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Full text of "Diary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne"

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VALUABLE AND INTERESTING WORKS. 

LATELY PUBLISHED BY MR. COLBURN. 



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VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 

Sir J. E. Alexander's L'Acadie, 2 v 1 1 

Warbnrton's Crescent and the Cross, 2 V 1 1 

"Warburton's Hochelaga, or England in the New World, 2 v. 1 1 

Sir G. Simpson's Overland Journey Round the World, 2 v. ... 1 11 

Fitzroy's Voyage Round the World, 3 V 1 11 

Ross' Yacht Voyage to Denmark, &c., 1 V 10 

Mrs. Ward's Five Years in KaSirland, 2 v 1 1 

Lord Lindsay's Letters on the Holy Land, 1 v. 7 

Vigne's Travels in Kashmere, 2 V 1 1 

Revelations of Russia, 2 V 1 1 

Viscount Feilding and Capt. Kennedy's Algeria, 2 V 1 1 

Lord Castlereagh's Journey to Damascus, 2 V 15 

Lady Londonderry's Visit to the Courts of Vienna, &c., 1 v. 10 

White's Three Years' in Constantinople, 2 V 1 1 

Lady Hester Stanhope's Travels in the East, 3 v 18 

Col. Cameron's Georgia, Circassia, and Russia, 2 v I 1 

A Summer in Germany, 2 V I 1 



POPULAR WORKS IN ONE VOLUME. 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton's King Arthur 10 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton's New Timon 6 

Mr. Disraeli's Coningsby 6 

Lord Lindsay's Letters on the Holy Land 7 

Mr. Broderip's Zoological Recreations 7 

Story of the Peninsular War 7 

Mr. Ross' Yacht Voyage to Denmark, &c. 10 

Capt. Hall's Nemesis in China 10 

Chateaubriand's Memoirs firom 1768 to 1800 5 

The Duke of Wellington's Maxims and Opiuioos 12 

Miss Bremer's Midnight Sun 10 

The Dean of York's New System of Geology 3 

Lady Blessington's Conversations with Byron 7 

Cobbold's History of Margaret Catchpole 10 

Cobbold's Mary Anne Wellington 10 

One Day in the Life of a Stag 6 



HENRY COLBURN, Publishek, 13, Gr. Mablboeough St. 



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DIARY 



COKRESPONDENCE 



JOHN EYELYN, F.RS., 



AUTHOR OF THE " SYLVA. 



TO WHICH IS SUBJOINED 

Ejje ^rtbate Corrcspontience 

BETWEEN 

KING CHARLES I. AND SIR EDWARD NICHOLAS, 

AJ,T> BETWEEN 

SIR EDWARD HYDE, AFTERWARDS EARL OF CLARENDON, 
AND SIR RICHARD BROWNE. 



EDITED FROM THE ORIGINAL MSS. AT WOTTOX. 

BY WILLIAM BKAY, ESQ., F.A.S. 

A NEW EDITION, IN FOUR VOLUMES. 

CORRECTED, REVISED, AND ENLARGED, 

Y'OL. II. 

LONDON : 
HENRY COLBURN, PUBLISHEE, 

GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 
1850. 






LONDON : 
BRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTBBS, WHITKFRIAM. 



CONTENTS. 

PAQR 

DiAEY ; FROM 1665 TO 1706 1 

Additional Notes 377 

Appendix 390 

Pedigkee of the Evelyn Family 396 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2007 witli funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



littp://www.arcli ive.org/details/diarycorresponde02eveliala 



DIARY 



OF 



JOHN EVELYN 



1665-6. 3rd January. I supped in Nonesuch House,* 
■whither the office of the Exchequer was transferred during 
the plague, at my good friend^s Mr. Packer's, and took an 
exact view of the plaster statues and hass-relievos inserted 
hetwixt the timbers and puncheons of the outside walls of 
the Court ; which must needs have been the work of some 
celebrated Italian. I much admired how they had lasted so 
well and entire since the time of Henry VIII., exposed as 
they are to the air ; and pity it is they are not taken out 
and preserved in some dry place ; a gallery would become 
them. There are some mezzo-relievos as big as the life ; 
the story is of the Heathen Gods, emblems, compartments, 
&c. The palace consists of two courts, of which the first 
is of stone, castle-like, by the Lord Lumleys (of whom 
it was purchased), the other of timber, a Gothic fabric, but 
these walls incomparably beautified. I observed that the 
appearing timber-puncheons, entrelices, &c. were all so 
covered with scales of slate, that it seemed carved in the 
wood and painted, the slate fastened on the timber in 
pretty fi gures, that has, hke a coat of armour, preserved it 

* There is a small print of it in Speed's Map of Suit ey, but a larger one by 
Hoefnagle in a Collection of Views, some in England, but chiefly abroad. 
Mr. Lysons has copied this in his " Environs of Lond on," edit. 1 796, vol. I., 
p. 153. It is also copied in Queen Elizabeth's Progresses, 2nd edit. 182^, 
vol. I., p. 74. 

VOL. II. P 



2 DIARY OP [hampton-court, 

from rotting. There stand in the garden two handsome 
stone pyramids, and the avenue planted with rows of fair 
elms, but the rest of these goodly trees, both of this and of 
Worcester Park adjoining, were felled by those destruc- 
tive and avaricious rebels in the late war, which defaced 
one of the stateliest seats his Majesty had. 

12th. After much, and indeed extraordinary mirth and 
cheer, all my brothers, our wives, and children being 
together, and after much sorrow and trouble during this 
contagion, which separated our families as well as others^ 
I returned to my house, but my wife went back to Wotton, 
I not as yet willing to adventure her, the contagion, 
though exceedingly abated, not as yet wholly extinguished 
amongst us. 

29th. I went to wait on his Majesty, now returned from 
Oxford to Hampton-Court, where the Duke of Albemarle 
presented me to him ; he ran towards me, and in a most 
gracious manner gave me his hand to kiss, with many 
thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a time 
of such great danger, when everybody fled their employ- 
ments ; he told me he was much obliged to me, and said 
he was several times concerned for me, and the peril I 
underwent, and did receive my service most acceptably 
(though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had 
performed it as I ought !) After this, his Majesty was 
pleased to talk with me alone, near an hour, of several 
particulars of my employment, and ordered me to attend 
him again on the Thursday following at Whitehall. Then 
the Duke came towards me, and embraced me with much 
kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would 
have been so great, he would not have suffered his Majesty 
to employ me in that station. Then came to salute me 
my Lord of St. Albans, Lord Arlington, Sir Wilham 
Coventry, and several great persons; after which, I got 
home, not being very well in health. 

The Court was now in deep mourning for the French 
Queen-Mother. 

2nd February. To London ; his Majesty now come to 
Whitehall, where I heard and saw my Lord Mayor (and 
brethren) make his speech of welcome, and the two 
Sheriffs were knighted. 

6th. My wife and family returned to me from the 
country, where they had been since August, by reason of 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 3 

the contagion^ now almost universally ceasing. Blessed 
be God for His infinite mercy in preserving us ! I, having 
gone through so much danger, and lost so many of my 
poor officers, escaping still myself, that I might live to 
recount and magnify His goodness to me. 

8th. I had another gracious reception by his Majesty, 
who called me into his bed-chamber, to lay before and 
describe to him my project of an Infirmary, which I read 
to him, who, with great approbation, recommended it to 
his Royal Highness. 

20th. To the Commissioners of the Navy who, having 
seen the project of the Infirmary, encouraged the work, 
and were very earnest it should be set about immediately ; 
but I saw no money, though a very moderate expense 
would have saved thousands to his Majesty, and been 
much more commodious for the cure and quartering of 
our sick and wounded, than the dispersing them into pri- 
vate houses, where many more chirurgeons and attendants 
were necessary, and the people tempted to debauchery. 

21st. Went to my Lord Treasurer for an assignment of 
40,000/. upon the two last quarters for support of the next 
yearns charge. Next day, to Duke of Albemarle and Secre- 
tary of State, to desire them to propose it to the Council. 

1st March. To London, and presented his Majesty my 
book, intituled, " The pernicious Consequences of the new 
Heresy of the Jesuits against Kings and States."* 

7th. Dr. Sancroft, since Archbishop of Canterbury, 
preached before the King about the identity and immuta- 
bility of God, on Psalm cii. 27. 

13th. To Chatham, to view a place designed for an 
Infirmary. 

15th. My charge now amounted to near 7000/. [weekly] . 

22nd. The Royal Society re-assembled, after the dis- 
persion from the contagion. 

24th. Sent £2000 to Chatham. 

1st April. To London, to consult about ordering the 
natural rarities belonging to the repository of the Royal 
Society ; referred to a Committee. 

loth. Visited Sir William D'Oyly, surprised with a fit 
of apoplexy, and in extreme danger. 

* See Volume I., page 387. 
B 2 



4 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

11th. Dr. Bathurst preached before the King, from ''I 
say unto you all, watch" — a seasonable and most excellent 
discourse. When his Majesty came from chapel, he called 
to me in the lobby, and told me he must now have me 
sworn for a Justice of Peace (having long since made me 
of the Commission), which I declined as inconsistent with 
the other service I was engaged in, and humbly desired to 
be excused. After dinner, waiting on him, I gave him the 
first notice of the Spaniards referring the umpirage of the 
peace betwixt them and Portugal to the French King, which 
came to me in a letter from France before the Secretaries 
of State had any news of it. After this, his Majesty again 
asked me if I had found out any able person about our 
parts that might supply my place of Justice of Peace (the 
office in the world I had most industriously avoided, in 
regard of the perpetual trouble thereof in these numerous 
parishes) ; on which I nominated one, whom the King com- 
manded me to give immediate notice of to my Lord Chan- 
cellor, and I should be excused ; for which I rendered his 
Majesty many thanks. — From thence, I went to the Royal 
Society, where I was chosen by twenty-seven voices to be 
one of their Council for the ensuing year ; but, upon my 
earnest suit, in respect of my other affairs, I got to be 
excused ; — and so home. 

15th. Our parish was now more infected with the plague 
than ever, and so was all the country about, though almost 
quite ceased at London. 

24th. To London, about our Mint-Commission, and sat 
in the inner Court of Wards. 

8th May. To Oueenborough, where, finding the Rich- 
mond frigate, I sailed to the Buoy of the Nore to my 
Lord-General and Prince Rupert, where was the rendez- 
vous of the most glorious fleet in the world, now preparing 
to meet the Hollander. — Went to visit my cousin. Hales, at 
a sweetly-watered place at Chilston, near Bockton. The 
next morning, to Leeds Castle, once a famous hold, now 
hired by me of my Lord Culpeper for a prison. Here I 
flowed the dry moat, made a new drawbridge, brought 
spring water into the court of the castle to an old foun- 
tain, and took order for the repairs. 

22nd. Waited on my Lord Chancellor at his new palace ; 
and Lord Berkele/s bmlt next to it. 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 5 

24th. Dined with Lord Cornbury, now made Lord Cham- 
berlain to the Queen ; who kept a very honourable table. 

1st June. Being in my garden at six o'clock in the 
evening, and hearing the great guns go thick off, I took 
horse, and rode that night to Eochester; thence, next day 
towards the Downs and sea-coast, but meeting the Lieute- 
nant of the Hampshire frigate, who told me what passed, 
or rather what had not passed, I returned to London, 
there being no noise, or appearance, at Deal, or on that 
coast, of any engagement. Recounting this to his Majesty, 
whom I found at St. James's Park, impatiently expecting, 
and knowing that Prince Rupert was loose about three at 
St. Helen's Point at N. of the Isle of Wight, it greatly 
rejoiced him ; but he was astonished when I assured him 
they heard nothing of the guns in the Downs, nor did the 
Lieutenant who landed there by five that morning. 

3rd. Whit- Sunday. After sermon, came news that th& 
Duke of Albemarle was still in fight, and had been all 
Saturday, and that Captain Harman's ship (the Henry) 
was like to be burnt. Then a letter from Mr. Bertie that 
Prince Rupert was come up with his squadron, (according 
to my former advice of his being loose and in the way), 
and put new courage into our fleet, now in a manner- 
yielding ground, so that now we were chasing the chasers; 
that the Duke of Albemarle was slightly wounded, and the 
rest still in great danger. So, having been much wearied 
with my journey, I slipped home, the guns still roaring 
very fiercely. 

5th. I went this morning to London, where came 
several particulars of the fight. 

6th. Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the General, and 
related the dreadful encounter, on which his Majesty com- 
manded me to despatch an extraordinary physician and 
more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn Fast-day when 
the news came ; his Majesty being in the chapel, made a 
sudden stop to hear the relation, which being with much 
advantage on our side, his Majesty commanded that public 
thanks should immediately be given as for a victory. The 
Dean of the chapel going down to give notice of it to the 
other Dean officiating; and notice was likewise sent to 
St. Paul's and Westminster-Abbey. But, this was no 
sooner over, than news came that our loss was very great 



g DIARY OP [CHATHAM, 

both in ships and men ; that the Prince frigate was burnt, 
and as noble a vessel of 90 brass guns lost, and the taking 
of Sir George Ayscue, and exceeding shattering of both 
fleets, so as both being obstinate, both parted rather for 
want of ammunition and tackle than courage, our General 
retreating like a lion; which exceedingly abated of our 
former joy. There was, however, order given for bonfires 
and bells; but, God knows, it was rather a dehverance 
than a triumph. So much it pleased God to humble our 
late over-confidence that nothing could withstand the Duke 
of Albemarle, who, in good truth, made too forward a 
reckoning of his success now, because he had once beaten 
the Dutch in another quarrel, and, being ambitious to 
outdo the Earl of Sandwich, whom he had prejurlicated as 
deficient in courage. 

7th. I sent more chirurgeons, linen, medicaments, &c. 
to the several ports in my district. 

8th. Dined with me Sir Alexander Eraser, prime physi- 
cian to his Majesty; afterwards, went on board his Majesty's 
pleasure-boat, when I saw the London frigate launched, a 
most stately ship, built by the City to supply that which 
was burnt by accident some time since; the King, Lord 
Mayor and Sheriffs, being there with great banquet. 

11th. Trinity-Monday, after a sermon, applied to the 
re-meeting of the Corporation of the Trinity-House, after 
the late raging and wasting pestilence : I dined with them 
in their new room in Deptford, the first time since it was 
rebuilt. 

15th. I went to Chatham. — 16th. In the Jemmy yacht 
(an incomparable sailer) to sea, arrived by noon at the 
fleet at the Buoy of the Nore, dined with Prince Rupert 
and the General. 

17th. Came his Majesty, the Duke, and many Noble- 
men. After Council, we went to prayers. My business 
being despatched, I returned to Chatham, having lain but 
one night in the Royal Charles ; we had a tempestuous 
sea. I went on shore at Sheerness, where they were build- 
ing an arsenal for the fleet, and designing a royal fort with 
a receptacle for great ships to ride at anchor ; but here I 
beheld the sad spectacle, more than half that gallant bul- 
wark of the kingdom miserably shattered, hardly a vessel 
entire, but appearing rather so many wrecks and hulls, so 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 7 

cruelly had the Dutch mangled us. The loss of the Prince, 
that gallant vessel, had been a loss to be universally de- 
plored, none knowing for what reason we first engaged in 
this ungrateful war ; we lost besides nine or ten more, and 
near 600 men slain and 1100 wounded, 2000 prisoners; 
to balance which, perhaps we might destroy eighteen or 
twenty of the enemy's ships, and 700 or 800 poor men. 

18th. Weary of this sad sight, I returned home. 

2nd July. Came Sir John Buncomb* and Mr. Thomas 
Chicheley, both Privy Councillors and Commissioners of 
His Majesty's Ordnance, to visit me, and let me know that 
his Majesty had in Council nominated me to be one of the 
Commissioners for regulating the farming and making of 
saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were to 
sit in the Tower the next day. When they were gone, 
came to see me Sir John Cotton, heir to the famous an- 
tiquary. Sir Robert Cotton : a pretended great Grecian, but 
had by no means the parts, or genius, of his grandfather. 

3rd. I went to sit with the Commissioners at the Tower, 
where our commission being read, we made some progress 
in business, our Secretary being Sir George Wharton, that 
famous mathematician who wrote the yearly Almanack 
during his Majesty's troubles. Thence, to Painters' Hall, 
to our other commission, and dined at my Lord Mayor's. 

4th. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an 
excellent discourse before the King on the terrors of God's 
judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Winchester, where 
the Dean of Westminster spoke to me about putting into 
my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable 
people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick 
and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to 
the Lord Chancellor's to joy him of his Royal Highness's 
second son, now born at St. James's, and to desire the use 
of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, 
Painters' Hall not being so convenient. 

12th. We sat the first time in the Star-chamber. There 

* " Duncomb was a judicious man, but very haughty, and apt to raise ene- 
mies against himself. He was an able Parliament-man, but could not go 
into all the designs of the Court ; for he had a sense of religion, and a zeal 
for the liberty of his country." Bishop Burnet's Hist, of his own Times 
folio, vol. I., p. 2C5. 



8 DIARY OP [lomdon, 

was now added to our commission Sir George Downing, 
(one that had been a great . . . against his Majesty, but 
now insinuated into his favour ; and, from a pedagogue and 
fanatic preacher, not worth a groat, had become excessively 
rich) to inspect the hospitals and treat about prisons. 

l4th. Sat at the Tower with Sir J. Duncomb and Lord 
Berkeley, to sign deputations for undertakers to furnish 
their proportions of saltpetre. 

17th. To London, to prepare for the next engagement 
of the fleets, now gotten to sea again. 

22nd. Our parish still infected with the contagion. 

25th. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord Berkeley's, 
at St. James's, where dined my Lady Harrietta Hyde, 
Lord Arlington, and Sir John Duncomb. 

29th. The pestilence now afresh increasing in our parish, 
I forbore going to church. In the afternoon, came tidings 
of our victory over the Dutch, sinking some and driving- 
others aground, and into their ports. 

1st August. I went to Dr. Keffler, who married the 
daughter of the famous chymist, Drebbell, inventor of the 
bodied scarlet. I went to see his iron ovens, made port- 
able (formerly) for the Prince of Orange's army : supped 
at the Rhenish Wine-House with divers Scots gentlemen. 

6th. Dined with Mr. Povey, and then went with him ta 
see a country-house he had bought near Brentford ; return- 
ing by Kensington ; which house stands to a very graceful 
avenue of trees, but it is an ordinary building, especially 
one part. 

8th. Dined at Sir Stephen Fox's with several friends, 
and, on the 10th, with Mr. Odart, Secretary of the Latin 
tongue. 

17th. Dined with the Lord Chancellor, whom I intreated 
to visit the Hospital of the Savoy, and reduce it (after the 
great abuse that had been continued) to its original insti- 
tution for the benefit of the poor, which he promised 
to do. 

25th. Waited on Sir William D'Oyly, now recovered, 
as it were, miraculously. In the afternoon, visited the 
Savoy Hospital, where I stayed to see the miserably dis- 
membered and wounded men dressed, and gave some 
necessary orders. Then, to my Lord Chancellor, who had, 
with the Bishop of London and others in the coinmission,. 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 9 

chosen me one of the three surveyors of the repairs of Paul's, 
and to consider of a model for the new building, or, if it 
might be, repairing of the steeple, which was most decayed. 

26th. The contagion still continuing, we had the Church- 
service at home. 

27th. I went to St. Paul's church, where, with Dr. 
Wren, Mr. Pratt, Mr. May, Mr. Thomas Chicheley, Mr. 
Slingsby, the Bishop of London, the Dean* of St. Paul's, 
and several expert workmen, we went about to survey the 
general decays of that ancient and venerable church, and 
to set down in writing the particulars of what was fit to be 
done, with the charge thereof, giving our opinion from 
article to article. Finding the main building to recede 
outwards, it was the opinion of Chicheley and Mr. Pratt 
that it had been so built ab origine for an effect in 
perspective, in regard of the height; but I was, with 
Dr. Wren, quite of another j udgment, and so we entered 
it ; we plumbed the uprights in several places. When we 
came to the steeple, it was deliberated whether it were not 
well enough to repair it only on its old foundation, with 
reservation to the four pillars; this Mr. Chicheley and 
Mr. Pratt were also for, but we totally rejected it, and 
persisted that it required a new foundation, not only 
in regard of the necessity, but for that the shape of what 
stood was very mean, and we had a mind to build it with a 
noble cupola, a form of church-building not as yet known 
in England, but of wonderful grace : for this purpose, w& 
offered to bring in a plan and estimate, which, after much 
contest, was at last assented to, and that we should nomi- 
nate a committee of able workmen to examine the present 
foundation. This concluded, we drew all up in writing,, 
and so went with my Lord Bishop to the Dean's. 

28th. Sat at the Star-chamber. Next day, to the 
E/Oyal Society, where one Mercator, an excellent mathema- 
tician, produced his rare clock and new motion to perform 
the equations, and Mr. Rooke, his new pendulum. 

2nd September. This fatal night, about ten, began the 
deplorable fire near Pish-street, in London. 

3rd. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, 
after dinner, I took coach with my wife and son, and went 

* Dr. Sancroft. 



10 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that 
dismal spectacle, the whole City in dreadful flames near the 
water-side; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames- 
street, and upwards towards Cheapside, down to the Three 
Cranes, were now consumed : and so returned exceeding 
astonished what would .become of the rest. 

The fire having continued all this night (if I may call 
that night which was light as day for ten miles round 
about, after a dreadful manner) when conspiring with a 
fierce eastern wind in a very dry season; I went on foot to 
the same place, and saw the whole south part of the City 
burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along 
Comhill (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as 
well as forward). Tower-street, Fenchurch-street, Gracious- 
street,* and so along to Baynard^s Castle, and was now 
taking hold of St. Paulas church, to which the scaffolds 
contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so uni- 
versal, and the people so astonished that, from the begin- 
ning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly 
stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, 
or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about 
like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save 
even their goods ; such a strange consternation there was 
upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the 
churches, public halls. Exchange, hospitals, monuments, 
and ornaments, leaping after a prodigious manner, from 
house to house, and street to street, at great distances 
one from the other ; for the heat with a long set of fair 
and warm weather had even ignited the air, and prepared 
the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an 
incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. 
Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all 
the barges and boats laden with what some had time and 
courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, &c., carrying 
out to the fields, which for many miles were strewed with 
moveables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both 
people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the 
miserable and calamitous spectacle ! such as haply the 
world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be 
outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky 

* Now Gracechurch-street. 



1666.1 JOHN EVELYN. 21 

was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning ovenj and 
the light seen above forty miles round-about for many 
nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, 
who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame ! The 
noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, 
the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, 
the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous 
storm, and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at 
the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were 
forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they 
did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The 
clouds, also, of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon com- 
putation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this 
afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last 
day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage — non enim 
hie habemus stabilem civitatem : the ruins resembling the 
picture of Troy. London was, but is no more ! Thus, I 
returned. 

4th. The burning still rages, and it was now gotten as 
far as the Inner Temple ; all Fleet-street, the Old Bailey, 
Ludgate-hill, Warwick-lane, Newgate, PauFs-chain, Wat- 
ling-street, now flaming, and most of it reduced to ashes ; 
the stones of Paul's flew like grenados, the melting 
lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very 
pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor 
man, was able to tread on them, and the demolition had 
stopped all the passages, so that no help could be applied. 
The eastern wind still more impetuously driving the flames 
forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was 
able to stop them ; for vain was the help of man. 

5th. It crossed towards Whitehall ; but oh ! the confu- 
sion there was then at that Court ! It pleased his Majesty 
to command me among the rest to look after the quenching 
of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of 
Holborn, whilst the rest of the gentlemen took their 
several posts, some at one part, and some at another, (for 
now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who 
hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands 
across) and began to consider that nothing was likely to 
put a stop but the blowing up of so ntauy houses as might 
make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the 
ordinary method of pulHng them down with engines. This 



12. DIARY OF [LONDON, 

some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved 
near the whole City, but this some tenacious and avaricious 
men, aldermen, &c., would not permit, because their houses 
must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now com- 
manded to be practised, and my concern being particularly 
for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, 
where I had many wounded and sick men, made me 
the more diligent to promote it ; nor was my care for the 
Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, 
and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost, 
infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began 
sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than 
the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, 
north : but continued all this day and night so impetuous 
toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair ; 
it also brake out again in the Temple; but the courage of 
the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown 
up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as with the 
former three days' consumption, the back fire did not 
so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was 
yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near 
a furlong's space. 

The coal and wood-wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, 
&c., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little 
before I had dedicated to his Majesty and published,* giving 
warning what might probably be the issue of suflering^ 
those shops to be in the City, was looked on as a prophecy. 

The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's 
Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several 
miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable 
huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary 
utensils, bed or board, who from dehcateness, riches, and 
easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, 
were now reduced to extremest misery and poverty. 

In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad 
heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing 
mercy of God to me and mine who, in the midst of all 
this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound. 

6th. Thursday. I represented to his Majesty the case of 
the French prisoners at war in my custody, and besought 
him that there might be still the same care of watching at 

* « The Fumifugium." See Volume I., p. 354. 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 13 

all places contiguous to unseized houses. It is not indeed 
imaginable how extraordinary the vigilance and activity 
of the King and the Duke was, even labouring in person, 
and being present to command, order, reward, or encourage, 
workmen ; by which he showed his affection to his people, 
and gained theirs. Having, then, disposed of some under 
cure at the Savoy, I returned to Whitehall, where I dined 
at Mr. Offley's,* the groom-porter, who was my relation. 

7th. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as 
London Bridge, through the late Fleet-street, Ludgate-hill, 
by St. PauFs, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishopsgate, Aldersgate, 
and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, &c., with 
extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet 
smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was : 
the ground uuder my feet so hot, that it even burnt the 
soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty got to 
the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the 
graff, which being built entirely about it, had they taken 
fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of 
powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down 
and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the 
vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond 
all expression for several miles about the country. 

At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that 
goodly Church, St. PauFs — now a sad ruin, and that 
beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in 
Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now 
rent in pieces, flakes of vast stone split asunder, and 
nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the archi- 
trave, showing by whom it was built, which had not one 
letter of it defaced ! It was astonishing to see what 
immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so 
that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and pro- 
jectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the 
very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space 
(no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted ; 
the ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. FaitVs, 
which, being filled with the magazines of books belonging 
to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were 
all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also 

* Dr. Offley was rector of Abinger, and donor of farms to Okewood Chapel, 
in the pai-ish of Wotton, in the patronage of the Evelyn family. 



14 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was 
untouched, and among the divers monuments, the body 
of one Bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that 
most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of 
early piety in the Christian world, besides near 100 more. 
The lead, iron-work, bells, plate, &c. melted ; the exqui- 
sitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, 
the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest oT the 
Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all 
in dust ; the fountains dried up and ruined, whilst the 
very waters remained boiling ; the voragos of subterranean 
cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still 
burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke, so that in 
five or six miles traversing about, I did not see one load 
of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were 
calcined white as snow. 

The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared 
like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great 
city laid waste by a cruel enemy ; to which was added the 
stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, 
and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's 
statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Ex- 
change, remained entire, when all those of the Kings, 
since the Conquest, were broken to pieces ; also the stand- 
ard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some 
arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, 
whilst the vast iron chains of the City-streets, hinges, 
bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and 
reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet 
able to pass through any of the narrower streets, but 
kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery 
vapour, continued so intense, that my hair was almost 
singed, and my feet unsuflferably surbated. The bye-lanes 
and narrower streets, were quite filled up with rubbish, nor 
could one have possibly known where he was, but by the 
ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable 
tower, or pinnacle, remaining. 

I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one 
might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees 
dispersed and lying along by their heaps of what they 
could save from the fire, deploring their loss ; and, though 
ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. I5 

one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger 
sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty and Council 
indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by pro- 
clamation for the country to come in, and refresh them 
with provisions. 

In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there 
was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French 
and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not 
only landed, but even entering the City. There was, in 
truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two 
nations joining ; and now, that they had been the occasion 
of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a 
sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they 
ran from their goods, .and, taking what weapons they 
could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on 
some of those nations whom they casually met, without 
sense, or reason. The clamour and peril grew so excessive, 
that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with 
infinite pains and great diificulty, reduce and appease the 
people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause 
them to retire into the fields again, where they were 
watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came 
home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a 
little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to 
repair into the suburbs about the City, where such as had 
friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present ; to 
which his Majesty^s proclamation also invited them,* 

* The following is the Ordinance to which he alludes, reprinted from the 
original half-sheet in black letter : 
Charles R. 

His Majesty, in his princely compassion and very tender care, taking into 
consideration the distressed condition of many of his good subjects, whom 
the late dreadful and dismal fire hath made destitute of habitations, and 
exposed to many exigencies and necessities ; for present remedy and 
redress whereof, his Majesty intending to give further testimony and 
evidences of his grace and favour towards them, as occasion shall arise, hath 
thought fit to declare and publish his Royal pleasure : That, as great propor- 
tions of bread, and all other provisions as can possibly be furnislied, shall be 
daily and constantly brought, not only to the markets formerly in use, but 
also to such markets as by his Majesty's late order and declaration to the 
Lord Mayor and Sheriffs of London and Middlesex have been appointed and 
ordained, viz., Clerkenwell, Ishngton, Finsbury-fields, Mile-end Green, and 
Ratcliff ; his Majesty being sensible that this will be for the benefit also of 
the towns and places adjoining, as being the best expedient to prevent the 



IQ DIARY OP [LONDON, 

Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, 
without danger, adventure to our church. 

10th. I went again to the ruins; for it was now no 
longer a city. 

13th. I presented his Majesty with a survey of the 
ruins, and a plot for a new City,* with a discourse on it ; 
whereupon, after dinner, his Majesty sent for me into the 
Queen's bed-chamber, her Majesty and the Duke only 
being present; they examined each particular, and dis- 
coursed on them for near an hour, seeming to be extremely 

resort of such persons thereunto as may pilfer and disturb them. And 
whereas, also, divers of the said distressed persons have saved and preserved 
their goods, which nevertheless they know not how to dispose of, it is his 
Majesty's pleasure, that all Churches, Chapels, Schools, and other like public 
places, shall be free and open to receive the said goods, when they shall be 
brought to be there laid. And all Justices of the Peace within the several 
Counties of Middlesex, Essex, and Surrey, are to see the same to be done, 
accordingly. And likewise that all cities and towns whatsoever shall, without 
any contradiction, receive the said distressed persons, and permit them to the 
free exercise of their manual trades ; his Majesty resolving and promising 
that, when the present exigence shall be passed over, he will take such care 
and order, that the said persons shall be no burthen to their towns, or 
parishes. And it is his Majesty's pleasure, that this his declaration be forth- 
with published, not only by the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex, but also 
by all other Sheriffs, Mayors, and other chief officers, in their respective pre- 
cincts and limits, and by the constables in every parish. And of this his 
Majesty's pleasure all persons concerned are to take notice, and thereunto to 
give due obedience to the utmost of their power, as they will answer the con- 
trary at their peril. Given at our Court at Whitehall, the fifth day of 
September, in tlie eighteenth year of our reign, one thousand six hundred 
sixty-six. 

God save the King. 

* Mr. Evelyn sent a letter to Sir Samuel Tuke, on the subject of the fire, 
iind his plan for re-building the City. Part of this plan was to lessen the 
declivities, and to employ the rubbish in filUng up the shore of the Thames 
to low water-mark, so as to keep the basin always full. — In a letter to Mr. 
Oldenburg, Secretary to the Royal Society, 22nd December, 1666, he says, 
after mentioning the presenting his reflections on re-building the City to his 
Majesty, that " the want of a more exact plot, wherein I might have marked 
what the fire had spared, and accommodated my design to the remaining 
parts, made me take it as a rasa tabula, and to form mine idea thereof, accord- 
ingly : I have since lighted upon Mr. Hollar's late plan, which looking upon as 
tlie most accurate hitherto extant, has caused me something to alter what I had 
so crudely done, though, for the most part, I still persist in my foi-mer discourse, 
and which I here send you as complete as an imperfect copy will give me 
leave, and the supplement of an ill memory, for since that time I hardly ever 
looked on it, and it was finished within two or three days after the Incendium," 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. 17 

pleased with what I had so early thought on. The Queen 
was now in her cavalier riding-habit, hat and feather, and 
horseman's coat, going to take the air. 

16th. I went to Greenwich Church, where Mr. Plume 
preached very well from this text : " Seeing, then, all these 
things shall be dissolved," &c., taking occasion from the 
late unparalleled conflagration to mind us how we ought to 
walk more holy in all manner of conversation. 

27th. Dined at Sir William D'Oyly's, with that worthy 
gentleman. Sir John Holland, of Sufi'olk. 

10th October. This day was ordered a general Fast 
through the Nation, to humble us on the late dreadful 
conflagration, added to the plague and war, the most 
dismal judgments that could be inflicted ; but which 
indeed we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, 
burning lusts, dissolute Court, profane and abominable 
lives, under such dispensations of God's continued favour 
in restoring Church, Prince, and People from our late 
intestine calamities, of which we were altogether unmind- 
ful, even to astonishment. This made me resolve to go 
to our parish assembly, where our Doctor preached on 
Luke, xix. 41 : piously applying it to the occasion. After 
which, was a collection for the distressed losers in the late 
fire. 

18th. To Court. It being the first time his Majesty 
put himself solemnly into the Eastern fashion of vest, 
changing doublet, stiff" collar, bands and cloak, into a 
comely dress, after the Persian mode, with girdles or 
straps, and shoe-strings and garters into buckles, of which 
some were set with precious stones,* resolving never to 
alter it, and to leave the French mode, which had hitherto 
obtained to our great expense and reproach. Upon which, 
divers courtiers and gentlemen gave his Majesty gold by 
way of wager that he would not persist in this resolution. 
I had sometime before presented an invective against that 
unconstancy, and our so much affecting the French fashion, 
to his Majesty; in which I took occasion to describe the 
comeliness and usefulness of the Persian clothing, in the 
very same manner his Majesty now clad himself. This 
pamphlet I entitled " Tyrannus, or the Mode," and gave 

* It would be curious to see a portrait of the King in this costume ; which 
was, however, shortly after abandoned, and laid aside. 
VOL. II. C 



^8 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

it to the King to read. I do not impute to this discourse the 
change which soon happened, but it was an identity that 
I could not but take notice of. 

This night was acted my Lord BroghiU's * tragedy, 
called "Mustapha," before their Majesties at Court, at 
which I was present, very seldom going to the pubhc 
theatres for many reasons, now as they were abused to an 
atheistical liberty, foul and undecent women now (and 
never till now) permitted to appear and act, who inflaming 
several young noblemen and gallants, became their misses, 
and to some, their wives ; t witness the Earl of Oxford, 
Sir R. Howard, Prince Rupert, the Earl of Dorset, and 
another greater person than any of them, who fell into 
their snares, to the reproach of their noble families, and 
ruin of both body and soul. I was invited by my Lord 
Chamberlain to see this tragedy, exceedingly well written, 
though in my mind I did not approve of any such pastime 
in a time of such judgments and calamities. 

21st. This season, after so long and extraordinary a 
drought in August and September, as if preparatory for 
the dreadful fire, was so very wet and rainy as many feared 
an ensuing famine. 

28th. The pestilence, through God^s mercy, began now 
to abate considerably in our town. 

30th. To London to our office, and now had I on the 
vest and surcoat, or tunic, as it was called, after his Majesty 
had brought the whole Court to it. It was a comely and 
manly habit, too good to hold, it being impossible for us 
in good earnest to leave the Monsieurs' vanities long. 

31st. I heard the signal cause of my Lord Cleveland 
pleaded before the House of Lords ; and was this day forty- 
six years of age, wonderfully protected by the mercies of 
God, for which I render him immortal thanks. 

I4th November. I went my winter-circle through my 
district, Rochester and other places, where I had men 
quartered, and in custody. — 15th. To Leeds Castle. 

16th. I mustered the prisoners, being about 600 Dutch 
and French, ordered their proportion of bread to be aug- 

* Richard, Lord Broghill, created, shortly after this, Earl of Orrery ; he 
wrote several other plays, besides tliat here noticed. 

+ Mrs. Margaret Hughes, Nell Gwynne, who left the Earl for his Majesty, 
to whom were added Mrs. Davia and Mrs Knight. 



1666.] JOHN EVELYN. jg 

raented, and provided clothes and fuel. Monsieur Colbert, 
Ambassador at the Court of England, this day sent money 
from his master, the French King, to every prisoner of 
that nation under my guard. 

17th. I returned to Chatham, my chariot overturning 
on the steep of Bexley-Hill, wounded me in two places 
on the head ; my son. Jack, being with me, was like to 
have been worse cut by the glass ; but I thank God we 
both escaped without much hurt, though not without 
exceeding danger. — 1 8th. At Rochester. — 19th. Returned 
home. 

23rd. At London, I heard an extraordinary case before 
a Committee of the whole House of Commons, in the 
Commons^ House of Parliament, between one Captain 
Taylor and my Lord Viscount Mordaunt,* where, after 
the lawyers had pleaded, and the witnesses been exa- 
mined, such foul and dishonourable things were produced 
against his Lordship, of tyranny during his government of 
Windsor Castle, of which he was Constable, incontinence, 
and suborning witnesses (of which last, one Sir Richard 
Breames was most concerned), that I was exceedingly 
interested for his Lordship, who was my special friend, 
and husband of the most virtuous lady in the world. "We 
sat till near ten at night, and yet but half the Counsel had 
done on behalf of the Plaintiff. The question then was put 
for bringing-in of lights to sit longer. This lasted so 
long before it was determined, and raised such a confused 
noise among the Members, that a stranger would have been 
astonished at it. I admire that there is not a rationale to 
regulate such trifling accidents, which consume much time, 
and is a reproach to the gravity of so great an assembly of 
sober men. 

27th. Sir Hugh Pollard, Comptroller of the Household, 
died at Whitehall, and his Majesty conferred the white 
staff on my brother Commissioner for sick and wounded. 
Sir Thomas Chfford, a bold young gentleman, of a small 
fortune in Devon, but advanced by Lord Arlington, Secre- 
tary of State, to the great astonishment of all the Court. 
This gentleman was somewhat related to me by the marriage 

* See the whole proceedings in this affair, in the Journals of Lords and 
Commons, under this year. 

c2 



2Q DIARY OF [LONDON, 

of his mother to my nearest kinsman, Gregory Coale,* and 
was ever my noble friend, a valiant and daring person, but 
by no means fit for a supple and flattering courtier. 

28th. Went to see Clarendon House,t now almost 
finished, a goodly pile to see to, but had many defects as to 
the architecture, yet placed most gracefully. After this, 
I waited on the Lord Chancellor, who Avas now at Berkshire 
House, J since the burning of London. 

2nd December. Dined with me Monsieur Kiviet, a Dutch 
gentleman-pensioner of Rotterdam, who came over for pro- 
tection, being of the Prince of Orange's party, now not 
welcome in Holland. The King knighted him for some 
merit in the Prince's behalf. He should, if caught, have 
been beheaded with Monsieur Buat, and was brother-in- 
law to Van Tromp, the sea-general. With him, came 
Mr. Gabriel Sylvius, and Mr. Williamson, § secretary ta 
Lord Arlington ; M. Kiviet came to examine whether the 
soil about the river of Thames would be proper to make 
clinker-bricks, and to treat with me about some accommo- 
dation in order to it. || 

1666-7. 9th January. To the Royal Society, which 
since the sad conflagration were invited by Mr. Howard to 
sit at Arundel-House in the Strand, who, at my instigation, 
likewise bestowed on the Society that noble library which 
his grandfather especially, and his ancestors had collected. 
This gentleman had so httle inclination to books, that it 
was the preservation of them from embezzlement. 

24th. Visited my Lord Clarendon, and presented my son, 
John, to him, now preparing to go to Oxford, of which his 

• Of this gentleman and his family, seated at Petersham, in Surrey, see 
History of that County, vol. I., pp. 439, 441, but his connection with the 
Evelyns does not appear. 

f Since quite demolished; see hereafter. It was situated where Albemarle 
Street now is. After Lord Clarendon's exile, the Duke of Albemarle occupied 
this noble mansion, of which there are two engraved views at least, one 
a small one by John Dunstall, and another upon, a very large scale, by 
J. Spilbergh. 

X Berkshire, or Cleveland-House, belonged to the Howards, Earls of Berk- 
shii'e, and stood very near the royal residence. It was purchased, and pre- 
sented by Charles II. to Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland, and was then of great 
extent ; she, however, afterwards sold part, which was divided into various 
houses. 

§ More is said of these gentlemen afterwards. |1 See pp. 21, 29. 



U67.] JOHN EVELYN. 21 

Lordship was Chancellor. This evening, I heard rare 
Italian voices^two eunuchs and one woman, in his Majesty's 
green chamber, next his cabinet. 

29th. To London, in order to my son's Oxford journey, 
who, being very early entered both in Latin and Greek, 
and prompt to learn beyond most of his age, I was persuaded 
to trust him under the tutorage of Mr. Bohun, Fellow of 
New College, who had been his preceptor in my house 
some years before ; but, at Oxford, under the inspection 
of Dr. Bathurst, President of Trinity College, where I 
placed him, not as yet thirteen years old. He was newly 
out of long coats.* 

15th February. My little book, in answer to Sir George 
Mackenzie on Solitude, was now published, entitled, 
*' Public Employment, and an active Life with its Appan- 
ages, preferred to Solitude.'^t 

18th. I was present at a magnificent ball, or masque, in 
the theatre at Court, where their Majesties and all the 
great lords and ladies danced, infinitely gallant, the men 
in their richly embroidered most becoming vests. 

19th. I saw a comedy acted at Court. In the afternoon, 
I witnessed a wrestling-match for 1000/. in St. James's 
Park, before his Majesty, a vast assemblage of lords and 
other spectators, betwixt the western and northern men, 
Mr. Secretary Morice and Lord Gerard being the judges. 
The western men won. Many great sums were betted. 

Cth March. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor, Monsieur 
Kiviet's undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, 
or quay, from the Temple to the Tower, as far as the fire 
destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and orna- 
mental. J — Great frosts, snow, and winds, prodigious at the 
vernal equinox ; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in 
this nation, plague, war, fire, rains, tempest, and comet. - 

14th. Saw " The Virgin-Queen,'^ a play written by 
Mr. Dry den. 

* At the Swan Inn, at Leatlierhead, in Surrey, is a picture of four children, 
•dates of birtli between 1640 and 1650 : one of them is a boy about this age, 
in a coat, or vest, reaching almost to his ankles. 

f Re-priuted in his "Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 501 — 509. 
In a letter to Mr. Cowley, 12 March, 1666, he apologises for having written 
•against that life, which he had joined with Mr. Cowley in so much admiring, 
iissuring him he neither was nor could be, serious. J See pp. 20, 29. 



22 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

22nd. Dined at Mr. Secretary Morice's, who showed 
me his library, which was a well-chosen collection. This 
afternoon, I had audience of his Majesty, concerning the 
proposal I had made of building the Quay. 

26th. Sir John Kiviet dined with me. We went to 
siearch for brick-earth, in order to a great undertaking. 

4th April. The cold so intense, that there was hardly a 
leaf on a tree. 

18th. I went to make court to the Duke and Duchess 
of Newcastle, at their house in Clerkenwell,* being newly 
come out of the north. They received me with great 
kindness, and I was much pleased with the extraordinary 
fanciful habit, garb, and discourse of the Duchess. 

22nd. Saw the sumptuous supper in the banqueting- 
house at "Whitehall, on the eve of St. George's day, where 
were all the companions of the Order of the Garter. 

23rd. In the morning, his Majesty went to chapel with 
the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, 
ushered by the heralds ; after the first service, they went 
in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign last, with 
the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had about his 
neck the book of the Statutes of the Order ; and then the 
Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic) who wore 
the purse about his neck ; then the Heralds and Garter- 
King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But before the 
Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of the 
chapel, and choristers, singing as they marched ; behind 
them, two doctors of music in damask robes ; this proces- 
sion was about the courts at Whitehall. Then, returning 
to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed under each 
knight's coat-armour and titles, the second service began. 
Then, the King offered at the altar, an anthem was sung, 
then, the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded 
to the banqueting-house to a great feast. The King sat 
on an elevated throne at the upper end at a table alone; 
the Knights at a table on the right hand, reaching all the 
length of the room ; over-against them a cupboard of rich 
gilded plate ; at the lower end, the music ; on the balusters 
above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. The 

* The Duke spent a princely fortune in the service of Charles I. and II. 
He wrote on Horsemanship a curious and splendid volume. 



lGG7.] JOHN EVELYN. 23 

King was served by the lords and pensioners who brought 
up the dishes. About the middle of the dinner, the Knights 
drank the King^s health, then the King, theirs, when the 
trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going 
off at the Tower. At the Banquet, came in the Queen, 
and stood by the King^s left hand, but did not sit. Then 
was the banqueting-stuff flung about the room profusely. 
In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I stayed all 
the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than 
this sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was 
extraordinary, each Knight having forty dishes to his mess, 
piled up five or six high ; the room hung with the richest 
tapestry. 

25th. Visited again the Duke of Newcastle, with whom 
I had been acquainted long before in France, where the 
Duchess had obligation to my wife^s mother for her 
marriage there ; she was sister to Lord Lucas, and maid 
of honour then to the Queen-Mother; married in our 
chapel at Paris. My wife being with me, the Duke and 
Duchess both would need^ bring her to the very Court. 

26th. My Lord Chancellor showed me all his ncAvly- 
finished and furnished palace and library ; then, we went 
to take the air in Hyde-Park. 

27th. I had a great deal of discourse with his Majesty 
at dinner. Li the afternoon, I went again with my wife 
to the Duchess of Newcastle, who received her in a kind of 
transport, suitable to her extravagant humour and dress, 
Avhich was very singular. 

8th May. Made up accounts with our Keceiver, which 
amounted to 38,986/. 1*. 4id. Dined at Lord Cornbury's, 
with Don Francisco de Melos, Portugal Ambassador, and 
kindred to the Queen: of the party were Mr. Henry 
Jermyn, and Sir Henry Capel. Afterwards, I went to 
Arundel-House, to salute Mr. Howard's sons, newly re- 
turned out of France. 

11th. To London; dined with the Duke of Newcastle, 
and sat discoursing with her Grace in her bed-chamber 
after dinner, till my Lord Marquis of Dorchester with other 
company came in, when I went away. 

30th. To London, to wait on the Duchess of Newcastle 
(who was a mighty pretender to learning, poetry, and 
philosophy, and had in both published divers books) to the 



24 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

Royal Society,* whither she came in great pomp, and being 
received by our Lord President at the door of our meeting- 
room, the mace, &c., carried before him, had several experi- 
ments showed to her. I conducted her Grace to her coach, 
and returned home. 

1st June. I went to Greenwich, where his Majesty was 
trying divers grenadoes shot out of cannon at the Castle- 
hill, from the house in the Park ; they brake not till they 
hit the mark, the forged ones brake not at all, but the cast 
ones very well. The inventor was a German, there present. 
At the same time, a ring was showed to the King, pretended 
to be a projection of mercury, and malleable, and said by 
the gentlemen to be fixed by the juice of a plant. 

8th. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen 
on our fleet at Chatham, by a most audacious enterprise 
entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us 
not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning 
several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored 
there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in 
not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused 
me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even 
to London, (which they might have done with ease, and 
fired all the vessels in the River, too), to send away my best 
goods, plate, &c., from my house to another place. The 
alarm was so great that it put both Country and City into 
fear, a panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never 
see more; everybody was flying, none knew why, or whither. 
Now, there were land-forces despatched with the Duke 
of Albemarle, Lord Middleton, Prince Rupert, and the 
Duke, to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying 
Upnor Castle, and laying chains and booms ; but the 
resolute enemy brake through all, and set fire on our 
ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the 
rest of their fleet lying before the mouth of it. 

14th. I went to see the work at Woolwich, a bat- 
tery to prevent them coming up to London, which 
Prince Rupert commanded, and sunk some ships in the 
river. 

* This reminds us of the visit of another great lady, Queen Christina, to 
the French Academy, at one of theii' sittings, recorded by Monsieur Pellisson 
in his History of that learned body. Queen Caroline, wife of King George II., 
also affected the company of deep divines, scholars, and philosophers. 



1G67.] JOHN EVELYN. ' 25 

17th. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and 
combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships taking 
flame in Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, and caused 
such an uproar in the Tower, (it being given out that the 
Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and 
fired the Tower), as had like to have done more mischief 
before people would be persuaded to the contrary and 
believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. 
These were sad and troublesome times ! 

24th. The Dutch fleet still continuing to stop up the 
river, so as nothing could stir out or come in, I Avas before 
the Council, and commanded by his Majesty to go with 
some others and search about the environs of the city, now 
exceedingly distressed for want of fuel, whether there 
could be any peat, or turf, found fit for use. The next 
day, I went and discovered enough, and made my report 
tliat there might be found a great deal ; but nothing 
further was done in it. 

28th. I went to Chatham, and thence to view not only 
what mischief the Dutch had done ; but how triumphantly 
their whole fleet lay within the very mouth of the Thames, 
all from the North Fore-land, Margate, even to the buoy 
of the Nore — a dreadful spectacle as ever Englishmen saw, 
and a dishonour never to be wiped oft' ! Those who advised 
his Majesty to prepare no fleet this spring deserved — I 
know Avhat — but * 

Here in the river off" Chatham, just before the town, lay 
the carcase of the London (now the third time burnt), the 
Hoyal Oak, the James, &c., yet smoking; and now, when 
the mischief was done, we were making trifling forts on 
the brink of the river. Here were yet forces both of horse 
and foot, with General Middleton continually expecting 
the motions of the enemy's fleet. I had much discourse 
with him, who Avas an experienced commander. I told 
him I wondered the King did not fortify Sheerness t and 
the Ferry ; both abandoned. 

* The Parliament giving but weak supplies for the war, the King, to save 
charges, is persuaded by the Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, Southampton, 
the Duke of Albemarle, and the other ministers, to lay up the first and second- 
rate ships, and make only a defensive war in the next campaign. The Duke 
of York opposed this, but was over-ruled. Life of King James II., vol. I., 
p. 425. f Since done. 



26 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

2nd July. Called upon by my Lord Arlington, as from 
his Majesty, about the new fuel. The occasion why I was 
mentioned, was from what I had said in my " Sylva " three 
years before, about a sort of fuel, for a need, which 
obstructed a patent of Lord Carlingford, who had been 
seeking for it himself; he was endeavouring to bring me 
into the project, and proffered me a share. I met my 
Lord ; and, on the 9th, by an order of council, went to my 
Lord Mayor, to be assisting. In the mean time, they had 
made an experiment of my receipt of houllies, which I 
mention in my book to be made at Maestricht, with a 
mixture of charcoal dust and loam, and which was tried 
with success at Gresham College, (then being the exchange 
for meeting of the merchants since the fire) for every- 
body to see. This done, I went to the Treasury for 12,00U/. 
for the sick and wounded yet on my hands. 

Next day, we met again about the fuel at Sir J. 
Armourer's in the Mews. 

8th. My Lord Brereton and others dined at my house, 
where I showed them proof of my new fuel, which was 
very glowing, and without smoke, or ill smell. 

10th. I went to see Sir SamuelMorland's* inventions and 
machines, arithmetical wheels, quench-fires, and new harp. 

1 7th. The Master of the Mint and his lady, Mr. William- 
son, Sir Nicholas Armourer, Sir Edward Bowyer, Sir 
Anthony Auger, and other friends, dined with me. 

29th. I went to Gravesend; the Dutch fleet still at 

* Mr. Aubrey says : " Under the Equestrian Statue of Charles II., in the 
great Court at Windsor, is an engine for raising water, contrived by Sir 
Samuel Morland, alias Morley. He was son of Sir Samuel Morland, 
of Sulhamsted Bannister, Berks, created Baronet by Charles II. in 
consideration of services performed during his exile. The son was 
a great mechanic, and was presented with a gold medal, and made 
Magister Mechanicoi'um by the King, in 1681. He invented the drum cap- 
stands, for weighing heavy anchors ; the speaking trumpet, and other useful 
engines. He died and was buried at Hammersmith, 1696. There is a 
monument for the two wives of Sir Samuel Morland in Westminster Abbey. 
There is a print of the son, by Lombart, after Lely. This Sir Samuel, the 
son, built a large room in his garden at Vauxhall, which was much admired 
at that time. On the top was a punchinello, holding a dial." Aubrey's 
Surrey, vol. I., p. 12. See more of him in Manning and Bray's History of 
Surrey, vol. III., 489, 490, 491, and Appendix, p. cv. — He is also noticed 
again several times in this Diary; see particulai'ly under the yeai- 1681, 
September. 



1667.] JOHN EVELYN. £7 

anchor before the river, where I saw five of his Majesty's 
men-of-war encounter above twenty of the Dutch, in the 
bottom of the Hope, chasing them with many broadsides 
given and returned towards the buoy of the Nore, where 
the body of their fleet lay, whicli lasted till about midnight. 
One of their ships was fired, supposed by themselves, she 
being run on ground. Having seen this bold action, and 
their braving us so far up the river, I went home the next 
day, not without indignation at our negligence, and the 
nation's reproach. It is well known Avho of the Com- 
missioners of the Treasury gave advice that the charge of 
setting forth a fleet this year might be spared. Sir W. C. 
(William Coventry) by name. 

1st August. I received the sad news of Abraham Cowley's 
death, that incomparable poet and virtuous man, my very 
dear friend, and was greatly deplored. 

3rd. Went to Mr. Cowley's funeral, whose corpse lay at 
Wallingford House, and was thence conveyed to West- 
minster Abbey in a hearse with six horses and all funeral 
decency, near a hundred coaches of noblemen and persons 
of quality following ; among these, all the wits of the 
town, divers bishops and clergymen. He was interred next 
Geofl'ry Chaucer, and near Spenser. A goodly monument 
is since erected to his memory. 

Now did his Majesty again dine in the presence, in an- 
cient state, with music and all the court-ceremonies, which 
had been interrupted since the late war. 

8th. Visited Mr. Oldenburg, a close prisoner in the 
Tower, being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an 
order from Lord Arlington, Secretary of State, which 
caused me to be admitted. This gentleman was secretary 
to our Society, and I am confident will prove an innocent 
person.* 

15th. Finished my account, amounting to 25,000/. 

17th. To the funeral of Mr. Farringdon, a relation of my 
wife's. 

There was now a very gallant horse to be baited to death 
with dogs ; but he fought them all, so as the fiercest of 
them could not fasten on him, till the men run him through 
with their swords. This wicked and barbarous sport 
deserved to have been punished in the cruel contrivers to 

* He was released soon aftei'. 



28 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

get money, under pretence that the horse had killed a 
man, which was false. I would not be persuaded to be a 
spectator. 

21st. Saw the famous Italian puppet-play, for it was no 
other. 

24th. I was appointed, with the rest of my brother Com- 
missioners, to put in execution an order of Council for 
freeing the prisoners-at-war in my custody at Leeds Castle, 
and taking off his Majesty's extraordinary charge, having 
called before us the French and Dutch agents. The Peace 
was now proclaimed, in the usual form, by the heralds- 
at-arms. 

25th, After evening service, I went to visit Mr. Vaughan,* 
who lay at Greenwich, a very wise and learned person, one 
of Mr. Selden's executors and intimate friends. 

27th. Visited the Lord Chancellor, to whom his Majesty 
had sent for the seals a few days before ; I found him in 
his bedchamber, very sad. The Parliament had accused 
him, and he had enemies at Court, especially the buffoons 
iind ladies of pleasure, because he thwarted some of them, 
and stood in their way ; 1 could name some of the chief. 
The truth is, he made few friends during his grandeur 
among the royal sufferers, but advanced the old rebels. 
He was, however, though no considerable lawyer, one who 
kept up the form and substance of things in the Nation 
with more solemnity than some would have had. He was 
my particular kind friend, on all occasions. The Cabal, 
Jiowever, prevailed, and that party in Parliament. Great 
division at Court concerning him, and divers great persons 
interceding for him. 

28th. I dined with my late Lord Chancellor, where also 
dined Mr. Ashburnhara, and Mr. W. Legge, of the Bed- 
chamber ; his Lordship pretty well in heart, though now 
many of his friends and sycophants abandoned him. 

In the afternoon, to the Lords Commissioners for 
money, and thence to the audience of a Russian Envoy in 
the Queen's presence-chamber, introduced with much 
state, the soldiers, pensioners, and guards in their order. 
His letters of credence brought by his secretary in a scarf 
of sarsenet, their vests sumptuous, much embroidered with 
pearls. He delivered his speech in the Russ language, 

* Afterwards, Lord Chief Justice. 



1667.] JOHN EVELYN. 29 

but without the least action, or motion, of his body, which 
was immediately interpreted aloud by a German that spake 
good English ; half of it consisted in repetition of the 
Czar's Titles, which were very haughty and oriental : the 
substance of the rest was, that he was only sent to see the 
King and Queen, and know how they did, with much 
compliment and frothy language. Then, they kissed their 
Majesties hands, and went as they came ; but their real 
errand was to get money. 

29th. We met at the Star-Chamber about exchange and 
release of prisoners. 

7th September. Came Sir John Kiviet, to article with 
me about his brickwork.* 

13th. Betwixt the hours of twelve and one, was born my 
second daughter, who was afterwards christened Elizabeth. 

19th. To London, with Mr. Henry Howard, of Norfolk, 
of whom I obtained the gift of his Arundelian Marbles, 
those celebrated and famous inscriptions Greek and Latin, 
gathered with so much cost and industry from Greece, by 
his illustrious grandfather, the magnificent Earl of Arundel, 
my noble friend, whilst he lived. When I saw these 
precious monuments miserably neglected, and scattered up 
and down about the garden, and other parts of Arundel 
House, and how exceedingly the corrosive air of London 
impaired them, I procured him to bestow them on the 
University of Oxford. This he was pleased to grant me, 
and now gave me the key of the gallery, with leave to mark 
all those stones, urns, altars, &c., and whatever I found had 
inscriptions on them, that were not statues. This I did, 
and getting them removed and piled together, Avith those 
which were incrusted in the garden-walls, I sent immedi- 
ately letters to the Vice-Chancellor of what I had procured^ 
and that if they esteemed it a service to the University (of 
which I had been a member) they should take order for 
their transportation. 

This done, 21st, I accompanied Mr. Howard to his villa 
at Albury, where I designed for him the plot of his canal 
and garden, with a crypt f through the hill. 

24th. Returned to London, where I had orders to deliver 
the possession of Chelsea College (used as my prison during 

* Seepp. 20, 21. 

f Still in part remaining, but stopped up at the further end.' 



30 DIARY OP • [[LONDON, 

the war with Holland for such as were sent from the fleet 
to London) to our Society, as a gift of his Majesty our 
founder. 

8th October. Came to dine with me Dr. Bathurst, Dean 
of Wells, President of Trinity College^ sent by the Vice- 
Chancellor of Oxford, in the name both of him and the 
whole University, to thank me for procuring the Inscrip- 
tions, and to receive my directions what was to be done to 
show their gratitude to Mr. Howard. 

11th. I went to see Lord Clarendon, late Lord Chancellor 
and greatest officer in England, in continual apprehension 
what the Parliament would determine concerning him. 

17th. Came Dr. Barlow, Provost of Queen^s College, and 
Protobibhothecus of the Bodleian Library, to take order 
about the transportation of the Marbles. 

35th. There were delivered to me two letters from the 
Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, with the Decree of the Convo- 
cation, attested by the Public Notary, ordering four Doctors 
of Divinity and Law to acknowledge the obligation the 
University had to me for procuring the Marmora Arun- 
deliana, which was solemnly done by Dr. Barlow,* Dr. 
Jenkins,t Judge of the Admiralty, Dr. Lloyd, and Obadiah 
"Walker, J of University CoUege, who having made a large 
compliment from the University, delivered me the decree 
fairly written : 

Gesta venerabili domo Convocationis Universitatis Oxon ; . .17. 
1667. Quo die retulit ad Senatum Academicum Dominus Vicecan- 
cellarius, quantum Universitas deberet singular! benevolentise Johannis 
Evelini Armigeri, qui pro ea pietate qua Almam Matrem prosequitur 
non solum Suasu et Consilio apud inclytum Heroem Henricum Howard, 
Ducis Norfolcise hseredem, intercessit, ut Universitati pretiosissimum 
eruditae antiquitatis thesaurum Marmora Arundeliana largiretur ; sed 
egregiam insuperin ijscoUigendisasservandisq ; navavit operam : Qua- 
propter unanimi sufFragio Venerabilis Domus decretum est, ut eidem 
publicae gratise per delegatos ad Honoratissimum Dominum Henricum 
Howard propediem mittendos, solemniter reddantur. 
Concordant superscripta cum originali coUatione facta per me Ben. 
Cooper Notarium Publicum et Registarium Universitat. Oxon. 

• Bishop of Lincoln. 

•f* Afterwards, Sir Leoline Jenkins, Secretary of State. 
J Subsequently, head of that College. See vol. I. pp. 249, 273 ; also under 
1675, July; 1686, May. 



16G7.] JOHN EVELYN. 31 

"Sir, 
" We intend also a noble inscription, in which also honourable men- 
tion shall be made of yourself; but Mr. Vice Chancellor commands me 
to tell you that that was not sufficient for your merits ; but, that if your 
occasions would permit you to come down at the Act (when we intend 
a dedication of our new Theatre) some other testimony should be given 
both of your own worth and aifection to this your old Mother ; for we 
are all very sensible that this great addition of learning and reputation 
to the University is due as well to your industrious care for the Uni- 
versity, and interest with my Lord Howard, as to his great nobleness 
and generosity of spirit. 

" I am, Sir, your most humble servant, 

" Obadiah Walker, Univ. Coll." 

The Vice-Chancellor's letter to the same effect were too 
vain- glorious to insert, with divers copies of verses that 
were also sent me. Their mentioning me in the inscription 
I totally declined, when I directed the titles of Mr. Howard, 
now made Lord, upon his Ambassage to Morocco. 

These four doctors, having made me this compliment, 
desired me to carry and introduce them to Mr. Howard, 
at Arundel-House : which I did, Dr. Barlow (Provost of 
Queen's) after a short speech, delivering a larger letter of 
the University's thanks, which was written in Latin, 
expressing the great sense they had of the honour done 
them. After this compliment, handsomely performed, 
and as nobly received, Mr. Howard accompanied the 
Doctors to their coach. That evening, I supped with them. 

26th. My late Lord-Chancellor was accused by Mr. 
Seymour in the House of Commons ; and, in the evening, 
I returned home. 

31st. My birth-day — blessed be God for all his mercies ! 
I made the Royal Society a present of the Table of Veins, 
Arteries, and Nerves, which great curiosity I had caused 
to be made in Italy, out of the natural human bodies, by a 
learned physician, and the help of Veshngius (professor at 
Padua), from whence I brought them, in 1646.* For this 
I received the public thanks of the Society ; and they are 
hanging up in their Repository with an inscription. 

9th December. To visit the late Lord-Chancellor. I 
found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting 
in his gout wheel-chair, and seeing the gates setting up 

* See vol I., page 217. 



32 DIARY OP [LONDON 

towards the north and the fields. He looked and spake 
very disconsolately. After some while deploring his con- 
dition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he 
was gone ; though I am persuaded that, had he gone 
sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it 
would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exaspe- 
rated them was his presuming to stay and contest the 
accusation as long as it was possible : and they were on 
the point of sending him to the Tower. 

10th. I went to the funeral of Mrs. Heath, wife of my 
worthy friend and schoolfellow. 

21st. I saw one Carr pilloried at Charing-cross for a 
libel, which was burnt before him by the hangman. 

1667-8. 8th January. I saw deep and prodigious gaming 
at the Groom-Porter's, vast heaps of gold squandered away 
in a vain and profuse manner. This I looked on as a 
horrid vice, and unsuitable in a Christian Court. 

9th. Went to see the revels at the Middle Temple, which 
is also an old riotous custom, and has relation neither to 
virtue nor policy. 

10th. To visit Mr. Povey, where were divers great 
Lords to see his well-contrived cellar, and other ele- 
gancies.* 

24th. We went to stake out ground for building a 
college for the Royal Society at Arundel House, but did 
not finish it, which we shall repent of. 

4th February. I saw the tragedy of " Horace " (written 
by the virtuous Mrs. Phillips) acted before their Majesties. 
Betwixt each act a masque and antique dance. The 
excessive gallantry of the ladies was infinite, those especially 
on that . . . Castlemaine, esteemed at 40,000^. and more, 
far outshining the Queen. 

15th. I saw the audience of the Swedish Ambassador, 
Count Donna, in great state in the banqueting-house. 

3rd March. Was launched at Deptford, that goodly 
vessel. The Charles. I was near his Majesty. She is longer 
than the Sovereign, and carries 110 brass cannon; she was 
built by old Shish, a plain honest carpenter, master- 
builder of this dock, but one who can give very little 
account of his art by discourse, and is hai'dly capable of 

* See vol. I., p. 380. 



1C68.] JOHN EVELYN. JjS 

reading,* yet of great ability in his calling. The family 
have been ship-carpenters in this yard above 100 years, 

12th. Went to visit Sir John Cotton, who had me into 
his library, full of good MSS. Greek and Latin, but most 
famous for those of the Saxon and English Antiquities, 
collected by his grandfather. 

2nd April. To the Royal Society, where I subscribed 
50,000 bricks, towards building a college. Amongst other 
libertine libels, there Avas one now printed and thrown 

about, a bold petition of the poor w s to Lady 

Castlemaine.t 

9th. To London, about finishing my grand account of 
the sick and wounded, and prisoners at war, amounting to 
above £34,000. 

I heard Sir R. Howard impeach Sir William Penn, in 
the House of Lords, for breaking bulk, and taking away 
rich goods out of the East India prizes, formerly taken by 
Lord Sandwich. 

28th. To London, about the purchase of Ravensbourne 
Mills, and land around it, in Upper Deptford, of one Mr. 
Becher. 

30th. We sealed the Deeds in Sir Edward Thurland^s 
chambers in the Inner Temple. I pray God bless it to me, 
it being a dear pennyworth ; but the passion Sir R. Browne 
had for it, and that it was contiguous to our other grounds, 
engaged me ! 

13th May. Invited by that expert commander. Captain 
Cox, master of the lately built Charles the Second, now the 
best vessel of the fleet, designed for the Duke of York, I 
went to Erith, where we had a great dinner. 

16th. Sir Richard Edgecombe, of Mount Edgecombe, 
by Plymouth, my relation, came to visit me ; a very vu'tuous 
and worthy gentleman. 

19th June. To a new play Avith several of my relations, 
" The Evening Lover," J a foolish plot, and very profane; 

* This was the case of ]\Ir. Brindley, who executed such great works for 
the Duke of Bridgewatcr, towards the end of the eighteenth century. 

t Perhaps Mr. Evelyn Imew the author. 

+ There is no play extant with this name ; it may perhaps be a second 
title to one ; JVIr. Evelyn frequently mentions only one name of a play that 
has two. Or it may be Dryden's comedy of " An Evening's Love, or. The 
Mock Astrologer," which is indeed sufficiently licentious. 

■VOL. II. D 



34 DIARY OF fi-oNDON, 

it afflicted me to see how the stage was degenerated and 
polluted by the licentious times. 

2nd July. Sir Samuel Tuke, Bart., and the lady he had 
married this day, came and bedded at night at my house, 
many friends accompanying the bride. 

23rd. At the Royal Society, were presented diyers fflossa 
petra's, and other natural curiosities, found in digging to 
build the fort at Sheemess. They were just the same as 
they bring from Malta, pretending them to be viper's teeth, 
whereas, in truth, they are of a shark, as we found by 
comparing them with one in our Repository. 

3rd August. Mr. Bramstone (son to Judge B.) my old 
fellow-traveller, now Reader at the Middle Temple, invited 
me to his feast, which was so very extravagant and great 
as the like had not been seen at any time. There were 
the Duke ofOrraond, Privy Seal, Bedford, Belasis, Halifax, 
and a world more of Earls and Lords. 

14th. His Majesty was pleased to grant me a lease of a 
slip of ground out of Brick Close, to enlarge my fore-court, 
for which I now gave him thanks; then, entering into 
other discourse, he talked to me of a new varnish for ships, 
instead of pitch, and of the gilding with which his new 
yacht was beautified, I showed his Majesty the perpetual 
motion sent to me by Dr. Stokes, from Cologne ; and then 
came in Monsieur Colbert, the French Ambassador. 

19th. I saw the magnificent entry of the French 
Ambassador Colbert, received in the Banqueting House. I 
had never seen a richer coach than that Avhich he came in 
to Whitehall. Standing by his Majesty at dinner in the 
presence, there was of that rare fruit called the King-pine, 
growing in Barbadoes and the "West Indies ; the first of 
them I had ever seen.* His Majesty having cut it up, 
was pleased to give me a piece oflF his own plate to taste 
of; but, in my opinion, it falls short of those ravishing 
varieties of deliciousness described in Captain Ligon's 
History, and others; but possibly it might, or certainly 
was, much impaired in coming so far; it has yet a grateful 
acidity, but tastes more like the quince and melon than of 
any other fruit he mentions. 

* See before, the Queen-pine, volume I. p. 353. 



1668.] JOHN EVELYN. 35 

28tli. Published my book of '' The perfection of Paint- 
ing/'* dedicated to Mr. Howard. 

17th September. I entertained Signor Muccinigo, the 
Venetian Ambassador, of one of the noblest families of 
the State, this being the day of making his public entry, 
setting forth from my house with several gentlemen of 
Venice and others in a very glorious train. He staid 
with me till the Earl of Anglesea and Sir Charles Cotterell 
(Master of the Ceremonies) came with the King^s barge to 
carry him to the Tower, where the guns were fired at his 
landing; he then entered his Majesty^s coach, followed by 
many others of the nobility. I accompanied him to his 
house, where there was a most noble supper to all the 
company, of course. After the extraordinary compliments 
to me and my wife, for the civilities he received at my 
house, I took leave and returned. He is a very accomplished 
person. He is since Ambassador at Rome. 

29th. I had much discourse with Signor Pietro Cisij, a 
Persian gentleman, about the affairs of Turkey, to my great 
satisfaction. I went to see Sir Elias Leighton's project of 
a cart with iron axle-trees. 

8th November. Being at dinner, my sister Evelyn, sent 
for me to come up to London to my continuing sick 
brother. 

14th. To London, invited to the consecration of that 
excellent person, the Dean of Ripon, Dr. Wilkins, now 
made Bishop of Chester ; it was at Ely-House, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham, the 
Bishops of Ely, Salisbury, Rochester, and others oificiating. 
Dr. Tillotson preached. Then, we went to a sumptuous 
dinner in the hall, where were the Duke of Buckingham, 
Judges, Secretaries of State, Lord-Keeper, Council, Noble- 
men, and innumerable other company, who were honourers 
of this incomparable man, universally beloved by all who 
knew him. 

This being the Queen's birth-day, great was the gal- 
lantry at Whitehall, and the night celebrated with very 
fine fire- works. 

My poor brother continuing ill, I went not from him 

* Re-printed in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 553 
— 5G2. 

D 2 



86 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

till the ITth, when, dining at the Groom Porters, I heard 
Sir Edward Sutton play excellently on the Irish harp ; he 
performs genteelly, but not approaching my worthy friend, 
Mr. Clark, a gentleman of Northumberland, who makes it 
execute lute, viol, and all the harmony an instrument is 
capable of; pity it is that it is not more in use; but, 
indeed, to play well, takes up the whole man, as Mr. Clark 
has assured me, who, though a gentleman of quaUty and 
parts, was yet brought up to that instrument from five 
years old, as I remember he told me. 

25th. I waited on Lord Sandwich, who presented me 
with a Sembrador he brought out of Spain, showing me 
his two books of observations made during his embassy 
and stay at Madrid ; in which were several rare things he 
promised to impart to me. 

27th. I dined at my Lord Ashley's (since Earl of 
Shaftesbury), when the match of my niece * was proposed 
for his only son, in which my assistance was desired for 
my Lord. 

28th. Dr. Patrick preached at Covent Garden, on 
Acts xvii. 31, the certainty of Christ's coming to judg- 
ment, it being Advent ; a most suitable discourse. 

19th December. I went to see the old play of "Cata- 
line " acted, having been now forgotten almost forty 
years. 

20th. I dined with my Lord Cornbury, at Clarendon- 
House, now bravely furnished, especially with the pictures 
of most of our ancient and modern wits, poets, philosophers, 
famous and learned Englishmen ; which collection of the 
Chancellor's I much commended, and gave his Lordship a 
catalogue of more to be added, f 

* Probably the daughter of his Brother, Richard, of Epsom, but who mar- 
ried Mr. Montagu. 

•}• In a letter to the Lord Chancellor, dated 18th March, 1666-7, Mr. 
Evelyn says : 

" My Lord, your Lordship inquires of me what pictures might be added 
to the Assembly of the Learned and Heroic persons of England which your 
Lordship has already collected ; the design of which I do infinitely more 
magnify than the most famous heads of foreigners, which do not concern the 
glory of our country ; and it is in my opinion the most honourable ornament, 
the most becoming and obhging, which your Lordship can think of to adom 
your palace withal, such, therefore, as seem to be wanting, I shall range 
under these three heads : — 



1G69.] 



JOHN EVELYN. 



37 



31st. I entertained my kind neighbours^ according to 
custom^ giving Almighty God thanks for His gracious 
mercies to me the past year. 

1668-9. 1st January. Imploring His blessing for the 



The Learned. 



Sir Hen. Saville. 
Abp. of Ai-magh. 
Dr. Harvey. 
Sir H. Wotton. 
Sir T. Bodley. 
G. Buchanan. 
Jo. Barclay 
Ed. Spencer. 
Wm. Lily. 
Wm. Hooker. 
Dr. Sanderson. 
Wm. Oughtred. 
M. Philips. 
Rog. Bacon. 

Sir. Fra. Walsingham. 
Earl of Leicester. 
Sir W. Raleidi, 



Geo. Ripley. 

Wm. of Occam. 

Hadrian 4 th. 

Alex. Ales, 

Ven. Bede. 

Jo. Duns Scotus, 

Alcuinus. 

Ridley, T 

, ,. y martyrs. 

Latimer, J •' 

Roger Ascham. 

Sir J. Checke. 

r Eliz. Joan Weston,* 



Ladies 



\ Jane Grey. 



Politicians. 



Card. Wolsey. 
Sir T. Smith. 
Card. Pole. 



Soldiers. 

Sir Fra. Drake. Earl of Essex. 

Sir J. Hawkins. Talbot. 

Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir F. Greville. 

Tho. Cavendish. Hor. E. of Oxford. 

Sir Ph. Sidney. 
" Some of which, though difficult to procure originals of, yet haply copies 
might be found out upon diligent inquiry. The rest, I think, your Lordship 
has already in good proportion." 

I\lr. Evelyn, in a letter to Mi'. Pepys, dated 12th August, 1689, tells him 
that the Lord Chancellor, Clarendon, had collected Portraits of very many of 
our groat men ; and puts them down promiscuously as he recollected them. 
Mr. Evelyn also there gives a list of Portraits which he recommended to be 
added, a little diff'erent from the list contained in the preceding letter to the 
Lord Chancellor ; and remarks that " When Lord Clarendon's design of 
making this collection was known, everybody who had any of the portraits, 
or could purchase them at any price, strove to make their court by present- 
isig them. By this means, he got many excellent pieces of Vandyke, and other 
originals by Lely and other the best of our modern masters." 



* For an account of her see Ballard's Learned Ladies. There is a very 
scarce volume of Latin Poems by her, printed at Prague, 1606. Mr. Evelyn 
mentions her in his Numismata. She is much celebrated by the writers of 
her time. 



38 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

year entering, I went to clmrch, wliere our Doctor preached 
on Psalm Ixv. 12, apposite to the season, and beginning 
a new year. 

3rd. About this time, one of Sir William Penn's sons 
had published a blasphemous book against the Deity of 
our Blessed Lord. 

29th. I went to see a tall gigantic woman, who measured 

6 feet 10 inches high,* at 21 years old, born in the Low 
Countries. 

13th February. I presented his Majesty with my " His- 
tory of the Four Impostors ;^'t be told me of other like 
cheats. I gave my book to Lord Arlington, to whom I 
dedicated it. It was now that he began to tempt me about 
writing " the Dutch War." 

15th. Saw Mrs. Phillips's " Horace" acted again. 

18th. To the Royal Society, when Signer Malpighi, an 
Italian physician and anatomist, sent this learned body 
the incomparable History of the Silkworm. 

1st March. Dined at Lord Arlington's at Goring House, 
with the Bishop of Hereford. 

4th. To the Council of the Royal Society, about disposing 
my Lord Howard's library, now given to us. 

16th. To London, to place Mr. Christopher Wase about 
my Lord Arlington. 

1 8th. I went with Lord Howard of Norfolk, to visit Sir 
William Ducie at Charlton, where we dined ; the servants 
made our coachmen so drunk, that they both fell off their 
boxes on the heath, where we were fain to leave them, and 
were driven to London by two servants of my Lord's. 
This barbarous custom of making the masters welcome by 
intoxicating the servants, had now the second time hap- 
pened to my coachman. 

My son came finally from Oxford. 

2nd April. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, where was (with 
many noblemen) Colonel Titus of the bed-chamber, author 
of the famous piece against Cromwell, "Killing no Murder.'* 

I now placed Mr. Wase with Mr. Williamson, Secretary 
to the Secretary of State, and Clerk of the Papers. 

* Some years back, there was living in England a gentlewoman, who was 

7 feet 5 inches liigh. She died about the age of 27. 

f Re-printed in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 563 
—620. 



1G69.] JOHN EVELYN, 39 

1-lth. I dined witli tlie Arclibisliop of Canterbury, at 
Lambeth, and saw tlie library v,'hicli was not very con- 
siderable. 

19th May. At a Council of the Royal Society our grant 
was finished, in which his Majesty gives us Chelsea College, 
and some land about it. It was ordered that five should 
be a quorum for a Council. The Vice-President was then 
sworn for the first time, and it was proposed how we 
should receive the Prince of Tuscany, who desired to visit 
the Society. 

20th. This evening, at 10 o'clock, was born my third 
daughter, who Avas baptized on the 25th by the name of 
Susannah. 

3rd June. Went to take leave of Lord Howard, going 
Ambassador to Morocco. Dined at Lord Arlington's, 
where Avere the Earl of Berkshire, Lord Saint John, Sir 
Eobert Howard, and Sir R. Holmes. 

10th. Came my Lord Cornbury, Sir William Pulteney, 
and others, to visit me. I went this evening to London, 
to carry Mr. Pepys to my Brother Richard, now exceed- 
ingly afflicted Avith the stone, Avho had been successfully 
cut, and carried the stone as big as a tennis-ball, to shoAV 
him and encourage his resolution to go through the 
operation. 

30th. My Avife AA^ent a journey of pleasure doAvn the 
river as far as the sea, A\ith Mrs. HoAvard, and her daughter, 
the Maid of Honour, and others, amongst Avhom that 
excellent creature, Mrs. Blagge. 

7 th July. I Aveut toAvards Oxford ; lay at Little Wycomb. 
8th. Oxford. 

9th. In the morning, Avas celebrated the Encaenia of 
the NeAV Theatre, so magnificently built by the munificence 
of Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 
Avhich Avas spent £25,000, as Sir Christopher Wren, the 
architect, (as I remember), told me ; and yet it Avas never 
seen by the benefactor, my Lord Archbishop having told me 
that he never did nor ever would see it. It is, in truth, a 
fabric comparable to any of this kind of former ages, and 
doubtless exceeding any of the present, as this University 
does for colleges, libraries, schools, students and order, all 
the Universities in the world. To the theatre is added 
±he famous Sheldonian printing-house. This being at the 



40 DIARY OF [oxford, 

Act and the first time of opening the Theatre (Acts being 
formerly kept in St. Mary's church, which might be 
thought indecent, that being a place set apart for the im- 
mediate worship of God, and was the inducement for 
building this noble pile), it was now resolved to keep the 
present Act in it, and celebrate its dedication with the 
greatest splendour and formality that might be ; and, 
therefore, drew a world of strangers, and other company, 
to the University, from all parts of the nation. 

The Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, and Doctors, 
being seated in magisterial seats, the Vice-Chancellor's 
chair and desk, Proctors, &c., covered with brocatelle (a 
kind of brocade) and cloth of gold ; the University Regis- 
trar read the founder's grant and gift of it to the University 
for their scholastic exercises upon these solemn occasions. 
Then followed Dr. South, the University's orator, in an 
eloquent speech, which was very long, and not v/ithout 
some malicious and indecent reflections on the Royal 
Society, as underminers of the University ; which was very 
foolish and untrue, as well as unseasonable. But, to let 
that pass from an ill-natured man, the rest was in praise 
of the Archbishop and the ingenious architect. This 
ended, after loud music from the corridor above, where an 
organ was placed, there followed divers panegyric speeches, 
both in prose and verse, interchangeably pronounced by 
the young students placed in the rostrums, in Pindarics, 
Eclogues, Heroics, &c., mingled with excellent music, 
vocal and instrumental, to entertain the ladies and the 
rest of the company. A speech was then made in praise 
of academical learning. This lasted from eleven in the 
morning till seven at night, Avhich was concluded with 
ringing of bells, and universal joy and feasting. 

10th. The next da}^, began the more solemn lectures in 
all the faculties, which were performed in their several 
schools, where all the Inceptor-Doctors did their exercises, 
the Professors having first ended their reading. The 
assembly now returned to the Theatre, where the Terrcs 
filius (the University Bvffoon) entertained the auditory with 
a tedious, .abusive, sarcastical rhapsody, most unbecoming 
the gravity of the University, and that so grossly, that 
unless it be suppressed, it will be of ill consequence, as I 
afterwards plainly expressed my sense of it both to the 



IGGO.] JOHN EVELYN. 41 

Vice-Chancellor and several Heads of Houses^ who were 
perfectly ashamed of it, and resolved to take care of it 
in future. The old facetious Avay of rallying upon the 
questions was left off, falling Avholly upon persons, so that 
it was rather licentious lying and railing than genuine 
and noble wit. In my life, I was never witness of so 
shameful entertainment. 

After this ribaldry, the Proctors made their speeches. 
Then, began the music art, vocal and instrumental, above 
in the balustrade corridor opposite to the Vice-Chancellor^s 
seat. Then, Dr. Wallis, the mathematical Professor, made 
his oration, and created one Doctor of music according to 
the usual ceremonies of gown (which Avas of white damask), 
cap, ring, kiss, &c. Next, followed the disputations of the 
Inceptor-Doctors in Medicine, the speech of their Pro- 
fessor, Dr. Hyde, and so in course their respective creations. 
Then disputed the Inceptors of Law, the speech of their 
Professor, and creation. Lastly, Inceptors of Theology : 
Dr. Compton (brother to the Earl of Northampton) being 
jmiior, began with great modesty and applause ; so the 
rest. After Avhich, Dr. Tillotson, Dr. Sprat, &c., and then 
Dr. AUestree's speech, the King's Professor, and their 
respective creations. Last of all, the Vice-Chancellor, 
shutting up the Avhole in a panegyrical oration, celebrating 
their benefactor and the rest, apposite to the occasion. 

Thus was the Theatre dedicated by the scholastic exer- 
cises in all the Faculties with great solemnity ; and the 
night, as the former, entertaining the new Doctors^ friends 
in feasting and music. I was invited by Dr. Barlow, the 
worthy and learned Provost of Queen's College. 

11th. The Act sermon was this forenoon preached by 
Dr. Hall, in St. Mary's, in an honest practical discourse 
against Atheism. In the afternoon, the church was so 
crowded, that not coming early I could not approach to 
hear. 

12th. Monday. Was held the Divinity- Act in the 
Theatre again, when proceeded seventeen Doctors, in all 
Faculties some. 

13th. I dined at the Vice-Chancellor's, and spent the 
afternoon in seeing the rarities of the public liliraries, and 
visiting the noljlc marbles aiid inscriptions, now inserted 
in the Avails that compass the area of the Theatre, Avliich 



42 DIARY OF [oxford, 

were 150 of the most ancient and worthy treasures of that 
kind in the learned world. Now, observing that people 
approach them too near, some idle persons began to scratch 
and injure them, I advised that a hedge of holly should be 
planted at the foot of the wall, to be kept breast-high only 
to protect them ; which the A^ice-Chancellor promised to 
do the next season. 

14th. Dr. Fell,* Dean of Christ-church and Vice- 
Chancellor, with Dr. AUestree Professor, with beadles 
and maces before them, came to visit rae at my lodg- 
ing. — I went to visit Lord Howard's sons at Magdalen 
CoUege. 

15th. Having two days before had notice, that the 
University intended me the honour of Doctorship, I was 
this morning attended by the beadles belonging to the 
Law, who conducted me to the Theatre, where I found the 
Duke of Ormond (now Chancellor of the University) with 
the Earl of Chesterfield and Mr. Spencer (brother to the 
late Earl of Sunderland). Thence, we marched to the 
Convocation-House, a convocation having been called on 
purpose j here, being all of us robed in the porch in scarlet 
with caps and hoods, we were led in by the Professor of 
Laws, and presented respectively by name, with a short 
eulogy, to the Vice -Chancellor, who sate in the chair, with 
all the Doctors and Heads of Houses and masters about 
the room, which was exceeding full. Then, began the 
Public Orator his speech, directed chiefly to the Duke of 
Ormond, the Chancellor; but in which I had my com- 
pHment, in course. This ended, we were called up, and 
created Doctors according to the form, and seated by the 
Vice-Chancellor amongst the Doctors, on his right hand ; 
then, the Vice-Chancellor made a short speech, and so, 
saluting our brother Doctors, the pageantry concluded, 
and the convocation was dissolved. So formal a creation 
of honorary Doctors had seldom been seen, that a con- 
vocation should be called on purpose, and speeches made 
by the Orator ; but they could do no less, their Chancellor 
being to receive, or rather do them, this honour. I should 
have been made Doctor with the rest at the public Act, 
but their expectation of their Chancellor made them defer 

* Afterwards, Bisliop of Oxford. 



1G69.] JOHN EVELYN. 43 

it. I was tlien led Avith my brother Doctors to an extra- 
ordinary entertainment at Dr. Mewes', liead of St. Jolni^s 
College^ andj after abundance of feasting and compliments^ 
having visited the Vice-Chancellor and other Doctors, and 
given them thanks for the honour done me, I went towards 
home the 16th, and got as far as Windsor, and so to my 
house the next day. 

4th August. I was invited by Sir Henry Peckham to 
his reading-feast in the Middle Temple, a pompous enter- 
tainment, where Avere the Archbishop of Canterbury, all 
the great Earls and Lords, &c. I had much discourse 
with my Lord Winchelsea, a prodigious talker ; and the 
Venetian Ambassador. 

17th. To London, spending almost the entire day in 
surveying what progress Avas made in re-building the 
ruinous City, which now began a little to revive after its 
sad calamity. 

20th. I saw the splendid audience of the Danish 
Ambassador in the Banqueting-House at Whitehall. 

23rd. I went to visit my most excellent and Avorthy 
neighbour, the Lord Bishop of Rochester, at Bromley, Avhicli 
he was noAV repairing, after the dilapidations of the late 
Rebellion. 

2nd September. I Avas this day very ill of a pain in my 
limbs, Avhich continued most of this Aveek, and Avas increased 
by a visit I made to my old acquaintance, the Earl of 
Norwich, at his house in Epping Eorest, Avhere are many 
good pictures put into the Avainscot of the rooms, which 
Mr. Baker, his Lordship's predecessor there, brought out 
of Spain ; especially the History of Joseph, a picture of the 
pious and learned Picus INIirandula, and an incomparable 
one of old Breugel. The gardens Avere Avell understood, I 
mean the potager. I returned late in the CA'cning, ferrying 
over the Avater at GrcenAvich. 

2Cth. To church, to give God thanks for my recovery. 

3rd October. I received the Blessed Euchai-ist, to my 
unspeakable joy. 

21st. To the Koyal Society, meeting for the first time 
after a long recess, during A^acation, according to custom ; 
where was read a description of the prodigious eruption of 
Mount Etna; and our English itinerant presented an 
account of his autumnal peregrination about England, for 



44 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

Avhich we hired him, bringing dried fowls, fish, plants, 
animals, &c. 

26th. My dear brother continued extremely full of pain, 
the Lord be gracious to him ! 

3rd November. This being the day of meeting for the 
poor, we dined neighbourly together. 

25th. I heard an excellent discourse by Dr. Patrick, on 
the Resurrection ; and, afterwards, visited the Countess of 
Kent, my kinswoman. 

8th December. To London, upon the second edition of 
my " Sylva," which I presented to the Royal Society. 

1669-70. 6th February. Dr. John Breton, Master of 
Emmanuel College, in Cambridge (uncle to our vicar), 
preached on John i. 27, "whose shoe-latchet I am not 
worthy to unloose,^^ &c., describing the various fashions of 
shoes, or sandals, worn by the Jews, and other nations : of 
the ornaments of the feet : how great persons had servants 
that took them off when they came to their houses, and 
bare them after them : by which pointing the dignity of 
our Saviour, when such a person as St. John Baptist 
acknowledged his unworthiness, even of that mean office. 
The lawfulness, decentness, and necessity, of subordinate 
degrees and ranks of men and servants, as well in the 
Church as State : against the late levellers and others of 
that dangerous rabble who would have all alike. 

3rd March. Finding my Brother [Richard] in such 
exceeding tortiu"e, and that he now began to fall into 
convulsion-fits, I solemnly set the next day apart to beg of 
God to mitigate his sufferings, and prosper the only means 
which yet remained for his recovery, he being not only 
much wasted, but exceedingly and all along averse from 
being cut (for the stone); but, when he at last consented, 
and it came to the operation, and all things prepared, his 
spirit and resolution failed. 

6th. Dr. Patrick preached in Covent Garden church. 
I participated of the Blessed Sacrament, recommending to 
God the deplorable condition of my dear brother, who was 
almost in the last agonies of death. I watched late with 
him this night. It pleased God to deliver him out of this 
miserable life, towards five o'clock this Monday morning, 
to my unspeakable grief. He yvas a brother whom I most 



1<;70.] I JOHN EVELYN. 45 

dearly loved, for his many virtues ; but two years younger 
than myself, a sober, prudent, Avorthy gentleman. He had 
married a great fortune, and left one only daughter, and a 
noble seat at Woodcot, near Epsom. His body Avas opened, 
and a stone taken out of his bladder, not much bigger than 
a nutmeg. I returned home on the 8th, full of sadness, 
and to bemoan my loss. 

20th. A stranger preached at the Savoy French church: 
the Liturgy of the Church of England being noAV used 
altogether, as translated into French by Dr. Durell. 

21st. We all accompanied the corpse of my dear 
brother to Epsom church, Avhere he Avas decently interred 
in the chapel belonging to Woodcot House. A great 
number of friends and gentlemen of the country attended, 
about tAventy coaches and six horses, and innumerable 
people. 

22nd. I AA'cnt to Westminster, Avhere in the House of 
Lords I saAV his Majesty sit on his throne, but Avithout his 
robes, all the peers sitting Avith their hats on ; the business 
of the day being the divorce of my Lord Ross. Such an 
occasion and sight had not been seen in England since the 
time of Henry VIII. * 

5th May. To London, concerning the office of Latin 
Secretary to his Majesty, a place of more honour and 
dignity than profit, the rcA^ersion of which he had promised 
me. 

21st. Came to visit me Mr. Henry SaA'ille, and Sir 
Charles Scarborough. 

20th. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard, Lord 
Almoner to the Queen,t that Monsieur Evelin, first 

* " When there was a project, 1669, for getting a divorce for the King, to 
facilitate it, there was brouglit into tlie House of Lords a Bill for dissolving 
tlie marriage of Lord Ross, on account of adultery, and to give him leave to 
marry again. Tliis Bill, after great debates, passed by the plurality of only 
two votes, and that by the great industry of the Lord's friends, as well as tiie 
Duke's enemies, who carried it on chiefly in hopes it might be a precedent, 
and inducement for the King to enter the more easily into their late proposals ; 
nor were they a little encouraged therein, when they saw the King counte- 
nance and drive on the Bill in Lord Ross's favour. Of eighteen Bishops that 
were in the House, only two voted for the ImII, of which one voted through 
age, and one was reputed a Socinian." — These, in a note, are said to be Dr. 
Cosin, Bishop of Durham, and Dr. Wilkins, Bishop of Chestef. 

t Afterwards, created Cardinal. 



46 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

physician to Madame (who was now come to Dover to visit 
the King her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous 
to see me ; but his stay so short, that he could not come 
to me, I went with my brother to meet him at the 
Tower, where he was seeing the magazines and other 
curiosities, having never before been in England: we 
renewed om' alliance and friendship, with much regret on 
both sides that, he being to return towards Dover that 
evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How 
this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very 
ancient and noble house, is grafted into our pedigree, see 
in the collection brought from Paris, 1650. 

16th June. I went with some friends to the Bear 
Garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, bear and 
bull-baiting, it being a famous day for aU these butcherly 
sports, or rather barbarous cruelties. The bulls did 
exceeding well, but the Irish wolf-dog exceeded, which 
was a tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who beat 
a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls tossed a dog full into a 
a lady's lap, as she sate in one of the boxes at a considerable 
height from the arena. Two poor dogs were killed, and 
so all ended mth the ape on horseback, and I most heartily 
weary of the rude and dirty pastime, which I had not seen, 
I think, in twenty years before. 

1 8th. Dined at Goring House, whither my Lord Arlington 
carried me from Whitehall with the Marquis of Worcester; 
there, we found Lord Sandwich, Viscount Stafford,* the 
Lieutenant of the Tower, and others. After dinner, my 
Lord communicated to me his Majesty's desire that I 
would engage to write the History of our late War with 
the Hollanders, which I had hitherto declined; this I 
found was ill taken, and that I should disoblige his 
Majesty, who had made choice of me to do him this 
service, and, if I would imdertake it, I should have all the 
assistance the Secretary's office and others could give me, 
with other encouragements, which I could not decently 
refuse. 

Lord Stafford rose from table, in some disorder, because 

* Sir William Howard, created in November, 1640, Viscount Stafford. In 
1678, he was accused of a concern in the Popish Plot, and, being tried by his 
Peers in Westminster Hall, was found guilty, by a majority of twenty-four ; 
whereupon, he was beheaded, Dec. 29, 1680, upon Tower Hill. 



1670.] JOHN EVELYN. 47 

there were roses stuck about the fruit when the dessert 
was set on the table ; such an antipathy, it seems, he had 
to them as once Lady Selenger* also had, and to that 
degree, that, as Sir Kenelm Digby tells us, laying but a 
rose upon her cheek when she was asleep, it raised a blister; 
but Sir Kenelm was a teller of strange things. 

24th. Came the Earl of Huntingdon and Countess, with 
the Lord Sherard, to visit us. 

29th. To London, in order to my niece's marriage, 
Mary, daughter to my late Brother Richard, of Woodcot, 
with the eldest son of Mr. Attorney Montague, which was 
celebrated at Southampton-House chapel, after which a 
magnificent entertainment, feast, and dancing, dinner and 
supper, in the great room there ; but the bride was bedded 
at my sister's lodging, in Drury-Lane. 

6th July. Came to visit me Mr. Stanhope, Gentleman- 
Usher to her Majesty, and uncle to the Earl of Chesterfield, 
a very fine man, with my Lady Hutcheson. 

19th. I accompanied my worthy friend, that excellent 
man. Sir Robert Murray, with Mr. Slingsby, Master of 
the Mint, to see the latter's Seat and estate at Burrow- 
Green, in Cambridgeshire, he desiring our advice for 
placing a new house, which he was resolved to build. f 
We set out in a coach aud six horses with him and his 
lady, dined about midway at one Mr. Turner's, where we 
found a very noble dinner, venison, music, and a circle of 
country ladies and their gallants. After dinner, we 
proceeded, and came to Burrow-Green that night. This 
had been the ancient seat of the Cheekes (whose daughter 
Mr. Slingsby married), formerly tutor to King Edward VI. 
The old house large and ample, and built for ancient 
hospitality, ready to fall down with age, placed in a dirty 
hole, a stiff clay, no water, next an adjoining church-yarcl, 
and with other inconveniences. We pitched on a spot of 
rising ground, adorned with venerable woods, a dry and 
sweet prospect east and Avest, and fit for a park, but no 
running water ; at a mile distance from the old house. 

* St. Leger. 

f It is probable that he did not build, and that, after his misfortunes, which 
will be mentioned hereafter, it was sold. Mr. Lysons, in his Magna Bri- 
tannia, under Cambridgeshire, says, that what remains of an old brick mansion, 
is now a farm-house. 



4,8 DIAKY OF [NEWMARKET, 

20th. "We went to dine at Lord Allington's,* who had 
newly built a house of great cost, I believe little less than 
£20,000.t His architect was Mr. Pratt. It is seated in a 
park, with a sweet prospect and stately avenue ; but water 
still defective ; the house has also its infirmities. Went 
back to Mr. Slingsby^s. 

22nd. We rode out to see the great mere, or level, of 
recovered fen land, not far off. In the way, we met Lord 
Arlington going to his house in Suffolk, accompanied with 
Count Ogniati, the Spanish minister, and Sir Bernard 
Gascoigne ; he was very importunate with me to go with 
him to Euston, being but fifteen miles distant; but, in 
regard of my company, I could not. So, passing through 
Newmarket, we alighted to see his Majesty^s house there, 
now new-building ; the arches of the cellars beneath are 
well turned by Mr. Samuel, the architect, the rest mean 
enough, and hardly fit for a hunting-house. Many of the 
rooms above had the chimneys in the angles and corners, 
a mode now introduced by his Majesty, which I do at no 
hand approve of. I predict it will spoil many noble houses 
and rooms, if followed. It does only well in very small 
and trifling rooms, but takes from the state of greater. 
Besides, this house is placed in a dirty street, Avithout any 
court or avenue, like a common one, whereas it might, and 
ought to have been built at either end of the town, upon 
the very carpet where the sports are celebrated; but, it 
being the purchase of an old wretched house of my Lord 
Thomond's, his Majesty was persuaded to set it on that 
foundation, the most improper imaginable for a house of 
sport and pleasure. | 

We went to see the stables and fine horses, of which 
many were here kept at a vast expense, with all the art 
and tenderness imaginable. 

Being arrived at some meres, we found Lord Wotton 

* Since Constable of the Tower. 

f At Horseheath. The Allingtons seated here before 1239 : William, 
created an Irish Peer, by the title of Lord Allington, in 1646, Mr. Lysons 
says the building cost 70,000Z., and with the estate was sold, in 1687, to 
John Bromley, Esq., for 42,000/. He expended 30,000/. more on the 
building. His grandson was created Lord Montford, in 1741. In 1776, the 
second Lord Montford sold the estate, the house being sold, in 1777, for the 
materials, to be pulled down. Lysons, Cambridgeshire, pp. 216, 217. 

J It was sold by the Crown in 1816. 



1670.] JOHN EVELYN. 49 

and Sir John Kiviet* about their draining-engines, having, 
it seems, undertaken to do wonders on a vast piece of 
marsh-ground they had hired of Sir Thomas Chicheley, 
(Master of the Ordnance). They much pleased themselves 
with the hopes of a rich harvest of hemp and cole-seed, 
which was the crop expected. 

Here we visited the engines and mills both for wind 
and water, draining it through two rivers, or grafiFs, cut 
by hand, and capable of carrying considerable barges, 
which went thwart one the other, discharging the water 
into the sea. Such this spot had been the former winter; 
it was astonishing to see it now dry, and so rich that 
weeds grew on the banks, almost as high as a man and 
horse. Here, my Lord and his partner had built two or 
three rooms, with Flanders Avhite bricks, very hard. One of 
the great engines was in the kitchen, where I saw the fish 
swim up, even to the very chimney-hearth, by a small cut 
through the room, and running within a foot of the very fire. 

Having, after dinner, ridden about that vast level, pes- 
tered with heat and swarms of gnats, we returned over 
Newmarket Heath, the way being mostly a sweet turf and 
down, like Salisbury Plain, the jockeys breathing their fine 
barbs and racers, and giving them their heats. 

23rd. We returned from Burrow-green to London, 
staying some time at Audley End, to see that fine palace. 
It is indeed a cheerful piece of Gothic building, or rather 
antico moderno, but placed in an obscure bottom. The 
cellars and galleries are very stately. It has a river by it, 
a pretty avenue of limes, and in a park. 

This is in Safiron Walden parish, famous for that useful 
plant, with which all the country is covered. 

Dining at Bishop- Stortford, we came late to London. 

5th August. There was sent me by a neighbour a 
servant-maid, who, in the last month, as she was sitting 
before her mistress at work, felt a stroke on her arm a 
little above the Avrist for some height, the smart of which, 
as if struck by another hand, caused her to hold her arm. 
awhile till somewhat mitigated ; but it put her into a kind 
of convulsion, or rather hysteric fit. A gentleman coming 
casuaDy in, looking on her arm, found that part powdered 

Of him see before, pp. 20, 21. 29. 
VOL. II. E 



50 DIARY OF [deptfoed, 

with red crosses, set in most exact and wonderful order, 
neither swelled nor depressed, about this shape, 

X 

X X 

XXX 

X X 

X 

not seeming to be any way made by artifice, of a reddish 
colour, not so red as blood, the skin over them smooth, the 
rest of the arm livid and of a mortified hue, with certain 
prints as it were of the stroke of fingers. This had hap- 
pened three several times in July, at about ten days' 
interval, the crosses beginning to wear out, but the suc- 
cessive ones set in other difi'erent, yet uniform order. The 
maid seemed very modest, and came from London to 
Deptford with her mistress, to avoid the discourse and 
importunity of curious people. She made no gain by it, 
pretended no religious fancies ; but seemed to be a 
plain, ordinary, silent, working wench, somewhat fat, short, 
and high-coloured. She told me diVers divines and phy- 
sicians had seen her, but were unsatisfied ; that she had 
taken some remedies against lier fits, but they did her no 
good ; she had never before had any fits ; once since, she 
seemed in her sleep to hear one say to her that she should 
tamper no more with them, nor trouble herself with 
anything that happened, but put her trust in the merits of 
Christ only. 

