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VOL. I. 

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VOL. I. 








Originai. Dedication xi 

Preface j^jjj 

Introduction xvii 

Diary; from 1620 lo 1665 1 


Additional Notes ^qq 



VOL. I. 

PoETBAiT OP John Evelyn, from the Painting by Sib 

Godfrey Knelier ....... FKonTianici. 

View of Wotxon, in Surrey, the seat of John Evelyn to face Page i. 


Portrait of Mary, -wife of John Evelyn . . . ^soimirucB. 
Pedigree of the Evelyn Family . . . At the end of the Voiome. 



This work has been out of print for many years ; 
and little more is necessary, in presenting to the 
public an Edition which has been long required, than 
to indicate such differences as will be found to exist 
between the present and former pubHcations. 

The Dedication, Preface, and Introduction, are 
reprinted from those which appeared in the Quarto 
Editions of 1818, and in the Octavo Edition of 1827. 

In compliance with a wish very generally eX' 
pressed, the spelling of the Diary has been modern- 
ized. No other change will be found in the text, 
except such as a fresh examination of the original 
manuscript had rendered essential to its correctness 
and completeness. 

The Diary of Evelyn does not, in all respects, 
strictly fulfil what the term impHes. Information is 


continually found in it (introduced by such expres- 
sions as " afterwards," " since," " now "), which it 
could not have contained if written from day to day. 
Mistakes are also made which the writer must have 
escaped, if the record had been always entered on the 
day, and in the place, to which it refers. In the 
Additional Notes appended to the present Edition 
particular mention is made of some few of these ; and 
as a slight, but perfectly satisfactory, evidence that 
the form in which we have received the work is not 
that in which it was originally written, it may be 
worth adding, in this place, that the notice of " Jeru- 
salem Church" (vol. i., p. 32), slipped by accident 
into the entries which refer to Antwerp, belongs to 
those of Bruges, where the church, so called from its 
containing a facsimile of the Holy Sepulchre, is still 
shown, and the legend told of the citizen whose journeys 
to the Holy Land enabled him to complete it. 

The truth appears to be, that Evelyn's Diary, as 
found among the papers at Wotton, had been copied 
by the writer from memoranda made at the time 
of the occurrences noted in it, and had received 
occasional alterations and additions in the course 
of transcription. Evelyn has himself told us in 
what way the book originated. "In imitation of 
" what I had seen my father do," he remarks, when 
speaking of himself in his twelfth year, " I began to 
" observe matters more punctually, which I did use 
" to set down in a blank almanack." If we suppose 


the matters tlius observed to have been gradually 
transferred bj Evelyn from the blank almanacks to 
the quarto volume in which they were found, and 
from which the volumes before the reader are printed, 
the circumstance will explain discrepancies otherwise 
not easily reconciled, and will account for differing 
descriptions of the same objects and occurrences 
which have occasionally been found in the manuscript 
thus compiled. The quarto, still at Wotton, consists 
of seven hundred pages written clearly by Evelyn in 
a very small close hand, and containing the continuous 
records of fifty-six years. 

The reader will observe, in the original preface to 
the Diary, acknowledgments of the great and mate- 
rial assistance rendered to its Editor by Mr. Upcott. 
The interest taken by the latter gentleman in the pub- 
lication of this delightful book, continued unabated 
until his death ; and the latest literary labour in which 
he was engaged, was the revision and preparation of 
the present edition. He lived to complete, for this 
purpose, a fresh and careful comparison of the edition 
printed in octavo in 1827 (which he had himself, 
with the exception of the earliest sheets of the first 
volume, superintended for the press) with the original 
manuscript ; by which many material omissions in 
the earher quartos were supplied, and other not 
unimportant corrections made. 

It is due to Mr. Upcott to add that these additions 
would not so long have been withheld, if the early 

VOL. T. b 


sheets of the first volume of the octavo edition had 
not been printed off before its formal revision was 
undertaken by him. The octavo and the quartos are 
only in agreement at the outset. Many curious dis- 
crepancies are afterwards observable, which resulted 
from Mr. Upcott's anxiety, as soon as the opportunity 
was offered liim, to bring the text of the octavo into 
more exact agreement with the original. 

While engaged in this labour he was permitted ta 
have access to the manuscripts preserved at Wotton ; 
and, desiring to complete the selections from Evelyn's 
Correspondence, originally published with the Diary, 
he transcribed many new and hitherto unpublished 
letters, also with a view to this edition, and added 
several others derived from private sources. The 
Evelyn Correspondence, thus enriched by many ori- 
ginal letters of great interest, will occupy the same 
space as the Diary. 

Januai'yt 1850. 





TiaE last sheets of this Work, with a Dedication to the 
late Lady Evelyn, under whose permission it wbs to be 
given to the Public, were in the hands of the Printer, when 
it pleased God to release her from a long and painful 
illness, which she had borne with the greatest fortitude 
and resignation to the Divine Will. 

These papers descended with the estate, from the cele- 
brated John Evelyn, Esq. (a relative of your immediate 
ancestor) to his great-great-grandson, the late Sir Frederick 
Evelyn, Bart. This gentleman dying without issue, 
entrusted the whole to his Lady, whose loss we have now 
to lament; of whose worth, and of the value of whose 
friendship, I have happily had long knowledge and expe- 
rience. Alive to the honour of the family, of which she 
was thus made the representative, she maintained it in 
every point, and with the most active benevolence ; and 
her care extended to every part of the property attached 
to the domain. Mr. Evelyn had formed in his own mind 
a plan of what he called an " Elysium Britannicum," 
in which the Library and Garden were intended to be 



the principal objects : could he return and visit this his 
beloved Seat, he would find his idea realised by the 
arrangement and addition which her Ladyship had made to 
his library, and by the disposition of the flower-garden 
and greenhouse, which she had embellished with the 
most beautiful and curious flowers and plants, both 
native and exotic. 

In completion and full justification of the confidence 
thus reposed in her, her Ladyship has returned the Estate 
with its valuable appendages, to the family, in your 

I have, therefore^ now to ofifer these Volumes to you, 
Sir ; with a wish, that you and your posterity may long 
€njoy the possessions, and continue the line of a family so 
much distinguished, in many of its branches, for superior 
'Worth and eminence. 

I am. Sir, 

Your most obedient. 

And most humble servant, 

SJtere. 2nd Jan., 1818. 


The following pages are taken from the Journal of 
JoHX Evelyn, Esq. author (amongst many other works) 
of the celebrated Sylva, a Treatise on Forest-Trees, and 
from which he has often been known by the name of 
" The Sylva Evelyn." The Journal is written by him in 
a very small, close hand, in a quarto volume containing 
700 pages, which commences in 1641, and is continued 
to the end of 1697; and from thence is carried on in a 
smaller book till within about three weeks of his death, 
which happened 27th Eeb., 1705-6, in the 86th year of 
his age. 

These books, with numberless other papers in his hand- 
writing, are in the valuable library at Wotton, which was 
chiefly collected by him. Lady Evelyn, the late possessor 
of that very respectable old Mansion, after much solicita- 
tion from many persons, consented to favour the Public 


with this communication. The last sheets were in the 
hands of the Printer, when the death of that Lady 

The Editor who has been intrusted with the preparation 
of the work for the Press, is fully diffident of his com- 
petence to make a proper selection; and is even aware 
that many things will be found in its pages which, in the 
opinion of some, and not injudicious. Critics, may appear 
too unimportant to meet the public eye. But it has been 
thought that some information, at least some amusement, 
would be furnished by the publication ; and it has been 
supposed that some curious particulars of persons and 
transactions would be found in the accompanying notes. 
Though these papers may not be of importance enough 
to appear in the pages of an Historian of the Kingdom, 
they may, in some particulars, set even such an one right ; 
and, though the notices are short, they may, as to persons, 
give some hints to Biographers, or at least may gratify 
the curiosity of those who are inquisitive after the mode 
in which their ancestors conducted business, or passed 
their time. It is hoped that such will not be altogether 

Thus, when mention is made of great men going after 
dinner to attend a Council of State, or the business of 


their particular Offices^ or the Bowling-Green, or even 
the Church ; of an Hour's Sermon being of a moderate 
length ; of ladies painting their faces being a novelty ; or 
of their receiving visits of Gentlemen whilst dressing, 
after having just risen out of bed ; of the female attendant 
of a lady of fashion travelling on a pillion behind one of 
the footmen, and the footmen riding with swords ; — such 
things, in the view above-mentioned, may not be altogether 

For many corrections and many of the Notes the Editor 
acknowledges, with great pleasure and regard, that he is 
indebted to James Bindley, Esq.,* of Somerset-House, a 
Gentleman who possesses an invaluable Collection of the 
most rare Books and Pamphlets, and whose liberality in 
communications is equal to the abihty afforded by such 
a collection. 

He has also most cheerfully to acknowledge how much 
he is obliged for many historical notes and elucidations 
to a literary Gentleman very conversant with English 
History, whose name he would gladly give, were it not 
withheld by particular request, and whose research, 

* Since the first edition of this Work, the Editor has to lament the loss of 
this valuable Friend ; who died in the 81st year of his age. Sept, 11, 1818, 
just as the printing of the Second Edition was begun. 


through upwards of seven hundred contemporary volumes 
of Manuscripts and Tracts, has doubtless given additional 
interest to many of the Letters. 

The Editor returns his best thanks also to Mr. Upcott, 
of the London Institution, for the great and material 
assistance received from him in this Pubhcation, besides 
his attention to the superintendence of the Press. 


Mr. Evelyn lived in the busy and important times of 
King Charles 1., Oliver Cromwell, King Charles II., King 
James II., and King William, and early accustomed him- 
self to note such things as occurred, which he thought 
worthy of remembrance. He was known to, and had 
much personal intercourse with the Kings Charles II. and 
James II. ; and he was in habits of great intimacy with 
many of the ministers of these two monarchs, and with 
many of the eminent men of those days, as well amongst 
the clergy as the laity. Foreigners distinguished for 
learning, or arts, who came to England, did not leave it 
without visiting him. 

In the first edition of the " Biographia Britannica," in 
folio. Dr. Campbell has given a long article relating to this 
gentleman. Dr. Hunter, in his edition of the " Sylva," in 
1776, has copied great part of what Dr. Campbell had writ- 
ten. Dr. Kippis added several particulars in the Second 
Edition of the " Biographia,^' in 1793; and Mr. Chal- 
mers gives some farther information in his '^Biographical 
Dictionary,^' in 8vo. (1816). But the following pages will 
still contribute more extensive and important particulars 
of this eminent man. They will show that he did not 
travel merely to count steeples, as he expresses himself in 
one of his Letters : they will develop his private character 
as one of the most amiable kind. With a strong predilec- 
tion for monarchy, with a personal attachment to Kings 


Charles II. and James II., formed when they resided at 
Paris, he was yet utterly averse to the arbitrary measures 
of these monarchs. 

Strongly and steadily attached to the doctrine and 
practice of the Church of England, he yet felt the most 
liberal sentiments for those who differed from him in 
opinion. He lived in intimacy with men of all persuasions; 
nor did he think it necessary to break connexion with 
any one who had even been induced to desert the Church 
of England, and embrace the doctrines of that of Rome. 
In writing to the brother of a gentleman thus circum- 
stanced, in 1659, he expresses himself in this admirable 
manner : " For the rest, we must commit to Providence 
the success of times and mitigation of proselytical fervours ; 
having for my own particular a very great charity for all 
who sincerely adore the Blessed Jesus, our common and 
dear Saviour, as being full of hope that God (however the 
present zeal of some, and the scandals taken by others at 
the instant [present] affliction of the Church of England 
may transport them) will at last compassionate our infir- 
mities, clarify our judgments, and make abatement for our 
ignorances, superstructures, passions, and errors of corrupt 
times and interests, of which the Romish persuasion can 
no way acquit herself, whatever the present prosperity and 
secular polity may pretend. But God will make all things 
manifest in his own time, only let us possess ourselves in 
patience and charity. This will cover a multitude of 

He speaks with great moderation of the Roman Catholics 
in general, admitting that some of the laws enacted against 
them might be mitigated ; but of the Jesuits he had the 
very worst opinion, considering them as a most dangerous 
Society, and the principal authors of the misfortunes which 
befel King James II., and of the horrible persecutions of 
the Protestants in France and Savoy. 


He must have conducted himself with uncommon pru- 
dence and addx'ess : for he had personal friends in the 
Court of Cromwell, at the saioe time that he -was corre- 
sponding with his father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne, the 
ambassador of King Charles II. at Paris ; and at the same 
period that he paid his coiurt to the king, he maintained 
his intimacy with a disgraced minister. 

In his travels, he made acquaintance not only with men 
eminent for learning, but Avith men ingenious in every art 
and profession. 

His manners we may presume to have been most agree- 
able : for his company was sought by the greatest men, not 
merely by inviting him to their own tables, but by their 
repeated visits to him at his own house; and this was 
equally the case with regard to the ladies, of many of 
whom he speaks in the highest style of admiration, affec- 
tion, and respect. He was master of the French, Italian, 
and Spanish languages. That he had read a great deal is 
manifest ; but at what time he found opportunities for 
study, it is not easy to say. He acknowledges himself to 
have been idle, while at Oxford ; and, when on his travels, 
he had little time for reading, except when he stayed about 
nineteen weeks in France, and at Padua, where he was 
likewise stationary for several months. At Rome, he 
remained a considerable time ; but, whilst there, he was so 
continually engaged in viewing the great variety of inte- 
resting objects to be seen in that city, that he could have 
found little leisure for reading. When resident in England, 
he was so much occupied in the business of his numerous 
oflBces, in paying visits, in receiving company at home, 
and in examining whatever was deemed worthy of curiosity, 
or of scientific observation, that it is astonishing how he 
found the opportunity to compose the numerous books 
which he published, and the much greater number of 
Papers, on almost every subject, which still remain in 


manuscript ; * to say nothing of the very extensive and 
voluminous correspondence which he appears to have car- 
ried on during his long life, with men of the greatest 
eminence in Church and State, and the most distinguished 
for learning, both Englishmen and foreigners. In this 
correspondence, he does not seem to have made use of an 
amanuensis ; and he has left transcripts in his own hand of 
great numbers of letters both received and sent. He 
observes, indeed, in one of these, that he seldom went to 
bed before twelve, or closed his eyes before one o'clock. 

He was happy in a wife of congenial dispositions with 
his own, of an enlightened mind, who had read much, and 
was skilled in etching and painting, yet attentive to the 
domestic concerns of her household, and a most aflFec- 
tionate mother. Of her personal attractions an idea may 
be formed from the print accompanying this work, 
engraved from a most exquisite drawing, in pencil, by 
that celebrated French artist, Nanteuil, in 1650. 

So many particulars of Mr. Evelyn have been given in 
the " Biographia Britannica/'f and in Mr. Chalmers's 
valuable memoir in the " Biographical Dictionary," that it 
is unnecessary to repeat them ; but some circumstances 
have been there omitted, and others, which are mentioned, 
admit of elucidation, or addition. Such it is proposed to 
notice here, in addition to the foregoing personal sketch. 

His grandfather, George, was not the first of the family 
who settled in Surrey. John, father of this George, was 
of Kingston, in 1520, and married a daughter of David 
Vincent, Esq., Lord of the Manor of Long Ditton, near 
Kingston, which afterwards came into the hands of 
George, who there carried on the manufacture of gun- 

* Amongst these is a Bible bound in three volumes, the pages filled with 
notes. See Appendix to the Second Volume of this Edition for a list of 
Evelyn's published and unpublished writings, as far as it has been possible 
to ascertain them. + Second Edition, 1 793, vol. v. 


powder. He purchased very considerable estates in 
Surrey, and three of his sons became heads of three 
famihes, viz., Thomas, his eldest son, at Long Ditton ; 
John at Godstone, and Richard at Wottou. Each of 
these three families had the title of Baronet conferred on 
them at different times, viz., at Godstone, in 1660; Long 
Ditton, in 1683 ; and Wotton, in 1713. 

The manufacture of gunpowder was carried on at God- 
stone as well as at Long Ditton ; but it does not appear 
that there ever was any mill at Wotton, or that the pur- 
chase of that place was made with such a view. Nor does 
it appear, from the words quoted in the " Biographia,^^ 
that Mr. Evelyn^s grandfather planted the timber, with 
which Wotton was, and always has been, so well stored. 
The soil produces it naturally, and, in addition to what has 
been planted, it has at aU times been carefully preserved. 

It may be not altogether incurious to observe that, 
though Mr. Evelyn's father was a man of very considerable 
fortune, the first rudiments of this son's learning were 
acquired from the village schoolmaster over the porch of 
Wotton Church. Of his progress at another school, and 
at College, he himself speaks with great humility ; nor 
did he add much to his stock of knowledge, whilst he 
resided in the Middle Temple, to which his father sent 
him, with the intention that he should apply to what he 
calls " an impolished study," which he says he never liked. 
More will be said of this in a subsequent page. 

The " Biographia " does not notice his tour in France, 
Flanders, and Holland, in 1641, when he made a short 
campaign as a volunteer in an English regiment then in 
service in Flanders.* 

* This expression is, perhaps, hardly applicable to the fact of Evelyn's 
having vt^itnessed a siege merely as a curious spectator. He reached the 
camp on the 2nd, and left it on the 8th of August, 1641. It is certain, how- 
ever, that during these six days he took his turn on duty, and trailed a piiie. 
— See Diai-y, v. i., p. 19. [u.] 


Nor does it notice his having set out, with intent to 
join King Charles I. at Brentford ; and subsequently 
desisting when the result of that battle became known, on 
the ground that his brother's as well as his own estates 
were so near London as to be fully in the power of the 
Parliament, and that their continued adherence would 
have been certain ruin to themselves without any advan- 
tage to his Majesty. In this dangerous conjuncture he 
asked and obtained the King's leave to travel. Of these 
travels, and the observations he made therein, an ample 
account is given in this Diary. 

The national troubles coming on before he had engaged 
in any settled plan for his future life, it appears that he 
had thoughts of living in the most private manner, and 
that, with his brother's permission, he had even begun to 
prepare a place for retirement at Wotton. Nor did he 
afterwards wholly abandon his intention, if the plan of a 
college, which he sent to Mr. Boyle in 1659, was really 
formed on a serious idea. This scheme is given at length 
in the " Biographia," and in Dr. Hunter's edition of the 
"Sylva" in 1776; but it may be observed that he pro- 
poses it should not be more than twenty-five miles from 

As to his answer to Sir George Mackenzie's panegyric 
on Solitude, in which Mr. Evelyn takes the opposite part, 
and urges the preference to which public employment and 
an active life is entitled, — it may be considered as the 
playful essay of one who, for the sake of argument, would 
controvert another's position, though in reality agreeing 
with his own opinion ; if we think him serious in two 
letters to Mr. Abraham Cowley, dated 12th March and 
24th August, 1666, in the former of which he writes: 
" You had reason to be astonished at the presumption, not 
to name it affront, that I, who have so highly celebrated 
recess, and envied it in others, should become an advocate 


for the enemy, wliich of all others it abhors and flies from. 
I conjure you to believe that I am still of the same mind, 
and that there is no person alive who does more honour 
and breathe after the life and repose you so happily 
cultivate and advance by your example ; but, as those who 
praised dirt, a flea, and the gout, so have I public employ- 
ment in that trifling Essay, and that in so weak a style 
compared with my antagonist's, as by that alone it will 
appear I neither was nor could be serious, and I hope you 
believe I speak my very soul to you. 

' Sunt enim Musis sua ludicra, mista Camoenis 
Otia sunt ' " 

In the other, he says, " I pronounce it to you from my 
heart as oft as I consider it, that I look on your fruitions 
with inexpressible emulation, and should think myself 
more happy than crowned heads, were I, as you, the arbiter 
of mine own life, and could break from those gilded toys 
to taste your well-described joys with such a wife and such 
a friend, whose conversation exceeds all that the mistaken 
world calls happiness." But, in truth, Mr. Evelyn's mind 
was too active to admit of solitude at all times, however 
desirable it might appear to him in theory. 

After he had settled at Deptford, which was in the time 
of Cromwell, he kept up a constant correspondence with 
Sir Richard Browne (his father-in-law), the King's Am- 
bassador at Paris ; and though his connexion must have 
been known, it does not appear that he met with any 
interruption from the government here. Indeed, though 
he remained a decided Hoyalist, he managed so well as 
to have intimate friends even amongst those nearly con- 
nected with Cromwell ; and to this we may attribute his 
being able to avoid taking the Covenant, which he says he 
never did take. In 1659, he published " An Apology for 
the Koyal Party ;" and soon after printed a paper which 


was of great service to the King, entitled " The late News, 
or Message from Brussels Unmasked/^ which was an 
answer to a pamphlet designed to represent the King in 
the worst light. 

On the Restoration, we find him very frequently at 
Court ; and he became engaged in many public employ- 
ments, still attending to his studies and literary pursuits. 
Amongst these, is particularly to be mentioned the Royal 
Society, in the establishment and conduct of which he 
took a very active part. He procured Mr. Howard's 
library to be given to them ; and by his influence, in 1667, 
the Arundelian Marbles were obtained for the University 
of Oxford. 

His first appointment to a public ofiice was in 1662, as 
a Commissioner for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, 
and incumbrances, and regulating hackney-coaches in 
London. In the same year, he sat as a Commissioner on 
an enquiry into the conduct of the Lord Mayor, &c., 
concerning Sir Thomas Gresham's charities. In 1664, he 
was in a commission for regulating the Mint; in the 
same year, was appointed one of the Commissioners for 
the care of the Sick and Wounded in the Dutch war; and 
he was continued in the same employment in the second 
war with that country. 

He was one of the Commissioners for the repair of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, shortly before it was burnt, in 1666. 
In that year, he was also in a commission for regulating 
the farming and making saltpetre; and in 1671, we find 
him a Commissioner of Plantations on the establishment 
of the Board, to which the Council of Trade was added 
in 1672. 

In 1685, he was one of the Commissioners of the Privy 
Seal, during the absence of the Earl of Clarendon (who 
held that office), on his going Lord Lieutenant to Ireland. 
On the foundation of Greenwich Hospital, in 1695, he 


was one of the Commissioners; and, on 30th June, 1696, 
laid the first stone of that building. He was also appointed 
Treasurer, with a salary of £200 a year ; but he says that 
it was a long time before he received any part of it. 

When the Czar of Muscovy came to England, in 1698, 
proposing to instruct himself in the art of ship-building, 
he was desirous of having the use of Sayes Court, in conse- 
quence of its vicinity to the King's dock-yard at Deptford. 
This was conceded ; but during his stay he did so much 
damage, that Mr. Evelyn had an allowance of £150 for it. 
He especially regrets the mischief done to his famous 
holly-hedge, which might have been thought beyond the 
reach of damage. But one of Czar Peter's favourite recrea- 
tions had been, to demolish the hedges by riding through 
them in a wheel-barrow. 

October, 1699, his elder brother, George Evelyn, dying 
without male issue, aged eighty -three, he succeeded to the 
paternal estate ; and, in May following, he quitted Sayes 
Court, and went to Wotton, where he passed the remainder 
of his life, with the exception of occasional visits to London, 
where he retained a house. In the great storm of 1708, 
he mentions in his last Edition of the " Sylva," above 
1000 trees were blown down in sight of his residence. 

He died at his house in London, 27th February, 1705-8, 
in the eighty-sixth year of his age, and was buried at 
Wotton. His lady survived him nearly three years, dying 
9th February, 1708-9, in her seventy-fourth year, and was 
buried near him at Wotton. The inscriptions on their 
tombs, and on those of hi^ father and mother, are sub- 
joined. His personal character was truly amiable. In the 
relative duties of father, husband, and friend, few could 
exceed him. 

Of Mr. Evelyn's children, a son, who died at the age of 
five, and a daughter, who died at the age of nineteen, were 
almost prodigies. The particulars of their extraordinary 


endowments, and the profound manner in which he was 
affected at their deaths, may be seen in these volumes, 
and cannot be read without exciting the most tender 

One daughter was well and happily settled; another 
less so ; but she did not survive her marriage more than a 
few months. The only son who lived to the age of man- 
hood, inherited his father^s love of learning, and distin- 
guished himself by several publications. 

Mr. Evelyn's employment as a Commissioner for the care 
of the Sick and Wounded was very laborious ; and, from 
the nature of it, must have been extremely unpleasant. 
Almost the whole labour was in his department, which 
included all the ports between the river Thames and Ports- 
mouth ; and he had to travel in all seasons and weathers, 
by land and by water, in the execution of his office, to 
which he gave the strictest attention. It was rendered 
still more disagreeable by the great difficulty which he 
found in procuring money for support of the prisoners. 
In the library at Wotton, are copies of numerous letters 
to the Lord Treasurer and Officers of State, representing, 
in the strongest terms, the great distress of the poor men, 
and of those who had furnished lodging and necessaries 
for them. At one time, there were such arrears of 
payment to the victuallers that, on landing additional sick 
and wounded, they lay some time in the streets, the 
publicans refusing to receive them, and shutting up their 
houses. After all this trouble and fatigue, he found as 
great difficulty in getting his accounts settled.* In 

* 2nd October, 1665, he writes to the Lord Chancellor, Lord Arlington, 
Sir William Coventry, and Sir Philip Warwick, complaining of want of money 
for the prisoners ; praying that whilst he and his brother-Commissioners 
adventure their persons and all that is dear to them, in this uncomfortable 
service, they may not be exposed to ruin, and to a necessity of abandoning 
their care ; and adding that they have lost their officers and servants by the 
pestilence, and are hourly environed with the saddest objects of perishing 


January, 1665-6, he formed a plan for an Infirmary at 
Chatham, which he sent to Mr. Pepys, to be laid before 
the Admiralty, with his reasons for recommending it ; but 
it does not appear that it was carried into execution. 

His employments, in connection with the repair of 
St. Paul's (which, however, occupied him but a brief time), 
as in the Commission of Trade and Plantations, and in the 
building of Greenwich Hospital, were much better adapted 
to his inclinations and pursuits. 

As a Commissioner of the Privy Seal in the reign or 
King James II., he had a difficult task to perform. He 
was most steadily attached to the Church of England, and 
the King required the Seal to be affixed to many things 
incompatible with the welfare of that Church. This, on 
some occasions, he refused to do, particularly to a license 
to Dr. Obadiah Walker to print Popish books ;* and on 
other occasions he absented himself, leaving it to his 
brother-Commissioners to act as they thought fit. Such, 
however, was the King's estimation of him, that no dis- 
pleasure was evinced on this account. 

Of Mr. Evelyn's attempt to bring Colonel Morley 
(Cromwell's Lieutenant of the Tower immediately pre- 
ceding the Restoration) over to the King's interest, an im- 
perfect account is given in the '' Biographia," partly taken 
from the additions to " Baker's Chronicle," which was pub- 
lished with a continuation in 1696. The fact is, that there 
was great friendship between these gentlemen, and Mr. 
Evelyn did endeavour to engage the Colonel in the King's 
interest. He saw him several times, and put his life into 

people. " I have," says he, "fifteen places full of sick men, where they put 
me to unspeakable trouble ; the magistrates and justices, who should further 
us in our exigencies, hindering the people from giving us quarters, jealous of 
the contagion, and causing them to shut the doors at our approach." 

* Dr. Walker had been a member of the Church of England, but had re- 
nounced it, and turned Papist 



his hands by writing to him on 12th January, 1659-60 ; * 
he did not succeed, and Colonel Morley was too much his 
friend to betray him : but so far from the Colonel having 
settled matters privately with Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 
or General Monk,t as there described, he was obliged, when 
the Restoration took place, actually to apply to Mr. Evelyn 
to procure his pardon; who obtained it accordingly, 
though, as he states, the Colonel was obliged to pay a large 
sum of money for it. This could not have happened, if there 
had been any previous negotiation with General Monk. 

There are some mistakes in the " Biographia " as to 
Mr. Evelyn's Works.J Dr. Campbell, who wrote in the 
original edition, took some pains to vindicate Mr. Evelyn's 
book, entitled, "Navigation and Commerce, their Origin 
and Progress," from the charge of being an imperfect 
work, unequal to the expectation excited by the title. 
But the Doctor, who had not the information which this 
Journal so amply affords on this subject, was not aware 
that what was so printed was nothing more than an 
Introduction to the History of the Dutch War ; a work 
undertaken by Mr. Evelyn at the express command of 
Kling Charles II., and the materials for which were 
furnished by the Officers of State. The completion of 
this work, after considerable progress had been made in 
it, was put a stop to by the King himself, for what reason 
does not appear; but perhaps it was found that Mr. 
Evelyn was inclined to tell too much of the truth con- 
cerning a transaction, which it will be seen by his Journal 

• A copy of this letter, with a note of Mr. Evelyn's subjoined, is given 
among the illustrations. 

+ Colonel Morley's name is scarcely mentioned in the account of General 
Monk's conduct on this occasion, written by Jolm Price, D.D. (who was 
sent to him on the king's behalf, and had continual intercourse with him), 
published in 1680, and reprinted by Baron Maseres, in 1815. 

X For an attempt to draw out a con'ect list of such as have been published, 
see Illustrations in the Appendix to vol. ii. of the present Edition. 


that he utterly reprobated. His copy of the History, as far 
as he had proceeded, he put into the hands of his friend, 
Mr. Pepys, of the Admiralty, who did not return it; but 
as the books and manuscripts belonging to Mr. Pepys 
passed into the possession of Magdalen College, Cambridge, 
it was hoped it might be there preserved. The Editor 
went to Cambridge for the purpose of seeing it ; and was 
favoured with access to the library, and with the most 
obliging personal attendance of the Hon. Mr. Fortescue, 
one of the Fellows of the College ; but, after a diligent 
search for several hours, it could not be found. 

Dr. Campbell understood " The Mystery of Jesuitism " 
to be a single volume ; but there were three published 
in different years. The translation of the second was 
undertaken by Mr. Evelyn at the express desire of Lord 
Clarendon and his son, as appears by a letter of Mr. 
Evelyn to Lord Cornbury, dated 9 February, 1664. The 
third was translated by Dr. Tonge for Mr. Evelyn ; but a 
fuller statement of this will be found in a note to one 
of the entries of the Diary.* 

In giving a list of his publications, the authors of the 
"Biographia" say, "As several of these treatises were 
printed before the author's return to England, and others 
without his name, we must depend on the general opinion 
of the world, and the authority of Mr. Wood for their being 
his ; yet there is no great reason to suspect a mistake.'' t 
They add, " We know nothing of the ' Mundus Muliebris ; 
or, the Ladies' Dressing Koom unlocked,' except that it 
has had a place in the Catalogue of our Author's Works, 
from which therefore we have no right to remove it." % 

There is no doubt of his being the author. Under 1685, 
Mr. Evelyn, in his account of his daughter Mary, says, 
she " put in many pretty symbols in the * Mundus 

* Vol. i., p. 387. f Biog. Brit., vol. v., 2nd edit, p. 611, note E. 

J Ibid. p. 624, note S. 


Muliebris/ wherein is an enumeration of the immense 
variety of the modes and ornaments belonging to the 

In a letter to Lord Cornbury, dated 9th February, 1664, 
he speaks of having written a Play. 

The authors of the " Biographia " remark of his resi- 
dence abroad, that " The account, which Mr. Boyle received 
from Mr. Evelyn,* of the method used by the Italians 
for preserving snow in pits, is an admirable specimen of 
that care with which he registered his discoveries, as well 
as the curiosity which prompted him to inquire into every 
thing worthy of notice, either natural or artificial, in the 
countries through which he passed. It is much to be 
regretted that a work so entertaining and instructive as 
a History of his Travels would have been, appeared, even 
to so indefatigable a person as he was, a task too laborious 
for him to undertake; for, we should then have seen, in 
a clear and true light, many things in reference to Italy 
which are now very indistinctly and partially represented ; 
and we should also have met with much new matter never 
touched before, and of which we shall now probably never 
hear at all." f 

What is thus said of Mr. Evelyn's travels is partly 
supplied in the present Diary, but not so fully as could 
be wished. That he made many observations which will 
not be found here, appears by the above quotation from 
Mr. Boyle ; and by an account of the manner of making 
bread in France, which he communicated to Mr. Hough- 
ton, a Fellow of the Royal Society, who published it in 
some papers which he printed in 1681, and following years. 

From the numerous authors who have spoken in high 
terms of Mr. Evelyn, we will select the two following 
notices of him. 

In the " Biographia/' Dr. Campbell says, " It is certain 

♦ Boyle's Works, vol. ii,, p. 306. + Biog. Brit., vol. v., p. 610, note D. 


that very few authors Avho have written in our language 
deserve the character of able and agreeable writers so well 
as Mr. Evelyn, who, though he was acquainted with most 
sciences, and wrote upon many different subjects, yet was 
very far, indeed the farthest of most men of his time, from 
being a superficial writer. He had genius, he had taste, he 
had learning ; and he knew how to give all these a proper 
place in his works, so as never to pass for a pedant, even with 
such as were least in love with literature, and to be justly 
esteemed a polite author by those who knew it best.'^ * 

Horace Walpole (afterwards Earl of Orford), in his 
Catalogue of Engravers, gives us the following admirably 
drawn character, pp. 85, 86 : " If Mr. Evelyn had not 
been an artist himself, as I think I can prove he was, 
I should yet have found it difficult to deny myself the 
pleasure of allotting him a place among the arts he loved, 
promoted, patronised; and it would be but justice to 
inscribe his name with due panegyric in these records, 
as I have once or twice taken the liberty to criticise 
him. But they are trifling blemishes compared with 
his amiable virtues and beneficence; and it may be 
remarked, that tVie worst I have said of him is, that he 
knew more than he always communicated. It is no 
unwelcome satire to say, that a man's intelligence and 
philosophy is inexhaustible. I mean not to write his Hfe, 
which may be found detailed in the new edition of his 
' Sculptura,' in ' Collins's Baronetage,' in the ' General 
Dictionary,' and in the new ' Biographical Dictionary ; ' 
but I must observe, that his life, which was extended to 
eighty-six years, was a course of inquiry, study, curiosity, 
instruction, and benevolence. The works of the Creator, 
and the minute labours of the creature, were all objects of 
his pursuit. He unfolded the perfection of the one, and 
assisted the imperfection of the other. He adored from 

* Biog. Brit., vol. v., p. 814, note I. 


examination ; was a courtier that flattered only by inform- 
ing his Prince, and by pointing out what was worthy of 
him to countenance ; and really was the neighbour of the 
Gospel, for there was no man that might not have been 
the better for him. Whoever peruses a list of his works, 
will subscribe to my assertion. He was one of the first 
promoters of the Royal Society ; a patron of the ingenious 
and the indigent ; and peculiarly serviceable to the lettered 
world ; for, besides his writings and discoveries, he obtained 
the Arundelian Marbles for the University of Oxford, and 
the Arundelian Library for the Royal Society. — Nor is it 
the least part of his praise, that he, who proposed to 
Mr. Boyle the erection of a Philosophical College for 
retired and speculative persons, had the honesty to write 
in defence of active life against Sir George Mackenzie's 
'Essay on Solitude.' He knew that retirement, in his 
own hands, was industry and benefit to mankind ; but in 
those of others, laziness and inutility." 

His son, Mr. John Evelyn, was of Trinity College, 
Oxford, and, when about fifteen years old, wrote that 
elegant Greek Poem which is prefixed to the second 
Edition of the " Sylva." He translated Rapin on Gardens, 
in four books, written in Latin verse. His father annexed 
the second book of this to the second edition of his "Sylva." 
He also translated from the Greek of Plutarch the life of 
Alexander the Great, printed in the fourth volume of 
" Plutarch's Lives, by several Hands ; " and from the 
French, the History of the Grand Viziers Mahomet and 
Achmet Coprogli. There are several poems of his, of 
which some are printed in " Dryden's Miscellanies," and 
more in " Nicols's Collection of Poems." 

In December, 1688, he was presented to the Prince of 
Orange, at Abington, by Colonel Sidney and Colonel 
Berkley; and was one of the volunteers in Lord Lovelace's 
troop, when his lordship secured Oxford for the Prince. 


In ] 690, he purchased the place of chief clerk of the Trea- 
sury ; but, in the next year, he was by some means removed 
from it by Mr. Guy, who succeeded in that office. In 
August, 1692, he Avas made one of the Commissioners of 
the Revenue in Ireland, from whence he returned to 
England in 1696, in very ill health, and died 24th March, 
1698, in his father's lifetime. 

He married Martha, daughter and coheir of Richard 
Spencer, Esq., a Turkey merchant, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. The eldest son, and the 
eldest daughter, Martha-Mary, and youngest daughter, 
Jane, died infants. The surviving daughter, Ehzabeth, 
married Simon Harcourt, Esq., son of the Lord Chancel- 
lor Harcourt. September 18th, 1705, the son John, who 
had succeeded his grandfather at Wotton, married Anne, 
daughter of Edward Boscawen, Esq., of the county of 
Cornwall; and, by letters patent, dated 30 July, 1713, 
was created a Baronet. He inherited the virtue and the 
taste for learning, as well as the patrimony, of his ances- 
tors; and lived at Wotton universally loved and respected. 
He built a library there, forty-five feet long, fourteen wide, 
and as many high, for the reception of the large and 
curious collection of books made by his grandfather, father, 
and himself; and where they now remain. He was a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, was long the first Commissioner of 
the Customs, and died 15th July, 1763, in the eighty- 
second year of his age. 

By his lady, who died before him, he had several 
children, and was succeeded by John the eldest, who 
married Mary, daughter of Hugh Boscawen, Viscount Fal- 
mouth, and died 11th June, 1767, in the 61st year of his 
age. He was Clerk of the Green Cloth to Frederick Prince 
of Wales, father of George III., and to that King when 
Prince of Wales, and after he came to the Crown. He 
represented the Borough of Helston in several Parhaments, 


and to the time of his death. He had only one son^ 
Frederick, who succeeded to the title and estate, and 
three daughters. Of the daughters, two died unmarried; 
the third, Augusta, married the Rev. Dr. Henry Jenkin, 
Rector of Wotton and Abinger; but she died without 
issue. Sir Frederick was in the army in the early part of 
his life ; and was in Elliot's Light-Horse, when that 
regiment so highly distinguished themselves in the famous 
Battle of Minden, in Germany, in 1759. He married 
Mary, daughter of William Turton, Esq. of Staffordshire, 
and, dying without issue in 1813, he left his estate to his 
Lady. She lived at Wotton, where she fully maintained 
the honour and great respect which had so long attended 
the family there. Her taste for botany was displayed in 
her garden and greenhouse, where she had a curious 
collection of exotic, as well as native, shrubs and flowers. 
The library shared her attention. Besides making addi- 
tions to it, she had a complete Catalogue arranged by 
Mr. Upcott, of the London Institution. 

This lady by her will returned the estate to the family, 
devising it to John Evelyn, Esq., descended from George 
Evelyn, the purchaser of the estate in 1579. 

The following are epitaphs to the memory of the writer 
of this Diary, and part of his family, interred in the 
Dormitory adjoining Wotton Church. 

For his Grandfather, who settled at Wotton, on an 
alabaster monument, written by Dr. Comber, Master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and afterwards Dean of 

Durham : 

D. 0. M. S. 

Georgio Evelino, Arm. non minus 

VitsB et Morum exemplo, quara dignitate 


conspicuo, quern plenum annis (inoffensse 

vitse decurso itinere, quale sibi opta- 

verint Magni illi, qui inajiem strepitum 

tranquillitati posthabendum putArunt) 

Mors imniatura abstulit, namq ; 

rebus omnibus, Deo omnia bone vertente, 

affluens, quibus vita beata efficitur, 

repetito non infelici delectu matrimo- 

nio, Liberos ad filios 16 octoque 

filias, pene octogenarius decessit senex : 

Parenti charissimo, et bene merenti 

Richardus Evelinas, filiorum natu minimus, 

Monumentum cum carmine moerens 

posuit, quod non tam Patris vivo hominum 

ore victuri, quam proprioe Pietatis 

testimonium esset. 

Obiit 30 die Mail, An. Dom. 1603. 

JEtatis suae 73. 

On another alabaster monument, are the figures of a 
man and his wife kneeling, and five children; below is 
this inscription : 


vere generosi, et praenobilis Viri, D. Richardi 

Evelini armigeri, in agro Surriensi, hic 

subter in terr4 conditi. 

Quem Pietas, Probitas, claris natalibus ortum, 

Prolis amor dulcis, Vitaq. labe carens, 
Religlonis opus, quera Vota Precesq; suorum, 

Et morum niveus candor, aperta manus, 
Reddebant olim cbarum patriseq; suisq; 

Vertitur in cineres b^c Evelinus humo. 
Lector, ne doleas, cum sis mortalis, abito, 

Et sortis non sis immemor ipse tuse, 
Obiit Quinquagenarius 
corporis statu vegeto, vicesimo die Decembris anno 


Salutis liumanae 

1640, Liberorum quiuq. Pater, 

relictis quatuor superstitibus, tribus 

scil. filiis cum 

unica tantum filia. 

Festinantes sequimur. 

On another monument, fixed to the same wall : 


the precious memory of 

Ellen Evelyn, 

the dearly beloved wife of Richard Evelyn, Esq. 

a rare example of Piety, Loyalty, Prudence, and Charity, 

a happy Mother of five Children, 

George, John, Richard, Elizabeth, and Jane ; 

who in the 37th year of her age, 

the 22d of her marriage, 

and the 1635th of Man's Redemption, 

put on Immortality, 

leaving her name as a monument of her perfections, 

and her Perfections as a precedent for imitation. 

Of her great worth to know, who seeketh more. 

Must mount to Heaven, where she is gone before. 

On a white marble, covering a tomb shaped like a coffin 
raised about three feet above the floor, is inscribed : 

Here lies the Body 

of John Evelyn, Esq. 

of this place, second son 

of Richard Evelyn, Esq. ; 

who having serv'd the Publick 

in several employments, of which that 

of Commissioner of the Privy-Seal in the 

Reign of King James the 2d was most 

honourable, and perpetuated his fame 

by far more lasting monuments than 

those of Stone or Brass, his learned 


and usefull Works, fell asleep tlie 27 day 
of February 1705-6, being the 86 year 

of his age, in full hope of a glorious 

Resurrection, thro' Faith in Jesus Christ. 

Living in an age of extraordinary 

Events and Revolutions, he learnt 

(as himself asserted) this Truth, 

which pursuant to his intention 

is here declared — 

That all is vanity which is not honest, 

and that there is no solid wisdom 

hut in real Piety. 
Of five Sons and three Daughters 
born to him from his most 
vertuous and excellent Wife, 
Mary, sole daughter and heiress 
of Sir Rich. Browne of Sayes 
Court near Deptford in Kent, 
onely one daughter, Susanna, 
married to William Draper 
Esq., of Adscomb in this 
County, survived him ; the 
two others dying in the 
flower of their age, and 
all the Sons very young ex- 
cept one named John, who 
deceased 24 March, 1698-9, 
in the 45 year of his age, 
leaving one son, John, and 
one daughter, Elizabeth. 

On anotlier monument at the head of, and like the 

former : 

Mary Evelyn, 

the best Daughter, Wife, 

and Mother, 

the most accomplished of women, 

beloved, esteemed, admired, 


and regretted, by all who knew her, 

is deposited in this stone coffin, 

according to her own desire, as near 

as could be to her dear Husband 

John Evelyn, 

with whom she lived almost 

Threescore years, 

and survived not quite three, dying 

at London, the 9 of Feb. 1708-9, 

in the 74th year of her age. 

In the Churcli of St. Nicholas, Deptford, on the east- 
wall, to the south of the altar, is a marble mural tablet, 
with the following inscription to the two children of Mr. 
Evelyn, whose early loss he has so feelingly lamented in 

his Diary : 

R. Evelyn. I. F. 

Quiescit hoc sub marmore, 
Unk quiescit quicquid est amabile, 
Patres quod optent, aut quod orbi lugeant ; 
Genas decentes non, ut ante, risus 

Lepore condit amplius ; 
Moruiu venustas, quanta paucis contigit, 

Desideratur omnibus. 

Linguae, Latina, GalHca, 
Quas imbibit cum lacte materno, tacent. 
. Tent4rat Artes, artiumque principiis 

Pietatis elementa hauserat. 
Libris inhsesit improbo labore 

Ut sola mors divelleret. 
Quod indoles, quod disciplina, quod labor 

Possint, ab uuo disceres. 
Puer stupendus, qualis hie esset senex 
Si fata vitce submiuistrdssent iter ! 

Sed aliter est visum Deo : 
Correptus ille febricuU levi jacet, 
Jacent tot una spes Parentum ! 


Vixit Ann. V. M. V, III super D. 

Elieu ! delicias breves. 
Quicqnid placet mortale, non placet diu, 
Quicquid placet mortale, ne placeat nimis. 

Mart Evelyn, 

eldest daughter of John Evelyn, 

and Mary his wife, borne the last day of 

September 1665, att Wootton in 

the County of Surrey. A beautifuU 

young woman, endowed with shining 

Qualities both of body and mind, infinitly 

pious, the delight of her Parents and Friends. 

She dyed 17 March 1685 at the 

age of 19 years, 5 months, 17 dayes, 

regretted by all persons of worth 

that knew her value. 

A tablet adjoining the foregoing, is thus inscribed : 

M. S. 

Neere this place are deposited y* bodys 

of Sir Richard Browne of Sayes-Court in Deptford, Knt ; 

Of his wife Dame Joanna Vigorus of Langham in Essex, 

deceased in Nov. 1618 aged 74 years. 

This Richard was younger son of an ancient family of 

Hitcham in Suffolk, seated afterwards at Horsly in Essex, who 


Student in the Temple, was by Robert Dudley, the great Earle of 


taken into the service of the Crowne when he went 

Governor of the United Netherlands, and was afterwards 

by Queene Elizabeth made Clearke of the Greene Cloth, 

which honorable office he also continued \mder King James 

untill the 

time of his death, May 1604, aged 65 years : 


Of Christopher Browne, Esq., son and heire of Sir Richard, who 

deceased in March 1645, aged 70 years ; 
Of Thomasin his wife, da'^ of Benjamin Gonson of Much Bado 
in Essex, Esq. whose grandfather William Gonson, and father 

were successively Treasurers of the Navy to King Hen. VIIL, 

to K. Ed. VI., 

to Queene Mary, and Q. Elizabeth ; and died June 1638, aged 

75 years ; 

Of Sir Richard Browne, Knt. and Baronet, onely son of 

Christopher ; 

Of his wife Dame Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Pretyman of 

Dry-field in Glocester shire, who deceased vi Octob' 

1652, aged 42 years. 

This Sir Richard was Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to 

K. Charles y^ First, and Cleark of the Council of his Ma*y, and to 

K. Charles y^ Second, and (after several foraigne and honorable 

continued Resident in the Court of France from K. Cha. the I. 

from K. Char. II* to the French-Kings Lewes XIII. and 

Lewes XIV. from 
the years 1641 (the beginning of our un-natural civile-warr) 

untill the happy 
Re-stauration of K. Cha. y" IF 1660 ; deceased xii Feb. A" 

1682-3 aged 78 y" ; 
and (according to ancient custome) willed to be interred in this 


These all deceasing in the true Faith of Christ, 

hope, through his merits, for a joyfull and blessed 

Resurrection. X. A. P. D. 


T WAS born (at Wotton, in the County of Surrey,) 
about twenty minutes past two in tbe morning, being on 
Tuesday the 31st and last of October, 1620, after my 
father had been married about seven years, * and that my 
mother had borne him three children ; viz. two daughters 
and one son, about the 33rd year of his age, and the 23rd 
of my mother's. 

My father, named Richard, was of a sanguine com- 
plexion, mixed with a dash of choler: his hair inclining to 
light, which, though exceeding thick, became hoary by 
that time he had attained to thirty years of age ; it was 
somewhat curled towards the extremities; his beard, 
which he wore a little peaked, as the mode was, of a 
brownish colour, and so continued to the last, save that 
it was somewhat mingled with grey hairs about his 
cheeks; which, with his countenance, were clear and 
fresh-coloured, his eyes extraordinary quick and piercing ; 
an ample forehead, — in sum, a very well composed visage 
and manly aspect : for the rest, he was but low of stature, 
yet very strong. He was, for his Mfe, so exact and 

* He was married at St. Thomas's, South wark, 27th January, 1613. My 
sister Eliza was bom at nine at night, 28th November, 1614 ; Jane, at 
four in the morning, 16th February, 1616 ; my brother George at nine 
at night, Wednesday, 18th June, 1617 ; and my brother Richard, 9th 
November, 1622. 

VOL. I. "7 A. B 


temperate, that I have heard he had never been surprised 
by excess, being ascetic and sparing. His wisdom was 
great, and his judgment most acute ; of solid discourse, 
affable, humble, and in nothing affected; of a thriving, 
neat, silent, and methodical genius ; discreetly severe, yet 
liberal upon all just occasions, both to his children, to 
strangers, and servants; a lover of hospitality, and, in 
brief, of a singular and Christian moderation in all his 
actions; not illiterate, nor obscure, as having continued 
Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, he served his 
country as High Sheriff, being, as I take it, the last 
dignified with that office for Sussex and Surrey together, 
the same year, before their separation.* He was yet a 
studious decliner of honours and titles; being already 
in that esteem with his country, that they could have 
added little to him besides their burthen. He was a 
person of that rare conversation that, upon frequent 
recollection, and calling to mind passages of his life 
and discourse, I could never charge him with the least 
passion, or inadvertency. His estate was esteemed about 
£4000 per annum, well wooded, and ftdl of timber. 

My mother^ s name was Eleanor, f sole daughter and 
heiress of John Standsfield, Esq., of an ancient and 
honourable family (though now extinct) in Shropshire, 
by his wife Eleanor Comber, of a good and well-known 
house in Sussex. She was of proper personage, of a 
brown complexion ; her eyes and hair of a lovely black ; 
of constitution more inclined to a rehgious melancholy, 
or pious sadness ; of a rare memory, and most exemplary 
life ; for economy and prudence, esteemed one of the most 
conspicuous in her country : which rendered her loss 
much deplored both by those who knew, and such as 
only heard of her. 

Thus much, in brief, touching my parents ; nor was it 
reasonable I should speak less of them to whom I owe 
so much. 

Tlie place of my birth was Wotton, in the parish of 
Wotton, or Blackheath, in the county of Surrey, the then 

* Formerly the two counties had, in gener&I, only one sheriff, though 
sometimes distinct cues. lu 1637, each county had its sheriff, and so it 
has continued ever since. 

-\r She was bom 17th November, 1598, in Sussex, near to Lewes. 

1620.] JOHN EVELYN. 3 

mansion-house of my father, left him by my grand- 
father, afterwards and now my eldest brother's. It is 
situated in the most southern part of the shire; and, 
though in a valley, yet really upon part of Leith Hill, one 
of the most eminent in England for the prodigious pros- 
pect to be seen from its summit,* though by few 
observed ; from it may be discerned twelve or thirteen 
counties, with part of the sea on the coast of Sussex, 
in a serene day. The house is large and ancient, suitable 
to those hospitable times, and so sweetly environed with 
those delicious streams and venerable woods, as in the 
judgment of strangers as well as Englishmen, it may be 
compared to one of the most tempting and pleasant seats 
in the nation, and most tempting for a great person 
and a wanton purse, to render it conspicuous. It has 
rising grounds, meadows, woods, and water, in abundance. 
The distance from London little more than twenty 
miles,t and yet so securely placed, as if it were one 
hundred ; three miles from Dorking, which serves it abun- 
dantly with provisions as well of land as sea ; six from 
Guildford, twelve from Kingston. J I will say nothing 
of the air, because the pre-eminence is universally given 
to Surrey, the soil being dry and sandy ; but I should 
speak much of the gardens, fountains, and groves that 
adorn it, were they not as generally known to be amongst 
the most natural, and (till this later and universal luxury 
of the whole nation, since abounding in such expenses) 
the most magnificent that England afforded, and which 
indeed gave one of the first examples to that elegancy, 
since so much in vogue and followed, for the managing 
of their Avaters, and other elegancies of that natiu-e. 
Let me add, the contiguity of five or six manors, § the 
patronage of the livings about it, and what Themistocles 
pronounced for none of the least advantages — the good 
neighbourhood: all which conspire here to render it an 
honourable and handsome royalty, fit for the present 
possessor, my worthy brother, and his noble lady, || whose 

* 993 feet. 

t Computed miles ; it is a little more than twenty-six measured miles. 

t Eight, and fourteen. 

§ Seven manors, two advowsons, and a chapel of ease.- ' 

II Lady Cotton, widow. 

B 2 


constant liberality gives them title both to the place and 
the affections of all that know them. Thus, with the 

Nescio quA natale solum dulcedine cunctos 
Ducit, et immemores non sinet esse sui. 

I had given me the name of my grandfather, my 
mother^s father, who, together with a sister of Sir Thomas 
Evelyn of Long Ditton, and Mr. Comber, a near relation 
of my mother, were my susceptors. The solemnity (yet 
upon what accident I know not, unless some indisposition 
in me) was performed in the dining-room by Parson 
Higham, the present incumbent of the parish, according 
to the forms prescribed by the then glorious Church of 

I was now (in regard to my mother^s weakness, or 
rather custom of persons of quality) put to nurse to one 
Peter, a neighboiu^s wife and tenant, of a good, comely, 
brown, wholesome complexion, and in a most sweet place 
towards the hills, flanked with wood and refreshed with 
streams j the affection to which kind of solitude I sucked 
in with my very milk. It appears, by a note of my 
father's, that I sucked till 17th January, 1622; or at least 
I came not home before. 

The very first thing that I can call to memory, and 
from which time forward I began to obseri^e, was this 
year (1623) my youngest brother being in his nurse's 
arms, who being then' two years and nine days younger 
than myself, was the last child of my dear parents. 

1624. I was not initiated into any rudiments till near 
four years of age, and then one Frier taught us at the 
church-porch of Wotton; and I do perfectly remember 
the great talk and stir about II Conde Gundamar, now 
Ambassador from Spain (for near about this time was 
the match of our Prince with the Infanta proposed), and 
the effects of that comet, 1618, stUl working in the prodi- 
gious revolutions now beginning in Europe, especially 
in Germany, whose sad commotions sprang from the 
Bohemians' defection from the Emperor Matthias ; upon 
which quarrel the Swedes broke in, giving umbrage to 

* I bad g^ren me two handsome pieces of very curiously wrought and gilt 

1624-8.] JOHN EVELYN. 6 

the rest of the princes, and the whole Christian world 
cause to deplore it, as never since enjoying perfect tran- 

1625. I was this year (being the first of the reign of 
King Charles) sent by my father to Lewes, in Sussex, to be 
with my grandfather, Standsfield, with whom I passed my 
childhood. This was the year in which the pestilence 
was so epidemical, that there died in London 5000 
a-week, and I well remember the strict watches and 
examinations upon the ways as we passed; and I was 
shortly after so dangerously sick of a fever, that (as I have 
heard) the physicians despaired of me. 

1626. My picture was drawn in oil by one Chanterell, 
no iU painter. 

1627. My grandfather, Standsfield, died this year, on 
the 5th of February : I remember perfectly the solemnity 
at his funeral. He was buried in the parish church of All 
Souls, where my grandmother, his second wife, erected 
him a pious monument. About this time, was the con- 
secration of the Church of South Mailing, near Lewes, 
by Dr. Field, Bishop of Oxford; one Mr. CoxhaU preached, 
who was afterwards minister; the building whereof was 
chiefly procured by my grandfather, who having the im- 
propriation, gave 20/. a-year out of it to this churdh. I 
afterwards sold the impropriation. I laid one of the 
first stones at the building of the church. 

It was not till the year 1628, that I was put to learn 
my Latin rudiments, and to write, of one Citolin, a 
Frenchman, in Lewes. I very well remember that 
general muster previous to the Isle of Re^s expedition, 
and that I was one day awakened in the morning with 
the news of the Duke of Buckingham being slain by that 
wretch, Felton, after our disgrace before La Rochelle. 
And I now took so extraordinary a fancy to drawing and 
designing, that I could never after wean my inclinations 
from it, to the expense of much precious time, which might 
have been more advantageously employed. I was now 
put to school to one Mr. Potts, in the Chff, at Lewes,from 
whom, on the 7th of January, 1630, being the day after 
Epiphany, I went to the free-school at Southover, near the 
town, of which one Agnes Morley had been the foundress, 
and now Edward Snatt was the master, under whom I 


remained till I was sent to the University.* This year, 
my grandmother (with whom I sojourned) being married 
to one Mr. Newton, a learned and most religious gentle- 
man, we went from the Cliff to dwell at his house in 
Southover. I do most perfectly remember the jubilee 
which was universally expressed for the happy birth of 
the Prince of Wales, 29th of May, now Charles the 
Second, our most gracious Sovereign. 

1681. There happened now an extraordinary dearth in 
England, corn bearing an excessive price ; and, in imi- 
tation of what I had seen my father do, I began to observe 
matters more punctually, which I did use to set down in 
a blank almanack. The Lord of Castlehaven's arraignment 
for many shameful exorbitances was now all the talk, and 
the birth of the Princess Mary, afterwards Princess of 

21st October, 1632. My eldest sister was married to 
Edward Darcy, Esq., who little deserved so excellent a 
person, a woman of so rare virtue. I was not present at 
the nuptials ; but I was soon afterwards sent for into 
Surrey, and my father would willingly have weaned me 
from my fondness of my too indulgent grandmother, 
intending to have placed me at Eton; but, not being 
80 provident fom my own benefit, and unreasonably ter- 
rified with the report of the severe discipline there, I was 
sent back to Lewes : which perverseness of mine I have 
since a thousand times deplored. This was the first time 
that ever my parents had seen all their children together 
in prosperity. While I was now trifling at home, I saw 
London, where I lay one night only. The next day, I 
dined at Beddington,t where I was much delighted with 
the gardens and curiosities. Thence, we returned to the 
Lady Darcy's, at Sutton, thence to Wotton ; and, on the 
16th of August following, 1633, back to Lewes. 

November 3rd, 1633. This year my father was ap- 
pointed Sheriff, the last, as I think, who served in that 
honourable office for Surrey and Sussex, before they were 
disjoined. He had 116 servants in liveries, every one 

* Long after, Mr. Evelyn paid great respect to this gentleman, as appears 
by his letters. 

■f The ancieBt and onee magnificent eeat of the noUe family of the 

1633-4.] JOHN EVELYN. f 

liveried in green satin doublets ; divers gentlemen and 
persons of quality waited on him in the same garb and 
habit, which at that time (when thirty or forty was the 
usual retinue of the High Sheriff) was esteemed a great 
matter. Nor was this out of the least vanity that my 
father exceeded (who was one of the greatest dechners 
of it) ; but because he could not refuse the civility of 
his friends and relations, who voluntarily came themselves, 
or sent in their servants. But my father was afterwards 
most unjustly and spitefully molested by that jeering 
judge, Eichardson,* for reprieving the execution of a 
woman, to gratify my Lord of Lindsey, then Admiral; but 
out of this he emerged with as much honour as trouble. 
The king made this year his progress into Scotland, and 
Duke James was born. 

15th December, 1634. My dear sister, Darcy, departed 
this life, being arrived to her 20th year of age ; in virtue 
advanced beyond her years, or the merit of her husband, 
the worst of men. She had been brought to bed the 2nd 
of June before, but the infant died soon after her, the 
24th of December; I was therefore sent for home the 
second time, to celebrate the obsequies of my sister, who 
was interred in a very honourable manner in our dormi- 
tory joining to the parish church,t where now her monu- 
ment stands. 

1635. But my dear mother being now dangerously 
sick, I was, on the 3rd of September following, sent for 
to Wotton, whom I found so far spent, that all human 
assistance failing, she in a most heavenly manner de- 
parted this life upon the 29th of the same month, about 
eight in the evening of Michaelmas-day. It was a maUg- 
nant fever which took her away, about the 37th of her age, 
and 22nd of her marriage, to our irreparable loss, and the 
regret of all that knew her. Certain it is, that the visible 

* He was made a Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 1626, and of the 
King's Bench in 1631. There is a monument for him in Westminster Abbey. 
Fuller says lie hved too near the time to speak fully of him. He took on 
him to issue an order against keeping wakes on Sundays, which Laud, 
then Bishop of Bath and Wells, took up as an infringement of the rights of 
bishops, and got him severely reprimanded at the Council-table. He was 
owner of Starborough Castle, in Lingiield, in Surrey. — Manning and Bray's 
Mistory of Surrey,-vol. ii. p. 345. 

t Of Wotton. : ... . 

^ DIARY OP [oxroBB, 

cause of her indisposition proceeded from grief upon the 
loss of her daughter, and the infant, that followed it > 
and it is as certain, that when she perceived the peril 
whereto its excess had engaged her, she strove to compose 
herself and allay it ; but it was too late, and she was forced 
to succumb. Therefore, summoning all her children then 
living (I shall never forget it), she expressed herself in sl 
manner so heavenly, with instructions so pious and 
Christian, as made us strangely sensible of the extra- 
ordinary loss then imminent ; after which, embracing every 
one of us, she gave to each a ring with her blessing, and 
dismissed us. Then, taking my father by the hand, she 
recommended us to his care; and, because she was ex- 
tremely zealous for the education of my younger brother, 
she requested my father that he might be sent with me 
to Lewes ; and so, having importuned him that what he 
designed to bestow on her funeral, he would rather dis- 
pose among the poor, she laboured to compose herself 
for the blessed change which she now expected. There 
was not a servant in the house whom she did not 
expressly send for, advise, and infinitely affect with her 
counsel : thus she continued to employ her intervals, 
either instructing her relations, or preparing of herself. 

Though her physicians. Dr. Meverell, Dr. Clement and 
Dr. Rand, had given over all hopes of her recovery, and 
Sir Sanders Duncombe had tried his celebrated and famous 
powder, yet she was many days impairing, and endured 
the sharpest conflicts of her sickness with admirable 
patience and most Christian resignation, retaining both 
her intellectuals and ardent affections for her dissolution, 
to the very article of her departure. When near her dis- 
solution, she laid her hand on every one of her children ; 
and, taking solemn leave of my father, with elevated 
heart and eyes, she quietly expired, and resigned her soul 
to God. Thus ended that prudent and pious woman, in 
the flower of her age, to the inconsolable affliction of her 
husband, irreparable loss of her children, and universal 
regret of aU that knew her. She was interred, as near as 
might be, to her daughter, Darcy, the 3rd of October, at 
night, but with no mean ceremony. 

It was the 3rd of the ensuing November, after my 
brother George was gone back to Oxford, ere I returned 

1637.] JOHN EVELYN. Q 

to Lewes, when I made way, according to instructions 
received of my father, for my brother Richard, who was 
sent the 12th after. 

1636. This year being extremely dry, the pestilence 
much increased in London, and divers parts of England. 

13th February, 1637. I was especially admitted (and, as 
I remember, my other brother) into the Middle Temple, 
London, though absent, and as yet at school. There 
were now large contributions to the distressed Palatinates. 

The 10th of December my father sent a servant to 
bring us necessaries, and the plague beginning now to 
cease, on the 3rd of April, 1637, I left school, where, till 
about the last year, I had been extremely remiss in my 
studies j so as I went to the University rather out of 
shame of abiding longer at school, than for any fitness, 
as by sad experience I found ; which put me to re-learn 
all that I had neglected, or but perfunctorily gained. 

10th of May. I was admitted a Fellow-commoner of 
Baliol CoUege, Oxford ; and, on the 29th, I was matricu- 
lated in the vestry of St. Mary's, where I subscribed the 
Articles, and took the oaths ; Dr. Baily, head of St. John's, 
being vice-chancellor, afterwards bishop. It appears by 
a letter of my father's, that he was upon treaty with one 
Mr. Bathurst (afterwards Doctor and President), of 
Trinity College, who should have been my tutor ; but, lest 
my brother's tutor. Dr. Hobbs, more zealous in his life 
than industrious to his pupils, should receive it as an 
affront, and especially for that Fellow-commoners in Baliol 
were no more exempt from exercise than the meanest 
scholars there, my father sent me thither to one Mr. 
George Bradshaw {nomen invisum ! yet the son of an excel- 
lent father, beneficed in Surrey).* I ever thought mj 
tutor had parts enough ; but, as his ambition made him 
much suspected of the College, so his grudge to Dr. 
Lawrence, the governor of it (whom he afterwards sup- 
planted), took up so much of his time, that he seldom or 
never had the opportunity to discharge his duty to his 
scholars. This I perceiving, associated myself with one 
Mr. James Thicknesse (then a young man of the foimda- 
tion, afterwards a Fellow of the house), by whose learned 
and friendly conversation I received great advantage. At 

* Rector of Ockham. 

10 DIAEY OF [oxford, 

ray first arrival, Dr. Parkhurst was Master ; and, after his 
decease. Dr. Lawrence, a chaplain of his Majesty's and 
Margaret Professor, succeeded, an acute and learned per- 
son; nor do I much reproach his severity, considering 
that the extraordinary remissness of discipHne had (till 
his coming) much detracted from the reputation of that 

There came in my time to the College one Nathaniel 
Conopios, out of Greece, from Cyrill, the patriarch of 
Constantinople, who, returning many years after, was made 
(as I understand) Bishop of Smyrna. He was the first 
I ever saw drink coffee ; which custom came not into 
England till thirty years after. 

After I was somewhat settled there in my formahties, 
(for then was the University exceedingly regular, under 
the exact discipline of William Laud, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, then Chancellor,) I added, as benefactor to the 
library of the College, these books, — "e<r dono Johannis 
Evelyni hujus Coll. Socio-Commensalis, filii Richardi 
Evelyni, e com. Surria, armig^." — 

Zanchii Opera, vols. 1, 2, 3. 

Granado in Thomarh Aquinatem, vols. 1, 2, 8. 

Novarini Electa Sacra, and Cresolii Anthologia Sacra; 
authors, it seems, much desired by the students of 
divinity there. 

Upon the 2nd of July, being the first Sunday of the 
month, I first received the blessed Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, in the college chapel, one Mr. Cooper, a Fellow 
of the house, preaching ; and at this time was the Church 
of England in her greatest splendour, all things decent, 
and becoming the Peace, and the persons that governed. 
The most of the following week I spent in visiting the 
Colleges, and several rarities of the University, which do 
yery much affect young comers. 

18th July. I accompanied my eldest brother, who 
then quitted Oxford, into the country ; and, on the 9th of 
August, went to visit my friends at Lewes, whence I re- 
turned the 12th to Wotton. On the 17th of September, 
I received the blessed Sacrament at Wotton church, and 
£8rd of October went back to Oxford. 

5th November. I received again the Holy Communion 
in our college chapel, one Prouse, a Fellow (but a mad 
one), preaching. 

1638.] JOHN EVELYN. H 

December 9th. I offered at my first exercise in the Hall, 
and answered my opponent ; and, upon the lltli following, 
declaimed in the chapel before the Master, Fellows, and 
Scholars, according to the custom. The 15th after, I first 
of all opposed in the Hall. 

Tlie Christmas ensuing, being at a Comedy which the 
gentlemen of Exeter College presented to the Univer- 
sity, and standing, for the better advantage of seeing, 
upon a table in the Hall, which was near to another, 
in the dark, being constrained by the extraordinary press 
to quit my station, in leaping down to save myself I 
dashed my right leg with such violence against the sharp 
edge of the other board, as gave me a hurt which held 
me in cure till almost Easter, and confined me to my 

1638. 22nd January. I would needs be admitted into 
the dancing and vaulting schools ; of which late activity 
one Stokes, the master, did afterwards set forth a pretty 
book, which was published, with many witty elogies 
before it.* 

February 4th. One Mr. Wariner preached in our 
chapel ; and, on the 25th, Mr. Wentworth, a kinsman ot 
the Earl of Strafford; after which followed the blessed 

April 13th. My father ordered that I should begin to 
manage my own expenses, which till then my tutor had 
done ; at which I was much satisfied. 

9 th July. I went home to visit my friends, and, on 
the 26th, with my brother and sister to Lewes, where 
we abode till the 31st ; and thence to one Mr. Michael's, 
of Houghton, near Arundel, where we were very well 
treated ; and, on the 2nd of August, to Portsmouth, and 
thence, having surveyed the fortifications (a great rarity 
in that blessed halcyon time in England), we passed 

* It having now become extremely scarce, the title of it is here given : 
" The Vaulting Master, or the Art of Vaulting ; reduced to a method com- 
prized under certain rules. Illustrated by examples, and now primarily 
set forth, by Will. Stokes. Printed for Richard Davis, in Oxon, 1665. 
A small oblong quarto, with the author's portrait prefixed, and a number of 
plates beautifully engraved, (most probably by Glover,) representing feats 
of activity on horseback, that appear extraordinary ones at this time of 
day. (From the communication of James Bindley, Esq., a gentleman whose 
collection of scarce and valuable books is perhaps hardly to be equalled.) 


into the Isle of Wight, to the house of my Lady Richards, 
in a place called Yaverland; but we returned the foUoAving 
day to Chichester, where, having viewed the city and fair 
cathedral, we returned home. 

About the beginning of September, I was so afflicted 
with a quartan ague, that I could by no means get rid of 
it till the December following. This was the fatal year 
wherein the rebellious Scots opposed the King, upon the 
pretence of the introduction of some new ceremonies 
and the Book of Common Prayer, and madly began our 
confusions, and their own destruction, too, as it proved in 

January 14th, 1639. I came back to Oxford, after my 
tedious indisposition, and to the infinite loss of my time ; 
and now I began to look upon the rudiments of music, 
in which I afterwards arrived to some formal knowledge, 
though to small perfection of hand, because I was so 
frequently diverted with inclinations to newer trifles. 

20th May. Accompanied with one Mr. J. Crafi'ord 
(who afterwards being my fellow-traveller in Italy, there 
changed his religion), I took a journey of pleasure to see 
the Somersetshire baths, Bristol, Cirencester, Malmesbury, 
Abingdon, and divers other towns of lesser note; and 
returned the 25th. 

8th October. I went back to Oxford. 

14th December. According to injunctions from the 
Heads of Colleges, I went (amongst the rest) to the 
Confirmation in St. Mary's, where, after sermon, the 
Bishop of Oxford laid his hands upon us, with the usual 
form of benediction prescribed : but this, received (I fear) 
for the more part out of curiosity, rather than with that 
due preparation and advice which had been requisite, 
could not be so effectual as otherwise that admirable and 
useful institution might have been, and as I have since 
deplored it. 

1640, January 21st. Came my brother, Richard, from 
school, to be my chamber-fellow at the University. He 
was admitted the next day, and matriculated the 31st. 

11th April. I went to London to see the solemnity of 
his Majesty's riding through the city in state to the short 
Parliament, which began the 13th following, — a very 
glorious and magnificent sight, the King circled with his 

1640.] JOHN EVELYN. 1'3 

royal diadem and the affections of his people; but the day 
after I returned to Wotton again, where I stayed, my 
father's indisposition suffering great intervals, till April 
27 th, when I was sent to London to be first resident at 
the Middle Temple ; so as my being at the University, in 
regard of these avocations, was of very small benefit to 
me. Upon May the 5th following, was the Parliament 
unhappily dissolved; and, on the 20th, I returned with 
my brother, George, to Wotton, who, on the 28th of the 
same month, was married at Albury to Mrs. Caldwell 
(an heiress of an ancient Leicestershire family*), where 
part of the nuptials was celebrated. 

10th June. I repaired with my brother to the Term, to 
go into our new lodgings (that were formerly in Essex- 
court), being a very handsome apartment just over 
against the Hall-court, but four pair of stairs high, 
which gave us the advantage of the fairer prospect; but 
did not much contribute to the love of that impolished 
study, to which (I suppose) my father had designed 
me, when he paid 145/. to purchase our present hves, 
and assignments afterwards. 

London, and especially the Court, were at this period in 
frequent disorders, and great insolences were committed 
by the abused and too happy City; in particular, the 
Bishop of Canterbury's Palace at Lambeth was assaulted 
by a rude rabble from South wark, my Lord Chamber- 
lain imprisoned, and many scandalous libels and invec- 
tives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of 
Government, and the fermentation of our since distrac- 
tions : so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to 
Wotton, and the 27 th after, my father's indisposition 
augmenting, by advice of the physicians, he repaired to 

7th July. My brother George and I, understanding the 
peril my father was in upon a sudden attack of his in- 
firmity, rode post from Guildford towards him, and found 
him extraordinary weak ; yet so as that, continuing his 
course, he held out till the 8th of September, when I 
returned home with him in his litter. 

• A daughter of Daniel Caldwell, Esq., by Mary, daughter of George 
Duncomb, Esq., of Albury. She died 15th May, 1644, and he afterwards 
married the widow of Sir John Cotton. 

14 DIARY OP [lokdok, 

15th October. I went to the Temple, it being Mi- 
chaelmas Term.* 

30tli. I saw his Majesty (coming from his northern 
expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all 
the marks of a happy peace, restored to the affections 
of his people, being conducted through London with a 
most splendid cavalcade ; and, on the 3rd November 
following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), 
to that long ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the 
beginning of all our sorrows for twenty years after, and 
the period of the most happy monai'ch in the world i 
Quis taliafando ! f 

But my father being by this time entered into a dropsy, 
an indisposition the most unsuspected, being a person so 
exemplarily temperate, and of admirable regimen, hastened 
me back to Wotton, December the 12th ; where, the 24th 
following, between twelve and one o'clock at noon, departed 
this life that excellent man and indulgent parent, retain- 
ing his senses and piety to the last, which he most tenderly 
expressed in blessing us, whom he nx)W left to the world 
and the worst of times, whilst he was taken from the evil 
to come. 

1641. It was a sad and lugubrious beginning of the 
year, when, on the 2nd of January, 1640-1, we at night 
followed the mourning hearse to the church at Wotton; 
when, after a sermon and funeral oration by the minister, 
my father was interred near his formerly erected monu- 
ment, and mingled with the ashes of our mother, his dear 
wife. Thus we were bereft of both our parents in a 
period when we most of all stood in need of their counsel 
and assistance, especially myself, of a raw, vain, uncertain, 
and very unwary inclination; but so it pleased God to 
make trial of my conduct in a conjuncture of the greatest 
and most prodigious hazard that ever the youth of England 
saw ; and, if I did not amidst all this impeach my liberty 
nor my virtue with the rest who made shipwreck of both, 
it was more the infinite goodness and mercy of God than 
the least providence or discretion of mine own, who now 

* Tlie Term then bej^an in October. 

f Notwithstanding this expression, it will afterwards appear, that Mr. 
Evelyn by no means approved of arbitrary, or tyrannical measures. 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. 15 

thought of nothing but the pursuit of vanity, and the 
confused imaginations of young men. 

15th. I repaired to London to hear and see the famous 
trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland, who, 
on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both 
Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster- 
hall, which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and 
Commons, who, together with the King, Queen, Prince, 
and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of 
the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever 
met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas 
Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, 
who was made High Steward upon this occasion ; and the 
sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event. 

On the 27th, came over out of Holland the young 
Prince of Orange, with a splendid equipage, to make love 
to his Majesty's eldest daughter, the now Princess Royal. 

That evening, was celebrated the pompous funeral of 
the Duke of Richmond, who was carried in efi&gy, with all 
the ensigns of that illustrious family, in an open chariot, 
in great solemnity, through London to Westminster 

On the 12th of May, I beheld on Tower-hill the fatal 
stroke which severed the wisest head in England from the 
shoulders of the Earl of Strafford, whose crime coming 
under the cognizance of no human law, or statute, a new 
one was made, not to be a precedent, but his destruction. 
With what reluctancy the King signed the execution, 
he has sufficiently expressed; to which he imputes his 
own unjust suffering — to such exorbitancy were things 

On the 24th, I returned to Wotton ; and, on the 28th of 
June, I went to London with my sister Jane, and the day 
after sat to one Vanderborcht for my picture in oil, at 
Arundel-house, whose servant that excellent painter was, 
brought out of Germany when the Earl returned from 
Vienna (whither he was sent Ambassador-extraordinary, 
with great pomp and charge, though without any effect, 
through the artifice of the Jesuited Spaniard, who governed 
all in that conjuncture). With Vanderborcht, the painter, 
he brought over Winceslaus Hollar, the sculptor, who 
engraved not only this unhappy Deputy's trial in West- 


minster-liall, but his decapitation ; as he did several other 
historical things, then relating to the accidents happening 
during the Rebellion in England, with great skill, besides 
many cities, towns, and landscapes, not only of this nation, 
but of foreign parts, and divers portraits of famous persons 
then in being; and things designed from the best pieces 
of the rare paintings and masters of which the Earl of 
Arundel was possessor, purchased and collected in his 
travels with incredible expense; so as, though Hollar's 
were but etched in aqua-fortis, I account the collection to 
be the most authentic and useful extant. Hollar was the 
son of a gentleman near Prague, in Bohemia, and my very 
good friend, perverted at last by the Jesuits at Antwerp to 
change his religion ; a very honest, simple, well-meaning 
man, who at last came over again into England, where he 
died. We have the whole history of the king^s reign, from 
his trial in Westminster-hall and before, to the restoration 
of King Charles II., represented in several sculptures, 
with that also of Archbishop Laud, by this indefatigable 
artist, besides innumerable sculptures in the works of 
Dugdale, Ashmole, and other historical and useful works. 
I am the more particular upon this for the fruit of that 
collection, which I wish I had entire. 

This picture* I presented to my sister, being at her 
request, on my resolution to absent myself from this ill 
face of things at home, which gave umbrage to wiser 
than myself, that the medal was reversing, and our cala- 
mities but yet in their infancy; so that, on the 15th 
of July, having procured a pass at the Custom-house, 
where I repeated my oath of allegiance, I went from 
London to Gravesend, accompanied with one Mr. Caryll, 
a Surrey gentleman, and our servants, where we arrived 
by six o'clock that evening, with a purpose to take the 
first opportunity of a passage for Holland. But the 
wind as yet not favourable, we had time to \iew the 
Block-house of that town, which answered to another 
over against it at Tilbury, famous for the rendezvous 
of Queen Ehzabeth, in the year 1588, which we found 
stored with twenty pieces of cannon, and other ammuni- 
tion proportionable. On the 19th, we made a short excur- 
sion to Rochester, and having seen the cathedral, went 

• Hb own portrait. 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. J 7 

•to Chatham to see the Royal Sovereign, a glorious vessel 
of burden lately built there, being for defence and orna- 
ment, the richest that ever spread cloth before the wind.* 
She carried an hundred brass cannon, and was 1200 tons; 
a rare sailer, the work of the famous Phineas Pett, in- 
ventor of the frigate-fashion of building, to this day 
practised. But what is to be deplored as to this vessel is, 
that it cost his Majesty the affections of his subjects, 
perverted by the malcontent great ones, who took occasion 
to quarrel for his having raised a very slight tax for the 
building of this, and equipping the rest of the navy with- 
out an act of Parhament ; though, by the suffrages of the 
major part of the Judges, the King might legally do in 
times of imminent danger, of which his Majesty was best 
apprised. But this not satisfying a jealous party, it was 
condemned as unprecedential, and not justifiable as to the 
Royal prerogative; and, accordingly, the Judges were 
removed out of their places, fined, and imprisoned. 

We returned again this evening, and on the 21st em- 
barked in a Dutch frigate, bound for Flushing, convoyed 
and accompanied by five other stout vessels, whereof one 
was a man-of-war. The next day, at noon, we landed at 

Being desirous to overtake the Leagure,t which was 
then before Genep,J ere the summer should be too far 
spent, we went this evening from Flushing to Middleburg, 
another fine town in this island, to De Vere, whence the 
most ancient and illustrious Earls of Oxford derive their 
family, who have spent so much blood in assisting the 
state during their wars. From De Vere we passed over 
many towns, houses, and ruins of demolished suburbs, &c., 
which have formerly been swallowed up by the sea; at 
what time no less than eight of those islands had been 
irrecoverably lost. 

• Accidentally burnt at Chatham, in 1696. 

+ Mr. Evelyn means by this expression, to be in time to witness the 
siege, &c. 

J On the Waal, — a place which, having been greatly strengthened by the 
Cardinal Infante D. Fernando, in 1635, was at this time besieged by the 
French and Dutch, There is a full account of the siege in the great work 
of Aitzema, a man who with extraordinary patience compiled materials 
for the history of the United Provinces, during the greater part of the 
seventeenth century. One of his brothers was mortally wounded at this siege. 

VOL. I. C 


The next day, we arrived at Dort, the first to\ni of 
Holland, furnished with all German commodities, and 
especially Rhenish wines and timber. It hath almost at 
the extremity a very spacious and venerable church ; a 
stately senate-house, wherein was holden that famous 
synod against the Arminians in 1618, and in that hall 
hangeth a picture of The Passion, an exceeding rare and 
much-esteemed piece. 

From Dort, being desirous to hasten towards the army, 
I took waggon this afternoon to Rotterdam, whither we 
were hurried in less than an hour, though it be ten miles 
distant ; so furiously do these foremen drive. I went first 
to visit the great church, the Doole, the Bourse, and the 
public statue of the learned Erasmus, of brass. They 
showed us his house, or rather the mean cottage, wherein 
he was bom, over which there are extant these lines, in 
capital letters : 


The 26th, I passed by a straight and commodious river 
through Delft to the Hague ; in which journey I observed 
divers leprous poor creatures dwelling in sohtary huts on 
the brink of the water, and permitted to ask the charity 
of passengers, which is conveyed to them in a floating box 
that they cast out. 

Arrived at the Hague, I went first to the Queen of 
Bohemia's Court, where I had the honour to kiss her 
Majesty's hand, and several of the Princesses' her daugh- 
ters. Prince Maurice was also there, newly come out of 
Germany, and my Lord Pinch, not long before fled out 
of England from the fury of the Parliament. It was a 
fasting-day with the Queen for the unfortunate death of 
her husband, and the presence-chamber had been hung 
with black velvet ever since his decease. 

The 28th I went to Leyden ; and the 29th to Utredit, 
being thirty Enghsh miles distant, (as they reckon by 
hours). It was now Kermas, or a fair, in this town, the 
streets swarming with boors and rudeness, so that early 
the next morning, having visited the ancient Bishop's 
court, and the two famous churches, I satisfied my curiosity 
till my return, and better leism-e. We then came to 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. . 1X9 

Hynen, where the Queen of Bohemia hath a neat and 
•well-built palace^ or country-house, after the Itahan man- 
ner, as I remember; and so, crossing the Rhine, upon 
•which this •villa is situated, lodged that night in a coun- 
tryman's house. The 31st to Nimeguen: and on the 
2nd of August we arrived at the Leagure, where was then 
the whole army encamped about Genep, a very strong 
castle situated on the river Waal ; but, being taken four 
or five days before, -we had only a sight of the demolitions. 
The next Sunday •was the thanksgiving sermons per- 
formed in Colonel Goring's regiment (eldest son of the since 
Earl of Norwich) by Mr. Goffe, his chaplain (now turned 
Roman, and father-confessor to the Queen-mother). The 
evening was spent in firing cannon, and other expressions 
of mihtary triumphs. 

Now, according to the compliment, I was received a 
volunteer in the company of Captain Apsley, of whose 
Captain-lieutenant, Honywood, (Apsley being absent,) T 
received many civilities. 

8rd August, at night, we rode about the lines of circum- 
vallation, the general being then in the field. The next 
day, I was accommodated with a very spacious and com- 
modious tent for my lodging, as before I was with a horse, 
which I had at command, and a hut, which during the 
excessive heats was a great convenience ; for the sun 
piercing the canvass of the tent, it was during the day 
tmsufferable, and at night not seldom infested with mists 
and fog, which ascended from the river. 

6th — . As the turn came about, we were ordered 
to watch on a horn- work near our quarters, and trail a 
pike, being the next morning reheved by a company of 
French. This was our continual duty till the castle was 
re-fortified, and all danger of quitting that station secured; 
whence I went to see a Convent of Franciscan Friars, not 
far from our quarters, where we found both the chapel and 
refectory full, crowded with the goods of such poor people 
as at the approach of the army had fled with them thither 
for sanctuary. On the day following, I went to view all 
the trenches, approaches, and mines of the besiegers ; and, 
in particular, I took special notice of the wheel-bridge, 
which engine his Excellency had made to run over the 
moat when they stormed the castle, as it is since described 



(with all the other particulars of this siege) by the author 
of " Hollandia Illustrata." The walls and ramparts of 
earth, which a mine had broken and crumbled, were of 
prodigious thickness. 

Upon the 8th, I dined in the horse-quarters with Sir 
Robert Stone and his lady, Sir William Stradling, antl 
divers cavaUers, where there was very good cheer, but hot 
service for a young drinker, as then I was ; so that being 
pretty well satisfied with the confusion of armies and 
sieges (if such that of the United Pro^dnces may be called, 
where their quarters and encampments are so admirably 
regular, and orders so exactly observed, as few cities, the 
best governed in time of peace, exceed it for all con- 
veniences), I took my leave of the Leagure and Camerades; 
and, on the 12th of August, I embarked on the Waal, in 
company with three grave divines, who entertained us a 
great part of our passage with a long dispute concerning 
the lawfulness of church-music. We now sailed by Teil,. 
where we landed some of our freight, and about five 
o'clock we touched at a pretty town named Bommell, that 
had divers English in garrison. It stands upon Contribu- 
tion-land, which subjects the environs to the Spanish 
incursions. We sailed also by an exceeding strong fort 
called Lovestein,* famous for the escape of the learned 
Hugo Grotius, who, being in durance as a capital offender, 
as was the unhappy Barneveldt, by the stratagem of his 
lady, was conveyed in a trunk supposed to be filled vnth 
books only. We lay at Gorcum, a very strong and con- 
siderable frontier. 

13th. We arrived late at Rotterdam, where was their 
annual mart or fair, so furnished with pictures, (especially 
landscapes and drolleries, as they call those clownish repre- 
sentations,) that I was amazed. Some of these I bought, 
and sent into England. The reason of this store of pictures, 
and their cheapness, proceeds from their want of land to 
employ their stock, so that it is an ordinary thing to find 
a common farmer lay out two or three thousand pounds 
in this commodity. Their houses are full of them, and 
they vend them at their fairs to very great gains. Here I 
first saw an elephant, who was extremely well disciplined 
and obedient. It was a beast of a monstrous size, yet as 

* The appellation of a well-known party in Holland. 

i641.] JO&N EVELYN. 21 

flexible and nimble in the joints, contrary to the vulgar 
tradition, as could be imagined from so prodigious a bulk 
and strange fabric; but I most of all admired the dexterity 
and strength of its proboscis, on which it was able to sup- 
port two or three men, and by which it took and reached 
whatever was offered to it ; its teeth were but short, being 
a female, and not old. I was also shown a pehcan, or ono- 
cratulas of Pliny,with its large gullets, in which he kept his 
reserve of fish : the plumage was white, legs red, flat, and 
film-footed : likewise a cock with four legs, two rumps 
and vents ; also a hen which had two large spurs growing 
out of her sides, penetrating the feathers of her wings. 

17th — . I passed again through Delft, and visited 
the church in which was the monument of Prince William 
of Nassau, — the first of the Williams, and saviour (as they 
call him) of their liberty, which cost him his life by a 
vile assassination. It is a piece of rare art, consisting of 
several figures, as big as the life, in copper. There is in the 
same place a magnificent tomb of his son and successor, 
Maurice. The Senate-house hath a very stately portico, 
supported with choice columns of black marble, as I 
remember, of one entire stone. Within, there hangs a 
weighty vessel of wood, not unlike a butter-churn, which 
the adventurous woman that hath two husbands at one 
time is to wear on her shoulders, her head peeping out at 
the top only, and so led about the town, as a penance for 
her incontinence. From hence, we went the next day to 
Itvswick, a stately country-house of the Prince of Orange, 
for nothing more remarkable than the delicious walks 
planted with lime trees, and the modern paintings within. 

19th — . We returned to the Hague, and went to 
visit the Hoff, or Prince's Court, with the adjoining 
gardens full of ornament, close walks, statues, marbles, 
grots, fountains, and artificial music* There is to this 
palace a stately hall, not much inferior to ours of West- 
minster, hung round with colours and other trophies taken 
from the Spaniards; and the sides below are furnished 
with shops.f Next day (the 20th) I returned to Delft, 
thence to Rotterdam, the Hague, and Leyden, where 

* As at Enstone, in Oxfordshire ; see afterwards. 

+ Westminster-hall used to be so in Term-time, and the sittLag of Par- 
liament, in the beginning of the reign of George III. 


immediately I mounted a waggon, which that night, late 
as it was, brought us to Haerlem. About seven in the 
morning, after I came to Amsterdam, where being pro- 
vided with a lodging, the first thing I went to see was a 
Synagogue of the Jews (being Saturday), whose ceremo- 
nies, ornaments, lamps, law, and schools, afforded matter 
for my contemplation. The women were secluded from, 
the men, being seated in galleries above, shut with lattices, 
having their heads muffled with linen, after a fantastical 
and somewhat extraordinary fashion ; the men, wearing a 
large calico mantle, yellow coloured, over their hats, all 
the while waving their bodies, whilst at their devotions.. 
From thence, I went to a place without the town, called 
Overkirk, where they have a spacious field assigned them- 
to bury their dead, full of sepulchres with Hebraic inscrip- 
tions, some of them stately and costly. Looking through 
one of these monuments, where the stones were disjointed, 
I perceived divers books and papers lie about a corpse; for 
it seems, when any learned Rabbi dies, they bury some of 
his books with him. With the help of a stick, I raked out 
several, written in Hebrew characters, but much impaired. 
As we returned, we stepped in to see the Spin-house, a 
kind of bridewell, where incorrigible and lewd women are 
kept in discipHne and labour, but all neat. We were 
showed an hospital for poor travellers and pilgrims, built 
by Queen Elizabeth of England ; and another maintained 
by the city. 

The State or Senate-house of this town, if the design be 
perfected, will be one of the most costly and magnificent 
pieces of architecture in Europe, especially for the materials 
and the carvings. In the Doole is painted, on a very large 
table, the bust of Marie de Medicis, supported by four royal, 
diadems, the work of one Vanderdall, who hath set his name 
thereon, 1st September, 1638. 

On Sunday, I heard an English sermon at the Presby- 
terian congregation, where they had chalked upon a slate 
the psalms that were to be sung, so that all the congre- 
gation might see it without the bidding of a clerk. I was. 
told, that after such an age no minister was permitted to 
preach, but had his maintenance continued during life. 

I purposely changed my lodgings, being desirous to 
converse with the sectaries that swarmed in this city, out 

1641.] • JOHN EVELYN. 23 

of whose spawn came those almost innumerable broods in 
England afterwards. It was at a Brownist^s house, where 
we had an extraordinary good table. There was in pension 
with us my Lord Keeper, Finch, and one Sir J. Fotherbee. 
Here I also found an English Carmelite, who was going 
through Germany with an Irish gentleman. I now went 
to see the Weese-house, a foundation like our Charter- 
house, for the education of decayed persons, orphans, and 
poor children, where they are taught several occupations. 
The girls are so well brought up to housewifery, that men 
of good worth, who seek that chiefly in a woman, fre- 
quently take their wives from this hospital. Thence to the 
Hasp-house, where the lusty knaves are compelled to work; 
and the rasping of brasil and logwood for the dyers is very 
hard labour. To the Dool-house, for madmen and fools. 
But none did I so much admire, as an hospital for their 
lame and decrepit soldiers and seamen, where the accom- 
modations are very great, the building answerable; and, 
indeed, for the like public charities the provisions are 
admirable in this country, where, as no idle vagabonds are 
suffered (as in England they are), there is hardly a child 
of four or five years old, but they find some employment 
for it. 

It was on a Sunday morning that I went to the Bourse, 
or Exchange, after their sermons were ended, to see the 
Dog-market, which lasts till two in the afternoon, in this 
place of convention of merchants from all parts of the 
world : the building is not comparable to that of London, 
bmlt by that worthy citizen, Sir Thomas Gresham, yet in 
one respect exceeding it, that vessels of considerable bur- 
then ride at the very quay contiguous to it ; and indeed it 
is by extraordinary industry that as well this city as gene- 
rally all the towns of Holland, are so accommodated with 
graffs, cuts, sluices, moles, and rivers, made by hand, that 
nothing is more frequent, than to see a whole navy, 
belonging to this mercantile people, riding at anchor 
before their very doors; and yet their streets even, straight, 
and well paved, the houses so uniform and planted with 
lime trees, as nothing can be more beautiful. 

The next day, we were entertained at a kind of tavern, 
called the Briloft, appertaining to a rich Anabaptist, where, 
in the upper rooms of the house, were divers pretty wateiv 


■works, rising 108 feet from the ground. Here were many 
quaint devices, fountains, artificial music, noises of beasts, 
and chirping of birds ; but what pleased me most was a 
large pendant candlestick, branching into several sockets, 
furnished all with ordinary candles to appearance, out of 
the wicks spouting out streams of water, instead of flames. 
This seemed then and was a rarity, before the philosophy 
of compressed air made it intelligible. There was like- 
wise a cylinder that entertained the company with a 
variety of chimes, the hammers striking upon the brims of 
porcelain dishes, suited to the tones and notes, without 
cracking any of them. Many other water-works were 

The Keiser^s, or Emperor's Graft, which is an ample 
and long street, appearing like a city in a forest ; the lime 
trees planted just before each house, and at the margin of 
that goodly aqueduct so curiously wharfed with Klincard 
brick, which likewise paves the streets, than which nothing 
can be more useful and neat. This part of Amsterdam is 
built and gained upon the main sea, supported by piles at 
an immense charge, and fitted for the most busy concourse 
of traffickers and people of commerce beyond any place, or 
mart, in the world. Nor must I forget the port of entrance 
into and issue of this town, composed of very magnificent 
pieces of architecture, some of the ancient and best man- 
ner ; as are divers churches. 

The turrets, or steeples, are adorned after a particular 
manner and invention ; the chimes of bells are so rarely 
managed, that being curious to know whether the motion 
was from any engine, I went up to that of St. Nicholas, 
where I found one who played all sorts of compositions 
from the tablature before him, as if he had fingered an 
organ; for so were the hammers fastened with wires to 
several keys put into a frame twenty feet below the bells, 
upon which (by help of a wooden instrument, not much 
unlike a weaver's shuttle, that guarded his hand) he struck 
on the keys and played to admiration: all this while, 
through the clattering of the wires, din of the too nearly 
sounding bells, and noise that his wooden gloves made, the 
confusion was so great, that it was impossible for the 
musician, or any that stood near him, to hear any thing 
himself; yet, to those at a distance, and especially in the 

1«41.] ' JOHN EVELYN. £5 

streets^ the harmony and the time were the most exact and 

The south church is richly paved with black and white 
marble, — the west is a new fabric ; and generally all the 
churches in Holland are furnished with organs, lamps, and 
monuments, carefully preserved from the fury and impiety 
of popular reformers, whose zeal has foolishly transpoi'ted 
them in other places rather to act like madmen than 

Upon St. Bartholomew's day, I went amongst the book- 
sellers, and visited the famous Hondius and Bleaw's shop, 
to buy some maps, atlases, and other works of that kind. 
At another shop, I furnished myself with some shells and 
Indian curiosities ; and so, towards the end of August, I 
returned again to Haerlem by the river, ten miles in 
length, straight as a line, and of competent breadth for 
ships to sail by one another. They showed us a cottage 
where, they told us, dwelt a woman who had been married 
to her twenty-fifth husband, and being now a widow, was 
prohibited to marry in future ; yet it could not be proved 
that she had ever made away with any of her husbands, 
though the suspicion had brought her divers times to 

Haerlem is a very delicate town, and hath one of the 
faii'est churches of the Gothic design I had ever seen. 
There hang in the steeple, which is very high, two silver 
bells, said to have been brought from Damietta, in 'Egypt, 
by an Earl of Holland, in memory of whose success they 
are rung out every evening. In the nave, hang the 
goodliest branches of brass for tapers that I have seen, 
esteemed of great value for the curiosity of the work- 
manship ; also a fair pair of organs, which I could not 
find they made use of in diviae service, or so much as to 
assist them in singing psalms, but only for show, and 
to recreate the people before and after their devotions, 
whilst the burgomasters were walking and conferring 
about their affairs. Near the west window hang two 
models of ships, completely equipped, in memory of that 
invention of saws under their keels, with which they cut 
through the chain of booms, which barred the port of 
Damietta. Having visited this church, the fish-market, 
and made some inquiry about the printing-house, the 

26 DIARY OF [leydek, 

invention whereof is said to liave been in this town, I 
returned to Ley den. 

At Leyden, I was carried up to the castle, or Pyrgus, 
built on a very steep artificial mount, cast up (as reported) 
by Hengist the Saxon, on his return out of England,, 
as a place to retire to, in case of any sudden inundations. 

The churches are many and fair; in one of them lies 
buried the learned and illustrious Joseph Scaliger, with- 
out any extraordinary inscription, who, having left the 
world a monument of his worth more lasting than mar- 
ble, needed nothing more than his own name; wliich I 
think is all engraven on his sepulchre. He left his libraiy 
to this University. 

28th . I went to see the college and schools, 

which are nothing extraordinary, and was complimented 
with a matricula by the maynificus Professor, who first in 
Latin demanded of me where my lodging in the town was, 
my name, age, birth, and to what Faculty I addicted myself; 
then, recording my answers in a book, he administered an 
oath to me that I should observe the statutes and orders 
of the University whilst I stayed, and then delivered me 
a ticket, by virtue whereof I was made excise-free; for 
all which worthy privileges, and the pains of writing, he 
accepted of a rix-dollar. 

Here was now the famous Dan. Heinsius, whom I so 
longed to see, as well as the no less famous printer, 
Elzevir^s printing-house and shop, renowned for the 
pohteness of the character and editions of what he has 
published through Europe. Hence to the physic-garden, 
well stored with exotic plants, if the catalogue presented 
to me by the gardener be a faithful register. 

But, amongst all the rarities of this place, I was much 
pleased with a sight of their anatomy-school, theatre, and 
repository adjoining, which is well furnished with natural 
curiosities ; skeletons from the whale and elephant to the 
fly and spider, which last is a very delicate piece of art; 
to see how the bones (if I may so call them of so tender 
an insect) could be separated from the mucilaginous parts 
of that minute animal. Amongst a great variety of other 
things, I was shown the knife newly taken out pf a 
jlrunken Dutchman's guts, by an incision in his side, after 
it had slipped from his fingers into his stomach. The 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. 27 

pictures of the chirurgeon and his patient, both Hving, 
were there. 

There is without the town a fair Mall, curiously planted. 

K/eturning to my lodging, I was shewed the statue, cut 
in stone, of the happy monk, whom they report to have 
been the first inventor of typography, set over the door; 
but this is much controverted by others who strive for 
the glory of it, besides John Guttemburgh. 

I was brought acquainted with a Burgundian Jew, who 
had married an apostate Kentish woman. I asked him. 
divers questions; he told me, amongst other things, that 
the World should never end, that our souls transmigrated, 
and that even those of the most holy persons did penance 
in the bodies of brutes after death, — and so he interpreted 
the banishment and savage life of Nebuchadnezzar ; that 
all the Jews should rise again, and be led to Jerusalem ; 
that the Romans only were the occasion of our Saviour^s 
death, whom he affirmed (as the Turks do) to be a great 
prophet, but not the Messiah. He shewed me several 
books of their devotion, which he had translated into 
English, for the instruction of his wife; he told me that 
when the Messiah came, all the ships, barks, and vessels 
of Holland should, by the power of certain strange whirl- 
winds, be loosed from their anchors, and transported in a 
moment to all the desolate ports and havens throughout 
the world, wherever the dispersion was, to convey their 
brethren and tribes to the Holy City; with other such 
like stuff. He was a merry drunken fellow, but would by 
no means handle any money (for something I purchased 
of him), it being Saturday ; but desired me to leave it in 
the window, meaning to receive it on Sunday morning. 

1st September. I went to Delft and Rotterdam, and 
two days after back to the Hague, to bespeak a suit of 
horseman's armour, which I caused to be made to fit me. 
I now rode out of town to see the monument of the woman, 
pretended to have been a Countess of Holland, reported 
to have had as many children at one birth, as there are 
days in the year. The basins were hung up in which they 
were baptized, together with a large description of the 
matter-of-fact in a frame of carved work, in the church of 
Lysdun, a desolate place. As I returned, I diverted to 
see one of the prince's Palaces, called the Hoff Van 

2%' DIARY OF [dort, 

Hounslers Dyck, a very fair cloistered and quadrangular 
building. The gallery is prettily painted with several 
huntings^ and at one end a Gordian knot, with rustical 
instruments so artificially represented, as to deceive an 
accurate eye to distinguish it from actual rehevo. The 
ceiling of the staircase is painted with the Rape of Gany- 
mede, and other pendent figures, the work of F. Coven- 
berg, of whose hand I bought an excellent drollery, which 
I afterwards parted with to my brother George of Wotton, 
where it now hangs.* To this palace join a fair garden 
and park, curiously planted with limes. 

8th. Returned to Rotterdam, through Delftshaven and 
Sedan, -where were at that time Colonel Goring's winter- 
quarters. This town has heretofore been very much 
talked of for witches. 

10th. I took waggon for Dort, to be present at the re- 
ception of the Queen-mother, Marie de Medicis, Dowager 
of France, widow of Henry the Great, and mother to the 
French King, Louis XIII. and the Queen of England, 
whence she newly arrived, tossed to and fro by the various 
fortune of her life. From this city, she designed for 
Cologne, conducted by the Earl of Arundel and the Herr 
Van Bredrod. At this interview, I saw the Princess of 
Orange, and the lady her daughter, afterwards married to 
the House of Brandenburgh. There was Httle remarkable 
in this reception befitting the greatness of her person; 
but an universal discontent, which accompanied that 
unlucky woman wherever she went. 

12th. I went towards Bois-le-Duc, where we arrived on 
the 16th, at the time when the new citadel was advancing 
with innumerable hands, and incomparable inventions for 
draining off the waters out of the fens and morasses about 
it, being by buckets, mills, cochleas, pumps, and the like ; 
in which the Hollanders are the most expert in Europe. 
Here were now sixteen companies and nine troops of 
horse. They were also cutting a new river, to pass from 
the town to a castle not far from it. Here we split our 
skiff, falling foul upon another through negligence of the 
master, who was fain to run aground, to our no little 
hazard. At our arrival, a soldier conveyed us to the 

* It is still there. .It ),> -vr., , ,> 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. :^9 

Governor, where our names were taken, and our persons 
examined very strictly. 

17th. I was permitted to walk the roimd and view the 
works, and to visit a convent of religious women of the 
order of St. Clara, who by the capitulation were allowed 
to enjoy their monastery and maintenance undisturbed, at 
the surrender of the town twelve years since, where we 
had a collation and very civil entertainment. They had 
a neat chapel, in which the heart of the Duke of Cleves, 
their founder, lies inhumed under a plate of brass. 
Within the cloister is a garden, and in the middle of it 
an overgrown lime-tree, out of whose stem, near the 
root, issue five upright and exceeding tall suckers, or 
bolls, the hke whereof for evenness and height I had not 

The chief church of this city is curiously carved within 
and without, furnished with a pair of organs, and a most 
magnificent font of copper. 

18th. I went to see that most impregnable town and 
fort of Hysdune, where I was exceedingly obliged to one 
Colonel Crombe, the Keutenant-govemor, who would needs 
make me accept the honour of being captain of the watch, 
and to give the word this night. The fortification is very 
irregular, but esteemed one of the most considerable for 
strength and situation in the Netherlands. We departed 
towards Gorcum. Here Sir Kenelm Digby, travelling 
towards Cologne, met us. 

The next morning, the 19th, we arrived at Dort, passing 
by the Decoys, where they catch innumerable quantities 
of fowl. , 

22nd. I went again to Rotterdam to receive a pass 
which I expected from Brussels, secirring me through 
Brabant and Flanders, designing to go into England 
through those countries. The Cardinal Infante, brother 
to the king of Spain, was then governor. By this pass, 
having obtained another from the Prince of Orange, upon 
the 24;th of September I departed through Dort ; but met 
with very bad tempestuous weather, being several times 
driven back, and obliged to lie at anchor off Keele, other 
vessels lying there waiting better weather. The 25th and 
26th we made other essays ; but were again repulsed to the 
harbpw, whei^e lay ^jL&ty vessels waiting to sail.^But, on 

i^ DIARY OP [bergen-op-zoom, 

the 27th we, impatient of the time and inhospitableness of 
the place, sailed again with a contrary and impetuous wind 
and a terrible sea, in great jeopardy ; for we had much 
ado to keep ourselves above water, the billows breaking 
desperately on our vessel : we were driven into William- 
stadt, a place garrisoned by the English, where the Go- 
vernor had a fair house. The works, and especially the 
counterscarp, are curiously hedged with quick, and planted 
with a stately row of limes on the rampart. The church 
is of a round structure, with a cupola, and the town 
belongs entirely to the Prince of Orange, as does that of 
Breda, and some other places. 

28th. Failing of an appointment, I was constrained to 
return to Dort for a bill of exchange ; but it was the 1st 
of October ere I could get back. At Keele, I numbered 
141 vessels, who durst not yet venture out ; but, animated 
by the master of a stout barque, after a small encounter 
of weather, we arrived by four that evening at Steen- 
bergen. In the passage we sailed over a sea called the 
Plaats, an exceeding dangerous water, by reason of two 
contrary tides which meet there very impetuously. 
Here, because of the many shelves, we were forced to 
tide it along the Channel ; but, ere we could gain the 
place, the ebb was so far spent, that we were compelled 
to foot it at least two long miles, through a most pelting 
shower of rain. 

2nd October. With a gentleman of the Rhyngraves, 
I went in a cart, or tumbrel (for it was no better ; no other 
accommodation could be procured) of two wheels and 
one horse, to Bergen-op-Zoona, meeting by the way divers 
parties of his Highness's army now retiring towards their 
winter quarters ; the convoy skiffs riding by thousands 
along the harbour. The fort was heretofore built by the 

The next morning, I embarked for LUlo, having refused 
a eoHToy of horse which was offered me. The tide being 
against us, we landed short of the fort on the beach, where 
we marched half leg deep in mud, ere we could gain the 
dyke, which being five or six miles from Lillo, we were 
forced to walk on foot very wet and discomposed ; and 
then entering a boat we passed the ferry, and came to 
the castle. Being taken before the Governor, he demanded 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. 31 

my pass, to which he set his hand, and asked t\ro rix- 
dollars for a fee, which methought appeared very exorbi- 
tant in a soldier of his quality. I told him that I had 
already purchased my pass of the commissaries at Rotter- 
dam ; at which, in a great fury, snatching the paper out of my 
hand, he flung it scornfully under the table, and bade me 
try whether I coiild get to Antwerp without his permis- 
sion ; but, I had no sooner given him the dollars, than he 
returned the passport surlily enough, and made me pay 
fourteen Dutch shillings to the cantone, or searcher, 
for my contempt, which I was glad to do for fear of fur- 
ther trouble, should he have discovered my Spanish pass, 
in which the States were therein treated by the name of 
rebels. Besides all these exactions, I gave the commissary 
six shillings, to the soldiers something, and, ere perfectly 
clear of this frontier, thirty-one stivers to the man-of-war, 
who lay blocking up the river betwixt Lillo and the 
opposite sconce called Lifkinshoeck. 

4th. We sailed by several Spanish forts, out of one of 
•which, St. Mary^s port, came a Don onboard us, to whom 
I showed my Spanish pass, which he signed, and civilly 
dismissed us. Hence, sailing by another man-of-war, to 
which we lowered our topsails, we at length arrived at 

The lodgings here are very handsome and convenient. 
I lost little time ; but, with the aid of one Mr. Lewkner, 
our conductor, we visited divers churches, colleges, and 
monasteries. The Church of the Jesuits is most sump- 
tuous and magnificent; a glorious fabric without and 
within, wholly incrusted with marble, inlaid and polished 
into divers representations of histories, landscapes, and 
flowers. On the high altar is placed the statue of the 
Blessed "Virgin and our Saviour in white marble, ■mih 
a boss in the girdle set mth very fair and rich sap- 
phires, and divers other stones of price. The choir is a 
glorious piece of architecture ; the pulpit supported by 
four angels, and adorned with other carvings, and rare 
pictures by Rubens, now lately dead, and divers votive 
tables and relics. Hence, to the Vrou Kirk, or N6tre 
Dame of Antwerp: it is a very venerable fabric, built 
after the Gothic manner, especially the tower, which I 
ascended, the better to take a view of the country adjacent ; 


which, happening on a day when the sun shone exceedingly 
bright, and darted his rays without any interruption, 
afforded so bright a reflection to us who were above, and 
had a full prospect of both land and water about it, that I 
was much confirmed in my opinion of the moon's being of 
some such substance as this earthly globe. Perceiving all 
the subjacent country, at so small an horizontal distance, 
to repercuss such a light as I could hardly look against, 
save where the river and other large water within our view, 
appeared of a more dark and uniform colour, resembling 
those spots in the moon supposed to be seas there, according 
to Hevelius, and as they appear in our late telescopes. 
I numbered in this church thirty privileged altars, that of 
St. Sebastian adorned with a painting of his martyrdom. 

