which each Confession points to its own as the 
true scene of the Passion ; speaking generally, 
the bare declivity presents no attractions. 
Close by, the Capuchins show the Tomb of the 
Virgin, and the Cave in which the Saviour sweated 
blood, where, however, a part of the rock has been 
removed, " to give the altar a better position " ! 

Never in all my life shall I forget this first 
evening in Jerusalem, where I watched the setting 
sun from the Mount of Oliyes, while nature fell 
into that great silence which has always some- 
thing of solemnity, even in other places. Here the 
soul could detach itself from earth, and plunge 

126 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

uninterruptedly into the thoughts by which each 
Christian is inwardly moved, when he considers 
the great work of salvation, that here fulfilled 
its sublimest issues. The reading over of one's 
favourite passages in the Gospels in such a spot 
is in itself a religious service. 

We paid yet another visit to the empty Church 
of the Sepulchre in the twilight, in the glimmer of 
the few lamps. I always like to see churches thus 
in the late evening hours with subdued light, and 
this unique House of God was wondrously to my 
liking, although it failed to call up any of the 
sensations I experienced on the Mount of Olives. 

So far I have only pursued my feelings, and 
have given free rein to my fancy, but must now 
come back to things positive, and continue my 
descriptions. And here let me say once for all 
that I never have more than a few minutes for 
writing, and can perceive accordingly, to my own 
annoyance, how desultory my style will generally 
be. But on a hurried journey, touching at all the 
most interesting points of the world, one naturally 
stays little in one's room, and can therefore devote 
little time to the writing-table. 

When, after a favourable passage of five days, 
in which we were only delayed a little by the south 
wind, we approached the coast of Palestine, every 

Jaffa 127 

one looked eagerly towards the Promised Land. 
Yet the yellow shores afforded little that was 
beautiful ; it was only after rowing in the pinnace 
safely through the very dangerous cliffs that 
enclose the harbour, and reaching the shore, that 
we attained the satisfactory feeling of being really 
in the East. I had the same sensation in Jaffa, 
as in 1862 at Tunis, that everything here was 
different from Europe. 

We were received by our Consul-General, Herr 
von Alten, and by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and 
by Kiamil-Pasha, the Governor of the Province, 
and lastly by the band of the Guard of Honour, 
surrounded by innumerable gaily-clad Arabs, 
Greeks, and Jews, and we immediately mounted 
our horses. First came two standard-bearers with 
the Prussian and North-German Colours ; then the 
escort of Turkish Cavalry and Bashi-Bazuks ; 
next thirty men of our naval battalion under the 
command of Lieutenant Kutzen, also mounted; 
and finally, our whole company on high steeds, 
with the addition of the ship's surgeon, and ship's 
chaplain — the baggage on mules. After a short 
rest in the colony of a Wurtemberg sect under the 
direction of the brother of Hof-prediger Hoffman, 
we went in the burning heat, through the famous^ 
orange-gardens of Jaffa, towards the mountains of 

128 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Judaea. As soon as we had left the environs of the 
town, the already scanty vegetation became more 
sparse ; the villages looked poverty-stricken ; the 
inhabitants, nevertheless, bore themselves with 
picturesque pride, the dark Syrian contrasting 
with the browner Arab and the shining Moor. 
One was particularly struck with the many camels 
used as pack-animals, which grunted at the 
traveller, with their morose and flouting faces. 
The inhabitants, who greeted me in gay caftans of 
flaring colours, made a very pretty effect. During 
the ride the Bashi-Bazuks executed a sham 
fight, called a '^ fantasieh,'^ for us, while we 
allowed our horses to try every method of pro- 
gression in turn, as was permissible on this road, 
which had indeed been mended, but still re- 
sembled a freshly -laid chaussee; and so reached our 
tent-camp at Bab -el- Wad, at the entrance to 
the mountains, where we spent the night. 

On November 4, we departed at sunrise from 
our very comfortable tents in the land of the 
Philistines. For hours we cHmbed the steep rock 
valleys, here and there perceiving the remains of 
Christian churches ; then to Abu-Ghosh, whence 
David once fetched the ark of the covenant, the 
place still bearing the name of Kirjath-Jearim. 

An hour from Jerusalem we were met by the 

Route to Jerusale7Ji 1 29 

Germans of that town, all on horseback, and led 
by the evangelical Pastor Hoffman, son of the 
General Superintendent, and Court Chaplain at 
Berlin. During a short halt we put on our 
uniforms, I that of the Dragoons, and then, con- 
versing with our countrymen, most of whom were 
Wurtembergers, we climbed the last steep hill, 
whence one catches the first view of Jerusalem. 
The Greek Bishop first advanced to meet us, in 
the name of the Patriarch, then the Jewish re- 
presentative ; meantime our advance-commando of 
marines had fallen in, saluted, and received me 
with cheers — certainly the first military salute of 
this kind in the Holy City — and still no Jerusalem, 
only a vast tent, surrounded by a number of men 
from the Turkish Watch, and teeming with a 
multitude of strange uniforms. 

Here began the presentation of the English 
ecclesiastics, the Patriarchs, Roman prelates, 
Consuls (among them Count Potocki !), monks, and 
priests. At last I escaped, and mounted my horse 
again, and, hoping now at last to see Jerusalem in 
peace, attempted to withdraw from the crowd, by 
attaching myself closely to our own soldiers, who 
were marching immediately in front of me. 

It was touching to see the joy of the 
Deaconesses from Kaiserswerth, who are attached 


130 Diaries of the E^nperor Frederick 

to the only Institution here for nursing and teach- 
ing, and who all shook hands with me in their joy 
at once more seeing their countrymen; at their 
head was Fraulein Charlotte Pilz, whose beneficent 
influence I had long heard well spoken of. 

Finally, I asked our Consul, von Alton, if we 
should not soon be able to see Jerusalem. "It 
has been before you for a long time," was the 
reply. That is to say, the splendid Eussian 
monastic hospital, and cathedral-like church be- 
longing to it, are so placed that they and their 
buildings hide every glimpse of the town from 
us, and one can only see a minaret and a few 
walls. Thick masses of dust whirled up from the 
feet of the countless inhabitants running after 
us, to increase the sweltering midday heat, while 
the road wound downwards, and still I could see 
no city, but only walls ; so at last we came down 
to the Damascus Gate, in the vicinity of which 
Godfrey of Bouillon undertook his victorious 
siege, and through which no Christian Prince 
had hitherto been allowed to enter. At last we 
passed inside the town. But here the narrowness 
of the streets made any view impossible. Finally 
we came by winding streets to the door of the 
Church of the Sepulchre, by which, along with 
our attendants and the marines, we entered the 

The ''Mosque of Omar'' 131 

sanctuary. The Greek clergy received me in 
rich festal vestments, with lights, and incense, 
and consecrated rose-water, and led me to the 
Holy Places. 

Our dwelling is pleasantly situated, half in 
the evangehcal Hospice of St. John, and half 
in the Consulate, which is connected with the 
latter by a little garden and platform, inhabited 
by Herr von Alten, looking straight across to 
the Mount of Olives. All the houses are vaulted 
inside, with flat roofs outside, and fairly good 
arrangements for ventilation. The water for 
drinking and washing comes exclusively from 
the cisterns, but is always cold in the morning, 
because the nights get very cool after midnight. 

The afternoon was employed in visiting the 
so-called '* Mosque of Omar" on the Haram, the 
site once occupied by the Temple of Solomon, 
and the precincts belonging to the latter. Two 
very amiable Mullahs acted as guides, and must 
already have had a great deal to do with Ger- 
mans, for they several times attempted to repeat 
words which we eyentually traced to the German 
language ; in particular, there was one expression, 
^^ ainstain,^ which we eventually discovered to 
mean *' ein Stein " (a stone). The mosque is 
externally very attractive, from its wealth of 

132 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

exquisite coloured porcelain tiles; inside, a great 
rock projects from the ground — one of the original 
foundations of the Jewish Temple, which also 
played a part in the time of Mohammed. 

At dinner the Armenian Patriarch (who does 
not know a word of French, but is most amiably 
disposed towards Germany) made his appearance, 
along with several of the Germans who live here, 
and some Pashas. 

A serenade, with the presentation of an address 
from the Germans and Jewish inhabitants, brought 
the day to a close. 

On November 5 we rode across the mountains 
to Hebron, accompanied by Kiamil-Pasha and 
Dr. Sandretzky from Bavaria, an archaeologist 
living here. Not far from Bethlehem the road 
went by EachePs grave; it soon became one 
of the roughest I have ever seen, for we had 
to ride over smooth slopes of rock, then again 
over interminable loose rolling stones, so that 
I feared every minute that my little Barbary 
steed would lose his footing. But these clever, 
tough little animals know no difficulties, and 
never even stumble. So we went for six hours 
uninterruptedly through the bald wild mountains 
of Judaea : we seldom saw a bush, and only twice 
a spring. About a mile on this side of the place, 

Hebron and Bethlehem 133 

the authorities received us on horseback, and gave 
us a lead. Hebron is the well-known Abrahamitic 
place of the Scriptures to this day ; the mosque, 
which has little worthy of notice in itself, con- 
tains the graves of Abraham, Sarah, Jacob, Leah, 
and Joseph — the cenotaphs, with rich hangings, 
standing inside the building, while the bones that 
have never yet been disturbed rest far below in 
untrodden sepulchres. The pristine fertility of 
the land, and its wealth of trees, have long since 
disappeared ; only two ' oak-trees ' are pointed 
out as contemporaneous with the Patriarchs, and 
are not far from the site of the former grove of 
Mamre. Memories of the Biblical teaching of my 
childhood, imparted by my first and venerated 
teacher Godet, surged up on beholding the places 
of which I had so often seen the names — how 
he would have loved to accompany me to the 
Promised Land ! 

Our night-quarters were in tents at the great 
mountain reservoir of Solomon, from which 
Jerusalem is supplied with fresh mountain water 
by means of conduits. 

On November 6 we visited Bethlehem and 
the Birthplace of the Saviour. This was shown 
to us in the hollow of a rock, between the spaces 
occupied by the church and cloister. 

134 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

A ride round the walls of Jerusalem, which 
led us past the Place of Wailing and the colossal 
corner-stones of the Temple, with visits to the 
evangelical German and English institutions, 
ended the day, the evening of which, however, 
I spent quite quietly by myself on the Mount 
of Olives. 

Our marines went everywhere to see the sights, 
and no one can imagine how strange it seemed 
to me to see our men promenading in this place, 
just as one is used to seeing them in the garrison 
or barracks when their duty is over. 

Sunday, the 7th, I went alone to the Lord's 
Supper in the sacristy of the Enghsh church, 
where they were holding the German service. 

At midday, in the presence of the evangeHcal 
community, as well as of Kiamil Pasha, and our 
own marines, I solemnly took possession, in the 
name of our King, of the ruins of the former 
Hospice of St. John, and the Church belonging 
to it. An armorial eagle that had been painted 
on board was fixed up to the beautiful door, which 
is still in good preservation, and the Prussian 
standard was planted on the highest point, while 
we gave three cheers for our King.* 

* The words with which the Crown Prince completed the occupation 
ran: "In the Name of His Majesty, I hereby take possession of the 

Deparhtre from Jentsalem 135 

In the afternoon we left Jerusalem by the 
same way as we had come, visiting a few re- 
maining institutions outside the gates. These 
were a girls' school, named Talitha-Cumi, which 
is under the direction of the brave Deaconess 
Charlotte Pilz, and is splendidly managed; also 
the boys' orphanage, established by Herr Schneller 
out of his private means, and by voluntary con- 
tributions, for the survivors of the massacre from 
the Christian community in 1860. 

Our night's quarters were again at Bab-el- 
WHd, under canvas. Through the careful and 
practical arrangements of a fellow-countryman 
of the name of Thiel, from the Ehine Provinces, 
who has been many years in Jerusalem, every- 
thing here, as at each place where our caravans 
have stopped, was splendidly managed. Early 
the next morning we rode to Jaffa, and at the 
entrance to that place met the Emperor of 
Austria, who had just landed with his large 
retinue ; after a brief but hearty greeting, I 
betook myself to the Greek Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, who was still waiting here, and at his 

ancient church of the S. John's Hospitallers, of all the ruins of the same, 
above and beneath the earth, and of all other remains of structures 
pertaining to the same above and under the earth. Long live His 
Majesty the King, Hoch ! Hoch ! Hoch ! " {Die Anwerenheit des Kron- 
prinzer von Preussen in Paldstina. By a South-German. Berlin, 1870.) 

136 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

wish discussed the cession of some property next 
to the St. John's land, belonging to his church. 
We soon signed a protocol, by which the pos- 
sessions of our King in Jerusalem can be still 
further increased. 

Amid heavy breakers we went on board the 
Hertha at midday, and weighed anchor for Beyrut, 
which we reached in the morning twilight of 
November 9, and were greeted by the corvette 
Elizabeth, which I at once inspected. 

BeyrM, November 9 and 10, 1869. 

We had a remarkably remunerative and in- 
teresting time in Syria; our journey took us 
from the romantically situated Beyrut (which 
was reached in a twelve-hour voyage from Jaffa) 
directly into the remotest valleys of Lebanon, and 
then again at Damascus showed us one of the 
" Pearls " of all the Oriental cities ; while the ruins 
of Baalbec — once called Heliopolis — presented the 
richest treasures of late Greek architecture. 

Beyrut has been compared with Naples, on 
account of its situation near the sea, surrounded 
by beautifully formed mountains. My admiration 
does not indeed go this length, but I wilHngly 
concede that the green gardens of its suburbs 
present a charming appearance hitherto unseen 

Beyriit and Lebanon 137 

by us in the East ; a great part of the town is 
Europeanized, or, at any rate, has a strong ad- 
mixture of ** Frankish '' ingredients ; among these, 
the Institutions conducted by the Deaconesses of 
Kaiserswerth for the education of children and 
orphans, as well as the Johanniter Hospital, 
can hold their own with the English Thompson 
school, and the French Charite. 

Most of the Sisters are from Prussia, and it 
was touching to see their delight at meeting their 
fellow-countrymen. The Sultan had ordered the 
Governor of Tripoli, Kiamil-Pasha, and a Colonel, 
to meet me here. 

On the following day we undertook an excur- 
sion into Lebanon, under the guidance of our 
Consul, Weber. At first we rode through the 
groves of orange and sweet-pine, which grow in 
rich luxuriance close to the environs, and point 
the way into the mountains by many devious 
turnings. After passing through the ravines of 
the picturesque rock mountains, through which 
at every winding of the path one sees the 
splendid blue ocean, we found, in the gradual 
upward ascent, places which have appreciated the 
presence of green in their surroundings, a thing 
we had not hitherto seen in this part of the 
world. So we went with our caravan, escorted 

138 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

by the gayest costumes, deeper and deeper into 
the savage-seeming valleys of the Libanus. The 
collective inhabitants of the places — half-Chris- 
tian Maronites, half-Mohammedan Druses — came 
towards us singing, bearing palms or green 
branches in their hands, while the women burned 
incense before me, or sprinkled me with orange- 
water. The usual greeting is, ''Allah give you 
victory ; " but, as a great proportion of those 
who met us to-day were Christian Maronites, and 
this said to me from the mouths of the Christian 
subjects of the Sultan of Turkey might have been 
inimically construed by him, instructions had 
been given previously to shout, '' Hail, Prince of 
Germany ! " 

Thus we went on nearly all day, until we met 
the Governor of Lebanon, Franco Pasha, whose 
sons had already greeted us with refreshments ; 
while a spinning school, conducted by some 
English, sang, '' God save the Queen." 

Franco Pasha is a Christian, since, according 
to treaty, there has been a governor of the 
Christian persuasion here since the blood-bath of 
1860. Beit-Eddin is the name of his lofty castle 
residence, which was the magnificent home of the 
family of the late Emir Beschir-Schehab, who 
formerly reigned here as sovereigns. 

Lebanon 139 

We had to traverse two large terraced courts, 
lying one above the other, before we dismounted 
from our horses. In the upper of these stood 
the numerous crowd of servitors in a row; a 
few of them were presented. The inside of the 
Palace is largely Oriental, and little Europeanized, 
and there is not much that is modern in the 
whole of the arrangements, so that, e,g,^ divans 
and little plaster balconies are apparent every- 

The evening sun lit up Deir-el-Kamar, the 
chief city of Lebanon, as I entered the narrow 
mountainous streets, which were filled with a 
mass of men pressed neck to neck together. Here 
again, as in the valleys, were palms and branches, 
incense and orange-water; as the women were 
mostly on the flat roofs of the houses, I found 
myself under a perpetual douche^ which indeed 
was not unpleasant after the six-hours' ride 
in the heat. Franco Pasha's Arab infantry 
looked martial in their white uniforms; no less 
so the irregular cavalry, which in the evening 
performed '^ fantasiehs " in the castle-yard by 
Bengal light. 

From the highest pinnacle of the mountain 
castle we watched the sunset, which was soon 
followed by the new moon, so that we had a 

140 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

most splendid ending to this delightful day, 
which I hold to be the most interesting of the 

Damascus, November 11, 1869. 

To-day began at 4 o'clock, in the beautiful 
hours of the morning, with a seven-hours' ride 
along steeply rising, mountainous rock paths. 
Our way was Hghted by torches until sunrise, then 
the Oriental sun burned down on our heads, making 
itself particularly obvious, until at 10 o'clock we 
reached the French posting-road to Damascus, and 
took the messagerie coach, in which we reached the 
aforesaid town at nine in the evening. The road, 
which was only built eight years ago, winds three 
times up and down the stony mountains of 
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and then cuts through 
Coele- Syria, before it reaches Damascus. 

The officials, or rich inhabitants of the place, 
who appear to be extraordinarily numerous, pre- 
sented the most charming variety, as, clad in 
every conceivable and voyant colour, they accom- 
panied us on horseback. Both yesterday and 
to-day, many Arabic documents were presented 
to me, which sometimes had the translations 
appended; the most original of all was one in 

Damascus 141 

which a gushing and bombastic enthusiast com- 
pared me to a lily ! 

All Damascus seemed, in spite of the late 
hour, to be upon its feet : all the Dignitaries, the 
Pasha at their head, met me at the Gate of the 
city. I was made to mount, and then for over half 
an hour we went along the streets and through 
the Bazaar. Torch-bearers went in front — for 
there is no gas, only here and there a modest 
oil-lamp — but an occasional triumphal arch, set 
with little lanterns, gave rather more light. The 
beautiful Arab costumes, together with the women, 
who were mostly clad entirely in white and 
wrapped in long cotton veils, made a fantastic 
effect in this illumination, more particularly in 
the vaulted halls of the Bazaar. Greek women, 
unveiled, and decked with jewels, peeped curi- 
ously down from the balconies, and showed their 
beautiful white teeth ; in all classes of the Oriental 
peoples I was struck with the clean and well-kept 

We dismounted at our quarters with a rich 
Maronite. His house was splendidly arranged, 
and rich in marble mosaics, silk, and golden 
tissues; the great court, adorned with spouting 
fountains, surrounded the reception hall and the 
scattered pavilion-like dwelling-rooms. 

142 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Amid such splendour the European misses his 
writing-table, and other simple and daily con- 
veniences, while beds and divans, on the other 
hand, are most comfortably arranged. To-day it 
was quite legitimate to crave for repose. 

Damascus, November 12, 1869. 

Our first walk was in the Bazaar ; this seems 
to me more extensive than that at Constanti- 
nople, and, especially in the goldsmiths' quarters, 
affords much more striking pictures. European 
clothes are hardly seen at all, and even the 
modern Turkish dress of the reform is not to 
be found, so that we feel ourselves in the East 
indeed! In every tiny room that can possibly 
be glorified with the name of a booth, sat Turks, 
Greeks, and Arabs, in their old national costume, 
gazing with half-cunning, half-apathetic eyes at 
the strangers, only thawing with alacrity so soon 
as there was question of a purchase. 

My attempted incognito was really preserved 
for some time; at the end of an hour, however, 
it was discovered ; the merchants then came to 
our house. Even in the most active bargain- 
ing the friendly side of hospitality is never for- 
gotten, and a tschihtk with coffee is offered by 

Damasctis 143 

every one whose department one enters. It is 
one of the dearest customs of the Oriental to 
seat himself in a shop, converse a little, and 
then again watch the crowd aimlessly. This 
was particularly the case to-day, because it was 

The mosques were very full. At our entrance 
into the Omeiyad Mosque, the former basilica of 
St. John the Baptist, which boasts to this day 
of possessing his head, the poKce soldiers who 
walked in front of us turned every one out. 
No one took this amiss ; on the contrary, most 
of the eyes were directed at our feet, to see if 
we had drawn on slippers over our shoes! As 
is well known, one must be careful, on entering 
the mosques, not to wear the foot-covering that 
has touched the pavement of the streets; so 
either one's boots come off, or one draws sHppers 
over them ! 

In the next place we paid a visit to the 
richest houses of the city, and on horseback 
visited the place where Paul, fleeing by night, 
was let down by cords; also that in which are 
the ruins of Naaman's house; and at the close 
of the day at sunset, we contemplated the really 
magnificent city from the heights. 

Damascus may be compared to a pearl set 

144 Diaries of the E^nperor Frederick 

with emeralds, for the white houses, the mosques, 
and minarets, surrounded hy a mile-wide ring of 
green groves of oranges and citrons, involuntarily 
suggest to me this image. I shall never lose 
this magic impression. 

When in the evening I returned to my quarters, 
I was suddenly asked to allow the marriage of 
the fifteen-year old daughter of the house with 
her betrothed in my presence. They had, so 
ran the message, been on the point of marrying, 
when a death in the family obliged them to put 
it off; since they could not, therefore, have any 
great festivity, they were anxious to take the 
opportunity, which was not likely to occur again, 
of celebrating their wedding in our presence. 

So of a sudden I became best man at 
an orthodox Greek wedding. The ceremonial 
reminded me of the Eussian rite, more par- 
ticularly in the use of the crown, and the taking 
of the cup of water by the bridal pair; other- 
wise the ceremony consisted exclusively in long 
prayers, without any exchange of rings, as with 
us. I stood at the right near the bridegroom, 
while his stepmother kept her left ai'm round 
the bride. Costly diamond flowers hung over 
her forehead, as over that of the bridegroom's 
mother; the dress was pale pink, with threads 

To Baalbec 145 

of gold silk worked through it ; the other women 
were more simply, but no less characteristically, 
dressed than these. The priests wore rose- 
coloured silk vestments, stitched with gold flowers, 
seemingly of the same cut as those of the 
Eussian Popes ; the whole assemblage held 
candles in their hand, the wedded pair alone 

BaalheCy November 13, 1869. 

On the next day, at three in the morning, we 
rode out of Damascus, accompanied by the whole 

At the gate we mounted the diligence, to go 
to Baalbec. At the place called Shtaura, we 
got on our horses at 10 o'clock, and rode for 
five hours over the plain of the Becka'a, which 
has been used from all time as the highway to 
Heliopolis by the hordes of ^ Heathen, Crusading, 
and Muslim peoples who have passed through 
Syria. We were surrounded by several hundreds 
of mounted Arabs, who performed continuous 
^^ fantcLsiehs,'' and thereby covered us well with 

In Baalbec, or Heliopolis, are the ruins of the 
Temple of Zeus (which date from the late G-reek 

146 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

period), as well as those of the Sun-God, the 
destruction of which was due rather to an earth- 
quake than to the ravages that are unfortunately 
too common here. The decoration is already 
overdone, but the material and its application 
are still treated with the same exactitude as in 
the Golden Age of Art. Arabs, Turks, and Kurds 
all use the ruins to build fortresses with ; in spite 
of all, however, eight majestic columns still carry 
their entablature, and the old foundations are 
yet standing with their corner-stones of over 
forty feet in length, bidding defiance to de- 

A splendid sunset enhanced the aspect of the 
ruins, whilst remarkably good beds a£forded us 
a welcome night's rest. 

On November 14 we rode back by the same 
way that we had come, took the diligence again, 
and reached Beyrut in the afternoon. At the 
boundary of the city we were surprised to see 
Franco Pasha, who entertained us as his guests 
in a large tent, surrounded by his sons, by many 
officers, and his picturesque escort. 

I forgot to say that both yesterday and 
to-day we were entertained en route by an escort 
of camel-cavalry, which had the strangest effect. 
Each pair of soldiers sat one behind the other 

Off Port Sa'td 147 

on a kind of saddle, which was buckled on to 
the hump, and supported themselves in loading 
their arms. Instead of the bridle-rein, a rope 
went over the bumptious and ill-tempered nose 
of the animal, which always gives a sullen grunt 
when it has to kneel down or stand up again. 
Several regular evolutions were executed with 
remarkable precision, and the trot was fairly 

Port Sa'id, November 16, 1869. 

We are lying here in the new harbour of 
Port Sa'id, which is at the mouth of the Suez 
Canal. Attempts at writing, on the way between 
this and Beyrut, had to be given up, on account 
of the horrid rolling, and because the sea was 
excessively high. 

Even the embarkation at Beyrut was extremely 
unpleasant, because the surf rose so much, after 
a stormy night which had already disturbed our 
rest in Baalbec, that the waves were ten to twenty 
feet high. Since, however, there was no other 
hindrance, — the storm itself being over, and the 
time appointed for our arrival at Port Sa'id at 
hand, — we put to sea. 

At sunset we lay off the roads at Port Sa'id, 

148 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

but could not enter the harbour, because, in spite 
of repeated signals, no pilot appeared, and we 
could not venture to steer in by ourselves in the 
darkness, on account of the large coast traffic. 
We were, moreover, warned by the English 
Admiral and Commander of the Mediterranean 
Squadron, Sir John Milnes, that two of his iron- 
clads had already stuck in the sand at the entrance 
to the harbour. 

Thus we had to stay all night on the high 
seas, which, thank goodness, calmed down visibly 
and sensibly. And so we came into harbour this 
morning at 8.30 in full state, the Elizabeth lead- 
ing, the Delphin bringing up the rear. The 
English war-ships did not salute my standard, 
apparently because it was still too early to run 
the flags up; the Empress Eugenie, who came 
in immediately after, was, on the other hand, 
greeted with the customary marks of honour. 

And now from all sides were heard cheers 
and firing of guns to salute us. An imposing 
array of vessels was closely packed together in 
the none too large harbour, flags were flying from 
all their masts, and the crews were in the rigging. 
The same thing was repeated for the Empress 
Eugenie, who, standing on the covered deck of 
her yacht Aigle, made gracious bows in answer 

Inauguration Ceremonies 149 

to our greeting. The saluting and cheering now 
went on the whole day without intermission, as 
the Emperor of Austria, the Empress of the 
French, the Khedive, Henry and Amalie of the 
Netherlands, I, and the rest of the strangers 
present, e,g, Mr. Elliot the English Ambassador, 
General Ignatieff the Eussian Ambassador, etc., 
went about, paying each other visits. Naturally 
the din began afresh each time one passed a 
war-ship, which had an extraordinary effect on 
account of the forest of masts in the harbour. 
The town, on the other hand, offers little, and was 
visited about as much as Wilhelmshaven at the 
Jahdebusen ! 

The Austrian corvette Greif^ on which Kaiser 
Franz Joseph received me, was remarkably simple 
in its appointments, as was also that from the 
Netherlands, on which Heinrich and Amalie had 
made their passage here. The Empress Eugenie 
received us with a charming grace in the big 
saloon-like cabin on board the beautifully fitted 
Aigle^ and, cheerful as ever, held a three-quarters 
of an hour conversation with us. Prince Joachim 
Murat did the honours on board, and previously 
came to pay me a visit. In the suite of the 
Empress were, among others, her nephew, the 
Spanish Duque d'Huescar with his two sisters. 

150 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the Demoiselles d'Alba, also Madame de la Poese, 
the Comtesse de Larochelambert. 

Meantime, what interested me the most was to 
make acquaintance with Abd-el-Kader, who came 
to see me on board ship, on which occasion he 
wore the ribbon of the Order of the Eed Eagle 
over his white Algerian costume. His handsome 
and apparently youthful face has characteristically 
strong features, and a highly attractive and intel- 
lectual expression. His whole appearance is that 
of a man to be reckoned with. I was also in- 
terested in the personality of the Hungarian 
Minister, Count Andrassy, whose fine, distin- 
guished appearance was enhanced by his clever, 
bright eyes. He had not been in Vienna during 
my visit, so that I first made his acquaintance 

The Viceroy came to see me shortly after my 
arrival, and was very kind and amiable. His two 
sons, who accompanied him, looked good and 
intelligent. The yacht on which he received my 
return visit is a floating house of the greatest 

In the afternoon, at 3 o'clock, we all went 
on shore to attend an Arabic and Eoman Catholic 
Te Deum. For this, two kiosk-like pavilions 
had been erected side by side ; while in the one 

Inmtguration Cerejnonies 151 

there was a kind of pulpit such as is used in 
the mosques, in the other was a Boman Catholic 
altar. Opposite these kiosks was a tribune with 
a high baldachin. Kaiser Franz Joseph led the 
Empress Eugenie. The Khedive took Amalie of 
the Netherlands, and behind us came the multi- 
tude of uniforms. 

Immediately in front of their Majesties walked 
three Austrian workmen, a great number of whom 
are at present employed here, and who every- 
where prepared great ovations for their Kaiser. 
One preceded the Emperor with the Austrian 
flag, walking between two fellows, who wore the 
fez on their heads, but were otherwise dressed 
European fashion, and carried arms. German- 
Italian '* Vivas " for Kaiser Franz Joseph mingled 
with *' Vim VImperatricey 

Along with these the splendid Egyptian troops, 
clothed in gray, a la Zouave^ shouted at the word 
of command their " Hay a Padischa " or " Tschok- 
Jascha^'' which I fancy means something like 
** Health and long life," so that one had a nice 
mixture of languages. 

The Arab service was conducted by a venerable 
old Mullah, clad in a beautiful dark violet velvet 
caftan. Then a Koman Catholic Bishop appeared, 
who intoned the Latin Te Deum, after which a 

152 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

French Almoner of the Empress, Monseigneur 
Bauer, ascended the steps of the altar, and made 
a very clever discourse in a resounding voice. 

It was characteristic that a Christian priest 
should thank the Mohammedan Sovereign in the 
name of Christianity and of civilization for the 
making of the Canal ! 

During this function, which took place close 
to the sea-shore, it interested me to watch the 
natives, who, undisturbed by what was going on, 
were saying the prayers prescribed by the Koran, 
stretched upon the sand of the dunes, their faces 
turned to Mecca. 

We left the scene of the function in the same 
order in which we had entered, and then rowed 
quickly, incognito^ round the harbour, and visited 
the Arcona, which had come in yesterday. 

A splendid full moon vied with the illuminated 
ships, while our sailors engaged in all sorts of 
pastimes, danced, and gave themselves up to well- 
deserved recreation, of which they were much in 
need after the not inconsiderable exertions of the 
last weeks. 

To-morrow we must go on board the Grille, 
because the Sertha carries too much water for the 
present depth of the canal. I am sorry to leave 
the corvette, in which we have had such a very 

Inatigttratory Passage of the Canal 153 

enjoyable voyage, and of whose captain, Kohler, 
I have acquired the highest opinion, on account of 
his prudence, tranquillity, steadiness, and insight. 
He rightly enjoys the full confidence of our navy. 

Inauguration Passage of the Suez Canal, on hoard 
the '' Grille;' November 17, 1869. 

And so we find ourselves upon the newest 
wonder of our age, — inaugurate the Canal, — and 
feel that we are witnesses of an event that will 
be of quite stupendous importance in the world's 
traffic, and which is the proof of what human 
foresight, perseverance, and strength of will can 
accomplish. May God's blessing rest on the 
sources of commerce that will spring from it, and 
on the new undertakings that will necessarily be 
its appanage. Would that Germany might shortly 
have to glory in similarly great undertakings in 
the field of commerce. 

The departure was arranged for 6 a.m. First 
the Aigle, with the Empress Eugenie; next the 
Greify with the Emperor of Austria; then I on 
board the Grille ; lastly, the Netherland steamship 
with Prince and Princess Henry of the Netherlands, 
followed by the Ambassadors, and some fifty other 

154 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

But the procession was only set in motion 
at 10.30, because an Egyptian steamboat, sent 
ahead out of extreme precaution, only wired late 
that the through-passage was certain. Then we 
started down the Canal, the mouth of which is 
marked by two obelisks, constructed of brick- 

From that moment to the arrival at Ismailia, 
the passage offers nothing but the view of a 
straight-drawn canal, enclosed all along by sandy 
banks. It was, however, instructive to listen to 
the information given by M. Laroche, one of the 
first French engineers of the work, who was our 
conductor. One of the Austrian ships, the Eliza- 
hethy stuck three times in the sand, and kept us 
back with all the other vessels, otherwise the 
seven-hour passage was accomplished without 
touching the shore; of course the steering had 
to be very cautious. 

Ismailia^ November 18, 1869. 

Here we are on thirty ships in the great basin 
of water, at the newly constructed town of Ismaiha, 
which lies halfway between Suez and Port Sa'id, 
and consisted at first only of the houses of M. 
Lesseps and his employes, but is now springing up. 

At Ismailia i55 

When we arrived yesterday evening at night- 
fall, we could only see the pink, shining, sandy 
shores, and a sea of lights, — to judge from the 
number of which there was an important town, 
whence we could distinguish hollow sounds of 
trumpets or tambourines. Curiosity soon took 
us ashore, and then we found ourselves suddenly 
plunged once more into the enchantments of the 
East. For the desert was covered with a tent- 
encampment of over 30,000 Arabs, headed by 
their Sheikhs, and gathered from all parts of the 
land ; every tent was illuminated, besides which 
lanterns were burning everywhere, while fireworks 
sent up their shining trail for hours into the 

While the Sheikhs in solemn gravity, seated 
on their divans, received visits, smoked, or played 
chess, the Dervishes were praying, howling, and 
whirling in their tents. Syrians performed con- 
jming tricks with children, and danced almen 
with distortions of their bodies, and the Arab 
singing-women were heard chanting behind the 
shelter of their wooden booths. Between these 
moved the crowd of Arabs in gay caftans, and 
white or striped burnouses, each stalking along 
with grave pride. 

It would be a hopeless undertaking to describe 

156 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the magic effect which this Oriental gathering 
had upon me, and on all of us ; again and again 
we said, it is exactly like a dream ! The picture 
was almost as beautiful on the following morning, 
but the darkness lent more charm to the traffic 
in the camp than did the bright sunshine. 

In strangest contrast with this was the ball 
which the Khedive gave at night in his unfinished 
palace. In spaces where perhaps some eight 
hundred persons would have found room, there 
were now two to three thousand guests, among 
whom unfortunately but few displayed Oriental 
garments amidst the sea of black coats. It was 
so crammed, that after a single promenade or 
polonaise which we made round the room, and in 
which half the guests did not discover that " Their 
Majesties " had arrived, we practically spent the 
whole evening in a little salmi. We gentlemen 
were bidden to appear in civil dress, so that the 
strangers were unable to discover what nationalities 
were present. 

Before the function we all went round the 
Bedouin camp once more incognito. 

To-morrow we go down to the Bitter Lakes, 
the day after to Suez, and then I go direct to 
Cairo and the Nile. 

