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Photogravure after De La Roche 

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Charles I. in Prison Frontispiece 

Photogra\aare after De La Roche. 

Lord William Russell Taking Leave of His Children, 1683. 180 
Photogravure after a painting by Bridges. 

Oliver Cromwell Dictating to John Milton .... 284 
The letter to the Duke of Savoy to stop the persecution 

of the Protestants of Piedmont, 1655. 
Photogravure from an engra\nng by Sartain after New- 



The Duke of Buckingham Frontispiece 

From an old painting. 

Nell Gwynne 64 

Photogjravure after Sir Peter Lely. 


^F ALL the aids to a complete comprehen- 
sion of the political, moral, social, or racial 
changes, evolutions, upheavals and schisms 
that make what we call History, the Me- 
moirs of each epoch studied are by far the 
most valuable. 

Memoirs may be called the windows of 
the mind. In the privacy of the boudoir 
or of the study, men and women will in- 
scribe upon the pages of their journals in 
terse and unafifected language their real 
thoughts, motives and opinions, unrestrained 
by the calls of diplomacy or self-interest. 

The long drawn out reign of Louis XIV 
afforded ideal scope for Memoirs, and many 
notable private records of that era have 
come down to us — among them the lengthy 
but fascinating Memoirs of Saint- Simon. 
The political, military and court intrigue, 
gossip, scandal, and intimate detail con- 
tained in them make them (according to 
that master of critics, Saint-Beuve) the 
most precious collection of Memoirs extant. 
As a painter of character Saint-Simon 
stands alone; in detail inexhaustible, he 
may be termed the French Tacitus. A 



brilliant preface by L^on Valine, Librarian of the Na- 
tional Library of France, introduces the work, and the 
text is furnished by that prince of translators, Bayle 
St. John. 

Posterity has ranked Evelyn among the greatest of 
English diarists or memoir-writers. He possessed a keen 
observation, an even and polished style, lighted up here 
and there by passages of wonderful brilliancy. From 
the days of Charles I through the Protectorate and 
the Restoration to the time of King William, he re- 
corded everything worthy of remembrance. He lives in 
letters as one whom nothing escaped, and as an evidence 
of his power he leaves a description of Whitehall on the 
eve of the death of Charles II, which will live as long 
as the English language endures. The frontispiece to 
Volume I is from an engraving by Sartain, the earliest 
and perhaps the best of American engravers. The plate 
of Nell Gwynn, which forms the frontispiece to Volume 
II, is one of the rarest of the prints of that historic 
beauty. The original is by Sir Peter Lely, whose por- 
trait of the court characters of that time are almost price- 
less. The Dean of Librarians, Dr. Gamett, of the 
British Museum, contributes a luminous and impressive 

Of ajl the Memoirs of the ill-fated Marie Antoinette, 
so foolish in prosperity, so heroic in adversity, none so 
possess the undeniable charm of intimacy as do the 
pages written by the ill-fated Princess de Lamballe, the 
bosom friend and confidante of the Queen. Her terrible 
death, torn to 'pieces by a howling mob of sans-ctilottes^ 
is one of the most tragic scenes of the days of the Ter- 
ror. The Memoirs owe their preservation to Catherine 
Hyde, the confidante of both the Princess de Lamballe 
and the Queen. The introduction written by this lady 
gives a vivid account of herself, of her rise at Court and 
of the manner in which these invaluable records were 


preserved. The frontispiece is a magnificent reproduction 
in photogravure of Meisel's celebrated picture of the Fare- 
well of Louis XVI to Marie Antoinette. 

From Corsica to Waterloo is the period embraced in 
the brilliant and gossipy Memoirs of the great Napoleon 
by the wife of one of his most illustrious Marshals, the 
Due d'Abrantfes. This record of events, conversations, 
social and court life, written down at first hand, has all 
the attractiveness of a verbal narrative by a witty and 
womanly woman. Her naive apology' for introducing the 
details of her trousseau captures the reader at once, and 
as one reads one's sympathy goes out to the writer in 
increasing measure. The details given by Madame Junot 
of Buonaparte's early life and surroundings are full of 
interest, and moreover, her Memoirs supply much of the 
comparatively small amount of information we possess 
concerning the eccentricities and social aberrations of the 
Emperor's brothers and sisters. The Napoleonic era 
could ill afford to lose these almost priceless records. 
Mr. S. N. Hamilton, the author of "Letters to Wash- 
ington," and an authority on all matters Napoleonic, 
supplies a brief and eminently satisfactory biographical 