This is the substance of what she told me, and what I 
saw and curiously examined. I was formerly acquainted 
with the impostorious nuns of Loudun, in France, which 
made such noise amongst the Papists ; I therefore thought 
this worth the notice. I remember Monsieur Monconys 
(that curious traveller and a Roman Cathohc) was by no 
means satisfied with the stigmata of those nuns, because 
they were so shy of letting him scrape the letters, which 
were Jesus, Maria, Joseph, (as I think,) observing they 
began to scale off with it, whereas this poor wench was 
willing to submit to any trial ; so that I profess I know 



1670.] JOHN EVELYN. 51 

not wliat to think of it, nor dare I pronounce it anything 
supernatural. 

2Gth, At "Windsor, I supped with the Duke of Mon- 
mouth; and, the next day, invited by Lord Ai'lington, 
dined with the same Duke, and divers Lords. After 
dinner, my Lord and I had a conference of more than an 
hour alone in his bed-chamber, to engage me in the 
History. I showed him something that I had drawn up, 
to his great satisfaction, and he desired me to show it to 
the Treasurer. 

28th. One of the Canons preached; then followed the 
offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom ; 
first the poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in 
then' formalities, the Dean and Chancellor, then his 
Majesty (the Sovereign), the Duke of York, Prince 
Rupert ; and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford, being all the 
Knights that were then at Court. 

I dined Avith the Treasurer, and consulted with him 
what pieces I was to add ; in the afternoon, the King took 
me aside into the balcony over the terrace, extremely 
pleased with what had been told him I had begun, in order 
to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed vigorously 
in it. He told me he had ordered the Secretaries of State 
to give me all necessary assistance of papers and particulars 
relating to it, and enjoining me to make it a little keen, for 
that the Hollanders had very unhandsomely abused him in 
their pictures, books, and libels. 

Windsor was now going to be repaired, being exceed- 
ingly ragged and ruinous. Prince Rupert, the Constable, 
had begun to trim up the keep, or high round Tower, and 
handsomely adorned his hall with furniture of arms, which 
was very singular, by so disposing the pikes, muskets, 
pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, breast, and head- 
pieces, as was very extraordinary. Thus, those huge steep 
stairs ascending to it had the walls invested with this 
martial furniture, all new and bright, so disposing the 
bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to represent festoons, 
and that without any confusion, trophy-like. From the 
hall we Avent into his bed-chamber, and ample rooms 
hung with tapestry, curious and effeminate pictures, so 
extremely different from the other, which presented 
nothing but war and horror. 

E 2 



5^ DIARY OP [londok, 

The King passed most of his time in hunting the stag, 
and walking in the x^ark, which he was now planting with 
rows of trees. 

13th September. To visit Sir Richard Lashford^ my 
kinsman, and Mr. Charles Howard, at his extraordinary- 
garden, at Deep den. 

15th. I Avent to visit Mr. Arthur Onslow, at West Clan- 
don, a pretty dry seat on the Downs, where we dined in 
his great room. 

17th. To visit Mr. Hussey,* who, being near Wotton, 
lives in a sweet valley, deliciously watered. 

£3rd. To Albury, to see how that garden proceeded, 
which I found exactly done to the design and plot I had 
made, with the crypta through the mountain in the park, 
thirty perches in length. Such a Pausilippe * is no where 
in England. The canal was now digging, and the vineyard 
planted. 

14th October. I spent the whole afternoon in private 
with the Treasurer, who put into my hands those, secret 
pieces and transactions concerning the Dutch war, and 
particularly the expedition of Bergen, in which he had 
himself the chief part, and gave me instructions, tiU the 
King arriving from Newmarket, we both went up into his 
bed-chamber. 

21st. Dined with the Treasurer ; and, after dinner, we 
were shut up together. I received other [further] advices, 
and ten paper-books of despatches and treaties ; to return 
which again I gave a note under my hand to Mr. Joseph 
Williamson, Master of the Paper-office. 

31st. I was this morning fifty years of age; the Lord 
teach me to number my days so as to apply them to his 
glory ! Amen. 

4th November. Saw the Prince of Orange, newly come 
to see the King, his uncle ; he has a manly, courageous, 
wase countenance, resembling his mother and the Duke of 
Gloucester, both deceased. 

I now also saw that famous beauty, but in my 
opinion of a childish, simple, and baby face, Madenioiselle 

• At Sutton in Shere. 

f A word adopted by Mr. Evelyn for a subterranean passage, from the 
famous grot of Pausilippo, at Naples. 



1671.] JOHN EVELYN. 53 

Querouaille,* lately Maid of Honour to Madame^ and now 
to be so to tlie Queen. 

2-jrd. Dined witli the Earl of Arlington^, where was the 
Venetian Ambassador, of whom I now took solemn leave, 
now on his return. There were also Lords Howard, Wharton, 
Windsor, and divers other great persons. 

24th. I dined with the Treasurer, where was the Earl of 
Rochester, a very profane wit. 

15th December. It was the thickest and darkest fog on 
the Thames that was ever known in the memory of man, 
and I happened to be in the very midst of it. I supped 
with Monsieur Zulestein, late Governor to the late Prince 
of Orange. 

1G70-1. 10th January. Mr. Bohun, my son's tutor, had 
been five years in my house, and now Bachelor of Laws, 
and Fellow of New College, went from me to Oxford, to 
reside there, having v/ell and faithfully performed his 
charge. 

18th. This day, I first acquainted his Majesty with that 
incomparable young man, Gibbon,t whom I had lately met 

* Henrietta, tlie King's sister, married to Philip, Duke of Orleans, was then 
on a visit here. Madame Quorouaille came over in her train, on purpose to 
entice Charles into an union with Louis XIV., which unhappily succeeded but 
too well. She became the King's mistress, was made Duchess of Portsmouth, 
and was his favoui'ite till his death. See p. C3. 

-t" Usually known by the name of Gibbons ; celebrated for his exquisite 
carving. Ilis principal performance is said to be at Petworth. The follow- 
ing account of him appears in Walpole's Catalogue of Painters, and incidental 
notes of other Artists, collected by Geo. Vertue : — 

" Gnnllng Gibbon. — An original genius, a citizen of nature. There is no 
instance before him of a man who gave to wood the loose and airy lightness 
of flowers, and chained together the various productions of tlie elements with 
the free disorder natural to each species. It is uncertain whether he was 
born in Holland, or in England ; it is said that he lived in Bell-Savage 
Coui't, Ludgate Hill, and was employed by Betterton, in decorating the 
Theatre, in Dorset Gardens. He lived afterwards at Deptford, in the same 
house with a musician, where the beneficent and curious Mr. Evelyn found 
and patronized both. This gentleman. Sir P. Lely, and Bap. May, who was 
something of an architect himself, recommended Gibbon to Charles II., who 
was too indolent to search for genius, and too indiscriminate in his boimty to 
confine it to merit ; but was always pleased when it was brought home to him. 
He gave the artist a place in the Board of Works, and employed his hand on 
ornaments of most taste in his palaces, particularly at Windsor. Gibbon, in 
gj-atitude, made a present of his own bust in wood to Mr. Evelyn, who kept it 
at his house in Dover-street. The piece tliat had struck so good a judge was 



54 DIARY OF [deptford, 

•with in an obscure place by mere accident, as I was walking 
near a poor solitary thatched house, in a field in our parish, 
near Sayes Court. I found him shut in ; but looking in 
at the window, I perceived him carving that large cartoon, 
or crucifix, of Tintoretto, a copy of which I had myself 
brought from Venice, where the original painting remains. 
I asked if I might enter ; he opened the door civilly to me, 
and I saw him about such a work as for the curiosity of 
handling, drawing, and studious exactness, I never had 
before seen in all my travels. I questioned him why he 
worked in such an obscure and lonesome place ; he told 
me it was that he might apply himself to his profession 
without interruption, and wondered not a little how I 
found him out. I asked if he was unwilling to be made 
known to some great man, for that I believed it might 
turn to his profit ; he answered, he was yet but a beginner, 
but would not be sorry to sell ofi" that piece ; on demand- 
ing the price, he said £100. In good earnest, the very 

a large carving, in wood, of St. Stephen stoned, long preserved in the sculp- 
tor's own house, and afterwards purchased and placed by the Duke of Chandos^ 
at Cannons." 

Mr. Walpole is not quite correct in this account. Gibbon, when young, 
was found by Mr. Evelyn in a small house at Deptford, working on that 
famous piece from Tintoret, here said to represent the stoning of St. Stephen, 
and which seems, from Mr. Evelj-n's account, to liave been his first perform- 
ance of consequence. It must have been afterwards that he lived in Belle- 
Sauvage Yard, and that he worked on the Theatre, in Dorset Gardens. Mr. 
Evelyn does not mention a musician, and says there was only an old woman 
with him in the house at Deptford. It was Mr. EveljTi who recommended 
him to the King, to Mr. May the architect, and to Sir Christopher Wren. 
Of the bust nothing is known at Wotton. 

The following is a copy, from an original Letter, addressed by Grinling 
Gibbon, to Mr. Evelyn : 

Honred 
S"' I wold beg the faver wen you see S' Joseff Williams [Williamson] again 
you wold be pleased to speack to him that hee wold get me to Carve his Ladis 
sons hous my Lord Kildare for I onderstand it will [be] verry considerabell 
ai' If you haen Acquantans wich my Lord to speack to him his sealf and I 
shall for Ev're be obliaged to You I wold speack to S'' Josef my sealf but I 
knouw it would do better from you 

S' youre Most umbell 
Sarvant 
Lond. 23 Mar. 1682. G. Gibbon. 

Mr. Evelyn wrote to Lord Kildare, recommending Mr. Gibbon ; and to- 
Mr. Gibbon with the letter. 



1671.] JOHN EVELYxNT. 55 

frame was worth the money, there being nothing in nature 
so tender and delicate as the flowers and festoons about it, 
and yet the work was very strong ; in the piece was more 
than one hundred figures of men, &c. I found he was 
hkewise musical, and very civil, sober, and discreet] in his 
discourse. There was only an old woman in the house. So, 
desiring leave to visit him sometimes, I went away. 

Of this young artist, together with my manner of finding 
him out, I acquainted the King, and begged that he would 
give me leave to bring him and his work to Whitehall, for 
that I would adventure my reputation Avith his Majesty 
that he had never seen anything approach it, and that he 
would be exceedingly pleased, and employ him. The 
King said he would himself go see him. This was the first 
notice his Majesty ever had of Mr. Gibbon. 

20th. The King came to me in the Queen's withdrawing- 
room from the circle of ladies, to talk with me as to what 
advance I had made in the Dutch History. I dined with 
the Treasurer, and afterv/ards we went to the Secretary's 
Ofiice, where we conferred about divers particulars. 

21st. I was directed to go to Sir George Downing, who 
having been a public minister in Holland, at the beginning 
of the war, was to give me light in some material passages. 

This year the weather was so wet, stormy, and unsea- 
sonable, as had not been known in many years. 

9th February. I saw the great ball danced by the Queen 
and distinguished ladies at Whitehall Theatre. Next day, 
was acted there the famous play, called "The Siege of 
Granada," * two days acted successively ; there were 
indeed very glorious scenes and perspectives, the work of 
Mr. Streeter, who well understands it. 

19th. This day dined with me Mr. Surveyor, Dr. Chris- 
topher Wren, and Mr. Pepys, Clerk of the Acts, two 
extraordinary, ingenious, and knomng persons, and other 
friends. I carried them to see the piece of carving f which 
I had recommended to tlie King. 

25th. Came to visit me one of the Lords Commissioners 
of Scotland for the Union. 

28th. The Treasurer acquainted me that his INIajesty 
was graciously pleased to nominate me one of the Council 

* " The Conquest of Granada," by Dryden. t See p. 54. 



56 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

of Foreign Plantations, and give me a salary of £500 per 
annum, to encourage me. 

29tli. I went to thank the Treasurer, who was my great 
friend, and loved me ; I dined with him and much com- 
pany, and went thence to my Lord Arlington, Secretary 
of State, in whose favour I likewise was upon many occa- 
sions, though I cultivated neither of their friendships by 
any mean submissions. I kissed his Majesty^s hand, on 
his making me one of that new-established Council. 

1st March. I caused Mr. Gibbon to bring to Whitehall 
his excellent piece of carving, where being come, I adver- 
tised his Majesty, who asked me where it was ; I told him 
in Sir Eichard Browne's (my father-in-law) chamber, and 
that if it pleased his Majesty to appoint whither it should 
be brought, being large and though of wood heavy, I 
would take care for it. " No,'' says the King, " show me 
the way, I'll go to Sir Richard's chamber," which he 
immediately did, walking along the entries after me ; as 
far as the ewry, till he came up into the room, where I 
also lay. No sooner was he entered and cast his eye on 
the work, but he was astonished at the curiosity of it ; 
and, having considered it a long time, and discoursed with 
Mr. Gibbon, whom I brought to. kiss his hand, he com- 
manded it should be immediately carried to the Queen's 
side to show her. It was carried up into her bed-chamber, 
where she and the King looked on and admired it again ; 
the King, being called away, left us with the Queen, 
believing she would have bought it, it being a crucifix ; but, 
when his Majesty was gone, a French peddling woman, 
one Madame de Boord, who used to bring petticoats and 
fans, and baubles, out of France to the ladies, began to 
find fault with several things in the work, which she 
understood no more than an ass, or a monkey, so as in a 
kind of indignation, I caused the person who brought it 
to carry it back to the chamber, finding the Queen so 
much governed by an ignorant Frenchwoman, and this 
incomparable artist had his labour only for his pains, 
which not a httle displeased me ; and he was fain to send 
it down to his cottage again ; he not long after sold it for 
£80, though well worth £100, without the frame, to Sir 
George Viner. 

His Majesty's Surveyor, Mr. Wren, faithfully promised 



1G71.] JOHN EVELYN. 57 

me to employ liira.* I having also bespoke liis Majesty 
for Ills work at Windsor, which my friend, Mr. May, the 
architect there, Avas going to alter, and repair universally ; 
for, on the next day, I had a fair opportunity of talking 
to his Majesty about it, in the lobby next the Queen's 
side, where I presented him with some sheets of my His- 
tory. I thence walked with him through St. Jameses 
Park to the garden, where I both saw and heard a very 

familiar discourse between and Mrs. Nelly, f as 

they called an impudent comedian, she looking out of her 

garden on a terrace at the top of the wall, and 

standing on the green walk under it. I was heartily sorry 
at this scene. Thence, the King walked to the Duchess 
of Cleveland, another lady of pleasure, and curse of our 
nation. 

5th. I dined at Greenwich, to take leave of Sir Thomas 
Linch, going Governor of Jamaica. 

10th. To London, about passing my patent as one of the 
standing Council for Plantations, a considerable honour, 
the others in the Council being chiefly noblemen, and 
officers of state. 

End April. To Sir Thomas Clifford, the Treasurer, to 
condole Avith him on the loss of his eldest son, who died 
at Florence. 

2nd May. The Prench King, being noAv with a great 
army of 28,000 men about Dunkirk, divers of the grandees 
of that Court, and a A'ast number of gentlemen and cadets, 
in fantastical habits, came flocking over to see our Court, 
and compliment his Majesty. I was present, Avhen they 
first Avere conducted into the Queen^s withdraAving-room, 
where saluted their Majesties the Dukes of Guise, Longue- 
ville, and many others of the first rank. 

10th. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, in company with Mon- 
sieur De Grammont and several Prench noblemen, and 
one Blood, that impudent bold fellow who had not long 
before attempted to steal the imperial croAvn itself out of 
the Tower, pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia 
there, Avhcn stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he 

* The carviug in the Choir, &c., of St. Paul's Cathedral was executed by 
Gibbon. 

-t* Nell Gwynne : there can be no doubt with what name to fill up these 
blanks. 



58 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken 
only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he 
came to be pardoned, and even received into favour, not 
only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring 
both in Ireland and here, I could never come to under- 
stand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, 
being well with the Sectaries and Enthusiasts, and did his 
Majesty services that way, which none alive could do so 
well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so 
the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This 
man had not only a daring but a villanous unmerciful 
look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken, and 
dangerously insinuating. 

11th. I went to Eltham, to sit as one of the Commis- 
sioners about the Subsidy now given by Parliament to his 
Majesty. 

17th. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's [Sir Thomas Clifford] 
with the Earl of Arlington, Carlingford, Lord Arundel of 
Wardour, Lord Almoner to the Queen, a French Count, 
and two abbots, with several more of French nobility ; and 
now by something I had lately observed of Mr. Treasurer's 
conversation on occasion, I suspected him a little warping 
to Rome. 

25th. I dined at a feast made for me and my wife by 
the Trinity Company, for our passing a fine of the land 
which Sir R. Browne, my wife's father, freely gave to found 
and build their College, or Alms-houses on, at Deptford, 
it being my wife's, after her father's decease. It was a 
good and charitable work and gift, but would have been 
better bestowed on the poor of that parish, than on the 
seamen's widows, the Trinity Company being very rich, 
and the rest of the poor of the parish exceedingly indigent. 

26th. The Earl of Bristol's house, in Queen Street 
[Lincoln's Inn Fields], Avas taken for the Commissioners 
of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with rich hangings 
of the King's. It consisted of seven rooms on a floor, 
with a long gallery, gardens, &c. This day we met the 
Duke of Buckingham, Earl of Lauderdale, Lord Culpeper, 
Sir George Carteret, Vice-Chamberlain, and myself, had 
the oaths given us by the Earl of Sandwich, our President. 
It was, to advise and counsel his Majesty, to the best of 
our abilities, for the well-governing of his Foreign Planta- 



1671.] JOHN EVELYN. 59 

tions, Sec, the form very little differing from that given to 
the Privy Council. We then took om' places at the Board 
in the Council-Chamber^ a very large room furnished with 
atlasses^ maps, charts, globes, &c. Then came the Lord 
Keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, Earl of Arlington, Secre- 
tary of State, Lord Ashley^Mr. Treasurer, Sir John Trevor, 
the other Secretary, Sir John Duncomb, Lord Allingtcn, 
Mr. Grey, son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, 
Sir Humphry "Winch, Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller, and 
Colonel Titus, of the Bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, 
Secretary to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, 
who had all been sworn some days before. Being all set, 
our Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in 
which was recited this new establishment; then, was 
delivered to each a copy of the Patent and of instructions : 
after which, atc proceeded to business. 

The first thing we did was, to settle the form of a circu- 
lar letter to the Governors of all his ]Majesty^s Plantations 
and Territories in the West Indies and Islands thereof, to 
give them notice to whom they should apply themselves 
on all occasions, and to render us an account of their 
present state and government ; but, what we most insisted 
on was, to know the condition of New England, which 
appearing to be very independent as to their regard to 
Old England, or his Majesty, rich and strong as they now 
were, there were great debates in what style to write to 
them ; for the condition of that Colony was such, that they 
were able to contest with all other Plantations about them, 
and there was fear of their breaking from all dependence 
on this nation; his Majesty, therefore, commended this 
affair more expressly. We, therefore, thought fit, in the 
first place, to acquaint ourselves as well as we could of the 
state of that place, by some whom we heard of that were 
newly come from thence, and to be informed of their 
present posture and condition ; some of our Council were 
for sending them a menacing letter, which those who better 
understood the peevish and touchy humour of that Colony, 
were utterly against. 

A letter was then read from Sir Thomas Modiford, 
Governor of Jamaica ; and then the Council brake up. 

Having brought an action against one Cocke, for money 
which he had received for me, it had been referred to an 



60 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

arbitration by tlie recommendatiou of that excellent good 
man, the Chief- Justice Hales; but, this not succeeding, 
I went to advise with that famous lawyer Mr. Jones, of 
Gray's Inn, and, 27th May, had a trial before Lord Chief 
Justice Hales ; and, after the lawyers had wrangled suffi- 
ciently, it was referred to a new arbitration. This was 
the very first suit at law that ever I had with any creature, 
and oh, that it might be the last ! 

1st June. An installation at Windsor. 

6th. I went to Council, where was produced a most 
exact and ample information of the state of Jamaica, and 
of the best expedients as to New England, on which there 
was a long debate ; but at length it was concluded that, 
if any, it should be only a conciliating paper at first, or 
civil letter, till we had better information of the present 
face of things, since we understood they were a people 
almost upon the very brink of renouncing any dependence 
on the Crown. 

19th. To a splendid dinner at the great room in Dept- 
ford Trinity House, Sir Thomas Allen chosen Master, and 
succeeding the Earl of Craven. 

20th. To carry Colonel Middleton to "Whitehall, to my 
Lord Sandwich, our President, for some information which 
he was able to give of the state of the Colony in New 
England. 

21st. To Council again, when one Colonel Cartwright, 
a Nottinghamshire man, (formerly in commission with 
Colonel Nicholls) gave us a considerable relation of that 
country ; on which the Council concluded that in the first 
place a letter of amnesty should be despatched. 

24th. Constantino Huygens, Seignor of Zuylichem, that 
excellent learned man, poet, and musician, now near eighty 
yeai's of age, a vigorous brisk man,* came to take leave 
of me before his return into Holland with the Prince, 
whose Secretary he was. 

26th. To Council, where Lord Arhngton acquainted us, 
that it was his Majesty's proposal we should, every one 
of us, contribute £20 toAvards building a Council-chamber 
and conveniences somewhere in Whitehall, that his Majesty 
might come and sit amongst us, and hear our debates ; the 

• He died in 1 687, aged 90 years and six months. 



1671.] JOHN EVELYN. 61 

money we laid out to be reimbursed out of the contingent 
monies already set apart for us, viz. £1000 yearly. To 
this, we unanimously consented. There came an uncertain 
bruit from Barbadoes of some disorder there. On my 
return home, I stepped in at the theatre to see the new 
machines for the intended scenes, which were indeed very 
costly and magnificent. 

29th. To Council, where Avere letters from Sir Thomas 
Modiford, of the expedition and exploit of Colonel Mor- 
gan,* and others of Jamaica, on the Spanish Continent at 
Panama. 

4th July. To Council, where we drew up and agreed to 
a letter to be sent to New England, and made some pro- 
posal to Mr. Grorges, for his interest in a plantation there. 
24th. To Council. Mr. Surveyor brought us a plot for 
the building of our Council- chamber, to be erected at the 
end of the Privy-garden, in Whitehall. 

3rd August. A full appearance at the Council. The 
matter in debate was, whether we should send a Deputy 
to New England, requiring them of the Massachusets to 
restore such to their limits and respective possessions, as 
had petitioned the Council ; this to be the open com- 
mission only; but, in truth, with secret instructions to 
inform us of the condition of those Colonies, and whether 
they were of such power, as to be able to resist his Majesty, 
and declare for themselves as independent of the Crown, 
which we were told, and which of late years made them 
refractory. Colonel Middleton, being called in, assured 
us they might be cm^bed by a few of his Majesty's first-rate 
frigates, to spoil their trade with the islands ; but, though 
my Lord President was not satisfied, the rest were, and 
we did resolve to advise his Majesty to send Commis- 
sioners with a formal commission for adjusting boun- 
daries, &c., with some other instructions. 

19th. To Council. The letters of Sir Thomas Modiford 
were read, giving relation of the exploit at Panama, 
which was very brave ; they took, burnt and pillaged the 
town of vast treasures, but the best of the booty had been 
shipped off, and lay at anchor in the South Sea, so that, 
after our men had ranged the country sixty miles about, 

* See more of hira afterwards. 



g2 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

they went back to Nombre do Dios, and embarked for 
Jamaica. Such an action had not been done since the 
famous Drake. 

I dined at the Hambiirgh Resident's, and, after dinner, 
■went to the christening of Sir Samuel Tuke's son, Charles, 
at Somerset-House, by a Popish priest, and many odd 
ceremonies. The godfathers were the King, and Lord 
Arundel of Wardour, and godmother, the Countess of 
Huntingdon. 

29th. To London, with sr>me more papers of my pro- 
gress in the Dutch War, delivered to the Treasurer. 

September 1st. Dined with the Treasurer, in company 
with my Lord Arlington, Halifax, and Sir Thomas Strick- 
land ; and, next day, went home, being the anniversary of 
the late dreadful fire of London. 

13th. This night fell a dreadful tempest. 

15th. In the afternoon at Council, where letters were 
read from Sir Charles Wheeler, concerning his resigning 
his government of St Christopher's. 

21st. I dined in the City, at the fraternity feast in Iron- 
mongers' Hall,* where the four stewards chose their suc- 
cessors for the next year, with a solemn procession, gar- 
lands about their heads, and music plajdng before them ; 
so, coming up to the upper tables where the gentlemen 
sat, they drank to the new stewards ; and so we parted. 

22nd. I dined at the Treasurer's, where I had discourse 
with Sir Henry Jones (now come over to raise a regiment 
of horse), concerning the French conquests in Lorraine; 
he told me the King sold all things to the soldiers, even 
to a handful of hay. 

Lord Sunderland was now nominated Ambassador to 
Spain. 

After dinner, the Treasurer carried me to Lincoln's Inn, 
to one of the Parliament Clerks, to obtain of him, that 
I might carry home and peruse, some of the Journals, 
which were accordingly delivered to me to examine about 
the late Dutch war. Returning home, I went on shore 
to see the Custom-House, now newly rebuilt since the 
dreadful conflagration.f 

• One of the grand court-days of that opulent Company, which is one of 
twelve. 

t This new edifice was again destroyed by fire in the month of February, 
1814. 



1671.] JOHN EVELYN. 63 

9tli and 10th October. I went, after evening-service, to 
London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. 
Treasurer, to Newmarket, where the King then was, in 
his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, 
first, at Bishop-Stortford, and last, at Chesterford ; so, by- 
night, we got to jSTewmarket, Avhere Mr. Henry Jermain, 
(nephew to the Earl of St. Alban^s) lodged me very civilly. 
We proceeded immediately to Court, the King and all the 
English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. 
Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, 
after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great 
match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to 
the King, and to Mr. Eliot of the Bedchamber, many 
thousands being spectators ; a more signal race had not 
been run for many years. 

This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer to 
Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's, where we found 
Monsieur Colbert, (the French Ambassador), and the 
famous new French Maid of Honour, Mademoiselle Que- 
rouaille,* now coming to be in great favour with the King. 
Here was also the Countess of Sunderland, and several 
lords and ladies, who lodged in the house. 

During my stay here with Lord Arlington, near a fort- 
night, his Majesty came almost every second day •nith the 
Duke, Avho commonly returned to Newmarket, but the 
King often lay here, during which time I had twice the 
honour to sit at dinner with him, with all freedom. It 

was universally reported that the fair lady was bedded 

one of these nights, and the stocking flung, after the 
manner of a married bride ; I acknowledge she was for the 
most part in her undress all day, and that there was fond- 
ness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said, 
I was at the former ceremony ; but it is utterly false ; 
I neither saw nor heard of any such thing whilst I was 
there, though I had been in her chamber, and all over 
that apartment late enough, and was myself observing all 
passages with much curiosity. However, it was Avith con- 
fidence believed she was first made a Miss, as they call 
these unhappy creatures, Avith solemnity at this time. 

On Sunday, a young Cambridge Divine preached an 

* See p. 53. 



64 DIARY OF [londok, 

excellent sermon in the chapel, the King and the Duke of 
York being present. 

16th. Came all the great men from Newmai'ket, and 
other parts both of Suffolk and Norfolk, to make their 
court, the whole house filled from one end to the other 
with lords, ladies, and gallants; there was such a furnished 
table, as I had seldom seen, nor anything more splendid 
and free, so that for fifteen days there were entertained at 
least 200 people, and half as many horses, besides servants 
and guards, at infinite expeiuse. 

In the morning, we went hunting and hawking ; in the 
afternoon, till almost morning, to cards and dice, yet 
I must say without noise, swearing, quarrel, or confusion 
of any sort. I, who was no gamester, had often discourse 
with the French Ambassador, Colbert, and went sometimes 
abroad on horseback with the ladies to take the air, and 
now and then to hunting; thus idly passing the time, 
but not Avithout more often recess to my pretty apartment, 
where I was quite out of all this hurry, and had leisure 
when I would, to converse with books, for there is no 
man more hospitably easy to be withal than my Lord 
Arlington, of whose particular friendship and kindness 
I had ever a more than ordinary share. His house is a 
very noble pile, consisting of four pavilions after the 
French, beside a body of a large hovise, and, though not 
built altogether, but formed of additions to an old house 
(purchased by his Lordship of one Sir T. Rookwood) yet 
with a vast expense made not only capable and roomsome, 
but very magnificent and commodious, as Avell within as 
without, nor less splendidly furnished. The staircase is 
very elegant, the garden handsome, the canal beautiful, 
but the soil dry, barren, and miserably sandy, which flies 
in drifts as the wind sits. Here my Lord was pleased to 
advise with me about ordering his plantations of firs, elms, 
limes, &c., up his park, and in all other places and 
avenues. I persuaded him to bring his park so near as to 
comprehend his house within it ; which he resolved upon, 
it being now near a mile to it. The water furnishing the 
fountains, is raised by a pretty engine, or very slight plain 
wheels, which likewise serve to grind his corn, from a 
small cascade of the canal, the invention of Sir Samuel 
Morland. In my Lord's house, and especially above the 



1671.] JOHN EVELYN. 65 

staircase, in the great hall and some of the chambers and 
rooms of state, are paintings in fresco by Signor Verrio, 
being the first work which he did in England. 

17th. My Lord Henry Howard, coming this night to 
visit my Lord Chamberlain, and staying a day, would 
needs have me go with him to Norwich, promising to 
convey me back, after a day or two; this, as I could not 
refuse, I was not hard to be persuaded to, having a desire 
to see that famous scholar and physician. Dr. T. Browne, 
author of the " Religio Medici," and " Vulgar Errors," 
now lately knighted. Thither, then, went my Lord, and 
I alone in his flying chariot with six horses ; and, by the 
way, discoursing with me of several of his concerns, he 
acquainted me of his going to marry his eldest son to one 
of the King's natural daughters, by the Duchess of Cleve- 
land j by which he reckoned he should come into mighty 
favour. He also told me that, though he kept that idle 

creature Mrs. B ,* and would leave £200 a year to the 

son he had by her, he would never marry her, and that 
the King himself had cautioned him against it. All the 
world knows how he kept this promise, and I was sorry at 
heart to hear what now he confessed to me ; and that a 
person and a family which I so much honoured for the 
sake of that noble and illustrious friend of mine, his grand- 
father, should dishonour and pollute them both with those 
base and vicious courses he of late had taken since the 
death of Sir Samuel Tuke, and that of his own virtuous 
lady (my Lady Anne Somerset, sister to the Marquis) ; 
who, whilst they lived, preserved this gentleman by their 
example and advice from those many extravagances that 
impaired both his fortune and reputation. 

Being come to the Ducal Palace, my Lord made very 
much of me ; but I had little rest, so exceedingly desirous 
he was to show me the contrivance he had made for the 
entertainment of their jNIajesties, and the whole Court not 
long before, and which, though much of it was but tempo- 
rary, apparently framed of boards only, was yet standing. 
As to the palace, it is an old wretched building, and that 
part of it newly built of brick, is very ill understood ; so 
as I was of opinion it had been much better to have 

* Bickerton, see afterwards, under January and August, 1678. 
VOL. II. F 



QQ DIARY OF [NORWICH, 

demolished all, and set it up in a better place, than to 
proceed any farther ; for it stands in the very market-place, 
and, though near a river, yet a very narrow muddy one, 
and without any extent. 

Next morning, I went to see Sir Thomas Browne, (with 
whom I had some time corresponded by letter, though I 
had never seen him before) ; his whole house and garden 
being a paradise and cabinet of rarities, and that of the best 
collection, especially medals, books, plants, and natural 
things. Amongst other curiosities. Sir Thomas had a 
collection of the eggs of all the fowl and birds he could 
procure, that country (especially the promontory of Norfolk) 
being frequented, as he said, by several kinds which seldom 
or never go farther into the land, as cranes, storks, eagles, 
and variety of water-fowl. He led me to see all the 
remarkable places of this ancient city, being one of the 
largest, and certainly, after London, one of the noblest of 
England, for its venerable cathedral, number of stately 
churches, cleanness of the streets, and buildings of flint so 
exquisitely headed and squared, as I was much astonished 
at j but he told me they had lost the art of squaring the 
flints, in which they so much excelled, and of which the 
churches, best houses, and walls, are built. The Castle is 
an antique extent of ground, which now they call Marsfield, 
and would have been a fitting area to have placed the 
Ducal palace in. The suburbs are large, the prospects 
sweet, with other amenities, not omitting the flower-gardens, 
in which all the inhabitants excel. The fabric of stuff's 
brings a vast trade to this populous town. 

Being returned to my Lord's who had been with me all 
this morning, he advised with me concerning a plot to 
rebuild his house, having already, as he said, erected a front 
next the street, and a left wing, and now resolving to set 
up another wing and pavilion next the garden, and to 
convert the bowHng-green into stables. My advice was, 
to desist from all, and to meditate wholly on rebuilding a 
handsome palace at Arundel House, in the Strand, before 
he proceeded farther here, and then to place this in the 
Castle, that ground belonging to his Lordship. 

I observed that most of the churchyards (though some 
of them large enough) were filled up with earth, or rather 
the congestion of dead bodies one upon another, for want 



1671.] JOHN EVELYN. 67 

of earthy even to the very top of the walls^ and some above 
the wallsj so as the churches seemed to be built in pits. 

18th. I returned to Euston^ in Lord Henry Howard's 
coach^ leaving him at Norwich^ in company with a very 
ingenious gentleman, Mr. White, whose father and mother 
(daughter to the late Lord Treasurer Weston, Earl of 
Portland) I knew at Rome, where this gentleman was 
born, and where his parents lived and died with much 
reputation, during their banishment in our civil broils. 

21st. Quitting Euston, I lodged this night at Newmarket, 
where I found the jolly blades racing, dancing, feasting, 
and revelling, more resembling a luxurious and abandoned 
rout, than a Christian Court. The Duke of Buckingham 
was now in mighty favour, and had with him that impudent 
woman, the Countess of Shrewsbury,* with his band of 
fiddlers, &c. 

Next morning, in company with Sir Bernard Gascoyne, 
and Lord Hawley, I came in the Treasurer's coach to 
Bishop-Stortford, where he gave us a noble supper. The 
following day, to London, and so home. 

14th November. To Council, where Sir Charles Wheeler, 
late Governor of the Leeward Islands, having been com- 
plained of for many indiscreet managements, it was resolved, 
on scanning many of the particulars, to advise his Majesty 
to remove him, and consult what was to be done, to prevent 
these inconveniences he had brought things to. This 
business staid me in London almost a week, being in 
Council, or Committee, every morning till the 25th. 

27th. We ordered that a Proclamation should be pre- 
sented to his Majesty to sign, against what Sir Charles 
Wheeler had done in St. Christopher's, since the war, on 
the articles of peace at Breda. He was shortly afterwards 
recalled. 

6th December. Came to visit me Sir William Haywood, 
a great pretender to English antiquities. 

14th. Went to seethe Dukeof Buckingham's ridiculous 
farce and rhapsody, called " The Recital," t buffooning all 
plays, yet profane enough. 

* See hereafter, under July, 1679. 
+ This must mean his play of " The Rehearsal." 
F 2 



63 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

23rd. The Councillors of the Board of Trade dined 
together at the Cock, in Suffolk Street. 

167 1-2. 1 2th January. His Majesty renewed us our lease 
of Sayes Court pastures for ninety-nine years, hut ought, 
according to his solemn promise * (as I hope he will still 
perform) have passed them to us in fee-farm. 

23rd. To London, in order to Sir Richard Browne, my 
father-in-law, resigning his place as Clerk of the Council 
to Joseph WilUamson, Esq., who was admitted, and was 
knighted. This place his Majesty had promised to give 
me many years before ; but, upon consideration of the 
renewal of our lease and other reasons, I chose to part with 
it to Sir Joseph, who gave us and the rest of his brother- 
clerks a handsome supper at his house ; and, after supper, a 
concert of music. 

3rd February. An extraordinary snow : part of the week 
was taken up in consulting about the commission of 
prisoners of war, and instructions to our officers, in order 
to a second war with the Hollanders, his Majesty having 
made choice of the former Commissioners, and myself 
amongst them. 

11th. In the afternoon, that famous proselyte. Monsieur 
Brevall, preached at the Abbey, in English, extremely well 
and with much eloquence. He had been a Capuchin, but 
much better learned than most of that Order. 

12th. At the Council, we entered on inquiries about 
improving the Plantations by silks, galls, flax, senna, &c., 
and considered how nutmegs and cinnamon might be 
obtained, and brought to Jamaica, that soil and climate 
promising success. Dr. Worsley being called in, spake 
many considerable things to encourage it. We took order 
to send to the Plantations, that none of their ships should 
adventure homeward single, but stay for company and 
convoys. We also deliberated on some fit person to go as 
Commissioner tq inspect their actions in New England, 
and, from time to time, report how that people stood 
affected. — In future, to meet at Whitehall. 

20th. Dr. Parr, of Cambei-well, preached a most pathetic 
funebral discourse and paneg}'ric at the interment of our 
late pastor,Dr. Breton, (who died on the 18th), on " Happy 

• The King's engagement, under his hand, is now at Wotton. 



1672.] JOHN EVELYN. gg 

is tlie servant whom when his Lord cometh," &c. This 
good man, among other expressions, professed that he had 
never been so touched and concerned at any loss as at this, 
unless at that of King Charles our Martyr, and Archbishop 
Usher, whose chaplain he had been. Dr. Breton had 
preached on the 28th and 30tli January : on the Friday, 
having fasted all day, making his provisionary sermon for 
the Sunday following, he went well to bed ; but was taken 
suddenly ill, and expired before help could come to him. 

Never had a parish a greater loss, not only as he was an 
excellent preacher, and fitted for our great and vulgar audi- 
tory, but for his excellent life and charity, his meekness and 
obliging nature, industrious, helpful, and full of good works. 
He left near £400 to the poor in his will, and that what 
children of his should die in their minority, their portion 
should be so employed. I lost in particular a special friend, 
and one that had an extraordinary love to me and mine. 

25th. To London, to speak with the Bishop, and Sir 
John Cutler, our patron, to present Mr. Frampton (after- 
wards Bishop of Gloucester). 

1st March. A full Council of Plantations, on the danger 
of the Leeward Islands, threatened by the French, who 
had taken some of our ships, and began to interrupt our 
trade. Also in debate, whether the new Governor of St. 
Christopher's should be subordinate to the Governor of 
Barbadoes. The debate was serious and long. 

12th. Now was the first blow given by us to the Dutch 
convoy of the Smyrna fleet, by Sir Robert Holmes and 
Lord Ossory, in which we received little save blows, and a 
worthy reproach for attacking our neighbours ^ere any 
war was proclaimed, and then pretending the occasion to 
be, that some time before, the Merlin yacht chancing to 
sail through the whole Dutch fleet, their Admiral did not 
strike to that trifling vessel. Surely, this was a quarrel 
slenderly grounded, and not becoming Christian neigh- 
bours. We are like to thrive, accordingly. Lord Ossory 
several times deplored to me his being engaged in it ; he 
had more justice and honour than in the least to approve 
of it, though he had been over-persuaded to the expedition. 
There is no doubt but we should have surprised this 
exceeding rich fleet, had not the avarice and ambition of 
Holmes and Spragge separated themselves, and wilfully 



70 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

divided our fleet, on presumption that either of them was 
strong enough to deal with the Dutch convoy without 
joining and mutual help ; but they so warmly plied our 
divided fleets, that whilst in conflict the merchants sailed 
away, and got safe into Holland. 

A few days before this, the Treasurer of the Household, 
Sir Thomas Clifford,* hinted to me, as a confidant, that 
his Majesty would shut up the Exchequer (and, accordingly, 
his Majesty made use of infinite treasure there, to prepare 
for an intended rupture) ', but, says he, it will soon be open 
again, and everybody satisfied; for this bold man, who 
had been the sole adviser of the King, to invade that 
sacred stock (though some pretend it was Lord Ashley^s 
counsel, then Chancellor of the Exchequer), was so over 
confident of the success of this unworthy design against the 
Smyrna merchants, as to put his Majesty on an action 
which not only lost the hearts of his subjects, and ruined 
many widows and orphans, whose stocks were lent him, 

* The following is taken from King James's Life by himself : " On the 
King's intention to have a Lord Treasurer, (1672) instead of putting the 
Seals into Commission, the Duke of York desired Lord Arlington to join with 
Iiim in proposing to the King the Lord Clifford for that considerable employ- 
ment ; but he found Lord Arlington very cold in it, and endeavouring to 
persuade the Duke, that the King did not intend the alteration ; and, the next 
day, he employed a friend to press the Duke to endeavour to get Sir Robert 
Car to be Commissioner, in tlie room of Lord Shaftesbury (then appointed 
Lord Chancellor). 

" Some few days after, the Duke proposed to his Majesty the Lord Clifford 
as Treasurer, which was well received, and he said he would do it, as thinking 
nobody fitter ; he also told the Duke that Lord Arlington had a mind to have 
that Staff : but he answered him that he had too much kindness for him to 
let him have it, for he knew he was not fit for the office ; and should he give 
it him, it would be his ruin, A httle after, the King told tlie Duke that he 
found Lord ^irlington was angry with Lord Chfford, on knowing that he was 
to have the place ; and desired the Duke to persuade Lord ArUngton not to 
let tlie world see his discontent, and to endeavour to make them continue 
friends. They promised the Duke to live friendly together; but Lord 
Arlmgton kept not his word, and was ever after cold,if not worse, towards him. 

"Christmas coming on, tlie King spake to Lord Clifford and Lord Arundel 
of Wardour, to persuade the Duke to receive the Sacrament with him at tliat 
time (which the Duke had forborne for several months before). They ui-ged 
the King not to press it, and he then seemed satisfied ; but, the day before 
Christmas Eve, the King spoke agaui to Lord Clifford to represent to the 
Duke what he had before said, which the Lord Chfford did, but found the 
Duke was not to be moved in his resolution of not going against his conscience." 



1672.] JOHN EVELYN. ijl 

but the reputation of his Exchequer for ever, it being 
before in such credit, that he might have commanded half 
the wealth of the nation. 

The credit of this bank being thus broken, did exceed- 
ingly discontent the people, and never did his Majesty's 
affairs prosper to any purpose after it, for as it did not 
supply the expense of the mediated war, so it melted away, 
I know not how. 

To this succeeded the King's Declaration for an universal 
toleration; Papists, and swarms of Sectaries, now boldly 
showing themselves in their public meetings. This was 
imputed to the same counsel, Clifford warping to Rome as 
was believed, nor was Lord Arlington clear of suspicion, 
to gratify that party, but as since it has proved, and was 
then evidently foreseen, to the extreme weakening the 
Church of England and its Episcopal Government, as it 
was projected. I speak not this as my own sense, but 
what was the discourse and thoughts of others, who were 
lookers-on ; for I think there might be some relaxations 
without the least prejudice to the present Establishment, 
discreetly limited, but to let go the reins in this manner, 
and then to imagine they could take them up again as 
easily, was a false policy, and greatly destructive. The 
truth is, our Bishops slipped the occasion; for, had they 
held a steady hand upon his Majesty's restoration, as they 
mighteasily have done, the Church of England had emerged 
and flourished, without interruption ; but they were then 
remiss, and covetous after advantages of another kind, 
whilst his Majesty suffered them to come into a harvest, 
with which, without any injustice, he might have remune- 
rated innumerable gallant gentlemen for their services, 
who had ruined themselves in the late rebellion.* 

21st. I visited the coasts in my district of Kent, and 
divers wounded and languishing poor men, that had been 
in the Smyrna conflict, I went over to see the new-begun 
Fort of Tilbury ; a royal work, indeed, and such as will one 
day bridle a great city to the purpose, before they are aware. 

23rd. Captain Cox, one of the Commissioners of the 
Navy, furnishing me with a yacht, I sailed to Sheerness to 

* This means the fines for renewals of leases not filled up dui-ing the inter- 
regnum, and now to be immediately applied for. Bishop Burnet says they 
were much misapplied. History of his own Times, I. 304. 



IJ2 DIARY OP * " [ROCHESTER, 

see that fort also, now newly finished ; several places on 
both sides tlie Swale and Medway to Gillingham and 
Upnore, being also provided with redoubts and batteries, 
to secure the station of our men-of-war at Chatham, and 
shut the door when the steeds were stolen. 

24th. I saw the chirurgeon cut off the leg of a wounded 
sailor, the stout and gallant man enduring it with incredible 
patience, without being bound to his chair, as usual on 
such painful occasions. I had hardly courage enough to 
be present. Not being cut off high enough, the gangrene 
prevailed, and the second operation cost the poor creature 
his life. 

Lord ! what miseries are mortal men subject to, and 
what confusion and mischief do the avarice, anger, and 
ambition of Princes, cause in the world ! 

25th. I proceeded to Canterbury, Dover, Deal, the Isle 
of Thanet, by Sandwich, and so to Margate. Here, we 
had abundance of miserably wounded men, his Majesty 
sending his chief chirurgeon. Sergeant Knight, to meet 
me, and Dr. Waldrond had attended me all the journey. 
Having taken order for the accommodation of the wounded, 
I came back through a country the best cultivated of any 
that in my life I had anywhere seen, every field lying as 
even as a bowling-green, and the fences, plantations, and 
husbandry, in such admirable order, as infinitely delighted 
me, after the sad and afflicting spectacles and objects I 
was come from. Observing almost every tall tree to have 
a weathercock on the top bough, and some trees half-a- 
dozen, I learned that, on a certain holyday, the farmers 
feast their servants ; at which solemnity, they set up these 
cocks, in a kind of triumph. 

Being come back towards Rochester, I went to take 
order respecting the building a strong and high wall about 
a house I had hired of a gentleman, at a place called 
Hartlip, for a prison, paying £50 yearly rent. Here I 
settled a Provost-Marshal and other officers, returning by 
Feversham. .On the 30th, heard a sermon in Rochester 
cathedral, and so got to Saves Court on the first of April. 

4th April. I went to see the fopperies of the Papists at 
Somerset-House and York-House, where now the French 
Ambassador had caused to be represented our Blessed 
Saviour at the Paschal Supper with his Disciples, in figures 



1672.] JOHN EVELYN. 73 

and puppets made as big as the life, of wax-work, curiously 
clad and sitting round a large table, the room nobly hung, 
and shining with innumerable lamps and candles : this 
was exposed to all the world; all the City came to see 
it : such liberty had the Roman Catholics at this time 
obtained ! 

16th. Sat in Council, preparing Lord Willoughby^s 
commission and instructions as Governor of Barbadoes and 
the Caribbee Islands. 

17th. Sat on business in the Star Chamber. 

19th. At Council, preparing instructions for Colonel 
Stapleton, now to go Governor of St. Christopher^s ; and 
heard the complaints of the Jamaica merchants against 
the Spaniards, for hindering them from cutting logwood 
on the main land, where they have no pretence. 

21st. To my Lord of Canterbury, to entreat him to 
engage Sir John Cutler, the patron, to provide us a grave 
and learned man, in opposition to a novice. 

30th. Congratulated Mr. Treasurer Clifford's new honour, 
being made a Baron. 

2nd May. My son, John, was specially admitted of the 
Middle Temple by Sir Francis North, his Majesty's 
Solicitor- General, and since Chancellor. I pray God bless 
this beginning, my intention being that he should seriously 
apply himself to the study of the law ! 

10th. I was ordered, by letter from the Council, to 
repair forthwith to his Majesty, whom I found in the 
Pall-Mall, in St. James's Park, where his Majesty coming 
to me from the company, commanded me to go immediately 
to the sea-coast, and to observe the motion of the Dutch 
fleet and ours, the Duke and so many of the flower of our 
nation being now under sail, coming from Portsmouth, 
through the Downs, where it was beheved there might be 
an encounter. 

11th. Went to Chatham. — 12th. Heard a sermon in 
Rochester Cathedral. 

13th. To Canterbury; visited Dr. Bargrave,* my old 
fellow-traveller in Itaty, and great virtuoso. 

14th. To Dover; but the fleet did not appear till the 

* Dean of Canterbury, a great benefactor to the Cathedral Library there. 
See in Todd's " Life of Milton," some curious particulars concerning him. 



7^ DIARY OF [marg*tk, 

16th, when the Duke of York with his and the French 
squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 were men- 
of-war) sailed by, after the Dutch, who were newly with- 
drawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I 
think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet 
terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing eastward 
by the straits betwixt Dover and Calais in a glorious day. 
The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go aboard, 
and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, 
having visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted 
the Governor, I took horse for Margate. Here, from the 
North Foreland Light-house-top (which is a Pharos, built 
of brick and having on the top a cradle of iron in which a 
man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when 
the nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors) we could 
see our fleet as they lay at anchor. The next morning, 
they weighed, and sailed out of sight to the N. E. 

19th. Went to Margate; and, the following day, was 
carried to see a gallant widow, brought up a farmeress, 
and I think of gigantic race, rich, comely, and exceedingly 
industrious. She put me in mind of Deborah and Abigail, 
her house was so plentifully stored with all manner of 
country -provisions, all of her own growth, and all her con- 
veniences so substantial, neat, and well understood ; she 
herself so jolly and hospitable ; and her land so trim and 
rarely husbanded, that it struck me with admiration at her 
economy. 

This town much consists of brewers of a certain heady 
ale, and they deal much in malt, &c. For the rest, it is 
raggedly built, and has an ill haven, with a small fort of 
little concernment, nor is the island well disciplined ; but, 
as to the husbandry and rural part, far exceeding any part 
of England, for the accurate culture of their ground, in 
which they exceed, even to curiosity and emulation. 

We passed by Rickborough, and in sight of Reculvers, 
and so thi'ough a sweet garden as it were, to Canterbury. 

24th. To London, and gave his Majesty an account of 
my journey, and that I had put all things in readiness 
upon all events, and so returned home sufficiently wearied. 

31st. I received another command to repair to the 
seaside; so I went to Rochester, where I found many 
wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the 



1672.] JOHN EVELYN, 75 

engagement on the 28tlij in wliicli tlie Earl of Sandwich, 
that incomparable person and my particular friend, and 
divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was 
Admiral of the Blue) was in the Prince, which was burnt, 
one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvass on 
the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of 
Sir Charles Cotterell (Master of the Ceremonies), and a 
son of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's Surveyor- 
General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full 
of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves ; 
but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honoured 
and loved above their own lives. 

Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things 
past. It was not above a day or two that going to White- 
hall to take leave of his Lordship, who had his lodgings 
in the Privy-Garden, shaking me by the hand he bid me 
good-bye, and said he thought he should see me no more, 
and I saw, to my thinking, something boding in his 
countenance ; " No,'' says he, " they will not have me 
live. Had I lost a fleet, (meaning on his return from 
Bergen when he took the East India prize) I should have 
fared better ; but, be as it pleases God — I must do some- 
thing, I know not what, to save my reputation." Some- 
thing to this eftect, he had hinted to me; thus I took my 
leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle, and 
my now Lord Clifford, had, I know not why, no great 
opinion of his courage, because, in former conflicts, being 
an able and experienced seaman (which neither of them 
were), he always brought off" his Majesty's ships without 
loss, though not without as many marks of true courage 
-as the stoutest of them ; and I am a witness that, in the 
late war, his own ship was pierced like a colander. But 
the business was, he was utterly against this war from tlie 
beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the Smyrna 
fleet ; he did not favour the heady expedition of Cliff"ord 
at Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident as was the 
Duke of Albemarle, who believed he could vanquish the 
Hollanders with one squadron. My Lord Sandwich was 
prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his aff'airs 
with success and little loss ; he was for deliberation and 
reason, they for action and slaughter without either ; and 
for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich was not so 



76 DIARY OP [ROCHESTER, 

gallant, because he was not so rash, and knew how fatal it 
was to lose a fleet, such as was that under his conduct, 
and for which these very persons would have censured him 
on the other side. This it was, I am confident, grieved 
him and made him enter like a lion, and fight hke one, 
too, in the midst of the hottest service, where the stoutest 
of the rest seeing him engaged, and so many ships upon 
him, durst not, or would not, come to his succour, as some 
of them, whom I know, might have done. Thus, this 
gallant person perished, to gratify the pride and envy of 
some I named. 

Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished 
persons, not only of this nation but of any other. He 
was learned in sea-afi'airs, in politics, in mathematics, and 
in music ; he had been on divers embassies, was of a sweet 
and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, a true 
nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince ; nor 
has he left any behind him who approach his many virtues. 

He had, I confess, served the tyrant, Cromwell, when 
a young man, but it was without malice, as a soldier of 
fortune; and he readily submitted, and that with joy, 
bringing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at the 
first tidings of his Majesty's restoration. I verily believe 
him as faithful a subject, as any that were not his friends. 
I am yet heartily grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I 
call it to my thoughts without emotion. 

2nd June. Trinity- Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, 
on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur 
E-abiniere, Rear- Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant 
person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. 
This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the 
decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to 
come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there 
with his guards ; and the Dean and Prebendaries : one of 
his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the 
brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. 
This is more at large described in the Gazette of that 
day ; Colonel Reymes, my colleague in commission, assist- 
ing, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, 
though it was not his district ; for indeed the stress of 
both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my 
brethren, who had little to do in theirs. — I went to see 



1672.J JOHN EVELYN. 77 

Upnore Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of 
no great moment. 

Next day, I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy 
of the Nore, where I met his Majesty, the Duke, Lord 
Arlington, and all the great men, in the Charles, lying 
miserably shattered ; but the miss of Lord Sandwich 
redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding 
so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no pro- 
vocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, 
and in all things but envy. 

At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty and his Royal 
Highness an account of my charge, and returned to 
Queenborough ; next day, dined at Major DoreFs, 
Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the 
following day, home. 

12th. To London to his Majesty, to solicit for money 
for the sick and wounded, which he promised me. 

19th. To London again, to solicit the same. 

21st. At a Council of Plantations. Most of this week 
busied with the sick and wounded. 

Srd July. To Lord Sandwich's funeral, which was by 
water to Westminster, in solemn pomp. 

31st. I entertained the Maids of Honour (among whom 
there was one I infinitely esteemed for her many and 
extraordinary virtues) at a comedy this afternoon, and so 
went home.* 

1st August. I was at the marriage of Lord Arlington's 
only daughter (a sweet child if ever there was any t) to 
the Duke of Grafton, the King's natural son by the 
Duchess of Cleveland; the Archbishop of Canterbury 
officiating, the King and all the grandees being present. 
I had a favour given me by my Lady ; but took no great 
joy at the thing for many reasons. 

18th. Sir James Hayes, Secretary to Prince Rupert, 
dined with me : after dinner, I was sent for to Gravesend, 
to dispose of no fewer than 800 sick men. That night, I 
got to the fleet at the buoy of the Nore, where I spake 

* Mrs. Blagg, whom he afterwards characterizes as a rare example of piety 
and virtue in so rare a wit, beauty, and perfection, in a licentious court and 
depraved age. She was afterwards married to Mr. Godolphin. 

,t She was then only five years old. 



78 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

with the King and the Duke ; and, after dinner next day, 
returned to Gravesend. 

Ist September. I spent this week in soliciting for 
moneys, and in reading to my Lord Clifford my papers 
relating to the first Holland war. — Now, our Council of 
Plantations met at Lord Shaftesbury's (Chancellor of the 
Exchequer) to read and reform the draught of our new 
Patent, joining the Council of Trade to our political 
capacities. After this, I returned home, in order to 
another excursion to the sea-side, to get as many as 
possible of the men who were recovered on board the 
fleet. 

8th. I lay at Gravesend, thence to Rochester, returning 
on the 11th. 

15th. Dr. Duport, Greek Professor of Cambridge, 
preached before the King on 1 Timothy, vi. 6. No great 
preacher, but a very worthy and learned man. 

25th. I dined at Lord John Berkeley's,* newly arrived 
out of Ireland, where he had been Deputy ; it was in his 
new house,t or rather palace ; for I am assured it stood 
him in near £30,000. It is very well built, and has many 
noble rooms, but they are not very convenient, consisting 
but of one Corps de Logis ; they are all rooms of state, 
without closets. The staircase is of cedar, the furniture 
is princely : the kitchen and stables are ill-placed, and the 
corridor worse, having no report to the wings they join to. 
For the rest, the fore-court is noble, so are the stables ; 
and, above all, the gardens, which are incomparable by 
reason of the inequality of the ground, and a pretty 
piscina. The holly hedges on the terrace I advised the 
planting of. The porticos are in imitation of a house 
described by Palladio ; but it happens to be the worst in 
his book, though my good friend, Mr. Hugh May, his 
Lordship's architect, effected it. 

26th. I carried with me to dinner my Lord H. Howard 
(now to be made Earl of Norwich and Earl Marshal of 
England) to Sir Robert Clayton's, now Sheriff of London, 

* Lord Berkeley, of Stratton. 

+ Berkeley-House was burnt to the groxmd by accident. The site was on 
a farm called Hay-hill Farm, the uames of which are preserved in Hay-street, 
Hill-street, Farm-street. Devonshire House, Lansdown House, Berkeley 
Square, &c. are built on part of the ground. 



1672.] JOHN EVELYN. 79 

at his new house^* where we had a great feast ; it is built 
indeed for a great magistrate, at excessive cost. The cedar 
dining-room is painted with the history of the Giants* 
"War, incomparably done by Mr. Streeter, but the figures 
are too near the eye. 

6th October. Dr. Thistlethwait preached at Whitehall 
on Rev. v. 2, — a young, but good preacher. I received 
the blessed Communion, Dr. Blandford, Bishop of Wor- 
cester, and Dean of the Chapel, ofiiciating. Dined at my 
Lord Clifford's, with Lord Mulgrave, Sir Gilbert Talbot, 
and Sir Robert Holmes. 

8th. I took leave of my Lady Sunderland, who was 
going to Paris to my Lord, now ambassador there. She 
made me stay dinner at Leice8ter-House,t and afterwards 
sent for Richardson, the famous fire-eater. He devoured 
brimstone on glowing coals before us, chewing and 
swallowing them ; he melted a beer-glass and eat it quite 
up ; then, taking a live coal on his tongue, he put on it a 
raw oyster, the coal was blown on with bellows till it 
flamed and sparkled in his mouth, and so remained till 
the oyster gaped and was quite boiled. Then, he melted 
pitch and wax with sulphur, which he drank down, as it 
flamed ; I saw it flaming in his mouth, a good while ; he 
also took up a thick piece of iron, such as laundresses use 
to put in their smoothing-boxes, when it was fiery hot,, 
held it between his teeth, then in his hand, and threw it 
about like a stone ; but this I observed, he cared not to 
hold very long; then, he stood on a small pot; and, 
bending his body, took a glowing iron with his mouth 
from between his feet, without touching the pot, or 

* Situate in the Old Jewry. Sir Robert built it to keep his shrievalty, 
which he did with great magnificence. It was for some years the resi- 
dence of Mr. Samuel Sharp, an eminent surgeon, and was afterwards 
occupied (viz. from 1806 to tlie close of the year 1811) by the London Insti- 
tution for their library and reading-rooms, previously to their temporary 
removal to King's Arms Yard, Coleman-street. This Literary Institution, 
establislied by Cliarter, was fin.ally settled in a now and splendid mansion, 
purposely erected by the proprietors, from a design by Mr. W. Brooks, on 
tlie north side of Mooi-fields, in 1818. — Streeter's paintings have been long 
placed in the family seat of the Claytons, at Marden, near Godstone, Surrey. 

f A handsome brick building, on the north side of Leicester-square. In 
1708, it was occupied by the Imperial Ambassador, let to him by the Earl of 
Leicester. — Ilatton's New View of London, vol. II. 



go DIARY OP [LONDON, 

ground, with his hands ; with divers other prodigious 
feats. 

18th. After sermon, (being summoned before) I went to 
my Lord Keeper's, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, at Essex 
House,* where our new patent was opened and read, con- 
stituting us that were of the Council of Plantations, to be 
now of the Council of Trade also, both united. After the 
patent was read, we all took our oaths, and departed. 

24th. Met in Council, the Earl of Shaftesbury, now our 
President, swearing our Secretary and his clerks, which 
was Mr. Locke,t an excellent learned gentleman, and 
student of Christ Church, Mr. Lloyd, and Mr. Frowde. 
We despatched a letter to Sir Thomas Linch, Governor of 
Jamaica, giving him notice of a design of the Dutch on 
that island. 

27th. I went to hear that famous preacher. Dr. Framp- 
ton, at St. Giles's, on Psalm xxxix. 6. This divine had 
been twice at Jerusalem, and was not only a very pious 
and holy man, but excellent in the pulpit for the moving 
affections. 

8th November. At Council, we debated the business of 
the consulate of Leghorn. I was of the Committee with 
Sir Humphry Winch, the chairman, to examine the laws 
of his Majesty's several plantations and colonies in the 
West Indies, &c. 

15th. Many merchants were summoned about the con- 
sulate of Venice ; which caused great disputes ; the most 
considerable thought it useless. This being the Queen- 
Consort's birth-day, there was an extraordinary appearance 
of gallantry, and a ball danced at Court. 

30th. I was chosen Secretary to the Royal Society. 

21st December. Settled the consulate of Venice. 

1672-3. 1st January. After public prayers in the chapel 
at Whitehall, when I gave God solemn thanks for all his 
mercies to me the year past, and my humble supplications 
to him for his blessing the year now entering, I returned 

• It stood near St. Clement's Clmrch, in the Strand, and the site is still 
commemorated in Essex Street, Essex Place, Essex Court, and Devereux 
Court. 

+ The celebrated John Locke. When Lord Shaftesbury withdrew to Hol- 
land, Locke followed him, for which he was deprived of his student's place, by 
an order from the Kin<;. 



1673.] JOHN EVELYN. 81 

liome^ having my poor deceased servant (Adams) to bury, 
who died of a pleurisy. 

3rd. My son now published his version of " Rapinus 
Hortorum." * 

28th. Visited Don Francisco de Melos, the Portugal 
Ambassador, who showed me his curious collection of 
books and pictures. He was a person of good parts, and 
a virtuous man. 

6th February. To Council about reforming an abuse of 
the dyers with saundus, and other false drugs ; examined 
divers of that trade. 

23rd. The Bishop of Chichesterf preached before the 
King on Coloss. ii. 14, 15, admirably well, as he can do 
nothing but what is well. 

5th March. Our new vicar, Mr. Holden, preached in 
"Whitehall chapel, on Psalm iv. 6, 7. This gentleman is 
a very excellent and universal scholar, a good and wise 
man; but he had not the popular way of preaching, nor is 
in any measure fit for our plain and vulgar auditory, as 
his predecessor was. There was, however, no comparison 
betwixt their parts for profound learning ; but time and 
experience may form him to a more practical way than 
that he is in of University lectures and erudition ; which 
is now universally left off for what is much more profitable. 

15th. I heard the speech made to the Lords in their 
House by Sir Samuel Tuke, in behalf of the Papists, to 
take ofi" the penal laws ; and then dined with Colonel 
Norwood. 

16th. Dr. Pearson, Bishop of Chester,! preached on 
Hebrews ix. 14 ; a most incomparable sermon from one 
of the most learned divines of our nation. I dined at my 
Lord Arlington's with the Duke and Duchess of Monmouth; 
she is one of the wisest and craftiest of her sex, and has 
much wit. Here was also the learned Isaac Vossius. 

* Of Gardens. Four Books. First written in Latin verse, by Renatus 
Rapinus, and now made English. By I. E. London, 1673. Dedicated to 
Henry, Earle of Arlington, &c. &c, &c. The Dedication is re-pruited in 
Evelyn's « Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 623, 624. 

f Dr. Peter Gunning, formerly Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
afterwards Bishop of Ely. Burnet says of him that he was a man of great 
reading, a very honest, sincere man, but of no sound judgment. History of 
his own Times, I., p. 297. 
.J Well known by his valuable Exposition of the Creed. 
VOL. II. G 



gg DIARY OF [LONDON, 

During Lent, there is constantly the most excellent 
preaching by the most eminent bishops and divines of the 
nation. 

26th. I was sworn a younger brother of the Trinity- 
House, with my most worthy and long-acquainted noble 
friend, Lord Ossory (eldest son to the Duke of Ormond), 
Sir Richard Browne, my father-in-law, being now Master 
of that Society ; after which there was a great collation. 

29th. I carried my son to the Bishop of Chichester, 
that learned and pious man, Dr. Peter Gunning,* to be 
instructed by him before he received the Holy Sacrament, 
when he gave him most excellent advice, which I pray God 
may influence and remain with him as long as he lives; 
and O that I had been so blessed and instructed, when 
first I was admitted to that sacred ordinance ! 

30th. Easter-Day ; myself and son received the blessed 
Communion, it being his first time, and with that whole 
week^s more extraordinary preparation. I beseech God 
to make him a sincere good Christian, whilst I endeavour 
to instil into him the fear and love of God, and discharge 
the duty of a father. 

At the sermon coram Rege, preached by Dr. Sparrow, 
Bishop of Exeter, to a most crowded auditory; I staid 
to see whether, according to custom, the Duke of York 
received the Communion with the King ; but he did not, 
to the amazement of every body. This being the second 
year he had forborne, and put it off, and within a day of 
the Parliament sitting, who had lately made so severe an 
Act against the increase of Popery, gave exceeding grief 
and scandal to the whole nation, that the heir of it, and 
the son of a martyr for the Protestant religion, should 
apostatize. What the consequence of this will be, God 
only knows, and wise men dread. 

11th April. I dined with the plenipotentiaries designed 
for the treaty of Nimeguen. 

17th. I carried Lady Tuke to thank the Countess of 
Arlington for speaking to his Majesty in her behalf, for 
being one of the Queen-Consort's women. She carried 
us up into her new dressing-room at Goring House, where 
was a bed, two glasses, silver jars, and vases, cabinets, and 

^ * See note in page 81. 



1673.] JOHN EVELYN. gg 

other so rich furniture as I had seldom seen; to this 
excess of superfluity were we now arrived^ and that not 
only at Court, but almost universally, even to wantonness 
and profusion. 

Dr. Compton, brother to the Earl of Northampton, 
preached on 1 Corinth, v. 11 — 16, showing the Church's 
power in ordaining things indiff'erent ; this worthy person's 
talent is not preaching, but he is like to make a grave and 
serious good man.* 

I saw her Majesty's rich toilet in her dressing-room, 
being all of massy gold, presented to her by the King, 
valued at £4000. 

26th. Dr. Lamplugh preached at St. Martin's, the Holy 
Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation 
of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining everybody in 
oifice, civil or military, under penalty of £500, to receive 
it within one month before two authentic witnesses ; being 
engrossed on parchment, to be afterwards produced in the 
Court of Chancery, or some other Court of Record ; which 
I did at the Chancery-bar, as being one of the Council of 
Plantations and Trade; taking then also the oath of 
allegiance and supremacy, signing the clause in the said 
Act against Transubstantiation. 

25th May. My son was made a younger brother of the 
Trinity-House. The new Master was Sir J. Smith, one 
of the Commissioners of the Navy, a stout seaman, who 
had interposed and saved the Duke from perishing by a 
fire-ship in the late war. 

28th. I carried one Withers, an ingenious shipwright, 
to the King, to show him some new method of building, 

29th. I saw the Italian comedy at the Court, this 
afternoon. 

10th June. Came to visit and dine with me, my Lord 
Viscount Cornbury and his Lady; Lady Frances Hyde, 
sister to the Duchess of York ; and Mrs. Dorothy Howard, 
Maid of Honour. We went, after dinner, to see the formal 
and formidable camp on Blackheath, raised to invade 
Holland; or, as others suspected, for another design. 

* Henry, sixtli son of the second Earl of Northampton, educated at Oxford, 
was a cornet in Lord Oxford's regiment of guards, took orders, and was suc- 
cessively Bishop of Oxford and London ; in which last See he died, 1713, 
aged 81. 

g2 



34 DIARY OP ■ [LONDON, 

Thence, to the Italian glass-house at Greenwich, where glass 
was blown of finer metal than that of Murano, at Venice, 

13th. Came to visit us, with other ladies of rank, Mrs, 
Sedley,* daughter to Sir Charles, who was none of the 
most virtuous, but a wit. 

19th. Congratulated the new Lord Treasurer, Sir 
Thomas Osborne, a gentleman with whom I had been 
intimately acquainted at Paris, and who was every day 
at my father-in-law^s house and table there; on which 
account, I was too confident of succeeding in his favour, 
as I had done in his predecessor's ; but such a friend shall 
I never find, and I neglected my time, far from believing- 
that my Lord Clifford would have so rashly laid down his 
staff, as he did, to the amazement of all the world, when 
it came to the test of his receiving the Communion, which 
I am confident he forbore more from some promise he had 
entered into to gratify the Duke, than from any prejudice 
to the Protestant religion, though I found him wavering a 
pretty while. 

23rd. To London, to accompany our Council, who went 
in a body to congratulate the new Lord Treasurer, no 
friend to it, because promoted by my Lord Arlington, 
whom he hated. 

26th. Came visitors from Court to dine with me, and 
see the army still remaining encamped on Blackheath, 

6th July. This evening, I went to the funeral of my 
dear and excellent friend, that good man and accomplished 
gentleman. Sir Robert Murray,t Secretary of Scotland. 
He was buried by order of his Majesty in Westminster 
Abbey. 

25 th, I went to Tunbridge Wells, to -vasit my Lord 
Clifford, late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his 
mind more than his body ; it was believed that he had so 
engaged himself to the Duke, that rather than take the 
Test, without which he was not capable of holding any 
office, he would resign that great and honourable station. 

* The Duke of York's mistress, and afterwaa-ds created by him Coimtessof 
Dorchester. 

f He was universally beloved and esteemed by men of all sides and sorts — 
the life and soul of the Royal Society. He delighted in every occasion of 
doing good. He had a superiority of genius and comprehension. Burnet, 
vol. I., p. 90. 



1673.] JOHN EVELYN. 85 

This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last 
broke it j for, though he carried with him music and people 
to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in 
his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I 
found he was struggling in his mind ; and, being of a 
rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the 
necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this 
conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was 
made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the 
Exchequer,* very unprosperous. These things his high 
spirit could not support. Having staid here two or three 
days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return. 

In my way, I saw my Lord of Dorset's house at Knowle, 
near Sevenoaks, a great old-fashioned house. 

30th. To Council, where the business of transporting 
wool was brought before us. 

olst. I went to see the pictures of all the judges and 
eminent men of the Long Eobe, newly painted by Mr. 
Wright, and set up in Guildhall, costing the City £1000. 
Most of them are very like the persons they represent, 
though I never took Wright to be any considerable artist. 

13th August. I rode to Durdans, where I dined at my 
Lord Berkeley's of Berkeley-Castle, my old and noble 
friend, it being his wedding-anniversary, where I found the 
Duchess of Albemarle, and other company, and returned 
home on that evening, late. 

15th. Came to visit me my Lord Chancellor, the Earl 
of Shaftesbury. 

18th. My Lord Clifford, being about this time returned 
from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to 
take my leave of him at Wallingford-House ; he was pack- 
ing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts, 
and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, &c. I foundhim 
in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, 
and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, 
on engaging me to write the History of the Holland War, 
with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord 
Arlington, who, from a private gentleman of a very noble 

* Burnet says the Earl of Shaftesbury was the chief man in this advice. 
There is a story, though I do not recollect the author, that Shaftesbiiry formed 
the plan, that Clifford got at it over a bottle of wine, and carried it to the 
Kins; as his own. 



g^ DIARY OF [LONDON, 

family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from 
almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parlia- 
ment, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners 
of sick and wounded, on which occasion, we sate long 
together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was 
made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, 
yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of 
Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by 
letters to Lord Arlington, which that Lord showed me,^ 
begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very 
height of his ambition. These were written with such 
submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had 
never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of South- 
ampton then dying, he was made one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Treasury. His Majesty inclining to put it 
into one hand, my Lord CliflFord, under pretence of making 
all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington, cut the 
grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring 
the King that Lord Arlington did not desire it. Indeed, 
my Lord Arlington protested to me that his confidence in 
Lord Clifi'ord made him so remiss, and his afl'ection to him 
was so particular, that he Avas absolutely minded to devolve 
it on Lord Clifford, all the world knowing how he himself 
affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little 
thinking of this go-by. This was the only great ingra- 
titude Lord Clifi'ord showed, keeping my Lord Arlington 
in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing 
his interest, which was the Duke's, into whose great 
favour Lord Clifi'ord was now gotten ; but which certainly 
cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably" 
far in his interest. 

For the rest, my Lord CliflFord was a valiant incon'upt 
gentleman, ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, 
a most constant sincere friend, to me in particulai*, so 
as when he laid down his ofiice, I was at the end of all my 
hopes and endeavours. These were not for high matters, 
but to obtain what his Majesty was really indebted to my 
father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and 
which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had 
stood. Sir Thomas Osborn, who succeeded him, though 
much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family^ 
and my long and old acquaintance, beiog of a more 



1C73.] JOHN EVELYN. ^7 

haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for 
little ; a man of excellent natural parts ; but nothing of 
generous or grateful. 

Taking leave of my Lord Clifford, he wrung me by the 
hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b^e, 
adding, " Mr. E., I shall never see thee more." "No \" 
said I, " my Lord, what ^s the meaning of this ? I hope 
I shall see you often, and as great a person again." " No, 
Mr. E., do not expect it, I will never see this place, this 
City, or Court again," or words of this sound. In this 
manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted from 
him ; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was 
dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he 
made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. 
This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived 
in the house, and afterwards with Sir Robert Clayton, 
Lord IMayor, did, as well as others, report it ; and, when 
I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his 
trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse. 

It was reported with these particulars that, causing 
his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking 
himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the 
bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dis- 
missing him, and looking through the key-hole, (as I 
remember) and seeing his master hanging, brake in before 
he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great 
deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words, " Well ; 
let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God 
above ; " after which he spake no more. This, if true, is 
dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch 
war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in 
attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel. 

This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor 
Shaftesbury affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren 
the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not long after 
this accident being mentioned as we were one day sitting 
in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable passage ; 
that, being one day discoursing with him when he was 
only Sir Thomas Clifford, speaking of men^s advancement 
to great charges in the nation, " Well," says he, " my 
Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in England.. 



g^ DIARY OP [londok, 

Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity ; I am 
certain that I shall be a mighty man ; but it will not last 
long; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody death/* 
"What," says my Lord, " your horoscope tells you so ?" 
" No matter for that, it will be as I tell you." " Well," 
says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, " if I were of that 
opinion, I either would not be a great man, but decline 
preferment, or prevent my danger." 

This my Lord affirmed in my hearing, before several 
gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. 
And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what 
Sir Edward Walker (Garter King-at-Arms) had likewise 
affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first 
made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on 
his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him 
go into his study, and divert himself there till he was at 
leisure to discourse with him about some things relating 
to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, 
his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing 
under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the 
highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon 
him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, 
or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot 
confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed 
both to me and Sir Richard Browne ; nor could I forbear 
to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs. 

14th September. Dr. Creighton, son to the late eloquent 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, preached to the Household on 
Isaiah, Ivii. 8. • 

15tli. I procured £4000 of the Lords of the Treasuiy, 
and rectified divers matters about the sick and wounded. 

16th. To Council, about choosing a new Secretary. 

17th. I went with some friends to visit Mr. Bernard 
Grenville, at Abs Court, in Surrey; an old house in a 
pretty park.* 

23rd. I went to see Paradise, a room in Hatton-Garden, 
furnished with the representation of all sorts of animals 
handsomely painted on boards, or cloth, and so cut out 
and made to stand, move, fly, crawl, roar, and make their 

• At Walton-on-Thames. 



1673.] JOHN EVELYN. 89 

several cries. The man wlio showed it^ made us laugh 
heartily at his formal poetry. 

15th October. To Council^ and swore in Mr. Locke, 
secretary, Dr. Worsley being dead. 

27th. To Council, about sending succours to recover 
New York: and then we read the commission and in- 
structions to Sir Jonathan Atkins, the new Governor of 
Earbadoes. 

5th November. This night the youths of the City burnt 
the Pope in effigy, after they had made procession with it 
in great triumph, they being displeased at the Duke for 
altering his religion, and marrying an Italian lady.* 

30th. On St. Andrew^s day, I first saw the new Duchess 
of York, and the Ducliess of Modena, her mother. 

1st December. To Gresham College, whither the City 
had invited the Koyal Society by many of their chief 
aldermen and magistrates, who gave us a collation, to 
welcome us to our first place of assembly, from whence we 
had been driven to give place to the City, on their making 
it their Exchange, on the dreadful conflagration, till their 
new Exchange was finished, Mdiich it now was. The 
Society having till now been entertained and having met 
at Arundel House.f 

2nd. I dined with some friends, and visited the sick : 
thence, to an alms-house where was prayers and relief, 
some very ill and miserable. It was one of the best days 
I ever spent in my life. 

3rd. There was at dinner my Lord Lockhart, designed 
ambassador for France, a gallant and a sober person. 

9th. I saw again the Italian Duchess and her brother, 
the Prince Reynaldo. 

20th. I had some discourse with certain strangers, not 
unlearned, who had been born not far from Old Nineveh ; 
they assured me of the ruins being still extant, and vast 
and wonderful were the buildings, vaults, pillars, and mag- 
nificent fragments ; but they could say little of the Tower 
of Babel that satisfied me : but the description of the 

» The Princess Mary Beatrice D'Este, daughter of the Duke of Modena. 

f Situated near tlie Strand. It was pulled down at the end of the 1 7th 
century, but the family names, and the titles, are retained in the streets 
which rose on its site, viz. that of Howard, Norfolk, Arundel, and Surrey. 



90 DIARY OF [WINDSOR, 

amenity and fragrancy of the country for health and cheer- 
fulness, delighted me ; so sensibly they spake of the 
excellent air and climate in respect of our cloudy and 
splenetic country. 

24th. Visited the prisoners at Ludgate, taking orders 
about the releasing of some. 

30th. I gave Almighty God thanks for His infinite good- 
ness to me the year past, and begged His mercy and 
protection the year following: afterwards, invited my 
neighbours to spend the day vrith me. 

1673-4. 5th January. I saw an Italian opera in music, 
the first that had been in England of this kind. 

9th. Sent for by his Majesty to write something against 
the Hollanders about the duty of the Flag and Fishery. 
Returned with some papers. 

25th March. I dined at Knightsbridge, with the Bishops 
of Salisbury, Chester, and Lincoln, my old friends. 

29th May. His Majesty's birth-day and Restoration. 
Mr. Demalhoy, Roger L'Estrange, and several of my 
friends, came to dine with me on the happy occasion. 

27th June. Mr. Dryden, the famous poet and now 
laureate, came to give me a visit. It was the anniversary 
of my marriage, and the first day I went into my new little 
cell and cabinet, which I built below towards the south 
court, at the east end of the parlour. 

9th July. Paid £360 for purchase of Dr. Jacombe's 
son's share in the mill and land at Deptford, which I 
bought of the Beechers. 

22nd. I went to Windsor with my wife and son to see 
my daughter Mary, who was there with my Lady Tuke, 
and to do my duty to his Majesty. Next day, to a great 
entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's at Cranbourne 
Lodge, in the Forest ; there were his Majesty, the Queen, 
Duke, Duchess, and all the Court. I returned in the 
evening with Sir Joseph Williamson, now declared Secre- 
tary of State. He was son of a poor clergyman somewhere 
in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College, Oxford, of 

which he came to be a fellow ; then travelled with 

and returning when the King was restored, was received 
as a Clerk under Mr. Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry 
Bennett (now Lord Arlington) succeeding, WilHamson is 
transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business 



1674.] JOHN EVELYN. 91 

(thoiigli sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) 
remitted all to his man Williamson ; and, in a short time, 
let him so into the secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship 
himself told me) there was a kind of necessity to advance 
him ; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, 
he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord 
Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been 
the fate of this obliging favourite to advance those who 
soon forgot their original. Sir Joseph was a musician, 
could play at Jeu de Goblets, exceeding formal, a severe 
master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord 
©""Brien, that after a few months of that gentleman's death, 
he married his widow,* who, being sister and heir of the 
Duke of Richmond, brought him a noble fortune. It was 
thought they lived not so kindly after marriage as they 
did before. She was much censured for marrying so 
meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family. 

6th August. I went to Groombridge, to see my old 
friend, Mr. Packer; the house built Avithin a moat, in a 
woody valley. The old house had been the place of con- 
finement of the Duke of Orleans, taken by one Waller 
(whose house it then was) at the battle of Agincourt, now 
demolished, and a new one built in its place, though a far 
better situation had been on the south of the wood, on a 
graceful ascent. At some small distance, is a large chapel, 
not long since built by Mr. Packer's father, on a vow he 
made to do it on the return of King Charles I. out of 
Spain, 1625, and dedicated to St. Charles, but what saint 
there was then of that name I am to seek, for, being a 
Protestant, I conceive it was not Borromeo. 

I went to see my farm at Ripe, near Lewes. 

19th. His Majesty told me how exceedingly the Dutch 
were displeased at my treatise of the " History of Com- 
merce ; " t that the Holland Ambassador had complained 

* Lady Catherine Stuart, sister and heir to Charles Stuart, Duke of Rich- 
mond and Lennox, the husband of tliat admired beauty, Mrs. Frances Stuart, 
with whom Charles the Second was so deeply in love, that he never forgave 
the Duke for marrying her, which, it is thought, he had formed some inten- 
tion of doing himself. He took the first opportunity of sending him into an 
honourable exile, as Ambassador to Denmark, where he shortly after died^ 
leaving no issue by the Duchess. 

+ Entitled " Navigation and Commerce, their Original and Progress, &c-. 
By I. Evelyn, Esq., S.R.S." 8vo, 1674. Dedicated to the King. This was. 



92 DIARY OF [WINDSOR, 

to him of what I had touched of the Flags and Fishery, 
«^c., and desired the book might be called in ; whilst^ on 
the other side, he assured me he was exceedingly pleased 
with what I had done, and gave me many thanks. How- 
ever, it being just upon conclusion of the treaty of Breda 
(indeed it was designed to have been published some 
months before and when we were at defiance), his Majesty 
told me he must recall it formally; but gave order that 
what copies should be publicly seized to pacify the Ambas- 
sador, should immediately be restored to the primter, and 
that neither he nor the vender should be molested. The 
truth is, that which touched the Hollander was much 
less than what the King himself furnished me with, and 
obliged me to publish, having caused it to be read to him 
before it went to the press ; but the error was, it should 
have been published before the peace was proclaimed. 
The noise of this book's suppression made it presently be 
bought up, and turned much to the stationer's advantage. 
It was no other than the Preface prepared to be prefixedtomy 
History of the whole War ; which I now pursued no further. 
21st. In one of the meadows at the foot of the longTerrace 
below the Castle [Windsor], works were thrown up to 
show the King a representation of the City of Maestricht, 
newly taken by the French. Bastions, bulwarks, ram- 
parts, paHsadoes, graffs, horn-Avorks, counterscarps, &c., 
were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Mon- 
mouth (newly come from the real siege) and the Duke of 
York, with a httle army, to show their skill in tactics. 
On Saturday night, they made their approaches, opened 
trenches, raised batteries, took the counterscarp and rave- 
lin, after a stout defence ; great guns fired on both sides, 
grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts 
of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys ; and, in short, 
all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, 
what is most strange, all without disorder, or ill accident, 
to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being 
night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, 
I went with Mr. Pepys back to London, where we arrived 
about three in the morning. 

in fact, only the introduction to the intended " History of the Dutch War," 
and is re- printed in his " Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 625 — 686. 



1674.] JOHN EVELYN. 93 

15th September. To Council, about fetching away the 
English left at Surinam, &c., since our reconciliation with 
Holland. 

21st. I went to see the great loss that Lord Arlington 
had sustained by fire at Goring House, this night con- 
sumed to the ground, with exceeding loss of hangings, 
plate, rare pictures, and cabinets ; hardly anything Avas 
saved of the best and most princely furniture that any 
subject had in England. My lord and lady were both 
absent at the Bath. 

6th October. The Lord Chief Baron Turner, and Ser- 
geant Wild, Recorder of London, came to visit me. 

20th. At Lord Berkeley's, I discoursed with Sir Thomas 
Modiford, late Governor of Jamaica, and with Colonel 
Morgan, who undertook that gallant exploit from Nombre 
de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of America ; he told 
me 10,000 men would easily conquer all the Spanish 
Indies, they were so secure. They took great booty, and 
much greater had been taken, had they not been betrayed 
and so discovered before their approach, by which the 
Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure on board 
ships that put off to sea in sight of our men, who had no 
boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and ravaged 
the country sixty miles about. The Spaniards were so 
supine and unexercised, that they were afraid to fire a 
great gun. 

31st. My birth-day, 54th year of my life. Blessed be 
God ! It was also preparation-day for the Holy Sacrament, 
in which I participated the next day, imploring God's 
protection for the year following, and confirming my reso- 
lutions of a more holy life, even upon the Holy Book. 
The Lord assist and be gracious unto me ! Amen. 

15tli November. The anniversary of my baptism : I first 
heard that famous and excellent preacher. Dr. Burnet 
(author of the History of the Reformation) on Colossians 
iii. 10, with such flow of eloquence and fulness of matter,, 
as showed him to be a person of extraordinary parts. 

Being her Majesty's birth-day, the Court was exceeding 
splendid in clothes and jewels, to the height of excess. 

17th, To Council, on the business of Surinam, where 
the Dutch had detained some English in prison, ever since 
the first war, 1GG5. 



94 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

19th. I heard that stupendous violin, Signor Nicholao 
(with other rare musicians), whom I never heard mortal 
man exceed on that instrument, lie had a stroke so 
sweet, and made it speak like the voice of a man, and, 
when he pleased, like a concert of several instruments. 
He did wonders upon a note, and was an excellent com- 
poser. Here was also that rare lutanist. Dr. Wallgrave ; 
but nothing approached the violin in Nicholao's hand. 
He played such ravishing things as astonished us all. 

2nd December. At Mr. Slingsby's, Master of the Mint, 
my worthy friend, a great lover of music. Heard Signor 
Francisco on the harpsichord, esteemed one of the most 
excellent masters in Europe on that instrument; then, 
came Nicholao with his violin, and struck all mute, but 
Mrs. Knight, who sung incomparably, and doubtless has 
the greatest reach of any English woman ; she had been 
lately roaming in Italy, and was much improved in that 
quality. 

15tli. Saw a comedy * at night, at Court, acted by the 
ladies only, amongst them Lady Mary and Ann, his Royal 
Highnesses two daughters, and my dear friend, Mrs. Blagg, 
who having the principal part, performed it to admiration. 
They were all covered with jewels. 

22nd. Was at the repetition of the Pastoral, on which 
occasion Mrs. Blagg had about her near £20,000 worth of 
jewels, of which she lost one worth about £80, borrowed 
of the Countess of Suffolk. The press was so great, that 
it is a wonder she lost no more. The Duke made it good. 

1674-5. 20th January. Went to see Mr. Streeter, that 
excellent painter of perspective and landscape, to comfort 
and encourage him to be cut for the stone, with which 
that honest man was exceedingly afflicted.f 

♦ This was the Masque of " Calisto, or the Chaste Nymph," by John 
Crowne. The perfonners in the piece were, the two daughters of the Duke 
of York, Lady Henrietta Wentworth (afterwards mistress to the Duke of 
Monmouth), Countess of Sussex, Lady Mai-y Mordaunt, Mrs. Blagg, who had 
been Maid of Honoiu- to the Queen, and Mrs. Jennings, then Maid of Honour 
to the Duchess of York, and who was afterwards the celebrated Duchess of 
Marlborough. The Duke of Monmouth, Lord Dumblaine, Lord Daincourt, 
and others, were the dancers ; and Mrs. Davis, Mrs. Knight, Mrs. Butler, and 
others, Ukewise acted and sung in the performance. Printed, London, 1675, 
in 4to. 

+ The King, it is said, who had a great regard for this artist, sent for a 
amous surgeon from Paris, on purpose to perform the operation. 



1675.] JOHN EVELYN. 95 

22nd March. Supped at Sir William Petty's, with the 
Bishop of Salisbury^ and divers honourable persons. We 
had a noble entertainment in a house gloriously furnished ; 
the master and mistress of it were extraordinary persons. 
Sir William was the son of a mean man somewhere in 
Sussex^ and sent from school to Oxford, where he studied 
Philosophy, but was most eminent in Mathematics and 
Mechanics : proceeded Doctor of Physic, and was grown 
famous, as for his learning so for his recovering a poor 
wench that had been hanged for felony; and her body 
having been begged (as the custom is) for the anatomy 
lecture, he bled her, put her to bed to a warm woman, 
and, with spirits and other means, restored her to life. * 
The young scholars joined and made a little portion, and 
married her to a man who had several children by her, she 
living fifteen years after, as I have been assured. Sir 
William came from Oxford to be tutor to a neighbour of 
mine ; thence, when the rebels were dividing their con- 
quests in Ireland, he was employed by them to measure 
and set out the land, which he did on an easy contract, so 
much per acre. This he effected so exactly, that it not 
only furnished him with a great sum of money; but 
enabled him to purchase an estate worth £4000 a year. 
He afterwards married the daughter of Sir Hardress 
Waller ; she was an extraordinary wit as well as beauty, 
and a prudent woman. 

Sir William, amongst other inventions, was author of 
the double- bottomed ship,t which perished, and he was 
censured for rashness, being lost in the Bay of Biscay in a 
storm, when, I think, fifteen other vessels miscarried. 

* For a full account of this very remarlcable event, see a pamphlet, entitled, 
" Newes from the Dead, or a true and exact Narration of the miraculous 
Deliverance of Anne Greene, who being executed at Oxford, Dec. 14, 1650, 
afterwards revived ; and by the care of certain Physicians there, is now per- 
fectly recovered. Oxford, the second Impression, with Additions, 4to, 1651." 
Added to the Narrative are several Copies of Verses in Latin, English, and 
French,"' by Gentlemen of the University, commemorative of the event ; 
amongst others, one by Joseph Williamson, afterwards Secretary of State, 
another by Christopher Wren, the famous architect, then of Wadham College, 
Walter Pope, Dr. Ralph Bathurst (the last under other names), and many 
more. This was reprinted, but very negligently, from the first and worst 
edition, in Morgan's " Phoenix Britannicus," 4to. 

t. See vol. i. pp. 378.387. 



96 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

This vessel was flat-bottomed, of exceeding use to put into 
shallow ports, and ride over small depths of water. It con- 
sisted of two distinct keels cramped together with huge 
timbers, &c., so as that a violent stream ran between ; it 
bare a monstrous broad sail, and he still persists that it is 
practicable, and of exceeding use ; and he has often told 
me he would adventure himself in such another, could he 
procure sailors, and his Majesty's permission to make a 
second Experiment ; which name the King gave the vessel 
at the launching. 

The INIap of Ireland made by Sir William Petty is 
believed to be the most exact that ever yet was made of 
any country. He did promise to publish it ; and I am told 
it has cost him near £1000 to have it engraved at Amster- 
dam. There is not a better Latin poet living, when he 
gives himself that diversion ; nor is his excellence less in 
Council and prudent matters of state ; but he is so exceed- 
ing nice in sifting and examining all possible contingencies, 
that he adventures at nothing which is not demonstration. 
There was not in the whole world his equal for a superin- 
tendent of manufacture and improvement of trade, or to 
govern a plantation. If I were a Prince, I should make 
him my second Counsellor, at least. There is nothing 
difficult to him. He is, besides, courageous ; on which 
account, I cannot but note a true story of him, that when 
Sir Aleyn Brodrick sent him a challenge upon a difference 
betwixt them in Ireland, Sir William, though exceedingly 
purblind, accepted the challenge, and it being his part to 
propound the weapon, desired his antagonist to meet him 
with a hatchet, or axe, in a dark cellar ; which the other, 
of course, refused. 

Sir William was, with aU this, facetious and of easy 
conversation, friendly and courteous, and had such a faculty 
of imitating others, that he would take a text and preach, 
now like a grave orthodox divine, then falling into the 
Presbyterian way, then to the fanatical, the Quaker, the 
monk and friar, the Popish priest, with such admirable 
action, and alteration of voice and tone, as it was not 
possible to abstain from wonder, and one would swear to 
hear several persons, or forbear to think he was not in good 
earnest an enthusiast and almost beside himself; then, he 
would fall out of it into a serious discourse ; but it was 



1675.] JOHN EVELYN. 97 

very rarely lie would be prevailed on to oblige tlic company 
with this faculty, and that only amongst most intimate 
friends. My Lord Duke of Ormond once obtained it of 
him, and was almost ravished with admiration ; but by- 
and-bye, he fell upon a serious reprimand of the faults and 
miscarriages of some Princes and Governors, which, though 
he named none, did so sensibly touch the Duke, who was 
then Lieutenant of Ireland, that he began to be very 
uneasy, and wished the spirit laid which he had raised, 
for he was neither able to endure such truths, nor could 
he but be delighted. At last, he melted his discourse to a 
ridiculous subject, and came down from the joint stool on 
which he had stood ; but my lord would not have him 
preach any more. He never could get favour at Court, 
because he outwitted all the projectors that came near him. 
Having never known such another genius, I cannot but 
mention these particulars, amongst a multitude of others 
which I could produce. When I, who knew him in mean 
circumstances, have been in his splendid palace, he would 
himself be in admiration how he arrived at it ; nor was it 
his value or inclination for splendid furniture and the 
curiosities of the age, but his elegant lady could endure 
nothing mean, or that was not magnificent. He was 
very negligent himself, and rather so of his person, and of 
a philosophic temper. " What a to-do is here ! " would he 
say, " I can lie in straw with as much satisfaction.^' 

He is author of the ingenious deductions from the bills 
of mortality, which go under the name of Mr. Graunt ; 
also of that useful discourse of the manufacture of wool, 
and several others in the register of the Royal Society. 
He was also author of that paraphrase on the 104th 
Psalm in Latin verse, which goes about in MS., and is 
inimitable. In a word, there is nothing impenetrable to 
him. 

20th. Dr. Brideoake, was elected Bishop of Chichester, 
on the translation of Dr. Gunning, to Ely. 

30th. Dr. Allestree preached on Romans, vi. 3, the 
necessity of those who are baptized, to die to sin; a very 
excellent discourse from an excellent preacher. 

25th April. Dr. Barrow,* that excellent, pious, and most 

* Master of Trinity College, Cambridge ; succeeded Dr. John Pearson, 
made Bishop of Chester, 

VOL. II. H 



98 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

learned man, divine, mathematician, poet, traveller, and 
most humble person, preached at Whitehall to the house- 
hold, on Luke, xx. 27, of love and charity to our 
neighbours. 

29th. I read my first discourse " Of Earth and Vegeta- 
tion " before the Royal Society as a lecture in course, after 
Sir Robert Southwell had read his the week before " On 
Water." I was commanded by our President, and the 
suffrage of the Society, to print it. 

16th May. This day was my dear friend, Mrs. Blagg, 
married at the Temple Church to my friend, Mr. Sidney 
Godolphin, Groom of the Bedchamber to his Majesty. 

18th. I went to visit one Mr. Bathurst, a Spanish 
merchant, my neighbour. 

81st. I went with Lord Ossory to Deptford, where we 
chose him Master of the Trinity Company. 

2nd June. I was at a conference of the Lords and Com- 
mons in the Painted Chamber, on a difference about 
imprisoning some of their members ; and, on the 3rd, at 
another conference, when the Lords accused the Commons 
for their transcendent misbehaviour, breach of privilege. 
Magna Charta, subversion of government, and other high, 
provoking, and diminishing expressions, showing what 
duties and* subjection they owed to the Lords in Parlia- 
ment, by record of Henry IV. This was likely to create 
a notable disturbance. 

15th. This afternoon, came Monsieur Querouaille and 
his lady, parents to the famous beauty and ***** 
favourite at Court, to see Sir E. Browne, with whom they 
were intimately acquainted in Bretagne, at the time Sir 
Richard was sent to Brest to supervise his Majesty's sea- 
affairs, during the later part of the King's banishment. 
This gentleman's house was not a mile from Brest ; Sir 
Richard made an acquaintance there, and, being used very 
civilly, was obliged to return it here, which we did. He 
seemed a soldierly person and a good fellow, as the Bretons 
generally are; his lady had been very handsome, and 
seemed a shrewd understanding woman. Conversing with 
him in our garden, I found several words of the Breton 
language the same with our Welch. His daughter was 
now made Duchess of Portsmouth, and in the height of 
favour ; but he never made any use of it. 



1675.] JOHN EVELYN. 99 

27th. At Ely House, I went to the consecration of my 
worthy friend, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's 
College, Oxford, now made Bishop of Lincoln. After it, 
succeeded a magnificent feast, where were the Duke of 
Ormond, Earl of Lauderdale, the Lord Treasurer, Lord 
Keeper, &c. 

8th July. I went with Mrs. Howard and her two 
daughters towards Northampton assizes, about a trial at 
law, in which I was concerned for them as a trustee. We 
lay this night at Henley-on-the-Thames, at our attorney, 
Mr. Stephens's, who entertained us very handsomely. 
Next day, dining at Shotover, at Sir Timothy Tjrrill's, a 
sweet place, we lay at Oxford, where it was the time of the 
Act. Mr. Robert Spencer, uncle to the Earl of Sunder- 
land, and my old acquaintance in France, entertained 
us at his apartment in Christ Church, with exceeding 
generosity. 

10th. The Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Bathurst (who had 
formerly taken particular care of my son). President of 
Trinity College, invited me to dinner, and did me great 
honour all the time of my stay. The next day, he invited 
me and all my company, though strangers to him, to a 
very noble feast. I was at all the academic exercises. — 
Sunday, at St. Mary's, preached a Fellow of Brazen-nose,, 
not a little magnifying the dignity of Churchmen. 

11th. We heard the speeches, and saw the ceremony 
of creating Doctors in Divinity, Law, and Physic. I had^ 
early in the morning, heard Dr. Morison, Botanic Pro- 
fessor, read on divers plants in the Physic Garden : and 
saw that rare collection of natural curiosities of Dr. Plot's, 
of Magdalen Hall, author of "The Natural History of 
Oxfordshire," all of them collected in that shire, and indeed 
extraordinary, that in one county there should be found 
such variety of plants, shells, stones, minerals, marcasites, 
fowls, insects, models of works, crystals, agates, and 
marbles. He was now intending to visit Staffordshire, 
and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give us the natural, 
topical, pohtical, and mechanical history. Pity it is that 
more of this industrious man's genius were not employed 
so to describe every county of England ; it would be one 
of the most useful and illustrious works that was ever 
.produced in any age, or nation. 

h2 



100 DIARY OF [althorpe, 

I visited also the Bodleian Library, and my old friend, 
the learned Obadiah Walker, head of University College, 
which he had now almost re-built, or repaired. We then 
proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived the next 
day. 

In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Graham 
(since Privy Purse to the Duke), a young gentleman 
exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard, one of the 
Maids of Honour in our company.* I could not but pity 
them both, the mother not much favouring it. This lady 
was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and 
excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the 
best of men. My advice was required, and I spake to the 
advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity than 
that she deserved no better match ; for, though he was a 
gentleman of good family, yet there was great inequality. 

14th. I Avent to see my Lord Sunderland's Seat at 
Althorpe, four miles from the ragged town of Northampton 
(since burned, and well re-built) . It is placed in a pretty 
open bottom, very finely watered and flanked with stately 
woods and groves in a park, with a canal, but the water is 
not running, which is a defect. The house, a kind of 
modern building, of freestone, within most nobly furnished ; 
the apartments very commodious, a gallery and noble hall ; 
but the kitchen being in the body of the house, and chapel 
too small, were defects. There is an old yet honourable 
gate-house standing awry, and out-housing mean, but 
designed to be taken away. It was moated round, after the 
old manner, but it is now dry, and turfed with a beautiful 
carpet. Above all, are admirable and magnificent the 
several ample gardens furnished with the choicest fruit, 
and exquisitely kept. Great plenty of oranges, and other 
curiosities. The park full of fowl, especially herns, and 
from it a prospect to Holmby House, which being demo- 
lished in the late civil wars, shows like a Roman ruin, 
shaded by the trees about it, a stately, solemn, and pleasing 
view. 

15th. Om* cause was pleaded in behalf of the mother, 
Mrs. Howard t and her daughters, before Baron Thurland, 

" He afterwards married her. See p. 101, note. 

+ Mrs. Howard was widow of William, fourth son of the first Earl of Berk- 
shire, beuig the daughter of Lord Dundas, of the Kingdom of Scotland. They 



1675.] JOHN EVELYN. JQl 

■who had formerly been steward of Courts for me ; we 
carried our cause, as there was reason, for here was an 
imprudent as well as disobedient son against his mother, 
by instigation, doubtless, of his wife, one Mrs, Ogle (an 
ancient maid), whom he had clandestinely married, and 
who brought him no fortune, he being heir-apparent to the 
Earl of Berkshire. We lay at Brick-hill, in Bedfordshire, 
and came late the next day to our journey's end. 

This was a journey of adventures and knight-errantry. 
One of the lady's servants being as desperately in love 
with Mrs. Howard's woman, as Mr. Graham was with her 
daughter, and she riding on horseback behind his rival, 
the amorous and jealous youth having a little drink in his 
pate, had here killed himself had he not been prevented ; 
for, alighting from his horse, and drawing his sword, he 
endeavoured twice or thrice to fall on it, but was inter- 
rupted by our coachman, and a stranger passing by. After 
this, running to his rival, and snatching his sword from his 
side (for we had beaten his own out of his hand), and on 
the sudden pulling down his mistress, would have run 
both of them through ; we parted them, not without some 
blood. This miserable creature poisoned himself for her 
nob many days after they came to London. 

19th. The. Lord Treasurer's Chaplain preached at 
Wallingford-House. 

9th August. Dr. Sprat, prebend of Westminster, and 
Chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham, preached on the 
3rd Epistle of Jude, showing what the primitive faith was, 
how near it and how excellent that of the Church of 
England, also the danger of departing from it. 

27th. I visited the Bishop of Rochester, at Bromley, and 
dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, at Frogpoole [Frognall] . 

2nd September. I went to see Dulwich College, being 

had one son, Craven Howard, and two daughters, Dorothy, who manned 
Colonel James Grehme, of Levens, in Westmoreland ; and Anne, who married 
Sir Gabriel Sylvius, Knt. Craven married two wives, the first of whom was 
Anno, daughter of Thomas Ogle, of Pinchbeck, co. Line. Esq. ; then Maid of 
Honour to Queen Cathei'ine. Collins's Peerage, vol. II. pp. 139, 140, edit. 
17;i). 