The Passage accomplished 157 

Suez^ November 20, 1869. 

The Passage of the Canal has been success- 
fully accomplished; none of the ships on which 
were the principal guests had any difficulties to 
overcome, and even where there were some 
dangerous rocks we passed safely over them, and 
avoided them by constant steering or slow 

The fact now lies patent to the whole world 
that great ships can be brought from the Bed 
Sea to the Mediterranean, and the trade of the 
future will take its route henceforth with an extra- 
ordinary saving of time by the shortest path from 
India and the Pacific Ocean to Europe. 

At daybreak we weighed anchor in the 
Bitter Lakes, where there was a strong wind 
yesterday evening, so that we were rocked by 
the waves. This basin, which has only been 
filled with sea-water since the spring, and was 
till then a stretch of dry land, has already the 
aspect of a proper sea. 

Although it is surrounded by the sands of the 
desert, the landscape does not look sandy or 
bare, because there is always a pecuHar rosy 
glow in this part, which makes an indescribably 
living shimmer at all times of day, and even in 

158 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the darkness. Otherwise no living creature was 
to be seen about us here, except those who 
were on our thirty steam-ships. 

I had already, yesterday evening, visited Their 
Majesties on board their ships ; Kaiser Franz 
Joseph was very courteous, and returned my 
visit at a later hour. 

At 12 o'clock we reached the small and 
quite insignificant town of Suez, charmingly 
situated at the foot of picturesque hills, and 
washed by the ^* blue " waves of the " Eed " Sea. 
And so I have made acquaintance with this sea 
also, after being only four weeks ago in the 
Black Sea, and in the course of the previous 
summer having bathed in the waters of the North 
Sea. I cannot deny that at that moment my 
thoughts turned with a little sigh across the 
waves of the Ked Sea to the East. Here I was 
close to the spells of India and to the Himalayas 
as never before, and as I never shall be again 
in the whole course of my life ! But the thunder 
of the guns and the cheering of the crews upon 
the rigging of the East India transports and 
many other merchant vessels, dispersed all traces 
of sentimentality, and the prosaic reality of pro- 
ceeding as rapidly as possible to the disembarkation 
took its place, because I was to travel the first 

The Passage accomplished 159 

after the Viceroy upon the railway, to take ship 
again this evening for the Nile journey. 

The passage of the Suez Canal has no intrinsic 
charm ; only the' circumstance that the desert and 
the sand (with the homelike feelings it arouses) 
give out a real shimmer of light, which one 
must see to realize it, render the inanimate land- 
scape a little less monotonous. It might therefore 
be supposed that a two and a half days' voyage 
would gradually become monotonous; this, how- 
ever, was not at all the case; we all found it 
a welcome opportunity for undisturbed writing 
or reading, besides which our sufl&ciently restricted 
society on board ship was in no melancholy 
humour. To me the climax of these days was 
indisputably the sight of the Arab tents in Ismailia, 
and the impression I received there will remain 
indelibly linked with the images of the Opening 
of the Suez Canal. This life, so entirely different 
from any festival and traffic of the people that I 
have ever encountered on my various travels, 
presents a charm that is unique of its kind. 

The fairy tales of one's childhood find realiza- 
tion here to large extent, without the necessity 
of any great outlay of imagination, and a few 
hours' wandering in this Oriental crowd give new- 
comers a clearer idea of the life in the East than 

i6o Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

if they had been travelling there for weeks. 
Hence it was a joy for us to succeed in wandering 
round three times without our incognito being 
discovered, so that everything went on naturally 
and without constraint around us. When, on the 
other hand, the Khedive arranged an ofi&cial 
promenade for us all, with ^^ fantasiehs'' to order, 
the picture turned at once to a made-up affair. 

I was more particularly struck by the dis- 
tinguished coolness with which sheikhs as well as 
vassals and slaves demeaned themselves, looking 
down with a certainly comprehensible contempt 
out of their splendid caftans upon our civilian 
garments. The swarthiest and most ragged Moor 
in this country wears his shirt or caftan, and the 
Abdyeh with as much dignity as a nobleman. 

On the Nile, November 21, 1869. 

After the landing at Suez yesterday, which 
was delayed for nearly an hour by the clumsiness 
of our pilot (so that we could only pay a hurried 
visit to the fine Dry-docks, which are of the 
newest construction), we took the railway, and 
in six hours arrived at Cairo. On the way we 
saw our first grove of palm trees, which drew 
loud exclamations from us all, as it lay shining 


At Cairo i6i 

in the golden evening sunlight. Beside them the 
cotton plantations presented a soher aspect, the 
tall shmhs with white blossoms looking like a 
potato-plant shot up. The villages one sees 
consist of absolutely flat lumps of earth, built in 
a square — a sort of caricature of human dwellings. 
Otherwise the landscape is pure desert land, bare 
rocks and sand. 

"We reached Cairo at eight in the evening, in 
the beams of the full moon, and a voluptuous 
sea of light, the streets and squares being 
illuminated. The Khedive received us in the 
Station Buildings, from which we drove in elegant 
carriages that were quite English in their turn- 
out, suiTOunded by escorts, torch-bearers, and 
runners in Arab dress, to the landing-place of the 

The whole garrison lined the way, and shouted 
incessantly *' Tschoh-Jascha ; " but several times I 
heard the tune, " Ich bin ein Preusse " (I am a 
Prussian). Eventually we were conducted through 
one of the triumphal arches which the Austrian 
inhabitants of the place had erected in honour of 
their Kaiser, its Latin inscription giving point to it. 

A French cuisine awaited our hunger on board 
the steamboat, coupled, moreover, with the greatest 
luxuiy of all kinds. My bed is protected against 

1 62 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the flies by a curtain of silver muslin, with gold 

On the banks we saw now groves of palms, 
now regular woods of this splendid and poetical 
tree. The character of the shore is little 
romantic, and so far less fertile than one would 
have expected from the descriptions. 

The brown waves of the river resemble our 
mountain waters after heavy rain-flows, and des- 
perate resolution is needed to wash one's self in this 
brown, coffee-coloured water. Pelicans, birds of 
prey, and a few eagles, which circle round us, bring 
life into the desert, while the inhabitants of the 
poor little lime-huts, for the most part clad in 
nothing but a turban, gazed at our steamboat. The 
temperature is not high. At midday, indeed, the 
sun is fierce, but the mornings and evenings are 
cool, and demand precaution in the way of clothing. 

On the Nile, November 22 to December 1, 1869. 

Already for four days we have been steaming 
up the Nile, without any alteration in the cha- 
racter of the scenery of its banks, or of the more 
distant bare mountains, from that described above. 
The temperature, indeed, becomes a little hotter 
every day, but at sunset gives way to very cold 

up the Nile 163 

hours in the night and evening. We may con- 
gratulate ourselves on approaching the tropics just 
at this time, especially as there is a north wind 

Three steamers were told off for my convoy; 
two of them accommodate my numerous retinue, 
while the provisions and kitchen requisites are on 
the third. We stop every morning to collect the 
entire company on my ship for breakfast, where 
they then remain till late evening. We live much 
too well on board, especially when one considers 
that we go on for days without any exercise other 
than at most a promenade upon the little quarter- 

Up to the present we have only landed at Siut, 
on the 23rd, one of the largest cities of the 
country, to see the Kock-Tombs which date from 
the XIII. Dynasty — 1400 B.C. — but are no longer 
in good preservation. The town is built of brown 
bricks and inhabited by brown men, who, since 
they find it hot, wear next to no clothes. As the 
Nile has been falling for fourteen days, the spring 
is already beginning here, and the plains present 
the same appearance as with us in March, when 
the winter sowing begins to come up green. 

The effects of light and colour in the glorious 
transparent air are magnificent, and even the stars 

164 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

shine with far greater brilliancy than with ns. 
Jupiter really illuminates the darkness, and is 
reflected in the water before the moon rises. The 
Great Bear, on the contrary, has already dis- 
appeared below the horizon, so that even the 
starry heavens show us how far from our homes 
we have travelled. Our travelling party on board 
ship has been increased by Professors Lepsius 
and Diimichen, extremely pleasant and amiable 
companions, who know how to impart their 
scientific knowledge and discoveries in the most 
attractive manner, without falling into any dry 
or dogmatic tone. It is a real pleasure to me 
to make this part of the journey under such 
guidance. Moreover, the repose on board is a true 
luxury after the preceding weeks. The life on 
the steamboat almost reminds one of the Ehine 

Next came the days of Egyptian study proper, 
for on the 25th we arrived at the Temple of 
Dendera at daybreak. In the afternoon we 
reached the Plains of Thebes, where we visited 
the half-destroyed ruins of Luxor with the Colossi ; 
then the wonderful dynastic temple of Karnak, 
and its Avenue of Eam-headed Sphinxes, in which 
almost all the dynasties have sought to immortahze 
themselves ; and lastly, we rode far into the night 

Temple of Edfu 165 

along the western banks of the Nile, past the 
remains of the vast City of the Dead to a part 
of the Tombs of the Kings. 

On November 26 we continued our inspection 
of Thebes, including the Tombs of the Kings 
at Blba,n-el-Muluk, and the Temple of Medtnet 
Habou and Alt-Kurna, along with the so-called 
Statue of Memnon ; then we pursued our journey 
up the Nile past Esneh to Edfu. 

On November 27 we made a thorough study of 
the Temple of Edfu, which has recently been 
excavated ; it is of colossal proportions, and in 
perfect preservation : the pleasure was unalloyed, 
because here no ruins compel one to whip up the 
imagination ; rather what is seen is clear and 
comprehensible to the bystander, and permits one 
to appreciate the marvellous works of the ancient 
Egyptians in their boldest architectural efforts. 

In the afternoon we went on up the Nile 
through sandstone rocks and breaches to the First 
Cataract of the Nile, where we came to anchor at 
Assuan and the island of Elephantine. A boating 
party in the evening sunshine took us to the rocks, 
where, however, only rapids, and not, as I had 
expected, cataracts, were to be seen. A rich 
growth of palm trees lent a great charm to the 
landscape, which was repeated on the following 

1 66 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

day, when, after a camel-ride through the desert, 
we perceived Philae in the morning hours of 
November 28. 

On visiting the tolerably well-preserved ruins 
on the island of Philae, which lies in mid-stream, 
we experienced the glamour of being in Nubia. 
Our satisfaction, however, reached its climax when 
in the afternoon we got to the edge of the tropics, 
and crossed the zone of the Crab, and we had the 
satisfaction of sleeping one night below 23 degrees 
of the northern latitude. At Philae we were 
transferred to an elegant dahabiyeh, the name 
given to the usual sailing vessels on which the Nile 
traveller journeys, and which are comparable to a 
large covered gondola. Our dahabiyeh was towed 
by little steam-tugs, and steered by statuesque 
black Nubians, clad wholly in white. Our joy in 
the tropics could only be of short duration, for the 
return to Cairo and approaching voyage home 
across the Mediterranean Sea had to include a 
whole week for the Nile journey down-stream. 
And so we had to content ourselves with the 
thought that we had penetrated beyond the First 
Cataract, and were able to say we had been in the 

On November 29, after visiting the first of the 
four famous rock-hewn temples of Gerf Husen, 

From Philce to Assiian 167 

as well as a peasant's farm of the most primitive 
kind, we turned northwards. From the moment 
at which the helmsman made this revolution, and 
we turned our backs to the equator, we really 
began our homeward journey, and every one was 
accordingly in good spirits ; for, in spite of palms 
and Nile, and however great the enjoyment 
afforded to-day by the Nubian landscape, the 
longing after the Fatherland and one's dear ones 
left behind there, will have its way. 

From Philae a camel-ride brought us down 
by the Cataract to Assuan. I confess that this 
mode of riding pleases me much more than I 
had anticipated, for as soon as one gets the 
right balance, perched on the hump-saddle, and 
becomes used to the animal's step, one feels 
quite comfortable. After we got on board our 
original steamer again, the journey down the 
Nile was prosecuted without further stoppage. 

On December 4 we hope to visit the Sahara 
from Pedreschin, to enter Cairo on the evening 
of the same day, and after remaining some days 
there, on account of our Oriental-Egyptological 
studies, to take ship on December 9, on the 
Elizabeth, Please God, we shall make the shores 
of Europe in a four to five days* voyage, and then 
land at Brindisi, Naples, or Marseilles, when, 

1 68 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

after a rapid journey through these countries, 
which are already familiar to us, we hope to 
be seasonably reunited with our dear ones before 
the lighting of the Christmas Tree. 

I have purposely abbreviated this portion of 
the journey. In the first place, all correspond- 
ence must be ready at the latest by December 3, 
to catch the last post that leaves Alexandria 
before our own departure. In the second, it 
would be only a vain commencement to attempt 
any detailed description of the ancient Egyptian 
Temples. As memorials of this wonderful people, 
they resemble each other with an almost schedule- 
like precision. In all, the same magnificence, 
the same colossal proportions, the same admirable 
craft of builder and stonemason, but also the 
same repetition in the types of figures, meet 
the traveller, and daily cause him fresh surprise. 

A certain art, or rather perhaps dexterity in 
art, is not wanting in these memorials; in fact, 
I saw relievos of charming delicacy. Neverthe- 
less, what we call taste and aesthetic is wanting, 
and the eye feels itself overwearied, since it per- 
petually meets the same thing. Thanks to the 
scholars of Berlin, who have raised the study 
of Egyptian art and history to such a high pitch, 
the presentments of Egyptian structures and 

A Drojiiedary-Ride i6g 

monuments of art, the originals of which I have 
been permitted to see here, are known, and even 
in a certain sense familiar to us. Still, it affected 
me strongly to see with my own eyes that which, 
defying centuries of destruction, bears witness to 
the rich history of a past age of culture, and 
to the capacities for work in the people who 
have been the vessels of such a civilisation. 

Our rides to the Temples were always upon 
donkeys ; one driver held the rein, while a second 
went by the side, to spring forward to help the 
rider, if a saddle-girth gave way or a buckle burst 
— which, for the rest, happened every moment ! 

Accordingly, our riding-parties were always 
merry, but reached their climax when we all 
mounted on dromedaries to ride across the desert 
to the Cataract at Assuan. On mounting the 
aforesaid animal it must bend completely down, 
an operation that takes place in three bends of 
the knee. Having now taken one's place on the 
broad saddle, consisting of two stuffed pommels, 
so that one leg of the rider is laid right across 
the animal's neck, it bellows like our stags in the 
mtting, and raises itself to its feet again in three 
leaps, when one must be careful not to lose 
one's balance. At first one feels quite giddy up 
there, but this does not last long : one soon gains 

lyo Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

confidence, finds one's own method of sitting 
comfortably, and in the end feels very snug. I 
rode the whole time on the camel, although my 
white donkey was led at the side, because this 
kind of riding appealed to me more; and the 
same held good for the gentlemen of my suite^ 
who, in half-European dress, with the native 
protections against the heat of the sun, presented 
a sufficiently comical appearance. 

The inhabitants of Egypt are distinguished 
from those of Nubia by marked characteristics. 
The Egyptian is brownish-yellow in his skin, and 
looks as if some vestiges of European exterior 
still clung to him. The Nubian, on the contrary, 
is dark brown, already turning black, but of 
much nobler build, and I must also say of more 
intellectual appearance. We particularly noticed 
this in the men who were told off to steer and 
to guide us. The Nubian race is said to be par- 
ticularly capable and dependable, and is much 
sought after in Cairo for this reason. The inhabi- 
tants of Dar-Fur and the Sudan, on the contrary, 
who are frequently met with here, are quite of 
the ancient Moorish type. 

The Egyptian fellah often goes naked, espe- 
cially when he is working in the fields. He is 
much darker, and more earth-coloured, than the 

The Population of Egypt 1 7 1 

richer and superior class, and with his scanty 
clothing can often be hardly distinguished from 
the soil ; a light apron, open at the sides, hardly 
covers his loins. The women, on the contrary, 
are clothed in a long heavy woollen material, 
that hangs over their shoulders, and falls into 
the most beautiful antique folds I have ever seen. 
These women walk about with a straight and 
indeed proud carriage, bearing clay vessels on 
their heads according to the custom of the country 
— one thinks to see antique statues walking before 
one's eyes, and every sculptor ought to spend a 
long time here on the study of these folds and 
garments. I have frequently stood in astonish- 
ment to rejoice in the sight. As the women are 
exceedingly shy and retiring, they are in the habit 
of veiling their faces, which are usually uncovered, 
so soon as they become aware of a stranger. 
Hence one can rarely tell of what material their 
clasps and bracelets are made. Many wear heavy 
silver armlets, others mix glass spangles with fruit 
kernels in gaudy variety in their ornaments. 

The Nile people collectively are very thin 
according to our notions; they are tall, with 
square shoulders, no trace of calf. At first we 
took their huts for piles of bricks. Since it 
hardly ever rains here, palm branches are suflScient 

172 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

for the roof; there are no conveniences in the 
way of seats, and four posts carrying a straw 
mattress serve for a bed. The inmates always 
look clean, thanks to the Koran, which enjoins 
daily ablutions. Here in the country, more par- 
ticularly, one sees that every Mussulman fulfils 
the external precepts of religion with the greatest 
fidelity. The sailors of our ship went three 
times a day to the paddle-box, where, turning 
to Mecca to make their obeisance, they knelt 
down, with their foreheads touching the ground, 
and their hands raised, a ceremonial lasting each 
time for nearly ten minutes. On shore one sees 
the people in rows fulfilling their form of orison, 
and should any one be interrupted by his duties, 
he seeks in every free moment to make up the 
appointed tale once more. 

In parts where the intercourse of the people 
with strangers has already sharpened their wits, 
one is often addressed in a jargon of German, 
English, French, and Italian, and that with a 
vigour of gesticulation and expression that often 
reminds one of Italians' vivacity. 

Innumerable Old Egyptian objects are every- 
where offered for sale to the traveller. The 
scarabs are always the prettiest, while the remains 
of mummies disgusted me. The latter are 

Down the Nile 173 

beginning to diminisli considerably, since the 
graves have been plundered by speculative lay- 
people, who have carried off everything they dis- 
covered there. 

The smuggling away of the larger works of 
art is, indeed, forbidden now by the customs- 
prohibitions ; but how many Tombs of Kings and 
Temple ruins show gaps and empty places, the 
former ornaments whereof are now on view in 
the principal Museums of Europe ! 

On the Nile, December 2, 1869. 

We have been travelling down the stream of 
the NUe for days, and expect to reach Cairo 
to-morrow. All the colossal ruins we visited on 
our journey up are flying past us again, '* smiled 
on " by the eternally blue sky and unbroken 
sunshine.* The air has, however, changed 
materially since we turned from Nubia, for a 
stormy north wind blows upon us continually, 
making the nights, mornings, and evenings ex- 
tremely cold, and compelliug us to prepare warmer 
clothing. When, on the other hand, the sun 

* Von dem stets hlauen Eimmel und ununterhrochenen Sonneiischein 
"feeZac^^." A punning reference to the double sense of the verb 
" belachen "—as in the catch, " Wer lacht iiher Griechenland » " " Mn 
ewiger Matter Eimmeiy — Tr. 

174 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

shines, or one finds shelter from the wind, the 
refreshing warmth is the same we have become 
familiar with. 

A voyage up the Nile is perhaps among the 
most pleasing experiences of a journey, but it 
takes a terribly long time ; at least, it leaves me 
with the feeling that, in spite of all its enjoy- 
ments, I have no desire to undertake it a second 
time. Everything in Upper Egypt interested me, 
but more, as I said above, on account of its 
novelty than because I thought it beautiful. In 
spite of its palms and rocks, there is a great 
monotony in the landscape, while in Italy, e,g,^ 
I never could gaze my fill. There everything is 
life, variety, and change; in the Valley of the 
Nile it is all just the contrary. 

They He behind us now — those temples, whose 
towers and ruins we mostly learned to know at 
break of day, and in the rays of the rising sun. 
Vanished are the Colossi of Memnon, which we 
first saw shining in the evening light, and then in 
the rosy dawn; vanished the Rock-Temples, and 
Chambers of the Tombs, over which soar eagles, 
vultures, and other birds of prey. Pelicans and 
herons tempt the bloodthirsty to futile shots at 
these rare birds, which seldom appear in flocks. 

We shall soon be again in the centre of one 

Down the Nile 175 

of the capital cities of the East, which is indeed 
engaged in throwing off its national character for 
the most rapid artificialities of modern life, so 
that shortly it will only resemble Paris or 

The Pyramids look down gravely on this 
European movement. 

Cairo ^ December 4, 1869. 

We interrupted our journey down the Nile to 
Cairo, on the afternoon of December 3, to dis- 
embark at Sakkara, and thence to visit the 
Serapeum with the Tombs of Apis, along with 
the tombs and pyramids in the vicinity. The 
monotony of the journey was broken near Minyeh 
by some Coptic monks of a mendicant order, 
who begged from us in a most original manner. 
These swarthy men sit quite naked during the 
whole day on the rocky shore, and as soon as 
they see travellers coming (since they are able to 
calculate with great accuracy the exact speed of 
any steamer), jump into the stream, climb up 
into the small boats, and will not budge from 
the place until they have compelled one to give 
them alms. 

Under the guidance of the most distinguished 

176 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

of tlie French Egyptologists, Professor Mariette, 
we visited the tombs of Apis discovered by him, — 
the name of the Bull, under which people living 
here thousands of years ago worshipped the 
divinity. Nearly a hundred burial-chambers hewn 
out in the rock, each containing a granite sarco- 
phagus in which eight persons could be seated 
comfortably, are to be found here deep under 
the earth. One asks one's self in amazement 
how those colossal sarcophagi could have been 
prepared and transported into the vaults in those 
days of little mechanical contrivance ! Nor is 
less astonishment excited by the fine relievos of 
the private tombs, which must date from a period 
at least three thousand years before Christ. The 
Pyramids — in a very damaged state — stand in 
the midst of the desecrated Plain of the Dead at 
Memphis, which city itself has vanished from the 
earth without a trace, and on whose ruined heaps 
the palm trees are now growing. 

Late in the evening we got to Cairo, and 
sought rest in the Palace on the Ezbekiyeh. 

Early on the 4th I received and paid visits 
to the Khedive, the Heir Apparent, etc. The 
former spoke fluent French, and did the honours 
in the most amiable manner, a certain distin- 
guished reserve being noticeable in his bearing. 

At Cairo again 177 

He is a man with insight into the troubles and 
needs of his country, and is earnestly engaged in 
raising it by the introduction of European culture. 

The Heir to the Throne received me in a 
house near the desert, where his father possesses 
three or four palaces close together. 

The tombs of the Khallfs which we inspected 
to-day, and which contain the bones of the rulers 
of this country from the epoch of the tweKth 
and thirteenth centuries, are famed for their 
fascinating display of Arabic cupolas and many- 
coloured marble slabs. 

On the hill on which the citadel is seated, 
Mehemed Ali built a splendid mosque, with two 
slender minarets entirely constructed of Oriental 
alabaster, in which he placed his tomb. Hard 
by is the modest dwelling, in a pleasant house, 
in which he died. From here we enjoyed the 
view over the mighty city in the finest evening 
sunshine, and I could understand why Cairo, 
along with Damascus and Constantinople, is 
rightly called the Pearl of the East. 

This was the first day of the Eamadan— the 
fast that lasts for four weeks, in which no Mussul- 
man from sunrise to sunset may eat, or drink, 
or smoke; even the odour of edible things must 
be avoided during this time. 

178 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

What we have to-day seen of Cairo gives one 
the impression that, by some process a la Haus- 
mann, a European city had everywhere been 
constructed in place of the old town ; I have, at 
any rate, seen hardly any but European houses 
outside the Bazaar. 

Cairo, December 5, 1869. 

To-day, Sunday, was celebrated by an open- 
air service, in which we united for the laying of 
the foundation-stone of the German Evangelical 
Church here. Pfarrer Luttke, from Alexandria, 
gave a simple discourse in good taste, and the 
whole function was conducted in proper German 
fashion, with the assistance of the entire German 
colony of Cairo, who yesterday honoured me with 
a serenade and torchlight procession. Nudar 
Pasha, the present Foreign Minister, as well as my 
two Egyptian companions, appeared in gala-dress. 
We collectively attended the function in uniform. 

The church will have to be built by degrees, 
although a substantial contribution from our King 
was announced to-day by telegram. It will soon 
be surrounded by modern buildings, representing 
the new Cairo. The church is to be erected on 
its own ground and property, given for this object 

Excursions rotrnd Cairo 179 

by the Kliedive. At present the community only 
possesses a hired hall for its ecclesiastical neces- 

Excm'sions in the neighbourhood to-day com- 
prised the *' Petrified Forest," the *' Virgin's 
Tree/' and the ruins of " Heliopolis." At the 
tombs of the KaHfas we let ourselves be photo- 
graphed, to leave to our contemporaries and to 
posterity the exotic picture of the camel-riders 
of our race. But neither camels nor the uni- 
versally prized donkey did credit to their reputa- 
tion to-day, for at each instant one of the four- 
footed creatures declined his duty, nor could the 
carriages be moved from their places. 

The stone forest is a place in which the ground 
is covered with vast remains of petrified tree- 
trunks. Under the Virgin's Tree, according to 
the legend, the Blessed Virgin rested with the 
Christ-Child and Joseph after the flight to Egypt. 
It is a very old and gnarled sycamore, with 
knotted trunk and green branches, standing in the 
midst of garden ground. Tradition sees in the 
present tree the descendant of one that died many 
centuries ago, and had been regarded as histori- 
cally sacred. There was formerly no wood in 
its vicinity. 

A few steps from the Virgin's Tree was once 

i8o Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the city of Heliopolis, known already in the books 
of Moses as '' On/' but to-day vanished from the 
earth without a trace. Only a single obelisk, 
dating from the earliest times of history, and of 
importance to Egyptologists, is still standing as 
an index to the buried splendours. 

We returned to Cairo covered with dust. In 
the evening we attended quite a good performance 
of the Italian Opera, in an imposing and tasteful 
theatre, built in six months by the Viceroy. 

CairOj December 6, 1869. 

We began to-day at three in the morning, 
because we wanted to ascend the oldest and largest 
of the Pyramids of Gizeh. 

The imagination can form no adequate picture 
of this stone edifice, which the Kings built for 
themselves as their burying-place, and one asks 
once again in astonishment, how the Egyptians 
managed, in their total ignorance of machinery, 
to execute such structures. Beautiful I cannot 
indeed call the Pyramids when one gets near 
them, because on close consideration the devasta- 
tion strikes one more than the total effect of the 
still- existing intact structure. In the landscape, on 
the contrary, the Pyramids look very picturesque. 

Ascent of the Pyramids i8i 

especially when their summits are illuminated by 
the morning or evening sun. 

The ascent of the Pyramids belongs to those 
things that one undertakes for the sake of saying 
one has done them, but which otherwise makes no 
claim to utility or pleasure. A couple of Arabs 
place themselves in front of each stranger, and 
draw him step-wise from stone to stone, for the 
external covering of the Pyramids resembles a 
staircase built of irregular disintegrated square 
stones, each step being often three to four feet 
high. One's knees gradually refuse to work, one's 
breath goes, and at last one arrives, shaking in 
one's whole body, at the summit. Thence a wide 
view is, of course, obtained. The ill-fortune was, 
however, in store for us, that just to-day the sun 
quite exceptionally did not rise, and the morning 
illumination therefore was also wanting. 

The descent presented almost as many dis- 
agreeables as the ascent, wi^bh dizziness added on 
to them. To complete my enjoyment, I went 
inside the pyramid with Lepsius. This expedition 
is quite indescribable, as any mine would be easier 
to crawl through than these holes. Every con- 
ceivable position and flexion of the human body 
was employed to get forward, in addition to which 
one had to take two or three men who help by 

1 82 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

pushing, dragging, or carrying the visitor forward. 
We went uphill and downhill ; sometimes we slid, 
or had to crawl on all-fours. At length we reached 
the burial-chamber with the stone sarcophagus, 
inspected the granite blocks of the greatest re- 
gularity masons can achieve, and sweated Hke a 
Turkish bath. It was so hot, that we had to take 
off our coats, and were dripping. 

The Pyramids are surrounded with remains of 
tombs and temples, that were for the most part 
discovered by Lepsius ; and since his name is 
universally known here, and to the mind of the 
inhabitants is inseparable from all the Egyptian 
discoveries, they showed him to-day the tomb of 
Professor Lepsius, vastly to his own and our 
delight ! 

The Khedive has built a paviKon, roads, via- 
ducts, and dams, to facilitate the expedition for 
strangers, and the approach through the moist 
surroundings of the Nile — a grotesque object in 
contrast with the structure of the Pyramids built 
three thousand years ago. 

We went to the Museum instituted by Mariette 
at Bulak, and admired its unique treasures. 
Certain statuettes and gold objects in the Museum 
convinced me that the Egyptians had a real and 
even exalted notion of art. 

Alexandria 183 

We then visited the latest creation of Ismail 
Pasha, the Palace of Gezireh, which is built 
throughout in Moorish style. 

To pluck Mandarin oranges from the trees, 
and eat them in the open air, and that in the 
beginning of December, was a most agreeable and 
unwonted treat for us Northerners. 

Cairo, BecemUr 7, 1869. 

Our stay in Cairo was brought to a close by 
a ball at the palace Kasr-en-Nil, preceded by a 
dinner in Gezireh. Madame Ferdinand de Lesseps, 
a nineteen-year-old Creole, who in youthful 
enthusiasm had married the sixty-five-year-old 
Creator of the Canal immediately after the con- 
clusion of the Inauguration Ceremonies, was the 
chief guest of the evening. 

On the morning of December 8, the Khedive 
and his suite, as well as our countrymen, escorted 
us to the station, while the Heir to the Throne 
went on with me to Alexandria. 

Eain and wind, a rare event in this country, 
set in during the four hours' railway journey, and 
gave Alexandria a very gloomy aspect. This 
great trading centre has almost entirely laid aside 
its Oriental character : on that account, however, 

184 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the view from the vice-regal Summer Palace of 
the great harbour lying at its feet is quite unusual, 
and was so much the more beautiful to-day on 
account of the regular forest of masts with which 
its space was filled. Otherwise the sights are 
hardly worth the attention of the traveller who 
brings his stay in Africa to an end here. We 
went through the streets and squares, the pave- 
ment of which deserves the name only in parts 
inhabited by the Europeans. Otherwise one has 
to struggle step by step through slime and 

A visit to the German Evangelical Church, and 
the hospital which is now building, ended with 
a drive to Kamleh, to the country estate of our 
Consul Theremin, where the German inhabitants 
of Alexandria, who had all decorated and illumi- 
nated their houses, gave me a torchlight pro- 

Late in the evening we went on board the 
Elizabeth, and parted from the Heir Apparent, as 
well as from the Egyptian escort. 

On the morning of December 9 we weighed 
anchor in a strong north wind, which, more par- 
ticularly as we passed by Crete and the entrance 
to the Adriatic Sea, rose gradually until early on 
the 12th. When we came in sight of the coast, 

Homeward Passage 185 

it was impossible to say whether we were off 
Calabria or Sicily. The restless element assumed 
such an unfavourable character, that we were 
forced to turn and steer again for the high seas, 
to avoid the danger of being cast on the cliffs ; 
and so we prepared ourselves for the cheering 
thought that we might, under these circumstances, 
be cruising for days on the ocean. 

However, since our calculation of time had 
been based upon an uncertain voyage, the 
threatened delay did not much matter, and we 
resigned ourselves to our fate. 

The rain, which came down in torrents, and 
the heavy rolling of the ship, made our stay on 
board really most uncomfortable, because we did 
not know at last where we were going. 

All the same, both now and through the 
journey, I remained proof against sea-sickness. 

By good luck the wind " veered " several times 
in the course of the day, so that even during the 
night the sky cleared, and early on the 13th the 
sun was struggling with the clouds, until at last 
we had light enough to reckon our longitude 
and latitude with the help of the measuring in- 
stmments. We had hardly done this, when the 
sun broke quite through, and brilliantly justified 
the calculations of our ofiScers. We found ourselves 

1 86 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

in sight of Cape Spartivento, and were able 
quietly to enter the Straits of Messina. 

The snow-covered Etna projected far into the 
blue heaven, and at its feet lay the charming 
outline of the Sicilian coast, recalling happy 
memories of previous journeys. The aspect of the 
Calabrian coast was equally attractive, and my 
companions were entranced by it, as to nearly 
all of them it was the first glimpse of Italy. 

We made without halting for Naples, which 
lay before us on the morning of December 14 in 
all its unique splendour, and I felt an indescribable 
satisfaction in seeing it again. Yes, I am not 
afraid of saying that I would compare this view 
with any of the impressions that I received in the 

The Crown Prince and Princess, who are 
staying here, and have just celebrated their first 
parental joys, received me as an old friend, and 
I saw the Heir to the Throne, the Duca di Napoli,. 
who was born here, and is only a few weeks old, 
and also the Duke and Duchess of Aosta. I 
employed my spare time in revisiting Sorrento 
and Pompeii, as well as the rich treasures of 
the Museo Keale. Since 1862, when I was last 
here, the town has acquired quite a different and 
flourishing aspect. 

In Italy \?ri 

My pleasure in staying in this splendid Naples 
was disturbed by the news from Cannes, where 
my wife and all the children were staying, that 
our youngest son Waldemar had an attack of 
bronchitis. He was, indeed, so much better as to 
be out of danger, but the journey from Cannes so 
as to arrive in Berlin for Christmas was not to 
be thought of. I accordingly decided to proceed 
to Cannes by the comfortable Kome-Florence 
railway, so as to take ship at La Spezzia, since 
there was as yet no direct communication along 
the coast, and then to steam on the Elizabeth to 
Villafranca, whence there is only an hour to 

We reached Florence in twenty-four hours, 
after I had greeted the Abruzzi and the Campagna 
as old acquaintances ; I passed through Eome, 
however (where the (Ecumenical Council had 
just begun its sittings), late in the evening, and 
without stopping. 

In Florence, which I had last seen in its 
spring vesture, on the occasion of the Crown 
Prince Umberto's wedding, I visited King Victor 
Emanuel, — who, just recovered from a long 
dangerous illness, received me with open arms. 

On the 19th we went by Bologna, where I 
parted from my entire retinue, and travelled to 

1 88 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

La Spezzia. After a very rooking, but pleasant 
night voyage, when I dined with the officers in 
their mess, we landed on the morning of the 20th 
at Villafranca. Another short halt at Monaco 
and Nice, and then I finally arrived at Cannes, 
where, thank God, I still found my dear ones. 
The circle had meantime been increased by my 
Sister-in-law Alice, my Cousin Albrecht, and my 
Uncle and Aunt Frederick of the Netherlands, 
with Cousin Marie. 

A cheery Christmas gathering united all this 
unusually large group of near relations under the 
Christmas tree, in a foreign land. We then paid 
a farewell visit to the Elizabeth^ where we were 
greeted by the American Admiral Kadford, who 
was lying with two war-ships in the harbour of 
Villafranca, and who invited us on board the 
Jolm Franklin^ which had just been dressed for 
a ball. All the Americans of Nice and the neigh- 
bourhood were collected there, and so finally we 
had also been upon the territory of the United 

On the 26th we went, in a three days' journey, 
by Avignon and Dijon to Paris. On this journey 
I felt the moment when we turned our backs to 
the sea at Marseilles, to be bitingly cold. 

