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Full text of "Diary of David Zeisberger: A Moravian Missionary Among the Indians of Ohio"

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^ 



—7 



, { •■ • V ^' 



Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio. 



Zeisberger's Diary, 
1781-1798. 



NEW SERIES— VOL. II. 



X V ;■'. 



6oh)h)Iftee of ^nbllcqtior).. 



JULIUS DEXTER, 
ROBERT CLARKE, 
MANNING F. FORCE. 



c/ 



DTA^RY 



OF 



DAVID ZEISBERGEE 



A MORAVIAN MISSIONARY 



AMONG THE INDIANS OF OHIO 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL GERMAN MANUSCRIPT 

AND EDITED 



BY 



E U K X E F. BLISS 



VOLXTMBJ I 



CINCINNATI 
I{ (> B E a T C LARK E & C (J 

FOR THE HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF OHIO 

1885,, 




/Of?- 



• • • • •; • 

• ••• • • •• 



•• • • • • • 



Cheeked 
May 1913 



PREFACE. 



The chief object of publishing Zeisberger's Diary is of course 
the furtherance of the study of American history, and certainly 
the work will be found to contain much in regard to the relations 
existing between the English and Indians in the fifteen years pre- 
ceding the cession of the Western Posts to the United States in 
1796. If I am not mistaken, however, the work will be equally 
interesting from a psychological point of view. The action of 
white men upon Indians, Christians upon heathen, the civilized 
upon savages, can well be studied in these pages. Here and there 
also can be observed the reaction of the Indian upon the white. 

My ambition as translator has been simply to render the German 
manuscript as nearly like the original as the difiering idioms of 
the German and the English would permit. Where Zeisberger has 
left a sentence without logical conclusion, I have done likewise, nor 
have I thought it needful to call the reader's attention to the fact ; 
in the same way, if he has repeated a word, generally I have done 
the same. My failure, however, has been in reproducing the easy 
ahd lucid style of the original. 

The German word which I have rendered brethren, in the orig- 
inal includes both sexes, and in my tc^nslajbiou it wwillw^omo- . 
times occur with sisters in apposition ; it s^^iod bx^t;^r t^di^Jb:&^\ 
the word than to depart too far from the text. «'Ii saould ^rhaps 
be said that where brolhers is used without qualificatlbii; the*word 
refers usually to the missionaries, or to the wholi*^ bfcfly^ tJ^H<Ie#gy 
of the Moravian Church. All words or phrases marked with paren- 
theses, thus ( ), are my explanations or interpolations, Zeisber- 
ger's parenthetical expressions being otherwise denoted. 

The collects, or verses from hymns, often given after the Scrip- 
ture-verse or text, have seldom been translated literally, but in 

(V) 



yi FBEFACB. 

preference I have selected correspondbg verses from the Moravian 
hymn-book now in use, or from the earlier editions of 1832, and a 
few from the English edition of " Daily Words'* for 1785. 

In conclusion, I have to thank many friends for advice and sugges- 
tions and the loan of books. To several gentleman, who were per- 
fect strangers to me, I am indebted for information about various 
matters, acknowledgment of which is made in the proper places. 

Above all I must express my gratitude to the Right Reverend 
Edmund de Schweinitz, Bishop of the Moravian Church at Bethle- 
hem, Pa. His "Life and Times of David Zeisberger** has been 
my guide in the whole course of my labor ; it is a book which 
leaves nothing to be desired in the ground it goes over, and its 
Geographical Glossary has been invaluable to me. My brief sketch 
of Zeisberger's life, given in the introduction, is almost entirely 
taken from this book. I have to thank Bishop de Schweinitz also 
for the loan of parallel manuscripts, for personal advice and assist- 
ance, and for many letters. e. f. b. 

Cincinnati, May 20, 1885. 



• •••• ,•. • • • • • ••• • 

•• • • I i •• • •• • •• • • 

• ••••.•• •• •• • •.• 

• • • • ••• • • • ••• •* 

«•• • • «•• • •.•• 
• •• ••••• • 



!•••• ••• •• • 

•• •• •••••••• 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. Thb Manuscript. 

The "Zeisberger Manuscript," as it has commonly 
been called, was presented to the Historical and Phil- 
osophical Society of Ohio, probably in 1854, by Judge 
Ebenezer Lane.^ January 10th of that year he lectured 
before the Young Men's Mercantile Library Association 
of Cincinnati, and the records of that Association show 
that at the same time there was presented to them by the 

^ " Ebenezer Lane was born at Northampton, Massachusetts, Septem- 
ber 17th, 1793. He studied at Leicester, and at the age of fourteen 
entered Harvard College, graduating with high honors in 1811. He 
then entered the office of Judge Matthew Griswold at Lyme, Connect- 
icut, where he studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1814. In 
September of that year he located at Norwich and practiced there and 
(in) other small places, until his removal to Ohio in 1817. In 1818 
Mr. Lane married Frances Ann, daughter of Governor Roger Griswold, 
of Connecticut The same year he located at Elyria. In 1819 he re- 
moved to Norwalk, and was almost immediately chosen Prosecuting 
Attorney for Huron County. In 1S24 Mr. Lane was chosen Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas of the Second Judicial Circuit. Six years 
later he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court, occupying a seat 
upon the bench of that Court until his resignation in February, 1845. 
In 1842 he changed his residence to Sandusky. Judge Lane was a re- 
markable man. He was a diligent student, not only of the law, but of 
history and science. His opinions have given him a national reputa- 
tion. He died of cancer in the throat at Sandusky, June 12th, 1866." 
Alfred T. Goodman in Western Reserve Hist. Soc. Hist, and Arch. 

Tracts, No. 2, p. 6. 

(vii) 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

Gnadenhutten Monument Association, through the Hon. 
Jacob Blickensderfer, another manuscript of Zeisberger^s, 
a Delaware translation of liturgies and hymns. 

The following inscription is written on the first page of 
the manuscript : 

The Diary of David Zeisberger, 

A Moravian Missionary, 

whose last 60 years 

were devoted 

to preaching 

To the Indians at Gnadenhutten, 

Ohio. 

His Biography may be found 

in Loskiel, Heckewelder, etc. 

The journal commences while on the journey from 

Gnadenhiitten to Upper Sandusky, a few days after he 

and his companions were forced from their mission station. 

The last entries are 1797. He died, 1808, and lies interred 

at the Moravian burial-place, in Tuscarawas County. 

The members of the Moravian Society have placed this 
volume at my disposal, and in their name I deposit it in 
the Archives of the Historical Society of Ohio. 

E. Lakb. 
The trifling error of expression in the sixth line, and the 
mistake of using 1797 for 1798 will be noted. 

The manuscript makes a stout volume of eight hundred 
and sixty-nine pages, each page being nine inches by six 
and one-half nearly. Generally, the writing is easily read, 
the chief difliculty arising from interlineations and mar- 
ginal notes. A few pages give trouble from the fading of 
the ink, and others from its spreading, evidently from 
dampness. Only one page has suffered essential loss. 



ZEISBBRGEB. IX 

and, fortunately, this could be supplied from the Beth- 
lehem MSS.^ 

From the Bethlehem manuscripts I have seen, it is my 
impression that a copy of this Diary was not sent to Beth- 
lehem, but merely extracts from it, and that this might be 
called Zeisberger's private journal. There are frequently 
expressions of hope and fear, and pious ejaculations, which 
I do not remember to have seen in the parallel Bethlehem 
manuscripts. 

The first thirty pages of this Diary — ^the^^rst twenty- 
eight in this translation — as far as Oct. 25, 1781, were pub- 
lished in German in the Deutsche Pioneer of Cincinnati 
(November, '73-April, '74), but with many inaccuracies 
and omissions. 

II. Zeisbbroer. 

David Zeisbbroer was born at the little village of Zauch- 
tenthal, in the eastern part of Moravia, on Good Friday, 
April 11th, 1721. His father and mother, David and 
Eosina Zeisberger, when young David was five years old, 
fled their native country and went to Saxony, urged to this 
flight by the desire for freedom in their worship of God. 
Here for a few years they remained at Herrnhut, upon an 
estate of Count Zinzendorf, so well known in the history 
of the Moravian church, but in the year 1736 they emi- 
grated to America and established themselves in Georgia, 
in Oglethorpe's new colony, with other Moravians, to 
whom had been given a tract of five hundred acres upon 
the Ogeechee River. Their son, however, was left in 
school at. Herrnhut, but soon he was taken to Holland to 
a Moravian colony near Utrecht. He was now fifteen 
years old, and found the rigid discipline of the place too 

* See Vol. I., p. 285. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

severe ; besides, he was falsely accused of theft. With a 
companion of his own age he ran away, and landed in 
England, having no wish to leave the church, but simply 
to escape what were to him the persecutions of the Hol- 
land colony. In London he made the acquaintance of 
General Oglethorpe, enlisted his sympathy, and by him 
was aided to reach Georgia. Before he sailed he con- 
scientiously wrote to Heckewelder, a clergyman among 
the Utrecht Moravians, the father of John Heckewelder, 
so often to be mentioned in this Diary, and set forth to 
him the reasons for his conduct. 

Zeisberger could have found no better place of appren- 
ticeship for his future life of Indian missionary than in 
the infant colony pf Georgia. Probably his early years in 
Europe had not been years of luxury, but his life in the 
Georgia wilderness strengthened his feeling of self-re- 
liance, a quality of which he certainly had shown no 
lack when he fled to England. The life of a pioneer gave 
vigor to his body, while his mind and heart were kindly 
influenced by his intimacy with Peter Boehler, the Ger- 
man clergyman, by whom John Wesley was converted. 

In the year 1740 Zeisberger was one of the little com- 
pany of eleven persons who formed a settlement in North- 
ampton County, Pa., at the "Forks of the Delaware,** 
having been driven from Georgia by a threatened invasion 
of Spaniards from Florida. Nor could the exiles long re- 
main here, but the next year they found an abiding-place 
at Bethlehem, which has ever since remained the centre of 
Moravian influence in this country. Zeisberger was now 
twenty years old, fond of out-door sports, strong and 
active. He was attached to his mode of life and to the 
country, and was filled with sorrow when he was chosen 
as one of those who were to return to Europe. Bishop 



ZBISBERGBR. XI 

Nitschmann noticed his despondency and inquired its 
cause. To him Zeisberger confessed : " I long to be truly 
converted to God, and to serve him in this country." 
Both these longings were satisfied, and his visit to Europe 
was delayed for seven years. 

In the year 1744 Zeisberger became a member of a class 
of young men formed in Bethlehem to study Indian lan- 
guages, under the instruction of Christopher Pyrlaeus, 
and early the next year he set out for the Mohawk coun- 
try to perfect himself in the Mohawk language. With 
him was the celebrated Frederick Post. They were re- 
garded by the English colonial government as spies in the 
French interest, arrested, and thrown into prison in Al- 
bany. They were shamefully treated, but released after 
imprisonment of nearly two months. Not at all discour- 
aged by this unfortunate beginning, Zeisberger was ready 
to make another attempt to reach the Indian country. 
His companion was Schebosh, so often to be mentioned 
in this Diary, and the two were the assistants of Bishop 
Spangenberg. Late in May they left Bethlehem, passed 
a week in what is now Berks County, Pa., preaching the 
Gospel to the Indians, and about the middle of June, 
after a weary journey through the wilderness, reached 
Onondaga, the capital of the Iroquois Confederacy.* The 
Moravians accomplished their object in this journey, and 
obtained permission from the Iroquois to begin an Indian 
mission at Wyoming. Zeisberger's life thus far may be 
regarded as an education for his future vocation. The 
stem discipline of his boyhood, his hardy, but self-reliant 
life in Oglethorpe's colony, his persecution by the civil 
authorities, and this last journey to the lakes of Western 

^ Here Zeisberger was adopted into the tribe of the Onondagas, re- 
oeiying the name, Ganousseraoheri, or, On the Ptunpkin. 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

New York, taught him to what he must look forward and 
how to bear hie trials. 

From 1745 to 1750 Zeisberger was employed in several 
ways. He kept up his study of Indian languages ; with 
Mack he explored the River Susquehanna in a region where 
the Indians were perishing from hunger and pestilence; 
he served as interpreter to John de Watte ville in his visi- 
tation of the Lehigh Valley, and was ordained by him to 
the ministry in February, 1749 ; he was sent to Shamokin, 
near Sunbury, in Northumberland Co., Pa., a post of 
difficulty and danger, where the Iroquois combined the 
vices of civilization and of barbarism ; from this place he 
was summoned to a conference, and as a result of this 
was sent as interpreter for Cammerhoff upon a mission to 
Onondaga, again to make arrangements for a mission 
among the Iroquois. They found the Indians in no con- 
dition for receiving an embassy, and to pass the time un- 
til the Onondaga council should become sober, they re- 
solved to visit the Senecas. Cammerhoff was seized with 
violent fever, the Senecas were as dissolute and drunken 
as the Indians they had left behind them in Onondaga, 
and Zeisberger had occasion to make use of all his pow- 
ers of body and mind. Upon their return to Onondaga 
they got permission from the Council for two Moravians 
to live among the Iroquois. They went back to Bethle- 
hem^ after an absence of over three months, having trav- 
elled in all upwards of sixteen hundred miles. 

In the year 1750, Zeisberger and Nathaniel Seidel were 
commissioned to visit Europe in order to report to the 
mother-church the condition and hopes of the Indian 
mission. They sailed Sept. 2d, met with tremendous gales 
in their voyage, and landed in England after a passage of 
seventy-eight days. Zeisberger was in Europe six months, 



ZEISBERGEB. XIU 

passing much of the time in Herrnhut, in the society of 
Count Zinzendorf, by whom he was appointed perpetual 
missionary among the Indians. In June, 17&1, he and 
Seidel sailed for New York, where they arrived late in 
September, and four days later he was in Bethlehem. 
The rest of this year and half of the next, Zeisberger was 
busy in many places preaching the Gospel to the Indians, 
especially in the Susquehanna Valley. 

In July, 1752, Zeisberger again visited Onondaga, one 
of the two Moravians who, in accordance with permission 
given at his last visit, were to reside with the Iroquois. 
He had already been adopted among them, and now he 
took up his abode with them, studied their ways of life 
and manner of thought, their superstitions, their conduct 
of war, their methods of speech, and hereby acquired a 
knowledge of Indian character which in after years were 
to be invaluable to him. Several times he returned to 
Bethlehem, but at last, in June, 1755, the mission among 
the Iroquois had to be given up, owing to the difficulties 
between the English and the French. Now began all the 
horrors of Indian border warfare. Villages were plundered 
and burnt, men were scalped, women and children carried 
away in captivity. In vain the missionaries tried to 
pursue an even way. Among the colonists they were ac- 
cused of having a secret understanding with the French, 
and in a time of great excitement the distinction be- 
tween Indians and Indians was lost. On the other hand, 
the savages often regarded the converted Indians as 
whites. The awful massacre upon the Mahony occurred 
November 24, 1755, where ten persons perished at the 
hands of French Indians. Zeisberger came near losing 
his life there. He was on his way to the Mahony settle- 
ment, just crossing the river, when he heard cries of dis- 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

tress; he turned back barely in time to save his life, 
rode at once to Bethlehem, where he annoanced the dread- 
ful news ^t three o'clock in the morning of the 25th. So 
great was the disturbance caused by war that no at- 
tempt was made for the next six years to preach the 
Gospel to the Western Indians ; the Moravians had to be 
content with keeping up their missions in the east. In 
this service Zeisberger was for the greater part of this 
time employed. Twice as messenger of the Mission Board 
he visited North Carolina, once he went to New England 
and for several months labored at Pachgatgoch, near the 
present town of Kent, in Connecticut. He was also inter- 
preter for the government in treaties with Indians. The 
most quiet time in his whole life was the fifteen months 
he passed at Litiz, Pa., as superintendent of the brethren's 
house there. In the intervals of this active life he was 
at work upon an Iroquois grammar and an Iroquois-Ger- 
man dictionary. 

Peace was made between France and England, Nov. 8, 
1762, and the latter country became undisputed owner of 
vast inland territories of the present United States. The 
Moravians were at once ready to continue their efforts for 
the conversion and civilization of the Indians. Before the 
conclusion of peace in 1762, Zeisberger made two jour- 
neys to Wyoming, onc*e as envoy from Sir Wm. Johnson 
to the chief of the Delaware nation. He came back the 
second time, because of a petition to the Mission Board 
that a teacher should be sent to Wyoming to live there 
permanently. The following year he repeated his visit to 
the valley of the Susquehanna, and was for a short time 
missionary at the Indian town, Machiwihilusing, on the 
Susquehanna, opposite Sugar Run, but the massacres in 
the Pontiac War induced the Mission Board to recall him 



ZBISBERGBB. XV 

to Bethlehem. Now for two years, 1768, 1764, was a time 
of trial for the Moravian Church. The whites could not 
distinguish between the converted and the savage Indians. 
Kot only were the western missions abandoned, but those in 
the east were almost blotted but. One h uqdred and twenty- 
five Christian Indians were carried.away to Philadelphia, 
and after shameful treatment from the hands of the mob 
were finally quartered at Province Island. Zeisberger and 
Grubo were with them, but from the illness of the latter 
Zeisberger's burdens were doubled. He must serve not 
only as minister, but as superintendent. His energy was 
equal to the task, and he saw that his flock was provided 
for, to use a frequent expression of his own, " outwardly 
and inwardly." 

In the year 1765, the survivors of this little band jour- 
neyed to the proposed station at Machiwihil using Led by 
Zeisberger, early in April, they set out. There were no 
roads, and the journey was of inconceivable hardship. 
They could hardly go five miles a day, they suffered from 
hunger, they encountered the danger of a forest in flames. 
This journey of perhaps one hundred and thirty miles 
used up five weeks. The town was laid out and built. 
Some opposition on the part of the Iroquois was over- 
come by the eloquence of Zeisberger, who spoke as an 
Iroquois by adoption. The town doubled its population 
in less than two years. There was a gre^t religious 
awakening among the Indians. <' Upon wild Indians in 
particular descended the power of the Holy Ghost. They 
came from far and near, and represented different na- 
tions." ' 

In the year 1767 Zeisberger visited the Delaware Indians 
living at Goschgosghiink on the Alleghany River, by 

^ De Schweinitz' Life of Zeisberger, p. 312. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

whom he was kindly received, and who sent by him to the 
Mission Board a request that a resident missionary should 
be sent them. Toward the middle of June of the follow- 
ing year, Zeisberger and Senseraann appeared among them, 
accompanied by tjiree families of Christian Indians. What 
especial troubles they, met with from lack of food, from 
illness, from the hostility of Indian sorcerers, from the 
hatred of backsliders, need not here be recounted. They 
are the same which are to be found in the Diary herewith 
published. The most distinguished convert was Qlikkikan, 
though he was not baptized till over a year later. In the 
year 1770 this mission was transferred to the Beaver River, 
on the banks of which Friedensstadt was founded. In 
July Zeisberger was formally adopted among the Monsey 
tribe of the Delawares, an event to which reference is sev- 
eral times made in the Diary. In October Jungmann be- 
came a member of the mission. Zeisberger, accompanied 
by several Indian brethren, made his first visit to Ohio 
in March, 1771, going to the capital of the Delawares, 
Qekelemukpechiink, in the present Oxford Township, 
Tuscarawas Co., where he was the guest of the chief, 
Netawatwes. The next year we find Zeisberger at Beth- 
lehem urging upon the church authorities there the im- 
portance of establishing a mission in Ohio. They agreed 
with him, and gave him John Heckewelder as assistant. 
With five families of Indians the two Brothers founded 
Schonbrunn,\or Thuppekiink, as Zeisberger is apt to call 
the place. This mission flourished, and soon Gnadenhiitten 
was founded. Chapels were erected in both places. Comfort- 
able houses were built, orchards planted, fields cultivated. 
Nor was the Gospel preached to the Delawares alone. The 
Shawanese, Kanticokes, Mohicans, and two or three 



^ See note p. 2. 



ZBISBERGER. XVll 

other Indian tribes were represented ; even the Cherokees 
contributed one member, who was a captive among the 
Delawares. Zeisberger continued his literary labors also, 
and Easter morning, 1774, his Delaware version of the 
Litany for that day was used. 

There now followed two years of great prosperity, in 
spite of troubles from " Lord Dunmore's War," and conse- 
quent hostilities among the Indians. The chiefs of the 
Delawares furthered the progress of the Gospel, doubtless 
with a view on the part of some of them of worldly pros- 
perity. The Christian Indians were held to be a constitu- 
ent part of the Delaware nation. Schonbrunn grew into 
a thriving village, with well cultivated fields, the Indians 
becoming husbandmen as well as hunters. Gnadenhiitten 
was hardly less prosperous. Lichtenau was founded not 
far from the Delaware town of Goschachgiink [Coshocton], 
in order that the word of God might be immediately 
preached to the Indians.^ One chief, however, was adverse, 



^ The reader may be interested by the Rev. Mr. Jones' account of 
what he saw at Schdnbrunn in Feb., 1773. He was a Baptist minister 
from Freehold, N. J., and at the time of his visit to the Moravian 
town he was making a missionary tour on the " west side of the Ohio 
River." This extract is taken from Sabin's Reprint of 1865, p. 92 : 
" These Indians moved here about August, 1772, and have used such 
frugality that they have built neat log houses to dwell in and a good 
house for divine worship, about twenty-two feet by eighteen, well 
seated, and a good floor and chimney. Their conduct in time of wor- 
ship is praiseworthy. Their minister, the Reverend David Siezberger, 
seems an honest man, a native of Moravia, nor has he been many years 
in this country. Be has been successful among these poor heathens, 
condescending for their sake to endure hardship. While I was pres- 
ent he used no form of prayer, which was not pleasing to me, therefore 
asked him if that was their uniform practice. He replied that some- 
times prayer was used. Their worship began and ended with singing 
a hymn in the Indian language, which was performed melodiously. 
B 



XVlll INTRODUOTION. 

Capt. Pipe, who, with a number of his followers, left the 
men of his tribe and returned to the country about Lake 
Erie. He alleged that he feared the hostility of the 
Iroquois would be excited by their new plans, not that he 
was opposed to the preaching of the Gospel. 

After this period of prosperity came the troubles of the 
War of the Revolution. The Christian Indians were 
placed between the rival influences of Detroit and of Ft. 
Pitt, the English and her rebellious colonists. These were 
times of alternate hope and despair, made worse by dis- 
cord among the missionaries themselves. Zeisberger for 
the greater part of the time, 1776-1781, was at the new 
town, Lichtenau, whither all the converts were at one 
time called. They returned, however, to the Tuscarawas 
in the year 1779, and New Schonbrunn^ was built, and 



In the evening they met again for worship, but their minister, inad- 
vertently or by design, spoke in the German language, so that by me 
nothing was understood. Mr. Siezberger told me that near eighty 
families belong to their two towns, and there were two ministers 
besides himself. I was informed that one of them, whose name is 
Youngmann, is a person of good abilities. In the evening informed 
Mr. Siezberger that it would gratify me to preach to his Indians. He 
replied with some appearance of indifference that an opportunity 
might be had in the morning. ' Tis probable he was a little afraid to 
countenance me, lest some disciples might be made, than which noth- 
ing was more foreign from my intention. Or his reservedness may be 
ascribed to his natural disposition." The next morning, however, Mr. 
Jones' journal shows us that his desire to preach to our Indians was 
gratified. The curious reader will be entertained by Mr. Jones' re- 
marks upon following pages about Easter and Christmas and his hor- 
ror that " Mr. Siezberger " should teach the Indians the observance of 
these days. 

^ In the note given on p. 2, Vol. 1, by inadvertence the situation of 
Schdnbrunn, and not of New Schdnbrunn, was given. The latter place 
was on the other side of the river, somewhat over a mile from Old 
Schdnbrunn. 



ZEISBEBaBR. XIZ 

Salem the next year. The Delawares were generally well 
disposed to the Americans, and for this reason the English 
urged the other Indians to a campaign against them. The 
means of getting accurate information were few, and war 
often hung upon the chances of a false rumor. How much 
the Delawares were influenced for neutrality by the inter- 
vention of the missionaries cannot be overestimated. At 
one time the opportune arrival of Heckewelder with news 
of Burgoyne's surrender turned the scales for peace. 

Zeisberger had passed a part of the summer of 1775 in 
Bethlehem, and now, 1781, he returned there, making his 
last visit " to the church." He was at this time sixty years 
old, and had been too busily occupied with the aftairs of 
the missions to think much of promoting his own personal 
comfort and happiness. No thought of marriage seems 
to have come to him, and now, in taking a wife, he rather 
yielded to the advice of his friends than to his own im- 
pulse. He married, June 4th, 1781, Susan Lecron, at 
Litiz, Pa. She had been a Lutheran in religion, but in 
Litiz had joined the Moravian church. She had reached 
the age of thirty-tive, her husband's junior by twenty-five 
years. She is now and then mentioned in this Diary^ and 
generally called " Sister Susanna." She could not but 
have known to what a life of privation, self-sacrifice, and 
danger she was giving herself, and is deserving of the 
greater praise that she could have been deceived by no in- 
tensity of passion.^ A week after their marriage, Zeis- 

* Hildreth, in his Contributions to the History of the North-west, p. 
115, says : " Whom he (Zeisberger) married does not appear, but females 
who could venture so far in the wilderness among hostile savages 
must have possessed the spirit of a Deborah, and the courage of a 
Miriaip." After the death of her husband, 1808, Mrs. Zeisberger re- 
mained nearly a year in Goshen, Ohio, when she retired to Bethlehem 
and died there in Sept., 1824, eighty years old. 



XX INTRODUOTION. 

berger and his wife set out upon their westward journey, 
and reached Schonbrunn in the middle of July. At this 
time the Diary which follows begins. 

We are met at the outset by the question how far the 
English and their Indian allies were right in their asser- 
tion that the missionaries gave notice to the American 
settlers of intended inroads. It will be noticed that at the 
very beginning of the Diary, Zeisberger expresses his sat- 
faction that his diaries, letters, and other writings fell 
into the flames and not into strange hands.* Why 
this satisfaction if they contained nothing offensive to 
English eyes? In Vol. 11 of the Olden Times, p. 396, is 
published a letter of Daniel Brodhead, then in command 
of the Western Department, in which he speaks of letters 
he has received, that have convinced him the enemy is ap- 
proaching in force. At the end we find '^ P. S. the letters 
received are from the Rev. Mr. Zeisberger, an honest man 
and faithful correspondent, but his name must remain a 
secret, lest his usefulness may be destroyed." It is hard 
to conceive how a humane man could have done less than 
give notice of these savage incursions, but the fact seems 
indisputable. 

There is no need to set forth here the captivity, the 
tedious journeyings, the troubles of war and of famine, 
the founding of the various Indian towns, and the petty 
details of daily life of the next seventeen years — these 
will all be found in the following pages. 

The last entry in the Diary, is made Sunday, May 27, 
1798, in the town of Fairfield, on the Thames. Zeisberger 
remained there until' the middle of August, when accom- 
panied by thirty-three brethren, he departed for the Tus- 

^PP.1,2. 



ZEISBERGER. ZXl 

carawas Valley, where lie founded Goshen, within the 
limits of the present Goshen Township. Here he passed 
the remaining ten years of his life. Though an old man he 
kept up as far as possible his former manner of life. He 
performed the daily duties of a missionary. Besides, he 
was a teacher of Indian languages to young missionaries, 
and continued his labors in translating various religious 
works into the Indian language. It is sad to record that 
his latter years were made weary by the vices of the In- 
dians about him. He longed for rest. He died Nov. 17, 
1808, in his eighty-eighth year. 

Zeisberger's literary labors have occasionally been men- 
tioned in this brief sketch of his life. Besides his volu- 
minous diaries, of which this herewith published is but 
one, he wrote a history of the Indians, which, unfortun- 
ately, has never been printed ; lexicons and grammars 
of the Onondaga language ; a dictionary in German and 
Delaware, various glossaries and vocabularies, and many 
translations into Delaware of hymn-books, liturgies, and 
sermons. Brinton ^ calls him, " The principal authority on 
the Delaware language, whose long and devoted labors 
may be accepted as fixing the standard of the tongue." 
De Schweinitz devotes Chap. XL VII of his Life of Zeis- 
berger to an enumeration of his published and manuscript 
works. 

In person his biographer ^ tells us that Zeisberger was 
of small stature, but Well porportioned ; that his face, 
though marked by the exposure of hardy life, was cheer- 
ful and pleasing ; that his dress was plain and neat. He 
had acquired the Indian habit of taciturnity, and when he 

*Brinton*s The Len&p6 and their Legends, p. 76. 

' Bishop de Schweinitz in his Life of Zeisberger, p. 680. 



XXll INTRODUCTION. 

spoke his address was often such as he might have given 

at an Indian council. 

His life seems a sad one. It was his fate to labor among 

a hopeless race. In his last years he could see no lasting 

monument of his long labor. Even the Indian converts 

immediately about him were a cause of sorrow to him. 

Nor could the prospect have seemed better at any of the 

time covered by this Diary. The greater praise then to 

his activity, his cheerfulness, his patience with his erring 

converts, his contempt of danger, his forethought for 

others, and his perfect sacrifice of self. 

• 

lU. Zeisberqer's Fellow-Laborers. 

At the time this Diary begins there were in the Mus- 
kingum Valley six missionaries, Zeisberger, Heckewelder, 
Sensemann, Edwards, Jung, and Jungmann. Jung and 
Edwards were unmarried, the crthers had their wives with 
them, and two of them had young children. Jungmann 
was the oldest, being sixty-one years old, Zeisberger one 
year his junior, and Edwards four, Heckewelder and 
Jung were of the same age, each thirty-eight, and Sense- 
mann two years younger. In spite of the hardships of 
their missionary life, with the exception of Sensemann, 
they all lived to extreme old age, Edwards dying at the 
age of seventy-seven, Heckewelder in his eightieth year, 
and the others several years older. 

As regards the character of his associates, Zeisberger 
gives us so little color that I find it hard to form any defin- 
ite idea of these self-sacrificing men, or to distinguish one 
from another, except in the case of Heckewelder, where 
many other lights are thrown upon the picture than are 
afforded by this Diary. For the very reason, however, that 



SBNSBMANN — JUNGMANN. XXUl 

80 much is said of him, I have felt less need of saying any 
thing. 

GoTTLOB Sbnsemann was born Oct. 9, 1745. His father, 
Joachim Sensemann, had also been a missionary among 
the Indians, and his mother, Anna Catharine, was one of 
the victims of the massacre on the Mahony, in November, 
1755, when his father narrowly escaped sharing the same 
fate. Gottlob had been Zeisberger's companion in several 
journeys among the Indians of the Susquehanna Valley 
and in Western New York. With Zeisberger he went 
also to Goschgoschiink, 1768, and shared with him the 
perils and the success of his sojourn there. In the year 
1780 he came to the Muskingum, and was stationed at 
Schonbrunn. From this place, with the others, he was 
carried away to the Sandusky, 1781. While our Indians 
were settled on Clinton River in Michigan, Sensemann 
returned to Bethlehem, but rejoined the mission at New 
Salem, Ohio, having been away from May 17, 1785, to 
Nov. 9th, 1790. During the rest of the time included in 
this Diary, he remained with the Indian church, though, in 
the year 1793, he made a journey to Niagara upon business 
of the mission. He often preached to the whites in Can- 
ada, who were settled near Fairfield, and had to decline 
their proposition of being elected to the Assembly. At 
Fairfield also he died, Jan. 4th, 1800, while yet in the 
prime of life. He was often the school-master of the sta- 
tion, and perhaps the progress of the pupils was as much 
duo to the excellence of their teacher as to their own appli- 
cation, though Zeisberger attributes it to the latter. He 
was eloquent in speech and energetic in action. 

John Georgb Jungmann came to America with his 
father in the year 1731, being then a boy of eleven years. 
At Oley, Berks Co., Pa., where his parents settled, he be- 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

came a convert to the Moravians against the opposition of 
his family. 1745 he married the widow of Gottloh Buttner, 
who had died in February of the same year. He served 
the church in many ways and in various places, until in 
the year 1770 he became Zeisberger's assistant on the 
Beaver, and when Zeisberger went to Ohio to] found the 
first Christian-Indian town, Jungmann was left in charge 
of this mission. The next year we find him at Schon- 
brunn, and there he remained for five years, until during 
the trouble of 1777 it was thought best, especially on his 
wife's account, that he should return to Bethlehem. In 
the year 1781 he and his wife were Zeisberger's compan- 
ions, when the latter, after his marriage, went back to his 
Indian mission. He shared all the sorrows and hardships 
of the Indian church recorded in this Diary up to the 
time of his final return " to the church." This occurred 
May 17, 1785, Sensemann going to Bethlehem at the same 
time. Jungmann was now sixty-five years old, and was 
retired from active service. He lived in Bethlehem the 
remaining eleven years of his life, and died July 17, 1808, 
being over eighty-eight years old. 

Michael Jung was sent to the Muskingum mission 
just a year before this Diary begins. He was born Jan. 
5, 1743, came to America, 1751, with his parents, who set- 
tled in Maine, where he became a Moravian. He went to 
Bethlehem, 1767, and stayed there till he went to the 
Muskingum. He was absent from the mission nearly 
four years, leaving it when it was at New^ Gnadenhiitten, 
Michigan, and rejoining it when it was already on the way 
to Pettquotting. He then remained with the Christian 
Indians until the year 1813, when, after the battle of the 
Thames, Fairfield was overrun by the Americans, and our 
Indians fled from fear. Jung then retired to Litiz, quite 



EDWARDS — HEOKBWBLDER. XXV 

broken by his many labors, and in Litiz he died, near the 
end of the year 1826. 

William Edwards was by birth an Englishman, a native 
of Wiltshire, where he was born April 24, 1724. Bred in 
the English church, he became a convert of the Moravians 
when he was twenty-five years old, and soon afterwards 
emigrated to America. He became Zeisberger's associate 
at Lichtenau, in November, 1776, and he remained with 
him during all the course of this Diary. With Hecke- 
welder he led in 1798 a portion of the Fairfield congrega- 
tion back to the valley of the Muskingum, whither Zeis- 
berger followed in less than three months. Here at the 
town they founded, QoshAi, he passed the rest of his life. 
Though worn out by the infirmities of age, he was unwilling 
to return to the States ; he preferred to die among his dear 
Indians. Like Zeisberger himself, if he had given much 
to the Indians, he had also received much in return. He 
died Oct. 8, 1801. 

John Gottlieb Ernbstus Heckbwblder was born at Bed- 
ford, England, March 12, 1743. His father was a German 
exile, and we have already had occasion to mention him 
in speaking of Zeisberger's life in Holland. In the year 
1754 the family came to America, father, mother, and four 
children. In 1758 he was apprenticed to a cedar-cooper, 
with whom he remained four years, and then became Fred- 
erick Christian Post's companion in his second visit to the 
Muskingum in the year 1762. He was Zeisberger's assistant 
in the Susquehanna Valley in 1765, and to him for a time 
was given charge of the Machiwihil using mission. During 
the following nineteen years he was much of the time a 
fbllow-laborer with Zeisberger. Heckewelder was the 
founder of Salem, on the Tuscarawas, and in the chapel 
there, July 4, 1780, he married Sara Ohneberg, the ven- 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

erable Adam Qrube officiating, probably the first wedding 
of a white couple within the limits of the present State of 
Ohio. He was with the Indian church during all the 
early troubles recorded in this Diary, but finally, owing to 
the illness of his wife when upon the Cuyahoga, he re- 
turned to the church at Bethlehem, Oct. 9, 1786.^ Hence- 
forward he was not immediately connected with our mis- 
sion, though he made it two or three visits, being em- 
ployed in other duties, especially as agent of the Society 
for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen and as 
one of the Pe^ce Commissioners sent to treat with the In- 
dians. In the year 1798, however, he came to Fairfield, 
on the Thames, to assist in conducting a portion of the 
the church to Goshen, staying there only nine days. In 
the valley of the Muskingum he labored until 1810, when 
he went home to the church, being now nearly seventy 
years old, and having well earned repose. He died Jan. 
81, 1823. 

Heckewelder is the best known of all the Moravian 
missionaries who labored among the American Indians. 
For this he is much indebted to his books, but also to his 
social qualities, which made him more a man of the world 
than were his coadjutors.* He had the strength of char- 
acter to resist the insidious tendencies of the solitary life 
among savages, the effects of which can be seen in Edwards 
and Zeisberger. 

IV. Thb Indians.' 

At the time of the beginning of this Diary the present 

1 See pp. 299, 300. 

' " In disposition," says Hildreth, " he was like the Apostle John ; 
while his companion, Zeisberger, partook of the spirit of St. Paul." 

'See Lossing's Pictorial Description of Ohio, p. 129; Mag. of West- 
ern History, Vol. 1, p. 41, and Bouquet's Expedition, passim. 



INDIANS. XXVll 

State of Ohio was divided among the Indians in somewhat 
this manner : In the eastern part in the Valley of the Mus- 
kingum were the Delawares ; along the upper Ohio, the 
Mingoes, emigrant Iroquois; in the Scioto Valley, the 
Shawanese ; along the two Miamis, the tribes from which 
the rivers are named, the Miamis, or Twightwees, as Zeis- 
berger always calls them ; the Wyandots, or Hurons, were 
in the north-western part of the State ; near them were the 
Tawas, or Ottawas ; a few Chippewas wandered along the 
shores of Lake Erie. In Michigan were the Chippewas 
and Potawatomies. In the present Ontario, opposite 
Detroit, was the principal seat of the Wyandots, or Hurons, 
and when the mission was at Fairfield, on the Thames, 
many Mohawks visited the Christian Indians. 

A surprising circumstance is the frequent communica- 
tion and commingling of all these tribes. The presence of 
the white man seems often to have made them forget or 
postpone ancient hostilities, and for a time to have united 
men who were hardly more capable of lasting union than 
the wild beasts of their forests. 

The greater part of the Indian church were Delawares 
of the Mousey tribe, a tribe into which Zeisberger had 
been adopted. Schonbrunn was inhal^^ted at first by Del- 
aware Indians, Gnadenhiitten by Mohicans, originally from 
New England, but after the return from Lichtenau and 
the founding of Salem and New Schonbrunn (1780), this 
distinction of tribes seems in great part to have been lost. 
The Nanticokes, who had been adopted by the Delawares, 
and were originally from the coast of Maryland, are men- 
tioned occasionally, but generally as a patronymic. During 
the St. Clair and Wayne campaigns Southern tribes are 
spoken of, and there were already one or two^ converts 
from the Cherokees, captured in war by the Delawares, 



XXVIU INTRODUCTION. 

and then adopted. Most singular is the presence of the 
Carib woman, a brief account of whom is given in Vol. 
n., p. 522. 

V. The Mission. 

It was the rule in the Indian mission towns that none 
but Indians should live there, except, of course, the mis- 
sionaries and their families. There are a few apparent ex- 
ceptions to this regulation ; Schebosh, for instance, but he 
was an assistant missionary, and had married an Indian 
woman ; Richard Conner had for a wife a woman who had 
been for many years a captive among the Shawanese; 
John Leeth was taken captive when a boy of seventeen, 
and his wife, when less than two years old. 

The inhabitants of an Indian mission-village were 
divided into choirs or classes^ and each choir had its festi- 
val-day, as will often be observed in the Diary. " The 
younger girls, the elder girls, the sisters, the married 
brethren and sisters, the widows, widowers, the youhger 
boys, the elder boys, the single brethren, all constituted 
distinct choirs, and had their stated and special meet- 
ings."^ In the census which Zeisberger gives at the end 
of nearly every year this division into classes can be 
noticed. >< 

Laborers and Teachers are the modest names by which 
the missionaries speak of themselves. 

Assistants^ or Helpers, were selected from the converts. 
Their duties were to visit the brethren from house to 
house, to comfort and care for the sick, to settle quarrels 
among the brethren, between husband and wife or among 
members of the same family, and generally to see that the 



^Sketches of Moravian Life and Character, p. 41. 



INDIAN MISSION. XXIX 

ordinances for civil and religious life were observed.^ 
These assistants were chosen from either sex, and their 
fields of labor correspondingly divided. Frequently hus- 
band and wife were selected. 

An Assistants' Conference was occasionally called, when 
matters of importance in discipline or in regard to Indian 
tribes were brought before them, or when, as a body, they 
needed admonition. 

Chapel'ServantSy or simply servants, were those to whose 
charge the meeting-house was given. There were also Ser- 
vants whose duty it was to provide for the entertainment 
of visitors. 

New People are those whose attention has been aroused. 
If they show themselves earnest they become candidates 
for baptism^ and later are baptized. If their conduct con- 
tinues satisfactory they are candidates for the communion^ 
and afe admitted as lookers-on at the Lord's supper, and 
finally themselves become communicants. 

Such expressions as the home-church, the church of the bap- 
tized, etc., explain themselves. 

A Service was held every day, usually early in the morn- 
ing, but, at times, for convenience, in the evening, when 
a short discourse was frequently delivered, suggested by 
the Scripture- verse or text of the day. 

The Lord's Supper was generally administered once a 
month, and also upon certain festival-days. Notice of it 
was given the Sunday preceding ; between this time and 
the day of the celebration the brethren were addressed 
and admonished, as each one had need, by the mis- 
sionaries and their wives, and by the assistants, and es- 
pecially was this done on the two days preceding the 

'See Vol. I., pp. 171, 230; Vol. XL, pp. 236, 342. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

Saturday when it was administered. The next day, Sun- 
day, the communion liturgy was read. 

There has been prepared by the Moravian church, since 
1731, a selection of short passages from the Old and the 
Now Testaments for each day in the year, and each pas- 
sage is followed by a stanza of a hymn. These selections 
from the Old Testament are in this translation called 
Scripture-verses J and those from the New Testament, 
Texts; the stanza which follows is called the Collect. 

In matters of great difficulty the Saviour's advice was 
asked by lot. This is somewhat obscurely mentioned by 
Zeisberger. By consulting the references given under 
" Lot," in the Index, it will be seen that resort to it was 
not made infrequently. 

Love-fedsts were held upon many occasions ; birthdays, 
anniversaries of baptisms, the arrival or departure of 
brethren, were thus observed. Besides there wert love- 
feasts for all the inhabitants, and contributions were made 
to defray the expenses of these simple feasts. 

The missionaries sent to Bethlehem their Diary, and in 
return received the Bethlehera Diary ^ also in manuscript. 
They had sent them also the proceedings of the synods 
and the reports of the meetings of the U. A. C, or Unity 
Elders' Conference — the initial A from the German for 
elder. By this interchange of journals and reports the 
whole church, home and mission, on both sides of the sea, 
was knit together into a great whole. 

VI. The Calendar. 

Besides the ordinary festivals of the Christian church, 
there were others to which the Moravians gave especial 
prominence. 



OALBNDAR. XXXI 

The New Year was entered upon with a service, which 
began shortly before midnight. 

The Sunday following Epiphany was the Childreii's 
Sunday. 

On Maundy-Thursday was the ceremony of the Wash- 
ing-of'feet 

April 3 (1785) is mentioned as a memorial day for those 
baptized during the year. 

May 4th. Unmarried Sisters^ day. 

Ayg. 18th was carefully observed in remembrance of 
what happened at Herrnhut on that day, in the year 1727 : 
" The baptism of the spirit upon the infant church by oc- 
casion of the celebration of the Lord's supper." This 
day was regarded as the spiritual birthday of the renewed 
church, and the community was moved to work for Christ 
generally and to carry the Gospel to distant heathen 
lands. 

Aug. 29th. Unmarried Brothers^ day. 

Aug. 81st. Widows' and Widowers' day. 

Sept. 7th. Festival for the Married. 

Sept. 29th. The Angels were praised. 

Nov. 13th. The church calls to mind that the Lord 
Jesus is the Chief Shepherd and Head of the church. 

Vn. Subsequent History op thb Mission. 

When Zeisberger, in the year 1798, returned to the Val- 
ley of the Muskingum, he brought with him to Goshen 
only a part of the Indian congregation. This station 
steadily declined, and was at last abandoned, the few re- 
maining Indians finally settling in New Westfield, Kansas. 
: The Fairfield mission was broken up by the war of 1812. 
Three years later it was revived under the name of New 



XXXU INTRODUCTION. 

Fairfield, not far from old Fairfield, but on the other side 
of the Thames, where it still exists. 

There is also a Cherokee mission at New Spring Place, 
Indian Territory. 

The total number of converts in all these three sta- 
tions was only two hundred and seventy-six in the year 
1883, hardly half the number to be found, 1781, in the 
Valley of the Muskingum. 



OF 

THE INDIAN CHURCH 

IN THE 

Western Part of North America, 1781, 



CHAPTER I. 

Removal from the Muskikoum — Across the Wilderness to Upper 
Sandusky — Journey to Detroit — Return to Sandusky. 

Beloved Brethren : We begin now in God's name again 
to give you news of our health and conduct and of what 
has happened to us, for a great change has occurred with 
us. You^ will also have wondered how it happens that 
you have heard nothing more from lis since we are come 
to New Shore.^ We were not in condition, and it was 
not and is not yet in our power to give you news of us, 
nor yet do we know whether and when this will come to 
your hands, but will write it in hope of better times. Our 
diaries from the Muskingum and letters which lay ready 
to be sent off with Br. Schebosh,* as likewise all other 

^ It is hard to decide where in this diary Zeisberger makes his record 
day by day, certainly by September 18th. Possibly he made notes 
from time to time, and put them into their present form upon his re- 
turn from Detroit in November. 

' I have been unable to find what place this is. 

'John Joseph Schebosh, now sixty years old, was born of Quaker 
parents, his real name being Joseph Bull. He was named Schebosh 
by the Indians and John at his baptism in 1742. He married an In- 
dian woman. He was devoted to the Indian missions. Neither the 
death of his son, the first victim in the massacre at GnadenhQtten in 
1782, nor his own captivity, could quench his zeal. He will often be 
mentioned in this diary. Under September 5, 1788, Zeisberger gives 
his biography. 



2 ZEISBERQRR S DIARY. 

writings, wece lost, and yet were we glad that they fell 
into the flames and not into strange hands. We have, 
since our captivity, on the 8d of September until now, 
when we are come back from Detroit [November 22] had 
no pen in our hands, and have strictly kept our promise ; 
therefore we can give you no very exact diary, but will only 
mention the most noteworthy things which remain in our 
memory. 

Brothers D. Zeisberger* and Jungmann, with their wives, 
came to SchSnbrunn July 15th [the Scripture- verse being : 
Yet will I gather others to him beside those that are 
gathered unto him], with a large company of Indian 
brethren, who already had waited for them in Pittsburg 
over two weeks, on which account the brethren at home 
were already much distressed, and had consequently sent 
messengers to the Fort to learn where they remained, who 
met us more than a day's journey from Schonbrnnn. On 
all sides there was great joy over the arrival of this com- 
pany. Thereupon the laborers from the three places came 
together in Schonbrunn, rejoiced with one another, and 
thanked the Saviour for all the goodness he had done us ii\ 
time, and read Br. Reichel's^ letter, which he had written 
to them ; whereupon we learned how we had to distribute 
ourselves for the time, namely : Br. Jungmann and his 
wife went with Br. Zeisberger and his wife to Schonbrunn 
to live; Br. and Sister Sensemann to Qnadenhiitten, and 
Br. Edwards with them ; Br. Mich. Jung, on the contrary, 
with Br. Heckewelder and his wife, to Salem.' Br. David, 
with his wife, visited thereupon in Gnadenhutten and 

^ Zeittberger returning from bis last visit to Bethlehem, Pa. During 
his absence he married Miss Susan Lecron, at Litiz, Pa. IJe was now 
sixty years of age, and Sister Susanna, as she is called in this diary, 
thirty-seven. 

*John Frederick Reichel, Bishop, from Germany, now passing two 
years in the United States on an official visit. 

'Schonbrunn, settled in 1772, Gnadenhutten 1772, and Salem 1780, 
were all in the present Tuscarawas county, Ohio. Schonbrunn was 
two miles south-east of New Philadelphia, Gnadenhutten near the 
town at present so called, and Salem one and a half miles south-west 
oif Port Washington. 



ON THE MUSKIN^GDM, 1781. 8 

Salem, spake everywhere to the brethren, and adminis- , 
tered the Lord's Sapper. The brethren from all these 
places were then in undisturbed quiet, knew and heard 
nothing about the hostile Indians, except thq,t several 
times warriors went through our towns with prisoners and 
scalps, who, however, gave us no trouble, but were glad 
if we gave them any thing to eat. One of the prisoners, 
an old but vigorous man, offered Br. David $200 in cash 
if he WDuld work him his freedom, which, however, was 
for us an impossibility. The Indian church already, in 
April, had been visited by warriors, who wished to carry 
them away, but by the entreaties of our Indians had been 
prevailed on not to use force. We. had, however, to ex- 
pect that they would not put off carrying out their plan, 
but would execute it.. 

Somewhere about August 13th we heard that a strong 
party of warriors was on the march for our towns, on 
which account also we could not have the Lord's Supper, 
although we had prepared ourselves therefor, for on their 
account we could no longer be easy, they having already 
begun to assemble in Salem and Gnadenhiitten. Up to 
the 16th and 17th about 300 warriors had assembled. 
Their chief men were, first, an English captain (Elliot), 
with several others, among whom were also Frenchmen, 
the Wyandot Half-King (Pomoacan), from Sandusky, with 
his warriors. Pipe,* with the Delawares, some Shawanese, 
Chippewas, and Tawas. The Half-Kin'g, in his usual pre- 
tended friendly way, sent out niessengers announcing his 
approach, and let it be told our Indians they should not 
be afraid, not the least harm would happen to them, for 
on this account was he himself come to protect us, so that 
no one should do us wrong ; that he had something to say 
to us, and we should therefore let him know at which of 
our three places this should occur. Since Salem was but a 
new place, and they could not support the warriors from 
want of corn, Gnadenhiitten was appointed for them, for 

^ Captain Pipe, whose Indian name was Kogiesch quanohee), a Dela 
ware captain of the Wolf (Monsey) tribe. 



4 ZEISBBRGBR S PIART. 

we could come also from Schoubrunn to the help of our 
brethren, so that it might not go too hard with them. 
"We thought also that they would not remain long with 
us, for the whites who were with them, informed us that 
they had a great undertaking in hand, either against 
Wiliink (Wheeling), Mcintosh (Beaver, Pa.), or Pittsburg, 
or against all three places, but they said this only to make 
us easy. We entertained the Eng. captain and his 
company^ the best we could, and showed them all kind- 
ness so far as lay in our power; they likewise behaved in 
a friendly way toward us, but had secret guile, and we 
could trust them not in the least. 

Aug. 20. After the warriors had taken quarters, 
and at the west end of Gnadenhiitten had put up huts 
and tents, Pomoacan, the Wyandot Half-King, spoke 
to us and to our Indians as follows: My cousins, ye be- 
lieving Indians, in Gnadenhiitten, Schonbrunn, and Salem^ 
I am no little troubled about you, for I see you live in a 
dangerous place. Two powerful and mighty spirits or 
gods are standing and opening wide their jaws toward 
each other to swallow, and between the two angry spirits, 
who thus open their jaws, are you placed; you are in dan- 
ger, from one or from the other, or even from both, of be- 
ing bruised and mangled by their teeth; therefore it is 
not advisable for you to remain here longer, but bethink 
ye to keep alive your wives, and children and young 
people, for here must you all die. Therefore I take you 
by the hand, raise you up and settle you there where I 
dwell, or at least near by me, where you will be safe and 
will live in quiet. Make not here your plantations and 
settlements, but arise and come with me, take with you 
also your teachers, and hold there, whither you shall come, 
your worship of God forever, as has been your wont. 
Ye will at once find food there, and will suffer no want, 
for on this account am I come to say this to you, and to 
bring you to safety [whereupon he gave a string of wam- 
pum]. The Scripture-verse of the day read : Take coun- 

^ McCormick is here written in the margin. 



ON THB MUSEIKQUM, 1781. 5 

sel together, and it shall come to nought ; speak the word, 
and it shall not stand : for God is with us ; for here is Im« 
man u el. 

Is God for me, what is it — That man can do for me? 

This word of the Lord gave us consolation and hope 
that all would go well. Brs. David '(Zeisberger) and 
Heckewelder had come together from their respective sta- 
tions to Gnadenhiitten, where we with the national assist- 
ants considered about this, and on the 21st answered the 
Half-King, as follows: 

'* Uncle, and you. Captains of the Delawares and Mon- 
eeys. who are our friends and one nation with us, we have 
heard your words in which you say to us that we are 
placed between two evil, mighty spirits who open their 
jaws toward each other, and you admonish us that we 
should think of our young and old people, our wives and 
children, seek to keep them alive, and about them we are 
most concerned. Your words and exhortations are there- 
fore pleasant for us to hear, and we wish to do as you 
have pointed out to us, bear the same in mind, and con- 
sider them, and we wish. Uncle, even before next spring 
to send you an answer, thereupon can you depend." 

We gave this answer without a string of wampum, since 
this should follow after a time, and it appeared to us as if the 
Half-King were content therewith: we believed also that 
he would have been satisfied with it, had not the English 
captain concealed himself behind Pipe and other Dela- 
wares, and urged them on to excite Pomoacan to. carry on 
the matter farther with us. Then we soon heard that our 
given answer was not satisfactory to them. On the 25th 
again, Pomoacan made an address to our Indian brethren 
in Gnadenhiitten that our answer was not yet enough, 
we had appoifated too remote a time, and he wished to 
have something in his hands to show the nations from 
whom we had orders about this, that he had really made 
negotiations with us. Br. David went therefore again to 
Gnadenhiitten, and, Aug. 27 [when the beautiful fitting 
Scripture-verse was: Thou shalt know that I am the 
Lord; for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me. 



6 zeisbbrqbb's diart. 

My times are in thy hand — I'll always trust in thee], we 
gave to them through a string of wampum the following 
answer, and said to them that it was impossible for us to do 
for them what they required. We could not by any means 
bring our wives and children into such need that they 
mupt siitfer hunger and perish, while hitherto they had 
had plenty, and in nothing felt any want. We bade them 
leave us time enough to harvest our fields, so that we, with 
our wives and children, might have something to live on ; 
for we saw th.it we put ourselves in extreme need and 
misery, if so blindly, without consideration, we went away 
from our towns where we had enough to live upon, into 
the bush, where there was nothing to be found ; they should 
at least leave us time enough to prepare for our depart- 
ure. The Half-King seemed to be well content with the 
answer, for he said he had now in his hands something 
from us, namely a string of wampum, which he could 
show to the nations, and by which they could see that we 
were willing to gratify their wishes. Thus the matter 
passed b}^ and we hoped always that the Saviour would 
bring about our release. We prayed earnestly day and 
night to him that he would help us also out of this need, 
and not suffer that his Indian church should come to 
harm and be dispersed, since once they had tasted of his 
blood. Opinions and thoughts over the matter among 
our Indian brethren were also various, as likewise among 
the assistants. Some thought we should at once arise and 
go with the warriors without considering the results there- 
from. On the contrary, others were against this, and said 
they would rather die on the spot, for in the bush must 
they all perish. It was impossible to convince all of the 
propriety of what we held it best to do. Herein, also, we 
had ourselves taught' by the Saviour what we should do, 
and he let us know that we should do nothing farther than 
we had done, and that the answer we had given was 
enough. We wished to do nothing to the harm of our 
churches in the land. We were also unwilling to take 

^This consulting the Saviour by lot will often be mentioned. 



ON THE MUSKINGUM, 1781. 7 

upon our necks the charge of having brought our Indian 
brethren into such need as they afterward felt, since they 
would have reproached us with being guilty therein be- 
cause we had acceded thereto. We wished rather to let 
it come to the worst, so that we might be without fault. 
Meanwhile, the daily services were held, and we ceased 
not to exhort the brethren, to encourage them, to comfort 
them, and to point out to them the Saviour. Among other 
things, especially were they reminded that the Saviour had 
intrusted to them his word of atonement, which they 
should look upon as a great treasure, and which should 
be their daily food. If they became indifferent thereto, 
and should be disobedient to God's word, he would again 
take it away from them. In Qnadenhiitten there Were 
many disorders among our people; not only of late, but 
already for some time, many had begun to take up again 
the old heathenish customs and usages, and when they 
were reminded of this and talked to, not only did they 
not suffer this, but they waxed wicked and stubborn, and 
especially by these circumstances bad people made the oc- 
casion useful, since the town was full of warriors and 
rough, wild men, who became the worse the longer they 
were there, who at first indeed were quiet and modest, 
but afterward began to dance, to play, and to carry out 
their own devices. Yes, it went so far that some wicked 
people spoke and gave us to understand that while there 
was now war, they could prescribe us rules, and that our re- 
maining and our getting through, in short, our life and 
maintenance, depended upon them, and that we had rea- 
son to be silent, and they would let us do only what they 
wished. In Schonbrunn and Salem the brethren were 
reasonably quiet, and if warriors visited them now and 
then, yet there was little disturbance. From both places 
we had to give them provisions, slaughter swine and cat- 
tle for them, so long as they were there, and this we did 
still cheerfully, if only they had left us longer in peace. 
Meanwhile, parties of warriors made excursions, and they 
brought some captives to Gnadenhiitten, and the place 
became a theatre of war. [Elliott's camp displayed the 



8 zbisbbrgbr's diart. 

English flag, which at last the Wyandots took possession 
of, and it was then thrown into the fire.] In this matter 
they were themselves not without fear of being fallen 
upon, and upon every side they sent out spies. 

Aug. 30. Sister Anna Senseraann was delivered of a 
son, who was baptized into Jesus' death in Schonbrunn, 
Sept. 1st, by the name. Christian David. Eight days be- 
fore she had been brought here from Gnadenhiitten, since 
there, on account of the warriors, who committed many 
excesses, it was very unquiet, and here it was yet tolerable, 
for the warriors came here in no great number. Mean- 
while, we well saw that our hard circumstances were not 
over ; we had tokens enough that the worst was still be- 
fore us. We could do nothing, however, but give our- 
selves up to the will of the Saviour as he should find it 
good and permit. We might think, as we would, upon 
ways and means to escape our calamity; on every side we 
were fastened in, and there was no outcome to be seen. 
We had indeed reason to believe that the Half-King and the 
captains had already as good as given up their purpose to 
use force against us ; it was said even that they would with- 
draw and give us time first to harvest our fields so that 
we could prepare for our departure. But the English, 
who were with them, left nothing undone to excite the 
captains and warriors, and to spur them on to drive us 
out by force. In addition, the warriors found out that 
our Indians were not of one mind, for had they been so, 
had they held together, and sustained, one another, the 
warriors would have accomplished nothing ; but there were 
faithless, wretched men among us, who gave them infor- 
mation, and proposed schemes to them for reaching their 
ends. They gave them plainly to understand, that if they 
would only take us white brethren prisoners away with 
them, then the Indians would all follow them. To our 
pain and mortification, we had to hear and see this on the 
part of our own people, and be silent about it, at least, for 
the time. We had also to see harlotry openly carried on, 
and could not prevent it. Since we afterward found out 
every thing in detail, I will here introduce what we learned 



ON THE MUSKINGUM, 1781. 9 

from trustworthy sources. The captains had a plan to 
kill us whites, and when this was not thought enough, to 
kill the assistants also.^ 

Sept. 1. We had a message that all the white brethren 
from Schonbrunn and Salem, with the assistants, should 
come to Gnadenhiitten. Br. David, with some helpers, went 
there from the first place, but left Br. Jungmann with the 
other two brethren there, and Br. Heckewelder came from 
Salem, where he left his wife and Br. Mich. Jung. We 
soon heard here all sorts of rumors of what awaited us, for 
there were among the warriors some people who rather 
wished us well than ill, and who said to us- what they 
heard. Thus we awaited our fate in great perplexity and 
tribulation until, Sept. 3d, it came to an outbreak. The war- 
rior folk became steadily more wanton, and gave free play 
to their wildness. We felt the power of darkness, as if 
the air were filled with evil spirits. When they first came 
here they were starving, and were glad to get something 
to eat, and herein we let them suffer no want. After 
they were sated and become wanton, each one acted after 
the bent of his own wildness. They shot dead our cattle 
and swine, although we refused them nothing, and if they 
demanded swine or cattle for slaughter, gave them. This 
they did not only from hunger, but from caprice, for they 
left the swine lying dead round about in such numbers that 
the place stunk with them ; still the daily services were held 
as usually. 

On the above-named day, Sept. 8d, the Half-King and 
the warrior captains again beset us, among whom the Del- 
awares made themselves the most forward, and urged upon 
us we should once more plainly declare ourselves, whether 
we would give in to their wish and at once go with them 
or not. We answered them briefly that we stood by what 

^ Here ends this note abruptly, but the Bethlehem manuscript says 
that the warriors imparted their plan to a leading chief, who advised 
them against it, seeing therein no advantage for them. They then 
held another council, with the same result ; but there the chief spoke 
more plainly, threatening vengeance if the missionaries were harmed, 
and thus their schemes came to naught. 



10 zbisberger's diart. 

we had already answered them, aad we could give them no 
other answer. Then we heard a murmur among our In- 
dians that they had heard we white brethren should be 
taken captive, but in all this we were quite comforted, 
though we could not say in contradiction it might not hap- 
pen. In the afternoon we went together a little back of 
the town, where a Monsey captain spoke with Br. David, 
and asked him whether he had heard what he had said in 
Schoubrunn to Br. Luk^, and what Br. David thought 
about it, for he would like to know at once his opinion 
about it. This captain had already some days before in 
Schonbrunn said to Luke, since probably he knew what 
was going on, that the Monsey nation had adopted Br. 
David, and looked upon him as their own flesh and blood, 
he knew that this was accomplished in his nation. If Br. 
David would accede to this and appeal to it, he would 
bring it about that no one should lay hand upon him ; 
they, the Monseys, wished to own him as one of their 
nation, but he would have to go with them where they 
dwelt. This was also well considered,* for thus they 
thought to get our Monsey brethren, who were the greater 
part. 

The Monsey captain probably meant well ; his people, 
the warriors, had also before all others shown themselves 
good to us, and had done us no harm ; they often showed 
their discontent with the conduct of the Wyandots towards 
us, and said they had experience how they had done with 
them, and so would they do with us if we went with them. 
But Br. David had purposely taken little notice of the 
proposition, for he saw that it only had to do with his own 
person, and perhaps with Br. Jungmann, who lived with 
him, but that the other brethren in Gnadenhiitten and 
Salem would be shutout; therefore he gave no positive 
answer, but did not altogether decline the proposition, and 
would have been glad of further information about it. 

But while he was still speaking with him, there came three 
Wyandots to us, laid hands on Brs. David, Heckewelder, 

^This word is conjectured. 



ON THB MUSKINGUM, 1781. 11 

and Sensemann, led them away captive, and brought them 
first to the Delaware camp, and yelled out over us the 
Death Hallow. They stripped us and took away all our 
clothes, hastily loaded their gans, for in all this they were 
not without fear they would find opposition on the part 
of our Indians. While this was going on, the whole 
swarm of the other warriors rushed into the Brothers' 
house and plundered it, each man taking what he could lay 
hands on and snatching it away. Some of our young men 
had stationed themselves in front of the house-door with 
tomahawks, and would not let them in, but they had to 
give way to the stronger party. 

They showed no desire to touch Br. Edwards, who was 
in the house, for they were too much set on plundering, 
and each wished to have the most booty. Finally he went 
out to the house and to Br. John Martin,^ where an En- 
glishman met him and brought him into camp to us, where 
he saw wo were all yet living, for as they were bringing 
us into camp, he heard several muskets fired one after the 
other, from which he concluded that already we were all 
dead, and so it would +iave happened, for they had it in 
mind, as we afterwards heard, unless a higher hand had 
ruled over us. The Delaware chiefs and captains, while 
this was going- on, had drawn aside, probably from fear it 
might not come out well: but they were the same who 
had allowed themselves to be used to take us prisoners, 
for the Wyandots would not have dared to do it. Our 
Scripture- verse was wonderful, it read: Though thou 
wast angry with me, thine anger is turned away and thou 
comfortedst me ; and the day after it was : God will come 
and save you. 

After they had stripped us we were brought into the 
Englishman's tent, who, indeed, as he gave out, wished to 
show us compassion, and said it had not been intended 
that we should bo thus treated, although there were ex- 
press orders from the commandant in Detroit to bring us 
away by force, could it not be done by gentler means. 

^National assistant, afterward killed in the massacre at Gnaden- 
hatten, in 1782. 



12 zeisberger's diart. 

And this was the first mention that they relied upon the 
governor in Detroit, hitherto they had not said so, and yet 
they had no such orders. But we well knew that he was 
the originator and prime mover of the whole business. 
He brought it about, however, with the Indians, that they 
gave us back some old clothes, so that we were not quite 
naked, and Br. David got an old night-gown to put on, 
which had belonged to Sister Sensemann ; after this we 
were brought into the huts of the Wyandots for safe- 
keeping, but we were not put in bonds, as were the other 
captives. We had now neither blanket nor any thing else 
to lie upon save the bare ground, unless our Indian brethren 
had lent us some blankets. 

After this one party of warriors went to Salem, another 
to Schonbrunn. To the first place went thirty warriors ; 
they arrived there in the night, took prisoners Br. Michael 
Jung and Br. Heckewelder and his wife with her child, 
led them out of the house and placed them in the street : 
they plundered the house, took away with them Qvery 
thing they fancied, likewise also Br. Michael Jung, and 
came early in the night to Gnadenhiitten crying the 
Death Hallow. Sister Heckewelder, however, with her 
child, got leave to remain till the next day, whom the In- 
dian brethren then brought in. In Schonbrunn, to which 
place only two Wyandots with a couple of women came, 
they took prisoners Br. Jungmann and Sisters Susanna 
(Zeisberger) and Sensemann : then they said many war- 
riors would come afterward and undo them; that they 
should put themselves in their hands, so that they jnight 
remain alive, they would bring them to Gnadenifttten 
with all their things, which they would pack up, and all 
of which they would give back to them. The sisters 
helped them pack until they saw that the beds were cut 
open and the feathers thrown about the street, and found 
themselves deceived in their intentions, just as had also 
happened in Gnadenhiitten and Salem. But some In- 
dian brethren, as well in Salem as here, who were more 
kindly disposed, took away secretly from the hands of 



ON THE MUSKINGUM, 1781. 18 

the warriors some of our things and gave them to us aft- 
erward, 80 that we again got some little. 

The Indian brethren stood quite amazed, wept aloud, 
and knew not what to do ; some wished to make defense, 
others deemed this inadvisable and prevented them. 
They plundered not only our things, but also what be- 
longed to the church, as for instance, the love-featet and 
the communion utensils were all taken away, and they 
brought the brethren together with their plunder in a 
canoe to Gnadenhiitten. Sister Anna Sensemann, who 
had been delivered of a child only three days before, had 
to go by night and in the mist, so that it would have been 
no wonder had mother and child perished, but theSaviour, 
to whom all is possible, let not the least harm happen either 
to her or to her child. 

They were brought into Gnadenhiitten early before day- 
light, likewise with the Death Hallow. From our camp 
we saw their reception, and how we felt thereby can not 
be described. But when it became day we got leave to 
see them, and then we bade one another welcome in our 
captivity, and comforted one another, and each party had 
hearty compassion upon the other. What in these sad 
circumstances was comforting to us and cheered us up, 
was the fact that the sisters were so resigned and cheer- 
ful and bore all with patience. Br. Jungmann and the 
sisters were set free when it was day, but remained awhile 
by Br. Schebosh and his wife, for in the brethren's house 
every thing was wasted and scattered, and there we visited 
them also often and they us. We saw the warriors going 
about in our clothes and making a display, while we had 
nothing upon our bodies, except perhaps some old rags, 
and though we were again and again promised we should 
have some of our clothes again, yet this did not happen, 
for those who had them were unwilling to give them up. 

Our Indian brethren who came to visit us in camp 
bought some trifles from the warriors, and gave them to 
us again. Out of our own linen, of which they had been 
robbed, the sisters had to make shirts for them. Also we 
had nothing to eat except what our Indian brethren and 



14 zeisberoer's diary. 

the warriors gave us. Among these there were many not 
at all content with our treatment, in particular among the 
Delawares and Monseys, and they said that certainly they 
never would have gone upon this expedition, had they 
known it was aimed at us. Many of them came immedi- 
ately after we were taken prisoners and gave us their 
hands and showed their compassion. After the five breth- 
ren, David, Edwards, Heckcwelder, Sensemann, and Mi- 
chael Jung had been captives three days in tlie Wyandot 
camp, and the captains saw very well that so long as they 
held us fast, nothing would be done about our departure, 
and if they wished to have all our Indians with them, they 
must first let us go, they let us go, and this happened 
Sept. 6th. Before this, however, a singular thing occurred 
the second day after we were made captive. An Indian 
woman, who had come with the warriors, and had nothing 
further to do with us, had seen with the others how we 
fared, and said to an Indian sister she could not forget 
how we had been handled ; she could not sleep the whole 
night on this account, and this gave her much to think 
about. She took Capt. Pipe's horse, the best in the whole 
company, and hurried away to Pittsburg. This was 
straightway made known, and she was followed and over- 
taken, but she got away again and brought news of our 
captivity to the Fort. The warriors were angry at this, 
and laid the blame upon us and our Indians, and gave out 
we had sent letters by her to the Fort, and called upon 
the Americans to free us from their hands, and since this 
woman was a friend of our Isaac Qlikkikan,^ to whom be- 
sides they were very hostile, they seized the occasion to 
wreak their vengeance on him, saying he had sent her. 
On this account they sent a war party to Salem, brought 
him bound to Gnadenhiitten, yelled out over him the 
Death Hallow, and there was great uproar among the war- 
riors, and it was a common saying among them that he 
ought to be tomahawked. The Delawares, who were the 

'A famous Monsey warrior and orator, baptized in 1771, a frequent 
companion of Zeisberger, and devoted to the interests of the Indian 
missions, killed at Gnadenhiitten in March, 1782. 



ON THB MUSKINGUM, 1781. 15 

movers of this, would have struck him dead if the Half- 
King had not interfered and warded them off. They ex- 
amined him, beset him with many reproaches and threats, 
but then let him go. It is worthy of note that this Indian 
brother, who formerly had been a captain of warriors and 
counsellor of chiefs and a very prominent man among the In- 
dians, as soon as he came to the Lord, had to suffer ignominy 
and persecutions almost to the end for the Saviour's sake. 

After they had again set us free, that we might be 
among our Indian brethren, they, at the same time, or- 
dered us to encourage our Indian brethren to make ready 
for departure, and promised us also that upon the journey 
we should always be with our Indian brethren, and that 
they, the warriors, would always encamp behind us, in 
order that, if we were attacked, they might fight for 
us. The first was agreeable to us for this reason, that 
the warriors might not overpower our sisters and separate 
us from them, which we had reason enough to fear. 

It is also to be observed that the Half- King, as soon as 
he came, made quite another speech than he had made to 
us at Lichtenau,^ in August, 1777, when he established 
with us, as it were, a bond of friendship, and had de- 
clared us, white brethren, his fathers, of which he now 
made no mention, but named us cousins, and our Indian 
brethren likewise. We made ready for departure, order- 
ing our Indian brethren from Schonbrunn to come hither. 
Thus, on the 8th we made a beginning, and we white 
brethren went by water, and in the evening got to Salem, 
where we waited two days for our brethren until they all 
followed, and since we could be alone there and in quiet, we 
white brethren strengthened ourselves with the body and 
blood of our Saviour in the holy sacrament, and realized 
our Scripture- verse of to-day (Is. Ixv. 13,14), of which, in 
our present circumstances, we stood in pressing need. 
The Saviour comforted us also in our- trouble, and let his 
friendly face shine over us. 

On the 9th, the sermon was upon the Scripture-verse of 

*A Christian Indian town below Coshocton, 0., abandoned by the 
converts in 1780. 



16 zeisbbrger's diart. 

the day, and the little son of Brother Abel and Sister 
Johanette, born on the 3d Inst., in the night when we 
were captured, was baptized into the death of Jesus by the 
name of Jonas. We were thankful to the Saviour, and it 
did us much good that we could be among our people, for 
it is a hellish life to be among murderers and robbers, and 
in their power. 

On the 10th, early service was from the Scripture- verse: 
Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, etc. Especially 
at this time we had beautiful, comforting, and hopeful 
Scripture- verses, only we wished them to be at once ful- 
filled ; thus we should have been helped at once, yet we 
must still content ourselves in hope and faith. 

Now came also 100 warriors here from Gnadenhiitten, 
and the wild life went on with them as before. Our 
brethren from Schonbrunn and Salem came together, and 
encamped by the river. One can easily imagine that all 
the brethren were bewildered, and, as it were, in a dream, 
so that they could hardly trust their senses. We knew 
now that the warriors would not be got rid of until we 
should be forth with them, and they had left our towns 
to go to war ; there was thus nothing better than to go. 

On the 11th, we broke up, and thus turned our backs 
upon our homesteads and places where we had enjoyed so 
much that was good and blessed from the hands of the 
Saviour, and where he had really been among us and with 
us. Before us we saw indeed nothing wherein to rejoice, 
yes, we could imagine nothing but need, misery, and dan- 
ger, and otherwise had we nothing to look forward to. 
We must possess our souls in patience, and go where cer- 
tainly we were unwilling to go, for we saw no other re- 
sult from our actions, but we went towards more misery 
and hardship ; thus also were our Indian brethren minded, 
but they must go against their will. Could they have 
acted according to their inclination, or secretly brought it 
about, many of them would have got away, and we should 
have been scattered, but it could not be, for the warriors 
not only did not let us whites out of their sight, but also 
not the Indian brethren either, and had such careful over- 



IN THE WILDERNESS, 1781. 17 

sight of US that none could escape ; they dared not re- 
main behind, they must go forth with us. Indeed, many 
of our Indian brethren, who always had an inclination for 
the savages, and were of the opinion we should all go oft' 
to them, felt now they had nothing good to expect, and 
began to perceive that they had wished and sought what was 
bad for themselves, and began now to regret it, but too late. 

We came on September 14th, to Goschachgiink 
(Coshocton), encamping on the Walhonding, from which 
place we broke up on the 16th, and followed up this creek 
northwards. Many brethren went by land, others again 
by water, just as they could get on. It was a good thing 
for our sisters with the children that they could go by 
water, for by land it would have been hard indeed for 
them to travel such a long, bad, unbroken way, for here 
one must expect no such travelled and good road as to 
Pittsburg. We continued our services, and had them 
nearly every evening, even if the brethren could not 
always come together for night-quarters, and the war- 
riors, who went with us, commonly lay a little distance 
from us. 

The 18th. Since it rained very hard last night, and the 
creek was swollen, we had to go, huts and all, away from 
the creek to higher ground, since we were in danger of 
overflow. Two canoes with their whole lading were 
swept away by the stream, and the brethren lost all they 
had, for they sank to the bottom. This concerned us too, 
for in one of the canoes were many of our things, all of 
which we lost, and before this n<lt much was left us. A 
child, two years old, that died yesterday, was here buried. 

On the 19th, came to us the Half-King with the Wyan- 
dots from Salem, where they had passed the time, and not 
only completed the plundering of our towns, but had also 
seized upon the things which our brethren had buried or 
hidden in the woods, as many as they could find. 

The same day a war-party came back from the settle- 
ments with two prisoners, from whom we heard that when 
the news of our being taken captives reached Pittsburg, 
they wished at first to follow after us and rescue us from 
2 



18 zeisbbrqbr's diart. 

the hands of the warriors, but that they afterwards gave 
this up. This had hitherto been our greatest concern, 
that if this should happen, we should be placed in the 
greatest danger, and with our Indian brethren come be- 
tween two fires, for the first thing would have been to kill 
us whites. This also the Saviour turned away from us. 

On the 20th, a sister was brought to bed with a daughter, 
and on the 21st was another born.- Then a couple of our 
young people took away from the Wyrfndots one of our 
horses, which they had in their hands, together with the 
saddle. And two of our disters took away from them a 
great kettle which they had appropriated and which be- 
longed to us, and gave it to us again. 

After we had lain quiet four days, on account of high 
water, on the 21st we moved on, and encamped on the 22d 
at the second fork of this creek where is an old Indian 
town, and a pleasant beautiful country, as indeed all along 
the creek so far as we have come. 

The 23d we lay still. Pomoacan came to us with his 
council, and told us to hasten on to Sandusky and to 
leave behind those who could not go forward. Some 
women were brought in prisoners. The Monseys, who 
had thus far journeyed with us, left us and went home 
another way. Their captain spoke with us, and showed 
his displeasure at the conduct of the Wyandots to- 
wards us. 

On the 24th we went on both by land and by water. The 
creek forked here, and our Indians wished to go up the 
greatest and strongest fifk'k, which would have been easier 
and better to follow, but the Wyandots would not permit 
it, and we must go up the other creek, which was hard to 
follow it was so small. 

We passed Memekapink, an old Indian town, and sev- 
eral such places, and they who went by land always took 
their course as nearly as possible towards those who went 
by water, so that we might have night-quarters together. 
Brs. Michael Jung and Edwards, who went by water with 
the Indians, found wild honey. On the 26th we came to 
Gokhosing, the last old town on this creek, and here oar 



IN THE WJLBBRNBSS, 1781. 19 

journeying by water ended, and from there on we had to go 
by land. We had hard work to come so far with canoes, 
for very often they had to be dragged over shallow places. 
H^re we stayed till the 28th, until all those came up who 
were behind. The Wyandots, who always urged us on, 
had to borrow some horses for us, since we had not 
enough and our Indian brethren found all theirs needful 
for their own use. The Delawares left us here also, 
and went home, as the Shawanese had already done the 
day before yesterday, and the Wyandots, whose number 
was now small, remained with us. WHh these then we 
set out, and while our Indian brethren were still packing 
up when we went away, we white brethren were quite 
alone with the warriors, who drove us on like cattle, 
without having the least compassion for the children and 
sisters, for they left them no time to give the children 
drink once. Besides the way was very bad, for it went 
through a swamp and many marshes, where at times the 
horses stuck fast. Susanna (Zeisberger's wife) fell twice 
in quick succession from her horse, and it was a wonder 
she got off with little harm. Some Indian brethren hur- 
ried after us with all their might, as they could easily con- 
jecture that the Wyandots would hurry us on, heels over 
head: they overtook us as we were about to get our night- 
quarters ready, which we should have done near the war- 
riors, had not our brethren come, but now we encamped 
somewhat away frpm them. 

The 29th. Early before we broke up, several brethren 
came to us, which gave ue joy, and took us again out of 
the hands of the warriors, and told them, if they were in 
such haste, they could go their way and would not find 
it necessary to wait for us. We came at noon of the 30th 
through the swamp at the head of the Scioto, and into a 
country altogether different from what we had thus far 
passed through. We went through a perfect plain, where 
there is nothing but grass, which is so high and long that 
on horseback a man can hardly see over it, only here and 
there a little clump of buBhes. No hill, much less a moun- 



20 zeisberger's diary. 

tain, in sight, but all the land is flat, consequently it is a 
moist soil, since the rain-water can not run off. 

Oct. 1. At noon we came to the Sandusky, where we 
encamped. Here the Wyandots left us and went on ten 
miles towards their home, after they had abandoned us in 
the wilderness, where there was no food to be found and 
no game to hunt, and many among our brethren had 
nothing left to eat, but lived only upon what those, who 
yet had something, divided with them. In the evening we 
considered our beautiful Scripture- verse of to-day: My 
people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, etc., which we 
applied to ourselves, and comforted us with its beautiful 
promise. 

On the 2d we went a couple of miles down the creek 
and encamped on a height in the plain, in a little thicket, 
near an old Wyandot town, on the creek. But the neigh- 
borhood did not please us, for upon the plain there is no 
timber, and where there is wopd and timber-land, it is 
a perfect swamp and morass. But for the time being we 
built our huts, until we could find a better place. 

The 3d. Yesterday and to-day the brethren arrived, 
who had remained behind. Pomoacan with his counsellors 
visited us and made a speech to our Indians. He said he 
was much rejoiced that we were now with them, and that 
all who had the same color, were together, a thing they 
had already long wished ; we should now only look to him, 
guide ourselves by him, and if the , Virginians should 
come, do^ as he would do. But about our holding our 
religious services as we had been wont, which he had 
always promised us in Gnadenhtitten, he made not the 
least mention, but now began to go on with his speech, and 
summoned our Indians to fight. Further, he said we 
should see the neighborhood and se'ttle where it best pleased 
us, as far as where the Sandusky falls into the lake, but if 
it pleased us here in the old town, since there was good 
pasturage, it was all the same to him. There yet stood in 
the old town many houses which he oflfered for our use, if 
we wished. But, in the first place, on account of wood, it 
was hard for us, for none could be had far or near. Sec- 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1781. 21 

ondly, it was a pit of murdered men, where only a year 
before many prisoners had been tortured to death and 
burnt alive, evidences of which were plainly to be seen. 
When we were still on the Muskingum, they had proposed 
to us a place on Lake Erie, which they had destined for 
us, and the Monseys would have been pleased if we had 
gone there, but no one of our brethren was acquainted 
with it. We considered together what to do, and resolved 
rather to be quiet and not to give ourselves useless trouble, 
for we and the brethren had nothing to live on. 

Since we knew not what was best for us, and had the 
choice, yet would be glad to know the Saviour's mind, we 
took advice of him, and he let us know that the best 
thing for us was to winter at Upper Sandusky, and 
that was also our heart's desire. 

4. After we had better examined the country around 
us, and had passed a place ^ a mile up the creek, where 
there was good timber for building,, although it was 
not beautiful to the sight, but there was none better to be 
found, we began at once to build houses, and on the 7th 
we moved to the place, only we had lack of sustenance, 
and it would have been a much wished-for thing had 
manna rained from heaven. Br. Schebosh, with his wife 
and sister Rachel, arrived with their families, who had re- 
mained behind. Conner,^ who stayed with his family in 
the old town, and was about to go to Lower Sandusky, 
came here and said to us that he had heard a rumor 
among the Indians that we white brethren would be 
brought to Detroit, which indeed we had already heard, 

' In regard to the site of this >place, see Butterfield's Crawford's 
Campaign against Sandusky, pp. 162, 163, 180. Ifobert Clarke & Co., 
Cincinnati, 1873. 

'Richard Conner, from Maryland, married a white girl, a captive 
of the Shawanese. At the close of Dunmore's war they settled at 
Pittsburg, but later came to Schdnbrunn in search of their son, who 
was still among the savages. Here, contrary to Moravian usage, 
they were permitted to dwell and were "consistent and worthy mem- 
bers" of the church. When our Indians left New Gnadenhiitten, on 
Huron (Clinton) river in Michigan, Conner remained behind. 
f 



22 zbisbebgbr's imart. 

but taken little notice of, for besides, we were disposed that 
at least two of us should make a journey there as soon as 
we should have got our houses built and show ourselves 
to the governor there in person. 

Oct. 10. Came many Belawares and Monseys to visit 
us from the neighborhood, but alas! almost none is will- 
ing to hear about the salvation of his soul, but they joke 
and laugh about it, when it is spoken of to them. ^N'ews 
came in also that the Half- King's two sons, who between 
here and the Muskingum had gone away from us back to 
the settlements, had fallen in the war there, on which ac- 
count in the Wyandot towns there was great lamenting, 
outcrying and weeping among men and women, and after 
this the Half-King always blamed us that we were the 
cause of the death of his sons, and he could not be per- 
suaded to the contrary. 

11. The brethren, who aVe all bmsy in building and 
have much to do, fenced in a place in the middle of the 
town and made it ready for holding our meetings, sin^e 
at present, on account of our much labor, we could not 
think of building a house, and while the daily services 
were held in the evening, we made two fires in the midst, 
which served us in place of lights. We white brethren 
got our houses under roof. They were small and slightly 
built, but we were yet joyful that we could have a place 
to hide ourselves in from the cold this winter, so long as 
the dear Lord shall permit us to dwell in the same in 
peace and quiet, at least until the coming spring. 

12. Came really all of our Indian brethren who had to 
remain behind in Gokhosing, from which place we went 
by land, so that we were now again all together. Two 
widows, however, had gone to their friends among the 
Shawanese, because they thought they could better live 
there. Since we white brethren had nothing more to cat, 
those brethren who yet had something, got together some 
Indian corn for us, many giving a handful, others some- 
what more, according to their means, and thus something 
like a bushel and u half was collected for us. We sent 
word to Pomoacan that our brethren wanted to go to their 



UPPBR SAlj^DUSKY^ 1781. 23 

towns and harvest theiF maize, so that if he wished to 
send with them any of his people, they might make them- 
selves ready. This we did because they always had a sus- 
picion against us that we were still in correspondence with 
those in Pittsburg. At the evening meeting Br. Hecke- 
welder baptized into Jesus' death a child bora on the 
third of this month with the name Hamuel. 

13. A Frenchman from the Shawano towns came 
here to buy cattle; from the same place also came one of 
our Indians, who had heard much concerning us there, 
that the Shawanese were much displeased with the Dela- 
wares and Wyan-dots, that they bad brought us away from 
our towns and placed us in such want, when we, where we 
used to be, not only would have had every thing in 
abundance, but could have given also to others who were 
in need ; they had always comforted themselves with the 
thought, that if they suffered want, they could yet from us 
get or buy something, and we were the only hope of all 
the Indians, that we could keep them alive with wife and 
children, but ngw they had no more hope left ; they, the 
Wyandots and Delawares, were thus the cause of ruin to 
so many Indians. 

14. During the sermon ttom the text. Thou shalt love 
the Lord, thy God, with ail thy heart and with all thy 
soul and with all thy mind, two children were baptized into 
Jesus' death. The first, the daughter of Br. Adam and 
Sister Sabina, born on the journey, Sept. 20th, by the name 
of Mary; the other, the daughter of Br, Adolph and Sis- 
ter Susanna, born Sept. 2l8t, by the name of Martha. In 
the afternoon Wenginund came with Pipe's brother, who 
made known to us a message from Mr. McKee (English 
Indian agent) to the Delawares and Wyandots, which was 
as follows : " My children, your father over the lake has 
been much pleased at the news that you have brought 
in the believing Indians with their teachers, so that now 
all nations may be one and that the hinderances are out 
of the way; that the birds will no longer sing in the 
woods and tell you many lies. And now the Virginians 
will be in darkness and light will shine for them no more. 



24 zeisbergbr's diart. 

It 18 loft to you where jou 8hall be pleased to establish 
them and where they can dwell. In a few days a boat is 
expected for you from Detroit at the Miami (Mauraee) 
river with goods. You must all go there to receive them. 
Your father over the lake requests also that Capt. Pipe 
and Weuginund, should bring to him the ministers with 
some of the principal believing Indians, for he would like 
to see them and talk with them, and he says : ' I know bet- 
ter how to talk with them than you do, for I know them ; 
I can also better take care of them and entertain them than 
you can, since I have means therefor.' " We answered him, 
this was pleasant for us to hear; we would hold ourselves 
ready so soon as they found it good. Moreover, we should 
have gone to Detroit, even if we had not been asked. And 
as we learned from him that the sisters were not summoned, 
we said to him we should be forced to leave two broth- 
ers with them, for we could not leave them alone, and this 
he did not oppose. 

15. Many of our brethren went to the neighboring towns 
to get corn, but it is enormously dear, and there is little to 
be had, although it is just harvested, for the Indians did 
not plant enough for themselves. 

On the 17th Israel* came to visit us from the Shawanese. 
In the spring, when Goschachgiink was destroyed, he, with 
the other Delawares who remained behind, on their way 
to Pittsburg, had been overpowered in Gnadenhiitten, and 
carried off there, where he had since been. He complained 
to us of his outer and inner need, the unrest of his heart, 
and wished to be again with us. He showed great sym- 
pathy with us white brethren in our tribulations, and we 
had sympathy with him, for he loved us. 

18. The assistant brethren considered together and set- 
tled, who of them should go with us to Detroit, who should 
go with the brethren to the Muskingum to get corn, and 
who of them should remain as guards, that the town might 
not be quite deserted, all of which was regulated and es- 



* Delaware chief of the Unalachtgos (Turkey) tribe, converted at 
Lichtenau, 1776, called Captain Johnny. 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1781. 25 

tablished. On the 19tb Israel spoke again with us. After 
he had again gone home and said that he was resolved to 
make himself quite free, to give up his rank as chief and 
to come back to us, for he was weary with his restless 
heart, so to go about, and he believed it would be well with 
him if he should again be with us. He wished only to go 
home, to put his aftairs in order, and yet during the winter 
to come again, and this afterwards so happened. There 
came also back to us two families, who over a year before, 
had left the church, and through all sorts of circumstances, 
relapsed into error. Wjb now learned the real connection 
of events and reason for our captivity from trustworthy 
hands and who were the peculiar causes of our whole fate. 
We had already heard something thereof in Gnadenhiit- 
ten, but we reflected little upon it, because we were not 
certain about it. What the occasion must have been and 
what sort of reason was brought forward for such a plan, 
all this is unknown to us. The Six Nations who have 
woven the whole plot and have sought to bring about the 
destruction of the Indian church, although they would not 
themselves undertake to do it, in their usual crafty way 
and manner, sent a messenger to the Chippewas and Otta- 
was, and made them a gift of the whole Indian church to 
cook a broth of, which is an Indian war-term, and means, 
"We give them to you to slay." The Chippewas and Otta- 
was declined this offer, saying they would not undertake 
this, that they had no motives thereto. Hereupon the Six 
Nations made the offer to the Wyandots in the same words, 
and they undertook it. Now the Half-King said he did it 
to rescue the believing Indians from ruin and to save their 
lives. Probably he did it from political motives, thinking 
that his nation, which was very weak, would thereby be- 
come strong, for he is hardly in condition to raise over a 
hundred men, so very much has his people melted away in 
the last war, and yet more in the present one, for as regards 
the Wyandots oyer the lake, they are nothing to him, but 
only those who live in Sandusky. This was the occasion 
of his undertaking the expeditions against our towns, only 
he wanted the consent and orders of the governor in Detroit, 



26 zbisbbbobb's diabt. 

and 80 soon as be had them, he set to work. He did 
not imagine that he was able to do this alone^ and there- 
fore took to himself reinforcements. He took with him: 
all the. Dela wares and Monseys who live in Sandusky, and 
first they went to the Shawanese, where they held a secret 
council, but got only a few of them. The warriors did 
not know, when they were marching from the Shawanese 
to our towns, what the scheme was, except some of the 
captains; and the two Englishmen, M(cKee) and E(lliot),^ 
who kept with the Shawanese, left nothing undone to en- 
courage the Half-King and the captains. Capt. M. made 
a great feast for the warriors, for which an ox was roasted 
whole, and he bade them bring us away, and should it 
cost us our lives, it was of no consequence; that they ex- 
pected good auccess from this expedition, was to be seen 
from this, that they sent men, namely, whites, who should 
either buy our cattle from us, which they thought to do 
Tery cheaply, or else otherwise get possession of them, 
and steal them, but in this last plan they had no success. 
The Wyandots, who hitherto had pretended to be friends 

^ " McEee was an Indian agent of the British gDvernment, a prisoner 
released on parole, hurrying, in flagrant violation thereof, to Detroit, 
in order to give all the information he had gathered while among the 
Americans. Elliot, a trader, but secretly holding the commission of 
a Britbh captain, had been at Pittsburg as a spy." — De Schweiiutz, 
Life of Zeisberger, p. 462, in recounting events of 1778. 

Matthew Elliot was by birth an Irishman. At the breaking out 
of the Revolutionary war, he lived in Pennsylvania, and was a tory. 
He was ever afterwards with the British, and held, as will be seen 
later in this diary, large estates in Canada, and with him was asso- 
ciated Alexander ICcKee. — Crawford's Campaign, Batterfield, pp. 176- 
178. 

So many and so just reproaches have been cast upon these two men 
that I can not forbear giving a few words 1 have found in commenda- 
tion of McKee. They occur in an extract from a letter written Jan. 
17, 1799, quoted in "Sketches of the City of Detroit," p. 62, and are: 
" The old, virtuous Col. McKee died at his seat on the river Thames, 
the day before yesterday. His remains have been interred this after* 
noon with great pomp at the seat of his son, Tom, at Petitte Cote. 
. . . Great Britain has lost a great support, the Indians a tender 
parent, and the United States the most inveterate and unnatural 
enemy." 



UPPBR SANDUSKY, 1781. 27 

[bat this lasted only until they had a good chance to show 
us their treachery], would never have undertaken to do 
this, had they not been supported by the Delawares, and 
these two have carried out the thing, for the Monseys and 
the few Shawanese, who were indeed in the camp, after a 
fashion kept themselves aloof, and often absented them- 
selves, giving it to be understood that they had no satis- 
faction in the conduct towards us, and they showed their 
discontent with it. The Monseys, who had the most 
friends with us, for by far the greatest part of our church 
was Monseys, may well have thought on this occasion, to 
get their friends away from the church, and to control 
them, which may, perhaps, have induced them to take 
part in the plan. But since they afterwards failed in this, 
they were vexed at the whole expedition, which in some 
way also may have been the case with the Delawares, for 
many of them were much discontented after the affair was 
over. The Delawares — I mean, in particular, the Unamis — 
about whom the brethren had already concerned them- 
selves, and taken much trouble to bring them to recogni- 
tion of their salvation and of their Redeemer, to whom 
the gospel had already many years been preached — ^the 
Delawares, I say, had not received it, but always opposed 
it, and shown themselves enemies of the gospel. These 
let themselves be used as tools to break up the Indian 
church, for they had put themselves foremost in the mat- 
ter, and taken upon them to accomplish it. This was 
from the very beginning, when the brethren came to the 
Ohio, their common saying: "This must have an end, 
that in the land of the Indians the gospel is preached, it 
most cease, and it would yet come to this." So long as 
we lived on the Muskingum, they used all sorts of devices 
to involve us with themselves, especially in their chief 
things and councils, for they thought hereby best to have 
access to our Indians, if they made something of them, 
and looked upon them as wise and intelligent men, and 
this they did under good pretense and excuse, in so subtle 
a way that they could not always be shaken off and with- 
stood ; hereby they sought to confound us little by little 



28 zbisberger's diart. 

with themselves, aud when they could not bring this 
about, they tried in another way to do us ill, to pervert 
our people in all sorts of ways, and to turn them away 
from the church, and this succeeded with some, though 
they were but few. 

Many of their head-men and chiefs tried year after year 
to force themselves into the church under the finest pre- 
tenses and the best representations, which they made to 
us, what great advantages would accrue to us, how it 
would introduce the Indian church into the Indian 
country, and what strong increase it would get hereby, 
and all the time they were pretending to do so much good, 
they were plotting the ruin of the Indian church, which, 
besides, they could not altogether conceal, for when they 
could get at one of our weak people, they left nothing un- 
done to lead him astray. Had their chiefs who worked so 
hard to get into the church succeeded in so doing, in a 
shorter or a longer time they would have become masters 
of it. They would have acted as chiefs of it, and have 
wished to lay down rules for us, and to assert their own 
authority. When at the outset we tried to be rid of them 
by good means, and this was of no use, we made several 
statements why it was not for them to dwell in the church, 
and when they saw that they could not attain their end, 
they became angry with us, and sought to harm us when 
they could. By all this I do not wish to deny that many 
of them were our good friends, and convinced we taught 
the Indians nothing but good. 

20. We moved again into houses, which we had built us 
for the winter, after passing fully two months in huts and 
tents in the bush, where we had all sorts of night-quar- 
ters and lodges. Thanks be to the good Saviour who 
gave us health and generally good and dry weather, for 
both were necessary and precious to us. 

21. In the Assistants' Conference we resolved to take no 
share in the presents given to the warriors, which they 
were to receive on the Miami (Maumee), from the governor 
in Detroit, if indeed they should be oftered us, so that 
none of our Indians might find it needful to go there. It 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1781. 29 

would be said, in case we took presents, that the captains 
got thereby the right to make us go out to war with them, 
and we should take upon ourselves a load of trouble. 
They could reproach us and say : " You have taken gifts, 
now you must do service therefor as we do." 

22. To-day, and the following days, many brethren went 
to our towns on the Muskingum to get corn, for they had 
nothing to eat and here could get nothing. Warriors came 
in with two prisoners, who had been six days in Schon- 
brunn, and said it was perfectly quiet there, and no danger 
to be feared from white people. This gave our brethren 
greater courage to go thither. 

1781, Oct. 25. After several days had gone by, it was 
told us by the chiefs, Pipe and Wenginund, that all of 
us white brethren, together with some of our Indian 
brethren, from our head-men, must go to Detroit, where the 
commandant wished to see us in person. For this we 
showed ourselves willing and ready, and prepared for the 
journey ; only we obtained one thing by entreaty, that two 
brothers might stay with the sisters, whom wo could not 
leave alone, and the chiefs could not make the least objec- 
tion to this, since they saw themselves it could not well 
be otherwise. Thus we four brethren, David, Hecke- 
welder, Sensemann, and Edwards, with the Indian breth- 
ren, William, Isaac Eschicanahund, Tobias, and Joshua, 
went our way in the name of the Lord, took tender leave 
of our friends and departed, committed to the mercy of 
God. []Sr. B. — Isaac Glikkikan, however, did not go with 
us.] Truly we did not know whether we should all meet 
again and whether we should not be separated from one 
another. On this account the leave-taking was somewhat 
doleful; at the same* time, too, that we must leave the 
brothers who remained at bome, namely, Brs. Jung- 
mann and Michael Jung, with the sisters, in wretched cir- 
cumstances, that we knew not and saw not on what they 
could live even two days, on which account we recommended 
them, the best we could, to the care of the Indian brethren, 
who, however, were themselves in just as desperate circum- 
stances and had nothing. We came in the afternoon to 



80 zeisbsrqsr'b diart. 

Pipe and Wenginand's town. To them had heen in- 
trusted by the commandant to bring as to Detroit, but the 
first had already gone on before and the last could not go. 
Thus we journeyed with our Indian brethren our way 
alone and got some corn on the way, although very little. 
All the Indians we saw in this neighborhood were Dela- 
wares, who had helped take us prisoners in Gnadenhik- 
ten, and were therefore not strangers to us. From here 
we soon came to a camp, where by a creek we found a 
hut, in which we passed the night, for it rained very hard. 

26. We went through deep swamps and troublesome 
marshes, in the afternoon came upon Indians out hunting, 
from whom we got some meat, and with whom we passed 
the night. On the afternoon of the 27th we came out of 
the camp and met on a creek Indians again out hunting, 
and here we stayed. Here our Isaac, who went out hunt- 
ing a little, shot a deer. 

Sunday, 28. After we had come many miles over plains 
where there was nothing but water, so that nowhere a 
dry spot was to be found, where we could dismount from 
our horses, and afterward through a long swamp of sev- 
eral miles, where also no bit of dry land was to be seen, 
and the horses at every step must wade in the marsh up 
to their knees, we came in the afternoon to the Miami 
river, where we met Pipe, who advised us to remain there 
over night, and so we did. 

Monday, 29. We still remained here, for we were wait- 
ing for Mr. Elliot, who also came in from the Shawanese, to 
divide among the Indians of the whole neighborhood the 
presents which a sloop from Detroit had brought here. We 
were offered the opportunity of going in her by water, but 
we resolved rather to continue our journey by land, since 
the voyage is very uncertain, for often they have to wait 
several days before getting over the lake, when the wind is 
contrary. The Indians had many prisoners with them here, 
whom they were taking to Detroit; a part of them seemed 
very miserable, and were half starved; many of them came 
and begged for something to eat, and though we were our- 
selves in want, yet we gave them some meat. This they 



JOURNEY TO DETROIT, 1781. 81 

eat forthwith on tlie spot, raw and bloody too, and did not 
take time to cook it. Towards evening there arrived an 
express for Pipe with the news that some of our Indian 
brethren who had gone to Bchonbrunn and our towns to 
get corn from the plantations, had been taken prisoners by 
white people, and also some of them put to death, which 
was for us disagreeable and grievous news, and caused us 
much anxiety. 

Tuesday, 30. We went a piece farther to Elliot's camp, 
to speak with him again before we set out for Detroit, but 
did not meet with him, for this morning he went down 
the river to where the sloop lay ; so we followed after, but 
missed him, he having gone back another way before we 
arrived. Meanwhile, we spoke with the master of the 
sloop, who advised us to go back to the camp before we 
went farther, so that on our journey we might not meet 
with inconveniences, and this we then did, although we 
had not intended it, and we came late in the evening 
again to the camp and stayed over night. Here was 
our Isaac, who had remained behind in our last night- 
quarters and intended to overtake u«, but never came in, 
and brought us news of the capture of some of our breth- 
ren, and also that three or four had been killed ; likewise, 
that the white people in large numbers were under full 
headway for Sandusky, and by this time according to their 
reckoning had already accomplished their purpose. If 
now we wished to believe this news true, we could believe 
nothing else than that we should never again see our 
brethren, and this placed us in great perplexity, and we 
thought much about this, what was best for us to do, but 
we saw no outcome, we must push on to Detroit. Our 
only hope was still this, that if the news was true, a sec- 
ond and third messenger would follow after and bring 
us greater certainty about the matter. 

Wednesday, 31. After we had arranged what was nec- 
essary with Elliot, and had been informed by him what 
we had to do after we came to Detroit, since Pipe, who 
was to take us there remained here, and Elliot had given 
us some provision for the journey, we set out early on our 



82 zeisberger's diart. 

way to Detroit, not without much trouble and perplexity 
over the news and the danger in which we saw and con- 
sidered our brethren at home. Here we left the Tawa 
(Ottawa) river, so called because the Tawas dwell here, 
some of whose towns we passed through. This neighbor- 
hood was much commended to us and praised, that it was 
a fine place for us and our Indians to settle in, because it 
had also the advantage that the vessels from Detroit came 
there, to which one could sell every thing, be it what it 
would, and so get subsistence, at the same time, since our 
Indians had many cattle and busied themselves with ag- 
riculture. But we saw very plainly it was no pleasant 
place for us, although the forest is a fine open forest, yet 
it has no other cultivable land along its borders than 
plains on which nothing but high, long grass grows, so 
that a man on horseback can hardly see over it. The 
land in itself is good enough, but so tough and grassy 
that our Indians could not work it or plant it; granted 
that it could be plowed, yet the open land is good for 
nothing for cultivation since it is too wet and is merely 
swamp and marsh; yet more about this hereafter. We 
met to-day, as indeed every day as far as Detroit, a mul- 
titude of Indians of various nations, who were all bringing 
from Detroit horse-loads of wares and gifts, and in such 
number that one would think they must have emptied all 
Detroit. We came, Thursday, Nov. 1st, to the lake along 
the shore or strand, where we went some distance and we 
looked up the open lake without seeing any land on the 
other side. Many Indians whom we met, pitied us, and 
several said they hoped wo should be well treated: it 
would distress them if the people in Detroit should treat 
us ill. 

Friday 2. We came partly through great swamps and 
marshes, and partly over great plains, through much water, 
to the strait between Lakes Erie and Huron, along which 
we went up as far as Detroit. Since we could not get over the 
river Rush (Rouge) from want of a boat, we had to pass the 
night, three miles from the city, under the open heaven, 
but had nothing more to eat. We could see very plainly 



tS DETROIT, 1781. 83 

the city and the whole country round about on both sides the 
river, which is about a mile wide. We passed to-day various 
towns and settlements of the Wyandots, but nowhere can 
it be seen that they have planted much, but they support 
themselves by hunting and ft«hing, besides they contrive to 
get something out af the white people of the neighborhood. 
Saturday, 3. We had indeed asked some Indians on 
the other side of the river to go to the commissioner in the 
city and tell him to send us a boat and take us over, but 
this morning we mauaged to borrow from Indians, who 
live a<5ro8s the strait, a canoe, in which we crossed, and 
came at once to Detroit, after we had first passed 
through the settlement this side of the city, which is 
thickly settled, and is built like a village along the river. 
When we came to the first guard and asked for the com- 
mandant,^ they let us pass and showed us the way there. 
Thus we went through the city straight before his house, 
and had ourselves announced by the sentinel: in a little 
while he admitted us : we made him "our compliments, and 
he asked us if we were the Moravian Ministers from the 
Muskingum. We answered, " Yes." Whether we had all 
come, fop he had heard there were six of us. Where then 
were the others? Answer : " We had left two of our num- 
ber behind us in Sandusky with our wives and children, 
for we could not leave them alone, since they needed help, 
and could not rightly bo left with the Indians." He asked 
us then why we had not brought our women with us, 
which he had plainly ordered, for he had it in mind to 
send'us back to Philadelphia. Answer: " We had expressly 
inquired of the chiefs whether our women also were sum- 
moned, and they had said to us, no." He said farther, the 

* The commandant of Detroit at this time was Major Arent Schuyler 
de Peyster, who sei*ved for several years in America with the 8th Regi- 
ment. He was second cousin of Gen*l. Philip Schuyler, of Albany. 
He was borfi in New York in 1736, and died in 1832. 

In ike year 1813 he published, at Dumfries, Scotland, a volume of 
poems, entitled, Miscellanies by an Officer. In the appendix to this 
book are given several letters relating to his service in America, and 
a short vocabulary of Ottawa and Chippewa words. This rare book is 
in the Society's Library. 



34 zeisberqer's diart. 

reason why he had had ns removed from our settlements 
on the Muskingum was this, that he heard we corresponded 
with the rebels to the harm of the government here, for 
many complaints against us came in. Answer : " We did 
not doubt at all that much must have come to his ears 
about us, for this we could infer from the treatment we 
had to endure, but that he must have been wrongly and 
ill informed about us, and we accused of things of which, 
were they investigated, we should be found innocent." He 
asked farther, who had come with us, where our Indians 
were, and how many of them there were, likewise, how 
many men, and whether we thought of again returning to 
them. 

We answered him that four of our Indians had come 
with us, that our Indians now in Sandusky were altogether 
between three and four hundred, that we indeed gladly 
would go back there so soon as we were set free, for we 
could not look upon it as a trifling matter to be apart and 
separated from our mission, which had been intrusted to 
us, and if this should happen, would of itself go to de- 
struction, and all our labor of forty years would have been 
in vain. He said, " Think you so?" and replied, "But if 
your Indians were harmful to the government ? " Answer, 
" They would not be harmful, but useful, that would he 
learn, if he were better acquainted with us, for they were 
an industrious, laborious people." He asked whether our 
Indians had ever gone to the war. Answer, " No." He 
was very attentive, and took notice of what we said to 
him, but broke off the conference because he had no time, 
and gave the commissioner, whom he had summoned, or- 
ders about our lodging and entertainment, and about our 
horses, whereof we were relieved. He told us that to- 
morrow or the day after he would call us again and 
then speak farther with us. We were then quartered with 
a Frenchman (Mr. Tybout), together with our Indians, and 
some provisions were sent to us for our entertainment, 
which also was so done as long as we were there, not merely 
something, as is usual with prisoners, but when that was 
gone, we could get more for ourselves and our Indians. 



IN DETROIT, 1781, 85 

Our verse of Scripture, with which we came, was very 
consoling to us. It read : He said, surely they are my peo- 
ple, children that will not lie; so he was their Saviour. 
Jesus my shepherd is — 'Twas he that loved my soul, to 
him in his mercy we committed ourselves and our aftairs 
to conduct in this place, where it seems dark indeed, and 
where as yet no brother has been, 

Sunday, 4. We remained quiet in our lodgings. 
People went in the street to mass, but since we had come 
in very wretched clothes, torn and ragged, we held it best 
not to go out much, for we had been robbed by the war- 
riors of all our clothes, and Br. Sensemann got here again 
a waistcoat, which a white man had bought of the Indians, 
and cheerfully given up to him for nothing; likewise, also, 
a white woman, who had bought a white apron, gave 
it back again for nothing, well understanding that it be- 
longed to us. Many officers, English and German, and also 
many Frenchmen, came to visit us, had compassion with 
us that we had been so ill-treated, and promised to help 
us, so far as lay in their power. The French priest^ also 
called upon us, quite an old man, with 'whom, however, 
we could not speak, for he knew not English. Several 
officers, after speaking with us, said they had become of 
quite another mind about us, and if the commandant had 
thus heard us, as they had, he would be so too. 

Monday, 5. We sought to get an audience with the 
commandant, but he did not admit us. When now we saw 
we could not come before him, we wished to prepare a 
memorial to send him, and went therefore to the commis- 
sioner to ask for paper and ink. He asked us what we 
wanted them for, whether we wished to send letters round 
about the country. We answered, no, but to the com- 
mandant. He said it was not necessary, for he was wait- 
ing for Pipe, and would determine nothing until he had 
heard him. In the evening we had visits from officers, 
also prisoners, on parole, among them a major from Yir- 

* " There was a Roman Catholic church. The priest was then Peter 
Simple, an aged and infirm man.'' — Sketches of Detroit, p. 6. 



86 ZBTSBBRQBR 8 DIART. 

ginia, who often came to see ue, knowing us from having 
seen us on the Muskingum. 

Tuesday, 6. Our Indians tried to get an audience with 
the commandant, but also were not admitted. This even- 
ing, however, we heard that Pipe was near, encamped a 
few miles from the city. Since now we saw that our trial 
rested upon Pipe, that Indians and warriors were to pro- 
nounce our sentence, we prepared this evening a speech 
to him with entreaty that he would speak for us before 
the commandant, and be helpful to us to get back again 
to our friends. With this the next morning quite early 
the brethren went out to meet him before the city, and he 
gave them a good reception. So we had to stand among 
heathen, who were our enemies and were opposed to the 
preaching of the gospel, who must be our witnesses and 
pronounce judgment upon us, although we were among 
men who wished to be called Christians. Br. David had 
already on the way and also here arranged with the Indian 
brethren what was to be done in case we could not go 
back again. In this way we must rely upon no man, but 
upon God alone,' who will also conduct our affairs and 
bring them about, according to our Scripture-versesof day 
before yesterday, yesterday, and to-day.^ Nothing else is 
in our power than to observe what the Saviour will do 
and bring to pass, to whom we commend ourselves. We 
learned now exactly how it is with our brethren at home, 
that Schebosh with others has been captured, but that none 
has perished, and that all is quiet at home. 