These two daughters are the ladies here mentioned by Mr. Evelyn ; but 
ho is not correct in calling Craven heir-apparent of the Earl of Berks, who, 
besides the uncle then in possession of the title, there was another uncle before 
him, who in fact inherited it, and did not die till many years after. 



102 DIARY OF [londok, 

the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous comedian, in 
King James's time. The chapel is pretty, the rest of the 
hospital very ill-contrived j it yet maintains divers poor of 
both sexes. It is in a melancholy part of Camberwell 
parish. I came back by certain medicinal Spa waters, at 
a place called Sydenham Wells, in Lewisham parish, much 
frequented in summer. 

1 0th. I was casually showed the Duchess of Portsmouth's 
splendid apartment at Whitehall, luxuriously furnished, 
and with ten times the richness and glory beyond the 
Queen's; such massy pieces of plate, whole tables, and 
stands of incredible value. 

29th. I saw the Italian Scaramuccio act before the 
King at Whitehall, people giving money to come in, which 
was very scandalous, and never so before at Court-diversions. 
Having seen him act before in Italy, many years past, I 
was not averse from seeing the most excellent of that kind 
of folly. 

14th October. Dined at Kensington with my old ac- 
quaintance, Mr. Henshaw, newly returned from Denmark, 
where he had been left resident after the death of the 
Duke of Richmond, who died there Ambassador. 

15th. I got an extreme cold, such as was afterwards so 
epidemical, as not only to afflict us in this island, but was 
rife over all Europe, like a plague. It was after an 
exceeding dry summer and autumn. 

I settled affairs, my Son being to go into France with 
my Lord Berkeley, designed Ambassador-extraordinary 
for France and Plenipotentiary for the general treaty of 
peace at Nimeguen. 

24th. Dined at Lord Chamberlain's with the Holland 
Ambassador L. Duras, a valiant gentleman whom his 
Majesty made an EngUsli Baron, of a cadet, and gave him 
his seat of Holmby, in Northamptonshire, [since Earl of 
Feversham].* 

27th. Lord Berkeley coming into Council, fell down in 
the gallery at Whitehall in a fit of apoplexy, and, being 
carried into my Lord Chamberlain's lodgings, several 
famous doctors were employed all that night, and with 
much ado he was at last recovered to some sense, by 

• See Baker's Nortlmmptonsliire, vol, I., p. 197. 



1675.] JOHN EVELYN. |03 

applying hot fire-pans and spirit of amber to his head; 
hut nothing was found so effectual as cupping him on the 
shoulder^. It was almost a miraculous restoration. The 
next day he was carried to Berkeley-House. This stopped 
his journey for the present, and caused my stay in town. 
He had put all his affairs and his whole estate in England 
into my hands during his intended absence, which though 
I was very unfit to undertake, in regard of many businesses 
which then took me up, yet, upon the great importunity of my 
lady and Mr. Grodolphin (to whom I could refuse nothing) 
I did take it on me. It seems when he was Deputy in 
Ireland, not long before, he had been much wronged by 
one he left in trust with his affairs, and therefore wished 
for some unmercenary friend who would take that trouble 
on him ; this was to receive his rents, look after his houses 
and tenants, solicit supplies from the Lord Treasurer, and 
correspond weekly with him, more than enough to employ 
any drudge in England ; but what will not friendship and 
love make one do ? 

31st. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain^s, with my Son. 
There were the learned Isaac Vossius, and Spanhemius, 
son of the famous man of Heidelberg, nor was this gentle- 
man less learned, being a general scholar. Amongst 
other pieces, he was author of an excellent treatise on 
Medals. 

10th November. Being the day appointed for my Lord 
Ambassador to set out, I met them with my coach at New 
Cross. There were with him my Lady his wife, and my 
dear friend, Mrs. Godolphin, who, out of an extraordinary 
friendship, would needs accompany my lady to Paris, and 
stay with her some time, which was the chief inducement 
for permitting my Son to travel, but I kncAV him safe under 
her inspection, and in regard my Lord himself had promised 
to take him into his special faA'our, he having intrusted all 
he had to my care. 

Thus, we set out, three coaches (besides mine), three 
waggons, and about forty horse. It being late, and my 
Lord as yet but valetudinary, we got but to Dartford, the 
first day; the next, to Sittingbourne. 

At Rochester, the major, Mr. Cony, then an officer of 
mine for the sick and wounded of that place, gave the 
ladies a handsome refreshment as we came bv his house. 



104 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

12tli. We came to Canterbury ; and, next morning, to 
Dover. 

There was in my Lady Ambassadress's company my Lady 
Hamilton, a sprightly young lady, much in the good graces 
of the family, wife of that valiant and worthy gentleman 
George Hamilton, not long after slain in the wars. She 
had been a maid of honour to the Duchess, and now turned 
Papist. 

14th. Being Sunday, my Lord having before delivered 
to me his letter of attorney, iieys, seal, and his Will, we 
took solemn leave of one another upon the beach, the 
coaches carrying them into the sea to the boats, which 
delivered them to Captain Gunman's yacht, the Mary. 
Being under sail, the castle gave them seventeen guns, 
which Captain Gunman answered with eleven. Hence, I 
went to church, to beg a blessing on their voyage. 

2nd December. Being returned home, I visited Lady 
Mordaunt, at Parson's Green, my Lord her son being sick. 
This pious woman delivered to me £100 to bestow as I 
thought fit for the release of poor prisoners, and other 
charitable uses. 

21st. Visited her Ladyship again, where I found the 
Bishop of Winchester, whom I had long known in France ; 
he invited me to his house at Chelsea. 

23rd. Lady Sunderland gave me ten guineas, to bestow 
in charities. 

1675-6. 20th February. Dr. Gunning, Bishop of Ely, 
preached before the King from St. John, xx. 21, 22, 23, 
chiefly against an anonymous book, called " Naked 
Truth," a famous and popular treatise against the cor- 
ruption in the Clergy, but not sound as to its quotations, 
supposed to have been the Bishop of Hereford's [Dr. 
Herbert Croft], and was answered by Dr. Turner, it en- 
deavouring to prove an equahty of order of Bishop and 
Presbyter. 

27th. Dr. Pritchard, Bishop of Gloucester, preached at 
Whitehall, on Isaiah, v. 5, very allegorically according to 
his manner, yet very gravely and wittily. 

29th. I dined with Mr. Povey, one of the Masters of 
Requests, a nice contriver of all elegances, and exceedingly 
formal. Supped with Sir J. Williamson, where were of 
our Society Mr. Robert Boyle, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir 



1G76.] JOHN EVELYN. ] 05 

William Petty, Dr. Holden, sub-dean of his Majesty^s 
Chapel, Sir James Shaen, Dr. Whistler, and our Secretary, 
Mr. Oldenburg. 

4th March. Sir Thomas Linch was returned from his 
government of Jamaica. 

ICth. The Countess of Sunderland and I went by water 
to Parson's-green, to visit my Lady Mordaunt, and to 
consult with her about my Lord's monument. We returned 
by coach. 

19th. Dr. Lloyd, late Curate at Deptford, but now 
Bishop of LlandafF, preached before the King, on 1 Cor., 
XV. 57, that, though sin subjects us to death, yet through 
Christ we become his conquerors. 

23rd. To Twickenham Park, Lord Berkeley's country-seat, 
to examine how the bailiffs and servants ordered matters. 

24th. Dr. Brideoake,* Bishop of Chichester, preached 
a mean discourse for a Bishop. I also heard Dr. Fleet- 
wood, Bishop of Worcester, on Matt., xxvi. 38, of the sor- 
rows of Christ, a deadly sorrow caused by our sins ; he 
was no great preacher. 

30th. Dining with my Lady Sunderland, I saw a fellow 
swallow a knife, and divers great pebble stones, which 
would make a plain rattling one against another. The 
knife was in a sheath of horn. 

Dr. North, son of my Lord North, preached before 
the King, on Isaiah, liii. 57, a very young, but learned 
and excellent person. Note. This was the first time the 
Duke appeared no more in chapel, to the infinite grief and 
threatened ruin of this poor nation. 

2nd April. I had now notice that my dear friend, Mrs. 
Godolphin, was returning from Paris. On the 6th, she 
arrived to my great joy, whom I most heartily welcomed. 

2Sth. My Avife entertained her Majesty at Deptford, 
for which the Queen gave me thanks in the withdrawing- 
room at Whitehall. 

The University of Oxford presented me with the " Mar- 
mora Oxoniensia Arundeliana ; " f the Bishop of Oxford 
writing to desire that I would introduce Mr. Prideaux, the 
editor (a young man most learned in antiquities) to the 

* Ralph Bi'ideoake, Dean of Salisbury, succeeded Bishop Gunning in this 
Sep. 

f This copy is in the library, at Wotton. 



106 DIARY OF [ENFIELD, 

Duke of Norfolk, to present another dedicated to his 
Grace, which I did, and we dined with the Duke at Arundel 
House, and supped at the Bishop of Rochester's, with 
Isaac Vossius. 

7th May. I spoke to the Duke of York, about my Lord 
Berkeley's going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's 
Council at Somerset House, about Mrs. Godolphin's lease 
of Spalding, in Lincolnshire. 

11th. I dined with Mr. Charleton, and went to see 
Mr. Montague's new palace near Bloomsbury, built by 
Mr. Hooke, of our Society, after the French manner.* 

13th. Returned home, and found my son returned from 
France ; praised be God ! 

22nd. Trinity Monday. A chaplain of my Lord Ossory^s 
preached, after which we took barge to Trinity-House in 
London. Mr. Pepys (Secretary of the Admiralty) suc- 
ceeded my Lord as Master. 

2nd June. I went with my Lord Chamberlain to see a 
garden f at Enfield town ; thence, to Mr. Secretary Coven- 
try's lodge in the Chace. It is a very pretty place, the 
house commodious, the gardens handsome, and our enter- 
tainment very free, there being none but my Lord and 
myself. That which I most wondered at was, that, in the 
compass of twenty-five miles, yet within fourteen of 
London, there is not a house, barn, church, or building, 
besides three lodges. J To this Lodge are three great 
ponds, and some few inclosures, the rest a solitary desert, 
yet stored with not less than 8,000 deer. These are pretty 
retreats for gentlemen, especially for those who are 
studious and lovers of privacy. 

We returned in the evening by Hampstead, to see Lord 
Wotton's house and garden (Bellsize House §), built with 
vast expense by Mr. O'Neale, an Irish gentleman who 
married Lord Wotton's mother. Lady Stanhope. The 
furniture is very particular for Indian cabinets, porcelain 
and other solid and noble moveables. The gallery very 
fine, the gardens very large, but ill kept, yet woody and 

* Now the British Museum. 

t Probably, Dr. Robert U vedale's. See an account of it in « Archseologia," 
vol. XII, p. 188, and Robinson's « History of Enfield," vol. I., p. 111. 
X Enfield Chase was divided in 1777. 
§ See Park's " History of Hampstead." 



1676.] JOHN EVELYN. 107 

chargeable. The soil a cold weeping clay, not answering 
the expense. 

12th. I went to Sir Thomas Bond's new and fine house 
by Peckham ; it is on a flat, but has a fine garden and 
prospect through the meadows to London. 

2nd July. Dr. Castillion, Prebend of Canterbury, 
preached before the King, on John, xv. 22, at Whitehall. 

19th. Went to the funeral of Sir William Sanderson, 
husband to the Mother of the Maids,* and author of two 
large but mean histories of King James and King Charles 
the First. He was buried at Westminster. 

1st August. In the afternoon, after prayers at St. 
James's Chapel, was christened a daughter of Dr. Leake's, 
the Duke's Chaplain : godmothers were Lady Mary, 
daughter of the Duke of York, and the Duchess of Mon- 
mouth; godfather, the Earl of Bath. 

15th. Came to dine with me my Lord Halifax, Sir Thomas 
Meeres, one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty, Sir 
John Clayton, Mr. Slingsby, Mr. Henshaw, and Mr. 
Bridgeman. 

25th. Dined with Sir John Banks at his house in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, on recommending Mr. Upman to be tutor 
to his son going into France. This Sir John Banks was a 
merchant of small beginning, but had amassed £100,000. 

26th. I dined at the Admiralty Avith Secretary Pepys, 
and supped at the Lord Chamberlain's. Here was Captain 
Baker, who had been lately on the attempt of the North- 
west passage. He reported prodigious depth of ice, blue 
as a sapphire, and as transparent. The thick mists were 
their chief impediment, and cause of their return. 

2nd September. I paid £1,700 to the Marquis de Sissac, 
which he had lent to my Lord Berkeley, and which I heard 
the Marquis lost at play in a night or two. 

The Dean of Chichester preached before the King, 
on Acts, xxiv. IG ; and Dr. Crichton preached the second 
sermon before him on Psalm, xc. 12, of wisely numbering 
our days, and well employing our time. 

3rd, Dined at Captain Graham's, where I became 
acquainted with Dr. Compton, (brother to the Earl of 
Northampton) now Bishop of London, and Mr. North, 

* See Volume I, p. 363. 



208 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

son to the Lord North, brother to the Lord Chief Justice 
and Clerk of the Closet, a most hopeful young man. The 
Bishop had once been a soldier, had also travelled Italy, 
and became a most sober, grave, and excellent prelate. 

6th. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain^s, where also 
supped the famous beauty and errant lady, the Duchess of 
Mazarine (all the world knows her story), the Duke of 
Monmouth, Countess of Sussex (both natural children of 
the King by the Duchess of Cleveland*), and the Countess 
of Derby, a virtuous lady, daughter to my best friend, the 
Earl of Ossory. 

10th. Dined with me Mr. Flamsted, the learned astrolo- 
ger and mathematician, whom his Majesty had established 
in the new Observatory in Greenwich Park, furnished with 
the choicest instruments. An honest, sincere man. 

12th. To London, to take order about the building of 
a house, or rather an apartment, which had all the conve- 
niencies of a house, for my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin and 
lady, which I undertook to contrive and survey, and employ 
workmen until it should be quite finished ; it being just 
over-against his Majesty's wood-yard by the Thames side, 
leading to Scotland-yard. 

19th. To Lambeth, to that rare magazine of marble, to 
take order for chimney-pieces, &c., for Mr. Godolphin's 
house. The owner of the works had built for himself a 
pretty dwelling-house ; this Dutchman had contracted 
with the Genoese for all their marble. We also saw the 
Duke of Buckingham's glass-work, where they made huge 
vases of metal as clear, ponderous and thick as crystal; 
also looking-glasses far larger and better than any that 
come from Venice. 

9th October. I went with Mrs. Godolphin and my wife 
to Blackwall, to see some Indian curiosities ; the streets 
being slippery, I fell against a piece of timber with such 

• Mr. Evelj-n forgot himself here. The Duke of Monmouth's mother was, 
it is well known, Mrs. Lucy Walters, who was sometimes called Mrs. Barlow 
(mentioned before). Lady Anne Fitzroy, as she is called in the books of 
Peerage, was married to Lennard Dacre, Earl of Sussex, by whom she left a 
daughter only, who succeeded, on her father's death, to the Barony of Dacre : 
Mr, Evelyn probably meant to speak of either the Duke of Southampton, the 
Duke of Grafton, or the Duke of Northumberland, all of whom Charles the 
Second had by the Duchess of Cleveland, 



1677.] JOHN EVELYN. l(jg 

violence that I could not speak nor fetch my breatli for 
some space : being carried into a house and let blood, I 
was removed to the water-side and so home, where, after a 
day's rest, I recovered. This being one of my greatest 
deliverances, the Lord Jesus make me ever mindful and 
thankful ! 

31st. Being my birthday, and fifty-six years old, I spent 
the morning in devotion and imploring God's protection, 
with solemn thanksgiving for all his signal mercies to me, 
especially for that escape which concerned me this month 
at Blackwall. Dined with Mrs. Godolphin, and returned 
home through a prodigious and dangerous mist. 

9th November. Finished the lease of Spalding, for Mr. 
Godolphin. 

16th. My son and I dining at my Lord Chamberlain's, 
he showed us amongst others that incomparable piece of 
Raphael's, being a Minister of State dictating to Guicci- 
ardini, the earnestness of whose face looking up in expecta- 
tion of what he was next to write, is so to the life, and so 
natural, as I esteem it one of the choicest pieces of that 
admirable artist. There was a Woman's head of Leonardo 
da Vinci ; a Madonna of old Palma, and two of Vandyke's, 
of which one was his own picture at length, when young, 
in a leaning posture ; the other an eunuch singing. Rare 
pieces indeed ! 

4th December. I saw the great ball danced by all the 
gallants and ladies at the Duchess of York's. 

10th. There fell so deep a snow, as hindered us from 
church. 

12th. To London, in so great a snow, as I remember not 
to have seen the like. 

17th. More snow falling, I was not able to get to church. 

1676-7. 8th February. I went to Eoehampton, with my 
lady Duchess of Ormond. The garden and perspective is 
pretty, the prospect most agreeable. 

15th May. Came the Earl of Peterborough, to desire 
me to be a trustee for Lord Viscount Mordaunt and the 
Countess, for the sale of certain lands set out by Act of 
Parliament, to pay debts. 

12th June. I went to London, to give the Lord 
Ambassador Berkeley (now returned from the treaty at 
N-imeguen) an account of the great trust reposed in me 



WQ DIARY OP [ST. EDMUNDS BUKT, 

during his absence, I having received and remitted to him 
no less than £20,000 to my no small trouble and loss of 
time, that during his absence and when the Lord Treasurer 
was no great friend [of his] I yet procured him great 
sums, very often soliciting his Majesty in his behalf; 
looking after the rest of his estate and concerns entirely, 
without once accepting any kind of acknowledgment, purely 
upon the request of my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin. I 
returned with abundance of thanks and professions from 
my Lord Berkeley and my Lady. 

29th. This business being now at an end, and myself 
delivered from that intolerable servitude and correspon- 
dence, I had leisure to be somewhat more at home and 
to myself. 

3rd July. I sealed the deeds of sale of the manor of 
Blechingley to Sir Robert Clayton, for payment of Lord 
Peterborough's debts, according to the trust of the Act of 
Parliament. 

16th. I went to Wotton. — 22nd. Mr. Evans, curate of 
Abinger, preached an excellent sermon on Matt., v. 12. 
In the afternoon, Mr. Higham at Wotton catechised. 

26th. I dined at Mr. Duncomb's, at Sheere, whose 
house stands environed with very sweet and quick streams. 

29th. Mr. Bohun, my Son's late tutor, preached at 
Abinger, on Phil., iv. 8, very elegantly and practically. 

5th August. I went to visit my Lord Brounker, now 
taking the waters at Dulwich. 

9th. Dined at the Earl of Peterborough's the day after 
the marriage of my Lord of Arundel to Lady Mary Mor- 
daunt, daughter to the Earl of Peterborough. 

28th. To visit my Lord Chamberlain, in Suffolk; he 
sent his coach and six to meet and bring me from St. 
Edmunds Bury to Euston. 

29th. We hunted in the park and killed a* very fat 
buck. — 31st. I went a-hawkin^. 

4th September. I went to visit my Lord Crofts, now 
dying at St, Edmunds Bury, and took the opportunity to 
see this ancient town, and the remains of that famous 
monastery and abbey. There is little standing entire, save 
the gatehouse ; it has been a vast and magnificent Gothic 
structure, and of great extent. The gates are wood, but 



1G77.] JOHN EVELYN. m 

quite plated over with iron. There are also two stately 
churches, one especially. 

5th. I went to Thetford, to the borough-town, where 
stand the ruins of a religious house : there is a round 
mountain artificially raised, either for some castle or 
monument, which makes a pretty landscape. As we went 
and returned, a tumbler showed his extraordinary address 
in the Warren. I also saw the Decoy ; much pleased with 
the stratagem. 

7tli. There dined this day at my Lord's, one Sir John 
Gaudy, a very handsome person, but quite dumb, yet 
very intelligent by signs, and a very fine painter; he 
was so civil and well bred, as it was not possible to 
discern any imperfection by him. His lady and children 
were also there, and he was at church in the morning 
with us. 

9th. A stranger preached at Euston Church, and fell 
into a handsome panegyric on my Lord's new building 
the church, which indeed for its elegance and cheerful- 
ness, is one of the prettiest country churches in England. 
My Lord told me his heart smote him that, after he had 
bestowed so much on his magnificent palace there, he 
should see God's House in the ruin it lay in. He has also 
rebuilt the parsonage-house, all of stone, very neat and 
ample. 

10th. To divert me, my Lord would needs carry me to 
see Ipswich, when we dined with one Mr. Mann by the way, 
who was Recorder of the town. There were in our 
company my Lord Huntingtower, son to the Duchess of 
Lauderdale, Sir Edward Bacon, a learned gentleman of 
the family of the great Chancellor Verulam, and Sir John 
Eelton, with some other Knights and Gentlemen. After 
dinner, came the Bailiff' and Magistrates in their formali- 
ties with their maces to compliment my Lord, and invite 
him to the town-house, where they presented us a colla- 
tion of dried sweetmeats and wine, the bells ringing, &c. 
Then, we went to see the town, and first, the Lord Viscount 
Hereford's house, which stands in a park near the town, 
like that at Brussels, in Flanders; the house not great, 
yet pretty, especially the hall. The stews for fish succeed 
one another, and feed one the other, all paved at bottom. 
There is a good picture of the Blessed Virgin in one of 



112 DIARY OF [IPSWICH, 

the parlours, seeming to be of Holbein, or some good 
master. Then we saw the Haven, seven miles from 
Harwich. The tide runs out every day, but the bedding 
being soft mud, it is safe for shipping and a station. The 
trade of Ipswich is for the most part Newcastle coals, with 
which they supply London ; but it was formerly a clothing 
town. There is not any beggar asks alms in the whole 
place, a thing very extraordinary, so ordered by the pru- 
dence of the Magistrates. It has in it fourteen or fifteen 
beautiful churches : in a word, it is for building, cleanness, 
and good order, one of the best towns in England. Car- 
dinal Wolsey was a butcher's son of Ipswich, but there is 
little of that magnificent Prelate's foundation here, besides 
a school and I think a library, which I did not see. His 
intentions were to build some great thing. We returned 
late to Euston, having travelled above fifty miles this 
day. 

Since first I was at this place, I found things exceed- 
ingly improved. It is seated in a bottom between two 
graceful swellings, the main building being now in the 
figure of a Greek IT with four paviUons, two at each 
comer, and a break in the front, railed and balustred at 
the top, where I caused huge jars to be placed full of earth 
to keep them steady upon their pedestals between the 
statues, which make as good a show as if they were of 
stone, and, though the building be of brick, and but two 
stories besides cellars, and garrets covered with blue slate, 
yet there is room enough for a full court, the offices and 
outhouses being so ample and well disposed. The King's 
apartment is painted a fresco, and magnificently furnished. 
There are many excellent pictures of the great masters. 
The gallery is a pleasant, noble room : in the break, or 
middle, is a billiard-table, but the wainscot, being of fir, 
and painted, does not please me so well as Spanish oak 
without paint. The chapel is pretty, the porch descending 
to the gardens. The orange-garden is very fine, and leads 
into the green-house, at the end of which is a hall to eat 
in, and the conservatory some hundred feet long, adorned 
with maps, as the other side is with heads of the Csesars, 
ill cut in alabaster ; above, are several apartments for my 
Lord, Lady, and Duchess,* with kitchens and other offices 

♦ His daughter, wife of the Duke of Grafton. 



1677.] JOHN EVELYN. ]23 

below, in a lesser form ; lodgings for servants, all distinct, 
for them to retire to when they please, and would be in 
private, and have no communication with the palace, which 
he tells me he will wholly resign to his son-in-law and 
daughter, that charming young creature. 

The canal running under my lady's dressing-room 
chamber window, is full of carps and fowl, which come 
and are fed there. The cascade at the end of the canal 
turns a corn-mill, that provides the family, and raises 
water for the fountains and offices. To pass this canal 
into the opposite meadows. Sir Samuel Morland has 
invented a screw-bridge which, being turned with a key, 
lands you fifty feet distant at the entrance of an ascending 
walk of trees, a mile in length, as it is also on the front 
into the park, of four rows of ash-trees, and reaches to the 
park-pale, which is nine miles in compass, and the best 
for riding and meeting the game that I ever saw. There 
were now of red and fallow deer almost a thousand, with 
good covert, but the soil barren and flying sand, in which 
nothing will grow kindly. The tufts of fir and much of 
the other wood, were planted by my direction, some years 
before. This seat is admirably placed for field-sports, 
hawking, hunting, or racing. The mutton is small, but 
sweet. The stables hold thirty horses and four coaches. 
The out-offices make two large quadrangles, so as servants 
never lived with more ease and convenience ; never master 
more civil. Strangers are attended and accommodated as 
at their home, in pretty apartments furnished with all 
manner of conveniences and privacy. 

There is a library full of excellent books ; bathing- 
rooms, elaboratory, dispensary, a decoy, and places to 
keep and fat fowl in. He had now in his new church 
(near the garden) built a dormitory, or vault, with several 
repositories, in which to bury his family. 

In the expense of this pious structure, the church is 
most laudable, most of the Houses of God in this country 
resembling rather stables and thatched cottages than 
temples in which to serve the Most High. He has built a 
lodge in the park for the keeper, which is a neat dwelling, 
and might become any gentleman. The same has he done 
for the parson, little deserving it, for murmuring that my 
Lord put him some time out of his wretched hovel, whilst 

VOL. II. I 



114, DIARY OF [euston, 

it was building. He has also erected a fair inn at some 
distance from his palace, with a bridge of stone over a 
river near it, and repaired all the tenants^ houses, so as 
there is nothing but neatness and accommodations about 
his estate, which I yet think is not above £1500 a year. 
I believe he had now in his family one hundred domestic 
servants. 

His lady (being one of the Brederode's daughters, grand- 
child to a natural son of Henry Frederick, Prince of 
Orange), is a good-natured and obliging woman. They 
love fine things, and to live easily, pompously, and hos- 
pitably; but, with so vast expense, as plunges my Lord 
into debt exceedingly. My Lord himself is given to no 
expensive vice but building, and to have all things rich, 
pohte, and princely. He never plays, but reads much, 
having the Latin, French, and Spanish tongues in perfec- 
tion. He has travelled much, and is the best-bred and 
courtly person his Majesty has about him, so as the public 
Ministers more frequent him than any of the rest of the 
NobiUty. Whilst he was Secretary of State and Prime 
Minister, he had gotten vastly, but spent it as hastily, 
even before he had established a fund to maintain his 
greatness : and now beginning to decline in favour (the 
Duke being no great friend of his) he knows not how 
to retrench. He was son of a Doctor of Laws, whom I 
have seen, and, being sent from Westminster School to 
Oxford, with intention to be a divine, and parson of 
Arlington,* a village near Brentford, when Master of 
Arts, the Rebellion falling out, he followed the King's 
Army, and receiving an honourable wound in the face,f 
grew into favour, and was advanced from a mean fortune, 
at his Majesty's restoration, to be an Earl and Knight of 
the Garter, Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and first 
favourite for a long time, during which the King married 
his natural son, the Duke of Grafton, to his only daughter 
and heiress, as before mentioned, worthy for her beauty 
and virtue of the greatest Prince in Christendom. My 

* See in Lord Clarendon's Continuation of hia Life, &c., a curious circum- 
stance relating to Sir Henry Bennett's taking his title, when first created a 
Baron, from tliis place. 

t A deep cut across his nose. He was always obliged to wear a black 
patch upon it, and is so represented in his portraits. 



1677.] JOHN EVELYN. 115 

Lord is, besides this, a prudent and understanding person 
in business, and speaks well ; unfortunate yet in those he 
has advanced, most of them proving ungrateful. The 
many obligations and civilities I have received from this 
noble gentleman, extracts from me this character, and I 
am sorry he is in no better circumstances. 

Having now passed near three weeks at Euston, to my 
great satisfaction, with much difficulty he suffered me 
to look homeward, being very earnest with me to stay 
longer ; and, to engage me, would himself have carried me 
to Lynn-Regis, a town of important traffic, about twenty 
miles beyond, which I had never seen, as also the Travel- 
ling Sands about ten miles wide of Euston, that have so 
damaged the country, rolling from place to place, and, 
like the Sands in the Deserts of Lybia, quite overwhelmed 
some gentlemens^ whole estates, as the relation extant in 
print, and brought to our Society, describes at large. 

13th. My Lord's coach conveyed me to Bury, and thence 
baiting at Newmarket, stepping in at Audley-End to see 
that house again, I slept at Bishop- Stortford ; and, the 
next day, home. I was accompanied in my journey by 
Major Fairfax, of a younger house of the Lord Fairfax, a 
soldier, a traveller, an excellent musician, a good-natured 
well-bred gentleman. 

18th. I preferred Mr. PhilHps (nephew of Milton) to the 
service of my Lord Chamberlain, who wanted a scholar to 
read to and entertain him sometimes. 

12th October. With Sir Robert Clayton to Marden, an 
estate he had bought lately of my kinsman, Sir John 
Evelyn, of Godstone, in Surrey, which from a despicable 
farm-house Sir Robert had erected into a seat with extra- 
ordinary expense. It is in such a solitude among hills, 
as, being not above sixteen miles from London, seems 
almost incredible, the ways up to it are so winding and 
intricate. The gardens are large, and well- walled, and 
the husbandry part made very convenient and perfectly 
understood. The barns, the stacks of corn, the stalls 
for cattle, pigeon-house, &c. of most laudable example. 
Innumerable are the plantations of trees, especially wal- 
nuts. The orangery and gardens are very curious. In 
the house are large and noble rooms. He and his lady 
(who is very curious in distillery) entertained me three or 

i2 



■^-^Q DIARY" OF [godstone, 

four days very freely. I earnestly suggested to him the 
repairing of an old desolate dilapidated church, standing 
on the hill above the house,* which I left him in good 
disposition to do, and endow it better ; there not being 
above four or five houses in the parish, besides that of this 
prodigious rich Scrivener.f This place is exceeding sharp 
in the winter, by reason of the serpentining of the hills : 
and it wants running water; but the solitude much 
pleased me. All the ground is so full of wild thyme, 
marjoram, and other sweet plants, that it cannot be over- 
stocked with bees ; I think he had near forty hives of that 
industrious insect. 

14th. I went to church at Godstone, and to see old Sir 
John Evelyn's dormitory, joining to the church, paved with 
marble, where he and his lady He on a very stately monu- 
ment at length ; he in armour of white marble. J The 
inscription is only an account of his particular branch of 
the family, on black marble. 

15th. Returned to London ; in the evening, I saw the 
Prince of Orange, and supped with Lord Ossory. 

23rd. Saw again the Prince of Orange ; his marriage 
with the Lady Mary, eldest daughter to the Duke of 
York, by Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared. 

11th November. I was all this week composing matter* 
between old Mrs. Howard and Sir Gabriel Sylvius, upon 

• Woldingham. The Church consists of one room about thirty feet long^ 
and twenty-one wide, without any tower, spire, or bell. It is considered as a 
Donative, not subject to the Bishop ; service performed once a month. No 
churchwarden ; two farm-houses, four cottages. By the Population Return, 
in 1811, the number of inhabitants was fifty-eight. That disposition which 
was thought to have appeared subsided ; the church remains as it then was. 

+ The last member of the Company called Scriveners, named Ellis, died 
at the age of more than 90. Dr. Johnson speaks well of him. The business, 
comprehended that of a Banker, and what is now called a Conveyancer ; they 
had money deposited with them for the purpose of making purchases, or 
lending on mortgage, they preparing the deeds. In the time of King 
Charles I., during the troubles and the interregnum, a gentleman of the 
name of Abbot in the City had a very great share of this busmess. Sir 
Robert Clayton and a Mr. Morris were his clerks at the same time, and 
jointly succeeded to his business, in which they acquired a great estate. Mr. 
Morris died first, and, having no children, left his property to his friend. 
Sir Robert. The Editor has seen a deed attested by Mr. Abbot, as Scrivener, 
and by Mr, Morris and Mr. Clayton, as his servants. 

J It is a very fine monument, in perfect preservation. 



1678.] JOHN EVELYN. * H'J 

his long and earnest addresses to Mrs. Anne, lier second 
daughter,* Maid of Honour to the Queen. My friend, 
Mrs. Godolphin (who exceedingly loved the young lady) 
was most industrious in it, out of pity to the languishing 
knight ; so as though there were great differences in their 
years, it was at last effected, and they were married the 
13th, in Henry VII.^s Chapel, by the Bishop of Rochester,t 
there being besides my wife and Mrs. Graham, her sister, 
Mrs, Godolphin, and very few more. We dined at the old 
lady^s, and supped at Mr. Graham^s at St. James's. 

15th. The Queen's birthday, a greatBall at Court, where 
the Prince of Orange and his new Princess danced. 

19th. They went away, and I saw embarked my Lady 
Sylvius, who went into Holland with her husband, made 
Hoffmaester to the Prince, a considerable employment. 
We parted with great sorrow, for the great respect and 
honour I bore her, a most pious and virtuous lady. 

27th. Dined at the Lord Treasurer's with Prince Rupert, 
Viscount Falkenburg, Earl of Bath, Lord O'Brien, Sir 
John Lowther, Sir Christopher Wren, Dr. Grew, and other 
learned men. 

30th. Sir Joseph Williamson, Principal Secretary of 
State, was chosen President of the Royal Society, after my 
Lord Viscount Brounker had possessed the chair now 
sixteen years successively, and therefore now thought fit 
to change, that prescription might not prejudice. 

4th December. Being the first day of his taking the chair, 
he gave us a magnificent supper. 

20th. Carried to my Lord Treasurer an account of the 
Earl of Bristol's Library, at Wimbledon, which my Lord 
thought of purchasing, till I acquainted him that it was a 
very broken collection, consisting much in books of judicial 
astrology, romances, and trifles. J 

25tli. I gave my Son an office, with instructions how to 
govern his youth ; I pray God give him the grace to make 
a right use of it ! 

1677-8. 23rd January. Dined with the Duke of Norfolk, 

* See p. 101, note. 

+ Dr. John Dolben, also Dean of "Westminster, translated afterwards to 
York. 

J: A library of this description would at this day be deemed a very curious 
one, and an object probably of much competition. Habmt ma fata UbelliJ 



118 DIARY OP [londok, 

being the first time I had seen him since the death of his 
elder brother, who died at Padua in Italy, where he had 
resided above thirty years. The Duke had now newly 
declared his marriage to his concubine, whom he promised 
me he never woiild marry.* I went with him to see the 
Duke of Buckingham, thence to my Lord Sunderland, 
now Secretary of State, to show him that rare piece of 
Vosterman's (son of old Vosterman), which was a view, or 
landscape, of my Lord^s palace, &c., at Althorpe, in 
Northamptonshire. 

8th February. Supping at my Lord Chamberlain^s I had 
a long discourse with the Count de Castel Mellor, lately 
Prime Minister in Portugal, who, taking part with his 
master. King Alphonso, was banished by his brother, 
Don Pedro, now Regent; but had behaved himself so 
uncorruptly in all his ministry that, though he was 
acquitted, and his estate restored, yet would they not 
suffer him to return. He is a very intelligent and worthy 
gentleman. 

18th. My Lord Treasurer sent for me to accompany 
him to Wimbledon, which he had lately purchased of the 
Earl of Bristol ; so breaking fast with him privately in his 
chamber, I accompanied him with two of his daughters, 
my Lord Conway, and Sir Bernard Gascoyne; and, 
having surveyed his gardens and alterations, returned late 
at night. 

22nd. Dr. Pierce preached at Whitehall, on 2 Thes- 
salonians, iii. 6, against our late schismatics, in a rational 
discourse, but a little over-sharp, and not at all proper 
for the auditory there. 

22nd March. Dr. South preached coram Rege, an incom- 
parable discourse on this text, " A wounded spirit who can 
bear ! " Note : Now was our Communion-table placed 
altarwise ; the church steeple, clock, and other reparations 
finished. 

16th April. I showed Don Emmanuel de Lyra (Portugal 
Ambassador) and the Count de Castel Mellor, the Repo- 
sitory of the Royal Society, and the College of Physicians. 

* It appears by the books of Peerage that his Grace married to his second 
wife, Mrs. Jane Bickerton, daughter of a Scotch gentleman, Robert Bickerton, 
Esq., who was Gentleman of tlie Wine-Cellar to King Charles II. There are 
engraved portraits both of this Duke and his Duchess. See pp. 65, 120. 



1678.] JOHN EVELYN. Ug 

18th. I went to see New Bedlam Hospital, magnificently 
built,* and most sweetly placed in Moorfields, since the 
dreadful fire in London. 

28th June. I went to Windsor with my Lord Chamber- 
lain (the castle now repairing with exceeding cost) to see 
the rare work of Verrio, and incomparable carving of 
Gibbons. 

29th. Returned with my Lord by Hounslow Heath, 
where we saw the new-raised army encamped, designed 
against France, in pretence, at least; but which gave 
umbrage to the Parliament. His Majesty and a world of 
company were in the field, and the whole army in battalia ; 
a very glorious sight. Now were brought int(J service a 
new sort of soldiers, called Grenadiers, who were dexterous 
in flinging hand grenados, every one having a pouch full; 
they had furred caps with coped crowns like Janizaries, 
which made them look very fierce, and some had long hoods 
hanging down behind, as we picture fools. Their clothing 
being likewise piebald, yellow and red. 

8th July. Came to dine with me my Lord Longford, 
Treasurer of Ireland, nephew to that learned gentleman, 
my Lord Aungier, with whom I was long since acquainted : 
also the Lady Stidolph, and other company. 

19th. The Earl of Ossory came to take his leave of me, 
going into Holland to command the English forces. 

20 th. I went to the Tower to try a metal at the Assay- 
master's, which only proved sulphur ; then saw Monsieur 
Rotiere, that excellent graver belonging to the Mint, who 
emulates even the ancients, in both metal and stone ; he 
was now moulding a horse for the King's statue, to be 
cast in silver, of a yard high. I dined with Mr. Slingsby, 
Master of the Mint. 

23rd. Went to see Mr. Elias Ashmole's library and 
curiosities, at Lambeth. He has divers MSS., but most of 
them astrological, to which study he is addicted, though 
I believe not learned, but very industrious, as his History 

* Taken down, being greatly decayed, in 1814, and a new one erected on 
the Surrey side of the Thames, in the road leading from St. George's Fields 
to Lambeth. On pulling it down, the foundations were found to be very bad, 
as it had been built on part of the Town-ditch, and on a soil very unfit for the 
erection of so large a building. The Patients were removed to the new 
-building in August, lolo. 



120 DIARY OF [WEYBRIDGE, 

of the Order of tlie Garter proves. He showed me a toad 
included in amber. The prospect from a turret is very 
fine, it being so near London, and yet not discovering any 
house about the country. The famous John Tradescant 
bequeathed his Repository to this gentleman, who has 
given them to the University of Oxford, and erected a 
lecture on them, over the laboratory, in imitation of the 
Royal Society.* 

Mr. Godolphin was made Master of the Robes to the 
King. 

25th. There was sent me £70 ; from whom I knew not, 
to be by me distributed among poor people ; I afterwards 
found it was from that dear friend, (Mrs. Godolphin,) 
who had frequently given me large sums to bestow on 
charities. 

16th August. I went to Lady Mordaunt, who put £100 
into my hand to dispose of for pious uses, rehef of prisoners, 
poor, &c. Many a sum had she sent me on similar occa- 
sions ; a blessed creature she was, and one that loved and 
feared God exemplarily. 

23rd. Upon Sir Robert Reading's importunity, I went 
to visit the Duke of Norfolk, at his new palace at Wey- 
bridge,t where he has laid out in building near £10,000, 
on a copyhold, and in a miserable, barren, sandy place 
by the street-side ; never in my life had I seen such expense 
to so small purpose. The rooms are wainscotted, and some 
of them richly pargeted with cedar, yew, cypress, &c. 
There are some good pictures, especially that incomparable 
painting of Holbein's, where the Duke of Norfolk, Charles 

• The donation took place in 1677, and a suitable building was erected by 
Sir Christopher Wren, bearing the name of the " Ashmolean Museum." This 
was the first public institution for the reception of Rarities in Art, or Nature, 
estabhshed in England ; and, in the infancy of the study of Natural History 
in this country, possessed what was then considered as a valuable and superior 
collection. There are good portraits of Ashmole, and of the Tradescant 
family, by Dobson, in the Museum, from which engravings have been very 
inaccurately taken. 

t This house was the property of Mrs. Bickerton, whom the Duke married. 
After his death, she married Mr. Maxwell, and they, together ^vith Lord 
George Howard (her eldest son by the Duke), sold it to the Countess of Dor- 
chester (misti-ess to James II.). Her daughter married David Colyeur, Earl 
of Portmore. 



1C78.] JOHN EVELYN, 131 

BrandoUj and Henry VIII., are dancing with the three 
ladies, with most amorous countenances, and sprightly- 
motion exquisitely expressed. It is a thousand pities, (as 
I told my Lord of Arundel his son) that that jewel should 
be given away. 

24th. I went to see my Lord of St. Alban's house, 
at Byfleet, an old large building. Thence, to the paper- 
mills, where I found them making a coarse white paper. 
They cull the rags which are linen for white paper, woollen 
for brown ; then they stamp them in troughs to a pap, with 
pestles, or hammers, like the powder-mills, then put it into 
a vessel of water, in which they dip a frame closely wired 
with wire as small as a hair and as close as a weaver^s 
reed ; on this they take up the pap, the superfluous water 
draining through the wire : this they dexterously turning, 
shake out like a pancake on a smooth board between two 
pieces of flannel, then press it between a great press, the 
flannel sucking out the moisture ; then, taking it out, they 
ply and dry it on strings, as they dry linen in the laundry ; 
then dip it in alum-water, lastly, polish and make it up in 
quires. They put some gum in the water in which they 
macerate the rags. The mark we find on the sheets 
is formed in the wire. 

25th. After evening prayer, visited Mr. Sheldon, 
(nephew to the late Archbishop of Canterbury) and his 
pretty melancholy garden; I took notice of the largest 
arbor thuyris I had ever seen. The place is finely watered, 
and there are many curiosities of India, shown in the 
house. 

There was at Weybridge the Duchess of Norfolk, Lord 
Thomas Howard, (a worthy and virtuous gentleman, with 
whom my Son was some time bred in Arundel House) who 
was newly come from Rome, where he had been some 
time; also one of the Duke^s daughters, by his first lady. 
My Lord leading me about the house made no scruple of 
showing me all the hiding-places for the Popish priests, and 
where they said mass, for he Avas no bigoted Papist. He 
told me he never trusted them with any secret, and used 
Protestants only in all businesses of importance. 

I went this evening with my Lord Duke to ^\''indsor, 
where was a magnificent Court, it being the first time of 
his Majesty removing thither since it was repaired. 



122 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

27th. I took leave of the Duke, and dined at Mr. 
Henry Brouncker's, at the Abbey of Sheene, formerly a 
Monastery of Carthusians, there yet remaining one of 
their solitary cells with a cross. Within this ample enclo- 
sure are several pretty villas and fine gardens of the most 
excellent fruits, especially Sir William Temple's (lately 
Ambassador into Holland), and the Lord Lisle's, son 
to the Earl of Leicester, who has divers rare pictures, 
above all, that of Sir Brian Tuke's, by Holbein. 

After dinner, I walked to Ham, to see the house and 
garden of the Duke of Lauderdale, which is indeed inferior 
to few of the best villas in Italy itself; the house furnished 
like a great Prince's ; the parterres, flower-gardens, oran- 
geries, groves, avenues, courts, statues, perspectives, foun- 
tains, aviaries, and all this at the banks of the sweetest 
river in the world, must needs be admirable. 

Hence, I went to my worthy friend. Sir Henry Capel, 
[at Kew] brother to the Earl of Essex : it is an old 
timber-house ; but his garden has the choicest fruit of any 
plantation in England, as he is the most industrious and 
understanding in it. 

29th. I was called to London to wait upon the Duke 
of Norfolk, who having at my sole request bestowed the 
Amndelian Library on the Royal Society, sent to me 
to take charge of the books, and remove them, only stipu- 
lating that I would sufier the Herald's chief oflBcer, Sir 
William Dugdale, to have such of them as concerned 
Heraldry and the Marshal's office, books of Armory and 
Genealogies, the Duke being Earl Marshal of England. 
I procured for our Society, besides printed books, near one 
hundred MSS., some in Greek of great concernment. The 
printed books being of the oldest impressions, are not the 
less valuable; I esteem them almost equal to MSS. 
Amongst them, are most of the Fathers, printed at Basil, 
before the Jesuits abused them with their expurgatory 
Indexes ; there is a noble MS. of Vitruvius. Many of 
these books had been presented by Popes, Cardinals, and 
great persons, to the Earls of Arundel and Dukes of 
Norfolk ; and the late magnificent Earl of Arundel bought 
a noble library in Germany, which is in this collection. I 
should not, for the honour I bear the family, have per- 
suaded the Duke to part with these, had I not seen 



1678.] JOHN EVELYN. I33 

how negligent he was of them, suffering the priests 
and everybody to carry away and dispose of what they 
pleased; so that abundance of rare things are irrecover- 
ably gone. 

Having taken order here, I went to the Royal Society to 
give them an account of what I had procured, that they 
might call a Council and appoint a day to wait on the 
Duke to thank him for this munificent gift. 

3rd September. I went to London, to dine with Mrs. 
Godolphin, [formerly Mrs. Blagg, who had been Maid of 
Honour to the Queen], and found her in labour ; she was 
brought to bed of a son, who was baptized in the chamber, 
by the name of Francis, the susceptors being Sir William 
Godolphin (head of the family), Mr. John Hervey, Trea- 
surer to the Queen, and Mrs. Boscawen, sister to Sir 
William and the father. 

8th. Whilst I was at church came a letter from Mr. 
Godolphin, that my dear friend his lady was exceedingly 
ill, and desiring my prayers and assistance. My wife and 
I took boat immediately, and went to Whitehall, where, to 
my inexpressible sorrow, I found she had been attacked 
with the new fever, then reigning this excessive hot 
autumn, and which was so violent, that it was not thought 
she could last many hours. 

9th. She died in the 26th year of her age, to the inex- 
pressible affliction of her dear husband, and all her rela- 
tions, but of none in the world more than of myself, who 
lost the most excellent and inestimable friend that ever 
lived. Never was a more virtuous and inviolable friend- 
ship ; never a more religious, discreet, and admirable crea- 
ture, beloved of all, admired of all, for all possible perfec- 
tions of her sex. She is gone to receive the reward of 
her signal charity, and all other her Christian graces, too 
blessed a creature to converse with mortals, fitted as she 
was by a most holy life, to be received into the mansions 
above. She was for wit, beauty, goodnature, fidelity, dis- 
cretion, and all accomplishments, the most incomparable 
person. How shall I ever repay the obligations to her for 
the infinite good offices she did my soul by so often engaging 
me to make religion the terms and tie of the friendship 
there was between us ! She was the best wife, the best 
mistress, the best friend, that ever husband had. But it is 



124 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

not here that I pretend to give her character, having 
designed to consecrate her worthy life to posterity. 

Her husband, struck with unspeakable affliction, fell 
down as dead. The King himself, and all the Court, 
expressed their sorrow. To the poor and miserable, her 
loss was irreparable; for there was no degree but had 
some obhgation to her memory. So careful and provident 
was she to be prepared for all possible accidents, that (as if 
she foresaw her end) she received the heavenly viaticum but 
the Sunday before, after a most solemn recollection. She 
put all her domestic concerns into the exactest order, and 
left a letter directed to her husband, to be opened in case 
she died in child-bed, in which with the most pathetic and 
endearing expressions of a most loyal and virtuous wife, she 
begs his kindness to her memory might be continued by his 
care and esteem of those she left behind, even to her 
domestic servants, to the meanest of which she left consi- 
derable legacies, as well as to the poor. It was now seven 
years since she was Maid of Honour to the Queen, that she 
regarded me as a father, a brother, and what is more, 
a friend. We often prayed, visited the sick and miserable, 
received, read, discoursed, and communicated in all holy 
offices together. She was most dear to my wife, and 
affectionate to my children. But she is gone ! This only 
is my comfort, that she is happy in Christ, and I shall 
shortly behold her again ! * She desired to be buried in 
the dormitory of his family, near three hundred miles from 
all her other friends. So afflicted was her husband at this 
severe loss, that the entire care of her funeral was com- 
mitted to me. Having closed the eyes, and dropped a tear 
upon the cheek of my dear departed friend, lovely even in 
death, I caused her corpse to be embalmed and wrapped in 
lead, a plate of brass soldered thereon, with an inscription, 
and other circumstances due to her worth, with as much 
dHigence and care as my grieved heart would permit me ; 
I then retired home for two days, which were spent in 
solitude and sad reflection. 

17th. She was, accordingly, carried to Godolphin, in 

* In the subsequent part of these Memoirs, it will appear that Mr. Godolphin 
(afterwards Lord Godolphin) continued the steady friend of Mr. Evelyn, 
whose grandson married mto the family. The infant now mentioned as bom, 
carried on the friendship to the family through a long life. 



1670.] JOHN EVELYN. 125 

Cornwall, in a hearse with six horses, attended by two 
coaches of as many, with about thirty of her relations and 
servants. There accompanied the hearse her husband's 
brother. Sir William, two more of his brothers, and three 
sisters : her husband was so overcome with grief, that he 
was wholly unfit to travel so long a journey, till he was 
more composed. I went as far as Hounslow with a sad 
heart ; but was obliged to return upon some indispensable 
affairs. The corpse was ordered to be taken out of the 
hearse every night, and decently placed in the house, with 
tapers about it, and her servants attending, to Cornwall ; 
and then was honourably interred in the parish church of 
Godolphin. This funeral cost not much less than £1000. 

With Mr. Godolphin, I looked over and sorted his lady's 
papers, most of which consisted of Prayers, Meditations, 
Sermon-notes, Discourses, and Collections on several reli- 
gious subjects, and many of her own happy composing, 
and so pertinently digested, as if she had been all her life 
a student in divinity. We found a diary of her solemn 
resolutions, tending to practical virtue, with letters from 
select friends, all put into exact method. It astonished 
us to see what she had read and written, her youth 
considered. 

1st October. The Parliament and the whole Nation were 
alarmed about a conspiracy of some eminent Papists for 
the destruction of the King and introduction of Popery, 
discovered by one Gates and Dr. Tongue,* which last I 

* Ezrael Tong, bred in University College, Oxford, being puritanically 
inclined, quitted tlie University ; but, in 1648, returned, and was made a 
Fellow. He had tlie living of Pluckley, in Kent, but quitted it, being vexed 
by liis parishioners and Quakers. In 1657, he was made Fellow of the 
newly-erected College at Durham, and that being dissolved in 1660, he taught 
school at Islington. He then went witli Colonel Edward Harley to Dunkirk, 
but, that being given up, he took a small living in Herefordshire (Lentwardine) : 
but quitted it for St. Mary Stayning, in London, which, after the fire in 
1666, was united to St. Micliael, Wood Street, and he held them till his death, 
in 1600. He was a great opponent of the Papists. Wood mentions several 
pubHcations of his, amongst whicli are, "Tlie Jesuits unmasked," 1678; 
"Jesuitical Aphorisms," 1678 ; "The Jesuits' Morals," 1680 (1670) ; the 
two last translated from the French. Wood's Athen. Oxon. vol. II., p. 502. 

Mr. Evelyn speaks of Dr. Tong's having translated the last of these by his 
desire. 

Gates said that Thomas Whitbread, a priest, on 1 3th June, 1 6 . . did tell 
the rector of St. Omer's, that a Minister of the Church of England had scan- 



126 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

knew, being the translator of the " Jesuits' Morals ; " I went 
to see and converse with him at Whitehall, with Mr. Gates, 
one that was lately an apostate to the church of Rome, 
and now returned again with this discovery. He seemed 
to be a bold man, and, in my thoughts, furiously indis- 
creet ; but everybody believed what he said ; and it quite 
changed the genius and motions of the Parliament, grow- 
ing now corrupt and interested with long sitting and 
court-practices ; but, with aU this. Popery would not go 
down. This discovery turned them all as one man against 
it, and nothing was done but to find out the depth of this. 
Gates was encouraged, and every thing he affirmed taken 
for gospel; — the truth is, the Roman Catholics were ex- 
ceeding bold and busy everywhere, since the Duke forbore 
to go any longer to the chapel. 

16th. Mr. Godolphin requested me to continue the trust 
his wife had reposed in me, in behalf of his little son, con- 
juring me to transfer the friendship I had for his dear 
wife, on him and his. 

2ist. The murder of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, found 
strangled about this time, as was manifest, by the Papists, 
he being a Justice of the Peace, and one who knew much 
of their practices, as conversant with Coleman (a servant of 
the .... now accused), put the whole nation into a new 
ferment against them. 

31st. Being my 58th of my age, required my humble 
addresses to Almighty God, and that he would take off 
His heavy hand, still on my family, and restore comforts 
to us after the loss of my excellent friend. 

5th November. Dr. Tillotson preached before the Com- 
mons at St. Margaret's. He said the Papists were now 
arrived at that impudence, as to deny that there ever was 
any such as the gunpowder-conspiracy; but he affirmed 
that he himself had several letters written by Sir Everard 

dalonslj put out the ** Jesuits' Morals" in English, and had endeavoured to 
render them odious, and had asked the Rector whether he thought Gates 
might know him 1 and the Rector called the deponent, who heard these words 
as he stood at the chamber-door, and when he went into the chamber of the 
Provincial, he asked him « If he knew the author of the Jesuits' Morals ? " 
deponent answered, "His person, but not his name." Whitbread then 
demanded, whether he would undertake to poison, or assassinate the author ; 
which deponent undertook, having £50 reward promised him, and appointed 
to return to England. — From a publication of Gates. 



1679.] JOHN EVELYN. 127 

Digby (one of the traitors), in which he gloried that he 
was to suffer for it ; and that it was so contrived, that of 
the Papists not above two or three should have been 
blown up, and they, such as were not worth saving. 

15th. The Queen's birthday. I never saw the Court 
more brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and con- 
sternation. Coleman and one Staly had now been tried, 
condemned, and executed. On this, Oates grew so pre- 
sumptuous, as to accuse the Queen of intending to poison 
the King ; which certainly that pious and virtuous lady 
abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made 
it utterly unlikely, in my opinion. He probably thought 
to gratify some who would have been glad his Majesty 
should have married a fruitful lady ; but the King was too 
kind a husband to let any of these make impression on 
him. However, divers of the Popish peers were sent to 
the Tower, accused by Oates ; and all the Roman Catholic 
lords were by a new Act for ever excluded the ParUament ; 
which was a mighty blow. The King's, Queen's, and 
Duke's servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by 
everybody who pretended to enjoy any office of public 
trust, and who would not be suspected of Popery. I went 
with Sir William Godolphin, a member of the Commons^ 
House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning), to be 
resolved whether masses were idolatry, as the test ex- 
pressed it, which was so worded, that several good Pro- 
testants scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man 
and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. 
The Bishop's opinion was, that he might take it, though 
he wished it had been otherwise worded in the test. 

1678-9. 15th January. I went with my Lady Sunder- 
land to Chelsea, and dined with the Countess of Bristol 
[her mother] in the great house, formerly the Duke of 
Buckingham's, a spacious and excellent place for the 
extent of ground and situation in a good air.* The house 

* This mansion stood at the north end of Beaufort Row, extending west- 
wai'd about 100 yards from tl'e water-side. It was originally called Buck- 
ingham-House ; but, in January, 1682, was sold by Lady Anne Russell, 
daughter of Francis, Earl of Bedford, to Henry, Marquis of Worcester, 
created Duke of Beaufort, in the same year ; after whom it was known by 
the title of Beaufort-House. It continued to be the residence of tliis noble 
family tillabout the year 1720, when, having stood empty for several years, 



128 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

is large, but ill-contrived, though my Lord of Bristol who 
purchased it after he sold Wimbledon to my Lord Trea- 
surer, expended much money on it. There were divers 
pictures of Titian and Vandyke, and some of Bassano, 
very excellent, especially an Adonis and Venus, a Duke 
of Venice, a butcher in his shambles selling meat to a 
Swiss; and of Vandyke, my Lord of Bristol's picture, 
with the Earl of Bedford's at length, in the same table. 
There was in the garden a rare collection of orange-trees, 
of which she was pleased to bestow some upon me. 

16th. I supped this night with Mr. Secretary at one 
Mr. Houblon's, a French merchant, who had his house 
famished, en Prince, and gave us a splendid entertainment. 

25th. The Long Parliament, which had sat ever since 
the Restoration, was dissolved by persuasion of the Lord 
Treasurer, though divers of them were believed to be his 
pensioners. At this, all the poUticians were at a stand, 
they being very eager in pursuit of the late plot of the 
Papists. 

30th. Dr. Cudworth preached before the King at White- 
hall, on 2 Timothy, iii. 5, reckoning up the perils of the 
last times, in which, amongst other wickedness, treasons 
should be one of the greatest, applying it to the occasion, 
as committed under a form of reformation and godliness ; 
concluding that the prophecy did intend more particularly 
the present age, as one of the last times ; the sins there 
enumerated, more abundantly reigning than ever. 

2nd February. Dr. Durell, Dean of Windsor, preached 
to the Household at Whitehall, on 1 Cor. xvi. 22; he 
read the whole sermon out of his notes, which I had 
never before seen a Frenchman do, he being of Jersey, 
and bred at Paris. 

4th. Dr. Pierce, Dean of Salisbury, preached on 1 John, 
iv. 1, " Try the Spirits, there being so many delusory 
ones gone forth of late into the world;" he inveighed 
against the pernicious doctrines of Mr. Hobbes. 

My Brother, Evelyn, was now chosen Knight for the 
County of Surrey, carrying it against my Lord Longford 
and Sir Adam Brown, of Betchworth Castle. The country 
coming in to give him their suffrages were so many, that 

it was purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, in 1738, and was pulled down in 1740. 
— Faulkner's History of Chelsea. 



1679.] JOHN EVELYN. Jgg 

I believe they eat and drank him out near £3^000, by a 
most abominable custom. 

1st April. My friend^ Mr. Godolphin, was now made 
one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and of 
the Privy Council. 

4th. The Bishop of Gloucester preached in a manner very 
like Bishop Andrews, full of divisions, and scholastical, and 
that with much quickness. The holy Communion followed. 

20th. Easter-day. Our vicar preached exceeding well 
on 1 Cor., V. 7. The holy Communion followed, at which 
I and my daugliter, Mary, (now about fom'teen years old) 
received for the first time. The Lord Jesus continue his 
grace unto her, and improve this blessed beginning ! 

24th. The Duke of York, voted against by the Commons 
for his recusancy, went over to Flanders; which made 
much discourse. 

4th June. I dined with Mr. Pepys in the Tower, he 
having been committed by the House of Commons for 
misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was Secretary ; 
I believe he was unjustly charged.* Here I saluted my 
Lords Stafford and Petre, who were committed for the 
Popish plot. 

7th. I saw the magnificent cavalcade and entry of the 
Portugal Ambassador. 

17th. I was godfather to a son of Sir Christopher Wren, 
Surveyor of his Majesty^s buildings, that most excellent 
and learned person, with Sir Wilham Fermor, and my 
Lady Viscountess Newport, wife of the Treasurer of the 
Household. 

Thence to Chelsea, to Sir Stephen Fox, and my lady, 
in order to the purchase of the Countess of Bristol^s house 
there, which she desired me to procure a chapman for. 

19th. I dined at Sir Robert Clayton^s with Sir Robert 
Viner, the great banker. 

22nd. There were now divers Jesuits executed about the 
plot, and a rebellion in Scotland of the fanatics, so that 
there was a sad prospect of public affairs. 

* Mr. Popys was concerned in a contested election in 1684, and his oppo- 
nent accused him of being a Papist, which the House of Commons intjuired 
into, but without finding any proof. By Gray's Debates, it appears that he 
was accused of having sent information to the French court of the state of tlie 
English Navy. Most incredible ! 

VOL. II. K 



130 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

25th. The new Commissioners of the Admiralty came 
to visit me, viz. Sir Henry Capell, brother to the Earl of 
Essex, Mr. Finch, eldest son to the Lord Chancellor, Sir 
Humphry Winch, Sir Thomas Meeres, Mr. Hales, with' 
some of the Commissioners of the Navy. I went with 
them to London. 

1st July. I dined at Sir William Godolphin^s, and with 
that learned gentleman went to take the air in Hyde- 
Pai'k, where was a glorious cortege. 

3rd. Sending a piece of »'enison to Mr. Pepys, still a 
prisoner, I went and dined with him. 

6th. Now were there papers, speeches, and Hbels, pub- 
licly cried in the streets against the Dukes of York and 
Lauderdale, &c. obnoxious to the Parliament, with too 
much and indeed too shameful a Hberty; but the people 
and Parliament had gotten head by reason of the vices of 
the great ones. 

There was now brought up to London a child, son of 
one Mr. Wotton,* formerly amanuensis to Dr. Andrews, 

* The Rev. Henry Wotton, minister of Wrentham, in Suffolk. This son 
was afterwards the celebrated William Wotton, the friend and defender of 
Dr. Bentley, and the antagonist of Sir William Temple, in the great Contro- 
versy about Ancient and Modem Learning. His early and extraordinary 
proficiency in letters and general knowledge of every kind, was commemorated 
by his father in a pamphlet " On the Education of Children," addressed to 
King Charles II., and reprinted in 1753, with the attestations of several 
learned men who had examined him, to the truth of his uncommon abihtiea 
and wonderful acquisitions in the different languages, both ancient and 
modern. Yet it is remarkable those eminent qualifications did not advance 
him in the line of his profession beyond a Fellowship at Cambridge, and a 
country parsonage, viz. Milton, in Buckinghamshire, which was given him by 
the Earl of Nottingham, to whom he had been chaplain. Sir Philip Skippon, 
who lived at Wrentham, in Suffolk, in a letter to Mr. Jolm Ray, Sept. 18, 
1671, writes : " I shall somewhat surprize you with what I have seen in a 
little boy, William Wotton, five years old last month, son of Mr. Wotton, 
minister of this parish, who hath instructed his child within the last three 
quarters of a year in the reading the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, 
which he can read almost as well as English, and that tongue he could read 
at four years and three months old, as well as most lads of twice his age." 
Sir Philip left a draft of a longer letter to Mr. Ray, in which he adds, " He 
is not yet able to parse any language, but what he performs in turning the 
three learned tongues into English, is done by strength of memory, so that he 
is ready to mistake when some words of different signification have near the 
same sound. His father hath taught him by no mles, but only uses his 
memory in remembering words." — He was admitted of Cathai'ine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, April, 1676, some months before he was ten years old. He took the 



1679.] JOHN EVELYN. ]^31 

Bishop of Winton, who both read and perfectly understood 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac, and most of the 
modern languages ; disputed in divinity, law, and all the 
sciences; was skilful in history, both ecclesiastical and 
profane ; in politics ; in a word, so universally and solidly 
learned at eleven years of age, that he was looked on as a 
miracle. Dr. Lloyd, one of the most deep learned divines 
of this nation in all sorts of literature, with Dr. Burnet, 
who had severely examined him, came away astonished, 
and they told me they did not believe there had the like 
appeared in the world. He had only been instructed by 
his father, who being himself a learned person, confessed 
that his son knew all that he himself knew. But, what 
was more admirable than his vast memory, was his judg- 
ment and invention, he being tried with divers hard 
questions, which required maturity of thought and expe- 
rience. He was also dexterous in chronology, antiquities, 
mathematics. In sum, an intellectus universalis, beyond 
all that we read of Picus Mirandula, and other precocious 
Avits, and yet withal a very humble child. 

14th. I went to see how things stood at Parson^s Green, 
my Lady Viscountess Mordaunt (now sick in Paris, whither 
she went for health) ha\dng made me a trustee for her 
children, an office I could not refuse to this most excellent, 
pious, and virtuous lady, my long acquaintance. 

15th. I dined with Mr Sidney Godolphin, now one of 
the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 

18th. I went early to the Old Bailey Sessions-house, 
to the famous trial of Sir George Wakeman, one of the 
Queen^s physicians, and three Benedictine monks;* the 

degree of B. A. when only twelve years and five months old. Dr. Burnet, 
Bishop of Sarum, recommended him to Dr. Lloyd, Bishop of St. Asaph, who 
took hira as an assistant in making a catalogue of his books, and carried him 
to St. Asaph, and gave him the sinecure of Llandrillo, in Denbighshire. He 
suffered from the satirical pen of Swift ; but this is no wonder, as he had 
spoken of the Tale of a Tub as a profane piece of ribaldry. He compiled 
Memoirs of the Cathedral Churches of St. David and St. Asaph, which 
Browne Willis published. When very young, he remembered almost the 
whole of any discourse he had heard, and repeated to Bishop Lloyd one of 
his own sermons. He died in 17'2G, aged 61, and was buried at Buxted, in 
Sussex. 

* William ]\Iarshal, William Eumley, and James Corker. — Sec State 
Trials, fol. vol. IL, p. 918. 

K 2 



132 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

first (whom I was well acquainted with, and take to be a 
worthy gentleman abhorring such a fact) for intending 
to poison the King; the other as accompHces to carry 
on the plot, to subvert the government, and introduce 
Popery. The Bench was crowded with the Judges, Lord 
Mayor, Justices, and innumerable spectators. The chief 
accusers. Dr. Oates (as he called himself), and one Bedlow, 
a man of inferior note. Their testimonies were not so 
pregnant, and I fear much of it from hearsay, but swearing 
positively to some particulars, which drew suspicion upon 
their truth; nor did circumstances so agree, as to give 
either the Bench, or Jury, so entire satisfaction as was 
expected. After, therefore, a long and tedious trial of 
nine hours, the Jury brought them in not guilty, to the 
extraordinary triumph of the Papists, and without sufficient 
disadvantage and reflections on witnesses, especially Oates 
and Bedlow. 

This was a happy day for the Lords in the Tower, who 
expecting their trial, had this gone against the prisoners 
at the bar, would all have been in the utmost hazard. 
For my part, I look on Oates as a vain insolent man, 
puffed up with the favour of the Commons for having 
discovered something really true, more especially as detect- 
ing the dangerous intrigue of Coleman, proved out of his 
own letters, and of a general design which the Jesuited 
party of the Papists ever had, and still have, to ruin the 
Church of England ; but that he was trusted with those 
great secrets he pretended, or had any soUd ground for 
what he accused divers noblemen of, I have many reasons 
to induce my contrary belief. That among so many com- 
missions as he affirmed to have delivered to them from 
P. Oliva* and the Pope, — ^he who made no scruple of 
opening all other papers, letters, and secrets, should not 
only not open any of those pretended commissions, but 
not so much as take any copy or witness of any one of 
them, is almost miraculous. But the Commons (some 
leading persons I mean of them) had so exalted him, that 
they took all he said for gospel, and without more ado 
ruined all whom he named to be conspirators ; nor did he 
spare whoever came in his way. But indeed the murder of 

* Padre Oliva, General of the Order of Jesuits. 



1G79.] JOHN EVELYN. I33 

Sir Edmundbury Godfrey, suspected to have been com- 
passed by the Jesuits' party for his intimacy with Coleman 
(a busy person whom I also knew), and the fear they had 
that he was able to have discovered things to their preju- 
dice, did so exasperate not only the Commons but all the 
nation, that much of these sharpnesses against the more 
honest Roman Catholics who lived peaceably, is to be 
imputed to that horrid fact. 

The Sessions ended, I dined or rather supped (so late it 
was) with the Judges * in the large room annexed to the 
place, and so returned home. Though it was not mj'- 
custom or delight, to be often present at any capital trials, 
we having them commonly so exactly published by those 
who take them in short-hand, yet I was inclined to be at 
this signal one, that by the ocular view of the carriages 
and other circumstances of the managers and parties con- 
cerned, I might inform myself, and regulate my opinion 
of a cause that had so alarmed the whole nation. 

22nd. Dined at Clapham, at Sir D. Gauden's; went 
thence with him to Windsor, to assist him in a business 
with his Majesty. I lay that night at Eton College, the 
Provost's lodgings (Dr. Craddock), where I was courteously 
entertained. 

23rd. To Court : after dinner, I visited that excellent 
painter, Verrio, whose works in fresco in the King's palace, 
at Windsor, will celebrate his name as long as those walls 
last. He showed us his pretty garden, choice flowers, and 
curiosities, he himself being a skilful gardener. 

I went to Clifden, that stupendous natural rock, wood, 
and prospect, of the Duke of Buckingham' s,t buildings of 
extraordinary expense. The grots in the chalky rock are 
pretty : it is a romantic object, and the place altogether 
answers the most poetical description that can be made of 
solitude, precipice, prospect, or whatever can contribute 
to a thing so very like their imaginations. The stand, 

* The Judges were, Lord Chief-Justice North, Mr. Justice Atkins, Mr. 
Justice Windham, Mr. Justice Pemberton, and Mr. Justice Dolben. 

+ Cliefden's proud alcove, 

The bower of wanton Shrewsbury and Love. Pope. 

The Countess of Shrewsbury, whose husband having challenged the Duke, 
she is said to have held the horse of the latter in the habit of a page, whilst 
they fought. 



]^34 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

somewhat like Frascati as to its front, and, on the platform, 
is a circular view to the utmost verge of the horizon which, 
with the serpenting of the Thames, is admirable. The 
staircase is for its materials singular; the cloisters, des- 
cents, gardens, and avenue through the wood, august and 
stately; but the land all about wretchedly barren, and 
producing nothing but fern. Indeed, as I told his Majesty 
that evening (asking me how I liked Clifden) without 
flattery, that it did not please me so well as Windsor for 
the prospect and park, which is without compare; there 
being but one only opening, and that narrow, which led 
one to any variety, whereas, that of Windsor is every- 
where great and unconfined. 

Returning, I called at my cousin, Evelyn^ s, who has a 
very pretty seat in the forest, two miles byhither Clifden, 
on a flat, with gardens exquisitely kept, though large, and 
the house a staunch good old building, and what was 
singular, some of the rooms floored dove-tail-wise without 
a nail, exactly close. One of the closets is pargetted with 
plain deal, set in diamond, exceeding staimch and pretty. 

7th August. Dined at the Sherifi^s, when, the Company 
of Drapers and their wives being invited, there was a 
sumptuous entertainment, according to the forms of the 
city, with music, &c., comparable to any Prince's service 
in Europe. 

8th. I went this morning to show my Lord Chamberlain, 
his Lady, and the Duchess of Grafton, the incomparable 
work of Mr. Gibbons, the carver, whom I first recom- 
mended to his Majesty, his house being furnished like a 
cabinet, not only with his own work, but divers excellent 
paintings of the best hands. Thence, to Sir Stephen 
Fox's, where we spent the day. 

31st. After evening service, to see a neighbour, one 
Mr. Bohun, related to my son's late tutor of that name, 
a rich Spanish merchant, hving in a neat place, which 
he has adorned with many curiosities, especially several 
carvings of Mr. Gibbons, and some pictures by Streeter. 

13th September. To Windsor, to congratulate his 
Majesty on his recovery ; I kissed the Duke's hand now 
lately returned from Flanders to visit his brother the King, 
on which there were various bold and foohsh discourses, 
the Duke of Monmouth being sent away. 



1679.] JOHN EVELYN. I35 

19th. My Lord Sunderland^ one of the principal Secre- 
taries of State, invited me to dinner, where was the King's 
natural son, the Earl of Plymouth, the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, Earl of Essex, Earl of Mulgrave, Mr. Hyde, and 
Mr. Grodolphin. After dinner, I went to prayers at 
Eton, and visited Mr. Henry Grodolphin, fellow there, and 
Dr. Craddock. 

25th. Mr. Slingsby and Signor Verrio came to dine 
with me, to whom I gave China oranges off my own trees, 
as good, I think, as were ever eaten. 

6th October. A very wet and sickly season. 

23rd. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's, the King being 
now newly returned from his Newmarket recreations. 

4th November. Dined at the Lord Mayor's ; and, in 
the evening, went to the funeral of my pious, dear, and 
ancient learned friend. Dr. Jasper Needham, who was 
buried at St. Bride's church. He was a true and holy 
Christian, and one who loved me with great affection. 
Dr. Dove preached with an eulogy due to his memory. 
I lost in this person one of my dearest remaining sincere 
friends. 

5tli. I was invited to dine at my Lord Tiviotdale's, a 
Scotch Earl, a learned and knowing nobleman. We 
afterwards went to see Mr. Montague's new palace near 
Bloomsbury, built by our curator, Mr. Hooke, somewhat 
after the French ; it was most nobly furnished, and a fine, 
but too much exposed garden.* 

6th. Dined at the Countess of Sunderland's, and was 
this evening at the re-marriage of the Duchess of 
Grafton to the Duke (his Majesty's natural son) she being 
now twelve years old. The ceremony was performed in 
my Lord Chamberlain's (her father's) lodgings at White- 
hall by the Bishop of Rochester, his Majesty being present. 
A sudden and unexpected thing, when everybody believed 
the first marriage would have come to nothing ; but, the 
measure being determined, I was privately invited by 
my Lady, her mother, to be present. I confess I could 
give her little joy, and so I plainly told her, but she said 
the King would have it so, and there was no going back. 
This sweetest, hopefullest, most beautiful child, and 

,* This is now the British Museum. See under the years 1672, August, 
and 1683, October 10th. 



136 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

most virtuous too, was sacrificed to a boy that had been 
rudely bred, without anything to encourage them but his 
Majesty's pleasure. I pray God the sweet child find it to 
her advantage, who, if my augury deceive me not, will in 
few years be such a paragon, as were fit to make the wife 
of the greatest Prince in Europe ! I staid supper, where 
his Majesty sat between the Duchess of Cleveland (the 
mother of the Duke of Grafton) and the sweet Duchess 
the bride ; there were several great persons and ladies, 
without pomp. My love to my Lord Arhngton's family 
and the sweet child made me behold all this with regret, 
though as the Duke of Grafton afl'ects the sea, to which I 
find his father intends to use him, he may emerge a plain, 
useful and robust officer ; and, were he poHshed, a tolerable 
person ; for he is exceeding handsome, by far sm'passing 
any of the King's other natural issue. 

8tli. At Sir Stephen Fox's, and was agreeing for the 
Countess of Bristol's house at Chelsea, within £500. 

18th. I dined at my Lord Mayor's [Sir Robert Clay- 
ton] , being desired by the Countess of Sunderland to carry 
her thither on a solemn day, that she might see the pomp 
and ceremony of this Prince of Citizens, there never 
having been any, who, for the stateliness of his palace, 
prodigious feasting, and magnificence, exceeded him. This 
Lord Mayor's acquaintance had been from the time of his 
being apprentice to one Mr. Abbot, his uncle,* who being 
a scrivener, and an honest worthy man, one who was 
condemned to die at the beginning of the troubles forty 
years past, as concerned in the commission of array for 
King Charles I. had escaped with his life ; I often used 
his assistance in money-matters. Robert Clayton, then a 
boy, his nephew, became, after his uncle Abbot's death, 
so prodigiously rich and opulent, that he was reckoned 
one of the wealthiest citizens. He married a free-hearted 
woman, who became his hospitable disposition; and, 
ha\ing no children, with the accession of his partner and 
fellow apprentice,t who also left him his estate, he grew 
excessively rich. He was a discreet magistrate, and though 
envied, I think without much cause. Some believed him 
guilty of hard deahng, especially with the Duke of Buck- 

* See under October 12, 1677. f Mr. Morris. 



1679.] JOHN EVELYN. I37 

ingliam, much of Avhose estate lie had swallowed, but I 
never saw any ill by him, considering the trade he was of. 
The reputation and known integrity of his uucle, Abbot, 
brought all the royal party to him, by which he got not 
only great credit, but vast wealth, so as he passed this 
office Avith infinite magnificence and honour. 

20th. I dined with Mr. SHngsby, Master of the Mint, 
with my wife, invited to hear music, which was exquisitely 
performed by four of the most renowned masters; 
Du Prue, a Frenchman, on the lute ; Signer Bartholomeo, 
an Italian, on the harpsichord ; Nicholao on the violin ; 
but, above all, for its sweetness and novelty, the viol 
d'amore of five wire strings played on with a bow, being 
but an ordinary violin, played on lyre-way, by a German. 
There was also a jiute douce, now in much request for 
accompanying the voice. Mr. Slingsby, whose son and 
daughter played skilfully, had these meetings frequently 
in his house. 

21st. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, to accompany my 
worthiest and generous friend, the Earl of Ossory ; it was 
on a Friday, a private day, but the feast and entertainment 
miglit have become a King. Such an hospitable costume 
and splendid magistrature does no city in the world show, 
as I believe. 

23rd. Dr. Allestree preached before the household on 
St. Luke, xi. 2 ; Dr. Lloyd on Matt., xxiii. 20, before 
the King, showing with how little reason the Papists 
applied those words of our Blessed Saviour to maintain 
the pretended infallibility they boast of. I never heard a 
more Christian and excellent discourse : yet were some 
offended that he seemed to say the Church of Rome was a 
true church ; but it was a captious mistake ; for he never 
affirmed anything that could be more to their reproach, and 
that such was the present Church of Rome, showing how 
much it had erred. There was not in this sermon so much 
as a shadow for censure, no person of all the clergy having 
testified greater zeal against the errors of the Papists than 
this pious and most learned person. I dined at the Bishop 
of Rochester's, and then went to St. Paul's to hear that 
great wit. Dr. Sprat, now newly succeeding Dr. Outram, 
in the cure of St. Margaret's. His talent was, a great 
inemory, never making use of notes, a readiness of 



138 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

expression in a most pure and plain style of words, full of 
matter, easily delivered. 

26th, I met the Earl of Clarendon with the rest of my 
fellow executors of the will of my late Lady Viscountess 
Mordaunt, viz., Mr. Laurence Hyde, one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Treasury, and lately Plenipotentiary-Am- 
bassador at Nimeguen ; Andrew Newport, and Sir Charles 
Wheeler, to examine and audit and dispose of this year's 
account of the estate of this excellent Lady, according to 
the direction of her Will. 

27th. I went to see Sir John Stonehouse, with whom I 
was treating a marriage between my son and his daughter- 
in-law. 

28th. Came over the Duke of Monmouth from Holland 
unexpectedly to his Majesty, whilst the Duke of York was on 
his journey to Scotland, whither the King sent him to reside 
and govern. The bells and bonfires of the City at this 
arrival of the Duke of Monmouth publishing their joy, to 
the no small regret of some at Court. This Duke, whom 
for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though 
the son of an abandoned woman), the people made their 
idol. 

4th December. I dined, together with Lord Ossory and 
the Earl of Chesterfield, at the Portugal Ambassador's, 
now newly come, at Cleveland House, a noble palace, too 

good for that infamous The staircase is sumptuous, 

and the gallery and garden; but, above all, the costly 
furniture belonging to the Ambassador, especially the 
rich Japan cabinets, of which I think there were a dozen. 
There was a billiard-table, with as many more hazards as 
ours commonly have ; the game being only to prosecute 
the ball till hazarded, without passing the port, or touch- 
ing the pin ; if one miss hitting the ball every time, the 
game is lost, or if hazarded. It is more difl&cult to hazard 
a ball, though so many, than in our table, by reason the 
bound is made so exactly even, and the edges not stuff'ed ; 
the balls are also bigger, and they for the most part use 
the sharp and small end of the billiard-stick, which is shod 
with brass, or silver. The entertainment was exceeding 
civil; but, besides a good olio, the dishes were trifling, 
hashed and condited after their way, not at all fit for an 
English stomach, which is for solid meat. There was yet 



1C80.] JOHN EVELYN. j[39 

good fowl, but roasted to coal, nor were the sweetmeats 
good. 

SOth. I went to meet Sir John Stonehouse, and give 
him a particular of the settlement on my son, who noAV 
made his addresses to the young lady his daughter-in-law, 
daughter of Lady Stonehouse. 

1679-80. 25th January. Dr. Cave, author of "Primitive 
Christianity,^^ &c., a pious and learned man, preached at 
Whitehall to the household, on James, iii. 17, concerning 
the duty of grace and charity. 

30th. I supped with Sii' Stephen Fox, now made one of 
the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 

19th February. The writings for the settling jointure 
and other contracts of marriage of my son were finished 
and sealed. The lady was to bring £5000, in consideration 
of a settlement of £500 a-year present maintenance, which 
was likewise to be her jointure, and £500 a-year after mine 
and my wife^s decease. But, with God^s blessing, it will 
be at the least £1000 a-year more in a few years. I pray 
God make him worthy of it, and a comfort to his excellent 
mother, who deserves much from him ! 

21st. Shrove-Tuesday, My son was married to Mrs. 
Martha Spencer, daughter to my Lady Stonehouse by a 
former gentleman, at St. Andrew^ s, Holborn, by our Vicar, 
borrowing the church of Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of St. 
PauFs, the present incumbent. We afterwards dined at a 
house in Holborn ; and, after the solemnity and dancing 
was done, they were bedded at Sir John Stonehouse^s 
lodgings in Bow Street, Covent Garden. 

26th. To the Royal Society, where I met an Irish Bishop 
with his Lady, who was daughter to my worthy and pious 
friend. Dr. Jeremy Taylor, late Bishop of Down and 
Connor; they came to see the Repository. She seemed 
to be a knowing woman, beyond the ordinary talent of 
her sex. 

3rd March. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, in order to 
the meeting of my Lady Beckford, whose daughter (a 
rich heiress) I had recommended to my Brother of Wotton 
for his only son, she being the daughter of the lady by 
Mr. Eversfield, a Sussex gentleman. 

16th. To London, to receive £3000 of my daughter- 
in-law^s portion, which was paid in gold. 



140 DIAIIY OF [CASHIOBURY, 

26th. The Dean of Sarum preached on Jerem., xlv. 5, 
an hour and a half from his common-place book of kings 
and great men retiring to private situations. Scarce any- 
thing of Scripture in it. 

18th April. On the earnest invitation of the Earl of 
Essex, I went with him to his house at Cashiobury, in 
Hertfordshire. It was on Sunday, but going early from 
his house in the square of St. James, we arrived by ten 
o'clock ; this he thought too late to go to church, and we 
had prayers in his chapel. The house is new, a plain 
fabric, built by my friend, Mr. Hugh May. There are 
divers fair and good rooms, and excellent carving by 
Gibbons, especially the chimney-piece of the library. 
There is in the porch, or entrance, a painting by Verrio, 
of Apollo and the Liberal Arts. One room pargetted 
with yew, which I liked well. Some of the chimney 
mantels are of Irish marble, brought by my Lord from 
Ireland, when he was Lord Lieutenant, and not much 
inferior to Italian. The tympanum, or gable, at the front 
is a bass-relievo of Diana hunting, cut in Portland stone, 
handsomely enough. I do not approve of the middle 
doors being round ; but, when the hall is finished as 
designed, it being an oval with a cupola, together with the 
other wing, it will be a very noble palace. The library is 
large, and very nobly furnished, and all the books are 
richly bound and gilded; but there are no MSS., except 
the Parliament Rolls and Journals, the transcribing and 
binding of which cost him, as he assured me, £500. 

No man has been more industrious than this noble 
Lord in planting about his seat, adorned with walks, 
ponds, and other rural elegancies; but the soil is stony, 
churlish, and uneven, nor is the water near enough to the 
house, though a very swift and clear stream run within a 
flight-shot from it in the valley, which may fitly be called 
Coldbrook, it being indeed excessive cold, yet producing 
fair trouts. It is pity the house was not situated to more 
advantage ; but it seems it was built just where the old one 
was, which I believe he only meant to repair ; this leads 
men into irremediable errors, and saves but a little. 

The land about is exceedingly addicted to wood, but 
the coldness of the place hinders the growth. Black 
cherry-trees prosper even to considerable timber, some 



1680.] JOHN EVELYN. 141 

being eighty feet long; they make also very handsome 
avenues. There is a pretty oval at the end of a fair walk, 
set about with treble rows of Spanish chestnut-trees. 

The gardens are very rare, and cannot be otherwise, 
having so skilful an artist to govern them as Mr. Cooke, 
who is, as to the mechanic part, not ignorant in mathe- 
matics, and pretends to astrology. There is an excellent 
collection of the choicest fruit. 

As for my Lord, he is a sober, wise, judicious, and 
pondering person, not illiterate beyond the rate of most 
noblemen in this age, very well versed in English Plistory 
and affairs, industrious, frugal, methodical, and every way 
accomplished. His Lady (being sister of the late Earl of 
Northumberland) is a wise, yet somewhat melancholy 
woman, setting her heart too much on the little lady, her 
daughter, of whom she is over fond. They have a hopeful 
son at the Academy. 

My Lord was not long since come from his Lord- 
Lieutenancy of Ireland, where he showed his abilities in 
administration and government, as well as prudence in 
considerably augmenting his estate without reproach. He 
had been Ambassador Extraordinary in Denmark, and, in 
a word, such a person as became the son of that worthy 
hero his father to be, the late Lord Capel, who lost his hfe 
for King Charles I. 

We spent our time in the mornings in walking, or 
riding, and contriving [alterations], and the afternoons in 
the library, so as I passed my time for three or four days 
with much satisfaction. He Avas pleased in conversation 
to impart to me divers particulars of state, relating to the 

present times. He being no great friend to the D • 

was now laid aside, his integrity and abilities being 
not so suitable in this conjuncture. — 21st. I returned to 
London. 

30th. To a meeting of the executors of late Viscountess 
Mordaunt's estate, to consider of the sale of Parson's 
Green, being in treaty with Mr. Loftus, and to settle the 
half year's account. 

1st May. Was a meeting of the feoffees of the poor of 
our parish. This year I would stand one of the collectors 
of their rents, to give example to others. My sou was 
added to the feoffees. 



142 DIARY OF [WINDSOR, 

This afternoon came to visit me Sir Edward Deering, of 
Surrendon, in Kent, one of the Lords of the Treasury, with 
his daughter, married to my worthy friend. Sir Robert 
Southwell, Clerk of the Council, now Extraordinary-Envoy 
to the Duke of Brandenburgh, and other Princes in 
Germany, as before he had been in Portugal, being a sober, 
wise, and virtuous gentleman. 

13th. 1 was at the funeral of old Mr. Shish, master- 
shipwright of his Majesty's Yard here, an honest and 
remarkable man, and his death a public loss, for his 
excellent success in building ships (though altogether 
illiterate), and for breeding up so many of his children to 
be able artists. I held up the pall with three knights, 
who did him that honour, and he was worthy of it. It 
was the custom of this good man to rise in the night, and 
to pray, kneeling in his own coffin, which he had lying by 
him for many years. He was born that famous year, the 
Gunpowder-plot, 1605. 

14th June. Came to dine with us the Countess of 
Clarendon, Dr. Lloyd, Dean of Bangor (since Bishop of 
St. Asaph), Dr. Burnet, author of the History of the 
Reformation, and my old friend, Mr. Henshaw. After 
dinner, we all went to see the Observatory, and Mr. Flam- 
sted, who showed us divers rare instruments, especially the 
great quadrant. 

24th July. Went with my wife and daughter to 
Windsor, to see that stately court, now near finished. 
There was erected in the court the King on horseback, 
lately cast in copper, and set on a rich pedestal of white 
mai'ble, the work of Mr. Gibbons, at the expense of Toby 
Rustate, a page* of the back stairs, who by his wonderful 
frugality had arrived to a great estate in money, and did 
many works of charity, as well as this of gratitude to his 
master, which cost him £1000. He is very simple, ignorant, 
but honest and loyal creature. 

We all dined at the Countess of Sunderland's, after- 
wards to see Signer Verrio's garden, thence to Eton 
College, to salute the Provost, and heard a Latin speech of 

* Mr. Tobias Rustate. He was a great benefactor to Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, in particular, by an endowment of scholarships there for the benefit 
of young students, orphan sons of Clergymen. 



1680.] JOHN EVELYN. I45 

one of the Alumni (it being at the election), and were 
invited to supper; but took our leave, and got to London 
that night in good time. 

2Gth. My most noble and illustrious friend, the Earl of 
Ossorj^, espying me this morning after sermon in the privy 
gallery, calling to me, told me he was now going his 
journey (meaning to Tangier, whither he was designed 
Governor and General of the forces, to regain the losses 
we had lately sustained from the Moors, when Inchequin 
was Governor) . I asked if he would not call at my house 
(as he ahvays did whenever he went out of England on any 
exploit ) ; he said he must embark at Portsmouth, " where- 
fore let you and I dine together to-day ; I am quite alone, 
and have something to impart to you ; I am not well, shall 
be private, and desire your company." 

Being retired to his lodgings and set down on a couch, 
he sent to his secretary for the copy of a letter Avliich he 
had written to Lord Sunderland, (Secretary of State) 
wishing me to read it ; it was to take notice how ill he 
resented it, that he should tell the King before Lord 
Ossory^s face, that Tangier was not to be kept, but would 
certainly be lost, and yet added that it was fit Lord Ossory 
should be sent, that they might give some account of it to 
the world, meaning (as supposed) the next Parliament, 
when all such miscarriages would probably be examined ; 
this Lord Ossory took very ill of Lord Sunderland, and 
not kindly of the King, who resolving to send him with an 
incompetent force, seemed, as his Lordship took it, to be 
willing to cast him away, not only on a hazardous adven- 
ture, but in most men^s opinion, an impossibihty, seeing 
there was not to be above 300 or 400 horse, and 4000 foot 
for the garrison and all, both to defend the town, form a 
camp, repulse the enemy, and fortify what ground they should 
get in. This touched my Lord deeply, that he should be 
so little considered as to put him on a business in which 
he should probably not only lose his reputation, but be 
charged with all the miscarriage and ill success ; whereas, 
at first they promised 6,000 foot and 600 horse effective. 

My lord, being an exceeding brave and valiant person, 
and Avho had so approved himself in divers signal battles, 
both at sea and land ; so beloved and so esteemed by the 
people, as one they depended upon all occasions worthy of 



244 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

such a captain ; lie looked on this as too great an indiffer- 
ence in his Majesty, after all his services, and the merits of 
his father, the Duke of Ormond, and a design of some 
who envied his virtue. It certainly took so deep root in 
his mind, that he who was the most void of fear in the 
world (and assured me he would go to Tangier with ten 
men if his Majesty commanded him) could not bear up 
against this unkmdness. Having disburdened himself of 
this to me after dinner, he went with his Majesty to the 
Sheriffs at a great supper in Fishmongers' Hall; but, find- 
ing himself ill, took his leave immediately of his Majesty, 
and came back to his lodging. Not resting well this night, 
he was persuaded to remove to Arlington House, for 
better accommodation. His disorder turned to a malignant 
fever, which increasing after all that six of the most able 
physicians could do, he became delirious, with intervals 
of sense, during which Dr. Lloyd (after Bishop of St. 
Asaph) administered the holy Sacrament, of which I also 
participated. He died the Friday following, the 30th July, 
to the universal grief of all that knew or heard of his great 
worth, nor had any a greater loss than myself. Oft would 
he say I was the oldest acquaintance he had in England 
(when his father Avas in Ireland), it being now of about 
thirty years, contracted abroad, when he rode in the 
Academy in Paris, and when we were seldom asunder. 

His Majesty never lost a Avorthier subject, nor father a 
better or more dutiful son; a loving, generous, good- 
natured, and perfectly obliging friend ; one who had 
done innumerable kindnesses to several before they knew 
it ; nor did he ever advance any that were not worthy ; no 
one more brave, more modest : none more humble, sober, 
and every way virtuous. Unhappy England in this illus- 
trious person's loss ! Universal was the mourning for him, 
and the eulogies on him; I staid night and day by his 
bedside to his last gasp, to close his dear eyes ! O sad 
father, mother, wife, and children ! What shall I add ? he 
deserved all that a sincere friend, a brave soldier, a virtuous 
courtier, a loyal subject, an honest man, a bountiful 
master, and good Christian, could deserve of his prince 
and country. One thing more let me note, that he often 
expressed to me the abhorrence he had of that base and 
unworthy action which he was put upon, of engaging the 



1C80.] JOHN EVELYN. -[45 

Smyrna fleet in time of peace, in which though he behaved 
himself hke a great captain, yet he told me it was the only 
blot in his life, and troubled him exceedingly. Though he 
was commanded, and never examined further when he was 
so, yet he always spake of it with regret and detestation. 
The Countess was at the seat of her daughter, the Countess 
of Derby, about 200 miles off". 

30th August. I went to visit a French gentleman, one 
Monsieur Chardin, who having been thrice in the East 
Indies, Persia, and other remote countries, came hither in 
our return-ships from those parts, and it being reported that 
he was a very curious and knowing man, I was desired by 
the Eoyal Society to salute him in their name, and to 
invite him to honour them with his company. Sir Joseph 
Hoskins and Sir Christopher Wren accompanied me. We 
found him at his lodgings in his Eastern habit, a very 
handsome person, extremely affable, a modest, well-bred 
man, not inclined to talk wonders. He spake Latin, and 
understood Greek, Arabic, and Persian, from eleven years' 
travels in those parts, whither he went in search of jewels, 
and was become very rich. He seemed about 36 years of 
age. After the usual civilities, we asked some account of 
the extraordinary things he must have seen in travelling 
over land to those places where few, if any, northern 
Europeans used to go, as the Black and Caspian Sea, 
Mingrelia, Bagdat, Nineveh, Perscpolis, &c. He told us 
that the things most worthy of our sight would be, the 
draughts he had caused to be made of some noble ruins, 
&c. ; for that, besides his own little talent that way, he had 
carried two good painters with him, to draw landscapes, 
measure and design the remains of the palace which 
Alexander burnt in his frolic at Persepolis, with divers 
temples, columns, relievos, and statues, yet extant, which 
he affirmed to be sculpture far exceeding any thing he had 
observed either at Rome, in Greece, or in any other part 
of the world where magnificence was in estimation. He 
said there was an inscription in letters not intelligible, 
though entire. He was sorry he could not gratify the 
curiosity of the Society at present, his things not being yet 
out of the ship ; but would wait on them with them on his 
return from Paris, whither he was going the next day, but 
with intention to return suddenly, and stay longer here, 

VOL. ir. L 



-^^Q DIARY OF [LONDON, 

the persecution in France not suflFering Protestants, and 
he was one, to be quiet. 

He told us that Nineveh was a vast city, now all buried 
in her ruins, the inhabitants building on the subterranean 
vaults, which were, as appeared, the first stories of the old 
city; that there were frequently found huge vases of 
fine earth, columns, and other antiquities ; that the straw 
which the Egyptians required of the Israelites, was not to 
burn, or cover the rows of bricks as we use, but being 
chopped small to mingle with the clay, which being dried 
in the sun (for they bake not in the furnaces) would else 
cleave asunder ; that in Persia are yet a race of Ignicolae, 
who worship the sun and the fire as Gods ; that the women 
of Georgia and Mingrelia were universally, and without 
any compare, the most beautiful creatures for shape, 
features, and figure, in the world, and therefore the Grand 
Seignior and Bashaws had had from thence most of their 
wives and concubines ; that there had within these hun- 
dred years been Amazons amongst them, that is to say, a 
sort or race of valiant women, given to war ; that Persia 
was extremely fertile ; he spoke also of Japan and China, 
and of the many great errors of our late geographers, as 
we suggested matter for discourse. We then took our 
leaves, failing of seeing his papers ; but it was told us by 
others that indeed he durst not open, or show them, till 
he had first showed them to the French King ; but of this 
he himself said nothing. 

2nd September. I had an opportunity, his Majesty being 
still at Windsor, of seeing his private Ubrary at White- 
hall, at my full ease. I went with expectation of finding 
some curiosities, but, though there were about 1000 
volumes, there were few of importance which I had not 
perused before. They consisted chiefly of such books as 
had from time to time been dedicated, or presented to 
him; a few Histories, some Travels and French books, 
abundance of maps and sea charts, entertainments and 
pomps, buildings and pieces relating to the Navy, some 
mathematical instruments ; but what was most rare were 
three or four Komish breviaries, with a great deal of 
miniature, and monkish painting and gilding, one of 
which is most exquisitely done, both as to the figures, 
grotesques, and compartments, to the utmost of that 



1680.] JOHN EVELYN. 147 

curious art. There is another in which I find written by 
the hand of King Henry VII., his giving it to his dear 
daughter, Margaret, afterwards Queen of Scots, in which 
he desires her to pray for his soul, subscribing his name 
at length. There is also the process of the philosophers^ 
great elixir, represented in divers pieces of excellent 
miniature, but the discourse is in high Dutch, a MS. 
There is another MS. in quarto, of above 300 years old, in 
French, being an institution of physic, and in the botanical 
part the plants are curiously painted in miniature ; also a 
folio MS. of good thickness, being the several exercises, as 
Themes, Orations, Translations, &c. of King Edward VI., 
all written and subscribed by his own hand, and with his 
name very legible, and divers of the Greek interleaved and 
corrected after the manner of school boys^ exercises, and 
that exceedingly well and proper, with some epistles to 
his preceptor, which show that young Prince to have been 
extraordinarily advanced in learning, and as Cardan, who 
had been in England affirmed, stupendously knowing for 
his age. There is likewise his Journal,* no less testifying 
his early ripeness and care about the affairs of state. 

There are besides many pompous volumes, some em- 
bossed with gold, and intaglios on agates, medals, &c. I 
spent three or four entire days, locked up and alone, among 
these books and curiosities. In the rest of the private 
lodgings contiguous to this, are divers of the best pictures 
of the great masters, Raphael, Titian, &c,, and, in my 
esteem, above all, the Noli me tangere of our Blessed 
Saviour to Mary Magdalen after his Uesurrection, of 
Hans Holbein; than which I never saw so much reve- 
rence and kind of heavenly astonishment expressed in a 
picture. 

There are also divers curious clocks, watches, and pen- 
dules of exquisite work, and other curiosities. An ancient 
woman who made these lodgings clean, and had all the 
keys, let me in at pleasure for a small reward, by means of 
a friend. 

6th. I dined with Sir Stephen Fox, now one of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. This gentle- 

* A note is added, that Dr, Buniet has transcribed many x'emarks out of 
this in liis History of the Reformation. 

l3 



]^4,8 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

man came first a poor boy from tlie choir of Salisbury, 
then he was taken notice of by Bishop Duppa, and after- 
wards waited on my Lord Percy (brother to Algernon 
Earl of Northumberland), who procured for him an inferior 
place amongst the Clerks of the Kitchen and Green-Cloth 
side, where he was found so humble, diligent, industrious, 
and prudent in his behaviour, that his Majesty being in 
exile, and Mr. Fox waiting, both the King and Lords about 
him frequently employed him about their affairs ; trusted 
him both with receiving and paying the little money they 
had. Returning with his Majesty to England, after great 
wants and great sufferings, his Majesty found him so 
honest and industrious, and withal so capable and ready, 
that, being advanced from Clerk of the Kitchen to that of 
the Green-Cloth, he procured to be Paymaster to the 
whole Army, and by his dexterity and punctual dealing he 
obtained such credit among the bankers, that he was in a 
short time able to borrow vast sums of them upon any exi- 
gence. The continual turning thus of money, and the 
soldiers^ moderate allowance to him for keeping touch 
with them, did so enrich him, that he is believed to be 
worth at least £200,000, honestly got and unenvied; which 
is next to a miracle. With all this he continues as humble 
and ready to do a courtesy as ever he was. 

He is generous, and lives very honourably, of a sweet 
nature, well-spoken, well-bred, and is so highly in his 
Majesty^s esteem, and so useful, that being long since 
made a knight, he is also advanced to be one of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Treasury, and has the reversion of the 
Cofferer's place after Harry Brouncker. He has married 
his eldest daughter to my Lord Comwallis, and gave her 
£12,000, and restored that entangled family besides. He 
matched his son to Mrs. Trollop, who brings with her 
(besides a great sum) near, if not altogether, £2000 per 
annum. Sir Stephen's lady (an excellent woman) is sister 
to Mr. Whittle, one of the King's chirurgeons. In a word, 
never was man more fortimate than Sir Stephen ; he is a 
handsome person, virtuous, and very religious. 

23rd. Came to my house some German strangers and 
Signer Pietro, a famous musician, who had been long 
in Sweden in Queen Christina's Court ; he sung admirably 
to a guitar, and had a perfect good tenor and base, and had 



1C80.] JOHN EVELYN. 249 

set to Italian composure many of Abraliam Cowley's pieces 
which showed extremely well. He told me that in Sweden 
the heat in some part of summer was as excessive as the 
cold in winter ; so cold, he affirmed, that the streets of all 
the towns are desolate, no creatures stirring in them for 
many months, all the inhabitants retiring to their stoves. 
He spake high things of that romantic Queen^s learning 
and skill in languages, the majesty of her behaviour, her 
exceeding wit, and that the histories she had read of other 
countries, especially of Italy and Rome, had made her 
despise her own. That the real occasion of her resigning 
her crown was the nobleman^ s importuning her to marry, 
and the promise which the Pope had made her of procuring 
her to be Queen of Naples, which also caused her to change 
her religion ; but she was cheated by his crafty Holiness,* 
working on her ambition ; that the reason of her killing 
her secretary at Fontainebleau, was, his revealing that 
intrigue with the Pope. But, after all this, I rather 
believe it was her mad prodigality and extreme vanity, 
which had consumed those vast treasures the great Adol- 
phus, her father, had brought out of Germany during his 
[campaigns] there and wonderful successes ; and that, if 
she had not voluntarily resigned, as foreseeing the event, 
the Estates of her kingdom would have compelled her 
to do so. 

30th October. I went to London to be private, my birth- 
day being the next day, and I now arrived at my sixtieth 
year ; on which I began a more solemn survey of my whole 
life, in order to the making and confirming my peace with 
God, by an accurate scrutiny of all my actions past, as far 
as I was able to call them to mind. How difficult and 
uncertain, yet how necessary a work ! The Lord be 
merciful to me, and accept me ! Who can tell how oft he 
oft'endeth ? Teach me, therefore, so to number my days, 
that I may apply my heart unto wisdom, and make my 
calling and election sure. Amen, Lord Jesus ! 

31st. I spent this whole day in exercises. A stranger 
preached at Whitehall on Luke xvi. 30, 31. f I then went 
to St. Martin's, Avhere the Bishop of St. Asaph preached 

* Pope Alexander VII. of the family of Chiglii, at Sienua. 

f This was probably to the King's household eai'ly iu the morning. 