The Emperor Napoleon and the Empress 

Arrival at Berlin 


Eugenie received us on the 29th with their wonted 
friendliness, amid a ministerial crisis, which had 
resulted on this very day in the nomination of 
M. Emile Ollivier. 

After a last halt in Cologne, we arrived safely 
at Berlin on New Year's Eve. 


On the outbreak of the war with France, in 
1870-71, three armies were mobilized on the 
German side ; the Third, under the command of 
the Crown Prince, consisting of — 

The V. Prussian Corps, under Lieut.-General 
V. Kirschbach. 

The XI. Prussian Corps, under Lieut.-General 
V. Bose. 

The I. Bavarian Corps, under General of 
Infantry von der Tann. 

The II. Bavarian Corps, under General of 
Infantry v. Hartmann. 

The Wiirtemberg Field Division, under Lieut.- 
General V. Obernitz. 

The Baden Field Division, under Lieut.-General 
V. Beyer. 

The 4th Cavalry Division, under Commander- 
General of Cavalry Prince Albrecht (father) of 

The army comprised 128 battalions, 102 
squadrons, and 80 batteries (128,000 infantry 
men, 15,300 horses, 480 guns). 

War with France, 1870-71 191 

The Personal Adjutants of the Crown Prince 
were Major von Mischke, attached General Staff 
of the Army, Captain Count z. Eulenburg, 
Eeserve of 1st Foot Guards, and Captain Baron 
von Schleinitz, attached 2nd Regiment of the 
8th (Silesian) Dragoons. 

Chief of the General Staff: Lieut.-General v. 

Quartermaster -in -Chief: Colonel von Gott- 

Commander of Artillery : Lieut. - General 
Herkt, Inspector of the 3rd Artillery Inspection. 

Commander of Engineers and Pioneers : 
Major- General Schulz, Inspector of the 2nd 
Engineer Inspection. 

The army of the Crown Prince united the 
most dissimilar parts of the Fatherland. The 

V. and XI. Army Corps contained the Eegiments 
from Lower Silesia and Posen, Westphalia, Elec- 
toral Hesse, Nassau, Thuring^a, Waldeck, and the 
city of Frankfurt-on-Main. To these were added 
Bavarians, Wiirtembergers, and Badensers. The 

VI. Army Corps brought the Upper Silesians a 
few days after the opening of hostihties, and 
later on the Pomeranians of the II. Army Corps 
joined the Third Army as well. More than twelve 
German dialects were spoken in this army. 

192 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Owing to the intimate contact between the 
North and South German people {Volkselemente) 
which arose out of this juxtaposition, it was 
more peculiarly in the III. Army that the political 
reflections on this national war found their most 
lively expression within the army. On every 
opportunity that presented itself of speaking on 
state occasions either to the troops or to the 
officers, the Crown Prince emphasized the high 
satisfaction which he felt in having been per- 
mitted to unite the South German forces under 
his supreme command. 

WAR WITH FEANCE (1870-71) 

July 11. — Thile very grave; can hardly see 
his way between Ems, Varzin, and Sigmaringen, 
whence he has to get his instructions. The Here- 
ditary Prince is in the Alps. The French Charge 
d' Affaires, Lesourd, said to the Spanish Ambas- 
sador, in presence of the Austrian, that he should 
leave, since no one was there to negotiate.* 

* On July 3, 1870, it was announced that the Spanish Ministry had 
resolved to elect the Hereditary Prince Leopold of HohenzoUern as their 
King, and that a deputation had been despatched to Germany to offer 
him the Spanish Crown. This measure was resented by the French 

The Spanish Candidature 193 

July 12. — Bismarck is coming, Gortschakow 
and Keuss arrive. 

July 13. — Talked with Bismarck, who received 
the news of the renunciation of the Prince of 
Hohenzollern late on the 12th from Madrid, 
from which he concludes that peace is a certainty; 
he wishes to return to Varzin — appears surprised 
at the state of affairs in Paris. Gortschakow 
is also for peace, although he has just received 
the news that France demands guarantees for 
the future : these must he waited for, yet this 
point, too, may he settled. He admires our 
conduct, and that of the Hereditary Prince, and 
of our press, and will take care that this is 
recognized by the great European cabinets. In 
the mean time, I hear from Paris that Napoleon 
said to one of his former Ministers that the 
Spanish affairs are quite insignificant in the present 
crisis ; it is a struggle for supreme power between 
Prussia and France. Some French papers blame 
the action of the Government; 011ivier*s organs 
claim the fulfilment of Article V. of the Peace 

Government, and although the Prince of Hohenzollern withdrew his 
candidature, it was made the pretext for the rupture between France 
and Germany. 

At this time King William was at Ems, undergoing a cure; Count 
Bismarck was at Varzin ; the Prince of Hohenzollern (father of Prince 
Leopold) at Sigmaringen. Hence the allusions of the first paragraph. — Tu. 

194 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

of Prague in re North Schleswig, and the disso- 
lution of the Union between the South-German 
States and ourselves. 

July 14. — Confirmation of the war news. 

July 15. — Bismarck tells me that he is going 
with Boon and Moltke to meet the King, as far 
as Brandenburg. On the way he propounded his 
views as to the state of our relations with 
France with great perspicacity, and without any 
of his usual favourite little jokes, so that I now 
saw clearly that any compliance with suggestions 
for peace was already impossible : in his opinion, 
and in that of Moltke, the strength and condi- 
tion of the French army were nothing remark- 
able. The King was surprised at our appearance, 
but had, after hearing Bismarck's report during 
the continuation of the drive, nothing essential 
to say against the urgency of an imperative 
mobilization. At the station, Thile with OUivier's 
speech ; the King decides on the mobilization 
of the VII. and VIII. Army Corps, since it is 
evident that the French will be before Mainz 
in twenty-four hours. I pressed the immediate 
mobilization of the entire army and navy, because 
there is no time to be lost ; this was agreed to, and 
I made it known pubhcly. The King embraced 
me with the deepest emotion ; we both felt what 

Mobilization of German Army 195 

was coming ; he got with me into the carriage ; 
enthusiastic reception; I drew the King's atten- 
tion to the ^' Wacht am Rhein;'' at that moment 
every one felt the solemn significance of the 
words belonging to it. 

July 16. — Three armies will be mobilized; 
I am to command the South-German, and thus 
have the hardest task, in fighting with these 
troops (who have not in the least the training of 
our school) such a powerful opponent as the 
French army will prove to be, seeing that it has ^ 
long since prepared itself, and will certainly fall 
at once upon South Germany. 

July 17 {Sunday). — A striking sermon from 
Strauss, in the Garrison Church of Potsdam; 
then a Council of War, the South-Germans for 
me, with the XI. Prussian corps. Stosch is 
unavailable, Blumenthal the Chief of my Staff, 
Gottberg Quartermaster. 

July 18. — General enthusiasm : Germany rises 
like one man, and will restore its unity. 

July 19. — I received my ofiScial recognition. 
Opening of the Reichstag. Drove with the King 
to Charlottenburg, on the anniversary of the death 
of Queen Luise, where we prayed for a long while, 
with heavy hearts, at the grave of the grand- 
parents; on the return journey, I said to my 

196 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Father, that a war, undertaken under such con- 
ditions, could not fail to be successful. Peaceful 
afternoon with wife and children. 

July 20. — To Moltke, who advised me not to 
go to the South at present ; Bismarck, on the con- 
trary, urged that I should immediately and clearly 
announce my impending arrival, by a personal 
telegraphic despatch, to the South-German princes, 
in order to make a good impression, and should 
then proceed to those Courts as quickly as possible : 
the King agreed, and the telegram went off. 

July 21. — The Duke of Coburg has come from 
Fiume, and begs to be employed in a Reserve 
Corps, or in the Elbe-Duchies, eventually on my 

July 22. — The Queen arrives ; touched by the 
enthusiasm on the Rhine; my Staff is getting 
organized; the Bureau, as in 1866, in my palace : 
most of the German Princes are coming in to offer 
their services. 

July 23.— Rest. 

July 24. — Christening in great state, the King 
too much moved to hold the child; solemn 
function: who of us will come back again ? But — 
we shall conquer ! I expect to be appointed to 
a reserve position, which will principally be called 
on to act in the flanks of the Central Army, 

To Mttnich 197 

for I should hardly be able to execute any great 

July 25. — With my wife quietly to Sigismund's 
grave for the Lord's Supper ; I learn that I must 
set out to-morrow. 

July 26. — Departure ; everywhere enthusiastic 

July 27. — By Nuremberg to Munich. King 
Louis seems to be heart and soul with the national 
cause, his rapid decision is universally applauded ; 
unbeknown to Bray he signed the order for 
mobilization laid before him by Pranckh. Enthusi- 
astic reception. To my surprise Duke Friedrich 
is here, and that as a just-appointed Bavarian 
General, — a transition stage towards approxima- 
tion with us. Brings letters patent ; then goes 
back home, to regulate the affairs on his estate. 
Usedom and Hohenlohe have no doubts as to 
Austria's neutrality, in spite of Beust's ambiguities. 
Eeception in the Theatre ; , Wallenstein' s Lager, 
The King thinks that Schiller had many demo- 
cratic tendencies, and believes that on this 
account the' Berliners will not be willing to put 
up his monument. Just as I was starting, I 
received a letter from him ; the independence 
of Bavaria may be admitted in the event of 

198 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

July 28. — Stuttgart. The King receives me 
officially ; the Queen friendly, pale, much affected. 
Suckow is honestly national ; Barnbuhler makes 

^ himself out very patriotic; said to Napoleon at 
the railway-station, in 1867, Germany will become 
united when she is attacked ; begs to send an 
ambassador to head-quarters ; recommends Prince 
Wilhelm, or Spitzemberg, who might speedily be 
appointed Major in the Landwehrs. The Chan- 
cellor of the French Embassy only departed 
yesterday, as also Barnblihler's son, from Paris. 
Reception of the other ministers; the Burger- 
meister, a delegate of the national party; the 
enthusiasm at our departure almost makes me 
uneasy; they presented me with a bouquet in 
the North- German colours; what responsibilities 
this freeing of the German people lays upon us ! 
It would be well to respect the little idiosyncrasies 
of these States, e,g, their envoys. Gortschakow 
is summoned to Petersburg ; Russia will keep a 
strict watch on the neutrality of Austria ; Italy is 

4 uncertain, has no funds. The remarkable inactivity 
of the French points to some error in calculation. 

J July 29. — Karlsruhe. Our main thought is 

how to prosecute the liberal development of 
Germany after our struggles have earned peace. 
July 30. — Went off to Speyer, where the Head- 

Preparations for War 199 

Quarters are at Pfeuffer. Bavarian bivouac, capable 
soldiers ; in this Cathedral the first meeting of the 
Prince of Wales with the Princess Alexandra 
took place, in 1867. 

July 31. — Impressive service. Moltke tele- 
graphed to me to go south, as soon as the 
Wiirtembergers and Badensers had arrived, by the 
left bank, and attack, in order to prevent any 
building of a bridge at Lauterberg. I am not yet 
ready for that, but the people feel safe everywhere, 
now that the Prussians have come. 

August 1. — Question of an arm-band, as a 
token of recognition; vetoed, because too easily 
imitated. Long tranquillizing talk with the Duke 
of Coburg and Morier. Freytag is there ; I hope 
that Eoggenbach is also coming. We are ready 
for battle, and want to be beforehand ; who could 
have expected it ? Cartwright comes from Italy ; 
opinions there are wavering, as to whom Eome 
may expect the most from. I have a presentiment 
that this war must bring a pause in the battles 
and the shedding of blood, but for now my 
watchword is, ** In God's Name, fearlessly and 
steadily forward ! '' My Head-Quarters are swelHng 
to such an extent, that I am obliged to divide it 
into two echelons, the first of which will include 
all the really working members. 

200 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

August 2. — Order, to my army to concentrate ; 
the Bavarians are fairly ready. 

August 3. — Farewell ; last bath in the Ehine ; 
Landau quite retrograde ; probably we give battle 
to-morrow ; to-day is to be the unveiling of the 
statue of Friedrich Wilhelm III. 

August 4. — Weissenburg. Our men made use 
of every unevenness in the ground, as they do in 
the peace-manoeuvres, and our Bavarian com- 
panions let fall expressions of admiration, as much 
for our soldiers as for their manner of fighting. 
Gate of the city shot down, and the place taken, 
thus winning a secure position, and the command 
of the railways and roads leading to Strasburg. 
We had in all two Divisions, the enemy one, part 
of which only arrived on the scene at nightfall, 
but had the most favourable portion of the field. 
Great rejoicing ; the dying and heavily wounded 
raised themselves, by a great effort of strength, to 
make known their satisfaction. The colours of 
the King's regiment were hit through the staff; 
three bearers fell before Sergeant Forster reached 
the heights at the van of the storming-party : I 
was obliged to press the banner thus gloriously 
upborne to my lips. On the southern declivity 
two canvas encampments of tentes d'abri were 
taken, with undisturbed dinner and provisions; 

Battle of Worth 201 

General Douai's little dog was whimpering round 
his corpse ; the chattering French surgeon knew 
nothing of the Convention of Geneva, had no Bed 
Cross band, and only cried out, *^ Procurez nous 
notre hagage,'" The Turcos are the real savages ; 
quarters at Pfarrer Schafer's, in Schweighofen. 
French soldiers said to me, *^ Ah vos soldats Prus- 
siens se hattent admirablement,^' 

August 5. — Marched towards France ; pros- 
perous districts, deserted, terror of the German 
man-eaters; the grim appearance of the battle- 
field gets ever more horrible, — everywhere traces 
of hurried withdrawal. Eoggenbach comes as the 
Major of the Baden-Landwehrs. A telegraph book 
found at the railway station gives important de- 
tails ; shows, i,e., how little prepared the French are 
with mobilization, formation, and commissariat, 
and enables one to conjecture that the French 
army is concentrating its main force before Metz. 
Intelligence of a great French bivouac behind 
Worth in three Divisions, who are waiting for 
reinforcements ; a stronger position even than 

August 6.— Worth. 80,000 French; I have 
100,000 men. MacMahon's tough resistance, and 
fight as he gradually drew off, were admirable, but 
he left me the field. I had the entire lead. 

202 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Blamenthal and Gottberg supported me admirably. 
At 3.30 I was able to announce victory to tlie 

The mitrailleuses are incredibly destructive 
within the narrow limits of their range. The 
South-German cooperation welded the different 
troops together ; the consequences will be of 
enormous importance if we set to in good earnest, 
and determine not to let such an opportunity pass 
unused. A Colonel of Cuirassiers said to me, 
^' Ah^ Monseigneur, quel defaite, quel malheur, fai la 
honte d'etre prisonnier, nous avons tout perdu.' ^ I 
replied, " Vous avez tort de dire d' avoir tout perdu, 
car apres vous etre hattu comine de braves soldats, vous 
n'avez pas perdu Vhonneur:'' on which he said, 
" Ah merely vous me faites du hien en me traitant de 
la sorted The officers expressed surprise at their 
swords being left them. A talk with Koggenbach 
afforded me a welcome distraction after all the 
stirring impressions of the day. Intelligence of 
Goeben's victory at Saarbriick. 

August 7. — Kest-day. At Koniggratz the fire 
was not near so hot and enduring ; the Zouaves 
shot well, the others fired too early and too high ; 
our helmets did good service. Great bitterness is 
felt against MacMahon; the Emperor they call 
^ * vieillefemme,'' MacMahon's papers are captured ; 


Programme for the Future 203 

the correspondents of the Gaulois and Figaro^ 
captured on the church tower of Worth, announce 
themselves as enemies of OUivier. Starvation 
threatens the wounded French soldiers ; it will be 
another fortnight before the Commissariat is ready. 
During the battle, trains were constantly going to 
Worth with 60 or 100 men, who were sent into 
action without proper leaders. More profound 
talks with Eoggenbach. I begged him to write 
down the matter of them for me shortly and 
concisely, if possible in paragraph form. His 
propositions are noteworthy, even though I cannot 
call them quite practical — rather are they often 
very anomalous : this is natural, in exchanging 
views as to the future constitution of Germany at 
a time when it is still impossible to see what will 
be the consequences of the victories I have gained. 
I am of opinion that it would be impossible for us, 
after peace has been won, to content ourselves 
with the mere tracing out (Anhahnung) of new 
efforts, in the German sense ; far rather are we 
bound to propound to the German people some- 
thing whole and tangible, and to this end one 
must strike the iron of the German Cabinet while 
it is hot. Worth is the first victory over the 
French in the open field since 1815. 

August 8. — March - forward on the Vosges. 

204 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

French Cuirassiers have shot their officers who 
were leading them into the vineyards. The 
material of the '^ Cuirasse " is splendid ; an Officer 
of the Zouaves cannot write. 

August 9. — Thoroughly German impression. 
The inhabitants resemble those in the Black 
Forest, and understand no French, which has 
only been taught for the last twenty years. The 
difference in the Confessions makes itself felt. It 
is very remarkable that the Catholics in Alsace 
have long said that there would be war this year, 
which, after the downfall of Germany, would turn 
against the Protestants ; these predictions are 
repeated daily in each place. Quarters with the 
evangelical Pastor Hann, who describes the flight ; 
he desires peace ; we are not to blame ; the 
Empress and GUivier ought to see a battle-field. 
In MacMahon's carriage was an accurate map of 
the Vosges, along with a plan of all the connections, 
which stands us in good stead : in the baggage of 
Ducrot, the Commandant of Strasburg, were the 
effects of two ladies. 

August 10-12. — Petersbach. The Vosges here 
resemble the Thliringer Wald. The inhabitants 
are all German, and strongly Protestant. Every- 
where we saw statues of the Keformers. The dis- 
organization of the French is great ; the fugitives 

March towards France 205 

say they never had to deal with such soldiers. 
The range of our victories carries far ; our officers 
are modest. Freytag is amiable, liked by every 
one, contented with everything, a diligent observer. 

August 13. — Sarrebourg. Here the German 
language comes abruptly to an end. 

August 14. — Blamont. The people are getting 
over their fright. 

August 15. — The peasants say they were de- 
ceived in the plebiscite. 

Augustll, 18. — InNancy. Fighting round Metz, 
feverish excitement ; the inhabitants are Orleanist. 

August 20. — Meeting with the King at Pont-a- 
Mousson ; he is deeply grieved at our losses. 
Council of War. Moltke quite himself, clear, 
determined to go to Paris. Bismarck temperate, 
though not at all sanguine. Our conditions are 
Alsace, and indemnity for the war. 

August 21. — ^Vaucouleurs. Baudricourt's castle, 
ruins, the chapel a wine-cellar ; the Pfarrer told 
us that interest in the birthplace of the Maid of 
Orleans was first excited by the march-through 
of the Germans in 1814. 

August 23. — Steinmetz seems to want to play 
the part of York, unnecessarily. Have seen the 
King again, who is once more cheerful. I obtained 
with difficulty that the Iron Cross should be 


2o6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

conferred on those also who are not Prussians. 
Shifting intelligence as to the enemy's march; 
Moltke intends to get him into a mouse-trap (?). 
Gallifet writes that abdication is unavoidable, the 
Eepublic a probabiHty. Benedetti's project has 
been prejudicial to us in England; without Bis- 
marck's encouragement, no such speech would 
have been permitted. The eighty-seven-year-old 
Madame de BouUenois sent her regards to my 
wife, whom she admires as an excellent mother, 
housewife, and hostess; the life here is that of 
a simple chateau, 

September 1. — Sedan. Count Bothmer brings 
the intelligence that Napoleon is in Sedan; the 
King asked me yesterday what we are to do with 
Napoleon when we have caught him ? The white 
flag is hoisted at Sedan : Napoleon is there. Bron- 
sart has spoken with him ; he told him that he 
was sending General Keille. An unsuccessful cheer; 
it does not correspond with the magnitude of the 
occasion — perhaps one cannot yet tell whether it 
is a piece of good fortune or no. K parlementaire 
is coming ; the Princes present are forming with 
Bismarck, Moltke, and Koon, a circle round the 
King ; I near His Majesty. Eeille appears, humbled, 
but not without dignity, and brings the following 


Sedan 207 

letter to the King : *^ Monsieur monfrere. N' ay ant 
pas pu mourir an milieu de mes troupes il ne me 
reste q'a remettre mon epee entre les mains de Voire 
Majeste, Je suis de Voire Majeste le bon frdre 
Napoleon, Sedan, 1st Sept., 1870." After a con- 
sultation with Bismarck, Moltke, and myself, 
the King dictated to Hatzfeld the sketch of an 
answer, which was written with his own hand 
later on. We had some trouble in finding writing' 
materials, — my writing'-paper stamped with the 
Eagle from the saddle-pocket, the Grand-Duko 
of Weimar gave ink and pen, two straw chairs 
made the table, on which Gustedt laid his Hussars* 
pouch as a board. ^'Monsieur mon frere. En 
regreitani les circonsiances dans lesquelles nous nous 
recontronSy faccepie Vepee de Voire Majeste et je prie 
de hien vouloir nommer un de Ses officiers, muni de 
pleins pouvoirs pour iraite des conditions de la capitu- 
lation de Varmee, qui s^est si bravement battue sous 
Vos ordres. De mon cote j'ai designe le general de 
Moltke a cei effet. Je suis de Voire Majeste le bon 
frere Guillaume. Devant Sedan, 1st September, 
1870.'* Meantime I talked to Reille, an amiable 
man, distinguished in the best sense; he was 
attached to me in 1867, my sympathy did him 
good ; — the Prince Imperial is not there. When 
he had departed, the King and I fell on each 

2o8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

other's necks, the recollection of July 3 was upon 
us : extraordinary enthusiasm of the troops. 
^^ Nun danket alle Gott'' (*^ Now thank we all our 
God ") ; I could not restrain my tears. 

September 2. — The words, " The world's history 
is the world's judgment," came back to me from 
my childhood's lessons. Wimpffen's diiBficulties 

{sic) ; Napoleon is coming ; is waiting in the 

potato-field not far from Donchery : Bismarck and 
Moltke hasten to him ; he requests more favourable 
terms of capitulation and withdrawal of the army to 
Belgium ; wishes to speak with the King. Moltke 
believes this to be a pretext ; he no longer feels 
himseK safe in Sedan, and is concerned about his 
carriages and fourgons, Moltke seeks for more 
suitable quarters, while Bismarck converses with 
Napoleon. The King keeps to unconditional sur- 
render of arms, the officers will be free on parole ; 
the Capitulation will be signed at 12 noon. Moltke 
receives the Iron Cross of the First Class ; Bis- 
marck arrives ; while smoking, they talked over 
everything, except politics. I proposed Wilhelms- 
hohe as a residence for Napoleon ; advised against 
the meeting on the heights, in presence of the 
troops, as humiliating; suggested that the King 
should ride to Bellevue to the Emperor. Conference 
with Bismarck, Koon, and Moltke ; through the 

Sedan 209 

Bavarian bivouac to Bellevue, where we found 
the Imperial carriage and fourgons, the lackey, 
and postillions powdered a la Longjumeau. We 
were received by General Castelnau ; Napoleon 
appeared in full uniform at the entrance of the 
glass pavilion, and led the King within. I closed 
the doors, and remained standing in front of them ; 
the French suite retired into the garden. Eeille, 
Achille Murat, and Davilliers kept me company. 
The interview, as communicated to me later on 
by the King, was as follows. 

The King began that, inasmuch as the fortune 
of the war had turned against the Emperor, and 
obhged him to give up his sword, he had come to 
ask what were his present views? Napoleon 
referred his future solely to His Majesty. The 
latter replied that it was with genuine sympathy 
that he saw his opponent in such a case, the more 
so as he knew that it had not been easy for the 
Emperor to decide upon the war. This utterance 
did Napoleon obvious good, and he protested 
warmly that he had only bowed to public 
opinion in deciding upon the war, to which the 
King replied, **That public opinion should have 
taken this turn, must be laid to the score of those 
whom you called to be your advisers." Passing 
to the immediate object of the visit, the King 

2IO Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

asked if Napoleon had now any propositions to 
make, which, the Emperor negatived, with the 
remark that, as a prisoner, he had no influence on 
the Government. To the further question where 
then was their Government, he replied, ^^In Paris." 
The King then turned the conversation to the 
immediate personal position of the Emperor, and 
offered him Wilhelmshohe as a residence, which 
he at once accepted ; he seemed more particularly 
gratified when His Majesty remarked that he 
would for security give him a guard of honour 
over the border. When in the further course 
of the conversation, Napoleon expressed the 
conjecture that he had been opposed by the Army 
of Frederick Charles, the King informed him that 
it had been I and the Crown Prince of Saxony. 
To his question, ** Where then was Prince Frederick 
Charles ? " the King replied with emphasis, 
**With seven Army Corps before Metz." The 
Emperor stepped back with every sign of distressed 
surprise ; a painful twitch crossed his face, for it 
was now clear to him for the first time that he had 
not got the entire German army against himself. 
The King praised the valour of the French army, 
which Napoleon willingly conceded, but he remarked 
that they were lacking in the discipline which 
so greatly distinguished our army. The Prussian 

Interview with Napoleon 211 

artillery are the finest in the world, and his troops 
were unable to withstand our fire. The interview 
must have lasted a good quarter of an hour, when 
they came out again ; the King's tall, fine figure 
looking wonderfully dignified as compared with 
the solid little Emperor. When the latter became 
aware of my presence, he stretched out one hand 
to me, while with the other he brushed away the 
heavy tears that coursed down his cheeks. He 
told me with gratitude of the words, and more 
particularly the magnanimous manner, with which 
the King had received him. I, of course, adopted 
the same tone, and asked if he had been able to 
rest in the night ? to which he repHed that 
anxiety for his people had prevented him from 
getting any sleep. To my regrets that the war 
should have taken such a desperately sanguinary 
course, he replied that this was unfortunately 
only too true, and the more terrible ^^ quand 
on n'a pas voulu la guerre ! " He had had no 
news of the Empress and of his son for eight 
days, and begged permission to send them 
cypher telegrams. We took leave with " shake 
hands " (sic). Boy en and Linar accompanied 
him ; his suite looked gloomy, in brand-new uni~ 
forms, beside ours, which had gone through the 
war with us. 

212 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

September 3. — Donchery. Bismarck came to 
see me. We retain Alsace, under German ad- 
ministration for Confederation or Empire : the 
Kaiser idea was hardly mentioned; I saw that 
Bismarck only favoured it conditionally, and took 
care not to press it, although I am convinced 
that we must come to it ; the development tends 
that way, and no better opportunity can come 
than through this victory. Failly and Ducrot 
asked me if they might travel through Belgium : 
Napoleon has gone off — immediately after came 
a cypher-telegram for him from the Empress, 
which I sent after him by Seckendorf — the 
Belgians show much sympathy for him. My 
fear is that the results of the war will not 
correspond with the just expectations of the 
German people. 

September 6. — Kheims. Quarters with Werle 
(Cliquot), where I gave champagne as an ex- 
ception, otherwise nothing of that sort is drunk 
under my command in the field. Cathedral and 
Coronation Hall spoiled by rococo style. 

Apart from the desire for peace, there is 
a general feeling of resentment against Paris, 
that decides everything ; the people are formally 
divided into French and Parisian; they wonder 
that we go among them without an escort. 

Question of Alsace-Lorraine 213 

^^ Napoleon n'aurait jamais ose se hasarder ainsi'' 
is what one hears. My hope is in the serious 
nature of the people, the duty of a liberal building- 
up of Imperial and National life; if the right 
moment is missed now in the general agitation, 
the passions will be diverted, through inactivity, 
into byways. The King of Bavaria has conferred 
on me the Order of Max-Joseph, which is only 
given for victories that have been won; no one 
possesses it in Bavaria. 

September 8. — Deep grief at Jasmund's death ; 
many were more gifted, but few so faithful; I had 
counted much on him for the future. France is v 
now our natural foe for all time, hence her 
debilitation is our task; the field of strategic 
action, hitherto so narrow, is made easier through 
the possession of Alsace. 

September 12 to 14. — Alsace-Lorraine. Imperial >/ 
territory without a dynasty; indigenous Council 
of Administration ; the question is how to separate 
them from the great body of the French State, 
and yet let them feel themselves part of a great 
Empire, and not condemned to rank with the 
Particularists (die Kleimtaaterei mit zu machen), 
Russell (the Times correspondent), who disappeared 
without a trace, travelled direct to England, even 
writing much in the carriage. Roggenbach 

214 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

advises that we use the time to advocate 
decentralization in France by our influence. 

Septemher 16. — Coulommiers. Order to the 
army to invest Paris; from Meaux to Head- 
Quarters. Favre announced through English 
mediation ; Bismarck agrees ; one must give him 
a hearing in order to know him. Bavaria, not 
inclined to a congress of ministers, had, in the 
first place, urgently demanded that Delbriick 
should come. Gortschakow against the cession 
of Alsace. Napoleon is astonished at his good 
treatment in Wilhelmshohe ! what did he expect 
from us ? we honour ourselves by acting thus. 
Boyen says the behaviour of the public has every- 
where been tactful ; he admired our Landwehr- 
guards. The Kepublio is settling down, without 
making any talk ; the Maii'e of Coulommiers says 
that Napoleon's position had already been made 
untenable through OUivier. Isle de France is a 
splendid land ; the country-folk make a pleasing 
impression, the people ask quaint questions, and 
handle my star. 


Septemher 19. — Paris invested. Versailles on 
the point of capitulating ! then congratulates 
itself on being within range, on account of the 
mob. Sevres begs for billets. 

Investment of Paris 215 

September 20. — In Versailles at the Prefecture. 
The news from Bavaria good. In considering the 
State apartments, where so much unhappiness 
for Germany has been determined on, and in 
which the scorn for its degeneration is pictorially 
represented, I foster the firm hope that the 
rehabilitation of Emperor and Empire may be 
celebrated on this very spot. 

September 22. — To Ferrieres. Comparable to a 
chest of drawers with its legs uppermost, inside 
a curiosity-cabinet of meaningless luxury. Favre 
is grateful for the treatment he has received; 
has left a favourable impression on our officers, 
but refuses our demands by letter. Impression 
made by Sedan and the Eepublic upon Austria ; 
the Emperor of Kussia sends Moltke the Order 
of St. George. Three years ago, I was walking 
with the Empress Eugenie in the Park at Ver- 
'sailles ! Christening carriages, cradles of the 
Duke of Eeichstadt, the Comte de Chambord, the 
Comte de Paris, the Prince Imperial! Solemn 
service in the open air — the French much im- 
pressed. Excursion to S. Cloud ; picture of the 
arrival of Queen Victoria when the Crown Princess 
first came on the continent ; the French even- 
tually destroyed it themselves ! On the Council 
table, where the decision for war had been carried, 

2i6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

lay draughts of the Prussian army, lint in baskets, 
invitation cards of the Empress-Eegent. The 
appointments are charming and luxurious. 

September 28. — Strasburg has capitulated; I 
am writing to the King to prepare everything 
for the immediate restoration of the Cathedral, 
the Library, and so forth. 

September 29. — Fifteen years ago to-day, I was 
betrothed at Balmoral. 

September 30. — To Ferrieres. Favourable news 
from Delbriick, to the astonishment of Bismarck. 
I talked to His Majesty about the Imperial 
Question, which is drawing near; he treats it 
as if it were not on the horizon: stands upon 
du Bois-Keymond's dictum, that Imperialism has 
gone to the ground, so that in future there can 
only be a King of Prussia, Duke of the Germans. 
I pointed out, on the other hand, that the three 
Kings obliged us to take the supremacy as Kaiser, 
that the thousand years' crown of Kaiser and King 
had nothing to do with modern Imperialism; at 
the end his opposition was weakened. 

October 2. — Queen Victoria, who watches our 
actions with touching sympathy, has telegraphed 
to His Majesty to urge him to be magnanimous 
in regard to the Favre proposals of peace, although 
she has no practical measures to propose. 

Investment of Paris 217 

October 3. — General Burnside comes from Paris 
— looks wise — speaks so candidly that Blumenthal 
and I think him not to be talking without the 
permission of the plenipotentiaries. They wish 
for peace, but with no cession of territory. Favre, 
on the contrary, told him he saw perfectly that 
France, now vanquished, must acquiesce in the 
loss of Alsace, but the present Government could 
not take arbitrary steps in the matter, because 
consent to our demands would mean their own 
downfall. Therefore, the convening of a Con- 
stituent Assembly is necessary, because the desire 
for peace expressed in the same, and in the name 
of the people, might give support to the Govern- 
ment. I remarked that we have throughout 
been unwilling to hinder the elections fixed for 
October 2, which surprises the Americans. Ke- 
moved to Les Ombrages. 

October 5, — His Majesty arrives with the 
oolossal Head-Quarters ; the mass of the waggons 
is incredible, since every tinker and tailor has 
his own. 

October 6. — The fountains play: to the great 
surprise of the public, the King goes about 
casually among the crowd. 

Thiers suggests bringing King Leopold to the 
Throne of France, which Bismarck holds to be 

2i8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

still-born : it disappoints him to find no response 
in England ; they seem unwilling there to recog- 
nize that German help will have to be sought 
in the future. Delbriick summoned, to explain 
the contradictions in his letters and telegrams. 
Bismarck wants to upset nothing, properly speak- 
ing; he disapproves of Jacobi's arrest, and is 
imeasy about its effect on the elections, but 
cannot persuade the King to liberate him. Vogel 
von Falckenstein is no politician, insists on doing 
everything, and declines legal assistance; the 
King cannot disavow him. Letter from Eenan, 
asking me for a safe conduct, recalling our 
acquaintance of 1867. 

October 9. — Service in the Palace Chapel. 

October 10. — Preliminary arrangements of the 
siege. Delbriick arrives. Bavaria consents to 
the conditions of entrance into the North-German 
Confederation, only standing out for military and 
diplomatic points. The Ministers are not at one 
among themselves, and appeal to contradictory 
statements of the King, who discoursed with 
Delbriick for an hour and a half upon matters 
which for the most part have nothing to do 
with his mission; he is studying the Infalli- 
bility Question. Bismarck is much provoked 
with Schneider, who puts tactless and false 

Investment of Paris 219 

statements into the Staats-Anzeiger. Duke Fried- 
rich goes to V. d. Tann, believes it will come 
to nothing, and in Versailles finds the news 
of Artenay. Bismarck tells me that Chambord 
and Ollivier have written to His Majesty. The 
former would listen to the cry of his people, but 
with no territorial concessions. Ollivier owns to 
having advised war; warns us, however, against 
demanding concessions. The one can do nothing ; 
the other is involved in everything, and both 
dare to give advice to the victor ! St. Cloud 
in flames. Burnside comes from Paris again, 
deputed by the Government, who are pursuing 
the war without any plan, simply to keep in "^ 
oflSce. Bazaine is sending his Chief of the Staff 
to negotiate on a military-political footing. Bis- 
marck would give him audience, Eoon and Moltke 
not — disunited among themselves ; upbraid each 
other for not having received any intelligence. 
Friedrich Karl is opposed, because he fears 
the capitulation might be definitively settled in 

The King of Wiirtemberg wants to treat with 
us directly, so as not to appear to be towed by 
Bavaria. Bismarck is grappling with the Kaiser 
Problem, tells me he made a mistake in treating 
the question with indifference in 1866, but did 

220 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

not then think the desire among the German 
people for the Imperial throne so strong as it now 
appears to be, and only fears the development of 
great luxury at the Court, as to which I reassured 
him. The Duke of Coburg is for election by 
Princes, who would take the place of the Electors. 