Wednesday, 7. We heard here and there that we 
should be brought to Monti'eal. The last two ships of this 
autumn had departed ten days ago for Niagara; so we could 
not think that the governor had any such plan in view, 
but it was reported that they were awaiting orders still in 
thje river below. Therefore we were anxious to hear the 
conclusion about us. 

Thursday, 8* Pipe came into Detroit with the war- 
riors, as is usual, with the Death-Hallow, which they 

lis. xl, 10; XXV, 8; xxviii, 5. 



IN DETROIT, 1781. 87 

repeat as often as they have scalps and captives ; the former 
they bore aloft on st;ikes, the latter they drove ambn^ 
themselves through the city, jnst as is the custom in the 
Indian towns. 

Fnday, 9. We were at last <jalled to the council. 
When we came in we saw the warriors assembled, and 
Captain Pipe, with several other captains with him. The 
commandant, Major de Peyster, with several officers, sat 
in front of them, and a place apart was pointed out to us. 
After they were all assembled Pipe began his discourse, 
giving to the commandant his scalps, which he had brought 
with him, and said to him among other things : he did not 
know whether the deeds he had done were praiseworthy, 
and whether he had done right; perhaps it was wrong 
that he had ruined these men, for they were his friends, 
not the Indians theirs, they were his flesh and blood, his 
nation, and his color. The commandant himself took the 
scalps from him, and had them put aside. In the same 
way the other captains acted and delivered their scalps, 
for which they at the same time demanded their pay, all 
of which he took from them. Thereupon the prisoners 
also were given over to him. We had our own thoughts 
about this, that we should be heard judicially in a war- 
council, and our sentence spoken. After the ceremonies 
were over. Pipe arose and addressed the commandant, as 
follows: 

" Thou hast ordered us to bring the believing Indians 
with their teachers from the Muskingum. We have done 
so, and it has been done as thou hast ordered us. When 
we had brought them to Sandusky, thou didst send word 
to us to bring to thee here the ministers and some of the 
head-men of their Indians, thou didst wish to see them and 
to speak to them, for thou didst know better than we how to 
speak with them, and thou couldst also better entertain 
them since thou hadst no lack of any thing. They are 
now here before thine eyes, thou canst now thyself speak 
with them as thou hast desired, but thou wilt speak good 
words to them, and I say to thee, speak kindly to them, 
for they are our friends, and I hold them dear and should 



38 zeisbepqer's diary. 

not like to see harm befall them.'' This last he repeated 
again, and then sat down. The CQmmandant addressed 
him and the Indians, saying to them he had had us 
brought on this account, because he had heard complaints 
against us, especially that we had corresponded with the 
rebels and from time to time given them news when the 
warriors wished to make attacks on their settlements, 
whereby many warriors came to harm, that many lost 
their lives, and since the warriors had alwaj's said they 
could have done more had we not been there. If this 
were so, we were harmful to this government, as the war- 
riors had always repeated to him ; that he had also strictly 
given orders in writing that we should not remain there, 
but come hither, which, however, had not been done ; that 
that was the reason why he had us brought in, and he 
said to Pipe, since they were now altogether to tell him 
the exact truth, whether this were so, whether the com- 
plaints against us had foundation and whether we had 
corresponded with the rebels. Pipe answered, there 
might be some truth about the thing, for he could not say 
that it was all lies, but it would now not again happen 
since we were away from there and now here, where it 
could no longer happen. But this answer was not yet 
satisfactory to him, on which account he askefl him again : 
" So they have then corresponded with the rebels and 
sent leters to Fort Pitt; for from thine answer I must 
conclude that it is true." Pipe became somewhat angry, 
arose, and said . " I have told thee that there is some- 
thing in the matter, and now I tell thee straight out, they 
who are ministers, are innocent, they have not done it of 
themselves, they had to do it.!' He struck himself on the 
breast, and said : " I am guilty of it and the chiefs who 
were with me in Goschachgunk ; we compelled them to 
it and forced them ; thou must hold us responsible for this, 
but since we are now here it will not happen again, as I 
have already told thee." The commandant said further to 
Pipe : " You have probably at home not only thought 
about the ministers, but also conferred with one another 
what was best to be done with them ; he should now tell 



IN DETROIT, 1781. 89 

him whether the Indians would like to see them go back 
to their Indians or whether they would rather see that 
they did not go back." The interpreter did not rightly 
understand this question, and translated it wrongly to Pipe. 
We soon observed this, but kept perfect silence, since thus 
far we had been questioned about nothing. Since we had 
beforehand conjectured that in regard to onir abode some- 
thing would occur, we had considered with one another 
whether we should do any thing in the affair, as we were 
here, and should make representations. The Saviour, how- 
ever, did not approve of it, and so we kept silent. We 
saw also that the governor left it to us and the Indians 
where we should settle, and this was satisia<5tory to us, for 
in this whole country, so far as we had cope, we have 
found no place which in any way is suitable for us, and 
we have observed that every step we have made towards 
the north, has increased our wretchedness. The com- 
mandant heard then from the answer that they had not 
understood and repeated his question, when Pipe an- 
swered him : They had promised the believing Indians, 
when they were themselves brought away, that their 
teachers should remain with them as hitherto, and that 
they should have their religious services unhindered ; it 
was not their thought that they should bo robbed of their 
teachers ; it would be pleasing to them if they were again 
suffered to return to them, for they looked upon the min- 
isters as their friends, their flesh and blood. All was 
written down. 

Thereupon, the commandant turned to us, and asked 
whether all of us there were ordained ministers? Answer : 
" Yes." Whether one of us was superior over the others ? 
Answer: "Yes, namely, Br. David." Whereupon, he 
turned to him and asked: "How long already we had 
been with the Indians?" Br. David replied: "Already 
more than thirteen years ago he had come to the Ohio ; the 
others first after him, one earlier, another later." " Whether 
we had gone among the Indians of our own accord, to 
teach them, or whether we had been sent?" Answer: 
** We were sent to the Indians to preach them the gospel." 



40 zsisbehqbr's piart. 

" By whom ?" Answer: " By our church, which is an old 
Episcopal Church." Queatiou: "Where are your bish- 
ops?" Answer: "Here in this country and iu Europe." 
Question: "Where have the bishops come froni, who are 
in this country?" Answer: "From Europe." Question: 
"Are you ordained by those bishops, and sent to preach to 
the Indians?" 'Answer: "Yes." Question: "Have you 
not got your instruction from Congress when you went to 
the Indians?" Answer: "No; but from our bishops." 
Question : " Did Congress know about this, or did you 
have permission from the same to go?" Answer: "We 
have not been with our Indians, without the knowledge 
and permission of Congress; it has put nothing in the 
way of our labor among the Indians, but also it has pre- 
scribed us no rules and given us no instructions in what 
way we should conduct ourselves." He then said he not 
only was not opposed to the Indians being civilized and 
instructed in Christianity, but it was pleasing to him ; in 
this matter he would not hinder us, nor interfere in relig- 
ious matters, but we should be on our guard, and not in- 
terfere in war-matte re ; for, if we did so, he would be 
forced to interfere in our affairs and make us halt, for he 
was a soldier; but so long as we did not interfere in his 
affairs, he was unwilling to interfere in ours; and since he 
now saw that we had been wrongly accused, and things 
were not as they had been represented to him, we could 
in God's name go back to our families and to our Indians, 
as soon as we pleased; he would in our behalf write to 
the general in Quebec, and learn his disposition in regard 
to us until spring. 

Question : " Whether we would take the oath." An- 
swer: "No; it had never been required of us." "So," 
said he, "I will not burden you with it." This was also 
interpreted to the captains and warriors who were present. 
We repeated also what he had before said to us, that he 
had sent out in writing an order in our behalf that we 
should come nearer to him and answer him ; that we had 
never seen the same, nor had it come to our hands ; it 
was then needless to treat us with such harshness, to plun- 



m x>BTRoiT, 1781. 41 

der us, and to behave so ill towards ue. He spoke also to 
our Indians : that he was pleased to see them, for he 
liked to see Indians who loved goodness and sought for 
it; they should go back home again with their teach- 
ers, obey them and abide by that which was preached 
them and not meddle in the war. He saide "There are 
Indians, Chippewas, for instance, who may not take part 
in the war, not from religious principles, but they are 
lazy, and to them I give no gifts, for they could go if they 
would. They shall get nothing from me, but to you, al- 
though you do not yet take part in the war, will I give 
something from my store, which you may use for your ne- 
cessities [namely, you who are here], and if hereafter your 
people come to me they shall be welcome and never go 
away empty. Thereupon he arose, shook hands with 
them and the captains, and said to us he wished to speak 
further with us. We could now come to him whenever 
we would ; that his house was open to us, and now that 
our innocence had come to light, he would give orders 
that clothing and what besides we needed should be given 
us out of the king's store, as far as could be done, for our- 
selves, our wives, and our children, since we had been 
plundered. Thereupon he went away, and we returned 
home, happy and thankful that the Saviour had conducted 
our affaire according to the verse of Scripture for to-day : 
Cast ye up, cast^ye up, prepare the way, take up tha 
stumbling-block out of the way of my people. ^Tis thine 
alone to change the heart — Thou only canst good gifts 
impart. Many English and French, with whom we had 
before become acquainted, rejoiced with us that our affiiirs 
had come out so well and happily. The majority of the 
inhabitants here are French ; therefore the usual language 
is French, though there are many English, but of Germans 
only very few. 

Saturday, 10. Brothers David and Heckewelder went 
to the governor, as he had told us ; now he admitted us to 
his apartment, a thing he had not done before, nor asked 
us to sit down, as he now did. He was now quite difier* 
ent towards us, in every way friendly; asked all sorts of 



42 zeisbbbgbr's diary., 

questions, how we had lived on the Muskingum, what 
kind of houses, or whether we had had houses, and won- 
dered much at hearing we had lived so pleasantly and reg- 
ularly. He said to us now, since it was found we were in- 
nocent, he wished in some way to make good the losses 
we had suffered. Since now we knew that a trader in the 
city had bought from the Indians four of our watches, we 
told him so, and he promised to get the same for us at 
once. He summoned the trader, demanded the watches, 
and promised to pay him again what he had given for 
them, and gave them all back to us. Then he gave us an 
order upon the commissary of the king's store, who gave 
us blankets, some clothing, and house-utensils, for us and 
our sisters at home; wherefore we were joyful and thank- 
ful, although our loss was far from replaced, for we had 
lost beds, clothes, furniture, and every thing, and what we 
now got was only to relieve our greatest necessities, and 
if nothing more should be given us, we could not get 
along. But now that we were ready and could go home 
if we wished, and we wanted to be off, the sooner the bet- 
ter, we found that our horses, which had been given to a 
Frenchman to take care of, had either been stolen or had 
run away, and although our Indian brethren sought for 
them, th^y could not find them. We went, therefore, to 
the commandant and complained before him of our needs. 
He indeed gave orders that the Frenchman should and 
must get our horses for us, but they were not found. The 
man must, however, lend us other horses in their stead 
until ours were found, and the commandant promised us 
we should either get our own horses again or be paid for 
them, but we have never got them. 

After we were ready for our departure and had been pro- 
vided with provisions for the way, for we had ourselves 
not a penny of money to buy any thing with, except what 
was given us, we went again to the governor, asked him 
for a pass, which he gave us, in which he gave notice that 
we had permission to go back to our Indians and to remain 
with them, in order to instruct them in Christianity; that 
no one should put any thing in our way or injure us. He 



IN DETROIT, 1781. 43 

again repeated, as he had already said in the council, that 
he had written to the governor '(in Quebec) and expected 
his answer and advice about us in the spring, and added 
that he then still could do something in our favor, since 
he had heard us and investigated our case. He made us 
many excuses, saying to us that we must not be too much 
vexed with him, that he had had us removed from our settle- 
ments, for he had seen himself compelled so to do, since 
so many complaints against us had come to him, that, in 
duty bound, he could not have acted otherwise, although he 
now saw that all the accusations against us were groundless 
and false. It had also been entirely against his orders to 
plunder us and handle us in such a harsh manner, and he 
said, in conclusion, that for his part, he wished peace 
might soon be restored. But those who were the 
cause of this war were to be blamed, and were the 
origin of so much misfortune, which then the inno- 
cent must suffer. We also asked of him, since now 
we were going back to Sandusky, if any future complaints 
against us came to him, not to believe every thing, but to 
be so good as to send us a few words, and thus we would 
inform him at all times about the affair, how it was in re- 
gard to truth, for among the Indians we had many 
enemies, who were opposed to the preaching of the Gospel, 
and on this account made up all sorts of lies about us, and 
spread them abroad. We thanked him for all the kind- 
ness he had done us, and showed him our gratitude, since 
we very plainly saw, inasmuch as every thing was enor- 
mously dear, that our expenses must have run up to at 
least £100, and took leave of him. Still, he said to us, if 
we had letters to send to our church, we should only send 
them tohim; he would then, at once, give orders for them. 
For the present, however, it was too late, for all the vessels 
and ships for this autumn were already gone, and until 
spring no more would depart. We then took leave also of 
Commissioner Bawbee, who was also well disposed towards 
us, and had shown us much kindness, and then departed 
Nov. 14 with our Indian brethren, but since it was late wo 
came only a few miles and encamped in the bush. The 



44 ZEISBBRQER^S DIABT. 

Scripture- verse read : For a small moment hare I forsaken 
thee; but with great mercies will I gather thee. Does it 
seem for a time as if God forsook His own ? Surely I know 
and believe this: He helps at last, yes, certainly. 

We came the 18th to the Tawa river, where we met 
many Indian acquaintances, who were very joyful at our 
return. We met here also Alexander McKee, agent of 
Indian affairs in this department, who showed himself 
friendly to us. But we knew from trustworthy sources 
that he had been the head-instrument of our calamity, and 
after our captivity had labored for this that we should be 
separated from our Indians and driven altogether from the 
Indian country. We showed to him the pass we had re- 
ceived in Detroit. We learned here how it fared with our 
people and brethren at home, and were glad to hear that 
they, after Br. Schebosh, with five of our brethren, had 
been captured in Schonbrunn, had remained in perfect 
peace, and that no one of them had lost his life. We com- 
plained to him of the wants of ourselves and of our In- 
dians, that we had nothing at all to live on, nor could we 
see when we could earn or buy any thing, since among the 
Indians, who themselves had nothing, nothing could be had. 
He saw our need very plainly, but could give us no advice. 

The 19th we journeyed on and came upon Israel, with a 
large body of Indians on their way to Tawa river, where 
McKee distributed presents to them. Many came and 
greeted us in a friendly way. We saw that many had real 
joy that we had freedom to go back to our people, for most 
of them had believed we would remain in Detroit in prison ; 
thus we found it everywhere among the Indians where we 
came; all were glad to see us again, and welcomed us. If 
we had been held prisoners, things would not have gone 
on well among the Indians ; on our account they would 
have come to blows among themselves, and the ringlead- 
ers of the whole affair would not have come off well ; of 
this we had proof enough before we went to Detroit. 
Pipe also was well aware of this, and therefore did his best 
to be helpful for our release from Detroit. Now must I 
say something about this whole stretch of land we have 



DETROIT TO SANDUSKY, 1781. 46 

come through. The whole country is so flat and level that 
no hill at all is in sight, for it has great plains, many miles 
in length and breadth, on which nothing grows except long 
grass. These for the most part are, so to speak, flooded 
with water, which circumstance comes from this, since it 
is so flat and level that the water can not run off*, and eveii 
when it does not rain for a long time, it is still full of water, 
and seldom becomes dry land ; a little rain can put such a 
plain under water, and often our horses had to wade 
through water up to the saddle, and at times even swim ; in 
short, it is like land near the sea shore, which is flooded and 
never becomes dry. These plains are full of crawfish, which 
have their holes in the ground ; therefore the game, rac- 
coons, foxes, etc., which are here in large numbers, get 
their food in abundance, live on the crawfish and wax fat. 
No practicable road can be kept there* for it would soon 
become a deep marsh, so that there would be no getting 
through, but nearly every one makes a new track through 
the long grass, so that at last it becomes a broad road.* The 
woody land, on the contrary, is not so much flooded, yet it 
is wet and swampy and likewise full of water, so that here, 
too, little dry land is to be found. The land is especially 
clayey, which is one reason why the water remains stand- 
ing and does not sink away. The bush is either beech- 
swamp or ash, linden^ elm, and. other trees, such as grow 
in wet places, yet it has many oak groves, and all around 
Detroit it has white-cedar sAvamps. Here and there also 
are to be found white and black walnut trees. Since now 
the country is so flat the creeks rise at' once very high, 
even from a little rain, so that it is .hard to get through. 
The Indians use the whole district for nothing else than 
hunting, and the game is not very plentiful on account of 
the wet. 

We came then on the 22d iN'ovember, happy and in good 
condition, to our brethren in Sandusky, who, as well as we, 
heartily rejoiced together, and could not thank the Saviour 
enough that he had been with us, had stood by us, and 
brought us back again, especially also that he had given 
us good weather on the journey, which had much eased 



46 zeisberger's diary. 

for us this so difficult way, for in rainy weather in this 
country it is impossible to get through. 

Many tears of gratitude and of joy could be seen run- 
ning down the cheeks of our brethren, for they had just 
heard news of us from an Indian who came from Detroit 
that we, either all of us, or at least the greater part, would 
remain captive; and this story was still told and worked 
over as we came into town, and hence their joy was so 
much the greater, and they were quite overcome. 

Nov. 22. Returned the Brothers David, Heckewelder, 
Edwards, and Sensemann, with the Indian brethren Isaac, 
of Guadcnhiitten, Tobias and William, from Detroit. At 
the same time also some brethren came back from our towns 
on the Muskingum, where they had got corn from the 
plantations, in which, however, they were much hindered 
by their fear of the whites, and what they brought they 
must, so to say, almost have stolen. On every side joy 
and gratitude over our return were to be seen on the faces 
of the brethren, for in our absence many lies, were put 
abroad about us, which were circulated about the town, 
and when we arrived were even then repeated, that we 
would be kept in prison in Detroit, and be brought to 
Quebec, that two of us at least, namely, David and Hecke- 
welder, would not return, and that the sisters with the two 
brothers, Jungmann and Michael, would also be carried 
away. This was related as the real truth by a white, who 
said he had seen us in Detroit, spoken to us, and knew 
how it was with us. The greater then was now the joy, 
so that many wept for joy, but others were ashamed. The 
white brethren had especial pleasure in seeing one an- 
other again, and we thanked the Saviour who had 
again brought us together. We told one another what 
the Saviour had doue for us in the time, as well at home 
as on our journey, how he had been with us and con- 
ducted our affairs according to the promise in the verse 
of Scripture when we were taken prisoners: Though 
thou wast angry with me, thine anger is turned away, and 
thou comfortedst me; and of the day after: God will 
come and save you. 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1781. 47 

At home services were held by Brothers Jungmann 
and M. Jung as usually. Two children, one Salome's 
and the other Johanna's, were born in the time. Five 
children and Sister Johanette died meanwhile, and were 
buried. 

24. McCormick and Dawson arrived, the former from 
the Wyandots, the other from Lower Sandusky: they 
were glad we were again here, and offered us their serv- 
ices if we in any way were in need. We asked them, in- 
asmuch as they carried on business with the Indians, to 
buy corn for us, since we had nothing.to eat, and this they 
promised to do. Several brethren came back from the 
Muskingum with corn. It is a hard, dangerous, and long 
way on which to bring corn; we saw, however, no better 
and easier way for us to get any thing, for from the Indians 
in this neighborhood little is to be had, and that little enor- 
mously dear, so that we and our brethren are not in cir- 
cumstances to buy any thing. 

25. During the sermon upon to-day's Scripture-verse, 
in the open air, since we have as yet no chapel, the little 
daughter of Jonas and Amelia, born on the 18th Inst., was 
baptized with the name Benigna. 

Tuesday, 27. There was a conference of assistants, they 
were told, since for the greater part, they were at home, 
what occurred upon our journey and in Detroit, how the 
Saviour had directed and conducted our affairs, that un- 
impeded we could preach the gospel, since many of our 
brethren had been of little faith and thought never to 
see us again, and had already given us up, many lies 
having been told them about us, that we should be taken 
to Montreal. What occurred in the council with the In- 
dians in Detroit about us, and what was concluded, was 
told to all the brethren around a great fire under open 
heaven, since we have neither chapel nor any other house 
large enough for this purpose : thereby all were very at- 
tentive, joyful, and thankful for all the Saviour had done 
for us. 

At last they were reminded, and it was given them for 
consideration to build a chapel or house of the Lord, since 



48 zeisbbbgbr's diart. 

now nearly all of us had dwellings. To this all gave their 
coAsent at once, and Went briskly to work, although they 
had little time left, but must devote all their time to caring 
for themselves and their families and to getting the means 
of life, and thus have they therefore, as likewise wo also, 
lived only from day to day, and very often the day before 
have not known what we should eat the next, but have 
yet come through with the Saviour's help. 

"Wednesday, 28. Fell a good deal of snow, on which 
account the brethren went out to get meat for use while 
building. For us thjB brethren collected corn, for we had 
no more, and each gave according to his means, a handful 
or even somewhat more. The poor widows are the worst 
off, who have neither horses nor otherwise opportunity to 
get any thing. 

Thursday, 29. The meeting-house was blocked out. 
Several brethren went to the neighboring towns to get 
corn, but little can be had. The want of necessaries of 
life is all the time already great. What will it yet be- 
come ? For the longer we are here the greater will be the 
pressing need. 

Saturday, Dec. 1. John Williams came back from 
Lower Sandusky, where he has been since we are here, to 
earn corn, which he got too. Br. Conner and his wife 
are also there, and will probably remain there the whole 
winter, for here there is for them no outcome. 

Sunday, 2. Because we have yet no chapel, we could 
have no service, the snow remaining. Among our breth- 
ren a rumor began that there are some people among us 
who are guilty, and have thereby contributed that we were 
carried away captive and placed in such misery. 

Tuesday, 4. Our chapel was roofed. Since we learned 
that several wished to go to the Fort (Pitt) to look after 
their friends, we forbade them, lest we might have trouble. 

Friday, 7. We laborers, the brethren apart and the sis- 
ters by themselves, held an open-hearted and intimate 
conversation with one another. The Saviour gave us 
grace and his blessing thereto, that we stood together in 
love and unity, one with the other, and all was accom- 



UPPBR SANDUSKY, 1781. 49 

plished, for in this time much that was unpleasant had oc- 
curred among us, and we had thereupon— 

Saturday, 8, the blessed supper of our Lord. We held 
to-day the first service in our newly-built chapel, which, 
with prayer and entreaty to the Saviour, was dedicated, 
that he would be with us, dwell among us, and go with 
us, and that he would bless his sweet Gospel also in this 
place, as well as in our hearts and in the hearts of all 
those who should hear it. See the Scripture- verse of to-day 
(Is. xlix. 2). 

Sunday, 9. Br. Edwards preached. In the afternoon 
service upon the text : The Lord shall comfort Zion, and 
he will make her wilderness like Eden, was baptized 
with the name Anton the little son of Br. Christian and 
Sister Cathrine, born the 29th of last month. Thereupon 
was a service for all the inhabitants of our place, with 
whom in a very direct and open-hearted manner he dis- 
coursed and held before them the shortcomings which 
many of them had been guilty of towards the Saviour and 
their teachers, and also pointed out to them that they had 
put themselves in such misery through their disobedience 
and sins before the Saviour. 

Monday, 10. Heckewelder held the morning service. 
The assistant brethren spoke with Joshua on account of 
his bad conduct and with some others here. Then the 
brethren resolved to send a petition for corn to the Shaw- 
anese. 

Wednesday, 12. Sensemann held the early service. In 
the afternoon was the burial of the widow, Priscilla, who 
yesterday departed in blessedness. She was baptized in Old 
Schonbrunn, Aug. 20, 1775, by Br. Jungmann, and there 
also came to the enjoyment of the Lord's supper, Feb. 15, 
1777, and led a godly life, so that there Was hearty re- 
joicing over the grace the Saviour showed in her. In the 
autumn of 1778, however, she was led by her friends through 
fear to leave the church, and she remained away a whole 
winter. But it was too hard for her. She had no peace 
and a discontented life, on which account she again asked 
4 



50 zeisberger's diary. 

for forgiveness and begged again for reception, which she 
received also, and came again to the enjoyment of the 
Lord's supper, since which time she knew better how to 
value the church and the grace which the Saviour had 
shown her in the church; passed her time contentedly and 
in intercourse with the Saviour. She let herself be moved 
by nothing further nor induced to leave the church 
during all the unrest of the war and all the hardship and 
affliction which we had to endure. Thus she came with 
us here to Sandusky, where she had to live through a 
most grievous time, whereby her heart, however, blessed 
in the Saviour, was undisturbed. At last she became ill, 
and the Saviour wished to take her away from all want 
and trouble. She longed for this too, and so departed 
with the blessing of the church. 

Thursday, 13. Br. Michael Jung held the early serv- 
ice. Afterwards he and Br. Heckewelder went to the 
Wyandot town to the trader, Mr. McCormick, to get the 
corn he had bought for us ; they came back the 14th. 

Saturday, 15. The brothers, Samuel Nanticoke, Isaac 
and John Martin, went away to the Shawanese with a pe- 
tition to ask them for aid and to help us with some corn, 
as we had likewise helped them in Lichtenau when they 
were equally in need. 

Sunday, 16. John preached and Br. David held the 
congregation meeting over the Scripture-verse. 

Tuesday, 18. Two whites came to visit us, Mr. Mc- 
Cormick, from the nearest Wyandot town, and Mr. Rob- 
inson, from Lower Sandusky. The former told us that he 
had again bought some corn for us, and both promised to 
come and help us, that we might not suffer from want, 
while we thankfully acknowledge and praise the care of 
our Heavenly Father and glorify him therefor, for the 
whole time since our coming here we have been able to see 
no outcome, how we should get through,Jand we have lived 
from day to day from grace upon what our brethren have 
given us from their own poverty, for they themselves had 
nothing. 

Wednesday, 19. Abraham went to visit a sick woman, 



UPPER 6AKDUSKT, 1781. 51 

Ann Charity's mother, who is sick and had asked for a 
visit from the brethren. The two white men returned 
home. They are troubled about us, and it presses hard 
upon them that we may suffer no want, and therefore they 
seek to help us as far as it is in their power. A couple of 
Indians, Wcschnat and another, came to report about Josy 
and Abraham, who had secretly gone to the Fort, how it 
was with them. They went away without saying any thing 
to us, though we had warned them and forbidden them to 
go, but they wanted niiKjh to know whether their friends 
are in life, who were taken prisoners, and how they are. 

Thursday, 20. Heckewelder held the morning service 
over the Scripture-verse : Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and 
be glad with her, etc. When now it had been cold weather 
more than three weeks, and most days had snowed, rainy 
weather came on, so that the snow quite went off, which 
happened very luckily for our beasts, for they had to get 
their food in the woods, and if it should be a hard winter, 
must still go out, especially our cattle. 

Friday, 21. Br. Michael held morning service. Abra- 
ham, who went to visit a sick woman in the Wyandot 
town, but found her no longer alive, came back. Several 
brothers came home from hunting. 

Sunday, 23. Br. David preached upou the Epistle : Re- 
joice in the Lord alway, about the joy of the child^en of 
God in the Saviour's incarnation, sufferings, and death. 
Sensemann held the children's service and Edwards the 
congregation meeting over the Scripture- verse. The broth- 
ers Samuel, John Martin, and Isaac, came back from the 
Shawanese, where they had good success, and their peti- 
tion was very well received. They had then forthwith, 
for one hundred string, brought together corn for our 
town, and promised them, so soon as their people should be 
at home, for only a few men were there, since they were all 
off hunting or otherwise scattered, that they would collect it 
all and then send us word to come and get it. The chief, 
who was at home, received them in a very friendly way, 
and said to them they had long waited for us to ask them 
for help, and if we had not done it they would yet have 



52 zeisbergbr's diart. 

thought of us and helped us, but that it was so much 
the more agreeable to them that we had come to them. 
They well knew that neither we nor our laziness was the 
cause of our coming to such want; they also were not 
the cause of it, but we were torn away from our towns by 
force where we had the means of life in overabundance, 
therefore were they willing to help us. [The Mingoes who 
live there said the same.] They pitied us much for our 
losses and for what we had endured, and now, especially, 
that we lived near the Wyandots.in such a wretched dis- 
trict of land, which was quite unsuitable for us, that we 
could not plant enough for ourselves, as we had been used 
to do ; they said we could seek out a better place which no 
one could prevent; they looked only to our good, and if 
they should see that we supported ourselves and wished to 
move to a better place, they wished to come to our aid at 
once with as many horses as they could get together. It 
troubled them, as it did also the Delawares in the same 
neighborhood, that Pipe herewith grew and boasted that 
he had taken prisoners the believing Indians and their 
teachers, and they were therefore his prisoners and slaves, 
and they say, "Are not the believing Indians his friends? 
It was a shame to regard his own friends as slaves." The 
chief and some others who were at home talked almost all 
night with the brethren, and asked them, among other 
things, this also, where their teachers and ministers came 
from and got here, for all white people, English, French, 
Spanish, and so many as they had seen, had their ministers 
and their worship of God, but they all went to war, but 
we not. The brethren answered : They were originally 
from over the sea, and finally came to us and brought us 
the word of God, and we have received it, since we found 
and felt in our hearts that it is truth, eternal life, and glory ; 
among all white people there are indeed ministers, all have 
their worship of God, have the Scriptures, and can read 
them, but since they are unbelievers, they become no better 
therefrom ; they are thus unbelievers, as are the Indians, 
and so no better. The chief bade them greet us, their 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1781. 63 

teachers, and said he would like to see us, perhaps he 
would come sometime to visit us. 

This afteruooQ the Half-King came with his interpreter, 
partly on business, partly for a visit. The brethren took 
occasion to speak with him about the two who had gone 
to the Fort, of whom we have already heard so much from 
other places, and told him as much as we knew about them. 
But we soon heard that he had more news of them than 
we, for they sent word to him by Indians, and let him 
know what they intended, so that it can cause us no prej- 
udice or harm. 

Monday, 24. We begin Christmas week with praise and 
thanks that God, our Creator, himself became man, and 
that we, through him, have peace with God, since he has 
blotted out our sins through his blood. We asked him 
also forgiveness of all our transgressions, not to be mind- 
ful of them, and to be merciful to us, again to bless us, to 
be with us in this place, and to recognize us as his peculiar 
people, and to send us his peace, which he also did, and 
we had comfort and assurance therefrom. Love-feasts 
we could not have, for we were too poor and could not 
aftbrd so much. The history was read, and over the Scrip- 
ture-text was a discourse. The chapel was quite filled. 

Tuesday, 25. The morning sermon by Br. Hecke- 
welder, the children's service by David. These rejoiced, 
and sang: The Infant Jesus in his manger lies, right pret- 
tily, and all who were present let tears of joy run down 
their cheeks. Br. Jungmann held the congregation meet- 
ing over the Scripture- verse. The brethren encouraged one 
another, and rejoiced together in God, our Saviour, who in 
all circumstances had shown himself gracious to them, and 
filled their hearts with comfort and joy. 

Wednesday, 26. Br. Edwards held early service ; there- 
upon wo had a conference with the assistants. A woman, 
a widow, obtained, upon her request and prayer, permis- 
sion, to dwell with the church. Nicodemus, who in the 
spring, from fear, allowed himself to be moved and went 
from the church, and now came again, was likewise re- 
ceived. Israel was told we could not yet allow him to be 



54 zeisberger's diart. 

in the church. It was told to the church that we could 
not suffer Jacob's family to be in the church, seeing the 
manner they had conducted themselves in Gnadenhiitten 
and up to the present time, on account of the children, and 
other reasons too. At last also Nathaniel and A. Salome 
were earnestly spoken with about their daughter, and they 
were advised what they had to do. 

Friday, 28. There was a conference with the assistants 
about maintaining order among the people and putting 
disorder out of the way. Many of our brethren sofffer 
hunger, and as no corn can be had, they must subsist upon 
wild potatoes (Ipomoea Pandurata), which they have to dig 
up laboriously and bring from a distance. 

Saturday, 29. Since the creek is so high from rains that 
it can not be crossed the brethren made two canoes. 

Sunday, 30. Br. David preached about the foundation 
and cornerstone, Jesus Christ, whereon his church and 
each member thereof is built. In the afternoon was a con- 
ference of assistants, who spoke with Gideon about his con- 
duct and unrighteous behavior in Gnadenhiitten with the 
warriors, for which he defended himself. Br. Edwards 
conducted the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 31. Jungmann held the morning service, and 
exhorted the brethren for Jesus' sake to bury every thing 
in his death, and to take nothing over into the new 
year. In the afternoon was the burial of Br. Nathaniel, 
who died yesterday in blessedness. He w'as baptized in 
Bethlehem, Aug. 30, 1749, by Br. Nathaniel Seidel,^ and 
July 8, 1775, in Gnadenhiitten, on the Muskingum, was 
admitted to the enjoyment of the Lord's supper. He re- 
mained steadfast by the Saviour whom he loved and by 
the church, and had a lovely and blessed intercourse with 

* He was born in Saxony, in 1718, in Laubau, a shori distance from 
Herrnhut. He came to America in 1742, where he labored in Tarious 
stations until 1750, when, in company with Zeisberger, he returned to 
Europe for a visit. He came back the next year. As ** Elder of the 
Pilgrims" his visits extended as far as Surinam. He was made 
bishop in 1758, and died in 1782, overwhelmed with sorrow at the news 
of the massacre of the believing Indians at Gnadenhiitten. De Schwei- 
nitz', Some of the Fathers of the Am. Mor. Church. 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1781. 55 

the Saviour. By nature he was somewhat simple, but if 
he spoke with his laborers from his heart, it could be seen 
that he well knew what he wanted, and what he had from 
the Saviour, for this he had understanding enough, and he 
was not wanting to him, but for other matters, especially 
bad things, he was indiscreet, yet it was never observed 
that he frequented and gave himself up to bad company. 
That his mother, who died in peace in Lichtenau, told 
him, shortly before her death, he should abide by the 
Saviour and the church his life long, that forgot he not, 
and he repeated it often. The occasion of his death was a 
broken leg, and thereupon gangrene, so that in a few 
days he departed with the blessing of the church. He was 
forty-two years old. To-day was the conference of assist- 
ants : they investigated the old matters about the children 
of Jacob and Phiiippa. 

At the usual time we assembled at the end of the year, 
thanked the Saviour for all the mercy and kindness he 
had shown us, but confessed to him also our faults and 
shortcomings, and begged the forgiveness of all our trans- 
gressions and the consolation of his grace, to be merciful 
to us, and to acknowledge himself to us as our Helper and 
Saviour. 



56 zeisbergbr's diary. 



CHAPTER II. 

1782. 

Upper Sandusky — Missionaries Called to Detroit — Settlement on 
Clinton River, Michigan. 

Tuesday, Jan. 1. Br. Edwards preached from the Gos- 
pel about Jesus' name, who is our Saviour and Redeemer. 
The baptized brethren renewed their covenant with him, 
to be and to remain his own. They were exhorted to give 
their hearts entirely to him ; to desire nothing in the world 
except to live for him. Sensemann held the congregation 
meeting from the Scripture-verse : I will not contend for- 
ever, neither will I be always wroth. Meekness, humility, 
and love — Through all thy conduct shine. We took the 
texts from last year for use, since we have now indeed no 
hope left of getting any. In regard to other matters, 
we had to hear from without many bad and unplesant 
stories over the fact that two of our Indians had secretly 
gone to the Fort, without our knowledge, on which ac- 
count many lies were spread around that we had sent let- 
ters by them, and they said we should again be ma,dc pris- 
oners and altogether brought away from the Indians. 
Satan rages and it is as if we were given over to devils to 
plague us utterly, to torment us and to make trial of for- 
tune with us, while we are here, more than ever before, 
not only from without, but also from within. For in the 
church there were people who upheld them in their false 
dispositions and applauded them, who wished to establish 
by force that wicked life of his and heathenism. If we 
oppose them they become angry and set on the wild Indians 
against us, wish to stop our mouths, bearing witness there- 
against, and to bind our hands, so that we may do noth- 
ing to dispense the powers of darkness and root them out 
from among us. But we did not let ourselves be turned 
aside, but courageously bore witness against them. Such 
a change has now come in the Indian church that the bad, 



^ UPPBR SANDUSKY, 1782. 57 

wicked people can not be cast out, but they wish to be 
there and to cause harm in the church, for they in the 
wild towns have occasion enough therefor and no one 
would say any thing to them about their sinful life. If 
we discipline thera, therefore, or only say it were better if 
they remained away from us, they go into the towns and 
accuse us of sending people away, urge on the savages 
against us, who then tell them they should not regard us, 
that we are prisoners, and that it is their business to com- 
mand us. 

We are not, however, cast down nor disheartened, but 
oppose with might and with all our strength, to destroy and 
cast out of the cburch the works of Satan. 

Wednesday, 2. There was a conference of assistants. 
Br. Michael Jung held the early service, llainy weather 
came on, and the snow melted, which is a mercy for our 
cattle. On the other hand, the brethren had their houses 
full of water, as is the case hereabouts in thawing weather 
usually. 

Thursday, 3. John held early service. The brothers, 
Mark, William, and Christian, went in the name of 
the conference to Pipe, some ten miles from here, to 
speak with him and his chiefs about the evil reports cir- 
culated concerning us, and to get information about them. 
They came back on the 4th and had good success; they 
were well received by Capt. Pipe, who told them he had 
indeed heard many chance rumors, but had not troubled 
himself about them. That ten of our people had gone to 
the Fort, even that they had stolen away, he could not 
take ill, for he well knew how it was among Indians — 
if one of them had his father and sister carried away cap- 
tive, he ventured his life merely to find out whether they 
were alive or dead, and how it was with them ; there were 
ill-disposed persons among the Indians, who had pleasure 
in spreading abroad lies about us ; but we should not be 
troubled about it, they did no better with him and told lies 
about him ; it should remain fast, he would remain fast, 
we should remain fast by what had been fixed and con- 
cluded about us in Detroit. Thereupon he told them 



58 zbisbergbr's biart. 

what had happened in Detroit in regard to us after our own 
departure. There came in some Delaware captains while 
Pipe was still there ; they held a council with the governor, 
and said to him : " We have removed the helieving Indians 
witb their teachers at your command from their ahode, 
and have brought, them to thee in the hope that thou 
wouldst again send them home whence they came here. 
We thought that had ceased, and that from this time on 
there would be no ministers among the Indians. To our 
great wonder and astonishment, however, hast thou set 
them free and sent them back to their Indians. Surely, 
thou knowest not how injurious they are to us, for theirs is 
the guilt that so man}' of our friends perished at Goschach- 
giink ;^ they have always made our friends there feel secure 
by saying to them they had nothing to fear from the Vir- 
ginians, until they were suddenly attacked. The ministers 
have always written letters to them and given them infor- 
mation when our warriors have gone to their settlements, 
by which means many are come to overthrow and harm, 
and have lost their lives through their betrayal." The 
governor answered them that only a few days before, in 
the presence of the chiefs and warriors, he had investigated 
the matter and the charges brought against the ministers, 
but he had found them innocent, and that all the charges 
against them were groundless; what he had thus arranged 
and concluded with Capt. Pipe should remain until he had 
well-founded reasons for calling us away. He said further, 
why then did they now first bring these charges against 
us; already a long time had gone by, why had they not 
done it at once ? After this he should receive no further 
complaints, but would abide by what he had agreed with 
Pipe in the council. After this, the captains could say 
nothing further. Thus it goes among the heathen when 
they get a little power over us. We have many foes, but 
still also many always who are our friends, yet often meet 
those who are not well-disposed to us, and who are opposed 



'Where Col. Broadhead, the April preceding, had killed fifteen war- 
riors and taken twenty captives. 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1782. 59 

to the preaching of the Gospel, fight for us and do us good 
service, as now Pipe, although they have always their own 
object in view, and this will not cease. McCormick visited 
us to-day and went back again. We heard that our things 
are come to the lake. 

Thursday, 3. Nicholas and Joh. Sabina's child born. 

Saturday, 5. The assistants had a labor-day with young 
married people to reconcile them. We laborers had a 
conference about our staying here, and found it best not 
to waste our time in moving about, but to remain here. 

Sunday, 6. We celebrated Epiphany. The Saviour of 
the heathen allowed himself to be felt comfortingly among 
us, acknowledged himself to us in all our services, 
blessed us, and let us feel his peace. An adult was bap- 
tized with the name Phoebe, and a child, the little son of 
Nicholas and Joh. Sabina, born on the 3d Inst., with the 
name Timothy, and two sisters, Rebecca and Juliana, were 
absolved and prepared for return to Gnadenhiitten, where 
they remain. 

Monday, 7. After the early service, which Br. Edwards 
held, we spoke with the assistant brethren about getting 
corn from our towns from the plantations, and exhorted 
them to neglect nothing, since now was the best time and 
the least danger to fear from white people. Likewise we 
told them our opinion in regard to our dwelling here ; that 
we held it best to stay here, not to waste our time in mov- 
ing about, whereby we might still incur the extremest 
need and poverty, since we well saw we should not better 
our circumstances, but make them worse, if we went far 
away from here, for thus we should again have the war- 
riors constantly in our town, which here, however, we had 
not so much to fear. Moreover and besides, we could draw 
upon ourselves the discontent and dissatisfaction of the 
chiefs if we went away, who would then leave us in the 
lurch if we had any thing to complain of, since now in- 
deed they were our friends. Thus her^ we should have to 
bear one thing patiently, and to seek out the nearest, best 
place for planting, and our greatest care and labor would 
be to get the necessities of life. This was also in accord- 



60 

ance with the hearts of the brethren, to cause us no un- 
necessary labor and uneasiness, but to enjoy quiet as far 
as possible. 

Tuesday, 8. Senseniann held morning service. Israel, 
who came here a short time ago and asked to be taken 
back, but received no permission to live here, repeated his 
wish, and gave us to understand that he had not acted 
with a view for the salvation of his soul, but that he had 
acted with other objects in wishing to be in the church, 
and he confessed that he had not known his heart, but 
thought he had indeed done nothing wrong when he left 
the church ; that he had done no sin, and that it was not 
so bad with him ; but this he now saw, and found quite 
otherwise ; that he was a sinful man, who had no Saviour, 
but he would indeed like to be blessed, to turn again to 
the Saviour and to the church, and to remain with them 
his lifelong. 

Wednesday, 9. Brother Michael held early service. 
We went out to-day to inspect a little the neighborhood 
and the land on the creek, and where towards spring we 
could make our fields, and indeed found places where there 
was good fine land, but it was somewhat too wild and 
much overgrown with wood'. We heard that a whole 
party of Goschachgiink Indians, who the year before had 
fled from there and had lived thus far with the Shawanese, 
wished to move near us ; but they had nothing to eat, and 
already there was constantly famine with them, on which 
account they also went to our towns and wished to get 
corn from the fields, as we hear. 

Thursday 10. Jungmann held the early service. Nearly 
all the brethren went out to dig wild potatoes, on which, 
for the most part, they now live, especially those who are 
not able to buy or earn any thing, and among the savages 
corn costs already from three to four dollars, and daily 
becomes dearer, yes, many have already had to give eight 
and more. We h^ve sold some of our cattle to a trader 
for corn, and on this we thought to live for a while, and 
yet it-was little to get. Sara Nanticoke was brought to 



1728. 61 

bed with a son : likewise in the night Anna Paulina with 
a dead daughter. 

Friday, 11. David held early service. John went to 
McCormick to get corn for us, and came back home in the 
evening. 

Sunday, 13. In the sermon it was especially urged upon 
the boys and young people to ask more obedient hearts 
from the Saviour, who had been a boy and learned obedi- 
ence. In the next service the little daughter of Zachary 
and A. Elizabeth, born on the 8th Inst., was baptized with 
the name Dorothy, and in the service for the baptized. 
Sister Johanna Sabiua was absolved. Thus the Saviour 
and the Holy Ghost bring the erring back again, one after 
the other, and into the right fold. 

Wednesday, 16. Many of the brethern went to the 
Shawanese towns to seek for corn, for here in this neigh- 
borhood no more is to be had, and what there is, is enor- 
mously dear, and so some went also to the Muskingum to 
harvest yet something from our plantations. Br. Jung- 
mann, with Brs. Michael, John, William, and Adam went 
to Lower Sandusky to get some provisions, which had come 
for us by water from Detroit. 

Thursday, 17. Heckewelder held early service. We 
heard that warriors had again gone out to our towns. 

Saturday, 19. To-day and yesterday yet more brethren 
have gone, partly to the Shawanese, and partly to the 
Muskingum, to get corn. To the Shawanese it is a good 
day's journey, to the Muskingum five or six. Two of our 
brethren would cheerfully have gone with them there, to 
get corn for ourselves, but we dared not venture it, for we 
had no permission. 

Sunday, 20. During the sermon the little son of Br. 
Samuel Nanticoke and his wife Sara, born on the 10th Inst., 
was baptized with the name Jeremy. Our brethren are 
almost all scattered, partly to the Muskingum, partly to 
the Shawanese, to get the means of life. Our need grows 
greater daily. Our brethren become disheartened and 
listless, and have no hope of rescue, for always it gets 
worse and worse, this we can see before our eyes. Our 



62 zeisbbrobr's diart. 

Saviour and our dear heavenly Father must know better 
than we how to bring us through, and how to devise. It 
is a great comfort to us that we have no reproach, and 
have given no occasion for the famine in which we are 
found, for although many brethren said to us, when we were 
still on the Muskingum, that we should at once promise 
the warriors to break up and go with them, and were dis- 
contented with us that we did not at once give our con- 
sent, yet we could not do that, for we foresaw all that 
which now meets us, but we preferred to be taken cap- 
tive. We said to them even then that we were not so very 
much troubled about ourselves where we should get the 
means of life, as about them ; for we should first be helped 
but not they, and therefore we were much more troubled 
for them than for ourselves. Those, now, who so much 
wished themselves here, and entertained so sweet antici- 
pation of what great advantages they would have here, 
that they would have cattle and could sell milk and butter 
at a high price, these find themselves deceived, their cattle, 
one after the other, die off, so that there is no hope of 
their bringing any through the winter. They begin now 
to see that they have desired [and worked for their 
misery and ruin. In this we pity the upright and good 
hearts who mean well, and are sorry that the innocent 
must suffer with the guilty. 

Monday, 21. Heckewelder held the early service from 
the text : Fear not, for thou shalt not be ashamed, about 
the consolation and foresight of a child of God who recog^ 
nizes the Saviour as his Kedeemer. Again many of the 
brethren went to the Shawanese to^n for corn. 

Tuesday, 22. Br. Edwards held early service. It snowed 
hard, and we were troubled about the brethren getting 
through, who had gone to Lower Sandusky, for we know 
it is a bad road, for in this country there is no good road 
to be found, mere marsh and water; therefore when it is 
frozen it is easiest to get over. 

Wednesday, 23. David held early service. We heard 
that the Delawares in this neighborhood held their war- 
dance in the Delaware towns, and again go to war in good 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1782. 63 

numbers. A wicked Indian, who was our enemy, and did 
us much harm, has filled his measure, has gone from time, 
and is gathered to his fathers. McCormick, who is much 
concerned about our welfare and seeks to help us, came 
here to visit us, and remained over night. Our cattle gen- 
erally suffer the greatest want, many die, and it appears 
that few will live through the winter, so our need inci'eases 
everywhere. 

Thursday, 24. Brothers Jungmann and Michael returned 
from Lower Sandusky with some provisions, which we had 
ordered brought there from Detroit by water when we were 
there, and which the commandant had given. To Lower San- 
dusky sloops and vessels came up the river eighteen miles 
from the lake. With them came also a white man, Mr. 
Robinson, who visited us, and the next day went back 
again. 

Saturday, 26. We made the beginning and preparations 
for sugar-making a good rifle-shot from town, over the 
creek. Sybilla bore a daughter. 

Sunday, 27. Michael preached from the gospel about 
the cure which the Saviour through his blood makes on 
poor, lost sinners, and that he blesses them. 

Tuesday, 29. Early before day the Saviour took to 
himself Cornelia, the four-year old child of Leonard and 
Rahel, and he was 

Wednesday, 30, buried. For three days we have very 
hard, cold weather, so that at night we can hardly keep 
warm. Our cattle fare worse every day, for we have our- 
selves hardly any thing to eat, and they really nothing. 
We have no sheds for them, and could make none, it was 
so late ; thus every day some die, and it is as if the Saviour 
were angry with us. Ah ! may he yet have mercy upon us, 
and help us out of our need. 

Friday, Feb. 1. John and Michael went to McCormick 
to get corn for us, and came home at night. The sisters, 
Sensemann and Jungmann, have taken something to sew 
for him, that they may earn something in their great need. 
Now for some days it has been extraordinarily cold, so that 
some people in this neighborhood say that for ten years no 



64 zeisberger's diary. 

winter has been so cold. The hunger among our people 
here at home is so great that for some time already 
they have had to live upon dead cattle, cows, and horses; 
never iii their lives have they felt such want ; we pity these 
people, but we can not, we know not, how to help them. 
Why then does the Saviour let all this come upon us ? We 
have thus far in our want got some corn from a trader, 
wherefor we give him cattle in payment. 

Saturday, 2. We had the pleasure of again seeing 
young Jos. Schebosh, who, in the autumn, went to the 
Fort to search for his father and sister, carried away pris- 
oners. With him came his sister and the son and daugh- 
ter of Rachel ; but two others have remained behind in 
Gnadenhiitten, whom we formerly expected, so that all 
the prisoners are now again with us, except Br. Schebosh, 
and he, we now hear, has gone to the church (i. e. Bethle- 
hem). We are pleased at this, that the brethren should 
have a chance to hear something circumstantially abcrut 
us, and we look upon it as a providence from our Saviour 
that it should so have happened, and that these brethren 
must have been taken prisoners so as to give news of us. 
By them, to our great joy, we received letters from Litiz 
(Lancaster Co., Pa.) of the end of August and beginning 
of September. The last was written when we were already 
prisoners. We got also some weekly journals, but we had 
to keep all this secret, and dared not once give a greeting 
to the brethren. We learned also that a brother, Daniel - 
son, from Bethlehem, had been in Pittsburg. Likewise, 
also, we could hope that we should now be set loose from 
our captivity. 

Sunday, 3. David preached in the forenoon and Jung- 
mann held the congregation meeting in the evening. 

Monday, 4. Pomoacan came with a following of In- 
dians and some whites, to hear the news from us, whom 
we referred to Jos. Schebosh, who politely disposed "of 
them. Isaac, however, who had been sent around the 
town to find something for them to eat, came back and 
said to them, and especially to Pomoacan, that he could 
find nothing for them to eat, for our own people had them- 



UPPBR SAITDUSKY, 1782. 65 

eelvefl nothing but dead cattle to live upon, and he said to 
him: "When thou wast in Gniwienhiitten, thou didst ask 
of us tea, bread and butter, milk, pork and beef, and what- 
ever pleased thee, and we gave thee all thou desiredst. 
Then thou didst say to us we should not regard our plan- 
tations, but arise and go with thee; we should find every- 
thing again and yet more than we had left behind. Who* 
ever takes a bird or duck, he strives at ouce to get it 
something to eat. Thou hast brought us here, but host 
not given us a grain of corn. Thus hast thou cooled thy 
wrath on us/' He and those with him were quite still at 
this and could say nothing. 

Tuesday, 6. David held the early service over the Scrip- 
ture-verse: Israel, thou shalt not be forgotten of me. 
Adam, who came home from the towns, had likewise heard 
that we white brethren in the spring would all be brought 
to Detroit, and said thereupon : "There are so few brethren 
at home, they are all scattered in the bush and in the 
towns, among the Shawanese and on the Muskingum, so 
can it happen if we again come home, that we shall not 
again meet and you will be carried away. If this shall 
happen we shall all be in pitiable circumstances. I wish 
then no longer to be alive, for I could not look upon the 
misery. You would have no want and would be better off 
than you are now, but with ua things would be bad in- 
deed." Br. David comforted him, saying, the Saviour 
would ever help us and not permit us to be separated 
from them, and should he permit it, he would give them 
advice what they were to do. 

Wednesday, 6. Joshua and Jacob, who went to the trader, 
must there hear much about this, that the former had gone 
to the Fort to get back his sister and the others who were 
made prisoners, and they accused him of taking letters 
there and brinc^ing letters back, which is yet quite false. 
He had brought a newspaper which Br. David sent with a 
letter to the governor in Detroit. It is true, we could 
have written by him, and he begged us to send letters by 
him, but we dared not on account of our unfaithful people; 
6 



66 zeisberokr's diary. 

We saw from this that they who pretended to be our 
friends are still secretly our enemies, that in our presence 
they appear friendly for their own gain, to make profit 
from us 8till, and behind our backs they are our foes and 
would like to hasten our ruin and utter destruction. 

Thursday, 7. Several brethren returned from the Shaw- 
anese towns, where they had bought corn, and for about 
a bushel they must pay five dollars, thus still dearer than 
among the Wyandots, though they had expected to get it 
cheaper. Again some have gone to the Muskingum, and 
we are left at last here alone. Sugar began to run. 

Saturday, 9. Came again seven brethren with corn 
from the Shawanese towns, and several from her« went to 
the Muskingum, for they have now heard from those who 
have come from the Fort, that they have nothing to fear 
there. Thus all wish to go there, and this is also their 
only hope of getting the means of life, and although the 
corn still stands in the fields unharvested, yet it is still 
good and unhurt. 

Sunday, 10. Heckewelder preached and David held 
the congregation meeting. There were, however, very 
few brethren at home. 

' Tuesday, 12. Susanna, Sophia's daughter, wife of Mark, 
bore a son. 

Wednesday, 13. To-day and several days preceding, yet 
more brethren have gone to the Muskingum. Indeed they 
^'ould prefer to move there than here to suffer want and 
hunger, if they had permission, for of this place they have 
had quite enough, even they who came here willingly. 

Friday, 15. The little daughter of Sybilla, born Jan. 
26, was baptized with the-name Sara. 

Sunday, 17. Heckewelder preached. At a love-feast 
we congratulated Sister Susanna upon her thirty-ninth 
birthday, and wished her many blessings from the Saviour. 
We white brethren are quite alone at home, since most of 
those still remaining here are sugar-making. 

Wednesday, 20. Warriors came in who went to the 
war, and they staid over night. They went about, and 
when they saw so many cattle lying dead, they laughed 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1782. 67 

and scofted about it. The savages are pleased now that 
things go hard with us, that we sufter famine and anxiety, 
and our cattle all perish, and they say we have now be- 
come like them, we should be no better off than they, and 
80 it was. They envied us our quiet and that we should 
have no want in the means of life. 

Sunday, 24. Many brethren came from the sugar-camp 
home for the sermon, which Br. David preached from 
the text: God so loved the world, but there was no 
translator there. A party of Wyandots in the last few 
days has gone to the war. 

Monday, 25. It was again winter-like, and it snowed 
after we had had for some time fine spring-weather. Up 
to this time during this winter we have remained so far 
quiet and undisturbed, although we have always heard as 
well from the Shawanese towns as also from those near 
us, the Wyandot, Mousey, and Delaware towns, that we, 
the missionaries, would be taken this spring by lake to 
Detroit and separated from our Indians. This was es- 
pecially incredible to us, because the commandant in De- 
troit had given us such good assurances and a pass, 
wherein it was expressly announced, and all our names 
were named, that we should be unmolested, remain with 
the Indians, and teach them. Yet when we saw the hos- 
tility of the wild Indians to the preaching of the Gospel, 
and that they thought only to ruin and destroy the Indian 
church, for that was their end and object from the begin- 
ning of our captivity, we were often not without trouble 
and anxiety. 

When they saw that we again were building a meeting- 
house, they said, "What is that? We thought preaching 
would stop, and now again shall it first make a good be- 
ginning?" Thus we thought this would finally be the end 
of our pain, and so resigned ourselves to God's will as he 
would let it happen, since now in this matter we could 
neither do nor alter any thing, if it should happen. We 
had already some time ago arranged with the national 
assistants, when we were still together, to remain here, 
since we have not yet seen a place where we could better 



68 zbisberqer's diart. 

and quieter be than here, though we knew and saw that 
as long as we are here we should have nothing but hardship 
and trouble from the Indians, especially from the Wyandots, 
who were resolved to do us all the injury they could, which 
we always heard from a trustworthy source. Our Indian 
brethren were now partly in the Shawanese towns, partly 
on the Muskingum, and in the bush, scattered about to get 
the necessaries of life, and only some few old brothers and 
sisters at home ; so it came about that we, 

Friday, March 1, through a messenger, were summoned 
to Pomoacan, who sent word he had something to tell us. 
Br. David, who was especially summoned, went there Sat- 
urday, the 2d, with Br. Heckewelder and two Indian 
brethren, where also a council of Wyandots and Delawares 
was assembled ; there it was told us by the Half- King that 
a letter had come from the commandant in Detroit, which 
a white man, Simon Qirty* by name, had given him to read^ ' 
and indeed it was not written to us, but to him, and to our 
great amazement it contained the following sentence re- 
garding us missionaries : 

"You* will please present the strings I send you to the 
Half-Xing and tell him I have listened to his demand* 
I therefore hope he will give you such assistance as you 
may think necessary to enable you to bring the teachers 
and their families to this place. I will by no means allow 
you to suffer them to be plundered or any way ill-treated." 

So far his order. It is easy to conjecture what heart- 
rending news this was to us, and here nothing was to be 
done but to resign ourselves willingly to our fate, for the 
most common objections we could have made would have 
been utterly useless, and only have given the Wyandots op- 
portunity to take us in hand, and misuse their power by ill- 

*The historians of the Border Wars of the Revolutionary period can 
find no words strong enough to express their detestation of Simon 
Girty, the worst of the trio, Elliot and McKee being the others. His 
life maybe found in detail in Butterfield's Crawford's Campaign, p. 1S2^ 
He is said to have perished in battle at Proctor's defeat, on the River 
Thames, Oct., 1813. Howe's Hist Collections, p. 246. 

' This quoted passage is in English in the original. 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1782. 69 

treating us; this we could conjecture from the order, though 
it may not have been so intended. We gave then to the 
Englishman a written acknowledgment that we had re- 
ceived the commandant's order, would conduct ourselves 
accordingly, and obey his command, that in fifteen days 
we would be in Lower Sandusky, when we begged that 
we might be brought over the lake by water, for our sis- 
ters, with the little children, could not possibly make the 
toilsome journey by land ; and this also was granted us. 

In the evening we came back home to our brethren, who 
at this news were with ourselves amazed and saddened, 
and all the Indian brethren who heard it passed a sleepless 
night. Yes, we could not contentedly resign ourselves to 
leaving our Indian church, and thought it impossible that 
the Saviour could permit it. If we were all destroyed, then 
once for all we were freed from all need ; thus, however, 
were we upheld to endure more deaths. But so it was, 
and we saw no other plan wherever we cast our thoughts, 
and meanwhile we had to comfort ourselves with to-day's 
Scripture- verse, which read : My thoughts are not your 
thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord, 
and with the collect^ therein say to the Saviour: We will 
put our trust in thee. 

Sunday, 8. To-day we sent at once a messenger to 
the Shawanese towns, where some of our brethren were, 
likewise an express to the Muskingum, to call in some 
brethren with horses, to take us to Lower Sandusky, and 
also once more to take counsel with them. 

The brethren in the neighborhood, who were making 
sugar in the bush, of whom there were only a few, all came 
home at this sad news, and to them, in a meeting, a discourse 
was delivered over to-day's Scripture- verse: Since thou 
wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honorable, and I 
have loved thee. Jesus! thou art all compassion — Pure, 
unbounded love thou art. It was told them that in a 
short time we should be taken away from them, and they 
were exhorted to cling the closer to the Saviour, to keep 

' The collect is the stanza of a hymn, placed after the Scripture-verse. 



70 zeisbbrger's diart. 

together in love and unity, and not to give Satan the satis- 
faction of seeing the church destroyed. They could now 
perceive clearly and plainly enough that from the outset 
it had been their object and aim to hinder the Saviour's 
work and to destroy it utterly. There was such weeping 
in the room that our hearts broke. A stone might feel 
pity to see and hear the distress of the brethren; should 
not God feel pity for his elect, who wept and cried aloud 
to him? All the brethren who came home wept their fill 
with us, and we comforted them the best we could, 
though we ourselves needed comfort. Advice we could 
not and dared not give them, save a little, for good reasons, 
but only say to them to look to their old, sensible brethren, 
to obey them and do as they did. 

We could now see, from all the information we had 
heard for some time back, that already in the autumn, 
soon after our departure from Detroit, or while we were 
still there, it had been then resolved to have us all come 
there in the spring. Capt. Pipe had indeed said, in the 
council there about us brethren, that we should get per- 
mission to return to our Indian brethren ; but we heard 
after we were come home, that other Delaware captains 
had come in after our departure who were not pleased that 
the commandant had let us go, and since Pomoacan had 
again sent him a message about the matter, this order fol- 
lowed. We have also afterwards heard what he had had 
written the commandant about us, namely, he required that 
he should remove the ministers, for his heart did not feel 
right so long as he saw us there, and feared a mishap 
would come over him, and if he did not take us away, ho 
would take counsel with himself, for go we must. Thus 
it seems probable to us that the commandant would 
have given orders in the autumn, had we all been to- 
gether. Capt. Pipe also said to us himself, he had had a 
great contest with the other captains about this, who had 
not been content with him, and had said he had done 
every thing by himself, without their consent, he had 
therefore nothing more to say, and should be of no further 
account, whereupon, from vexation, he went away a 



UPPER SANDUSKY, 1782. 71 

long distance into the bush hunting. And it is true that 
Pipe had acted in our favor as far as he could, but the 
captains opposed him, and have now brought the matter 
so far that the Indian church is robbed of its teachers. 
Our intelligent Indian brethren would often have liked 
to open their mouths against the savages in regard to us, 
but have refrained, since we white brethren were in the 
power of the warriors, from fear we should suffer for it, 
or even lose our lives ; thus they preferred to be silent and 
let all manner of hardships come upon them. They now 
see very well what sort of friends they have, who made 
them many fine promises, how good they would have things 
here if they would come here. Instead of this they have 
suffered hunger and anxiety, their friends have not pro- 
vided for them, nor in any way helped them, their cattle 
have, for the most part, perished, and they are utterly 
poor, for they who had something had to give it up for 
corn. A brother came and said : " I am guilty of your 
misfortunes, for I have betrayed you as Judas betrayed the 
Saviour, and must now be lost unless you forgive me." 

Monday, 4. Few as are the brethren now at home, we 
spent the whole day in listening to them, comforting 
them, encouraging them, and exhorting them to stay fast 
by the Saviour and his death on the cross. We heard and 
saw now the condition of our brethren's hearts and minds, 
how disinclined they are to the heathen's life, and how 
dead to those friends who have brought them to such want 
and wretchedness. They are prepared and hardened for 
these circumstances, and their eyes have been opened. 
These events have conduced more to bring them to a 
proper state than we have been able to accomplish the 
whole time we have been with them ; for they always in- 
clined towards their friends, who did them harm. Many 
now said to us : "I care nothing for outward loss ; that I 
am stripped of every thing I had, and am become poor ; 
that I have to suffer hunger and want ; that all my cattle 
have perished : all this will I cheerfully endure and not 
be concerned, but that they at last rob us of our teachers 
and wish to destroy our souls' weal and food, that cuts 



72 zbisbbkgeb's diary. 

me deep to the heart, and is above every thing. They 
shall not see, however, that I associate with them, and 
take up again their heathenish life ; rather will I go into 
the bush, separate myself from all human society, and 
pass the rest of my life piteously. They shall not get me 
into their power nor force me to any thing for which I 
have no pleasure or inclination." [Others again had other 
plans, many of them, however, to go to Pittsburg.} Some 
said this from whom we had not expected it, and it was to 
us a great comfort to see them in such disposition of soul, 
but as often as they thought that in a short time they 
would see us no more, the tears immediately ran down 
their cheeks. 

Tuesday, 6. Br. Heckewelder held the early service 
over the Scripture-verse of the day : Thus saith the Lord 
God, Behold I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles, and 
set up my standard to the people, and they shall bring thy 
sons in their arms and thy daughters shall be carried upon 
their shoulders. Outstretched see his arms of love — Haste 
his tender heart to prove— Haste, ye sinners, ye will find — » 
Jesus casteth none behind. 

Wednesday, 6. We had a laborers' conference, and con- 
.sulted with the Saviour, among other things, what we 
could advise our brethren in these circumstances, now that 
we must leave them. We asked then, after we had de- 
clared our opinions one to another, whether, in these cir- 
cumstances, we should advise our assistants what to do 
after we were gone ? Answer, " No." 

Thursday, 7. We received sotne news of our brethren 
on the Muskingum that all was well, and that they were 
just about to come back again, that they were not without 
alarm for us white brethren, that something was happening 
to us and that we must be taken far away from them. The 
brethren at home came and wept over us, that in a short 
tin>e they would be forsaken and would bo like sheep 
without a shepherd, and many said : "0, could we only 
keep our teachers with us, I would certainly obey them 
better than I have hitherto done." Others again would 
take up arms and fight the matter out by force. 



UPi»EE SAKDUSKTy 1782. 78 

Friday, 8. The son of Br. Mark and his wife, Susanna, 
born in the bash Feb. 12, was baptized with the name 
Jonathan^ For several days we have rainy weather and 
at last severe thnnder- storms; the Sandusky has risen 
very much^ so that the high water will delay our journey. 

Saturday, 9. Michael held the early service over the 
Scripture- verse : The chastisement of our peace was upon 
him. Joachim came back from the Shawanese, and 
brought news that the others still there would follow in a 
day Of two. The high water keeps them back very much. 
From our brethren on the Muskingum we hear strange 
things, especially from the young people, in regard to us, 
since as yet they knew nothing about our forced departure. 
It begins to be clear to us why we neither should nor could 
advise our brethren. 

Sunday, 10. At last came some from the Shawanese towns, 
namely, Abraham, after we have some time awaited them. 
We long very much for our brethren on the Muskingum, 
for we can not get away until we have horses, and we must 
be prepared for the Wyandots taking us and carrying us 
on, into whose hands we have no wish to come, for we 
have already learned what it is to be in their power. 

Wednesday, 18. We sent out a messenger to meet those 
brethren who are on their way from the Muskingum, to 
bring them on, for we already feared some accident had 
befallen them, they were gone so long. 

Thursday, 14. Very early the Indian, George, came with 
the frightful news that all our brethren who went to Schon- 
brunn, Quadenhiitten,and Salem had been captured by the 
Americans and taken to Pittsburg; the messenger related 
many unpleasant things that occurred, for example, that 
they were bound and some killed, but all of this we could 
not believe. But that our Indian brethren are taken to 
Pittsburg is the more pleasing to us, were it only all of 
them there, and had they again a brother with them. We 
shall be glad to bear our captivity if only our brethren are 
rescued. 

Friday, 15. We went away from Sandusky in company 
with some Indian brethren. 



74 zetsbepgbr's diary. 

Departure from Sandusky, 1782. 

Friday, March 15, was the day appointed for our separa- 
tion from our Indian brethren and our departure, on which 
account a Frenchman^ came yesterday, who was to lead 
us safely and go with us to Detroit. The Half-King 
also came to-day to look on and be present at our depart- 
ure. Early in the morning we assembled for the last time 
in our room here with our brethren, who in accordance 
with our Scripture-verse of today: Therefore with joy 
shall ye draw water out of the wells. of salvation, were 
exhorted, now that we must leave them, to hold fast to 
the Saviour, who is the fount of all weal and blessed- 
ness, and to his wounds from which flow to us all that 
is good and blessed. They should always earnestly bear 
in mind that they have been cleansed of their sins by his 
blood and baptized into his death. In prayer upon our 
knees we thanked the Saviour for all the goodness and 
comfort we had enjoyed from him in all our unhappinesses 
and burdens, in all our need and danger from without, 
recommended as well ourselves, who were going away, as 
especially our Indian church to his mercy, to the care and 
oversight of the Holy Ghost, and to the guard and protec- 
tion of our dear heavenly Father, to hold them together 
until we should see each other again. We thought also of 
our brethren on the Muskingum in our prayer. Many hot 
tears were shed, which he will not leave unnumbered and 
disregarded. At the end was baptized into Jesus' death a 
well-grown child, the youngest daughter of Rachel, with 
the name Maria. The brethren then took leave of us one 
after the other, which to us on both sides was very griev- 
ous. Thereupon we went away, accompanied by some In- 
dian brethren and two sistere, to Lower Sandusky, in order 
to go on further to Detroit by some chance ship or by 
boats. Several brethren besides went some distance with 
us, and then turned back again. Since we did not all 
have horses, for we had lost all our own horses, and our 



^Mr. Lavallie, Heck. Nar., p. 329. 



JOURNEY TO DETROIT, 1782. 75' 

Indians 'could not get enough for us, most of them being 
on the Muskingum, some of us had to go afoot through 
water and swamps, yet we were glad that the sisters all 
had horses; but our things we had to leave behind. How 
woeful and grievous it was to leave our Indian church, can 
easily be imagined ; could we have taken this with us we 
might go where we would, but now that we must be sepa- 
rated from them, we have neither joy nor comfort. We 
came to-day about ten miles, to McGormick, near a Wyan- 
dot town, where we encamped under the open heaven. 
Here we sent back a messenger, and told our Indian breth- 
ren to bring our things after us by water. 

Saturday, 16. Here we were promised more horses, 
but our leader, the Frenchman, could buy none; there- 
fore many of us had to go by water in a canoe we had 
brought with us to pass a deep creek, as far as the 
falls, and thus far, to-wit, some twenty miles from Lower 
Sandusky, the creek is very fine for a canoe, but then 
we had to go altogether afoot, for our canoe was quite 
small, and we did not dare to go down the falls in it. 
Our safeguard, the Frenchman, lent meanwhile Br. David 
his horse to ride. He was very pleasant with us, and had pa- 
tience with the sisters. There were two days of very cold 
weather, so that we all caught bad colds, and it was a great 
wonder that the children,* whom the Indian sisters gener- 
ally carry in their blankets on their backs, bore it so well. 
Br. Edwards, who had to go all day afoot, through water 
and marsh, was quite cheerful, but came off with a lame 
leg, from which, after the journey was over, he suffered a 
week before he could again Walk. 

March 19. We came to Lower Sandusky, and encamped 
at first in the bush, pitching our tents there. This morn- 
ing, before we had broken up camp, one of our Indians 
came as messenger to us, who brought us the news that 
our baggage was coming down by water, and that they 
had heard nothing further from our brethren, who had 

* A daughter of Heckewelder, about a year old, and a son bf Sense- 
mann, still younger. De Schweinitz* Life of Zeisberger, p. 535. 



76 zeisbbrger's diary. 

gone to the Muskingum, whom we believed taken captive. 
Here were several white people, traders from Detroit, who 
trade here with the Indians, who received us and treated 
us well, for we had no food except what we had brought 
for the journey, and had also nothing else in our posses- 
sion, and took with us all we had, and that was now ex- 
hausted. But these people saw that we suffered no want^ 
and not that alone, but they took us into their houses and 
did not permit us to encamp in the open air. 

Here is a small Wyandot town, from which the Indian 
men had all gone out to fight with the Americans, and the 
whites were for the most part making sugar in the bush. 
To this point ships and vessels from Detroit can come up 
the Sandusky, but this seldom happens, unless troops are 
Bent over, for the traders bring their wares over in the 
boats. Also Frenchmen are here with the English traders, 
and many white prisoners from the Americans among the 
Wyandots, who do not give up their prisoners to the En- 
glish. They prefer, by keeping them, to strengthen their 
own nation. We met here Br. Conner and his wife, who 
moved here last autumn, when we went to Upper San- 
dusky, for they could maintain themselves better here. 

March 21. The Indian brethren, William, Abel, Adam 
and Joseph, the Delaware, and Sisters Martha, Au- 
gustine and Petty turned back again home to their 
friends. They had come with us thus far with horses. 
It was a renewed sorrow, for we thought never again 
to see any of our brethren. To them also we could give 
no advice, for we kliew not ourselves what would be best 
for them. Therefore we merely told them always to hold 
together as far as possible, wherever they might be, and 
not to be mingled and lost among the Indians. 

We learned now what had really been the occasion of 
our again being called to Detroit. We had indeed in the 
first place looked upon it as done by the commandant for 
our safety, and so indeed it was. But especially the Wy- 
andots, and in particular the Half-king, at the instigation 
of some white people, had complained to the commandant 
that so long as we were in Sandusky we corresponded 



JOUBNBY TO DETROIT, 1782. 77 

with the PittsburgerSjand would certainly yet bring them 
here to blot them out, on which account they besought 
the commandant to take us away, and send us back home 
again. The Half-king said : His affairs would not be well 
so long as we were there, and he feared still another mis- 
fortune to fall upon him. Yes, besides this, we heard, 
that if he had not quickly summoned us, they would have 
put us all to death. During the winter we had indeed 
forebodings of this, and an especial feeling that our se- 
curity wa^ not too well assured, yet we did not know that 
our lives stood in such continued danger, as we now 
heard from people who knew it very well from having 
always heard it from the ringleaders themselves. Thus 
we could look upon it as a providence from the Saviour, 
which he had thus prepared for our rescue since he will 
yet still uphold us. It had seemed to us, when we were 
taken from our place in Upper Sandusky, and driven out, 
so to speak heels over head, as if we went out of Sodom, 
only we pitied our Indian brethren, whom we now looked 
upon, and ever had upon our hearts and in our minds, as 
lost sheep that have no shepherd. The Wyandots, who 
have always appeared so especially friendly towards us, 
and we have believed it too that they were our good 
friends, they are now our greatest foes; for they have 
brought us and our Indians into the greatest misery, and 
have us, so to speak, in their power; they would like to 
extirpate us and our Indians, had they nothing to fear af- 
terward from other nations. And since they are angry 
with us, they are fearful about us, for their conscience ac- 
cuses them of having treated us so ill, and they fear that 
our Indians will take revenge on them, and make them 
some return for what they have done to us. The Half- 
King's brother, who came with us here, and who is to go 
with us to Detroit, probably that he may get a good pres- 
ent, but this in the end could not happen, and was un- 
necessary, he borrowed from a trader here the first night 
a pistol, and being asked what he wanted to do with it^ 
answered, he was afraid of us, that we should undo him; 
from which is to be seen that they have no good con- 



78 zeisberger's diary. 

science. That the Half-King's two sons last autumn died 
in the war, of that no one is accused except us, and he can 
not be persuaded otherwise. 

March 23. The Frenchman who is commissioned to 
take us to Detroit sent an express to the commandant 
there that he should send boats or a ship over to transport 
us, till that event we must remain here, meanwhile also 
the weather will become more tolerable, for it is yet too 
cold to go upon the lake, and at present, as we hear, it is 
not yet free from ice. By Joshua and Jacob, Rachel's son, 
who brought our baggage by water as far as the falls, we 
have to-day the first trustworthy and very affecting news 
of the horrible murder,* March 7th, of oiir Indian brethren 
in Gnadenhiitten, and March 8th, of our brethren in 
Salem. 

See our Scripture- verse for March 7th and 8th, which are 
worthy of note.* * Our brethren at home numbered 86 
missing, but they could not certainly say whether all were 
killed or some taken prisoners : we hoped the latter, and that 
some few, though not the greater part, are yet alive. Our 
Indian brethren during the whole winter had to make 
shift to live and suffered great hunger, for among the Wy- 
andots and Delawares, living in this neighborhood, noth- 
ing was to be had, for they themselves not only now, but 
every year, suffer want, for they are lazy and plant little, 
and although they got some corn from the Shawanese, 
yet it was not enough. Since now they heard from those 
who in the autumn had been taken to Pittsburg and had 
again come back, that in our towns there was'corn enough 
and that they had nothing to fear in going there to get 
it, they made ready and went away, for they feaw nothing 
else before them if they remained, than that they and their 
children must starve. We advised them at Christmas 
and on New Year's day to go there, for as long as the 
snow remained there was least danger, but they did not 

^Read also Heckewelder's account of this massacre in his narrative, 
and see W. H. Howell's account in the Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 23, 
p. 95. 

» Is. Ixvi., 19, and x., 22. 



MASSACRE AT GNADENHUTTEN, 1782. 79 

go until the snow melted and then it was too late and 
dangerous : when they were there they used not the least 
forethought, for they believed themselves quite secure. 
Instead of hastening to get away again, they stayed sev- 
eral weeks in the towns and fields, having then enough to 
eat. The most wonderful thing is that while hitherto 
our Indians had always been careful and distrustful and 
fearful, and if they thought themselves at all insecure, 
had fled into the bush, and at least would not pass the 
night in the towns, now when they really saw the dan- 
ger and the white people before their eyes, they were not 
at all suspicious and went straight into danger. 

The militia, some 200 in number, as we hear, came first 
to Gnadenhiitten. A mile from town they met young 
Scheboshin the bush, whom they at once killed and scalped, 
and near by the houses, two friendly Indians, not belong- 
to us, but who had gone there with our people from San- 
dusky, among whom there were several other friends who 
perished likewise. Our Indians were mostly on the plan- 
tations and saw the militia come, but no one thought 
of fleeing, for they suspected no ill. The militia came to 
them and bade them come into town, telling them no harm 
should befall them. They trusted and went, but were all 
bound, the men being put into one house, the women into 
another. The Mohican, Abraham, who for some time had 
been bad in heart, when he saw that his end was near, 
made an open confession before his brethren, and said : 
" Dear brethren, according to appearances we shall all very 
soon come to the Saviour, for as it seems they have so re- 
solved about us. You know I am a bad man, that I have 
much troubled the Saviour and the brethren, and have not 
behaved as becomes a believer, yet to him I belong, bad 
as I am ; he will forgive us all and not reject me ; to the 
end I shall hold fast to him and not lea/e him." Then 
they began to sing hymns and spoke words of encour- 
agement and consolation one to another until they were 
all slain, and the above mentioned Abraham was the first 
to be led out, but the others were killed in the house. 
The sistere also afterwards met the same fate, who also 



80 zeisbebgbr's diart. 

sarng hynins together. Christina,* the Mohican, who well 
understood German and English, fell upon her knees be- 
fore the captain, begging for life, but got for answer that 
he could not help her. Two welUgrown boys, who saw 
the whole thing and escaped, gave this information. One 
of these lay under the heaps of slain and was scalped, but 
finally came to himself and found opportunity to escape* 
The same did Jacob, RacheFs son, who was wonderfully 
rescued. For they came close upon him suddenly outside 
the town, so that he thought they must have seen him, 
but he crept into a thicket and escaped their hands. They 
knew his horses, which in the autumn they had seen at 
his home, and inquired for him, for he was one of those 
taken prisoners, probably therefore, by the very men who 
were now there. He went a long way about, and observed 
what went on. 

John Martin went at once to Salem when the militia 
came, and thus knew nothing about how the brethren in 
Gnadenhiitten fared. He told them there, the militia were 
in Gnadenhiitten, whereupon they all resolved not to flee, 
but John Martin took with himself two brethren and 
turned back to Gnadenhiitten, and told them, there were 
still more Indians in Balem, but he did not know how it 
had gone with them in Gnadenhiitten. A part of the 
militia went there on the 8th with a couple of Indians, 
who had come there to Salem and brought the brethren 
away, after they had first taken away their arms, and when 
they came to Gnadenhutten, before they led them over the 
stream, they bound them, took* even their knives from 
them. The brethren and the sisters alike were bound, led 
into town, and slain. They made our Indians bring all 
their hidden goods out of the bush, and then they took 
them away ; they had to tell them where in the bush the 

^ " Christina, another widow, who had heen an inmate of the Bethle- 
hem ' Sisters' House' in her youth, spoke English and German fluently, 
and was a woman of education and refinement, fell on her knees be- 
fore Col. Williamson, and addressing him in English, besought him to 
spare her life. ' I can not help you,' was his cold reply. •' De 
Bohweinitz' Life of Zeisberger, p. 549. 



MASSACRE AT GNADBNHUTTBN, 1782, 81 

bees were, help get the honey out; other things also they 
had to do for them before they were killed. Prisoners^aid 
that the militia themselves acknowledged and confessed 
they had been good Indians. They prayed and sang until 
the tomahawks struck into their heads. The boy who was 
scalped and got away, said the blood flowed in streams in 
the house. They burned the dead bodies, together with 
the houses, which they set on fire. 

In regard to the brethren in Schonbrunn, when we 
learned we were to be taken to Detroit, we sent at once a 
messenger to the Muskingum, for a very short time was 
given us for getting away, that they should come with the 
horses and help get us to Lower Sandusky, This messen- 
ger came to Schonbrunn on the very 7th of March when 
the militia reached Gnadenhiitten and delivered his mes- 
sage. They sent at once the same day a messenger to 
Gnadenhiitten to let them there and in Salem know what 
was happening here. Before the messenger got quite to 
Gnadenhiitten, he found young Schebosh lying dead by 
the wayside and scalped, and when he looked about he saw 
that many white people had gone to Gnadenhiitten. lie 
at once turned back to Schonbrunn and brought them this 
news, whereupon they at once retired. The militia sepa- 
rated the next day, one part going to Salem, the other to 
Schonbrunn,]where, however, they found no one, although 
our Indians saw them in the town; and of these, six perished 
who were in Gnadenhiitten and Salem, but no one of the 
others perished, and they all came back to Sandusky after 
we had already set out. This news sank deep in our 
hearts, so that these our brethren, who, as martyrs, had all 
at once gone to the Saviour, were always, day and night, 
before our eyes, and in our thoughts, and we could not 
forget them, but this in some measure comforted us, that 
they had passed to the Saviour's arms and bosom in such 
resigned disposition of heart, where they will forever rest, 
protected from the sins and all the wants of the world. 

The Wyandot and Delaware warriors, not only while 
we still lived on the Muskingum, but also now, when press- 
6 



82 ZEtSBBtlGGR'S DIABY. 

ing hanger drove our Indians there, have always labored 
to Ving upon us the whites, and whenever they came 
back from murdering they came through our towns, in 
order that, if they were pursued, the white people might 
fall upon us, and so they now also did, for as soon as our 
Indians went there, the warriors Went too and did harm 
to the settlements beyond the river. It happened then 
that a war party came to Gnadenhiitten with a prisoner, 
whose wife and child they killed near Gtiadenhiitten, and 
had impaled. The prisoner talked with our Indians and 
warned them to be oft*, for the whites were already assem- 
bled, would follow up the warriors, and fall upon them if 
they did not go away. When the warriors moved away 
he perceived that two of them remained behind. In the 
first night-camp afterwards, however, the prisoner escaped, 
and had the good luck to get oflF, and soon after this the 
militia came and made very sharp inquiries what they had 
done with the wife and child, but this they could not an- 
swer them. From this it can be concluded that the pris- 
oner had betrayed to them that*our Indians were there. 

March 25. Br. Sensemanii went up the river with two 
Frenchmen to the falls, to bring back our baggage with 
horses— so far the two Indian brethren had brought it 
down by water — and he came back the next day, but the 
two Indian brethren, Joshua and Jacob, returned to 
Sandusky. 

27. Through Mr. Robbius, a merchant here and our 
friend, who has come back from our Indians in Upper 
Sandusky, where he bought cattle, we heard that our In- 
dian brethren still kept up their meetings, and he told us 
he had himself been present at them, and had seen with 
his eyes how they sang together, exhorted and encouraged 
one another, and with one accord lifted up their voices 
and Wept aloud together, which had made deep impres- 
sion upon him, and he had great pity for their grievous 
circumstances, and to us also was it agreeable and pleasing 
that they kept up their meetings, as we bade 'them do at 
our departure. He said our Indians did not blame the 
white people that so many of them had lost their lives, 



.JOURNEY TO DETROIT, 1782. 88 

but the warriors, especially the Wyandots, who led us 
away captive, and had ruined the Indian church. These 
now rejoiced to have led and brought them into such mis- 
fortune and that so many are ruined. 

28* On Maundy-Thursday we were heart and soul in 
the church, and silently begged a blessing from the Sa- 
viour, for here we were with only the world about us, and 
could not have the Lord's supper. 

29. We read together to-day the story of the passion 
of our Saviour, who let himself be put to death for our 
sins, and by his death has brought back to us everlasting 
life, with humble and contrite hearts. So also on the 81st, 
Easter morning, we read the Easter litany, and at the 
proper place we prayed for eternal communion with our 
brethren, both on the Muskingum and in Sandusky; but^ 
above all with them, who on the 7th and 8th of this month 
perished as martyrs in Gnadenhiitten, the thought of 
whom goes always to our hearts. 

April 2. The brethren, Samuel Nanticoke, Matthew 
and Thomas came to visit us. The first two were come 
back from Schonbrunn, and had been present at the ca- 
lamity. But they knew no more than had already been 
told us, and of the brethren in Salem they knew thu« 
much, that they had been brought to Gnadenhiitten, where 
they were stripped and bound. We learned from them 
that the Half-King advised our Indians, after our depart- 
ure, to go away from that neighborhood and seek out an- 
other place, where they couid remain; that on this ac- 
count they resolved to move to another place towards the 
Miami (Maumee.) In this matter we could not advise 
them, since we did not ourselves know where there was a 
quiet place for them to find, for the world is on all sidea 
too narrow for ue. We knew not how to help ourselves, 
and our Indian church has among the heathen nations not 
a friend left, much less we, for we white brethren have 
the bitterest enemies in the Wyandots, Shawanese, and 
Delawares, by whom we are surrounded, and if the hand 
of God had not worked a mighty miracle for us, we should 
already long ago have been wiped away from the earth, 



84 zeisberger's diart. 

for there has been no lack of will on their part and of 
thirst for our blood, so long as we were with our Indians 
in Sandusky. A good thing it was that we knew it not 
then, as we afterwards heard enough about it, for we 
should have had ranch unnecessary perplexity, and the 
Baviour has spared us that. 

We conversed with the assistant, Samuel, and we told 
him our thoughts and disposition in regard to their dif- 
ficult and dangerous circumstances, and the great want in 
which our Indians now are; that all this hardship and 
their troubles have not come upon them without cause; 
they had sinned against the Lord, their God, had been 
disobedient to their teachers, had heaped sin upon sin, and 
if their teachers disciplined them therefor, and were strict 
with them, they had become wicked and scornful towards 
them, and when they got a chance, namely, when the war- 
riors were strong enough in our towns, had as good as be- 
trayed and sold their teachers, in order to show us we had 
no power to punish them for their sinful lives, as if they 
wished to show us that our life and position depended 
upon them; they wished to close our mouths that we 
might not bear witness against their wickedness and sinful 
ways ; we had great compassion with those who remained 
true and upright, who had to suffer with the guilty ; it 
grieved us to the heart that in all our need and perplexity 
there were yet ill-minded people among us, who were al- 
ways heaping more sin upon themselves, and who, now 
that we are away, always lay the blame upon their teach- 
ers that they fare so ill, and indeed even say we were the 
cause of the death of the brethren in Gnadenhiitten, and 
had well known it beforehand ; we looked upon all the 
evil which was come upon them as a deserved punishment 
from the Saviour upon them, and they would do well to 
confess their sins, and to repent of them, and to ask for- 
giveness from the Saviour, that he would again let them 
feel his mercy and pity ; to this the assistant, Samuel, re- 
plied *it was even so to him, and he had already long 
80 thought. 

These three brethren returned home on the 4th, but 



JOURNEY TO DETROIT, 1782. 85 

on the 5th came three families, namely, Adam, Ignatius, 
and Hachel, with their wives and ctiildren, so that we had 
always yet brethren with us. The poor people knew not 
where to turn, they are like sheep that have no shepherd, 
and it is a great comfort to them merely to see us once 
more, but we can not look upon them without great com- 
passion. , 

7. Warriors came in, bringing a prisoner, from whom 
we now get the certain news that all our Indians in Gnad- 
enhiitten and Salem were put to death, and that none 
were spared ; he said the militia had 96 scalps, but our 
Indians numbered only 86, who went away from us. The 
rest then must have been friends, who did not belong to 
us. The prisoner said farther that two men alone had ac- 
complished the whole murder after the Indians had been 
bound, and they had killed them one after the other with 
a wooden mallet. 

8. A groundless alarm arose among the Indians in 
town, that our Indians now here had killed a Wyandot 
woman or several women. This thus came about A 
woman was going home from her sugar-shed, and some 
miles from here heard a shout or phiyful outcry, and re- 
ported somebody must have been killed. When investi- 
gation was made, the story was found false. From this 
can be seen that they have no clear conscience, and are 
always afraid that our Indians may take vengeance upon 
them for having treated us so ill. 

From Upper Sandusky an Indian came as express, bring- 
ing news that after the militia came back from their mur- 
derous work in Gnadenhiitten, they killed also the Dela- 
wares, who had already lived a couple of years near the 
Fort; two from there escaped and came to Sandusky, one 
of whom is our Anton, who went away there from Salem to 
see his brother, but had spoken to no one about his plans. 
I have often thought during the time of our captivity, if 
we had retreated betimes to Fort Pitt with our Indians, as 
was several times proposed to us, we should have escaped 
all this want we have encountered. We have often thought 
about this and considered it in one way and another, but 



86 zeisbbrgxr's diart. 

could never make up our minds to it, finding too much op- 
position and difficulty in the way, so that we had to give 
up the plan. But now we plainly see that if we had gone 
there with our Indians, we should, unwittingly, have 
gone into the greatest danger. Nowhere is a place to be 
found to which we can retire with our Indians and be se- 
cure. The world is already too narrow. From the white 
people, or so-called Christians, we can hope for no protec- 
tion, and among heathen nations also we have no friends 
left, such outlaws are we ! but praise be to God, the Lord, 
our God yet lives, who will not forsake us. He will pun- 
ish us if we deserve punishment, that afterwards he may 
be the more merciful to us. 

April 11. A war- party arrived with these prisoners and 
two scalps. The prisoners confirm the news that none of 
our Indians remain alive, but of those in Pittsburg most 
have escaped. An Englishman who lives among the "Wyan- 
dots, who received the order to conduct us to Detroit, but, 
because, together with the Indians, he went to the war, had 
got another to take his place to go with us, came back 
from the war and showed himself a Satan towards us, 
swore at us, and threatened to bury the tomahawk in our 
heads. Through the whole night he drank his fill in the 
house where we were, and we were in danger of our life, 
not alone from him: a Wyandot squaw who robbed us in 
Schonbrunn, we heard say again and again, she would 
come and kill us all. We could not sleep the whole night, 
for he was like one mad, and woi'se than the drunken In- 
dians, yet the Saviour shielded us from harm, and let the 
angels sing': They shall be uninjured. 

18. Through the Indian brethren, Samuel Nanticoke 
and Thomas, who came last evening once more to see us, 
we learn that Mark, with half our Indians, has gone to 
the Shawanese. Abraham, William, Samuel and Corne- 
lius, however, with the other half, have gone into the 
neighborhood of Pipe's town, near the Delawares, but not 
to remain, but to settle further on near the Miami. That 
our Indians should take refuge among the Shawanese, of 
whom we have always warned them, was not a pleasant 



JOURNEY TO DETROIT, 1782. 87 

thiug for us to hear, for there is the very theatre of war 
ill the Indiaa laud. To-day two boata came from Detroit, 
sent by the conuuandant to carry us, for which we had 
long and eagerly waited, and with them came also a ser- 
geant and fourteen rangers to take us thither. The com- 
mandant wrote to the merchant in whose house we are, 
very favorably about us. He hoped that the English 
traders would have received us, and entertained us well, 
and if any one had done us harm or ill-treated us, he 
should let him know it. The sergeant with bis men had 
strict orders to treat us well, and to pla,ce us in no un- 
necessary danger while upon the lake, should it be 
stormy. 

14. After we had taken leave of our brethren who are 
here, and had recommended them to the mercy and pro- 
tection of God, we departed, and towards evening, passed 
through the little lake with a good wind; it was some- 
what rough, and Sister Susanna became somewhat sea- 
sick. At night we encamped on ^n island in the lake, 
where, for a year or more, two Frenchmen have lived, 
having come to-day somewhere about 30 miles. 

15. In the morning we came at once into Lake 
Erie and coasted along the west shore of the Lake, but 
could go on daily only a while in the forenoon and a 
couple of hours before evening, for the wind blew so hard 
that we had to run to land, and every night draw the 
boats ashore, if we did not find a suitable harbor or creek 
to run into, for otherwise the high waves would have 
straightway struck the boats to pieces, and therefore they 
had to be drawn ashore. On the 18th we came to Cedar 
Point, where there is no wood but cedar to be found. 
Not only here, but everywhere, so far as we b^rae, were 
many Indians, Chippewas, Potawatomies, Wyandots, 
Tawas, etc. 

19. We had to go over a bay, the wind was ahead and 
pretty strong, so that the waves struck well into the boat. 
This is the bay where the Miami falls into the lake. We 
got over by good luck, and then with a good wind 40 
miles and more into the straits, and in the afternoon of 



88 zeisberger's diart. 

the 20th to Detroit. Our boatmen, the rangers, who in 
other respects are like the Indians in manners and cus- 
toms, have borne themselves towards us in a very friendly 
and modest way. The sergeant took every care of us 
upon the lake and exposed us to no danger, and thereby, 
too, lost no time. With ships and large vessels you can 
go directly over the lake, with a good wind, in four and 
twenty hours from shore to shore. But with boats they 
dare not venture it, but must keep close in shore, so 
that if the weather be stormy they can land, and there it 
is often dangerous, if the wind sets from the lake towards 
the shore. 

We * were quartered here in the old fort in the barracks, 
where we were surrounded by soldiers alone, who daily 
had their drill in the fort at the parade place, and where 
all day long we heard nothing but drumming, fifing, and 
music. But we were glad and thankful to have a large, 
roomy chamber to ourselves, and no one disturbed us or 
put any obstacles in our way. The commandant. Major 
de Peyster, soon summoned Br. David. A sentinel, 
however, was placed before our quarters until he had 
spoken to us. He said to Br. David he had not expected 
to see us so soon again when he sent us away in the au- 
tumn, but so many complaints had come in against us, to 
which, however, he gave no credence and which he be- 
lieved/alse, that he was compelled to call us away from 
Sandusky and to have us come here; he had done it 
against his will, but must needs do it for the sake of our 
own safety, to make us come here, for he could assure us 
that our lives were in the greatest danger if we re- 
mained longer in Sandusky. [He had received Br. David's 
letter.] Now that we were here, he wished to leave it to 
us to remain here or to go home, and if we chose the 
latter, to leave it entirely to us if we wished to go away, 
for in two days a ship would depart for Niagara in which 
we could go if we wished, but if we wanted to stay a week 
longer, that a ship went then, too, and we could do as we 

*For a description of Detroit in 1778, see Sketches of Detroit, p. 5. 



IN DETROIT, 1782. 89 

pleased ; Br. David could come again to him after a while 
and speak to him. He answered him that we had also so 
regarded our removal from Sandusky as done for our 
safety's sake; the charges brought against us were all 
quite false and unfounded; as for our going home, we 
asked time for consideration until the second ship went, 
since this occasion was too soon for us. He was well 
content with this, and added also that if we wished to go 
now, we should gain nothing, it were just as well to wait 
till August. He said he would give orders that care 
should be taken for our maintenance, that we should suf- 
fer no want, and if we needed any thing we should say 
so. Br. David gave him our thanks. Then the command- 
ant came himself to our quarters, saw us all, and greeted 
us most cordially. 

22. Still another prisoner was added to our number, 
whom the Indians brought in day before yesterday. He 
was from North Carolina, acqtiainted in the Wachau :^ 
he was captured by the Indians with another man in Ken- 
tucky and would be sent to Canada in the next ship that 
went. 

25. Br. David went early to the commandant, who in- 
vited him to breakfast, and Br. David improved the occa- 
sion to speak to him about our mission, and asked him 
whether there were no possibility that we and our In- 
dians could settle somewhere in this neighborhood under 
his protection ; that he had heard a Gov. Sinclair lived at 
Michilimackinac, who, if he were the same person, had 
offered to our brethren in London several years before, a 
place for a settlement on his land with the object of their 
having an opportunity to convert the natives, who are nu- 
merous and strong there, to the Christian belief. He took 
notice of what Br. David said, and answered : Gov. Sin- 
clair was in Michilimackinac, his land lay not far off on 
Lake Sinclair, but it was inhabited, and he did not think 
it suitable and pleasant for our Indians; but seven or 
eight miles down the river towards Lake Erie was an isl- 

^A name given to the Moravian purchase in Stokes and Forsyth 
counties, N. C. 



90 zbisberobb's diaby. 

and, where perhaps they could live, only it was very much 
overgrown with wood, and would be hard for Indians to 
clear. He had himself a stretch of land situated near Lake 
Erie, and should its position be agreeable to us, we were wel- 
come to settle on it. He said further : the Catholic priests 
had taken great pains since this land was inhabited by 
white people to bring the nations over to the Christian re- 
ligion; they had found also among the "Wyandots some 
admission, but with the Chippewas could do nothing, 
though they had taken pains with them. They did uot 
live steadily in towns, but moved from one place to another 
on Lakes Huron and Superior, hunting and fishing, but 
planted nothing, and thus their mode of life made it hard 
to do any thing among them ; there was said to be such a 
number of them that where they began and how far they 
extended, was not yet known, and some estimated them at 
30,000 strong, which also the royal interpreters main- 
tained, who were best acquainted with them. In con- 
clusion, the commandant said to Br. David he would re- 
flect upon his propositions, have him called again, and 
give him further information. We were glad that yet one 
chance showed itself of rescuing the remnant of our In- 
dian church. 

On the 27th he summoned Br. David again, who went 
together *with Br. Edwards, when he said to us he had 
thought over what Br. David had proposed, and if we 
made up our minds to remain here and get our Indians 
here, there should be no lack of help on his part; we 
should reflect upon it, and let him know our conclusion, 
which we promised soon to do, and expressed to him our 
thanks and gratitude for his help and good disposition to*- 
wards us. 

The brethren consulted together in the matter, and it 
was especially called to our mind that here the Saviour 
bad given us occasion to assemble and rescue our mission, 
or what was left of it, so that there could well be no ques- 
tion whether we should accept the commandant's offer, 
for it was our duty and necessity to venture every thing 
for our Indian church, and to receive such an oflfer with 



IN DETROIT, 1782. 91 

a thousandfold joy. But to do away with every doubt 
and to be able to act in the matter with greater assurance 
and joy, we wished to know exactly our Saviour's will and 
have his approbation. We asked him accordingly, and 
begged him to advise us according to his heart, and he 
gave us to understand his good pleasure that we should 
call our Indians here and accept the commandant's propo- 
sition ; should take this with joy and regard our mission 
as not altogether a thing of the past, but should regard it 
as a token that he wished to get together again here in 
this neighborhood his Indian church. And so we told the 
commandant that since he had given us hope that our 
mission could be saved from perfect ruin, we accepted his- 
proposition with joy, for we felt ourselves bound to ad- 
venture body, life and all for it. We quite gave up the 
idea of going home, but would remain here; we asked, 
however, from him that he would send word to our In- 
dians, call them here, and at the same time let them know 
that we awaited them here, and, if they came, had permis- 
sion to live with them; that this should be done as soon 
as possible, that no time might be lost, and that the In- 
dians might yet do some planting. He promised to do for 
us all we thought necessary. He wished, however, first to 
speak with the Chippewa chiefs, who were in town, 
whether they would not let our Indians settle on their 
land some twenty miles from here on Huron river (now 
Clinton), and he did not doubt they would give their con- 
sent ; he would put this going this very day and make 
preparations, and if this succeeded he would call us and 
give us further information. What moved him to favor 
this plan was this : he saw very well that if we lived be- 
low Detroit we should be much disturbed, not only by the 
Wyandots, who live the other side of the river, but also 
by warriors, since the road goes that way, but above the 
city we should not have this to fear, for the Chippewas do 
not go to war, and both he and many people in the city 
said to us they were much more tractable and approach- 
able than the Wyandots and many others. 

May 2. We had a chance to speak to an Indian, who. 



92 zbisberqer's diary. 

ten days before, had come from the Shawanese, from 
whom we got some news of our Indians, who have moved 
there, and because in the morning he was going back 
there again, we spoke with the commandant about send- 
ing by this opportunity a message to our Indians. He was 
at once willing, and asked whether one or two of us would 
not like to go too. We considered this, and replied that it 
did not seem advisable for us to go there; in the first 
place, since certain white people among the Wyandots, who 
are our avowed enemies, would set the Indians against us 
with force, and would make every effort to get us al- 
together out of the way, and would say to the Indians : 
•" You see you are not rid of these people ; you must bring 
about their destruction." And secondly, if we came to our 
Indians, and the Shawanese, Delawares, and Wyandots 
hear we have come with such intentions, to take our In- 
dians away, we should not only find great opposition, but 
we should not be sure of our lives. He readily saw this, 
and therefore sent a Frenchman with the Indians, with a 
written message and a string of wampum, and sumn\oned 
them to come here to their teachers, and he let them know 
that here we had freedom to remain ; they should all come, 
and if all would not or could not come, yet some, at least, 
and if this could not be, that the three brethren who were 
expressly named, Samuel, William, and Mark, should cer- 
tainly come. He said also that if our Indians there were 
well provided for, he had no objection to our going back 
and living with them, but this we at once declined, saying 
that this could not be in the Indian land while the war 
lasted. He said farther, that he was sorry we had so 
much trouble about our mission ; we must not think him 
the cause of it. He was not guilty of our misfortunes, 
but during this war had to let many a thing happen which 
he did not approve, but yet could not prevent. He would 
not, for all the world, have the reputation of having ruined 
our mission, such a praiseworthy work among the In- 
dians ; he wished to be helpful to us in every possible way, 
that our Indians should again be got together and estab- 
lished in a secure place, and if they came there, he would 



IN DETROIT, 1782, 93 

furnish some head of cattle for our use at the outset, since 
we had lost every thing ; he would also give our Indians 
tools and whatever they needed to cultivate the ground 
again. He had spoken with the Chippewas and arranged 
with them that we and our Indians should settle on the 
Huron river, some twenty miles from here, which was said 
to be a fine place and good land. We expressed to him 
our gratitude and recognition of his kindness and good- 
will. The messengers departed the next day, the 3d, and 
we spoke both with the Indian and also with the French-* 
man about the message to our Indians. 

6. By a ship, bound for Ifiagara, Br. David sent a letter 
to Bethlehem by way of Montreal aijd New York, the 
first letter since our captivity. The commandant in his 
own hand wrote the address, that it might go unhindered. 
In this ship we should have gone, when we first came, but 
this is now changed since we await our Indians here. The 
ship was filled full of prisoners, sent to Canada, and with 
Indians, with them also our fellow prisoner went away, 
Moore by name. 

7. Since a boat went to Lower Sandusky, Br. David, 
with the consent of the commandant, sent a message to a 
trader there, to send an express to our Indians in Upper 
Sandusky, and tell them they should all come here to- 
gether, the sooner the better, in case the message sent to 
our Indians among the Shawanese should be late in reach- 
ing them. 

10. We heard from the interpreter of the Chippewas the 
description of the land on the Huron river, that it is a fine 
country, good land, and lies some ten miles up the river, 
and thus somewhat out of the way. This man, who was 
the intrepreter in the affair, and knew all about it, told us 
that the chiefs were asked whether they had any objection 
to the Christian Indians settling with their teachers on 
their land ; they made only one objection, that perhaps the 
Delaware nation would not be pleased, and would look 
upon them as having drawn their friends away from 
them and alienated them. This notion was soon taken 
from them, for the commandant and Bawbee (the Indian 



84 zbisbergbr's diart. 

agent) said, since the Delawares bad driven the ministers, 
their teachers, out of their land, and would no longer have 
them there, thereby they had also driven away the Chris- 
tian Indians and hunted them off, and thus they must go 
where they would be received, and the Delawares had no 
right to say any thing against it. We learned now also 
that the labd belonged to Mr. Bawbee, tb whom the chiefs 
had given it. 

12. The notorious McKee and Elliot came from the 
Shawanese; we hoped to hear something about our In- 
dians there, but from such people no good news is to be 
expected. 

18. But to-day we had the pleasure of seeing here our 
Gabriel, with an unbaptized Indian besides, who had just 
come here from there, and we heard that they were all 
well. They met the messengers to our Indians on the way, 
but knew nothing about the matter. 

14. Br. David was summoned to the commandant, who 
wished to know the contents of the letter he had written 
to Bethlehem, since he wrote about this to the general in 
Canada, and recommended him to send on the letter, say- 
ing that he knew its contents. Br. David translated it into 
English to his satisfaction. 

17. Since the commandant had a house vacant for us 
outside the town, where prisoners had lived who were now 
sent to Canada, we moved out of the barracks to-day into 
our lodgings near Yankee Hall, close by our house, which 
has its name from the fact that only prisoners who were 
brought in by the Indians live there. 

19. We recommended ourselves in stillness to the care 
of God on this day of the Holy Ghost, and begged of him 
to make us mindful of all that our dear Lord will have 
done by us to fulfil with us his aim and end. We read 
the printed discourse of the sainted disciple (Count Zin- 
zeudorf) upon this festival, with a blessing for our hearts. 

20. We saw that the Indian who had been sent as mes- 
senger to our Indians was come back. Br. David went 
to the commandant to learn how things looked, and 
found out that the Indian had turned about at the Miami, 



IN DETROIT, 1782. 96 

since the Indians he met told him that our Indians were 
all scattered, that none would come, and it was in vain to 
call them, but that the Frenchman had continued his jour- 
ney to them, and in accordance with his order would de- 
liver his message ; thus we have still some hope that some 
one of our Indians will come ; 

24, but we heard from an Indian acquaintance that the 
greater part of our Indians was still together near San- 
dusky, that as soon as Br. David's letter came to Lower 
Sandusky, one of our Indians who was there went away 
at once to them with the message. We wish they would 
soon come, so as yet to do some planting. 

Sunday, 26. We read together the church litany. 

Thursday, 30. To-day, as also through the whole week, 
a multitude of Chippewas has come in, who were sum- 
moned to go to the war. They are praised by all the other 
nations-for being the best and most kindly Indians, but 
even such Indians are much corrupted by white people, 
and led to every offense. 

Sunday, June 2. Br. David baptized in the city, upon 
request, a merchant's child, Elizabeth, and at the ceremony 
delivered a short discourse to those present, who were very 
attentive, and 

Monday, 8, at the commandant's request, through a 
sergeant, he attended the burial of one dead, whereby like- 
wise he spoke a word of exhortation to those present. 

Tuesday, 4, was a great festival and holiday, the king's 
birthday, which was very solemnly celebrated. 

Friday, 7. We learn from Wyandots who have come 
in from Sandusky that our Indians have received the com- 
mandant's message, and make ready to come, that they 
were already busy planting. This was uncommonly pleas- 
ant for us to hear, and gives us new hope of seeing again 
soon our people, as we have long heartily desired. 

Saturday, 8. From Delaware Indians who came from 
Sandusky we heard the same about our Indians, with the 
addition that since there is great famine among them, as 
among all Indians, the like of which has never been, our 
Indians had gone to the Muskingum to get corn, on which 



96 zeisberqer's diary. 

account they will not yet come. We desire nothing so 
much as to see again our Indians, for we fear their perfect 
ruin and destruction. 

Monday, 10. News'camein of a fight between the Virgin- 
ians and English and Indians in Upper Sandusky, in which 
the first had the worst (in Crawford's Campaign), In this 
aff^air we could think of nothing but our Indian brethren, 
and recommend them to the Saviour's protection. Had 
we still been there, where we were last winter, it would 
have been hard with us and dangerous, for we were just 
under headway when we heard that they had gone back 
to our town where we had been, but where no one was 
left. The messenger told Br. David they had sought to 
make such an expedition as in Gnadenhiitten, but came off 
worsted. 

Friday, 14. To-day and for several days all sorts of ru- 
mors have been flying about and many preparations made 
for war. In a ship from Sandusky the Conners came here 
with their children ; they had to come on account of the 
unrest caused by war. Of our Indians we heard that they 
were all with the Shawanese and had received the message, 
both Br. David's letter, and the commandant's, and are yet 
awaited here. 

Sunday, 16. We read together a discourse of the sainted 
disciple from the extracts about Matthew's Gospel. 

Tuesday, 18. We again had some news of our Indians 
from two prisoners, that they all lived by themselves to- 
gether in one town, had built houses and planted, that as 
soon as they could be ready they would come here. 

Saturday, 22. During the week we have heard on every 
hand rumors that do not much concern us. We daily saw 
many Chippewas and Tawas, some of whom at times vis- 
ited us. Their speech has much likeness with the Dela*' 
wares, and we wished our Indians might soon come. Who 
knows whether the Saviour may not gain some of these, 
for among them the priests here have found no reception. 

Sunday, 23. Br.David preached to a number of prison* 
ers, men and women, in English, and baptized a child, 
Elias Schmidt, Many were right glad to hear a sermon 



IN DETROIT, 1782, 97 

again, and wished to do so oftener if only we had a place 
or house suitable. 

Wednesday, 26. Br, David spoke with the command- 
ant, from whom he sought information, but he had not yet 
heard from our Indians that they were coming; he had 
learned nothing about them, and wondered at it, Br. 
David told him his concern about the matter, namely, that 
white people in the bush among the Indians held them 
back and would make them cautious about coming here. 
Whereupon he answered, he did not expect that, for he 
had expressly written to them to send our Indians here. 
•*Thus he believed they would come when first they had 
planted. He said further, we should not think that he in 
any way put us off with fine promises and wished to make 
things appear other than they were ; he was honorable and 
upright towards us, and he had promised us in the first 
place to do for us what was in his power, that we might 
continue our work among the Indians. Br. David an* 
swered we had not the least doubt about him, but that 
there were people who found pleasure in utterly ruining 
our mission, and were not fully content with what they 
had already done. He said he saw very well we had many 
enemies among the Indians, and it was good luck for us 
that we came here betimes, for he had good grounds for 
believing that at this time we should not have been safe 
among the Indian people, certainly we should all have per- 
ished had we remained in Sandusky; that he had also 
heard thalf our Indians were reported to have said [but to 
this he paid little regard] that if they knew their teachers 
were sent home they would go to the war too, but since 
we were yet here in Detroit, could not do so. Br. David 
answered him: there could be some bad young men who 
wished to go to the war ; against that he would not con- 
tend, but from this no conclusion was to be drawn about 
the whole, for among such a number of people there might 
well be some bad people, and this could hardly be avoided. 