]^50 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

on 1 Peter iii. 15 j the holy Communion followed, at which 
I participated, humbly imploring God's assistance in the 
great work I was entering into. In the afternoon, I heard 
Dr. Sprat, at St. Margaret's, on Acts xvii. 11. 

I began and spent the whole week in examining my life, 
begging pardon for my faults, assistance and blessing for 
the future, that I might, in some sort, be prepared for the 
time that now drew near, and not have the great work to 
begin, when one can work no longer. The Lord Jesus help 
and assist me ! I therefore stirred little abroad till the 
5th November, when I heard Dr. Tenison, the now vicar of 
St. Martin's; Dr. Lloyd, the former incumbent, being made 
Bishop of St. Asaph. 

7th November. I participated of the Blessed Communion, 
finishing and confirming my resolutions of giving myself 
up more entirely to God, to whom I had now most solemnly 
devoted the rest of the poor remainder of life in this world ; 
the Lord enabling me, who am an unprofitable servant, a 
miserable sinner, yet depending on his infinite goodness 
and mercy accepting my endeavours. 

15th. Came to dine with us Sir Richard Anderson, his 
lady, son, and wife, sister to my daughter-in-law. 

30th. The anniversary election at the Royal Society, 
brought me to London, where was chosen President that 
excellent person and great philosopher, Mr. Robert Boyle, 
who indeed ought to have been the very first ; but neither 
his infirmity nor his modesty could now any longer excuse 
him. I desired I might for this year be left out of the 
Council, by reason my dwelling was in the country. The 
Society according to custom dined together. 

This signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) 
of my Lord Viscount Stafi'ord, for conspiring the death of 
the King ; second son to my Lord Thomas Howard Earl 
of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and 
grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk, whom I so 
well knew, and from which excellent person I received so 
many favours. It was likewise his birthday. The trial 
was in Westminster-Hall, before the King, Lords, and 
Commons, just in the same manner as forty years past, the 
great and wise Earl of Straff'ord (there being but one letter 
difi^ering their names) received his trial for pretended ill 
government in Ireland, in the very same place, this Lord 



1080.] JOHN EVELYN. 151 

Stafford's father being then High- Steward. The place of 
sitting was now exalted some considerable height from the 
paved floor of the Hall^ with a stage of boards. The throne, 
woolpacks for the Judges, long forms for the Peers, chair 
for the Lord Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of 
Lords. The sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof 
for the members of the House of Commons. At the upper 
end, and on the right side of the King's state, was a box 
for his Majesty, and, on the left, others for the great ladies, 
and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public 
ministers. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and 
place for the prisoner, the Lieutenant of the Tower of 
London, the axe-bearer and guards, my Lord Stafford's 
two daughters, the Marchioness of Winchester being one ; 
there was likewise a box for my Lord to retire into. At 
the right hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood 
the witnesses ; at the left, the managers, in the name of 
the Commons of England, viz.. Sergeant Maynard (the 
great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause against the 
Earl of Strafford forty years before, being now near eighty 
years of age). Sir. William Jones, late Attorney-General, 
Sir Francis Winnington, a famous pleader, and Mr. Treby, 
now Recorder of London, not appearing in their gowns as 
lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, as representing 
the Commons of England : to these Avere joined Mr. 
Hampden, Mr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel Titus, 
Sir Thomas Lee, all gentlemen of quality, and noted 
parliamentary men. The two first days, in which were 
read the commission and impeachment, were but a tedious 
entrance into matter of fact, at which I was but little 
present. But, on Thursday, I was commodiously seated 
amongst the Commons, when the witnesses were sworn and 
examined. The principal witnesses were Mr. Gates (who 
called himself Dr.) Mr. Dugdale, and Turberville. Gates 
swore that he delivered a commission to Viscount Stafford 
from the Pope, to be Paymaster- General to an army 
intended to be raised. Dugdale, that being at Lord 
Aston' s, the prisoner dealt with him plainly to murder his 
Majesty : and Turberville, that at Paris he also proposed 
the same to him. 

3rd December. The depositions of my Lord's witnesses 
were taken, to invalidate the King's witnesses ; they were 



152 DIARY OF [londBn, 

very slight persons, but, being fifteen or sixteen, they took 
up all that day, and in truth they rather did my Lord 
injury than service. 

4th. Came other witnesses of the Commons to corrobo- 
rate the King's, some being Peers, some Commons, with 
others of good quality, who took off all the former day's 
objections, and set the King's witnesses recti in Curia. 

6th. Sir William Jones summoned up the evidence ; to 
him succeeded all the rest of the managers, and then Mr. 
Henry Poule made a vehement oration. After this my 
Lord, as on all occasions, and often during the trial, spoke 
in his own defence, denying the charge altogether, and 
that he had never seen Oates, or Turberville, at the time 
and manner afl&rmed : in truth, their testimony did little 
weigh with me ; Dugdale's only seemed to press hardest, 
to which my Lord spake a great while, but confusedly, 
without any method. 

One thing my Lord said as to Oates, which I confess 
did exceedingly affect me : that a person who during bis 
depositions should so vauntingly brag that though he went 
over to the Church of Rome, yet he was never a Papist, 
nor of their religion, all the time that he seemed to apos- 
tatize from the Protestant, but only as a spy ; though he 
confessed he took their sacrament, worshipped images, 
went through all their oaths, and discipline of their prose- 
lytes, swearing secrecy and to be faithful, but with intent 
to come over again and betray them ; that such an hypo- 
crite, that had so deeply prevaricated as even to turn 
idolater (for so we of the Church of England termed it), 
attesting God so solemnly that he was entirely theirs and 
devoted to their interest, and consequently (as he pre- 
tended) trusted ; I say, that the witness of such a profligate 
wretch should be admitted against the life of a peer, — this 
my Lord looked upon as a monstrous thing, and such as 
must needs redound to the dishonour of our religion and 
nation. And verily 1 am of his Lordship's opinion ; such 
a man's testimony should not be taken against the life of 
a dog. But the merit of something material which he 
discovered against Coleman, put him in such esteem with 
the Parliament, that now, I fancy, he stuck at nothing, 
and thought everybody was to take what he said for 
gospel. The consideration of this, and some other 



ICfSO.] JOHN EVELYN. J 53 

circumstances^ began to stagger me ; particularly how it was 
possible that one who went among the Papists on such a 
design, and pretended to be intrusted with so many letters 
and commissions from the Pope and the party, nay and 
dehvered them to so many great persons, should not re- 
serve one of them to show, nor so much as one copy of 
any commission, which he who had such dexterity in 
opening letters might certainly have done, to the unde- 
niable conviction of those whom he accused ; but, as I 
said, he gained credit on Coleman ; but, as to others whom 
he so madly flew upon, I am little inclined to believe his 
testimony, he being so slight a person, so passionate, ill- 
bred, and of such impudent behaviour ; nor is it likely that 
such piercing politicians as the Jesuits should trust him 
with so high and so dangerous secrets. 

7th. On Tuesday, I was again at the trial, when judg- 
ment was demanded ; and, after my Lord had spoken what 
he could in denying the fact, the managers answering the 
objections, the Peers adjourned to their House, and within 
two hours returned again. There was, in the meantime, 
this question put to the Judges, " whether there being but 
one witness to any single crime, or act, it could amount to 
convict a man of treason.''^ They gave an unanimous 
opinion that in case of treason they all were overt acts, for 
though no man should be condemned by one witness for 
any one act, yet for several acts to the same intent, it was 
valid ; which was my Lord's case. This being past, and 
the Peers in their seats again, the Lord Chancellor Pinch 
(this day the Lord High-Steward) removing to the wool- 
sack next his Majesty's state, after summoning the Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower to bring forth his prisoner, and 
proclamation made for silence, demanded of every peer (who 
were in all eighty-six) whether William, Lord Viscount 
Stafford, were guilty of the treason laid to his charge, or 
not guilty. 

Then the Peer spoken to, standing up, and laying his 
right hand upon his breast, said Guilty, or Not guilty, 
upon my honour, and then sat down, the Lord Steward 
noting their suflirages as they answered upon a paper : 
when all had done, the number of Not guilty being but 
31, the Guilty 55 : and then, after proclamation for silence 
again, the Lord Steward directing his speech to the 



154 DIARY OF [LONiftN, 

prisoner, against whom the axe was turned edgeways, and 
not before, in aggravation of his crime, he being ennobled 
by the King's father, and since received many favours from 
his present Majesty, (after enlarging on his offence) de- 
ploring first his own unhappiness that he who had never 
condemned any man before, should now be necessitated to 
begin with him ; he then pronounced sentence of death by 
hanging, drawing, and quartering, according to form, with 
great solemnity and dreadful gravity; and, after a short 
pause, told the prisoner that he believed the Lords would 
intercede for the omission of some circumstances of his 
sentence, beheading only excepted ; and then breaking his 
white stafl", the Court was dissolved. My Lord Stafi'ord 
during all this latter part spake but little, and only gave 
their Lordships thanks after the sentence was pronounced; 
and indeed behaved himself modestly, and as became him. 

It was observed that all his own relations of his name 
and family condemned him, except his nephew, the Earl of 
Arundel, son to the Duke of Norfolk. And it must be 
acknowledged that the whole trial was carried on with 
exceeding gravity : so stately and august an appearance I 
had never seen before ; for, ])esides the innumerable spec- 
tators of gentlemen and foreign ministers, who saw and 
heard all the proceedings, the prisoner had the consciences 
of all the Commons of England for his accusers, and all 
the Peers to be his Judges and Jury. He had hkewise the 
assistance of what counsel he would, to direct him in his 
plea, who stood by him. And yet I can hardly think that 
a person of his age and experience should engage men 
whom he never saw before (and one of them that came to 
visit him as a stranger at Paris) point blank to murder the 
King : God only who searches hearts, can discover the 
truth. Lord Stafford was not a man beloved, especially of 
his own family. 

12th. This evening, looking out of my chamber- window 
towards the west, I saw a meteor of an obscure bright 
colour, very much in shape like the blade of a sword, the 
rest of the sky very serene and clear. What this may 
portend, God only knows ; but such another phenomenon 
I remember to have seen in 1640, about the trial of the 
great Earl of Strafford, preceding our bloody Rebellion. 
I pray God avert his judgments ! "We have had of late 



1681.] JOHN EVELYN. I55 

several comets, which though I believe appear from natural 
causes, and of themselves operate not, yet I cannot despise 
them. They may be warnings from God, as they com- 
monly are forerunners of his animadversions. After many 
days and nights of snow, cloudy and dark weather, the 
comet was very much wasted. 

i7th. My daughter-in-law was brought to bed of a son, 
christened Richard. 

22nd. A solemn public Fast that God would prevent all 
Popish plots, avert his judgments, and give a blessing to 
the proceedings of Parliament now assembled, and which 
struck at the succession of the Duke of York. 

29th. The Viscount Stafford was beheaded on Tower- 
hill. 

1680-1, 10th February. I was at the wedding of my 
nephew, John Evelyn of Wotton, married by the Bishop 
of Rochester at Westminster, in Henry VII.^s chapel, to 
the daughter and heir of Mr, Eversfield, of Sussex, her 
portion £8000. The solemnity was kept with a few friends 
only at Lady Beckford's, the lady^s mother. 

8th March. Visited and dined at the Earl of Essex's, with 
whom I spent most of the afternoon alone. Thence, to 
my (yet living) godmother and kinswoman, Mrs. Keightley, 
sister to Sir Thomas Evelyn, and niece to my father, being 
now eighty-six years of age, sprightly, and in perfect 
health, her eyes serving her as well as ever, and of a 
comely countenance, that one would not suppose her 
above fifty. 

27th. The Parliament now convened at Oxford'. Great 
expectation of his Royal Highnesses case as to the succes- 
sion, against which the House was set. 

An extraordinary sharp cold spring, not yet a leaf on 
the trees, frost and snow lying : whilst the whole nation 
was in the greatest ferment. 

11th April. I took my leave of Dr. Lloyd (Bishop of St. 
Asaph) at his house in Leicester Fields, now going to 
reside in his diocese, 

12th. I dined at Mr. Brisbane's, Secretary to the 

Admiralty, a learned and industrious person, whither came 

Dr. Burnet, to thank me for some papers I had contributed 

towards his excellent History of the Reformation. 

, 26th. I dined at Don Pietro Ronquillo's, the Spanish 



156 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

Ambassador, at Wild House,* who used me with extra- 
ordinary civility. The dinner was plentiful, half after the 
Spanish, half after the Enghsh way. After dinner, he led 
me into his bedchamber, where we fell into a long 
discourse concerning religion. Though he was a learned 
man in politics, and an advocate, he was very ignorant in 
rehgion, and unable to defend any point of controversy ; 
he was, however, far from being fierce. At parting, he 
earnestly wished me to apply humbly to the Blessed 
Virgin to direct me, assuring me that he had known 
divers who had been averse from the E-oman Catholic 
religion, wonderfully enlightened and convinced by her 
intercession. He importuned me to come and visit him 
often. 

29th. But one shower of rain all this month. 

5th May. Came to dine with me Sir Wilham Termor, of 
Northamptonshire, and Sir Christopher Wren, his Majesty^s 
Architect and Surveyor, now building the Cathedral of 
St. Paul, and the Column in memory of the City^s confla- 
gration, and was in hand wdth the building of fifty 
parish churches. A wonderful genius had this incompar- 
able person. 

16th. Came my Lady Sunderland, to desire that I would 
propose a match to Sir Stephen Fox for her son. Lord 
Spencer, to marry Mrs. Jane, Sir Stephen's daughter. I 
excused myself all I was able ; for the truth is, I was 
afraid he would prove an extravagant man : for, though a 
youth of extraordinary parts, and had an excellent educa- 
tion to render him a worthy man, yet his early inclinations 
to extravagance made me apprehensive, that I should not 
serve Sir Stephen by proposing it, hke a friend ; this being 
now his only daughter, well-bred, and likely to receive a 
large share of her father's opulence. Lord Sunderland 
was much sunk in his estate by gaming and other prodi- 
galities, and was now no longer Secretary of State, having 
fallen into displeasure of the King for siding with the 
Commons about the succession ; but which, I am assured, 
he did not do out of his own inclination, or for the pre- 
servation of the Protestant religion ; but by mistaking the 
ability of the party to cany it. However, so earnest and 

* Near Drury Lane. 



1C81.] JOHN EVELYN. ]57 

importunate was tlie Countess^ that I did mention it to 
Sir Stephen, Avho said that it was too great an honour, 
that his daughter was very young as well as my Lord, 
and he was resolved never to marry her without the 
parties' mutual liking; with other objections which I 
neither would nor could contradict. He desired me to 
express to the Countess the great sense he had of the 
honour done him, that his daughter and her son were too 
young ; that he would do nothing without her liking, 
which he did not think her capable of expressing judiciously, 
till she was sixteen or seventeen years of age, of which she 
now Avanted four years, and that I would put it off as 
civilly as I could. 

20th. Our new curate preached, a pretty hopeful young 
man, yet somewhat raw, newly come from college, full of 
Latin sentences, which in time will wear off. He read 
praj^ers very well. 

25th. There came to visit me Sir William Walter 
and Sir John Elowes : and, the next day, the Earl of 
Kildare, a young gentleman related to my wife, and 
other company. There had scarce fallen any rain since 
Christmas. 

2nd June. I went to Hampton Court, when the Surrey 
gentlemen presented their addresses to his Majesty, whose 
hand I kissed, introduced by the Duke of Albemarle. 
Being at the Privy Council, I took another occasion of 
discoursing with Sir Stephen Fox about his daughter and 
to revive that business, and at last brought it to this — 
that, in case the young people liked one the other, after 
four years, he first desiring to see a particular of my Lord's 
present estate if I could transmit it to him privately, he 
would make her portion £14,000, though to all appearance 
he might likely make it £50,000 as easily, his eldest son 
having no child, and growing very corpulent. 

12th. It still continued so great a drought as had 
never been known in England, and it was said to be 
universal. 

14'th August. No sermon this afternoon, which I think 

did not happen twice in this parish these thirty years ; so 

gracious has God been to it, and indeed to the whole 

nation : God grant that we abuse not this great privilege, 

.either by our M'antonness, schism, or unfaithfulness, under 



]^58 DIARY OF [woTTON, 

such means as he has not favoured any other nation under 
Heaven besides ! 

23rd. I went to Wotton, and, on the following day, was 
invited to Mr. Denzil Onslow's at his seat at Purford, 
where was much company, and such an extraordinary feast, 
as I had hardly seen at any country gentleman's table. 
What made it more remarkable was, that there was not 
anything save what his estate about it did afford ; as 
venison, rabbits, hares, pheasants, partridges, pigeons, 
quails, poultry, all sorts of fowl in season from his own 
decoy near his house, and all sorts of fresh fish. After 
dinner, we went to see sport at the decoy, where I never 
saw so many herons. 

The seat stands on a flat, the ground pasture, rarely 
watered, and exceedingly improved since Mr. Onslow 
bought it of Sir Robert Parkhurst, who spent a fair estate. 
The house is timber, but commodious, and with one ample 
dining-room, the hall adorned with paintings of fowl and 
huntings, &c., the work of Mr. Barlow, who is excellent in 
this kind from the life.* 

30th. From Wotton I went to see Mr. Hussey,t (at 
Sutton in Sliere), who has a very pretty seat well watered, 
near my brother's. He is the neatest husband for curious 
ordering his domestic and field accommodations, and what 
pertains to husbandry, that I have ever seen, as to his 
granaries, tacklings, tools, and utensils, ploughs, carts, 
stables, wood-piles, wood-house, even to hen-roosts and 
hog-troughs. Methought, I saw old Cato, or Varro, in 
him ; all substantial, all in exact order. The sole incon- 
venience he lies under, is the great quantity of sand which 
the stream brings along with it, and fills his canals and 
receptacles for fish too soon. The rest of my time of stay 
at Wotton was spent in walking about the grounds and 
goodly woods, where I have in my youth so often enter- 
tained my solitude; and so, on the 2nd of September, I once 
more returned to my home. 

6th September. Died my pretty grandchild, and was 
interred on the 8th [at Deptford] . 

* This house has been pulled do\vn many years. The estate is the property 
of tlie Earl of Onslow. 
+ See p. 52. 



1681.] JOHN EVELYN. 159 

14tli. Dined with Sir Stephen Fox^ who proposed to me 
the purchasing of Chelsea College, which his Majesty had 
sometime since given to our Society, and would now pur- 
chase it again to build an hospital ; or infirmary for soldiers 
there, in which he desired my assistance as one of the 
Council of the Royal Society. 

15th. I had another opportunity of visiting his Majesty's 
private library, at Whitehall. 

To Sir Samuel Morland's, to see his house and 
mechanics.* 

17th. I went with Monsieur Faubert about taking the 
Countess of Bristol's house for an academy, he being 
lately come from Paris for his religion, and resolving to 
settle here.f 

23rd. I went to see Sir Thomas Bond's fine house and 
garden, at Peckham. 

2nd October. I went to Camberwell, where that good 
man Dr. Parr (late chaplain to Archbishop Usher) preached 
on Acts xvi. 30. 

11th. To Fulham, to visit the Bishop of London, in 
whose garden I first saw the Sedum arborescens in flower, 
which was exceedingly beautiful. 

5th November. Dr. Hooper preached on Mark xii. 
16, 17, before the King, of the usurpation of the Church 
of Home. This is one of the first rank of pulpit men in 
the nation. 

15th. I dined with the Earl of Essex who, after dinner 
in his study, where we were alone, related to me how much 
he had been scandalized and injured in the report of his 
being privy to the marriage of his Lady's niece, the rich 
young widow of the late Lord Ogle, sole daughter of the 
Earl of Northumberland; showing me a letter of Mr. 

* In Lambeth, at what is now Vauxhall, where Sir Samuel Morland had 
fitted up a house, and built a lai'ge room, which he furnished in a sumptuous 
manner, and constructed in his garden some fountains. He was much in 
favour with the King for services he had rendered to him whilst abroad, and 
this is probably the place to which it is said the King and his Ladies used to 
cross the water to go to. Hist. Surrey, III. 489, 490, 491.— See also further 
particulars of him, p. 26, and liereafter under 1695 ; and some of his inven- 
tions noticed in pp. 64, 113, and 176. 

t He had a riding-house between Swallow Street (now replaced by Regent 
Street) and King Street ; the passage by it between those streets is still 
called by his name. 



160 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

Thynn's excusing himself for not communicating his 
marriage to his Lordship. He acquainted me also with 
the whole story of that unfortunate lady being betrayed 
by her grandmother, the Countess of Northumberland, and 
Colonel Bret, for money; and that though, upon the 
importunity of the Duke of Monmouth, he had delivered 
to the grandmother a particular of the jointure which Mr. 
Thynn pretended he would settle on the lady, yet he totally 
discouraged the proceeding, as by no means a competent 
match for one that both by birth and fortune might have 
pretended to the greatest prince in Christendom ; that he 
also proposed the Earl of Kingston, or the Lord Cranburn, 
but was by no means for Mr. Thynn, 

19th. I dined with my worthy friend, Mr. Erskine, 
Master of the Charter-house, uncle to the Duchess of 
Monmouth ; a wise and learned gentleman, fitter to have 
been a privy councillor and minister of state than to have 
been laid aside. 

24th. I was at the audience of the Russian Ambassador 
before both their Majesties in the Banqueting-house. The 
presents were carried before him, held up by his followers 
in two ranks before the King^s State, and consisted of 
tapestry (one suite of which was doubtlessly brought from 
France as being of that fabric, the Ambassador having 
passed through that kingdom as he came out of Spain), a 
large Persian carpet, furs of sable and ermine, &c. ; laut 
nothing was so splendid and exotic, as the Ambassador 
who came soon after the King's restoration.* This present 
Ambassador was exceedingly offended that his coach was 
not permitted to come into the Court, till, being told that 
no King's Ambassador did, he was pacified, yet requiring 
an attestation of it under the hand of Sir Charles Cotterell, 
the Master of the Ceremonies ; being, it seems, afraid 
he should offend his Master, if he omitted the least 
punctilio. It was reported he condemned his son to lose 
his head for shaving off his beard, and putting himself 
in the French mode at Paris, and that he would have exe- 
cuted it, had not the French King interceded — but qy. 
of this. 

80th. Sir Christopher Wren chosen President [of the 

* See vol. I., p. 371. 



1682.] JOHN EVELYN. ^g]^ 

Eoyal Society], Mr. Austine, Secretary, with Dr. Plot, 
the ingenious author of the History of Oxfordshire. There 
was a most illusti'ious appearance. 

1681-2. 11th January. I saw the audience of tlie 
Morocco Ambassador,* his retinue not numerous. He 
was received in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties 
being present. He came up to the throne without making 
any sort of reverence, not bowing his head, or body. He 
spake by a renegado Enghshman, for whose safe return 
there was a promise. They were aU clad in the Moorish 
habit, cassocks of coloured cloth, or silk, with buttons and 
loops, over this an alhaga, or white woollen mantle, so 
large as to wrap both head and body, a sash, or small 
turban, naked legged and armed, but with leather socks 
like the Turks, rich scymitar, and large calico sleeved 
shirts. The Ambassador had a string of pearls oddly 
woven in his turban. I fancy the old Roman habit was 
little different as to the mantle and naked limbs. He 
was a handsome person, well-featured, of a wise look, 
subtle, and extremely civil. Their presents were lions and 
ostriches ; f their errand about a peace at Tangier. But 
the concourse and tumult of the people was intolerable, so 
as the officers could keep no order, which these strangers 
were astonished at at first, there being nothing so regular, 
exact, and performed with such silence, as is on all these 
public occasions of their country, and indeed over all the 
Turkish dominions. 

14th. Dined at the Bishop of Rochester's, at the Abbey, 
it being his marriage-day, after twenty-four years. He 
related to me how he had been treated by Sir William 
Temple, foreseeing that he might be a delegate in the 
concern of my Lady Ogle, now likely to come in contro- 

* Named Hamet. He made his public entry through London the fifth of 
this month. On the thirtieth of May following, he was entertained at Oxford ; 
and, about the same time, dined with Elias Ashmole, who made him a present 
of a magnifying glass. July 14, the Ambassador took his leave of the King ; 
and, on the 23rd of the same mouth, he embarked for his own country. 
There are different prints of him ; one of which is a large and fine one by 
Robert White. 

"Y Sir John Reresby informs us in his Memoirs, " that the Ambassador's 
present consisted of two lions and thirty ostriches ; at which his Majesty 
laughed : and said he knew nothing more proper to send by way of return 
than a flock of geese." 

VOL. II. M 



162 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

versy upon her marriage with Mr. Thynn; also, how 
earnestly the late Earl of Danby, Lord Treasurer, sought 
his friendship, and what plain and sincere advice he gave 
him from time to time about his miscarriages and par- 
tialities ; particularly his outing Sir John Duncomb from 
being Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Sir Stephen Fox, 
above all, from Paymaster of the Army. The Treasurer's 
excuse and reason was, that Fox's credit was so over-great 
with the bankers and monied men, that he could procure 
none but by his means ; " for that reason," replied the 
Bishop. " I would have made him my friend, Sir Stephen 
being a person both honest and of credit." He told him like- 
wise of his statehness and difficulty of access, and several 
other miscarriages, and which indeed made him hated. 

24th. To the Royal Society, where at the Council we 
passed a new law for the more accurate consideration of 
candidates, as whether they would really be useful ; also, 
concerning the honorary members, that none should be 
admitted but by diploma. 

This evening, I was at the entertainment of the Morocco 
Ambassador at the Duchess of Portsmouth's glorious 
apartments at Whitehall, where was a great banquet of 
sweetmeats and music ; but at which both the Ambassador 
and his retinue behaved themselves with extraordinary 
moderation and modesty, though placed about a long 
table, a lady between two Moors, and amongst these were 
the King's natural children, viz. Lady Lichfield and 
Sussex, the Duchess of Portsmouth, Nelly, &c. concubines, 
and cattle of that sort, as splendid as jewels and excess 
of bravery could make them ; the Moors neither admiring- 
nor seeming to regard any thing, furniture or the hke, 
with any earnestness, and but decently tasting of the 
banquet. They drank a little milk and water, but not a 
drop of wine ; they also drank of a sorbet and jacolatt ;* 
did not look about, or stare, on the ladies, or express the 
least surprise, but Avith a courtly negligence in pace, 
countenance, and whole behaviour, answering only to 
such questions as were asked with a great deal of wit and 
gallantry, and so gravely took leave with this comphment, 
that God would bless the Duchess of Portsmouth and the 
Prince, her son, meaning the little Duke of Richmond. 
The King came in at the latter end, just as the Ambas- 

* Sherbet and chocolate. 



1C82.] JOHN EVELYN. ^65 

sador was going away. In this manner, was this slave 
(for he was no more at home) entertained by most of the 
nobiUty in town, and went often to Hyde Park on horse- 
back, where he and his retinue showed their extraordinary 
activity in horsemanship, and flinging and catching their 
lances at full speed; they rode very short, and could 
stand upright at full speed, managing their spears with 
incredible agility. He went sometimes to the theatres, 
where, upon any foolish or fantastical action, he could not 
forbear laughing, but he endeavoured to hide it with 
extraordinary modesty and gravity. In a word, the 
Russian Ambassador, still at Court, behaved himself like 
a clown, compared to this civil heathen. 

27th. This evening. Sir Stephen Fox acquainted me 
again with his Majesty^s resolution of proceeding in the 
erection of a Royal Hospital for emerited soldiers on that 
spot of ground which the Royal Society had sold to his 
Majesty for £1300, and that he would settle £5000 per 
annum on it, and build to the value of £30,000, for the 
relief and reception of four companies, viz. 400 men, to 
be as in a college, or monastery. I was therefore desired 
by Sir Stephen (who had not only the whole managing of 
this, but was, as I perceived, himself to be a grand bene- 
factor, as well it became him who had gotten so vast 
an estate by the soldiers) to assist him, and consult what 
method to cast it in, as to the government. So, in his 
study we arranged the governor, chaplain, steward, house- 
keeper, chirurgeon, cook, butler, gardener, porter, and 
other officers, with their several salaries and entertain- 
ments. I would needs have a library, and mentioned 
several books, since some soldiers might possibly be 
studious, when they Avere at leisure to recollect. Thus we 
made the first calculations, and set down our thoughts to 
be considered and digested better, to show his Majesty 
and the Archbishop. He also engaged me to consider of 
what laws and orders were fit for the government, which was 
to be in every respect as strict as in any religious convent. 

After supper, came in the famous treble, Mr. Abel, 
newly returned from Italy ; I never heard a more excel- 
lent voice ; one would have sworn it had been a woman^s, 
it was so high, and so well and skilfully managed, being 
accompanied by Signor Francesco on the harpsichord. 

M 2 



264 DIARY OF [saves court, 

28th. Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to the Admiralty, 
showed me a large folio containing the whole mechanic 
part and art of building royal ships and men of war, made 
by Sir Anthony Dean, being so accurate a piece from the 
very keel to the lead block, rigging, guns, victualling, 
manning, and even to every individual pin and nail, in a 
method so astonishing and curious, with a draught, both 
geometrical and in perspective, and several sections, that 
I do not think the world can show the like. I esteem this 
book as an extraordinary jewel. 

7th February. My daughter, Mary, began to learn 
music of Signer Bartholomeo, and dancing of Monsieur 
Isaac, reputed the best masters. 

Having had several violent fits of an ague, recourse was 
had to bathing my legs in milk up to the knees, made as 
hot as I could endure it ; and sitting so in it in a deep 
churn, or vessel, covered with blankets, and drinking 
carduus posset, then going to bed and sweating, I not 
only missed that expected fit, but had no more, only con- 
tinued weak, that I could not go to church till Ash- 
Wednesday, which I had not missed, I think, so long in 
twenty years, so gracious had God been to me. 

After this warning and admonition, I now began to 
look over and methodise all my writings, accompts, letters, 
papers ; inventoried the goods, and other articles of the 
house, and put things into the best order I could, and 
made my will ; that now growing in years, I might have 
none of these secular things and concerns to distract me, 
when it should please Almighty God to call me from this 
transitory life. With this, I prepared some special medi- 
tations and devotions for the time of sickness. The Lord 
Jesus grant them to be salutary for my poor soul in that 
day, that I may obtain mercy and acceptance ! 

1st March. My second grandchild was born, and chris- 
tened the next day by our vicar at Sayes Court, by the 
name of John.* I beseech God to bless him ! 

2nd. Ash- Wednesday. I went to church; our vicar 
preached on Proverbs, showing what care and vigilance 
was required for the keeping of the heart upright. The 
Holy Communion followed, on which I gave God thanks 
for his gracious dealing with me in my late sickness, 

• Who became his successor, and was created a baronet, in 1713. 



1682.] JOHN EVELYN. 165 

and affording me this blessed opportunity of praising him 
in the congregation^ and receiving the cup of salvation 
Avith new and serious resolutions. 

Came to see and congratulate my recovery, Sir John 
Lowther, Mr. Herbert, Mr. Pepys, Sir Anthony Deane, 
and Mr. Hill. 

1 0th. This day was executed Colonel Vrats, and some of 
his accomplices, for the execrable murder of Mr. Thynn,* 
set on by the principal Koningsmark ; he went to execu- 
tion like an undaunted hero, as one that had done a 
friendly office for that base coward. Count Koningsmark, 
who had hopes to marry his widow, the rich Lady Ogle, 
and was acquitted by a corrupt jury, and so got away. 
Vrats told a friend of mine who accompanied him to the 
gallows, and gave him some advice, that he did not value 
dying of a rush, and hoped and believed God would 
deal with him like a gentleman. Never man went, so 
unconcerned for his sad fate. 

24th. I went to see the corpse of that obstinate creature. 
Colonel Vrats, the King permitting that his body should 
be transported to his own country, he being of a good 
family, and one of the first embalmed by a particular 
art invented by one William Russell, a coffin-maker, 
which preserved the body without disbowelling, or to 
appearance using any bituminous matter. The flesh was 
florid, soft, and full, as if the person were only sleeping. 
He had now been dead near fifteen days, and lay exposed 
in a very rich coffin lined with lead, too magnificent for so 
daring and horrid a murderer. 

At the meeting of the Royal Society were exhibited 
some pieces of amber sent by the Duke of Brandenburg, 
in one of which was a spider, in another a gnat, both very 
entire. There was a discourse of the tingeing of glass, 
especially with red, and the difficulty of finding any red 
colour effectual to penetrate glass, among the glass- 
painters ; that the most diaporous, as blue, yellow, &c. 
did not enter into the substance of what was ordinarily 
painted, more than very shallow, unless incorporated in 
the metal itself, other reds and whites not at all beyond 
the superfices. 

* Who lies buried in Westminster Abbey ; the manner of his death being 
represented on his monument. 



2gg DIARY OF [toNDON, 

5th April. To the Royal Society, where at a Council was 
regulated what collections should be published monthly, 
as formerly the transactions, which had of late been 
discontinued, but were now much called for by the curious 
abroad and at home. 

12th. I went this afternoon with several of the E-oyal 
Society to a supper which was all dressed, both fish and 
flesh, in Monsieur Papin's digestors, by which the hardest 
bones of beef itself, and mutton, were made as soft as 
cheese, without water or other liquor, and with less than 
eight ounces of coals, producing an incredible quantity of 
gravy ; and for close of all, a jelly made of the bones of 
beef, the best for clearness and good relish, and the most 
delicious that I had ever seen, or tasted. We eat pike 
and other fish bones, and all without impediment; but 
nothing exceeded the pigeons, which tasted just as if baked 
in a pie, all these being stewed in their own juice, without 
any addition of water save what swam about the digestor, 
as in balneo ; the natural juice of all these provisions acting 
on the grosser substances, reduced the hardest bones to 
tenderness ; but it is best descanted with more particulars 
for extracting tinctures, preserving and stewing fruit, 
and saving fuel, in Dr. Papin's book, published and 
dedicated to our Society, of which he is a member. He 
is since gone to Venice with the late Resident here (and 
also a member of our Society), who carried this excellent 
mechanic, philosopher, and physician, to set up a philo- 
sophical meeting in that city. This philosophical supper 
caused much mirth amongst us, and exceedingly pleased 
all the company. I sent a glass of the jelly to my wife, 
to the reproach of all that the ladies ever made of their 
best hartshorn. 

The season was unusually wet, with rain and thunder. 

25th May. I was desired by Sir Stephen Fox and Sir 
Christopher Wren to accompany them to Lambeth, with 
the plot and design of the College to be built at Chelsea, 
to have the Archbishop's approbation. Jt was a quad- 
rangle of 200 feet square after the dimensions of the 
larger quadrangle at Christ- Church, Oxford, for the accom- 
modation of 440 persons, Avith governor and officers. 
This was agreed on. 

The Duke and Duchess of York were just now come to 



1682.] JOHN EVELYN. jgy 

London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea 
for Scotland. 

28th. At the E-olls' chapel preached the famous Dr. 
Burnet on 2 Peter, i. 10, describing excellently well what 
was meant by election; viz. not the effect of any irreversible 
decree, but so called because they embraced the Gospel 
readily, by which they became elect, or precious to God. 
It would be very needless to make our calling and election 
sure, were they irreversible and what the rigid Presbyte- 
rians pretend. In the afternoon, to St. Lawrence's church, 
a new and cheerful pile. 

29th. I gave notice to the Bishop of Rochester of what 
Maimburg had published about the motives of the late 
Duchess of York^s perversion, in his History of Calvinism ; 
and did myself write to the Bishop of Winchester * about 
it, who being concerned in it, I urged him to set forth his 
vindication. 

31st. The Morocco Ambassador being admitted an 
honorary member of the Royal Society, and subscribing 
his name and titles in Arabic, I Avas deputed by the 
Council to go and compliment him. 

19th June. The Bantam, t or East India Ambassadors, 
(at this time we had in London the Russian, Moroccan, 
and Indian Ambassadors,) being invited to dine at Lord 
George Berkeley's (now Earl), I went to the entertainment 
to contemplate the exotic guests. They were both very 
hard-favoured, and much resembling in countenance some 
sort of monkeys. We eat at two tables, the Ambassadors 
and interpreter by themselves. Their garments were rich 
Indian silks, flowered with gold, viz. a close waistcoat 
to their knees, draAvers, naked legs, and on their heads 
caps made like fruit-baskets. They wore poisoned daggers 
at their bosoms, the hafts carved with some ugly serpents' 
or devils' heads, exceeding keen, and of Damascus metal. 
They wore no sword. The second Ambassador (sent it 
seems to succeed in case the first should die by the way in 
so tedious a journey), having been at Mecca, wore a 

* Dr. Morley. 

f The name of one was Pungearon Nia Para, of the other Kaia Nebbe, or 
Keay Nabee. There are different prints of both, representing them exactly 
as here described. There were others in the embassy, but probabJy of 
" inferior degree. 



168 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

Turkish or Arab sash, a little part of the linen hanging 
down behind his neck, with some other difference of 
habit, and was half a negro, bare legged and naked feet, 
and deemed a very holy man. They sate cross-legged 
like Turks, and sometimes in the posture of apes and 
monkeys ; their nails and teeth as black as jet, and shining, 
which being the effect, as to their teeth, of perpetually 
chewing betel to preserve them from the tooth-ache, much 
raging in their country, is esteemed beautiful. 

The first Ambassador was of an olive hue, a flat face, 
narrow eyes, squat nose, and Moorish lips, no hair 
appeared; they wore several rings of silver, gold, and 
copper, on their fingers, which was a token of knighthood, 
or nobility. They were of Java Major, whose princes 
have been turned Mohometans not above fifty years since ; 
the inhabitants are still pagans and idolaters. They 
seemed of a dull and heavy constitution, not wondering 
at any thing they saw ; but exceedingly astonished how 
our law gave us propriety in our estates, and so thinking 
we were all kings, for they could not be made to compre- 
hend how subjects could possess any thing but at the 
pleasure of their Prince, they being all slaves ; they were 
pleased with the notion, and admired our happiness. They 
were very sober, and I believe subtle in their way. Their 
meat was cooked, carried up, and they attended by several 
fat slaves, who had no covering save drawers, which 
appeared very uncouth and loathsome. They eat their 
pilaw, and other spoon-meat without spoons, taking up 
their pottage in the hollow of their fingers, and very dex- 
terously flung it into their mouths without spilling a drop. 

17th July. Came to dine with me, the Duke of Grafton 
and the young Earl of Ossory, son to my most dear deceased 
friend. 

30th. "Went to visit our good neighbour, Mr. Bohun,* 
whose whole house is a cabinet of all elegancies, especially 
Indian; in the hall are contrivances of Japan screens^ 
instead of wainscot; and there is an excellent pendule 
clock enclosed in the curious flower-work of Mr. Gibbon, 
in the middle of the vestibule. The landscapes of the 
screens represent the manner of living, and country of the 
Chinese. But, above aU, his lady^s cabinet is adorned on 

• This was at Lee, See Hasted'a History of Kent, vol. I. p. 67. 



1G82.] JOHN EVELYN. 269 

the fret, ceiling, and chimney-piece, Avith Mr. Gibbon^s 
best carving. There are also some of Streeter's best 
paintings, and many rich curiosities of gold and silver as 
growing in the mines. The gardens are exactly kept, and 
the whole place very agreeable and well watered. The 
owners are good neighbours, and Mr. Bolmn has also built 
and endowed an hospital for eight poor people, with a 
pretty chapel, and every necessary accommodation. 

1st August. To the Bishop of London at Fulham, to 
review the additions which Mr. Marshall had made to his 
curious book of flowers in miniature, and collection of insects. 

4th. With Sir Stephen Fox, to survey the foundations 
of the Royal Hospital begun at Chelsea. 

9th. The Council of the Royal Society had it recom- 
mended to them to be trustees and visitors, or supervisors, 
of the Academy which Monsieur Faubert did hope to 
procure to be built by subscription of worthy gentlemen 
and noblemen, for the education of youth, and to lessen 
the vast expense the nation is at yearly by sending children 
into France to be taught military exercises. We thought 
good to give him all the encouragement our recommenda-. 
tion could procure. 

15th. Came to visit me Dr. Rogers, an acquaintance of 
mine long since at Padua. He was then Consul of the 
English nation, and student in that University, where he 
proceeded Doctor in Physic ; presenting me now with the 
Latin oration he lately made upon the famous Dr. Harvey^s 
anniversary in the College of Physicians, at London. 

20th. This night I saw another comet, near Cancer, 
very bright, but the stream not so long as the former. 

29th. Supped at Lord Clarendon's, with Lord Hyde, 
his brother, noAv the great favourite, who invited himself 
to dine at my house the Tuesday following. 

30th October. Being my birthday, and I now entering 
my great climacterical of 63, after serious recollections of 
the 3-ears past, giving Almighty God thanks for all his 
merciful preservations and forbearance, begging pardon 
for my sins and unworthiness, and his blessing on me the 
year entering ; I went with my Lady Fox to survey her 
building, and give some directions for the garden at 
Chiswick;* the architect is Mr. May; somewhat heavy 

* See Lysons' Environs of London, voL II., p. 209. 



170 DIARY OP [londov, 

and thick, and not so well understood ; the garden much 
too narrow, the place without water, near a highway, and 
near another great house of my Lord Burlington, little 
land about it, so that I wonder at the expense ; but women 
will have their will. 

25thNovember. I was invited to dinewithMonsieur Lion- 
berg, the Swedish Resident, who made a magnificent enter- 
tainment, it being the birth day of his King. There dined 
the Duke of Albemarle, Duke of Hamilton, Earl of Bath, 
Earl of Aylesbury, Lord Arran, Lord Castlehaven, the 
son of him who was executed fifty years before, and several 
great persons. I was exceeding afraid of drinking (it 
being a Dutch feast), but the Duke of Albemarle being 
that night to wait on his Majesty, excess was prohibited ; 
and, to prevent all, I stole away and left the company as 
soon as we rose from table. 

28th. I went to the Council of the Royal Society for 
the auditing the last yearns accompt, where I was surprised 
with a fainting fit that for a time took away my sight ; 
but God being merciful to me, I recovered it after a short 
repose. 

30th. I was exceedingly endangered and importuned 
to stand the election [for President of the R. S.], 
having so many voices, but by favour of my friends, 
and regard of my remote dwelling, and now frequent 
infirmities, I desired their sufirages might be transferred 
to Sir John Hoskins, one of the Masters of Chancery ; a 
most learned virtuoso as well as lawyer, who accordingly 
was elected. 

7th December. "Went to congratulate Lord Hyde (the 
great favom-ite), newly made Earl of Rochester,* and 
lately marrying his eldest daughter to the Earl of Ossory. 

18th. I sold my East India adventure of £250 principal 
for £750 to the Royal Society, after I had been in that 
company twenty-five years, being extraordinary advanta- 
geous, by the blessing of God. 

23rd January, 1682-3. Sir Francis North, son to the 
Lord North, and Lord Chief Justice, being made Lord 
Keeper on the death of the Earl of Nottingham, the Lord 
Chancellor, I went to congratulate him. He is a most 

* Laurence, second eon of the Chancellor. 



1683.] JOHN EVELYN. J 7]. 

knowing, learned, and ingenious man, and, beside being an 
excellent person, of an ingenuous and sweet disposition, 
very skilful in music, painting, the new philosophy, and 
politer studies. 

29th. Supped at Sir Joseph Williamson's, where was a 
select company of our Society, Sir WilHam Petty, Dr. 
Gale (that learned schoolmaster of St. Paul's), Dr. Whistler, 
Mr. Hill, &c. The conversation was philosophical and 
cheerful, on divers considerable questions proposed ; as of 
the hereditary succession of the Roman Emperors; the 
Pica mentioned in the preface to our Common Prayer, 
which signifies only the Greek Kalendarium. These were 
mixed with lighter subjects. 

2nd February. I made my court at St. James's, when 
I saw the sea-charts of Captain ColHns, which that indus- 
trious man now brought to show the Duke, having taken 
all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, as far aa 
Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island, rock, 
soundings, harbours, sands, and tides, intending next 
spring to proceed till he had finished the Avliole island, 
and that measured by chains and other instruments : a 
most exact and useful undertaking. He afiirmed, that of 
all the maps put out since, there are none extant so true 
as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen 
Elizabeth's time ; all since him are erroneous. 

12th. This morning, I received the news of the death of 
my father-in-law. Sir Eichard Browne, Knt. and Bart., 
who died at my house at Sayes Court this day at ten in 
the morning, after he had laboured under the gout and 
dropsy for near six months, in the 78th year of his age. 
The funeral was solemnized on the 19th at Deptford, with 
as much decency as the dignity of the person, and our 
relation to him, required ; there being invited the Bishop 
of Rochester, several noblemen, knights, and all the 
fraternity of the Trinity Company, of which he had been 
Master, and others of the country. The Vicar preached a 
short but proper discourse on Psalm xxxix. 10, on the 
frailty of our mortal condition, concluding with an ample 
and well-deserved eulogy on the defunct, relating to his 
honourable birth and ancestors, education, learning in 
Greek and Latin, modern languages, travels, public 
employments, signal loyalty, character abroad, and par- 



]^y2 DIARY OF [saves court, 

ticularly the honour of supporting the church of England 
in its pubhc worship during its persecution by the late 
rebel's usurpation and regicide, by the suffrages of divers 
Bishops, Doctors of the church, and others, who found 
such an asylum in his house and family at Paris, that in 
their disputes with the Papists (then triumphing over it as 
utterly lost) they used to argue for its visibility and 
existence from Sir R. Browne's chapel and assembly 
there. Then he spake of his great and loyal sufferings 
during thirteen years' exile with his present Majesty, his 
return with him in the signal year 1660 ; his honourable 
employment at home, his timely recess to recollect him- 
self, his great age, infirmities, and death. 

He gave to the Trinity-Corporation that land in Dept- 
ford on which are built those alms-houses for twenty-four* 
widows of emerited seamen. He was born the famous 
year of the Gunpowder Treason, in 1605, and being the 
last [male] of his family, left my wife, his only daughter, 
heir. His grandfather, Sir Richard Browne, was the great 
instrument under the great Earl of Leicester (favourite to 
Queen Elizabeth) in his government of the Netherland. 
He was Master of the Household to King James, and 
Cofferer ; I think was the first who regulated the compo- 
sitions through England for the King's Household, provi- 
sions, progresses,* &c., which was so high a service, and so 
grateful to the whole nation, that he had acknowledgments 
and public thanks sent him from all the counties ; he died 
by the rupture of a vein in a vehement speech he made 
about the compositions in a Parliament of King James. 
By his mother's side he was a Gunson, Treasurer of the 
Navy in the reigns of Henry the Eighth, Queen Mary, and 
Queen Elizabeth, and, as by his large pedigree appears, 
related to divers of the English nobihty. Thus ended this 
honourable person, after so many changes and tossings 
to and fro, in the same house where he was born. " Lord 
teach us so to number our days, that we may apply our 
hearts unto wisdom ! " 

By a special clause in his will, he ordered that his body 

* The different counties were to find provisions of different sorts, which 
were collected by officers called purveyors, whose extortions often excited the 
attention of Parliament. For a particular account of their practices, see 
Archaeolo^ia, vol. III., p. 349. 



1683.] JOHN EVELYN. 273 

should be buried in the cburcli-yard under the south-east 
window of the chancel, adjoining to the burying places of 
his ancestors, since they came out of Essex into Sayes 
Court, he being much offended at the novel custom of 
burying every one within the body of the church and 
chancel ; that being a favour heretofore granted to martyrs 
and great persons ; this excess of making churches charnel- 
houses being of ill and irreverend example, and prejudicial 
to the health of the living, besides the continual disturb- 
ance of the pavement and seats, and several other inde- 
cencies. Dr. Hall, the pious Bishop of Norwich, would 
also be so interred,* as may be read in his testament. 

March 16th. I went to see Sir Josiah Child's prodigious 
cost in planting walnut-trees about his seat,t and making 
fishponds, many miles in circuit, in Epping Forest, in a 
barren spot, as oftentimes these suddenly monied men for 
the most part seat themselves. He from a merchant's 
apprentice, and management of the East India Company's 
stock, being arrived to an estate ('tis said) of £200,000 ; 
and lately married his daughter to the eldest son of the 
Duke of Beaufort, late Marquis of Worcester, with £50,000 
portional present, and various expectations. 

I dined at Mr. Houblon's,J a rich and gentle French 
merchant, who was building a house in the Forest, near 
Sir J. Child's, in a place where the late Earl of Norwich 
dwelt some time, and which came from his lady, the widow 
of Mr. Baker. It will be a pretty villa about five miles 
from Whitechapel. 

18th. I went to hear Dr. Horneck preach at the Savoy 
Church, on Phil.^ ii., 5. He was a German born, a most 
pathetic preacher, a person of a saint-like life, and hath 
written an excellent treatise on Consideration. § 

20th. Dined at Dr. Whistler's, at the Physicians' College, 

* As was afterwards, at Fulham, Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, Mho used 
to say, " The church-yard for the dead, the church for the living." 

+ Where that elegant mansion, Wanstead House, stood. 

J The family were eminent merchants in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
Morant's Essex, vol. II. p. 513. 

§ The full title is " The great Law of Consideration, or a Discourse wherein 
the nature, usefulness, and absolute necessity of Consideration, in order to a 
truly serious and religious life, are laid open ; " it went through several 
editions. 



174! DIARY OF [londos, 

with Sir Thomas iMillington, both learned men ; Dr. W. 
the most facetious man in nature, and now Censor of the 
College. I was here consulted where they should build 
their library ; it is pity this College is built so near New- 
gate Prison, and in so obscure a hole,* a fault in placing 
most of our pubUc buildings and churches in the City, 
through the avarice of some few men, and his Majesty not 
overruling it, when it was in his power after the dreadful 
conflagration. 

21st. Dr. Tenison preached at Whitehall on 1 Cor., 
vi. 12; I esteem him to be one of the most profitable 
preachers in the Church of England, being also of a most 
holy conversation, very learned and ingenious. The pains 
he takes and care of his parish will, I fear, wear him out, 
which would be an inexpressible loss.f 

24th. I went to hear Dr. Charleton^s lecture on the heart 
in the Anatomy Theatre at the Physicians^ College. 

80th. To London, in order to my passing the following 
week, for the celebration of the Easter now approaching, 
there being in the Holy Week so many eminent preachers 
officiating at the Court and other places. 

April 6th. Good Friday. There was in the afternoon, 
according to custom, a sermon before the King, at White- 
hall ; Dr. Sprat preached for the Bishop of Rochester. 

17th. I was at the launching of the last of the thirty 
ships ordered to be new built by Act of Parliament, named 
the Neptune, a second rate, one of the goodliest vessels of 
the whole navy, built by my kind neighbour, young Mr. 
Shish, his Majesty^s master shipwright of this dock. 

May 1st. I went to Blackheath, to see the new fair, 
being the first procured by the Lord Dartmouth. This was 
the first day, pretended for the sale of cattle, but I think 
in truth to enrich the new tavern at the bowling-green, 
erected by Snape,J his Majesty's farrier, a man full of 

• This glaring defect determined that learned Body to remove ; and their 
new College in Pall Mall East was opened by Sir Henry Halford, President 
in 1825. 

+ Dr. Thomas Tenison succeeded Tillotson in the arcliiepiscopal See of 
Canterbury, having before been Vicar of St. Martin's in the Fields, and Bishop 
of Lincoln. He lived to a great age. 

J Mr. Granger mentions a print of this person by White, and says he was 
father of Dr. Snape, of Eton : members of this family had been s^rjeant- 
farriers to the Sovereign for three hundred yeai's. 



1683. J JOHN EVELYN. I75 

projects. There appeared nothing but an innumerable 
assembly of drinking people from London, peddlers, &c., 
and I suppose it too near London to be of any great use 
to the country. 

March was unusually hot and dry, and all April ex- 
cessively wet. 

I planted all the out-limits of the garden and long walks 
with holly.* 

9th. Dined at Sir Gabriel Sylvius's, and thence to visit 
the Duke of Norfolk, to ask whether he would part with 
any of his cartoons and other drawings of Raphael, and the 
great masters ; he told me if he might sell them all together 
he would, but that the late Sir Peter Lely (our famous 
painter) had gotten some of his best. The person who 
desired me to treat for them was Vander Douse, grandson 
to that great scholar, contemporary and friend of Joseph 
Scaliger. 

16th. Came to dinner and visit me Sir Richard Anderson, 
of Pendley, and his lady, with whom I went to London. 

June 8th. On my return home from the Royal Society, 
I found Mr. Wilbraham, a young gentleman of Cheshire. 

11th. The Lord Dartmouth was elected Master of the 
Trinity House ; son to George Legge, late Master of the 
Ordnance, and one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber ; a 
great favourite of the Duke's, an active and understanding 
gentleman in sea-affairs. 

13th. To our Society, where we received the Count de 
Zinzendorp, Ambassador from the Duke of Saxony, a fine 
young man : we showed him divers experiments on the 
Magnet, on which subject the Society were upon. 

16th. I went to "Windsor, dining by the way at Chiswick, 
at Sir Stephen Fox's, where I found Sir Robert Howard 
(that universal pretender), and Signor Verrio, who brought 
his draught and designs for the painting of the staircase 
of Sir Stephen's new house. 

That which was new at Windsor since I was last there, 
and was surprising to me, was the incomparable fresco 
painting in St. George's Hall, representing the legend of 
St. George, and triumph of the Black Prince, and his 

* 400 feet in lenj^th, 9 feet high, 5 in diameter, in my now i-uiiied gai-den 
tlianks to the Czai- of Muscovy. Sylva, book II. chap. vi. 



176 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

reception by Edward III. ; the volto, or roof, not totally 
finished ; then the Resurrection in the Chapel, where the 
figure of the Ascension is, in my opinion, comparable to 
any paintings of the most famous Roman masters ; the 
Last Supper, also over the altar. I liked the contrivance 
of the unseen organ behind the altar, nor less the stupen- 
dous and beyond all description the incomparable carving 
of our Gibbon, who is, without controversy, the greatest 
master both for invention and rareness of work, that the 
world ever had in any age ; nor doubt I at all that he will 
prove as great a master in the statuary art. 

Verrio's invention is admirable, his ordnance full and 
flowing, antique and heroical ; his figures move ; and, if 
the walls hold, (which is the only doubt by reason of the 
salts which in time and in this moist climate prejudice) the 
work will preserve his name to ages. 

There was now the terrace brought almost round the 
old Castle; the grass made clean, even, and curiously 
turfed; the avenues to the new park, and other walks, 
planted with elms and limes, and a pretty canal, and 
receptacle for fowl ; nor less observable and famous is the 
throwing so huge a quantity of excellent water to the 
enormous height of the Castle, for the use of the whole 
house, by an extraordinary invention of Sir Samuel 
Morland.* 

17th. I dined at the Earl of Sunderland's with the 
Earls of Bath, Castlehaven, Lords Viscounts Falconberg, 
Falkland, Bishop of London, the Grand Master of Malta, 
brother to the Duke de Vendome (a young wild spark), and 
Mr. Dryden, the poet. After evening prayer, I walked in 
the park with my Lord Clarendon, where we fell into dis- 
coui'se of the Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Seth Ward), his 
subtlety, &c. Dr. Durell, late Dean of Windsor, being 
dead. Dr. Turner, one of the Duke's chaplains was made 
dean. 

I visited my Lady Arlington, Groom of the Stole to her 
Majesty, who being hardly set down to supper, word was 
brought her that the Queen was going into the park to 
walk, it being now near eleven at night ; the alarm caused 
the Countess to rise in all haste, and leave her supper to us. 

* See of him, under September 13, 1681. 



1683.] JOHN EVELYN. I77 

By this one may take an estimate of the extreme slavery 
and subjection that courtiers live in, who have not time to 
eat and drink at their pleasure. It put me in mind of 
Horace's Mouse, and to bless God for my own private 
condition. 

Here was Monsieur de TAngle, the famous minister of 
Charenton, lately fled from the persecution in France, con- 
cerning the deplorable condition of the Protestants there. 

18th. I was present, and saw and heard the humble 
submission and petition of the Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, and 
Aldermen, on behalf of the City of London, on the quo 
warranto against their charter, which they delivered to his 
Majesty in the presence-chamber. It was delivered 
kneeling, and then the King and Council went into the 
council-chamber, the Mayor and his brethren attending 
still in the presence-chamber. After a short space, they 
were called in, and my Lord Keeper made a speech to them, 
exaggerating the disorderly and riotous behaviour in the 
late election, and polling for Papillon and Du Bois after 
the Common-hall had been formally dissolved ; with other 
misdemeanors, libels on the Government, &c., by which 
they had incurred his Majesty's high displeasure; and 
that but for this submission, and under such articles as the 
King should require their obedience to, he would certainly 
enter judgment against them, which hitherto he had sus- 
pended. The things required were as follows : that they 
should neither elect Mayor, Sheriff, Aldermen, Recorder, 
Common Serjeant, Town-Clerk, Coroner, nor Steward of 
Southwark, without his Majesty's approbation ; and that 
if they presented any his Majesty did not like, they should 
proceed in wonted manner to a second choice ; if that was 
disapproved, his Majesty to nominate them ; and if within 
five days they thought good to assent to this, all former 
miscarriages should be forgotten. And so they tamely 
parted with their so ancient privileges after they had dined 
and been treated by the King. This was a signal and 
most remarkable period. What the consequences will 
prove, time Avill show. Divers of the old and most learned 
lawyers and judges were of opinion that they could not 
forfeit their charter, but might be personally punished for 
their misdemeanors ; but the plurality of the younger 
judges and rising men judged it otherwise. 

VOL. II. N 



X78 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

The Popish. Plot also^ which had hitherto made suck a 
noise, began, now sensibly to dwindle, through the folly, 
knavery, impudence, and giddiness of Oates, so as the 
Papists began to hold up their heads higher than ever, and 
those who had fled, flocked to London from abroad. Such 
sudden changes and eager doings there had been, Avithout 
anything steady or prudent, for these last seven years. 

19th. I returned to town in a coach with the Earl of 
Clarendon,* when passing by the glorious palace of his 
father, built but few years before, which they were now 
demolishing, being sold to certain undertakers, I turned 
my head the contrary way till the coach had gone past it, 
lest I might minister occasion of speaking of it ; which 
must needs have grieved him, that in so short a time their 
pomp was fallen. 

28th. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new, and 
(as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain 
Lords and others should design the assassination of the 
King and the Duke as they were to come from Newmarket, 
with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the 
City of London, disaffected to the present Govern- 
ment. Upon which were committed to the Tower, 
the Lord Russell, eldest son of the Earl of Bedford, 
the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sydney, son to the 
old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord 
Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was 
issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth, 
Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had 
escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for 
kilHng the King, others for only seizing on him, and per- 
suading him to new counsels, on the pretence of the 
danger of Popery, should the Duke Hve to succeed, who 
was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet 
secrets. The Lords Essex and Russell were much deplored, 
few believing they had any evil intention against the King, 
or the Church ; some thought they were cunningly drawn 
in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels 
and management relating to France, to Popery, to the 

* Henry Hyde, the second Earl, appointed Lord-Lientenant of Ireland, in 
1686, and died October 31, 1709, a Governor of the Charter-House, High 
Steward of the University of Oxford, and F.R.S. 



1683.] ■ JOHN EVELYN. I79 

persecution of the Dissenters, &c. They were discovered 
by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of 
the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken 
effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the 
Government to unknown and dangerous events; which 
God avert ! 

Was bom my grand-daughter at Sayes Court, and 
christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar 
officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the 
better part ! 

13th July. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough 
and his Lady in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was 
brought to us of the Earl of Essex having cut his throat, 
having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower, and 
this happening on the very day and instant that Lord 
Russell was on his trial, and had sentence of death. This 
accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex being so 
well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious 
deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to 
the King. It is certain the King and Duke were at the 
Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this 
morning, when my Lord asking for a razor, shut himself 
into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was 
wondered by some how it was possible he should do 
it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep 
and wide, that being cut through the gullet, wind-pipe, 
and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebrae of 
the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin 
as it were ; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his 
own fingers, was a little strange ; but more, that having 
passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so 
far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with 
an axe. There were odd reflections upon it.* 

This fatal news coming to Hicks^s Hall upon the article 
of my Lord Russell^s trial, was said to have had no little 
influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. 
Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted, 
that in case he should be in danger of having his life 
taken from him by any pubKc misfortune, those who 

* Bishop Bumet, after making every enquiry by desire of the Countess, 
does not beheve that Essex was mvu'dered. Own Times, vol. I., p. 569. 

N 2 



180 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim ; and that 
he should speak favourably of that Earl of Northumber- 
land,* and some others who made away with themselves ; 
but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent 
conversation, that I have no inclination to credit them. 
What might instigate him to this devihsh act, I am not 
able to conjecture. My Lord Clarendon, his brother-in- 
law, who was with him but the day before, assured me he 
was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of 
his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his 
Majesty had no severe intentions against him, though he 
was altogether inexorable as to Lord Russell and some of 
the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious 
Earl of Shaftesbury had brought them into some dislike 
of the present carriage of matters at Court, not with any 
design of destroying the monarchy (which Shaftesbury had 
in confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he 
would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt 
the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps, 
of setting up some other whom he might govern, and 
frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to the 
rehgion established under the hierarchy, for which he had 
no esteem ; but, when he perceived those whom he had 
engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, 
reproaching his accomplices that a second day for an 
exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave them 
the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, three 
months before these unhappy Lords and others were dis- 
covered, or suspected. Every one deplored Essex and 
Russell, especially the last, as being thought to have beeik 
drawn in on pretence only of endeavouring to rescue the 
King from his present councillors, and secure religion, 
from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government^ 
now so much apprehended ; whilst the rest of those who 
were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless 
some bloody design, to set up a Commonwealth, and turn 
all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is 
Sidney. 

I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, 

* Henry Percy, eighth Earl of Northumberland, shot himself in the Tower, 
to which he had been committed on a charge of high treason, in June, 1585. 



16G3.] JOHN EVELYN. 181 

son to the famous and wise prime President of Bourdeaux. 
This gentleman was owner of that excellent vignoble of 
Pontaq and Obrien, from whence come the choicest of 
our Bourdeaux wines ; and I think I may truly say of 
him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much 
learning had made him mad. He had studied well in 
philosophy, but chiefly the Eabbins, and was exceedingly 
addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador 
{romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance 
of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spake all languages, 
was very rich, had a handsome person, and was well-bred, 
about forty-five years of age. 

14th. I visited Mr. Fraser, a learned Scots gentleman, 
whom I had formerly recommended to Lord Berkeley for 
the instruction and government of his son, since dead at sea. 
He had now been in Holland at the sale of the learned 
Heinsius's library, and showed me some very rare and 
curious books, and some MSS., which he had purehased 
to good value. There were three or four Herbals in 
miniature, accurately done, divers Boman antiquities of 
Verona, and very many books of Aldus's impression. 

15th. A stranger, and old man, preached on Jerem. 
vi. 8, the not hearkening to instruction, portentous of 
desolation to a people ; much after Bishop Andrews's 
method, full of logical divisions, in short and broken 
periods, and Latin sentences, now quite out of fashion in 
the pulpit, which is grown into a far more profitable way, 
of plain and practical discourses, of which sort this nation, 
or any other, never had greater plenty or more profitable 
(I am confident) ; so much has it to answer for thriving 
no better on it. 

The public was now in great consternation on the late 
plot and conspiracy ; his Majesty very melancholy, and 
not stirring without double guards ; all the avenues and 
private doors about "Whitehall and the Park shut up, few 
admitted to walk in it. The Papists, in the mean time, 
very jocund, and indeed with reason, seeing their own 
plot brought to nothing, and turned to ridicule, and now 
a conspiracy of Protestants as they called them. 

The Turks were likewise in hostility against the German 
Emperor, almost masters of the Upper Hungary, and 
drawing towards Vienna. On the other side^ the French 



182 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

King (who it is believed brought in the infidels) disturbing 
his Spanish and Dutch neighbours, having swallowed up 
almost all Flanders, pursuing his ambition of a fifth 
universal monarchy; and all this blood and disorder in 
Christendom had evidently its rise from our defections at 
home, in a wanton peace, minding nothing but luxury, 
ambition, and to procure money for our vices. To tlus 
add our irreligion and atheism, great ingratitude, and 
self-interest ; the apostacy of some, and the suffering the 
French to grow so great, and the Hollanders so weak. 
In a word, we were wanton, mad, and surfeiting with 
prosperity ; every moment unsettling the old foundations, 
and never constant to any thing. The Lord in mercy 
avert the sad omen, and that we do not provoke him till 
he bear it no longer ! 

This summer did we suffer twenty French men-of-war 
to pass our Channel towards the Sound, to help the Danes 
against the Swedes, who had abandoned the French 
interest; we not having ready sufficient to guard our 
coasts, or take cognizance of what they did ; though the 
nation never had more, or a better navy, yet the sea had 
never so slender a fleet. 

19th. George, Prince of Denmark, who had landed thi» 
day, came to marry the Lady Anne, daughter to the Duke;. 
80 I returned home, have seen the young gallant at dinner 
at Whitehall. 

20th. Several of the conspirators of the lower form were 
executed at Tyburn ; ^nd the next day, 

21st. Lord Russell was beheaded in Lincoln's-Inn- 
Fields, the executioner giving him three butcherly strokes. 
The speech he made, and paper which he gave the Sheriff^ 
declaring his innocence, the nobleness of the family, the 
piety and worthiness of the unhappy gentleman, wrought 
much pity, and occasioned various discourses on the plot. 

25th. I again saw Prince George of Denmark : he had 
the Danish countenance, blonde, of few words, spake 
French but ill, seemed somewhat heavy, but reported to 
be vahant, and indeed he had bravely rescued and brought 
off his brother, the King of Denmark, in a battle against 
the Swedes, when both these Kings were engaged very 
smartly. 

28th. He was married to the Lady Anne, at Whitehall 



1683.] JOHN EVELYN. ^33 

Her court and household to be modelled as the Duke's, 
her father, had been, and they to continue in England. 

1st August. Came to see Mr. Flamsted, the famous 
astronomer from his Observatory at Greenwich, to draw 
the meridian for my pendule, &c. 

2nd. The Countesses of Bristol and Sunderland, aunt 
and cousin-german of the late Lord Russell, came to visit 
me, and condole his sad fate. The next day, came Colonel 
Russell, uncle to the late Lord Russell, and brother to 
the Earl of Bedford, and with him Mrs. Middleton, that 
famous and indeed incomparable beauty, daughter to my 
relation. Sir Robert Needham. 

19th. I went to Bromley to visit our Bishop,* and 
excellent neighbour, and to congratulate his now being 
made Archbishop of York. On the 28th, he came to take 
his leave of us, now preparing for his journey and residence 
in his pro^dnce. 

28th. My sweet little grandchild, Martha Maria, died, 
and on the 29th was buried in the parish church. 

2nd September. This morning, was read in the church, 
after the office was done, the Declaration setting forth the 
late conspiracy against the King's person. 

3rd. I went to see what had been done by the Duke of 
Beaufort on his late purchased house at Chelsea, which 
I once had the selling of for the Countess of Bristol ; he 
had made great alterations, but might have built a better 
house with the materials and the cost he had been at. 

Saw the Countess of Monte Feltre, whose husband I 
had formerly known ; he was a subject of the Pope^s, but 
becoming a Protestant, he resided in England, and married 
into the family of the Savilles, of Yorkshire. The Count, 
her late husband, was a very learned gentleman, a great 
politician, and a goodly man. She was accompanied by 
her sister, exceedingly skilled in painting, nor did they 
spare for colour on their own faces. They had a great 
deal of wit. 

9th. It being the day of public thanksgiving for his 
Majesty's late preservation, the former declaration was 
again read, and there was an office used, composed for the 
occasion. A loyal sermon was preached on the divine right 

* Dr. Jolm Dolben. 



184 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

of Kings, from Psalm cxliv. 10. "Thou hast preserved 
David from the peril of the sword." 

15th. Came to visit me the learned anatomist, Dr. 
Tyson,* with some other Fellows of our Society. 

16th. At the elegant villa and garden of Mr. Bohun, 
at Lee. He showed me the zinnar tree, or platanus, and 
told me that since they had planted this kind of tree 
about the city of Ispahan, in Persia, the plague, which 
formerly much infested the place, had exceedingly abated 
of its mortal effects, and rendered it very healthy. 

18th. I went to London, to visit the Duchess of Grafton, 
now great with child, a most -^drtuous and beautiful lady. 
Dining with her at my Lord Chamberlain's, met my Lord 
of St. Alban's, now grown so blind, that he could not see 
to take his meat. He has lived a most easy life, in plenty 
even abroad, whilst his Majesty was a sufferer ; he has lost 
immense sums at play, which yet, at about eighty years 
old, he continues, having one that sits by him to name the 
spots on the cards. He eat and drank with extraordinary 
appetite. He is a prudent old courtier, and much enriched 
since his Majesty's return. 

After dinner, I walked to survey the sad demolition of 
Clarendon-House, that costly and only sumptuous palace 
of the late Lord Chancellor Hyde, where I have often been 
so cheerful with him, and sometimes so sad:t happening 
to make him a visit but the day before he fled from the 
angry Parliament, accusing him of mal-administration, and 
being envious at his grandeur, who from a private lawyer 
came to be father-in-law to the Duke of York, and as some 
would suggest, designing his Majesty's marriage with the 
Infanta of Portugal, not apt to breed. To this they 
imputed much of our unhappiness, and that he being sole 

• Edward Tyson, M.D., a learned physician, bom at Clevedon, Somerset- 
shire, in 1649, who became reader of the anatomical lecture in Surgeons' 
Hall, and physician to the hospitals of Bethlehem and Bridewell, in which 
station he died Aug. 1, 170S. He was an ingenious writer, as appears by liis 
Essays in the Philosophical Transactions and Hook's Collections. He 
published also « The Anatomy of a Porpoise dissected at Gresham College," 
and the " Anatomy of a Pigmy compared with a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man," 
4to, 1698-9. 

t An engraving of the south or principal front of this noble mansion, copied 
from an extremely rare print, is given in Smith's Sixty-two Additional Plates 
to his Antiquities of Westminster, 4to, 1807. 



1683.] JOHN EVELYN. 185 

minister and favourite at hisMajesty^s restoration^ neglected 
to gratify the King's suffering party, preferring those who 
were the cause of our troubles. But perhaps as many of 
these things were injuriously laid to his charge, so he kept 
the government far steadier than it has proved since. I 
could name some who I think contributed greatly to his 
Tuin, — the buffoons and the misses, to whom he was an 
eye-sore. It is true he was of a jolly temper, after the old 
English fashion ; but France had now the ascendant, and 
we were become quite another nation. The Chancellor 
gone, and dying in exile, the Earl his successor sold that 
which cost £50,000 building, to the young Duke of 
Albemarle for £25,000, to pay debts which how contracted 
remains yet a mystery, his son being no way a prodigal. 
Some imagine the Duchess his daughter had been charge- 
able to him. However it were, this stately palace is decreed 
to ruin, to support the prodigious waste the Duke of 
Albemarle had made of his estate, since the old man died. 
He sold it to the highest bidder, and it fell to certain rich 
bankers and mechanics, who gave for it and the ground 
about it £35,000 ; they design a new town, as it were, and 
a most magnificent piazza (i.e. square). It is said they 
have already materials towards it with what they sold of 
the house alone, more worth than what they paid for it- 
See the vicissitudes of earthly things ! I was astonished at 
this demolition, nor less at the little army of labourers and 
artificers levelling the ground, laying foundations, and 
contriving great buildings at an expense of £200,000, if 
they perfect their design.* 

* In a letter to Lord Cornbury, dated Sayes Court, 20th January, 1665-6, 
Mr. Evelyn having been to see Clarendon House, says : " I went with pre- 
judice and a critical spirit, incident to those who fancy they know anything in 
art ; I acknowledge that I have never seen a nobler pile. My old friend and 
fellow-traveller (inhabitants and contemporaries at Rome) has perfectly 
acquitted himself. It is, without hyperbole, the best contrived, the most 
useful, graceful, and magnificent house in England ; I except not Audley-End, 
which, though larger and full of gaudy barbarous ornaments, does not gratify 
judicious spectators. Here is state and use, solidity and beauty, most sym- 
metrically combined together. Nothing abroad pleases me better, nothing 
at home approaches it. I have no design to gratify the architect beyond what 
I'am obliged as a professed honourcr of virtue wheresoever it is conspicuous ; 
but when I had seriously contemplated every room (for I went into them all, 
from the cellar to the platform on the roof), seen how well and judiciously the 



186 DIARY OF [losdox, 

19th. In my walks I stepped into a goldbeater's work- 
Louse^ where he showed me the wonderful ductility of that 
spreading and oily metal. He said it must be finer than 
the standard, such as was old angel-gold, and that of such 
he had once to the value of £100 stamped with the agmis 
dei ; and coined at the time of the holy war, which had 
been found in a ruined wall somewhere in the north, near 
to Scotland, some of which he beat into leaves, and the rest 
sold to the curiosi in antiquities and medals. 

23rd. We had now the welcome tidings of the King 
of Poland raising the siege of Vienna, which had given 
terror to all Europe, and utmost reproach to the French, 
who it is believed brought in the Turks for diversion, 
that the French King might the more easily swallow 
Flanders, and pursue his unjust conquests on the empire, 
whilst we sat unconcerned and under a deadly charm from 
somebody. 

There was this day a collection for re-building Newmarket, 
consumed by an accidental fire, which removing his Majesty 
thence sooner than was intended, put by the assassins, who 
were disappointed of their rendezvous and expectation by a 
wonderful providence. This made the King more earnest 
to render Winchester the seat of his autumnal field-diver- 
sions for the future, designing a palace there, where the 
ancient castle stood ; infinitely indeed preferable to New- 
market for prospects, air, pleasure, and provisions. The 
surveyor has already begun the foundation for a palace, 
estimated to cost £35,000, and his Majesty is purchasing 
ground about it to make a park, &c. 

4th October. I went to London, on receiving a note from 
the Countess of Arlington, of some considerable charge or 
advantage I might obtain by applying myself to his Majesty 
on this signal conjuncture of his Majesty entering-up 
judgment against the City-charter ; the proposal made me 
I wholly declined, not being well satisfied with these violent 
transactions, and not a little sorry that his Majesty was so 
often put upon things of this nature against so great a 
City, the consequence whereof may be so much to his 

walls were erected, the arches cut and turned, the timber braced, their scant- 
lings and contignations disposed, I was most highly satisfied, and do aclinow- 
ledge myself to have much improved by what I observed." 



1683.] JOHN EVELYN. 137 

prejudice ; so I returned home. At this time^ tlie Lord 
Chief- Justice Pemberton was displaced. He was held to be 
the most learned of the judges, and an honest man. Sir 
George Jeffreys was advanced, reputed to be most ignorant, 
but most daring. Sir George Treby, Recorder of London, 
was also put by, and one Genner, an obscure lawyer, set 
in his place. Eight of the richest and chief aldermen were 
removed, and all the rest made only justices of the peace, 
and no more wearing of gowns, or chains of gold; the 
Lord ]Mayor and two Sherij3fs holding their places by new 
grants as custodes, at the King^s pleasure. The pomp and 
grandeur of the most august City in the world thus changed 
face in a moment ; which gave great occasion of discourse 
and thoughts of hearts, what all this would end in. Prudent 
men were for the old foundations. 

Following his Majesty this morning through the gallery, 
I went, with the few who attended him, into the Duchess 
of Portsmouth's dressing-room within her bed-chamber, 
where she was in her morning loose garment, her maids 
combing her, newly out of her bed, his Majesty and the 
gallants standing about her ; but that which engaged my 
curiosity, was the rich and splendid furniture of this 
woman's apartment, now twice or thrice pulled down and 
rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive pleasures, whilst 
her Majesty's does not exceed some gentlemen's ladies in 
furniture and accommodation. Here I saw the new fabric 
of French tapestry, for design, tenderness of work, and 
incomparable imitation of the best paintings, beyond any 
thing I had ever beheld. Some pieces had Versailles, 
St. Germains, and other palaces of the French King, with 
huntings, figures, and landscapes, exotic fowls, and all to 
the life rarely done. Then for Japan cabinets, skreens, 
pendule clocks, great vases of wrought plate, tables, stands, 
chimney-furniture, sconces, branches, braseras, &c., all of 
massy silver, and out of number, besides some of her 
Majesty's best paintings. 

Surfeiting of this, I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's, and 
went contented home to my poor, but quiet villa. What 
contentment can there be in the riches and splendour of 
this world, purchased with vice and dishonour ? 

10th, Visited the Duchess of Grafton, not yet brought 
to- bed, and dining with my Lord Chamberlain (her father), 



lyy DIARY OF [LONDON, 

went with them to see Montagu-House,* a palace lately 
built by Lord Montague, who had married the most 
beautiful Countess of Northumberland, t It is a stately 
and ample palace. Signer Verrio's fresco paintings, 
especially the funeral pile of Dido, on the staircase, the 
labours of Hercules, fight with the Centaurs, his eflPemi- 
nacy with Dejanira, and Apotheosis or reception among the 
gods, on the walls and roof of the great room above, — 
I think exceeds any thing he has yet done, both for 
design, colouring, and exuberance of invention, comparable 
to the greatest of the old masters, or what they so celebrate 
at Rome. In the rest of the chamber are some excellent 
paintings of Holbein, and other masters. The garden is 
large, and in good air, but the fronts of the house not 
answerable to the inside. The court at entry, and wings 
for offices seem too near the street, and that so very narrow 
and meanly built, that the corridor is not in proportion 
to the rest, to hide the court from being overlooked by 
neighbours; all which might have been prevented, had 
they placed the house further into the ground, of which 
there was enough to spare. But on the whole it is a fine 
palace, built after the French pavihon-way, by Mr. Hooke, 
the Curator of the Hoyal Society. There were with us 
my Lady Scroope, the great wit, and Monsieur Chardine, 
the celebrated traveller. 

13th. Came to visit me my old and worthy friend, 
Mr. Packer, bringing with him his nephew Berkeley, 
grandson to the honest judge. A most ingenious, virtuous, 
and religious gentleman, seated near Worcester, and very 
curious in gardening. 

17th. I was at the court-leet of this manor, my Lord 
Arlington his Majesty's High-Steward. J 

26th. Came to visit and dine with me, Mr. Brisbane, 
Secretary to the Admiralty, a learned and agreeable man. 

30th. I went to Kew to visit Sir Henry Capell, brother 
to the late Earl of Essex ; but he being gone to Cashiobury, 

* See under August, 1672. 

+ He was made Earl of Montagu by King William, and Duke by Queen 
Anne. His wife was Lady Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl 
of Southampton, widow of Joceline Percy, the 1 1th and last Earl of NorUivun- 
berland (of that family). 

t The manor of Deptford-le-Strond, alias West Greenwich. ' 



1C83.] JOHN EVELYN. j^gg 

after I had seen his garden * and the alterations therein, 
I returned home. He had repaired his house^ roofed his 
hall with a kind of cupola, and in a niche was an artificial 
fountain ; but the room seems to me over-melancholy, yet 
might be much improved by having the walls well painted 
a fresco. The two green-houses for oranges and myrtles 
communicating with the rooms below, are very well con- 
trived.f There is a cupola made with pole-work between 
two elms at the end of a walk, which being covered by 
plashing the trees to them, is very pretty : for the rest 
there are too many fir-trees in the garden. 

17th November. I took a house in ViUiers Street, York 
Buildings, for the winter, having many important concerns 
to dispatch, and for the education of my daughters. 

23rd. The Duke of Monmouth, till now proclaimed 
traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord Russell was 
lately beheaded, came this evening to Whitehall and ren- 
dered himself, on which were various discourses. 

26th. I went to compliment the Duchess of Grafton, 
now lying-in of her first child, a son, % which she called 
for, that I might see it. She was become more beautiful, 
if it were possible, than before, and full of virtue and 
sweetness. She discoursed with me of many particulars, 
with great prudence and gravity beyond her years. 

29th. Mr. Forbes showed me the plot of the garden 
making at Burleigh, at my Lord Exeter^ s, which I looked 
on as one of the most noble that I had seen. 

The whole court and town in solemn mourning for the 
death of the King of Portugal, her Majesty's brother. 

30th. At the anniversary dinner of the Royal Society 
the King sent us two does. Sir Cyril Wych was elected 
President. 

5th December. I was this day invited to a wedding of 
one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it 
was to her fifth husband, a Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
City. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, 

* Archseologia, vol. XII. p. 185. 

f Of late years this plan has been adopted in many gentlemen's houses. 

:J: Charles, who succeeded his father, killed in Ii-eland in IG.'lO. This son 
was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Chamberlain, Privy Counsellor, 
K. G., &c., in the reigns of Anne, George I. and George II. There is a fine 
whole-length mezzotinto of him by Faber. 



190 DIARY OF [LONDON 

"by his wife, wlio sold kitchen-stuff in Kent Street, whom 
God so blessed that the father became a veryrich, and 
was a very honest man ; he was sheriff of Surrey, * 
where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his 
daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this 
daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the 
wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen 
and persons of quality; above all. Sir George Jeffreys, 
newly made Lord Cluef Justice of England, with Mr. 
Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceed- 
ing merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, 
till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, 
and talking much beneath the gravity of Judges, who had 
but a day or two before condemned Mr. Algernon Sidney, 
who was executed the 7th on Tower-Hill, on the single 
witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, 
and some sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's study, 
pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor 
the time when, but appearing to have been written before 
his Majesty's restoration, and then pardoned by the Act 
of Oblivion ; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be 
a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch, 
(the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E, 
Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. 
There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate 
enemy to the last King, and in actual rebellion against 
him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, 
which he showed both at his trial and death ; for, whea 
he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them 
only that he had made his peace with God, that he came 
not thither to talk, but to die ; put a paper into the 
sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's, said one prayer 
as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the 
executioner do his office. 

The Duke of Monmouth, now having his pardon, refuses 
to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot ; for which 
he is banished Whitehall. This was a great disappointment 
to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, Hampden, &c., 
that for want of a second witness were come out of the 
Tower upon their habeas corpits. 

* In'icrs. 



1684.] JOHN EVELYX. 191 

The King had now augmented his guards with a new 
sort of dragoons, who carried also grenadoes, and were 
habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps, 
very fierce and fantastical. 

7th. I went to the Tower, and visited the Earl of Danby, 
the late Lord High Treasurer, who had been imprisoned 
four years : he received me with great kindness. I dined 
with him, and staled till night. We had discourse of 
many things, his Lady railing sufficiently at the keeping 
her husband so long in prison. Here I saluted the 
Lord Dumblaine's wife,* who before had been married to 
Emerton, and about whom there was that scandalous 
business before the delegates. 

23rd. The small-pox very prevalent and mortal j the 
Thames frozen. 

26th. I dined at Lord Clarendon^s, where I was to 
meet that ingenious and learned gentleman. Sir George 
Wheeler, who has published the excellent description of 
Africa and Greece, and who being a Knight of a very 
fair estate and young, had now newly entered into Holy 
Orders. 

27th. I went to visit Sir John Chardin, a French gentle- 
man, who had travelled three times by land into Persia, 
and had made many curious researches in his travels, of 
which he was now setting forth a relation. It being in 
England this year one of the severest frosts that had 
happened of many years, he told me the cold in Persia was 
much greater, the ice of an incredible thickness ; that they 
had little use of iron in all that country, it being so moist 
(though the air admirably clear and healthy) that oil 
would not preserve it from rusting, so that they had neither 
clocks nor watches ; some padlocks they had for doors and 
boxes. 

30th. Dr. Spratt, now made Dean of Westminster, 
preached to the King at Whitehall,>on Matt. vi. 24. 
Recollecting the passages of the past year, I gave God 
thanks for his mercies, praying his blessing for the future. 

1683-4. 1st January. The weather continuing intolerably 

* Peregrine, Viscount Dumblaine, youngest son of the Earl of Danby, so 
created in his father's life-time, and who became his successor iu title and 
estate. 



192 DIARY OF [londow, 

severe, streets of booths were set upon the Thames ; the 
air was so very cold and thick, as of many years there had 
not been the like. The small-pox was very mortal. 

2nd. I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's : after dinner, came 
a fellow who eat live charcoal, glowingly ignited, quenching 
them in his mouth, and then champing and swallowing- 
them down. There was a dog also which seemed to do 
many rational actions. 

6th. The river quite frozen. 

9th. I went across the Thames on the ice, now become 
so thick as to bear not only streets of booths, in which 
they roasted meat, and had divers shops of wares, quite 
across as in a town, but coaches, carts, and horses passed 
over. So I went from Westminster-stairs to Lambeth, and 
dined with the Archbishop ; where I met my Lord Bruce, 
Sir George Wheeler, Colonel Cooke, and several divines. 
After dinner and discourse with his Grace till evening- 
prayers. Sir George Wheeler and I walked over the ice 
from Lambeth-stairs to the Horse-ferry. 

10th. I visited Sir Robert Reading, where after supper 
we had music, but not comparable to that which Mrs. 
Bridgeman made us on the guitar with such extraordinary- 
skill and dexterity. 

16th. The Thames was filled with people and tents, 
selling all sorts of wares as in the City. , 

24th. The frost continuing more and more severe, the 
Thames before London was still planted with booths in 
formal streets, all sorts of trades and shops furnished, and 
full of commodities, even to a printing-press, where the 
people and ladies took a fancy to have their names printed, 
and the day and year set down when printed on the 
Thames : * this humour took so universally, that it was 
estimated the printer gained £5 a day, for printing a line 
only, at sixpence a name, besides what he got by ballads, 
&c. Coaches plied from Westminster to the Temple, and 
from several other stairs to and fro, as in the streets, sleds, 
sliding with skates, a bull-baiting, horse and coach-races, 

* By favour of a gentleman possessed of innumerable literary curiosities, I 
have one of these cards now before me. Within a treble border, " Mons' et 
Mad" Justel. Printed on the river of Thames being frozen. In the 36th 
year of King Charles the II., February the 5th, 1683." v. 8. is added with a 
pen, probably by Mr. Justell. — Edit. 



1684.] • JOHN EVELYN. I93 

puppet-plays and interludes, cooks, tippling, and other 
lewd places, so that it seemed to be a bacchanalian triumph, 
or carnival on the water, whilst it was a severe judgment 
on the land, the trees not only splitting as if lightning- 
struck, but men and cattle perishing in divers places, and 
the very seas so locked up with ice, that no vessels could 
stir out or come in. The fowls, fish, and birds, and all our 
exotic plants and greens, universally perishing. Many 
parks of deer were destroyed, and all sorts of fuel so dear, 
that there were great contributions to preserve the poor 
alive. Nor was this severe weather much less intense in 
most parts of Europe, even as far as Spain and the most 
southern tracts. London, by reason of the excessive 
coldness of the air hindering the ascent of the smoke, Avas 
so filled with the fuliginous steam of the sea-coal, that 
hardly could one see across the streets, and this filling tlie 
lungs with its gross particles, exceedingly obstructed the 
breast, so as one could scarcely breathe. Here was no water 
to be had from the pipes and engines, nor could the brewers 
and divers other tradesmen work, and every moment was 
full of disastrous accidents. 

4th February. I went to Sayes Court to see how the frost 
had dealt with my garden, where I found many of the 
greens and rare plants utterly destroyed. The oranges and 
myrtles very sick, the rosemary and laurels dead to all 
appearance, but the cypress likely to endure it. 

5th. It began to thaw, but froze again. My coach 
crossed from Lambeth to the Horse-ferry at Milbank, 
Westminster. The booths were almost all taken down, 
but there was first a map or landscape cut in copper 
representing all the manner of the camp, and the several 
actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory of so 
signal a frost.* 

7th. I dined with my Lord Keeper [North], and 
walking alone with him some time in his gallery, we had 
discourse of music. He told me he had been brought up 
to it from a child, so as to sing his part at first sight. 
Then speaking of painting, of which he was also a great 
lover, and other ingenious matters, he desired me to come 
oftener to him. 

^ There are different representations of this curious scene, both in wood and 
copper-plate engravings. 

VOL. II. 



J 94 DIABY OF [londom, 

8th. I went this evening to ^isit that great and knowing 
virtuoso. Monsieur Justell. The weather was set in to an 
absolute thaw and rain ; but the Thames still frozen. 

10th. After eight weeks missing the foreign posts, there 
came abundance of intelligence from abroad. 

12th. The Earl of Danby, late Lord-Treasurer, together 
with the Roman Cathohc Lords impeached of high treason 
in the Popish Plot, had now their habeas corpus, and came 
out upon bail, after five years' imprisonment in the Tower. 
Then were also tried and deeply fined Mr. Hampden and 
others, for being supposed of the late plot, for which Lord 
Eussell and Colonel Sidney suflFered ; as also the person 
who went about to prove that the Earl of Essex had his 
throat cut in the Tower by others ; likewise Mr. Johnson, 
the author of that famous piece called Julian. 

15th. News of the Prince of Orange having accused the 
Deputies of Amsterdam of crimen Icesm Majestatis, and 
being pensioners to France. 

Dr. Tenison communicated to me his intention of erect- 
ing a library in St. Martin's parish, for the public use, and 
desired my assistance, with Sir Christopher Wren, about 
the placing and structure thereof, a worthy and laudable 
design. He told me there were thirty or forty young men 
in Orders in his parish, either governors to young gentle- 
men or chaplains to noblemen, who being reproved by him 
on occasion for frequenting taverns or coffee-houses, told 
him they would study or employ their time better, if they 
had books. This put the pious Doctor on this design ; 
and indeed a great reproach it is that so great a City as 
London should not have a public library becoming it. 
There ought to be one at St. Paul's : the west end of that 
church (if ever finished) would be a convenient place. 

23rd, I went to Sir John Chardin, who desned my 
assistance for the engraving the plates, the translation, 
and printing his History of that wonderful Persian Monur 
ment near Persepolis, and other rare antiquities, which he 
had caused to be drawn from the originals in his second 
journey into Persia, which we now concluded upon. After- 
wards, I went with Sir Christopher Wren to Dr. Tenison, 
where we made the drawing and estimate of the expense of 
the library, to be begun this next spring near the Mews.* 

• There is a spacious room well furnislied with books, nnder the care of 



1684.] JOHN EVELYN, J 95 

Great expectation of the Prince of Grangers attempts in 
Holland to bring those of Amsterdam to consent to the 
new levies^ to which we were no friends, by a pseudo-politic 
adherence to the French interest. 

26th. Came to visit me Dr. Turner, our new Bishop of 
Rochester. 

28th. I dined at Lady Tuke's, where I heard Dr. "Wal- 
grave (physician to the Duke and Duchess) play excellently 
on the lute. 

7th March. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester, preached 
an incomparable sermon (the King being now gone to 
Newmarket), on Heb. xii. 15, showing and pathetically 
pressing the care we ought to have lest we come short of 
the grace of God. Afterwards, I went to visit Dr. Tenison 
at Kensington, whither he was retired to refresh, after he 
had been sick of the small-pox. 

15th. At Whitehall preached Mr. Henry Godolphin, a 
prebend of St. Paulas, and brother to my dear friend 
Sydney, on Isaiah Iv. 7. I dined at the Lord Keeper's, 
and brought him to Sir John Chardin, who showed him his 
accurate draughts of his travels in Persia. 

28th. There was so great a concourse of people with 
their children to be touched for the Evil, that six or seven 
were crushed to death by pressing at the chirurgeon's door 
for tickets. The weather began to be more mild and 
tolerable ; but there was not the least appearance of any 
spring. 

30th. Easter day. The Bishop of Rochester preached 
before the King ; after which his Majesty, accompanied 
with three of his natural sons, the Dukes of Northumber- 
land, Richmond, and St. Alban's, (sons of Portsmouth, 
Cleveland, and Nelly,) went up to the altar ; the three 
boys entering before the King within the rails, at the right 
hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. : London, (who 
officiated) Durham, and Rochester, with the Sub-dean, 
Dr. Holder. The King, kneeling before the altar, making 
his offering, the Bishops first received, and then his Majesty; 
after which he retired to a canopied seat on the right hand. 
Note, there was perfume burnt before the office began. I 
had received the sacrament at Whitehall early with the 

the vicar of St. Martin's, in Castle Street, near the Mews-gate. Sion College 
is more peculiarly appropriated to the Clergy in the City. 

o 2 



196 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

Lords and Household, the Bishop of London officiating. 
Then went to St. Martin's, where Dr. Tenison preached 
(recovered from the small-pox) ; then went again to 
"Whitehall as above. In the afternoon, went to St. Martin's 
again. 

4th April. I returned home with my family to my house 
at Sayes Court, after five months' residence in London; 
hardly the least appearance of any spring. 

3()th. A letter of mine to the Royal Society concerning 
the terrible effects of the past winter being read, they 
desired it might be printed in the next part of their 
Transactions.* 

] 0th May. I went to visit my brother in Surrey. Called 
by the way at Ashted, where Sir Robert Howard (Auditor 
of the Exchequer) entertained me very civilly at his new- 
built house, which stands in a park on the Down, the 
avenue south ; though down hill to the house, which is 
not great, but with the out-houses very convenient. The 
staircase is painted by Verrio with the story of Astrea ; 
amongst other figures is the picture of the Painter himself, 
and not unlike liim ; the rest is well done, only the columns 
did not at all please me ; there is also Sir Robert's own 
picture in an oval ; the whole in fresco. The place has 
this great defect, that there is no water but what is drawn 
up by horses from a very deep well. 

11th. Visited Mr. Higham, who was iU, and died three 
days after. His grandfather and father (who christened 
me), with himself, had now been rectors of this parish 101 
years, viz, from May, 1583. 

12th. I returned to London, where I found the Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty abolished, and the office of 
Admiral restored to the Duke, as to the disposing and 
ordering all sea business; but his Majesty signed aU 
petitions, papers, warrants, and commissions, that the 
Duke, not acting as Admiral by commission or office, 
might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Papists 
and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the oath and 
test. Every one was glad of this change, those in the late 

* This was done in No. 158. See it at length in Dr. Kippis's new edition 
of the Biog. Brit. vol. V., p. 623. An Abstract of it is reprinted in Evelyn's 
"^Miscellaneous Writings," 4to, 1825, pp. 692 — 696. 



1684.] JOHN EVELYN. 197 

Commission being ntterly ignorant in tlieir duty, to the 
great damage of the Navy. 

The utter ruin of the Low Country was threatened by 
the siege of Luxemburg, if not timely relieved, and by the 
obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refused to assist the 
Prince of Orange, being corrupted by the French. 

16th. I received £600 of Sir Charles Bickerstaif for the 
fee-farm of Pilton, in Devon. 

26th. Lord Dartmouth Avas chosen Master of the Trinity 
Company, newly returned with the fleet from blowing up 
and demolishing Tangier. In the sermon preached on this 
occasion. Dr. Can observed that, in the 27th chapter of 
the Acts of the Apostles, the casting anchor out of the 
fore-ship had been cavilled at as betraying total ignorance : 
that it is very true our seamen do not do so ; but in the 
Mediterranean their ships were built diiFerently from ours, 
jind to this day it was the practice to do so there. 

Luxemburg was surrendered to the French, which 
makes them master of all the Netherlands, gives them 
entrance into Germany, and a fair game for universal 
monarchy; which that we should suffer, who only and 
easily might have hindered, astonished all the world. Thus 
is the poor Prince of Orange ruined, and this nation and 
all the Protestant interest in Europe following, unless God 
in His infinite mercy, as by a miracle, interpose, and our 
great ones alter their counsels. The French fleet were 
now besieging Genoa, but after burning much of that 
beautiful city with their bombs, went off with disgrace. 

11th June. My cousin, Verney, to whom a very great 
fortune was fallen, came to take leave of us, going into 
the country; a very worthy and virtuous young gentleman. 

12th. I went to advise and give directions about the 
building tM'O streets in Berkeley Gardens, reserving the 
house and as much of the garden as the breadth of the 
house. In the meantime, I could not but deplore that 
sweet place (by far the most noble gardens, courts, and 
^iccommodations, stately porticos, &c., any where about the 
town) should be so much straitened and turned into 
tenements. But that magnificent pile and gardens con- 
tiguous to it, built by the late Lord Chancellor Clarendon, 
being all demolished, and designed for piazzas and build- 
ings, was some excuse for my Lady Berkeley's resolution 



]^98 DIARY OP [greekwich, 

of letting out her ground also for so excessive a price as 
Avas offered, advancing near £1000 per annum in mere 
ground-rents ; to such a mad intemperance was the age 
come of building about a city, by far too disproportionate 
already to the nation : * I having in my time seen it almost 
as large again as it was within my memory. 

22nd. Last Friday, Sir Thomas Armstrong was executed 
at Tyburn for treason, without trial, having been outlawed 
and apprehended in Holland, on the conspiracy of the 
Duke of Monmouth, Lord Russell, &c., which gave 
occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in regard 
it was on an outlawry that judgment was given and 
execution, t 

2nd July. I went to the Observatory at Greenwich, where 
Mr. Flamsted took his observations of the eclipse of the 
sun, now almost three parts obscured. 

There had been an excessive hot and dry spring, and 
such a drought still continued as never was in my 
memory. 

13th. Some smaU sprinkUng of rain ; the leaves dropping 
from the trees as in autumn. 

25th. I dined at Lord Falkland's, Treasurer of the Navy, 
where after dinner we had rare music, there being amongst 
others. Signer Pietro Reggio, and Signer John Baptist, 
both famous, one for his voice, the other for playing on the 
harpsichord, few if any in Europe exceeding him. There 
was also a Frenchman who sung an admirable bass. 

26th. I returned home, where I found my Lord Chief 
Justice [Jefferies], the Countess of Clarendon, and Lady 
Catherine Fitzgerald, who dined with me. 

10th August. We had now rain after such a drought as 
no man in England had known. 

24th. Excessive hot. We had not had above one or 
two considerable showers, and those storms, these eight 

• What would Mr. Evelyn think if he saw what is now called London ? 

•f- When bi'ought up for judgment, Armstrong insisted on his right to a 
trial, the act giving that right to those who came in within a yeai-, and the 
year was not expired. Jeifries refused it ; and when Armstrong insisted 
that he asked notlimg but law, Jeffries told him he should have it to the full, 
and ordered his execution in six days. When Jeffries went to tlie King at 
Windsor soon after, the King took a ring from his finger and gave it to 
Jeffries. Burnet, II. 989. 



1684.] JOHN ETELYN. I99 

or nine months. Many trees died for the want of 
refreshment. 

31st. Mr. Sidney Godolphin was made Baron Godolphin. 

2Gth September. The King being returned from Win- 
chesterj there was a numerous Court at Whitehall. 

At this time the Earl of Rochester was removed from 
the Treasury to the Presidentship of the Council; Lord 
Godolphin was made first Commissioner of the Treasury in 
his place; Lord Middleton (a Scot) made Secretary of 
StatC;, in the room of Lord Godolphin. These alterations 
being very unexpected and mysterious, gave great occasion 
of discourse. 

There was now an Ambassador from the King of Siam, 
in the East Indies, to his Majesty. 

32nd October. I went with Sir William Godolphin to 
see the rhinoceros, or unicorn, being the first that I sup- 
pose was ever brought into England. She belonged to 
some East India merchants, and was sold (as I remember) 
for above £2000. At the same time, I went to see a crocodile, 
brought from some of the West India Islands, resembHng 
the Egyptian crocodile. 

24th, I dined at Sir Stephen Eox's with the Duke of 
Northumberland. He seemed to be a young gentleman of 
good capacity, well-bred, civil, and modest : newly come 
from travel, and had made his campaign at the siege of 
Luxemburg. Of all his INIajesty's children (of which he 
had now six Dukes) this seemed the most accomplished and 
worth the o^vning. He is extraordinary handsome and 
well-shaped. What the Dukes of Richmond and St. 
Alban's will prove, their youth does not yet discover ; they 
are very pretty boys. 

26th. Dr. Goodman preached before the King on James 
ii. 12, concerning the law of liberty : an excellent discourse 
and in good method. He is author of " The Prodigal Son," 
a treatise worth reading, and another of the old Religion. 

27th. I visited the Lord Chamberlain, where dined the 
black Baron and Monsieur Flamerin, who had so long been 
banished France for a duel. 

28th. I carried Lord Clarendon through the City, amidst 
all the squibs and bacchanalia of the Lord Mayor's show, 
to the Royal Society, where he was proposed a member ; 
and then treated him at dinner. 



200 DIARY OF [LONDON 

I went to St. Clement's, that pretty built and contrived 
church, where a young divine gave us an eloquent sermon 
on 1 Cor. \i. 20, inciting to gratitude and glorifying 
God for the fabric of our bodies and the dignity of our 
nature. 

2nd November. A sudden change from temperate warm 
weather to an excessive cold rain, frost, snow, and storm, 
such as had seldom been known. This winter weather 
began as early and fierce as the past did late ; till about 
Christmas there then had bee.^ hardly any winter. 

4th. Dr. Turner, now translated from Rochester to Ely 
upon the death of Dr. Peter Gunning, preached before the 
King at Whitehall on Romans iii. 8, a very excellent 
sermon, vindicating the Church of England against the 
pernicious doctrines of the Church of Rome. He chal- 
lenged the producing but of five clergymen who forsook 
our Church and went over to that of Rome, during all the 
troubles and rebellion in England, which lasted near 
twenty years ; and this was to my certain observation a 
great truth. 

15th. Being the Queen's birth-day, there were fireworks 
on the Thames before Whitehall, with pageants of castles, 
forts, and other devices of girandolas, serpents, the King 
and Queen's arms and mottoes, all represented in fire, such 
as had not been seen here. But the most remarkable was 
the several fires and skirmishes in the very water, which 
actually moved a long way, burning under the water, now 
and then appearing above it, giving reports like muskets 
and cannon, with grenados and innumerable other devices. 
It is said it cost £1,500. It was concluded with a ball, 
where all the young ladies and gallants danced in the 
great hall. The court had not been seen so brave and 
rich in apparel since his Majesty's Restoration. 

30th. In the morning. Dr. Fiennes, son of the Lord Say 
and Scale, preached before the King on Joshua xxi. 11. 