October 14. — Stosch tells me that Boyer has 
been in Versailles since yesterday evening; he 
wants to negotiate for the free withdrawal of the 
army of Metz, since Bazaine might attempt a 
Kestoration. Bismarck will make use of him, so 
as to retain all means in his hand that could 
possibly lead to a peaceful conclusion. 

October 18. — This unique celebration of my 
birthday shows me plainly the serious nature of 
the task which I must accomplish in the field 
of German politics, for I hope to be spared 
more wars in the future, and that this may be 
my last campaign. Evidently, many are looking 
with confidence towards the task which will one 
day, please God, rest in my hands, and I feel 
a certain security for the performance of the 
same, because I know that I shall prove myself 
worthy of the confidence placed in me. The 
present negotiations are difficult. Bismarck seems 
to be putting his whole strength into the thing. 
The King came to me early ; he has granted my 

The Kaiser Question 2.2.1 

request, and wears the First Class of the Iron Cross : 
at dinner he proposed my health, as the one 
*^ who has brought us all here.'' The Grand-Duke 
of Weimar asks my views about the German 
Question, and uses the expression, *^ a constitution 
unifying all the German States : '' this must 
come, but in the first place Germany requires 
the Monarchical Head, and that indeed at the 
present time. — I have discovered that there has 
been some ill-feeling against England; that is 
over, but whether the predisposition for Kussia 
and America will not fan the hatred of England 
once more, no one can tell. 

Twesten's death is a loss that cannot be re- 
placed ; I met Bennigsen, who was summoned by 
Bismarck, and told me he had received a favourable 
impression. Bismarck is against an Upper House. 

October 23. — Bray, Pranckh, and Suckow are 
with me ; they do not say much, but are there. 

October 24. — Eumours of Gortschakow's re- 
nunciation of the neutralization of the Black Sea. 
Bismarck tells my brother-in-law that at the end 
of the war he will stand out against Infallibility. 

October 25. — The South-German Ministers dine 
with me. Mitnacht seems the most capable; he 
expressed himself favourably in a private audience 
that he requested, as does Suckow. Bray spoke 

222 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

with Bismarck yesterday about the Imperial 
Dignity (Kaiser-Wurde) \ he, the latter, declared 
that an Upper House, in which the Kings would 
sit with the Counts and Lords upon a dai's, 
would be impossible, so that over this question 
alone the Kaiser and the Confederation would be 
at a standstill. 

October 26. — Moltke's seventieth birthday. I 
brought him a laurel wreath ; he is one with me 
in wishing to reduce Paris by starvation, and is 
against the opening of parallels. 

October 27. — Metz has capitulated, but France 
is making every effort to relieve Paris, while 
Podbielski always demonstrated that it was in- 
capable of doing so. I treat Dalwigk coldly — 
Hofmann in a friendly manner. Bismarck says 
he is not against the Upper House and Imperial 
Prime Minister on principle, and would not refuse 
his consent later on. 

October 28. — In the Orangerie at Versailles. The 
trees might be twice as high. Napoleon III. did 
not like oranges, and presented a great many to 
the Comtesse Beauregard. But what was built 
in former times was for eternity, to-day it is mostly 
surface-show, and for appearance only. 

October 29. — Telegram from Friedrich Karl, 
*' Congratulations, mein Herr General - Feld- 

The Kaiser Question 223 

marschalL'' An hour and a half later, I received 
my appointment. Its touching and affectingly 
beautiful words of recognition ; above all, however, 
the sentence that my brave army must in this 
promotion, never before conferred on a Prince of 
the House, see a distinction for its own services, 
helped me over the feeUng of grief that this pecu- 
liarly beautiful old family tradition had now been 
broken through. Friedrich Karl will have taken 
this appointment more as something expected. 

Moltke has been made Count. I suggested 
to the Grand-Duke of Baden to come; Dalwigk 
appears very coulant, will make propositions as 
to the Imperial Minister and the Upper House. 
Roggenbach is and remains the only reasonable 
and dependable man among the statesmen who 
are present. 

October 30. — Thiers arrives ; meets the magni- 
ficent Guard-Landwehrs ; avoids political topics 
until he has been in Paris, In BerHn, the lay- 
people from their warm rooms advocate the bom- 
bardment of Paris. To my astonishment Dalwigk 
unfolded to me the programme of the German 
Question. Prince Otto of Bavaria, who has 
suddenly been called to Munich by a weighty 
communication, came to make his adieus. 

November 1. — Dalwigk had a conference with 

224 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the assembled German and Friesian Ministers, in 
order to win Bavaria to the idea of a German 
Empire with responsible Ministry and a States 
or Upper House; but they arrived at no result, 
more particularly since Bray made known that 
the question under consideration had already been 
discussed with Delbriick in Munich, but had fallen 
through owing to the refusal of Prussia ! Bismarck, 
however, appealed to the South-German feeling 
against it. The King told Eoggenbach yesterday 
evening that he looked upon the North-German 
Constitution as requiring revision and alteration, 
and in general expressed himself favourably in 
regard to the Imperial Question. Since Bismarck 
cannot get away, it has been proposed to convene 
the German Keichstag in this place; a forcible 
impression would be made, and if this could be 
combined with the Congress of Princes that I 
desire, the German Question would be settled at 
one blow. 
^ November 2. — Eeport of Bismarck as to the 
negotiations with Thiers. The latter says that 
twenty-eight days are required to elect the 
Constituent Assembly, — the same to be a time of 
armistice, and ravitaillement, to which we ought 
to contribute. On Bismarck's enquiring for the 
reciprocal proposals, Thiers said in surprise, the 

Negotiations with Thiers 225 

prospect of arriving at a regular Government 
through the " Constituante ; " on the refusal of 
provisions, the exclamation escaped him, '* Mais 
nous aurions done alors la capitulation au milieu 
de r armistice.'' When Bismarck blamed him for 
making use of the Turcos, he replied, " Mais 
vous vov^ servez done tout de meme des Uhlans.'' 

November 3. — Thiers makes his proposals in 
writing; three weeks will not suflEice to get in 
the provisions necessary for the victualling of 
Paris. Keinforcements must be sent against the 
masses gathering on the banks of the Loire ; the 
King, however, does not agree. Delbriick thinks 
one cannot compel a member of the Union, such 
as Bavaria, to come in at the present moment : 
I, however, assert that we do not know our own 
power, and in consequence can, in the present 
epoch-making moment, do whatever we earnestly 
desire — only in God's name, let us ask what we do 
want; and who does want anything in earnest 
now ? Idea of assembling the Keichstag here 
given up. The Grand-Duke of Baden is coming. 

November 7. — At last the reinforcements for 
V. d. Tann have been conceded by the King. The 
Grand-Duke finds the King more inclined to the 
German Question than he anticipated. Bismarck 
has told the Ministers it is the wish of the 


226 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Prussian Government that the German Princes 
should seal the peace here with the pommels 
of their swords, to which idea the King of Saxony 
has already given his consent. The Grand-Duke 
of Oldenburg is coming, so we shall soon have 
material enough for a Congress of Princes. The 
Grand-Duke of Mecklenburg receives the chief 
command on the Loire. I would wilHngly have 
given him the Duke of Coburg, who is keenly 
anxious for service; the Military Cabinet, how- 
ever, makes the undeniable nervous activity of the 
Duke of value in critical moments. 

November 10. — Note to Bismarck about the 
attitude of our Press in regard to England. 
V. d. Tann's news from Coulommiers sounds 

November 11. — Bismarck sends Abeken, who 
is full-bearded, to reply in answer to my note, 
that he regrets the tone of our Press against 
England, and has accordingly instructed Eulen- 
burg; and Bernstein has also been written to 
in the same sense. The Grand-Duke of Baden 
has the impression that Bismarck is in earnest 
about the Imperial Question : the Grand-Duke 
has written a quite extraordinary letter to the 
King of Bavaria, which, however, remains un- 
answered. Wiirtemberg makes reservations about 

The Imperial Question 2,2^1 

the Military Convention ; the right to promotion 
in his Division is prejudicial to his own officers. 

November 12. — The sentry will not admit me 
to the Villa Stern, as he has no order to make 
exceptions ! The Wlirtemberg Ministers have 
suddenly departed, on the receipt of bad news, 
just as they were going to sign; this is an 
intrigue of Gasser — Suckow and Mitnacht are 
honest. Boon and Podbielski complain of know- 
ing nothing. Bismarck is shocked that such 
Prussian Particularists should be concerned in this 
affair. Ledochowski is informing himself whether 
the Pope will be accepted in Prussia. Bismarck 
holds that the evacuation of Eome would be an 
enormous error on the part of Pio Nono, but his 
stay in Germany might be productive of good 
results, because the sight of the Eoman Priest- 
hood would cure the Germans. The King and 
myself are strongly against it. 

November 14. — Odo Eussell is coming ; the 
Russian withdrawal is a fact. It is said that 
Palmerston remarked to Brunnow, on the signing 
of the Treaty of 1856, that it would not last ten 
years. General Annenkow brings a letter from 
the Emperor Alexander — Reuss only heard of it 
after it had been sent off — with the request not 
to telegraph until the King had received the 

228 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

letter. We telegraphed to postpone the step, 
but received the answer that it was too late — 
despatches had gone simultaneously to London 
and Vienna. 

November 16. — Our representatives are to 
remain passive ; the King is much annoyed, and 
tells me that this surprise is beyond a joke. 
In England this will certainly be taken as a 
reprisal for the export of arms. Bismarck, how- 
ever, denies all cognizance of it. 

Talk with Bismarck on the German Problem ; 
he is willing to come to a conclusion, but points 
out the difficulties with a shrug of his shoulders : 
what, e.g.^ are we to do against the South 
Germans? Do I wish that they should be 
threatened? I reply, ^' Yes, surely; there is 
no danger if only we maintain a firm and com- 
manding attitude ; you will see that I was right 
to maintain that; you are not yet fully aware 
of your power." Bismarck entirely refuses 
threats, and says that even in the most ex- 
treme measures, in last resort, we ought not 
to threaten, because that would be throwing 
these States into the arms of Austria. On 
taking office he had the firm intention of bring- 
ing Prussia to war with Austria, but was careful 
then, and in general, to avoid speaking to His 

The Imperial Question 229 

Majesty too early about it, until he saw that 
the psychological moment had arrived. So now 
we must wait for the fitting time to let the 
German Question develop itself. I repUed that 
I could not view such delays with indifference, 
seeing that I represented the Future. It was 
not necessary to use force : we could quietly wait 
to see if Bavaria or Wiirtemberg ventured to 
attach themselves to Austria. Nothing would 
be easier than not merely to have the Kaiser 
proclaimed by the majority of the German Princes 
here assembled, but also to ratify some Constitu- 
tion with a Supreme Head, corresponding with 
the just demands of the German people : this 
would create a pressure that the Kings would 
be unable to withstand. Bismarck observed that 
I was quite alone in this opinion; it would be 
more correct to reach the desired end by letting 
the movement come from the lap of the Keichstag. 
On my pointing to the dispositions of Baden, 
Oldenburg, Weimar, Coburg, he took refuge in 
the wishes of His Majesty. I replied that I 
knew very well that in such a matter his refusal 
would of itseK be sufficient to make the thing im- 
possible with His Majesty. Bismarck repKed that 
I was reproaching him, while he knew that the 
blame was deserved by quite other people. In 

u \ 

230 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

this respect we must remember the great inde- 
pendence of the King in political matters, in that 
he always looks through every weighty despatch 
himself, and even corrects it. He regretted that 
the question of the Kaiser and Supreme Head 
should be generally discussed, because the 
Bavarians and Wiirtembergers would thereby be 
offended. I remarked that Dalwigk had incited 
them. Bismarck thought my utterances must 
be prejudicial ; he considers, speaking generally, 
that the Crown Prince ought not to express such 
views. I at once protested emphatically, on the 
contrary, that speech should not be denied to 
me in this way, — rather in such questions of the 
future, I regarded it as a duty not to leave any 
one in doubt as to my views; in any case, it 
rested with His Majesty alone to point out to 
me in what matters I might express myself, and 
in what not — if indeed I were not thought old 
enough to judge of them for myself. Bismarck 
replied that if the Crown Prince commanded, he 
would act in accordance with his views. I pro- 
tested against this, because I had no orders to 
give him, on which he explained that, for his 
part, he would be quite ready to make way for 
any one else whom I thought more fitted for the 
conduct of affairs than himself; till then, however, 

The Imperial Question 231 

he must maintain his principles according to his 
best Hghts and individual knowledge of all the 
circumstances relating to the subject. Then we 
came to questions of detail ; at the conclusion I 
remarked that I had perhaps been too hasty, but 
that no one could expect me to be indifferent at 
this epoch-making moment. 

November 17. — Delbriick goes to Berlin for 
the opening of the Keichstag. In my opinion, 
the present disposition of the Third Army should 
be kept up in peace, as in this way I should 
remain Commander-in-Chief: I could then exert 
my influence, with the needful admixture of 
prudence and severity, only excusing myself the 
inspections, with parades, dinners, etc. The King 
is over-done ; he is obliged to follow the opera- 
tions and negotiations simultaneously, and the 
distractions of social intercourse are wanting, 
seeing that the daily guests are becoming highly 
monotonous. I am well; read and write from 
6 a.m. ; later on the time is cut up. 

November 18. — Eoggenbach thinks the situation 
more favourable than it appears to be. I am 
pleased with the Times article on my letter of 
thanks to Lindsay ; would that I might suc- 
ceed, according to the principles of my ever- 
remembered father-in-law, in forging a chain 

232 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

between these two countries, so closely bound up 
with one another. 

Novemher 19. — Odo Eussell has come ; his first 
impression of Bismarck was favourable ; he is my 
old, respected, and beloved acquaintance of Eome 
in 1862. Meyer comes, to the general astonish- 

November 20.— Bavaria is veering round. 

November 21. — Bismarck tells me our conver- 
sation of the 16th has decided him to set to work 
in earnest, and to take the negotiations in hand 
after Delbriick's departure; both kingdoms are 
now willing to come in, but he still has to play 
his trump-card. Boon threatens to break off the 
military negotiations on account of the external 
cognizances. Thus at the *' green table " we 
remain for ever the same ; in contrast, I am 
refreshed by the opinions in the Volks-Zeitung, 
which always hits the nail on the head. 

November 23. — A moment of strained combi- 
nations. Moltke always brings the matter forward 
with the greatest lucidity, and even precision; 
has invariably considered and calculated on every- 
thing, and always hits the nail on the head; but 
Boon's shrugs, and Podbielski's Olympic security, 
often influence the King. Talked with Prankh, 
who has enough insight and knowledge to be able 

The Imperial Qtiestion 233 

to help his own people, but for the moment can- 
not get beyond entrance into the Confederation. 
He attaches much importance to this result, but 
asks all the more that the rest should be left to 

November- 24. — Signed with Bavaria yesterday 

November 25. — Bismarck urgently advocates 
shelling. Blumenthal, in a Memorandum to 
Moltke, points out the senselessness of a bom- 
bardment that only involves the forts, which 
must be taken by regular approaches and assault. 
We ought to make good our lodgment there under 
the effective fire of the enemy — thence attack the 
strongly fortified enceinte — and lastly advance to 
the city itself. Bismarck has let it be known 
that if the offer of the Imperial Dignity {Kaiser 
Wiirde) is not made shortly from the side of the 
Princes, the Keichstag cannot be prevented longer 
than at latest the middle of next week from 
making the proposition. A prolonged conversa- 
tion with Odo Kussell again displayed the capability 
of this gifted diplomatist; he is satisfied with 
Bismarck, whom he finds very amenable. In the 
Eoman Question, he foresees great trouble for the 
Savoy Dynasty in consequence of the occupation 
of Eome ; he anticipates far-reaching democratic 

234 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

reforms within the Catholic Church from the 
successors of Pius, so that in time an active Pope 
might well succeed in uniting the spiritual with 
the temporal Sovereignty in Italy (?). Prince 
Lynar is sent to Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, and 
Saxony, with an autograph letter from the King 
to invite the Sovereigns. Holnstein has arrived, 
and is seeking lodging and stabling for the King 
in the Trianon. Odo Kussell tells His Majesty 
that it will be owing to the statesmanlike wisdom, 
as well as to the correct procedure of Bismarck, 
if we escape from the Pontifical Question without 
a belligerent conflict. 

November 28. — In Berlin they are gone mad 

over the bombardment : Frau von B designates 

me as the culprit, quite correctly. Nothing shall 
incline me to begin until all the ammunition has 
arrived; the mere firing could have commenced 
long ago, but would promptly have been obliged 
to cease for lack of ammunition. The war-drones 
(Schlachten-bum7nler)j who follow the course of the 
war without responsibility or knowledge, argue 
that our batteries can only be so disposed as to 
leave the Artizans' Quarters untouched — and 
these decide. I offer the command to any 
man who talks to me in this way. 

Holnstein has suddenly departed! Bismarck 

The Imperial Question 235 

orders all members of the Keichstag who are on 
the field to set off to Berlin to vote. 

November 30. — A draught from Bismarck for 
the King's letter to His Majesty in re the Imperial 
Dignity has gone to Munich. The Grand-Duke 
tells me they did not manage to find the right 
way of expressing it there, and begged it might 
be sent from us : the King of Bavaria has really 
subscribed to the letter, and Holnstein is bring- 
ing it ! 

December 3. — Holnstein has arrived ; Prince 
Luitpold is to hand over the document to the King 
by special command. After dinner, report from 
Bismarck, who reads the letter aloud, the King 
finding it as untimely as possible, whereupon 
Bismarck remarks that the Imperial Problem has 
nothing to do with the campaign of the moment. 
As we left the room, Bismarck and I shook hands. 
With to-day's work Emperor and Empire are irre- 
vocably established ; the sixty-five years' interreg- 
num — the Kaiser-less, terrible time — is now over, 
this proud title is aheady pledged; we owe this 
essentially to the Grand-Duke of Baden, who has 
been extraordinarily active. Koggenbach is sent 
to Berlin by Bismarck ; I am writing a letter 
(Lese-Brief) to Simson. 

December 6. — Odo EusseU says Bismarck is 

236 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

favourable to the alliance with England. The 
King much annoyed that Delbriick read the 
letter from the King of Bavaria to the Eeichstag. 
Stillfried sends marvellous attempts at Imperial 
Coats-of-Arms, the Prussian with the crown of 
the Austrian House; he will not admit the 
crown of the German Kings, which I particularly 
wanted as the attribute of the German Imperial 

December 7. — Princess Frederick of the Nether- 
lands dead ; she was the most gifted of the three 
sisters. The Grand-Duke of Weimar told me 
that, as the King's brother-in-law, he had com- 
manded his delegates to propose to the Council 
of the Confederation that Kaiser and Empire 
should be admitted to the League; Bismarck 
wished this. Great dinner at the King's in honour 
of the Eussian Feast of St. George. Stosch on 
the brilliant victory at Bazoches; he speaks well of 
the Grand-Duke, who is considered to have talent. 

Decemher 9. — I received Delbriick's proposition 
of the Imperial Question ; it is beyond measure 
weak, dull, and dry ; it was deplorable — as if he 
had pulled the Kaiser's crown, wrapped up in old 
newspaper, out of his breeches' pocket : it is 
impossible to put any spirit into these people. 
It is asked if this Confederation is to be the result 

The Imperial Question 237 

of the sacrifice, a work that only befits the men, 
for whom and by whom it has been undertaken. 
I am quite aware of the endless worries and diffi- 
culties that to-day's sins of omission will bring 
to my lot. Meantime I have ordered Commandant 
V. Voigts-Ehetz tacitly to keep the Salle des 
Glaces free. The Grand-Duke of Baden says that 
the title of Kaiser, so apparently empty to-day, 
will soon acquire its full significance. 

December 10. — Russell complains of the in- 
creasingly apparent isolation of England. The 
King is excited over Delbriick's procedure ; the 
King of Saxony has expressed his surprise : he 
is afraid of the deputation from the Eeichstag, 
because it looks as if the Imperial Question issued 
from the Reichstag, and will not receive it until 
he has the consensus of all the States collectively, 
through the King of Bavaria. 

December 12. — Pfalzburg capitulates, which 
it has never done before. On the 16th the 
Deputation is to arrive. The King of Bavaria 
has been telegraphed to send off the document 
which has long been in his hands. 

December 14. — Anniversary of Prince Albert's 
death. I remember how he always said to me, 
we must give up the idea of playing any decisive 
role without the co-operation of Germany. 

238 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

December 15. — Moltke is expecting the capitu- 
lation of Longwy and Mezieres, because the Com- 
mandant declares that he will only let himself be 
buried with the last stone ! His bearing and 
manner of expression in such moments are quite 

December 16. — The King will not hear of re- 
ceiving the Deputies, yet he is more alive to the 
thing ; it is unfortunate that Bismarck should just 
now be suffering in his foot. The Grand-Duke of 
Baden works as a good genius. 

December 17. — I hear from Prince Karl's Court 
Marshal, that His Majesty is giving a dinner 
to-morrow to the Delegates from the Eeichstag. 
Bismarck says the King intends to receive them 
before ; long talk with Simson, who is correct and 
logical. Count Perponcher said to Adalbert, 
"We want this Imperialism {Kaiserthum) to be 
not for every day, but for great Court functions 
or celebrations;" to which Adalbert replied, '^ If 
the King raised you to the rank of Prince, would 
you assume the title only on exceptional occa- 
sions ? " Boyen asks what our King will do, if the 
Prussian Landtag deny him the Imperial crown ? 
" Du gleichts dem Geist dem Du begreifst " (Thou 
art equal to the mind that thou conceivest). 

Sunday^ December 18. — Deeply moved by the 


King JVilliam as E7nperor 239 

reception — dignified and good. Eogge's sermon 
proved to me that some weight was still attaching 
to the reception. Princes and Generals begged of 
me that they might be present, which I at once 
repeated to the King after church ; he was much 
astonished, but ended by saying that if any of 
them really wished to be there he had no objection 
to make. Accordingly they all appeared, at which 
the King again expressed his surprise ; only 
Luitpold was missing. At the last moment the 
Royal Adjutants were appointed. His Majesty 
took his place in the chief saloon of the centre 
building, the Princes of the House to the right, 
the reigning Princes {Fursten) to the left. Simson's 
masterly discourse moved me to tears ; no eye 
was dry ; then came the reading of the address. 
The King's answer followed with some, hesi- 
tation, for he no longer reads easily without 
glasses; from emotion, too, he had to pause several 
times. Then followed the ^ presentation of the 
Delegates. During the entire ceremony cannon 
were fired from Mont Valerien ; outside there were 
crowds of people. The future position of the 
King's family is still dubious ; Kaiserliche Hoheit 
(Imperial Highness) goes much against the grain 
with me. 

December 19. — The Delegates are content ; 

240 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

their appearance has worked favourably. I dined 
with Bismarck ; the officials sat dumb, the candles 
were stuck into the necks of bottles. Stosch is 
back ; praises Wittich very much, as also Treskow. 

December 2^. — Christmas festivities. Great 
surprise on the part of the French at our pur- 
chases ; Eussell got an officer's porte-epee in the 

December 25. — Properly speaking, it is an ironical 
travesty of the Angels' message, since either side 
appeals to God on behalf of its own as the just 
cause, and argues at each success that its opponents 
have been left in the lurch by Heaven. 

December 27. — Bourbaki against Belfort. Blu- 
menthal is happy over this indiscretion. 

December 28. — Letter from the King of the 
Belgians, full of sympathy for the Kaiser and 
Empire, and full of great expectations for the 
latter. He sees in it the restoration of Order and 
Conscience of Law in Europe, and designates the 
duties which these involve as *^ truly splendid." 
He is zealously endeavouring to fulfil his duties as 
the neutral party according to agreement, but the 
advantages of such a position are not without 
serious drawbacks and difficulties. He accuses 
the foreign litterateurs of misusing the Belgian 
freedom of the Press against us ; France complains 

King IVilliarn proclaimed Ejiiperor 241 

of Belgium, because the latter permits the German 
wounded and provisions to pass through, while 
the fugitive French are forbidden to return to 
France, and are kept there. 

December 29. — The King received a commenda- v 
tory telegram of congratulation from theKopenicker 
Strasse, on our having at last begun the bombard- 
ment. I drew up with the Grand-Duke of Baden a 
proclamation for Kaiser and Empire. The former 
succeeds to the German Kaiser, but is new in 
every respect, seeing that in 1848 the old Prussian 
Kingdom collapsed, to arise again constitutionally, 
while title and forms remained. A year ago to-day 
Napoleon communicated to me that Ollivier had 
^^ been made Premier. Bismarck expressed himself -^ 
. as gratified with Leopold's letter, and begs me to 
point out in my answer the support that Belgium 
would obtain from a strong Germany, from whom 
she would never have anything to fear, nor, so 
long as Germany remained strong, need she fear 
France either. 

December 31. — The King determines that he 
will allow no pubHcity to-morrow, because Bavaria 
has not yet consented. Delbriiok, on the con- 
trary, announces that the printed Constitution 
»of the Empire will appear in Berlin this even- 
ing, and come into force at daybreak to-morrow, 

242 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

proclaiming as actual the Kaiser and Empire. 
Bismarck, whom I found in bed, and whose room 
was like a rubbish-hole, declares that no Inaugura- 
tion is possible without Bavaria's acquiescence. 
I then begged him to look at the historical 18th 
of January, which seemed to appeal to him. It 
is impossible for us to renounce Alsace-Lorraine, 
even if the conquest of the latter is precarious. 


January 1. — The King greeted me seriously 
and with friendly emotion, with the wish that it 
might be granted me to enter into the pacific 
harvest sown by the present undertaking. He 
could not indeed think that the permanent unity 
of Germany would continue, since unfortunately 
a minority of the princes had not acted and thought 
as one could have wished, in spite of the noble 
example given by the Grand-Duke. I asked 
Delbriick how the marine, telegraph, tax, and 
postal departments were to be designated ? "As 
Imperial." And the Army? **Ah, that is 
another matter." Whereupon I wished Delbriick 
joy of the resulting chaos. A masterly toast of 
the Grand-Duke to King WiUiam the Victorious — 

Bombardment of Paris 243 

in which he referred to the Empire as to-day, by 
the official publication of the Constitution, coming 
into force, although His Majesty would not 
assume the Crown until the members collectively 
gave in their adhesion. Great impression. 

January 2. — A warm letter from Albrecht junior. 
** May this last and highest attainable step of our 
House be for its welfare, and may it succeed in 
being for the whole of Germany what it always 
has been and is for Brandenburg and Prussia.'' 

January 4. — Boon forbids the distribution of 
the Volks-Zeitung. First day of bombardment. 
What will the wiseacres of Berlin say, if, after 
fourteen days, everything goes on as it was before ? 
Werder in a critical position. Nothing on account 
of my individual antipathy to war is to be spared 
me in this colossal war of the giants. My aversion 
to the bloody work is known everywhere ; indeed, 
they even say of me, as I read to my secret 
satisfaction, that wherever it is compatible with 
strict fulfilment of duty, I let mildness and 
leniency prevail. 

January 8. — The burning questions are, treat- 
ment of invested Paris, armistice, and conditions 
of peace. His Majesty invites Bismarck and 
myseK to debate over the Insignia of Kaiser and 
Empire. Manteuffel is coming, on his way to 

244 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

the Army of the South; praises the debouche of 
Albrecht, son, at St. Quentin. Bismarck consents 
to talk to Moltke in my quarters. 

January 12. — I pointed out to the King that 
Sohleinitz must be heard on Kaiser and Empire ; 
he replied that he only saw in the Kaiser a re- 
version of the President of the Confederation, and 
would preferably style himself " King of Prussia, 
elected Emperor of Germany," in which I see a 
formal affront to the Princes as well as the people. 

January 13. — Conversation between Bismarck 
and Moltke at my quarters. A lively debate ; the 
taciturn Moltke was voluble. Schleinitz ordered 
\j January 15. — Werder asks if he would not do 
better to give up Belfort now, because he thinks 
he could then defend Alsace ? Moltke read this, 
and said with undisturbed icy composure, *' Your 
Majesty will of course agree that General von 
Werder will be answered that he has simply to 
stand still, and to beat the enemy wherever he 
finds him." Moltke seems to me admirable 
beyond praise ; in a second he cleared up the whole 
situation. His reply to Trochu with respect to 
the Hospitals was that we would spare them, as 
soon as we came near enough to distinguish them. 
The King has finally agreed to the Proclamation 


The Ger^nan Constitution 245 

on the 18th in the Salle des Glaces, but will have 
nothing to do with the preparations, not even as 
regards the Insignia. 

January 16. — Werder's victory on the defen- 
sive ; Manteuffel advances. 

January 17. — In the afternoon a sitting in the 
King's Quarters, of Bismarck, Schleinitz, and 
myself, of three hours, in an over-heated house, 
over the title, succession to the throne, etc. In 
consulting over the titles, Bismarck acknowledged ^ 
that in discussing the Constitution, the Bavarian 
Deputies would not admit the " Emperor of 
Germany," and that finally to please them, but 
without previously asking His Majesty, he had con- 
sented to the formula ** German Emperor." This 
designation satisfied the King as little as myself, 
but in vain. Bismarck endeavoured to show that 
'* Emperor 0/* Germany " implied territorial rights, 
which we do not possess over the Empire, while 
** German Emperor" is the, natural consequence 
of the Imperator Romanus. We had to submit, 
but the *^of Germany" will come into use in 
common parlance; the address will be **Your 
Imperial and Koyal Majesty" {Ew. KaiserL und 
KonigL Majestdt)^ never the **K.K." Since we 
hereby recognize that we have no territorial rights 
over the Empire, the wearer of the crown, along 

246 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

with his heirs, is certainly taken in a manner 
exclusively from the Eoyal family of Prussia, and 
thus my plan that our united family should take 
the Imperial title falls to the ground. Next, long 
debates as to the relation of Kaiser to Kaiser, 
because His Majesty, against the old Prussian tra- 
dition, ranks an Emperor higher. Both Ministers 
contradicted this with me, and appealed to the 
Archives, according to which Frederick I., on the 
recognition of the Czar as Kaiser, expressly de- 
clared that the latter was never to have precedence 
of the Prussian King. Frederick William I. even 
demanded, on meeting the German Kaiser, that 
they should enter a tent with two doors simul- 
taneously ; and finally Bismarck pointed out that 
Frederick William IV. had only introduced the 
principle of subordination to the Arch-Ducal House 
of Austria from Ms own well-known personal sense 
of humility towards that House. The King, how- 
ever, declared that since Frederick William III., 
on meeting Alexander I., had determined that 
precedence belonged to the latter as Emperor, he 
also would now accept the will of his royal father 
as authoritative for himself. As in the course of 
the conversation it was determined that our family 
should maintain its present position, the King 
again pronounced his desire to express its equality 


The Gerinmi Constitution 247 

with the Imperial Houses. Nothing was finally 
settled in regard to this point, and the decision 
was put off till a time of peace, or to some future 
coronation. There was no talk of Imperial 
Minister. Bismarck was to be Imperial Chancellor, 
although the synonymous designation with Beust 
annoyed him so much that he exclaimed ^' that he 
was getting thereby into shocking company." The 
Imperial colours needed little consideration, for, 
as the King said, they had not to be picked out 
of the street, but he would only stand the cockade 
along with that of Prussia. He forbade the idea 
of an Imperial Army ; the Navy, however, might 
be termed Imperial. We could see how hard it 
was for him to take leave to-morrow of the old 
Prussians, to whom he clung so tenaciously. 
When I pointed to the History of the House, — 
how we had risen from Burgraves to be Electoral 
Princes, and then Kings, — how Frederick I. had 
exercised a nominal royalty, and had then made 
it so powerful that the Imperial dignity was now 
to be ours, — he replied, " My son is with all his 
heart in the new order of things, while I care 
not a straw for them, and hold only by Prussia. 
I say that he and his successors are called to 
make the Empire now established into a reality." 
January 18. — The duties of my wife and 

248 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

myself are now doubled, but I call them thereby 
doubly welcome, because I fear no difficulty : and 
again, because I feel that I am not wanting in fresh 
courage to undertake the work fearlessly and per- 
sistently : and lastly, because I am convinced that 
it was not brought about in vain, that between 
the age of thirty and forty I have repeatedly been 
called on to make the most weighty decisions, and, 
looking in the face of the accompanying dangers, 
to carry them through in spite of the latter. The 
hopes, during long years, of our forefathers, the 
dreams of German poets, are fulfilled, and — purified 
from the dross of the Holy Koman Incubus — an 
Empire, reformed in head and limbs, stands forth 
under the old name, and the cognizances of a 
thousand years, from its sixty years' eclipse. 

The good news of Werder's victory at Chene- 
bieres has an inspiriting effect upon the King ; just 
as Moltke had read the despatches, the music that 
was accompanying the sixty standards rang out. 
This spectacle cheered him. Counting upon this 
impression, I had ordered that a ditour should be 
made, so that the procession had to pass by the 
Prefecture just at the moment of the audience. 
A ray of sunshine broke at this moment through 
the clouds. The ceremony was unique, its full 
significance will only be known to us in course of 

Proclamation of the Emperor IVillia^n 249 

time ; only Albrecht sen. and jun. are wanting, 
since they are in the field, and the Prince of 
HohenzoUern, who, being in bad health, could 
not attend the fulfilment of his dearest wishes. 
The order of the Court Marshal's announcement 
was, that " the Ceremony of the Ordensfest will 
take place,'' etc. As the command, "Helmets 
off for prayer," was forgotten, I had to give it 
myself aloud; the "simple prayer" consisted in 
a critique of Louis XIV., along with a historico- 
politico treatise on the significance of January 
18 ; the conclusion again was better. After His 
Majesty had read a short address to the German 
Sovereigns, Bismarck stepped forward, and read in 
an even and business-Hke voice, the " Address to 
the German People." At the words, " Augmentor 
of the Empire," I heard a thrill run through 
the whole assembly, who had otherwise remained 
without a sound. The Grand-Duke of Baden 
now came forward with his own, natural, quiet 
dignity, and cried aloud, "Long live His Imperial 
Majesty, Kaiser Wilhelm ! " I bent my knee 
before the Kaiser, and kissed his hand, on which 
lie raised me, and embraced me with deep emotion. 
Then the Court. At dinner, His Majesty said to 
me that I must now be addressed as Kaiserliche 
Hoheit (Imperial Highness), although he did not 

250 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

yet know my title. In the evening, the Princes, 
collectively, were with me ; the Versaillese took 
the thing as if the King had heen made Emperor 
of France. The first time I was addressed as 
*^Your Imperial Highness," I felt quite startled. 
» « « 4» « « 

January 20. — During the family dinner I was 
called out ; the Comte d'Helicourt has been sent by 
Trochu to beg for an armistice, or at least, for a 
forty-eight hours' truce. As soon as I announced 
this to the Emperor he looked hard at me for a 
moment, for we both felt instinctively that such 
a step must be the forerunner of great things. 
I at once let Bismarck know how things were ; 
we went to him to discuss the answer, which ran, 
that the outposts were to agree about the inter- 
ments in the usual manner, the rest could only 
be arranged by writing. 