Sunday, 80. We read together a discourse of the sainted 
disciple, from the text: Immanuel, God with us. A Qer- 
7 



98 ZBtSBERQSK'S BIART. 

man soldier anked to borrow a book from us, to whom we 
gave one of the sainted disciple's printed discourseffj aa we 
have several times already lent to others. It is something 
wonderful here and pleasant, if any one is found who 
shows a desire for God's word, for the place here is like 
Sodom, where all sins are committed. The French have 
indeed a church here and a priest, who, however, is quite 
old, and never preaches, but merely reads mass. On the 
south side of the river are also a church and a priest, where 
both French and Indians go, there to be seen in their 
heathenish garb, with painted heads in full war-array. 
But the English and Protestants have neither church nor' 
preacher, and wish for neither, although they could have 
them if they would. The Indians wonder at this, as is 
natural, for they see among the so-called Christians no good 
examples, but bad alone. The Wyandots, though already " 
baptized, are not only heathen, but much worse than many 
heathen, much more savage and blood-thirsty, for the 
Chippewas, none of whom is baptized, are much more 
humane and kindly disposed towards their fellow-men, and 
are much easier to get along with. 

Sunday, 7. Br. David preached in English in a French- 
man's house, who offered it to us from seeing that the 
place where preaching usually was, was too small, and a 
fine number came together, mostly prisoners. 

Monday, 8. At last, after long waiting, we had the 
pleasure of welcoming here with us two families of our In- 
dian brethren, namely, Samuel Nanticoke and Adam, with 
their wives and children. They left behind two or three 
families, namely, Abraham, Zachary, Thomas, who also 
are already on the way here. They came from the Shaw- 
anese towns, where most of the brethren live together, and 
have planted. Our Indians had received both Br. David's 
letter and the major's message, and were joyful over themi 
bad likewise resolved to make ready at once and to come 
here. But since from the want of supplies for the journey 
[for they suffer great hunger], they could not at once put 
this in execution, they wore made to hesitate by Indians 
who went there from here, who told them as a fact we 



IN DBTRorr, 1782. 99 

were do longer In Detroit, but were sent down the country; 
this they had not merely heard, but with their own eyes 
had seen us go aboard ship and sail away. This caused 
their journey to be given up. But their brethren would 
not rest content with this, but wished to be certain, to 
come here and see for themselves whether we were yet 
here or not. They were not less rejoiced than we to meet 
us here. They said to us they could find no rest, and it 
had not been well with them since we left them; they were 
forty days on the journey, had suffered great hunger, so 
that a sister once nearly wasted away from hunger. We 
soon gave them enough to eat, and Br. David informed 
the major, and got an order for them to draw provisions. 
Now we wished to see here only our dear old Abraham. 

Wednesday, 10. With our Indians who have built 
their huts near our house we had this evening some sing- 
ing. This was to all people something extraordinary, 
which in the case of Indians they had never seen nor 
heard. Many came and were present. Others, since it 
was in the street outside the town, stood still as they were 
going by; others again got upon the palisades in the ship- 
yard and listened, but no one made any disturbance. 

Thursday, 11. There came another of our Indians, Jo- 
seph by name, who had arrived with warriors, but had 
known nothing about us, that we are here. He had left 
our Indian brethren nine days ago, and said most of tljem 
were rather listless and in doubt about ever seeing us 
again ; but if they should learn that we were here, and 
that they would again be with us, most of them would 
come here ; he knew also many who had no thought of 
coming. He begged on*his own account, saying: " You 
see well, my brethren, that I no longer look like a brother 
[for he was painted like a savage]. I had already quite 
given up the hope of ever again having the opportunity 
of hearing Gbd's word, as most of us have, and so I 
thought I n^ust get favor with the savages and make my- 
self like them, so as not to be persecuted, but so soon as I 
saw that the Indian brethren came together again, and 



100 ' zeisbbrger's biart. 

that the brothers are with them, I wished to beg jou to 
receive me again." 

We did not fail to give our Indian brethren news of as 
as often as we had a chance, and a week before, by some 
white prisoners who went there, we had again sent them 
word, and yesterday Conner also was dispatched there on 
business by the commandant, and him we ordered to give 
exact information, so that we expect most of them ; but 
it requires time and patience, for they, with their families, 
must get through with great trouble and accomplish it 
with the Indians, for they have nothing to live on. We 
did not doubt, however, that many of them were fallen 
into error, for many have already departed and are scat- 
tered. Besides they are in danger from these wolves, since 
the Shawanese and Delawares, whose neighbors they are, 
will not let them go, if they hear they wish to come again 
to us ; they will not permit the brothers to be again with 
them, to which they now think they have put an end. 

By ships in from Fort Erie the cheerful news comes that 
an armistice has been concluded and that there is hope of 
speedy peace, wherein we had more interest and joy than 
the inhabitants here showed. 

Saturday, 13. Since now two families of our Indians 
have come to us, who altogether make fourteen persons, 
and according to every appearance we can not soon expect 
more, for we understand that our Indians are very incred- 
ulous about finding us here and have let their courage fall, 
we considered together for and against, whether it were 
good and practicable to go with them, the two families of 
Indian brethren, to the place appointed for us, or whether 
we should not wait for them and delay until more came. 

In order then to cause ourselves no unnecessary trouble 
and difficulty, not to build upon uncertainty, and not to 
do any thing in doubt, we asked the Saviour's advice 
therein, and he let us know that his good pleasure is that 
we, with the two families of Indian brethren, should be- 
take ourselves to the appointed place as soon as possible. 
This, his gracious advice, was not only quite according 
to our own wish, but we were heartily thankful therefor, 



IN DETROIT, 1782. 101 

and now we could set to work with comfort and confi- 
dence, in case difficulties should arise, especially from the 
Chippewas, we are so few: thus we knew the Saviour's 
will. [Evening service.] 

Sunday, 14. There came, ahout half-past one, a hun- 
dred Chippewas from Michilimackinac, who were sum- 
moned here to go to the war. They were welcomed hy 
the discharge of three cannon from the Fort. This is no 
token of an armistice with the Indians. 

At the meeting with our Indians from to-day's Scripture- 
verse : The people that walked in darkness have seen a 
great light; this meeting we held daily in the open air 
from want of other place. Many white people came, and 
all were attentive. 

Monday, 15. Br. David made an early visit to the com- 
mandant, to whom he announced our intention to move 
with our Indians into the bush, and to this end begged his 
aid. Since, however, he was getting off ships and also In- 
dians, and had other pressing business to attend to, he 
bade us have patience until he had accomplished what 
was most necessary ; he hoped in a couple of days to be 
able to see to us, and then he would undertake and de- 
spatch our aflPiftirs. We again sent a message to our In- 
dians by Delawares, that we were going with those now 
here into the bush, and that we awaited them with long- 
ing hope. We learned by experience that either they did 
not give our message at all, or indeed gave quite the op- 
posite of it, that our Indians might not come here. This 
evening unexpectedly, to the hearty joy of us all, came 
our old Indian brother, Abraham, to us with one more 
family. We had always wished this; if only he would 
come before our departure we should be comforted, and 
now, praise be to God, we begin our mission anew, with 
four families of Indian brethren, a plain and simple 
beginning, but we have no doubts, for the Saviour, whose 
own affair it is, the honor and the shame, he will bless and 
prosper us in accordance with the promise in our Scripture- 
verse of to-day : Yet will I gather others to him besides 
those that are gathered unto him. On this day, and with 



102 zbisbbegbr'8 diary. 

this Scripture-verse, a year ago Brs, David Zeisberger, 
and Jungmann, with their wives, arrived from Bethlehem 
at Sehonbrunn on the Muskingum. 

Thursday, 18. Br. David went again to the major to 
speak with him about our departure. He was exceedingly 
inclined to be helpful to us in every way with what wa« 
needful. He gave us at once a written order to draw from 
the king's store tools, provisions, and whatever we needed, 
and our Indians were not forgotten either; on their ac- 
count he gave a separate written order for all that Br. 
David told him to be necessary for them, all which they 
took and provisions besides. When Br, David told him at 
the same time that two more families were come, and that 
we expected others soon, this was pleasant both for him 
and for his lady to hear. She provided us also with seeds 
of all sorts for planting, and the major was so good as to 
lend us his own boat, with sails, to go away in, and gave 
us besides a large canoe to keep for our own use. 

Br. David spoke particularly with him about the 
French priests, asking whether we were likely to have from 
them any care or trouble, and whether they could not 
put some difficulty in our way ; it was not the business of 
the brethren to interfere in other people's work, and to 
labor for Indians who were already under the care of others, 
but we by far preferred to have to do with those who had 
not yet heard of the gospel, as, for instance, the Chippe- 
was; since now they would be our neighbors, it might 
happen that some of them would receive the gospel, and 
the French priests would conceive suspicion and jealousy 
of the brethern, therefore Br. David wanted to tell him 
this beforehand to avoid all misunderstandings. The 
major answered that we should be easy about this ; 
the priests should not be hard and troublesome to us, 
and should they put obstacles in our way, the thing 
would touch him and they must arrange it with him. At 
our evening meeting many French and English were 
present. 

Friday, 19. We prepared for our journey. Our Scrip- 
ture-verse read : Thy children shall make haste. We had 



CLINTON WVBR, 1782. 108 

from the first resolved that Brs. Heckewelder and Sense- 
man should stay here with the children, and at the same 
time help forward sugh of our Indians as might arrive 
from time to time. 

Saturday, 20. We set'out with four families of Indian 
brethren, namely: Brs. Zeisberger and Jungmann, with 
their wives, two unmarried brethren, Wm. Edwards and 
Miohael Young, with the Indian brethren, Abraham and 
Anna, Samuel and Sttra Nantiooke, Adam and Sabina, 
Zachary, and Anna Elizabeth, and eleven children, among 
them two great girls, in all 19 Indian souls. Our neigh- 
bors, prisoners from Kentucky, who during our stay here 
had been with us daily, were sorry to lose our companion- 
ship, even were so much affected as to weep for us. Three 
miles from the city we came to an island where we took 
aboard our two pilots, who were to conduct us to the ap- 
pointed place, t'owartls noon, with a good wind, we came 
into Lake St, Clair, At the upper end of this lake Gov. 
St. Clair, at present Governor in Michilimackinac, holds 
lands and estates. Since we sailed out in the lake far 
from land, we fastened the two canoes in which most of the 
Indians were, to our boat, in order to be able to protect 
them in case a strong wind should arise, and so we reached 
the land in the evening, when it was already dark. . But 
we wore in no condition to land, notwithstanding we tried 
our best, on account of the marsh which stretches along 
the shore far into the lake. Besides, on account of the 
mosquitoes, we could not stay in the marsh, and must con- 
sequently sail out into the lake and pass the night in the 
boat. Our pilots could not recognize the place because it 
was night and were uncertain in their reckoning. The 
wind blew somewhat hard till midnight, and we were in 
fear a gale would spring up, but afterwards it became more 
calm, and we rested until morning. 

Monday, 21. When it was day the pilots recognized the 
land, that we yet had the mouth of the Huron river before 
us, and not behind us, as they had thought. We ran up 
there this forenoon, and after landing, cooking something, 
and refreshing ourselves, we went all day up the river. 



104 zeisberobe's diart. 

From Detroit our coarse was north-east as far as the 
Huron river, then north-west. The river is very deep, 
with hardly any current, so that oars have to be used. In 
the evening we came to the place appointed for us to set- 
tle in, and encamped, but were welcomed by mosquitoes 
and so badly treated that we had little rest, although we 
' made a fire round about us, so that the air was filled with 
smoke and steam. Thus far we have found no place sat- 
isfactory to us, for all the land we have seen is too low, 
swampy, and exposed to overflow, though we landed sev- 
eral times and examined several places. Besides we did 
not dare to settle within a distance of eight miles from the 
lake, for the land both sides of the river belongs to some 
Detroit merchants. We did not wish so to do either, for 
it was no place for us. Since now the place of our encamp- 
ment, which the pilots had assigned us, did not quite please 
us, though indeed it lies higher than all the land we have 
seen here, and is also good, rich soil, we examined, the 
22d, further up the creek, and found on the south side of 
the river a fine place to lay out a town on a height, not 
inferior to that at Schbnbrunn, and it has the same slope, 
according to the compass, and the course of the river, 
which Schonbrunn had. 

On the north-east side of the town, between the river 
and the height, there are many springs along the height, 
which in separate little brooks flow into the river, and have 
exceedingly good water, which in this countrj^ is a rare and 
unusual thing. The land on the site of the town is sandy, 
which is a token [and therefore the more pleasant to us] 
that it is not wet and marshy, as is nearly all the land in 
this country. The bottoms or lowlands are very rich, but 
very thickly overgrown with heavy timber. The common 
kinds of trees are oak, poplar, linden, walnut, ash, hick- 
ory, elm, beech, and a great number of sugar-trees and 
wild-cherry trees, which have a fine red wood, of which in 
Detroit the most beautiful cabinet-work is made, and which 
is much finer than walnut. There are asps and sassafras, 
these last of such thickness as we had nowhere seen before, so 
that boards two feet wide could be cut from them. The 



CLIKTON RIVER, 1782. 105 

uncojnmon height of the trees shows us that this is no cold 
climate. Hills there are none, but everywhere the land is 
flat. There are stones in the creek, but only a few, else- 
where none. The hunting is good, and our Indians shot 
their first deer to-day. Thus we chose this place before 
all others for our town-site, as the only one in this neigh- 
borhood, and we went there to-day, pitched our tents, for 
heavily-laden boats, too, can go even to the fork, a half 
mile higher up than we are, and canoes much farther. We 
were glad and thankful to have found so good and, accord- 
ing to all appearances, so healthy a spot, where for a town- 
site nothing was lacking, and we could lay out plantations 
both sides of the river, as we pleased. 

In the evening services held near our fire, to-day's Scrip- 
ture-verse was the subject of consideration : For ye shall go 
out with joy and be led forth with peace. "With a mother's 
hand leads he his own. It is still another advantage that 
we live here so apart, where we hear nothing of what goes 
on in the world, and that we quite alone can be in com- 
munion with our unseen Friend, whom we love so much. 

Tuesday, 23. Last night there was a heavy, severe thun- 
der-storm, and a tree was struck hardly a stone's throw 
from our huts. Br. Heckewelder returned to Detroit in 
the boat with the two pilots who had shown us the way to 
this place. We at once made preparations to plant some 
vegetables, the plants we had brought with us. Thus we 
did the following days, and sowed turnips and lettuce, 
planted beans and some garden stuff, though it was some- 
what late in the summer. 

We found many traces that a long time ago an Indian 
town must have stood on this place, for we saw many holes 
in the ground, which were now indeed filled up, but quite 
recognizable, in which the Indians have even now the cus- 
tom of keeping their corn and other property. We could 
also quite plainly see the little hills where corn had been 
planted, but where now is a dense wood of trees two to 
six feet in diameter. Another deer was shot. 

26. We built a hut of bark to store our supplies in. 
We live in tents until we shall have built a house. Br. 



108 zbisbbilobb's duet, 

Michael Jung caught a mess of fish, the first caught here. 
In the evening was the service and consideration of our 
Scripture- verse. The glory of the Lord shall be revealed. 
May this soon happen here, where all is yet in darkness, 
and where the name of the Lord is not known — this was 
our hearty wish. 

Saturday, 27, We marked out our town, in the first 
place only where two rows of houses shall be built, and 
the street four full rods wide, but each lot has three rods 
front. Indian brethren who went hunting several miles up 
the creek came upon a cedar-swamp and found many 
traces of bears in the same neighborhood, but the bush in 
the summer is so wild, overgrown with weeds and thick- 
ets, that it is very hard to get through, and consequently 
is not then good for hunting, for the game gets oiF before 
a man has sight of it, and the mosquitoes are so bad as to 
be almost intolerable. We are vTery much incommoded by 
them here day and night, though we live on a height 
where the wind can blow somewhat, and though the bush 
is not 80 thick as elsewhere ; and we have to sit in a thick 
smoke if we wish relief from them. On this account we 
have not so fully examined the country as we have wished. 
In Detroit no one is acquainted with this region, and the 
merchants who own the land along the river have never 
seen it, 

Monday, 29. We began to fell the woods on our town 
site, so as to build our houses, and thereby also get a little 
more air — a protection from insects. In regard to snakes 
here, there are very few, though on our other plantations 
usually we have had very many; we have nowhere seen 
fewer of them than here, so that as far as regards them 
one can wander about the bush unconcerned. 

Tuesday, 80. With the help of our Indian brethren we 
got together the timber for our first house, which to be 
sure was quite near us, and yet we had to carry it. 

Thursday, Aug. 1. Br. David wrote to our brethren in 
Detroit by some Indian brethren, who went there to get 
provisions in exchange for baskets they had made here. 

Friday, 2. We began to block out the first house, but 



CLmTOSf BiVBB, 1782, 107 

as there were only four of us, this was rather hard. When 
now all our hunters were away, so that we could expect 
no fresh meat, a deer came by our camp to the creek, 
which old Br, Abraham shot, but which our heavenly 
Father sent. Br, Abraham expressed his thoughts, and 
remarked about the troubles which have befallen us, say- 
ing , " The Delawares, Shawanese, Mingoes, and Wyan- 
dots, who live over the lake, have heard the word of God ; 
the brethren have lived with them and announced it to 
them, but they have despised it, thrust it from them, and 
driven away the brethren who have announced it; there-* 
fore the Saviour has taken it from them, and will give it 
to others who will receive it." 

Tuesday, 6, Brs. Samuel and Adam came from the 
Fort and brought us letters from our brethren there, from 
which we learned they were well. At the same time 
we heard that an army was marching to the Shawanese 
towns: this caused us to think much about our brethren 
there and to be anxious about them, and to wish they were 
with us out of danger. 

Saturday, 10. This week both we and the Indian 
brethren have been busy cultivating; they have now also 
made the beginning, but they run short of provisions, for 
the allowance they get is not enough for them, though we 
manage to get along with ours; therefore they have to 
exert themselves to get the means of life. This evening 
we had our services around our fire, and considered our 
Scripture-verse, praising and glorifying the name of the 
Lord here in this wilderness, where probably it has never 
been heard. Thus far we have seen no strange Indians 
here, for we are placed quite out of the way. 

By one of our Indians, who came from Detroit, we heard 
that another attack had been made on the Shawanese 
towns, and inasmuch as our Indians are in that quarter, 
having planted there, we were very uneasy about them, 
that they might have come to harm. Afterwards, 
however, we heard they had fled and were scattered in 
the bush, and thus none of them had been injured. 
Though we live here so remote from all rumors of the 



108 zeisbbroer's diaet. 

world, yet Satan can not rest and be content with us, but 
must set on the ill- minded Indian people to say to our 
people, since they have put themselves under the protec- 
tion of the English people, they will all perish ; had they 
put themselves under their protection, they would have 
been safe and free from every danger. What a satanic 
and barefaced lie and what wickedness is this ! Have 
they not themselves driven us away? They have not 
rested until they had us here. Have they not ruined us 
and our Indians, hou^e and barn, property and land, and 
placed us in the greatest misery, so that we must have 
starved and miserably perished unless also the dear heavenly 
Father had again mercifully upheld us and helped us 
through ? One would think they would be content to 
have wreaked their vengeance so far on us, but no, for 
since they now see that they can not accomplish their aim 
of putting us out of the way and of killing the name 
of the Saviour in the Indian land, but that we shall yet 
again settle down and assemble and moreover outside their 
bounds too, and since they foresee already that our Indians 
will follow us, they bring them wicked rumors, threats, 
and lies, to make our Indians fearful and to frighten them 
from coming here, though they are the causes of our being 
here, and believed that here there would be an end of us ; 
therefore they are now scornful and angry that their 
schemes have not only not succeeded, but since their eyes 
begin to open and they see that they will indeed have 
done themselves the greatest harm, and they know that 
their nation will therefore yet come to nothing. O, what 
great scorn has Satan ! Perhaps, however, he knows he 
has but little time. 

Sunday, 11. Br. Jungmann preached, and in the evening 
Br. David had an hour of song with the Indians, 

Wednesday, 14. Several of our Indians went again to 
the settlements to get food, by which opportunity we wrote 
to our brethren in Detroit. When they came here, they 
were so starved that their rations, already given to them, 
did not half suffice, though they got the same quantity 
as we. Br. Abraham and our family besides yet remained 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1782, 109 

at home, whom we for the most part have to maintain 
from our own allowance, and we do it willingly, if only 
we have enough. 

Friday, 16. We roofed our first house, and we have 
the timber for a second building already on hand. 

Tuesday, 20. The Indian brethren returned from De- 
troit. From Br. Heckewelder and Sensemann's letters we 
learn that they are well in Yankee Hall. 

Wednesday, 21. Brs. David, Edwards, and Michael 
Jung, with some Indians, went to Detroit to get sup- 
plies, and also to bring here our brethren yet there, for 
now we have some food. With a good wind we got there 
in the evening, and had the joy of welcoming and speak- 
ing with the Indian brethren, Mark, William, Isaac Eschi- 
canahund, and Stephen, who got there day before yester- 
day from the Shawanese towns to see and hear how it was 
with us. Mark told us he had been negotiating with the 
Twightwees, and they had given him a district to live on. 
He would like to have one or two brothers go there with 
him, and he believed all our scattered Indian brethren 
would then move there. We had to refuse him this ut- 
terly, since for the time no brother could be in the Indian 
land, for the Indians would not permit it, and no one 
could be sure of his life. Mark's wife died. 

On the 22d, Br. David spoke with the commandant in 
their behalf. He had them come to him, and invited them 
to come here to us with all our Indians and to remain here 
until there was peace, for here they would have liberty to 
remain, or to move elsewhere if they knew a better place. 
He promised to provide them with supplies until they had 
planted and could supply themselves. Mark promised 
him that they would all come in the autumn, but we had 
our doubts about his promise, for we saw his position and 
intentions, which indeed he hid as far as possible, and 
sought merely to please the commandant and us in his 
words so as to get gifts. He had a speech from the Dela- 
wares, Shawanese, and Wyandots, who had dictated what 
he should say to him, but since we saw that the only aim 
of this was to create difficulties between our Indians and 



110 zbisbbrqbr's biart. 

hill), for they saw the cotnmAndant to be our friend, and 
to Bet them each against the other, we forbade him to de- 
liver this speech, and this so remained. 

Br. David spoke with the commandant about supplies 
for our Indians and got a very favorable answer. He said 
we must not think he had put us where we must suffer 
want; he Wished to supply both us and our Indians with 
food until we ourselves had a harvest and could supply 
ourselves, and that we might have no reason to doubt 
about this he read to Br. David a letter from Gen'l Haldi- 
mand (the commander-in-chief), received two days before 
from Quebec, that we might see that what he did wa« done 
with his approbation. Since it was said that another gov- 
ernor would come here, Br. David made the necessary 
arrangements in this regard, and he promised, should it be 
necessary, to summon Br. David, in case he had to go 
away. 

. In the evening, we had with our Indians, of whom a 
fair number was present, a meeting in the open air, outside 
the town, whither also many white people came, and the 
singing of the Indians pleased them much. 

Saturday, 24. We took leave of our Indians, who are 
going back to the Shawanese towns to their friends, and 
we bade them greet all our brethren there, and tell them 
we invited here all such as were troubled and in perplexity 
about their salvation, and we should much rejoice to see 
them here, the sooner the better; to tell them also what 
good offers the major had made to them here, who had 
besides given written orders that those of our Indians who 
come here should have supplies given them on the Miami 
for the journey, so that they could come here, and this 
happened too, only many other Indians also made use of 
it, and gave out they were our Indians that they might 
get supplies. We set out then to-day, with Brs. Hecke* 
welder and Sensemann with us — had at first a good wind, 
but in the afternoon thunder-storms, with rain, and were 
compelled to pass the night in a windmill we came to, 
where the people received us very kindly. 

Sunday, 25. In the evening, we came through Lake St 



CLINTON RIVKR, 1782. Ill 

Clair into the Huron river, and remained over night, hnt 
our two little children were so stung by mosquitoes that 
in the morning they were swollen all over. We arrived — 

Monday, 26, home at Br. Jungmann's and sister Susan- 
na's, who, in our absence, had the first visit from the Chip- 
pewas since we have been here« 

Thursday, 29. Brs. Heckewelder and Sensemann felled 
timber to build them houses. Two Delaware women, who 
came here visiting, and were now again going home, gave 
Br. Abraham to understand that they should like to live 
with us after they had harvested their corn on the Miami. 
To them we said, not every one could live here, but only they 
who believed and wished to live for the Saviour, Our In- 
dians were busy cultivating the land at this time. The 
unmarried brethren we blessed with our hearts at their 
feast-day, and we wished them the near presence of the 
Saviour. 

Monday, Sept. 2. Brs. Heckewelder, Sensemann, Ed- 
wards and Michael Jung, went to Detroit to get a cargo of 
boards, which the major gave for our building. 

Tuesday, 8. From the Scripture-verse, which we had 
just a year ago this day, we recalled our captivity, 
and this text (Is. Ixiv, 6) has the Saviour fulfilled, for 
he has again placed our leet in a wide space after 
we have certainly been in very narrow and dangerous 
circumstances. Thus we could not do otherwise than 
filially thank the Saviour for his wondrous conduct 
of us, and not sufficiently wonder at his wise leader- 
ship. Although our brethren's calamity on the Mus* 
kingum, where so many perished, is always, alas, a 
stumbling block to us, so that we must think if only that 
had not happened, then in the end all had gone well and 
as we wished, but he knows best why he has allowed 
that also. 

Friday, 6. By the brethren who came back from De- 
troit we had news that a new governor was about to come, 
who had already got as far as Niagara. We were sorry 
to lose our good friend and benefactor. Major de Peyster, 
for we could not know how his successor would be dis- 



112 ZBI8BRRGER'S diart. 

posed towards us. About peace, however, nothing more 
was heard, but the contrary. In the States the rangers* 
and Indians do great damage, and a short time since have 
taken prisoners or killed over two hundred in Kentucky. 

Saturday, 7. At the wedding-feast we had a service 
with the single Indian brethren. He made himself known 
to us and blessed us. 

Saturday, 14. This week we have all been busy in the 
fields. On the 13th we congratulated Sister Jungmann 
upon her sixtieth birthday. We have had much rainy 
weather, and yesterday the first frost, which, however, 
had not much to say. 

Sunday, 15. Inasmuch as we white brethren were alone^ 
except old Abraham, we read a discourse of the sainted dis- 
ciple upon the text: One is your master and all ye are 
brethren. 

Friday, 20. The joyful announcement was made to the 
brethren that, since now we are so far along with our 
house, we would have the blessed holy communion, which 
we could not have since we came away from Sandusky, 
nor with the Indian brethren since we came away from 
the Muskingum. In Detroit we had no service, for we 
could not be alone, for as soon as they heard us singing all 
came running to us. 

Saturday, 21. We had a love-feast, and afterwards the 
holy communion with the Saviour's near presence, the first 
time in this place. To the Indian brethren too, five of 
whom were present, was it an unspeakable blessing, which 
they had had to do without for more than a year. To-day 
also another family of our Indians, six in number, came 
from Sandusky, where they have been meantime. But 
the Indians, as we hear, took all conceivable pains to keep 
. our Indians from coming here, and lied to them on every 
hand that they were no longer safer with the English than 
with the Americans. 

Sunday, 22. The holy communion liturgy was read, 
afterwards a sermon, and in the evening an hour of song. 

' Led by Simon Girty at Blue Licks, 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 118 

Tuesday, 24. Chippewas came in who went through 
here hunting. All who have thus far come are friendly 
and very well-behaved. 

Saturday, 28. Another house, Jungmann's, was ix)ofed 
and preparations are already made for others. 

Sunday, 29. Br. Jungmann preached in the morn- 
ing, and the congregation meeting was from the Scripture- 
verse, and after the collect of the same we gave ourselves 
anew to the accomplishment of predestination in the care 
of the Father, in the bridegroom's leadership, and in the 
steady impulse of his spirit, to the protection of the angels 
of whom we especially thought, and we were heartily 
thankful to them, as also to the Saviour, for their service^ 
and protection. 

Tuesday, Oct. 1. We remembered that a year ago to-day 
we arrived in Sandusky, and we thanked the Saviour and 
our dear heavenly Father for the gracious oversight which 
he has had over us. With Zachary in from the Fort, came 
also Stephen from the Shawanese towns, who brought us 
news that he, with yet another family of eleven persons, had 
come to Detroit,, and was waiting for us to fetch them in 
a canoe. Adam, whose mother is still there, came there 
with him. As far as we learn, however, few of our In- 
dians are coming here, for Mark, who has made himself 
head and chief, holds back all who would come here. His 
falseness and treachery come to light now. When he was 
lately in Detroit he spoke so beautifully with us and the 
major, and made fair promises that he would come here 
this autumn with all our Indians,'but when our backs were 
turned he has changed his coat, for the land promised him 
by the Twightwees, as he said, blinds him, for I showed 
him plainly and clearly that the Indians had been false to 
them often enough, not only about property and goods, 
but about their salvation, had been their ruin, and now 
they were not content, but wished to betray them farther, 
so as to have them in their power, and, if possible, to ruin 
their salvation. To-day and yesterday Sensemann's house 
was blocked out. 
8 



114 zeisbergbr's diary. 

Thursday, 3. The Saviour took home to himself Eliza- 
beth, the daughter of Ignatius and Christina, two years, 
ten months and one day old ; she was buried on the 4th 
and was placed the first seed in our God's acre, which 
was thus dedicated, a beautiful even place on a height, the 
finest we have anywhere had. To-day Chippewas came 
again on their way hunting, from whom our Indiana 
bought some corn. They went about, looked at every 
thing, and measured as well the height of the houses as 
their size. 

Sunday, 6. During the summer the little daughter of 
Ignatius and Christina, born the 3d or 4th of June of this 
year, in Sandusky, since we left there, was baptized with 
the name Naomi ; she was the first to be baptized here, 
and this baptism was especially accompanied by the near- 
ness and presence of the Saviour. In the afternoon Chip- 
pewas again went through, from whom our people bought 
some supplies. 

Wednesday, 9. Three families more cane to us from 
the Shawanese town by way of Detroit, namely, Stephen, 
Joshua, with their families, Magdalena with her daughter 
and the widow, Zipporah, with her grandchild,? hoebe, in all 
eleven persons. We learned from them with sorrow that 
Mark, who has made himself head-man among them, and 
to whom, as he himself said, the Twightwees gave a tract 
of land, holds back the brethren who wish to come to us, 
and says to them : that he looks upon this invitation as a 
perfect trap for them ; if they come here they will live 
north of Detroit, and permission ever to come back would 
be quite cut off from them ; for the major had expressly 
said to them that this would last only so long as the war 
lasted ; if then they afterwards knew a situation or place 
which pleased them better they could then go again 
where they pleased, and the proposition was only to help 
them for the present that they might live quietly and 
out of the way of the war. These brethren have come 
away from them in spite of all opposition and threats 
and are come here, though they were often told that in a 
short time they would all perish, for all who came here 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 115 

had nothing else and better to expect. Mark informed 
the brethren that, if they would dwell in their land he 
wished to invite their teachers there. Those, however, 
who have made themselves chiefs among the Delawares 
said to him, he should not let himself fancy he could 
bring us there again, for as sure as we came again, an end 
would be made with us, and it should never again happen 
that the Gospel should be preached in the Indian land; 
that should now cease. They accused us white brethren 
of writing to Pittsburg, and of making the Virginians the 
proposition to bring them upon Gnadenhiitten, and they 
slandered us with many more accusations, not at all that 
they really believed them, but from wickedness and hatred 
towards us. In spite of this, however, we heard of several 
more who wish to come here, if not also this autumn, 
and who will be bad, so let him be. In Detroit the com- 
mandant gave them provisions and took care of them 
fourteen days till we came down there. By them he sent 
word to Br. David that he wished to speak with him as 
soon as might be, and that he had received letters from 
London for us which he did not like to put into the hands 
of any body else, and that he had also more to say to him. 
Two Tutelee Indians, one from friendship for Shikellimy,^ 
came with them here from Niagara. They said the believ- 
ing Indians would all be summoned to Niagara. 

Thursday, 10. Br. Heckewelder's house was blocked 
out so that we white brethren have now four houses stand- 
ing, but the unmarried brethren have as yet no dwelling 
except that Michael Jung lives in a bark hut. 

Sunday, 13. The sermon treated of the wedding gar- 
ment, Christ's blood, and righteousness. Those who have 
put on Christianity will stand before God and enter the 
kingdom of heaven with joy. 

Monday, 14. We set out in our boat for Detroit, and 
came with a moderately good wind over Lake St. Clair, 
and the day after, the 15th, in the forenoon, we arrived. 

* The Iroquois sachem converted at Shamokin (Sunbury, Pa) 1748 
See Be Schweinitz Life of Zeisberger, Chap. VII. 



116 zeisberobr's diart. 

Br. David went at once to the major, who was glad to see 
him, and said to him he had letters for us from London, 
which he at once gave him, saying he had wished himself 
to deliver them to him and put them into the hands of no 
one else, for there were lettere of credit from Mr. La 
Trobe, about whom he asked, and Br. David told him he 
was the brethren's bishop of London and of all England. 
Sir John Johnson,^ who some days before, by way of Mich- 
ilimackinac, had come here and had also gone to Niagara, 
brought them here. ' The major said to Br. David that 
our circumstances and the calamity caused by the Amer- 
icans had been judged in London in the severest way. 
Although this was truly and not unjustly judged, Br. 
David answered that much might have contributed 
thereto, since they had yet no news by letter from us. In 
the spring, to be sure, as he was aware, he had written to 
Bethlehem, but he wondered at getting no answer from 
them. The major replied that he had provided for Br. 
David's letter in the best way, had sent it to Gen. Ilaldi- 
mand, and also written to him that he had himself seen 
it, and had no scruples about forwarding it. There was 
also with him an officer, Capt. Potts, who has been in 
Bethlehem, and is not altogether unacquainted with the 
institutions of the brethren, and talked much with Br. 
David. At last the major asked Br. David what we 
thought of doing now we were come. He replied that 
we thought with our Indians of taking provisions with us 
for the winter, while the weather was yet passable, not 
too stormy upon the lakes, and before the cold came on 
to freeze. He said that was quite right; in the morning 
we should tell him the number, and, as regarded the In- 
dians, what sort of supplies were most suitable, and he 
would give orders about it. Br. David took leave, went 
to our quarters, where we refreshed ourselves by reading 
the letters we had received with unbroken seals. We 
thanked the Saviour for the sympathy and remembrance 
of our dear brethren, that he renewed for us correspond- 

^ General Superintendent of Indian affairs in Canada. 



VISIT TO DETROIT, 1782. 117 

enco with them, for already it was more than a year since 
we had heard from them or they from us. 

Wednesday, 16. Br. David went to a merchant, Mr. 
'Askin, in the city, who is connected in business with Mr. 
Dobie, in Montreal, and whom the major had recom- 
mended to us; with him we spoke about the letter of 
credit we had received and showed it to him, and asked 
whether he had not already had advices from Mr. Dobie, 
in Montreal. Yes, he was willing to advance us at present 
what was necessary until he had written to the merchant 
and received from him an answer. When we came into 
the city we were welcomed everywhere, people were glad 
to see us, gave us good wishes, and showed themselves 
serviceable to us. There were some people who offered 
us on credit or upon payment to provide our Indians for 
fishing, with flour, corn, and all materials in the winter, 
when the lakes were frozen, an important matter for us, 
and one that had always interested us. Thus our heav- 
enly Father cares for us and our people in all circum- 
stances. 

Thursday, 17. Br. David received an order from the 
major upon the commissary for six months' provisons for 
OS, that is, until April of next spring, when the lakes will 
again be open. He had the commissary called, and gave 
him the order in Br. David's presence to give not only us, 
but our Indians, full rations of the best provisions. The 
boat which we have thus far had at our disposal he let us 
keep for further use. The major promised to visit us 
this winter when the lake is frozen. Br. David wrote to 
Br. WoUin,' in London, and the major undertook to for- 
ward the letter. By a white man, who is an Indian inter- 
preter, just back from the Shawanese towns, where he had 
seen and spoken with our Indian brethren, we learned 
that most of them would come to us this autumn. Will- 
iam had charged the man to tell us this, and that they 
could no longer abide there on account of the wild In- 
dians who steal all they have, and even take things away 

^Mission Agent in London. 



118 zeisbepger's diary. 

by force, and, as it seems, circumstances must make them 
glad and quite willing to come here, though most of them 
there would not have come, for which there may be many 
reasons, since they have grossly sinned, and this frightened * 
them. 

Friday, 18. "When we were about to load our boat and 
examined our cargo, we found we were hardly able to take 
it in three trips, and the commissary so told the major. 
He thought of sending with us a second large ship as far 
as the mouth of the Huron river, but because the shipmen 
were too timid, and had never gone to this neighborhood, 
they did not like to venture to put the ship in danger; 
therefore the major ordered a small transport to carry our 
things there. We set out then with our boat, and left 
Br. Edwards in the transport that came after; we came, 
however, since we had windy weather only^, on 

Monday, 21, home to our brethren, who were glad 
enough to see us again, and sympathized in the joy we 
had in getting letters from our brethren in Loudon. But 
hardly were we arrived, when came a little canoe, which 
had been with us, but could not keep up, and informed us 
that the transport already yesterday evening had got to 
the mouth of the river and was waiting for our boat. We 
sent then Br. Michael Jung, with the boat, some Indians, 
and all the canoes down there, to unload the transport and 
bring the things here, and with them they also, 

Tuesday, 22, came, and we were glad that now the jour- 
ney was successfully ended. One of our Indians, Joseph 
by name, who, since spring, had lapsed into error, came to 
us in Detroit and begged permission to live with us again. 
His wife had a short time before came here from the Shaw- 
anese towns. He was allowed to go to her again. So, as 
we hear, are others among our people situated that 
man and wife are separated and that disorder is among 
them. The Indians, of whom, together with children, 
there were 36 persons, got as supplies for six months 130 
bushels of corn, 19 barrels of pork, and some little flour, 
so that they are as well provided for as we could expect. 

Wednesday, 23. We again went to work upon our 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 119 

houses to finish them, and the Indians did likewise and 
built them huts for the winter to live in. Some days ago, 
while we were iu Detroit, the weather was cold and it 
snowed, but now it is again fine and warm, so that frogs 
are heard. 

Sunday, 27. Br. Michael Jung preached. We must 
still hold our daily services in the open air until we can 
build a shed for them, and this can now soon be made. 
The congregation meeting was held by Br. David, and he 
bade the brethren think about a meeting-house as soon as 
possible. 

Monday, 28. We went again to work. The late cold 
weather compelled us to bring all our houses soon under 
roof; especially for the sisters and children is this quite 
necessary. 

Wednesday, 30. The holy communion was announced 
to the brethren in a separate service. The Indian breth- 
ren worked during the week on a meeting-house for us, 
which they, 

Saturday, Nov. 2, finished, a pretty, and for the time 
being, a spacious house, for which we were joyful and 
thankful. The communion brethren received the holy 
sacrament of the body and blood of our Lord. In a con- 
ference we had considered about the Indian brethren who 
had lately come to us, and since we found all of us had 
anxiety about admitting them to the holy communion, 
we asked the Saviour about each one of them, but one only 
had permission to go to it, namely, Stephen, who enjoyed 
it with us after receiving absolution by the laying on of 
hands. One among them, Ignatius, confessed to Br. David 
his sins against the brethren, his teachers; that he was 
among the guilty and had aided our being taken captive, 
for he had complained about us to the chiefs of the war- 
riors in Gnadenhiitten, that we had always written let- 
ters to Pittsburg; since that time the matter had always 
troubled him; his heart had accused him that he had be- 
haved towards his teachers in a cruel and treacherous 
way; he had had no rest until he again came to us, and 



120 zeisberoer's diary. 

now that he was here, yet he had an uneasy heart, and 
could not be content until he got forgiveness. 

Br. David answered him that indeed he told him noth- 
ing new, for he had known it well when we were still in 
Thuppekiink' and Gnadenhiitten, what he did and planned. 
" But what good has all that now done thee, nor hast thou 
been able to do much harm to me and us white brethren, 
but thou hast thyself the greatest harm from it. Thou 
hast put thyself in misfortune and misery outwardly and 
inwardly. Thou and others like thyself gave up your 
teachers into the hands of murderers as though ye would 
say to them : do with them now what ye will, and had 
they struck us dead, it would have been quite right in 
your eyes, but the Saviour, whom alone we have to thank 
for our rescue, and not you at all, he has not wished a 
hair of our heads to be injured. Since now thou comest 
and speakest thy heart to me, I speak uprightly with thee, 
and say to thee — thou hast great guilt lying upon thee, 
and therefore reason to seek forgiveness from the Saviour. 
Thou secst now thyself, with the savages thou canst not 
remain, and to be with the brethren, hast thou no right- 
eous and perfect heart; thus art thou a poor man whom 
I must pity, therefore give thyself entirely to the Saviour, 
and not by halves, thus art thou a blessed man." 

Sunday, 3. Br. Jungmann preached after the commun- 
ion liturgy, and David held the congregation meeting 
from the Scripture- verse: He said, surely they are my 
people, children that will not lie : so he was their Sav- 
iour. 

Tuesday, 5. We had to-day the first service in our new 
chapel, now completed, from the Scripture- verse : The 
Lord God will come with strong hand, and his arms shall 
rule for him : behold, his reward is with him, and his 
work before him. 



^ Thuppekiink, the Indian name of Schdnbrunn on the Muskingum, 
often used by Zeisberger. In his Delaware spelling-book Thuppeek= 
a well or spring. By adding the locative termination, unk, we get 
Thuppekunk. I am indebted to the Hon. Wm. M. Darlington, of Pitts- 
burg, for the substance of this note. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 121 

"Wednesday, 6. We considered in our conference about 
Joseph, who carae for the second time and asked per- 
mission to live here. Since he has been here, we have 
heard he was present at the horrible murder of CoL 
Crawford,^ with which, in Detroit, all are much displeased. 
When reminded of this, he confessed, but begged us ex- 
ceedingly much to let him live with us. Since we had 
great reluctance, at the very beginning of a new settle- 
ment, to admit such a man, and yet had compassion with 
him, for he said he knew no pi aqe where he could find 
rest except with the brethren, and if he went away would 
certainly rush to eternal damnation. Then we asked the 
Saviour, and he told us to let him go, and to advise him 
for the time being to remain elsewhere. 

Friday, 8. The child of Ignatius and Naomi, six months 
old, which died yesterday, was buried. The weather up 
to date is still fine, pleasant weather. We have had, to be 
sure, some snow come already, but it has not remained a 
day. The wind varies hero as elsewhere in all places, for 
on the Ohio and Muskingum we had south, west, and 
north winds, but seldom and almost no east wind. Other- 
wise the difference in the weather here and there is not 
great, but in Canada below it is said to be very cold and 
very different, yes, in Niagara it is said to be colder than 
here, and, considering its situation, it is not strange. 

Sunday, 10. The sermon treated of the advent of the 
Saviour and the hope of believers. Br. Jungmann con- 
ducted the congregation meeting from the Scripture- verse. 

Monday, 11. Br. Michael Jung held the morning serv- 
ice about the Scripture-verse : Of the increase of his gov- 
ernment and peace there shall be no end. 

Wednesday, 13. We went early before our Lord and 
the Elder of his church, begged for the aspect of his mercy 
and the forgiveness of all our sins and shortcomings 
which we had been guilty of towards him, which were first 
mentioned and brought to the remembrance of the breth- 
ren, especially their disobedience to him and his servants. 



*See Butterfield's Crawford's Campaign. 



122 zeisbbrgbr's diary. 

whereby they had brought upon themselves great hard- 
ship and want, which they need not have had. They 
were incited to give themselves anew to him, to look upon 
him as our Lord and head, to vow obedience and fidelity, 
and to beg from him gracious absolution. This did Br. 
David, with the hearts of all the company and in the name 
of all. He heard our entreaty, comforted us about all we 
had not done according to his mind, atid sent us recogniz- 
ably his peace. With all this, however, there remained 
behind a certain pain about the past in our hearts, an un- 
forgetable pain, which always urges us to draw nearer to 
him. 

Thursday, 14. Br. Heckewelder held the early service, 
and on the 15th Br. Edwards. 

Friday 15. Our Indian brethren went out hunting for a 
time; at home only old Br. Abraham and the sisters re- 
mained. 

Sunday, 17. Instead of the sermon Br. David read 
to the brethren something out of the History of the Days 
of the Son of Man.^ Three white people came here from 
the settlements on their way hunting, and could not won- 
der enough at all that has been done in the short time of 
our living here. They said they saw very well we were 
another people, that could be seen from our work and 
from what we purposed, namely, to make a regular settle- 
ment. Otherwise no road passes through here anywhere, 
but the place is quite out of the way, except that the 
Chippewas go through on their way hunting, and then 
very few. 

Tuesday, 19. The brethren came home who had been 
hunting, since the place where they were did not please 
them. The three white people went back home, who will 
have enough to tell about us, for they have taken notes of 
every thing they have seen. 

Wednesday, 20. The laborers had a conference to- 
gether, and considered again about Joseph, who, in spite 

^A Harmony of the Gospels, narrating the history of Christ's suffer- 
ings and death, and containing the lessons which are read every day in 
public service during Passion Week. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 123 

of our telling hira he can not live here, for the time be- 
ing, persistently begs and laments, asking to be allowed to 
stay here; This spring, iH Upper Sandusky, after our de- 
parture, he took part in a horrible and awfnl murder (Col. 
Crawford's), whereto he was led by the savages. The 
Saviour showed us to put from us both him and his wife; 
this was done, and Joseph took leave of us all, and begged 
we should not altogether throw hirji aside, but meanwhile 
think of him, whether the Saviour might not yet have 
mercy upon him, and he hoped to see us again. We could 
not but have conjpassion with him, but we hoped all this 
would tend to his good. 

Thursday, 21. Some went by water to the Fort and the 
settlement to make purchases. The Indian brethren went 
hunting, but thus far the weather has been bad for this, for 
in the bush it has been too dry. Snow or rainy weather 
is most serviceable for this. 

Saturday, 23. The unmarried brethren's house was 
roofed, which is made only ad interim for the winter; now 
both they and each family has its own dwelling and lots, 
and indeed we live near the meeting-house or lot, on both 
sides of the street. Each lot, as well ours as the Indians', 
is forty- nine and one-half feet in front, but each can take 
as much land inward as he chooses. We are very thankful 
for the exceptionally fine, warm weather at this time of 
year, which we had not expected. It is pleasanter than 
we ever had at this time of year on the Muskingum. 

Sunday, 24. In the forenoon was a sernroa about the 
Saviour's sermon on the mount, Matthew, v. 

Wednesday, 27. Chippewas came here on their way 
hunting. They take all their house utensils with them, 
and remain away the whole winter, boil sugar in the 
spring, and do not go home before planting time. 

Thursday, 28. We white brethren laid out plantations, 
that during the winter we might prepare and clear them, 
if the weather should be tolerable. We hear in this 
place too, on every hand, stories and threats about us, and, 
as it seems, the end is not yet. Many of the Delaware 
captains said, to our Indians whaare come here, that they 



124 zeisberger's diary. 

had thought that in the Indian land the word of God 
would cease to be preached, but they saw us brethren set- 
tling down again, instead of whjch we should have been 
banished. They wished, therefore, instead of going by 
way of Detroit, to seek us out straight through the bush? 
and to kill us, in order that once for all they might be 
done with us. They said to our Indians in the Shuwanese 
towns not to allow themselves to think they would ever 
again bring their teachers there, for no word of God should 
again be heard in the Indian land, they should resign 
themselves to this, and accept heathenism and live as they 
lived, and as sure as they brought their teachers there 
they would be killed. Here can be seen their hostility to 
God, his word, and his church. 

Sunday, Dec. 1. On the first day of Advent, Br. David 
preached, exhorting the brethren to give their hearts to 
the coming of our Saviour, that they might rejoice in his 
birth, to receive him, and with joy take him into their hearts, 
for then they could expect many blessings from him. 

To-day came back some Indian brethren who had been 
to the settlements; they brought word that another at- 
tack^ had been made upon the Shawauese towns, and 
three of their towns wasted and ravaged, many Indians 
thereby perishing. Since many of our Indian brethren 
live near there, this news caused us anxiety about them, 
that at least some of them might have been affected, but 
w^e have no further news how it is with them, and we ea- 
gerly wish soon to hear about them. We heard, however, 
that many of our Indians stayed there, and this makes us 
uneasy about them. 

Friday, 6. Chippewas came here ; one of them, a cap- 
tain, ^sked whether some one did not understand Shawa- 
nese. Abraham brought them to Samuel, and then he 
said to our Indian brethren that their chief had pointed 
out and given to us this country to live in, but we had se- 
lected a bad neighborhood, and had gone by the good 
places at the mouth of the river, where there were old 

^ Probably the expedition under Gen'l Clark in the Miami Valley 
IB referred to. 



CLINTON RIVEH, 1782. 125 

towns and cleared land easy to plant; they did not see 
here where we could plant, for all was bush ; if in the 
spring we wished to move down there, we should be wel- 
come. Our Indians gave them no answer until they had 
spoken with us. But the reason we came so far up is 
that the major had pointed out to us the distance from 
the mouth of the river to this place, for the Chippewas 
had given that land to white people, who certainly would 
not have objected to our settling and cultivating it, but 
wo must have been ready in a year or two to vacate it, 
and thus all our labor would soon have been in vain, for 
we must always have been pilgrims, and have had no 
abiding home. Thus we wished to be sure of our affair, 
and not build upon another's ground and land, since the 
country is not yet surveyed. A second reason why this 
place pleased us more than others is that it is high and 
dry, for all the land further down the river is very low, 
wet, and unhealthy, and often flooded. That there is no 
open land here, but that all is bush, is indeed true; it is 
thickly grown with trees, but good land, and not hard to 
clear ; we shall find a place where we can plant, and for 
this during the winter we can prepare much. 

Saturday, 7. The weather has hitherto been fine, but 
lately it has been quite cold. The river ran thick with 
ground ice and froze. It has snowed twice already, but 
the snow remained not long, and we have thus far per- 
ceived no noteworthy difference in the climate between 
this place and the Muskingum. 

Sunday, 8. Br. David preached about the promises 
made to the heathen, and Jungmann held the congrega- 
tion meeting from the Scripture-verse: He hath made my 
mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand hath 
he hid me. 

Tuesday, 10. We heard from Chippewas, who came 
from the Fort, that they had seen Delaware Indians there, 
who seemed like our Indians, for they were not painted 
nor hung about with wampum and silver. We thought it 
possible that some of them were come there, and we con- 



126 zeisberger's diary. 

sidered about getting them here, or learning more cer- 
tainly about the matter. 

Thursday, 12. The brethren went hunting in a body 
together, for they hunt in this way ; they form a half 
moon or circle, and go through a district where the deer 
come within shot of one or another. Our Indians, however, 
had to learn here hunting over again, for thus far they 
have not been very luck^' in it. In the first place, they 
are not familiar with the bush, and, secondly, there is 
nothing but level land, no hill, much less a mountain, to 
be seen, and the bush very thick and wild, so that, if the 
weather is not clear and the sun not shining, they very 
easily get lost, and this has happened to them several 
times, that in rainy weather, instead of going home as 
they "thought, they went straight away from home, but 
by good luck came to the lake, where they again got their 
bearings. 

Saturday, 14. We had the Lord's supper, and tasted 
his body and blood with hungry and thirsty souls. There 
were this time six Indian brethren present, namely, four 
brothers and two sisters. One sister, Zipporah, was ad- 
mitted after receiving absolution. 

Sunday, 15. First was the communion liturgy and then 
the sermon by Br. Heckewelder. Br. David held the 
evening service from the Scripture-verse. 

Monday, 16. Samuel went with some brothers and sis- 
ters to the Fort to get some necessities. They went this 
time, on account of the river being frozen, straight through 
the bush, which way two Chippewas had come over two 
days before. Some snow was on the ground, and they fol- 
lowed their tracks, for as yet they are not familiar with 
the bush. They came, 

Thursday, 17, back again, and brought us news that 
William had come with his family from the Shawanese 
towns to Detroit, and was again on the way to us. When 
now we heard that he had chosen to come straight through 
the bush, and was already three days on the way, we were 
troubled about them that they might have gone astray; 
we therefore resolved that our Indian brethren should 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 127 

searqh for him the next clay, but he came the next fore- 
noon alone, and had left his family in his camp, seven 
miles from here. He was full of joy when he came in 
sight of our town. He remained through the day with 
us, telling us much, and he gave us news of other Indian 
brethren, and over some we must rejoice, but over others 
he sad. We heard that the best among them had gone 
apart and passed the winter some distance this side of the 
others, wishing to hunt, that in the spring betimes they 
might be on the way here. Mark, however, with the Mo- 
hicans, is determined not to come here, but to settle in 
that neighborhood alone with the wild Mohicans, who 
dwell separately thereabout. He, Mark, is already fired 
with a chief's aifairs and will be a great man, seeks honor 
among men, and will harm many, for if any of the Mo- 
hicans wish to come here he does not let them come. This 
he already had secretly in mind when he was in Detroit, 
and spoke with us, though he then promised us he wished 
to come certainly; and when. he came home he said to the 
brethren : " Our teachers wish no longer to be in the In- 
dian land, and I say, I go not to the English land, for that 
is a perfect trap for us, that we may all be ruined and 
killed." In their towns it is said to be more wicked with 
their dances and worse than with the savages, and those 
who were assistants said to us, they dared not express 
their mind ; thus they are again become heathen. It may 
' be, however, that the calamity and the attack upon the 
Shawanese make a change in their reckoning, in which 
attack three of their towns were said to be destroyed and 
348 killed or taken captive, and that they will be made 
cautious. [A family of our people has remained there*; 
whether others, we know not yet.] The most painful and 
saddest of all is that we must hear that some say, we 
were the cause and reason of so many Indian brethren, 
their friends, losing their lives in Gnadenhiitten ; we had 
called the white people there, and had sent letters to them. 
Sunday, 22. Br. David preached about the joy of be- 
lievers in the incarnation and birth of our Saviour, and 
Br. Sensemann held the congregation meeting from the 



128 zeisbbrger's diart. 

Scripture-verse : He hath sent me to proclaim the accept- 
able year of the Lord. 

Tuesday, 24. We began Christmas with a love-feast, 
the first for two years, and we rejoiced in God our Saviour 
for his birth, passion ^nd death, brought him our filial 
praise and thanks, and adored him in the manger. He 
blessed us anew, and brought new life among the breth- 
ren, so that many tears were paid him. There were 
together fifty-three of us, white and brown. 

Wednesday, 25. Br. Heckewelder preached from the 
Gospel about the announcement of the angels to the shep- 
herds and to all mankind that we should rejoice in the 
birth of the Saviour. Thereupon was the children's hour; 
to these was Jesus in his manger depicted, while they rev- 
erently sang, many with tears in their eyes. Br. Jungmann 
held the congregation-meeting from the Scripture-verse. 

Saturday, 28. Chippewas came in, who are encamped 
not far oft', hunting. Among other things, they examined 
our labor, where we wished to make and plant our fields, 
with wonder at our clearing and planting such wild land 
and so overgrown with wood. They, on the contrary, plant 
very little, but live mostly from the bush, hunting, though 
they like to eat corn and bread. If they can not have these, 
then they fare very badly ; they gather acorns and boil them 
with their meat, though they use the worst sort of acorns. 
Towards us they are very modest, not in the least trouble- 
some, and behave in a very orderly way, though we are 
in no position to give them any thing or share any thing 
with them, for we have ourselves nothing, except what 
was given us for our extreme needs. We wish that the 
word of the Saviour's incarnation, death, and passion 
might once find acceptance among them, that their hearts 
and eyes might be open to recognize their Saviour and 
Redeemer, who loved them even unto death. 

We heard through William, who has lately come, that 
the Delaware chiefs are still always wrangling, one with 
another, about us, asking who is the cause that our In- 
dian church has been so badly treated and ruined. Here 
must Pipe have the blame. They are consulting about 



CLINTON RIVER, 1782. 129 

the others, and are not yet done. In the autumn, at a 
council, they said to Pipe and his people, when they were 
advising how they should use the hatchet and press on the 
war most advantageously : " Take and use the hatchet 
against your foes, just as you have used it against youf 
friends, the believing Indians, who have done nothing tO' 
you but good, and have not once raised a knife in their 
own defence, when you used force against them." The same 
chiefs who said this try to treat our Indians there in the 
finest, best manner, and earnestly forbid the warriors tP» 
do them harm, and wish the time may again come when 
they may again have their teachers with them. This, how- 
ever, is only from politic and not from worthy motives, for 
they foresee the downfall of their nation, and, moreover^ 
that all our Indians who are here, one after the other, are 
lost to them, and this, indeed, causes them much anxiety 
and perplexity. They seek now, by kind conduct, to prevent 
this, for by their cruelty towards us they have done them- 
selves the greatest harm, but they are now well aware of 
what they have done, for that is but the beginning. 

Sunday, 29. Br. David preached about the sonship to 
God, which the Saviour got for us, that we should be co- 
heirs with Christ. During the sermon Chippewas came, 
and inasmuch as no one was at home, but all were at 
meeting, they gathered together some distance off till the 
sermon was over. This the Delawares would not have 
done. They go into houses when no one is at home and 
steal. 

Tuesday, 31. We closed the year with praise and thanks 
to the Lord for all his goodness and for the kindnesses 
the Saviour had done us in rescuing us from so many 
dangers and in being so heartily interested for us, but 
we confessed to him our transgressions and shortcom- 
ings and begged forgiveness of all our sins. The brethren 
were reminded what through this year had happened to 
us, and in what sort of ways the Saviour had gone with us, 
and how he finally had cared for us and made a way for 
our again settling and coming together. By the relation 
9 



180 zeisbbroer's diart. 

of these, our affairs, which had come to pass, many tears 
were shed. "We gave ourselves anew to the Saviour, to 
the blessed care of the Holy Ghost, to the protection of 
our dear heavenly Father, and he made us sensibly aware 
of his peace. In the consideration of the Scripture- verse : 
All flesh shall know that I, the Lord, am thy Saviour and 
thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob, among other 
things we said to the brethren : What in the end will the 
heathen have accomplished, who have made every exertion to 
destroy our church and in part have destroyed it? If only 
we be of true heart and mean to be upright with the Sa- 
viour, they will yet learn that we have a Saviour who will 
not forsake us and who knows how to bring his people 
through with a strong hand and outstretched arm. Upon 
our knees we begged for absolution, and with comforted 
hearts entered upon the new year. 

Note. — The following letter, taken from De Peyster's " Miscellanies," 
p. 255, is not without interest, and refers to events of the year 17^2. 

" Copy of a letter to his excellency General Haldimand, dated from 
Detroit, the 18th of August, 1782 : 

" 1 am just honored with your excellency's letter of the llth July, 
approving the conduct of the officers at the affair at Sandusky, and 
regretting the cruelty committed by some of the Indians upon Colonel 
Crawford, desiring me to assure them of your utter abhorrence of such 
proceedings. Believe me, sir, I have had my feelings upon this occa- 
sion, and foreseeing the retaliation the enemy would draw upon them- 
selves from the Indians, I did every thing in my power to reconcile the 
Delawares to the horrid massacre their relations underwent at Mus- 
kingum, where ninety-three of these inoffensive people were put to 
death, by the people from American back settlements, in cool blood; 
and I believe I should have succeeded had not the enemy so soon ad- 
vanced with the intent, as they themselves declared, to exterminate 
the whole Wiandott tribe, not by words only, but even by exposing 
effigies, left hanging by the heels in every encampment. 

** I had sent messengers throughout the Indian country previous to 
the receipt of your excellency's letter threatening to recall the troops 
if they, the Indians, did not desist from cruelty. 

" I have frequently signified to the Indians how much you abhor 
cruelty, and I shall to-morrow dispatch a person I have great confidence 
in to carry your injunctions to the southern nations 

" I have the honor to be with great respect, sir, your excellency's 
most humble and most obedient servant, * 

" A. S. DE PEYSTER. 
" His Excellency General Haldimand, Commander-in-Chief, etc." 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1783. 131 



CHAPTER III. 

1783. 
On Clinton River, Michigan. 

Wednesday, Jan. 1. In the forenoon we came with our 
brethren before the dear Lord, and were blessed by him, 
made a new covenant with him that we wished to be his, 
body and soul, his obedient children more than before, 
and we begged from him his nearness and blessing the 
whole year through. Ignatius, a poor sinner, who had 
grossly sinned against his teachers, was absolved amid 
many tears. Br. Heckewelder preached and Jungmann 
held the congregation meeting from the Scripture- verse: 
Zion heard and was glad. Since we had retained these 
Scripture-verses of the year '80, during our captivity, we 
take them for use this year. 

Friday, 3. Most of the brethren went out hunting, for 
some snow had fallen, of which we have had little indeed 
thus far this winter. Adam straightway shot three great 
bucks, when he had hardly got out of town. Up to date 
we have yet no cold to speak of, for the ground in the bot- 
toms is not yet frozen. We can cut and work with our 
hands unhindered, and this we have to do this winter. 

Sunday, 5. Br. Edwards preached from Titus, iii, and 
then appeared the friendliness and graciousness of God, 
our Saviour. He made us blessed by the bath of regener- 
ation and the renovation of the Holy Ghost. Br. Hecke- 
welder held the congregation meeting from the Scripture- 
verse. 

Monday, 6. We celebrated Epiphany with grace and 
blessing. The heathen's Saviour made himself sensibly 
known to us and blessed us and our little flock. Br. Jung- 
mann conducted morning prayer, and asked the Saviour 
for his presence this day, particularly to bless us and our 



132 zbisberoeh's diary. 

brown brethren ; thereupon Br. David delivered the fes- 
tival-discourse from the Scripture- verse : Truly my soul 
waiteth upon God; from him cometh my salvation. When 
doubts and fears, a gloomy band — Beset my soul on every 
hand. In the afternoon was a love-feast, for which the 
Indians had bought flour at the Fort ; thereby we called 
to mind former times, and were thankful to the Saviour 
from our hearts that he had again brought us to peace 
and had again given us a place to rest our feet, and indeed 
a place so beautiful, so quiet, so remote from all the tur- 
moil of the world, and especially from heathenish ways ; 
and this is its charm, so that on the Muskingum it was 
not so quiet and still, for which we can not thank the Sa- 
viour enough. Only one thing is wanting— correspond- 
ence with our church, particularly with Bethlehem ; this 
we have lost, and we must do without and deny ourselves 
much. Br. Heckewelder ended the day with prayer, kneel- 
ing: he thanked the Saviour for the blessing he had so 
richly letflow^to us to-day and during the holidays; yes, 
during these days he has not let himself be unknown 
among the brethren. We thought also in our services and 
prayer of our scattered Indian brethren, and recommended 
them to the good Shepherd, that he may soon brin^ them 
to us. 

Tuesday, 7. Br. Heckewelder went with William and 
Adam to the Fort ; he, William, to get his rations of pro- 
visions, for as yet he had drawn none, for when he came 
through Detroit he could bring nothing with him, and Br. 
David wrote on this account to the commandant. 

Wednesday, 8. Since we learned that a family of our 
Indians lay a day's journey this side of the Fort, which 
wished to come to us, but could not, and that they suffered 
hunger, three brothers went off to bring them here if pos- 
sible. Sophia, Joshua's wife, brought forth a son, the first 
in this place. 

Sunday, 12. In the sermon about the Qospel of to-day : 
When Jesus was twelve years old, but especially over the 
words : Wist ye not that I must be about my father's busi- 
nesSy he spoke about the Saviour's great work for our 



CLINTON BIVER, 1783. 133 

redemption, which he always had in sight so long as he 
was on earth. At this time was mentioned the festival for 
.the children, of whom but two are now here, and the little 
son of Joshua and Sophia, horn on the 8th of this month, 
was baptized with the name Christian. Heckewelder, 
with the Indians, came back to-day from the Fort, and 
brought the two widows, Susanna and Maria Elizabeth, 
who had already been for a time in the Fort, waiting for 
an opportunity to come here. About the rest of our In- 
dians we beard that many were wishing to come in the 
spring, but it is hardly to be written, the pains the sav* 
ages take and the lies they invent to keep them from 
coming here, and our Indians have to steal away secretly 
if they wish to come here. Many white people from the 
States, who have been taken prisoners, have been tortured 
and burnt alive in Sandusky and among the Shawanese, 
for killing our Indians in Gnadenhiitten. As soon as it 
is known that any prisoner hud part in that affair, he is 
forthwith bound, tortured, and burnt. 

Tuesday, 14. Early in the morning an earnest and ap- 
plicable discourse of exhortation was delivered to all the 
brethren living here, owing to the fact that many of our 
people have comported themselves badly, and they were 
told this would not be permitted. This discourse was much 
talked about among our people, and it is to be hoped it will 
not have been in vain. Most of the Indian brethren went 
hunting for a week. A Delaware Mousey Indian has come 
here, and is encamped up this creek hunting; he begged 
permission in the spring to have leave to move here. He 
said he had long felt the call to this in his heart. He knew 
not well how to express himself or how he should speak 
when he asked to live with us ; like many others, he could 
merely say that he liked to hear of the Saviour, and what 
he heard he believed to be the truth. Last summer in De- 
troit he spoke with us about this before we came here, and 
we could not refuse his request. 

Thursday, 16. A Delaware family came visiting. Su- 
sanna Mingo went back to Sandusky to get her children, 
whom she had left behind. 



184 zeisberger's diart. 

Saturday, 18. Two raore Delaware Indians came here 
visiting. They, namely, the Delawares, follow after us 
everywhere and seek us out, though we would rather see , 
them remain away from us, for they are all people who 
have heard the Gospel, but have been unwilling to receive 
it, and they have troubled our church, and yet they can not 
keep away from us. Yes, we have to fear they will seek 
to do us further harm, and we can not trust them. At our 
captivity the Monseys have behaved the best. 

Sunday, 19. Instead of the sermon there was read to 
the brethren from the History of the Days of the Son of 
Man, and Br. Jungmann held the congregation meeting 
from the Scripture-verse. 

Tuesday, 21. The Indian brethren came back, who have 
been away hunting a good day's journey off. In that neigh- 
borhood they found hilly land, met with plains and clear, 
open bush, which country pleased them very well for hunt- 
ing. In the same place, too, they came upon white cedar 
and white pine. They were lucky, too, in hunting, and 
brought in about twenty deer, for the bush there is not so 
thick and wild as here in this neighborhood. From De- 
troit came wandering Delawares, who hunt us out wherever 
we go. A woman wanted to live with us, but we advised 
her to remain away from here, for it is something very ven- 
tursome with women without husbands. 

Saturday, 25. We had the holy communion, in which 
this time only four Indian brethren had part. Things 
will not go right with them. It is as if they could not 
find their way to the sinneiV Friend, and we see very well 
that they have suffered great harm in their hearts and have 
lost all. From this can be plainly seen what a poor people 
they are; when they no longer have a brother with them 
they again become heathen and dead in their hearts. We 
must have patience with them until the Saviour again 
touches their hearts with the image of his sufferings and 
melts them. t 

Sunday, 26. The communion liturgy was read early, 
and then Br. Edwards preached. Sensemann held the con- 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1783. 135 

gregation meeting from the Scripture- verse : Peace be with 
you all that are in Christ Jesus. 

Monday, 27. Samuel, the assistant, went to the Fort, 
likewise Sensemann and MichaqJ Jung, on busin^ess, re- 
turning Wednesday, 29. We heard here to-day loud firing 
of cannons, but knew not what it meant, but now we hear 
it was the birthday of her Majesty, the Queen, which was 
celebrated. 

Thursday, 30. Most of our people went to Lake St. 
Clair with meat, where a trader from the Fort will take it 
and pay them for it what they wish in exchange for it, es- 
pecially corn. Some came back Friday, 31, and others aft- 
erwards. This week we begin to make our preparations 
for boiling sugar, for which purpose there is here no lack of 
trees. In this country for the most part this kind of sugar is 
used, only a little West India sugar. The traders take it 
from the Indians and sell it again for three shillings the 
pound. 

Sunday, Feb. 2. Brs. Sami»el and Abraham came from 
the settlements with other brethren, whence they brought 
home corn, and in the afternoon we had a meeting. While 
they were away the cold was so intense that they could 
not endure it, and had to go into every house to warm 
themselves. Samuel came near freezing, and if he had 
had to go a couple of hundred steps more he would have 
fallen ; the people had trouble in bringing him to again. 
Upon the lake and ice, however, there is much keener cold 
to encounter on account of the wind than in the bush, and 
since we here are surrounded by the bush, we are*not so 
conscious of the cold. 

Wednesday, 5. Chippewas came, as they are often wont 
to do, but generally they come into our houses, and since 
w.e white brethren were not at home, save the sisters, 
Abraham was forced to tell them to avoid our houses, and 
rather to go visiting in the huts of the Indians — that we 
considered it improper for men to visit women when their 
husbands were not at home. 

Friday, 7. Most of the brethren are several days out 
hunting. The skins are worth little here, but, on the 



186 zbisberger's diart. 

other hand, the meat much more, four and five dollars for 
a whole deer, and for this they can get every thing. 

Saturday, 8. There came two white people, one a trader, 
named Isaac Williams, fsom the Fort, to visit us and see 
this country. This whole week it has been very cold, and 
it snowed every other day. 

Sunday, 9. In the forenoon the sermon was about good 
seed in the field, where the enemy sows tares. Br. Heckc- 
welder held the congregation meeting from the Scripture- 
verse. 

Monday, 10. The two white men, Isaac Williams and 
Cassedy, started for home ; the last has already been here 
once before, and in Detroit has talked much about our 
towns and Indians, about their devotion and singing in 
the meetings, over which he wondered much and was edi- 
fied. He said he would not have believed the Indians 
could have learned to sing so finely; he could not himself 
boast of being an earnest and devout church-goer. Then, 
too, there was no opportunity except in the French Cath- 
olic church, but this time he had come for no other reason 
than to be present at our meetings, for it charmed him to 
see the Indians so assembled, and he liked to listen to 
them. 

Tuesday, 11. The strong cold came to an end after 
lasting nearly two weeks, and it was somewhat milder, so 
that the following days of the week we had fine, spring- 
like weather; thus the snow went quite away,- partly from 
rain, partly from warm winds. 

Friday, 14. Two white men arrived. One, a German 
prisoner, brought in by the Indians, asked for a New Tes- 
tament as a loan, for here such books are not to be had, 
and it is a blessing for us that we have still kept our 
books, about which the warriors have not much troubled 
themselves. This week we made the first sugar. 

Sunday, 16. A sermon in the forenoon, after which 
most of the brothers went back to their sugar-huts, the 
weather was so fine. 

Sunday, 23. This whole week the brethren were in the 
bush at their sugar-huts, so also we, white brethren, ex- 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 137 

cept that Br. Jungmann and the sisters stayed at home 
alone by day. In the evening we all came home except 
the two unmarried brothers. The sermon was about the 
Epistle, that our fathers were baptized in the sea and with 
the clouds, but we with the precious blood of Christ that 
washeth and cleanseth us of our sins. 

Tuesday, 25. Br. Jungmann, during a strong gust of 
wind, experienced the evident protection of the Saviour 
and of the dear angels, for, as he was getting water at the 
spring, a tree fell directly in front of him and another be- 
hind him, so that the branches whirled about his head, 
and if he had gone one step only, forwards or backwards, 
he would have been struck to the ground. He remained 
standing in the very spot where first aware of the danger, 
and said within himself: "Dear Saviour, thy will be 
done," and no ill was done him. Likewise our brethren, 
during the same storm, had wonderful protection, for, in 
so thick a bush of unusually high trees, it is very danger- 
ous during such winds. 

Wednesday, 26. All the Indian brethren who went off 
hunting two days ago, a day's journey from here, came 
home with nothing, for the snow is gone, and all the land 
is full of water, so flat and even is it. At times they had 
to go a long way through water and marsh knee-high, and 
thus were in no condition to accomplish any thing. 

Sunday, March 2. The brethren came together for the 
sermon, which Br. David preached from the Gospel about 
the sower, saying that Satan, although he can not pre- 
vent the preaching of the word of God, is not indifferent 
and lazy about it, but much more seeks either to deprive 
people of what they have heard, or to fill their hearts with 
other Sb^i wordly things, that they may think nothing 
about it, and that he may turn their hearts therefrom. For 
some days such extremely cold weather has set in again, 
that nothing is to be done in sugar-making. Meanwhile, 
the brethren make preparation until the trees run again, 
so as to be ready. 

Some went to the Fort to buy corn, for many have 
nothing left to eat. They drew in the autumn the same 



188 zeisbergbb's diart. 

quantity of provisions for six months that we drew, but 
they have no idea how to manage with it. If they have 
any thing, they eat much and spare not till it is gone. 
They care not for the morrow what they shall then eat, 
if to-day they can eat their fill. 

Monday, 3. The Indian brethren, several days ago, 
went ofi* hunting, for the most part to get meat, which 
they take to the settlements and buy corn with. This is 
now enormously dear, and costs even now more than three 
pounds a bushel, for last summer there was a failure of the 
crop, and this winter the grain is spoilt by frost. 

Tuesday, 4. Sensemann also went to the Fort to get 
necessities, namely, corn, for now corn can still be had, but 
in the spring none at all. He came back — 

Thursday, 5, and with him two white men to see this 
place and neighborhood. As we hear, many people pur- 
pose coming this spring to the mouth of the river to settle, 
now that we have made a beginning. 

Saturday, 8. For two days we have fine, mild weather, 
the trees run, and sugar is again made, but this running 
varies and lasts not long. We must watch for our chance, 
and now the brethren are all scattered in the bush in their 
sugar-camps, so that some of us white brethren only are 
alone at home. 

Sunday, 9. There was a sermon, for which the brethren 
came home, and in the afternoon betimes went back again. 

Tuesday, 11. William went to the Fort with some 
others to get their monthly supplies. 

Thursday, 13. He came back, and at the same time 
two widows, Martha and Henrietta, from the Shawanese 
towns. They remain here, but the latter will fii'st get her 
cattle and things. From them we learn thus muQh about 
our Indian brethren, that they are much scattered in the 
bush, here and there, but that Mark, with the Mohicans, 
had gone away farther, and had settled with the wild In- 
dians of the nation alone, and will not come here. They 
are entertained there industriously with lies and fed with 
them, that they may not come here. This place and 
neighborhood are described to them as bad and danger- 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 139 

0U8 ; their friends among the savages watch them, and do 
every possible thing to prevent their coming here. They 
are in the hands of wolves, who plague and worry them 
all, and many of our Indians are blinded and let them- 
selves be led like fools. There is, as it were, a judgment 
upon them, and punishment follows ever after them. Had 
they come, when last spring they got their summons to 
come, they would have been free and have escaped further 
punishment, but now, on account of their disobedience 
and perverseness, they must suffer, and what they yet hold 
of their cattle and effects will yet all be stolen, but yet 
they are still blind, and can not resolve to get away from 
the race of the wicked. We hear, however, that in the 
spring many will yet come here ; but Mark, who plays 
the chief, and wishes to build up again his nation, which is 
really at an end, flatters himself that he will get a brother 
for their teacher. The times have changed, and we have 
learned how it is when we with our mission are among 
heathen chiefs, who wish to lay down rules for us ; to 
whom unclean people complain when we reprove them 
for their wicked life, for the chiefs, the. devil's generals, 
abet them, and so persecute us. How does that do for us? 
They are blind heathen. Our affairs and theirs go not 
together. Praise be to God that we are out of their 
hands, for we have nothing more to do with them, nor 
they with us. 

Saturday, 15. We had the sacrament'of his body and 
blood in the holy communion with hungry and thirsty 
souls. 

Sunday, 16. The sermon was from the Gospel about 
the Canaanite woman : the brethren were present, but soon 
went back to their sugar-huts after our to-day's Scripture- 
verse had been treated of: Whom having not seen ye 
love, in whom, though now ye see him not, etc. 

Towards evening three young people of our Indians came 
from the Shawanese towns, Matthew, Cornelius' son, and 
Jacob, the son of the Rachael who died last autumn in Lower 
Sandusky, and had agreed with him that he, with his two 
sisters, should come here to the brethren. With them came 



140 zeisbbrqer's dury. 

Andrew, a single man; these three stole away, and came 
here simply to see and hear us, and with their own eyes to 
look at the country where we live, since they have heard so 
many lies from strange Indians who have been here and 
gone there: namely, that we lived in a place surrounded 
by water and marsh, so that we could plant nothing, and 
must starve, yes, we would yet all perish, for we were 
not sure of our lives, and yet many more lies, which were 
always told them to frighten them from here. They 
also said, as we had already heard, that they were all scat- 
tered, and could, therefore, say with no certainty who of 
them had it in mind to come here, and they who indeed 
wished to be here, must keep their wish secret from fear 
of the savages, who seek to hold them back, and watch 
over them that they may not. escape them. The poor 
widows, who, alone as they are, can not help themselves, 
and have no confidence to come away, even if they wished 
to begin the journey, they are the worst off. Others again 
live without care for the day, and can not bethink them- 
selves nor come to any resolution, and meanwhile let the 
heathenish life please them, and are again become heathen. 
Thus are they now circumstanced, they have got into 
great misery, and have no longer among them the word of 
Godj for the old among them, as it seems, are the worst. 
It is thus worthy of note to observe that the Saviour urges 
on our young people, makes them anxious and distressed 
for their teachers, and they long again for God and for his 
word. We rejoiced much to see them, and it gave us new 
courage and hope that our Indian church shall again as- 
semble and be edified. 

Tuesday, 18. Most of the Indian brethren went off 
hunting for a few days, and the three who have lately 
come to examine the country, but the rest of the brethren 
were all in the bush, busy making sugar. They came 

Thursday, 20, back home, and the assistant, Samuel, 
went with them visiting about the sugar-huts and to see 
the brethren, who also rejoice as much as we do, to hear 
something about our scattered brethren, and inasmuch as 
the three brethren wished to have a meeting, the breth- 



CLIKTON RIVER, 1783. 141 

t 

ren who are near by carae home mornings, and we had 
daily meetings so long as they were here. 

Sunday, 23. In the forenoon a sermon, in the afternoon 
a congregation meeting from the Scripture- verse : For the 
gifts and calling of God are without repentance. 

Monday, 24. Two of the lately arrived brethren went 
away to their friends to bring them here as soon as possi- 
ble. With them went also Abraham, Samuel, and others 
to the Fort to get corn. Every thing here has pleased them. 
They have seen that all they heard of us was a lie, but 
above all it did them good again to have an opportunity to 
hear God's word, which for so long a time they have had 
to do without. 

The others in the Shawanese towns await meanwhile 
with longing for their return, to hear what sort of news 
they bring with them about us. We sent word to them 
that we invited hither all brethren who were distressed, in 
trouble about their salvation and longing for comfort, for 
here we were right quiet and undisturbed, seeing and hear- 
ing nothing of war. And since some of those there still 
continue to cherish a vain hope that some one of us will 
again come to them, we let them know that as long as the 
war lasts, this can not be, and we could not promise it, 
even should there be peace again in the land. They were a 
week on their way hither, and expect to make their journey 
back in the same time, but Andrew begged to stay here. 

Tuesday, 25. Br. Conner arrived from the Fort to build 
himself a house, and soon to bring his family. For the 
sake of his maintenance he has had to stay there till now, 
and circumstances have forced him. 

Thursday, 27. Brs. Abraham and Samuel came in from 
the Fort, where they saw the two young brethren depart, 
after having been provided with provisions for their jour- 
ney by the major, to whom Br. David wrote. Our Indian 
brethren made the major a present of a couple of deer, 
which he very graciously received. 

Friday, 28. There was a great thunder-storm, the sec- 
ond one since winter, with hard rain, and we had the finest 
spring weather, lasting several days. 



142 zeisbergbr's diart. 

Sunday, 30. The brethren came together for the sermon, 
and afterwards in the afternoon there was a congregation 
meeting, held by Br. Jungmann, from the Scripture-verse. 

Monday, 31. A white man came from the Fort and 
bought from our Indians sugar for corn and flour, a good 
thing for our people, who are very short of food for a long 
time. All which they get here they can sell for a good 
price, be it what it may. 

Thursday, April 3. .The widow, Henrietta, went back 
to the Shawanese town to get her cattle and things she had 
left there. It makes us sad to see how they have quite 
fallen away from the Saviour, and again become heathen as 
soon as their teachers were taken from them ; they see now 
what a poor people they are, if they have not a brother 
with them. None is subject to another, nor does one give 
heed to another, but each one is for himself, and there is 
no fellow-feeling among them. Each one considers him- 
self shrewd, and accepts no advice from others. Those, 
however, who yet stand fast must be silent, and dare not. 
speak ; thus each one must see for himself where he will 
abide. Therefore it is hard with many a one to come 
away, for he has no suitable help, and can not help him- 
self, for hitherto we have always had to seek to help them 
get here. 

Saturday, 5. Early service, most of the brethren being 
at home. 

Sunday, 6. In the forenoon, there was a sermon about 
our High Priest, who offered himself for our sins, and is 
entered into the holy place not made with hands, into 
heaven itself, to appear for us before the face of God. The 
congregation meeting was held by Br. Heckcwelder, from 
the Scripture- verse : Him that cometh to me I will in no 
wise cast out. Since the warm weather already lasts for 
some time and sugar-making is ended, we stopped it 
to-day, for the sap is no longer sweet, and indeed there is 
little of it. 

Monday, 7. Some Indian brethren went to the mouth 
of the river to help block out his house for a white man, 



CLINTON RIVER, 1788. 143 

who wishes to settle there, and invited them. In this way 
they earn corn, which they much need. 

Wednesday, 9. Abraham, with several others, went by 
water to the settlement for corn, and came, 

Saturday, 12, back again ; so also the brethren from the 
mouth, where they have blocked out a house and brought 
it under roof. This whole week there were heavy rains, 
with thunder, so that the creek rose higher than it has 
been since the snow went off. 

Sunday, 13. The sermon was about the Saviour's en- 
trance into Jerusalem for his passion. The brethren were 
exhorted to follow him, to go with him, step by step, and 
to observe him in all the scenes of his passion. In the 
afternoon there was a service for all communion brethren, 
who before had part therein, but not for two years. They 
were told to search their hearts, to be straightforward and 
upright, and with all their troubles to go to the Saviour 
and seek forgiveness, for that he was gracious and merci- 
ful to all those of humble and contrite heart. 

Thursday, 17. After the brethren had all been ad- 
dressed, the communion brethren, after the reading of the 
history of to-day, had the washing of feet, and thereupon 
the supper of our Lord in the night, when he was be- 
trayed. Two sisters, Sophia and Salome, and one brother, 
Adam, were readmitted after receiving absolution with 
the laying on of hands. 

Friday, 18. Throughout the day there were readings 
of the history of the sufferings of our Lord and Saviour, 
and this was listened to with moved and melted hearts. 
At the words, "Jesus bowed his head and gave up the 
ghost," we fell upon our knees and recited the liturgy. 

Saturday, 19. We kept the Quiet Sabbath. We could 
have no love-feast on account of our poverty, but in the 
evening Br. Jungmann held a service about the blessing, 
which through his rest in the grave has come to us and 
become our portion. 

Sunday, 20. After we had early greeted the brethren 
with the words, "The Lord is arisen," we prayed the 
Easter litany in the chapel, since we yet had no regular 



144 zeisberqer's diary. 

God's acre. Afterwards the history of the resurrection 
was read, and then a sermon from Br. Heckewelder. In 
the evening was a congregation meeting from the Scrip- 
ture-verse. 

Monday, 21. Br. David wrote to London. We repaired 
our boat, and set out, 

Tuesday, 22, for Detroit, for the time was favorable for 
getting provisions and ours were at an end. We came, 

Wednesday, 23, there, as also our Indian brethren the 
25th, and after Br. David had spoken with Major de Pey- 
ster, and got an order from him for us and our Indians, 
and had received the provisions, we went away again on the 
26th. The major gave us two cows and three horses, 
which he had already promised us the year before, but 
which we had left behind, because we had not believed we 
could bring them through ; these we now took. Mr. As- 
kin informed us at once that he had received an answer 
from Montreal, and he paid us the £100 sterling. We 
bought two cows from this, but these are very dear here, 
namely, thirty to forty pounds New York currency. Br. 
David gave to the major the letters to be forwarded to 
London, as soon as the next ship sailed for Niagara, and 
this he promised to see to. At the upper end of German- 
town, Br. David, by request, baptized four children. 

Monday, 28. We got back home again, having been 
much hindered on the lake by head-winds, and having 
had much trouble to row against them. But the Indians 
had to lie still. Both their canoes were filled by the waves. 
We brought with us in our boat Br. Conner and his wife, 
with the provisions which now they get as we do, but 
which before they did not draw so long as they were in 
Detroit. 

Thursday, Mayl. Our Indians got home. They brought 
the following news : The Chippewa chief, whom they met 
on their way, spoke with them, and said that they lived 
on his land ; it had not been his intention that we should 
settle here ; he thought we would live the other side of 
the river further down. This land, however, they had al- 
ready made over to white people, just as this on which we 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 145 

live belongs to Mr. Bawbee, as the major himself told Br. 
David, but it is probable that the thing has a more distant 
canse, and that the nations, Delawares, Shawanese, etc., 
have put an idea into the heads of the Chippewas and 
aroused them against us, in order that the Gospel may no 
longer be preached in the Indian land. They see that we 
here find protection and support under the English gov- 
ernment, that we are settling down again, and that oar 
Indians begin to come together again ; this vexes them 
and they will not cease to think upon ways and means to 
hinder this, if not utterly to destroy us. Brother David 
wrote, therefore, Friday, May 2, to the major in Detroit, 
and informed him of this. This letter, a white man, our 
neighbor, who settled several weeks ago on this river be- 
low us, took with him to Detroit. We do not doubt that 
the major and Bawbee, who recommended this country to 
us, will do their best in the matter to have us remain 
here. Otherwise things were in their usual order. As 
soon as we got home, we again set about our labor of 
clearing the land. Of garden stuff we had already sowed 
a good deal. 

Sunday, 4. The sermon was by Br. Heckewelder about 
the good Shepherd, who lays down his life for his sheep, 
and the congregation meeting by Br. Jungmann from the 
Scripture- verse. 

Tuesday, 6. Br. Heckewelder went eight miles down 
the river to Mr. Tucker, whom he met on the way here to 
us. He was sent by the major with a letter for Br. David, 
an aiiswer to his letter of the 2d Inst. In this he told us 
to continue our labor undisturbed and^to plant; that we 
should be without anxiety, he would arrange the affair 
with the Chippewa Indians to our 'satisfaction, and if they 
came to us and said any thing, we should hand to them 
the string of wampum and the piece of tobacco he had 
sent us, and say to them that their father wished to speak 
to them about this, and invited them to come to him. 

Wednesday, 7. Two messengers came, Matthew and 
Reeatus, to tell us that some forty of our Indians were on 
10 



146 zeisberger's diary. 

their way here, whom they had left on the Miami (Man- 
mee), ]^ut that they had nothing to eat, and must maintain 
themselves on the journey by hunting. Since now plant- 
ing-time is so near, and we should like to prevent their 
neglecting it, we sent to them on the 8th a canoe and with 
it Br. Edwards to the Fort, and Br. David wrote to the 
major about them, telling him this and asking him to send 
on some provisions to them, that they might get here as 
soon as possible and plant at the right time. 

The rest, who are still among the Shawanese, have in 
part no wish to come here, and a part can not come on 
account of the savages, though they would like to come, for 
as soon as the savagea observe that any one of our Indians 
would come here, they prevent him and will not let him 
go. But Mark, who, as we hear, has made himself chief 
of the Mohicans in that neighborhood, got them together 
and moved away with them farther, and has founded a 
separate town, but only two of our Indians are with him, 
Gabriel and Isaac. Sensemann held, on the 8th, the early 
service. The Indian brethren, who went in the boat to 
Detroit several days ago to get provisions, came back from 
there to-day. 

Friday, 9. Br. David held the early service from the 
Scripture-verse. The brethren were encouraged to plant 
industriously and not to be lazy. 

Saturday, 10. Br. Heckewelder held early service. This 
whole week we and our Indian brethren have been busy 
clearing the fields, but it is hard work, on account of un- 
commonly large timber. 

Sunday, 11. Br. David preached in the morning, and 
in the afternoon Br. Heckewelder conducted the funeral 
of little Augustina, daughter of Samuel and Sara Nanti- 
coke, three years nine months old, who died yesterday 
of consumption. Br. Edwards returned to-day, and not 
on the 12th. 

Monday, 12. Br. Edwards returned from Detroit, where 
he received supplies for our Indians now on their way 
here, and sent them to them. At the same time he brought 
word that peace would certainly be made. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 147 

Wednesday, 14. The first of the brethren got here by 
land, namely, Lake, with his family, and, 

Thursday, 15, came also some by water. They were all 
very glad to see us again and to be with us. Many soon 
came and told us their need, that their hearts had not been 
well since we were taken from them, and that on this ac- 
count they wanted to come here. We could not but have 
hearty compassion with them, addressed them to the Sa- 
viour, to approach him again, and with him they would 
find comfort and forgiveness. After the chiefs in the In- 
dian land observed that they wished to come to us here, they 
took all possible pains to hinder this, saying to them they 
should yet have patience for a little while, and not be in 
such haste; that they had much to consider and their af- 
fairs to put in order; they were not opposed to their going 
again to their teachers, and knew well enough they could 
not be without them, but as yet they knew nothing about 
the. Chippewas, among whom they wished to go, and to 
whom they were perfect strangers, but they should send 
an embassy to them, and if the matter were first arranged, 
they had nothing against their going again to their teach- 
ers ; they would be glad to have their children and young 
people show desire and inclination for this, and hear the 
word of God ; they said to them therefore to wait until 
autumn, when all would be made clear. They did not, 
however, permit themselves to be longer retained, for they 
saw very well that they only wished to hinder their coming 
here this spring, and if they should first do their planting 
there, they would be quiet for a while, and this indeed the 
chiefs wished. Others who wanted to come here let them- 
selves be held back till autumn, but wished to come then 
if they should see their time. The heathen will yet see 
and rue what they have done, to their own great harm, how- 
ever; they begin already to see this, and are at discord 
with one another about it, and they accuse one another of 
having driven away the believing Indians with their teach- 
ers. The chiefs sent to prominent Indians whose friends 
wished to come here, and said to them they should stop 
their friends and hold them fast, but they got for an answer 



148 ZEISS brgbr's diary. 

from Lennachgo: " I will neither prevent nor forbid any 
one to go to his teachers. Why have you driven their 
teachers away ? Did I not tell you beforehand that if you 
drove away their teachers, their Indians also would not 
remain, yet you have done so, and thus you have driven 
away the believing Indians with their teachers. You 
would so have it, therefore I will prevent no one from 
going to them again, but I am glad of it. "Who brought 
to destruction the believing Indians on the Muskingum? 
Have the white people done it, whom we call Virginians ? 
Answer, No. They have not done it, but you are they 
who have killed them. Why have you not left them in 
peace where they were? They were quiet, and have done 
wrong to no man. Had you let them alone, they would 
all now be alive, and we could yet see our friends, but you 
would have it so, you wished to ruin them, and have so 
done." Thus spoke many of the chiefs. Half of the Del- 
aware Indians are against the brothers and hal£ for them. 
There are two parties of them, and both wrangle all the 
time about the brothers and their Indians. Especially the 
Goschachgunkers, whose neighbors we were at Lichtenau 
(near Coshocton, 0.), in a manner consider themselves ours, 
since they, too, have suffered much and have not taken up 
the hatchet against the Americans, and they quarrel with 
the other party about this. They will on that account 
talk about this, in order to show what sort of effect and 
influence our circumstances, captivity, and fate have upon 
the Indians, and that it is not so lightly looked upon. 

Friday, 16. Now that our little congregation was once 
again nearly as full as it was, we had to enlarge our chapel, 
at which the brethren went at once to work and built on a 
piece. 

Saturday, 17. Br. Heckewelder went with some Indian 
brethren in a boat to Detroit, to got supplies for the breth- 
ren lately arrived, about whom Br. David wrote to the 
major asking for them. Meanwhile the brethren took a 
view of the place, to clear land where they could plant, for 
it is the proper time. 

Sunday, 18. Br. Heckewelder preached. Br. David 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1788. 149 

conducted the service for the children, to whom he said 
he was pleased to see them together again and to have an 
opportunity to talk with them about the Saviour; they 
had now been a year among the savages, and would doubt- 
less see a great difference between us and them, and since 
they could now again hear about the Saviour, they should 
be thankful to him therefor, should love him, seek to live 
for him, give over their hearts to him, put away all their 
heathenish, thoughtless ways, forget what they must have 
heard, give heed to the word of Q-od, and be obedient to 
hini ; thus would they be happy and contented children. 
We spoke with some of the brethren lately come, and ad- 
vised and encouraged them to start afresh and to make a 
covenant with the Saviour, to live for him. Many said: - 
"We regard ourselves as nothing but heathen, for we 
have lost the Saviour, and our hearts have no life and 
feeling from him." Br. Jungmann held the congregation 
meeting. We see among them the Saviour's labor still, 
who has indeed not forsaken them, for if the old among 
them were dead and indifferent in heart, he aroused the 
children and young people so that they longed again for 
the brothers to be with them, and when they heard Br. 
David's message this spring, that we invited to us all 
brethren who were anxious about their salvation, and un- 
easy in i^egard to the Saviour, a little child answered, 
five years old, at once, when they were assembled, and 
said to his mother : " I will be the very first, and go to 
the teachers." The mother, who before was somewhat 
indifferent, and yet was always uneasy, made up her mind 
also and came here. 

Wednesday, 21. Br. Edwards returned from the Fort, 
where he received supplies for the brethren lately come, 
given to him without hesitation. He brought back news 
that on the 25th of next month, June, the Americans would 
take possession of Detroit,^ in accordance with the articles. 
And the major had told him it would be well and neces- 
sary if meantime some one of us came to the city to see 

*But this did not happen till July, 1796. 



160 zeisbergbr's diary. 

how things went, that he might give us news betimes and 
care for us before he went away. 

Friday, 23. A lost sheep came back to us here, namely, 
Renatus, the Mohican, who for many years has been in 
error and at last is come to this place. He begged very 
earnestly to be received again, to live with us, and since 
we saw it to be a thing which concerned the salvation of 
his soul, we had no hesitation in receiving him, for which 
he was glad, and went back at once to the lake, where he 
had left his wife and children, and next day brought them 
hither. 

Saturday, 24. We began to plant corn, after having 
hitherto always been busy clearing land, and therein shall 
we continue so long as time permits. 

Sunday, 25. Br. David preached from the Gospel : 
Whatever ye shall ask the Father — he will give it you. I 
came forth from the Father, and am come into the world : 
again I leave the world and go to the Father. 

In the communion quarter-hour the Lord's supper tvas 
announced for next Saturday. Br. Edwards held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 28. The brethren helped us plant corn. 

Thursday, 29. We prayed to our unseen, dear Lord, 
who is gone for us to heaven, and now sits at the right 
hand of God, and intercedes for us. We begged from 
him his blessed nearness feelingly and the holy walk with 
him at all hours of our life. Thereupon, in another serv- 
ice, the little son of Jacob and Christiana, born on the 
journey hither thirty days ago, was baptized with the 
name Joseph. Several brethren who have lately come 
complained to us of their wretched condition, in that they 
had departed from the Saviour since they have been 
among the wild Indians, and in part had been punished 
with heavy and gross sins, which now give them much to 
do, and cause them more need and anxiety in their hearts 
than all the distress they have outwardly suffered, and 
they long for comfort and forgiveness of their transgress- 
ions. We could not but have compassion with them, 
pray to the Saviour for them, to have mercy upon them, 



CLINTON RIVER, 1788. 151 

and direct them to him, the Physician of their souls, who 
alone can heal them. 

Saturday, 31. After the brethren had been addressed, 
we had the holy communion. The Saviour was so merci- 
ful as to send us five brethren, whom he allowed to be re- 
admitted, four of whom were of those lately arrived, who 
received this mercy with humble and contrite hearts, for 
they had had no communion for nearly two years, and 
they were all absolved with the laying on of hands. The 
Saviour was manifest in a wonderful way to us, blessed us 
with his near presence, and gave us his peace. 

Sunday, June 1. After the communion liturgy, Br. 
Heckowelder preached. The Holy Spirit was busy among 
the brethren, and brought it home to many a one's heart 
to see and understand his destructive and satanic posi- 
tion ; this brought them to the Saviour, and they sought 
to find forgiveness and rest for their hearts. 

Tuesday, 3. David held early service from the Scrip- 
ture-verse : Take the helmet of salvation and the sword 
of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Thus would 
neither sin, nor the world, nor Satan with all temptations 
have any hold upon us. 

Thursday, 5. Michael held early service. He spoke 
with several of the brethren lately arrived, who opened 
their hearts, confessed their guilt, that they had lost their 
Saviour, were dead in heart, and had polluted themselves 
with sin, for which they now sought forgiveness. 

Sunday, 8. Upon our knees we prayed to God, the 
blessed Holy Ghost, thanked him for his pains, care, and 
oversight, which until now he has bestowed upon us, to 
adorn us for the Bridegroom of our souls. We acknowl- 
edged to him our shortcomings, and asked forgiveness of 
all our transgressions, that often we had given no heed to 
his voice, thereby making our hearts unblessed and dis- 
contented. The sermon treated of the office and service 
of the Holy Spirit, in the first place among the children 
of the world, and especially with the children of God, in 
whom he dwelleth since they have received sonship. In 
the service for the baptized, Cornelius was absolved with 



152 zbisberger's diabt. 

the laying on of hands, for which we had much longed 
and begged. 

Monday, 9. Most of our Indians went off hunting for 
a few days, for their provisions have come to an end, and 
they want to get meat. Meanwhile, the brethren at home 
were busy planting. They came, 

Wednesday, 9, home with meat, and thus must they try 
from time to time to help themselves through. 

Thursday, 12. McCormick came with another white 
man. He was present when we were made prisoners, and 
since he saw that it went hard with us, he laid the great- 
est blame for our captivity upon the Indians, but we well 
knew by whom they were instigated ; he pitied us, and 
showed compassion at our being put in such wretched cir- 
cumstances, and that now we must seek to get along so 
painfully and with such hard labor. He took his boy, 
who had been with Conner, to put him in school. 

Saturday, 14. We were busy planting. 

Sunday, 15. Br. David preached from the Gospel about 
Nicodemus, who came by night to Jesus, -and spoke with 
the Saviour about the new birth, which he has gained for 
us, and to which all the Holy Trinity has contributed, that 
we now again should become God's children through be- 
lief in Jesus Christ. In the children's hour Br. Hecke- 
welder baptized the little daughter of Adolphus and Su- 
sanna, two months old, born among the ShawanesQ, into 
the death of Jesus, with the name Susanna. Michael held 
the congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse. To- 
day a party of Chippewas went by, the first since spring, 
on their way back from hunting. • 

Wednesday, 18. There came another family here from 
their wandering, namely, Thomas, with his wife and five 
children, very meek and humble, asking to be received. 
They said: "We consider ourselves unworthy to live 
again with you; we have lost our Saviour and are no bet- 
ter than other heathen and have befouled ourselves with 
sin, but since our well-being and salvation lie upon our 
hearts and wc can have no peace, we resolved to go again 
to our teachers, thinking that although we did not get 
leave to dwell again with them, it would in some measure 



CLINTON RIVEB, 1783. 158 

be a comfort to us merely to see your town from afar." 
We had no hesitation in receiving them, and let them feel 
OUT hearty compassion. 

They, too, had something to arrange before they could 
come to us, for he springs from one of the foremost fam- 
ilies, and is grandson of the former chief, Netawatwes : * 
thus the heads of the Delftwares watched sharply over 
him and wished to keep him from coming to us, and many 
who had not themselves coumge to speak bribed Indians 
to advise him to desist, and they used all their art, but 
in vain. When they could effect nothing with him, they 
turned to his wife and threatened to take away her chil- 
dren from her if they went to us, but she answered: " If 
you take away from me not only my husband but my chil- 
dren, yet you shall know that I will go. I am determined 
to go, and nothing can stop me, for what particularly 
drives me to my teachers is the everlasting salvation of 
my soul. What good does it do me if you give me a 
houseful of clothes, silver, and other things and my soul 
be lost?" We heard at the same time that Niagara^ is 
garrisoned by the Americans, and that already also some 
are come to Detroit. 

Saturday, 21. This week the Indian brethren helped 
us hoe our corn. This whole spring until the present time 
we have been hard at work, almost beyond our strength, 
for we wanted to have our maintenance from this in the 
future. 

Sunday, 22. The sermon was about the rich man, in 
which it was said the Saviour would show us how it is 
with those who care only for their bodies and for the 
world, but are unconcerned about their souls and their 
eternal salvation, that our only necessity is to strive after 



' Netawatwes was ever a steadfast friend of Zeisberger. He died at 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War. He was much perplexed at 
the differences among Christians, and had thoughts of consulting the 
King of England about the matter. De Schweinitz' Life of Zeisberger, 
p. 387. 

* Niagara, Oswego, and other frontier posts were not given up to the 
United States till 1796. 



154 zeisberqer's diary. 

righteousness and to seek to obtain peace with God, then 
had we nothing to fear from judgment, for our debts were 
paid here. Br. David held the children's service and 
Jungmann the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 23. We went with the boat to Detroit, Br. 
Heckewelder remaining at home, the Indians also with 
us, to get supplies. We got there the 24th, and since we 
had heard from there all sorts of reports that a great 
change and overturning in regard to authority had already 
begun, it was pleasing to us to tind every thing in 
statu quo. 

Br. David spoke with the major about the maintenance 
of us and our Indians, and informed himself by him how 
long he would furnish us from the king's store. And since 
the major wanted to hear Br. David's ideas about this, he 
told him that if it were pleasing to him, and he had noth- 
ing against it, we should be best helped if he would supply 
us with provisions until autumn, when the corn is ripe, 
namely, towards the end of October. We should receive 
this with appreciation and gratitude, in order that the In- 
dians might not have to use at once the corn they had 
planted before it was yet ripe. He agreed to this at once, 
and made no difficulty about granting us provisions for 
four months, gave to Br. David the proper written order 
on the commissary, from whom we had to receive them, 
and since our boat could not hold a third of the whole, 
he ordered also a large transport for us, so that we could 
carry every thing, and with which we could go up to our 
towns. Since now, as he said, he had no trustworthy 
news from Quebec, for as yet no packet has come from 
there, he said to Br. David it would be well and needful 
if he would soon come back to the city, that if any 
change took place, of which there is no doubt, for they 
have received the articles of peace', he could confer with 
Br. David and make arrangements if he should be called 
away, for from the articles of peace it is plain to be seen 
that Niagara, Detroit, and Michilimackinac will be ceded 
to the States. 

Thursday, 26. After every thing was ready we went 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 155 

again from Detroit. Br. Edwards, in the great transport, 
had already sailed away the day before with some Indians. 

Friday, 27. We all came with a good wind over the 
lake home successfully. As the river was very low, the 
great transport, which had run aground, had to be light- 
ened when already in sight of our town, so that it could 
come all the way up. The Indians had this time for four 
months fifty-two barrels of flour, twenty -five barrels of 
pork, and also a good quantity of corn and other things 
besides, so that they are certainly well provided for, and 
have never been so well oft' in their lives. Our wish is only 
that they may use it with thankfulness. They were again 
ashamed, for when we went away from here, it was said 
that in the Fort we should all be put in irons, that the rest 
here would be taken away, and that we should get no 
provisions. 

Sunday, 29. Br. Edwards preached and Michael Jung 
held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 30. Br. David delivered an earnest discourse 
of admonition to the brethren on account of the bad con- 
duct of some who went to the Fort with us, and Ignatius was 
put out of the church. He, after receiving absolution, 
had sinned more than once, and thus it is with many who 
wish to draw near us again, and fall thereby again into 
the mire, as if their punishment were not yet over. 

Wednesday, July 2. The brethren helped us about our 
corn plantation, for we are overwhelmed with work. 

Saturday, 5. There came an express from the command- 
ant in Detroit, who told us in a letter to Br. David that 
two brothers had come there in a ship from Niagara, who 
wished to see and speak with us as soon as possible. We 
saw from his letter that one of them was Br. Schebosh. 
Br. David, with Br. Edwards and some Indian brothers, 
got ready at once and went thither in the boat, where they, 

Sunday, 6, arrived betimes, and to their no common joy 
met Br. Schebosh and John Weigand (messenger of the 
Mission Board), whom a merchant there had taken into 
his own house. At the same time, on that very day, an 



156 zbisberqbr's diart. 

American, Col. Doaglass,* came by land from Pittsburg, 
by whom we received a letter from Br. Ettwein.* What 
joy, praise, and thanks held our hearts towards our dear 
Lord is hardly to be described, after so long waiting and 
such long separation from the brethren ; when he sees the 
right time he certainly helps. 

Br. David went at once to Col. De Peyster, who has 
been promoted, and announced his arrival. He was ex- 
tremely friendly, and asked Br. David whether he knew 
Br. Schebosh, and whether he was an honorable man. 
Answer. He need have no doubt of it. He told us why 
he asked. He had heard he had instructions from Congress 
for the Indians. Br. David answered him, that he did not 
believe it, and had heard nothing nor learned any thing of 
it, for the brethren received no such commissions. He said : 
^' That is quite enough for me. The two brothers can go 
with thee and dwell with you. I will also give them sup- 
plies as long as you have them [and he gave at once to 
Br. David a written order], only they shall communicate 
to the Indians no information or news about the bounds 
of the land, but be silent." Two officers from Congress 
came here to treat with the Indians, but he permitted them 
to do no more than announce the peace to them, for as yet 
he had no orders therefor from higher quarters. Br. 
David thanked him very politely for his beneficence and 



^ Kphraim Douglass, an Indian trader before the Revolution. He was 
sent out, in accordance with a resolution of Congress, to treat with the 
Western Indians, being weU fitted for the purpose by his familiar ac- 
quaintance with the Indian tongues. He died in 1833, at the age of 
eighty-four. — I^etter from Hon. Wm. M. Darlington. 

'John Ettwein was the successor of Bishop Seidel, and was conse- 
crated Bishop in 1784. "Of humble descent, a shoemaker by trade, 
he became a prince and a great man in Israel." He was born in June, 
1721^ converted in 1738, ordained deacon of the church 1746. In 1754 
he came to America, was a missionary among the Indians, pastor of 
the church in New York City, and afterwards in North Carolina. He 
visited New England, preaching in Boston and laying the corner-stone 
of a Moravian church at Newport. He was a man of extraordinary 
executive ability. His death occurred early in the year 1802. See De 
Schweintz Some of the Fathers of the Am. Mor. Church. 



VISIT TO DETROIT, 1788. 157 

kind intentions, that he had so well provided both for ns 
and our Indians now for nearly a year, and had given 
orders for supplies till the end of October, and had cared 
for us as a father would have done ; we were indeed in no 
condition to make him any return, but should always think 
of him with appreciation and thankfulness; there was, 
however, One above us all, our Father in heaven, who 
would not leave him un rewarded. He answered that the 
thing in itself was reward enough for him, for he saw that 
what he had done had not been done in vain, and that 
therefore he did it with all pleasure. Since now he had 
become acquainted with us and he was not likely to remain 
here, he would make the request that after he was replaced 
and called away, Br. David would write to him from time' 
to time and give him news about our health and how we 
got on, for as long as he was in the army and Br. David 
addressed him a letter, it would certainly reach him, be be 
where he might be ; he did not know certainly that be 
would be called away, but thus much he conjectured, that 
it would not happen before June of next year, and before 
that time he would speak further with Br. David and make 
arrangements with him. After Br. David finished his 
business he took leave of him in a friendly way, and we 
departed, 

Monday, 7, with the two brothers from Detroit, and 
came, 

Tuesday, 8, to the joy of ourselves and of all our breth- 
ren, back home. Tears of joy and thankfulness were 
shed at seeing again, after two years, brethren from our 
church and receiving news of it. We soon refreshed our- 
selves with our letters and news from the church, which 
we read with melted hearts, especially about the death of 
our venerable, dear Br. Nathaniel (Bishop Seidel), in whom 
we lost a true father, and of many other man-servants and 
maid-servants of our Saviour. 

Wednesday, 9. At the early service from the Scripture- 
verse of the day, which, to our joy, we have now again 
received : The Lord hear thee in the day of trouble, the 
brethren were saluted by the church and were told on this 



158 ZEISBBRaBR's DIART. 

occasion that the Saviour had heard the prayer of so 
many congregations for us, in his mercy had thought of 
us, and had opened the way for our again hearing from 
each other. The brethren were admonished to think back 
a little, to search and converse with their hearts, perhaps 
much would there be found, and their hearts would tell 
them that our all falling into such need and misery was in 
great degree brought about [for this was reason enough 
to be found] by our being sinners, and they were urged to 
seek comfort and fohgiveness with the Saviour. We white 
brethren afterwards read some letters and journals, where- 
from we saw the hearty sympathy of our dear brethren in 
our sufferings, for we perceived with modest and affected 
' hearts their distress and perplexity about us, whom may 
our dear Lord and Saviour comfort in regard to us. 
The rest of the day the two brothers told us by word of 
mouth how it stood with the church and what bad hap- 
pened meanwhile, so that we forgot all else. 

Thursday, 10. After early service by Br. Heckewelder, 
in the communion quarter-hour, announcement was made 
to the brethren for the following Saturday that the 
Saviour would give us food and drink of his body and 
blood in the holy sacrament. 