3rd December. I carried Mr. Justell and Mr. Slingsby 
(Master of the Mint), to see Mr. Sheldon's collection of 
medals. The series of Popes was rare, and so were several 
amongst the moderns, especially that of John Huss's mar- 
tyrdom at Constance ; of the Roman Emperors, Consulars ; 
some Greek, &c., in copper, gold, and silver; not many 
truly antique ; a medallion of Otho Paulus ^milius, &c.. 



1684.] JOHN EVELYN. OQl 

ancient. They were held at a price of £1000; but not 
worth, I judge, above £200. 

7th. I went to see the new church at St. James's, elegantly- 
built ; the altar was especially adorned, the white marble 
enclosure curiously and richly carved, the flowers and 
garlands about the walls by Mr. Gibbons, in Avood; a 
pelican with her young at her breast ; just over the altar 
in the carved compartment and border environing the 
purple velvet fringed with I.H.S. richly embroidered, and 
most noble plate, were given by Sir R,. Geere, to the value 
(as was said) of £200. There was no altar anywhere in 
England, nor has there been any abroad, more handsomely 
adorned. 

17th. Early in the morning, I went into St. James's 
Park to see three Turkish, or Asian horses, newly brought 
over, and now first showed to his Majesty. There Vr^ere 
four, but one of them died at sea, being three weeks 
coming from Hamburgh. They were taken from a Bashaw 
at the siege of Vienna, at the late famous raising that 
leaguer. I never beheld so delicate a creature as one 
of them was, of somewhat a bright bay, two white feet, 
a blaze ; such a head, eyes, ears, neck, breast, belly, 
haunches, legs, pasterns, and feet, in all regards, beauti- 
ful and proportioned to admiration ; spirited, proud, nimble, 
making halt, turning with that swiftness, and in so small 
a compass, as was admirable. With all this so gentle and 
tractable as called to mind what I remember J3usbequius 
speaks of them, to the reproach of our grooms in Europe, 
who bring up their horses so churlishly, as makes most of 
them retain their ill habits. They trotted like does, as if 
they did not feel the ground. Five hundred guineas was 
demanded for the first; 300 for the second; and 200 for 
the third, which was brown. All of them were choicely 
shaped, but the two last not altogether so perfect as the 
first. 

It was judged by the spectators, among whom was the 
King, Prince of Denmark, Duke of York, and several 
of the Court, noble persons skilled in horses, especially 
Monsieur Eaubert and his son (provost masters of the 
Academy, and esteemed of the best in Europe), that there 
were never seen any horses in these parts to be compared 
with them. Add to all this, the furniture, consisting of 



202 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

embroidery on the saddle, housings, quiver, bow, arrows, 
scymitar, sword, mace, or battle-axe a la Turcisq ; the 
Bashaw's velvet mantle furred with the most perfect 
ermine I ever beheld; all which, iron-work in common 
furniture being here of silver, curiously wrought and 
double gilt, to an incredible value. Such and so extra- 
ordinary was the embroidery, that I never saw any thing 
approaching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson 
silk, covered with chains of silver gilt. There was also a 
Turkish royal standard of a horse's tail, together with all 
sorts of other caparisons belonging to a general's horse, by 
which one may estimate how gallantly and magnificently 
those infidels appear in the field; for nothing could be 
seen more glorious. The gentleman (a German) who rid 
the horse, was in all this garb. They were shod with iron 
made round and closed at the heel, with a hole in the 
middle about as wide as a shilling. The hoofs most entire. 

18th. I went with Lord Cornwallis to see the young 
gallants do their exercise, Mr. Faubert having newly 
railed in a manage, and fitted it for the academy. 
There were the Dukes of Norfolk and Northumberland, 
Lord Newburgh, and a nephew of (Duras) Earl of Fever- 
sham. The exercises were, 1, running at the ring; 
2, flinging a javelin at a Moor's head; 3, discharging a 
pistol at a mark ; lastly, taking up a gauntlet with the 
point of a sword ; all these performed in fall speed. The 
Duke of Northumberland hardly missed of succeeding 
in every one, a dozen times, as I think. The Duke of 
Norfolk did exceeding bravely. Lords Newburgh and 
Duras seemed nothing so dexterous. Here I saw the 
difference of what the French call " bel homme a cheval'* 
and " bon homme a cheval;" the Duke of Norfolk being 
the first, that is rather a fine person on a horse, the Duke 
of Northumberland being both in perfection, namely, a 
graceful person and an excellent rider. But the Duke of 
Norfolk told me he had not been at this exercise these 
twelve years before. There were in the field the Prince of 
Denmark, and the Lord Lansdowne, son of the Earl of 
Bath, who had been made a Count of the Empire last 
summer for his service before Vienna. 

20th. A villainous murder was perpetrated by Mr. 
St. John, eldest son to Sir Walter St. John, a worthy 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 2Q3 

gentleman, on a knight of quality,* in a tavern. The 
offender was sentenced and reprieved. So many horrid 
murders and duels were committed about this time as 
were never before heard of in England ; which gave much 
cause of complaint and murmurings. 

1684-5. 1st January. It proved so sharp weather, and 
so long and cruel a frost, that the Thames was frozen 
across, but the frost was often dissolved, and then froze 
again. 

11th. A young man preached upon St. Luke xiii. 5, 
after the Presbyterian tedious method and repetition. 

24th. I dined at Lord Newport's, who has some excel- 
lent pictures, especially that of Sir Thomas Hanmer, by 
Vandyke, one of the best he ever painted ; another of our 
English Dobson's painting ; but, above all, Christ in the 
Virgin's lap, by Poussin, an admirable piece, with some- 
thing of most other famous hands. 

25th. Dr. Dove preached before the King. I saw this 
evening such a scene of profuse gaming, and the King in 
the midst of his three concubines, as I had never before 
seen — luxurious dallying and profaneness. 

27th. I dined at Lord Sunderland's, being invited to 
hear that celebrated voice of Mr. Pordage, newly come 
from Home ; his singing was after the Venetian recitative, 
as masterly as could be, and with an excellent voice both 
treble and bass; Dr. Walgrave accompanied it with his 
theorbo lute, on which he performed beyond imagination, 
and is doubtless one of the greatest masters in Europe 
on that charming instrument. Pordage is a priest, as 
Mr. Bernard Howard told me in private. 

There was in the room where we dined, and in his 
bed-chamber, those incomparable pieces of Columbus, a 
Flagellation, the Grammar-school, the Venus and Adonis 
of Titian ; and of Vandyke's that picture of the late Earl 
of Digby (father of the Countess of Sunderland), and Earl 
of Bedford, Sir Kenelm Digby, and two ladies of incom- 

* Sir William Estcourt. It was in a sudden quarrel, and there was doubt 
whether it was more than manslaughter ; but he was advised to plead 
guilty, and then had a pardon, for which he paid £1600. Exactly 100 years 
befoi'e, one of his family was tried for a similar offence, acquitted, but 
obliged to go abroad, though he was afterwards employed. — Manning and 
Bray's Hist, of Suri'cy, III. 330, App. exx. 



2Q4 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

parable performance; besides that of Moses and the 
burning bush of Bassano, and several other pieces of the 
best masters. A marble head of M. Brutus, &c. 

28th. I was invited to my Lord Arundel of Wardour 
(now newly released of his six years' confinement in the 
Tower on suspicion of the plot called Oates's Plot), where 
after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertained us with 
his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist, Signor 
John Baptist, playing to it on the harpsichord. My 
daughter Mary being with us, she also sung to the great 
satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of 
quality present. 

She did so also at my Lord Rochester's the evening 
following, where we had the French boy so famed for his 
singing, and indeed he had a delicate voice, and had been 
well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my 
old friend) sing before his Majesty and the Duke, privately, 
that stupendous bass. Gosling, accompanying her, but 
hers was so loud as took away much of the sweetness. 
Certainly never woman had a stronger or better ear, could 
she possibly have governed it. She would do rarely in a 
large church among the nuns. 

4th February. I went to London, hearing his Majesty 
had been the Monday before (2nd February) surprised in 
his bed chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's 
providence. Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as 
physician) had not been accidentally present to let him 
blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Majesty had 
certainly died that moment ; which might have been of 
direful consequence, there being nobody else present with 
the King save this Doctor and one more, as I am assured. 
It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, 
and presence of mind in the Doctor, to let him blood in 
the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other 
physicians, which regularly should have been done, and 
lor want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they 
tell me.* This rescued his Majesty for the instant, but 

* The Privy Council approved of what he had done, and ordered him 
£1000, but which was never paid him. — Burnet, II. 1010*. There are two 
fine portraits of Dr. King engraved, and in mezzotinto, in which the above 
instance of his skill and promptitude is noticed. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 205 

it was only a short reprieve. He still complained and was 
relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symp- 
toms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupped, let blood 
in both jugulars^ had both vomit and purges, which so 
relieved him, that on Thursday hopes of recovery were 
signified in the public Gazette, but that day about noon, 
the physicians thought him feverish. This they seemed 
glad of, as being more easily allayed and methodically 
dealt with than his former fits ; so as they prescribed the 
famous Jesuit's powder; but it made him worse, and some 
very able doctors who were present did not think it a fever, 
but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp 
operations used by them about his head, so that probably 
the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his 
former fits, which now made him very weak. Thus he 
passed Thursday night with great difficulty, when com- 
plaining of a pain in his side, they drew twelve ounces 
more of blood from him ; this was by six in the morning 
on Friday, and it gave him relief, but it did not continue, 
for being now in much pain, and strugghng for breath, 
he lay dozing, and, after some conflicts, the physicians 
despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at half an hour 
after eleven in the morning, being the sixth of February, 
1685, in the 36th year of his reign, and 54th of his age. 

Prayers were solemnly made in all the churches, espe- 
cially in both the Court Chapels, where the chaplains 
relieved one another every half quarter of an hour from 
the time he began to be in danger till he expired, according 
to the form prescribed in the Church-offices. Those who 
assisted his Majesty's devotions were, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, the Bishops of London, Durham, and Ely, 
but more especially Dr. Ken, the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells.* It is said they exceedingly urged the receiving 

" The account given of this by King James II. is, that when tlie King's 
life was wholly despaired of, and it was time to prepare for anotlier world, 
two Bishops came to do their function, who reading the prayers appointed in 
the Common Prayer-Book on that occasion, when they came to the place 
where usually they exhort a sick person to make a confession of his sins, the 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, who was one of them, advertised him, Ttwas not 
of obligation ; and after a short exhortation asked him if he was sorry for 
his sins ? which the King saying he was, the Bishop pronounced the absolu- 
tion, and then asked him if he pleased to receive the Sacrament ? to which 



20g DIARY OP [LONDON, 

Holy Sacrament, but his Majesty told them he would 
consider of it, which he did so long till it was too late. 
Others whispered that the Bishops and Lords, except the 
Earls of Bath and Feversham, being ordered to withdraw 
the night before, Huddleston, the priest, had presumed to 
administer the Popish offices. He gave his breeches and 
keys to the Duke, who was almost continually kneeling by 
his bed side, and in tears. He also recommended to him 
the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of 
Monmouth, now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He 
entreated the Queen to pardon him (not without cause) ; 
who a little before had sent a bishop to excuse her not 
more frequently visiting him, in regard of her excessive 
grief, and withal that his Majesty would forgive it if at any 
time she had offended him. He spake to the Duke to be 
kind to the Duchess of Cleveland, and especially Ports- 
mouth, and that Nelly might not starve. 

Thus died King Charles II. of a vigorous and robust 
constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. 
He was a prince of many virtues, and many great imper- 
fections ; debonedre, easy of access, not bloody nor cruel ; 
his countenance fierce, his voice great, proper of person, 
every motion became him ; a lover of the sea, and skilful 
in shipping ; not affecting other studies, yet he had a 
laboratory, and knew of many empirical medicines, and 
the easier mechanical mathematics ; he loved planting and 
building, and brought in a politer way of liA^ing, which 
passed to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a 

the King made no reply, and being pressed by the Bishop several times, gave 
no other answer but that it was time enough, or that he would think of it. 

King James says that he stood all the while by the bed-side, and seeing 
the King would not receive the sacrament from them, and luiowing his 
sentiments, he desired the company to stand a little from the bed, and then 
asked the King whether he should send for a priest, to which the King 
rephed, «» For God's sake, brother, do, and lose no time." The Duke said he 
would bring one to him ; but none could be found except father Hud- 
dleston, who had been so assistant in the King's escape fi-ora Worcester; 
he was brought up a back staircase, and the company were desired to with- 
draw, but he (the Duke of York) not thinking fit that he should be left alone 
with the King, desired the Earl of Bath, a Lord of the Bedchamber, and 
the Earl of Feversham, Captiiin of the Guard, should stay ; the rest being 
gone, father Huddleston was introduced, and administered the sacrament. 
— Life of James II. p. 747. 



1685.J JOHN EVELYN. 20T 

particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, 
of which he had innumerable ; this made some buffoons 
and vicious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not 
worthy the favour they abused. He took delight in having 
a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed- 
chamber, where he often suffered the bitches to puppy and 
give suck, which rendered it very offensive, and indeed 
made the whole court nasty and stinking. He would 
doubtless have been an excellent prince, had he been less 
addicted to women, who made him uneasy, and always in 
want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to the detri- 
ment of many indigent persons who had signally served 
both him and his father. He frequently and easily changed 
favourites to his great prejudice. 

As to other public transactions, and unhappy miscar- 
riages, ^tis not here I intend to number them ; but certainly 
never had King more glorious opportunities to have made 
himself, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented 
innumerable mischiefs, had not his too easy nature resigned 
him to be managed by crafty men, and some abandoned 
and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient 
parts, disciplined as he had been by many afflictions during 
his banishment, which gave him much experience and know- 
ledge of men and things ; but those wicked creatures took 
him off from all application becoming so great a King. 
The liistory of his reign will certainly be the most wonderful 
for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant 
in former ages : the sad tragical death of his father, his 
banishment and hardships, his miraculous restoration, 
conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, 
comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a 
thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and 
very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, 
without ingratitude, but deplore his loss, which for many 
respects, as well as duty, I do Avith all my soul. 

His Majesty being dead, the Duke, now King James II., 
went immediately to Council, and before entering into any 
business, passionately declaring his sorrow, told their Lord- 
ships, that since the succession had fallen to him, he Avould 
endeavour to follow the example of his predecessor in his 
clemency and tenderness to his people ; that, however he 
had been misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they 



208 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

should find the contrary ; for that the laws of England had 
made the King as great a monarch as he could desire ; that 
he would endeavour to maintain the Government both in 
Church and State, as by law estabhshed, its principles 
being so firm for monarchy, and the members of it showing 
themselves so good and loyal subjects ; * and that, as he 
would never depart from the just rights and prerogatives 
of the Crown, so would he never invade any man's property ; 

* This is the substance and very nearly in the words given by King 
James II. in his MS. printed in his life ; but in that MS. are some wox-ds 
which Mr. Evelyn has omitted, viz. after speaking of the Members of the 
Church of England as good and loyal subjects, the King adds, mid therefore 
I shall always take care to defend and support it. The King then goes on to 
say, that being desired by some present to allow copies to be taken, he said 
he had not committed it to writing ; on which Mi*. Finch (then Solicitor- 
General, and afterwards Earl of Aylesford) replied, that what his Majesty 
had said had made so deep an impression on him, that he beheved he could 
repeat tlie very words, and if his Majesty would permit him, he would 
write them down ; which the King agreeing to, he went to a table and wrote 
them down, and this, being shown to the King, he approved of it, and it was 
immediately pubUshed. 

The King then goes on to say ; No one can wonder that Mr. Finch should 
word the speech as strong as he could in favour of the Established Rehgion, 
nor that the King in such a hurry should pass it over without reflection ; 
for though his Majesty intended to promise both security to their reUgion 
and protection to their persons, he was afterwards convinced it had been 
better expressed by assuring them he never would endeavour to alter the 
Established Religion, than that he would endeavour to preserve it, and that 
he would rather support and defend the professors of it, than the religion 
itself; they could not expect he should make a conscience of supporting 
what in his conscience he thought erroneous ; his engaging not to molest the 
professors of it, nor to deprive them or their successors of any spiritual 
dignity, revenue, or employment, but to suffer the ecclesiastical affairs to go 
on in the track they were in, was all they could wish or desire from a Prince 
of a different persuasion ; but having once approved that way of expressing 
it which Mr. Finch had made choice of, he thought it necessary not to vai-y 
from it in the declarations or speeches he made afterwards, not doubting 

but the world would understand it in the meaning he intended. 'Tis 

true, afterwards it was pretended he kept not up to this engagement ; but 
had they deviated no further from the duty and allegiance which both 
nature and repeated oatlis obUged them to, than he did from his word,* tliey 
had still remained as happy a people as they really were during his shoi-t 
reign in England. — Vol II. 435. 



* The words in italics were afterwar Js interlined by tlie son of King 
James the Second. — Edit. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN, 209 

but as he had often adventured his life in defence of the 
nation, so he would still proceed, and preserve it in all its 
lawful rights and liberties. 

This being the substance of what he said, the Lords 
desired it might be published, as containing matter of great 
satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, which 
his Majesty consented to. Then were the Council sworn, 
and a Proclamation ordered to be published that all officers 
should continue in their stations, that there might be no 
failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be 
known. Then the King rose, the Lords accompanying him 
to his bedchamber where, whilst he reposed himself, tired 
indeed as he was with grief and watching, they returned 
again into the Council-chamber to take order for the 
proclaiming his Majesty, which (after some debate) they 
consented should be in the very form his grandfather. King 
James I. was, after the death of Queen Elizabeth; as 
likewise that the Lords, &c., should proceed in their coaches 
through the city for the more solemnity of it. Upon this 
was I, and several other Gentlemen waiting in the Privy- 
gallery, admitted into the Council-chamber to be witness 
of what was resolved on. Thence with the Lords, the 
Lord Marshal and Heralds, and other Crown-officers being 
ready, we first went to Whitehall-gate, where the Lords 
stood on foot bare-headed, whilst the Herald proclaimed 
his Majesty^s title to the Imperial Crowil and succession 
according to the form, the trumpets and kettle-drums 
having first sounded three times, which ended with the 
people^s acclamations. Then a herald called the Lords' 
coaches according to rank, myself accompanying the 
solemnity in my Lord Cornwallis's coach, first to Temple 
Bar, where the Lord Mayor and his brethren met us on 
horseback, in all their formalities, and proclaimed the 
King; hence to the Exchange in Cornhill, and so we 
returned in the order we set forth. Being come to White- 
hall, we all went and kissed the King and Queen's hands. 
He had been on the bed, but was now risen and in his 
undress. The Queen was in bed in her apartment, but 
put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I 
believe she was, having deported herself so decently upon 
all occasions since she came into England, which made her 
universally beloved. - 

VOL. II. p 



210 DIARY OP : [bromiby. 

Thus concluded this sad and not joyful day. 

I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and profane- 
ness, gaming, and aU dissoluteness, and as it were total: 
forgetMness of God, (it being Sunday evening,) which 
this day se'nnight I was witness of, the King sitting and 
toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, and 
Mazarine, &c., a French boy singing love-songs,* in that 
glorious gallery, whilst about twenty of the great courtiers 
and other dissolute persons were at Basset round a large 
table, a bank of at least 2090 in gold before them; upon 
which two gentlemen who were with me made reflections 
with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust ! 

It was enjoined that those who put on mourning should 
wear it as for a father, in the most solemn manner. 

10th. Being sent to by the Sheriff of the County to 
appear and assist in proclaiming the King, I went the 
next day to Bromley, where I met the Sheriff and the 
Commander of the Kentish Troop, with an appearance, I 
suppose, of above 500 horse, and innumerable people, two 
of his Majesty's trumpets, and a Serjeant with other 
officers, who having drawn up the horse in a large field near 
the town, marched thence, with swords drawn, to the 
market-place where, making a ring, after sound of trum- 
pets and silence made, the High Sheriff read the proclaim- 
ing titles to his bailiff, who repeated them aloud, and then, 
after many shouts of the people, his Majesty's health being 
drunk in a flint glass of a yard long, by the Sheriff, Com- 
mander, Officers, and chief Grentlemen, they all dispersed, 
and I returned. 

13th. I passed a fine on selling of Honson Grange 
in Staffordshire, being about £20 per annum, which lying 
so great a distance, I thought fit to part with it to one 
Burton, a farmer there. It came to me as part of my 
daughter-in-law's portion, this being but a fourth part of 
what was divided between the mother and three sisters. 

14th. The King was this night very obscurely buriedf 

; ♦ See p. 204. 

+ The funeral could not be peifonned wititt so great solemnity as some 
persons expected, because his late Majesty dying in, and his/present 
Majesty professing, a different religion from that of his people, it had been a 
difficult matter to i-econcile the greater ceremonies which must^ave been 
performed according to the rites of the Church of England, with the obUga- 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 211 

in a vault under Henry the Seventh^s Chapel at West- 
minster^ without any manner of porap^ and soon forgotten 
after all this vanity^ and the face of the whole Court was 
exceedingly changed into a more solemn and moral beha- 
viour; the new King affecting neither profaneness nor 
buffoonery. All the great officers broke their staves over 
the grave, according to form. 

15th. Dr. Tenison preached to the Household. The 
second sermon should have been before the King ; but he, 
to the great grief of his subjects, did now, for the first 
time, go to mass publicly in the little Oratory at the Duke's 
lodgings, the doors being set wide open. 

16th. I dined at Sir Robert Howard's, Auditor of the 
Exchequer, a gentleman pretending to all manner of arts 
and sciences, for which he had been the subject of comedy, 
under the name of Sir Positive ; not ill-natured, but insuf- 
ferably boasting. He was son to the late Earl of Berkshire. 

17th. This morning his Majesty restored the staff and 
key to Lord Arlington, Chamberlain ; to Mr. Savell, Vice- 
chamberlain ; to Ldrds Ne^vport and Maynard, Treasurer 
and Comptroller of the Household ; Lord Godolphin made 
Chamberlain to the Queen ; Lord Peterborough Groom of 
the Stole, in place of the Earl of Bath ; the Treasurer's 
staff to the Earl of Kochester ; and his brother, the Earl 
of Clarendon, Lord Privy Seal, in the place of the Mar- 
quis of Halifax, who was made President of the Council ; 
the Secretaries of State remaining as before. 

19th. The Lord Treasurer and the other new Officers 
were sworn at the Chancery Bar and the Exchequer. 

The late King having the revenue of excise, customs, 
and other late duties granted for his life only, they were 
now farmed and let to several persons, upon an opinion 
that the late King might let them for three years after his 
decease ; some of the old Commissioners refused to act. 
The lease was made but the day before the King died ; * 

tion of not communicating with it in spiritual things ; to avoid, 'therefore, 
either disputes on the one hand, or scandal on the other, it was tliought more 
prudent to do it in a more private manner, though at the same time there 
was no circumstance of state and pomp omitted, which possibly could be 
allowed of. All the Privy Council, all the household, and all the Loi-ds about 
own attended at the funeral. Life of King James II. vol. II. p. 6. 

* King James, iu Ms Life, makes no mention of this lease, but only says he 

p 2 



212 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

the major part of the Judges (but, as some think, not the 
best lawyers,) pronounced it legal, but four dissented. 

The Clerk of the Closet had shut up the late King's 
private oratory next the Privy-chamber above, but the 
King caused it to be opened again, and that prayers should 
be said as formerly. 

22nd. Several most useful Tracts against Dissenters, 
Papists, and Fanatics, and Resolutions of Cases, were now 
published by the London Divines. 

4th March. Ash-Wednesday; after evening prayers, I 
went to London. 

5th. To my grief, I saw the new pulpit set up in the 
Popish Oratory at Whitehall for the Lent preaching, mass 
being publicly said, and the Romanists swarming at Court 
with greater confidence than had ever been seen in 
England since the Reformation, so that eveiybody grew 
jealous as to what this would tend. 

A Pai'liament was now summoned, and great industry 
used to obtain elections which might promote the Court- 
interest, most of the Corporations being now, by their new 
charters, empowered to make what returns of members 
they pleased. 

There came over divers envoys and great persons to 
condole the death of the late King, who were received by 
the Queen-Dowager on a bed of mourning, the whole 
chamber, ceiling and floor, hung with black, and tapers 
were lighted, so as nothing could be more lugubrious and 
solemn. The Queen-Consort sate under a state on a black 
foot-cloth, to entertain the circle, (as the Queen used to 
do), and that very decently. 

6th. Lent Preachers continued as formerly in the Royal 
Chapel. 

7th. My daughter, Mary, was taken with the small-pox, 
and there soon was found no hope of her recovery. A 
great afiliction to me : but God's holy will be done ! 

10th. She received the blessed Sacrament ; after which, 
disposing herself to suffer what God should determine to 

continued to collect them, which conduct was not blamed ; but, on the con- 
trary, he was thanked for it in an address from the Middle Temple, penned 
by Sir Bartholomew Shore, and presented by Sir Hvmiphrey Mackworth, 
carrying great authority with it, nor did the Parliament fiind fault. Vol. II. 
pp. 16, 17. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 213 

inflict, she bore the remainder of her sickness with extra- 
ordinary patience and piety, and more than ordinary resig- 
nation and blessed frame of mind. She died the 14th, to 
our unspeakable sorrow and affliction, and not to our's 
only, but that of all who knew her, who were many of the 
best quality, greatest and most virtuous persons. The 
justness of her stature, person, comeliness of countenance, 
gracefulness of motion, unafii'ected, though more than ordi- 
nary beautiful, were the least of her ornaments compared 
with those of her mind. Of early piety, singularly reli- 
gious, spending a part of every day in private devotion, 
reading, and other virtuous exercises; she had collected 
and written out many of the most useful and judicious 
periods of the books she read in a kind of common-place, 
as out of Dr. Hammond on the New Testament, and most 
of the best practical treatises. She had read and digested 
a considerable deal of history, and of places. The French 
tongue was as familiar to her as English ; she understood 
Italian, and was able to render a laudable account of what 
she read and observed, to which assisted a most faithful 
memory and discernment ; and she did make very prudent 
and discreet reflections upon what she had observed of the 
conversations among which she had at any time been, 
which being continually of persons of the best quality, she 
thereby improved. She had an excellent voice, to Avhich 
she played a thorough-bass on the harpsichord, in both 
which she arrived to that perfection, that of the scholars of 
those two famous masters, Signers Pietro and Bartholo- 
meo, she was esteemed the best ; for the sweetness of her 
voice and management of it added such an agreeableness 
to her countenance, without any constraint or concern, that 
when she sung, it was as charming to the eye as to the 
ear ; this I rather note, because it was a universal remark, 
and for which so many noble and judicious persons in 
music desired to hear her, the last being at Lord ArundeFs, 
of Wardour. 

What shall I say, or rather not say, of the cheerfulness 
and agreeableness of her humour ? condescending to the 
meanest servant in the family, or others, she still kept up 
respect, without the least pride. She would often read to 
them, examine, instruct, and pray with them if they were 
sick, so as she was exceedingly beloved of everybody. 



2\4i DIARY OF [saves codrt, 

Piety was so prevalent an ingredient in her constitution (as 
I may say), that even amongst equals and superiors she no 
sooner became intimately acquainted, but she would endea- 
vour to improve them, by insinuating something reli- 
gious, and that tended to bring them to a love of devotion ; 
she had one or two confidants with whom she used to 
pass whole days in fasting, reading, and prayers, especially 
before the monthly commimion, and other solemu occasions. 
She abhorred flattery, and, though she had abundance of 
wit, the raillery was so innocent and ingenuous that it was 
most agreeable ; she sometimes would see a pla}^., but since 
the stage grcAV licentious, expressed herself weary of them, 
and the time spent at the theatre was an unaccountable 
vanity. She never played at cards without extreme impor- 
tunity and for the company; but this was so very seldom, 
that I cannot number it among anything «he could name 
a fault. 

No one could read prose or verse better or with more 
judgment ; and as she read, so she wrote, not only most 
correct orthography, with that maturity of judgment and 
exactness of the periods, choice of expressions, and fami- 
liarity of style, that some letters of hers have astonished me 
and others, to whom she has occasionally written. She had 
a talent of rehearsing any comical part or poem, as to them 
she might be decently free with ; was more pleasing than 
heard on the theatre ; she danced with the greatest grace I 
had ever seen, and so would her master say, who was Mon- 
sieur Isaac ; but she seldom showed that perfection, save in 
the gracefulness of her carriage, which was with an air of 
sprightly modesty not easily to be described. Nothing 
affected, but natural and easy as well in her deportment as 
in her discourse, which was always material, not trifling, 
and to M^hich the extraordinary sweetness of her tone, 
even in familiar speaking, was very charming. Nothing 
was so pretty as her descending to play with little children, 
whom she would caress and humour with great delight. 
But she most affected to be with grave and sober men, of 
whom she might learn something, and improve herself. 
I have been assisted by her in reading and praying by 
me; comprehensive of uncommon notions, curious of 
knowing everything to some excess, had I not sometimes 
repressed it. 



1686.] JOHN EVELYN; gl5 

Notliing was so delightful to her as to go into my 
Study, where she would willingly have spent whole days, 
for as I said she had read abundance of history, and all 
the best poets, even Terence, ^Plantus, Homer, Virgil, 
Horace, Ovid ; all the best romances and modern poems ; 
she could compose happily, and put in pretty symbols, as 
in the " Mundus Muhebris,^^ wherein is an enumeration 
of the immense variety of the modes and ornaments 
belonging to the sex. But all these are vain trifles to 
the virtues which adorned her soul; she was sincerely 
religious, most dutiful to her parents, whom she loved 
with an aflFection tempered with great esteem, so as we 
were easy and free, and never were so well pleased as when 
she was with us, nor needed we other conversation ; she 
was kind to her sisters, and was still improving them by 
her constant course of piety. Oh dear, sweet, and desirable 
child, how shall I part with all this goodness and virtue 
without the bitterness of sorrow and reluctancy of a 
tender parent ! Thy affection, duty, and love to me was 
that of a friend as well as a child. Nor less dear to thy 
mother, whose example and tender care of thee was 
unparalleled, nor was thy return to her less conspicuous ; 
Oh ! how she mourns thy loss ! how desolate hast thou 
left us ! To the grave shall we both carry thy memory ! 
God alone (in whose bosom thon art at rest and happy !) 
give us to resign thee and all our contentments (for thou 
indeed wert all in this world) to His blessed pleasure! 
Let Him be glorified by our submission, and give us 
grace to bless Him for the graces he implanted in thee, 
thy virtuous life, pious and holy death, which is indeed 
the only comfort of our souls, hastening through the 
infinite love and mercy of the Lord Jesus to be shortly 
with thee, dear child, and with thee and those blessed 
saints like thee, glorify the Redeemer of the world to all 
eternity ! Amen. 

It was in the 19th year of her age that this sickness 
happened to her. An accident contributed to this disease ; 
she had an apprehension of it in particular, which struck 
her but two days before she came home, by an imprudent 
gentlewoman whom she went with Lady Falkland to visit, 
who after they had been a good while in the house, told 
them she had a servant sick of the small pox (who indeed 



216 DIARY OF [saves codrt, 

died the next day) ; this my poor child acknowledged 
made an impression on her spirits. There were four 
gentlemen of quality offering to treat with me about 
marriage, and I freely gave her her own choice, knowing 
her discretion. She showed great indifference to marry- 
ing at all, for truly, says she to her mother (the other 
day), were I assured of your life and my dear father's, 
never would I part from you ; I love you and this home, 
where we serve God, above all things, nor ever shall I be 
so happy; I know and consider the vicissitudes of the 
world, I have some experience of its vanities, and but for 
decency more than inclination, and that you judge it 
expedient for me, I would not change my condition, but 
rather add the fortune you design me to my sisters, and 
keep up the reputation of our family. This was so dis- 
creetly and sincerely uttered that it could not but proceed 
from an extraordinary child, and one who loved her parents 
beyond example. 

At London, she took this fatal disease, and the occasion 
of her being there was this : my Lord Viscount Falkland's 
Lady having been our neighbour (as he was Treasurer of 
the Navy), she took so great an affection to my daughter, 
that when they went back in the autumn to the City^ 
nothing would satisfy their incessant importunity but 
letting her accompany my Lady, and staying sometime 
with her ; it was with the greatest reluctance I complied. 
Whilst she was there, my Lord being musical, when I saw 
my Lady would not part with her till Christmas, I was 
not unwilling she should improve the opportunity of 
learning of Signor Pietro, who had an admirable way 
both of composure and teaching. It was the end of 
February before I could prevail with my Lady to part 
with her ; but my Lord going into Oxfordshire to stand for 
Knight of the Shire there, she expressed her wish to come 
home, being tired of the vain and empty conversation 
of the town, the theatres, the court, and trifling visits 
which consumed so much precious time, and made her 
sometimes miss of that regular course of piety that gave 
her the greatest satisfaction. She was weary of this life, 
and I think went not thrice to Court all this time, except 
when her mother or I carried her. She did not affect 
showing herself, she knew the Court well, and passed one 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. £17 

summer in it at Windsor with Lady Tuke, one of tlie 
Queen's women of the bed-chamber (a most virtuous 
relation of hers) ; she was not fond of that ghttering 
scene, now become abominably licentious, though there 
was a design of Lady Rochester and Lady Clarendon to 
have made her a maid of honour to the Queen as soon as 
there was a vacancy. But this she did not set her heart 
upon, nor indeed on any thing so much as the service of 
God, a quiet and regular life, and how she might improve 
herself in the most necessary accomplishments, and to 
which she was arrived at so great a measure. 

This is the little history and imperfect character of my 
dear child, whose piety, virtue, and incomparable endow- 
ments deserve a monument more dural:)le than brass and 
marble. Precious is the memorial of the just. Much 
I could enlarge on every period of this hasty account, but 
that I ease and discharge my overcoming passion for the 
present, so many things worthy an excellent Christian 
and dutiful child crowding upon me. Never can I say 
enough, oh dear, my dear child, whose memory is so 
precious to me ! 

This dear child was born at Wotton, in the same house 
and chamber in which I first drew my breath, my wife 
having retired to my brother there in the great sickness 
that year upon the first of that month, and the very hour 
that I was born, upon the last : viz. October. 

16th. She was interred in the south-east end of the 
church at Deptford, near her grandmother and several of 
my younger children and relations. My desire was she 
should have been carried and laid among my own parents 
and relations at Wotton, where I desire to be interred 
myself, when God shall call me out of this uncertain 
transitory life, but some circumstances did not permit it. 
Our vicar, Dr. Holden, preached her funeral sermon on 
Phil. i. 21. " For to me to live is Christ, and to die is 
gain," upon which he made an apposite discourse, as those 
who heard it assured me (for grief suff'ered me not to be 
present), concluding with a modest recital of her many 
virtues and signal piety, so as to draw both tears and 
admiration from the hearers. I was not altogether unwil- 
ling that something of this sort should be spoken, for the 
edification and encouragement of other young people. 



218 DIARY OF [saves co0iit, 

Divers noble persons honoured her funeral, some in 
person, others sending their coaches, of which there were 
six or seven with six horses, viz. the Countess of Sunder- 
land, Earl of Clarendon, Lord Godolphin, Sir Stephen 
Fox, Sir William Godolphin, Viscount Falkland, and 
others. There were distributed amongst her friends about 
sixty rings. 

Thus lived, died, and was buried the joy of my life, 
and ornament of her sex and of my poor family ! God 
Almighty of His infinite mercy grant me the grace thank- 
fully to resign myself and all I have, or had, to His 
divine pleasure, and in his good time, restoring health and 
comfort to my family : '' teach me so to number my days, 
that I may apply my heart to wisdom," be prepared for 
my dissolution, and that into the hands of my blessed 
Saviour I may recommend my spirit ! Amen ! 

On looking into her closet, it is incredible what a 
number of collections she had made from historians, poets, 
travellers, &c., but, above all, devotions, contemplations, 
and resolutions on these contemplations, found under her 
hand in a book most methodically disposed; prayers, 
meditations, -and devotions on particular occasions, with 
many pretty letters to her confidants ; one to a divine (not 
named) to whom she writes that he would be her ghostly 
father, and would not despise her for her many errors and 
the imperfections of her youth, but beg of God to give her 
courage to acquaint him with all her faults, imploring his 
assistance and spiritual directions. I well remember she 
had often desired me to recommend her to such a person; 
but I did not think fit to do it as yet, seeing her apt to 
be scrupulous, and knowing the great innocency and 
integrity of her life. 

It is astonishing how one who had acquired such sub- 
stantial and practical knowledge in other ornamental parts 
of education, especially music, both vocal and instrumental, 
in dancing, paying and receiving visits, and necessary 
conversation, could accomplish half of what she has left ; 
but, as she never affected play or cards, which consume a 
world of precious time, so she was in continual exercise, 
which yet abated nothing of her most agreeable conver- 
sation. But she was a little miracle while she lived, and 
so she died ! 



1685,] JOHN EVELYN. 2^9 

26tli. I was invited to the funeral of Captain Gunman, 
that excellent pilot and seaman^ who had behaved himself 
so valiantly" in the Dutch war. He died of a gangrene, 
occasioned by his fall from the pier of Calais. This was 
the Captain of the yacht carrjdng the Duke (now King) to 
Scotland, and was accused for not giving timely warning 
when she split on the sands, where so many perished ; but 
I am most confident he was no ways guHty, either of 
negligence, or design, as he made appear not only at the 
examination of the matter of fact, but in the Vindication 
he showed me, and which must needs give any man of 
reason satisfaction. He was a sober, frugal, cheerful, and 
temperate man ; we have few such seamen left. 

8th April. Being now somewhat composed after my 
great affliction, I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison (it 
being on a Wednesday in Lent) at Whitehall. I observed 
that though the King was not in his seat above in the 
chapel, the Doctor made his three congees, which they 
were not used to do when the late King was absent, 
making then one bowing only. I asked the reason; it 
was said he had a special order so to do. The Princess of 
Denmark was in the King^s closet, but sate on the left hand 
of the chair, the Clerk of the Closet standing by his 
Majesty^s chair, as if he had been present. 

I met the Queen -Dowager going now first from White- 
hall to dwell at Somerset-house. 

This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow were 
candidates for Surrey against Sir Adam Brown and my 
cousin Sir Edward Evelyn, and were circumvented in their 
election hy a trick of the Sheriff^s,* taking advantage 
of my brother's party going out of the small village of 
Leatherhead to seek shelter and lodging, the afternoon 
being tempestuous, proceeding to the election when they 
were gone; they expecting the next morning; whereas 
before and then they exceeded the other party by many 
hundreds, as I am assured. The Duke of Norfolk led 
Sir Edward Evelyn's and Sir Adam Brown's party. For 
this parhament, very mean and slight persons (some of 

* Mr. Samuel Lewen. His name does not appear in the History of Surrey 
amongst the land-owners, but it is there stated that in 1709 Sir William 
Lewen purchased the rectory of Ewell, and that he was Lord Mayor of London 
in 1717. Vol. L 470. 



220 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

them gentlemen's servants, clerks, and persons neither of 
reputation nor interest) were set up; but the country 
would choose my brother whether he would or no, and he 
missed it by the trick above-mentioned. Sir Adam Brown 
was so deaf, that he could not hear one word. Sir Edward 
Evelyn* was an honest gentleman much in favour with his 
Majesty. 

10th. I went early to Whitehall to hear Dr. Tillotson, 
Dean of Canterbury, preaching on Eccles. ix. 18. I re- 
turned in the evening, and visited Lady Tuke, and found 
with her Sir George Wakeman, the physician, whom I 
had seen tried and acquitted,t amongst the plotters for 
poisoning the late King, on the accusation of the famous 
Oates ; and surely I believed him guiltless. 

14th. According to my custom, I went to London to 
pass the holy week. 

17th. Good-Friday. Dr. Tenison preached at the new 
church at St. James's, on 1 Cor. xvi. 22, upon the infinite 
love of God to us, which he illustrated in many instances. 
The Holy Sacrament followed, at which I participated. 
The Lord make me thankful ! In the afternoon. Dr. Sprat, 
Bishop of Rochester, preached in Whitehall chapel, the 
auditory very full of Lords, the two Archbishops, and 
many others, now drawn to town upon occasion of the 
coronation and ensuing parliament. I supped with the 
Countess of Sunderland and Lord Godolphin, and returned 
home. 

23rd. Was the coronation of the King and Queen. The 
solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print, J The 
Bishop of Ely preached ; but, to the sorrow of the people, 
no Sacrament, as ought to have been. However, the King 
begins his reign with great expectations, and hopes of 
much reformation as to the late vices and profaneness of 
both Court and country. Having been present at the late 
King's coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this 
ceremony. 

3rd May. A young man preached, going chaplain 

* His Beat was at Long Ditton, near Kingston, which town had surrendered 
its charter to King Charles II. about a month before his death. KiugJJames 
appointed Sir Edward Evelyn one of the new corporation. 

+ P. 131. 

J By Francis Sandford, and illustrated with engravings, folio. 



1685.-] JOHN EVELYN. 221 

with Sir J. Wiburn, Governor of Bombay, in the East 
Indies. 

7th. I was in Westminster Hall when Oates, who had 
made such a stir in the kingdom, on his revealing a plot 
of the Papists, and alarmed several parliaments, and had 
occasioned the execution of divers priests, noblemen,* &c., 
was tried for perjury at the King's Bench; but, being 
very tedious, I did not endeavour to see the issue, consi- 
dering that it would be published. Abundance of Roman 
Catholics were in the Hall in expectation of the most 
grateful conviction and ruin of a person who had been so 
obnoxious to them, and, as I verily believe, had done much 
mischief and great injury to several by his violent and 
ill-grounded proceedings ; whilst he was at first so unrea- 
sonably blown up and encouraged, that his insolence Avas 
no longer sufferable. 

•Mr. Roger L'Estrange (a gentleman whom I had long 
known, and a person of excellent parts, abating some 
affectations) appearing first against the Dissenters in 
several Tracts, had now for some years turned his style 
against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they 
called Whigs and Trimmers, under the title of Observator, 
which came out three or four days every week, in which 
sheets, under pretence to serve the Church of England, 
he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by several 
passages which rather kept up animosities than appeased 
them, especially now that nobody gave the least occasion.f 

10th. The Scots valuing themselves exceedingly to have 
been the first parliament called by his Majesty, gave the 
excise and customs to him and his successors for ever ; 
the Duke of Queensberry making eloquent speeches, and 
especially minding them of a speedy suppression of those 
late desperate Field -Conventiclers who had done such 
unheard-of assassinations. In the meantime, elections for 
the ensuing parliament in England were thought to be 

♦p. 132. 

f In the first Dutch war, whilst Mr. Evelyn was one of the Commissioners 
for sick and wounded, Mr. L'Estrange in his Gazette mentioned the barbarous 
usage of the Dutch prisoners of wai* ; Mr. Evelyn wrote him a very spirited 
lettei", desiring that the Dutch Ambassador (who was then in England) and 
his friends would visit the prisoners, and examine their provisions ; and he 
desired Mr. L'Estrange would publish his vindication in his next number. 



222 DIARY OP [londow, 

very indirectly carried on in most places. God grant a 
better issue of it than some expect! 

16th. Oates was sentenced to be whipped and pilloried 
with the utmost severity. 

21st. I dined at my Lord Privy SeaVs with Sir William 
Dugdale, Garter King-at-Arms, author of the "Monas- 
ticon " and other learned works ; he told me he was 82 
years of age, and had his sight and memory perfect.* 
There was shown a draught of the exact shape and dimen- 
sions of the crown the Queen had been crowned withal, 
together with the jewels and pearls, their weight and 
value, which amounted to £100,658 sterling, attested at 
the foot of the paper by the jeweller and goldsmith who 
set them. 

22nd. In the morning, I went with a French gentleman, 
and my Lord Privy Seal, to the House of Lords, where we 
were placed by his Lordship next the Bar, just below the 
Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. 
After a short space, came in the Queen and Princess of 
Denmark, and stood next above the Archbishops, at the 
side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In 
the interim, divers of the Lords, who had not finished 
before, took the test and usual oaths, so that her Majesty, 
the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the 
throne, heard the Pope and the worship of the Virgin 
Mary, &c. renounced very decently, as likewise the prayers 
which followed, standing all the while. Then came in the 
IQng, the crown on his head, and being seated, the Com- 
mons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew 
forth a paper containing his speech, which he read dis- 
tinctly enough, to this effect : " That he resolved to call a 
Parhament from the moment of his brother^s decease, as 
the best means to settle all the concerns of the nation, so 
as to be most easy and happy to himself and his subjects ; 
that he would confirm whatever he had said in his decla- 
ration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the 
principles of the Church of England, for their loyalty, and 
would defend and support it and preserve its government 
as by law now established ; that,, as he would invade no 

* Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King-at-Arms, lived, in ec^ual possession of his 
faculties, to the great age of 92. He died in 1822. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 223 

man's property, so he would never depart from his own 
prerogative ; and, as he had ventured his life in defence of 
the nation, so he would proceed to do still ; that, having 
given this assurance of his care of our religion (his word 
was your religion) and property (which he had not said by 
chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable 
returns of his subjects' duty and kindness, especially as to 
settling his revenue for life, for the many weighty necessi- 
ties of government, which he would not suffer to be 
precarious ; that some might possibly suggest that it were 
better to feed and supply him from time to time only, out 
of their inclination to frequent parhaments ; but that that 
would be a very improper method to take with him, since 
the best way to engage him to meet oftener would be 
always to use him well, and therefore he expected their 
compliance speedily, that this session being but short, 
they might meet again to satisfaction." 

At every period of this, the House gave loud shouts. 
Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of 
Argyle's being landed in the West Highlands of Scotland 
from Holland, and the treasonous Declaration he had 
published, which he would communicate to them, and that 
he should take the best care he could it should meet with 
the reward it deserved, not questioning the parliament's 
zeal and readiness to assist him as he desired; at which 
there followed another Vive le Roi, and so his Majesty 
retired. 

So soon as the Commons were returned and had put 
themselves into a grand Committee, they immediately put 
the question, and unanimously voted the revenue to his 
Majesty for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against 
many elections, and would have had those members who 
(he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had 
cleared the matter of their being legally returned ; but no 
one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the 
new members whose elections and returns were universally 
censured, many of them being persons of no condition, or 
interest, in the nation, or places for which they served, 
especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, &c., said to have 
been recommended by the Court, and from the effect of 
the new charters changing the electors. It was reported 
that Lord Bath carried down with him [into Cornwall] 



224" DIARY OF [LONDON, 

no fewer than fifteen charters, so that some called him the 
Prince Elector : whence Seymour told the House in his 
speech that if this was digested, they might introduce 
what religion and laws they pleased, and that though he 
never gave heed to the fears and jealousies of the people 
before, he was now really apprehensive of Popery. By 
the printed list of Members of 505, there did not appear 
to be above 135 who had been in former Parhaments, 
especially that lately held at Oxford. 

In the Lords' House, Lord Newport made an exception 
against two or three young Peers, who wanted some 
months, and some only four or five days of being of age. 

The Popish Lords, who had been sometime before 
released from their confinement about the plot, were now 
discharged of their impeachment, of which I gave Lord 
Arundel of Ward our joy. 

Gates, who had but two days before been pilloried at 
several places and whipped at the cart's tail from Newgate 
to Aldgate, was this day placed on a sledge, being not able 
to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragged from 
prison to Tyburn, and whipped again all the way, which 
some thought to be severe and extraordinary ; but, if he 
was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many 
innocents, (as I fear he was,) his punishment was but 
what he deserved. I chanced to pass just as execution 
was doing on him. A strange revolution ! 

Note : there was no speech made by the Lord Keeper 
[Bridgeman] after his Majesty, as usual. 

It was whispered he would not be long in that situation, 
and many believe the bold Chief Justice Jeff^eries, who 
was made Baron of Wem, in Shropshire, and who went 
thorough stitch in that tribunal, stands fair for that office. 
I gave him joy the morning before of his new honour, he 
having always been very civil to me. 

24th. We had hitherto not any rain for many months, 
so as the caterpillars had already devoured all the winter- 
fruit through the whole land, and even killed several 
greater old trees. Such two winters and summers I had 
never known. 

4th June. Came to visit and take leave of me Sir 
Gabriel Sylvius, now going Envoy-extraordinary into 
Denmark, with his Secretary and Chaplain, a Frenchman, 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 225 

who related the miserable persecution of the Protestants 
in France ; not above ten churches left them, and those 
also threatened to be demolished ; they were commanded 
to christen their children within twenty -four hours after 
birth, or else a Popish priest was to be called, and then 
the infant brought up in Popery. In some places, they 
were thirty leagues from any minister, or opportunity 
of worship. This persecution had displeased the most 
industrious part of the nation, and dispersed those into 
Switzerland, Burgundy, Holland, Germany, Denmark, 
England, and the Plantations. There were with Sir 
Gabriel, his lady. Sir William Godolphin and sisters, and 
my Lord Godolphin's httle son, my charge. I brought 
them to the water-side where Sir Gabriel embarked, and 
the rest returned to London. 

14tli. There was now certain intelligence of the Duke of 
Monmouth landing at Lyme, in Dorsetshire, and of his 
having set up his standard as King of England. I pray 
God deliver us from the confusion which these beginnings 
threaten ! 

Such a dearth for want of rain was never in my memory. 

17th. The Duke landed with but 150 men; but the 
whole kingdom was alarmed, fearing that the disaffected 
would join them, many of the trained bands flocking to 
him. At his landing, he published a Declaration, charging 
his Majesty with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on 
pretence of his own title, and offering to call a free Parlia- 
ment. This declaration was ordered to be burnt by the 
hangman, the Duke proclaimed a traitor, and a reward of 
£5000 to any who should kill him. 

At this time, the words engraved on the monument in 
London, intimating that the Papists fired the City, were 
erased and cut out. 

The exceeding drought still continues. 

18th. I received a warrant to send out a horse with 
twelve days' provision, &c. 

28th. We had now plentiful rain after two years' 
excessive drought and severe Avinters. 

Argyle taken in Scotland, and executed, and his party 
dispersed. 

2nd July. No considerable account of the troops sent 
against the Duke, though great forces sent. There was a 

yOL. II. Q 



226 DIARY OF [toNDOK, 

smart skirmish ; but he would not be provoked to come to 
an encounter, but still kept in the fastnesses. 

Dangerfield whipped, like Gates, for perjury. 

8th. Came news of Monmouth's utter defeat, and 
the next day of his being taken by Sir William Portman 
and Lord Lumley with the militia of their counties. It 
seems the Horse, commanded by Lord Grey, being newly 
raised and undisciplined, were not to be brought in so 
short a time to endure the fire, which exposed the Foot to 
the King's, so as when Monmouth had led the Foot 
in great silence and order, thinkiAg to surprise Lieutenant- 
General Lord Feversham newly encamped, and giren him 
a smart charge, interchanging both great and small shot, 
the horse, breaking their own ranks, Monmouth gave 
it over, and fled with Grey, leaving their party to be cut 
in pieces to the number of 2000. The whole number 
reported to be above 8000; the King's but 2700. The 
slain were most of them Mendip-miners, who did great 
execution with their tools, and sold their lives very dearly, 
whilst their leaders flying were pursued and taken the next 
morning, not far from one another. Monmouth had gone 
sixteen miles on foot, changing his habit for a poor coat, 
and was found by Lord Lumley in a dry ditch covered with 
fern-brakes, but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and 
so might have passed for some countryman, his beard 
being grown so long and so gray as hardly to be known, 
had not his George discovered him, which was found in his 
pocket. It is said he trembled exceedingly all over, not 
able- to speak. Grey was taken not far from him. Most 
of his party were Anabaptists and poor cloth-workers 
of the country, no gentlemen of account being come in to 
him. The arch-boutefeu, Ferguson, Matthews, &c., were 
not yet found. The £5000 to be given to whoever should 
bring Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the 
militia by agreement between Sir William Portman and 
Lord Lumley. The battle ended, some words, first in 
jest, then in passion, passed between Sherrington Talbot 
(a worthy gentleman, son to Sir John Talbot, and who had 
behaved himself very handsomely) and one Captain Love, 
both commanders of the militia, as to whose soldiers fought 
best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another. 
Sherrington was wounded to death on the spot, to the 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. £27 

great regret of those who knew him. He was Sir John's 
only son. 

9th. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at "White- 
hall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire standing 
very near His Majesty's bedchamber-door in the lobby, 
came Colonel Culpeper, and in a rude manner looking 
at my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and 
place for excluders to appear ; my Lord at first took little 
notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed 
fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord asked Culpeper 
whether he meant him ; he said yes, he meant his Lord- 
ship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he 
was not) ; the other affirming it again, my Lord told him 
he lied ; on which Culpeper struck him a box on the ear, 
which my Lord returned, and felled him. They were soon 
parted, Culpeper was seized, and his Majesty, who was all 
the while in his bedchamber, ordered him to be carried to 
the Green-Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea, 
as he deserved. My Lord Devon had nothing said 
to. him. 

I supped this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. 
Elias Ashmole's, with my Lady Clarendon, the Bishop of 
St. Asaph, and Dr. Tenison, when we were treated at 
a great feast. 

10th. The Count of Castel Mellor, that great favourite 
and prime minister of Alphonso, late King of Portugal, 
after several years' banishment, being, now received to 
grace and called home by Don Pedro, the present King, as 
having been found a person of the greatest integrity after 
all his sufferings, desired me to spend part of this day with 
him, and assist him in a collection of books and other 
curiosities, which he would carry with him into Portugal. 

Mr. Hussey,* a young gentleman who made love to my 
late dear child, but whom she could not bring herself to 
answer in aifection, died now of the same cruel disease, for 
which I was extremely sorry, because he never enjoyed 
himself after my daughter's decease, nor was I averse 
to the match, could she have overcome her disinclination. 

15th. I went to see Dr. Teuison's library [in St. 
Martin's] . 

* Son of Peter Hussey, Esq., of Sutton in Shere, Surrey. See p. 62 and 
30tJi June, 1681. 

Q 2 



22g DIARY OF [LONDON, 

Monmouth was this day brought to London and 
examined before the King, to whom he made great 
submission, acknowledged his seduction by Ferguson, the 
Scot, whom he named the bloody villain. He was sent to 
the Tower, had an interview with his late Duchess, whom 
he received coldly, having lived dishonestly with the Lady 
Henrietta Wentworth for two years. He obstinately 
asserted his conversation with that debauched woman 
to be no sin ; whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded 
to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him 
thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to 
him. For the rest of his faults he professed great sorrow, 
and so died without any apparent fear; he would not 
make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying down, 
bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord 
Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five 
chops before he had his head off; which so incensed 
the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, 
they would have torn him to pieces. 

The Duke made no speech on the scaffold, (which was 
on Tower-Hill) but gave a paper containing not above five 
or six lines, for the King, in which he disclaims all title to 
the Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, 
had indeed told him he was but his base son, and so 
desired his Majesty to be kind to his wife and children. 
This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. 
Martin's), who, with the Bishops of Ely and Bath and 
Wells, were sent to him by his Majesty, and were at the 
execution. 

Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father 
and the ladies, being extremely handsome and adroit ; an 
excellent soldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an 
easy nature, debauched by lust, seduced by crafty knaves, 
who would have set him up only to make a property, and 
taken the opportunity of the King being of another religion, 
to gather a party of discontented men. He failed, and 
perished. 

He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent 
lady that brought him great riches, and a second dukedom 
in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General 
of the King his father's army, Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge j 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 229 

in a wordj had accumulations without end. See what 
ambition and want of principles brought him to ! He 
was beheaded on Tuesday, 14th July. His mother, whose 
name was Barlow, daughter of some very mean creatures, 
was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seen at Paris ; 
she died miserably without anything to bury her ; yet this 
Perkin had been made to beheve that the King had 
married her ; a monstrous and ridiculous forgery ! and to 
satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the 
King his father (if his father he really was, for he most 
resembled one Sidney,* who was familiar with his mother) 
publicly and most solemnly renounced it, to be so entered 
in the Council Book some years since, with all the Privy 
Councillors' attestation, f 

Had it not pleased God to dissipate this attempt in the 
beginning, there would in all appearance have gathered 
an irrestible force which would have desperately proceeded 
to the ruin of the Church and Government ; so general 
was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. 
Por my own part, I looked upon this deliverance as most 
signal. Such an inundation of fanatics and men of 
impious principles must needs have caused universal dis- 
order, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, 
an unavoidable civil war, and misery without end. Blessed 

* Mr. Robert Sidney, commonly called handsome Sidney, related to the 
Earl of Leicester of that name. 

"I" Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cosins to sign 
a certificate of the king's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name 
was Walters : this the Bishop refused. She was bom of a gentleman's family 
in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make 
her fortune. Algernon Sidney, then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had 
agreed to give her fifty broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) ; but, being 
ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went 
into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother, Colonel Robert 
Sidney, who kept her for some time, till the king hearing of her, got her 
from him. On which the colonel was heard to say. Let who will have her, 
she is already sped ; and, after being with the king, she was so soon with 
child, that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather 
that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the colonel both in 
stature and countenance, even to a wart on his face. However, the king 
owned the child. In the king's absence, she behaved so loosely, that on his 
return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with 
her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King Jamea II., 
vol. I. p. 491. 



230 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

be God, the knot was happily broken, and a fair prospect 
of tranquillity for the future, if we reform, be thankful, 
and make a right use of this mercy ! 

18th. I went to see the muster of the six Scotch and 
English regiments whom the Prince of Orange had lately 
sent to his Majesty out of Holland upon this rebellion, 
but which were now returning, there having been no occa- 
sion for their use. They were all excellently clad and well 
disciplined, and were encamped on Blackheath with their 
tents: the King and Queen came to see them exercise, 
and the manner of their encampment, which was very 
neat and magnificent. 

By a gross mistake of the Secretary of his Majesty'-s 
Forces, it had been ordered that they should be quartered 
in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, but, 
on my informing his Majesty timely of it, it was prevented. 

The two horsemen wliich my son and myself sent into 
the county-troops, were now come home, after a month's 
being out to our great charge. 

20th. The Trinity-Company met this day, which should 
have been on the Monday after Trinity, but was put off 
by reason of the E-oyal Charter being so large, that it 
could not be ready before. Some immunities were super- 
added. Mr. Pepy«, Secretary to the Admiralty, was ^ 
second time chosen Master. There were present the Duke 
of Grafton, Lord Dartmouth, Master of the Ordnance, the 
Commissioners of the Navy, and Brethren of the Corpo- 
ration. We went to church, according to custom, and 
then took barge to the Trinity-House, in London, where 
we had a great dinner, above eighty ^t one table. 

7th August. I went to see Mr. Watts, keeper of the 
Apothecaries' garden of simples at Chelsea, where there 
is a collection of innumerable rarities of that sort parti- 
cularly, besides many rare annuals, the tree bearing 
Jesuits' bark, which had done «uch wonders in quartan 
agues. What was very ingenious was the subterranean 
heat, conveyed by a stove under the conservatory, all 
vaulted witb brick, so as he has the doors and windows 
open in the hardest frosts, secluding only the snow. 

1 5th. Came to visit us Mr. Boscawen, with my Lord 
Godolphin's little son, with whose education hitherto his 
father had entrusted me. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 23J 

27th. My daughter Elizabeth died of the small-pox, 
soon after ha\dng married a young man, nephew of Sir 
John Tippett, Surveyor of the Navy, and one of the Com- 
missioners. The 30th, she was buried in the church at 
Deptford. Thus, in less than six months were we deprived 
of two children for our unworthiness and causes best 
known to God, whom I beseech from the bottom of my 
heart that He will give us grace to make that right use of 
all these chastisements, that we may become better, and 
entirely submit in all things to his infinite wise disposal. 
Amen ! 

3rd September. Lord Clarendon (Lord Privy Seal) wrote 
to let me know that the King being pleased to send him 
Lord -Lieutenant into Ireland, was also pleased to nominate 
me one of the Commissioners to execute the office of 
Privy Seal during his Lieutenancy there, it behoving me to 
wait upon his Majesty to give him thanks for this great 
honour. 

5th. I accompanied his Lordship to Windsor (dining 
by the way of Sir Henry CapeFs at Kew), where his 
Majesty receiving me with extraordinary kindness, I kissed 
his hand. I told him how sensible I was of his Majesty^s 
gracious favour to me, that I would endeavour to serve 
him with all sincerity, diligence, and loyalty, not more 
out of my duty than inclination. He said he doubted 
not of it, and was glad he had the opportunity to show 
me the kindness he had for me. After this, came 
abundance of great men to give me joy. 

6th. Sunday. I went to prayer in the chapel, and heard 
Dr. Standish, The second sermon was preached by Dr. 
Creighton, on 1 Thess. iv. 11, persuading to unity and 
peace, and to be mindful of our own business, according 
to the advice of the apostle. Then I went to hear a 
Frenchman who preached before the King and Queen in 
that splendid chapel next St. George's Hall. Their 
Majesties going to mass, I withdrew to consider the 
stupendous painting of the Hall, which, both for the art 
and invention, deserve the inscription in honour of the 
painter. Signer Verrio. The history is Edward the Third 
receiving the Black Prince, coming towards him in a 
Roman triumph. The whole roof is the history of St. 
George. The throne, the carvings, &c. are incomparable, 



£32 DIARY OF [PORTSMOOTB 

and I think equal to any, and in many circumstances 
exceeding any, I have seen abroad. 

I dined at Lord Sunderland's, with (amongst others) 
Sir William Soames, designed Ambassador to Constanti- 
nople. 

About 6 o'clock, came Sir Dudley and his brother 
Roger North, and brought the Great Seal from my Lord 
Keeper, who died the day before at his house in Oxford- 
shire. The King went immediately to council ; everybody 
guessing who was most likely to succeed this great officer; 
most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief 
Justice Jefferies, who had so vigorously prosecuted the 
late rebels, and was now gone the Western Circuit, to 
punish the rest that were secured in the several counties, 
and was now near upon his return. I took my leave of 
his Majesty, who spake very graciously to me, and supping 
that night at Sir Stephen Pox's, I promised to dine there 
ihe next day. 

15th. I accompanied Mr. Pepys to Portsmouth, whither 
nis Majesty was going the first time since his coming to 
the Crown, to see in what state the fortifications were. 
We took coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got 
to Bagshot* that night. Whilst supper was making 
ready, I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham,t some 
time Maid of Honour to the Queen Dowager, now wife to 
James Graham, Esq. of the privy purse to the King ; her 
house J being a walk in the forest, within a little quarter 
of a mile from Bagshot town. Very importunate she 
was that I would sup, and abide there that night ; but, 
being obliged by my companion, I returned to our inn, 
after she had showed me her house, which was very com- 
modious and well-furnished, as she was an excellent 
house-wife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a park 
full of red deer about it. Her eldest son was now sick 
there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and 
other of her children run about, and among the infected, 
which she said she let them do on purpose that they 
might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied 
they were to undergo one time or other, and that this 
would be the best : the severity of this cruel distemper so 

♦ 26 miles. + Miss Howard, see p. 101. J Bagshot Park. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 233 

lately in my poor family confirming much of what she 
affirmed. 

16th. The next morning, setting out early, we arrived 
soon enough at Winchester to wait on the King, who was 
lodged at the Dean^s (Dr. Meggot). I found very few 
with him besides my Lords Feversham^ Arran, Newport, 
and the Bishop of Bath and Wells. His Majesty was 
discoursing with the Bishops concerning miracles, and 
what strange things the Saludadors * would do in Spain, 
as by creeping into heated ovens without hurt, and that 
they had a black cross in the roof of their mouths, but yet 
were commonly notorious and profane wretches; upon 
which his Majesty further said, that he was so extremely 
difficult of miracles, for fear of being imposed upon, that 
if he should chance to see one himself, without some 
other witness, he should apprehend it a delusion of his 
senses. Then they spake of the boy who was pretended 
to have a wanting leg restored him, so confidently asserted 
by Pr. de Santa Clara and others. To all which the 
Bishop added a great miracle happening in Winchester to 
his certain knowledge, of a poor miserably sick and 
decrepit child, (as I remember long kept unbaptized) who, 
immediately on his baptism, recovered ; as also of the 
salutary effect of King Charles his Majesty^ s father^s 
blood, in healing one that was blind. 

There was something said of the second sightf happen- 
ing to some persons, especially Scotch ; upon which his 
Majesty, and I think Lord Ai'ran^ told us that Monsieur 

* As to that of the Saludador (of which hkevvise I remember Sir Arthur 
Hopton, formerly Ambassador at Madrid, had told me many like wonders) 
Mr. Pepys passing through Spain, and being extremely inquisitive of the truth 
of these pretended miracles of the Saludadors, found a very famous one at 
last, to whom he offered a considerable rewfcrd if he would make a trial of 
the oven, or any other thing of that kind, before him ; the fellow ingenuously 
told him that finding he was a more than ordinary curious person, he would 
not deceive him, and so acknowledged that he could do none of the feats 
really, but that what they pretended was all a cheat, which he would easily 
discover, though the poor superstitious people were easily imposed upon ; yet 
have tliese impostors an allowance of the Bishops to practice their jugglings. 
This Mr. Pepys affirmed to me ; but, said he, I did not conceive it fit to 
interrupt his Majesty, who so solemnly told what they pretended to 
do. ' J. E. 

+ Several very interesting letters on this subject are printed in S. Pepys' 
" Memoirs and Correspondence," edited by Lord Bi'aybrooke. 



234 DIARY OF [WINCHISTEB, 

a French nobleman, lately here in England, seeing 

the late Duke of Monmouth come into the playhouse at 
London, suddenly cried out to somebody sitting in the 
same box, Voila Monsieur, commeilentre sans tete ! After- 
wards, his Majesty spoke of some relics that had effected 
strange cures, particularly a piece of our Blessed Saviour's 
cross, that healed a gentleman's rotten nose by only touch- 
ing. And speaking of the golden cross and chain taken 
out of the coflfin of St. Edwaxd the Confessor at Westmin- 
ster,* by one of the singing-men, who, as the scaffolds 
were taken down after his Majesty's coronation, espying 
a hole in the tomb, and something glisten, put his 
hand in, and brought it to the dean, and he to the King ; 
his Majesty began to put the Bishop in mind how earnestly 
the late King (his brother) called upon him during his 
agony, to take out what he had in his pocket. I had 
thought, said the King, it had been for some keys, which 
might lead to some cabinet that his Majesty would have 
me secure ; but, says he, you well remember that I found 
nothing in any of his pockets but a cross of gold, and a few 
insignificant papers ; and thereupon he showed us the 
cross, and was pleased to put it into my hand. It was of 
gold, about three inches long, having on one side a crucifix 
enamelled and embossed, the rest was graved and garnished 
with goldsmiths' work, and two pretty broad table ame- 
thysts (as I conceived), and at the bottom a pendant pearl; 
within was enchased a little fragment, as was thought, of 
the true cross, and a Latin inscription in gold and lloman 
letters. t More company coming in, this discourse ended. 
I may not forget a resolution which his Majesty made, and 
had. a little before entered upon it at the Council Board at 
Windsor or Whitehall, that the negroes in the Plantations 
should all be baptized, exceedingly declaiming against that 
impiety of their masters prohibiting it, out of a mistaken 
opinion that they would be ipso facto free ; but his Majesty 
persists in his resolution to have them christened, which 
piety the Bishop blessed him for. 

• See a « Narrative" on tliis subject among the Illustrations at the end jef 
he Biary, in this Volume. 

•f- There is a pamphlet giving an account of this finding, and presenting to 
the king, under the name of George Taylour ; but his name was Henry 
Keepe. See Gough's Topography. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 235 

I went out to see tlie new palace the late King had 
begun, and brought almost to the covering. It is placed 
on the side of the hill, Avhere formerly stood the old Castle. 
It is a stately fabric, of three sides and a corridor, all built 
of brick, and cornished, windows and columns at the break 
and entrance of free-stone.* It was intended for a hunt- 
ing-house when his Majesty should come to these parts, 
and has an incomparable prospect. I believe there had 
already been £20,000 and more expended; but his now 
Majesty did not seem to encourage the finishing it, at least 
for a while. 

Hence to see the Cathedral, a reverend pile, and in good 
repair. There are still the coffins of the six Saxon Kings, 
whose bones had been scattered by the sacrilegious rebels 
of 1641, in expectation, I suppose, of finding some valuable 
relics, and afterwards gathered up again and put into new 
chests, which stand above the stalls of the choir. 

17th. Early next morning, Ave went to Portsmouth, 
something before his Majesty arrived. We found all 
the road full of people, the women in their best dress, in 
expectation of seeing the King pass by, which he did, riding 
on horseback a good part of the way. The Mayor and 
Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, were 
standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of 
the town, where the Mayor made a speech to the King, and 
then the guns of the fort were fired, as were those of the 
garrison, as soon as the King was come into Portsmouth. 
All the soldiers (near 3,000) were drawn up, and lining the 
streets and platform to God^s-house (the name of the 

* The first stone of this magnificent palace was laid March 23, 1 68 3, by King 
Charles in person, who, during the remainder of his reign, spent most of his 
time at Winchester, for the purpose of inspecting and forwarding the worlc. 
Upon the death of this Prince, an immediate stop was put to tlie building by 
James II. It was equally neglected by King William ; but Queen Anne, 
after surveying it herself, intended to complete it in favour of her hus)>andj 
George, Prince of Denmark, upon whom it was settled, had he lived until she 
could aff'ord the sums necessary for this purpose. The first public use to 
which this noble edifice appeal's to . have been applied, was that of a place of 
confinement for French prisoners, in the war of 1756, during which 5,000 of 
them, at a time, were sometimes detained in it. In the year 1792, this build- 
ing was occupied by a certain number of French clergy banished from their 
native soil; and, in 179G, it was fitted up as barracks for the residence of 
troops, to which purpose it is still ^)plied. 



236 DIARY OF [PORTSMOUTH, 

Governor's residence), where, after he had viewed the new 
fortifications and ship-yard, his Majesty was entertained at 
a magnificent dinner by Sir Slingsby, the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, all the gentlemen in his train sitting 
down at table with him, which I also had done had I not 
been before engaged to Sir Robert Holmes, Governor of 
the Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, 
where likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful 
repast of excellent venison, fowl, fish, and fruit. 

After dinner, I went to wait on his Majesty again, who 
was pulling on his boots in the Town-hall adjoining the 
house where he dined, and then having saluted some ladies, 
who came to kiss his hand, he took horse for Winchester, 
whither he returned that night. This hall is artificially 
hung round with arms of all sorts, like the hall and keep at 
Windsor. Hence, to see the ship-yard and dock, the forti- 
fications, and other things. 

Portsmouth, when finished, will be very strong, and a 
noble quay. There were now thirty-two men-of-war in the 
harbour. I was in^dted by Sir R. Beach, the Commissioner, 
where, after a great supper, Mr. Secretary and myself lay 
that night, and the next morning set out for Guildford, 
where we arrived in good hour, and so the day after to 
London. 

I had twice before been at Portsmouth, the Isle of 
Wight, &c. many years since. I found this part of Hamp- 
shire bravely wooded, especially about the house and estate 
of Colonel Norton, who though now in being, having 
formerly made his peace by means of Colonel Legg, was 
formerly a very fierce commander in the first Rebellion. 
His house is large, and standing low, on the road from 
Winchester to Portsmouth. 

By what I observed in this journey, is that infinite 
industry, sedulity, gravity, and great understanding and 
experience of afi'airs, in his Majesty, that I cannot but pre- 
dict much happiness to the nation, as to its political govern- 
ment ; and, if he so persist, there could be nothing more 
desired to accomplish our prosperity, but that he was of the 
national rehgion. 

30th. Lord Clarendon's commission for Lieutenant of 
Ireland was sealed this day. 

2nd October. Having a letter sent me by Mr. Pepys with 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 237 

this expression at the foot of it, " I have something to show 
you that I may not have another time/^ and that I would not 
fail to dine with him, I accordingly went. After dinner, he 
had me and Mr. Houblon (a rich and considerable merchant, 
whose father had fled out of Flanders on the persecution of 
the Duke of Alva) into a private room, and told us that 
being lately alone with his Majesty, and upon some occa- 
sion of speaking concerning my late Lord Arlington dying 
a Roman Catholic, who had all along seemed to profess 
himself a Protestant, taken all the tests, &c. till the day (I 
think) of his death, his Majesty said that as to his inclina- 
tions he had known them long wavering, but from fear of 
losing his places, he did not think it convenient to declare 
himself. There are, says the King, those who believe the 
Church of Rome gives dispensations for going to church, 
and many like things, but that is not so; for if that might 
have been had, he himself had most reason to make use of 
it. Indeed, he said, as to some matrimonial cases, there are 
now and then dispensations, but hardly in any cases else. 

This familiar discourse encouraged Mr. Pepys to beg of his 
Majesty, if he might ask it without offence, and for that his 
Majesty could not but observe how it was whispered among 
many whether his late Majesty had been reconciled to the 
Church of Rome ; he again humbly besought his Majesty 
to pardon his presumption, if he had touched upon a thing 
which did not befit him to look into. The King ingenuously 
told him that he both was and died a Roman Catholic, and 
that he had not long since declared it was upon some 
politic and state reasons, best known to himself (meaning 
the King his brother) but that he was of that persuasion : 
he bid him follow him into his closet where, opening a 
cabinet, he showed him two papers, containing about a 
quarter of a sheet, on both sides written, in the late King's 
own hand, several arguments opposite to the doctrine of 
the Church of England, charging her with heresy, novelty, 
and the fanaticism of other Protestants, the chief whereof 
was, as I remember, our refusing to acknowledge the pri- 
macy and infallibility of the Church of Rome ; how impos- 
sible it was that so many ages should never dispute it, till 
of late ; how unlikely our Saviour would leave his Church 
without a visible Head and guide to resort to, during his 
absence ; with the like usual topics ; so well penned as to 



238 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

the discourse as did by no means seem to me to have been 
been put together by the late King, yet written all with his 
own hand, blotted and interlined, so as, if indeed it was 
not given him by some priest, they might be such argu«- 
ments; and reasons as had been inculcated feom time to 
time, and here recollected; and, in the conclusion, showing 
his looking on the Protestant religion (and by name the 
Church of England) to be without foundation, and conse- 
quently false and unsafe. When his Majesty had- shown 
him these originals, he was pleased to lend him. the copies 
of these two papers, attested at the bottom in: four orfirve 
lines, under his own hand. 

These were the papers I saw and read. This nice and 
curious passage I thought fit to set down. Though all 
the arguments and objections were altogether weak, and 
have a thousand times been answered by our divines ; they 
ai'e such as their priests insinuate among their proselytes, 
as if nothing were Catholic but the Church of Rome, no 
salvation out of that, no reformation sufferable, bottoming 
all their errors on St. Peter's successors' unerrable dictator- 
ship, but proving nothing with any reason, or taking 
notice of any objection which could be made against it. 
Here all was taken for granted, and upon it a resolution 
and preference implied. 

I was heartily sorry to see all this, thou^ it was no 
other than was to be suspected, by his late Majesty's too 
great indifference, neglect, and course of life, that he had 
been perverted, and for secular respects only professed to 
be of another belief, and thereby giving great advantage 
to our adversaries, both the Court and generally the youth 
and great persons of the nation becoming dissolute and 
highly profane. God was incensed to make his reign very 
troublesome and unprosperous, by wars, plagues, fires, loss 
of reputation by an universal neglect of the pubhe for the 
love of a voluptuous and sensual life, which a vicious Court 
had brought into credit. I think of it with sorrow and 
pity, when I consider of how good and debonair a n^ure 
that unhappy Prince was ; what opportunities he had to 
have made himself the most renowned King: that ever 
swayed the British sceptre, had he been firm to that 
Church for which his martyred and blessed father suffered; 
and had he been grateful to Almighty God, who so 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. £39 

miraculously restored him, with so excellent a religion; 
had he endeavoured to own and propagate it as he should 
have done, not only for the good of his Kingdom, but of 
all the Reformed Churches in Christendom, now weakened 
and near ruined through our remissness and suffering 
them to be supplanted, persecuted, and destroyed, as in 
France, which we took no notice of. The consequence of 
this, time will show, and I wish it. may proceed no further. 
The emissaries and instruments of the Church of Rome 
will never rest till they have crushed the Church of 
England, as knowing that alone to be able to cope with 
them, and that they can never answer her fairly, but lie 
abundantly open to the irresistible force of her arguments, 
antiquity and purity of her doctrine, so that albeit it may 
move God, for the punishment of a nation so unworthy, to 
eclipse again the profession of her here, and darkness and 
superstition prevail, I am most confident the doctrine of 
the Church of England vnW never be extinguished, but 
remain visible, if not eminent, to the consummation of the 
world. I have innumerable reasons that confirm me in 
this opinion, which I forbear to mention here. 

In the mean time, as to the discourse of his Majesty 
with Mr. Pepys, and those papers, as I do exceedingly 
prefer his Majesty^s free and ingenuous profession of what 
Ids own religion is, beyond concealment upon any politic 
accounts, so I think him of a most sincere and honest 
nature, one on whose word one may rely, and that he 
makes a conscience of what he promises, to perform it. 
In this confidence, I hope that the Church of England 
may yet subsist, and when it shall please God to open his 
eyes and turn his heart (for that is peculiarly in the Lord's 
hands) to flourish also. In all events, whatever do become 
of the Church of England, it is certainly, of all the 
Christian professions on the earth, the most primitive, 
apostolical, and excellent. 

8th, I had my picture drawn this week by the famous 
Kneller.* 

14th. I went to London about finishing my lodgings 
at Whitehall. 

15th. Being the King's birth-day, there was a solemn 

* An engraving from this portrait, now at Wotton, forms the Frontispiece 
to the first Volume of tlicse Memoirs. 



240 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

ball at Court, and before it music of instruments and 
voices. I happened by accident to stand the very next to 
the Queen and the King, who talked with me about the 
music. 

18th. The King was now building all that range from 
east to west by the court and garden to the street, and 
making a new chapel for the Queen, Avhose lodgings were 
to be in this new building, as also a new Council-chamber 
and offices next the south end of the Banqueting-house. I 
returned home, next morning, to London. 

2:2nd. I accompanied my Lady Clarendon to her house 
at Swallowfield,* in Berks, dining by the way at Mr. 
Graham's lodge at Bagshotjf the house, new repaired and 
capacious enough for a good family, stands in a park. 

Hence, we went to Swallowfield ; this house is after the 
ancient building of honourable gentlemen's houses, when 
they kept up ancient hospitality, but the gardens and 
waters as elegant as it is possible to make a flat by art and 
industry, and no mean expense, my lady being so extraor- 
dinarily skilled in the flowery part, and my lord, in 
diligence of planting ; so that I have hardly seen a seat 
which shows more tokens of it than what is to be found 
here, not only in the delicious and rarest fruits of a 
garden, but in those innumerable timber trees in the 
ground about the seat, to the greatest ornament and benefit 
of the place. There is one orchard of 1000 golden, and 
other cider pippins; walks and groves of elms, limes, 
oaks, and other trees. The garden is so beset with all 
manner of sweet shrubs, that it perfumes the air. The 
distribution also of the quarters, walks, and parterres, is 
excellent. The nurseries, kitchen-garden full of the most 
desirable plants ; two very noble orangeries well furnished ; 
but, above all, the canal and fishponds, the one fed with a 
white, the other with a black running water, fed by a quick 
and swift river, so well and plentifully stored with fish, 

• Sir William Backhouse died seised of the manor of Swallowfield, in 1 669. 
His widow, daughter and heiress of William Backhouse, Esq., married Henry 
Earl of Clarendon, who became possessed of this estate. The celebrated Lord 
Chancellor resided at his son's house at Swallowfield after his retirement from 
pubhc life, and there wrote his great work, " The History of the Rebellion." 
Lysons' Magna Brit. Berkshire, p. 384. 

t P. 232. 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. £4)1 

that for pike, carp, bream, and tench, I never saw anything 
approaching it. We had at every meal carp and pike of 
a size fit for the table of a Prince, and what added to the 
delight was, to see the hundreds taken by the drag, out of 
which, the cook standing by, we pointed out what we had 
most mind to, and had carp that would have been worth at 
London twenty shillings a-piece. The waters are flagged 
about with Calamus aromaticus, with which my lady 
has hung a closet, that retains the smell very perfectly. 
There is also a certain sweet willow and other exotics : 
also a very fine bowling-green, meadow, pasture, and wood ; 
in a word, all that can render a country-seat delightful. 
There is besides a well-furnished library in the house. 

26th. We returned to London, having been treated with 
all sorts of cheer and noble freedom by that most religious 
and virtuous lady. She was now preparing to go for 
Ireland with her husband, made Lord-Deputy, and went to 
this country-house and ancient seat of her father and 
family, to set things in order during her absence; but 
never were good people and neighbours more concerned 
than all the country (the poor especially) for the departure 
of this charitable woman ; every one was in tears, and she 
as unwilling to part from them. There was amongst 
them a maiden of primitive life, the daughter of a poor 
labouring man, who had sustained her parents (some time 
since dead) by her labour, and has for many years refused 
marriage, or to receive any assistance from the parish, 
besides the little hermitage my lady gives her rent-free ; 
she lives on fourpence a-day, which she gets by spinning ; 
says she abounds and can give alms to others, living 
in great humility and content, without any apparent affect- 
ation, or singularity ; she is continually working, praying, 
or reading, gives a good account of her knowledge in 
religion, visits the sick ; is not in the least given to talk ; 
very modest, of a simple not unseemly behaviour ; of 
a comely countenance, clad very plain, but clean and tight. 
In sum, she appears a saint of an extraordinary sort,, 
in so religious a life, as is seldom met with in villages 
now- a- days. 

27th. I was invited to dine at Sir Stephen Fox's with my 
Lord Lieutenant, where was such a dinner for variety of 
all things as I had seldom seen, and it was so for the trial 

VOL. II. R 



242 WARY" OF [lokdok, 

of a master-cook whom Sir Stephen had recommended to 
go with his Lordship into Ireland ; there were all the dain- 
ties not only of the season, but of what art could add, 
venison, plain solid meat, fowl, baked and boiled meats, 
banquet [dessert], in exceeding plenty, and exquisitely 
dreased. There also dined my Lord Ossory and Lady (the 
Duke of Beaufort's daughter), my Lady Treasurer, Lord 
Combury, and other visitors. 

28th. At the Royal Society, an urn full of bones was 
presented, dug up in a highway, whilst repairing it, in 
0. field in Camberwell, in Surrey ; it was found entire with 
its cover, amongst many others, believed to be truly Roman 
and ancient. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley described to us a model of a 
chariot he had invented, which it was not possible to over- 
throw in whatever uneven way it was drawn, giving us 
a wonderful relation of what it had performed in that kind, 
for ease, expedition, and safety ; there were some inconve- 
niences yet to be remedied — it would not contain more than 
one person ; was ready to take fire every ten miles, and 
being placed and playing on no fewer than ten rollers, it 
made a most prodigious noise, almost intolerable. A 
remedy was to be sought for these inconveniences. 

31st. I dined at our great Lord Chancellor Jefferies, who 
used me with much respect. This was the late Chief 
Justice who had newly been the Western Circuit to try the 
Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly done suck 
severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westminster Hall, 
for which his Majesty dignified him by creating him first 
a Baron, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years 
past been conversant in Deptford; is of an assured and 
undaunted spirit, and has served the Court-interest on 
all the hardiest occasions ; is of nature cruel, and a slave 
of the Court. 

3rd November. The French persecution of the Pro- 
testants raging with the utmost barbarity, exceeded even 
what the very heathens used : innumerable persons of the 
greatest birth and riches leaving all their earthly sub- 
stance, and hardly escaping with their lives, dispersed 
through all the countries of Europe. The French tyrant 
abrogated the Edict of Nantes which had been made in 
favour of them, and without any cause ; on a sudden 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 242 

demolishing all their churches, banishing, imprisoning, 
and sending to the galleys all the ministers ; plundering 
the common people, and exposing them to all sorts of 
barbarous usage by soldiers sent to ruin and prey on 
them ; taking away their children ; forcing people to the 
Mass, and then executing them as relapsers ; they burnt 
their libraries, pillaged their goods, eat up their fields and 
substance, banished or sent the people to the galleys, and 
seized on their estates. There had now been numbered 
to pass through Geneva only (and that by stealth, for all 
the usual passages were strictly guarded by sea and land) 
40,000 towards Switzerland. In Holland, Denmark, and 
all about Germany, were dispersed some hundred thou- 
sands ; besides those in England where, though multitudes 
of all degrees sought for shelter and welcome as distressed 
Christians and confessors, they found least encouragement, 
by a fatality of the times we were fallen into, and the 
uncharitable indifference of such as should have embraced 
them ; and I pray it be not laid to our charge. The famous 
Claude fled to Holland ; Allix* and several more came to 
London, and persons of great estates came over, who 
had forsaken all. France was almost dispeopled, the 
bankers so broken, that the tyrant^s revenue was exceed- 
ingly diminished, manufactures ceased, and everybody 
there, save the Jesuits, abhorred what was done, nor 
did the Papists themselves approve it. What the further 
intention is time will show ; but doubtless portending some 
revolution. 

I was showed the harangue which the Bishop of Valentia 
on Rhone made in the name of the Clergy, celebrating the 
French King, as if he was a God, for persecuting the poor 
Protestants, with this expression in it, '' That as his victory 
over heresy was greater than all the conquests of Alexander 
and Caesar, it was but what was wished in England ; and 
that God seemed to raise the French King to this power 

* Mr. Peter Allix, a minister of the Reformed Church at Charenton, came 
over with his whole family, and met with great encouragement here. He was 
the author of several learned discoursea in defence of the Christian religion 
in general, and, of Protestantism in particular. His eldest son, John Peter 
Allix, became D. D., and, after passing through diiferent preferments, was in 
1730 made Dean of Ely, and died in 1758, and was buried in his church of 
Castle-Camps in Cambridgeshire. 

R 2 



244 DIARY OF IJLONDOM, 

and magnanimous action, that he might be in capacity to 
assist in doing the same here." This paragraph is very 
bold and remarkable; several reflecting on Archbishop 
Usher's prophecy as now begun in France, and approach- 
ing the orthodox in all other reformed churches. One 
thing was much taken notice of, that the Gazettes which 
were still constantly printed twice a week, informing us 
what was done all over Europe, never spake of this won- 
derful proceeding in France ; nor was any relation of it 
published by any, save what private letters and the perse- 
cuted fugitives brought : whence this silence I Ust not to 
conjecture, but it appeared very extraordinary in a Pro- 
testant country, that we should know nothing of what 
Protestants suffered, whilst great collections were made 
for them in foreign places, more hospitable and Christian 
to appearance. 

5th. It being an extraordinary wet morning, and myself 
indisposed by a very great rheum, I did not go to church, 
to my very great sorrow, it being the first Gunpowder 
Conspiracy anniversary that had been kept now these 
eighty years under a prince of the Roman religion. 
Bonfires were forbidden on this day ; what does this 
portend ! 

9th. Began the Parliament; the King in his speech 
required continuance of a standing force instead of a 
militia, and indemnity and dispensation to Popish officers 
from the Test ; demands very unexpected and unpleasing 
to the Commons. He also required a supply of revenue, 
which they granted ; but returned no thanks to the King 
for his speech, till farther consideration. 

12th. The Commons postponed finishing the bill for the 
Supply, to consider the Test, and Popish officers ; this was 
carried but by one voice. 

14th. I dined at Lambeth, my Lord Archbishop carrying 
me with him in his barge : there were my Lord Deputy of 
Ireland, the Bishops of Ely, and St. Asaph, Dr. Sher- 
lock, and other divines ; Sir William Hayward, Sir Paul 
Rycaut, &c. 

20th. The Parliament was adjourned to February, 
several both of Lords and Commons excepting against 
some passage of his Majesty's speech relating to the Test, 
and continuance of Popish officers in command. This was 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. g45 

a great surprise in a parliament, which people believed 
would have complied in all things. 

Popish pamphlets and pictures sold publicly ; no books 
nor answers to them appearing till long after. 

21st. I resigned my trust for composing a difference 
between Mr. Thynn and his wife. 

22nd. Hitherto was a very wet warm season. 

4th December. Lord Sunderland was declared President 
of the Council, and yet to hold his Secretary's place. The 
forces disposed into several quarters through the kingdom 
are very insolent, on which are great complaints. 

Lord Brandon tried for the late conspiracy, was con- 
demned and pardoned ; so was Lord Grey, his accuser and 
witness. 

Persecution in France raging, the French insolently 
visit our vessels, and take away the fugitive Protestants ; 
some escape in barrels. 

10th. To Greenwich, being put into the new Commission 
of Sewers. 

1.3th. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterborough, preached at 
Whitehall, before the Princess of Denmark ; who since his 
Majesty came to the Crown, always sat in the King's 
closet, and had the same bowings and ceremonies applied 
to the place where she was, as his Majesty had when there 
in person. 

Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer showed us an experi- 
ment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold 
liquor into a glass, and super-fusing on it another, to 
appearance cold and clear liquor, also ; it first produced a 
white cloud, then boiling, divers coruscations and actual 
flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a little 
shaken together, fixed divers suns and stars of real fire, 
perfectly globular, on the sides of the glass, and which 
there stuck like so many constellations, burning most 
vehemently, and resembling stars and heavenly bodies, 
and that for a long space. It seemed to exhibit a theory 
of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and the fixing or 
gathering of the universal light into luminous bodies. 
This matter, or phosphorus, was made out of human 
blood and urine, elucidating the vital flame, or heat, in 
animal bodies. A very noble experiment! 

16th. I accompanied my Lord Lieutenant as far as 



2^46 DIAKT OP [LONDON, 

St. Alban^s, there going out of town with him near 200 
coaches of all the great ofl&cers and nobility. The next 
morning taking leave, I returned to London. 

18th. I dined at the great entertainment his Majesty 
gave the Venetian Ambassadors, Signors Zenno and 
Justiniani, accompanied with ten more noble Venetians of 
their most illustrious families, Cornaro, Maccenigo, &c., 
who came to congratulate their Majesties coming to the 
Crown. The dinner was most magnificent and plentiful, 
at four tables, with music, kettle-drums, and trumpets, 
which sounded upon a whistle at every health. The 
banquet [dessert] was twelve vast chargers piled up so high, 
that those who sat one against another could hardly see 
each other. Of these sweetmeats, which doubtless were 
some days piling up in that exquisite manner, the Ambas- 
sadors touched not, but leaving them to the spectators who 
came out of curiosity to see the dinner, were exceedingly 
pleased to see in what a moment of time all that curious 
work was demolished, the comfitures voided, and the tables 
cleared. Thus his Majesty entertained them three days, 
which (for the table only) cost him £600, as the Clerk of 
the Green Cloth (Sir William Boreman) assured me. 
Dinner ended, I saw their procession, or cavalcade, to 
Whitehall, innumerable coaches attending. The two 
Ambassadors had four coaches of their own, and fifty 
footmen (as I remember), besides other equipage as splendid 
as the occasion would permit, the Court being still in 
mourning. Thence, I went to the audience which they 
had in the Queen^s presence-chamber, the Banqueting- 
house being full of goods and furniture till the galleries 
on the garden-side, council-chamber, and new chapel, now 
in building, were finished. They went to their audience 
in those plain black gowns and caps which they constantly 
wear in the city of Venice. I Avas invited to have accom- 
panied the two Ambassadors in their coach to snpper that 
night, returning now to their own lodgings, as no longer 
at the King's expence ; but being weary I excused myself. 

19th. My Lord Treasurer made me dine with him, 
where I became acquainted with Monsieur Barillon, the 
French Ambassador, a learned and crafty advocate. 

20th. Dr. Turner, brother to the Bishop of Ely, and 
sometime tutor to my son, preached at Whitehall on 



1685.] JOHN EVELYN. 247 

Mark viii. 38, concerning the submission of Christians to 
their persecutors, in which were some passages indiscreet 
enough, considering the time, and the rage of the inhuman 
French tyrant against the poor Protestants. 

22nd. Our patent for executing the office of Privy Seal 
during the absence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
being this day sealed by the Lord Chancellor, we went 
afterwards to St. James's, where the Court then was on 
occasion of building at Whitehall; his Majesty delivered 
the seal to my Lord Tiviot and myself, the other Commis- 
sioners not being come, and then gave us his hand to kiss. 
There were the two Venetian Ambassadors and a world of 
company ; amongst the rest the first Popish Nuncio * that 
had been in England since the Reformation ; so wonder- 
fully were things changed, to the universal jealousy. 

24th. We were all three Commissioners sworn on our 
knees by the Clerk of the Crown, before my Lord Chan- 
cellor, three several oaths ; allegiance, supremacy, and the 
oath belonging to the Lord Privy Seal, which last we took 
standing. After this, the Lord Chancellor invited us all to 
dinner, but it being Christmas-eve we desired to be excused, 
intending at three in the afternoon to seal divers things 
which lay ready at the office ; so attended by three of the 
Clerks of the Signet, we met and sealed. Amongst other 
things was a pardon to West, who being privy to the late 
conspiracy, had revealed the accomplices to save his own 
neck. There were also another pardon and two indeniza- 
tions; and so agreeing to a fortnight's vacation, I returned 
home. 

31st. Recollecting the passages of the year past, and 
having made up accorapts, humbly besought Almighty 
God to pardon those my sins which had provoked Him to 
discompose my sorrowful family ; that he would accept of our 
humiliation, and in his good time restore comfort to 
it. I also blessed God for all his undeserved mercies and 
preservations, begging the continuance of his grace and 
preservation. — The winter had hitherto been extraordinary 
wet and mild. 

1685-6. 1st January. Imploring the continuance of 

« Ferdinand Count D'Ada, made afterwards a Cardinal for his services, in 
this embassy. There is a good mezzotinto print of him. 



248 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

God's providential care for the year now entered, I went to 
the public devotions. The Dean of the Chapel and Clerk 
of the Closet put out, viz., Bishop of London * and . . . ., 
and Rochester t and Durham J put in their places ; 
the former had opposed the toleration intended, and 
shown a worthy zeal for the reformed religion as esta- 
blished. 

6th. I dined with the Archbishop of York, where was 
Peter Walsh, that Romish priest so well known for his 
moderation, professing the Church of England to be a 
true member of the Catholic Church ; he is used to go to 
our public prayers without scruple, and did not acknow- 
ledge the Pope's infallibility, only primacy of order. 

19th. Passed the Privy Seal, amongst others, the creation 
of Mrs. Sedley § (concubine to ) Countess of Dor- 
chester, which the Queen took very grievously, so as for 
two dinners, standing near her, I observed she hardly eat 
one morsel, nor spake one word to the King, or to any 
about her, though at other times she used to be extremely 
pleasant, full of discourse and good humour. The Roman 
Catholics were also very angry ; because they had so long 
valued the sanctity of their religion and proselytes. 

Dryden, the famous play-writer, and his two sons, and 

Mrs. Nelly (miss to the late ) were said to goto mass ; 

such proselytes were no great loss to the Church. 

This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Monta- 
gue's palace in Bloomsbury, than which for painting and 
furniture there was nothing more glorious in England. 
This happened by the negligence of a servant, airing, as 
they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist season ; 
indeed, so wet and mild a season had scarce been seen 
in man's memory. 

At this Seal there also passed the creation of Sir Henry 

• Compton. f Sprat. Z Crewe. 

§ Catharine, daughter of Sir Charles Sedley, Bart., one of the famous knot 
of wits and courtiers of ^King Charles's time — he was also a poet, and wrote 
some dramatic pieces. The Countess had a daughter, by King James II., and 
was afterwards married to David, Earl of Portmore, by whom she had two 
sons, and died in 1717. Lord Dorset's well-known verses, " Tell me, Doi-inda, 
why so gay," &c. are addressed to this lady. Her father's sarcasm when he 
voted for filUng up the vacant throne with the Prince and Princess of Orange 
is well known ; " King James made my daughter a Countess, and I have 
been helping to make his daughter a Queen." 



1686.] JOHN EVELYN. 249 

Waldegrave* to be a Peer. He had married one of the 
King's natural daughters by Mrs, Churchill. These two 
Seals my brother Commissioners passed in the morning 
before I came to town, at which I was not displeased. We 
likewise passed Privy Seals for £276,000 upon several 
accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, privy purse, &c., 
besides divers pardons, and one more which I must not 
forget (and which by Providence I was not present at) 
one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to 
Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a 
quorum. 

21st. I dined at my Lady Arlington's, Groom of 
the Stole to the Queen Dowager, at Somerset House, 
where dined the Countesses of Devonshire, Dover, &c. ; 
in all eleven ladies of quality, no man but myself being 
there. 

24th. Unheard-of cruelties to the persecuted Protestants 
of France, such as hardly any age has seen the like, even 
among the Pagans. 

6th February. Being the day on which his Majesty began 
his reign, by order of Council it Avas to be solemnized with 
a particular office and sermon, which the Bishop of Ely f 
preached at Whitehall on Numb. xi. 12 ; a Court oration 
upon the Regal Office. It was much wondered at that 
this day, which was that of his late Majesty's death, should 
be kept as a festival, and not [instead of it] the day of 
the present King's coronation. It is said to have been 
formerly the custom, though not till now since the reign 
of King James I. 

The Duchess of Monmouth being in the same seat with 
me at church, appeared Avith a very sad and afflicted 
countenance. 

8th. I took the Test in Westminster-Hall, before the 
Lord Chief Justice. I now came to lodge at Whitehall, 
in the Lord PriAy Seal's lodgings. 

12th. My great Cause was heard by my Lord Chancellor, 
who granted me a re-hearing. I had six eminent laAvyers, 
my antagonist three, whereof one was the smooth-tongued 

* He was the fourth Baronet; was created 30th January, 168G, Baron 
Waldegrave ; being at that time Comptroller of the King's Household, and 
died at Paris, in 1689. t Dr. Francis Turner. 



250 DIARY OF [lo»»o». 

Solicitor,* whom my Lord Chancellor reproved in great 
passion for a very small occasion. Blessed be God for His 
great goodness to me this day ! 

19th. Many bloody and notorious duels were fought 
about this time. The Duke of Grafton killed Mr. Stanley, 
brother to the Earl of [Derby], indeed upon an almost in- 
sufferable provocation. It is to be hoped that his Majesty 
will at last severely remedy this unchristian custom. 

Lord Sunderland was now Secretary of State, President 
of the Council, and Premier-Minister. 

1st March. Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treat with me 
about his son's marrying my daughter, Susanna. The 
father being obnoxious, and in some suspicion and displea- 
sure of the King, I would receive no proposal till his 
Majesty had given me leave, which he was pleased to do ; 
but, after several meetings we brake off, on his not being 
willing to secure any thing competent for my daughter's 
children ; besides that I found most of his estate was in 
the coal-pits as far off as Newcastle, and on leases from 
the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make concurrent 
leases, with other difficulties. 

7th. Dr. Prampton, Bishop of Gloucester, preached on 
Psalm xliv. 17, 18, 19, showing the several afflictions of 
the Church of Christ from the primitives to this day, 
applying exceedingly to the present conjuncture, when 
many were wavering in their minds, and great temptations 
appearing through the favour now found by the Papists, 
so as the people were full of jealousies and discouragement. 
The Bishop magnified the Church of England, exhorting 
to constancy and perseverance. 

10th. A Council of the Royal Society about disposing 
of Dr. Ray's book of Fishes, which was printed at the 
expense of the Society. 

12th. A docket was to be sealed importing a lease of 
twenty-one years to one Hall, who styled himself his 
Majesty's printer (he lately turned Papist) for the printing 
Missals, Offices, Lives of Saints, Portals, Primers, &c., 
books expressly forbidden to be printed or sold, by divers 
Acts of Parliament ; I refused to put my seal to it, making 
my exceptions, so it was laid by. 

• Mr. Finch, called Silver Tonr/iie, from his maimer of speaking. 



1686.] JOHN EVELYN. 25^ 

14th. The Bishop of Bath and Wells* preached on 
John vi. 17, a most excellent and pathetic discourse: 
after he had recommended the duty of fasting and other 
penitential duties, he exhorted to constancy in the Protest- 
ant religion, detestation of the unheard-of cruelties of the 
French, and stirring up to a liberal contribution. This 
sermon was the more acceptable, as it was unexpected 
from a Bishop who had undergone the censure of being 
inclined to Popery, the contrary whereof no man could 
show more. This indeed did all our Bishops, to the 
disabusing and reproach of all their delators ; for none 
were more zealous against Popery than they were. 

16th. I was at a review of the army about London, in 
Hyde Park, about 6000 horse and foot, in excellent order; 
his Majesty and infinity of people being present. 

17th. I went to my house in the country, refusing to 
be present at what was to pass at the Privy Seal the next 
day. In the morning, Dr. Tenison preached an incom- 
parable discourse at Whitehall, on Timothy ii. 3, 4. 

24th. Dr. Cradock (Provost of Eaton) preached at the 
same place on Psalm xlix. I'd, showing the vanity of 
earthly enjoyments. 

28th. Dr. White, Bishop of Peterborough, preached in 
a very eloquent style, on Matthew xxvi. 29, submission to 
the will of God on all accidents, and at all times. 

29th. The Duke of Northumberland (a natural son of 
the late King by the Duchess of Cleveland) marrying very 
meanly, with the help of his brother Grafton, attempted 
in vain to spirit away his wife. 

A Brief was read in all churches for relieving the French 
Protestants, who came here for protection from the 
unheard-of cruelties of the King. 

2nd April. Sir Edward Hales, a Papist, made Governor 
of Dover Castle.t 

* Thomas Ken, D. D. the deprived Bishop : born at Berkhamstead, Herts, 
in July, 1637, and died at Longleate, in Wiltsliire, then tlie seat of Lord 
Viscount Weymouth, March 19, 1710-11. 

+ Not taking the Test, his coachman was set up to inform against him, 
and claim the £500 penalty. When this was to be brought to trial, the 
Judges were secretly asked their opinions, and such as were not clear with 
the Court, were turned out. Half of them were dismissed. Burnet, vol. III. 
pp. 1110, 1111. 



252 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

15th. The Archbishop of York * now died of the small- 
pox, aged 62, a corpulent man. He was my special loving 
friend, and whilst Bishop of Rochester (from whence he 
was translated) my excellent neighbour. He was an 
inexpressible loss to the whole church, and that Province 
especially, being a learned, wise, stout, and most worthy 
prelate ; I look on this as a great stroke to the poor Church 
of England, now in this defecting period. 