The Memoirs of Madame Du Barry relate entirely to 
those hours of her life which serve to make history at 
the Court of Louis XV. The vivacity, simplicity, and 
lucidity of this autobiography is remarkable when one 
considers the fact that at no time did she have any op- 
portunity to acquire education and polish save when she 
was mixing with the demi-monde of Paris, at Gourdan's 
celebrated resort. The sprightly wit that could ensnare 
the fickle Louis, the poise and balance of mind which 
could steer her through the devious ways of political in- 
trigue and court conspiracies, the freedom from malice 
which showed itself even in her opportunities of revenge, 
here combine to draw out the sympathies of the reader 


to one who has been in many respects mercilessly con- 
demned by history. Du Barry had the opportunities of the 
Pompadour, but, to her credit be it said, that through- 
out the whole of her meteoric career at the Court of 
Versailles only one lettre-de-cacket was issued by her. 
Such magnanimity of mind in one who met with such 
universal abuse at the hands of Voltaire and others is ex- 
ceedingly remarkable. There is a short preface to the 
Memoirs couched in light vein. 

;- Taken altogether, this collection may be said adequately 
to represent the mission of the memoir-writer, which is 
to illume and illustrate history, to give side lights upon 
the events that control the destinies of nations, and to 
enable posterity to judge rightly the motives that swayed 
the great characters of history 

/So^f-^&^^ ^T^^^^ 


THE two chief diarists of the age of Charles the Second 
are, mutatis mutandis, not ill characterized by the 
remark of a wicked wit upon the brothers Austin. 
"John Austin," it was said, "served God and died poor: 
Charles Austin served the devil, and died rich. Both 
were clever fellows. Charles was much the cleverer of 
the two." Thus John Evelyn and Samuel Pepys, the 
former a perfect model of decorum, the latter a grievous 
example of indecorum, have respectively left us diaries, 
of which the indecorous is to the decorous as a zoological 
garden is to a museum: while the disparity between the 
testamentary bequests of the two Austins but imperfectly 
represents the reputation standing to Pepys's account with 
posterity in comparison with that accruing to his sedate 
and dignified contemporary. 

Museums, nevertheless, have their uses, and Evelyn's 
comparatively jejune record has laid us under no small 
obligation. But for Pepys's amazing indiscretion and gar- 
rulity, qualities of which one cannot have too little in life, 
or too much in the record of it, Evelyn would have been 
esteemed the first diarist of his age. Unable for want of 
these qualifications to draw any adequate picture of the 
stirring life around him, he has executed at least one 
portrait admirably, his own. The likeness is, moreover, 
valuable, as there is every reason to suppose it typical, 
and representative of a very important class of society, 
the well-bred and well-conducted section of the untitled 
aristocracy of England. We may well believe that these 
men were not only the salt but the substance of their 
order. There was an ill-bred section exclusively devoted 
to festivity and sport. There was an ill-conducted sec- 
tion, plunged into the dissipations of court life. But the 
majority were men like Evelyn : not, perhaps, equally re- 
fined by culture and travel, or equally interested in 
literary research and scientific experiment, but well 
informed and polite ; no strangers to the Court, yet hardly 


to be called courtiers, and preferring country to town; 
loyal to Church and King but not fanatical or rancorous; 
as yet but slightly imbued with the principles of civil and 
religious liberty, yet adverse to carry the dogma of divine 
right further than the right of succession; fortunate in 
having survived all ideas of serfdom or vassalage, and in 
having few private interests not fairly reconcilable with 
the general good. Evelyn was made to be the spokes- 
man of such a class, and, meaning to speak only for him- 
self, he delivers its mind concerning the Commonwealth and 
the Restoration, the conduct of the later Stuart Kings 
and the Revolution. 

Evelyn's Diary practically begins where many think he 
had no business to be diarising, beyond the seas. The 
position of a loyalist who solaces himself in Italy while 
his King is fighting for his crown certainly requires ex- 
planation: it may be sufficient apology for Evelyn that 
without the family estates he could be of no great serv- 
ice to the King, and that these, lying near London, 
were actually in the grasp of the Parliament. He was 
also but one of a large family and it was doubtless con- 
venient that one member should be out of harm's way. 
His three years' absence (1643-6) has certainly proved 
advantageous to posterity. Evelyn is, indeed, a mere 
sight-seer, but this renders his tour a precise record of 
the objects which the sight-seer of the seventeenth cen- 
tury was expected to note, and a mirror not only of the 
taste but of the feeling of the time. There is no cult 
of anything, but there is curiosity about everything; 
there is no perception of the sentiment of a landscape, 
but real enjoyment of the landscape itself; antiquity is 
not unappreciated, but modern works impart more real 
pleasure. Of the philosophical reflections which after- 
ward rose to the mind of Gibbon there is hardly a 
vestige, and of course Evelyn is at an immeasurable 
distance from Byron and De Stael. But he gives us 
exactly what we want, the actual attitude of a cultivated 
young Englishman in presence of classic and renais- 
sance art with its background of Southern nature. We 
may register without undue self-complacency a great 
development of the modern world in the aesthetical region 
of the intellect, which implies many other kinds of prog- 
ress. It is interesting to compare with Evelyn's nar- 