We went to see the Jerusalem Church, afiSrmed to have 
been founded by one who, upon divers great wagers, 
passed to and fro between that city and Antwerp on foot, 
by which he procured large sums of money, which he be- 
stowed on this pious structure. Hence, to St. Mary's 
Chapel, where I had some conference wdth two Enghsh 
Jesuits, confessors to Colonel Jaye's regiment. These fathers 
conducted us to the Cloister of Nuns, where we heard a 
Dutch sermon upon the exposure of the Host. The Senate- 
house of this city is a very spacious and magnificent 

5th. I visited the Jesuits' School, which, for the fame of 
their method, I greatly desired to see. They were divided 
into four classes, with several inscriptions over each : as, 
first. Ad majorem Dei gloriam ; over the second, Princeps 
diligenticB ; the third, Imperator Byzantiorum ; over the 
fourth and uppermost, Imperator Romanorum. Under 
these, the scholars and pupils had their places, or forms, 
with titles and priority according to their proficiency. 
Their dormitory and lodgings above were exceedingly 
neat. They have a prison for the offenders and less 
diligent ; and, in an ample court, to recreate themselves 
in, is an aviary, and a yard where eagles, vultures, foxes, 
monkeys, and other animals are kept, to divert the boys 
withal at their hours of remission. To this school join the 
music and mathematical schools, and lastly a pretty, neat 
chapel. The great street is built after the Italian mode, 
in the middle whereof is erected a glorious crucifix of 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. 33 

white and black marble, greater than the life. This is a 
very fair and noble street, clean, well paved, and sweet to 

The Oesters house, belonging to the East India Com- 
pany, is a stately palace, adorned with more than 300 
windows. From hence walking into the Gun-garden, I 
was allowed to see as much of the citadel as is per- 
mitted to strangers. It is a matchless piece of modern 
fortification, accommodated with lodgments for the sol- 
diers and magazines. The grafi's, ramparts, and plat- 
forms are stupendous. Returning by the shop of Plantine, 
I bought some books, for the namesake only of that famous 

But there was nothing about this city which more 
ravished me than those delicious shades and walks of 
stately trees, which render the fortified works of the town 
one of the sweetest places in Europe ; nor did I ever 
observe a more quiet, clean, elegantly built, and civil 
place, than this magnificent and famous city of Antwerp. 
In the evening, I was invited to Signor Duerte's, a Portu- 
guese by nation, an exceeding rich merchant, whose palace 
I found to be furnished hke a prince's. His three daughters 
entertained us with rare music, vocal and instrumental, 
which was finished with a handsome collation. I took 
leave of the ladies and of sweet Antwerp, as late as it was, 
embarking for Brussels on the Scheldt in a vessel, which 
delivered us to a second boat (in another river) drawn or 
towed by horses. In this passage, we frequently changed 
our barge, by reason of the bridges thwarting our course. 
Here I observed numerous families inhabiting their vessels 
and floating dwellings, so built and divided by cabins, as 
few houses on land enjoyed better accommodation, stored 
with all sorts of utensils, neat chambers, a pretty parlour, 
and kept so sweet, that nothing could be more refreshing. 
The rivers on which they are drawn are very clear and 
still waters, and pass through a most pleasant country on 
both the banks. We had in our boat a very good ordinary, 
and excellent company. The cut is straight as a line for 
twenty English miles. What I much admired was, near 
the midway, another artificial river, which intersects this 
at right angles, but on an eminence of ground, and is 
carried in an aqueduct of stone so far above the other, as 

VOL. I. D 


that the waters neither mingle, nor hinder one another's 

We came to a town called Villefrow, where all the 
passengers went on shore to wash at a fountain issuing 
out of a pillar, and then came aboard again. On the 
margin of this long tract, are abundance of shrines and 
images, defended from the injuries of the weather by 
niches of stone wherein they are placed. 

7th. We arrived at Brussels at nine in the morning. 
The Stadt-house, near the market-place, is, for the carving 
in freestone, a most laborious and finished piece, well worthy 
observation. The flesh-shambles are also built of stone. 
I was pleased with certain small engines, by which a girl, 
or boy, was able to draw up, or let down, great bridges, 
which in divers parts of this city crossed the channel for 
the benefit of passengers. The walls of this town are very 
entire, and full of towers at competent distances. The 
cathedral is built upon a very high and exceeding steep 
ascent, to which we mounted by fair steps of stone. Hence 
I walked to a convent of English Nuns, with whom I sat 
discoursing most part of the afternoon. 

8th. Being the morning I came away, I went to see 
the Prince's Court, an ancient, confused building, not 
much unlike the Hofft, at the Hague : there is here like- 
wise a very large Hall, where they vend all sorts of wares. 
Through this we passed by the chapel, which is indeed 
rarely arched, and in the middle of it was the hearse, or 
catafalco, of the late Archduchess, the wise and pious Clara 
Eugenia. Out of this we were conducted to the lodgings, 
tapestried with incomparable arras, and adorned with 
many excellent pieces of Rubens, old and young Breugel, 
Titian, and Stenwick, with stories of most of the late 
actions in the Netherlands. 

By an accident, we could not see the library. There is 
a fair terrace which looks to the vineyard, in which, on 
pedestals, are fixed the statues of all the Spanish kings of 
the house of Austria. The opposite walls are painted by 
Bubens, being an history of the late tumults in Belgia : 
in the last piece, the Archduchess shuts a great pair of 
gates upon Mars, who is coming out of hell, armed, and in 
a menacing posture ; which, with that other of the Infanta 

• As at the Duke of Bridgewater's canal, in Lancashire. 

1641.] JOHN EVELYN. 35 

taking leave of Don Philip the Fourth, is a most incompa- 
rable table. 

From hence, we walked into the park, which for being 
entirely within the walls of the city is particularly 
remarkable; nor is it less pleasant than if in the most 
solitary recesses ; so naturally is it furnished with what- 
ever may render it agreeable, melancholy, and country- 
hke. Here is a stately heronry, divers springs of water, 
artificial cascades, rocks, grots, one whereof is composed 
of the extravagant roots of trees cunningly built and 
hung together with wires. In this park are both fallow 
and red deer. 

From hence, we were led into the Menage, and out of 
that into a most sweet and dehcious garden, where was 
another grot of more neat and costly materials, full of 
noble statues, and entertaining us with artificial music ; 
but the hedge of water, in form of lattice-work, which the 
fountaineer caused to ascend out of the earth by degrees, 
exceedingly pleased and surprised me ; for thus with a 
pervious wall, or rather a palisade hedge of water, was the 
whole parterre environed. 

There is likewise a fair aviary ; and in the court next 
it are kept divers sorts of animals, rare and exotic fowl, 
as eagles, cranes, storks, bustards, pheasants of several 
kinds, and a duck having four wings. In another division 
of the same close are rabbits of an almost perfect yellow 

There was no Court now in the palace, the Infante Car- 
dinal, who was the governor of Flanders, being dead but 
newly, and every one in deep mourning. 

At near eleven o'clock, I repaired to his Majesty's 
agent. Sir Henry De Vic, who very courteously received 
me, and accommodated me with a coach and six horses, 
which carried me from Brussels to Ghent, where it was to 
meet my Lord of Arundel, Earl Marshal of England, who 
had requested me when I was at Antwerp to send it for 
him, if I went not thither myself. 

Thus taking leave of Brussels and a sad Court, yet full 
of gallant persons, (for in this small city, the acquaintance 
being universal, ladies and gentlemen, I perceived, had 
great diversions and frequent meetings,) I hasted towards 
Ghent. On the way, 1 met with divers little waggons, 

D 2 


prettily contrived and full of peddling merchandises, dravm 
by mastiff-dogs, harnessed completely like so many coach- 
horses ; in some four, in others six, as in Brussels itself I 
had observed. In Antwerp I saw, as I remember, four 
dogs draw five lusty children in a chariot : the master 
commands them whither he pleases, crying his wares 
about the streets. After passing through Ouse, by six in 
the evening, I arrived at Ghent. This is a city of so great 
a circumference, that it is reported to be seven leagues 
round ; but there is not half of it now built, much of it 
remaining in fields and desolate pastures even within the 
walls, which have strong gates towards the west, and two 
fair churches. 

Here I beheld the Palace wherein John of Gaunt and 
Charles V. were bom ; whose statue stands in the market- 
place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which 
(as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to 
repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about 
their necks, in token of submission and penance for an 
old rebellion of theirs ; but now the hemp is changed into 
a blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great 
gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meet- 
ing in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, 
which are united by many bridges, somewhat resembling 
Venice. This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, 
a pleasant and courteous priest. 

■ I passed by boat to Bruges, taking in at a 

redoubt a convoy of fourteen musketeers, because the 
other side of the river, being Contribution-land, was sub- 
ject to the inroads and depredations of the bordering 
States. This river was cut by the famous Marquis 
Spinola, and is in my judgment a wonderful piece of 
labour, and a worthy public work, being in some places 
forced through the main rock, to an incredible depth, for 
thirty miles. At the end of each mile, is built a small 
redoubt, which communicates a line to the next, and so 
the whole way, from whence we received many volleys of 
shot, in compliment to my Lord Marshal, who was in our 
vessel, a passenger with us. At five that evening, we were 
met by the magistrates of Bruges, who came out to convey 
my Lord to his lodgings, at whose cost he was entertained 
that night. 

164].] JOHN EVELYN. 37 

The morning after we went to see the Stadt house and 
adjoining aqueduct, the church, and. market-place, where 
we saw cheeses and butter piled up in heaps; also the 
fortifications and graffs, which are extremely large. 

The 9th we arrived, at Ostend by a straight and artificial 
river. Here, with leave of the captain of the watch, I was 
carried to survey the river and harbour, with fortifications 
on one side thereof: the east and south are mud and 
earth walls. It is a very strong place, and lately stood a 
memorable siege three years, three months, three weeks, 
and three days. I went to see the church of St. Peter, 
and the cloisters of the Franciscans. 

10th. I went by waggon, accompanied with a jovial 
commissary, to Dunkirk, the journey being made all on the 
sea-sands. On our arrival, we first viewed the court of 
guards, the works, the town-house, and the new church ; 
the latter is very beautiful within ; and another, wherein 
they showed us an excellent piece of Our Saviour's bearing 
the Cross. The harbour, in two channels, coming up to 
the town, was choked vrith a multitude of prizes. 

From hence, the next day, I marched three, English 
miles towards the packet-boat, being a pretty frigate of 
six guns, which embarked us for England about three in 
the afternoon. 

At our going ofi', the fort, against which our pinnace 
anchored, saluted my Lord Marshal with twelve gi'eat 
guns, which we answered with three. Not "having the 
wind favourable, we anchored that night before Calais. 
About midnight, we weighed ; and, at four in the morning, 
though not far from Dover, we could not make the pier 
till four that afternoon, the wind proving contrary and 
driving us westward ; but at last we got on shore, October 
the 12th. 

From Dover, I that night rode post to Canterbury. 
Here I visited the cathedral, then in great splendour, 
those famous windows being entire, since demolished by 
the fanatics. The next morning, by Sittingboume, I came 
to Rochester, and thence to Gravesend, where a hght- 
horseman (as they call it) taking us in, we spent our tide 
as far as Greenwich. From hence, after we had a little 
refreshed ourselves at the College, (for by reason of the 
contagion then in London we balked the inns,) we came 


to London Hnding at Arundel-stairs. Here I took leave 
of his Lo d' p, and retired to my lodgings in the Middle 
Temple, being about two in the morning, the 14th of 

16th. I went to see my brother, at Wotton. On the 
31st of that month (unfortunate for the Irish Rebellion, 
which broke out on the 23rd) I was one and twenty years 
of age. 

7th November. After receiving the Sacrament at "Wotton 
church, I visited my Lord Marshal at Albury. 

23rd. I returned to London; and, on the 25th, saw his 
Majesty ride through the City after his coming out of 
Scotland, and a Peace proclaimed, with great acclama- 
tions and joy of the giddy people. 

15th December. I was elected one of the Comptrollers of 
the Middle Temple-revellers, as the fashion of the yoiuig 
students and gentlemen was, the Christmas being kept 
this year with great solemnity; but, being desirous to 
pass it in the country, I got leave to resign my staff of 
ofl&ce, and went with my brother, Richard, to Wotton. 

10th January, 1642. I gave a visit to my cousin Hatton 
of Ditton. 

19th. I went to London, where I stayed till 5th March, 
studying a Kttle, but dancing and fooHng more. 

3rd October. To Chichester, and hence the next day to 
see the siege of Portsmouth; for now was that bloody 
difference between the King and Parhament broken out, 
which ended in the fatal tragedy so many many years after. 
It was on the day of its being rendered to Sir Wilham 
Waller ; which gave me an opportunity of taking my leave 
of Colonel Goring, the governor, now embarking for 
France. This day was fought that signal battle at Edge- 
hill. Thence I went to Southampton and Winchester, 
where I visited the castle, school, church, and King 
Arthur's Round Table, but especially the church and its 
Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed a worthy 

12th November was the battle of Brentford, surprisingly 
fought, and to the great consternation of the City, had 
his Majesty (as it was believed he would) pursued his 
advantage. I came in with my horse and arms just at 
the retreat; but was not permitted to stay longer than 

1642-3.] JOHN EVELYN. 39 

the 15th by reason of the army marching to Gloucester; 
which would have left both me and my brothers exposed 
to ruin, without any advantage to his Majesty. 

7 th December. I went from Wotton to London, to see 
the so much celebrated hne of communication, and on the 
1 0th returned to Wotton, nobody knowing of my having 
been in his Majesty's army. 

1643. 10th March. I went to Hartingford-berry, to 
visit my cousin, Keightly. 

11th. I went to see my Lord of Salisbury's Palace at 
Hatfield, where the most considerable rarity, besides the 
house (inferior to few then in England for its architec- 
ture,) were the garden and vineyard, rarely well watered 
and planted. They also showed us the picture of Secre- 
tary Cecil, in mosaic work, very well done by some Italian 

I must not forget what amazed us exceedingly in the 
night before ; \'iz. a shining cloud in the air, in shape 
resembling a sword, the point reaching to the north j it 
was as bright as the moon, the rest of the sky being very 
serene. It began about eleven at night, and vanished not 
till above one, being seen by all the south of England. 
I made many journeys to and from London. 

April the 15th. To Hatfield, and near the town of 
Hertford I went to see Sir J. Harrison's house new built.* 
Returning to London, I called to see his Majesty's house 
and gardens at Theobald's, since demohshed by the 

2nd May. I went from Wotton to London, where I saw 
the furious and zealous people demohsh that stately Cross 
in Cheapside. 

On the 4th I returned, with no little regret, for the 
•confusion that threatened us. Resolving to possess myself 
in some quiet, if it might be, in a time of so great jealousy, 
I built by my brother's permission a study, made a fish- 
pond, an island, and some other solitudes and retirements 
at Wotton; which gave the first occasion of improving 
them to those waterworks and gardens which afterwards 
succeeded them, and became at that time the most famous 
of England. 

, * Now called Ball's Park, belonging to the present Marquis Townsend. 

40 DIARY OF [boulognk, 

12 th July. I sent my black menage horse and furniture 
with a friend to his Majesty, then at Oxford. 

23rd. The Covenant being pressed, I absented myself; 
but, finding it impossible to evade the doing very unhand- 
some things, and which had been a great cause of my 
perpetual motions hitherto between Wotton and London, 
October the 2nd, I obtained a license of his Majesty, dated 
at Oxford, and signed by the King, to travel again. 

6th November. Lying by the way from Wotton at Sir 
Ralph Whitfield's, at Blechingley, (whither both my brothers 
had conducted me,) I arrived at London on the 7th, and 
two days after took boat at the Tower- wharf, which carried 
me as far as Sittingboume, though not without danger, I 
being only in a pair of oars, exposed to a hideous storm ; 
but it pleased God that we got in before the peril was 
considerable. From thence, I went by post to Dover, 
accompanied with one Mr. Thicknesse, a very dear friend 
of mine.* 

11th. Having a reasonable good passage, though the 
weather was snowy and untoward enough, we came before 
Calais, where, as we went on shore, mistaking the tide, 
our shallop struck on the sands, with no little danger; 
but at length we got oflF. 

Calais is considered an extraordinary well-fortified place, 
in the old castle and new citadel regarding the sea. The 
haven consists of a long bank of sand, lying opposite to it. 
The market-place and the church are remarkable things, 
besides those relics of our former dominion there. I 
remember there were engraven in stone upon the front of 
an ancient dwelling which was showed us, these words in 
English, " God save the King," together with the name 
of the architect and date. The walls of the town are sub- 
stantial ; but the situation towards the land is not pleasant, 
by reason of the marshes and low grounds about it. 

12th. After dinner, we took horse with the Mes- 
sagere, hoping to have arrived at Boulogne that night; 
but there fell so great a snow, accompanied with hail, rain, 
and sudden darkness, that we had much ado to gain the 
next village ; and in this passage, being to cross a valley 
by a causeway and a bridge built over a small river, the 

* Tlie gentleman he has ah^ady mentioned as so much assisting him. in 
his studies at Oxford. 

1643.] JOHN EVELYN. 41 

rain that had fallen making it an impetuous stream for 
near a quarter of a mile, my horse slipping had almost 
been the occasion of my perishing. We none of us went 
to bed ; for the soldiers in those parts leaving little in the 
villages, we had enough to do to get ourselves dry, by 
morning, between the fire and the fresh straw. The next 
day early, we arrived at Boulogne. 

This is a double town, one part of it situate on a high 
rock, or downs ; the other, called the lower town, is yet 
with a great declivity towards the sea; both of them 
defended by a strong castle, which stands on a notable 
eminence. Under the town runs the river, which is yet 
but an inconsiderable brook. Henry VIII. in the siege 
of this place is said to have used those great leathern 
guns, which I have since beheld in the Tower of London, 
inscribed Non Marte opus est, cui non deficit Mercurius ; 
if at least the history be true, which my Lord Herbert 

The next morning, in some danger of parties [Spanish} 
surprising us, we came to Montreuil, built on the summit 
of a most conspicuous hill, environed with fair and ample 
meadows ; but all the suburbs had been from time to time 
ruined, and were now lately burnt by the Spanish inroads. 
This town is fortified with two very deep dry ditches ; the 
walls about the bastions and citadel are a noble piece of 
masonry. The church is more glorious without than 
within : the market-place large : but the inhabitants are 
miserably poor. The next day, we came to Abbeville, 
having passed all this way in continual expectation of the 
volunteers, as they call them. This town affords a good 
aspect towards the hill from whence we descended ; nor 
does it deceive us ; for it is handsomely built, and has 
many pleasant and useful streams passing through it, the 
main river being the Somme, which discharges itself into 
the sea at St. Valery, almost in view of the town. The 
principal church is a very handsome piece of Gothic 
architecture, and the ports and ramparts sweetly planted 
for defence and ornament. In the morning, they brought 
us choice of guns and pistols to sell at reasonable rates, 
and neatly made, being here a merchandise of great 
account, the town abounding in giin-smiths. 

• In his history of that king. 


Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good 
note, and having the first vineyards we had seen. The 
next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to Paris, having 
taken our repast at St. Denis, two leagues from that great 
city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathe- 
dral, and the dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed 
as ours at Westminster Abbey. The treasury is esteemed 
one of the richest in Europe. The church was built by 
king Dagobert,* but since much enlarged, being now 390 
feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without com- 
prehending the cover : it has also a very high shaft of 
stone, and the gates are of brass. Here, whilst the monks 
conducted us, we were showed the ancient and modern 
sepulchres of their kings, beginning with the founder to 
Louis his son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and 
father of Charlemagne. These lie in the choir, and without 
it are many more ; amongst the rest that of Bertrand du 
Gueschn, Constable of France ; in the chapel of Chai'les V., 
all his posterity, and near him the magnificent sepul- 
chre of Francis I. with his children, wars, victories, and 
triumphs engraven in marble. In the nave of the church 
lies the catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIIL, Henry II., a 
noble tomb of Francis II., and Charles IX. Above are 
bodies of several Saints ; below, under a state of black 
velvet, the late Louis XIII., father of this present monarch. 
Every one of the ten chapels, or oratories, had some 
Saints in them ; amongst the rest, one of the Holy Inno- 
cents. The treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in 
which are crosses of massy gold and silver, studded with 
precious stones, one of gold three feet high, set with sap- 
phires, rubies, and great oriental pearls. Another given 
by Charles the Great, having a noble amethyst in the 
middle of it, stones and pearls of inestimable value. 
Amongst the still more valuable rehcs are, a nail from our 
Saviour^s Cross, in a box of gold full of precious stones ; a 
crucifix of the true wood of the Cross, carved by Pope 
Clement III., enchased in a crystal covered with gold ; a 
box in which is some of the Vii'gin's hair ; some of the 
linen in which om* blessed Saviour was wrapped at his 
nativity; in a huge reliquarj'^, modelled like a church, 
some of our Saviour's blood, hair, clothes, linen with which 

* A.D. 630. 

1643.] JOHN EVELYN. 43 

he wiped the Apostles* feet ; with many other equally 
authentic toys, which the friar who conducted us, would 
have us believe were authentic relics. Amongst the trea- 
sures is the crown of Charlemagne, his seven-foot high 
sceptre and hand of justice, the agraffe of his royal mantle, 
beset with diamonds and rubies, his sword, belt, and spurs 
of gold; the crown of St. Louis, covered with precious 
stones, amongst which is one vast ruby, uncut, of inestima- 
ble value, weighing 300 carats, (under which is set one of 
the thorns of our blessed Saviour^s crown,) his sword, seal, 
and hand of justice. The two crowns of Henry IV., his 
sceptre, hand of justice, and spurs. The two crowns of his 
son, Louis. In the cloak-royal of Anne of Bretagne is a 
very great and rare ruby. Divers books covered with 
solid plates of gold, and studded with precious stones. 
Two vases of beryl, two of agate, whereof one is esteemed 
for its bigness, colour, and embossed carving, the best now 
to be seen : by a special favour I was permitted to take the 
measure and dimensions of it ; the story is a Bacchanalia 
and sacrifice to Priapus ; a very holy thing truly, and fit 
for a cloister ! It is really antique, and the noblest jewel 
there. There is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge 
urn of porphyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx^ the 
largest I had ever seen of that stone ; two of crystal ; a 
morsel of one of the waterpots in which our Saviour did 
his first miracle ; the effigies of the queen of Saba, of 
Julius Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, 
upon sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians, — that of 
the queen of Saba* has a Moorish face ; those of JuKus 
and Nero on agates rarely coloured and cut : a cup in 
which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a 
great amethyst. There lay in a window, a mirror of a 
kind of stone said to have belonged to the poet Virgil : 
Charlemagne^s chessmen, full of Arabic characters. In 
the press next the door, the brass lantern full of crystals, 
said to have conducted Judas and his company to appre- 
hend our blessed Saviour. A fair unicornis horn, sent by 
a king of Persia, about seven feet long. In another press 
(over which stands the picture in oil of their Orleans 
Amazon with her sword) the effigies of the late French 
kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered with their 

* Or Sheba. 


robes ; with a world of other rarities. — Having rewarded 
our courteous friar, we took horse for Paris, where we 
arrived about five in the afternoon. In the way were fair 
crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at every furlong's 
end, where they affirm St. Denis rested and laid down his 
head after martyrdom, carrying it from the place where 
this monastery is builded. We lay at Paris at the Ville de 
Venice ; where, after I had sojnething refreshed, I went 
to visit Sir E-ichard Browne, his Majesty's Resident with 
the French king. 

5th December. The Earl of Norwich* came as Ambas- 
sador extraordinary : I went to meet him in a coach and six 
horses, at the palace of Monsieur de Bassompiere, where 
I saw that gallant person, his gardens, terraces, and rare 
prospects. My lord was waited on by the master of the 
ceremonies, and a very great cavalcade of men of quality, 
to the Palais Cardinal, where on the 23rd he had audience 
of the French king, and the queen Regent his mother, in 
the golden chamber of presence. From thence, I con- 
ducted him to his lodgings in Rue St. Denis, and so took 
my leave. 

iiJ4th. I went with some company to see some remarkable 
places without the city : as the Isle, and how it is encom- 
passed by the rivers Seine and the Ouse. The city is 
divided into three parts, whereof the town is greatest. 
The city lies between it and the University, in form of an 
island. Over the Seine, is a stately bridge called Pont 
Neuf, begun by Henry III. in 1578, finished by Henry IV., 
his successor. It is all of hewn free-stone found under 
the streets, but more plentifully at Montmartre, and con- 
sists of twelve arches, in the midst of which ends the point 
of an island, on which are built handsome artificers' 
houses. There is one large passage for coaches, and two 
for foot-passengers three or four feet higher, and of conve- 
nient breadth for eight or ten to go abreast. On the 
middle of this stately bridge, on one side stands the 
famous statue of Henry the Great on horseback, exceed- 
ing the natural proportion by much; and, on the four 
faces of a stately pedestal (which is composed of various 
sorts of pohshed marbles and rich mouldings) inscriptions. 

♦ George Lord Goring ; upon whom the above title had been i-ecently 

1643.] JOHN EVELYN. 45 

of his victories and most signal actions are engraven in 
brass. The statue and horse are of copper, the work of 
the great John di Bologna, and sent from Florence by 
Eerdinand the First, and Cosmo the Second, uncle and 
cousin to Mary de Medicis, the wife of king Henry, whose 
statue it represents. The place where it is erected, is 
inclosed with a strong and beautiful grate of iron, about 
which there are always mountebanks showing their feats 
to idle passengers. From hence is a rare prospect towards 
the Louvre and suburbs of St. Germains, the Isle du 
Palais, and Notre Dame. At the foot of this bridge is a 
water-house, on the front whereof, at a great height, is the 
story of Our Saviour and the woman of Samaria pouring 
water out of a bucket. Above is a very rare dial of several 
motions, with a chime, &c. The water is conveyed by 
huge wheels, pumps, and other engines, from the river 
beneath. The confluence of the people and multitude of 
coaches passing every moment over the bridge, to a new 
spectator is an agreeable diversion. Other bridges there 
are, as that of Notre Dame and the Pont-au-Change, &c., 
fairly built, with houses of stone, which are laid over this 
river : only the Pont St. Anne, landing the suburbs of 
St. Germains at the Tuileries, is built of wood, having 
likewise a water-house in the midst of it, and a statue of 
Neptune casting water out of a whale's mouth, of lead, but 
much inferior to the Samaritan. 

The University lies south-west on higher ground, con- 
tiguous to, but the lesser part of, Paris. They reckon no 
less than sixty-five colleges ; but they in nothing approach 
ours at Oxford for state and order. The booksellers dwell 
within the University. The schools (of which more 
hereafter) are very regular. 

The suburbs are those of St. Denis, Honore, St. Marcel, 
St. Jaques, St. Michael, St. Victoire, and St. Germains, 
which last is the largest, and where the nobihty and 
persons of best quality are seated ; and truly Paris, com- 
prehending the suburbs, is, for the material the houses are 
built with, and many noble and magnificent piles, one of 
the most gallant cities in the world ; large in circuit, of a 
round form, very populous, but situated in a bottom, 
environed with gentle declivities, rendering some places 
very dirty, and making it smeU as if sulphur were mingled 


with the mud ; yet it is paved with a kind of free-stone, 
of near a foot square ; which renders it more easy to walk 
on than our pebbles in London. 

On Christmas eve, I went to see the Cathedral at N6tre 
Dame, erected by Philip Augustus, but begun by King 
Kobert, son of Hugh Capet. It consists of a Gothic 
fabric, sustained with 120 pillars, which make two aisles 
in the church round about the choir, without comprehend- 
ing the chapels, being 174 paces long, 60 wide, and 100 
high. The choir is inclosed with stone-work graven with 
the sacred history, and contains forty -five chapels chancelled 
with iron. At the front of the chief entrance are statues 
in relievo of the kings, twenty-eight in number, from 
Childebert to the founder, Philip ; and above them are 
two high square towers, and another of a smaller size, 
bearing a spire in the middle, where the body of the church 
forms a cross. The great tower is ascended by 389 steps, 
having twelve galleries from one to the other. They 
greatly reverence the crucifix over the screen of the choir, 
with an image of the Blessed Virgin. There are some 
good modern paintings hanging on the pillars: the most con- 
spicuous statue is the huge colossal one of St. Christopher, 
with divers other figures of men, houses, prospects, and 
rocks, about this gigantic piece, being of one stone, and 
more remarkable for its bulk than any other perfection. 
This is the prime church of France for dignity, having 
archdeacons, vicars, canons, priests, and chaplains in good 
store, to the number of 127. It is also the palace of the 
archbishop. The young king was there with a great 
and martial guard, who entered the nave of the church 
with drums and fifes, at the ceasing of which I was enter- 
tained with the church-music ; and so I left him. 

January 4th, 1644. I passed this day with one Mr. 
J. Wall, an Irish gentleman, who had been a friar in 
Spain, and afterwards a reader in St. Isodore's chair, at 
Rome ; but was, I know not how, getting away, and pre- 
tending to be a soldier of fortune, an absolute cavalier, 
having, as he told us, been a captain of horse in Germany. 
It is certain he was an excellent disputant, and so strangely 
given to it that nothing could pass him. He would needs 
persuade me to go with him this morning to the Jesuits* 
College, to witness his polemical talent. We found the 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 47 

Fathers in their Church at the Eue St. Antoine, where one 
of them showed us that noble fabric, which for its cupola, 
pavings, incrustations of marble, the pulpit, altars, (espe- 
cially the high altar,) organ, lavatorium, &c., but above all, 
for the richly carved and incomparable front I esteem to 
be one of the most perfect pieces of architecture in Europe, 
emulating even some of the greatest now at Rome itself. 
But this not being what our friar sought, he led us into 
the adjoining convent, where having showed us the library, 
they began a very hot dispute on some points of divinity, 
which our cavalier contested only to show his pride, and 
to that indiscreet height, that the Jesuits would hardly 
bring us to our coach, they being put beside all patience. 
The next day, we went into the University, and into the 
College of Navarre, which is a spacious well-built quadran- 
gle, having a very noble library. 

Thence to the Sorbonne, an ancient fabric built by one 
Robert de Sorbonne, whose name it retains, but the restora- 
tion which the late Cardinal de Richelieu has made to it 
renders it one of the most excellent modern buildings; 
the sumptuous church, of admirable architecture, is far 
superior to the rest. The cupola, portico, and whole 
design of the church, are very magnificent. 

We entered into some of the schools, and in that of 
divinity we found a grave doctor in his chair, with a mul- 
titude of auditors, who all write as he dictates ; and this 
they call a Course. After we had sat a httle, our cavalier 
started up, and rudely enough began to dispute with the 
doctor ; at which, and especially as he was clad in the 
Spanish habit, which in Paris is the greatest bugbear 
imaginable, the scholars and doctor fell into such a fit of 
laughter, that nobody could be heard speak for a while ; 
but silence being obtained, he began to speak Latin, and 
make his apology in so good a style, that their derision 
was turned to admiration; and, beginning to argue, he 
so baffled the Professor, that with universal applause they 
all rose up and did him great honours, waiting on us 
to the very street and our coach, and testifying great 

2nd Feb. I heard the news of my nephew George's 
birth, which was on January 15th, Enghsh style, 1644. 

3rd. I went to the Exchange. The late addition to 

4g DIARY OF [pAnis, 

the buildings is very noble ; but the galleries where they 
sell their petty merchandise nothing so stately as ours at 
London, no more than the place where they walk below, 
being only a low vault. 

The Palais, as they call the upper part, was built in the 
time of Philip the Fair, noble and spacious. The great 
Hall annexed to it, is arched with stone, having a range of 
pillars in the middle, round which, and at the sides, are 
shops of all kinds, especially booksellers*. One side is full 
of pews for the clerks of the advocates, who swarm here, 
(as ours at Westminster). At one of the ends stands an 
altar, at which mass is said daily. Within are sevei-al 
chambers, courts, treasuries, &c. Above that is the most 
rich and glorious Salle d' Audience, the chamber of St. 
Louis, and other superior Courts where the Parliament 
sits, richly gilt on embossed carvings and frets, and 
exceeding beautified. 

Within the place where they sell their wares, is another 
narrower gallery, full of shops and toys, &c., which looks 
down into the prison-yard. Descending by a large pair 
of stairs, we passed by Sainte Chapelle, which is a chtu-ch 
built by St. Louis, 1242, after the Gothic manner; it 
stands on another church, which is under it, sustained by 
pillars at the sides, which seem so weak, as to appear 
extraordinary in the artist. This chapel is most famous 
for its rehcs, having, as they pretend, almost the entire 
crown of thorns ; the agate patine, rarely sculptured, 
judged one of the largest and best in Europe. There was 
now a very beautiful spire erecting. The court below is 
very spacious, capable of holding many coaches, and sur- 
rounded with shops, especially engravers', goldsmiths*, 
and watchmakers'. In it are a fair fountain and portico. 
The Isle du Palais consists of a triangular brick building, 
whereof one side, looking to the river, is inhabited by 
goldsmiths. Within the court are private dwellings. The 
front looking on the great bridge, is possessed by mounte- 
banks, operators, and puppet-players. On the other part, 
is the every day's market for all sorts of provisions, espe- 
cially bread, herbs, flowers, orange-trees, choice shrubs. 
Here is a shop called Noah's Ark, where are sold all 
curiosities, natural or artificial, Indian or European, for 
luxury or use, as cabinets, shells, ivory, porcelain, dried 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 49 

fishes, insects, birds, pictures, and a thousand exotic 
extravagances. Passing hence, we viewed the port Dau- 
phine, an arch of excellent workmanship ; the street, 
bearing the same name, is ample and straight. 

4th. I went to see the Marais de Temple, where are 
a noble church and palace, heretofore dedicated to the 
Knights Templars, now converted to a piazza, not much 
unlike ours at Covent Garden; but large and not so 
pleasant, though built all about with divers considerable 

The Church of St. Genevieve is a place of great devo- 
tion, dedicated to another of their Amazons, said to have 
delivered the city from the Enghsh ; for which she is 
esteemed the tutelary saint of Paris. It stands on a steep 
eminence, having a very high spire, and is governed by 
canons regular. 

At the Palais Royal, Henry IV. built a fair quadrangle 
of stately palaces, arched underneath. In the middle of 
a spacious area, stands on a noble pedestal a brazen statue 
of Louis XIII., which, though made in imitation of that 
in the Homan capitol, is nothing so much esteemed as 
that on the Pont Neuf. 

The hospital of the Quinze-Vingts, in the Rue St. Honore, 
is an excellent foundation; but above all is the Hotel 
Dieu for men and women, near Notre Dame, a princely, 
pious, and expensive structure. That of the Charite gave 
me great satisfaction, in seeing how decently and chris- 
tianly the sick people are attended, even to delicacy. 
I have seen them served by noble persons, men and 
women. They have also gardens, walks, and fountains. 
Divers persons are here cut for the stone with great 
success yearly in May. The two Chatelets (supposed to 
have been built by Julius Caesar) are places of judicature 
in criminal causes; to which is a strong prison. The 
courts are spacious and magnificent. 

8th . I took coach and went to see the famous 

Jardine Royale, which is an enclosiu-e walled in, consist- 
ing of all varieties of ground for planting and culture of 
medical simples. It is well chosen, having in it hills, 
meadows, wood and upland, natural and artificial, and is 
richly stored with exotic plants. In the middle of the 
parterre, is a fair fountain. There is a very fine house, 

VOL. I. E 


chapelj laboratory, orangery, and other accommodations 
for the President, who is always one of the king's chief 

From hence, we went to the other side of the town, and 
to some distance from it, to the Bois de Vincennes, going 
by the Bastile, which is the fortress, tower, and magazine 
of this great city. It is very spacious within, and there 
the Grand Master of the artillery has his house, with fair 
giardens and walks. 

The Bois de Vincennes has in it a square and noble 
castle, with magnificent apartments, fit for a royal court, 
not forgetting the chapel. It is the chief prison for 
persons of quality. About it there is a park walled in, 
full of deer; and in one part there is a grove of goodly 

The next day, I went to see the Louvre with more 
attention, its several courts and pavUions. One of the 
quadrangles, begun by Henry IV. and finished by his 
son and grandson, is a superb, but mixed structure. The 
cornices, mouldings, and compartments, with the inser- 
tion of several coloured marbles, have been of great 

We went through the long gallery, paved vdth white 
and black marble, richly fretted and painted a fresco. 
The front looking to the river, though of rare work for 
the car\ing, yet wants of that magnificence which a 
plainer and truer design would have contributed to it. 

In the Cour aux Tuileries is a princely fabric; the 
winding geometrical stone stairs, with the cupola, I take 
to be as bold and noble a piece of architecture, as any 
in Europe of the kind. To this is a corps de logis, 
worthy of so great a prince. Under these buildings, 
through a garden in which is an ample fountain, was the 
king's printing-house, and that famous letter so much 
esteemed. Here I bought divers of the classic authors, 
poets, and others. 

We returned through another gallery, larger, but not 
80 long, where hung the pictures of all the kings and 
queens and prime nobility of France. 

Descending hence, we were let into a lower very large 
room, called the Salle des Antiques, which is a vaulted 
Cimelia, destined for statues only, amongst which stands 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 51 

that 80 celebrated Diana of the Ephesians, said to be the 
same which uttered oracles in that renowned Temple. 
Besides those colossean figures of marble, I must not 
forget the huge globe suspended by chains. The pav- 
ings, inlayings, and incrustations of this Hall, are very 

In another more private garden towards the Queen's 
apartment is a walk, or cloister, under arches, whose terrace 
is paved with stones of a great breadth ; it looks towards the 
river, and has a pleasant aviary, fountain, stately cypresses, 
&c. On the river are seen a prodigious number of barges 
and boats of great length, full of hay, corn, wood, wine, 
and other commodities, which this vast city daily con- 
sumes. Under the long gallery we have described, dwell 
goldsmiths, painters, statuaries, and architects, who being 
the most famous for their art in Christendom, have sti- 
pends allowed them by the King. Into that of Monsieur 
Saracin we entered, who was then moulding for an image 
of a Madonna to be cast in gold of a great size, to be sent 
by the Queen Regent to Loretto, as an oflFering for the 
birth of the Dauphin, now the young King. 

I finished this day ^vith a walk in the great garden of 
the Tuileries, rarely contrived for privacy, shade, or com- 
pany, by groves, plantations of tall trees, especially that 
in the middle, being of elms, the other of mulberries ; and 
that lybrinth of cypresses ; not omitting the noble hedges 
of pomegranates, fountains, fish-ponds, and an aviary; 
but, above all, the artificial echo, redoubhng the words so 
distinctly; and, as it is never without some fair nymph 
singing to its grateful returns ; standing at one of the 
focuses, which is under a tree, or little cabinet of hedges, 
the voice seems to descend from the clouds ; at another, 
as if it was underground. This being at the bottom of 
the garden, we were let into another, which being kept 
with all imaginable accurateness as to the orangery, pre- 
cious shrubs, and rare fruits, seemed a Paradise. From a 
terrace in this place we saw so many coaches, as one would 
hardly think could be maintained in the whole city, going, 
late as it was in the year, towards the Course, which is a 
place adjoining, of near an English mile long, planted 
with four rows of trees, making a large circle in the 
middle. This course is walled about, near breast high, 

E 2 


with squared freestone, and has a stately arch at the 
entrance, with sculpture and statues about it, built by 
Mary di Medicis. Here it is that the gallants and ladies, 
of the Court take the air and divert themselves, as with 
us in Hyde Park, the circle being capable of containing 
a hundred coaches to turn commodiously, and the 
larger of the plantations for five or six coaches a-breast. 

Returning through the Tuileries, we saw a building in 
which are kept wild beasts for the King's pleasure, a bear, 
a wolf, a wild boar, a leopard, &c. 

27th . Accompanied with some English gentle- 
men, we took horse to see St. Germains-en-Laye, a stately 
country-house of the King, some five leagues from Paris. 
By the way, we ahghted at St. Cloud, where, on an 
eminence near the river, the Archbishop of Paris has a 
garden, for the house is not very considerable, rarely 
watered and furnished with fountains, statues, and groves; 
the walks are very fair ; the fountain of Laocoon is in a 
large square pool, throwing the water near forty feet high, 
and having about it a multitude of statues and basins, 
and is a surprising object. But nothing is more esteemed 
than the cascade falling from the great steps into the 
lowest and longest walk from the Mount Parnassus, which 
consists of a grotto, or shell-house, on the summit of the 
hill, wherein are divers waterworks and contrivances to 
wet the spectators ; this is covered with a fair cupola, the 
walls painted with the Muses, and statues placed thick 
about it, whereof some are antique and good. In the 
upper walks are two perspectives, seeming to enlarge the 
alleys, and in this garden are many other ingenious con- 
trivances. The palace, as I said, is not extraordinary. 
The outer walls only painted a fresco. In the court is a 
Volary, and the statues of Charles IX., Henry III., IV., 
and Louis XIII. on horseback, mezzo-relievo'd in plaster. 
In the garden is a small chapel ; and under shelter is the 
figure of Cleopatra, taken from the Belvidere original, 
with others. From the terrace above is a tempest well 
painted ; and thence an excellent prospect towards Paris, 
the meadoAvs, and rivefr. 

At an inn in this village is a host who treats all the 
great persons in princely lodgings for furniture and plate, 
but they pay well for it, as I- have done. Indeed, the 

1544.] JOHN EVELYN. 53 

entertainment is very splendid, and not unreasonable, 
considering the excellent manner of dressing their meat, 
and of the service. Here are many debauches and 
excessive revellings, as being out of all noise and 

From hence, about a league farther, we went to see 
Cardinal Richelieu's villa, at Ruell. The house is small, 
but fairly built, in form of a castle, moated round. The 
offices are towards the road, and over-against it are large 
vineyards, walled in. But, though the house is not of the 
greatest, the gardens about it are so magnificent, that I 
doubt whether Italy has any exceeding it for all rarities 
of pleasure. The garden nearest the pavilion is a parterre, 
having in the midst divers noble brass statues, perpetually 
spouting water into an ample basin, with other figures of 
the same metal; but what is most admirable is the vast 
inclosure, and variety of ground, in the large garden, con- 
taining vineyards, corn-fields, meadows, groves (whereof 
one is of perennial greens), and walks of vast length, so 
accurately kept and cultivated, that nothing can be more 
agreeable. On one of these walks, within a square of tall 
trees, is a basihsk* of copper, which, managed by the 
fountaineer, casts water near sixty feet high, and will of 
itself move round so swiftly, that one can hardly escape 
wetting. This leads to the Citroni^re, which is a noble 
conserve of all those rarities ; and at the end of it is the 
Arch of Constantine, painted on a wall in oil, as large as 
the real one at Rome, so well done, that even a man 
skilled in painting, may mistake it for stone and sculpture. 
The sky and hiUs, which seem to be between the arches, 
are so natural, that swallows and other birds, thinking to 
fly through, have dashed themselves against the wall. I 
was infinitely taken with this agreeable cheat. At the 
further part of this walk is that plentiful, though artificial 
cascade, which rolls down a very steep declivity, and over 
the marble steps and basins, with an astonishing noise 
and fury ; each basin hath a jetto in it, flowing like sheets 
of transparent glass, especially that which rises over the 
great shell of lead, from whence it ghdes silently down 
a channel through the middle of a spacious gravel walk, 
tenninating in a grotto. Here are also fountains that 

• The imaginary animal, or serpent, so called. 


cast water to a great height, and large ponds, two of 
which have islands for harbour of fowls, of which there 
is store. One of these islands has a receptacle for them 
built of vast pieces of rock, near fifty feet high, gi'own 
over with moss, ivy, &c., shaded at a competent distance 
with tall trees : in this rupellary nidary do the fowl lay 
eggs, and breed. We then saw a large and very rare 
grotto of shell-work, in the shape of Satyrs, and other wild 
fancies : in the middle stands a marble table, on which a 
fountain plays in divers forms of glasses, cups, crosses, 
fans, crowns, &c. Then the fountaineer represented a 
^ower of rain from the top, met by small jets from below» 
At going out, two extravagant musketeers shot us with a 
stream of water from their musket barrels. Before this 
grotto is a long pool into which ran divers spouts of water 
from leaden escalop basins. The viewing this paradise 
made us late at St. Germains. 

The first building of this palace is of Charles V., called 
the Sage ; but Francis I. (that true virtuoso) made it 
complete ; speaking as to the style of magnificence then 
in fashion, which was with too great a mixture of the 
Gothic, as may be seen in what there is remaining of his 
in the old Castle, an irregular piece as built on the old 
foundation, and having a moat about it. It has yet some 
spacious and handsome rooms of state, and a chapel neatly 
painted. The new Castle is at some distance, divided 
from this by a coiu-t, of a lower, but more modem design, 
built by Henry IV. To this belong six terraces, built of 
brick and stone, descending in cascades towards the river, 
cut out of the natural hill, having under them goodly 
vaulted galleries; of these, four have subterranean grots 
and rocks, where are represented several objects in the 
manner of scenes and other motions, by force of water,, 
shown by the Ught of torches only; amongst these, is 
Orpheus with his music, and the animals, which dance 
after his har|) ; in the second, is the King ^nd Dolphin ; *^ 
in the third, is Neptune sounding his trumpet, his chariot 
drawn by sea-horses ; in the fourth, the story of Perseus 
and Andromeda ; mills ; hermitages ; men fishing ; birds 
chirping; and many other devices. There is also a dry 
grot to refresh in ; all having a fine prospect towards the. 

* Dauphin. 

1644] JOHN EVELYN. f^ 

river^ and the goodly country about it, especially tlie forest. 
At the bottom, is a parterre ; the upper terrace near half 
a mile in length, with double declivities, arched and 
balustered with stone, of vast and royal cost. 

In the pavilion of the new Castle are many lair rooms, 
well painted, and leading into a very noble garden and park, 
where is a pall-mall, in the midst of which, on one of the 
sides, is a chapel, with stone cupola, though small, yet of 
a handsome order of architecture. Out of the park you 
go into the forest, which being very large, is stored with 
deer, wild boars, wolves, and other wild game. The Tennis 
Court, and Cavallerizzo, for the menaged horses, axe also 

We returned to Paris by Madrid, another villa of the 
King's, bmlt by Francis I. and called by that name to 
absolve him of his oath that he would not go from Madrid 
(in which he was prisoner), in Spain, but jfrom whence he 
made his escape. This house is also built in a park, and 
walled in. We next called in at the Bonnes-hommes, 
well-situated, with a fair chapel and library. 

1 March. I went to see the Count de Liancourt's Palace 
in the Eue de Seine, which is well built. Towards his 
study and bedchamber joins a httle garden, which, though 
very narrow, by the addition of a well-painted perspective, 
is to appearance greatly enlarged ; to this there is another 
part, supported by arches, in which runs a stream of 
water, rising in the aviary, out of a statue, and seeming to 
flow for some miles, by being artificially continued in the 
painting, when it sinks down at the wall. It is a very 
agreeable deceit. At the end of this garden, is a little 
theatre, made to change with divers pretty scenes, and 
the stage so ordered, with figures of men and women 
painted on light boards, and cut out, and, by a person 
who stands underneath, made to act as if they were speak- 
ing, by guiding them, and reciting words in different tones, 
as the parts require. We were led into a round cabinet, 
where was a neat invention for reflecting lights, by hning 
divers sconces with thin shining plates of gilded copper. 

In one of the rooms of state was an excellent painting 
of Poussin, being a Satyr kneeling; over the chimney, 
the Coronation of the Virgin, by Paulo Veronese ; another 
Madonna over the door, and that of Joseph, by Cigali ; in 


the Hall, a Cavaliero di Malta, attended by his page, said 
to be of Michael Angelo ; the Rape of Proserpine, with a 
very large landscape of Correggio. In the next room, are 
some paintings of Primaticcio, especially the Helena, the 
naked Lady brought before Alexander, well-painted, and 
a Ceres. In the bed-chamber a picture of the Cardinal 
de Liancourt, of Raphael, rarely coloured. In the cabinet 
are divers pieces of Bassano, two of Polemburg, four of 
Paulo Brill, the skies a Httle too blue. A Madonna of 
Nicholao, excellently painted on a stone; a Judith of 
Mantegna ; three women of Jeronimo ; one of Stenwick ; 
a Madonna after Titian, and a Magdalen of the same 
hand, as the Count esteems it : two small pieces of Paulo 
Veronese, being the Martyrdoms of St. Justina and St. 
Catherine ; a Madonna of Lucas Van Leyden, sent him 
from our King ; six more of old Bassano ; two excellent 
drawings of Albert ; a Magdalen of Leonardo da Vinci ; 
four of Paulo ; a very rare Madonna of Titian, given him 
also by our King ; the Ecce Homo, shut up in a frame of 
velvet, for the life and accurate finishing exceeding all 
description. Some curious agates, and a chaplet of ad- 
mirable invention, the intagUos being all on fruit stones. 
The Count was so exceeding civil, that he would needs 
make his Lady go out of her dressing-room, that he might 
show us the curiosities and pictures in it. 

We went thence to visit one Monsieur Perishot, one of 
the greatest virtuosos in France, for his collection of pic- 
tures, agates, medals, and flowers, especially tuhps and 
anemonies. The chiefest of his paintings was a Sebastian, 
of Titian. 

From him we went to Monsieur Frene's, who shewed 
us many rare drawings, a Rape of Helen in black chalk ; 
many excellent things of Sneiders. all naked; some of 
Julio and Michael Angelo; a Madonna of Passignano; 
some things of Parmensis, and other masters. 

The next morning, being recommended to one Monsieur 
de Hausse, President du Parliament, and once Ambas- 
sador at Venice for the French King, we were very civiUy 
received, and shewed his Ubrary. Amongst his paintings 
were, a rare Venus and Adonis of Veronese, a St. Anthony, 
after the first manner of Correggio, and a rare Madonna 
of Palma. 

1644] JOHN EVELYN. 57 

Sunday, the 6th. I went to Charenton, two leagues 
from Paris, to hear and see the manner of the French 
Protestant Church service. The place of meeting they 
call the Temple, a very fair and spacious room, built of 
freestone, very decently adorned with paintings of the 
Tables of the Law, the Lord's Prayer, and Creed. The 
pulpit stands at the upper end in the middle, having an 
inclosure of seats about it, where the Elders, and persons 
of greatest quality and strangers, sit ; the rest of the con- 
gregation on forms and low stools, but none in pews, as 
in our churches, to their great disgrace, and nothing so 
orderly, as here the stools and other cumber are removed 
when the assembly rises. I was greatly pleased with their 
harmonious singing the Psalms, which they all learn per- 
fectly well, their children being as duly taught these, as 
their catechism. 

In our passage, we went by that famous bridge over the 
Marne, where that renowned, echo returns the voice of a 
good singer nine or ten times. 

7th . I set forwards with some company towards 

Fontainebleau, a sumptuous Palace of the King's, like ours 
at Hampton Court, about fourteen leagues from the city. 
By the way, we pass through a forest so prodigiously 
encompassed with hideous rocks of whitish hard stone, 
heaped one on another in mountainous heights, that I 
think the like is nowhere to be found more horrid and 
solitary. It abounds with stags, wolves, boars, and not 
long after a lynx, or ounce, was killed amongst them, which 
had devoured some passengers. On the summit of one of 
these gloomy precipices, intermingled with trees and 
shrubs, the stones hanging over, and menacing ruin, is 
built an hermitage. In these solitudes, rogues frequently 
lurk and do mischief (and for whom we were all well 
appointed with our carabines) ; but we arrived save in the 
evening at the village, where we lay at the Home, going 
early next morning to the Palace. 

This House is nothing so stately and uniform as Hamp- 
ton-Court, but Francis I. began much to beautify it; 
most of all Henry IV. (and not a little) the late King. 
It abounds with fair halls, chambers, and galleries ; in 
the longest, which is 360 feet long, and 18 broad, are 
painted the Victories of that great Prince, Henry IV. 

5g DIARY OP [fontainebleau. 

That of Francis I. called the grand Gallery, has all the 
King^s Palaces painted in it ; above these, in sixty pieces 
of excellent work in fresco, is the History of Ulysses, 
from Homer, by Primaticcio, in the time of Henry III., 
esteemed the most renowned in Europe for the design. 
The Cabinet is full of excellent pictures, especially a 
Woman, of Raphael. In the Hall of the Guards is a 
piece of tapestry painted on the wall, very naturally, re- 
presenting the Victories of Charles VII. over our country- 
men. In the Salle des Festins is a rare Chimney-piece, 
and Henry IV. on horseback, of white marble, esteemed 
worth 18,000 crowns ; dementia and Pax, nobly done. 
On columns of jasper, two lions of brass. The new stairs, 
and a half circular court, are of modern and good archi- 
tecture, as is a chapel built by Louis XIII., all of jasper, 
with several incrustations of marble through the inside. 

Having seen the rooms, we went to the volary, which has 
a cupola in the middle of it, great trees and bushes, it 
being full of birds who drank at two fountains. There is 
also a fair tennis-court, and noble stables ; but the beauty 
of all are the gardens. In the Court of the Fountains, 
stand divers antiquities and statues; especially a Mercury. 
In the Queen's Garden is a Diana ejecting a fountain, 
with numerous other brass statues. 

The great Garden, 180 toises long and 154 wide, has in 
the centre a foimtain of Tyber of a Colossean figure of 
brass, with the Wolf over Romulus and Remus. At each 
corner of the garden rises a fountain. In the garden of 
the piscina, is a Hercules of wliite marble : next, is that of 
the pines, and without that a canal of an Enghsh mile in 
length, at the end of which rise three jettos in the fonn 
of a fleur-de-lis, of a great height; on the margin are 
excellent walks planted with trees. The c^ps come 
familiarly to hand [to be fed] . Hence, they brought us 
to a spring, which they say being first discovered by a 
dog, gave occasion of beautifying this place, both with the 
palace and gardens. The white and terrific rocks at some 
distance in the forest, yield one of the most august and 
stupendous prospects imaginable. The park about this 
place is very lai'ge, and the town full of noblemen's 

Next morning, we were invited by a painter, who was 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 5|^ 

keeper of the pictures and rarities, to see his own col- 
lection. We were led through a gallery of old B-osso's 
work, at the end of which, in another cabinet, were three 
Madonnas of Raphael, and two of Andrea del Sarto. In 
the Academy where the Painter himself wrought, was a 
St. Michael, of Raphael, very rare; St. John Baptist, of 
Leonardo, and a Woman's head ; a Queen of Sicily, and 
St. Margaret, of Raphael ; two more Madonnas, whereof 
one very large, by the same hand; some more of del 
Sarto; a St. Jerome, of Perino del Vaga; the Rape of 
Proserpine, very good ; and a great number of drawings. 

Returning part of our way to Paris, that day, we visited 
a house called Maison Rouge, having an excellent prospect, 
grot, and fountains, one whereof rises fifty feet,and resem- 
bles the noise of a tempest, battles of guns, &c. at its issue. 

Thence to Essone, a house of Monsieur Esshng, who is- 
a great virtuoso; there are many good paintings in it; but 
nothing so observable as his gardens, fountains, fish-pools, 
especially that in a triangular form, the water cast out by 
a multitude of heads about it; there is a noble cascade 
and pretty baths, with all accommodations. Under a 
marble table is a fountain of serpents twisting about a 

We alighted next at Corbeil, a town famous for the siege 
by Henry IV. Here we slept, and returned next morning 
to Paris. 

18th . I went with Sir J. Cotton, a Cambridge- 
shire Knight, a journey into Normandy. The first day, we 
passed by Gaillon, the Archbishop of Rouen's Palace. The 
gardens are highly commended, but we did not go in, 
intending to reach Pontoise, by dinner. This town is 
built in a very gallant place, has a noble bridge oyer the 
Oise, and is well refreshed with fountains. 

This is the first town in Normandy, and the farthest 
that the vineyards extend to on this side of the country, 
which is fuller of plains, wood, and enclosures, with some 
towns towards the sea, very like England. 

We lay this night at a village, called Magny. The next 
day, descending a very steep hill, we dined at Fleury, 
after riding five leagues down St. Catherine, to Rouen, 
which affords a goodly prospect, to the ruins of that 
chapel and mountain. This country so abounds with 

6Q - DIARY OF .• [rouen, 

wolves, that a shepherd whom we met, told us one of his 
companions was strangled by one of them the day before, 
and that in the midst of his flock. The fields are mostly 
planted with pears and apples, and other cider fruits. It 
is plentifully furnished with quarries of stone and slate, 
and hath iron in abundance. 

I lay at the White Cross, in Rouen, which is a very 
large city, on the Seine, having two smaller rivers besides, 
called the Aubette and Robec. There stand yet the ruins 
of a magnificent bridge of stone, now supplied by one of 
boats only, to which come up vessels of considerable bur- 
then. The other side of the water consists of meadows, 
and there have the Reformed a Church. 

The Cathedral Notre Dame was built, as they acknow- 
ledge, by the English ; some Enghsh words graven in 
Gothic characters upon the front seem to confirm it. The 
towers and whole church are full of carving. It has three 
steeples, with a pyramid ; in one of these, I saw the famous 
oell so much talked of, thirteen feet in height, thirty -two 
round, the diameter eleven, weighing 40,000 pounds. 

In the Chapel d'Amboise, built by a Cardinal of that 
name, lies his body, with several fair monuments. The 
Choir has behind it a great dragon painted on the wall, 
which they say had done much harm to the inhabitants, 
till vanquished by St. Romain, their Archbishop ; for which 
there is an annual procession. It was now near Easter, 
and many images were exposed with scenes and stories 
representing the Passion; made up of little puppets, to 
which there was great resort and devotion, with offerings. 
Before the church is a fair palace. St. Ouen is another 
goodly church and an abbey with fine gardens. Here the 
King hath lodgings, when he makes his progress through 
these parts. The structure, where the Court of Parliament 
is kept, is very magnificent, containing very fair halls and 
chambers, especially La Chambre Doree. The town- 
house is also well built, and so are some gentlemen's 
houses ; but most part of the rest are of timber, hke our 
merchants' in London, in the wooden part of the city. 

21st . On Easter Monday, we dined at Totes, a 

solitary inn between Rouen and Dieppe, at which latter 
place we arrived. This town is situated between two 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 6X 

mountains, not unpleasantly, and is washed on the north 
by our English seas. 

The port is commodious ; but the entrance difficult. It 
has one very ample and fair street, in which is a pretty 
church. The Fort Pollet consists of a strong earth- work, 
and commands the haven, as on the other side does the 
castle, which is also well fortified, with the citadel before 
it ; nor is the town itself a Httle strong. It abounds with 
workmen, who make and sell curiosities of ivory and 
tortoise-shells; and indeed whatever the East Indies 
afibrd of cabinets, porcelain, natural and exotic rarities, 
are here to be had, with abundant choice. 

23rd. We passed along the coast by a very rocky and 
rugged way, which forced us to ahght many times before 
we came to Havre de Grace, where we lay that night. 

The next morning, we saw the citadel, strong and 
regular, well stored with artillery and ammunition of all 
sorts : the works furnished with fair brass cannon, having 
a motto. Ratio ultima Regum. The allogements of the 
garrison are uniform; a spacious place for drawing up 
the soldiers, a pretty chapel, and a fair house for the 
Governor. The Duke of RicheUeu being now in the 
fort, we went to salute him ; who received us very civiUy, 
and commanded that we should be shewed whatever we 
desired to see. The citadel was built by the late Cardinal 
de Richelieu, uncle of the present Duke, and may be 
esteemed one of the strongest in France. The haven is 
very capacious. 

When we had done here, we embarked ourselves and 
horses to pass to Honfleur, about four or five leagues 
distant, where the Seine falls into the sea. It is a poor 
fisher-town, remarkable for nothing so much as the odd, 
yet useful habits which the good women wear, of bears' 
and other skins, as of rugs at Dieppe, and all along these 
maritime coasts. 

25th. We arrived at Caen, a noble and beautiful 
town, situate on the river Ome, which passes quite 
through it, the two sides of the town joined only by a 
bridge of one entire arch. We lay at the Angel, where 
we were very well used, the place being abundantly 
furnished with provisions, at a cheap rate. The most 
considerable object is the great Abbey and Church, large 

153 DIARY OF [cAEN, 

and rich, built after the Gothic manner, having two 
spires and middle lantern at the west end, all of stone. 
The choir round and large, in the centre whereof, elevated 
on a square, handsome, but plain sepulchre, is this 
incription : — 

" Hoc sepulchrum invictissimi juxta et clementissimi conquestoris, 
Gulielmi, dum viverat Anglorum Regis, Normannorum Cenomanno- 
rumque Principis, hujus insignis Abbatiae piissimi Fundatoris : Cum 
anno 1562 vesano haereticorum furore direptum fuisset, pio tandem 
nobilium ejusdem Abbatiae religiosorum gratitudinis sensu in tam 
beneficum largitorem, instauratum fuit, a° D'lii 1642, D'no Johanne 
de Bailhache Assaetorii proto priore. D. D." 

*0n the other side are these monkish rhymes : — 

" Qui rexit rigidos Noi-thmannos, atq. Britannos 

Audacter vicit, fortiter obtinuit, 
Et Cenomanensis virtute coercuit ensis, 

Imperiique sui Legibus applicuit. 
Rex magnus parva jacet hac Gulielm' in Uma, 

Sufficit et magno parva domus Domino. 
Ter septem gradibus te volverat atq. duobus 

Virginis in gremio Phoebus, et hie obiit." 

We went to the castle, which is strong and fair, and so 
is the town-house, built on the bridge which unites the 
two towns. Here are schools and an University for the 

The whole town is handsomely built of that excellent 
stone so well known by that name in England. I was led 
to a pretty garden, planted with hedges of alatemus, 
having at the entrance a skreen at an exceeding height, 
accurately cut in topiary work, with well-understood 
architecture, consisting of pillars, niches, friezes, and 
other ornaments, with great curiosity; some of the 
columns curiously wreathed, others spiral, all according 
to art. 

28th. We went towards Paris, lying the first night 
at Evreux, a Bishop's seat, an ancient tOAvn, with a fair 
cathedral ; so the next day we arrived at Paris. 

Ist April. I went to see more exactly the rooms of the 
fine Palace of Luxemburg, in the Fauxbourg St. Germains, 
built by Mary di Medicis, and I think one of the most 
noble, entire, and finished piles that is to be seen, taking 
it with the garden and all its accomplishments. The 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. ^ ^ 

gallery is of the painting of Rubens, being the history 
of the Foundress's Life, rarely designed ; at the end of 
it is the Duke of Orleans' library, well furnished with 
excellent books, all bound in maroquin and gilded, the 
valance of the shelves being of green velvet, fringed with 
gold. In the cabinet joining to it are only the smaller 
volumes, with six cabinets of medals, and an excellent 
collection of shells and agates, whereof some are pro- 
digiously rich. This Duke being very learned in medals 
and plants, nothing of that kind escapes him. There are 
other spacious, noble, and princely furnished rooms, Avhich 
look towards the gardens, which are nothing inferior to 
the rest. 

The court below is formed into a square by a corridor, 
having over the chief entrance a stately cupola, covered 
with stone; the rest is cloistered and arched on pilasters 
of rustic work. The terrace ascending before the front, 
paved with white and black marble, is balustered with 
white marble, exquisitely pohshed. 

Only the haU below is low, and the staircase somewhat 
of a heavy design, but the faccia towards the parterre, 
which is also arched and vaulted with stone, is of 
admirable beauty, and full of sculpture. 
^ The gardens are near an English mile in compass, 
enclosed with a stately wall, and in a good air. The 
parterre is indeed of box, but so rarely designed and 
accurately kept cut, that the embroidery makes a won- 
derful effect to the lodgings which front it. 'Tis divided 
into four squares, and as many circular knots, having in 
the centre a noble basin of marble near thirty feet 
diameter (as I remember), in which a Triton of brass 
holds a dolphin, that casts a girandola of water near thirty 
feet high, playing perpetually, the water being conveyed 
from Arceuil by an. aqueduct of stone, built after the old 
Eoman magnificence. About this ample parterre, the 
spacious walks and all included, runs a border of freestone, 
adorned with pedestals for pots and statues, and part of it 
near the steps of the terrace, with a rail and baluster of 
pure white marble. 

The walks are exactly fair, long, and variously descend- 
ing, and so justly planted with hmes, elms, and other 
trees, that nothing can be more delicious, especially that 


of the horn-beam hedge, which being high and stately, 
buts full on the fountain. 

Towards the farther end, is an excavation intended for 
a vast fish-pool, but never finished, and. near it is an 
inclosure for a garden of simples, well-kept ; and here the 
Duke keeps tortoises in great number, who use the pool 
of water on one side of the garden. Here is also a con- 
sen-^atory for snow. At the upper part, towards the palace, 
is a grove of tall elms cut into a star, every ray being a 
walk, whose centre is a large fountain. 

The rest of the ground is made into several inclosures 
(all hedge-work or rows of trees) of whole fields, meadows, 
bocages, some of them containing divers >f,cres. 

Next the street side, and more contiguous to the house, 
are knots in trail, or grass work, where hkewise runs a 
fountain. Towards the grotto and stables, within a wall, is 
a garden of choice flowers, in which the Duke spends many 
thousand pistoles. In sum, nothing is wanting to render 
this palace and gardens perfectly beautiful and magni- 
ficent; nor is it one of the least diversions to see the 
number of persons of quahty, citizens and strangers, who 
frequent it, and to whom all access is freely permitted, 
so that you shall see some walks and retirements full of 
gallants and ladies ; in others, melancholy friars ; in others, 
studious scholars ; in others, jolly citizens, some sitting or 
lying on the grass, others running and jumping; some 
playing at bowls and ball, others dancing and singing; 
and all this without the least disturbance, by reason of the 
largeness of the place. 

What is most admirable, you see no gardeners, or men 
at work, and yet all is kept in such exquisite order, as if 
they did nothing else but work ; it is so early in the 
morning, that all is dispatched and done without the least 

I have been the larger in the description of this para- 
dise, for the extraordinary delight I have taken in those 
sweet retirements. The Cabinet and Chapel nearer the 
garden-front have some choice pictures. All the houses 
near this are also very noble palaces, especially Petite 
Luxemburg. The ascent of the street is handsome from 
its breadth, situation, and buildings. 

I went next to view Paris from the top of St. Jacques' 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 65 

«teeple, esteemed the highest in the town, from whence I 
had a full view of the whole city and suburbs, both which, 
as I judge, are not so large as London : though the dis- 
similitude of their several forms and situations, this being 
round, London long, — ^renders it difficult to determine; 
but there is no comparison between the buildings, palaces, 
and materials, this being entirely of stone and more 
■sumptuous, though I esteem our piazzas to exceed theirs. 

Hence I took a turn in St. Innocent's churchyard, 
"where the story of the devouring quality of the ground 
(consuming bodies in twenty -four hours), the vast charnels 
of bones, tombs, pyramids, and sepulchres, took up much 
of my time, together with the hieroglyphical characters of 
Nicholas FlameVs philosophical work, who had founded 
this church, and divers other charitable estabhshments, as 
he testifies in his book. 

Here divers clerks get their livelihood by inditing letters 
-for poor maids and other ignorant people who come to 
them for advice, and to write for them into the country, 
both to their sweethearts, parents, and friends ; every 
large grave-stone serving for a table. Joining to this 
church is a common fountain, with good relievos upon it. 

The next day, I was carried to see a French gentleman's 
curious collection, which abounded in fair and rich jewels 
of all sorts of precious stones, most of them of great sizes 
and value; agates and onyxes, some of them admirably 
coloured and antique; nor inferior were his landscapes 
from the best hands, most of which he had caused to 
•be copied in miniature ; one of which, rarely painted on 
atone, was broken by one of our company, by the mis- 
chance of setting it up : but such was the temper and 
civihty of the gentleman, that it altered nothing of his 
free and noble humour. 

The next morning, I was had by a friend to the garden 
of Monsieur Morine, who, from being an ordinary gardener, 
is become one of the most skilful and curious persons 
in France for his rare collection of shells, flowers, and 

His garden is of an exact oval figure, planted with 
cypress, cut flat and set as even as a wall : the tulips, 
anemones, ranunculuses, crocuses, &c., are held to be of 
the rarest, and draw all the admirers of that kind to his 

VOL. I. V 

66 DIARY OF [pAius, 

house during the season. He lived in a kind of hermitage 
at one side of his garden, where his collection of porcelain 
and coral, whereof one is carved into a large crucifix, is 
much esteemed. He has also books of prints, by Albert 
[Durer], Van Leyden, Callot, &c. His collection of all 
sorts of insects, especially of butterflies, is most curious; 
these he spreads and so medicates, that no corruption 
invading them, he keeps them in drawers, so placed as to 
represent a beautiful piece of tapestry. 

He shewed me the remarks he had made on their pro- 
pagation, which he promised to publish. Some of these,, 
as also of his best flowers, he had caused to be painted in 
miniature by rare hands, and some in oil. 

6th April. I sent my sister my own picture in water- 
colours, which she requested of me, and went to see divers 
of the fairest palaces of the town, as that of Vendome, very 
large and stately ; Longueville ; Guise ; Conde ; Chevereuse; 
Nevers, esteemed one of the best in Paris towards the river. 

I often went to the Palais Cardinal, bequeathed by 
Eichelieu to the King, on condition that it should be 
called by his name ; at this time, the King resided in it, 
because of the budding of the Louvre. It is a very noble 
house, though somewhat low; the galleries, paintings of 
the most illustrious persons of both sexes, the Queen's 
baths, presence-chamber with its rich carved and gilded 
roof, theatre, and large garden, in which is an ample 
fountain, grove, and mall, worthy of remark. Here I also 
frequently went to see them ride and exercise the great 
horse, especially at the Academy of Monsieur du Plessis, 
and de Veau, whose schools of that art are frequented by 
the nobility ; and here also young gentlemen are taught to 
fence, dance, play on music, and something in fortification 
and the mathematics. The design is admirable, some 
keeping near a hundred brave horses, all managed to the 
great saddle. 

12th. I took coach, to see a general muster of all the 
gens d'armes about the City, in the Bois de Boulogne, 
before their Majesties, and all the Grandees. They were 
reputed to be near 20,000, besides the spectators, who 
much exceeded them in number. Here they performed 
all their motions; and, being drawn up, horse and foot, 
into several figures, represented a battle. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 67 

The summer now drawing near, I determined to spend 
the rest of it in some more remote town on the river 
Loire; and, on 19th April, I took leave of Paris, and, by 
the way of the messenger, agreed for my passage to 

The way from Paris to this city, as indeed most of the 
roads in I^ance, is paved with a small square freestone, so 
that the country does not much molest the traveller with 
dirt and. ill way, as in England, only 'tis somewhat hard 
to the poor horses' feet, which causes them to ride more 
temperately, seldom going out of the trot, or grand pas, 
as they call it. We passed divers walled towns, or villages; 
amongst others of note, Chartres and Etampes, where we 
lay the first night. This has a fair church. The next 
day, we had an excellent road ; but had like to come short 
home ; for, no sooner were we entered two or three leagues 
into the Forest of Orleans (which extends itself many 
miles), but the company behind us were set on by rogues, 
who, shooting from the hedges and frequent covert, slew 
four upon the spot. Amongst the slain, was a captain of 
Swiss, of the regiment of Picardy, a person much lamented. 
This disaster made such an alarm in Orleans at our 
arrival, that the Prevot Marshal, with his assistants, going 
in pursuit, brought in two whom they had shot, and 
exposed them in the great market-place, to see if any 
would take cognizance of them. I had great cause to 
give God thanks for this escape ; when coming to Orleans 
and lying at the White Cross, I found Mr. John Nicholas, 
eldest son to Mr. Secretary. 

21st. I went about to view the city, which is well 
built of stone, on the side of the Loire. About the middle 
of the river is an island, full of walks and fair trees, with 
some houses. This is contiguous to the town by a stately 
stone-bridge, reaching to the opposite suburbs, built like- 
wise on the edge of a hill, from whence is a beautiful 
prospect. At one of the extremes of the bridge are strong 
towers, and about the middle, on one side, is the statue of 
the Virgin Mary, or Pieta, with the dead Christ in her lap, 
as big as the life. At one side of the cross, kneels Charles 
VII. armed, and at the other Joan d'Arc, armed also like a 
cavalier, with boots and spurs, her hair dishevelled, as the 
deliveress of the town from our countrymen, when they 



besieged it. The figures are all cast in copper, with a 
pedestal full of inscriptions, as well as a fair column joining 
it, which is all adorned with fleurs-de-lis and a crucifix, with 
two saints proceeding (as it were) from two branches out 
of its capital. The inscriptions on the cross are in Latin : 
" Mors Christi in cruce nos "k contagione labis et aeternorum 
morborum sanavit." On the pedestal : " Rex in hoc signo 
hostes profiigavit, et Johanna Virgo Aureliam obsidio 
liberavit. Non diu ab impiis diruta, restituta sunt hoc 
anno D'ni 1578. Jean Buret, m. V^ — "Octannoque 
Oalliam servitute Britannica liberavit. A Domino factum 
est illud, et est mirabile in oculis nostris ; in quorum 
memoria hsec nostrse fidei Insignia.'^ To this is made 
an annual procession on 12th May, inass being sung 
before it, attended with great ceremony and concourse of 
j)eople. The wine of this place is so strong, that the King^s 
cup-bearers are, as I was assured, sworn never to give the 
King any of it ; but it is a very noble liquor, and much of 
it transported into other countries. The town is much 
frequented by strangers, especially Germans, for the 
great purity of the language here spoken, as well as for 
divers other privileges, and the University, which causes 
the English to make no long sojourn here, except such as 
can drink and debauch. The city stands in the county of 
Bealse ; * was once styled a Kingdom, afterwards a Duchy, 
as at present, belonging to the second son of France. 
Many Councils have been held here, and some Kings 
crowned. The University is very ancient, divided now by 
the students into that of four nations, French, High Dutch, 
Normans, and Picardines, who have each their respective 
protectors, several officers, treasurers, consuls, seals, &c. 
There are in it two reasonable fair public libraries, 
whence one may borrow a book to one's chamber, giving 
but a note under hand, which is an extraordinary custom, 
and a confidence that has cost many libraries dear. The 
-first church I went to visit was St. Croix ; it has been a 
stately fabric, but now much ruined by the late civil wars. 
They report the tower of it to have been the highest in 
France. There is the beginning of a fair reparation. 
About this cathedral is a very spacious cemetery. The 
town-house is also very nobly built, with a high tower to 

• Blaisoia. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 69 

it. The market-place and streets, some whereof are deli- 
ciously planted with limes, are ample and straight, so well 
paved with a kind of pebble, that I have not seen a neater 
town in France. In fine, this city was by Francis I, 
esteemed the most agreeable of his vast dominions. 

28th. Taking boat on the Loire, I went towards 
Blois, the passage and river being both very pleasant. 
Passing Mehun, we dined at Baugenci, and slept at a 
little town, called St. Dieu. Quitting our bark, we hired 
horses to Blois, by the way of Chambord, a famous house 
of the King's, built by Francis I. in the middle of a 
solitary park, full of deer, enclosed with a wall. I Avas 
particularly desirous of seeing this palace, from the ex- 
travagance of the design, especially the stair-case, men- 
tioned by Palladio. It is said that 1800 workmen were 
constantly employed in this fabric for twelve years ; if so, 
it is wonderful that it was not finished, it being no greater 
than divers gentlemens' houses in England, both for room 
and circuit. The carvings are indeed very rich and full. 
The stair-case is devised with four entries, or ascents, 
which cross one another, so that though four persons 
meet, they never come in sight, but by small loop-holes, 
till they land. It consists of 274 steps (as I remember), 
and is an extraordinary work, but of far greater expense 
than use or beauty. The chimneys of the house appear 
like so many towers. About the whole is a large deep 
moat. The country about is full of com, and wine, witli, 
many fair noblemen's houses. 

We arrived at Blois, in the evening. The town is hilly, 
uneven, and rugged, standing on the side of the Loire, 
having suburbs joined by a stately stone bridge, on which 
is a pyramid with an inscription. At the entrance of the 
castle is a stone statue of Louis XII. on horseback, as 
large as life, under a Gothic state ; and a little below are 
these words : 

Hie ubi natus erat dextro LudovicQS Olympo, 

Sumpsit honorata regia sceptra manu ; 
Felix quae tanti fulsit Lux nuncia Regis ! 

Gallica non alio principe digna fuit. 

Under this is a very wide pair of gates, nailed full of 
wolves and wild-boars' heads. Behind the castle the 

70 DIARY OF [blois, 

present Duke Gaston had begun a fair building, through 
which we walked into a large garden, esteemed for its 
furniture one of the fairest, especially for simples and exotic 
plants, in which he takes extraordinary delight. On the 
right hand, is a long gallery full of ancient statues and 
inscriptions, both of marble and brass; the length, 300 
paces, divides the garden into higher and lower ground, 
having a very noble fountain. There is the portrait of a 
hart, taken in the forest by Louis XII., which has twenty- 
four antlers on its head. In the Collegiate Church of 
St. Saviour, we saw many sepulchres of the Earls of Blois. 

On Sunday, being May-day, we walked up into PaU 
Mall, very long, and so noble shaded with tall trees 
(being in the midst of a great wood), that unless that of 
Tours, I had not seen a statelier. 

From hence, we proceeded with a friend of mine through 
the adjoining forest, to see if we could meet any wolves, 
which are here in such numbers that they often come and 
take children out of the very streets; yet will not the 
Duke, who is sovereign here, permit them to be destroyed. 
We walked five or six miles outright; but met with none; 
yet a gentleman, who was resting himself under a tree, 
with his horse grazing by him, told us that, half an hour 
before, two wolves had set upon his horse, and had in 
probability devoured him, but for a dog which lay by 
him. At a little village at the end of this wood, we eat 
excellent cream, and visited a castle builded on a very 
steep cliff. 

Blois is a town where the language is exactly spoken ; 
the inhabitants very courteous ; the air so good, that it is 
the ordinary nursery of the King's children. The people 
are so ingenious, that, for goldsmiths' work and watches, 
no place in France affords the hke. The pastures by the 
river are very rich and pleasant. 

2nd May. We took boat again, passing by Charmont, a 
proud castle on the left hand ; before it is a sweet island, 
deliciously shaded with tall trees. A little distance from 
hence, we went on shore at Amboise, a very agreeable 
village, built of stone, and the houses covered with blue 
slate, as the towns on the Loire generally are ; but the 
castle chiefly invited us, the thickness of whose towers, 
from the river to the top, was admirable. We entered by 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 71 

the drawbridge, which has an invention to let one fall, if 
not premonished. It is full of halls and spacious cham- 
bers, and one stair-case is large enough, and sufficiently 
commodious, to receive a coach, and land it on the very 
tower, as they told us had been done. There is some 
artillery in it : but that which is most observable is in the 
ancient chapel, viz. a stag's head, or branches, hung up by 
chains, consisting of twenty brow-antlers, the beam bigger 
than a man's middle, and of an incredible length. Indeed, 
it is monstrous, and yet I cannot conceive how it should 
be artificial : they show also the ribs and vertebrae of the 
same beast ; but these might be made of whalebone. 

Leaving the castle, we passed Mont Louis, a village 
having no houses above ground, but such only as are hewn 
out of the main rocks of excellent freestone. Here and 
there the funnel of a chimney appears on the surface 
amongst the vineyards which are over them, and in this 
manner they inhabit the caves, as it were sea-cliffs, on one 
side of the river for many miles. 

We now came within sight of Tours, where we were 
designed for the rest of the time I had resolved to stay in 
France, the sojournment being so agreeable. Tours is 
situate on the easy side of a hill on the river Loire, having 
a fair bridge of stone, called St. Edme; the streets are 
very long, straight, spacious, well-built, and exceeding 
clean ; the suburbs large and pleasant, joined to the city 
by another bridge. Both the church and monastery of 
St. Martin are large, of Gothic building, having four 
square towers, fair organs, and a stately altar, where they 
shew the bones and ashes of St. Martin, with other relics. 
The Mall without comparison is the noblest in Europe 
for length and shade, having seven rows of the tallest 
and goodhest elms I had ever beheld, the innermost of 
which do so embrace each other, and at such a height, 
that nothing can be more solemn and majestical. Here 
we played a party, or party or two, and then walked about 
the town-waUs, bxiilt of square stone, filled with earth, and 
having a moat. No city in France exceeds it in beauty, 
or delight, 

6th. We went to St. Gatian, reported to have been 
built by our coTintrymen; the dial and clock-work are 
much esteemed. The church has two handsome towers 

7* DIARY OF [sT. GiTUN, 

and spires of stone, and the whole fabric is very noble and 
venerable. To this joins the Palace of the Archbishop, 
consisting both of old and new building, with many fair 
rooms, and a fair garden. Here I grew acquainted with 
one Monsieur Merey, a very good musician. The Arch- 
bishop treated me very courteously. We visited divers 
other churches, chapels, and monasteries, for the most 
part neatly built, and full of pretty paintings, especially 
the Convent of the Capuchins, which has a prospect over 
the whole city, and many fair walks. 

8th. I went to see their manufactures in silk (for in 
this town they drive a very considerable trade with silk- 
worms), their pressing and watering the grograms and 
camlets, with weights of an extraordinary poise, put into 
a rolling-engine. Here I took a master of the language, 
and studied the tongue very diligently, recreating myself 
sometimes at the mall, and sometimes about the town. 
The house opposite my lodging had been formerly a 
King's palace; the outside was totally covered with fleur- 
de-lis, embossed out of the stone. Here Mary de Medicis 
held her Court, when she was compelled to retire from, 
Paris by the persecution of the great Cardinal. 

25th. Was the Fete Dieu, and a goodly procession of all 
the religious orders, the whole streets hung with their 
best tapestries, and their most precious moveables ex- 
posed ; silks, damasks, velvets, plate, and pictures in 
abundance; the streets strewed with flowers, and full of 
pageantry, banners, and bravery. 

6th June. I went by water to visit that goodly and vener- 
able Abbey of Marmoutiers, being one of the greatest in 
the kingdom : to it is a very ample church of stone, with 
a very high pyramid. Amongst other relics, the Monks 
shewed us is the Holy Ampoulle, the same with that 
which sacres their Kings at Rheims, this being the one 
that anointed Henry IV. Ascending many steps, we 
went into the Abbot's Palace, where we were shewed a 
vast tun, (as big as that at Heidelberg), which they report 
St. Martin (as I remember) filled from one cluster of 
grapes growing there. 

7th. We walked about two miles from the city to an 
agreeable solitude, called Du Plessis, a house belonging to 
the King. It has many pretty gardens, full of nightin- 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. ^J^ 

gales : and, in the chapel, lies buried the famous poet, 

Returning, we stepped into a Convent of Franciscans, 
called St. Cosmo, where the cloister is painted with the 
miracles of their St. Francis h Paula, whose ashes lie in 
their chapel, with this inscription : " Corpus Sancti Fran, 
si Paula 1507. 13 Aprilis. concrematur vero ab Hsereticis 
anno 1562, cujus quidem ossa et cineres hie jacent." The 
tomb has four small pyramids of marble at each corner. 

9th. I was in\dted to a vineyard, which was so arti- 
ficially planted and supported with arched poles, that 
stooping down one might see from end to end, a very 
great length, under the vines, the bunches hanging down 
in abundance. • 

20th. We took horse to see certain natural caves, called 
Gouttiere, near Colombiere, where there is a spring within 
the bowels of the earth, very deep and so excessive cold, 
that the drops meeting with some lapidescent matter, it 
converts them into a hard stone, which hangs about it 
like icicles, having many others in the form of comfitures 
and sugar plums, as we call them. 

Near this, we went under the ground almost two fur- 
longs, lighted with candles, to see the source and spring 
which serves the whole city, by a passage cut through the 
main rock of freestone. 

28th. I went to see the palace and gardens of Chevereux, 
a sweet place. 

30th. I walked through the vineyards as far as Roche 
Corbd, to the ruins of an old and very strong castle said 
to have been built by the EngUsh, of great height, on the 
precipice of a dreadful cKff, from whence the country and 
river yield a most incomparable prospect. 

27 th July. I heard excellent music at the Jesuits, who 
have here a school and convent, but a mean chapel. We 
had now store of those admirable melons, so much cele- 
brated in France for the best in the kingdom. 

1st August. My valet, one Garro, a Spaniard, born in 
Biscay, having misbehaved, I was forced to discharge him ; 
he demanded of me (besides his wages) no less than 100 
crowns to carry him to his country ; refusing to pay it, as 
no part of our agreement, he had the impudence to arrest 
me ; the next day I was to appear in Court, where both 

y4 DIARY OP [tours, 

our avocats pleaded before the Lieutenant Civil: but it 
was so unreasonable a pretence, that the Judge had not 
patience to hear it out. The Judge immediately acquit- 
ting me, after he had reproached the avocat who took part 
with my servant, he rose from the Bench, and, making a 
courteous excuse to me, that being a stranger I should be 
so used, he conducted me through the court to the street- 
door. This varlet afterwards threatened to pistol me. 
The next day, I waited on the Lieutenant, to thank him 
for his great civility. 

18th. The Queen of England came to Tours, having 
newly arrived in France, and going for Paris. She was 
very nobly received by the people and clergy, who went to 
meet her with th^ trained bands. After the harangue, 
the Archbishop entertained her at his Palace, where I 
paid my duty to her. The 20th, she set forward to Paris. 

8th September. Two of my kinsmen came from Paris to 
this place, where I settled them in their pension and 

14th. We took post for Richelieu, passing by FIsle 
Bouchard, a village in the way. The next day, we ar- 
rived, and went to see the Cardinal's Palace, near it. The 
town is built in a low, marshy ground, having a narrow 
river cut by hand, very even and straight, capable of 
bringing up a small vessel. It consists of only one con- 
siderable street, the houses on both sides (as indeed 
throughout the town) built exactly imiform, after a modem 
handsome design. It has a large goodly market-house 
and place, opposite to which is the church built of free- 
stone, having two pyramids of stone, which stand hollow 
from the towers. The church is well-built, and of a 
weU-ordered architecture, within handsomely paved and 
adorned. To this place belongs an Academy, where, 
besides the exercise of the horse, arms, dancing, &c., all 
the sciences are taught in the vulgar French by professors 
stipendiated by the great Cardinal, who by this, the cheap 
li^dng there, and divers privileges, not only designed the 
improvement of the vulgar language, but to draw people 
and strangers to the town ; but since the Cardinal's death 
it is thinly inhabited ; standing so much out of the way, 
and in a place not well situated for health, or pleasure. 
He was allured to build by the name of the place, and an 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 76 

old house tliere belonging to his ancestors. This pretty 
town is handsomely walled about and moated, with a kind 
of slight fortification, two fair gates and draw-bridges. 
Before the gate, towards the palace, is a spacious circle, 
where the fair is annually kept. About a flight-shot from 
the town is the Cardinal's house, a princely pile, though 
on an old design, not altogether Gothic, but mixed, en- 
vironed by a clear moat. The rooms are stately, most 
richly furnished with tissue, damask, arras, and velvet, 
pictures, statues, vases, and all sorts of antiquities, espe- 
cially the Caesars, in oriental alabaster. The long gallery 
is painted with the famous acts of the Founder ; the roof 
with the life of Juhus Caesar ; at the ^nd of it is a cupola, 
or singing theatre, supported by very stately pillars of 
black marble. The chapel anciently belonged to the 
family of the Founder. The court is very ample. The 
gardens without are very large, and the parterres of excel- 
lent embroidery, set with many statues of brass and 
marble ; the groves, meadows, and walks are a real 

16th. We returned to Tours, from whence, after nineteen 
weeks' sojom*n, we travelled towards the more southern 
part of France, minding now to shape my course so, as I 
might winter in Italy. With my fnend, Mr. Thicknesse, 
and our guide, we went the first day seven leagues to a 
castle called Chenonceau, built by Catherine de Medicis, 
and now belonging to the Duke de Vendome, standing on 
a bridge. In the gallery, amongst divers other excellent 
statues, is that of Scipio Africanus, of oriental alabaster. 

21st. We passed by Villefranche, where we dined, and 
so by Muneton, lying at Viaron-au-mouton, which was 
twenty leagues. The next day by Murg to Botu'ges, four 
leagues, where we spent the day. This is the capital of 
Berry, an University much frequented by the Dutch, 
situated on the river Eure. It stands high, is strong, and 
well placed for defence; is environed with meadows and 
vines, and the living here is very cheap. In the suburbs 
of St. Priv^, there is a fountain of sharp water which they 
report wholesome against the stone. They shewed us a 
vast tree which they say stands in the centre of France. 
The French tongue is spoken with great purity in this 
place. St. Stephen's church is the cathedral, well-built 

76 DIARY OF [bourcf, 

a la Gothique, full of sepulchres without-side, with the 
representation of the final Judgment over one of the ports. 
Here they show the chapel of Claude de la Chastre, a 
famous soldier, who had served six Kings of France in 
their wars. St. Chapelle is built much like that at Paris, 
full of relics, and containing the bones of one Briat, a 
giant of fifteen cubits high. It was erected by John. 
Duke of Berry, and there is shewed the coronet of the 
dukedom. The great tower is a Pharos for defence of the 
town, very strong, in thickness eighteen feet, fortified with 
graffs and works ; there is a garrison in it, and a strange 
engine for throwing great stones, and the iron cage where 
Louis, Duke of Orleans, was kept by Charles VIII. Near 
the Town-house stahds the College of Jesuits, where was 
heretofore an Amphitheatre. I was courteously enter- 
tained by a Jesuit, who had us into the garden, where we 
fell into disputation. The house of Jaques Coeur is worth 
seeing. Bourges is an Archbishopric, and Primacy of 
Aquitaine. I took my leave of Mr. Nicholas, and some 
other English there ; and, on the 23rd, proceeded on my 
journey by Pont du Charge; and lay that evening at 
Coulaiure, thirteen leagues. 

24th, by Franchesse, St. Menoux, thence to Moulins, 
where we dined. This is the chief town of the Bourbon- 
nois, on the river Alher, very navigable. The streets are 
fair ; the Castle has a noble prospect, and has been the 
seat of the Dukes. Here is a pretty park and garden. 
After dinner, came many who oflFered knives and scissors 
to sell; it being a town famous for these trifles. This 
Duchy of Bourbon is ordinarily assigned for the dowry of 
the Queens of France. 

Hence, we took horse for Varennes, an obscure village, 
where we lay that night. The next day, we went some- 
what out of the way to see the town of Bourbon 1 'Ar- 
chambaut, from whose ancient and rugged castle is derived 
the name of the present Royal Family of France. The 
castle stands on a flinty rock, overlooking the town. In 
the midst of the streets are some baths of medicinal 
waters, some of them excessive hot, but nothing so neatly 
walled and adorned as ours in Somersetshire ; and indeed 
they are chiefly used to drink of, our Queen being then 
lodged there for that purpose. After dinner, I went to 

1(544.] JOHN EVELYN. 77 

see the St. Chapelle, a prime place of devotion, where is 
kept one of the thorns of our Saviour's crown, and a piece 
of the real cross ; excellent paintings on glass, and some 
few statues of stone and wood, which they show for 
curiosities. Hence, we went forward to La Pahse, a 
village that lodged us that night. 

26th. We arrived at Roane, where we quitted our 
guide, and took post for Lyons. Roane seemed to me 
one of the pleasantest and most agreeable places ima- 
ginable, for a retired person : for, besides the situa- 
tion on the Loire, there are excellent provisions cheap and 
abundant. It being late when we left this town, we rode 
no farther than Tarare that night (passing St. Saforin), a 
little desolate village in a valley near a pleasant stream, 
encompassed with fresh meadows and vineyards. The 
hills which we rode over before we descended, and after- 
wards, on the Lyons side of this place, are high and 
mountainous ; fir and pines growing frequently on them. 
The air methought was much altered, as well as the 
manner of the houses, which are built flatter, more after 
the eastern manner. Before I went to bed, I took a land- 
scape of this pleasant terrace. There followed a most 
Adolent tempest of thunder and lightning. 

27th. We rode by Pont Charu to Lyons, which being but 
six leagues we soon accomplished, having made eighty-five 
leagues from Tours in seven days. Here, at the Golden 
Lion, rue de Flandre, I met divers of my acquaintance, 
who, coming from Paris, were designed for Italy. We 
lost no time in seeing the city, because of being ready to 
accompany these gentlemen in their journey. Lyons is 
excellently situated on the confluence of the rivers Soane 
and Rhone, which wash the walls of the city in a very 
rapid stream ; each of these has its bridge ; that over the 
Rhone consists of twenty-eight arches. The two high 
cliffs, called St. Just and St. Sebastian, are very stately ; 
on one of them stands a strong fort, garrisoned. We 
visited the cathedral, St. Jean, where was one of the fairest 
clocks for art and busy invention I had ever seen. The 
fabric of the church is gothic, as are likewise those of St. 
Etienne and St. Croix. From the top of one of the 
towers of St. Jean (for it has four) we beheld the whole 
city and country, with a prospect reaching to the Alps, 

78 DIARY OP [tienne, 

many leagues distant. The Archbisliop's Palace is fairly 
built. The church of St, Nisier is the greatest ; that of 
the Jacobins is well built. Here are divers other fine 
churches and very noble buildings we had not time to 
visit, only that of the Charity, or great hospital for poor 
infirm people, entertaining about 1500 souls, with a school, 
granary, gardens, and all conveniences, maintained at a 
wonderful expense, worthy seeing. The place of the Belle 
Cour is very spacious, observable for the view it affords, so 
various and agreeable, of hills, rocks, vineyards, gardens, 
precipices, and other extravagant and incomparable advan- 
tages, presenting themselves together. The Pall Mall is 
set with fair trees. In fine, this stately, clean, and noble 
city, built all of stone, abounds in persons of quality and 
rich merchants : those of Florence pbtaining great privi- 
leges above the rest. In the Town-house, they show two 
tables of brass, on which is engraven Claudius's speech, 
pronounced to the Senate, concerning the franchising of 
the town, with the Roman privileges. There are also other 

30th. We bargained with a waterman to carry us to 
Avignon on the river, and got the first night to Vienne, 
in Dauphine. This is an Archbishopric, and the province 
gives title to the Heir-apparent of France. Here we 
supped and lay, having, amongst other dainties, a dish of 
truffles, which is a certain earth-nut, found out by a hog 
trained to it, and for which those animals are sold at a 
great price. It is in truth an incomparable meat. We 
were shewed the ruins of an amphitheatre, pretty entire; 
and many handsome palaces, especially that of Pontius 
Pilate, not far from the town, at the foot of a solitary 
mountain, near the river, having four pinnacles. Here it 
is reported he passed his exile, and precipitated himself 
into the lake not far from it. The house is modern, and 
seems to be the seat of some gentleman; being in a very 
pleasant, though melancholy place. The cathedral of 
Vienne is St. Maurice ; and there are many other pretty 
buildings, but nothing more so, than the mills where they 
tammer and pohsh the sword-blades. 

Hence, the next morning we swam (for the river here is 
so rapid that the boat was only steered) to a small village 
called Theinj where we dined. Over-against this is another 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 79 

town, named Tournon, where is a very strong castle under 
a high precipice. To the castle joins the Jesuits' College, 
who have a fair library. The prospect was so tempting^ 
that I could not forbear designing it with my crayon. 

We then came to Valence, a capital city carrying the 
title of a Duchy; but the Bishop is now sole Lord tem- 
poral of it, and the country about it. The town having a 
University famous for the study of the civil law, is much 
frequented; but the churches are none of the fairest, hav- 
ing been greatly defaced in the time of the wars. The 
streets are full of pretty fountains. The citadel is strong 
and garrisoned. Here we passed the night, and the next 
morning by Pont St. Esprit, which consists of twenty-two 
arches ; in the piers of the arches are windows, as it were, 
to receive the water when it is high and fall. Here we 
went on shore, it being very dangerous to pass the bridge 
in a boat. 

Hence, leaving our barge, we took horse, seeing at a 
distance the town and principality of Orange; and, lodging 
one night on the way, we arrived at noon at Avignon. 
This town has belonged to the Popes ever since the time 
of Clement V. ; being, in 1352, alienated by Jane, Queen 
of Naples and Sicily. Entering the gates, the soldiers at 
the guard took our pistols and carbines, and examined us 
very strictly ; after that, having obtained the Governor's 
and the Vice-Legate's leave to tarry three days, we were 
civilly conducted to our lodging. The city is on the 
Rhone, and divided from the newer part, or town, which is 
on the other side of the river, by a very fair stone bridge 
(which has been broken) ; at one end is a very high rock, 
on which is a strong castle well furnished with artillery. 
The walls of the city are of large square free-stone, the 
most neat and best in repair I ever saw. It is full of well- 
built palaces ; those of the Vice-Legate and Archbishop 
being the most magnificent. There are many sumptuous 
churches, especially that of St. Magdalene and St. Martial, 
wherein the tomb of the Cardinal d'Amboise is the most 
observable. Clement VI. lies buried in that of the Celes- 
tines, the altar whereof is exceeding rich: but for nothing 
I more admired it than the tomb of Madonna Laura, the 
celebrated mistress of Petrarch. We saw the Arsenal, the 
Pope's Palace, and the Synagogue of the Jews, who here 


are distinguished by their red hats. Vaucluse, so much 
renowned for the sohtude of Petrarch, we beheld from the 
castle; but could not go to visit it for want of time, 
being now taking mules and a guide for Marseilles. 

"We lay at Loumas; the next morning, came to Aix, 
having passed that extremely rapid and dangerous river of 
Durance. In this tract, all the heaths, or commons, are 
covered with rosemary, lavender, lentiscus, and the like 
sweet shrubs, for many miles together; which to me was 
very pleasant. Aix is the chief city of Provence, being a 
Parhament and Presidential town, with other royal Courts 
and Metropolitan jurisdiction. It is well built, the houses 
very high, and the streets ample. The Cathedral, St. 
Saviour's, is a noble pile adorned with innumerable figures, 
especially that of St. Michael ; the Baptisterie, the Palace, 
the Court, built in a most spacious piazza, are very fair. 
The Duke of Gmse's house is worth seeing, being fur- 
nished with many antiquities in and about it. The 
Jesuits have here a royal College, and the City is a Uni- 

7th October. "We had a most dehcious journey to Mar- 
seilles, through a country sweetly decHning to the south 
and Mediterranean coasts, full of vineyards and olive-yards, 
orange trees, myrtles, pomegranates, and the like sweet 
plantations, to which belong pleasantly-situated villas to 
the number of above 1500, built all of freestone, and in 
prospect shewing as if they were so many heaps of snow 
dropped out of the clouds amongst those perennial greens. 
It was almost at the shutting of the gates that we arrived. 
Marseilles is on the sea-coast, on a pleasant rising ground, 
%vell-walled, with an excellent port for ships and galleys, 
secured by a huge chain of iron drawn across the harbour 
at pleasure; and there is a well-fortified tower with three 
other forts, especially that built on a rock; but the castle 
commanding the city is that of Notre Dame de la Garde. 
In the chapel hung up divers crocodiles' skins. 

"We went then to visit the galleys, being about twenty- 
five in number; the Capitaine of the Galley Royal gave us 
most courteous entertainment in his cabin, the slaves in 
the interim playing both loud and soft music very rarely. 
Then he shewed us how he commanded their motions with 
n nod, and his whistle making them row out. The spec- 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. ^j^ 

tacle was to me new and strange, to see so many hundreds 
of miserably naked persons, their heads being shaven close 
and having only high red bonnets, a pair of coarse canvass 
drawers, their whole backs and legs naked, doubly chained 
about their middle and legs, in couples, and made fast to 
their seats, and all commanded in a trice by an imperious 
and cruel seaman. One Turk amongst the rest he much 
favoured, who waited on him in his cabin, but with no 
other dress than the rest, and a chain locked about his 
leg, but not coupled. This galley was richly carved and 
gilded, and most of the rest were very beautiful. After 
bestowing something on the slaves, the capitaine sent a 
band of them to give us music at dinner where we lodged. 
I was amazed to contemplate how these miserable caitiffs 
lie in their galley crowded together ; yet there was hardly 
one but had some occupation, by which, as leisure and 
calms permitted, they got some little money, insomuch as 
some of them have, after many years of cruel servitude, 
been able to purchase their liberty. The rising-forward 
and falling-back at their oar, is a miserable spectacle, and 
the noise of their chains, with the roaring of the beaten 
waters, has something of strange and fearful in it to one 
unaccustomed to it. They are ruled and chastised by 
strokes on their backs and soles of their feet, on the least 
disorder, and without the least humanity, yet are they 
cheerful and full of knavery. 

After dinner, we saw the church of St. Victoire, where 
is that saint's head in a shrine of silver, which weighs 600 
pounds. Thence to Notre Dame, exceedingly well-built, 
which is the cathedral. Thence to the Duke of Guise's 
Palace, the Palace of Justice, and the Maison du Roi; 
but nothing is more strange than the great number of 
slaves working in the streets, and carrying burthens, with 
their confused noises, and jingling of their huge chains. 
The chief trade of the town is in silks and drugs out of 
Africa, Syria, and Egypt, and Barbary horses, which are 
brought hither in great numbers. The town is governed 
by four captains, has three consuls and one assessor, three 
judges royal; the merchants have a judge for ordinary 
causes. Here we bought umbrellas against the heats, and 
consulted of our journey to Cannes by land, for fear of 
the Picaroon Turks, who make prize of many small 

VOL. I. o 

g^ DIARY OP [nice, 

vessels about these parts ; we not finding a galley bound 
for Genoa, whither we were designed. 

9th. We took mules, passing the first night very 
late in sight of St. Baujne, and the solitary grot where 
they affirm Mary Magdalen did her penance. The next 
day, we lay at Perigueux, a city built on an old foundation ; 
witness the ruins of a most stately amphitheatre, which I 
went out to design, being about a flight-shot from the 
town ; they call it now the K-olsies. There is also a strong 
tower near the town, called the Visone, but the town and 
city are at some distance from each other. It is a bishop- 
ric; has a cathedral; with divers noblemen's houses in 
sight of the sea. The place was formerly called Forum 
Julij, well known by antiquaries. 

10th. We proceeded by the ruins of a stately aqueduct. 
The soil about the country is rocky, full of pines and rare 

11th. We lay at Cannes, which is a small port on the 
Mediterranean ; here we agreed with a seaman to carry us 
to Genoa, and, ha\dng procured a bill of health (without 
which there is no admission at any town in Italy), we 
embarked on the 12th. We touched at the islands of St. 
Margaret and St. Honore, lately re-taken from the Spa- 
niards with great bravery by Prince Harcourt. Here, 
having paid some small duty, we bought some trifles 
offered us by the soldiers, but without going on shore. 
Hence, we coasted within two leagues of Antibes, which is 
the utmost town in France. Thence by Nice, a city in 
Savoy, built all of brick, which gives it a very pleasant 
appearance towards the sea, having a very high castle 
which commands it. We sailed by Morgus, now called 
Monaco, having passed Villa Franca, heretofore Portus 
Herculis, when, arriving after the gates were shut, we were 
forced to abide all night in the barge, which was put into 
the haven, the wind coming contrary. In the morning, 
we were hastened away, having no time permitted us by 
our avaricious master to go up and see this strong and 
considerable place, which now belongs to a prince of the 
family of Grimaldi, of Genoa, who has put both it and 
himself under the protection of the French. The situation 
is on a promontory of soHd stone and rock. The town- 
waUs very fair. We were told that within it was an ample 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 83 

court, and a palace, furnished \vitli the most rich and 
princely moveables, and a collection of statues, pictures, 
and massy plate to an immense amount. 

We sailed by Menton and Ventimiglia, being the first 
city of the repubhc of Genoa ; supped at Oneglia, where 
we anchored and lay on shore. The next morning, we 
coasted in view of the Isle of Corsica, and St. Remo, where 
the shore is furnished with evergreens, oranges, citrons, 
and date-trees ; we lay at Port Mauritio. The next morn- 
ing, by Diano, Araisso, famous for the best coral fishing, 
growing in abundance on the rocks, deep and continually 
covered by the sea. By Albenga and Finale, a very fair 
and strong town belonging to the king of Spain, for which 
reason a monsieur in our vessel was extremely afraid, as was 
the patron of our bark, for they frequently catch French 
prizes, as they creep by these shores to go into Italy ; he 
therefore plied both sails and oars, to get under the protec- 
tion of a Genoese galley that passed not far before us, and 
in whose company we sailed as far as the Cape of Savona, 
a town built at the rise of the Apennines; for all this 
coast (except a little of St. Hemo) is a high and steep 
mountainous ground, consisting all of rock-marble, without 
any grass, tree, or rivage, formidable to look on. A strange 
object it is, to consider how some poor cottages stand fast 
on the decHvities of these precipices, and by what steps 
the inhabitants ascend to them. The rock consists of all 
sorts of the most precious marbles. 

Here, on the 15th, forsaking our galley we encountered 
a little foul weather, which made us creep terra, terra, as 
they call it, and so a vessel that encountered us advised us 
to do; but our patron, striving to double the point of 
Savona, making out into the wind put us into great 
hazai'd ; for, blowing very hard from land betwixt those 
horrid gaps of the mountains, it set so violently, as raised 
on the sudden so great a sea, that we could not recover 
the weather-shore for many hours, insomuch that, what 
with the water already entered, and the confusion of 
fearful passengers, (of which one who was an Irish bishop, 
and his brother, a priest, were confessing some as at the 
article of death), we were almost abandoned to despair, 
our pilot himself giving us up for lost. And now, as we 
were weary with pumping and laving out the water, almost 

o 2 


sinking, it pleased God, on the sudden to appease tlie 
wind, and with much ado and great peril we recovered the. 
shore, which we now kept in view within half a league in 
sight of those pleasant villas, and within scent of those 
fragrant orchards which are on this coast, fall of princely 
retirements for the sumptuousness of their buildings and 
nobleness of the plantations, especially those at St. Pietro 
d' Arena ; from whence, the wind blowing as it did, might 
perfectly be smelt thepecuharjoysof Italy in the perfumes, 
of orange, citron, and jasmine flowers, for divers leagues, 

16th. We got to anchor under the Pharos, or watch- 
tower, built on a high rock at the mouth of the Mole 
of Genoa, the weather being still so foul that for twa 
hours at least we durst not stand into the haven. Towards, 
evening, we adventured, and came on shore by the Prat- 
tique-house, where, after strict examination by the Syndics, 
we were had to the Ducal Palace, and there our names- 
being taken, we were conducted to our inn, kept by one 
Zacharias, an Englishman. I shall never forget a story 
of our host Zachary, who, on the relation of our peril, told 
us another of his own, being shipwrecked, as he afiirmed 
solemnly, in the middle of a great sea somewhere in the 
West Indies, that he swam no less than twenty-two 
leagues to another island, with a tinder-box wrapped up 
in liis hair, which was not so much as wet all the way ;. 
that picking up the carpenter^s tools with other provisions 
in a chest, he and the carpenter, who accompanied him, 
(good swimmers it seems both) floated the chest before 
them ; and, arriving at last in a place full of wood, they 
built another vessel, and so escaped ! After this story, 
we no more talked of our danger, Zachary put us quite 

17th. Accompanied by a most courteous marchand, called 
Tomson, we went to %dew the rarities. The city is built 
in the hollow or bosom of a mountain, whose ascent is 
very steep, high, and rocky, so that, from the Lantern and 
Mole to the hill, it represents the shape of a theatre ; the 
streets and buildings so ranged one above another, as 

• Mr. Evelyn was so struck with this circumstance of the fragrancy of 
the air of tliis coast, that he has noticed it again in his dedication of the 
** Fumifiigium " to King Charles the Second. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 85 

our seats are in play-houses ; but, from their materials, 
beauty, and structure, never was an artificial scene more 
beautiful to the eye, nor is any place, for the size of it, 
so full of "well-designed and stately palaces, as may be 
■easily concluded by that rare book in a large folio which 
the great virtuoso and painter, Paul Rubens, has pub- 
lished, though it contains [the description of] only one 
street and two or three churches. 

The first palace we went to \dsit was that of Hieronymo 
del Negros, to which we passed by boat across the harbour. 
Here I could not but observe the sudden and devihsh 
passion of a seaman, who plying us was intercepted by 
another fellow, that interposed his boat before him and 
took us in ; for the tears gushing out of his eyes, he put 
his finger in his mouth and almost bit it off by the joint, 
showing it to his antagonist as an assurance to him of 
some bloody revenge, if ever he came near that part of 
the harbour again. Indeed, this beautiful city is more 
stained with such horrid acts of revenge and murders, 
than any one place in Europe, or haply in the world, where 
there is a political government, which makes it unsafe to 
strangers. It is made a galley matter to carry a knife 
whose point is not broken off. 

This palace of Negros is richly furnished with the rarest 
pictures ; on the terrace, or hilly garden, there is a grove 
of stately trees, amongst which are sheep, shepherds, and 
wild beasts, cut very artificially in a grey stone ; fountains, 
rocks, and fish-ponds : casting your eyes one way, you would 
imagine yourself in a wilderness and silent country ; side- 
ways, in the heart of a great city ; and backwards, in the 
midst of the sea. All this is within one acre of ground. 
In the house, I noticed those red-plaster floors which are 
made so hard, and kept so polished, that for some time 
one would take them for whole pieces of porphyry. I 
have frequently wondered that we never practised this 
{art] in England for cabinets and rooms of state,* for it 
appears to me beyond any invention of that kind ; but by 
their careful covering them with canvass and fine mat- 
tresses, where there is much passage, I suppose they 

♦ There are such at Hardwick Hall, in Derbyshire, a seat of the Duke oi 


are not lasting in their glory, and haply they are often 

There are numerous other palaces of particular curio- 
sities, for the marchands being very rich, have, like our 
neighbours^ the Hollanders, little or no extent of ground 
to employ their estates in : as those in pictures and hang- 
ings, so these lay it out on marble houses and rich furni- 
ture. One of the greatest here for circuit is that of the 
Prince Doria, which reaches from the sea to the summit 
of the mountains. The house is most magnificently built 
without, nor less gloriously furnished within, having whole 
tables* and bedsteads of massy silver, many of them set 
with agates, onyxes, cornehans, lazulis, pearls, turquoises, 
and other precious stones. The pictures and statues are 
innumerable. To this palace belong three gardens, the 
first whereof is beautified with a terrace, supported by 
pillars of marble : there is a fountain of eagles, and one of 
Neptune, with other sea-gods, all of the purest white 
marble; they stand in a most ample basin of the same 
stone. At the side of this garden is such an aviary as Sir 
Francis Bacon describes in his Sermones fidelium, or Essays, 
wherein grow trees of more than two feet diameter, besides 
cypress, myrtles, lentsicuses, and other rare shrubs, which 
serve to nestle and perch all sorts of birds, who have air 
and place enough under their airy canopy, supported with 
huge iron work, stupendous for its fabric and the charge* 
The other two gardens are full of orange-trees, citrons,, 
and pomegranates, fountains, grots, and statues. One of 
the latter is a colossal Jupiter, under which is the sepulchre 
of a beloved dog, for the care of which one of this family 
received of the King of Spain 500 crowns a-year, during 
the life of that faithful animal. The reservoir of water 
here is a most admirable piece of art ! and so is the grotto- 
over-against it. 