18th. In the afternoon, I went to Camberwell, to visit 
Dr. Parr. After sermon, 1 accompanied him to his house, 
where he showed me the Life and Letters of the late 
learned Primate of Armagh (Usher), and among them 
that letter of Bishop Bramhall's to the Primate, giving 
notice of the Popish practices to pervert this nation, by 
sending a hundred priests into England, who were to 
conform themselves to all sectaries and conditions for the 
more easily dispersing their doctrine amongst us. This 
letter was the cause of the whole impression being seized, 
upon pretence that it was a political or historical account 
of things not relating to theology, though it had been 
licensed by the Bishop; which plainly showed what an 
interest the Papists now had, — that a Protestant book, 
containing the life and letters of so eminent a man, was 
not to be published. There were also many letters to and 
from most of the learned persons his correspondents in 
Europe. The book will, I doubt not, struggle through 
this unjust impediment. 

Several Judges were put out, and new complying ones 
put in, 

25th. This day was read in our church the Brief for a 
collection for relief of the Protestant French, so crueUy, 
barbarously, and inhumanly oppressed without any thing 
being laid to their charge. It had been long expected, 
and at last with difficulty procured to be published, the 
interest of the French Ambassador obstructing it. 

5th May. There being a seal, it was feared we should 
be required to pass a docket dispensing with Dr. Obadiah 
Walker and four more, whereof one was an apostate curate 
of Putney,t the others officers of University College, 

* Dr. John Dolben. 
+ Edward Sclater. From a Pi-otestant he became a Roman Catholic ; and, in 



1686.] JOHN EVELYN. 253 

Oxford, who hold their masterships, fellowships, and cures, 
and keep public schools, and enjoy all former emoluments, 
notwithstanding they no more frequented or used the 
public forms of prayers, or communion, with the Church 
of England, or took the Test or oaths of allegiance and 
supremacy, contrary to twenty Acts of Parliament ; which 
dispensation being also contrary to his Majesty's own 
gracious declaration at the beginning of his reign, gave 
umbrage (as well it might) to every good Protestant ; nor 
could we safely have passed it under the Privy Seal, 
wherefore it was done by immediate warrant, signed by 
Mr. Solicitor. 

This Walker was a learned person, of a monkish life, 
to whose tuition I had more than thirty years since re- 
commended the sons of my worthy friend, Mr. Hyldyard, 
of Horsley in Surrey,* believing him to be far from Avhat 
he proved a hypocritical concealed Papist, by which he 
perverted the eldest son of Mr. Hyldyard, Sir Edward 
Hale's eldest son, and several more, to the great disturb- 
ance of the whole nation, as well as of the University, as 
by his now public defection appeared. All engines being 
now at work to bring in Popery, which God in mercy 
prevent ! 

This day was burnt in the old Exchange, by the com- 
mon hangman, a translation of a book written by the 
famous Monsieur Claude, relating only matters of fact 
concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceed- 
ings of the French King against his Protestant subjects, 
without any refutation of any facts therein j so mighty a 
power and ascendant here had the French Ambassador, 
who was doubtless in great indignation at the pious and 
truly generous charity of all the nation, for the relief of 
those miserable sufferers who came over for shelter. 

About this time also, the Duke of Savoy, instigated by 
the French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, 
slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that 
there seemed to be an universal design to destroy all that 
would not go to mass, throughout Europe. Quod avertat 
D. O. M. ! No faith in Princes ! 

1 689, he read his recantation from that church, and again hecamo a_ Pro- 
testant. Manning and Bray's Surrey, vol. III. p. 300. 
* See Tol, 1. p. 273. 



254 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

12th. I refused to put the Privy Seal to Doctor Walker's 
licence for printing and publishing divers Popish books, 
of which I complained both to my Lord of Canterbury, 
(with whom I went to advise in the Council-Chamber) 
and to my Lord Treasurer that evening at his lodgings: 
My Lord of Canterbury's* advice was, that I should follow 
my own conscience therein; Mr. Treasurer's, that if in 
conscience I could dispense with it, for any other hazard 
he believed there was none. Notwithstanding this, I 
persisted in my refusal. 

29th. There was no sermon on this anniversary, as 
there usually had been ever since the reign of the present 
King. 

2nd June. Such storms, rain, and foul weather, seldom 
known at this time of the year. The camp at Hounslow 
Heath, from sickness and other inconveniences of weather, 
forced to retire to quarters; the storms being succeeded 
by excessive hot weather, many grew sick. Great feasting 
there, especially in Lord Dunbarton's quarters. There 
were many jealousies and discourses of what was the 
meaning of this encampment. 

A seal this day; mostly pardons and discharges of 
Knight-Baronets' fees, which having been passed over for 
so many years, did greatly disoblige several families who 
had served his Majesty. Lord Tyrconnel gone to Ireland, 
with great powers and commissions, giving as much cause 
of talk as the camp, especially nineteen new Privy-Coun- 
cillors and Judges being now made, amongst which but 
three Protestants, and Tyrconnel made General. 

New Judges also here, amongst which was Milton, a 
Papist (brother to that Milton who wrote for the Regi- 
cides), who presumed to take his place without passing 
the Test.f Scotland refuses to grant liberty of mass to 
the Papists there. 

The French persecution more inhuman than ever. The 
Protestants in Savoy successfully resist the French dra- 
goons sent to murder them. 

The King's chief physician in Scotland apostatizing 

• Dr. Sancroft. Burnet describes him as a timid man. 
+ Christopher Milton, made a Baron of the Exchequer. He did not hold 
his situation long, and Dr. Johnson admits, that from weakness of constitution 
he retired before he had done any disreputable act. 



1686.] JOHN EVELYN. 255 

from tlie Protestant religion, does of his own accord 
publish his recantation at Edinburgh.* 

11th. I went to see Middleton's receptacle of water at 
the New River, and the new Spa Wells near. 

20th. An extraordinary season of violent and sudden 
rain. The camp still in tents. 

24th. My Lord-Treasurer settled my great business with 
Mr. Pretyman, to which I hope God will at last give a 
prosperous issue. 

25th. Now his Majesty, beginning with Dr, Sharp and 
Tully, proceeded to silence and suspend divers excellent 
divines for preaching against Popery. 

27th. I had this day been married thirty-nine years — 
blessed be God for all His mercies ! 

The new very young Lord Chief-Justice Herbert de- 
clared on the bench, that the government of England was 
entirely in the King ; that the Crown was absolute ; that 
penal laws were powers lodged in the Crown to enable the 
King to force the execution of the law, but were not bars 
to bind the King's power; that he could pardon all 
offences against the law, and forgive the penalties, and 
why could he not dispense with them ; by which the Test 
was abolished? Every one was astonished. Great jea- 
lousies as to what would be the end of these proceedings. 

6th July. I supped with the Countess of Rochester, 
where was also the Duchess of Buckingham and Madame 
de Goveme, whose daughter was married to the Marquis 
of Halifax's son. She made me a character of the French 
King and Dauphin, and of the persecution; that they 
kept much of the cruelties from the King's knowledge ; 
that the Dauphin was so afraid of his father, that he durst 
not let any thing appear of his sentiments ; that he hated 
letters and priests, spent all his time in hunting, and 
seemed to take no notice of what was passing. 

• Sir^Robert Sibbald, who was the most learned antiquary in Scotland, had 
lived in a course of philosophical virtue, but in great doubt as to revealed 
religion, was prevailed on by the Earl of Perth to turn Papist ; but he soon 
became ashamed of having done so, on so little inquiry. He went to London 
for some months, retiring from all company, and went into a deep coui-se of 
study, by which he came to see into the errors of Popery. He then returned 
to Scotland, and published his recantation openly in a church. Bwnefs Own 
Times. III. 1128, 



256 DIARY OF [londow, 

This lady was of a great family and fortune, and had 
fled hither for refuge. 

8th. I waited on the Archbishop at Lambeth, where I 
dined and met the famous preacher and writer, Dr. Allix,* 
doubtless a most excellent and learned person. The 
Archbishop and he spoke Latin together, and that very 
readily. 

11th. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester, preached before 
the Household in St. George's Chapel at Windsor, the 
late King's glorious chapel now seized on by the mass- 
priests. Dr. Cartwright, Dean of Ripon, preached before 
the great men of the Court in the same place. 

We had now the sad news of the Bishop of Oxford's f 
death, an extraordinary loss to the poor Church at this 
time. Many candidates for his Bishopric and Deanery, 
Dr. Parker, South, Aldrich, &c. Dr. Walker (now 
apostatizing) came to Court, and was doubtless veiy busy. 

13th. Note, that standing by the Queen at basset 
(cards), I observed that she was exceedingly concerned for 
the loss of £80 ; her outward affability much changed to 
stateliness, since she has been exalted. 

The season very rainy and inconvenient for the camps. 
His Majesty very cheerful. 

14th. Was sealed at our oflfice the Constitution of 
certain Commissioners to take upon them full power of all 
Ecclesiastical affairs, in as unlimited a manner, or rather 
greater, than the late High Commission-Court, abrogated 
by Parliament ; for it had not only faculty to inspect and 
visit all Bishops' dioceses, but to change what laws and 
statutes they should think fit to alter among the Colleges, 
though founded by private men ; to punish, suspend, 
fine, &c. give oaths and call witnesses. The main drift 
was to suppress zealous preachers. In sum, it was the 
whole power of a Vicar- General — note the consequence ! 
Of the Clergy the Commissioners ^were the Archbishop of 
Canterbury [Sancroft], Bishop of Durham [Crewe] and 
Rochester [Sprat] ; of the Temporals, the Lord Treasurer, 
the Lord Chancellor [Jefferies] (who alone was ever to be 
of the quorum), the Chief Justice [Herbert], and Lord 
President [Earl of Sunderland] . 

* Allix, of whom see p. 243. 
+ Dr. John Fell, also Dean of Christ Church. 



1G8C.] JOHN EVELYN 257 

IStli. I went to see Sir John Chardin, at Greenwieli. 

4tli August. I dined at Signor Verrio^s, the famous 
Italian painter, now settled in his Majesty's garden at 
St. James's, which he had made a very delicious Paradise. 

Sth. Our vicar gone to dispose of his country living in 
Eutlandshire, having St. Dunstan in the East given him 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

I Avent to visit the Marquis Ravigne, now my neigh- 
bour at Greenwich, retired from the persecution in France. 
He was the Deputy of all the Protestants of that kingdom 
in the Parliament of Paris, and several times Ambassador 
in this and other Courts ; a person of great learning and 
experience.* 

Sth September. Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, was 
on Monday suspended, on pretence of not silencing Dr. 
Sharp of St. Giles's, for something of a sermon in which 
he zealously reproved the doctrine of the Roman Catholics. 
The Bishop having consulted the civilians, they told him 
he could not by any law proceed against Dr. Sharp 
without producing witnesses, and impleaded according to 
form ; but it was overruled by my Lord Chancellor, and 
the Bishop, sentenced without so much as being heard to 
any purpose. This was thought a very extraordinary way 
of proceeding, and was universally resented, and so much 
the rather for that two Bishops, Durham f and Rochester, J 
sitting in the Commission and giving their suffrages, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury refused to sit amongst them. 
He was only suspended ab officio, and that was soon after 
taken off. He was brother to the Earl of Northampton, 
had once been a soldier, had travelled in Italy, but became 
a sober, grave, and excellent Prelate. 

12th. Buda now taken from the Turks; a form of 
Thanksgiving Avas ordered to be used in the (as yet 
remaining) Protestant chapels and chm'ch of Whitehall 
and AVindsor. 

The King of Denmark was besieging Hamburgh, no 
doubt by the French contrivance, to embroil the Protestant 
Princes in a new war, that Holland, &c. being engaged, 

* His son was with King William in Ireland, and wa? made Earl of Galway ; 
but was dismissed by violence of party, being a Frenchman, though his con- 
duct had been in every respect most excellent, as will be mentioned hereafter. 

t Crewe. % Sprat : he afterwards would not sit. 

•VOL. II. S 



258 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

matter for new quarrel might arise : the unheard-of perse- 
cution of the poor Protestants still raging more than ever. 

22nd. The Danes retire from Hamburgh, the Protestant 
Princes appearing for their succour, and the Emperor 
sending his Minatories to the King of Denmark, and also 
requiring the restoration of the Duke of Saxe Gotha. 
Thus it pleased God to defeat the French designs, which 
were evidently to kindle a new war. 

14th October. His Majesty's birth-day; I was at his 
rising in his bedchamber, afterwards in the park, where 
four companies of guards were drawn up. The officers, &c. 
wonderfully rich and gallant ; they did not head their 
troops, but their next officers, the colonels being on horse- 
back by the King whilst they marched. The ladies not 
less splendid at Court, where there was a ball at night ; 
but small appearance of quality. All the shops both in 
the City and suburbs were shut up, and kept as solemnly 
as any hoUday. Bonfires at night in Westminster, but 
forbidden in the City. 

17th. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterborough, preached at 
Covent Garden church on Ephes. v. 18, 19, showing the 
custom of the primitive saints in serving God Avith 
hymns, and their frequent use of them upon all occasions: 
perstringing the profane way of mirth and intemperance 
of this ungodly age. Afterwards, I visited my Lord 
Chief Justice of Ireland, with whom I had long and 
private discourse concerning the miserable condition that 
kingdom was like to be in, if TyrconneFs coimsels should 
prevail at Court. 

23rd. Went with the Countess of Sunderland to Cran- 
bourn, a lodge and walk of my Lord Godolphin's in Windsor 
Park. There was one room in the house spared in the 
pulling down the old one, because the late Duchess of 
York was born in it ; the rest was built and added to it 
by Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of the Navy ; and since, 
the whole was purchased by my Lord Godolphin, who 
spake to me to go see it, and advise what trees were fit to 
be cut down to improve the dwelling, being environed 
with old rotten pollards, which corrupt the air. It stands 
on a knoll, which though insensibly rising, gives it a 
prospect over the Keep of Windsor, about three miles 
N. E. of it. The ground is clayey and moist ; the water 



1686.] JOHN EVELYN. 259 

stark naught; the park is pretty; the house tolerable^ 
and gardens convenient. After dinner, we came back to 
London, having two coaches both going and coming, of 
six horses apiece, which we changed at Hounslow. 

24'th. Dr. Warren preached before the Princess at 
Whitehall on 5th Matthew, of the blessedness of the pure 
in heart, most elegantly describing the bliss of the beati- 
fical vision. In the afternoon. Sir George Wheeler, Knight 
and Baronet, preached on the 4th Matt, upon the neces- 
sity of repentance, at St. Margaret^s, an honest and 
devout discourse, and pretty tolerably performed. This 
gentleman coming from his travels out of Greece, fell 
in love with the daughter of Sir Thomas Higgins, his 
Majesty's resident at Venice, niece to the Earl of Bath, 
and married her. When they returned into England, 
being honoured with knighthood, he would needs turn 
preacher, and took orders. He published a learned and 
ingenious book of his travels, and is a very worthy person, 
a little formal and particular, but exceedingly devout.* 

27th. There was a triumphant show of the Lord Mayor 
both by land and water, with much solemnity, when yet 
his power has been so much diminished, by the loss of the 
City's former charter. 

5th November. I went to St. Martin's in the morning, 
where Dr. Birch preached very boldly against the Papists, 
from John xvi. 3. In the afternoon, I heard Dr. Tillotson 
in Lincoln's Inn chapel, on the same text, but more 
cautiously. 

16th. I went with part of my family to pass the melan- 
choly winter in London at my son's house in Arundel 
Buildings. 

* Sir George Wheeler was bom whilst his parents were in exile at Breda 
for their attachment to King Charles I. He was of Luicoln College, Oxford. 
On his return from his travels in Asia and Greece, he was knighted. Having 
presented several antiquities which he had collected to the University of 
Oxford, in 1683, they gave him his degree of A. M. He took orders against 
the advice of powerful friends, but from an earnest desire to be useful as a 
Parish Priest ; and he well fulfilled liis intentions. He became Rector of 
Houghton-le-Spring,in Durham, the living which had been so excmplarily filled 
by the " Northern Apostle," Bernard Gilpin, and whose example he worthily 
followed. Bishop Crewe also gave him a stall in Durham Cathedral. He died 
18th January, 1723. His descendants arc seated at Otterden, in Kent. See 
Mr. Surtees' " History of Durham "(1816), where a large account and portrait 
are given of him. 

s2 



260 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

5tli December. I dined at my Lady Arlington's, Groom 
of the Stole to the Queen-Dowager at Somerset-House, 
where dined divers French noblemen, driven out of their 
country by the persecution. 

16th. I carried the Countess of Sunderland to see the 
rarities of one Mr. Charlton in the Middle Temple, who 
showed us such a collection as I had never seen in all my 
travels abroad, either of private gentlemen, or princes. It 
consisted of miniatures, drawings, shells, insects, medals, 
natural things, animals (of which divers, I think 1 0, were kept 
in glasses of spirits of wine), minerals, precious stones, vessels, 
curiosities in amber, crystal, agate, &c. ; all being very 
perfect and rare of their kind, especially his books of birds, 
fish, flowers, and shells, drawn and miniatured to the life. 
He told us that one book stood him in £300 ; it was 
painted by that excellent workman, whom the late Gaston, 
Duke of Orleans, employed. This gentleman's whole col- 
lection, gathered by himself, travelling over most parts of 
Europe, is estimated at £8,000. He appeared to be a 
modest and obliging person.* 

29th. I went to hear the music of the Italians in the 
new chapel, now first opened publicly at Whitehall for the 
Popish Service. Nothing can be finer than the magnifi- 
cent marble work and architecture at the end, where are 
four statues, representing St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
the Church, in white marble, the work of Mr. Gibbon, with 
all the carving and pillars of exquisite art and great cost. 
The altar-piece is the Salutation ; the volto in fresco, the 
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, according to their tra- 
dition, with our Blessed Saviour, and a world of figures 
painted by Verrio. The throne where the King and Queen 
sit is very glorious, in a closet above, just opposite to the 
altar. . Here we saw the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, 
with six or seven Jesuits and others in rich copes, sump- 
tuously habited, often taking off and putting on the Bishop's 
mitre, who sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored 
and censed by three Jesuits in their copes ; then he went 
to the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the 
images and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and 

* This collection was afterwards purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and now 
forms part of the British Museum. Gent. Mag., Nov. 1816, p. 325, from 
Mr. Bagford's papers in the British Museum. 



1687.] JOHN EVELYN. 261 

now and then changing place : the crosier, which was of 
silver, was put into his hand with a world of mysterious 
ceremony, the music playing, with singing. I could not 
have believed I should ever have seen such things in the 
King of England^s palace, after it had pleased God to 
enlighten this nation ; but our great sin has, for the present, 
eclipsed the blessing, which I hope He will in mercy and 
his good time restore to its purity. 

Little appearance of any winter as yet. 

1686-7. 1st January. Mr. Wake preached at St. Mar- 
tin's on 1 Tim. iii. 16, concerning the mystery of godliness. 
He wrote excellent^, in answer to the Bishop of Meaux. 

3rd. A Seal to confirm a gift of £4,000 per annum for 
99 years to the Lord Treasurer out of the Post-office, and 
£1,700 per annum for ever out of Lord Gray's estate. 

There was now another change of the great officers. The 
Treasury was put into commission, two professed Papists 
amongst them, viz.. Lords Bellasis and Dover, joined with 
the old ones. Lord Godolphin, Sir Stephen Pox, and Sir 
John Ernley. 

17th. Much expectation of several grciit men declaring 
themselves Papists. Lord Tyrconnel gone to succeed the 
Lord-Lieutenant [Clarendon] in Ireland, to the astonish- 
ment of all sober men, and to the evident ruin of the Pro- 
testants in that kingdom, as well as of its great improvement 
going on. Much discourse that all the White Staff officers 
and others should be dismissed for adhering to their 
religion. Popish Justices of the Peace established in all 
counties, of the meanest of the people ; Judges ignorant of 
the law, and perverting it — so furiously do the Jesuits 
drive, and even compel Princes to violent courses, and 
destruction of an excellent government both in Church and 
State. God of his infinite mercy open our eyes and turn 
our hearts, and establish His truth with peace ! The Lord 
Jesus defend His little flock, and preserve this threatened 
church and nation ! 

24th. I saw the Queen's new apartment at Whitehall, 
with her new bed, the embroidery of which cost £3,000. 
The carving about the chimney-piece, by Gibbon, is incom- 
parable. 

30th. I heard the famous eunuch, Cifaccio, sing in the 
new Popish chapel this afternoon ; it Avas indeed very rare. 



262 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

and with great skill. He came over from Rome, esteemed 
one of the best voices in Italy. Much cro^yding — little 
devotion. 

27th February. Mr. Clietwin preached at Whitehall on 
Rom. i. 18, a very quaint neat discourse of moral right- 
eousness. 

2nd March. Came out a proclamation for universal 
liberty of conscience in Scotland, and dispensation from 
all tests and laws to the contrary, as also capacitating 
Papists to be chosen into all offices of trust. The mystery 
operates. 

3rd. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester, preached before 
the Princess of Denmark, on Matt. xiv. 23. In the after- 
noon, I went out of town to meet my Lord Clarendon, 
returning from Ireland. 

10th. His Majesty sent for the Commissioners of the 
Privy Seal this morning into his bedchamber, and told us 
that though he had thought fit to dispose of the Seal into 
a single hand, yet he would so provide for us, as it should 
appear how well he accepted our faithful and loyal service, 
with many gracious expressions to this effect ; upon which 
we delivered the Seal into his hands. It was by all the 
world both hoped and expected, that he would have restored 
it to my Lord Clarendon ; but they were astonished to see 
it given to Lord Arundel, of Wardour, a zealous Roman 
Catholic. Indeed it was very hard, and looked very 
unkindly, his Majesty (as my Lord Clarendon protested to 
me, on my going to visit him and long discoursing with 
him about the affairs of Ireland) finding not the least 
failure of duty in him during his government of that king- 
dom, so that his recall plainly appeared to be from the 
stronger influence of the Papists, who now got all the 
preferments. 

Most of the great officers, both in the Court and country, 
Lords and others, were dismissed, as they would not pro- 
mise his Majesty their consent to the repeal of the test and 
penal statutes against Popish Recusants. To this end, 
most of the Parliament-men were spoken to in his Majesty^s 
closet, and such as refused, if in any place, of office or 
trust, civil or military, were put out of their employments. 
This was a time of great trial ; but hardly one of them 
assented, which put the Popish interest much backward. 



1687.] JOHN EVELYN. 263 

The English clergy everj^where preached boldly against 
their superstition and errors, and Avere wonderfully followed 
by the people. Not one considerable proselyte was made 
in all this time. The party Avere exceedingly put to the 
worst by the preaching and writing of the Protestants in 
many excellent treatises, evincing the doctrine and disci- 
pline of the reformed religion, to the manifest disadvantage 
of their adversaries. To this did not a little contribute the 
sermon preached at Whitehall before the Princess of Den- 
mark and a great crowd of people, and at least thirty of the 
greatest nobility, by Dr. Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
on Johnviii. 46 (the gospel of the day) describing through 
his whole discourse the blasphemies, perfidy. Arresting of 
Scripture, preference of tradition before it, spirit of perse- 
cution, superstition, legends and fables of the Scribes and 
Pharisees, so that all the auditory understood his meaning 
of a parallel between them and the Bomish priests, and 
their new Trent religion. He exhorted his audience to 
adhere to the written Word, and to persevere in the Paith 
taught in the Church of England, whose doctrine for 
Catholic and soundness he preferred to all the communi- 
ties and churches of Christians in the world ; concluding 
with a kind of prophecy, that Avhatever it suffered, it should 
after short trial emerge to the confusion of her adversaries, 
and the glory of God. 

I Avent this evening to see the order of the boys and 
children at Christ^s Hospital. There Avere near 800 boys 
and gii'ls so decently clad, cleanly lodged, so wholesomely 
fed, so admirably taught, some the mathematics, especially 
the forty of the late King^s foundation, that I was delighted 
to see the progress some little youths of thirteen or four- 
teen years of age had made. I saw them at supper, visited 
their dormitories, and much admired the order, economy, 
and excellent goAernment of this most charitable seminary. 
Some are taught for the Universities, others designed for 
seamen, all for trades and callings. The girls are instructed 
in all such Avork as becomes their sex and may fit them for 
good Avives, mistresses, and to be a blessing to their gene- 
ration. They sung a psalm before they sat doAvn to supper 
in the great Hall, to an organ Avhich played all the time, 
with such cheerful harmony, that it seemed to me a Adsion 
of angels. I came from the place with infinite satisfaction, 



264 DIARY OF [lokdok, 

having never seen a more noble, pious, and admirable 
charity. All these consisted of orphans only.* The foun- 
dation was of that pious Prince King Edward VI,, whose 
picture (held to be an original of Holbein) is in the court 
where the Governors meet to consult on the affairs of the 
Hospital, and his statue in white marble stands in a niche 
of the wall below, as you go to the church, which is a 
modern, noble and ample fabric. This foundation has had, 
and still has, many benefactors. 

16th. I saw a trial of those devilish, murdering, mis- 
chief-doing engines called bombs, shot out of the mortar- 
piece on Blackheath. The distance that they are cast, the 
destruction they make where they fall, is prodigious. 

20th. The Bishop of Bath and Wells (Dr. Ken) preached 
at St. Martin's to a crowd of people not to be expressed, 
nor the wonderful eloquence of this admirable preacher ; 
the text was Matt. xxvi. 36 to verse 40, describing the bitter- 
ness of our Blessed Saviour's agony, the ardour of his love, 
the infinite obligations we have to imitate his patience and 
resignation ; the means by watching against temptations, 
and over ourselves with fervent prayer to attain it, and the 
exceeding reward in the end. Upon all which he made 
most pathetical discourses. The Communion followed, at 
which I was participant. I afterwards dined at Dr. Teni- 
son's with the Bishop and that young, most learned, pious, 
and excellent preacher, Mr. Wake.f In the afternoon, I 
went to hear Mr. Wake at the new-built church of St. 
Anne, on Mark viii. 34, upon the subject of taking up the 
cross, and strenuously behaving ourselves in time of perse- 
cution, as this now threatened to be. 

His Majesty again prorogued the Parliament, foreseeing 
it would not remit the laws against Papists, by the extra- 
ordinary zeal and bravery of its members, and the free 
renunciation of the great officers both in court and state, 
who would not be prevailed with for any temporal concern. 

25th. Good Friday. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Mar- 
tin's, on 1 Peter ii. 24. During the service, a man came 
into near the middle of the church, with his sword drawn, 
with several others in that posture; in this jealous time it 

* This is by no means the case now. 
t Afterwai'ds Archbisliop of Canterbuiy. 



1687.] JOHN EVELYN. 265 

put the congregation into great confusion ; but it appeared 
to be one who fled for sanctuarj'^j being pursued by bailiffs. 

8th April. I had a re-hearing of my great cause at the 
Chancery in Westminster Hall, having seven of the most 
learned Counsel, my adversary five, among which were the 
Attorney-General and late Solicitor Finch, son to the Lord 
Chancellor Nottingham. The accompt was at last brought 
to one article of the surcharge, and referred to a Master. 
The cause lasted two hours and more. 

lOtli. In the last week, there was issued a Dispensation 
from all obligations and tests, by which Dissenters and 
Papists especially had public liberty of exercising their 
several ways of worship, without incurring the penalty of 
the many Laws and Acts of Parliament to the contrary. 
This was purely obtained by the Papists, thinking thereby 
to ruin the Church of England, being now the only Church 
which so admirably and strenuously opposed their super- 
stition. There was a wonderful concourse of people at the 
Dissenters' meeting-house in this parish, and the parish- 
church [Deptford] left exceeding thin. What this will 
end in, God Almighty only knows ; but it looks like 
confusion, which I pray God avert. 

11th. To London about my suit, some terms of accom- 
modation being proposed. 

19th. I heard the famous singer, Cifaccio, esteemed the 
best in Europe. Indeed, his holding out and delicateness 
in extending and loosing a note with incomparable soft- 
ness and sweetness was admirable ; for the rest I found 
him a mere wanton, effeminate child, very coy, and proudly 
conceited, to my apprehension. He touched the harpsi- 
chord to his voice rarely well. This was before a select 
number of particular persons whom Mr. Pepys invited to 
his house ; and this was obtained by particular favour and 
much difliculty, the Signor much disdaining to show his- 
talent to any but princes. 

24th. At Greenwich, at the conclusion of the Church- 
service, there was a French sermon preached after the use 
of the English Liturgy translated into French, to a congre- 
gation of about 100 French Refugees, of whom Monsieur 
Ruvigny was the chief, and had obtained the use of the 
church, after the parish-service was ended. The preacher 
pathetically exhorted to patience, constancy, and reliance 



266 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

on God amidst all their sufferings, and the infinite rewards 
to come. 

2nd May. I dined with Mynheer Diskvelts, the Holland 
Ambassador, a prudent and worthy person. There dined 
Lord Middleton, principal Secretary of State, Lord Pem- 
broke, Lord Lumley, Lord Preston, Colonel Fitzpatrick, 
and Sir John Chardin. After dinner, the Ambassador 
discoursed of and deplored the stupid folly of om* politics, 
in suffering the French to take Luxemburg, it being 
a place of the most concern to have been defended, for the 
interest not only of the Netherlands, but of England. 

12th. To London. Lord Sunderland being Lord Presi- 
dent and Secretary of State, was made Knight of the 
Garter and prime favourite. — This day there was such 
a storm of wind as had seldom happened, being a sort 
of hurricane. It kept the flood out of the Thames, so that 
people went on foot over several places above bridge. Also 
an earthquake in several places in England about the time 
of the storm. 

26th. To London, about my agreement with Mr. Prety- 
man, after my tedious suit. 

2nd June. I went to London, it having pleased his 
Majesty to grant me a Privy Seal for £6,000, for discharge 
of the debt I had been so many years persecuted for, 
it being indeed for money drawn over by my father-in-law. 
Sir R. Browne, during his residence in the Court of France, 
and so with a much greater sum due to Sir Richard from 
his Majesty ; and now this part of the arrear being paid, 
there remains yet due to me, as executor of Sir Richard, 
above £6,500 more; but this determining an expensive 
Chancery suit has been so great a mercy and providence to 
me, (through the kindness and friendship to me of Lord 
Godolphin, one of the Lords Commissioners of the Trea- 
sury) that I do acknowledge it with all imaginable thanks 
to my gracious God. 

6th. I visited my Lady Pierpoint, daughter to Sir John 
Evelyn of Deane [in Wilts], now widow of Mr. Pierpoint, 
and mother of the Earl of Kingston. She was now engaged 
in the marriage of my cousin, Evelyn Pierpoint, her 
second son. 

There was about this time brought into the Downs 
a vast treasure, which was sunk in a Spanish galleon about 



1687.] JOHN EVELYN, 267 

forty-five yeara ago^ somewhere near Hispaniola, or the 
Bahama islands, and was now weighed up by some gentle- 
men, who were at the charge of divers, &c., to the enriching 
them beyond all expectation. The Duke of Albemarle's 
share [Governor of Jamaica] came to, I believe, £50,000.* 
Some private gentlemen who adventured £100 gained from 
£8,000 to £10,000. His Majesty's tenth was £10,000. 

The Camp was now again pitched at Hounslow, the 
Commanders profusely vying in the expense and magnifi- 
cence of tents. 

12th. Our Vicar preached on 2 Peter ii. 21, upon 
the danger of relapsing into sin. After this, I went and 
heard M, Lamot, an eloquent French preacher at Green- 
wich, on Prov. XXX. 8, 9, a consolatory discourse to the poor 
and religious refugees who escaped out of France in the 
cruel persecution. 

16th. I went to Hampton-Court to give his Majesty 
thanks for his late gracious favour, though it was but 
granting what was due. Whilst I was in the Council- 
Chamber, came in some persons, at the head of whom was 
a formal man with a large roll of parchment in his hand, 
being an Address (as he said, for he introduced it with 
a speech) of the people of Coventry, giving his Majesty 
their great acknowledgments for his granting a liberty of 
conscience; he added that this was not the application 
of one party only, but the unanimous address of Church of 
England men, Presbyterians, Independents, and Anabap- 
tists, to show how extensive his Majesty's grace was, 
as taking in all parties to his indulgence and protection, 
which had removed all dissentions and animosities, which 
would not only unite them in bonds of Christian charity, 
but exceedingly encourage their future industry, to the 
improvement of trade, and spreading his Majesty's glory 
throughout the world ; and that now he had given to God 
his empire, God would establish his; with expressions 
of great loyalty and submission ; and so he gave the roll to 
the King, which being returned to him again, his Majesty 
«aused him to read. The Address was short, but much to 
the substance of the speech of their foreman, to whom 

* The Duke's share amounted to considerably more — it was said about 
£90,000. A medal was struck on this occasion, which is engra^-^d in Mr. 
Evelyn's book on that subject, No. lxxxyii. p. 151. 



268 DIARY OF [londok, 

the King, pulling off his hat, said that what he had done in 
giving liberty of conscience, was, what was ever his judg- 
ment ought to be done ; and that, as he would preserve 
them in their enjoyment of it during his reign, so he 
would endeavour to settle it by law, that it should never be 
altered by his successors. After this, he gave them his 
hand to kiss. It was reported the subscribers were above 
1000. 

But this is not so remarkable as an Address of the week 
before (as I was assured by one present) of some of the 
Family of Love. His Majesty asked them what this wor- 
ship consisted in, and how many their party might consist 
of; they told him their custom was to read the Scripture, 
and then to preach ; but did not give any further account, 
only said that for the rest they were a sort of refined 
Quakers, but their number very small, not consisting, as 
they said, of above threescore in all, and those chiefly 
belonging to the Isle of Ely. 

18th. I dined at Mr. Blathwaite's (two miles from 
Hampton). This gentleman is Secretary of War, Clerk of 
the Council, &c., having raised himself by his industry 
from very moderate circumstances. He is a very proper, 
handsome person, and very dexterous in business, and, 
besides all this, has married a great fortune. His income 
by the Army, Council, and Secretary to the Committee of 
Foreign Plantations, brings him in above £2,000 per 
annum. 

23rd. The Privy Seal for £6,000 was passed to me, 
so that this tedious afi'air was dispatched. — Hitherto, a 
very windy and tempestuous summer. — The French ser- 
mons to the refugees were continued at Greenwich Church. 

19th July. I went to Wotton. In the way, I dined 
at Ashted, with my Lady Mordaunt. 

5th August. I went to see Albury, now purchased by Mr, 
Finch (the King's Solicitor, and son to the late Lord 
Chancellor) ; I found the garden which I first designed for 
the Duke of Norfolk, nothing improved. 

15th. I went to visit Lord Clarendon at Swallowfield, 
where was my Lord Cornbury just arrived from Denmark, 
Avhither he had accompanied the Prince of Denmark two 
months before, and now come back. The miserable tyranny 
under which that nation lives, he related to us ; the 



1687.] JOHN EVELYN. 269 

King keeps them under an armj^ of 40,000 men, all Ger- 
mans, he not daring to trust his own subjects. Notwith- 
standing this, the Danes are exceeding proud, the country 
very poor and miserable. 

22nd. Returned home to Saves (Jourt from Wotton, 
having been five weeks absent with my brother and friends, 
who entertained us very nobly. God be praised for His 
goodness, and this refreshment after my many troubles, 
and let His mercy and providence ever preserve me. 
Amen. 

3rd September. The Lord Mayor sent me an Officer with 
a staif, to be one of the Governors of St. Thomases Hos- 
pital. 

Persecution raging in France ; divers churches there fired 
by lightning, priests struck, consecrated hosts, &c., burnt 
and destroyed, both at St. Maloes and Paris, at the grand 
procession on Corpus Christi-day. 

13th. I went to Lambeth, and dined with the Arch- 
bishop. After dinner, I retired into the library, which I 
found exceedingly improved; there are also divers rare 
manuscripts in a room apart. 

6th October. I was godfather to Sir John Chardin^s son, 
christened at Greenwich Church, named John. The Earl 
of Bath and Countess of Carlisle, the other sponsors. 

29th. An Anabaptist, a very odd ignorant person, a 
mechanic, I think, was Lord INIayor.* The King and 
Queen, and Dadif, the Pope's Nuncio, invited to feast at 
Guildhall. A strange turn of affairs, that those who scan- 
dalized the Church of England as favourers of Popery, 
should publicly invite an emissary from Rome, one who 
represented the very person of their Antichrist ! 

loth December. My son was returned out of Devon, 
where he had been on a commission from the Lords of the 
Treasury about a concealment of land. 

20th. I went Avith my Lord Chief Justice Herbert, 
to see his house at AValton-on-Tliames : J it is a barren 
place. To a very ordinary house he had built a very 

* Sir John Peake. 

•Y Count D'Ada. See before, page 247, note. 

J This is a mistake ; the house was Oatlands in Wcybridge. He followed 
the fortunes of King James, who gave him his great Seal. He was attainted, 
and Oatlands given to his brother. Admiral Herbert. He published an 



270 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

handsome library, designing more building to it than the 
place deserves, in my opinion. He desired my advice 
about laying out his gardens, &c. The next day, we went 
to Weybridge, to see some pictures of the Duchess of Nor- 
folk's, particularly the statue, or child in gremio, said to be 
of Michael Angelo; but there are reasons to think it 
rather a copy, from some proportion in the figures ill 
taken. It was now exposed to sale. 

1687-8. 12th January. Mr. Slingsby, Master of the 
Mint, being under very deplorable circumstances on 
account of his creditors, and especially the King, I did my 
endeavour with the Lords of the Treasury to be favourable 
to him. 

My Lord Arran, eldest son to the Duke of Hamilton, 
being now married to Lady Ann Spencer, eldest daughter 
of the Earl of Sunderland, Lord President of the Council, I 
and my family had most glorious favours sent us, the 
wedding being celebrated with extraordinary splendour. 

15th. There was a solemn and particular office used at 
our, and all the churches of London and ten miles round, 
for a thanksgiving to God, for her Majestv being with 
child. 

22nd. This afternoon I went not to church, being 
employed on a religious treatise I had Tindertaken.* 

Post annum 1588—1660—1688, Annus Mirabilis Ter- 
tius.f 

30th. Being the Martyrdom-day of King Charles the 
First, our curate made a florid oration against the murder 
of that excellent Prince, with an exhortation to obedience 
from the example of David, 1 Samuel xx^d. 6. 

12th February. My daughter Evelyn going in the coach 
to visit in the City, a jolt (the door being not fast shut) 
flung her quite out in such manner, as the hind wheels 
passed over her a httle above her knees. Yet it pleased 
God, besides the bruises of the wheels, she had no other 
harm. In two days, she was able to walk, and soon after 

apology for the judgment he had given m favour of the King's dispensing 
powers, which was answered by Mr. Atwood and Sir Robert Atkins. Man- 
ning and Bray's Hist, of Surrey, II. 78f). 

• What this was does not appear ; but there are several of bis composition, 
remaining in MS. 

f This seema added after the page was written. 



1688.] JOHN EVELYN. 271 

perfectly well ; through God Almighty's great mercy to 
an excellent wife and a most dutiful and discreet daughter- 
in-law. 

17th. I received the sad news of my niece Montague's 
death at Woodcot on the 15th. 

15th March. I gave in my account about the Sick and 
Wounded, in order to have my quietus. 

23rd. Dr. Parker, Bishop of Oxford, who so lately pub- 
lished his extravagant treatise about transubstantiation, 
and for abrogating the Test and Penal Laws, died. He 
was esteemed a violent, passionate, haughty man, but yet 
being pressed to declare for the Church of Rome, he 
utterly refused it. A remarkable end ! 

The French Tyrant now finding he could make no 
proselytes amongst those Protestants of quality, and others, 
whom he had caused to be shut up in dungeons, and con- 
fined to nunneries and monasteries, gave them, after so 
long trial, a general releasement, and leave to go out of 
the kingdom, but utterly taking their' estates and their 
children ; so that great numbers came daily into England 
and other places, where they were received and relieved 
with very considerate Christian charity. This Providence 
and goodness of God to those who thus constantly held 
out, did so work upon those miserable poor souls, who to 
avoid the persecution signed their renunciation, and to 
save theii' estates went to mass, that reflecting on what 
they had done, they grew so afi'ected in their conscience, 
that not being able to support it, they in great numbers 
through all the French provinces, acquainted the magis- 
trates and lieutenants that, being sorry for their apostacy, 
they were resolved to return to their old religion ; that 
they would go no more to mass, but peaceably assemble 
when they could, to beg pardon and worship God, but so 
without weapons as not to give the least umbrage of rebel- 
lion, or sedition, imploring their pity and commiseration ; 
and, accordingly, meeting so from time to time, the dra- 
goon-missioners. Popish officers and priests, fell upon them, 
murdered and put them to death, whoever they could lay 
hold on ; they without the least resistance embraced death, 
torture, or hanging, with singing psalms and praying for 
their persecutors to the last breath, yet still continuing 
the former assembling of themselves in desolate places. 



272 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

suffering with incredible constancy, that through God's 
mercy they might obtain pardon for this lapse. Such 
examples of Christian behaviour have not been seen since 
the primitive persecutions ; and doubtless God will do some 
signal work in the end, if we can with patience and 
resignation hold out, and depend on His Providence. 

24th. I went with Sir Charles Littleton to Sheen, 
a house and estate given him by Lord Brouncker ; one 
who was ever noted for a hard, covetous, vicious man ; but 
for his worldly craft and skill in gaming few exceeded him. 
Coming to die, he bequeathed all his land, house, furniture, 
&c. to Sir Charles, to whom he had no manner of relation, 
but an ancient friendship contracted at the famous siege 
of Colchester, forty years before. It is a pretty place, with 
fine gardens, and well-planted, and given to one worthy of 
them. Sir Charles being an honest gentleman and soldier. 
He is brother to Sir Henry Littleton of Worcestershire, 
whose great estate he is likely to inherit, his brother being 
without children. They are descendants of the great lawyer 
of that name, and give the same Arms and motto. He is 
married to one Mrs. Temple, formerly Maid of Honour to 
the late Queen, a beautiful lady, and he has many fine 
children, so that none envy his good fortune. 

After dinner, we went to see Sir William Temple's near 
to it; the most remarkable things are his orangery and 
gardens, where the wall-fruit-trees are most exquisitely 
nailed and trained, far better than I ever noted. 

There are many good pictures, especially of Vandyke's, 
in both these houses, and some few statues and small busts 
in the latter. 

From thence to Kew, to visit Sir Henry Capell's, whose 
orangery and myrtetum are most beautiful and perfectly 
well kept. He was contriving very high palisadoes of reeds 
to shade his oranges during the summer, and painting 
those reeds in oil. 

1st April. In the morning, the first sermon was by Dr. 
StiUingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's (at Whitehall), on Luke, x. 
41, 42. The holy Communion followed, but was so in- 
terrupted by the rude breaking in of multitudes zealous 
to hear the second sermon, to be preached by the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, that the latter part of that holy office 
could hardly be heard, or the sacred elements be distri- 



1688.] JOHN EVELYN. 273 

buted without great trouble. The Princess being come, he 
preached on Mich. vii. 8, 9, 10, describing the calamity of 
the reformed church of Judah under the Babylonian per- 
secution, for her sins, and God^s delivery of her on her 
repentance; that as Judah emerged, so should the now- 
Reformed Church, wherever insulted and persecuted. He 
preached with his accustomed action, zeal, and energy, so 
that people flocked from all quarters to hear him. 
15th. A dry, cold, backward spring; easterly winds. 
The persecution still raging in France, multitudes of 
Protestants, and many very considerable and great persons 
fl3dng hither, produced a second general contribution, the 
Papists, by God^s Providence, as yet making small progress 
amongst us. 

29th. The weather was, till now, so cold and sharp, by 
an almost perpetual east wind, which had continued many 
months, that there was little appearance of any spring, 
and yet the winter was very favourable as to frost and snow. 
2nd May. To London, about my petition for allowances 
upon the account of Commissioner for Sick and Wounded 
in the former war with Holland. 

8th. His Majesty, alarmed by the great fleet of the 
Dutch (whilst we had a very inconsiderable one), went 
down to Chatham ; their fleet was well prepared, and out, 
before we were in any readiness, or had any considerable 
number to have encountered them, had there been occa- 
sion, to the great reproach of the nation ; whilst, being in 
profound peace, there was a mighty land-army, which there 
was no need of, and no force at sea, where only was the 
apprehension ; but the army was doubtless kept and in- 
creased, in order to bring in and countenance Popery, the 
King beginning to discover his intentions, by many in- 
stances pursued by the Jesuits, against his first reso- 
lution to alter nothing in the Church-Establishment, 
so that it appeared there can be no reUance on Popish 
promises. 

18th. The King enjoining the ministers to read his 
Declaration for giving liberty of conscience (as it was 
styled) in all the churches of England, this evening, 
six Bishops, Bath and Wells,* Peterborough,! Ely, J Chi- 

* Thomas Ken. f Thomas White, J Francis Turnei*. 
VOL. II. T 



274 DIARY OF [londok, 

Chester,* St. Asaph^f and Bristol,t in the name of all the 
rest of the Bishops, came to his Majesty to petition him, 
that he would not impose the reading of it to the several con- 
gregations within their dioceses ; not that they were averse 
to the publishing it for want of due tenderness towards 
Dissenters, in relation to whom they should be willing to 
come to such a temper as should be thought fit, when that 
matter might be considered and settled in Parliament and 
Convocation ; but that, the Declaration being founded on 
such a dispensing power as might at pleasure set aside all 
laws ecclesiastical and civil, it appeared to them illegal, as 
it had done to the Parliament in 1661 and 1672, and that 
it was a point of such consequence, that they could not so 
far make themselves parties to it, as the reading of it in 
church in time of Divine Service amounted to. 

The King was so far incensed at this address, that he 
with threatening expressions commanded them to obey 
him in reading it at their perils, and so dismissed them. 

20th. I went to Whitehall Chapel, Avhere, after the 
morning Lessons, the Declaration was read by one of the 
Choir who used to read the Chapters. I hear it was in 
the Abbey Church, Westminster, but almost universally 
forborne throughout all London: the consequences of 
which a little time will show. 

25th. All the discourse now was about the Bishops 
refusing to read the injunction for the abohtion of the 
Test, &c. It seems the injunction came so crudely from 
the Secretary's office, that it was neither sealed nor signed 
in form, nor had any lawyer been consulted, so as the 
Bishops, who took all imaginable advice, put the Court to 
great difficulties how to proceed against them. Great 
were the consults, and a proclamation expected all this 
day ; but nothing was done. The action of the Bishops 
was universally applauded, and reconciled many adverse 
parties. Papists only excepted, who were now exceedingly 
perplexed, and violent courses were every moment ex- 
pected. Report was, that the Protestant secular Lords 
and Nobility would abet the Clergy. 

The Queen Dowager, hitherto bent on her return into 
Portugal, now on the sudden, on allegation of a great debt 

* John Lake. f William Lloyd. J Sir John Trelawny, Bart. 



1688.] JOHN EVELYN. 375 

owing her by his Majesty disabling her, declares her 
resolution to stay. 

News arrived of the most prodigious earthquake that 
was almost ever heard of, subverting the city of Lima and 
country in Peru, with a dreadful inundation following it. 

8th June. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
with the Bishops of Ely, Chichester, St. Asaph, Bristol, 
Peterborough, and Bath and Wells, were sent from the 
Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to give 
bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Decla- 
ration for liberty of conscience ; they refused to give bail, 
as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern 
of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on 
their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, 
as they passed out of the barge along the Tower-wharf. 

10th. A young Prince born, which will cause disputes. 

About two o^ clock, we heard the Tower-ordnance dis- 
charged, and the bells ringing for the birth of a Prince of 
Wales. This was very surprising, it having been univer- 
sally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next 
month. 

13th. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, \isited 
the Archbishops and Bishops of Ely, St. Asaph, and Bath 
and Wells. 

14th. Dined with my Lord Chancellor. 

15th. Being the first day of Term, the Bishops were 
brought to Westminster on Habeas Corpus, when the 
indictment was read, and they were called on to plead ; 
their Counsel objected that the warrant was illegal ; but, 
after long debate, it was over-ruled, and they pleaded. 
The Court then oflTered to take bail for their appearance ; 
but this they refused, and at last were dismissed on their 
own recognizances to appear that day fortnight; the 
Archbishop in £200, the Bishops £100 each. 

17th. Was a day of thanksgiving in London and ten 
miles about for the young Prince's birth ; a form of prayer 
made for the purpose by the Bishop of Rochester. 

29th. They appeared; the trial lasted from nine in the 
morning to past six in the evening, when the Jury retired 
to consider of their verdict, and the Court adjourned to 
nine the next morning. The Jury were locked up till 
that time, eleven of them being for an acqiiittal ; but one 

T 2 



276 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

(Arnold a brewer) would not consent. At length, he 
agreed with the others. The Chief Justice, Wright, 
behaved with great moderation and civility to the Bishops. 
Alibone, a Papist, was strongly against them ; but Hollo- 
way and Powell, being of opinion in their favour, they 
were acquitted. When this was heard, there was great 
rejoicing; and there was a lane of people from the King's 
Bench to the water-side, on their knees, us the Bishops 
passed and repassed, to beg their blessing. Bonfires were 
made that night, and bells rung, which was taken very ill 
at Court, and an appearance of near sixty Earls and 
Lords, &c. on the bench, did not a little comfort them ; 
but indeed they were all along full of comfort and cheerful. 

Note, they denied to pay the Lieutenant of the Tower 
(Hales, who used them very surlily) any fees, alleging 
that none were due. 

The night was solemnized with bonfires, and other 
fire- works, &c. 

2nd July. The two Judges, HoUoway and Powell, were 
displaced. 

3rd. I went with Dr. Godolphin and his brother Sir 
William to St. Alban's to see a library he would have 
bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright, late Archdeacon 
of St. Alban's, a very good collection of books, especially 
iji divinity ; he was to give £300 for them. Having seen 
the great Church, now newly repaired by a public contri- 
bution, we returned home. 

8th. One of the King's Chaplains preached before the 
Princess on Exodus xiv. 13, " Stand, still, and behold the 
salvation of the Lord," which he applied so boldly to the 
present conjuncture of the Church of England, that more 
could scarce be said to encourage desponders. The 
Popish priests were not able to carry their cause against 
their learned adversaries, who confounded them both by 
their disputes and writings. 

12th. The camp now began at Hounslow; but the 
nation was in high discontent. 

Colonel Titus, Sir Henry Vane, (son of him who was 
executed for his treason) and some other of the Presby- 
terians and Independent party, were sworn of the Privy 
Council, from hopes of thereby diverting that party from 
going over to the Bishops and Church of England, which 



1688.1 JOHN EVELYN. 277 

now they began to do^ foreseeing the design of the 
Papists to descend and take in their most hateful of 
heretics (as they at other times expressed them to be) to 
effect their own ends, now evident ; the utter extirpation 
of the Church of England first, and then the rest would 
follow. 

17th. This night the fireworks were played off, that had 
been prepared for the Queen's up-sitting. We saw them 
to great advantage ; they were very fine, and cost some 
thousands of pounds, in the pyramids, statues, &c. ; but 
were spent too soon for so long a preparation. 

2Gth. I went to Lambeth to visit the Archbishop, whom 
I found very cheerful. 

lOtii August. Dr. Tenison now told me there would 
suddenly be some great thing discovered. This was the 
Prince of Orange intending to come over. 

15th. I went to Althorpe, in Northamptonshire, seventy 
miles. A coach and four horses took up me and my son 
at Whitehall, and carried us to Dunstable, where we 
arrived and dined at noon, and from thence another coach 
and six horses carried us to Althorpe, four miles beyond 
Northampton, where we arrived by seven o'clock that 
evening. Both these coaches were hired for me by 
that noble Countess of Sunderland, who invited me to her 
house at Althorpe * where she entertained me and my 
son with very extraordinary kindness ; I staid till the 
Thursday. 

18th. Dr. Jeffryes, the minister of Althorpe, Avho was 
my Lord's chaplain when Ambassador in France, preached 
the shortest discourse I ever heard ; but what was defec- 
tive in the amplitude of his sermon, he had supplied in 
the largeness and convenience of the parsonage-house, 
which the Doctor (who had at least £600 a-year in spiritual 
advancement) had new built, and made fit for a person of 
quality to live in, with gardens and all accommodation 
according therewith. 

My lady carried us to see Lord Northampton's Scat, 
a very strong large house, built with stone, not altogether 
modern. They were enlarging the garden, in which was 

* See a former visit to this place, p. 100. 



278 DIARY OF [althorpe, 

nothing extraordinary, except the iron gate opening into 
the park, which indeed was very good work, wrought in 
flowers, painted with blue and gilded. There is a noble walk 
of elms towards the front of the house by the bowling- 
green. I was not in any room of the house besides a 
lobby looking into the garden, where my Lord and his 
new Countess (Sir Stephen Fox's daughter, whom I had 
known from a child) entertained the Countess and her 
daughter the Countess of Arran (newly married to the 
son of the Duke of Hamilton) with so little good grace, 
and so dully, that our visit was very short, and so we 
returned to Althorpe, twelve miles distant. 

The house, or rather palace, at Althorpe, is a noble 
uniform pile in form of a half H, built of brick and free- 
stone, balustred and a la moderne ; the hall is well, the 
staircase excellent ; the rooms of state, galleries, offices 
and furniture, such as may become a great prince. It is 
situate in the midst of a garden, exquisitely planted and 
kept, and all this in a park walled in with hewn stone, 
planted with rows and walks of trees, canals and fish- 
ponds, and stored with game. And, what is above all 
this, governed by a lady, who without any show of solici- 
tude, keeps everything in such admirable order, both 
within and without, from the garret to the cellar, that 
I do not believe there is any in this nation, or in any 
other, that exceeds her in such exact order, without osten- 
tation, but substantially great and noble. The meanest 
servant is lodged so neat and cleanly; the service at the 
several tables, the good order and decency — in a word, 
the entire economy is perfectly becoming a wise and noble 
person. She is one who for her distinguished esteem 
of me from a long and worthy friendship, I must ever 
honour and celebrate. I wish from my soul the Lord her 
husband (whose parts and abilities are otherwise con- 
spicuous) was as worthy of her, as by a fatal apostacy and 
court-ambition he has made himself unworthy ! This^ 
is what she deplores, and it renders her as much affliction 
as a lady of great soul and much prudence is capable of. 
The Countess of Bristol, her mother, a grave and honour- 
able lady, has the comfort of seeing her daughter and 
grandchildren under the same economy, especially Mr. 



1688.] JOHN EVELYN. 379 

Charles Spencer^* a youtli of extraordinary hopes, very- 
learned for his age, and ingenious, and under a governor 
of great worth. Happy were it, could as much be said of 
the elder brother, the Lord Spencer, who, rambling about 
the world, dishonours both his name and his family, 
adding sorrow to sorrow to a mother, who has taken all 
imaginable care of his education. There is a daughter 
very young married to the Earl of Clancarty, who has 
a great and fair estate in Ireland, but who yet gives no 
great presage of worth, — so universally contaminated is 
the youth of this corrupt and abandoned age ! But this 
is again recompensed by my Lord Arran, a sober and 
worthy gentleman, who has espoused the Lady Ann 
Spencer, a young lady of admirable accomplishments and 
virtue. 

23rd. I left this noble place and conversation, my lady 
having provided carriages to convey us back in the same 
manner as we went, and a dinner being prepared at 
Dunstable against our arrival. Northampton, having been 
lately burnt and re-edified, is now become a town that 
for the beauty of the buildings, especially the church and 
town-house, may compare with the neatest in Italy itself. 

Dr. Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, wrote a very honest 
and handsome letter to the Commissioners Ecclesiastical, 
excusing himself from sitting any longer among them, he 
by no means approving of their prosecuting the Clergy 
who refused to read the Declaration for liberty of con- 
science, in prejudice of the Church of England. 

The Dutch make extraordinary preparations both at sea 
and land, which with the no small progress Popery 
makes among us, puts us to many difficulties. The Popish 
Irish soldiers commit many murders and insults; the 
whole nation disaffected, and in apprehensions. 

After long trials of the doctors to bring up the little 
Prince of Wales by hand (so many of her Majesty's 
children having died infants) not succeeding, a country- 
nurse, the wife of a tile-maker, is taken to give it suck. 



* The eldest son dying without issue, this Charles succeeded to the title and 
estate, and marrying to his second wife one of the daughters and at length 
coheiress to John Duke of Marlborough, his son by her succeeded to that 
title. 



280 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

18th September. I went to London, where I found the 
Court in the utmost consternation on report of the Prince 
of Grangers landing; which put Whitehall into so panic a 
fear, that I could hardly believe it possible to find such a 
change. 

Writs were issued in order to a Parliament, and a decla- 
ration to back the good order of elections, with great 
professions of maintaining the Church of England, but 
without giving any sort of satisfaction to the people, who 
showed their high discontent at several things in the 
Oovernment. 

Earthquakes had utterly demolished the ancient Smyrna, 
and several other places in Greece, Italy, and even in the 
Spanish Indies, forerunners of greater calamities. God 
Almighty preserve His Church and all who put them- 
selves under the shadow of His wings, till these things be 
over-past ! 

30th. The Court in so extraordinary a consternation, on 
assurance of the Prince of Orange's intention to land, that 
the writs sent forth for a Parliament were recalled. 

7th October. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Martin's, on 
2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our only rule 
of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. After 
which, near 1,000 devout persons partook of the Com- 
munion. This sermon was chiefly occasioned by a Jesuit, 
who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had dispa- 
raged the Scripture and railed at our translation, which 
some present contradicting, they pulled him out of the 
pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch that it 
was like to create a great disturbance in the City. 

Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's invasion 
heightened to that degree, that his Majesty thought fit to 
abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but 
retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and 
restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen CoUege, Oxford. 
•In the mean time, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 
Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in 
Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and 
retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal 
discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, 
that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the 
landing of that Prince, whom they looked on to be their 



1688.] JOHN EVELYN. ggj 

deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an 
east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his 
expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. 
To such a strange temper, and unheard-of in former 
times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was 
an eye-witness. The apprehension was (and with reason) 
that his Majesty ^s forces would neither at land nor sea 
oppose them with that vigour requisite to repel invaders. 
The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to recon- 
cile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment 
confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. 
A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury,* 



• By Mr. Evelyn. The letter was as follows : 

"My Lord, The honour and reputation which your Grace's piety, pru- 
dence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not only from the 
sons of the Church of England, but even universally from those Protestants 
amongst us who are Dissenters from her discipline ; God Almighty's provi- 
dence and blessing upon your Grace's vigilancy and extraordinary endeavours 
will not suffer to be diminished in this conjuncture. The conversation I now 
and then have with some in place, who have the opportunity of knowing what 
is doing in the most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, 
obliges me to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the 
Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of you, is 
only to create a jealousy and suspicion amongst well-meaning people of such 
compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to apprehend. The plan of 
this and of all that which is to follow of seeming favour thence, is wholly drawn 
by the Jesuits, who are at this time more than ever busy to make divisions 
amongst us, all other arts and mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They 
have, with other things, contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should 
give his Majesty advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, 
■which, though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I 
do not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation of 
this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, that your 
Grace is also in joined to compose a form of prayer, wherein the Prince of 
Orange is expressly to be named the Invader : of this I presume not to say 
anything ; but for as much as in all the Declarations, &c. which have hitherto 
been published in pretended favour of the Chm-ch of England, there is not once 
the least mention of the Refoi'med or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church 
of England as by Law established, which Church the Papists tell us is the 
Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England — that 
only is established by Law ; the Church of England in the Reformed sense so 
estabUshed, is but by an usurped authority. The antiquity of that would by these 
words be explained, and utterly defeat this false and subdolous construction, 
and take off all exceptions whatsoever ; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon 
these occasions, the words Rtfwmed and Protestant were added to that of the 
Church of England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to invade 



282 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving 
by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his 
Majesty was pubhshed. The Bishops were enjoined to 
prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion, A 
pardon pubhshed. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed. 

14th. The King's Birthday. No guns from the Tower 
as usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. This day 
signal for the victory of William the Conqueror against 
Harold, near Battel, in Sussex. The wind, which had 
been hitherto west, was east all this day. Wonderful 
expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers ordered 
to be read in the churches against invasion. 

28th. A tumult in London on the rabble demolishing a 
Popish chapel that had been set up in the City. 

29th. Lady Sunderland acquainted me with his Majesty's 
taking away the Seals from Lord Sunderland, and of her 
being with the Queen to intercede for him. It is con- 
ceived that he had of late grown remiss in pursuing the 
interest of the Jesuitical counsels ; some reported one 
thing, some another; but there was doubtless some secret 
betrayed, which time may discover. 

There was a Council called, to which were summoned 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Judges, the Lord 
Mayor, &c. The Queen Dowager, and all the ladies and 
lords who were present at the Queen Consort's labour, 
were to give their testimony upon oath of the Prince of 
Wales's birth, recorded both at the Council-Board and at 
the Chancery a day or two after. This procedure was 
censured by some as below his Majesty to condescend to, 
on the talk of the people. It was remarkable that on this 
occasion the Archbishop, Marquis of Hahfax, the Earls of 
Clarendon and Nottingham, refused to sit at the Council- 
table amongst Papists, and their bold telling his Majesty 
that whatever was done whilst such sat amongst them 

or come agidnst us, to the prejudice of that Church, in God's name, be they 
Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against them. My Lord, this 
is, I confess, a bold, but honest period : and, though I am well assxu-ed that 
your Grace is perfectly acquainted vnth all this before, and therefore may 
blame my impertinence, as that does oXKoTpioeTriffKoireii/ ; yet I am confident 
you will not reprove the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's 
pardon, with your blessing. Lond., 10 Oct., 1688." (From a copy in Mr. 
Evelyn's handwriting.) See p. 287. 



1C88.] JOHN EVELYN. 283 

was unlawful and incurred premunire ; — at least, if what I 
heard be true. 

30th. I dined with Lord Preston, made Secretary of 
State, in the place of the Earl of Sunderland. 

Visited Mr. Boyle, when came in the Duke of Hamilton 
and Earl of Burlington. The Duke told us many parti- 
culars of Mary Queen of Scots, and her amours with the 
Italian favourite, &c. 

31st. My birthday, being the 68th year of my age. 
O blessed Lord, grant that as I grow in years, so may I 
improve in grace ! Be Thou my Protector this following 
year, and preserve me and mine from those dangers and 
great confusions that threaten a sad revolution to this 
sinful nation ! Defend Thy Church, our holy religion, and 
just laws, disposing his Majesty to listen to sober and 
healing counsels, that if it be Thy blessed will, we may 
still enjoy that happy tranquillity which hitherto Thou 
hast continued to us ! Amen, Amen ! 

1st November. Dined with Lord Preston, with other 
company, at Sir Stephen Fox's. Continual alarms of the 
Prince of Orange, but no certainty. Reports of his great 
losses of horse in the storm, but without any assurance. 
A man was taken with divers papers and printed mani- 
festoes, and carried to Newgate, after examination at the 
Cabinet-Council. There was likewise a Declaration of the 
States for satisfaction of all Public Ministers at the 
Hague, except to the English and the French. There 
was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords 
both Spiritual and Temporal had invited him over, with 
a deduction of the causes of his enterprise. This made 
his Majesty convene my Lord of Canterbury and the other 
Bishops now in town, to give an account of what was in 
the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by 
some public writing of this disloyal charge. 

2nd. It was now certainly reported by some who saw 
the fleet, and the Prince embark^ that they sailed from 
the Brill on Wednesday morning, and that the Princess of 
Orange was there to take leave of her husband. 

4th. Fresh reports of the Prince being landed some- 
where about Portsmouth, or the Isle of Wight, whereas it 
was thought it would have been northward. The Court 
in great hurry. 



284 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

5th. I went to London ; heard the news of the Prince 
having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 
sail, passing through the Channel with so favourable a 
wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. 
This put the King and Court into great consternation; 
they were now employed in forming an army to stop their 
further progress, for they were got into Exeter, and the 
season and ways very improper for his Majesty's forces to 
march so great a distance. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury and some few of the 
other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to 
Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of 
this invasion. They assured his Majesty they had never 
invited any of the Prince's party, or were in the least 
privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of 
their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so 
few, they desired that his Majesty would call the rest of 
their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what 
was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right 
to publish any thing without them, and till they had 
themselves seen the Prince's Manifesto, in which it was 
pretended he was invited in by the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal. This did not please the King; so they 
departed. 

A Declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to 
see or read the Prince's Manifesto, in which was set forth 
at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one 
before from the States. 

These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his 
mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all 
dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing 
can effect except a free Parliament ; but this we cannot 
hope to see, whilst there are any forces on either side. I 
pray God to protect and direct the King for the best and 
•truest interest of his people ! — I saw his Majesty touch for 
the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating. 

14th. The Prince increases every day in force. Several 
Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury carries some regi- 
ments, and marches to Honiton, the Prince's head- 
quarters. The City of London in disorder; the rabble 
pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of 
Lord Berkeley, at St. John's. The Queen prepares to go 



1C88.1 ;'JOHN EVELYN. 2§5 

to Portsmouth for safety, to attend the issue of this 
commotion, which has a dreadful aspect. 

18th. It was now a very hard frost. The King goes to 
Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and returns to London. 
Lord Delamere appears for the Prince, in Cheshire. The 
nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canter- 
bury and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, 
address his Majesty to call a Parliament. The King 
invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take 
all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever. 

29th. I went to the Royal Society. We adjourned the 
election of a President to 23rd April, by reason of the 
public commotions, yet dined together as of custom this day. 

2nd December. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Martinis, 
on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received 
the blessed Sacrament. Afterwards, visited my Lord 
Godolphin, then going with the Marquis of Halifax and 
Earl of Nottingham as Commissioners to the Prince of 
Orange; he told me they had little power. Plymouth 
declared for the Prince. Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and 
all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through 
England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and 
go to meet the Prince, who every day sets forth new 
declarations against the Papists. The great favourites at 
Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Every thing, 
till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried 
about the streets. Expectation of the Prince coming to 
Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent 
privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover being governor. 
Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty. The 
Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. 
Universal consternation amongst them; it looks like a 
revolution. 

7th. My son went toward Oxford. I returned home. 

9th. Lord Sunderland meditates flight. The rabble 
demolished all Popish chapels, and several Papist lords and 
gentlemen's houses, especially that of the Spanish Ambas- 
sador, which they pillaged, and burnt his library. 

13th. The King flies to sea, puts in at Feversham for 
ballast ; is rudelv treated by the people ; comes back to 
Whitehall. 

The Prince of Orange is advanced to Windsor, is invited 



286 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

by the King to St. James's, the messenger sent was the 
Earl of Feversham, the General of the Forces, who going 
without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the 
Prince, who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty 
to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may 
be quartered about the Palace and City. This is taken 
heinously, and the King goes privately to Rochester ; is 
persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, 
and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present.) 

17th. That night was a Council; his Majesty refuses to 
assent to all the proposals ; goes away again to Rochester. 

18th. I saw the King take barge to Gravesend at 
twelve o'clock — a sad sight ! The Prince comes to 
St. James's, and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A 
Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a 
Parliament ; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chan- 
cellor, Earl of Peterborough, and divers others taken. 
The Earl of Sunderland flies ; Sir Edward Hales, Walker, 
and others, taken and secured. 

All the world go to see the Prince at St. James's, where 
there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of 
my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very 
stately, serious, and reserved. The English soldiers sent 
out of town to disband them ; not well pleased. 

24th. The King passes into France, whither the Queen 
and child were gone a few days before. 

26th. The Peers and such Commoners as were members 
of the Parliament at Oxford, being the last of Charles II. 
meeting, desire the Prince of Orange to take on him the 
disposal of the public revenue till a convention of Lords 
and Commons should meet in full body, appointed by his 
circular letters to the shires and boroughs, 22nd January. 
I had now quartered upon me a Lieutenant-Colonel and 
eight horses. 

30th. This day prayers for the Prince of Wales were 
first left off in our church. 

1688-9. 7th January. A long frost and deep snow; the 
Thames almost frozen over. 

15th. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury, where I 
found the Bishops of St. Asaph,* Ely,t Bath and Wells,t 

* Lloyd. + Turner. t Ken. 



1689.] JOHN EVELYN. 287 

Peterborough,* and Chichester, f the Earls of Aylesbury 
and Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie Lord-Advocate of 
Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Archbishop, &c. 
After prayers and dinner, divers serious matters Averp 
discoursed, concerning the present state of the Public, arfd 
sorry I was to find there vpas as yet no accord in the 
judgments of those of the Lords and Commons who were 
to convene; some would have the Princess made Queen 
without any more dispute, others were for a Regency; 
there was a Tory party, (then so called) who were for 
inviting his Majesty again upon conditions; and there 
were Republicans who would make the Prince of Orange 
like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy among 
these several parties to bring them into confusion : most 
for ambition or other interest, few for conscience and 
moderate resolutions. I found nothing of all this in this 
assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to admit me into 
their discourses ; they were all for a Regency, thereby to 
salve their oaths, and so all public matters to proceed in 
his Majesty's name, by that to facilitate the calling of a 
Parhament, according to the laws in being. Such was 
the result of this meeting. 

My Lord of Canterbury gave me great thanks for the 
advertisement I sent him in October, J and assured me 
they took my counsel in that particular, and that it came 
very seasonably. 

I found by the Lord- Advocate that the Bishops of Scot- 
land (who were indeed little worthy of that character, and 
had done much mischief in that Church) were now coming 
about to the true interest, in this conjuncture which 
threatened to abolish the whole hierarchy in that king- 
dom ; and therefore the Scottish Archbishop and Lord- 
Advocate requested the Archbishop of Canterbury to use 
his best endeavours with the Prince to maintain the Church 
there in the same state, as by law at present settled. 

It now growing late, after some private discourse with 
his Grace I took my leave, most of the Lords being gone. 

The trial of the bishops was now printed. 

The great convention being assembled the day before, 
falling upon the question about the Government, resolved 

* White ^ Lake. J See p. 282. 



288 DIARY OF [lokdom, 

that King James having by the ad\dce of the Jesuits and 
other wicked persons endeavoured to subvert the laws of 
Church and State, and deserted the kingdom, carrying 
away the seals, &c. without any care for the management 
of the government, had by demise abdicated himself and 
wholly vacated his right; they did therefore desire the 
Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the crown on the 
next heir, the Prince of Orange, for his hfe, then to the 
Princess, his wife, and if she died without issue, to the 
Princess of Denmark, and she failing, to the heirs of the 
Prince, excluding for ever all possibility of admitting a 
K-oman Catholic. 

27th. I dined at the Admiralty, where was brought in a 
child not twelve years old, the son of one Dr. Clench, of 
the most prodigious maturity of knowledge, for I cannot 
call it altogether memory, but something more extraor- 
dinary.* Mr. Pepys and myself examined him, not in any 
method, but with promiscuous questions, which required 
judgment and discernment to answer so readily and perti- 
nently. There was not anything in chronology, history, 
geography, the several systems of astronomy, courses of 
the stars, longitude, latitude, doctrine of the spheres, 
courses and sources of rivers, creeks, harbours, eminent 
cities, boundaries and bearings of countries, not only in 
Europe, but in any other part of the earth, which he did not 
readily resolve and demonstrate his knowledge of, readily 
drawing out with a pen anything he would describe. He 
was able not only to repeat the most famous things which 
are left us in any of the Greek or Roman histories, mo- 
narchies, republics, wars, colonies, exploits by sea and land, 
but aU the sacred stories of the Old and New Testament ; 
the succession of all the monarchies, Babylonian, Persian, 
Greek, Roman, with all the lower Emperors, Popes, Here- 
siarchs, and Councils, what they were called about, what 
they determined, or in the controversy about Easter, the 
tenets of the Gnostics, Sabellians, Arians, Nestorians ; the 
difference between St. Cyprian and Stephen about re-bap- 
tizatiouj the schisms. We leaped from that to other 

• See a similar account of the afterwards celebrated Rev. William Wotton, 
mider the year 1679, July 6. This Dr. Clench was murdered in a hackney- 
coach, and one Harrison was executed for it. 



iG89.] JOHN EVELYN. 289 

tilings totally different, to Olympic years, and syneliro- 
nisms ; we asked him questions which could not be 
resolved without considerable meditation and judgment, 
nay of some particulars of the Civil Laws, of the Digest and 
Code. He gave a stupendous account of both natural and 
moral philosophy, and even in metaphysics. 

Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this won- 
derful child, or angel rather, for he was as beautiful and 
lovely in countenance as in knowledge, we concluded with 
asking him if, in all he had read or heard of, he had ever 
met with anything which was like this expedition of the 
Prince of Orange, with so small a force to obtain three 
great kingdoms without any contest. After a little thought, 
he told us that he knew of nothing which did more resemble 
it than the coming of Constantine the Great out of Britain, 
through France and Italy, so tedious a march, to meet 
Maxentius, whom he overthrew at Pons Milvius with very 
little conflict, and at the very gates of Rome, which he 
entered and was received with triumph, and obtained the 
empire, not of three kingdoms • only, but of all the then 
known world. He was perfect in the Latin authors, spake 
French naturally, and gave us a description of France, 
Italy, Savoy, Spain, ancient and modernly divided ; as also 
of ancient Greece, Scythia, and northern countries and 
tracts : we left questioning further. He did this without 
any set or formal repetitions, as one who had learned things 
without book, but as if he minded other things, going 
about the room, and toying with a parrot there, and as he 
was at dinner [tanquam aliud agens, as it were) seeming to 
be full of play, of a lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, 
and exceeding pleasant, without the least levity, rudeness, 
or childishness. 

His father assured us he never imposed anything to 
charge his memory by causing him to get things by heart, 
not even the rules of grammar ; but his tutor (who was a 
Frenchman) read to him, first in French, then in Latin ; 
that he usually played amongst other boys four or five 
hours every day, and that he was as earnest at his play as 
at his study. He was perfect in arithmetic, and now 
iieAvly entered into Greek. In sum {horresco referem,) I 
had read of divers forward and precocious youths, and some 
I have known, but I never did either hear or read of any- 

VOL. II. u 



290 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

thing like to this sweet child, if it be right to call him child 
who has more knowledge than most men in the world. I 
counselled his father not to set his heart too much on this 
jewel, 

Immodicis brevis est setas, et rara senectus, 

as I myself learned by sad experience in my most dear 
child Richard,* many years since, who dying before he was 
six years old, was both in shape and countenance and preg- 
nancy of learning, next to a prodigy. 

29th. The votes of the House of Commons being carried 
up by Mr. Hampden, their chairman, to the Lords, I got 
a station by the Princess lodgings at the door of the lobby 
to the House, and heard much of the debate, which lasted 
very long. Lord Derby was in the chair (for the House 
was resolved into a grand committee of the whole House)"; 
after all had spoken, it came to the question, which was 
carried but by three voices against a Regency, which 51 were 
for, 54 against; the minority alleging the danger of dethron- 
ing Kings, and scrupling many passages and expressions 
in the vote of the Commons, too long to set down parti- 
cularly. Some were for sending to his Majesty Avith con- 
ditions ; others that the King could do no wrong, and that 
the mal-administration was chargeable on his ministers. 
There were not more than eight or nine bishops, and but 
two against the Regency ; the archbishop was absent, and 
the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit 
and discourse, on their old passive obedience, so as people 
began to talk of the bishops being cast out of the House. 
In short, things tended to dissatisfaction on both sides ; 
add to this, the morose temper of the Prince of Orange, 
who showed little countenance to the noblemen and others, 
who expected a more gracious and cheerful reception when 
they made their court. The Enghsh army also was not so 
in order, and firm to his interest, nor so weakened but that 
it might give interruption. Ireland was in an ill posture 
as well as Scotland. Nothing was yet done towards a set- 
tlement. God of His infinite mercy compose these things, 
that we may be at last a Nation and a Church under some 
fixed and sober estabhshment ! 

♦ See vol. T, p. 324. 



1639.] JOHN EVELYN. OQl 

SOtli. The anniversary of King Cliaxles the First^s 
martyrdom ; but in all the public offices and pulpit prayers, 
the collects, and litany for the King and Queen were 
curtailed and mutilated. Dr. Sharp preached before the 
Commons, but was disliked, and not thanked for his 
sermon. 

31st. At oiu' churcli (the next day being appointed 
a Thanksgiving for deliverance by the Prince of Orange, 
with prayers purposely composed), our lecturer preached 
in the afternoon a very honest sermon, showing our 
duty to God for the many signal deliverances of our 
Church, without touching on politics. 

6th February. The King's coronation-day was ordered 
not to be observed, as hitherto it had been. 

The Convention of the Lords and Commons now declare 
the Prince and Princess of Orange King and Queen 
of England, France, and Ireland, (Scotland being an 
independent kingdom), the Prince and Princess being to 
enjoy it jointly during their lives; but the executive 
authority to be vested in the Prince during life, though 
all proceedings to run in both names, and that it should 
descend to their issue, and for want of such, to the Prin- 
cess Anne of Denmark and her issue, and in want of such, 
to the heirs of the body of the Prince, if he survive, and 
that failing, to devolve to the Parliament, as they should 
think fit. These produced a conference with the Lords, 
when also there was presented heads of such new laws as 
were to be enacted. It is thought on these conditions they 
will be proclaimed. 

There was much contest about the King's abdication, 
and whether he had vacated the government. The Earl of 
Nottingham and about twenty Lords, and many Bishops, 
entered their protests, but the concurrence was great 
against them. 

The Princess hourly expected. Forces sending to Ire- 
land, that kingdom being in great danger by the Earl of 
Tyrconnell's army, and expectations from France coming 
to assist them, but that King was busy in invading Flan- 
ders, and encountering the German Princes. It is likely 
that this will be the most remarkable summer for action, 
Avhich has happened in many years. 

21st. Dr. Burnet preached at St. James's, on the 
u 2 



292 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

obligation to walk worthy of God's particular and signal 
deliverance of the Nation and Church. 

I saw the new Queen and King proclaimed the very next 
day after her coming to Whitehall, Wednesday 13th Feb- 
ruary, with great acclamation and general good reception. 
Bonfires, bells, guns, &c. It was believed that both, espe- 
cially the Princess, would have showed some (seeming) 
reluctance at least, of assuming her father's Crown, and 
made some apology, testifying by her regret that he should 
by his mismanagement necessitate the Nation to so extra- 
ordinary a proceeding, which would have showed very 
handsomely to the world, and according to the character 
given of her piety ; consonant also to her husband's first 
declaration, that there was no intention of deposing the 
King, but of succouring the Nation ; but nothing of all 
this appeared ; she came into Whitehall laughing and jolly, 
as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported. She 
rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was 
reported, before her women were up, went about from room 
to room to see the convenience of Whitehall ; lay in the 
same bed and apartment where the late Queen lay, and 
within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as 
the Queen her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon 
and talked to everybody, so that no change seemed to have 
taken place at Court since her last going away, save that 
infinite croM ds of people thronged to see her, and that she 
went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by many. 
She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes 
nothing to heart : whilst the Prince her husband has 
a thoughtful countenance, is wonderful serious and silent, 
and seems to treat all persons alike gravely, and to 
be very intent on affairs : Holland, Ireland, and France 
calling for his care. 

Divers Bishops and Noblemen are not at all satisfied 
with this so sudden assumption of the Crown, without any 
previous sending, and offering some conditions to the 
absent King ; or, on his not returning, or not assenting to 
those conditions, to have proclaimed him Begent; but the 
major part of both Houses prevailed to make them King 
and Queen immediately, and a crown was tempting. This 
was opposed and spoken against with such vehemence 
by Lord Clarendon (her own uncle), that it put him by all 



1689.] JOHN EVELYN. 093 

preferment, which must doubtless have been as great 
as could have been given him. My Lord of Rochester 
his brother, overshot himself, by the same carriage and 
stiffness, which their friends thought they might have well 
spared when they saw how it was like to be overruled, and 
that it had been sufficient to have declared their dissent 
with less passion, acquiescing in due time. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury and some of the rest, on 
scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had 
taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the 
Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as appeared 
out of Lambeth. This occasioned the Avonder of many 
who observed with what zeal they contributed to the 
Prince's expedition, and all the while also rejecting any 
proposals of sending again to the absent King ; that they 
should now raise scruples, and such as created much 
division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old cour- 
tiers, and especially the Papists. 

Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done 
by a Convention only, and the as yet unabrogated laws ; 
this drew them to make themselves on the 32nd [Feb- 
ruary] a Parliament, the new King passing the Act with 
the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but neces- 
sity prevailed, the government requiring a speedy settle- 
ment. 

Innumerable were the crowds, who solicited for, and 
expected offices; most of the old ones were turned out. 
Two or three white staves were disposed of some days 
before, as Lord Steward, to the Earl of Devonshire j 
Treasurer of the Household, to Lord Newport; Lord 
Chamberlain to the King, to my Lord of Dorset ; but 
there were as yet none in offices of the Civil Government 
save the Marquis of Halifax as Privy Seal. A Council of 
thirty was chosen. Lord Derby president, but neither Chan- 
cellor nor Judges were yet declared, the new Great Seal 
not yet finished. 

8th March. Dr. Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury, made 
an excellent discourse on Matt. v. 44, exhorting to charity 
and forgiveness of enemies ; I suppose purposely, the new 
Parliament being furious about impeaching those who were 
obnoxious, and as their custom has ever been, going on 
violently without reserve, or moderation, whilst wise men 



291 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

were of opinion the most notorious offenders being named 
and excepted, an Act of Amnesty would be more season- 
able, to pacify the minds of men in so general a discontent 
of the nation, especially of those who did not expect to see 
the government assumed without any regard to the absent 
King, or proving a spontaneous abdication, or that the 
birth of the Prince of Wales was an imposture ; five of the 
Bishops also still refusing to take the new oath. 

In the mean time, to gratify the people, the Hearth- 
Tax was remitted for ever; but what was intended to 
supply it, besides present great taxes on land, is not 
named. 

The King abroad was now furnished by the French King 
with money and officers for an expedition to Ireland. The 
great neglect in not more timely preventing that from 
hence, and the disturbances in Scotland, give apprehen- 
sions of great difficulties, before any settlement can be 
perfected here, whilst the Parliament dispose of the great 
offices amongst themselves. The Great Seal, Treasury and 
Admiralty put into commission of many unexpected per- 
sons, to gratify the more ; so that by the present appear- 
ance of things (unless God Almighty graciously interpose 
and give success in Ireland and settle Scotland) more trouble 
seems to threaten the nation than could be expected. In 
the interim, the new King refers all to tbe Parliament 
in the most popular manner, but is very slow in providing 
against all these menaces, besides finding difficulties in 
raising men to send abroad ; the former army, which had 
never seen any service hitherto, recei^dng their pay and 
passing their summer in an idle scene of a camp at Houn- 
slow, unwilling to engage, and many disaffected, and scarce 
to be trusted. 

29th. The new King much blamed for neglecting 
Ireland, now like to be ruined by the Lord Tyrconnel 
and his Popish party, too strong for the Protestants. 
Wonderful uncertainty where King James was, whether 
in France or Ireland. " The Scots seem as yet to favour 
King William, rejecting King James's letter to them, yet 
declaring nothing positively. Soldiers in England dis- 
contented. Parliament preparing the coronation-oath. 
Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the Vote for 
preserving the Protestant Religion as established by law, 



1689.] JOHN EVELYN. 295 

without mentioning what they were to have as to indul- 
gence. 

Tlie Archbishop of Canterbury and four* other Bishops 
refusing to come to Parhament^ it was deliberated whether 
they should incur Prtsmunire ; but it was thought fit to let 
this fall, and be connived at, for fear of the people, to 
whom these Prelates were very dear, for the opposition 
they had given to Popery. 

Court-offices distributed amongst Parliament men. No 
considerable fleet as yet sent forth. Things far from 
settled as was expected, by reason of the slothful, sickly 
temper of the new King, and the Parliament's unmind- 
fulness of Ireland, which is likely to prove a sad omission. 

The Confederates beat the French out of the Palatinate, 
which they had most barbarously ruined. 

11th April. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey- 
Church of Westminster, with the great feast in West- 
minster-Hall, at the coronation of King William and 
Oueen Mary. What was different from former corona- 
tions, was some alteration in the coronation-oath. Dr. 
Burnet, now made Bishop of Sarum, preached Avith great 
applause. The Parliament-men had scaffolds and places 
which took up the one whole side of the Hall. When the 
King and Queen had dined, the ceremony of the Cham- 
pion, and other services by tenure were performed. The 
Parliament-men were feasted in the Exchequer-chamber, 
and had each of them a gold [coronation] medal given 
them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On one side were 
the effigies of the King and Queen inclining one to the 
other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at 
Phaeton, the words "iVe totus absumatur:" which was 
but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet 
something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean. 

Much of the splendour of the proceeding was abated by 
the absence of divers who should have contributed to it, 
there being but five Bishops, four Judges, (no more being 

* Burnet names only three besides the Archbishop, viz., Thomas of Wor- 
cester, Lake of Chichester, Ken of Bath and Wells. He says that at the first 
landing of the Prince, Ken declared heartily for him, and advised all to go to 
him ; but went with great heat iij,to the notion of a Regent. After this, he 
changed his mind, came to town with intent to take the oaths, but again 
changed, and never did take them. Burnet's Own Times, vol. II. page 6. 



296 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

yet sworn), and several noblemen and great ladies want- 
ing ; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day 
the House of Commons went and kissed their new Majes- 
ties' hands in the Banqueting-house. 

12th. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph to visit my 
Lord of Canterbury at Lambeth, who had excused himself 
from officiating at the coronation, which was performed 
by the Bishop of London, assisted by the Archbishop of 
York. We had much private and free discourse with his 
Grace concerning several things relating to the Church, 
there being now a Bill of Comprehension to be brought 
from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they 
went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, 
Church-discipline, Canons, &c. the baptising in private 
houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so 
frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much 
from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which 
was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of 
necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the 
clergy in our late civil wars ; the other from the avarice 
of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost 
as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the 
church, as of their livings, and were paid with consider- 
able advantage and gifts for baptising in chambers. To 
this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavour 
to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel 
and indecent. 

We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and 
prejudice it might cause, should the new oath, now on the 
anvil, be imposed on any, save such as were in new office, 
without any retrospect to such as either had no office, or 
had been long in office, who it was likely would have some 
scruples about taking a new oath, having already sworn 
fidelity to the government as established by law. This we 
all knew to be the case of my Lord Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and some other persons who were not so fully satis- 
fied with the Convention making it an abdication of King 
James, to whom they had sworn allegiance. 

King James was now certainly in Ireland with the 
Marshal d'Estrades whom he made a Privy Councillor; 
and who caused the King to remove the Protestant Coun- 
cillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit. 



1689.] JOHN EVELYN. 297 

telling Lira tliat tlie King of France his master would 
never assist him if he did not immediately do it ; by Avhieli 
it is apparent how the poor Prince is managed by the 
French. 

Scotland declares for King William and Queen Mary, 
with the reasons of their setting aside King James, not as 
abdicating, but forfeiting his right by mal-administration ; 
they proceeded with much more caution and prudence 
than we did, who precipitated all things to the great 
reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by 
some crafty ill-principled men. The new Privy Council 
have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all 
future succession of the crown and prosperity of the 
Clmrch of England, which yet I hope they will not be 
able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get 
into all places of trust and profit. 

21st. This was one of the most seasonable springs, free 
from the usual sharp east winds, that I have observed 
since the year 1660, (the year of the Restoration) which 
was much such an one. 

26th. I heard the lawyers plead before the Lords the 
writ of error in the judgment of Gates, as to the charge 
against him of perjuiy, which after debate they referred 
to the answer of Holloway, &c. who were his Judges. I 
then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph to the Archbishop 
at Lambeth, where they entered into discourse concerning 
the final destruction of Antichrist, both concluding that 
the third trumpet and vdal Avere now pouring out. My 
Lord St. Asaph considered the killing of the two witnesses, 
to be the utter destruction of the Cevennes Protestants by 
the French and Duke of Savoy, and the other the Wal- 
denses and Pyrenean Christians, who by all appearance 
from good history had kept the primitive faith from the 
very Apostles' time till now. The doubt his Grace sug- 
gested was, Avhether it could be made evident that the 
present persecution had made so great a havoc of those 
faithful people as of the other, and whether there Avere not 
yet some among them in being, who met together, it being 
stated from the text Apoc. xi., that they should both be 
slain together. They both much approved of Mr. Mede's 
way of interpretation, and that he only failed in resolving 
too hastily on the King of Sweden's (Gustavus Adolphus) 



298 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

success in Germany. They agreed that it would be good 
to employ some intelligent French minister * to travel 
as far as the PjTenees to understand the present state of 
the Church there, it being a country where hardly any one 
travels. 

There now came certain news that King James had 
not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised 
Londonderiy, and was become master of that kingdom, 
to the great shame of our Government, who had been so 
often solicited to provide against it by timely succour, and 
which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible 
beginning of more troubles, especially should an army 
come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaf- 
fected here and everywhere else, so that the sea and 
land-men would scarce serve without compulsion. 

A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to take, 
of obedience to the present Government, in abrogation of 
the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen many 
of the Bishops and others of the clergy will not take. 
The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and spiritual 
preferment. This is thought to have been driven on by 
the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in mercy 
send us help, and direct the counsels to His glory and 
good of His Church ! 

Public matters went very ill in Ireland ; confusion and 
dissension amongst ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emu- 
lation, the governors emplojdng unskilful men in greatest 
offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing, — 
threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be the 
conclusion, without God^s infinite mercy. 

A fight by Admiral Herbert with the French, he impru- 
dently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men 
in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and 
little honour — so strangely negligent and remiss were we 
in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Com- 
missioners ofler the crown to the new King and Queen on 
conditions — Act of Poll-money came forth, sparing none. 
— Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, 
but not exempting them paying dues to the Church of 
England Clergy, or serving in office according to law, with 

• They sent two. See afterwards. 



1689.] JOHN EVELYN. £99 

several other clauses. — A most splendid embassy from 
Holland to congratulate the King and Queen on their 
accession to the crown. 

4th June. A solemn fast for success of the fleet, &c. 

0th. I dined with the Bishop of Asaph; Monsieur 
Capellus, the learned son of the most learned Ludovicus, 
presented to him his father's works, not published till 
now. 

7th. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury, and staid 
witli him till about seven o'clock. He read to me the 
Pope's excommunication of the French King. 

9th. Visited Dr. Burnet, now Bishop of Sarum ; got 
him to let Mr. Kneller draw his picture. 

16th. King James's declaration was now dispersed, 
oflPering pardon to all, if on his landing, or within twenty 
days after, they should return to their obedience. 

Our fleet not yet at sea, through some prodigious sloth, 
and men minding only their present interest ; the French 
riding masters at sea, taking many great prizes to our 
v/onderful reproach. No certain news from Ireland ; 
various reports of Scotland; discontents at home. The 
King of Denmark at last joins Avith the Confederates, and 
the two Northern Powers are reconciled. The East India 
Company likely to be dissolved by Parliament for many 
arbitrary actions, Oates acquitted of perjury, to all honest 
men's admiration. 

20th. News of a Plot discovered, on which divers were 
sent to the Tower and secured. 

23rd. An extraordinary drought, to the threatening of 
great wants as to the fruits of the earth. 

8th July. I sat for my picture to Mr. KneUer, for 
]Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to the Admiralty, holding my 
" Sylva" in my right hand.* It was on his long and 
earnest request, and is placed in his library. Kneller 
never painted in a more masterly manner. 

11th. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, it being his lady's 
wedding-day, when about three in the afternoon, there 
was an unusual and violent storm of thunder, rain, and 
wind ; many boats on the Thames were overwhelmed, and 

* Now at Wotton. A copy of it was given by the late Sir Frederick 
Evelyn to the Earl of Harcourt, a few years ago. 



300 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

such was the impetuosity of the wind as to carry up the 
waves in pillars and spouts most dreadful to behold, 
rooting up trees and ruining some houses. The Countess 
of Sunderland afterwards told me that it extended as far 
as Althorpe at the very time, which is seventy miles from 
London. It did no harm at Deptford, but at Greenwich 
it did much mischief. 

16th. I went to Hampton-Court about business, the 
Council being there. A great apartment and vspacious 
garden with fountains was beginning in the park at the 
head of the canal. 

19th. The Marshal de Schomberg went now as General 
towards Ireland, to the relief of Londonderry. Our fleet 
lay before Brest. The Confederates passing the Rhine, 
besiege Bonn and Mayence, to obtain a passage into 
France. A great victory got by the Muscovites, taking 
and burning Perecop. A new rebel against the Turks 
threatens the destruction of that tyranny. All Europe in 
arms against France, and hardly to be found in history so 
universal a face of war. 

The Convention (or Parliament as some called it) sitting, 
exempt the Duke of Hanover from the succession to the 
crown, which they seem to confine to the present new 
King, his wife, and Princess Anne of Denmark, who is so 
monstrously swollen, that it's doubted whether her being 
thought with child, may prove a tympany only, so that the 
unhappy family of the Stuarts seems to be extinguishing, 
and then what government is likely to be next set up is 
unknown, whether regal and by election, or otherwise, the 
Republicans and Dissenters from the Church of England 
evidently looking that way. 

The Scots have now again voted down Episcopacy 
there. — Great discontents through this nation at the slow 
proceedings of the King, and the incompetent instruments 
and officers he advances to the greatest and most necessary 
charges. 

2(Jrd August. Came to visit me Mr. Fu'min.* 

* He was a man of the most amiable character and most unbounded 
charity : a great friend of Sir Robert Clayton, who, after his death, erected a 
monument for him in a walk which he had foiined at Sir Robert's seat at 
Marden, in Surrey. He was very fond of gardens, and so far of a congenial 
spirit with Mr. Evelyn. He was an Unitai'ian, but lived in intimacy with 



1689.] JOHN EVELYN. 3Q2 

25th. Hitherto it has been a most seasonable summer. — 
Londonderry relieved after a brave and Avonderful holding- 
out. 

31st September. I Avent to visit the Archbishop of 
Canterbury since his suspension, and was received with 
great kindness. — A dreadful fire happened in Southwark. 

2nd October. Came to visit us the Marquis de Ruvigne, 
and one Monsieur le Coque, a French refugee, who left 
great riches for his religion ; a very learned, civil person ; 
he married the sister of the Duchess de la Force. — 
Ottobone, a Venetian Cardinal, eighty years old, made 
Pope. * 

olst. My birthday, being now sixty-nine years old. 
Blessed Father, who hast prolonged my years to this great 
age, and given me to see so great and wonderful revolu- 
tions, and preserved me amidst them to this moment, 
accept, I beseech thee, the continuance of my prayers and 
thankful acknowledgments, and grant me grace to be 
working out my salvation and redeeming the time, that 
Thou mayst be glorified by me here, and my immortal 
soul save whenever Thou shalt call for it, to perpetuate 
Thy praises to all eternity, in that heavenly kingdom 
where there are no more changes or vicissitudes, but rest, 
and peace, and joy, and consummate felicity, for ever. 
Orant this, O heavenly Father, for the sake of Jesus thine 
only Son and our Saviour. Amen ! 

5th November. The Bishop of St. Asaph, Lord-Almoner, 
preached before the King and Queen, the whole discourse 
being an historical narrative of the Church of England's 
several deliverances, especially that of this anniversary, 
signalised by being also the birthday of the Prince of 
Orange, his marriage, (which was on the 4th) and his 
landing at Torbay this day. There was a splendid ball 
and other rejoicings. 

10th. After a very wet season, the winter came on 
severely. 

17th. Much wet, without frost, yet the wind north and 
easterly. — A Convocation of the Clergy meet about a 

many of the most eminent clergy. His life was printed in a small volume. 
See more of him in the History of Surrey, vol. II. pp. 804, 805. 

* Peter Otthobonus succeeded Innocent XI. as Pope in 1681), by the title 
of Alexander VIII. 



302 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

reformation of our Liturgy, Canons, &c., obstructed by 
others of the clergy. 

27th. I went to London with my family to winter m. 
Soho, in the great square. 

1689-90. 11th January. This night there was a most 
extraordinary storm of wind, accompanied with snow and 
sharp weather ; it did great harm in many places, blowing 
down houses, trees, &c., kilUng many people. It began 
about two in the morning, and lasted till five, being a kind 
of hurricane, which mariners observe have begun of late 
years to come northward. This winter has been hitherto 
extremely wet, warm, and windy. 

12th. There was read at St. Ann's Church an exhorta- 
tory letter to the clergy of London from the Bishop, 
together with a Brief for relie\dng the distressed Protes- 
tants, the Vaudois, who fled from the persecution of the 
French and Duke of Savoy, to the Protestant Cantons of 
Switzerland. 

The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2nd 
April, to the discontent and surprise of many members 
who, being exceeding averse to the settling of any thing, 
proceeding with animosities, multiplying exceptions against 
those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing as 
universal a discontent against King William and them- 
selves, as there was before against King James. — The new 
King resolved on an expedition into Ireland in person. 
About 150 of the members who were of the more royal 
party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern near St. 
Dunstan's, sent some of their company to the King, to 
assure him of their service ; he returned his thanks, advis- 
ing them to repair to their several counties and preserve 
the peace during his absence, and assuring them that he 
would be steady to his resolution of defending the Laws 
and Religion established. — The great Lord suspected to 
have counselled this prorogation, universally denied it. 
However, it was believed the chief adviser was the Marquis 
of Carmarthen,* who now seemed to be most in favour. 

2nd February. The Parliament was dissolved by procla- 
mation, and another called to meet the 20th of March. 
This was a second surprise to the former members ; and 

• Osborne, Lord Danby, afterwards Duke of Leeds. 



1690.] JOHN EVELYN. 303 

now the Court-partV;, or, as tliey call themselves, Church 
of England, are making their interests in the country. 
The Marquis of Halifax lays down his office of Privy Seal, 
and pretends to retire. 

16th. The Duchess of Monmouth's chaplain preached 
at St. Martin's an excellent discourse, exhorting to peace 
and sanctity, it being now the time of very great division 
and dissension in the nation ; first, amongst the Church- 
men, of whom the moderate and sober part were for a 
speedy reformation of divers things, which it was thought 
might be made in our Liturgy, for the inviting of Dis- 
senters ; others more stiff and rigid, were for no conde- 
scension at all. Books and pamphlets were pubhshed 
every day pro and con. ; the Convocation were forced for 
the present to suspend any further progress. — There was 
fierce and great carousing about being elected in the new 
Parliament. — The King persists in his intention of going 
in person for Ireland, whither the French are sending 
supplies to King James, and we, the Danish horse to 
Schomberg. 

19th. I dined with the Marquis of Carmarthen (late 
Lord Danby), vrhere was Lieutenant-general Douglas, a 
very considerate and sober commander, going for Ireland. 
He related to us the exceeding neglect of the English 
soldiers, sufi'ering severely for want of clothes and neces- 
saries this winter, exceedingly magnifying their courage 
and bravery during all their hardships. There dined also 
Lord Lucas, Lieutenant of the Tower, and the Bishop of 
St. Asaph. — The Privy Seal was again put in commission, 
Mr. Cheny (who married my kinswoman, Mrs. Pierrepoint), 
Sir Thomas Knatchbull, and Sir P. W. Pultney.— The 
impudence of both sexes was now become so great 
and universal, persons of all ranks keeping their courtesans 
publicly, that the King had lately directed a letter to the 
Bishops to order their clergy to preach against that sin, 
swearing, &c., and to put the ecclesiastical laws in execu- 
tion without any indulgence. 

25th. I went to Kensington, which King Wilham had 
bought of Lord Nottingham, and altered, but was yet a 
patched building, but with the garden, however, it is a very 
sweet villa, having to it the park and a straight new way 
through this park. 



304 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

7th March. I dined with Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to 
the Admiralty, where was that excellent shipwright and 
seaman (for so he had been and also a Commissioner of 
the Navy) Sir Anthony Deane. Amongst other discourse, 
and deploring the sad condition of our navy, as now 
governed by inexperienced men since this Revolution, he 
mentioned what exceeding advantage we of this nation had 
by being the first who built frigates, the first of which ever 
built was that vessel which was afterwards called " The 
Constant Warwick," and was the work of Pett * of Chat- 
ham, for a trial of making a vessel that would sail swiftly ; 
it was built with low decks, the guns lying near the water, 
and was so light and swift of sailing, that in a short time 
he told us she had, ere the Dutch war was ended, taken 
as much money from privateers as would have laden her ; 
and that more such being built, did in a year or two scour 
the Channel from those of Dunkirk and others which had 
exceedingly infested it. He added that it would be the 
best and only infallible expedient to be masters of the sea, 
and able to destroy the greatest navy of any enemy if, 
instead of building huge great ships and second and third 
rates, they would leave off building such high decks, which 
were for nothing but to gratify gentlemen -commanders, 
who must have all their effeminate accommodations, and 
for pomp ; that it would be the ruin of our fleets, if such 
persons were continued in command, they neither having 
experience nor being capable of learning, because they 
would not submit to the fatigue and inconvenience which 
those Avho were bred seamen would undergo, in those so 
otherwise useful swift frigates. These being to encounter 
the greatest ships would be able to protect, set on, and 
bring off, those who should manage the fire-ships; and the 
Prince who should first store himself with numbers of such 
fire-ships would, through the help and countenance of 
•such frigates, be able to ruin the greatest force of such 
vast ships as could be sent to sea, by the dexterity of 
working those light, swift ships to guard the fire-ships. 
He concluded there would shortly be no other method of 
sea-fight, and that great ships and men-of-war, however 
stored with guns and men, must submit to those who 

* See vol. I. p. 375. 



1690.J JOHN EVELYN. 395 

should encounter tliem -with far less number. He repre- 
sented to us the dreadful effect of these fire-ships ; that he 
continually observed in our late maritime war with the 
Dutch that, when an enemy's fire-ship approached, the 
most valiant commander and common sailors were in such 
consternation, that though then, of all times, there was 
most need of the guns, bombs, &c., to keep the mischief 
off, they grew pale and astonished, as if of a quite other 
mean soul, that they slunk about, forsook their guns and 
work as if in despair, every one looking about to see which 
way they might get out of their ship, though sure to be 
drowned if they did so. This he said was likely to prove 
hereafter the method of sea-fight, likely to be the misfor- 
tune of England if they continued to put gentlemen-com- 
manders over experienced seamen, on account of their 
ignorance, effeminacy, and insolence. 