January 22. — To-day, for the first time, prayed 
for the '* Kaiser and King." The Kaiser has told 
his suite that he remains their King, now as 
before. Since there can be no Minister of the 
Empire, for which I had recommended Eoggen- 
bach, I would gladly see him employed in Alsace, 
where he knows about everything. We ought to 
put those who are not Prussians in office, but the 
Kaiser will not hear of it. 

Capitulation of Paris discussed 251 

January 23. — In the evening I received a 
Cabinet Order about my title ; that is a side-issue, 
compared with its inner significance. I still feel 
myself German only, and know no distinction 
between Bavarian, Badenser, and whatever else 
the inhabitants of the thirty-three Fatherlands 
may call themselves, but will in no way mix 
myself up in their internal affairs, or rob them of 
their individuality. Would that all Germans 
might regard me and my wife as theirs, and not 
as North-German intruders. 

In the afternoon, Favre appeared suddenly, and y 
alighted at Bismarck's. 

January 24. — Tremendous excitement. Bis- 
marck announced, in a conference at His Majesty's, 
attended by Moltke, Eoon, and myself, that Favre 
wanted to conclude an armistice, to hand over 
the forts and lay down arms; he states that 
hunger prevails in Paris, and that " une sedition 
a eclate,'" — Trochu has retired, and is now only 
President de la defense, Favre fears to return, 
and manifested a wolf's hunger at Bismarck's 
supper. Silence was imposed upon us, but 
Bismarck, coming from the Kaiser, whistled 
Halali, which was enough for Lehndorff. 

January 25. — Favre is here again, eating, / 
as Bismarck declares, dinner enough for three 

252 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

people all to himself, and yesterday took away 
some SpicTcgans, 

January 26. — Conference with His Majesty in 
regard to an armistice till February 19 ; the Jura 
excepted; demarcation-lines of ten kilometres, 
Constitutional Assembly ; the forts to be evacuated, 
with the exception of Vincennes, which is a State 
prison. The Germans are not to enter Paris 
before the conclusion of the armistice, which 
annoys the King; however, there is no help for 
it, because no one will stand surety for the safety 
of strangers while the Parisians are so embit- 
tered. The enceintes will be disarmed, the gun- 
carriages will be removed, the cannon will remain, 
as they are not transportable ; the laying down 
of arms follows, with the exception of 12,000 
men for the maintenance of order. Should the 
armistice expire without the conclusion of peace, 
everything is to be spoil of war. Favre excuses 
himself for having come without military escort — 
Trochu had sworn not to capitulate — Binoy could 
not come, after he had once resigned the Com- 
mando, — and Ducrot would not be accepted. 

January 27. — To-day is Wilhelm's thirteenth 
birthday. May he become a clever, right-minded, 
true, and faithful man, a genuine G-erman, who 
will carry out what is projected without prejudice. 

Capitulation of Paris discussed 253 

Thank God, the relations between him and our- 
selves are simple, natural, and hearty ; and our 
task must be to maintain the same, so that he 
may always regard us as his true, best friends. 
The thought is really an anxious one, when one 
clearly sees what hopes are already centred on the 
head of this child, and how much responsibility 
we incur towards the Fatherland, in the directing 
of his education, — while external family matters 
and questions of etiquette. Court life in Berlin, 
and many other things, enormously increase the 
difficulties of it. 

Favre is here again, with Beaufort d'Hautpoul, 
who was a little above himseK, and made himself 
too comfortable, so that it was hard to negotiate, 
and Favre was much annoyed. 

When the enemy's outposts on the Sevres 
bridge learned the aim of Favre's journey, the 
officers and men immediately danced a cancan on 
the bridge with one another. , 

January 28. — Forckenbeck is with me. 

January 30. — Visited Mont Yalerien ; shocking 
dirt in the forts; the guns are turned against 
Paris ; the French openly show us all their 
mines. Favre is entirely loyal. Gambetta must 
have put away milHons in safety, as is rumoured 
from the Oppenheim bank circles. 


254 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

February 2. — Bismarck says it seems to him 
nowadays as if he must also be in the service 
of France, because every Frenchman asks his 

February 6. — Kumours of presents being pre- 
pared at home for us, which I immediately 
deprecated. The Grand-Duke of Baden proposes 
that the German Princes should give the Kaiser 
a life-sized picture of the Imperial Proclamation. 
Werner was with us. 

February 7. — Conditions of peace. Delbriick 
will listen to nothing about colonies and warships. 
Friedrich Karl with me ; carries a riding-cane with 
a gold knob, and a black and silver tassel twisted 
round, similar to those carried by the Austrian 
Field-Marshals ; but he does not display it before 
the King. 

February 8. — Bismarck finds Favre temperate 
and subdued, but so unbusiness-like and procrasti- 
nating that the most important answers are often 
delayed for days, because he forgets half of them. 

February 14. — Cardinal , Bonnechose, Arch- 
bishop of Kouen, with me ; highly cultivated, 
open-minded. After he had looked cautiously 
round, to make sure that his chaplain in the next 
room could not hear him, he brought up the 
question of the contribution, and then came to 

The Fttture of Italy 255 

the position of the Pope. He hopes that the 
institution of the Empire will restore to the Pope 
the territory that is so essential to him, and will 
confine Italy to Lombardy and Venetia, and rein- 
state the King of Naples and the Grand-Duke of 
Tuscany. Eussia will vouch for the former, Austria 
for the latter, while Germany, through her Kaiser, 
will know how to keep down the Eevolution, and 
thus at the same time do a service to France, 
since it is otherwise certain that anarchy would 
ensue on the departure of our troops. To my 
question, how all that is to be brought about, he 
replied, through a Congress. Himself a convert, 
he spoke temperately about the Evangelicals. 

February 15. — Fraulein von Oetzen sends 
reports from Stettin about the mismanagement 
of the voluntary nursing of the sick, that make 
one's hair stand on end. 

February 16. — Eussell deplores the present 
English politics. England could put a stop to the 
war by decided speaking; by her actual politics 
she will sink to the rank of a second-rate power. 
It is, however, to be hoped that, as England's 
Crimean ally turns away from her, she will seek 
compensation in Germany. — In Paris they are 
talking of the letting out of windows for our entry. 

February 17. — With Eulenburg, Mischke, 

256 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Winterfeldt, and Hahnke to Orleans. There we saw 
Dupanloup before his departure for the constituante 
— a nice old gentleman, but somewhat parlous. 
Blois, a magnificent Castle in the Eenaissance 
style : never did I see such wealth of carving, of 
fine stone-work, of clever devices of ciphers and 
coats of arms, as well as of artistic knots and 
festoons, and all this derives from the most 
sanguinary period of French history. 

February 18. — Chambord, — bald within, — the 
portrait of a banished prince. Chaumont, belong- 
ing to the strong Legitimist Count Walsh, 
furnished entirely in style, hardly any cabinets 
of curios. Amboise. Chenonceau, which belongs 
to Madame Pelouse, nee Wilson. In the evening 
to Tours, where Friedrich Karl treated me as 
a Field-Marshal; one of his Adjutants, that is, 
came towards me, as far as the third step, and 
remained standing there as a fixture, to which 
my cousin expressly called my attention, as I 
had of course not noticed it. 

February 20. — Keturned. Thiers has arrived. 

February 21. — I think Metz might in any case 
be sacrificed. Bismarck agrees, but is afraid of 
being at a disadvantage, in view of the military 
requisitions. A Coronation would only weaken 
the 18th of January. 


Thiers and Peace Proposals 257 

February 22. — I received Thiers; he declares 
that France is sighing for peace, but the Parisians 
lay great stress on our not entering the capital, while 
excesses and demonstrations seem to be feared. 
As regards the cession of territory, that of Alsace 
is hard enough, but no Frenchman will agree to 
the cession of Lorraine; six milliards would be 
impossible. He attaches most of the blame for 
the war to Napoleon III., expresses himself 
sharply as to Gambetta ; the freely elected deputy 
is the true representative of the people. Flatter- 
ing words about the name I had won in France ; 
he acknowledged that the Kaiser was living in the 
Prefecture, and leaving the Castle for the wounded. 
He spoke with little modulation, mostly with his 
eyes cast down, resigned, tactful throughout, 
suave, without manner or phrases. When I 
spoke, he looked at me inquiringly with shining, 
clever eyes, through great sharp spectacles, clear, 
straight, and critically. His external aspect is 
that of a flourishing rentier, 

February 23. — The task when peace is con- 
cluded will be the solution of social questions, 
which I must probe to the bottom. It is said that 
the King of Wiirtemberg is coming. 

February 24. — To Dreux, the family burying- 
place of the Orleans : a strange mixture of the 

258 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Grothic and Greek styles, Louis Philippe, among 
others, as a saint on painted glass. Contradictory 
rumours about the negotiations, idea of taking 
Luxemburg instead of Metz. 

February 25. — Coming to our accustomed con- 
ference, the Kaiser at once asked me what I 
said to the extraordinary events of yesterday's 
negotiations, which had lasted into the night? 
When I looked at him in complete bewilderment, 
since as usual no one had seen fit to communi- 
cate anything to me, he was incredulous. Thiers 
would not consent to Bismarck's proposition to 
hand over Luxemburg to us, whereupon the 
alternative of Metz or Belfort was proposed, on 
which Bismarck decided for Metz. Thiers dis- 
coursed a great deal, till Bismarck lost patience, 
and was not only testy, but talked German at him : 
Thiers complained of barbarity, Bismarck of the 
sending of an old man, with whom he could hardly 
quarrel. Bray, Mitnacht, and Jolly, as witnesses 
of the conversation, cannot sufficiently praise 
Bismarck's superiority. Thiers' ignorance of 
business has always been prejudicial to him. 
Our successes are enormous, as Kussell says 

February 26. — The Eatification, 'Where shall 
we find men with the right insight to set forth 

Capitulation signed 259 

the true principles, that must stand alongside 
of these results? The Kaiser brings the news 
that after negotiating the whole day, the capitula- 
tion was signed at 5 o'clock; embraced me, 
Moltke, and Eoon. When I expressed my sur- 
prise to Bismarck that no communication had 
been made to me, he excused himself on the 
score of the lateness of the hour, and the utter 
exhaustion of his oflScials. He admitted that 
the great difl5culty of justifying the surrender of 
Metz to our military had mainly determined 
him to hold out for this fortress. 

Fehntary 27. — The King of Wiirtemberg came 
to smoke with me in the evening ; most courteous 
to all whom I presented to him. 

February 28. — I am to command the parade ^ 
of 30,000 men in Longchamps, precisely where 
the French review, which followed on the attempt 
of Berezowski, took place in 1867. 

March 1. — The Empress Eugenie telegraphed 
to the Kaiser in the name of all mothers and 
children, to delay the entry of the troops, even 
now, on account of the unavoidable bloodshed. 

March 2. — Eatification fulfilled. Favre had ^ 
already telegraphed, and had then come himself, 
but as Bismarck was still in bed, he could not 
be admitted, so that he could only repeat the 

26o Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

communication in writing ; upon which came 
the reply that the original document was 
required. The Emperor regretted that the 
Guards were not now to enter the city; but 
Moltke and Eoon urged a strict compliance with 
the conditions. I went with the Grand-Duke 
through the deserted Bois de Boulogne ; we lost 
ourselves, came suddenly upon the Arc de FEtoile, 
and decided to go on into Paris. We went over 
the Champs Elysees, which were full of soldiers, 
along with the townspeople. The women were 
in mourning, but curious, — the statues in the 
city in mourning, — otherwise everything as it was. 

March 3. — Bleichroder on the unbusiness-like 
character of the French. Bismarck very short 
with Eothschild, who at first spoke French 
to him. 

March 4. — To Chartres, where the Gothic 
style was born into the world; in particular, the 
treatment of many of the figures is wonderful, 
their peculiar stiffness blending with the archi- 
tectural forms. Eussell took leave, greatly touched 
at the way His Majesty bade him farewell. His 
stay here was a real blessing. 

March 6. — I endeavoured to win Bismarck 
over to Koggenbach, as Governor of Alsace, but 
failed signally. 

Future of German Empire 261 

March 7. — Ferrieres. Even the greatest folly 
cannot cancel what has been gained. I question 
the sincerity of the liberal construction of the 
Empire, and believe that only a new era, which 
will have to reckon with me, will see this. 
Experiences, such as I have accumulated during 
the last ten years, cannot have been won in vain. 
In the now united nation I shall find a strong 
support for my ideas, more especially as I shall 
be the first prince who comes before his people, 
honestly attached to constitutional measures, 
without reservation. More than ever in these 
days I think of the proverb, "Who fixes his 
mind upon the whole, has long since quelled 
the strife in his own breast" {Wer der Sinn 
auf das Game halt gerichtet, dem ist der Streit 
in der Bunt schon Idngst geschlichtet). I bring 
no sentiments of enmity against the French, 
rather striving for reconciliation. 

March 8. — Eest. Took the air with Stosch. 
Rothschild has accumulated objects of luxury 
without method. Bismarck is to be Prince 
{Furst), Moltke Field-Marshal. Granville, Tri- 
quetti, and Hyacinthe will justify my character in 
their letters, apart from military matters, where 
the moment must decide. As regards moral 
earnestness and political conviction, these can 

262 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

only be the result of inward maturity and inward 
strife, which must be carried on daily, and for 
which one must be self-sufficing. And when I 
see that my efforts for the oppressed in Germany 
and her neighbours are so recognized that they 
produce confidence in my future, I congratulate 

Napoleon is quietly trying to approach us; — 
moderation of the conditions of peace, in return 
for promises of a common war against England. 

March 11. — In the Kaiser's place to Kouen. 
Our brave Goben is coming to Amiens. The 
Gothic here has already borrowed much from 
the English style. 

March 12. — Home, after a separation of nearly 
nine months. 


Journey to Spain, 1883 263 


In September, 1888, Alfonso XII., King of 
Spain, during the course of a long journey, had 
paid a visit to the Emperor William I., at 
Hamburg, where he had been very cordially 
received, and invited to take part in the manoeuvres. 
At his departure, the Emperor invested him as 
a compliment with the command of the Schleswig- 
Holstein Uhlan Kegiment, No. 15, then in the 
garrison at Strasburg. These proceedings ex- 
cited a passionate outburst in Paris, where the 
HohenzoUern candidature for the Spanish throne, 
in 1870, was brought up .again, and led to 
damaging attacks on Germany and Spain from 
part of the Press. These even amounted to 
menaces against King Alfonso, and when, on the 
return journey to Spain, this monarch passed 
through Paris, deplorable insults were directed 
against him. The excitement in the City of the 
Seine was calmed down by the rumour at once 
circulated in the newspapers that the German 
Crown-Prince was planning a ceremonial return- 
visit to the King of Spain. It was soon, moreover. 

264 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

reported officially that Lieut. -G-eneral von Loe 
had gone to Spain to announce the visit of the 
Crown Prince to the Court of Madrid. This in- 
telligence was received with great satisfaction by 
King Alfonso, as well as by the Spanish nation. 


In September, 1883, King Alfonso XII., after 
energetically putting down certain military out- 
breaks in different garrisons of his realm, had 
appeared at the review of the XI. Army Corps, 
conducted by the '* Kaiser and King " at 

While thus fulfilling his long-cherished desire 
to visit our Kaiser, and become acquainted with 
his army, he was at the same time able to 
exchange greetings with my wife and myself, as 
old acquaintances, since we had already met at 
Vienna in 1873. 

The daily intercourse with us led to friendly 
relations with this amiable and highly gifted 
young monarch, the more so as he was well aware 
of my personal interest in him, as the ruler called 
at the age of seventeen to the throne of his 

Journey to Spain 265 

oppressed fatherland, and also as the man tried 
in such early years by hard blows of fate. 

On departing from Homburg he expressed 
the wish that I, with my wife and children^ 
would — in the spring, if possible, as being the 
most favourable season in Spain — pay him a visit : 
an idea that was extremely tempting to us, and 
from the point of view of a return-visit from our 
Court also seemed to be not impracticable. 

The King took his homeward journey by way 
of Paris, where he encountered the most vexatious 
reception. The national feeling of the Spaniards 
was thereby irritated to the last degree, while 
they valued so much the more highly the atten- 
tions which our Court had paid to their Monarch. 

In view of such a favourable feeling towards 
Germany in a country hitherto pretty well un- 
known to us, it seemed to our Government 
desirable not to delay the return-visit to the 
Spanish King, and I was accordingly requested 
to betake myself to Madrid before the close of the 
year, as the representative of our Kaiser. 

In view of the excited state of feeling in France, 
the voyage to Spain by the Mediterranean was- 
preferred to the nearer journey through France, 
and the following squadron was appointed for the 
purpose : — 

266 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

H.M. corvette, Prince Adalbert ^^ Commandant, 
-Captain Mensing I. 

H.M. corvette, Sophie; Commandant, Corvette- 
Captain Stubenranch. 

H.M. avisa, Loreley ; Commandant, Lieut.- 
CJaptain Rittmeyer. 

These were placed under the command of 
Captain Mensing I. 

My escort consisted of General of Infantry 
Count Blumenthal, Commanding-General of the 
IV. Army Corps ; Major-General Mischke, Chief of 
my Staff in the IV, Army Inspection ; my Court- 
Marshal von Nermann and my three personal 
Adjutants — Lieut.-Colonel Sommerfeld (of the 
General Staff), Captain Baron von Nyvenheim 
{2nd Regiment of the Leib-Hussars), and Captain 
von Kessel (1st Regiment of Foot Guards). 

During our stay in Spain my suite was further 
augmented by Lieut. -Captain Geissler (First Officer 
of H.M.S. Prince Adalbert) as Orderly Officer, and 
Staff-Physician Dr. Benda (H.M.S. Sophie), as 
also eventually by Lieut. -General and Adjutant- 
General Baron von Loe, Commander of the 5tli 
Division, who had been sent on by His Majesty 
direct to Madrid, to announce my arrival officially 
to that Court. 

I left Berlin immediately after the magnificent 

Departure fro7n Genoa 267 

celebration throughout Gerraany, on November 
10, of Luther's 400th birthday. It was a strange 
coincidence that I should leave my home under 
these pai-ticular impressions to become acquainted 
with that very land, in which, more than in any 
other, the Inquisition had waged a war of annihila- 
tion on the work of the great Keformer ! 

After a twenty-four hours' journey ma the 
S. Gothard tunnel, I reached Genoa on Novem- 
ber 18, about midnight. Notwithstanding the late 
hour, I was received by the officials of the town ; 
and a great crowd of people were also waiting for 
me, and greeted me so enthusiastically, that I 
was obliged to appear on the balcony of the Eoyal 
Palace, in which I was the guest of my friend 
the King of Italy. 

Genoa, November 19, 1883. 

The morning hours were taken up with audi- 
ences, which I had to grant to the civic authorities 
of Genoa in the beautiful palace of the King. 
Then a Kussian admiral, Tschebyochtew, appeared, 
who had arrived with the corvette Svetlana, and 
another, in the harbour, and whose unexpected 
arrival at such a moment was regarded on all 
sides as a remarkable demonstration of political 

268 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

At midday I went on board the Prince 
Adalbert^ with a most cordial reception from 
the oflficials, inhabitants, and the Germans who 
reside here. At the instant when I stepped into 
the boat that was waiting for me, the Sindaco 
announced that the landing-place would bear my 
name henceforward. Under such unmistakable 
proofs that my sympathy for the Italy which 
is so dear to me found recognition, I took leave 
of this well-known, glorious country, to enter 
one that was strange to me, and that from 
its very remoteness promised something of the 
fabulous, — towards which I accordingly set forth 
with high expectations. 

Amid the thunder of Itahan as well as of 
Russian guns, we weighed anchor, and favoured 
by the most splendid weather, steered our course 
for Valencia. 

On Board H.M.S. " Prince Adalbert,'' 
November 20, 1883. 
A most uncomfortable day ! for the ill-famed 
Gulf of Lyons claimed its rights, inasmuch as 
we were overtaken by a regular south-west gale, 
which reached such a pitch by midday that we 
were hardly able to steam forward, and were 
driven out of our course to Valencia. The situation 


In the Gttlf of Lyons 269 

was so grave that I discussed possible altera- 
tions of the route with the Commandant, and 
thought of the Balearic Isles, or even of the west 
coast of Italy, as places of refuge. Except for 
a single brief attack of sickness at starting, I 
did not suffer from this malady, and spent many 
hours on deck, though I was obliged to cling on 
tightly. My suite for the most part remained 
invisible, the servants collectively, as well as a 
great proportion of the sailors, being sea-sick, 
so that the Commandant's boy, a jolly Pomeranian, 
was obliged to wait on me, while Captain Mensing 
did not leave the bridge for twenty-four hours. 
The Loreley had to be taken in tow by the Sophie^ 
which perceptibly hindered our voyage, and was 
doubly unpleasant for the portion of my suite who 
were on board of her ! 

On Board KM.S, ''Prince Adalbert^' 
November 21, 1883. 

On this day, so dear to me, my thoughts 
turned to wife and children ; even wind and 
weather seemed to take it under their protection, 
for since yesterday evening we have gradually 
come out of the region of the storm, and the sea 
from hour to hour has been getting calmer. 

A short service, conducted in a simple and 

270 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

dignified manner by Pfarrer Hein, united officers 
and men upon the deck; such a service at sea 
inclines one always to devotion, the more when 
it has a significance like that of to-day. Many 
a cheer went up in the course of it for the 
Crown Princess, for in honour of her birthday 
the men received increased rations, which, after 
yesterday's exertions, were doubly deserved, and 
therefore the more specially welcome ! 

Towards evening I espied the outlines of 
mountains on the horizon ; and thus saw Spain 
for the first time on my wife's birthday. We 
had again resumed our course to Valencia, and 
now had the prospect of reaching the city of the 
Cid by noon to-morrow. 

Valencia^ November^ 22, 1883. 

And so I am really in Spain! Some hours 
before the landing a squadron, consisting of four 
Spanish war-ships (among them two ironclads), 
came towards us; they gave the Eoyal Salute 
three times, and then escorted me into the roads. 
By good luck there was no sea on here, otherwise 
with big waves the landing would have been 
impracticable, because a ship like the Prince 
Adalbert cannot enter the very shallow harbour. 

The town of Valencia, picturesquely situated 

Arrival at Valencia 2*]i 

on the flat seashore, the name of which rings 
pleasantly in one's ear from childhood's tales of 
the heroic deeds of the Cid, was covered with 
grey clouds; but the sun broke through at the 
instant when the Spanish guard of honour^ 
General Blanco and Colonel Cap de Pon, with 
the Ambassador, Count Solm, and Lieut. -General 
and Adjutant-General Baron von Loe, came on 
board, and we got into the boat. 

I set foot in Grao, the proper harbour of 
Valencia, on Spanish soil, surrounded by the 
assembled and very sympathetic population ; who 
at once pressed so closely around me that I could 
hardly take the proffered fruit and flowers, pre- 
sented to me by young ladies of the town in the 
national costume, while my suite got entirely 
separated from me. From Grao to the boundary 
of the town the garrison lined the way, and I 
had to wait through their march-past before I 
could betake myself to the quarters of the Capitan 
General (the Military Governor). 

The breakfast provided by the King under the- 
direction of the Eoyal Court-Marshal Sepoloeda, — 
then a defile of the Court in the Throne-room for 
all the assembled officials, — and, lastly, my appear- 
ance on the balcony, were the order before I could 
visit the sights of the town. 

272 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

In the Cathedral ifc was already very dark, 
so that I had to confine myself to the considera- 
tion of its magnificent structure. On the other 
hand, I was ahle to see the splendid honeycombed 
and gilded ceiling in the Casa Consistorial or 
Udienza (Court of Justice), and to admire the old 
pictures in the Museo, which have been taken 
from the Cloisters, as well as, lastly, the Lonja, 
a kind of Exchange Hall, which is supported by 
splendid Moorish pillars. After that the darkness 
prevented us from continuing our investigations, 
so that we had entirely to forego the famous 
orange-gardens of the place. 

The people greeted me with striking cordiality ; 
I often heard my name called out by groups of 
the lower classes, or heard them cry, ** Viva 
Espana y Alemania^'' when the gracious gestures 
from feminine hands delighted me particularly. 
After a Gala-Dinner, served by the Eoyal Servants 
from the Eoyal Kitchen, I had to visit the magnifi- 
cent Opera-House, illuminated " al giorno^' where 
the really extraordinarily beautiful bevy of ladies 
displayed as great a wealth of jewels as of spark- 
ling eyes. In the Court Box I was the only 
one who sat, while the members of the several 
inland ofiices stood behind my chair; both when 
I came in, and when I left, the Italian Opera, 

Jottrney to Madrid 273 

ha Forza del Destinoy was interrupted by clapping 
of hands as a greeting to me, and by the playing 
of the Marcia EeaL A supper, provided by the 
city, was given in the grand foyer of the Opera 
House, at which the Alcalde was my neighbour, 
and proposed that our conversation should be in 
Italian, because he was more at home with this 
language than with French. 

Men, houses, and streets reminded me of Sicily ; 
but unfortunately I did not see a single national 
costume in the streets; even the priests had 
exchanged the Basilio hat, once so characteristic 
of Spain, for one of more modern fashion. Only 
the attendants on the magistrates were still con- 
spicuous, as they wear red damask clothes of old 
Spanish cut, and carry finely worked wands of office 
embossed in silver from the seventeenth century. 

As the King wished me to arrive in Madrid 
by 11 o'clock on the follOTring morning, we were 
obliged to make a night-journey, and thereby had 
unfortunately to forego the sight of the orange 
plantations with their plenitude of fruit ; they 
extend for miles Uke a garden. 

The temperature was so mild that one's cloak 
was superfluous, even late in the evening. 

When I awoke the following morning in the 
railway carriage, the arid brown Mancha extended 

274 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

before us, so far as the eye could reach ; rarely 
was a tree visible. When here and there occasional 
villages cropped up, they consisted of incon- 
spicuous little stone houses, dominated by a tiny 
church without any style. The living landscape 
consisted of windmills, alternately with donkeys, — 
whose drivers retain a little brown hat, such as 
ladies used to wear with us in former years, along 
with a dark cloak thrown over their shoulders, 
as a vestige of the national costume. Often 
during this journey I was reminded by the wind- 
mills and donkeys of Don Quixote. 

At last Aranjuez brought a welcome change 
in the monotony of the landscape. Its long 
regular alleys were parallel with the railway, 
while of its buildings only the castle cupola was 
just visible from the greenery of the Park. Then 
the character of La Mancha reasserted itself, and 
lasted to the first houses of Madrid. On the plat- 
form the King was waiting for me in the uniform 
of our Uhlans, surrounded by all his ministers, 
a throng of Generals and high dignitaries behind 
him, standing at the head of an Infantry 

After a cordial greeting, and the customary 
subsequent presentation of the suite, we both got 
into an open carriage with four horses, whose 

Arrival in Madrid 2ys 

jockeys, dressed in velvet coats, were powdered, 
and wore three-cornered hats, set on obliquely. 

Near the carriage rode Generals with un- 
sheathed swords, as well as the Master of Horse, 
and an escort of the Body-Guard ; the troops of 
the garrison lined the streets, which were filled 
with a mass of people, who greeted us, and also 
shouted, but without any loud expression of en- 
thusiasm, as is usual in Italy. So we drove for 
nearly half an hour, over a part of the Prado, as 
well as over the Puerta del Sol, to the imposing 
residential castle. El Palacio; shortly before we 
reached it, our carriage stopped, and the rest of 
the equipages with the suite passed us, so that the 
King and I were the last, and, as such, entered 
the great arch of the door, while a Guard of 
Honour received us with ^^ Heil Dir.'' The mag- 
nificent staircase, reminding one of Wurzburg and 
Briihl, was full of Grandees, fifty in number, who 
here represent the nobles of the Court, since there 
are, properly speaking, no Court officials in Spain. 
The resplendent crowd, in every kind of shining 
uniform, moved solemnly forward ; behind them 
and immediately in front of us went the Patriarch 
of India (the Archbishop), while our 5mVe5 followed, 
but to the right and left of the King and myself 
the Halbardiers formed a mobile barrier. So we 

276 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

passed on into a great Hall, where the Queen- 
Consort, the Queen-Mother Isabella II., and the 
Infantas Isabella and Eulalia, sisters of the King, 
surrounded by fifty dames d'honneur, wives of the 
Grandees, were waiting me. 

Queen Maria Christina, a slender figure, whose 
Austrian features may be termed lovely, advanced 
towards me with friendly words; then Queen 
Isabella came forward, and expressed her pleasure 
at making my acquaintance at last, adding that 
she was infinitely grateful for the constant atten- 
tion and sympathy shown her by us, which she 
never could forget. After I had greeted the 
Infantas, the elder of whom I had previously met 
in Vienna, and who made extraordinarily graceful 
curtseys, the Queen Consort gave me her arm, 
and we went into the Camera, the room which 
only Grandees, and not even the Ministers, may 
enter, and where she presented the ladies to 
me singly. The King then did the same by the 
Grandees, and, lastly, I introduced my suite to the 
August Personages. 

The Queen Consort is uncommonly amiable 
and natural, and gives the impression of being a 
talented Princess, who knows what she wants. 
She talks Spanish fluently. The Infanta Isabella, 
widow of Count Girgenti, brother of King Francis 

Reception in the Palacio 277 

of Naples, whose intellect had already attracted 
me in Vienna, is a woman of much character, 
who was early matured by a hard destiny; her 
sister EulaHa has not long made her debut ; she 
looks wide awake, and the expression of her eyes, 
as well as of her mouth, reminds me of my niece, 
Marie Else of Meiningen. 

The King conducted me to the rooms pre- 
pared for my occupation, which lie on the side 
exactly opposite to his own, looking on to the 
Guadarama Mountains, and the Plain of the 
Manzanar. Of the rooms, which are not large, 
and furnished in modern Louis XVI. taste, my 
working cabinet is ornamented with little pictures 
by Velasquez, among which the one of his own 
hand, holding a letter, pleased me the most. 
The rooms are very liveable, and extremely prac- 
tical, with every conceivable comfort for daily life. 

When I left them to go to luncheon, the lackey 
on duty clapped his hands repeatedly, as did also 
the keeper of the doors of the King's apartments 
— a custom that is always observed when any 
member of the Eoyal Family appears. 

After taking our second breakfast, to which all 
my suite were invited, the King conducted me 
in civil dress through the streets of the city by 
the Prado to the Retiro, a part corresponding in 

278 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

some degree to Hyde Park, where the personages 
of society, as well as the Queen and the Infantas, 
drive in very elegant carriages; we also found 
masses of people on foot. 

Soon after our return, I received the Ministry 
of the State, collectively, after which came a 
dinner, in which the surrounding company took 
part ; even yet the day was not at an end ; — on the 
contrary, we spent from eight to half-past twelve 
at the Italian Opera Mejistofele, composed byBoito, 
in which the Signore Teodorini and Gurgano, and 
the Signori Masine, Nannetti, and Battistini, sang 
the principal parts. 

Madrid y November 24, 1883. 

On waking, I could hardly realize clearly at first 
that I was actually in Madrid; the powerful impres- 
sions of yesterday in this entirely strange new 
world — above all the reception at the Court, which 
in its degree of splendour and magnificence sur- 
passed all I had hitherto experienced, except at 
my wedding — still worked upon me so strongly 
that I really required some time to collect myself 
before I went to the day's work. 

I paid a short visit to the Museo, in which is 
the famous Picture Gallery, and found so much 

Picture Galleries in Madrid 2^() 

that was splendid and worthy of admiration, 
that although I confined myself to the two first 
rooms, I still left it, feeling quite stupefied, to 
betake myself to the grand Parade on the Prado 
at midday. For the 10 Eaphaels, 43 Titians, 62 
Eubens, 21 Van Dycks, 21 Paolo Veroneses, which 
are shown here along with 46 Murillos, and 62 
Velasquez, represent such a wealth of master- 
pieces, that my eyes fairly overflowed in the delight 
of actually standing before the originals of the 
pictures so well known to one by replicas of every 

Here I learned to know Velasquez on quite a 
new side, in his realistic studies from the life of 
the people, his achievements in landscape, and 
also his presentments of strange human pheno- 
mena. I have the impression that he gave himself 
with greater satisfaction to the expression of his 
fine talents in these directions than to the execu- 
tion of princely portraits and pictures of State 
events, for in spite of all the magnificence of these 
works, one is conscious rather of duties fulfilled 
from affection to the highly ceremonious Court, 
than of the free soaring of his genius. 

Murillo's religious, as well as his secular 
pictures present only Spanish types, of which 
it must certainly be said, in view of the store of 

28o Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

pictures amassed here, that they are not all of 
equal value, and do not all exhibit the grandeur 
of the master equally. 

Eaphael's Lo Spasimo seems to have been 
painted over, for the flesh-tones are remarkably 
reddish brown. But so, too, the Perla^ and also 
the Madonna ivith the Msh, give me the impres- 
sion of having suffered by touching-up. 

At the Parade I was struck by the thoroughly 
French character of the Spanish troops ; for the 
cut of the uniform and the red trousers are so 
exactly modelled on the pattern of their neigh- 
bours that it would be impossible to distinguish 
them. The materials of the equipment seemed 
to me to be good and lasting, and I should take 
the horses, which are indeed long in the leg, but 
strong and solidly built, for a useful breed. This 
is true also of the mules, with which the entire 
artillery is harnessed. 

The defile of the front lasted for quite an hour 
and a half, and the march past no less a time, so 
that, including the riding to and fro, we were 
from 1 to 5 in the saddle. After the Infantry 
parade was over, there was a pause of half 
an hour before the other regiments came up, 
because it was necessary to be careful at the 
street-crossings. The King led the troops past 


Cotirt Functions at Madrid 281 

with his sword drawn ; the Queens, the Infantas, 
and the Diplomats sat upon a tribune. Innumer- 
able crowds attended this parade in the Prado, 
nor were the numbers less of those who thronged 
the streets and greeted us courteously as we went 
by. The Spaniard is externally much less demon- 
strative than the Italian, but to-day it was evident 
that the people wanted to show their warm 
sympathy with the Germans by outward signs. 