Saturday, 12. After the brethren had been addressed, 
we enjoyed his body and blood in the holy communion 
with hungry and thirsty souls. At the love-feast the let- 
ter of Br. Ettwein was read to the brethren and the greet- 
ing from the church made known. The Saviour gave us 
back two brothers, Cornelius and Peter, and two sisters, 
Magdalena and Agnes, who were readmitted, to whom it 
was an unspeakable blessing. Again to others who yet 
remained behind, it was a blessing that they entered their 
hearts, where the Holy Ghost disclosed to them their faults 
and deteriorations. 

Sunday, 13. Br. Edwards preached after the communion 
liturgy and Sensemann held the congregation meeting 
from the Scripture-verse of the day. Those who were re- 
admitted yesterday came and showed their joy and thank- 
fulness for the mercy which the Saviour had let them feel. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 159 

Monday, 14. Br. Michael Juug held the early service. 
The changeable weather for more than a week now, for it 
has been very hot, but is now so cold that we had to seek 
out our thicker clothes, causes among us white brethren 
indispositions and fevers, for if north winds blow here, it 
is not only cool, but at times cold even in summer. 

Tuesday, 15. Many of the brethren went to the lake to 
get rushes for making mats ; they came back the 16th. 

Thursday, 17. Our neighbor from the mouth of the 
river came and asked that some Indians might help him, 
he paying them, to hill his corn, and this was promised. 

Sunday, 20. Br. David preached from the words : De- 
part from me for I am a sinful man. Br. Heckewelder 
held the children's hour, Michael the congregation meet- 
ing. In the afternoon we read papers and letters we had 
received. 

Monday, 21. Some brothers and sisters went down to 
Hasel to help him on his plantation, as we had promised. 

Tuesday, 22. Br. Conner came back from Detroit, where 
lie had got supplies. When we last got provisions there, 
and he at the same time went with us. Col. de Peyster re- 
fused to let him have them longer, and so he had to pro- 
vide himself with them by buying them. 

Thursday, 24. Br. Heckewelder held the early service. 
Some Indian brethren went off hunting. John, Luke's 
son, came from Sandusky, where he had been living. 

Sunday, 27. Br. Heckewelder preached. We laborers 
read together the weekly journaP of last year's synod 
at Berthelsdorf (near Herrnhut), with sympathetic hearts, 
and gave thanks to the Saviour who was with them, im- 
parting to them his council and aid. Br. David held the 
congregation meeting from the Stripture-verse : He hath 
made his wonderful works to be remembered : the Lord is 
gracious and full of compassion, about the wonder of won- 
ders that God became man and for us gave up his life unto 
death that we might have life everlasting. 

Monday, 28. Some went to Detroit to sell canoes they 

* See introduction. 



160 zeisberger's diary. 

had made. A white man, named Homes, came from the 
settlement here v^isiting with his wife. *He remained over 
night, and went back Tuesday, the 29th. 

Wednesday, 30. From the brethren who came from 
the Fort we learned that Oswego' is now garrisoned by 
Americans. If this was true it was pleasing to us, for it 
will farther the return of Br. Weigand. Also some 
friendly Delawares came here visiting. 

Saturday, Aug. 2. Some Frenchmen came, and also 
two Germans from Detroit for a visit. Heckewelder held 
early service. 

Note — Fine prospect for a good harvest. 

Sunday, 3. Br. Edwards preached, David held the 
children's service, and Sensemann the congregation meet- 
ing. We read together the weekly journal of the synod. 

Monday, 4. Brs. Sensemann and Conner went to the 
Fort, the latter for provisions. 

Wednesday, 6. Br. David spoke with A. Charity, bade 
her turn altogether to the Saviour, and not to use her 
time in the cliurch without blessing, but to give herself 
entirely to him, to ask forgiveness from him ; but for that 
a childlike heart was needful, uprightness towards her 
laborers and the Saviour. 

Friday, 8. Brs. Sensemann and Schebosh from the 
Fort, we had a letter from Br. Shewkirk,^ from New York, 
dated Aug. 24th of last year. 

Saturday 9. Tucker came with his wife for a visit. 
They asked for an Indian sister to be at the lying-in of 
their negro woman. 

Sunday, 10. Br. David preached, thereupon the com- 
munion quarter-hour. We laborers continued our reading 
aloud of the weekly journal of the synod, and Br. Ed- 
wards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 11. We refused an Indian woman who wanted 

»See under June 18, 1783, p. 153. 

*£wald GustaTus Shewkirk' born at Stettin, Prussia, Feb. 28, 1725. 
He came to America in 1774, and served the church in vartotts capaci- 
ties, and at one time was pastor of the Moravian church in Kew York 
City. He was made bishop in 1785, and died at Herrnhut, in 1805. 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1783. 161 

to place her child with us, for by such children we have al- 
ways hitherto been cheated and deceived. 

Wednesday, 18. We had the holy communion, at which 
our dear Lord came very graciously to us and blessed us 
with his near presence. 

Thursday, 14. Joseph and his wife, also Magdalena, 
went to the Fort to sell canoes. 

Sunday, 17. Heckewelder preached, thereupon we read 
the weekly journal of the synod, the end of which we 
reached to-day, and we thanked the Saviour for having 
been with the members of the synod, for having imparted 
to them his advice and intelligence for the blessing and 
advantage of his churches, who now enjoyed them to- 
gether, and we also. Br. David held the congregation 
meeting from the Scripture-verse: Blessed is the man 
whom thou choosest and causest to approach unto thee 
that he may dwell in thy courts. We shall be satisfied 
with the goodness of thy house. Also the children of the 
church shall fully enjoy it. O Lord, let them be thine 
own through the shedding of thy blood. 

Monday, 18. Br. Jungmann held the early service, and 
Tuesday, the 19th, Br. Edwards. Some brethren, went to 
the settlements, with baskets and brooms to sell. 

Wednesday, 20. Michael held early service. In our 
conference we considered which one of us should go with 
Br. Weigand to Bethlehem; inasmuch as none of the mar- 
ried brethren wished to go this time, except Br. Jung- 
mann, who declared himself ready, but this did not have 
our approval, our choice had to be made from the two 
unmarried brothers. They let it rest upon the choice and 
approbation of the Saviour, and it fell to the lot of Br. 
Michael Jung to go with Br. John Weigand to Bethlehem. 

Friday, 22. Some brethren who had gone to the settle- 
ment came back. Sensemann held the early service. 
Both we and the Indians were busy farming. 

Saturday, 23. Br. David held early service. 

Sunday, 24. Br. Edwards preached. In the service 
for the baptized, in the afternoon, Thomas was absolved 
11 



162 zeisbergbr's diart. 

and again admitted to the church. Br. Jungmann held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 25. Br. David held early service. 

Tuesday, 26. The child of Thomas and Sabina, some 
nine months old, was baptized with the name Rosina. 
Heckewelder and Schebosh went to the Fort, among other 
things, to find out about the sailing of ships for Niagara. 
On, 

Thursday, 28, they came back, bringing news that in a 
few days a ship would sail for Niagara. 

[So far the diary to Bethlehem.] 

Saturday, 30. The brothers, David, Edwards, and 
Sensemann went with Brs. John Weigand and Michael 
Jung to Detroit, the last two to sail for Niagara on their 
journey to Bethlehem. In the early service we committed 
these brethren to the remembrance of the brethren during 
their journey, that the Saviour should bring them, with 
good fortune and health to their destination, that our 
brethren might have perfect information about us. On 
account of stormy weather, however, by which they were 
kept back on the lake, they got thei^, 

Tuesday, Sept. 2, and since the ship had already sailed 
two days before, they must wait for another. Thus, after 
a tender separation, we came back to Gnadenhiitten,^ 

Thursday, 4, on the same day Jeremy, son of Samuel 
and Sarah, was buried. A frost that fell on the night of 
Sept. 1, did much damage in the fields and gardens, but 
yet not to the corn. 

Saturday, 6. Sent an express to Detroit, with a letter 
to Brs. John Weigand and Michael Jung, for Bethlehem. 
The messenger returned the following forenoon, when we 
learned from their letters they were still waiting for a ship, 
and did not know when they should sail. We had to-day 
a visit from Mr. Isaac Williams, of Detroit, his wife, and 
some others, who made a journey here for their health by 

^This is the first time in this diary that the settlement on Clinton 
river is spoken of by name. Usually it is called New Onadenhiitten 
for the sake of distinction. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1788. 168 

the lake, but were very sea-sick* In the evening was the 
burial of the departed Anna, Abraham's wife, who died yes- 
terday evening. Jan. 6, 1771, a widow, she had followed us 
from Goschgoschiink,^ in the year '70, to Languntoutenunk 
(on the Beaver), where she was baptized by Br. Jungmann, 
and on the 11th of April, 1772, came to the enjoyment of 
the Lord's supper. Jan. 16, 1774, she was united in holy 
matrimony to the assistant, Abraham, then a widower. 
She always went a blessed way, so that we could always 
rejoice in her. But when her children, a son and a daugh- 
ter, were grown up, and had married in the church, she 
gave all her care to their children, forgot herself and suf- 
fered harm in her heart, and though she was often reminded 
of this, she could not forbear, whereby she grew cold and 
dry in heart, and at times had to remain away from 
the supper of our Lord. Thus was she always variable, 
for in the disposition of heart she was pleasant and good. 
She had a lovely gift of speaking with sisters, of giving 
them good advice, and of directing them to the Saviour. 
She was wonderfully loved among the brethren, and this 
was especially evident during her sickness, for the sisters 
visited her very assiduously. From her whole conduct it 
could be seen she was chosen of the Lord, who led her, 
and did not let her go from his hand. In all our calamities 
of the last two years she stood firm and steadfast; nothing 
bad might or power to turn her from the church. She 
was also among the first to come to us in Detroit and help 
make the beginning here. Two mouths ago she fell sick 
and has so continued since. All relief she tried was of no 
avail. In her sickness she invited different sisters to come 
to her to whom she thought she had spoken too directly, 
when she had only spoken the truth to them, and begged 
them all for forgiveness. One sister, Martha, a widow, an- 
swered her it was not so, whereupon she said : " Now I aa» 
ready, and nothing else keeps me from going to the? 
Saviour." She admonished her children to remain with 



^This town was on the Alleghany, near the mouth of Tion«ata creek, 
not to be confounded with GoBchachgiink, Coshocton, 0. 



164 zbisbergbr's diart. 

the church and the Saviour all their lives, and her daugh- 
ter she. committed to her husband to act towards her as a 
father. The brothers and sisters often went to her and 
sang hymns, which she liked to hear. But for her the 
Saviour was too long in coming and taking her to himself 
and in. bringing her to her blessed hope. At ten o'clock 
last evening she had Br. David called, but she could say 
little more, but said with difficulty, only that she wished 
to go to the Saviour. He sang to her some hymns, and 
during the words : I shall as my Master be — Clothed with 
humility — Simple, teachable, and mild — Changed into a 
little child — he blessed her, and she fell asleep in a moment 
under his hand, softly and blessedly. 

Sunday, 7. The married brethren celebrated their fes- 
tival. At morning prayer, Br. Jungmann asked for us the 
Saviour's near presence and bloody blessing for this day, 
thereupon was the consideration of to-day's text : They 
shall be all taught of'God. Every man, therefore, that hath 
heard and hath learned of the father, cometh unto me; 
about learning to pass over to blessedness, not to vex 
ourselves vainly in the church and to make life hard, but to 
seek to make serviceable the merit of Jesus, from which 
we have all that is good and blessed, and to have a share 
in it. In the afternoon was a love-feast, and in the 
evening Br. Edwards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 8. Most of the brethren went to make canoes, 
by which they can earn something, for they get a good 
price for them. 

Wednesday, 10. A Mohican, a friend of Christina, came 
here visiting ; his brother has remained in Gnadenhiitten. 

Saturday, 13. This week many were busy building. It 
was again beautiful, warm, pleasant weather, but the frost 
has already done much harm to many crops, and many 
brethren will get no corn, for the frosts came this year much 
earlier than is usual at other times. Besides, our Indian 
brethren did not plant the right sort of corn, but a sort which 
does not ripen here, which they brought as seed from the 
Shawanese towns. Now we find the difference between here 
and the Muskingum very noticeable, and here corn must be 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 165 

planted which ripens earlier. Beans, cucumbers, and 
pumpkins have hardly begun to bear, and yet are frost- 
bitten. 

Sunday, 14. Br. David preached about the foremost 
commandment: ThoushaltlovetheLord thy God. Sense- 
mann held the children's service, and Heckewelder the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Monday, 15. Most of the brethren went to make canoes. 
Br. David held early service. 

Wednesday, 17. Chippewas came to trade some corn 
they brought. 

Saturday, 20. Schebosh returned from Detroit and 
brought word that Brs. John Weigand and Michael Jung 
had already sailed on the 6th Inst., which was pleasant for 
us to hear. 

Sunday 21. Br. Edwards preached, Br. David held the 
communion quarter-hour from the text, and Br. Jungmann 
the congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse of the 
day. 

Wednesday, 24. Several houses have been blocked out 
this week.; the weather has been fine and warm, so that 
we have good hope that our corn, which was planted quite 
too late, will yet get ripe and dry. 

Friday, 26. Br. Jungmann and his wife talked with 
the brethren yesterday and to-day about the Lord's sup- 
per, and to our joy found them hungry and thirsty for this 
great good. We laborers had a conference, and at the 
same time a thorough and earnest talk together, so that we 
were somewhat hard upon one another, which was yet not 
without a blessing. Two white people came. 

Saturday, 27. We had the supper of our Lord, and en- 
joyed his body and blood with hungry and thirsty hearts. 
A brother, Ephraim, and a sister, Sabina, were again read- 
emitted, to whom it was an unspeakable blessing. 

Note. — John Heckewelder administered* it. A sister, Agnes, re- 
ceived it on her sick-bed. 

Sunday, 28. Br. David read the communion liturgy and 
* This word is conjectured. 



166 zeisbergbr's diart. 

held the children's service. Br. Seusemann preached and 
Br. Juugmann held the congregation meeting. The as- 
sistants, Sarnnel and Abraham, encouraged, edified, and 
exhorted the brethren here and there in their houses to a 
holy life and to walking with Christ. 

Wednesday, Oct. 1. Most of the brethren and sisters 
went to Detroit with canoes they had made to sell them, 
for they get a gocd price, and with this can buy something 
there, most of them being as badly off for clothes as they 
have ever been, for during the war and famine they had 
to make every effort to support their families. Br. Ed- 
wards also went to Detroit on business. 

Saturday, 4. Two Frenchmen came here with apples to 
sell. We white brethren were busy building, and partly, 
too, in the fields, otherwise few brethren were at home. 

Sunday, 5. Instead of a sermon Br. David read from 
the History of the Days of the Son of Man something 
from the sayings of the Saviour. Br. Edwards returned 
from Detroit, by whom we had a letter from Br. Ettweia 
from Bethlehem of May 20th, from which to our hearty joy 
we had the pleasure of learning that Br. John,* from Europe, 
was expected in Bethlehem for a visitation of the Ameri- 
can church. David held the congregation meeting in the 
Indian tongue. We read the proceedings of the synod. 

Monday, 6. Most of the brethren came back from De- 
troit, where they sold a dozen canoes, some of them quite 
large ones, and with the money from these they provided 
themselves with clothes for the winter; thus by the guid- 
ance of our heavenlv Father the brethren find the means 



* Baron John de Watteville, the son of a clergyman, was born in 
Thuringia, in 1718, While a student of theology nt Jena he became* 
the friend of Count Christian Zinsendorf. In 1739 he was ordained a 
clergyman, and in 1747 was consecrated bishop. His wife was the 
daughter of Count Zinzendorf He first came to America in 174S, vis-* 
ited various missions on the continent and in the islands, and carried 
into effect changes in the government of the church. In 1783 he 
made a second visit to America, and was here four years. Soon after 
his return to Europe he died (1788). — De Schwinietz' Some of the 
Fathers of the Am. Mor. Church. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1783. 167 

of supporting themselves and their families. The widows 
make baskets, brooms, and mats, all of which they can sell 
at a good price, and since there are now this year many 
acorns in the bush, they gather them and sell them at a 
good price, and thus, if they are industrious, they cau 
earn something in one way or another, and seek to help 
themselves. 

Wednesday, 8. John (Heckewelder) held the early serv- 
ice from the Scripture- verse : The Lord is round about 
his people from henceforth even forever. Rejoice little 
flock. Br. Edwards went with a boat load of potatoes, 
cabbages, and turnips to Detroit, for which we thought to 
pay some debts we had to incur in our need. 

Saturday, 11. David held early service. This week the 
brethren began to harvest in the fields, and to parch and 
dry the green corn, not yet ready, from being planted too 
late. 

Sunday, 12. David preached, Sensemann held the chil- 
dren's service. We read from the journal of the synod 
about the churches and choirs. Heckewelder held the 
congregation meeting. 

Monday, 13. Br. Edwards came back from Detroit. 

Tuesday, 14. The Chippewa chief came here; as he 
was from the bush, and had nothing to eat, Br. Abraham 
collected some corn and pumpkins for him among the 
brethren and gave them to him, for which he was very 
thankful. His wife is the cousin of the late Netawat- 
wes, and the near friend of our Thomas here. Thomas 
told them for the first time something about the Saviour, 
for he knows Shawauo; they listened but kept quite 
silent. 

Thursday, 16. Some brethren went to the plains for the 
autumn hunt; the sisters at home were industriously at 
work in the fields harvesting. 

Sunday, 19. Br. Edward preached and Sensemann held 
the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 22. Chippewas went through here, up the 
creek, on their way hunting. They observed how our 
town had grown. Our Indian brethren hunting. 



168 zeisbbrobr's diart. 

Sunday, 26. Heckewelder preached. In the afternoon 
was a reading of the synodal proceedings. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. After this to the communion 
brethren was announced the supper of our Lord in the 
holy sacrament. 

Monday, 27. The Indians went to their hunting camp. 
They came in to the Sunday services, for the autumn hunt 
is on. A white man came from Detroit, from whom we 
learned that Niagara is garrisoned by Americans. Senae- 
manu and Schebosh came back from Detroit. 

Wednesday, 29. Br. Zeisberger and his wife spoke 
with the brethren to-day, and the following days, about 
the Lord's supper, and the others likewise, and found to 
their comfort and joy the Holy Ghost busy with their 
hearts. 

Friday, 31. In our conference we had the joy of having 
the Saviour again send us four brethren, whom he per- 
mitted in the holy communion to enjoy his body and blood, 
which we the day after, 

Saturday, November 1, enjoyed with hungry and thirsty 
hearts. 

Sunday, 2. David read the communion liturgy. Ed- 
wards preached about the marriage feast, whereto men 
were invited to appear in the garments of righteousness. 
David held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 3. Agnes died in peace. 

Tuesday, 4. Her remains were buried. She was bap- 
tized by Br. Martin Mack,^ in Old GnadenhUtten (Carbon 
Co., Pa.), on the Mahony, Sept. 5, 1751, apd came after- 
wards to the enjoyment of the Lord's supper. She went 
through all the fatalities, difficulties, and changes through 
which the Indian church passed. In the year 1755, in 

* John Martin Mack was by birth a Wartemberger. In 1734, at the 
age of nineteen, he went to Herrnhut, and was disposed to remain 
there, but two years later he came to America. Here he had part in 
all the undertakings of the brothers, laboring in the Indian missions 
for nearly twenty years. In 1762, he sailed to St. Thomas to serve in 
the mission among negro slaves. To this work he gave the rest of his 
life, coming to Bethlehem in 1770 to be connecrated bishop, and visit- 
ing Germany ten years later. He died in 1784. 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1783. 169 

Nov., when Gnadenhiitten was destroyed and burnt by the 
Indians, she went to Nain, near Bethlehem, and in the 
year 1768 into the barracks in Philadelphia. In 1765, 
when peace and quiet were again established, she moved 
with the Indian church to Friedenshiitten on the Susque- 
hanna. In the spring of 1772 she came with others to the 
Ohio, first to Languntouteniink (Friedensstadt on the 
Beaver), and the -year after to Gnadenhiitten on the Mus- 
kingum, from which she had to flee and return to Lichtenau 
in the year '78, on account of the war troubles ; here she re- 
mained a year, and in '79 again went to Gnadenhiitten. 
In the year 1781, when the Indian church on the Mus- 
kingum, with its teachers, was carried away captive, and 
brought to Sandusky, she had part in all the hardships we 
encountered, and since she "^as a widow, for her husband 
had died not long before in Gnadenhiitten, she bad a hard 
time, suffered hunger, as did all of us, but in all our need 
she hung upon the Saviour and the church, and nothing 
separated her from him and the church. In 1782, when 
the Indian church was altogether robbed of its teachers, 
for they were all taken to Detroit, she clung to the greater 
number, and lived a year in the Shawanese towns. When 
she heard that the brethren, her teachers, with some In- 
dian brethren, were 'again settling, with others also, in the 
spring of 1783, she got ready, and in the beginning of May> 
this year, came to us here, sickly as she was, with the in- 
tention rather to die in the church than among the sav- 
ages, and this the Saviour also advised. She came again 
to the enjoyment of the Lord's supper, and was right 
blessed, but in her body she was no longer well, but wasted 
away until on the day before mentioned, easily and bless- 
edly she died in his arms and bosom. She is a clear ex- 
ample and proof that whoever has a true heart, him he 
helps through all tribulations, and upholds him also to 
the end of all need through himself and his wounds. 

To-day went Brs. Heckewelder and Sensemann with 
many Indian brethren in the boat to Detroit to buy some 
necessities for the winter, before tha strong cold comes on 
and the lake is frozen. They came back on the 8th. 



170 zbisbergkr's diary. 

Friday, 7. By one of oar young Indians, Daniel by 
name, who came herefrom the neighborhood of the Shaw- 
anese towns, we had news that Mark had suddenly there 
gone from time. 

Sunday, 9. Br. David preached from the Epistle, Eph., 
vi, 10 : Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord and 
in the power of his might. 

Br. Edwards conducted the children's service and Hecke- 
welder the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 10. The above mentioned Daniel, an unmar- 
ried man, son of Philip, the Mohican, who perished at 
Gnadenhiitten, asked to be taken back to live in the 
church. He told to Br. David quite sincerely his courae 
of life since our departure from Sandusky; whereupon 
Br. David asked him how it was now and what his 
thoughts were. He answered: "I am sick and tired of 
the heathen life and conduct, and will now live for the 
Saviour; formerly when I lived in the church I could not 
say this, for I always thought to find pleasure in the 
world. I knew not how to value what it is to be in the 
church, but it is now my intention to make better use of 
it." We had no hesitation about receiving him and to 
use pity, confidence, and djligence with our young peo- 
ple, for we have found from repeated "experience that the 
pains we have taken with them, even if we must have 
trouble and vexation with them, are not in vain, and that 
the Saviour lets them thrive and come to a blessing. We 
must especially wonder that our young people, even 
when they had their freedom and nobody hindered them 
from running straight into heathenism, more than the 
older people, have yet stood fast, have not forgotten their 
teachers, nor thrown them aside, but have longed for 
them again and have pleasure and inclination for God's 
word ; from this can be seen that the Saviour holds his 
hand over these, our youth, and that his eye watches over 
them. 

To-day were the remains of the little Rebecca buried, 
six years, nine months old, w*ho died yesterday, a dear 
child, that loved the Saviour and willingly went to him, 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1788. 171 

as she said to Br. David, whom twice she had called to her, 
and only an hour before her death said that she was go- 
ing to the Saviour. 

Thursday, 18. At morning prayer the feast of the 
Elder of his church was announce^ and we asked for his 
near presence this day and for his bloody blessing in our 
hearts. Br. Heckewelder delivered the public sermon, 
and then the baptized brethren had a festival-discourse, 
and last we prayed to our Lord and Elder, thanked 
him for his guidance and recognition of us, begged parr 
don for all our sins, and that we had given him trouble, 
vowed fealty and obedience to him, and he let his friendly 
face shine over us, blessed us and sent us his peace. 

To-day we again made a beginning with our Assist- 
ants' Conference, which has hitherto been omitted, for 
we have had only the two assistants, Abraham and Sam- 
uel. Now these two and Cornelius, Schebosh, and Bath- 
sheba, with us white laborers, form the Assistants' Con- 
ference. They were exhorted to love and unity among 
themselves, as something in which they had failed before 
this time, to treat the brethren with love and compassion, 
not to be stern and harsh towards them [which is a pecu- 
liarity of the Indians] if with one another things went 
not well, but to let them feel their loving and sympathetic 
heart. 

Friday, 14. Since a fine, fresh snow fell last night and 
the hunters went out, there was brought in to-day a fine 
number of deer, which are now quite fat. Abraham took 
a rare animal and quite unknown to our Indians. It 
was larger and heavier than a raccoon ; its head and 
mouth are just the same, but its feet and legs are short 
and shaped like those of a mole or a beaver's feet. The 
Chippewas say they run under ground like moles, al- 
though they are so big, and they are very fat. This was 
the English badger. 

Sunday, 16, Sensemann preached. We had a reading 
service,^ and Jungmann held the congregation meeting. 

^ By this is meant a public reading of reports from missions or of 
lessons from the Scriptures. 



172 zbisbbrqer's diary. 

Monday, 17. Many sisters went to seek for hemp with 
Samuel and other brothers, into the hilly land where 
they found enough of it, wherewith and also with meat they 
came home heavily laden on the 22d. Since they are not 
used to a flat country, they have always much pleasure in 
seeing hills again, which begin a good day's journey from 
here. Chippewas encamped not far from here, near a 
dead horse, and they stayed until they had eaten it up, 
for it is their custom to eat dead cattle. 

Thursday, 20. Conner came back from the Fort, and 
also an Englishman, named Homes, came from the settle- 
ments, who remained until the 23d. They are all, however, 
either somewhat honest, simple folk or men of this world. 
In none of them are found desire and inclination for any 
thing good or for God's word, but it is a place quite dead 
and dark, where men live for the day only, undisturbed 
about their souls, and seek only for money and goods. 

Saturday, 22. Absolution was given to Renatus, the 
Mohican, at his request, upon his sick-bed. He said: 
" Three things distress me ; the first is the forgiveness of 
my sins, the second to know that my wife and children 
will remain with the church when I am gone, and the 
third that linen fails me for my shroud." After he was 
absolved, he said : " Now is it well with me, and I rejoice 
to go to the Saviour. I wish not to be again restored to 
health, but my wish is that he may take me to himself." 

Sunday, 23. Br. David preached from Phil, iii, 17 : 
Mark them which walk so as ye have us for an ensample. 
Heckewelder held the congregation meeting. For two 
days it has been very cold. The river and lake begin to 
freeze. We read to-day from the synodal journal about 
church conferences. 

Monday, 24. We recalled the calamity on the Mahony^ 
twenty-eight years ago. 

Thursday, 27. Our people went to the hills for their 
autumn hunt; for the most part, only sisters are at home. 

* Where, in 1755, perished ten persons at the hands of the Indians. 
For full account see Be Schwineitz' Life of Zeisberger, Chap. xii. 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1783. 178 

Friday, 28. By the Indian, Adam, from the Fort, I 
had a letter dated July 4, from Br. Shewkirk, in New 
York, by way of Quebec and Niagara, which the com- 
mandant, Col. de Peyster, sent to me. 

Sunday, 30. [Ist day of Advent.] Br. David preached 
in the Indian language, for no interpreter was present, 
about the joy of the children of God at the incarnation 
of the Saviour, that he had taken our flesh and blood that 
he might offer himself for us upon the cross to reconcile 
us with God. Heckewelder held the congregation meeting. 
To-day and yesterday it snowed, as it has already done 
several times this autumn, but no snow has yet remained. 

Monday, Dec. 1. Some brethren went off to the" hunt- 
ers to get meat. They came, 

Wednesday, 3, home, and also many of the Indian 
brethren from the bunt, but they got little, since many 
Chippewas are also off hunting in that neighborhood. 
Thus our Indians earn little hunting, and yet they find it 
necessary, in order to get corn for their families, and they 
must try to get something by their labor. 

Thursday, 4. There were among our people unpleasant 
things to arrange. A sister wished to go from the church, 
but she thought better of it, and found her heart. 

Sunday, 7. In the sermon by Br. Heckewelder, about 
the wicked, last times which would come over the whole 
circle of the world, t.wo white people from the mouth of the 
river were present. In the communion quarter-hour about 
the text : Come for all things are now ready, the brethren 
became as it were reconciled, their hearts were washed with 
the blood of Christ, and they were clad with the cloak of 
righteousness ; they were invited to receive his body and to 
drink his blood next Saturday. Sensemann held the con- 
gregation meeting from the Scripture- verse : Let thy 
priests be clothed with righteousness : and let thy saints 
shout for joy. 

Tuesday, 9. For a time we have had quite cold weather 
and a good deal of snow has fallen, but now a thaw sets 
in and the weather is so warm that the snow has all gone 
off. 



174 zeisberger's diary. 

Friday, 12. To-day and yesterday we spoke with the 
brethren about the Lord's supper. We found them walk- 
ing with the Saviour and longiug for his body and blood. 
Bathsheba spoke to some Chippewa women, encamped 
near us in the bush, about the Saviour, but they did not 
understand very well. The brethren repaired our chapel, 
and caulked it with moss against the winter. 

Saturday, 13. Br. Schebosh returned from the Fort. 
We heard that this autumn in a storm three ships in 
Lake Erie and four in Lake Ontario had been wrecked 
and entirely lost. At the Lord's supper, Sabiua, Adam's 
wife, was present for the first time. 

Sunday, 14. After the communion liturgy Br. Edwards 
preached from the text: The poor have the gospel 
preached to them. A wonderful movement was observed 
among the brethren who are not yet quite in order, being 
still behindhand, so that they begin to long to come into 
the right way. David held the service for the children, 
whom he encouraged to give their hearts and to receive 
the childlike Jesus. Br. Sensemann held the congrega- 
tion meeting. 

Monday, 15. Br. Edwards went with several of our In- 
dian brethren to Detroit and came back the 18th. 

16. Peggy Conner became the mother of a daughter 
that, Suitday 2l8t, was baptized with the name Susanna. 
At the sermon our neighbor, Edward Hasle, was present 
with his wife, who came here visiting last evening. Aft- 
erwards was a service for the baptized. They were re- 
minded of the covenant they had made with the Savioor 
at baptism, were urged to search themselves to see how 
they had kept it ; that the Saviour would not let himself 
be put oft* with tine promises, but required upright hearts 
from those with whom it was truth and who showed it 
by their works. Heckewelder held the congregation 
meeting from the Scripture-verse on St. Thomas' day: 
That ye may tell it to the generation following. For this 
God is our God for ever and ever. I place my band in 
Jesus' side and say : My Lord and my God. 



CLINTON RIVEB, 1783. 175 

23. For the first time a Chippewa woman was at the 
early service, who understood Delaware. 

Wednesday, 24. We began Christmas with a love-feast 
and rejoiced in God, our Saviour, who for us became man, 
was born in a stable in Bethlehem in a manger, and we 
thanked him for his blessed incarnation and prayed to 
him upon our knees. He made himself known to us, made 
us feel that he was with us. Our hearts were aroused and 
many tears were shed. 

Thursday, 25. Br. Heckewelder preached from the 
Epistle: For the grace of God that bringeth salvation, 
hath appeared to all men. Two white people came to hear 
the sermon. In a service for the baptized afterwards three 
brothers and a sister were absolved by the laying on of 
hands, who, since they came to us last spring, could not 
be refreshed and healed, namely, Luke, Joshua, Andrew, 
and Sister Amelia, Cornelius's wife, a service especially 
blessed by the Saviour, and above all there was a thorough 
work of grace among the children and adults, as we had 
already often wished ; and others who yet longed to come, 
but must still wait, came more to their own hearts and 
learned to know themselves. 

Friday, 26. Last night came much snow and cold 
weather. 

Sunday, 28. Br. David preached from the Epistle: 
But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent 
forth his Son, made of a woman, etc., so that we might 
receive the adoption of sons. Sensemann held the 
children's service. It was cold to-day. Heckewelder 
held the congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse. 

Wednesday, 31. We assembled at the usual time at 
the end of the year, thankfully called to mind the mercy 
and kindness we had enjoyed during the past year from 
our dear Lord, acknowledged to him our shortcomings, 
and asked forgiveness of all our transgressions and the 
comfort of his grace. In a prayer upon our knees we re- 
membered our brethren yet wandering in error and beg- 
ged him to assemble them and bring them again to the 



176 zeibbbrgbr'b diart. 

flock. He showed himself to us, his poor and little people, 
and kindly looked down upon us and sent us his peace. 

What has happened to us this year is briefly the follow- 
ing. At the beginning of the year we were still but a 
handful, but in the spring, about the first of May, we 
were increased by a fine number of brethren who came 
to us from the Shawanese towns. Of the rest, however, 
who have remained behind, we have heard nothing since, 
how they are, save that Mark has suddenly gone from 
time. 

At the beginning of July, to our hearty joy, came Brs. 
Weigand and Schebosh from Bethlehem to us, by whom 
once again we had letters and news from the church. 
The first with Br. Michael Jung went away August 30tb. 
We hope the Saviour has brought them fortunately to 
their destination. 

The Saviour has not left himself without a witness in 
our brethren's hearts. With longing eyes we have seen 
that the Lord is with us and wivlks in our midst. The 
Holy Spirit was busy in our hearts and has brought many 
a one to the Physician of his soul, that through his wounds 
ho should be cured and made well. Twenty-six brethren 
have this year been absolved and sixteen readmitted to the 
holy communion. The Saviour has also shown us that 
in regard to his supper we ought to manage with the 
brethren more prudently, for they have generally suflfered 
countless injuries in their hearts; which also happened, and 
he has made it become an especially true blessing. 

In regard to the maintenance both of ourselves and of 
our Indian brethren for the present year we have a bad 
outlook. We got provisions until the end of October and 
had hoped also that we should harvest enough from our 
plantations for our needs, but this hope has failed, since in 
the first place we were ignorant of the climate, and sec- 
ondly, we planted corn which in this land does not ripen, 
and besides we planted it somewhat too late, so that some 
indeed harvested something, but many nothing at all, and 
must try to get through by hunting and by the labor of 
their hands, and it is also a good thing that our Indian 



CLINTON RIVER, 1788. , 177 

brethren have occasion to earn something by their hands. 
We trust in our dear heavenly Father that he will give 
and bless our daily bread. Five children have been born 
and baptized. Three children have died, namely, Augus- 
tina, Jeremy, and Rebecca, and two sisters, Anna, Abel's 
wife, and the widow, Agnes. 
12 



178 • zeisbbrqer's diart. 



CHAPTER IV. 

1784. 
New Qkadknhutten, on the Clinton, Michigan. 

Thursday, Jan. 1. Br. Edwards preached from Gal. iii : 
Ye are all the children of God, for as many of you as have 
been baptized have put on Jesus. The baptized breth- 
ren renewed their covenant with the Saviour, who in bap- 
tism had made them with him, gave themselves anew to him 
to be the reward for his woes, and so to remain. Two sin- 
ners were absolved, Daniel and Adolphus, the first born in 
the church at Nain, who was likewise taken into the 
church, for which the Saviour showed himself gracious, as 
especially during the holidays a new life came among the 
brethren, and the Saviour, through his Holy Ghost, dur- 
ing these days has done a good work, and many have 
been borne to the Lord, for when he begins to work, it 
speeds. We took for use last year's Scripture-verses and 
texts. 

Friday, 2. Some Indian brethren went to the swamp 
bear-hunting. 

Sunday, 4. Br. Sensemann preached from Tit., iii, 5 : 
He saved us by the washing of regeneration and renewing 
of the Holy Ghost. 

Rainy weather came on ; thus far it has snowed much, 
and now the snow cannot get deep. 

Tuesday, 6. Br. Heckewelder conducted morning 
prayer, and asked in the name of all our little flock, out 
of the bloody fulness of Jesus, his blessing for this day. 
In the service for the baptized, from the Scripture-verse 
and text for the day, Christiana Schebosh was admitted to 
the church, and an unmarried sister was absolved, namely, 
Esther. At the love-feast afterwards the brethren were 
reminded tbat our church made it its business, and had 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 179 

thereto a call from the Saviour, to announce the Gos- 
pel to those poor, blind heathen, that we had our life in 
peril herefor, and lived not even to death, and that we 
should think ourselves richly rewarded if we brought 
to the Saviour one soul which learned to know its lie- 
deemer, for he became the Savioifr of the heathen, and 
that the day is therefore named Epiphany, for after his 
birth men came from distant lands, worshipped him,, and 
brought him gifts. All the services were blessed and ac- 
companied by his presence, for which, at the end of the 
day, Br. Jungmann, in a heartfelt prayer, gave him praise 
and thanks, and in thTs the whole company united. 

Wednesday, 7. Some of our Indians went out bear- 
hunting; it began to snow hard, and kept on the follow- 
ing days, and then very severe cold weather came on, 
so that, 

Saturday, 10, some gentle people came in sleighs from 
Detroit, on the ice over the lake, to visit us, simply to see 
our town, who say that by the thermometer it has not 
been so cold for twenty-eight years as it is now, it being 
seven degrees lower than in th.e whole time. 

Sunday, 11. The four gentlemen were present at the 
service, who have looked at our town and visited in our 
houses. They said that if they should say in Detroit there 
was such a settlement here on the Huron river, as there 
really is, no one would believe them; they must .them- 
selves come and see whether they had spoken the truth. 
In the afternoon they went away quite content, and said 
that they thought their trouble and journey well rewarded 
in that they had seen our town. The boys and children 
had a blessed service for their festival, to them was pictured 
the boy, Jesus, as a model and example for them, in whose 
footsteps they should follow. 

Tuesday, 13. Most of our Indian brethren went to the 
Milk River, on the way to Detroit, to make a bridge, for it 
is now frozen, and it is easier to make a bridge now than in 
the summer, likewise over other creeks to do the same. 
They came back on the 16th, and likewise Br. Senscmann 
back from the Fort, bringing news that we might expect a 



180 kbisbbrqbr's diart. 

visit from Col. de Peyster with several other gentlemen 
next week. 

Saturday, 17. A Chippewa came here and remained 
over night, and with him the next morning went Thomas, 
both of them after a bear, which the former had lost trace 
of when night came oif, but it went over the lake. 

Sunday, 18. Heckewelder preached. To the communi- 
cant^ the Lord's supper was announced for next Saturday, 
and open-heartedness was recommended them. Br. Ed- 
wards held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 20. Sensemann held early service. French- 
men came with two sledges up the river on the ice ; they 
brought corn and victuals which they exchanged for veni- 
son, and went, 

Wednesday, 21, back again. To-day it snowed again, 
and the snow gets always deeper. For a week now very 
cold weather. 

Saturday, 24. At the Lord's supper, Joshua, Amelia, 
and Susanna were readmitted, and one sister enjoyed it 
on her sick-bed. This week it snowed several days in suc- 
cession, and the snow was qow three feet deep, so that it 
was hard to get fire-wood. 

Sunday, 25. Heckewelder read the communion liturgy, 
Sensemann preached. In the marriage service, Andrew, 
an unmarried man, and Sister Anna, an unmarried woman, 
daughter of Samuel and Sara, were married. Br. Edwards 
held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 27. Sabina, Adam's wife, came to bed with a 
daughter. 

Wednesday, 28. The assistants, Abraham and Samuel, 
spoke to Ann Charity about her conduct. Two white 
people came here from the settlement over the lake, from 
whom we heard that the snow there is deeper than here, 
and that outside the track one cannot get through, for it 
is deep, and has a hard crust above. 

Saturday, 81. We ended the first month of this year 
with thankful hearts to our dear Lord that to the present 
time ho has graciously aided us and our Indian brethren 
in this hard winter and deep snow, which through (he 



CLIKTON KIVKR, 1784. 181 

whole country lies full three feet deep, so that our Indian 
brethren, though they have really no food, yet can not go 
hunting, for there is no getting out, and many have novr 
nothing at all left to eat, but they live from what is given 
them by those who have still something left. We are also 
overrun and cannot but give to them when we see their 
need, but in a single day we could give away all we have, 
and then hunger and perish with them. All were there- 
fore busy making snow-shoes, with which they can over- 
take the deer upon the snow, and in this way was the first 
brought to town lately. But most of them are not accus- 
tomed to use these and must learn how. We have, how- 
ever, thought of breaking a road to the settlement, also 
by the use of snow-shoes, of getting the means of life. 

Sunday, Feb. 1. During the sermon Br. Heckewelder 
baptized the little daughter of Adam and Sabina, born on 
the 27th, with the name Cathrine, into the death of Jesus. 
In the service for the baptized, two single brethren, Zach- 
ary and Joseph, were absolved in the name of the Holy 
Trinity, whereto the Saviour showed himself gracious and 
mighty, so that many tears were shed. At every absolu- 
tion of this kind there is universal joy and sympathy 
among the brethren, .as if such were now first baptized, and 
all those who again come back to us are, through absolu- 
tion, again admitted to the church. 

Wednesday, 4. The severe winter still continues, and 
it has snowed nearly every day, and the snow gets ever 
deeper. Our Indian brethren, about whom we are most 
anxious and distressed, have many of them nothing more 
to eat. Their need grows, for which they are also them- 
selves much to blame, since it is their custom never to have 
care beforehand, but to eat as long as they have any thing, 
and when it is all gone, and need presses upon them, they 
seek to get something. No one had thought there would 
be such a winter. Old settlers in 'Detroit say that as long 
as they have lived there the snow has never been so deep. 

Saturday, 7. Within three days, by the use of snow- 
shoes, more than one hundred deer have been shot, for 
which, in our hunger, we were very thankful to our 



182 zeisberger's diary. 

heavenly Father. The cold, however, was so searching, 
that many froze their feet, which happens sooner and 
easier on snow-shoes than in the snow. 

Sunday, 8. Br. David preached from the Gospel about 
the good sower.in the fields, whereby it was remarked that 
each heart had to watch over itself, so that their enemy 
might not again cast into their heart wicked seed, from 
which the Saviour has redeemed it, forgiving its sins and 
purifying it from them, and again pollute it, whereby such 
a poor heart becomes a weed in the church, and if it does 
not soon hasten to the Saviour and let itself be cured, it is 
in danger of being rooted out and cast into the tire. 

Monday, 9. One of our Indians went with the sledge 
to Detroit, over the lake, for upon the ice there is hardly 
any snow and good travelling. We sent a message to a 
couple of Frenchmen about bringing here corn and pro- 
visions to exchange for venison, for our Indians cannot 
well go into the settlements on account of the snow. Ig- 
natius came on the 11th in a sledge, laden with corn, back 
from Detroit. 

Thursday, 12. Frenchmen came with corn and pro- 
visions on two sledges, and exchanged their supplies for 
venison. 

Friday, 13. Mr. McKce and Elliot came with two 
sleighs to see our town and settlement, of which they had 
heard much, and had to wonder at the labor already done. 
They pitied us and our Indians that on account of the 
early frosts our corn had failed, which is hard indeed for 
us in this severe and long-lasting winter. In the evening 
they went on to our neighbor. With them was also Mc- 
Kee's brother from the Susquehanna, by whom we sent 
letters to Litiz and Bethlehem. Br. Schebosh went in the 
sledge to Detroit to get corn. 

Sunday, 15. Br. Edwards preached. In the quarter- 
hour for the married, Br; Jungmann married the assistant 
and widower, Abraham and the widow Martha, with whom 
we afterwards had a love-feast. Br. David held the Con- 
gregation meeting from the text: The Father hath not 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. . 188 

left me alone : for I do always those things that please 
him. 

Wednesday, 18. To-day and the three preceding days 
many white people came here, English and French, in 
part for a visit, and in part they brought food to ex- 
change for meat. All who came carefully examined our 
town and had much to say about it. 

Sunday, 22. Br. Jungniann preached from the Gospel : 
Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, about the Saviour's ap- 
proach to his passion. In the marriage service Br. David 
married the widower Renatus and the single woman, Anna 
Regina. A merchant from Detroit, who with his family 
has come here visiting, was present and asked for the 
baptism of his two children. Thereupon in a common 
service they were 'baptized, the one with the name John, 
the other Mary. Both parents sat before the table and 
held the children for baptism, which conduct was very re- 
spectable and impressive. As there is no ordained preacher 
of the Protestant church in Detroit, the Justice baptizes 
the children also, or the commandant, if it be asked of 
him, but to many this i§ not satisfactory and they are 
scrupulous about it. 

Tuesday, 24. They went back again to Detroit well 
pleased with their visit. Christiana brought forth a son. 

Thursday, Feb. 26. To-day and yesterday came here 
more French and English, all in sledges upon the ice. They 
make the winter useful, for with a sledge they can come 
in one day, which in summer can not be done in a single 
day, unless the wind be very good. 

Saturday, 28. Many lYidian brethren came back from 
the settlement where they have been to get corn, but have 
found little. The winter, since the new year, has been very 
severe, the snow three feet deep, and the cold weather last- 
ing. Old settlers say they have never had so hard a win- 
ter here. Many cattle perish in the settlements for want 
of fodder, and they who have corn must use it for their 
cattle, and therefore none is to be had. We are in great 
distress about our Indians, who have nothing to eat, and 



184. zbisbbrger's diart. 

it goes hard with them, their need always getting greater. 
May our Father in heaven give us our daily bread. 

Sunday, 29. Br. David preached. In the afternoon 
service Br. Edwards baptized into Jesus' death with the 
name of Henry, the little son of Ignatius and Christiana, 
born on the 24th Inst. The Lord's supper was announced 
to communicants for next Saturday. Again came French- 
men here in sleighs. 

Wednesday, March 8. Again snow has fallen a foot 
deep upon the old, so that now it lies four feet deep, and 
without snow-shoes we could go nowhere, except upon 
the ice to Detroit. There is great want of food among 
our brethren, who can by no means get any thing. 

Thursday, 4, and Friday, 5. Brs. Zeisberger and Jung- 
mann and their wives spoke with the b^ethren about the 
Lord's supper, whom we found in all their need content 
and walking with the Saviour. We had, 

Saturday, 6, the Lord's supper^ accompanied with his 
near presence. A sister, Sabina, enjoyed it with us for the 
first time. 

Sunday, 7. Br. David read .the communion liturgy, 
Heckewelder preached, Sensemann conducted the chil- 
dren's service, and Edwards the congregation meeting. 
The assistant brethren were directed to speak with Andrew, 
which was done. 

Monday, 8. Schebosh, with his daughter and her hus- 
band, went with the sick Joseph to Detroit to the doctor, 
as also for provisions for their family. Likewise many 
Indian brethren went to the settlement for food. William, 
who also went there, broke into' the lake with his horse 
where it is deep enough for a ship to sail ; he sprang at 
once from his horse and held him two hours, until the 
people living in the neighborhood came to his aid and 
helped get his horse out. 

Wednesday, 10. We went to our sugar-huts to make 
preparations for boiling sugar, but the snow was still 
more than knee-deep, though it is a month later than it 
was last year when we began. 

Friday, 12. Many came home with corn from the set- 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1784. 185 

tlement and from Detroit, It is very dear, 20-82 shillings 
a bushel, and not to be had, for everywhere there is want 
after so severe a winter. The Chippewa chief, who was 
here over night, said that a day's journey from here to the 
north the snow was up to a man's arms, and further north- 
ward it lay deeper than a man's height, so that many Chip- 
pewas had perished from hunger, for they could neither 
hunt nor support themselves in other ways; many had for 
a time lived upon birds and woodpeckers they had shot, 
and maintained themselves until they could get home. 
Now for several days we have had rain and a thaw, with 
thunder, so that we have hope of its being milder and 
easier to get along with. 

Sunday, 14. Br. David preached, and then we got to- 
gether some brethren, and held an inquiry and investiga- 
tion in regard to some gossip and talk about Abraham's 
marriage ; this is usually the way with the Indians, for a 
wedding can not occur without there being much gabbing 
about it. 

Monday, 15. A Frenchman came here in a sledge, from 
whom our Indians got some provisions. He wanted to go 
farther to the Chippewas, but we advised him to turn about, 
the ice being untrustworthy, which to-day he did. 

"Wednesday, 17. For two days it has again been very 
cold ; many cattle from the settlement that go about the 
bush here, also many wild animals, perish. Deer are found 
in the bush lying dead, for the snow is so deep, and more- 
over hard, that they can not get along. For us, too, it is 
hard to bring our cattle through, since we had made no 
preparation for such a winter, last year there being little 
snow, none of consequence. 

Thursday, 18. The brethren are all at their sugar-huts, 
but the weather is still too cold to do any thing. 

Sunday, 21. Br. David preached, and Jungmann held 
the congregation meeting from the Scripture- verse. 

Monday, 22. The brethren went but again to their re- 
spective places in the bush. They were told to come home 
on the 25th. We went out to get rushes for our cattle, 
wherewith we seek to take them through. 



186 zeisberger's diary. 

Wednesday, 24. To our joy we had a thaw, with rain, 
which, however, lasted no longer than to-day, and our joy 
was again checked. Different Indian brethren came back 
from the settlement with some provisions ; but every thing 
is very dear and hard to get, corn not at all. 

Thursday, 25. Most of the brethren came home. We 
assembled, called to mind the incarnation of our Sa- 
viour in the body of the Virgin Mary, and thanked him 
with melted hearts that he had so condescended on our 
account to embody himself in our poor flesh and blood. 
Martha, AVilliam's wife, became the mother of a son last 
night in her sugar-hut. 

Saturday, 27. To-day and yesterday fine, mild weather, 
and if there were no deep snow we could call it spring 
weather, but this makes it so cold and keeps it from melting. 
Sunday, 28. Heckewelder preached. Now for a week 
Br. David labors with the rheumatism, and can not go out. 
Sunday, April 4. During the whole week both we and all 
the Indian brethren have been busy making sugar, for the 
weather was fine, and the deep snow becomes slowly less, 
but since it is so deep, little effect is produced upon it in 
the bush. Most of the brethren were present at the serv- 
ices to-day. Br. David preached abou t the Saviour's en- 
trance into Jerusalem. In the service which followed Br. 
Heckewelder baptized, with the name Anton, William's 
son, born March 25. To the communicants the Lord's 
supper was announced for Maundy Thursday, and there 
was read to them what St. Paul says (Cor. ii.) to the church. 
A man sent to us from the neighborhood, and asked 
that one of us would come and marry him, but this we 
utterly declined, sending word to him that we did not 
concern ourselves with the marriages of others. After the 
services the brethren went back to their sugar-huts. This 
morning many came here over the ice, but with danger to 
their lives, for the river is again quite open, so that they 
can sail to and fro in oanoes. 

Thursday, 8. In the evening there was a reading of 
the history, for which all the brethren had come together 
from the bush. The communion brethren, after they had 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 187 

been addressed, had the washing of feet, and thereafter 
the Lord's supper, to which Luke and Adolphus were re- 
admitted. 

Friday, 9. We read the story of the passion, in four 
parts, with raoved and melted hearts, and this was lis- 
tened to with great attention and eagerness by the 
brethren. At the words, Jesus bowed his head and gave 
up the ghost, we all fell upon our knees, and sang: Lamb 
of God, thy precious bipod, healing wounds and bitter 
death. The brethren, after the history was ended, were 
dismissed, for they are compelled to earn something to eat. 
Mamacke's Shalachzink asked permission to live here. 
She has already several times lived with us, and her child 
was baptized by us and died. 

Sunday, 11. We read the Easter litany, partly in our 
chapel and partly in the grave-yard, and at the proper 
place thought of those brethren who, during the year, have 
gone home, Anna and Agnes, together with their children, 
and prayed for eternal communion with them. Afterward 
we read the account of the resurrection. Br. Heckewelder 
preached from the text: He showed unto them his hands 
and his side. After consideration of the Scripture-verse 
and text in the congregation meeting, which Br. Jung- 
mann held, we dismissed the brethren to their work again. 

Tuesday, 13. Different brethren came from the settle- 
ments, where they had been for provisions, exchanging for 
them the sugar they had made, but they could get little, 
for everywhere it is a hungry time. They got as many 
pounds of flour as they brought pounds of sugar. 

Thursday, 15. Now that the corn was gone, our breth- 
ren sought to live on wild potatoes, going to the lakes, 
where there are many of them, and bringing back as many 
as they could carry. The lake, however, is yet closed, 
and there is no getting to Detroit by water. Schebosh 
went down on his way to Detroit, but had to come back 
again on account of the ice. 

Monday, 19. Schebosh went by water to the Fort for 
supplies. 

Thursday, 22. Zipporah died, she was, 



188 zeisberger's diart. 

Friday, 23, buried. She was baptized by Br. Jung* 
tnann, April 12, 1772, in Langnntouteniink, and already 
in Goschgoschiiiik had become acquainted with the breth* 
ren, where she visited the meetings, and after the brethren 
left the place and moved to Langnntouteniink, she fol- 
lowed them with her husband and children. Afterwards 
she went also to the Muskingum, to Schonbrunn, where, 
on the 11th of November, 1775, she came to the supper 
of our Lord. Her husband, Jephtha, died there in 1776. 
She was from the time of her baptism blessed and content, 
so that we could rejoice in her. A dream, however, which 
she had about her son, who had been baptized and died, 
caused her much doubt, so that she was not sound in the 
faith, and always had a certain doubt left in her mind 
whether the brethern had preached the true learning and 
the way to blessedness. This could be seen also in her 
conduct, especially during the disturbances of the war, so 
that we could have no satisfaction in her. Yet the Sa- 
viour did not leave her, but went after her and brought her 
near to us* All this in her very wearisome illness gave her 
much to do, and she had no peace until she was again ab- 
solved, whereupon she was quite comforted, and with much 
longing awaited her call. This came on the day men- 
tioned, with the blessing of the church. 

This same day, in the morning service the child of the 
Mohican, Renatus, was baptized Jacob, and the child of 
Jacobina, Agnes. 

Saturday, 24. Brs. David, Jungmann, Heckewelder, and 
Sensemann went to Detroit, Br. Edwards remaining at 
home with the sisters. Most of the Indian brethren went 
to the lake to dig wild potatoes, for they have nothing to 
eat, and the men make canoes to sell for food. The first 
party, 

Sunday, 25, arrived there, and they went at just the 
right time to have no trouble from ice, for had they gone 
a day sooner they would have had to lie over on account 
of ice. 

Br. David's business there was chiefly to speak with the 
commandant, and to set forth our need and our Indians' 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1784. 189 

need, and to beg hira to help us with supplies. This time 
he was well disposed to this, although supplies were few 
in the king's store, and of flour there was none at all, for 
last autumn three or four ships were wrecked on the lake. 
Both we and our Indians got some beans and pork, and we 
were glad enough, especially that our Indians were helped 
in their want, for now seed-time is near, when they most 
need help. Br. David baptized in the city the children of 
two merchants, namely, Sara, daughter of Nathan Will- 
iams, and Isaac, the son of Loveless, and Br, Heckewelder 
baptized outside the town in the settlement likewise two 
children, Maria, Hessen's daughter, and Jacob, Graonrad's 
eon. 

"Wednesday, 28. Br. David baptized on the island a 
child of Tafelmoger's with the name Eva Maria. 

Thursday, 29. "We again went away from Detroit. On 
the way in the settlement Br. David baptized the child of 
a man named Frank, with the name John, and thus we 
came Friday, April 80, back here to our friends. On the 
lake we met many of our Indian brethren digging wild 
potatoes, on which they lived ; therefore there were few at 
home. 

Sunday, May 2. Br. David preached. The Indian 
brethren were for the most part come home, and they got 
ready to go to Detroit for provisions. 

Monday, 8. The Indian brethren went to Detroit. We 
began to work on our plantations and to make prepara- 
tions to plant. Br. Sensemann and his wife had many 
things stolen from them last night, provisions and clothes. 
We could not be quite sure who the thief was, unless we 
conjectured him to be Daniel, Christian's friend, who went 
away from here two days ago. 

Tuesday, 4. We had the first thunder-storm of this 
spring. The Chippewa chief was here over night ; he said 
to our Indians, since this summer few deer were to be had, 
that he would tell them how and where they could catch 
fish jenough, namely, if they would block up the creek a 
few miles above us, where it is narrow, that the fish, which 
are very large, could not get back into the lake, and in 



190 zeisbbrgbr's diart. 

this way, all summer long, they could have fish enough if 
they wanted. He said further that they would do no harm 
to our cattle, we should have no fear about them. We 
answered him that we also had confidence in them, for we 
wished to have firm friendship with them, but we were 
very sorry we were so poor as to be unable to give them 
any thing to eat when they came here, but should, we be 
in better circumstances, we would also do them good. He 
answered that he knew this very well, and that he was 
aware that when we lived on the Muskingum we had done 
much good to the Indians who came there. 

Thursday, 6. The Indian brethren returned from the 
. Fort with eleven barrels of pork and beans, which came 
just right for planting time, for if they had not got help 
they could not have worked from hunger, nor have 
planted. Thus our dear heavenly Father helps us from 
one time to another, in the winter by the many deer they 
^ot, then by the sugar they made, and afterwards by the 
wild potatoes, by which they kept themselves alive. 

Saturday, 8. Since the brethren were all at home yes- 
terday, and divided their provisions, they all set about 
planting and clearing the land. They had to buy all their 
seed-corn in the settlement, for their own of last year had 
not ripened. They were urged to be industrious and ob- 
serve the time well, in order that they might once again 
have bread, as on the Muskingum. They knew how hard 
it was to hunger, as they had for three years. 

Sunday, 9. Heckewelder preached ; Sensemann con- 
ducted the children's service; David held the congregation 
meeting. 

Wednesday, 12. Our Indians made fish-dams in difter- 
ent places; they stopped up the creek so that the fish 
could not go down, in which way they could have fish all 
summer if they wanted them. They brought in at all 
times many of these of uncommon size and of all edible 
sorts, and this is another great help for them. 

Friday, 14. We were done with planting, but since our 
seed-corn was not good and did not come up, we had to 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 191 

plant a second time, but our Indians, who are also busy at 
this, have not yet done planting. 

Sunday, 16. David preached from the text: Whatso- 
ever ye shall ask of the Father, etc., that the Saviour has 
revealed and made known to us the Father, that he so 
loved us that he gave his beloved Son, his only joy, to 
death for us. Then the holy communion was announced 
to the communicants for next Saturday. Sensemann held 
the congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse. 

Wednesday, 19. Two rangers came here from Detroit 
to get McKee and Elliott's cattle, for which they asked 
the help and aid of the Indians. 

Thursday, 20. On Ascension Day of our dear Lord we 
prayed to him, looked to him, had ourselves blessed by 
him, and inasmuch as he is no longer visible in the world, 
we begged for his unseen nearness for all days and hours 
according to his promise : I am with you al way. Br. David 
preached. 

Saturday, 21. After the brethren had been addressed we 
enjoyed his body aud blood in the holy communion in the 
most blessed way. One brother was there present for the 
first time. To-day we had the great joy of getting by 
way of Detroit letters from Brs. Simon Peter, Matthew, 
and Grube,^ from which we learn that our dear Br. John 
(de Watteville), who was at sea in need and in danger, 
had not yet arrived ; we thought much about him and 
his company and prayed to the Saviour to bring them safe 
to land. We likewise learned that they, as well as we 
here, had had a very severe winter. For a week we have had 
severe rains, and consequently most of our fields are un- 
der water, so that in this hungry planting-time we have 
a bad outloolc that any thing will grow, since what is 
planted rots in the ground and does not come up. 

* Simon Peter of Friedberg, Forsyth Co., North Carolina, 1784-1791. 
A Moravian clergyman. 

Perhaps Bishop Matthew Hehl, an eloquent preacher, at this time in 
Litiz, Pa., where he died 1787, having retired from his office in 1784. 

Reverend Adam Grube, at this time in his seventieth year, probablj 
at Litiz, where he had officiated at Zeisberger's marriage, 1781. 



192 zbisdebqer's diary. 

"Wednesday, 26. Since the snpplies our IndiaDS got are 
almost exhausted [and yet these have helped them to be 
able to plant without delay], many of them went to the 
lake to dig wild potatoes, and the men also to make ca- 
noes, from the sale of which they will have provisions. 

Thursday, 27. Brs. Sensemann and Schebosh came 
back from Detroit, bringing news that Col. de Peyster, 
commandant there, is upon the point of leaving the place. 
We wish him every good thing, for he has done well by 
us, and our Indians would not have been alive here if he 
had not interested himself in us and helped us. Who 
will come in his place and how further it stands in regard 
to government we can hear nothing certain until we see, 
for the people are kept in uncertainty. From the Illinois, 
where usually the winter is mild, we learn that from the 
severe winter very many cattle, and also the wild buf- 
faloes, have died in the bush from want of food and from 
the deep snow; thus the hard winter extended through- 
out the land. 

Saturday, 29. We were quite done with planting, and 
hoped this year to have a better harvest than last year, for 
at this season, then we had planted nothing. But it is a 
long time before we can get any thing for food from our 
plantations, and till then we and our Indians have to sup- 
port ourselves, and we get along with difficulty. 

Sunday, 30. The sermon treated of the office and work 
of the Holy Ghost, not only generally, but also especially 
with believers. With our baptized brethren we prayed to 
God the Holy Ghost upon our knees, thanked him for his 
unwearied, true care, patience, and long-suflEering for us, 
begged him to forgive us all our sins, when we had not re- 
garded nor listened to his voice, and had grieved him, 
vowed to him obedience and faithfulness, whereto he sent 
us his {blessing and peace. Br. Juugmann held the con- 
gregation meeting. In all our services he let himself be 
sensibly felt among us. 

Monday, 31. We heard that the commandant. Col. de 
Peyster sailed away yesterday from Detroit for Niagara, 
but who comes in his place we know not. 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1784. 193 

Thursday, June 3, Gottlob (Sensemann) went to Detroit. 
Since we had heard of an opportunity to send to Pitts- 
burg, Br. David wrote to Litiz a letter, which he took with 
him. 

Friday, 4. He came back from, there with the news 
that they were repairing the Fort there, that the Indians 
in Michilimackinac were said to have killed eight soldiers 
and traders, that they were said to be very proud and ill- 
disposed towards the English for compelling them to go to 
war with the Americans. 

Saturday, 5. Several of our Indians returned from De- 
troit, where they had taken and sold canoes to get again 
some few necessities of life. They w§re, however, very 
much deceived in their expectations, and had to pay enor- 
mously dear for every thing. We finished hoeing corn 
to-day. 

Sunday, 6. Heckewelder preached from the Gospel 
about Nicodemus, and David held the congregation meet- 
ing from the text of the day. 

Monday, 7. Br. Jungmann held the early service. 

Thursday, 10. Joshua and Adam, who have come back 
from Detroit, met there Potawatomy Indians; one of 
them, an interpreter, who knew many Indian tongues, said 
to our Indians that we should come to them and live on 
their land, that the Chippewas did not like to have us on 
their land on account of the hunting and fishing — they 
did not like to see others hunting and fishing on their ter- 
ritory. They live a good day's journey westward from 
Detroit, and said there was much game there, more than 
where we lived. In many places there has been a frost, 
but here little was to be seen of it. 

Saturday, 12. Abraham, Zachary, and others came back 
from canoe-making. 

Sunday, 13. Br. David preached, Sensemann held the 
children's service, and Edwards the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 14. Abraham, with others, took the canoes 
they have made to Detroit, to get food in return for them. 
Others went to the settlement to earn something by their 
13 



194 zeisberger's diary. 

labor among the white people and French. The sisters 
make baskets and brooms to take there, and thus our 
brethren have to strive to get along. There is no hunting 
this year and no meat to be had, for deer are few. 

Wednesday, 16. Gottlob held early service. The sis- 
ters went for wild, cherries, of which there are many this 
year, on which in part they live. 

Saturday, 19. There was a bad storm, which threw 
down many trees, and did much damage to our fields. 
There are usually such storms every spring, but this year 
it was greater than last. The insects, mosquitoes, ponkjis,^ 
and horse-flies are very many more and more troublesome 
than they were last year, so that when the wind is still it 
is about impossible for man and beast to live. 

Sunday, 20. Edwards preached from the Gospel about 
the great feast, and David held the congregation meeting 
from the Scripture- verse. 

Monday, 21. Abraham and many others went to the 
settlement, in part to get provisions and in part to earn 
something by their labor in the fields, for here they 
have nothing to eat; nothing can be had this year by 
hunting, for there are hardly any deer and game; these 
perished last winter. Those who remained at home were 
very busy about their corn in the fields. 

Thursday, 24. There came some white people here, one 
a French trader, who, however, could dispose of nothing 
here. After quite dry weather, lasting some time, we got 
a fine warm rain ; here usually after rain very cool weather 
follows. 

Saturday, 26. Some of our Indians came back from the 
settlement, where for some days they have worked in the 
fields and earned some provisions. They could not describe 
how badly the inhabitants live and what dreadful famine 
is among the people, so that they live only by fishing and 
from weeds, while they work. This week we hilled our 
corn, and for the most part were done with it. 

^In Zeisberger's Delaware Spelling-Book, pongus means sandfly, and 
in Brinton's "The Len&p6," etc., p. 246, pungusak is rendered gnats. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 195 

The Chippewas, Tawas, Potawatomies, and four other 
nations also, as we hear, wish to go to the Americans, hold 
a council with them, and make their excuses, saying that 
they have been compelled to take up the hatchet against 
them, but even then had not done it except that some 
runners-about had gone into the war; since their fathers 
had made peace with them and had given them all the 
land belonging to the nations, they wished now to seek 
friendship with 4;he Americans. 

Sunday, 27. Br. Jungmann preached from the Gospel 
about the lost sheep, that the Saviour came to bless sin- 
ners. David held the communion quarter-hour, and an- 
nounced to the brethren the Lord's supper for next Satur- 
day. 

Monday, 28. Sensemann held early service. 

Tuesday, 29. John held the early service. 

Thursday, July 1, and Tuesday, 2. Brs. Zeisberger and 
Jungmann and their wives spoke with the brethren, whom 
we found content, in spite of all their outward need and 
want. Many came from the settlement, where they have 
been working for food with the French, who have them- 
selves very little. 

Saturday, 3. Two Frenchmen came from the settlement 
visiting, and with them a German, to see our town and 
neighborhood ; they went back on the 4th. They could 
not wonder enough at the fair prospect of our fields for a 
good harvest, for in the settlement there is a very bad out- 
look. They said that most people there had no bread, and 
lived from the weeds they cooked and eat. We heard 
from them that Detroit will be garrisoned by French from 
France. The communion brethren had the holy com- 
munion of the body and blood of our Lord. A sister, A. 
Charity, partook of it for the first time since she is here, 
after receiving absolution. 

Sunday, 4. After the communion liturgy there was a 
sermon by Heckewelder. David conducted the children's 
service, and Jungmann the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 5. All the Indian brethren went away, some 
to the settlement, the others for whortleberries, a day's 



196 zbisberger's diart. 

journey from here, for at home they have nothing to eat, 
and each one must look about to find something. Luke, 
who remained at home, expressed himself about the fam- 
ine in this way: "We have brought this need upon our- 
selves, we are the cause of it ; on the Muskingum we had 
enough to live on, and no want in any way, and yet we 
were not content, but we sought and thought to find things 
yet better, but as soon as we came away from our towns 
on the Muskingum, hunger began among us, and since 
then has never ceased. When I look at our teachers, they 
have nothing better than we; I see how thin they are, and 
that they go about here in such clothes as we were not 
wont to see them in. We are to blame for this also; they 
suffer on our account. If I reflect farther I see what 
harm and that nothing good comes from our suffering 
hunger. In the first place comes thieving, to which hunger 
drives them ; in the second place, many suffer harm in 
their hearts if hunger forces them to the settlement or to 
the Fort, for they fall into all sorts of bad ways and bring 
back home a defiled heart; thirdly, hunger is the cause of 
our town being deserted; this was not our way formerly, 
but we were glad to be together as much as possible, and 
we refreshed ourselves together in the iheetings from 
God's word and the sweet Gospel. We were formerly ac- 
customed to be summoned to the meetings by the church 
bell, instead of which, however, now the servant must 
either call the brethren together or ring a cow-bell. If 
one looks at our brethren, famine can be read in their faces, 
they look so thin and lean as hardly to be able to work or 
to do any thing. 

*' When, however, I think that we have suffered hunger 
BO long, and yet that none of us is dead from hunger, it 
seems wonderful to me, for I see that, in spite of all, the 
Saviour has always helped us to find something to relieve 
our pressing needs. Last summer the commandant gave 
us provisions until autumn, and last winter, when we had 
to look out for ourselves, God sent a deep snow, which 
lasted the whole winter, so that we struck the deer dead 
with the hatchet and lived upon them. As time went oa 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 197 

and we could no longer find support in the bush, since 
the snow was gone, we got along very well with wild po- 
tatoes and by selling the canoes we made, and now that 
we can no longer earn any thing in this way, the dear Sa- 
viour has already cared for us beforehand by letting the 
whortleberries grow in such quantities that we shall have 
enough to eat until our corn is ripe. Thus we have, al- 
though not too abundantly, yet always something to eat, 
so that we remain alive. I believe, too, that this want will 
not always last, but that our dear Saviour will again give 
us enough to eat; whoever then is steadfast and lets not 
himself be led away from the church in the hope of better- 
ing his condition, he will in the end be glad, can thank and 
praise the Saviour." 

Sunday, 11. The white brethren read something from 
the Idea Fidei * together, for none of the brethren were at 
home. 

Thursday, 15. Samuel came back from the settlement. 
His wife was brought to bed there with a daughter, but 
this child died after living one day, and was buried there 
on the Frenchman's land. He had been working there to 
earn his tbod. 

Sunday, 18. In the forenoon we again read together, 
and in the afternoon, since the brethren came here, there 
was a meeting and discourse from the Scripture- verse. 

Br. Schebosh, who came from Detroit, brought news 
that twenty boats from Albany were on their way here 
and had already got to Oswego, so that we hope to get 
letters from the church by the occasion ; further that there 
is great scarcity in Detroit, and nothing to be had for cash. 
With his own eyes he saw a Spanish dollar offered a 
baker for a pound of bread and refused. A hundred 
weight of flour costs £7, 135., and is not to be had. "We 
were so fortunate as to have a Detroit merchant in the 
spring lend us money to buy flour with, when we could 
still get it cheap, namely, £6. (£3, perhaps.) 

Monday, 19. Our Indians again separated, some going 

* " Idea Fidei Fratrum, or Short Exposition of Christian Doctrine." 



198 zeisberger's diary. 

to tho settlement, others for whortleberries, and thus our 
town was again empty, and we white brethren were left 
almost alone at home. 

Saturday, 24. Some were again here, and we had, 

Sunday, 25, services. Day before yesterday and to-day 
we had rains again, after quite dry weather, so that all 
our crops look promising and give us a good prospect for 
a fine harvest. 

Monday, 26. More than a week ago Abraham's daugh- 
ter came here, who left her husband several years since, 
went away from the church and afterward, on the Mus- 
kingum, was sometimes with us and sometimes away; 
she now gives out that she would like to live in the 
church. Since now we had different opinions about this, 
some having compassion with her and maintaining that 
mercy should be shown her, others opposing her coming 
into the church, since she can cause harm, and we should 
only take trouble upon ourselves if we again admitted 
her, we took the Saviour's advice as to what should be 
done, and he was not in favor of her coming into the 
church at present. She was therefore advised to go else- 
where, and this she did. 

Tuesday, 27. Abraham, Schebosh with his whole fam- 
ily, and others, went to the settlement to support them- 
selves by reaping in the harvest and gathering ears; thus 
our town was left except by Luke and his mother who 
remained at home. This makes the wolves, which have 
already destroyed many cattle, as bold as if they knew 
that no Indians are at home, so that at night they come 
into town for our cattle, on which account we have to 
shut them up. 

Saturday, 31. Some Mousey Indians arrived, who had 
come from Niagara to Detroit, and did not themselves 
know where to go. They went through here on their way 
to the whortleberries for they had nothing to eat. 

Sunday, Aug. 1. As no Indian brethren were at home 
we had service for ourselves, and read together out of In- 
structions in Spiritual Doctrine, Idea Fidei. 

Monday, 2. Gabriel came here visiting from the Shaw- 



CLIKTON RIVER, 1784. 199 

anese towns where most of our Indians live together. Ho 
said that many wanted to be here and talked at times 
about it, but could not make up their minds ; they always 
hoped that perhaps brothers would come to .them. Some 
Delaware chiefs, Twightwees and others, had counselled 
about this where the believing Indians with their teach- 
ers should live [for they are not pleased that we live here], 
had also made propositions, but as yet had come to no 
determination. 

"We stay here and await until a door be opened, for till 
now all is closed. We have been driven away by them, 
thus they must call us back again. He related that last 
autumn all the corn in that country was frozen in the milk, 
that, on this account, everywhere among the Indians there 
is great hunger, and that the snow there last winter was 
as deep as here. 

Friday, 6. Edwards and Sensemann went to Detroit, 
returning, 

Sunday, 8. Br. David preached, and likewise held the 
communion quarter-hour, and announced to the brethren 
the Lord's supper for the 13th of this month. Jungmann 
held the congregation meeting. The brethren all got 
back home yesterday from the settlement, where they 
have been at work harvesting, and had earned something 
to eat. 

Friday, 13. Early this morning Sister Heckewelder 
gave birth to a daughter, which, in the afternoon, was 
baptized into the death of Jesus, with the name Anna 
Salome. After addressing the communion brethren the 
day before, we enjoyed his body and blood in the holy 
sacrament. To them was related first the history of this 
day, what the Saviour had done in his church fifty-seven 
years before,* had grounded it upon his flesh and blood, 
which grace had since come upon the heathen and upon 
us, so that we now also, by this grace, belonged to his 
church, which the gates of hell could not overcome. 

Sunday, 15. Br. Edwards preached. In the evening 

'Particular visitation of grace in the congregation of Herrnhut, at 
the holy communion in the church at Berthelsdorf, 1727. 



200 zbisbbrqbr's diary. 

David hold fiie congregation meeting from the Scripture- 
verse. 

Monday, 16. Our Indians again separated, some going 
for whortleberries, others to the settlement to earn some- 
thing by their work in the harvest, and thus they will get 
along until their corn is ripe. 

Friday, 20. By Schebosh back from the Fort, we heard 
that ten Delaware Indians had been killed over the Ohio 
in Kentucky, probably because they had done damage or 
wished to do it ; that therefore all traders had taken flight 
from the Shawanese towns to Detroit, and had to leave 
every thing behind to save their lives, for the Indians 
wanted to kill all the traders. Thus there is yet no peace 
among the Indians. 

Sunday, 22. David preached from the Gospel : Jesus 
beheld the city, and wept over it. On account of hard 
thunder and rainy weather there was no congregation 
meeting. 

Thursday, 26. Matthew, Cornelius' son, came with a 
couple of Indians, one Gottlieb, on a visit from Gige- 
yuuk (now Ft. Wayne). We heard from them thus much 
about our Indians, that the greater part of them lived by 
themselves in a place which Mark had chosen for them; 
that an Indian, Masktschilitis by name, from those of 
Goschachgiink, was with them, who was like a chief, whom 
they gave heed to, who had promised to make it right 
with the Twightwees about their dwelling there, and to get 
permission for them to have a brother with them. If this 
was arranged, he wished to call the brothers there as their 
teachers, that is, at least two hundred, if not three hun- 
dred, miles westward from here. 

Friday, 27. To Abraham, who came back from the 
whortleberry place, Chippewas came where he was en- 
camped, who said that their chiefs, the commandant, and 
Mr. Bawbee had agreed in Detroit, and arranged that the 
believing Indians, with their teachers, should live here. 
Mr. Bawbee, to whom the land belongs, said to them we 
should live on his land as long as we wished, and if peace 
should come again, and we wished to move elsewhere, 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 201 

we could do as we pleased. These Indians said they 
were not so ignorant about us, that they knew that their 
grandfather [thus they called the Delawares], the believ- 
ing Indians^ were good people who had done much good 
to the Indians. 

Sunday, 29. Heckewelder preached from the Gospel 
about the Pharisees and tax-gatherers. Sensemann con- 
ducted the children's service. Chippewas came in, asking 
for something to eat on their way ; this we gladly gave 
them, for now we have our own bread, but until now we 
have been in no condition to do this. 

Friday, Sept. 3. We recalled to-day our captivity of 
two years ago, with thankful hearts to our dear Lord who 
has rescued us from so much danger and need, and has sent 
us deliverance, so that now we live again in peace and 
quiet, and can edify ourselves. We remembered also our 
flock, scattered in the Indian land, and wished the Sa- 
viour might again assemble and bring here his elect, of 
which wo are still always of good hope. 

Saturday, 4. A party of Frenchmen came here from De- 
troit, by way of the river, for a visit, who have never been 
here. They examined very carefully our town, and every- 
thing, and took notice of all. They said they had not 
thought of seeing here such a town and settlement; we 
had done so much work in so short a time, and such good 
work, such work as the French never do. They soon in- 
quired whether there would be preaching to-morrow, 
which they, 

Sunday, 5, attended, and then turned homewards. Br. 
David preached, and Jungmann held the congregation 
meeting. 

Tuesday, 7. The married brethren celebrated their fes- 
tival with grace and blessing. At morning prayer Br. 
Jungmann prayed for us the close nearness and presence 
of our dear Lord and his blessing out of his bloody ful- 
ness for this day. Thereupon was the discourse from the 
Scripture-verse: I will guide thee with mine eye. In the 
afternoon was a love-feast for all the inhabitants. Br. 
-Heckewelder ended the day with a short discourse and the 



202 zeisbergbr's diart. 

New Testament blessing (2 Cor., xiii, 14). We white breth- 
ren strengthened ourselves at the end by the body and 
blood of our Lord in his supper, and bound ourselves ever 
to remain by his cross, to bear God's sufferings until we 
see him face to face. 

Saturday, 1 1. This week the Indian brethren have been 
building their houses, and every thing was therein consid- 
ered how they would have place to store their corn, a good 
harvest of which they expect. N*ow also the famine is 
ended, and we have enough to live on, for which we cannot 
thank eno!igh our dear heavenly Father. 

Sunday, 12. Sensemanu preached, Edwards held the 
children's service, and Heckewelder held the congregation 
meeting. 

Monday, 13. A Shawano came here with his family 
visiting. His wife is our Amelia's sister. This night we 
had the first frost, and thus fourteen days later than last 
year. We find, moreover, only a very slight difference 
between here and the Muskingum, for there, even at this 
time, we had frosts every year. 

Tuesday, 14. Jungmann held the early service from the 
Scripture-verse : My cup runneth over. 

Wednesday, 15. Heckewelder held early service, 

Thursday, 16. David, from the Scripture-verse: He 
shall give his angels charge over thee. 

Saturday, 18. This week we began harvesting. Ed- 
wards held the early service. 

Sunday, 19. Jungmann preached ; afterwards was the 
communion quarter-hour, and this was announced for 
next Saturday. 

Thursday, 23, and Friday, 24. There was speaking 
about the Lord's supper, which we, 

Saturday, 25, enjoyed. William and his wife, Martha, 
had the grace of enjoying it with us for the first time since 
they have been here, whereover there was great joy among 
the brethren, and no less with us laborers. With Sche- 
bosh, who came yesterday from Detroit, we hoped to hear 
of brothers from Bethlehem, or to have letters from there, 
but again there were none. He heard there that the- 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 203 

Americans will not come, having received in exchange for 
this government two islands in the West Indies. 

Sunday, 26. Br. David preached, after the communion 
liturgy had been read by Heckewelder. Jungmann held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 27. Both we and the Indian brethren have 
been busy harvesting our fields, kept it up the successive 
days of the week, and were done with it. What a differ- 
ence we found between last year and this, not only in re- 
gard to our fields, but also in the weather, for we have 
thus far had fine, warm, dry weather. We have a very 
rich harvest, and every thing has ripened and thriven to 
the best advantage, as well as on the Muskingum, more 
and more. How glad and thankful w^e are that our Indian 
brethren have once more enough to eat, and that the fam- 
ine is ended, through which they often became listless, and 
thought it would always be so here, and not otherwise. 

Friday, Oct. 1. Our neighbor, Tucker, came from the 
mouth of the river, visiting. We were done with our corn 
harvest. A deer was brought to town to-day, a thing rare 
this year, for they became very few from severe weather 
last winter, so that the hunters seldom see them. Raccoon- 
taking is now their best hunting, of which there are many. 

Sunday, 3. Edwards preached. It rained all day. Two 
Frenchmen came here, Mitchel's son for a visit. 

Saturday, 9. Since we had news from Detroit that a 
certain gentleman, Major Smallmann, was going to Pitts- 
burg by way of Sandusky, we wrote to Bethlehem. The 
Indian brethren were very busy building, and are almost 
done with it. The Chippewa chief went through here. 
Adam, who exaniincd his musket, had bad luck with it, 
for it went off in his hand, and he was hurt a little. 

Sunday, 10. Heckewelder preached, after this Br. 
David, with Jungmann and Sensemann, set out for De- 
troit over land, arriving there the 11th. First on the 12th 
he visited the Lord Geo. Hay,^ spoke with him, and told 
him the agreement he had made with Col. de Peyster, and 



* De Peyster 8 successor at Detroit. 



204 zeisbbrobr's diart. 

asked him about our living here, and complained to him 
of our situation, that it looked as if we should not be 
here long, since we lived on land belonging to Mr. Bawbee ; 
in the two years we had been living there, we had done 
much work, clearing land and building many houses; if 
now we should be driven away from there, as he had yes- 
terday heard said by Mr. Bawbee, we should be ruined 
anew ; moreover at present we knew not where to turn, 
for we dared not go into the Indian land, having been 
driven from it, elsewhere we knew not where to go. He 
answered Br. David that we should be altogether easy and 
undisturbed, and remain where we were; no one could or 
should drive us away; we were the first settlers on the 
land and had improved it; we had the nearest right to 
it : no one could make pretensions to lands, given by the 
Indians, but whoever first lived on them had the nearest 
right to them ; should the Chippewas be troubled that we 
lived there, he would set them right and make them con- 
tent; should it happen contrary to all his expectations, 
that we could not live there, they would find a new place 
for us. Br. David thanked him for his good-will, and 
after speaking to him about different matters and recom- 
mending himself and our Indians to his protection, took 
leave of him. He was otherwise very friendly and showed 
his inclination to us, and promised to visit us sometime. 
Br. David with the brethren came, 

Wednesday, 13, home again. 

Friday, 15. Mr. Dolson, our friend, came here from De- 
troit, returning on the 16th. During the week all the 
Indian brethren were making canoes in order to get cloth- 
ing for the winter, since nothing is to be got by hunt- 
ing. 

16. The brethren were urged to pay f^unctually their 
debts in Detroit. 

Sunday, 17. Br. David preached, and baptized in' the 
afternoon John, the son of Zachary and A. Elizabeth, 
born on the 14th Inst. Br. Jungmann held the congrega- 
tion meeting. 

Monday, 18. The Indians all set again to making 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 205 

canoes, to get them ready and bring them to Detroit be- 
fore the cold weather begins. 

Wednesday, 20. Prom Detroit we have news through 
Conner, who is come from there, which a man coming 
from Pittsburg brought with him, that the brethren in 
Bethlehem have petitioned Congress for 2,000 acres of 
land on the Muskingum, which was read a second time in 
Congress ; we heard of this some time ago by way of Pitts- 
burg. 

Friday, 22. A Shawano came here visiting with his 
wife; he has already been here; both are lame and cannot 
longer support themselves. 

Saturday, 23. Ignatius' mother, in whose heart the 
work of the Holy Spirit has already been seen, expressed 
her longing for the bath of holy baptism. 

Sunday, 24. Br. Jungmann preached about the marriage 
garment, Christ's blood, and righteousness, which we get 
by grace, and without which no man can stand before 
God. 

Monday, 25. The Indian brethren went again to their 
work in the bush ; different sisters into the settlement to 
sell baskets and brooms. 

Saturday, 20. The above-mentioned Shawano intends 
to pass the winter here with his family, on which account 
he wanted to make a hut near by, but after consulting 
with the conference brethren we did not find it well to 
give them permission, since the Chippewas might on this 
account be discontented with us if we let strange Indians, 
with whom they do not stand well in friendship, settle 
on their land. 

Sunday, 81. Edwards preached. David conducted the 
children's service. We had a conference with the assist- 
ants. Heckewelder held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, Nov. 1. The Indians brought to-day and to- 
morrow (sic) the canoes they have made, nine in number, 
into the water, and took them to the fort to sell. 

Wednesday, 3. Br. Heckewelder went to Detroit on 
business. 

Sunday, 7. Br. David preached and held the congre- 



206 zeisberoer's diary. 

gation meeting in Indian, for no interpreter was present, 
and indeed only three brethren and a few sisters were at 
home. In regard to climate, we have thus far as fine, 
warm weather as a man could expect, and lately thunder 
with rain. 

Monday, 8. Br. Heckewelder came back from Detroit. 
He baptized there Hasle's child, on the 6th. 

Tuesday, 9. Since it had several times come to our 
ears, and now Br. Heckewelder had heard much about it 
from the merchants about the streets in Detroit, that the 
Chippewas had expressed their discontent at our Indians 
dwelling here, saying that they did them great harm and 
damage in their hunting, and this went so far that they 
said we would not go away until they had killed a couple 
of us, which would be the occasion for their getting us out 
of their land. Since now Br. Heckewelder who called 
upon the Governor, and, among other things, had told him 
at a proper time that we thought of building a regular 
meeting-house this autumn, had this answer from him, 
that we should let this alone, and especially build noth- 
ing further, since no conclusion was yet reached either 
about the land or the government. The Governor sent 
him this message by a colonel. This gave us occasion for 
considering together what we should do and whether we 
should undertake any thing in this matter on our side, so 
that, by waiting longer, we might not come to straits nor 
waste our time. Thus we begged the Saviour to advise us, 
and we asked him. He gave us for answer that he wished 
to be asked something about our conduct and outcome with 
our Indians. After further consideration we made two lots. 
The first the Saviour approved, that we should consider 
and resolve to go back over the lake with our Indians. 
The second the Saviour did not approve. We added yet 
a blank thereto, and drew the first. We considered further, 
in case we went back over the lake, where we should turn, 
and we asked him about this too. He pointed out to us 
the country on the Walhondiug to settle in. We thanked 
him from our hearts for his gracious advice and direction ; 
they were also after our own hearts, although any thing 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 207 

like this had not before occurred to us, but we were alto- 
gether here. We see now, however, that that is best for 
us, for if we move on this side the lake to another place, 
the Chippewas would not be satisfied, and our Indians 
would still be in their way, and since they wont have us 
here, it is best that we go elsewhere. Inasmuch as we 
have the winter before us, we have time to arrange mat- 
ters for departing in the spring, as soon as the weather and 
the ice in the lake permit. 

Friday, 12. We spoke with the brethren. We sent 
letters to Bethlehem by Mr. Wilson, who is going back to 
Pittsburg. 

Saturday, 13. We did homage to our Elder, and deemed 
ourselves happy in being under his rule, and finding our- 
selves so blessed. We prayed to him and thanked him for 
his being among us, for his care and trouble with us, asked 
him forgiveness for all our faults and shortcomings, and 
vowed to him fidelity and obedience. At the end of the 
day the communicants enjoyed his body and blood in the 
holy communion. 

Sunday, 14. After the communion liturgy Br. Hecke- 
welder preached, and in the afternoon, towards evening, 
in the congregation meeting, Ignatius' mother, a widow, 
was baptized into Jesus' death with the name Elizabeth ; 
this was the first baptism of an adult in this place, and was 
blessed business over which all the brethren were glad, 
thankful, and much enlivened. 

- Monday, 15. Brs. Sensemann and Schebosh went off to 
Detroit. Most of the Indian brethren went hunting to 
try to get only one or a couple of deer to make shoes 
with, for the hunting is not at all good, and there is nothing 
to gain by it. 

Saturday, 20. During the whole week we have had 
windy weather and rain, as is usual here in the autumn 
and winter, for a fine day is rare. 

Sunday, 21. Br. David preached, and Jungmann held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 22. Sensemann and Schebosh came back from 
Detroit by land. Upon the lake they had very stormy 



208 zeisbbrqbr's dury. 

weather, and had to lie still for ten days. Their canoe 
was split by the waves, so that they had to come home 
afoot. By a letter which Br. Sensemann received in De- 
troit from Br. Brucker,* from Hope, in New Jersey, we 
learned that things for us from Bethlehem must be on the 
way here this side of Albany, which could not get through 
this summer, because the passage to the States was not 
then open ; it will be a wonder if these things and letters 
be not lost. 

24, or thereabout we wrote to Bethlehem. 

Saturday, 27. By Br. Edwards, who, with Abraham and 
others besides, went to Detroit, Br. David wrote to the 
honorable Governor, telling him that since we and our In- 
dians heard time and again that the Chippewas were dis- 
contented at our living here, and indeed had threatened 
to kill some of our Indians, we intended to leave their 
land as soon as possible ; he would be so good as to make 
known to them that next spring we intended to move back 
again over the lake. Our hunters all came home, their 
whole hunt being two deer, a bear, and several raccoons; 
most of them, however, had no sight of a deer all the 
days they were gone. 

Sunday, 28. Br. Heckewelder preached and told the 
brethren we were now entering Advent time, when we es- 
pecially brought to our minds that the Saviour of all men 
was born into the world. 

Tuesday, 30. We ended the month with praise and thanks 
to the Lord that he had so graciously helped us through 
the summer and autumn during the great famine, and that 
he had now so richly blessed us in this, that although our 
Indians could gain little by hunting, they had not only 
enough to live on, but also something to sell, so as to pro- 
vide themselves with clothing for the winter. 

Friday, Dec. 3. Br. Edwards returned with the Indians 
from Huron Point on the lake, where they met so hard a 
storm that their canoes were filled, and for the moment 



^Probably an agent of the Moravian mission at Hope; perhaps son 
of the Rev. John £rucker, a missionary in New Jersey, who died 1765. 



CWNTON RIVER, 1784. 209 

sunk, and much of their lading was lost. They had to 
remain quiet twenty-four hours, during the cold in one 
place where they hastily landed till the storm should he 
over, where no wood was to he had, for they were sur-. 
rounded with water. 

Saturday, 4. The Indians drove cattle to Detroit for the 
merchants. 

Sunday, 5. Br. David preached. Edwards went to De- 
troit. In the afternoon the married sister, Anna Sophia, 
daughter of Samuel Nanticoke, sick with consumption 
from which she suffered two months, suddenly died from 
bursting a blood-vessel. Her remains were buried on the 
8th. She was baptized in Lichtenau by David, Jan. 1, 
'78, already a well-grown girl ; from that time she was al- 
ways a quiet, orderly maiden, who loved the Saviour and 
had a tender heart, and often bewailed with tears her 
wickedness and sinfulness, and then she was directed to 
the Saviour. January 25th, of this year, she was married 
to the single man, Andrew, but for two months it could be 
seen that she had consumption, which made rapid progress, 
so that we could perceive she was nearing her end. In 
her sickness, when she could no longer get up, she was 
quite resigned and gave herself to the will of the Saviour, 
and showed her willingness to go to him. Yesterday, as 
also on the 5th, she burst a blood-vessel and departed very 
quietly and suddenly with the blessing of the church. 

Tuesday, 7. Br. Edwards came back from Detroit, 
where he had gone by land. Br. David had written by 
him to the Governor, telling him that for many reasons 
we intended iti the spring to leave this place and to move 
back again over the lake ; that he would be so good as to 
tell this to the Chippewa chiefs, that they might have 
no uneasiness on our account. He had nothing against 
this, but said that before that time we should hear more 
from him. 

Sunday, 12. Br. Jungmann, preached ; in the afternooa 
all our brethren ^iver^ informed that in the spring we in- 
ti^ndj^ to n^ove back again over the lake, wherefor they 
•14 . 



210 zbisbbrgbr's diary. 

should prepare through the winter, that we might go away 
as soon as the lake was open, which most found to their 
liking, and there was real joy. 

Tuesday, 14. After the Indian brethren had yesterday 
taken advice together, and divided themselves for. the 
work, they went to-day in five parties to make canoes for 
the journey, of which they aim to make fifteen, and to 
have them all done before they take up any other work. 
They came, 

Saturday, 18, back home, and had already several done. 

Sunday, 19. Br. Heckewelder preached about the joy 
of believers in the Lord and Saviour, who for our sake put 
on our poor flesh and blood. To the communicants in their 
service the Lord's supper was announced for Christmas. 
Br. David held the congregation meeting, and made to 
the children an address of exhortation. 

Monday, 20. The brethren went again to their canoe 
work, and came, 

Wednesday, 22, home again for the address given the 
next day, and the Saviour gave grace that many a one 
among the brethren was aroused and brought into the 
right path. 

Friday, 24. We began Christmas with a love-feast, re- 
joiced in God, our Saviour, who is also the heathen's Sa- 
viour, and thanked him for his incarnation, birth, passion, 
and death, and adored him in his manger. At the end 
candles were given the children, wherewith they joyfully 
went home. [We thanked him that he had made this 
known and revealed it for our salvation, for else we were 
blind as are other heathen.] 

Saturday, 25. Br. David preached. In the afternoon, 
during service, Br. Sensemann baptized the little daughter 
of Br. Thomas and his wife Sabina, born on the 23d Inst., 
with the name Judith, into the death of Jesus. In the 
evening the communion brethren enjoyed his body and 
blood in the holy sacrament in a blessed way. 

Sunday, 26. Br. David preached from the Epistle : For 
the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared 
to all men, and in the afternoon exhorted the children to 



CLINTON RIVER, 1784. 211 

praise and gratitude for the little Jesus in his manger, 
that he had clad himself with our poor flesh and blood, 
and was born man ; this they did, and sang to him praise 
and thanks in his little manger. Br. Heckewelder held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 27. To-day and the following days the breth- 
ren kept up their work, coming home at night, and en- 
couraging one another, when they came together, to praise 
and thank the Lord. Jungmann, who wished to go to 
Detroit by land, had to turn back again on account of 
ice, marsh, and water, for there was no getting through 
until it was frozen harder. 

Tuesday, 31. Our second horse died, so that thus, in a 
few days, one after the other, our two best horses are gone. 
The reason of this is the rush-grass, of which there is 
much here, on which cattle live in winter and grow fat, 
but it is no uncommon thing that they die from it, if they 
cannot be kept away from it. Towards midnight we as- 
sembled for the end of the year, and brought him our filial 
thanks for all the kindnesses shown us this year, and for 
all the good he had done us body and soul. It stands 
especially fresh in our remembrance that our dear heavenly 
Father has so graciously and wonderfully brought us 
through the famine which last summer fell upon us and all 
this land ; that our Indian brethren, in the spring, sup- 
ported themselves, partly by labor, partly by wild potatoes 
for a while, and when time went on, and they could earn 
nothing more, our heavenly Father sent them whortle- 
berries, which grew in such abundance, a day's journey 
from here, that they had their fill of them, and could live 
on them till their corn was ripe ; this was, indeed, no nour- 
ishing food, but yet they could live on them. Now it is 
usual for sickness to follow famine, as we have often ob- 
served among the Indians, and so we consider this the 
greatest kindness, that the Saviour has lent us health, and 
of sickness we have seen no sign. As regards us white 
brethren, we had to feel it too, but the Saviour aroused a 
merchant in Detroit, who in the spring lent us money so 
that we could buy much floor against the want in the 



212 zbibbbrgbr's diart. 

Bummer, so that we just got along until our corn was ripe ; 
if we had not got the loan then, we should have been 
without resource, for soon after nothing was to be had for 
cash. The dear heavenly Father afterwards, in autumn, 
gave us a blessed harvest, so that we and our Indians have 
again enough to eat, which we thankfully acknowledge 
and praise him for with joyful hearts and mouths. That 
our hearts could daily feed and be refreshed on God's 
word, we recognize as a great kindness and mercy from 
him, for still so many, belonging to us, are robbed of this, 
and must perish. We therefore beseech our dear Lord 
to give us yet more in the future, and lend to those who 
are absent the grace to come again to the flock, and that 
to them again his divine word may shine a clear light. We 
thanked him also for the quiet and peace which for more 
than two years we have enjoyed ; with all our hearts we 
were altogether here, it had also never occurred to us 
that we should again so soon take into our hands the pil- 
grim-staff, but since the Saviour had given us advice to 
go back over the lake with our little band of Indians, it 
is also after our own hearts, for when we consider the 
journey lying before us, we see many diflBlculties which 
are coupled with danger in getting over the lake. We 
do not doubt, however, that he will move with us, go 
before us, and prepare the way, that his advice and wish 
will be carried out for the praise and glory of his name. 
In conclusion, we asked his forgiveness of our faults and 
transgressions, which we confessed to him ; he comforted 
us, and let his peace rest upon us, with which we entered 
upon the new year. 

We have had the holy communion nine times this year, 
whereto one came for the first time. 

One woman has been baptized who came to us this year. 

Eight children have been born, four boys and four girls. 

Three couples have been married. 

Two adults have died. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1785. 218 



CHAPTER V. 

1785. 
New Gkadevhuttbv, on the Clinton, Miohioan. 

Saturday, January 1. Heckewelder preached; after- 
wards all baptized brethren had a service. We gave our- 
selves up to him anew to be entirely his own, renewed our 
covenant which we had made with him in holy baptism, 
and begged his mercy, that through nothing, be it life or 
death, might we be separated from him and his people, 
and vowed to him fidelity and obedience. Since we had 
received no Scripture- verses and texts for this year, we 
took for use those of 1782, and Br. Jungmann held the 
congregation meeting from the first Scripture- verse of this 
year : And it shall come to pass that before they call I will 
answer, and whilst they are yet speaking I will hear. Com- 
plete thy work and crown thy grace — That I may faithful 
prove. And the text read: Jesus Christ, the same yester- 
day, to-day, and forever. In this we ever rejoice. Name 
and deed are one. He is called and is also Jesus, which we 
had already considered in the service for the baptized. 

- Sunday, 2. Br. David preached ; Br. Edwards held the 
congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 5. For some days now we have had severe 
winter weather and cold. The snow is over a foot deep ; 
the creek has been frozen for two weeks, so that sledges 
can be used on it with safety. 

Thursday, 6. On this day, Epiphany, the Saviour of the 
heathen made himself especially known to his little flock, 
which he has got together from the heathen, held fast by 
the doctrine of his sufferings and his death, which he has 
also guarded and protected from all temptations, and held 
for his glory through all the trials that have befallen it ; for 



214 zbisbbrgbr's dury. 

this we adore him and cannot thank him enough. pWhy 
then should we not cheerfully have patience with their 
weaknesses, since the Saviour has had so much patience 
with them and shown them grace, and since we are eye- 
witnesses that they ,are an object of his mercy, and above 
all they are his, dearly bought with blood, the price of his 
woes, with whom he will sometime be adorned ?] 

In the morning prayer Br. Jungmann asked 'his bloody 
blessing for this day, and committed us and all heathen 
churches to his mercy. Then was the service for the bap- 
tized, in which still another discourse irom the Scripture- 
verse : The Lord is exalted, for he dwelleth on high. He 
hath filled Zion with righteousness, and the text : Rejoice, 
ye Gentiles, with his people. Two, namely, Ignatius and 
Joseph, were absolved, kneeling before the church amid 
many tears, whereby a blessed feeling and the Saviour's 
nearness were noticed. In the afternoon at the love-feast 
the brethren were reminded that on this day all our 
churches thought of them before the Saviour, and sympa- 
thized in the grace he had shown them, that as he had es- 
pecially intrusted to his church to announce the Gospel to 
the heathen, they rejoiced and thanked him, when they 
saw that the Saviour blessed their pains and work ; that 
they must look upon our church in Bethlehem and beyond 
the great waters as their mother, for from them the word 
of God was come to themselves, therefore also we were 
glad to have fellowship one with another and liked to hear 
from one another, that the Saviour might have praise and 
thanks for what he had done to us and among us. In the 
concluding service, which Sensemann held in the evening^ 
we thanked him for the blessing he had let fall upon us 
this day from his bloody fulness, and ended with the bless- 
ing of the church. 

Saturday, 8. They brought into' town the canoe the 
brethren have made for our journey. Our third horse 
died, so now we have none. 

Sunday, 9. Br. Heckewelder preached, and then the 

^ This paragraph in brackets is struck out of the original. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1785. 215 

boys had a service ; they were exhorted to take the boy 
Jesus for their example, to beg from him above all, obedi- 
ent hearts, as he was obedient and subject to his parents. 
At the end we recommended them and our youth to him 
in prayer, to his grace and protection. Br. Jungmann held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 10. David held the early service. The breth- 
ren came together to consider and set about the work they 
have to do for our journey. 

Tuesday, 11. Most went again about their work of 
making canoes, which is indeed a hard task, but seems not 
so to them, for they want to go back over the lake. 

Wednesday, 12. Sensemann returned from the Fort, 
bringing news that the brethren had got 10,000 acres of 
land ^ from Congress, which was brought by a gentleman 
from Pittsburg. We heard that the wolves become very 
bold, go in packs, and destroy many. In this neigh- 
borhood, on Wolf creek, they eat up a Chippewa Indian 
and his wife, and followed several others, who could barely 
save themselves ; this happens because there is almost no 
game for their support ; thus it is unsafe for a man to go 
alone into the bush. 

Saturday, 15. The brethren came home from canoe- 
making ; they have ten ready, and five yet to make. 

Sunday, 16. David preached, Edwards held the congre- 
gation meeting. A Chippewa family came here, and re- 
mained over night; they were well received and enter- 
tained, and presented also with some corn. The Indian 
brethren spoke much with the man, saying to him, among 
other things, that next spring we were going away from 
here ; we had often heard they were discontented at our 

^May 20, 1785, Congress ordered that '*the said towns (on the Mus- 
kingum) and BO much of the adjoining towns as in the judgment of 
the geographer of the United States might be sufficient for them, be 
reserved for the sole use of the Christian Indians formerly settled 
there." Two years later Congress added 10,000 acres to this grant. 
The Moravians had petitioned Congress on this subject as early as 1783, 
and hence Zeisberger's statement of the rumor. See Taylor's Hist, of 
6hio, p. 396. 



216 zbisbbroer's diary. 

living on their land, therefore We now wished to let them 
know we were going away. He answered : Yes, it was 
indeed true that one of their chiefs, who lived on the east 
side of Lake St. Clair, where he had land and his town, 
had been dissatisfied, and had made the yoang people ill- 
disposed towards us, but that they had killed him. Thus 
it goes among the Indians — some are for and others against 
a thing. 

Monday, 17. A Frenchman came here in a sledge, with 
all sorts of things to trade. The wolves followed Renatus, 
who had gone down to the lake, upon the ice. Inasmuch 
as he had on skates, he waited a littl^to see whether they 
were really aiming at him, and when they got reasonably 
near, he hurried away. 

Saturday, 22. Mr. Dolson came with his wife and four 
others, among whom was a captain from the navy, from 
Detroit. They left their sleighs at the mouth of the river, 
because the ice was not trustworthy, and came here by 
land. On the 23d, they were very attentive during the 
sermon, and afterwards, among themselves, spoke much 
of what they had heard, for the discourse was in English. 
A ship's captain felt himself touched, and went about 
afterwards thoughtfully, and said the minister in his ser- 
mon had to do with him alone; that the whole sermon 
was aimed at him ; that he had shown him clearly and 
plainly how things stood with him, and had spoken the 
truth. To-day they visited us in our houses, and the first 
had the desire, since we were going away, to hold a farm 
here and give us something for our improvements, if it 
could be done. They went away on the 24th. On that 
same day came Mr. Wilson, with a German named Charles 
Turner, and a Frenchman. The German is a schoolmaster 
in Detroit,' was a prisoner in Bethlehem, from Burgoyne's 
army, a private soldier. The first earnestly asked us and 
persisted that we should marry him, and since both he 
and those with him gave suflBlcient grounds and moving 
reasons, against which we had nothing to urge, the mar- 
riage took place on the 25th, to the content and satisfac<» 
tion of all present. They returned home on the 26th. 



CLIKTON RIVER, 1785. 217 

Thursday, 27th. Frenchmen came with three sledges, 
bringing apples to exchange for corn, and in this way is 
the corn got away from our Indians, so that in the end 
they will have to suffer for their imprudence, and then 
when they have no longer any thing to eat, they will ovei*- 
run us, and we must give them bread. 

Saturday, 29. The brethren finished the canoes for the 
journey, seventeen in number. . 

Sunday, 30. Br. Heckewelder preached, David held 
the communion quarter-hour, Sensemann the congregation 
meeting. Prom all we learn from Detroit we see that 
both the Justice and several of the most prominent men, 
English and French, stand in the background, but are the 
real instigators of the Chippewas, and use them as tools 
to get as away from here in order to make themselves 
masters of our settlement, and they have themselves fallen 
into strife about the land we live on, and each one wishes 
to be the owner of it. 

Monday, 31. From Detroit, a sister visited us from New 
York, Cornwall by name, who left New York in October 
and got to Detroit in November, where her husband is in 
the king's service in the navy here. From her we first 
learned that our dear brother, John (de Watteville), and his 
company, came prosperously to Philadelphia last summer. 
She went back the 2d, taking leave of us with tears, and 
wished she could stay with us. 

Tuesday, Feb. 1. Mr. Dolson, his brother, and some 
others came here from Detroit, and carried away corn, 
since we were in debt to them. »They, and also Mrs. Corn- 
wall, went back on the 2d. 

Saturday, 5. We had the holy communion, accom- 
panied by the blessed Saviour's near presence. 

Sunday, 6. Edwards preached after the communion 
liturgy, read by David, wherein the importance of the Lord's 
supper was dwelt upon, and the brethren were admonished 
not to. regard it superficially, nor as a common thing, nor 
through unworthy matters to deprive themselves of the 
communion, whereby they would become dry and dead 
in heart. In the afternoon in the service Br. David bap- 



218 zbisbbbgbb's diary. 

tized the little daughter of Renatus and A. Regina, bom 
yesterday, with the name Anna Justina. Br. Jungmann 
held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 7. Heckewelder and Schebosh went to De- 
troit, the Indian brethren partly hunting, partly making 
canoes. 

Wednesday, 9. Mr. Tucker came here with his fam- 
ily, he asked for the baptism of his child, whom Br. David 
baptized. Heckewelder came from the fort. 

Sunday, 13. David preached. Jungmann held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Monday, 14. Justice Nathan Williams^ and others 
came from Detroit to see our place. The first spoke 
with us apart about our moving away, and said that it 
was a pity that we who had done so much work here 
should now go away and turn our backs upon all our la- 
bor, and he offered, if we would remain, to take upon 
himself to arrange matters with the Chippewas, and to 
satisfy them so that they should not molest us. We an- 
swered him it was too late, we were now ready and de- 
termined to go. 

Tuesday, 15. Mr. Capt. McKee came with a large suite, 
who bought cattle, hogs, hay, corn, and all sorts of things 
from us. Capt. McKee was particularly friendly to us ; he 
approved our departure over the lake, saying that he saw 
very well that our Indians could do nothing here, they 
had no hunting, and though they were quite able to sup- 
port themselves by working, yet they were cheated out 
of their own by Detroit merchants, this he had himself 
often observed ; he wished also, he said, by a good oppor- 
tunity, to send a message to the Indians over the lake, 
to announce our return, and at the same time to advise 
them to give us a good reception — not in the least to 
molest us [for he may well have been conscious that he 
formerly has blackened us among the Indians], He 
wished at the same time to clear himself of having had 
any hand in our being taken captive, as he plainly gave 



^A justice of the peace, by trade a carpenter. 



ClilUTON RIVER, 1785. 219 

us to understand, laying the most blame on Col. de Pey- 
ster, and he again denies it. Let him have it as he will, 
we know well enough how the matter stands. Each one, 
however, who had a hand in it would now like to clear 
himself; it is evident they are sorry to have broken up 
the Brothers' Mission, and would willingly seek to make 
all good again if only they knew how, but not even kings 
could do this, much less they. 

Sunday, 20. Jungmann preached. David held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Monday, 21. Most of the Indian brethren went off to 
make canoes to sell, and thus pay the debts they were 
forced to incur during the famine, and this is their only 
way. 

Wednesday, 28. Adam, who came back from Detroit 
and spoke there with McKee, related that news had come 
from the Indian land, that Indians of- all nations were re- 
tained in Pittsburg, and kept like prisoners, on which ac- 
count some had again gone to war, and McKee had said 
to him that peace was not yet established in the Indian 
land; we should therefore do better to wait and plant 
one more year here, although he had said nothing like this 
to us here. This news spread among our Indians, and 
there were different opinions, so that many wished not to 
go away, but to plant here, but we kept silent in the mat- 
ter till we should get more exact news and information. 
He also said to Adam that he had sent a message to the 
nations about our moving over the lake, to open the way 
for us. 

Sunday, 27. Edwards preached, and Heckewelder held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 28. Sensemann held early service. The In- 
dian brethren brought their canoes from the bush into the 
water. 

Wednesday, March 2. We laborers had a conference 
and considered about Br. Jungmann and his wife who 
wanted to go to Bethlehem, and about Br. Sensemann and 
his wife who wished to send their child there, and since 
we intended to move back over the lake with our Indians, 



220 zeisbbrgbr'8 diary. 

and must again begin anew, we could oppose nothing to 
theit wishes, as enough of us would yet remain here. 
We found the best and easiest way for them to take was 
through Niagara, Oswego and Albany, for we had no 
horses to go by way of Pittsburg. Br. Jqngmann and his 
wife undertook at the same time to take with them to 
Bethlehem little Polly Heckewelder.^ 

Friday, 4. Mr. Dolson came from Detroit, from whom 
we heard that Capt. Pipe, who had much to do with 
our captivity in Gnadenhiitten, on the Muskingum, and 
had there been especially prominent, had been killed in 
Pittsburg.* If this should prove true, it would cause un- 
easiness among the Indians, particularly among the Wolf 
tribe of the Delawares, whose head man he was, although 
the other tribes were not pleased with his conduct in this 
war, and especially with regard to our captivity, and not 
at all satisfied with him. 

Sunday, 6. David preached and Jungmann held the con- 
gregation meeting. Most of the brethren had come home 
from making sugar or canoes, but the weather is yet too 
cold for making sugar, and this night a fine snow fell. 