9th, Preached at Whitehall Dr. Burnet, late Bishop of 
Sarum, on Heb. iv. 13, anatomically describing the texture 
of the eye ; and that, as it received such innumerable sorts 
of spies through so very small a passage to the brain, and 
that without the least confusion or trouble, and accordingly 
judged and reflected on them; so God Avho made this 
sensory, did with the greatest ease and at once see all that 
was done through the vast universe, even to the very 
thought as well as action. This similitude he continued 
with much perspicuity and aptness ; and applied it accord- 
ingly, for the admonishing us how uprightly Ave ought to 
live and behave ourselves before such an all-seeing Deity ; 
and how we were to conceive of other His attributes, which 
we could have no idea of than by comparing them by what 
we Avere able to conceive of the nature and power of things, 
whicli were the objects of our senses; and therefore it was 
that in Scripture avc attribute those actions and affections 
of God by the same of man, not as adequately or in any 
proportion like them, but as the only expedient to make 
some resemblance of His divine perfections : as Avhen the 
Scripture says, " God Avill remember the sins of the peni- 
tent no more : " not as if God could forget anything, 
but as intimating he would pass by such penitents and 
receive them to mercy. 

I dined at the Bishop of St. Asaph's, Almoner to the ncAV 
Queeu, Avith the famous lawyer Sir George Mackenzie 

VOL. II. X 



306 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

(late Lord Advocate of Scotland), against whom both the 
Bishop and myself had written and published books, but 
now most firiendly reconciled.* He related to us many 
particulars of Scotland, the present sad condition of it, the 
inveterate hatred which the Presbyterians show to the 
family of the Stuarts, and the exceeding tyranny of those 
bigots who acknowledge no superior on earth, in civil or 
divine matters, maintaining that the people only have the 
right of government ; their implacable hatred to the Epis- 
copal Order and Church of England. He observed that 
the first Presbyter-dissents from our discipline were intro- 
duced by the Jesuits' order, about the 20 of Queen Eliz., 
a famous Jesuit amongst them feigning himself a Pro- 
testant, and who was the first who began to pray extem- 
pore, and brought in that which they since called, and are 
stni so fond of, praying by the Spirit. This Jesuit 
remained many years before he was discovered, afterwards 

died in Scotland, where he was buried at having 

yet on his monument, " Rosa inter spinas." 

11th. I went again to see Mr. Charlton's curiosities, f 
both of art and nature, and his full and rare collection of 
medals, which taken altogether, in all kinds, is doubtless 
one of the most perfect assemblages of rarities that can be 
any where seen. I much admired the contortions of the 
Thea root, which was so perplexed, large, and intricate, and 
withal hard as box, that it was wonderful to consider. — The 
French have landed in Ireland. 

16th, A public fast. 

24th May. City charter restored. Divers exempted from 
pardon. 

4th June. King William set forth on his Irish expedition, 
leaving the Queen regent. 

10th. Mr. Pepys read to me his Remonstrance, showing 
with what malice and injustice he was suspected with Sir 
Anthony Deane about the timber, of which the thirty ships 
were built by a late Act of Parliament, with the exceeding 
danger which the fleet would shortly be in, by reason of 

* Sir George had written in praise of a Private Life, which Mr. Evelyn 
answered by a book in praise of Public Life and Active Employment ; see 
the Introduction to vol. I. and Appendix. As to the Bishop's book, see 
Biog. Brit, articles Lloyd and Mackenzie. 

t See p. 260. 



1690.] JOHN EVELYN. OQ<jf 

the tyranny and incompetency of those who now managed 
the Admiralty and affairs of the Navy, of which he gave an 
accurate state, and showed his great abihty. 

18th. Fast-day. Visited the Bishop of St. Asaph; his 
conversation was on the Vaudois in Savoy, who had been 
thought so near destruction and final extirpation by the 
French, being totally given up to slaughter, so that there 
were no hopes for them ; but now it pleased God that tlie 
Duke of Savoy, who had hitherto joined with the French 
in their persecution, being now pressed by them to deliver 
up (Saluce)* and Turin as cautionary towns, on suspicion 
that he might at last come into the Confederacy of the 
German Princes, did secretly concert measures with, and 
afterwards declared for, them. He then invited these 
poor people from their dispersion amongst the mountains 
whither they had fled, and restored them to their country, 
their dwellings, and the exercise of their religion, and 
begged pardon for the ill usage they had received, charging 
it on the cruelty of the French who forced him to it. 
These being the remainder of those persecuted Christians 
which the Bishop of St. Asaph had so long affirmed to be 
the two witnesses spoken of in the Revelation, who should 
be killed and brought to life again, it was looked on as an 
extraordinaiy thing that this prophesying Bishop should 
persuade two fugitive ministers of the Vaudoist to return 
to their country, and furnish them with £20 towards their 
journey, at that very time when nothing but universal 
destruction was to be expected, assuring them and showing 
them from the Apocalypse, that then* countrymen should 
be returned safely to their country before they arrived. 
This happening contrary to all expectation and appearance, 
did exceedingly credit the Bishop's confidence how that 
prophecy of the witnesses should come to pass, just at the 
time, and the very month he had spoken of some years 
before. 

I afterwards went with him to Mr. Boyle and Lady 
Banelagh his sister, to whom he explained the necessity 
of it so fully, and so learnedly made out, with what events 
were immediately to follow, viz. the French King's ruin, 
the calling of the Jews to be near at hand, but that the 
Kingdom of Antichrist would not yet be utterly destroyed 

* Sed quoere. f See p. 297. 

X 2 



308 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

till 30 years, when Christ should begin the Millenium, 
not as personally and visibly reigning on earth, but that 
the true religion and universal peace should obtain through 
all the world. He showed how Mr. Brightman, Mr. 
Mede, and other interpreters of these events failed, by 
mistaking and reckoning the year as the Latins and others 
did, to consist of the present calculation, so many days to 
the year, whereas the Apocalypse reckons after the Persian 
account, as Daniel did, whose visions St. John all along 
explains as meaning only the Christian Church. 

24th. Dined with Mr. Pepys, who the next day was 
sent to the Gate-house,* and several great persons to the 
Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James ; 
amongst them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's 
uncle. — King William having vanquished King James in 
Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the 
Irish in King James's army would not stand, but the 
English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schom- 
berg was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended 
Londonderry. King William received a slight wound by 
the grazing of a cannon-bullet on his shoulder, which 
he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. 
Hamilton, who broke his word about Tyrconnel, was taken. 
It is reported that King James is gone back to France. 
Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William 
be returning, we may say of him as Caesar said, " Venif 
vidi, vici." But to alloy much of this, the French fleet 
rides in our Channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the 
enemy threatening to land. 

27th. I went to visit some friends in the Tower, when 
asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mistake directed me 
to the Earl of Torrington, who about three days before 
had been sent for from the fleet, and put into the Tower 
for cowardice and not fighting the French fleet, which 
having beaten a squadron of the Hollanders, whilst Tor- 
rington did nothing, did now ride masters of the sea, 
threatening a descent. 

20th July. This afternoon a camp of about 4,000 men 
was begun to be formed on Blackheath. 

* By Grey's Parliamentary Debates it appears that he was accused of 
having sent information to the French Court of the state of the English 
Navy. 



1690.] JOHN EVELYN. 3O9 

30tli. I dined with Mr. Pepys, now suffered to return 
to liis house, on account of indisposition. 

1st August. The Duke of Grafton came to visit me, 
going to his ship at the mouth of the river, in his way to 
Ireland (where he Avas slain). 

ord. The French landed some soldiers at Teignmouth, 
in Devon, and burnt some poor houses. — The French fleet 
still hovering about the Western coast, and we having 
300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the Bay of Plymouth, 
our fleet begin to move towards them, under three 
admirals. The country in the west all on their guard. — 
A very extraordinary fine season ; but on the 1 2th was 
a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on the 
15th the season much changed to wet and cold. — The 
militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which were up 
through England, were dismissed. — The French King 
having news that King William was slain, and his army 
defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris, and 
all over France, as was never heard of; when, in the midst 
of it, the unhappy King James being vanquished, by a 
speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news of his 
own defeat. 

15th. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of 
Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers 
noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph expounds his 
prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys, &c. The troops from 
Blackheath march to Portsmouth. — That sweet and hopeful 
youth. Sir Charles Tuke, died of the wounds he received 
in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his 
friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to 
which my wife is related. A more virtuous young gentle- 
man I never knew ; he was learned for his age, having had 
the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to 
arts and arms ; he had travelled much, but was so unhappy 
as to fall in the side of the unfortunate King, 

The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happen- 
ing, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of 
wet causes the siege of Limerick to be raised. King William 
returned toEngland. — Lord Sydney left Governor of what is 
conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four] . 
17th. A public fast. — An extraordinary sharp, cold, east 
Avind. 



310 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

12tli October. The French General, with Tyrconnel and 
their forces, gone back to France, beaten out by King 
William. — Cork delivered on discretion. The Duke of 
Grafton was there mortally wounded and dies. — Very 
great storms of wind. The 8th of this month Lord Spencer 
wrote me word from Althorpe, that there happened an 
earthquake the day before in the morning which, though 
short, sensibly shook the house. The Gazette acquainted 
us that the like happened at the same time, half-past 
seven, at Barnstaple, Holyhead, and Dublin. We were 
not sensible of it here. 

26th. Kinsale at last surrendered, meantime King 
James's party burn all the houses they have in their 
power, and amongst them that stately palace of Lord 
Ossory's, which lately cost, as reported, £40,000. By a 
disastrous accident, a third-rate ship, the Breda, blew up 
and destroyed all on board ; in it were twenty-five prison- 
ers of war. She was to have sailed for England the next 
day. 

3rd November. Went to the Countess of Clancarty to 
condole with her concerning her debauched and dissolute 
son, who had done so much mischief in Ireland, now taken 
and brought prisoner to the Tower. 

16th. Exceeding great storms, yet a warm season. 

23rd. Carried Mr. Pepys's memorials to Lord Go- 
dolphin, now resuming the commission of the Treasury to 
the wonder of all his friends. 

1st December. Having been chosen President of the 
Royal Society, I desired to decline it, and with great 
difficulty devolved the election on Sir Robert Southwell, 
Secretary of State to King William in Ireland. 

20th. Dr. Hough, President of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, who was displaced with several of the Fellows for 
not taking the oath imposed by King James, now made 
a Bishop.* — Most of this month cold and frost. — One 
Johnson, a knight, was executed at Tyburn for being an 
accomplice with Campbell, brother to Lord Argyle, in 
stealing a young heiress. 

* In 1699, Dr. Hough was translated to Lichfield and Coventry : in 1717, 
he became Bishop of Worcester, which he held till 1743, when he died, 8th 
May, at the great age of 93. His convei-sation and familiar letters, at the 



1691.1 JOHN EVELYN. 3II 

1690-1. 4th January, This week a jo/oif was discovered 
for a general rising against the new Grovernment, for 
which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent to 
the Tower. The next day, I went to see Lord Clarendon. 
The Bishop of Ely* searched for. — Trial of Lord Preston, 
as not being an English Peer, hastened at the Old 
Bailey. 

18th, Lord Preston condemned about a design to bring 
in King James by the French. Ashton executed. The 
Bishop of Ely, Mr. Graham, &c. absconded, 

13th March. I went to visit Monsieur Justell and the 
Library at St, James's, in which that learned man had 
put the MSS. (which were in good number) into excellent 
order, they having lain neglected for many years. Divers 
medals had been stolen and embezzled. 

21st, Dined at Sir William Fermor's, who showed me 
many good pictures. After dinner, a French servant 
played rarely on the lute. Sir William had now bought 
all the remaining statues collected with so much expense 
by the famous Thomas, Earl of Arundel, and sent them to 
his seat at Easton, near Towcester.f 

25th. Lord Sidney, principal Secretary of State, gave 
me a letter to Lord Lucas, Lieutenant of the Tower, to 
permit me to visit Lord Clarendon ; Avhich this day I did 
and dined with him. 

10th April, This night, a sudden and terrible fire burnt 
down all the buildings over the stone-gallery at Whitehall 
to the water-side, beginning at the apartment of the late 
Duchess of Portsmouth (which had been pulled down and 
rebuilt no less than three times to please her), and con- 
suming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who 
debauched both King Charles XL, and others, and were 

close of his life, had the cheerfulness and spirit of youth. He was a genuine 
pati'iot ; the delight of the Church ; a tliom in the side of oppression ; a 
pillar of religion ; a father of tlie indigent ; and a friend to all. His Memoirs 
were published in a quarto volume, in 1812, by John Wilmot, Esq., illus- 
trated witli two fine portraits, and other appropriate embellishments. 

* Dr. Turner who, though one of the six Bishops sent to tlie Tower for 
the petition to the King, declined taking the oaths to King William and 
Queen Mary. 

-f- They ai'e now at Oxford, having been presented to the University in 
175.5 by Henrietta Countess-dowager of Pomfret, widow of Thomas, the first 
Earl. 



812 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

his destruction. — The King returned out of Holland 
just as this accident happened. — Proclamation against 
Papists, &c. 

16th. I went to see Dr. Sloane's curiosities, being an 
universal collection of the natural productions of Jamaica, 
consisting of plants, fruits, corals, minerals, stones, earth, 
shells, animals, and insects, collected with great judg- 
ment ; several folios of dried plants, and one which had 
about 80 several sorts of ferns, and another of grasses; 
the Jamaica pepper, in branch, leaves, flower, fruit, &c. 
This collection,* with his Journal and other philosophical 
and natural discourses and observations, indeed very 
copious and extraordinary, sufficient to furnish a history 
of that island, to which I encouraged him. 

19th. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishops of 
Ely, Bath and Wells, Peterborough, Gloucester, and the 
rest who would not take the oaths to King William, were 
now displaced ; and, in their rooms. Dr. Tillotson, Dean 
of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop; Patrick removed 
from Chichester to Ely ; Cumberlandf, to Gloucester. 

22nd. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the Tower. 

24th. I visited the Earl and Countess of Sunderland, 
now come to kiss the King's hand, after his return from 
Holland. This is a mystery. The King preparing to 
return to the army. 

7 th May. I went to visit the Archbishop of Canterbury 
[Sancroft] yet at Lambeth. I found him alone, and 
discoursing of the times, especially of the new designed 
Bishops ; he told me that by no canon or divine law they 
could justify the removing the present incumbents ; that 
Dr. Beveridge, designed Bishop of Bath and Wells, came to 
ask his advice ; that the Archbishop told him, though he 
should give it, he believed he would not take it; the 
Doctor said he would; why then, says the Archbishop, 
when they come to ask, say Nolo, and say it from the 
heart ; there is nothing easier than to resolve yourself what 

* It now forms part of the splendid collections in the British Museum. 
In 1 707, he published the first volume of his Natural History of Jamaica, in 
folio, witli numerous plates ; but the second volume did not appear till 1725. 
Sir Hans died Jan. 11, 1752. 

f A mistake. Dr. Edward Fowler was made Bishop of Gloucester in 
the place of Dr. Robert Frampton, deprived for not taking the oaths. 



1691.] JOHN EVELYN. 3^3 

is to be done in the case; the Doctor seemed to deliberate. 
What he will do I know not, but Bishop Ken, who is to 
be put out, is exceedingly beloved in his diocese ; and, 
if he and the rest should insist on it, and plead their 
interest as freeholders, it is believed there would be diffi- 
culty in their case, and it may endanger a schism and much 
disturbance, so as wise men think it had been better to 
have let them alone, than to have proceeded with this 
rigour to turn them out for refusing to swear against their 
consciences. I asked at parting, when his Grace removed; 
he said that he had not yet received any summons, but 
I found the house altogether disfurnished, and his books 
packing up. 

1st June. I went with my son, and brother-in-law, 
Glanville and his son, to Wotton, to solemnise the funeral 
of my nephew, which was performed the next day very 
decently and orderly by the herald, in the afternoon, a 
very great appearance of the country being there. I was 
the chief mourner ; the pall was held by Sir Francis 
Yincent, Sir Richard Onslow, Mr. Thomas Howard (son 
to Sir llobert) and Captain of the King's Guard, Mr. 
Hyldiard, Mr. James, Mr. Herbert, nephew to Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury, and cousin-german to my deceased 
nephcAv. He was laid in the vault at Wotton chui'ch, 
in the burying-place of the family. A great concourse of 
coaches and people accompanied the solemnity. 

10th. I went to visit Lord Clarendon, still prisoner in the 
Tower, though Lord Preston being pardoned was released. 

17th. A fast. 

11th July. I dined with Mr. Pepys, where was Dr. 
Cumberland, the new Bishop of Norwich,* Dr. Lloyd 
having been put out for not acknowledging the Govern- 
ment. Cumberland is a very learned, excellent man. — 
Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson, at Lambeth, 
])y the Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone, but had 
left his nephew to keep possession; and he refusing to 
deliver it up on the Queen's message, was dispossessed by 
the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanour of 
the few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King 
William, animated a great party to forsake the churches, 

• A mistake. Dr. Cumberland was made Bishop of Peterborough, and 
IXr. John Moore succeeded Dr. Lloyd in the See of Norwich. 



314 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

SO as to threaten a schism; though those who looked 
further into the ancient practice, found that when (as 
formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular accounts, 
the people never refused to acknowledge the new Bishops, 
provided they were not heretics. The truth is, the whole 
clergy had till now stretched the duty of passive obedi- 
ence, so that the proceedings against these Bishops gave 
no little occasion of exceptions; hut this not amounting 
to heresy, there was a necessity of receiving the new 
Bishops, to prevent a failure of that order in the Church. — 
I went to visit Lord Clarendon in the Tower, but he was 
gone into the country for air by the Queen's permission, 
under the care of his warden. 

18th. To London to hear Mr. Stringfellow preach his 
first sermon in the new-erected church of Trinity, in 
Conduit Street; to which I did recommend him to Dr. 
Tenison for the constant preacher and lecturer. This 
church, formerly built of timber on Hounslow-Heath by 
King James for the mass-priests, being begged by Dr. 
Tenison, rector of St. Martin's, was set up by that public- 
minded, charitable and pious man near my son's dwelling 
in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge of the Doctor. I 
know him to be an excellent preacher and a fit person. 
This church, though erected in St. Martin's, which 
is the Doctor's parish, he was not only content, but 
was the sole industrious mover, that it should be made 
a separate parish, in regard of the neighbourhood having 
become so populous. Wherefore to countenance and in- 
troduce the new minister, and take possession of a gallery 
designed for my son's family, I went to London, where, 

19th, in the morning Dr. Tenison preached the first 
sermon, taking his text from Psahn xxvi. 8. " Lord, I 
have loved the habitation of thy house, and the place 
where thine honour dwelleth." In concluding, he gave 
that this should be made a parish-church so soon as the 
Parhament sate, and was to be dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity,* in honour of the three undivided Persons in the 

* Tliis was never made a parish-church, but still remains a chapel, and is 
private property. But, imder the Act for building fifty new churches, one 
was built in the street between Conduit-street and Hanover-square, the first 
stone being laid 20th June, 1712 ; it was dedicated to St. George, and part 
of St. Martin's was made a separate parish, now called St. George's, 
Hanover-square. 



1691.] JOHN EVELYN. 3^5 

Deity ; and he minded them to attend to that faith of the 
Church, noAV especially that Arianism, Socinianism, and 
Atheism began to spread amongst ns. — In the afternoon, 
Mr. Stringfellow preached on Luke vii. 5, " The centurion 
who had built a synagogue/^ He proceeded to the due 
praise of persons of such public spirit, and thence to such a 
character of pious benefactors in the person of the generous 
centurion, as was comprehensive of all the virtues of an 
accomplished Christian, in a style so full, eloquent and 
moving, that I never heard a sermon more apposite to the 
occasion. He modestly insinuated the obligation they 
had to that person who should be the author and promoter 
of such public Avorks for the benefit of mankind, especially 
to the advantage of religion, such as building and endow- 
ing churches, hospitals, libraries, schools, procuring the 
best editions of useful books, by which he handsomely 
intimated who it was that had been so exemplary for his 
benefaction to that place. Indeed, that excellent person. 
Dr. Tenison, had also erected and furnished a public 
library * [in St. Martin's] ; and set up two or three 
free-schools at his own charges. Besides this, he was 
of an exemplary holy life, took great pains in constantly 
preaching, and incessantly employing himself to promote 
the service of God both in public and private. I never 
knew a man of a more universal and generous spirit, with 
so much modesty, prudence, and piety. 

The great victory of King William's army in Ireland 
was looked on as decisive of that war. The French 
General, St. Ruth, who had been so cruel to the poor 
Protestants in France, was slain, with divers of the best 
commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having 1,000 killed, 
but of the enemy 4 or 5,000. 

2Gth. An extraordinary hot season, yet refreshed by 
some thunder-showers. 

28th. I went to Wotton. 

2nd August. No sermon in the church in the afternoon, 
and the curacy ill served. 

IGth. A sermon by the curate; an honest discourse, 
but read without any spirit, or seeming concern ; a great 
fault in the education of yoimg preachers. — Great thunder 
and lightning on Thursday, but the rain and wind very 

* Seep. 194. 



(316 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

violent. — Our fleet come in to lay up the great ships; 
nothing done at sea, pretending that we cannot meet the 
iVench. 

13th September. A great storm at sea; we lost the 
Coronation and Harwich, above 600 men perishing. 

14th October. A most pleasing autumn. — Our navy 
come in without having performed any thing, yet there 
has been great loss of ships by negligence, and unskilful 
men governing the fleet and Navy-board. 

7th November. I visited the Earl of Dover, who having 
made his peace with the King, was now come home. The 
relation he gave of the strength of the French King, and 
the difficulty of our forcing him to fight, and any way 
making impression into France, was very wide from what 
we fancied. 

8th — 30th. An extraordinary dry and warm season, 
without frost, and like a new spring; such as had not 
been known for many years. Part of the King's house at 
Kensington was burnt. 

6th December. Discourse of another plot, in which 
several great persons were named, but believed to be a 
sham. — A proposal in the House of Commons that every 
officer in the whole nation who received a salary above 
£500 or otherwise by virtue of his office, should contribute 
it wholly to the support of the war with France, and this 
upon their oaths. 

25th. My daughter-in-law was brought to bed of a 
daughter. 

26th. An exceeding dry and calm winter, no rain for 
many past months. 

28th. Dined at Lambeth with the new Archbishop. 
Saw the eff'ect of my green-house furnace, set up by the 
Archbishop's son-in-law. 

30th. I again saw Mr. Charlton's collection* of spiders, 
birds, scorpions, and other serpents, &c. 

1691-2. 1st January. This last week died that pious 
admirable Christian, excellent philosopher, and my worthy 
friend, Mr. Boyle, aged about 65 — a great loss to all that 
knew him, and to the public. 

6th. At the funeral of Mr. Boyle, at St. Martin's, Dr. 
Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, preached on Eccles. ii. 26. 

.. * See pp. 260,306. 



1692.] JOHN EVELYN. 3] 7 

He concluded with an eulogy due to the deceased, who 
made God and religion the scope of all his excellent 
talents in the knowledge of nature, and who had arrived 
to so high a degree in it, accompanied with such zeal and 
extraordinary piety, which he showed in the whole course 
of his life, particularly in his exemplary charity on all 
occasions — that he gave £1,000 yearly to the distressed 
refugees of France and Ireland; was at the charge of 
translating the Scriptures into the Irish and Indian tongues, 
and was now promoting a Turkish translation, as he had 
formerly done, of Grotius " on the Truth of the Christian 
Religion" into Arabic, which he caused to be dispersed 
in the Eastern countries ; that he had settled a fund for 
preachers who should preach expressly against Atheists, 
Libertines, Socinians, and Jews ; that he had in his Will 
given £8,000 to charitable uses ; but that his private 
charities were extraordinary. He dilated on his learning 
in Hebrew and Greek, his reading of the Fathers, and 
solid knowledge in theology, once deliberating about taking 
Holy Orders, and that at the time of restoration of King 
Charles II., when he might have made a great figure in 
the nation as to secular honour and titles, his fear of not 
being able to discharge so weighty a duty as the first, 
made him decline that, and his humility the other. He 
spake of his civility to strangers, the great good which 
he did by his experience in medicine and chemistry, and 
to what noble ends he applied himself to his darling 
studies ; the works both pious and useful which he pub- 
lished ; the exact life he led, and the happy end he made. 
Sometliing was touched of his sister, the Lady Ranelagh, 
Avho died but a few days before him. And truly all this 
was but his due, without any grain of flattery. 

This week, a most execrable murder was committed on 
Dr. Clench, father of that extraordinary learned child 
whom I have before noticed. * Under pretence of carry- 
ing him in a coach to see a patient, they strangled him in 
it ; and, sending away the coachman under some pretence, 
they left his dead body in the coach, and escaped in the 
dusk of the evening.f 

* See before, p. 288. 

t One Henry Harrison wa3 tried for this murder, convicted, and lianged ; 
but he left a paper, which was printed, denying his guilt. 



33^3 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

12th. My grand-daughter was christened by Dr. Tenison, 
now Bishop of Lincoln, in Trinity Church, being the first 
that was christened there. She was named Jane. 

24th. A frosty and dry season continued; many persons 
die of apoplexies, more than usual. — Lord Marlborough, 
Lieutenant-general of the King's army in England, 
Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, &c. dismissed from all 
his charges, military and other, for his excessive taking 
of bribes, covetousness and extortion on all occasions 
from his inferior officers. — Note, this was the Lord who 
was entirely advanced by King James, and was the first 
who betrayed and forsook his master. He was son of Sir 
Winston Churchill of the Green-cloth. 

7th February. An extraordinary snow fell in most parts. 

13th. Mr. Boyle having made me one of the trustees 
for his charitable bequests, I went to a meeting of the 

Bishop of Lincoln, Sir Rob wood and Serjeant 

Rotheram, to settle that clause in the will which related 
to charitable uses, and especially the appointing and 
electing a minister to preach one sermon the first Sunday 
in the month, during the four summer-months, expressly 
against Atheists, Deists, Libertines, Jews, &c. without 
descending to any other controversy whatever, for which 
£50 per annum is to be paid quarterly to the preacher ; 
and, at the end of three years, to proceed to a new election 
of some other able divine, or to continue the same, as the 
trustees should judge convenient. We made choice of 
one Mr. Bentley,* chaplain to the Bishop of Worcester 
(Dr. Stillingfleet). The first sermon was appointed for 
the first Sunday in March, at St. Martin's; the second 
Sunday in April, at Bow-church, and so alternately. 

28th. Lord Marlborough having used words against 
the King, and been discharged from aU his great places, 
his wife was forbid the Court, and the Princess of Den- 
mark was desired by the Queen to dismiss her from her 
service ; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court 
to Sion-house. — Divers new Lords made; Sir Henry 
Capel,t Sir William Fermor,J &c. — Change of Commis- 

• Afterwards the celebrated scholar and critic, Librarian to the King, and 
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
+ Lord Capel, of Tewkesbury. 
J Baron of Leominster ; afterwards Earl of Pomfret. 



1692.] JOHN EVELYN. ' gjg 

sioners in the Treasury. — The Parliament adjourned, not 
well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India 
Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. — 
The Duke of Norfolk does not succeed in his endeavour 
to be divorced.* 

20th March. My son was made one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Revenue and Treasury of Ireland, to which 
emploj^ment he had a mind, far from my wishes. — I 
visited the Earl of Peterborough, who showed me the 
picture of the Prince of Wales, newly brought out of France, 
seeming in my opinion very much to resemble the Queen 
his mother, and of a most vivacious countenance. 

April. No spring yet appearing. The Queen-dowager 
went out of England towards Portugal, as pretended, 
against the advice of all her friends. 

4th. Mr. Bentley preached Mr. Boyle^s lecture at St. 
IMary-le-Bow. So excellent a discourse against the 
Epicurean system is not to be recapitulated in a few 
words. He came to me to ask whether I thought it 
should be printed, or that there was anything in it which 
I desired to be altered. I took this as a civility, and 
earnestly desired it should be printed, as one of the most 
learned and convincing discourses I had ever heard. 

6th. A fast. — King James sends a letter written and 
directed by his own hand to several of the Privy Council, 
and one to his daughter the Queen Regent, informing 
them of the Queen being ready to be brought to bed, and 
summoning them to be at the birth by the middle of May, 
promising as from the French King, permission to come 
and return in safety. 

24th. Much apprehension of a French invasion, and 
of an universal rising. Our fleet begins to join with the 
Dutch. Unkindness between the Queen and her sister. 
Very cold and unseasonable weather, scarce a leaf on 
the trees. 

5 th May. Reports of an invasion were very hot, and 
alarmed the City, Court, and people ; nothing but securing 
suspected persons, sending forces to the sea-side, and 
hastening out the fleet. Continued discourse of the 
French invasion, and of ours in France. The eastern 
wind so constantly blowing, gave our fleet time to unite, 

* See hereafter, under the year 1700, April. 



320 DIARY OF [WINDSOR, 

■which had been so tardy in preparation, that, had not 
God thus wonderfully favoured, the enemy would in all 
probability have fallen upon us. Many daily secured, and 
proclamations out for more conspirators. 

8th. My kinsman, Sir Edward Evelyn, of Long Ditton, 
died suddenly. 

12th. A fast. 

13th. I dined at my cousin Cheny's, son to my Lord 
Cheny, who married my cousin Pierpoint. 

15th. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now married to Sir 
Cyril Wyche, Secretary of State for Ireland.* — After all 
our apprehensions of being invaded, and doubts of our 
success by sea, it pleased God to give us a great naval 
victory, to the utter ruin of the French fleet, their admiral 
and all their best men of Avar, transport-ships, &c. 

29th. Though this day was set apart expressly for 
celebrating the memorable birth, return, and restoration 
of the late King Charles II., there was no notice taken of 
it, nor any part of the office annexed to the Common 
Prayer-Book made use of, which I think was ill done, in 
regard his restoration not only redeemed us from anarchy 
and confusion, but restored the Church of England, as it 
were miraculously. 

9th June. I went to Windsor to carry my grandson to 
Eton School, where I met my Lady Stonehouse and other 
of my daughter-in-law's relations, who came on purpose 
to see her before her journey into Ireland. We went to 
see the Castle, which we found furnished and very neatly 
kept, as formerly, only that the arms in the guard- 
chamber .and keep were removed and carried away. — An 
exceeding great storm of wind and rain, in some places 
stripping the trees of their fruit and leaves as if it had 
been winter ; and an extraordinary wet season, with great 
floods. 

23rd July. I went with my wife, son, and daughter, to 
Eton, to see my grandson, and thence to my Lord 
Godolphin's, at Cranbm'n, where we lay, and were most 
honourably entertained. The next day to St. George's 
Chapel, and returned to London late in' the evening. 

25th. To Mr. Hewer's at Clapham, where he has an 
excellent, useful, and capacious house on the Common, 

* See hereafter under the year 1699, October. 



1692.] JOHN EVELYN. 32] 

built by Sir Den. Gauden, and by him sold to Mr. Hewer, 
who got a very considerable estate in the Navy, in Avhich, 
from being Mr. Pepys's clerk, he came to be one of the 
principal officers, but Avas put out of all employment on 
the Revolution, as were all the best officers, on suspicion 
of being no friends to the change ; such were put in their 
places, as were most shamefully ignorant and unfit. Mr. 
Hewer lives very handsomely and friendly to every body.* 
— Our fleet was now sailing on their long pretence of a 
descent on the French coast ; but, after having sailed one 
hundred leagues, returned, the admiral and officers dis- 
agreeing as to the place where they w^ere to land, and the 
time of year being so far spent, — to the great dishonour 
of those at the helm, who concerted their matters so 
indiscreetly, or, as some thought, designedly. 

This whole summer was exceeding wet and rainj^ ; the 
like had not been known since the year 1648; whilst in 
Ireland they had not known so great a drought. 

16th. I went to visit the Bishop of Lincoln, when, 
amongst other things, he told me that one Dr. Chaplin, of 
University College in Oxford, was the person who wrote 
the " Whole Duty of Man ;'^ that he used to read it to his 
pupils, and communicated it to Dr. Stern, afterwards 
Archbishop of York, but would never suffer any of his 
pupils to have a copy of it. 

lOtli August. A fast.— Came the sad news of the hurri- 
cane and earthquake, which has destroyed almost the 
whole Island of Jamaica, many thousands ha\dng perished. 

11th, My son, his wife, and little daughter, went for 
Ireland, there to reside as one of the Commissioners of the 
Hevenue. 

14'th. Still an exceeding wet season. 

15th September. There happened an earthquake, w^hich, 
though not so great as to do any harm in England, was 
universal in all these parts of Europe. It shook the house 
at "VVotton, but was not perceived by any save a servant 
or two, who were making my bed, and another in a garret. 
I and the rest being at dinner below in the parlour, were 
not sensible of it. The dreadful one in Jamaica this 
summer was profanely and ludicrously represented in a 

* Sec (he Diai-y and Correspondence of Samuel Pcpys,' edited by Ilicliard 
Lord Braybrooke. 

V0I>. II. Y 



322 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

puppet-play, or some such lewd pastime, in the fair of 
Southwark, which caused the Queen to put down that idle 
and vicious mock show. 

1st October. This season was so exceedingly cold, by 
reason of a long and tempestuous north-east wind, that 
tliis usually pleasant month was very uncomfortable. No 
fruit ripened kindly. — Harbord dies at Belgrade; Lord 
Paget sent Ambassador in his room. 

6th November. There was a vestry called about repair- 
ing or new building of the church [at Deptford], which I 
thought unseasonable in regard of heavy taxes, and other 
improper circumstances, which I there declared. 

10th. A solemn Thanksgiving for our victory at sea, 
safe return of the King, &c. 

20th. Dr. Lancaster, the new Vicar of St. Martin's, 
preached. 

A signal robbery in Hertfordshire of the tax-money 
bringing out of the north towards London. They were set 
upon by several desperate persons, who dismounted and 
stopped all travellers on the road, and guarding them in a 
field, when the exploit was done, and the treasure taken, 
they killed all the horses of those whom they stayed, to 
hinder pursuit, being sixteen horses. They then dismissed 
those that they had dismounted. 

14th December. With much reluctance we gratified Sir 
J. Rotheram, one of Mr. Boyle's trustees, by admitting 
the Bishop of Bath and Wells * to be lecturer for the 
next year, instead of Mr. Bentley, who had so worthily 
acqmtted himself. We intended to take him in again the 
next year. 

1692-3. January. Contest in Parliament about a self- 
denying Act, that no Parliament-man should have any 
office : it wanted only two or three voices to have been 
carried. — The Duke of Norfolk's Bill for a divorce thrown 
out, he having managed it very indiscreetly. — The quarrel 
between Admiral Bussell and Lord Nottingham yet un- 
determined. 

4th February. After five days' trial and extraordinary 
contest, the Lord Mohun was acquitted by the Lords of 
the murder of Montford, the player, notwithstanding the 
Judges, from the pregnant witnesses of the fact, had 

* Bishop Kidder. 



1693.] JOHN EVELYN. 3£3 

declared him guilty ; but whether in commiseration of his 
youth, being not eighteen years old, though exceeding 
dissolute, or upon whatever other reason, the King himself 
present some part of the trial, and satisfied, as they report, 
that he was culpable, G9 acquitted him, only 14 con- 
demned him. 

Unheard-of stories of the universal increase of witches 
in New England; men, women, and children, devoting 
themselves to the devil, so as to threaten the suljversion of 
the government.* — At the same time there was a con- 
spiracy amongst the negroes in Barbadoes to murder all 
their masters, discovered by overhearing a discourse of two 
of the slaves, and so preventing the execution of the 
design. — Hitherto an exceeding mild winter. — France in 
the utmost misery and poverty for want of corn and sub- 
sistence, whilst the ambitious King is intent to pursue his 
conquests on the rest of his neighbours both by sea and 
land. Our Admiral, E-ussell, laid aside for not pursuing 
the advantage he had obtained over the French in the past 
summer; three others chosen in his place. Dr. Burnet, 
Bishop of Salisbury's book burnt by the hangman for an 
expression of the King's title by conquest, on a complaint 
of Joseph How, a Member of Parliament, little better than 
a madman. 

19th. The Bishop of Lincoln preached in the afternoon 
at the Tabernacle near Golden Square, set up by him. — 
Proposals of a marriage between Mr. Draper and my 
daughter Susanna. — Hitherto an exceeding warm winter, 
such as has seldom been known, and portending an nnpros- 
perous spring as to the fruits of the earth; our climate 
requires more cold and winterly weather. The dreadful 
and astonishing earthquake swallowing up Catania and 
other famous and ancient cities, with more than 100,000 
persons in Sicily, on lltli January last, came now to be 
reported amongst us. 

26th. An extraordinary deep snow, after almost no 

* Some account of these unfortunate persons is given in the History of 
Surrey, II., 7 1 4, from the papers of the Rev. Mr. Miller, Vicar of Effingham, 
in that county, who was Chaplain to the King's forces there from 1692 to 
1695. Some of these poor people were convicted and executed ; but Sir 
William Phipps, the Governor, had the good sense to reprieve, and afterwards 
pardon, several ; and the Queen approved his conduct. 

Y'Z 



324 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

winter, and a sudden gentle thaw. — A deplorable earth- 
quake at Malta, since that of Sicily, nearly as great. 

19th March. A new Secretary of State, Sir John Trench- 
ard;* the Attorney-General, Somers, made Lord-Keeper, 
a young lawyer of extraordinary merit. — King William 
goes towards Flanders; but returns, the wind being 
contrary. 

31st. I met the King going to Gravesend to embark in 
his yacht for Holland. 

23rd April. An extraordinary wet spring. 

27th. My daughter Susanna was married to William 
Draper, Esq., in the chapel of Ely House, by Dr. Tenison, 
Bishop of Lincoln (since Archbishop). I gave her in por- 
tion £4,000, her jointure is £500 per annum. I pray 
Almighty God to give His blessing to this marriage ! She 
is a good child, religious, discreet, ingenious, and qualified 
with all the ornaments of her sex. She has a peculiar 
talent in design, as painting in oil and miniature, and an 
extraordinary genius for whatever hands can do with a 
needle. She has the Erench tongue, has read most of the 
Greek and Roman authors, and poets, using her talents 
with great modesty ; exquisitely shaped, and of an agree- 
able countenance. This character is due to her, though 
coming from her father. Much of this week spent in 
ceremonies, receiving visits and entertaining relations, and 
a great part of the next in returning visits. 

11th May. We accompanied my daughter to her hus- 
band's house,t where with many of his and our relations 
we were magnificently treated. There we left her in an 

* Of Bloxworth, in Dorsetshire. He had been engaged with the Duke of 
Monmouth, but got out of England, and lived abroad, where he acquired a 
true knowledge of foreign affairs. He was a calm and sedate man, and more 
moderate than could have been expected, since he had been a leading man in 
a party. He was the confidential friend of King William, by whom he was com- 
missioned to concert measures with his friends on this side of the water, and 
ensure his favourable reception. Previously to his appointment of Secretary- 
of-State, the King had made him Serjeant-at-law, and Chief Justice of Chester. 
He died in 1 694, at the age of forty-six, and is buried at Bloxworth, There is 
an engraved portrait of Sir John Trenchard in mezzotinto, by James Watson, 
representing him in the dress of his office, and expresses a weakness which 
he had in his right hand and arm ; also another in armour, from a miniature 
after the original, by Ozias Humphrey, R.A., engraved by Cantlo Bestland. 
See Hutchins's History of Dorsetshire, vol. III. 

t At Addiscombe, near Croydon. 



1693.] JOHN EVELYN, 325 

apartment very riclily adorned and furnished, and I hope 
in as happy a condition as could be wished, and with the 
great satisfaction of all our friends ; for which God be 
praised ! 

14'th. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering 
of a design to bring forces under colour of an expected 
descent, to be a standing army for other purposes. Talk 
of a declaration of the French King, offering mighty advan- 
tages to the Confederates, exclusive of King William ; and 
another of King James, with an universal pardon, and 
referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. 
These were yet but discourses ; but something is certainly 
under it. A Declaration or Manifesto from King James, 
so written, that many thought it reasonable, and much 
more to the purpose than any of his former. 

June. Whit-Sunday. I went to my Lord Griffith's 
chapel ; the common church-office was used for the King 
without naming the person, with some other, apposite to 
the necessity and circumstances of the time. 

11th. I dined at Sir William Godolphin's; and, after 
evening prayer, visited the Duchess of Grafton. 

21st. I saw a great auction of pictures in the Banquet- 
ing-house, Whitehall. They had been my Lord Melford's, 
now Ambassador from King James at Rome, and engaged 
to his creditors here. Lord jMulgrave and Sir Edward 
Seymour came to my house, and desired me to go with 
them to the sale. Divers more of the great lords, &c., were 
there, and bought j^ictures dear enough. There were some 
very excellent of Vandyke, Rubens, and Bassan. Lord 
Godolphin bought the picture of the Boys, by Murillo the 
Spaniard, for 80 guineas, dear enough; my nephew Glan- 
ville, the old Earl of Arundel's head by Rubens, for £20. 
Growing late, I did not stay till all were sold. 

24th. A very wet hay-harvest, and little summer as yet. 

9th July. Mr. Tippin, successor of Dr. Parr at Camber- 
well, preached an excellent sermon. 

13th. I saw the Queen's rare cabinets and collection of 
china ; which was wonderfully rich and plentiful, but espe- 
cially a large cabinet, looking-glass frame and stands, all 
of amber, much of it white, with historical bass-reliefs and 
statues, with medals carved in them, esteemed worth 
c€4,000, sent by the Duke of Brandenburgh, Avhose 



326 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

country, Prussia, abounds with amber, cast up by the sea ; 
divers other China and Indian cabinets, screens, and hang- 
ings. In her library were many books in Enghsh, French, 
and Dutch, of all sorts; a cupboard of gold plate; a 
cabinet of silver filagree, which I think was our Queen 
Mary's,* and which, in my opinion, should have been 
generously sent to her. 

18th. I dined with Lord Mulgrave, with the Earl of 
Devonshire, Mr. Hampden (a scholar and fine gentleman), 
Dr. Davenant, Sir Henry Vane, and others, and saw and 
admired the Venus of Correggio, which Lord Mulgrave had 
newly bought of Mr. Daun for £250; one of the best 
paintings I ever saw. 

1st August. Lord Capel, Sir Cyril Wyche, and Mr. 
Duncomb, made Lord- Justices in Ireland ; Lord Sydney 
recalled, and made Master of the Ordnance. 

6th. Very lovely harvest-weather, and a wholesome 
season, but no garden-fruit. 

31st October. A very wet and uncomfortable season. 

12th November. Lord Nottingham resigned as Secretary 
of State ; t the Commissioners of the Admiralty outed, and 
Russell J restored to his office. — The season continued very 
wet, as it had nearly all the summer, if one might call it 
summer, in which there was no fruit, but corn was very 
plentiful. 

14th. In the lottery set up after the Venetian manner 
by Mr. Neale, Sir R. Haddock one of the Commissioners 
of the Navy had the greatest lot, £3000 ; my coachman £40. 

17th. Was the funeral of Captain Young, who died of 
the stone and great age. I think he was the first who in 
the first war with Cromwell against Spain,§ took the 
Governor of Havannah, and another rich prize, and struck 
the first stroke against the Dutch fleet in the first war with 
Holland in the time of the Rebellion ; a sober man and an 
excellent seaman. 

30th. Much importuned to take the office of President 
of the Royal Society, but I again declined it. Sir Robert 
Southwell was continued. We all dined at Pontac's, as usual. 

* Mary of Este', King James's Queen, now with him in France. 
f He was succeeded by Cliarles Eai-l of Shrewsbury. 
J Edward Russell, afterwards Earl of Orford. 
§ See vol. L, p. 318. 



1694.] JOHN EVELYN. 32.^ 

3rd December. Mr. Bentley preached at the Tabernacle, 
near Golden Square. I gave my voice for him to proceed 
on his former subject the following year in Mr. Boyle's 
lecture, in which he had been interrupted by the impor- 
tunity of Sir J. Rotheram that the Bishop of Chichester * 
might be chosen the year before, to the great dissatisfac- 
tion of the Bishop of Lincoln and myself. We chose 
Mr. Bentley again. — The Duchess of Grafton's Appeal to 
the House of Lords for the Prothonotary's place given to 
the late Duke and to her son by King Charles II., now 
challenged by the Lord Chief Justice. The Judges were 
severely reproved on something they said. 

10th. A very great storm with thunder and lightning. 

1698-4. 1st January. Prince Lewis of Baden came to 
London, and was much feasted. Danish ships arrested 
carrying corn and naval stores to France. 

11th. Supped at Mr. Edward Sheldon's, where was 
Mr. Dryden, the poet, who now intended to write no more 
plays, being intent on his translation of Virgil. He read 
to us his prologue and epilogue to his valedictory play now 
shortly to be acted. 

21st. Lord Macclesfield, Lord Warrington, and Lord 
Westmoreland, all died within about one week. Several 
persons shot, hanged, and made away with themselves. 

11th February. Now was the great trial of the appeal of 
Lord Bath and Lord Montagu before the Lords, for the 
estate of the late Duke of Albemarle.f 

10th March. Mr. Stringfellow preached at Trinity 
parish, being restored to that place, after the contest 
between the Queen and the Bishop of London who had 
displaced him. 

22nd. Came the dismal news of the disaster befallen 
our Turkey fleet by tempest, to the almost utter ruin of 
that trade, the convoy of three or four men-of-war, and 
divers merchant-ships, with all their men and lading, 
having perished. 

25th. Dr. Goode, minister of St. Martin's, preached ; 
he was likewise put in by the Queen, on the issue of her 
process with the Bishop of London. 

30th. I went to the Duke of Norfolk, to desire him to 

* Read Bath and Wells ; viz. Bp. KidJer ; se? p. 322. 
t See pp. 343, 366. 



328 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

make cousin Evelyn of Nutfield, one of the Deputy- 
Lieutenants of Surrey, and entreat him to dismiss my 
brother, now unable to serve by reason of age and infir- 
mity. The Duke granted the one, but would not suffer 
my brother to resign his commission, desiring he should 
keep the honour of it during his life, though he could not 
act. He professed great kindness to our family. 

1st April. Dr. Sharp, Archbishop of York, preached in 
the afternoon at the Tabernacle, by Soho. 

13th. Mr. Bentley, our Boyle Lecturer, Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Worcester, came to see me. 

15th. One Mr. Stanhope * preached a most excellent 
sermon. 

22nd. A fiery exhalation rising out of the sea, spread 
itself in Montgomeryshire a furlong broad, and many 
miles in length, burning all straw, hay, thatch, and grass, 
but doing no harm to trees, timber, or any solid things, 
only firing barns, or thatched houses. It left such a taint 
on the grass as to kill all the cattle that eat of it. I saw 
the attestations in the hands of the suflerers. It lasted 
many months. — "The Berkeley Castle '^ sunk by the 
French coming from the East Indies, worth £200,000. 
The French took our castle of Gamboo in Guinea, so that 
the Africa Actions fell to £30, and the India to £80. — 
Some regiments of Highland Dragoons ■were on their 
march through England ; they were of large stature, well 
appointed and disciplined. One of them having reproached 
a Dutchman for cowardice in our late fight, was attacked 
by two Dutchmen, when with his sword he struck off the 
head of one, and cleft the skull of the other down to his chin. 

A very young gentleman named Wilson, the younger 
son of one who had not above £200 a-year estate, lived in 
the garb and equipage of the richest nobleman, for house, 
furniture, coaches, saddle-horses, and kept a table, and all 
things accordingly, redeemed his father's estate, and gave 
portions to his sisters, being challenged by one Laws, a 
Scotchman, was killed in a duel, not fairly. The quarrel 
arose from his taking away his own sister from lodging in 
a house where this Laws had a mistress, which the mistress 

♦ Afterwards Dean of Canterbury ; a most respectable and worthy divine, 
who made no scruple to publish what he found truly pious in the worics of a 
Roman Catholic Priest. See p. 338.^ 



1G94.] , JOHN EVELYN. 329 

of the house thinking a disparagement to it, and losing by 
it, instigated Laws to this duel. He was taken and con- 
demned for murder. The mystery is how this so young a 
gentleman, very sober and of good fame, could live in such 
an expensive manner ; it could not be discovered by all 
possible industrv, or entreat}^ of his friends to make him 
reveal it. It did not appear that he was kept by Avomen, 
play, coining, padding, or dealing in chymistry ; but he 
would sometimes say that if he should live ever so long, 
he had wherewith to maintain himself in the same manner. 
He was veiy civil and well-natured, but of no great force 
of understanding. This was a subject of much discourse. 
24th. I went to visit Mr. Waller, an extraordinary 
young gentleman of great accomplishments, skilled in 
mathematics, anatomy, music, painting both in oil and 
miniature to great perfection, an excellent botanist, a rare 
engraver on brass, writer in Latin, and a poet ; and with 
all this exceeding modest. His house is an academy of 
itself. I carried him to see Brompton Park [by Knights- 
bridge] ,* where he was in admiration at the store of rare 
plants, and the method he found in that noble nursery, 
and how well it was cultivated. — A public Bank of 
£140,000, set up by Act of Parliament among other Acts, 
and Lotteries for money to carry on the war. — The whole 
month of April without rain. — A great rising of people in 
Buckinghamshire, on the declaration of a famous preacher, t 
till now reputed a sober and religious man, that our Lord 
Christ appearing to him on the 16th of this month, told 
him he was now come down, and would appear publicly at 
Pentecost, and gather all the saints, Jews and Gentiles, 
and lead them to Jerusalem, and begin the Millennium, 
and destroying and judging the Avicked, dehver the govern- 

* Belonging to Mr. Wise. See p. ?>66. 

■\- John Mason, who was presented to the rectory of Water Stratford, in 
1674. Granger calls him a man of unaffected piety, and says that he was 
esteemed to be possessed of learning and abilities above the common level, 
till he became bewildered in the mystei'ies of Calvinism. Great iiumliers of 
his deluded followers left their homes, and filled all the houses and barns iu 
the neighbourhood of Water Stratford ; and, when they were prevented from 
assembling in their chosen field, they met in the town. Three pahiphlcts oil 
this subject were published in 1C94, the year after Mr. Mason's death, one 
of which has been privately reprinted by the late Rev. Edward Cooke, 
Kcctor of Ilaversham, iu the same county. 



330 DIARY OF [hotton, 

ment of the world to the saints. Great multitudes followed 
this preacher, divers of the most zealous brought their 
goods and considerable sums of money, and began to live 
in imitation of the primitive saints, minding no private 
concerns, continually dancing and singing Hallelujah 
night and day. This brings to mind what I lately hap- 
pened to find in Alstedius, that the thousand years should 
begin this very year 1694 : it is in his Encyclopaedia 
Biblica. My copy of the book printed near sixty years 
ago. 

4th May. I went this day with my wife and four servants 
from Sayes Court, removing much furniture of all sorts, 
books, pictures, hangings, bedding, &c., to furnish the 
apartment my brother assigned me, and now, after more 
than forty years, to spend the rest of my days with him at 
Wotton, where I was born ; leaving my house at Deptford 
full furnished, and three servants, to my son-in-law 
Draper, to pass the summer in, and such longer time as 
he should think fit to make use of it. 

6th. This being the first Sunday in the month, the 
blessed Sacrament of the Lord^s Supper ought to have 
been celebrated at Wotton Church, but in this parish it is 
exceedingly neglected, so that, unless at the four great 
Feasts, there is no communion hereabouts ; which is a 
great fault both in ministers and people. I have spoken, 
to my brother, who is the patron, to discourse the Minister 
about it. — Scarcely one shower has fallen since the 
beginning of April. 

80th. This week we had news of my Lord Tiviot having 
cut his own throat, through what discontent not yet said. 
He had been, not many years past, my colleague in the 
commission of the Privy Seal, au old acquaintance, very 
soberly and religiously inclined. Lord, what are we 
without Thy continual grace ! 

Lord Falkland, grandson to the learned Lord Falkland, 
Secretary of State to King Charles I., and slain in his 
service, died now of the smaU-pox. He was a pretty, 
brisk, understanding, industrious young gentleman; had 
formerly been faulty, but now much reclaimed ; had also 
the good luck to marry a very great fortune, besides being 
entitled to a vast sum, his share of the Spanish wreck, 
taken up at the expense of divers adventurers. From a 



1694.] JOHN EVELYN. 331 

Scotch Viscount he was made an English Baron, designed 
Ambassador for Holland ; had been Treasurer of the 
Navy, and advancing extremely in the new Court. All 
now gone in a moment, and I think the title is extinct. 
I know not whether the estate devolves to my cousin 
Carew. It was at my Lord Falkland's, whose lady impor- 
tuned us to let our daughter be with her some time, so 
that that dear child took the same infection, which cost 
her valuable life.* 

3rd June. Mr. Edwards, minister of Denton, in Sussex, 
a living in my brother's gift, came to see him. He had 
suffered much by a fire. — Seasonable showers. 

14.th. The public Fast. Mr. Wotton, that extraordinary 
learned young man, preached excellently. 

1st July. Mr. Duncomb, minister of Albury, preached 
at Wotton, a very religious and exact discourse. 

The first great Bank for a fund of money being 
now established by Act of Parliament, was filled and 
completed to the sum of £120,000, and put under the 
government of the most able and wealthy citizens of 
London. All who adventm-ed any sum had four per Cent., 
so long as it lay in the Bank, and had power either to take 
it out at pleasure, or transfer it. — Glorious steady weather ; 
corn and all fruits in extraordinary plenty generally. 

13th. Lord Berkeley burnt Dieppe and Havre-de-Grace 
with bombs, in revenge for the defeat at Brest. This 
manner of destructive war was begun by the French, is 
exceedingly ruinous, especially falling on the poorer people, 
and does not seem to tend to make a more speedy end of 
the war ; but rather to exasperate and incite to revenge. — 
Many executed at London for clipping money, now done 
to that intolerable extent, that there was hardly any money 
that was worth above half the nominal value. 

4th August. I went to visit my cousin, George Evelyn 
of Nutfield, where I found a family of ten children, five 
sons and five daughters — all beautiful women grown, and 
extremely well-fashioned. All painted in one piece, very 
well, bj?^ Mr. Lutterell, in crayon on copper, and seeming 
to be as finely painted as the best miniature. They are 
the children of two extraordinary beautiful Avives. The 
boys were at school. 

* See March 7 & 10, 1684-5. 



332 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

5th. Stormy and unseasonable wet weather this week. 

5th October. I went to St Paul's to see the choir, now 
finished as to the stone work, and the scaffolds struck both 
without and within, in that part. Some exceptions might 
perhaps be taken as to the placing columns on pilasters at 
the East tribunal. As to the rest, it is a piece of architec- 
ture without reproach. The pulhng out the forms, like 
drawers, from under the stalls is ingenious. I went also 
to see the building beginning near St. Giles's, where seven 
streets make a star from a Doric pillar placed in the 
middle of a circular area ; said to be built by Mr. Neale,* 
introducer of the late lotteries, in imitation of those at 
Venice, now set up here, for himself twice, and now one 
for the State. 

28th. Mr. Stringfellow preached at Trinity church. 

22nd November. Visited the Bishop of Lincoln [Teni- 
son] newly come on the death of the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, who a few days before had a paralytic stroke — 
the same day and month that Archbishop Sancroft was 
put out. — A very sickly time, especially the small-pox, of 
which divers considerable persons died. The State Lot- 
teryt drawing, Mr. Cock, a French refugee, and a Presi- 
dent in the Parliament of Paris for the Reformed, drew a 
lot of £1,000 per annum. 

29th. I visited the Marquis of Normanby, and had 
much discourse concerning King Charles II. being poisoned. 
— Also concerning the Quinquina which the physicians 
would not give to the King, at a time when, in a dangerous 
ague, it was the only thing that could cure him (out of 
envy because it had been brought into vogue by Mr. 
Tudor, an apothecary), till Dr. Short, to whom the King 
sent to know his opinion of it privately, he being reputed 
a Papist (but who was in truth a very honest good 
Christian), sent word to the King that it was the only 
thing which could save his Kfe, and then the King enjoined 
his physicians to give it to him, which they did, and he 

* This Mr. Neale took a large piece of ground on the north side of 
Piccadilly, of Sir Walter Clarges, agreeing to lay out £15,000 in building j 
but he did not do so, and Sir Walter having, after great trouble, got the 
lease out of his hands, built what is now called Clarges-street. Malcolm's 
London, p. 329. 

t State Lotteries finally closed October 18, 1826. 



1695.] JOHN EVELYN. 333 

recovered. Being asked by this Lord why they would not 
prescribe it, Dr. Lower said it would spoil their practice, 
or some such expression, and at last confessed it was a 
remedy fit only for kings. — Exception was taken that the 
late Archbishop did not cause any of his Chaplains to use 
any office for the sick during his illness. 

9th December. I had news that my dear and worthy 
friend. Dr. Tenison, Bishop of Lincoln, was made Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, for which I thank God and rejoice, he 
being most worthy of it, for his learning, piety, and prudence. 

13th. I went to London to congratulate him. He being 
my proxy, gave my vote for Dr. Williams, to succeed Mr. 
Bentley in Mr. Boyle^s lectures. 

29th. The small-pox increased exceedingly, and was 
very mortal. The Queen died of it on the 28th. 

13th January, 1694-5. The Thames was frozen over. 
The deaths by small-pox increased to five hundred more 
than in the preceding week. — The King and Princess 
Anne reconciled, and she was invited to keep her court at 
Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley- 
house : she was desired to take into her family divers 
servants of the late Queen ; to maintain them the King 
has assigned her £5,000 a-quarter. 

20th. The frost and continual snow have now lasted 
five weeks. 

February. Lord Spencer married the Duke of New- 
castle's daughter, and our neighbour, Mr. Ilussey, married 
a daughter of my cousin George Evelyn, of Nutfield. 

3rd. The long frost intermitted, but not gone. 

17th. Called to London by Lord Godolphin, one of the 
Lords of the Treasury, ofi'ering me the treasurership of the 
hospital designed to be built at Greenwich for worn-out 
seamen. 

24th. I saw the Queen lie in state. 

27th. The Marquis of Normanby told me King Charles 
had a design to buy all King Street, and build it nobly, 
it being the street leading to Westminster. This might 
have been done for the expense of the Queen's funeral, 
which was £50,000, against her desire. 

March 5th. I went to see the ceremony. Never was so 
universal a mourning ; all the Parliament men had cloaks 
given them, and four hundred poor Avomen ; all the streets 



334 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

hung, and the middle of the street boarded and covered 
with bhick cloth. There were all the Nobility, Mayor, 
Aldermen, Judges, &c. 

8th. I supped at the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry's, 
who related to me the pious behaviour of the Queen in all 
her sickness, which was admirable. She never inquired 
of what opinion persons were, who were objects of charity ; 
that, on opening a cabinet, a paper was found, wherein 
she had desired that her body might not be opened, or 
any extraordinary expense at her funeral, whenever she 
should die. This paper was not found in time to be 
observed. There were other excellent things under her 
own hand, to the very least of her debts, which were very 
small, and everything in that exact method, as seldom is 
found in any private person. In sum, she was such an 
admirable woman, abating for taking the Crown without 
a more due apology, as does, if possible, outdo the renowned 
Queen Elizabeth. 

10th. I dined at the Earl of Sunderland^s with Lord 
Spencer. My Lord showed me his library, now again 
improved by many books bought at the sale of Sir Charles 
Scarborough, an eminent physician,* which was the very 
best collection, especially of mathematical books, that was 
I believe in Europe, once designed for the King's Library 
at St. James's; but the Queen's dying, who was the great 
patroness of that design, it was let fall, and the books 
were miserably dissipated. 

The new edition of Camden's Britannia was now pub- 
lished (by Bishop Gibson), with great additions ; those to 
Surrey were mine, so that I had one presented to me. 
Dr. Gale showed me a MS. of some parts of the New 
Testament in vulgar Latin, that had belonged to a monas- 
tery in the North of Scotland, which he esteemed to be 
above eight hundred years old : there were some consider- 
able various readings observable, as in John i., and 
genealogy of St. Luke. 

24th. Easter-day. Mr. Duncomb, parson of this parish, 
preached, which he hardly comes to above once a year, 
though but seven or eight miles off jf a florid discourse, 

• See vol. I., p. 283. 

f This was William Duncomb, Rector of Ashted, in Surrey, not Mr. 
Duiicomo ot Albury, mentioned in pp. 331, 336. 



1695.] JOHN EVELYN. 335 

read out of his notes. The Holy Sacrament followed, 
which he administered with very little reverence, leaving 
out many prayers and exhortations; nor was there any 
oblation. This ought to be reformed, but my good brother 
did not well consider when he gave away this living and 
the next [Abinger] . 

March. The latter end of the month sharp and severe 
cold, with much snow and hard frost; no appearance of 
spring. 

31st. Mr. Lucas preached in the afternoon at Wotton. 

7th April. Lord Halifax died suddenly at London, the 
day his daughter was married to the Earl of Nottingham's 
son at Burleigh. Lord H. was a very rich man, very witty, 
and in his younger days somewhat positive. 

I'ith. After a most severe, cold, and snowy winter, 
without almost any shower for many months, the wind 
continuing N. and E. and not a leaf appearing ; the weather 
and wind now changed, some showers fell, and there was a 
remission of cold. 

21st. The spring begins to appear, yet the trees hardly 
leafed. — Sir T. Cooke discovers what prodigious bribes 
have been given by some of the East India Company out 
of the stock, which makes a great clamour. — Never were 
so many private Bills passed for unsettling estates, showing 
the wonderful prodigality and decay of families. 

5th May. I came to Deptford from Wotton, in order to 
the first meeting of the Commissioners for endowing an 
Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich ; it was at the Guild- 
hall, London. Present, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Lord- Keeper, Lord Privy Seal, Lord Godolphin, Duke of 
Shrewsbury, Duke of Leeds, Earls of Dorset and Mon- 
mouth, Commissioners of the Admiralty and Navy, Sir 
Robert Clayton, Sir Christopher Wren, and several more. 
The Commission was read by Mr. Lowndes, Secretary to 
the Lords of the Treasury, Surveyor-General. 

17th. Second meeting of the Commissioners, and a Com- 
mittee appointed to go to Greenwich to survey the place, 
I being one of them. 

21 st. We went to survey Greenwich, Sir Robert Clayton, 
Sir Christopher Wren, Mr. Travers the King's Surveyor ; 
Captain Sanders, and myself. 
" 24th. We made report of the state of Greenwich House, 



336 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

and how the standing part might be made serviceable at 
present for £6,000, and what ground would be requisite 
for the whole design. — My Lord-Keeper ordered me to 
prepare a book for subscriptions, and a preamble to it. 

31st. Met again. Mr. Vanbrugh was made Secretary 
to the Commission, by my nomination of him to the Lords, 
which was all done that day. 

7th June. The Commissioners met at Guildhall, when 
there were scruples and contests of the Lord Mayor,* who 
would not meet, not being named as one of the quorum, 
so that a new Commission was required, though the Lord- 
Keeper and the rest thought it too nice a punctilio. 

14th. Met at Guildhall, but could do nothing for want 
of a quorum. 

5th July. At Guildhall ; account of subscriptions, about 
7 or £8,000. 

6th. I dined at Lambeth, making my first visit to the 
Archbishop, where there was much company and great 
cheer. After pra3'ers in the evening, my Lord made me 
stay to show me his house, furniture, and garden, which 
Avere all very fine, and far beyond the usual Archbishops, 
not as affected by this, but being bought ready furnished 
by his predecessor. We discoursed of several public mat- 
ters, particularly of the Princess of Denmark, who made 
so little figure. 

11th. Met at Guildhall: not a fuU Committee, so 
nothing done. 

14th. No sermon at church; but, after prayers, the names 
of all the parishioners were read, in order to gathering the 
tax of 4.<s. for marriages, burials, &c. A very imprudent 
tax, especially this reading the names, so that most went 
out of the church. 

19th. I dined at Sir Purbeck Temple's, near Croydon j 
his lady is aunt to my son-in-law. Draper; the house 
exactly furnished. Went thence with my son and daughter 
to Wotton. — At Wotton, Mr. Duncomb, parson of Albury, 
preached excellently. 

28th. A very wet season. 

11th August. The weather now so cold, that greater 
frosts were not always seen in the midst of winter; this 
succeeded much wet, and set harvest extremely back. 

* Sir William Ashurst, Knt. 



1695, J JOHN EVELYN. 337 

25tli. Mr. Offley preached at Abinger; too mucli of 
controversy on a point of no consequence, for the country 
people here. This was the first time I had heard him 
preach.* — Bombarding of Cadiz ; a cruel and brutish way 
of making war, first begun by the French. — The season 
wet, great storms, unseasonable harvest weather. — My 
good and worthy friend. Captain Gilford, who that he 
might get some competence to live decently, adventured 
all he had in a voyage of two years to the East Indies, was, 
with another great ship, taken by some French men-of- 
war, almost within sight of England, to the loss of near 
£70,000, to my great sorrow, and pity of his wife, he being 
also a valiant and industrious man. The losses of this sort 
to the nation have been immense, and all through negli- 
gence and little care to secure the same near our own 
coasts; of infinitely more concern to the public than 
spending their time in bombarding and ruining two or 
three paltry towns, without any benefit, or weakening our 
enemies, who, though they began, ought not- to be imitated 
in an action totally adverse to humanity, or Christianity. 

29th. Very cold weather. — Sir Purbeck Temple, uncle 
to my son Draper, died suddenly. A great funeral at 
Addiscombe. His lady being own aunt to my son Draper, 
he hopes for a good fortune, there being no heir. There 
had been a new meeting of the Commissioners about 
Greenwich Hospital, on the new Commission, where the 
Lord Mayor, &c. appeared, but I was prevented by indis- 
position from attending. The weather very sharp, winter 
approaching apace. — The King went a progress into the 
north, to show himself to the people against the elections, 
and was every Avhere complimented, except at Oxford, 
where it was not as he expected, so that he hardly stopped 
an hour there, and, having seen the Theatre, did not receive 
the banquet proposed. — I dined with Dr. Gale at St. PauFs 
school, who showed me many curious passages out of some 
ancient Platonists^ MSS. concerning the Trinity, Avhich 
this great and learned person would publish, with many 

* This gentleman gave good farms in Sussex for the better endowment of 
Oakwood Chapel, which is a Chapel of ease for the lower parts of Abinger 
and Wotton, both of which livings are in the gift of the owner of Wotton ; 
mapy of tlie inhabitants thereabouts being distant five miles from their 
parish churches : the roads also in winter are extremely bad. 
VOL. II. Z 



338 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

other rare things, if he was encouraged, and eased of the 
burden of teaching. 

25th October. The Archbishop and myself went to 
Hammersmith, to visit Sir Samuel Morland,* who was 
entirely blind ; a very mortifying sight. He showed us 
his invention of writing, which was very ingenious ; also 
his wooden kalendar, which instructed him all by feeling ; 
and other pretty and useful inventions of mills, pumps, &c., 
and the pump he had erected that serves water to his 
garden, and to passengers, with an inscription, and brings 
from a filthy part of the Thames near it a most perfect 
and pure water. He had newly buried £200 worth of 
music-books six feet under ground, being, as he said, love- 
songs and vanity. He plays himself psalms and religious 
hymns on the theorbo. Very mild weather the whole of 
October. 

10th November. Mr. Stanhope, f Vicar of Lewisham, 
preached at Whitehall. He is one of the most accom- 
plished preachers I ever heard, for matter, eloquence, 
action, voice, and I am told, of excellent conversation. 

13th. Famous fireworks and very chargeable, the King 
being returned from his progress. He stayed seven or 
eight days at Lord Sunderland's at Althorpe, where he was 
mightily entertained. These fireworks were showed before 
Lord Romney, master of the ordnance, in St. James's great 
square, where the King stood. 

17th. I spoke to the Archbishop of Canterbury to inte- 
rest himself for restoring a room belonging to St. James's 
library, where the books want place. 

21st. I went to see Mr. Churchill's collection of rarities. 

23rd. To Lambeth, to get Mr. Williams continued in 
Boyle's lectures another year. Amongst others who dined 
there was Dr. Covel,J the great Oriental traveller. 

1st December. I dined at Lord Sunderland's, now the 
great favourite and underhand politician, but not adven- 
turing on any character, being obnoxious to the people for 
having twice changed his religion. 

23rd. The Parliament wondrous intent on ways to 

• Seep. 26. + See p. 328. TJ 

J Dr. John Covel, Master of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Chancellor 

of York. He wrote an account of the Greek Church, which he published 

just before his death in 1722, in his 85th year. 



1696.} JOHN EVELYN. 339 

reform the coin; setting out a Proclamation proliibiting 
the currency of half-crowns, &c.; which made much confu- 
sion among the people. 

25 th. Hitherto mild, dark, misty weather. Now snow 
and frost. 

1G95-6. 12th January. Great confusion and distraction 
by reason of the clipped money, and the diificuity found in 
reforming it. 

2nd February. An extraordinary wet season, though 
temperate as to cold. — The Royal Sovereign* man-of-war 
burnt at Chatham. It was built in 1637, and having 
given occasion to the levy of Ship-money was perhaps the 
cause of all the after-troubles to this day. — An earthquake 
in Dorsetshire by Portland, or rather a sinking of the 
ground suddenly for a large space, near the quarries of 
stone, hindering the conveyance of that material for the 
finishing St. Paul's. 

23rd. They now began to coin new money. 

26th. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, 
gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English 
Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder 
King William on the first opportunity of his going either 
from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel ; and, 
upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais, 
an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great 
army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a 
general insurrection here, the Duke of Berwick having 
secretly come to London to head them. King James 
attending at Calais with the French army. It was disco- 
vered by some of their own party. £1000 reward was 
offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thii'ty 
named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken 
and secured. The Parliament, City, and aU the nation, 
congratulate the discovery ; and votes and resolutions were 
passed that, if King William should ever be assassinated, 
it should be revenged on the Papists and party through 
the nation : an Act of Association drawing up to empower 
the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown 
should be disposed of according to the late settlement at 
the Revolution. All Papists, in the mean time, to be 
banished ten miles from London. This put the nation 

* See Vol. T., p. 17. 

z 3 



340 DIARY OP [londok, 

into an incredible disturbance and general animosity 
against the French King and King James. The militia of 
the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out 
of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a 
descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that whilst we 
were already much discontented by the greatness of the 
taxes, and corruption of the money, &c., we had like to 
have had very few men-of-war near our coasts ; but so it 
pleased God that Admiral Rooke wanting a wind to pxirsue 
his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at 
Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel, 
and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships 
which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot 
may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance 
and prevention by the providence of God. Though many 
did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of 
assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated 
many of his friends, and was likely to produce a more 
perfect establishment of King William. 

1st March. The wind continuing N. and E. all this 
week, brought so many of our men-of-war together that, 
though most of the French finding their design detected 
and prevented, made a shift to get into Calais and Dunkirk 
roads, we wanting fire-ships and bombs to disturb them ; 
yet they were so engaged among the sands and flats, that 
^tis said they cut their masts and flung their great guns 
overboard to lighten their vessels. We are yet upon 
them. This deliverance is due solely to God. French 
were to have invaded at once England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. 

8th. Divers of the conspirators tried and condemned. 

Vesuvius breaking out, terrified Naples. — Three of the 
unhappy wretches, whereof one was a priest, were executed* 
for intending to assassinate the King ; they acknowledged 
their intention, but acquitted King James of inciting 
them to it, and died very penitent. Divers more in 
danger, and some very considerable persons. 

Great frost and cold. 

6th April. I visited Mr. Graham in the Fleet. 

10th. The quarters of Sir William Perkins and Sir John 
Friend, lately executed on the plot, with Perkins's head, 

• Robert Chamock, Edward King, and Thomas Keys. 



1696.] JOHN EVELYN. 34I 

were set up at Temple-Bar , a dismal sight, which many- 
pitied. I think there never was such at Temple- Bar till 
now, except once in the time of King Charles II., viz., of 
Sir Thomas Armstrong.* 

12th. A very fine spring season. 

19th. Great offence taken at the three ministers f 
who absolved Sir WiUiam Perkins and Friend at Tyburn. 
One of them (Snatt) was a son of my old schoolmaster. 
This produced much altercation as to the canonicalness of 
the action. J • 

31st. We had a meeting at Guildhall of the Grand 
Committee about settHng the draught of Greenwich 
Hospital. 

2ord. I went to Eton, and dined with Dr. Godolphin, 
the provost. The schoolmaster assured me there had not 
been for twenty years a more pregnant youth in that place 
than my grandson. — I went to see the King's house at 
Kensington. It is very noble, though not great. The 
gallery furnished with the best pictures [from] all the 
houses, of Titian, Raphael, Correggio, Holbein, Julio 
Romano, Bassan, Vandyke, Tintoretto, and others ; a great 
collection of porcelain ; and a pretty private Kbrary. The 
gardens about it very delicious. 

26th. Dr. Sharp preached at the Temple. His prayer 
before the sermon was one of the most excellent composi- 
tions I ever heard. 

28th. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry, 
with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, 
and a numerous train of gallants. — More executions this 
week of the assassins. — Gates dedicated a most villainous 
reviling book against King James, which he presumed to 
present to King William, who could not but abhor it, 
speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved 
Queen's own father. 

2nd May. I dined at Lambeth, being summoned to meet 
my co-trustees, the Archbishop, Sir Henry Ashurst, and 
Mr. Serjeant Rotheram, to consult about settling Mr. 
Boyle's lecture for a perpetuity ; which we concluded upon, 

* He was concerned in the Rye-House Plot, fled into Holland, was given 
up, and executed in his own country, 168-1. See p. 198. 

t Mr. Collier, Mr. Snatt, and Mr. Cook, all nonjuring clergj-men. 
i And pamphlets upon the subject were written pro and con. 



342 DIARY OF tLONDON, 

by buying a rent-charge of £50 per annum, with the stock 
in our hands. 

6th. I went to Lambeth, to meet at dinner the Countess 
of Sunderland and divers ladies. We dined in the Arch- 
bishop^s wife's apartment with his Grace, and stayed late ; 
yet I returned to Deptford at night. 

13th. I went to London to meet my son, newly come 
from Ireland, indisposed. — Money still continuing exceed- 
ing scarce, so that none was paid or received, but all was 
on trust, the Mint not supplying Tor common necessities. 
The Association with an oath required of all lawyers 
and oificers, on pain of praemunire, whereby men were 
obliged to renounce King James as no rightful king, and 
to revenge King William's death, if happening by assas- 
sination. This to be taken by all the Counsel by a day 
limited, so that the Courts of Chancery and King's Bench 
hardly heard any cause in Easter Term, so manj'^ crowded 
to take the oath. This was censured as a very entangling 
contrivance of the Parliament in expectation, that many 
in high office would lay down, and others surrender. 
Many gentlemen taken up on suspicion of the late plot, 
were now discharged out of prison. 

29th. We settled divers officers, and other matters 
relating to workmen, for the beginning of Greenwich 
Hospital. 

June 1st. I went to Deptford to dispose of our goods, 
in order to letting the house for three years to Vice- 
Admiral Benbow, with condition to keep up the garden. 
This was done soon after. 

4th. A Committee met at Whitehall about Greenwich 
Hospital, at Sir Christopher Wren's, his Majesty's Sur- 
veyor-General. We made the first agreement with divers 
workmen, and for materials; and gave the first order 
for proceeding on the foundation, and for weekly pay- 
ments to the workmen, and a general account to be 
monthly. 

11th. Dined at Lord Pembroke's, Lord Privy Seal, a 
very worthy gentleman. He showed me divers rare 
pictures of very many of the old and best masters, espe- 
cially one of M. Angelo of a man gathering fruit to give to 
a woman, and a large book of the best drawings of the old 
masters. — Sir John Fenwick, one of the conspirators, was 



1696.] JOHN EVELYN. 343 

taken.^' — Great subscriptions in Scotland to their East 
India Company. — Want of current money to carry on tke 
smallest concerns, even for daily provisions in the markets. 
Guineas lowered to twenty-two shillings, and great sums 
daily transported to Holland, where it yields more, with 
other treasure sent to pay the armies, and nothing con- 
siderable coined of the new and now only current stamp, 
cause such a scarcity that tumults are every day feared, 
nobody paying, or receiving money ; so imprudent was 
the late Parliament to condemn the old, though clipped 
and corrupted, till they had provided supplies. To this 
add the fraud of the bankers and goldsmiths, who having 
gotten immense riches by extortion, keep up their treasure 
in expectation of enhancing its value. Duncombe, not 
long since a mean goldsmith, having made a purchase of 
the late Duke of Buckingham's estate f at near £90,000, 
and reputed to have near as much in cash. Banks and 
Lotteries every day set up. 

18th. The famous trial between my Lord Bath and 
Lord Montague for an estate of £11,000 a year, left by 
the Duke of Albemarle, wherein on several trials hud been 
spent £20,000 between them. The Earl of Bath was cast 
on evident forgery. J 

20th. I made my Lord Cheney a visit at Chelsea, and 
saw those ingenious water-works invented by Mr. Win- 
stanley, § wherein were some things very surprising and 
extraordinary. 

21st. An exceeding rainy, cold, unseasonable summer, 
yet the City was very healthy. 

25th. A trial in the Common Pleas between the Lady 
Purbeck Temple and Mr, Temple, a nephew of Sir Purbeck, 
concerning a deed set up to take place of several wills. 
This deed was proved to be forged. The cause went on 
my lady's side. This concerning my son-in-law. Draper, 

* He was taken at a house by the side of the road from Great Boolcham to 
Stoke Dabernon, in Surrey, near Slyfield-mill, as I was told by tlie great 
grandson of Mr. Evelyn. — W. B. 
•f- At Helmsley, in Yorkshii-e. 

" And Helmsley, once proud Buckingham's delight. 
Slides to a Scrivener or a City-Knight." — Pope. 
,t Vide 2 Sept., 1701. 

§ The ingenious architect who built the Eddystone Lighthouse, and 
perished iu it when blown down by the great storm iu 1703. 



344 DIARY OP [GREENWICH, 

I staid almost all day at Court. A great supper was given 
to the jury, being persons of the best condition in Buck- 
inghamshire. 

30th. I went with a select Committee of the Commis- 
sioners for Greenwich Hospital,* and with Sir Christopher 
Wren, where with him I laid the first stone of the intended 
foundation, precisely at five o'clock in the evening, after 
we had dined together. Mr. Flamstead, the King's 
Astronomical Professor, observing the punctual time by 
instruments. 

4th July. Note that my Lord Godolphin was the first 
of the subscribers who paid any money to this noble 
fabricf 

* Sir William Ashurst, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir Thomas Lane, Sir 
Stephen Evance, John Evelyn, William Draper, Dr. Cade, Mr. Johnsod, 

Mr. Thomas, Captain Gatteridge, Mr. Firmin, Mr. Lake, and Captain Heath, 
t Subscriptions to Geeknwich Hospital ; from Mb. Evklyn's Papers. 

£ s. d. 

The King 2,000 

Archbishop of Canterbury " 500 

Lord Keeper Somers 500 

Duke of Leeds, President of the Council . . . 500 

Earl of Pembroke, Lord Privy Seal . . . . 500 

Duke of Devonshire 500 

Duke of Shrewsbury, Secretary of State . . . 500 

Earl of Romney 200 

Earl of Dorset 500 

Lord Montague 300 

Lord Godolphin, First Commissioner of the Treasury 200 

Mr. Montague, Chancellor of the Exchequer . . 100 

Mr. Smith, Commissioner of the Treasury . . . 100 

Lord Cliief- Justice Holt 100 

Sir Ste. Fox, Commissioner of the Treasury . . 200 

Earl of Ranelagh 100 

Sir John Lowther 100 

Mr. Priestman 100 

Sir Geo. Rooke 100 

Sir John Houblon 100 

Lord Chief- Justice Treby 100 

Sir Wm. Trumball, Principal Secretary of State . 100 

Sir Robt. Rich . . 100 

Sir Hen. Goodrick 50 

Col. Austen 100 

Sir Tho. Lane .... ... 100 

Sir Patience Ward 100 

Carried Forward £7,850 



1696.] JOHN EVELYN. 345 

7th. A northern wind altering the weather with a con- 
tinual and impetuous rain of three days and nights, 
changed it into perfect winter. 

12th. Very unseasonable and uncertain weather. 

26th. So little money in the nation that Exchequer 
TalHes^ of which I had for £2^000 on the best fund in 
England, the Post-Office, nobody would take at 30 per 
cent, discount. 

3rd August. The Bank lending the £200,000 to pay the 
army in Flanders, that had done nothing against the 
enemy, had so exhausted the treasure of the nation, that 
one could not have borroAved money under 14 or 15 per 
cent, on bills, or on Exchequer Tallies under 30 per cent. 
— Reasonable good harvest-weather. — I went to Lambeth 
and dined with the Archbishop, who had been at Court on 
the complaint against Dr. Thomas Watson, Bishop of St. 
David^s, who was suspended for simony.* The Arch- 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward . . . 7,850 

Sir William Ashurst 100 

Sir John Trevor, Master of the Rolls . . . . 100 

Mr. Justice Rokeby 50 

Mr. Justice Powell 50 - 

Mr. Justice Eyre 50 

Lord Chief Baron Ward 66 13 4 

Mr. Justice Gregory 50 

Mr. Baron Powell 50 

Earl of Portland 500 

Mr. Baron Powis 40 

Sir Richard Onslow 100 

Mr. Baron Lechmore 40 



£9,046 13 4 



By the Committee for the fabric of Green\vich Hospital, Nov. 4, 1696. — 
Expense of the work already done, £ 5,000 and upwards, towards which the 
Treasurer had not received above £800, so that they must be obliged to stop 
the work, unless there can be a supply of money both from the tallies that 
have been assigned for payment of his Majesty's £2,000, and the money sub- 
scribed by several noblemen and gentlemen ; the Secretary was ordered to 
attend Mr. Lowndes, Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury, to move for an 
order that the tallies may be fi.\.ed on such fund as may be ready money, or 
that the Treasurer of the Hospital may be directed to dispose of them on the 
best terms he can ; and that the Solicitor, with the Treasurers clerk, do 
attend the noblemen and gentlemen that have subscribed, to acquaint them 
herewith * Afterwards deprived ; see p. 354. 



346 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

bishop told me how unsatisfied he was with the Canon-law, 
and how exceedingly unreasonable all their pleadings 
appeared to him. 

September. Fine seasonable weather, and a great harvest 
after a cold wet summer. Scarcity in Scotland. 

6th. I went to congratulate the marriage of a daughter 
of Mr. Boscawen to the son of Sir Philip Meadows ; she is 
niece to my Lord Godolphin, married at Lambeth by the 
Archbishop 30th August. — ^After above six months' stay 
in London about Greenwich Hospital, I returned to 
Wotton. 

24th October. Unseasonable stormy weather, and an 
ill seed-time. 

November, Lord Godolphin retired from the Treasury, 
who was the first Commissioner and most skilful manager 
of all. 

8th. The first frost began fiercely, but lasted not long. — . 
More plots talked of. Search for Jacobites so called. 

15th — 23rd. Very stormy weather, rain, and inun- 
dations. 

13th December. Continuance of extreme frost and snow. 

1696-7. 17th January. The severe frost and weather 
relented, but again froze with snow. — Conspiracies con- 
tinue against King William. Sir John Fen wick was 
beheaded. 

7th February. Severe frost continued with snow. Soldiers 
in the armies and garrison-towns frozen to death on their 
posts. 

(Here a leaf of the MS. is lost.)* 

* In a letter to Dr. Bohun, dated Wotton, 18th January, 169f, Mr. 
Evelyn says : 

" Having been told that you have lately inquired what is become of your 
now old friends of Sayes Court, the date hereof will acquaint you where 
they are, and the sequel much of what they do and think. I believe I need 
not tell you that, after the marriage of my daughter, aud the so kind ofiFer 
of my good brother here, my then circumstances and times considered, I 
had reason to embrace it, not merely out of inclination to the place where I 
was bom and have now an interest. 

" Amongst other things, I had paid £300 for the renewing of my lease [at 
Deptford] with some augmentation of what I hold from the Crown, which the 

Duke of Leeds was supplanting me of but I am not here on 

free cost. 

"My Lord Godolphin (my ever noble patron and steady friend, now 
retired from a fatiguing station,) got me to be named Treasurer to the 



1697.] JOHN EVELYN, 347 

17th August. I came to Wotton after three months* 
absence. 

September. Very bright weather, but with sharp east 
wind. My son came from London in his melanclioly 
indisposition. 

Mai'ine College erecting at Greenwich, with the salary of £200 per annum, 
of which I have never yet received one penny of the tallies assigned for it, 
now two years at our Lady-day ; my son-in-law, Draper, is my substitute. 
I have only had tliis opportunity to place my old (indeed faithful) servant 
J. Strd. in an employment at Greenwich, which with my other business, not 
small, among so many beggarly tenants as you know I have at Deptford [is 
some provision for him]. 1 have let my house to Captain Benbow, and 
have the mortification of seeing every day much of my former labours and 
exjjense there impairing for want of a more polite tenant. 

" My grandson is so delighted in books, that he professes a library is to 
him the greatest recreation, so I give him free scope here, where I have near 
upon 22,000 [qu. 2000 1] (with my brother's), and whither I would brmg 
the rest had I any room, which I have not, to my great regret, having here 
so little conversation with the learned, unless it be when Mr. Wotton [the 
learned gentleman before-mentioned, the friend of Dr. Bentley,] comes now 
and then to visit mo, he being tutor to Mr. Finch's son at Aibury, but which 
he is now leaving to go to his living, that without books, and the best wife 
and brother in the world, I were to be pitied ; but, with these subsidiaries, 
and the revising some of my old impertinences, to which I am adding a 
Discourse I made on Medals (lying by me long before Obadiah Walker's 
Treatise appeared), I pass some of my Attic nights, if I may be so vain as to 
name tliem, with the author of those Criticisms. For the rest, I am planting 
an evergreen grove here to an old house ready to drop, the economy and 
hospitality of which my good old brother will not depart from, but more 
vetcnun kept a Christmas, in which we had not fewer than three hundred 
bumkins every holy-day. 

" We have here a very convenient apartment of five 'rooms together, 
besides a pretty closet, which we have furnished with the spoils of Sayes 
Court, and is the raree-show of the whole neighbourhood, and in truth we 
live easy as to all domestic cares. Wednesday and Saturday nights we call 
Lecture-nights, when my wife and myself talvC our turns to read the packets 
of all the news sent constantly from Loudon, which serves us for discourse 
till fresh news comes ; and so you have the history of a very old man and his 
no young companion, whoso society I have enjoyed more to my satisfaction 
these three years here, than in almost fifty before, but am now every day 
trussing up to be gone, I hope to a better place. 

" My daughter. Draper, being brought to bed in the Christmas-hoUdays of 
a fine boy, has given an heir to a most deserving husband, a prudent, well- 
natured gentleman, a man of business, like to be very rich, and deserving to 
be so, among the happiest pairs I think in England, and to my daughter s 
and our hearts' desire. She has also a fine girl, and a mother-in-law 
exceedingly fond of my daughter, and a most excellent woman, charitable 
and of a very sweet disposition. They all live together, keep each their 
coach, and with as suitable an equipage as any in town." 



348 DIARY OP [toNDow, 

12th. Mr. Duncombe, the rector, came and preached 
after an absence of two years, though only living seven or 
eight miles off [at Ashted]. — Welcome tidings of the 
Peace. 

3rd October. So great were the storms all this week, 
that near a thousand people were lost going into the 
Texel. 

16th November. The King's entry very pompous ; but 
in nothing approaching that of King Charles II. 

2nd December. Thanksgiving- day for the Peace. The 
King and a great Court at Whitehall. The Bishop of 
Salisbury* preached, or rather made a florid panegyric, 
on 2 Chron. ix. 7, 8. — The evening concluded with fire- 
works and illuminations of great expense. 

5th. Was the first Sunday that St. Paul's had had 
service performed in it since it was burnt in 1666. 

6th. I went to Kensington with the Sheriff, Knights, 
and chief gentlemen of Surrey, to present their Address 
to the King. The Duke of Norfolk promised to introduce 
it, but came so late, that it was presented before he came. 
This insignificant ceremony was brought in in Cromwell's 
time, and has ever since continued with offers of life and 
fortune to whoever happened to have the power. I dined 
at Sir Richard Onslow's who treated almost all the 
gentlemen of Surrey. When we had half dined, the Duke 
of Norfolk came in to make his excuse. 

12th. At the Temple church ; it was very long before 
the service began, staying for the Comptroller of the 
Inner Temple, where was to be kept a riotous and revelhng 
Christmas, according to custom. 

18th. At Lambeth, to Dr. Bentley, about the Library at 
St. James's. 

23rd. I returned to Wotton. 

1697-8. A great Christmas kept at Wotton, open house, 
much company. I presented my book of Medals, &c. to 
divers Noblemen, before I exposed it to sale.' 

2nd January. Dr. Fulham, who lately married my niece, 
preached against Atheism, a very eloquent discourse, 
somewhat improper for most of the audience : at [Wot- 
ton] but fitted for some other place, and very apposite to 
the profane temper of the age. 

* Burnet. 



1698.] JOHN EVELYN. 349 

5th. Whitehall burnt, nothing hut walls and ruins left. 

30th. The imprisonment of the great banker^ Buncombe: 
censured by Parliament ; acquitted by the Lords ; sent 
again to the Tower by the Commons.* 

The Czar of Muscovy being come to England, and 
having a mind to see the building of ships, hired my house 
at Sayes Court, and made it his court and palace, new 
furnished for him by the King.f 

31st April. The Czar went from my house to return home. 
— An exceeding sharp and cold season. 

8th May. An extraordinary great snow and frost, nipping 
the corn and other fruits. Corn at nine shillings a bushel 
[£18 a load]. 

30th. I dined at Mr. Pepys, where I heard the rare voice 
of Mr. Pule, who was lately come from Italy, reputed the 
most excellent singer we had ever had. He sung several 
compositions of the late Dr. Purcell. 

5th June. Dr. White, late Bishop of Norwich, who had 
been ejected for not complying with Government, -was 
buried in St. Gregory^s churchyard or vault at St. Paulas. 
His hearse was accompanied by two non-juror Bishops^ 
Dr. Turner of Ely, and Dr. Lloyd, with forty other non- 
juror clergymen, who would not stay the Office of the 
burial, because the Dean of St. PauPs had appointed a 
conforming minister to read the Office ; at which all much 

* 25tli Jan. 1697-8. Charles Buncombe, Esq., M.P., was charged with 
makmg false endorsements on Exchequer-bills, and was committed close 
prisoner to the Tower. 29 tb. Being ill, his apothecary and his brother 
Antliony Duucombe were pei-mittod to see liim. He confessed his guilt, and 
was expelled the House. A Bill was brought in for seizure of his estate, 
which was passed 26th Feb. after great opposition, 138 against 103. It was 
entitled " An Act for punishing C. Buncombe, Esq., for contriving and ad- 
vising the making false endorsements of several Bills made forth at Receipt 
of the Exchequer commonly called Exchequer-Bills." This being sent to the 
Lords, they desired a conference with the Commons, and not being satisfied,, 
though he had acknowledged the fact, they discharged liim from the Tower. 

31st March, the Commons re-committed him. We do not find in the 
Journals of the House of Commons, that anything further was done. 

t Whilst the Czar was in his house, Mr. Evelyn's servant writes to him : 
" There is a house full of people, and right nasty. The Czar lies next your 
library, and dines in the parlour next your study. Ho dines at ten o'clock 
and six at night, is very seldom at home a whole day, very often in the 
King's Yard, or by water, dressed in several dresses. The King is expected 
here this day ; the best parlour is pretty clean for him to be entertained in. 
The King pays for all he has."^ 



350 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

wondered, there being notliing in that Office which men- 
tioned the present King. 

8th. I went to congratulate the marriage of Mr. 
Godolphin with the Earl of Marlborough's daughter. 

9th. To Deptford, to see how miserably the Czar had left 
my house, after three months making it his Court. I got 
Sir Christopher Wren, the King's surveyor, and Mr. 
London his gardener, to go and estimate the repairs, 
for which they allowed £150 in their report to the Lords 
of the Treasury. I then went to see the foundation of the 
Hall and Chapel at Greenwich Hospital. 

6th August. I dined with Mr. Pepys, where was Captain 
Dam pier,* who had been a famous buccaneer, had brought 
hither the painted Prince Job,t and printed a relation of 
his very strange adventure, and his observations. He was 
now going abroad again by the King''s encouragement, 
who furnished a ship of 290 tons.J He seemed a more 
modest man than one would imagine by the relation of 
the crew he had assorted with. He brought a map of 
his observations of the course of the winds in the South 
Sea, and assured us that the maps hitherto extant were 
all false as to the Pacific Sea, which he makes on the 
south of the line, that on the north end running by the 
coast of Peru being extremely tempestuous. 

25th September. Dr. Foy came to me to use my interest 
with Lord Sunderland for his being made Professor of 
Physic at Oxford, in the King's gift. I went also to 
the Archbishop in his behalf. 

7th December. Being one of the Council of the Royal 
Society, I was named to be of the Committee to wait on 
our new President, the Lorr" chancellor, § our Secretary Dr. 
Sloane, and Sir R. Southwell, last Vice-president, carrying 

* The celebrated navigator, bom in 1652, whose travels were verj' 
extensive, but the time of his death is uncertain. His " Voyage round the 
World " has gone through many editions, and the substance of it has been 
transferred to many collections of voyages. 

f Giolo, of whom there is a very curious portrait, engraved by Savage, to 
which is subjoined a singular nai-rative of his wonderful adventures ; there is 
also a smaller one, copied from the above, prefixed to a fictitious account 
of his life, printed in a 4to pamphlet. Mr. Evelyn mentions him in his 
** Numismata." 

t Noticed in Parliament. § LordtSomers. 



1699.] JOHN EVELYN. ] ' 35J 

our book of statutes : the Office of the President being read, 
his Lordship subsci'ibed his name, and took the oaths 
according to our statutes as a Corporation for the im- 
provement of natural knowledge. Then his Lordship 
made a short compliment concerning the honour the 
Society had done him, and hew ready he "would be to 
promote so noble a design, and come himself among us, as 
often as the attendance on the public would permit ; and, 
so wc took our leave. 

18th. Very warm, but exceeding stormy. 

1698-9. January. My cousin Pierrepoint, died. She 
was daughter to Sir John Evelyn, of Wilts, my father's 
nephew; she was widow of William Pierrepoint, brother 
to the Marquis of Dorchester, and mother to Evelyn 
Pierrepoint, Earl of Kingston; a most excellent and 
prudent lady. 

The House of Commons persist in refusing more than 
7000 men to be a standing army, and no strangers to be 
in the number. This displeased the Court-party. Our 
county member. Sir R. Onslow, opposed it also ; which 
might reconcile him to the people, who began to suspect 
him. 

17th February. My grandson went to Oxford with 
Dr. Mander, the Master of Baliol College,* where he was 
entered a fellow-commoner. 

19th. A most furious wind, such as has not happened 
for many years, doing great damage to houses and trees, 
by the fall of which several persons were killed. 

5th March. The old East India Company lost their 
business against the new Company, by ten votes in Parha- 
ment, so many of their friends being absent, going to see 
a tiger baited by dogs. 

The persecuted Vaudois, who were banished out of 
Savoy, were received by the German Protestant Princes. 

24th. My only remaining son died after a tedious lan- 
guishing sickness, contracted in Ireland and increased 
here, to my exceeding grief and affliction ; leaving me one 
grandson, now at Oxford, whom I pray God to prosper 
and be the support of the Wotton family. He was aged 
forty-four years and about three months. He had been 

* Dr. Roger Maaider was elected MasterJ of his College, in the place of 
Dr. John Venn, deceased, 23 Oct. 1687. Wood's Fasti Oxonienscs. ,_ 



352 DIARY OP [londow, 

six years one of the Commissioners of the Revenue in 
Ireland, with great ability and reputation. 

26th. After an extraordinary storm, there came up the 
Tliames a whale which was fifty-six feet long. Such, and 
a larger of the spout kind, was killed there forty years 
ago (June 1658). That year died Cromwell. 

30th. My deceased son was buried in the vault at 
Wotton, according to his desire. 

The Duke of Devon lost £1,900 at a horse-race at New- 
market. 

The King preferring his young favourite Earl of Albe- 
marle * to be first Commander of his Guard, the Duke of 
Ormond laid down his commission. This, of the Dutch 
Lord passing over his head, was exceedingly resented by 
every body. 

April. Lord Spencer purchased an incomparable library f 

of wherein, among other rare books, 

were several that were printed at the first invention of 
that wonderful art, as particularly " TuUy's Offices," &c. 
There was a Homer and a Suidas in a very gpod Greek 
character and good paper, almost as ancient. This gen- 
tleman is a very fine scholar, whom from a child I have 
known. His tutor was one Florival of Geneva. 

29th. I dined with the Archbishop ; but my business 
was to get him to persuade the King to purchase the late 
Bishop of Worcester's libraiy, and build a place for his 
OAvn library at St. James's, in the Park, the present one 
being too small. 

3rd May. At a meeting of the Royal Society I was 
nominated to be of the Committee to wait on the Lord 
Chancellor to move the King to purchase the Bishop of 
Worcester's library (Dr. Edward Stillingfleet) . 

4th. The Court-party have little influence in this Session. 

7th. The Duke of Ormond restored to his commission. 
— All Lotteries, till now cheating the people, to be no 
longer permitted than to Christmas, except that for the 
benefit of Greemvich Hospital. Mr. Bridgman, chairman 
of the committee for that charitable work, died ; a great loss 
to it. He was Clerk of the Council, a very industrious useful 

• Arnold Joost Van Keppel, created Earl of Albemarle, Viscount Bury, 
&c., in Feb. 1695-6, K.G. 1700, died in 1718, at the Hague, set. 48. 
+ The foundation of the noble llbx-ai'y now at Blenheim. 



1699.] JOHN EVELYN. 353 

man. I saw the library of Dr. John Moore,* Bishop of 
Norwich, one of the best and most ample collection of all 
sorts of good books in England, and he, one of the most 
learned men. 

June 11th. After a long drought, we had a refreshing 
shower. The day before there was a dreadful fire at 
Rotherhithe, near the Thames side, which burnt divers 
ships, and consumed near three Imndred houses. — Now 
died the famous Duchess of Mazarine ; she had been the 
richest lady in Europe. She was niece of Cardinal Maza- 
rine, and was married to the richest subject in Europe, as 
is said. She was born at Rome, educated in Erance, and 
was an extraordinary beauty and wit, but dissolute and 
impatient of matrimonial restraint, so as to be abandoned 
by her husband, and banished, when she came into England 
for shelter, lived on a pension given her here, and is 
reported to have hastened her death by intemperate drink- 
ing strong spirits. She has written her own story and 
adventures, and so has her other extravagant sister, wife to 
the noble /amily of Colonna. 

15th, This week died Conyers Seymour, son of Sir 
Edward Seymour, killed in a duel caused by a slight affront 
in St. James's Park, given him by one who was envious of 
his gallantries ; for he was a vain foppish young man, who 
made a great eclat about town by his splendid equipage and 
boundless expense. He was about twenty-three years old ; 
his brother, now at Oxford, inherited an estate of £7000 
a year, which had fallen to him not two years before. 

19th. My cousin, George Evelyn of Nutfield, died 
suddenly. 

25th. The heat has been so great, almost all this month, 
that I do not remember to have felt much greater in Italy, 
and this after aAvinter the wettest, though not the coldest, 
that I remember for fifty years last past. 

* Afterwards Bishop of Ely. He died 31 July, 1714. King George the 
First purchased this library after the Bishop's death, for £ 6000, and pre- 
sented it to the University of Cambridge, where it now is. This gift 
occasioned two most witty epigrams on the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge ; a tx'oop of horse being at this time sent to the fomier, holding 
high Tory opinions ; the books to the latter, holding those of the Whigs and 
strong attachment to the Hanover family. They may be seen in Noble'a 
Continuation of Granger. 

VOL. II. A A 



354 DIARY OF [woTTON, 

28tli. Finding my occasions called me so often to Lon- 
don, I took the remainder of the lease my son had in a 
. house in Dover Street, to which I now removed, not taking 
my goods from Wotton. 

23rd July. Seasonable showers, after a continuance of 
excessive drought and heat. 

August. I drank the Shooters' Hill waters. At Dept- 
ford, they had been building a pretty new church. — The 
Bishop of St. David's [Watson] deprived for simony.* — 
The city of Moscow burnt by the throwing of squibs. 

3rd September. There was in this week an eclipse of 
the sun, at which many were frightened by the predictions 
of the astrologers. I remember fifty years ago that many 
were so terrified by Lilly, that they durst not go out of 
their houses. — A strange earthquake at New Batavia, in 
the East Indies. 

4th October. My worthy brother died at Wotton, in 
the 83rd year of his age, of perfect memory and under- 
standing. He was religious, sober, and temperate, and of 
so hospitable a nature, that no family in the county main- 
tained that ancient custom of keeping, as it were, open 
house the whole year in the same manner, or gave more 
noble or free entertainment to the county on all occasions, 
so that his house was never free. There were sometimes 
twenty persons more than his family, and some that stayed 
there all the summer, to his no small expense ; by this he 
gained the universal love of the county. He was born at 
Wotton, went from the free-school at Guildford to Trinity 
College, Oxford, thence to the Middle Temple, as gentle- 
men of the best quality did, but without intention to study 
the law as a profession. He married the daughter of 
Colwall,t of a worthy and ancient family in Leicestershire, 
by whom he had one son; she dying in 1643, left George 
her son an infant, who, being educated liberally, after 
travelling abroad, f returned and married one Mrs. Gore, 

* S«e p. 345. 

•f- Mary, daughter and co-beiress of Daniel Caldwell, of Homdon, in Essex. 
See pedigree. 