In the evening there was a grand gala dinner 
in a fine long gallery, at which I found opportu- 
nity to admire the rich ornaments of the fair sex ; 
for these old families have preserved enormous 
diadems of many kinds of precious stones, as well 
as diamonds. Queen Isabella possesses magnificent 

The Diplomatic Body, with the Nuncio Mgre. 
Rampolla and the French Ambassador at their 
head, along with the corresponding ladies, had 
been invited; further, the Cardinal Archbishop 
of Toledo (as Primate, and also Archbishop 
proper of Madrid), the Patriarch of India, who 
is in some sort Chaplain-General to the army 
and Almoner, and, lastly, a great number of 
Grandees. The King drank the health of our 
Kaiser, in remembrance of his never-to-be-forgotten 
visit to Homburg, and referred at the same time 

282 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

to the friendship which united our two families, 
as also the two monarchies — to which I replied 
in a few French words. Then came a Cercle of 
an hour, in which there was no end to the pre- 
sentations; but I found occasion to talk longer 
with the Nuncio, a cheerful, good-looking prelate, 
as also with the French Ambassador, Baron Des- 
michels. I exchanged some military views with 
Marshals Concha, Prime de Eevera, and Novaliches. 
The immensely long table at which we sat 
was exceedingly well arranged, and ornamented 
with bronze appointments, of which the centres 
represented marble triumphal arches and pyramids ; 
the service was admirably organized. Upon the 
State staircase, which reminds me of that of 
Bruhl, were arm in arm the entire 'personnel of 
the stables, powdered, in old Spanish liveries, 
with red stockings, while the Court servants wore 
clothes of modern cut. Everything here is in 
the grand style, and the splendid rooms of the 
Palace, which is appointed in the Versailles style, 
are all in correspondence. 

Madrid^ Sunday^ November 25, 1883. 

I attended the evangelical service, which was 
held in the justice-room of the German Embassy. 

Spanish Btill-Jight 283 

Pfarrer Fliedner, who has ah-eady been seventeen 
years in the service of the English Bible Society 
in Madrid, reads the prayers here out of good 
nature, but quite in his own fashion, since he 
declares he will have nothing to say to our 
State liturgy ! 

At midday the bull-fight which the King had 
ordered in my honour took place before thou- 
sands of people, who greeted us enthusiastically 
when we entered the Eoyal Box of the gigantic 

Both Queens, the Infantas, and the ladies of 
the Court wore mantillas and fans, and each of 
them had their special manner of wearing this 
charming national costume, now, alas, rapidly 
dying out ! 

Seven bulls did we have to sit through ! If 
I had not been officially obliged to stay there, 
I would gladly have departed at the end of tho 
first victim, chiefly because tjhe unlucky animals- 
on which the Picadores were seated are regularly 
sacrificed on the horns of the bull, and are only 
carried off when the bull is slain, until which 
time they remain where they fell — a repulsive 
spectacle ! 

I cannot enter into further details of thi& 
national pleasure ; besides, its procedure has been 

284 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

described often enough. Only one thing I must 
remark, — that my fear, as a spectator, for the 
endangered human lives was dissipated as the 
thing went on, because I became convinced of 
the dexterity with which each man involved knew 
how to extricate himself from the danger, and 
•saw that the pursuit, as well as the fleeing for 
shelter, belongs to the sport ; and, lastly, that the 
Espada proceeds with extreme caution before 
putting the bull to death with his sword. The 
main point always is, that no one is hurt. 

The entrance into the arena of all who take 
part in the bull-fight — Picadores, Espadas, Ban- 
derillos — called the " Quadrilla,'' is extremely 
picturesque, for the men all wear the beautiful 
Spanish national costume, richly embroidered 
with gold and silver, and come in with a native 
carriage, proud grandeur, and self-conscious 
security, first holding themselves very upright 
and then bowing low. I must say here that the 
Berlin performance of the opera of Carmen gives a 
true picture of the original, and that the behaviour 
•of the Espada in the ballet seems to be taken 
from life. 

As a striking proof of the sympathy shown 
here towards us as Germans, I may cite the fact 
that all signs of displeasure, as expressed in 

Academy for furispntdence 285 

whistling and noises, which are usually indispen- 
sable when any mistake occurs, were entirely 
absent to-day, out of consideration of my presence ^ 
although just the classes who are particularly 
prone to such demonstrations appeared in great 
force among the spectators. 

This bull-fight came near being used as a 
demonstration by the Conservative party. For 
when my visit to Madrid was announced, and 
received with the most widely different feelings, 
this party wanted to get up a Corrida^ or loyal 
ovation. And then in all probability there would 
have been obnoxious demonstrations of the Eepub- 
licans and partisans of the French. The King, 
however, succeeded at once, with his wonted tact, 
in allaying the threatened discord by the announce- 
ment that he was going to give this entertainment. 
^ After the dinner came a short pause for 
smoking in the King's private apartments, and 
I then accompanied him, the two Queens, and 
the Infantas, to a solemn introductory sitting 
of the Academy for Jurisprudence — a sort of 
College for Jurists. As this function was official, 
we betook ourselves, escorted by Halbardiers, and 
preceded by Hghts, down the Grand Staircase. 
The President, a former Minister of the Interior, 
Romero Eobledo, with all his colleagues, received 

286 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

us in black gowns, with wide falling collars, and 
red barettas. While we took our places under 
the canopy, the lawyers in the above-described 
dress made a picturesque group contrasting 
admirably with the mass of black coats. All 
parties, in which Spain is so rich, were repre- 
sented in the very numerous assemblage, and 
even Martos, known as the friend of the Eepublic, 
was present. 

After the Secretary, a Eepubhcan, had read 
the Eeport, Eomero Eobledo made a long dis- 
course on the measures to be taken as to the 
treatment of the daily press. Although, as a 
Conservative, he made many sharp hits at his 
opponents, his words were taken in good part, 
and even greeted with applause, till finally he 
addressed the King and myself, when he was 
interrupted by applause. 

When he had finished, the King got up, and 
spoke in his resonant voice to the Assembly. In 
the first place, he alluded to the circumstances 
of his country, in that he had been called to the 
Throne so young, that it had not been granted 
to him, as to myself, who had been to the Hoch- 
Schule in Bonn, to prepare himself for duties 
demanded by the exercise of his vocation as the 
highest protector of the realm. Then, however, 

Academy for Jurisprudence 287 

he continued, he had seen whither anarchy and 
want of respect for law would lead, and so he 
had determined to do all that lay in his power 
to save his fatherland from the return of any 
such fate, so that Spain, under the blessings of 
internal peace, might rejoice in a prosperous 
development. And, finally, calling on all who 
were present to range themselves in co-operation 
at his side, he shouted the watchword. Father- 
land, Justice, Order, and Freedom ! These words, 
spoken with decided oratorical power, with no 
striving after effect, yet energetic, and often inter- 
rupted by loudly expressed agreement, kindled 
such enthusiasm that he was pursued by applause 
that lasted for minutes. 

It was most valuable to me to witness the 
manner in which my young friend exposed his 
gifts thus nobly before the representatives of 
science, and of the different political parties ; and 
to see how they were deservedly honoured, 
especially as the King came forward publicly at 
a moment when the internal affairs of Spain are 
awaking only too well-founded anxieties. Cer- 
tainly his royal predecessors were far enough 
from mingling in such a manner among their 
people, and I regard it as a good omen for 
the future of Spain that Alfonso XII. should 

288 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

possess the gifts as well as the understanding 
for it ! 

To-day, for the first time, I heard speeches in 
Spanish, and thought at first I should be able to 
follow it easily on account of its Italian assonances, 
but I soon became convinced of the difficulties, 
especially when Eomero Kobledo was speaking; 
for his pronunciation, as that of a Catalonian 
born, is quite different from the Castilian, which 
one hears here, and which the King speaks so- 
plainly that I understood him quite well. 

The Spaniard is little skilled in foreign tongues, 
and even if he uses French in his intercourse with 
strangers, it is for the most part so characteris- 
tically pronounced by most of the natives that 
one's ear has to become properly accustomed 
to it. 

Among the King's household no one under- 
stands anything except Spanish, so that it is not 
easy to make one's self understood by them. 
My people accordingly have to go about with 
dictionaries in their hand to avoid the most 
embarrassing confusions. 

The King invited me to-day to make a journey 
through Andalusia, and to Granada. 

yisit to the Anneria 289 

Madrid^ November 26, 1883. 

A rainy day allowed me to consecrate my free 
morning hours to the famous Armeria, just 
opposite my windows, and preserved in the last 
remains of the old Koyal Palace, v 

This magnificent collection may be regarded 
as a chapter in the History of Arms, because 
historical, as well as highly artistic armour, 
weapons of every age, and memorials of celebrated 
persons, are preserved here. 

To the present Director, Conde de Valencia 
San Juan, who looks like an Englishman, is due 
the credit of having, with astounding industry, 
arranged the arms in chronological sequence, put 
them once more in working order, and determined 
the epoch to which they belong, with all the 
necessary adjuncts. The spectator, therefore, 
not only stands before arms and armour of the 
most different periods, but sees how coats of steel 
and iron mail were worn and piut together. 

I convinced myself with great satisfaction that 
the German work takes a conspicuous place among 
the productions of artistic handicraft that are here 
collected. The illustrated catalogue compiled in 
the time of Philip II. is worthy of notice, because it 
speaks for the authenticity of the materials present. 


290 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Charles V. must have possessed a large quantity 
of armour, and even if he did not use all that is 
collected here, it is at least known of one suit 
that he really did wear it, along with its appurte- 
nances, at the Battle of Miihlberg, the more so 
as Titian's celebrated life-sized portrait of him on 
horseback, in the Museo, represents the Emperor 
in this very armour. 

The Queen took me to-day to her two pretty 
little daughters, the eldest of whom, Mercedes, 
Princess of the Asturias, understands German. 

In the afternoon, as the rain had ceased, I 
went with the King to a mineralogical exhibition, 
in which I became acquainted with specimens 
from the famous manufactory of arms at Toledo, 
as well as with the ceramics which have been 
revived from the Moorish types, and also bronze 
guns on the system of Lieut.-Colonel Sottomajor, 
recently introduced into the Spanish army. 

The reception of the whole Diplomatic Corps, 
introduced by the Chief Master of the Ceremonies, 
Conde Zarco del Valle, Attache in 1849 to the 
Spanish Embassy at Berlin, claimed a good pro- 
portion of my time. 

After this reception I had a long and interest- 
ing talk with our Consul, Eichard Lindau, from 
Barcelona, who has lived in Spain for many years. 

Gala-dinner 291 

and was hence able to give me much information 
as to the present state of affairs, which he is 
watching closely. 

In the evening there was a great military gala- 
dinner, after which the King made me acquainted 
with the Generals and Commanders of Eegiments, 
while a tattoo was performed, quite after our own 
fashion, in the Square in front of the Palace, by 
the military band of the garrison. All along the 
side of the Armeria the word *' Welcome '' shone 
out in gigantic letters formed of lanterns, so that 
persistent attentions are really being shown us 
in the most agreeable manner, down to the least 

Among the Marshals is the Conde de Cheste, 
who is also Captain of the Halbardiers, whose 
uniform he usually wears. The Marques de 
NovaUches once received a shot right through 
both cheeks, which carried off part of his tongue, 
so that he has difficulty in speaking. 

Don Arsenic Martinez Campos had the prime 
share in the Eestoration of the House of Bourbon 
in Spain, for which reason Queen Isabella calls 
him '^my Champion," and although he had 
already been presented to me, took him by the 
hand, and brought him up specially. 

Many of the officers possess high Military 

292 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Orders, but these have not been conferred on 
them for actual wars, but rather on account of 
their victorious wrestling with circumstances, or 
for their gallant behaviour in the struggle with 
the Carlists in their own country. 

In addition to these Military Orders there are 
many other Orders of Merit in Spain, which are 
always worn at Court, while no one puts them 
elsewhere, as, for instance, at the theatre. 

Madrid-Toledo, November 27, 1883. 

The King to-day accompanied me with my 
suite to Toledo, from whose churches, streets, and 
monuments, the Moorish ascendency on the one 
hand, and the Christian Middle Ages on the 
other, seemed to speak to us. For this ancient 
capital of Castile once possessed the significance 
for Spain that Moscow had for Kussia, and is 
in some sense a Spanish Nuremburg. The fact 
that Toledo is built upon most dissimilar hills 
gives to its situation an aspect as picturesque 
as it is imposing, while its very steep and narrow 
streets, enclosed by almost windowless houses, 
take the traveller back to the early centuries. 

At the railway station we found a guard of 
honour, formed of the Institution of Cadets in 

Madrid — Toledo 293 

this place, while its students lined the street 
down to the bridge over the Tagus, and men 
in armour were placed at its battlemented portal. 

The Cardinal-Archbishop Ignacio Moreno, 
with all the Authorities, received us, and we went 
first with salvos of cannon and ringing of bells to 
the oldest chapel, del Cristo de la Luz, in which 
are Byzantine paintings from the epoch when it 
belonged to the Order of the Templars — that is, 
before the conquest by the Moors — as well as 
Saracen ornaments, along with later Christian 
additions, and where King Alfonso VI. heard his 
first mass immediately after the conquest of 
Toledo in 1085. A thing I have never yet met 
with on entering a Koman Catholic church 
occurred here, — the priests, namely, offered me 
the Holy Water on entering as well as on leaving 
the church. 

Our next object was one of the largest of the 
Hospitals here, of San Juan Battista or el Hospital 
de Afuera (without the city), in the church of which 
there is a fine marble epitaph in Eenaissance 
style to the founder. Cardinal de Tavera. This 
was followed by an exercise of the Cadet-corps 
as a variety, which for the rest was very well 
executed by a pupil who was quite unprepared to 
do it. 

294 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

In the famous Fabrica de Armas we were 
shown the forging of the now historic blades, 
which bear the inscription: "iVb me saques sin 
razoUy no me embaines sin honor " (** Draw me 
not without cause, sheathe me not without 
honour "). 

While our numerous retinue made a detour 
on account of the steep path, the King led me 
into the Capilla Gristo de la Vega, to see a very 
singular but much honoured carved crucifix. 
Queen Christina had particularly told me about 
it, because the right arm of the Saviour is hang- 
ing down, and all kinds of legends are connected 
with this remarkable presentment. 

We then went to the church built by Ferdinand 
and Isabella in remembrance of the conquest of 
Granada, San Juan de los Reyes, on the outer 
walls of which still hang the chains which were 
then taken off the captive Christians. This build- 
ing, consecrated as a thankoffering for the 
struggle waged for centuries by the Christian 
zeal of many generations of Kings with Islam, is 
of a purely Spanish character, for it represents 
the transition from the late Gothic of this country 
to the Kenaissance period, and is in addition 
filled with a wealth of shields, ciphers, and 
strange ornaments. Near the church are some 


Toledo 295 

Gothic cloisters, which exhibit wonderfully beauti- 
ful designs, borrowed by the stonemasons from 
nature; above it is a little picture gallery, in 
which breakfast was prepared for us. 

Not far from this spot are the remains of several 
small Mosques, one of which, S. Maria la Blanca, 
was formerly used as a Synagogue ; now, however, 
they are all turned into churches, of which the 
wonderfully beautiful Saracen ornaments accord 
but little with the modern adjuncts of the late 
Christian period. In the house of a very skilled 
goldsmith there is a gigantic hall of Moorish 
origin, where the ceiling has fortunately escaped 
damage, as indeed in this city there are many 
other such vestiges of the Saracen age, which we 
had unfortunately no time to investigate. 

The proportions of the five-aisled Cathedral in 
pure Gothic style are extraordinarily magnificent. 
The Cardinal- Archbishop received us at the main 
door with the assembled Chapter, among whom 
was a German-speaking Canon, the Queen's Con- 
fessor. He acted as our guide, although in con- 
sequence of an apoplexy, from which he has 
suffered for some time, he is very crippled. The 
interior of the Cathedral is dark, and obstructed 
by a high choir built in the Middle Ages. Here 
the Gothic gives place to Kenaissance, which is 

296 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

very strong in chapels, choir- stalls, and altar 
decorations. In this as in all cathedrals, there is 
a Capilla de los Reyes that is at the same time the 
private chapel of the Sovereign, at the door of which 
we were received by specially appointed eccle- 
siastics, preceded by mace-bearers, who showed 
the Tombs of the Kings that are to be seen here. 

In the next place, the Capilla Mozarabe is 
remarkable, for here the mass is stiU read 
after the Muzarabic ritual, i.e. that in which the 
Christian service was suffered during the Saracen 
dominion. It is difficult in a short visit like 
that of to-day to get an adequate conception 
of the splendour of the materials in marble 
and gilded bronze that are lavishly expended 
everywhere in the Cathedral. While, lastly, 
the revelation of the wealth of precious stones 
and jewels preserved in the church's treasures 
strikes one dumb. 

After all these ecclesiastical impressions came 
the visit to the old Eoyal Seat, the Alcazar, On 
the way to it I remarked many buildings of Saracen 
origin, which reminded me of Cairo and Damascus, 
along with other palatial houses, with iron- 
sheathed doors, beautiful lattice-work windows, 
and door-knockers. Carriages could not pass one 
another in the oldest streets of Toledo, and the 

Toledo 297 

horses of to-day's breed get about with the utmost 


The vast Alcazar, in which the Spanish 
Sovereigns down to Charles V. and Philip held 
their court, lies on the finest hill, and commands 
the whole of Toledo. This Kenaissance palace, 
with its splendid courts, and a vast number of 
rooms, many of which conserve their Saracen 
ornamenting, was among the favourite residences 
of Charles V., and it was on its really marvellous 
staircase that he uttered the words that he never 
felt himself more King of Spain than on these 
steps. The wars of later times have, however, 
damaged its brilHancy and splendour, and the re- 
moval of the Residence to Madrid also did serious 
detriment to the Palace, until the present King 
restored the neglected structure to honour. The 
Alcazar is now turned into a school for military 
cadets. The gigantic court, as well as the rooms 
in which Moorish, as well as Christian, Art has 
perpetuated itself, have fortunately been restored 
by skilled hands. 

A cadet well versed in the German language 
addressed me in the name of his comrades, and 
expressed their pleasure at seeing us here. 

The inhabitants gave uninterrupted vent to 
their feelings of sympathy with us, so that here 

298 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

again I was convinced of the rapidity with which 
an interest in Germany has arisen in Spain. 

At our departure the King made me notice 
that he was greeted with the cry of " Viva el 
Colonel de los UlanosV ("Long live the Colonel 
of the Uhlans ! ") 

In Madrid the evening was brought to a close 
by a representation of Meyerbeer's U Africaine, 

Madrid, November 28, 1883. 

This is King Alfonso's birthday, of which^ 
however, little notice was taken in the streets, 
such a day not being kept here as it is with us. 
It was only at the hour of the second dejeuner that 
I had the opportunity of congratulating the King, 
as did also my suite, — when I presented him, by 
command of the Kaiser, with a small bronze copy 
of the Monument to the Great Elector, and with 
a statuette of myself as a Cuirassier, in the same 
material. Immediately after the meal, at which 
all had already appeared *^ in gala," the Grandees 
and Diplomats appeared for the Court. The 
former, with their ladies, who wore trains, walked 
past the Eoyal Pair, seated in fauteuils in the 
Camera, after which the doors into the Throne- 
room opened, and their Majesties passed in, to 
speak to the diplomats assembled there. 

Birthday Festivities in Madrid 299 

Then they ascended the throne, and seated 
themselves ; the Infantas took their place at the 
side, while the Court ranged itself to the right 
and left of the throne ; the officers and officials, 
who had been smoking in the adjoining rooms, 
until their turn came, now defiled past their 
Majesties, and made their bow. I did not lose 
the opportunity of seeing this reception from a 
hiding-place, and was much pleased with the 
charming appearance of the Queen, who, in her 
white and gold raiment and diamond ornaments, 
moved about with a natural grace, walking like 
the Empress of Austria. Her manner reminded 
me of her aunt, the Queen of the Belgians, as 
well as of Archduchess Kainer, and there is some- 
thing particularly sympathetic in her unconstrained 

In the evening there was a concert in the 
same saloon in which we assemble before meals ; 
at this an aunt of the King, the Infanta Christina, 
as well as the aristocracy, made their appearance. 

The members of the Eoyal Family, as also the 
elite of the fair sex, took their places as they 
liked, without distinction of rank, so that the King 
sat near the Prima Donna, Sga. Teodorini, an 
amusing contrast to the strictly observed etiquette 
of the forenoon ! I thus had a splendid opportunity 

300 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

of studying the Spanish, type at close quarters ; 
now strikingly beautiful, now piquant, it often 
reminds one strongly of the Italian race, and yet 
preserves its own individuality very distinctly. 
As to ornaments, the wealth of solitaires, as well 
as the enormous stones of every variety, in no- 
wise falls below that of the English families. It 
was evident that many ladies painted, and also 
that antiquity wears pink gowns. 

I was able to talk at length with the leaders 
of the two chief parties in this country, Canovas 
and Sagasta. The former resembles a German 
ecclesiastic in appearance, while the other has 
the Saracen type of countenance. 

A part of the old Spanish etiquette is still kept 
up at the Court. The King, who also seems to 
have the clearest head among them, makes this a 
matter of personal supervision. 

The Chamberlain's Office is fulfilled daily by 
one of the Grandees, who appears for the whole 
day in an embroidered coat, with gold cross-bands ; 
the wives of the Grandees perform the same 
function as ladies of the palace to the Queen. 
The military officials on duty appear in uniform, 
while the King usually wears civil dress. 

Since the whole of the Eeception Eooms were 
open and fully illuminated to-day, the saloons, 

Birthday Festivities in Madrid 301 

which had originally been appointed in Versailles 
taste, but were improved by later additions, were 
seen in their full splendour. Queen Christina, on 
her arrival in the country, found herself without 
any furniture, and with very few seats, so she can 
justly pride herself on having entirely remedied this 
defect, and introduced the present arrangements. 

The Throne-room, though beset with blunders 
from the ^* Empire Period,'' for the most part 
bears the stamp of its original combination. 
The ancient velvet carpets, edged with silver 
embroidery, are set-off by fourteen life-size Floren- 
tine bronze figures of the finest green patina^ some 
of which are imitations from the antique, others 
again are the products of the baroque period. At 
either side of the throne are two more than life- 
sized statues in bronze, which represent Justice 
and Wisdom, while on each of the six steps reach- 
ing up to it is a pair of lions holding marble 
globes. Besides these the space is further filled 
with bronze candelabras, many of which are 
originals from Gutierre, busts of marble and 
porphyry, costly consoles with marble slabs, crystal 
crowns, and enormous clocks, while a painting by 
Tiepolo covers the ceiling ; so that this Throne- 
room is unique in its way, and gives a splendid 
impression, whether by day or by artificial light. 

302 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Taken as a whole, the Eeception Kooms are 
the same height as the rooms in the New Palace 
at Potsdam; next to that above described, the 
one assigned to me as an ante-room is the most 
costly, with its old satin hangings, decorated with 
colossal Italian embroideries in relief, in the 
baroque style, while a cabinet entirely inlaid with 
porcelain plates and bas-reliefs from the former 
manufactory at Buen Retiro belongs to the sights 
of Madrid. If my wife had accompanied me, this 
would have been her boudoir. 

Since the way from my rooms to those of the 
King invariably takes me through these State 
apartments, I am able to enjoy their treasures 
at close quarters. 

In the early morning I devoted many hours 
to the Museo, and went through all the rooms, 
so as to see the modern French and Spanish 
Schools, until I found myself on another floor, 
with the Holbeins, van Eycks, Koger van der 
Weydes, and a host of masterpieces of the Old 
German and Flemish Schools. 

Later on I visited the Academia de San 
Fernando J to see Murillo's very famous pictures. The 
Dream of the Eoman Patrician and Saint Elizabeth, 
which pleased me more than the examples of this 
Master in the Museo. The rooms are used for 

Pictures in the Museo 303 

public purposes, and are in parts so dark that 
it is difficult to recognize Zurbaran's paintings, as 
also a little sketch by Eaphael. 

After I had made some official visits, and also 
paid my respects to the mother of the wife of our 
Spanish Ambassador, Count Benomar, I spent 
a few moments in the family circle of the English 
Ambassador, Sir Eobert Morier, who is well known 
to us. In such drives as these, as also on ordinary 
occasions, the lackeys perform the duties of grooms 
when I get into the carriage ; for as we only leave 
the Palacio at foot's pace until the great doorway 
has been passed, the footmen in knee-breeches 
attend us on both sides to the street, where they 
remain standing, and bow, with their hats off, till 
the horses begin to trot. The same thing is 
repeated on the return to the Palace. 

Madrid^ November 29, 1883. 

Again I devoted the mo'rning hours to the 
enjoyment of the paintings at the Museo, and 
endeavoured, as far as possible, to orientate myself 
among the 53 Teniers, 33 Tintorettos, 65 Luca 
Giordanos, 58 Eiberas, 35 Bassanos, etc., always, 
however, returning to the masterpieces of the 
Italian and Dutch Schools, and to Velasquez. 

304 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Lastly, I glanced through the rooms in which the 
newer School is represented, including the crea- 
tions of Goya— celebrated at the beginning ot 
this century — many of whose pictures are also 
in the Palace. The very latest Spanish School 
has made an extraordinary development, and 
promises, thanks to the Academy instituted in 
Kome, to do great things. 

After a pianist from Hamburg had played 
before their Majesties, I visited the Artillery 
Museum and plan-room of the Engineer Corps, 
where the history of the development of those 
weapons, as well as some historical relics, are 
shown in models. The Infanta Isabella, who is 
constantly occupied in thinking of what I ought 
to see in Madrid among the objects that are to 
my taste, particularly recommended me to visit 
this collection. 

Lastly, I went to the Church of the Atocha^ 
specially venerated for its image of the Madonna^ 
— here the official Court and State Ceremonies 
take place, distinguished men are buried, and 
trophies are put up. Structurally, the church 
is of little interest ; the only thing remarkable is 
the Monument to Marshal Prim, which is entirely 
made of Toledo steel, inlaid with gold. 

To-day's anniversary of their Spanish Majesties^ 

Madrid 305 

wedding enabled me to present the Queen with 
some porcelain vases, executed very beautifully 
by the Eoyal Manufactory at Berlin from old 
rococo models, — and received with evident 
pleasure by Queen Christina, who is a connoisseur. 

In honour of the day, our Ambassador, Count 
Solm, gave a dinner to the King in his pretty 
house, which is fitted up with valuable old 
furniture and his own paintings, but which he 
now has to leave, because the building is shortly 
to be turned into a Cloister. The Marshals and 
Ministers, with the highest Dignitaries, were in- 
vited. As the Foreign Minister, Euiz Gomez, was 
my neighbour, I had a good opportunity of dis- 
cussing political questions with him. 

After the dinner I accompanied the King to 
the Theatre. 

Madrid, November 30, 1883. 

The Spanish entourage thought it very singular 
that I should spend my morning hours in the 
Museo ; but I employ these leisure moments in 
the contemplation of treasures that I shall pro- 
bably never see again in my life. 

Titian, Eubens, and Van Dyck in one room, on 
the same wall as Kaphael — that in itself sounds 


3o6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

almost overwhelming. Still, it is not in keeping 
with om: modern requirements to hang masses of 
various masterpieces on both walls of an exceed- 
ingly long gallery, lighted from the top; the 
effect of the pictures is thereby seriously detracted 

Since in such a wealth of masterpieces one 
may be permitted to have favourites, I admit that 
among the Eaphaels here the half-length of the 
so-called Cardinal Bibiena pleases me more than 
any of the other pictures. 

Further, among the Murillos, I give the 
preference to a blonde Virgin ascending to Heaven 
over any of his other pictures, because the ideal- 
istic treatment of this appeals to me more than 
his many realistic, however beautifully-handled, 

The technique of Velasquez, looked at closely, 
often resembles a canvas covered with dashes; 
while at the right distance his pictures are really 

Titian, Paolo Veronese, Van Dyck, and Eubens, 
are here so wonderfully represented that I should 
take Madrid as the place which possesses all their 
best works. 

A history of painting as such is not represented 
in the Madrid Galleries, because the collection 

Madrid "^qT] 

of paintings is more casual, and originated in the 
pictures taken arbitrarily from the various castles, 
in particular from the Escorial. Since Charles V., 
Philip II., and Philip IV., little more has been 
acquired, and till forty years ago these treasures 
were actually relegated to the rubbish-rooms to 
give place to modern stuff! However the afore- 
said Emperor and his successors may have 
thought magnificently and acted royally in their 
various enterprises, in the collecting of this vast 
number of masterpieces alone they raised to 
themselves an indestructible memorial. 

At midday I accompanied their Majesties 
with the Infantas to the unveiling of the Memorial 
to Queen Isabella la Catolica (wife of Ferdinand) 
by the Municipality, to which we resorted "in 
gala,'* the gentlemen in uniform. 

The simple ceremony was performed in the 
presence of the Marshals, Ministers, the Cardinal 
of Toledo, the Patriarch, and others, as well as 
of troops who lined the way, after which we 
partook of a dejeuner d la fourchette provided by 
the city. 

The statue, which is executed with great 
artistic taste, represents the still-venerated Queen 
on horseback, between two famous contemporaries, 
entering Granada, and holding in her hand a 

3o8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

gigantic cross, which she carried on that occasion, 
and which is still preserved. 

From here the King took me to some barracks, 
where troops of all arms were drawn up in the 
court, in order to show us the equipment and 
handling of the troops, and then the arrange- 
ments of the barracks. It interested me to 
examine more closely the excellent material in 
cloth, leather, and metal, which had already 
struck me on parade, as well as the long halls, 
so contrary to our ideas, which are used as rooms, 
without giving the soldier any locked space in 
which he can put away his effects, as he is only 
allotted a knapsack, or haversack. 

The sandal-like covering for the foot is quite 
peculiar ; it is arranged, as is the custom of the 
country, so that in summer the bare foot rests on 
a laced sole. 

The mountain artillery exercised with their 
small-calibre guns, which can be taken to pieces 
for the march, and transported on mule-back ; 
the men manage to put them into firing order 
again, at the shortest notice, with commendable 

The Spanish soldier has for the most part a 
swarthy complexion and black hair ; his expression 
is not unintelligent. 

state Ball 309 

We only got home after sunset, but were 
illuminated by the strange, so-called zodiacal 
light. Just after I had received a deputation of 
the Germans resident here, the King suddenly 
came in, presented me with the highest Spanish 
miHtary order of San Fernando, and stayed on 
some time with me. 

At dinner we all appeared ''in gala,'' on 
account of the ball that was to follow, although 
it was only to begin one and a half hours later. 
The customary afternoon smoke with the King 
came off on the ground-floor, because his rooms 
were to be used for the Keception to-day, and, 
indeed, we lingered in these rooms, in which, as 
usual during Court Functions, any one may 
indulge himself in smoking to his heart's content. 

At the beginning of the ball I led Queen 
Christina to the State Eooms, which were, indeed, 
the same in which we take our meals daily, and 
where the Concert had been given — since there is 
no Ball-room in the Palacio, The Grandee on duty 
clapped his hands as a signal that the Court was 
approaching, and after greeting the Papal Nuncio, 
as well as the Patriarch, the dancing began. A 
Quadrille d'honneur came first, in which I danced 
with the Queen; the King was my vis-a-vis 
with his mother, and General von Blumenthal 

3IO Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

danced with the Infanta Isabella, Lieut. -General 
Baron von Loe with the Infanta Eulalia, Major- 
General Mischke with Countess Dubsky, wife of 
the Austrian Ambassador, Court-Marshal von 
Normann with the Marquesa de Lalaguna. 

Queen Christina and the two Infantas also 
requested round dances from me ; after that the 
King led me through all the rooms, to make me 
known to a number of persons. When I was 
subsequently left to myself, came the not less 
difficulty of recognizing among the eight Duquesas, 
twenty-eight Marquesas, and thirty-three Con- 
desas, those who had been presented to me on 
the day of my arrival by the Queen; but the 
magnificent family jewels, exhibited to-day in their 
full magnificence, afforded in themselves a wel- 
come and convenient subject of conversation, and, 
indeed, thanks to the amiability of the fair sex, 
the talk was never at a standstill. 

At the Spanish Court, on occasions of this 
kind, the Grandees, when not military, wear 
embroidered coats, the officers appear in uniform, 
the civilians, however, who have no uniform, in 
knee-breeches, as at the English Court; on the 
other hand, every invited guest who happens to 
be a delegate must appear in black tie and 
trousers. Since in Spain there are a number of 

The Spanish Court 311 

Grand Crosses, as also of Orders of Knighthood, 
nearly every one wears distinguished orders ; this 
is particularly the case with the officers, for even 
Captains wear several stars, and Staff-Officers 
display ribbons of the First Class. There are 
stars which designate the higher ranks of civil 
servants, as, e,g,^ the Grand Cross S, Ildefonso^ 
given for thirty-five years of service. 

The Royal Family, with some of the Diplomats 
and Grandees, supped seated in the castle-halls, 
which are hung with great Gobelin tapestries, 
and thereby present the appearance of a fine 
saloon. When I endeavoured to devote myself 
to the inspection of it, I was prevented, with the 
remark that it was "very bad;" on the other 
hand, the famous collection should be hung up 
next day, in my honour, in all the corridors, which 
is only done on very special occasions. 

The splendid /^^6 ended only towards morning. 

Madrid^ December 1, 1883. 

To-day began late for all of us, since we 
required a thorough rest after the exertions of 
the night ; in the afternoon a ** drive into the 
country " was arranged for our amusement, to 
the villa at Pardo, which, in brilUant summer 
sunshine, was a great success. 

312 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

After that I enjoyed a walk upon the balcony 
beneath my windows, which afiords a wide view 
over the valley of the Manzanares, as well as the 
snow-clad Guadaramas Mountains. Below, the 
Castle "Watch, consisting of several companies of 
Infantry, a Division of Cavalry, and a Battery, 
the strength in which it is daily stationed here, 
was forming up. So soon as the Eelief reaches 
the edge of the square in front of the Palacio^ it 
marches up in slow time with advance and rear 
guard, to the sounds of the National Hymn, which 
melody is then played also by the Castle Watch, 
who, meanwhile, stand to their arms ; then about 
three-quarters of an hour elapse, while all stand 
in form with their arms, till the whole of the 
formalities have been fulfilled. No soldier, how- 
ever, enters the upper walks or inner parts of the 
Palacioj because the ward of these devolves ex- 
clusively upon retired non-commissioned officers, 
who form the Halbardiers, and wear uniforms 
similar to those of the " Swiss Guard " at the 
end of the last century, with three-cornered hats 
and gaiters, but without powder or pigtail. All 
through the day they carry tall halbards in their 
hand; at the approach of darkness these are 
exchanged for muskets. 

When I came out of my room, a great portion 

Gobelin Tapestries 313 

of the renowned Gobelin tapestries had akeady 
been hung on both sides of the corridors, so that 
I could walk between these chefs d'oeuvre of the 
art of weaving, which begin with the fifteenth 
century, the oldest having, as is known, been 
bought by Joan ' the Crazy,' from the annual 
market of Flanders. 

The wealth of splendid and well-preserved 
Gobelin tapestries, exhibited by the thousand at 
the Spanish Court, is well known to be unique. 
It was in the first instance Charles V. who 
adorned his castles with a store of gold-embroidered 
arrases, and his example was followed by Philip 
II., from whose time the canopy of the Escorial 
is preserved here, among others — these being at 
first made to the order of the several Kings, 
although subsequently manufactories were estab- 
lished. In the treatment of subjects, the motives 
alternate between religion, history, symbolism, 
and mythology, or are derived from the life of the 
people, arabesques being intermingled. Here 
one sees the heroic deeds of Charles V., there 
the Gospels, then adventurous groups of fantastic 
inventions in the splendid costume of the 
Burgundian Court, or scenes from the antique 
world of Gods and Sagas, many of which were 
prepared from the designs of famous masters. 