Monday, 7. Br. Edwards held early service. Hecke- 
welder returned from Detroit, where he spoke both with 
the Governor and with McKee. Both expressed them- 
selves in regard to our moving over the lake as follows: 
they held it best, and therefore only wished to advise us 
to wait a little until autumn for the two following reasons : 
first, since the Americans and nations were yet engaged 
together in negotiations on the one part about their land 
and had not yet come to terms, that also disputes and 
disagreements about lands had arisen among the nations 
themselves, and therefore it would not be the best thing 
for us to be mixed up^in them. He, the Governor, and the 
colonels had strict orders from England to protect our 

^ Joanna Maria Ueokewelder, born April 6» 1781. She died in 1868, 
over 87 years old. For a time she was thought to be the first white 
child born within the limit of the present State of Ohio. 

* Uis death was not until 1794. 



OUNTON RIVER, 1785. 221 

mission in every possible way ; therefore they wished to 
expose us to no danger, but to advise us to wait until au- 
tumn, for then every thing would be arranged and in or- 
der. Secondly, it was not advisable for us to go this 
spring, for we should have to cross the lake already in 
April, and then it was hazardous and very doubtful 
whether we should reach our destination at the right time 
and be able to plant. The month of April was a very 
stormy month, and it would be dangerous at that time to 
cross the lake. They advised us for these reasons to plant 
again here, and to go away in the autumn, but if we 
-wished to go now after they had imparted to us their ad- 
vice, they would not and could not retain us. We labor- 
ers considered thus the circumstances, and at the same 
time the direction the Saviour had given us, but that we 
also then, when we had this direction from the Saviour, 
bad a lot that it was also unnecessary to hurry. If then 
no important circumstance had arisen, we should have 
gone this spring, but since now there was a weighty cause, 
we could still wait without acting contrary to our lot, for 
we were not bound to go this spring. That the Saviour 
had so early given us and let us know his directions, was 
necessary for this reason, since both we and our Indian 
brethren were in debt, which we were forced to incur 
during the famine, and which required time for payment; 
for this we had done our best during the winter, and praise 
be to God, had brought the matter so far that we were all 
free from debt and could go where we would. We re- 
solved, therefore, to plant once more here. It might be 
that before that time we should get better and more fa- 
vorable news from the Indian land over the lake. Capt. 
McEee, who, on our account, had sent a message to the 
Indians there and informed them that we thought of going 
back again, was expecting an answer, which he would 
communicate to us upon its receipt. 

Saturday, 12. Our Indians came home from the bush, 
part from making canoes, part from their sugar-huts. 
The weather is always too cold for this last work, and 
there is nothing to be done at it. If for a day we chance 



222 zbisberger's diary. 

to have fine weather, it is sure to snow the next, and so it 
keeps on. As it seems, we shall have a late spring. 

Sunday, 18. Heckewelder preached and Senseman held 
the congregation meeting. He spoke with the assistant 
brothers, and told them our thoughts about going away 
and staying here ; that we thought of waiting until au- 
tumn, and this was afterwards made known to all the 
brethren. 

Monday, 14. Jungmann held early service. Samuel 
and Stephen drove cattle to Detroit. It snowed again. 
They came back Wednesday, the 16th, bringing news that 
in the Indian land there was nothing noteworthy and noth- 
ing to be feared. 

Sunday, 20. Brother David preached from the Epistle, 
Phil., ii, 5 : Let this mind be in you, which was also in 
Christ Jesus, and he announced to the brethren the ap- 
proach of passion week and the holidays, saying that as 
our Saviour humbled himself and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross, so also we should be 
obedient to God's word for our eternal salvation. To the 
communicants the Lord's supper was announced for 
Maundy Thursday. Br. Heckewelder held the congrega- 
tion meeting from the Scripture-verse of the day. 

Tuesday, 22. By William, who came back from Detroit, 
we had, quite unexpectedly, but to our excessive joy, a 
package of letters from Bethlehem,' by way of Niagara, 
together with Scripture- verses for this year. The most 
noteworthy thing was a letter from the XT. A. Conference,^ 
and also a writing in his own hand from Br. John (de 
Watteville.) Col. de Peyster, in Niagara, got the packet 
from an Oneida Indian, wrote to us about it, inclosed the 
packet with his own letter, and forwarded it to Detroit. 
This gave us all extraordinary joy. 

Thursday, 24. In the evening there was a reading of 
the history; then the communicants had'the washing of 
feet and afterwards the holy communion, whereby Jacob 
was a candidate. 



^ See Introduction. 



CLINTON BIVBR, 1785. 223 

Friday, 25. We read the history of the passion in four 
parts, which was listened to with great attention and 
eagerness, and with moved hearts. At the death of our 
Saviour we read, kneeling, the liturgy, and many tears 
rolled down our cheeks. Also early in the first service 
mention was made of the day, that God, our Saviour, had 
come into the flesh that he might offer his life as a sacrifice 
for our sins, and that by his death he had brought back 
eternal life and blessedness. 

Saturday, 26, was a love-feast for all the inhabitants. 
At the service the brethren were greeted, both by Brs. 
Joseph and John,^ whom some among us were found to 
know, and by the brethren this side and the other side of 
the sea, and they were assured of the recollection and 
prayers of all our churches, which aroused wonderful joy 
among them. 

Sunday, 27. We read the Easter litany, partly in the 
chapel, and partly in the graveyard, and at the proper 
place thought of the sisters, Zipporah and Anna Sophia, 
who had died since last year. Afterwards a portion of the 
history of the resurrection was read. Br. Jungmann 
preached, and Heckewelder, in the evening, held the con- 
gregation meeting from the Scripture-verse. 

Tuesday, 29. The brethren again got ready and went 
to their sugar-huts, but this year the spring is very bad, 
nothing but snow-squalls and rain, and as it seems, a late 
spring. Our creek broke up and gave us higher water 
than we have ever had. 

Saturday, April 2. The creek was always rising, and 
the weather was very stormy, but the lake is yet frozen, 
so that there is no getting to Detroit. 

Sunday, 3. Sensemann preached, Br. David held the 
quarter-hour service for the baptized from the text of the 
day, and brought to memory this memorial day of those 
who have been baptized this year. Here only one has this 
year been baptized. At the end the brethren were told 
we should not move away from here this spring, but wait 

^ Spangenberg and de Watteville are here referred to. 



224 zei8bbrqbb's diary 

until autumn. Besides, we see no possibility of this, for 
now would be our time for departure, and the lake is yet 
frozen, though other years it has already been open at this 
time. Three years ago we came on the 20th of April to 
Detroit, and no longer was ice to be seen. 

Monday, 4. Most of the brethren went to their sugar- 
huts, but this year is bad for sugar, so that there will be 
little of it made, for we have always either rain or snow- 
squalls, and very seldom a fine day. 

Wednesday, 6. The Indian brethren brought the canoes 
they have made out of the bush into the water, and got 
them here. Jungmann held early service. 

Thursday, 7. Heckewelder held early service. It rained 
and snowed all day. 

Sunday, 10. David preached. In the afternoon the 
Indian brethren went to the lake to bring their canoes 
into the water, and the sisters to the sugar-huts, for the 
trees ran to-day. 

Monday, 11. At a love-feast we laborers had together, 
we congratulated Br. David on^his sixty-fifth birthday, and 
our hearts blessed him. 

Sunday, 17. Heckewelder preached. 

Monday, 18. Since the lake is now open, Brs. Jungmann, 
Sensemann, and Heckewelder went to Detroit — the first 
two to set their affairs there in order before their depart- 
ure for Bethlehem, and likewise to learn of some ship 
sailing. At the same time went most of the Indian breth- 
ren, and also many sisters, to sell the canoes which they 
have made this winter, and to pay their debts. We heard 
the next day, however, it was so stormy on the lake that no 
canoe could go, and they had to encamp at the mouth of 
the river. 

• Thursday, 20. Last night and all day yesterday ip 
snowed, and was also very windy, and so it kept on to- 
day. It is a very late spring, still always cold, and aveiy 
day stormy, so that we very well 3ee that we should h^ave 
been in no condition to get over the lake before planting- 
time. 

Sunday, 24. Br. David preached in Indian. In the 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1785. 225 

afternoon Brs. Jungmann, Heckewelder, and Sensemann 
came back from Detroit, likewise also the Indian breth- 
ren. In a few weeks there will be an opportunity to sail 
for Niagara. 

Thursday, 26. After early service was the communion 
quarter-hour. This was announced to the brethren for 
next Saturday. 

Thursday, 28. We planted our bread-corn. 

Friday, 29. Both yesterday and to-day we spoke with 
the brethren, and the Saviour gave us the grace of finding 
more in them to rejoice in than to be sad over. 

Saturday, 80. At the Lord's supper Zachary was for 
the first time a partaker, and Christina, Jacob's wife, was 
a candidate. 

Sunday, May 1. Br. Heckewelder preached. In the 
afternoon all the baptized brethren were told that we 
found ourselves compelled to send away Joseph on ac- 
count of his bad conduct, for he is a blemish in the church, 
so that we feel ashamed of him before the world, since he 
brings us into ill repute and makes us a bad name. 

Monday, 2. Br. Edwards and several Indian brethren 
went off to Detroit. 

Tuesday, 8. Ignatius' brother came visiting. 

Thursday, 5. After reading the history of the Ascen- 
sion, we prayed to our dear Lord, asking for his unseen 
presence and daily and hourly walking with him. The 
sermon thereupon was preached by Br. David from the 
text of to-day : Lo, I am with you alway even unto the 
end of the world. 

Friday, 6. Br. Edwards came back from the Fort; no 
ship had yet come from Fort Erie (opposite Buffalo), and 
every one conjectured that the ships that sailed had been 
prevented by ice from coming to land, for the ice there 
always breaks up later than in Detroit. From the In- 
dian land we learn that the Shawanese and Cherokees 
have not yet come to peace, nor did they go to the treaty 
to which they were asked. 

Saturday, 7. Yesterday and to-day we planted our 
fields and got done with them. 
15 



226 zeisberger's piart. 

Sunday, 8. SeQsemann preached, David held the chil- 
dren's service, and Edwards the congregation meeting. 
After a long time, for during the winter we hardly saw a 
strange Indian, Chippewas came here again, down the 
creek, on their way to Detroit, remaining here over night. 
The brethren entertained them, gave them food, and 
spoke to them also words of the eternal life. 

Friday, 13. From Detroit we have news that a council 
with the Chippewas has been held, and that they have 
been told the Americans would take possession of the 
place, at which they were very much alarmed, and, after 
the end of the council, prepared for war. What will fol- 
low upon this we have to wait for. Further we heard that 
the Shawanese upon the Miami had moved away and left 
their former towns, when they took council whether they 
would begin war or receive peace, that therefore the De- 
troit merchants called in all their traders in the Indian 
land. On the other hand, our Indians have been busy 
planting, they are all striving to make a good crop of corn 
that they may sell it in the autumn, therewith to provide 
themselves with the means of life across the lake, and in 
this we have encouraged them. 

Sunday, 15. In the first service was to-day's festi- 
val announced, of God, the Holy Ghost, and Br. Hecke- 
welder preached. In the second service two grown women 
were baptized, one by Br. David, with the name Mary 
Magdalene, and one by Br. Juugmann, with the name 
Helena, into the death of Jesus. In the service for the 
baptized we adored God, the worthy Holy Ghost, and 
asked absolution for our manifold faults and transgres- 
sions, thanked him for his care and the trouble he had 
taken for us, begged from him obedient hearts and fidelity, 
and that he would remain with us and would further show 
himself strong and mighty among us. 

[Thus far to Bethlehem.] 

Tuesday, 17, in the forenoon, the whole church had a 
love-feast at the departure of the brethren, Sensemann and 
Jungmann, with their wives, who, with the two children, 
Polly Heckewelder and Christian David Seusemann, set 



CLINTON RIVHR, 1786, 227 

out for the church in Bethlehem. We blessed them with 
our hearts and committed them to the eye and guard of 
Israel to accompany them successfully to their destination. 
We laborers bound ourselves by the cup to love and 
hearty remembrance, since the Saviour had helped us 
through so much need, danger, and hardship, which makes 
our thinking one of another pleasant, and excites and en- 
courages us to praise and gratitude towards the Lord. 
Thereupon these brethren started for Detroit, accompa- 
nied by Br. Heckewelder and some Indian brethren, and 
the whole town stood on the shore, taking leave of them 
and seeing them depart. 

Saturday, 21. Heckewelder came back from Detroit, 
whither he had accompanied the brethren. No ship had 
yet come from Fort Erie, although two, and the first one 
certainly a month before, had sailed hither, and no one 
can conceive what is the reason of their remaining out so 
long, yet it begins to be thought they have come to mis- 
fortune in a storm, but the Governor intended to send 
another in a few days, if none comes in, by which the 
brethren will go. They got free passage in the cabin, and 
a merchant, our friend, will provide them with what is 
necessary, not only as long as they are in Detroit, but also 
on the ship. We heard at the same time from the Indian 
land, that among the natives all appears well, and nothing 
is to be feared of a new Indian war ; but that the land 
from Pittsburg to the Shawanese towns was all in the 
hands of the Americans. The Wyandots, before they . 
went to the treaty in Pittsburg, had taken counsel to- 
gether, as they usually do if they go to a treaty, to delib- 
erate and prepare what they wish to say and to answer. 
Among other things, also, they had deliberated about the 
believing Indians, since they expected to be asked about 
them, why they had treated them so badly, and they had 
resolved that before they were put to question about this, 
they would coma forward and openly testify that the Six 
Nations were upon the point of blotting out the Indian 
chorch of believers, and since they, the Wyandots, per- 
«alvedi this, they had themselves taken them away from 



228 . zeisbebqer's diart. 

their towns to save them from destruction, but since now 
again there was peace, they wanted to put the believing 
Indians back again in their towns. The Americans, how- 
ever, had given them no time to make this speech, but 
declared they would take possession of all the land, and 
hereupon the Wyandots were cut short, and could say 
nothing about the matter., 

Saturday, 21. We were quite done with planting. 
Our Indians have planted much more than they did last 
year, and have cleared much more land. 

Sunday, 22. In the forenoon the sermon was from the 
Epistle to the Romans, xl. 33: O the depth of the riches 
both of the wisdom and knowledge of God, and about 
the Holy Trinity, that Father, Son, and Spirit have stood 
by and worked together to bring about the redemption of 
the human race, wherewith God, the Holy Ghost, is yet 
ever busy, bringing it to the belief in Jesus Christ, and 
to convince it of its unbelief. Heckewelder held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 25. There came here a Chippewa Indian, 
whose father is chief in thia neighborhood, and both had 
pome back from the treaty in Pittsburg. He was here 
several days ago, and had promised the Indian brethren 
to return and tell them what was done at the treaty, but 
inasmuch as Tucker told him we did not concern ourselves 
with such matters, he said he had brought nothing with 
him. However, he told us a good deal, saying, among 
other things, that his father was away among the Chip- 
pewas, to take them the news, but had told him he should 
come to us and tell us something; when the Americans 
should be in Detroit, they would consider where they 
could show us land to live on, but this he spoke not 
plainly about ; that a few days before he had had a letter 
from Pittsburg, in which he was told that in two months 
the Americans would be here. He was a very intelligent, 
fine-looking man, the like of whom we have not yet seen 
among the Chippewas. He said it was well we remained 
yet a day here, no peace was yet made with all nations ; 
we should not listen. to what some of their foolish people 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1785. 229 

said, but quietly plant here. He went away on the 28th, 
and we gave him some corn for planting, of which he 
stood in need. 

27. The Indians hoed our corn. 

Sunday, 29. Edwards preached, David held the chil- 
dren's service, and Heckewelder the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 31. From the Fort we learn that Brs. Jung- 
mann and Sensemann, with their wives, sailed several days 
ago from Detroit for Niagara. 

Sunday, June 5. Br. David preached from the Gospel, 
about the great feast. The Lord's supper was announced 
to the brethren for next Saturday. Heckewelder held the 
congregation meeting. With the assistant brothers we 
held a conference, and considered about sending two broth- 
ers over the lake to examine the neighborhood where we 
wished to go, but since we heard that the Americans were 
taking possession of all the land between Pittsburg and the 
Shawanese towns, we shall have to give up our plan of 
going to the Walhonding, and must perhaps remain on a 
creek flowing into the lake. We are somewhat perplexed 
about this ; the whole matter of our moving is yet dark, 
for we do not rightly know where and how we shall be, and 
therefore we wish further news and information. Above 
all, may the Saviour make us a road thereto, open the way, 
and send us certainty in the matter, for he gave us the 
direction thereto. Capt. McKee, who in our behalf sent 
a message to the nations and informed them of our return 
over the lake, said to us that they received it well, but that 
as yet he had no answer from them, and that this was no 
bad token. We, however, think otherwise. The natives 
will not indeed suffer the word of God to be preached in 
their land ; that shall cease, as they have already said ; 
therefore it will indeed be hard to get an answer. 

Monday, 6. Br. Edwards held early service. 

Tuesday, 7. David held early service. He said, by oc- 
casion of the Scripture-verse, that we, with all our con- 
cerns, let them have what name they would, should go to 
the Saviour and talk them out with him, not alone what 
troubled our own hearts, but if things went not well in our 



280 EBISBBRaiE'S DIARY. 

families, we shoald lay our house and fomily affairs before 
him, and commit them to him. 

Wednesday, 8. Heckewelder held the early service. 
The assistants spoke with Luke and his wife, between 
whom there was a difference. They were so fortunate as 
to make peace between them, for which they used more 
than three or four hours*. This sort of work we are glad 
to make over to the assistants, who take time for it to hear 
the brethren through, and this requires time, for if we labor- 
ers wished to do it, it would use up all our time, and we 
should not be in condition to contend with all. The as- 
sistants can also sooner tell them the pure truth and bring 
them to acknowledgment, for if we tell them of their bad 
conduct and faults, they take it very loftily, and often can- 
not bear it. 

Thursday, 9, and Friday, 10. There was speaking with 
regard to the Lord's supper. We found the brethren in a 
blessed way, and saw with pleasure the work of the Holy 
Ghost in their hearts, and when something had occurred 
to disturb their love one to another, the Saviour had given 
grace that all in love was arranged and done away with. 
There came a couple of women, A. Johanna and a 
single woman. Lea, from the head of the Miami, from 
whom we got news of our Indians there, that they had 
heard of our moving over the lake, and said we should 
come to them. We heard too that Helena and Benigna 
were gone from time. The first of these (Johanna) is a 
bad person, and took away with her one of her children> 
John, and Lea remained here. We had, thereupon, 

Saturday, 11, the Lord's supper accompanied by his near 
presence ; of which one sister, the young Christina, par- 
took for the first time, and Anna Elizabeth, who was not 
indeed born in the church, but for the most part had 
grown up therein, saw it for the first time, though from 
weeping she could see little. After the Lord's supper 
many brethren came to our house, as is always usual at 
such times, greeted and kissed the two sisters, rejoiced and 
showed their thankfulness for the Saviour's grace. 



CLINTOK RIYSR, 1785. 281 

Sonday, 12. The cotnmnnion liturgy was read early. 
Br. Heckewelder preached. Edwards held the congregation 
meeting. In the spring we had already held it needful to 
Bend some Indian brethren across the lake this summer 
toipform themselves about the water-ways and rivers, that 
we might know what river or creek we should have to 
take when we had got over the lake, since none of our 
Indians was acquainted thereabout. This matter we had 
therefore repeatedly considered, for it was now time to ex- 
ecute it, and we had also spoken with our assistants about 
it, but it always remained to us somewhat undetermined, 
and we were in uncertainty and still in the dark in regard 
to our moving over tl^e lake. We have direction by lot 
to the Walhonding, but we hear that the States have 
either already taken possession, or are about to do so, of 
all the land upon that side except a small stretch along 
the lake.- Now our thoughts were ever turning to the 
head of the Walhonding, but should what we hear be true, 
we must be in doubt whether it is advisable for us to 
think of settling there and whether then we should not do 
better to remain on a creek that falls into the lake if we 
found a suitable place, and thus regard the lot, that our 
Saviour only wished to point out the course we had to 
steer. In order to come from our uncertainty to clear- 
ness, we resolved to-day through the lot, with the appro- 
bation of the Saviour, that Br. Edwards, with three In- 
dian brethren in our behalf, should go not only over the 
lake, but also to Pittsburg, to inform themselves there at 
the proper place of all circumstances, and in regard to 
our moving there to get information, and advice. This 
direction of the Saviour was to us in our circumstances, 
whereover for many days we had so much thought, prayed^ 
and wept, a great consolation, and aroused our hearts to 
praise and thank the Saviour, our only friend and coun- 
sellor. The lot read: The Saviour favors that Br. Ed- 
wards with some Indian brethren shall in our behalf make 
a journey to Pittsburg. 

Wednesday, 15. A Potawatomy Indian came here, 
who after the manner of the Indian chiefs, by a string of 



282 zbisbbrgbr's diary. 

wampum, asked for tobacco and some powder, which we 
gave him. We heard that the Delawares and other In- 
dians are going in large numbers up the Miami (Maumee), 
and wish to live there. The Delawares and Shawanese, 
who no longer have any land, are now taking counsel 
whither they shall go. 

Friday, 17. Br. Edwards and the Indian brethren, 
Samuel, Peter, and Jacob, started for Pittsburg, for which 
purpose they had made a bark canoe to go over the lake 
in, and these are the best to go through the waves. We 
heard on the 18th, by William, who came back from De- 
troit, that on that day they had gone away from there and 
have now probably come as far as the mouth of the Miami. 
We received to-day, before Br. Edwards left, letters from 
Brs. Jungmann and Sensemann that they on the 29th, but 
in twice twenty-four hours, had come to Fort Erie and the 
same day to Fort Slosser.^ They met there Col. de Pey- 
ster, who promised to help them on further, and wished 
to send them on to Oswego by a ship that lay ready. 

Sunday, 1 9. Br. David preached and held the children's 
service in Indian. Heckewelder held the congregation 
meeting. 

Wednesday, 22. Several Indian brothers went to the 
settlement to get provisions, for already they have again 
nothing more to eat. So has it been with them every 
year here. Even if they have planted corn enough, they 
would sell it during the winter for a trifle, already in the 
spring would have nothing, and in the summer must buy 
it again dearer, and suffer, as we have an example this 
year. 

Friday, 24. From Detroit, whence our Indians came 
back with some provisions, we learned that a man in De* 
troit had met Br. Edwards, with the three Indians, in 
Miami bay, where they had fortunately arrived. 

Saturday, 25. The Indians hilled our corn. 

^ '• The transport of goods by land to Fort Slausser, two miles above 
the east side of the falls " (of Niagara). Heriot's Travels through the 
Canadas, Chap. VIII. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1785. 283 

Sunday, 26. Heckewelder preached. David held the 
congregation meeting. [Br; Schebosh, who came back 
from Detroit, learned there that in regard to peace among 
the nations the prospect was still bad ; that the Twightwees 
and Cherokees, which last in this war have been driven 
from their lands, and now wander about among the other 
nations, excite them and are still always going out steal- 
ing and murdering ; likewise that Pomoacan has sent forty 
jnen to, the Scioto, where the white people from the States 
have gone and wish to settle. How this hangs together, 
and what will follow hereupon, we must await. 

Friday, July 1. This week all the brethren were busy 
in the fields, and are now for the most part done with 
hilling corn, which this year again furnishes a fine pros- 
pect for a good and rich harvest. For a time we had very 
hot weather. The insects, mosquitoes, ponkjis, and horse- 
flies are worse and more troublesome than they were last 
year, so that neither man nor beast can have any pleasure 
in life, and here, say the Indians, it is yet tolerable, but 
around the lake they are said to be in such numbers that 
it is nigh impossible to live, and that these plagues of the 
land will ever cease there is no hope, on account of the 
many great swamps and marshes. 

Sunday, 3. David preached from the Epistle to the 
Romans, vi. 3 : Know ye not that so many of us as were 
baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death ? 
and afterwards conducted the quarter-hour of the married. 
Heckewelder held the congregation meeting from the 
Scripture-verse. 

Tuesday, 5. We heard through the Chippewa, who 
often comes here, that something bad was going on among 
the nations ; that a black belt had come to the Chippewas 
from the Shawanese, Twightwees, Delawares, etc., with a 
hatchet concealed within ; that these same and the Chero- 
kees had already murdered many white people. One hears 
such stories here without knowing their foundation ; there- 
fore it is well and needful that Br. Edwards is on his way 
to Pittsburg with the Indians, from whom, upon their re- 
turn, we shall get trustworthy news. 



284 zbisbbrqer's diary. 

Wednesday, 6. Came Kaschajem, and with him Thomas, 
a boy, whose father, Philip, was killed in Gnadenhiitten, 
from Gigegunk, but they had little to say about our In- 
dians in that quarter. Some of the news we had from 
that quarter is true, that the Cherokees and Twightwees 
are going to war, but not so bad as we anticipated. 

Friday, 8. The Scheboshes and many besides went to 
Detroit to seek corn, for many had sold too much and 
must now buy it at a higher price. 

Sunday, 10. David preached and Heckewelder held the 
congregation meeting. Few brethren were at home, but 
they came, 

Monday, 11, for the most part. We had news that Br. 
Edwards, with the Indian brethren, seventeen days be- 
fore, had arrived in Pittsburg, from Pettquotting (Huron 
River, 0.). 

Tuesday, 12. David held the early service, and there- 
upon the communion quarter-hour. He announced to the 
brethren the Lord's supper for next Saturday. 

Saturday, 16. After the brethren had been spoken to 
the day before, we had to-day the holy communion, in 
which a sister, A. Elizabeth, had part for the first time. 

Sunday, 17. David read the communion liturgy and 
held the congregation meeting. Heckewelder preached. 

Monday, 18, and Tuesday, 19. We heard from Detroit, 
which swarms with Indians, that they are very restless, 
and have held a war-dance. We heard, at the same time, 
that an army is expected in Detroit, which is already on 
the march.* We were, therefore, concerned about our 
brothers, and wished the Saviour might soon bring them 
back home to us. Moreover, we know not how to account 
for the preparations for war. 

Wednesday, 20. We learned something more exact 
about the above-mentioned circumstances, namely, that an 
arnay is marching from Pittsburg to the Shawanese towns, 
from there to the Wyandots, to make peace with the na- 
tions, first to quiet them, and then to come to Detroit, 

^ This was false. 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1786. 235 

wiiich WM to tie the moet probable. Meanwhile our 
Chippewa, the chief's eon, said to ue that the war-belt had 
already gone to all the nations, and that they wished to 
meet the Americans. We hoped, however, that all would 
yet be peacefully arranged without bloodshed. The above 
news a Wyandot had brought from Pittsburg, in a letter 
to them. 

Thursday, 21. Br. David held early service, and, 

Friday, 22, Br. Heckewelder. To-day, and for a few 
days, most of the brethren went to the settlement to earn 
the means of life in the harvest among the French. 

Sunday, 24. David preached, few brethren were at 
home. 

Monday, 25. John, Luke's son, came from Sandusky. 
William and several besides, with their families, went to 
the settlement to work. 

Saturday, 80. We had the great joy to see Br. Edwards 
with the three Indian brethren again among us, in good 
health and with success. It was a very special joy also that 
he brought with him a packet of letters for us from Bethle- 
hem, Litiz, etc., which Mr. Wilson had in charge to for- 
ward to us, with whom the brethren had lodged, and who, 
in Pittsburg, took them into his own home. When they 
went away from us, and had gone across the lake, they 
landed at Pettquotting, the other side (i. e., east) of the 
mouth of the Sandusky, from which place they went by 
land, by way of Tuscarawas, to Pittsburg, and they came 
back again by way of Cuyahoga. On their way back, on 
the Tuscarawas creek, they made a bark canoe, and went 
up the creek as far as they could. Then they left their 
bark canoe, and went by land to the Cuyahoga, where 
they made another bark canoe and went as far as the 
mouth of that river, left their canoe and went by land 
along the lake to Pettquotting, where they had left their 
first canoe, in the hope of being able to use it on their 
way home, but since it was warped by the heat of the sun, 
and quite useless, they were forced to make a new one, 
which they did at once, and for which a Chippewa Indian 
who was there pointed out a tree, so that they were not 



286 zbisbergbr's diart. 

compelled to seek a long time for one ; from there then in 
two days and two nights, they came over the lake to the 
mouth of the river, or to the straits below Detroit, but 
they travelled day and night, and were quite worn out* 
Br. Edwards, who had hurt his hip, came home quite 
lame from weariness, and could hardly go from the canoe 
to' his house when they got here, but he was quite well 
again after resting a couple of days. As to the business 
for the sake of which he made the journey, in the first 
place this is the main thing; we now know certainly that 
there is no more Indian land across the lake, and that the 
States own all the land, and take possession of it ; that 
they will not altogether drive away the Indians, but yet 
will not permit them to live in their neighborhood, that is, 
on the Muskingum and in that quarter, but they must re- 
main at a distance. In Pittsburg, also, he read in a news- 
paper that the' Christian Indians have their towns on the 
Muskingum, namely, Gnadenhiitten, Schonbrunn, and 
Salem, confirmed to them by Congress, with so much land 
as the geographer, the surveyor general, shall hold fit; 
this also we knew, in part, by letters from Br. John and 
Ettwein, of May last, although it had not then been con- 
firmed. 

Through this news our minds are now clear, and we see 
plainly enough that we shall not have to look about for 
another place to settle in than in the country on the Mus- 
kingum. It would not be well received from us, and we 
might soon be driven away again if we settled elsewhere ; 
on the other hand, no one can drive us from our towns on 
the Muskingum, since now we know our way and have it 
before us. Br. Edwards and the brethren have no need to 
find out about another way than by Cuyahoga, though 
they found no creek or river which goes from the lake far 
into the country except the Cuyahoga. He spoke also 
with some people in Pittsburg, who are very willing to fur- 
nish provisions at a cheap rate if we go over there this 
autumn, whether we are forced to winter on the Cuyahoga, 
the Muskingum, or the Tuscarawas. They see with pleas- 



CLINTON RIVBB, 1786. 287 

ure there that we shall soon live in our towns there 
again. 

Sunday, 31. Br. David preached, Heckewelder held the 
congregation meeting. Most of the Indians were in the 
settlement. 

Wednesday, Aug. 3. Br. Heckewelder went to Detroit 
on business. Sister Sara Heckewelder has for a week had 
intermittent fever [every other day], which. weakens her 
very much. He came, 

Friday, 5, back from there, bringing a letter from Jung- 
mann and Sensemann, written June 11, in Niagara; in this 
they told us they had made arrangements to go in boats, 
which had come from Schenectady, and were soon going 
back there. We hoped that by this time already they were 
come to Bethlehem. As regards peace among the Indians 
it is still uncertain, and there is nothing trustworthy to be 
judged about it. We hope for the best. The Indians in 
Michilimackinac are said to be much excited, and the 
dwellers there fear a hostile inroad from them. Hecke- 
welder brought news of the Governor's (Hay) death. He 
was buried on the second of this month. 

Sunday, 7. Br. Edwards preached and David held the 
congregation meeting. Most of the brethren who have 
been working at the harvest in the settlement and earning 
food, came home yesterday and to-day. 

Monday, 8. Heckewelder held early service, thereupon 
to communicants was announced the Lord's supper for Sat- 
urday, the 13th. Some brethren went whortleberrying. 

Tuesday, 9. David held early service. Since the Indian 
brethren were now all at home, we made known to them 
what Br. Edwards and those with him in Pittsburg had 
told us, and how they had found circumstances ; also we 
read to them from the letters from Bethlehem they had 
brought, all of which was pleasant for them to hear, es- 
pecially that Congress had given them their three towns. 

Friday, 12. Both to-day and yesterday there was speak- 
ing; we found the brethren, in spite of their halting and 
failing, attached to the Saviour, and longing always to be- 
<k)me better. 



2S8 zbisbbbgsb's diabt. 

Saturday, 18. To the brethren in the early service and 
also to the communicants in the evening the occasion and 
peculiarity of this day were told, and we related to them 
what the Saviour had done for his church fifty-eight years 
ago; the hearts of all the brethren were purified, and they 
bound themselves to abide by the word of Jesus' death and 
passion, and to announce this both to Christians and 
heathen, which he so blessed that already many thousands 
had received it, and through belief in his merits had found 
forgiveness of their sins and everlasting salvation and 
blessedness, whereof we also bear witness, and through 
grace have become members of his church and partakers 
of the blessing and happiness which he has gained. We 
asked for his gracious absolution, and then had the holy 
communion. 

Sunday, 14. Communion liturgy. Heckewelder preached, 
Edwards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 15. Brethren whortleberrying. 

Tuesday, 16. Schebosh went with several brethren to 
Detroit, coming back Thursday, the 18th. 

Friday, 19. Sara Nanticoke bore a daughter, that was, 

Sunday, 21, baptized with the name Anna Maria. Ed- 
wards preached, David held the children's service, and 
Heckewelder the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 24. Joshua took a Nanticoke boy, who is 
not quite right in mind and had run away here to the 
brethren, back to the settlement, where his friends are, but 
the next day back he came again. 

Thursday, 25. From the Miami came Christian Gott- 
lieb with his wife and child visiting, as also, Saturday, 27, 
the cripple, Thomas, to see and hear what we have in mind 
and how we are disposed. There the past year the stout 
Helena, the old gray-haired Paulus, and Benignus, and this 
summer Anna Justina, have passed from time. In regard 
to peace among the nations, nothing is yet settled. This 
month they hold a great council, to which a thousand In- 
dians will go, it is said, and now we await what shall then 
be determined. Our Indians are yet considering what they 
shall do. They have heard that we again move back Qvei? 



CUKTOK BIYEB, 1785. 289 

the lake ; they keep themselves together, and if any one of 
them will come to us, they dissuade him. Neither the 
Wyandots nor Delawares knew where to settle us when 
they got McKee's message about our moving over the lake. 

Sunday, 28. David preached. Edwards held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 30. By Thomas, who went back to the Miami, 
we sent word to all our Indians in the Indian land, greeted 
them, and said to them that this autumn we should make 
our journey by way of Cuyahoga to the Muskingum ; that 
we invited them all to unite themse Ives with us, either in 
Cuyahoga, Tuscarawas, or at Schonbrunn on the Mus- 
kingum. If this autumn or winter they should go hunt- 
ing there, they would meet us. He said' he believed this 
news would be pleasant for all to hear, and that they 
would all like to cpme. We laborers had already con- 
ferred together, for we wished to tell our Indians some- 
thing certain and trustworthy, and as we again had a lot 
that we should go, which is a certain thing, we asked 
whether we had yet any thing to ask the Saviour in re- 
gard to our going away this autumn. We got for answer 
that we had to ask the Saviour about nothing further. 
We saw from this that we should have no hesitation to go 
this autumn. What induced us to make this inquiry was 
this, that through the summer we had heard all sorts of 
weighty news about the nations, on which account we 
were advised by the Governor in the spring to wait until 
the times should be better cleared up, and if we took 
every thing together, it was not favorable, and the nations 
were secretly going about something, but now, as it seems, 
this is removed, and soon there will be perfect peace. 

Wednesday, 31. The widows, six in number, had, on 
their day and festival, a service, blessed an d^ accompanied 
by his nearness. The brethren were reminded to provide 
themselves with canoes, not to be negligent by waiting 
until the last hour, and most of them thereupon went out 
to make some. 

Saturday, Sept. 3. By occasion of the Scripture-verse : 
Se shall give his angels charge over thee to keep thee in 



240 zeisbbkqbr's diart. 

all thy ways, the brethren were reminded of our captivity 
four years ago to-day, and were exhorted to praise and 
thank the Lord, who, through the service of the dear 
angels, had turned away from us much evil, danger, and 
hardship; that the brethren, above all, had to be on their 
guard not to murmur against their Saviour, if any thing 
did not go to their liking, but to think and believe that 
what he does and lets happen, that is well done, and takes 
a blessed end. Many brethren thought about this, and 
said to us how sad in mind they then had been, how their 
hearts had been oppressed — ^had thought all was over with 
them, and that the church was utterly ruined and rooted 
out. 

Sunday, 4. Heckewelder preached ; Edwards held the 
congregation meeting. In- the evening came Matthew, 
Cornelius' son, from the Miami, from whom we learn that 
Abel there, about two weeks ago, passed from time. 

Monday, 5. A party of Nanticokes came here visiting ; 
they had come to Detroit lately from Niagara out of the 
Mingoes' land, and were on their way to the head of the 
Miami, where now assemble Indians from all sorts of na- 
tions. These were, 

Tuesday, 6, at the early service, very attentive. During . 
the day others came also, among whom were some Mohi- 
cans, so that some forty Indians were here visiting, the 
first visit of the kind here on the Huron. We soon saw 
that among them were some who had ears to hear, and 
were not indisposed for the kingdom of God, but we 
thought at the same time, if only they were not Nanti- 
cokes. One of them, Samuel's own brother, told the 
others who had come first, what he had heard in the meet- 
ing, and what he had retained, namely : that we had to 
seek our help, eternal life, and blessedness from the Saviour 
alone, who had gained and earned all that through his 
bitter passion, and through his blood and death; th'at he 
was the only true God, and except him there was none 
besides. '^A good deal more was told," he said, " but this 
much I was able to bring away." 

Wednesday, 7. For the sake of friends who wished to 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1785. 241 

hear, there was a common service early in the morning. 
Afterwards the married brethren had their festival and 
service from their text, and in the afternoon was a love- 
feast for all the inhabitants, and in conclusion we brought 
to our dear Lord our filial thanks for the grace and blessing 
he had given us to enjoy, through his recognition of us 
and his invaluable nearness. 

Thursday, 8. After the early service most of our 
friends set out for Detroit. Samuel's brother had spoken 
alone in confidence with him, and told him his thoughts, 
namely: for a year ^nd a half he had the desire to come 
to the church, and now he believed he had the oppor- 
tunity to carry out his inclination, for his nation was 
now about to move ; as yet he had told no man, not eveii 
his nearest friend, what he thought, and wherewith hp 
was busy; he was perplexed about his happiness, to ob- 
tain this he saw no desire or way among the savages, but 
he believed he could attain it among the believing In- 
dians; one thing, however, caused him perplexity and 
doubt, he was a great sinner, and in this war had shed 
the blood of many men ; when he thought about this, it 
was ever as if some one said to him, " It is vain for thee 
to be concerned about this, thou canst not turn, thou hast 
too many sins lying upon thee, give up the thought;" he 
had therefore determined, since he was come to Detroit, 
to visit the believing Indians and to find out whether it 
were possible for him to find mercy from the Saviour, 
and whether among the believing Indians there was one 
who had been so great a sinner as he, and if this were so, 
he could think there was yet hope for him. Samuel 
showed him then the way to salvation, and told him no 
one was so great a sinner, nor so corrupted, as not to find 
mercy and forgiveness from the Saviour, who had shed 
his blood for the sins of the whole world. He spoke yet 
farther, telling Samuel how he had thought of arranging 
matters to get away from his chiefs, who if they suspected 
this of him, would watch and guard him carefully lest he 
should get out of their hands; ten of them were his 
16 



242 zbisbbrger's diabt. 

friendfl of whom he believed they would be of his mind 
should he tell them his purpose. Thus must most In- 
dians steal away, if they wish to come to us. 

Saturday, 10. Wischuasch came from Sandusky to 
visit us, from whom we learned that it is still doubtful 
whether peace will be made among the nations. 

Sunday, 11. David preached. At break of day Hecke- 
welder set out for Detroit taking letters with him for 
Bethlehem. Two Frenchmen were present at the sermon, 
and also several strange Indians. 

Monday, 12. Prom Detroit Heckewelder did not bring 
us very favorable news about moving away for the pres- 
ent, for the Indian land seems very restless and confused, 
and the Indians in all quarters are arming for a new war, 
for which the nations are already quite unanimous. This 
is the common talk in Detroit, and every one advises us 
against going over the lake in such existing, unsettled cir- 
cumstances. It is said a treaty will be held with the 
nations at the mouth of the Miami of the Ohio, but it is 
said they will come there in arms, and that, therefore, we 
shall soon hear something exciting from that quarter. 
We have also heard that if we went over the lake now, 
the Indians would again make us prisoners, and take us 
where they wished in the Indian land, that they will not 
permit us to go to the Muskingum. If an Indian war 
should break out, it would not be advisable for us to break 
up here, and certainly we should have something to fear. 
They state that if we go over the lake, they have orders 
from M(cK'ee) to take us prisoners and hold us fast. The 
Indians, also, who come here, dissuade us from moving 
away, should there be war. The nations wish to fight for 
their land and hold it, but we hope that this unrest will 
be quieted, although it might be too late for us this 
autumn. 

Tuesday, 13. By the Indian, Gabriel, who came from 
the Miami, we had a letter by way of Pittsburg, which he 
got in Detroit, from Br. Ettwein in Bethlehem, of June 
16th. From this we see that they then knew nothing of 
Brs. Jungmann and Sensemann and their wives, but of 



CLINTON RIVER, 1786. 243 

them we have news through Cassidy^ that on the 25th of 
June they were yet a day's journey from Schenectady, and 
had lodged with him on the Mohawk River. 

Friday, 16. There came a whole party of Nanticokes, 
Mohicans, and Monseys, visiting, who all wanted to go to 
the Miami. This week we began to harvest our corn, 
which is this year ripe much later than it was last, prob- 
ably on account of the drouth this summer, for the whole 
summer through we had not one good rain, and only two 
or three little thunder-showers. 

Sunday, 18. Heckewelder gave the sermon, at which 
all our strangers were present. Thereafter was the com- 
munion quarter-hour, and Edwards held the congregation 
meeting. To these strangers, here visiting, the Indian 
brethren praised the salvation the Saviour has won for us 
by his blood and death. Among others was a Mohican, 
who begged the brethren to speak to him about the 
Saviour, and then he came to Abraham, who, with Br. 
Samuel, discoursed to him with great earnestness, and not 
without effect, for he was much convinced of the truth, 
but before they were done a Nanticoke came as messenger 
from Detroit, to call away his people, and brought bad 
news from there, that the nations over the lake had all de- 
clared war against the Americans, which should last thirty 
years. At the same time we got a message from an In- 
dian from the Miami and the Shawanese towns, they hav- 
ing heard that this autumn we wanted to go back over the 
lake ; he sent word to us to remain here still and to wait, 
for there was now no peace, and it was not advisable for 
us to go there, and if yet we did so, they were determined 
to get us all together, to hold us fast, and to bring us to 
the head of the Miami ; for the present, we should stay 
here and remain until perfect peace should be made. We 
heard, also, that the nations intend to begin hostilities at 
this treaty, which is to take place this autumn in that 
neighborhood. They have much to say, and make boasts, 

^ Perhaps this is the man called Cassedy on p. 136. 



244 zeisberger's diart. 

as is their custom, but the Lord can soon bring their plans 
to nought. 

Monday, 19. Immediately after the early service the 
strangers all went away to Detroit, and now their heads 
were full of war, and they forgot again the good they had 
heard. Thus does Satan to many inquirers, that they 
may not hear God's word, but be held in uncertainty and 
blindness. 

Saturday, 24. The brethren had lately been spoken 
with, and we enjoyed his body and blood in the holy 
sacrament. This week besides we have made a good be- 
ginning with our harvest [see 16th], and on Thursday, 22d 
Sept., we had this year the first little frost, thus three 
weeks later than last year. 

Sunday, 25. After the communion liturgy Br. Ed- 
wards preached and Heckewelder held the congregation 
meeting. 

Monday, 26. Br. David held early service. To-day 
many brethren went to the salt-springs to boil salt, not far 
by water, and by land only some seven miles. 

Thursday, 29. After the early service, in which, like- 
wise, mention was made of the protection and [manifold 
oversight of the Saviour for us through the service of 
* the dear angels, we experienced the^same in an extraor- 
dinary way. A musket went oflP in a boy's hands, and 
the ball went under the arm of another boy who stood 
in front of th,e first, but only grazed him, so that the 
fright was greater than the harm. \ The boy who was hit 
screamed so that everybody thought he must be mortally 
wounded. 

Our Chippewa, who often comes here, when he came 
to-day, asked an Indian brother whether we still thought 
of going away this autumn, and when he got no for an an- 
swer, for the Indians had told us not to go away, there 
being yet no peace, and that we should do best to stay 
here, the Chippewa replied : " I knew that very well, 
<ind therefore I told you it was good you should stay here 
a day longer. The Indians, however," he said farther, 
"are not the cause, they would not stand in your way, but 



CLINTON KIVER, 1785. • 245 

the blame is Mr. McKee's, who, in council in Detroit, has 
made you over to the Shawanese, and told them he did not 
like to see us going again to our towns. If then they 
saw us going over the lake, they should take us, turn us 
about, and bring us into the Indian land, wherever they 
saw fit. The Shawanese wished to give us over to the 
Wyandots, who live near Detroit, and told them they were 
near at hand, and if they saw us going by, they could stop 
us, and show us another way, but they refused, and would 
have nothing to do with it." The Chippewa said he had 
heard this with his own ears, and been present at the 
negotiation. We had already, at different times, and from 
different Indians of all sorts of nations, heard the same 
thing, had also spoken with McKee about it, but he dis- 
claimed and denied it, and assured us of his friendship, but 
now we see it is true, and he continues, behind our backs, 
secretly to stir up the Indians against us, as he has been 
the head-leader of all the Indian hostilities against us. If 
this is so, how is it advisable and possible for us to go 
away? We are given over to the Indians, that they may 
again plunder us and treat us according to their will, 
for this would not remain undone since the power is given 
them so to do. We cannot believe that the Indians could 
so have thought out all these lies, and that every thing is 
unfounded. We must, therefore, yet delay and wait for 
better times. It is as if Satan sought to hem in our way 
over the lake, and as if it pleased him not that we should 
again go there. We have further heard that he is re- 
ported to have said that if the Wyandots had known that 
Br. Edwards was going to Pittsburg they would have 
killed him. This also he denied.. As soon as Br. Ed- 
wards started, however, he let the Wyandots know, and 
gave them a hint they could do something if they wished, 
and Samuel heard this on this journey. 

Saturday, Oct. 1. The brethren came home from the 
salt-lick, having boiled a good lot of excellent salt, which 
is just the thing for them, salt being here a scarce thing. 

Sunday, 2. David preached. Edwards held the con- 
gregation meeting. 



246 zbisbebgeb's diart. 

Saturday, 8. This week all the brethren were busy 
harvesting their fields. In spite of a very dry summer we 
have a moderate and yet quite good harvest, though not 
so good as it would have been if it had rained more, but 
we are thankful for it. This week Ignatius, Renatus, and 
John went over Lake Erie hunting. Some went out salt- 
boiling. By land it is only six or seven miles. 

Sunday, 9. Heckewelder preached, and David held the 
congregation meeting. The (chapel) servant's office was 
again given to Luke and A. Charity. They had already 
served in Schonbrunn. 

Monday^ 10. Several began making canoes, therewith 
to earn clothing for the winter, instead of hunting. The 
sisters were at home, industriously harvesting, with which 
this week they will for the most part be done, and have 
had on the whole a very good harvest, so that they have 
all wherewith to live. 

Friday, 14, was the burial of the little child who died 
yesterday, A. Maria, daughter of Samuel and Sara Nan- 
ticoke, two months old, less six days. Last night, as also 
two days ago at night, we had hard thunder-storms, one 
after the other, till morning, and in our grave-yard a tree 
was struck and torn to splinters. The autumn this year 
is unusually warm, like summer, and thus far we have 
had only a light frost, but much stormy weather. 

Sunday, 16. David preached, and Edwards held the 
congregation meeting. 

Thursday, 20. Yesterday Peter, with two others, went 
to Sandusky to get our bell, there buried, but to-day we 
had news from Detroit that the Wyandots had killed the 
traders in the Tuscarawas and seized all their goods. We 
heard at the same time that the Americans had come al- 
ready to the Shawanese towns, and that another party was 
on its way to Lower Sandusky. Since now the country 
seems so restless, we sent an express to call back Peter 
and his company, that they might not come to trouble, for 
in these troublous circumstances it is no time to go there. 
The States, as we hear, oflfer the nations both peace and 
war, to choose which they will. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1785. 247 

Sunday, 23. Early in the morning Samuel and Adam 
came from the Fort, and confirmed the above new8. 
Edwards preached about the king's reckoning with his 
servants, and David held the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 26. Some brethren came back from De- 
troit. McKee asked Joshua, who came from there, 
whether we should go over the lake this autumn. He 
answered no, that we had heard from the Shawanese, Mo- 
hicans, Delawares, not to go, but to stay here, as there 
was yet no peace. All, however, agreed in this, that he, 
McKee, would not have us go to our towns, and had said 
to the Indians that if we went, they should lay hands on 
us and bring us another way. The Chippewas had also 
told us this, and since all nations spoke in the same tone, 
it must indeed be true. None of us white brethren could 
well tell him this without incurring danger, but he must 
have heard it from an Indian, for they can tell him what 
they wish and think, but he denied every thing, saying 
the Indians told horrible lies. We see that we have a se- 
cret foe in him. The Governor, who was our friend, is 
dead, and there is then almost no authority that regards 
right. He can do what he will, without giving account 
to any one. The way is closed to us. How is it possible 
for us to go away from here ? We shall always be held in 
captivity. Yet if men close the way, Jesus opens it with 
might ; herewith must we console ourselves. 

Thursday, 27. Br. Edwards went to Detroit on busi- 
ness, from which place came, 

Saturday, 29, Peter, by whom we heard it had been very 
stormy on the lake, and that Br. Edwards did not get out 
of the river until this morning. 

Sunday, 30. David preached and Heckewelder held the 
congregation meeting. 

Monday, 31. Abraham, Samuel, and several others went 
to Detroit to sell canoes ; others went out hunting, so that 
few remain here. 

Wednesday, Nov. 2. Edwards returned from Detroit. 
He had a good and successful journey, considering the 
stormy weather of this time of year. 



248 zeisberger's diart. 

Sunday, 6. Edwards preached. Through Samuel, who 
came from Detroit, by way of Pittsburg, by the kindness 
of Mr. Wilson, we had letters from Br. Ettwein, one from 
Br. Reichel from Europe, and others, to our heartfelt joy. 
In the afternoon was the communion quarter-hour, and 
the congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse: O 
Lord, how great are thy works, and thy thoughts are very 
deep. 

Monday, 7. A trader's wife, Sally Hans, came here to 
sell goods, and stayed until the 10th. She took in from 
the brethren seventy bushels of corn for goods. She spoke 
with Samuel about her land on the east side of St. Clair, 
whereof she would be glad to give us a strip. 

Thursday, 10 and Friday, 11. We spoke in regard to 
the Lord's supper. We found the brethren, to our joy and 
thankfulness to the Saviour, in a blessed way, walking 
with him. The brethren repaired our meeting-house. 

Saturday, 12. We had a gracious communion, blessed 
by his dear presence. Jacob was present, partaking for 
the first time. The Saviour gives us especial joy in our 
young people, so that five are now communion brothers, 
one after the other, and a joy to us. 

Sunday, 13. We asked from our dear Lord, the Elder 
of his churches, gracious absolution for our faults, trans- 
gressions, and shortcomings, adored him anew with our 
whole heart, and begged him farther, as a true shepherd 
and head, to make himself known to us, to show himself 
to us, to interest himself in us, inwardly and outwardly, 
and to help us, that his will may be done on earth as in 
heaven ; during this tears spoke more than the mouth. He 
made himself known to us, and was evidently among us. 
In the evening Br. Edwards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 14. By Br. Heckewelder, who went to Detroit, 
we wrote, by way of Pittsburg to Bethlehem. [These let- 
ters did not go through.] We had reason for doubting 
about these letters getting through, since we had very bad 
news from over the lake, namely, that between Pittsburg 
and Cuyahoga six traders had been killed and robbed, so 



CLINTON RIVER, 1785. 249 

that the passage is inevitably stopped. Ah, may the Sa- 
viour soon send us his noble peace ! 

Tuesday, 15. Most of the brethren went hunting. Br. 
Schebosh and some others went to Detroit ; a few remain 
at home. 

Wednesday, 16. Heckewelder returned from Detroit. 
The above news that traders have been killed is false, and, 
as we hear, things are not so bad in the Indian land as we 
have heard, but the trouble is, the Mingoes and Cherokees 
are making a plot. It is said the Indians are not hostilely 
disposed towards whites, but only towards Kentuckians. 
There is something in this whole matter which we cannot 
well make out. Traders go into the Indian land from De- 
troit as many as will, and nothing hinders them, but we 
dare not, we are not permitted to go away, and we must 
still have patience. 

Saturday, 19. Three days ago the first cold weather 
came ; up to that time we had a very fine, warm, dry, 
pleasant autumn ; but the Detroit people prophesy a hard 
winter and deep snow. 

Sunday, 20. Br. Edwards preached, and David held the 
congregation meeting from the Scripture- verse : 

Wednesday, 23. Schebosh and A. Johanna, who went 
to Detroit a week ago, came back, having been much de- 
layed by stormy weather. In Detroit there is much talk 
about a new war, and many would like to see it. Be this 
as it may, we- see that it is better to be here than to be 
again in danger of falling into the hands of the savages ; 
for this they have long been encouraged, and we are given 
over to them if we cross the lake. Upon what grounds 
we are held here like prisoners we know not. 

Thursday, 24. We got the first lasting snow, which was 
just the thing for our hunters ; thus far we have had a very 
dry autumn. 

Sunday, 27. Heckewelder preached the advent sermon 
about the coming of our Lord into the flesh, and Edwards 
held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 28. Most of the bret|iren went hunting, and 
the sisters at home provided themselves with wood. 



250 zeisberger's diart. 

Wednesday, 80. By the Scripture- verse : Lord, thou 
hast been favorable unto thy land ; thou hast brought back 
the captivity of Jacob, the brethren were reminded that 
we have experienced similar circumstances, which are not ' 
yet quite passed, and have reason to recommend ourselves 
anew to him, to remind him that in former times he has 
done much for us, and has shown us compassion,, and to 
entreat him to do yet more and more, that we may not 
lose hope and confidence in him. 

Saturday, Dec. 3. Many of the brethren came home, 
and for the most part had all shot something, so that they 
have meat and shoes, which last is a prime article, for un- 
til now they have had to buy skins for shoes in Detroit. 

Sunday, 4. David preached about the Saviour of the 
heathen, who is come to fulfil the prophecies given to the 
heathen by the prophets. Edwards held the congregation 
meeting Yesterday and the day before the snow fell a 
foot deep, and last night came on a thaw with rain, so 
that the snow almost all went off. 

Monday, 5. The brethren got in wood for us, for we 
have no horses. 

Tuesday, 6. Most of the brethren went off bear-hunt- 
ing, and Brs. David and Edwards to build a sugar-hut, 
the weather was so good. 

Wednesday, 7. Samuel and Adam to the Fort, whence 
the latter came back on the 9th, bringing news that 
in the settlement and in Detroit bad sicknesses and the 
small-pox prevailed from which many died. People in 
Detroit, who wish us well, wrote to us we should let as 
few of our Indians as possible go there, that the pest 
might not be brought to our town. The English people 
in Detroit at last begin to become pious, and believe the 
sickness is a punishment from God. They came together 
in the Council House, and had something read to them 
and are thinking about a church and a preacher. 

Sunday, 11. Instead of the sermon Br. David read to 
the brethren something from the Gospel. This week there 
was rain and a thaw. The snow went off and the ground 



CLINTON KIVER, 1785. 251 

was quite bare. Edwards held the congregation meeting, 
and Joshua translated for the first time. 

Monday, 12. David held early service. Samuel came 
back from Detroit, bringing news that a couple of strange 
Indians, who had bought something in the town and of 
whom no one knew whence or of what nation they were, 
for they spoke not a word, killed two merchants below 
the town when they went away. What will come from 
this, or what it means, time will show, but this circum- 
stance caused much alarm and fright among the people. 

Thursday, 15. Most of the brethren came back from 
hunting. This year they have made something by it, at 
least that they have meat to eat and skins for shoes, for 
last year they never once got so much. 

Saturday, 17. Since the weather was very fine, and for 
this time of year warm, the sisters were away generally 
this week, and made some sugar. The ground was clear 
of snow, and the weather extraordinarily fine. 

Sunday, 18, Br. David preached about the joy of be-, 
lievers in the Lord, who was clad in our poor flesh and 
blood, and has reconciled us to God through his suflScient 
sacrifice, and has brought us the peace of being in God's 
mercy. To the communion brethren the Lord's supper 
was announced for next Saturday, and they were invited 
thereto as thirsty souls. Heckewelder held the congrega- 
tion meeting from the Scripture- verse. 

Monday, 19. Some brethren went to lay out and make 
a new and straight road to Detroit. 

Tuesday, 20. It rained all day. 

Friday, 23. From Detroit we got the cheerful news 
that the last treaty with the Indian nations on the Ka- 
nawha^ had been well and good for th^ benefit of the 
country, so that there is good hope of a lasting peace 
with the nations. This news was of importance to us, 

^Zeisberger probably refers to the treaty made with the Indians early 
in 1785 at Fort Mcintosh (Beaver), Pa. This treaty, and the act of 
Congress in pursuance thereof, wherein provision is made for the 
Moravian Indians, can be found in Albach's Western Annals, pp. 433- 
438. 



252 zeisbbrger's diart. 

for we now could hope that this circumstance would build 
us a way over the lake, which till now has been closed 
to us. 

Saturday, 24. Christmas we began with a love-feast, 
rejoiced in the birth of our Saviour, who for love of us, 
poor and wretched beings, clad himself in our poor flesh 
and blood, thanked him for his blessed incarnation, suf- 
ferings, and death, whereby he hath brought us eternal 
redemption, and adored him upon our knees. Thereupon 
the communicants enjoyed his body and blood in his holy 
supper with comforted and joyous hearts. 

Sunday, 25. After the communion liturgy, the sermon 
which Br. Edwards preached^ was about the announcement 
of the angels to the shepherds : Behold, I bring you good 
tidings of great joy. Then th4 children in their service 
showed their joy over the little Child in the manger, sang 
to him with joyful hearts, and brought to him their child- 
ish thanks for his birth and incarnation. To a poor Shaw- 
anese family in our neighborhood our brethren gave some- 
what for their necessity, each one contributing, for which 
they were thankful and glad. 

Tuesday, 27. Learning that Mr. Duncan, of Pittsburg, 
was in Detroit, we sent to him Br. Schebosh with a let- 
ter, and also to converse with him ; he came back Thurs- 
day the 29th, bringing us a letter from him also, and 
a letter from Br. John Jungmann from Pittsburgh, from 
both which we perceived that things for us were come 
there, but that we could not get them this winter. What 
made us feel worst was that he had forgotten in Pittsburg 
a packet of letters he intended bringing us, and now we 
know not after how long a time we shall get them. We 
heard at the same time that two days ago two whites 
had been murdered, and that the Chippewas had done 
both these and the, former murders. 

31. Towards midnight we assembled for the end of the 
year, thanked our dear Lord for all the kindness, good- 
ness, and mercy we had enjoyed from him, that he had 
cared for us, soul and body, and had given us the grac^ 
that our hearts could daily feed on the word of his atone- 



CLINTON RIVER, 1785. 253 

ment and passion, and we begged him to grant us tiiis 
again, and to send us such hearts that we should ever 
hunger and thirst more and more for this ; that he in out- 
ward matters had blessed the work of our hands, and had 
lent us a good harvest, so that we might not starve nor 
complain of want ; that he had let us, who are only stran- 
gers among strange people, enjoy peace and quiet, has 
been with us, and has shown himself among us a gracious, 
loving Saviour ; that the Indians among whom we live and 
to whom we are strangers, have put nothing in our way, 
much less molested us. We asked his forgiveness of all 
our faults, failings, and shortcomings when we have lagged 
behind and could have done better, whereupon we held 
comfort and assurance from him through his Holy Spirit, 
and entered then joyfully upon the new year. 

There were baptized this year two adult women and two 
girls ; to the communion were admitted two brothers and 
two sisters ; one has died here, a child, A. Maria, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Sara Nanticoke ; the inhabitants here 
on the Huron River are 117 Indian souls. 



254 zbisbergbr's diabt. 



CHAPTER VI. 

1786. 

CUXTON RiVBR, MiCHIGAK — VoTAOE OTER LaKE ErIE — On THE CuTAHOOA. 

Sunday, Jan. 1. Hecke welder preached about the name 
of Jesus as our Saviour. In the service for all the bap- 
tized brethren, we gave ourselves anew to be entirely his 
own, in all our faults and failings to hold fast by him, and 
not to leave him. We promised him with hand and mouth 
that nothing should separate us from him, nor tribulation, 
nor danger, nor fear, nor fright till we saw him face to face. 
For our daily Scripture-verses we took in use last year's, 
and in the evening Br. Edwards held the congregation 
meeting from the first Scripture- verse : Cause me to know 
the way wherein I should walk : for I lift up my soul unto 
thee. Lead us in accordance with thy grace and the Gos- 
pel. 

Monday, 2. By Samuel, we sent letters for Bethlehem 
to Mr. Duncan, in Detroit, to forward. This occasion was 
one much wished for, and we were glad of it, for here 
people ^.re few to whom letters can be intrusted. We 
heard from Tucker that the Chippewa chief sent us word 
that he would come here soon after New Year's day, and 
had something to say to us. Of this we were glad, for we 
had long wished an opportunity to speak to him or them. 

Friday, 6. Early at morning prayer was sung for 
the first time in Indian: Peace be to this congrega- 
tion — Peace to every soul therein. We asked for the 
near presence of the Saviour, his blessing, and his bloody- 
fulness for to-day, and recommended ourselves and all 
churches among the heathen to his mercy. There- 
upon was a service for the baptized from to-day's text: 
That which had not been told them shall they see, 
and that which they had not heard shall they consider. 



CLINTON RIVER, 1786. 255 

Welcome, dear brothers, welcome — To the life from Jesus' 
wounds. Since he has announced to us salvation in his 
wounds, and has also sent us hearts to receive and to 
believe, and since through belief we are come to enjoy- 
ment of the same and rest therein, we can, and will also, 
wheresoever we have opportunity, confidently preach to 
those heathen who are yet in darkness and blindness, that 
grace is to be found in Jesus only, that they shall be wel- 
come Jbo salvation in Jesus' wounds, which he has won for 
them also, and we will invite them thereto. At the love- 
feast, at which also a white man was present, our brethren 
were reminded of our other heathen churches, and what 
the Saviour had done among them, in so many places, by 
his grace and the service of the brothers. Br. Hecke- 
welder ended the services of the day with a short discourse 
over the Scripture-verse : Turn away mine eyes from be- 
holding vanity. 

Ah, give us dull eyes for things of no profit, and eyes 
full of clearness in all thy truth. It was a day of grace 
and blessing for our brethren. Those who had their bap- 
tismal day on this day, came together and invited the as- 
sistants to a love-feast, sang together, and rejoiced in their 
election, just as also happened during the holidays, for 
they celebrate the day of their baptism as their birthday in 
the church, not knowing their real birthdays. 

Sunday, 8. Br. David preached about giving over the 
heart to the Saviour for the sake of the mercy he has shown 
us, that he has sacrificed himself on the cross for our sins, 
and had reconciled us by his blood. To the boys, on their 
day, was the history read : When Jesus was twelve years 
old, etc., and by occasion of the text : Jesus increased in 
wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man, they 
were reminded to take the boy, Jesus, as their model and 
example, who was obedient and subject to his parents, and 
since they were come to those years when they were capa- 
ble and began to think about things, they should not 
think about bad and sinful things, but about good things, 
as they heard the boy, Jesus, had done, who went into 
the temple, listened, and inquired about the Scripture. 



256 ZEISBURGEB's DIARY. 

Tuesday, 10. Yesterday and to-day some went out 
again hunting. 

Saturday, 14. Three Chippewas came here, one a chief's 
son, the other a captain, to speak with our Indians. Be- 
fore this already we had heard that the chief himself 
would come to tell us something, and, as it seemed, 
these were sent. They said the chief of the land on 
the river was dead [for among the Chippewas each chief, 
and there are many of them, has his own district of 
land which he owns], and his son was now chief, for 
with them the position of chief is hereditary. This one 
had it in mind to say to us towards spring to go over 
the lake again away from his land; that they indeed 
thought not thus, for they loved their grandfather, and 
wished him to remain firmly seated there; they wanted 
to tell us this, so that if it happened, we should already 
know about it, and it would not come upon us unexpectedly. 
They said farther, that to the north-west were bad In- 
dians, who had already killed many white people, whom 
they called Virginians, and to the objection that no Vir- 
ginians lived in this neighborhood, but English only, they 
answered that they called all white people, English and 
Americans, the French only excepted, Virginians; that 
they had already sent a message to the bad Indians to 
cease, but they gave no heed, and if they did not cease they 
would be compelled to fight against them ; that our Indians 
should not go far in that direction, so as not to come to 
harm, but should they hear they had designs against us, 
they would inform us and tell us that we might rather go 
away. Though our Indian brethren spoke much with 
them, they could not so perfectly understand every thing as 
we should have been glad to have them, and as we wanted 
to say something to them, and had something to say, we 
invited them to come again after a few days, and to bring 
with them our neighbor, Mr. Tucker, who knows Chip- 
pewa well, and this they promised to do. They were pres- 
ent at the sermon Sunday the 15th, about which they 
inquired yesterday when they came. They brought with 
them a cask of rum, which they gave to our Indians, ask- 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1786. 267 

ing for corn, this we gave them, the whole town bring- 
ing them a fair supply together, more than they had ex- 
pected, for which they thanked us much and often. When 
they went away we gave them again their cask of rum on 
the way, and this they were also glad to receive. 

Sunday, 15. Edwards preached; David held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 17. Susanna came from the bush, where her 
husband was hunting, and said there were, many Chippe- 
was in the neighborhood. Our people began again to bring 
up all sorts of stories and lies, to make one another afraid, 
saying the Chippewas would do us harm. 

Thursday, 19. The Chippewa chief came here again, as 
he had told us, with three others besides, and the day after, 

Friday, 20, Mr. Tucker also, who understands Chippewa, 
but he said at once that, so far, as they spoke by strings or 
belts, he could not and dared not interpret, for he incurred 
danger. They came together, and the chief first delivered 
a long introductory speech; that their father had invited 
us here, and had arranged with them (the Chippewa chiefs) 
that we should live here on this river, and they had estab- 
lished us here so long to dwell, until there should again be 
peace. When he had spoken thus far he drew out a string 
of wampum, and now we should hear what he had to say ; 
but he was stopped by Tucker, who told Kim he dared not 
interpret such speeches, if they had any such thing to say, 
they must go to the Fort to McKee, and arrange their mat- 
ters there, and thus it ended, and we could hear nothing, 
but it is probable they wanted to tell us to go away from 
here in the spring. Thus Indians dare not once speak to- 
gether and say any thing one to another, except in the 
presence of McKee, for none of us white brethren was 
present; and yet the Indians are a free people, they coun- 
sel together, do and act without control ; and so they went 
away again, having accomplished nothing. 

Sunday, 22. David preached and held the children's 
service. Hecke welder held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 24. A couple of Miugoes came here, who told 
16 



258 zbisberqer's diart. 

ftgaiD war-stories, that in the spring, without fail, an In- 
dian war would break out ; at the same time they said the 
Americans would come to Detroit in the spring. Edwards 
held early service. 

Wednesday, 25. Heckewelder held early service. Sev- 
eral Indian brethren went to Detroit. 

Sunday, 29. Heckewelder preached about good seed in 
the field. To the communicants announcement was made 
of the Lord's supper for next Saturday. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, Feb. 1. A pair of English people, who 
came here yesterday in a sleigh from Detroit, namely, a 
man and a woman, entreated us to marry them. As we 
could not well refuse, there being no clergyman in Detroit, 
and if there was, one could not justly put the people off, 
we had to give our consent, and since they brought from 
Detroit testimonials, and bound themselves to protect us 
from damage, we did it, and Heckewelder married them, 

Thursday, 2, whereupon the next day they went back to 
Detroit. 

Friday, 3. Yesterday and to-day was speaking, to which 
the Saviour gave grace, 

Saturday, 4, and we had thereupon a very blessed com- 
munion, accompanied with his near presence. We were 
very much put to shame, for it had looked as if some 
brethren would have to remain from it, but the Saviour so 
brought it about that no one remained away. Three sis- 
ters, Jacobina, Anna Paulina, and Helena, were candidates, 
to whom it was a great blessing. 

Sunday, 5, After the communion liturgy Br. David 
preached. Heckewelder held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 6. David and Heckewelder went to Detroit, 
whence they, 

Wednesday, 8, came back. They spoke there with the 
new commandant, Maj. Ancrum, and told him that Col. de 
Peyster had settled us with our Indians on the Huron River, 
in the year '82, until there should again be peace. The 
year before, in the spring, we had thought of moving back 
over the lake, but had been advised by Gov. Hay and' 



CLINTON RIVER, 1786. 259 

McKee to wait until autumn, as no3 peace had yet been 
made among the Indians ; this we had done, but in the 
autumn, seeing and hearing that there was no better out- 
look, we had remained, and our departure now depended 
upon what he should advise ; he would best know how 
things looked in the Indian land and how the nations were 
disposed ; if no cause for alarm or danger was at hand, 
we should be glad to settle in our appointed place next 
spring, for we saw we could not stay here, and the Chip- 
pewas would gladly see us away. He answered that at 
present things looked as favorable among the nations as 
ever. The Shawanese, who hitherto had come to no treaty 
with the States, had now consented, and also the other 
nations, and he hoped soon to have good news from them; 
he saw no diflBculty, and no cause for anxiety, why we could 
not go ; if we went he would send in our behalf a message 
to the Indians that they should not molest us. To the 
same purport spoke also Capt. McKee, whom we called 
upon, so that we saw circumstances would arrange them- 
selves if it should be true, for hitherto it has not been 
time. Every one had told us that he was a man hard to 
treat with, but we found him quite otherwise. Moreover, 
Br. David baptized on the 7th, in this city, Elizabeth, 
Nathaniel Williams' child, and Heckewelder one, by name, 
Peter. 

Saturday, 11. Some gentlefolk came from Detroit vis-- 
iting, among others Mr. Dolson, to look at our settlement, 
who has a wish to buy it. 

Sunday, 12. At the sermon were present some of those 
who came yesterday from JDetroit, but these, like those 
here generally, are merely people of the world, who inquire 
neither about religion nor God's service, but are worse than 
heathen. In the afternoon service Br. David baptized 
the little daughter of Br. Jacob Schebosh and his wife 
Christiana, born day before yesterday, on the 10th, with 
the name Elizabeth, at which service also the white people 
were present. Br. Edwards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 13. The Detroiters went back to Detroit. 

Wednesday, 15. The brethren began to make prepara- 



260 zbisbbbgbr's diaet. 

tions for sugar-making, going to their sugar-camp, for the 
weather was beautiful and mild. 

Saturday, 18. Both to-day and yesterday Frenchmen 
came here to buy meat from the Indians. We heard that 
murdering Indians are said to be again in the settlement, 
who are out for murder, and are said to have again killed 
two whites [was false]. So the murderers are said to have 
grown to six, when before they were only three. The 
Chippewa chief had us warned of them. 

Sunday, 19, Heckewelder preached about the sower, 
and David held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 21. We heard from Detroit, that on account 
of a band of Chippewas it was unsafe in that neighbor- 
hood, and that the Governor had issued a proclamation, 
warning all the inhabitants not to go far from the city 
without a guard and arms. We also learned, as was said 
to us, from one McCormick, who came from Pittsburg, 
that there was given to our Indians land on Licking 
creek, which falls into the Muskingum some forty miles 
below Lichtenau, instead of Schonbrunn, Gnadenhiitten, 
and Salem, but how far this story has truth we must wait 
farther to learn. 

Thursday, 23. Frenchmen came here to sell flour and 
apples for all sorts of things, and had a good trade. 

Saturday, 25. Mr. Dolson came from Detroit and also 
•two Frenchmen for the same purpose, remaining here 
over Sunday. An English woman from the settlement 
came here with her child, five months old, and asked for 
its baptism, and Br. David baptized it Sunday, the 26th, 
with the name John. Br. Edwards preached, and David 
held the congregation meeting. This whole week cold 
and snowy weather. 

Tuesday, 28. We ended the month with praise and 
thanks to the Lord, who, during the winter, had done us 
great good, outwardly and inwardly. Thomas' child in 
the bush got the measles. 

Thursday, March 2. Some people had oflfered to buy 
our improvements, in case we got permission from the 
major. We applied to him and asked, and now we had 



CLINTON RIVER, 1786. 261 

news from Detroit that Maj. Ancrum, the present com- 
mander, would come here with Mr. Askin to make us a 
visit. 

Saturday, 4. The major came, with a couple of officers 
and Mr. Askin, in their sleighs. We had prepared for 
them a separate house and room, and furnished them as 
well as we could. They looked about our town to-day, 
visited in the Indian houses and took notice of every 
thing, examined a part of our fields, and especially the 
country, which was the main object of their visit. Our 
town and its situation and the whole neighborhood pleased 
them exceedingly well. They had not thought of finding 
such high and dry land here, and the work we have done 
here in three and a half years was a wonder to them. The 
major and Mr. Askin, each of whom had a grant from 
the king of 2,000 ^cres, wished to have it taken up here 
for them and to pay us and our Indians for our improve- 
ments and work what was fair and right. The major will 
in the spring, as soon as the lake is open, take us all over 
to Cuyahoga in the king's ships. He and all with him 
were exceedingly friendly to us and showed us their good- 
will. The next morning they went back again, very well 
satisfied. 

Sunday, 5. Br. David preached, and afterwards in the 
second service announced to the brethren the Lord's sup- 
per for next Saturday, and Heckewelder held the congre- 
gation meeting. 

Monday, 6. Heckewelder and Schebosh went on busi- 
ness to Detroit to arrange all kinds of things about our 
departure. They returned on the 8th, Heckewelder hav- 
ing arranged with Mr. Askin provisionally, it being agreed 
that we and our Indians shall have 400 dollars for our 
houses and improvements, we whites one half and the In- 
dian brethren the other. Heckewelder baptized on the 
7th Isaac Jones' child, George David, and another. Dr. An- 
tony's, Louisa Dorothy. 

Wednesday, 8. We had, by way of the Shawanese 
towns, letters from Br. Schweinitz (John C. A. de S.) of 
Oct. 12, '85, from Brs. Jungmann and Sensemann, of Oct. 



262 zbisbbbgbk's diary. 

8th, and his son, John Sensemann, of Nov, 1st, from Pitts- 
burg. 

Thursday, 9. The surveyor, Lieut. Frey, came with his 
company to measure off four thousand acres of land, in 
which shall be included all our fields and our town ; of 
this they made the beginning the next day. 

Saturday, 11. We had the holy communion, accom- 
panied by the near presence of the Saviour. Our dear 
Lord blessed us in an extraordinary way. Three sisters, 
Jacobina, Anna Paulina, and Helena, were for the first 
time partakers, and three others, namely, Renatus, the 
Mohican, his wife, Mary Magdalene, and the widow, Eliza- 
beth, looked on for the first time, and this caused great . 
joy with all the brethren and with us. There came again 
four sledges with Frenchmen here, who brought with them 
their wives and children, merely to see (vur place, which is 
now quite the fashion since the major and Mr. Askin have 
been here. 

Sunday, 12. After the communion liturgy, during the 
sermon from the Gospel about the Canaanite woman, were 
present Lieut. Frey and the ship captain, Mr. Anderson. 

Monday, 13. Our Indian brethren, who have already, 
during the winter, laid out and cut through a straight road 
to Detroit, went out to clear the same, so that sleds and 
c&rta can pass through, and to meet a party of road-makers 
whom the major has sent up from below for the same 
purpose, that the road may be ready as soon as may be. 
The sisters all went to the sugar-huts. 

Thursday, 16. The brothers got done road-making. 

Friday, 17. The surveyor, Frey, and Capt. Anderson, 
who have done here all they wished, went back to De- 
troit, measuring, on their way back, the road with chain. 
They have measured the creek, which is still frozen, with 
all its turnings, half way to the lake, of which, as well as 
of the appearance of our town, he has made an accurate 
chart and sketch. 

Sunday, 19. Heckewelder preached ; few of the breth- 
ren were at home, being in their sugar-huts, for the trees 
were freely running. The brethren who have helped 



CLINTON RIVER, 1786. 268 

make the road came home, and it has been found to be 
twenty-three and one-half miles from our town to Detroit, 
straight through the bush. The Indian brethren were 
well paid for the work they have here done. This fore- 
noon the brethren from over the river came here from 
their sugar-huts, on the ice, and in a couple of hours it 
was all open ; they went over in canoes on their return. 

Tuesday, 21. Two Frenchmen came to look at the 
place, sent by Askin and the Governor, for in the future 
they will live here, each one renting a plantation together 
with a house. As we hear, our place will remain a town, 
and those who come here will live together, in this way all 
our houses being used. 

Friday, 24. To-day and yesterday the weather was 
very stormy, and some brethren in the bush, in their 
sugar-camp, experienced the manifest protection of the 
Saviour and the dear angels, for the wind struck down 
many trees, which fell on A. Johanna's sugar-hut, crushed 
it in, and she was in the greatest danger of being struck, 
but suffered no harm. 

Sunday, 26. Br. Edwards preached. Inasmuch as most 
of the brethren were not at home yesterday we celebrated 
to-day yesterday's momentous day (Annunciation), read 
the history, and brought to him our joyful thanks for his 
meritorious holy incarnation, in which all of us, chil- 
dren, young and old, have so great part, and yet enjoy it. 
Thomas' family came here; two children who have had 
the measles have recovered, and they go no farther. 

Monday, 27. We congratulated Sister Sara Heckewel- 
der^ on her birthday, at a love-feast. 

Tuesday, 28. The Indian brethren went to the lake to 
get their canoes into the water. 

Friday, 31. We got news that the Chippewas have 
brought the two murderers to Detroit and surrendered 
them, that thereupon they were held under guard, when 

*Sara Ohneberg had been married to John Heckewelder, July 4, 
1780, by Grube, at Salem. *' It was, doubtless, the first wedding of a 
white couple in the present State of Ohio." De Schweinitz' Life of Zeis- 
berger. p. 478. 



264 zbisbbrgbr's diart. 

one of them, trying to get away, was shot by the watch, 
the other is under guard. 

Sunday, April 2. Early at the break of day Hecke- 
welder and William went to Detroit. Br. David preached 
about the effectual sacrifice of Jesus for our sins. In the 
second service he baptized, with the name Philippina, the 
little daughter of Adolphus and Susanna, born day before 
yesterday. 

Tuesday, 4. Heckewelder came back from Detroit, 
bringing us news that we could celebrate here in quiet the 
holidays, but immediately afterwards we must break up 
here and go to Detroit, where a ship would be ready to 
take us and our Indians to Cuyahoga. 

Wednesday, 5. There came here a couple of strolling 
Germans, who came from the States to Detroit to see the 
country, and they are disposed to settle here. 

Saturday, 8. The brethren got done making sugar. 

Sunday, 9. Br. Edwards preached. Thereupon was a 
service for the communion brethren, and David held the 
congregation meeting. Two white people came here and 
examined the place and fields, wishing to settle here. 

Monday, 10. The brethren went to the lake to get the 
canoes they have made, into the water. 

Wednesday, 12. Speaking with the brethren. People 
from Detroit visited the place ; many wish to move here. 

Thursday, 13. On Maundy-Thursday we read in the 
, evening the history of our Saviour's atonement struggle, 
agony of soul, and bloody sweat on the Mount of Olives, 
and of his being taken prisoner, whereby our hearts were 
melted at our debt of thanks towards him. The com- 
munion brethren had afterwards the washing of feet and 
then the holy sacrament of his body and blood in the 
night of his betrayal. Two sisters, Mary Magdalene and 
Elizabeth, were for the first time partakers, and Ignatius 
and his wife, Christina, were readmitted, he coming 
thereto for the first time since he is here. 

Friday, 14. We passed Easter Friday in contemplation 
of all his sufferings, his bonds and buffets, his crown of 
thorns and scourgings, his countenance spit upon, and 



CLINTON RIVBR, 1786. 265 

what scoff, scorn, and revilings, passed over him in his cru- 
cifixion and martyr-death to the grave, and the reading of 
the story was listened to with moved and melted hearts. 
At his death, falling upon our knees, we read the liturgy, 
brought to him our common thanks for all he had done 
and suffered for us, and as we were in no position to make 
him compensation therefor, we vowed to him that his 
death, passion, and what he suffered for us, should never 
leave our hearts till we saw him face to face. 

Saturday, 15. The whole church had a love-feast, the 
last one here. 

Sunday, 16. Early in the morning we read the Easter 
litany, partly in our chapel and partly in the grave-yard, 
and then a portion of the story of the resurrection was 
read. Heckewelder preached and David held the congre- 
gation meeting. 

Monday, 17. In the evening came Capt. Anderson, whose 
ship .lay at the mouth of the river, which on Tuesday the 
18th was laden with corn our Indians brought, which Mr. 
Askin had bought here. 

Wednesday, 19. We got ready for departure. White 
people were already here, and among them one Cornwall 
(from Connecticut), to whom over night our town and set- 
tlement were given, and who took possession. 

Thursday, 20. After we had early, for the last tim^, as- 
sembled in our chapel, and thanked the Saviour upon our 
knees for all the goodness we had enjoyed from him, and 
farther committed ourselves to his mercy upon the jour- 
ney, we loaded our canoes, and all went away together in 
the afternoon, l^one of us all remained behind, save 
Conner's family, who himself knew not whither to go, nor 
what to do. In the evening we camped at the mouth of 
the River Huron. It was just four years to-day that we 
landed in Detroit, and in truth we could not do otherwise 
than give the Saviour to recognize our thankful hearts for 
all the kindnesses he had shown us, and that he had done 
every thing so well with us. Our Scripture- verse read: 
Casting all your care upon him. He who has chosen us 



266 zeisbbrgbr's diart. 

for himself well knows in what we are lacking,* — a proof 
that he will farther be gracious to us, and that we shaU 
not find it needfiil to be anxious how things will go with 
us in the future. We left Conner's family behind. How 
strong we are ! How many have died, how many been born ! 

Friday, 21. Early in the morning we went into Lake 
St. Clair, and in theafternoon, with a good wind, came to 
the outer end of the settlement, but the wind getting 
strong and the waves running high, we had to lie still 
to-day and all of the 22d. The people in the neighbor- 
hood, French and English, came to visit us, and were 
sorry at our moving away, and would rather we remained. 

Sunday, 23. The strong wind lessening, we started 
early, and at noon came to Detroit with a fleet of twenty- 
two canoes, most of them quite large. Here we were well 
rieceived. Since the ship in which we were to go had to 
be repaired, we must wait some days here. 

Wednesday, 26. Br. David went to Capt. McKce and 
told him our Indians would like to say something to the 
Chippewa chiefs, many of whose people were in the city, 
before they went away, and begged him to give them an 
opportunity for this; this he did, telling the Chippewas to 
keep themselves sober, for their grandfather (i. e, the 
Delaware Indians) had something to say to them and 
wished to.shake hands with them. They came, Thursday 
the 27th, together, and our Indians made a speech to them, 
expressing to them their thankfulness for receiving them 
and allowing them to live near them on their land quietly 
and peacefully more than four years ; they told them they 
were now going back again over the lake to their former 
home, and for confirmation of their speech gave them a 
bunch of some 1,000 wampum. One of the chiefs [they 
were not all present] stood up with a string of wampum 
in his hand, and said : " Grandfather, we love thee and 
see not willingly that thou goest away from us. We bind 
thy legs together that thou canst not go forth, and say to 
thee : * Turn again and abide by the lliver Huron.'" We 

» Collect. 



IN DETROli, 1786. 267 

looked upon this speech as a compliment, for hitherto we 
had ever heard that they would like to see us go away 
again, since our Indians took away their hunt. In the 
evening, however, came another chief from over the river, 
who was not in the council, who said to our Indians that 
they should give no heed to what the drunken Chippewa 
chief had said ; he knew very well that from the heginning 
it was arranged that we should remain there until there 
was again peace ; it was well we were again going over 
the lake and should be out of the way, and he gave us to 
understand they had yet something to settle with their 
father *(i. e., the English) after we were gone. We sent 
back again to the chief his string of wampum. 

It was resolved that one ship should take all of us to 
Cuyahoga, but we saw that one alone could not hold us 
all, and spoke about the matter to Mr. Askin, to whom 
sole charge herein was given by the commandant, who 
ordered that another one should go. All people in De- 
troit showed us their sorrow, not only that we, but also that 
our Indians were leaving them. These left a good repu- 
tation behind them, for all merchants in the city report 
that they have paid all their debts to the last penny, say- 
ing it could well enough be seen that they were an hon- 
orable people and better than all the inhabitants around 
Detroit, who do not like to pay their debts, and add thereto ; 
that this was the fruit of the missionaries' labor. We 
were ourselves glad and thankful to the Saviour that none 
of our Indians remained a penny in debt, having always 
urged upon them to be mindful of this. This was pleas- 
ant. One family, namely, Thomas', who is very poor, but 
rich in children, was somewhat in debt and had nothing to 
pay with, for which he was much perplexed, complaining 
to us of his situation. His wife went walking with the chil- 
dren on the commons near the town, where she found a 
guinea, but did not know whether it was copper or gold 
until she heard from us. Thereupon he paid his debt and 
had still somewhat left, and we were as glad about it as he 
was. 

Friday, 28. After we got our pass from the Major, who 



268 zeisbergbr's diart. 

gave US and oar iDdians provisions for the journey, and 
had thanked him for the good services he had done us, 
we went away at mid-day in the Beaver and Mackina ' 
sloop. At first we had much difficulty in getting off on 
account of the weeds with which we were surrounded, 
and when we were come some seven miles, with a good 
wind, we went aground under all sail, and had two hours' 
work, with the help of the other ship, to get off again. 
It was Capt. Anderson's written order, given in our pres- 
ence, that he and all the ship-people should show them- 
selves friendly to us, and treat us well, and that we should 
inform them how they behaved towards us and our Indians ; 
that the captain should use all forethought and not put 
us in danger, yes, if the wind were strong, rather to lessen 
sail than to frighten the Indians ; in short, as far as lay 
in his power, to land us fortunately in Cuyahoga. In the 
evening we came to anchor at the mouth of the river. The 
captain put all the Indians ashore, for the ship was much 
crowded, where they made them a fire and encamped. A 
man by the name of Hasle, who lives there, and whose 
child Heckewelder baptized, came from the Wyandot 
town which we had gone by. The chief, who knew us, 
and who two days before had come from the treaty with 
the States, sent us word he wished to call upon us in the 
morning before we started, probably to tell us something 
about the treaty, for he had said to Hasle that never had 
so stable and good a peace been made with the Indians as 
was this; this was satisfactory and pleasant for us to hear, 
but he had no sooner seen us than the captain lifted, 

Saturday, 29, anchor early in the morning, and we went 
into the lake, having wind from the side, quite a strong 
wind too, and with few exceptions everybody was sea-sick. 
Yet we came, towards evening, after sailing forty miles* 
to Pudding (Put-in)-Bay, among the islands, when the 
captain came to anchor in water six fathoms deep, for 
from this point he had to change his course, and must 
wait for a suitable wind, and here, moreover, the harbor 
is good and safe protected from all winds. Here we stayed 
till May [28d], for the captain would not venture to run 



LAKB BBIB ISLANDS, 1786. 269 

out unless he had a good wind, it being dangerous to come 
on the coast except with a west or south-west wind. We 
landed on the island everyday, and remained till evening, 
when we again went aboard ship. Two nights, also, we 
encamped on land, for both ships were much crowded, 
and if we passed the night on shipboard, half of us had 
to sleep on deck, and it was well the weather was good 
and not cold. In the evening, whene\^r it was possible, 
we had our services. The Indians shot ducks and pig- 
eons, and found wild potatoes and onions in abundance. 
The captain and ship's crew fished, and got fish enough 
for us and everybody. The island is good and fertile, 
three miles long by two wide. South of it, about a mile 
off, is another much larger, indeed there are many islands 
here in the midst of the lake. There is much red cedar 
timber here, much of which is taken to Detroit for ship- 
building. The bank round about the island is quite a 
high bank, like a fortification, which th« sea- waves have 
thrown up and formed. Our Indians started up deer, but 
had no sight of them. There are many raccoons, but no 
other game. 

May, 5. The wind changed to the north-west and blew 
hard. We were all ashore. The ships raised anchor, and 
went to the east side of the island, out of the wind. Some 
Indians wept, saying they were abandoned and left upon 
the island, and that would be fulfilled which the savages 
had always predicted, but we explained to them, and 
changed our camp to the other side of the island, where 
the ships lay. 

Saturday, 6. Early, about two o'clock, we had a thun- 
der-storm from the south. At break of day we were or- 
dered to come aboard, but hardly was the first boat-load 
aboard ship, when the wind sprang around to the north- 
west, and it came on to blow hard. The ship nearest 
land, the Beaver, was in danger of being driven on the 
rocks, she was so near land ; she had to let her anchor go, 
and by good luck she got by the rocks, and came to 
anchor on the east side. 

Friday, 12. We encamped on the east side. Towards 



270 zbisbbrgeb's diart. 

evening, when the wind went down, the captain got up 
his anchor again. Some of our Indian brethren began to 
be short of provisions. The 13th and 14th we encamped 
on the island. 

Monday, 16. Early in the morning we saw three ships 
lying at anchor. The sloop, Felicity, from Detroit, had 
come in during the night, on her way to Fort Erie. 

Wednesday, 17.' The Felicity sailed with a north-west 
wind for Fort Erie. She had the Chippewa murderer 
aboard in irons;- some of our Indians were there aboard 
and saw him. We remained at anchor, for the wind was 
not good for us, since it bore down directly upon the coast 
of Cuyahoga, making a high sea, so that the captain could 
not run in, for there is a sand-bank at the mouth of the 
river, and ships must have still water, if they want to get 
in, otherwise they are in danger of being wrecked on the 
bar, or we must then run to the north shore. 

Thursday, 18. The wind was for a while favorable, but 
varied so much as to run all around the compass. Some 
Indians talked of making canoes to go to the nearest land 
south, and to leave the ship, bat this wouldlhave been 
very venturesome, for, if a storm had arisen on the lakes, 
they would all have perished. 

Friday, 19. Since the captain perceived the wind was 
changing to the south, we all had to go aboard in the aft- 
ernoon. He made every preparation to put out into the 
lake, hoisted the boat on deck, and ran down to the ex- 
treme east end of the island, and came to anchor. Here 
we lay till two o'clock, and as the wind held, he ran out 
to sea, Saturday, the 20th. But, at ten o'clock, when we 
had come half way to Cuyahoga and saw the coast before 
us, the wind again veered to the east, and was very strong 
and the sea high, and almost everybody was sea-sick. The 
captain could do no better than turn about and seek our 
former haven. He signaled the Mackina, and we turned 
about, and came in the afternoon, fortunately, to our 
island again, where the brethren refreshed themselves. 

Sunday, 21. We white brethren landed, and in the 



LAEB EBIE ISLANDS, 1786. 271 

evening went aboard again. We gave of our corn to the 
needy. 

Monday, 22. In the night it blew very hard. The cap- 
tain had his second anchor ready to let go should need 
require it. 

Tuesday, 23. We had all to go aboard early. Both 
ships ran towards another island lying to the south, oppo- 
site the first, into a better harbor, where no wind could 
get at them, come from what quarter it might. Here they 
fastened the ships to the trees, so that we could go from 
the ship ashore, for the bank is quite steep and the water 
deep. Here the Indians got a new place to hunt, for they 
had already quite exhausted the game on the other island, 
and there was little more to be had, though there is no 
other game here than raccoons and pigeons. This island 
is as large again as the former. The harbor is called 
Hope's Cove, for the ship, Hope, passed the winter here, 
being frozen in. Our crew also began to run short of pro- 
visions, although till now they have caught fish for them- 
selves and for us, if only they could. Here we built us 
huts, and thus we have always something to do. In camp 
we had our service. 

Wednesday, 24. On Ascension Day we were comforted 
with the promise of our dear Lord that he would ever be 
with us, by sea and by land, also upon the islands in the 
midst of the lake. In our service we were made assured 
and aware of this. 

Friday, 26. Wind and weather continued always as 
before — east wind, with rain. Our Indians got many fish 
and raccoons and shot ducks. To-day they saw Rocky 
Point, not far from Sandusky, very 'plainly over against 
this island. Ginseng root grows here in abundance, as if 
planted. 

Saturday, 27. Early in the morning the wind was 
south-east. The captain prepared to run out, but it turned 
back again to the east, and we stayed still. 

Sunday, 28. In the forenoon a boat came from Detroit, 
with three men, sent out to hunt us up, since the ships 
which they had long expected back stayed out so long, and 



272 ebisbbrgbr's diart. 

they conjectured they must have met with trouble. The 
Beaver, the larger ship, got orders to go back to Detroit, 
and the sloop, Mackina, to take us in two trips to Cuya- 
hoga. This made us very uneasy, for in this way we saw 
nothing else before us than to use up the whole summer 
here on the lake in making our journey, and where should 
we get any thing to eat for so many people ? Still it was 
well that we got some few supplies sent on with us, but 
what were they among so many, for we had already sup- 
ported our Indian brethren a week from our own stock, 
and hoped day after day for relief. We took counsel with 
both captains, for the reason of the order they had now 
received was not evident to us, and proposed to them that 
the Mackina in two trips should take us to the Sandusky 
shore, and should then go to Cuyahoga with the baggage 
as soon as the wind was favorable. This the captains not 
only approved, but also held for the best. Both ships were 
to-day unloaded, the Beaver for her return and the Mack- 
ina in order to take the people to Sandusky. 

Monday, 29. Early at daybreak the Beaver was towed 
out of the harbor, and then got under sail for Detroit 
She belongs to the North-West Trading Company, and is 
not a royal ship, on which account she was to go back and 
without delay to Michiliraackinac. The captain had ex- 
pressed his sorrow to us that he could not take us to Cuy- 
ahoga. In the afternoon Br. David and his wife, with the 
greater part of the Indian brethren, went aboard the Mack- 
ina and sailed away. Br. Heckewelder and his wife and 
Br. Edwards remained with the rest on the island till the 
ship came back to take them. We sailed around the south 
side of the island. The captain hoped with the wind to 
reach Sandusky, but it was impossible. We were forced 
to cast anchor at the point of the island, and since in the 
evening the wind got too strong, and he did not consider 
it advisable to lie at anchor in the open lake, we had to nin 
a piece of the way back below the island out of the wind, 
where we lay till morning. 

Tuesday, 30. The wind had gone down, and it was 
very calm, but contrary. The captain saw no possibility 



LANDING NEAR SANDUSKY, 1786. "* 278 

of coming to Sandusky with the wind, and wanted to rtin 
back again to the harbor. We begged him to set us 
ashore on the nearest land opposite us, which he did at 
our request, holding towards the land, and as the wind 
was very weak the sisters and brothers took the paddles, 
a store of which they had made on the island, and towed 
^the ship to the land. By mid-day we were all landed, and 
the captain turned straightway back to get the rest. 
Hardly had we encamped when ten Tawas, out hunting, 
came to us, who were much amazed to meet such a num- 
ber of people in a place where far and wide was no way 
nor road. We told them our situation, and pointed out 
to them our ship, which could yet be plainly seen, that had 
brought us hither. We gave them food, and they shared 
their meat with us and showed us also how to steer through 
the bush to Sandusky, for near the lake or strand we can- 
not get along. We learned that it was some sixteen 
miles to the mouth of the Sandusty. In the evening wo 
had our service and consideration of the Scripture-verse : 
The Lord shall increase you more and more, you and your 
children. We still saw our ship at anchor near a little 
island. Here those who came after took more fish than 
they wanted or could bring with them. The water 
swarmed with fish, so that with a sharp stake we could 
not strike without hitting some. 

Wednesday, 31. We made up our bundles early and 
prepared for departure. Each one had to carry his full 
burden, for we had to provide ourselves for two weeks, as 
we did not know when the ship would get to us. Br. 
David and Susanna, as well as the others, moved off. 
Samuel went ahead and'was pilot. The hindmost had the 
easiest time, for they found a beaten way before them. At 
noon we came to a deep, swampy creek, and as there was 
no chance to make a canoe, all had to get wet up to the 
arms and take their bundles on their heads, that they 
might not be wet. David and Susanna were carried over 
by four men upon a litter, hastily made. In the evening, 
as we were getting our camp ready, a deer was shot and 
18 



274 zeisbergbr's durit. 

distribatcd about the camp. Though the journey was 
hard and the brethren weary, yet were they cheerful and 
pleased to be again on firm laud and in their element. 

Thursday, June 1. Early in the morning we soon came to 
Sandusky Bay, which we bad to cross. It is quite wide 
[a mile], and then we had to lie still, the wind being 
strong and the waves very high. Many French live here 
about the bay and on the islands in the bay, to whom Br. 
David went, to see if they could put us over, but they had 
neither boats nor canoes suitable for this, none in which 
more than two or three persons could go, and we had to 
turn to the Ottawas, who lived on the lake, who were 
willing to lend us their canoes, in part bark canoes, for 

pay. 

Friday, 2. We had still to stay in camp here, the wind 
blowing from the east straight into the bay, and the waves 
running very high. In the forenoon Abraham came with 
two families after us, and joined our party. Heckewelder, 
with the rest, came by water, in bark canoes, which they 
made, as soon as wind and weather were favorable. 
Brs. Schebosh and Edwards, with the Indian brethren, 
Cornelius, the blind Ephraim, and the aged Beata, re- 
mained on the ship, being unable to go by land, and came 
to us in Cuyahoga with the baggage. To-day and yester- 
day we had many visits from Ottawas, who live just by us. 
In the evening they had a dance, and when none of our 
Indians went to the dance, at the end of it they came out 
into our camp, seeking to lead astray our women. Some 
came to Br. David and said to him they would like to have 
•some of our women. He told them, for one understood 
Delaware very well, that they must know that our Indians 
no longer lived in the heathenish way they did ; that they 
should not trouble themselves about them, that we would 
not grant them their wish, whereupon they went away. 
In the evening we had our service and consideration of 
the Scripture- verse: For thou hast delivered my soul from 
death, mine eyes from tears, and my feet from falling. 

Saturday, 3. At daybreak we got ready, for the wind 
had somewhat gone down, and after we had gone full three 



JOURNEY TO THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 275 

miles upon a point of land, on both sides of which was the 
lake, we crossed over in the little canoes, which had to 
make several trips, till at eight o'clock we had all got 
over. We went then the whole day along the lake shore 
in the sand, until in the afternoon we came to the Pett- 
quottiug,^ a great creek, by which Indians live. Here we 
asked the Chippewas, who lay here, to set us over, who 
would have us encamp with them, for they wanted to put 
us over the next morning. Meanwhile Samuel and three 
other brethren had swum over, and gone to a French 
trader, a mile up the creek, who lent us his batteau, in 
which we very soon got over, and then encamped in the 
first suitable place. Br. David went to the trader to see if 
he could get a horse for Susanna, but he was not himself 
at home, but only his servants, and so he got none. 

Sunday, 4. We lay still and celebrated Whitsuntide. 
Strange Indians from the Mousey town, one or two miles 
from us, attended the sermon, many, friends of our Indians 
who were visiting us. Here we heard that William had 
been here, who with several others had come by land from 
Detroit, and now came here from Cuyahoga to see if he 
could learn any thing about us. The Indians told them 
lies enough, saying to them they had seen a ship on the 
lake that had lost her masts, and that they saw her go 
down, and it must have been we. William, we heard fur- 
ther, had gone back again hunting. In the evening Heck- 
ewelder came to us with the rest by water, so that we were 
now all together. We heard cannon fired on our island. 

Monday, 5. We set out again, some by water, and Br. 
David, with those who went by land, made a good day's 
journey; they had to pass many creeks, over which we 
were carried, going to-day for the most part along the 
strand, and we came at night to where the steep rocks over- 
hang the lake, on which heights we encamped. 

Tuesday, 6. Br. David hired a horse from an Indian for 
a good price, that we should have had yesterday at Pett- 

^The Huron River, 0.» where two years later, near the present ^iian, 
Erie Co., our Indians settled. 



276 zeisberger's diart. 

qnottingybut it did not come, 80 that Susanna, who thus far 
has had to go afoot the whole way through swamp and 
water, could better get along, though even on horseback it 
was often very hard travelling through the dense bush. We 
went over a very deep creek,^ where the canoes helped over 
those who were going by land, and where also Chippewas 
lay. We encamped here and the Indians went out hunt- 
ing, but brought back only some wild turkeys. We saw 
our Mackina far out in the lake making for Cuyahoga, and 
knew her, and they also saw our white tents. We wished 
her good luck. Samuel, who went yesterday to Cuyahoga 
to see if he could find any of our people or whites, came 
back, having met no one. 

Wednesday, 7. Hitherto for the most part we have 
travelled along the strand, but now that the steep rocks 
overhang the lake, we went above on the height along the 
lake, and saw with great amazement and not without awe 
the great and wonderful works of the Creator. For the 
rocks stand in part perpendicular and smooth, like a wall, 
straight upon the lake, where from above is a view down 
into the depths of the lake, so that one grows giddy as he 
looks. In part they are undermined, and so little black 
bays run up into the land, and if these were not here they 
(the undermined places) could not be seen from the land, 
but only from the lake. On the rocks are streaks of dif- 
ferent colors, in a line, as if made by the hand of man by 
a cord, white, red, blue, black, yellow, etc. If now the 
wind blows from the lake toward the rocks, no transport 
or canoe can be saved, but must bedashed to pieces. They 
must, therefore, wait for wind and weather suitable for 
getting by. It was well for us that wind and weather were 
favorable, especially for them who went by water. Those 
on land had a bad road to-day all day, long, wading 
through swamp and water. We passed another large, deep 
creek, where without canoes we could not have got over, 
and encamped upon the rocky height. Heckewelder, with 

^ Perhaps Vermillioii River. 



JOURNEY TO THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 277 

some others, was ahead of us and Thomas, who came by 
water with us. 

Thursday, 8. As the horses could not be found, Su- 
sanna had a^ain to go afoot till noon, when we came over 
the last great creek, and after that had quite a good, dry 
road. Now affain, after four years, we saw mountains 
and had the pleasure of going over them. We came in 
the afternoon to Cuyahoga, where we found Heckcwelder, 
who this morning at daybreak had passed the last cliff 
with good lack some nine miles from here, where in a 
storm or even in a strong wind no cat could save herself, 
and where in the last war Bradstreet ^ with his army was 
wrecked and many people left in the lake. Joshua, who 
last evening came upon Chippewa Indians, who also wished 
to go on, and invited him to go with them, did so. These, 
when they came to thi§ dangerous place, offered and strewed 
tobacco about in the water, so as to get by successfully, 
and this is always their custom. Heckewelder had hardly 
got into the river this morning, when a wind sprung up 
and a canoe which lagged behind came to grief from the 
rocks and had to run ashore. It was broken up, but all 
others were rescued. Our Mackina day before yesterday 
had already arrived in good, calm weather, at the mouth 
of the river, which was great good luck, for when they 
sounded and found on the bar not more than three feet 
of water, there was no possibility of getting in. The 
channel was stopped up, and where last ycaf this same 
sloop came in, having eight feet of water, there is this 
year dry land, or a heap of sand thrown up by the lake. 
The captain was on the point of turning back to Detroit 
without landing the baggage, but was finally pereuaded 
by the words of Brs. Schebosh and Edwards to try it, and 
thus with much trouble, from the open lake, for it was a 

^Col. John Bradstreet, in 1764, returning from his expedition against 
Detroit and other French posts, canje to trouble here. 

*'As the boats of the army were opposite the iron-bound precipices 
west of Cuyahoga, a storm descended upon them, destroying several, 
and throwing the whole into confusion. For three days the tempest 
raged unceasingly." Tayler's Hist, of Ohio, p. 144. 



278 zbisbbrobr's diart. 

good mile from land, they brought every thing ashore at 
last. Had it not been calm, it could not hare been done. 
The sloop had to put back into the lake. After she was 
unloaded and lightened she made another trial and came 
into the harbor all right, though with trouble enough, that 
she might be out of dauber from a storm, l^ow it became 
somewhat clear to us why we had to stay so long on the 
island, and could not get away until at last things so fell 
out that we had to make quite a diflFerent tour, for both 
ships and wo too would have come to grief or we should 
all have had to put back to Detroit. Last year the cap- 
tain came in here with this same sloop, and had eight feet 
of water on the bar, where now are only three feet. We 
could not but be thankful to the Saviour that all had 
gone well with us, that we like children were carefully 
watched over here on earth. 

Friday, 9. Our Indians went out hunting and came 
upon deer and elk enough, but none brought any thing 
back, though we much needed something, and many had 
nothing left to eat. We had good hope of finding white 
people here, who could have helped us with provisions, 
but when we sought we found no one; there was a house 
stored with flour, intended for Detroit, but there was no 
one with it, and we knew not what to think. We resolved 
for the first thing to make canoes, most of them of bark, 
and as soon as possible to get away from here and to go 
up the creejc to find out how far wo could go, and if we 
should come upon old fields, to consider whether we should 
plant something. Thomas with his family who was behind, 
and whom the storm fell upon, gave up his canoe and 
came here by land. We then on the 10th all set about 
making canoesj To-day a deer came into camp, which 
was divided among us all. 

Sunday, 11. As soon as day broke we helped the 
Mackina out of the river and brought her fortunately 
over the bar, thopgh she often stuck on the sand, and we 
left her a mile from shore out of all danger, when she got 
under sail; this was the captain's greatest trouble, and he 
often said he feared he would have to give up the ship. 



ON TfiTB GUTAHOGA, 1786. 279 

Wd were ourselveB right glad and thankful to tho Saviour 
that all had passed off so well and without damage. Hd 
could not permit the Detroiters to suffer any loss or harm 
on our account It rained all day to-day very hard, as it 
has every day since we got here. We are also very thank* 
ful to the Saviour for* the fine weather he gave us on our 
journey since we left the island. 

Monday, 12. Our people made canoes. Hunger begind 
to fall sharply upon us. May the Saviour soon help* us 
out of our need ! Chippewas came to us, who have been 
hunting along the lake ; they went and took away secretly 
many horse-loads of flour from that stored in the house 
above us. No one of our people took any of it, though 
they have much want and suffer hunger. 

Tuesday, 13. Wrote to Bethlehem by Schebosh, who 
is going to Pittsburg, and on the 14th to Pittsburg to 
Duncan and Gibson. 

Thursday, 15. Heckewelder made a beginning, and set 
ont with several families that had canoes, and on the 16th 
Br. David started with a party, and on the 17th overtook 
the former. The first day we had still water, and good 
travelling, but the second day bad, for the creek was full 
of falls, and the further we went, the worse it was. Br. 
Edwards remained behind with the last to depart. 

Sunday, 18. We came to an old Ottawa town, where 
we stopped to examine the neighborhood. We considered 
what would be best for us, and found that we and our In- 
dians could not hold out to keep up our journey as we had 
thought, namely, to come to Thuppekiink, where we 
had thought of planting yet. We saw that we should yet 
have several day's labor, that our people had nothing to 
eat, and we dared not then think of planting. We re- 
solved, therefore, to stay here this summer, when our mat* 
ters would become clearer, for at present we are confused, 
and know not rightly how things are with us. We laid 
out our camp upon the east side of the creek, upon a 
height, and the day after, 

Monday, 19, we sowed the land on the west side, where 
we wished to plant, and found good and, in part, quite 



280 zbisbbrger's diart. 

clear land tor this purpose, only it was very wild, the weeds 
standing as high as a man, which we had to cut down, 
thus having much trouble land labor. 

Tuesday, 20. All our Indian brethren came here, and 
we were now all together. All were busy building them- 
selves huts hastily, for it had rained ev^ry day since we 
broke up from the lake, and they began at the same time 
to clear the land and to plant. In the evening we had a 
service for praising and thanking the Lord for all his good- 
ness in this new place. 

Wednesday, 21. White people came through with a 
hundred pack-horses laden with corn and provisions, from 
Pittsburg, on their way to the mouth of the river, from 
whom we managed to buy some flour, and they told us they 
should continue the whole summer to bring on provisions 
for Detroit, and we could thus get all we wanted. They 
asked for a couple of Indians for a couple of days, to find 
out for them the way to the lake, and these were given 
them. 

Saturday, 24. We were, for the most part, done with 
planting, as much as we could do at this time. The In- 
dians were quite lucky hunting, shot deer and bears; they 
needed them too, and got them in the nick of time. 

Sunday, 25. Wrote to Bethlehem by the pack-horse 
men who came back through here. Br. Heckewelder held 
service. Some Indians also went to Pittsburg to buy cows 
and drive them here. 

Monday, 26. Weschnasch out hunting came through 
here, remaining over night, and thus many lies were spread 
among our people, among others, that the Cherokees 
wanted to come and kill us, likewise on account of our 
moving to the Muskingum, yet many Indians were 
against it. 

Wednesday, 28. A white man, one of the pack-horse 
men, who got lost while looking for horses, and had wan- 
dered about three days and nights, came at last to us. We 
gave him to eat and provisions for his journey, whereupon 
he went to Pittsburg. He could not say enough as to how 
many bears he had found in the wild-cherry trees, the 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786. 281 

cherries being now ripe, two and three in one tree, and our 
Indians resolved to go at once for them. 

Friday, 30. We early learned a sad circumstance, 
Thomas, who was scalped (at Gnadenhiitten, March 8, 
1782), went down the creek fishing, day before yesterday, 
and when he remained out over night, it was supposed he 
had gone down to the lake. This morning Jacob went down 
the creek, where he shot a deer, and found his canoe, 
which had floated down, but not him. But when search 
was made, he was found dead in the water. Since ho was 
scalped, he has often had tits, and this was doubtless the 
cause of his death, for he was one of the best swimmers. 
He came from the Shawanese towns to us on the Huron 
River, loved the brothers, and wished not to remain 
among the savages; this he often said to Br. David, that 
he would like to be with us. He was buried here the 
next day. Abraham, with others, who wished to go to 
Pettquotting tcJ get corn, and for some days, from stormy 
weather, lay by the lake, waiting for good weather, came 
back again, having accomplished nothing, and with him 
two white people from Detroit, on their way to Pittsburg, 
who remained with us over night. We heard from them 
that many white people lived in our town on the Huron 
River, English and French, but that it was a perfect nest 
of drunkards. 