We went hence to the Palace of the Dukes, where i&- 
also the Court of Justice ; thence to the Marchant's Walk,, 
rarely covered. Nearf the Ducal Palace we saw the 
pubhc armoury, which was almost all new, most neatly 
kept and ordered, sufficient for 30,000 men. We were 

* One of which, Lassells says, weighed 24,000 lbs. « Voyage through. 
Italy," 1670, p. 94. 
t Lassells says, in the Palace. ' 

1644.] ; JOHN EVELYN. ^ 

shewed many rare inventions and engines of war peculiar 
to that armoury, as in the state when guns were first 
put in use. The garrison of the town chiefly consists of 
Germans and Corsicans. The famous Strada Nova, built 
wholly of polished marble, was designed by E-ubens, and 
for stateliness of the buildings, paving, and evenness of 
the street, is far superior to any in Europe, for the number 
of houses j that of Don Carlo Doria is a most magnificent 
structure. In the gardens of the old Marquess Spinola, I 
saw huge citrons hanging on the trees, applied like our 
apricots to the walls. The churches are no less splendid 
than the palaces : that of St. Francis is wholly built of 
Parian marble; St. Laurence, in the middle of the city, 
of white and black polished stone, the inside wholly in- 
crusted with marble and other precious materials ; on the 
altar of St. John stand four sumptuous columns of por- 
phyry ; and here we were shewed an emerald, supposed 
to be one of the largest in the world.* The church of 
St. Ambrosio, belonging to the Jesuits, will, when finished, 
exceed all the rest ; and that of the Annunciada, founded 
at the charges of one family,t in the present and future 
design can never be outdone for cost and art. From the 
churches we walked to the Mole, a work of sohd huge 
stone, stretching itself near 600 paces into the main sea, 
and secures the harbour, heretofore of no safety. Of all 
the wonders of Italy, for the art and nature of the design, 
nothing parallels this. J We passed over to the Pharos, 
or Lantern, a tower of very great height. Here we took 
horses, and made the circuit of the city as far as the new 
walls, built of a prodigious height, and with Herculean 
industry; witness those vast pieces of whole mountains 
which they have hewn away, and blown up with gun- 
powder, to render them steep and inaccessible. They are 
not much less than twenty English miles in extent, § 

* Lassells calls it a great dish, in which they say here that our Saviour 
ate the Paschal Lamb with his Disciples ; but he adds that he finds no autho- 
rity for it in any Ancient writer, and the Venerable Bede writes, that the dish 
used by our Saviovu- was of silver. Of an authentic relic of St. John ho 
observes that Baronius writes credibly. 

+ Two brothers, named Lomellini, allow the third part of their gains. 
— Lassells. 

J The break-water at Plymouth is at least as stupendous a work. 

§ Lassells says, finished in eighteen months, and yet six miles in com- 
pass.— P. 83. 

gg DIARY OF [pisA, 

reaching beyond the utmost buildings of the city. From 
one of these promontories we could easily discern the 
island of Corsica; and from the same, eastward, we saw 
a vale having a great torrent running through a most 
desolate barren country ; and then turning our eyes more 
northward, saw those delicious villas of St. Pietro d^ Arena, 
which present another Genoa to you, the ravishing retire- 
ments of the Genoese nobility. Hence, with much pain, 
we descended towards the Arsenal, where the galleys lie 
in excellent order. 

The inhabitants of this city are much affected to the 
Spanish mode and stately garb.* From the narrowness 
of the streets, they use sedans and litters, and not coaches. 

19th. We embarked in a felucca for Livorno, or 
Leghorn ; but the sea running very high, we put in at 
Porto Venere, which we made with peril, between two 
narrow horrid rocks, against which the sea dashed with 
great velocity ; but we were soon delivered into as great 
a calm and a most ample harbour, being in the Golfo 
di Spetia. From hence, we could see Pliny's Delphini 
Promontorium, now called Capo fino. Here stood that 
famous city of Luna, whence the port was named Lunaris, 
being about two leagues over, more resembling a lake 
than a haven, but defended by castles and excessive high 
mountains. We landed at Lerici, where, being Sunday, 
was a great procession, carrying the Sacrament about the 
streets in solemn devotion. After dinner, we took post- 
horses, passing through whole groves of olive-trees, the 
way somewhat rugged and hilly at first, but afterwards 
pleasant. Thus we passed through the towns of Sarzana 
and Massa, and the vast marble quarries of Carrara, and 
lodged in an obscure inn, at a place called Viregio. The 
next morning, we arrived at Pisa, where I met my old 
friend, Mr. Thomas Henshaw, who was then newly come 

• Thus described by Lassells : "broad hats without hat-bands, broad 
leather girdles with steel buckles, narrow breeches, with long-waisted doublets 
and hanging sleeves. The great ladies go in guard infantas (child-preservers) ; 
that is, in horrible overgrown vertigals of whalebone, which being put about 
the waist of the lady, and full as broad on both sides as she can reach with 
her hands, bear out her coats in such a manner, that she appears to be as 
broad as long. The men look like tumblers that leap through hoops, and the 
women Uke those that anciently danced the hobby-horse in country mummings." 
—P. 96. 

1644] JOHN EVELYN. 89 

out of Spain, and from whose company I never parted till 
more than a year after. 

The city of Pisa is as much worth seeing, as any in 
Italy ; it has contended with Rome, Florence, Sardinia, 
Sicily, and even Carthage. The palace and church of 
St. Stefano (where the order of knighthood called by that 
name was instituted) drew first our curiosity, the outside 
thereof being altogether of pohshed marble ; within, it is 
full of tables relating to this Order; over which hang 
diA^ers banners and pendants, with other trophies taken by 
them from the Turks, against whom they are particularly 
obliged to fight ; though a religious order, they are per- 
mitted to marry. At the front of the palace, stands a 
fountain, and the statue of the great Duke Cosmo. The 
Campanile, or Settezonio, built by John Venipont, a 
German, consists of several orders of pillars, thirty in a 
row, designed to be much higher. It stands alone on the 
right side of the cathedral, strangely remarkable for this, 
that the beholder would expect it to fall, being built ex- 
ceedingly declining, by a rare address of the architect; 
and how it is supported from falling I think would puzzle 
a good geometrician. The Duomo, or Cathedral, standing 
near it, is a superb structure, beautified with six columns 
of great antiquity; the gates are of brass, of admirable 
workmanship. The cemetery called Campo Santo, is made 
of divers galley ladings of earth formerly brought from 
Jerusalem, said to be of such a nature, as to consume 
dead bodies in forty hours. 'Tis cloistered with marble 
arches ; and here lies buried the learned Philip Decius, 
who taught in this University. At one side of this church, 
stands an ample and well-wrought marble vessel, which 
heretofore contained the tribute paid yearly by the city to 
Caesar. It is placed, as I remember, on a pillar of opal 
stone, with divers other antique urns. Near this, and in 
the same field, is the Baptistery of San Giovanni, built 
of pure white marble, and covered with so artificial a 
cupola, that the voice uttered under it seems to break out 
of a cloud. The font and pulpit, supported by four lions, 
is of inestimable value for the preciousness of the materials. 
The place where these buildings stand they call the Area. 
Hence, we went to the College, to which joins a gallery so 
furnished with natural rarities, stones, minerals, shells. 


dried animals, skeletons, &c., as is hardly to be seen in 
Italy. To this the Physic Garden lies, where is a noble 
palm-tree, and very fine water-works. The river Arno 
runs through the middle of this stately city, whence the 
main street is named Lung 'Arno. It is so ample that 
the Duke's galleys, built in the arsenal here, are easily 
conveyed to Livorno ; over the river is an arch, the like 
of which, for its flatness, and serving for a bridge, is no- 
where in Europe. The Duke has a stately Palace, before 
which is placed the statue of Ferdrriand the Third ; over 
against it is the Exchange, built of marble. Since this 
city came to be under the Dukes of Tuscany, it has been 
much depopulated, though there is hardly in Italy any 
which exceeds it for stately edifices. The situation of it 
is low and flat ; but the inhabitants have spacious gardens, 
and even fields within the walls. 

21st. We took coach to Livorno, through the Great 
Duke's new park full of huge cork-trees, the underwood 
all myrtles, amongst which were many bufl'aloes feeding, 
a kind of wdd ox, short-nose with horns reversed -, those 
who work with them command them, as our bear-wards 
do the bears, with a riug through the nose, and a cord. 
Much of this park, as well as a great part of the country 
about it, is very fenny, and the air very bad. 

Leghorn is the prime port belonging to aU the Duke's 
territories ; heretofore a very obscure town, but since 
Duke Feminand has strongly fortified it (after the modern 
way), drained the marshes by cutting a channel thence to 
Pisa navigable sixteen miles, and has raised a Mole, 
emulating that at Genoa, to secure the shipping, it is 
become a place of great receipt ; it has also a place for the 
galleys, where they lie safe. Before the sea is an ample 
piazza for the market, where are the statues in copper of 
the four slaves, much exceeding the life for proportion, 
and, in the judgment of most artists, one of the best 
pieces of modern work.* Here, especially in this piazza, 
is such a concourse of slaves, Turks, JSIoors, and other 
nations, that the number and confusion is prodigious; 
some buying, others selling, others drinking, others play- 

" They had attempted to steal a galley, meaning to liave rowed it them- 
selves ; but were taken in this great enterprise. — Lassells, p. 233. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. g3_ 

ing, some working, others sleeping, fighting, singing, 
weeping, all nearly naked, and miserably chained. Here 
was a tent, where any idle fellow might stake his liberty 
against a few crowns, at dice, or other hazard ; and, if he 
lost, he was immediately chained and led away to the gal- 
leys, where he was to serve a term of years, but from 
whence they seldom returned : many sottish persons, in a 
drunken bravado, would try their fortune in this way. 

The houses of this neat town are very uniform, and 
excellently painted a fresco on the outer walls, with 
representations of many of their victories over the Turks. 
The houses, though low on account of the earthquakes 
which frequently happen here, (as did one during my 
being in Italy), are very well built ', the piazza is very 
fair and commodious, and, with the church, whose four 
columns at the portico are of black marble polished, gave 
the first hint to the building both of the church and 
piazza in Covent Garden with us, though very imperfectly 

22nd. From Livorno, I took coach to Empoly, where 
we lay, and the next day arrived at Florence, being 
recommendedtothehouseof SignorBaritiere, in the Piazza 
del Spirito Santo, where we were exceedingly well treated. 
Florence is at the foot of the Apennines, the west part 
full of stately groves and pleasant meadows, beautified 
with more than a thousand houses and country palaces 
of note, belonging to gentlemen of the town. The river 
Amo runs through this city, in a broad, but very shallow 
channel, dividing it, as it were, in the middle, and over it 
are four most sumptuous bridges, of stone. On that nearest 
to our quarter are the four Seasons, in white marble ; on 
another are the goldsmiths' shops ; at the head of the 
former stands a column of ophite, upon which a statue of 
Justice, with her balance and sword, cut out of porphyry, 
and the more remarkable for being the first which had 
been carved out of that hard material, and brought to 
perfection, after the art had been utterly lost ; they say 
this was done by hardening the tools in the juice of 
certain herbs. This statue was erected in that corner, 
because there Cosmo was first saluted with the news of 
Sienna being taken. 

Near this is the famous Palazzo di Strozzi, a princely 

92 DIARY OF [florencf, 

piece of architecture, in a rustic manner. The Palace of 
Pitti was built by that family, but of late greatly beauti- 
fied by Cosmo with huge square stones of the Doric, 
Ionic, and the Corinthian orders, with a terrace at each 
side having rustic uncut balustrades, with a fountain that 
ends in a cascade seen from the great gate, and so forming a 
\ista to the gardens. Nothing is more admirable than 
the vacant staircase, marbles, statues, urns, pictures, 
court, grotto, and water-works. In the quadrangle is a 
huge jetto of water in a volto of four faces, with noble 
statues at each square, especially the Diana of porphyry 
above the grotto. We were here showed a prodigious 
great loadstone. 

The garden has every variety, hills, dales, rocks, groves, 
aviaries, vivaries, fountains, especially one of five jettos, 
the middle basin being one of the longest stones I ever 
saw. Here is everything to make such a Paradise 
dehghtful. In the garden I saw a rose grafted on an 
orange-tree. There was much topiary-work, and columns 
in architecture about the hedges. The Duke has added 
an ample laboratory, over-against which stands a fort on 
Si hiU, where they told us his treasure is kept. In this 
Palace the Duke ordinarily resides, living with his Swiss 
guards, after the frugal Italian way, and even selHng what 
he can spare of his wines, at the cellar under his very 
house, wicker bottles danghng over even the chief entrance 
into the Palace, serving for a vintner's bush. 

In the Church of Santo Spirito the altar and reliquary 
are most rich, and full of precious stones ; there are four 
pillars of a kind of serpentine, and some of blue. Hence 
we went to another Palace of the Duke's, called Palazzo 
Vecchio, before which is a statue of David, by Michael 
Angelo, and one of Hercules, killing Cacus, the work of 
Baccio Bandinelli. The quadrangle about this is of the 
Corinthian order, and in the hall are many rare marbles, 
as those of Leo the Tenth and Clement VII., both Popes 
of the Medicean family ; also the acts of Cosmo, in rare 
painting. In the chapel is kept (as they woidd make one 
beheve) the original Gospel of St. John, written with his 
own hand; and the famous Florentine Pandects, and 
divers precious stones. Near it is another pendent Tower 
like that of Pisa, always threatening ruin. 

1C44.] JOHN EVELYN. 93 

Under the Court of Justice is a stately arcade for men 
to walk in, and over that, the shops of divers rare artists 
■who continually work for the great Duke. Above this is 
that renowned Ceimeliarcha, or Repository, wherein are 
hundreds of admirable antiquities, statues of marble and 
metal, vases of porphyry, &c. ; but amongst the statues 
none so famous as the Scipio, the Boar, the Idol of 
Apollo, brought from the Delphic Temple, and two tri- 
umphant columns. Over these hang the pictures of the 
most famous persons and illustrious men in arts or arms, 
to the number of 300, taken out of the museum of Paulus 
Jovius. They then led us into a large square room, in 
the middle of which stood a cabinet of an octangular 
form, so adorned and furnished with crystals, agates, and 
sculptures, as exceeds any description. This cabinet is 
called the Tribuna, and in it is a pearl as big as an hazel 
nut.* The cabinet is of ebony, lazuli, and jasper; over 
the door is a round of M. Angelo ; on the cabinet, Leo 
the Tenth, with other paintings of Raphael, del Sarto, 
Perugino, and Coreggio, viz. a St. John, a Virgin, a Boy, 
two Apostles, two heads of Durer, rarely carved. Over 
this cabinet is a globe of ivory, excellently carved; the 
Labours of Hercules, in massy silver, and many incom- 
parable pictures in small. There is another, which had 
about it eight Oriental columns of alabaster, on each 
whereof was placed a head of a Caesar, covered with a 
canopy so richly set -svith precious stones, that they re- 
sembled a firmament of stars. Within it was our Saviour^s 
Passion, and the twelve Apostles in amber. This cabinet 
was valued at two hundred thousand crowns. In another, 
with calcedon pillars, was a series of golden medals. 
Here' is also another rich ebony cabinet cupolaed with a 
tortoise-shell, and containing a collection of gold medals 
esteemed worth 50,000 crowns; a wreathed pillar of ori- 
ental alabaster, divers paintings of Da Vinci, Pontorno, 
del Sarto, an Ecce Homo of Titian, a Boy of Bronzini, &c. 
They shewed us a branch of coral fixed on the rock, which 
they affirm does still grow. In another room, is kept 
the Tabernacle appointed for the chapel of St. Laurence, 

* Sir Gore Ouseley brought from Persia a picture of the Khan, which, in 
1816, was in his house in Bruton-street, on whose dress are represented 
peai'ls of such a size, as to make the one here spoken of very insigmficant. 

§§ DIARY OP [floeence, 

about which are placed small statues of Saints, of precious 
materials ; a piece of such art and cost, that, having been 
these forty years in perfecting, it is one of the most curious 
things in the world. Here were divers tables of Pietra 
Commesso, which is a marble ground inlaid with several 
sorts of marbles and stones of various colours, represent- 
ing flowers, trees, beasts, birds, and landscapes. In one is 
represented the town of Leghorn, by the same hand who 
inlaid the altar of St. Laurence, Domenico Benotti, of 
whom I purchased nineteen pieces of the same work for a 
cabinet. In a press near this they shewed an iron nail, 
one half whereof being converted into gold by one Thum- 
heuser, a German chymist, is looked on as a great rarity ; 
but it plainlj'^ appeared to have been soldered together. 
There is a curious watch, a monstrous turquoise as big as 
an egg, on which is carved an emperor^s head. 

In the armoury are kept many antique habits, as those 
of Chinese kings ; the sword of Charlemagne ; Hannibal's 
head-piece ; a loadstone of a yard long, which bears up 
861bs weight, in a chain of seventeen links, such as 
the slaves are tied to. In another room are such rare 
turneries in ivory, as are not to be described for their 
curiosity. There is a fair pOlar of oriental alabaster; 
twelve vast and complete services of silver plate, and one of 
gold, all of excellent workmanship; a rich embroidered 
saddle of pearls sent by the Emperor to this Duke ; and 
here is that embroidered chair set with precious stones in 
which he sits, when, on St. John's day, he receives the 
tribute of the cities. 

25th. We went to the Portico where the famous 
statue of Judith and Holofemes stands, also the Medusa, 
all of copper ; but what is most admirable is the Hape of 
a Sabine, with another man under foot, the confusion and 
turning of whose limbs is most admirable. It is of one 
entire marble, the work of John di Bologna, and is most 
stupendous ; this stands directly against the great piazza, 
where, to adorn one fountain, are erected four marble 
statues and eight of brass, representing Neptune and his 
family of sea-gods, of a Colossean magnitude, with foiu* 
sea-horses, in Parian marble of Lamedrati, in the midst 
of a very great basin; a work, I think, hardly to be 
paralleled. Here is also the famous statue of David, by 

1644.] JOHN ETELYN. 95 

M. Angelo ; Hercules and Cacus, by Baccio Bandinelli; the 
Perseus, in copper, by Benevento, and the Judith of Dona- 
telli, which stand publicly before the old Palace with the 
Centaur of Bologna, huge Colossean figures. Near this 
stand Cosmo di Medicis on horseback, in brass on a 
pedestal of marble, and four copper basso-relievos by John 
di Bologna, with divers inscriptions; the Ferdinand the 
First, on horseback, is of Peitro Tacca. The brazen boar, 
which serves for another pubhc fountain, is admirable. 

After dinner, we went to the Church of the Annun- 
ciata, where the Duke and his Court were at their 
devotions, being a place of extraordinary repute for 
sanctity: for here is a shrine that does great miracles, 
[proved] by innumerable votive tablets, &c. covering 
almost the walls of the whole church. This is the image 
of Gabriel, who saluted the Blessed Virgin, and which the 
artist finished so well, that he was in despair of per- 
forming the Virgin's face so well; whereupon it was 
miraculously done for him whilst he slept ; but others say 
it was painted by St. Luke himself. Whoever it was, 
infinite is the devotion of both sexes to it. The altar is 
set off with four columns of oriental alabaster, and lighted 
by thirty great silver lamps. There are innumerable 
other pictures by rare masters. Our Saviour's Passion in 
brass tables inserted in marble, is the work of John di 
Bologna and Baccio Bandinelli. 

To this church joins a convent, whose cloister is painted 
in fresco very rarely. There is also near it an hospital for 
1000 persons, with nurse-children, and several other cha- 
ritable accommodations. 

At the Duke's Cavalerizza, the Prince has a stable of 
the finest horses of all countries, Arabs, Turks, Barbs, 
Gennets, English, &c., which are continually exercised in 
the manege. 

Near this is a place where are kept several wild beasts, 
as wolves, cats, bears, tigers, and lions. They are loose 
in a deep walled court, and therefore to be seen with 
more pleasure than those at the Tower of London, in their 
grates. One of the lions leaped to a surprising height, to 
catch a joint of mutton which I caused to be hung down. 

* There are many plain brick towers erected for defence, 

• Tliere seems to be an omission in tlie MS. as to their leaving Florence 
and going to Sienna. 

96 DIARY OF [siENNv 

when this was a free state. The highest is called the 
Mangio, standing at the foot of the piazza which we went 
first to see after our arrival. At the entrance of this 
tower is a chapel open towards the piazza, of marble well- 
adorned with sculpture. 

On the other side is the Signoria, or Court of Justice, 
well built a la moderna, of brick; indeed the bricks of 
Sienna are so well made, that they look almost as weU as 
porphyry itself, having a kind of natural polish. 

In the Senate-House is a very fair Hall where they 
sometimes entertain the people with public shows and 
operas, as they call them. Towards the left are the 
statues of Romulus and Remus with the wolf, all of 
brass, placed on a column of ophite stone, which they 
report was brought from the renowned Ephesian Temple. 
These ensigns being the arms of the town, are set up in 
divers of the streets and public ways both within and far 
without the city. 

The piazza compasses the facciata of the court and 
chapel, and, being made with descending steps, much 
resembles the figure of an escalop-shell. The white ranges- 
of pavement, intermixed with the excellent bricks above 
mentioned, with which the town is generally well paved,, 
render it very clean. About this market-place (for so it 
is) are many fair palaces, though not built with excess of 
elegance. There stands an arch, the work of Baltazzar di 
Sienna, built with wonderful ingenuity, so that it is not 
easy to conceive how it is supported, yet it has some im- 
perceptible contignations, which do not betray themselves 
easily to the eye. On the edge of the piazza is a goodly 
fountain beautified with statues, the water issuing out of 
the wolves' mouths, being the work of Jacobo Quercei, a 
famous artist. There are divers other public fountains in 
the city, of good design. 

After this, we walked to the Sapienza, which is the 
University, or rather College, where the high Germans 
enjoy many particular privileges when they addict them- 
selves to the civil law : and indeed this place has produced 
many excellent scholars, besides those three Popes, Alex- 
ander, Pius II., and III., of that name, the learned ^neas 
Sylvius ; and both were of the ancient house of the Pic- 

1644.3 JOHN EVELYN. 97 

The chief street is called Strada Romana, in which 
Pius II. has built a most stately Palace of square stone 
with an incomparable portico joining near to it. The town 
is commanded by a castle which hath four bastions and 
a garrison of soldiers. Near it is a list to ride horses in, 
much frequented by the gallants in summer. 

Not far from hence is the Church and Convent of the 
Dominicans, where in the chapel of St. Catherine of 
Sienna they show her head, the rest of her body being 
translated to Rome, The Duomo, or Cathedral, both 
without and within, is of large square stones of black and 
white marble pohshed, of inexpressible beauty, as is the 
front adorned with sculpture and rare statues. In the 
middle is a stately cupola and two columns of sundry 
streaked coloured marble. About the body of the church, 
on a cornice within, are inserted the heads of all the 
Popes. The pulpit is beautified with marble figures, a 
piece of exquisite work; but what exceeds all description 
is the pavement, where (besides the various emblems and 
other figures in the nave) the choir is wrought with the 
history of the Bible, so artificially expressed in the natural 
colours of the marbles, that few pictures exceed it. Here 
stands a Christo, rarely cut in marble, and on the large 
high altar is a brazen vessel of admirable invention and 
art. The organs are exceeding sweet and well tuned. 
On the left side of the altar is the library, where are 
painted the acts of ^neas Sylvius, and others by Raphael. 
They showed us an arm of St. John the Baptist where- 
with, they say, he baptized our Saviour in Jordan ; it was 
given by the King of Peloponnesus to one of the Popes, 
as an inscription testifies. They have also St. Peter's 
sword, with which he smote off the ear of Malchus. 

Just against the cathedral, we went into the Hospital, 
where they entertain and refresh for three or four days, 
gratis, such pilgrims as go to Rome. In the chapel 
belonging to it hesthe body of St. Susorius, their founder, 
as yet uncorrupted, though dead many hundreds of years. 
They show one of the nails which pierced our Saviour, 
and St. Chrysostom's Comment on the Gospel, written by 
his own hand. .Below the hill stands the pool called 
Fonte Brand e, where fish are fed for pleasure more than 

VOL. I. H 

gg DIARY OF [sT. QuiRico, 

St. Francis's Churcli is a large pile, near which, yet a 
little without the city, grows a tree which they report in 
their legend grew jfrom the Saint's staff, which on going 
to sleep he fixed in the ground, and at his waking found 
it had grown a large tree. They affirm that the wood of 
it in decoction cures sundry diseases. 

2nd November. We went from Sienna, desirous of being 
present at the cavalcade of the new Pope, Innocent X.* who 
had not yet made the grand procession to St. John di Late- 
rano. We set out by Porto Romano, the country all 
about the town being rare for hunting and game. Wild 
boar and venison are frequently sold in the shops in many 
of the towns about it. We passed near Monte Oliveto, 
where the monastery of that Order is pleasantly situated, 
and worth seeing. Passing over a bridge, which by the 
inscription, appears to have been built by Prince Matthias, 
we went through Buon-Convento, famous for the death of 
the Emperor, Henry VII., who was here poisoned with 
the holy Eucharist. Thence, we came to Torrinieri, where 
we dined. This village is in a sweet valley, in view of 
Montalcino, famous for the rare Muscatello. f After 
three miles more, we go by St. Quirico, and lay at a private 
osteria near it, where, after we were provided of lodging, 
came in Cardinal Donghi, a Genoese by birth, now come 
from Home ; he was so civil as to entertain us with great 
respect, hearing we were English, for that, he told us he 
had been once in our country. Amongst other discourse, 
he related how a dove had been seen to sit on the chair in the 
Conclave at the election of Pope Innocent, which he mag- 
nified as a great good omen, with other particulars which 
we inquired of him, till our suppers parted us. He came 
in great state with his own bedstead and all the furniture, 
yet would by no means suffer us to resign the room we had 
taken up in the lodging before his arrival. Next morning, 
we rode by Monte Pientio, or, as vulgarly called, Monte 
Mantumiato, which is of an excessive height, ever and anon 
peeping above any clouds with its snowy head, till we had 
climbed to the inn at Radicofani, built by Ferdinand, the 
great Duke, for the necessary refreshment of travellers in 
so inhospitable a place. As we ascended, we entered a 

* John Baptista Pamphili, chosen Pope in October, 1644, died in 1655. 
+ A wine. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN, 99 

very thick, solid, and dark body of clouds, looking like 
rocks at a little distance, which lasted near a mile in going 
up ; they were dry misty vapours, hanging undissolved for 
a vast thickness, and obscuring both the sun and earth, so 
that we seemed to be in the sea rather than in the clouds, 
till, having pierced through it, we came into a most serene 
heaven, as if we had been above all human conversation, 
the mountain appeariug more like a great island than 
joined to any other hills ; for we could perceive nothing but 
a sea of thick clouds rolling under our feet like huge waves, 
every now and then suffering the top of some other mountain 
to peep through, which we could discover many miles off : 
and between some breaches of the clouds we could see 
landscapes and villages of the subjacent country. This 
was one of the most pleasant, new, and altogether sur- 
prising objects that I had ever beheld. 

On the summit of this horrid rock (for so it is) is built a 
very strong fort, garrisoned, and somewhat beneath it is a 
small town ; the provisions are drawn up with ropes and 
engines, the precipice being otherwise inaccessible. At 
one end of the town lie heaps of rocks so strangely broken 
off from the rugged mountain, as would affright one with 
their horror and menacing postures. Just opposite to the 
inn gushed out a plentiful and most useful fountain which 
falls into a great trough of stone, bearing the Duke of Tus- 
cany's arms. Here we dined, and I with my black lead 
pen took the prospect.* It is one of the utmost confines 
of the Etrurian State towards St. Peter's Patrimony, since 
the gift of Matilda to Gregory VII., as is pretended. 

Here we pass a stone bridge, built by Pope Gregory 
XIV., and thence immediately to Acquapendente,t a town 
situated on a very ragged rock, down which precipitates an 
entire river (which gives it the denomination), with a most 
horrid roaring noise. We lay at the post-house, on which 
is this inscription : 

L'Insegna della Posta/e posta a posta. 

In questa posta, fin che habbia a sua posta • ' ' 

Ogn' un Cavallo a Vetturi in Posta. 

Before it was dark, we went to see the Monastery of the 

* An etching of it, with others, is in the library at Wotton. 

i* Twelve nules from the Duke's inn, according to Lassells. 

H 2 

200 DIARY OF [titeubo, 

Franciscans, famous for six learned Popes, and sundry other 
great scholars, especially the renowned physician and ana- 
tomist, Fabricius de Acquapendente, who was bred and bom 

4th. After a little riding, we descend towards the Lake 
of Bolsena, which, being above twenty miles in circuit, 
yields from hence a most incomparable prospect, l^ear 
the middle of it are two small islands, in one of which 
is a convent of melancholy Capuchins, where those of the 
Farnesian family are interred. Pliny calls it Tarquiniensis 
Lacus, and talks of divers floating islands about it, but they 
did not appear to us. The lake is environed with moun- 
tains, at one of whose sides we passed towards the town 
Bolsena, anciently Volsinium, famous in those times, as 
is testified by divers rare sculptures in the court of St. 
Christiana's church, the um, altar, and jasper columns. 

After seven miles' riding, passing through a wood here- 
tofore sacred to Juno, we came to Montefiascone, the head 
of the Falisci, a famous people in old time, and heretofore 
Falernum, as renowned for its excellent wine, as now for 
the story of the Dutch Bishop, who lies buried in St. 
Flavian's church with this epitaph : 

Propter Est, Est, dominus meus mortuus est. 

Because, having ordered his servant to ride before, and 
enquire where the best wine was, and there write Kst, the 
man found some so good that he wrote TS,st, Est, upon the 
vessels, and the Bishop drinking too much of it, died. 

From Montefiascone, we travel a plain and pleasant 
champain to Viterbo, which presents itself with much state 
afar ofi', in regard of her many lofty pinnacles and towers ; 
neither does it deceive our expectation ; for it is exceedingly 
beautified with public fountains, especially that at the 
entrance, which is all of brass and adorned with many rare 
figures, and salutes the passenger with a most agreeable 
object and refreshing waters. There are many Popes 
buried in this city, and in the palace is this odd inscription: 

" Osiridis victoriam in Gigantas litteris historiographicis in hoc anti- 
<)mssimo mannore inscriptam, ex Herculis olim, nunc Divi Laurentij 
Templo translatam, ad conversanda : vetustiss : patriae monumenta atq' 
decoraliic locandum statuit S.P.Q.Y." 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 101 

Under it : 

Sum Osiris Rex Ju- Sam Osiris Rex qui Sum Osiris Rex qui 

piter universe in terra- ab Itala in Gigantes terrarum pacata Ita- 

rum orbe. exercitus veni, vidi, et Ham decern a'nos quo- 

vici. rum inventor fui. 

Near the town is a sulphureous fountain, which conti- 
nually boils. After dinner, we took horse by the new way 
of Capranica, and so passing near Mount Ciminus and the 
Lake, we began to enter the plains of Rome; at which 
sight my thoughts were strangely elevated, but soon 
allayed by so violent a shower which fell just as we were 
contemplating that proud Mistress of the world, and 
descending by the Vatican (for at that gate we entered), 
that before we got into the city, I was wet to the skin. 

I came to Rome on the 4th November, 1644, about five 
at night ; and, being perplexed for a convenient lodging, 
wandered up and down on horseback, till at last one con- 
ducted us to Monsieur Petit' s, a Frenchman, near the 
Piazza Spagnola. Here I alighted, and, having bargained 
with my host for twenty crowns a month, I caused a good 
fire to be made in my chamber and went to bed, being so 
very wet. The next morning (for I was resolved to spend 
no time idly here) I got acquainted with several persons 
who had long lived at Rome. I was especially recommended 
to Father John, a Benedictine monk and Superior of his 
Order for the English College of Douay, a person of sin- 
gular learning, religion, and humanity ; also to Mr. Patrick 
Caiy, an Abbot, brother to our learned Lord Falkland, a 
witty young priest, who afterwards came over to our 
church ; Dr. Bacon and Dr. Gibbs,* physicians who had 
dependence on Cardinal Caponi, the latter being an excel- 
lent poet; Father Courtney, the Chief of the Jesuits in the 
English College; my Lord of Somerset, brother to the 
Marquis of Worcester ; and some others, from whom I 
received instructions how to behave in town, with directions 

• James Alban Gibbs, a Scotchman bred at Oxford, who resided many 
years at Rome, where he died 1677, and was buried in the Pantheon there, 
with an epitaph to his memory under a marble bust of him. He was an 
extraordinary character. In Wood's Athense is a long account of him, and 
also some curious particulars in Warton's Life of Dr. Bathurst ; he was a 
great writer of Latin poetry, a small collection of which he publislied at Rome, 
to which is prefixed his portrait neatly engraved. 


to masters and books to take in search of the anti- 
quities, churches, collections, &c. Accordingly, the next 
day, November 6, I began to be very pragmatical.* 

In the first place, our Sights-manf (for so they name 
certain persons here who get their living by leading 
strangers about to see the city) went to the Palace Farnese, 
a magnificent square structure, built by Michael Angelo, 
of the three orders of columns after the ancient manner, 
and when architecture was but newly recovered from the 
Gothic barbarity. The court is square and terraced, having 
two pair of stairs which lead to the upper rooms, and con- 
ducted us to that famous gallery painted by Augustine 
Caracci, than which nothing is more rare of that art ; so 
deep and well-studied are all the figures, that it would 
require more judgment than I confess I had, to determine 
whether they were flat, or embossed. Thence, we passed 
into another, painted in chiaroscuro, representing the 
fabulous history of Hercules, We went out on a terrace, 
where was a pretty garden on the leads, for it is built in a 
place that has no extent of ground backwards. The 
great hall is wrought by Salviati and Zuccharo, furnished 
with statues, one of which being modern is the figure of a 
Farnese, in a triumphant posture, of white marble, worthy 
of admiration. Here, we were showed the Museum of 
Fulvius Ursinos, replete with innumerable collections ; but 
the Major-Domo being absent, we could not at this time 
see all we wished. Descending into the court, we with 
astonishment contemplated those two incomparable statues 
of Hercules and Flora, so much celebrated by Pliny, and 
indeed by all antiquity, as two of the most rare pieces in 
the world : there likewise stands a modem statue of Her- 
cules and two Gladiators, not to be despised. In a second 
court was a temporary shelter of boards over the most stu- 
pendous and never-to-be-suflficiently-admired Torso of Am- 
phion and Dirce, represented in five figures, exceeding the 
life in magnitude, of the purest white marble, the contend- 
ing work of those famous statuaries, Apollonius and Tau- 
risco, in the time of Augustus, hewed out of one entire 

* Mr. Evelyn must mean tliis in a good sense, very active and full of busi- 
ness, viz. what he came upon, to view the antiquities and beauties of Rome. 

+ The present name for these gentlemen is with the Italians a Cicerone, 
but they affect universally the title of antiquaries. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 103 

stone, and remaining unblemished, to be valued beyond all 
the marbles of the world for its antiquity and workmanship. 
There are divers other heads and busts. At the entrance 
of this stately palace stand two rare and vast fountains of 
garnito stone, brought into this piazza out of Titus's Baths. 
Here, in summer, the gentlemen of Rome take the Jresco in 
their coaches and on foot. At the sides of this court, we 
visited the Palace of Signer Pichini, who has a good collec- 
tion of antiquities, especially the Adonis of Parian marble, 
which my Lord Arundel would once have purchased, if a 
great price would have been taken for it. 

We went into the Campo Vaccina, by the ruins of the 
Temple of Peace, built by Titus Vespasianus, and thought 
to be the largest as well as the most richly furnished of all 
the Roman dedicated places : it is now a heap rather than 
a temple, yet the roof and volto continue firm, showing it 
to have been formerly of incomparable workmanship. 
This goodly structure was, none knows how, consumed by 
iire the very night, by all computation, that our Blessed 
Saviour was born. 

From hence, we passed by the place into which Curtius 
precipitated himself for the love of his country, now with- 
out any sign of a lake, or vorago. Near this stand some 
columns of white marble, of exquisite work, supposed to be 
part of the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, built by Augustus ; 
the work of the capitals (being Corinthian) and architrave 
is excellent, full of sacrificing utensils. There are three 
other of Jupiter Stator. Opposite to these, are the ora- 
tories, or churches, of St. Cosmo and Damiano, heretofore 
the Temples of Romulus ; a pretty odd fabric, with a tri- 
bunal, or tholus within, wrought all of Mosaic. The gates 
before it are brass, and the whole much obliged to Pope 
Urban VIII. In this sacred place lie the bodies of those 
two martyrs ; and, in a chapel on the right hand, is a rare 
painting of Cavaliere Baghoni. 

We next entered St. Lorenzo in Miranda. The portico 
is supported by a range of most stately columns ; the 
inscription cut in the architrave shows it to have been the 
Temple of Faustina. It is now made a fair church, and 
has an hospital which joins it. On the same side is St. 
Adriano, heretofore dedicated to Saturn. Before this was 
pnce placed a milliary column, supposed to be set in the 

104 DIARY OF [aoMC, 

centre of the city, from whence they used to compute the 
distance of all the cities and places of note under the 
dominion of those universal monarchs. To this church are 
likewise brazen gates and a noble front : just opposite we 
saw the heaps and ruins of Cicero's Palace. Hence we went 
towards Mons Capitolinus, at the foot of which stands the 
arch of Septimius Severus, full and entire, save where the 
pedestal and some of the lower members are choked up 
with ruins and earth. This arch is exceedingly enriched 
with sculpture and trophies, with a large inscription. In 
the terrestrial and naval battles here graven, is seen the 
Roman Aries [the battering-ram] ; and this was the first 
triumphal arch set up in Rome. The Capitol, to wliich 
we climbed by very broad steps, is built about a square 
court, at the right hand of which, going up from Campo 
Vaccino, gushes a plentiful stream from the statue of 
Tyber, in porphyry, very antique, and another representing 
Rome ; but, above all, is the admirable figure of Marforius, 
casting water into a most ample concha. The front of this 
court is crowned with an excellent fabric containing the 
Courts of Justice, and where the Criminal Notary sits, and 
others. In one of the halls they show the statues of 
Gregory XIII. and Paul III., with several others. To 
this joins a handsome tower, the whole facciata adorned with 
noble statues, both on the outside and on the battlements, 
ascended by a double pair of stairs, and a stately Posario. 
In the centre of the court stands that incomparable 
horse bearing the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, as big as the 
life, of Corinthian metal, placed on a pedestal of marble, 
esteemed one of the noblest pieces of work now extant, 
antique and very rare. There is also a vast head of a 
colossean magnitude, of white marble fixed in the wall. 
At the descending stairs are set two horses of white marble 
governed by two naked slaves, taken to be Castor and 
Pollux, brought from Pompey's Theatre. On the balus- 
trade, the trophies of Marius against the Cimbrians, very 
ancient and instructive. At the foot of the steps towards 
the left hand is that Colonna Miliaria, with the globe of 
brass on it, mentioned to have been formerly set in Campo 
Vaccino. On the same hand, is the Palace of the Segniori 
Conservatori, or three Consuls, now the civil governors of 
the city, containing the fraternities, or halls and guilds^ 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 105 

(as we call them) of sundry companies, and other ofl&ces 
of state. Under the portico within, are the statues of 
Augustus Caesar, a Bacchus, and the so renowned Colonna 
E-ostrata of Duillius, with the excellent bassi relievi. In 
a smaller court, the statue of Constantino, on a fountain, a 
Minerva^s head of brass, and that of Commodus, to which 
belongs a hand, the thumb whereof is at least an ell long, 
and yet proportionable ; but the rest of the Colosse is lost. 
In the corner of this court stand a horse and lion fighting, 
as big as life, in white marble, exceedingly valued ; like- 
wise the Rape of the Sabines ; two cumbent figures of 
Alexander and Mammea ; two monstrous feet of a colosse 
of Apollo ; the sepulchre of Agrippina ; and the standard, 
or antique measure, of the Roman foot. Ascending by the 
steps of the other corner, are inserted four basso-relievos, 
viz. the triumph and sacrifice of Marcus Aurelius, which 
last, for the antiquity and rareness of the work, I caused 
my painter. Carlo Neapolitano, to copy. There are also 
two statues of the Muses, and one of Adrian, the Emperor : 
above stands the figure of Marius, and by the wall Marsyas 
bound t/f a tree ; all of them excellent and antique. Above, 
in the lobby, are inserted into the walls those ancient laws, 
on brass, called the Twelve Tables ; a fair Madonna of 
Pietro Perugino, painted on the wall ; near which are the 
archives, full of ancient records. 

In the great hall are divers excellent paintings of Cava- 
liero Giuseppe d'Arpino, a statue in brass of Sextus V. 
and of Leo X., of marble. In another hall, are many 
modem statues of their late Consuls and Governors, set 
about with fine antique heads; others are painted by 
excellent masters, representing the actions of M. Scsevola, 
Horatius Codes, &c. — The room where the Conservatori 
now feast upon solemn days, is tapestried with crimson 
damask, embroidered with gold, having a state or baldu- 
quino of crimson velvet, very rich ; the frieze above rarely 
painted. Here are in brass, Romulus and Remus sucking 
the wolf, of brass, with the Shepherd, Faustulus, by them; 
also the boy plucking the thorn out of his foot, of brass, so 
much admired by artists. There are also holy statues and 
heads of Saints. In a gallery near adjoining are the names 
of the ancient Consuls, Praetors, and Fasti Romani, so 
celebrated by the learned ; also the figure of an old woman; 


two others representing Poverty ; and more in fragments. 
In another large room, furnished with velvet, are the 
statue of Adonis, very rare, and divers antique heads. In 
the next chamber, is an old statue of Cicero, one of another 
Consul, a Hercules in brass, two women's heads of incom- 
parable work, six other statues ; and, over the chimney, a 
very rare basso-relievo, and other figures. In a little 
lobby before the chapel, is the statue of Hannibal, a 
Bacchus very antique, bustos of Pan and Mercury, with 
other old heads. — All these noble statues, &c., belong to 
the city, and cannot be disposed of to any private person, 
or removed hence, but are preserved for the honour of the 
place, though great sums have been offered for them by 
divers Princes, lovers of art and antiquity. We now left 
the Capitol, certainly one of the most renowned places in 
the world, even as now built by the design of the famous 
M. Angelo. 

Returning home by Ara Coeli, we mounted to it by 
more than 100 marble steps, not in devotion, as I observed 
some to do on their bare knees, but to see those two 
famous statues of Constantine, in white marblfe, placed 
there out of his baths. In this Church is a Madonna, 
reported to be painted by St. Luke, and a column, on 
which we saw the print of a foot, which they affirm to have 
been that of the Angel, seen on the Castle of St. Angelo. 
Here the feast of our Blessed Saviour's nativity being 
yearly celebrated with divers pageants, they began to make 
the preparation. Having viewed the Palace and fountain, 
at the other side of the stairs, we returned weary to our 

On the 7th, we went again near the Capitol, towards 
the Tarpeian rock, where it has a goodly prospect of the 
Tyber. Thence, descending by the Tullianum, where 
they told us St. Peter was imprisoned, they showed us a 
chapel (S. Pietro de Vincoli) in which a rocky side of it 
bears the impression of his face. In the nave of the 
church gushes a fountain, which they say was caused by 
the Apostle's prayers, when having converted some of his 
fellow -captives he wanted water to make them Christians. 
The painting of the Ascension is by Raphael. We 
then walked about Mount Palatinus and the Aventine, 
and thence to the Circus Maximus, capable of holding 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 107 

40,000 spectators, now a heap of ruins, converted into 
gardens. Then, by the Forum Boarium, where they have 
a tradition that Hercules slew Cacus, some ruins of his 
temple remaining. The Temple of Janus Quadrifrons, 
having four arches, importing the four Seasons, and on 
each side niches for the months, is still a substantial and 
pretty entire antiquity. Near to this is the Arcus Argen- 
tariorum. Bending now towards the Tyber, we went into 
the Theatre of Marcellus, which would hold 80,000 per- 
sons, built by Augustus, and dedicated to his nephew ; the 
architecture, from what remains, appears to be inferior to 
none. It is now wholly converted into the house of the 
Savelli, one of the old Roman families. The people were 
now generally busy in erecting temporary triumphs and 
arches with statues and flattering inscriptions against his 
Holiness's grand procession to St. John di Laterani, 
amongst which the Jews also began one in testimony of 
gratitude for their protection under the Papal State. The 
Palazzo Barberini, designed by the present Pope's archi- 
tect, Cavaliero Bernini, seems from the size to be as princely 
an object, as any modern building in Europe. It has a 
double portico, at the end of which we ascended by two 
pair of oval stairs, all of stone, and void in the well. One of 
these led us into a stately hall, the volto whereof was newly 
painted a fresco, by the rare hand of Pietro Berretini il 
Cortone. To this is annexed a gallery completely fur- 
nished with whatever art can call rare and singular, and a 
library full of worthy collections, medals, marbles, and 
manuscripts ; but, above all, an Egyptian Osyris, remark- 
able for its unknown material and antiquity. In one of 
the rooms near this hangs the Sposaliccio of St. Sebastian, 
the original of Annibal Caracci, of which I procured a 
copy, little inferior to the prototype ; a table, in my judg- 
ment, superior to anything I had seen in Rome. In the 
court is a vast broken guglia, or obehsk, having divers 
hieroglyphics cut on it. 

8th. We visited the Jesuit's Church, the front whereof 
is esteemed a noble piece of architecture, the design 
of Jacomo della Porta, and the famous Vignola. In this 
church lies the body of their renowned Ignatius Loyola, 
an arm of Xaverius, their other Apostle; and, at the 
right end of their high altar, their champion. Cardinal 


Bellarmine. Here, Father Kircher (professor of Mathe- 
matics and the oriental tongues) showed us many singular 
courtesies, leading us into their refectory, dispensatory, 
laboratory, gardens, and finally (through a hall hung 
round with pictures of such of their order as had been 
executed for their pragmatical and busy adventures) into 
his own study, where, with Dutch patience, he showed us 
his perpetual motions, catoptrics, magnetical experiments, 
models, and a thousand other crotchets and devices, most 
of them since published by himself, or his industrious 
scholar, Schotti. 

Returning home, we had time to view the Palazzo de 
Medicis, which was an house of the Duke of Florence 
near our lodging, upon the brow of Mons Pincius, having 
a fine prospect towards the Campo Marzo. It is a magni- 
ficent, strong building, with a substruction very remarkable, 
and a portico supported with columns towards the gardens, 
with two huge lions, of marble, at the end of the balustrade. 
The whole outside of the facciata is incrusted with antique 
and rare basso-relievos and statues. Descending into the 
garden, is a noble fountain governed by a Mercuiy of 
brass. At a little distance, on the left, is a lodge full of 
fine statues, amongst which the Sabines, antique and 
singularly rare. In the arcade near this stand twenty- 
four statues of great price, and hard by is a mount planted 
with cypresses, representing a fortress, with a goodly 
fountain in the middle. Here is also a row balustred with 
white marble, covered over with the natural shrubs, ivy, 
and other perennial greens, divers statues and heads being 
placed as in niches. At a little distance, are those famed 
statues of Niobe and her family, in all fifteen, as large as 
the life, of which we have ample mention in Pliny, esteemed 
among the best pieces of work in the world for the passions 
they express, and all other perfections of that stupendous 
art. There is likewise in this garden a fair obelisk, full of 
hieroglyphics. In going out, the fountain before the front 
casts water near fifty feet in height, when it is received in 
a most ample marble basin. Here they usually rode the 
great horse every morning ; which gave me much diversion 
from the terrace of my own chamber, where I could see all 
their motions. This evening, I was invited to hear rare 
music at the Chi^sa Nova y the black marble pillars within 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 109 

led US to that most precious oratory of Philippus Nerius, 
tlieir founder ; they being of the oratory of secular priests, 
under no vow. There are in it divers good pictures, as 
the Assumption of Girolamo Mutiano ; the Crucifix ; the 
Visitation of Elizabeth ; the Presentation of the Blessed 
Virgin; Christo Sepolto, of Guido Bheno, Caravaggio, 
Arpino, and others. This fair church consists of fourteen 
altars, and as many chapels. In it is buried (besides their 
Saint) Caesar Baronius, the great annalist. Through this, 
we went into the sacrista, where, the tapers being lighted, 
one of the Order preached ; after him stepped up a child 
of eight, or nine years old, who pronounced an oration 
with so much grace, that I never was better pleased than 
to hear Italian so well and so intelligently spoken. This 
course it seems they frequently use, to bring their scholars 
to a habit of speaking distinctly, and forming their action 
and assurance, which none so much want as ours in 
England. This being finished, began their motettos, which, 
in a lofty cupola richly painted, were sung by eunuchs, 
and other rare voices, accompanied by theorboes, harpsi- 
chords, and viols, so that Ave were even ravished with the 
entertainment of the evening. This room is painted by 
Cortona, and has in it two figures in the niches, and the 
church stands in one of the most stately streets of Rome. 

10th. We went to see Prince Ludovisio's villa, where 
was formerly the Viridarium of the poet, Sallust. The 
house is very magnificent, and the extent of the ground 
exceedingly large, considering that it is in a city ; in 
every quarter of the garden are antique statues, and walks 
planted with cypress. To this garden belongs a house 
of retirement, built in the figure of a cross, after a par- 
ticular ordonnance, especially the staircase. The whiteness 
and smoothness of the excellent pargeting was a thing 
I much observed, being almost as even and polished, as if 
it had been of marble. Above, is a fair prospect of the 
city. In one of the chambers hang two famous pieces of 
Bassano, the one a Vulcan, the other a Nativity ; there is 
a German clock full of rare and extraordinary motions; 
and, in a little room below, are many precious marbles, 
columns, urns, vases, and noble statues of porphyry, oriental 
alabaster, and other rare materials. About this fabric is 
an ample area, environed with sixteen vast jars of red 


earth, wherein the Romans used to preserve their oil, or 
wine rather, which they buried, and such as are properly 
called test(B. In the Palace I must never forget the famous 
statue of the Gladiator, spoken of by Pliny, so much 
followed by all the rare artists as the many copies testify, 
dispersed through almost all Europe, both in stone and 
metal. There is also a Hercules,,a head of porphyry, and 
one of Marcus Aurelius. In the villa-house is a man^s 
body flesh and all, petrified, and even converted to marble, 
as it was found in the Alps, and sent by the Emperor to 
one of the Popes ; it lay in a chest, or coffin, lined with 
black velvet, and one of the arms being broken, you may 
see the perfect bone from the flesh which remains entire. 
The Rape of Proserpine, in marble, is of the purest white, 
the work of Bernini. In the cabinet near it are innume- 
rable small brass figures, and other curiosities. But what 
some look upon as exceeding all the rest, is a very rich 
bedstead (which sort of gross furniture the Italians much 
glory in, as formerly did our grandfathers in England in 
their inlaid wooden ones) inlaid with all sorts of precious 
stones and antique heads, onyxes, agates, and cornelians, 
esteemed to be worth 80 or 90,000 crowns. Here are also 
divers cabinets and tables of the Florence work, besides 
pictures in the gallery, especially the Apollo — a conceited 
chair to sleep in with the legs stretched out, with hooks, 
and pieces of wood to draw out longer or shorter. 

From this villa, we went to see Signor Angeloni's study, 
who very courteously showed us such a collection of rare 
medals as is hardly to be paralleled ; divers good pictures, 
and many outlandish and Indian curiosities, and things 
of nature. 

From him, we walked to Monte CavaUo, heretofore 
called Mons Quirinalis, where we saw those two rare 
horses, the work of the rivals Phidias and Praxiteles, 
as they were sent to Nero [by Tiridates King] out of 
Armenia. They were placed on pedestals of white marble 
by Sextus V., by whom I suppose their injuries were 
repaired, and are governed by four naked slaves, like 
those at the foot of the Capitol. Here runs a most noble 
fountain, regarding four of the most stately streets for 
building and beauty to be seen in any city of Europe. 
Opposite to these statues is the Pope's summer palace. 


built by Gregory XIII.; and, in my opinion, it is, for 
largeness and the architecture, one of the most conspicuous 
in E-ome, having a stately portico which leads round the 
court under columns, in the centre of which there runs a 
beautiful fountain. The chapel is incrusted with such 
precious materials, that nothing can be more rich, or 
glorious, nor are the other ornaments and moveables about 
it at all inferior. The hall is painted by Lanfranci, and 
others. The garden, which is called the Belvedere di 
Monte Cavallo, in emulation to that of the Vatican, is 
most excellent for air and prospect ; its exquisite fountains, 
close walks, grots, piscinas, or stews for fish, planted 
about with venerable cypresses, and refreshed with water- 
music, aviaries, and other rarities. 

1 2th. We saw Dioclesian's Baths, whoseruins testify the 
vastness of the original foundation and magnificence; 
by what M. Angelo took from the ornaments about it, 
^tis said he restored the then almost lostart of archi- 
tectiu-e. This monstrous pile was built by the labour of 
the primitive Christians, then under one of the ten great 
persecutions. The Church of St. Bernardo is made out 
of one only of these ruinous cupolas, and is in the form 
of an urn with a cover. 

Opposite to this, is the Fontana delle Therme, otherwise 
called Fons Felix ; in it is a basso-relievo of white marble, 
representing Moses striking the rock, which is adorned 
with camels, men, women, and children drinking, as large 
as life ; a work for the design and vastness truly magnifi- 
cent. The water is conveyed no less than twenty-two 
miles in an aqueduct by Sextus V. ex agro Columna, by 
way of Prseneste as the inscription testifies. It gushes 
into three ample lavers raised about with stone, before 
which are placed two lions of a strange black stone, very 
rare and antique. Near this are the store-houses for the 
city's corn, and over-against it the Church of St. Susanna, 
where were the gardens of Sallust. The faccikta of this 
church is noble, the soffito within gilded and full of 
pictures ; especially famous is that of Susanna, by Baldassa 
di Bologna. The tribunal of the high altar is of exquisite 
work, from whose marble steps you descend under-ground 
to the repository of divers Saints. The picture over this 


altar is the work of Jacomo Siciliano. The foundation is 
for Bernadine Nuns. 

Santa Maria della Vittoria presents us with the most 
ravishing front. In this church was sung the Te Deum 
by Gregory XV., after the signal victory of the Emperor 
at Prague ; the standards then taken still hang up, and 
the impress waving this motto over the Pope's arms, 
Extirpentur. I observed that the high altar was much 
frequented for an image of the Virgin. It has some rare 
statues : as Paul ravished into the third heaven, by Fia- 
mingo, and some good pictures. From this, we bent 
towards Dioclesian^s Baths, never satisfied with contem- 
plating that immense pile, in building which 150,000 
Christians were destined to labour fourteen years, and 
were then all murdered. Here is a monastery of Carthu- 
sians, called Santa Maria degli Angeli, the architecture of 
M. Angelo, and the cloister encompassing walls in an 
ample garden. 

Mont Alto's viUa is entered by a stately gate of stone 
built on the Viminalis, and is no other than a spacious 
park full of fountains, especially that which salutes us at the 
front ; stews for fish ; the cypress walks are so beset with 
statues, inscriptions, relievos, and other ancient marbles, 
that nothing can be more stately and solemn. The citron 
trees are uncommonly large. In the Palace joining to it 
are innumerable collections of value. Returning, we 
stepped into St. Agnes church, where there is a tribunal of 
antique mosaic, and on the altar a most rich ciborio of 
brass, with a statue of St. Agnes in oriental alabaster. 
The church of Santa Constanza has a noble cupola. Here 
they shoM^ed us a stone ship borne on a column heretofore 
sacred to Bacchus, as the relievo intimates by the drunken 
emblems and instruments wrought upon it. The altar is 
of rich porphyry, as I remember. Looking back, we had 
the entire view of the Via Pia down to the two horses 
before the Monte Cavallo, before mentioned, one of the 
most glorious sights for state and magnificence that any 
city can show a traveller. We returned by Porta Pia and 
the Via Salaria, near Campo Scelerato, in whose gloomy 
caves the wanton Vestals were heretofore immured alive. 

Thence to Via Felix, a straight and noble street, but 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 113 

very precipitous, till we came to the four fountains of 
Lepidus, built at the abutments of four stately ways, 
making an exact cross of right angles; and, at the 
fountains, are as many cumbent figures of marble, under 
very large niches of stone, the water pouring into huge 
basins. The church of St. Carlo is a singular fabric for 
neatness, of an oval design, built of a new white stone ; 
the columns are worth notice. Under it is another church 
of a structure nothing less admirable. 

Next, we came to Santa Maria Maggiore, built upon the 
Esquiline Mountain, which gives it a most conspicuous 
face to the street at a great distance. The design is mixed, 
partly antique, partly modern. Here they affirm that the 
Blessed Virgin appearing, showed where it should be built 
300 years since. The first pavement is rare and antique ; 
so is the portico built by P. P. Eugenius II. The ciborio 
is the work of Paris Romano, and the tribunal of Mosaic. 

We were showed in the church a concha of porphyry, 
wherein they say Patricius, the founder, lies. This is one 
of the most famous of the seven Roman Churches, and is, 
in my opinion at least, after St. Peter's, the most magnifi- 
cent. Above all, for incomparable glory and materials, 
are the two chapels of Sextus V. and Paulus V. That of 
Sextus was designed by Dom. Fontana, in which are two 
rare great statues, and some good pieces of painting ; anr* 
here they pretended to show some of the Holy Innocents* 
bodies slain by Herod : as also that renowned tabernacle 
of metal, gilt, sustained by four angels, holding as many 
tapers, placed on the altar. In this chapel is the statue of 
Sextus, in copper, with basso-relievos of most of his famous 
acts, in Parian marble ; but that of P. Paulus, which we 
next entered, opposite to this, is beyond all imagination 
glorious, and above description. It is so encircled with 
agates, and other most precious materials, as to dazzle and 
confound the beholders. The basso-relievos are for the 
most part of pure snowy marble, intermixed with figures of 
molten brass, double gilt, on lapis lazuli. The altar is a 
most stupendous piece; but most incomparable is the 
cupola painted by Giuseppe Rheni, and the present Bagli- 
oni, full of exquisite sculptures. There is a most sumptuous 
sacristia ; and the piece over the altar was by the hand of 
St. Luke; if you will believe it. Paulus V. hath here 

VOL. I. I 


likewise built two other altars ; under the one lie the bones 
of the Apostle, St. Matthias. In another oratory, is the 
statue of this Pope, and the head of the Congo Ambassador, 
who was converted at Rome, and died here. In a third 
chapel, designed by Michael Angelo, lie the bodies of Platina, 
and the Cardinal of Toledo, Honorius III., Nicephorus IV,, 
the ashes of St. Hierom, and many others. In that of 
Sextus v., before mentioned, was showed us part of the 
crib in which Christ was swaddled at Bethlehem ; there is 
also the statue of Pius V. ; and, going out at the further 
end, is the resurrection of Lazarus, by a very rare hand. 
In the portico, is this late inscription : " Cardinal Antonio 
Barberino Archypresbytero, aream marmoream quam 
Christianorum pietas exsculpsit, laborante sub Tyrannis 
ecclesiS., ut esset loci sanctitate venerabihor, Franciscus 
Gualdus Arm. Eques S. Stephani e suis sedibus hue trans- 
tulit et omavit, 1632." Just before this portico, stands a 
very sublime and stately Corinthian column, of white 
marble, translated hither for an ornament from the old 
Temple of Peace, built by Vespasian, having on the phnth 
of the capital the image of our Lady, gilt on metal ; at the 
pedestal runs a fountain. Going down the hill, we saw the 
obehsk taken from the Mausoleum of Augustus, and 
erected in this place by Domenico Fontana, with this 
epigraph : " Sextus V. Pont. Max. Obeliscum ex Egypto 
advectum, Augusti in Mausoleo dicatum, eversum, deinde 
et in plures confractum partes, in via ad S. Rochum 
jacentem, in pristinam faciem restitutum Salutiferse Cruci 
feliciiis hie erigi jussit, anno mdlxxxviii., Pont. III." : — 
and so we came weary to our lodgings. 

At the foot of this hill, is the Church of St. Prudentia, 
in which is a well filled with the blood and bones of several 
martyrs, but grated over with iron, and visited by many 
■devotees. Near this stands the church of her sister, 
S. Praxedeis, much frequented for the same reason. In a 
little obscure place, cancelled in with iron work, is the 
pillar, or stump, at which they relate our Blessed Saviour 
was scourged, being full of bloody spots, at which the 
devout sex are always rubbing their chaplets, and convey 
their kisses by a stick ha\ing a tassel on it. Here, besides 
a noble statue of St. Peter, is the tomb of the famous 
Cardinal Cajetan, an excellent piece : and here they hold 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 115 

that St. Peter said his first mass at Rome, with the same 
altar and the stone he kneeled on, he having been first 
lodged in this house, as they compute about the forty- 
fourth year of the Incarnation. They also show many 
relics, or rather rags, of his mantle. St. Laurence in 
Panisperna did next invite us, where that martyr was 
cruelly broiled on the gridiron, there yet remaining. St. 
Bridget is buried in this church under a stately monument. 
In the front of the pile is the suffering of St. Laurence 
painted a fresco on the wall. The fabric is nothing but 
Gothic. On the left, is the Therma Novatii ; and, on the 
right, Agrippina^s Lavacrum. 

14th. We passed again through the stately Capitol and 
Campo Vaccino towards the Amphitheatre of Vespasian, 
but first stayed to look at Titus's Triumphal Arch, erected 
by the people of Rome, in honour of his victory at Jerusa- 
lem ; on the left hand whereof he is represented drawn in 
a chariot with four horses abreast ; on the right-hand, or 
side of the arch within, is sculptured in figures, or basso- 
relievo as big as the hfe (and in one entire marble) the Ark 
of the Covenant, on which stands the seven-branched 
candlestick described in Leviticus, as also the two Tables 
of the Law, all borne on men's shoulders by the bars, as 
they are described in some of St. Hierom's bibles ; before 
this, go many crowned and laureated figures, and twelve 
Roman fasces, with other sacred vessels. This much con- 
firmed the idea I before had ; and, therefore, for the light 
it gave to the Holy History, I caused my painter. Carlo, to 
copy it exactly. The rest of the work of the Arch is of the 
noblest, best understood composita; and the inscription is 
this, in capital letters : 

S. p. Q, B. 

Santa Maria Nova is on the place where they told us 
Simon Magus feU out of the air at St. Peter's prayer, and 
burst himself to pieces on a flint. Near this is a marble 
monument, erected by the people of Rome in memory of 
the Pope's return from Avignon. 

Being now passed the ruins of Meta-Sudante (which 
stood before the Colosseum, so called, because there once 
stood here the statue of Commodus provided to refresh 
the gladiators), we enter the mighty ruins of the Vespasian 

I 2 

IIQ DIARY OF [Rojrar, 

Amphitheatre, hegun by Vespasian, and finished by that 
excellent prince, Titus. It is 830 Roman palms in length, 
(«. e. 130 paces), 90 in breadth at the area, with caves for 
the wild beasts which used to be baited by men instead of 
dogs ; the whole oval periphery 2888f palms, and capable 
of containing 87,000 spectators with ease and all accom- 
modation: the three rows of circles are yet entire; the 
first was for the senators, the middle for the nobility, the 
third for the people. At the dedication of this place were 
5000 wild beasts slain in three months during which the 
feast lasted, to the expense of ten millions of gold. It 
was built of Tiburtine stone, a vast height, with the five 
orders of architecture, by 30,000 captive Jews. It is 
without, of a perfect circle, and was once adorned thick 
with statues, and remained entire, till of late that some of 
the stones were carried away to repair the city -walls and 
build the Famesian Palace. That which still appears 
most admirable is, the contrivance of the porticos, vaults, 
and stairs, with the excessive altitude, which well deserves 
this distich of the poet : 

Omnis Caesareo cedat labor Amphitheatre ; 
Unum pro cunctis fama loquatur opus. 

Near it is a small chapel called Santa Maria della Pieta 
nel Colisseo, which is erected on the steps, or stages, very 
lofty at one of its sides, or ranges, within, and where there 
lives only a melancholy hermit. I ascended to the very 
top of it with wonderful admiration. 

The Arch of Constantine the Great is close by the Meta- 
Sudante, before mentioned, at the beginning of the Via 
Appia, on one side Monte Celio, and is perfectly entire, 
erected by the people in memory of his victory over 
Maxentius, at the Pons Milvius, now Ponte Mole. In the 
front is this inscription : 


P. F. AVGVSTO S. P. Q. K. 







Hence, we went to St. Gregorio, in Monte Celio, where 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. X17 

are many privileged altars, and there they showed us an 
arm of that saint, and other relics. Before this church 
stands a very noble portico. 

15th. Was very wet, and I stirred not out, and the 16th 
I went to visit Father John, Provincial of the Benedictines. 

17th. I walked to Villa Borghese, a house and ample 
garden on Mons Pincius, yet somewhat without the city- 
walls, circumscribed by another wall full of small turrets 
and banqueting-houses ; which makes it appear at a 
distance like a little town. Within it is an elysium of 
delight, having in the centre of it a noble palace ; but the 
entrance of the garden presents us with a very glorious 
fabric, or rather door-case, adorned with divers excellent 
marble statues. This garden abounded with aU sorts of 
dehcious fruit and exotic simples, fountains of sundry 
inventions, groves, and small rivulets. There is also ad- 
joining to it a vivarium for ostriches, peacocks, swans, 
cranes, &c. and divers strange beasts, deer, and hares. 
The grotto is* very rare, and represents, among other 
devices, artificial rain, and sundry shapes of vessels, flowers, 
&c. ; which is effected by changing the heads of the foun- 
tains. The groves are of cypress, laurel, pine, myrtle, and 
olive. The four sphinxes are very antique, and worthy 
observation. To this is a volary, full of curious birds. 
The house is square with turrets, from which the prospect is 
excellent towards Rome, and the environing hills, covered 
as they now are with snow, which indeed commonly con- 
tinues even a great part of the summer, affording sweet 
refreshment. Round the house is a baluster of white 
marble, with frequent jettos of water, and adorned with 
a multitude of statues. The walls of the house are covered 
with antique incrustations of history, as that of Curtius, 
the Rape of Europa, Leda, &c. The cornices above con- 
sist of fruitages and festoons, between which are niches 
furnished with statues, which order is observed to the very 
roof. In the lodge, at the entry, are divers good statues 
of Consuls, &c., with two pieces of field-artillery upon 
carriages, (a mode much practised in Italy before the great 
men's houses) which they look on as a piece of state more 
than defence. In the first haU within, are the twelve 
Roman Emperors, of excellent marble; betwixt them 
stand porphyry columns, and other precious stones of 


vast height and magnitude^ with urns of oriental alabaster. 
Tables of pietra-commessa : and here is that renowned 
Diana which Pompey worshipped, of eastern marble ; the 
most incomparable Seneca of touch, bleeding in an huge 
vase of porphyry, resembling the drops of his blood ; the 
so famous Gladiator, and the Hermaphrodite upon a quilt 
of stone. The new piece of Daphne, and David, of Cava- 
liero Bernini, is observable for the pure whiteness of the 
stone, and the art of the statuary plainly stupendous. 
There is a multitude of rare pictures of infinite value, by 
the best masters; huge tables of porphyry, and two ex- 
quisitely wrought vases of the same. In another chamber, 
are divers sorts of instruments of music : amongst other 
toys that of a satyr, which so artificially expressed a human 
voice, with the motion of eyes and head, that it might 
easily affright one who was not prepared for that most ex- 
travagant sight. They showed us also a chair that catches 
fast any who sits down in it, so as not to be able to stir 
out, by certain springs concealed in the arms and back 
thereof, which at sitting down surprises a man on the 
sudden, locking him in by the arms and thighs, after a 
true treacherous Italian guise. The perspective is also 
considerable, composed by the position of looking-glasses,, 
which render a strange multiplication of things resembling 
divers most richly furnished rooms. Here stands a rare 
clock of German work; in a word, nothing but what is 
magnificent is to be seen in this Paradise. 

The next day, I went to the Vatican, where, in the 
morning, I saw the ceremony of Pamfilio, the Pope's 
nephew, receiving a Cardinal's hat ; this was the first time 
I had seen his Holiness in pontificalibus. After the Car- 
dinals and Princes had met in the consistory, the ceremony 
was in the Pope's chapel, where he was at the altar invested 
with most pompous rites. 

19th. I visited St. Peter's, that most stupendous and 
incomparable Basilica, far surpassing any now extant in 
the world, and perhaps, Solomon's Temple excepted, any 
that was ever built. The largeness of the piazza before 
the portico is worth observing, because it affords a noble 
prospect of the church, not crowded up as for the most 
part is the case in other places where great churches are 
erected. In this is a fountain, out of which gushes a river 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 119 

rather than a stream which, ascending a good height, 
breaks upon a round emboss of marble into millions of 
pearls that fall into the subjacent basins with great noise; 
I esteem this one of the goodhest fountains I ever saw. 

Next is the obelisk transported out of Egypt, and dedi- 
cated by Octavius Augustus to JuHus Caesar, whose ashes 
it formerly bore on the simimit; but, being since over- 
turned by the barbarians, was re-erected with vast cost 
and a most stupendous invention by Domenico Fontana, 
architect to Sextus V. The obelisk consists of one entire 
square stone without hieroglyphics, in height seventy-two 
feet, but comprehending the base and all it is 108 feet 
high, and rests on four Lions of gilded copper, so as you 
may see through the base of the obelisk and plinth of the 

Upon two faces of the obelisk is engraven : 





It now bears on the top a cross in which it is said that 
Sextus V. inclosed some of the holy wood ; and under it is 
to be read by good eyes : 







On the four faces of the base below : 












120 DIARY OP . [ROME, 













A little lower : 


It is reported to have taken a year in erecting, to have 
cost 37,975 crowns, the labour of 907 men, and 75 horses; 
this being the first of the four Egyptian obelisks set up at 
Borne, and one of the forty-two brought to the city out of 
Egypt, set up in several places, but thrown down by the 
Goths, Barbarians, and earthquakes, f Some coaches stood 
before the steps of the ascent, whereof one, belonging to 
Cardinal Medici, had all the metal work of massy silver, 
viz. the bow behind and other places. The coaches at 
Rome, as well as covered waggons also much in use, are 
generally the richest and largest I ever saw. Before the 
facciata of the church is an ample pavement. The church 
was first begun by St. Anacletus, when rather a chapel, on 
a foundation, as they give out, of Constantino the Great, 
who, in honour of the Apostles, carried twelve baskets full 
of sand to the work. After him, Julius II. took it in 
hand, to which all his successors have contributed more 
or less. 

The front is supposed to be the largest and best-studied 
piece of architecture in the world ; to this we went up by 
four steps of marble. The first entrance is supported by 
huge pilasters ; the volto within is the richest possible, and 
overlaid with gold. Between the five large anti-ports are 

• In 1589, this eminent architect published a folio volume, with engravings, 
descriptive of the manner of removing and re-erecting this famous monument 
of antiquity, entitled " Del modo tenuto nel trasportare I'Obelisco Vaticano ;" 
with his portrait in the title-page, holding a model of this column. 

t See Platina in Vita Pontiff, p. 315. 

1C44.] JOHN EVELYN. 121 

columns of enormous height and compass, with as many- 
gates of brass, the work and sculpture of PoUaivola, the 
Florentine, full of cast figures and histories in a deep 
relievo. Over this runs a terrace of like amplitude and 
ornament, where the Pope, at solemn times, bestows his 
Benediction on the vidgar. On each side of this portico, 
are two campaniles, or towers, whereof there was but one 
perfected, of admirable art. On the top of all, runs a 
balustrade which edges it quite round, and upon this at 
equal distances are Christ and the [twelve Disciples, of 
gigantic size and stature, yet below showing no greater 
than the life. Entering the church, admirable is the 
breadth of the volto, or roof, which is all carved with 
foliage and roses overlaid with gold in nature of a deep 
basso-relievo, a V antique. The nave, or body, is in form of 
a cross, whereof the foot-part is the longest ; and, at the 
internodium of the transept, rises the cupola, which being 
all of stone and of prodigious height is more in compass 
than that of the Pantheon (which was the largest amongst 
the old Romans, and is yet entire) or any other known. 
The inside, or concave, is covered with most exquisite 
Mosaic, representing the Celestial Hierarchy, by Giuseppe 
d'Arpino, full of stars of gold; the convex, or outside, 
exposed to the air, is covered with lead, with great ribs of 
metal double gilt (as are also the ten other lesser cupolas, 
for no fewer adorn this glorious structure), which gives a 
great and admirable splendour in all parts of the city. 
On the summit of this is fixed a brazen globe gilt, capable 
of receiving thirty-five persons. This I entered, and en- 
graved my name amongst other travellers. Lastly, is the 
cross, the access to which is between the leaden covering 
and the stone convex, or arch-work ; a most truly astonish- 
ing piece of art ! On the battlements of the church, also 
all overlaid with lead and marble, you would imagine 
yourself in a town, so many are the cupolas, pinnacles, 
towers, juttings, and not a few houses inhabited by men 
who dwell there, and have enough to do to look after the 
vast reparations which continually employ them. 

Having seen this, we descended into the body of the 
church, full of collateral chapels and large oratories, most 
of them exceeding the size of ordinary churches ; but the 
principal are four incrusted with most precious marbles 


and stones of various colours, adorned with an infinity of 
statues, pictures, stately altars, and innumerable relics. 
The altar-piece of St. Michael being of Mosaic, I could 
not pass without particular note, as one of the best of that 
kind. The chapel of Gregory XIII., where he is buried, 
is most splendid. Under the cupola, and in the centre of 
the church, stands the high altar, consecrated first by 
Clement VIII., adorned by Paul V., and lately covered 
by Pope Urban VIII. ; with that stupendous canopy of 
Corinthian brass, which heretofore was brought from the 
Pantheon ; it consists of four wreathed columns, partly 
channelled and encircled with vines, on which hang little 
puti, birds and bees (the arms of the Barberini), sustaining 
a baldacchina, of the same metal. The four columns weigh 
an hundred and ten thousand pounds, all over richly gilt ; 
this, with the pedestals, crown, and statues about it, form 
a thing of that art, vastness, and magnificence, as is beyond 
all that man's industry has produced of the kind ; it is the 
work of Bernini, a Florentine sculptor, architect, painter, 
and poet, who, a httle before my coming to the city, gave 
a public opera (for so they call shows of that kind), wherein 
he painted the scenes, cut the statues, invented the engines, 
composed the music, writ the comedy, and built the 
theatre. Opposite to either of these pillars, under those 
niches which with their columns support the weighty 
cupola, are placed four exquisite statues of Parian marble, 
to which are four altars ; that of St. Veronica, made by 
Fra. Mochi, has over it the rehquary, where they showed 
us the miraculous Sudarium indued with the picture of 
our Saviour's face, with this inscription: "Salvatoris 
imaginem Veronicas Sudario exceptara ut loci majestas 
decenter custodiret, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. Marmo- 
reum signum et Altare addidit, Conditorium extruxit et 

Right against this is that of Longinus, of a Colossean 
magnitude, also by Bernini, and over him the conservatory 
of the iron lance inserted in a most precious crystal, ^vith 
this epigraph : " Longini Lanceam quam Innocentius VIII. 
h Bajazete Turcarum Tyranno accepit, Urbanus VIII. 
statu^ appositS,, et Sacello substructo, in exornatum Con- 
ditorium transtulit." 

The third chapel has over the altar the statue of our 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 123 

countrywoman, St. Helena, the mother of Constantine the 
Great; the work of Boggi, an excellent sculptor; and 
here is preserved a great piece of the pretended wood of 
the holy cross, which she 'is said to have first detected 
miraculously in the Holy Land. It was placed here by 
the late Pope with this inscription : " Partem Crucis quam 
Helena Imperatrix e Calvario in Urbem adduxit, Urbanus 
VIII. Pont. Max. e Sissorian^ Basilici desumptam, addi- 
tis ar4 et statu^, hie in Vatican© collocavit." 

The fourth hath over the altar, and opposite to that 
of St. Veronica, the statue of St. Andrew, the work of 
Fiamingo, admirable above all the other; above is pre- 
served the head of that Apostle, richly enchased. It is 
said that this excellent sculptor died mad to see his statue 
placed in a disadvantageous light by Bernini, the chief 
architect, who found himself outdone by this artist. The 
inscription over it is this : 

St. Andrese caput quod Pius II. ex Achaia in Vaticanum asportan- 
dum curavit, Urbanus VIII. novis hie omamentis decoratum sacrisque 
statuse ac Sacelli honoribus coli voluit. 

The Belies showed and kept in this church are without 
number, as are also the precious vessels of gold, silver, and 
gems, with the vests and services to be seen in the Sacristy, 
which they showed us. Under the high altar is an ample 
grot inlaid with pietra-commessa, wherein half of the bodies 
of St. Peter and St. Paul are preserved; before hang 
divers great lamps of the richest plate, burning continually. 
About this and contiguous to the altar, runs a balustrade, 
in form of a theatre, of black marble. Towards the left, 
as you go out of the church by the portico, a little beneath 
the high altar, is an old brass statue of St. Peter sitting, 
under the soles of whose feet many devout persons rub 
their heads, and touch their chaplets. This was formerly 
cast from a statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. In another 
place, stands a column grated about with iron, whereon 
they report that our Blessed Saviour was often wont to 
lean as he preached in the Temple. In the work of the 
reliquary under the cupola there are eight wreathed 
columns brought from the Temple of Solomon. In 
another chapel, they showed us the chair of St. Peter, or, 
as they name it, the Apostolical Throne. But amongst 


all the chapels the one most glorious has for an altar-piece 
a Madonna bearing a dead Christ on her knees, in white 
marble, the work of Michael Angelo. At the upper end of 
the Cathedral, are several stately monuments, especially 
that of Urban VIII. Round the cupola, and in many 
other places in the church, are confession-seats for all lan- 
gua'ges, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, 
English, Irish, Welsh, Sclavonian, Dutch, &c., as it is 
written on their friezes in golden capitals, and there are 
still at confessions some of all nations. Towards the 
lower end of the church, and on the side of a vast pillar 
sustaining a weighty roof, is the depositum and statue of 
the Countess Matilda, a rare piece, with basso-relievos 
about it of white marble, the work of Bernini. Here are 
also those of Sextus IV. and Paulus III., &c. Amongst 
the exquisite pieces in this sumptuous fabric is that of the 
ship with St. Peter held up from sinking by our Saviour j 
the emblems about it are the Mosaic of the famous Giotto, 
who restored and made it perfect after it had been defaced 
by the Barbarians. Nor is the pavement under the cupola 
to be passed over without observation, which with the rest 
of the body and walls of the whole church, are all inlaid 
with the richest of pietra-commessa, in the most splendid 
colours of polished marbles, agates, serpentine, porphyry, 
calcedon, &c., wholly incrusted to the very roof. Coming 
out by the portico at which we entered, we were showed 
the Porta Santa, never opened but at the year of jubilee. 
This glorious foundation hath belonging to it thirty 
canons, thirty-six beneficiates, twenty-eight clerks bene- 
ficed, with innumerable chaplains, &c., a Cardinal being 
always arch-priest ; the present Cardinal was Francisco 
Barberini, who also styled himself Protector of the English, 
to whom he was indeed very courteous. 

20th. I went to visit that ancient See and Cathedral 
of St. John di Laterano, and the holy places there- 
about. This is a church of extraordinary devotion, though, 
for outward form, not comparable to St. Peter's, being 
of Gothic ordonnance. Before we went into the cathe- 
dral, the Baptistery of St. John Baptist presented itself, 
being formerly part of the Great Constantine's Palace, 
and, as it is said, his chamber where by St. Silvester 
he was made a Christian. It is of an octagonal shape. 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 125 

having before the entrance eight fairpillars of rich porphyry, 
each of one entire piece, their capitals of divers orders 
supporting lesser columns of white marble, and these sup- 
porting a noble cupola, the moulding whereof is excellently 
wrought. In the chapel which they affirm to have been 
the lodging place of this Emperor, all women are prohi- 
bited from entering, for the malice of Herodias who 
caused him to lose his head. Here are deposited several 
sacred relics of St. James, Mary Magdalen, St. Matthew, 
&c., and two goodly pictures. Another chapel, or oratory 
near it, is called St. John the Evangelist, well adorned 
with marbles and tables, especially those of Cavaliere 
Giuseppe, and of Tempesta, in fresco. We went hence 
into another called St. Venantius, in which is a tribunal 
all of Mosaic in figures of Popes. Here is also an altar 
of the Madonna, much visited, and divers Sclavonish 
saints, companions of Pope John IV. The portico of the 
church is built of materials brought from Pontius Pilate*s 
house in Jerusalem. 

The next sight which attracted our attention, was a 
wonderful concourse of people at their devotions before a 
place called Scala Sancta, to which is built a noble front. 
Entering the portico, we saw those large marble stairs, 
twenty-eight in number, which are never ascended but on 
the knees, some lip-devotion being used on every step ; on 
which you may perceive divers red specks of blood under a 
grate, which they affirm to have been drops of our Blessed 
Saviour, at the time he was so barbarously misused by 
Herod's soldiers ; for these stairs are reported to have been 
translated hither from his Palace in tferusalem. At the 
top of them is a chapel, whereat they enter (but we could 
not be permitted) by gates of marble, being the same our 
Saviour passed when he went out of Herod's house. This 
they name the Sanctum Sanctorum, and over it we read this 
epigraph : 

Non est in toto sanctior orbe locus. 

Here, through a grate, we saw that picture of Christ 
painted (as they say) by the hand of St. Luke, to the life. 
Descending again, we saw before the church the obeUsk, 
which is indeed most worthy of admiration. It formerly 
lay in the Circo Maximo, and was erected here by Sextus V., 
in 1587, being 112 feet in height without the base or 


pedestal ; at the foot nine and a half one way and eight 
the other. This pillar was first brought from Thebes at 
the utmost confines of Egypt, to Alexandria, from thence 
to Constantinople, thence to Rome, and is said by Ammi- 
anus Marcellinus to have been dedicated to Rameses, King 
of Egypt. It was transferred to this city by Constantine 
the son of the Great, and is full of hieroglyphics, serpents, 
men, owls, falcons, oxen, instruments, &c., containing (as 
Father Kircher the Jesuit will shortly tell us in a book 
which he is ready to pubhsh) aU the recondite and abstruse 
learning of that people. The vessel, galley, or float, that 
brought it to Rome so many hundred leagues must needs 
Jiave been of wonderful bigness and strange fabric. The 
stone is one and entire, and [having been thrown down] 
was erected by the famous Dom. Fontana for that magni- 
ficent Pope, Sextus V., as the rest were ; it is now cracked 
in many places, but solidly joiaed. The obeUsk is thus 
inscribed at the several facciatas : 

Fl. Constantinus Augustus, Constantini Augusti F. Obeliscum a patre 
suo motum diuq; AlexandrisB jacentem, trecentorum remigum impo- 
situm navimirandsevastitatis per mare Tyberimq ; magnismolibusRomam 
convectum in Circo Max. ponendum S.P.Q.RJD.D. 

On the second square : 

Fl. Constantinus Max : Aug : Christiana} fidei Vindex & Assertor, 
Obeliscum ab JEgyptio Rege impure voto Soli dicatum, sedibus avulsum 
suis per Nilum transfer. Alexandriam, nt novam Romam ab se tunc 
conditam eo decoraret monumento. 

On the third : 

Sextus V. Pontifex Max : Obeliscum hunc specie eximia tempomm 
calamitate fractum, Circi Maximi minis humo, limoq ; altd demersum, 
multa impensa extraxit, hunc in •locum magno labore transtulit, 
form&q ; pristina accurate vestitum, Cruci invictissimse dicavit anno 

On the fourth : 

Constantinus per Crucem Victor a Silvestro hie Baptizatus Crucis 
gloriam propagavit. 

Leaving this wonderful monument, (before which is a 
stately public fountain, with a statue of St. John in the 
middle of it) we visited his HoHness's Palace, being a 
little on the left hand, the design of Fontana, architect to 
Sextus V. This I take to be one of the best Palaces in 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 127 

Rome ; but not staying, we entered the cliurch of St. John 
di Laterano, which is properly the Cathedral of the Roman 
See, as I learned by these verses engraven upon the archi- 
trave of the portico : 

Dogmate Papali datur, et simul Imperiali 

Quod sim canctarum mater caput Ecclesiaru 

Hinc Salvatoris coelestia regna datoris 

Nomine Sanxerunt, cum cuncta peracta fuerunt ; 

Sic vos ex toto conversi supplice voto 

Nostra quod hsec sedes ; tibi Christe sit inclyta sedes. 

It is called Lateran, from a noble family formerly dwell- 
ing it seems hereabouts, on Mons Cselius. The church is 
Gothic, and hath a stately tribunal ; the paintings are of 
Pietro Pisano. It was the first church that was conse- 
crated with the ceremonies now introduced, and where 
altars of «tone supplied those of wood heretofore in use, 
and made like large chests for the easier removal in times 
of persecution ; «uch an altar is still the great one here 
preserved, as being that on which (they hold) St. Peter 
celebrated mass at Rome ; for which reason none but the 
Pope may now presume to make that use of it. The 
pavement is of all sorts of precious marbles, and so are 
the walls to a great height, over which it is painted a fresco 
with the life and acts of Constantino the Great, by most 
excellent masters. The organs are rare, supported by four 
columns. The soffito is all richly gilded, and full of 
pictures. Opposite to the porta is an altar of exquisite 
architecture with a tabernacle on it all of precious stones, 
the work of Targoni ; on this is a coena of plate, the in- 
vention of Curtius Vanni, of exceeding value ; the tables 
hanging over it are of Giuseppe d'Arpino. About this 
are four excellent columns transported out of Asia by the 
Emperor Titus, of brass double gilt, about twelve feet in 
height ; the walls between them are incrusted with marble 
and set with statues in niches, the vacuum reported to be 
filled with holy earth, which St. Helena sent from Jeru- 
salem to her son, Constantino, who set these pillars where 
they now stand. At one side of this is an oratory full of 
rare paintings and monuments, especially those* of the 
great Connestabile Colonna. Out of this we came into 
the Sacristia, full of good pictures of Albert and others. 
At the end of the church is a flat stone supported by four 


pillars which they affirm to have been the exact height of 
our Blessed Saviour, and say they never fitted any mortal 
man that tried it, but he was either taller or shorter ; two 
columns of the veil of the Temple which rent at his 
passion ; the stone on which they threw lots for his seam- 
less vesture ; and the pillar on which the cock crowed, 
after Peter^s denial ; and, to omit no fine thing, the just 
length of the Virgin Mary's foot as it seems her shoemaker 
affirmed ! Here is a sumptuous cross beset with precious 
stones, containing some of the very wood of the holy 
cross itself; with many other things of this sort : also 
numerous most magnificent monuments, especially those 
of St. Helena, of porphyry; Cardinal Farneze; Martin I., 
of copper ; the pictures of Mary Magdalen, Martin V., 
Laurentius Valla, &c., are of Gaetano; the Nunciata, 
designed by M. Angelo ; and the great crucifix of Ser- 
moneta. In a chapel at one end of the porch is a statue 
of Henry IV. of France, in brass, standing in a dark hole, 
and so has done many years ; perhaps from not believing 
him a thorough proselyte. The two famous (Ecumenical 
Councils were celebrated in this Church by Pope Simachus, 
Martin I., Stephen, &c. 

Leaving this venerable church, (for in truth it has a 
certain majesty in it) we passed through a fair and large 
hospital of good architecture, having some inscriptions 
put up by Barberini, the late Pope's nephew. We then 
went by St. Sylvia, where is a noble statue of St. Gre- 
gory P., begun by M. Angelo ; a St. Andrew, and the 
bath of St. Cecilia. In this church are some rare paint- 
ings, especially that story on the wall of Guido Rheni. 
Thence, to St. Giovanni e Paula, where the friars are 
reputed to be great chymists. The choir, roof, and paint- 
ings in the tribuna are excellent. 

Descending the Mons Cajlius, we came against the 
vestiges of the Palazzo Maggiore, heretofore the Golden 
House of Nero ; now nothing but a heap of vast and 
confused ruins, to show what time and the vicissitude of 
human things does change from the most glorious and 
magnificent to the most deformed and confused. We next 
went into St. Sebastian's Church, which has a handsome 
front : then we passed by the place where Romulus and 
Remus were taken up by Faustulus, the Forum Romanima, 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 129 

and so by the edge of the Mons Palatinus ; Avhere we 
saw the ruins of Pompey's house, and the Church of 
St. Anacletus ; and so into the Circus Maximus, heretofore 
capable of containing a hundred and sixty thousand 
spectators, but now all one entire heap of rubbish, part of 
it converted into a garden of pot-herbs. We concluded 
this evening with hearing the rare voices and music at the 
Chiesa Nova. 

21st. I was carried to see a great virtuoso, Cavaliero 
Pozzo, who showed us a rare collection of all kind of 
antiquities, and a choice library, over which are the eflBgies 
of most of our late men of polite literature. He had a 
great collection of the antique basso-relievos about Rome, 
which this curious mem had caused to be designed in 
several folios : many fine medals ; the stone which Pliny 
calls Enhydros ; it had plainly in it the quantity of half 
a spoonful of water, of a yellow pebble colour, of the 
bigness of a walnut. A stone paler than an amethyst, 
which yet he afiirmed to be the true carbuncle, and harder 
than a diamond; it was set in a ring, without foil, or 
anything at the bottom, so as it was transparent, of 
a greenish yellow, more lustrous than a diamond. He 
had very pretty things painted on crimson velvet, designed 
in black, and shaded and heightened with white, set in 
frames ; also a number of choice designs and drawings. 

Hence, we walked to the Suburra and ^rarium Saturni, 
where yet remain some ruins and an inscription. From 
thence to St. Pietro in vinculis, one of the seven churches 
on the Esquiline, an old and much-frequented place of 
great devotion for the relics there, especially the bodies of 
the seven Maccabean brethren, which lie under the altar. 
On the wall is a St. Sebastian, of mosaic, after the Greek 
manner: but what I chiefly regarded, was, that noble 
sepulchre of Pope Julius II., the work of M. Angelo ; with 
that never-sufficiently-to-be-admired statue of Moses, in 
white marble, and those of Vita Contemplativa and Activa, 
by the same incomparable hand. To this church belongs 
a monastery, in the court of whose cloisters grow two tall 
and very stately palm-trees. Behind these, we walked a 
turn amongst the Baths of Titus, admiring the strange 
and prodigious receptacles for water, which the vulgar call 
the Setti Sali, now aU in heaps. 

VOL. I. K 


22nd. Was tte solemn and greatest ceremony of all 
the State Ecclesiastical, viz., the procession of the Pope 
(Innocent X.) to St. John di Laterano, which, standing 
on the steps of Ara Celi, near the Capitol, I saw pass in 
this manner: — First went a guard of Switzers to make 
way, and divers of the avant-guard of horse carrying 
lances. Next followed those who carried the robes of the 
Cardinals, two and two ; then the CardinaFs mace-bearers; 
the caudatari, on mules ; the masters of their horse ; the 
Pope's barber, tailor, baker, gardener, and other domestic 
officers, all on horseback, in rich liveries ; the squires be- 
longing to the Guard; five men in rich liveries led five 
noble Neapolitan horses, white as snow, covered to the 
ground, with trappings richly embroidered ; which is a 
service paid by the King of Spain for the kingdoms of 
Naples and Sicily, pretended feudatories to the Pope ; 
three mules of exquisite beauty and price, trapped in 
crimson velvet ; next followed three rich litters with 
mules, the litters empty ; the master of the horse alone, 
with his squires ; five trumpeters ; the armerieri estra 
muros ; the fiscal and consistorial advocates ; capellani, 
eamerieri de honore, cubiculari and chamberlains, called 

Then followed four other eamerieri, with four caps 
of the dignity-pontifical, which were Cardinals' hats car- 
ried on staves ; four trumpets ; after them, a number of 
noble Romans and gentlemen of quality, very rich, and 
followed by innumerable staffi^ri and pages ; the secreta- 
ries of the chancellaria, abbreviatori-accoliti in their long 
robes, and on mules ; auditori di rota ; the dean of the 
roti and master of the sacred palace, on mules, with grave, 
but rich foot-clothes, and in flat episcopal hats ; then went 
more of the Roman and other nobility and courtiers, with 
divers pages in most rich liveries on horseback ; fourteen 
drums belonging to the Capitol ; the marshals with their 
staves ; the two syndics ; the conservators of the city, in 
robes of crimson damask; the knight-confalionier and 
prior of the R. R., in velvet toques ; six of his Holiness's 
mace-bearers ; then the captain, or governor, of the Castle 
of St. Angelo, upon a brave prancer ; the governor of the 
city ; on both sides of these two long ranks of Switzers ; 
the masters of the ceremonies ; the cross-bearer on horse- 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 131 

back, with two priests at each hand on foot ; pages, foot- 
men, and guards, in abundance. Then came the Pope 
himself, carried in a litter, or rather open chair, of crimson 
velvet, richly embroidered, and borne by two stately 
mules ; as he went, he held up two fingers, blessing the 
multitude who were on their knees, or looking out of their 
windows and houses, with loud vivas and acclamations of 
felicity to their new Prince. This chair was followed by 
the master of his chamber, cup-bearer, secretary, and phy- 
sician ; then came the Cardinal-Bishops, Cardinal- Priests, 
Cardinal-Deacons, Patriarchs, Archbishops, and Bishops, 
all in their several and distinct habits, some in red, others 
in green flat hats with tassels, all on gallant mules richly- 
trapped with velvet, and led by their servants in great 
state and multitudes ; after them, the apostolical protono- 
tari, auditor, treasurer, and referendaries ; lastly, the 
trumpets of the rear-guard, two pages of arms in helmets 
with feathers and carrying lances ; two captains ; the pon- 
tifical standard of the Church ; the two alfieri, or cornets, 
of the Pope's light horse, who all followed in armour and 
carrying lances; which, with innumerable rich coaches, 
litters, and people, made up the procession. What they 
did at St. John di Laterano, I could not see, by reason of 
the prodigious crowd ; so I spent most of the day in view- 
ing the two triumphal arches which had been purposely 
erected a few days before, and till now covered ; the one 
by the Duke of Parma, in the Foro Eomano, the other by 
the Jews in the Capitol, with flattering inscriptions. They 
were of excellent architecture, decorated with statues and 
abundance of ornaments proper for the occasion, since they 
were but temporary, and made up of boards, cloth, &c., 
painted and framed on the sudden, but as to outward 
appearance solid and very stately. The night ended with 
fire-works. What I saw was that which was built before 
the Spanish Ambassador's house, in the Piazza del Trinity, 
and another, before that of the French. The first ap- 
peared to be a mighty rock, bearing the Pope's Arms, 
a dragon, and divers figures, which being set on fire by 
one who flung a rocket at it, kindled immediately, yet 
preserving the figure both of the rock and statues a very 
long time ; insomuch as it was deemed ten thousand 
reports of squibs and crackers spent themselves in order. 



That before the Erench Ambassador's Palace was a Diana 
drawn in a chariot by her dogs, Avith abundance of other 
figures as large as the life, which played with fire in the 
same manner. In the mean time, the windows of the 
whole city were set with tapers put into lanterns, or 
sconces, of several coloured oiled paper, that the wind 
might not annoy them; this rendered a most glorious 
show. Besides these, there were at least twenty other 
fire-works of vast charge and rare art for their invention 
before divers Ambassadors, Princes, and Cardinals^ Palaces, 
especially that on the castle of St. Angelo, being a pyramid 
of lights, of great height, fastened to the ropes and cables 
which support the standard-pole. The streets were this 
night as fight as day, full of bonfires, cannon roaring, 
music playing, fountains running wine, in all excess of joy 
and triumph. 

23rd. I went to the Jesuits' College again, the front 
Avhereof gives place to few for its architecture, most of 
its ornaments being of rich marble. It has within a 
noble portico and court, sustained by stately columns, as 
is the corridor over the portico, at the sides of which are 
the schools for arts and sciences, which are here taught 
as at the University. Here I heard Father Athanasius 
Kircher upon a part of Euclid, which he expounded. To 
this joins a glorious and ample church for the students ; 
a second is not fully finished ; and there are two noble 
libraries, where I was showed that famous wit and histo- 
rian, Famianus Strada. Hence, we went to the house 
of Hippolito Vitellesco, (afterwards bibliothecary of the 
Vatican library,) who showed us one of the best collections 
of statues in Rome, to which he frequently talks as if 
they were living, pronouncing now and then orations, 
sentences, and verses, sometimes kissing and embracing 
them. He has a head of Brutus scarred in the face by 
order of the Senate for killing Julius; this is much 
esteemed. Also a Minerva, and others of great value. 
This gentleman not long since purchased land in the 
kingdom of Naples, in hope, by digging the ground, to 
find more statues; which it seems so far succeeded, as 
to be much more worth than the purchase. We spent 
the evening at the Chiesa Nova, where was excellent 
music ; but, before that began, the courteous fathers led 


me into a nobly furnished library, contiguous to their most 
beautiful convent. 

28th. I went to see the garden and house of the Aldo- 
brandini, now Cardinal Borghese's. This Palace is, for 
architecture, magnificence, pomp, and state, one of the 
most considerable about the city. It has four fronts, and 
a noble piazza before it. Within the courts, under arches 
supported by marble columns, are many excellent statues. 
Ascending the stairs, there is a rare figure of Diana, of 
white marble. The St. Sebastian and Hermaphrodite 
are of stupendous art. For paintings. Our Saviour's Head, 
by Coreggio ; several pieces of Raphael, some of which are 
small; some of Bassano Veronese; the Leda, and two 
admirable Venuses, are of Titian's pencil ; so is the Psyche 
and Cupid ; the Head of St. John, borne by Herodias ; two 
heads of Albert Durer, very exquisite. We were shown 
here a fine cabinet and tables of Florence- work in stone. 
In the gardens are many fine fountains, the walls covered 
with citron-trees, which, being rarely spread, invest the 
stone-work entirely; and, towards the street, at a back- 
gate, the port is so handsomely clothed with ivy as much 
pleased me. About this palace are many noble antique 
bassi-relicAi : two especially are placed on the ground, 
representing armour, and other military furniture of the Ro- 
mans; beside these, stand about the garden numerous rare 
statues, altars, and urns. Above all, for antiquity and 
curiosity (as being the only rarity of that nature now 
known to remain) is that piece of old Roman painting 
representing the Roman Sponsalia, or celebration of their 
marriage, judged to be 1400 years old, yet are the colours 
very lively and the design very entire, though found 
deep in the ground. For this morsel of painting's sake 
only, it is said the Borghesi purchased the house, be- 
cause this being on a wall in a kind of banqueting- 
house in the garden, could not be removed, but passes with 
the inheritance. 

29tli. I a second time visited the Medicean Palace, 
being near my lodging, the more exactly to have a view 
of the noble collections that adorn it, especially the bassi- 
relievi and antique friezes inserted about the stone-work 
of the house. The Saturn, of metal, standing in the por- 
tico, is a rare piece ; so is the Jupiter and Apollo, in the 


hall. We were now led into those rooms above we could 
not see before, full of incomparable statues and antiquities; 
above all, and haply preferable to any in the world, are 
the Two Wrestlers, for the inextricable mixture with each 
others' arms and legs is stupendous. In the great chamber 
is the Gladiator, whetting a knife ; but the Venus is with- 
out parallel, being the master-piece of one whose name 
3'ou see graven under it in old Greek characters ; nothing 
in sculpture ever approached this miracle of art. To this 
add Marcius, Ganymede, a little Apollo playing on a pipe; 
some relievi incrusted on the palace-walls ; and an antique 
vasa of marble, near six feet high. Among the pictures 
may be mentioned the Magdalen and St. Peter, weeping. 
I pass over the cabinets and tables of pietra commessa, 
being the proper invention of the Florentines. In one of 
the chambers is a whimsical chair, which folded into so 
many varieties, as to turn into a bed, a bolster, a table, or 
a couch. I had another walk in the garden, where are 
two huge vasas, or baths of stone. 

I went farther up the hill to the Pope's Palaces at 
Monte Cavallo, where I now saw the garden more exactly, 
and found it to be one of the most magnificent and plea- 
sant in Rome. I am told the gardener is annually allowed 
2000 scudi for the keeping of it. Here I observed hedges 
of myrtle above a man's height ; others of laurel, oranges, 
nay, of ivy and juniper; the close walks, and rustic gi'otto; 
a cryptall, of which the laver, or basin, is of one vast, 
entire, antique porphyry, and below this flows a plentiful 
cascade ; the steps of the grotto and the roofs being of rich 
mosaic. Here are hydrauhc organs, a fish-pond, and an 
ample bath. From hence, we went to taste some rare 
Greco ; and so home. 

Being now pretty weary of continual walking, I kept 
within, for the most part, till the 6th December; and, 
during this time, I entertained one Signer Alessandro, 
who gave me some lessons on the theorbo. 

The next excursion was over the Tiber, which I crossed 
in a ferry-boat, to see the Palazzo di Ghisi, standing 
in Transtevere, fairly built, but famous only for the paint- 
ing a fresco on the volto of the portico towards the garden; 
the story is the Amours of Cupid and Psyche, by the 
hand of the celebrated Raphael d'Urbino. Here you 

1644.] JOHN EVELYN. 135 

always see painters designing and copying after it, being 
esteemed one of the rarest pieces of that art in the world ; 
and with great reason. I must not omit that incomparable 
table of Galatea (as I remember), so carefully preserved in 
the cupboard at one of the ends of this walk, to protect it 
from the air, being a most lively painting. There are 
likewise excellent things of Baldassare, and others. 

Thence we went to the noble house of the Duke of 
Bracciano, fairly built, with a stately court and fountain. 

Next, we walked to St. Mary^s Church, where was the 
Tabema Meritoria, where the old Roman soldiers received 
their triumphal garland, which they ever after wore. The 
high altar is very fair, adorned with columns of porphyry : 
here is also some mosaic work about the choir, and the 
Assumption is an esteemed piece. It is said that this 
church was the first that was dedicated to the Virgin at 
Eome. In the opposite piazza is a very sumptuous 

12th December. I went again to St. Peter's, to see the 
chapels, churches, and grots under the whole church (like 
our St. Faith's under Paul's), in which lie interred a multi- 
tude of Saints, Martyrs, and Popes ; amongst them our 
countryman, Adrian IV., (Nicholas Brekespere) in a chest 
of porphyry; St. J. Chrysostom ; Petronella; the heads of 
St. James Minor, St. Luke, St. Sebastian, and our Thomas 
h Becket; a shoulder of St. Christopher; an arm of 
Joseph of Arimathea; Longinus; besides 134 more 
Bishops, Soldiers, Princes, Scholars, Cardinals, Kings, 
Emperors, their wives ; too long to particularize. 

Hence we walked into the cemetery', called Campo 
Santo, the earth consisting of several ship-loads of mould, 
transported from Jerusalem, which consumes a carcase in 
twenty -four hours. To this joins that rare hospital, where 
once was Nero's Circus ; the next to this is the Inquisition- 
house and prison, the inside whereof, I thank God, I was 
not curious to see. To this joins his Holiness's Horse- 

On Christmas-eve, I went not to bed, being desirous of 
seeing the many extraordinary ceremonies performed then 
in their churches, as midnight masses and sermons. I 
walked from church to church the whole night in admira- 
tion at the multitude of scenes and pageantry which the 


friars had witli much industry and craft set out, to catch 
the devout women and superstitious sort of people, who 
never parted without dropping some money into a vessel 
set on purpose ; but especially observable was the puppetrj"" 
in the Church of the Minerva, representing the Nativity. 
I thence went and heard a sermon at the ApoUinare ; by 
which time it was morning. On Christmas -day, his Holi- 
ness sang mass, the artillery at St. Angelo went off, and 
all this day was exposed the cradle of our Lord. 

29th. Wc were invited by the English Jesuits to dinner, 
being their great feast of Thomas [a Becket] of Canter- 
bury. We dined in their common refectory, and after- 
wards saw an Italian comedy acted by their alumni before 
the Cardinals. 

1645. January. We saw pass the new officers of the 
people of Rome ; especially, for their noble habits were 
most conspicuous, the three Consuls, now called Conserva- 
tors, who take their places in the Capitol, having been 
sworn the day before between the hands of the Pope. We 
ended the day with the rare music at the Chiesa Nova. 

6th. Was the ceremony of our Saviour's baptism in 
the Church of St. Athanasius, and at Ara Celi was 
a great procession, del Bambino, as they call it, where 
were all the magistrates, and a wonderful concourse of 

7th. A sermon was preached to the Jews, at Ponte Sisto, 
who are constrained to sit till the hour is done ; but it is. 
with so much malice in their countenances, spitting, hum- 
ming, coughing, and motion, that it is almost impossible 
they should hear a word from the preacher. A conversion 
is very rare. 

14th. The heads of St. Peter and St. Paul are exposed 
at St. John Laterano. 

15th. The zitelle, or young wenches, which are to have 
portions given them by the Pope, being poor, and to marry 
them, walked in procession to St. Peter^s, where the 
Veronica was showed. 

I went to the Ghetto, where the Jews dwell as in a 
suburb by themselves; being invited by a Jew of my 
acquaintance to see a circumcision. I passed by the 
Piazza Judea, where their seraglio begins; for, being 
environed with walls, they are locked up every night. In 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 137 

this place remains yet part of a stately fabric, whicli my 
Jew told me had been a palace of theirs for the ambassador 
of their nation, when their country was subject to the 
Romans. Being led through the Synagogue into a pri- 
vate house, I found a world of people in a chamber : by 
and bye came an old man, who prepared and laid in order 
divers instruments brought by a little child of about seven 
years old in a box. These the man laid in a silver basin; 
the knife was much like a short razor to shut into the 
haft. Then they burnt some incense in a censer, which 
perfumed the room all the while the ceremony was per- 
forming. In the hasin was a little cap made of white 
paper like a capuchin^s hood, not bigger than the finger ; 
also a paper of a red astringent powder, I suppose of bole; 
a small instrument of silver, cleft in the middle at one end 
to take up the prepuce withal ; a fine linen cloth wrapped 
up. These being all in order, the women brought the 
infant swaddled, out of another chamber, and delivered it 
to the Rabbi, who carried and presented it before an altar, 
or cupboard, dressed up, on which lay the five Books of 
Moses, and the Commandments, a little unrolled. Before 
this, with profound reverence, and mumbling a few words, 
he waved the child to and fro awhile ; then he delivered it 
to another Rabbi, who sate all this time upon a table. 
Whilst the ceremony was performing, all the company fell 
singing a Hebrew hymn, in a barbarous tone, waving 
themselves to and fro; a ceremony they observe in all 
their devotions. — The Jews in Rome all wear yellow hats, 
live only upon brokage and usury, very poor and despicable, 
beyond what they are in other territories of Princes where 
they are permitted. 

18th. I went to see the Pope's Palace, the Vatican, 
where he for the most part keeps his Court. It was 
first built by Pope Simachus, and since augmented to a 
vast pile of building by his successors. That part of it 
added by Sextus V. is most magnificent. This leads us 
into divers terraces arched sub dio, painted by Raphael 
Avith the Histories of the Bible, so esteemed, that artists 
come from all parts of Europe to make their studies from 
these designs. The foliage and grotesque about some of 
the compartments are admirable.* In another room are 

* Painted by John of Udine, scholar of Raphael, from the designs of 
Raphael. Painter's Voyage of Italy, p. 17. 


represented at large, maps and plots of most countries in 
the world, in vast tables, with brief descriptions. The 
stairs which ascend out of St. Peter^s portico into the first 
hall, are rarely contrived for ease ; these lead into the hall of 
Gregory XIII. , the walls whereof, half way to the roof, are 
incrusted with most precious marbles of various colours 
and works. So is also the pavement inlaid work ; but 
what exceeds description is, the volta, or roof itself, which 
is so exquisitely painted, that it is almost impossible for the 
skilfuUest eye to discern whether it be the work of the 
pencil upon a flat, or of a tool cut deep in stone.' The 
B/Ota dentata, in this admirable perspective, on the left 
hand as one goes out, the Stella, &c., are things of art 
incomparable. Certainly this is one of the most superb 
and royal apartments in the world, much too beautiful for 
a guard of gigantic Switzers, who do nothing but drink 
and play at cards in it. Going up these stairs is a 
painting of St. Peter, walking on the sea towards our 

Out of this I went into another hall, just before the 
chapel, called the Sala del Conclave, full of admirable 
paintings ; amongst others, is the Assassination of Coligni, 
the great [Protestant] French Admiral, murdered by the 
Duke of Guise, in the Parisian massacre at the nuptials of 
Henry IV. with Queen Margaret; under it is written, 
"CoHgni et sociorum csedes:'^ on the other side, "Rex 
Coligi necem probat.^^ 

There is another very large picture, under which is 
inscribed : 

"Alexander Papa III., Frederici Primi Imperatoris iram et impetum 
fugiens, abdidit se Venetijs ; cognitum et a senatu perhonoiifice suscep- 
tum, Othone Imperatoris filio navali prselio victo captoq ; Fredericus, 
pace facta, supplex adorat ; fidem et obedientiaiu pollicitus. Ita Pon- 
tifici sua dignitas Venet. Reip. beneficio restituta mclxxviii."* 

This inscription I the rather took notice of, because 
Urban VIII. had caused it to be blotted out during the 
difference between him and that State; but it was now 

* " Pope Alexander III., flying from the wrath and violence of the Emperor 
Frederick I., took shelter at Venice, where he was acknowledged, and most 
honourably received by the Senate. The Emperor's son, Odio, being con- 
quered and taken in a naval battle, the Emperor, having made peace, became 
a suppliant to the Pope, promising fealty and obedience. Thus his dignity 
was restored to the Pontiff, by the aid of the Republic of Venice, mclxxviii." 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 139 

restored and refreslied by his successor, to the great 
honour of the Venetians. The battle of Lepanto is another 
fair piece here. 

Now we came into the Pope's chapel, so much cele- 
brated for the Last Judgment painted by M. Angelo 
Buonarotti. It is a painting in fresco, upon a dead wall 
at the upper end of the chapel, just over the high altar, of 
a vast design and miraculous fancy, considering the multi- 
tude of naked figures and variety of posture. The roof 
also is full of rare work. — Hence, we went into the sacristia, 
where were showed all the most precious vestments, copes, 
and furniture of the chapel. One priestly cope, with the 
whole suite, had been sent from one of our English Henrys, 
and is shown for a great rarit3^ There were divers of the 
Pope's pantoufles that are kissed on his foot, having rich 
jewels embroidered on the instep, covered with crimson 
velvet; also his tiara, or triple crown, divers mitres, 
crosiers, &c., all bestudded with precious stones, gold, and 
pearl, to a very great value ; a very large cross, carved (as 
they affirm) out of the holy wood itself; numerous uten- 
sils of crj'stal, gold, agate, amber, and other costly materials 
for the altar. 

We then went into those chambers painted with the 
Histories of the burning of Rome, quenched by the pro- 
cession of a Crucifix ; the victory of Constantino over 
Maxentius ; St. Peter's delivery out of Prison ; all by 
Julio Pbomano,* and are therefore called the Painters' 
Academy, because you always find some young men or 
other designing from them ; a civility which is not refused 
in Italy, where any rare pieces of the old and best masters 
are extant, and which is the occasion of breeding up many 
excellent men in that profession. 

The Sala Clementina's Suffito is painted by Cherubin 
Alberti, with an ample landscape of Paul Bril's. 