314 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

A whole section of such wall-coverings belonged 
to Count Egmont, and came with the confisca- 
tion of his goods into the hands of the Spanish 

The great bare Halls of the Palacio at once 
assumed a hospitable aspect; for the suspended 
Gobelins fulfil their original function to-day in 
clothing the walls and giving them an air of 

After the second dejeuner their Majesties and 
the Infantas, with myself, mounted a ** four- 
in-hand" coach, the King, next whom I sat, 
taking the reins, while the Eoyal ladies sat 
behind us. So we went two miles out into the 
country, first through the pretty parts of the 
€asa del Campo and La Florida, later through 
a grove of cork trees, in which there were deer. 
The Queen gave me no peace till I lighted my 
pipe, another proof of the delightful ease with 
which I am treated here ! 

Externally the Summer Eesidence presents 
nothing striking beyond its vast proportions; 
the more remarkable therefore are the masses 
of Gobelins, from the two last centuries, with 
which each small space of the hundred rooms 
is covered. Nowhere have I hitherto seen such 
a wealth of tissues, so richly squandered, for 

El Par do 315 

there is literally no room in El Pardo where 
the walls are hung with paper. After visiting 
" La Zarzuela^'^ a charming summer-house, quite 
in the style of the Trianon, we got into a little 
carriage drawn by six Andalusian ponies, when 
the Infanta Isabella seated herself on the box. 
She drove us with great dexterity, galloping all 
the way over hill, stock, and stone, while she 
urged the ponies on faster and faster, through 
oak-woods, by the lonely hunting-castle of Quinta, 
back to Madrid. We went by such roads that my 
^uite, who were following in the next carriage, 
were unable to follow, which added not a little 
to the cheerful humour we were aU in already. 

The unconstrained intercourse with Queen 
Christina, whose features remind me of the wife 
of General von Albedyll, nee von Alten, as well 
as with the Infantas, the younger of whom, 
Eulalia, is very attractive, with a clever, half- 
melancholy, half-roguish expression, gave a par- 
ticular charm to this country excursion. 

In the evening a sort of Gala-Opera was 
arranged in my honour with Meyerbeer's Hugtie- 
notSj and to-day we were received on entering 
with *' Heil Dir,^^ This, however, did not prevent 
the public from disapproving of the prima donna 
who took the part of the Queen, and the latter 

3i6 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

accordingly began to weep, so that the perform- 
ance threatened to be interrupted, had we not 
all given her fresh courage by clapping our hands. 
Between the acts the Ministers, as well as our 
highly- appro ved-of Ambassador, Count Solms, 
came to pay their respects. 

When, late in the night, we came back from 
the Opera, the gloomy corridors of the Palacio^ 
all hung with tapestry, presented quite a changed 
appearance from that of the previous evening. 
Each lonely hall seemed indeed to be peopled 
by all manner of gay but silent, indistinguishable 
forms, while in reality only the Halbardier stand- 
ing at his night-post gave a sign of life, inasmuch 
as — so soon as I approached him — he cried to 
the watch, by order thirty strong, ** Anna per Sua 
Altessa el Principe Imperial,'" and the latter had 
then to stand at arms, even if I did not pass 

And here I must mention that from the oldest 
times to this day, the custom for the protection 
of the Sovereign has been that two gentlemen 
of noble birth, who must be natives of the city 
of Espinoza, should watch the whole night through 
outside the King's room, in Court uniform. The 
King himself never sees them, or even knows 
them, for at such an hour he never enters the 

The * ' Esttidiantina '* 317 

Comera, in which these gentlemen have to stay, 
but the noble families of Espinoza prize this 
privilege so highly that many resort to that 
town, simply in order that their sons may come 
into the world there, and thus acquire the right 
to exercise this strange office. 

Many times, on coming home at night, I 
purposely went past the King's apartments in 
order to convince myself of this marvel, and, sure 
enough, in the dimly lighted room I always 
found those two Cdhalleros in gold-embroidered 
coats, holding three-cornered hats in their hand, 
who then inclined themselves before me. With 
the impression of this mediaeval performance, I 
then had to go on through the dim Throne Eoom 
and the rest of the Eeception Eooms before I 
could reach my own apartments. 


Madrid, December 2, 1883. 

As we were driving to tlie English Chapel, 
where I attended Divine Service to-day, a young 
man sprang on to my open carriage, clung to 
it, and spoke excitedly to General Blanco, who 
was sitting at my side. It turned out that he 
was a member of the '* Estudiantinay' a students' 
association, who had petitioned some days ago 

3i8 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

to give a performance of their musical achieve- 
ments, and who, since no answer had yet been 
vouchsafed, hoped in this extraordinary fashion to 
obtain the decision. 

After service there was a luncheon at Sir 
Kobert Morier's, at the conclusion of which the 
King showed me his stables and carriage-houses, 
called Las Caballerizas and La Real Cochera, Here 
a fair proportion of old Spanish pomp is still 
displayed, notably in the harness, liveries, and 
trappings for the Gala bull-fights. 

Both their Majesties are extremely fond of 
horses, and the animals, which are partly bred 
in the country, partly imported from England, 
are splendidly managed ; the stables, too, are in 
admirable order. The King, as well as the Queen, 
who appeared some time after, showed off their 
riding-horses more particularly, after which some 
fast trotters were exhibited, till I was called away 
by enforced audiences. 

I had, of course, to conform to the custom 
here, by which distinguished Spaniards can claim 
a special reception, — even when they have already 
been presented, and when one has met them 
before, and perhaps daily. 

This time there was a deputation from the 
Grandees, consisting of the heads of the first 

Academia de Jurisprudenzia 319 

families of the Kingdom, and further of the Field- 
Marshals Novaliches, Martinez Campos, Quesada, 
and of the Minister-President Posada Herero, the 
President of the Upper Court of Justice, the 
Marques de la Eibera (formerly Ambassador to 
Berlin), Don Manuel Silvela, Don Manuel 
Uriarte, Conde de las Almenas. And lastly 
appeared a deputation from the Academia de 
Jurisprudenzia, headed by their President^ 
Eomero Eobledo, to incorporate me as an 
honorary member, upon which the customary 
tokens and diplomas were handed over to me.* 
From the speeches of to-day and of previous 
days, I see very well that many far-sighted 

* On this occasion Romero Robledo addressed the Crown Prince in 
the following words : " The Academicians beg Your Imperial Highness to 
accept an Album that we are dedicating to the Crown Princess. This 
Album, which contains the names of the Academicians who admire in Your 
Imperial Highness the love of Art and of the Sciences, has been illustrated 
by one of our finest artists, and requires some time longer for its completion • 
we shall rejoice in the moment when we shall be able to forward it to its 
distinguished destination." The Crown Prince rephed, " I am proud of 
the nomination as member ot your Academy, an honour that will be 
prized in my Fatherland. I have had a predilection for juristic studies 
from the time I was a student in Bonn. You know that the legislative 
work of Germany is still being actively pursued. In the first place, at this- 
moment, there is the codification of the Civil Law, a task that is much 
heavier with us than in Spain. Your Fatherland has been a united 
country from very early times ; the German Empire consists of different 
States, which have different justice, and different legislations. The 
equalizing of these differences, the formulating of a legislation, based 
on scientific principles, is the problem that jurisprudence now has to solve 
in Germany, and as I hope will solve. The first task of the law-giver^ 
however, in my eyes, is that of obtaining equal rights for all.'* 

320 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Spaniards, some party-leaders at their head, are 
disposed to study us Germans pretty closely. The 
martial deeds of our people, crowned by the 
restoration of Emperor and Empire, excite in 
them as much admiration as that feeling so innate 
in Germans, of fidelity in duty, self-sacrifice, and 
devotion for the good of the Fatherland. These 
men earnestly desire to awaken the same ideas 
among the Spaniards. 

Last night at half-past ten the city of Madrid 
gave a f^te in my honour, the announcement 
of which ran, *' Recepcion que en Jionor de S. A. J. 
y. R. el Principe heredero de Alemania celehra el 
Ayuntamiento de Madrid en su primera casa 

Since the Court went *4n gala,'' we descended 
the Grand Staircase of the Palacio, escorted by 
Halbardiers, and preceded by lackeys bearing wax- 
tapers, and then remained a long time in the 
vicinity of the illuminated town hall, with the 
carriage, until all the gentlemen and ladies of 
the suite had passed us, and had ahghted. 

The Alcalde (Chief Burgomaster) received us 
at the foot of the stately staircase at the head 
of a line of firemen, while on the steps of the 
Alguazil powdered lackeys stood in picturesque 
Old-Spanish costume, none of whom might stir 

Reception by the City 321 

a finger to remove our cloaks, since this is never 
the duty of the servants ! During my stay here, 
I have never found out whose business this really 
is, since I have always had to accept the kind- 
ness of the nearest bystander, or, at the theatre, 
to help myself. 

The fke consisted only of a "rout,'' in which 
the middle-class inhabitants of the town, the 
diplomats, and a small number of the upper ranks 
of society took part. The scene of the festivities 
was the glazed-in court of the Ayuntamiento 
building, which was lit with electric light. 

After we had made several turns, there was 
as much conversation as was possible among the 
many unknovm guests; the fete closed with a 
supper at the buffet. 

Prince Louis of Bavaria, the eldest son of 
Prince Luitpold, and husband of the Queen's step- 
sister, has arrived from Lisbon. 

I have received an intimation from Berlin that 
my visit must not be further extended ; the King, 
on the other hand, begs me in the most cordial 
manner not to leave before the entire programme 
arranged for my stay has been carried out, and in 
addition he insists upon a journey through Anda- 
lusia, before I leave Spain — all of which I com- 
municated in reply to the message I had received. 


322 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Madrid, December 3, 1883. 

A clay's shoot, for rabbits and red-legged 
partridges, under the broom-bushes and cork-trees 
of the Casa del Campo, not far from Madrid, gave 
us the promised enjoyment of fresh air and fine 
warm sunshine. Here I slew eighty-six of those 
fleet little four-footed animals, and sixteen 
'* partridges,'' as these birds, which are double 
the size of our partridge, and have red beaks and 
claws, are called here. 

Both Queens appeared at our second breakfast 
in the open, as also the Infantas, with the Austrian 
Ambassadress, Countess Dubsky. We all sat down 
under some very large old oaks, while a band 
of music entertained us with Spanish National 
Airs, and the most unconstrained good-humour 

We returned with our bag of 1264 rabbits after 
sunset, but in the golden illumination of the 
evening glow that has been daily repeated so long 
as I have been here. 

At the Spanish Theatre Apolo, we attended 
the performance of the national opera Marina, 
greeted on arriving and leaving with di, fanfare. 

The Escorial 323 

Madrid^ Escorial, December 4, 1883. 

The King took us to-day by rail to the Escorial, 
which one must have seen in order to appreciate 
the past glories of Spain. 

A Prince whose sole joy was in things 
ecclesiastical, and who at the same time, as King, 
was capable of great thoughts, produced with 
astonishing energy (in both church and monastery), 
a gigantic work which has for ever immortalized 
him, and one may say his age, with him. Every 
labour on that gigantic structure is thought out 
even to the least detail, and executed in the 
most polished manner from the best materials. 
Since, however, no colours, but only stone and 
metal were employed in it, the spectator feels no 
impressions that benefit or satisfy, much rather 
is the only feeling left him one of astonishment at 
the mighty proportions of this burial-place of the 
Koyal House, built in honour of the Blessed 
Lawrence in the shape of thci gridiron on which 
he found his martyr's death. 

Inasmuch as the Escorial is consecrated to 
the memory of the dead, the plan of it made upon 
me an impression as earnest as melancholy, and 
I then understood why most visitors to it speak of 
the gloomy horror inspired in them by the work 

324 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

of Philip II. I found myself, however, somewhat 
compensated by the right royal dignity which is 
stamped on the magnificent pile, and this helped 
me to shake off the melancholy of the place. 

The church forms the middle point of the 
monastic buildings, it is built of fine greyish- 
yeUow squares of stone, and reminds one in the 
interior of the side-aisle of S. Peter's in Eome; 
it is full of altars, possesses carved choir-stalls, 
and wrought-iron ornaments of the finest work, 
with splendid decoration. In contradiction with 
the bareness of its walls are the gilded bronze 
groups to the right and left of the High Altar, 
which represent Charles V., Philip II., and 
their relatives. Close by lay Philip's dwelling- 
i'oom, very simple, but decorated with majolica, 
with the seats and tables he used — which I 
found in no wise so repulsive as is commonly 
made out by strangers. Under the High Altar, 
that King constructed the Panteon, the family 
vault of the monarchs, a taU, octagonal chapel, 
completely inlaid with marble plates, upon 
whose walls six stone sarcophagi of precisely 
similar workmanship are ranged opposite to one 
another in niches, inscribed only with the names 
of those who rest there. From Charles V. 
onwards, all the Kings, with the consorts who 

The Escorial 325 

had borne them heirs, found their rest in this place. 
The other Queens, however, with the exception 
of the first wife of the present King, Mercedes, 
who rests in a side chapel of the church itself, 
as well as the members of the Eoyal Family, 
collectively, were buried in side-vaults. King 
Alfonso has prepared a new and more dignified 
burial-place in the strong adjacent vaults, re- 
sembling my plans for the Berlin Friedhofhalle in 
the Cathedral, and intends to translate the bones 

The wide Halls of the Convent lead into the 
magnificently appointed rooms of the Library, 
which reminds one of the Vatican, and possesses 
a great wealth of manuscripts and books. The 
celebrated picture-gallery formerly collected in the 
Escorial was carried off to Madrid to the Museo : 
its monks left the cloister in consequence of 
the secularizing ; ecclesiastics, among whom some 
were able to speak German, took over the super- 
intendence of the Library, and a school for com- 
missioners of taxes took the place of the Fathers 
of the Convent. 

The part occasionally inhabited by the Eoyal 
Family is in sharp contrast with that above 
described; the walls are hung with a profusion 
of Gobelin tapestry ; the Empire arrangement of 

326 Diaries of the Einperor Frederick 

the rooms is disturbing, though the view on to 
the plains indeed gives compensation. The little 
country house in the garden, in Louis XVI. style, 
is prettier, from it one sees the high mountains 
that form the background to the Escorial. 

We concluded the day at the opera, Mejistofele. 

Madrid, December 5, 1883. 

After the morning hours had been devoted 
exclusively to the inspection of arrases and 
tapestries, under the guidance of the Marques 
Alcanizes (Duque di Sesto) and the Count of 
Valencia, the King rode with me to the Ochesa de 
los Carabanchelesj the great exercising-ground of 
the garrison, where Brigades of Infantry, Cavalry, 
and Artillery, respectively exercised before us. 

The troops formed up in three divisions, the 
first of which was made up from the 1st Battalion 
of the Kegiments '' Mallorco " and ** Garellano," 
as well as the Jager-Batt aliens "Manila" and 
** Puerto Eico ; " these stood in the oddest way in 
the middle of the Pioneer Exercising-ground, so 
that, as we rode down the front, a wide scarped 
trench suddenly opened before us ! This, of 
course, was taken incontinently by the King and 
myself, but the suite had time to select a less 
unpleasant way. 

Inspection of the Army 327 

The second skirmish inckided the 4th Regiment 
of Field Artillery as well as the 2nd Regiment of 
Mountain Artillery. The third was made up from 
the Hussar Regiments, "- Princesa" and '* Pavia." 

The Infantry stood to their arms in good 
order, went creditably through their manual exer- 
cises, and later, in the sham-fight, showed good 
** fire-discipline/' 

Of the manner of fighting, it may be said that 
they are trying to adapt it to the experiences of 
modem times. 

The subsequent display of Mounted Artillery 
was dexterous, and the training of these men was 
the most satisfactory. A target practice, which 
was to follow, had to be omitted, because there 
were spectators within range, and also because the 
Cavalry brought their horses too near the targets 
during the long period of waiting. The range 
was only clear after the manoeuvres of the 
Mountain Artillery, but, as the sun set meantime, 
even the marvellously clear light that prevails here 
after that would only have permitted the targets 
to be seen imperfectly. The dexterity of the 
troops in bringing the guns into action, and un- 
limbering them, as well as the transport of the latter 
by mules, was the chief part of the performance. 

Queen Christina, who, with the two Infantas, 

328 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

had appeared a little later than ourselves, and 
also on horseback, stayed through a great part 
of the manoeuvres, taking her place among the 
spectators, but had returned to the house earlier 
than ourselves. 

Queen Isabella, however, without our knowing 
it, was on the Lisbon road, which we only got on 
to in our return to Madrid, and so it fell out that 
she was smothered in the thick clouds of dust that 
accompanied us before we had even recognized 
her carriage. 

In the evening, after dinner, the Estudiantina, 
consisting of simple young people, appeared to 
perform a little concert in the Eoyal Saloon. 
Most of them wore morning coats, or any attire 
that was convenient, only a few boys, who led the 
singing with tambourine and castanets, had put 
on a kind of national costume. Their Majesties 
and the Court moved about unconstrainedly 
among the hundreds of people who formed the 
company. Finally, some individuals of the above 
Association seated themselves at the piano, and 
performed their own compositions. 

To me there was a great charm in seeing the 
apartments — at certain hours devoted solely to 
the old Spanish etiquette — thrown open now to 
the studious young people of the middle classes. 

Last Days in Madrid 329 

and in watching the King as he conversed and 
jested with them, with that natural affabiKty that 
won the hearts of his subjects from the moment 
when he first came to the throne. 

To-day I received His Majesty's permission 
from BerKn to visit Andalusia on the way home. 
But as the express to the South only goes three 
times a week, I must avail myseK of the next 
opportunity, which will be on the 7th, and accord- 
ingly I have fixed my departure for the evening of 
that day. 

Madrid^ December 6, 1883. 

To-day, to my intense surprise, brought me 
commands from the highest quarters to pay a 
visit to the Court of the King of Italy in Eome, 
on my return journey. 

After visiting the Assembly Eoom of El Senado 
(the Senate), and El Congreso de los Diputados 
(the Lower House), which are splendid modern 
edifices, and in which a goodly number of por- 
traits of celebrated party-leaders and delegates 
are hung upon the walls, I glanced round the 
parish church of Madrid, S, Isidro el Real^ which is 
lavishly decorated in the rococo style, and takes 
the place of the Cathedral proper, that is still 

330 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

wanting. After we had been shown innumerable 
models, and also many historical relics and pictures 
in the Marine Museum, I betook myself to the 
Museum of Archaeology, which has only been built 
in the last few years, so as yet there is no great 
number of objects, although it includes some 
excessively interesting remains of monuments and 
products of art from difierent centuries. 

I drove through Madrid for the last time, and 
now looked at its gay, busy traffic with quite other 
eyes than those of fourteen days ago, when under 
the charm of its novelty I could not recognize, as I 
do to-day, that the character of the Spanish Capital 
is essentially modern. For streets and squares 
have already assumed the appearance that con- 
forms best with the ideas of our contemporaries. 
With the exception of the Ministerial Buildings 
and the Palacio. Real^ there is hardly a house 
of which the architecture strikes one's eye ; in 
particular those buildings are absent which, e.g. in 
Italy, testify to the splendour and eminence of the 
families of the nobility. 

Monuments, too, of earlier ages are few in 
number; the best is an equestrian statue of 
Philip IV., which came from Florence, and stands 
in front of the East Fa9ade of the Castle. It is 
surrounded by pleasure-grounds, with colossal 


Last Days in Madrid 

figures of "{Sandstone that were formerly on the 
cornice of the King's residence. 

Among other things I drove over the Plaza 
Mayoi\ which resembles a large court, in the 
centre of which, where now stands a bronze eques- 
trian statue of Philip III. by Juan di Bologna, the 
autos de fe formerly took place. A monument, 
Dos de Mayo (May 2), in charming surroundings, 
is dedicated to the memory of the Patriots who 
struggled against Murat's usurpation, and belongs 
to the grounds of the Prado, standing not far from 
a tasteful, triumphal arch, erected in the time of 
Charles III., which bears the name of Puerta del 

At my return my audiences were awaiting me. 
Among others appeared the Minister of War, and 
the Minister of the Interior, to offer me works that 
had been brought out at the cost of the State. 

The last evening was fiUed with the Italian 
Opera Pigoletto, in which the tenor Masini dis 
tinguished himself. Castelar,^ known on the Ee- 
pubhcan Opposition, had taken his seat immediately 

Madrid, December 7, 1883. 

Snow showers and frost, alternating with sun- 
shine, for my last day in Madrid. 

332 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

After wandering once more to-day through 
the splendid Gobelins, a picture of Old- Spanish 
Court Ceremonial unrolled itself in their midst, 
the anniversary, namely, of the Founding of the 
Order of Charles III., with a procession of the 
Knights in the dress of the Order. Investiture 
and High office in the chapel of the castle. 

The King, with all who bore the chain that 
distinguishes the Knights of the highest grade, 
wore an Old- Spanish costume, with a light-blue 
trained mantle, rich in silver embroidery, over 
it, and a baretta with feathers on his head ; the 
same cloak was worn by the Patriarch and various 
ecclesiastics in their capacity as prelates of the 
order. The stately procession, at which both 
the Queens, near whom I was standing, looked 
on from one of the windows to the great corridor, 
went, preceded by a corps of music, and escorted 
by Halbardiers, into the beautiful church of the 
castle, which was draped with rich stuffs, even 
on the seats of the Knights. The King took his 
place under a marvellous white satin baldachin, 
very tastefully ornamented with arms and ara- 
besques, in which the newly-received Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, after fulfilling certain formali- 
ties at the Altar, where he was surrounded by 
the ecclesiastics, knelt down, and received the 

.ast Days in Madrid 333 

investiture with the chain. After that a musical 
High Mass was celebrated, attended by the Queens 
and the Infantas from their stalls in the church. 
Directly afterwards I had a long and searching 
talk with Adjutant-General Count Mirasol over 
the military affairs of Spain. 

At the close of the service I had expressed a 
wish to see the treasures of the chapel, and the 
Patriarch suggested that he would wait there 
for me, and himself show me the costly treasures 
and reUquaries which had escaped the plundering 
hands of Napoleon, or had been amassed at a 
later time. Stones and precious metals, with 
which many coffers are filled, are better repre- 
sented here than fine types of form. The Library 
of the Palace interested me more, in which, among 
other costly missals, they preserve that which 
formerly belonged to Ferdinand and Isabella. 
Among the innumerable manuscripts, I saw 
many deeds, to which attached the special in- 
terest that they had been signed by both the 
" Kings." 

On my final visit to take leave, the Eoyal Pair 
showed me their private apartments, which are 
comparatively small; the sleeping-chamber takes 
up most of the space. Here the present King 
was born, and on its wall his wife has hung the 

334 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

cross which Queen Mary of Scotland carried with 
her on the scaffold. 

After I had taken leave of Queen Isabella II., 
as well as of the Infantas Isabella and Eulalia, 
who all treated me with touching cordiality, the 
King invited me, notwithstanding the driving 
snowstorm, to go with him to the church of 
S, Francisco J which is undergoing restoration. In 
this church, which is in connection with the 
Jerusalem Order of the Holy Sepulchre, some 
magniiScent paintings on the walls and cupolas 
were being splendidly executed by the best fol- 
lowers of the modern school, and will certainly 
be heard of again. 

Near the Church are the barracks of an In- 
fantry Eegiment ; when its Commander presented 
himself to the King, he was informed that he 
would be amongst those officers who had been 
selected to go to Berlin for the next Spring- 

Immediately after, the Patriarch and various 
dignitaries appeared, to take leave of me. The 
King then accompanied me to the railway station, 
after I had made my adieus to the Koyal Family, 
from whose circle I parted with regret, since they 
had all met me with such extraordinary kindness 
and cordiality. At the Station I found all the 

Last Days in Madrid 335 

Ministers and Marshals, the Diplomatic Corps, 
headed hy the Nuncio and the French Ambas- 
sador, — also deputations, and country people. 
And here I finally bade the King ^* Farewell/' 

And now the beautiful days in Madrid are 
over ! I part from King Alfonso with the feeling 
of genuine friendship, and the greatest respect 
for his penetration and strength of character, as 
also for his courage, and the perseverance with 
which he has endeavoured to bring his country 
back to more pacific conditions, and to raise it. 
Developed in advance of his years, endowed with 
the true instinct of a King, as well as with the 
needful self-confidence, he surely will succeed in 
winning new respect for the Monarchy. 

336 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Seville, December 8, 1883. 

** Die Schonen von Sevilla 
Mit Facher und Mantilla 
Blicken den Strom entlang ; 
Sie lauschen mit Gefallen, 
Wenn meine Lieder schallen 
Zum Mandolinenklang, 
Und dunkle Eosen fallen 
Mir vom Balkon zum Dank." * 

These lines from Geibel's Hidalgo came into 
my mind as we neared the walls of Seville; by good 
luck, however, I entered the city with anticipa- 
tions other than those of the hero of this ballad, 
as I was to experience nothing of what these 
poetical lines describe ! For the prevailing and 
wholly unusual frost kept the fair ones in their 
houses, and spoiled the last of the flowers, among 
which the jasmine is notably conspicuous, as well 
as the oranges, whose boughs hang full of fruit. 
Ample compensation for the flowers was, however, 

* " The Beauties of Sevilla 
With fans and mantilla 
Spy down the stream ; 
They listen with delight 
When my songs ring bright 
To the mandoline, 
And roses of the night 
Drop thanks from hands unseen." 

Seville 337 

provided by the guidance of the amiable Due 
de Montpensier, who resides here, and also at his 
country house, San Lucar di Barameda, with his 
wife, the sister of Queen Isabella II., and who, 
with the officials, and the German inhabitants 
of the place, received me at the railway-station. 
The King's mother also has her residence at 
Seville, in the Alcazar, 

In this, the first Andalusian city I had entered, 
I was struck by the comparatively insignificant 
and often wretched houses, the windows of which 
have balconies in the upper stories, while the 
lower floors almost rest upon the ground, but are 
always barricaded by iron bars, like a prison. 

In the older parts of the town, the streets are 
so incredibly narrow that the foot-passenger could 
touch the houses on either side with his out- 
stretched arms; no vehicles, therefore, can pass 
along them. But when the doors of these 
buildings are opened, one finds a charming court, 
planted, according to the custopa here, with green 
things in great abundance, and fountains playing 
in the middle. I was reminded by this charac- 
teristic feature, which dates from earlier times, 
and still prevails to-day, of the scenes in Don 
Juany in Figaro, and of the gipsy maiden in 
Carmen, to which our stages have indeed given 

338 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

other settings than that which properly befits 

Seville calls herself with pride the native town 
of Murillo, and accordingly honours this Master, 
as does Nuremberg Albrecht Diirer. Next to 
Madrid there is no such collection of his pictures, 
some of which adorn the churches ; twenty-four, 
however, have been collected in the Museo (the 
former cloister of la Merced)^ since the year 1836, 
from all parts of the country. These pictures, 
however, are not all masterpieces, but are of very 
different value. To my taste, the representation 
of a vision, in which the Saviour comes down 
from the Cross to embrace S. Francis, is, both in 
drawing and in the ingenious appUcation of the 
few colours, the most perfect of Murillo's works in 
this place. 

His Moses is highly prized, as also the Feeding 
of the Ten Thousand^ in the church of the Hospital 
la Caridad, which is decorated with a fine facade, 
where the figures of saints in majolica, as well as the 
pulpit of wrought ironwork, pleased me particularly. 

The high development attained by the majolica 
industry in this place, in the Middle Ages, is 
shown by the wealth of tiles in the Museo, which 
afford a regular primer of the technique^ being even 
used for picture-frames. Unique in its kind is 

The Cathedral of Seville 339 

the church of Santa Paula, for the turreted faqade 
from the time of Ferdinand and Isabella, whose 
monograms it bears, the interior halfway up 
the walls, and even the fastenings of the doors, 
are of the same material. 

The Gothic Cathedral, one of the largest in 
Spain, is of colossal proportions ; unfortunately, its 
outer walls are disfigured by various buildings 
which partially conceal them, so that the structure 
of the church can hardly be made out. The 
more effectively, however, does the beautiful 
tower, La Giralda, spring out of this mass of 
buildings, its massive Moorish sub - structure 
standing in the Patio de los Naranjos, the 
court orange-trees, designed in the time of the 
Saracens for ablutions. The Eenaissance period 
made an addition, which is crowned by the 
bronze statue of ** Faith," and recalls the famous 
earthenware vessels (Steingut Gefdsse) of Henri II. 
of France. 

The enormous stone masses of the Cathedral 
darken the light inside, obscured as it is already 
by the magnificent old windows, so that Murillo's 
I^aS. Antonio, stolen in 1874, and found again in 
America, is as hard to recognize as the gigantic 
carved reredos behind the altar, called the Retahlo, 
which fiUs the entire height of the dome. 

340 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

There is more light in the Capilla Real and in 
the Sacristy. In the former rests the sainted 
Fernando (1252), whose sword, the statue of the 
Virgin he took to the wars, and a wooden figure 
presented to him hy S. Louis IX. of France, La 
Virgen de los Reyes, are held in the highest honour. 
This life-size image of the Madonna, both as a 
sculpture of the thirteenth century, and also 
because its clothing in the dress of the period 
has been preserved, is of great archaeological 
interest, and contrasts with the enormous mass of 
waxen, as also of carved wooden statues of saints, 
with which the churches and dwelling-houses here 
are overfilled. 

In the same chapel rest also Don Alonso el 
Sabio (the Wise), and his consort Beatrix, and that 
in a right marvellous fashion, in open niches that 
are more than a man's height, and painted red, 
with crowns and sceptre lying on the coffins that 
are covered with cloth of gold. 

The Sacristy should properly be called the 
Treasure-room, for church vessels and ornaments 
are heaped up there in the most costly materials, 
and in incredible profusion; a Gothic cross of 
silver, and more particularly a huge Eenaissance 
monstrance of the finest work, are reckoned as the 
best Spanish achievements in the art of this period. 

Dance of the Choristers 341 

As a proof of the lavish manner in which gifts 
were formerly heaped on the Church, one may- 
take the silver candlesticks, which must have 
required twenty men to carry them; further, a 
bronze candelabra, designed for use during the 
ceremonies of Holy Week, called Tenabrario, which 
is almost thirty feet high, and on which the 
Saviour with fourteen saints is represented ; this, 
on account of its enormous weight, can only be 
brought into the church on wheels. 

The most remarkable thing in the Cathedral 
to me, however, was the dance of the choristers, 
during the evening-vespers, in honour of the Im- 
maculate Conception. 

In accordance with a custom four hundred 
years old, these boys perform a sort of saraband, 
in the page's dress of the time of Philip IV., in 
the space between the High Altar and the Arch- 
bishop's Stall, where the latter is seated, sur- 
rounded by all the Canons of the Cathedral, and 
the faithful assemble round the choir. These 
choristers dance in slow step to the sound of 
fiddles, contrabass, and flutes, turning on their 
heels, and now putting on their tall plumed hats, 
now taking them off, while, during the pauses, 
they follow the time of the music with castanets. 
This vestige of the mediaeval mysteries is a most 

342 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

singular survival, but does not jar on the spectator 
as much as might have been expected from a 
dance in the church, because there is nothing 
frivolous about it, on the contrary, both the 
ecclesiastics and lay people attend it respectfully, 
as if it were a service. 

Near the Cathedral is the " Library for India," 
a noble building, rich in manuscripts from the 
time of the Discovery of America, among which 
those deriving from Christopher Columbus and 
Fernando Cortes attracted me most. 

The Eoyal Eesidential Palace, the Alcazar^ 
still contains wonderfully beautiful Moorish 
structures and ornaments, which are carefully 
preserved, and count among the finest achieve- 
ments of Saracenic art. The large garden be- 
longing to it is laid out in a mixture of Oriental 
and mediaeval taste; palms, lemons, oranges, and 
bananas, alternate with old-world hedges of box, 
and the jasmine grows luxuriantly. 

Majolica-tiles are employed throughout. The 
highest perfection of this technique is seen, how- 
ever, in the minute domestic chapel of Isabella 
the Catholic, the painting of which reminds one 
of Perugino. 

In the Palace of the Duque di Medinaceli, 
La Casa di Pilatos, one learns to appreciate 

Palacio San Telmo 343 

the luxury which the great ones of the land 
formerly developed in their houses, at the same 
time preserving Oriental forms. 

After I had received a deputation of our 
countrymen residing here, as also the Senore 
Merry y Colon, father and brother of Count Beno- 
mar, the Spanish Ambassador in Berlin, a dinner 
in the fine Palacio San Tehno, the winter-residence 
of the Due de Montpensier, brought this well- 
filled day to a close, the evening being again 
illuminated by a most remarkable streaming of 
zodiacal lights. The above building, which was 
originally endowed as a Marine School by the 
son of Christopher Columbus, was given to the 
Duke on his marriage, and is adorned with the 
productions of ancient as well as modern art, 
while the taste of the internal decorations dates 
from the time of his father. King Louis Philippe. 

Two sketches of the equestrian portraits of 
Philip IV. and the Duke of Olivarez, entirely 
from the hand of Velasquez,* as well as some 
Zurberans, struck me particularly ; not less so an 
Ary Scheffer, which I had seen during the life 
of Queen Marie Amelie, in her house at Claremont. 

The cold of the nights is the more perceptible, 
as, in contrast to the comfortable warmth of San 
Telmo, the heating arrangements of the Hotel 

344 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

are very meagre, and we have to fall back upon 
hraseros, which yield a most inadequate response 
to our demands. 

San Luca de Barameda, December 9, 1883. 

I made use of the early hours to visit some 
of the antiquities of Seville, and then took a walk 
in the garden of San Telmo, which is very remark- 
able. The Duo de Montpensier has succeeded in 
acclimatizing all kinds of exotic plants here, and 
in obtaining stately trees from little cuttings ; 
palms and oranges are here in profusion, so that 
the owner gets a considerable income from the 
sale of the fruit. Along with these delights of 
nature, he permitted himself a jest in honour of 
the Don Juan from Mozart's opera (who is, more- 
over, the hero of an old Seville legend), by buying 
up the sepulchral monuments of the Tenorio 
family, to which Comthur and Donna Anna 
belonged, at the breaking-up of the monastery 
in which they stood, and set them up here, calling 
them after the principal persons. Only the tomb- 
stones of Figaro, the Barber, and the friends of 
Mozart's as of Eossini's music, are wanting, in 
order that all the euphonious names should be 
united here in one resting-place. 

A five - hour steam - boat journey on the 

Granada ^^^^^^j45 

Guadalquivir, which did not indeed afford any 
attractions in the way of landscape, until towards 
evening we espied the pine-woods and the rocks 
of Gibraltar, brought us in the company of the 
Due de Montpensier to the shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean, where the Duchesse received us in San 
Lucar de Barameda. 

A friendly, spacious country-house with a 
pretty garden provides the princely pair (who of 
the eight children born to them, have only two 
living) with a peaceful home in this salubrious 
air, amid a people who are devoted to them. 

Cordial hospitality, and a welcome fire on the 
hearth, made the evening in the tastefully furnished 
rooms a very pleasant one. 

Granada^ December 10, 1883. 