Saturday, July, 1. All our Indian brethren went off on 
the bear-hunt. A party of Chippewas, among whom was 
a chief, came up the creek, and encamped near by us^ 
They came here from a hundred miles beyond Michili- 
mackinac, and intended going to Pittsburg ; they were or- 
derly and friendly. 

Sunday, 2. I^aac Williams came with an English- 
man and a Frenchman from Sandusky, in order to go to 
Pittsburg with the next pack-horses, for which he would 
wait here. He had heard that we came over the lake 
and passed by Sandusky, and had wished to see some one of 
us, to give us a little news, that we might act accordingly, 
and not come to harm and into difficulties, for he was 
troubled about us, lest we might continue our march to 



282 zbisbbrqbr'b diart. 

the Muskingnm, and it would not be well for us ijo to do. 
He had heard among the Indians that they had spoken 
much against our moving there, since it was not yet time, 
and since even this last May, in Thiippekiink, traders have 
been plundered and murdered. We thought not a little 
about this, as we lay on our island in the lake, what might 
be the reason that we could not go forward;* we believed 
the Saviour, whose own we are, who certainly thinks of 
us, and to whom it is not a matter of indiflFerence how 
things go with us, must have his own reasons for this, 
and 80 it was; this we saw and felt afterwards. Had our 
passage in the ship been ordinarily good and quick, we 
should certainly have gone straight to the massacre on the 
Muskingum, and have had a bad welcome, but, through 
our long voyage, our time was so used up, that, for this 
reason, with other circumstances added thereto, we had 
to give up this plan, and we resolved to pass the summer 
here, which was certainly for the time being best and 
safest for us. The Indians, as it seems, are not opposed 
to our going again to our towns, only they say it is not 
yet time, since there is yet no thorough peace among them, 
and many, if not the most, still await a new war. They 
are not opposed to, as far as we hear, but are quite in 
favor of, our remaining here, and no one will put any 
thing in our way. We are here so out of the way that no 
Indians come here except those who are out hunting, or 
those who wish to visit us. 

Monday, 3. Br. Schebosh came back from Pittsburg 
with Andrew, his companion, bringing orders from Messrs. 
Duncan & Wilson, to their agent at the mouth of the 
creek, to let us have every thing we needed on credit, or 
for cash, on which account, in all probability, he had gone 
there. He brought us the packet of letters, which Mr. 
Duncan, who in the winter was in Detroit, had forgotten, 
and also the Scripture- verses for this year. To be sure, 
the letters were partly two years old, and partly of last 
year, but to us they were new, pleasant, and cheering. 
We had news, however, that a packet for us had gone to 
Detroit, which Isaac Williams would have liked to stop in 



ON THE cxnrAHOGA, 1786. 288 

Sandusky and send to us, but could not ; we were sorry 
for this, for they may readily be lost. They could not 
have come to Duncan or Wilson, or we should certainly 
have had them. 

Tuesday, 4. We sent a canoe down to the lake with 
Duncan's order to his agent. The next day they came 
back, bringing first ten sacks of flour for the Indians, 
charged against Mr. Askin's bill of exchange for two hun- 
dred dollars, so that the Indians now have something to 
eat. 

Thursday, 6. The flour was divided among the breth- 
ren. Peter, Renatus, and those who had come with them 
from Detroit with the horses by land, and had staid for 
some time hunting in Thuppekiink, came to us. They 
had heard of our arrival here from two Indians, who had 
come hither with us from Pettquotting, and made their 
way to us. They knew of the massacre which had taken 
place there, not far from them. 

Friday, 7. William went to the fort to get provisions 
there with his horses. 

Saturday, 8. This week our Indian brethren were busy 
building, and the sisters in the fields. We hold our serv- 
ices in the open air when the weather is good. 

Sunday, 9. We kept Sunday quietly for the most part, 
and enjoyed the rest we need through our heavy and hard 
labor. Had service. 

Monday, 10. Goschachgiink Delawares came here from 
the Shawanese towns, from whom we heard that the In- 
dians did not yet know where we remained, that they had 
heard of our sailing away from Detroit, but since, after so 
long a time, they could hear nothing of us, they believed 
we had all gone to the bottom, that, at last, they learned 
from the Ottawas that two ships had foundered on the 
lake, from which all the Indians inferred that it must have 
been we ; that they finally heard we had passed Sandusky, 
but nothing further as to where we had come and re- 
mained, but that all the Indians wished us not to go to 
the Muskingum for the time being, but to remain in Cuy- 
ahoga, since there was yet no stable peace. From this we 



284 zeisbergeb's diabt. 

perceive it will be pleasant for all the IndiaDS that we 
stay here. A trader from the States, whose friends per- 
ished on the Muskingum, came here through the Shawa- 
nese towns on his way to Pittsburg, whom the Cherokees 
and Mingoes are on the track of, and in that way we may 
have trouble from them. 

Thursday, 18. I wrote by Isaac Williams, who went to 
Pittsburg, to the commandant there. Col. Hermann,* tell- 
ing him our arrival, and, at the same time, our want of 
food, and recommending us to his protection, since we arc 
now again come into this land. 

Saturday, 15. Now comes again all the usual trouble, 
with which hitherto we have had to contend in the Indian 
laud, though, during the few years we were at the north 
side of the lake, we had none of it, until now that we 
are come here again, namely, that the savages, friends of 
our Indians, come and seduce weak, often confused, minds, 
and lead them from the church, as we had, to-day, an ex- 
ample. Strange Indians came and enticed away from her 
husband a woman with her children, for she was poor 
here, had nothing to eat, and was starving; they told her 
that if she would go with them, she would want for noth- 
ing. Her husband, who could very well have taken away 
the children, from vexation gave them all up and let them 
go. He repented of this afterwards, and wished to have 
back, at least, his children. We gave him two courage- 
ous brothers, and they went the next day, 

Sunday, 16, to get them. They brought her in on the 
17th, and she was glad to be back again. It has happened 
to us in several cases that those who have been seduced 
from the church and again brought back, have become 
afterwards dear and firm brethren. Withstand the devil 
and he flees from you. David held service in Indian. 
15th (marginal note) Capt. Qodrey, who came in the 
Mackina to the mouth of the creek, inquired about our 
condition through one of his sailors, who came here and 

^Thus plainly written in the originali but probably Qen'l Harmar is 
meant. 



ON THE CUYAHOaA, 1786. 285 

stayed over night. After she left us and went away, she 
was driven from her course to Fort Erie. 

Monday, 17. There came strange Monsey Indians here 
for a visit. They came firet upon Br. David quite alone 
on his plantation. He sat down with them, and they 
asked him many questions; for example, whether we 
should move to Thuppckiink, and how many white breth- 
ren there were, and whether David was there, of whom 
they [must have heard, though they did not know him. 
These were Indians who, during the war, had been in 
Niagara, and did not know us. They went into town, or 
rather into camp, and asked the Indian brothers to preach 
to them and tell them about the Saviour, saying they had 
never heard about this. This was done, and the next day 
they went back to the lake, whence they had come. 18th. 
The Indian bfother, Samuel, with others, came back from 
Pittsburg. We got letters from Br. Matthew,* of Litiz, 
of Sept., 1783. They also brought with them one of our 
Indians, Michael by name, from his waudering. They 
met him in the bush. He was glad, indeed, to see us, and 
at once asked permission to live with us, and this was 
granted.]* 

Thursday, 20. Pack-horses came from Pittsburg with 
flour. We got for ourselves and our Indians nineteen 
casks. Michael spoke with Br. David, asking to be re- 
ceived again, and we cheerfully complied with his request. 
We laborers had a conference about arrangements for our 
place of abode, and consulted the Saviour by lot, and we 
had for the time being to come to no conclusion, yet we 
laid out a road from the town, that in building we might 
make no waste. 

Friday, 21. Most of the brethren went out elk-hunting. 

Sunday, 23. Br. David preached from Romans, vi, 3 : 
Know ye not that so many of us as were baptized into 
Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death ? Pack-horse 
men went back, by whom we sent letters to Bethlehem 

^ The venerable Bishop Hehl. 

* Passage in brackets is from Beth. MS. 



286 zeisbbbqbr's diart. 

and Litiz. They eDcamped not far from us, and had stolen 
from them last night by the Indians nine horses. 

Monday, 24. Done with hilling the corn, which stands 
very fine. 

Tuesday, 25. Indian brothers came from the hunt, hav- 
ing shot four elk and five deer. Susanna, who went away 
yesterday, came back to-day. All sowed turnips and 
many. We have service every evening, when it does not 
rain. 

Friday, 28. William came from the Fort. We had 
hoped for letters, but he brought none, and our things 
are still there, too. 

Saturday, 29. Several brethren went by water to Pet- 
quotting, others to Sandusky to get corn ; others again oflT 
hunting, and so must strive to get their families through. 
Heckeweldcr held service. Cathrine went to her hus- 
band. 

Sunday, 80. David preached, and as it rained in the 
afternoon there was no other meeting. We read mean- 
time the Bethlehem Diary. 

Monday, 31. Several went away hunting. The Chip- 
pewa chief here in our neighborhood, with some women 
and children, visits us daily to get something to eat, for 
all their men have gone to Pittsburg, and they who are 
here^have nothing to eat and we have little ourselves, but 
when they come we always give them something to eat. 
We ended the month with consideration of our Scripture- 
veree. 

Tuesday, Aug. 1. There was a thunder-storm. 

Wednesday, 2. Samuel and several others went out 
hunting and to boil salt, their families with them. Very 
few remained at home. A German from Redstone (Fay- 
ette Co., Pa.) came here, who has been for some time in 
Detroit and last in Sandusky. He had fever and noth- 
ing to eat. He will wait here for a chance to go to Pitts- 
burg. David held service in the evening. 

Thursday, 3. Mr. Neal, from the mouth of the river, 
came here. He complained that the Indians who come 
here are very insolent and he feared they might kill him. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 287 

On this accouDt he will not stay there longer, but go back 
to Pittsburg with the pack-horses the next trip. 

Friday, 4. The Chippewas came, who have been to 
Pittsburg, leaving their wives and children here. They 
had nothing but good news to give. The most noteworthy 
was that the Chippewas, Ottawas, Potawatomies, Wyan. 
dots, and Delaware nation have concluded a stable peace 
with the Americans, only two who *did not wish it being ex- 
cluded, the Shawanese and Cherokees. The Six Nations, 
however, wanted to put them in and force them to agree. 

Saturday, 5. Several Chippewas were present at our 
evening service, quite devout, but it is a pity we cannot 
speak directly to them. There are many among them who 
understand Shawano, and one can speak with them in case 
of need, but this is not enough. They are much better 
Indians to get along with than the Delawarcs, Wyandots, 
and Tawas, also not so thievish, nor are they plunderers. 

Sunday, 6. Heckewelder preached and David held the 
congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse. The Chip- 
pewas, who have been encamped here as long as we, went 
away to-day down to the lake. We read together the 
Bethlehem Diary. 

Monday, 7. Wittigo, with two white people and some 
Wyandots from Sandusky Bay, went through here on their 
way to Fort Pitt. 

Tuesday, 8. The sick German, who came here sick six 
days ago, and now is better, started for Fort Pitt. 

Wednesday, 9. Joshua came from the Fort. The Pitts- 
burgers, as we hear, have great pity for us, and consider 
together how they can help us and our Indians in our fam- 
ine until orders come from Congress, which would delay 
too long if they should now first make the announcement 
there. They spoke with Joshua about this, and must 
gladly help us. Our brethren suffer great hunger; this 
can be seen in their faces, and this depresses their spirits 
much. We cannot but pity them, but we cannot help 
them, for we have nothing ourselves. An Indian said to 
Jjim we should be called away from here, and then all the 
white brethren be sent away home, except David, who 



288 zbisbbrgbr's diabt. 

would remain ; be belonged to tbe Monsej nation, wbo 
adopted bim. 

Thursday, 10, and Friday, 11. There was speaking in 
reference to the Lord's supper. To our comfort and 
heartfelt thankfulness to the Saviour, we found the 
brethren cheerful and content, with a hearty longing for 
Jesus' body and blood in the holy sacrament, which now 
we have not had for nearly five months, since Easter on 
the Huron River, and since we have been here, from the 
want of a chapel, for the Indian brethren have enough to 
do to support and maintain their families by hunting, and 
they cannot be expected to work until we have something 
to eat from our plantations. 

Saturday, 12. Contrary to our expectations, many 
bi'ethren were at home who had been to Pettquotting 
for corn, whence indeed they brought some, though not 
much. We had thereupon, upon the 13th, a very blessed 
communion. This gave the brethren new courage. The 
body and blood of our dear Lord revived their hearts 
anew, so that we gave ourselves up again to be entirely 
his own, to live for his joy. Owing to rain we could have 
to-day no general meeting. 

Monday, 14. Some went again by lake to Sandusky to 
get corn where there is said to be much. Since we heard 
that letters, which had gone to Detroit in the spring, on ac- 
count of which we wrote there, were come to the mouth 
of the river, we sent there to get them and received them. 
There was a letter from Br. Schweinitz, of Maj^ 4th, this 
year, together with a little book of Scripture- verses and 
texts for this year. The packet had been opened, but not 
the letters, and a calendar and two papers were missing, 
according to the letters. 

Tuesday, 15. Brs. Heckewelder, Edwards, and two In- 
dian brothers, went to Old Cuyahoga, where they waited 
for Mr. "Wilson, with cattle, to buy some of them and 
drive them here. Service in the evening. 

Wednesday, 16. A party of sisters went again to the 
Lick to boil salt, where Messrs. Duncan and Wilson sent 
many kettles, which they offered to our Indians to use. 



ON THB CUYAHOaA, 1786. 289 

Thursday, 17. Heckewelder and Edwards came back 
with cattle they had got from Mr. Wilson, who came 
himself afterwards, on the 18th, remained over night 
with us, and on the 19th went down to the lake on busi- 
ness. He said we had done well in staying here and no.t 
going to the Muskingum ; thinks also that it would not 
be advisable to move there in the spring or next year, for 
well-grounded reasons. Mr. Hutchins, with his surveyors 
and people, is out to measure and declare the boundary 
between the land of the States and of the Indians. It is 
generally believed that the undertaking will cause un- 
easiness among the Indians and indeed much mur- 
dering and killing sooner or later. Thus it is truly best we 
are far away. He says we have hit the best place on this 
creek, where the most excellant land lies, for he is well 
acquainted here. 

18. Mr. Nea\ came here, from whom we learn this: a 
royal boat, with an officer and eight soldiers, had come 
there (the mouth of the river). He, who knows us and 
has been with us on the Huron River, wanted to visit us, 
but when he heard he could not get here in his boat, 
he gave up the plan. By a letter from Mr. Askin, of an 
old date, when we had hardly left the island, we learned 
that the commandant had sent another ship with provis- 
ions to the islands, which was to bring us and our belong- 
ings to Cuyahoga, but had not found us. 

Sunday, 20. Heckewelder preached in the forenoon, 
and baptized the little son of Br. Adam and his wife, 
Sabina, born yesterday, Augustus. We brethren, the 
laborers, read the journals, Br. Reichel's discourse at the 
end of the year '82 and beginning of '83, also about the 
captivity of Brs. Jorde and Pfeifter upon the English 
king's ship, and finally the release of the first, of all which 
we had never heard a word. Br. Edwards held the con- 
gregation meeting from the Scripture-verse: I have de- 
clared and have saved. Jesus, how shall I thank thee. 
I acknowledge that my salvation rests with thee. 

Wednesday, 23. We got at last, by the pack-horses, the 
19 



290 zeisbbrgbr's diart. 

things sent by the church for us and the Indian church; 
all their things have come, and nothing is destroyed, but 
our things were in part destroyed, and in part much was 
wanting, and doubtless much was lost on the way here 
from Pittsburg. These, on Thursday, the 24th, were dis- 
tributed among the brethren, and awakened generally 
much joy and thankfulness, after they had first been told 
that the brethren in Bethlehem already three years ago, upon 
hearing of the loss they had suffered, and of the want in 
which they were, had thought of them and sent them these 
things for their bodies' needs, while we were over the lake, 
but since they could not come to Detroit, the brethren had 
found another way, getting them back and sending them 
to Pittsburg, and now at last we had them. Many brothers 
came forward and expressed their thankfulness. Some 
said : " We are not worthy that the brethren in Bethlehem 
should have so much love for us, and think about us ef- 
ficaciously. We are not worthy of having teachers giyen us, 
to whom we have so often caused much trouble." Others 
again said : " None of the white people would have given 
themselves so much trouble to send things such along way 
and forward them to us, except the brothers ; they would 
have given them up and let them be. We see that it has 
been to them a matter of concern, and has cost them much 
trouble to do us good." 

Friday, 25. Brs. Schebosh and Edwards went down to 
the lake on business, some Indian brethren to Pettquotting 
and Sandusky. 

Saturday, 26. Brs. Schebosh and Edwards returned 
from the lake. 

Sunday, 27. David preached about the saving Gospel 
Paul had preached to the heathen, that the word of our 
Saviour's death upon the cross is the strength of God 
to all those who receive it in faith. We laborers con- 
tinued our reading of the Bethlehem diary of '83, which 
we ended to-day. Br. Edwards held the congregation 
meeting. 

Monday, 28. The salt-boilers all came back from the 
Lick, and some came from the Fort. Samuel had, in 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786, 291 

both places, met 8ome of our Indians, from whom he 
heard that not only they, but many others, wished to 
come to us, who for a long time already had only been 
waiting till we should again have come to this side 
of the lake. Among them he met one named Anton. 
He said to Samuel: "Thou hast been with our teach- 
ers these four years they have been away from us, or 
near them, therefore I think thou knowest them well, 
and canst tell me the truth about them." Samuel an- 
swered him: "Yes, indeed; I know them right well, 
and if now first I might hear from thee what thou 
willst particularly hear, perhaps I can tell thee." Then 
said Anton : " I have had thoughts about our teachers, of 
which I cannot get rid, and if I do drive them from my 
mind they always come back again, namely, I think that 
they are the cause, and have given occasion that so many 
of our friends perished in GnadeuliUtten ; they have be- 
trayed us, giving notice to the white people of our being 
there, whereupon they came and fell upon us. Now, tell 
me the truth, is it so or not? Thou must necessarily know 
about them." Samuel said: "I must first ask thee one 
thing before I answer. Art thou right in mind? If thou 
art failing there, I would rather answer thee nothing." " I 
am of good understanding, thereof thou needst not doubt, 
and so I should be glad to know thy thoughts about this." 
Samuel said to him then : " Thou thinkest so, indeed, but 
I say to thee the truth, thou thinkest falsely, and thou 
makest against our teachers accusations of which they are 
innocent ;* this I know certainly, for I know them." Th^n 
Anton farther said: "I have ever now, all the time, a 
wicked heart, and so I think badly and wickedly ; as thou 
seest from looking at me, so is my heart also." He was 
painted red all over, and said farther: "What does it help 
or profit me if I deceive myself by outward show, and 
make myself like a believer, when yet my heart is bad? 
In spite of this I will yet soon visit you, and then also 
greet our teachers. Thou canst meanwhile greet them 
from me and tell them what I have said to thee, and how 
thou hast seen me." He had in Gnadenhiitten, by the 



292 zbisbbbgbr's dubt. 

massacre, lost all his children, and almost all -^ his friends, 
but he had himself gone away from them secretly to Pitts- 
burg, saying nothing about it to any one, whereby he es- 
caped the massacre, where he, but without shoes and 
almost naked and destitute, had fled, when the militia had 
fallen upon the Indians there and murdered some of them. 

80. At the service from the Scripture-verse, Br. David 
made an earnest exhortation to the brethren on account 
of the bad course they lead when away. 

81. Sisters went to Sandusky to get corn and harvest 
the fields given them by their friends. 

Friday, Sept. 1. Edwards held the evening service 
from the Scripture- verse: Upon his kingdom to establish 
it with justice. 

Sunday, 8. David preached from the Epistle 2, Cor. 
iii., 4, about this, that of ourselves we can neither think 
nor do what is good but that God gives us power therefor, 
and through his Holy Spirit must work in us good works, 
and make us fit therefor. We read the Bethlehem diary 
for the month of May, '84. 

Monday, 4. Ignatius returned from Sandusky, where 
he got corn ; on the lake he was sunk with his canoe and 
cargo, but yet he saved every thing. 

Tuesday, 5. In a conference with the assistants we con- 
sidered about sending a couple of Indians as messengers 
of peace to our Indians [in error] scattered here and there 
in the bush, to visit them, to encourage them, and to learn 
their mind and disposition. We found it best to invite 
some of them here, if it could be done, for then we could 
talk out the matter with them, learn their plans, and con- 
sider what we had best resolve for their good. We had 
thought indeed whether it would not be well for one of us 
white brethren to go with them, but the assistants op- 
posed, saying it would attract too much notice among the 
Indians, and, at the same time, they would draw this in- 
ference: "He comes to persuade the Indians to move 
again to the white people, britiging them again into mis- 
fortunes and danger." Therefore, we had to give up this 
plan. We resolved, then, that the assistants, Samuel and 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 293 

Thomas, should make this journey, who were also willing 
and ready for it. 

Wednesday, 6. Adolphus, with a canoe-load of sisters, 
started for Pettquotting to earn some corn among the In- 
dians in the corn-harvest. Jacob and William went off 
hunting to the Tuscarawas. By Renatus we had letters 
from Bethlehem, oiie from Br. Ettwein, of Aug. 10, by 
which we learn of Br. John's (de Watteville) presence in 
Bethlehem, of whom we had already heard he had de- 
parted for Europe; at the same time, we perceive that 
letters of the month of June are still on their way. Both 
Renati, who were hunting in Thuppckiink, had again to 
flee on account of white people, who always swarm about 
there. 

Thursday, 7. Samuel and Thomas began their journey 
to our Indians scattered here and there, after we had 
blessed them the evening before in the service for this, and 
had recommended them to the brethren. We^ gave them 
instructions of somewhat the following import: that we 
had not forgotten them over the lake nor here, but con- 
stantly thought of them, and had always wished we 
could visit them; we looked upon them as belonging to 
us and merely separated from us, wishing they could 
again be in communion with us; since now we believed 
that most of them would not have forgotten that they had 
received God's word, as we also, and were troubled about 
the salvation of their souls, we should like to learn their 
thoughts about this, how to make it possible for them 
again to hear it and come to the enjoyment of it; we 
would not just now bid them come to us, but they who 
wished to come would all be welcome here, but we should 
like to see some of their intelligent people, and to consider 
with these what could best be done on our part for them, 
that this should not fail, and for this they should make us 
proposals which we could understand and consider; they 
should not give up courage, thinking, "All is in vain; 
nothing will come of the plan of our all together mak- 
ing one church again; we have become savage, have 
deeply sinned, the Saviour and the brethren have cast us 



294 zeisbubger's diary. 

away, and we are incurable." No, they should take new 
spirit, and turn to the Saviour, who is merciful and gra- 
cious, and so willingly forgives sins; we did not invite 
them that. we might speak with them about their bad 
condition and their sins, and learn exactly about them ; 
besides we knew how this was when they lived among 
utter heathen, but we wished to speak with them about 
this, how they could be put into a blessed life, away from 
their unblessed state, which could happen as soon as they 
would turn again to the Saviour, who had poured out his 
blood in satisfaction for their sins. 

Saturday, 9. William's Martha bore a son. 

Sunday, 10. Br. David preached in Indian, there being 
no interpreter. We read the journal, Memorabilia from 
Bethlehem of '84. 

Tuesday, 12. Christina bore a daughter, who, however, 
died as soon as born. 

Saturday, 16. William returned from the head of the 
TuscaraWas, where he had been hunting. He found there 
eleven swarms of bees, from one of which he brought the 
honey, and the rest he let alone till he could get them. 
Others besides have found from eight to ten and more. 
The bush swarms with bees. In the same neighborhood 
there had been not only slight frosts, but heavy ones, 
though we here have had none. Our corn is yet very 
backward, and should we get a hard frost, it would all go, 
and all our trouble and labor would have been in vain, 
and as it is, some will get no corn, either planting not the 
proper kind or too late. 

Sunday, 17. Br. David preached and baptized Matthew, 
the little son of William and Martha, born on the 9th. 
We read the proceedings of the U. A. Conference of '83. 
Heckewelder held the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 20. Weschnasch came here from his hunt- 
ing-hut. We were busy yesterday and to-day bringing 
blocks for David's house. A bad and inflammatory fever 
prevails among our Indian brethren, with which many 
are already down. Heckewelder held evening service. 

Thursday, 21. Pack-horses came through here from 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786. 295 

Pittsburg on their way to the lake. These people brought 
bad news, that an Indian war would break out. The 
Shawanese, who are always murdering, took away captive 
a woman with her children, cut oif their legs at the knee, 
put them alive into fire and burnt them. 

Friday, 22. We Jieard unpleasant news, that without 
fail an Indian war would break out. The Indians are 
said through the summer to have murdered as wantonly 
in Kentucky and to have done as much damage as in the 
last war. 

Saturday, 23. Mr. Neal was here over night. 

Sunday, 24.. We got by the pack-horses our things 
which yet remained behind, in good condition. Br. Heck- 
ewelder preached, and Edwards held the evening service. 
David went to his bed sick. 

Monday, 25. Br. Edwards was also badly attacked by 
the fever prevailing here. 

Wednesday, 27. By Mr. Neal sent letters to Bethlehem. 

[Thus far to Bethlehem.] 

Sunday, Oct. 1. Heckewelder preached. Two white 
people came here from Detroit on their way to Pittsburg. 
They were robbed of their money by an Indian, who gave 
himself out as belonging to us and wishing to come prop- 
erly to the sermon. Ignatius came back from Sandusky. 
It is reported that all white people have been ordered to 
go to Detroit. Abr. Kuhn,^ who is our enemy and a Wy- 
andot chief, told him that we had closed his ears and let 
him know nothing about our coming over the lake ; we 
had acted like fools in coming over the lake ; he knew for 
a certainty that there would be a new war, for he learned 
it in Canada, where he had himself heard it. 

Wednesday, 4, and Friday, 6. Brethren came from Pett. 
quotting with corn, so that for a time they have something 
to live on, but of those in Sandusky they knew nothing. 

Saturday, 7. Samuel and Thomas came back from their 
journey. During almost the whole trip the first had to 
withstand a severe illness [coming home sick], for in all 

^ From Lower Sandusky, according to Heckewelder. 



296 zbisbergbe's diart. 

Indian towns a aev.ere fever rages. They were heartily 
welcomed by many of our Indians, who were again en- 
couraged by the brethren, and the longing to come to us 
is anew awakened among them, and some want to come 
in the spring and to wait no longer. Those on the Miami, 
however, were indifferent, to whom they sent a message 
from the Shawanese towns, in order to speak with them, 
but none wished to come. One, however, Samuel's 
brother, Augustus, blasphemed and said, among other 
things : " I was in Philadelphia,^ in danger of my life, and 
have seen with my own eyes those who made attempts 
upon my life, and I got out of danger with difficulty. On 
the Muskingum the white people have at last attained 
their purpose, murdering so many of our friends ; there- 
fore will I keep far enough from them ; no one shall take 
me to them ; and I say to thee, nevermore will I come to 
you and live with you ; I will hear nothing about the Sa- 
viour. Perhaps if you lived near by I would sometimes 
come to see you and visit you, but that will ail be as it 
will. My forefathers have all gone to the devil ; there will 
I go also ; where they are there will I also be." Samuel 
heard him quite through, and answered him : I have heard 
thy mind and was horrified at it, but I will tell thee my 
mind. Nothing shall take me from the Saviour and the 
church so long as I live ; neither trouble nor fear, neither 
hunger nor persecution nor danger to my life; all this I 
reckon as nothing, if only I have the Saviour and from 
him also the salvation of my soul, as I surely shall, if I 
stay by him, and that can no man take from me, even, if 
they take away my life." At this he was quite still and 
had nothing to say. 

They were everywhere received in a friendly way by the 
savages. No man gave them a harsh word. I will, how- 
ever, by a few examples, show how, by many sorts of craft 
and by fine words, they sought to induce our Indians to 

^In 1763, probably, when the Christian Indians from Nazareth and 
Nain were taken by a sheriff to Philadelphia, where they were received 
with the yells and shouts of an excited mob. 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786. 297 

fly to them. Thomas is well known among the Indians to 
have been a wicked man among the savages, whom his 
grandfather, Netawatwes, had to drive away, which was the 
occasion of his coming to us. He came to his acquaint- 
ances and friends in the Shawanese towns, who had pre- 
pared a feast and sacrifice ; they also invited him thereto, 
but he declined. They persisted, however, that he should 
merely come and eat with them, but this he did not do. 
When they were together in performance of their ceremo- 
nies they came again and asked of him to come, rattle 
with the tortoise shell and sing, as is their custom. He 
answered that he had forgotten that and could no longer 
do it, he had not done it for so many years. They an- 
swered he would soon hear how the others did it. He 
said : *' That is your way, but I have found another way to 
live, which is better. I cannot go two ways. I remain in 
that where I now am." Then they let him alone. In 
Sandusky he met one of his former comrades, who was a 
counsellor. He took him to his house, many young people 
following him, so that the house was full. The counsellor 
said to him that since he had not seen him for a long time 
and rejoiced in his coming, he wished to make him right 
welcome, and taking a cask of rum he put it before him 
and told him he should drink. Thomas, after they had 
discussed the matter a while together, took the cask of 
riim, thanked him for it, and placed it before the young 
people, saying they might drink it if they would, but he 
might not, and he went away. Another also wished to 
treat him in the same way, and welcome him, to whom he 
straightway said : " You Indians are thus. You are 
very willing to ask the believing Indians to drink, and if 
you can make them drunk, you have joy therein, laugh at 
them, and always jokingly say : * The believing Indians 
are no better than we.' '' Another, the counsellor, took 
him to his house, and gave him a fine scarlet-red coat. 
Thomas thanked him for it, and begged him to be so 
good as to hang it up on the nail again. When the 
other asked him why, saying he gave him the coat, and 
he should put it on. Thomas answered: "I see very 



298 zeisbbrgbr'b diart. 

well it is a captain's coat, and I am neither a captain nor 
wish to be one." Another time this same man came to 
him with some fathoms of wampum, which they do to put 
a man under obligations to them, who does not easily 
dare refuse if 'any thing is asked of him — a thing they 
understand among themselves without words. Thomas 
took the wampum, held it awhile in his hands, and be- 
fore he went away gave it back to him, saying to him : 
" Thou art a counsellor and always needest wampum, 
but I can make no use of it, but I thank you for the 
present." 

On their return they met Capt. Pipe, who was friendly 
towards them, and with a belt gave them a message which 
was as follows : *' My friends, ye believing Indians in Cuy- 
ahoga, I have lately had news from the Goschachgiinkers 
in the Shawanese towns, that a great council will be held 
there, whereto all nations assemble, which shall decide 
whether we shall have war or peace. Thereto also are ye 
invited to hear what the conclusion shall be." He turned 
the belt around and said to the other assistant: "Friends, 
ye believing Indians in Cuyahoga, ye have been moving 
about for several years, from Sandusky over the lake to 
the Chippewas, and now you have come back again to 
Cuyahoga, of all which ye have let us know nothing. 
While now the times are portentous and it seems as if 
a new war would break out, ye are in danger where ye are, 
of being again fallen upon by the white people. Therefore 
I take you by the hand, and set you in the neigborhood 
of the Pettquottiug, which is intended for you ; there seek 
ye out a place that pleases you and is suitable for you ; 
there can ye keep your cattle. No one shall disturb you 
or put aught in your way, there shall ye dwell in quiet 
and hold your worship of God since ye go not to war. 
Accept this proposal for we mean well by you. I know 
well that your towns on the Muskingum are given to you, 
it may sometime happen that ye go there, but for the 
time being it is not advisable, not good for you." 

Sunday, 8. Br. Hecke welder preached, and as he in- 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 299 

tended to go away to-morrow with his family to the church/ 
he bade us farewell, and many tears were shed, a proof 
that they love their teachers. In the evening white peo- 
ple came here, who accompany Br. Hecke welder and his 
wife to Pittsburg. Among them was also John Leeth,* 
who during Br. Grube's visit was baptized by us, and also 
his wife Elizabeth, who had been a prisoner since she was 
half a year old, and had grown up among the Indians. 
He asked very earnestly to be received again, saying he 
could not remain away from us, and had waited with 
great longing till we came over to this side of the lake ; 
that he was resolved to live with us and nothing should 
retain him. We pitied him, but told him it was a well 
fixed rule with us in all our missions to receive no white 
people, and so we could not promise him before we had in- 
quired of the brethren in Bethlehem about it and had 
their opinion ; we had examples that we had fared badly 
with such people, and had afterwards much repented 
of having received them. All remonstrances and repre- 
sentations, for we made it right hard for him, telling him 
that even if he should get permission to live with us he 
must submit to our rules, and could have jio preference 
above the Indians, yes, he must very often be their serv- 
ant, if he wished to get along with us — all was of no 
avail, but he said he would willingly endure any thing if 
only he could be with us, for the sake of his soul's sal- 
vation. We laborers, with Br. Heckewelder and his wife, 
strengthened ourselves in the evening once more with the 
body and blood of our Lord in the holy sacrament, bound 



* i. e., to Bethlehem. 

' John Leith's Biography, with annotations by C. W. Butterfield, was 
published by Robert Clarke & Co., in 1883. Leith was born in South 
Carolina, in 1755. When seventeen years old, he was taken prisoner 
by the Delaware Indians, and adopted by them. Even after his mar- 
riage to Sally Lowrey (in regard to his wife's name, see under Dec. 
14 and 18, 1788) he lived two years in GnadenhQtten, 0. By his own 
statement he was converted in 1793. He married his second wife in 
1802, and died 1832. 



800 zbisbbrqbr's diart. 

ourselves to abide by Jesus' cross, to bear his suflterings,* 
thereby to love one another from our hearts, though ab- 
sent one from another. 

Monday, 9. At noon they went away after a tender 
leave-taking, whereby tears were shed on both sides. 
Many Indian brothers and one sister, too, accompanied 
them to Pittsburg, and nearly the whole town a part of 
the way. Brs. David and Edwards were still very weak 
and in no condition to go out. 

Tuesday, 10. Petty, Job Chillo way's former wife, came 
here from Detroit to see her sister, and also a white man 
from the same place, captain of a boat, which takes flour 
from here, by whom we had a friendly letter from Mr. Askin, 
to whom Br. David wrote back. An Indian brother who 
went with our friends as far as their night-quarters and 
came back again, brought us word they had so far gone 
well and fortunately. 

Wednesday, 11. All the brethren who are at home and 
well, went out hunting to get meat to eat while building 
the meeting-house, and some sisters for chestnuts, of 
which there are many this year. Many sisters came back 
from Pettquotting and Sandusky, where they earned corn 
in the harvest. Some of them were seized by the sick- 
nesses prevalent everywhere among the Indians, such as 
fever and swollen necks, on which account they were so 
long away. Two sisters went to our Indians in the Shaw- 
anese towns and on the Miami. In the first place, and ia 
the neighborhood of Sandusky, they were received with 
joy by the greater part, and whole families, children and 
the old, wept together, especially Nathan. Davis' family. 
Since spring he has been sick, quite paralytic, and said if 
he could only get well enough to sit horseback, that he 
would come to us with his family, but should he go from 
time, his wife and children should go to the church with- 
out delay. 

In the latter place, namely, on the Miami, people were 
very shy, no one wished to have any thing to do with them, 

*A quotation from a hymn. 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786. 801 

until they had been there a couple of days, when they be- 
came kinder, and began to talk with them. They even 
found some young people who said they would no longer 
delay, but would come to us, so also in other places, some 
leave parents and friends, and come to us, a fair sample of 
our young people ; one sees there is more life and feeling 
among them than among the old, who are like the dead. 
Also those who have been assistants are the most indiffer- 
ent of all, but the Saviour will yet gather them to the 
flock, one after the other. 

Friday, 13. Isaac Williams came through here from 
Pittsburg, bringing us news that they had met the Hecke- 
welders, all well, but that three, war-parties were out, 
whom they must meet, who had murdered and scalped a 
man on Salt Lick, whom Isaac and his people had buried; 
likewise that Congress had declared war against the hos- 
tile Indians in order to force them to peace, that already 
a thousand men had invaded the Indian land. 

Inasmuch as we had been requested by Pipe to send 
some one to the council in the Shawanese towns, whereto 
we and tbe assistants had not the least inclination, but in- 
asmuch as Heckewelder, both at his departure and from 
his first night- quarters, had sent word to the assistants that 
they should listen to the chiefs and do what they told them, 
and send a couple of brothers, we laid the matter before 
the Saviour, asking his advice, but he did not approve, and 
this was exceedingly to our wishes, and we thanked him 
for his good advice. 

Saturday, 14. From Sandusky all the brethren now came 
home except one family, and that is on the way. The 
brethren spoke there with Titawachkara, a Monsey captain 
and head-man in his town, who told them he was going to the 
council, and when he came back he would call upon us, and 
give us news of what came up and what was decided ; that 
we ought to have settled either upon the Sandusky pr the 
Pettquotting, when we came over the lake, but had passed 
them by ; we should now settle at the latter place; they 
should not be uneasy about any harm happening to their 
teachers [among them David] ; he was his friend and in 



302 zbisbbrobr's diabt. 

his family and race ; whoever did harm to him did it to 
himself, and he would interfere. This is the same man^ 
who, at the time of our capture in Gnadenhiitten, wished 
to make him free and his own, but that did not then suc- 
ceed, for we brothers would then have been separated, 
therefore Br. David gave hira no answer. By this circum- 
stance I must still mention that the Indians had divided 
among themselves our three towns, namely, this Titawach- 
kam wished to have those in Schonbrunn, for mostly 
Monscys lived there ; Pipe, Gnadenhiitten, and the Gosch- 
achgiink Indians wanted to have those in Salem. But 
among themselves they were discordant and hostile, and 
thus nothing came of this plan, no one daring to make 
much pretension from fear of the others. Somewhat like 
this is also the occasion for Pipe's message to us, about 
which we now have somewhat exact information. At the 
treaty he said to the commissioners: "Ye desire your flesh 
and blood of us, that is, all prisoners, but I have heard 
nothing of your wishing to give or make satisfaction for 
the loss of our friends, which we suflered at Gnadenhiitten, 
where ye murdered unoffending men, women, and children, 
who yet never went to war nor troubled themselves about 
the war." Now we hear that Pipe wishes in their place 
to own us, wherefore he will have us nearer him, and has 
called us to the Pettquotting. This pleases our Indian 
brethren not at all, they would rather go over the lake, 
where they were free. 

Sunday, 15. Br. David held again the Sunday services 
for the first time, having so far recovered. After the ser- 
mon came some white people here on their way to Pitts- 
burg. They asked for an Indian to go out with them as 
far as Salt Lick,^ for the way was unceitain ; this we could 



*See before p. 10. 

'"Col. James Hilman entered into the service of Duncan & Wilson, 
of Pittsburg. They were engaged in forwarding goods and provisions 
upon pack-horses across the country to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, 
now Cleveland, thence to be shipped on the schooner Mackinaw to 
Detroit. During the summer of 1786 he made six trips, the caravan 
consisting of ten men and ninety horses. They usually crossed the 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786. 308 

not well refuse them, though only a few were at home, and 
of these some were sick, and the well had necessary work 
to do. So we gave them one to go with them, for which 
they were glad and thankful. One of them was quite an 
old man with a white head, the brother-in-law of Capt. 
McKee, of Detroit. He told us that Brant,^ who is a Mo- 
hawk and colonel, arid has this summer come back from 
England, and is now at the great council in the Shawanese 
towns, was earnest for peace, that the nations wanted to 
have a line fixed and established as far as the land of the 
free States should extend, and if Congress were contented 
with this, there would be stable peace among the nations. 

Monday, 16. The brethren worked earnestly at the 
meeting-house, making a good beginning, 

Tuesday, 17, but late in the ev ening came a messenger 
from Pipe, in Sandusky, telling us the Americans^ had 
made an incursion upon the Shawanese towns, killed ten 
men, among them a chief, and wasted and burnt every 
thing. They conjectured the women and children were 
all taken prisoners, as they knew nothing about them; 
that they stayed there one night and then went back again ; 
that they came to within four miles of the Delaware 
towns, when they turned about [which shows they have 
no intentions towards us]. Farther, that a couple of 
Wyaudots had brought in word they had seen many white 
people in Tuscarawas, and that more were always getting 
together, from which they conjectured an army was coming 
here this way. He had us told therefore; that he had 

Big Beaver, four miles below the mouth of the Shenango, thence up 
the left bank of the Mahoning, crossing it about three miles above the 
village of Youngstown, thence by way of the Salt Springs, in the town- 
ship of VVeathersfield, through Milton and Ravenna, crossing the Cuy- 
ahoga at the mouth of Breakneck, and again at the mouth of Tinker's 
Creek, in Bedford, and thence down the river to its mouth, where they 
erected a log-hut for the Safekeeping of their goods, which was the first 
house built in Cleveland." — Howe's Hist. Collections of Ohio, p. 338. 

*The famous Joseph Brant, a warm friend of the English, whose life 
by Wm. L. Stone has been published in two octavo volumes. 

'Under the command of Col. Ben. Logan, probably. Albach's An- 
nals of the West, p. 447. 



804 . zbisbbrobr'b diart. 

already before Bent us a message, and now again said to as 
we should be upon our guard, and flee before we were over- 
taken. This news caused much fright among our Indian 
brethren. We could not, indeed, believe that an army 
was advancing this way without our having heard any 
thing about it, at the same time that Br. Heckewelder and 
the Indian brethren would now already be at the Port, 
who certainly would have given us news of this by a mes- 
senger. We conjectured rather it must be the surveyors 
who have come to the Tuscarawas. All the objections, 
however, by which we sought to set the brethren right, 
helped not at all ; fright and dread were too great, they 
got ready and the sisters all fled to the bush till morning, 
when they came again. 

18. We considered with the brethren and found it best, 
for we saw them filled with fear, to bring the sisters and 
children into the bush some distance from town, where by 
day they could go to and from. It was also not well to 
say much to them about the matter, having before us the 
example in Gnadenhiitten. The brethren could partly re- 
main at home or go to and fro until, through our brethren, 
we had more exact news. This they did, and most of the 
sisters, with the children, went camping in the bush, but 
we remained at home, giving ourselves over to the provi- 
dence of the Saviour. Abraham, while he wished to flee, 
thought of his teachers, and fled not, but resolved with 
them to leave body and life. 

Thursday, 19. We sent a couple of Indian brethren to 
the Tuscarawas to find out whether the above news was 
true or false, or if they met Indians to inquire about this, 
in order that we might bring the brethren to themselves 
again out of their dream. Some went also to examine the 
way to the Fort, but they found no trace of any thing like 
what we had heard. A family of white people, a woman 
and children, who came from Detroit, on their way to 
Pittsburg, came and begged us much to help them with a 
couple of horses, and to give them two Indians for escort 
for pay. Glad as we should have been to help them, for 
we saw that if they stayed long here they would become a 



ON THE CUYAHOCJA, 1786. 305 

burden to us, and we must support them, yet we were in no 
condition to persuade any one to go with them, and could 
not well do so, for if any misfortune should happen, we 
should have to bear the blame. White people came up here 
from the lake, among whom one had come only a few days 
before from Sandusky, who told us and our Indians that 
it was certainly all lies. Meanwhile, some impure spirits, 
who were glad to seek friendship in the world and among 
the savages, and whose hearts hang thereupon, as we had for 
some time observed, found occasion during these troubles 
to tear themselves from us and to take refuge among the 
savages, and these were Luke's whole family. It could 
not be seen that it was fear of danger which drove them 
away, for when our sisters fled to the bush with their chil- 
dren, they remained at home, and were untroubled, as if 
they well knew that what we had heard was all lies. Br. 
David spoke longer than two hours with Luke, but he saw 
he was fully determined to go, and at the same time that he 
tried to cause nothing but trouble among the other breth- 
ren, running from house to house, trying to persuade them 
to go with him; so Br. David let him go in peace, bidding 
him hold us in love, and not to forget the Saviour and 
put him wholly aside, and thus he went, Saturday, the 
21st. Many Indians believed he was the author of the 
lies, and through his wife had contrived this in Sandusky, 
and one of them told him this to his face when he went 
away. Meantime most of the brethren came every morn- 
ing from the bush home, remaining during the day and 
taking care of their plantations. Br. David spoke with 
Samuel and Abraham, who visited him, about the meeting- 
house, which was at last ready, even to the roof, pointing 
out to them Satan's labor and hinderances the whole sum- 
mer that we might get no meeting-house. Br. David had, 
during the summer, got together timber for his own house, 
which he now gave for this. 

Sunday, 22. In the sermon, to which most of the 
brethren came, Br. David exhorted the brethren, and 
begged them not to let themselves be too much overcome 
20 



806 zbisbbrqbb's biart. 

by fright, nor seek to help themselves and find safety, but 
to take refuge with the Saviour, to place in him their hope 
and trust, who would not bring them to shame, by whom 
they would find comfort and advice. We were not as the 
heathen, without hope. We had a Saviour, the All- 
powerful, to whom there was no want of wisdom, means, 
and ways to take his children through trouble, fear, and 
danger, but whoever sought help of himself, he would fall 
short, and must afterwards be ashamed. We saw that 
this had effect upon our brethren's hearts; they were en- 
couraged and found comfort in the Saviour. Some Chip- 
pewas came from the lake and asked us for corn, to 
whom each one gave from his fields, for which they were 
thankful. 

In the evening, when it was already dark, we heard 
from afar a great uproar from white people and horses* 
bells. We supposed it was the pack-horses with flour, but 
to the Indians, with all our persuasions, this was not trust- 
worthy, but they believed it to be the army of which we 
had heard, which would surround us, and no one would 
venture out to see, bat every soul of them fled to the bush, 
and left us quite alone until, at dawn, Br. Schebosh went 
out and found it was the pack-horses, who by good luck 
had an Indian with them, a near friend of Pipe's, who 
told them that all they had heard was a lie. Then they 
were convinced, and recovered from their fear and tim- 
idity. If the Indian had not been with them, they would 
never have believed the white people, so incredulous were 
they. 

Monday, 23. The brethren came to their senses, and 
began to assemble again, although those who were in the 
bush had fled still farther away at the news. 

Tuesday, 24. Thomas and Zachary came from the 
Tuscarawas, where they had found no trace of white peo- 
ple, nor of Indians, although they examined the road from 
there to the Fort. Their journey gave them recompense 
in that they found things. 

Wednesday, 25. The pack-horses went away again, 
storing here their flour, seventy horse-loads, for no white 



ON THE OUYAHOaA, 1786. 807 

people were at the lake. The family of white people from 
Detroit had now a good opportunity, and went away with 
them, of which we were very glad. 

Thursday, 26. Most of the Indian brethren went out 
hunting, since for some time they had not courage to go 
out, nor to shoot in the neighborhood, even if they could 
shoot a deer, so as not to be disclosed. 

Friday, 27. Sara Nanticoke bore a daughter, which 
was baptized Sunday, the 29th, at the sermon, with the 
name Amelia. The Indian who came with the pack- 
horses from Pittsburg, then went to Sandusky, and yester- 
day came back again, met Luke with his family on the 
lake, not far from here, and told him that all he had heard 
was false and lies, and when he asked him if he had not 
better turn about, he answered, no, that he was travelling, 
and turned back no more. 

Monday, 80. The brethren again set to work at the 
meeting-house to get it ready. 

Tuesday, 81. Chippewas came in, who go up the creek 
hunting, and encamped here a couple of days. 

Friday, Nov. 3. Our Indian brethren, who have been 
expected for several days, came back from Pittsburg, 
whither they had accompanied Br. Heckewelder and his 
wife. They brought us the pleasant news that the Hecke- 
welders had gone so far with good health and fortune, and 
had gone away from there into the country before their 
own departure. By them we had, at the same time, let- 
ters from Bethlehem and Litiz, to our great joy, of Jan. 
18th and Aug., likewise Sept. 10 and 11 of this year. Be- 
sides they brought none but good news with them, and 
nothing in the least alarming. They could bear witness 
that no army was coming out this way, and that nothing 
dangerous was to be feared. The letters of Sept. held im- 
portant news and account of the conference in Bethle- 
hem, but thereto must the Saviour help us make path 
and road. 

Sunday, 5. We had our services, accompanied with 
the nearness of our dear Lord, whyeby it was well with 
us and our brethren. The brethren were greeted from 



808 zeisberger's diart. 

Bethlehem, especially from John.^ In the evening a mes- 
senger came to us from Luke's camp on the lake, to whom 
a messenger from Sandusky had come, who brought us 
again the message ; we should now go thither, and when 
we should be there they would consider where we should 
dwell. Thus they would drive us about, and as soon as 
we should be in their hands and in their power, we should 
have no end of moving about. When we asked the messen- 
ger how it happened that they wanted to have us there 
again, he answered : " Some one of our own number was 
the cause, who had sent them word that Pettquotting was 
still too far away from them ; we should rather live with 
them in Sandusky. *' This can be no one but Luke, who is 
going thither, for there is no one among us who wants to 
go thither, even if we must, but since he wants to do so, he 
bids them bring us all there, and he has contrived the 
whole thing which gives us so much perplexity. 

Tuesday, 7. As the messenger was going back we sent 
the string of wampum back, thereby announcing: "We 
could not dwell near unbelievers, much less among them." 
They knew very well that we had ever lived apart from 
them. 

Wednesday, 8. One, Wilson by name, came here from 
Detroit on his way to the States. He wanted to borrow a 
horse, and have with him one or two Indians for escort, 
but we could not so immediately help him. 

Friday, 10. We had the first services in our new chapel 
from the Scripture- verse: Look down from heaven and 
behold from the habitation of thy holiness. Thereupon 
was the communion quarter-hour, in which the holy com- 
munion was announced to the brethren for day after to- 
morrow. 

Saturday, 11. Chippewas came here and stayed over 
night. Our Indians tried to find out where they were 
going, but they did not want to say exactly. The next 
morning, however, one came after them to get them back 

* Either John de Watteville or John Ettwein. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 809 

again, when we found out they were going to war, and the 
chiefs wished to stop them. 

Sunday, 12. Br. Edwards preached, and in the after- 
noon was a love-feast for all. After the brethren had been 
spoken to yesterday and the day before, we had in the even- 
ing the holy communion, accompanied by the near pres- 
ence of the Saviour with his poor, sinful flock, which con- 
fessed itself sinful before him, and acknowledged its guilt. 

Monday, 13. After consideration of our Scripture- 
verse : And to our God for he will abundantly par- 
don, and of the text: For thus saith the Lord God: Be- 
hold I, even I, will both search my sheep and seek them 
out, we prayed to our dear Lord, the Elder of his church, 
thanked him for his blessed rule, under which, by his 
mercy, we find ourselves so blessed, for he feeds his little 
sheep upon his holy wounds, which he. felt for us; we 
asked forgiveness where we had not done right, nor always 
followed and fulfilled his good and gracious advice and 
will ; that he would be further interested in us, and espec- 
ially take upon his true heart our outward circumstances, 
opening and showing the way for us, putting aside all the 
hinderances made by Satan, that through us he might ac- 
complish his holy will. We got the assurance in our 
hearts that he would do for us all this and yet more. 

"Wednesday, 15. Many got ready for the autumn hunt 
after they were done with work in the fields and with the 
building of their houses and huts. There are but few 
houses built, most getting through this winter in huts, 
since we know not how soon we must go hence. 

Thursday, 16, and Friday, 17. The sisters helped us 
get in our crops, turnips, and potatoes, of which each one 
has planted freely. 

Sunday, 19. Br. David preached from the words of 
Paul : I count all things but loss for the excellency of the 
knowledge of Christ Jesus. 

Monday, 20. There was in the evening another slight 
alarm. Sisters, who were gathering chestnuts, brought 
home a piece of board they had found in an old house a 
few miles from here, on which were painted six warriors, 



810 zbisbbrgbb's diart. 

with two prisoners and five scalps. Many believed that 
the six Potawatomies and Chippewas, who went through 
here a week ago, had fallen upon the pack-horse people, 
soon expected here, killed and taken prisoners some of 
them, and had then painted this board to let our Indians 
know about it. "We could not, however, believe this, for 
the pack-horses could not yet have gone so far out, and 
we hoped for the best. 

Tuesday, 21. Abraham went with some sisters to Pett- 
quotting to bring into safety some corn they had got there, 
and to bury it, for all the Indians have moved thence. 

Saturday, 25. Many brethren came home from hunting, 
content, with horse-loads of venison and bear- meat, and 
casks filled with honey they had collected in the bush, for 
there are many bees here; thus our Indians, after the hun- 
ger they have endured, will again for a time have enough 
to eat, and more, and can live well; they cheerfully gave 
to us, too. 

Sunday, 26. Br. Edwards preached, and Br. David held 
the congregation meeting in the evening. 

Monday, 27. Wrote to Bethlehem and Litiz. Br. Ed- 
wards held early service. 

Tuesday, 28. David held early service : But because 
ye are not of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 
By Samuel and Thomas, who went with horses to the 
Fort, we sent a package of letters to Litiz and Bethlehem. 

Thursday, 30. Two Tawa Indians came in from hunt- 
ing in the bush, staying here two days. The sisters cut 
wood for us. 

Friday, Dec. 1. As the weather was fine and mild, the 
sisters went out to try to make some sugar for all at the 
love-feast. 

Sunday, 3. 1st of Advent. Br. David preached about 
our Saviour's coming into the flesh, who, by his incarna- 
tion, passion, and death for our sins, brought back to us 
eternal life and happiness, wherefore we should be glad 
and thankful, rejoicing in our Saviour. 

Tuesday, 5. Last night a fine snow fell, which was just 
the thing for our hunters. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 811 

Friday, 8. To-day, and several preceding days, it 
snowed so that the snow is knee-deep, and shows yet no 
sign of stopping. 

Saturday, 9. Two white people came here from Pitts- 
burg on their way to Detroit, by whom we had letters 
from Brs. Ettwein and Sensemann, from Bethlehem and 
Heidelberg (Berks Co., Pa.) From a Pittsburg newspaper, 
sent by Mr. Duncan, we learned the resolve of Congress 
about our Indians, just as we had already had news of it 
by letters from Bethlehem. 

Sunday, 10. Br. Edwards preached; David held the 
congregation meeting. 

Monday, 11. The white people set out on their way to 
Detroit. Br. David wrote by them to Mr. Askin about the 
letter of credit which Br. WoUin had sent for us to Mr. 
Dobie in Montreal, which Br. Ettwein had mentioned in 
his letter. 

Tuesday, 12. It has snowed now for several days, and 
again to-day steadily. The snow always gets deeper, so 
that we are in a good deal of trouble about our cattle, 
while at this time of year on the Huron River (Michigan) 
we saw little snow, or almost none. The sisters brought 
our turnips from the field to the house for our cattle. 
Some of the hunters came home, for the snow is too deep 
for hunting, and our Indians are preparing to get snow- 
shoes ready, a thing they had not expected, for on the 
Muskingum they never needed any, no deep show ever 
falling. 

Thursday, 14. Rain fell, and a thaw set in, which con- 
tinued several days, so that the snow, which had been two 
and a half feet deep, almost all went off. There came 
seven Tawas and Chippewas from the lake here, remained 
over night, and inquired about the flour which had been 
stored here and not taken away. They were answered 
that the flour belonged to their father in Detroit. The 
morning after, as they went away, they observed the house 
where it was, for they passed through here not long ago, 
and therefore knew it. They took out three casks, two of 
which they took with them, the other they gave to our In- 



812 zbisberger's diary. 

dians, since it was too much for them, and they went away. 
We, however, put the cask with the rest, and did not take 
it. The evening before they had called upon Br. David ; 
one, a Tawa, knew English somewhat, and a Chippewa, 
Delaware. They said they lived in Sandusky, on the lake. 

Saturday, 16. The thaw kept on, for which we were 
glad. 

Sunday, 17. David preached, and then held the com- 
munion quarter-hour, which was announced for next Sat- 
urday. Br. Edwards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 18. David held early service. 

Tuesday, 19. Edwards. Abraham, with his wife, came 
from Pettquotting, where he had been kept so long by the 
deep snow. He had there met Luke and his family, with 
A. Johanna, who pass the winter there, expecting us in 
the spring. They think they will then have made the 
journey, and be so far ahead of us. A. Charity came with 
him. ^ 

Friday, 22. David spoke plainly with A. Charity, and 
showed her how deceived she was in leaving us. 

Saturday, 23. Having spoken with the brethren for 
several days, we found cause in part for joy, in part for 
sorrow. We had the number of thirty at the Lord's sup- 
per, which was accompanied by the Saviour's near pres- 
ence. Three sisters and two brothers remained away this 
time. Samuel and Thomas were not yet back from Pitts- 
burg, and we cannot conceive why they remain away so 
long. We conjectured that one of them must be ill, for 
Samuel was not right well when he went away. 

Sunday, 24. After the communion liturgy Br. Edwards 
preached, and then David held the children's service, ex- 
horting them to praise the infant Jesus with joyful hearts 
and to glorify him with their mouths. We began Christ- 
mas with a love-feast. The history of our Saviour's birth 
was read, and after consideration of the Scripture-verse 
and text we prayed to the little Child in the manger. At 
the end burning wax-tapers were given to the children ; 
whereupon all went joyfully home, and they sang after- 
wards in their huts Christmas verses. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1786. 313 

Monday, 25. David preached from John, i : The word 
was made flesh. Br. Edwards held the congregation meet- 
ing. The brethren came to greet us and showed their 
hearts joyful at the Saviour's birth. 

Tuesday, 26. At last came Brs. Samuel and Thomas 
from Pittsburg, whom we had very long and eagerly 
awaited, believing they must have met some misfortune 
or that they had been somewhat sick, but the deep snow 
had detained them, which in Pittsburg was much deeper 
than here, for they said it was over their hips, and it was 
not so deep here. We had by them a letter from Br. 
Heckewelder, in Carlisle, of Nov. 2, from which we 
learned they were in good health. From Gen. Butler, Su- 
perintendent of Indian Aftairs, we had likewise a friendly 
letter, from which we learn his good intentions in offering 
us his services. Only it is a pity the winter is so hard and 
the way to him yet almost impassable, for I should like to 
see him to accomplish something for ourselves in the In- 
dian land with the chiefs. Samuel told him the chiefs 
wanted to have us on the Pettquotting, but he advised 
him against accepting this call, telling him they would do 
ill to go there and would have an unquiet, pitiful life. 

Friday, 29. The brethren got wood for us, a brother, 
sisters, boys, and girls. In the evening, since now the two 
brothers have come from the Fort, we made known to the 
assistant-brethren the resolve of Congress concerning our 
Indians and the orders sent out in their favor. Likewise 
that in the spring, by the grace ofi God, we should move to 
the Muskingum, it being the advice and direction of the 
Saviour and of the brethren. Br. David told them he was 
determined and ready to go and had thereby but one 
trouble, namely, whether all the brethren would be will- 
ing, but this he wished and hoped. He told them they 
had their choice.^ The chiefs had summoned them and 
wished to have them with themselves, with no other in- ^ 
tention than utterly to destroy the Indian church, for from 
them we had nothing good to expect, either bodily or 

^This word is conjectured. 



814 zbisbergbr's diart. 

spiritually. If now they. accepted the invitation of these 
chiefs it would not look well, Congress having made them 
such good ofters and wishing to help them. If they went 
to the Muskingum, they would, perhaps, be done with the 
chiefs, but this would not hurt them, for they already 
knew from experience what they could expect from them. 
As long as we were among them we had never seen them 
give us any help, even in regard to the wild Indians; when 
they killed our cattle, stole our horses, and so on, we had 
never got satisfaction nor justice. We found that the as- 
sistants all agreed with us, thinking as we did. They be- 
lieved also that most of the brethren would agree and 
that perhaps none would remain behind. As far as we 
have observed among the brethren, they have no desire 
for the Pettquotting, still less for Sandusky. 

Sunday, 31. David preached. Towards midnight, we 
assembled at the close of the year, called to mind the 
kindnesses of his gracious guidance and direction, and 
his help through all difficulties. If it was at times hard 
and with distress, yet we cannot, at the close of the year, 
thank and praise him enough that he has done all so 
well and blessedly with us beyond our expectation. 
We remembered the grace and mercy the Saviour has 
shown us. 

A year ago we knew not how we should fare, and there 
was little likelihood of our getting away from the Huron 
River this year, but when we spoke in February with the 
commandant in Detroit,-we found that the Saviour was 
beginning to make us a way. He led the hearts of au- 
thority that it not only opened the way for us, but also 
helped us. We celebrated Easter in peace, having blessed 
holidays, but soon thereafter, April 20th, we broke up and 
started upon our travels. In Detroit, where we stayed 
several days with the Indians and had to wait, the com- 
mandant gave orders that two ships should be fitted out 
for us to take us to Cuyahoga ; with these we sailed away 
April 28, and on the 29th, came to the islands in the lake, 
where, owing to adverse winds, we lay, and used up a 
whole month, until, at last, it was so arranged and the 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1786. 816 

Saviour helped, that we, partly by laud along the shore, 
partly by water, all came, on the 8th of June, to the rnouth 
of the Cuyahoga. Now was the trouble over, fortunately 
and without harm, but another met us, which was still 
harder than all, namely, famine, as we had also expected 
from the very beginning of our journey. We settled here 
in the bush, where far and near was no Indian settlement, 
and for a long time saw no ways or means of getting that 
by which we and our Indian brethren could live, but the 
Saviour helped, so that, in some measure, for a time, we 
were aided for pay, and also planted somewhat, which he 
so blessed, that, with what the Indian brethren have got 
here from other places, we shall have enough to eat until 
spring. We trust our heavenly Father further to care for 
us and to give us advice. 

The Indian brethren, Samuel and Thomas, in Septem- 
ber, made a visit to our Indians wandering in error, and 
were very well received by some, who, in return, were en- 
couraged by them to turn back again to the church, which 
was not without blessing, and we can see that little by 
little many will again come back to the flock and again 
be found here. 

We stayed here on the Cuyahoga quite quiet as regards 
the savages and their chiefs until October, when we got a 
message from Sandusky, and the chiefs sent us an invita- 
tion to come to Pettquotting and settle there, and soon 
after a second [that we should go to Lower Sandusky] was 
so involved in lies that it put our Indian brethren in 
such fear that for a week they fled into the bush, from 
fear lest the white people should fall upon them to mur- 
der them, which for a time made great uneasiness among 
the brethren. Luke took this occasion to go away from 
us with his family to Pettquotting, and A. Johanna, just 
twelve persons, whom, however, we do not reckon in the 
account. At last our brethren saw they had been de- 
ceived, and again came to their senses. After considera- 
tion of our Scripture-verse and text, we thanked the Lord 
upon our knees for all the goodness he had shown us, 
begged forgiveness also for all our faults and shortcomings, 



316 zeisbbrgeb's diabt. 

and all this was accompanied by the tears of the brethren. 
We were richly comforted by him and he let us feel his 
peace. At the end the blessing of the Lord was laid upon 
the church, and we gave the kiss of peace for the new 
year one to another. 

We have had the holy communion six times, thrice over 
the lake on the Huron and thrice here, whereto five breth- 
ren have been admitted. 

Five children have been baptized. One man has come 
back to us again, namely, Michael. 

Lately went to Pettquotting, Luke with his family and 
Anna Johanna, in all twelve persons. One has died. 

At present there are with us of married people sixteen 
couples and one individual woman. 

Single men 2, of whom one unbaptized. 

Widowers 2. 

Single women 6, of whom two unbaptized. 

Widows 3. 

Big boys 8, of whom six unbaptized. 

Big girls 7, of whom three unbaptized. 

Boys 13, of whom two unbaptized. 

Girls 21, of whom one unbaptized. 

Total 95 Indian souls, among them 34 communion 
brethren, without those in Pettquotting. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1787. 317 



CHAPTER VII. 

1787. 

On thk Cuyahoga — Joornkt to Huron Riyer — Settlkmknt there 

(Pettquottino). 

Monday, Jan. 1. Br. Edwards preached about the name 
of Jesus as our Saviour. In the service following upon 
this, four persons, the single roan, by name Lewis, and 
a young man, by name Benjamin, a single woman, by 
name Maria Elizabeth, and a maiden, by name Johannette, 
were baptized into Jesus' death, the two first by Br. Ed- 
wards, both the last by Br. David, whereby a mighty grace 
prevailed, and the near presence of the Saviour was to be 
noticed. In the concluding service Joshua's daughter, 
Salome, was admitted to the church, on which occasion 
Br. David laid down to our baptized youth the necessity 
of admission to the church, and impressed it upon them, 
and many wept bitterly. This caused quite a new move- 
ment and excitement among the young people of either 
sex, so that many tears were shed. 

8. Two Chippewas were at the early service, very pious 
and devout, one of whom understood Delaware. 

Friday, 5. Joseph, who had been sent by us over the 
ktke, came here from Sandusky to see us, and secretly 
told an Indian brother, Thomas, that the nation had re- 
solved upon war with the Americans, the Chippewas being 
the leaders, also that the chiefs had forbidden any one to 
let us know about it ; that we missionaries would be killed, 
and not merely be made prisoners, as was before done; 
that the nations had all united for the war, and that the 
beginning would be made in the spring, in the neighbor- 
hood of the place where the Shawanese prisoners had been 
taken. They are now over the lake at a treaty, and when 
they come back they will send us a message once more, 



818 zbisbbrobb's diart. 

and if we do not regard it and yet go to the Muskingum, 
they will use force, killing us missionaries and carrying off 
our Indians, thus once for all the matter would be ended, 
and they would have no further trouble about us. Such is 
said to be the talk. 

Saturday, 6. We celebrated Epiphany, accomj)anied by 
the near and perceptible presence of the Saviour. He 
showed himself great and mighty to his Indian flock that 
still remains and has been rescued from overthrow. At 
morning prayer we committed ourselves, as also all our 
churches among the heathen, to him for his blessing, and 
asked his near presence with us this day. In the second 
service of the baptized, after a discourse upon the Script- 
ure-verse of the day, was absolved Michael, who came to 
us this summer, with a powerful outpouring of grace ; 
and a grown maiden, A. Salome, was taken into the 
church. At the love-feast we thought of the churches 
among the heathen in Greenland, South America, and in 
the Isles.* The brethren were reminded and made to 
think that the Saviour had hitherto brought them 
through many trials, dangers, and temptations, and they 
were also told they should not think all was over now, 
they should not be so sure, but stand on their guard; 
we were not yet done with all difficulties and danger; 
a hard storm might still fall upon us; they should stand 
fast, and not indeed trust themselves, but believe that 
they are poor and weak, and so should cling the closer 
to the Saviour, and put their trust in him alone, who 
would never bring them to shame. In the service that fol- 
lowed upon this, a grown maiden, Ignatius' daughter, was 
baptized into Jesus' death, with the name Anna Maria ; 
also to-day was baptized Cathrine's sick child, by name, 
Samuel, and A. Salome. 

Sunday, 7. Edwards preached, and thereupon the chil- 
dren, especially the boys, had a blessed service. His his- 
tory was brought to their minds : When Jesus was twelve 

^ At this time the Moravians had nine missions in the West Indies, 
three in Greenland, and one in Surinam. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1787. 819 

years old, etc., and there was a discourse about their text: 
And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature and in favor 
with God and man. In the congregation meeting from 
the Scripture-verse, Cathrine upon her longing request 
and entreaty was absolved. Her husband brought her to 
us on the Huron River in '85, but he went away himself, 
and, as we learn, is paralytic and cannot walk, but as soon 
as he is somewhat better will come to us. She made clear 
that she wished to live and die in the church, would will- 
ingly in the church share our joys and sorrows ; however 
things went with the Saviour's people, well or ill, she 
wished to share them, and considered herself fortunate to 
suffer hardship with the church. We could not but give 
praise and thanks to the Saviour for the mercy he had let 
our brethren experience and enjoy during these days. 
There was a quite new comprehension, and thorough 
awakening among them, so that none went away empty, as 
if the Saviour had something especial in store for them, and 
wished to prepare them for something to come. Pleasant 
was it to us that they had heard none of these stories 
about war, and would not hear them, for only two breth- 
ren had heard them and they kept silent. We laborers 
had afterwards, late in the evening, a conference together 
about them, for if the news were true, which we had a 
while ago and again just now, we could not be quite 
quiet and indifferent about it, without thinking and con- 
sidering what we should do, and this soon, before it was 
too late and we were caught unprepared. We thought 
the news might be true, there was no impossibility 
about it, for ever since we have been here we have heard 
that the Indians are eager for war, and only wait for 
things to go well for it. On the other hand, it may also 
be deceit on the part of the chiefs, who secretly spread 
abroad such news, and even forbid any one to tell us of 
it on this very account, that we may the more readily be- 
lieve it, they well knowing it would come to our ears, 
and wishing to arouse fear and dread among our Indians, 
so that they may take refuge with them and accept their 
messages. Since now we were in uncertainty, and knew 



820 zeisbbrger's diart. 

not what to believe, and since we did not wish to waste 
our time, for we had little now, and almost none to turn 
ourselves in and to form a plan, we turned to the Saviour 
and begged his advice. We asked him whether, consid- 
ing our circumstances, we had now any thing to ask him, 
and the answer was, yes. In the consultation hereupon 
we made the following lots : 

Ist. The Saviour is for our soon going away from here ; 
hereto we put a blank and the first was drawn. 

2d. The Saviour tells us to go to the place on the Mus- 
kingum pointed out by the conference in Bethlehem, 
and hereto a blank, and the first was drawn. We had 
still one matter of concern, namely, to know whether 
we should soon set out upon our journey to the Mus- 
kingum, having for some time such fine weather, the 
ground free from snow, and the Cuyahoga perfectly clear 
from ice. The Saviour let us know that we had no need 
of haste, but could await the spring. 

We were from our hearts thankful to the Saviour for 
advising us and helping us out of our trouble and perplex- 
ity. His word is truth, therein we trust, thereon de- 
pend. We should now no longer be disturbed by evil re- 
ports, nor pay heed to them, but go straight on and regard 
them not. 

Monday, 8. Joseph had us asked whether he would be 
received again if he should come back to us with his wife. 
We did not refuse him. but sent word to him he must first 
know whether his wife was of his mind, and if thus he 
came we would consider it. 

Wednesday, 10. Salome, Stephen's wife, became sud- 
denly ill with convulsions, so that it was feared she would 
not come to herself again, but she got better the next day. 
Many brethren went off to search for sugar-places and to 
build huts. 

Thursday, 11. A party of Chippewas came here from 
their hunting-place, encamping near by for several days. 
They were going to their sugar-place, were very friendly, 
and said that those who took the flour here were Tawas, 
and no Chippewas, for they did no such things. 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1787. 821 

Sunday, 14. Br. Edwards preached and David held the 
congregation meeting. The Chippewas near us gave our 
Indians a feast of bear's meat, having shot several bears. 

Tuesday, 16. Br. Edwards held early service. In the 
marriage quarter-hour afterward the single brother, Lewis, 
Salome's son, and the single sister, Esther, the late Rachel's 
daughter, were married. Most of the brethren went into 
the bush to build sugar-huts. 

Saturday, 20. Five messengers came from Pittsburg, 
sent to the nations with a message from Mr. Butler. Among 
them were two Senecas, one of them a chief, a Cayuga, 
an Onondaga, and a Wyandot. They made a speech to 
our Indians with a string of wampum, washed the tears 
from their eyes, comforted them for all the suffering they 
had passed through, and thereupon made known to them 
the directions given to them, whereto they had the order 
of the well known Cayashoto, the Mingo chief, who stayed 
much in Pittsburg. Their directions are to try whether 
they can bring the nations, especially the Shawanese, to in- 
cline their ears to peace, andif they perceive any inclination 
thereto among them, to invite them to a treaty ; to promise 
the Shawanese also, if they wish to make peace, they shall 
recover the thirty odd prisoners whom they have in the 
States. Our Indians thanked them, through a string, as 
well for their comforting address and good wishes as for 
the information about their directions, encouraged them to 
do their best, that a stable treaty of peace may be made 
among the nations, for we were children of peace and 
wished them good success. This pleased them so much 
that they said that now they went twice as cheerfully and 
willingly about their work ; they would do their best, and 
on their return would come here again to tell us how they 
found things and what they had accomplished. 

Sunday, 21. Early in the morning they set forth again 
on their way after we had given them some provisions for 
the journey. Br. David delivered a sermon about : Lord 
if thou wilt thou canst, etc. I will. Br. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. 
£1 



322 zbisbbrgbr's diabt. 

Tuesday, 28. From the many rains and thunder-storms 
the Cuyahoga rose so high yesterday and to-day as to cover 
the lowland. Our Indian brethren contributed corn for the 
Chippewas and gave it them. The eldest of them is brother 
of the chief who was our friend over the lake. They wish to 
make sugar here with our brethren ; they are very friendly, 
and always asking when we shall go back home again over 
the lake, thinking we stay here only for hunting, as they do. 

Thursday, 25. Most of the brethren went away to their 
sugar-huts, the weather being good and the water lower. 

Saturday, 27. Late in the evening came a messenger 
from Sandusky, not for us, to be sure, but to summon home 
the Indians in the bush here and there off hunting. We 
learned from him that the Indians were come back from 
Detroit, and we inquired about the state of affairs, what 
was the common talk among them. He said he knew 
thus much, that ten nations there had declared for peace, 
to which they were exhorted, and that they had agreed to 
this : Whenever a nation from now henceforth should con- 
tinue to do harm, all the others would look after it and 
force it to keep peace. This was very pleasant news to 
us, from which we could see that the Saviour began to 
make ready for us and to clear hinderances from our way. 

Sunday, 28. Edwards preached, thereupon was the com- 
munion quarter-hour. The messenger, by name Mamasu, 
who remained here to-day, and whom all the Indian breth- 
ren well knew to be a bad man, who, in Schoubrunn and 
Gnadenhiitten, had designs against the life of the brothers,- 
and when he long lay in wait for them, almost executed 
his murderous plans, (he) wished now to hear about the 
Saviour, and asked the Indian brethren to tell him some- 
what, and this they were glad to do, and not without 
effect, for he said afterwards he was of mind to come to 
us, and to change his ways, that he had neither father nor 
mother, and with his other friends [there were some few 
of them, four brothers and three sisters] he had already 
spoken, and they were not opposed. The reason of their 
coming upon such thoughts was that they had an uneasy, 
pitiable life, nothing but drunkenness was cared for, al- 



ON THE CUYAHOaA, 1787. 323 

though he drank with them, yet not willingly, and as they 
had heard they would be free from this if they came to us, 
all would like to be with us. The 29th he still stayed 
here, and was quite disposed to remain here at once, and 
not to go away farther, for he said, the message with 
which he was charged did not hinder him, he cared noth- 
ing about that, for Pipe would soon send another in case 
he stayed out too long, but to this we did not advise 
him. 

Wednesday, 31. The Indian, Mamasu, resolved to stay 
here for good. He wished neither to deliver his message, 
still less to go back, for fear he might be disturbed in 
his purpose and hindered by the Indians. We advised 
him neither the one nor the other, but awaited what 
would happen, and only wished him firmness. 

Saturday, Feb. 3. Our dear Lord blessed us unspeak- 
ably by the enjoyment of his body and blood in the holy 
communion, after the brethren had first been spoken to. 

Sunday, 4. After the communion liturgy, in which the 
brethren were recommended to have always in their hearts 
and not to forget the suftering, passion, and death of our 
Lord, and to interest themselves more therein, [thus would 
their faults and shortcomings be ever less, and the breth- 
ren ever more welcome and a greater joy and pride to the 
Saviour], was the sermon by Br. David, and Br. Edwards 
held the congregation meeting. The assistants spoke with 
Mamasu, whom we wished to put on 'probation, and they 
made known to him our ordinances, whereby he prom- 
ised to conduct his life. 

Monday, 5. In the early service, where the discourse 
was about the Scripture-verse : The sons also of them that 
afflicted thee shall come bending unto thee, the breth- 
ren were informed that Mamasu had permission to live 
with us, that we should all rejoice if he throve before the 
Lord. 

[Thus far to Bethlehem.] 

Wednesday, 7. The brethren all went to their sugar- 
huts. There remained at home, of the Indian brethren, 



824 zbisberqbr's diary. 

Cornelius, almost blind, and Epbraim, who is quite blind, 
and two old widows, besides us white brethren. 

Saturday, 10. Mary Magdalene was brought to bed in 
the sugar-huts — with^a son. 

Sunday, 11. Br. Edwards preached about the good 
seed in the field, and David held the congregation meet- 
ing. Quite a large number of the brethren came home, 
but, 

Monday, 12, nearly all went back again. A. Charity 
remained for sugar-making, with our permission. 

Wednesday, 14. By Peter, who went to Pettquotting, 
Mamasu sent back to Pipe his message and the wam- 
pum. 

Sunday, 18. A good many brethren came home. Br. 
David preached about the Saviour, and Br. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. In a book that came by chance 
into our hands last summer, we found instruction and di- 
rection how to reckon when Easter would fall this year, 
and we found it would be April 8th, according to our cal- 
culation, for we had neither calendar nor Scripture- verses 
for this year. 

Monday, 19. The brethren went back early, each one 
to his place in the sugar-camp. For several days we have 
pleasant spring weather. 

Wednesday, 21. Chippewas came in from their sugar- 
huts very fine-looking, friendly Indians. 

Friday, 23. An Indian came through here as messen- 
ger to the Indians in Gokhosing (Vernon River, 0.), to 
summon all those there to the Miami, whither now ail the 
Indians are going, usually no good token of peace. We 
learn that the nations seem to incline to peace, but that 
all depends upon a treaty the nations will have held in 
Pittsburg. 

Sunday, 25. Two Chippewas were present at the ser- 
mon, which Br. David delivered, one of whom understood 
Delaware somewhat. At the end of this the little son of 
Renatus, the Mohican, and Mary Magdalene, born in the 
sugar-camp on the 10th Inst., was baptized with the name 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1787. 826 

Timothy. Br. David held the congregation meeting from 
the Scripture- verse. 

Tuesday, 27. By Stephen and Adam, who went to the 
Fort, we sent letters to Bethlehem. 

Friday, March 2. Peter, with his people, came back 
from Pettquotting, where he saw Luke and Anna Jo- 
hanna, who wish themselves back with us and are not at 
all pleased there. With them came here also Petty, who 
manifested her desire to be with us again, and she re- 
mained here. 

Sunday, 4. The brethren who are not far off came home 
from their sugar-camp for the services. Br. Edwards 
preached and Br. David held the congregation meeting in 
the afternoon, and then most of the brethren went back 
again. 

Tuesday, 6. Our Samuel became suddenly sick, had 
Br. David called in the night, committed to him his wife 
and children, and bade him not to permit them to be se- 
duced into heathenism by their friends who live on the 
Tawa River, if he should die, and this Br. David prom- 
ised him. He was let blood, whereupon the next day he 
was better. 

Saturday, 10. Stephen and Adam returned from Pitts- 
burg, gladdening us with letters from Bethlehem, dated 
last year, and from Br. Ettwein, of Jan. 6th, this year; 
also the Scripture- verses and texts for this year. At the 
same time we had a message from Lieut.-Col. Harmar from 
Fort Harmar, at the mouth of the Muskingum [who re- 
ceived the order from Congress and was to execute it], 
wherein he made known to us the resolve of Congress in 
our favor and told us we should send for the five hundred 
bushels of corn mentioned, twenty axes and twenty hoes 
and one hundred blankets in the aforesaid Fort Harmar. 

Also Gen. Richard Butler, Agent (for Indian Affairs), 
sent us word in a letter to Br. David that he had good 
hope that during the summer all differences with the In- 
dians would be put aside and every thing brought into 
good order. Trustworthy news from the assembly of the 
nations, he wrote, made this very credible to him. Messrs. 



826 zbisbergbr's diary. 

DuDcan and Wilson, however, advised us at the same time 
in their letter to remain here a year longer and to plant. 
They did not, indeed, allege their flour business, which 
they thought safe under our oversight, but because they 
believed that during this summer a stable peace would' be 
made again with the Indians. 

Sunday, 11. Br. David preached and thereupon held the 
communion quarter-hour, and he told the brethren now 
that we had the news from the proper hand, for which we 
had always waited, what Congress had resolved in their 
favor and for which they had given orders for execution. 
This was communicated by the speech of Lieut .-Col, Har- 
mar, which he sent to them in writing. At the same time 
they were told to prepare for departure for the Muskingum, 
and to be ready to do what was needful. We observed 
that most of them were glad and joyful to move to the 
Muskingum, but some few were doubtful about it. 

Tuesday, 13. An Indian on his way from Sandusky to 
Pittsburg came here and stayed, on account of the high 
water, through the whole week, it raining much, son of 
the departed Jacob. We had always heard that the In- 
dians were all moving from Sandusky to the Miami, as- 
sembling there, and this is usually no good token, and 
now we heard the contrary. 

Friday, 16. Both yesterday and to-day the brethren 
were spoken to, for they had all come together from the 
bush. To our shame (at our lack of faith) we found that 
the Saviour, in regard to our wandering and moving to 
the Muskingum, had turned the hearts of the brethren, 
giving them courage and inclination thereto. None of 
them had any desire to move to Pettquotting or Sandusky ; 
even the few who did not wish to go to the Muskingum, 
on account of their children and friends who were mur- 
dered there, had indeed no longing for this, but they 
wished rather to go with the greater part and remain with 
the church than again to put themselves under the sav- 
ages. 

Saturday, 17. At the Lord's supper were present as 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1787. 327 

candidates two sisters and two maidens, namely, Cathrine, 
Esther, Salome, and Anna Salome. 

Sunday, 18. After the communion liturgy,Br, Edwards 
preached and David held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 20. A white man of Pittsburg, an acquaint- 
ance, came here from the head of Great Beaver Creek, 
where he had passed the winter among the Indians, bring- 
ing some wares and things, all of which our Indians 
bought of him. We heard among our people all sorts of 
unpleasant things about our moving. There appeared 
traces of obstinacy [and this made us sad] among those 
from whom we had not expected it, but we were not there- 
fore cast down, but went comforted to work. Petty went 
to Sandusky, promising to come back to us again. Most 
of the brethren went, 

Wednesday, 21, to work making canoes. They have one 
ready now and need yet still seven or eight. 

Thursday, 22. The white man went back again. 

Saturday, 24. Messrs. Duncan and Wilson came here 
and remained until the 26th. They spoke with us about our 
moving to the Muskingum, advising us to remain here, 
for, as they said, there was yet no peace with the Indian 
nations, and the times were still very uncertain ; for this 
matter they had instructions from Mr. Butler to speak 
with us. Although we did not heed this much, and there- 
fore had not much concern about it, yet through Luke's 
sons, on the evening of the 25th, we got very disagreeable 
news and threats from the Indians, that if we moved 
Br. David would be killed, and this caused us much con- 
sideration. 

Sunday, 25. (Annunciation.) David preached and 
thereafter held the service for to-day's festival from the 
day's text : Forasmuch then as the children are partakers 
of flesh and blood, he also himself took part of the same, 
about the great blessing and the great grace which has 
become the portion of us all, small and great, through the 
Saviour's incarnation, passion, and death, that we now by 
Christ's will are in God's grace and through belief in him 
are become the children of God. 



828 zeisbbrqbb'b durt. 

Monday, 26. Edwards held early service. Messrs. Dan- 
can and Wilson set forth on their way to Detroit, one of 
our Indians going with them as guide as far as Pettquot- 
ting. Since we were now prepared to break up from here 
after the Easter holidays, but the news which we heard 
both from Pittsburg and from the Indian land, caused us 
much consideration and concern, inasmuch as we could 
not see plainly and clearly, indeed it seemed as if we 
were again hemmed in on all sides, we were anxious for 
consolation, and needed advice to know what we should 
do, for we saw no outcome for our Indian brethren about 
whose well-being, safety, and quiet we were most con- 
cerned, and where could we get us advice save from him 
who knows beforehand times and circumstances, to whom 
our situation and perplexity are better known than we 
can tell him, who alone is wise and the best adviser in all 
our needs. So we brought our circumstances before the 
Saviour, and begged him most earnestly and pressingly to 
advise us according to his own heart, and to make known 
to us his gracious, good, and agreeable will. After much 
consideration and after our moving to the Muskingum at 
present was not opposed by him, and our other plans fell 
through, we saw that the way thither was barred for the 
time being; to remain here was also impossible, and we 
had no other resource than to go again out by the lake, 
whence we came a year ago, arid finally as we had but 
this one plan in reserve wherewith all our schemes, thoughts, 
and considerations came to an end, the Saviour approved 
that we should seek a place of refuge between the Cuy- 
ahoga and Pettquotting, and there remain. For this also 
we brought him our thanks and adored him, astonished 
and full of awe at his government, which he carried out 
among us, and for the ways which he went with us. We 
must place our hands upon our mouths, and say : "What 
he does and ordains is right and well done, for in his gov- 
ernment has he never failed." This was indeed unex- 
pected by us, and a perfectly new scene was spread open 
to us, something which now indeed we could not under- 



ON THB CUYAHOGA, 1787. 329 

stand, but in the future should better understand and 
comprehend, why it should so be and not otherwise. 

Tuesday, 27. The Indian brethren set about getting 
some canoes ready, which they had already begun, after 
we had first spoken with the assistants and made known 
to them that we should not this spring go to the Mus- 
kingum, but back again to the lake, whence we came. 
Many were in thought thereover what it meant, and this 
we could not indeed quite plainly tell them, save only 
that times and circumstances were not yet settled, and as 
yet there was no stable peace. They accommodated them- 
selves very well to this and were also quite content. We 
have lately observed among the brethren that many, esn 
pecially such as lost their children and friends on the Mus- 
kingum, are not entirely willing to go thither, but yet we 
have also found that none of them would have remained 
behind, and wished to go his own way, if we had gone 
there, and all was already arranged to go there and not 
elsewhere. 

Friday, 30. As it was rumored among the brethren that 
we do not go to the Muskingum, but back again, there 
secretly spread among them a report that Br. David and 
his wife would return to the church, that Br. Edwards 
would go with them, and this caused much unnecessary 
consideration [and some said to us they would go with us, 
whether we went into the land (of the States) or over the 
lake], for this had some only resolved, but it had also the 
result, that when they talked about it among themselves, 
they said, with tears in their eyes, that it would be no won- 
der should it so be, they had already caused us so much 
anxiety, but if this time only we would stay with them, 
they would so trouble us no more, but from now on would 
better themselves, through the Saviour's grace. 

Sunday, April 1. Br. Edwards preached to-day from 
to-day's Gospel about the Saviour's entrance into Jerusa- 
lem. Thereupon was the communion quarter-hour, and 
towards evening the congregation meeting from the Scrip- 
ture-verse : In thy presence is fulness of joy ; at thy right 
hand there are pleasures for evermore. Afterwards, the 



830 zbisbbrgbr's diary. 

brethren were told we had hitherto thoughts of going to 
the Muskingum, when we broke up here, but that we found 
our circumstances such that it was not yet time ; to remain 
here we also found not well ; we should then select a place 
for a temporary abode between here and Pettquotting, but 
meanwhile always consider our appointed place on the 
Muskingum the object of our endeavors. 

I will here introduce an example to show how the Holy 
Ghost preaches among the brethren. Many brethren and 
sisters came together in a house, talking about to-day's 
Gospel, wliich they had heard. One brother said : " I have 
often already heard that which I heard to-day, but it has 
never been so clear to me as to-day, especially the words 
the Saviour spoke : My house shall be called of all nations 
the house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves." 
He said : " Our body is a temple, a house of the Holy 
Ghost. The Saviour has washed us from our sins by his 
blood, and prepared our hearts and bodies, that he may 
dwell therein. Henceforth we should not defile God's 
temple, nor again let in the old sinful things from which 
our Saviour has washed and cleansed us; we must always 
bear in mind that we are not our own, but that we belong 
to the Saviour, body and soul, and therefore keep our- 
selves undefiled." 

Tuesday, 3. Yesterday and to-day the Indian brothers 
got some canoes ready and brought them into the water, 
whereby Samuel dislocated his arm for the fourth time, 
which, with much trouble, was at last brought back again. 
From Pettquotting came Zachary, bringing a message 
from a Monsey chief to Br. David alone : " Grandfather, I 
hear thou willst go to Thuppekiink, but I advise thee not 
to go there this spring. I cannot plainly tell thee why, 
but this much, it is not yet time. I can also say nothing 
as to whether there will be war or peace ; that depends 
upon circumstances. Think not that I oppose thy teach- 
ing the Indians God's word ; that is dear to me, but I ad- 
vise thee well. Go not to Thuppekiink, ye might all suffer 
harm." 

Wednesday, 4. Both yesterday and to-day the breth- 



ON THE CUYAHOGA, 1787. 331 

ren were spoken to, for there is much which is unpleasant, 
and this makes us grieve, yet the Saviour again sent us 
much peace in them. 

Thursday, 5. Towards evening was read the heart- 
moving story of our Saviour on the Mount of Olives. 
Then the communion brethren had the washing of feet, 
and thereupon enjoyed his body and blood in the holy 
communion with hungry and thirsty souls. Michael was 
readmitted. Two young sisters and two grown girls were 
partakers for the first time. This was indeed something 
new, for hitherto we have always been on our guard about 
admitting such young people to the holy communion, but 
it seems the Saviour will show us that we should give 
more thought to our young people than hitherto. We 
have found mauy times from experience that they surpass 
the old in attachment to the Saviour and the church. Thfey 
have no longer taste for the world and heathenism, nor 
pleasure therein. They will not remain among the sav- 
ages, even those who are not baptized, but have grown up 
in the church. 

Friday, 6. The story of our Saviour's sufferings, cruci- 
fixion, death, and burial was heard with moved and melted 
hearts. For his hard and bitter suffering, for his buftet- 
ings and scourgings, for all the wounds he received for us, 
for his outpouring of blood, he received many tears of 
sinners, and the brethren could not hear enough ; it was 
as if they heard for the first time. 

Saturday, 9. We had a love-feast, whereby was a dis- 
course about the Saviour's rest in the grave after his hard 
sufferings, and then about the Scripture- verse and text. 

Sunday, 8. We read early in the chapel, having here 
no grave-yard, the Easter litany. Thereupon was a part 
of the story of the resurrection read. Br. Edwards 
preached, and, in the afternoon service, Esther, Cornelius' 
daughter, a single woman, was taken into the church, and 
her brother baptized into Jesus' death with the name 
Tobias, whose father Tobias had been a martyr at Gnaden- 
hiitten, on the Muskingum. 

Monday, 9. By John Leeth and two Indians with him 



882 zbisbbrgbb's diart. 

we had a letter from Br. Heckewelder from Pittsburg, of 
the 2nd of this month, telling us of his arrival there with 
two brothers, Michael Jung and Weigand. We at once 
made preparations, and sent, 

Tuesday, 10, several brethren there with horses to help 
them. The letters from Bethlehem, however, did not 
come. Samuel went also with a couple of brethren a 
good day's journey from here, to seek a place for our set- 
tlement, where we thought of staying as soon as they 
came back. 

Wednesday, 11. Anna Johanna came from Pettquot- 
ting. They were almost shipwrecked on the rocks in a 
storm. These, especially Anna Paulina, when, the next 
morning, they were at early service, could do nothing but 
weep, at again hearing the word of God, of which they 
had heard nothing the whole winter, but they accused 
themselves and called themselves guilty, that they had let 
themselves be so blind. 

Friday, 13. Samuel came back with the two brothers, 
Stephen and Adam, from their exploration. When they 
went away from here, they went straight through the 
bush to the head of the very creek where we wished to 
go. There they met a party of Tawa Indians out hunt- 
ing, who told them that farther down the creek they 
would find excellent land. They made then a bark canoe, 
went down the creek, and found it as they had been told, 
namely, a great tract of good land, even better than here, 
or than we have anywhere had; it was partly clear and 
the rest easy to clear, some five or six miles from the lake, 
but quiet and deep water so far, but straightway at the 
upper end a strong current and rapids begin. Only they 
said they could find no town-site, for on the creek there is 
nothing but rich bottom land, but yet this lies so high 
that water can never overflow it. This creek is half way 
between Cuyahoga and Pettquotting,^ the only place we 
can make use of, and there is no other to be found, there- 
fore we had no choice. 



* Probably, then. Black River. 



JOURNEY TO HURON RIVER, 1787. 388 

Sunday, 15. David preached, and thereupon held a serv- 
ice for the baptized. We had six brethren baptized this 
year, and three taken into the church, whom we com- 
mitted to the Saviour for farther oversight, and to God, 
the worthy Holy Spirit, for his care, to let them grow in 
the knowledge and love of Jesus Christ, and to thrive in 
the church wholly for him. From Pettquotting came a 
French trader, on his own business, in quest of a strange 
Indian, and stayed over night. Br. Edwards held the 
congregation meeting. One of our Indians, Mamasu, who 
went to the Tuscarawas and lay alone in the bush, was 
fallen upon at night by two wolves. One of them at- 
tacked his dog, which gave the alarm. The Indian seized 
his musket at once, and while the other wolf was spring- 
ing upon him, he jumped over the fire, and shot him dead 
in his camp ; he then ran at once to help his dog, where- 
upon the other wolf took flight, but his dog was so very 
much hurt that he had to carry him the next day. 

Monday, 16. David held the early service. He told 
the brethren to hold themselves in readiness to start from 
here within two or three days, as many as could, for we 
could not all wait until those from the Fort had come 
back. 

Thursday, 19. After the early service, in which, at the 
end, we thanked the Saviour in prayer for all the good- 
ness, kindness, and blessing we had here enjoyed from 
him, and had further recommended us to his grace and 
guidance, and after we had thereupon loaded our canoes, 
we went, some by water down to the lake, while, at the 
same time, they who went by land began their journey 
with Br. Zeisberger and his wife, but Br. Edwards with 
those by water. We came, 

Friday, 20, to Stone Creek (Rocky River, perhaps), 
where we found some canoes, most having passed the most 
dangerous place, namely, the steep rocks, and some had 
already got a good distance beyond, but, on account of 
high wind, had to come to land. A year ago to-day we 
left Huron River. • 

Saturday, 21. There was a hard wind from the north 



834 zeisbbrgbr's biart. 

and north-west, on which account the canoea had to lie , 
Btill. The waves struck so hard upon the rocks that the 
ground trembled at times, for the wind came straight 
from the lake. Those on land also kept still on the 22nd, 
for the night before they fished by torchlight, and speared 
some hundred large fish, weighing from three to ten 
pounds each, which they had to cook and dry on the way. 

Monday, 23. We left the canoes and set forth upon our 
way. It was yet too windy upon the lake to start. In the 
evening we encamped. 

Tuesday, 24. We turned from the way along the lake, 
going some miles through the bush straight to our place, 
and when we came to our creek where we wished to go, 
we found ourselves on a high hill, from which down into 
the plain we could overlook the whole country, as it were 
a beautiful, pleasant garden. We went from there across 
the land, pleased with every thing we saw. We found it 
just as the brethren who had been here described it, and 
even better, for there is almost as much clear land as we 
shall all need. It is true, as they said, we have nowhere 
had such good land. We encamped near the creek, which 
is deep, and thus far no strong stream, for the lake checks 
it thus far ; a little further up, just above us, the stream be- 
gins. In the evening Samuel, the only Indian brother with 
us, went fishing, and had in a short time more fish than 
were necessary. They are a sort of pike, which now at 
this time go in great numbers from the lake into the creek. 

Wednesday, 25. Those who set out by water at the same 
time with us got here. They started this morning with 
still water from Stone Creek at daybreak, and came by good 
luck this afternoon into this creek, when a strong wind 
arose, and the lake was already quite rough. We found 
now that we were some five miles from the lake, and if the 
wind comes thence we can plainly hear it roar. In the 
evening we unloaded our canoes and brought our things 
where it was dry ; pleasantest and best was it to have had 
fair weather during the whole journey. 

Thursday, 26. We got rainy weather, and each one 
built himself a hut. The sisters dug wild potatoes, of which 



JOURNEY TO HURON RIVER, 1787. 335 

there are many here, a very wholesome food for Indians. 
Matthew, Cornelius' son, who came here yesterday from 
the Miami, said that Titawachkam wanted to give him a 
message for us, which he would not receive, but told him 
he might deliver his message himself, whereupon so much 
was told him by word of mouth ; to say to us that soon 
something would be told us by the chiefs to something this 
effect : We should not plant here, but come to Sandusky, 
where they had made a place for us. Many bad threats 
were also added if we refused, and this again caused us 
much anxiety. He said at the same time that the Indians 
always held themselves ready for war. 

Friday, 27. A canoe went to Cuyahoga to help forward 
those who went to the Port. David held evening service 
from the Scripture- verse. The Indian brethren brought 
in clear alum, which they got from the rocks on the creek, 
and they said there was plenty to be had. Another canoe 
went to Pettquotting to get corn, a good day's journey 
from here, but before they came out of the creek into the 
lake they were stopped by Titawachkam, who came here 
with Luke, bringing us a message from the chiefs. Pipe, 
Welandawecken, and Pomoacan, and as he was in haste 
to turn back again he ordered the brethren to assemble at 
once, saying he had something important to tell us. As 
Br. David was not present when this occurred, he had him 
called, for to him, he said, he had something to say per- 
sonally. When he came he made first an introductory 
speech, saying that he was sent by the aforesaid three 
chiefs to make known to us quickly their mind and will 
before it should be too late, since spring was at the door. 
On our behalf they had held a council and considered for 
our good and resolved how and where we could dwell 
quiet, safe and undisturbed. The chiefs meant well by us 
and wished much we might accept their message. The 
message, accompanied by a string of wampum, was as fol- 
lows : " Friends, ye believing Indians, we have thought 
upon you for your good, considered and resolved that for 
the present ye can nowhere live so quietly and securely 
as near us on the Sandusky River, neither here where ye 



886 zeisbergbr's diart. 

are, nor in Pettquotting, nor elsewhere in Cuyahoga. 
Our uncle, Pomoacan, gives you a piece of land between 
the Lower Wyandot Town and Monsey Town, where 
I live; there ye can plant and fish, settle, and continue 
your worship of God undisturbed, and no one will trouble 
you or put any thing in your way, for every one knows the 
chiefs have made ready unanimously the place for you. If 
you agree to this it will be well for you. I do not say 
that ye shall first much consider about it, for it has all been 
considered, and ye have nothing to do but to arise. I take 
you by the hand and lead you to your appointed place, 
which is made ready for you." 

Thereupon he turned to Br. David and said farther, 
likewise with another string : " Hear, my friend, my rela- 
tive. Thou art my grandfather, my flesh and blood, of 
my color. My forefathers, our chiefs, have adopted thee 
into our nation. I know well, over what they have agreed 
together concerning thy person. One of the then chiefs, 
still in life, has given me a commission in thy behalf to 
have care of thee, for no chief is here, and not to permit 
any harm to happen to thee in these yet unquiet times ; 
this is not unknown to the chiefs here, they are perfectly 
well aware that I am placed here by my chiefs to conduct 
thine affairs, they know thus that thou art in good, safe 
hands, and that no harm will happen to thee," whereupon 
he handed the string to Br. David. 

Afterwards we yet spoke much with him, telling him 
our anxiety about living so near other towns; first, on 
account of their drunkenness; secondly, on account of 
the seduction of our young people; thirdly, on account of 
our cattle. To this he answered they had thought about 
this too, and come to an understanding about every thing; 
their young people would be told not to be troublesome to 
us, nor do us harm; therefore he was there if we had any 
thing to complain of, it would not be needful for us to do 
ourselves justice, but we should only tel| him, he would 
conduct our affairs at the proper place, and provide what 
was right. Different brothers told him their thoughts and 
fears. Abraham said that what the chief told us was al- 



JOURNBY TO HURON RIVER, 1787. 337 

ways fair, if only we could depend upon it that they were 
speaking the truth. When they took us away from our 
towns on the Muskingum they had also said we should not 
regard our plantations, we should find enough to eat 
where we were going, but afterwards they gave us not a 
grain of corn except what we had to buy enormously dear. 
Another said they had already thus promised us Pettquot- 
tiug, had told us to dwell on the Sandusky wherever we 
pleased, but afterwards bade us get out of that country, 
and Br. David said to him that they had also promised 
them that they should have and keep their teachers with 
them, and should continue to hold their worship of God 
unhindered, but yet they had deprived them of their 
teachers, and driven them over the lake. He had to hear 
a good deal which he could not deny, but he said it was 
all true, he knew well enough, but it should no more hap- 
pen. Some said again that they should go not only with 
great reluctance to Sandusky to live, but were quite op- 
posed to going, from which he could see that our Indians 
were more against it than we were, but yet afterwards 
they went. After we had talked over all sorts of things 
with him, and had also inquired how far the plac^ 
was distant from other towns, he told us we should be 
seven, eight, or nine miles from his town, but from the 
Wyandot town we should be much farther off; then we 
separated, and, as he wanted to turn back towards home 
to-day, we spoke with our Indian brethren, telling them 
our mind and disposition, for we can plainly see that we 
have no choice, we should cause ourselves nothing but vexa- 
tion, trouble, and all manner of hardship if we wished to 
oppose, and then should accomplish nothing ; therefore we 
advised them to give their consent and acquiescence for 
going to Sandusky, and this they did, seeing that we con- 
sented. We gave our answer by a string of wampum that 
we wished to do what they required of us, and would go 
there when they had appointed. But to the clause con- 
cerning Br. David we added a clause, to wit: that the 
brothers who were with him should have the same regard 
22 



838 ZBISBBRGER'S Dli^RT. 

paid them, and the same privilege as he had, or if he 
should pass from time, and another come in his stead, that 
there should be the same arrangement. The whole mat- 
ter, as regards this point, is expressly to be seen in the 
diary of the Mission on the Ohio for the year 1770, in the 
months of May, June, or July. 

Though we could not quite rejoice about this circum- 
stance and occurrence, for it went against our mind, 
thought, and will, and was something we could not 
do willingly, and yet must do, we were comforted by 
to-day's Scripture-verse to thank the Lord therefor. It 
read : Give thanks unto the God of gods, give thanks to 
the Lord of lords, to him who alone doeth great wonders, 
and this we did, but for the present still in faith. Br. 
Edwards held the service in the evening. 

Saturday, 28. We sent a messenger to Cuyahoga, to 
give the brethren ^till remaining there news of our situa- 
tion, and to bid them follow us as soon as possible. Luke> 
who remained over night, went away, with whom Br. David 
spoke in a straightforward and earnest way, laying before 
him every thing, which he denied. 

* Sunday, 29. Br. David held service in the forenoon 
and Edwards in the evening. 

Monday, 30. At noon came Br. Michael Jung, with the 
messenger from Cuyahoga, where, with Br. Weigand, he 
had come from Pittsburg three days before, by whom, to 
our heartfelt joy, we got letters from the church, where- 
with we were busy all the afternoon and refreshed our- 
selves. He came to us even here in the bush on our pil- 
grimage. He had left Br. John Weigand in Cuyahoga 
with our brethren, who were behind and for whom we 
were waiting. In the evening service the brethren were 
greeted by the churches and brothers, and were told that 
Br. John, who much loved the Indian brethren, had sent 
them a message in writing, which they should hear so soon 
as they should all be together. 

Tuesday, May 1. Michael Jung held evening service 
from the Scripture-verse. 

Wednesday, 2. Last night and to-day was a high wind. 



JOURNEY TO THB HURON RIVBR, 1787. / 339 

The lake was not to be travelled and we could not expect 
our brethren. Br. Edwards held service. We learned 
late this evening that Br. John Weigand had come to the 
lake below with Br. Schebosh and his wife, William and 
others, and encamped there. The first came, 

Thursday, 3, early to us, as we were upon the point of 
breaking up to move on, yet we welcomed and greeted 
one another and rejoiced together. We then soon went 
away, leaving our pleasant place, which in every way 
pleased all who saw it, and we left our huts standing, 
which we had made, and went down to the lake, where 
we encamped ; here we waited for the remaining canoes 
from Cuyahoga. 

Friday, 4. It was very windy last night and to-day, 
but as the wind came from the south and did not hinder 
us, two canoes went ahead to Pettquotting to get corn. 
Five canoes came to us from Cuyahoga, for which we have 
been waiting, so that how Cuyahoga is quite deserted and 
we are all together. With them came to us John Leeth, 
with his wife and children, who came with the brothers 
from Pittsburg. As in the evening there was windy, rainy 
weather, wo could have no service, but Samuel had in his 
hut an hour of song, at which many brethren were pres- 
ent. Mamasu, who has already often spoken with Br. 
David, being in great perplexity about himself, came of his 
own accord and from the restlessness of his heart, and had 
an upright, fraternal talk with him. Afterwards also he 
brought to Br. David his brother, who had come with the 
brethren from Cuyahoga, having gone there from hunting, 
and said that he too would like to live with us and become 
a believer; to whom Br. David said he should first learn 
about us by seeing and hearing, so that he could well con- 
sider and not afterwards repent. 

Saturday, 5. Early the wind was still good for us. We 
made every preparation for running out and going to 
Pettquotting, but before we were ready the wind went 
around to the west and was very strong, so that the lake 
raged and roared. We had to remain encamped here, but 
got our cattle over the river, which is here quite wide, and 



840 zbisbbrgbb's diart. 

encamped on the west side, where we were somewhat out 
of the wind. 

Sunday, 6. Br. Zeisberger and his wife went on ahead 
with those who were going by land with the cattle, so that 
if the wind became favorable the canoes might not have 
to wait for them and we might not hinder one another. 
They came, 

Monday, 7, towards noon, the wind not changing, to the 
mouth of a deep creek (Vermillion River, perhaps), where 
they swam the cattle over, and making a bark canoe, got 
the men and baggage over, and then went along the lake 
till evening. At the night-quarters we saw on the shore 
of the lake an interesting occurrence, which may often 
happen here on these lofty shores. A great mass of land, 
together with the trees which stood on it, close and high, 
was torn from the land and carried a good piece out into 
the lake and made at once an island. The wood standing 
on it was not in the least injured and continued to grow 
as before.^ From this one can form some slight idea of 
the earthquakes in Italy, by which also tracts of land are 
moved, but yet an earthquake was not the cause here. 

Tuesday, 8. Since the bush in which we encamped was 
very wild and thick, we had this morning long labor in 
getting the cattle together. We came in the afternoon to 
Pettquotting,* and encamped a mile from the lake on the 
creek, .where a French trader lives, who entertained Br. 
Zeisberger and his wife with bread, butter, and bush-tea, 
which tasted right well, for we were hungry. 

Here the Indians, whom we met, advised us against 
going to Sandusky. Among them was Weschnasch 
[Frederick], one of our baptized, who told us we had been 
deceived with the statement that the Monsey town was 
eight miles from our place ; that it was not over two miles 
oft', and that we should be much plagued there by sots. 
This was indeed such good reason for alarm that we 
thought much about it and our Indian brethren, who did 

^ I do not understand Zeisberger to speak as an eyewitness. 
' Huron River, 'flowing through Huron and Erie counties. 



JOURNEY TO THE HURON RIVER, 1787. 841 

not want to go there, said we should all be ruined — ^first, 
through the drunkenness; secondly, because we came too 
late for planting, and we should again have to pass a whole 
year of famine. 

In the evening came Benjamin from the brethren on the 
water, bringing a letter from Br. Michael Jung, who 
told us that late last evening some canoes ran into the 
creek where we swam our cattle over and made a ca- 
noe, that Br. Edwards with his canoe had sunk in the 
waves, and that others had to go back a part of the way 
in retreat before they could come. 

Wednesday, 9. We lay still in Pettquotting, waiting for 
the canoes, to which some of our Indians carried some 
provisions and corn jthey had bought here; by these Br. 
David wrote to the single brothers, Edwards, Jung, and 
Weigand. At the evening service some strange Indians 
were present. 

Thursday, 10. In the afternoon the three single broth- 
ers came to us, and also some canoes which had got to 
the river before the wind grew so strong, but the others 
bad to run to land farther back, and first got to us in 
the evening, and then we were all together again. 

They were so lucky yesterday when they had to lie still 
as to shoot an elk and a deer, so that they all had meat. 
We considered here what was farther to be done, for we 
saw that we were not lords of the lake, which so hin- 
dered us that we should yet use up a month in getting 
to Sandusky, and then first have to clear the land, and so 
we dared think of no planting. Since now we have be- 
fore us here up the river old fields, which were planted 
last year, although not quite enough for us all, yet we 
found it unanimously best to remain here and to plant, 
though we could expect nothing else than to .be harassed 
here, but we resolved to put the matter through with 
earnestness, for it is as if every eflFort were made to bring 
us again to misery and hunger. God help us out of this 
need ! In the evening was a service from the Scripture- 
verse. We went up the river with a number of brethren 
to see the place, and found along the river many fine 



842 ZBISBERaBR's DIART. 

plantations, and as far as we went deep and still water as 
if there were ebb and flow* 

Friday, 11. Our Indians in part bought, in part bor- 
rowed corn from the Frenchman, under the condition of 
paying it back again in the autumn, which was very kind 
of him, only it was a pity we had not much, but there were 
in the place where we thought of remaining, some forty 
or fifty bushels buried, which we could have for a dollar 
a bushel, and this was just what we needed. In the after- 
noon we went some miles up the river, to the place where 
we thought of remaining and planting, and encamped. 
It was a solitary place, a wilderness where nobody lived, 
but before it was quite dark a town of huts stood there, 
and the place was lighted by fires. Our Indian assistants 
and brethren, however, were not quite at their ease about 
remaining here, fearing that we should soon get another 
message, and that no peace would be allowed us here, but 
that very likely we should be driven away by force, though 
want urges us and we cannot possibly go farther. Under 
these circumstances the worst and most oppressive is that 
among the Indians it is hard to come behind a thing and* 
learn the truth, for as soon as one only knows how things 
peculiarly hang together and are developed, it is easier and 
we could resolve upon something, but before this occurs 
we are in the dark. We heard here from strange Indians 
as if Titawachkam were acting for himself, and would 
make himself chief, but that the other chiefs knew little 
about the thing; behind him Luke puts himself, and the 
two work together, and, as it seems, it is they who make 
us so much need, anxiety, and uncertainty. Br. David 
therefore conferred with the assistants until after mid- 
night, and it wits settled that the two Indians should go 
to Pipe, lay before him our necessity, and talk the matter 
out with him in order to learn how we were situacted, what 
was truth and what was not truth, in- short to come to an 
understanding with him about every thing. 