J Mr. Evelyn, 30th March, 1664, in a letter to his nephew, George 
Evelyn, then on his travels in Italy, tells him that his father complained of 
his expenses, as much exceeding those of his own, which were known to the 
young gentleman's father, as all tlie money passed through his hands. He 
Bays that when he ti'avelled he kept a servant, sometimes two, entertained 



1699.] JOHN EVELYN. 355 

by whom he had several children, but only three daughters 
survived. He was a young man of good understanding, 
but over-indulging his ease and pleasure, grew so very 
corpulent, contrary to the constitution of the rest of his 
father^s relations, that he died. My brother afterwards 
married a noble and honourable lady, relict of Sir John 
Cotton, she being an Offley, a worthy and ancient Stafford- 
shire family, by whom he had several children of both 
sexes. This lady died, leaving only two daughters and a 
son. The younger daughter died before marriage; the 
other afterwards married Sir Cyril Wych, a noble and 

learned gentleman (son of Sir Wych), who had been 

Ambassador at Constantinople, and was afterwards made 
one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. Before this marriage, 

her only brother married the daughter of Eversfield, 

of Sussex, of an honourable family, but left a widow 
without any child living; he died about 1691, and his wife 
not many years after, and my brother re-settled the whole 
estate on me. His sister, Wych, had a portion of £6000, 
to which was added about £800 more; the three other 
daughters, with what I added, had about £5000 each. My 
brother died on the 5th October, in a good old age and 
great reputation, making his beloved daughter. Lady 
Wych, sole executrix, leaving me only his library and 
some pictures of my father, mother, &c. She buried him 
with extraordinary solemnity, rather as a nobleman than 
as a private gentleman. There were, as I computed, above 
2000 persons at the funeral, all the gentlemen of the 
county doing him the last honours. I returned to 
London, till ray lady should dispose of herself and family. 

21st. After an unusual warm and pleasant season, we 
were surprised with a very sharp frost. — I presented my 
Acetaria,^ dedicated to my Lord Chancellor, who returned 
me thanks in an extraordinary civil letter. 

15th November. There happened this Aveek so thick a 
mist and fog, that people lost their way in the streets, it 
being so intense that no light of candles, or torches, yielded 
any (or but very little) direction. I was in it and in 

several masters, and made no inconsiderable collection of curiosities, all 
■witliin £300 per arm. — He desires seeds of the ilex, phyllera, myrtle, 
jessamine, which he says are rare in England. 

*\See Mr. Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings," 1825, 4to, pp. 721—812. 

A A 2 



356 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

danger. Robberies were committed between the very 
lights which were fixed between London and Kensington 
on both sides, and whilst coaches and travellers were 
passing. It began about four in the afternoon, and was 
quite gone by eight, without any wind to disperse it. At 
the Thames, they beat drums to direct the watermen to 
make the shore. 

19th. At our chapel in the evening there was a sermon 
preached by young Mr. Horneck,* chaplain to Lord 
Guilford, whose lady's funeral had been celebrated mag- 
nificently the Thursday before. A panegyric was now 
pronounced, describing the extraordinary piety and excel- 
lently employed life of this amiable young lady. She died 
in childbed a few days before, to the excessive sorrow of 
her husband, who ordered the preacher to declare that it 
was on her exemplary life, exhortations and persuasion, 
that he totally changed the course of his life, which was 
before in great danger of being perverted ; following the 
mode of this dissolute age. Her devotion, early piety, 
charity, fastings, econoT:iy, disposition of her time in 
reading, praying, recollections in her own hand-writing of 
what she heard and read, and her conversation, were most 
exemplary. 

24th. I signed Dr. BlackwalFs election to be the next 
year's Boyle's Lecturer. 

Such horrible robberies and murders were committed, 
as had not been known in this nation ; atheism, profane- 
ness, blasphemy, amongst all sorts, portended some 
judgment if not amended ; on which a Society was set on 
foot, who obliged themselves to endeavour the reforming 
of it, in London and other places, and began to punish 
offenders and put the laws in more strict execution : which 
God Almighty prosper ! t — A gentle, calm, dry, temperate 
weather all this season of the year, but now came sharp, 
hard frost, and mist, but calm. 

3rd December. Calm, bright, and warm as in the mid- 
dle of April. So continued on 21st Jan. — A great earth- 
quake in Portugal. 

The Parliament reverse the prodigious donations of the 
Irish forfeitures, which were intended to be set apart for 

* Of the character of this gentleman's father, see p. 173. 
t See p. 368. 



1700.] JOHN EVELYN. 357 

discharging the vast national debt. They called some 
great persons in the highest offices in question for setting 
the Great Seal to the pardon of an arch-pirate,* who had 
turned pirate again, and brought prizes into the West 
Indies, suspected to be connived at on sharing the prey ; 
but the prevailing part in the House called Courtiers, 
out-voted the complaints, not by being more in number, 
but by the country-party being negligent in attendance. 

1699-1700. 14th January. Dr. Lancaster, Vicar of St. 
Martinis, dismissed Mr. Stringfellow, who had been made 
the first preacher at our chapel by the Bishop of Lincoln, 
[Dr. Tenison, now Archbishop,] whilst he held St. Martin's 
by dispensation, and put in one Mr. Sandys, much against 
the inclination of those who frequented the chapel. — The 
Scotch book about Darien was burnt by the hangman by 
vote of Parliament.f 

21st. Died the Duke of Beaufort,| a person of great 
honour, prudence, and estate. 

25th. I went to Wotton, the first time after my brother's 
funeral, to furnish the house with necessaries. Lady Wych 
and ray nephew Glanville the executors having sold and 
disposed of what goods were there of my brother's. — The 
Aveather was now altering into sharp and hard frost. 

One Stephens, § who preached before the House of 
Commons on King Charles's Martyrdom, told them that 
the observation of that day was not intended out of any 
detestation of his murder, but to be a lesson to other 
Kings and Rulers, how they ought to beliave themselves 
towards their subjects, lest they should come to the same 
end. This was so resented that, though it was usual to 

* Captain Kidd ; he was hanged about two years afterwards with some of 
his accompHces. This was one o( the charges brought by the Commons 
against Lord Somers. 

•f* The Volume alhided to was " An Enquiry into tlie causes of the 
Miscarriage of the Scots Colony, at Darien : Or an Answer to a Libel, 
entituled, A Defence of the Scots abdicating Darien." See Votes of the 
House of Commons, 15th January, 1699-1700. 

X Henry Somerset, the first Duke, who exerted himself against the Duke 
of Monmouth in 1 685 ; and in 1 688, endeavoured to secure Bristol against 
the adherents of the Prince of Orange ; upon whose elevation to the throne 
his grace refusing to take the oaths, lived in retirement till his death. 

§ William Stephens, Rector of Sutton, in Surrey. After the censure of 
his Sermon by the House of Commons, he published it as in defiance. See 
more of this and of him in Manning .ind Br.ay's Ilistoiy of Surrey, II. 487. 



358 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

desire these anniversary-sermons to be printed, they 
refused thanks to him, and ordered that in future no one 
should preach before them, who was not either a Dean or 
a Doctor of Divinity. 

4th February. The Parliament voted against the Scots 
settling in Darien as being prejudicial to our trade with 
Spain. They also voted that the exorbitant number of 
attorneys be lessened (now indeed swarming, and evidently 
causing lawsuits and disturbance, eating out the estates of 
people, provoking them to go to law). 

18th. Mild and calm season, with gentle frost, and little 
mizzling rain. The Vicar of St. Martinis frequently 
preached at Trinity chapel in the afternoon. 

8th March. The season was like April for warmth and 
mildness. — 11th. On Wednesday, was a sermon at our 
chapel, to be continued during Lent. 

ISih. I was at the funeral of ray Lady Temple, who 
was buried at Islington, brought from Addiscombe, near 
Croydon. She left my son-in-law Draper (her nephew) 
the mansion house of Addiscombe, very nobly and com- 
pletely furnished, with the estate about it, with plate and 
jewels, to the value in all of about £20,000. She was a very 
prudent lady, gave many great legacies, with £500 to the 
poor of Islington, where her husband, Sir Purbeck Temple, 
was buried, both dying Avithout issue. 

24th. The season warm, gentle, and exceeding pleasant. 
— Divers persons of quality entered into the Society for 
Reformation* of Manners; and some lectures were set 
up, particularly in the City of London. Tlie most eminent 
of the Clergy preached at Bow Church, after reading a 
declaration set forth by the King to suppress the growing 
wickedness ; this began already to take some effect as to 
common swearing, and oaths in the mouths of people of 
all ranks. 

25th. Dr. Burnet preached to-day before the Lord 
Mayor and a very great congregation, on Proverbs xxvii. 
5, 6. " Open rebuke is better than secret love ; the wounds 
of a friend are better than the kisses of an enemy .'^ He 
made a very pathetic discourse concerning the necessity 
and advantage of friendly correction. 

April. The Duke of Norfolk now succeeded in obtaining 

* See p. 356. 



1700.] JOHN EVELYN. 359 

a divorce from his wife by the Parliament for adultery 
with Sir John Germaine, a Dutch gamester, of mean 
extraction, who had got much by gaming ; the Duke had 
leave to marry again, so that if he should have children, 
the Dukedom will go from the late Lord Thomases children, 
Papists indeed, but very hopeful and virtuous gentlemen, 
as was their father. The now Duke their uncle is a 
Protestant. 

The Parliament nominated fourteen persons to go into 
Ireland as Commissioners to dispose of the forfeited estates 
there, towards payment of the debts incurred by the late 
war, but which the King had m great measure given to 
some of his favourites of both sexes, Dutch and others of 
little merit, and very unseasonably. That this might be 
done without suspicion of interest in the Parliament, it 
was ordered that no member of either House should be in 
the Commission. — The great contest between the Lords 
and Commons concerning the Lords' power of amend- 
ments and rejecting bills tacked to the money-bill, carried 
for the Commons. However, this tacking of bills is a 
novel practice, suffered by King Charles II., who, being 
continually in want of money, let anything pass rather 
than not have wherewith to feed his extravagance. This 
was carried but by one voice in the Lords, all the Bishops 
following the Court, save one ; so that near sixty bills 
passed, to the great triumph of the Commons and Country- 
party, but high regret of the Court, and those to whom 
the King had given large estates in Ireland. Pity it is, 
that things should be brought to this extremity, the 
government of this nation being so equally poised between 
King and subject ; l)ut we are satisfied with nothing; and, 
whilst there is no perfection on this side Heaven, methinks 
both might be contented without straining things too far. 
Amongst the rest, there passed a law as to Papists' estates, 
that if one turned not Protestant before eighteen years of 
age, it should pass to his next Protestant heir. This 
indeed seemed a hard law, but not only the usage of the 
French King to his Protestant subjects, but the indiscreet 
insolence of the Papists here, going in triumphant and 
public processions with their Bishops, with banners and 
trumpets in divers places (as is said) in the northern 
counties, has brought it on their party. 



360 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

24th. This week there was a great change of State- 
officers. — The Duke of Shrewsbury resigned his Lord 
Chamberlainship to the Earl of Jersey, the Duke's indis- 
position requiring his retreat. Mr. Vernon, Secretary of 
State, was put out. — The Seal was taken from the Lord 
Chancellor Somers, though he had been acquitted by a 
great majority of votes for what was charged against him 
in the House of Commons.* This being in term-time, 
put some stop to business, many eminent lawyers refusing 
to accept the office, considering the uncertainty of things 
in this fluctuating conjuncture. It is certain that this 
Chancellor was a most excellent lawyer, very learned in 
all polite literature, a superior pen, master of a handsome 
style, and of easy conversation ; but he is said to make 
too much haste to be rich, as his predecessor, and most in 
place in this age did, to a more prodigious excess than was 
ever known. But the Commons had now so mortified 
the Court-party, and property and liberty were so much 
invaded in all the neighbouring kingdoms, that their 
jealousy made them cautious, and every day strengthened 
the law which protected the people from tyranny. 

A most glorious spring, with hope of abundance of fruit 
of all kinds, and a propitious year. 

10th May. The great trial between Sir Walter Clarges 
and Mr. Sherwin concerning the legitimacy of the late 
Duke of Albemarle, on which depended an estate of £1500 
a year ; the verdict was given for Sir Walter. — 19th. 
Serjeant Wright f at last accepted the Great Seal. 

24th. I went from Dover-street to Wotton, for the 
rest of the summer, and removed thither the rest of my 
goods from Sayes Court. 

2nd June. A sweet season, with a mixture of refreshing 
showers. 

9th — 16th. In the afternoon, our clergyman had a 
Catechism, which was continued for some time. 

July. I was visited with illness, but it pleased God that 

* See p. 365. 

+ Sir Nathan Wrighte, appointed Lord-Keeper, who purchased the manor 
of and resided at Gothurst, near Newport Pagnell, Bucks. He lies buried 
in that church, in which are whole-length figures in white marble of the Lord- 
Keeper in his robes, and his son, George Wrighte, Esquire, Clerk of the 
Crown, in his official dress. 



1700.] JOHN EVELYN. 361 

I recovered, for which praise he ascribed to Him by me, 
and that He has again so graciously advertised me of my 
duty to prepare for my latter end, which at my great age 
cannot be far off. 

The Duke of Gloucester, son of the Princess Anne of 
Denmark, died of the small-pox. 

13th. I went to Harden, which was originally a barren 
warren bought by Sir Robert Clayton,* who built there a 
pretty house, and made such alteration by planting not 
only an infinite store of the best fruit; but so changed 
the natural situation of the hill, valleys, and solitary 
mountains about it, that it rather represented some foreign 
country, which would produce spontaneously pines, firs, 
cypress, yew, holly, and juniper ; they were come to their 
perfect growth, with walks, mazes, &c., amongst them, and 
were preserved with the utmost care, so that I who had 
seen it some years before in its naked and barren con- 
dition, was in admiration of it. The land was bought 
of Sir John Evelyn, of Godstone, and was thus improved 
for pleasure and retirement by the vast charge and industry 
of this opulent citizen. He and his lady received us with 
great civility. — The tombs in the church at Croydon of 
Archbishops Grindal, Whitgift, and other Archbishops, are 
fine and venerable ; but none comparable to that of the 
late Archbishop Sheldon, which, being all of white marble, 
and of a stately ordinance and carvings, far surpassed the 
rest, and I judge could not cost less than £700 or £800. f 

20th September. I went to Beddington, the ancient seat 
of the Carews, f in my remembrance a noble old structure, 
capacious, and in form of the buildings of the age of 
Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, and proper for the old 
English hospitality, but now decaying with the house 
itself, heretofore adorned with ample gardens, and the 
first orange-trees § that had been seen in England, planted 

* Seep. 115. 

>t- There is a print of this very beautiful monument in Lysons' " Environs 
of London," article Croydon, Vol. L, p. 193. 

J In the same volume, p. 52, &c., is an ample account of the family of 
Carew, of the house as it now is, portrait of Sir Richard C.irew, views of the 
church, monuments, &c. 

§ Oi'anges were eaten in this kingdom in the time of King James I., if 
not earlier, as appears by the accounts of a Student in the Temple, which 
tlie Editor l;rvr, seen. 



362 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

in the open ground, and secured in winter only by a 
tabernacle of boards and stoves removable in summer, 
that standing 120 years, large and goodly trees, and laden 
with fruit, were now in decay, as well as the grotto, foun- 
tains, cabinets, and other curiosities in the house and 
abroad, it being now fallen to a child under age, and only 
kept by a servant or two from utter dilapidation. The 
estate and park about it also in decay. 

23rd. I went to visit Mr. Pepys at Clapham, where he 
has a very noble and wonderfully well-furnished house, 
especially with Indian and Chinese curiosities. The 
offices and gardens well accommodated for pleasure and 
retirement. 

31st October. My birthda}^, now completed the 80th 
year of my age. I with my soul render thanks to God, 
who, of His infinite mercy, not onl}^ brought me out of 
many troubles, but this year restored me to health, after 
an ague and other infirmities of so great an age, my sight, 
hearing, and other senses and faculties tolerable, which 
I implore Him to continue, with the pardon of my sins 
past, and grace to acknowledge by my improvement of his 
goodness the ensuing year, if it be His pleasure to pro- 
tract my life, that I may be the better prepared for my 
last day, through the infinite merits of my blessed Saviour, 
the Lord Jesus, Amen ! 

5th November. Came the news of my dear grandson (the 
only male of my family now remaining) being fallen ill of 
the small-pox at Oxford, which after the dire effects of it 
in my family exceedingly afflicted me ; but so it pleased 
my most merciful God that being let blood at his first 
complaint, and by the extraordinary care of Dr. Mander, 
(Head of the college and now Vice-Chancellor) who caused 
him to be brought and lodged in his own bed and bed- 
chamber, with the advice of his physician and care of his 
tutor, there were all fair hopes of his recovery, to our 
infinite comfort. We had a letter every day either from 
the Vice-Chancellor himself, or his tutor. 

17th. Assurance of his recovery by a letter from 
himself. 

There was a change of great officers at Court. Lord Godol- 
phin returned to his former station of first Commissioner 
of the Treasury; Sir Charles Hedges Secretary of State. 



1701.] JOHN EVELYN. 3g3 

30tli. At the Royal Society, Lord Somers, the late 
Chancellor, was continued President. 

8th December. Great alterations of officers at Court, and 
elsewhere — Lord Chief Justice Treby died ; he was a learned 
man in his profession, of which we have now few, never 
fewer; the Chancery requiring so little skill in deep law- 
learning, if the practiser can talk eloquently in that Court ; 
so that probably few care to study the law to any pur- 
pose. — Lord Marlborough Master of the Ordnance, in 
place of Lord Romney made Groom of the Stole. The 
Earl of Rochester goes Lord Lieutenant to Ireland. 

1700-1. January. I finished the sale of North Stoake 
in Sussex to Robert Michell, Esq., appointed by my brother 
to be sold for payment of portions to my nieces, and other 
incumbrances on the estate. 

4th. An exceeding deep snow, and melted away as 
suddenly. 

19th. Severe frost, and such a tempest as threw down 
many chimneys, and did great spoil at sea, and blew down 
above twenty trees of mine at Wotton. 

9th February. The old Speaker laid aside,* and Mr. 
narley,t an able gentleman, chosen. Our countryman, 
Sir Richard Onslow, had a party for him. 

27th. By an order of the House of Commons, I laid 
before the Speaker the state of what had been received 
and paid towards the building of Greenwich Hospital. J 

Mr. Wye, Rector of Wotton, died, a very worthy good 

* Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Bart. 

f Robert Harley, Speaker in three Parliaments in the reign of Queen 
Anne, Secretary of State, Author of the South Sea scheme, Lord High Trea- 
surer ; attempted to be stabbed by Guiscard, a Frenchman, under examina- 
tion before the Lords of the Privy Council. He was afterwai'ds created 
Earl of Oxford and Mortimer. 

J John Evelyn, Esq. Dr. to Greenwich Hospital. 
Received in the year £ s. d. 

1696 3,416 

1697 6.836 16 3 

1698 14,967 B 4 

1699 ] 4,0-24 13 4 

1700 19,241 1 3 

1701, June 16 10,834 2 3 

69,320 1 5 

Per Contra, 



364 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

man. I gave it to Dr. Bohun, a learned person and 
excellent preacher, who had been my son's tutor, and 
lived long in my family. 

18th March. I let Sayes Court to Lord Carmarthen, 
son to the Duke of Leeds. — 28th. I went to the funeral of 
my sister Draper,* who was buried at Edmonton in great 
state. Dr. Davenant displeased the clergy now met in 
Convocation by a passage in his book, p. 40.t 

April. A Dutch boy of about eight or nine years old was 
carried about by his parents to show, who had about the 
iris of one eye, the letters of Deus meiLS, and of the other 
Elohim,, in the Hebrew character. How this was done 
by artifice none could imagine ; his parents affirming that 
he was so born. It did not prejudice his sight, and he 
seemed to be a lively playing boy. Everybody went to 

Per Contra, Creditor. 

By the Accompt in £ s. d. 

1696 5,915 18 7 

1697 8,971 10 4 

1698 11,585 15 1 

1699 19,614 9 8 

1700 18,013 8 5 

1701 . . ' 5,000 

Kemain in Cash 219 1 4 

69,320 3 5 
69,320 3 5 

Remain in Lottery Tickets"! 

to be paid in ten years ,j''. 
More in Malt Tickets. . 1,000 

69,320 

12,434 

In all 81,754 

Besides His Majesty £6,000, and Subscriptions. 

• Mother of the gentleman who married Mr. Evelyn's daughter. 

+ Charles Davenant, LL.D. (son of Sir William), The book was, " Essays 
upon the Balance of Power," in which he says that many of tliose lately in 
place, have used their utmost endeavours to discountenance all revealed reli- 
gion. "Are not many of us able to point to several persons, whom nothing 
has recommended to places of the highest trust, and often to rich benefices 
and dignities, but the open enmity which they have, almost from their 
cradles, professed to the Divinity of Christ ? " The Convocation on reading 
the book, ordered papers to be fixed on several doors in Westminster Abbey, 
inviting the author, whoever he be, or any one of the many, to point out 
these persons, that they may be proceeded against. Biog. Brit, last edit. 



1701.] JOHN EVELYN. 355 

see him; physicians and philosophers examined it witli 
great accuracy, some considered it as artificial, others as 
almost supernatural. 

4th. The Duke of Norfolk died of an apoplexy, and 
Mr. Thomas Howard of complicated disease since his 
being cut for the stone ; he was one of the Tellers of the 
Exchequer. Mr. How made a Baron. 

May. Some Kentish men delivering a petition to the 
House of Commons, were imprisoned.* 

A great dearth, no considerable rain having fallen for 
some months. 

17 th. Very plentiful showers, the wind coming west and 
south. — The Bishops and Convocation at difference 
concerning the right of calling the assembly and dis- 
solving. Atterbury f and Dr. WakeJ writing one against 
the other. 

20th June. The Commons demanded a conference with 
the Lords on the trial of Lord Somers, which the Lords 
refused, and proceeding on the trial, the Commons would 
not attend, and he was acquitted. § 

22nd. I went to congratulate the arrival of that worthy 
and excellent person my Lord Galway, newly come out 
of Ireland, where he had behaved himself so honestly, 
and to the exceeding satisfaction of the people ; but he 
was removed thence for being a Frenchman, || though 
they had not a more worthy, valiant, discreet, and trusty 
person in the two kingdoms, on whom they could have 
relied for his conduct and fitness. He was one who had 
deeply suffered, as well as the Marquis his father, for being 
Protestants. ^1 

* Justinian Champneys, Thomas Colepepper, William Colepepper, William 
Hamilton, and David Polhill, gentlemen of considerable property and family 
in the county. There is a very good print of tliem in five ovals on one 
plate, engraved by R. White, in 1701. They desired the Parliament to 
mind the public more, and their private heats less. They were confined till 
the prorogation, and were much visited. Burnet, V, 532. 

f Afterwards Bishop of Rochester. 

J Afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. § See p. 3G0. 

II Henry Rouvignd, Earl of Galway, in Ireland, son of the Marquis, who 
was Ambassador from France to Charles II. He was created a Peer by 
King William for his gallantry at the battle of the Boyne, where his brother 
also fought and was killed. He commanded afterwards both in Italy and 
Spain, where the fatal battle of Almanza put an end to his military glory. 
There is a mezzotinto portrait of him by Simon. H See p. 2(55. 



366 DIARY OF [lowdon, 

July. My Lord Treasurer made my grandson one of the 
Commissioners of the prizes, salary £500 per annum. 

8th. My grandson went with Sir Simon Harcourt, the 
Solicitor-General, to Windsor, to wait on my Lord Trea- 
surer. There had been for some time a proposal of marry- 
ing my grandson to a daughter of Mrs. Boscawen, sister of 
my Lord Treasurer, which was now far advanced. 

14th. I subscribed towards re-building Oakwood Chapel,* 
now, after 200 years, almost fallen down. 

August. The weather changed from heat not much less 
than in Italy or Spain for some few days, to wet^ dripping, 
and cold, with intermissions of fair. 

2nd September. I went to Kensington, and saw the 
house, plantations, and gardens, the work of Mr. Wi8e,t 
who was there to receive me. 

The death of King James happening on the 15th of this 
month, N. S., after two or three days' indisposition, put 
an end to that unhappy Prince's troubles, after a short and 
unprosperous reign, indiscreetly attempting to bring in 
Popery, and make himself absolute, in imitation of the 
French, hurried on by the impatience of the Jesuits ; which 
the nation would not endure. 

Died the Earl of Bath, whose contest with Lord Montague 
about the Duke of Albemarle's estate, claiming under a 
will supposed to have been forged, is said to have been 
worth £10,000 to the lawyers. His eldest son shot himself 
a few days after his father's death ; for what cause is not 
clear. He was a most hopeful young man, and had behaved 
so bravely against the Turks at the siege of Vienna, that 
the Emperor made him a Count of the Empire. — It was 
falsely reported that Sir Edward Seymour was dead, a 
great man ; he had often been Speaker, Treasurer of the 
Navy, and in many other lucrative offices. He was of a 
hasty spirit, not at all sincere, but head of the party at any 
time prevailing in Parliament. 

29th. I kept ray first courts in Surrey, which took up 
the whole week. My steward was Mr. Hervey,J a Coun- 
sellor, Jiistice of Peace, and Member of Parliament, and 

" In the lower part of the parish of Wotton. 

+ Mr. Wise was the great gardener of Brompton Parle, see p. 329. Se« 
Evelyn's « Miscellaneous Writings," 1825, 4to, pp. 714, 715. 
± Of Betchworth. 



1702.] JOHN EVELYN. 3^7 

my neighbour. I gave him six guineas, which was a guinea 
a-day, and to Mr. Martin, his clerk, three guineas. 

31st October. I was this day 81 complete, in tolerable 
health, considering my great age. 

December. Great contentions about elections. I gave 
my vote and interest to Sir R. Onslow and Mr. Weston.* 

27th. My grandson quitted Oxford. 

1701-2. 21st January. At the Royal Society there was 
read and approved the delineation and description of my 
Tables of Veins and Arteries, f by Mr. Cooper, the chirur- 
geon, in order to their being engraved. 

8th March. The King had a fall from his horse, and 
broke his collar-bone, and having been much indisposed 
before, and agueish, with a long cough and other weakness, 
died this Sunday morning, about four o^ clock. 

I carried my accounts of Greenwich Hospital to the 
Committee. 

12th April. My brother-in-law, Glanville, departed this 
life this morning, after a long languishing illness, leaving 
a son by my sister, and two grand-daughters. J Our rela- 
tion and friendship had been long and great. He was a 
man of excellent parts. He died in the 84th year of his 
age, and willed his body to be wrapped in lead and carried 
down to Greenwich, put on board a ship, and buried in the 
sea, between Dover and Calais, about the Goodwin sands; 
which was done on the Tuesday, or Wednesday after. 
This occasioned much discourse, he having no relation at 
all to the sea. He was a gentleman of an ancient family in 
Devonshire, and married my sister Jane. By his prudent 
parsimony he much improved his fortune. He had a 

* Of Ockham ; but Mr. Wessell of Bansted (a merchant) carried it 
against Mr. Weston. 

t Vol. I., p. 344 ; Vol. II., pp. 5, 61, 299. 

J One of these daughters became heiress of the family, and married 
William Evelyn of St. Cleer, in Kent, son of George Evelyn, of Nutfield. 
He assumed the name of Glanville ; but there being only daughters by this 
marriage, he had two sons by a second wife, and they resumed the name of 
Evelyn. The first of those sons left a son who died unmarried before he 
came of age, and a daughter who married Colonel Hume, who has taken the 
name of Evelyn, but has no child ; the second son of Mr. Glanville Evelyn 
married Lady Jane Leslie, who became Countess of Rothes, in her own right, 
and leit a son, George William, who became Earl of Rothes in right of his 
mother, and died in 1817, leaving no issue male. 



368 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

place in the Alienation-Office, and might have been an 
extraordinary man, had he cultivated his parts. 

My steward at Wotton gave a very honest account of 
what he had laid out on repairs, amounting to £1900. 

3rd May. The Report of the Committee sent to examine 
the state of Greenwich Hospital was delivered to the 
House of Commons, much to their satisfaction. — Lord 
Godolphin made Lord High Treasurer. 

Being elected a member of the Society lately incorpo- 
rated for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
I subscribed £10 per annum towards the carrying it on. 
We agreed that every missioner, besides the £20 to set 
him forth, should have £50 per annum out of the stock of 
the Corporation, till his settlement was worth to him £100 
per annum. We sent a young divine to New York. 

22nd June. I dined at the Archbishop's with the new- 
made Bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Nicolson, my worthy and 
learned correspondent. 

27th. I went to Wotton with my family for the rest of 
the summer, and my son-in-law. Draper, with his family 
came to stay with us, his house at Addiscombe being new- 
building, so that my family was above thirty. — Most of 
the new Parliament were chosen of Church of England 
principles, against the peevish party. The Queen was 
magnificently entertained at Oxford and all the towns she 
passed through on her way to Bath. 

31st October. Arrived now to the 82nd year of my age, 
having read over all that passed since this day twelvemonth 
in these notes, I render solemn thanks to the Lord, implor- 
ing the pardon of my past sins, and the assistance of His 
grace; making new resolutions, and imploring that He will 
continue His assistance, and prepare me for my blessed 
Saviour's coming, that I may obtain a comfortable depar- 
ture, after so long a term as has been hitherto indulged 
me. I find by many infirmities this year (especially 
nephritic pains) that I much decline; and yet of His 
infinite mercy retain my intellects and senses in great 
measure above most of my age. I have this year repaired 
much of the mansion-house and several tenants' houses, 
and paid some of my debts and engagements. My wife, 
children, and family in health : for all which I most 
sincerely beseech Almighty God to accept of these my 



1703.] JOHN EVELYN. 369 

acknowledgments, and that if it be His holy will to con- 
tinue me yet longer, it may be to the praise of His infinite 
grace, and salvation of my soul. Amen ! 

8th November. My kinsman, John Evelyn of jSTutfield, 
a young and very hopeful gentleman, and Member of 
Parliament,* after having come to Wotton to see me, 
about fifteen days past, went to London and there died 
of the small-pox. He left a brother, a commander in the 
army in Holland, to inherit a fair estate. 

Our afi'airs in so prosperous a condition both by sea and 
land, that there has not been so great an union in Parlia- 
ment, Court, and people, in memory of man, which God in 
mercy make us thankful for, and continue ! L The Bishop of 
Exeter preached before the Queen and .both Houses of 
Parliament at St. Paul's ; they were wonderfully huzzaed 
in their passage, and splendidly entertained in the city. 

December. The expectation now.is, what treasure will be 
found on breaking bulk of the galleon brought from .Vigo by 
Sir George Ilooke, which being made up in an extraordinary 
manner in the hold, was, not begun to be opened till the 
5th of this month, before two of the Privy Council, two of 
the chief magistrates of the city,' and, the Lord*.Treasm'er. 

After the excess of honour conferred by the Queen on 
the Earl of Marlborough, by making him a Knight of the 
Garter and a Diike, for the success of butjone campaign, 
that he should desire £5000 a-year o be settled on him 
by Parliament out of the Post-office, was .thought a bold 
and unadvised request, as he had, besides his own consi- 
derable estate, above £30,000 a-year in places and employ- 
ments, with £50,000 at interest. -He, had married one 
daughter to the son of my Lord ; Treasurer Godolphin, 
another to the Earl of Sunderland, and a third to the 
Earl of Bridgewater. He is a very handsome person, 
well-spoken and affable, and supports his want of acquired 
knowledge by keeping good company. 

1702-3. News of Vice-Admii-al Benbow's conflict with 
the French fleet in the West Indies, in which he gallantly 
behaved himself, and was wounded, and would have had 
extraordinary success, had not four of his men-of-war 
stood spectators without coming to his assistance ; for 

I* , ■ . - ' ' 

. - * For Blechingley, in Surrey ' •*''.''' 

VOL. II. B B 



370 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

this, two of their commanders were tried by a Council of 
War, and executed;* a third was condemned to perpetual 
imprisonment, loss of pay, and incapacity to serve in 
future. The fourth died. 

Sir Richard Onslow and Mr. Oglethorpe (son of the late 
Sir Theo. O.) fought on occasion of some words which 
passed at a Committee of the House. Mr. Oglethorpe 
was disarmed. — The Bill against occasional Conformity 
was lost by one vote. — Corn and provisions so cheap that 
the farmers are unable to pay their rents. 

February. A famous cause at the King's Bench between 
Mr. Fenwick and his wife,t which went for him with a 
great estate. The Duke of Marlborough lost his only son 
at Cambridge by the small-pox.^ — A great earthquake at 
Rome, &c. — A famous young woman, an Italian, was hired 
by our comedians to sing on the stage, during so many 
plays, for which they gave her £500; which part by her 
voice alone at the end of three scenes she performed with 
such modesty and grace, and above all with such skill, 
that there was never any who did anything comparable 
with their voices. She was to go home to the Court of 
the King of Prussia, and I believe carried with her out of 
this vain nation above £1000, everybody coveting to hear 
her at their private houses. 

26th May. This day died Mr. Samuel Pepys, a very 
worthy, industrious and curious person, none in England 
exceeding him in knowledge of the navy, in which he had 
passed through all the most considerable offices, Clerk of 
the Acts and Secretary of the Admiralty, all which he 
performed with great integrity. When King James II. went 
out of England, he laid down his office, and would serve 
no more ; but withdrawing himself from all public affairs, 
he lived at Clapham with his partner, Mr. Hewer, formerly 

* The Captains Kirby and Wade were tried and condemned to die by a 
Court-Martial held on them in the West Indies — they were sent home in the 
" Bristol ;" and, on its aiTival at Portsmouth, were both shot on board, not 
being suffered to land on Englisli gromid. 

t She was daughter and heir of Sir Adam Brown of Betchworth Castle, 
in Dorking, and married Mr. Fenwick. This suit probably related to a 
settlement which she had consented to make, by which the estate was limited 
to them and their issue, and the heir of the survivor. They had one son, 
who died without issue, and she survived her husband, thereby becoming 
entitled to dispose of it. 



1703.] JOHN EVELYN. 371 

his clerk^ in a very noble honse and sweet place, wliere lie 
enjoyed the fruit of his labours in great prosperity. He 
was universally beloved, hospitable, generous, learned in 
many things, skilled in music, a very great cherisher of 
learned men of whom he had the conversation. His 
hbrary* and collection of other curiosities were of the 
most considerable, the models of ships especially. Besides 
what he published of an account of the navy, as he found 
and left it, he had for divers years under his hand the 
History of the Navy, or Navalia, as he called it ; but how 
far advanced, and what will follow of his, is left, I suppose, 
to his sister's son, Mr. Jackson, a young gentleman, whom 
Mr. Pepys had educated in all sorts of useful learning, 
sending him to travel abroad, from whence he returned 
with extraordinary accomplishments, and worthy to be 
heir. Mr. Pepys had been for near forty years so much 
my particular friend, that Mr. Jackson sent me complete 
mourning, desiring me to be one to hold up the pall at 
his magnificent obsequies ; but my indisposition hindered 
me from doing him this last office. 

13th June. Rains have been great and continual, and 
now, near midsummer, cold and wet. 

11th July. I went to Addiscombe, sixteen miles from 
Wotton, to see my son-in-law^s new house, the outside, to 
the coving, being such excellent brickwork, based with 
Portland stone, with the pilasters, windows, and within, 
that I pronounced it in all the points of good and sohd 
architecture to be one of the very best gentlemen's houses 
in Surrey, when finished. I returned to Wotton in the 
evening, though weary. 

25th. The last week in this month an uncommon long- 
continued rain, and the Sunday following, thunder and 
lightning. 

12th August. The new Commission, for Greenwich 
Hospital was sealed and opened, at which my son-in-law. 
Draper, was present, to whom I resigned my office of 
Treasurer. Prom August 1696, there had been expended 
in building £89,364 14*. ^d. 

* His valuable library he gave to Magdalen College, Cambridge, together 
with his fine collection of prints, where they now remain in a very handsome 
room, and are to this day among the videnda of that University. 

B B 2 



372 DIARY OF [LONDON, 

31st October. This day, being eighty-three years of age, 
upon examining what concerned me, more particularly the 
past year, with the great mercies of God preserving me, 
and in the same measure making my infirmities tolerable, 
I gave God most hearty and humble thanks, beseeching 
Him to confirm to me the pardon of my sins past, and to 
prepare me for a better life by the virtue of His grace and 
mercy, for the sake of my blessed Saviour. 

21st November. The wet and uncomfortable weather 
staying us from church this morning, our Doctor officiated 
in my family ; at which were present above twenty domes- 
tics. He made an excellent discourse on 1 Cor. xv., v. 55, 
56, of the vanity of this world and uncertainty of life, and 
the inexpressible happiness and satisfaction of a holy life, 
with pertinent inferences to prepare us for death and a 
future state. I gave him thanks, and told him I took it 
kindly as my funeral sermon. 

26-7th. The eflFects of the hurricane and tempest of 
wind, rain, and lightning, through all the nation, especially 
London, were very dismal. Many houses demolished, and 
people killed. As to my own losses, the subversion of 
woods and timber, both ornamental and valuable, through 
my whole estate, and about my house the woods crowning 
the garden-mount, and growing along the park-meadow, 
the damage to my own dwelling, farms, and outhouses, is 
almost tragical, not to be paralleled with any thing happen- 
ing in our age. I am not able to describe it ; but submit 
to the pleasure of Almighty God. 

7th December. I removed to Dover Street, where I found 
all well ; but houses, trees, garden, &c. at Sayes Court, 
suffered very much. 

31st. I made up my accounts, paid wages, gave rewards 
and new-year's gifts, according to custom. 

1703-4. January. The King of Spain* landing at Ports- 
mouth, came to Windsor, where he was magnificently 
entertained by the Queen, and behaved himself so nobly, 
that everybody was taken with his graceful deportment. 
After two days, having presented the great ladies, and 
others, with very valuable jewels, he went back to Ports- 
mouth, and immediately embarked for Spain. 

♦ Charles the Third, afterwards Emperor of Germany, by the title of 
Charles the Sixth. 



1704.] JOHN EVELYN. 373 

16tli. The Lord Treasurer gave my grandson the office of 
Treasurer of the Stamp-Duties, with a salary of £300 a year, 

30th. The fast on the martyrdom of King Charles I. 
was observed with more than usual solemnity. 

May. Dr. Bathurst, President of Trinity College, Oxford, 
now died,* I think the oldest acquaintance now left me in 
the world. He was eighty-six years of age, stark-blind, 
deaf, and memory lost, after having been a person of 
admirable parts and learning. This is a serious alarm to 
me. God grant that I may profit by it ! He built a very 
handsome chapel to the college, and his own tomb. He 
gave a legacy of money, and the third part of his library, 
to his nephew. Dr. Bohun, who went hence to his funeral. 

7th September. This day was celebrated the thanks- 
giving for the late great victory, f with the utmost pomp 
and splendour by the Queen, Court, great Officers, Lord 
Mayor, Sheriffs, Companies, &c. The streets were scaf- 
folded from Temple Bar, where the Lord Mayor presented 
her Majesty with the sword, which she returned. Every 
Company was ranged under its banners, the City IMilitia 
without the rails, which were all hung with cloth suitable 
to the colour of the baniaer. The Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, 
and Aldermen, were in their scarlet robes, with caparisoned 
horses ; the Knight Marshal on horseback ; the Foot- 
Guards ; the Queen in a rich coach with eight horses, 
none with her but the Duchess of Marlborough in a very 
plain garment, the Queen full of jewels. Music and 
trumpets at every City Company. The great Officers of 
the Crown, Nobility, and Bishops, all in coaches with six 
horses, besides innumerable servants, went to St. Paul's, 
Avhere the Dean preached. After this, the Queen went 
back in the same order to St. James's. The City Companies 
feasted all the Nobility and Bishops, and illuminated at 
night. Music for the church and anthems composed by 
the best masters. The day before was wet and stormy, 
but this was one of the most serene and calm days that 
had been all the year. 

October. The year has been very plentiful. 

* There is a very good Life of him, with his portrait prefixed, by- 
Mr. Thomas Warton, Fellow of Trinity College, and Poetry Professor at 
Ovxford. 

+ Over the Frencli and Bavarians, at Blenheim, 13th August, 1704. 



374 DIARY OP [LONDON, 

31st October. Being my birthday and the 84th year of 
my life, after particular reflections on my concerns and 
passages of the year, I set some considerable time of this 
day apart, to recollect and examine my state and condition, 
giving God thanks, and acknowledging His infinite mercies 
to me and mine, begging His blessing, and imploring His 
protection for the year following. 

December. Lord Clarendon presented me with the three 
volumes of his father's History of the Rebellion. 

My Lord of Canterbury wrote to me for suflrage for 
Mr. Clarke's continuance this year in the Boyle Lecture, 
which I willingly gave for his excellent performance of 
this year. 

9th February. I went to wait on my Lord Treasurer, 
where was the victorious Duke of Marlborough, who came 
to me and took me by the hand with extraordinary fami- 
liarity and civility, as formerly he was used to do, without 
any alteration of his good-nature. He had a most rich 
George in a sardonyx set with diamonds of very great 
value ; for the rest, very plain. I had not seen him for 
some years, and believed he might have forgotten me. 

21st. Remarkable fine weather. Agues and small-pox 
much in every place. 

11th March. An exceeding dry season. — Great loss by 
fire, burning the outhouses and famous stable of the Earl 
of Nottingham at Burleigh, [Rutlandshire], full of rich 
goods and fiu-niture, by the carelessness of a servant. A 
httle before, the same happened at Lord Pembroke's, at 
Wilton. The old Countess of Northumberland, Dowager 
of Algernon Percy, Admiral of the Fleet to King Charles I., 
died in the 83rd year of her age. She was sister to the 
Earl of Suff'olk, and left a great estate, her jointure to 
descend to the Duke of Somerset.* 

May. The BaiKfl" of Westminster hanged himself. He 
had an ill report. 

On the death of the Emperor, there was no mourning 
worn at Court, because there was none at the Imperial 
Court on the death of King William. 

18th. I went to see Sir John Chardine,t at Turnham- 

* This Duke had married Elizabeth Percy, widow of Lord Cole, only 
daughter and heir to Joceline Percy, the eleventh and last Earl of 
Northumberland. t See p. 191, 



1705.] JOHN EVELYN. 375 

Green, the gardens being very fine, and exceeding well 
planted with fruit. 

20th. Most extravagant expense to debauch and corrupt 
votes for parliament members. I sent my grandson with his 
party of my freeholders to vote for Mr. Harvey, of Combe.* 

1704-5. 4th January. I dined at Lambeth with the 
Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. King, a sharp ready man in 
politics, as well as very learned. 

June. The season very dry and hot. — I went to see Dr. 
Dickinson t the famous chemist. We had long conversation 
about the philosopher's elixir, which he believed attainable, 
and had seen projection himself by one who went under the 
name of Mundanus, who sometimes came among the adepts, 
but was unknown as to his country, or abode ; of this the 
Doctor has written a treatise in Latin, full of very astonish- 
ing relations. He is a very learned person, formerly a Fellow 
of St. John's College, Oxford, J in which city he practised 
physic, but has now altogether given it over, and lives 
retired, being very old and infirm, yet continuing chymistry. 

I went to Greenwich Hospital, where they now began to 
take in wounded and worn-out seamen, who are exceed- 
ing well provided for. The buildings now going on are 
very magnificent. 

October. Mr. Cowper § made Lord Keeper. Observing 
how uncertain great oflEicers are of continuing long in their 
places, he would not accept it, unless £2000 a year were 
given him in reversion when he was put out, in considera- 
tion of his loss of practice. His predecessors, how little 

* Six' Richard Onslow and Sir William Scawen were the other candidates, 
and succeeded, Mr. Harvey was a violent Tory. 

'\- Edmund Dickinson, of Merton College, Oxford, took the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, 22nd June, 1 647. He was living in Westminster, in 
1 692, in good repute for his practice in the faculty of physic. He published 
several things. Wood's Fasti Oxon. p. 741. 

X He was afterwards a Fellow of Merton, He died in 1707, aged 84. 
Dr, Campbell, in his edition of the Biog. Brit, speaks very highly of him ; 
but Dr. Kippis, in the new edition of that Work, differs much from the 
Doctor, though he allows him to have been a very learned man. Mr. Evelyn 
must have mistaken Dr. Dickinson as to his not knowing who Mundanus was, 
for in 1686 the Doctor printed a letter to him with his answer from Paris ; 
and in the latter, Mundanus says he made two projections in his pi'esence. 
Biog. Brit. art. Dickinson. 

, § William Cowper, created a Baron in 1 706, and Lord Chancellor, after- 
wards Viscount Fordwich and Earl Cowper, by George the First. 



376 DIARY OF JOHN EVELYN. [london, 1706. 

time soever they had the seal, usually got £lj9t),000, and 
made themselves Barons. — A new Secretary of State.* — 
Lord Abington, Lieutenant of the Tower, displaced, and 
General Churchill, brother to the Duke of Marlborough, 
put in. An indication of great unsteadiness somewhere, 
but thus the crafty Whig party (as called) begin to change 
the face of the Court, in opposition to the High Church- 
men, which was another distinction of a party from the 
Low Churchmen. The Parliament chose one Mr. Smith, 
Speaker.t There had never been so great an assembly of 
members on the first day of sitting, being more than 450. 
The votes both of the old, as well as the new, fell to those 
called Low Churchmen, contrary to all expectation. 

31st. I am this day arrived to the 85th year of my age. 
Lord teach me so to number my days to come, that I may 
apply them to wisdom ! 

1705-6. 1st January. Making up my accounts for the 
past year, paid bills, wages, and new-year's-gifts, according 
to custom. . Though much indisposed and in so advanced 
'a stage, I went to our chapel [in London] to give God 
public thanks, beseeching Almighty God to assist mc and 
my family the ensuing year, if he should yet continue my 
pilgrimage here, and bring me at last to a better life with 
Him in his heavenly kingdom. Divers of our friends and 
relations dined with us this day. 

27th. My indisposition increasing, I was exceeding ill 
this whole week. 

3rd February. Notes of the sermons at the chapel in 
the morning and afternoon, written with his own hand, 
-conclude this Diary. 

*^* Mr. Evelyn died on the 27th of this month. 

• Charles, Earl of Sunderland. 

f John Smith, Esq., Member for Andover. 



END OF THE DIARY. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 



Page 1, line 1. "Nonsuch House." 

Of this favourite summer residence of Queen EUzabeth, not a vestige 
remains, but the " avenue planted with rows of fine elms." Pcpys mentions 
the Exchequer money being removed to Nonsuch, and describes the park 
and house as they then appeared. The building was subset^uently pulled 
down, and its contents dispersed. A modern structure has been raised on 
its site. 

Page 4, last line. " Lord Berkeley." 

John, created Baron Berkeley, of Stratton, in 1658. He was Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland in 1670, and Ambassador to France in 1674. He died 
in 1675). His new house, next the Lord Chancellor's, was well-known as 
Berkeley House — the neighbourhood of Piccadilly being then the favourite 
locality for what Evelyn styles " new palaces." 

Page 1, line 1. "Sir George Downing." 

Secretary to the Treasury, and Commissioner of the Customs. He had 
been recently made a baronet, and was now a zealous courtier ; though, 
during the Commonwealth, as Cromwell's Resident in Holland, he had 
been no less zealous a republican. He subsequently went to Holland as 
Ambassador from the King. To him belongs the credit of having engaged 
Pepys about the year 165,9, as one of the clerks in a department of the 
Exchequer then under his management. For his character, of which 
Pepys gives a somewhat doubtful impi-ession, see Lord Clarendon's Life. 

Page 8, line 20. " The famous chemist, Drebbell." 

Cornelius Van Drebbell, born at Alkmaar, in Holland, in 1572 ; but in the 
reign of Chai-les I. settled in London, where he died in 1634. He was 
famous for other discoveries in science besides that mentioned by Evelyn — 
the most important of which was the thermometer. He also made improve- 
ments in microscopes and telescopes ; and, though, like many of his scientific 
contemporaries, something of an empiric, possessed a considerable know- 
ledge of chemistry and of different branches of natural philosophy. 

Page 8, line 24. « Mr. Povey." 

There were three brothers of this name ; sons of Justinian Povey, Audi- 
tor-General to Queen Anne of Denmark. The one mentioned by Evelyn 
was Thomas Povey, a Member of Parliament, Treasurer to the Commis- 



378 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

sioners for the affairs of Tangier, and Surveyor-Genei'al of the Victualling 
Department, in which offices he was succeeded by Pepys. He had previ- 
ously held oflBce under Cromwell, and was Treasurer and Receiver General 
of the rents and revenues of the Duke of York. The " country house he 
had bought near Brentford," as Evelyn tells us, was called " The Priory," 
and was situated neai* Hoimslow. Pepys mentions him frequently. 

Page 8, line 29. « Sir Stephen Fox." 

One of the most celebrated statesmen of the period comprised in the 
Diary. He was knighted in 1665, made Clerk of the Green Cloth, and Pay- 
master of the Forces by Charles II. He lost the favour of his successor by 
opposing the bill for a standing army, but was again employed in the reign 
of Queen Anne. Mr. Evelyn gives an interesting account of him at p. 147-8 
of this volume. He was father of the first Earl of Ilchester, and of the first 
Baron Holland. He projected Chelsea College — the honour of which has 
generally been attributed to Nell Gwynne. He also founded a new church 
and a set of alms-houses at his seat, Farley, in Wilts. He was born in 1027, 
and died in 1716. 

Page 8, line 6 from hottom. " Sir William D'Oyley." 

One of the Commissioners for the Sick and Wounded. Pepys records a 
wager which Sir William laid with him, of " a poll of ling, a brace of carps, 
and a pottle of wine, :u d Sir W. Pen, and Mr. Scowen to be at the eating of 
them." 

Page 9, line 7. " Mr. Thomas Chicheley." 

Afterwards knighted. Pepys mentions him as one of the Masters of the 
Ordnance. He was also a Member of the Privy Council. 

Page 9, line 7. " Mr. Slingsby." 

He held the office of Master of the Mint. Other members of the family 
were employed about the Court. Arthur, son of Sir Guildford, was knighted, 
and subsequently made a baronet ; and Sir Robert Slingsby was Comptroller 
of the Navy — a man much respected by Pepys. 

Page 9,' line 7 from hottom. " Mereator." 

Nicholas Mereator, the mathematician, must not be confounded with his 
namesake, so well-known as the inventor of Mercator's Projection, who was 
both a geographer and a mathematician, and who died[in 1594. Nicholas was 
born at Holstein in 1640; but, after the Restoration, settled in England, 
where his scientific attainments procm-ed him the honour of being elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society. He wrote several books on science. 

Page'9, line 9 from bottom. " Mr. Rooke." 

Laurence Rooke, Astronomy, and subsequently Geometry Professor of 
Gresham College. He was born in 1623, and died 1662 ; having established, 
by several successful works, his reputation as a man of science. 

Page 18, line 12. « Sir K Howard,", 

Sir Robert Howard held the office of Auditor of the Exchequer ; but was 
more celebrated as an author, having written comedies, tragedies, poemSj 
histories, and translations. He was born in 1626, and diedln 1698. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 379 

Parje 18, line 30. " Lord Cleveland." 

Thomas Wentworth, created in February, 1626-7, Baron Wentworth of 
Nettlested and Earl of Cleveland. He died in 1667. 

Page 18, second note. 

Mrs. Davenport (Roxolana) was " my Lord Oxford's miss ;" Mrs. Uphill 
was the actress alluded to in connection with Sir R. Howard ; Mrs. Hughes 
ensnared Prince Rupert ; and the last of the " misses " referred to by 
Evelyn was Nell Gwynne. 

Page 19, line 14. " Lord Viscount Mordaunt." 

John, second son of John, first Earl of Peterborough. He was raised to 
the Peerage in July 1659, for his services in the cause of Charles II. He 
died June 5th, 1675. 

Page 20, line 16. "Mr. WilHamson, Secretary to Lord Arlington." 

He filled several important offices, was Keeper of the State Paper Office, 
Under Secretary, and then Secretary of State. He was knighted, and sub- 
sequently elected President of the Royal Society. Sir Joseph Williamson 
was a jVIember of Parliament during several sessions, and represented Thet- 
ford and Rochester. Pepys describes him in 1662-3 as "a pretty knowing 
man and a scholar, but it may be, thinks himself to be too much so." He 
died in 1701. 

Page 20, line 9. " Monsieur Kiviet, a Dutch Gentleman Pensioner, of 
Rotterdam." 

Probably the same person described by Pepys as " Kevet, Birrgomaster of 
Amsterdam." He made a proposition, as Evelyn describes it, " to wharf 
the whole river of Thames, or quay from the Temple to the Tower, as far 
as the fire destroyed, with bricks, without piles, both lasting and 
ornamental." 

Page 21, Ihie 13. " Sir George Mackenzie." 

A Scottish advocate, who wrote several works on the Scottish laws, and 
various essays and poetical pieces. Hewas born at Dundee in 1536, and 
died in London in 1691. 

Page 21, Kwe 25. " Mr. Secretary Morice." 

Sir William Morice. General Monk, his kinsman, procured him, at the 
Restoration, the place of Secretary of State, which he resigned in 1668. Ho 
died in 1676. 

Page 21. " Saw the Virgin Queen." 

The "Virgin Queen" which Evelyn saw on the 14th Feb. 1666-7, was 
Dryden's " ]\laiden Queen." Pej^ys saw it on the night of its first production 
(twelve days before Evelyn's visit) ; and was charmed by Nell Gwynne's 
Floriraell. " So great a performance of a comical partwas never, I beUeve, 
in the world before." 

Page 23, line Id from bottom. " Mr. Henry Jennyn." 
In 1685 created Baron Jermyn of Dover. 

Page 23, line 9 from bottom. " Sir Henry Capel." 
A- leading member of the House of Commons, created April 11th, 1692, 
Baron Capel of Tewkesbury, afterwards Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. 



380 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

Page 24, line 29. « Lord Middleton." 

John Middleton was first a Parliamentary general, but subsequently fought 
for Charles II. at Worcester, and otherwise distinguished himself as a Royalist 
officer till the Restoration, when he was created Earl of Middleton. He was 
Commander-in-Chief of tlie Forces in Scotland, Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle, Commissioner to the Scottish Parliament, and finally Governor of 
Tangier, where he died in 1673. 

Page 26, line 5. " Lord Carlingford." 

Theobald, second Viscount Taafe, created Earl of Carlingford, June 26th, 
1662. 

Page 26, line 25. " Sir Nicholas Annom'er." 

Equerry to Charles II. Pepys tells a curious anecdote of his inducing the 
King to drink the Duke of York's health on his knees. 

Page 27, line 28. « Mr. Oldenburg." 

Henry Oldenburg, Secretary to the Royal Society. He was committed to 
the Tower, as Pepys informs us, " for writing news to a virtuoso in France," 
but was shortly afterwards liberated. 

Page 28, line 32. " Mr. Ashbumham and Mr. W. Legge." 

John Ashburnham, Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles I. and Charles II. 
Colonel William Legge filled the same post ; was Treasurer and Superin- 
tendent of the Ordnance, Member for Southampton, and father of the first 
Lord Dartmouth. Pepys describes him as " a pleasant man, and that hath 
seen much of the world, and more of the Court." He was with Charles I. 
during the rebellion, and represented Sussex in Parliament. Another of the 
Ashburnhams filled the office of Cofferer. Pepys frequently alludes to both. 

Page 31. « To visit the late Lord Chancellor." 

This entry of the 9th December, 1667, is a mistake. Evelyn could not 
have visited the " late Lord Chancellor " on that day. Lord Clarendon fled 
on Saturday, the 29th of November, 1667, and his letter resigning the 
Chancellorship of the University of Oxford is dated from Calais on the 
7th of December. That Evelyn's book is not, in every respect, strictly a 
diary, is shown by this and several similar passages, aheady adverted to in 
the remarks prefixed to the present edition. If this entry of the 18 th of 
August, 1683, is correct, the date of Evelyn's last visit to Lord Clarendon 
was the 28th of November, 1667. (See p. 184 of the present volume.) 

Page 32, line 15. « Sir WiUiam Penn." 

Father of the founder of Pennsylvania, whom Evelyn in a subsequent 
page accuses of having published " a blasphemous book against the Deity 
of our blessed Lord." Sir William Penn held the rank of Admiral, and had 
distinguished himself in the battle with the Dutch in 1664, which gained 
him tbe honour of knighthood. He was Governor of Kinsale, and died in 
1670. 

Page 33, last note. 

Evelyn's allusion is certainly to Dryden's comedy, which was produced 
and printed in 1668, the year in which Evelyn would appeal* to have 
seen it. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 381 

Page 34, Utic 3. " Sir Samuel Tuke." 

Of Cressing Temple, Essex; a baronet, and colonel in the army of Charles I. 
He was Evelyn's cousin. 

Page 35, line 20. " Sir Elias Leighton." 

The Sir Ellis Layton of Pepys. He was Secretary to the Prize Office, and 
to the Duke of York. " A mad freaking fellow" — according to one authority 
— though a Doctor of Civil Law, and brother to the Bishop of Dumblane. 
According to another, " for a speech of forty words the wittiest man that 
ever he knew," and moreover " one of the best companions at a meal in the 
world." 

Page 38, line 15. "Mrs. Phillips." 

A poetess of much celebrity in her time, and known as " the matchless 
Orinda." The work mentioned by Evelyn was her translation of P. Cor- 
neille's ' Horace,' which Pepys calls " a silly tragedy." 

Page 38, line 1 6. " Signer Malpighi." 

Marcellus Malpighi, eminent for his discoveries respecting the economy of 
the liver and kidneys, and for his researches in vegetable physiology. Born 
1628, died 1694. 

Page 39, line 18. « Sir William Pulteney." 

A distinguished member of Parliament, grandfather of the first Earl of 
Bath. He was a Commissicwer of the Privy Seal under William III., and 
died in 1671. 

Page 39, line 28. " That excellent creature, Mrs. Blagge." 

Afterwards Mrs. Godolphin, whose life, written by Evelyn, has recently 
been published under the auspices of the Bishop of Oxford. 

Page m, line IG. "Dr. South." 

Robert South, D.D., Prebendary of Westminster and Canon of Christ- 
church, one of the most eloquent preachers of the seventeenth century. 
Pepys alludes to his having been seized with a fainting fit in the pulpit while 
preaching before the King. He nevertheless lived to the age of eighty-three. 

Page i\, line Id. "Dr. Hyde." 

Thomas Hyde, D.D., Hebrew Reader, Keeper of the Bodleian Library, 
Prebend of Salisbury Cathedral, Regius Professor of Hebrew, and Canon of 
Christchurch, Oxford ; author of a Latin History of the Ancient Persians 
and Medes, and one of Walton's coadjutors in the great Polyglot Bible. 
Born in 1638, and died in 1703. 

Page 4:1, line 19. " Dr. Compton." 
Henry, son of Spencer Compton, Earl of Northampton, slain at the battle 
of Hop ton Heath, commenced his career as a cornet of dragoons, but after a 
short time abandoned the army for the church, in which he raised himself 
by his talents to be Bishop of Oxford, and in 1675 was translated to. the see 
of London. He was a zealous Protestant during the reign of James II., and 
not only was instrumental in bringing over William of Orange to this country, 
but placed the crown upon his head, on Archbishop Bancroft refusing to 
assist at the coronation. He wrote several works of a religioua character. 



382 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

and a translation of the life of Donna Olympia Maldachini, from tlie Italian. 
He died in 1713. 

Page 4 1, lirie 21. " Dr. Sprat." 

Dr. Thomas Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, the biographer of Cowley, 
historian of the Royal Society, and author of smidry verses and sermons. 
Bom in 1636, died 1713. 

Page 41, line 22. « Dr. Allestree." 

Richard Allestree was first designed for the church, but tlie Civil War 
forced him into the army. At the Restoration he returned to his original 
profession, in which he raised himself to considerable eminence. Born 1619, 
died 1680. 

Page 44, line 7. " Dr. Patrick." 

Simon Patrick, Prebendary of Westminster, Dean of Peterborough, Bishop 
of Chichester, thence removed to the see of Ely, and author of several religious 
works, in which he put himself forward as the champion of the Protestant 
party in the reign of James II. Born in 1626, died in 1707. 

Page 45, line 1 0. « Dr. Durell." 

John Durell, Dean of Windsor. He translated the Liturgy into the French 
and Latin languages, and was the author of a Vindication of the Church of 
England against schismatics. Born 1626, died 1683. 

Page 50, line 7 from lotiom. " Monsieur Monconys." 

Balthasar de Monconys, a Frenchman, celebrated for his travels in the 
East, which he published in three volumes. His object was to discover ves- 
tiges of the philosophy of Trismegistus and Zoroaster ; in which, it is 
hardly necessary to add, he was not very successful. 

Page 65, line 31. « Mr. Streeter." 

Robert Streeter, an artist held in much esteem at this period, and enjoy- 
ing the post of Serjeant Painter to the King. He died in 1680. 

Page 57. " Dined at the Treasurer's." 

This entry of 1 0th May, 1 671, so far as it relates to Blood, and the stealing of 
the crown, &c., is a mistake. Blood stole the crown on the 9th of May, 1671 
— the very day before ; aud the "not long before " of Evelyn, and the cir- 
cumstance of his being " pardoned," which Evelyn also mentions, can hardly 
be said to relate to only the day before. This is another of the passages to 
which frequent reference has been made, and which are explained in the 
advertisement to the present edition of the Diary. 

Page 57, line 35. " Monsieur de Grammont." 

Philibert, Comte de Grammont, so well known by the Memoirs he dictated 
to his brother-in-law, Anthony, Cormt Hamilton. He died in 1707. 

Page 59, line 10. « Colonel Titus." 
Silas Titus, author of " Killing no Murder." 

Page 60, line 2. " Chief Justice Hales." 
Sir Matthew Hale, so famous as one of the justices of the bench in 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 383 

Cromwell's time. After the Restoration, he became Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer; then Chief Justice of the King's Bench ; and died in 1 676 . The 
author of numerous works, not only on professional subjects, but on 
mathematics and philosophy. 

Page 60, line 22. " Colonel Middleton." 

Thomas Middleton, a coadjutor of Pepys in the Navy Board, and styled 
by him " a most honest and understanding man." 

Page 60, line 31. "Constantine Huygens." 

Constantino and his son, Christian Huygens, were both eminent for scien- 
tific knowledge and classical attainments ; Christian, particularly so ; for 
he was the inventor of the pendulum, made an improvement in the air- 
pump, first discovered the ring and one of the satellites of Saturn, and 
ascertained the laws of collision of clastic bodies. He died in 1695. Con- 
stantine, the fathei*, was a person of influence and distinction in Holland, 
and held tlie post of secretary to the Prince of Orange. 

Page 62, line 1 3. " Sir Thomas Strickland." 

Made a baronet by Charles I. on the field of Edgehill, where he com- 
manded a regiment of infantry. After the Restoration he was member for 
the County of Westmoreland, and Privy Purse to Charles II. He was subse- 
quently one of James II's Privy Council, and followed liim into France, 
where he died in 1694. 

Page 62, second note. 

This note is a mistake. The Custom House rebuilt after the Fire, was 
burnt down in 1718. The new one erected in its stead was destroyed in 
1814. 

Page 65, line 9. « Dr. T. Browne." 

Better kno^vn as Sir Thomas Browne. Beside the work mentioned by 
Evelyn, he was the author of the famous treatise on " Urn Burial," and 
" The Garden of Cyrus." He was boi'n in 1605, and died in 1682. 

Page Q9, line 19. « Sir John Cutler." 

An eminent citizen of London, and member of the Grocers' Company, 
who have a statue of him in their hall. There is another in the College of 
Physicians. He is severely handled by Pope, as all poetical readers 
know ; yet Pepys appeal's to have thought well of him. 

Page 81, last line. "Isaac Vossius." 

Bom at Leyden, in 1618. On comuig to England, Charles II. gave him 
a canonry at Windsor, and the University of Oxford conferred on him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. It was said of him by the King, " He is a 
strange man for a divine ; there is nothing he refuses to believe, but the 
Bible." He died in 1688. 

Page 85, Uiie 19. " Mr. Wright." 
Michael Wright, a fashionable portrait painter, but greatly inferior to Lely. 

Page 88, line 1 2. " Sii- Edward Walker." 
Celebrated for his knowledge of heraldry. He attended Charles II. into 
exile, and after the Restoration he became first Clerk of the Privy 



384 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

Council and subsequently Garter King-at-Anns. Author, among other 
works, of " Iter Carolinum, or au Account of the Marches, &c., of King 
Charles I." *' Mihtary Discoveries,"!," Historical Discoveries," &c. He died 
in 1677. Pepys describes his bringing the Gai'ter to the Earl of Sandwich, 
and his officiating at the coronation of Charles II. 

Page 93, liiie 11. "The Lord Chief Baron Turner." 

Sir Edward Turner, Speaker of the House of Commons, subsequently 
SoUcitor-General, and Lord Chief Baron. He died in 1675. 

Page dZ, line \\. « Sergeant Wild." 
Sir William Wild, Member for the City of London, and Recorder. 

Page 98, line 7. " Sir Robert Southwell." 

Sent Envoy Extraordinary to Portugal, in 1665, and in the same capacity 
to Brussels, in 1671. He was subsequently Clerk of the Privy Council, and 
having shown much taste for learned and scientific researches, was five 
times elected President of the Royal Society. He died in 1702. His son 
Edward became Secretary of State. 

Page 99, line 28. « Dr. Morison." 

Robert Morison, Physician to Charles II., Regius Professor of Botany at 
Oxford, and author of " Praeludium Botanicum," and of the fragment of a 
" Historia Plantarum," which he left unfinished when he died, in 1683. 

Page 99, line 30. « Dr. Plot." 

Robert Plot, Doctor of Laws, one of the Secretaries of the Royal Society, 
Royal Historiographer,' Keeper of the Archives of the Heralds' College; 
celebrated for his " Natural -Histories of Oxfordshire and Staffordshire." He 
died ill 1696. , . . ■■ . — . • ' 

Pa^re 103, Zine 21. "Spanheimus." ■ 

Ezekiel Spanheim was bom at Geneva, in 1629. The Elector Palatine, 
Charles Louis, to whose son he had heen tutor, sent him, after the peace of 
Ryswicke, ambassador; to France, and thence to England, where he died in 
1710. He was a learned author, as well as a celebrated diplomatist. 

Page 105, line 2. "Dr. Whistler." 

President of the College of Physicians. He accompanied Bulstrode 
Whitelock in his embassy to Sweden, and died in 1 684. ' Pepys says that he 
found him " good company, and a very ingenious man." 

Page 1 05, line 2 from bottom. " Mr. Prideaux." 

Humphrey Prideaux was bom in 1648, and became Dean of Norwich. 
He was the author of " The Connection of the History of the Old and New 
Testament," " The Life of Mahomet," and other works. He died in 1724. 

Page 107, line 8. " Sir William Sanderson." 

The" author of a "History of Mary Queen of Scots," and of Histories 
of James and Charles I. He held the post of gentleman of the chamber, 
and his wife that of " mother of the maids." i 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 385 

Page 108, line 1 2. « Mr. Flamstead." 

John Flamstead, author of " Historia Coelestis Britannica," and other 
works. A distinguished astronomer ; and in the comprehensiveness of his 
scientific knowledge, second only to Sir Isaac Newton. He died in 1719. 

Page 1 17, line 20. " Dr. Grew." 

Neheraiah Grew, a physician, who directed his researches towards botany, 
and one of the first who advocated the theory of different sexes in plants. 
Born 1628, died 1711. 

Page 119, line 27. " Monsieur Rotiere," 

Probably Philip Rotiere, who introduced the figure of Britannia into tho 
coinage, taking for his model the King's favourite, Frances Stewart, Duchess 
of Richmond. 

Page 1 20, second note. 

For Colyeur read Collyer. There are other errors in this note. The 
Countess of Dorchester married David Collyer, Earl of Portmore. See 
note at p. 248. 

Page 128, line 12. « Mr. Houblon." 

One of the most eminent of the merchants of London at this period. Two 
of James Iloublon's sons obtained the honour of knighthood. Sir James 
became one of the members for the city, in 1648 ; Sir John was Lord 
Mayor, one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty, and Governor of the 
Bank of England. From the former descend the Houblons of Hallingbury- 
place, Eissex, and of Culverthorpe, Lincoln. Pepys mentions " five bro- 
thers Houblon," and he adds, " mighty fine gentlemen they are all, and 
used me mighty respectfully." 

Page 129, line 5 from lottom. "Sir Robert Viner." 
A very wealthy banker, whom Pepys describes as living in great state at 
Swakely House, Ickenham, Middlesex. When Lord Mayor he entertained 
Charles 11. at Guildhall ; and on his Majesty retiring, urged him to "return 
and take t'other bottle." He was created a Baronet. The crown was indebted 
to Sir Robert Viner, at the shutting of the Exchequer, nearly half a million 
of money, for which he was awarded 25,0001. 9s. Ad. per annum, out of the 
excise. 

Page 134, last line hut two. " Now lately returned from Flanders." 
He returned the day before, the 12th of September. This is another of 
the indications that the entries of this Diary were not always made on the 
precise days they refer to. 

Page 1 39, line 7. " Dr. Cave." 

Ml*. William Cave ; author also of " Lives of the Apostles and Mai'tyrs," 
and "Historia Literaria." Born 1C37, died 1713. 

Page 145, line 9. " Monsieur Chardin. 

! ' Better known as Sir John Chardin, he liaving, though a Frenchman, been 
knighted by Charles II. He was an enterprising traveller in the East, and 
his accounts of India and Persia ai-e thought peculiarly interesting. He 
died in 1713. 

VOL. II. C C 



386 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

Page 147. " In my esteem, above all, the Noli me Tangere." 

Now, with other fpictvires mentioned in the course of this Diary, in the 
gallery at Hampton Court. 

Page 151, line 22. '/'Mr. Treby." 

Afterwards Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and knighted. Sir George 
Treby was also member of Parliament for Plympton, in Devonshire, where 
he was bom. He died in 1702. 

Page 159, line 23. « Dr. Hooper." 

George Hooper, afterwards Dean of Canterbury, Bishop of St. Asaph, 
and then translated to the see of Bath and Wells. He died in 1727. 

Page 160, line 1. «^Mr. Thynne." 

Thomas Thynne, Esq., of Longleat Hall, Wilts. He had married the young 
widow of Lord Ogle, but the marriage was never consummated ; and had 
previously seduced, under a promise of marriage, a young lady, who is said 
to have been in some way instrumental to his murder. Hence the burlesque 
epitaph : 

" Here lies Tom Thynne of Longleat Hall, 
AVlio never would have miscarried, 
Had he married the woman he lay withal ; 
Or laid with the woman he married." 

Assuming the truth of what Lord Essex conveyed to Evelyn in the text, 
the incUuations of the wealthy heiress were not consulted in her union ; and 
this may have given rise to the suspicion that she encouraged Count Konigs- 
marke's addresses, and was privy to his murderous designs upon her husband. 

Page 166, line 8. "Monsieur Papm." 

Denys Papin, a French physician" and mathematician, who possessed 'so 
remarkable a knowledge of mathematics, that he very nearly brought the in- 
vention of the steam-engine into working order. He assisted Mr. Boyle in 
his pneumatic experiments, and was afterwards mathematical professor at 
Marpurg. Ho died in 1710. 

Page 171, line 6. "Dr. Gale." 

Dr. Thomas Gale ; he was Greek Professor at Cambridge, Master of St. 
Paul's School, London, and subsequently Dean of York. He was the author 
of several scholastic works ; and was counted among the most learned men 
of his time. Born in 1636 ; died in 1702. 

Page n\, line 15. " Captain Collins." 

Probably a John CoUins, who had been in the naval service of Venice, and 
who was employed at this time as an accountant in some of the government 
offices, was a contributor to the Transactions of the Royal Society, and wrote 
several mathematical works. 

Page 174, line 16. « Dr. Charleton." 

Walter Charleton was with Charles II. during his exile, in the capa- 
city of physician, and returned with him at the Restoration. He wrote on 
natural history, antiquities, theology, medicine, and natural philosophy. 
Died 1707. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 387 

Page 179. " Sir Thomas Yarborough and his lady." 

The lady was Mary Blagg, of whom Count Hamilton says so much ; and 
sister of Mi*. Blagg, of whom Evelyn says so much. 

Page 180. "Much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq." 

And see p. 326, whore Evelyn describes himself and certain members of 
the Royal Society all dining " at Pontac's as usual," Pontac's was a famous 
French eating-house, now existing only in the verse of Dryden, the prose of 
Swift and Defoe, and other such imperishable records. Defoe describes its 
name as derived from the owner of the most celebrated claret vintage of 
France, the president of the parliament of Bourdeaux ; the " M. Pontaq" 
above referred to, established it ; and Swift, who dined at it seventeen years 
after the dinner mentioned by Evelyn, tells Stella that the wine was charged 
seven shillings a flask. "Are not these pretty rates \" 

Page 194, line 2. "Monsieur Justell." 

Henry Justell, created LL.D. by the University of Oxford, on presenting 
to the university the MSS. of his father, Christopher Justell, a learned writer 
on ecclesiastical antiquities and canon law. Both were bom in France ; 
but on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, the son fled to England, and was 
appointed Keeper of the King's Library. He published sevei-al works. 
Born 1620 ; died 1693. 

Page 194, line 14. "Mr. Johnson." 

Samuel Johnson, a clergyman, who was distingtiished by the rigour of his 
writings against the Court ; particularly by his " Juhan the Apostate," directed 
at the Duke of York, a recent convert to Popery. For these he was fined 
and imprisoned, put in the pillory, whipped at the cart's tail, and degraded 
from the priesthood : nevertheless, he was not silenced ; and he lived to see 
the Revolution, which placed William of Orange on the throne ; whereupon 
he received a present of £1000, and a pension of £300 per annum, for the 
joint lives of himself and his son. He died in 1703. 

Page 203, line 1 5. « Dobson." 

William Dobson, a clever portrait painter, who succeeded Vandyke in the 
employments he held under Charles I. He died in 1646. 

Page 211. " Under the name of Sir Positive." 

Evelyn here means Sir Positive At-All, in Shadwell's comedy of the 
" Sullen Lovers," which Pepys also tells us was meant for Sir Robert 
Howard, Dryden's brother-in-law. 

Page 242, Ztwe 19. « The famous Claude." 

John Claude, a celebrated French Protestant minister, and a distinguished 
controversial writer ; who, at the revocation of the edict of Nantes, was or- 
dered to quit France in four-and-twcnty hours. One of his books was 
burned, by the direction of James II., by tlae hangman, in the Old Exchange, 
on May 5th, 1686. He died the following year. 

Page 250, Vfne 32. « Dr. Ray." 

John Ray, the celebrated naturalist, and author, among other works, of 
" Tlie Wisdom of God manifested in the Works of the Creation." He ^vas a 

c c 2 



388 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

liberal contributor to the Transactions of the Royal Society, of which he was 
elected a fellow m 1667. Born iu 1628, died m 1705. 

Page 255, line 10. *' Dr. Sharp." 
John Sharp, Dean of Norwich, famous for having been one of the first 
victims to the intolerance of James II., who caused him to be suspended for 
preaching against Popery. After the revolution he was made Dean of 
Canterbury, and subsec[uently Archbishop of York. Born 1644. Died 
1713. 

Page 255, line n. « Tully." 

George Tully, another champion of Protestantism, whom James endea- 
voured to silence with persecution. He died in 1697. 

Page 261, line 10. « Mr. Wake." 

William III. recognised the services of the Rev. William Wake in the 
cause of the Protestant Church of England, by presenting him with valuable 
preferments. He was King's Chaplain, Rector of St. James's Westminster, 
Dean of Exeter, Bishop of Lincoln, and finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Bom 1657. Died 1737. 

Page 263, line 11. « Dr. Ken." 

A prelate remarkable for his benevolence and piety, and the only person 
in England known to have interceded for the sufferers from the cruelty 
of Colonel Kirke, on the suppression of Monmouth's rebellion ; urging the 
King with tears to put a stop to the dreadful butchery. He was one of 
the seven bishops sent by James II. to the Tower ; yet he refused to 
acknowledge James's successor, on the ground that it would be a breach of 
his Consecration Oath, and suffered for his conscientious scruples _ the 
penalty of deprivation. He was born in 1637, and died in 1711. 

Page 266. " Marriage of my cousin, Evelyn Pierpoint." 

This Evelyn Pierpoint was married in the same month to Lady Mary 
Fielding. The issue of the marriage was the celebrated Lady Mary Wort- 
ley Montagu. 

Page 285. " Especially that of the Spanish Ambassador." 
The Spanish Ambassador's House was Wild House, Drury Lane. 

Page 308, line 19. « Dr. Walker." 
George Walker, an Irish clergyman, who distinguished himself more in 
the camp than in the pulpit, and after successfully defending Protestant 
Londonderry against the Popish army under James II., accompanied 
William III. during his decisive campaign against his father-in-law, till he 
was slain at the battle of the Boyne. 

Page 308, line 32. " Lord Torrington." 

Arthur Herbert, grandson of the celebrated Lord Herbert of Cherbtoy. 
In 1689, William raised him to the Peerage for his eminent naval services, 
with the titles of Baron Torbay and Earl of Torrington ; but not succeeding 
against the French fleet near Beechy Head, he was sent to the Tower, tried 
by a Court-martial, and, though acquitted, never again employed. He died 
April 14, 1716. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 339 

Page SOS, line 3. « The Duke of Grafton." 

Henry Fitzroy, second natural son of Charles II. by the Duchess of 
CleTcland. His Grace was ancestor of the present Duke. 

Page 309, line 4 from hottom. " Lord Sydney," 

Henry, youngest brother of Robert, second Earl of Leicester ; created in 
1689, Baron Sydney and Viscount Sydney, and in 1694 Earl of Ronmey. 
He died in 1704. 

Page 310, line 20. " Countess of Clancarty." 

Elizabeth Fitzgerald, daughter of the Earl of Kildare. Her son, the third 
Earl, for the services he had rendered James II., forfeited in the reign of his 
successor the whole of his vast estates. 

Page 312, line 3. « Dr. Sloane." 

Better known as Sir Hans Sloane, having been created a Baronet by 
George I. He was an eminent physician and naturalist, Physician-general 
to the Army, Physician in Ordinary to the King, and in 1727 was elected 
President of the Royal Society. His monument may be seen in the church- 
yard of old St. Luke's, Chelsea, near the river. His extensive museum aud 
library were purchased for 20,000?., and transferred to the British Museum. 
Bom 1660. Died in 1752. 

Page 318, line 5. « Lord Marlborough." 

So celebrated in the reign of Queen Anne as John, first Duke of Marl- 
borougli. The real cause of his dismissal from his employments by Wil- 
liam III. was not tlie one mentioned by Evelyn, but a quarrel between Queen 
Mary and her sister, the Princess Anne, in which her friend Lady Marl- 
borough was involved. 

Page 321, line 23. « Dr. Sterne." 

Richard Sterne, grandfather of the author of " Tristram Shandy." He 
attended Archbisliop Laud to the scaffold as his chaplain. On the Restora- 
tion he was created Bishop of Carlisle, and subsequently Archbishop of York. 
He assisted in the Polyglott and in the revisal of the Book of Common 
Prayer. Bom 1596. Died 1683. 

Page 326, line 10. « Dr. Davenant." 

Cliai'les, eldest son of Sir William Davenant, joint inspector of plays, 
Commissioner of Excise, and Inspector-general of Exports and Imports. His 
chief work was called " Essays on Trade," in five volumes. Born 1656. 
Died 1714. 

Page 331, line 13. " Mr. Wotton." 

The Reverend William Wotton, author of " Reflections upon Ancient and 
Modem Learning," " The History of Rome, from the Death of Antoninus 
Pius to the Death of Severus Alexander," and other works. Born 1666. 
Died 1726. 

Page 336, line 5. « Mr. Vanbmgh." 

Sir John Vanbrugh, the famous dramatist, architect of Blenheim and 
Castle Howard ; also Clarencieux King at Arms, Comptroller of the Board 
of Works, and Surveyor of Greenwich Hospital. Born 1672. Died 1726. 



APPENDIX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



(See p. 234.) 

Feb. 1687-8, there was printed what was called "A true and perfect 
narrative of the strange and unexpected finding the Crucifix and Gold-chain 
of that pious Prince, St. Edward the King and Confessor, which was found 
after six hundred and thirty years' interment, and presented to his most 
Sacred Majesty, King James the Second. By Charles Taylour, Gent. 
London, printed by J. B., and are to be sold by Randal Taylor, near 
Stationers' Hall, 1688." 

He says, that "on St. Bamaby's Day (11 June), 1685, between 11 and 12 
at noon, he went with two friends to see the coffin of Edward tlie Confessor, 
having heard that it was brolce ; fetched a ladder, looked on the coffin and 
found a hole as reported, put his hand into the hole, and turning the bones 
which he felt there, drew from under the shoulder-bones a crucifix richly 
adorned and enamelled, and a golden chain of twenty-four inches long to 
which it was fixed ; showed them to his two friends ; was afraid to take them 
away, till he had acquainted the Dean ; put them into the coffiu again. But 
the Dean not being to be spoke with then, and fearing this treasure might be 
taken by some other, he went two or three hours afterward to one of the 
choir, acquainted him with what lie had found, who accompanied him to the 
monument, from whence he again drew tlie crucifix and chain ; his friend 
advised him to keep them, until he could show them to the Dean (the 
Bishop of Rochester) ; kept them three weeks before he could speak to the 
Bishop ; went to the Archbishop of York, and showed them ; next morning, 
the Archbishop of York carried him to the Archbishop of Canterbiu-y att 
Lambeth, and showed them. After this, he procured an exact drawing to be 
made of them ; showed tliem to Sir William Dugdale. — 6th July, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury told the Bishop of Rochester, who, about four that after- 
noon, sent for him, and took him to Whitehall, that he might present them 
to the King ; which he did accordingly. The King ordered a new strong 
wooden coffin to be made to inclose the broken one. The links of the chain 
oblong, and curiously wrought ; the upper part joined by a locket, composed 
of a large round knob of gold, massy, in circumference as big as a milled 
shilling, half an inch thick ; round this went a wire and half a dozen little 
beads, hanging loose, running to and again on the same, all of pure gold, 
finely wrought ; on each side of the locket were set two large square stones 
(supposed to be rubies). From each side of this locket, fixed to two rings of 
gold, the chain descends, and, meeting below, passes through a square piece 
of gold, of a convenient bigness, made hollow for the same purpose. This 
gold, wrought into several angles, was painted with divers colours, resembling 
gems or precious stones, to which the crucifix was joined, yet to be taken off 
by help of a screw. The form of tlie cross nearest that of an humettde flory 
(among the heralds), or rather the botany [boton^e] ; yet the pieces not of 



APPENDIX. 391 

equal length, the perpendicular beam being near one-foui*th part longer than 
the traverse, as being four inches to the extremity, whilst the other scarce 
exceeds three ; yet all neatly turned at the ends, and tlie botons enamelled 
with figures thereon. The cross of the same gold as the chain, but exceeds 
it by its rich enamel, having on one side tlie picture of our Saviour Christ in 
his passion wi'ought thei'eon, and an eye from above casting a kmd of beam 
on him ; on the reverse, picture of a Benedictine monk in his habit, aud on 
each side of him these capital Roman letters : — 

On the right, And on the left, 
(A) P 

Z A X AC 

A H 

This cross is hollow, to be opened by two little screws towards the top, 
wherein, it is presumed, some reUc might have been conserved. William I. 
commanded the coffin to be enshrined, and the shrine covered with plates of 
gold and silver, adorned with pearls and precious stones. About oue hundred 
and thirty-six years after, the Abbot resolved to inspect the body, said to be 
incorruptible, and, on opening, found it to be so, being perfect, the limbs 
flexible : the face covered ; Gundolph, Bishop of Rochester, withdrew the 
cover, but, with great reverence, covered it again, changing the former vest- 
ments, and putting on others of equal price. In 1163, Thomas a Becket 
procured a canonisation of the King, and in the ceremony the Abbot opened 
the coffin, found the body lying in rich vestments of cloth of gold, having on 
his feet buskins of purple, and shoes of great price ; the body uncoiTupted ; 
removed the whole body from the stone repository to another of wood, some 
assisting at the head, others at the arms and legs ; they Ufted it gently, and 
laid the corpse first on tapestry spread on the floor, and then wrapping the 
same in silken cloths of great value, they put it into the wooden chest, with 
all tlwse things that were fomid in the foiiner, except the gold ring which was 
on the King's finger, which the Abbot, out of devotion, retained, and ordered 
it to be kept in the Treasury of the Abbey. 

" In 1226, King Henry III. again removed the coffin to a chapel built for 
the purpose." 

II. 

MR. EVELYN'S PUBLICATIONS. 

The first subjoined List is from a Letter of Mr. Evelyn's to 
Dr. Plot, dated 16 March, 1682-3. 
Translations. 
■ 1. Of Liberty and Servitude, Loud. 1644, 12mo. 

2. The French Gardener and English Vineyard, 1658, 12mo. 3rd edit. 
, 3. An Essay on the first Book of Lucretius, 1656, 8vo. 

4. Gaspar Naudaeus, Instructions concerning Libraries, 1661, 8vo. 

5. A Parallel of the Ancient Architectui'e with the Modern, with a treatise 
on Statues, (Sec, 1664, folio. 

6. An Idea of the perfection of Paintmg, 1668, 8vo. 

7. The Mystery of Jesuitism, 2 parts, 8vo. 

8. St. Chrysostom's Golden Book for the Education of Children, out of 
tlie Greeli, 1659, 12mo. 

On{/inal WorJ:s. 
1. An Apology for the Royal Party, 1659, 4to. Three Editions. 
' 2. Panegyric at his Majesty's Coronation, 1G61, folio. 

, 3. Fumifugium, or a prophetic Invective against the Fire and Smoke of 
London, with its Remedies, 1661, 4 to. 



392 APPENDIX. 

4. Sculptura, or the History of the Art of Chalcogi-aphy, 1662, 8vo. 

5. Public Employment, and an active life preferred to Solitude, 1667, 8vc 

6. History of the Three late Impostors, 1669, 8vo. 

7. Kalendarium Hortense, 1664, 1679, 8vo. Six Editions. 

8. Sylva, 1679, folio. Three Editions. 

9. Terra, 1679. Two Editions. 

10. Tyrannus, or the Mode, 8vo. 

1 1 . The Dignity of Man, &c., not printed, nearly ready. 

12. Elysium Britanicum, not printed, nearly ready. 

Prepared for the Press. 

A Discourse of Medals. — Of Manuscripts. — Of Stones. — Of Reason in 
Brute Animals.* 



In a letter to Dr. Beale, 11 July, 1679, Mr. Evelyn says, "I have some- 
times thought of publishing a Treatise of Acetaria, which (though but one of 
the chapters of Elysium, JBritannicum) would make a competent volume, 
accompanied with other necessaries, according to my manner ; but whilst I 
as often think of performing my so long-since promised (more xmiversal) 
Hortulan work, I know not how to take that chapter out, and single it for 
the press, without some blemish to the rest. When again I consider into 
what an ocean I am plunged, how much I have written and collected for 
above these twenty years upon this fruitful and inexhaustible subject (I 
mean Horticulture) not yet fully digested to my mind, and what insuperable 
pains it will require to insert the (daily increasing) particulars into what I 
have ah'eady in some measure prepared, and which must of necessity be 
done by my own hand, I am almost out of hope, that I shall ever have 
strength and leisure to bring it to maturity, having for the last ten years of 
my life been in perpetual motion, and hardly two months in a year at my 
own habitation, or conversant with my family. 

" You know what my charge and care has been during the late unhappy 
war with the Hollanders ; and what it has cost me as to avocations, and for 
the procuring money, and attending the Lord Treasurer, &c., to discharge 
the quarters of many thousands. 

" Since that, I have upon me no fewer than three executorships, besides 
other domestic concerns, either of them enough to distract a more steady 
and composed genius than is mine. 

" Superadd to these the public confusions in church and kingdom (never 
to be sufficiently deplored), and which cannot but most sensibly touch every 
sober and honest man. 

" In the midst of these disturbances, who but Dr. Beale (that stands upon 
the tower, looks down unconcernedly on all those tempests) can think of 
gardens and fish-ponds, and the delices and ornaments of peace and tran- 
quillity ? With no little conflict and force on my other business, I have yet 
at last, and as I was able, published a third edition of my " Sylva," and 
with such additions as occurred ; and this in truth only to pacify the impor- 
tunity of very many (besides the printer), who quite tired me with calling on 
me for it, and above all, threatening to reprint it with all its former defects, if 



* Of the four Treatises here enumerated, the Discourse on Medals only has 
been printed. There is at Wotton a copy of that on Manuscripts in thirteen 
leaves, 4to, which seems to contain all he intended on this subject, and is given at 
the close of this Appendix. There is also a chapter of an essay, entitled, " Do 
Baculis," which from the poem seems to have been intended as jocular, but it 
begins with great gravity. 



APPENDIX, 393 

I did not speedily prevent it. I am only vexed that it proving so popular as 
iu so few years to pass so many impressions, and (as I hear) gratify the 
avaricious printer with some hundreds of pounds, there had not been some 
course taken in it for the benefit of our Society. It is apparent, that near 
£500 has been already gotten by it ; but we are not yet economists. 

" You know what pillars we have lost : Palmer,* Moray,* CIiester,f 
01denburg,J &c. ; and through what other discouragements we still labour ; 
and therefore you will excuse the zeal and fervour of what I have added in 
my Epistle to the Reader, if at length it be possible to raise up some 
generous soul to free us, or emerge out of our difficulties. In all events 
you will see where my inclinations are fixed, and that love is stronger than 
death ; and secular affairs, which is the burial of all philosophical specula- 
tions and improvements : though they can never in the least diminish the 
great esteem I have of your friendship, and the infinite obligations I daily 
receive from your favours." 



Of Books which he had designed to publish, we find various Memoranda 
in his letters, &c. 

In a letter to Mr. Boyle, 8 August, 1659, he says he had intended to 
write a History of Trades ; but had given it up, from the fgreat difficulty he 
found in the attempt. 

In another, 23rd Nov., 1 664, he says, " One Rhea [qu. Ray ?] has published 
a veiy useful book concerning the Culture of Flowers ; but it does nothing 
reach my long-since attempted design on that entire subject, with all its orna- 
ments and circumstances, but God only knows when my opportunities will 
permit me to bring it to maturity." 

In the Preface to the " Acetaria," published in 1 669, he mentions a Work in 
which he had spent upwards of forty years, and his collections for which had 
in that time filled several thousand pages. The author of the " Biographia 
Britannica " believes that this was the work, part of which he had showed to 
his friends under the title of " Elysium Britannicum," but which in that 
Preface he calls " The Plan of a Royal Garden," &c. ; and that his " Acetaria," 
and " Gardener's Kalendai-," were parts of it. This is confirmed by the pre- 
ceding letter to Dr. Beale. 

Amongst the MSS. at Wotton there ai'e parts of two volumes with the 
running title of " Elysium Britannicum," consisting of miscellaneous observa- 
tions on a great variety of subjects, but nothing digested, except a printed 
sheet of the contents of the intended Work, as follows : 

ELYSIUM BRITANNICUM 

IN THREE BOOKS, 

PrcBTtiissis prcemittendis, d;c. 

Book I. 
Chap. 1. A Garden derived and defined, with its distinctions and sorts. — 
a. Of a Gardener, and how he is to be qualified, — 3. Of the Prmciples and 
Elements in general. — 4. Of the Fire.— 5. Of the Air and Winds.— 6. Of the 
Water.— 7. Of the Earth.— 8. Of the Celestial Influences, particularly the 
Sun, and Moon, and of the Chmates. — 9. Of the Four Seasons. — 10, Of the 
Mould and Soil of a Garden. — 11, Of Composts and Stercoration. — 12. Of 
tl'.e Generation of Plants, 



* Dudley Palmer, Esq., born in 1602, and died in 1666, and Sir Robert 
Moray, Knt., who died .Tuly 4, 1673, two of the first Council of the Roval Society, 
•f John Wilkins, D.D., Bishop of Chester. He died Nov. 19, 1672, 
J Secretary to the Royal Societj', who died in September, 1677, 



394 APPENDIX. 

Book II, 

Chap. 1. Of the Instruments belonging to a Gardener, and their several 
uses. — 2. Of the situation of a Garden, with its extent. — 3. Of fencing, 
enclosing, plotting, and disposing the Ground. — 4. Of a Seminary, and of 
propagating Trees, Plants, and Flowers. — 5. Of Knots, Parterres, Compart- 
ments, Borders, and Embossments. — 6. Of Walks, Terraces, Carpets, and 
Alleys, Bowling-greens, Malls, their materials and proportions. — 7. Of 
Groves, Labyrinths, Dsedales, Cabinets, Cradles, Pavilions, Galleries, Close- 
walks, and other Relievos. — 8, Of Transplanting. — 9. Of Fountains, Cas- 
cades, Rivulets, Piscinas, and Water- works. — 10. Of Rocks, Grots, Cryptas, 
Mounts, Precipices, Porticos, Ventiducts. — 11. Of Statues, Columns, Dials, 
Perspectives, Pots, Vases, and other ornaments. — 12. Of Artificial Echos, 
Music, and Hydraulic motions. — 13. Of Aviaries, Apiaries, Vivaries, Insects. 
— 14. Of Orangeries, and Conservatories of rare Plants. — 15. Of Verdures, 
Perennial-Greens, and perpetual Springs. — 16. Of Coronary Gardens. Flowers, 
and rare Plants, how they are to be propagated, governed, and improved ; 
together with a Catalogue of the choicest Trees, Shrubs, Plants and Flowers, 
and how the Gardener is to keep his Register. — 17. Of the Philosophico- 
Medical Garden. — 18. Of a Vineyard. — 19. Of Watering, Pruning, Clipping, 
Rolling, Weeding, &c. — 20. Of the Enemies and Infirmities to which a 
Garden is obnoxious, together with the remedies. — 21. Of the Gardener's 
Almanack, or Kalendariimi Hortense, directing what he is to do Monthly, 
and what Flowers are in prime. 

Book III. 

Chap. 1. Of Conserving, Properating, Retarding, Multiplying, Trans- 
muting, and altering the Species, Forms and substantial qualities of Flowers, 
&c. — 2. Of Chaplets, Festoons, Flower-pots, Nosegays, and Posies. — 3. Of 
the Gardener's Elaboratory, and of distilling and extracting of Essences, 
Resuscitation of Plants, wilJi other rare Experiments. — 4. Of composing 
the Hortus Hyemalis, and making books of Natural Arid Plants and Flowers, 
with other curious ways of preserving them in their Natural. — 5. Of planting 
of Flowers, Flowers enamelled in Silk, Wax, and other artificial representa- 
tions of them. — 6. Of Hortulane Entertainments, to show the riches, beauty, 
wonder, plenty, delight, and use of a Garden-Festival, &c. — 7. Of the most 
famous Gardens in the World, Ancient and Modem. — 8. The Description of . 
a Villa. — The Corollary and Conclusion. 

Amongst the MSS. at Wotton also, on a separate paper, are the following 
Memoranda in Mr. Evelyn's handwriting : 

" Things I would write out fair and reform, if I had leisure : — 

Londinum Redivivum, which I presented to the King thre»or four days 
after the Conflagration of that City, 1666. 

Pedigree of the Evelyns. 

The three remaining Meditations on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, being 
the remaining course of OfiBces ; to which belongs a Book of Recollection 
bound in leather. 

A Rational Account of the True Religion, or an History of it. With a 
packet of Notes belonging to it. 

Oeconomist to a Married Friend. 

The Legend of the Peai'l 

Some Letters of mine to Electra and to others in that packet. 

The Life of Mrs. Godolphin. 

A book of some Observations, Politica's, and Discourses of that kind, 

Thyrsander, a Tragi-Comedy. 

Dignity of Mankind. 

My oAvn Ephemeris or Diary. 

Animadversions upon Spinosa 



APPENDIX. 395 

Papers concerning Education. 

Mathematical papers." * 

Of the works by Mr. Evelyn actually published, the list now finally sub- 
joined, comprising many which are included in the collection of Evelyn's 
Miscellaneous Wntinga edited by Mr. Upcott, will, it is believed, be found 
tolerably accurate. 

1. Of Liberty and Servitude, 1649, 12mo. 

2. A Character of England, as it was lately presented in a Letter to a 
Nobleman of France ; with Reflections upon Gallus Castratus, 1651, 3rd 
edit. 1659. 

3. The State of France. London, 1652, 8vo. 

4. An Essay on the first Book of Lucretius de Remm Natura, interpreted 
and made into Enghsh Verse, 1656, 8vo. The frontispiece designed by his 
lady, Mary Evelyn. 

5. Dedicatory Epistles, &c., to "The French Gardener." London, 1658, 
12mo. — The third edition, in 1672, was illustrated by plates. — In most of 
the editions is added " The English Vineyard Vindicated, by John Rose, 
Gardener to King Charles II." 

6. The Golden Book of St. Chrysostom, concerning the Education of 
Children. London, 1659, 12mo. 

7. An Apology for the Royal Party, written in a Letter to a person of the 
late Council of State : with a Touch at the pretended Plea of the Army. 
London, 1659, in two sheets, 4to. Three editions. 

8. The late News from Brussels unmasked. London, 1660, 4to. 

9. The manner of the Encounter between the French and Spanish Ambas- 
sadors at the landing of the Swedish Ambassador. 

10. A Panegyrick at his Majesty King Charles's Coronation. London, 
1661, folio. 

11. Instructions concerning the erection of a Library. Written by 
Gabriel Naude, published in English with some Improvements by John 
Evelyn, Esq. London, 1661, 8vo. 

12. Fumifugium ; or the Inconveniences of the Air and Smoke of London 
dissipated. Together with some remedies humbly proposed by John Evelyn, 
Esq. Lond. 1 661, 4to, in five sheets, addressed to the King and Parhament, 
and published by his Majesty's express Command.-)- 

1 3. Tyrannus ; or the Mode ; in a Discourse of Sumptuary Laws, 
1661, 8vo. 

1 4. Sculptura ; or the History and Art of Chalcography and Engraving in 
Copper and Mezzo-tinto. Lond. 1662, 8vo. 

15. Sylva ; or a Discourse of Forest-Trees. Lond. 1 664, fol. ; 2nd edition 
1669 ; 3rd in 1697 ; 4th in 1733, also in folio. — Pomona is an Appendix ; 
3rd edition 1679; 4th, 1706 ; Sth, 1729.— i^This learned work has since 
been several times republished by Dr. A. Hunter, an eminent physician in 
York, who has rendered it still more valuable by adding to it the observa- 
tions of later \\Titers. 

16. Dedicatory Epistles, &c., to "Parallel of Ancient and Modern Archi- 
tecture." London, 1664, folio. 4th edit. 1733, foL; with the Elements of 
Architecture by Sir Hen. Wotton. 



* Of the " things" mentioned in this list as reserved for attention and revision 
in Mr. Evelyn's leisure, the Diary and Letters and Life of Mrs. Godolphin (sec 
also p. 124 of this volume) have since been given to the world ; and it is under- 
stood that the work, entitled " A Rational Account of the True Religion, or an 
History of it," edited from the MSS. at Wotton, is now preparing for publication. 
It embodies the researches and reflections of Mr. Evelyn's life on the all-important 
Subject to which it relates. 

t Reprinted in 1772, in quarto, with an additional Preface. 



396 APPENDIX. 

] 7. Ditto to " MvffT'fipiov TTJs 'Avo,u.ltts ; " another part of the Mysterj' of 
Jesuitism. Lond. 1664, 8vo. Two Parts. 

18. Kalendarium Hortense, Lond. 1664, Bvo. — The 2d and 3d edit, was in 
folio, bound with the Sylva and Pomona ; also re-printed in octavo in 1699. 

19. Public Employment and active life preferred to Solitude, in reply to 
Sir Geo. Mackenzie. Lond. 1667, 8vo. 

20. History of the Three late famous Impostors. Lond. 1669, 8vo. 

21. An Idea of the Perfection of Painting, translated from the French of 
Roland Freart. Lond. 1668, 8vo. 

22. Navigation and Commerce, their Original and Progress. Lond. 
1674, 8vo. 

23. Terra ; a Philosophical Discourse of Earth. Lond. 1675, fol. ; and 
8vo. 1676. 

24. Mundus Muliebris. Lond. 1690, 4to. 

25. Monsieur de la Quintinye's Treatise of Orange-Trees, and Complete 
Gardener, translated from the French. Lond. 1693, fol. 

26. Advertisement to the Translation of the Compleat Gardener, by M. de 
la Quintinye, 1693. 

27. Ditto to M. de la Quintinye's Directions concerning Melons. 

28. Ditto to M. de la Quintinye's Directions concerning Oi-ange Trees. 

29. Numismata : a Discourse on Medals. London, 1697, fol. 

30. Acetaria : a Discourse of Salads. Lond. 1699, 8vo. 

31. An Account of Architects and Architecture — a tract. 

32. Letter to Viscount Brounclcer, concerning a new Engine for Ploughing, 
&c. 1669-70, 

33. Dedication to Renatus Rapinusof Gardens, 1673. 

34. Letter to Mr. Aubrey, concerning Surrey Antiquities, 1670. 

35. Abstract of a Letter to the Royal Society, concerning the damage done 
to liis Gardens in tlie preceding Winter, 1684. 

36. The Diary and Letters. 1818, 1825. 

37. Miscellaneous "Writings, collected and edited by Mr. Upcott. " 

38. Life of Mrs. Godolphin. 1849. 



Mr. Evelyn had likewise etched, when he came to Paris from Italy, five 
several Prospects of Places which he had drawn on the spot between Rome 
and Naples, to which he pi'efixed also a frontispiece, intituled, 

" Locorum aliquot insignium et celeberrimorum inter Romam et Neapolin 
jacentium, viroSei^eis et exemplaria. 

" Domino Dom. Thomse Hensheaw Anglo, omnium eximianmi et prsecla.- 
rissimarum artium cultori ac pi'opugnatori maximo, et (rwo\l/dfj.fv^ avr^ (non 
propter operis pretium, sed ut'singulare Amoris sui Testimonium exhibeat) 
primas has aSoKifiacrias aqua forti excusas et insculptas, Jo. Evelynus Deli- 
neator D. D. C. Q." R. Hoare excud. 

I. Tres Tabemae sive Appii Fonun, celebre illud, in sacris Litteris. Act. 28. 

II. Terracinse, olira Anxuris, Promontorium. * 

III. Prospectus versus Neapolin, a Monte Vesuvio. 

,. IV., V. Montis Vesuvii Fauces : et Vorago, sive Barathrum internum. 

He etched also a View of his own Seat at Wotton, then in the possession 
of his brother, George Evelyn. 

Putney ad Ripam Tamesis — corrected on one impression, by himself, to 
Battereea. 

END OF VOL. II. 



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UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACIUTY 



NEW AND CHE 




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