We were then conducted into a new gallery, whose sides 
were painted with views of the most famous places, towns, 
and territories in Italy, rarely done, and upon the roof 
the chief Acts of the Roman Chm-ch since St. Peter's pre- 
tended See there. It is doubtless one of the most magni- 
ficent galleries in Europe. — Out of this we came into the 
Consistory, a noble room, the volto painted iji grotesque, 

* A famous scholar of Raphael. 


as I remember. At the upper end, is an elevated throne 
and a baldacchino, or canopy of state, for his Hohness, 
over it. 

From thence, through a very long gallery (longer, I 
think, than the French Kings at the Louvre), but only of 
bare walls, we were brought into the Vatican Library. 
This passage was now full of poor people, to each of 
whom, in his passage to St. Peter's, the Pope gave a mezzo 
grosse. I believe they were in number near 1500 or 2000 

This library is the most nobly built, furnished, and 
beautified of any in the world ; ample, stately, light, and 
cheerful, looking into a most pleasant garden. The walls 
and roof are painted, not with antiques and grotesques, 
like our Bodleian at Oxford, but emblems, figures, dia- 
grams, and the like learned inventions, found out by the 
wit and industry of famous men, of which there are now 
whole volumes extant. There were likewise the effigies of 
the most illustrious men of letters and fathers of the 
church, with divers noble statues, in white marble, at the 
entrance, viz., Hippolytus and Aristides. The General 
Councils are painted on the side-walls. As to the ranging 
of the books, they are all shut up in presses of wainscot, 
and not exposed on shelves to the open air, nor are the 
most precious mixed amongst the more ordinary, which are 
showed to the curious only ; such are those two Virgils 
written on parchment, of more than a thousand years old ; 
the like, a Terence; the Acts of the Apostles in golden 
capital letters ; Petrarch^s Epigrams, written with his own 
hand ; also a Hebrew parchment, made up in the ancient 
manner, from whence they were first called Volumina, with 
the Cornua; but what we English do much inquire after, 
the book which our Henry VIII. writ against Luther.* 

The largest room is 100 paces long; at the end is the 
gallery of printed books ; then the gallery of the Duke of 
Urban's library, in which are MSS. of remarkable minia- 

* This very book, by one of those curious chances that occasionally happen, 
has recently been brought to England, where the Editor has seen it ; and, 
what is very remarkable, wherever the title of Defender of the Faith is sub- 
joined to the name of Henry, the Pope has drawn his pen through the title. 
The name of the King occurs in his own hand-writing both at the beginning 
and end ; and, on the binding, are the Royal Arms. The present possessor 
purchased it in Italy for a few sliillings from an old book-stalL 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 141 

ture, and divers China, Mexican, Samaritan, Abyssinian, 
and other oriental books. 

In another wing of the edifice, 200 paces long, were all 
the books taken from Heidelberg, of which the learned 
Gruter, and other great scholars, had been keepers. These 
walls and volto are painted with representations of the 
machines invented by Domenico Fontana for erection of 
the obelisks ; and the true design of Mahomet's sepulchre, 
at Mecca. 

Out of this we went to see the Conclave, where, during 
a vacancy, the Cardinals are shut up till they are agreed 
upon a new election ; the whole manner whereof was 
described to us. 

Hence we went into the Pope's Armoury, under the 
Library. Over the door is this inscription : 


I hardly believe any Prince in Europe is able to show a 
more completely furnished library of Mars, for the quality 
and quantity, which is 40,000 complete for horse and foot, 
and neatly kept. Out of this we passed again by the long 
gallery, and at the lower end of it down a very large pair 
of stairs, round, without any steps as usually, but descend- 
ing with an evenness so ample and easy, that a horse-litter, 
or coach, may Avith ease be drawn up ; the sides of the 
vacuity are set with columns : those at Amboise, on the 
Loire, in France, are something of this invention, but 
nothing so spruce. By these, we descended into the 
Vatican gardens, called Belvedere, where entering first 
into a kind of court, we were showed those incomparable 
statues (so famed by Pliny and others) of Laocoon with 
his three sons embraced by a huge serpent, all of one 
entire Parian stone, very white and perfect, somewhat 
bigger than the life, the work of those three celebrated 
sculptors, Agesandrus, Polydorus, and Artemidorus, Rho- 
dians ; it was found amongst the ruins of Titus's Baths, 
and placed here. Pliny says this statue is to be esteemed 
before all pictures and statues in the world ; and I am of 
his opinion, for I never beheld anything of art approach it. 
Here are also those two famous images of Nilus with the 
Children playing about him, and that of Tyber ; Romulus 
and Remus with the Wolf; the dying Cleopatra; the 


Venus and Cupid, rare pieces ; the Mercuiy ; Cybel ; 
Hercules ; Apollo ; Antinolis : most of which are, for 
defence against the weather, shut up in niches with wainscot 
doors. We were likewise showed the relics of the Hadrian 
Moles, viz. the Pine, a vast piece of metal which stood on 
the summit of that mausoleum ; also a peacock of copper, 
supposed to have been part of Scipio^s monument. 

In the garden without this (which contains a vast circuit 
of ground) are many stately fountains, especially two 
casting water into antique lavers, brought from Titus's 
Baths; some fair grots and water -works, that noble cascade 
where the ship dances, with divers other pleasant inven- 
tions, walks, terraces, meanders, fruit-trees, and a most 
goodly prospect over the greatest part of the city. One 
fountain under the gate I must not omit, consisting of 
three jettos of water gushing out of the mouths or probosces 
of bees (the arms of the late Pope), because of the 
inscription : 

Quid miraris Apem, quae mel de floribus haurit ? 
Si tibi mellitam gutture fundit aquam. 

23rd. We went without the walls of the city to visit 
St. Paul's, to which place it is said the Apostle bore his own 
head after Nero had caused it to be cut off. The church 
was founded by the Great Constantine ; the main roof is 
supported by 100 vast columns of marble, and the mosaic 
work of the great arch is wrought with a very ancient 
story A° 440 ; as is likewise that of the facciata. The gates 
are brass, made at Constantinople in 1070, as you may 
read by those Greek verses engraven on them. The church is 
near 500 feet long and 258 in breadth, and has five great 
aisles joined to it, on the basis of one of whose columns is 
this odd title : " Fl. Eugenius Asellus C. C. Praf. Urbis 
V. S.I. reparavit." Here they showed us that miraculous 
Crucifix which they say spake to St. Bridget : and, just 
before the Ciborio, stand two excellent statues. Here are 
buried part of the bodies of St. Paul and St. Peter. The 
pavement is richly interwoven with precious oriental 
marbles about the high altar, where are also four excel- 
lent paintings, whereof one, representing the stoning of 
St. Stephen, is by the hand of a Bolognian lady, named 
La\dnia. The tabernacle on this altar is of excellent 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 143 

architecture, and the pictures in the Chapel del Sacramento 
are of Lanfranco. Divers other relics there be also in this 
venerable church, as a part of St. Anna ; the head of the 
Woman of Samaria ; the chain which bound St. Paul, and 
the Eculeus used in tormenting the primitive Christians. 
The church stands in the Via Ositensis, about a mile from 
the walls of the city, separated from any buildings near it 
except the Trie Fontana, to which (leaving our coach) we 
walked, going over the mountain or little rising, upon 
which story says a hundred seventy and four thousand 
Christians had been martyred by Maximianus, Dioclesian, 
and other bloody tyrants. On this stand St. Vincent's 
and St. Anastasius; likewise the Church of St. Maria 
Scala del Cielo, in whose Tribuna is a very fair mosaic 
work. The Church of the Trie Fontana (as they are 
called) is perfectly well built, though but small (whereas 
that of St. Paul is but Gothic), having a noble cupola in 
the middle ; in this they show the pillar to which St. Paul 
was bound, when his head was cut oflF, and from whence 
it made three prodigious leaps, Avhere there immediately 
broke out the three remaining fountains, which give 
denomination to this church. The waters are reported to 
be medicinal ; over each is erected an altar and a chained 
ladle, for better tasting of the waters. That most excellent 
picture of St. Peter's Crucifixion is of Guido. 

25th. I went again to the Palazzo Farnese, to see some 
certain statues and antiquities which, by reason of the 
Major-Domo not being within, I could not formerly obtain. 
In the hall stands that triumphant Colosse of one of the 
family, upon three figures, a modern, but rare piece. About 
it stood some Gladiators ; and, at the entrance into one of 
the first chambers, are two cumbent figures of Age and 
Youth, brought hither from St. Peter's, to make room for 
the Longinus under the cupola. Here was the statue of a 
ram running at a man on horseback, a most incomparable 
expression of Fury, cut in stone ; and a table of pietra- 
commessa, very curious. The next chamber was all painted 
a fresco, by a rare hand, as was the carving in wood of the 
ceihng, which, as I remember, was in cedar, as the Italian 
mode is, and not poor plaster, as ours are ; some of them 
most richly gilt. In a third room, stood the famous 
Venus, and the child Hercules strangling a serpent, of 


Corinthian brass, antique, on a very curious basso-relievo ; 
the sacrifice to Priapus ; the Egyptian Isis, in the hard black 
ophite stone, taken out of the Pantheon, greatly celebrated 
by the antiquaries : likewise two tables of brass, containing 
divers old Roman laws. At another side of this chamber, 
was the statue of a wounded Amazon falling from her 
horse, worthy the name of the excellent sculptor, whoever 
the artist was. Near this was a bass-relievo of a Baccha- 
nalia, with a most curious Silenus. The fourth room was 
totally environed with statues; especially observable was 
that so renowned piece of a Venus looking backward over 
her shoulder, and divers other naked figures, by the old 
Greek masters. Over the doors are two Venuses, one of 
them looking on her face in a glass, by M. Angelo ; the 
other is painted by Caracci. I never saw finer faces, 
especially that under the mask, whose beauty and art are 
not to be described by words. The next chamber is also 
full of statues ; most of them the heads of Philosophers, 
very antique. One of the Csesars and another of Hannibal 
cost 1200 crowns. Now I had a second view of that never- 
to-be-sufficiently-admired gallery, painted in deep relievo, 
the work of ten years' study, for a trifling reward. In the 
wardrobe above they showed us fine wrought plate, porce- 
lain, mazers of beaten and solid gold, set with diamonds, 
rubies, and emeralds ; a treasure, especially the workman- 
ship considered, of inestimable value. This is all the Duke 
of Parma's. Nothing seemed to be more curious and rare 
in its kind than the complete service of the purest crj^stal, 
for the altar of the chapel, the very bell, cover of a book, 
sprinkler, &c., were all of the rock, incomparably sculptured, 
with the holy story in deep Levati ; thus was also wrought 
the crucifix, chalice, vases, flower-pots, the largest and 
purest crystal that my eyes ever beheld. Truly I looked 
on this as one of the greatest curiosities I had seen in 
Rome. In another part, were presses furnished, with 
antique arms, German clocks, perpetual motions, watches, 
and curiosities of Indian works. A very ancient picture 
of Pope Eugenius ; a St. Bernard ; and a head of marble 
found long since, supposed to be a true portrait of oui* 
Blessed Saviour's face. 

Hence, we went to see Dr. Gibbs, a famous poet and 
countryman of ours, who had some intendency in an 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 145 

Hospital built on the Via Triumphalis, called Christ's 
Hospital, which he showed us. The Infirmatory, where 
the sick lay, was paved with various coloured marbles, and 
the walls hung with noble pieces ; the beds are very fair ; 
in the middle is a stately cupola, under which is an altar 
decked with divers marble statues, all in sight of the sick, 
who may both see and hear mass, as they lie in their beds. 
The organs are very fine, and frequently played on to 
recreate the people in pain. To this joins an apartment 
destined for the orphans; and there is a school: the 
children wear blue, like ours in London, at an hospital of 
the same appellation. Here are forty nurses, who give 
suck to such children as are accidentally found exposed and 
abandoned. In another quarter, are children of a bigger 
growth, 450 in number, who are taught letters. In another, 
500 girls, under the tuition of divers religious matrons, in a 
monastery, as it were, by itself. I was assured there were 
at least 2000 more maintained in other places. I think 
one apartment had in it near 1000 beds; these are in a 
very long room, having an inner passage for those who 
attend, with as much care, sweetness, and conveniency as 
can be imagined, the Italians being generally very neat. 
Under the portico, the sick may walk out and take the air. 
Opposite to this, are other chambers for such as are sick of 
maladies of a more rare and difficult cure, and they have 
rooms apart. At the end of the long corridor is an apothe- 
cary^s shop, fair and very well stored; near which are cham- 
bers for persons of better quality, who are yet necessitous. 
Whatever the poor bring is, at their coming in, delivered ta 
a treasurer, who makes an inventory, and is accountable 
to them, or their representatives, if they die. 

To this building joins the house of the commendator, 
who, with his officers attending the sick, make up ninety 
persons ; besides a convent and an ample church for the 
fiiars and priests who daily attend. The church is 
extremely neat, and the sacristia is very rich. Indeed it is 
altogether one of the most pious and worthy foundations I 
ever saw. Nor is the benefit small which divers young 
physicians and chirurgeons reap by the experience they 
learn here amongst the sick, to whom those students have 
free access. Hence, we ascended a very steep hill, near 
the Port St. Pancratio, to that stately fountain called Acqua 
Paula, being the aqueduct which Augustus had brought to 

VOL. I. L 


Rome, novr re-edified by Paulus V. ; a rare piece of archi- 
tecture, and which serves the city after a journey of thirty- 
five miles, here pouring itself into divers ample lavers, out 
of the mouths of swans and dragons, the arms of this Pope. 
Situate on a very high mount, it makes a most glorious 
show to the city, especially when the sun darts on the 
waters as it gusheth out. The inscriptions on it are : 

Paulus V.RomanusPontifex Opt. Max. Aquaeductus ab AugustoCaesare 
extructos, sevi longinqua vetustate collapsos, in arapliorem formam 
restituit anno salutis M. D. CIX. Pont. V. 

And, towards the fields, 

Paulus V. Rom. Pontifex Optimus Maximas, priori ductu longissimi 
temporis injuria pene diruto, sublimiorem 

« * ♦ « * 

[One or more leaves are here wanting in Mr. Evelyn's MS. descrip- 
tive of other parts of Rome, and of his leaving the City.] 

Thence to Velletri, a town heretofore of the Volsci, where 
is a public and fair statue of P. Urban VIII., in brass, and 
a stately fountain in the street. Here we lay, and drank 
excellent wine. 

28th. We dined at Sermonetta, descending all this 
morning down a stony mountain, unpleasant, yet full 
of olive-trees ; and, anon, pass a tower built on a rock, 
kept by a small guard against the banditti who infest these 
parts, daily robbing and killing passengers, as my Lord 
Banbury and his company found to their cost a little 
before. To this guard we gave some money, and so were 
• suffered to pass, which was still on the Appian to the Tres 
TaberncB (whither the brethren came from Rome to meet 
"St. Paul, Acts, c. 28) ; the ruins whereof are yet very fair, 
resembling the remainder of some considerable edifice, as 
may be judged by the vast stones and fairness of the arched 
work. The country environing this passage is hilly, but 
rich ; on the right hand stretches an ample plain, being 
the Pomptini Campi. We reposed this night at Piperno, 
in the post-house without the town ; and here I was 
extremely troubled with a sore hand, from a mischance at 
Rome, which now began to fester, upon my base, unlucky, 
stiff-necked, trotting, carrion mule ; which are the most 
wretched beasts in the world. In this town was the poet 
Virgil's Camilla born. 

The day following, we were fain to hire a strong convoy 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 147 

of about thirty firelocks, to guard us through the cork- 
woods (much infested with the banditti) as far as Fossa 
Nuova, where was the Forum Appii, and now stands a 
church with a great monastery, the place where Thomas 
Aquinas both studied and lies buried. Here we all 
alighted, and were most courteously received by the Monks, 
who showed us many relics of their learned Saint, and at 
the high altar the print forsooth of the mule's hoof which 
he caused to kneel before the Host. The church is old, 
built after the Gothic manner; but the place is very 
agreeably melancholy. After this, pursuing the same 
noble [Appian] way (which we had before left a little), we 
found it to stretch from Capua to Rome itself, and after- 
wards as far as Brundusium. It was built by that famous 
Consul, twenty-five feet broad, every twelve feet some- 
thing ascending for the ease and firmer footing of horse 
and man ; both the sides are also a little raised for those 
who travel on foot. The whole is paved with a kind of 
beach-stone, and, as I said, ever and anon adorned with 
«ome old ruin, sepulchre, or broken statue. In one of 
these monuments Pancirollus tells us that, in the time of 
Paul III., there was found the body of a young lady, 
swimming in a kind of bath of precious oil, or liquor, fresh 
and entire as if she had been living, neither her face dis- 
coloured, nor her hair disordered; at her feet burnt a 
lamp, which suddenly expired at the opening of the vault ; 
having flamed, as was computed, now 1500 years, by the 
conjecture that she was TulHola, the daughter of Cicero, 
whose body was thus found, and as the inscription testified. 
We dined this day at Terracina, heretofore the famous, 
Anxur, which stands upon a very eminent promontory, 
the Cercean by name. Whilst meat was preparing, I 
went up into the town, and viewed the fair remainders of 
Jupiter's Temple, now converted into a church, adorned 
with most stately columns ; its architecture has been ex- 
cellent, as may be deduced from the goodly cornices, 
mouldings, and huge white marbles of which it is built. 
Before the portico stands a pillar thus inscribed : 

Inclyta Gothorum Regis monumenta vetusta 
Anxuri hoc Oculos exposuere loco. 

for, it seems, Theodoric drained their marches. 

L 2 

148 DIARY OF [fonwv 

On another more ancient : 

Imp. Csesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Trojanus Aug. Germanicus 
Dacicus. Pontif. Max. Trib. Pop. xviii. Imp. vi. Cos. v. p. p. xviii. 
Silices sua pecunia stravit. 

Meaning, doubtless, some part of the Via Appia. Then, 

Tit. Upio. Aug. optato Pontano Procuratori et Praefect. Classis. — Ti, 
Julius. T. Fab. optatus ii vir. 

Here is likewise a Columna Milliaria, with something 
engraven on it, but I could not stay to consider it. Com- 
ing down again, I went towards the sea-side to contem- 
plate that stupendous strange rock and promontory, cleft 
by hand, I suppose, for the better passage. Within this- 
is the Cercean Cave, which I went into a good way ; it 
makes a dreadful noise, by reason of the roaring and 
impetuous waves continually assaulting the beach, and 
that in an unusual manner. At the top, at an excessive- 
height, stands an old and very great castle. We arrived 
this night at Fondi, a most dangerous passage for robbing; 
and so we passed by Galba's villa, and anon entered the 
kingdom of Naples, where, at the gate, this epigraph saluted 
us : " Hospes, hic sunt fines E-egni Neopolitani; si amicus 
advenis, pacate omnia invenies, et malis moribus pulsis, 
bonas leges." The Via Appia is here a noble prospect ; 
having before considered how it was carried through vast 
mountains of rocks for many miles, by most stupendous 
labour : here it is infinitely pleasant, beset with sepulchres 
and antiquities, full of sweet shrubs in the environing- 
hedges. At Fondi, we had oranges and citrons for nothing, 
the trees growing in every comer, charged with fruit. 

29th. We descried Mount Caecubus, famous for the 
generous wine it heretofore produced, and so rid onward 
the Appian Way, beset with myrtles, lentiscus's, bays, 
pomegranates, and whole groves of orange-trees, and most 
delicious shrubs, till we came to Formiana pFormiae], 
where they showed us Cicero's Tomb, standing in an olive 
grove, now a rude heap of stones, without form or beauty ; 
for here that incomparable orator was murdered. I shali 
never forget how exceedingly I was dehghted with the 
sweetness of this passage, the sepulchre mixed amongst all 
sorts of verdure ; besides being now come within sight of 
the noble city, Cajeta [Gaieta], which gives a surprising 

1545,] JOHN EVELYN. 149 

prospect along the Tyrrhene Sea, in manner of a theatre : 
and here we beheld that strangely cleft rock, a frightful 
spectacle, which they say happened upon the passion of 
our Blessed Saviour ; but the haste of our procaccio did not 
suft'er us to dwell so long on these objects, and the many 
antiquities of this town, as we desired. 

At Formi, we saw Cicero's grot, dining at Mola, and 
passing Sinuessa, Garigliano (once the city Mintern), and 
beheld the ruins of that vast amphitheatre and aqueduct 
yet standing; the river Liris, which bounded the old 
Latium, Falernus, or Mons Massicus, celebrated for its 
wine, now named Garo ; and this night we lodged at a 
little village, called St. Agatha, in the Falernian Fields, 
near to Aurunca and Sessa. 

The next day, having passed [the river] Vulturnus, we 
come by the Torre di Francolisi, where Hannibal, in dan- 
ger from Fabius Maximus, escaped by debauching his 
enemies; and so at last we entered the most pleasant 
plains of Campania, now called Terra di Lavoro ; in very 
truth, I think, the most fertile spot that ever the sun 
shone upon. Here we saw the slender ruins of the once 
mighty Capua, contending at once both with Rome and 
Carthage, for splendour and empire, now nothing but a 
heap of rubbish, except showing some vestige of its former 
magnificence in pieces of temples, arches, theatres, columns, 
ports, vaults, colosses, &c., confounded together by the 
barbarous Goths and Longobards; there is, however, a 
new city, nearer to the road by two miles, fairly raised out 
of these heaps. The passage from this town to Naples 
(which is about ten or twelve English post miles) is as 
straight as a line, of great breadth, fuller of travellers than 
I remember any of our greatest and most frequented roads 
near London ; but, what is extremely pleasing, is the great 
fertility of the fields, planted with fruit-trees, whose boles 
are serpented with excellent vines, and they so exuberant, 
that it is commonly reported one vine will load five mules 
with its grapes. What adds much to the pleasure of the 
sight is, that the vines, climbing to the summit of the trees, 
reach in festoons and fruitages from one tree to another, 
planted at exact distances, forming a more delightful pic- 
ture than painting can describe. Here grow rice, canes 
for sugar, olives, pomegranates, mulberries, citrons, oranges. 


figs, and other sorts of rare fruits. About the middle of 
the way is the town Aversa, whither came three or four 
coaches to meet our lady-travellers, of whom we now took 
leave, having been very merry by the way with them and 
the capitano, their gallant. 

31st. About noon, we entered the city of Naples,. 
alighting at the Three Kings, where we found the most 
plentiful fare all the time we were in Naples. Provi- 
sions are wonderfully cheap; we seldom sat down to 
fewer than eighteen or twenty dishes of exquisite meat 
and fruits. 

The morrow after our arrival, in the afternoon, we hired 
a coach to carry us about the town. First, we went to the 
castle of St. Elmo, built on a very high rock, whence we 
had an entire prospect of the whole city, which lies in 
shape of a theatre upon the sea-brink, with all the circum- 
jacent islands, as far as Caprese, famous for the debauched 
recesses of Tiberius. This fort is the bridle of the whole 
city, and was well stored and garrisoned with native 
Spaniards. The strangeness of the precipice and rareness 
of the prospect of so many magnificent and stately palaces, 
churches, and monasteries, with the Arsenal, the Mole, 
and Mount Vesuvius in the distance, all in full command 
of the eye, make it one of the richest landscapes in the 

Hence, we descended to another strong castle, called 
II Castello Nuovo, which protects the shore ; but they 
would by no entreaty permit us to go in ; the outward 
defence seems to consist but in four towers, very high,, 
and an exceeding deep graff, with thick walls. Opposite to 
this is the tower of St. Vincent, which is also very strong. 

Then we went to the very noble Palace of the Viceroy, 
partly old, and part of a newer work ; but we did not stay 
long here. Towards the evening, we took the air upon 
the Mole, a street on the rampart, or bank, raised in the 
sea for security of their galleys in port, built as that of 
Grenoa. Here I observed a rich fountain in the middle of 
the piazza, and adorned with divers rare statues of copper, 
representing the Sirens, or Deities, of the Parthenope, 
spouting large streams of water into an ample shell, all of 
cast metal, and of great cost. This stands at the entrance 
of the Mole, where we met many of the nobility both oa 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. ]5I 

horseback and in their coaches to take the fresco from the 
sea, as the manner is, it being in the most advantageous 
quarter for good aii*, delight, and prospect. Here we saw 
divers goodly horses who handsomely become their riders, 
the Neapolitan gentlemen. This Mole is about 500 paces 
in length, and paved with a square hewn stone. From the 
Mole, we ascend to a church, of great antiquity, formerly 
sacred to Castor and Pollux, as the Greek letters carved 
on the architrave and the busts of their two statues testify. 
It is now converted into a stately oratory by the Theatines. 

The Cathedral is a most magnificent pile, and, except 
St. Peter's in Rome, Naples exceeds all cities for stately 
churches and monasteries. We were told that this day 
the blood of St. Januarius and his head should be exposed, 
and so we found it, but obtained not to see the miracle of 
the boiling of this blood. The next we went to see was 
St. Peter's, richly adorned, the chapel especially, where 
that Apostle said mass, as is testified on the wall. 

After dinner, we went to St. Dominic, where they 
showed us the crucifix that is reported to have said these 
words to St. Thomas, " Bene de me scripsisti, Thoma," 
Hence, to the Padri Olivetani, famous for the monument 
of the learned Alexander-ab-Alexandro. 

We proceeded, the next day, to visit the church of Santa 
Maria Maggiore, where we spent much time in surveying 
the chapel of Joli. Jo v. Pontanus, and in it the several 
and excellent sentences and epitaphs on himself, wife, 
children, and friends, full of rare wit, and worthy of record- 
ing, as we find them in several writers. In the same 
chapel is showed an arm of Titus Livius, with this epi- 
graph : " Titi Livij brachium quod Anton. Panormita a 
Patavinis impetravit, Jo. Jovianus Pontanus multos post 
annos hoc in loco ponendum curavit.'' 

Climbing a steep hill, we came to the monastery and 
church of the Carthusians, from whence is a most goodly 
prospect towards the sea and city, the one full of galleys 
and ships, the other of stately palaces, churches, monas- 
teries, castles, gardens, dehcious fields and meadows. 
Mount Vesuvius smoking, the Promontory of Minerva 
and Misenum, Capreae, Prochyta, Ischia, Pausilipum, Pu- 
teoli, and the rest, doubtless one of the most divertissant 

152 DIARY OP [NAPtEs, 

and considerable vistas in the world. The church is most 
elegantly built ; the very pavements of the common clois- 
ter being all laid with variously polished marbles, richly 
figured. They showed us a massy cross of silver, much 
celebrated for the workmanship and carving, and said to 
have been fourteen years in perfecting. The choir also 
is of rare art; but above all to be admired, is, the yet 
unfinished church of the Jesuits, certainly, if accomplished, 
not to be equalled in Europe. Hence, we passed by the 
Palazzo Caraffi, full of ancient and very noble statues : 
also the Palace of the Orsini. The next day, we did little 
but visit some friends, English merchants, resident for 
their negotiation ; only this morning at the Viceroy's 
Cavalerizza I saw the noblest horses that I had ever 
beheld, one of his sons riding the menage with that 
address and dexterity as I had never seen any thing 
approach it. 

4th February. We were invited to the collection of exotic 
rarities in the Museum of Eerdinando Imperati, a Neapo- 
litan nobleman, and one of the most observable palaces in 
the city, the repository of incomparable rarities. Amongst 
the natural herbals most remarkable was the Byssus marina 
and Pinna marina; the male and female chamelion; an 
Onocrotatus j an extraordinary great crocodile ; some of 
the Orcades Anates, held here for a great rarity ; likewise 
a salamander ; the male and female Manucordiata, the 
male having a hollow in the back, in which it is reported 
the female both lays and hatches her egg ; the mandrago- 
ras, of both sexes ; Papyrus, made of several reeds, and 
some of silk ; tables of the rinds of trees, written with 
Japonic characters ; another of the branches of palm ; 
many Indian fruits ; a crystal that had a quantity of 
uncongealed water within its cavity; a petrified fisher's 
net ; divers sorts of tarantulas, being a monstrous spider, 
with lark-like claws, and somewhat bigger. 

5th. This day we beheld the Vice-king's procession, 
which was very splendid for the relics, banners, and music 
that accompanied the Blessed Sacrament. The ceremony 
took up most of the morning. 

6th. We went by coach to take the air, and see the 
diversions, or rather madness, of the Carnival; the 

1C45.] JOHN EVELYN. 153 

courtesans (who swarm in this city to the number, as we 
are told, of 30,000, registered and paying a tax to the 
State) flinging eggs of sweet water into our coach, as we 
passed by the houses and windows. Indeed, the town is 
so pestered with these cattle, that there needs no small 
mortification to preserve from their enchantment, whilst 
they display all their natural and artificial beauty, play, 
sing, feign compliment, and by a thousand studied devices 
seek to inveigle foolish young men. 

7th. The next day, being Saturday, we went four miles 
out of town on mules, to see that famous volcano, Mount 
Vesuvius. Here we pass a fair fountain, called LabuUa, 
which continually boils, supposed to proceed from Vesu- 
vius, and thence over a river and bridge, where, on a large 
upright stone, is engraven a notable inscription relative to 
the memorable eruption in 1630.* 

Approaching the hill, as we were able with our mules, 
we alighted, crawling up the rest of the proclivity with 
great difficulty, now with our feet, now with our hands, 
not without many untoward slips which did much bruise 
us on the various coloured cinders, with which the whole 
mountain is covered, some like pitch, others full of perfect 
brimstone, others metallic, interspersed with innumerable 
pumices (of all which I made a collection), we at the last 
gained the summit of an excessive altitude. Turning our 
faces towards Naples, it presents one of the goodliest 
prospects in the world ; all the Baise, Cuma, Elysian 
Fields, Caprese, Ischia, Prochyta, Misenus, Puteoli, that 
goodly city, with a great portion of the Tyrrhene Sea, 
offering themselves to your view at once, and at so agree- 
able a distance, as nothing can be more delightful. The 
mountain consists of a double top, the one pointed very 
sharp, and commonly appearing above any clouds, the 
other blunt. Here, as we approached, we met many large 
gaping clefts and chasms, out of which issued such sul- 
phureous blasts and smoke, that we durst not stand long 
near them. Having gained the very summit, I laid myself 
down to look over into that most frightful and terrible 
vorago, a stupendous pit of near three miles in circuit, 
and half a mile in depth, by a perpendicular hollow cliff' 

* It may be seeu at length in Wright's Travels, and in Misson's New Voyage 
to Italy, vol. i., p. 431. 


(like that from the highest part of Dover Castle), with now 
and then a craggy prominency jetting out. The area at 
the bottom is plane, like an even floor, which seems to be 
made by the winds circling the ashes by its eddy blasts. 
In the middle and centre is a hill, shaped like a great 
brown loaf, appearing to consist of sulphureous matter^ 
continually vomiting a foggy exhalation, and ejecting^ 
huge stones with an impetuous noise and roaring, like the 
report of many muskets discharging. This horrid bara- 
thrum engaged our attention for some hours, both for the 
strangeness of the spectacle and the mention which the 
old histories make of it, as one of the most stupendous- 
curiosities in natui'e, and which made the learned and 
inquisitive Pliny adventure his life to detect the causes, 
and to lose it in too desperate an approach. It is likewise 
famous for the stratagem of the rebel, Spartacus, who did 
so much mischief to the State, lurking amongst, and pro- 
tected by, these horrid caverns, when it was more acces- 
sible and less dangerous than it is now ; but especially 
notorious it is for the last conflagration, when, in anno 
1630, it burst out beyond what it had ever done in the 
memory of history ; throwing out huge stones and fiery 
pumices in such quantity, as not only environed the 
whole mountain, but totally buried and overwhelmed divers 
towns and their inhabitants, scattering the ashes more 
than a hundred miles, and utterly devastating all those 
vineyards, where formerly grew the most incomparable 
Greco ; when, bursting through the bowels of the earth, 
it absorbed the very sea, and, with its whirling waters, 
drew in divers galleys and other vessels to their destruc- 
tion, as is faithfully recorded. We descended with more 
ease than we climbed up, through a deep valley of pure 
ashes, which at the late eruption was a flowing river of 
melted and burning brimstone, and so came to our mules 
at the foot of the mountain. 

On Sunday, we with oiu* guide visited the so much cele- 
brated Baia, and natural rarities of the places adjacent. 
Here we entered the mountain Pausilypus, at the left 
hand of which they showed us Virgil's sepulchre erected 
on a steep rock, in form of a small rotunda, or cupolated 
column, but almost overgrown with bushes and wild bay 
trees. At the entrance, is this inscription : 

1G45.] JOHN EVELYN. 155 

Stanisi Cencovius. 


Qui cineres ? Tumuli hffic vestigia, conditur olim 

lUe hoc qui cecinit Pascua, Rura, Duces. 

Can Ree MDLIIL* 

After we were advanced into this noble and altogether 
wonderful crypt, consisting of a passage spacious enough 
for two coaches to go abreast, cut through a rocky moun- 
tain near three quarters of a mile (by the ancient Cimmerii 
as reported, but as others say by L. Cocceius, who em- 
ployed a hundred thousand men on it), we came to the 
midway, where there is a well bored through the diameter 
of this vast mountain, which admits the light into a pretty 
chapel, hewn out of the natural rock, wherein hang divers 
lamps, perpetually burning. The way is paved under foot, 
but it does not hinder the dust, which rises so excessively 
in this much-frequented passage, that we were forced at 
mid-day to use a torch. At length, we were delivered from 
the bowels of the earth into one of the most delicious 
plains in the world : the oranges, lemons, promegranates,. 
and other fruits, blushing yet on the perpetually green 
trees; for the summer is here eternal, caused by the 
natural and adventitious heat of the earth, warmed 
through the subterranean fires, as was shown us by our 
guide, who alighted, and, cutting up a turf with his knife, 
and delivering it to me, it was so hot, I was hardly able ta 
hold it in my hands. This mountain is exceedingly fruitful 
in vines, and exotics grow readily. 

"We now came to a lake, of about two miles in circum- 
ference, environed with hills ; the water of it is fresh and 
sweet on the surface, but salt at bottom ; some mineral salt 
conjectured to be the cause, and it is reported of that pro- 
fun ditude in the middle that it is bottomless. The people 
call it Lago d'Agnano, from the multitude of serpents 
which, involved together about the spring, fall down from 
the cliffy hills into it. It has no fish, nor will any live in 

* Such is the inscription, as copied by Mr. Evelyn ; but, aa its sense is not 
very cleai', and as the Diary contains instances of incorrectness in tran- 
scribing, the Editor has thought it desirable to subjoin the distich said 
(by Keysler in his Travels, vol. ii., p. 433) to be the only one in the whole- 
mausoleum : 

QuJB cineris tumulo hsec vestigia I conditur olim 
lUe hoc qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 

256 DIARY OF [lago d'agnano, 

it. We tried the old experiment on a dog in the Grotto 
del Cane, or Charon's Cave ; it is not above three or four 
paces deep, and about the height of a man, nor very broad. 
Whatever having life enters it, presently expires. Of 
this, we made trial with two dogs, one of which we bound 
to a short pole to guide him the more directly into the 
further part of the den, where he was no sooner entered, 
but — without the least noise, or so much as a struggle, 
except that he panted for breath, lolling out his tongue, 
his eyes being fixed ; — we drew him out dead to all appear- 
ance; but immediately plunging him into the adjoining 
lake, within less than half an hour he recovered, and, 
swimming to shore, ran away from us. We tried the same 
on another dog, without the application of the water, and 
left him quite dead. The experiment has been made on 
men, as on that poor creature whom Peter of Toledo 
caused to go in ; likewise on some Turkish slaves ; two 
soldiers, and other fool-hardy persons, who all perished, 
and could never be recovered by the water of the lake, as 
are dogs; for which many learned reasons have been 
off'ered, as Simon Majolus in his book of the Canicular- 
days has mentioned, coUoq. 15. And certainly the most 
likely is, the effect of those hot and dry vapours which 
ascend out of the earth, and are condensed by the ambient 
cold, as appears by their converting into crystalline drops 
on the top, whilst at the bottom it is so excessively hot, 
that a torch being extinguished near it, and lifted a Httle 
distance, was suddenly re-lighted. 

Near to this cave are the natural stoves of St. Germain, 
of the nature of sudatories, in certain chambers partitioned 
with stone for the sick to sweat in, the vapours here being 
exceedingly hot, and of admirable success in the gout, and 
other cold distempers of the nerves. Hence, we climbed 
up a hill, the very highway in several places even smoking 
with heat like a furnace. The mountains were by the 
Greeks called Leucogaei, and the fields Phlegraean. Her- 
cules here vanquished the Giants, assisted with lightning. 
We now came to the Court of Vulcan, consisting of a 
valley near a quarter of a mile in breadth, the margent 
environed with steep cliffs, out of whose sides and foot 
break forth fire and smoke in abundance, making a noise 
like a tempest of water, and sometimes discharging in loud 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 157 

reports, like so many guns. The heat of this place is won- 
derful, the earth itself being almost unsufferable, and 
•which the subterranean fires have made so hollow, by 
having wasted the matter for so many years, that it sounds 
like a drum to those who walk upon it; and the water 
thus struggling with those fires, bubbles and spouts aloft 
into the air. The mouths of these spiracles are bestrewed 
with variously-coloured cinders, which rise with the vapour, 
as do many coloured stones, according to the quality of 
the combustible matter, insomuch as it is no Kttle adven- 
ture to approach them. They are, however, daily fre- 
quented both by sick and well ; the former receiving the 
fumes, have been recovered of diseases esteemed incurable. 
Here we found a great deal of sulphur made, which they 
refine in certain houses near the place, casting it into 
canes, to a very great value. Near this we were showed a 
hill of alum, where is one of the best mineries, yielding a 
considerable revenue. Some flowers of brass are found 
here; but I could not but smile at those who persuade 
themselves that here are the gates of purgatory (for which 
it may be they have erected, very near it, a convent, and 
named it St. Januarius), reporting to have often heard 
screeches and horrible lamentations proceeding from these 
caverns and volcanoes ; with other legends of birds that are 
never seen, save on Sundays, which cast themselves into 
the lake at night, appearing no more all the week after. 

We now approached the ruins of a very stately temple, 
or theatre, of 172 feet in length, and about eighty in 
breadth, thrown down by an earthquake, not long since ; 
it was consecrated to Vulcan, and under the ground are 
many strange meanders ; from which it is named the 
Labyrinth ; this place is so haunted with bats, that their 
perpetual fluttering endangered the putting-out our links. 

Hence, we passed again those boiling and smoking 
hills, till we came to Pozzolo, formerly the famous Puteoli, 
the landing-place of St. Paul, when he came into Italy, 
after the tempest described in the Acts of the Apostles. 
Here we made a good dinner, and bought divers medals, 
antiquities, and other curiosities, of the country-people, 
who daily find such things amongst the very old ruins of 
those places. This town was formerly a Greek colony, 
built by the Samians, a reasonable commodious port, and 

J58 DIARY OF [pozzoLo, 

full of observable antiquities. We saw the ruins of 
Neptune's Temple, to whom this place was sacred, and 
near it the stately Palace and gardens of Peter de Toledo, 
formerly mentioned. Afterwards, we visited that admirably 
built Temple of Augustus, seeming to have been hewn 
out of an entire rock, though indeed consisting of seA'eral 
square stones. The inscription remains thus : " L. Cal- 
phurnius L. F. Templum Augusto cum ornamentis D.D. ; " 
and under it; "L. Coccejus L. C. Postumi L. Auctus 
Architectus." It is now converted into a church, in which 
they showed us huge bones, which they affirm to have 
been of some giant. 

We went to see the ruins of the old haven, so compact 
with that bituminous sand in which the materials are laid, 
as the like is hardly to be found, though all this has not 
been sufficient to protect it from the fatal concussions of 
several earthquakes (frequent here) which have^ almost 
demolished it, thirteen vast piles of marble only remain- 
ing ; a stupendous work in the bosom of Neptune ! To 
this joins the bridge of Caligula, by which (having now 
embarked ourselves) we sailed to the pleasant Baia, almost 
four miles in length, all which way that proud Emperor 
would pass in triumph. Here we rowed along towards a 
villa of the orator Cicero's, where we were showed the 
ruins of his Academy ; and, at the foot of a rock, his Baths, 
the waters reciprocating their tides with the neighbouring 
sea. Hard at hand, rises Mount Gaurus, being, as I 
conceived, nothing save a heap of pumices, which here 
float in abundance on the sea, exhausted of all inflammable 
matter by the fire, which renders them light and porous, 
so as the beds of nitre, which lie deep under them, having 
taken fire, do easily eject them. They dig much for 
fancied treasure said to be concealed about this place. 
From hence, we coasted near the ruins of Portus Julius, 
where we might see divers stately palaces that had been 
swallowed up by the sea after earthquakes. Coming to 
shore, we pass by the Lucrine Lake, so famous heretofore 
for its delicious oysters, now producing few or none, being 
divided from the sea by a bank of incredible labour, the 
supposed work of Hercules ; it is now half choked up with 
rubbish, and by part of the new mountain, which rose 
partly out of it, and partly out of the sea, and that in the 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 159 

space of one niglit and a day, to a very great altitude, on 
the 29th September, 1538, after many terrible earthquakes, 
•which ruined divers places thereabout, when at midnight 
the sea retiring near 200 paces, and yawning on the sud- 
den, it continued to vomit forth flames and fiery stones in 
such quantity, as produced this whole mountain by their 
fall, making the inhabitants of Pozzolo to leave their 
habitations, supposing the end of the world had been 

From the left part of this, we walked to the Lake 
Avernus, of a round form, and totally environed with 
mountains. This lake was feigned by the Poet for the 
gates of hell, by which -^neas made his descent, and 
where he sacrificed to Pluto and the Manes. The waters 
are of a remarkable black colour; but I tasted of them 
without danger ; hence, they feign that the river Styx has 
its source. At one side, stand the handsome ruins of a 
temple dedicated to Apollo, or rather Pluto, but it is con- 
troverted. Opposite to this, having new lighted our 
torches, we enter a vast cave, in which having gone about 
two hundred paces, we pass a narrow entry which leads us 
into a room of about ten paces long, proportionable broad 
and high ; the side walls and roof retain still the golden 
mosaic, though now exceedingly decayed by time. Here 
is a short cell, or rather niche, cut out of the solid rock, 
somewhat resembling a couch, in which they report 
that the Sibylla lay, and uttered her Oracles; but it is 
supposed by most to have been a bath only. This subter- 
ranean grot leads quite through to Cuma, but is in some 
places obstructed by the earth which has sunk in, so as we 
were constrained back again, and to creep on our bellies, 
hefore we came to the light. It is reported Nero had 
once resolved to cut a channel for two great galleys that 
should have extended to Ostia, 150 miles distant. The 
people now call it Licola. 

From hence, we ascended to that most ancient city of 
Italy, the renowned Cuma, built by the Grecians. It 
stands on a very eminent promontory, but is now a heap 
of ruins. A little below, stands the Arco FeHce, hereto- 
fore part of Apollo's Temple, with the foundations of divers 
goodly buildings; amongst whose heaps are frequently 
found statues and other antiquities, by such as dig for 

1(50 DIARY OP [misenos, 

them. Near this is the Lake Acherutia, and Acheron. 
Returning to the shore, we came to the Bagni de Tritoli 
and Diana, which are only long narrow passages cut 
through the main rock, where the vapours ascend so hot, 
that entering with the body erect you will even faint with 
excessive perspiration; but, stooping lower, as sudden a 
cold surprises. These sudatories are much in request 
for many infirmities. Now we entered the haven of the 
Baise, where once stood that famous town, so called from 
the companion of Ulysses here buried ; not without great 
reason celebrated for one of the most delicious places that 
the sun shines on, according to that of Horace : 

Nullus in Orbe locus Balis prselucet amoenis. 

Though, as to the stately fabrics, there now remain little 
save the ruins, whereof the most entire is that of Diana^s 
Temple, and another of Venus. Here were those famous 
poles of lampreys that would come to hand when called by 
name, as Martial tells us. On the summit of the rock 
stands a strong castle garrisoned to protect the shore from 
Turkish pirates. It was once the retiring place of Julius 

Passing by the shore again, we entered Bauli, obser- 
vable from the monstrous murder of Nero committed on 
his mother Agrippina. Her sepulchre was yet showed us 
in the rock, which we entered, being covered with sundry 
heads and figures of ^beasts. We saw there the roots of a 
tree turned into stone, and are continually dropping. 

Thus having viewed the foundations of the old Cimmeria, 
the palaces of Marius, Pompey, Nero, Hortensius, and 
other villas and antiquities, we proceeded towards the 
promontory of Misenus, renowned for the sepulchre 
of iEneas's Trumpeter. It was once a great city, now 
hardly a ruin, said to have been built from this place 
to the promontory of Minerva, fifty miles distant, now 
discontinued and demolished by the frequent earth- 
quakes. Here was the villa of Caius Marius, where Tibe- 
rius Caesar died ; and here runs the Aqueduct, thought to 
be dug by Nero, a stupendous passage, heretofore nobly 
arched with marble, as the ruins testify. Hence, we 
walked to those receptacles of water called Piscina Mira- 
bilis, being a vault of 500 feet long, and twenty-two in 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 16]^ 

breadth, the roof propped up with four ranks of square 
pillars, twelve in a row ; the walls are brick, plastered over 
with such a composition as for strength and politure 
resembles white marble. 'Tis conceived to have been 
built by Nero, as a conservatory for fresh water ; as were 
also the Centi Camerelli, into which we were next led. 
All these crypta being now almost sunk into the earth, 
show yet their former amplitude and magnificence. 

Returning towards the Baia, we again pass the Elysian 
Fields, so celebrated by the poets, nor unworthily, for their 
situation and verdure, being full of myrtles and sweet 
shrubs, and having a most delightful prospect towards the 
Tyrrhene Sea. Upon the verge of these remain the ruins 
of the Mercato di Saboto, formerly a Circus ; over the 
arches stand divers urns, full of Roman ashes. 

Having well satisfied our curiosity among these antiqui- 
ties, we retired to our felucca, which rowed us back again 
towards Pozzolo, at the very place of St. Paul's landing. 
Keeping along the shore, they showed us a place where 
"the sea-water and sands did exceedingly boil. Thence, to 
•the island Nesis, once the fabulous Nymph ; and thus we 
leave the Baia, so renowned for the sweet retirements of 
"the most opulent and voluptuous Romans. They certainly 
were places of uncommon amenity, as their yet tempting 
•site, and other circumstances of natural curiosities, easily 
invite me to believe, since there is not in the world so 
many stupendous rarities to be met with, as in the circle of 
a few miles which environ these blissful abodes. 

8th. Returned to Naples, we went to see the Arsenal, 
well furnished with galleys and other vessels. The city 
is crowded with inhabitants, gentlemen and merchants. 
The government is held of the Pope by an annual 
tribute of 40,000 ducats and a white jennet; but the 
Spaniard trusts more to the power of those his natural 
subjects there ; Apulia and Calabria yielding him near 
four millions of crowns yearly to maintain it. The country 
is divided into thirteen Provinces, twenty Archbishops, 
and one-hundred-and-seven Bishops ; the estates of the 
nobility, in default of the male line, reverting to the King. 
Besides the Vice-Roy, there is amongst the Chief Magis- 
trates a High Constable, Admiral, Chief Justice, Great 
Chamberlain, and Chancellor, with a Secretary; these 

VOL. I. M 


being prodigiously avaricious, do wonderfully enricli them- 
selves out of the miserable people's labour, silks, manna, 
sugar, oil, wine, rice, sulphur, and alum ; for with all these 
riches is this delicious country blest. The manna falls at 
certain seasons on the adjoining hills in form of a thick 
dew. The very winter here is a summer, ever fruitful, so 
that in the middle of February we had melons, cherries, 
apricots, and many other sorts of fruit. 

The building of the city is for the size the most magni- 
ficent of any in Europe, the streets exceeding large, well- 
paved, having many vaults and conveyances under them 
for the sulliage ; which renders them very sweet and clean, 
even in the midst of winter. To it belongeth more than 
3000 churches and monasteries, and these the best built 
and adorned of any in Italy. They greatly affect the 
Spanish gravity in their habit ; dehght in good horses ; 
the streets are full of gallants on horseback, in coaches and 
sedans, from hence brought first into England by Sir 
Sanders Duncomb. The women are generally well-featured, 
but excessively libidinous. The country-people so jovial 
and addicted to music, that the very husbandmen almost 
universally play on the guitar, singing and composing songs 
in praise of their sweethearts, and will commonly go to the 
field with their fiddle ; they are merry, witty, and genial ; 
all which I much attribute to the excellent quality of the 
air. They have a deadly hatred to the French, so that 
some of our company were flouted at for wearing red cloaks, 
as the mode then was. 

This I made the non ultra of my travels, suflSciently 
sated with rolling up and down, and resolving within 
myself to be no longer an individuum vagum, if ever I got 
home again ; since, from the report of divers experienced 
and curious persons, I had been assured there was little 
more to be seen in the rest of the civil world, after Italy, 
France, Flanders, and the Low Countries, but plain and 
prodigious barbarism. 

Thus, about the 7th of February, we set out on our re- 
turn to Rome by the same way we came, not daring to 
adventure by sea, as some of our company were inclined to 
do, for fear of Tm'kish pirates hovering on that coast ; nor 
made we any stay save at Albano, to view the celebrated 
place and sepulchre of the famous duellists who decided the 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 163 

ancient quarrel between their imperious neighbours with 
the loss of their lives. These brothers, the Horatii and 
Curiatii, lie buried near the highway, under two ancient 
pyramids of stone, now somewhat decayed and overgrown 
with rubbish. We took the opportunity of tasting the 
wine here, which is famous. 

Being arrived at Rome on the 13th February, we were 
again invited to Signor Angeloni's study,* where with 
greater leisure we surveyed the rarities, as his cabinet and 
medals especially, esteemed one of the best collections of 
them in Europe. He also showed us two antique lamps, 
one of them dedicated to Pallas, the other Laribus Sacru', 
as appeared by their inscriptions ; some old Roman rings 
and keys ; the Egyptian Isis, cast in iron ; sundry rare 
basso-relievos; good pieces of painting, principally the 
Christ of Correggio, with this painter's own face admirably 
done by himself ; divers of both the Bassanos ; a great 
number of pieces by Titian, particularly the Triumphs ; 
an infinity of natural rarities, dried animals, Indian habits 
and weapons, shells, &c. ; divers very antique statues of 
brass ; some lamps of so fine an earth, that they resembled 
cornelians, for transparency and colour ; hinges of Corin- 
thian brass, and one great nail of the same metal found in 
the ruins of Nero's golden house. 

In the afternoon, we ferried over to Transtevere, to the 
Palace of Gichi,t to review the works of Raphael : and, 
returning by St. Angelo, we saw the castle as far as was 
permitted, and on the other side considered those admirable 
pilasters supposed to be of the foundation of the Pons 
Sublicius, over which Horatius Codes passed ; here anchor 
three or four water-mills, invented by Belizarius : and 
thence had another sight of the Farnesi's gardens, J and 
of the terrace where is that admirable painting of Raphael, 
being a Cupid playing with a Dolphin, wrought k fresco, 
preserved in shutters of wainscot, as well it merits, being 
certainly one of the most wonderful pieces of work in the 

14th. I went to Santa Cecilia, a church built and 
endowed by Cardinal Sfrondaeti, who has erected a 
stately altar near the body of this martyr, not long before 
found in a vesture of silk girt about, a veil on her head, 

♦ See p. 110. t See. p. 134. J See p. 102. 


164 DIARY OF [romk, 

and the bloody scars of three wounds on the neck ; the 
body is now in a silver chest, with her statue over it, in 
snow-white marble. Other Saints lie here, decorated with 
splendid ornaments, lamps, and incensories of great cost. 
A little farther, they show us the Bath of St. Cecilia, to 
which joins a Convent of Friars, where is the picture of the 
Flagellation by Vanni, and the columns of the portico, 
taken from the Baths of Septimius Severus. 

15th. Mr. Henshaw and I walked by the Tyber, and 
visited the Stola Tybertina (now St. Bartholomew's), 
formerly cut in the shape of a ship, and wharfed with 
marble, in which a lofty obelisk represented the mast. 
In the Church of St. Bartholomew is the body of the 
Apostle. Here are the ruins of the Temple of ^scula- 
pius, now converted into a stately hospital and a pretty 
convent. Opposite to it, is the convent and church of St. 
John Calabita, where I saw nothing remarkable, save an old 
broken altar. Here was the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. 
Hence, we went to a cupola, now a church, formerly dedi- 
cated to the Sun. Opposite to it, Santa Maria Schola 
Grseca, where formerly that tongue was taught, said to 
be the second church dedicated in Rome to the Blessed 
Virgin, bearing also the title of a Cardinalate. Behind 
this stands the great altar of Hercules, much demolished. 
Near this, being at the foot of Mount Aventine, are the 
Pope's salt-houses. Ascending the hill, we came to St. 
Sabina, an ancient fabric, formerly sacred to Diana; 
there, in a chapel, is an admirable picture, the work of 
Livia Fontana, set about with columns of alabaster, and 
in the middle of the church is a stone, cast, as they report, 
by the Devil at St. Dominic, whilst he was at mass. Hence, 
we travelled towards a heap of rubbish, called the Marmo- 
rata, on the bank of the Tyber, a magazine of stones, and 
near which formerly stood a triumphal arch, in honour of 
Horatius vanquishing the Tuscans. The ruins of the 
bridge yet appear. 

We were now got to Mons Testaceus, an heap of pot- 
sherds, almost 200 feet high, thought to have been thrown 
there and amassed by the subjects of the Commonwealth 
bringing their tribute in earthen vessels, others (more 
probably) that it was a quarter of the town where potters 
lived; at the summit Rome affords a noble prospect. 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 165 

Before it is a spacious green, called the Hippodrome, 
where Olympic games were celebrated, and the people 
mustered, as in our London Artillery- ground. Going 
hence, to the old wall of the city, we much admired the 
pj'^ramid, or tomb, of Caius Cestius, of white marble, one 
of the most ancient entire monuments, inserted in the 
wall, with this inscription : 

"C. Cestius L. F. Pob. Epulo (an order of priests) Pr. Tr. pi. VII. 
Vir. Epulonum." 

And a little beneath : 

" Opus absolutum ex testamento diebus CCCXXX. arbitratu. Ponti 
P. F. Cla. Melffi Heredis et Pothi L." 

At the left hand, is the Port of St. Paul, once Ter- 
gemina, out of which the three Horatii passed to encounter 
the Curiatii of Albano. Hence, bending homewards by 
St. Saba, by Antoninus's Baths (which we entered) is the 
marble Sepulchre of Vespasian. The thickness of the 
walls and stately ruins show the enormous magnitude of 
these baths. Passing by a corner of the Circus Maximus, 
we viewed the place where stood the Septizonium, demo- 
lished by Sextus V., for fear of its falling. Going by 
Mons. Ccelius, we beheld the devotions of St. Maria in 
Navicula, so named from a ship carved out in white 
marble standing on a pedestal before it, supposed to be the 
vow of one escaped from shipwreck. It has a 'glorious 
front to the street. Adjoining to this are the Horti 
Mathsei, which only of all the places about the city I 
omitted visiting, though I was told inferior to no garden 
in Rome for statues, ancient monuments, aviaries, foun- 
tains, groves, and especially a noble obelisk, and main- 
tained in beauty at an expense of 6000 crowns yearly, 
which, if not expended to keep up its beauty, forfeits the 
possession of a greater revenue to another family; so 
curious are they in their villas and places of pleasure, even 
to excess. 

The next day, we went to the once famous Circus Cara- 
calla, in the midst of which there now lay prostrate one 
of the most stately and ancient obelisks, full of Egyptian 
hieroglj'phics. It was broken into four pieces, when over- 
thrown by the Barbarians, and would have been purchased 
and transported into England by the magnificent Thomas 


Earl of Arundel^ could it have been well removed to the 
sea. This is since set together and placed on the stupen- 
dous artificial rock made by Innocent X., and serving for 
a fountain in Piazza Navona, the work of Bernini, the 
Pope's architect. Near this is the Sepulchre of Metellus, 
of massy stone, pretty entire,, now called Capo di Bove. 
Hence, to a small oratory, named Domine quo vadis, 
where the tradition is, that our Blessed Saviour met St. 
Peter as he fled, and turned him back again. 

St. Sebastian's was the next, a mean structure (the 
facciata excepted), but is venerable, especially for the 
relics and grots in which lie the ashes of many holy men. 
Here is kept the pontifical chair sprinkled with the blood 
of Pope Stephen, to which great devotion is paid ; also a 
well fuU of martyrs' bones, and the sepulchre of St. Sebas- 
tian, with one of the arrows [used in shooting him]. 
These are preserved by the Fulgentine Monks, who have 
here their monastery, and who led us down into a grotto 
which they affirmed went divers furlongs under ground ; 
the sides, or walls, which we passed were filled with bones 
and dead bodies, laid (as it were) on shelves, whereof some 
were shut up with broad stones, and now and then a cross, 
or a palm, cut in them. At the end of some of these sub- 
terranean passages, were square rooms with altars in them, 
said to have been the receptacles of primitive Christians, 
in the times of persecution, nor seems it improbable. 

17 th. I was invited, after dinner, to the Academy 
of the Humorists, kept in a spacious hall belonging 
to Signer Mancini, where the wits of the town meet 
on certain days to recite poems, and debate on several 
subjects. The first that speaks is called the Lord, and 
stands in an eminent place, and then the rest of the Vir- 
tuosi recite in order. By these ingenious exercises, besides 
the learned discourses, is the purity of the Italian tongue 
daily improved. The room is hung round with devices, or 
emblems, with mottoes under them. There are several 
other Academies of this nature, bearing like fantastical 
titles. In this of the Humorists is the picture of Guarini, 
the famous author of the Pastor Fido, once of this societ3^ 
The chief part of the day we spent in hearing the academic 

18th. We walked to St. Nicholas in Carcere; it has 

164o.J JOHN EVELYN. 1(57 

a fair front, and within are parts of the bodies of St. 
Mark and Marcellino; on the Tribuna is a painting of 
Gentileschi, and the altar of Caval ; Baglioni, Avith some 
other rare paintings. Coming round from hence, we 
passed by the Circus Flaminius, formerly very large, now 
totally in ruins. In the afternoon, we visited the English 
Jesuits, with whose Superior, P. Stafford, I was well ac- 
quainted; who received us courteously. They call their 
church and college St. Thomasso de gli Inglesi, and is a 
seminary. Amongst other trifles, they show the relics of 
Becket, their reputed martyr. Of paintings there is one 
of Durante, and many representing the sufferings of 
several of their society executed in England, especially 
r. Campion. 

In the Hospital of the Pelerini deUa S. Trinitk, I had 
seen the feet of many pilgrims washed by Princes, Cardi- 
nals, and noble Romans, and served at table, as the ladies 
and noble women did to other poor creatures in another 
room. It was told us that no less than 444,000 men had 
been thus treated in the Jubilee of 1600, and 25,500 
women, as appears by the register, which brings store of 

Returning homeward, I saw the Palace of Cardinal 
Spada, where is a most magnificent hall painted by Daniel 
da Volterra and Giulio Piacentino, who made the fret in 
the little Court ; but the rare perspectives are of Bolognesi. 
Near this is the Monte Pieta, instituted as a bank for the 
poor, who, if the sum be not great, may have money upon 
pawns. To this joins St. Martino, to which belongs a 
Schola, or Corporation, that do many works of charity. 
Hence, we came through Campo di Fieri, or herb -market, 
in the midst of which is a fountain casting water out of a 
dolphin, in copper ; and in this piazza is common execu- 
tion done. 

19th. I went, this afternoon, to visit my Lord John 
Somerset, brother to the Marquis of Worcester, who had 
his apartment in Palazzo della Cancellaria, belonging to 
Cardinal Francesco Barberini, as Vice-chancellor of the 
Church of Rome, and Protector of the English. The 
biulding is of the famous architect, Bramante, of incrusted 
marble, with four ranks of noble lights; the principal 
entrance is of Fontana's design, and all marble; the 

168 DIARY OF [ROMir, 

portico within sustained by massy columns ; on the second 
peristyle above, the chambers are rarely painted by Sal- 
viati and Vasari ; and so ample is this Palace, that six 
princes with their families have been received in it at one 
time, without incommoding each other. 

20th. I went as was my usual custom and spent an. 
afternoon in Piazza Navona, as well to see what anti- 
quities I could purchase among the people who hold 
market there for medals, pictures, and such curiosities, a& 
to hear the Mountebanks prate, and distribute their medi- 
cines. This was formerly the Circus, or Agonales, dedi- 
cated to sports and pastimes, and is now the greatest mar- 
ket of the city, having three most noble fountains, and. 
the stately palaces of the Pamfilii, St. Giacomo de Spag- 
noli belonging to that nation, to which add two convents 
for Friars and Nuns, all Spanish. In this church was. 
erected a most stately Catafalco, or Capella ardente, for 
the death of the Queen of Spain ; the church was hung 
with black, and here I heard a Spanish sermon, or funebraL 
oration, and observed the statues, devices, and impresses 
hung about the walls, the church and pyramid stuck with 
thousands of lights and tapers, which made a glorious 
show. The statue of St. James is by Sansovino ; there are 
also some good pictures of Caracci. The facciata, too, is 
fair. Returning home, I passed by the stumps of old 
Pasquin, at the corner of a street, called Strada Pontificia ; 
here they still paste up their drolling lampoons and scur- 
rilous papers. This had formerly been one of the best 
statues for workmanship and art in all the city, as the 
remaining bust does still show. 

21st. I walked in the morning up the hill towards 
the Capuchins, where was then Cardinal O'nufrio (brother 
to the late Pope Urban VIII.) of the same order. 
He built them a pretty church, full of rare pictures, and 
there lies the body of St. Felix, that they say still does 
miracles. The piece at the great altar is by Lanfranc. 
It is a lofty edifice, with a beautiful avenue of trees, and in 
a good air. After dinner, passing along the Strada del 
Corso, I observed the column of Antoninus, passing under 
Arco Portugallo, which is but a relic, heretofore erected 
in honour of Domitian, called now Portugallo, from a Car- 
dinal living near it. A little further on the right hand. 

1645.] JOHN EVELYX. 169 

stands the column in a small piazza^ heretofore set up in 
honour of M. Aurelius Antoninus, comprehending in a 
basso-relievo of white marble his hostile acts against the 
Parthians, Armenians, Germans, &c. ; but it is now some- 
what decaj'ed. On the summit has been placed the image 
of St. Paul, of gilded copper. The pillar is said to be 161 
feet high, ascended by 207 steps, receiving light by fifty- 
six apertures, without defacing the sculpture. 

At a little distance, are the relics of the Emperor's 
Palace, the heads of whose pillars show them to have been 

Turning a little down, we came to another piazza, in 
which stands a sumptuous vase of porphyry, and a fair 
fountain ; but the grace of this market, and indeed the 
admiration of the whole world, is the Pantheon, now 
called S. Maria della Rotonda, formerly sacred to all 
the Gods, and still remaining the most entire antiquity of 
the city. It was built by Marcus Agrippa, as testifies the 
architrave of the portico, sustained by thirteen pillars of 
Thebau marble,'six feet thick, and fifty-three in height, of 
one entire stone. In this porch is an old inscription. 

Entering the church, we admire the fabric, wholly 
covered with one cupola, seemingly suspended in the air, 
and receiving light by a hole in the middle only. The 
structure is near as high as broad, viz. 144 feet, not count- 
ing the thickness of the walls, which is twenty-two more 
to the top, all of white marble, and tiU Urban VIII. con- 
verted part of the metal into ordnance of war against the 
Duke of Parma, and part to make the high altar in St. 
Peter's, it was all over covered with Corinthian brass, 
ascending by forty degrees within the roof, or convex, of 
the cupola, richly carved with octagons in the stone. 
There are niches in the walls, in which stood heretofore 
the statues of Jupiter and the other Gods and Goddesses ; 
for here was that Venus which had hung in her ear the 
other Union* that Cleopatra was about to dissolve and 

• And in the cup an union shall he throw, 
Richer than that which four successive kings 
In Denmark's crown have worn. 

Shakspeare, Hamlet, Act v. Sc. 2, 
ed. Johnson and Steevens. 

Theobald says, an union is the finest sort of pearl, and has its place in all 


drink up, as she had done its fellow. There are several of 
these niches, one above another, for the celestial, terrestrial, 
and subterranean deities ; but the place is now converted 
into a church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and all the 
Saints. The pavement is excellent, and the vast folding- 
gates, of Corinthian brass. In a word, it is of all the 
Roman antiquities the most worthy of notice. There lie 
interred in this Temple the famous Raphael di Urbino, 
Perino del Vaga, F. Zuccharo, and other painters. 

Returning home, we pass by Cardinal Cajetan^s Palace, 
a noble piece of architecture of Vincenzo Ammanatti, 
which is the grace of the whole Corso. 

22nd. I went to Trinita del Monte, a monastery 
of French, a noble church built by Louis XI. and 
Charles VIII., the chapels well painted, especially that 
by Zuccari, Volterra, and the cloister with the miracles 
of their St. Francis de Paulo, and the heads of the French 
Kings. In the pergolo above, the walls are wrought with 
excellent perspective, especially the St. John; there are 
the Babylonish dials, invented by Kircher, the Jesuit. 
This convent, so eminently situated on Mons Pincius, has 
the entire prospect of Campus Martins, and has a fair 
garden which joins to the Palazzo di Medici. 

23rd. I went to hear a sermon at St. Giacomo de gli 
Incurabili, a fair church built by F. Volaterra, of good 
architecture, and so is the hospital, where only desperate 
patients are brought. I passed the evening at St. Maria 
del Popolo, heretofore Nero's sepulchre, where his ashes 
lay many years in a marble chest. To this church joins 
the monastery of St. Augustine, which has pretty gardens 
on Mons Pincius, and in the church is the miraculous 
shrine of the Madonna which Pope Paul III. brought 
barefooted to the place, supplicating for a victory over 
the Turks, in 1464. In a chapel of the Ghisi, are some 
rare paintings of Raphael, and noble sculptures. Those 
two in the choir are by Sansovino, and in the chapel de 
Cerasii, a piece of Caravaggio. Here lie buried many great 

crowns and coronets. Steevens cites from Soliman and Persida — " Ay, were 
it Cleopatra's vnion" — adding the following elucidation of the term from P. 
Holland's Translation of Pliny's Natural History : " And hereupon it is that 
our dainties and delicates here at Rome, &c. call them unions, as a man would 
say singular and by themselves alone." Edit. 

1645.] JOHN ETELYN. I7I 

scholars and artists, of which I took notice of this inscrip- 

Hospes, disce novum mortis genus; improba felis, 
Dum trahitur, digitum mordet, et intereo. 

Opposite to the facciatce of the church is a superb 
obelisk full of hieroglyphics, the same that Sennesertus, 
King of Egypt, dedicated to the Sun, brought to Rome by 
Augustus, erected in the Circus Maximus, and since 
placed here by Pope Sextus V. It is eighty-eight feet 
high, of one entire stone, and placed with great art and 
engines by the famous Domenico Fontana. 

Hence, turning on the right out of the Porto del Popolo, 
we came to Justinian's gardens, near the Muro Torto, so 
prominently built as threatening every moment to fall, yet 
standing so for these thousand years. Under this is the 
burying-place for the common prostitutes, where they are 
put into the ground, sans ceremonie. 

24th. We walked to St. Roche's and Martine's, 
near the brink of the Tyber, a large hospital for both 
sexes. Hence, to the Mausoleum Augusti, betwixt the 
Tyber and the Via Flaminia, now much ruined, which had 
formerly contended for its sumptuous architecture. It was 
intended as a cemetery for the Roman Emperors, had 
twelve ports, and was covered with a cupola of white 
marble, environed with stately trees and innumerable 
statues, all of it now converted into a garden. We passed 
the afternoon at the Sapienza, a very stately building full 
of good marbles, especially the portico, of admirable archi- 
tecture. These are properly the University Schools, 
where lectures are read on Law, Medicine, and Anatomy, 
and students perform their exercises. 

Hence, we walked to the church of St. Andrea della 
Valle, near the former Theatre of Pompey, and the famous 
Piccolomini, but given to this church and the Order, who 
are Theatins. The Barberini have in this place a chapel, 
of curious incrusted marbles of several sorts, and rare 
paintings. Under it is the place where St. Sebastian is 
said to have been beaten with rods before he was shot with 
darts. The cupola is painted by Lanfranc, an inestimable 
work, and the whole fabric and monastery adjoining are 

X72 DIARY OP [romk, 

25th. I was invited by a Dominican Friar, whom 
we usually heard preach to a number of Jews, to be 
god-father to a converted Turk and Jew. The ceremony 
was performed in the Church of Santa Maria sopra la 
Minerva, near the Capitol. They were clad in white; 
then exorcised at their entering the church with abund- 
ance of ceremonies, and, when led into the choir, were 
baptized by a Bishop, in pontificalibus. The Turk lived 
afterwards in Rome, sold hot waters, and would bring us 
presents when he met us, kneeling and kissing the hems 
of our cloaks ; but the Jew was believed to be a counter- 
feit. This church, situated on a spacious rising, was 
formerly consecrated to Minerva. It was well built and 
richly adorned, and the body of St. Catharine di Sienna 
lies buried here. The paintings of the chapel are by 
Marcello Venuti; the Madonna over the altar is by 
Giovanni di Fiesole, called the Angelic Painter, who was of 
the Order of these Monks. There are many charities dealt 
publicly here, especially at the procession on the Annun- 
ciation, when I saw his Holiness, with all the Cardinals, 
Prelates, &c., in pontificalibus ; dowries being given to 300 
poor girls all clad in white. The Pope had his tiara on 
his head, and was carried on men^s shoulders in an open 
arm-chair, blessing the people as he passed. The statue 
of Christ, at the Columna, is esteemed one of the master- 
pieces of M. Angelo : innumerable are the paintings by 
the best artists, and the organ is accounted one of the 
sweetest in Rome. Cardinal Bembo is interred here. We 
returned by St. Mark's, a stately church, with an excel- 
lent pavement, and a fine piece by Perugino, of the Two 
Martyrs. Adjoining to this is a noble palace bmlt by the 
famous Bramante, 

26th. Ascending the hill, we came to the Forum 
Trajanura, where his column stands yet entire, wrought 
with admirable basso-relievo recording the Dacian war, 
the figures at the upper part appearing of the same 
proportion with those below. It is ascended by 192 steps, 
enlightened with 44< apertures, or windows, artificially 
disposed ; in height from the pedestal 140 feet. 

It had once the ashes of Trajan and his statue, where 
now stands St. Peter's, of gilt brass, erected by Pope 
Sextus V. The sculpture of this stupendous piUar is 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. • I73 

thought to be the work of ApoUodorus ; but what is very- 
observable is, the descent to the plinth of the pedestal, 
showing how this ancient city lies now buried in her ruins ; 
this monument being at first set up on a rising ground. 
After dinner, we took the air in Cardinal Bentivoglio's 
delicious gardens, now but newly deceased. He had a 
fair palace built by several good masters on part of the 
ruins of Constantino's Baths : well adorned with columns 
and paintings, especially those of Guido Rheni. 

27th. In the morning, Mr. Henshaw and myself 
walked to the Trophies of Marius, erected in honour 
of his victory over the Cimbrians, but these now taken 
out of their niches are placed on the balusters of the 
Capitol, so that their ancient station is now a ruin. 
Keeping on our way, we came to St. Croce of Jerusalem, 
built by Constantino over the demolition of the Temple of 
Venus and Cupid, which he threw down ; and it was here 
they report he deposited the wood of the true Cross found 
by his mother, Helena ; in honour whereof this church was 
built, and in memory of his victory over Maxentius when 
that holy sign appeared to him. The edifice without 
is Gothic, but very glorious within, especially the roof, and 
one tribuna (gallery) well painted. Here is a chapel dedi- 
cated to St. Helena, the floor whereof is of earth brought 
from Jerusalem ; the walls are of fair mosaic, in which 
they suffer no women to enter, save once a year. Under 
the high altar of the Church is buried St. Anastasius, in 
Lydian marble, and Benedict VII. ; and they show a 
number of relics, exposed at our request, with a phial 
of our blessed Saviour's blood; two thorns of his crown; 
three chips of the real cross ; one of the nails, wanting a 
point ; St. Thomas's doubting finger ; and a fragment of 
the title [put on the cross], being part of a thin board; 
some of Judas's pieces of silver ; and many more, if one 
had faith to believe it. To this venerable Church joins a 
Monastery, the gardens taking up the space of an ancient 

Hence, we passed beyond the walls out at the Port 
of St. Laurence, to that Saint's church, and where 
his ashes are enshrined. This was also built by the 
same great Constantino, famous for the coronation of 
Pietro Altissiodorensis, Emperor of Constantinople, by 
Honorius the Second. It is said the corpse of St. 


Stephen, tlie proto-martyr, was deposited here by that of 
St. Sebastian, which it had no sooner touched, but Sebas- 
tian gave it place of its own accord. The Church has no 
less than seven privileged altars, and excellent pictures. 
About the walls are painted this martyr's sufferin gs ; and, when 
they built them, the bones of divers saints were translated to 
other churches. The front is Gothic. In our return, we 
saw a small ruin of an aqueduct built by Quintus Marcius, 
the praetor j and so passed through that incomparable straight 
street leading to Santa Maria Maggiore, to our lodging, 
suflBciently tired. 

We were taken up next morning in seeing the imperti- 
nences of the Carnival, when all the world are as mad at 
E-ome as at other places ; but the most remarkable were the 
three races of the Barbary horses, that run in the Strada 
del Corso without riders, only having spurs so placed on 
their backs, and hanging down by their sides, as by their 
motion to stimulate them ; then of mares, then of asses, 
of buffalos, naked men, old and young, and boys, and 
abundance of idle ridiculous pastime. One thing is 
remarkable, their acting comedies on a stage placed on 
a cart, or plamtrum, where the scene, or tiring-place, is 
made of boughs in a rural manner, which they drive from 
street to street with a yoke or two of oxen, after the ancient 
guise. The streets swarm with prostitutes, buffoons, and 
all manner of rabble. 

1st March. At the Greek Church, we saw the Eastern 
ceremonies performed by a Bishop, &c., in that tongue. 
Here the unfortunate Duke and Duchess of Bouillon 
received their ashes, it being the first day of Lent ; there was 
now as much trudging up and down of devotees, as the day 
before of licentious people ; all saints ahke to appearance. 
The gardens of Justinian, which we next visited, are very 
full of statues and antiquities, especially urns; amongst 
which is that of Minutius Felix ; a terminus that formerly 
stood in the Appian way, and a huge colosse of the Emperor 
Justinian. There is a delicate aviary on the hill; the 
whole gardens furnished with rare collections, fresh, shady, 
and adorned with noble fountains. Continuing our walk 
a mile farther, we came to Pons Milvius, now JSIela, where 
Constantine overthrew Maxentius, and saw the miraculous 
sign of the cross, In hoc signo vinces. It was a sweet 
morning, and the bushes were full of nightingales. Hence, 

1C45.] JOHN EVELYN. 175 

to Aqua Claudia again, an aqueduct finished by that 
Emperor at the expense of eight millions. In the afternoon, 
to Farnese's gardens, near the Campo Vaccino ; and upon 
the Palatine Mount to survey the ruins of Juno's Temple, 
in the Piscina, a piazza so called near the famous bridge 
built by Antoninus Pius, and re-edilfied by Pope Sextus IV. 

The rest of this week, we went to the Vatican, to hear 
the sermons, at St. Peter's, of the most famous preachers, 
who discourse on the same subjects and texts yearly, full 
of Italian eloquence and action. On our Lady-day, 25th 
March, we saw the Pope and Cardinals ride in pomp to the 
Minerva, the great guns of the Castle St. Angelo being 
fired, when he gives portions to 500 zitelle [young women], 
who kiss his feet in procession, some destined to marry, 
some to be nuns ; — the scholars of the college celebrating 
the blessed Virgin with their compositions. The next day, 
his Holiness was busied in blessing golden roses, to be sent 
to several great Princes ; the Procurator of the Carmelites 
preaching on our Saviour's feeding the multitude with five 
loaves, the ceremony ends. The sacrament being this day 
exposed, and the rehcs of the Holy Cross, the concourse 
about the streets is extraordinary. On Palm-Sunday, 
there was a great procession, after a papal mass. 

11th April. St. Veronica's handkerchief [with the 
impression of our Saviour's face] was exposed, and the next 
day the spear, with a world of ceremony. On Holy Thurs- 
day, the Pope said mass, and afterwards carried the Host 
in procession about the chapel, with an infinity of tapers. 
This finished, his Holiness was carried in his open chair on 
men's shoulders to the place where, reading the Bull 
in Coend Domini, he both curses and blesses all in a breath ; 
then the guns are again fired. Hence, he went to the 
Ducal hall of the Vatican, where he washed the feet of 
twelve poor men, with almost the same ceremony as it is 
done at Whitehall ; they have clothes, a dinner, and alms, 
which he gives with his own hands, and serves at their 
table; they have also gold and silver medals, but their 
garments are of white wooUen long robes, as we paint the 
Apostles. The same ceremonies are done by the Conser- 
vators and other officers of state at St. John di Lateran ; 
and now the table on which they say our blessed Lord 
celebrated his last supper is set out, and the heads of the 

176 DIARY OF [aoME, 

Apostles. In every famous church they are busy in dres- 
sing up their pageantries to represent the Holy Sepulchre, 
of which we went to visit divers. 

On Good Friday, we went again to St. Peter's, where 
the handkerchief, lance, and cross were all exposed, and 
worshipped together. All the confession-seats were filled 
with devout people, and at night was a procession of several 
who most lamentably whipped themselves till the blood 
stained their clothes, for some had shirts, others upon the 
bare back, having visors and masks on their faces ; at every 
three or four steps dashing the knotted and ravelled whip- 
cord over their shoulders, as hard as they could lay it on ; 
whilst some of the religious orders and fraternities sung 
in a dismal tone, the lights and crosses going before, 
making altogether a horrible and indeed heathenish 

The next day, there was much ceremony at St. John di 
Lateran, so as the whole week was spent in running from 
church to church, all the town in busy devotion, great 
silence, and unimaginable superstition. 

Easter-day, I was awakened by the guns from St. Angelo: 
we went to St. Peter's, where the Pope himself celebrated 
mass, showed the relics before-named, and gave a public 

Monday, we went to hear music in the Chiesa Nova, 
and though there were abundance of ceremonies at the 
other great churches, and great exposure of relics ; yet 
being wearied with sights of this nature, and the season of 
the year, summer, at Rome being very dangerous, by 
reason of the heats minding us of returning northwards, 
we spent the rest of our time in visiting such places as we 
had not yet sufficiently seen ; only I do not forget the 
Pope's benediction of the Confalone, or Standard, and 
giving the hallowed palms ; and, on May-day, the great 
procession of the University and the muleteers at St. 
Antony's, and their setting up a foolish May-pole in the 
Capitol, very ridiculous. We therefore now took coach a 
little out of town, to visit the famous Roma Soterranea, 
being much like what we had seen at St. Sebastian's. 
Here, in a corn-field, guided by two torches, we crept on 
our bellies into a little hole, about twenty paces, which 
delivered us into a large entry that led us into several 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 177 

streets, or alleys, a good depth in the bowels of the earth, a 
strange and fearful passage for divers miles, as Bosio has 
measured and described them in his book.* We ever and 
anon came into pretty square rooms, that seemed to be 
chapels with altars, and some adorned with very ordinary 
ancient painting. Many skeletons and bodies are placed 
on the sides one above the other in degrees like shelves, 
whereof some are shut up with a coarse flat stone, having 
engraven on them Pro Christo, or a cross and palms, which 
are supposed to have been martyrs. Here, in all hkeli- 
hood, were the meetings of the primitive Christians during 
the persecutions, as Pliny the younger describes them. 
As I was prying about, I found a glass phial, filled (as was 
conjectured) with dried blood, and two lachrymatories. 
Many of the bodies, or rather bones (for there appeared 
nothing else) lay so entire, as if placed by the art of the 
chirurgeon, but being only touched fell all to dust. Thus, 
after wandering two or three miles in this subterranean 
meander, we returned almost blind when we came into the 
day-light, and even choked by the smoke of the torches. 
It is said that a French bishop and his retinue adventuring 
too far in these dens, their fights going out, were never 
heard of more. 

We were entertained at night with an English play at 
the Jesuits', where we before had dined ; and the next day 
at Prince Galicano's, who himself composed the music to 
a magnificent opera, where were present Cardinal Pam- 
philio, the Pope's nephew, the Governors of Rome, the 
cardinals, ambassadors, ladies, and a number of nobility 
and strangers. There had been in the morning a joust 
and tournament of several young gentlemen on a formal 
defy, to which we had been invited ; the prizes being dis- 
tributed by the ladies, after the knight-errantry way. The 
lancers and swordsmen running at tilt against the barriers, 
with a great deal of clatter, but without any bloodshed, 
giving much diversion to the spectators, and was new to us 

The next day, Mr. Henshaw and I spent the morning 
in attending the entrance and cavalcade of Cardinal Medici, 
the ambassador from the Grand Duke of Florence, by the 

* Intituled, Roma Sotter^nea, folio, Rom. 1632. 
VOL. I. N 


Via Flaminia. After dinner^ we went again to the Villa 
Borghese, about a mile without the city; the garden is 
rather a park, or Paradise, contrived and planted with 
walks and shades of myrtles, cypress, and other trees, and 
groves, with abundance of fountains, statues, and bass- 
relievos, and several pretty murmuring rivulets. Here 
they had hung large nets to catch woodcocks. There was 
also a vivary, where, amongst other exotic fowls, was an 
ostrich ; besides a most capacious aviary ; and, in another 
inclosed part, a herd of deer. Before the Palace (which 
might become the court of a great prince) stands a noble 
fountain, of white marble, enriched with statues. The 
outer walls of the house are encrusted with excellent 
antique bass-relievos, of the same marble, incornished with 
festoons and niches set with statues from the foundation 
to the roof. A stately portico joins the Palace, full of 
statues and columns of marble, urns, and other curiosities 
of sculpture. In the first hall were the Twelve Caesars, of 
antique marble, and the whole apartments furnished with 
pictures of the most celebrated masters, and two rare tables 
of porphyry, of great value. But of this already ; * for I 
often visited this dehcious place. 

This night were glorious fire-works at the Palace of 
Cardinal Medici before the gate, and lights of several 
colours all about the windows through the city, which 
they contrive by setting the candles in little paper lanterns 
dyed with various colours, placing hundreds of them from 
story to story ; which renders a gallant show. 

May 4th. Having seen the entry of the ambassador of 
Lucca, I went to the Vatican, where, by favour of our 
Cardinal Protector, Fran. Barberini, I was admitted into 
the consistory, heard the ambassador make his oration in 
Latin to the Pope, sitting on an elevated state, or throne, 
and changing two pontifical mitres; after which, I was 
presented to kiss his toe, that is, his embroidered slipper, 
two Cardinals holding up his vest and surplice, and then 
being sufiiciently blessed with his thumb and two fingers 
for that day, I returned home to dinner. 

We went again to see the medals of Signor Gotefredi, 
which are absolutely the best collection in Rome. 

Passing the Ludovisia Villa, where the petrified human 

♦Seep. 117. 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 179 

figure lies, found on the snowy Alps ; I measured the 
hydra, and found it not a foot long ; the three necks and 
fifteen heads seem to be but patched up with several pieces 
of serpents' skins. 

5th. We took coach, and went fifteen miles out of 
the city to Frascati, formerly Tusculum, a villa of Cardinal 
Aldobrandini, built for a country-house ; but surpassing, 
in my opinion, the most delicious places I ever beheld for 
its situation, elegance, plentiful water, groves, ascents, and 
prospects. Just behind the Palace (which is of excellent 
architecture) in the centre of the enclosure, rises a high 
hill, or mountain, all over clad with tall wood, and so 
formed by nature, as if it had been cut out by art, from 
the summit whereof falls a cascade, seeming rather a great 
river than a stream precipitating into a large theatre of 
^ater, representing an exact and perfect rainbow, when 
the sun shines out. Under this, is made an artificial grot, 
wherein are curious rocks, hydraulic organs, and all sorts 
of singing birds, moving and chirping by force of the 
water, with several other pageants and surprising inven- 
tions. In the centre of one of these rooms, rises a copper 
ball that continually dances about three feet above the 
pavement, by virtue of a wind conveyed secretly to a hole 
beneath it ; with many other devices to wet the unwary 
spectators, so that one can hardly step without wetting to 
the skin. In one of these theatres of water, is an Atlas 
spouting up the stream to a very great height; and 
another monster makes a terrible roaring with a horn ; 
but, above all, the representation of a storm is most 
natural, with such fury of rain, wind and thunder, as one 
would imagine oneself in some extreme tempest. The 
garden has excellent walks and shady groves, abundance 
of rare fruit, oranges, lemons, &c., and the goodly pros- 
pect of Rome, above aU. description, so as I do not wonder 
that Cicero and others have celebrated this place with 
such encomiums. The Palace is indeed built more like a 
cabinet than anything composed of stone and mortar ; it 
has in the middle a hall furnished with excellent marbles 
and rare pictures, especially those of Gioseppino d'Arpino; 
the moveables are princely and rich. This was the last 
piece of architecture finished by Giacomo della Porta, who 


180 DIARY OP [titoli, 

built it for Pietro Cardinal Aldobrandini, in the time of 
Clement VIII.* 

We went hence to another house and garden not far 
distant, on the side of a hill called Mondragone, finished 
by Cardinal Scipio Borghese, an ample and kingly edifice. 
It has a very long gallery, and at the end a theatre for 
pastimes, spacious courts, rare grots, vineyards, oHve- 
grounds, groves, and solitudes. The air is so fresh and 
sweet, as few parts of Italy exceed it ; nor is it inferior to 
any palace in the city itself for statues, pictures, and fur- 
niture ; but, it growing late, we could not take such par- 
ticular notice of these things as they deserved. 

6th. We rested ourselves; and, next day, in a coach, 
took our last farewell of visiting the circumjacent places, 
going to Tivoli, or the old Tiburtum. At about six miles 
from Rome, we pass the Teverone, a bridge built by Mam- 
mea, the mother of Severus, and so by divers ancient 
sepulchres, amongst others that of Valerius Volusi; and 
near it pass the stinking sulphureous river over the Ponte 
Lucano, where we found a heap, or turret, full of inscrip- 
tions, now called the Tomb of Plautius. Arrived at Tivoli, 
we went first to see the Palace d'Este, erected on a plain, 
but where was formerly an hill. The Palace is very ample 
and stately. In the garden, on the right hand, are sixteen 
vast conchas of marble, jetting out waters ; in the midst 
of these stands a Janus quadrifrons, that cast forth four 
girandolas, called from the resemblance [to a particular 
exhibition in fire-works so named] the Fontana di Speccho 
[looking-glass] . Near this is a place for tilting. Before 
the ascent of the palace is the famous fountain of Leda, 
and not far from that, four sweet and delicious gardens. 
Descending thence are two pyramids of water, and in a 
grove of trees near it the fountains of Tethys, Esculapius, 
Arethusa, Pandora, Pomona, and Flora; then the pranc- 
ing Pegasus, Bacchus, the Grot of Venus, the two Colosses 
of Melicerta and Sibylla Tiburtina, all of exquisite marble, 
copper, and other suitable adornments. The Cupids 
pouring out water are especially most rare, and the urns 
on which are placed the ten nymphs. The grots are richly 
paved with pietra-commessa, shells, coral, &c. 

* Cardinal Hippolito Aldobrandini was elected Pope in Januaiy, 1592, by 
the name of Oement YIII., and died in March, 1605. 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 181 

Towards Roma Triumphans^ leads a long and spacious 
walk, full of fountains, under which is historized the whole 
Ovidian Metamorphosis, in rarely sculptured mezzo relievo. 
At the end of this, next the wall, is the city of Rome as it 
was in its beauty, of small models, representing that city, 
with its amphitheatres; naumachi, thermae, temples, arches, 
aqueducts, streets, and other magnificences, with a httle 
stream running through it for the Tiber, gushing out of 
an urn next the statue of the river. In another garden, 
is a noble aviary, the birds artificial, and singing till an 
owl appears, on which they suddenly change their notes. 
Near this is the fountain of Dragons, casting out large 
streams of water with great noise. In another grotto, 
called Grotto di Natura, is an hydraulic organ ; and, below 
this, are divers stews and fish-ponds, in one of which is 
the statue of Neptune in his chariot on a sea-horse, in 
another a Triton ; and, lastly, a garden of simples. There 
are besides in the palace many rare statues and pictm'es, 
bedsteads richly inlaid, and sundry other precious move- 
ables : the whole is said to have cost the best part of a 

Having gratified our curiosity with these artificial 
miracles, and dined, we went to see the so famous natural 
precipice and cascade of the river Anio, rushing down 
from the mountains of Tivoli with that fury that, what 
with the mist it perpetually casts up by the breaking of 
the water against the rocks, and what with the sun shining 
on it and forming a natural Iris, and the prodigious depth 
of the gulf below, it is enough to astonish one that looks 
on it. Upon the summit of this rock stand the ruins and 
some pillars and cornices of the Temple of Sibylla Tybur- 
tina, or Albunea, a round fabric, still discovering some of 
its pristine beauty. Here was a great deal of gunpowder 
drying in the sun, and a little beneath, mills belonging to 
the Pope. 

And now we returned to Rome. By the way, we were 
showed, at some distance, the city Praeneste, and the 
Hadrian villa, now only a heap of ruins ; and so came 
late to oiu* lodging. 

We now determined to desist from visiting any more 
curiosities, except what should happen to come in our 
way, when my companion, Mr. Henshaw, or myself should 


go to take the air ; only I may not omit tliat one after- 
noon, diverting ourselves in the Piazza Navona, a mounte- 
bank there to allure curious strangers, taking off a ring 
fi'om his finger, which seemed set with a dull, dark stone, 
a httle swelling out, like what we call (though untruly) a 
toadstone, and wetting his finger a little in his mouth and 
then touching it, it emitted a luculent flame as bright and 
large as a small wax candle ; then, blowing it out, repeated 
this several times. I have much regretted that I did not 
purchase the receipt of him for making that composition 
at what price soever ; for though there is a process in Jo. 
Baptista Porta and others how to do it, yet on several 
trials they none of them have succeeded. 

Amongst other observations I made in Rome are these : 
as to coins and medals, ten asses make the Roman dena- 
rius, five the quinarius, ten denarii an aureus; which 
accompt runs almost exactly with what is now in use of 
quatrini, baiocs, julios, and scudi, each exceeding the other 
in the proportion of ten. The sestertius was a small silver 
coin marked h. s. or rather ll% valued two pounds and a 
half of silver, viz. 250 denarii, about twenty-five golden 
ducati. The stamp of the Roman denarius varied, having 
sometimes a Janus bifrons, the head of Roma armed, or 
with a chariot and two horses, which were called bigi ; if 
with four, quadrigi ; if with a Victoria, so named. The 
mark of the denarius was distinguished >\< thus, or X; 
the quinarius of half value, had, on one side, the head of 
Rome and V; the reverse, Castor and Pollux on horseback, 
inscribed Roma, &c. 

I observed that in the Greek church they made the 
sign of the cross from the right hand to the left ; contrary 
to the Latins and the schismatic Greeks ; gave the bene- 
diction with the first, second, and little finger stretched 
out, retaining the third bent down, expressing a distance 
of the third Person of the Holy Trinity from the first two. 

For sculptors and architects, we found Bernini and 
Algardi were in the greatest esteem; Flamingo, as a 
statuary, who made the Andrea in St. Peter's, and is said 
to have died mad because it was placed in an ill Ught. 
Amongst the painters, Antonio de la Cornea, who has 
such an address of counterfeiting the hands of the ancient 
masters so well as to make his copies pass for originals ; 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 183 

Pietro de Cortone, Monsieur Poussin, a Frenchman, and 
innumerable more. Fioravanti, for armour, plate, dead 
life, tapestry, &c. The cliief masters of music, after Marc 
Antonio, the best treble, is Cavalier Lauretto, an eunuch; 
the next Cardinal Bichi's eunuch, Bianchi, tenor, and 
Nicholai, base. The Jews in Rome wore red hats, till the 
Cardinal of Lyons, being short-sighted, lately saluted one 
of them, thinking him to be a Cardinal as he passed by 
his coach ; on which an order was made, that they should 
use only the yellow colour. There was now at E-ome one 
Mrs. Ward, an English devotee, who much soHcited for an 
order of Jesuitesses. 

At executions I saw one, a gentleman, hanged in his 
cloak and hat for murder. They struck the malefactor 
with a club that first stunned him, and then cut his throat. 
At Naples, they use a frame, like ours at Halifax (a 

It is reported that Rome has been once no less than 
fifty miles in compass, now not thirteen, containing in it 
3000 churches and chapels, monasteries, &c. It is divided 
into fourteen regions, or wards ; has seven mountains, and 
as many campi, or valleys; in these are fair parks, or 
gardens, called villas, being only places of recess and 
pleasure, at some distance from the streets, yet within the 

The bills of exchange I took up from my first entering 
Italy till I went from Rome, amounted but to 616 ducati 
di banco, though I purchased many books, pictures, and 

18th. I intended to have seen Loretto, but, being 
disappointed of monies long expected, I was forced to 
return by the same way I came, desiring, if possible, to be 
at Venice by the Ascension, and therefore I diverted to 
take Leghorn in the way, as well to furnish me with credit 
by a merchant there, as to take order for transporting 
such collections as I had made at Rome. When on my 
way, turning about to behold this once and yet glorious 
city, from an eminence, I did not, without some regret, 
give it my last farewell. 

Having taken leave of our friends at Rome, where I had 
sojourned now about seven months, autumn, winter, and 
spring, I took coach, in company with two courteous Italian 

184 DIARY OF . [sienna, 

gentlemen. In the afternoon, we arrived at a house, or 
rather castle, belonging to the Duke of Parma, called 
Caprarola,* situate on the brow of a hill, that overlooks a 
little town, or rather a natural and stupendous rock ; wit- 
ness those vast caves serving now for cellarage, where we 
were entertained with most generous wine of several sorts, 
being just under the foundation. The Palace was built by 
the famous architect, Vignola, at the cost of Cardinal Alex. 
Farnese, in form of an octagon, the court in the middle 
being exactly round, so as rather to resemble a fort, or 
castle ; yet the chambers within are all of them square, 
which makes the walls exceedingly thick. One of these 
rooms is so artificially contrived, that from the two opposite 
angles may be heard the least whisper; they say any 
perfect square does it. Most of the paintings are by 
Zuccari. It has a stately entry, on which spouts an arti- 
ficial fountain within the porch. The hall, chapel, and 
great number of lodging chambers are remarkable ; but 
most of all the pictures and witty inventions of Hannibal 
Caracci; the Dead Christ is incomparable. Behind are 
the gardens full of statues and noble fountains, especially 
that of the Shepherds. After dinner, we took horse, and 
lay that night at Monte Rossi, twenty miles from Rome. 

19th. We dined at Viterbo, and lay at St. Lau- 
renzo. Next day, at Radicofani, and slept at Tumera. 

21st. We dined at Sienna, where we could not pass 
admiring the great church f built entirely both within and 
without with white and black marble in polished squares, 
by Macarino, showing so beautiful after a shower has 
fallen. The floor within is of various coloured marbles, 
representing the story of both Testaments, admirably 
wrought. Here lies Pius the Second. The biblioteca is 
painted by P. Perrugino and Raphael. The life of ^neas 
Sylvius is in fresco ; in the middle are the Three Graces, 
in antique marble, very curious, and the front of this 
building, though Gothic, is yet very fine. Amongst other 
things, they show St. Catharine's disciplining cell, the 
door whereof is half cut out into chips by the pUgrims and 
devotees, being of deal wood. 

• Caprarola. There is a large descriptive account published of this Palace, 
with magnificent plates of the buildings, pictures, and statues. 
+ See p. 97. 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 185 

Setting out hence for Pisa, we went again to see the 
Duomo in which the Emperor Henry VII. lies buried, 
poisoned by a monk in the Eucharist. The bending tower 
was built by Busqueto Delichio, a Grecian architect, and 
is a stupendous piece of art.* In the gallery of curiosities 
is a fair mummy ; the tail of a sea-horse : coral growing 
on a man's skuU ; a chariot automaton ; two pieces of rock 
crystal, in one of which is a drop of water, in the other 
three or four small worms ; two embalmed children ; divers 
petrifactions, &c. The garden of simples is well furnished, 
and has in it the deadly yew, or taoms, of the ancients ; 
which Dr. Belluccio, the superintendant, affirms that his 
workmen cannot endure to clip for above the space of half 
an hour at a time, from the pain of the head which sur- 
prises them. 

We went hence for Leghorn, by coach, where I took 
up ninety crowns for the rest of my journey, with letters 
of credit for Venice, after I had sufficiently complained of 
my defeat of correspondence at Rome. 

The next day, I came to Lucca, a small but pretty ter- 
ritory and state of itself. — The city is neat and well- 
fortified, with noble and pleasant walks of trees on the 
works, where the gentry and ladies use to take the air. It 
is situate on an ample plain by the river Serchio, yet the 
country about it is hilly. The Senate-house is magni- 
ficent. The church of St. Michael is a noble piece, as is 
also St. Fredian, more remarkable to us for the corpse of 
St. Richard, an English king,t who died here in his pilgrim- 
age towards Rome. This epitaph is on his tomb : 

Hie rex Richardus requiescit, sceptifer, almus : 
Rex fuit Anglonim ; regnum tenet iste Polorum. 
Regnuiu demisit ; pro Christo cuncta reliquit. 
Ergo, Richardum nobis dedit Anglia sanctum. 
Hie genitor Sanctae Wulburgse Virginis almae 
Est Vrillebaldi sancti simul et Vinebaldi, 
SuflFragium quorum nobis det regna Polorum. 

Next this, we visited St. Croce, an excellent structure 
all of marble both without and within, and so adorned as 
may vie with many of the fairest even in Rome ; witness 
the huge cross, valued at £15,000, above all venerable for 

• See pp. 89, 92, for other hanging towers at Pisa and Florence. 
+ Who this Richard King of England was, it is impossible to say ; the tomb 
still exists, and has long been a crux to antiquaries and travellers. — Editob. 

X86 DIARY OP [pisToiA, 

that sacred volto whicli (as tradition goes) was miracu- 
lously put on the image of Christ, and made by Nicodemus, 
whilst the artist, finishing the rest of the body, was medi- 
tating what face to set on it. The inhabitants are 
exceedingly civil to strangers, above all places in Italy, 
and they speak the purest Italian. It is also cheap living, 
which causes travellers to set up their rest here more than 
in Florence, though a more celebrated city; besides, the 
ladies here are very conversable, and the religious women 
not at all reserved ; of these we bought gloves and em- 
broidered stomachers, generally worn by gentlemen in 
these countries. The circuit of this state is but two easy 
days' journey, and lies mixed with the Duke of Tuscany' s, 
but having Spain for a protector (though the least bigoted 
of all Roman Catholics), and being one of the fortified 
cities in Italy, it remains in peace. The whole country 
abounds in excellent olives, &c. 

Going hence for Florence, we dined at Pistoia, where, 
besides one church, there was little observable : only in 
the highway we crossed a rivulet of salt water, though 
many miles from the sea. The country is extremely 
pleasant, full of gardens, and the roads straight as a line 
for the best part of that whole day, the hedges planted 
with trees at equal distances, watered with clear and 
plentiful streams. 

Rising early the next morning, we alighted at Poggio 
Imperiale, being a Palace of the Great Duke, not far from 
the city, having omitted it in my passage to Rome. The 
ascent to the house is by a stately gallery as it were of 
tall and overgrown cypress trees for near half a mile. At 
the entrance of these ranges, are placed statues of the 
Tyber and Arno, of marble ; those also of Virgil, Ovid, 
Petrarch, and Dante. The building is sumptuous, and 
curiously furnished within with cabinets of pietra-com- 
messa in tables, pavements, &c., which is a magnificence, 
or work, particularly affected at Florence. The pictures 
are, Adam and Eve by Albert Durer, very excellent ; as is 
that piece of carving in wood by the same hand standing 
in a cupboard. Here is painted the whole Austrian line ; 
the Duke's mother, sister to the Emperor, the foundress 
of this palace, than which there is none in Italy that I had 
seen more magnificently adorned, or furnished. 

16U.} JOHN EVELYN. 187 

We could not omit in our passage to re-visit the same, 
and other curiosities which we had neglected on our first 
being at Florence. We went, therefore, to see the famous 
piece of Andrea del Sarto, in the Annunciata ; the story is, 
that the painter in a time of dearth borrowed a sack of 
corn of the rehgious of that convent, and re-payment being 
demanded, he wrought it out in this picture, which repre- 
sents Joseph sitting on a sack of corn and reading to the 
Blessed Virgin ; a piece infinitely valued. There fell down 
in the cloister an old man's face painted on the wall in 
fresco, greatly esteemed, and brake into crumbs; the 
Duke sent his best painters to make another instead of it, 
but none of them would presume to touch a pencil where 
Andrea had wrought, like another Apelles; but one of 
them was so industrious and patient, that, picking up the 
fragments, he laid and fastened them so artificially toge- 
ther, that the injury it had received was hardly discern- 
ible. Andrea del Sarto hes buried in the same place. 
Here is also that picture of Bartolomeo, who having 
spent his utmost skill in the face of the angel Gabriel, and 
being troubled that he could not exceed it in the Virgin, 
he began the body and to finish the clothes, and so left it, 
minding in the morning to work on the face ; but, when 
he came, no sooner had he drawn away the cloth that was 
hung before it to preserve it from the dust, than an admir- 
able and ravishing face was found ready painted ; at which 
miracle all the city came in to worship ; it is now kept in 
the chapel of the Salutation, a place so enriched by the 
devotees, that none in Italy, save Loretto, is said to exceed 
it. This picture is always covered with three shutters, one 
of which is of massy silver ; methinks it is very brown, the 
forehead and cheeks whiter, as if it had been scraped. 
They report that those who have the honour of seeing it 
never lose their sight — happy then we ! Belonging to 
this church is a world of plate, some whole statues of it, 
and lamps innumerable, besides the costly vows hung up, 
some of gold, and a cabinet of precious stones. 

Visiting the Duke's repository again, we told at least 
forty ranks of porphyry and other statues, and twenty- 
eight whole figures, many rare paintings and relievos, two 
square columns with trophies. In one of the galleries, 
twenty-four figures, and fifty antique heads ; a Bacchus of 

188 DIARY OF [floremci, 

M. AngelOj and one of Bandinelli ; a head of Bernini, and 
a most lovely Cupid, of Parian marble ; at the further end, 
two admirable women sitting, and a man fighting with a 
centaur ; three figures in little of Andrea : a huge candle- 
stick of amber ; a table of Titian's painting, and another 
representing God the Father sitting in the air on the 
Four Evangehsts ; animals ; divers smaller pieces of Ra- 
phael ; a piece of pure virgin gold, as big as an egg. In 
the third chamber of rarities is the square cabinet, valued 
at 80,000 crowns, showing, on every front, a variety of 
curious work ; one of birds and flowers, of pietra-comessa ; 
one, a descent from the cross, of M. Angelo ; on the third, 
our Blessed Saviour and the Apostles, of amber ; and, on 
the fourth, a crucifix of the same. Betwixt the pictures, 
two naked Venuses, by Titian ; Adam and Eve, by Durer ; 
and several pieces of Pordenone, and del Frate. There is 
aj globe of six feet diameter. In the Armoury, were an 
entire elk, a crocodile, and, amongst the harness, several 
targets and antique horse-arms, as that of Charles V.; 
two set with turquoises, and other precious stones; a 
horse's tail, of a wonderful length. Then, passing the Old 
Palace, which has a very great hall for feasts and come- 
dies, the roof rarely painted, and the side-walls with six 
very large pictures representing battles, the work of Gio. 
Vassari. Here is a magazine full of plate ; a harness of 
emeralds ; the furnitures of an altar four feet high, and six 
in length, of massy gold; in the middle, is placed the 
statue of Cosmo II.; the bass-relievo is of precious stones, 
his breeches covered with diamonds ; the mouldings of 
this statue, and other ornaments, festoons, &c. are gar- 
nished with jewels and great pearls, dedicated to St. 
Charles, with this inscription, in rubies : 

Cosimus Secundus Dei gratia Magnus Dux Etrurise ex voto. 

There is also a King on horseback, of massy gold, two feet 
high, and an infinity of such Hke rarities. Looking at the 
Justice, in copper, set up on a column by Cosmo, in 1555, 
after the victory over Sienna, we were told that the Duke, 
asking a gentleman how he liked the piece, he answered, 
that he liked it very well, but that it stood too high for 
poor men to come at it. 

Prince Leopold has, in this city, a very excellent collec- 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 189 

tion of paintings, especially a St. Catharine of P. Veronese; 
a Venus of marble, veiled from the middle to the feet, 
esteemed to be of that Greek workman who made the 
Venus at the Medicis' Palace in Rome, altogether as good, 
and better preserved, an inestimable statue, not long since 
found about Bologna. 

Signor Gaddi is a lettered person, and has divers rarities, 
statues, and pictures of the best masters, and one bust of 
marble as much esteemed as the most antique in Italy, and 
many curious manuscripts ; his best paintings are, a Virgin 
of del Sarto, mentioned by Vassari, a St. John by Raphael, 
and an Ecce Homo, by Titian. 

The hall of the Academy de la Crusca is hung about 
with impresses and devices painted, all of them relating 
to corn sifted from the bran ; the seats are made like bread- 
baskets and other rustic instruments used about wheat, and 
the cushions of satin, like sacks. 

We took our farewell of St. Laurence, more particularly 
noticing that piece of the Resurrection, which consists of 
a prodigious number of naked figures, the work of Pon- 
tormo. On the left hand, is the Martyrdom of St. Lau- 
rence, by Bronzino, rarely painted indeed. In a chapel is 
the tomb of Pietro di Medici, and his brother John, of 
copper, excellently designed, standing on two lions' feet, 
which end in foliage, the work of M. Angelo. Over against 
this, are sepulchres of all the ducal family. The altar has 
a statue of the Virgin giving suck, and two Apostles. 
Paulus Jovius has the honour to be buried in the cloister. 
Behind the choir is the superb chapel of Ferdinand I., 
consisting of eight faces, four plain, four a little hollowed; 
in the other are to be the sepulchres, and a niche of paragon, 
for the statue of the Prince now living, all of copper gilt ; 
above, is a large table of porphyry, for an inscription for the 
Duke, in letters of jasper. The whole chapel, walls, pave- 
ment, and roof, are full of precious stones united with the 
mouldings, which are also of gilded copper, and so are the 
bases and capitals of the columns. The tabernacle, with 
the whole altar, is inlaid with cornelians, lazuli, serpentine, 
agates, onyxes, &c. On the other side, are six very large 
columns of rock crystal, eight figures of precious stones of 
several colours, inlaid in natural figures, not inferior to the 
best paintings, amongst which are many pearls, diamonds. 

290 DIARY OF [flobenck, 

amethysts, topazes, sumptuous and sparkling beyond de- 
scription. The windows without side are of white marble. 
The Hbrary is the architecture of Raphael ; before the port 
is a square vestibule of excellent art, of all the orders, 
without confusion ; the ascent to it from the library is 
excellent. We numbered eighty-eight shelves, all MSS. 
and bound in red, chained; in all about 3500 volumes, 
as they told us. 

The Arsenal has sufficient to arm 70,000 men, accurately 
preserved and kept, with divers lusty pieces of ordnance, 
whereof one is for a ball of 300 pounds weight, and another 
for 160, which weighs 72,500 pounds. 

When I was at Florence, the celebrated masters were, 
for pietra-commessa (a kind of mosaic, or inlaying, of va- 
rious coloured marble, and other more precious stones) 
Dominico Benetti, and Mazzotti: the best statuary, Vin- 
centio Brochi. This statuary makes those small figures in 
plaster and pasteboard, which so resemble copper that, till 
one handles them, they cannot be distinguished, he has so 
rare an art of bronzing them ; I bought four of him : the 
best painter, Pietro Beretino di Cortona. 

This Duke has a daily tribute for every courtezan, or 
prostitute, allowed to practise that infamous trade in his 
dominions, and so has his Holiness the Pope, but not so 
much in value. 

Taking leave of our two jolly companions, Signor Gio- 
vanni and his fellow, we took horses for Bologna; and, by 
the way, alighted at a villa of the Grand Duke^s, called 
Pratolino. The house is a square of four pavihons, with a 
fair platform about it, balustred with stone, situate in a 
large meadow, ascending like an amphitheatre, having at 
the bottom a huge rock, with water running in a small 
channel, like a cascade ; on the other side, are the gardens. 
The whole place seems consecrated to pleasure and summer 
retirement. The inside of the Palace may compare with 
any in Italy for furniture of tapestry, beds, &c., and the 
gardens are dehcious, and full of fountains. In the grove 
sits Pan feeding his flock, the water making a melodious 
sound through his pipe ; and a Hercules, whose club yields 
a shower of water, which, falling into a great shell, has a 
naked woman riding on the backs of dolphins. In another 
grotto, is Vulcan and his family, the walls richly composed 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 191 

of corals, shells, copper, and marble figures, with the hunt- 
ing of several beasts, moving by the force of water. Here, 
having been well washed for our curiosity, we went down 
a large walk, at the sides whereof several slender streams 
of water gush out of pipes concealed underneath, that 
interchangeably fall into each other's channels, making a 
lofty and perfect arch, so that a man on horseback may 
ride under it, and not receive one drop of wet. This 
canopy, or arch of water, I thought one of the most sur- 
prising magnificences I had ever seen, and very refreshing 
in the heat of the summer. At the end of this very long 
walk, stands a woman in white marble, in posture of a 
laundress wringing water out of a piece of linen, very 
naturally formed, into a vast laver, the work and invention 
of M. Angelo Buonarotti. Hence, we ascended Mount 
Parnassus, where the Muses played to us on hydrauhc 
organs. Near this is a great aviary. All these waters 
came from the rock in the garden, on which is the statue 
of a giant representing the Apennines, at the foot of which 
stands this villa. Last of all, we came to the labyrinth, in 
which a huge colosse of Jupiter throws out a stream over 
the garden. This is fifty feet in height, having in his body 
a square chamber, his eyes and mouth serving for windows 
and door. 

We took horse and supped that night at 1\ Ponte, 
passing a dreadful ridge of the Apennines, in many places 
capped with snow, which covers them the whole summer. 
We then descended into a luxurious and rich plain. The 
next day, we passed through Scarperia, mounting the 
hills again, where the passage is so straight and precipitous 
towards the right hand, that we climbed them with much 
care and danger ; lodging at Firenzuolo, which is a fort 
built amongst the rocks, and defending the confines of the 
Great Duke's territories. 