Saturday, 12. There came from Sandusky Pipe's 
Loiigus,* as if summoned, from whom we heard much for 

1 See this word under Oct. 23, 1790. 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 343 

our comfort, finding out also that Pipe was to be found at 
home. The brothers, William and Thomas, set out on 
their journey thither in the afternoon. Towards evening 
the Chippewa with his family came from the mouth of the 
Sandusky to visit us, who had passed the winter near us 
in Cuyahoga, and after his usual way he was very friendly, 
remaining over night. William and Thomas went on our 
business to Sandusky. 

Sunday, 13. Br. David preached, and Weigand held 
the evening service under the open heaven. 

Monday, 14. The Indian brethren divided the cleared 
land among themselves, and we found there was much 
more of it than we had supposed, so that they would not 
be obliged to clear more, but merely to plant. This is a 
great help. The plantations lie favorably, for we shall 
not have to make fences, and we dwell on the east side of 
the creek upon a considerable height. The place did not 
altogether please us as much as we wished, moreover, the 
water in the river is bad, especially in summer. We must, 
however, take it as it is, and still be glad, if we may stay 
here and can be quiet. Br. Michael held service from the 
Scripture- verse : Let the whole earth be filled with his 
glory. 

Tuesday, 15. All went earnestly to planting to get 
seed-corn into the ground as soon as might be. In the 
afternoon Brs. William and Thomas came back from San- 
dusky, where they had heard that Pipe was not to be 
found at home, having gone away to the Wabash. They, 
therefore, found it best, from good reasons, to go to the 
Wyandot chief, at Lower Sandusky, and this they did, 
after having made known to him our arrival at Pettquot- 
ting by a string of wampum, and they represented to him , 
that we could not possibly, this spring, go up to San- 
dusky over so many falls, that this would use up a month, 
and we should lose the time for planting, so that, at some 
other time, we could travel farther ; in accordance with 
their request, we were come thus far, but could go no 
farther. The Wyandot chief showed by a string of wam- 
pum his satisfaction that we were come so far, and per- 



844 ZBISBBBGBR^S DIART. 

mitted us to plant here, but not to busy ourselves much 
in building, as we had elsewhere been accustomed, since 
we should not long remain here, but meanwhile we must 
be content with huts until we came to our appointed 
place. This was very pleasant and agreeable for us to 
hear, as we had also hoped that so much would be per- 
mitted us, should we go to the right man, and we were 
now for a time somewhat comforted over our circumstances. 
One thing, however, caused us trouble and perplexity, 
namely, that we now saw that we had been deceived in be- 
ing told that our place lay seven or eight miles from the 
Mousey town, for it is not more than two miles in a straight 
line, and this occasioned much consideration, since we saw 
that great damage could therefrom spring up for us, yes, 
that we might be eaten and swallowed by the savages, unless 
the powerful and extraordinary hand and might of God 
should rule over us. Therefore, we were discomforted, 
and remained so, although the Saviour, who does what he 
will in heaven and upon earth, may change time and cir- 
cumstances. We were already well enough aware that 
we are under the rule of heathen, and could now no 
longer do in every way as we would and should. On this 
point we find it hard that we are not our own masters. 
Oh the contrary, considered from the other side, it is 
quite in accordance with our purpose that we dwell among 
them, it is indeed our calling to preach them the Gospel, 
and that cannot be done if we are distant from them. 
We must let ourselves be content to be in the midst of 
Satan's nest, where he is visibly lord and king, and where 
we are surrounded by devils, for in each of the wild In- 
dians there lurk who knows how many, and this is not a 
»mere figure of speech, but it is really so. In the evening 
We had thunder, with rain, and could hold no meeting. 
From Gigeyunk (Ft. Wayne), where now all the Indians 
draw together, the brethren brought news of there being 
very great famine among the Indians, no corn nor means 
of living to be had, that the children waste away from 
hunger, and yet all go thither, where many will find their 
graves. There is such confusion among the Indians that 



^ 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 345 

it is impossible to describe it. They flee, and know not 
before what, and run straight to death. 

Wednesday, 16. All were busy planting. There came 
some Chippewas here visiting, who stayed over night. 
Br. Edwards held the meeting. 

Thursday, 17. We assembled early before our Lord, 
who for us has ascended into heaven, and begged for his 
blessing. After relation of the story, for there was no 
book at hand, and a discourse from the Scripture- verse : 
He is thy Lord, worship thou him, we begged for his pres- 
ence, his wandering with us in our pilgrimage, his near- 
ness and communion both with us in common and for 
each heart separately. We committed ourselves especially 
to his and the care and oversight of the Holy Ghost, of 
which, in our present circumstances, we have unusual 
need, and to the eye and watchman of Israel for grace in 
the future. At the end Zachary's and A. Elizabeth's son, 
bom day before yesterday, was baptized Jonathan. There 
came a couple erf Monsey women visiting here from an 
Indian party, on their way to the Miami, who, yesterday, 
came to the mouth of this river, and who have been in- 
vited into this country. Michael held service in the 
evening. 

Saturday, 19. This whole week we were busy planting. 
Both yesterday and to-day strange Indians were here vis- 
iting, in part acquaintances from the Monsey nation. 
They had lived a day's journey from the Cuyahoga, on 
the Tschinque* creek, and some had thought of planting 
this summer on this river below us. Among them were 
also some who have been baptized. 

Sunday, 20. On 'account of rain we could have no ser- 
vice until evening, and then Br. Edwards held it, at which 
were present some strangers, to whom afterwards, for they 
passed the night here, the Saviour was preached. 

Wednesday, 23. Mamasu's brother got permission from 
the assistants to live with us, after our rules bad been 
made known to him, by which he promised to conduct 

^ Perhaps the present Chagrin River. 



346 zeisbbrger's diart. 

himself. He had come to us here on our journey from 
Cuyahoga, and as soon as he came had asked of Br. David 
to be permitted to live with us, but he told him he should 
first inform himself, consider well, make a trial, and first 
be better acquainted with us ; but since that time h'e has 
stood fast by his resolution, and we had no hesitation in 
granting his desire. He is a well-minded man. 

Thursday, 24. We learned from Detroit, from where a 
boat has come to the river, that Duncan -and Wilson were 
under arrest there, together with their debtors. 

Saturday, 26. Adam came back from Sandusky, where 
he had got corn. We heard that the Indians, towards 
autumn, are invited to a treaty at Tuscarawas; that at 
present they are all out hunting; that the Twightwees and 
other nations did not wish to have the Delawares there, 
who were on their way in crowds to Gigeyunk, but told 
them to go upon their own land to live, and not to ruin 
their hunting, for the Delawares shoot the deer for the 
sake of the skins, and leave the fiesh lying in the bush. 
We have always heard that nearly all are hurrying thither, 
and are now again driven back. Michael held early service. 

Sunday, 27. The sermon treated of the office of the 
Holy Ghost, of whom our Saviour told us that he would 
send him in his stead to remain with us forever. There- 
upon we thanked him in prayer for his true and motherly 
care, for his unceasing pains and the labor he had with us 
to prepare us for the Saviour, asked his forgiveness when 
we had oftentimes grieved him and given no heed to his 
admonitions, and begged him to stand by us, to show him- 
self mighty and powerful among lis, and gave ourselves up 
farther to his true guidance, care, and oversight. He gave 
us in our hearts the assurance that he heard our prayer. 
In the afternoon service, held in the open air, from the 
text : Know ye not that your body is the temple of the 
Holy Ghost which is in you, Mamasu was baptized into 
the death of Jesus with the name Jeremy. 

Tuesday, 29. A man from Detroit, Smith by name, vis- 
ited us, and a woman came here from Sandusky, who bad 
buried here forty bushels of corn, all of which our Indians 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 347 

paid for with goods. We recommended the brethren to 
consider about a meeting-house as soon as possible. The 
next day they straightway made preparation and began 
upon it. Br. David wrote to Mr. Askin, in Detroit, by 
the French trader. 

Wednesday, 30. It was extraordinarily windy, and since 
our place lies high and open, we were not very safe in our 
huts on account! of the trees standing around us. Many 
fled and took refuge in the open. For the same reason 
there could be no meeting. * Jeremy's brother visited Br. 
David and talked with him for the first time about his 
heart, asking his advice, what he should do to be saved. 
He got the answer : '' Thou canst and shallst do nothing 
except give thyself up to the Saviour, bad and sinful as 
thou art, as a lost man, and believe that he can and will 
help thee, for his mercy's sake." The Saviour favored the 
plan that Br. John Weigand should go back to the church. 

Friday, June 1. Luke, who, before we came here, had 
already gone to Sandusky, and was utterly against our 
remaining here, came yesterday after midnight to frighten 
the brethren that they might the more readily believe him. 
He said to some of the sisters that he came to get us, for 
there was danger at hand, and he saw that their teachers 
were in danger, whom he wished to rescue. When he was 
asked where the danger was from, he answered that thirty 
canoes with Chippewas were come over the lake to San- 
dusky and Cuyahoga, who would eat us up and kill the 
teachers. They told him that if he had any thing to say, 
and was sent, it was not usual to disclose it to women and 
children, but he should call the brethren together and tell 
it them. This, however, he would not do, for he said they 
would not believe him, but he was willing to go to Br. 
David, and this could not be done till the next day. Mean- 
while came Chippewas and Wyandots from Sandusky, also 
two of our Indians from hunting, who had been in Cuya- 
hoga, but had neither seen nor heard any thing like this. 
Br. David thereupon spoke with him, led him to his heart, 
admonished him earnestly and heartily, sternly but kindly, 
and this had the effect wished for, that he came yet a little 



848 zbisbbrger's diart. 

to himself, was conscioas, acknowledged his failings and 
backslidings, and begged for forgiveness. Br. David there- 
upon gave him an opportunity to talk the matter out with 
the assistant brethren, whom hitherto he had not liked, 
and to be reconciled with them, of whom also he asked 
forgiveness, and when all was done he got permission to 
come to us again, which he desired and promised to do. 
We were very glad and thankful to the Saviour that he 
had found himself again. We have indeed trouble with 
him and must bear with him, but it is better than to have 
him for an enemy, who can bring upon us vexation and 
trouble, and has already so done. 

Sunday, 3. Br. Michael preached about the work of 
the Holy Trinity, which has worked out and brought to 
pass eternal reconciliation for the human race through our 
Lord, Jesus Christ, whose blood we have cost. Br. David 
held the congregation meeting from the Scripture-verse, 
that we, through our Lord, Jesus dhrist, have come to the 
knowledge of his and our dear heavenly Father, who so 
loved us that he gave his only beloved Son for us. There 
were present some strange Indians from the neighborhood 
here on this river. 

Monday, 4. William went to Sandusky to get corn. 
The white brothers had a love-feast for the wedding-day 
of Br. Zeisberger and his wife six years ago. 

Wednesday, 6. Our meeting-hall was finished, where 
in the evening we had the first service from the text : 
Whosoever transgresseth and abideth not in the doctrine 
of Christ, hath not God ; at this were present two white 
people from Detroit oil their way to Pittsburg, who re- 
mained here several days. As since Easter we have had 
and could have no communion, this was announced to the 
brethren for next Saturday. 

Friday, 8. Yesterday and to-day the brethren were 
spoken to with reference to the communion. Edwards 
held early service. Since now we have a chapel, we begin 
again to have our morning service as is our custom. 

Saturday, 9. The whole church had a love-feast, for 
which the brethren in Bethlehem had sent us fiour; to 



HUKON RIVBR, 1787. 349 

this came several Indians from the neighborhood, three 
miles from us down the river, among whom was one bap- 
tized by us. They came this spring from Tschinque, and, 
like us, must plant here, but they are not in the least 
troublesome, but are very friendly with us. At the love- 
feast we showed the brethren our thankfulness and recog- 
nition of their good will and the industry they had shown 
in building, and told them the Saviour would richly reward 
their labor, and this they could every day certainly ex- 
pect from him, for as often as we came together here to 
hear his word, he would bless us, and thus 'they would be, 
in many ways and richly, repaid, and they would not re- 
gret their labor. 

Thereupon a letter was read them from Br. John (de 
Watteville) to the Indian church, to every word of which 
they gave heed, and which they took to heart, of which 
we heard afterwards much that was pleasant to hear from 
the brethren. At the end of the day the communicants 
enjoyed his body and blood in the holy sacrament, in 
which one participated for the first time, Lewis, and told 
of the near presence of the Saviour. 

Sunday, 10. After the communion liturgy Br. Michael 
preached about God's love for us, that he gave his only 
born Son up to death for us, to reunite us through his blood. 
A Wyandot, from Detroit, was also present, who, two 
days before, had come out of the bush from hunting, with 
a couple of others. His comrades were already away, but 
he still remained here. He, who is the son of the chief, 
Astechretschi, over the lake, himself a chief, had spoken 
nearly all last night with Thomas, whom he knew over 
the lake, about his condition, telling him he had already 
long felt in his heart a call to come to us, and something 
said within him that here was the place where he could be 
happy, or, at least, where he could hear how he would 
come thereto. He said to Thomas that he would like to 
talk with the old brothers, and asked if they must all come 
together if he wished to say any thing, and if he wished to 
speak his heart and mind, whether he must talk through 
wampum, and show his condition in a formal speech. 



850 zeisbbbger's diart. 

Thomas answered that all this was unnecessary, that if he 
spoke with one or several assistants that would be enough ; 
they would give him an opportunity to bring to light his 
heart, his longing, and his thoughts, and this occurred to- 
day, for he spoke with the assistants, telling them his call, 
that for two years already he had been restless in heart and 
sought the best; that in Detroit he had gone into the 
church with the French, but he was not better there, but 
worse ; that he had spoken with his mother and brothers 
about it, that if they went to Montreal they would find some- 
thing good th6re, where also there are Indians who have a 
minister, but that he had secretly an impulse and inclina- 
nation for us, but that he had spoken to no one. After he 
had had his talk, he said to the brethren : '* Now, my 
cousins, hear me ; I shall not give you up if ye do not wish 
to receive me. My whole mind is to abide with you and 
to live as ye do. Tell me now your mind right out, what 
ye think." They answered, he must first carefully con- 
sider, for many had already come, asked to live with us, 
and when they had permission they had gone away, and 
had come not again. He answered that who had so done 
had not been truly in earnest, but he had no such thoughts ; 
he wanted still to say to them that he thought first to go to 
his friends over the lake, to tell them his intention, whether 
they or some of them, perhaps, might not be of his mind, 
and if not, he would come back. They answered him, he 
would not so find that all would be of his mind, there 
would be at least one against him ; they would try to dis- 
suade him, and would say so much that he would give up 
coming again, but he thought they would not persuade him 
to abandon his resolution. Since now he wanted much to 
have an answer, we told him he might go; if he came back 
again, we would not reject him, but be glad if he were con- 
tent with us and happy. Afterwards, however, he be- 
thought himself, and wished neither to go back over the 
lake nor to Sandusky, where he learned his brother was 
come from Detroit to look for him, but to him Br. David 
had to write a letter in his behalf, wherein he told him that 
he was here, and intended to remain ; if then any one of his 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 351 

friends wanted to see him, they would find him here on 
the Huron River among the believing Indians. William 
came from Sandusky, where he had spoken with Kuhn, 
telling him among other things that the place appointed 
for us was by no means suitable. He answered we must 
select in the neighborhood a place that did please us. 

[Thus far to Bethlehem.] 

Monday, 11. A number of sisters went by water to San- 
dusky to get corn, which a short time ago could be had for 
a dollar a bushel, but now already costs three dollars a 
bushel, and goes even higher, for it is very scarce. The 
brethren were compelled to make fences for some distance 
around the fields. 

Wednesday, IS. From Sandusky came Isaac Williams, 
his brother, and several others, to get Duncan's flour here, 
brought from Cuyahoga. As he is well known to the 
Wyandots and acquainted with them, for his brother-in- 
law, a white man and a chief among them, tells him every 
thing and takes advice from him, he was able to give us 
much information to our comfort. We learned thus that 
the Wyandots were inclined to let us stay here, that they 
will not force us against our will to move to Sandusky, if 
we make representations and lay our desire before the 
chiefs. It is now always becoming plainer that Titawach- 
kam and Luke have spun the plot, incited the chiefs 
thereto, and so urged them that they have given their con- 
sent, and then have got a weapon in their hands to come 
upon us with power and to torment us. These went away 
on the 15th to Sandusky, after first being present at the 
early service. Through our Wyandot we learn that the 
Six Nations are secretly at work and labor to have war 
begun with the Delaware nation, for which tfie war-belts 
already lie prepared in Sandusky. The Wyandots, how- 
ever, namely, the chiefs, of whom there are only two who 
know about it, make endeavors that nothing may come of 
this, and for this they already know means and ways. This 
was yet wanting to make our misery complete, for our 
brethren would not be safe a step from town, but we hope 
the Saviour will hinder this and turn it aside. 



852 zeisbbbobr's diart. 

Saturday, 16. Accompanied by our heartfelt blessings, 
Br. John Weigand set out this afternoon for the church 
(Bethlehem) with an escort of several Indian brethren. At 
the same time went the two white people from Detroit to 
Pittsburg, one of whom was a prisoner from Kentucky. 

Sunday, 17. Br. David preached and Br. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 18. Most of the brethren went out hunting, 
and there remain at home for the most part only the sisters. 

Tuesday, 19. Two canoes, with the sisters, came back 
from Sandusky, where they got corn. Luke also came 
from there with his family to remain. He can^e so humble 
and so Irke a sinner, saying he was unworthy to be taken 
into the church again. What pleased us most was that 
the assistants, who always had trouble with him when he 
was here before, had now right hearty compassion with 
him, wept with him, and held him as dear as ever before. 
This will be to him an abiding blessing his life-long, and 
we cannot enough thank the Saviour, who has changed 
our sorrow over him into joy. 

Wednesday, 20. Yesterday and to-day Br. David held 
the early service in Indian. The brethren hoed our corn 
to-day. 

Saturday, 26. Through the whole week the brethren 
have been busy hoeing corn, for which there was fine, dry 
weather. 

Sunday, 24. Br. David preached from Isaiah, 40 : Com- 
fort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God, in Indian, 
no interpreter being present. There were also strangers 
visiting here. 

Monday, 25. The brethren who were still at home went 
also out for a few days' hunting. 

Tuesday, 26. Some sisters went to the lake along the 
shore to seek some necessities for their labor, as also tur- 
tles' eggs, of which they have often brought home many 
hundreds and thousands, which for them is good food.* 

^"We therefore hugged the shore of Lake Erie and landed whenever 
we required refreshment. To this we were in great degree induced by 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 35S 

Wednesday, 27. The French trader came here, who 
yesterday got back from Detroit, bringing us a letter from 
Mr. Askin to Br. David. From there we hear that all is 
quiet and nothing of consequence to be expected ; that 
the wicked rumors among the Indians about war are pure 
lies, but that the nations are constantly exhorted and en- 
couraged to peace with the States by the English ; that to 
the Indians in Gigeyunk, on the Miami, whither many are 
fled and where they waste away with hunger, corn and 
flour had been sent from Detroit for their maintenance ; 
that business is s*o bad there that nearly all the merchants 
become bankrupt. 

Saturday, 30. Some brethren, for instance, Thomas, 
Adam, and Adolphus, who were up the creek hunting, 
came home. They had seen the country along the creek, 
but had found no place better than we have here. They 
brought honey and meat home. 

Sunday, July 1. At the sermon, which Br- David 
preached in Indian, several strangers were present from 
the neighborhood. Both yesterday and to-day we had 
many thunder-storms. 

Wednesday, 4. A sick Indian, Abraham's son, who 
several days ago came here with his family from Sandusky, 
and encamped near by where he became ill, allowed him- 
self to hear something about the Saviour, to whom Abra- 
ham preached the Saviour. Not much dependence, how- ' 
ever, is to be placed upon the conversion of such people, 
for we have often seen by experience that as soon as they 
are well again they go their way and forget all they have 
promised. He and his whole family, early on the 5th, 
were present at the morning service, for he was somewhat 
better. Lea, a great girl, who a short time ago went away 
from us ar\d married a Chippewa Indian, came here again, 

the multitude of turtles' eggs with which the beach abounded, and 
which we easily procured in plenty. . . . We fried them in 
bear's oil, and found them very delicious food/* — Johnston's Narra- 
tive in 1790, Harpers, 1827. 

23 



854 zbisberger's diart. 

but we sent her away to-day, for she is wanton and causes 
mischief among our girls. 

From the neighborhood here a canoe-load of Indians 
came visiting, likewise some Wyandots, who offered to 
sell our Indians horses they had stolen in the settlements, 
and they had taken one white man prisoner, but no one 
would trade with them. Thus they do, each one as he 
pleases ; they give no heed to orders of their chiefs, who 
are yet busy about making peace. 

Friday, 6. David held early service. The Indian breth- 
ren hilled our corn. Since we live here upon the creek so 
near the lake, we see very plainly that there is a sort of 
ebb and flow in the lake, as we observed last year also 
upon the islands, so that at times a strong current sets to 
the west, and the sailors told us that always a strong cur- 
rent starts up before the wind comes from any quarter. 
"We often notice here that a strong current comes up the 
creek amd that the water rises two feet and then falls 
again. It is not probable, however, that this has any con- 
nection with the moon, but the air and wind cause the 
movement and the rise and fall of the water. 

Saturday, 7. Abraham preached the Saviour to his son 
in his hut, and this two Ottawa Indians heard, who had 
come here visiting, and with curiosity they went in to 
hear what was said. When Abraham had finished his 
discourse, they asked his son what he had said, for he un- 
derstands the Ottawa, Chippewa, and Wyandot tongues. 
He interpreted it to them, preached to thein, and was not 
afraid, a rare thing for a savage to do, who usually would 
not translate nor speak any such thing. Abraham then 
preached a long time to the Tawas, his son interpreting. 
They came, 

Sunday, 8, to the sermon, which Br. David gave in In- 
dian, about the story of Peter's draught of fishes, es- 
pecially the words : Dqpart from me for I am a sinful man, 
O L6rd, and at this several strangers from the neighbor- 
hood were present. Abraham's son came to-day to Br, 
David, talked with him about his heart, and said to him, 
among other things, that he was now disposed to become 



HURON RIVER, 1787, 355 

a believer, but that at times such feur and anxiety fell upon 
him that he knew not what to do ; it was as if some one said 
to him : " Thou fool, think not that thou canst be con- 
verted ; thou canst not so live, it is impossible, and in vain 
thou troublest thyself. Thou art too great a sinner and 
canst not leave thy sins nor be free." He disclosed to Br. 
David much about Satan's tricks, in the midst of which he 
had lived, from which it was plain to be seen that he was 
a true servant and slave of Satan, and with such it is 
much harder, until they come clear from Satan's hands, 
than with the greatest murderers. He related also that 
two days before a child had eaten his god, which, with 
other sacred things, he had tied up in a silk cloth [this 
was a face from a bear's bone], over which he was so dis- 
tressed that he feared some great misfortune would befall 
him, and it might even cost him his life, since he met this 
bad luck. Br. David said to him that his fear and anxiety 
were from the devil, who wished to alarm him, and turn 
him from his purpose of being converted ; there was no 
need for his fear, the Saviour had redeemed him with his 
blood ; he should only believe this, and if he were really 
in earnest to become the Saviour's and to be saved, Satan 
could not hold him against his will ; he must free him- 
self altogether from his devices and the works of darkness, 
and wish to have therewith nothing further to do ; that he 
had lost his idol was well ; now he was rid of it he should 
be glad, and no harm would come to him on this account. 
If this man should be converted he would be a useful man, 
for he understands five Indian tongues, and can speak to 
many a one the words of life. 

Moftday, 9. Some Wyandots who came here stayed 
over night. In the afternoon came Br. Samuel, and they 
who, with him, had accompanied Br. Weigand to Pitts- 
burg, back here, having been gone twenty-three days. On 
the Cuyahoga they made a canoe, for their horses were 
weary, and brought their lading from there here by water, 
which also arrived this evening. They brought with them 
the blankets, axes, and hoes given them by Congress. The 
corn, however, lies there and spoils. If we had it here the 



856 zbisberger's diart. 

brethren would be very glad of it, for they need it, yet it 
is cheaper here at two or three dollars a bushel than to get 
it there for nothing and use three weeks on the road. For 
a wonder our Indians get along thus far much better than 
a year ago on the Cuyahoga; for this the Saviour gives 
them opportunities. For example, the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, also a woman, Ackerlemann,* the Frenchman, 
Tawas, etc. Br. Weigand left Pittsburg for the country 
the same day they did. They brought us a letter from 
Br. Ettwein of May 28th, which was best of all for us. 
Butler, to whom I wrote, was not at the Fort. 

Monday, 10. Br. Edwards held the early service, a 
translator being present. Thus far Br. David alone had to 
hold the services in Indian. The brethren divided among 
themselves the blankets and the other things which had 
been brought. Br. David spoke again with Abraham's 
son, who now often visits him. To him Samuel preached, 

Wednesday, 11, setting forth to him the way to be saved, 
very plainly, telling him also the buffetings and hinderances 
which usually meet one who begins to think about this ; 
but all these things he should not regard nor care for, 
since they were from Satan, who wished to turn him from 
his thought and design of conversion and bring him else- 
where. Br. Jung held morning service. 

Saturday, 14. One of our unbaptized boys, whose father 
perished in Gnadenhiitten, who had heard of us, and is 
now in his eighteenth year, a young man, came here and 
asked of Br. David that we might again receive him. He 
said he had not yet forgotten what he had heard, he still 
knew some verses by heart, and liked not to be among the 
savages; he would like to be in the church where his 
parents, brothers, and sisters had gone from time. He 
asked among the brethren if we still had meetings, and 
when he was answered yes, he said if he only dared go to 
them, for so many years he had heard nothing more. Br, 
David said to him that he was now grown and could 
already consider how he wished to live in the world and 

^ See under May 5, 1788. 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 357 

to use his time, whether he wished here to live for the 
Saviour or to be a slave to sin ; it was therefore well for 
him to think about this, and if his wish were to be saved 
and he therefore wanted to be in the church, he would 
be welcomed by us; his parents were with the Saviour, he 
should seek to follow them. 

Sunday, 18. Br. Edwards preached, thereupon Br. 
David conducted the communion quarter-hour and the 
congregation meeting. In the meantime, in the town, the 
Saviour was preached to the strangers here visiting, and 
to them who have lately come to stay. Abraham's son 
came and told how his heart felt. He had ears to hear, 
the Saviour opened his heart so that he began to under- 
stand. He said : " Now first I see what a wretched and 
corrupt man I am ; n^ver yet have I so known myself, I 
was blind. I must go to destruction unless the Saviour 
have mercy upon me." He came the morning after 
quite early, and said he had not slept the whole night 
from the unrest of his heart; that he longed to be 
washed with the blood of Jesus from his sins. He cried 
out: "I believe that he poured out his blood upon the 
cross for my sins, died, was buried, and rose again. I be- 
lieve that nothing in the whole world can help me save 
him alone. To him I give myself entirely, wretched and 
sinful as I am." 

Monday, 16. Br. Michael held morning service. Three 
young unmarried men, two of them from those here in our 
neighborhood, who this spring, on their march, have 
planted here, got permission to live with us, whose father, 
also here, is not opposed, but pleased that they wish to 
abide with us. Abraham's son came and acknowledged 
his sins, relating his course of life which he had thought 
over, and brought fifty-eight twigs, the number of sins he 
had committed, so far as he was conscious of them and 
could remember, for he said he might well already have 
forgotten many ; all this he wished to give up for the Sa- 
viour, and seek forgiveness from him. To-day our Indian 
brethren came home from hunting in Tuscarawas, where 
they have had very good luck. 



858 zeisberoer's diart. 

Tuesday, 17. David held morning service. Strangers 
canae visiting here, remaining over night, among whom 
was Abraham's son's wife and her mother, who came to 
take away her daughter, but the same night she became 
very sick, so that she could not be up. 

Thursday, 19. Edwards held morning service. Abra- 
ham's son came to Samuel, told him how Satan fell upon him 
and insinuated that Br. David, with whom he had spoken, 
wished to deceive him and lead him astray, as he had al- 
ready deceived all those who were here with us. Sam- 
uel answered him : " I thought thou wouldst become a 
believer, therefore have I, for an hour at a time, spoken 
with thee, telling thee much, and laying out to thee 
plainly the way for salvation, but now I see that thou wilt 
only quickly know all, speculatest^ about all manner of 
things, and goest to work with thy reason. Thus can I 
say to thee, all this will help not at all, thou willst remain 
in darkness, and learn to understand nothing of all that 
has been told thee about the Saviour Thou art afraid 
thou wilt be deceived and caught. Thou hast many rea- 
sons to be afraid about Satan's witchery and the power 
of darkness, wherein thou hast hitherto lived, and 
which thou hast urged on. Thou hast had no fear of 
this, though thou wast walking on the straight road to 
hell. No man has called thee here, no one will retain 
thee if thou goest again, and if thou fearest to be deceived 
and bewitched, and thou hast nothing farther to do than 
to hear something new and to know many things, it is 
better thou goest soon whence thou hast come." He broke 
into loud weeping, and said it was still his heart's intention 
to be converted, and he did not wish to give it up. If this 
happens it will not be too easy. Satan will hold him as 
long as he can, for it is much harder with such people than 
with the greatest fornicators or murderers, who are not 
so entangled with Satan as is he. An old man, whose 
two sons have permission to stay here, with which their 
father was at first well pleased, wished to take them away, 
and told them so. They answered their father that he 
could indeed go and live how and where he pleased, and 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 859 

if he- loved the life with savages he could remain with 
them, but they would not go with him. He thereupon 
ceased urging them, and much more encouraged them 
to be believers with their whole hearts, so that they could 
sometime tell him with truth what they had experienced 
and knew. The same man met Benatus in the bush, and 
asked him much. The people would much like to come 
behind our mysteries. 

Friday, 20. David held morning services. A large 
party of strange Indians came here from Sandusky, where 
the small-pox prevails, and remained over night. They 
went to boil salt. The brethren cease not to extol to 
them the salvation of their souls in the blood of Jesus. 

Saturday, 21. Michael helJ morning service. The 
strangers set forth on their way. A Wyandot chief with 
several Indians came here for news and to learn how the 
matter is, for they had heard that Indians are said to be in 
this neighborhood, they know not who they are, nor of 
what nation ; they have also shot at Indians hereabouts, 
so that one from fright let his musket fall, and was driven 
away, and when afterward he went with a party of In- 
dians to get it, it was gone and not to be found, of which 
.we also have already heard. Tawas had gone to the 
French trader, who wanted to accuse oi^r Indians of it, 
but he told him our Indians were good people, this he 
knew, and they did no man harm; that they should have 
no malicious thoughts towards them. Br. David spoke 
very earnestly with Abraham's son, whereto he gave him 
opportunity by relation of his satanic witchcraft, and told 
him once for all that if he would not break loose from 
this and be converted by the Saviour [for he was Satan's 
bond-servant and slave], it were better he went away as 
soon as possible, for such a man as he co aid not be in the 
church ; he should not think that he could deceive the Sa- 
viour and the brethren, he would only deceive himself 
and suffer the greatest harm. He answered thereupon 
that it was impossible for him to go again from us, and 
if we should bid him go, he could not, for he should go 
straightway to the devil in hell. 



860 zeisberger's diart. 

In the evening, after the brethren had been spoken 
with the preceding days, we had the Lord's supper, ac- 
companied by his near presence. Anna Johanna and 
John Leeth were readmitted. Samuel, who has hurt his 
foot, received the sick-bed communion. 

Sunday, 22. Early was the communion liturgy, and 
then the sermon by Br. David, at which were present 
many strangers also from the neighborhood, besides those 
already here. A woman, who last year on our journey to 
the lake attended our meetings, which pleased her so well 
that since then she has often thought of them, came here 
several days ago, was absent from no meeting, and was 
only sorry that she had planted so far from us this spring, 
namely, on the Miami, and said, if this were not so she 
ivould at once remain here with us. She is a widow, hav- 
ing a son with her, already quite well grown, who very 
gladly hears about the Saviour. 

Wednesday, 25. Several brethren went to Sandusky 
Island to buy corn, etc., others went out hunting. After 
a long drouth, we got a pleasant rain to-day, that held on 
two days. To mention about the ebb and flow.^ 

Thursday, 26. Br. David held morning service. Three 
Tawa Indians came here. They had been in the settlements 
around WilUnk (Wheeling), either to steal horses or to 
murder. There had been nine of them, who were attacked 
by the whites, and after the loss of three, who fell fight- 
ing, they took flight. 

Friday, 27. Some brethren went out elk-hunting. Ed- 
wards held morning service. 

Saturday, 26. Michael held early service. This week 
several houses were blocked out. There will be here a 
considerable town. 

Sunday, 29. Mr. Robbins from Sandusky, with another 
white man, went through here on his way to Pittsburg, with 
a captured boy, whom the Shawanese this spring had taken 
on the Kanawha. By this opportunity we wrote to Beth- 
lehem. Michael preached from the words: The poor have 

1 Which he did under July 6th last. p. 354. 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 361 

the Gospel preached to them, and David held the congre- 
gation meeting. 

Tuesday, 31. By Tackenos, one of our baptized In- 
dians, who came from the Miami to Gigeyunk, where the 
Delawares and Shawanese have been coming together 
all this spring, we learned that our erring Indians 
were also in that neighborhood, that many have died 
there of hunger, and that all live in perfect fear of being 
fallen upon by the white people, and on this account send 
out scouts in all directions. To come to or get at our In- 
dians we see for the time being no way during such dis- 
turbances. 

Through our Indians there to open a way for us, we see 
no means; they may and will do nothing in the matter, 
nor undertake any thing. Should we seek to go thither, 
we must ourselves work our way through, and by our 
own means accomplish it, doing something new, so that 
whoever of them wishes to come to us may have oppor- 
tunity there, for here, where we now are, we learn, none 
have a mind to come ; they would rather remain far enough 
away from the white people, but now to try any thing in 
such times were vain ; we must await our time. We learn 
farther that we have done well in coming here. In Cuy- 
ahoga we should not have been left in quiet, and among 
all the Indians it had been pretty well resolved that if we 
went to the Muskingum they would come to take us 
away by force, and then they would have brought us to 
Gigeyunk into wretchedness. Now that we are here, how- 
ever, they are well enough contented with us. The more 
remote nations look upon the Wyandots, Pipe, and his 
following, and the Indians in Sandusky, as if they held 
pretty closely with the Americans, as is also true ; they 
would like to tave peace with them, and since we are 
now here, we have from them protection in a manner, 
for we are not alone. The Delawares in Gigeyunk, as 
we hear, are considering about going far away from 
this country, and to this end have treated with the Span- 
iards and Tuckashaws, and have asked them for land 
there to live on. The Spaniards have also permitted them 



362 zbisberger'b diart. 

to live there, giving them land, with the condition that 
they wish to live in peace and in an orderly manner, 
making no disturbance and mischief, but if, according to 
their custom, they wish to steal, rob, and murder, they 
shall remain away. They have made good promises, how- 
ever, and matters are so arranged that they will quite 
likely move thither. 

Wednesday, Aug. 1. Prom Sandusky, where there is 
small-pox, from which some have already died, William 
came back. On account of the disease, he stayed there 
hardly a half-hour. Furthermore, we let none other of 
our number go there, that the disease may not be brought 
here. 

Friday, 3. Yesterday and to-day Br. David's house 
was built and brought under roof. 

Sunday, 5. Br. Edwards preached and David con- 
ducted the children's service and the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 7. Edwards held morning service about love 
and unity among the brethren. Moreover they were busy 
building houses. We learn from Sandusky that six In- 
dians there got the smalKpox and four died ; that they 
have sent for a doctor from Detroit to come there to at- 
tend them. The Indians are all very much afraid of it 
and on their guard against going thither. 

Wednesday, 8. A blind Indian, with his wife, came 
here from the Miami, where a treaty had been held with 
the Indians. He related about this that ammunition 
would be given for them to defend themselves with, if they 
should be attacked by the States, which is always their 
fear ; that they therefore should keep good watch, and if 
they observed any thing should let them know, but we 
could not believe all he said. 

Thursday, 9. Michael held early service from the text : 
Wherefore comfort yourselves together and edify one 
another — not from desire of power, but from love one for 
another. The blind man, who arrived here yesterday, 
came with the intention of hearing the believing Indians 
and also of saying somewhat to them or of discussing 
with them, that the Gospel was not for Indians, but for 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 863 

white people. He brought his principia to bear, but could 
find no success with our Indian brethren nor maintain his 
ideas, but had to give in and be silent. He remained here 
three days, going to the meetings, and when he went 
away said that henceforth he would think about this, how 
to be saved. 

A girl, eleven year's old, Mary Magdalene, Johannette's 
daughter, whose parents died iti the church, came a long 
way hither from the Miami and Gigeyunk. She had there 
heard about us, set out on the way to us, found from one 
place to another among the Indians opportunity to get pn 
to us, and has had good luck. She said she had much 
longed to come again to us, for she could not be among 
savages, but desired to be with the brethren. Here again 
we have an example. Children who wish it can find the 
way to us alone and the old adults can not come. Who 
only will, he is helped ; who will not, finds many a hin- 
derance. 

Friday, 10, and Saturday, 11. There was speaking with 
regard to the communion. Many strangers go through 
here and remain over night, who at the service hear words 
about the Saviour. An old Indian, whose two sons are 
here, sought to persuade some of ours to leave the church, 
promising one of our Indians he should become chief, but 
he could effect nothing, and it appears as if he had only 
wished to try how steadfast they stood, for he left his 
children in the church, and a daughter, now with the sav- 
ages, he will also bring here, but others he wishes to se- 
duce from the church. How does this hang together ? 

Sunday, 12. David preached from the text: Jesus 
wept over Jerusalem, and Br. Michael held the congrega- 
tion meeting. Susanna lay down sick after having been 
indisposed already for several days. 

Monday, 13. After the history of the Brother's Church, 
which comes from the apostles, had been related to the 
brethren in a service, and the event* of sixty years before 
laid before them, the communicants had the Lord's sup- 



'At Herrnhut. See p. 199. 



864 ZBISBBRaER's DIART. 

per, whereat the Saviour showed himself gracious to us, 
and also made us feel his near presence. 

Tuesday, 14. Br. David read the communion liturgy- 
early, and Br. Michael held the common early service 
about brotherly love towards one another. Two of our 
former girls, Susanna and Lucy, came here visiting. 

Wednesday, 15. Br. David held morning service from 
the Scripture-verse: O come, let us worship and bow 
down : let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker, for the 
wonder above all wonders, that God, our Creator, became 
man, and made atonement for us with God by his blood, 
and gained us eternal redemption. The brethren went to- 
gether hunting, and brought home meat enough for the 
whole town. Some sisters, who yesterday wanted to go 
to the Mousey town, came back to-day, before they got 
there. They heard on their way that the small-pox had 
gone there also, wherefore they turned about. 

Thursday, 16. The brethren again went together hunt- 
ing, and brought meat home. 

Saturday, 18. From Sandusky came Zachary, who 
wished to bring here his sick brother, who longed to be 
with us, but he was so bad he could not bring him. He 
can neither live nor die. 

In Lower Sandusky the small-pox still continues, and 
many have died from it. He heard that in Tuscarawas 
and neighborhood three Indians or more are said to have 
been killed by white people; probably they had stolen 
horses. In Gigeyunk they are still waiting for war. 

Sunday, 19. Edwards preached. David held the quar- 
ter-hour of the baptized. Jeremy went into others' towns 
for bad company, whom we told two days afterwards to 
leave our place, since he gave not up his disorderly life, 
after having been admonished at different times, both by 
Br. David and by the assistants. 

Tuesday, 21. Yesterday and to-day the brethren made 
Br. David's house ready. From Sandusky we heard that 
already twenty men had died of the small-pox, without 
counting women and children. Praise be to God, thus 
far we have been spared this; we let no cyhe go thither, also 



HURON KIVBR, 1787. 865 

we suffer no one to come here without examining where 
he come8 from. 

Thursday, 23. From Qigeyunk we heard that they 
await there an American army, which has announced it 
will make them a visit; that on this account the Indians 
are again fleeing from there. 

Friday, 24. Many strange Indians came hero out of 
the hush from their hunting in the Tuscarawas and the 
Muskingum, where every thing is safe and quiet; that 
Indians have heen killed there, is entirely false. Also 
there came with them here some who have been baptized, 
Susanna and Louisa, who, however, are shy of us, and 
come not near, being worse than the savages, who yet 
come to the meetings, but these never. Samuel inter- 
preted again as before. 

Sunday, 26. Br. Edwards preached, and David held the 
congregation meeting. In the evening came Helena, Sam 
Moor's wife, with her two children, visiting from Sandusky, 
where she had planted, in the hope we should go there. 
"With her came also two baptized women, Paulina and 
Elizabeth, who have been many years out of the church. 

Monday, 27. Mr. Robbins came back from Pittsburg, 
who went through here on his way thither, by whom we 
sent letters to Bethlehem, which also he had properly for- 
warded, though he himself, on account of the small-pox, 
did not go there. We heard, to our comfort, that every 
thing there seems peaceful and good, that the Indians in- 
deed, in Wiliink (Wheeling), and thereabout, are always 
stealing horses, and from Duncan have stolen many, but 
that no plans are forming against the Indians. 

We moved to-day into the house the brothers and sis- 
ters have made for us ; hitherto we have been living in a 
bark^-hut. This evening were buried the remains of the 
little Augustus, who went home yesterday, and our grave- 
yard was consecrated. He was a year and seven days old. 
Susanna, who has also been attacked by the sickness pre- 
vailing among our brethren, and lay sick over a week, 

* Conjectured. i. 



866 zeisbbrqeb's dia^t. 

grew better again, bat others are severely ill therewith, 
as Christiana and Renatus. 

Wednesday, 29. Yesterday and to-day nearly all our 
brethren went out gathering ginseng-roots, for which 
there is great demand ; some went even to our island in 
the lake, where we were so long in camp last year, and 
where there is as much as if it had been cultivated. For, 
by hunting, they can earn little or nothing, the skins being 
worthless. 

Thursday, 30. Helena spoke with Br, David, asking 
permission to live again in the church, which we gave her. 
From Pittsburg came the former wife of White Eyes, with 
some others. Not far from the Fort they had been taken 
prisoners by the militia, who took away from them their 
horses, pelts, and whatever they had, but had let them go 
again. 

From Pittsburg came a couple of white people, messen- 
gers to the chiefs, to invite them to a council. Near 
Wiliink above sixteen white people have been killed this 
summer, where also six Indians died, besides the damage 
done in other places. 

Sunday, Sept. 2. Br. David preached about the greatest 
commandment and held the children's service. Mr. Rob- 
bins, who returned from Sandusky day before yesterday, 
set forth on his way to Pittsburg. For two weeks now we 
have in town a large number sick with burning fevers. 
Among the Wyandots eighteen have already died of 
small-pox, and twenty are sick with it, very few recover. 
Thus far we have been spared this. Br. Michael held the 
congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 5. From Sandusky came back again the 
white man and messenger from Pittsburg, bringing us a 
letter from Pomoacan, who asked us to send with him a 
part of the way one or two Indians, as escort, until he is out 
of danger, for on account of the pestilence they are able to 
send no one with him, and this we did. 

Thursday, 6. Br. David held morning service from the 
text: There is, therefore, now no condemnation to them 
which are in Christ Jesus. From Sandusky came a mes- 



HURON RIVBR, 1787. 367 

senger to invite some one of our Indians to a council, to 
hear what would be treated of. We heard that the In- 
dians were much afraid that the white people would ad- 
vance, for which fear a letter from Pittsburg gave them 
cause, which the messenger brought out, and they speak 
already of flight. May God give peace in this land ! Yes- 
terday and to-day the Indian brethren blocked out the 
house for the two unmarried brothers, Edwards and Jung. 

Friday, 7. The married brethren celebrated their festi- 
val with grace and blessing, in the near presence of our 
dear Lord. At morning prayer we begged for his bloody 
blessing and nearness for the day; then was the festival 
service of the married brethren, from the text of the day : 
But if we walk in the light as he is in the light, we have 
fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ, 
his Son, cleanses us from all sin, about this, that in our mar- 
riage we can and should lead a life blessed and well-pleas- 
ing to God, but for this it is required that connection with 
sin shall be broken, and that we, through Jesus' wounds, 
shall be cured and healed ; then we can walk in light, and 
without fear live for his glory. Whilst the love-feast was 
celebrating, Christiana Schebosh, after a sickness of nine 
days, departed and ended her course at this time quite 
blessedly. In the afternoon was a love-feast for all the in- 
habitants, and in conclusion the Scripture-verse for the day 
was pondered : And take not the word of truth utterly out 
of my mouth. 

Saturday, 8. Her remains were brought to rest. She 
came to the church in Shekomeko, in New York, and 
when the Indians there were driven away, to Bethlehem, 
with others, where she was baptized, in the year 1748, by 
Br. Martin Mack; in the same year she was joined in 
wedlock with our Schebosh, with whom she lived in Gna- 
denhiitten, on the Mahony, and when that was laid waste 
by the savages, she went to Nain, near Bethlehem and 
Wechquetank,^ and thereat'ter went with the Indian 
church to Philadelphia into the barracks; then, in the 



" Polk Township, Monroe Co., Pa. 



868 zbisbergbr's durt. 

year '65, to Friedenshiitten, on the Susquehanna [she was 
a national-assistant], and in the year 1772, with the same 
to the Ohio, where she was on the Muskingum, first in 
Schonbrunn and then in Gnadenhiitten, until, in the year 
'81, all was destroyed by savage warriors, and the Indian 
church carried off to Sandusky. When, in the spring of 
'82, the brothers, their teachers, were taken from them 
and carried to Detroit, she went with her daughter, and 
the latter's husband, with the rest of our Indians, to the 
Shawanese towns. \ Her son died at the massacre in Gna- 
denhiitten. Her husband, Br. Schebosh, had already, in 
the autumn, been taken captive in Schonbrunn by the 
militia, and carried to Philadelphia, from which place he 
went to Bethlehem^ When she heard that the brethren 
were in Detroit, she came to them in the spring of '83, on 
the Huron (Clinton) River, where her husband, the same 
summer, to her great joy, came back again to her from 
Bethlehein, with whom she then lived quite pleasantly, 
and went steadily hand in hand with him, more than ever 
before. Last year, in Cuyahoga, she had a severe illness. 
Thus she passed through all changes and tribulations with 
the Indian church, enduring much misery and trouble, 
which was not easy for her, and at times this was too hard 
for her. Especially was she inclined from fear to live too 
much alone, if it seemed to be dangerous, and too will- 
ingly to believe the lies and frightful stories, whereby she 
made life hard, not for herself alone, but she was of no 
use to others, but rather a harm; this often grieved us, 
that she wasted her time therewith so uselessly. Even 
then, however, she knew how to find comfort and advice 
nowhere else than with the Saviour, for she always came 
to herself again, and clang to him, who always gave her 
aid, and it never occurred to her that she would anywhere 
be better and safer than in the church. The Saviour has 
never made her ashamed, has upheld her, and in good 
time let her depart in his arms and bosom. She is now in 
safety there, where evil is no more to be met, the Lord 
be praised; she left behind a daughter and two grand- 
children in the church. She was over sixty years old. In 



HURON RIVBR, 1787. 369 

the evening we laborers, together with Br. Schebosh, had 
a blessed Lord's supper, in reference to the late choir 
festivals. 

Sunday, Sept. 9. Brother Michael preached. Many 
strangers, Delawares and Chippewas, were here. Ed- 
wards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 10. David held early service. Helena set" out 
home again, and will return to us as soon as may be. 

Tuesday, 11. David held early service. Yesterday and 
to-day most of the brethren went to the lake in different 
places and some to the islands, to dig ginseng, that they 
may get clothing from its sale, for by hunting they can 
earn little, the pelts being worth little. They get for a 
bushel three or four dollars; if, then, they come to a place 
where there is a good deal of it, it repays their trouble. 
Sicknesses lessen now among us, wherewith many have 
been afflicted, for instance, yellow fever, which attacks the 
head, and they who have it lie for many days speechless. 

Wednesday, 12. A Shawano came here from Gigeyunk, 
who tracked an Indian, and here overtook him, who had 
stolen his horse and twice run away. The Shawano came 
only to get the Indian, and said if he came home he would 
be killed, for he was the greatest thief among the Indians, 
and had already stolen much. 

Friday, 14. We learned from the Shawano that things 
are said not to be so bad in the Indian land as we have 
always heard, that the chiefs are for peace, and that the 
Shawanese let their prisoners go, and have already surren- 
dered many ; that, to be sure, there are wretched creatures 
who go to war and say there would be war, but he knew 
there would be no war, for he was present in the council 
and knew what the chiefs had resolved. This was com- 
forting news for us. 

Sunday, 16. David preached from the Gospel : No man 
can serve two masters, and Edwards held the congregation 
meeting. . Few of the brethren were at home. There came 
two Mingoes here from Sandusky, where some dwell. 
From them we heard that the chiefs have not been invited 
24 



870 zeisbbrgbr's diary. 

to a council at Pittsburg, but that a message with a piece 
of tobacco had been sent them, and it was said they should 
smoke this in their pipes, and earnestly look at the road to 
Pittsburg, they would soon see some one coming; they 
should hold themselves ready to receive the messenger. 
Also they got an admonition because they let horse-thieves 
go in and out among them. 

Wednesday, 19. Joseph, who, a short time ago, had 
sent us word by a savage, and begged us to have com- 
passion with him, and permit him again to come to us, for 
he had been sick and was hardly yet recovered, came, upon 
getting leave, with his wife, an unbaptized woman, to re- 
main. 

Thursday, 20. To-day and the following days the breth- 
ren got home from the lake. Some canoes which had 
gone to the islands were much hindered by windy weather 
and kept there a long time, so that they could not get away, 
and as they were not provisioned for such a length of time 
they suffered generally great hunger, until by good weather 
they got away. While they were there ships came from 
Detroit and Niagara and anchored, from which they wished 
to buy some provisions, but got little. On one ship was 
Joseph Brant, with seventy Indians, on his way to De- 
troit. They all came home, however, with good ladings. 

Saturday, 22. At noon ten white people arrived with a 
herd of cattle from Pittsburg for Detroit. We are not 
pleased that they now begin to make their journey through 
the place where we live, but we have no help for it, for 
wherever we are, white people and Indians at once find 
their way to us, even if it be a hundred miles out of their 
road. They did not stay in town, but went a little further 
on beyond the river and encamped, but we were yet 
anxious they might here come to harm from the Chip- 
pewas and Tawas, who live on the lake. Our fear also 
was not vain, for, 

Sunday, 23, while we were in our chapel at tha sermon, 
a party of Chippewas and Tawas came, who had already 
heard about them, opened the doors of the chapel and 
peered about, seeing us assembled. Some Indian brethren 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 371 

went out to them, and they made no further disturbance. 
When we separated, we learned that they had come with 
no good intention, but wanted to fall upon the cattle-drivers. 
We gave them food, talked with them, and admonished 
them to do no such thing, telling them there was no war, 
and if they used hostilities it would be nothing else than 
declaring war. They promised to do no harm, but only to 
speak with them and hear how they were. Some of our 
Indians ran ta the camp of the white people, and when 
they no longer found them there, for they had already 
broken up, they followed 'after them and gave them warn- 
ing thereof, and brought them back again. When now 
the Chippewas came, they talked with the white people, 
saying they should not go farther, but turn about, giving 
as a reason that they could not get through, but would 
lose every thing, and even be themselves killed. In the 
evening they came into the town together, and the Chip- 
pewa head-man asked for one of the (cattle from them, 
which they promised and gave, also one for us, which, 
however, we did not take. It did not stop here, but they 
had to exchange muskets and horses, for which they gave 
wretched and good-for-nothing wares, and so at last they 
got rid of them after promising to turn about. They still 
remained here the 24th, and some of our Indians bought 
a few cows, 

Tuesday, 25, but the French trader came, who told the 
white people to set out on their way to Detroit, and not 
to regard that liar, the Chippewa, there was no such dan- 
ger as he told them. This they did, and crossed over the 
creek again to-day into their camp, and, 

Wednesday, 26, continued their way. Michael held 
early service. We had heard that another party of drov- 
ers tad lost their way near the lake, and were near San- 
dusky Bay. Quite early we sent an Indian to them, who 
lead them here, for we feared they might fall into the hands 
of the Chippewas. 

Thursday, 27. Now and for some time afterwards there 
was daily much visiting from strangers. A big boy with 
his friends came here, and did not at all wish to go away, 



872 zeisbbrger's diart. 

but remained here, saying he wished to live like the be- 
lieving Indians, that he was old enough to think for him- 
self how he wanted to live, and told his friends they 
should let him go. Another, the friend of Adolphus, from 
the Mousey town, came here visiting, expressly to hear 
something good; with him Adolphus spoke almost the 
whole night, answering all his questions. When he went 
away he said he should soon come again. 

Saturday, 29. We had the Lord^s supper, the brethren 
having been spoken with the preceding days. 

Sunday, 30. Communion liturgy. Michael preached 
and David held the quarter-hour for the baptized and the 
congregation meeting from the day's Scripture-verse. 
There was a conference with the assistants about matters. 

Monday, Oct. 1. Edwards held early service. Br. David 
wrote to Bethlehem by Joshua, who escorted the two 
white people to the fort. A woman from the Monsey 
town on the Sand^isky came here out of the bush from 
hunting and begged the brethren to tell her something 
about the Saviour. She remained here over night and it 
happened. Our Jeremy, who has been for a time apart from 
us, although nearly every day he has been here for a visit, 
came to-day with his wife to remain, upon his earnest 
wish and prayer, after getting permission from the assist- 
ants' conference. He has lately taken this wife, and she 
will also gladly be the Saviour's. 

Tuesday, 2. On the other hand, we saw ourselves com- 
pelled to send A. Regina from the church [David held 
early service], which had the good and blessed eflfect that 
it was for her a blessing, and we took her again anew. 

Thursday, 4. To-day and lately diflfereut houses have 
been built. Our town grows, and we increase in numbers. 
All the Indians who come here cannot enough wonder 
that in so short a time so many houses have been built, 
and so much work done. Edwards held morning service, 

Saturday, 6. Michael held morning service. Two wo- 
men, who several (Jays ago came to visit us here from the 
Monsey town to, hear something good, and have omitted 
no service, went home again, but left their things here. 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 873 

saying they should come back after gathering their har- 
vest. 

Sunday, 7. David preached. Edwards addressed the 
children, dnd David held the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 10. Many went for some weeks' hunting 
to Cuyahoga. We got a message from Pomoacan to send 
some one to the treaty at Tawa (Ottawa) River, but no 
one of our Indians went. Pomoacan does not yet know 
that our Indians have nothing to do with treaties. Br. 
David's additional building was blocked out and made 
ready. 

Friday, 12. Helen's daughter [Scapp] came here with 
her husband, and rejoiced to see us again. Her parents 
were in the church and now are both dead. The small- 
pox makes great havoc among the Wyandots both sides 
of the lake. It is noteworthy that it afflicts just these and 
no other nations ; even those who have fled far away into 
the bush have yet had it. Many houses in Sandusky have 
lost all their dwellers, stand empty, and there are said to 
be hardly so many alive and well as have died. In San- 
dusky about sixty, and over the lake also above thirty have 
died. 

Saturday, 13. This week the brethren began to get in 
their corn. Even that which was planted late and which 
we thought would not mature, has ripened, and thus far, 
the middle of the month, we have had no harmful frost. 
Lewis and others came back from harvesting. 

Sunday, 12. Br. Edwards preached. David held the 
congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 16. The brethren harvested the fields of Br. 
Zeisberger and his wife. 

Thursday, 18. The brethren went together hunting. 
Michael held early service. 

From Gigeyunk a couple of Indians came to Thomas, 
to give him news of the circumstances in which they are, 
for one of them is a great friend of his. They complained 
that the Delaware nation was in grievous condition, they 
knew not whither to go nor where to settle; where they 
now are they cannot remain, since the nations will not suf- 



874 ZBISBERGER^S DIART. 

fer them there ; they have made entreaty the whole sum- 
mer, sending message after message to the Spaniards to 
make arrangements with them, and to move thither; some 
indeed have already gone there, who now send them hack 
word to let no one follow, for they are there in very nar- 
row straits, and would gladly come hack were it in their 
power; they were not sure of their lives, the nations there 
having resolved to root them out ; they were hemmed in 
and could not come free ; they would have to he helped ; 
since now the Delawares saw that they had no steadfast 
place, they first turned to the Six Nations and asked them 
for land ; they answered them they could not help them, 
for they had themselves not a foot of land they could call 
their own ; they addressed the Wyandots, who told them 
they had given them leave to dwell on their land, had also 
told them how far the bounds of their land extended, but 
that they, the Delawares, had disregarded their request, 
and had gone over their boundaries to other nations, there- 
fore they would make them no more offers. The Twight- 
wees, whom they then addressed, had pointed out to them 
a place where they could settle, but where they were sur- 
rounded by swamps, and also, as it were, closed in. They 
suffered hunger, too, all the time, for their corn did not 
thrive, and was frosted. So it is with the Delaware nation, 
which a few years ago greatly flourished, but since the old 
chiefs, Netawatwes and White Eyes, are dead, it goes with 
hasty steps to ruin. 

Saturday, 20. The brethren harvested the fields of the 
single brothers. The Lord has blessed all our fields, and 
the brethren have all a rich harvest to gather, a great kind- 
ness for us. 

Sunday, 21. Michael preached about the wedding-gar- 
ment, Christ's blood and righteousness, which we have 
given us for nothing, wherein to appear before God. Da- 
vid held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 23. We learn that the Delawares in Gigeyunk 
have again murdered six white people over the river. 
From Pittsburg Indians came with rum, who, without our 
knowledge, before we were aware of it, for they came not 



HUKON RIVER, 1787. 375 

into town, encamped here in our neighborhood, and caused 
us two disorderly days and nights by the drunkenness they 
brought about among strange Indians, who came into town ; 
they also shot our swine, so that, from their drunkenness, 
we had for once to omit our service. The Indian, Amochol, 
came here with his wife and stayed several days, who al- 
ways, as long as we were upon the Ohio, showed himself a 
friend of the brothers. He said that he and his wife were 
of one mind about coming here into the church, but he 
would like to bring his sons also, and will seek therefore 
to bring them around to be of his mind. 

Friday, 26. Inasmuch as we have several times since we 
have been here, heard a wicked report that the Chippewas 
cherish hostility against us, and indeed for this reason, 
since they say we sold their land over the lake to white 
people, although we ourselves have not yet heard it from 
them, and yet they often come, and we have also asked 
them about it, our Indian brethren were uneasy about the 
matter, having lately even heard it from Delawares, and 
wished something to be done. So for their satisfaction we 
sent Br. Edwards with some Indian brethren to Detroit, 
and Br. David wrote about the matter to Capt. McKee and 
Mr. Askin, to learn how much there was in the thing, and 
also that it might be put out of the way. These brethren 
started on the 28th with a good wind over the lake for 
Detroit. Matthew, who came to us in the spring, went to 
Qigeyunk to get his things there, to be back again in two 
weeks. By him we sent word to our Indians that we 
longed very much to see some one of them. 

Sunday, 28. Br. David preached about the strength we 
have in the Lord, our Saviour, and find in his merits, if 
only we always live thereon, to overcome, uninjured, Sa- 
tan's temptations. Michael held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 29. By Luke's son, who came from Sandusky, 
we heard that the treaty on the Miami had been concluded, 
the young people released, and told each one could go to his 
hunting, and that nothing had happened. At the same 
time we heard that most of our Indians were also pres- 
ent at the treaty, and this made us wonder so much the 



876 zeisberoer's diary. 

more, because they were already so near us, and yet none 
of them had come to visit us. 

Wednesday, 31. After most of the brethren were done 
with harvesting, they went out for chestnuts and some, 
hunting. Moreover we have had several cold days and 
very windy weather, with snow and rain, in turn. 

Sunday, Nov. 4. Br. Michael preached about this, that 
we should forgive one another's faults as the Saviour also 
daily freely forgives our faults. Br. David held the com- 
munion quarter-hour about the commandment we have 
from God to love one another, and not to cherish any ill- 
will, much less hate, one towards another, which dees 
away with all the benefit of the holy communion, so that 
we have no advantage therefrom, which we should and 
can have. By the Scripture- verse : Lord, thou hast been 
favorable unto thy land : Thou hast brought back the cap- 
tivity of Jacob, the brethren were reminded not to forget 
the kindness the Saviour had hitherto shown us, to recall 
the Saviour to mind therefor, which would lead us to thank- 
fulness towards him, that we should put our confidence in 
him alone, and pray that he go farther with us, and send 
peace to the land. From Detroit came the drovers on their 
way back to Pittsburg. They had been on the Miami, 
where three thousand Indians were said to be assembled ; 
when they came there they lost by the Indians over eighty 
head of cattle [and thus over £200], which they shot down, 
and there was no defence nor check. They had letters 
from McKee and Brant for Congress, and brought a letter 
from the chiefs in Sandusky to Br. David, wherein they 
recommended to us, in the name of all nations, to convoy 
their people safely to Pittsburg, that no harm might befall 
them, for they were express messengers. They did not 
speak very favorably in regard to the intentions of the 
Indian nations, and believed a war was intended, and 
preparation therefor was made. They yet gave four 
months' time. They were accompanied to the Fort by 
four Indian brethren. From Pittsburg came the In- 
dian brethren, Joshua and Michael, with a white man. 
They left Mr. Bobbins, who wished to be gone, on the 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 377 

Mahoning, and believe he is back again ; since they were 
attacked by warriors at Salt Lick, whom, however, they 
drove off, so by this way it is no longer safe to travel. We 
had hoped for letters from the church, but they brought 
nothing. 

Tuesday, 6. Strange Indians were here visiting who at- 
tended our meetings. 

Friday, 9. There came from Detroit a boat-load of peo- 
ple, among them two families, who, ten years before, had 
moved there from the States, and now went back again, 
among them was a family from Hebron (near Lebanon, 
Pa.), who were acquainted with the Brothers Langgard 
and Zahm, for the man had gone to school there. 

Saturday, 10. After the brethren had been spoken to, 
we had the holy communion, with the near presence of our 
dear Lord. To-day Br. Edwards came back from Detroit 
with the three brethren, Stephen, Peter, and Tobias, after 
twelve days from home. He had spoken with the com- 
mandant there, Maj. Matthews, who was upon the point of 
going down to Canada, as also with McKee and Mr. Askin, 
about the reports we had heard of the discontent of the 
Chippewas. The commandant took with him Br. David's 
letter to McKee, to ask further about it from Johnson and 
others. Otherwise McKee could not much advise him in 
the matter, but yet he had learned that the Chippewas 
inhabit our houses in our town, and have planted there. 
On the other hand, Mr. Askin had nothing further to say 
in the matter, so that is to be hoped that we have nothing 
to fear from the Chippewas, since they have our towns and 
fields in their own possession. Moreover, in Detroit, he 
had found things quite otherwise, and met with fewer 
strangers than when we were there. 

Sunday, 11. In the afternoon the people from Detroit 
set forth again towards Pittsburg. We had to let them 
hire an Indian brother, Thomas, as pilot. They had with 
them two women and many children, Br. Edwards 
preached and David held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 12. From Pittsburg came Mr. Robbins, with 



878 zbisberger's diary. 

some goods. One of his people was wounded by wicked 
Indians and mortally. 

Tuesday, 13. We had a day of blessing in the near 
presence of our great Elder of his churches, who made 
himself known to us in a wonderful way and overwhelmed 
us with blessing from his bloody fulness, so that our hearts 
were melted to tears before him. Early in the morning 
there was a common service for the sake of strangers. 
Aftewards all the baptized (had a service), in which, after 
a discourse from the text^of the day, Luke, amid many 
tears, received absolution from the church, and was again 
taken into it. The congregation then fell upon their 
knees, asked gracious absolution for all their failings and 
shortcomings, gave ourselves anew to him, and asked him 
further to continue his blessed rule among us, to be gra- 
ciously pleased to walk among us and after his heart to do 
with us, and we vowed to him anew obedience and fealty. 

Wednesday, 14. Mr. Robbins turned back to Pittsburg. 
Michael held early service. 

Thursday, 15. Yesterday, to-day, and the following days 
our Indian brethren went off to their autumn hunt, some 
to Cuyahoga, others elsewhither, and were scattered in the 
bush. From Gigeyunk there came a boy, Michael's son, 
who has not been baptized. Gideon, as we hear, who was 
in Sandusky this summer, but came not here, is dead. 

Friday, 16. Delawares came from Gigeyunk here visit-, 
ing. Of Helena, Samuel's former wife, we heard she was 
in Sandusky and would come here as soon as she could. 

Sunday, 18. David preached, Michael conducted the 
children's service, and Edwards held the congregation 
meeting. 

Tuesday, 20. A white man, a Quaker, who lives in 
Chester, below Philadelphia, his father being named Isaac 
Pile, and who this summer was taken prisoner on the 
Wabash by the Biankeshaw * Indians, who brought him 

*" Pian kasha ws on the Wabash: In 1780 but 950; since driven 
west." Drake's Book of the Indians, p. x. They are mentioned in 
many Indian treaties. 



HURON RIVER, 1787. 379 

to the Miami towns, where he got away, came here with- 
out having been seen by Indians on his way, and beg- 
ged us with tears to help him to Pittsburg, but this was 
hard, for our Indians were all off hunting, or a part in 
Pittsburg. At last our Samuel had pity for him, and 
though he was lame, took him away on Thursday, the 22d, 
for which he Iras glad and thankful, for we could not have 
kept him here long, through fear of strange Indians. 

Thursday, 22. Helena, Sam. Moor's former wife, came 
here from Sandusky, with her two children, daughter and 
grandchild, to remain, for whom we vacated a hut to live 
in. Also Cornelius' son, Matthew, came back again from 
Sandusky, but did not come to the Miami town, as he 
had intended and thought, since the Indians there were 
not yet come back from the treaty. 

Friday, 23. Aaron also came here with his wife from 
the Miami. We heard the comforting news that the na- 
tions at the treaty were yet more inclined for peace than 
for war, and that the Indians who in the spring had fled 
in crowds to the Miami towns, in order to be able to pre- 
pare for war there, less disturbed, have now nearly all 
come back again, which is a good token of their disposi- 
tion for peace. There were also different strange Indians 
visiting here. By Aaron, Welandawecken sent us word 
that he had not yet forgotten what his uncle, Israel, had 
said to him and impressed upon him, when he made over 
to him his ofllce of chief, when we were in Sandusky, 
namely : He should love the believing Indians ; be help- 
ful to them and aid them, and, so far as lay ip his 
power, protect them from the wicked Indians and love 
goodness, which Israel himself had also told us when we 
made objections to him and reproached him that he had 
put him in his place, for we knew him well. Now, says 
this Welandaweckign, he has not forgotten that, but has 
yet done nothing, since we are under the sway of Pipe 
and Pomoacan ; the time would yet come, however, 
when he would tell us something, and we should hear 
something from him, if again he once had a firm place, for 
now he was disturbed and a fugitive. We will not throw 



880 zbisberqbr's diary. 

aside this word, but retain it till the right hour; who 
knows, a door may yet thereby be opened to us to go far- 
ther with the Gospel. If now we consider his words, it 
cannot be that he means only the believing Indians, for 
he has many of our Indians around him, who, so to speak, 
stand under him. Why then should he fish for the hand- 
ful with us so earnestly, and if he had them all, what good 
would that be to him? He means then not so much the 
believing Indians as the missionaries, and thinks: If I 
have them, who are the queen-bees, the believing Indians 
will come together about them. Whether his afiair comes 
from an upright heart, be that as it may, we will leave it 
unexamined, if only something can thereby be won for 
the Saviour and his affair. May the Saviour give us 
peace in the land ! 

Sunday, 25. David preached in Indian, no interpreter 
being present; strangers were present, as, also, 

Monday, 26. Strangers frequent the services much more 
eagerly than the baptized who wander in error. They 
come but seldom, if they are here. They are ashamed, 
for their conscience pricks them. 

Thursday, 29. Christina bore a son, and, 

Friday, 30, the wife of Abraham's son, Gegaschamind> 
also bore a son. 

Saturday, Dec. 1. Two Frenchmen came here and re- 
mained over night. 

Sunday, 2. 1st Advent. David held all the Sunday 
services in Indian. 

Monday, 3. All the sisters went for nuts, others got 
meat. 

Thursday, 6. Also winter weather and snow came on, 
the first this autumn. 

Sunday, 9. David preached, baptizing the little son of 
Ignatius and Christina, born on the 29th of last month, 
with the name Philip, into the death of Jesus. He came 
back yesterday home from hunting. Late in the evening 
young Joachim came from the Miami towns here for a 
visit, with his wife and three children. His father, old 
Joachim, is in Detroit, where he passes the winter. 



HURON RIVBR, 1787. 381 

Wednesday, 12. Thomas came back from Pittsburg. 

Thursday, 13, Samuel, and Saturday, 15, Adam, with 
their company (arrived), who are the last, all having es- 
corted white people to the Fort. A letter from Ettwein, 
dated at Philadelphia, Sept. 8, '87. Thomas and his com- 
pany used nineteen days in getting to the Fort, for there 
were nine children with them. Had not Thomas been 
with them, they would have starved in the bush, for, 
when they got from here to Cuyahoga, their provisions 
were all gone, and Thomas kept the whole party of sev- 
enteen in meat all the way. He was so lucky as to 
shoot twelve deer along the way, for he dared not go 
away from the company. On Saturday,the 15th, all our 
hunters came home. Qen'l St. Clair, now the agent, 
asked Samuel what we would do if there should be war, 
and where we thought of goin^, but this he would not 
answer him. We saw from the circumstances that we had 
something to expect. Should there be war, we are in a 
bad way. Where should we turn? Among the savages 
we are less secure, and to the white people we cannot 
bring the Indians, for we cannot trust them either, on ac- 
count of the dangerous militia. We can take no fore- 
thought, much less come to any resolution, and we should 
only burden our lives. Therefore we commend ourselves 
to our dear Father to guard and protect us. 

Sunday, 16. Br. Michael preached. In the following 
service for all baptized, Helena, who came here to remain 
on the 22nd of last month, was absolved and again ad- 
mitted to the church. In the communion quarter-hour 
the Lord's supper was announced to the brethren for next 
Saturday. 

Monday, 17. We brethren made more benches for our 
chapel. Although it is much larger than the one in Cuy- 
ahoga was, yet it is already too small, and if we should 
remain here longer, we must enlarge it. 

Thursday, 20. Speaking for the Lord's supper, as, 
also, 

Friday, 21, it was continued. The young man who 
came to us on the 15th of last month from Gigeyunk, 



882 zbisbbbgbr's diart. 

Michael's son, who had lived with us in Thuppekiink, 
when a boy, having now become a man, got leave from 
the assistants, upon his request, to live here. 

Saturday, 22. We had the holy communion in the near 
presence of our dear Lord. Strange Indians from San- 
dusky, among others, Moses, also, with his family, came 
here visiting. Aaron, who made a long visit here, and 
certainly did not go away with a quiet heart, was, as we 
hear, almost killed in a drunken brawl. 

Sunday, 28. Br. Edwards preached from to-day^s text : 
Christ hath abolished death and hath brought life and 
immortality to light through the Gospel. It snowed hard 
all day, and a deep snow fell. 

Monday, 24. We had a very blessed Christmas-watch, 
begun with a love-feast. At consideration of the incar- 
nation and birth of our Saviour countless tears were shed. 
We laid our thanks before him and our gratitude for his 
holy incarnation, passion, and death. At the end candles 
were distributed and all went joyfully home. 

Tuesday, 25. Br. Michael preached, and then the chil- 
dren had a service and sang : The Infant in his manger 
lay, with joyful hearts and mouths. In a service after 
this, Gegaschamind, Abraham's son, his wife and the child 
born here on the 30th of last month, which is the whole 
family, were baptized into the death of Jesus amid many 
tears, both of those baptized and of those present, the first 
with the name Boaz, his wife with the name Abigail, and 
the child Gottlieb. This was a heart-moving aflGair, and 
accompanied with the near presence of the Holy Trinity. 
This is again a clear proof of the extraordinary mercy of 
the Saviour, for Br. David, to whom he told the whole 
story of his life, certified that we never yet had had to 
do with a servant and slave of Satan of a kind like him. 
May the Saviour protect him and them, and let them 
prosper to his glory and honor. The brethren who have 
their baptismal day on this day, came with the assistants 
to a love-feast together, whereby was singing and exhor- 
tation. Several begged for the bath of baptism. Strangers 



HURON BIVBR, 1787. 888 

were here during the holidays visiting, were present at all 
services, and looked on at the baptism. ' 

Wednesday, 26. Br. Edwards held the early service. 
The assistants met with the brethren to attend to all sorts 
of circumstances and necessities. We have been for some 
time speaking with the assistants about building a school- 
house, so that the assistants also may have a place where 
they can meet in an orderly manner. This they now 
themselves brought about without our aid. We should 
not have suggested it to them now in the winter and 
during the deep snow. We have also always waited until 
we should certainly know whether we should be here 
longer than this winter, but since all the brethren were so 
for it and willing, we said nothing, and let it go on. Thus 
they went, 

Thursday, 27, to work, earnest and comforted, and made 
the beginning. The strangers who were here visiting 
during the holidays, and had heard, publicly and privately, 
the word about the incarnation and birth of the Saviour, 
and had also been present at the baptism, went back home, 
promising to come again soon. 

Sunday, 80. David preached from the text : When the 
fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his son, and 
Edwards held the congregation meeting. Several came 
and expressed their longing, both for baptism and for re- 
ception into the church. 

Monday, 31. They were done with blocking out the 
school-house. The assistants spoke with Jeremy and his 
wife and made peace between tbem. 

At the accustomed time we assembled for the close of 
this year, beginning with a love-feast. We thanked the 
Saviour for all the goodness, grace, and kindness he had 
imparted to us, bodily and spiritually, having blessed us 
in every way, so much the more our hearts were aroused 
to praise him and to be thankful to him therefor, for we 
had expected a hard year, at least during the summer, but 
he has overwhelmed us, doing more than we hoped. We 
begged gracious absolution for all our faults and short- 
comings, for if we regard our Indians as a whole, we are 



384 zeisbbroer's diary. 

always moved to thank him for the grace he shows in 
them, but in individuals much is wanting; we wish they 
were better, and we are aware of their deficiencies. From 
this we learn the great patience and mercy of our Lord 
and Saviour, Jesus Christ. We commended ourselves to 
the protection of our dear Father, and to the guidance and 
fostering care of the Holy Ghost. Thus comforted, we 
entered upon the new year, and with the assurance that 
he, through this new year also, will show himself among 
us our good and gracious Saviour, and will bring us 
through all our anxious and difficult circumstances. 

About this year the following is yet to be observed : We 
had arranged for this, had prepared for it, and made the 
necessary dispositions for it, to break up in the spring 
from Cuyahoga for the Muskingum. When the time 
came, however, to carry out our plans, we found so many 
hinderances and troubles, whereby we were much per- 
plexed and distressed, that for our Indians' sake, whom we 
did not wish to bring into danger and want, we did not 
have the satisfaction of conducting and ending the afi'air. 
After we had received directions from the Saviour to leave 
Cuyahoga and to settle between Pettquotting and where 
we were, we broke up April 19th, and on the 24th arrived 
there. But even then we were not allowed to rest, for we 
had hardly all got there when we received a message from 
the chiefs that we could not stay there, but must come to 
Sandusky. Then we had to set forth upon a longer way, 
until, on the 8th and 10th of May, we all came to Pett- 
quotting and saw that our time was gone and we must 
necessarily look about to see where we could plant, that 
we might not fall into too great need of food. We re- 
solved to remain there, let the result be what it might. And 
now Satan ceased to rage, we obtained rest, which we have 
enjoyed since we have been here. We learn here, how- 
ever, that the Indians had already agreed that they would 
come with an army and take us away, provided we had 
gone to the Muskingum, and that would infallibly have 
followed, for they spoke together decidedly about this, not 
only about taking the teachers captive, but killing them. 



HURON RIVBR, 1787. 885 

We had our chief caase^of anxiety, where we should get 
the means of life. We were in no condition, on account 
of the great distance, to get the five hundred bushels of 
corn, granted us by Congress, which lay at Mcintosh, but 
herein also the Saviour has wonderfully cared for us, for 
after we came here and were already busy planting, there 
came a party of Indians from the east, who wished to go 
to the Miami, but finding us here they remained in our 
neighborhood and planted. They had much com, from 
whom our Indians were able to buy much at a cheap rate. 
Another Indian, a woman, who had planted here the year 
before, and buried her corn [over fifty bushels], came here 
and did likewise ; thus were we helped, and our Indians 
fared better than the Indians in Sandusky, and we had 
always comforted ourselves with the thought that there 
we should find relief. 

Brs. Michael Jung, and John Weigand came, the first 
April 30th, and the other May 2d, to us on our march, 
whom Heckewelder had accompanied as far as Pittsburg, 
and they also had their share in our pilgrimage, especially 
upon the stormy lake; they rejoiced us with letters from 
the church, wherewith we were refreshed. The last went 
back to the church June 16th, after having first done us good 
service, so that we came somewhat into order. The small- 
pox. 

We acknowledge it as an especial kindness and thank 
our dear Lord for the quiet and peace he has let us en- 
joy. Also in regard to the savages it is as if Satan's 
wrath and scorn against us were allayed, for formerly we 
had to bear so many wicked threats, which did not cease 
while we were in Cuyahoga and in other places. There 
is now indeed in the Indian land no peace, nor do we 
know what we have to expect, we leave that to our dear 
Lord, we have our best trust in him. If we wished to 
have much care and to vex ourselves hereover, it would 
help us not, and we should only make ourselves trouble, 
therefore the more pray we : God give peace in this land. 
25 



886 zbisbebgbr's dlary. 

The nations are indeed before him as a drop of a bucket. 
(Is., xl, 15.) 

The Scripture-verses and texts, which we received in 
March by way of Pittsburg, were our daily food and 
nourishment for our hearts. The preaching of the Gospel 
was a blessing to many strangers, and has found reception 
with many. 

There have come to us eighteen persons without reck- 
oning Luke's family, which also has come back to the 
church. One baptized girl, Lea, has left us, who married 
a Chippewa. 

Nine adults have been baptized this year, five children, 
and three have been taken into the church. 

We have had the holy communion nine times, to which 
five brethren have been admitted. 

One couple married, Lewis and Esther. 

Christina Schebosh and the little boy, Augustus, have 
died. 

At present with us — 

20 married couples 40 

6 single men 6 

7 single women 7 

3 widowers.w 8 

8 widows 8 • 

10 big boys 10 

10 big girls 10 

19 boys 19 

20 girls 20 

Total 123 

[Of whom 40 are communicants.] 28 more than at the 
close of last year. 



AT NEW BALBM, 1788. 887 



CHAPTER VIIL 

1788. 
Nbw Salem, on the Huron, Ohio (Pettquottino). 

Tuesday, Jan. 1. Br. Michael preached about Jesus, 
who redeems his people from their sins, as the angel, 
Gabriel, foretold. The baptized brethren renewed their 
covenant with the Saviour, to give him obedience and 
faithfulness ; we gave ourselves anew to him, asking for 
his blessing and help thereto. A sister, Elizabeth, received 
absolution, and Louisa, a grown girl, was taken into the 
church. Trom the neighborhood we had strangers visit- 
ing, who were present at the services and heard the Gospel. 

Thursday, 3. David held early service from the Scrip- 
ture-verse : I am thine, save me. From the bush Indians 
came here from hunting, and remained several days, among 
them one, Amochol, with his family, who before, in the au- 
tumn, was here for a while visiting, and his daughter's 
husband ; both these are not dead in their hearts, but are 
uneasy about themselves, and seek what is good. Another 
was from the the family of the departed White Eyes, his 
brother's son, with his family ; these heard the Gospel not 
without blessing for their hearts. Moreover, during the 
holidays the brethren have worked industriously to get the 
school-house ready, but now for over a week it has snowed 
nearly every day, and yet the snow is not deep, always 
melting from below as more falls. 

Sunday, 6. In the morning service, which Br. Edwards 
held, we asked in particular for the Saviour's presence and 
blessing for the day, and commended ourselves to him, and 
with us all heathen churches to his grace. In the second serv- 
ice Jeremy's brother was baptized into the death of Jesus by 
Michael Jung, with the name Mark, at which service many 
strangers were present. There was a love-feast, and in 



888 ZEISBEBeER's DIART. 

the congregation meeting the grown girl, Pauline, was 
taken into the church. It was a day of grace as well for 
strangers as for brethren ; the first were moved and there 
was great feeling among them. Samuel preached to 
Amochol and his daughter's husband, Amelia's brother, 
half the night, and both were so convinced of the truth, 
especially when he described to them the Saviour upon the 
cross, how his hands and feet were pierced with nails and 
his side transfixed, that they broke into floods of tears. 
The Saviour be praised that the Gospel of his incarnation, 
passion, and death is not preached and heard in vain. 

Monday, 7. Edwards held early service. Among the 
strangers went on the work of the Holy Ghost. The 
brethren told them they should take with them what they 
had heard here as provision for the way, and industriously 
think it over while hunting. To-day they went away. On 
the other hand, Weskochk during the holidays was ready 
to leave the church, and could not be held back, for she 
loved the world, and went to-day back whence she had 
come. 

Tuesday, 8. Michael held early service. Our school- 
house was roofed and the floor laid, but since for eeveral 
days it has been intensely cold, they had to let it rest with- 
out finishing it. Mr. Wilson came from Sandusky on his 
way to Pittsburg, and stayed here several days. 

Thursday, 10. David held early service from the text: 
And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God. A Chippewa sent 
us a lying message with a piece of tobacco, which we sent 
back again whence it came. 

Saturday, 12. Edwards held early service. Tor two 
weeks now it has been very cold, snowing nearly every day, 
and the snow is now two feet deep, and as our town is veiy 
high on a hill, it is a cold place. 

Sunday, 13. Br. Edwards preached. The large boys 
had for their day a service from last year's text: Yet I 
would have you wise unto that which is good but simple 
concerning evil. There were snow-squalls all day. We 
wrote to Bethlehem. 

Monday, 14. David held morning service. We left to 



AT NSW SAUiM^ 1788. 389^ 

the assistants to arrange some matters canicerning the 
brethren. What concerns outward circumstances among 
the brethren, for instance, a business or affair where the 
right is to be seen to and matters arranged, where it con- 
cerns common work and so forth, we let the assistants at- 
tend to and bring things into order, only we look to it 
that right and justice are maintained, and nothing is de- 
cided by regard to persons. Weskochk returned to her 
husband. 

Tuesday, 15. Michael held early service. Mr. Wilson, 
who came here from Sandusky, went away to Pittsburg, 
Joshua, the Indian, accompanying him as far as Cuyahoga. 
By him we sent letters to Bethlehem. He gave us hope 
that peace would soon be made with the nations, since 
this, he said, was now treated of with them on quite 
another footing. The Indian brethren went away, partly 
bear-hunting, partly to seek places for sugar-making, but 
these are not to be found less than ten or twelve miles 
from here, but from deep snow they could not go far, 
on which account they are thinking about snow-shoes. 

Saturday, 19. Edwards held early service. Since 
Christmas we have cold, winter weather, and quite deep 
snow. When now two days ago we had a little warm, rainy 
weather, we hoped the snow would go off, but it changed 
soon, and to-day and to-night so deep a snow fell from 
the north-east as we have not yet had the whole winter. 
We had to break out the roads in town, also the ap- 
proaches to them. 

Sunday, 20. David preached about the laborers in the 
vineyard, which parable he applied to the brethren, that 
in the church it often happens that the first become last, 
the last first, if brethren use their time badly in the 
church. In the evening, conference with the assistants, 
about increasing their number, especially of female as- 
sistants. Heard their thoughts. 

Tuesday, 22. All the brethren came home. They 
could do nothing on account of deep snow. The brethren 
met in the evening, the men and women separately, and 
sang. 



390 zeisberger's diart. 

Wednesday, 23. Michael held early service about this, 
that we, of ourselves, were unable to think any thing 
good, much less to do, that we have need of the Saviour 
for every thing, and without him can do nothing. Ame- 
lia's brother came here from the bush, and straightway 
expressed his disposition to live here, and said that Amo- 
chol was on his way hither. He told Samuel his life for 
many years. 

Joshua, who went with Wilson to Cuyahoga, came 
back. The snow there does not go over the shoe, while 
here it is knee-deep. 

Thursday, 24. Amochol with his family came here from 
hunting, of whom mention was made under the 6th of 
this month. They could not stay away long. 

Friday, 25. It snowed again and the snow was now 
three feet deep, so that it was hard to get wood. Amelia's 
brother got leave to live here, after he made himself 'ac- 
quainted with our rules. 

Saturday, 26. Br. Edwards held early service about a 
holy walk, and one well pleasing to God, for which we 
should strive through the Saviour's grace, who gives us 
the power thereto. The brethren got wood ready for us. 
The snow was now three and a half feet deep, so that 
there was no hunting. 

Sunday, 27. Michael preached about the sower. Preach- 
ing was farther made to the strangers, for which they 
longed. We see that they have ears to hear; some find 
themselves moved, and say : " I have heard how it looks 
in my heart." David held the communion quarter-hour 
and the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 28. Amochol with his family of five persons 
was received to live with us. He had given us to under- 
stand his longing therefor already before, when he was 
here in the autumn, and now he stands steadfast thereby. 
He said that he had already once resolved to come to 
us, when we were still living on the Muskingum, but had 
not then arranged his matters properly, for he had taken 
his friends and the chiefs into counsel, since he had al- 
ways been a fellow-counsellor ; they had held him back. 



1788. 391 

telling him he should wait awhile and not be the first,, 
they would yet all become believers, and thus nothing 
came of his resolution. For this reason he had separated 
himself from the Indians for ten- years, had not gone into 
their towns, but had supported himself in the bush alone 
hunting, so that he might come to us without temptation 
as soon as we were again established ; he had let neither 
his friends nor the chiefs know any thing about it, that 
he wished to come to us, for if he had done so, they 
would have known how to answer him much ; they would 
still learn it, but have no opportunity to say any thing to 
him about it. Already he is quite advanced in years, an 
honorable man, only it is a pity he is baptized, of which 
he knows very little, only thus much, that his mother, the 
well-known Trench Cathrine,^ brought him to a French 
priest in Canada, when he was a little boy, and he bap- 
tized him. While the assistants were together and talked 
with them all, his son, a large, fine looking man, said to 
him in Mingo [for he thought there was no one there 
who understood this language] : " But thou hast already 
elsewhere been baptized, what will now farther be done 
with thee?" When the old man told the brothers he 
was baptized, his son asked, and said : " Must he then 
be baptized again, now that he is with you?" The breth- 
ren answered him : " No, he will not again be baptized, 
but taken into the church." They showed them a like 
instance in our old Cornelius. This, his son, asked the 
brothers about many things, telling them also he did not 
do it to dispute with them, but wishing to know how it was 
with us in this thing or in that. Among other things, 
he said also that he had again forgotten how it was with 
the seed, of which he heard yesterday, which fell upon 
the field. Samuel answered him : " The seed, which is 
the word of God, comes many times to a heart as hard as 
a stone, but it falls thereon, often starts up, but such a one 
makes his heart hard, so that it cannot take root, and 
thus must perish. Thou canst then observe in thyself 

*See note under Jan. 4, 1791. 



892 zbisbergbr's diary. 

that thy heart ia hard. All thy friends, thy father, mother, 
brothers, have spoken from their hearts and brought to 
light their longings, but thou, on the contrary, hast been 
silent the whole time, and this is a token that thy heart 
is yet too hard. The seed of God's word cannot enter 
nor take root." He replied : " Yes, certainly, so it is 
with me." 

Friday, February 1. Yesterday and to-day was speak- 
ing with the brethren in reference to the Lord's supper. 

Saturday, 2. We had a very blessed communion, of 
which Renatus now first partook, the Mohican, who, on 
account of his trial in Easton,* is known in the church. 
He wandered about also many years in the wilderness, and 
came to us at Gnadenhiitten, on Huron River (Michigan). 
Luke and Peter were readmitted. A grown girl, Johan- 
nette, was candidate. A mighty grace prevailed thereby ; 
the brethren were all together covered with blessing from 
above. Many brethren usually came from the chapel after 
communion to our house to kiss us, and this they did of 
their own accord, not bidden, but to-day the whole body 
of communicants came, kissed and greeted; even went 
farther and exchanged among themselves the kiss of love 
and peace. The Lord's supper is to our brethren a blessed 
thing and sacrament, which they value high and dear ; it 
is more than all to them and is always a great blessing for 
them. If they had it not they could not stand. 

Sunday, 3. Early in the morning was read the commun- 
ion liturgy ; afterwards the sermon by Br. Edwards, and 
David held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 4, was a windy day, with snow, so that from 
this we had to give up early service. 

Tuesday, 5. The cold was the severest we have had the 
whole winter, and lasted also two or three days. 

Friday, 8. In the morning service from the text: Jesus 
is able to save them to the uttermost, that come unto God 



^ He had been accused of taking part with savage Indians in the 
murder of a settler, Stinton, in October, 1763. He was arrested, put 
in prison in Philadelphia, tried in Easton, Pa., and acquitted. 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 893 

by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for 
them, etc. Ah,. Lord Jesus if I had not thee, etc. The 
discourse was about the boundless mercy of the Saviour to- 
wards the greatest sinners, if only they wished to be 
blessed and helped ; but further it was shown that he who 
not only does not wish to receive grace, but treads it 
under foot, causes vexation and harm in the church. This 
comes to pass because he has again opened his heart to 
Satan. In the Scriptures we were advised and commanded 
to cast out from among us such wicked opponents. Thus 
it was told the brethren that Mamasu, on account of his 
wicked conduct, which he had been guilty of, should be 
shut out of the church till he acknowledged his sin and 
repented from his heart. 

Saturday, 9. Edwards held early service. By a Chip- 
pewa, who came here from Cuyahoga, we heard that the 
snow there is above a man's hips ; that the Chippewas suf- 
fered greatly from hunger, having no snow-shoes, and had 
already eaten their dogs, until they could make snow- 
shoes. 

Sunday, 10. David preached on this subject, that the 
Saviour had been tempted, even as we are, but yet without 
sin ; that therefore he now has compassion with our weak- 
ness and is mighty with the weak to help them; that 
Satan cannot harm them. Michael held the congregation 
meeting. We have a right prophetic word. 

Monday, 11. Edwards held early service. Matthew, 
Cornelius' son, also Joachim, with his family, went back 
to the Miami, the latter promising to come again if there 
should be peace. The former has now been with us nearly 
a year. We and the Indian brethren have spoken much 
and often with him, exhorting him to think of his soul's 
salvation and to reflect farther. All, however, seems to 
be in vain. He cannot resolve to be wholly the Saviour's. 
Achguachter, who has been here so many days, when she 
saw Boaz, said there came utter scoundrels to us, seeking 
protection, since they were not safe among the Indians, on 
account of their misdeeds. If we were to regard this we 
should receive none. 



894 zbisberger's diary. 

Wednesday, 13. Yesterday and to-day many went out 
to seek sugar-places, Samuel, William, and others, for 
there is a thaw and the snow is become less by half. Ed- 
wards held morning service. 

Friday, 15. Chippewas cam*e begging for corn, for they 
have seldom any thing to eat except meat, while hunting. 
Michael held early service. Samuel and others who sought 
sugar-places came home. 

Sunday, 17. Michael preached about the Canaanite 
woman. Two white people from Detroit came here on their 
way to Pittsburg, who remained here several days, the 
snow was so deep. Br. David conducted the quarter-hour 
for the baptized. The brethren were directed to knowl- 
edge of their misery, to learn to know their hearts, since 
then they would always find reason from need and from 
love to look to him. 

In the evening, in the congregation meeting, Jeremy 
was freed from his great trouble, who had been openly put 
out of the church, for which reason more than a week he 
endured great need and anxiety, so that he could neither 
sleep nor eat, and could find no rest day or night, and 
seemed more like a corpse and an object worthy of pity. 
Upon his repeated woeful request, he was again compas- 
sionately received, to his great comfort and confusion. 

Late in the evening the especial watchfulness of the 
Saviour for us was shown, for while the single brothers, 
with some Indians also, were with Br. Zeisberger and his 
wife, their house took fire, and this had gone so far that if 
it had been unobserved a few minutes longer, it could not 
have been put out, for the house inside was altogether in 
flames. But the Indian brethren ran at once into the 
burning house and extinguished the fire before the roof 
caught, so that the damage was but slight and to be dis- 
regarded, and this fell mostly upon Br. Edwards. 

Monday, 18. Br. Edwards held morning service. He 
asked the brethren with himself to thank the Saviour for 
his gracious protection in the calamity of fire. Jeremy 
came quite early to express his thankfulness for the mercy 
shown him. It was as if be were come from death to life, 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 395 

and we can believe that this will bring about his perfect 
cure and everlasting salvation. We have indeed many 
times more trouble, yea, perplexity, with an intelligent 
soul than with twenty others, but if it then be won for the 
Saviour our trouble is richly rewarded. We are for this 
purpose here, to save souls for the Saviour, and we cannot 
pride ourselves upon this, that we have done what we 
could. Then we must stand back, and the Saviour has 
only to make good our faults. 

Tuesday, 19. Michael held early service upon the sac- 
rifice of Jesus upon the cross for our sins. Many brethren 
went to their sugar- places. 

Friday, 22. Michael held early service. Old Beata came 
and told her heart, that she could not see wherein she had 
fallen short ; this was shown her, and therefore she per- 
ceived it. She said : " I am already so old [she is perhaps 
a hundred, or not far from it] that I can retain little of 
God's word. I forget straightway what I hear, but I yet 
believe it is all the truth." She was told it was not neces- 
sary for her salvation to know much and to retain much, 
only this little, that the Saviour had died and shed his 
blood for her, that her sins were forgiven her for his blood's 
sake, and for his blood's sake she would be saved. A white 
man from Detroit came, who on the lake, where his horse 
broke through the ice, lost it and every thing. He went 
to Pittsburg. 

Sunday, 24. David preached from the Epistle : Be ye 
therefore followers of God. Michael held the children's 
service and Edwards held the congregation meeting. The 
rest of the time was used in speaking to the brethren, 
hearing and advising them, who came home from the 
bush, and will again go to their sugar-huts. 

Monday, 25. David held early service about praising 
and thanking the Lord, for which we always find cause; if 
we com^ to the Saviour with our poverty and misery, we 
are comforted and made content therewith ; this always 
gives matter for bringing praise and thanks to the Saviour. 
The brethren went away, nearly all the brothers to their 
sugar-places. Abraham remained as watchman. 



396 zeisbergbr's diaby. 

Tuesday, 26. Th^ three white people set out for Pitts- 
burg, Jeremy going with them as far as Cuyahoga. 

Wednesday, 27. From Sandusky, whence Helena came 
back, we learned that many Indians were come there from 
the Miami towns, and many more were expected, since 
there is a great famine there, and that many too wish to 
come to us here, among them some who have been bap- 
tized, such as Gertrude and others. On the contrary, 
there are others who refuse, and say they shall not come 
here ; that David now attracts the Indians to himself that 
they may be killed by the Virginians. Others again say 
that we yet live too far away ; if we were nearer them they 
too would be converted. 

Saturday, March 1. Many of our brethren came home 
to the Sunday services, and Br. Edwards delivered, 

Sunday, 2, the sermon from the Gospel from the words : 
Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost. 
The brethren were admonished to take good care of the 
gifts they received from the Saviour's hand, to squander 
nothing, and to make no needless waste, but to enjoy them 
with thanksgiving, and make good use of them, in order 
that the Saviour might not withdraw his gift« from them, 
and force them, after suftering want, to acknowledgment 
and gratitude. Cold weather still continued. The creek 
has been frozen since Christmas. 

Tuesday, 4. Early at break of day Esther was delivered 
of a son. Br. Edwards held early service. 

Thursday, 6. At the early service the little son of 
Lewis and Esther, born day before yesterday, the 4th, was 
baptized with the name Nathaniel. From Pittsburg came 
Mr. Wilson, with a company of several white people and 
Indians on their way to Sandusky and the Shawauese 
towns, as ambassadors to invite the nations to a conven- 
tion to be held at the Falls of the Muskingum. By this oc- 
casion, though they were over three weeks in getting here, to 
our exceptionally hearty joy, comfort, and refreshment, we 
had letters of October and November of last year, likewise 
the Scripture-verses and texts for this year. To-day's, 
with which we began them, was very impressive and note- 



1788. 897 

worthy. It read : Again in this place, which is desolate^ 
without man and without beast, and in all the cities 
thereof, shall bfe an habitation of shepherds, causing their 
flocks to lie down. Who knows in what waste and rough 
region of the world, which now is looked upon with horror 
for flesh and blood, in a short time, thy tents shall stand ! 
Ah ! may the Saviour bring this to a perfect fulfilment ! 

Friday,. 7. Michael held early service. Leonard Nath. 
Davis' son, came, with his wife, visiting here. Mr. Wilson 
with his company set out for Sandusky. 

Saturday, 8. A good number of brethren was at home 
for the Sunday services. Edwards held early service. 
Abigail, who emptied her heart to us, said, among other 
things: "Now, since I have been washed with the Sa- 
viour's blood, I feel that I am much worse than before, 
there come to me so many wicked thoughts ; this often puts 
me in despair, for I think I should be yet better than I was. 
When I was still among the savages I had no reason to 
complain about this ; further I had not thought of it, in 
this way I had rest, but now, when I am aware of these 
things, my heart is not well, I would like to be rid of 
them." This was explained to her, and she was told she 
should not be anxious and puzzled about this, for when 
she was yet a heathen she was blind and dead in sin, had 
no consciousness what sin was, nor what a Saviour was; she 
had certainly not been better, but much worse; now, 
however, that she had feeling in her heart, she felt her 
misery and depravity, since in her heart nothing good 
dwelt; therewith she should always go to the Saviour, tell 
it, and complain of it to him, seek forgiveness from him, 
for then she would always anew be comforted and kindly 
regarded by him. 

An unbaptized woman, who with her children was here 
visiting, asked her son, a grown and married man, why he 
did not go to the meetings; He answered : " It is not 
needful for me to go to the meetings ; I have done nothing 
bad in my whole life; they who have committed many 
sins, they alone need it, they may go and hear." 

Sunday, 9. Br. David preached about the sacrifice of 



898 zbisbbbgeb'b diary. 

Jesus for our sins, that avails perfectly and eternally, so that 
since the great atonement-sacrifice of Jesus on the cross 
all offerings end and cease. Many strangers were present. 
Br. David spoke with Leonard, reminding him of his bap- 
tism and what the Saviour had done for him, and exhort- 
ing him to turn again to the Saviour. At first he was very 
timid, but afterwards he said he was very glad Br. David 
had spoken with him, he would now think about it. Jer- 
emy's second brother, who came here to visit for a few 
days, and at first used to say he was going off hunting and 
only wished to see his brothers first, plainly spoke out his 
mind and desire to live here and be converted, for which 
he got leave. Thomas, who is a friend of his, had spoken 
with him one evening and preached the. Saviour to him, 
whereafter he could not sleep the whole night. His brother 
asked him, what was the matter that he could not sleep. 
He answered he was thinking much about what he had 
now heard, that he was very restless, would like to remain 
here, for he could not possibly go away. His brother re- 
plied to him: "Go and state thy condition atnd desirfe to 
the teachers or to an assistant, thus wilt thou be rid of this 
and get repose." He ran now at midnight about the town, 
but since everybody was asleep he could find nobody but 
Boaz, who was just baptized and could not tell him much, 
yet he spoke him comfort and gave him courage, so that 
in some manner he became quiet until he could speak out 
his whole heart. This is usually the first step and period 
with a savage heathen who is coming to the church. He 
is aware of something extraordinary about him, he is con- 
vinced and moved by a mighty grace, which indeed he un- 
derstands not, and cannot name, and knows not how it 
happens to him, and whence it comes. He becomes rest- 
less, he runs about seeking repose, and would willingly be 
rid of the thing. This lasts until he is received, when for 
a time he has rest and is glad and thankful. When thus 
he comes farther to baptism, he has to go through the sec- 
ond period of a similar kind, likewise accompanied with 
a mighty grace. With baptism the ice is broken, the worst 
is over, and from that time he comes quietly to an evan- 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 399 

gelical, blessed way, and knows not exactly how he comes 
thereto. 

Sunday, 10. Edwards held the early service. From the 
Miami towns came David with his family, by way of San- 
dusky, and with them, from the latter place, a whole 
drove of Indians for a visit. 

Thursday, 13. By a Wyandot, who came here yester- 
day, on his own business, we learned that the chiefs there 
are still always of the mind to take us away from here, 
and that we have soon to expect an embassy from there. 
We well understood what induces them to this, namely, 
that already last autumn many Indians wanted to come to 
us, they prevented them, and would not let them come. 
Now they see again that they are coming hither in 
stronger number, and they cannot prevent them. They 
think : " It is better we take them amongst us, so that we 
may keep the people with us, and we shall make them 
useful if there be tributes, for instance, to contribute wam- 
pum, if strangers come hungry, to furnish corn, and so 
farther; then we have help in them." Thus their reasons 
are not so stupid. On the other hand, we are ruined if we 
live near them or among them. We could raise no cattle 
or they would be killed, and what is the worst, is their 
drunkenness — ^for the sake of a single reason — were our 
stay to be thought of for other reasons, since it now seems 
that many Indians wish to be converted, Satan and his 
servants seek to put a stop to it, to hinder it, and ruin it. 
May the Lord see to it, and do what is right ! It is his af- 
fair. He will not suflfer to be cut from his hands his in- 
heritance, won bitterly and with blood. 

Sunday, 16. Most of the brethren were present at the 
Sunday services. Br. Michael preached about the Sa- 
viour's entrance into Jerusalem for his passion. Then were 
the communion quarter-hour and the congregation meet- 
ing, which Br. David held. Among some strangers was 
observed the work of the Holy Spirit ; to them their sinful 
depravity was disclosed. 

Tuesday, 18. Yesterday and to-day was speaking to 
the brethren. Some strangers went home, who wished to 



400 zbisbergbr's diary. 

persuade others, who were still here, to go with them, but 
these said they wished to remain, for they liked to hear 
the word of God ; among them was a daughter of Boaz, 
and her husband, both unbaptized. 

"Wednesday, 19. Michael held early service. Among 
several strangers and the unbaptized was to be seen the 
work of true grace in their hearts. Jeremy's brother, 
about whom mention was made under the 9th Inst., kept 
up his longing for rest and peace in his heart continually. 
We thought he would, at least for a time, enjoy peace and 
contentment after he was received, but no, he could not 
be content with that alone, but he wanted much to have 
a consecrated heart. He had come every day since to pour 
out his heart, and to-day he said that he knew not how 
to help himself, nor anywhere to find advice and aid on 
earth ; he wished to give himself to the Saviour and the 
brothers, wretched and full of sin and shame as he was, 
whether he would not, perhaps, be gracious and merciful to 
him, if not, he should be lost. Hejsaid he wanted to say 
this to us, and thereby he wept bitterly. If now men 
who do not believe, and call all this .enthusiasm, saw a 
blind, aroused heathen, perhaps they could by him be con- 
vinced that this is God's work, and not man's doing or even 
boasting. No man with all his eloquence and shrewdness 
could convince a heathen of his sinful and depraved con- 
dition ; but this the simple story of Jesus' dying upon the 
cross can do, and hearts are bruised so that they know no 
rest and no counsel. In the evening the communicants 
had the washing of feet, after reading the story. We 
asked absolution from our dear Lord, and gave ourselves 
up to him for washing and cleansing from all our faults 
and transgressions. 

Thursday, 20. Towards evening was read the story of 
our Saviour's agony and bloody sweat on the Mount of 
Olives, which was listened to with great attention and ex- 
cited hearts. Then the communicants had the Lord's 
supper on the night when he was betrayed. Johannette 
was, for the first time, a partaker. Elizabeth and Tobias 
were candidates. 



AT NEW 8ALBM, 1788. 401 

Friday, 21. The communion liturgy was early read. 
Then was begun the reading of this day's history, which 
was continued during the day, in four parts, with chorals 
intermingled. By consideration of all the sufferings, the 
scoffing and ignominy, reproach, bonds, and scourging, and 
his whole tortures from head to foot, hearts were mightily 
moved and many tears shed, and among the new people 
there was much commotion, so that there was none who 
was not mightily affected, and some were quite melted. Of 
this we heard the evening afterward cheering proof. Of the 
new people came one after the other, for a long time, and 
till late in the night, complaining of their misery and 
wretched condition, with many tears, and gave us to un- 
derstand their longing for the bath of holy baptism and 
cleansing away of their sins. Among them was old John 
Cook, who came in tears, and laid before us his perplexity 
about his wretched state, for which we were no little de- 
lighted, for with such Indians, baptized in religion, it is 
always harder to come to acknowledgment of their misery 
than for a savage heathen. The assistants also made good 
use of the time after all services, assembling together bap- 
tized and unbaptized, so that they had no room in the 
house, but most had to stand outside the house and listen, 
and the assistants spoke with great earnestness, from the 
fulness of their hearts, about the great love of the Saviour 
for poor sinners, whom he has brought to light through 
his bitter passion and countless sufferings, so that the 
whole town was aroused. 

Saturday, 22, was Quiet Sabbath, and in the afternoon 
there was a love-feast. At the Scripture-verse and text it 
was mentioned that the Saviour has sanctified and blessed 
both our night-rest and our rest in the grave, so that we 
live equally with him, sleeping or awake. 

Sunday, 23. We assembled early at daybreak, and after 
greeting the church with the words: the Lord is arisen, 
we read a part of the Easter liturgy in the chapel, and 
went then to our grave-yard, and, at the usual place, 
asked for eternal communion with those who had this year 
26 



402 zbisbbbqbb's biart. 

departed, Sister Christina and our brother, the child 
Augustus. Thereupon the story of the resurreotion was 
read, to which the new people especially listened very at- 
tentively. Br. Edwards preached, and in the afternoon, 
towards evening, after consideration of the Scripture- 
verse : Ah ! tLord God, behold thou hast made the heaven 
and the earth, etc., amid the many tears both of the bap- 
tized and of the spectators, by the bath of holy baptism, 
three were buried in Jesus' death, namely, the brother of 
Jeremy and Mark, by the name of John Martin, Wassa- 
pahk, Anthony, and MichaeFs son, who came here this 
winter from the Miami, John Thomas. At this service a 
mighty grace and the near presence of the Holy Trinity 
were to be observed. 

[So far this diary sent to Bethlehem.] 

Monday, 24. David held early service. At the Scrip- 
ture-verse : And seek the peace of the city whither I have 
caused you to be carried away captive, etc., and the text : 
Remember that Jesus Christ was raised from the dead, the 
brethren were admonished to abide by the word of Jesus' 
death and passion, and to hold fast thereby, then also to 
seek the good of their fellow-rnen, and to try to make 
known to them the word of life on every occasion. 

Leonard, who, since the 7th of this month and during 
the holidays, has been here, and was touched anew, went 
back again to speak with his aged parents, whom he 
wanted much to bring here with him, and will come for 
good at planting-time. He was told to behave well, for 
which he had the demand in his heart ; he was told to seek 
the church again and rescue his soul while there was yet 
time. 

Tuesday, 25. David held early service. At the text: 
For as much then as the children are partakers of flesh 
and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same, 
etc., the brethren were brought to remember to-day as a 
mighty day (Annunciation), wherein young and old of 
either sex have great share, since his incarnation, his whole 
life and walk in the world, even to the cross, the grave, 
and the resurrection, are for us, of which we should make 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 403 

good use, to become sharers in that which he thereby has 
acquired for us. Finally we thanked him upon our knees 
for his incarnation, passion, and death, and asked him to 
make that always plainer to us through his spirit. The 
brethren were then dismissed, since for a week now they 
have been interrupted in their sugar-making, and have left 
much undone, the brothers to their spring hunt and the 
sisters to sugar-boiling. 

Friday, 28. John Cook, who wishes to find his son 
somewhere near the Fort and to bring him here, on which 
account he planned a journey, came and begged us to think 
of him, that the Saviour might watch over him and bring 
him successfully here again, which we promised him, but 
bade him also not forget the Saviour and to call upon him, 
who would again help him hither. Both yesterday and to- 
day came some of the new people to tell their hearts, to 
complain of their unholy state, and they showed their 
longing for the forgiveness of their sins. Thomas' brother^ 
in-law and sister, who have been here visiting for several 
days, went home. They both said they wanted to come 
again soon, they liked to hear about the Saviour. They 
went hunting, and said they would straightway come here 
and not to the savage towns. 

Sunday, 30. Michael gave the sermon, to which only a 
very few came from the bush, on account of their neces- 
sary labor in sugar-making, which must be attended to, 
for they have to arrange according to the weather and 
observe the time. In the second service we thought of 
those baptized during the year, seven brethren, commend- 
ing them to the care of the Saviour and of God, the 
worthy Holy Ghost, to let them grow and thrive in the 
church, and to increase in love and gratitude, to his honor 
and joy. 

Tuesday, April 1. Almost all went off hunting, so that 
only some old people were at home. 

Thursday, 3. John Martin, who, with his brother, Mark, 
went hunting a few days ago, came home. The former 
said he could not remain away so long as he had thought, 
for he was anxious, fearing he should lose the blessed feel- 



404 ZEISBBRaER's DIART. 

ing and his joy in the Saviour, but was heartily thankful 
that he had kept him blessed. Two Mingoes came here 
from Sandusky, with a white man yet to come, on their way 
to Pittsburg. 