From San Lucar, a ten-hour journey took us 
through Andalusia's red-brown landscape, which 
exhibited little variety, and also through parts 
of the Sierra Nevada, to Granada. Only at Xeres, 
where the proprietor of the largest of the vine- 
yards there, and also the German Consul from 
Cadiz, came to meet me, was there any sign of 
vegetation. Ossuna, the family seat and burial- 
ground of the well-known Duke of that name, who 
is now dead, — and which has ten churches and 

346 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

twenty monasteries, but no school, — makes as deso- 
late an impression upon one as Bobadilla, where we 
connected with the express from Cartagena to Gra- 
nada, and met the Knoop family from Wiesbaden. 

We reached Granada at nine in the evening ; 
so soon as I had got over the reception formalities, 
I hastened to the Alhamhra^ situated near the Inn 
of the Seven Stories {Fonda de los siete suelos), 
and entered it in the radiant moonlight. 

This evening visit could indeed only give me 
a general idea of the outlines, along with the 
internal plan of this marvellous building ; yet so 
much the more effective was the ghostly appear- 
ance lent by the moon to those halls and courts 
immortalized by history as by poetry ! As a back- 
ground rose the glistening snow-covered heights 
of the Sierra Nevada, while, far below, the 
valley of the Xenil, and Granada, lay in a silvery 
shimmer, broken only here and there by a beam 
of Hght from the sea of houses, against which the 
darkened gipsy quarter stood out eerily. 

Only the mild air of Andalusia and the murmur 
of the springs were wanting to make the enchant- 
ment of this evening complete. Unfortunately, 
however, several degrees of frost, to which the 
cactuses were victims, and even quite thick ice, 
contradicted my wishes. The present onset of 

The Alhambra 347 

winter, not known here for twenty years, compels 
us to wear our warmest clothing, not merely in 
the open, but even in the rooms of the Inn. For 
here the heating apparatus is confined to dimi- 
nutive fireplaces, and beyond that exclusively, as 
in Seville, to the charcoal basins, called hraseros, 

Granada^ December 11, 1883. 

The cold of the night and early morning hours 
was succeeded by warm sunshine; the ice dis- 
appeared, the fountains flowed, so that to-day's 
visit to the Alhambra was accompanied by a 
pleasant warmth, which even permitted us to sit 
out in the open. 

Before we entered the Moorish castle, our 
way led between two creations of Charles V., a 
magnificent fountain, and a palace in the luxu- 
rious Eenaissance style. While the former still 
flows, and is made use of, the Imperial Palace 
has, on the contrary, remained unfinished, and 
even unroofed, on the spot where the Moorish 
Winter Kesidence once stood, which was pulled 
down by Charles V. The glaring contrast be- 
tween this and the Moorish building is in itself 
a chapter of history, but there was no time for 
such reflections, for the threshold of the Al- 
hambra lay in our immediate neighbourhood. 

348 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

I had already been long acquainted with this 
monument of architecture — of its kind unique — 
first from pictures, and then from the plaster 
reproductions of its most striking rooms in the 
Crystal Palace at Sydenham. Now, however, as 
I entered the place itself, this all disappeared from 
memory, like the images of a cloud, before the 
splendid reality; it rose before me here in a 
manner so enchanting that a shiver of joy and 
satisfaction ran through me. 

All that I had seen in my Eastern Journey 
of 1868, of the works of Oriental decorative art, 
now seemed to me like piece-work before the 
gorgeous exhibition of taste and colour brought 
to its perfection in the Alhambra. Strange to 
relate, this lavish splendour and fantastic multi- 
plicity contents itself with comparatively small 
courts and chambers, none of which can be termed 
a " saloon " in our sense of the word, and however 
much the architecture of the interior corresponds 
with that wealth of treasure, it has done equally 
little for the outside of the Alhambra, which, 
indeed, exhibits only heavy irregular walls, piled 
up against each other, and towers devoid of style. 

I must not permit myself any even approximate 
description of the structure, but will only point 
out how astonishing it is that material and colour 

The Generalife 349 

should still resist the weather, so that the chef 
d'ceuvre of Saracen architecture has endured from 
the epoch of Charles V. to the present day. 

A structure of the age of the Alhamhra of 
course requires careful watching ; unfortunately 
in the course of past ages this has been most 
inadequately attended to, while happily at 
the present day it is managed by clever and 
capable hands; and since, in addition to this, 
the Spanish majolica manufactory has now been 
revived, this form of art, which is so richly 
employed in the Alhamhra itself, can be applied 
here conformably with the original style. 

For many hours we traversed this wonderful 
work of men's hands in amazed contemplation, 
for the splendid natural scenes around lend a 
pecuHar charm to the achievement. Out of each 
window, in front of each balcony, is unfolded a 
vast landscape, which could only be guessed at 
yesterday evening in the moonhght, while to-day 
Granada and its mountains are sparkling under 
a deep-blue sky in the clearest sunshine. 

The Generalife, originally ^^ Jennatu-V-arif,'' 
which is, being translated, the "garden of the 
architect," is a structure lying higher than the 
Alhamhra, in which much fine Moorish ornament 
is still preserved, although it has given way to 

350 * Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

a great extent to the later European taste. Here 
garden grounds from the last century present a 
charming alternation with all kinds of water- 
works of Arab origin, while there are some very 
old trees to which all kinds of tales attach. The 
proximity of the mountains, the distant views of 
valley and plain, lend to this spot, in which to-day 
the winter is forgotten in the sunshine, a character 
of ideal summer freshness. 

The Generaliste is the property of the Marchesa 
Durazzo-Palavicini, well known to me in Genoa, 
who greets me here through her oflScials, and in 
whose possession is the splendidly wrought sword 
of the last Moorish King, Boabdil — El Rey Chieo 
— which he gave up on handing over Granada to 
Ferdinand and Isabella. His memory is linked 
with the mountain pass of the Sierra Nevada, 
which he had to traverse on the retreat from his 
lost residence, and which to this day is known 
as " the last sigh of the Moor/' as Heine sings — 

** *Berg des letzten Mohren Seufzer's ' 
Heisst bis auf den heutigen Tag 
Jene Hohe, wo der Konig 
Sah zum letzten Mai Granada." * 

* " ' Mountain of the latest Moor's sigli,' 
So they call it to the present ; 
Height from which the banished Monarch 
For the last time saw Granada." 

La Cartttja ' 351 

To the Oriental reminiscences of the forenoon 
followed those of the epoch in which the Moors 
were driven out, among which the mighty cathe- 
dral, dating from the late Gothic transition-period, 
along with the burial-place of the Conquerors of 
Granada, the CathoHc ''Kings" Ferdinand and 
Isabella, appealed to me particularly. Huge 
marble sarcophagi in the Eenaissance style do 
honour to their memory, as also to that of their 
daughter, Joan the Crazy, and her husband Philip 
of Burgundy. A simple vault under the High 
Altar, however, covers the bones — within a coffin 
of curious shape, entirely encased in iron — of this 
distinguished princely pair, still held in veneration 
to-day, and whom I am proud to reckon among 
my ancestors. 

As in the church of Toledo, S, Juan de los 
Reyos possesses shields and ciphers, as well as 
countless historical objects such as the sword, 
banner, and missals of these conquerors, of whom 
there are several pictures. » 

La Cartuja, a former Carthusian convert, 
contains some really marvellous work in inlaid 
cedar and ebony wood, mother - of - pearl and 
tortoiseshell — the doors of the sacristy-chapel, as 
well as a great number of gigantic coffers, being 
made out of these materials. In addition, the 

352 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

view of the Alhambra, the Sierra Nevada, and 
the valley of the Xenil from the terrace of this 
monastery is as attractive, as the character of the 
gipsy quarter, located in rock caves, is the reverse. 
This singular people have here lost many of their 
original characteristics, partly because they were 
established in Granada, partly because a mixed 
race has sprung up by marriage with the people 
of the country. 

The so-called King of the Gipsies appeared 
before my dwelling in a dress that resembled the 
costume of the bandits at the theatre, so that at 
the outset I felt sceptical of his genuineness ; but 
when His Majesty approached me to present his 
august photograph, I became convinced, by the 
unmistakably Indian type of countenance, as 
well as by the piercing eyes, of the indubitable 
relationship of this monarch to his race. 

Granada's antiquity- stalls have the charm of 
large rag-shops, in the rust and dust of which the 
original character of many Hispano - Moorish 
objects has been preserved from the perils of 
modern restoration. Close by there is an 
industry peculiar to this place, which suppKes 
models of Moorish architecture, with exact repro- 
ductions of colour and pattern, and, thanks to 
the execution by intelligent technicians, it has 

Cordova 353 

been brought to a really astonishing degree of 

Cordovay December 12, 1883. 

I left Granada at four in the morning, in clear 
moonlight ; the discomfort of this early hour was 
increased owing to the by-no-means Andalusian 
cUmate, and the inadequate heating arrangements 
of the railway carriages, while the want of variety 
in the landscape on the long journey to Cordova 
presented little that was attractive. 

In the days when this city was still the 
residence of the Khalif, the number of its in- 
habitants amounted to a million, and the life 
there must have resembled that of the Thousand 
and One Nights; to-day the streets give one the 
impression that everything has changed into the 
direct contrary. 

L So soon as one reaches the Cathedral, or 
Mezquita, one perceives that the Muslims must 
have developed their full power here; for this 
marvellous mosque, begun at the end of the 
eighth century, and containing 1096 columns, is 
among the greatest that Islam ever called forth. 

After passing through an outer court, filled 
with cypresses and palms, and notably with a 
real grove of orange-trees, the porch of the 


354 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Cathedral, called Puerta del Predon, whicli is 
inlaid with Saracen and Gothic bronze plates, 
admits one to the sight of a labyrinth of pillars, 
resembling a petrified forest. 

The founder, Abd-el-Kahman, and also his 
successors, collected pillars of jasper, porphyry, 
and verd-antique, from Constantinople, Alex- 
andria, and Carthage, and from France and Spain, 
many of which support the ancient capitals to this 
day. Each pair is connected with the next by 
high, rounded Saracen arches, of richly chiselled 
marble, over-arched, as a rule, by a second set, 
the extraordinary number of which forms a regular 
maze of geometrical figures, that assume a dif- 
ferent aspect at every step one takes. The most 
lively imagination can hardly form any idea of the 
strange architectural complexities of this effect, 
which almost produces vertigo in the onlooker. 

A direct contrast to this is afforded by three 
chapels surmounted by cupolas — the former 
Mihrahy or sanctuary turned towards Mecca — whose 
costly mosaics, closely resembling byzantine work, 
alternate with the most tasteful ornaments of 
stone and stucco. Not far from this is the former 
Seat of the Khallfs, designed for the Fridays* 
devotional exercises, now known as the Capilla de 
Villaviciosa, which rises as a sort of crypt upon 

The Mezqtiita 355 

steps, and shows in its fine Saracen-Gothic orna- 
mentation that, long after the expulsion of the 
Moors, Oriental artificers were still employed to 
complete the works of their forefathers. 

When, after eleven centuries, there is still 
so much that commands our admiration, and 
defies destruction, in spite of the demolition in 
which Christianity and the Eoman Church bore 
the principal part, — from religious zeal no less 
than from defective taste, — we can conceive what 
the effect of the Mosque must have been in its 
original and complete splendour, when the 
Followers of Islam were supreme here. 

In the time of Charles V. the ecclesiastics 
built a high choir in the Eenaissance style in 
the middle of the Mosque, which is, indeed, a 
stately church in itself, with wonderfully fine 
carved choir-stalls, but still has a most detrimental 
effect upon the Oriental structure, and accordingly 
deserves the reproach which that Emperor ex- 
pressed in regard to it.* 

The treasures of the Cathedral are kept in the 
Camilla del Cardenal, and contains masterpieces 
of the goldsmith's art ; among other rarities, there 

* Charles V. remarked to the Chapter, " You have huilt here what 
yoUy or any one, might have huilt elsewhere ; hut you have destroyed what 
was unique in the world.^^ — Tr. 

356 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

is here a huge silver-gilt monstrance, in the Gothic 
style, mth magnificent processional crosses, two 
in that, and one in Eenaissance style, works which 
brought the master-hands of Cordova into the 
highest honour in the Middle Ages. 

The chief ecclesiastics greeted me in the name 
of the Bishop, and served as guides, along with 
some of the canons, whose heads would have 
made real studies. Two of these had a certain 
acquaintance with modern languages, and were 
vastly occupied in answering questions made to 
them about the localities, now in English, and 
now in German, with the aid of written vocabu- 
laries, which they carried in their hats. 

It was with great difficulty that my suite 
persuaded me to leave the contemplation of this 
wondrous Mosque, for its interior surpasses in 
magnificence all the Oriental monuments that 
I had formerly seen in the East, although to a 
certain point I was reminded of that in Old Cairo. 
Our stay, indeed, could not be longer, for a weari- 
some railway journey of a day and a half lay 
before us, and impelled us to a start, in order 
that we might get without a break to Tarragona, 
and thence to Barcelona. 

Yet I counted these physical exertions as 
little, because I owed to them the enjoyment 

Tarragona 357 

of the Alhambra's spells, and the marvellous 
structure of the Mezquita of Cordova ! 

At dark we reached the Sierra Morena, and 
crossed the ridge about midnight, in the moon- 
light. On gazing at this wild and barren rocky 
landscape, I involuntarily began to think how 
easily an accident to the train, which here 
happens not infrequently, might occur — and what 
an untoward end such an adventure would make 
to my journey ! While thinking this I went 
to sleep. In the middle of the night I was 
awaked, not by bandits, but on account of Queen 
Isabella, who was travelling from Madrid to 
Seville, and had arrived at the junction of Alcazar 
simultaneously with our train, and who had 
interrupted my slumbers, to bid me farewell once 
more. The conversation at this rendezvous could 
have been carried on from window to window, 
since our carriages were exactly opposite each 
other; of course, however, I jumped out, in spite 
of my not very ceremonious attire, and paid my 
respects, in the dead of night, standing on the 
rails, to the honourable traveller. 


^K- Tarragona^ December 13, 1883. 

^P At daybreak the landscape had essentially 
altered to its great advantage — in fact, we were 

358 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

already on the same railway that had taken us, 
in the nighb of November 22-23, to Madrid; 
to-day, however, we saw the beautiful mountainous 
country of the east coast by day, and reached the 
famous plain of the Huerta de Valencia in the 

Here, so far as the eye could reach, we were 
surrounded by a thick hedge of oranges, in which 
each single tree was quite laden with great fruits 
of the most brilliant colour. On the declivities 
of the mountains were country houses alternating 
with villages ; everywhere one perceived labouring 
men at work, in fields and gardens, cheerful sights 
we had long been deprived of. And why this 
sudden transformation? Because in the Huerta 
the system of canals, introduced by the Moors, 
is still in force, and thanks to this supply of 
water these plains are a fertile garden, on the 
rich produce of which the inhabitants live in a 
certain prosperity. 

"Whenever the train stopped, great baskets, 
or branches with the fruit still hanging on them, 
of the splendid apples which grow so well on 
this soil were handed into our carriage; they 
tasted as sweet as if each fruit had been dipped 
in honey. 

At the station of Valencia was a large 

Valencia 359 

concourse of men, and the same officials whose 
acquaintance I had made on landing. They all 
gave me a hearty greeting. From here the rail- 
way goes uninterruptedly along the heautiful 
shores of the sea, which we had seen from our 
ship three weeks before, to Tarragona, which 
we reached at nine o'clock, and where our night- 
qaarters were taken in the hotel. The municipal 
authorities, however, had determined to receive 
me as a guest in the Ayuntamiento, or Town Hall. 
With this object the Council Eoom had been 
turned into a living-room, so that I there found 
a gorgeous reception. 

Among all the courtesies which I had to 
accept, this hospitality took the very prejudicial 
form of serving a magnificent supper, much 
against my wishes ; but as the fathers of the city 
collectively partook of it, I naturally could not 
refuse to attend. While the kind hosts relished 
this dainty meal — which perhaps is a rare luxury 
with them — with evident enjoyment, I was silently 
longing for my bed, and this the more as my 
companions at table understood nothing but 
Spanish, so that we were necessarily debarred 
from conversation. 

360 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

Barcelona^ on hoard H.M,S, " Prince Adalbert,'' 
December 14, 1883. 

After visiting the municipal museum of Tarra- 
gona, which possesses some quite good antiquities, 
I went by the railway to Barcelona, where the 
whole population of the town had turned out to 
meet me. 

It had been reported that the fact that my 
first landing on Spanish soil had been in Valencia 
instead of here had vexed the inhabitants of this 
town. The people evidently laid themselves out 
to convince me of the contrary, which they did to 
the fullest extent. For as I moved by the side 
of the Capitan General and the Alcalde in an 
hour and a half's drive through the principal 
streets and squares, amid the lines formed by the 
garrison, I found the houses much decorated 
with flags, and every window full of people 
making friendly greetings, while the close masses 
of the populace were in a really enthusiastic frame 
of mind. 

During the drive I was struck with the modern 
character of this commercial city, which is 
obviously in the full tide of its prosperity; it 
resembles Marseilles in many respects, but in 


Barcelona 361 

spite of its rich manufactures is not, as to-day 
is mostly the case, disfigured by forests of 
chimneys, because the manufactures are situated 
more in the side- valleys and the neighbourhood. 
Great wide streets, planted with rows of trees, are 
the arteries for the traffic of all this moving 
life, and stately four-storied houses are speaking 
witnesses to the commercial significance of 
this harbour, which also possesses a climatic 

Strangely enough, there is here a much greater 
show of Toledo wares than in the city where they 
are manufactured, or in Madrid, so that a selection 
we had not hitherto been able to secure of the 
finest works of this genuinely Spanish industry 
were, thanks to the forethought of our Consul 
Lindau, sent on board for our acceptance at the 
last moment before starting. 

German work is much prized in Spain as 
in France, so that innumerable wares from 
home find a market here — ^of course only so 
long as the Spanish firms conceal their German 
origin ! 

From the balcony at the house of the Capitan 
General^ I inspected the march past of the troops ; 
during this the Bishop appeared, seated himself 
at my side, and was also my neighbour at table. 

362 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

where he made himself most agreeable, and later 
escorted me on foot to the Cathedral. 

In Barcelona, as repeatedly during the journey, 
Prefects and superior officers of justice were pre- 
sented to me, who had taken office in consequence 
of the recent change of ministry — that is, within 
the last few weeks. 

To show the city some reciprocal attention, I 
went to the very respectable Ayuntamiento, because 
there is here the picture by the late talented 
artist Fortuni, native of Barcelona, which re- 
presents the Battle of Tetuan, 1859, of which his 
countrymen are so inordinately proud. From 
there I went to the Cathedral, which was sur- 
rounded by masses of people ; since these all 
poured into the church, the crush there soon 
became so unbearable that I declined the close 
inspection of that great Norman-Gothic edifice, 
and confined myself to the ecclesiastical treasure 
and the beautiful cloisters. The evening sun cast 
its beams through the very striking and well-pre- 
served stained glass of many colours, and warned 
us to depart, as we were to weigh anchor before 

At the embarkation I caught more friendly 
cheers, the last we heard coming from our own 
countrymen assembled in the harbour. After 

H.MS. ''Prince Adalbert 363 

going on board the Loreley, I dismissed the vessel 
from the squadron, and took leave of our Am- 
bassador, Count Solm, who during my whole stay- 
had been most kind and useful, and so departed 
amid the salutes of the guns to Genoa, by sea. 

And so my stay. in this most interesting 
country is at an end ! I shall always reckon the 
days spent here as among the most cherished 
recollections of my life. 

As I parted from Spain with the most lively 
sympathy for the King, his family and his country, 
I entertain the hope that closer relations than 
have ever yet subsisted with Germany may be 
initiated through my visit. At the same time 
I feel myself justified in the anticipation that the 
Government, as well as those clear-sighted men 
who have their people's welfare at heart, will 
henceforward .recognize our Empire as a prop of 
the monarchical principle, and still more as a 
disinterested and well-wishing friend. 

The more closely the larger States of Europe 
approximate to each other the more certain will 
be the maintenance of peace. And herein the 
wish is justified, that my mission to Spain may 
prove to be another element in the prolongation 
of this desired state. 

I landed in Genoa on the morning of the 16th, 

364 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

after as stormy a passage as I had on the outward 
voyage, took leave after Divine Service on board 
of the oJBGlcers and men, and was received on 
Italian soil with the same demonstrations of 
respect as at starting. At night I embarked on 
the journey to Eome. 


A ■OT»_¥:'T ~V i 

I -Riff^r T.atfiQ IKft 157_ 


Page 216, line 1, and page 235, line 3, /or "draught" read "draft." 

Page 350, line 10, for "Generaliste" read " Generalife." 

Page 351, lines 17, 18, for " As in the church . . . possesses " read " Here , 

as in the church of S. Juan de los Beyos at Toledo, there are," etc. 

^^^^DuRiES OP THE Emperor Frederick. 

^r B&b-el-Wada,'l28, 135 

logne, 60; of Cordova, 353; of 

Barcelona, 360 

Seville, 339; of Toledo, 295 

Bari, 91 

Chambord, 256 

Bashi-Baztiks, 127 

Charles V., 290 flf. ; 313, 347 

Bazaine, Marshal, 219, 220 

Chartres, 260 

Becka'a, Plains of, 145 

Chaumont, 256 

Bedouin camp at Ismailia, 154-156 

Chlam, 41 flf. 

Benomar, Count, 303 flf. 

Chroustowitz, Castle of, 60 

Bethlehem, 133 

Civil Orders in Spain, 311 

Beylerbey Palace, 103 flf. 

Constantinople, 103-118 

Beyrtit, 136, 146 

Constituent Assembly, 217, 224 

Bismarck, Count von, and Italy, 62 ; 

Convention of Geneva, 25 

^H and Suez Canal, 81 ; in Franco- 

Cordova, 353-356 

^m German war, 192-262 passim ; on 

Corfu, 91 flf. 

H the Imperial Question, 212-250 

Corinth, 95 flf. 

^H passim; and the Crown Prince, 


Corrida, The, 285 

Curtius, 100 

364 Diaries of the Emperor Frederick 

after as stormy a passage as I had on the outward 
voyage, took leave after Divine Service on board 
of the officers and men, and was received on 
ItaKan soil with the same demonstrations of 
respect as at starting. At night I embarked on 
the journey to Eome. 


Abd-el-Kadeb, 150 

Abu-Ghosh, 128 

Academia de Jurisprudenzia, 285, 

Acropolis, 98 ff., 103 
Alcazar (Seville), 342 ; (Toledo), 296 
Alexandria, 183 
Alfonso XII., 263-364 pasdm 
Alhambra, 346-349 
Alsace-Lorraine, 212-260 passim 
Ambulance aid, 17, 48 
Amelia, Queen, 102 
Andrassy, Count, 150 
Apis, Tombs of, 175-176 
Aranjuez, 274 
Aristarcbi Bey, 105, 116 
Armeria (Madrid), 289 
Army of the Elbe, 1 ff. 
Assiian, 165, 169 
Athens, 97-102 
Atocha, Church of the, 304 
August of Wurtemburg, Prince, 1, 

Austerlitz, Field of, 74 
Austrian campaign, 1-80, 84, 87 ff. 

Baalbec, 136, 145 

Bab-el- Wada, 128, 135 

Barcelona, 360 

Bari, 91 

Bashi-Bazftks, 127 

Bazaine, Marshal, 219, 220 

Becka'a, Plains of, 145 

Bedouin camp at Ismailia, 154-156 

Benomar, Count, 303 ff. 

Bethlehem, 133 

Beylerbey Palace, 103 ff. 

Beyrftt, 136, 146 

Bismarck, Count von, and Italy, 62 ; 
and Suez Canal, 81 ; in Franco- 
German war, 192-262 passim ; on 
the Imperial Question, 212-250 
jassim; and the Crown Prince, 
28, 258 

Bitter Lakes, 156, 157 

Black Eagle conferred on Steinmetz, 

29, 50, 69 
Blois, Castle of, 256 
Blumenthal, Major-General von, 2, 

39 195 ff. 
Boabdil, King of the Moors, 350 
Bonin, Greneral von, 1, 22, 25 
BCllak Museum, 182 
Bull-fight at Madrid, 283 
Burnside, General, 217 ff. 
Busch, Dr. G., 108, 115, 119 

Caballebizas, Las, 318 

Cairo, 1, 60, 176-183 

Camel-cavalry, 146 

Camera (Madrid), 276 

Campos, Don Arsenio Martinez, 291 

Cannes, 187-188 

Canovas, 300 

CapillaCristo de la Vega (Toledo), 294 

Capilla Mozarabe (Toledo), 296 

Carmen, 284 

Cartuja, La, 351 

Casa del Campo, 314 

Castelar, 331 

Cathedral of Chartres, 261 ; of Co- 
logne, 60; of Cordova, 353; of 
Seville, 339; of Toledo, 295 

Chambord, 256 

Charles V., 290 ff. ; 313, 347 

Chartres, 260 

Chaumont, 256 

Chlum, 41 ff. 

Chroustowitz, Castle of, 60 

Civil Orders in Spain, 311 

Constantinople, 103-118 

Constituent Assembly, 217, 224 

Convention of Geneva, 25 

Cordova, 353-356 

Corfu, 91 ff. 

Corinth, 95 ff. 

Corrida, The, 285 

Curtius, 100 



Damascus, 140-145 
Dance of Ohoir-boys in Seville Cathe- 
dral, 341 
Dead Sea, 124 
Deir-el-Kamar, 139 
Dendera, 164 
Dionysus, Theatre of, 100 
Dolmabagdsche Palace, 105, 107 
Don Alonso el Sabio, 340 
Don Quixote, 274 
Diimichen, Prof., 164 

Edfu, Temple of, 165 
Egmont, Count, 314 
Egyptian population, 170 
Egyptian troops, 151 
Elephantine, Island of, 165 
Elliot, Mr., 112 ff. 
El Pardo, 311, 315 
Erechtheum, 99 
Ernest II., Duke of Coburg, 59 
Escorial, 323-326 
Espinoza guards, 316 
Estudiantina, The, 317, 328 
Eugenie, Empress, 149 flf., 189 
Eulenburg, Count zu, 4, 85 
Eypel, 4, 21 

Fabkica de Akmas (Toledo), 290, 294 

Favre, M., 214 ff. 

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, 307, 
333, 339, 350, 351 

Ferrieres, 215 

Fliedner, Pfarrer, 283 

Florence, 187 

Fortuni, 362 

Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria, 
86ff. ; in Constantinople, 112; at 
Jaffa, 135; at inauguration of Suez 
Canal, 149 

Franco-German War, 190-262 

Franco Pasha, 138, 146 

Frederick of the Netherlands, Prin- 
cess, 236 

Frederick Charles of Prussia, 1 ; 34, 
44, 56, 66 ; in Franco - German 
War, 210 

Gablenz, Lieut.-Field-Marshal von, 

19-61 passim 
Gambetta, 257 
Generalife, The, 349, 350 
Genoa, 267, 363 
Gerf Husen, 166 
Giralda, La, 339 
Gobelin tapestry in Spain, 311, 313, 


Godfrey of Bouillon, 130 

Gortschakow, 193, 198, 214, 221 

Goya, 304 

Granada, 345-353 

Grandees of Spanish Court, 275, 310 

Grao, 271 

Haram, The, 131 

Hebron, 132 

Heliopolis (Baalbec), 136, 145; (On) 

Henry of the Netherlands, Prince 
and Princess, 149 ff. 

Hiller, General von, 44 

HohenzoUern, Prince Anton, 34, 45, 

HohenzoUern Candidature for Spa- 
nish throne, 192 ff., 263 

Holy Sites, 122, 131 

Sepulchre, 122 ff. 

, Order of, 334 

Horenoves, Tree of, 37, 40 

Hospitals, Field, 31 

Huerta de Valencia, 358 

Ignatieff, General, 112, 149 
Imperial dignity conferred on King 

William, 259 ff. 

Question, 212-262 passim 

Infallibility Question, 218 ff. 
Infantas Isabella and Eulalia, 276, 

315, 322, 327 
Interview between Napoleon and 

King William, 206-211 
Iron Cross, and non-Prussians, 205 ; 

conferred on Moltke, 208; worn 

by King William, 221 
Ismailia, 154 
Ismail Pasha, 82 

Jaffa, 127, 135 

Jasmund, Capt. von, 2-92, 213 

Jerusalem, 121-134 

Joan the Crazy, 313, 351 

Johanniter Hospital, 137 

John, Hospice of S., 119, 134-136 

Josephstadt, 33, 53, 54, 60 

Journey to the East, 88-189 

Kaiser Question, The, 2 1 2-262 passim 
Kaiserswerth deaconesses, 116, 129 ff., 

Kalnoky, Countess, 73 
Karnak, 164 

Khedive, The, 81-83 ; 147-183 
Kiosks of the Sultan, 111 
Kirjath-Jearim, 128 



Koniggratz, Battle of, 36-52, 90 

, Fortress of, 54, 57 ; evacuation, 

Koniginhof, 32, 53 

Laroohe, M., 154 

Lebanon, 137-140 

Lepsius, Prof., 164, 181 ff. 

Lesaeps, M. Ferdinand, 154 

Library for India, 340 

Lindau, Consul R., 290 ff. 

Loch Muick, 124 

Louis, King, of Bavaria, 197-262 

Luther, Celebration of, 267 
Luxor, 164 

Macmahon, Marshal, 231 ff. 

Madrid, 274-335 

Majolica ware, 338, 342 

Mamre, Grove of, 133 

Mancha, La, 273 

Marietta, Prof., 176 

IVIartos, 286 

Mary Queen of Scots, 334 

Max -Joseph conferred on Crown 

Prince, 213 
Medinet Habou, 165 
Mensdorff, Count, 62, 64 
Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, 290 
Metz, 205 ; Capture of, 222 
Mezquita (Cordova), 353 
Military Orders in Spain, 292, 309, 

Mischke, Capt., 53-69, 191 
Mobilization of German army (1866), 

1-5; (1870), 190-192 
Moltke, General von, 61; 194«262 

Morier, Sir R., 303 ff. 

Mosque of Omar, 131 

Mount of Olives, 122, 124 

Muick, Loch, 124 

Murillo, 279, 306, 338 

Museo (Madrid), 278-392 msMw, 303, 

305; (Seville), 338 
Mutius, General von, 1, 38 

Nachod, Battle of, 7-18 

, Castle of, 17 

Pass, 3, 5 

Naples, 186 

Napoleon, Emperor, in Paris, 188 ; at 
Sedan, 206 ; at Wilhelm8h6he,214 
Nikolsburg, 79 

Nile, Journey up the, 162-175 
Nubian popidation, 170 

Olivet, 122, 124 

Ollivier, M. Emile, 189, 193-262 

Omeiyad Mosque, 143 

On, 180 

Order of Charles IIL, 333; Black 
Eagle, 29, 50, 69 ; Iron Cross, 205, 
208, 221; Max- Joseph, 213 ; Pour 
le Merite, 49, 57; San Fernando, 
309; San Ildefonso, 311 

Ossuna, 345 

Palacio San Telmo, 343 

Papal Question, 218, 223 ff. 

Pardo, 311 

Pardubitz, 33 

Paris, Visit to (1866), 188 ; Invest- 
ment of, 214-259 

Parthenon, 99 ff. 

Passage, Inauguration (of Suez 
Canal), 153-158 

Patio de los Naranjos, 339 

Philae, 165 

Philip IL, 313 

Pilz, Fraulein C, 130, 135 

Pirfeus, 97 

Port Sa'id, 147 

Pour le Merite conferred on Crown 
Prince, 49 ; on von Mutius, 57 

Prado, The, 275, 277 

Prince Consort, 231, 237 

Propylsea, 99 ff. 

Prussian Press, Attitude of the, 

Pyramids, 180 ff. 

Quadrilla, The, 284 

Queen Amelia, 102 

Isabella la Catolica, 307, 333, 

339, 350-351 
Isabella II., 276, 281, 322, 328, 

334, 357 

Maria Christina, 276, 335 ff. 

*]Mary of Scotland, 334 

Mercedes, 325 

Victoria, and peace proposals, 

Quinta, 315 

Raphael, 280, 306 

Ravenna, 90 

Real Cochera, La, 318 

Retiro, The, 277 

Rheims, 212 

Rhodes, 120 

Romero Robledo, 285, 319 

Rosberitz, 44 



Rotunda of Holy Sepulchre, 122, 

126, 130 
Russell, Odo, 213, 227, 232, 260 

S. Francisco (Madrid), 334 
S. Isidro el Real (Madrid), 329 
S. Juan Battista (Toledo), 293 
S. Juan de los Reyes (Toledo), 294. 

S. Maria la Blanca (Toledo), 295 
Sagasta, 300 
San Fernando conferred on Crown 

Prince, 309 
San Lucar de Barameda, 337, 344 
San Telmo, 344 
Santa Paula (Seville), 339 
Schiller, 197 
Schleswig-Holstein, Annexation of, 

Scutari, Barracks of, 115 
Sedan, 206 
Serai Point, 105, 109 
Serapeum, The, 175 
Sepulchre, Holy, 122-126 
Seville, 336-344 
Shtaura, 145 
Siege of Paris, 214-251 
Silesian Army, 1 ff. 
Sifit, Tombs of, 163 
Sofia, Aja, 109, 110 
Solm, Count, 271, 305, 363 ff. 
Solomon, Temple of, 131 ; Reservoir 

of, 133 
Spain, Journey to, 263-364 
Spanish Court, 275-335 passim 

Orders, 292, 309, 311, 333 

Troops, 280, 308, 326-7 

Stambtil, 103-115 

Steinmetz, General von, 1-80 passim; 

205 ; receives the Black Eagle, 29- 

69 passim 
Stosch, Major-General von, 2 ff. 
Strasburg, Capitulation of, 216 
Suez Canal, Inauguration of, 81 ff. ; 


Sultan, The, visit to Coblentz, 84, 
104 ff.; in Constantinople, 103- 

Sweet Waters of Europe, 113 

Talitha-Cumi, 135 

Taun, General von der, 190, 225 

Tarragona, 357 

Temple of Dendera, 164; of Dionysus, 
100 ; of Kamak, 164 ; of Medinet 
Habou, 165 ; of Solomon, 131 ; of 
Theseus, 101 ; of Zeus, 145 

Thebes, 164 

Thiers, 257 

Thile, 192 

Third Army, 190 ff. 

Toledo, 290, 292-298 

Tombs of Apis, 175 ; of the Khalifs, 
177; ofthe Kings, 165 

Trautenau, Battle of, 18 ff., 55 

Pass of, 7 

Troy, 104 

Turkish Army, 111 

cuisine, 117 

progress, 119 

Valencia, 270, 358 

Vaucouleurs, 205 

Velasquez, 277-9, 306, 343 

Venetia, Cession of, 62 

Versailles, 214, 215 

Virgen de los Reyes, La (Seville), 340 

Virgin's Tomb, The, 125 ; Tree, 179 

Wailing, Place of, 134 
Walker, Col., 11, 31-34 passim 
Wallenstein's Castle, 63 
Weissenburg, Battle of, 200 
Wimpffen, Col. Baron von, 16 
William, King, passim; proclaimed 

Emperor, 239 ff. 
Worth, Battle of, 200, 203 

Zarzuela, La, 315 
Zizeloves, 37 



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