The next day, we passed by the Pietramala, a burning 
mountain. At the summit of this prodigious mass of 
hills, we had an unpleasant way to Pianura, where we slept 
that night and were entertained with excellent wine. Hence 
to Scargalasino, and to bed at Loiano. This plain begins 
about six miles from Bologna. 

Bologna belongs to the Pope, and is a famous Univer- 
sity, situate in one of the richest spots of Europe for all 

292 DIARY OF [bologna, 

sorts of provisions. It is built like a ship, whereof the 
Torre d^Asinelli may go for the mainmast. The city is of 
no great strength, having a trifling vrall about it, in circuit 
near five miles, and two in length. This Torre d'Asinelli, 
ascended by 447 steps of a foot rise, seems exceedingly 
high, is very narrow, and the more conspicuous from 
another tower called Garisendi, so artificially built of brick, 
(which increases the wonder) that it seems ready to fall : 
it is not now so high as the other ; but they say the upper 
part was formerly taken down for fear it should really fall, 
and do mischief. 

Next, we went to see an imperfect church, called 
St. Petronius, showing the intent of the founder, had he 
gone on. From this, our guide led us to the schools, 
which indeed are very magnificent. Thence to St. Domi- 
nic's, where that saint's body lies richly enshrined. The 
stalls, or seats, of this goodly church have the history of 
the Bible inlaid with several woods, very curiously done, 
the Avork of one Fr. Damiano di Bergamo, and a friar of 
that order. Amongst other relics, they show the two 
books of Esdras, written with his own hand. Here lie 
buried Jac. Andreas, and divers other learned persons. To 
the church joins the convent, in the quadrangle whereof 
are old cypresses, said to have been planted by their saint. 

Then, we went to the Palace of the Legate, a fair brick 
building, as are most of the houses and buildings, full of 
excellent carving and mouldings, so as nothing in stone 
seems to be better finished, or more ornamental ; witness 
those excellent columns to be seen in many of their 
churches, convents, and public buildings; for the whole 
town is so cloistered, that one may pass from house to 
house through the streets without being exposed either to 
rain, or sun. 

Before the stately hall of this Palace stands the statue 
of Paul IV. and divers others; also the monument of 
the coronation of Charles V. The piazza before it is the 
most stately in Italy, St. Mark's at Venice only excepted. 
In the centre of it is a fountain of Neptune, a noble figm-e 
in copper. Here I saw a Persian walking about in a rich 
vest of cloth of tissue, and several other ornaments, 
according to the fashion of his country, which much pleased 
me ; he was a young handsome person, of the most stately 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 193 

I would fain have seen the library of St. Saviour, 
famous for the number of rare manuscripts ; but could not, 
so we went to St. Francis, a glorious pile, and exceedingly 
adorned within. 

After dinner, I enquired out a priest and Dr. Montalbano, 
to whom I brought recommendations from Rome; this 
learned person invented, or found out, the composition of 
the lapis illuminahilis, or phosphorus. He showed me their 
property (for he had several), being to retain the light of 
the sun for some competent time, by a kind of imbibition, 
by a particular way of calcination. Some of these pre- 
sented a blue colour, like the flame of brimstone, others 
like coals of a kitchen-fire. The rest of the afternoon was 
taken up in St. Michael in Bosco, built on a steep hill on 
the edge of the city, for its fabric, pleasant shade and 
groves, cellars, dormitory, and prospects, one of the most 
delicious retirements I ever saw ; art and nature contend- 
ing which shall exceed ; so as till now I never envied the life 
of a friar. The Avhole town and country to a vast extent 
are under command of their eyes, almost as far as Venice 
itself. In this convent there are many excellent paint- 
ings of Guido Reni ; above all, the little cloister of eight 
faces, painted by Caracci in fresco. The carvings in wood, 
in the sacristy, are admirable, as is the inlaid work about 
the chapel, which even emulates the best paintings ; the 
work is so delicate and tender. The paintings of the 
Saviour are of Caracci and Leonardo, and there are excel- 
lent things of Raphael which we could not see. 

In the Church of St. John is a fine piece of St. Cecilia, 
by Raphael. As to other paintings, there is in the Church 
of St. Gregory an excellent picture of a Bishop giving the 
habit of St. Bernard to an armed soldier, with several 
other figures in the piece^ the work of Guerchino. Indeed, 
this city is full of rare pieces, especially of Guido, 
Domenico, and a virgin named Isabella Sirani, now living, 
who has painted many excellent pieces, and imitates Guido 
so well, that many skilful artists have been deceived. 

At the Mendicants are the Miracles of St. Eloy, by 
Reni, after the manner of Caravaggio, but better; and 
here they showed us that famous piece of Christ calling 
St. Matthew, by Annibal Caracci. The Marquis Maguiani 

VOL. I. o 




has the whole frieze of his hall painted in fresco by the 
same hand. 

Many of the religious men nourish those lap-dogs which 
the ladies are so fond of, and which they here sell. They 
are a pigmy sort of spaniels, whose noses they break when 
puppies ; which, in my opinion, deforms them. 

At the end of the turning in one of the wings of the 
dormitory of St. Michael, I found a paper pasted near the 
window, containing the dimensions of most of the famous 
churches in Italy compared with their towers here, and the 
length of this gallerj'^, a copy whereof I took. 

St. Pietro di Roma, longo 
Cupola del mure, alta 
Torre d'Asinello, alto 
Dormitorio de St. Mich, a 
Bologn. longo. . . 


Piedi diBolognia. 

Canna di 








From hence, being brought to a subterranean territory 
of cellars, the courteous friars made us taste a Tariety of 
excellent wines ; and so we departed to our inn. 

This city is famous also for sausages ; and here is sold 
great quantities of Parmegiano cheese, with Botargo, 
Caviare, &c. which makes some of their shops perfume the 
streets with no agreeable smell. We furnished ourselves, 
with wash-balls, the best being made here, and being a 
considerable commodity. This place has also been cele- 
brated for lutes made by the old masters, MoUen, Hans 
Frey, and Nicholas Sconvelt, which were of extraordinary 
price; the workmen were chiefly Germans. The cattle 
used for draught in this country (which is very rich and 
fertile, especially in pasturage) are covered with housings 
of linen fringed at the bottom, that dangle about them, 
preserving them from flies, which in summer are very 

From this pleasant city, we proceeded towards Ferrara, 
carrying with us a buUetino, or bill of health (customary 
in all these parts of Italy, especially in the State of Venice), 
and so put ourselves into a boat that was towed with 

* A measure of half an ell. 

J64S.] JOHN EVELYN. 195 

horses, often interrupted by the sluices, (inventions there 
to raise the water for the use of mills, and to fill the 
artificial canals) at every of which we stayed till passage 
was made. We went by the Castle Bentivoglio, and, 
about night, arrived at an ugly inn called Mai Albergo, 
agreeable to its name, whence, after we had supped, we 
embarked and passed that night through the Fens, where 
we were so pestered with those flying glow-worms, called 
Liiccioli, that one who had never heard of them, would 
think the country full of sparks of fire ; beating some of 
them down, and applying them to a book, I could read in 
the dark by the Kght they aiforded. 

Quitting our boat, we took coach, and by morning got 
to Ferrara, where, before we could gain entrance, our 
guns and arms were taken from us of custom, the lock 
being taken ofi" before, as we were advised. The city is in 
a low marshy country, and therefore well fortified. The 
houses and streets have nothing of beauty, except the 
palace and church of St. Benedict, where Ariosto lies 
buried ; and there are some good statues, the palazzo del 
Diamante, citadel, church of St. Dominico. The market- 
place is very spacious, having in its centre the figure of 
Nicholao Olao, once Duke of Ferrara, on horseback, in 
copper. It is, in a word, a dirty town, and, though the 
streets be large, they remain ill paved; yet it is a 
University, and now belongs to the Pope. Though there 
are not many fine houses in the city, the inn where we 
lodged was a very noble palace, having an Angel for its 

We parted from hence about three in the afternoon, and. 
went some of our way on the canal, and then embarked on 
the Po, or Padus, by the poets called Eridanus, where they 
feign Phseton to have fallen after his rash attempt, and 
where lo was metamorphosed into a cow. There was in 
our company, amongst others, a Polonian Bishop, who was 
exceeding civil to me in this passage, and afterwards did me 
many kindnesses at Venice. We supped this night at a place 
called Corbua, near the ruins of the ancient city, Adria, 
which gives name to the Gulf, or Sea. After three miles, 
having passed thirty on the Po, we embarked in a stout 
vessel, and through an artificial canal, very straight, we 
entered the Adige, which carried us by break of day into 



the Adriatic, and so sailing prosperously by Chioza (a town 
upon an island in this sea,) and Palestina, we came over 
against Malamocco (the chief port and anchorage where 
our English merchantmen lie that trade to Venice) about 
seven at night, after we had stayed at least two hours for 
permission to land, our bill of health being delivered, 
according to custom. So soon as we came on shore, we 
were conducted to the Dogana, where our portmanteaus 
were visited, and then we got to our lodging, which was at 
honest Signor Paulo Rhodomante's at the Black Eagle, 
near the Rialto, one of the best quarters of the town. 
This journey from Rome to Venice cost me seven pistoles, 
and thirteen julios. 

June. The next morning, finding myself extremely 
weary and beaten with my journey, I went to one of their 
bagnios, where you are treated after the eastern manner, 
washing with hot and cold water, with oils, and being 
rubbed with a kind of strigil of sea?s-skin, put on the 
operator's hand hke a glove. This bath did so open my 
pores, that it cost me one of the greatest colds I ever had 
in my life, for want of necessary caution in keeping myself 
warm for some time after ; for, coming out, I immediately 
began to visit the famous places of the city ; and travellers 
who come into Italy do nothing but run up and down to 
see sights, and this city well deserved our admiration, being 
the most wonderfully placed of any in the world, built on 
so many hundred islands, in the very sea, and at good dis- 
tance from the continent. It has no fresh water, except 
what is reserved in cisterns from rain, and such as is 
daily brought from terra firma in boats, yet there was no 
want of it, and all sorts of excellent provisions were very 

It is said that when the Huns over-ran Italy some mean 
fishermen and others left the main land, and fled for shelter 
to these despicable and muddy islands, which, in process of 
time, by industry, are grown to the greatness of one of the 
most considerable States, considered as a Republic, and 
having now subsisted longer than any of the four ancient 
Monarchies, flourishing in great state, wealth, and glory, 
by the conquest of great territories in Italy, Dacia, Greece, 
Candia, Rhodes, and Sclavonia, and at present challenging 
the empire of all the Adriatic Sea, which they yearly 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. I97 

espouse by casting a gold ring into it with great pomp and 
ceremony, on Ascension-day ; the desire of seeing this, was 
one of the reasons that hastened us from Rome. 

The Doge, having heard mass in his robes of state (which 
are very particular, after the eastern fashion), together 
with the Senate in their gowns, embarked in their glori- 
ously painted, carved, and gilded Bucentora, environed and 
followed by innumerable galleys, gondolas, and boats, filled 
with spectators, some dressed in masquerade, trumpets, 
music, and cannons. Having rowed about a league into the 
Gulf, the Duke, at the prow, casts a gold ring and cup into 
the sea, at which a loud acclamation is echoed from the 
great guns of the Arsenal, and at the Liddo. We then 

Two days after, taking a gondola, which is their water- 
coach (for land ones there are many old men in this city 
who never saw one, or rarely a horse), we rowed up and 
down the channels, which answer to our streets. These ves- 
sels are built very long and narrow, having necks and tails of 
steel, somewhat spreading at the beak like a fish's tail, and 
kept so exceedingly polished as to give a great lustre ; 
some are adorned with carving, others hned with velvet, 
(commonly black), with curtains and tassels, and the seats 
like couches, to he stretched on, while he who rows, stands 
upright on the very edge of the boat, and, with one oar 
bending forward as if he would fall into the sea, rows and 
turns with incredible dexterity ; thus passing from channel 
to channel, landing his fare, or patron, at what house he 
pleases. The beaks of these vessels are not unlike the 
ancient Koman rostrums. 

The first public building I went to see, was the Eialto, a 
bridge of one arch over the grand canal, so large as to 
admit a galley to row under it, built of good marble, and 
having on it, besides many pretty shops, three ample and 
stately passages for people without any inconvenience, the 
two outmost nobly balustred with the same stone ; a piece 
of architecture much to be admired. It was evening, and 
the canal where the Noblesse go to take the air, as in our 
Hyde-park, was full of ladies and gentlemen. There are 
many times dangerous stops, by reason of the multitude of 
gondolas ready to sink one another ; and indeed they 
aflFect to lean them on one side, that one who is not 


accustomed to it, would be afraid of over-setting. Here 
they were singing, playing on harpsichords, and other 
music, and serenading their mistresses ; in another place, 
racing, and other pastimes on the water, it being now 
exceeding hot. 

Next day, I went to their Exchange, a place like ours, 
frequented by merchants, but nothing so magnificent: 
from thence, my guide led me to the Fondigo di Todeschi, 
which is their magazine, and here many of the merchants, 
especially Germans, have their lodging and diet as in a 
college. The outside of this stately fabric is painted by 
Giorgione da Castelfranco, and Titian himself. 

Hence, I passed through the Mercera, one of the most 
delicious streets in the world for the sweetness of it, and 
is all the way on both sides tapestred as it were with cloth 
of gold, rich damasks and other silks, which the shops 
expose and hang before their houses from the first floor, 
and with that variety that for near half the year spent 
chiefly in this city, I hardly remem1)er to have seen the 
same piece twice exposed ; to this add the perfumes, apo- 
thecaries' shops, and the innumerable cages of nightingales 
which they keep, that entertain you mth their melody 
from shop to shop, so that shutting your eyes you would 
imagine yourself in the country, when indeed you are in 
the middle of the sea. It is almost as silent as the middle 
of a field, there being neither rattling of coaches nor 
trampling of horses. This street, paved with brick, and 
exceedingly clean, brought us through an. arch into the 
famous piazza of St. Mark. 

Over this porch, stands that admirable Clock, celebrated 
next to that of Strasburg for its many movements ; amongst 
which, about twelve and six, which are their hours of Ave 
Maria, when all the town are on their knees, come forth 
the three Kings led by a star, and passing by the image of 
Christ in his Mother's arms, do their reverence, and enter 
into the clock by another door. At the top of this turret, 
another automaton strikes the quarters. An honest mer- 
chant told me that one day, walking in the piazza, he saw 
the fellow who kept the clock struck with this hammer so 
forcibly, as he was stooping his head near the bell to 
mend something amiss at the instant of striking, that being 
stunned he reeled over the battlements, and broke his 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 199 

neck. The buildings in this piazza are all arched, on 
pillars, paved within with black and white polished marble, 
even to the shops, the rest of the fabric as stately as any in 
Europe, being not only marble, but the architecture is of 
the famous Sansovini, who lies buried in St. Jacomo, at the 
end of the piazza. The battlements of this noble range of 
building are railed with stone, and thick-set with excellent 
statues, which add a great ornament. One of the sides is 
yet much more Roman-like than the other which regards 
the sea, and where the church is placed. The other range 
is plainly Gothic : and so we entered into St. Mark's 
Church, before which stand two brass pedestals exquisitely 
cast and figured, which bear as many tall masts painted 
red, on which upon great festivals they hang flags and 
streamers. The church is also Gothic; yet for the pre- 
ciousness of the materials, being of several rich marbles, 
abundance of porphyry, serpentine, &c., far exceeding any 
in Rome, St. Peter's hardly excepted. I much admired 
the splendid history of our blessed Saviour composed all of 
mosaic over the facciata, below which and over the chief 
gate are cast four horses in copper as big as the life, the 
same that formerly were transported from Rome by Con- 
stantino to Byzantium, and thence by the Venetians 
hither.* They are supported by eight porphyry columns, 
of very great size and value. Being come into the Church, 
you see nothing, and tread on nothing, but what is precious. 
The floor is all inlaid with agates, lazulis, chalcedons, jas- 
pers, porphyries, and other rich marbles, admirable also for 
the work ; the walls sumptuously incrusted, and presenting 
to the imagination the shapes of men, birds, houses, flowers, 
and a thousand varieties. The roof is of most excellent 
mosaic ; but what most persons admire is the new work of 
the emblematic tree at the other passage out of the church. 
In the midst of this rich volto rise five cupolas, the middle 
very large and sustained by thirty-six marble columns, 
eight of which are of precious marbles : under these 
cupolas is the high altar, on which is a rehquary of several 
sorts of jewels, engraven with figures, after the Greek 
manner, and set together with plates of pure gold. The 
altar is covered with a canopy of ophite, on which is 

* They were taken away by Buonaparte to Paris; but, in 1815, were sent 
back to Venice. Edit. 


sculptured the story of the Bible, and so on the pillars, which 
are of Parian marble, that support it. Behind these, are 
four other columns of transparent and true oriental ala- 
baster, brought hither out of the mines of Solomon's 
Temple, as they report. There are many chapels and 
notable monuments of illustrious persons, dukes, cardinals,, 
&c., as Zeno, J. Soranzi, and others : there is likewise 
a vast baptistery, of copper. Among other venerable relics 
is a stone, on which they say our blessed Lord stood 
preaching to those of Tyre and Sidon, and near the door is 
an image of Christ, much adored, esteeming it very sacred, 
for that a rude fellow striking it, they say, there gushed out 
a torrent of blood. In one of the corners lies the body of 
St. Isidore, brought hither 500 years since from the island 
of Chios. A little farther, they show the picture of 
St. Dominic and Francis, affirmed to have been made by 
the Abbot Joachim (many years before any of them were 
born). Going out of the Church, tbey showed us the 
stone where Alexander III. trod on the neck of the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa, pronouncing that verse of the psalm, 
" super basiliscum," &c. The doors of the Church are of 
massy copper. There are near 500 pillars in this building, 
most of them porphyry and serpentine, and brought chiefly 
from Athens, and other parts of Greece, formerly in their 
power. At the corner of the Church, are inserted into the 
main wall four figures, as big as life, cut in porphyry, 
which they say are the images of four brothers who 
poisoned one another, by which means there escheated to 
the Republic that vast treasury of relics now belonging to 
the Church. At the other entrance that looks towards 
the sea, stands in a small chapel that statue of our Lady, 
made (as they affirm) of the same stone, or rock, out of 
which Moses brought water to the murmuring Israelites at 
Horeb, or Meriba. 

After all that is said, this church is, in my opinion, much 
too dark and dismal, and of heavy work ; the fabric, as is 
much of Venice, both for buildings and other fashions and 
circumstances, after the Greeks, their next neighbours. 

The next day, by favour of the French Ambassador, I 
had admittance with him to view the Reliquary, called 
here Tesoro di San Marco, Avhich very few, even of tra- 
vellers, are admitted to see. It is a large chamber full of 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. gQl 

presses. There are twelve breast-plates, or pieces of pure 
golden armour, studded with precious stones, and as many 
crowns dedicated to St. Mark by so many noble Venetians, 
■who had recovered their Avives taken at sea by the Sara- 
cens ; many curious vases of agates ; the cap, or coronet, 
of the Dukes of Venice, one of which had a ruby set on it, 
esteemed worth 200,000 crowns; two unicorns^ horns; 
numerous vases and dishes of agate, set thick with pre- 
cious stones and vast pearls ; divers heads of Saints, 
enchased in gold ; a small ampulla, or glass, with our 
Saviour's blood ; a great morsel of the real cross ; one of 
the nails ; a thorn ; a fragment of the column to which 
our Lord was bound, when scourged; the standard, or 
ensign, of Constantino ; a piece of St. Luke's arm ; a rib 
of St. Stephen ; a finger of Mary Magdalene ; numerous 
other things, which I could not remember ; but a priest, 
first vesting himself in his sacerdotals, with the stole 
about his neck, showed us the Gospel of St. Mark (their 
tutelar patron) written by his own hand, and whose body 
they show buried in the church, brought hither from 
Alexandria many years ago. 

The Religious de li Servi have fine paintings of Paolo 
Veronese, especially the Magdalen. 

A French gentleman and myself went to the Courts of 
Justice, the Senate-house, and Ducal Palace. The first 
court near this church is almost wholly built of several 
coloured sorts of marble, like chequer- work on the outside; 
this is sustained by vast pillars, not very shapely, but 
observable for their capitals, and that out of thirty-three 
no two are alike. Under this fabric is the cloister where 
merchants meet morning and evening, as also the grave 
senators and gentlemen, to confer of state-affairs, in their 
gowns and caps, like so many philosophers ; it is a very 
noble and solemn spectacle. In another quadrangle, stood 
two square columns of white marble, carved, which they 
said had been erected to hang one of their Dukes on, who 
designed to make himself Sovereign. Going through a 
stately arch, there were standing in niches divers statues 
of great value, amongst which is the so celebrated Eve, 
esteemed worth its weight in gold ; it is just opposite to 
the stairs where are two Colossuses of Mars and Neptune, 
by Sansovino. We went up into a Corridor built with 


several Tribunals and Courts of Justice ; and by a well- 
contrived staircase were landed in the Senate-hall, which 
appears to be one of the most noble and spacious rooms in 
Europe, being seventy-six paces long, and thirty-two in 
breadth. At the upper end, are the Tribunals of the Doge, 
Council of Ten, and Assistants ; in the body of the haU, 
are lower ranks of seats, capable of containing 1500 Sena- 
tors ; for they consist of no fewer on grand debates. Over 
the Duke's throne are the -psiintm^s of the FinalJudgment, 
by Tintoret, esteemed amongst the best pieces in Europe. 
On the roof are the famous Acts of the llepublic, painted 
by several excellent masters, especially Bassano ; next 
them, are the effigies of the several Dukes, with their 
Elogies. Then, we turned into a great Court painted with 
the Battle of Lepanto, an excellent piece ; afterwards, into 
the Chamber of the Council of Ten, painted by the most 
celebrated masters. From hence, by the special favour 
of an Illustrissimo, we were carried to see the private 
Armoury of the Palace, and so to the same Court we first 
entered, nobly built of pohshed white marble, part of 
which is the Duke's Court, pro tempore; there are two 
wells adorned with excellent work, in copper. This led us 
to the sea-side, where stand those columns of ophite-stone 
in the entire piece, of a great height, one bearing St. 
Mark's Lion, the other St. Theodorus ; these pillars were 
brought from Greece, and set up by Nicholas Baraterius, 
the architect ; between them public executions are per- 

Having fed our eyes ^vith the noble prospect of the 
Island of St. George, the galleys, gondolas, and other 
vessels passing to and fro, we walked under the cloister 
on the other side of this goodly piazza, being a most mag- 
nificent building, the design of Sansovino. Here we went 
into the Zecca, or Mint ; at the entrance, stand two pro- 
digious giants, or Hercules, of white marble : we saw them 
melt, beat, and coin silver, gold, and copper. We then 
went up into the Procuratory, and a library of excellent 
MSS. and books belonging to it and the pubUc. After this, 
we climbed up the tower of St. Mark, which we might 
have done on horseback, as it is said one of the Erench 
Kings did, there being no stairs, or steps, but returns that 
take up an entire square on the arches forty feet, broad 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 203 

enough for a coacli. This steeple stands by itself, without 
any church near it, and is rather a watch tower in the 
corner of the great piazza, 230 feet in height, the founda- 
tion exceeding deep ; on the top, is an angel, that turns 
with the wind; and from hence is a prospect down the 
Adriatic, as far as Istria and the Dalmatian side, with the 
surprising sight of this miraculous city, lying in the bosom 
of the sea, in the shape of a lute, the numberless Islands 
tacked together by no fewer than 450 bridges. At the 
foot of this tower, is a public tribunal of excellent work, in 
white marble polished, adorned with several brass statues 
and figures of stone in mezzo-relievo, the performance of 
some rare artist. 

It was now Ascension-Week, and the great mart, or 
fair, of the whole year was kept, every body at liberty and 
jolly. The noblemen stalking with their ladies on chop- 
pines ; these are high-heeled shoes, particularly affected 
by these proud dames, or, as some say, invented to keep 
them at home, it being very difl&cult to walk with them ; 
whence one being asked how he liked the Venetian dames, 
replied, they were mezzo came, mezzo legno, half flesh, 
half wood ; and he would have none of them. The truth 
is, their garb is very odd, as seeming always in masquerade; 
their other habits also totally different from all nations. 
They wear very long crisp hair, of several streaks and 
colours, which they make so by a wash, dishevelling it on 
the brims of a broad hat that has no crown, but a hole to 
put out their heads by ; they dry them in the sun, as one 
may see them at their windows. In their tire, they set 
silk flowers and sparkling stones, their petticoats coming 
from their very arm-pits, so that they are near three 
quarters and a half apron ; their sleeves are made exceed- 
ing wide, under which their shift- sleeves as wide, and 
commonly tucked up to the shoulder, showing their naked 
arms, through false sleeves of tiffany, girt with a bracelet 
or two, with knots of points richly tagged about their 
shoulders and other places of their body, which they 
usually cover with a kind of yellow ved, of lawn, very 
transparent. Thus attired, they set their hands on the 
heads of two matron-hke servants, or old women, to sup- 
port them, who are mumbling their beads. It is ridicu- 
lous to see how these ladies crawl in and out of their 

g(|4 DIARY OP [vENicF, 

gondolas, by reason of their choppines, and what dwarfs 
they appear, when taken down from their wooden scaffolds; 
of these, I saw near thirty together, stalking half as high 
again as the rest of the world; for courtezans, or the 
citizens, may not wear choppines, but cover their bodies 
and faces with a veil of a certain glittering taffeta, or 
lustree, out of which they now and then dart a glance of 
their eye, the whole face being otherwise entirely hid with 
it ; nor may the common misses take this habit ; but go 
abroad barefaced. To the corners of these virgin-veils- 
hang broad but flat tassels of curious Point de Venice. 
The married Avomen go in black veils. The nobility wear 
the same colour, but of fine cloth hned with taffeta, in 
summer, with fur of the bellies of squirrels, in the winter, 
which all put on at a certain day girt with a girdle em- 
bossed with silver ; the vest not much different from what 
our Bachelors of Arts wear in Oxford, and a hood of cloth, 
made like a sack, cast over their left shoulder, and a round 
cloth black cap fringed with wool, which is not so comely ; 
they also wear their collar open, to show the diamond 
button of the stock of their shirt. I have never seen pearl 
for colour and bigness comparable to what the ladies wear, 
most of the noble families being very rich in jewels, espe- 
cially pearls, which are always left to the son, or brother, 
who is destined to marry ; which the eldest seldom do. 
The Doge^s vest is of crimson velvet, the Procurator's, &c. 
of damask, very stately. Nor was I less surprised with the 
strange variety of the several nations seen every day in 
the streets and piazzas ; Jews, Turks, Armenians, Persians, 
Moors, Greeks, Sclavonians, some with their targets and 
bucklers, and all in their native fashions, negociating in 
this famous Emporium, which is always crowded with 

This night, having mth my Lord Bruce taken our places 
before, we went to the Opera, where comedies and other 
plays are represented in recitative music, by the most 
excellent musicians, vocal and instrumental, with variety 
of scenes painted and contrived with no less art of per- 
spective, and machines for flying in the air, and other 
wonderful motions ; taken together, it is one of the most 
magnificent and expensive diversions the wit of man can 
invent. The history was, Hercules in Lydia; the scenes 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 205 

changed thirteen times. The famous voices Anna Rencia, 
a Roman, and reputed the best treble of women; but 
there was an eunuch who, in my opinion, surpassed her ; 
also a Genoese that sung an incomparable base. This 
held us by the eyes and ears till two in the morning, 
when we went to the Ghetto de san Felice, to see the 
noblemen and their ladies at basset, a game at cards which 
is much used; but they play not in public, and all that 
have inclination to it are in masquerade, without speaking 
one word, and so they come in, play, lose, or gain, and go 
away as they please. This time of licence is only in Car- 
nival and this Ascension- Week ; neither are their theatres 
open for that other magnificence, or for ordinary comedians, 
save on these solemnities, they being a frugal and wise 
people, and exact observers of all sumptuary laws. 

There being at this time a ship bound for the Holy 
Xiand, I had resolved to embark, intending to see Jerusalem, 
and other parts of Syria, Egypt, and Turkey ; but, after I 
had provided all necessaries, laid in snow to cool our drink, 
bought some sheep, poultry, biscuit, spirits, and a little 
cabinet of drugs, in case of sickness, our vessel (whereof 
Captain Powell was master) happened to be pressed for the 
service of the State, to carry provisions to Candia, now 
newly attacked by the Turks ; which alto;;ether frustrated 
my design, to my great mortification. 

On the . . . June, we went to Padua, to the Fair of their 
St. Anthony, in company of divers passengers. The first 
terra firma we landed at, was Fusina, being only an inn, 
where we changed our barge, and were then drawn up by 
horses through the river Brenta, a straight channel as even 
as a line for twenty miles, the country on both sides 
deliciously adorned with country villas and gentlemen's 
retirements, gardens planted with oranges, figs, and other 
fruit, belonging to the Venetians. At one of these villas, 
we went ashore to see a pretty contrived palace. Observ- 
able in this passage was buying their water of those who 
farm the sluices ; for this artificial river is in some places 
jso shallow, that reserves of water are kept with sluices, 
which they open and shut with a most ingenious invention, 
or engine, governed even by a child. Thus they keep up 
the water, or let it go, till the next channel be either filled 
by the stop, or abated to the level of the other ; for which 


every boat pays a certain duty. Thus, we stayed near half 
an hour and more, at three several places, so as it was 
evening before we got to Padua. This is a very ancient 
city, if the tradition of Antenor^s being the founder be not 
a fiction; but thus speaks the inscription over a stately 
gate : 

Hanc antiquissimam nrbem literarum omnium asylum, cujus agram 
fertilitatis Lumen Natura esse voluit, Antenor condidit anno ante 
Christum natum M.Cxviii ; Senatus autem Venetus his belli propugna- 
culis omavit. 

The town stands on the river Padus, whence its name, 
and is generally built like Bologna, on arches and on brick, 
so that one may walk all round it, dry, and in the shade ; 
which is very convenient in these hot countries, and I 
think I was never sensible of so burning a heat as I was 
this season, especially the next day, which was that of the 
fair, filled with noble Venetians, by reason of a great and 
solemn procession to their famous cathedral. Passing by 
St. Lorenzo, I met with this subscription : 

Inclytus Antenor patriam vox nisa quietem* 
Transtulit hue Henetum Dardanidumq ; faga, 

Expulit Euganeos, Patavinam condidit urbem, 
Quern tegit hie humili marmore csesa domus. 

Under the tomb, was a cobbler at his work. Being now 
come to St. Antony's (the street most of the way straight, 
well-built, and outsides excellently painted in fresco) we 
surveyed the spacious piazza, in which is erected a noble 
statue of copper of a man on horseback, in memory of one 
Catta Malata,t a renowned captain. The church, a la 
Greca, consists of five handsome cupolas, leaded. At the 
left hand within, is the tomb of St. Antony and his altar, 
about which a mezzo-relievo of the miracles ascribed to 
him is exquisitely wrought in white marble by the three 
famous sculptors, Tullius Lombardus, Jacobus Sansovinus, 
and Hieronymus Compagno. A little higher is the choir, 
walled parapet-fashion, with sundry coloured stone, half 
relievo, the work of Andrea Reccij. The altar within is 

* Keysler very justly observes, that the first line of this inscription conveys 
no meaning. Vol. III., p. 220. 

+ Lassells calls him Gatta Mela, tlie Venetian General, nicknamed Gata, 
because of his watchfulness. P. 429. 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. £07 

of the same metal which, with the candlestick and bases, 
is, in my opinion, as magnificent as any in Italy. The 
"wainscot of the choir is rarely inlaid and carved. Here 
are the sepulchres of many famous persons, as of Rodolphus 
Fulgosi, &c. ; and, among the rest, one for an exploit at sea, 
has a galley exquisitely carved thereon. The procession 
bore the banners with all the treasure of the cloister, which 
was a very fine sight. 

Hence, walking over the Prato delle Valle, I went to 
see the convent of St. Justina, than which I never beheld 
one more magnificent. The church is an excellent piece 
of architecture, of Andrea Palladio, richly paved, with a 
stately cupola that covers the high altar enshrining the 
ashes of that saint. It is oi pietrd-commessa, consisting of 
flowers very naturally done. The choir is inlaid with 
several sorts of wood representing the holy history, finished 
with exceeding industry. At the far end, is that rare 
painting of St. Justina's Martyrdom, by Paolo Veronese ; 
and a stone on which they told us divers primitive Chris- 
tians had been decapitated. In another place (to which 
leads a small cloister well-painted) is a dry well, covered 
with a brass-work grate, wherein are the bones of divers 
martyrs. They show also the bones of St. Luke, in an old 
alabaster cofiin ; three of the Holy Innocents ; and the 
l5odies of St. Maximus and Prosdocimus.* The dormitory 
above is exceeding commodious and stately; but, what 
most pleased me, was the old cloister so well painted with 
the legendary saints, mingled with many ancient inscrip- 
tions, and pieces of urns dug up, it seems, at the foundation 
of the church. Thus, having spent the day in rambles, I 
returned the next day to Venice. 

The arsenal is thought to be one of the best-furnished 
in the world. We entered by a strong port, always 
guarded, and, ascending a spacious gallery, saw arms of 
back, breast, and head, for many thousands ; in another, 
were saddles ; over them, ensigns taken from the Turks. 
Another hall is for the meeting of the Senate ; passing 
a graff, are the smiths' forges, where they are continually 
employed on anchors and iron work. Near it is a well of 
fresh water, which they impute to two rhinoceros's horns 

* St. Peter's disciple, first Bishop of Padua. Lassells, p, 430. 


which they say lie in it, and will preserve it from ever 
being empoisoned. Then we came to where the carpenters 
were building their magazines of oars, masts, &c., for an 
hundred galleys and ships, which have all their apparel 
and furniture near them. Then the foundery, where they 
cast ordnance; the forge is 450 paces long, and one of 
them has thirteen furnaces. There is one cannon weigh-» 
ing 16,573 lbs., cast whilst Henry the Third dined, and 
put into a galley built, rigged, and fitted for launching 
within that time. They have also arms for twelve galeasses, 
which are vessels to row, of almost 150 feet long and 
thirty wide, not counting prow, or poop, and contain 
twenty-eight banks of oars, each seven men, and to carry 
1300 men, with three masts. In another, a magazine for 
fifty galleys, and place for some hundreds more. Here 
stands the Bucentaur, with a most ample deck, and so 
contrived that the slaves are not seen, having on the poop 
a throne for the Doge to sit, when he goes in triumph to 
espouse the Adriatic, Here is also a gallery of 200 yards 
long for cables, and above that a magazine of hemp. 
Opposite these, are the saltpetre houses, and a large row 
of cells, or houses, to protect their galleys from the weather. 
Over the gate, as we go out, is a room full of great and 
small guns, some of which discharge six times at once. 
Then, there is a court full of cannon, bullets, chains, grap- 
ples, grenadoes, &c,, and over that arms for 800,000 men, 
and by themselves arms for 400, taken from some that 
were in a plot against the State ; together with weapons 
of offence and defence for sixty-two ships ; thirty-two 
pieces of ordnance, on carriages taken from the Turks, and 
one prodigious mortar-piece. In a word, it is not to be 
reckoned up what this large place contains of this sort. 
There were now twenty- three galleys, and four gally- 
grossi, of 100 oars of a side. The whole arsenal is walled 
about, and may be in compass about three miles, with 
twelve towers for the watch, besides that the sea environs 
it. The workmen, who are ordinarily 500, march out in 
military order, and every evening receive their pay through 
a small hole in the gate where the governor lives. 

The next day, I saw a wretch executed, who had mur- 
dered his master, for which he had his head chopped off 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 209 

by an axe that slid down a frame of timber, * between the 
two tall columns in St. Mark^s piazza, at the sea-brink; 
the executioner striking on the axe with a beetle ) and so 
the head fell off the block. 

Hence, by Gudala, we went to see Grimani's Palace, 
the portico whereof is excellent work. Indeed, the world 
cannot show a city of more stately buildings, considering 
the extent of it, all of square stone, and as chargeable in 
their foundations) as superstructure, being all built on 
piles at an immense cost. We returned home by the 
chm*ch of St. Johanne and Paulo, before which is, in cop- 
per, the statue of Bartolomeo Colone, on horseback, double 
gilt, on a stately pedestal, the work of Andrea Verrochio, 
a Florentine ! This is a very fine church, and has in it 
many rare altar-pieces of the best masters, especially that 
on the left hand, of the Two Friars slain, which is of 

The day after, being Sunday, I went over to St. George's 
to the ceremony of the schismatic Greeks, who are per- 
mitted to have their church, though they are at defiance 
with Rome. They allow no carved images, but many 
painted, especially the story of their patron and his dragon. 
Their rites differ not much from the Latins, save that of 
communicating in both species, and distribution of the 
holy bread. We afterwards fell into a dispute with a 
Candiot, concerning the procession of the Holy Ghost. 
The church is a noble fabric. 

The church of St. Zachary is of Greek building, by 
Leo IV. Emperor, and has in it the bones of that prophet, 
•with divers other saints. Near this, we visited St. Luke's, 
famous for the tomb of Aretin.f 

Tuesday, we visited several other churches, as Santa 
Maria, newly incrusted with marble on the outside, and 
adorned with porphyry, ophite, and Spartan stone. Near 
the altar and under the organ, are sculptures, that are said 
to be of the famous artist, Praxiteles. To that of St. Paul 

• The maiden at Halifax, in Yorkshire, and the guillotine in France, were 
made after the same manner. 

•|- This epitaph has been made on the above satirist and atheist : 

Here Ues the man who no man spared) 

When the angry fit was on him ; 
Nor God himself had better fared. 

If Aretin had known him. 

VOL. I. P 


I went purposely, to see the tomb of Titian. Tlien^ to 
St. John the Evangelist, where, amongst other heroes, lies 
Andrea Baldarius, the inventor of oars applied to great 
vessels for fighting. 

We also saw St. Eoche, the roof whereof is, with the 
school, or hall, of that rich confraternity, admirably painted 
by Tintoretto, especially the Crucifix in the sacristia. We 
saw also the church of St. Sebastian, and Carmelites' 
monastery. , 

Next day, taking our gondola at St. Mark's, I passed to 
the island of St. George Maggiore, where is a Convent of 
Benedictines, and a well-built church of Andrea Palladio, 
the great architect. The pavement, cupola, choir, and 
pictures, very rich and sumptuous. The cloister has a 
fine garden to it, which is a rare thing at Venice, though 
this is an island a little distant from the city ; it has also 
an ohve-orchard, all environed by the sea. The new clois- 
ter now bmlding has a noble stair-case paved with white 
and black marble. 

From hence, Ave visited St, Spirito and St. Laurence, 
fair churches in several islands ; but most remarkable is 
that of the Padri Olivetani, in St. Helen'« island, for the 
rare paintings and carvings, with inlaid work, &c. 

The next morning, we went again to Padua, where, on 
the following day, we visited the market, which is plenti- 
fully furnished, and exceedingly cheap. Here we saw the 
great hall, built in a spacious piaaza, and one of the most 
magnificent in Europe ; its ascent is by steps a good 
height, of a reddish marble polished, much used in these 
parts, and happily found not far oft"; it is almost 200 paces 
long, and forty in breadth, all covered with lead, without 
any support of columns. At the farther end, stands the 
bust, in white marble, of Titus Livius, the historian. In 
this town is the house wherein he was born, full of in- 
SCTiptions and pretty £air. 

Near to the monument of Speron Speroni, is painted on 
the ceiling the celestial zodiac, and other astronomical 
figures ; without side, there is a corridor, in manner of a 
balcony, of the same stone ; and at the entry of each of 
the three gates is the head of some famous person, as 
Albert Eremitano, Julio PauUo (lawyers), and Peter Apo- 
nius. In the piazza is the Podestk's and Capitano Grande's 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 211 

Palace, well-built ; but, above all, the Monte Piet^, the 
front whereof is of most excellent architecture. This is a 
foundation of which there is one in most of the cities in 
Italy, where there is a continual bank of money to assist 
the poorer sort, on any pawn, and at reasonable interest, 
together with magazines for deposit of goods, till redeemed. 

Hence, to the Schools of this flourishing and ancient 
University, especially for the study of physic and anatomy. 
They are fairly built in quadrangle, with cloisters beneath, 
and above with columns. Over the great gate are the 
arms of the Venetian State, and under the lion of St. 

Sic ingi-edere, ut teipso quotidie doctior ; sic egredere ut indies 
Patriae Christianseq ; Republicae utilior evadas ; ita demum Gymnasium 
a te felicit^r se omatum existimabit. 


About the court-walls, are carved in stone and painted 
the blazons of the Consuls of all the nations, that from 
time to time have had that charge and honour in the 
University, which at my being there was my worthy friend 
Dr. Rogers, who here took that degree. 

The Schools for the lectures of the several sciences are 
above, but none of them comparable, or so much fre- 
quented, as the theatre for anatomy, which is excellently 
contrived both for the dissector and spectators. I was 
this day invited to dinner, and, in the afternoon, (30th July) 
received my matricula, being resolved to spend some 
months here at study, especially physic and anatomy, of 
both which there were now the most famous professors in 
Europe. My matricula contained a clause, that I, my 
goods, servants, and messengers, should be free from all 
tolls and reprises, and that we might come, pass, return, 
buy, or sell, without any toll, &c. 

The next morning, I saw the garden of simples, rarely 
furnished with plants, and gave order to the gardener to 
make me a collection of them for an hortus hyemalis, by 
permission of the Cavaher Dr. Veslingius, then Prefect and 
Botanic Professor as well as of Anatomy. 

This morning, the Earl of Arundel,* now in this city, a 

* The celebrated Thomas, Earl of Arundel, part of whose collection was 
eventually procured for the University of Oxford by Mr. Evelyn, and is dis- 
tingiiished by the name oi Marmora Arumddiana. 

p 2 

212 DIARY OP [murano, 

famous collector of paintings and antiquities, invited me 
to go with him to see the garden of Mantua, where, as one 
enters, stands a huge colosse of Hercules. From hence to 
a place where was a room covered with a noble cupola, 
built purposely for music ; the fillings up, or cove, betwixt 
the walls, were of urns and earthen pots, for the better 
sounding; it was also well-painted. After dinner, we 
walked to the Palace of Foscari all' Arena, there remain- 
ing yet some appearances of an ancient theatre, though 
serving now for a court only before the house. There were 
now kept in it two eagles, a crane, a Mauritanian sheep, 
a stag, and sundry fowls, as in a vivary. 

Three days after, I returned to Venice, and passed over 
to Murano, famous for the best glasses in the world, 
where having viewed their furnaces and seen their work, 
I made a collection of divers curiosities and glasses, which 
I sent for England by long sea. It is the white flints they 
have from Pavia, which they pound and sift exceedingly 
small, and mix with ashes made of a sea- weed brought out 
of Syria, and a white sand, that causes this manufacture 
to excel. The town is a Podestaria by itself, at some 
miles distant on the sea from Venice, and like it built 
upon several small islands. In this place, are excellent 
oysters, small and well-tasted like our Colchester, and 
they were the first, as I remember, that I ever could eat > 
for I had naturally an aversion to them. 

At our return to Venice, we met several gondolas full 
of Venetian ladies, who come thus far in fine weather to 
take the air, with music and other refreshments. Besides 
that, Murano is itself a very nobly built town, and has 
divers noblemen's palaces in it, and handsome gardens. 

In coming back, we saw the islands of St. Christopher 
and St. Michael, the last of which has a church enriched 
and incrusted with marbles and other architectonic orna- 
ments, which the monks very courteously showed us. It 
was built and founded by Margaret Emihana of Verona, a 
famous courtezan, who purchased a great estate, and by 
this foundation hoped to commute for her sins. "We then 
rowed by the isles of St. Nicholas, whose church, with the 
monuments of the Justinian family, entertained us awhile : 
and then got home. 

The next morning, Captain Powell, in whose ship I was 

]645.] JOHN EVELYN. 213 

to embark towards Turkey, invited me on board, lying 
about ten miles from Venice, where we had a dinner of 
English powdered beef and other good meat, with store of 
wine and great guns, as the manner is. After dinner, 
the Captain presented me with a stone he had lately 
brought from Grand Cairo, which he took from the 
mummy -pits, full of hieroglyphics ; I drew it on paper 
with the true dimensions, and sent it in a letter to Mr. 
Henshaw to communicate to Father Kircher, who was 
then setting forth his great work " Obeliscus Pamphilius," 
where it is described, but without mentioning my name. 
The stone was afterwards brought for me into England, 
and landed at Wapping, where, before I could hear of it, 
it was broken into several fragments, and utterly defaced, 
to my no small disappointment. 

The boatswain of the ship also gave me a hand and foot 
of a mummy, the nails whereof had been overlaid with 
thin plates of gold, and the whole body was perfect, when 
he brought it out of Egypt ; but the avarice of the ship^s 
crew broke it to pieces, and divided the body among them. 
He presented me also with two Egyptian idols, and some 
loaves of the bread which the Coptics use in the holy 
Sacrament, with other curiosities. 

8th August. I had news from Padua of my election to 
be Syndicus Artisiarum, which caused me, after two days' 
idling in a country viUa with the Consul of Venice, to 
hasten thither, that I might discharge myself of that 
honour, because it was not only chargeable, but would have 
hindered my progress, and they chose a Dutch gentleman 
in my place, which did not well please my countrymen, 
who had laboured not a little to do me the greatest 
honour a stranger is capable of in that University. Being 
freed from this impediment, and having taken leave of 
Dr. Janicius, a Polonian, who was going physician in the 
Venetian galleys to Candia, I went again to Venice, and 
made a collection of several books and some toys. Three 
days after, I returned to Padua, where I studied hard till 
the arrival of Mr. Henshaw, Bramstone, and some other 
English gentlemen whom I had left at Rome, and who 
made me go back to Venice, where I spent some time in 
showing them what I had seen there. 

26th September. My dear friend, and till now my 


constant fellow-traveller, Mr. Thicknesse, being obliged to 
return to England upon his particular concern, and who 
had served his Majesty in the wars, I accompanied him 
part of his way, and, on the 28th, returned to Venice. 

29th. Michaelmas-day, I went with my Lord Mowbray 
(eldest son to the Earl of Arundel, and a most worthy 
person) to see the collection of a noble Venetian, Signor 
E/Ugini. He has a stately Palace, richly furnished with 
statues and heads of Roman Emperors, all placed in an 
ample room. In the next, was a cabinet of medals, both 
Latin and Greek, with divers curious shells and two fair 
pearls in two of them ; but, above all, he abounded in 
things petrified, walnuts, eggs in which the yolk rattled/ a 
pear, a piece of beef with the bones in it, a Avhole hedge- 
hog, a plaice on a wooden trencher turned into stone and 
very perfect, charcoal, a morsel of cork yet retaining its 
levity, sponges, and a piece of taft'ety, part rolled up, with 
innumerable more. In another cabinet, supported by 
twelve pillars of oriental agate, and railed about with 
crystal, he showed us several noble intaglios of agate, 
especially a head of Tiberius, a woman in a bath with her 
dog, some rare cornelians, onyxes, crystals, &c., in one of 
which was a drop of water not congealed, but moving up 
and down, when shaken ; above all, a diamond which had 
a very fair ruby growing in it; divers pieces of amber, 
wherein were several insects, in particular one cut like a 
heart that contained in it a salamander without the least 
defect, and many pieces of mosaic. The fabric of this 
cabinet was very ingenious, set thick with agates, tur- 
quoises, and other precious stones, in the midst of which 
was an antique of a dog in stone scratching his ear, very 
rarely cut, and comparable to the greatest curiosity I had 
ever seen of that kind for the accurateness of the work. 
The next chamber had a bedstead all inlaid with agates, 
crystals, cornelians, lazuli, &c., esteemed worth 16,000 
crowns ; but, for the most part, the bedsteads in Italy are 
of forged iron gilded, since it is impossible to keep the 
wooden ones from the cimices. 

From hence, I returned to Padua, when that town was 
so infested with soldiers, that many houses were broken 
open in the night, some murders committed, and the nuns 
next our lodging disturbed, so as we were forced to be on 

1645.] JOHN EVELYN. 215 

our guard with pistols and other fire-arms to defend our 
doors ; and indeed the students themselves take a barba- 
rous liberty in the evenings when they go to their strum- 
pets, to stop all that pass by the house where any of their 
companions in folly are with them. This custom they call 
chi vali, so as the streets are very dangerous, when the 
evenings grow dark ; nor is it easy to reform this intole- 
rable usage, where there are so many strangers of several 

Using to drink my wine cooled with snow and ice, as 
the manner here is, I was so afflicted with an angina and 
sore-throat, that it had almost cost me my life. After all 
the remedies Cavalier Veslingius, chief professor here, 
could apply, old Salvatico (that famous physician) being 
called, made me be cupped, and scarified in the back in four 
places ; which began to give me breath, and consequently 
life; for I was in the utmost danger; but, God being 
merciful to me, I was after a fortnight abroad again; 
when, changing my lodging, I went over against Pozzo 
Pinto, where I bought for winter provision 3000 weight of 
excellent grapes, and pressed my own wine, which proved 
incomparable liquor. 

This was on 10th October. Soon after came to visit 
me from Venice Mr. Henry Howard, grandchild to the 
Earl of Arundel, Mr. Bramstone, son to the Lord Chief 
Justice, and Mr. Henshaw, with whom I went to another 
part of the city to lodge near St. Catherine's, over-against 
the monastery of nuns, where we hired the whole house, 
and lived very nobly. Here I learned to play on the 
theorb, taught by Signor Dominico Bassano, who had a 
daughter married to a doctor of laws, that played and sung 
to nine several instruments, with that skill and address as 
few masters in Italy exceeded her ; she likewise composed 
divers excellent pieces. I had never seen any play on the 
Naples viol before. She presented me afterwards with 
two recitatives of hers, both words and music. 

31st October. Being my birth-day, the nuns of St. 
Catherine's sent me flowers of silk-work. We were very 
studious all this winter till Christmas, when, on Twelfth- 
day, we invited all the English and Scots in town to a 
feast, which sunk our excellent wine considerably. 

1645-6. In January, Signor Molino was chosen Doge 


of Venice, but the extreme snow that fell, and the cold, 
hindered my going to see the solemnity, so as I stirred not 
from Padua till Shrovetide, when all the world repair to 
Venice, to see the folly and madness of the Carnival ; the 
women, men, and persons of all conditions disguising 
themselves in antique dresses, with extravagant music and 
a thousand gambols, traversing the streets from house to 
house, all places being then accessible and free to enter. 
Abroad, they fling eggs filled with sweet water, but some- 
times not over-sweet. They also have a barbarous custom 
of hunting bulls about the streets and piazzas, which is 
very dangerous, the passages being generally narrow. 
The youth of the several wards and parishes contend in 
other masteries and pastimes, so that it is impossible to 
recount the universal madness of this place during this 
time of license. The great banks are set up for those who 
will play at bassett ; the comedians have hberty, and the 
operas are open ; witty pasquils are thrown about, and the 
mountebanks have their stages at every comer. The 
diversion which chiefly took me up was three noble operas, 
where were excellent voices and music, the most cele- 
brated of which was the famous Anna Rencha, whom we 
invited to a fish-dinner after four days in Lent, when they 
had given over at the theatre. Accompanied with an 
eunuch whom she brought with her, she entertained us 
with rare music, both of them singing to a harpsichord. 
It growing late, a gentleman of Venice came for her, to 
show her the galleys, now ready to sail for Candia. This 
entertainment produced a second, given us by the English 
consul of the merchants, inviting us to his house, where he 
had the Genoese, the most celebrated base in Italy, who 
was one of the late opera-band. This diversion held us so 
late at night, that, conveying a gentlewoman who had 
supped Avith us to her gondola at the usual place of land- 
ing, we were shot at by two carbines from another gondola, 
in which were a noble Venetian and his courtezan un- 
willing to be disturbed, which made us run in and fetch 
other weapons, not knowing what the matter was, till we 
were informed of the danger we might incur by pursuing 
it farther. 

Three days after this, I took my leave of Venice, and 
went to Padua, to be present at the famous anatomy lee- 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 217 

tnre, celebrated here with extraordinary apparatus, lasting 
almost a whole month. During this time, I saw a woman, 
a child, and a man dissected with all the manual opera- 
tions of the chirurgeon on the human body. The one was 
performed by Cavalier Veslingius and Dr. Jo. Athelsteinus 
Leonsenas, of whom I purchased those rare tables of veins 
and nerves, and caused him to prepare a third of the 
lungs, liver, and nervi sexti par: with the gastric veins, 
which I sent into England, and afterwards presented to 
the Royal Society, being the first of that kind that had 
been seen there, and, for aught I know, in the world, 
though afterwards there were others. When the anatomy 
lectures, which were in the mornings, were ended, I went 
to see cures done in the hospitals ; and certainly as there 
are the greatest helps and the most skilful physicians, so 
there are the most miserable and deplorable objects to exer- 
cise upon. Nor is there any, 1 should think, so powerful an 
argument against the vice reigning in this licentious 
country, as to be spectator of the misery these poor creatures 
undergo. They are indeed very carefully attended, and 
with extraordinary charity. 

20th March. I returned to Venice, where I took leave 
of my friends. 

22nd. I was invited to excellent English potted venison, 
at Mr. Hobbson^s, a worthy merchant. 

23rd. I took my leave of the Patriarch and the Prince 
of Wirtemberg, and Monsieur Grotius (son of the learned 
Hugo) now going as commander to Candia ; and, in the 
afternoon, received of Vandervoort, my merchant, my bills 
of exchange of 300 ducats for my journey. He showed me 
his rare collection of Italian books, esteemed very curious, 
and of good value. 

The next day, I was conducted to the Ghetta, where the 
Jews dwell together in as a tribe, or ward, where I was pre- 
sent at a marriage. The bride was clad in white, sitting 
in a lofty chair, and covered Avith a white veil ; then two 
old Rabbis joined them together, one of them holding a 
glass of wine in his hand, which, in the midst of the cere- 
mony, pretending to deliver to the woman, he let fall, the 
breaking whereof was to signify the frailty of our nature, 
and that we must expect disasters and crosses amidst all 
enjoyments. This done, we had a fine banquet, and were 


brought into the bride-chamber, where the bed was dressed 
up with flowers, and the counterpane strewed in works. 
At this ceremony, we saw divers very beautiful Portuguese 
Jewesses, with whom we had some conversation. 

I went to the Spanish Ambassador with Bonifacio, his 
confessor, and obtained his pass to serve me in the Spanish 
dominions; without which I was not to travel, in this 
pompous form : 

" Don Gaspar de Teves y Guzman, Marques de la Fuente, Senor Le 
Lerena y Verazuza, Comendador de Colos, en la Orden de Sant Yago, 
Alcalde Mayor perpetuo y Escrivano Mayor de la Ciudad de Sevilla, 
Gentilhombre de la Camara de S. M. su Azimilero Mayor, de su Consejo, 
su Embaxador extraordinario a los Principes de Italia, y Alemania, y a 
esta serenissima Republica de Venetia, &c. Haviendo de partir de esta 
Ciudad para LaMilan el Signior Cavallero Evelyn Ingles, con un Criado, 
mi ban pedido Passa-porte para los Estates de su M. Le he mandado 
dar el presente, firmado de mi mano, y sellado con el sello de mis armas, 
por el qual encargo a todos los menestros de S. M. antes quien le presen- 
tase y a los que no lo son, supplico les dare passar libramente sin per- 
mitir que se le haya vexacion alguna antes mandar le las favor para 
continuar su viage. Fecho en Venecia a 24 del mes de Marzo dell 
an'o 1646. Mar. de la Fuentes, &c." 

Having packed up my purchases of books> pictures, 
casts, treacle, &c., (the making and extraordinary cere- 
mony whereof I had been curious to observe, for it is 
extremely pompous and worth seeing) I departed from 
Venice, accompanied with Mr. Waller (the celebrated 
poet), now newly gotten out of England, after the Parlia- 
ment had extremely worried him for attempting to put in 
execution the commission of Array, and for which the rest 
of his colleagues were hanged by the rebels. 

The next day, I took leave of my comrades at Padua, 
and receiving some directions from Dr. Salvatico as to 
the care of my health, I prepared for my journey toward 

It was Easter-Monday that I was invited to breakfast 
at the Earl of Arunders.* I took my leave of him in his 
bed, where I left that great and excellent man in tears on 
some private discourse of crosses that had befallen his 

* Lasselk, who travelled a short time after Mr. Evelyn, says, that the Earl 
died here, and that his bowels are buried under a black marble stone, inscribed, 
*♦ Interiora Thomse Howard Gomitis Arondelise." P. 429, 

164G.] JOHN EVELYN. 219 

illustrious family, particularly the undutifulness of his 
grandson Philip's turning Dominican Friar (since Cardinal 
of Norfolk), and the misery of his country now embroiled 
in civil war. He caused his gentleman to give me direc- 
tions, all written with his own hand, what curiosities I 
should inquire after in my journey ; and so, enjoining me 
to write sometimes to him, I departed. There stayed for 
me below, Mr. Henry Howard (afterwards Duke of Nor- 
folk), Mr. J. Digby, son of Sir Kenelm Digby, and other 
gentlemen, who conducted me to the coach. 

The famous lapidaries of Venice for false stones and 
pastes, so as to emulate the best diamonds, rubies, &c., were 
Marco Terrasso, and Gilbert. 

An accompt of what Bills of Exchange I took up at Venice since my 
coming from Rome, till my departure from Padua. 

11th Aug., 1645 . . .200 

7th Sept 135 

1st Oct. . . . .100 

15th Jan., 1646 . . . . 100 
23rd April .... 300 

835 Ducati di Banco. 

In company, then, with Mr. Waller, one Captain Wray 
(son of Sir Christopher, whose father had been in arms 
against his Majesty, and therefore by no means welcome 
to us), with Mr. Abdy, a modest and learned man, we got 
that night to Vicenza, passing by the Euganean hills, cele- 
brated for the prospects and ftirniture of rare simples, 
which we found growing about them. The ways were 
something deep, the whole country flat and even as a 
bowling-green. The common fields lie square, and are 
orderly planted with fruit-trees, which the vines run and 
embrace, for many miles, with delicious streams creeping 
along the ranges. 

Vicenza is a city in the Marquisate of Treviso, yet ap- 
pertaining to the Venetians, full of gentlemen and splendid 
palaces, to which the famous Palladio, born here, has 
exceedingly contributed, having been the architect. Most 
conspicuous is the Hall of Justice ; it has a tower of 
excellent work ; the lower pillars are of the first order ; 
those in the three upper corridors are Doric ; under them, 
are shops in a spacious piazza. The hall Avas built in 

220 DIARY OF [vicENZA, 

imitation of that at Padua, but of a nobler design, a la 
moderna. The next morning, we visited the theatre, as 
being of that kind the most perfect now standing, and 
built by Palladio, in exact imitation of the ancient Romans, 
and capable of containing 5000 spectators. The scene, 
which is all of stone, represents an imperial city, the order 
Corinthian, decorated with statues. Over the Scenario, is 
inscribed, "Virtuti ac Genio Olympior: Academia Thea- 
trum hoc a fundaraentis erexit Palladio Architect: 1584.'." 
The scene dechnes eleven feet, the soffito painted with 
clouds. To this, there joins a spacious hall for solemn days 
to ballot in, and a second for the Academics. In the 
Piazza, is also the podesta, or governor's house, the facciata 
being of the Corinthian order, very noble. The Piazza 
itself is so large as to be capable of jousts and tournaments, 
the nobility of this city being exceedingly addicted to this 
knight-errantry, and other martial diversions. In this 
place, are two pillars in imitation of those at St Mark's at 
Venice, bearing one of them a winged lipn, the other the 
statue of St. John the Baptist. 

In a word, this sweet town has more well-built palaces 
than any of its dimensions in all Italy, besides a number 
begun and not yet finished (but of stately design) by 
reason of the domestic dissensions betwixt them and those 
of Brescia, fomented by the sage Venetians, lest by combin- 
ing, they might think of recovering their ancient liberty. 
For this reason, also, are permitted those disorders and 
insolences committed at Padua among the youth of these 
two territories. It is no dishonour in this country to be 
some generations in finishing their palaces, that without 
exhausting themselves by a vast expense at once, they may 
at last erect a sumptuous pile. Count Oleine's Palace is 
near perfected in this manner. Count Ulmarini * is more 
famous for his gardens, being without the walls, especially 
his cedrario, or conserve of oranges, eleven score of my 
paces long, set in order and ranges, making a canopy all 
the way by their intermixing branches for more than 200 
of my single paces, and which, being full of fruit and blos- 
soms, was a most dehcious sight. In the middle of this 
garden, was a cupola made of wire, supported by slender 
pillars of brick, so closely covered with ivy, both without 

* Lassells calls him Yalmerana, p. 435. 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 221 

and within, that nothing was to be perceived but green ; 
betwixt the arches, there dangled festoons of the same. 
Here is likewise a most inextricable labyrinth. 

I had in this town recommendation to a very civil and 
ingenious apothecary, called Angelico, who had a pretty 
collection of paintings. I would fain have visited a Palace, 
called the Rotunda, which was a mile out of town, belong- 
ing to Count Martio Capra ; but one of our companions 
hastening to be gone, and little minding anything save 
drinking and folly, caused us to take coach sooner than we 
should have done. 

A little from the town, we passed the Campo Martio, 
set out in imitation of ancient Rome, wherein the nobles 
exercise their horses, and the ladies make the Cor so ; it is 
entered by a stately triumphal arch, the invention of 

Being now set out for Verona, about midway we dined 
at Ostaria Nova, and came late to our resting-place, which 
was the Cavaletto, just over the monument of the Scala- 
geri,* formerly Princes of Verona, adorned with many 
devices in stone of ladders, alluding to the name. 

Early next morning, we went about the city, which 
is built on the gentle declivity and bottom of a hill, envi- 
roned in part with some considerable mountains and downs 
of fine grass, like some places in the south of England; and, 
on the other side, having the rich plain where Caius Marius 
overthrew the Cimbrians. The city is divided in the midst 
by the river Adige, over which are divers stately bridges, 
and on its banks are many goodly palaces, whereof one is 
well painted in chiaro-oscuro on the outside, as are divers 
in this dry climate of Italy. 

The first thing that engaged our attention and wonder, 
too, was the amphitheatre, which is the most entire of 
ancient remains now extant. The inhabitants call it the 
Arena : it has two porticos, one within the other, and is 
thirty-four rods long, twenty-two in breadth, with forty-two 
ranks of stone benches, or seats, which reach to the top. 
The vastness of the marble stones is stupendous. " L. V. 
Flaminius, Consul, anno. urb. con. liii." This I esteem to 
be one of the noblest antiquities in Europe, it is so vast 
• Or della Scala. 


and entire, having escaped the ruins of so many other 
pubhc buildings for above 1400 years. 

There are other arches, as that of the victory of Marius ; 
temples, aqueducts, &c., showing still considerable remains 
in several places of the town, and how magnificent it has 
formerly been. It has three strong castles, and a large and 
noble wall. Indeed, the whole city is bravely built, espe- 
cially the Senate-house, where we saw those celebrated sta- 
tues of Cornelius Nepos, ^milius Marcus, Plinius, and 
Vitnivius, all having honoured Verona by their birth; and, 
of later date, Julius Caesar Scaliger, that prodigy of 

In the evening, we saw the garden of Count Giusti^s 
villa, where are walks cut out of the main rock, from whence 
we had the pleasant prospect of Mantua and Parma, though 
at great distance. At the entrance of this garden, grows 
the goodhest cypress, I fancy, in Europe, cut in a pyramid ; 
it is a prodigious tree both for breadth and height, entirely 
covered, and thick to the base. 

Dr. Cortone, a civilian, showed us, amongst other rarities, 
a St. Dorothea, of Raphael. We could not see the rare 
drawings, especially of Parmensis, belonging to Dr. Mar- 
cello, another advocate, on account of his absence. 

Verona deserved all those elogies Scaliger has honoured 
it with; for, in my opinion, the situation is the most 
delightful I ever saw, it is so sweetly mixed with rising 
ground and valleys, so elegantly planted with trees on which 
Bacchus seems riding as it were in triumph every autumn, 
for the vines reach from tree to tree ; here, of all places I 
have seen in Italy, would I fix a residence. Well has that 
learned man given it the name of the very eye of the 
world : — 

Ocelle mundi, Sidus Itali coeli, 

Flos Urbium, flos corniculumq' amoenmn, 

Quot sunt, enintve, quot fuere, Verona. 

The next morning, we travelled over the downs where 
Marius fought, and fancied ourselves about Winchester, 
and the country towards Dorsetshire. We dined at an inn, 
called Cavalli Caschieii, near Peschiera, a very strong fort 
of the Venetian Repubhc, and near the Lago di Garda, 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 223 

which disembogues into that of Mantua, near forty miles 
in length, highly spoken of by my Lord Arundel to me, as 
the most pleasant spot in Italy, for which reason I observed 
it with the more diligence, ahghting out of the coach, and 
going up to a grove of cypresses growing about a gentle- 
man's country-house, from whence indeed it presents a 
most surprising prospect. The hills and gentle risings 
about it produce oranges, citrons, oHves, figs, and other 
tempting fruits, and the waters abound in excellent fish, 
especially trouts. In the middle of this lake, stands Ser- 
monea, on an island ; here Captain Wray bought a pretty 
nag of the master of our inn where we dined, for eight 
pistoles, which his wife, our hostess, was so unwilling to 
part with, that she did nothing but kiss and weep and hang 
about the horse's neck, till the captain rode away. 

We came this evening to Brescia, which next morning 
we traversed, according to our custom, in sesirch of anti- 
quities and new sights. Here, I purchased of old Lazarino 
Cominazzo my fine carbine, which cost me nine pistoles, 
this city being famous for these fire-arms, and that work- 
man, with Jo. Bap. Franco, the best esteemed. The city 
consists most in artists, every shop abounding in guns, 
swords, armourers, &c. Most of the workmen come out 
of Germany. It stands in a fertile plain, yet the castle 
is built on a hilL The streets abound in fair fountains. 
The Torre della Pallada is of a noble Tuscan order, and 
the Senate-house is inferior to few. The piazza is but 
indifferent ; some of the houses arched as at Padua. The 
Cathedral was under repair. We would from hence have 
visited Parma, Piacenza, Mantua, &c. ; but the banditti, 
and other dangerous parties being abroad, committing many 
enormities, we were contented with a Pisgah sight of them. 

We dined next day at Ursa Vecchia, and, after diiiner, 
passed by an exceeding strong fort of the Venetians, called 
Ursa Nova, on their frontier. Then by the river Oglio, and 
so by Sonano, where we enter the Spanish dominions, and 
that night arrived at Crema, which belongs to Venice, and 
is well-defended. The Podesta's Palace is finely built, and 
so is the Duomo, or Cathedral, and the tower to it, with 
an ample piazza. 

Early next day, after four miles' riding, we entered into 


the State of Milan, and passed by Lodi,* a great city 
famous for cheese, little short of the best Parmeggiano. 
We dined at Marignano, ten miles before coming to Milan, 
where we met half-a-dozen suspicious cavahers, who yet 
did us no harm. Then, passing as through a continual 
garden, we went on with exceeding pleasure; for it is 
the Paradise of Lombardy, the highways as even and 
straight as a line, the fields to a vast extent planted with 
fruit about the enclosures, vines to every tree at equal dis- 
tances, and watered with frequent streams. There was 
likewise much corn, and olives in abundance. At approach 
of the city, some of our company, in dread of the Inquisi- 
tion, (severer here than in all Spain), thought of throwing 
away some Protestant books and papers. We arrived 
about three in the afternoon, when the ofl&cers searched us 
thoroughly for prohibited goods ; but, finding we were only 
gentlemen travellers, dismissed us for a small reward, and 
we went quietly to our inn, the Three Kings, where, for that 
day, we refreshed ourselves, as we had need. The next 
morning, we delivered our letters of recommendation to 
the learned and courteous Ferrarius, a Doctor of the 
Ambrosian College, who conducted us to all the remark- 
able places of the town, the first of which was the famous 
Cathedral. We entered by a portico so little inferior to 
that of Rome that, when it is finished, it will be hard to 
say which is the fairest ; the materials are all of white and 
black marble, with columns of great height, of Egyptian 
granite. The outside of the church is so full of sculpture, 
that you may number 4000 statues, all of white marble, 
amongst which that of St. Bartholomew is esteemed a 
masterpiece. The church is very spacious, almost as long 
as St. Peter's at Rome, but not so large. About the choir, 
the sacred Story is finely sculptured, in snow-white marble, 
nor know I where it is exceeded. About the body of the 
church are the miracles of St. Charles Borromeo, and in 
the vault beneath is his body before the high altar, grated, 
and enclosed, in one of the largest crystals in Europe. To 
this also belongs a rich treasure. The cupola is all of 
marble within and without, and even covered with great 

• Celebrated for the victory gained by Buonaparte over the Austrians, 
in 1796, 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 225 

planks of marble, in the Gothic design. The windows are 
most beautifully painted. Here are two very fair and 
excellent organs. The fabric is erected in the midst of a 
fair piazza, and in the centre of the city. 

Hence, we went to the Palace of the Archbishop, which 
is a quadrangle, the architecture of Theobaldi, who designed 
much for Phihp II. in the Escurial, and has built much in 
Milan. Hence, into the Governor's Palace, who was Con- 
jstable of Castile. Tempted by the glorious tapestries and 
pictures, I adventured so far alone, that peeping into 
a chamber where the great man was under the barber's 
hands, he sent one of his negroes (a slave) to know what I 
was. I made the best excuse I could, and that I was only 
admiring the pictures, which he returning and telling his 
lord, I heard the Governor reply that I was a spy; on which I 
retired with all the speed I could, passed the guard of 
Swiss, got into the street, and in a moment to my com- 
pany, who were gone to the Jesuits' Church, which in truth 
is a noble structure, the front especially, after the modern. 
After dinner, we were conducted to St. Celso, a church of 
Tare architecture, built by Bramante ; the carvings of the 
■m&rhle facciata are by Annibal Fontana, whom they esteem 
■at Milan equal to the best of the ancients. In a room 
joining to the Church, is a marble Madonna, like a Colosse, 
of the same sculptor's work, which they will not expose to 
the air. There are two sacristias, in one of which is a fine 
Virgin, of Leonardo da Vinci; in the other, is one of Raphael 
d'Urbino, a piece which all the world admires. The 
Sacristan showed us a world of rich plate, jewels, and 
embroidered copes, which are kept in presses. 

Next, we went to see the Great Hospital, a quadrangular 
cloister of a vast compass, a truly royal fabric, with an 
annual endowment of 50,000 crowns of gold. There is in 
the middle of it a cross building for the sick, and, just under 
it, an altar so placed as to be seen in all places of the 

There are divers colleges built in this quarter, richly pro- 
vided for by the same Borromeo and his nephew, the last 
Cardinal Frederico, some not yet finished, but of excellent 

In St. Eustorgio, they tell us, formerly lay the bodies of 
the three Magi, since translated to Cologne, in Germany ; 

VOL. I. Q 

226 DIARY OF luiLJLv, 

they however preserve the tomb, which is a square stone, 
on which is engraven a star, and under it, " Sepulchrum 
trium Magorum/^ 

Passing by St. Laurence, we saw sixteen columns of 
marble, and the ruins of a Temple of Hercules, with this 
inscription yet standing : 

Imp. Caesari L. Aurelio Vero Aug. Arminiaco Medio Parthico 
Max. Trib. Pot. VII. Imp. IIII. Cos. III. P. P. Divi Antonini Pij Divi 
Hadriani Nepoti Divi Trajani Parthici Pro-Nepoti Divi Nervse Abnepoti 
Dec. Dec. 

"We concluded this day's wandering at the Monastery of 
Madonna deUe Grazie, and in the refectory admired that 
celebrated Ccena Domi?ii of Leonardo da Vinci, which 
takes up the entire wall at the end, and is the same that 
the great virtuoso, Francis the First of France, was so ena- 
moured of, that he consulted to remove the whole wall by 
binding it about with ribs of iron and timber, to convey it 
into France. It is indeed one of the rarest paintings that 
was ever executed by Leonardo, who was long in the service 
of that Prince, and so dear to him that the King coming 
to visit him in his old age and sickness, he expired in his 
arms. But this incomparable piece is now exceedingly 

Early next morning, came the learned Dr. Ferrarius to 
visit us, and took us in his coach to see the Ambrosian 
Library, where Cardinal Fred. Borromeo has expended so 
vast a sum on this building, and in furnishing with curiosi- 
ties, especially paintings and drawings of inestimable value 
amongst painters. It is a school fit to make the ablest 
artists. There are many rare things of Hans Breugel, and 
amongst them the Four Elements. In this room, stands 
the glorious [boasting] inscription of Cavaliero Galeazzo 
Arconati, valuing his gift to the library of several drawings 
by Da Vinci, but these we could not see, the keeper of 

* It is not noticed in the Painter's Voyage of Italy, published 1679, pro- 
bably from its decay. The painting is still there, but, having been often 
retouched, on account of the dampness of the wall, is certainly not what it 
once was. The picture has been again drawn into notice in England, from 
the magnificent print of it lately engraved in Italy by Baphael Morghen, which 
is esteemed one of the finest works of art in this kind that has ever been 
executed. There is also an old engraving from it by Peter Soutman, but 
which by no means exhibits a true delineation of the characters of the piece, 
as designed by Leonardo. 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 227 

them being out of town, and he always carrying the keys 
with him ; but my Lord Marshal, who had seen them, told 
me all but one book are small, that a huge folio contained 
400 leaves full of scratches of Indians, &c. ; but whereas 
the inscription pretends that our King Charles had offered 
1000/. for them, — ^the truth is, and my Lord himself told 
me, that it was he who treated with Galeazzo for himself, 
in the name and by permission of the King, and that the 
Duke of Feria, who was then Governor, should make the 
bargain ; but my Lord, having seen them since, did not 
think them of so much worth. 

In the great room, where is a goodly library, on the 
right hand of the door, is a small wainscot closet fur- 
nished with rare manuscripts. Two original letters of the 
Grand Signor were showed us, sent to two Popes, one 
of which was (as I remember) to Alexander VI. [Borgia], 
and the other mentioning the head of the lance which 
pierced our Blessed Saviour's side as a present to the 
Pope : I would fain have gotten a copy of them, but could 
not; I hear, however, that they are since translated into 
Italian, and that therein is a most honourable mention of 

We re-visited St. Ambrose's church. The high altar is 
supported by four porphyry columns, and under it lie the 
remains of that holy man. Near it they showed us a pit, 
or well (an obscure place it is), where they say St. Ambrose 
baptized St. Augustine, and recited the Te Deum ; for so 
imports the inscription. The place is also famous for some 
Councils that have been held here, and for the coronation 
of divers Italian Kings and Emperors, receiving the iron 
crown from the Archbishop of this See.* They show the 
History by Josephus, written on the bark of trees. The 
high altar is wonderfully rich. 

Milan is one of the most princely cities in Europe : it 
has no suburbs, but is circled with a stately wall for ten 
miles, in the centre of a country that seems to flow with 
milk and honey. The air is excellent ; the fields fruitful 
to admiration, the market abounding with all sorts of pro- 
visions. In the city are near 100 churches, 71 monasteries, 
and 40,000 inhabitants; it is of a circular figure, fortified 

* fuonapftrte took it and put it on lus own hs»/^. 


with bastions, full of sumptuous palaces and rare artists, 
especially for works in crystal, which is here cheap, being 
found among the Alps. They have curious straw-work 
among the nuns, even to admiration. It has a good river, 
and a citadel at some small distance from the city, com- 
manding it, of great strength for its works and munition 
of all kinds. It was built by Galeatius the Second, and 
consists of four bastions, and works at the angles and 
fronts; the graff is faced with brick to a very great depth; 
has two strong towers as one enters, and within is another 
fort, and spacious lodgings for the soldiers, and for exercis- 
ing them. No accommodation for strength is wanting, 
and all exactly uniform. They have here also all sorts of 
work and tradesmen, a great magazine of arms and pro- 
visions. The fosse is of spring water, with a mill for 
grinding corn, and the ramparts vaulted underneath. Don 
Juan Vasques Coronada was now Governor; the garrison 
Spaniards only. 

There is nothing better worth seeing than the collec- 
tion of Signor Septalla,* a canon of St. Ambrose, famous 
over Christendom for his learning and virtues. Amongst 
other things, he showed us an Indian wood, that has the 
perfect scent of civet ; a flint, or pebble, that has a quan- 
tity of water in it, which is plainly to be seen, it being 
clear, as agate ; divers crystals that have water moving in 
them^ some of them having plants, leaves, and hog^s bristles 
in thepi ; much amber full of insects, and divers things of 
woven amianthus.f 

Milan: is a sweet place, and, though the streets are 
narrow, * -they abound in rich coaches, and are full of 
noblesse/-,'who frequent the course every night. Walking 
a turn in the portico before the dome, a cavaliero who 
passed by/ hearing some of us speaking English, looked a 
good while earnestly on us, and by and bye sending his 

* Tlie Painter's Voyage particularizes 85 pictures in this Collection, but 
few of them by great masters. 

t There are two descriptive Catalogues of the Museum, in its day one of 
the most celebrated in all Italy ; both are in small quarto, the one in Latin, 
the later and most complete one, in Italian. To tliis is prefixed a large inside 
view of the Museum, exhibiting its curious contents of busts, statues, pictxires, 
urns, and every kind of rarity, natui*al and artificial. 

Keysler, in his Travels, laments the not being able to see it, on account of a 
law-suit then depending, and it has been long since dispersed, probably iu con- 
sequence of it. 

1C46.] JOHN EVELYN. 229 

servant, desired we would honour him the next day at 
dinner. We looked on this as an odd invitation, he not 
speaking to us himself, but we returned his civility with 
thanks, though not fully resolved what to do, or indeed 
what might be the meaning of it in this jealous place; but, 
on enquiry, it was told us he was a Scots Colonel, who had 
an honourable command in the city, so that we agreed to 
go. This afternoon, we were wholly taken up in seeing an 
opera represented by some Neapolitans, performed all in 
excellent music with rare scenes, in which there acted a 
celebrated beauty. 

Next morning, we went to the Colonel's, who had sent 
his servant again to conduct us to his house, which we 
found to be a noble palace, richly furnished. There were 
other guests, all soldiers, one of them a Scotchman, but we 
could not learn one of their names. At dinner, he excused 
his rudeness that he had not himself spoken to us, telling 
us it was his custom, when he heard of any English 
travellers (who but rarely would be known to pass through 
that city for fear of the Inquisition), to invite them to his 
house, where they might be free. We had a sumptuous 
dinner, and the wine was so tempting that after some 
healths had gone about, and we had risen from table, the 
Colonel led us into his hall, where there hung up divers 
colours, saddles, bridles, pistols, and other arms, being 
trophies which he had taken with his own hands from the 
enemy ; amongst them, he would needs bestow a pair of 
pistols on Captain Wray, one of our fellow-travellers and a 
good drinking gentleman, and on me a Turkish bridle 
woven with silk and very curiously embossed, with other 
silk trappings, to which hung a half moon finely wrought, 
which he had taken from a bashaw whom he had slain. 
With this glorious spoil, I rid the rest of my journey as 
far as Paris, and brought it afterwards into England. He 
then showed us a stable of brave horses, with his menage 
and cavalerizzo. Some of the horses he caused to be 
brought out, which he mounted, and performed all the 
motions of an excellent horseman. When this was done, 
and he had alighted, contrary to the advice of his groom 
and page, who knew the nature of the beast, and that their 
master was a little spirited with wine, he would have a 
fiery horse that had not yet been managed and was very 

230 DIARY OF [sESTo, 

•ungovernable^ but was otherwise a very beautiful creature ; 
this, he mounting, the horse getting the reins in a full 
carrier, rose so desperately that he fell quite back, crushing 
the Colonel so forcibly against the wall of the menage, 
that though he sat on him like a Centaur, yet recovering the 
jade on all fours again, he desired to be taken down and 
so led in, where he cast himself on a pallet, and, with infi- 
nite lamentations, after some time we took leave of him, 
being now speechless. The next morning, going to visit 
him, we found before the door the canopy which they 
usually carry over the host, and some with lighted tapers ; 
which made us suspect he was in very sad condition, and 
so indeed Ave found him, an Irish Friar standing by his 
bedside as confessing him, or at least disguising a confes- 
sion, and other ceremonies used in extremis, for we after- 
wards learned that the gentleman was a Protestant, and 
had this Friar, his confidant ; which was a dangerous thing 
at Milan, had it been but suspected. At our entrance, he 
sighed grievously, and held up his hands, but was not able 
to speak. After vomiting some blood, he kindly took us 
all by the hand, and made signs that he should see us no 
more, which made us take our leave of him with extreme 
reluctancy and affliction for the accident. This sad disaster 
made us consult about our departure as soon as we could, 
not knowing how we might be inquired after, or engaged, 
the Inquisition being so cruelly formidable and inevitable, 
on the least suspicion. The next morning, therefore, dis- 
charging our lodgings, we agreed for a coach to carry us 
to the foot of the Alps, not a little concerned for the death 
of the Colonel, which we now heard of, and who had so 
courteously entertained us. 

The first day, we got as far as Castellanza, by which 
runs a considerable river into Lago Maggiore ; here, at 
dinner, were two or three Jesuits, who were very prag- 
matical and inquisitive, whom we declined conversation 
with as decently as we could : so we pursued our journey 
through a most fruitful plain, but the weather was wet and 
uncomfortable. At night, we lay at Sesto. 

The next morning, leaving our coach, we embarked in a 
boat to carry us over the lake (being one of the largest in 
Europe), and whence we could see the towering Alps, and 
amongst them the great San Bernardo, esteemed the 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 231 

highest mountaiu in Europe, appearing to be some miles 
above the clouds. Through this vast water, passes the river 
Ticinus, which discharges itself into the Po, by which 
means Helvetia transports her merchandizes into Italy, 
which we now begin to leave behind us. 

Having now sailed about two leagues, we were hauled 
ashore at Arona, a strong town belonging to the Duchy 
of Milan, where, being examined by the Governor, and 
paying a small duty, we were dismissed. Opposite to this 
fort, is Angiera, another small town, the passage very 
pleasant with the prospect of the Alps covered with pine 
and fir-trees, and above them snow. We passed the pretty 
Island Isabella,* about the middle of the lake, on which is 
a fair house built on a mount ; indeed, the whole island is 
a mount ascended by several terraces and walks all set 
above with orange and citron trees. 

The next we saw was Isola,* and we left on our right 
hand the Isle of St. Jovanni ; * and so sailing by another 
small town built also on an island, we arrived at night at 
Margazzo, an obscure village at the end of the lake, and 
at the very foot of the Alps, which now rise as it were 
suddenly after some hundreds of miles of the most even 
country in the world, and where there is hardly a stone to 
be found, as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of 
the earth in the Alps, to form and clear the plains of 
Lombardy, which we had hitherto passed since our coming 
from Venice. In this wretched place, I lay on a bed 
stuffed with leaves, which made such a crackhng, and did 
so prick my skin through the tick, that I could not sleep. 
The next morning, I was furnished with an ass, for we 
could not get horses ; instead of stirrups, we had ropes tied 
with a loop to put our feet in, which supplied the place of 
other trappings. Thus, with my gallant steed, bridled with 
my Turkish present, we passed through a reasonably plea- 
sant but very narrow valley, till we came to Duomo, 
where we rested, and, having showed the Spanish pass, the 
Oovernor would press another on us, that his Secretary 
might get a crown. Here, we exchanged our asses for 
mules, sure-footed on the hills and precipices, being accus- 
tomed to pass them. Hiring a guide, we were brought 

* These are called " the Borromean Islands in the Lago Maggiore, belong- 
ing to the great Milanese family of Borromeo." 

232 DIARY OF [vEDK*, 

that night through very steep, craggy and dangerous 
passages to a village called Vedra, being the last of th& 
King of Spain's dominions in the Duchy of Milan. W& 
had a very infamous wretched lodging. 

The next morning, we mounted again through strange,, 
horrid, and fearful crags and tracts, abounding in pine- 
trees, and only inhabited by bears, wolves, and wild goats ;. 
nor could we anywhere see above a pistol-shot before us, 
the horizon being terminated with rocks and mountains,, 
whose tops, covered with snow, seemed to touch the skies, 
and in many places pierced the clouds. Some of these 
vast mountains were but one entire stone, betwixt whose 
clefts now and then precipitated great cataracts of melted, 
snow, and other waters, which made a terrible roaring,, 
echoing from the rocks and cavities ; and these waters in. 
some places breaking in the fall, wet us as if we had passed 
through a mist, so as we could neither see nor hear one 
another, but, trusting to our honest mules, we jogged oik 
our way. The narrow bridges, in some places made only 
by felling huge fir-trees, and laying them athwart from 
mountain to mountain, over cataracts of stupendous depth, 
are very dangerous, and so are the passages and edges, 
made by cutting away the main rock ; others in steps ; 
and in some places we pass between mountains that have 
been broken and fallen on one another; which is very 
terrible, and one had need of a sure foot and steady head, 
to climb some of these precipices, besides that they are har- 
bours for bears and wolves, who have sometimes assaulted 
travellers. In these straits, we frequently alighted, now 
freezing in the snow, and anon frying by the reverberation 
of the sun against the cliffs as we descend lower, when we 
meet now and then a few miserable cottages so built upon 
the declining of the rocks, as one would expect their 
sliding down. Amongst these, inhabit a goodly sort of 
people, having monstrous gullets, or wens of flesh, growing 
to their throats, some of which I have seen as big as an 
hundred pound bag of silver hanging under their chins ^ 
among the women, especially, and that so ponderous, as 
that to ease them, many wear linen cloth bound about 
their head, and coming under the chin to support it; but 
quis tumidum gutiur miratur in Alpibus ? Their drinking 
so much snow-water, is thought to be the cause of it ; the 

164G.] JOHN EVELYN. 233 

men, using more wine, are not so strumous as the women. 
The truth is, they are a peculiar race of people, and 
many great water-drinkers here have not these prodigious 
tumours ; it runs, as we say, in the blood, and is a vice in 
the race, and renders them so ugly, shrivelled, and deformed 
by its drawing the skin of the face down, that nothing can 
be more frightful; to this add a strange puffing dress, furs, 
and that barbai'ous language, being a mixture of corrupt 
High German, French, and Italian. The people are of 
great stature, extremely fierce and rude, yet very honest 
and trusty. 

This night, through almost inaccessible heights, we came 
in prospect of Mons Sempronius, now Mount Sampion, 
which has on its summit a few huts and a chapel. Ap- 
proaching this. Captain Wray's water-spaniel (a huge filthy 
cur that had followed him out of England) hunted a herd 
of goats down the rocks into a river made by the melting 
of the snow. Arrived at our cold harbour (though the 
house had a stove in every room) and, supping on cheese 
and milk vrith wretched wine, we went to bed in cupboards* 
so high from the floor, that we climbed them by a ladder > 
we were covered with feathers, that is, we lay between two 
ticks stuffed with them, and all little enough to keep one 
warm. The ceilings of the rooms are strangely low for 
those tall people. The house was now (in September) half 
covered with snow, nor is there a tree, or a bush, growing 
within many miles. 

From this uncomfortable place, we prepared to hasten, 
away the next morning ; but, as we were getting on our 
mules, comes a huge young fellow demanding money for 
a goat which he affirmed that Captain Wray's dog had 
killed; expostulating the matter, and impatient of staying 
in the cold, we set spurs and endeavoured to ride away, 
when a multitude of people being by this time gotten 
together about us, (for it being Sunday morning and 
attending for the priest to say mass) they stopped our 
mules, beat us off our saddles, and, disarming us of our 
carbines, drew us into one of the rooms of our lodging, 
and set a guard upon us. Thus, we continued prisoners 
till mass was ended, and then came half a score grim . 

* They have such in Wales. 

234 DIARY OF [modnt sampion, 

Swiss, who, taking on them to be magistrates, sate down on 
the table, and condemned us to pay a pistole for the goat, 
and ten more for attempting to ride away, threatening 
that if we did not pay it speedily, they would send us to 
prison, and keep us to a day of public justice, where, as 
they perhaps would have exaggerated the crime, for they 
pretended we had primed our carbines and would have 
shot some of them, (as indeed the Captain was about ta 
do) we might have had our heads cut off, as we were told 
afterwards, for that amongst these rude people a very small 
misdemeanour does often meet that sentence. Though 
the proceedings appeared highly unjust,* on consultation 
among ourselves, we thought it safer to rid ourselves out 
of their hands, and the trouble we were brought into ; and 
therefore we patiently laid down the money, and with fierce 
countenances had our mules and arms delivered to us, and 
glad we were to escape as we did. This Avas cold enter- 
tainment, but our journey after was colder, the rest of the 
way having been (as they told us) covered with snow since 
the Creation ; no man remembered it to be without ; and 
because, by the frequent snowing, the tracts are continually 
filled up, we passed by several tall masts set up to guide 
travellers, so as for many miles they stand in ken of one 
another, like to our beacons. In some places, where there 
is a cleft between two mountains, the snow fills it up, 
whilst the bottom, being thawed, leaves as it were a frozen 
arch of snow, and that so hard as to bear the greatest 
vreight ; for as it snows often, so it perpetually freezes, of 
which I was so sensible that it flawed the very skin of my 

Beginning now to descend a httle. Captain "Wray's horse 
(that was our sumpter and carried all our baggage) plunging 
through a bank of loose snow, slid down a frightful precipice, 
which so incensed the choleric cavalier, his master, that 
he was sending a brace of bullets into the poor beast, lest 
our guide should recover him, and run away Andth his 
burden ; but, just as he was hfting up his carbine, we gave 
such a shout, and so pelted the horse with snow-balls, as 
with all his might plunging through the snow, he fell from 
another steep place into another bottom, near a path we 

* Surely these poor people were right, and this is not expressed with 
Mr. Evelyn's usual hberality. 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 235 

were to pass. It was yet a good while ere we got to him, 
but at last we recovered the place, and, easing him of his 
charge, hauled him out of the snow, where he had been 
certainly frozen in, if we had not prevented it, before night. 
It was as we judged almost two miles that he had slid and 
fallen, yet without any other harm than the benumbing 
of his limbs for the present, but, with lusty rubbing and 
chafing he began to move, and, after a little walking, per- 
formed his journey well enough. All this way, affrighted 
with the disaster of this horse, we trudged on foot, driving 
our mules before us; sometimes we fell, sometimes we 
slid, through this ocean of snow, which after October is 
impassable. Towards night, we came into a larger way, 
through vast woods of pines, which clothe the middle parts 
of these rocks. Here, they were burning some to make 
pitch and rosin, peeling the knotty branches, as we do to 
make charcoal, reserving what melts from them, which 
hardens into pitch. We passed several cascades of dis- 
solved snow, that had made channels of formidable depth 
in the crevices of the mountains, and with such a fearful 
roaring as we could hear it for seven long miles. It is 
from these sources that the Rhone and the Rhine, which 
pass through all France and Germany, derive their originals. 
Late at night, we got to a town called Briga, at the foot 
of the Alps, in the Valteline. Almost every door had 
nailed on the outside and next the street a bear's, wolfs, 
or fox's head, and divers of them all three ; a savage kind 
of sight, but, as the Alps are full of the beeists, the people 
often kill them. The next morning, we returned to our 
guide, and took fresh mules, and another to conduct us to 
the Lake of Geneva, passing through as pleasant a country 
as that we had just travelled was melancholy and trouble- 
some. A strange and sudden change it seemed, for the 
reverberation of the sun-beams from the mountains and 
rocks that like walls range it on both sides, not above two 
flight-shots in breadth, for a very great number of miles, 
renders the passage excessively hot. Through such ex- 
tremes we continued our journey, that goodly river, the 
Rhone, gliding by us in a narrow and quiet channel almost 
in the middle of this Canton, fertiUzing the country for 
grass and com, which grow here in abundance. 

We arrived this night at Sion, a pretty town and city, a 

236 DIARY OF [siov, 

bishop's seat, and the head of Yalesia. There is a castle, 
and the Bishop who resides in it, has both civil and eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction. Our host, as the custom of these 
Cantons is, was one of the chiefest of the town, and had 
been a Colonel in France ; he treated us with extreme 
civility, and was so displeased at the usage we received at 
Mount Sampion, that he would needs give us a letter ta 
the Governor of the country, who resided at St. Maurice, 
which was in our way to Geneva, to revenge the affront. 
This was a true old blade, and had been a very curious 
virtuoso, as we found by a handsome collection of books, 
medals, pictures, shells, and other antiquities. He showed 
two heads and horns of the true Capricorn, which animal he 
told us was frequently killed among the mountains ; one 
branch of them was as much as I could well lift, and near 
as high as my head, not much unlike the greater sort of 
goat^s, save that they bent forwards, by help whereof they 
climb up and hang on inaccessible rocks, from whence the 
inhabitants now and then shoot them. They speak pro- 
digious things of their leaping from crag to crag, and of 
their sure footing, notwithstanding their being cloven- 
footed, unapt (one would think) to take hold and walk so 
steadily on those horrible ridges as they do. The Colonel 
would have given me one of these beams, but the want of 
a convenience to carry it along with me, caused me to 
refuse his courtesy. He told me that in the castle there 
were some Roman and Christian antiquities, and he had 
some inscriptions in his own garden. He invited us to 
his country-house, where he said he had better pictures, 
and other rarities ; but, our time being short, I could not 
persuade my companions to stay and visit the places he 
would have had us seen, nor the offer he made to show us 
the hunting of the bear, wolf, and other wild beasts. 
The next morning, having presented his daughter, a pretty 
well-fashioned young woman, with a small ruby ring, we 
parted somewhat late from our generous host. 

Passing through the same pleasant valley between the 
horrid mountains on either hand, like a gallery many miles 
in length, we got to Martigni, where also we were well 
entertained. The houses in this country are all built of 
fir boards, planed within, low, and seldom above one story. 
The people very clownish and rusticly clad, after a very 

i646-.] JOHN EVELYN. ,237 

odd fashion, for the most part in blue cloth, very whole 
and warm, with little variety or distinction betwixt the 
gentleman and common sort, by a law of their country 
being exceedingly frugal. Add to this, their great honesty 
and fidelity, though exacting enough for what they part 
with. I saw not one beggar. We paid the value of 
twenty shillings English, for a day's hire of one horse. 
Every man goes with a sword by his side, the whole 
country well-disciplined, and indeed impregnable, which 
made the Romans have such ill success against them ; one 
lusty Swiss at their narrow passages is sufficient to repel 
a legion. It is a frequent thing here for a young trades- 
man, or farmer, to leave his wife and children for twelve or 
fifteen years, and seek his fortune in the wars in Spain, 
France, Italy, or Germany, and then return again to 
work. I look upon this country to be the safest spot of 
all Europe, neither envied, nor envying ; nor are any of 
them rich, nor poor; they live in great simplicity and 
tranquillity ; and, though of the fourteen Cantons half be 
Roman Catholics, the rest Reformed, yet they mutually 
agree, and are confederate with Geneva, and are its only 
security against its potent neighbours, as they themselves 
are from being attacked by the greater potentates, by the 
mutual jealousy of their neighbours, as either of them 
would be overbalanced, should the Swiss, who are wholly 
mercenary and auxiliaries, be subjected to France, or 

We were now arrived at St. Maurice, a large handsome 
town and residence of the President, where justice is done. 
To him, we presented our letter from Sion, and made 
known the ill usage we had received for killing a wretched 
goat, which so incensed him, as he sware if we would stay 
he would not only help us to our money again, but most 
severely punish the whole rabble ; but our desire of revenge 
had by this time subsided, and glad we were to be gotten 
so near France, which we reckoned as good as home. He 
courteously invited us to dine with him ; but we excused 
ourselves, and, returning to our inn, whilst we were eating 
something before we took horse, the Governor had caused 
two pages to bring us a present of two great vessels of 
•covered plate full of excellent wine, in which we drank his 
health, and rewarded the youths ; they were two vast 

238 DIARY OP [beveretta, 

bowls supported by two Swisses, handsomely wrought 
after the German maimer. This civility and that of our 
host at Sion, perfectly reconciled us to the highlanders ; 
and so, proceeding on our journey, we passed this afternoon 
through the gate which divides the Valais from the Duchy 
of Savoy, into which we were now entering, and so, through 
Montei, we arrived that evening at Beveretta. Being ex- 
tremely weary and complaining of my head, and finding 
httle accommodation in the house., I caused one of our 
hostesses daughters to be removed out of her bed, and went 
immediately into it whilst it was yet warm, being so heavy 
with pain and drowsiness that I would not stay to have 
the sheets changed ; but I shortly after paid dearly for my 
impatience, falling sick of the small-pox so soon as I came 
to Geneva, for by the smell of frankincense and the tale 
the good woman told me of her daughter having had an 
ague, I afterwards concluded she had been newly recovered 
of the small-pox. Notwithstanding this, I went with my 
company, the next day, hiring a bark to carry us over the 
lake ; and indeed sick as I was, the weather was so serene 
and bright, the water so calm, and air so temperate, that 
never had travellers a sweeter passage. Thus, we sailed 
the whole length of the lake, about thirty miles, the coun- 
tries bordering on it (Savoy and Berne) affording one 
of the most delightful prospects in the world, the Alps 
covered with snow, though at a great distance, yet show- 
ing their aspiring tops. Through this lake, the river 
Ehodanus passes with that velocity as not to mi ngle with 
its exceeding deep waters, which are very clear, and breed 
the most celebrated trout for largeness and goodness of 
any in Europe. I have ordinarily seen one of three feet 
in length sold in the market for a small price, and such 
we had in the lodging where we abode, which was at the 
White Cross. All this whUe, I held up tolerably, and the 
next morning having a letter for Signer John Diodati, the 
famous Italian minister and translator of the Holy Bible 
into that language, I went to his house, and had a great 
deal of discourse with that learned person. He told me 
he had been in England, driven by tempest into Deal, 
whilst sailing for Holland, that he had seen London, and 
was exceedingly taken with the civilities he received. He 
so much approved of our Church-government by Bishops, 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 239 

that lie told me the French Protestants would make no 
scruple to submit to it and all its pomp, had they a King 
of the Reformed Religion as we had. He exceedingly 
deplored the difference now between his Majesty and the 
Parliament. After dinner, came one Monsieur Saladine, 
with his little pupil, the Earl of Caernarvon, to visit us, 
offering to carry us to the principal places of the town ; 
but, being now no more able to hold up my head, I was 
constrained to keep my chamber, imagining that my very 
eyes would have dropped out ; and this night I felt such 
a stinging about me, that I could not sleep. In the morn- 
ing, I was very ill, but sending for a doctor he persuaded 
me to be let blood. He was a very learned old man, and, 
as he said, he had been physician to Gustavus the Great, 
King of Sweden, when he passed this way into Italy, under 
the name of Monsieur Gars, the initial letters of Gustavus 
Adolphus Rex Suecise, and of our famous Duke of Buck- 
ingham, on his returning out of Italy. He afterwards 
acknowledged that he should not have bled me, had he 
suspected the small-pox, which brake out a day after. 
He afterwards purged me, and applied leeches, and God 
knows what this would have produced, if the spots had not 
appeared, for he was thinking of blooding me again. They 
now kept me warm in bed for sixteen days, tended by a 
vigilant Swiss matron, whose monstrous throat, when I 
sometimes awaked out of unquiet slumbers, would affright 
me. After the pimples were come forth, which were not 
many, I had much ease as to pain, but infinitely afflicted 
with heat and noisomeness. By God's mercy, after five 
weeks' keeping my chamber, I went abroad. Monsieur 
Saladine and his lady sent me many refreshments. Mon- 
sieur Le Chat, my physician, to excuse his letting me 
blood, told me it was so burnt and vicious as it would have 
proved the plague, or spotted fever, had he proceeded by 
any other method. On my recovering sufficiently to go 
abroad, I dined at Monsieur Saladine's, and, in the after- 
noon, went across the water on the side of the lake, and 
took a lodging that stood exceedingly pleasant, about half 
a mile from the city for the better airing ; but I stayed 
only one night, having no company there, save my pipe ; 
so, the next day, I caused them to row me about the lake 
as far as the great stone, which they call Neptune's Rock, 

240 DIARY OF [geneva, 

and on which they say sacrifice was anciently ofifered to 
him. Thence, I landed at certain cherry-gardens and 
pretty villas by the side of the lake, and exceedingly 
pleasant. Returning, I visited their conservatories of fish ; 
in which were trouts of six and seven feet long, as they 

The Rhone, which parts the city in the midst, dips into 
a cavern underground, about six miles from it, and after- 
wards rises again, and runs its open course, like our Mole, 
or Swallow, by Dorking, in Surrey. The next morning, 
(being Thursday) I heard Dr. Diodati preach in Italian, 
many of that country, especially of Lucca, his native 
place, being inhabitants of Geneva, and of the Reformed 

The town, lying between Germany, France, and Italy, 
those three tongues are familiarly spoken by the inhabi- 
tants. It is a strong well-fortified city, part of it built on 
a rising ground. The houses are not despicable, but the 
high pent-houses, (for I can hardly call them cloisters, 
being all of wood) through which the people pass dry and 
in the shade, winter and summer, exceedingly deform the 
fronts of the buildings. Here are abundance of book- 
sellers ; but their books are of ill impressions ; these, with 
watches (of which store are made here), crystal, and excel- 
lent screwed guns, are the staple commodities. All pro- 
visions are good and cheap. 

The town-house is fairly built of stone ; the portico has 
four black marble columns ; and, on a table of the same, 
tinder the city arms, a demi-eagle and cross, between 
cross-keys, is a motto, " Post Tenebras Lux," and this 
inscription : 

Quum anno 1535 Iprofligata Romana Anti-Christr Tyrannide, abro- 
gatisq ; ejus superstitionibus, sacro-sancta Christi Religio hie in suam 
puritatem, Ecclesia in meliorem ordinem singulari Dei beneficio reposita, 
et simul pulsis fugatisq ; hostibus, urbs ipsa in suam libertatem, non 
sine insigni miraculo, restituta fuerit ; Senatus Populusq ; Genevensis 
Monumentum hoc perpetuae memorise causa, fieri atque hoc loco erigi 
curavit, quod suam ei-ga Deum gratitudinem ad posteros testatum fuerit. 

The territories about the town are not so large as many 
ordinary gentlemen have about their country-farms, for 
which cause they are in continual watch, especially on the 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. £41 

Savoy side ; but, in case of any siege the Swiss are at 
hand, as this inscription in the same place shows, toward 

the street : 

Anno a vera Religione divinitus cum veteri Libertate Genevse resti- 
tuta, et quasi novo Jubilseo ineunte, plurimis vitatis domi et foris 
insidiis et superatis tempestatibus, et cum Helvetiorum Primari Tigurini 
sequo jure in societatem perpetuam nobiscum venerint, et veteres fidis- 
simi socii Beraenses prius vinculum novo adstrinxerint, S.P.Q.G. quod 
felix esse velit D. 0. M. tanti benificii monumentum consecrarunt, anno 
temporis ultimi 

In the Senate-house, were fourteen ancient urns, dug up 
as they were removing earth in the fortifications. 

A little out of the town, is a spacious field, which they 
call Campus Martins ; and well it may be so termed, with 
better reason, than that at Rome at present (which is no 
more a field, but all built into streets), for here on every 
Sunday, after the evening devotions, this precise people 
permit their youths to exercise arms, and shoot in guns, 
and in the long and cross bows, in which they are exceed- 
ingly expert, reputed to be as dexterous as any people in 
the world. To encourage this, they yearly elect him who 
has won most prizes at the mark, to be their king, as the 
king of the long-bow, gun, or cross-bow. He then w ears 
that weapon in his hat in gold, with a crown over it, made 
fast to the hat like a brooch. In this field, is a long house 
wherein their arms and furniture are kept in several 
places very neatly. To this joins a hall where, at certain 
times, they meet and feast ; in the glass-windows are the 
arms and names of their kings [of arms] . At the side of 
the field, is a very noble Pail-Mall, but it turns with an 
elbow. There is also a bowling-place, a tavern, and a 
trey- table, and here they ride their menaged horses. It 
is also the usual place of public execution of those who 
suffer for any capital crime, though committed in another 
country, by which law divers fugitives have been put to 
death, who have fled hither to escape punishment in their 
own country. Amongst other severe punishments here, 
adultery is death. Having seen this field, and played a 
game at mall, I supped withMr. Saladine. 

On Sunday, I heard Dr. Diodati preach in French, and 
after the French mode, in a gown with a cape, and his hat 

VOL. I. R 

242 DIARY OF [geneva, 

on. The Church Government is severely Presbyterian, 
after the discipline of Calvin and Beza, who set it up, but 
nothing so rigid as either our Scots or English sectaries of 
that denomination. In the afternoon, Monsieur Morice, 
a most learned young person and excellent poet, chief 
Professor of the Universit}^, preached at St. Peter's, a spa- 
cious Gothic fabric. This was heretofore a cathedral and 
a reverend pile. It has four turrets, on one of which 
stands a continual sentinel; in another, cannons are 
mounted. The church is very decent within ; nor have 
they at all defaced the painted windows, which are full of 
pictures of saints ; nor the stalls, which are ail carved with 
the history of our Blessed Saviour. 

In the afternoon, I went to see the young townsmen 
exercise in Mars' Field, where the prizes were pewter- 
plates and dishes ; 'tis said that some have gained compe- 
tent estates by what they have thus Avon. Here, I first 
saw huge balistse, or cross-bows, shot in, being such as they 
formerly used in wars, before great guns were known; they 
were placed in frames, and had great screws to bend them, 
doing execution at an incredible distance. They were 
most accurate at the long-bow and musket, rarely missing 
the smallest mark, I was as busy with the carbine I 
brought from Brescia, as any of them. After every shot, 
I found them go into a long house, and cleanse their guns 
before they charged again. 

On Monday, I was invited to a little garden without 
the works, where were many rare tulips, anemones, and 
other choice flowers. The Rhone running athwart the 
town out of the Lake, makes half the city a suburb, which, 
in imitation of Paris, they call St. Germain's Fauxbourg, 
and it has a church of the same name. On two wooden 
bridges that cross the river are several water-mills, and 
shops of trades, especially smiths and cutlers; between 
the bridges is an island, in the midst of which is a very 
ancient tower, said to have been built by Julius Caesar. 
At the end of the other bridge is the mint, and a fair 

Passing again by the Town-house, I saw a large croco- 
dile hanging in chains ; and against the wall of one of the 
chambers, seven judges were painted without hands, except 
one in the middle, who has but one hand ; I know not the 

1646.] JOHN EVELYN. 243 

story. The Arsenal is at the end of this building, well- 
fumished and kept. 

After dinner, Mr. Morice led us to the college, a fair 
structure ; in the lower part are the schools, which consist 
of nine classes; and a hall above, where the students 
assemble ; also a good library. They showed us a very 
ancient Bible, of about 300 years old, in the vulgar French, 
and a MS. in the old Monkish character : here have the 
Professors their lodgings. I also went to the Hospital, 
which is very commodious ; but the Bishop's Palace is now 
a prison. 

This town is not much celebrated for beautiful women, 
for, even at this distance from the Alps^ the gentlewomen 
have something full throats, but our Captain Wray (after- 
wards Sir William, eldest son of that Sir Christopher, who 
had both been in arms against his Majesty for the Parlia- 
ment) fell so mightily in love with one of Monsieur Saladine^s ' 
daughters that, with much persuasion, he could not be pre- 
vailed on to think on his journey into France, the season 
now coming on extremely hot. 

My sickness and abode here cost me forty-five pistoles 
of gold to my host, and five to my honest doctor, who for 
six weeks' attendance and the apothecary thought it so 
generous a reward that, at my taking leave, he presented 
me with his advice for the regimen of my health, written 
with his own hand in Latin. This regimen I much 
observed, and I bless God passed the journey without 
inconvenience from sickness, but it was an extraordinarily 
hot unpleasant season and journey, by reason of the 
craggy ways. 

5th July. We took, or rather purchased, a boat, for it 
could not be brought back against the stream of the 
Rhone. We were two days going to Lyons, passing 
many admirable prospects of rocks and cliffs, and near 
the town down a very steep declivity of water for a full 
mile. From Lyons, we proceeded the next morning, 
taking horse to Roanne, and lay that night at Feurs. At 
Roanne, we indulged ourselves with the best that aU France 
aff'ords, for here the provisions are choice and plentiful, 
so as the supper we had might have satisfied a prince. 
We lay in damask beds, and were treated like emperors. 
The town is one of the neatest built in all France, on the 


brink of the Loire ; and here we agreed with an old fisher 
to row us as far as Orleans. The first night, we came aa 
far as Nevers, early enough to see the town, the Cathedral 
(St. Cyre), the Jesuits' College, and the Castle, a Palace 
of the Duke's, with the bridge to it nobly built. 

The next day, we passed by La Charite, a pretty town, 
somewhat distant from the river. Here I lost my faithful 
spaniel (Piccioli), who had followed me from Rome; it 
seems he had been taken up by some of the Governor's; 
pages, or footmen, without recovery; Avhich was a great dis- 
pleasure to me, because the cur had many useful qualities. 

The next day, we arrived at Orleans, taking our turns 
to row, of which I reckon my share came to little less thau 
twenty leagues. Sometimes, we footed it through pleasant 
fields and meadows ; sometimes, we shot at fowls, and other 
birds ; nothing came amiss : sometimes, we played at 
cards, whilst others sung, or were composing verses ; for 
we had the great poet, Mr. Waller, in our company, and 
some other ingenious persons. 

At Orleans, we abode but one day ; the next, leaving 
our mad Captain behind us, I arrived at Paris, rejoiced 
that, after so many disasters and accidents in a tedious 
peregrination, I was gotten so near home, and here I 
resolved to rest myself before I went further. 

It was now October, and the only time that in my whole 
life I spent most idly, tempted from my more profitable 
recesses ; but I soon recovered my better resolutions and 
fell to my study, learning the High Dutch and Spanish 
tongues, and now and then refreshing my dancing, and 
such exercises as I had long omitted, and which are not in. 
much reputation amongst the sober Italians. 

1647, 28th January. I changed my lodging in the Place 
de Monsieur de Metz, near the Abbey of St. Germains ; 
and thence, on the 12th February, to another in Rue 
Columbier, where I had a very fair apartment, which cost 
me four pistoles per month. The 18th, I frequented a 
course of Chemistry, the famous Monsieur Le Febure 
operating upon most of the nobler processes. March 3rd, 
Monsieur Mercure began to teach me on the lute, though 
to small perfection. 