Friday, 4. Mr. Wilson came here from Sandusky with 
John Nicholas ; he went, 

Saturday, 5, away to Pittsburg, by whom we sent letters 
and diaries ; the other went back to Sandusky to await the 
resolution of the nations about the treaty. We had the 
first thunder, with heavy rain. Phoebe and her husband 
came here. 

Sunday, 6. Some brethren came to the sermon, which 
Br. David delivered. Br. Edwards held the congregation 
meeting. 

Tuesday, 8. David held morning service in Indian. 

Wednesday, 9. David held morning service in Indian. 
From Sandusky came Boaz's brother and sister for a visit. 
He said he, too, would like to be converted and live like 
the believers. One of his sisters was born in the church 
in Lauguntouteniink, but not baptized, her mother not 
being baptized. The people are now always dissuaded and 
forbidden to come to us, and the more eager they are to 
come hither to see and hear; the more they forbid, the 
worse it becomes. What then drives these people to us? 
Certainly not men, for they seek to hinder it. This is the 
work of God and of the Holy Ghost, to bring to the Saviour 
the souls that have cost him so much, and to make them 
partakers of the blessedness he has won for them. 

Saturday, 12. Michael held early service. Our people 
all came home from their sugar-huts and from hunting. 
Bpaz's brother went away, saying if he came home again 
from hunting he wished to come here to stay. A Mingo 
Mohawk, who has a sister, also wishes to live here. 

Sunday, 13. Br. Edwards preached. In the afternoon 
the little son of Renatus and A. Regina was baptized with 
the name Augustus. 

Tuesday, 15. Edwards held early service. A party of 
Indians, which has encamped here two days and also vis- 
ited our meetings, went upon their hunt. Some thought 



AT NBW ^ALBM, 1788. 405 

and suspected they were going to war. With the party 
went Mary Magdalene, a grown girl, secretly away. 

Wednesday, 16. David held early service. The Indian, 
David, who some time ago came here from the Miami, ex- 
pressed his wish now again to stay in the church with his 
family .of six persons, and was received. Phoebe, formerly 
a single woman in the church, brought here on the 5th 
Inst, her husband, a savage, who begged permission with 
his wife to live here with us, and was also received. The 
Indian brethren set about fence-making. On account of 
the new-comers we must fence in two new fields. 

Friday, 18. The brethren were done with making fences 
about the lowest field on the creek. It became necessary 
from the lay of the land that we should include within the 
fence two Chippewa fields which our brethren planted last 
year and wished to plant again this year, for otherwise it 
would have doubled the work, and since also we wished 
to have friendship with them we were glad to include 
their fields in our fence; also on account of our cattle, 
which might do them damae^e, for which they were glad 
and thankful, and considered this as an act of friendship. 

Saturday, 19. David held morning service. The Indian 
brethren went in common hunting, and brought home four 
deer, woodcock, and other game, for their work of fencing. 

Sunday, 20. David preached about the promise of the Sa- 
viour to send to us the Comforter, who punished the people 
of the world for their unbelief that they did not let them- 
selves be sharers in righteousness through Jesus' blood, 
and that they wished to remain yet longer under the 
power of the princes of this world, whose power the 
Saviour has destroyed, redeeming us with his blood. In 
the afternoon the little daughter of David and Salome, 
born on the Miami, was baptized, receiving the name Au- 
gustine in holy baptism. We learn, to our joy, that we 
shall win for the Saviour still more of the Indians who 
settled below us last year after our arrival and planted. A 
family, ouf Abigail's sister, who, since we have been here, 
has wished to hear nothing about the Saviour, nor has she 
come to our meetings, said that she did not wish to go 



406 zeisbbrobb's diart. 

with the devil into everlasting fire, as she had heard all 
unbelievers would do. She has already twice come to hear 
about the Saviour, and wishes now to be converted. 

Monday, 21. Edwards held early service. The brethren 
resumed fence-making ; some sisters went to Sandusky. 

Tuesday, 22. During a service for the baptized. breth* 
ren, the widower, Andrew, and A. Salome, a single per- 
son, were married. On this occasion information was 
given to both old and young •how they were to conduct 
and behave themselves in the church, if they live for the 
Saviour and wish to show themselves children of God. 
Many new people being with us, such an exhortation was 
needful. 

Wednesday, 23. The brethren were done with fencing. 
They have fenced in four fields. There is also a good 
piece of land left for strangers who may, perhaps, yet come 
here this spring. White people from Detroit, Connolly's^ 
son, came here on their way to Pittsburg. His father is 
commandant there. 

Friday, 25. Michael held early service. Sisters came 
back from Sandusky, where they got corn. We heard 
that some of our Indians, Nathaniel, Lydia, and others, 
were on their way hither. 

Sunday, 27. Michael preached and Edwards held the 
afternoon service. In the service for the baptized, An- 
thony, a single man, and the single woman, Esther Amelia^ 
Cornelius' daughter, were married. 

Monday, 28. David held early service. Samuel went 
to Sandusky to speak with his brother, of whom for a long 
time he had always been hearing that he wished to come 
to us, but had trouble and opposition from the chiefs, who 
did not want to let him go. He had been with us over 
the lake, and wished even then to stay with us, but could 
not effect it for the same reason. Several other brethren 
went there to get corn, among them Boaz, whom the spirit 
of bearing witness forces to preach the Saviour to his 

^The well-known Dr. John Connolly, Lord Dunmore's agent. He 
had been in command at Pittsburg in 1774. 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 407 

friends, especially to his mother, and to the Indians. He 
becomes very sad upon seeing that they do not receive his 
words, but whenever he meets a strange Indian, to him he 
announces the Saviour and the blessedness he has won. 
Though he does not always hit the mark, and is not prac- 
tical, yet it is much better and more pleasing to us than 
if he listened to the foolish chattering of the savages or 
even applauded them* 

Wednesday, 30. Samuel returned from Sandusky, 
where he spoke his mind to his brother and friends, es- 
pecially to the former, who, already over the lake wished 
to be with us, but it is the same with him now as it was 
then, namely, he cannot get free. He is a counsellor, much 
looked up to and depended on. Samuel spoke his mind 
to them that he should live and die in the church ; he 
wished to see them and speak with them once more, since 
they were so near, but now that they were moving farther 
away he would perhaps not see them for a long time, pos- 
sibly never again, and if any one of them wanted to see 
him he must come to him; he remained by the words of 
everlasting life and blessedness until he should depart from 
this world ; he would be glad, indeed, if they would share 
therein to be eternally blessed, but if they wished it not 
he must let them go their own way, but he had wished to 
tell them this. His brother answered that he had nothing to 
say in reply ; he believed that to be the right thing and the 
way to be saved, but for the time being he could not ; he 
should hold him dear, and let him know if any thing dan- 
gerous were afoot which concerned us ; we could plant 
quietly this spring ; before the year was over matters would 
be clear and circumstances would have come to some de- 
termination. 

We learned now the true state of the nations, how they 
are disposed. All nations at the last conference upon 
the Miami agreed upon peace with the States, except a 
part of the Wyandots in Lower Sandusky, of whom 
fifteen men survive the small-pox sickness. They are ill- 
disposed, and wish to have revenge upon the white people 
for having lost so many people by the small-pox. Then a 



408 zeisberoer's diart. 

part of the Shawanese do not wish to acquiesce, of whom 
there are said to be twenty odd. They made the proviso, 
however, that if all did not wish for peace, those who did 
wish for peace should all go over the lake, but those who 
wished to have war should remain there and fight out the 
matter alone, and not come among the others, for they 
wished to tell the States to consider all Indians this side 
the lake as foes, with whom they should now settle their 
aftairs. They wished to come together again this spring 
and speak farther of this. 

Thursday, May 1. Br. Edwards preached. In a sep- 
arate service it was impressed upon the hearts of the bap- 
tized brethren that the daily and constant walk with the 
Saviour, whom we cannot indeed see, but in whom we be- 
lieve and whom we love, disposed us in faith to believe in 
him, to cling to him, the Vine, even to beholding what we 
have believed. We adored him, and asked from him our 
steady abiding with him from need and from love. 

Saturday, 3. There came two Mingo families here, and 
remained over night, with wives and children, and when 
they heard that to-morrow would be Sunday, they resolved 
to stay here over Sunday, and wished to hear a sermon; 
from their talk we gathered they had been baptized by a 
French priest. By occasion of their saying that a certain 
time every year they had to scourge themselves to atone 
for their sins, our Indians said that was a hard service to 
have to torture themselves in vain. Among them was one, 
Joseph Brant's Longus, from whom we learned also that the 
Six Nations were much inclined to peace, and were labor- 
ing to bring it about. 

Sunday, 4. David preached and then held the commun- 
ion quarter-hour. From the Miami towns came Lea, Su- 
sanna's sister, and Lydia, Gabriel's wife, both sick, the 
latter with two children, by way of the Sandusky, also 
Jacobina, with her present husband, a savage, all to re- 
main. Several of our baptized and some savage Indians 
will also come here, but are waiting to see if there will be 
peace. It is well, however, that something always occurs to 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 409 

hold them back, that the concourse may not be too great, 
and we can remain in good order. 

Monday, 5. Michael held early service. Boaz' mother, 
Ackerlemann, who came here yesterday from Sandusky, 
and asked reception, received permission therefor. She 
came here a year ago with her son and wished for his con- 
version, he was such a bad man. He remained here, but 
she did not yet deem it needful, and went away, but yet 
had no peace, and was scoflfed at by the savages as a 
Sunday-Indian, since her son was here. They said she 
would also yet come to us. When now her son, Boaz, 
went there, a few days ago, she resolved to come with him 
to us, and said: "The Indians named me from sport a 
Sunday-Indian, though I was not one, but now I will 
make it true, and become a believer." Also Lydia with her 
two children was received. 

Wednesday, 7. Many strangers came here visiting, 
among whom was one Packanke's^ son, who called our In- 
dians happy, saying they had a pleasant life together; this 
was not elsewhere to be found, only with us. On the other 
hand, at times some come here, who seek to cause trouble. 

Friday, 9. David came from Sandusky, where he got 
corn. He met there his two brothers from the Miami, one 
of whom came here with him, who did not wish to go back 
to his mother, a baptized woman. She sent word to Da- 
vid he should hasten back to her, and not go to the be- 
lievers, for they would all be killed by the Virginians, 
which is the common saying everywhere among the In- 
dians, and yet they all come here to us and have no fear. 
Thereupon he sent word to her that if he had heard she 
was in trouble and wanted to come to the brothers and 
knew not how to proceed, he should have arisen at once 
and have brought her with horses, but since he heard this 
other from her, he could not go, he would go sometime to 
get his things when it should be convenient. Gertrude 

^Packanke was head-chief of the Monsey tribe of Delawares, at first 
very friendly to the missionaries. He was probably never converted, 
but recommended his children to receive the Gospel. Drake's Book 
of Indians, V. 25. 



410 zbisbbrqbr's diary. 

and several iDdians in Sandusky would also like to. come 
to us, to whom the Monsey captain, Titawachkam, says 
they shall not, and prevents them, saying he wishes soon 
to invite one of our teachers thither, to preach to them, 
when they will all become believers. This is the old story, 
which we know and have long understood. When the 
chiefs and head people see that the preaching of the Gospel 
finds too great acceptance, and that they cannot hinder it and 
hold back the Indians with the lies they invent, then they 
wish themselves to invite a teacher, saying they also desire 
to become believers, that the Indians may not run away 
from them. Yesterday and to-day there was speaking 
with the brethren. We had then, 

Saturday, 10, the holy communion, to which were read- 
mitted old Beata, A. Paulina, the white Helen, and Rena- 
tus. Tscholens, Luke's daughter's husband, and Lea, 
Susanna's sister, got leave to live here. 

Sunday, 11. The communion liturgy was early read, 
and then Br. Michael preached about the office and labor 
of God, the Holy Ghost, among mankind, especially in 
bringing them to Jesus Christ, their Redeemer and Saviour. 
About this subject in the service for the baptized yet more 
was said to them, and plainly. They were told it had es- 
pecially to them been given to understand the work and 
care of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of believers, for they 
had received him and he dwelt in them ; to them it had 
also been given to hear his voice ; now it was required of 
them to show obedience and fealty, thus would he main- 
tain them in Jesus Christ in the right and only faith to the 
end, always giving them the assurance that they were the 
children of God and the possession of Jesus, that he and 
his Father loved them, for they had cost him his blood. 
We thanked him with humble hearts for all the grace and 
truth he had shown us, begged him further to stand by us ; 
we asked also absolution for our negligence and omissions, 
and that often we had not regarded his voice and admoni- 
tions, and vowed to him anew fealty and obedience. We 
got from him the comfort and the assurance in our hearts 
that he will do this in us. 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 411 

- In the concluding service young Abraham was taken 
into the church, and one was baptized with the name, 
Moses. 

Tuesday, 13. Different brothers went out hunting and 
the sisters planting. 

Thursday, 15. Mr. Wilson came here from Sandusky, 
bringing us letters of December, February, and March 
from Bethlehem and Litiz. We learned at the same time 
that in a few days the nations would hold a convention 
near Stony Point (Monroe Co., Mich.), to which also Mr. 
Wilson was going, from which place they would at once 
break up and go to the treaty on the Muskingum. 

Saturday, 17. Michael held early service. From Detroit 
two white people came, whom William, 

Sunday, 18, accompanied to Cuyahoga, for as yet there 
is no regular road, but our Indians steer from here through 
the bush. Br. David preached from the Gospel about 
Nicodemus and the Holy Trinity, that all three Persons 
have contributed to the redemption of the human race, 
and through our Helper and Saviour, Jesus Christ, have 
brought it about and accomplished it. 

A savage, proud Indian, more than a week ago, came 
here from his hunting lodge, more than two days' journey 
away, and had remained several days, in which time he 
came also to Br. David, who asked him whence he was and 
came. This he told, and said he would like to hear some- 
thing about the Saviour, for he had once already heard 
something. Br. David talked with him, and told him it 
was well and needful that he thought about being happy 
here in time and there eternally; if this was his mind and 
wish, the Saviour would help him thereto and give him 
power, who had won it for us by his blood, which he had 
poured out for our sins, dying for us, and so on. He 
listened thoughtfully, and went back again to his hunting- 
lodge quite still. Two days ago he came again with all he 
had gained hunting, omitted no service, and it could be 
seen that he was not without reflection, but he said nothing, 
and was on his guard, and wished to drive away his unrest. 
To-day he came to Br. David in full heathenish state, hung 



412 zbisuerobr's diary. 

with silver and wampum, sat by him, placing his storm- 
cap, which was decked with all sorts of feathers and rib- 
bons, straightway at his feet, which is not usual with a sav- 
age, and sat awhile quite still. He then said he came not 
only for thus much, but wishing to tell him he should also 
like to live with us, if he should be allowed, giving at the 
same time the reasons why, namely, he found no place 
where he could be well, let him think of any part of the 
world he would, but here with us he believed he had found 
it ; he wished to conceal nothing, but to say outright that 
he was a bad man, had led a sinful, wicked life, had been 
nine times in war, bad killed also five white people, and so 
farther; since he had been here before, however, in his 
hunting-lodge he had thought over what he had heard here, 
and had felt a strong impulse to come hither. Br. David 
asked him whether he had already conversed with any one 
of our assistants about this ; he said, no. Then he said 
they would call him, and he could tell them his desire and 
longing. " Indeed," said he, " I do not know how or what 
I shall speak," for many think it must be done in a formal 
speech, upon which the answer follows. Br. David said 
to him we did not require many words from him, but this 
alone, whether he wanted to live here for this reason, that 
he wished to be saved and live for the Saviour, renouncing 
his heathenish life and being. He went away, but was full 
of restlessness, came again, and had no peace until it hap- 
pened, and thus, the evening after, he was received, to his 
great comfort. The next morning at the early service he 
appeared like another man, for he had cast aside all his 
heathenish state. 

Tuesday, 20. Edwards held early service. The breth- 
ren planted our field to-day. 

Wednesday, 21. Four white people came here from 
Pittsburg, on their way to Detroit, and stayed here a 
couple of days, and towards evening one, Hamilton, from 
the same place, with flour and salt. 

Thursday, 22. An Indian came from the Fort with 
strong drink, and encamped near by. We tried in vain to 
get him into town and to take care of his strong drink, 



AT NBW SALEM, 1788. 418 

yet he promised to give no one any of it ; meantime we 
kept good watch, for it made us uneasy and concerned, and 
one had to be bound. 

Friday, 23. White people came through here from 
Pittsburg with cattle for Detroit, from whom our In- 
dians bought a few head. On the 24th they went on far- 
ther, for Sandusky. 

Sunday, 25. David preached. Some white people, 
among them two officers, came in and went to Detroit. 

Wednesday, 28. Hamilton went back to the Fort. 
David held early service. In the evening Wittiger came 
from Sandusky with a prisoner who had been condemned 
by the Shawanese to be burnt, but whom the traders had 
ransomed, and now he was on his wav to the Fort. 

Thursday, 29. Edwards held early service. An In- 
dian with his wife, John Martin and Mark Longus, who a 
few days before had come out of the bush, at their request 
got leave to live here. Now there are four from this fam- 
ily with us. Jeremy having made the beginning. Our 
people were very busy planting, since for several days the 
weather has been dry. This year the spring is late on ac- 
count of much rain, and therefore they have been much 
hindered in planting. We learn that the Indians begin to 
assemble over the lake for the convention. 

Saturday, 31. Jacob and his company came home from 
hunting, after being gone more than two months, but they 
had little or no success. 

Sunday, June 1. Br. David preached about the great 
feast. A young man, Gischikelema, who lately came here 
to live, and who promised to behave according to our 
rules, and kept nbt his promise, was informed by the as- 
sistants be must leave our place. 

Monday, 2. Michael held early service. Then the as- 
sistants had to speak with Jeremy and Weskochk. We 
had for some time been thinking of increasing the number 
of assistants, and had considered together about it, but 
our plans then came to nothing. Some days ago 
we spoke with our assistants also about it, and found them 
of the same mind with ourselves, proposing the same per- 



414 ZSIgBBlGBR'S BIART. 

sons. Two days since, the Saviour approved the two breth- 
ren, Luke and Stephen, to be chosen as assistants. The 
former had before, in Schonbrunn, been among the nam- 
ber. Among the sisters, however, we found none, and yet 
we need them much, having only two, namely, Bathsheba 
and Sara Nanticoke. We held this evening a pleasant 
love-feast with them, seven brothers and two sisters, at 
which they were told what their office and business were 
in the church, namely, to be watchers, to prevent trouble 
where they could, thereby to follow a good course, and to 
go before the brethren with a good example, to love one 
another, and to agree in mind and heart, which would be 
their force that they would accomplish great things. 

Tuesday, 8. David held early service from the Script- 
ure-verse : For I, saith the Lord, will be unto her a wall of 
fire round about. Since we heard that our cattle had 
done much damage in the fields of the Chippewas in our 
neighborhood, and we saw that through the whole summer 
we should have trouble in this way, for among Indians the 
rule is that if cattle do harm in their fields, the damage 
must be made good or they shoot the cattle dead — quite 
without reason, for there is no fence about their fields — we 
wanted to have peace, so we had to give them seed-corn to 
plant again and make them a good fence, which was done 
to-day and the following days. An Indian with his wife, 
who are mentioned under May 29th, were advised to go 
away from us, for since they have been here they have quar- 
relled together, and the woman left him. 

Wednesday, 4. Edwards held early service. We pro- 
posed to the assistants a formal speech at the treaty on 
the Muskingum, to be delivered to the chiefs, which we 
gave into their hands and explained the matter; this 
had their approval and was better received than we ex- 
pected, since our Indians for several years have been so 
disposed towards the Indian chiefs as not to wish to have 
any thing to do with them. They have done, however, 
according to our wish, and perhaps we shall again come to 
friendly intercourse with them, if we remind them of the 



AT NBW 8ALBM, 1788. 416 

old friendship and renew it, for many of the former chiefs 
are still alive. 

Thursday, 5. David held early service. Thereupon A. 
Salome, on account of her extraordinarily vricked conduct 
and adultery committed, the like of which was never be- 
fore in the church, was put out of the church, who went 
away also to-day, for she should stay here not a night 
longer. 

Saturday, 7. Two French traders came here by water 
with com and flour, all of which our Indians bought, and 
went away again. Susanna (Zeisberger) went to bed again 
sick. 

Sunday, 8. Br. Michael preached from the Gospel about 
the lost sheep, and then was the service for the baptized 
brethren. The congregation meeting had to be omitted 
on account of heavy rain and thunder. Then came 
through here again drovers with a great herd. Two Min- 
goes came from Pittsburg with rum. We lodged them 
and took their rum for safe-keeping until they went away, 
and we accompanied them beyond our bounds with a 
guard. JN"otwithstandiug all our care, it did not get off 
untouched, for Chippewas watched for it, followed after 
them when they were gone, and also two from here, who 
afterwards came to town drunk. 

Monday, 9. Edwards held early service. Some went 
to Sandusky to get corn, and, 

Tuesday, 10, Adolphus went with his family to San- 
dusky to get corn, and he took A. Salome there to her 
mother, for she coiild not be here. By Sabina's brother 
we learn that six Delawares who went to war died in it. 
Br. Michael Jung, with three Indian brethren, Adam, 
Tobias, and John Martin, went to the Fort to get some 
necessities for us. We have had for some days now trouble 
and vexation with Gischikelema, who is here only to cor- 
rupt our young people. We had him sent away, but he 
went not, and we were obliged to keep a watch in the 
night to oppose the evil. If we receive new people we 
have trouble and labor to expect. They come and force 
themselves upon the church, and as we do not know the 



416 zeisberqer's diart. 

people, we do not like to reject tbem, but make trial of 
them. They promise also to behave according to all our 
rules, but when they have become established, then some 
begin to live their heathenish life in the church, make us 
anxiety and vexation, and we cannot get rid of them, so 
that we have enough to do to oppose the wicked spirit 
that is in them. 

Wednesday, 11. There came again white people, mostly 
Germans, with cattle, on their way to Detroit. Our people 
again bought some from them, so that our Indians have 
this summer easily and cheaply acquired cattle, of which 
there is now a great herd. 

Friday, 13. The assistants' conference reconciled Jere- 
my and Weskochk. 

Saturday, 14. Boaz' Andrew went to Sandusky. Ed- 
wards held early service. John Thomas, who went with 
Br. Michael to the Fort, turned about not far from Cuya- 
hoga with a cow the drovers had left behind, and given to 
whoever of our Indians should find her, and brought her 
here. Helena came from Sandusky. We learn that a 
young Mingo, Jonathan, baptized by us, died there. About 
a week ago his mother sent us word we should get him 
here. He said to a sister that he was not to blame for 
having to die among the savages ; a year ago he wished to 
come to us, but his mother had not permitted him. 

Sunday, 15. David preached and held the quarter-hour 
for the baptized. McKee's brother came back from De- 
troit. No Indians had gone to the treaty upon the Miami. 

Monday, 16. John Cook came from the Fort with a 
white man and Chippewa Indians. He came not as he 
had gone, and has indeed lost his belief, for he brought 
liquor with him, but this he left behind. Also, Helena's 
son, Francis, came, with his family, from the winter and 
spring hunting. David held early service. 

Wednesday, 18. Many strangers came here, who attend 
the meetings, but both among them and also among those 
who are already come to us, little earnestness is to be seen 
for conversion, and it is as if they were not the right 
people ; meanwhile we have patience with them and wait. 



AT NBW SALBM, 1788. 417 

Thursday, 19. Edwards held early service. A confer- 
ence with the assistants about Moses and Paulina, Luke's 
daughter [these were united in marriage by the assistants], 
and especially about our young women, who are quite gen- 
erally in a very bad way. By Indians from Sandusky we 
learn that the council on the Miami is broken up, for the 
Six Nations and others are not come. It is now said they 
will come together in thirty days. It now comes to light 
that the Six Nations have instigated the Chippewas to de- 
clare war against the Delaware nation, of which last year 
we already secretly had heard. No other reason pan be 
found for this than a severe speech which the departed 
White Eyes made in Pittsburg to the Mingoes, which is 
said to have given rise to this. For several years they 
have been working that all nations should unite and hold 
together, but it appears they will at last be discordant 
among themselves. Eight Delawares and Mingoes lately 
went to Wilunk (Wheeling) on the Ohio to murder and. 
steal, of whom only three came back, the others perished. 
The leaf begins to turn, and the Indians almost always 
pay the penalty. We learned that this spring three of our 
Indians who went to war died, Thomas, George, and one 
who was not baptized. 

Friday, 20. White people came from Detroit, young 
Farsithe, Capt. Thorne, and others, with the prisoners, on 
their way to Pittsburg, one of whom was Col. Mitchel, 
who in the year '77 was stationed in Bethlehem with the 
baggage, and knew the brothers. This spring, on the 
Ohio, he was captured by the Shawanese, and ransomed 
by the merchants in Detroit for two hundred dollars. 
They were conducted on the 21st by the Indian, Thomas, 
to Pittsburg. We heard that in Detroit they were still 
planting, on account of the late high water. From Pitts- 
burg came one Wittiger, who six days before had spoken 
with Br. Michael Jung and his company on the Mahoning ; 
all well, but from high water had been much hindered on 
their journey. 

Sunday, 22. Edwards preached. David had an earnest 
27 



418 zeisbbrgbb's diart. 

hour with the children on account of bad conduct, and 
held the congregation meeting. We had a conference 
with the assistants, who spoke with John Cook till late in 
the night, reminding him of his promises to behave ac- 
cording to our rules afid exhorting him to keep order in 
his house, and they impressed it upon him. A Frenchman 
from Sandusky Bay, with his wife, made us a friendly visit 
and went back. 

' Monday, 23. The brethren hoed our plantation. Br. 
Edwards held early service from the Scripture-verse: I 
will be as the dew unto Israel. Joseph, in whom it can 
be seen that his end draws near, was, at his request, ab- 
solved on his sick-bed in the presence of several brethren. 
Tuesday, 24. The brethren built a house for John Cook, 
who has thus far lived in one lent him, who has again 
made clear that he will be the Saviour's and hold to his 
first resolution, made when he came here. If people come 
to us about whom we have hesitation and doubt, whether 
they will remain and thrive in the church, we have the 
foresight to build them a house ourselves, so that in case 
they do not get along well in the church, if things change 
with them and we have to send them away, they cannot 
plague us and say : " It is my house, from which no one 
can driye me," as we have already had instances. 
Thursday, 26. Lea went from time, who, 
Friday, 27, was buried. She came here the 4th of last 
May from the Miami towns, having sent word from San- 
dusky, where she became ill, that we should bring her 
here. She came to us with her mother, over the lake, but 
when the latter died she went away, came again and went. 
Since now we knew her, we did not wish to bring lier here 
without first knowing why she would come to the church, 
but yet let it happen upon hearing she would probably not 
recover, and her sister went for her. • She promised also 
not to leave the church if she should be well again, but 
this was not true, as results showed, for after she was here, 
she was not at all concerned about herself, indeed joyful 
that she was with her sister, who took care of her, but she 
longed for nothing else. The sisters often talked with her 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 419 

to be concerned about her salvation and to seek forgive- 
ness from the Saviour, but she took it not to heart and 
heard it not willingly. Br. David visited her and talked 
with her, but she remained stubborn. We heard after- 
wards from Lydia, -with whom she came, and who took 
care of her here for several days, that she had said she 
was not going to die, and when she was well again she 
wished to go away ; she had not come here to remain, but 
only to have better care bodily. The text of the day of 
her death read : In whom the God of this world hath 
blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the 
light of the glorious Gospel, etc. And thus it was with 
her. It was a sad and mournful instance, the like of 
which we have hardly yet had in the church. She was 
buried in especial quiet, and thus we began a grave-yard 
for the unbaptized. 

Sunday, 29. David preached from the text : Know ye 
not that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ 
were baptized into his death, and Edwards held the con- 
gregation meeting. 

Monday, 30. David held early service. To-day finally 
came Gelelemend, already in the third year of his journey 
from the Fort hither, with his whole family, and encamped 
in sight of our town, where many of our Indian brethren 
visited him. 

Tuesday, July 1. At the early service, which Br. Ed- 
wards held, Gelelemend,* above mentioned, was present, 
with three sons, one already grown. We heard once again 
frightful stories about a war party of Chippewas, who were 
come from Michiliraackinac to the mouth of this creek 
and wanted to go the Pittsburg road to war, which made 
us much concerned about our Br. Michael Jung with his 
company, whom we were now every day expecting back from 
there, and we thought of sending some Indian brethren 

*A grandson of Netawatwes, friend of the Americans and opponent 
of Capt. Pipe. He was obnoxious to the Monseys, and for a long time 
lived in concealment in Pittsburg. Much of his subsequent history is 
given in this diary. He died in January, 1811, about eighty years old. 
See Drake s Book of the lodians, V. 95. 



420 ' zeisbbrgbr's diart. 

to meet them and escort them hither. Since the Chippe- 
was and Indians in our neighborhood could not persuade 
them to turn about, they at last brought the matter to this 
point, that they went another way down to the Ohio, for 
they did not wish to have this way closed, where many 
Chippewas, Tawas, and other Indians encamp hunting, so 
that in some measure we were quieted. They marched by, 

Wednesday, 2, in sight of our town. At the out- 
set, when they came here, they said that thousands of 
their nation would follow them, but when at their depart- 
ure they were carefully questioned, they said they did not 
know whether more would come, so that we thus saw they 
had told only lies. We heard, by way of Sandusky, that 
Brant and the Mingoes held a council in Detroit, of which 
in a short time we should hear something. 

Thursday, 3. Br. Edwards held early service. David 
then spoke with Qelelemend, who expressed to him his de- 
sire and longing to be with the church again, for he had 
twice been expelled on the Muskingum, when we were 
there, for he was then very much involved in the aftairs 
of chief, and at last became chief in Goschachgiink. Now, 
however, that he is free and has nothing more to do with 
affairs, although last year the Delaware chiefs visited him 
and proposed to him to come again and be chief, but he 
hai declined, we could not refuse him for the third 
time, but received him, after the assistants had first spoken 
with him and his wife. He came very meek and out- 
wardly very poor, so that we all had great pity for him, 
aod sought to help him what we could. He said to Br. 
David, whom he had not seen for seven years, that he had 
countless times wished himself with us, for in Pittsburg, 
where he retired during the war, he was often no day sure 
of his life, on account of the militia; when then he 
thought of going to us over the lake, he knew not how to 
come because of the Indians, who likewise wished his life. 
He was quite revived and cheerful when he got permission 
to be one of our inhabitants, for he was much cast down 
and in fear he might be again rejected. *If the chiefs in 
such condition come to us, we will receive them heartily 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 421 

and cheerfully, show them love and kindness, and the 
greater is our joy if they thrive for the Saviour in the 
church and become eternally happy. In the evening the 
assistant, Samuel, delivered a discourse to all the brothers 
and sisters, very effectively, in the school-house. The as- 
sistants have reasonably much to do. 

Friday, 4. All the brethren helped plant one piece 
more of corn. Although it should not ripen, yet it will 
be good to eat, so that they have yet something to hope for. 

Saturday, 5. By way of Sandusky, from which place 
daily this week Indians have come here, we learned that 
Pomoacan, the Half- King, died in Detroit, whither he was 
gone to a council. According to appearances, he was 
again our friend since we have been here, for he called us 
hither, though it may not have been without a purpose, 
for such people do nothing without a purpose. From De- 
troit came two white people. Loveless, with a woman, on 
their way to Pittsburg, who were brought there in the war 
as prisoners and had known us there. They were accom- 
panied to the Fort by Frank. 

Sunday, 6. Edwards preached about the great miracle, 
above all the Saviour did, that the Creator of all things 
became man, suffered bitter death for his fallen human 
creation, and thereby brought about eternal redemption. 
David held the children's service and the congregation 
meeting, the latter from the Scripture-verse, with reference 
to the words of the Saviour : Ye are the salt of the earth 
and ye are the light of the world, that the Saviour's peo- 
ple shall be a blessing for the world and bear fruit. A 
young unmarried man, Levi by name, who, a grown boy, 
had been baptized on the Muskingum, and came here last 
evening, came to-day quite early to Br. David, made him- 
self known, and begged leave again to come to the church. 
He said he could no longer be among the savages, for since 
he heard we were here he had no rest, his heart told him 
he belonged to us; he had come for no other reason than 
to ask permission to be allowed to come to the church. 
Here is seen the wide difference between a savage and one 
who has been baptized. Here was found a field that, 



422 zeisberger's diart. 

plainly to be seen, had been worked before, for when Br. 
David told him he did well in again seeking the Saviour 
and the church, and reminded him of his baptism, the tears 
ran down his cheeks. He was told that the assistants 
would call him and speak with him, to whom he should 
disclose his heart and wish, who would then speak farther 
with him; this thus happened, and he got leave to come 
here. He was so pleased with this that he said he had told 
his grandmother, Gertrude, two days before, upon leaving 
her, that he would come back again in eight days, but since 
now he received such good words and comforting answer 
he wanted to go back to Sandusky to-morrow morning 
and bring her here with him. An unbaptized maiden, or 
woman, whose mother died in the church, came here some 
days ago to remain, and wished not again to go away. She 
was also received after she had been brought into a family 
and cared for. 

Monday, 7. Edwards held early service. We heard 
that five of the thirteen warriors who went by five days 
ago, came back last evening without accomplishing any 
thing, very hungry. 

Tuesday, 8. David held early service. A sickly, unbap- 
tized woman came here a few days ago and wanted much 
to stay here. As a child she had been in the church, and 
after the death of her mother, who was baptized and 
blessed, she was taken by her father among the savages. 
Last winter she came here visiting with her husband and 
omitted no meeting, as also now. To her an Indian doc- 
tor had said she was not sick in body, nothing was the 
matter with her, but she was sick in heart and in mind ; 
she might well have been at the meetings of the believing 
Indians and thought much about what she heard there ; 
no doctor could help her, she must go to the believers, 
there she would soon be well. Her husband went through 
here not long ago on his way hunting, and had said that 
when he came back he wanted to come straight here and 
stay. As we could not support the wife, since at times we 
are badly supplied with food, we advised her to go back 
again home and wait for her husband, until he came and 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 423 

expressed his wish to live here, and this she did, though 
not very willingly. 

In the evening quite late Br. Michael Jung came back 
from the Fort, having been much delayed by heavy rains 
and high water, after being gone just four weeks. We 
thanked the Saviour that they had made the journey with- 
out opposition from warriors, having been troubled about 
them, for if nothing had happened to endanger his life, he 
might have been robbed. He brought us a letter from Br. 
Ettwein, dated June 10th and 14th, from which we saw 
that other letters, written in May, were still delayed. A 
letter from Br. Abraham Reinke,^ from Yorktown, (Pa.), of 
Aug. 28th, last year, only got here at the same time. 

Wednesday, 9. Br. Michael Jung held early service. 
Afterwards the Lord's supper was announced to the com- 
municants for next Saturday. At noon a Chippewa war- 
party came in with drumming and singing, after their 
fashion, to dance and beg from house to house. Abraham, 
the assistant, went at once to them, stopped them and ad- 
dressed them, saying we knew why they were come, 
namely, to get something to eat, being hungry ; they should 
sit down and be quite quiet, we did not wish their dancing 
and drumming here, they should then have plenty to eat. 
This they did, sat down, and they were fed their fill. The 
chief reason why they came here was that they wanted 
tobacco, and also a hog, which we gave them, and they 
drew off again. They admitted themselves that they 
were sent to war, not by the English, but by their own 
chiefs, and this was not only true, but the English were 
opposed to their going, and we heard afterwards that they 
stole out of Detroit. 

Thursday, 10. Thomas came back, who had accom- 
panied white people to the Fort. Col. Joseph Mitchel, 
who had been a prisoner, wrote back by him, praising the 
good conduct of Thomas, their pilot, both on the journey 
thither and at the Fort, and thanking our Indians for the 
friendship and love he had met here. 

^Born June 15, 1752, and died Feb. 16, 1833; pastor of various 
churches in Pennsylvania and at Hope, N. J. 



424 zeisberger's diart. 

Friday, 11. David held early service. In the afternoon 
the war-party came back again, in a quiet and orderly 
way, and announced they had something to say. We gave 
them to eat, and then they said they were stopped in De- 
troit, but had secretly stolen away ; they said then that, 
perhaps, grandfather did not like to see the way to the 
Fort made insecure, and gave us to understand that if he 
did not like to see it, they would rather turn about. Our 
Indians made a speech with a string of wampum, advising 
them to turn back again, and this they promissd to do, but 
this i9 a reproach for warriors, they will be ridiculed if 
they turn back and have nothing to show that they have 
been stopped. We got together some provisions for their 
homeward march. They wanted to remain over night 
here and have a dance, but we told them we did not allow 
dancing here; in other towns they might dance, but not 
here, and so they went away. 

Saturday, 12. After the brethren had been spoken to 
on previous days, we had the most blessed enjoyment of 
the body and blood of our Lord in the holy communion, 
which we have not had for five weeks from want of wine. 

Sunday, 13. The communion liturgy was read early, 
and then Br. Michael preached. Afterwards was the 
quarter-hour for the baptized. By a wild Indian we had 
a letter from Br. Ettwein in Bethlehem, of May 5th. 
After he had gone, we heard that he was one of several 
horse-thieves, who did not come into town, having stolen 
horses in Pittsburg, and he came in only to deliver the 
letter. 

Tuesday, 15. The Indian, of whom mention is made 
under March 8th, who did not hold it needful to go to the 
meetings, having done nothing wrong in his life, came 
here again some time ago, and for a week had longed 
to live here, with whom the assistants spoke, and to 
whom they listened. He said that when he was here be- 
fore he believed he needed nothing, but since then he had 
thought about himself, and found that all his doing and 
behaviour was sin, and that there was nothing good in him, 
wherefore he would like to be in the church, in hope that 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 425 

the Saviour would pity him, forgive his sins, and bless 
him. The brethren asked him also about his outward cir- 
cumstances and gave him advice, since he wanted to live 
here, which he received. 

Wednesday, 16. Edwards held early service. There- 
upon was a conference of assistants, especially concerning 
our young people, for instance, Pauline, Cornelius' daugh- 
ter. We considered how to correct disorderly living, and 
where we could help. Many went hunting, as did Jacob? 
and many with him. Br. Michael Jung grew sick again 
since he has been at home, especially with toothache, as 
also Susanna. 

Thursday, 17. David held early service about bringing 
our requests and prayers before the Saviour with thanks- 
giving. The assistants met with the brothers to regulate 
matters in business and behaviour. In the afternoon the 
Chippewa warriors came back, who had gone by here 
fourteen days ago, with five scalps and one prisoner, the 
Quaker, who last autumn, in the Miami towns, had escaped 
and come here, and was taken to the Fort. He was now 
again made prisoner, on the Muskingum, at the place 
where preparations were making for the treaty, where 
these warriors made an attack. They had strict orders to 
fall upon no Indians, and were not prepared for an attack 
until the warriors had accomplished their object, yet the 
Chippewa head-man perished there. There is a very bad 
prospect of peace, it is turned aside, and no one knows 
whether or when they will come together, for all prelimi- 
naries thereto come lamely forward. The French in San- 
dusky Bay gave the prisoner advice to escape when he was 
over the lake in the settlements. William came back from 
Sandusky. 

Sunday, 20. David preached from the Epistle that all 
we find in Holy Writ about the people of God is given us 
for example and exhortation, that we should not let our- 
selves lust after wickedness, that all the works of dark- 
ness, though they happen secretly, will come to light, and 
that nothing will remain concealed before him who has 
eyes like flames of fire ; therefore we should seek a recon- 



426 zbisbbbqbr's diart. 

ciled heart and to have peace with Q-od, that our trans- 
gressions may here be done away with and blotted out by 
Jesus' blood, so that we, clad in the righteousness of his 
blood, may appear before God. Br. Edwards held the 
congregation meeting from the text : As every man has 
received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, 
etc., that we have to look one upon another as members of 
one body, whose head is Christ, and that each member 
should be useful, helpful, and a blessing to the others, so 
that none can think it needs no other. 

Monday, 21. Michael held early service from the Script- 
ure-verse: I will get them praise and fame in every land 
where they have been put to shame, that the Saviour will 
be glorified through believers in him; therefore he will 
place them for a blessing, and let them shine as a light 
which shall not be hid; what he does in them shall be seen 
for the glory of his name. 

By our Indians who came from Sandusky, we heard 
again unpleasant stories that the Chippewas in great num- 
ber were coming over from Detroit, wishing to plunder us 
for. having sold their land, which news made much stir 
among our brethren, and was thoroughly talked over. 

Tuesday, 22. We considered again about the thing, 
after having already considered it two days ago, but then 
we had not to ask the Saviour. To make our Indian 
brethren content, however, we asked the Saviour again, 
whether we had to do any thing in the matter, and he let 
us know that we should send some Indian brethren over 
the lake to get information and speak with the Chippewas. 
We proposed this to the assistants, and it was not to their 
mind, but they declined, and we must so let it be for the 
present, but we found afterwards that all was nothing but 
lies, there being nothing in the thing. 

Wednesday, 23. Br. Edwards held early service from 
the Scripture-verse : And I will give you pastors accord- 
ing to mine heart, etc., and said that the brethren should 
carefully obey their teachers according to the words of the 
Apostle Paul, for they watched over their souls, but it hap- 
pened at times that they wished to be wiser and shrewder, 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 427 

thiuking they understood better, and thereby they came 
to need and confusion, so that in the end they knew not 
what to do, and made things hard for themselves and also 
for their teachers. 

From Sandusky a Wyandot counsellor came, who under- 
stood Delaware, and brought us news that a messenger 
from Detroit was come, where the nations were assembled 
for a conference, with a message to the Indians of this pur- 
port : They should not go away from home a short mile, 
nor go to the Fort; it would not last long, and we should 
hear how circumstances turned out. Some of our Indians 
were just ready to go to Pittsburg; they were also de- 
layed. We saw from this that they were upon the point 
of going to the treaty. He was charged to speak farther 
with our Indians, and to find out what our mind was in 
regard to remaining here, and he said, since they had 
heard lies on every hand, this had given him occasion to 
ask, which now he did. The assistants replied to him and 
laid our condition before him, how it then was with us; 
that in Cuyahoga we got a message from Pipe with a belt, 
who called us to Pettquotting to live, saying that his 
uncles, the Wyandots, had given it him; that he had 
vacated it so that we should occupy it. We departed last 
year from Cuyahoga and had wished to settle on the deep 
creek (perhaps Vermillion River), where a messenger came, 
who told us we could not live there, we should come to San- 
dusky, there a place was set apart for us, but he mentioned 
nothing about the former message we had received ; finally 
we had come here to Pettquotting, and as it was already 
time to plant, we remained here, but had let our uncles 
know that we were forced to remain here and plant, that 
we might have something for our wives and children to 
live on. The uncles were well content with this, and said 
to us that no one would or should molest us, and if the 
times continued good and peaceful, perhaps we could re- 
main here longer, but should any danger come they would 
let us know. Since then they had said nothing to us, and 
we remained and had again planted here ; thus our aflfairs 
stood, and so we held to what the Wyandots had said. It 



428 zbisbbrger's diart. 

appears, however, that they will not leave us here, and 
think indeed of making us come to Sandusky, for it 
arouses much attention among them that all are running 
to us, and they are not capable of hindering it. Why 
have they compelled us to settle here ? We had not so in- 
tended ; they have themselves to blame, and should have 
no thanks for it. 

Friday, 25. Sisters came back from Sandusky with 
corn, which they had bought. Among our brethren hun- 
ger and want of food grow stronger. Corn is hard to get 
and very dear, three dollars the cheapest. N. B. — The many 
strangers cause us want. 

Sunday, 27. Edwards preached about this, that the 
Saviour is sad, yea weeps, over men who are indifferent in 
regard to their salvation and wish not to accept what he 
has earned and won for them. Br. David conducted the 
children's hour and Michael held the congregation meet- 
ing. In the afternoon came Nathaniel Davis, with his 
wife and children, six persons, to remain here. He said 
at once that he came here for good and had left nothing 
behind except his plantation. They were still all full of 
the death of their son Leonard, who made' a long visit 
here this spring, and they said that after he came home he 
was quite another man, had then no longer pleasure nor 
rest, and was always urging them to go to the church, and 
when he became ill [his illness lasted but two days] he 
prayed to the Saviour all the time and also exhorted his 
parents to call upon the Saviour with him, that he would 
be merciful to him, till his breath ceased. He had also 
begged them, when he was gone, not to delay, but to 
hasten to the church, and this is indeed the motive for 
their coming here at the time of the greatest need. It is 
true that in this way we are always adding to our trouble 
and care and much labor, but yet it gives us joy when the 
erring sheep are again assembled in the fold, at the same 
time that we do not compel them, and if we tried to do it, 
not only would it be of no use, but rather a hinderance, 
but the Saviour brings it about himself, for we call no one 
to the church, so that if they thrive not they have not to 



AT THE SALEM, 1788. 429 

reproach us as if we had overpersuaded them. Who will 
only wait until the Saviour acts, he can speak of success, 
for if he begins to work, certainly the work goes bravely on. 

So also day before yesterday a young man, named Chris- 
tian came here, who as a child was baptized in the church, 
and ceased to live here; he came to Br. David and spoke 
with him. The assistants talked with him about his cir- 
cumstances in detail, for there was much in him to cause 
hesitation, for last winter in a drunken brawl he had killed 
a Cherokee Indian. 

Monday, 25. We have good, comforting news from the 
council over the lake, from which we see there is a better 
prospect for peace than ever before, and that they are now 
upon a good path. The news was related and made known 
in full to our Indian brethren, to their sympathy and pleas- 
ure, for hardly anywhere will there be greater joy, if peace 
be concluded, than with us, since we see with our own eyes 
the misery and want if a new Indian war should break 
out, and we should feel them most. From the Delawares 
in Gigeyunk we likewise hear good news, that their 
chief has very strictly forbidden their young men stealing 
or doing further damage. The Twightwees, Tawas, and 
others have this spring given the Delawares land from the 
Miami to the Wabash, so that now again they have their 
own land to live on. Now we hear that the Delaware 
chief, who became chief in Israel's place, has always an 
eye upon the believing Indians, for once already he has 
sent us word that since we are here this side of the lake 
he still thinks upon what his uncle, Israel, told him, when 
he ^ave over to him his chieftainship, namely, to love the 
believing Indians and their teachers, to do them good and 
protect them from wild, hostile Indians, so far as he could ; 
but he had been so far distant from us, having himself no 
certain and abiding place, that hitherto he could not be 
very serviceable to us in any thing, but the time would 
come when he would be in condition to carry out his sug- 
gestions, when first again he had a sure abode. We had 
shortly before heard that one of his counsellors, whom we 
well knew, will come express to us and speak with us. The 



480 zeisberqer's diart. 

chief Welandawecken is now reported to have said that 
if there should be war, and this still hangs in the balance, 
he would take fiom here far enough out of the way the be- 
lieving Indians, with the missionaries, over whom he claims 
a right in virtue of his orders ; but if there should be peace, 
he would let us stay here. Thus, should there be war, we 
are already provided for, and our care is in vain. Things 
will go again as we have already experienced them. We 
must go whither we are taken ; we may wish it or not, and 
shall have no choice in the matter. Nathaniel Davis spoke 
with us about his coming to us ; that his whole thought 
was of giving himself anew to the Saviour and living for 
him. He said he had lost much by staying away from us 
so long; that the Saviour was not content with his tarry- 
ing among the savages, for he had planted two years 
and harvested nothing. His crops had either been de- 
stroyed by frost or by bad weather. Want had forced 
him last autumn to pass the whole winter hunting, having 
nothing to eat, and what they planted this year was frost- 
bitten in the middle of summer, and thus they had little 
or nothing to eat. 

Thursday, 31. To-day, and for many dayp, we have had 
many visits from strangers, yes, not a day is the town free 
from them. As our Indians have little to eat, they go in- 
dustriously to the whortleberries, which are a great help 
for them; some take their children there for food, where 
they can eat their fill and have much plea&ure too. 

Friday, Aug. 1. David held early service from the text: 
Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast, unmove- 
able, always abounding in the works of the Lord, tor as 
much as ye know that your labor is not in vain in the 
Lord, to this eflfect, that our labor here should be to be- 
come so minded as was Jesus Christ, also to learn from 
him who was meek and of humble heart. Thereto belongs 
that we should stand fast by him; then will the Holy 
Ghost make us recognize our corrupt hearts, wherewith we 
go to the Saviour and let them be purified by his blood. 
The end of this our labor would be to be established with 
him, and to live eternally with him. At noon Joseph was 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 431 

released from this vale of tears, dying peacefully. David 
had been with him shortly before, and had encouraged him 
to pray to the Saviour, soon to take him to himself, and 
this he did. 

Saturday, 2. After the early service from the text: Ex- 
amine yourselves whether ye be in the faith ; prove your 
own selves, of which application was made, the remains of 
the Indian Joseph were buried. He was baptized Jan. 1, '74, 
in Gnadenhiitten, on the Muskingum, by Br. Schmick,^ but 
as long as he was in the church he went a bad way, and 
would never come right. When he was talked with, it was 
his regular complaint about himself that he was a bad, ut- 
terly corrupt man, but thereby it was ever the same thing, 
for he loved sin, and therefore could not be free therefrom, 
and yet he could not remain away from the church. He 
came to us again on the Huron River (Michigan). We had 
indeed great doubt about receiving him, for he was one of 
those who had tortured Col. Crawford to death in San- 
dusky, and he had himself scalped him while yet alive. 
When he was told that on account of white people, who 
would learn what he had done, he could not be with us, he 
was yet unwilling to be refused, and begged us only the 
more pressingly to have compassion with him, for he must 
be lost eternally, and he said he would rather himself go 
to Detrpit to the commandant and beg for pardon. For a 
time all seemed well, and it appeared as if he were per- 
fectly in earnest in being converted anew with his whole 
heart. At his request he was absolved, but it did not last 
long, and he came little by little into his old bad way, yes, 
it went so far that we were forced to send him away again. 
In Cuyahoga he sought us out again, wishing to be with 
us, but we took little notice of what he said. Last autumn, 
when he lay sick in Sandusky, he begged us again and 
again to let him come to the church and end there his re- 
maining days. Hearing that he would not recover, we 
permitted him, in hope that his soul might be rescued, 

*John Jacob Schmick, 1714-1778. lie came to America in 1751 ; was 
busy in Pennsylvania and Ohio missions till the year before his death. 



432 zbisberqbr's diart. 

and our hope was not in vain. He found his heart, that 
he had never been just and upright, and had always kepf 
^back something that he did not wish to give up and let 
go. Now he saw where the trouble had been, that he had 
never succeeded in being quite blessed. This he said to 
the brethren, who visited him, and warned them not to do 
as he had done, for he was alone to blame that he led in 
the church a bad, unholy life, and had used his time so 
vilely. At his request and longing he was absolved upon 
his sick-bed, whereupon he passed happily his few remain- 
ing days. In him it could be seen that the Saviour had 
forgiven him his transgressions, and he wished that the 
Saviour would soon free him from this vale of tears and 
take him to himself. Thus he died, a repentant sinner, 
and so we were not sorry for the pains and trouble we had 
with him, for he was afflicted with a contagious disease, 
but we thanked the Saviour for the mercy he had shown 
him. Moreover, to-day, by the assistant, Abraham, who 
came from Sandusky, we got letters, by way of Pittsburg, 
from Bethlehem and Litiz, of May and June, to our no 
common joy. From these, and also from a letter expressly 
about the matter from Geo. Wallace, Esq., from Pittsburg, 
we learned the arrival of our things from Bethlehem. 

Sunday, 3. Michael preached from the Epistle about 
this, what it had cost the Saviour to redeem us by his 
great sufferings and bitter death. Many strangers were 
present, to whom Samuel preached the Saviour meanwhile 
with great earnestness; in particular he described to Suck- 
achsun his dead and unreceptive heart, and told him he 
had no more reflection and consideration than a cow. 
David held the congregation meeting from the Scripture- 
verse and text, that the Saviour had left his throne and 
magnificence with the Father, had come into the world, 
putting on our poor flesh and blood to seek the lost and to 
save sinners. 

Monday, 4. Edwards held early service. 

Tuesday, 5. Michael Schebosh came with A. Johanna 
and Joseph from the island in Sandusky Bay. In Detroit 
little produce, no wares, not a shirt to be had. 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 438 

Wednesday, 6. All the brethren who were at home 
went hunting in common, and the sisters for whortle^ 
berries, with which they now get much help until the corn 
is to be eaten, and that is very soon. 

Levi, mention of whom is made under July 6th, who 
had leave to live here, came now, but had left his grand- 
mother behind, who did not want to come yet. Also still 
more strangers came here, among them Philippina. In 
our neighborhood the savages who dwell there made this 
evening a sacrifice and dance, to which strange Indians 
went also, who had come here. They have never doner 
the like since they have been here, but we will be thought- 
ful about this at a good and suitable time, to get them 
away, for this gives a hold for Satan. We thought at first 
that, perhaps, many of them would wish to be converted, 
but usually it is worse with neighbors who are so near us ; 
they live just by, and yet never come to the meetings; on 
the other hand, those wh<5 are far distant come. 

Thursday, 7. Edwards held early service from the 
Scripture- verse : That whoever trusts in him will not come 
to harm. Many came here from the elk-hunt with meat; 
thus also our heavenly Father gives something, that they 
can live. 

Sunday, 10. Br. David preached and then held the com* 
munion quarter-hour, for to the communicants the impor- 
tant, great day and the Lord's supper were announced. 
The assistants came together and spoke with our brethren, 
Joshua, John Cook's son, and his wife. David spoke with 
Gelelemend, who visited him, 

Monday, 11, and showed his longing for the bath of holy 
baptism. It was fii'st pointed out to him and told what it 
particularly depended upon, not upon our own running and 
racing and our own works, but upon God's mercy and the 
entire surrender of the heart. 

Wednesday, 13. At the text : For as the body is one 
and hath many members, and all the members of that one 
body, etc., something was said to the communicants about 
28 



434 zbisberger's diart. 

the importance of the day,* and they were thereby re- 
minded that through the grace of Jesus Christ they are 
also Ttiembers of his body, of which he is the head, that the 
Holy Ghost has called and assembled them by means of 
the brothers, for no other end than to make them members 
of his body, to show himself mighty in them, that his name 
may be glorified through them ; therefore the church 
should be to each one great and indispensable. After beg- 
ging absolution, we enjoyed his body and blood in the 
holy sacrament, to which A. Charity was readmitted the 
first time since she came from Cuyahoga, after receiving 
absolution. 

Thursday, 14. Four Chippewas came visiting here, re- 
maining a couple of days. One of them was from Huron 
River, and told us, for he spoke very good Delaware, 
that he lived in Br. Zeisberger's house, that the houses 
were all occupied by Chippewas, and no white people 
lived there except Conner, to whom they had given leave. 
It was very pleasant for us and our Indian brethren to hear 
true news from there, after already having heard so many 
lies, for now we saw there was nothing in the thing. The 
Indian brethren also spoke to them about the Saviour, the 
Redeemer of all men, that we through faith have forgive- 
ness of our sins and life eternal, and that he is lost who 
does not believe. They visited, too, the meetings, and 
otherwise were well entertained, as things now are, when 
everywhere there is little to eat. They went back again 
on the 16th, and we gave them some food for the way. He, 
from Huron River, whose brother is chief there, said he was 
much pleased here, he wished in the autumn to come again 
and live also as,we did. We told him then he should also 
bring his wife with him. After they were gone some Chip- 
pewas from Sandusky Bay, who had heard that some of 
their people had been taken prisoners by the whites, came 
here to learn about this. They were told that this was 
true, that the war-party which had been murdering 
there was the cause of it, for after the massacre occur- 

iSeep. 199. 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 435 

red, the white people had surrounded and captured a Chip- 
pewa party out hunting. They had not touched the women, 
but only the men, but as those did not wish to leave their 
husbands, they had gone with them ; no harm had befallen 
them ; they were well kept and guarded till the treaty. 
With this they were content. 

Sunday, 17. Br. Edwards preached from the Gospel 
about the good Samaritan, and Br. David held the quar- 
ter-hour for the baptized from the text: For as many of 
you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. 
Michael held the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 19. Br. Edwards held the early service from the 
text : For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world ; 
and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our 
faith. The ^ spirit of the Lamb, which rules us, his blood, 
which binds us together, his grace, which sits at the helm, 
bring about the victory everywhere. He said that if the 
brethren simply let themselves be ruled by the Spirit of God, 
were obedient, held together in one heart and mind about 
the word of the blood and death of Jesus, and stood fast 
by him in faith, they would have perfect victory to boast 
of, even in the worst and most dangerous circumstances, 
for in them they had nothing farther to do than to be still 
and look to the Saviour, how he conducts his own with 
a mother's hands, according to the collect in to-day's Scrip- 
ture-verse, and to praise him therefor. Here we cannot 
go on, since Scripture-verse and text are so appropriate, 
without describing in detail a circumstance which has oc- 
curred to us, since now we see things together in their con- 
nection, and have to-day awaited their fortunate conclu- 
sion, wherefor the Saviour must receive abundant praise 
and thanksgiving, for he alone has done it without our 
help. It is known that when two years ago we came away 
from Huron River and Detroit, the commandant, Maj. 
William Ancrum, and Mr. Askin prepared two ships to 
take us to Cuyahoga, and likewise gave us for our houses 

^Collect. 



486 zbisbbrqer's diart. 

and the labor we had there done, a bill of credit for two 
hundred dollars, for which in Cuyahoga we got flour, which 
was a real and substantial help in our extreraest need, when 
we were in the wilderness, remote from Indian and white 
settlements, so that thereby, though it was not quite suf- 
cient, we were put in position to be able to plant somewhat 
and outwardly to* get along. When we came here a year 
ago from Cuyahoga, we were always hearing from San- 
dusky that the Chippewas were discontented with us and 
blamed us for having sold their land to white people. To 
quiet our Indians, for they cannot well bear such talk, we 
sent Br. Edwards with some Indian brethren to Detroit, to 
find out about the aflFair, and Br. David wrote about this 
both to Mr. Askin and to the agent, Capt. McKee, whose 
advice we begged, but nothing farther was done in the 
matter; we saw that in Detroit little account was made of 
this. Moreover, Chippewas lived in our towns, which we had 
left, so we let the whole matter alone, for we saw not what 
we could farther do in the thing, thinking that if we stirred 
therein, we might make the evil worse, perhaps, and arouse 
the Chippewas, and thereby get ourselves into trouble. 
Our comfort was that we had acted openly before the eyes 
of all men, and uprightly; we had done nothing secretly, 
nor in the dark, but we have learned thereby not to do the 
like again, and in the future to save ourselves such trouble; 
it shall be to us a Nota Bene hereafter. This spring and 
summer the affair was warmed up again, and served up to 
our Indians, as often as they went to Sandusky, for from 
that? place in particular it came here through wicked, ill- 
disposed Indians; they had sold the Chippewas' land [they 
said]; they would come over therefore and plunder us, 
and thus get their pay. And to make it quite probable, lies 
upon lies were invented and piled together, yes, the news 
once came that two thousand Chippewas were already near 
the lake here. We asked the Saviour once whether in the 
affair we were to ask him, and nothing was to be done. 
We were then at rest in the thing, believing what we had 
heard to be lies, but yet could not reassure and quiet our 
Indians. Therefore upon a new alarm we again turned to 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 437 

the Saviour and inquired if we had any thing to ask, and 
he said, yes. We made then the following questions: 
Whether Br. David with some Indian brothers should go 
to Detroit to see what was to be done? Answer: Whether 
Br. David should go ? no. Whether Indian brothers should 
go, was approved. They, however, did not want to go un- 
less some one of us went too, and so the matter remained, 
and though nothing was done, yet We laborers were really 
helped, that we were not so overrun by our Indians, for on 
our part we considered it all a lie, but yet could not make 
our Indians so believe. Now the French trader, whom 
Samuel had verbally charged to get information, two 
m6nths ago, from the Tawa chief in Detroit, to whose 
hands every thing must go, brought us the following 
speech, accompanied by a string of wampum : " Grand- 
father, ye believing Indians on Huron River, it has been 
brought to my ears that ye are accused of all sorts of evil, 
and burdened with the charge that ye have sold the Chip- 
pewas' land on Huron River (Michigan), that the Chip- 
pewas were angry about this, and would therefore come 
and take away all ye have, of which I had never heard. 
After I received the news, I assembled the Chippewa chiefs 
and head-men, and in open council asked them whence 
this accusation came, and whether any one had let such 
talk go but of his mouth, and expressed it, but we have 
found no such person among us, and know nothing thereof. 
This we can say of you on the Muskingum and on the 
Huron River here, where ye lived, that ye neither troubled 
yourselves about land nor war, nor any thing else, except 
to attend to your worship of God ; that is your chief busi- 
ness, this we know. I will hereby let you know that all 
ye have heard are lies. Whether they have come from 
wretched busy-bodies, Delawares, Wyandots, or Chip- 
pewas, or from white people and Indians together, we 
cannot determine, and must so let it be. I will say to you, 
however, believe not the lies ; the like has never come into 
our thoughts, as ye have heard, and comes not from us. 
Take this string of wampum for a token, and if any one 
farther comes to unload his lies to you, show him this, and 



488 zbisberqer's diart. 

if he, or they, do not want to 'credit it, let me know, I will 
myself come and punish them for this. Grandfather, here 
on Huron River thou hast lived on our land; it is pleas- 
ant to me that thou now livest on my land, the other side 
of the lake, also on Huron River. Thou art still in my 
arms and in my bosom." This Tawa chief is also the 
head-chief of the Chippewas, and can call them together 
as often as he finds it. needful, for all first comes to him, 
and then he communicates it to the others. He lives op- 
posite Detroit, on the east side of the river. 

^Although the. Delawares and Wyandots always de- 
scribed to us the Chippewas and Tawas as the wildest 
people, and strove to paint them frightful to us, we have 
always found the opposite. They did not do us the least 
harm over the lake, neither in our cattle nor our fields, and 
placed nothing in our way. Here, likewise, we find them 
the same ; we have no reproach to make them, and we see 
now that their chiefs are our friends, and better friends than 
the Delawares and their chiefs, and whence comes this? 
Perhaps we can find out, if we seek a little. It cannot 
come from this that the Chippewas are better and more 
virtuous than other Indians, or that they love goodness 
more than the Delawares; yes, if we went to another 
strange nation, with whom we yet have no acquaintance, 
we should find the same, that they would be more kindly 
towards us than they who have known us for so many 
years and have had intercourse with us. The Chippewas 
and Tawas are quite wild, raw heathen, have yet heard no 
word of God, no Gospel, none of them have yet been con- 
verted, have yet no knowledge. They love the believing 
Indians, not because they believe in Christ, for of this they 
know nothing and think nothing of it, but because they 
are an upright, orderly, and peaceful folk, liking friend- 
ship with every one. They have and know no reason why 
they should hate us. On the other hand, the Delawares 
and Monseys have for many years heard the Gospel, are 
not so ignorant and blind as not to know better, many of 

*All this to the 20th is crossed out in the original. 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 439 

them having already become believers. Those now who 
do not wish to be converted are opponents, though they 
are convinced that the Gospel of Christ is the truth, for 
they wish to remain in sin, they become the foes of it and 
of the believers also, if not openly, yet secretly, since 
hatred lies in their hearts. If they come to us, they are 
our best friends, but behind our backs, in their own towns, 
they speak nothing but ill of us. 

Wednesday, 20. Chippewas again came here and re- 
mained over night, among them two who had been pris- 
oners at the mouth of the Muskingum, in Fort Harmar, 
and in irons wherewith they were bound, but they got free. 
They gave as a reason that they had heard they would all 
be hanged. All the prisoners, of whom there are yet four 
there, with their wives, lived on Sandusky Bay, and are 
well known to us. 

Thursday, 21. There came here together Chippewas 
and Tawas from Sandusky Bay. An old man made a 
formal speech to our Indians, of the following import, in 
short: '* Grandfather, I come to thee troubled and dis- 
tressed, in hope of getting from thee some comfort and 
advice, for a short time ago, when we were undisturbed and 
quiet, and were only thoughtful for our wives and children, 
to get them something to eat, it happened one morning 
unexpectedly that a war-party from over the lake came to 
us on its way to the settlements of the white people. This 
pleased us not, and disturbed us in our pleasant repose. 
We asked them who had sent them at a time when the 
leading men of all nations were assembled in Detroit, and 
were working hard to bring about a stable peace. They 
answered that their father over the lake [the English] knew 
about the thing, but we did not believe this, and though 
we did every thing to persuade them to turn back again, 
representing to them also that they would bring into dan- 
ger many of our young people who were out hunting and 
knew nothing of this, yet they set out on their way. Some 
of our people out hunting, having heard that the States 
were peacefully disposed towards all Indians and received 
them as friends, went near the Fort hunting. Just as they 



440 zeisbebqer's diart. 

came there it happened that the war-party mentioned made 
au attack upon the place where preparation was made for the 
treaty, and killed several white people. This was the cause 
that our people, who were out hunting and feared noth- 
ing, were captured and taken into the Fort, where four of 
them still are, but two have escaped. We take refuge in 
thee, grandfather, and believe thou wilt not refuse to for- 
ward this, our speech, to our elder brother in Pittsburg, for 
I have the greatest confidence in thee, and thou art known 
there also, namely, the following words : Brothers, I beg 
thee have compassion with me, and let my young people^ 
who are prisoners, again go free. They have done thee no 
harm, have not even thought it, but were out hunting. If 
thou will grant me this, my prayer, I and all ray people 
will hold fast to the chain of friendship which our old, wise 
men, now assembled in the great council in Detroit, are 
making, and with this string of wampum will bind fast 
our hands thereto." 

Friday, 22. The Chippewas went back home again, 
and two of our Indians, Stephen and Boaz, went with 
their speech to the fort. Meanwhile many Delawares from 
Sandusky came here. Our Wyandot also came for a visit, 
mention of whom is made in last year's diary. When he 
then went away from here to Sandusky, the small-pox 
broke out there, by which nearly the whole town died out 
and only two families survived. This year they have 
built on another site and have burnt the old town. He 
took care of his brother in his sickness, who died of the 
small-pox, and then he took the disease himself, but recov- 
ered. He said he came here once more to see us and to 
tell us he had not forgotten what he told us last year, 
that he remained thereby; he wished to and must yet live 
with us, and in this purpose had not changed ; he waited 
for his mother from Detroit ; when she came he could tell 
his mind to her, but not persuade her to come to the 
church unless she were so disposed. 

Sunday, 24. Br. Michael preached, and David held the 
congregation meeting. Two white people came from Pitts- 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 441 

burg with a woman. They went on again to Detroit by 
water on the 26th. 

Monday, 25. Helen returned from Sandusky, by whom 
we heard that the nations in a few days would come to- 
gether ou the Miami, so as to go from there to the Mus- 
kingum for the treaty, but no one yet knew precisely 
what they had determined. The Indians are every where 
in anxiety, that where the march of so many men is 
made, their fields will be eaten up, as if locusts came 
there and devoured every thing. 

"Wednesday, 27. David held early service. From De* 
troit a boat came with thirteen white people, who went on 
to Pittsburg, Thursday, the 28th, for whom we must get 
seven horses ready, for some of them were sick. Thus all 
come to us, Indians and whites, seeking help. Joseph 
Brant, with two hundred Mingoes, is on the Miami, and 
now they will soon go on to the treaty, for they cannot 
stay there long, there being but little food. Our Chip- 
pewa also arrived, who passed the winter with us in Cuy- 
ahoga, with his wife from hunting. He stayed several 
days with us, for they were pleased here, and our Abi^a- 
hiim spoke to them the words of life. 

Friday, 29. We had a pleasant love-feast with the two 
single brothers on their birth-day, wishing them the Sa- 
viour's blessing from his bloody fulness for their day. 

Sunday, 31. Br. David preached from Gal., vi., 7: 
Whatsoever a man soweth, that also shall he reap. Then 
the widows, seven in number, all communion sisters, had 
a blessed service from their text : Nevertheless I live ; 
yet not I, but Christ liveth in me, and then we had with 
them a love-feast. The Saviour showed himself very gra- 
cious to them, and one could observe a blessed feeling. 
Edwards held the congregation meeting. 

Monday, Sept. 1. Michael held early service. Gelele- 
mend expressed again his longing wish for baptism. He 
said: "I am one of the greatest sinners, and must be 
eternally lost, if the Saviour does not pity me and with' 
his blood cleanse me from my sins. In him alone I put 
my trust, for I believe he has died for sinners and has 



442 zeisbergbr's diart. 

shed his blood for me also, therefore I await with long- 
ing to be a sharer in grace." Ah, how has this man, the 
great chief of Qoschachgiink, changed ! How now is 
he become so meek, that he comes like any other sinner, 
weeps and begs for grace at the Saviour's feet ! If we are 
glad and have compassion, how must his loving heart be 
disposed towards such a poor sinner! 

We learned by way of Sandusky the comforting and 
joyful tidings that nineteen nations have united in a 
grand council for peace, and have sent off an express to 
Pittsburg to make known there that they will soon set 
out for the treaty, where they could be expected ; that 
the nations have given a sharp rebuke to those warriors 
who, contrary to all orders, have been disobedient and 
have murdered, and they have taken their prisoners from 
them, whom they will bring to the treaty. We heard also 
that there is again small-pox in Sandusky, and now also 
in the Mousey town. 

Thursday, 4. A sick child of a widow was baptized by 
David before its death with the name Ephraim. His 
mother came here some time ago. Likewise, some time 
ago, a woman came here with her husband, with the view 
of lying-in here, for she feared she would die, being already 
somewhat old and this her first child. She had a hard but 
fortunate delivery. This is already become evident that 
Indians in dangerous, doubtful circumstances take refuge 
with the believers, thinking that if they are with us there 
will be no danger, or at least that they will find it more 
tolerable than if they were with the savages. Generally 
they come not to grief in this belief. We see from this 
how the brethren are aroused, like hawks for birds, to win 
a soul for the Saviour, and incorporate it in the church. 
This evening also our dear brother, Schebosh, died in peace, 
after a nervous sickness of two weeks. 

Friday, 5. In the early service the little son of Adam 
and Sabina, born yesterday, was baptized into Jesus' death 
with the name of John Renatus. Towards evening the 
remains of our brother, Schebosh, who yesterday departed 
In peace, were buried, and at the same time with him the 



AT NBW SALEM, 1788. 443 

little boy, Ephraim, two months old, who was baptized 
yesterday. Since we find nothing written about the former, 
we will tell of him as much as we know and can remem- 
ber. He was born May 27, 1721, in Skippac (Montgom- 
ery Co., Pa.), in this country, came about the year '42 to 
the church in Bethlehem, where he was baptized by Br. 
Jos. Spang(enberg),^ and soon came to the Lord's supper. 
He was shortly afterward brought among the Indians in 
Meniolagomekak (Monroe Co., Pa.), where a small num- 
ber of Indians was served by the brothers, and in Gnaden- 
hiitten, on the Mahbny, where he remained until it was 
destroyed by the savages. In the year 1746 he was joined 
in wedlock with Christiana, with whom he lived in mar- 
riage forty-one years, and she died just a year ago less 
three days. Of his children one daughter is still here in 
the church, and two granddaughters. His son was among 
the number of martyrs in Qnadenhiitten. He was besides 
with the Indian church in Nain, near Bethlehem, after- 
wards with a part in Wechquetank,^ until they also, owing 
to the troubles of war, had to flee to the barracks in Phil- 
adelphia. From there he went in '65 to Friedenshiitten, 
on the Susquehanna, in the year '72 to the Ohio, where he 
lived first in Schonbrunn, and last in Gnadenhiitten on the 
Muskingum, until Sept. 3, '81, he went with the Indian 
church in captivity to Sandusky, from which place, how- 
ever, the same autumn he went back to Schonbrunn to get 
corn, but was there taken by the militia, with his daugh- 
ter, her husband, and others, and brought to Pittsburg, 
where, however, they were soon set free, so that they could 
go to their friends, but he went from there to Bethlehem, 
bringing to the brothers the first trustworthy news of the 
whole occurrence, and he refreshed himself in the church 
from the fatalities he had endured. In the year 1783 he 

^Augustus Gottlieb Spangenburg, J 704-1 792. He was a professor in 
the University at Halle, a position which he lost when he became a 
Moravian in 1733. He was in America eighteen years, presiding over 
the church. He was known as Br. Joseph. — De Schweinitz' Life of 
Zeisberger, p. 15. 

*Polk Township, Monroe Co., Pa. 



444 zeisbbrgbr's diary. 

undertook a journey to Detroit and Huron River, where 
he came to us again with Br. Weigand at the beginning 
of July, meeting there his wife and daughter, and this was 
to us no common joy. There he remained until in the 
year '86, in the spring, April, we, with the Indian church, 
there assembled, went back over the lake to Cuyahoga, 
and in '87 came here to Pettquotting. For a year now, 
and especially this spring, he failed noticeably in strength ; 
it could be seen he was nearing the end. After twice hav- 
ing the palsy, he was asked if he thought he should die. 
He answered with composure and resignation : Yes, he 
should indeed depart, saying also to his daughter that he 
should not recover from this illness. He had no pain, but 
spoke always of his weariness. He was serviceable to every 
man, without distinction, white or Indian, at all times 
ready to help where he could. He bore his cross with pa- 
tience, for in this life he seldom had things easy and good, 
but he was never heard to complain or fret, even if things 
were hard with him, and he had not even enough to eat. 
He loved and was loved ; this could be seen especially in 
his sickness. The Indian brethren all found it a pleasure 
to watch by him, a number of brothers and sisters remain- 
ing with him half the night and longer. We shall long 
miss him among us. His stay here below will remain to 
us and to the Indian brethren in blessed remembrance. He 
is now at home in peace, and all is forever well with him ; 
of this we are glad with our whole heart, and thank the 
Saviour for his election, but still send tears after him. His 
mortal life lasted sixty-seven years, three months, and eight 
days. 

Stephen came back from the Fort with an answer to the 
message of the Chippewas about their captured people on 
the Muskingum. In the answer they were referred to 
their chiefs and the assembled council of the nations, who 
had already been enjoined to deliver up the murderers, 
which would bring about the release of their people, who 
are held till the treaty ; the heads of the nations should 
give the decision. 

Sunday, 7. At morning prayer we asked for the near 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 445 

presence and blessing of our dear Lord for our married 
brethren on this day. Then they had a service from their 
text. Br. Edwards preached. In the afternoon was a 
love-feast for all inhabitants. la the congregation meet- 
ing an end was made by the blessing of the church. It 
was a day of blessing and encouragement for the breth- 
ren. The Saviour made himself known to us and let us 
feel his presence and nearness. In conclusion, we laborers 
had the most holy enjoyment, and strengthened ourselves 
with the body and blood of our Lord in the holy sacra- 
ment. 

Monday, 8. Jacob and his company came from the Fort 
and from hunting and with them three white people, one 
a woman, on their way to Detroit. They wished to have 
Indians as escort, which we could not give, but we advised 
them against going by land, as being dangerous for them, 
as they had cattle and must meet a great number of In- 
dians, who from hunger would take every thing away from 
them. .Wo had much vexation, care, and trouble with 
them, and were much concerned lest they should come to 
harm here from the Chippewas, for they are not very well 
disposed towards white people, since their people are in 
captivity. Thus have we always with the white people 
more trouble and plague than with the Indians; they are 
such a stupid folk, more stupid than Indians. At last we 
found a way out, since by land they could go neither for- 
wards nor backwards, to get them to Detroit by water, 
and that finally happened. They set out on Wednesday, 
the 10th, Andrew with them. 

Friday, 12. An Indian from the neighborhood, who has 
already been here many days and said he wanted to remain 
here, but knew not why, we bade go home. Michael held 
early service. 

Saturday, 13. David held early service. Boaz and 
Michael came from the Fort, and in the evening Thomas 
and William with our things from Bethlehem. 

Sunday, 14. Michael preached, David conducted the 
children's service, and Edwards the congregation meeting. 
David discoursed to the children about their text this 



446 zeisbbrqeb's diaby. 

week. Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this 
is right. 

Monday, 15. David held early service from the Script- 
ure-verse : But the just shall live by his faith. We had 
news from Sandusky that five hundred Chippewas and 
Tawas would go through our town on their way to the 
treaty. Should this occur, we could not depend upon our 
fields, for they would eat up every thing they found. We 
thought : If the Saviour permits it, he has good reasons 
for it. Perhaps we shall become known among nations 
yet strange, and herewith we comforted ourselves. If 
only something comes to the Saviour from this, all we 
have shall stand at his service. 

Wednesday, 17. Weschnasch came here from hunting 
and visited us. He holds us dear and has always so shown 
himself towards us, that to him the door to the church 
is yet open, also on his part, for if people have once 
sinned towards the church, usually they have no longer a 
heart for us, but get out of our way. 

Friday, 19. Suckachsiin came here from the Fort with 
liquor. We indeed ordered it to be taken care of, but it 
was not guarded and watched, and so it happened that we 
had this night and, 

Saturday, 20, a drunken bout in town, which caused us 
much uneasiness and vexation till evening, when the stoma 
abated. This is a matter against which we must oppose 
ourselves with earnestness and all our strength, •for if 
there shall be times of peace this business will be actively 
carried on by the savages, for they bring nothing more 
willingly here, and are thus a plague to us, and this al- 
ready begins, which cannot be. 

Sunday, 21. Instead of the sermon Br. David delivered 
an earnest discourse and exhortation to all inhabitants, re- 
minding those who love the Saviour and wish to live for 
him in one spirit and mind, to oppose the disorder and 
sinful things that wish to come among us. Then was the 
communion quarter-hour, when this matter was again 
touched upon, and the brethren were told that it was sad 
and distressing if from this company brethren let them- 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 447 

selves be seduced to drunkenness, thereby giving a bad 
example. They were told at the same time that none of 
those coul^^r should come to the Lord's supper. Michael 
held the congregation meeting from the text : Take heed 
unto thyself. We read the church-journal. 

Monday, 22. The assistants had labor nearly the whole 
day in speaking with some brethren and new people, who 
had taken part in the drunkenness, and this was not with- 
out use and blessing. Edwards held early service. A 
woman died in the neighborhood, who lay sick for a long 
time, always longing and begging to be brought to the be- 
lievers, among whom she wished to die. No one, how- 
ever, would bring her. Even yesterday, her last day, she 
wished to come here to us, and some brethren had to go 
there to make her coffin and help bury her. 

Thursday, 25. Edwards held early service from the 
Scripture-verse, which was noteworthy (Hab. ii., 14). 

Friday, 26. Yesterday and to-day there was speaking 
with the brethren, for there was much to clear up, and 
some had to abstain from the Lord's supper. 

Saturday, 27. Wo had a happy and blessed communion, 
though conscious of our sins. 

Sunday, 28. At the sermon, which Br. Edwards de- 
livered, was a Chippewa, who understood Delaware and 
Shawano, and had already before once or twice been at 
our meetings. He came afterwards to us and gave us to 
understand that he would like to hear something about 
the Saviour, he would willingly listen, believing we knew, 
more than he, what pertains to man's welfare, for he knew 
not otherwise how to express it. Wo soon gave him an 
opportunity, calling the brothers, Samuel, Abraham, and 
Boaz, the first understanding Shawano a little, the latter, 
Chippewa. They spoke with him, and he told them he 
was sorry he could not understand all, and talk with them 
plainly, for he believed they knew what makes a man 
good and happy; that knew he not, but would gladly hear. 
He asked the brethren what they thought about dreams, 
upon which Indians build so much. He said he would 
not forget what his father, who died four years ago, said 



448 zbisberqbr's diary. 

to him, namely, that the Indians were not upon the right 
way to eternal life, they would find it hard after this life, 
and had nothing good to hope; that there were Indians 
who knew something better, how man could attain thereto, 
to have eternal life, and he who believed it would live 
forever, although he died. His father had also told him 
that after his death he should not go away from here, for 
the time would come when the believing Indians would 
come here to Pettquotting to live, to them should he hold, 
and from them he would hear that which he should receive 
and believe. The Indian could not then have known we 
should come back over the lake, this being in the year 
'84, when we ourselves yet knew nothing thereof. Since 
that time he had thought much about it, when he had 
been hunting alone in the bush, and could not forget it, 
much less now, when he saw that had happened which 
his father had told him, and .we were now dwelling here. 
He said that when he came among his people and refused 
to dance, they called him a Sunday Indian, saying he 
looked down upon them and would yet come to us. Sam- 
uel now began and said to him : " What we now say to 
thee, thou canst be sure is the truth. Neither dreams, nor 
sacrifices, nor any thing wherein the Indians put their 
trust, thinking thereby to get happiness and eternal life, 
is of any help or use, it is all in vain, and brings no com- 
fort nor hope, but God, the Maker of all things, himself 
came down from heaven to the world, became a man, like 
ourselves, lived thirty years in the world, then for our sins 
was nailed to the cross, with nails through his hands and 
feet, and his side was pierced through with a spear, for he 
poured out all his blood. He died upon the cross, was 
buried, and on the third day rose again. His disciples, 
and those who believed in him, saw him, and after his 
resurrection, he tarried forty days here below, and yet 
spoke much with believers in him, telling them what we 
all must know in order to be saved. Thus has he won 
life eternal and salvation for us and for all mankind, in 
laying down his life for us and pouring out his blood. 
Who now believes this, him all his sins are forgiven, and 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 449 

God receives him as his child, he is blessed here and for- 
ever. This alone it is that makes us blessed, the blood of 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and upon the whole earth 
there is nothing else, or better, to be found to help us, and 
even if a man came into heaven, knowing nothing of this, 
nor of the Saviour with wounds in his hands and feet, and 
in his side, heaven itself would to him be a hell." The 
Chippewa listened devoutly, and sat awhile deep in 
thought, until he heard it said, " He went towards heaven 
and his disciples looked after him," then he asked if he 
would come again, and was answered: "Yes, he will cer- 
tainly come again and all men will see him, believers and 
unbelievers, the former will be glad and live with him 
forever, but the others will weep and groan, that were 
such unbelievers and now see themselves deceived." 
Dear brethren, this is the first one of the great, numerous, 
and strong Chippewa nation to ask about God, in whom 
can be observed an anxiety and longing to be saved, and 
who would like to know how to attain thereto. He is 
also the Chippewas' Saviour. He will also yet be known 
of them and prayed to, and his name will be glorified by 
them and in their tongue in spite of all hinderance and 
opposition of Satan. May he let their time come and their 
hour soon strike ! Amen. We read the church-journal. 

Monday, 29. In the early service consideration was had 
of the holy angels, and there was mention of what we en- 
joy through their service for protection and care on the 
part of our dear Lord, many a misfortune and danger be- 
ing prevented by them, of which we are i}ot in the least 
aware, for which we are bound to thank him and to praise 
him. In the service a couple of verses about the holy 
angels were translated. We thank the Saviour and his 
atonement that his angels so cheerfully serve us, and that 
they come down from their heights to aid in our redemp- 
tion. 

Tuesday, 30, and Wednesday, Oct. 1. The brethren 
harvested our plantation, at which strangers also helped, 
who were come here, which always occurs with the great- 
29 



450 ZBISBBRGIft'S DIAKY. 

est pleaBure, and if one, from sickness or some other rea* 
son, must omit it, to him it is a source of sadness. 

Friday, 8. Indians came from the Fort with cattle 
which they had bought. 

Saturday, 4. This whole week the brethren were busy 
in their harvest, in which our dear heavenly Father has 
richly blessed us. They were exhorted to enjoy it with 
thanksgiving, and to make careful use of it. 

Sunday, 6. Michael preached about the wedding-gar- 
ment. David held the children's service. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. 

Monday, 6. Many houses again built this autumn. 

Thursday, 9. After early service, held by Br. Edwards, 
from the Scripture- verse, a sick child, three years old, 
John Cook's grandchild, was baptized with the name 
Anna Johanna, for which they had begged. His oldest 
son, who came here some time ago with his wife and child, 
came to-day and announced his intention to live here, 
about which he had spoken with the assistants, and was 
received. 

Friday, 10. After the early service by David, the breth- 
ren were told to stop their labors upon their fields at 
night, since a disorderly life arises from it and sicknesses 
are caused. 

Saturday, 11. Two white people from Detroit went 
through on their way to Pittsburg. A thousand Indians 
on the Miami at the treaty. 

Sunday, 12. David preached, Edwards held the service 
for the baptized, and Michael the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 14. The brethren industrious in their fields. 
Edwards held early service. 

Thursday, 16. David held early service. Yesterday 
and to-day we had trouble again with Indians who came 
with liquor from the Fort, so we had to keep good watch. 
We took their casks for safe-keeping, as soon as they got 
here, from all who came drunk ; they gave us trouble, but 
all went off without much disturbance. 

Friday, 17. We learned from Benjamin, Nathaniel 
Davis' son, who came from the Fort, that Br. John Hecke- 



AT NBW 8ALGM9 1788. 461 

welder was come there, wishing to get to us, but after- 
wards ho had heard he was gone to the Muskingum, but 
as we had no letters or any thing in writing, we could do 
nothing. He said he had delivered letters there, which a 
white man had taken with him to Sandusky. 

[Thus far sent to Bethlehem.] 

Sunday, 19. Br. Edwards preached, and David held the 
congregation meeting. 

Monday 20. Edwards held early service. We had a 
conference with the assistants about sending brothers to 
the treaty, and four brothers were appointed to go. Gele- 
lemend,.who is summoned there, as it were, by the com- 
missioners, has no real desire to go, and we do not wish to 
encourage him thereto, for he will get nothing there for 
his heart. Yesterday again he gave us to understand his 
disposition and longing for baptism, waiting with eager- 
ness forgiveness and cleansing from his sins. We con- 
sidered, moreover, about a dwelling for John Cook's son, 
to whom Samuel has lent his new house, also about Chris- 
tian's afiair. 

Tuesday, 21. Michael held early service. By John 
Leeth, who went to the Fort, we sent away to Bethlehem a 
packet of letters and the diary. 

Wednesday, 22. At the early service the brethren were 
reminded to get the school-house ready before they went 
away hunting, so that school might begin, whereupon 
they went to work at once. David held early service. 

Friday, 24. Michael held early service about the good 
Shepherd who laid down his life for his sheep and fed them 
from his wounds. Four white people came from Detroit, 
among them a woman who had been a prisoner, whom a 
boy and a girl were to follow by water, who were prison- 
ers, who afterwards also came here. 

Sunday, 26. David preached and Edwards held the 
congregation meeting. From Detroit we had a letter from 
Mr. Askin, who offered to buy corn of our Indians for 
goods, since there this year was a failure of crops, and com 
is scarce. 

Monday, 27. Michael held early servioe. The white 



452 zeisbbbqbr's diart. 

people set out for Detroit who were prisoners from New 
River/ and as they said, were not over eighty miles from 
the Wachau (in N. Carolina), of which they had heard, hut 
where they had never been. One of them came hack again 
the next day, sick and unable to go farther. From the 
Delaware chief in Qigeyunk, Welandawecken, a messen- 
ger came, bringing us a speech of this import : " My 
friends, ye believing Indians in Pettquotting, it looks as if 
we should have bad times, for it is still uncertain whether 
we shall have peace or war, the nations having been able 
to reach no conclusion, and while they have been together 
they have only exchanged words among themselves and 
wrangled, one with another, so that it does not seem that 
peace can be brought about. I therefore let you know 
hereby that it is resolved that I and my people shall settle 
at the fork of thfe Miami, which land the Wyandot chiefs 
have appointed us to live on, whither also I invite you be- 
lieving Indians to dwell with us. Ye will therefore prepare 
for this as soon as your circumstances shall permit." We 
received this, his speech, and considered his words, but 
found therein nothing judicious, for, in the first place, 
there is no mention made when the affair was concluded 
and who the chiefs and persons were, who were present ; 
secondly, he gives no reason for his pretension to the right 
of taking us away and moving us from here ; nothing is 
said of the speeches we made to the old Netawatwes ; also 
he does not mention the messages we have received since we 
are this side of the lake, and so we can think nothing else 
than that he has acted for himself quite alone, without 
taking the advice of any one ; thirdly, it is not a peaceful 
message, but a bad one. Thus we could not accept the 
message; he must send us a better one if we are to give 
heed to it. We sent back the messenger with the answer, 
that we thanked him for the news contained in his speech ; 
we had hoped, indeed, when they had consulted so many 
months and labored for peace, to hear something better 
and more cheerful, but we thanked him for his trouble in 

^A tributary of the Great Kanawha, in the western pftrt of Virginia. 



AT NEW SALEM, 1788. 458 

sending us a messenger to give us information, and yet 
that we hoped and comforted ourselves with the thought 
that we should hear still better news. We exchanged 
strings. The brethren then let him know that we had in 
our hands messages from Pipe, from the Wyandots, and 
from the Tawa chief, which in part called us here and in 
part expressed their satisfaction at our living here, which 
we did not value slightly nor place aside as bad, but held 
to them and would abide by them. The messenger was 
at the same time come here to call away Gelelemend, 
Jacob, and his two sisters [but no one gave heed to him], 
and Thomas, all friends of the chief. If they already thus 
come forward it is a sign that they have nothing good in 
their thoughts, but intend war. 

Thursday, 30. Our Chippewa who, with his people, had 
passed the winter near us in Cuyahoga, and since then had 
for us love and friendship, who often also visits us here, 
whose brother is chief on Huron River, over the lake, 
came here, remained two days, and went away with his 
people to the treaty on the Muskingum. He said, while 
it was so uncertain in regard to peace, if we wished 
to go again to our town over the lake, and would only say 
the word to him, that he would accomplish with his 
brother at the treaty that we could move back there. We 
had always heard that five hundred Chippewas and Tawas 
would come through here, but things have changed, and 
these are all that come this way, and they go in company 
with our brethren. We were sorry the Tawa chief did 
not come here, as he had intended. He has fallen out with 
McKee, and from vexation will not go to the treaty. 

Saturday, Nov. 1. The brothers, Samuel, Stephen, 
Thomas, and Tobias, set out for the treaty, on having 
heard that the Indians were already gone from Sandusky. 
Br. David wrote to the Commissioners that though it was 
not usual for our Indians, for good reasons, to be present 
at treaties, and Sir William Johnson^ never summoned 



^ Sir William Johnson was born in Ireland, 1715. He came to Amer- 
ica in 1738 to manage the property of his uncle, Sir Peter Warren, in 



454 zbisbbrgbr's diart. 

tbera, but told the Indians that the believing Indians 
made him no trouble, being taught to lead a spiritual life, 
but that the others cost him pains to keep them orderly 
and peaceful, yet we made use of the occasion to speak 
with the Indians and nations, and to say somewhat to 
them. He made known to him the chief thing we wished 
to say to them, and wished them good success and the 
blessing of God for all their plans and deliberations in 
their council. We had this summer often heard good, 
favorable reports about peace with the Indian nations, 
until at last they assembled on the Miami, where, how- 
ever, they had done nothing but wrangle among them- 
selves, and the nearer the time came for going to the 
treaty, the worse had been the outlook. What they had 
now done in the Wyandot towns, where they were as- 
sembled, of this we had no information. Our comfort and 
hope were that the Saviour is yet President in council, and 
can bring their wicked plans to nought. 

Sunday, 2. Michael preached. David held the congre- 
gation meeting. 

Monday, 3, was a communion quarter-hour, and the 
Lord's supper was announced to the brethren for next 
Saturday. 

Wednesday, 5. Messrs. Isaac Williams and Parke came 
here from Sandusky, the latter, a Detroit merchant, who 
would like to buy a couple hundred bushels of corn, of 
which there is great want there, since last summer there 
was a failure of the crops, and wheat and corn came to 
nothing ; but we can not advise our brethren to sell their 
corn, for afterwards they will themselves come to want, 
for among the Indians especially in Gigeyunk there is al- 
ready want all the time. 

Friday, 7. From Sandusky we learn by Benjamin, Na- 
thaniel's son, that Br. John Heckewelder had been seen in 

the Mohawk valley. Here he acquired wonderful influence among 
the Indians by learning their language, and especially by the justice 
of his conduct towards them. He took part in the various expeditions 
of the English against the French in Canada, and in 1759 became com- 
mander-in-chief. In 1765 he was made a baronet, lie died, 1774. 



AT NEW SALRM, 1788. 455 

Fort Harmar on the Muskingum, and awaited brothers 
from here. From Detroit a couple of white people came 
here on their way to Pittsburg and remained two days. 

Saturday, 8. The brethren having been spoken to on 
previous days, we had the most blessed enjoyment of his 
body and blood in the holy sacrament; at this were candi- 
dates, John Thomas, young Abraham, and Abigail. 

Sunday, 9. Edwards preached, David held the chil- 
dren's service, and Michael the congregation meeting. 
Andrew was earnestly and plainly talked with for his dis- 
orderly conduct, and he was advised to go elsewhere, 
since he had no disposition to live for the Saviour, where- 
upon he began to weep. We wished he might be thought- 
ful, and become concerned for himself. 

Monday, 10. Br. David held the early service about love 
for the Saviour, which makes life blessed ; then he told 
the brethren they could now be gone to their autumn 
hunt until Christmas. 

Tuesday, 11, and the following days, the brothers went 
off for the autumn hunt, the sisters for chestnuts and 
other nuts. We had a hard day. Andrew was told to 
leave our place, and the day after A. Paulina, and this was 
told the brethren at morning prayer. 

Thursday, 13. Edwards held early service. Nicholas 
Smaan, who has been four years from the church, came 
with his wife, Johanna, and three children, John, Beata, 
and one unbaptized boy, with the view of remaining here. 
Lately came here also young Joachim's wife, whose family, 
also on the way hither, are encamped not far off, for the 
sake of hunting a little. With the children school was 
again begun, which causes much joy and a new pleasure 
among them. Indeed, single and married people, who 
have already had schooling, come to practice reading, 
having now time for it. 

Sunday, 16. At the services many brethren were pres- 
ent, who are hunting in the neighborhood or out for 
chestnuts and other nuts. Michael preached about the ad- 
vent of Christ. There was a service for the baptized in 



456 zeisbebgeb's diabt. 

reference to the 13th,^ which we put off till to-day, bo few 
brethren were at homo. We begged him to acknowledge 
us as his people, to make himself known to us, to op- 
pose Satan and all temptations, to interest himself faith- 
fully for his flock and to feed us daily on his merits and 
Bufferings, and to make us people of his own heart, so that 
his name might be glorified among the heathen. We 
thought also of our absent brethren. We begged forgive- 
ness of all our faults and shortcomings, gave ourselves 
anew to his blessed rule, vowed and swore to him fealty 
and obedience. In the following service for the married 
brethren, the single brother, John Thomas, and the widow, 
Cathrine, were married. Meanwhile we made use of the 
assistants, since during the week they are not at home, 
but off hunting, to speak with some people, and those 
baptized, in particular with strangers, who are already a 
long time here to no purpose. They were requested to 
go farther, so as to make no trouble. 

Monday, 17. Edwards held early service. Late in the 
evening young Joachim came here with his wife and chil- 
dren, to remain. The next day quarters were found for 
them, as likewise for Nicholas Smaan's family ; with him 
the assistants spoke yesterday, and having heard he was 
an Indian captain, and so he must go to the treaty as part 
of his duty, the brothers told him he should go, and if he 
remained of this mind and persisted in living with the 
church, he should give up his oflice, so that he might not 
be burdened in the church with Indian affairs, and have 
an unblessed, unsatisfactory life, and this he promised to 
do. He then went away with Gelelemend to the treaty, but 
both left their wives and children- here. This Smaan was 
a captain under the chief, Welandawecken, so that we can- 
not wonder that he sent us an invitation to settle at the 
Fork of the Miami, for he sees that the Indians will come 
to us. This very message the counsellor, called the Big 
Cat, was to bring here, but as they got news that we had 



* When ** The Brethren's Church calls to mind the important truth 
that the Lord Jesus is the Chief Shepherd and Head of the Church." 



AT NBWSALBM, 1788. 467 

a message from the Tawa chief, who has established us 
here, he refused to be the messenger, saying it would be 
in vain and to no purpose, that we would not accept it, 
whereupon the chief got another messenger, Who knew 
nothing about the thing; he brought us the message and 
got the proper answer. 

Wednesday, 19. A Frenchman, accustomed to go about 
among the Indians, came here, bag and baggage, and 
wanted to quarter himself upon us unasked and unan- 
nounced, for he saw a large town here, and gave out he 
wished to work for pay for the Indians, and as he was un- 
willing to be persuaded to go away, we were forced to put 
him with all his effects into a canoe and take him away. 

Thursday, 20. From Sandusky came old Maria Eliza- 
beth and Sophia, Jacob Gendaskuud's^ only surviving 
daughter, for the first time, who is married, and they con- 
stantly attended the services. Several strangers have lately 
been here visiting, among whom is found at times bad ma- 
terial, who give us trouble and have to be well watched, 
that they may do no harm, for freedom in the Indian land 
has often bad results and makes it hard. An unbaptized, 
large boy. Cook's step-son, came to Br. David weeping, 
and upon being asked what ailed him, he replied that his 
step-brother, a savage, had burnt his a b c board, and said 
that if he gave himself up to this he would be a good- 
for-nothing man, a worthless fellow, and had scolded him; 
he had complained about this among the brethren, and yes- 
terday cried the whole evening about it. He said that if 
his step-father went from the church he would not etay 
with him, he would not leave the church. Br. David con- 
soled him and promised to give him a book in lieu of the 
a b c board, for he had perfectly learned his alphabet in 
three or four days, and was already beginning to spell, for 
if Indian children desire any thing they apply themselves 
to it day and night, and become not weary. 

Sunday, 23. Br. David preached about the wise and the 



* He had been baptized in 1770. 



458 zbibbbeqbr's diart. 

foolish virgins, and Edwards held the congregation meet- 
ing. Several brethren came from their hunting-camp. 

Tuesday, 25. Edwards held early service. Yesterday 
the brethren were all away for the autumn hunt. 

Wednesday, 26. The first touch of snow fell. 

Sunday, 80. Edwards preached about the coming of the 
Saviour into the flesh, and David held the children's ser- 
vice upon the same subject, exhorting the children to joy 
over the Saviour's birth, who thereby brought both them 
and us much good. 

Monday, Dec. 1. Strangert came here for a visit, among 
them A. Salome. Old Maria Elizabeth came, and in tears 
spoke out her heart and longing for comfort from the 
Saviour. 

Thursday, 4. The people, especially the sisters, for 
hardly any brothers were at home, got wood for us. In 
the afternoon, toward evening, the brothers, Samuel, Ste- 
phen, Thomas, and Tobias, came back from the Mus- 
kingum, but could not await the treaty, for the nations, 
encamped sixty miles from the Fort, will not come, and 
the aftair may yet be long protracted. They came back 
thus without accomplishing any thing, but meanwhile had 
met there Br. Heckewelder and Matthias Blickensderfer, 
(a surveyor), and spoken with them. We now got by them 
the letters and journals from Bethlehem. 

Tuesday, 5. In the morning service the greetings from 
the church were given to the brethren. 

Sunday, 7. David preached about the promise made to 
the brethren in olden times by the prophets. Some breth- 
ren had come from their hunting-camp. Br. Edwards held 
the congregation meeting. 

Tuesday, 9. Indians came from Sandusky here. A 
large boy, who has lost his parents, came to Br. David 
and begged to live here. Upon being asked why, he re- 
plied that he was pleased here, and did not like to be 
among the savages. When he was told how he would 
have to conduct himself here, and that we must first know 
where he could live, which had already been said to him. 



AT NKW SALBM, 1788. 459 

he answered he would like to go to school, which mean* 
while Br. David permitted, till he should be received. 

Thursday, 11. Ignatius came with twa white people, on 
their way from Pittsburg to Detroit. They came to him, 
where he was encamped, hunting, and were four weeks on 
their journey. A family was still behind from want of 
horses, for they had lost theirs, and they went the day 
after to bring them in. We heard, at the same time, that 
the Chippewa, who is mentioned under Sept. 28th, and 
had consulted the brethren about his salvation, had been 
burnt while hunting by an explosion of powder, so that 
he will hardly recover. 

Saturday, 13. In the assistants' conference we consid- 
ered about old Maria Elizabeth and the boy who had an- 
nounced his wish to live here. The former was received 
and provided with shelter, but about the latter, we found 
trouble, for we did not know where he would be under 
oversight. On this occasion the assistants were plainly 
told what our plan is in regard to the reception of strange 
Indians. In the first place, but chiefly, if any of our 
baptized return to us, who belong to us, but for various 
reasons have been separated from us, we were bound to 
take them, to establish them again, and help them to the 
right way; secondly, if savages or children came, asking 
for reception, we were bound in duty to help all, and to 
seek to bring them to the Saviour, for his blood bought 
souls. Thereby now we are always getting more labor, 
many times want, also, care and trouble, but to make it 
more easy and comfortable for ourselves, we m^t not re- 
fuse people without suflicient grounds and send them 
away, even though they were seducers, who did harm in 
the church. This admonition was needful, for it has hap- 
pened that people have been received whom we either had 
to send away, as they did not behave according to our 
rules, or they have themselves gone away, and now some 
had come to the disposition to receive none, or only such 
of whom we had proof that they would thrive. Over 
this matter the assistants afterwards talked with one 



460 zeisbbbger's diart. 

another by themselves, and discussed it, and it was well 
approved. 

Sunday, 14. Br. Michael preached. In the communion 
quarter-hour Br. David announced the Lord's supper for 
next Saturday, and held the congregation meeting. 

Wednesday, 17. John Leeth came back from the Fort 
with his wife, having visited her friends twenty-five miles 
from Pittsburg. Her own sister, who yet knew her, for 
they had both been captured by Indians, knew her still, 
but had not known whether she was still living, the greater 
therefore was her joy when she saw Elizabeth,^ so that for 
a quarter of an hour she could speak not a word. She 
and her husband had yet something to pass through, for 
they were strongly urged by their friends to remain there, 
but this they refused to do. They were both very glad to 
be with us again, as if something had been given them, 
they knew not what. David held early service. 

Thursday, 18. Edwards held early service. A Mingo 
came here at night from the Muskiugum, from whom we 
learned that the nations were at last gone to the treaty, 
and that we should soon hear something thence. Sev- 
eral of our Indians also came home from the autumn 
hunt. 

Saturday, 20. After the brethren had been spoken to 
the preceding days, whereto the Saviour gave especial 
grace, so that all trouble, which had arisen, was allayed, 
and only one person remained away, the communicants 
enjoyed his body and blood in the holy sacrament in the 
most blessed way. A sister, Betsy Leeth, was a partaker 
for the first time, and Boaz was a candidate. Two broth- 
ers, Thomas and Ignatius, were readmitted after receiving 
absolution. 

Sunday, 21. After the communion liturgy, Br. Ed- 
wards preached from the Epistle : Rejoice in the Lord al- 
way, and David held the congregation meeting from the 

' Butterfield, in his edition of Leeth's Narrative, Robert Clarke & 
Co., 1883, p. 42, says: ** From the descendents of Leith, I learn that 
this young woman's name was Sally Lowrey." See note, p. 299. Under 
Dec. 20, following. Zeisberger names her " Betsy Leeth." 



AT NEW SALBM, 1788. 461 

Scripture-verse and text, whereby he laid before the breth- 
ren the example with Thomas, and said that if a heart 
begins to see and recognize the boundless love of the 
Saviour, it is aroused to call out with wonder and aston- 
ishment: My Lord and- my God. 

Monday, 22. Much was discoursed to the children, the 
large boys and girls, about putting aside what was unbe- 
coming, for many new people come here, who do not yet 
rightly understand — for example, finger-rings — and they 
are hung with silver bells, coral, and wampum, which is 
indeed usual among savages, but is unsuitable for our 
children, being not savages at all, but belonging to the 
church of believers. 

Tuesday, 23. The great boys and girls got wood ready 
for the school-house, in which the brethren helped them 
and went with them, for it is a pleasure to them that their 
children so industriously learn, most of those who began 
their a b c's now beginning to spell. 

Wednesday, 24. Christmas Eve began with a love- 
feast. We were joyful and thankful for the Saviour's holy 
birth and incarnation, which we considered, and to the 
Infant in his stall and manger we brought our thank-offer- 
ings and we sang, at which all present were much affected, 
for the little Jesus [our heart's delight] made himself 
known to his little band here, gathered from the heathen, 
very graciously, of which the tears on many a cheek bore 
witness. At last we kneeled before the manger and 
brought him our hearty thanks for his astonishingly gr^t 
love, which he showed for us, and also especially for this, 
that he had it made known and assured to us by his blood, 
and had given us understanding and also enlightened our 
hearts by his Holy Spirit. At the end candles were dis- 
tributed to the children, and they were told how the wise 
virgins went to the Saviour with trimmed and burning 
hearts, whereupon they all went joyfully home. At this 
strangers were present and also a Mingo, who had asked 
to be present at the Christmas Eve services, and was very 
attentive, to whom the brethren had already made the 
Saviour known, what he had done for us and for all naj 



462 ZBISBBBeiE's DUET. 

tions, and now it only depended upon this, that they 
should receive and believe it, if they wished to be saved. 

Thursday, 25. Michael preached from the Gtospel, 
Luke, ii. Then the children had a service, singing joy- 
fully and humbly the Infant Jesus in the manger. In the 
following service, after a discourse upon the day's text : 
He is not ashamed to call them brethren, Qustit, a single 
woman, was baptized into Jesus' death with the nameBa- 
hel, which not only made great excitement among our 
unbaptized, but also among the strangers, who, to have a 
good view, stood up on the benches, for they sat in the 
back part of the room. Hereby we made to ourselves the 
remark that all sorts of people and nations listen here to 
the Gospel, that nowhere is it less preached in vain than 
here, for it is worth the trouble, that to the poor, blind In- 
dians, who know not that they have a Saviour, this should 
be preached, and if we do not at once see the fruits thereof 
and harvest them, we can certainly reckon upon this, that 
the fruit will not be wanting. 

Saturday, 27. David spoke plainly with J. Cook's son, 
who has sold his wife to the French trader for goods re- 
ceived, and had to keep away during the holidays, whose 
father induced him thereto. 

Sunday, 28. David preached from Gal. iv, 4 : But when 
the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his son, etc., 
and Edwards held the congregation meeting from the 
day's Scripture- verse. 

Monday, 29. Michael held early service. When hith- 
erto we had heard nothing about the treaty ^ with the In- 
dians, to-day we had the unplesant news by an Indian 
from Sandusky that they were all gone back home, hav- 
ing done nothing, since the Mingoes, during their stay 
there, were all the time murdering, and thus no peace could 
be. Of this we heard, 

Tuesday, 30, yet more by a white man from Sandusky, 
that some of the Wyandots and others besides, such as 
Brant and the Mingoes, were come back ; that the Indiana 



^ This treaty was made eikrly the next year. 



_.^ 



AT KBW 8ALBM, 1788. 463 

generally are very anxious, and the chiefs say that if many 
perish not now by the sword, many must die of hunger, for 
they have nothing to live on and would not be able to 
plant ; that Pipe, with Wyandots, Delawares, some Tawas 
and Chippewas, also Mingoes, had gone to Fort Harmar, 
about a hundred, and they were not yet come back. 

Wednesday, 81. We assembled about eleven o'clock 
for the close of the year, having first a love-feast. We 
called to mind the great kindness and mercy enjoyed from 
our dear Lord this year, and encouraged one another to 
give him praise and thanksgiving therefor. We find also 
at the end of this year manifold causes to be grateful and 
thankful, for he always does better and more blessedly 
in all cases than we can hope or expect. We asked his 
forgiveness of all our faults and shortcomings and for his 
acknowledgment of us, his poor and wretched creatures. 
We thanked him in particular for the outward quiet he 
had lent us this year during our course here below, and 
we commended ourselves farther to the protection and 
oversight of our dear Father in Heaven, especially as we 
again find ourselves in uncertain circumstances, not know- 
ing whether we must soon again take the pilgrim's staff 
in our hands and wander away, where the Saviour, our 
only refuge, conducts us, not after one or another partic- 
ular way and manner, and guides us for our good, and 
should it happen, as appears probable, we know not at 
all whither we shall retire to find for ourselves a place of 
refuge. 

In outward affairs our heavenly Father has blessed us, 
has given us bread and maintenance, by richly blessing 
our fields, though in spring and summer there was much 
want and hunger among our brethren, and though hunt- 
ing was bad, and they could get little thereby, yet we must 
wonder how they got clothing, so that they always have it 
in their need, and go about better clad than the savages, 
who have some silver hanging in their ears, their noses, 
and about their necks [which is their grand array], but 
otherwise are almost naked and quite poor. All the In- 
dians who come to us are then in perfect poverty, have 



464 zeisbergbr'b diart. 

neither food nor clothing, and in their hearts nothing to 
make them contented and happy, and are thus equally 
poor in body and in soul. 

The chief thing which gives us joy and courage is this, 
that the Gospel of Jesus, our Saviour, his incarnation, pas- 
sion, and death for us and for all the world, is not preached 
in vain ; we see that it always finds hearts and ears. It 
opens the hearts and ears of the dead and blind heathen, 
and brings to them life and feeling. Ah, may he still give 
us peace ! This would contribute to him and his affair, for 
if there be war, the Indians have no time to think about 
them, the yearning for murder leaves them no time for 
them. The festivals, Easter, Whitsunday, Christmas, etc., 
were noticeable and always accompanied with great bless- 
ing. 

Baptized, six adults and six children. Received into the 
church, eight. The holy communion we had eight times, 
whereto came two. Married, were three couples. Came 
to the church, forty-six persons. Died, four, namely, Sche- 
bosh, Joseph, Lea, and a child, Ephraim. 

There live here — 

81 married couples 62 

Single men 11 

Sinffle women ^ 7 

Widowers 9 

Widows 1 

Big boys 11 

Big girls > 14 

Little boys 27 

Little girls 22 

Total 164 

Among them one hundred and thirty-two baptized [and 
of these forty-nine are communion brethren], forty-one 
more than at the close of last year. We have been forced 
to send away five, namely, A. Salome, Andrew, Anna Pau- 
line, Jeremy ; John Martin went away of his own accord 



END OP VOL. I. 



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