In May, I fell sick, and had very weak eyes ; for which 
I was four times let blood. 

1647.] JOHN EVELYN. 245 

22nd May. My valet (Herbert) robbed me of clothes 
and plate, to the value of threescore pounds; but, through 
the diligence of Sir Richard Browne, his Majesty's Resi- 
dent at the Court of France, and with whose lady and 
family I had contracted a great friendship (and particularly 
set my affections on a daughter), I recovered most of them, 
obtaining of the Judge, with no small difficulty, that the 
process against the thief should not concern his life, being 
his first offence. 

10th June. We concluded about my marriage, in order 
to which I went to St. Germains, where his Majesty, then 
Prince of "Wales, had his court, to desire of Dr. Earle, 
then one of his chaplains (since Dean of "Westminster, 
Clerk of the Closet, and Bishop of Sahsbury) that he 
■would accompany me to Paris, which he did ; and, on 
Thursday, 27th June, 1647, he married us in Sir Richard 
Browne's chapel, betwixt the hours of eleven and twelve, 
some few select friends being present : and this being 
Corpus Christi feast was solemnly observed in this country ; 
the streets were sumptuously hung with tapestry, and 
«trewed with flowers, 

10th September. Being called into England, to settle 
my affairs after an absence of four years, I took leave of 
the Prince and Queen, leaving my Wife, yet very young. 
Tinder the care of an excellent lady and prudent mother. 

4th October. I sealed and declared my Will, and that 
morning went from Paris, taking my journey through 
Rouen, Dieppe, Ville-dieu, and St. Vallerie, where I stayed 
one day with Mr. Waller, with whom I had some affairs, 
tind for which cause I took this circle to Calais, where I 
amved on the 11th, and that night embarking in the 
packet-boat, was by one o'clock got safe to Dover; for 
which I heartily put up my thanks to God who had con- 
ducted me safe to my own country, and been merciful to 
me through so many aberrations. Hence, taking post, I 
arrived at London the next day at evening, being the 
second of October, new style. 

5th. I came to Wotton, the place of my birth, to 
my brother, and on the 10th to Hampton Court, where 
I had the honour to kiss his Majesty's hand, and give him 
an account of several things I had in charge, he being 
now in the power of those execrable villains who not long 


after murdered him. I lay at my cousin, Serjeant Hat- 
ton's, at Thames Ditton, whence, on the 13th, I went to 

14th. To Sayes Court, at Deptford, in Kent (since my 
house), where I found Mr. Pretyman, my Wife's uncle, 
who had charge of it and the estate about it, during my 
father-in-law's residence in France. On the 15th, I again 
occupied my own chambers in the Middle Temple. 

9th November. My sister opened to me her marriage 
with Mr. GlanviUe. 

1647-8. 14th January. From London, I went to Wot- 
ton, to see my young Nephew ; and thence to Baynards, 
[in Ewhurst] to visit my Brother Richard. 

5th February. Saw a tragi-comedy acted in the Cock- 
pit, after there had been none of these diversions for many 
years during the war. 

28th. I went with my noble friend. Sir Wilham Ducy,. 
(afterwards Lord Downe) to Thistleworth, where we dined 
with Sir Clepesby Crew, and afterwards to see the rare 
miniatures of Peter Oliver, and rounds of plaster, and 
then the curious floAvers of Mr. Bju-ill's garden, who has- 
some good medals and pictures. Sir Clepesby has fine 
Indian hangings, and a very good chimney-piece of water- 
colours, by Breughel, which I bought for him. 

26th April. There was a great uproar in London, that 
the rebel army quartering at Whitehall, would plunder 
the City, on which there was published a Proclamation 
for all to stand on their guard. 

4th May. Came up the Essex petitioners for an agree- 
ment betwixt his Majesty and the rebels. The 16th, the 
Surrey men addressed the Parliament for the same ; of 
which some of them were slain and murdered by Crom- 
well's guards, in the new Palace Yard. I now sold the 
impropriation of South Mailing, near Lewes, in Sussex, to 
Mr. Kemp and Alcock, for 3000/. 

30th. There was a rising now in Kent, my Lord 
of Norwich being at the head of them. Their first ren- 
dezvous was in Broome-field next ray house at Sayea 
Court, whence they went to Maidstone, and so to Col- 
chester, where was that memorable siege. 

27th June. I piu-chased the manor of Hurcott, in 
Worcestershire, of my brother George, for 3,300^. 

1648.] JOHN EVELYN. 247 

1st July. I sate for ray picture, in which there is a 
Death's head, to Mr. Walker, that excellent painter. 

10th. News was brought me of my Lord Francis VilHers 
being slain by the rebels near Kingston. 

16th August. I went to Woodcote (in Epsom) to the 
wedding of my Brother, Richard, who married the daughter 
and co-heir of Esquire Minn, lately deceased ; by which 
he had a great estate both in land and money on the 
death of a brother. The coach in which the bride and 
bridegroom were, was overturned in coming home; but 
no harm was done. 

28th. To London from Sayes Court, and saw the cele- 
brated folHes of Bartholomew Fair. 

16th September. Came my lately married Brother, 
Richard, and his Wife, to visit me, when I showed them 
Greenwich, and her Majesty's Palace, now possessed by 
the rebels. 

28th. I went to Albury, to visit the Countess of 
Arundel, and returned to Wotton. 

31st October. I went to see my manor of Preston 
Beckhelvyn, and the Cliffhouse. 

29th November. Myself, with Mr. Thomas Offley, and. 
Lady Gerrard, christened my Niece Mary, eldest daughter 
of my Brother, George Evelyn, by my Lady Cotton, his 
second wife. I presented my Niece a piece of plate which 
cost me 18/., and caused this inscription to be set on it : 

In memoriam facti : 
Anno cla.Ix.xliix. Cal. Decern, viii. Virginum castiss : Xtianorum inno- 
centiss : Nept : suavis : Marise, Johan : Evelynus Avunculus et Sus- 
ceptor Vasculum hoc cum Epigraphe L. M. Q. D. 

Ave Maria Ghratia sis plena ; Dominus tecum. 

2nd December. This day I sold my manor of Hurcott 
for 3,400/. to one Mr. Bridges. 

13th. The Parliament now sat up the whole night, and 
endeavoured to have concluded the Isle of Wight Treaty ; 
but were surprised by the rebel army ; the Members dis- 
persed, and great confusion every where in expectation of 
what would be next. 

17th. I heard an Italian sermon, in Mercers' Chapel, 
one Dr. Middleton, an acquaintance of mine, preaching. 


18tli. I got privately into the council of the rebel 
army, at Whitehall, where I heard horrid villanies. 

This was a most exceeding wet year, neither frost nor 
snow all the winter for more than six days in all. Cattle 
died every where of a murrain. 

1648-9, 1st January. I had a lodging and some books at 
my father-in-law^s house, Sayes Court. 

2nd. I went to see my old friend and fellow-traveller, Mr. 
Henshaw,whohadtwo rare pieces of StenwycVs perspective. 

17th. To London. I heard the rebel, Peters, incite the 
rebel powers met in the Painted Chamber, to destroy his 
Majesty, and saw that archtraitor, Bradshaw, who not long 
after condemned him. 

19th. I returned home, passing an extraordinary danger 
of being drowned by our wherries falling foul in the night 
on another vessel then at anchor, shooting the bridge at 
three quarters' ebb, for which His mercy God Almighty be 

21st. Was published my translation of Liberty and Ser- 
vitude, for the preface of which I was severely threatened. 

22nd. I went through a course of chymistry, at Sayes 
Court. Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid 
tempests of wind. 

The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, 
condemn, and murder our excellent King on the 30th of 
this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the 
day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at 
that execrable wickedness, receiving the sad account of it 
from my brother George, and Mr. Owen, who came to visit 
me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances. 

1st February. Now were Duke Hamilton, the Earl of 
Norwich, Lord Capell, &c. at their trial before the rebels' 
New Court of Injustice. 

15th. I went to see the collection of one Trean, a rich 
merchant, who had some good pictures, especially a rare 
perspective of Stenwyck ; from thence, to other virtuosos. 

The painter, La Neve, has an Andromeda, but I think it 
a copy after Vandyke from Titian, for the original is in 
France. Webb, at the Exchange, has some rare things in 
miniature of Breughel's, also Putti,* in twelve squares, that 
were plundered from Sir James Palmer. 

• Putti— Boys' Heads. 

1649.] JOHN EVELYN. 249 

At Du Bois, we saw two tables of Putti, that were gotten, 
I know not how, out of the Castle of St. Angelo, by old 
Petit, thought to be Titian's ; he had some good heads of 
Palma, and fine of Stenwyck. Bellcar showed us an excel- 
lent copy of his Majesty's Sleeping Venus and the Satyr, 
with other figures ; for now they had plundered, sold, and 
dispersed a world of rare paintings of the King's, and his 
loyal subjects. After all. Sir William Ducy showed me 
some excellent things in miniature, and in oil of Holbein's, 
Sir Thomas More's head, and a whole length figure of 
Edward VI., which were certainly his Majesty's; also a 
picture of Queen Elizabeth ; the Lady Isabella Thynne > a 
rare painting of Rothenhamer, being a Susanna ; and a 
Magdalen, of Quintin, the blacksmith; also a Henry VIII., 
of Holbein ; and Francis the First, rare indeed, but of 
whose hand I know not. 

16th. Paris being now strictly besieged by the Prince de 
Conde, my Wife being shut up with her Father and 
Mother, I wrote a letter of consolation to her : and, on the 
22nd, having recommended Obadiah Walker,* a learned 
and most ingenious person, to be tutor to, and travel with 
Mr. Hillyard's two sons, returned to Sayes Court. 

25th. Came to visit me Dr. Joyliffe, discoverer of the 
lymphatic vessels, and an excellent anatomist. 

26th. Came to see me Captain George Evelyn,t my kins- 
man, the great traveller, and one who believed himself a 
better architect than really he was ; witness the portico in 
the garden at Wotton ; yet the great room at Albury is 
somewhat better understood. He had a large mind, but 
over-built every thing. 

27th. Came out of France my Wife's Uncle (Paris still 
besieged) being robbed at sea by the Dunkirk pirates : I 
lost, among other goods, my Wife's picture, painted by 
Monsieur Bourdon. 

5th March. Now were the Lords murdered in the Palace- 

ISth. Mr. Owen, a sequestered and learned minister, 

* Mr. Evelyn has added in the margin against Walker's name, " Since an 
apostate." He was Master of University College, Oxford. 

+ Son of Sir John Evelyn, of Godstone : see Pedigree in the History of 
Surrey, vol. II., p. 150 ; but where he is by mistake stated to be brother of 
Sir John. 

:;: Duke Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and Lord Capel. 


preached in my parlour, and gave ns the Blessed Sacrament, 
now wholly out of use in the parish churches, on which the 
Presbyterians and fanatics had usurped. 

21st. I received letters from Paris from my Wife, and 
from Sir Richard [Browne], with whom I kept a political 
correspondence, with no small danger of being discovered. 

25th. I heard the Common Prayer (a rare thing in 
these days) in St. Peter's, at PauFs Wharf, London ; and, 
in the morning, the Archbishop of Armagh, that pious 
person and learned man. Usher, in Lincoln's Inn Chapel. 

April 2nd. To London, and inventoried my moveables 
that had hitherto been dispersed for fear of plundering : 
wrote into France, touching my sudden resolutions of 
coming over to them. On the 8th, again heard an excel- 
lent discourse from Archbishop Usher, on Ephes. 4., 
V. 26-27. 

My Italian collection being now arrived, came Moulins, 
the great chirurgeon, to see and admire the Tables of 
Veins and Arteries, which I purchased and caused to be 
drawn out of several human bodies at Padua. 

11th. Received news out of France that peace was con- 
cluded ; dined with Sir Joseph Evelyn, at Westminster ; 
and on the 13th, I sawa private dissection, atMoulins'house. 

] 7 th. I fell dangerously ill of my head ; was bhstered 
and let blood behind the ears and forehead ; on the 23rd 
began to have ease by using the fumes of camomile on 
embers applied to my ears, after aU the physicians had done 
their best. 

29th. I saw in London a huge ox bred in Kent, 17 feet 
in length, and much higher than I could reach. 

12th May. I purchased the Manor of Warley Magna, in 
Essex : in the afternoon, went to see Gildron's collections 
of paintings, where I found Mr. Endymion Porter, of his 
late Majesty's Bedchamber. 

17th. Went to Putney by water, in the barge with divers 
ladies, to see the Schools, or Colleges, of the young gentle- 

19th. To see a rare cabinet of one Delabarr, who had 
some good paintings, especially a monk at his beads. 

• Kept probably by Mrs. BaUisua Makins, the most learned woman of her 
time ; she had been tutoress to the Princess Elizabeth, King Chai'les's second 
daughter. There is a very rare portrait of her, by Marshall. 

1649.] JOHN EVELYN. 251 

30th. Un-kingship was proclaimed, and his Majesty's 
statues thrown down at St. Paul's Portico, and the 

7th June. I visited Sir Arthur Hopton (brother to Sir 
Ralph, Lord Hopton, that noble hero), who having been 
Ambassador Extraordinary in Spain, sojourned some time 
with my Father-in-law, at Paris ; a most excellent person. 
Also Signdra Lucretia, a Greek Lady, whom I knew in 
Italy, now come over with her husband, an Enghsh gentle- 
man. Also, the Earl and Countess of Arundel, taking leave 
of them and other friends now ready to depart for France. 
This night Avas a scuffle between some rebel soldiers and 
gentlemen about the Temple. 

10th. Preached the Archbishop of Armagh in Lincoln's- 
Inn, from Romans 5, verse* 13. I received the Blessed 
-Sacrament, preparatory to my journey. 

13th. I dined with my worthy friend. Sir John Owen, 
newly freed from sentence of death among the Lords that 
suffered. With him was one Carew, who played incompa- 
rably on the Welsh harp : afterwards, I treated divers ladies 
of my relations, in Spring Garden. 

This night was buried with great pomp, Dorislaus, slain 
at the Hague, the villain who managed the trial against his 
sacred Majesty. 

17 th. I got a pass from the rebel, Bradshaw, then in 
great power. 

20th. I went to Putney, and other places on the Thames, 
to take prospects in crayon, to carry into France, where I 
thought to have them engraved.* 

2nd July. I went from Wotton to Godstone (the resi- 
dence of Sir John Evelyn), where was also Sir John Evelyn 
of WHts, when I took leave of both Sir Johns and their 
ladies. Mem. the prodigious memory of Sir John of Wilts 
daughter, since married to Mr. W. Pierrepont, and mother 
of the present Earl of Kingston. I returned to Sayes 
Court, this night. 

4th. Visited Lady Hatton, her Lord sojourning at Paris 
with my father-in-law. 

9th. Dined with Sir Walter Pye, and my good friend, 
Mr. Eaton, afterwards a judge, who corresponded with me 
in France. 

* One of these he etched himself. The plate is now at Wotton. 


11th. Came to see me old Alexander Rosse, the divine 
historian and poet ; Mr. Henshaw, Mr. Scudamore, and 
other friends, to take leave of me. 

12th. It was about three in the afternoon, I took oars 
for Gravesend, accompanied by my cousin, Stephens, and 
sister, Glanville, who there supped with me and returned ; 
whence I took post immediately to Dover, where I arrived 
by nine in the morning; and, about eleven that night, went 
on board a bark guarded by a pinnace of eight guns ; this 
being the first time the Packet-boat had obtained a convoy, 
having several times before been pillaged. We had a good 
passage, though chased for some hours by a pirate, but he 
durst not attack our frigate, and we then chased him till 
he got under the protection of the Castle at Calais. It was 
a small privateer belonging to the Prince of Wales. I car- 
ried over with me my servant, Richard Hoare, an incom- 
parable writer of several hands, whom I afterwards pre- 
ferred in the Prerogative Office* at the return of his 
Majesty. Lady Catherine Scott, daughter of the Earl of 
Norwich, followed us in a shallop, with Mr. Arthur Slingsby, 
who left England incognito. At the entrance of the town, 
the Lieutenant-Governor, being on his horse with the 
guards, let us pass courteously. I visited Sir Richard Lloyd, 
an English gentleman, and walked in the church, where 
the ornament about the high altar of black marble is very 
fine, and there is a good picture of the Assumption. The 
citadel seems to be impregnable, and the whole country 
about it to be laid under Avater by sluices for many miles. 

16th. We departed for Paris, in company with that very 
pleasant lady (Lady Catharine Scott) and others. In all 
this journey we were greatly apprehensive of parties, which 
caused us to alight often out of our coach and walk sepa- 
rately on foot, with our guns on our shoulders, in all 
suspected places. 

1st August. At three in the afternoon, we came to St. 
Denis, saw the rarities of the church and treasury ; and 
so to Paris that evening. 

The next day, came to welcome me at dinner the Lord 
High Treasurer Cottington, Sir Edward Hyde, Chancellor, 
Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State, Sir George Car- 

♦ Where specimens of his writing in the entry of wills about this date may 
now be seen. 

1649.] JOHN EVELYN. 053 

teret, Governor of Jersey, and Dr. Earle, having now been 
absent from my Wife above a year and a half. 

18th. I went to St. Germains, to kiss his Majesty's 
hand ; in the coach, which was my Lord Wilmot's, went 
Mrs. Barlow, the King's mistress and mother to the Duke 
of Monmouth, a brown, beautiful, bold, but insipid creature. 

19th. I went to salute the French King and the Queen 
Dowager; and, on the 21st, returned in one of the Queen's 
coaches with my Lord Germain, Duke of Buckingham, 
Lord Wentworth, and Mr. Croftes, since Lord Croftes. 

7th September. Went vnth. my Wife and dear Cousin 
to St. Germains, and kissed the Queen-mother's hand; 
dined with my Lord Keeper and Lord Hatton. Divers of 
the great men of France came to see the King. The next 
day, came the Prince of Conde. Returning to Paris, we 
went to see the President Maison's palace, built castle- 
wise, of a milk-white fine freestone ; the house not vast, 
but well contrived, especially the stair-case, and the orna- 
ments of Putti, about it. It is environed in a dry moat, 
the offices under-ground, the gardens very excellent with 
extraordinary long walks, set with elms, and a noble pros- 
pect towards the forest, and on the Seine towards Paris. 
Take it altogether, the meadows, walks, river, forest, corn- 
ground, and vineyards, I hardly saw anything in Italy 
exceed it. The iron gates are very magnificent. He has 
pulled down a whole village to make room for his pleasure 
about it. 

12th. Dr. Crighton, a Scotchman, and one of his Majes- 
ties chaplains, a learned Grecian who set out the Council 
of Florence, preached. 

13th. The King invited the Prince of Conde to supper 
at St. Cloud ; there I kissed the Duke of York's hand in 
the tennis-court, where I saw a famous match betwixt 
Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke, and so returned 
to Paris. It was noised about that I was knighted, a 
dignity I often declined. 

1st October. Went with my cousin, Tuke (afterwards 
Sir Samuel), to see the fountains of St. Cloud and Ruel; 
and, after dinner, to talk with the poor ignorant and super- 
stitious anchorite at Mount Calvary, and so to Paris. 

2nd. Came Mr. William Coventry (afterward Sir Wil- 
Kam) and the Duke's secretary, &c., to visit me. 


5th. Dined with Sir George Kadcliffe, the great favourite 
of the late Earl of Strafford^ formerly Lord Deputy of 
Ireland, decapitated. 

7th. To the Louvre, to visit the Countess of Moreton, 
Governess to Madame. 

15th. Came news of Drogheda being taken by the 
rebels, and all put to the sword, which made us very sad, 
fore-running the loss of all Ireland. 

21st. I went to hear Dr. D'Avinson's lecture in the 
physical garden, and see his laboratory, he being Prefect 
of that excellent garden, and Professor Botanicus. 

30th. I was at the funeral of one Mr. Downes, a sober 
English gentleman. We accompanied his corpse to Cha- 
renton, where he was interred in a cabbage- garden, yet 
with the office of our church, which was said before in our 
chapel at Paris. Here I saw also where they buried the 
great soldier, Gassion, who had a tomb built over him like 
a fountain, the design and materials mean enough. I 
returned to Paris with Sir Philip Musgrave and Sir Mar- 
maduke Langdale, since Lord Langdale. — Memorandum. 
This was a very sickly and mortal autumn. 

5th November. I received divers letters out of England, 
requiring me to come over about settling some of my 

7th. Dr. George Morley (since Bishop of Winchester) 
preached in our chapel on Matthew iv., verse 3. 

18th. I went with my father-in-law to his audience at 
the French court, wh^re next the Pope's Nuncio he was 
introduced by the master of ceremonies, and, after delivery 
of his credentials, as from our King, since his Father's 
murder, he was most graciously received by the King of 
France and his mother, with whom he liad a long audience. 
This was in the Palais Cardinal. 

After this, being presented to his Majesty and the 
Queen Regent, I went to see the house built by the late 
great Cardinal de Richelieu. The most observable thing 
is the gallery, painted with the portraits of the most illus- 
trious persons and signal actions in France, with innu- 
merable emblems betwixt every table. In the middle of 
the gallery, is a neat chapel, rarely paved in work and 
devices of several sorts of marble, besides the altar-piece 
and two statues of white marble, one of St. John, the 

1649.] JOHN EVELYN. 255 

other of the Virgin Mary, by Bernini. The rest of the 
apartments are rarely gilded and carved, with some good 
modern paintings. In the presence hang three huge 
branches of crystal. In the French King's bed-chamber, 
is an alcove like another chamber, set as it were in a 
chamber like a moveable box, with a rich embroidered 
bed. The fabric of the palace is not magnificent, being 
but of two stories ; but the garden is so spacious as to 
contain a noble basin and fountain continually playing, 
and there is a mall, with an elbow, or turning, to protract 
it. So I left his Majesty on the terrace, busy in seeing a 
bull-baiting, and returned home in Prince Edward's coach 
with Mr. Paul, the Prince Elector's agent. 

1 9th. Visited Mr. Waller, where meeting Dr. Holden, 
an English Sorbonne divine, we fell into some discourse 
about religion. 

28th December. Going to wait on Mr. Waller, I viewed 
St. Stephen's church ; the building, though Gothic, is full 
of carving ; within it is beautiful, especially the choir and 
winding stairs. The glass is well painted, and the tapestry 
hung up this day about the choir, representing the con- 
version of Constantine, was exceeding rich. 

I went to that excellent engraver, Du Bosse, for his 
instruction about some difficulties in perspective which 
were dehvered in his book. 

I concluded this year in health, for which I gave solemn 
thanks to Almighty God.* 

29th. I christened Sir Hugh Rilie's child with Sir 
George Uadcliflfe in our chapel, the parents being so poor 
that they had provided no gossips, so as several of us 
drawing lots it fell on me, the Dean of Peterborough (Dr. 
Cosin) officiating : we named it Andrew, being on the eve 
of that Apostle's day. 

1649-50. 1st January. I began this Jubilee with the 
public office in our chapel : dined at my Lady Herbert's, 
wife of Sir Edward Herbert, afterwards Lord Keeper. 

18th. This night was the Prince of Conde and his 
brother carried prisoners to the Bois de Vincennes. 

6th February. In the evening, came Signor Alessandro, 
one of the Cardinal Mazarine's musicians, and a person of 

• This he does not fail to repeat at the end of every year, but it will not 
always be necessary to insert it in this woi'k. 


great name for his knowledge in that art, to visit my wife, 
and sung before divers persons of quality in my chamber. 

1st March. I went to see the masquerados, which was 
very fantastic ; but nothing so quiet and solemn, as I found 
it at Venice. 

13th. Saw a triumph in Monsieur del Camp's Academy, 
where divers of the French and English noblesse, especially 
my Lord of Ossory, and Kichard, sons to the Marquis of 
Ormond (afterwards Duke), did their exercises on horse- 
back in noble equipage, before a world of spectators and 
great persons, men and ladies. It ended in a collation. 

25th April. I went out of town to see Madrid, a palace 
so called, built by Francis the First. It is observable only 
for its open manner of architecture, being much of terraces 
and galleries one over another to the very roof, and for the 
materials, which are most of earth painted like Porcelain, 
or China-ware, whose colours appear very fresh, but is 
very fragile. There are whole statues and relievos of this 
pottery, chimney-pieces, and columns both within and 
without. Under the chapel, is a chimney in the midst of 
a room parted from the Salle des Gardes. The house is 
fortified with a deep ditch, and has an admirable vista 
towards the Bois de Boulogne and river. 

30th. I went to see the collection of the famous 
sculptor, Steffano de la Bella, returning now into Italy, 
and bought some prints : and likewise visited Perelle, the 
landscape graver. 

3rd May. At the hospital of La Charite, I saw the ope- 
ration of cutting for the stone. A child of eight or nine 
years old underwent the operation with most extraordinary 
patience, and expressing great joy when he saw the stone 
was drawn. The use I made of it was, to give Almighty 
God hearty thanks that I had not been subject to this 
deplorable infirmity. 

7 th. I went with Sir Richard Browne's lady and my 
wife, together with the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord Ossory 
and his brother, to Vamber, a place near the city famous 
for butter; when, coming homewards, being on foot, a 
quarrel arose between Lord Ossory and a man in a garden, 
who thrust Lord Ossory from the gate with uncivil lan- 
guage ; on which our young gallants struck the fellow on 
the pate, and bid him ask pardon, which he did with much 

1650.] JOHN EVELYN. 257 

submission, and so we parted. But we were not gone far 
before we heard a noise behind us, and saw people coming 
with guns, swords, staves, and forks, and who followed, 
flinging stones ; on which, we turned and were forced to 
engage, and with our swords, stones, and the help of our 
servants (one of whom had a pistol) made our retreat for near 
a quarter of a mile, when we took shelter in a house, where 
we were besieged, and at length forced to submit to be 
prisoners. Lord Hatton, with some others, were taken 
prisoners in the flight, and his lordship was confined under 
three locks and as many doors in this rude fellow's master's 
house, who pretended to be steward to Monsieur St. 
Germain, one of the presidents of the Grand Chambre du 
Pari ement, and a canon of Notre Dame. Several of us 
were much hurt. One of our lackeys escaping to Paris, 
caused the bailifl* of St. Germain to come with his guard 
and rescue us. Immediately afterwards, came Monsieur 
St. Germain himself, in great wrath on hearing that his 
housekeeper was assaulted ; but, when he saw the King's 
officers, the gentlemen and noblemen, with his Majesty's 
Resident, and understood the occasion, he was ashamed 
of the accident, requesting the fellow's pardon, and desir- 
ing the ladies to accept their submission and a supper at 
his house. It was ten o'clock at night ere we got to Paris, 
guarded by Prince Griffith, (a Welch hero going under 
that name, and well known in England for his extrava- 
gances), together with the scholars of two academies, who 
came forth to assist and meet us on horseback, and would 
fain have alarmed the town we received the afiront from ; 
which, with much ado, we prevented. 

12th. Complaint being come to the Queen and Court 
of France of the affront we had received, the President 
was ordered to ask pardon of Sir R. Browne, his Majesty's 
Resident, and the fellow to make submission, and be dis- 
missed. There came along with him the President de 
Thou, son of the great Thuanus [the historian] , and so all 
was composed. But I have often heard that gallant 
gentleman, my Lord Ossory, affirm solemnly that in all 
the conflicts he ever was in at sea or on land, (in the most 
desperate of both which he had often been) he believed he 
was never in so much danger as when these people rose 
against us. He used to call it the bataille de Vambre, and 

VOL. I. s 


remember it with a great deal of mirth as an adventure, 
en cavalier. 

24th. We were invited by the Noble Academies to a 
running at the ring, where were many brave horses, 
gallants, and ladies, my Lord Stanhope entertaining us with 
a collation. 

12th June. Being Trinity-Sunday, the Dean of Peter- 
borough preached ; after which, there was an ordination of 
two divines, Durell and Brevent (the one was afterwards 
Dean of Windsor, the other of Durham, both very learned 
persons). The Bishop of Galloway officiated with great 
gravity, after a pious and learned exhortation declaring 
the weight and dignity of their function, especially now in 
a time of the poor Church of England's affliction. He 
magnified the sublimity of the calling, from the object, 
viz., the salvation of men's souls, and the glory of God ; 
producing many human instances of the transitoriness and 
vanity of aU other dignities ; that of all the triumphs the 
Roman conquerors made, none was comparable to that of 
our Blessed Saviour's, when he led captivity captive, and 
gave gifts to men, namely, that of the Holy Spirit, by 
which his faithful and painful ministers triumphed over 
Satan as oft as they reduced a sinner from the error of 
his ways. He then proceeded to the ordination. They 
were presented by the Dean in their surplices before the 
altar, the Bishop sitting in a chair at one side; and so 
were made both Deacons and Priests at the same time, in 
regard to the necessity of the times, there being so few 
Bishops left in England, and consequently danger of a 
failure of both functions. Lastly, they proceeded to the 
Communion. This was all performed in Sir Richard 
Browne's chapel, at Paris. 

13th. I sate to the famous sculptor, Nanteuil, who was 
afterwards made a knight by the French King for his art. 
He engraved my picture in copper. At a future time, 
he presented me with my own picture,* done all with his 
pen ; an extraordinary curiosity. 

21st. I went to see the Samaritan, or Pump, at the end 
of the Pont Neuf, which, though to appearance promising 

• Also those of his Lady and Sir R. Browne, most beautifully executed, 
which are at Wotton. 

1650.] JOHN EVELYN. 259 

no great matter, is, besides the macliine, furnished with 
innumerable rarities both of art and nature; especially 
the costly grotto, where are the fairest corals, growing out 
of the very rock, that I have seen ; also great pieces of 
crystals, amethysts, gold in the mine, and other metals 
and marcasites, with two great conchas, which the OAvner 
told us cost him 200 crowns at Amsterdam. He showed us 
many landscapes and prospects, very rarely painted in 
miniature, some with the pen and crayon ; divers anti- 
quities and relievos of Rome ; above all, that of the inside 
of the Amphitheatre of Titus, incomparably drawn by 
Monsieur St. Clere * himself; two boys and three skele- 
tons, moulded by Flamingo ; a book of statues, with the 
pen made for Henry IV., rarely executed, and by which 
one may discover many errors in the taille-douce of Perrier, 
who has added divers conceits of his own that are not in 
the originals. He has likewise an infinite collection of 
taille-douces, richly bound in morocco. 

He led us into a stately chamber furnished to have 
entertained a prince, with pictures of the greatest masters, 
especially a Venus of Perino del Vaga ; the Putti carved 
in the chimney-piece by the Fleming; the vases of por- 
celain, and many designed by Raphael ; some paintings of 
Poussin, and Fioravanti ; antiques in brass ; the looking- 
glass and stands rarely carved. In a word, all was great,, 
choice and magnificent, and not to be passed by as I had 
often done, without the least suspicion that there were 
such rare things to be seen in that place. At a future- 
visit, he showed a new grotto and a bathing place, hewn 
through the battlements of the arches of Pont Neuf, into 
a wide vault at the intercolumniation, so that the coaches: 
and horses thundered over our heads. 

27th. I made my will, and, taking leave of my wife and 
other friends, took horse for England, paying the messager 
eight pistoles for me and my servant to Calais, setting out: 
with seventeen in company well-armed, some Portuguese,. 
Swiss, and French, whereof six were captains and officers.; 
We came the first night to Beaumont ; next day, to Beau- 
vais, and lay at Pois, and the next, without dining, reached 
Abbeville ; next, dined at Montreuil, and proceeding met 

• This was the name of tlie owner. 
S 2 


a company on foot (being now within the inroads of the 
parties which dangerously infest this day's journey from 
St. Omers and the frontiers) which we drew very near 
to, ready and resolute to charge through, and accordingly 
were ordered and led by a captain of our train ; but, as 
we were on the speed, they called out, and proved to be 
Scotchmen, newly raised and landed, and few among them 
armed. This night, we were well treated at Boulogne. 
The next day, we marched in good order, the passage 
being now exceeding dangerous, and got to Calais, by a 
little after two. The sun so scorched my face, that it 
made the skin peel off. 

I dined with Mr. Booth, his Majesty's agent; and, about 
three in the afternoon, embarked in the packet-boat ; 
hearing there was a pirate then also setting sail, we had 
security from molestation, and so with a fair S. W. wind 
in seven hours we landed at Dover. The busy watchman 
would have us to the Mayor to be searched, but tlie gen- 
tleman being in bed, we were dismissed. 

Next day, being Sunday, they would not permit us to 
ride post, so that afternoon oiir trunks were visited. 

The next morning by four, we set out for Canterbury, 
where I met with my Lady Catherine Scott, whom that 
very day twelve months before I met at sea going for 
France; she had been visiting Sir Thomas Peyton, not far 
off, and would needs carry me in her coach to Gravesend. 
We dined at Sittingbourne, came late to Gravesend, and 
so to Deptford, taking leave of my lady about four the 
next morning. 

5th July. I supped in the city with my Lady Cathe- 
rine Scott, at one Mr. Dubois', where was a gentlewoman 
called Everard, who was a very great chymist. 

Sunday 7th. In the afternoon, having a mind to see 
what was doing among the Rebels, then in full possession 
at Whitehall, I went thither and found one at exercise in 
the chapel, after their way ; thence, to St. James's, where 
another was preaching in the court abroad. 

17th. I went to London to obtain a pass,* intending 
but a short stay in England. 

* As follows : " These are to will and require you to permit and suffer the 
bearer thereof, John Evelyn, Esq., to transport himself, two servants, and 
other necessaries, unto any port of France, without any your lets or moles- 

1C50.] JOHN EVELYN. ^61 

25th. I went by Epsom to Wotton, saluting Sir Ro- 
bert Cook and my sister Glanville ; the country was now 
much molested by soldiers, who took away gentlemen's 
horses for the service of the State, as then called. 

4th August. I heard a sermon at the Rolls ; and, in 
the afternoon, wandered to divers churches, the pulpits full 
of novices and novelties. 

Gth. To Mr. Walker's, a good painter, who showed me 
an excellent copy of Titian. 

12th. Set out for Paris, taking post at Gravesend, and 
so that night to Canterbury, where being surprised by the 
soldiers, and having only an antiquated pass, with some 
fortunate dexterity I got cleeir of them, though not with- 
out extraordinary hazard, having before counterfeited one 
with success, it being so difficult to procure one of the 
Rebels without entering into oaths, which I never would 
do. At Dover, money to the searchers and officers was as 
authentic as the hand and seal of Bradshawe, himself, where 
I had not so much as my trunk opened. 

13th. At six in the evening, set sail for Calais; the 
wind not favourable, I was very sea-sick, coming to an 
anchor about one o'clock ; about five in the morning, we 
had a long boat to carry us to land, though at a good dis- 
tance ; this we willingly entered, because two vessels were 
chasing us ; but, being now almost at the harbour's mouth, 
through inadvertency there brake in upon us two such 
heavy seas, as had almost sunk the boat, I being near the 
middle up in water. Our steersman, it seems, apprehen- 
sive of the danger, was preparing to leap into the sea and 
trust to swimming, but seeing the vessel emerge, he put 
her into the pier, and so, God be thanked ! we got to 
Calais, though wet. 

tations, of which you are not to fail, and for which this shall be your sufficient 
warrant. Given at the Council of State at Whitehall this 25th of June, 1650. 
" Signed m the Name and by Order of the Council of State, 
appointed by authority of Parliament, 

" Jo. Bradshawe, President. 

' «' To all Customers, Comptrollers, and Searchers, and 
all otlier oflScers of the Ports, or Customs." 
Subjoined to the signature, Evelyn has added in his own writing, « The 
hand of that villain who sentenced our Charles I. of B[les8ed] M[emory]." 
Endorsed by Evelyn, « The Pass from the Council of State, 1650." 


Here I waited for company, the passage towards Paris 
being still infested with volunteers from the Spanish fron- 

16th. The Regiment of Picardj; consisting of about 
1400 horse and foot (amongst them was a captain whom I 
knew), being come to town, I took horses for myself and 
servant, and marched under their protection to Boulogne. 
It was a miserable spectacle to see how these tattered sol- 
diers pillaged the poor people of their sheep, poultry, corn, 
cattle, and whatever came in their way ; but they had such 
ill pay, that they were ready themselves to starve. 

As we passed St. Denis, the people were in uproar, the 
guards doubled, and everybody running with their move- 
ables to Paris, on an alarm that the enemy was within 
■five leagues of them ; so miserably exposed was even this 
part of France at this time. 

The 30th, I got to Paris, after an absence of two months 

1st September. My Lady Herbert invited me to dinner; 
Paris, and indeed all France, being full of loyal fugitives. 

Came Mr. Waller to see me, about a child of his which 
the Popish midwife had baptized. 

October 15th. Sir Thomas Osborne (afterwards Lord 
Treasurer) and Lord Stanhope shot for a wager of five 
louis, to be spent on a treat ; they shot so exact, that it was 
a drawn match. 

November 1st. Took leave of my Lord Stanhope, going 
on his journey towards Italy ; also visited my Lord Hatton, 
Comptroller of his Majesty^s Household, the Countess of 
Morton, Governess to the Lady Henrietta, and Mrs. Gard- 
ner, one of the Queen's Maids of Honour. 

6th. Sir Thomas Osborne supping with us, his groom 
was set upon in the street before our house, and received 
two wounds, but gave the assassin nine, who was carried 
off to the Charite Hospital. Sir Thomas went for England 
on the 8th, and carried divers letters for me to my 

16th. I went to Monsieur Visse's, the French King's 
Secretary, to a concert of French music and voices, con- 
sisting of twenty -four, two theorbos, and but one bass viol, 
being a rehearsal of what was to be sung at vespers at 
St. Cecilia's, on her feast, she being patroness of Musicians. 

1651.] JOHN EVELYN. 263 

News arrived of the death of the Princess of Orange of 
the small pox. 

14th December. I went to visit Mr. Ratcliffe, in whose 
lodging was an impostor that had like to have imposed 
upon us a pretended secret of multiplying gold ; it is cer- 
tain he had hved some time in Paris in extraordinary 
splendour, but I found him to be an egregious cheat. 

22nd. Came the learned Dr. Boet to visit me. 

31st. I gave God thanks for his mercy and protection 
the past year, and made up my accounts, which came this 
year to 7,015 livres, near £600 sterling. 

1650-1. 1st January. I wrote to my brother at Wotton, 
about his garden and fountains. After evening prayer, 
Mr. Wainsford called on me : he had long been Consul at 
Aleppo, and told me many strange things of those coun- 
tries, the Arabs especially. 

27th. Ihadletters of the death of Mrs. Newton, my grand- 
mother-in-law ; she had a most tender care of me during 
my childhood, and was a woman of extraordinary charity 
and piety. 

29th. Dr. Duncan preached on 8 Matt. v. 34, showing 
the mischief of covetousness. My Lord Marquis of Or- 
mond and Inchiquin, come newly out of Ireland, were this 
day at chapel. 

9th February. Cardinal Mazarine was proscribed by 
AjT^t du Parlement, and great commotions began in Paris. 

23rd. I went to see the Bonnes Hommes, a convent 
that has a fair cloister painted with the lives of Hermits ; 
a glorious altar now erecting in the chapel; the garden 
on the rock with divers descents, with a fine vineyard and 
a delicate prospect toward the city. 

24th. I went to see a dromedary, a very monstrous 
beast, much like the camel, but larger. There was also 
dancing on the rope ; but, above all, surprising to those 
v«rho were ignorant of the address, was the water-spouter,* 
who, drinking only fountain-water, rendered out of his 
mouth in several glasses all sorts of wine and sweet waters. 
For a piece of money, he discovered the secret to me. I 
-waited on Friar Nicholas at the convent at Chadlot, who, 
being an excellent chymist, showed me his laboratory, and 

♦Tloriand Marchand. He afterwards exhibited himself in England. Pre- 
fixed to an Account of bis exploits, is a woodcut of him. 


rare collection of spagyrical remedies. He was both phy- 
sician and apothecary of the convent, and, instead of the 
names of his drugs, he painted his boxes and pots with 
the figure of the drug, or simple, contained in them. He 
showed me as a rarity some ^ of antimony:* he had 
cured Monsieur Senatan of a desperate sickness, for which 
there was building a monumental altar that was to cost 

11th March. I went to the Chatelet, or prison, where 
a malefactor was to have the question, or torture, given to 
him, he refusing to confess the robbery with which he 
was charged, which was thus : they first bound his wrist 
with a strong rope, or small cable, and one end of it to an 
iron ring made fast to the wall, about four feet from the 
floor, and then his feet with another cable, fastened about 
five feet farther than his utmost length to another ring on 
the floor of the room. Thus suspended, and yet lying but 
aslant, they slid a horse of wood imder the rope which 
bound his feet which so exceedingly stifi'ened it, as severed 
the fellow^s joints in miserable sort, drawing him out at 
length in an extraordinary manner, he having only a pair 
of linen drawers on his naked body. Then, they questioned 
him of a robbery (the Lieutenant being present, and a 
clerk that wrote), which not confessing, they put a higher 
horse under the rope, to increase the torture and exten- 
sion. In this agony, confessing nothing, the executioner 
Avith a horn (just such as they drench horses with) stuck 
the end of it into his mouth, and poured the quantity of 
two buckets of water down his throat and over him, which 
so prodigiously swelled him, as would have pitied and 
afi'rightcd any one to see it ; for all this, he denied all that 
was charged to him. They then let him down, and carried 
him before a warm fire to bring him to himself, being now 
to all appearance dead with pain. What became of him, I 
know not ; but the gentleman whom he robbed constantly 
averred him to be the man, and the fellow's suspicious 
pale looks, before he knew he should be racked, betrayed 
some guilt ; the Lieutenant was also of that opinion, and 
told us at first sight (for he was a lean, dry, black young 
man) he would conquer the torture ; and so it seems they 

* Qu. Some preparation of it, since perfected by Dr. James, whosejnamo 
it now bears. 

1C51.] JOHN EVELYN. 265 

could not hang him, but did use in such cases, where the 
evidence is very presumptive, to send them to the galleys, 
which is as bad as death. 

There was another malefactor to succeed, but the spec- 
tacle was so uncomfortable, that I was not able to stay the 
sight of another. It represented yet to me, the intolerable 
suflferings which our Blessed Saviour must needs undergo 
when his body was hanging with all its weight upon the 
nails on the cross. 

20th. I went this night with my wife to a ball at the 
Marquis de Crevecoeur's, where were divers Princes, Dukes, 
and great persons ; but what appeared to me very mean 
was, that it began with a puppet-play. 

6th May. I attended the Ambassador to a masque at 
Court, where the French King in person danced five 
entries : but being engaged in discourse and better enter- 
tained with one of the Queen-Regent^s Secretaries, I soon 
left the entertainment. 

11th. To the Palace Cardinal, where the Master of the 
Ceremonies placed me to see the royal masque, or opera. 
The first scene represented a chariot of singers composed 
of the rarest voices that could be procured, representing 
Cornaro * and Temperance ; this was overthrown by 
Bacchus and his Revellers ; the rest consisted of several 
entries and pageants of excess, by all the Elements. A 
masque representing fire was admirable ; then came a 
Venus out of the clouds. The conclusion was a heaven, 
whither all ascended. But the glory of the masque was 
the great persons performing in it, the French King, his 
brother the Duke of Anjou, with all the Grandees of the 
Court, the King performing to the admiration of all. The 
music was twenty-nine violins, vested a V antique, but the 
habits of the masquers were stupendously rich and glorious. 

23rd. I went to take leave of the Ambassadors for 
Spain, which were my Lord Treasurer Cottington and Sir 
Edward Hyde ; and, as I returned, I visited Mr. Morine'sf 
garden, and his other rarities, especially corals, minerals, 
stones, and natural curiosities; crabs of theRedSea,the body 
no bigger than a small bird's egg, but flatter, and the two 

* The famous Venetian writer on Temperance, 
\ See page 65. 


legs, or claws, a foot in length. He had abundance of 
shells, at least 1000 sorts, which furnished a cabinet of 
great price; and had a very curious collection of scara- 
bees, and insects, of which he was compiling a natural 
history. He had also the pictures of his choice flowers 
and plants in miniature. He told me there were 10,000 
sorts of tulips only. He had taille-douces out of number ; 
the head of the Ehinoceros bird, which was very extrava- 
gant, and one butterfly resembling a perfect bird. 

25th. I went to visit Mr. Thomas White, a learned 
priest and famous philosopher, author of the book " De 
Mundo," with whose worthy brother I was well acquainted 
at Rome. I was showed a cabinet of Maroquin, or Turkey 
leather, so curiously inlaid with other leather, and gilding, 
that the workman demanded for it 800 livres. 

The Dean (of Peterborough) preached on the feast of 
Pentecost, perstringing those of Geneva for their irre- 
verence of the Blessed Virgin. 

4th June. Trinity-Sunday, I was absent from church in 
the afternoon on a charitable afi'air for the Abbess of Bou- 
charvant, who but for me had been abused by that chymist, 
Du Menie.* Eetuming, I stept into the Grand Jesuits_, 
who had this high day exposed their Cibarium, made all of 
solid gold and imagery, a piece of infinite cost. Dr. Croy- 
don, coming out of Italy and from Padua, came to see me, 
on his return to England. 

5th. I accompanied my Lord Strafibrd, and some other 
noble persons, to hear Madame Lavaran sing, which she 
did both in French and Italian excellently well, but her 
voice was not strong. 

7th. Corpus Christi Day, there was a grand procession, 
all the streets tapestried, several altars erected there, full 
of images, and other rich furniture, especially that before 
the Court, of a rare design and architecture. There were 
abundance of excellent pictures and great vases of silver. 

18th. I went to see the collection of one Monsieiu* 
Poignant, which for variety of agates, crystals, onyxes, 
porcelain, medals, statues, relievos, paintings, taille-douces, 
and antiquities, might compare with the Italian virtuosos. 

* Qu. The person mentioned in page 263, as pretending to have found out 
the art of multiplying gold ? 

1651.] JOHN EVELYN. 267 

21st. I became acquainted with Sieur William Curtius, 
a very learned and judicious person of the Palatinate. 
He had been scholar to Alstedius, the Encyclopedist, was 
well advanced in years, and now Resident for his Majesty 
at Frankfort. 

2nd July. Came to see me the Eai'l of Strafford, Lord 
Ossory and his Brother, Sir John Southcott, Sir Edward 
Stawell, two of my Lord Spencer's sons, and Dr. Stewart, 
Dean of St. Paul's, a learned and pious man, where we 
entertained the time upon several subjects, especially the 
affairs of England, and the lamentable condition of our 
Church. The Lord Gerrard also called to see my collection 
of sieges and battles. 

21st. An extraordinary fast was celebrated in our 
Chapel, Dr. Stewart, Dean of St. Paul's, preaching. 

2nd August. I went with my wife to Conflans, where 
were abundance of ladies and others bathing in the river ; 
the ladies had their tents spread on the water for privacy. 

29th. Was kept as a solemn fast for the calamities of 
our poor Church, now trampled on by the rebels. Mr. 
Waller, being at St. Germaius, desired me to send him a 
coach from Paris, to bring my wife's god-daughter to Paris, 
to be buried by the Common Prayer. 

6th September. I went with my wife to St. Germains, 
to condole with Mr. Waller's loss. I carried with me and 
treated at dinner that excellent and pious person the Dean 
of St. Paul's, Dr. Stewart, and Sir Lewis Dives (half- 
brother to the Earl of Bristol), who entertained us with 
his wonderful escape out of prison in Whitehall, the very 
evening before he was to have been put to death, leaping 
down out of a jakes two stories high into the Thames at 
high water, in the coldest of winter, and at night ; so as by 
swimming he got to a boat that attended for him, though 
he was guarded by six musketeers. After this, he went 
about in women's habit, and then in a smaU-coal-man's, 
travelling 200 miles on foot, embarked for Scotland with 
some men he had raised, who coming on shore were all 
surprised and imprisoned on the Marquis of Montrose's 
score ; he not knowing anything of their barbarous murder 
of that hero. This he told us was his fifth escape, and 
none less miraculous ; with this note, that the charging 
through 1000 men armed, or whatever danger could befall 


a man, he believed could not more confound and distract 
a man's thoughts than the execution of a premeditated 
escape, the passions of hope and fear being so strong. 
This knight was indeed a valiant gentleman; but not a 
little given to romance, when he spake of himself. I 
returned to Paris, the same evening. 

7th. I went to visit Mr. Hobbes, the famous philosopher 
of Malmesbury, with whom I had long acquaintance. 
From his window, we saw the whole equipage and glorious 
cavalcade of the young French Monarch, Louis XIV., 
passing to Parliament, when first he took the kingly govern- 
ment on him, now being in his 14th year, out of his 
minority and the Queen Regent's pupillage. First, came 
the captain of the King's Aids, at the head of 50 richly 
liveried; next, the Queen-Mother's light Horse, 100, 
the lieutenant being all over covered with embroidery and 
ribbons, having before him four trumpets habited in black 
velvet, full of lace, and casques of the same. Then, the 
King's Light Horse, 200, richly habited, with four trumpets 
in blue velvet embroidered with gold, before whom rid the 
Count d'Olonne coronet [comet], whose belt was set with 
pearl. Next went the grand Prevot's company on foot, 
with the Pr^vot on horseback; after them, the Swiss in 
black velvet toques, led by two gallant cavaliers habited in 
scarlet-coloured satin, after their country fashion, which is 
very fantastic ; he had in his cap a pennach of heron, with 
a band of diamonds, and about him twelve little Swiss 
boys, with halberds. Then, came the Aide des Ceremonies ; 
next, the grandees of court, governors of places, and 
lieutenants-general of provinces, magnificently habited and 
mounted, among whom I must not forget the Chevalier 
Paul, famous for many sea-fights and signal exploits there, 
because it is said he had never been an Academist, and 
yet governed a very unruly horse, and besides his rich 
suit, his Malta Cross was esteemed at 10,000 crowns. 
These were headed by two trumpets, and the whole troop, 
covered with gold, jewels, and rich caparisons, were fol- 
lowed by six trumpets in blue velvet also, preceding as 
many heralds in blue velvet semee with fleurs-de-lis, 
caduces in their hands, and velvet caps on their heads ; 
behind them, came one of the masters of the ceremonies; 
then, divers marshals and many of the nobility, exceeding 

1651.] JOHN EVELYN. 269 

splendid ; behind them Count d^Harcourt, grand Ecuyer, 
alone, carrying the King's sword in a scarf, which he held 
up in a blue sheath studded with fleurs-de-lis ; his horse 
had for reins two scarfs of black taffata. 

Then, came abundance of footmen and pages of the 
King, new-liveried with white and red feathers ; next, the 
garde du corps and other officers ; and, lastly, appeared the 
King himself on an Isabella barb, on which a housing 
semee with crosses of the Order of the Holy Ghost, and 
fleurs-de-lis ; the King himself, like a young Apollo, was 
in a suit so covered with rich embroidery, that one could 
perceive nothing of the stuff under it ; he went almost 
the whole way with his hat in hand, saluting the ladies 
and acclamators, who had filled the windows with their 
beauty, and the air with Vive le Roi. He seemed a prince 
of a grave yet sweet countenance. After the King, followed 
divers great persons of the Court, exceeding splendid, also 
his esquires ; masters of horse, on foot ; then, the company 
of Exempts des Gardes, and six guards of Scotch. Betwixt 
their files, were divers princes of the blood, dukes, and 
lords ; after all these, the Queen's guard of Swiss, pages, 
and footmen ; then, the Queen-Mother herself, in a rich 
coach, with Monsieur the King's brother, the Duke of 
Orleans, and some other lords and ladies of honour. 
About the coach, marched her Exempts des Gardes ; then, 
the company of the King^s Gens d'armes, well mounted, 
150, with four trumpets, and as many of the Queen's; 
lastly, an innumerable company of coaches full of ladies 
and gallants. In this equipage, passed the monarch to the 
Parliament, henceforth exercising his kingly government. 

15th. I accompanied Sir Richard Browne, my father- 
in-law, to the French Court, when he had a favourable 
audience of the French King and the Queen, his mother, 
congratulating the one on his coming to the exercise of 
his royal charge, and the other's prudent and happy admi- 
nistration during her late regency, desiring both to 
preserve the same amity for his master, our King, as they 
had hitherto done, which they both promised, with many 
civil expressions and words of course upon such occasions. 
We were accompanied both going and returning by the 
Inti'oductor of Ambassadors and Aid of Ceremonies. I 
also saw the audience of Morosini, the Ambassador of 


Venice, and divers other Ministers of State from German 
Princes, Savoy, &c. Afterwards, I took a walk in the 
King's gardens, where I observed that the mall goes the 
whole square thereof next the wall, and bends with an 
angle so made as to glance the wall ; the angle is of stone. 
There is a basin at the end of the garden fed by a noble 
fountain and high jetto. There were in it two or three 
boats, in which the King now and then rows about. In 
another part is a complete fort, made with bastions, graft, 
half-moons, ravelins, and furnished with great guns cast 
on purpose to instruct the King in fortification. 

22nd. Arrived the news of the fatal battle at Worcester, 
which exceedingly mortified our expectations. 

28th. I was showed a collection of books and prints, 
made for the Duke of York. 

1st October. The Dean of Peterborough [Dr. Cosin] 
preached on Job xiii., verse 15, encouraging our trust in 
God on all events and extremities, and for estabHshing 
and comforting some ladies of great quality, who were 
then to be discharged from our Queen-Mother's service, 
unless they would go over to the Romish Mass. 

The Dean, dining this day at our house, told me the 
occasion of publishing those Offices, which among the 
Puritans were wont to be called Cosin' s cozening Devo- 
tions,* by way of derision. At the first coming of the 
Queen into England, she and her French ladies were often 
upbraiding our religion, that had neither appointed nor 
set forth any hours of prayer, or breviaries, by which ladies 
and courtiers, who have much spare time, might edify and 
be in devotion, as they had. Our Protestant ladies, 
scandalized it seems at this, moved the matter to the 
King, whereupon his Majesty presently called Bishop 
White to him, and asked his thoughts of it, and whether 
tliere might not be found some forms of prayer proper on 
such occasions, collected out of some already approved 
forms, that so the court-ladies and others (who spend 

* So called by Mr. Prynne, in his brief survey of this book. The Dean was 
sequestered from all his preferments by the Parliament, and went abroad to 
Paris, 1643. He kept up tlie service of the Church of England in Sir Richard 
Browne's chapel there, see pp. 258, 266. On the Restoration, he was made 
Bishop of Durham, to which see, as well as to Peter-House, at Cambridge, of 
which he had been Master, he was a most mimificent benefactor. He died 
in 1671. See Biog. Brit., the new edition by Dr. Kippis. 

1651.] JOHN EVELYN. 271 

much time in trifling) might at least appear as devout, and 
be so too, as the new-come-over French ladies, who took 
occasion to reproach our want of zeal and religion. On 
which, the Bishop told his Majesty that it might be done 
easily, and was very necessary ; whereupon, the King com- 
manded him to employ some person of the clergy to 
compile such a Work, and presently the Bishop naming 
Dr. Cosin, the King enjoined him to charge the Doctor in 
his name to set about it immediately. This the Dean 
told me he did, and three months after, bringing the book 
to the King, he commanded the Bishop of London to read 
it over, and make his report ; this was so well liked, that 
(contrary to former custom of doing it by a chaplain) he 
would needs give it an imprimatur under his own hand. 
Upon this, there were at first only 200 copies printed ; nor, 
said he, was there anything in the whole book of my own 
composure, nor did I set any name as author to it, but 
those necessary prefaces, &c. out of the Fathers, touching 
the times and seasons of prayer, all the rest being entirely 
translated and collected out of an Office, published by 
authority of Queen Elizabeth, anno 1560, and our own 
Liturgy, This I rather mention to justify that industrious 
and Pious Dean, who had exceedingly suffered by it, as if 
he had done it of his own head to introduce Popery, from 
which no man was more averse, and one who in this time 
of temptation and apostacy held and confirmed many to 
our Church.* 

29th. Came news and letters to the Queen and Sir 
Richard Browne (who was the first that had intelligence 
of it) of his Majesty^s miraculous escape after the fight 
at Worcester ; which exceedingly rejoiced us. 

7th November. I visited Sir Kenelm Digby, with whom 
I had much discourse of chemical matters. I showed him 
a particular way of extracting oil of sulphur, and he gave 
me a certain powder with which he afiirmed that he had 
fixed ? (mercury) before the late King. He advised me 
to try and digest a little better, and gave me a water 

* The Clergy who attended the English Court in France at this time, and 
are mentioned to have oflBciated in Sir Richard Browne's Chapel were : The 
Bishop of Galloway ; Dr. George Morley, afterwards Bishop of Winchester ; 
Dr.- Cosin, Dean of Peterhorough, afterwards Bishop of Durham ; Dr. 
Stewart, Dean of St. Paul's ; Dr. Earle ; Dr. Clare ; Dr. Wolley, no great 
preacher ; Mr. Crowder ; Dr. Lloyd ; Mr. Hamilton ; Dr. Duncan. 

272 DIARY OF [pAiiis, 

which he said was only rain-water of the autumnal equinox, 
exceedingly rectified, very volatile ; it had a taste of a 
strong vitriolic, and smelt like aqua-fortis. He intended 
it for a dissolvent of calx of gold ; but the truth is, Sir 
Kenelm was an errant mountebank. Came news of the 
gallant Earl of Derby's execution by the rebels. 

14th. Dr. Clare preached on Genesis xxviii. verses 20, 21, 
22, upon Jacob's vow, which he appositely applied, it 
being the first Sunday his Majesty came to chapel after 
his escape. I went, in the afternoon, to visit the Earl of 
Norwich ; he lay at the Lord of Aubigny's. 

16th. Visited Dean Stewart, who had been sick about 
two days ; when going up to his lodging I found him 
dead; which affected me much, as besides his particular 
affection and love to me, he was of incomparable parts and 
great learning, of exemplary life, and a very great loss to 
the whole church. He was buried the next day with all 
our church's ceremonies, many noble persons accompany- 
ing the corpse. 

17th. I went to congratulate the marriage of Mrs. 
Gardner, maid of honour, lately married to that odd 
person. Sir Henry Wood : but riches do many things. 

To see Monsieur Febur's course of chymistry, where I 
found Sir Kenelm Digby, and divers curious persons of 
learning and quality. It was his first opening the course 
and preliminaries, in order to operations. 

1st December. I now resolved to return into England. 

3rd. Sir Lewis Dives dined with us, who relating some 
of his adventures, showed me divers pieces of broad gold, 
which, being in his pocket in a fight, preserved his life by 
receiving a musket-bullet on them, which deadened its 
violence, so that it went no further; but made such a 
stroke on the gold as fixed the impressions upon one 
another, battering and bending several of them ; the bullet 
itself was flatted, and retained on it the colour of the gold. 
He assured us that of a hundred of them, which it seems 
he then had in his pocket, not one escaped without some 
blemish. He affirmed that his being protected by a Nea- 
politan Prince, who connived at his bringing some horses 
into France, contrary to the order of the Viceroy, by 
assistance of some banditti, was the occasion of a difference 
between those great men, and consequently of the late 

1G52.] JOHN EVELYN. 073 

civil war in that kingdom, the Viceroy having killed the 
Prince standing on his defence at his own castle. He told 
me that the second time of the Scots coming into England, 
the King was six times their number, and might easily 
have beaten them ; but was betrayed, as were all other 
his designs and counsels, by some, even of his bed-chamber, 
meaning M. Hamilton, who copied Montrose's letters 
from time to time when his Majesty was asleep. 

11th. Came to visit me, Mr. Obadiah Walker, of Uni- 
versity College, with his two pupils, the sons of my worthy 
friend, Henry Hyldiard, Esq.,* whom I had recommended 
to his care. 

21st. Came to idsit my wife, Mrs. Lane, the lady who 
conveyed the King to the sea-side at his escape from 
"Worcester. Mr. John Cosin, son to the Dean, debauched 
by the priests, -wrote a letter to me to mediate for him 
with his father. I prepared for my last journey, being 
now resolved to leave France altogether. 

25th. The King and Duke received the Sacrament first 
by themselves, the Lords Byron and Wilmot holding the 
long towel all along the altar. 

26th. Came news of the death of that rebel, Ireton. 

31st. Preached Dr. Wolley, after which was celebrated 
the Holy Communion, which I received also, preparative 
of my journey, being now resolved to leave France 
altogether, and to return God Almighty thanks for His 
gi'acious protection of me this past year. 

1651-2. 2nd January. News of my sister GlanviUe's 
death in childbed, which exceedingly affected me. 

I went to one Mark Antonio, an incomparable artist in 
enamelling. He wrought by the lamp figures in boss, of a 
large size, even to the life, so that nothing could be better 
moulded. He told us stories of a Genoese jeweller, who 
had the great arcanum, and had made projection before 
him several times. He met him at Cyprus travelling into 
Egypt ; in his return from whence, he died at sea, and the 
secret with him, that else he had promised to have left it 
to him ; that all his effects were seized on, and dissipated 
by the Greeks in the vessel, to an immense value. He 
also affirmed, that being in a goldsmith's shop at Amster- 
dam, a person of very low stature came in, and desired 

* Of East Horsley, in Sun-cy. 
VOL. I. T 

274 DIARY OF [cALAw, 

the goldsmith to melt him a pound of lead ; which done, 
he unscrewed the pommel of his sword, and, taking out of 
a little box a small quantity of powder, casting it into the 
crucible, poured an ingot out, which, when cold, he took 
up, saying, " Sir, you will be paid for your lead in the 
crucible," and so went out immediately. When he was 
gone, the goldsmith found four ounces of good gold in it, 
but could never set eye again on the little man, though he 
sought all the city for him. Antonio asserted this with 
great obtestation ; nor know I what to think of it, there 
are so many impostors and people who love to tell strange 
stories, as this artist did, who had been a great rover, and 
spoke ten different languages. 

13th. I took leave of Mr. Waller who, having been 
proscribed by the rebels, had obtained of them permission 
to return, was going to England. 

29th. Abimdance of my French and English friends 
and some Germans, came to take leave of me, and I set 
out in a coach for Calais, in an exceeding hard frost which 
had continued some time. We got that night to Beau- 
mont ; 30th, to Beauvais j 31st, we found the ways very 
deep with snow, and it was exceeding cold ; dined at Pois ; 
lay at Pernee, a miserable cottage of miserable people in a 
wood, wholly unfurnished, but in a little time we had 
sorry beds and some provision, which they told me they 
hid in the wood for fear of the frontier enemy, the garri- 
sons near them continually plundering what they had. 
They were often infested with wolves. I cannot remember 
that I ever saw more miserable creatures. 

Ist Eebruary. I dined at Abbeville; 2nd, dined at 
Montreuil, lay at Boulogne ; 3rd, came to Calais, by eleven 
in the morning; I thought to have embarked in the 
evening, but, for fear of pirates plying near the coast, I 
durst not trust our small vessel, and stayed till Monday 
following, when two or three lusty vessels were to depart. 

I brought with me from Paris Mr. Christopher Wase, 
sometime before made to resign his fellowship in King's 
College, Cambridge, because he would not take the Cove- 
nant. He had been a soldier in Flanders, and came 
miserable to Paris. From his excellent learning, and 
some relation he had to Sir R. Browne, I bore his charges 
into England, and clad and provided for him, till he 

1652.] JOHN EVELYN. 275 

slioiild find some better condition ; and he was worthy of 
it.* There came with us also Captain Griffith, Mr. Tyrell, 
brother to Sir Timothy Tyrell, of Shotover (near Oxford). 

At Calais, I dined with my Lord Wentworth, and met 
with Mr. Heath, Sir Richard Lloyd, Captain Paine, and 
divers of our banished friends, of whom understanding 
that the Count de la Strade, Governor of Dunkirk, was in 
the town, who had bought my wife's picture, taken by 
pirates at sea the year before (my wife having sent it for 
me in England,) as my Lord of Norwich had informed 
me at Paris, I made my address to him, who frankly told 
me that he had such a picture in his own bed-chamber 
amongst other ladies, and how he came by it; seeming 
well pleased that it was his fortune to preserve it for me, 
and he generously promised to send it to any friend I had 
at Dover ; I mentioned a French merchant there, and so 
took my leave.f 

6th. I embarked early in the packet-boat, but put my 
goods in a stouter vessel. It was calm, so that we got 
not to Dover till eight at night. I took horse for Canter- 
bury, and lay at Rochester ; next day, to Gravesend, took 
a pair of oars, and landed at Sayes Court, where I stayed 
three days to refresh and look after my packet and goods, 
sent by a stouter vessel. I went to visit my cousin, Richard 
Fanshawe, and divers other friends. 

6th March. Saw the magnificent funeral of that arch- 
rebel, Ireton, carried in pomp from Somerset House to 
Westminster, accompanied with divers regiments of soldiers, 
horse and foot ; then, marched the mourners. General 
Cromwell (his father-in-law), his mock-parliament-men, 
officers, and forty poor men in gowns, three led horses in 
housings of black cloth, two led in black velvet, and his 
charging-horse, all covered over with embroidery and gold, 
on crimson velvet ; then the guidons, ensigns, four heralds, 
carrying the arms of the State (as they called it), namely, 
the red cross and Ireland, with the casque, wreath, sword, 
spurs, &c. ; next, a chariot canopied of black velvet and 
six horses, in which was the corpse ; the pall held up by 
the mourners on foot ; the mace and sword, with other 
marks of his charge in Ireland (where he died of the 

• Mr. EveljTi did afterwards procTire him a situation. 
+ The picture was afterwards sent accordingly, see p. 277. 
T 2 

oyg DIARY OF [deptforik, 

plague), carried before in black scarfs. Thus, in a grave 
pace, drums covered with cloth, soldiers reversing their 
arms, they proceeded through the streets in a very solemn 
manner. This Ireton was a stout rebel, and had been 
very bloody to the King's party, witness his severity at 
Colchester, when in cold blood he put to death those 
gallant gentlemen, Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George 
Lisle. My cousin, E,. Fanshawe, came to visit me, and 
inform me of many considerable affairs. Sir Henry Herbert 
presented me with his brother, niv Lord Cherbiu'y's book, 
'^De Veritate.'' 

9th. I went to Deptford, where I made preparation for 
my settlement, no more intending to go out of Englandj 
but endeavour a settled life, either in this or some other 
place, there being now so little appearance of any change 
for the better, all being entirely in the rebels' hands, and 
this particular habitation and the estate contiguous to it 
(belonging to my father-in-law, actually in his Majesty's 
service) very much suffering for want of some friend to 
rescue it out of the power of the usurpers, so as to preserve 
our interest, and take some care of my other concerns ; 
by the advice and endeavour of my friends, I was advised 
to reside in it, and compound with the soldiers. This I 
was besides authorised by his Majesty to do, and encou- 
raged with a promise that what was in lease from the 
Crown, if ever it pleased God to restore him, he would 
secure to us in fee-farm. I had also addresses and cyphers, 
to correspond with his Majesty and Ministers abroad : 
upon all which inducements, I was persuaded to settle 
henceforth in England, having now run about the Morld, 
most part out of my own country, near ten years. I 
therefore now likewise meditated sending over for my 
wife, whom as yet I had left at Paris. 

14th. I went to Lewisham, where I heard an honest 
sermon on 1 Cor. ii. 5 — 7, being the first Sunday I had 
been at chiu'ch since my return, it being now a rare thing 
to find a priest of the Church of England in a parish 
pulpit, most of which were filled with Independents and 

15th. I saw the Diamond and Ruby launched in the 
Dock at Deptford, carrying forty-eight brass cannon each ; 
Cromwell and his grandees present, with great acclama- 

1652.] JOHN EVELYN. 077 

18th. That worthy diAdne, Mr. Owen, of Eltham, a 
sequestered person, came to visit me. 

19th. Invited by Lady Gerrard, I went to London, where 
we had a great supper ; all the vessels, which were innu- 
merable, were of porcelain, she having the most ample and 
richest collection of that curiosity in England. 

22nd. I went with my brother Evelyn to Wotton, to give 
him what directions I was able about his garden, which he 
was now desirous to put into some form ; but for which he 
v/as to remove a mountain overgrown with huge trees and 
thicket, with a moat within ten yards of the house. This 
my brother immediately attempted, and that without great 
cost, for more than a hundred yards south, by digging 
down the mountain, and flinging it into a rapid stream : it 
not only carried away the sand, &c. but filled up the moat, 
and levelled that noble area, where now the garden and 
fountain is.* The first occasion of my brother making 
this alteration was my building the little retiring place 
between the great wood eastward next the meadow, where, 
some time after my father's death, I made a triangular 
pond, or little stew, with an artificial rock, after my coming 
out of Flanders. 

29th. I heard that excellent prelate, the Primate of Ire- 
land (Jacobus Lusher) preach in Lincoln's Inn, on Heb. iv. 
16, encouraging of penitent sinners. 

5th April. My brother George brought to Sayes Court 
Cromwell's Act of Oblivion to all that would submit to the 

13th. News was brought me that Lady Cotton, my bro- 
ther George's wife, was delivered of a son. 

I was moved by a letter out of France to pubHsh the 
letter which some time since I sent to Dean Cosin's prose- 
lyted son ; but I did not conceive it convenient, for fear of 
displeasing her Majesty, the Queen. 

15th. I wrote to the Dean, touching my buying his 
library, which was one of the choicest collections of any 
private person in England. 

The Count de Strade most generously and handsomely 
sent me the picture of my wife from Dunkirk (see pp. 249, 
275) in a large tin case, Avithout any charge. It is of 

• The foimtain still remains. 


Mr. Bourdon^ and is that which has the dog in it, and is to 
the knees, but it has been something spoiled by washing 
it ignorantly with soap-suds. 

25th. I went to visit Alderman Kendrick, a fanatic Lord 
Mayor, who had married a relation of ours, where I met 
with a Captain who had been thirteen times to the East 

29th. Was that celebrated eclipse of the sun, so much 
threatened by the astrologers, and which had so exceedingly 
alarmed the whole nation that hardly any one would work^ 
nor stir out of their houses. So ridiculously were they 
abused by knavish and ignorant star-gazfers ! 

We went this afternoon to see the Queen's house at 
Greenwich, now given by the rebels to Bulstrode White- 
lock, one of their unhappy counsellors, and keeper of pre- 
tended liberties. 

10th May. Passing by Smithfield, I saw a miserable 
creature burning, who had murdered her husband. I went 
to see some 'workmanship of that admirable artist, Reeves^ 
famous for perspective, and turning curiosities in ivory. 

29th. I went to give order about a coach to be made 
against my wife's coming, being my first coach, the pattern 
whereof I brought out of Paris. 

30th. I went to obtain of my Lord Devonshire that my 
nephew, George, might be brought up with my young Lord, 
his son, to whom I was recommending Mr. Wase. I also 
inspected the manner of camletting silk and grogramsatone 
Monsieur La Dorees in Moor-fields, and thence to Colonel 
Morley, one of their Council of State, as then called, who 
had been my schoolfellow, to request a pass for my wife's 
safe landing, and the goods she was to bring with her out 
of France; which he courteously granted, and did me 
many other kindnesses, that was a great matter in those 

In the afternoon, at Charlton church, where I heard a 
Rabinical sermon. Here is a fair monument in black 
marble of Sir Adam Newton, who built that fair house 
near it for Prince Henry, and where my noble friend. Sir 
Henry Newton, succeeded him. 

3rd June. I received a letter from Colonel Morley to the 
Magistrates and Searchers at Rye, to assist my wife at her 
landing, and show her all civility. 

1652.] JOHN EVELYN. 279 

4th. I set out to meet her now on her journey from 
Paris, after she had obtained leave to come out of that city, 
which had now been besieged some time by the Prince of 
Conde's army in the time of the rebellion, and after she 
had been now near twelve years from her own country, 
that is, since five years of age, at which time she went over. 
I went to Rye to meet her, where was an embargo on 
occasion of the late conflict with the Holland fleet, the two 
nations being now in war, and which made sailing very 

On "WTiit Sunday, I went to the church (which is a very 
fair one), and heard one of the canters, who dismissed the 
assembly rudely, and without any blessing. Here, I stayed 
till the 10th with no small impatience, when I walked over 
to survey the ruins of Winchelsea, that ancient cinq-port, 
which by the remains and ruins of ancient streets and 
public structures, discovers it to have been formerly a con- 
siderable and large city. There are to be seen vast caves 
and vaults, walls and towers, ruins of monasteries and of a 
sumptuous church, in which are some handsome monu- 
ments, especially of the Templars, buried just in the 
manner of those in the Temple at London. This place 
being now all in rubbish, and a few despicable hovels and 
cottages only standing, hath yet a Mayor. The sea, which 
formerly rendered it a rich and commodious port, has now 
forsaken it. 

1 1th. About four in the afternoon, being at bowls on the 
green, we discovered a vessel, which proved to be that in 
which my wife was, and which got into the harbour about 
eight that evening, to my no small joy. They had been 
three days at sea, and escaped the Dutch fleet, through 
which they passed, taken for fishers, which was great good 
fortune, there being seventeen bales of furniture and other 
rich plunder, which I bless God came all safe to land, 
together with my wife, and my Lady Browne, her mother, 
who accompanied her. My wife being discomposed by 
having been so long at sea, we set not forth towards home 
till the 14th, when hearing the small-pox was very rife in 
and about London, and Lady Browne having a desire to 
drink Tunbridge waters, I carried them thither, and stayed 
in a very sweet place, private and refreshing, and took the 
waters myself tiU the 23rd, when I went to prepare for 

230 DIARY OF [tunbridge, 

their reception, leaving tliem for the present in their little 
cottage by the Wells. 

The weather being hot, and having sent my man on 
before, I rode negligently under favour of the shade, till, 
within three miles of Bromley, at a place called the Pro- 
cession Oak, two cut-throats started out, and striking with 
long staves at the horse and taking hold of the reins, threw 
me down, took my sword, and hauled me into a deep 
thicket, some quarter of a mile from the highway, where 
they might securely rob me, as they soon did. What they 
got of money, was not considerable, but they took two 
rings, the one an emerald with diamonds, the other an 
onyx, and a pair of buckles set with rubies and diamonds, 
which were of value, and after all bound my hands behind 
me, and my feet, having before pulled off my boots ; they 
then set me up against an oak, with most bloody threats 
to cut my throat if I offered to cry out, or make any noise ; 
for they should be within hearing, I not being the person 
they looked for. I told them if they had not basely sur- 
prised me they should not have had so easy a prize, and 
that it would teach me never to ride near a hedge, since, 
had I been in the mid-way, they durst not have adventured 
on me ; at which, they cocked their pistols, and told me 
they had long guns, too, and were fourteen companions. I 
begged for my onyx, and told them it being engraved with 
my arms would betray them ; but nothing prevailed. My 
horse's bridle they slipped, and searched the saddle, which 
they pulled off, but let the horse graze, and then turning 
again bridled him and tied him to a tree, yet so as he 
might graze, and thus left me bound. My horse was per- 
haps not taken, because he was marked and cropped on 
both ears, and well known on that road. Left in this 
manner, grievously was I tormented with flies, ants, and 
the sun, nor was my anxiety little how I should get loose 
in that solitary place, where I could neither hear nor see 
any creature but my poor horse and a few sheep straggling 
in the copse. 

After near two hours attempting, I got my hands to 
turn palm to palm, having been tied back to back, and 
then it was long before I could slip the cord over my wrists 
to my thumb, which at last I did, and then soon unbound 
my feet, and saddling my horse and roaming a while about. 

1652.] JOHN EVELYN. 281 

I at last perceived dust to rise, and soon after heard the 
rattling of a cart, towards which I made, and, by the help 
of two countrymen I got back into the highway. I rode 
to Colonel Blount's, a great justiciary of the times, who 
sent out hue and cry immediately. The next morning, 
sore as my wrists and arms were, I went to London, and 
got 500 tickets printed and dispersed by an officer of Gold- 
smiths' Hall, and within two days had tidings of all I had 
lost, except my sword, which had a silver hilt, and some 
trifles. The rogues had pawned one of my rings for a 
trifle to a goldsmith's servant, before the tickets came to 
the shop, by which means they escaped ; the other ring 
was bought by a victualler, who brought it to a goldsmith, 
but he having seen the ticket, seized the man. I after- 
wards discharged him on his protestation of innocence. 
Thus, did God deliver me from these villains, and not only 
so, but restored what they took, as twice before he had 
graciously done, both at sea and land ; I mean when I had 
been robbed by pirates, and was in danger of a consi- 
derable loss at Amsterdam ; for which, and many, many 
signal preservations, I am extremely obliged to give thanks 
to God my Saviour. 

25th. After a drought of near four months, there fell so 
violent a tempest of hail, rain, wind, thunder, and light- 
ning, as no man had seen the like in his age ; the hail 
being in some places four or five inches about, brake all 
glass about London, especially at Deptford, and more at 

29th. I returned to Tunbridge, and again drank the 
water, till 10th July. 

We went to see the house of my Lord Clanrickarde at 
Summer-hill, near Tunbridge (now given to that villain, 
Bradshawe, who condemned the King). 'Tis situated on 
an eminent hill, with a park ; but has nothing else extra- 

4th July. I heard a sermon at Mr. Packer's* chapel at 
Groomsbridge,t a pretty melancholy seat, well wooded and 
watered. In this house was one of the French Kings X 

* Clerk of the Privy Seal to King Qiarles I. 

+ In the parish of Speldhurst, in Kent, four miles from Tunbridge. 
J The Duke of Orleans, taken at the battle of Agincourt, 4 Hen. V. by 
Richard Waller, then owner of this place. Hasted's Kent, voL I., p. 431. 


kept prisoner. The chapel was built by Mr. Packer's 
father, in remembrance of King Charles the First's safe 
return out of Spain.* 

9th. We went to see Penshurst, the Earl of Leicester's, 
famous once for its gardens and excellent fruit, and for the 
noble conversation which was wont to meet there, cele- 
hrzj^d by that illustrious person/ Sir Philip Sidney, who 
there composed divers of his pieces. It stands in a park, 
is finely watered, and was now full of company, on the 
mai'riage of my old fellow collegiate, Mr. Hobert Smith, 
who married my Lady Dorothy Sidney,t widow of the 
Earl of Sunderland. 

One of the men who robbed me was taken; I was 
accordingly summoned to appear against him, and, on the 
12th, was in Westminster Hall, but not being bound over, 
nor willing to hang the fellow, I did not appear, coming 
only to save a friend's bail; but the bill being found, he 
was turned over to the Old Bailey. In the mean time, I 
received a petition from the prisoner, whose father I under- 
stood was an honest old farmer in Kent. He was charged 
with other crimes, and condemned, but reprieved. I heard 
afterwards that, had it not been for his companion, a 
younger man, he would probably have killed me. He was 
afterwards charged with some other crime, but, refusing to 
plead, was pressed to death. 

23rd. Came my old friend, Mr. Spencer, to visit me. 

30th. I took advice about purchasing Sir Richard's 
[Browne] interest of those who had bought Sayes Court. 

1st August. Came old Jerome Lennier, of Greenwich, a 
man skilled in painting and music, and another rare 
musician, called Mell. I went to see his collection of pic- 
tures, especially those of Julio Romano, which surely had 
been the King's, and an Egyptian figure, &c. There were 
also excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, and 
Tintoretto. Lennier had been a domestic of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and showed me her head, an intaglio in a rare 
sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me 
was exceeding like her. 

• With this inscription over the door, " D. O. M. 1625. ob. felicissimum 
Caroli Principis ex Hispanic reditum Sacellum hoc D. D. I. P. ; " over it_the 
device of the Prince of Wales. Hasted's Kent, vol. I., p. 432. 

+ Mr. Waller's Sacharissa, daughter of Philip, Earl of Leicester. 

1652.] JOHN EVELYN. 2 83 

24tli. My first cliild, a son, was born precisely at one 

2nd September. Mr. Owen, the sequestered divine of 
Eltham, christened my son by the name of Richard. 

22nd. I went to Woodcott, where Lady Browne was 
taken with a scarlet fever, and died. She was carried to 
Deptford, and interred in the church near Sir Richard's 
relations with all decent ceremonies, and according to the 
church-office, for which I obtained permission, after it had 
not been used in that church for seven years. Thus ended 
an excellent and virtuous lady, universally lamented, having 
been so obliging on all occasions to those who continually 
frequented her house in Paris, which was not only an hos- 
pital, but an asylum to all our persecuted and afflicted 
countrymen, during eleven years' residence there in that 
honourable situation. 

25th. I went to see Dr. Mason's house, so famous for the 
prospect (for the house is a wretched one) and description 
of Barclay's Icon Animarum.* 

5th November. To London, to visit some friends, but the 
insolences were so great in the streets that I could not 
return till the next day. 

Dr. Scarborough was instant with me to give the Tables 
of Veins and Arteries to the College of Physicians, pre- 
tending he would not only read upon them, but celebrate 
my curiosity as being the first who caused them to be com- 
pleted in that manner, and with that cost ; but I was not 
so willing yet to part with them, as to lend them to the 
College during their anatomical lectures; which I did, 

22nd. I went to London, where was proposed to me 
the promoting that great work, (since accomplished by 
Dr. Walton, Bishop of Chester) Biblia Polyglotta, by 
Mr. Pierson, that most learned divine. 

25th December. Christmas-day, no sermon any where, 

• The book here referred to is in the British Museum, entitled, Joanni» 
Barclaii Icon Animarum," printed at London, 1614, small 12mo. It is written 
in Latin, and is dedicated to Lewis XIII, of France, for what reason does 
not appear, the author speaking of himself as a subject of this country. It 
mentions the necessity of forming the minds of youth, as a skilful gardener 
forms his trees ; the different dispositions of men, in different nations ; English, 
Scotch, and Irish, &c. Cap. 2, contains a florid description of the beautiful 
scenery about Greenwich ; but does not mention Dr. Mason, or his house. 


no church being permitted to be open, so observed it at 
home. The next day, we went to Lewisham, where an 
honest divine preached. 

31st. I adjusted all accompts, and rendered thanks to 
Almighty God for his mercies to me the year past. 

1st January, 1652-3. I set apart in preparation for the 
Blessed Sacrament, which the next day Mr. Owen admi- 
nistered to me and all my family in Sayes Court, preach- 
ing on John, vi. 32, 33, showing the exceeding benefits 
of our Blessed Saviour taking our nature upon him-. He 
had christened my son and churched my wife in our own 
house, as before noticed. 

17th. I began to set out the oval garden at Sayes Court, 
which was before a rude orchard, and all the rest one entire 
field of 100 acres, without any hedge, except the hither 
holly-hedge joining to the bank of the mount walk. This 
was the beginning of all the succeeding gardens, walks, 
groves, enclosures, and plantations there. 

21st. I went to London, and sealed some of the writings 
of my purchase of Sayes Court. 

30th. At our own parish-church, a stranger preached. 
There was now and then an honest orthodox man got into 
the pulpit, and, though the present incumbent was some- 
what of the Independent, yet he ordinarily preached sound 
doctrine, and was a peaceable man ; which was an extra- 
ordinary felicity in this age. 

1st February. Old Alexander Rosse (author of " Virgil- 
ius Evangelizans,^^ and many other httle books) presented 
me with his book against Mr. Hobbes's " Leviathan." 

19th. I planted the orchard at Sayes Court; new moon, 
wind west. 

22nd. Was perfected the sealing, hvery and seisin of 
my purchase of Sayes Court. My brother, George Glan- 
viile, Mr. Scudamore, Mr. Offley, Co. William Glanville 
(son to Serjeant Glanville, sometime Speaker of the 
House of Commons), Co. Stephens, and several of my 
friends, dining with me. I had bargained for 3200/., but 
I paid 3500/. 

25th March. Came to see me that rare graver in taille- 
douce, Monsieur llichett ; he was sent by Cardinal Maza- 
rine to make a collection of pictures. 

11th April. I went to take the air in Hyde Park, where 

1653.] JOHN EVELYN. 2S5 

every coach was made to pay a shilling, and horse sixpence, 
by the sordid fellow who had purchased it of the State, as 
they were called. 

17th May. My servant, Hoare, who wrote those exqui- 
site several hands, fell of a fit of an apoplexy, caused, as I 
suppose, by tampering with $ (mercury) about an experi- 
ment in gold. 

29th. I went to London, to take my last leave of my 
honest friend, Mr. Barton, now dying : it was a great loss 
to me and to my affairs. On the sixth of June, I attended 
his funeral. 

8th June. Came my brother George, Captain Evelyn, 
the great traveller, Mr. Muschamp, my cousin, Thomas 
Keightly, and a virtuoso, fantastical Simons,* who had the 
talent of embossing so to the life. 

9th. I went to visit my worthy neighbour. Sir Henry 
Newton [at Charlton] , and consider the prospect, which is 
doubtless for city, river, ships, meadows, hill, woods, and 
all other amenities, one of the most noble in the world; 
so as, had the house running water, it were a princely seat. 
Mr. Henshaw and his brother-in-law, came to visit me, and 
he presented me with a seleniscope. 

19th. This day, I paid all my debts to a farthing; oh, 
blessed day ! 

21st. My Lady Gerrard and one Esquire Knight, a very 
rich gentleman, living in Northamptonshire, visited me. 

23rd. Mr. Lombart, a famous graver, came to see my 

27th. Monsieur Roupel sent me a small phial of his 
aurum potabile, with a letter showing the way of adminis- 
tering it, and the stupendous cures it had done at Paris ; 
but, ere it came to me, by what accident I know not, it 
was all run out. 

17th August. I went to visit Mr. Hyldiard, at his house 
at Horsley (formerly the great Sir Walter Raleigh's t), 
where met me Mr. Oughtred, the famous mathematician ; 
he showed me a box, or golden case, of divers rich and 
aromatic balsams, which a chymist, a scholar of his, had 
sent him out of Germany. 

* Thomas Simons, a strange character, but most excellent modeller after 
life, and engraver of medals. 

+ This is a mistake ; Mr. Hyldiard was of East Horsley, Sir Walter of 



21st. I heard that good old man, Mr. Higham, the 
parson of the parish of Wotton where I was born, and 
who had baptized me, preach after his very plain way on 
Luke, comparing this troublesome world to the sea, the 
ministers to the fishermen, and the saints to the fish. 

22nd. We all went to Guildford, to rejoice at the 
famous inn, the E-ed Lion, and to see the Hospital, and 
the monument of Archbishop Abbot, the founder, who 
lies buried in the chapel of his endowment. 

28th September. At Greenwich, preached that holy 
martyr. Dr. Hewer, on Psalm xc. 11, magnifying the 
grace of God to penitents, and threatening the extinction 
of his Gospel light for the prodigious impiety of the age. 

11th October. My son, John Stansfield, was born, being 
my second child, and christened by the name of my 
mother's father, that name now quite extinct, being of 
Cheshire. Christened by Mr. Owen, in my library at 
Sayes Court, where he afterwards churched my wife, I 
always making use of him on these occasions, because the 
parish minister durst not have officiated according to the 
form and usage of the Church of England, to which I 
always adhered. 

25th. Mr. Owen preached in my library at Sayes Court 
on Luke, xviii. 7, 8, an excellent discourse on the unjust 
judge, showing why Almighty God would sometimes be 
compared by such similitudes. He afterwards adminis- 
tered to us all the Holy Sacrament. 

28th. Went to London, to visit my Lady Gerrard, where 
I saw that cursed woman called the Lady Norton, of whom 
it was reported that she spit in our King's face as he went 
to the scaffold. Indeed, her talk and discom-sc was like an 
impudent woman. 

21st November. I went to London, to speak with Sir 
John Evelyn, my kinsman, about. the purchase of an 
estate of Mr. Lambard's at Westeram, which afterwards 
Sir John himself bought for his son-in-law. Leech. 

4th December. Going this day to our church, I was 
surprised to see a tradesman, a mechanic, step up ; I was 
resolved yet to stay and see what he would make of it. 
His text was from 2 Sam. xxiii. 20 : " Asd Benaiah 
went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in the 
time of snow ; " the purport was, that no danger was to be 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. 287 

thougbt difficult wlien God called for shedding of blood, 
inferring that now the saints were called to destroy tem- 
poral governments ; with such feculent stuff; so dangerous 
a crisis were things grown to ! 

25th. Christmas-day. No churches, or public assembly. 
I was fain to pass the devotions of that Blessed day with 
my family at home. 

1653-4. 20th January. Came to see me my old ac- 
quaintance and the most incomparable player on the Irish 
harp, Mr. Clarke,* after his travels. He was an excellent 
musician, a discreet gentleman, born in Devonshire (as I 
remember). Such music before or since did I never hear, 
that instrument being neglected for its extraordinary dif- 
ficulty; but, in my judgment, far superior to the lute itself, 
or whatever speaks with strings. 

25th. Died my son, J. Standsfield, of convulsion-fits ; 
buried at Deptford on the east comer of the church, near 
his mother's great-grandfather, and other relatives. 

8th February. Ash- Wednesday. In contradiction to all 
custom and decency, the usurper, Cromwell, feasted at the 
Lord Mayor's, riding in triumph through the city. 

14th. I saw a tame lion play familiarly with a lamb ; he 
was a huge beast, and I thrust my hand into his mouth 
and found his tongue rough like a cat's ; a sheep also with 
six legs, which made use of five of them to walk ; a goose 
that had four legs, two crops, and as many vents. 

29th March. That excellent man, Mr. Owen, preached 
inmy Hbrary on Matt, xxviii. 6, a resurrection-sermon, and 
after it we all received the Holy Communion. 

6th April. Came my Lord Herbert, Sir Kenelm Digby, 
Mr. Denham, and other friends, to see me. 

15th. I went to London, to hear the famous Dr. Jeremy 
Taylor (since Bishop of Down and Connor) at St. Gre- 
gorys (near St. Paul's) on Matt. vi. 48, concerning 
evangelical perfection. 

5th May. I bound my lackey, Thomas Headly, appren- 
tice to a carpenter, giving with him five pounds and new 
clothing ; he thrived very well, and became rich. 

8th. I went to Hackney, to see Lady Brook's garden, 
which was one of the neatest and most celebrated in Eng- 
land, the house well furnished, but a despicable building. 

• See under the year 1668, November. 

288 DIARY OF [wiNDson, 

Returning, visited one Mr. Tomb's garden ; it has large 
and noble Avalks, some modern statues, a vineyard, planted 
in strawberry borders, staked at ten feet distances ; the 
banqueting-house of cedar, where the couch and scats were 
carved a V antique ; some good pictures in the house, espe- 
cially one of Vandyke's, being a man in his shirt ; also 
some of Stenwyck. I also called at Mr. Ducie's, who has 
indeed a rare collection of the best masters, and one of 
the largest stories of H. Holbein. I also saw Sir Thomas 
Fowler's aviary, which is a poor business. 

10th. My Lady Gerrard treated us at Mulberry Gar- 
den,* now the only place of refreshment about the town 
for persons of the best quality to be exceedingly cheated 
at ; Cromwell and his partisans having shut up and seized 
on Spring Garden, which, till now, had been the usual 
rendezvous for the ladies and gallants at this season. 

11th. I now observed how the women began to paint 
themselves, formerly a most ignominious thing, and used 
only by prostitutes. 

14th. There being no such thing as church- annivers- 
aries in the parochial assemblies, I was forced to provide at 
home for Whit Sunday. 

15th. Came Sir Robert Stapylton, the translator of 
" Juvenal," to visit me. 

8th June. My wife and I set out in a coach and four 
horses, in our way to visit relations of hers in Wiltshire, 
and other parts, where Ave resolved to spend some months. 
We dined at Windsor, saw the Castle and Chapel of 
St. George, where they have laid our blessed Martyr, King 
Charles, in the vault just before the altar. The church and 
workmanship in stone is admirable. The Castle itself is 
large in circumference ; but the rooms melancholy, and of 
ancient magnificence. The keep, or mount, hath, besides 
its incomparable prospect, a very profound well ; and the 
terrace towards Eaton, with the park, meandering Thames, 
and sweet meadows, yield one of the most delightful pros- 
pects. That night, we lay at Reading. Saw my Lord 

• Buckingham House (now the Royal Palace) was built on the site of these 
gardens : see Dr. King, III. 73, ed. 1776 ; Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum, 
IV. 263 ; but the latter afterwards, p. 327, says that the piece of ground 
called the Mulberry Garden was granted by Charles II., in 1672, to Henry, 
Earl of Arlington ; in that case, it would be what is now called Arlington 
Street, unless it extended up to the Royal Palace. 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. 289 

Craven's house at Causam Caversham, now in ruins, his 
goodly woods felling by the Rebels, 

9th. Dined at Marlborough, which having been lately 
fired, was now new built. At one end of this town, we 
saw my Lord Seymour's house,* but nothing observable 
jsave the Mount, to which we ascended by windings for 
near half a mile. It seems to have been cast up by hand. 
We passed by Colonel Popham's, a noble seat, park, and 
river. Thence, to Newbury, a considerable town, and 
Donnington, famous for its battle, siege, and castle : this 
last had been in the possession of old Geoffrey Chaucer. 
Then to Aldermaston, a house of Sir Humphry Forster's, 
built a la moderne. Also, that exceedingly beautiful seat 
of my Lord Pembroke, on the ascent of a hiU, flanked 
with wood, and regarding the river ; and so, at night, to 
Cadenham, the mansion of Edward Hungerford, Esq., 
uncle to my wife, where we made some stay. The rest of 
the week we did nothing but feast and make good cheer, 
to welcome my wife. 

27th. We aU went to see Bath, where I bathed in the 
cross bath. Amongst the rest of the idle diversions of the 
town, one musician was famous for acting a changeKng, 
which indeed he personated strangely. 

The facciata of this cathedral is remarkable for its his- 
torical carving. The King's Bath is esteemed the fairest 
in Europe. The town is entirely built of stone, but the 
streets narrow, uneven, and unpleasant. Here, we trifled 
and bathed, and inter-visited with the company who fre- 
quent the place for health, tiU the 30 th, and then went to 
Bristol, a city emulating London, not for its large extent, 
but manner of building, shops, bridge, traffic, exchange, 
market-place, &c. The governor showed us the castle, ojf 
no great concernment. The city wholly mercantile, as 
standing near the famous Severn, commodiously for Ireland, 
and the Western world. Here, I first saw the manner 
of refining sugar and casting it into loaves, where we had 
a collation of eggs fried in the sugar farnace,t together 
with excellent Spanish wine. But, what appeared most 

• Now the famous inn there. 

+ A kind of entertainment like that we have of eating beef-steaks drest 
on the stoker's shovel, and drinking porter at the famous brewhouses in 

VOL. I. U 


stupendous to me, was the rock of St. Vincent, a little dis- 
tance from the town, the precipice whereof is equal to any- 
thing of that nature I have seen in the most confragose 
cataracts of the Alps, the river gliding between them at au 
extraordinary depth. Here, we went searching for diamonds, 
and to the Hot Wells, at its foot. There is also on the side 
of this horrid Alp a very romantic seat : and so we returned 
to Bath in the evening, and July 1 to Cadenham. 

4th July. On a letter from my wife's uncle, Mr. 
Pretyman, I waited back on her to London, passing by 
Hungerford, a town famous for its trouts, and the next day 
arrived at Deptford, which was 60 miles, in the extremity 
of heat. 

6th. I went early to London, and the following day met 
my wife and company at Oxford, the eve of the Act. 

8th. Was spent in hearing several exercises in the 
schools ; and, after dinner, the Proctor opened the Act at 
St. Mary's (according to custom), and the Prevaricators, 
their drollery. Then, the Doctors disputed. We supped 
at Wadham College. 

9th. Dr. French preached at St. Mary's, on Matt. xii. 
42, advising the students the search after true wisdom, 
not to be had in the books of philosophers, but in the 
Scriptures alone. In the afternoon, the famous Inde- 
pendent, Dr. Owen, perstringing Episcopacy. He was now 
Cromwell's Vice-ChanceUor. We dined with Dr. Ward, 
Mathematical Professor (since Bishop of Sarum), and at 
■night supped in Bahol College HaU, where I had once 
been student and fellow-commoner, and where they made 
me extraordinarily welcome. 

10th. On Monday, I went again to the schools, to hear 
the several faculties, and in the afternoon tarried out the 
whole Act in St. Mary's, the long speeches of the Proctors, 
the Vice-Chancellor, the several Professors, creation of 
Doctors, by the cap, ring, kiss, &c., those ancient ceremo- 
nies and institution being as yet not wholly abolished. 
Dr. Kendal, now Inceptor amongst others, performing his 
Act incomparably well, concluded it with an excellent 
oration, abating his Presbyterian animosities, which he 
withheld, not even against that learned and pious divine. 
Dr. Hammond. The Act was closed with the speech of 
the Vice-Chancellor, there being but four in theology, and 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. 291 

three in medicine, which was thought a considerable 
matter, the times considered. I dined at one Monsieur 
Fiat's, a student of Exeter College, and supped at a mag- 
nificent entertainment at Wadham Hall, invited by my 
dear and excellent friend. Dr. Wilkins, then Warden 
(after. Bishop of Chester) . 

11th. Was the Latin sermon, which I could not be at, 
though invited, being taken up at All Souls, where we had 
music, voices, and theorbos, performed by some ingenious 
scholars. After dinner, I visited that miracle of a youth, 
Mr. Christopher Wren, nephew to the Bishop of Ely. 
Then Mr. Barlow (since Bishop of Lincoln), bibliothecarius 
of the Bodleian Library, my most learned friend. He 
showed us the rarities of that most famous place, manu- 
scripts, medals, and other curiosities. Amongst the MSS. 
an old English Bible, wherein the Eunuch mentioned to 
be baptized by Philip, is called the Gelding : " and Philip 
and the Gelding went down into the water,^' &c. The 
original Acts of the Council of Basil 900 years since, with 
the bulla, or leaden affix, which has a silken cord passing 
through every parchment; a MS. of Venerable Bede of 
800 years' antiquity ; the old Ritual secundum usum Sarum, 
exceeding voluminous; then, among the nicer curiosities, 
the Proverbs of Solomon, written in French by a lady,* 
every chapter of a several character, or hand, the most 
exquisite imaginable; an hieroglyphical table, or carta, 
folded up like a map ; I suppose it painted on asses' hide, 
extremely rare ; but, what is most illustrious, there were no 
less than 1000 MSS., in nineteen languages, especially 
oriental, furnishing that new part of the library built by 
Archbishop Laud, from a design of Sir Kenelm Digby and 
the Earl of Pembroke. In the closet of the tower, they 
show some Indian weapons, urns, lamps, &c., but the 
rarest is the whole Alcoran, written on one large sheet of 
calico, made up in a priest's vesture, or cope, after the 
Turkish and Arabic character, so exquisitely written, as no 
printed letter comes near it ; also, a roll of magical charms, 
divers talismans, and some medals. 

Then, I led my wife into the Convocation-House, finely 

» Mrs. Esther Inglish, married to Bartholomew Kello, rector of Willing- 
hall Spain, in Essex. See an account of her airious penmanship, in Massey'a 
Origin and Progress of Letters. 


292 DIARY OF [oxford, 

wainscoted; the Divinity School and Gothic carved roof; 
the Physic, or Anatomy School, adorned with some rarities 
of natural things ; but nothing extraordinary save the skin 
of a jackal, a rarely-coloured jacatoo, or prodigious large 
parrot, two humming birds, not much bigger than our 
humble-bee, wliich indeed I had not seen before, that I 

1 2th. We went to St. John's, saw the library and the 
two skeletons, which are finely cleansed and put together ; 
observable is here also the store of mathematical instru- 
ments, chiefly given by the late Archbishop Laud, who 
built here a handsome quadrangle. 

Thence, we went to New College, where the chapel was 
in its ancient garb, notwithstanding the scrupulosity of 
the times. Thence, to Christ's Church, in whose library 
was showed us an Office of Henry VIII., the writing, 
miniatures, and gilding whereof is equal, if not surpassing, 
any curiosity I had seen of that kind ; it was given by 
their founder. Cardinal Wolsey. The glass windows of 
the cathedral (famous in my time) I found much abused. 
The ample hall and column, that spreads its capital to 
sustain the roof as one goes up the stairs, is very 

Next, we walked to Magdalen College, where we saw 
the library and chapel, which was likewise in pontifical 
order, the altar only I think turned tablevdse, and there 
was still the double organ, which abominations (as now 
esteemed) were almost universally demoHshed; Mr. Gibbon, 
that famous musician, giving us a taste of his skill and 
talents on that instrument. 

Hence, to the Physic Garden, where the sensitive plant 
was showed us for a great wonder. There grew canes, 
olive-trees, rhubarb, but no extraordinary curiosities, besides 
very good frmt, which, when the ladies had tasted, we 
returned in our coach to our lodgings. 

13th. We all dined at that most obliging and universally- 
curious Dr. Wilkins's, at Wadham College. He was the 
first who showed me the transparent apiaries, which he 
had built hke castles and palaces, and so ordered them one 
upon another, as to take the honey without destroying the 
bees. These were adorned with a variety of dials, httle 
statues, vanes, &c. ; and, he was so abundantly civil, find- 

1C54.] JOHN EVELYN. 29-3 

ing me pleased with them, to present me with, one of the 
hives which he had empty, and which I afterwards had in 
my garden at Sayes Court, where it continued many years, 
and which his Majesty came on purpose to see and con- 
template with much satisfaction. He had also contrived a 
hollow statue, which gave a voice and uttered words by a 
long concealed pipe that went to its mouth,* whilst one 
speaks through it at a good distance. He had, above in 
his lodgings and gallery, variety of shadows, dials, perspec- 
tives, and many other artificial, mathematical, and magical 
curiosities, a way-wiser, a thermometer, a monstrous mag- 
net, conic, and other sections, a balance on a demi-circle, 
most of them of his own, and that prodigious young scholar 
Mr. Christopher Wren, who presented me with a piece of 
white marble, which he had stained with a lively red, very 
deep, as beautiful as if it had been natural. 

Thus satisfied with the civilities of Oxford, we left it, 
dining at Farringdon, a town which had been newly fired 
during the wars ; and, passing near the seat of Sir Walter 
Pye,t we came to Cadenham. 

16th. We went to another uncle and relative of my 
wife's. Sir John Glanville, a famous lawyer, formerly 
Speaker of the House of Commons ; his seat is at Broad- 
Hinton, where he now lived, but in the Gatehouse, his 
very fair dwelling-house having been burnt by his own 
hands, to prevent the rebels making a garrison of it. Here, 
my cousin William Glanville's eldest son showed me such 
a lock for a door, that for its filing and rare contrivances 
was a master-piece, yet made by a country-blacksmith. 
But, we have seen watches made by another Avith as much 
curiosity as the best of that profession can brag of; and, 
not many years after, there was nothing more frequent 
than all sorts of iron-work more exquisitely wrought and 
polished than in any part of Europe, so as a door-lock of a 
tolerable price was esteemed a curiosity even among foreign 

Went back to Cadenham, and, on the 19th, to Sir Edward 
Baynton's at Spie Park, a place capable of being made a 
noble'seat ; but the humorous old Knight has built a long 

* This reminds us of the speaking figures so long exhibited in Spring 
Gardens, and in Leicester Fields, many years ago. 
+ Ancestor of the Poet-Laureate. 


single house of two low stories on the precipice of an in- 
comparable prospect, and landing on a bowling-green in 
the park. The house is like a long barn, and has not a 
window on the prospect side. After dinner, they went to 
bowls, and, in the meantime, our coachmen were made so 
exceeding drunk, that in returning home we escaped great 
dangers. This, it seems, was by order of the Knight, that 
all gentlemen's servants be so treated ; but the custom is 
barbarous, and much unbecoming a Knight, still less a 

20th. We proceeded to Salisbury ; the cathedral I take 
to be the completest piece of Gothic work in Europe, 
taken in all its uniformity. The pillars, reputed to be 
cast, are of stone manifestly cut out of the quarry ; most 
observable are those in the chapter-house. There are 
some remarkable monuments, particularly the ancient 
Bishops, founders of the Church, Knights Templars, the 
Marquis of Hertford's, the cloisters of the palace and 
garden, and the great mural dial. 

In the afternoon, we went to Wilton, a fine house of the 
Earl of Pembroke, in which the most observable are the 
dining-room in the modem-built part towards the garden, 
richly gilded and painted with story, by De Creete j also, 
some other apartments, as that of hunting-landscapes, by 
Pierce ; some magnificent chimney-pieces, after the best 
French manner ; a pair of artificial winding-stairs, of stone, 
and divers rare pictures. The garden, heretofore esteemed 
the noblest in England, is a large handsome plain, with a 
grotto and water-works, which might be made much more 
pleasant, were the river that passes through cleansed and 
raised ; for all is efiected by a mere force. It has a flower 
garden, not inelegant. But, after all, that which renders 
the seat delightful is, its being so near the downs and noble 
plains about the country contiguous to it. The stables 
are well ordered and yield a graceful front, by reason of 
the walks of lime-trees, -with the court and fountain of the 
stables adorned with the Caesar's heads. 

We returned this evening by the plain, and 14-niile 
race, where out of my lord's hare-warren we were enter- 
tained with a long course of a hare for near two mUes in 
sight. Near this, is a pergola, or stand, built to view the 
spoyts: and so we came to Salisbury, and saw the most 

1C54.] JOHN EVELYN. . 295 

considerable parts of tlie city. The market-place, with 
most of the streets, are watered by a quick current and 
pure stream running through the middle of them, but are 
negligently kept, when with small charge they might be 
purged and rendered infinitely agreeable, and this made 
one of the sweetest towns, but now the common buildings 
are despicable, and the streets dirty. 

22nd. We departed and dined at a farm of my Uncle 
Hungerford^s, called Darneford Magna, situate in a valley 
under the plain, most sweetly watered, aboimding in trouts 
catched by spear in the night, when they come attracted 
by a light set in the stern of a boat. 

After dinner, continuing our return, we passed over the 
goodly plain, or rather sea of carpet, which I think for 
evenness, extent, verdure, and innumerable flocks, to be 
one of the most dehghtful prospects in nature, and re- 
minded me of the pleasant lives of shepherds we read of 
in romances. 

Now we were arrived at Stone-henge, indeed a stupend- 
ous monument, appearing at a distance like a castle ; how 
so many and huge pillars of stone should have been 
brought together, some erect, others transverse on the tops 
of them, in a circular area as rudely representing a cloister 
or heathen and more natural temple, is wonderful. The 
stone is so exceeding hard, that all my strength with a 
hammer could not break a fragment ; which hardness I 
impute to their so long exposure. To number them ex- 
actly is very difficult, they lie in such variety of postures 
and confusion, though they seemed not to exceed 100 ; 
we counted only 95. As to their being brought thither, 
there being no navigable river near, is by some admired ; 
but for the stone, there seems to be the same kind about 
20 miles distant, some of which appear above ground. 
About the same hills, are divers mounts raised, conceived 
to be ancient intrenchments, or places of burial, after bloody 
fights. We now went by the Devizes, a reasonable large 
town, and came late to Cadenham. 

27th. To the hunting of a sorel deer, and had excellent 
chace for four or five hours, but the venison little worth. 

29th. I went to Langford, to see my cousin, Stephens. 
I also saw Dryfield, the house heretofore of Sir John 
Pretyman, grandfather to my wife, and sold by her uncle ; 


both the seat and house very honourable and well-built, 
much after the modern fashion. 

31st. Taking leave of Cadenham, where we had been 
long and nobly entertained, we went a compass into Leices- 
tershire, where dwelt another relation of my wife^s; for 
I indeed made these excursions to show her the most con- 
siderable parts of her native country, who, from her child- 
hood, had lived altogether in France, as well as for my own 
curiosity and information. 

About two miles before coming to Gloucester, we have 
a prospect from woody hills into a most goodly vale and 
country. Gloucester is a handsome city, considerable for 
the church and monuments. The Minster is indeed a 
noble fabric. The whispering gallery is rare, being through 
a passage of twenty-five yards, in a many-angled cloister, 
and was, I suppose, either to show the skill of the architect, 
or> some invention of a cunning priest, who, standing un- 
seen in a recess in the middle of the chapel, might hear 
whatever was spoken at either end. This is above the 
choir, in which lies buried King Stephen* under a monu- 
ment of Irish oak, not ill carved considering the age. The 
new library is a noble though a private design. I was 
Ukewise pleased with the Severn gliding so sweetly by it. 
The Duke's house, the castle works, are now almost quite 
dismantled ; nor yet without sad thoughts did I see the 
town, considering how fatal the siege had been a few years, 
before to our good King. 

1st August. We set out towards Worcester, by a way 
thick planted with cider-fruit. We deviated to the Holy 
Wells, trickhng out of a valley through a steep decUvity 
towards the foot of the great Malvern Hills ; they are said 
to heal many infirmities, as king's evil, leprosy, sore 
eyes, &c. Ascending a great height above them to the 
trench dividing England from South Wales, we had the 
prospect of aU Herefordshire, Radnor, Brecknock, Mon- 
mouth, Worcester, Gloucester, Shropshire, Warwick, Derby 
shires, and many more. We could discern Tewkesbury,, 
Kings-road, towards Bristol, &c. ; so as I esteem it one of 
the goodliest vistas in England. 

2nd. This evening, we arrived at Worcester, the Judges 

* King Stephen was buried at Feversham. The effigy here alluded to is. 
that of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. 297 

of Assize and Sheriff just entering as we did. Viewing the 
town the next day, we found the cathedral much ruined 
by the late wars, otherwise a noble structure. The town 
is neatly paved and very clean, the goodly river Severn 
running by it, and standing in a most fertile country. 

3rd. We passed next through Warwick, and saw the cas- 
tle, the dwelling-house of the Lord Brook, and the furniture 
noble. It is built on an eminent rock which gives prospect 
into a most goodly green, a woody and plentifully watered 
country ; the river running so delightfully under it, that 
it may pass for one of the most surprising seats one should 
meet with. The gardens are prettily disposed ; but might 
be much improved. Here they show us Sir Guy's great 
two-handed sword, staff, horse-arms, pot, and other relics 
of that famous knight-errant. Warwick is a fair old town, 
and hath one church full of ancient monuments. 

Having viewed these, I went to visit my worthy friend. 
Sir H. Puckering, at the Abbey, and, though a melancholy 
old seat, yet in a rich soil. 

Hence, to Sir Guy's grot, where they say he did his 
penances, and died. It is a squalid den made in the rock, 
crowned yet with venerable oaks and looking on a goodly 
stream, so as, were it improved as it might be, it were 
capable of being made a most romantic and pleasant place. 
Near this, we were showed his chapel and gigantic statue 
hewn out of the solid rock, out of which there are likewise 
divers other caves cut, and some very capacious. 

The next place to Coventry. The Cross is remarkable 
for Gothic work and rich gilding, comparable to any I 
had ever seen, except that of Cheapside in London, now 
demolished. This city has many handsome churches, a 
beautiful wall, a fair free-school and library to it; the 
streets fuU of great shops, clean and well-paved. At going 
forth the gate, they show us the bone, or rib, of a wild 
boar, said to have been kiUed by Sir Guy, but which I take 
to be the chine of a whale. 

4th. Hence, riding through a considerable part of Lei- 
cestershire, an open, rich, but unpleasant countrj'^, we came 
late in the evening to Horninghold, a seat of my wife's 
uncle [not named] .* 

* Probably Hungerford (seep. 289). Sir Edward Hungerford, K.B., pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Horninghold, in 1676. 


7tli. Went to Uppingham, tlie sliire-town of Rutland, 
pretty and well-built of stone, which is a rarity in that 
part of England, where most of the rural parishes are but 
of mud, and the people living as wretchedly as in the 
most impoverished parts of France, which they much 
resemble, being idle and sluttish. The country (especially 
Leicestershire) much in common; the gentry free drinkers. 

9th. To the old and ragged city of Leicester, large and 
pleasantly seated, but despicably built, the chimney-flues 
like so many smiths' forges ; however, famous for the tomb 
of the tyrant, Richard the Third, which is now converted 
to a cistern, at which (I think) cattle drink. Also, here 
in one of the churches lies buried the magnificent Cardinal 
Wolsey. John of Gaunt has here also built a large but 
poor Hospital, near which a wretch has made him a house 
out of the ruins of a stately church. Saw the rains of an 
old Roman Temple, thought to be of Janus. Entertained 
at a very fine collection of fruits, such as I did not expect 
to meet with so far North, especially very good melons. 
We returned to my uncle's. 

14th. I took a journey into the Northern parts, riding 
through Oakham, a pretty town in Rutlandshire, famous 
for the tenure of the Barons (Eerrers), who hold it by 
taking off a shoe from every nobleman's horse that passes 
with his lord through the street, unless redeemed Avith a 
certain piece of money. In token of this, are several gilded 
shoes nailed up on the castle-gate,* which seems to have 
been large and fair. Hence, we went by Brook, a very 
sweet seat and park of the old Lady Camden's. Next, by 
Burleigh House, belonging to the Duke of Buckingham,t 
and worthily reckoned among the noblest seats in Eng- 
land, situate on the brow of a hill, built a la moderne near 
a park walled in, and a fine wood at the descent. 

Now we were come to Cottsmore, a pretty seat belong- 
ing to Mr. Heath, son to the late Lord Chief Justice of 
that name. Here, after dinner, parting with the company 
that conducted us thus far, I passed that evening by 
Belvoir Castle, built on a round mount at the point of a 

• A shoe was paid for by the Duke of York, in 1788. 

+ Called Burleigh-on-the-Hill, for distinction from the Earl of Exeter's, 
near Stamford. The Duke of Buckingham sold it to the family of Finch, now 
Earl of Winchelaea and Nottingham, to whom it belongs. 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. £99 

long ridge of hills, whicli affords a stately prospect, and 
is famous for its strenuous resistance in the late civil 

Went by Newark-on-Trent, a brave town and garrison. 
Next, by Wharton House, belonging to the Lord Chaworth, 
a handsome seat : then, by Home, a noble place belonging 
to the Marquis of Dorchester, and passed the famous river 
Trent, which divides the South from the North of Eng- 
land ; and so lay that night at Nottingham. 

This whole toAvn and county seems to be but one 
entire rock, as it were, an exceeding pleasant shire, full of 
gentry. Here, I observed divers to live in the rocks and 
caves, much after the manner as about Tours, in France.* 
The church is well built on an eminence ; there is a fair 
house of the Lord Clarets, another of Pierrepont^s ; an 
ample market-place ; large streets, full of crosses ; the 
reUcs of an ancient castle hollowed, beneath which are 
many caverns, especially that of the Scots^ King, and his 
work whilst there. 

This place is remarkable for being the place where his 
Majesty first erected his standard at the beginning of 
our late unhappy differences. The prospects from this 
city towards the river and meadows are most delightful. 

15th. We passed next through Sherwood Forest, ac- 
counted the most extensive in England. Then, Paple- 
wick, an incompai'able vista with the pretty castle near it. 
Thence, we saw Newstead Abbey, belonging to the Lord 
Byron, situated much like Fontainebleau, in France,t capa- 
ble of being made a noble seat, accommodated as it is with 
brave woods and streams ; it has yet remaining the front 
of a glorious abbey church. Next, by Mansfield town ; 
then Welbeck, the house of the Marquis of Newcastle, 
seated in a bottom in a park, and environed with woods, a 
noble yet melancholy seat. The palace is a handsome and 
stately building. Next to Worksop Abbey, almost demo- 
hshed; the church has a double flat tower entire, and 
a pretty gate. The manor belongs to the Earl of Arundel, 
and has to it a fair house at the foot of a hill in a park 
that affords a dehcate prospect. Tickel, a town and 
castle, has a very noble prospect. All these in Notting- 

• See p. 71. t See p. 57. 


16th. We arrived at Doncaster, where we lay this night ; 
it is a large fair town^ famous for great wax-lights, and 
good stockings. 

17th. Passed through Pontefract ; the castle, famous for 
many sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death 
of that unhappy King murdered in it (Richard II.), was 
now demolishing by the Rebels ; it stands on a mount, and 
makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen has a 
house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially 
Mr. Pierrepont's, built at the foot of a hill out of the castle 
ruins. We all alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal 
spring, which they call Robin Hood's Well ; near it, is a 
stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink out of, chained to 
the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which we 
have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble 
seat), and in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. 
This tract is a goodly, fertile, well-watered and wooded 
country, abounding with pasture and plenty of provisions. 

To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of a 
circular form, watered by the brave river Ouse, bearing 
vessels of considerable burthen on it ; over it is a stone 
bridge emulating that of London, and built on ; the middle 
arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a 
wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very 
neat. But most remarkable and worthy seeing is St. Peter's 
Cathedral, which of all the great churches in England 
had been best preserved from the fury of the sacrilegious,* 
by composition with the Rebels when they took the city,, 
during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a 
most entire magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The 
screen before the choir is of stone carved with flowers,, 
running work, and statues of the old kings. Many of the 
monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in 
these days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and 
Common Prayer-Book covered with crimson velvet, and 
richly embossed with silver gilt; also a service for the 
altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer, chahces, 
patins, &c., with a gorgeous covering for the altar and 
j)ulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall 
whereof rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got 
up to the tower, whence Ave had a prospect towards Dur- 

* By Sir Thomas Fairfax. 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. 301 

ham, and could see Ripon, part of Lancashire, the famous 
and fatal Marston Moor, the Spas of Knaresborough, and 

all the environs of that admirable country. Sir 

Ingoldsby has here a large house, gardens, and tennis 
court ; also the King's house and church near the castle, 
which was modernly fortified with a palisade and bas- 
tions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like 

18th. We went to Beverley, a large town with two 
stately churches, St. John's and St. Mary's, not much 
inferior to the best of our cathedrals. Here a very old 
woman showed us the monuments, and, being above 100 
years of age, spake the language of Queen Mary's days, in 
whose time she was bom ; she was widow of a sexton who 
had belonged to the church a hundred years. 

Hence, we passed through a fenny but rich country to 
Hull, situate like Calais, modernly and strongly fortified 
with three block-houses of brick and earth. It has a good 
market-place and harbour for ships. Famous also (or 
lather infamous) is this town for Hotham's refusing en- 
trance to his Majesty. The water-house is worth seeing. 
And here ends the South of Yorkshire. 

19th. We pass the Humber, an arm of the sea of about 
two leagues breadth. The weather was bad, but we crossed 
it in a good barge to Barton, the first town in that part of 
Lincolnshire. All marsh ground till we came to Brigg, 
famous for the plantations of licorice, and then had brave 
pleasant riding to Lincoln, much resembling Salisbury 
Plain. Lincoln is an old confused town, very long, uneven, 
steep, and ragged ; formerly full of good houses, especially 
churches and abbeys. The Minster almost comparable to 
that of York itself, abounding with marble pillars, and 
having a fair front. Herein was interred Queen Eleanora, 
the loyal and loving wife who sucked the poison out of her 
husband's wound ; the abbot, founder, with rare carving 
in the stone ; the great bell, or Tom, as they call it ; I 
went up the steeple, from whence is a goodly prospect all 
over the country. The soldiers had lately knocked oft' 
most of the brasses from the grave-stones, so as few inscrip- 
tions were left ; they told us that these men went in with 
axes and hammers, and shut themselves in, till they had 
rent and torn off some barge-loads of metal, not sparing 


even the monuments of the dead ; so hellish an avarice 
possessed them : besides which, they exceedingly ruined 
the city. 

Here, I saw a tall woman six feet two inches high, comely, 
middle-aged, and well-proportioned, who kept a very neat 
and clean ale-house, and got most by people's coming to 
see her on account of her height. 

20th. From hence we had a most pleasant ride over a 
large heath open like Salisbury Plain, to Grantham, a 
pretty town, so well situated on the side of a bottom, which 
is large and at a distance environed with ascending grounds, 
that for pleasure I consider it comparable to most inland 
places of England ; famous is the steeple for the exceeding 
height of the shaft, which is of stone. 

About eighteen miles South, we pass by a noble seat, 
and see Boston, at a distance. Here, we came to a parish 
of which the parson hath tithe ale. 

Thence through Rutland, we brought night to Homing- 
hold, from whence I set out on this excursion. 

22nd. I went a setting and hawking, where we had 
tolerable sport. 

25th. To see Kirby, a very noble house of my Lord 
Hatton's, in Northamptonshire, built a la moderne ; the 
garden and stables agreeable, but the avenue ungraceful, 
and the seat naked : returned that evening. 

27th. Mr. AlHngton preached an excellent discourse 
from Romans vi. 19. This was he who published those 
bold sermons of the members warring against the mind, 
or the Jews crucifying Christ, applied to the wicked 
regicides ; for which he was ruined. We had no sermon 
in the afternoon. 

30th. Taking leave of my friends, who had now feasted 
me more than a month, I, with my wife, &c., set our faces 
towards home, and got this evening to Peterborough, 
passing by a stately palace (Thorpe) of St. John's (one 
deep in the blood of our good King), built out of the 
ruins of the Bishop's palace and cloister. The church is 
exceeding fair, full of monuments of great antiquity. Here 
hes Queen Catharine, the unhappy wife of Henry VIII., 
and the no less unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On 
the steeple, we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much 
inclosed and drained with infinite expense, and by many 

1654.] JOHN EVELYN. 303 

sluices, cuts, mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like 
inventions ; at which the city and country about it, con- 
sisting of a poor and very lazy sort of people, were much 

Peterborough is a handsome town, and hath another 
well-built church. 

31st. Through part of Huntingdonshire, we passed that 
town, fair and ancient, a river running by it. The country 
about it so abounds in wheat that, when any King of 
England passes through it, they have a custom to meet 
him with a hundred ploughs. 

This evening, to Cambridge ; and went first to St. John's 
College, well built of brick, and library, which I think is 
the fairest of that University. One Mr. Benlowes * has 
given it all the ornaments of pietra commessa,t whereof 
a table and one piece of perspective is very fine ; other 
trifles there also be of no great value, besides a vast old 
song-book, or Service, and some fair manuscripts. There 
hangs in the hbrary the picture of John Williams, Arch- 
bishop of York, sometime Lord Keeper, my kinsman, and 
their great benefactor. 

Trinity College is said by some to be the fairest quad- 
rangle of any University in Europe ; but in truth is far 
inferior to that of Christ Church, in Oxford; the hall is 
ample and of stone, the fountain in the quadrangle is 
graceful, the chapel and Hbrary fair. There, they showed 
us the prophetic manuscript of the famous Grebner, but 
the passage and emblem which they would apply to our 
late King, is manifestly relating to the Swedish ; in truth, 
it seems to be a mere fantastic rhapsody, however the title 
may bespeak strange revelations. There is an office in 
manuscript with fine miniatures, and some other antiquities 
given by the Coimtess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII., 
and the before-mentioned Archbishop Williams, when 
Bishop of Lincoln. The library is pretty well stored. 
The Greek Professor had me into another large quadrangle 
cloistered and well-built, and gave us a handsome collation 
in his own chamber. 

Thence to Caius, and afterwards to King's College, 

* Edward Benlowes, Esq., a writer of Divine Poesy, of a good family in 
Essex, and of a good- estate, but which he wasted by improvident liberality, 
and buying curiosities, as Wood says. Wood's Fasti, 876. 

f Marble, inlaid of various colours, representing flowers, birds, &c. 


where I found the chapel altogether answered expectation, 
especially the roof all of stone, which for the flatness of 
its laying and carving may, I conceive, vie with any in 
Christendom. ISie contignation of the roof (which I 
went upon), weight, and artificial joining of the stones, is 
admirable. The lights are also very fair. In one aisle, 
lies the famous Dr. Collins, so celebrated for his fluency in 
the Latin tongue. From this roof, we could descry Ely, 
and the encampment of Sturbridge fair now beginning to 
set up their tents and booths ; also Royston, Newmarket, 
&c., houses belonging to the King. The hbrary is too 

Clare-Hall is of a new and noble design, but not finished. 

Peter-House, formerly under the government of my 
worthy friend. Dr. Joseph Cosin, Dean of Peterborough;* 
a pretty neat college, having a delicate chapel. Next to 
Sidney, a fine college. 

Catharine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous 
for the learned Bishop Andrews, once Master. Umanuel 
College, that zealous house, where to the hall they have a 
parlour for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed, ab origine, 
built north and south, and meanly erected, as is the 

Jesus-College, one of the best built, but in a melancholy 
situation. Next to Christ-College, a very noble erection, 
especially the modern part, built without the quadrangle 
towards the gardens, of exact architecture. 

The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library 
but mean, though somewhat improved by the wainscoting 
and books lately added by the Bishop Bancroft's library, 
And MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, only 
King James's Works, being his own gift, and kept very 

The market-place is very ample, and remarkable for old 
Hobson the pleasant carrier's beneficence of a fountain.t 
But the whole town is situate in a low dirty unpleasant 
place, the streets ill-paved, the air thick and infected by 
the fens, nor are its churches (of which St. Mary's is the 
best) anything considerable, in compare to Oxford. J 

• Ejected from all his preferments, in 1640, or 1641. Afterwards, Bishop 
of Durham. 
+ It is rather a conduit. 
J The reader must remember that an Oxford man is epeaking. 

1G54.] JOHN EVELYN. 305 

From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent 
some time in seeing that goodly palace built by Howard, 
Earl of Suffolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is a mixed fabric, 
betwixt antique and modern, but observable for its being 
completely finished, and without comparison is one of the 
stateliest palaces in the kingdom. It consists of two 
courts, the first very large, winged with cloisters. The 
front had a double entrance ; the hall is fair, but some- 
what too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is very 
large, as are the cellars arched with stone, very neat and 
well disposed ; these ofiices are joined by a wing out of the 
way very handsomely. The gallery is the most cheerful, 
and I think one of the best in England; a fair dining- 
room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, with a 
pretty chapel. The gardens are not in order, though well 
inclosed. It has also a bowling-alley, a nobly well-walled, 
wooded, and watered park, full of fine collines and ponds : 
the river glides before the palace, to which is an avenue of" 
lime-trees, but all this is much diminished by its being 
placed in an obscure bottom. For the rest, it is a perfectly 
uniform structure, and shows without like a diadem, by 
the decorations of the cupolas and other ornaments on the 
pavilions ; instead of rails and balusters, there is a border 
of capital letters, as was lately also on Suffolk-House, near 
Charing-Cross, built by the same Lord Treasurer.* 

This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, 
famous for the abundance of saffron there cultivated, and 
esteemed the best of any foreign country. 

3rd October. Having dined here, we passed through 
Bishop Stortford, a pretty watered town, and so by 
London, late home to Sayes Court, after a journey of 700 
miles, but for the variety an agreeable refreshment after 
my turmoil and building. 

10th. To my brother at Wotton, who had been sick. 

14th. I went to visit my noble friend, Mr. Hyldiard> 
where I met that learned gentleman, my Lord Aungier, 
and Dr. Stokes, one of his Majesty's Chaplains. 

15th. To Betchworth Castle, to Sir Ambrose Browne, 
and other gentlemen of my sweet and native country. 

24th. The good old parson, Higham, preached at 

* Where Suffolk Street stood. 
VOL. I. X 

306 DIARY OP [i,0ND0N, 

Wotton Church : a plain preacher, but innocent and 
honest man. 

23rd November. I went to London, to visit my cousin 
Fanshawe, and this day I saw one of the rarest collections 
of agates, onyxes, and intaglios, that I had ever seen 
either at home or abroad, collected by a conceited old hat- 
maker in Blackfriars, especially one agate vase, hereto- 
fore the great Earl of Leicester's. 

28th. Came Lady Langham, a kinswoman of mine, to 
visit us ; also one Captain Cooke, esteemed the best singer, 
after the Italian manner, of any in England; he entertained 
ns with his voice and theorbo. 

31st. My birth-day, being the 34th year of my age : 
blessing God for His providence, I went to London to visit 
my brother. 

3rd December. Advent Sunday. There being no Office 
at the church but extemporary prayers after the Presbyte- 
rian way, for now all forms were prohibited, and most of 
the preachers were usurpers, I seldom went to church 
upon solemn feasts; but, either went to London, where 
some of the orthodox sequestered Divines did privately use 
the Common Prayer, administer sacraments, &c., or else I 
procured one to officiate in my house ; wherefore, on the 
10 th, Dr. Richard Owen, the sequestered minister of 
Eltham, preached to my family in my library, and gave 
us the holy Communion. 

25th. Christmas-day. No public offices in churches, but 
penalties on observers, so as I was constrained to celebrate 
it at home. 

1654-5. 1st January. Having with my family performed 
the public offices of the day, and begged a blessing on the 
year I was now entering, I went to keep the rest of 
Christmas at my brother's, R. Evelyn, at "Woodcot. 

19th. My wife was brought to bed of another son, being 
my third, but second living. Christened on the 26th by the 
name of John. 

28th. A stranger preached from Colossians, iii. 2, 
inciting our affections to the obtaining heavenly things. 
I understood afterwards that this man had been both 
Chaplain and Lieutenant to Admiral Penn, using both 
swords, whether ordained or not I cannot say ; into such 
times were we fallen ! 

1655.] JOHN EVELYN. 3O7 

24th February. I was showed a table-clock whose balance 
was only a crystal ball, sliding on parallel wires, without 
being at all fixed, but rolling trom stage to stage till fall- 
ing on a spring concealed from sight, it was thrown up to 
the upmost channel again, made with an imperceptible 
declivity, in this continual vicissitude of motion prettily 
entertaining the eye every half minute, and the next half 
giving progress to the hand that showed the hour, and 
giving notice by a small bell, so as in 120 half minutes, or 
periods, of the buUet^s falHng on the ejaculatory spring, the 
€lock-part struck. This very extraordinary piece (richly 
adorned) had been presented by some German Prince to 
our late King, and was now in possession of the Usurper; 
valued at 200/. 

2nd March. Mr. Simpson, the King's jeweller, showed 
me a most rich agate cup, of an escalop-shape, and having 
a figure of Cleopatra at the scroll, her body, hair, mantle, 
and veil, of the several natural colours. It was supported 
by a half Mark Antony, the colours rarely natural, and the 
work truly antique, but I conceived they were of several 
pieces ; had they been all of one stone, it were invaluable. 

18th. Went to London, on purpose to hear that excellent 
preacher. Dr. Jeremy Taylor, on Matt. xiv. 17, showing 
what were the conditions of obtaining eternal life : also, 
concerning abatements for unavoidable infirmities, how 
cast on the accounts of the cross. On the 31st, I made a 
visit to Dr. Jeremy Taylor, to confer with him about some 
spiritual matters, using him thenceforward as my ghostly 
father. I beseech God Almighty to make me ever mindful . 
of, and thankful for. His heavenly assistances ! 

2nd April, This was the first week that my uncle, 
Pretyman, being parted with his family from me, I began 
housekeeping, till now sojourning with him in my own 

9th. I went to see the great ship newly built by the 
Usurper, Oliver, carrying ninety-six brass guns, and 1000 
tons burthen. In the prow was Oliver on horseback, 
trampling six nations under foot, a Scot, Irishman, Dutch- 
man, Frenchman, Spaniard, and English, as was easily 
made out by their several habits. A Fame held a laurel 
over his insulting head ; the word, God with us. 

15th. I went to London with my family, to celebrate the 

OQ8 DIARY OF [ryegate, 

feast of Easter. Dr. Wild preached at St. Gregory's; the 
ruling Powers conniving at the use of the Liturgy, &c., in 
this church alone. In the afternoon, Mr. Pierson (since 
Bishop of Chester) preached at Eastcheap,butwas disturbed 
by an alarm of fire, which about this time was very frequent 
in the City. 

29th May. I sold Preston to Colonel Morley. 

17th June. There was a collection for the persecuted 
churches and Christians in Savoy, remnants of the ancient 

3rd July. I was showed a pretty Terella, described with 
all the circles, and showing ^1 the magnetic deviations. 

14th. Came Mr. Pratt, my old acquaintance at Rome, 
also Sir Edward Hales, Sir Joseph Tufton, with Mr. 

1st August. I went to Dorking, to see Mr. Charles 
Howard's amphitheatre, garden, or sohtary recess,* being 
fifteen acres environed by a hill. He showed us divers rare 
plants, caves, and an elaboratory. 

10th. To Albury, to visit Mr. Howard, who had begun, 
to build, and alter the gardens much. He showed me many 
rare pictures, particularly the Moor on horseback; Erasmus, 
as big as the life, by Holbein ; a Madonna, in miniature, 
by Ohver; but, above all, the Skull, carved in wood, by 
Albert Durer, for which his father was ofifered 100/, ; also 
Albert's head, by himself, with divers rare agates, intaglios, 
and other curiosities. 

21st. I went to Ryegate, to visit Mrs. Cary, at my Lady 
Peterborough's, in an ancient monastery well in repair, but 
the park much defaced; the house is nobly furnished. 
The chimney-piece in the great chamber, carved in wood, 
was of Henry VIIL, and was taken from an house of his 
in Blechingley. At Ryegate, was now the Archbishop of 
Armagh, the learned James Usher, whom I went to visit. 
He received me exceeding kindly. In discourse with him, 
he told me how great the loss of time was to study much 
the Eastern languages ; that, excepting Hebrew, there was 
little fruit to be gathered of exceeding labour ; that, besides 
some mathematic^J books, the Arabic itself had little con- 
siderable ; that the best text was the Hebrew Bible ; that 

• Called Deepden, the property of Thomas Hope, Esq. 

1655.] JOHN EVELYN. 309 

tlie Septuagint was finished in seventy days, but full of 
errors, about which he was then writing; that St. Hierome's 
was to be valued next the Hebrew ; also that the seventy 
translated the Pentateuch only, the rest was finished by 
others ; that the Italians at present understood but little 
Greek, and Kircherwas a mountebank; that Mr. Selden's 
best book was his " Titles of Honour ; " that the Church 
would be destroyed by sectaries, who would in all likeli- 
hood bring in Popery. In conclusion, he recommended 
to me the study of philology, above all human studies; 
and so, with his blessing, I took my leave of this excellent 
person, and returned to Wotton. 

27th. I went to Boxhill, to see those rare natural bowers, 
cabinets, and shady walks in the box-copses : hence, we 
walked to Mickleham, and saw Sir F. Stidolph's seat, 
environed with elm-trees and walnuts innumerable, and of 
which last he told us they received a considerable revenue. 
Here are such goodly walks and hills shaded with yew and 
box, as render the place extremely agreeable, it seeming 
from these ever-greens to be summer all the winter. 

28th. Camethatrenownedmathematician,Mr. Oughtred* 
to see me, I sending my coach to bring him to Wotton, 
being now very aged. Amongst other discourse, he told 
me he thought water to be the philosopher's first matter, 
and that he was well persuaded of the possibility of their 4=^ 
elixir ; he behoved the sun to be a material fire, the moon 
a continent, as appears by the late Selenographers ; he had 
strong apprehensions of some extraordinary event to happen 
the following year, from the calculation of coincidence with 
the diluvian period ; and added that it might possibly be 
to convert the Jews by our Saviour's visible appearance, or 
to judge the world ; and, therefore, his word was, Par ate in 
occursum ; he said original sin was not met with in the 
Greek Fathers, yet he believed the thing ; this was from 
some discourse on Dr. Taylor's late book, which I had lent 

16th September. Preached at St. Gregory^s one Darnel, 
on Psalm iv. 4, concerning the benefit of self-examination ; 
more learning in so short a time as an hour I have seldom 

* Bector of Albury, of whom there are several excellent engravings by 
W. Hollar. 


] 7th. Eeceived 2600/. of Mr. Hurt, for the Manor of 
Warley Magna, in Essex, purchased by me some time since. 
The taxes were so intolerable that they eat up the rents, &c., 
surcharged as that county had been above all others during 
our unnatural war. 

19th. Came to see me Sir Edward Hales, Mr. Ashmole, 
Mr. Harlakenton, and Mr. Thornhill : and, the next day, 
I visited Sir Henry Newton, at Charlton, where I met the 
Earl of Winchelsea and Lady Beauchamp, daughter to the 
Lord Capel. 

On Sunday afternoon, I frequently staid at home to 
catechise and instruct my family, those exercises univer- 
sally ceasing in the parish churches, so as people had no 
principles, and grew very ignorant of even the common 
points of Christianity ; all devotion being now placed in 
hearing sermons and discourses of speculative and notional 

26th. I went to see Colonel Blount^s subterranean war- 
ren, and drank of the wine of his vineyard, which was good 
for little. 

31st. Sir Nicholas Crisp came to treat with me about 
his vast design of a mole * to be made for ships in part of 
my grounds at Sayes Court. 

3rd November. I had accidentally discourse withaPersiai^ 
and a Greek concerning the devastation of Poland by the 
late incursion of the Swedes. 

27th. To London, about Sir Nicholas Crisp's designs. 

I went to see York House and gardens, belonging to the 
former great Buckingham, but now much ruined through 
neglect, t 

Thence, to visit honest and learned Mr. Hartlib,J a 
public spirited and ingenious person, who had propagated 
many useful things and arts. He told me of the castles 
which they set for ornament on their stoves in Germany 

* See hereafter, under 1662, January. 

t The Duke's names and titles are still preserved in the buildings erected 
on the site ; viz, George Street, Villiers Street, Duiie Street, Off Alley, Buck- 
ingham Street. 

i Samuel Hartlib. Milton's Tractate of Education is addressed to him. 
Mr. Todd, in his Life of that Poet, prefixed to the last Edition of his Poetical 
Works, observes that " a Life of Hartlib is a desideratum in English Bio- 
graphy : " there are ample materials for it in the publications of the tune. 

1655.] JOHN EVELYN. 311 

(he himself being a Lithuanian, as I remember), which are 
furnished with small ordnance of silver on the battlements, 
out of which they discharge excellent perfumes about the 
rooms, charging them with a little powder to set them on 
fire, and disperse the smoke ; and, in truth, no more than 
need ; for their stoves are sufficiently nasty. He told me 
of an ink that would give a dozen copies, moist sheets of 
paper being pressed on it, and remain perfect ; and a 
receipt how to take oif any print without the least injury 
to the original. This gentleman was master of innumerable 
curiosities, and very communicative. I returned home 
that evening by water, and was afflicted for it with a cold 
that had almost killed me. 

This day, came forth the Protector's Edict, or Proclama- 
tion, prohibiting all ministers of the Church of England 
from preaching or teaching any schools, in which he imi- 
tated the apostate, Julian ; with the decimation of all the 
royal party's revenues throughout England. 

14th December. I visited Mr. Hobbes, the famous phi- 
losopher of Malmesbury, with whom I had been long 
acquainted in France. 

Now were the Jews admitted. 

25th. There was no more notice taken of Christmas- 
day in churches. 

I went to London, where Dr. Wild preached the funeral 
sermon of Preaching, this being the last day ; after which, 
Cromwell's proclamation was to take place, that none of 
the Church of England should dare either to preach, or 
administer Sacraments, teach school, &c., on pain of 
imprisonment, or exile. So this was the moumfuUest day 
that in my life I had seen, or the Church of England her- 
self, since the Reformation ; to the great rejoicing of both 
Papist and Presbyter.* So pathetic was his discourse, 
that it drew many tears from the auditory. Myself, wife, 
and some of our family, received the Communion ; God 
make me thankful, who hath hitherto pro\ided forus thefood 
of our souls as well as bodies ! The Lord Jesus pity our 
distressed Church, and bring back the captivity of Zion ! 

• The text was 2 Cor. xiii. 9. That, however persecution dealt with the 
Ministers of God's Word, they were still to pray for the flo^k, and wish their 
perfection, as it was the flock to pray for and assist their pastors, by the 
example of St. Paul. J. £. 


1655-6. 5th January. Came to visit me my Lord Lisle, 
son to the Earl of Leicester, with Sir Charles Ouseley, two 
of the Usurper's council; Mr. John Hervey, and John 
Denham, the poet. 

18th. Went to Eltham on foot, being a great frost, but 
a mist falling as I returned, gave me such a rheum as kept 
me within doors near a whole month after. 

5th February. Was showed me a pretty perspective and 
well represented in a triangular box, the great Church of 
Haarlem in Holland, to be seen through a small hole at one 
of the corners, and contrived into a handsome cabinet. It 
was so rarely done, that all the artists and painters in town 
flocked to see and admire it. 

10th. I heard Dr. Wilkins* preach before the Lord 
Mayor in St. Paul's, showing how obedience was prefer- 
able to sacrifice. He was a most obliging person, who 
had married the Protector's sister, and took great pains to 
preserve the Universities from the ignorant sacrilegious 
commanders and soldiers, who would fain have demohshed 
all places and persons that pretended to learning. 

11th. I ventured to go to Whitehall, where of many 
years I had not been, and found it very glorious and well- 
furnished, as far as I could safely go, and was glad to find 
they had not much defaced that rare piece of Henry VII., 
&c., done on the walls of the King's privy chamber. 

14th. I dined with Mr. Berkeley, son of Lord Berkeley, 
of Berkeley Castle, where I renewed my acquaintance with 
my Lord Bruce, my feUow-traveller in Italy. 

19th. Went with Dr. Wilkins to see Barlow, the famous 
painter of fowls, beasts, and birds. 

4th March. This night I was invited by Mr. Roger 
L'Estrange to hear the incomparable Lubicer on the violin. 
His variety on a few notes and plain ground, with that 
wonderful dexterity, was admirable. Though a young 
man, yet so perfect and skilful, that there was nothing, 
however cross and perplexed, brought to him by our artists, 
which he did not play off at sight with ravishing sweetness 
and improvements, to the astonishment of our best masters. 
In sum, he played on the single instrument a full concert, 
so as the rest flung down their instruments, acknowledging 

• Afterwards, Bishop of Chester. 

1656.] JOHN EVELYN. 313 

the victory. As to my own particular, I stand to this 
hour amazed that God should give so great perfection to 
so young a person. There were at that time as excellent 
in their profession as any were thought to be in Europe, 
Paul Wheeler, Mr. Mell, and others, till this prodigy 
appeared. I can no longer question the effects Ave read of 
in David^s harp to charm evil spirits, or what is said some 
particular notes produced in the passions of Alexander, and 
that King of Denmark. 

13th April. Mr. Berkeley and Mr. Eobert Boyle (that 
excellent person and great virtuoso). Dr. Taylor, and Dr. 
Wilkins, dined with me at Sayes Court, when I presented 
Dr. Wilkins with my rare burning-glass. In the after- 
noon, we all went to Colonel Blount's, to see his new-invented 

22nd. Came to see Mr. Henshaw and Sir WiUiam Pas- 
ton^s son, since Earl of Yarmouth. Afterwards, I went to 
see his Majesty^s house at Eltham, both palace and chapel 
in miserable ruins, the noble woods and park destroyed by 
Eich, the rebel. 

6th May. I brought Monsieur le Franc, a young French 
Sorbonnist, a proselyte, to converse with Dr. Taylor ; they 
fell to dispute on original sin, in Latin, upon a book 
newly pubhshed by the Doctor, who was much satisfied 
with the young man. Thence, to see Mr. Dugdale, our 
learned antiquary and herald. Returning, I was showed 
the three vast volumes of Father Kircher's, "Obeliscus 
Pamphilius" and " ^gyptiacus ;" in the second volume, I 
found the hieroglyphic I first communicated and sent to 
him at Rome by the hands of Mr. Henshaw, whom he 
mentions. I designed it from the stone itself brought me 
to Venice from Cairo by Captain Powell.* 

7th. I visited Dr. Taylor, and prevailed on him to pro- 
pose Monsieur le Franc to the Bishop that he might have 
Orders, I having sometime before brought him to a full 
consent to the Church of England, her doctrine and dis- 
cipHne, in which he had till of late made some difficulty ; 
so he was this day ordained both deacon and priest by the 
Bishop of Meath. I paid the fees to his lordship, who was 
very poor and in great want ; to that necessity were our 

•See pp. 212, 213. 


clergy reduced ! In the afternoon, I met Alderman 
Robinson, to treat with Mr. Papillion about the marriage 
of my cousin, George Tuke, with Mrs. Fontaine. 

8 th. I went to yisit Dr. Wilkins, at Whitehall, when I 
first met with Sir P. Neale, famous for his optic glasses. 
Greatorix, the mathematical instrument-maker, showed 
me his excellent invention to quench fire. 

12th. Was published my Essay on Lucretius,* with 
innumerable errata by the negligence of Mr. Triplet, who 
undertook the correction of the press in my absence. Little 
of the Epicurean philosophy was then known amongst us. 

28th. I dined with Nieuport, the Holland Ambassador, 
who received me with extraordinary courtesy. I found 
him a judicious, crafty, and wise man. He gave me 
excellent cautions as to the danger of the times, and the 
circumstances our nation was in. I remember the obser- 
vation he made upon the ill success of our former Par- 
liaments, and their private animosities, and little care of 
the public. 

Came to visit me the old Marquis of Argyle (since 
executed). Lord Lothian, and some other Scotch noble- 
men, all strangers to me. Note, the Marquis took the 
turtle-doves in the aviary for owls. 

The Earl of Southampton (since Treasurer) and Mr. 
Spencer, brother to the Earl of Sunderland, came to see 
my garden. 

7th July, I began my journey to see some parts of the 
north-east of England ; but the weather was so excessive 
hot and dusty, I shortened my progress. 

8th. To Colchester, a fair town, but now wretchedly' 
demolished by the late siege, especially the suburbs, which 
were all burnt, but were then repairing. The town is 
built on a rising ground, having fair meadows on one side, 

* A translation into English verse of the first book only, the frontispiece 
to which was designed by Mr. Evelyn's lady. Prefixed to the copy in 
tlie library at Wotton, is note in his own handwriting : " Never was book 
so abominably misused by printer : never copy so negligently surveyed by 
one who undertook to look over the proof-sheets with all exactness and care ; 
namely, Dr. Triplet, well known for his ability, and who pretended to oblige 
me in my absence, and so readily offered himself. This good yet I received 
by it, that publishing it vainly, its ill success at the printer's discouraged me 
with troubling the world with the rest." 

1656.] JOHN EVELYN. 315 

and a river with a strong ancient castle, said to have been 
built by King Coilus, father of Helena, mother of Con- 
stantino the Great, of whom I find no memory save at the 
pinnacle of one of their wool-staple houses, where is a 
statue of Coilus, in wood, wretchedly carved. The walls 
are exceeding strong, deeply trenched, and filled with 
earth. It has six gates, and some watch-towers, and some 
handsome churches. But what was showed us as a kind 
of miracle, at the outside of the Castle, the wall where Sir 
Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, those vahant and 
noble persons who so bravely behaved themselves in the 
last siege, were barbarously shot, murdered by Ireton in 
cold blood, after surrendering on articles; having been 
disappointed of relief from the Scotch army, which had 
been defeated with the King at Worcester. The place 
was bare of grass for a large space, all the rest of it 
abounding with herbage. For the rest, this is a ragged 
and factious town, now swarming with sectaries. Their 
trading is in cloth with the Dutch, and baize and says with 
Spain ; it is the only place in England where these stuffs 
are made unsophisticated. It is also famous for oysters 
and eringo-root, growing hereabout, and candied for sale. 

Went to Dedham, a pretty country town, having a very 
fair church, finely situated, the valley well watered. Here, 
I met with Dr. Stokes, a young gentleman, but an excel- 
lent mathematician. This is a clothing town, as most are 
in Essex, but lies in the unwholesome hundreds. 

Hence to Ipswich, doubtless one of the sweetest, most 
pleasant, well-built towns in England. It has twelve fair 
churches, many noble houses, especially the Lord Devereux^s; 
a brave quay, and commodious harbour, being about seven 
miles from the main; an ample market-place. Here was 
born the great Cardinal Wolsey, who began a palace here, 
which was not finished. 

I had the curiosity to visit some Quakers here in prison; 
a new fanatic sect, of dangerous principles, who show no 
respect to any man, magistrate, or other, and seem a 
melancholy, proud sort of people, and exceedingly ignorant. 
One of these was said to have fasted twenty days; but 
another, endeavouring to do the hke, perished on the 10th, 
when he would have eaten, but covdd not. 

10th. I returned homeward, passing again through 


Colchester; and^ by the way, near the ancient town of 
Chelmsford, saw New Hall, built in a park by Henry VII. 
and VIII., and given by Queen Ehzabeth to the Earl of 
Sussex, who sold it to the late great Duke of Buckingham, 
and since seized on by Oliver Cromwell (pretended Pro- 
tector) . It is a fair old house, built with brick, low, being 
only of two stories, as the manner then was; the gate- 
house, better ; the court, large and pretty ; the staircase, 
of extraordinary wideness, with a piece representing Sir 
Erancis Drake's action in the year 1580, an excellent sea- 
piece; the galleries are trifling; the hall is noble; the 
garden a fair plot, and the whole Seat well accommodated 
with water; but, above all, I admired the fair avenue 
planted with stately lime trees, in four rows, for near a 
mile in length. It has three descents, which is the only 
fault, and may be reformed. There is another fair walk of 
the same at the mall and wilderness, with a tennis-court, 
and pleasant terrace towards the park, which was well 
stored with deer and ponds. 

11th. Came home by Greenwich ferry, where I saw Sir 
J. Winter's project of charring sea-coal, to burn out the 
sulphur, and render it sweet. He did it by burning the 
coals in such earthen pots as the glass-men melt their 
metal, so firing them without consuming them, using a 
bar of iron in each crucible, or pot, which bar has a hook 
at one end, that so the coals being melted in a furnace 
with other crude sea-coals under them, may be drawn out 
of the pots sticking to the iron, whence they are beaten off 
in great half-exhausted cinders, which being re-kindled 
»nake a clear pleasant chamber-fire, deprived of their 
sulphur and arsenic malignity. What success it may have, 
time will discover.* 

3rd August. I went to London, to receive the Blessed 
Sacrament, the first time the Church of England was 
reduced to a chamber and conventicle ; so sharp was the 
persecution. The parish-churches were filled with sectaries 
of all sorts, blasphemous and ignorant mechanics usurping 
the pulpits everjrwhere. Dr. Wildf preached in a private 

* Many years ago. Lord Dundonald, a Scotch nobleman, revived the pro- 
ject, but with the proposed improvement of extracting and saving the tar. 
Unfortunately, his Lordship did not profit by it. The Gas Companies sell the 
coal thus charred, by the name of coke, as fuel for many purposes. 

t See note, p. 334. 

165G.] JOHN EVELYN. 317 

house in Fleet-street, where we had a great meeting of 
zealous Christians, who were generally much more devout 
and religious than in our greatest prosperity. In the 
afternoon, I went to the French Church in the Savoy, where 
I heard Monsieur d^Espagne catechise, and so returned to 
my house. 

20th. Was a confused election of Parliament called by 
the Usurper. 

7th September. I went to take leave of my excellent 
neighbour and friend. Sir H. Newton and lady, now going 
to dwell at Warwick ; and Mr. Needham, my dear and 
learned friend, came to visit me. 

14th. Now was old Sir Henry Vane sent to Carisbrook 
Castle, in Wight, for a foohsh book he published ; the pre- 
tended Protector fortifying himself exceedingly, and send- 
ing many to prison. 

2nd October. Came to visit me my cousin, Stephens, and 
Mr. Pierce (since Head of Magdalen College, Oxford), a 
learned minister of Brington, in Northamptonshire, and 
Captain Cooke, both excellent musicians. 

2nd November. There was now nothing practical 
preached, or that pressed reformation of life, but high 
and speculative points and strains that few understood,, 
which left people very ignorant, and of no steady principles,, 
the source of all our sects and divisions, for there was 
much envy and uncharity in the world ; God of his mercy 
amend it ! Now, indeed, that I went at all to church, 
whilst these usurpers possessed the pulpits, was that I 
might not be suspected for a Papist, and that, though the 
minister was Presbyterianly affected, he yet was as I 
understood duly ordained, and preached sound doctrine 
after their way, and besides was an humble, harmless, and 
peaceable man. 

25th December. I went to London, to receive the Blessed 
Communion this holy festival at Dr. Wildes lodgings, 
where I rejoiced to find so full an assembly of devout and 
sober Christians. 

26th. I invited some of my neighbours and tenants, 
according to custom, and to preserve hospitahty and 

28th. A stranger preached on Luke xviii. 7, 8, on which 


he made a confused discourse, with a great deal of Greek 
and ostentation of learning, to but Httle purpose. 

30th. Dined with me Sir William Paston's son, Mr. 
Henshaw, and Mr. Clayton. 

31st. I begged God's blessing and mercies for his good- 
ness to me the past year, and set my domestic affairs in 

1656-7. 1st January. Having prayed with my family, and 
celebrated the anniversary, I spent some time in imploring 
God's blessing the year I was entered into. 

7th. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (since secretary to the 
Duke), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of 
Ely, now a prisoner in the Tower; a most worthy and 
learned gentleman. 

10th. Came Dr. Joyliffe, that famous physician and ana- 
tomist, first detector of the lymphatic veins ; also the old 
Marquis of Argyle, and another Scotch Earl. 

5th February. Dined at the Holland Ambassador's ; he 
told me the East India Company of Holland had constantly 
a stock of 400,000/. in India, and forty-eight men-of-war 
there: he spoke of their exact and just keeping their 
books and correspondence, so as no adventurer's stock 
could possibly be lost, or defeated ; that it was a vulgar 
error that the Hollanders furnished their enemies with 
powder and ammunition for their money, though engaged 
in a cruel war, but that they used to merchandize indiffer- 
ently, and were permitted to sell to the friends of their 
enemies. He laughed at our Committee of Trade, as com- 
posed of men wholly ignorant of it, and how they were the 
ruin of commerce, by gratifying some for private ends. 

10th. I went to visit the Governor of Havannah, a brave, 
sober, valiant Spanish gentleman, taken by Captain Young, 
of Deptford, when, after twenty years being in the Indies, 
and amassing great wealth, his lady and whole family, 
except two sons, were burnt, destroyed, and taken within 
sight of Spain, his eldest son, daughter, and wife, perishing 
with immense treasure.* One son, of about seventeen 
years old, with his brother of one year old, were the only 
ones saved. The young gentleman, about seventeen, was 
a well-complexioned youth, not olive-coloured; he spake 

* This disastrous event is particularly noticed in Waller's poem on a War 
with Spain. Fight at Sea, by General Montague, 1656. 

1657.] JOHN EVELYN. 319 

Latin handsomely, was extremely well-bred, and born in 
the Caraccas, 1000 miles south of the Equinoctial, near 
the mountains of Potosi; he had never been in Europe 
before. The Governor was an ancient gentleman of great 
courage, of the order of St. Jago, sore wounded in his arm, 
and his ribs broken; he lost for his own share 100,000/. 
sterhng, which he seemed to bear with exceeding indiflPer- 
ence, and nothing dejected. After some discourse, I went 
with them to Arundel- House, where they dined. They 
were now going back into Spain, having obtained their 
liberty from Cromwell. An example of human vicissitude ! 

14th. To London, where I found Mrs. Gary ; next day, 
came Mr. Mordaunt (since Viscount Mordaunt), younger 
son to the Gountess of Peterborough, to see his mistress, 
bringing with him two of my Lord of Dover's daughters : 
so, after dinner, they all departed. 

5th March. Dr. Rand, a learned physician, dedicated to 
me his version of Gassendi's Vita Peiriskii. 

25th. Dr. Taylor showed me his MS. of Cases of Con- 
science, or Ductor dubitantium, now fitted for the Press. 

The Protector, Oliver, now affecting kingship, is petitioned 
to take the title on him by all his new-made sycophant 
lords, &c. ; but dares not, for fear of the fanatics, not 
thoroughly purged out of his rebel army. 

21st April. Came Sir Thomas Hanmer, of Hanmer, in 
Wales, to see me. I then waited on my Lord Hatton, 
with whom I dined : at my return, I stepped into Bedlam, 
where I saw several poor miserable creatures in chains ; 
one of them was mad with making verses. I also visited 
the Charter-house, formerly belonging to the Cai'thusians, 
now an old neat fresh sohtary college for decayed gentle- 
men. It has a grove, bowling-green, garden, chapel, and 
a hall where they eat in common. I likewise saw Christ- 
church and Hospital, a very goodly Gothic building ; the 
hall, school, and lodgings in great order for bringing up 
many hundreds of poor children of both sexes; it is an 
exemplary charity. There is a large picture at one end of 
the hall, representing the governors, founders, and the 

25th. I had a dangerous fall out of the coach in Covent 
Garden, going to my brother's, but without harm; the 
Lord be praised ! 


1st May. Divers soldiers were quartered at my house; but 
I thank God went away the next day towards Flanders. 

5th. I went with my cousin, George Tuke, to see Bay- 
nard, in Surrey, a house of my brother Richard's, which he 
would have hired. This is a very fair noble residence, built 
in a park, and having one of the goodliest avenues of oaks 
up to it that ever I saw; there is a pond* of 60 acres 
near it; the windows of the chief rooms are of very fine 
painted glass. The situation is excessively dirty and 

15th. Laurence, President of Oliver's Council, and some 
other of his Court-Lords, came in the afternoon to see my 
garden and plantations. 

7th June. My fourth son was born, christened George, 
(after my grandfather) ; Dr. Jeremy Taylor officiating in 
the drawing-room. 

18th. At Greenwich, I saw a sort of cat| brought from 
the East Indies, shaped and snouted much like the Egyp- 
tian racoon, in the body like a monkey, and so footed ; the 
ears and tail like a cat, only the tail much longer, and the 
skin variously ringed with black and white ; with the tail 
it wound up its body like a serpent, and so got up into 
trees, and with it would wrap its whole body round. Its 
hair was woolly like a lamb ; it was exceedingly nimble, 
gentle, and purred as does the cat. 

16th July. On Dr. Jeremy Taylor's recommendation, I 
went to Eltham, to help one Moody, a young man, to that 
living, by my interest with the patron. 

August 6th. I went to see Colonel Blount, who showed 
me the application of the way-wiser to a coach, exactly 
measuring the miles, and showing them by an index as we 
went on. It had three circles, one pointing to the number 
of rods, another to the miles, by 10 to 1000, with all the 
subdivisions of quarters ; very pretty and useful. 

10th. Our vicar, from John xviii. 36, declaimed against 

♦ This pond belongs to Vachery in Cranley. 

f It is in the lower part of the parish of Ewhurst, in Surrey, adjoining to 
Iludg\vick, in Sussex, in a deep clay soil. It was formerly the seat of Sir 
Edward Bray, and afterwards belonged to the Earl of Onslow, who carried the 
painted glass to his seat at Clandon. 

X This was probably the animal called a Mocock (maucauco), well known 
at present. 

1557.] JOHN EVELYN. 321 

the folly of a sort of enthusiasts and desperate zealots, 
called the Fifth-Monarchy-Men, pretending to set up the 
kingdom of Christ with the sword. To this pass was 
this age arrived when we had no King in Israel. 

21st. Fell a most prodigious rain in London, and the 
year was very sickly in the country. 

1st September. I visited Sir Edmund Bowyer, at his 
melancholy seat at Camberwell. He has a very pretty 
grove of oaks, and hedges of yew in his garden, and a 
handsome row of tall elms before his court. 

15tli. Going to London with some company, we stept 
in to see a famous rope-dancer, called the Turk. * I saw 
even to astonishment the agility with which he performed ; 
he walked barefooted, taking hold by his toes only of a 
rope almost perpendicular, and without so much as touch- 
ing it with his hands; he danced blindfold on the high 
rope, and with a boy of twelve years old tied to one of his 
feet about twenty feet beneath him, dangling as he danced, 
yet he moved as nimbly as if it had been but a feather. 
Lastly, he stood on his head, on the top of a very high 
mast, danced on a small rope that was very slack, and 
finally flew down the perpendicular, on his breast, his 
head foremost, his legs and arms extended, with divers 
other activities. — I saw the hairy woman, f twenty years 
old, whom I had before seen when a child. She was bom 
at Augsburg, in Germany. Her very eye-brows were 
combed upwards, and all her forehead as thick and even 
as grows on any woman's head, neatly dressed; a very 
long lock of hair out of each ear; she had also a most 
prolix beard, and mustachios, with long locks growing on 
the middle of her nose, like an Iceland dog exactly, the 
colour of a bright brown, fine as well-dressed flax. She 
was now married, and told me she had one child that was 
not hairy, nor were any of her parents, or relations. She 
was very well shaped, and played weU on the harpsichord. 

17th. To see Sir Robert Needham, at Lambeth, a 
relation of mine ; and thence to John Tradescant's museum, 

* Mr. Evelyn again mentions this person in his Numismata, under the 
name of the Funamble Turk. 

f Bai*bara Vanbeck. There are two portraits of her, one a line engraving, 
the other in mezzotinto, described by Mr. Granger in his Biography. There 
\a also another representation of her in some German Book of Natural 

VOL. I. Y 


in which the chiefest rarities were, in my opinion, the 
ancient Roman, Indian, and other nations^ armour, shields, 
and weapons ; some habits of curiously-coloured and 
wrought feathers, one from the phenix wing, as tradition 
goes. Other innumerable things there were, printed in 
his catalogue by Mr. Ashmole, to whom after the death of 
the widow they are bequeathed, and by him designed as a 
gift to Oxford. * 

19th October. I went to see divers gardens about Lon- 
don ; returning, I saw at Dr. Joyliffe's two Virginian 
rattle-snakes alive, exceeding a yard in length, small heads, 
slender tails, but in the middle nearly the size of my leg ; 
when vexed, swiftly vibrating and shaking their tails, as 
loud as a child's rattle : this, by the collision of certain 
gristly skins curiously jointed, yet loose, and transparent 
as parchment, by which they give warning : a providential 
caution for other creatures to avoid them. The Doctor 
tried their biting on rats and mice, which they immediately 
killed: but their vigour must needs be much exhausted 
here, in another climate, and kept only in a barrel of 

22nd. To town, to visit the Holland Ambassador, with 
whom I had now contracted much friendly correspondence, 
useful to the intelligence I constantly gave his Majesty 

26th November. I went to London, to a court of the 
East India Company on its new union, in Merchant- 
Taylors' Hall, where was much disorder by reason of the 
Anabaptists, who would have the adventurers obliged only 
by an engagement, without swearing, that they still might 
pursue their private trade; but it was carried against 
them. Wednesday was fixed on for a General Court for 
election of officers, after a sermon and prayers for good 
success. The Stock resolved on was 800,000/. 

27th. I took the oath at the East India House, sub- 
scribing 500/. 

2nd December. Dr. Rajnnolds (since Bishop of Norwich) 
preached before the company at St. Andrew Under-shaffc, 
on Nehemiah xiii. 31, showing, by the example of Nehe- 
miah, all the perfections of a trusty person in public aflFairs, 

* Where they now ftre in the Ashmolean Museum. See hereafter, under 
July, 1678. 

.1667.] JOHN EVELYN. 323 

'with many good precepts apposite to the occasion, ending 
■with a prayer for God's blessing on the company and the 

3rd. Mr. Gunning preached on John iii. 3, against the 
Anabaptists, showing the effect and necessity of the sacra- 
ment of baptism. This sect was now wonderfully spread. 

25th. I went ta London with my wife, to celebrate 
Christmas-day, Mr. Gunning preaching in Exeter chapel^ 
on Michah vii. 2. Sermon ended, as he was giving us 
the Holy Sacrament, the chapel was surrounded with 
soldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surprised 
and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others 
carried away. It fell to my share to be confined to a 
room in the house, where yet I was permitted to dine with 
the master of it, the Countess of Dorset, Lady Hatton, 
and some others of quality who invited me. In the after- 
noon, came Colonel Whalley, Goffe, and others, from 
Whitehall, to examine us one by one; some they com- 
mitted to the Marshal, some to prison. When I came 
before them, they took my name and abode, examined me 
why, contrary to the ordinance made, that none should 
any longer observe the superstitious time of the Nativity 
(so esteemed by them), I durst oflPend, and particularly be 
at Common Prayers, which they told me was but the mass 
in English, and particularly pray for Charles Stuart ; for 
which we had no Scripture. I told them we did not pray 
for Charles Stuart, but for all Christian Kings, Princes, 
and Governors. They replied, in so doing we prayed for 
the King of Spain, too, who was their enemy and a Papist, 
with other frivolous and ensnaring questions, and much 
threatening ; and, finding no colour to detain me, thfey 
dismissed me with much pity of my ignorance. These 
were men of high flight and above ordinances, and spake 
spiteful things of our Lord's Nativity. As we went up to 
receive the Sacrament, the miscreants held their muskets 
against us, as if they would have shot us at the altar, but 
yet suffering us to finish the office of Communion, as per- 
haps not having instructions what to do, in case they 
found us in that action. So I got home late the next day ; 
blessed be God ! 

1657-8. 27th January. After six fits of a quartan ague, 
with which it pleased God to visit him, died my dear son, 



Richard, to our inexpressible grief and affliction, five years 
and three days old only, but at that tender age a prodigy 
for wit and understanding; for beauty of body, a very 
angel; for endowment of mind, of incredible and rare 
hopes. To give only a little taste of them, and thereby 
glory to God, who " out of the mouths of babes and infants 
does sometimes perfect his praises,^' he had learned all his 
catechism ; at two years and a half old, he could perfectly 
read any of the English, Latin, French, or Gothic letters, 
pronouncing the three first languages exactly. He had, 
before the fifth year, or in that year, not only skill to read 
most written hands, but to decline all the nouns, conjugate 
the verbs regular, and most of the irregular ; learned out 
" Puerilis," got by heart almost the entire vocabulary of 
Latin and French primitives and words, could make con- 
gruous syntax, turn English into Latin, and vice versd, 
construe and prove what he read, and did the government 
and use of relatives, verbs, substantives, ellipses, and many 
figures and tropes, and made a considerable progress in 
Comenius^s Janua; began himself to write legibly, and 
had a strong passion for Greek. The number of verses 
he could recite was prodigious, and what he remembered 
of the parts of plays, which he would also act ; and, when 
seeing a Plautus in one's hand, he asked what book it was, 
and, being told it was comedy, and too difficult for him, 
he wept for sorrow. Strange was his apt and ingenious 
apphcation of fables and morals ; for he had read iEsop ; 
he had a wonderful disposition to mathematics, having by 
heart divers propositions of Euclid that were read to him 
in play, and he would make hues and demonstrate them. 
Al to his piety, astonishing were his applications of Scrip- 
ture upon occasion, and liis sense of God ; he had learned 
all his Catechism early, and understood the historical part 
of the Bible and New Testament to a wonder, how Christ 
came to redeem mankind, and how, comprehending these 
necessaries himself, his godfathers were discharged of their 

These and the like illuminations, far exceeding his age 
and experience, considering the prettiness of his address 
and behaviour, cannot but leave impressions in me at the 
memory of him. "When one told him how many days a 
Quaker had fasted, he rephed that was no wonder ; for 

1658.] JOHN EVELYN. 325 

Christ had said that man should not live by bread alone, 
but by the Word of God. He would of himself select the 
most pathetic psalms, and chapters out of Job, to read to 
his maid during his sickness, tellirg her, when she pitied 
him, that all God's children must suffer affliction. He 
declaimed against the vanities of the world, before he had 
seen any. Often he would desire those who came to see 
him to pray by him, and a year before he fell sick, to kneel 
and pray with him alone in some corner. How thankfully 
would he receive admonition ! how soon be reconciled ! 
how indifferent, yet continually cheerful ! He would 
give grave advice to his brother, John, bear with his im- 
pertinences, and say he was but a child. If he heard of 
or saw any new thing, he was unquiet till he was told how 
it was made ; he brought to us all such difficulties as he 
found in books, to be expounded. He had learned by 
heart divers sentences in Latin and Greek which, on oc- 
casion, he would produce even to wonder. He was all life, 
all prettiness, far from morose, sullen, or childish in any 
thing he said or did. The last time he had been at church, 
(which was at Greenwich), I asked him, according to cus- 
tom, what he remembered of the sermon; two good 
things. Father, said he, bonum gratice and bonum gloria, 
with a just account of what the preacher said. 

The day before he died, he called to me ; and, in a more 
serious manner than usual, told me that for all I loved him 
so dearly, I should give my house, land, and all my fine 
things, to his brother Jack, he should have none of them; 
and, next morning, when he found himself ill, and that I 
persuaded him to keep his hands in bed, he demanded 
whether he might pray to God with his hands unjoined; 
and a little after, whilst in great agony, whether he should 
not offend God by using his holy name so often calling for 
ease. What shall I say of his frequent pathetical ejacula- 
tions uttered of himself : "Sweet Jesus save me, deliver 
me, pardon my sins, let thine angels receive me ! " So 
early knowledge, so much piety and perfection ! But 
thus God, having dressed up a saint fit for himself, would 
not longer permit him with us, unworthy of the future 
fruits of this incomparable hopeful blossom. Such a child 
I never saw : for such a child I bless God, in whose bosom 
he is ! May I and mine become as this little child, who 

326 DIARY OF [sAYEs-couRT, 

now follows tlie cliild Jesus that Lamb of God in a white 
robe, whithersoever he goes; even so, Lord Jesus, fiat 
voluntas tua ! Thou gavest him to us. Thou hast taken 
him from us, blessed be the name of the Lord ! That I 
had any thing acceptable to Thee was from thy grace 
alone, since from me he had nothing but sin, but that 
Thou hast pardoned ! blessed be my God for ever, Amen! 

In my opinion, he was suffocated by the women and 
maids that tended him, and covered him too hot with 
blankets as he lay in a cradle, near an excessive hot fire in 
a close room. I suffered him to be opened, when they 
found that he was what is vulgarly called liver-grown. I 
caused his body to be coffined in lead, and reposited on 
the 30 th at eight o^clock that night in the church at Dept- 
ford, accompanied with divers of my relations and neigh- 
bours, among whom I distributed rings with this motto : 
Dominus abstulit ; intending, God wiUing, to have him 
transported with my own body to be interred in our dor- 
mitory in Wotton Church, in my dear native county of 
Surrey, and to lay my bones and mingle my dust with my 
fathers, if God be gracious to me, and majie me as fit for 
Him as this blessed child was. The Lord Jesus sanctify 
this and all other my afflictions. Amen !* 

Here ends the joy of my life, and for which I go even 
mourning to the grave. 

15th February. The afflicting hand of God being still 
upon us, it pleased Him also to take away from us this 
morning my youngest Son, George, now seven weeks lan- 
guishing at nurse, breeding teeth, and ending in a dropsy. 
God's holy will be done ! He was buried in Deptford 
church, the 17th following. 

25th. Came Dr. Jeremy Taylor, and my brothers, with 
other friends, to visit and condole with us. 

7th March. To London, to hear Dr. Taylor in a private 
house on Luke xiii. 23, 24. After the sermon, followed 
the blessed Communion, of which I participated. In the 
afternoon. Dr. Gxmning, at Exeter House, expounding part 
of the Creed. 

• In the Preface to his Translation of the "Golden Book of St. Chrysostom, 
concerning the Education of Children," is likewise given a very interesting 
account of this amiable and promising child. See Mr. Evelyn's '* Miscella- 
neous Writings," 4to. 1825,;p. 105. 

1658.] JOHN EVELYN. 327 

This had been the severest winter that any man alive 
had known in England. The crows' feet were frozen to 
their prey. Islands of ice inclosed both fish and fowl 
frozen, and some persons in their boats. 

15th May, was a public fast, to avert an epidemical 
sickness, very mortal this spring. 

20th. I went to see a coach-race in Hyde Park, and col- 
lationed in Spring Garden. 

23rd. Dr. Manton, the famous Presbyterian, preached 
at Covent Garden, on Matthew vi. 10, showing what the 
kingdom of God was, how pray for it, &c. 

There was now a collection for persecuted and seques- 
tered Ministers of the Church of England, whereof divers 
are in prison. A sad day ! The Church now in dens and 
caves of the earth. 

31st. I went to visit my Lady Peterborough, whose son, 
Mr. Mordaunt, prisoner in the Tower, was now on his 
trial, and acquitted but by one voice; but that holy 
martyr. Dr. Hewer, was condemned to die, without law, 
jury, or justice, but by a mock Council of State, as they 
called it. A dangerous, treacherous time ! 

2nd June. An extraordinary storm of hail and rain, 
the season as cold as winter, the wind northerly near six 

3rd. A large whale was taken betwixt my land abutting 
on the Thames and Greenwich, which drew an infinite 
concourse to see it, by water, horse, coach, and on foot, 
from London, and all parts. It appeared first below Green- 
wich at low water, for at high water it would have destroyed 
all the boats, but lying now in shallow water encompassed 
with boats, after a long conflict, it was killed with a harp- 
ing iron, struck in the head, out of which spouted blood 
and water by two tunnels; and, after a horrid groan, it ran 
quite on shore, and died. Its length was fifty-eight feet, 
height sixteen; black-skinned, hke coach-leather, very 
small eyes, great tail, only two small fins, a peaked snout, 
and a mouth so wide, that divers men might have stood 
upright in it; no teeth, but sucked the slime only as 
through a grate of that bone which we call whale-bone ; 
the throat yet so narrow, as would not have admitted the 
least of fishes. The extremes of the cetaceous bones hang 
downwards from the upper jaw, and are hairy towards the 

328 DIARY OF [godstomf, 

ends and bottom within side : all of it prodigious ; but in 
nothing more wonderful than that an animal of so great 
a bulk should be nourished only by sHme through those 

8th. That excellent preacher and holy man. Dr. Hewer, 
was martyred for having inteUigence with his Majesty,* 
through the Lord Marquis of Ormond. 

9th. I went to see the Earl of Northumberland's pic- 
tures, whereof that of the Venetian Senators f was one of 
the best of Titian's, and another of Andrea del Sarto, 
viz. a Madonna, Christ, St. John, and an Old Woman ; a 
St. Catharine of Da Vinci, with divers portraits of Van- 
dyck; a Nativity of Georgioni; the last of our blessed 
Kings (Charles I.), and the Duke of York, by Lely, a 
Rosary, by the famous Jesuits of Brussels, and several 
more. This was in SujBFolk House : the new front towards 
the gardens is tolerable, were it not drowned by a toa 
massy and clumsy pair of stairs of stone, without any neat 

10th. I went to see the Medical Garden, at Westminster, 
well stored with plants, under Morgan, a very skilful 

26th. To Eltham, to visit honest Mr. Owen. 

3rd July. To London, and dined with Mr. Henshaw, 
Mr. Dorell, and Mr. Ashmole, founder of the Oxford 
repository of rarities, with divers doctors of physic and 

15th. Came to see my Lord Kilmurry and Lady, Sir 
Robert Needham, Mr. Offley, and two daughters of my 
Lord Willoughby, of Parham. 

3rd August. Went to Sir John Evelyn, at Godstone. 
The place is excellent, but might be improved by turning 
some offices of the house, and removing the garden. Th& 
house being a noble fabric, though not comparable to 
what was first built by my uncle, who was master of all 
the powder-mills. 

5th. We went to SquirriesJ to visit my Cousin Leech, 

• He was Miniater of St. Gregory's, London, and was beheaded on Tower"- 

+ The Comaro family, still one of the grand ornaments of Northimiberland- 
House. There is a fine print of it engraved by Baron. 

i At Westerham, in Kent. 

1658.] JOHN EVELYN. 329 

daughter to Sir John ; a pretty, finely wooded, well 
watered seat, the stables good, the house old, but con- 
venient. 6th. Returned to Wotton. 

10th. I dined at Mr. Carew Raleigh's, at Horsley, son 
to the famous Sir Walter. 

14th. We went to Durdans [at Epsom] to a challenged 
match at bowls for 10/., which we won. 

18th. To Sir Ambrose Browne, at Betch worth Castle, in 
that tempestuous wind which threw down my greatest 
trees at Sayes Court, and did so much mischief all over 
England. It continued the whole night ; and, till three in 
the afternoon of the next day, in the south-west, and 
destroyed all our winter fruit. 

3rd September. Died that arch-rebel, OUver Cromwell, 
called Protector. 

16th. Was published my " Translation of St. Chrysos- 
tom on Education of Children," which I dedicated to both 
my brothers, to comfort them on the loss of their children. 

21st. My Lord Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle, invited 
me to dinner. 

26th. Mr. King preached at Ashted, on Proverbs xv. 
24; a Quaker would have disputed with him. In the 
afternoon, we heard Dr. Hacket (since Bishop of Litch- 
field) at Cheam, where the family of the Lumleys lie buried. 

27th. To Beddington, that ancient seat of the Carews, 
a fine old hall, but a scambling house, famous for the first 
orange-gardens in England, being now overgrown trees, 
planted in the ground, and secured in winter with a 
wooden tabernacle and stoves. This seat is rarely watered, 
lying low, and environed with good pastures. The pome- 
granates bear here. To the house is also added a fine 
park. Thence, to Carshalton, excellently watered, and 
capable of being made a most delicious seat, being on the 
sweet downs, and a champain about it full planted with 
walnut and cherry-trees, which afford a considerable rent. 

Riding over these downs, and discoursing with the 
shepherds, I foimd that digging about the bottom near 
Sir Christopher Buckle's,* near Banstead, divers medals 

• This house is not far from the course of the Roman road from Chichester, 
through Sussex, passing through Ockley, and Dorking church-yard. 
Considerable remains of a Roman building have been found on Walton-heath, 
south of this house. 

^gj^ DIARY OF [lomdom, 

have been found, both copper and silver, with foundations 
of houses, urns, &c. Here, indeed, anciently stood a city 
of the Romans. — See Antonine^s Itinerary. 

29th. I returned home, after ten weeks^ absence. 

3nd October. I went to London, to receive the Holy 

On the 3rd, Dr. Wild preached in a private place 
on Isaiah i. 4, showing the parallel betwixt the sins 
of Israel and those of England. In the afternoon, 
Mr. Hall (son to Joseph, Bishop of Norwich) on 1 Cor. 
vi. 2, of the dignity of the Saints ; a most excellent dis- 

4th. I dined with the Holland Ambassador, at Derby 
House : returning, I diverted to see a very while raven, 
bred in Cumberland ; also a porcupine, of that kind that 
shoots its quiUs, of which see Claudian ; it was headed like 
a rat, the fore feet like a badger, the hind feet like a 

19th. I was summoned to London, by the Commissioners 
for new buildings; afterwards, to the Commission of Sewers j 
but because there was an oath to be taken of fidelity to the 
Government as now constituted without a King, I got to 
be excused, and returned home. 

22nd. Saw the superb funeral of the Protector. He 
was carried from Somerset-House in a velvet bed of state, 
drawn by six horses, housed with the same ; the pall held 
by his new Lords ; OHver lying in effigy, in royal robes, 
and crowned with a crown, sceptre, and globe, like a king. 
The pendants and guidons were carried by the officers of 
the army ; the Imperial banners, achievements, &c. by the 
heralds in their coats ; a rich caparisoned horse, embroi- 
dered all over with gold ; a knight of honour, armed cap- 
a-pie, and, after all, his guards, soldiers, and innumerable 
mourners. In this equipage, they proceeded to Westmin- 
ster : but it was the joyfullest funeral I ever saw ; for 
there were none that cried but dogs, which the soldiers 
hooted away with a barbarous noise, drinking and taking 
tobacco in the streets as they went. 

I returned not home till the 17 th November. 

I was summoned again to London by the Commissioners 
for new foundations to be erected within such a distance 
of London. 

1659.] JOHN EVELYN. 331 

6th December. Now was published my " French Gar- 
dener/'* the first and best of the kind that introduced 
the use of the Olitory garden to any purpose. 

23rd. I went with my wife to keep Christmas at my 
cousin, George Tuke's, at Cressing Temple, in Essex. Lay 
that night at Brentwood. 

25th. Here was no public service, but what we privately 
used. I blessed God for His mercies the year past ; and, 
1st January, begged a continuance of them. Thus, for 
three Sundays, by reason of the incumbent's death, here 
was neither praying nor preaching, though there was a 
chapel in the house. 

1658-9. 17th January. Our old vicar preached, taking 
leave of the parish in a pathetical speech, to go to a living 
in the City. 

24th March. I went to London, to speak to the patron. 
Alderman Cuttler, about presenting a fit pastor for our 
destitute parish-church. 

5th April. Came the Earl of Northampton and the 
famous painter, Mr. Wright,t to visit me. 

10th. One Mr. Littler, being now presented to the 
living of our parish, preached on John vi. 55, a sermon 
preparatory to the Holy Sacrament. 

25th. A wonderful and sudden change in the face of 
the public ; the new Protector, Richard, sHghted ; several 
pretenders and parties strive for the government: all 
anarchy and confusion ; Lord have mercy on us ! 

5th May. I went to visit my brother in London; and, 
next day, to see a new opera, J after the Itahan way, in 
recitative music and scenes, much inferior to the Italian 
composure and magnificence ; but it was prodigious that 
in a time of such pubhc consternation such a vanity should 
be kept up, or permitted. I, being engaged with company, 
could not decently resist the going to see it, though my 
heart smote me for it. 

• The " Epistle Dedicatory to the French Gardener" is reprinted in " Mia- 
oellaneous Writings," 4to., 1825, p. 97. 

+ Mr. Michael Wright, who painted the twelve Judges in Guildhall, after 
the great fire. There is a long account of him in " Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting." See more of him under October 1662. 

J Probably, Sir William Davenant's Opera, in which the cruelty of the Spa- 
niards in Peru was expressed by instrumental and vocal music, and by art of 
perspective in scenes, 4to, 1658. See the « Biographia Dramatica.** 


7th. Came the Ambassador of Holland and his Lady to 
visit me, and staid the whole afternoon. 

]2th. I returned the visit, discoursing much of the 
revolutions, &c. 

19th. Came to dine with me my Lord Galloway and 
his son, a Scotch Lord and learned ; also my brother and 
his Lady, Lord Berkeley and his Lady, Mrs. Shirley, and 
the famous singer, Mrs. Knight,* and other friends. 

23rd. I went to Rookwood,t and dined with Sir William 
Hicks, where was a great feast and much company. It is 
a melancholy old house, environed with trees and rooks. 

26th. Came to see me my Lord George Berkeley, Sir 
William Ducie, and Sir George Pottos son of Norfolk. 

29th. The nation was now in extreme confusion and 
unsettled, between the Armies and the Sectaries, the poor 
Church of England breathing as it were her last ; so sad a 
face of things had overspread us. 

7th June. To London, to take leave of my brother, and 
see the foundations now laying for a long street and build- 
ings in Hatton-Garden, designed for a little town, lately 
an ample garden. 

1st September. I communicated to Mr. Robert Boyle, 
son to the Earl of Cork, my proposal for erecting a philo- 
sophic and mathematic college. 

15th. Came to see me Mr. Brereton, a very learned 
gentleman, son to my Lord Brereton, with his and divers 
other ladies. Also, Henry Howard of Norfolk, since Duke 
of Norfolk. 

30th. I went to visit Sir William Ducie and Colonel 
Blount, where I met Sir Henry Blount, the famous tra- 
veller and water-drinker. 

10th October. I came with my wife and family to 

* Afterwards, one of Charles the Second's mistresses. 

+ This was a house in Layton, in Essex, better known by the name of Rock- 
holt, or Ruckholt, built by Mr. Parvish, a former owner of the estate ; but a 
new house was afterwards erected near the site of the former by the family 
of Hicks, of whom William was created a baronet, in 1619. King Charles II. 
was entertained here one day when he was hunting, and knighted WiUiam, 
the son of the Baronet. Morant, in his " History of Essex," vol. I., p. 24, 
printed 1768, speaks of the new house as haring been a beautiful one, pulled 
down some years ago. Previously to this, it had been a place of pubUc 
entertainment in a morning, at which visitors were regaled with tea and 
music, which is not mentioned by Morant. 

1659.] JOHN EVELYN. 333 

London : took lodgings at the Three Feathers, in Russell 
Street, Covent Garden, for the winter, my son being very 

11th. Came to visit me Mr. William Coventry (since 
Secretary to the Duke), son to the Lord Keeper, a wise 
and witty gentleman. 

The Army now turned out the Parhament. We had 
now no government in the nation ; all in confusion ; no 
magistrate, either owned or pretended, but the soldiers, 
and they not agreed. God Almighty have mercy on, and 
settle us ! 

17th. I visited Mr. Howard, at Arundel-house, who 
gave me a fair onyx set in gold, and showed me his design 
of a palace there. 

21st. A private Fast was kept by the Church of Eng- 
land Protestants in town, to beg of God the removal of 
His judgments, with devout prayers for His mercy to our 
calamitous Church. 

7th November. Was published my bold " Apology for 
the King" * in this time of danger, when it was capital 
to speak or write in favour of him. It was twice printed; 
so universally it took. 

9th. We observed our solemn Fast for the calamity of 
our Church. 

12th. I went to see the several drugs for the confection 
of treacle, dioscordium, and other electuaries, which an 
ingenious apothecary had not only prepared and ranged 
on a large and very long table, but covered every ingre- 
dient with a sheet of paper, on which was very lively 
painted the thing in miniature, well to the life, were it 
plant, flower, animal, or other exotic drug. 

15th. Dined with the Dutch Ambassador. He did in 
a manner acknowledge that his nation mind only their 
own profit, do nothing out of gratitude, but collaterally as 
it relates to their gain, or security ; and therefore the Eng- 
lish were to look for nothing of assistance to the banished 
King. This was to me no very grateful discourse, though 
an ingenuous confession. 

18th. Mr. Gunning celebrated the wonted Fast, and 
preached on Phil. ii. 12, 13. 

24th. Sir John Evelyn [of Godstone] invited us to the 

♦ Reprinted in Evelj-n's "Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1 825, pp. 1 69— 1 92. 

334 DIARY OP [lohdoh, 

forty-first wedding-day feast, where was mucli company of 

26th. I was introduced into the acquaintance of divers 
learned and worthy persons, Sir John Marsham, Mr. 
Dugdale, Mr. Stanley, and others. 

9th December. I supped with Mr. Gunning, it being 
our fast-day, Dr. Feame, Mr. Thrisco, Mr. Chamberlain, 
Dr. Henchman, Dr. Wild,* and other devout and learned 
divines, firm confessors, and excellent persons. Note: 
Most of them since made bishops. 

10th. I treated privately with Colonel Morley,t then 
Lieutenant of the Tower, and in great trust and power, 
concerning delivering it to the King, and the bringing 
of him in, to the great hazard of my life, but the Colonel 
had been my school-fellow, and I knew would not 
betray me. 

12th. I spent in public concerns for his Majesty, pur- 
suing the point to bring over Colonel Morley, and his bro- 
ther-in-law. Fay, Governor of Portsmouth. 

18th. Preached that famous divine. Dr. Sanderson, 
(since Bishop of Lincoln), now eighty years old, on 
Jer. XXX. 13, concerning the evil of forsaking God. 

29th. Came my Lord Count Arundel of Wardour, to 
visit me. I went also to see my Lord Viscount Montague. 

31st. Settling my domestic affairs in order, blessed God 
for his infinite mercies and preservations the past year. 

Annus Mirabilis, 1659-60. January 1. Begging God's 
blessings for the following year, I went to Exeter Chapel, 
when Mr. Gunning began the year on Galatians iv. 3 — 7, 
showing the love of Christ in shedding his blood so 
early for us. 

12th, Wrote to Colonel Morley again to declare for his 

22nd. I went this afternoon to visit Colonel Morley. 
After dinner, I discoursed with him; but he was very 
jealous, and would not beheve that Monk came in to do 

* See p. 31 6. He was of St. John's College, Oxford, Chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Laud, Vicar of St. Giles's, Reading. Adhering to the King, he 
preached before the Parliament, at Oxford. After the Restoration, he was 
made Bishop of Londonderry, in Ireland. He had kept up a religious meet- 
ing for the Royalists, in Fleet Street. Wood's Athenae, vol. II., p. 251. 

+ See the detailed account of Mr. Evelyn's communications with Colonel 
Morley, in the Illustrations hereafter. No. II. 

1660.] JOHN EVELYN. 335 

the King any service ; I told him he might do it without 
him, and have all the honour. He was still doubtful, and 
would resolve on nothing yet, so I took leave.* 

3rd February. Kept the Fast. General Monk came 
now to London out of Scotland ; but no man knew what 
he would do, or declare, yet he was met on his way by the 
gentlemen of all the counties which he passed, with peti- 
tions that he would recall the old long interrupted Parlia- 
ment, and settle the nation in some order, being at this 
time in most prodigious confusion, and under no govern- 
ment, everybody expecting what would be next, and what 
he would do. 

10th. Now were the gates of the city broken down by 
General Monk ; which exceedingly exasperated the city, 
the soldiers marching up and down as triumphing over it, 
and all the old army of the fanatics put out of their posts, 
and sent out of town. 

11th. A signal day. Monk, perceiving how infamous 
and wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped 
the supreme power, and having inteUigence that they 
intended to take away his commission, repenting of what 
he had done to the city, and where he and his forces were 
quartered, marches to Whitehall, dissipates that nest of 
robbers, and convenes the old Parhament, the Rump 
Parliament (so called as retaining some few rotten mem- 
bers of the other) being dissolved; and for joy whereof 
were many thousand of rumps roasted publicly in the 
streets at the bonfires this night,t with ringing of bells, 
and universal jubilee. This was the first good omen. 

From 17th February to 5th April, I was detained in bed 
with a kind of double tertian, the cruel effects of the 
spleen and other distempers, in that extremity that my 
physicians, Drs. Wetherborn, Needham, and Claude, were 
in great doubt of my recovery; but it pleased God to 
deliver me out of this affliction, for which I render him 
hearty thanks ; going to church the 8th, and receiving the 
blessed Eucharist. 

During this sickness, came divers of my relations and 
friends to visit me, and it retarded my going into the 
country longer than I intended; however, I writ and 

• See Note in the preceding page. 

+ Pamphlets with cuts representing this, were printed at fhe time. 


printed a letter, in defence of his Majesty,* against a 
wicked forged Paper, pretended to be sent from Brussels 
to defame his Majesty^s person and virtues, and render 
him odious, now when everybody was in hope and expec- 
tation of the General and Parliament recalling him, and 
estabhshing the Government on its ancient and right 
basis. The doing this towards the decline of my sickness, 
and sitting up long in my bed, had caused a small relapse, 
out of which it yet pleased God also to free me, so as by 
the 14th I was able to go into the country, which I did to 
my sweet and native air at Wotton. 

3rd May. Came the most happy tidings of his Majesty's 
gracious declaration and applications to the Parhament, 
General, and People, and their dutiful acceptance and 
acknowledgment, after a most bloody and unreasonable 
rebeUion of near twenty years. Praised be for ever the 
Lord of Heaven, who only doeth wondrous things, because 
His mercy endureth for ever ! 

8th. This day was his Majesty proclaimed in Lon- 
don, &c. 

9th. I was desired and designed to accompany my 
Lord Berkeley with the public Address of the Parliament, 
General, &c. to the King, and invite him to come over 
and assume his Kingly Government, he being now at 
Breda ; but I was yet so weak, I could not make that 
journey by sea, which was not a httle to my detriment, so 
I went to London to excuse myself, returning the 10th, 
having yet received a gracious message from his Majesty 
by Major Scot and Colonel Tuke. 

24th. Came to me Colonel Morley, about procuring his 
pardon, now too late, seeing his error and neglect of the 
counsel I gave him, by which, if he had taken it, he had 
certainly done the great work with the same ease that 
Monk did it, who was then in Scotland, and Morley in a 
post to have done what he pleased, but his jealousy and 
fear kept him from that blessing and honour. I addressed 
him to Lord Mordaunt, then in great favour, for his par- 
don, which he obtained at the cost of 1000/., as I heai'd. 
O the sottish omission of this gentleman ! what did I not 

* The title of it is, " The late News, or Message from Brussels, unmasked." 
This, and the pamphlet which gave occasion for it, are reprinted in " Evelyn's 
Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 193 — 204. 

1660.] JOHN EVELYN. 337 

undergo of danger in this negociation, to have brought 
him over to his Majesty's interest, when it was entirely in 
his hands ! 

29th. This day, his Majesty Charles the Second came to 
London, after a sad and long exile and calamitous suffer- 
ing both of the King and Church, being seventeen years. 
This was also his birth-day, and with a triumph of above 
20,000 horse and foot, brandishing their swords, and shout- 
ing, with inexpressible joy; the ways strewed with flowers, 
the bells ringing, the streets hung with tapestry, fountains 
running with wine; the Mayor, Aldermen, and all the 
Companies, in their liveries, chains of gold, and banners ; 
Lords and Nobles, clad in cloth of silver, gold, and velvet ; 
the windows and balconies, all set with ladies ; trumpets, 
music, and myriads of people flocking, even so far as 
from Rochester, so as they were seven hours in passing 
the city, even from two in the afternoon till nine at night. 

I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and blessed God. 
And all this was done without one drop of blood shed, 
and by that very army which rebelled against him ; but it 
was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was never 
mentioned in any history, ancient or modem, since the 
return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity ; nor so 
joyful a day and so bright ever seen in this nation, this 
happening when to expect or efifect it was past all human 

4th June. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's 
landing at Dover, and also letters from the Queen, which 
I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting my- 
self to his Majesty, by reason of the infinite concourse or 
people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to 
see his Majesty, and kiss his hands, was so great, that he 
had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they 
did from all parts of the nation; and the King^ being as 
wilUng to give them that satisfaction, would have none 
kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people. 

Addressing myself to the Duke, I was carried to his- 
Majesty, when very few noblemen were with him, and 
kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then 
returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne, who came 
not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which 
time he kept up in his chapel the liturgy and offices of the 

VOL. I. z 


Church of England, to his no small honour, and in a time 
when it was so low, and as many thought utterly lost, that 
in various controversies both with Papists and Sectaries, 
our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church, 
from his chapel and congregation. 

I was all this week to and fro at Court, about business. 

16th. The French, Italian, and Dutch Ministers, came 
to make their address to his Majesty, one Monsieur Stoope 
pronouncing the harangue with great eloquence. 

18th. I proposed the embassy of Constantinople for 
Mr. Henshaw ; but my Lord Winchelsea struck in.* 

Goods that had been pillaged from Whitehall during the 
Kebellion, were now daily brought in, and restored upon 
proclamation ; as plate, hangings, pictures, &c. 

21st. The Warwickshire gentlemen (as did all the shires 
and chief towns in all the three nations) presented their 
congratulatory Address. It was carried by my Lord 

30th. The Sussex gentlemen presented their Address, 
to which was my hand. I went with it, and kissed his 
Majesty^s hand, who was pleased to own me more particu- 
larly by calhng me his old acquaintance, and speaking very 
graciously to me. 

3rd July. I went to Hyde-park, where was his Majesty, 
and abundance of gallantry. 

4th. I heard Sir Samuel Tuke harangue to the House 
of Lords, in behalf of the Roman Catholics, and his ac- 
count of the transaction at Colchester in murdering Lord 
Capel, and the rest of those brave men that suffered in 
cold blood, after articles of rendition. 

5th. I saw his Majesty go with as much pomp and 
splendour as any earthly prince could do to the great City 
feast, the first they had invited him to since his return ; 
but the exceeding rain which fell all that day much echpsed 
its lustres. This was at GuildhaU, and there was also all 
the Parhament-men, both Lords and Commons. The 
streets were adorned with pageants, at immense cost. 

6th. His Majesty began first to touch for the evil, 

* It was on his return from this embassy that his Lordship, visiting Sicily, 
was an eye-witness of the dreadful eruption of Mount Etna, in 1669, a short 
account of which was afterwards published in a small pamphlet, with a cut by 
Hollar, of the mountain, &c. 

1660.] JOHN EVELYN. 339 

according to custom, thus : his Majesty sitting under his 
state in the Banqueting-house, the chirurgeons cause the 
sick to be brought, or led, up to the throne, where they 
kneehng, the King strokes their faces, or cheeks, with both 
his hands at once, at which instant a chaplain in his for- 
malities says, " He put his hands upon them, and he 
healed them." This is said to every one in particular. 
When they have been all touched, they come up again in 
the same order, and the other chaplain kneehng, and hav- 
ing angel gold* strung on white ribbon on his arm, delivers 
them one by one to his Majesty, who puts them about the 
necks of the touched as they pass, whilst the first chaplain 
repeats, " That is the true fight who came into the world." 
Then follows, an epistle (as at first a Gospel) with the 
Liturgy, prayers for the sick, with some alteration; lastly, 
the blessing; and then the Lord Chamberlain and the 
Comptroller of the Household bring a basin, ewer and 
towel, for his Majesty to wash. 

The King received a congratulatory address from the 
city of Cologne, in Germany, where he had been some 
time in his exile ; his Majesty saying they were the best 
people in the world, the most kind and worthy to him that 
he ever met with. 

I recommended Monsieur Messeray to be Judge Advo- 
cate in Jersey, by the Vice-Chamberlain's mediation with 
the Earl of St. Alban's; and saluted my excellent and 
worthy noble friend, my Lord Ossory, son to the Marquis 
of Ormond, after many years' absence returned home. 

8th. Mr. Henchman preached on Ephes. v. 5, concern- 
ing Christian circumspection. From henceforth, was the 
Liturgy publicly used in our churches, whence it had been 
for so many years banished. 

15th. Came Sir George Carteret and Lady, to visit us : 
he was now Treasurer of the Navy. 

28th. I heard his Majesty^s speech in the Lords' House, 
on passing the Bills of Tonnage and Poundage ; restoration 
of my Lord Ormond to his estate in Ireland ; concerning 
the Commission of Sewers, and continuance of the Excise. 
— In the afternoon, I saluted my old friend, the Archbishop 
of Armagh, formerly of Londonderry (Dr. Bramhall) . He 
presented several Irish divines to be promoted as Bishops 

* Pieces of money, so called from having the figure of an angel on them. 



in that kingdom, most of the Bishops in the three kingdom* 
being now ahnost worn out, and the sees vacant. 

31st. I went to visit Sir Phihp "Warwick, now Secretary 
to the Lord Treasurer, at his house in North Cray. 

19th August. Our Vicar read the Thirty-nine Articles to 
the congregation, the national assemblies beginning now to 
settle, and wanting instruction. 

23rd. Came Duke Hamilton, Lord Lothian, and several 
Scottish Lords, to see my garden. 

25th. Colonel Spencer, Colonel of a regiment of horse 
in owe county of Kent, sent to me, and entreated that I 
would take a commission for a troop of horse, and that I 
would nominate my Lieutenant and Ensigns ; I thanked 
him for the honour intended me ; but would by no means 
undertake the trouble. 

4th September. I was invited to an ordination by the 
Bishop of Bangor, in Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster, 
and afterwards saw the audience of an Envoyee from the 
Duke of Anjou, sent to compliment his Majesty's return. 

5th. Came to visit and dine with me the Envoy6e of the 
King of Poland, and Resident of the King of Denmark, &g. 

7th. I went to Chelsea, to visit Mr. Boyle, and see his 
pneumatic engine perform divers experiments. Thence, to 
Kensington, to visit Mr. Henshaw, returning home that 

13th. I saw in Southwark, at St. Margaret's fair, 
monkeys and apes dance, and do other feats of activity, on 
the high rope ; they were gallantly clad a la monde, went 
upright, saluted the company, bowing and pulling off their 
hats ; they saluted one another with as good a grace, as if 
instructed by a dancing-master; they turned heels over 
head with a basket having eggs in it, without breaking 
any; also, with lighted candles in their hands, and on their 
heads, without extinguishing them, and with vessels of water 
without spilling a drop. I also saw an Italian wench dance, 
and perform all the tricks on the high rope, to admiration ; 
aU the Court went to see her. Likewise, here was a man 
who took up a piece of iron cannon of about 400 lb. weight 
with the hair of his head only. 

17th. Went to London, to see the splendid entry of the 
Prince de Ligne, Ambassador extraordinary from Spain ; 
he was General of the Spanish King's horse in Flanders, 

1660.] JOHN EVELYN. 341 

and was accompanied with divers great persons from thence, 
and an innumerable retinue. His train consisted of seven- 
teen coaches, with six horses of his own, besides a great 
number of Enghsh, &c. Greater bravery had I never seen. 
He Avas received in the Banqueting House in exceeding 
state, all the great officers of Court attending. 

13th. In the midst of all this joy and jubilee, the Duke 
of Gloucester died of the small-pox, in the prime of youth, 
and a prince of extraordinary hopes. 

27th. The King received the merchants' addresses in 
his closet, giving them assurances of his persisting to keep 
Jamaica, choosing Sir Edward Massey, Governor. In the 
afternoon, the Danish Ambassador's condolences were pre- 
sented, on the death of the Duke of Gloucester. This 
evening, I saw the Princess Royal, mother to the Prince of 
Orange, now come out of Holland in a fatal period. 

6th October. I paid the great tax of poll-money, levied 
for disbanding the army, till now kept up. I paid as an 
Esquire 10/., and one shilling for every servant in my 

7th. There dined with me a French Count, with Sir 
George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent 
over to the Queen-Mother, to break the marriage of the 
Duke with the daughter of Chancellor Hyde. The Queen 
would fain have undone it, but it seems matters were 
reconciled on great offers of the Chancellor's to befriend 
the Queen, who was much in debt, and was now to have 
the settlement of her affairs go through his hands. 

11th. The regicides who sat on the life of our late King, 
were brought to trial in the Old Bailey, before a commission 
of Oyer and Terminer. 

14th. AxtaU, Carew, Clement, Hacker, Hewson, and 
Peters, were executed. 

17th. Scot, Scroope, Cook, and Jones, suffered for 
reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross, in sight of the 
place where they put to death their natural Prince, and in 
the presence of the King his son, whom they also sought 
to kill. I saw not their execution, but met their quarters, 
mangled, and cut, and reeking, as they were brought from 
the gallows in baskets on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous 
providence of God ! 

28th. His Majesty went to meet the Queen-Mother. 


39th. Going to London, my Lord Mayor's show stopped 
me in Cheapside ; one of the pageants represented a great 
wood, with the royal oak, and history of his Majesty's 
miraculous escape, at Boscobel. 

31st. Arrived now to my fortieth year, I rendered to 
Almighty God my due and hearty thanks. 

Isf November. I went with some of my relations to 
Court, to show them his Majesty's cabinet and closet of 
rarities ; the rare miniatures of Peter Oliver, after Raphael, 
Titian, and other masters, which I infinitely esteem ; also, 
that large piece of the Duchess of Lennox, done in enamel, 
by Petitot, and a vast number of agates, onyxes, and 
intaglios, especially a medallion of Caesar, as broad as my 
hand ; Ukewise, rare cabinets of pietra-commessa ; a land- 
scape of needlework, formerly presented by the Dutch to 
King Charles the First. Here I saw a vast book of maps, 
in a volume near four yards large ; a curious ship model ; 
and, amongst the clocks, one that showed the rising and 
setting of the sun in the zodiac; the sun represented byaface 
and rnjs of gold, upon an azure sky, observing the diurnal 
and annual motion, rising and setting behind a landscape 
of hills, the work of our famous Fromantil ; and several 
other rarities. 

3rd, Arrived the Queen-Mother in England, whence 
she had been banished almost twenty years ; together with 
her illustrious daughter, the Princess Henrietta, divers 
Princes and Noblemen, accompanying them. 

15th. I kissed the Queen-Mother's hand. 

20th. I dined at the Clerk Comptroller's of the Green 
Cloth, being the first day of the re-establishment of the 
Coiu*t diet, and settling of his Majesty's household. 

23rd. Being this day in the bedchamber of the Princess 
Henrietta, where were many great beauties and noblemen, 
I saluted divers of my old friends and acquaintances abroad; 
his Majesty carrying my Wife to salute the Queen and 
Princess, and then led her into his closet, and with his own 
hands showed her divers curiosities. 

25th. Dr. Rainbow preached before the King, on Luke, 
ii. 14, of the glory to be given God for all His mercies, 
especially for restoring the Church and government ; now 
the service was performed with music, voices, &c., as 

1660.] JOHN EVELYN. 343 

27th. Came down the Clerk Comptroller [of the Green 
Cloth] by the Lord Steward^s appointment, to survey the 
land at Sayes Court, on which I had pretence, and to make 
his report.* 

6th December. I waited on my Brother and Sister 
Evelyn to Court. Now were presented to his Majesty 
those two rare pieces of drollery, or rather a Dutch Kitchen, 
painted by Dowe, so finely as hardly to be distinguished 
from enamel. I was also showed divers rich jewels and 
crystal vases ; the rare head of Jo. Bellino, Titian's master; 
Christ in the Garden, by Hannibal Caracci ; two incom- 
parable heads, by Holbein; the Queen-Mother in aminiature, 
almost as big as the hfe ; an exquisite piece of carving ; 
two unicorn's horns, &c. This in the closet. 

13th. I presented my Son, John, to the Queen-Mother, 
who kissed him, talked with and made extraordinary much 
of him. 

14th. I visited my Lady Chancellor, the Marchioness of 
Ormond, and Countess of Guildford, all of whom we had 
known abroad in exile. 

18th. I carried Mr. SpeUman, a most ingenious 
gentleman, grandchild to the learned Sir Henry, to my 
Lord Mordaunt, to whom I had recommended him as 

21st. This day died the Princess of Orange, of the small- 
pox, which entirely altered the face and gallantry of the 
whole Court. 

22nd, The marriage of the Chancellor's daughter being 
now newly owned, I went to see her, she being Sir Richard 
Browne's intimate acquaintance when she waited on the 
Princess of Orange; she was now at her father's, at 
Worcester-House, in the Strand. We all kissed her hand, 
as did also my Lord Chamberlain (Manchester) and 
Countess of Northumberland. This was a strange change 
— can it succeed well? — I spent the evening at St. 
James's, whither the Princess Henrietta was retired 
during the fatal sickness of her sister, the Princess of 

♦ The King's Household used to be supplied with com and cattle from the 
different counties : and, oxen being sent up, pasture-grounds of the King, near 
town, were allotted for them : amongst these, were lands at Deptford and 
Tottenham-Court, which were under the direction of the Lord Steward and 
Board of Green Cloth. Sir Richard Browne had the keeping of the lands at 


Orange, now come over to salute the King her brother. 
The Princess gave my Wife an extraordinary compliment 
and gracious acceptance, for the " Character ^^* she had 
presented her the day before, and which was afterwards 

25th. Preached at the Abbey, Dr. Earle, Clerk of his 
Majesty^s Closet, and my dear friend, now Dean of West- 
minster, on Luke ii. 13, 14, condoling the breach made in 
the public joy by the lamented death of the Princess. 

30th. I dined at Court with Mr. Crane, Clerk of the 
Green Cloth. 

31st. I gave God thanks for his many signal mercies to 
myself, church, and nation, this wonderful year. 

1660-1. 2nd January. The Queen-Mother, with the 
Princess Henrietta, began her journey to Portsmouth, in 
order to her return into Prance. 

5th. I visited my Lord Chancellor Clarendon, with whom 
I had been well acquainted abroad. 

6th. Dr. AUestree preached at the Abbey, after which 
four Bishops were consecrated, Hereford, Norwich, .... 

This night was suppressed a bloody insurrection of some 
Fifth-Monarchy enthusiasts. Some of them were examined 
at the Council the next day; but could say nothing to 
extenuate their madness and unwarrantable zeal. 

I was now chosen (and nominated by his Majesty for 
one of the Council) by suffrage of the rest of the Members, 
a Fellow of the Philosophic Society now meeting at 
Gresham College, where was an assembly of divers learned 
gentlemen. This being the first meeting since the King's 
return ; but it had been begun some years before at Oxford, 
and was continued with interruption here in London during 
the Rebellion. 

There was another rising of the fanatics, in which some 
were slain. 

16th. I went to the Philosophic Club, where was examined 
the Torricellian experiment. I presented my Circle of 
Mechanical Trades, and had recommended to me the 
publishing what I had written of Chalcography.f 

25th. After divers years since I had seen any play, I 

• " A Character of England," reprinted in Evelyn's " Miscellaneous 
Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 141—167. 

t See hereafter, under June 10th, 1G62. 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 345 

went to see acted "The Scornful Lady," at a new theatre 
in Lincoln^s-Inn-Fields. 

30th. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation 
to deplore the sins which so long had provoked God against 
this afflicted church and people, ordered by Parliament to 
be annually celebrated to expiate the guilt of the execrable 
murder of the late King. 

This day (O the stupendous and inscrutable judgments 
■of God !) were the carcases of those arch-rebels, CromweU, 
Bradshawe, (the judge who condemned his Majesty), and 
Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their 
superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to Tyburn, 
and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning 
till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and 
ignominious monument in a deep pit ; thousands of people 
who had seen them in aU their pride being spectators. Look 
back at October 22, 1658,* [Oliver's funeral], and be asto- 
nished ! and fear God and honour the King ; but meddle 
not with them who are given to change ! 

6th February. To London, to our Society, where I gave 
notice of the visit of the Danish Ambassador-Extraordinary, 
and was ordered to return him their acceptance of that 
honour, and to invite him the next meeting day. 

10th. Dr. Baldero preached at Ely-House, on Matthew 
vi., 33, of seeking early the kingdom of God; after 
sermon, the Bishop (Dr. Wren) gave us the blessing, very 

13th. I conducted the Danish Ambassador to our meeting 
at Gresham College, where were showed him various 
experiments in vacuo, and other curiosities. 

21st. Prince Rupert first showed me how to grave in 
mezzo tinto. 

26th. I went to Lord Mordaunt's, at Parson's Green.f 

27th. Ash- Wednesday. Preached before the King the 
Bishop of London (Dr. Sheldon) on Matthew xviii. 25, 
concerning charity and forgiveness. 

8th. March. I went to my Lord Chancellor's, and 

* P. 330. 

+ This house remained in the family till 17.., when the Earl of Peter- 
borough sold it to Mr. Heaviside, who a few years after sold it to Mr. 
Merrick, an army agent ; he pulled down the old house, and built that now 
standing there. 


delivered to Mm the state of my concernment at Saves 

9th. I went with that excellent person and philosopher. 
Sir Robert Murray, to visit Mr. Boyle at Chelsea, and saw 
divers effects of the eolipile for weighing air, 

13th. I went to Lambeth, with Sir E,. Browne's pretence 
to the Wardenship of Merton College, Oxford, to which, as 
having been about forty years before a student of that 
House, he was elected by the votes of every Fellow except 
one : but the statutes of the House being so that, unless 
every Fellow agree, the election devolves to the Visitor, 
who is the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Juxon), his 
Grace gave his nomination to Sir T. Clayton, resident 
there, and the Physic Professor ; for which I was not at all 
displeased, because, though Sir E-ichard missed it by much 
ingratitude and wrong of the Archbishop (Clayton being 
no Fellow), yet it would have hindered Sir Richard from 
attending at Court to settle his greater concerns, and so 
have prejudiced me, though he was much inclined to have 
passed his time in a collegiate life, very unfit for him at 
that time, for many reasons. So I took leave of his 
Grace, who was formerly Lord Treasurer in the reign of 
Charles I. 

This afternoon. Prince Rupert showed me, with his own 
hands, the new way of graving, called mezzo tinto, which 
afterwards, by his permission, I pubhshed in my " History 
of Chalcography;"* this set so many artists on work, that 
they soon arrived to the perfection it is since come to, 
emulating the tenderest miniatures. 

Our Society now gave in my relation of the Peak of 
Teneriffe, in the Great Canaries, to be added to more 
queries concerning divers natural things reported of that 

I returned home with my Cousin, Tuke, now going for 
France, as sent by his Majesty to condole the death of that 
great Minister and politician. Cardinal Mazarine. 

29th. Dr. Heyhn (author of the Geography) preached 
at the Abbey, on Cant. v. 25, concerning friendship and 
charity ; he was, I think, at this time quite dark, and so 
had been for some years. 

31st. This night, his Majesty promised to make my Wife 

• See hereafter, under June 10, 1662. 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 347 

Lady of the Jewels (a very honourable charge) to the future 
Queen (but which he never performed). 

1st April. I dined with that great mathematician and 
virtuoso. Monsieur Zuhchem,* inventor of the pendule 
dock, and discoverer of the phenomenon of Satiu-n^s 
annulus : he was elected into our Society. 

19th. To London, and saw the bathing and rest of the 
ceremonies of the Knights of the Bath, preparatory to the 
coronation ; it was in the Painted Chamber, Westminster. 
I might have received this honour; but declined it. The 
rest of the ceremony was in the chapel at Whitehall, when 
their swords being laid on the altar, the Bishop delivered 

22nd. Was the splendid cavalcade of his Majesty from 
the Tower of London to Whitehall, when I saw him in 
the Banquetting House create six Earls, and as many 
Barons, viz. 

Edward Lord Hyde,t Lord Chancellor, Earl of Claren- 
don; supported by the Earls of Northumberland and 
Sussex ; the Earl of Bedford, carried the cap and coronet, 
the Earl of Warwick, the sword, the Earl of Newport, the 

Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex ; 

Brudenell, . . . Cardigan; 
Valentia, .... Anglesea; 
Greenvill, .... Bath; and 
Howard, Earl of Carlisle. 

The Barons were : Denzill Holies ; Comwallis ; Booth ; 
Townsend ; Cooper ; Crew ; who were all led up by several 
Peers, with Garter and officers of arms before them ; when, 
after obedience on their several approaches to the throne, 
their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, 

• See hereafter, under July, 1664. 

+ In 1656, or 1657, attempts were made to remove the Chancellor (Hyde), 
by accusing him of betraying his Majesty's Counsels, and holding correspond- 
ence with Cromwell ; but these allegations were so trivial and frivolous, that 
they manifestly appeared to be nothing but the effects of malice against him, 
and therefore produced the contrai'y effects to those which some desired, and 
strengthened the King's kindness to him ; as giving him just occasion to 
believe that these suggestions against him proceeds! all from one and the 
same cause, namely, from the ambition which some people had to enter in his 
room into the first trust of his Majesty's affairs, if once they could remove 
him from his station. Life of King James II., from his own papers, 1816, 
vol. I., p. 274. 


•whicli being received by the Lord Chamberlain, and 
delivered to his Majesty, and by him to the Secretary 
of State, were read, and then again delivered to his 
Majesty, and by him to the several Lords created; they 
were then robed, their coronets and collars put on by his 
Majesty, and they were placed in rank on both sides the 
state and throne ; but the Barons put off their caps and 
circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls keeping on 
their coronets, as cousins to the King. 

I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several 
arch-triumphals built in the streets at several eminent 
places through which his Majesty was next day to pass, 
some of which, though temporary, and to stand but one 
year, were of good invention and architecture, with 

23rd. Was the Coronation of his Majesty Charles the 
Second in the Abbey-Church of Westminster ; at all which 
ceremony I was present. The King and his Nobility went 
to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt 
part of the way ; this was on Sunday, the 22nd ; but indeed 
his Majesty went not till early this morning, and proceeded 
from thence to Westminster, in this order :* 

First, went the Duke of York^s Horse Guards. Mes- 
sengers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights 
of the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. 
The Knight Harbinger. Serjeant Porter. Sewers of the 
Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. 
Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of 
the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chap- 
lains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's Advocates and 
Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chan- 
cery. Puisne Serjeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. 
King's eldest Serjeant. Secretaries of the French and 
Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers, Daily Waiters, Sewers, 
Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the 
Body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Coun- 
sellors, viz., of the Tents, Revels, . Ceremonies, Armoury, 
Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the 
Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief- 

• There is a full account of this ceremony, with fine sculptures, in a folio 
volume, published by John Ogilby, 1662. " A circumstantial Account of the 
Coronation," by Sir E. Walker, Garter, was published in 1820. 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 349 

Baron. Lord Chief- Justice of the Common Pleas. Master 
of the Rolls. Lord Chief- Justice of England. Trumpets. 
Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 
68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest show 
of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty excepted. Knight 
Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the 
Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of the 
Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. 
Serjeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. 
Tvvo Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. 
Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household. Two He- 
ralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Nor- 
roy. Lord Chancellor. Lord High Steward of England. 
Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and 
Acquitaine, viz., Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert 
Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. 
Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York 
alone (the rest by two's). Lord High Constable of 
England. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The 
sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England. The KING, 
in royal robes and equipage. Afterwards, followed equer- 
ries, footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, 
leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. 
Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The 
Guard. The Horse- Guard. The troop of Volunteers, 
with many other officers and gentlemen. 

This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as em- 
broidery, velvet, cloth of gold and silver, and jewels, could 
make them and their prancing horses, proceeded through 
the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung with rich 
tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies ; the London 
militia lining the ways, and the several companies, with 
their banners and loud music, ranked in their orders ; the 
fountains running wine, bells ringing, with speeches made 
at the several triumphal arches; at that of the Temple 
Bar (near which I stood) the Lord Mayor was received by 
the Baihff of Westminster, who, in a scarlet robe, made a 
speech. Thence, with joyful acclamations, his Majesty 
passed to Whitehall. Bonfires at njght. 

The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to 
Westminster Abbey. When his Majesty was entered, the 
Dean and Prebendaries brought all the regalia, and 


delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the 
King, who met them at the west door of the church, 
singing an anthem, to the choir. Then, came the peers, in 
their robes, and coronets in their hands, till his Majesty 
was placed on a throne elevated before the altar. After- 
wards, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canterbury- 
being sick) went to every side of the throne to present the 
King to the people, asking if they would have him for 
their King, and do him homage ; at this, they shouted fom* 
times " God save King Charles the Second ! " Then, an 
anthem was sung. His Majesty, attended by three Bishops, 
went up to the altar, and he oflered a pall and a pound of 
gold. Afterwards, he sate down in another chair during 
the sermon, which was preached by Dr. Morley, Bishop of 

After sermon, the King took his oath before the altar 
to maintain the religion, Magna Charta, and laws of the 
land. The hymn Veni S. Sp. followed, and then the 
Litany by two Bishops. Then, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, present but much indisposed and weak, said " Lift 
up your hearts ; " at which, the King rose up, and put off 
his robes and upper garments, and was in a waistcoat so 
opened in divers places, that the Archbishop might com- 
modiously anoint him, first in the palms of his hands, 
when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read ; then, his 
breast and betwixt the shoulders, bending of both arms; and, 
lastly, on the crown of the head, with apposite hymns and 
prayers at each anointing ; this done, the Dean closed and 
buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif put 
on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over this a 
super-tunic of cloth of gold, with buskins and sandals of 
the same, spurs, and the sword ; a prayer being first said 
over it by the Archbishop on the altar, before it was girt 
on by the Lord Chamberlain. Then, the armill, mantle, &c. 
Then, the Archbishop placed the crown-imperial on the 
altar, prayed over it, and set it on his Majesty's head, at 
which all the Peers put on their coronets. Anthems, and 
rare music, with lutes, viols, trumpets, organs, and voices, 
were then heard, and the Archbishop put a ring on his 
Majesty's finger. The King next offered his sword on the 
altar, which being redeemed, was drawn, and borne before 
him. Then, the Archbishop delivered him the sceptre, with 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 351 

the dove in one hand, and, in the other, the sceptre with 
the globe. The King kneehng, the Archbishop pronounced 
the blessing. His Majesty then ascending again his royal 
throne, whilst Te Deum was singing, all the Peers did their 
homage, by every one touching his crown. The Arch- 
bishop, and the rest of the Bishops, first kissing the King ; 
who received the Holy Sacrament, and so disrobed, yet 
with the crown-imperial on his head, and accompanied 
with all the nobility in the former order, he went on foot 
upon blue cloth, which was spread and reached from the 
west door of the Abbey to Westminster stairs, when he 
took water in a triumphal barge to Whitehall, where was 
extraordinary feasting. 

24th. I presented his Majesty with his "Panegyric"* 
in the Privy Chamber, which he was pleased to accept 
most graciously ; I gave copies to the Lord Chancellor, 
and most of the noblemen who came to me for it. I dined 
at the Marquis of Ormondes, where was a magnificent feast, 
and many great persons. 

1st May. I went to Hyde Park to take the air, where 
was his Majesty and an innumerable appearance of gal- 
lants and rich coaches, being now a time of universal 
festivity and joy. 

2nd. I had audience of my Lord Chancellor about my 
title to Sayes Court. 

3rd. I went to see the wonderful engine for weaving 
silk stockings, said to have been the invention of an Oxford 
scholar forty years since ; and I returned by Fromantil's, 
the famous clock-maker, to see some pendules, Monsieur 
Zulichem being with us. 

This evening, I was with my Lord Brouncker, Sir Robert 
Murray, Sir Patrick Neill, Monsieur Zuhchem, and Bull 
(all of them of our Society, and excellent mathematicians), 
to show his Majesty, who was present, Saturn's annulus, 
as some thought, but as Zuhchem affirmed with his balteus 
(as that learned gentleman had published), very near 
eclipsed by the moon, near the Mons Porphyritis ; also, 
Jupiter and satellites, through his Majesty's great telescope, 
drawing thirty-five feet ; on which were divers discourses. 

8th. His Majesty rode in state, with his imperial crown 

• Viz. a Poem on his Majesty's Coronation, the 23rd of April, 1661, bdng 
St Greorge's day. 


on, and all the peers in their robes, in great pomp to the 
parliament now newly chosen (the old one being dissolved) ; 
and, that evening, declared in council his intention to marry 
the Infanta of Portugal. 

9th. At Sir Robert Murray^ s, where I met Dr. Wallis, 
Professor of Geometry in Oxford, where was discourse of 
several mathematical subjects. 

11th. My Wife presented to his Majesty the Madonna 
she had copied in miniature from P. Oliver's painting,, 
after Raphael, which she wrought with extraordinary pains 
and judgment. The King was infinitely pleased with it,, 
and caused it to be placed in his cabinet amongst his best 

13th. I heard and saw such exercises at the election of 
scholars at Westminster School to be sent to the Univer- 
sity in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, in themes and 
extemporary verses, as wonderfully astonished me in such 
youths, with such readiness and wit, some of them not 
above twelve, or thirteen years of age. Pity it is, that 
what they attain here so ripely, they either do not retain, 
or do not improve more considerably when they come to 
be men, though many of them do ; and no less is to be 
blamed their odd pronouncing of Latin, so that out of* 
England none were able to understand, or endure it. The 
examinants, or posers, were. Dr. Duport, Greek Professor 
at Cambridge ; Dr. Pell, Dean of Christ-Church, Oxford ; 
Dr. Pierson, Dr. AUestree, Dean of Westminster, and any 
that would. 

14th. His Majesty was pleased to discourse with me 
concerning several particulars relating to oiir Society, and 
the planet, Saturn, &c., as he sate at supper in the with- 
drawing-room to his bed-chamber. 

16th. I dined with Mr. Garmus, the resident from 
Hamburgh, who continued his feast near nine whole 
hours, according to the custom of his country, though 
there was no great excess of drinking, no man being 
obhged to take more than he liked. 

2;ind. The Scotch Covenant was burnt by the common 
hangman in divers places in London. Oh, prodigious^ 
change ! 

29th. This was the first anniversary appointed by Act 
of Parliament to be observed as a day of General Thanks- 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 353 

giving for the miraculous restoration of his Majesty : om* 
vicar preaching on Psalm cxviii. 24, requiring us to be 
thankful and rejoice, as indeed we had cause. 

4th June. Came Sir Charles Harbord, his Majesty's 
surveyor, to take an account of what grounds I challenged 
at Sayes Court. 

27 th. I saw the Portugal Ambassador at dinner with 
his Majesty in state, where was excellent music. 

2nd July. I went to see the New Spring-Garden, at 
Lambeth, a pretty contrived plantation. 

19th. We tried our Diving-Bell, or engine, in the water- 
dock at Deptford, in which our curator continued half an 
hour under water; it was made of cast lead, let down 
with a strong cable. 

3rd August. Came my Lord Hatton, Comptroller of 
his Majesty's household, to -visit me. 

9th. I tried several experiments on the sensitive plant 
and humilis, which contracted with the least touch of the 
sun through a burning-glass, though it rises and opens 
only when it shines on it. 

I first saw the famous Queen Pine* brought from Bar- 
badoes, and presented to liis Majesty ; but the first that 
were ever seen in England were those sent to Cromwell 
four years since. 

I dined at Mr. Palmer's in Gray's Inn, whose curiosity 
excelled in clocks and pendules, especially one that had 
innumerable motions, and played nine or ten tunes on the 
bells very finely, some of them set in parts ; which was 
very harmonious. It was wound up but once in a quarter. 
He had also good telescopes and mathematical instru- 
ments, choice pictures, and other curiosities. Thence, we 
went to that famous mountebank, Jo. Punteus. 

Sir Kenelm Digby presented every one of us his Dis- 
course of the Vegetation of Plants; and Mr. Henshaw, 
his History of Salt-Petre and Gunpowder. I assisted 
him to procure his place of French Secretary to the King, 
which he purchased of Sir Henry De Vic. 

* An excellent print in the line manner, 13 inches by 12, was engraved, in 
1823, by Robert Grave, from the picture at Strawberry-Hill, of King Charles 
II., receiving this species of fruit from Rose, his gardener, who is presenting 
it on his knees, at Dawney Court, Buckinghamshire, the seat of the celebrated 
Duchess of Cleveland, See hereafter, under 1668, August. 
VOL. I. A A 


I went to that famous physician, Sir Er. Prujean, who 
showed me his laboratory, his work -house for turning, and 
other mechanics ; also many excellent pictures, especially 
the Magdalen of Caracci ; and some incomparable pay sages 
done in distemper ; he played to me likewise on the poly- 
thore, an instrument having something of the harp, lute, 
and theorbo; by none known in England, nor described 
by any author, nor used, but by this skilful and learned 

15th. I went to Tunbridge-Wells, my wife being there 
for the benefit of her health. Walking about the solitudes, 
I greatly admired the extravagant turnings, insinuations, 
and growth of certain birch-trees among the rocks. 

13th September. I presented my "Fumifugium,"* 
dedicated to his Majesty, who was pleased that I should 
publish it by his special commands, being much gratified 
with it. 

18th. This day was read our petition to his Majesty for 
his royal grant, authorizing our Society to meet as a cor- 
poration, with several privileges. 

An exceeding sickly, wet autumn. 

1st October. I sailed this morning with his Majesty in 
one of his yachts (or pleasure-boats), vessels not known 
among us till the Dutch East India Company presented 
that curious piece to the King ; being very excellent sailing 
vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure- 
boat, built frigate-hke, and one of the Duke of York^s ; 
the wager 100/. ; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend 
and back. The King lost it going, the wind being 
contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were 
divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty some- 
times steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat 
attended. I brake fast this morning with the King at 
return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me 
and only four more, who were noblemen, with him ; but 
dined in his yacht, where we all eat together with his 
Majesty. In this passage he was pleased to discourse to 
me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of 
the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by 

* This pamphlet having become scarce, was reprinted for Messrs. White, 
inFleet Street, in 4to,in 1772,and is incorporated in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous 
Writings," edited hy W. Upcott, of the London Institution, in 1825, 4to. 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 355 

removing those particiilars I mentioned^* it migbt be re- 
formed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the 
next session of Parhament, being, as he said, resolved to 
have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of 
the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare 
in England comparatively to other countries. He then 
commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening 
at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened 
between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the 
Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the 
Swedish Ambassador ; giving me order to consult Sir 
Wilham Compton, Master of the Ordnance, to inform me 
of what he knew of it, and with his favourite. Sir Charles 
Berkeley,t captain of the Duke^s life-guard, then present 
with his troop and three foot-companies ; with some other 
reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declara- 
tion to take off the reports which went about of his 
Majesty's partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and 
spectators' rudeness whilst the conflict lasted. So I came 
home that night, and went next morning to London, 
where from the officers of the Tower, Sir William Compton, 
Sir Charles Berkeley, and others who were attending at 
this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having 
collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindica- 
tion of his Majesty, and the carriage of his officers and 

On Thursday, his Majesty sent one of the pages of the 
back stairs for me to wait on him Avith my papers, in his 
cabinet, where was present only Sir Henry Bennett { 
(Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty 
what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, 
came in Mr. Secretary Morice with a large paper, desiring 
to speak with his Majesty, who told him he was now very 
busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other 
time j the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand 
was of extraordinary importance. So the King rose up, 
and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a comer of the 
room with the Secretary ; after a while, the Secretary 

* In the Fumifugimn, before mentioned. 

+ Afterwards Earl of Falmouth, who was killed by the side of the Duke of 
York, in the first Dutch war. 
t Afterwards Secretary of State, Earl of Arlington, and Lord ChamberhuD.- 
A A 2 


being despatched, his Majesty returning to me at the 
table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of 
France ; this he read and then bid me proceed from where 
I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to 
his Majesty's great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted 
one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty instructed 
me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the 
Post-house, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris 
(the Earl of St. Alban's) and then at leisure to prepare 
him a copy, which he would publish.* This I did, and 
immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, 
with his Majesty's express command of despatching them 
that night for France. Before I went out of the King's 
closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, 
and other curiosities that I had not seen before. 

8rd. Next evening, being in the withdrawing-room 
adjoining the bedchamber, his Majesty espying me came 
to me from a great crowd of noblemen standing near the 
fire, and asked me if I had done j and told me he feared 
it might be a little too sharp, on second thoughts ; for he 
had that morning spoken with the French Ambassador, 
who it seems had palliated the matter, and was very tame ; 
and therefore directed me where I should soften a period 
or two, before it was published (as afterwards it was).t 
This night also he spake to me to give him a sight of what 
was sent, and to bring it to him in his bed-chamber; 
which I did, and received it again from him at dinner, 
next day. By Saturday, having finished it with all his 
Majesty's notes, the King being gone abroad, I sent the 
papers to Sir Henry Bennett (Privy Purse and a great 
favourite), and slipped home, being myself much indisposed 
and harassed with going about, and sitting up to write. 

19th. I went to London, to visit my Lord of Bristol, 
having been with Sir John Denham (his Majesty's sur- 
veyor) to consult with him about the placing of his palace 
at Greenwich, which I would have had built between the 
river and the Queen's house, so as a large square cut shoidd 

• The Narrative is reprinted hereafter. 

t Notwithstanding this positive assertion, it is very extraordinary that it 
has never been inserted in any Library, or Auction Catalogue, that a gentle- 
man of the greatest research (Mr. Bindley) ever saw. Perhaps it was 

1661.] JOHN EVELYN. 357 

have let in the Thames like a bay ; but Sir John was for 
setting it on piles at the very brink of the water, which I 
did not assent to ; and so came away, knowing Sir John 
to be a better poet than architect, though he had Mr. Webb 
(Inigo Jones's man) to assist him.* 

29th. I saw the Lord May or t pass in his water triumph 
to Westminster, being the first solemnity of this nature 
after twenty years. 

2nd November. Came Sir Henry Bennett, since Lord 
Arlington, to visit me, and to acquaint me that his Majesty 
would do me the honour to come and see my garden ; but, 
it being then late, it was deferred. 

3rd. One Mr. Breton J preached his probation-sermon 
at our parish-church, and indeed made a most excellent 
discourse on John i. 29, of God's free grace to penitents, 
so that I could not but recommend him to the patron. 

10th. In the afternoon, preached at the Abbey Dr. 
Basire, that great traveller, or rather French Apostle, who 
had been planting the Church of England in divers parts 
of the Levant and Asia. He showed that the Church of 
England was, for purity of doctrine, substance, decency, 
and beauty, the most perfect under Heaven ; that England 
was the very land of Goshen. 

11th. I was so idle as to go to see a play called " Love 
and Honour." § — Dined at Arundel House ; and that 
evening discoursed with his Majesty about shipping, in 
which he was exceeding skilful. 

] 5th. I dined with the Duke of Ormond, who told me 
there were no moles in Ireland, nor any rats till of late, and 
that but in one county ; but it was a mistake that spiders 
would not hve there, only they were not poisonous. Also, 
that they frequently took salmon with dogs. 

16th. I presented my Translation of " Naudaeus con- 
cerning Libraries" to my Lord Chancellor; but it was 
miserably false printed. *^ 

* See p. 361. 

+ Sir John Frederick. The pageant for this day was called " London's 
Triumph, at the Charges of the Grocers' Company. By John Tatliam." See 
the Gentleman's Magazine, xciv. ii. 517. 

J He obtained the living. 

§ A Tragi-Comedy, by Sir William Davenant ; the performance appears to 
have been in the morning. 


1 7th. Dr. Creighton, a Scot, author of the " Florentine 
Council," and a most eloquent man and admirable Grecian, 
preached on Cant. vi. 13, celebrating the return and 
restoration of the Church and King. 

20th. At the Eoyal Society, Sir William Petty proposed 
divers things for the improvement of shipping ; a versatile 
keel that should be on hinges, and concerning sheathing 
ships with tliin lead.* 

24th. This night his Majesty fell into discourse with me 
concerning bees, &c. 

26th. I saw Hamlet Prince of Denmark played ; but now 
the old plays began to disgust this refined age, since his 
Majesty's being so long abroad. 

28th. I dined at Chiffinch's house-warming, in St. 
James's Park ; he was his Majesty's closet-keeper, and had 
his new house full of good pictures, &c. There dined with 
us Russell, Popish Bishop of Cape Verd, who was sent out 
to negotiate his Majesty's match with the Infanta of 
Portugal, after the Ambassador was returned. 

29th. I dined at the Coimtess of Peterborough's, and 
went that evening to Parson's Green with my Lord 
Mordaunt, with whom I stayed that night. 

1st December. I took leave of my Lord Peterborough, 
going now to Tangier, which was to be delivered to the 
English on the match with Portugal. 

3rd. By universal suffrage of our philosophic assembly, 
an order was made and registered, that I should receive 
their public thanks for the honourable mention I made of 
them by the name of E-oyal Society, in my Epistle dedica- 
tory to the Lord Chancellor, before my Traduction of 
Naudaeus. Too great an honour for a trifle. 

4th. I had much discourse with the Duke of York, con- 
cerning strange cures he affirmed of a woman who swallowed 
a whole ear of barley, which worked out at her side. I 
told him of the knife swallowed ^f and the pins. 

I took leave of the Bishop of Cape Verd, now going in 
the fleet to bring over our new Queen. 

• Of which Bee more hereafter. 

+ This refers to tlie Dutchman, p. 26, and to an extraordinary case, con- 
tained in a " miraculous cure of the Prussian Swallow Knife, &c., by Dan. 
Lakin, P. C." ^uurto, London, 1642, with a woodcut representing the object 
himself, and the size of the knife. 

1662.] JOHN EVELYN. 359 

7th. I dined at Arundel House, the day when the great 
contest in Parhament was concerning the restoring the 
Duke of Norfolk ; however, it was carried for him. I also 
presented my little trifle of Sumptuary Laws, entitled 
«'Tyrannus" [or "The Mode."] 

14th. I saw otter-hunting with the King, and killed one. 

16th. I saw a French Comedy acted at Whitehall. 

20th. The Bishop of Gloucester* preached at the Abbey, 
at the funeral of the Bishop of Hereford, brother to the 
Duke of Albemarle. It was a decent solemnity. There 
was a silver mitre, with episcopal robes, borne by the 
herald before the hearse, which was followed by the Duke 
his brother, and aU the Bishops, with divers noblemen. 

23rd. I heard an Italian play and sing to the guitar with 
extraordinary skill before the Duke. 

1661-2. 1st January. I went to London, invited to the 
solemn foolery of the Prince de la Grange, at Lincoln's 
Inn, where came the King, Duke, &c. It began with a 
grand masque, and a formal pleading before the mock 
Princes, Grandees, Nobles, and Knights of the Sun. He 
had his Lord Chancellor, Chamberlain, Treasurer, and other 
Royal Officers, gloriously clad and attended. It ended in 
a magnificent banquet. One Mr. Lort was the young 
spark who maintained the pageantry. 

6th. This evening, according to custom, his Majesty 
opened the revels of that night by throwing the dice him- 
self in the privy-chamber, where was a table set on 
purpose, and lost his 100/. (The year before he won 1500Z.) 
The ladies also played very deep. I came away when the 
Duke of Ormond had won about 1000/., and left them 
still at passage, cards, &c. At other tables, both there and 
at the Groom -porter's, observing the wicked folly and 
monstrous excess of passion amongst some losers ; sorry 
am I that such a wretched custom as play to that excess 
should be countenanced in a Court, which ought to be an 
example of virtue to the rest of the kingdom. 

9th. I saw acted " The Third Part of the Siege of 
Rhodes." In this acted the fair and famous comedian 
called Roxalana from the part she performed ; and I think 
it was the last, she being taken to be the Earl of Oxford's 

* Dr. William Nicholson. 


Miss (as at tliis time they began to call lewd women). It 
was in recitative music. 

lOth. Being called into his Majesty^s closet when Mr. 
Cooper, the rare limner, was crayoning of the King's face 
and head, to make the stamps for the new milled money now 
contriving, I had the honour to hold the candle whilst it 
was doing, he choosing the night and candle-light for the 
better finding out the shadows. During this, his Majesty 
discoursed with me on several things relating to painting 
and graving. 

11th. I dined at Arundel House, where I heard excellent 
music performed by the ablest masters, both French and 
Enghsh, on theorbos, viols, organs, and voices, as an exer- 
cise against the coming of the Queen, purposely composed 
for her chapel. Afterwards, my Lord Aubigny (her Majesty's 
Almoner to be) showed us his elegant lodging, and his 
wheel-chair for ease and motion, with divers other curi- 
osities ; especially a kind of artificial glass, or porcelain, 
adorned with relievos of paste, hard and beautiful. Lord 
Aubigny (brother to the Duke of Lennox) was a person of 
good sense, but wholly abandoned to ease and efi'eminacy. 

I received of Sir Peter Ball, the Queen's Attorney, a 
draught of an Act against the nuisance of the smoke of 
London, to be reformed by removing several trades which 
are the cause of it, and endanger the health of the King 
and his people. It was to have been offered to the Parlia- 
ment, as his Majesty commanded. 

12th. AtSt. James's chapel preached, or rather harangued, 
the famous orator. Monsieur Morus,* in French. There 
were present the King, Duke, French Ambassador, Lord 
Aubigny, Earl of Bristol, and a world of Roman Catholics, 
drawn thither to hear this eloquent Protestant. 

15th. There was a general fast through the whole 
nation, and now celebrated in London, to avert God's heavy 
judgments on this land. Great rain had fallen without any 
frost, or seasonable cold, not only in England, but in 
Sweden, and the most northern parts, being here near as 
warm as at Midsummer in some years. 

This solemn fast was held for the House of Commons at 

• Probably, the famotis Alexander Moras (the antagonist of Milton) who 
Traa here in 1662. He was a very eloquent and much-admired preacher. 

16G2.] JOHN EVELYN. 361 

St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preached 
on Joshua, vii. 12, showing how the neglect of exacting 
justice on offenders (by which he insinuated such of the 
old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in the 
Tower) was a main cause of God's punishing a land. He 
brought in that of the Gibeonites, as well as Achan and 
others, concluding with an eulogy of the Parliament for 
their loyalty in restoring the Bishops and Clergy, and 
vindicating the Church from sacrilege. 

16th. Having notice of the Duke of York's intention to 
visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, 
when he was pleased to do me that honour of his own 
accord, and to stay some time viewing such things as I 
had to entertain his curiosity. Afterwards, he caused me 
to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, 
and to sit with him covered at the same table. There 
were his Highness, the Duke of Ormond, and several 
Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds. about a 
project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which 
was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp. After this, 
I accompanied the Diike to an East India vessel that 
lay at Blackwall, where we had entertainment of several 
curiosities. Amongst other spirituous drinks, as punch, 
&c., they gave us Canary that had been carried to and 
brought from the Indies, which was indeed incomparably 
good. I returned to London with his Highness. This night 
was acted before his Majesty " The Widow,'' a lewd play. 

18th. I came home to be private a little, not at all 
affecting the life and hurry of Court. 

24th. His Majesty entertained me with his intentions 
of building his Palace of Greenwich, and quite demolish- 
ing the old one ; on which I declared my thoughts. 

25th. I dined with the Trinity-Company at their house, 
that Corporation being by charter fixed at Deptford. 

3rd February. I went to Chelsea, to see Sir Arthur 
Gorges' house. 

1 1th. I saw a comedy acted before the Duchess of York 
at the Cockpit. The King was not at it. 

17th. I went with my Lord of Bristol to see his house 
at AVimbledon,* newly bought of the Queen-Mother, to 

• It devolved afterwards to Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, who built a 


help contrive the garden after the modern. It is a deli- 
cious place for prospect and the thickets, but the soil cold 
and weeping clay. Eeturned that evening with Sir Henry 

This night was buried in Westminster- Abbey the Queen 
of Bohemia,* after all her sorrows and afflictions being 
come to die in the arms of her nephew, the King : also 
this night and the next day fell such a storm of hail, 
thunder, and lightning, as never was seen the like in any 
man^s memory, especially the tempest of wind, being south- 
west, which subverted, besides huge trees, many houses, 
innumerable chimneys (amongst others that of my parlour 
at Sayes Court), and made such havoc at land and sea, 
that several perished on both. Divers lamentable fires 
were also kindled at this time ; so exceedingly was God's 
hand against this ungrateful and vicious nation and Court. 

20th. I returned home to repair my house, miserably 
shattered by the late tempest. 

24th March. I returned home with my whole family, 
which had been most part of the winter, since October, at 
London, in lodgings near the Abbey of Westminster. 

6th April, Being of the Vestry, in the afternoon we 
ordered that the communion-table should be set (as usual) 
altar-wise, with a decent rail in front, as before the 

17th. The young Marquis of Argyle, whose turbulent 
father was executed in Scotland, came to see my garden. 
He seemed a man of parts. 

7 th May. I waited on Prince Rupert to our Assembly, 
where were tried several experiments in Mr. Boyle's vacuum. 
A man thrusting in his arm, upon exhaustion of the air, 
had his flesh immediately swelled so as the blood was near 
bursting the veins: he, drawing it out, we found it all 

14th. To London, being chosen one of the Commis- 
sioners for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and 
incumbrances, and regulating the hackney coaches in the 

new house there, burnt doTv-n many years since. The property now belongs 
to Earl Spencer, who lias built a smaller house. There are two scarce and 
curious views of the old house, engraved by Winstanley. 

* EUzabeth, Electress Palatine, daughter of James I., a woman of excellent 
anderstandmg, and most amiable disposition. 

1662.] JOHN EVELYN. 363 

City of London, taking my oath before my Lord. Chan- 
cellor, and then went to his Majesty's Surveyor's Office, in 
Scotland- Yard, about naming and establishing officers, 
adjourning till the 16th, when I went to view how St. 
Martin's Lane might be made more passable into the 
Strand. There were divers gentlemen of quality in this 

25th. I went this evening to London, in order to our 
journey to Hampton Court, to see the new Queen, who, 
ha\ing landed at Portsmouth, had been married to the 
King a week before by the Bishop of London. 

30th. The Queen arrived with a train of Portuguese 
ladies in their monstrous fardingales, or guard-infantes, 
their complexions olivader * and sufficiently unagreeable. 
Her Majesty in the same habit, her fore-top long and 
turned aside very strangely. She was yet of the hand- 
somest countenance of all the rest, and, though low of 
stature, prettily shaped, languishing and excellent eyes, 
her teeth wronging her mouth by sticking a Uttle too far 
out ; for the rest lovely enough. 

31st. I saw the Queen at dinner ; the Judges came 
to compliment her arrival, and, after them, the Duke of 
Ormond brought me to kiss her hand. 

2nd June. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen made their 
addresses to the Queen, presenting her lOOOZ. in gold. 
Now saw I her Portuguese ladies, and the Guarda-damas, 
or IMother of her Maids,t and the old knight, a lock of 
whose hair quite covered the rest of his bald pate, bound 
on by a thread, very oddly. I saw the rich gondola sent 
to his Majesty from the State of Venice ; but it was not 
comparable for swiftness to our common wherries, though 
managed by Venetians. 

4th. Went to visit the Earl of Bristol, at Wimbledon. 

8th, I saw her JSIajesty at supper privately in her bed- 

* Of a dark olive complexion. It has been noticed in other accounts that 
the Queen's Portuguese Ladies of Honour, who came over witli her, were 
uncommonly ill-favoured, and disagreeable in their appearance. See Faithorue's 
curious print of her Majesty in the costume here desciibed. 

+ The Maids of Honour had a Mother at least as early as the reign of 
EUzabeth. The office is supposed to have been abolished about the period of 
the RevolutioQ of 1668. Lodge's Illustrations of British History, III. 227. . 


9tli. I heard the Queen's Portugal music, consisting of 
pipes, harps, and very ill voices. 

Hampton Court is as noble and uniform a pile, and as 
capacious as any Gothic architecture can have made it. 
There is an incomparable furniture in it, especially hang- 
ings designed by Raphael, very rich with gold ; also many 
rare pictures, especially the Csesarean Triumphs of Andrea 
Mantegna, formerly the Duke of Mantua's ; of the tapes- 
tries, I believe the world can show nothing nobler of the 
kind than the stories of Abraham and Tobit. The gallery 
of horns is very particular for the vast beams of stags, 
elks, antelopes, &c. The Queen's bed was an embroidery 
of silver on crimson velvet, and cost 8000/., being a pre- 
sent made by the States of Holland when his Majesty 
returned, and had formerly been given by them to our 
King's sister, the Princess of Orange, and, being bought of 
her again, was now presented to the King. The great 
looking-glass and toilet, of beaten and massive gold, was 
given by the Queen-Mother. The Queen brought over 
with her from Portugal such Indian cabinets as had never 
before been seen here. The great hall is a most magnifi- 
cent room. The chapel-roof excellently fretted and gilt. 
I was also curious to visit the wardrobe and tents, and 
other furniture of state. The park, formerly a flat and 
naked piece of ground, now planted with sweet rows of 
lime trees ; and the canal for water now near perfected ; 
also the air-park. In the garden is a rich and noble foun- 
tain, with Sirens, statues, &c., cast in copper, by Fanelli ; 
but no plenty of water. The cradle-work of horn beam 
in the garden is, for the perplexed twining of the trees, 
very observable. There is a parterre which they call Para- 
dise, in which is a pretty banqueting-house set over a 
cave, or cellar. All these gardens might be exceedingly 
improved, as being too narrow for such a palace. 

10th. I returned to London, and presented my " His- 
tory of Chalcography " (dedicated to Mr. Boyle) to our 

19th. I went to Albury, to visit Mr. Henry Howard, 
soon after he had procured the dukedom to be restored. 
This gentleman had now compounded a debt of 200,000/., 

• See Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, p. 243. 

1662.] JOHN EVELYN. 365 

contracted by his grandfather. I was much obhged to that 
great virtuoso, and to this young gentleman, with whom I 
stayed a fortnight. 

2nd July. We hunted and killed a buck in the park, 
Mr. Howard inviting most of the gentlemen of the country 
near him. 

3rd. My wife met me at Woodcot, whither Mr. Howard 
accompanied me to see my son John, who had been much 
brought up amongst Mr. Howard^s children at Arundel 
House, till, for fear of their perverting him in the Catholic 
religion, I was forced to take him home. 

8th. To London, to take leave of the Duke and Duchess 
of Ormond, going then into Ireland with an extraordinary 

13th. Spent some time with the Lord Chancellor, 
where I had discourse with my Lord Willoughby, Gover- 
nor of Barbadoes, concerning divers particulars of that 

28th. His Majesty going to sea to meet the Queen- 
Mother, now coming again for England, met with such ill 
weather as greatly endangered him. I went to Greenwich, 
to wait on the Queen, now landed. 

30th. To London, where was a meeting about Charitable 
Uses, and particularly to inquire how the City had dis- 
posed of the revenues of Gresham College, and why the 
salaries of the professors there were no better improved. 
I was on this commission, with divers Bishops and Lords 
of the Council; but little was the progress we could 

31st. I sat with the Commissioners about reforming 
buildings and streets of London, and we ordered the pav- 
ing of the way from St. James's North, which was a quag- 
mire, and also of the Haymarket about Piqudillo [Picca- 
dilly], and agreed upon instructions to be printed and 
published for the better keeping the streets clean. 

1st August. Mr. H. Howard, his brothers Charles, 
Edward, Bernard, Philip* now the Queen's Almoner, (all 
brothers of the Duke of Norfolk, still in Italy), came with 
a great train, and dined with me ; Mr. H. Howard leaving 
with me his eldest and yoimgest sons, Henry and Thomas, 

* Since Cardinal at Rome. 

DIARY OP ;: [londow, 

for three or four days, my son, John, having been sometime 
bred up in their father^s house. 

4th, Came to see me the old Countess of Devonshire,* 
with that excellent and worthy person, my Lord, her son, 
from Eoehampton. 

5th. To London, and next day to Hampton Court, about 
my purchase, and took leave of Sir R. Fanshawe, now going 
Ambassador to Portugal. 

13th. Our Charter being now passed under the broad 
Seal, constituting us a corporation under the name of The 
Royal Society for the improvement of natural knowledge 
by experiment, was this day read, and was all that was done 
this afternoon, being very large. 

14th. I sat on the commission for Charitable Uses, the 
Lord Mayor and others of the Mercers' Company being 
summoned, to answer some complaints of the Professors, 
grounded on a clause in the wiU of Sir Thomas Gresham, 
the founder. 

This afternoon, the Queen-Mother, with the Earl of St. 
Alban's and many great ladies and persons, was pleased to 
honour my poor villa with her presence, and to accept of 
a collation. She was exceedingly pleased, and staid till 
very late in the evening. 

15th. Came my Lord Chancellor (the Earl of Claren- 
don) and his lady, his purse and mace borne before him, 
to visit me. They were likewise coUationed with us, and 
were very merry. They had all been our old acquaintance 
in exile, and indeed this great person had ever been my 
friend. His son, Lord Cornbury, was here, too. 

17th. Being the Sunday when the Common Prayer- 
Book, reformed and ordered to be used for the future, was 
appointed to be read, and the solemn League and Covenant 
to be abjured by all the incumbents of England under 
penalty of losing their livings; our \icar read it this 

20th. There were strong guards in the city this day, 

* Christjan, Countess of Devonshire. She was of consderable celebrity for 
her devotion, hospitality, her great care in the management of her son's 
affairs ; and as a patroness of tlie wits of the age, who frequently met at her 
house : also for her loyalty and correspondence to promote the restoration. 
King Charles II. frequently visited her at this place with tlie Queen-Mother 
and the Royal Family. There ia a life of this lady, written by Mr. Pomfret. 

1662.] JOHN EVELYN. 367 

apprehending some tumults, many of the Presbyterian 
ministers not conforming. I dined with the Vice- 
Chamberlain, and then went to see the Queen-Mother, 
who was pleased to give me many thanks for the enter- 
tainment she received at my house, when she recounted to 
me many observable stories of the sagacity of some dogs 
she formerly had. 

21st. I was admitted and then sworn one of the Council 
of the Royal Society, being nominated in his Majesty^s 
original grant to be of this Council for the regulation of 
the Society, and making laws and statutes conducible to 
its establishment and progress, for which we now set apart 
every Wednesday morning till they were all finished. 
Lord Viscount Brouncker (that excellent mathematician) 
was also by his Majesty, our founder, nominated our first 
President. The King gave us the arms of England to be 
borne in a canton in our arms, and sent us a mace of 
silver gilt, of the sameTashion and bigness as those carried 
before his Majesty, to be borne before our president on 
meeting days. It was brought by Sir Gilbert Talbot, 
Master of his Majesty^s Jewel-house. 

22nd. I dined with my Lord Brouncker and Sir Robert 
Murray, and then went to consult about a new-modelled 
ship at Lambeth, the intention being to reduce that art 
to as certain a method as any other part of architecture. 

23rd. I was spectator of the most magnificent triumph 
that ever floated on the Thames,* considering the innu- 
merable boats and vessels, dressed and adorned with 
all 'imaginable pomp, but, above all, the thrones, arches, 
pageants, and other representations, stately barges of the 
Lord Mayor and Companies, with various inventions, 
music and peals of ordnance both from the vessels and the 
shore, going to meet and conduct the new Queen from 
Hampton Court to Whitehall, at the first time of her 
coming to town. In my opinion, it far exceeded all the 
Venetian Bucentoras, &c., on the Ascension, when they 
go to espouse the Adriatic. His Majesty and the Queen 

* An account of this solemnity was published in " Aqua Triumphalis ; being 
a true relation of the honourable City of London entertaining their sacred 
Majesties upon the River of Thames, and welcoming them from Hampton 
Court to Whitehall, &c. Engraved by John Tatham," foUo, 1662. See 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xciv. ii. 516. 


came in an antique-shaped open vessel, covered "svitli a 
state, or canopy, of cloth of gold, made in form of a cupola, 
supported with high Corinthian pillars, wreathed with 
flowers, festoons, and garlands. I was in our new-built 
vessel, sailing amongst them. 

29th. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society 
went in a body to Whitehall, to acknowledge his Majesty's 
royal grace in granting our Charter, and vouchsafing to be 
himself our Founder ; when the President made an elo- 
quent speech, to which his Majesty gave a gracious reply, 
and we all kissed his hand. Next day, we went in like 
manner with our address to my Lord Chancellor, who had 
much promoted our patent : he received us with extraordi- 
nary favour. In the evening, I went to the Queen-Mother's 
Court, and had much discourse with her. 

1st September. Being invited by Lord Berkeley, I went 
to Durdans,* where dined his Majesty, the Queen, Duke, 
Duchess, Prince Rupert, Prince Edward, and abundance of 
noblemen. I went, after dinner, to visit my brother of 
Woodcot, my sister ha^dng been delivered of a son a little 
before, but who had now been two days dead. 

4th. Commission for Charitable Uses, my Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen being again summoned, and the improve- 
ments of Sir Thomas Gresham's estate examined. There 
were present the Bishop of London, the Lord Chief Justice, 
and the King's Attorney. 

6th. Dined with me Sir Edward Walker, Garter King- 
at-Arms, Mr. Slingsby, Master of the Mint, and several 

17th. We now resolved that the Arms of the Society 
should be, a field Argent, with a canton of the arms of 
England ; the supporters two talbots Argent ; Crest, an 
eagle Or holding a shield with the like arms of England, 
viz., three lions. The words Nullius in verbd. It was 
presented to his Majesty for his approbation, and orders 
given to Garter King-at-Arms to pass the diploma of their 
office for it. 

20th. I presented a petition to his Majesty about my 
own concerns, and afterwards accompanied him to Monsieur 
Febure, his chymist (and who had formerly been my 
master in Paris), to see his accurate preparation for the 

* At Epsom. 

1662.] JOHN EVELYN. 369 

composing Sir Walter Raleigh^s rare cordial ; lie made a 
learned discourse before his Majesty in French on each 

27th. Came to visit me Sir George Saville,* grandson 
to the learned Sir Henry Saville, who pubKshed St. Chry- 
sostom. Sir George was a witty gentleman, if not a little 
too prompt and daring. 

3rd October. I was invited to the College of Physicians, 
where Dr. Meret, a learned man and hbrary-keeper, 
showed me the library, theatre for anatomy, and divers 
natural curiosities ; the statue and epigraph under it of 
that renowned physician. Dr. Harvey, discoverer of the 
circulation of the blood. There I saw Dr. Gilbert, Sir 
Wilhara Paddy^s, and other pictures of men famous in 
their faculty. 

Visited Mr. Wright,t a Scotsman, who had hved long at 
E/Ome, and was esteemed a good painter. The pictures of 
the Judges at Guildhall are of his hand, and so are some 
pieces in Whitehall, as the roof in his Majesty's old bed- 
chamber, being Astraea, the St. Catherine, and a chimney- 
piece in the Queen's privy chamber; but his best, in my 
opinion, is Lacy, the famous Roscius or comedian, whom 
he has painted in three dresses, as a gallant, a Presbyterian 
minister, and a Scotch highlander in his plaid.J It is in 
his Majesty's dining-room, at Windsor. He had at his 
house an excellent collection, especially that small piece of 
Correggio, Scotus of de la Marca, a design of Paulo ; and, 
above all, those ruins of Polydore, with some good agates 
and medals, especially a Scipio, and a Caesar's head of gold. 

15th. I this day delivered my " Discourse concerning 
Forest-Trees " to the Society, upon occasion of certain 
queries sent to us by the Commissioners of his Majesty's 
Navy, being the first book that was printed by order of the 
Society, and by their printer, since it was a Corporation. 

16th. I saw "Volpone" acted at Court before their 

21st. To the Queen-Mother's Court, where her Majesty 

* Afterwards, the celebrated Marquis of Halifax. + See p. 331. 

J A private etching from this picture was made in 1825, by William Hop- 
kins, one of the pages to Princess Elizabeth. Mr. John Lacy is represented 
in his three principal characters, viz. Teague, in the Committee ; Scruple, in 
the Cheats ; and Galliard, in the Variety. He died in 1681. 
VOL. I. B B 


related to us divers passages of her escapes during the 
Rebellian and wars in England. 

28th. To Court in the evening, where the Queen-Mother, 
the Queen-Consort, and his Majesty, being advertised of 
some disturbance, forebore to go to the Lord IVIayor^s show 
and feast appointed next day, the new Queen not having 
yet seen that triumph. 

29th. Was my Lord Mayor^s* Show, with a number of 
sumptuous pageants, speeches, and verses. I was standing 
in a house in Cheapside against the place prepared for 
their Majesties. The Prince and heir of Denmark was 
there, but not our King. There were also the maids of 
honour. I went to Court this evening, anij had much dis- 
, course with Dr. Basiers,t one of his Majesty^s chaplains, 
the great traveller, who showed me the syngraphs and 
original subscriptions of divers eastern patriarchs and 
Asian churches to our confession. 

4th November. I was invited to the wedding of the 
daughter of Sir George Carteret, (the Treasurer of the Navy 
and King's Vice-Chamberlain), married to Sir Nicholas 
Slaning, Knight of the Bath, by the Bishop of London, in 
the Savoy chapel ; after which, was an extraordinary feast. 

5th. The Council of the Royal Society met to amend 
the Statutes, and dined together : afterwards meeting at 
Gresham College, where was a discourse suggested by me, 
concerning planting his Majesty's Forest of Dean with oak, 
now so much exhausted of the choicest ship-timber in the 

20th. Dined with the Comptroller, Sir Hugh Pollard; 
afterwards, saw "The Young Admiral" J acted before the 

21 st. Spent the evening at Court, Sir Kenelm Digby 
giving me great thanks for my Sylva.^ 

27th. Went to London to see the entrance of the Russian 
Ambassador, whom his Majesty ordered to be received with 

* Sir John Robinson, Knt. and Bart. Clothworker. The pageant on this 
occasion, which was the same as in the preceding year (see note, p. 357), was 
at the charge of the Clothworker's Company. 

+ Isaac Basire. See p. 357, and an account of him in Wood's « Athense 

X A Tragi-Comedy by James Shirley. 

§ " Discourse on Forest-Trees." See preceding page. 

1662.] JOHN EVELYN. 37 1 

nrncli state, the Emperor not only having been kind to his 
Majesty in his distress, but banishing all commerce with 
our nation during the Rebellion. 

First, the City Companies and Trained Bands Avere all 
in their stations : his Majesty's Army and Guards in great 
order. His Excellency came in a very rich coach, with 
some of his chief attendants ; many of the rest on horse- 
back, clad in their vests, after the Eastern manner, rich 
furs, caps, and carrying the presents, some carrying hawks, 
furs, teeth, bows, &c. It was a very magnificent show. 

I dined with the Master of the Mint,* where was old 
Sir Ralph Freeman ; t passing my evening at the Queen- 
Mother's Court; at night, saw acted "The Committee," a 
ridiculous play of Sir R. Howard, where the mimic. Lacy, 
acted the Irish footman to admiration. 

30th. St. Andrew's day. Invited by the Dean of West- 
minster J to his consecration-dinner and ceremony, on his 
being made Bishop of Worcester. Dr. Bolton preached 
in the Abbey Church ; then followed the consecration by 
the Bishops of London, Chichester, Winchester, Salisbury, 
&c. After this, was one of the most plentiful and magni- 
ficent dinners that in my life I ever saw; it cost near 600/. 
as I was informed. Here were the Judges, nobility, clergy, 
and gentlemen innumerable, this Bishop being universally 
beloved for his sweet and gentle disposition. He was author 
of those Characters which go under the name of Blount.§ 
He translated his late Majesty's Icon into Latin, was 
Clerk of his Closet, Chaplain, Dean of Westminster, and 
yet a most humble, meek, but cheerful man, an excellent 
scholar, and rare preacher. I had the honoui' to be loved 
by him. He married me at Paris, duiing his Majesty's 
and the Church's exile. When I took leave of him, he 
brought me to the cloisters in his episcopal habit. I then 
went to prayers at Whitehall, where I passed that evening. 

1st December. Having seen the strange and wonderful 
dexterity of the sHders on the new canal in St. James's 
Park, performed before their Majesties by divers gentlemen 

* Mr. Slingsby. 
f Of Betchworth, in Surrey. 

4: Dr. Jolin Earle. Translated afterwards to Salisbury. 
§ These Characters wex'e several times printed, and are still I'ead with 
some interest. 

B B 2 

372 DIARY OF [tosDON, 

and others with skates, after the manner of the Hollanders, 
with what swiftness they pass, how suddenly they stop in 
full career upon the ice ; I went home by water, but not 
without exceeding difficulty, the Thames being fi'02sen, great 
flakes of ice encompassing our boat. 

17th. I saw acted before the King " The Law against 
Lovers.^' * 

21st. One of his Majesty's chaplains preached ; after 
which, instead of the ancient, grave, and solemn wind 
music accompanying the organ, was introduced a concert 
of twenty-four violins between every pause, after the French 
fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern, or playhouse, 
than a church. This was the first time of change, and now 
we no more heard the cornet which gave life to the organ ; 
that instrument quite left off in which the EngUsh were so 
skilful. I dined at Mr. Povey's, where I talked with Cromer, 
a great musician. 

23rd. I went with Sir George Tuke, to hear the come- 
dians con and repeat his new comedy, " The Adventures of 
Five Hours,'' a play whose plot was taken out of the famous 
Spanish poet, Calderon. 

27th. I visited Sir Theophilus Biddulph. 

29th. Saw the audience of the Muscovy Ambassador, 
which was with extraordinary state, his retinue being 
numerous, all clad in vests of several colours, with buskins, 
after the Eastern manner ; their caps of fur ; tunics, richly 
embroidered with gold and pearls, made a glorious show. 
The King being seated under a canopy in the Banqueting- 
house, the Secretary of the Embassy went before the 
Ambassador in a grave march, holding up his master's 
letters of credence in a crimson taffeta scarf before his 
forehead. The Ambassador then delivered it with a pro- 
found reverence to the King, who gave it to our Secretary 
of State ; it was written in a long and lofty style. Then 
came in the presents, borne by 165 of his retinue, consisting 
of mantles and other large pieces lined with sable, black 
fox, and ermine; Persian carpets, the ground cloth of gold 
and velvet ; hawks, such as they said never came the like ; 
horses said to be Persian ; bows and arrows, &c. These 

* A Tragi-Comedy, by Sir William Davenant, taken almost entirely from 
Shakspeare's " Measure for Measure," and " Much Ado about Nothing/' 
blended together. 

1663.] JOHN EVELYN. 373 

borne by so long a train rendered it very extraordinary. 
Wind music plaj'ed all the while in the galleries above. 
This finished, the Ambassador was conveyed by the Master 
of the Ceremonies to York-House, where he was treated 
with a banquet which cost ZOO I. as I was assured.* 

1G63-3. 7th January. At night, I saw the ball, in which 
his Majesty danced with several great ladies. 

8th. I went to see my kinsman. Sir George Tuke's, 
comedy acted at the Duke's theatre, which took so univer- 
sally, that it was acted for some weeks every day, and it 
was believed it would be worth to the comedians 400/. or 
500/. The plot was incomparable; but the language stiff 
and formal. 

10th. I saw a ball again at Court, danced by the King, 
the Duke, and ladies, in great pomp. 

21st. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's of the Household, Sir 
Charles Berkeley's, where were the Earl of Oxford, Lord 
Bellassis, Lord Gerard, Sir Andrew Scrope, Sir William 
Coventry, Dr. Fraser, Mr. Windham, and others. 

5th February. I saw " The Wild Gallant," a comedy ; f 
and was at the great ball at Court, where his Majesty, the 
Queen, &c., danced. 

6th. Dined at my Lord Mayor's, Sir John Robinson, 
Lieutenant of the Tower. 

15th. This night some villains brake into my house and 
study below, and robbed me to the value of 60/. in plate, 
money, and goods ; — this being the third time I have been 
thus plundered. 

26th March. I sat at the Commission of Sewers, where 

• " The Czar of Muscovy sent an Ambassador to compliment King Charles 
II. on his Restoration. The King sent the Earl of Carlisle as his Ambas- 
satlor to Moscow, to desire the re-estabUshment of the ancient privileges of 
the English merchants at Archangel, which had been taken away by the Czar, 
who, abhorring the murder of the King's father, accused them as favourers 
of it. But, by the means of the Czar's ministers, his Lordship was very ill 
received, and met with what he deemed affronts, and had no success as to his 
demands, so that at coming away he refused the presents sent him by the 
Czar. The Czar sent an Ambassador to England to complain of Lord 
Carlisle's conduct ; but his Lordship vindicated himself so well, that the King 
told the Ambassador he saw no reason to condemn his Lordship's conduct." 
Relation of this Embassy by G. M., authenticated by Lord Carlisle, printed 

f By Mr. Dryden. It did not succeed on the first representation, but was 
considerably altered to the form in which it now appears. 


was a great case pleaded by his Majesty's counsel; he, 
having bnilt a wall over a water-course, denied the juris- 
diction of the Court. The verdict went for the Plaintiff 
[i.e. against the King]. 

30th April. Came his Majesty to honour my poor villa 
with his presence, \dewing the gardens and' even every room 
of the house, and was pleased to take a small refreshment. 
There were with him the Duke of Richmond, Earl of St. 
Alban's, Lord Lauderdale, and several persons of quality. 

14th Mar. Dined with my Lord Mordaunt, and thence 
went to Barnes, to visit my excellent and ingenious friend, 
Abraham Cowley. 

17th. I saluted the old Bishop of Durham, Dr. Cosin, to 
whom 1 had been land, and assisted in his exile ; but which 
he httle remembered in his greatness. 

29th. Dr. Creighton preached his extravagant sermon 
at St. ^Margaret's, before the House of C6mmons. 

30th. This morning was passed my lease of Sayes Court 
from the CroAvn, for the finishing of which I had been 
obliged to make such frequent journeys to London. I 
returned this evening, having seen the Russian Ambassador 
take leave of then* Majesties with great solemnity. 

2nd July. I saw the great Masque at Court, and lay that 
night at Ainmdel-house. 

4th. I saw liis Majesty's Guards, being of horse and foot 
4000, led by the General, the Duke of Albemarle, in extra- 
ordinary eqidpage and gallantry, consisting of gentlemen 
of quality and veteran soldiers, excellently clad, mounted, 
and ordered, drawn up in battalia before their Majesties 
in Hyde Park, where the old Earl of Cleveland trailed a 
pike, and led the right-hand file in a foot-company, com- 
manded l)y the Lord Wentworth, his son; a worthy 
spectacle Jind example, being both of them old and valiant 
soldiers. This was to show the French Ambassador, 
Monsieur Comminges; there being a great assembly of 
coaches, &c., iu the park. 

7th. Dined at the Comptroller's; after dinner, we met 
at the Commission about the streets, and to regulate hack- 
ney-coaches, also to make up our accounts to pass the 

16th. A most extraordinary wet and cold season. 

Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of . the Navy, had now 

1663.] JOHN EVELYN. 375 

married his daughter, Caroline, to Sir Thomas Scott, of 
Scott's-hall, in Kent.* This gentleman was thought to 
be the son of Prince Rupert. 

2nd August. This evening, I accompanied Mr. Treasurer 
and Vice-Chamberlain Carteret to his lately married son- 
in-la\v^s, Sir Thomas Scott, to Scott's-haU. We took barge 
as far as Gravesend, thence by post to Rochester, whence 
in coach and six horses to Scott^s-hall ; a right noble seat, 
uniformly built, with a handsome gallery. It stands in a 
park well stored, the land fat and good. We were exceed- 
ingly feasted by the young knight, and in his pretty chapel 
heard an excellent sermon by his chaplain. In the after- 
noon, preached the learned Sir Norton Knatchbull,t (who 
has a noble seat hard by, and a plantation of stately fir- 
trees) . In the church-yard of the parish church I measured 
an over-grown yew-tree, that was eighteen of my paces in 
compass, out of some branches of which, torn off by the 
winds, were sawed divers goodly planks. 

10th. We returned by Sir Norton's, whose- house is 
likewise in a park. This gentleman is a worthy person, 
and learned critic, especially in Greek and Hebrew. Passing 
by Chatham, we saw his Majesty's Royal Navy, and dined 
at Commissioner Pett's, J master-builder there, who showed 
me his study and models, with other curiosities belonging 
to his art. He is esteemed for the most skilful ship- 
builder in the world. He hath a pretty garden and 
banqueting-house, pots, statues, cypresses, resembling some 
viUas about Rome. After a great feast, we rode post to 
Gravesend, and, sending the coach to London, came by 
barge home that night. 

18th. To London, to see my Lord Chancellor, where I 
had discourse with my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and 
the Bishop of Winchester, who enjoined me to write to 

• See Hasted's « Kent," Vol. III., p. 293. 

t Hasted's " Kent," Vol. II., p. 444. 

J There is a monument for him in Deptford church, with a most pompous 
inscription : " Qui fuit patriae decus, patrise su£e magnum mimimentura ;" he 
not only restored our naval affairs, but he invented that excellent and new 
ornament of the Navy which we call Frigate, formidable to our enemies, to us 
most useful and safe : he was the Noah of liis age, by this invention, like the 
Ark, having almost snatched our dominion of the seas and our rights from 


Dr. Pierce, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, about 
a letter sent him by Dr. Goff, a Romish Oratorian, con- 
cerning an answer to Dean Cressy's late book.* 

20th. I dined at the Comptroller's [of the Household] 
with the Earl of Oxford and Mr. Ashburnham ; it was said 
it should be the last of the public diets, or tables, at Court, 
it being determined to put down the old hospitahty, at 
which was great murmuring, considering his Majesty's 
vast revenue and the plenty of the nation. Hence, I went 
to sit in a Committee, to consider about the regulation of 
the Mint at the Tower; in which some small progress 
was made. 

27th. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, Secretary to my 
Lord Treasurer, who showed me the accounts and other 
private matters relating to the revenue. Thence, to the 
Commissioners of the Mint, particularly about coinage, 
and bringing his Majesty's rate from fifteen to ten shillings 
for every pound weight of gold. 

31st. I was invited to the translation of Dr. Sheldon, 
Bishop of London, from that see to Canterbury, the cere- 
mony performed at Lambeth. First, went his Grace's 
mace-bearer, steward, treasurer, comptroller, all in their 
gowns, and with white staves ; next, the Bishops in their 
habits, eight in number; Dr. Sweate, Dean of the Arches, 
Dr. Exton, Judge of the Admiralty, Sir William Merick, 
Judge of the Prerogative Court, with divers advocates in 
scarlet. After divine service in the chapel, performed 
with music extraordinary, Dr. French and Dr. Stradling 
(his Grace's chaplains) said prayers. The Archbishop in 
a private room looking into the chapel, the Bishops who 
were Commissioners went up to a table placed before the 
altar, and sat round it in chairs. Then, Dr. Chaworth 
presented the commission under the broad seal to the 
Bishop of Winchester, and it was read by Dr. Sweate. 

* Of Dr. Pierce, who was also Dean of Salisbury, Wood gives a very unfa- 
vourable account in his " Fasti." He appears to have been eng.aged in dis- 
putes both in his College and at Salisbury. Dean Cressy was bred in the 
Church of England, and was appointed Canon of Windsor and Dean of 
LeighUn, in Ireland, in the time of King Charles I., but from the troubles of 
that time, had no benefit from either ; he aftei-wards became a Papist. The 
book here referred to is ** Exomologetis," or the motives of his conversion. 
Wood's FastL 

1663.] JOHN EVELYN. 377 

After which, the Vicar- General went to the vestry, and 
brought his Grace into the chapel, his other officers march- 
ing before. He being presented to the Commissioners, 
was seated in a great arm-chair at one end of the table, 
when the definitive sentence was read by the Bishop of 
Winchester, and subscribed by all the Bishops, and pro- 
clamation was three times made at the chapel door, which 
was then set open for any to enter, and give their excep- 
tions ; if any they had. This done, we all went to dinner 
in the great hall to a mighty feast. There were present 
all the nobility in town, the Lord Mayor of London, 
Sheriffs, Duke of Albemarle, &c. My Lord Archbishop 
did in particular most civilly welcome me. So going to 
visit my Lady Needham, who lived at Lambeth, I went 
over to London. 

10th September. I dined with Mr. Treasurer of the 
Navy, where, sitting by Mr. Secretary Morice, we had 
much discourse about books and authors, he being a 
learned man, and had a good collection. 

24th October. Mr. Edward Phillips came to be my son*s 
preceptor : this gentleman was nephew to Milton, who 
wrote against Salmasius's " Defensio ; " but was not at all 
infected with his principles, though brought up by him.* 

5th November. Dr. South, my Lord Chancellor's chap- 
lain, preached at Westminster Abbey an excellent discourse 
concerning obedience to magistrates, against the pontifi- 
cians and sectaries. I afterwards dined at Sir Philip 
Warwick's, where was much company. 

6th. To Court, to get Sir John Evelyn of Godstone oflF 
from being SheriflF of Surrey, f 

30th. Was the first anniversary of our Society for the 
choice of new officers, according to the tenour of our patent 
and institution. It being St. Andrew's day, who was our 
patron, each fellow wore a St. Andrew's cross of ribbon 
on the crown of his hat. After the election, we dined 
together, his Majesty sending us venison. 

16th December. To our Society, where Mr. P. Balle, 
our Treasurer at the late election, presented the Society 

* The lives of Edward and John Phillips, nephews and pupils of the poet, 
were published in 1815, by William Godwin, 4to. 
+ In which he succeeded. 


with an iron chest, having three locks, and in it lOOZ. 
as a gift. 

18th. Dined with the gentlemen of his Majesty^s bed- 
chamber at Whitehall. 

1663-4. 2nd January, ^o Bame Elms, to see Abraham 
Cowley after his sickness ; and returned that evening to 

4-th February. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick^s ; thence, 
to Court, where I had discourse with the King about an 
invention of glass-grenades, and several other subjects. 

5th. I saw " The Indian Queen " acted, a tragedy well 
written,^ so beautiful with rich scenes as the like had 
never been seen here, or haply (except rarely) elsewhere 
on a mercenary theatre. 

16th. I presented my "Sylva" to the Society; and 
next day to liis Majesty, to whom it was dedicated ; also 
to the Lord Treasurer and the Lord Chancellor. 

24th. My Lord George Berkeley, of Durdans, and Sir 
Samuel Tuke, came to visit me. We went on board Sir 
William Pettj^s double-bottomed vessel, and so to London. 

26th. Dined with my Lord Chancellor ; and thence to 
Court, where I had great thanks for my " Sylva," and 
long discourse with the King of divers particulars. 

2nd March. Went to London, to distribute some of my 
books amongst friends. 

4th. Came to dine with me the Earl of Lauderdale, his 
Majesty^s great favourite, and Secretary of Scotland ; the 
Earl of Teviot ; ray Lord Viscount Brouncker, President 
of the Royal Society ; Dr. Wilkins, Dean of Eipon ; Sir 
Robert Murray, and Mr. Hooke, Curator to the Society. 

This spring, I planted the Home-field and West-field 
about Sayes Court with elms, being the same year that the 
elms were planted by his Majesty in Greenwich Park. 

9th. I went to the Tower, to sit in commission about 
regidating the Mint ; and now it wbs that the fine 
new-milled coin, both of white money and guineas, was 

26th. It pleased God to take away my son, Richard, 
now a month old, yet without any sickness of danger 
perceivably, being to all appearance a most likely child ; 

• By Sir Robert Howard and Mr. Dryden, 

1664,] JOHN EVELYN. 379 

we suspected much the nurse had over-lain him ; to our 
extreme sorrow, being now again reduced to one : but 
God's will be done ! 

29th. After evening prayers, was my child buried near 
the rest of his brothers — my very dear children. 

27th April. SaAv a facetious comedy, called " Love in a 
Tub ; " and supped at Mr. Secretary Bennett's. 

3rd May. Came the Earl of Kent, my kinsman, and his 
lady, to visit us. 

5th. Went with some company a journey of pleasure 
on the water, in a barge, with music, and at Mortlake had 
a great banquet, returning late. The occasion was, Sir 
Robert Carr now courting Mrs. Bennett, sister to the 
Secretary of State. 

6th. Went to see Mr. Wright the painter's collection of 
rare shells, &c. 

8th June. To our Society, to which his Majesty had 
sent that wonderful horn of the fish which struck a dan- 
gerous hole in the keel of a ship in the India sea, which, 
being broken off with the violence of the fish, and left in 
the timber, preserved it from foundering. 

9th. Sir Samuel Tuke * being this morning married to 
a lady, kinswoman to my Lord Arundel of Wardour, by 
the Queen's Lord Almoner, L. Aubigny, in St. James's 
chapel, solemnized his wedding-night at my house with 
much company. 

22nd. One Tomson, a Jesuit, showed me such a collection 
of rarities, sent from the Jesuits of Japan and China to 
their Order at Paris, as a present to be reserved in their 
repository, but brought to London by the East India ships 
for them, as in my life I had not seen. The chief things 
were, rhinoceros's horns ; glorious vests, wrought and em- 
broidered on cloth of gold, but with such lively colours, 
that for splendour and vi\idness we have nothing in Europe 
that approaches it ; a girdle studded Avith agates and rubies 
of great value and size ; knives, of so keen an edge as one 
could not touch them, nor was the metal of our colour, 
but more pale and Uvid ; fans, like those our ladies use, 
but much larger, and with long handles curiously carved 
and filled with Chinese characters : a sort of paper very 

• A Romau Catholic. 


broad, thin, and fine like abortive parchment, and exqui- 
sitely polished, of an amber yellow, exceeding glorious 
and pretty to look on, and seeming to be like that which 
my Lord Verulam describes in his "Nova Atlantis;" 
several other sorts of paper, some written, others printed ; 
prints of landscapes, their idols, saints, pagods, of most 
ugly serpentine monstrous and hideous shapes, to which 
they paid devotion ; pictures of men and countries, rarely 
painted on a sort of gummed calico, transparent as glass ; 
flowers, trees, beasts, birds, &c., excellently wrought in a 
kind of sleeve silk, very natural; divers drugs that our 
druggists and physicians could make nothing of, especially 
one which the Jesuit called Lac Tigridis : it looked like a 
fungus, but was weighty like metal, yet was a concretion, 
or coagulation, of some other matter ; several book MSS.; 
a grammar of the language written in Spanish ; with innu- 
merable other rarities. 

1st July. Went to see Mr. Povey's * elegant house in 
Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, where the perspective in his court, 
painted by Streeter, is indeed excellent, with the vases in 
imitation of porphyry, and fountains ; the inlaying of his 
closet ; above all, his pretty cellar and ranging of his 

7th. To Court, where I subscribed to Sir Arthur 
Slingsby's lottery, a desperate debt owing me long since 
in Paris. 

14th. I went to take leave of the two Mr. Howards, 
now going for Paris, and brought them as far as Bromley; 
thence, to Eltham, to see Sir John Shaw's new house, now 
building; the place is pleasant, if not too wet, but the 
house not well contrived, especially the roof and rooms too 
low pitched, and the kitchen where the cellars should be ; 
the orangery and aviary handsome, and a very large plan- 
tation about it. 

19th. To London, to see the event of the lottery which 
his Majestyhad permitted Sir Arthur Slingsby to set up 
for one day in the Banqueting-House, at Whitehall; I 
gaining only a trifle, as well as did the King, Queen- 

• A Mr. Povey, lived at BcUsize House, in Hampstead, in 171 8, who was a 
coal-merchant, though not trained to the business ; he \vi'ote many books, 
some discovering indirect practices in the coal-trade, in govemmeut-oflBces, 
&c. (See under 1676, Feb.) Park's Hist, of Hampstead, p. 156. 

1664.] JOHN EVELYN. 381 

Consort, and Queen-Mother, for near thirty lots ; which 
was thought to be contrived very unhandsomely by the 
master of it, who was, in truth, a mere shark. 

21st. I dined with my Lord Treasurer at Southampton- 
House, where his Lordship used me with singular huma- 
nity. I went in the afternoon to Chelsea, to wait on the 
Duke of Ormond, and returned to London. 

28th. Came to see me Monsieur Zuylichem, Secretary 
to the Prince of Orange, an excellent Latin poet, a rare 
lutinist, with Monsieur Oudart. 

3rd August. To London ; a concert of excellent musi- 
cians, especially one Mr, Berkenshaw, that rare artist, who 
invented a mathematical way of composure very extraor- 
dinary, true as to the exact rules of art, but without much 

8th. Came the sad and unexpected news of the death of 
Lady Cotton, wife to my brother, George, a most excellent 

9th. "Went with my Brother Richard to Wotton, to visit 
and comfort my disconsolate brother; and, on the 13th, 
saw my friend, Mr. Charles Howard, at Dipden, near 

16th. I went to see Sir "Vyilliam Ducie's house at Charl- 
ton, which he purchased of my excellent friend. Sir Henry 
Newton, now nobly furnished. 

22nd. I went from London to Wotton, to assist at the 
funeral of my sister-in-law, the Lady Cotton, buried in 
our dormitory there, she being put up in lead. Dr. Owen 
made a profitable and pathetic discourse, concluding with 
an eulogy of that virtuous, pious, and deserving lady. It 
was a very solemn funeral, with about fifty mourners. I 
came back next day with my wife to London. 

2nd September. Came Constantine Huygens, Signor de 
Zuylichem, Sir Robert Morris, Mr. Oudart, Mr. Carew, 
and other friends, to spend the day with us. 

5th October. To our Society. There was brought a 
new-invented instrument of music, being a harpsichord 
with gut-strings, sounding Uke a concert of viols with an 
organ, made vocal by a wheel, and a zone of parchment 
that rubbed horizontally against the strings. 

6th. I heard the anniversary oration in praise of Dr. 


Harvey, in the Anatomy Theatre in the College of Physi- 
cians ; after which, I was invited by Dr. Alston, the Pre- 
sident, to a ma^ificent feast. 

7th. I dined at Sir Nicholas Strood's, one of the Masters 
of Chancery, in Great St. Bartholome^r's ; passing the 
evening at Whitehall with the Queen, &c. 

8th. Sir William Curtius, his Majesty^s Resident in 
Germany, came to visit me; he was a wise and learned 
gentleman, and, as he told me, scholar to Henry Alstedius, 
the Encyclopedist. 

15th. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's, where was the 
Duke of Ormond, Earl of Cork, and Bishop of Winchester. 
After dinner, my Lord Chancellor and his lady carried me 
in their coach to see their palace* (for he now lived at 
Worcester-House, in the Strand), building at the upper 
end of St. Jameses-street, and to project the garden. In 
the evening, I presented him with my book on Architec- 
ture, -j- as before I had done to his Majesty and the Queen- 
Mother. His lordship caused me to stay with him in his 
bed-chamber, discoursing of several matters very late, even 
till he was going into his bed. 

17th. I went with my Lord Viscount Cornbury to Corn- 
bury, in Oxfordshire, to assist him in the planting of the 
park, and bear him company, with Mr. Belin and Mr. May, 
in a coach Avith six horses; dined at Uxbridge, lay at 

18th. At Oxford. Went through Woodstock, where we 
beheld the destruction of that royal seat and park by the 
late rebels, and arrived that evening at Cornbury, a house 
lately built by the Earl of Denbigh, in the middle of a 
sweet park, walled with a dry wall. J The house is of 
excellent freestone, abounding in that part, (a stone that 
is fine, but never sweats, or casts any damp) ; it is of ample 

* There is a large view of it engraved. The Chancellor, in the Continuation 
of his Life, laments the having built it, on account of the great cost, and the 
unpopularity which its magnificence created. He had little enjoyment of it, 
as will be seen hereafter. 

f « Parallel between Ancient and Modem Architecture, originally written 
in French, by Roland Freart, Sicur de Chambray," and translated by Evelyn. 
See his " Miscellaneous "Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 337 — 348. 

J This mansion was some years since the residence of Francis Almeric, 
created Baron Churchill, brother of George, late Duke of Marlborough.^ _^ 

1664.J JOHN EVELYN. 383 

dimensions, has goodly cellars, the paving of the hall 
admirable for its close laying. "We designed a handsome 
chapel that was yet wanting : as Mr. May had the stables, 
which indeed are very fair, having set out the walks in the 
park and gardens. The lodge is a pretty solitude, and the 
ponds very convenient ; the park well stored. 

20th. Hence, to see the famous wells, natural and artificial 
grots and fountains, called Bushell's Wells, at Eustone.* 
This Bushell had been secretary to my Lord Verulam. It 
is an extraordinary sohtude. There he had two mummies ; 
a grot where he lay in a hammock, like an Indian. Hence, 
we went to Dichley, an ancient seat of the Lees, now Sir 
Henry Lee's; it is a low ancient timber-house, with a 
pretty bowling-green. My Lady gave us an extraordinary 
dinner. This gentleman's mother was Countess of Roches- 
ter, who was also there, and Sir "Walter St. John. There 
were some pictures of their ancestors, not ill painted ; the 
great-grand father had been Knight of the Garter : there 
was the picture of a Pope, and our Saviour's head. So we 
retiuned to Cornbury. 

24th. "We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's, at Shotover. 
This gentleman man'ied the daughter and heir of Dr. James 
Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There 
is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever 
felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other 
timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to 
Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's, Principal of Magdalen- Hall, 
(related to the Lord Chancellor), brother to the Lord 
Chief-Justice and that Sir Henry Hyde, who lost his head 
for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two 
days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. PeU, Dean of 
Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, 
and several Heads of houses, came to visit Lord Gornbury 
(his father being now Chancellor of the University), and 
next day invited us aU to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle 
(now here), whom I found with Dr. WaUis and Dr. Chris- 
topher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted 
tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the 

* Bashell published a pamphlet respecting his contrivances here ; and, in 
Plott's Oxfordsliire, is an engraving of the rock, the fountains, &c., belonging 
to it. See an account of him in the History of Surrey, Vol. HI., p. 523, and 
Appendix cxlix. 

384 • DIARY OP [oxford, 

passing of Mercury that day before it ; but the latitude 
was so great that nothing appeared ; so we went to see the 
rarities in the Library, where the keepers showed me my 
name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of 
some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's 
body. Thence, to the new Theatre, now building at an 
exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury [Sheldon], to keep the Acts in for the future, 
till now being in St. Mary's church. The foundation had 
been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incom- 
parable genius my worthy friend. Dr. Christopher Wren, 
who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in 
some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on Hhe wall 
over the altar at All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco- 
painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of 
turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of 
one Fuller ; yet I fear it wiU not hold long. It seems too 
full of nakeds for a chapel. 

Thence, to New College, and the painting of Magdalen 
chapel, which is on blue cloth in chiar oscuro, by one 
Greenborow, being a Coena Domini, and a Last Judgment 
on the wall by Fuller, as is the other, but somcAvhat 

Next to Wadham, and the Physic Garden, where were 
two large locust-trees, and as many platani (plane-trees), 
and some rare plants under the culture of old Bobart.* 

26th. We came back to Beaconsfield ; next day, to 
London, where we dined at the Lord Chancellor's, with 
my Lord Bellasis. 

27th. Being casually in the privy gallery at Whitehall, 
his Majesty gave me thanks before divers lords and noble- 
men for my book of Architecture, and again for my 
" Sylva," saying they were the best designed and useful 

* Jacob Bobart, a German, was appointed the first keeper of the Physic 
Garden, at Oxford. There is a fine print of him, after Loggan, by Burghers, 
dated 1675. Also a small whole-length in the frontispiece of Vortmnnus, a 
poem on that garden. In this he is dressed in a long vest, with a beard. 
One of this family was bred up at college in Oxford ; but quitted his studies 
for the profession of the Whip, driving one of the Oxford coaches (liis own 
property) for many years with great credit. In 181 3, he broke his leg by an 
accident ; and, in 1814, from the respect he had acquired by his good con- 
duct, he was appointed by the University to the place of one of the Esquire 

1664.] JOHN EVELYN. 385 

for the matter and subject, the best printed and designed 
(meaning the taille-douces of the Parallel of Architecture) 
that he had seen. He then caused me to follow him alone 
to one of the windows, and asked me if I had any paper 
about me unwritten, and a crayon ; I presented him with 
both, and then laying it on the window-stool, he with his 
own hands designed to me the plot for the future building 
of Whitehall, together with the rooms of state, and other 
particulars. After this, he talked with me of several 
matters, asking my advice, in which I find his Majesty had 
an extraordinary talent becoming a magnificent prince. 

The same day at Council, there being Commissioners to 
be made to take care of such sick and wounded and 
prisoners of war, as might be expected upon occasion of a 
succeeding war and action at sea, war being already 
declared against the Hollanders, his Majesty was pleased 
to nominate me to be one, with three other gentlemen, 
parliament-men, viz. Sir "William Doily, Knt. and Bart., 
Sir Thomas Clifford,* and Bullein Rheymes, Esq. ; with a 
salary of 1200Z. a year amongst us, besides extraordinaries 
for our care and attention in time of station, each of us 
being appointed to a particular district, mine falUng out 
to be Kent and Sussex, with power to constitute officers, 
physicians, chirurgeons, provost-marshals, and to dispose 
of half of the hospitals through England. After the 
council, we kissed his Majesty's hand. At this councU, I 
heard Mr. Solicitor Finchf plead most elegantly for the 
merchants trading to the Canaries, praying for a new 

29th. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and 
land of the Lord Mayor. % I dined at Guildhall at the 
upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett, Secretary of 
State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor and the Duke of 
Buckingham, who sate between Monsieur Comminges, the 
French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer, the Dukes of Ormond 
and Albemarle, Earl of Manchester, Lord-Chamberlain, 
and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor 
came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his 

* Since, Lord Treasurer of England, 
t Afterwards, Earl of Nottingham, Lord Chancellor. 
X Sir John Lawrence. The pageant for the day was at the cost of the 
Haberdashers' Company. 

VOL. I. C C 

38^ i)lARY OF [LONDON, 

Majesty^s health, then the French King's, as a dompliment 
to the Ambassador ; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, 
the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to 
be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite 
number of persons at the rest of the tables in that ample 
hall. The feast was said to cost 1000/. I slipped away 
in the crowd, and came home late. 

31st. I was this day 44 years of age; for which I 
returned thanks to Almighty God, begging His merciftd 
protection for the year to come. 

2nd November. Her Majesty, the Queen-Mother, came 
across the gallery in Whitehall to give me thanks for my 
book of Architecture, which I had presented to her, with 
a compliment that I did by no means deserve. 

16th. We chose our treasurer, clerks, and messengers, 
and appointed our seal, which I ordered should be the 
good Samaritan, with this motto, Fac similiter. Painters' 
Hall was lent us to meet in. In the great room were 
divers pictures, some reasonably good, that had been given 
to the Company by several of the wardens and masters of 
the Company. 

23rd. Our statutes now finished, were read before a full 
assembly of the Royal Society. 

24th. His Majesty was pleased to tell me what the 
conference was with the Holland Ambassador, which, as 
after I found, was the heads of the speech he made at the 
re-convention of the Parliament, which now began. 

2nd December. We delivered the Privy Council's letters 
to the Governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark, 
that a moiety of the house should be reserved for such 
sick and wounded, as should from time to time be sent 
from the fleet during the war. This being delivered at 
their Court, the President and several Aldermen, Governors 
of that Hospital, invited us to a great feast in Fishmongers' 

20th. To London, our last sitting, taking order for our 
personal visiting our several districts. I dined at Captain 
Cocke's (our Treasurer), with that most ingenious gentle- 
man, Matthew Wren, son to the Bishop of Ely, and 
Mr. Joseph Williamson, since Secretary of State.* 

• Afterwards, Sir Joseph Williamson, P. R. S., an eminent legislator and 
8till greater statesman. He represented Thetford and Rochester in several 

1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 337 

22nd. I went to the launching of a new ship of two 
bottoms, invented by Sir William Petty, on which were 
various opinions ; his Majesty being present, gave her the 
name of the Experiment: so I returned home, where I 
found Sir Himiphry Winch, who spent the day with me. 

This year I planted the lower grove next the pond at 
Sayes Court. It was now exceeding cold, and a hard 
long jfrosty season, and the comet was very visible. 

28th. Some of my poor neighbours dined with me, and 
others of my tenants, according to my annual custom. 

31st. Set my affairs in order, gave God praise for His 
mercies the past year, and prepared for the reception of 
the Holy Sacrament, which I partook of the next day, 
after hearing our minister on the 4th of Galatians, 
verses 4. 5., of the mystery of our Blessed Saviour's 

1664-5. 2nd January. This day was published by me that 
part of "The Mystery of Jesuitism"* translated and 

parliaments. A considerable part of liis wealth was expended in useful 'cha- 
rities, or in promoting learning ; and the places for which he had bben 
member received much of his bounty. At his death, he left 6,000?. to 
Queen's College, Oxford, where he was educated, and at Rochester he 
founded a mathematical school, in which Garrick was placed under the first 
master, Mr. John Colson, afterwards madiematical professor at Cambridge. 
A whole-length portrait in oil of this benevolent character is still hanging in 
the Town-hall, at Rochester. 

* In a letter to Lord Combury, 2 Jan., 1664, Mr. Evelyn says, " I came to 
present your Lordship with your own book [in the margin is written, * The 
other part of the Mystery of Jesuitism translated and pubhshed by me'] : I 
left it with my Lord your fiatlier, because I would not suifer it to be public 
till he had first seen it, who, on your Lordship's score, has so just a title to it. 
The particulars, which you will find added after the 4th letter, are extracted 
out of several curious papers and passages lying by me, which for being very 
J4)po8ite to the controversy, I thought fit to annex, in danger otherwise to 
have never been produced." — In another letter to Lord Combury, 9 Feb., 
1664, Mr. Evelyn says he undertook the translation by command of his Lord- 
ship, and of his father, the Lord Chancellor. 

The authors of the " Biographia Britannica " speak of " The Mystery of 
Jesuitism " as one volume ; but in the library at Wotton there are three,'[in 
duodecimo, with the following tiUes and contents : the second in order is that 
translated by Mr. Evelyn. 

« 1. Les Provinciales, or, the Mystery of Jesuitism, discovered in certain 
letters^written upon occasion of the present difference at Sorbonne between 
the Jansenists and the Molinists, displaying the pernicious Maxims of the 
late Casuists. The second edition corrected, with lai;ge additionala. Sicut 

c c 2 


collected by me, though without my name, containing the 
Imaginary Heresy, with four letters and other pieces. 

4th. I went in a coach, it being excessive sharp frost 
and snow, towards Dover and other parts of Kent, to settle 
physicians, chirurgeons, agents, marshals, and other ofi&cers 
in all the sea-ports, to take care of such as should be set 
on shore, wounded, sick, or prisoners, in pursuance of our 
commission reaching from the North Foreland, in Kent, 
to Portsmouth, in Hampshire. The rest of the ports in 
England were allotted to the other Commissioners. That 
evening, I came to Rochester, where I delivered the Privy 
Council^ s letter to the Mayor to receive orders from me. 

5th. I arrived at Canterbury, and went to the cathedral, 
exceedingly well repaired since his Majesty^s return. 

6th. To Dover, where Colonel Stroode, Lieutenant of the 
Castle, having received the letter 1 brought him from the 
Duke of Albemarle, made me lodge in it, and I was 
splendidly treated, assisting me from place to place. Here 
I settled my first Deputy. The Mayor and officers of the 
Customs were very civil to me. 

9th. To Deal. — 10th. To Sandwich, a pretty town, about 
two miles from the sea. The Mayor and officers of the 
Customs were very diligent to serve me. I visited the forts 
in the way, and returned that night to Canterbury. 

Serpentes. London : Printed for Richard Royston, and are to be sold by 
Robert Clave at the Stag's Head near St. Gregorie's church in St. Paul's 

Church-yard, 1658 pp. 360. Additionals, pp. 147. At the end are the 

names of some of the most eminent Casuists. 

2. Mvcrr'fipiov ttjs 'Avofilas. That is, Another Part of the Mystery of 
Jesuitism ; or, the new Heresy of the Jesuits, publicly maintained at Paris, in 
the College of Clermont, the xii of December MDCLXI. declared to all the 
Bishops of France, According to the copy printed at Paris. Together with 
the Imaginary Heresy, in three Letters, with divers other particulars relatuig 
to the abominable Mystery. Never before published in English. London : 
Printed by James Flesher, for Richard Royston, bookseller to his most sacred 
Majesty, 1664. — 3 letters, pp. 206. Copy of a Letter from the Reverend 
Fattier Valerian, a Capuchin, to Pope Alexander 7tli, pp. 207 — 239. The 
aense of the French Church, pp. 240 — 254. 

3. The Moral Practice of the Jesuits demonstrated by many remarkable 
histories of their actions in all parts of the world. Collected either from 
books of tlie greatest authority, or most certain and unquestionable records 
and memorials. By the Doctors of the Sorbonne. Faithfully translated into 
English (by Dr. Tongue; see hereafter, under 1678, Oct. 1). London: 
Printed for Simon Miller, at the Star at the west end of St. Paul's, 1670. — 
See Evelyn's " Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, p. 499. 

1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 889 

11th. To Rochester, when I took order to settle officers 
at Chatham. 

1 2th. To Gravesend, and returned home. A cold, busy, 
but not unpleasant journey. 

25th. This night being at Whitehall, his Majesty came 
to me standing in the withdrawing-room, and gave me 
thanks for publishing " The Mystery of Jesuitism," which 
he said he had carried two days in his pocket, read it, and 
encouraged me ; at which I did not a little wonder ; I 
suppose Sir Robert Murray had given it to him. 

27th. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's, who caused me 
after dinner to sit two or three hoiurs alone with him in his 

2nd February. I saw a Masque performed at Court, by 
six gentlemen and six ladies, surprising his Majesty, it 
being Candlemas-day. 

8th. Ash- Wednesday. I visited our prisoners at Chelsea 
College, and to examine how the marshal and sutlers 
behaved. These were prisoners taken in the war ; they 
only complained that their bread was too fine. I dined at 
Sir Henry Herbert's, Master of the Revels. 

9th. Dined at my Lord Treasurer's, the Earl of South- 
ampton, in Bloomsbury, where he was building a noble 
square, or piazza,* a little town; his own house stands too 
low, some noble rooms, a pretty cedar chapel, a naked 
garden to the north, but good air. f I had much discourse 
with his lordship, whom I found to be a person of extraor- 
dinary parts, but a valetudinarian. — I went to St. James's 
Park, where I saw various animals, and examined the 
throat of the Onocrotylus, or pelican, a fowl between a 
stork and a swan ; a melancholy water-fowl, brought from 
Astracan by the Russian Ambassador ; it was diverting to 
see how he would toss up and turn a flat fish, plaice, or 
flounder, to get it right into his gullet at its lower beak 
which, being filmy, stretches to a prodigious wideness, when 
it devours a great fish. Here was also a small water-fowl, 

* The Italians do not mean what we do by piazza ; they only mean a 

+ Afterwards, it was called Bedford-House, being the town residence for 
many years of the Russell family, but was pulled down in 1800 ; and, on the 
site and the adjoining fields, were erected many handsome houses, now called 
Russell-Square, Bedford Place, RusseU Place, &c. 


not bigger than a moorhen, that went almost quite erect,like 
the penguin of America ; it would eat as much fish as its 
whole body weighed ; I never saw so unsatiable a devourer, 
yet the body did not appear to swell the bigger. The 
Solan geese here are also great devourers, and are said soon 
to exhaust all the fish in a pond. Here was a curious sort 
of poultry not much exceeding the size of a tame pigeon, 
with legs so short as their crops seemed to touch the 
earth ; a milk-white raven ; a stork, which was a rarity at 
this season, seeing he was loose, and could fly loftily ; two 
Balearian cranes, one of which having had one of his legs 
broken and cut off" above the knee, had a wooden or boxen 
leg and thigh, with a joint so accurately made that the 
creature could walk and use it as well as if it had been 
natural ; it was made by a soldier. The park was at this 
time stored with numerous flocks of several sorts of ordinary 
and extraordinary wild fowl, breeding about the Decoy, 
which for being near so great a city, and among such a con- 
course of soldiers and people, is a singular and diverting 
thing. There were also deer of several countries, white ; 
spotted like leopards ; antelopes, an elk, red deer, roe- 
bucks, stags, Guinea goats, Arabian sheep, &c. There were 
withy-pots, or nests, for the wild fowl to lay their eggs in, 
a little above the surface of the water. 

23rd. I was invited to a great feast at Mr. Rich's (a 
relation of my Wife's, now Reader at Lincoln's Inn) ; 
where was the Duke of Monmouth, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Bishops of London and Winchester, the 
Speaker of the House of Commons, divers of the Judges, 
and several other great men. 

24th. Dr. Fell, Canon of Christ Church, preached 
before the King, on 15 ch. Romans, v. 2, a very formal 
discourse, and in blank verse, according to his manner ; 
however, he is a good man. — Mr. Phillips, preceptor to my 
son, went to be with the Earl of Pembroke's son, my Lord 

2nd March. I went with his Majesty into the lobby 
behind the House of Lords, where I saw the King and 
the rest of the Lords robe themselves, and got into the 
House of Lords in a corner near the woolsack, on which 
the Lord Chancellor sits next below the throne : the King 
sate in all the regalia, the crown-imperial on his head, the 

1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 391 

sceptre and globe, &c. The Duke of Albemarle bare the 
sword, the Duke of Ormond, the cap of dignity. The 
rest of the Lords robed and in their places : — a most 
splendid and august convention. Then came the Speaker 
and the House of Commons, and at the bar made a speech, 
and afterwards presented several bills, a nod only passing 
them, the clerk saying, Le Roy le veult, as to public biUs ; 
as to private, Soit faite comme il est desire. Then, his 
Majesty made a handsome but short speech, commanding 
my Lord Privy Seal to prorogue the Parliament, which he 
did, the Chancellor being dl and absent. I had not 
before seen this ceremony. 

9th. I went to receive the poor creatures that were 
saved out of the London frigate, blown up by accident- 
with above 200 men. 

29th. Went to Goring House,* now Mr. Secretary 
Bennett's, ill built, but the place capable of being made a 
pretty viUa. His Majesty was now finishing the Decoy in 
the Park. 

2nd April. Took order about some prisoners sent from 
Captain Allen's ship, taken in the Solomon, viz., the brave 
men who defended her so gallantly. 

6th. Was a day of public humiliation and for success of 
this terrible war, begun doubtless at secret instigation of 
the French to weaken the States and Protestant interest. 
Prodigious preparations on both sides. 

6th. In the afternoon, I saw acted "Mustapha," a 
tragedy written by the Earl of Orrery. 

11th. To London, being now left the only Commissioner 
to take all necessary orders how to exchange, remove, and 
keep prisoners, dispose of hospitals, &c. ; the rest of the 
Commissioners being gone to their several districts, in 
expectation of a sudden engagement. 

19th. Invited to a great dinner at the Trinity House, 
where I had business with the Commissioners of the Navy, 
and to receive the second 5000Z. impressed for the service 
of the sick and wounded prisoners. 

20th. To Whitehall to the King, who called me into 
his bed-chamber as he was dressing, to whom I showed 

• On the mte whereof Buckingham Palace is now built. There is a small 
print of this house. 


the letter written to me from the Duke of York from the 
fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some con- 
siderable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dart- 
mouth and Diamond frigates,* whom he had sent me as 
prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty how he 
would have me treat them, when he commanded me to 
hring the young captain to him, and to take the word of 
the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the 
other, that he should render himself to me whenever I 
called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which, 
I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House, 

• In the publication of the Life of King James II. from his own papers 
(printed 1816) after describing the engagement with the Dutch fleet in 1665, 
he says, " Soon after this, three Dutch men-of-war, which had been seen for 
some time to the windward of us, and were looking out for their own fleet, 
bore down in order to join it. One of them was a great ship of above 80 
guns, which for want of some repairs had been left by Cornelius Evertzen to 
his son, with orders to follow ; the other two were not of the same force. 
These being to windward, endeavoured to join the head of their fleet, and 
young Evertzen, being a mettled man, and having a mind to distinguish him- 
self, resolved to run on board of the Plymouth, hoping to bear her down ; but 
Sir Thomas Allen, perceiving by Evertzen's working what his design was, 
brought his ship to at once, so that Evertzen missed his aim, though he came 
so near it that the yard-arms of both ships touched, and they gave each other 
a severe broadside in passing ; after which, Evertzen and the other two made 
a shift to join their own fleet, and Sir Thomas Allen continued leading as 
before, till finding himself extremely disabled, he was forced to lie by." P. 
410. — " After this engagement was over, and the Dutch had retired to their 
own ports, the Duke of York had brought back the English fleet to the Nore, 
he took care to have liis scouts abroad, two of which, the Diamond, Captain 
Golding, and the Yarmouth, Captain Aylifi"e, being sent to observe the 
motions of the Dutch, they happened to meet with two of the direction-ships 
(as the Dutch call them) of 40 odd guns each ; the biggest was commanded 
by one Masters, the otlier by young Cornelius Evertzen who, though ours 
were of somewhat better force, did not avoid engaging. At the first broad- 
side, Golding was slain ; but his Lieutenant, Davis, managed the fight so well, 
as did the captain of the Yannouth, that after some hom's' dispute, both the 
Dutch ships were taken, though bravely defended, for they lost many men, 
and were very much disabled, before they struck. The Duke gave young 
Evertzen his liberty ,t in consideration of his father, Cornelius, who had per- 
formed several services for the King before his Restoration ; and his 
R. H. freed also the other captain for having defended himself so well,'and 
made Lieutenant Davis captain of one of those prizes." P. 419. 

+ i. e. he recommended it to the King to do so ; for we see he was sent to 
London, and presented to the King by Mr. Evelyn. 

1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 393 

I went also to Lord Arlington (the Secretary Bennett lately 
made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord 
Chancellor's; none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe, 
formerly Ambassador at Constantinople ; we were very 
cheerful and merry. 

24th. I presented young Captain Evertzen (eldest son 
of Cornelius, Vice- Admiral of Zealand, and nephew of 
John, now Admiral, a most valiant person) to his Majesty 
in his bedchamber. The King gave him his hand to kiss, 
and restored him his liberty ; asked many questions con- 
cerning the fight (it being the first blood drawn), his 
Majesty remembering the many civilities he had formerly 
received from his relations abroad, who had now so much 
interest in that considerable Province. Then, I was com- 
manded to go with him to the Holland Ambassador, 
where he was to stay for his passport, and I was to give 
him fifty pieces in broad gold. Next day, I had the Am- 
bassador's parole for the other Captain, taken in Captain 
Allen's fight before Calais. I gave the King an account 
of what I had done, and afterwards asked the same favour 
for another Captain, which his Majesty gave me. 

28th. I went to Tunbridge, to see a solemn exercise at 
the free-school there.* 

Having taken orders with my marshal about my pri- 
soners, and with the doctor and chirurgeon to attend the 
wounded enemies, and of our own men, I went to London 
again and visited my charge, several with legs and arms 
off; miserable objects, God knows ! 

16th May. To London, to consider of the poor orphans 
and widows made by this bloody beginning, and whose 
husbands and relations perished in the London frigate, of 
which there were fifty widows, and forty-five of them with 

26th. To treat with the Holland Ambassador at Chelsea, 
for release of divers prisoners of war in Holland on 
exchange here. After dinner, being called into the Council- 

• There is an annual visitation of the Skinners' Company of London, who 
are the patrons, at which verses, themes, &c. are spoken before them by the 
senior scholars. The Rev. Vicesimus Knox (D. D. by an American Uni- 
versity), author of many works, some of which have gone through many 
editions, was master from about 1779 to 1812, when he resigned in favour of 
his son, the R«v. Thomas Knox. 


Chamber at Whitehall, I gave his Majesty an account 
of what I had done, informing him of the vast charge 
upon us, now amounting to no less than 1000/. weekly. 

29th. I went with my little boy to my district in Kent, 
to make up accounts with my officers. Visited the 
Governor at Dover Cattle, where were some of my pri- 

3rd June. In my return, went to Gravesend ; the fleets 
being just now engaged, gave special orders for my officers 
to be ready to receive the wounded and prisoners. 

5th. To London, to speak with his Majesty and the 
Duke of Albemarle for horse and foot guards for the pri- 
soners at war, committed more particularly to my charge 
by a commission apart. 

8th. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, 
and moved for another privy seal for 20,000/., and that I 
might have the disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the 
sick and wounded ; all which was granted. Hence to the 
Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers. 

Came news of his Highnesses victory, which indeed 
might have been a complete one, and at once ended the 
war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or 
treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, 
bonfires, beUs, and rejoicing in the city. JSext day, the 
9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I 
got to Rochester this evening. Next day, I lay at Deal, 
where I found all in readiness ; but, the fleet being 
hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, 
and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and, on the 
13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, 
and lay at Chatham, and, on the 14th, I got home. On 
the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of 
State to the French King, with much other company, to 
dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, 
to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave 
his Majesty an account of my journey to the coasts under 
my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness, now 
come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See 
the whole history of this conflict in my " History of the 
Dutch War." * 

20th. To London, and represented the state of the sick 

♦ See likewise Pepys' Diary, edited by Lord Braybrooke. ■ 

1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 396 

and wounded to his Majesty in Council, for want of 
money ; lie ordered I should apply to my Lord Treasurer 
and Chancellor of the Exchequer, upon what funds to raise 
the money promised. We also presented to his Majesty 
divers expedients for retrenchment of the charge. 

This evening making my court to the Duke, I spake to 
Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his 
Highness granted me six prisoners, Embdeners, who were 
desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a merchant. 

22nd. We waited on the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and got an Order of Council for our money to be paid to 
the Treasurer of the Navy for our Receivers. 

23rd. I dined with Sir Robert Paston, since Earl of 
Yarmouth, and saw the Duke of Verneuille, base brother 
to the Queen-Mother, a handsome old man, a great hunter. 

The Duke of York told us that, when we were in fight, 
his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all 
the vessel. — In the afternoon, I saw the pompous recep- 
tion and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish 
Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties 
sitting together under the canopy of state. 

30th. To Chatham ; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord 
Sandwich, now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace 
to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at 
anchor ; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ord- 
nance, haply the best ship in the world both for building 
and sailing ; she had 700 men. They made a great huzz^, 
or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined 
with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served 
in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, 
came his Majesty, the Duke, and Prince Rupert. Here I 
saw the King knight Captain Custance for behaving so 
bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the 
good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel 
so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot 
in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which, 
after a gun was shot off", came all the flag-officers to his 
Majesty, who there held a General Council, which deter- 
mined that his Royal Highness should adventure himself 
no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the 
most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned 
in his Majesty's yacht with my Lord Sandwich and 


Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday 

5th July. I took order for 150 men, who had been 
recovered of their wounds, to be carried on board the 
Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus, and Zealand, ships that had 
been taken by us in the fight ; and so returned home. 

7 th. To London, to Sir William Coventry ; and so to 
Sion, where his Majesty sat at Council during the contagion; 
when business was over, I viewed that seat belonging to 
the Earl of Northumberland, built out of an old nunnery, 
of stone, and fair enough, but more celebrated for the 
garden than it deserves : yet there is excellent wall-fruit, 
and a pretty fountain ; nothing else extraordinary. 

9th. I went to Hampton-Court, where now the whole 
Court was, to solicit for money ; to carry intercepted 
letters; confer again with Sir William Coventry, the 
Duke^s secretary; and so home, having dined with Mr. 
Secretary Morice. 

16th. There died of the plague in London this week 
1100; and, in the week following, above 2000. Two houses 
were shut up in our parish. 

2nd August. A solemn Fast through England to de- 
precate God^s displeasure against the land by pestilence 
and war ; our Doctor preaching on 26 Levit. v. 41, 42, 
that the means to obtain remission of punishment was not 
to repine at it ; but humbly to submit to it. 

3rd. Came his Grace the Duke of Albemarle, Lord 
General of all his Majesty^s Forces, to visit me, and 
carried me to dine with him. 

4th. I went to Wotton with my Son and his tutor, 
ISIr. Bohun, Fellow of New College (recommended to me 
by Dr. Wilkins, and the President of New College, 
Oxford), for fear of the pestilence, still increasing in Lon- 
don and its environs. On my return, I called at Durdans, 
where I found Dr. Wilkins, Sir William Petty, and Mr. 
Hooke, contriving chariots, new rigging for ships, a wheel 
for one to run races in, and other mechanical inventions ; 
perhaps three such persons together were not to be found 
elsewhere in Europe for parts and ingenuity. 

8th. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle, who was re- 
solved to stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's Park. Died 
this week in London 4000. 

1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 397 

15th. There perished this week 5000. 

28th. The contagion still increasing, and growing now 
all about us, I sent my Wife and whole family (two or 
three necessary servants excepted) to my brother^s at 
Wotton, being resolved to stay at my house myself, and 
to look after my charge, trusting in the providence and 
goodness of God. 

5th September. To Chatham, to inspect my charge, with 
900/. in my coach. 

7th. Came home, there perishing near 10,000 poor 
creatures weekly ; however, I went all along the city and 
suburbs from Kent Street to St. Jameses, a dismal pas- 
sage, and dangerous to see so many coffins exposed in the 
streets, now thin of people ; the shops shut up, and all in 
mournful silence, not knowing whose turn might be next. 
I went to the Duke of Albemarle for a pest-ship, to wait on 
our infected men, who were not a few. 

14th. I went to Wotton ; and, on 16th September, to 
visit old Secretary Nicholas, being now at his new pur- 
chase of West Horsley, once mortgaged to me by Lord 
Viscount Montague : a pretty dry seat on the Down. 
Returned to Wotton. 

17th. Receiving a letter from Lord Sandwich of a de- 
feat given to the Dutch, I was forced to travel all Sunday. 
I was exceedingly perplexed to find that near 3000 priso- 
ners were sent to me to dispose of, being more than I had 
places fit to receive and guard. 

25th. My Lord-Admiral being come from the fleet to 
Greenwich, I went thence with him to the Cock-pit, to 
consult with the Duke of Albemarle. I was peremptory 
that, unless we had 10,000/. immediately, the prisoners 
would starve, and it was proposed it should be raised out 
of the East India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich. 
They being but two of the commission, and so not em- 
powered to determine, sent an express to his Majesty and 
Council, to know what they should do. In the meantime, 
I had five vessels, with competent guards, to keep the pri- 
soners in for the present, to be placed as I should think best. 
After dinner (which was at the General's) I went over to 
visit his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth. 

28th. To the General again, to acquaint him of the 

398 DIARY OP [gratesbhd, 

deplorable state of our men for want of provisions : 
returned with orders. 

29th. To Erith, to quicken the sale of the prizes lying 
there, with order to the commissioner who lay on board till 
they should be disposed of, 5000/. being proportioned for 
my quarter. Then I delivered the Dutch Vice- Admiral, 
who was my prisoner, to Mr. Lo . . . .* of the Marshalsea, he 
giving me bond in 500/. to produce him at my call. I 
exceedingly pitied this brave unhappy person, who had 
lost with these prizes 40,000/. after 20 years' negotiation 
[trading] in the East Indies. I dined in one of these 
vessels, of 1200 tons, full of riches. 

1st October. This afternoon, whilst at evening prayers, 
tidings were brought me of the birth of a Daughter at 
Wotton, after six Sons, in the same chamber I had first 
took breath in, and at the first day of that month, as I 
was on the last, 45 years before. 

4th. The monthly Fast. 

11th. To London, and went through the whole City, 
having occasion to alight out of the coach in several places 
about business of money, when I was environed with mul- 
titudes of poor pestiferous creatures begging alms : the 
shops universally shut up, a dreadful prospect ! I dined 
with my Lord General; was to receive 10,000/., and had 
guards to convey both myself and it, and so returned 
home, through God's infinite mercy. 

17 th. I went to Gravesend; next day to Chatham ; thence, 
to Maidstone, in order to the march of 500 prisoners to 
Leeds Castle, which I had hired of Lord Culpeper. I was 
earnestly desired by the learned Sir Roger Twisden, and 
Deputy-Lieutenants, to spare Maidstone from quartering 
any of my sick flock. Here, Sir Edward Brett sent me 
some horse to bring up the rear. This country, from 
Rochester to Maidstone and the Downs, is very agreeable 
for the prospect. 

21st. I came from Gravesend, where Sir J. Grifiith, the 
Governor of the Fort, entertained me very handsomely. 

81st. I was this day 45 years of age, wonderfully pre- 
served ; for which I blessed God for His infinite goodness 
towards me, 

* Mr. Lowman. 

166S.] JOHN EVELYN. 399 

23rd November. Went home, the contagion having now 
decreased considerably. 

27th. The Duke of Albemarle was going to Oxford, 
where both Court and Parliament had been most part of 
the summer. There was no small suspicion of my Lord 
Sandwich having permitted divers commanders, who were 
at the taking of the East India prizes, to break bulk, and 
take to themselves jewels, silks, &c. : though I believe 
some whom I could name filled their pockets, my Lord 
Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he un- 
derwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and pre- 
possessed the Lord General, for he spake to me of it with 
much zeal and concern, and I believe laid load enough on 
Lord Sandwich at Oxford. 

8th December. To my Lord of Albemarle (now returned 
from Oxford), who was declared General at Sea, to the no 
small mortification of that excellent person the Earl of 
Sandwich, whom the Duke of Albemarle not only sus- 
pected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant ; himself 
imagining how easy a thing it were to confound the Hol- 
landers, as well now as heretofore he fought against them 
upon a more disloyal interest. 

25th. Kept Christmas with my hospitable Brother, at 

30th. To Woodcot, where I supped at my Lady Mor- 
daunt's at Ashted, where was a room hung with pintado^ 
full of figures great and small, prettily representing sundry 
trades and occupations of the Indians, with their habits ; 
here supped also Dr. Duke, a learned and facetious gen- 

31st. Now blessed be God for His extraordinary mercies 
and preservation of me this year, when thousands, and 
ten thousands, perished, and were swept away on each 
side of me, there dying in our parish this year 406 of the 
pestilence ! 


Page 4, line 2 from bottom. " The Bohemians' defection from the 
Emperor Mattliias." 

Evelyn alludes to the insurrection of the Bohemians on the 12th of May, 
1618. The Emperor died soon after, and tlie revolted Bohemians offered 
the crown to the Elector Palatine Frederic, who had married Elizabeth, 
daughter of James I. ; whereupon there was great excitement throughout 
England, in consequence of the backwardness of the king to assist his son-in- 
law in the struggle for a kingdom, for which the people willingly, as Evelyn 
in a subsequent page informs us, made " large contributions." This is the 
" talk and stir" to which Evelyn has just alluded in connection with Count 
Gondomar, whose influence had been used with James to withdraw him from 
the Protestant cause. 

Page 6, line 1.3. " The Lord of Castlehaven." 

Mervyn Touchet, second Earl of Castlehaven ; convicted by a court of 
twenty-seven lords, with the Lord Keeper, sitting in Westminster Hall, of 
crimes of the grossest description ; and in pursuance of their sentence, 
executed on Tower Hill, May 14, 1631. 

Page 7, line 12. ** My Lord of Lindsay, then Admiral." 

Robert Bertie, tenth Baron Willoughby d'Eresby, subsequently created 
Earl of Lindsey, a Knight of the Garter. He was at different times Lord 
High Chamberlain, Lord High Admiral, Constable of England, and Governor 
of Berwick ; and was general of the king's forces at the breaking out of 
the Civil War. He was in command at the Battle of Edgehill, in 1642 ; but, 
opposing Prince Rupert's pretensions, he surrendered a responsibility which 
the weakness of Charles would have had him divide with a " boy," put himself 
at tlie head of his regiment, fought with heroic gallantry, and fell covered with 

Page 10. 

Evelyn should have said " till twenty years after," not thirty. Coffee was 
introduced into England, and coffee-houses set up in 1658. 

Page 1 5. « Vanderborcht " and « Hollar." 

Henry Vanderborcht, a painter, of Brussels, lived at Frankendale. Lord 
Arundel, finding his son Henry at Frankfort, sent him to Mr. Petty, then 
collecting for him in Italy, and afterwards kept him in his service as long as 
he lived. Vanderborcht, the younger, was both painter and engraver; he drew 


many of the Arimdelian curiosities, and etched several things, both in that 
and the Royal Collection. A book of his drawings from tiie former, con- 
taining 567 pieces, is preserved at Paris ; and is described in the catalogue 
of L'Orangerie, p. 199. After the death of the Earl, the younger Henry 
entered into the service of the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles XL, and 
lived in esteem in London for a considerable time ; but returned to Ant- 
werp, and died there. See Horace Walpole's Ariecdotes of Painting. Win- 
ceslaus Hollar was bom at Pi'ague, in Bohemia, in the year 1 607, and came 
to England in the suite of the Earl of Arundel, in the year 1636. In the 
ti'oubles he distinguished himself as a Royalist, for which he was imprisoned 
by the Parliament. He escaped to the continent, but returned at the 
Restoi'ation, and died in great distress, March 28th, 1677. 

Pciffc 15. Entries of 25th and 27th April, and 12th of May. 

The reader may here remark the circumstance, that between the entries 
which relate to Lord Strafford, the young Prince of Orange came over to 
make love to the Princess Royal, then twelve years old ; and that the 
maiTiage was subsequently celebrated amid extraordinary Court rejoicings 
and festivities, in which the King took a prominent part, in the short interval 
which elapsed between the sentence and execution of the King's great and 
unfortunate minister. It may not be out of place here to indicate the more 
important passages printed for the first time in the present edition of the 
Diai'y) the minor alterations need not be pointed out), and which occur chiefly 
in the commencing forty pages. They will be found at pp. 1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 1 1 , 
12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 27, and 29. 

Page 18. " Queen of Bohemia's Court." 
Elizabeth, daughter of James I , mother of the Princes Maurice and 
Rupert ; her yomigest daughter was Sophia, Electoress of Hanover, whose 
eldest son was George I. 

Page\8. «' Lord Finch." 

Sir John Finch, Speaker of the House of Commons in 1627; Attorney- 
General to the Queen (Henrietta Maria) in 1635 ; the following year 
promoted to be Judge of the Common Pleas ; afterwards Lord Chief 
Justice; thence promoted to be Lord Keeper of the Great Seal in 1637 ; 
and in April, 1640, advanced to the peerage as Baron Finch. He died in 

Page 1 9. « Colonel Goring." 

This was George, distinguished in tlie Civil Wars as General Goring, for 
his military services in the cause of the King. He subsequently obtained 
additional reputation as a lieutenant-general in the army of the King of 
Spain employed in the Netherlands. He was the eldest son of Sir George 
Goring, in 1632 created Baron Goring, and in 1644 imised to the Earldom 
of Norwich, for his services to Charles I., before and after the troubles. 
General Goring died before his father, in 1662. 

Page 23. 

In the early editions of this Diary, tlie entry relating to the Amsterdam 
Hospital stood thus : — " But none did I so much admire as an hospital for 
their lame and decrepid soldiers, it being for state, order, and accommoda- 
tions, one of the worthiest things that the world can show of that nature. 
Indeed it is most remarkable what provisions are here made and maintain'd 
for pubUck and charitable purposes, and to protect the poor from misery, 
and the country from beggai*s." The passage in the text would appear to 

VOL. I. D D 


have received Evelyn's later correction. The reader will remember with 
some interest, in connexion with this remark on the hospital of Amsterdam, 
that the first stone of Greenwich Hospital was afterwards laid by Evelyn. 

Page 23. 

Some slight differences may be marked in the description of the Dutch 
towns as it stands in the eariier editions. These and other discrepancies 
are explained in the preface to the present edition ; and, in all the more 
important passages, the text as first printed is preserved in these notes. 
"... sluices, moles, and rivers, that nothing is more frequent than to see 
a whole navy of merchants and others environ'd with streets and houses, 
every man's bark or vessel at anchor before his very door ; and yet the 
street so exactly strait, even, and uniform, that nothing can be more pleasing, 
especially being so frequently planted and shaded with the beautiful Ume-trees, 
set in rows before every man's house." 

Pufje 24. 

The description of the Briloft is thus given in the earher editions : 
" There was a lamp of brass, with eight sockets from the middle stem, 
like those we use in churches, having counterfeit tapers in them, streams of 
water issuing as out of their wicks, the whole branch hanging loose upon a 
tack in the midst of a beam, and without any other perceptible commerce 
with any pipe, so that, unless it were by compression of the air with a 
syringe, I could not comprehend how it should be done. There was a chime 
of porcelain dishes, which fitted to clock-work and rung many ohanges and 
tunes." That of the Reiser's Graft stands thus : " The Reiser's Graft, or 
Emperor's Street, appears a city in a wood through the goodly ranges of 
the stately lime-trees planted before each man's door, and at the margin 
of that goodly aquse-duct, or river, so curiously wharfed with clincars (a kind 
of white sun-bak'd brick), and of which material the spacious streets on 
either side are paved. This part of Amsterdam is gained upon the main 
sea, supported by piles at an immense charge. Prodigious it is to consider 
the multitude of vessels which continually ride before this City, which is 
certainly the most busy concourse of mortals now upon the whole earth, 
and the most addicted to commerce." 

Page 25. 

The entry as to the booksellers is thus expressed in the earher editions : 
" I went to Hundius's shop to buy some maps, greatly pleased with the 
designs of that indefatigable person. Mr. Bleaw, the setter forth of the 
Atlas's and other works of that kind, is worthy seeing." 

Page 26. " The famous Dan Heinsius." 

Daniel Heinsius, a scholar and critic, who edited numerous editions 
of the Classics. He was chosen professor of history at Leyden ; then 
secretary and librarian of the University. In 1619, he was appointed secre- 
tary to the states of Holland, at the Synod of Dort ; and the fame of his 
learning became so diffused, that the Pope endeavoured to draw him to 
Rome. He was made a Rnight of St. Mark by the Republic of Venice, and 
the Ring of Sweden honoured him with the title of Counsellor. He died in 
January, 1 655. The Elzevir printers are well known. 

Page 32, line 52. « Sir Henry De Vic." 

For twenty years resident at Brussels for Charles II ; also Chancellor 
of the Order of the Garter ; and in 1 662 appointed Comptroller of the 
Household of the Duke of York. He died in 1672. 


Pagt 32. 

In the earlier editions of the Diary, the entry descriptive of the tower of 
Antwei-p Cathedral was taken from Evelyn's earlier text. " It is a very 
venerable fabric, built after the Gothic manner ; the tower is of an excessive 
height. This I ascended, that I might the better take a view of the country 
about it, which happening on a day when the sun shone exceedingly hot, 
and darted the rays without any interruption, afforded so bright a reflection 
to us who were above, and had a full prospect of both land and water about it, 
that I was much confirmed in my opinion of the moon's being of some such 
substance as this earthly globe consists of ; perceiving all the adjacent country 
at so small a horizontal distance, to repercuss such a light as I could hardly 
look against, save where the river, and other large water within our view, 
appeared of a more dark and imiform colour, resembling those spots in the 
moon supposed to be seas there, according to our new philosophy, and 
viewed by optical glasses. I numbered in this church 30 privileged altars, 
whereof tiiat of St. Sebastian's was rarely painted." 

Page b\, linen. *' Monsieur Saracin." 

James Sarazin, a celebrated sculptor, much employed by the royal family 
of France. For Cardinal RicheUeu he executed, in silver and gold, Anne 
of Austria's offering to the Chapel of Loretto, in the form of a group 
representing the dauphin's presentation to the Virgin Mary. Bom 1590, 
died 1660. 

Page 66. 
In the first and second quarto editions of the Diary many trifling personal 
details, such as this mention of the author liaving sent his own picture in 
watercolours to his sister, were omitted ; but they were restored by Mr. 
Upcott in the subsequent octavos. It is not necessary to point them out in 
detail. They are always of this personal character (for other examples, the 
mention of the wet weather preventing the diarist from stirring out, at 
p. 117, and that of his coming weary to his lodgings, at p. 114, might be 
cited), and seldom of any importance. There is only one passage in the 
quarto editions which has not been repeated in the octavos, and it would be 
difficult to say what induced Mi\ Upcott to omit in the latter the incident it 
describes ; imless Evelyn's apparent confusion as to the name of the inn at 
Orleans where the adventure occun-ed (for he calls it the White Lion as 
well as the White Cross) may have caused him to doubt the miracle alto- 
gether. It occurs in the mention of his coming to Orleans (at p. 67), 
where, as printed in the quarto, he adds, " I lay at the White Lion, where I 
found Mr. John Nicholas, eldest son to Mr, Secretary. In the night a cat 
kittened on my bed, and left on it a young one having six ears, eight legs, 
two bodies from the middle downwards, and two tails. I found it dead, but 
warm, in the morning when I awaked." 

Page 101, line 3 from bottom. " My Lord of Somerset." 

Thomas, third son of Edward fourth Earl of Worcester, made a Knight of 
the Bath, by King James, and in 1626 created Viscount Somerset, of Cashel, 
in Ireland. He died in 1651. 

Page 1 08. « Father Kircher." 
Athanasius Kircher was bom at Fulds, in Germany, early in the seven- 
teenth century. He received his education at Wurtzburg, and in 1635 
entered the College of Jesuits, at Avignon. He became a good scholar in 
Oiieutal literature, and an admirable mathematician ; but he directed his 

D d2 


attention particularly to the study of hieroglyphics. Father Kircher's works 
on various abstruse subjects amount to twenty folio volumes, for which he 
acquired great renown in his day. On Evelyn's visit to Rome, he was con- 
Bidered one of the greatest mathematicians and Hebrew scholars of which 
tlie metropolis of Christianity — then the head quarters of learning — could 
boast. He died there in 1680. See subsequent passages m the Diary, 
p. 313. 

Page 108. « Schotti." 

Caspar Schott, a native of Wurtzburg, where he was bom in 1608, who 
had the advantage of being the favourite pupil of Father Kircher. He 
taught philosophy and mathematics at Rome and Palermo, and published 
several curious and erudite works in philosophy and natiu-al history ; but 
they have long since ceased to possess any authority. He died in 1666. 

Page 132, line 28. « Famianus Strada." 

Bom at Rome, in 1572 ; after joining the Society of Jesus, in 1592, 
appointed professor of rhetoric in their college in Home ; and luiown to 
the English reader by his " Prolusiones Academicse," in which he intro- 
duced clever imitations of the Latin poets, translations of several of which 
Addison published in the ' Guardian.' He died at Rome, in 1649. 

PagelSZ. " Isabella Sii-am." 

Giovanni Andrea Sirani, a Bolognese artist, had three daughters. The 
most celebrated, Elizabetta, born 1638, and died August 1657, is the lady 
alluded to by Evelyn as having been so famous a copyist of Guido, of whom 
her father was a pupil, and imitator. Her sisters, Anna and Barbara, were 
also artists, but never reached the excellence of Elizabetta. 

Page 204. « Lord Bruce." 

Thomas Bruce, first Earl of Elgin, in Scotland ; created by Charles I., 
on the 13th of July, 1640, Baron Bruce, of Whorlton, Yorkshire, in the 
English peerage. He died in 1663. 

Page 21 1. « The Cavalier Dr. Veslingius." 

John Vesling was bom at Minden, in Germany, in 1598 ; and became 
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Padua. Evelyn says that at 
his visit he was anatomical and botanical professor, and prefect. He had the 
care of the botanical garden, and published a catalogue of its plants. He 
■vrrotc also "Syntagma Anatomicum," and shortly afterwards travelled 
into Egypt, where he seems to have paid a good deal of attention to the 
artificial means of hatching poultry, then an Egyptian marvel, lately a 
common exhibition in London. He wrote many other works, and died 
in 1649. 

Page 214. " Lord Mowbray, eldest son to the Earl of Arundel." 

James Lord Mowbray and Maltravers, the eldest son of Lord Arundel,