rative the chapters recording the visit to Italy supposed 
to have been made at this very period by John Inglesant, 
who inevitably sees with the eyes of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Evelyn's casual remarks on foreign manners and 
institutions display good sense, without extraordinary in- 
sight; in description he is frequently observant and 
graphic, as in his account of the galley slaves, and of 
Venetian female costumes. He naturally regards Alpine 
scenery as "melancholy and troublesome." 

Returned to England, Evelyn strictly follows the line 
of the average English country gentleman, execrating the 
execution of Charles I., disgusted beyond measure with 
the suppression of the Church of England service, but 
submissive to the powers that be until there are evident 
indications of a change, which he promotes in anything 
but a Quixotic spirit. Although he is sincerely attached 
to the monarchy, the condition of the Church is evidently 
a matter of greater concern to him: Cromwell would 
have done much to reconcile the royalists to his govern- 
ment, had it been possible for him to have restored the 
liturgy and episcopacy. The same lesson is to be derived 
from his demeanor during the reigns of Charles and 
James. The exultation with which the Restoration is at 
first hailed soon evaporates. The scandals of the Court 
are an offense, notwithstanding Evelyn's personal attach- 
ment to the King. But the chief point is not vice or 
favoritism or mismanagement, but alliances with Roman 
Catholic powers against Protestant nations. Evelyn is 
enraged to see Charles missing the part so clearly pointed 
out to him by Providence as the protector of the Prot- 
estant religion all over Europe. The conversion of the 
Duke of York is a fearful blow, James's ecclesiastical 
policy after his accession adds to Evelyn's discontent day 
by day, while political tyranny passes almost without re- 
mark. At last the old cavalier is glad to welcome the 
Prince of Orange as deliverer, and though he has no 
enthusiasm for William in his character as King, he re- 
mains his dutiful subject. Just because Evelyn was by 
no means an extraordinary person, he represents the 
plain straightforward sense of the English gentry. The 
questions of the seventeenth century were far more 
religious than political. The synthesis "Church and 
King " expressed the dearest convictions of the great 


majority of English country families, but when the 
two became incompatible they left no doubt which held 
the first place in their hearts. They acted instinctively 
on the principle of the Persian lady who preferred her 
brother to her husband. It was not impossible to find a new 
King, but there was no alternative to the English Church. 
Evelyn's memoirs thus possess a value far exceed- 
ing the modest measure of worth allowed them by De 
Quincey : ' * They are useful as now and then enabling 
one to fix the date of a particular event, but for little 
besides." The Diary's direct contribution to historical 
accuracy is insignificant; it is an index, not to chronolog- 
ical minutiae, but to the general progress of moral and 
political improvement. The editor of 1857 certainly goes 
too far in asserting that " All that might have been excluded 
from the range of his opinions, his feelings and sympa- 
thies embraced "; but it is interesting to observe the grad- 
ual widening of Evelyn's sympathies with good men of 
all parties, and to find him in his latter days criticising 
the evidence produced in support of the Popish Plot on 
the one hand, and deploring the just condemnation of Al- 
gernon Sydney on the other. It is true that, so far as the 
sufferings of his country are concerned, his attitude is rather 
that of the Levite than of the Samaritan; but more lively 
popular sympathies would have destroyed the peculiar 
value attaching to the testimony of the reluctant wit- 
ness. We should, for example, have thought little of 
such a passage as the following from the pen of Burnet, 
from Evelyn it is significant indeed: — 

October 14, 1688. — The King's birthday. No gfuns from the Tower 
as usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. This day signal for the victory of 
William the Conqueror against Harold, near Battel in Sussex. The 
wind, which had been hitherto west, was east all this day. Wonderful 
expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers ordered to be read in the 
churches against invasion. 

It might be difficult to produce a nearer approxima- 
tion in secular literature to Daniel's ^^Mene, Mene, Tekel, 

There is little else in the Diary equally striking, though 
Evelyn's description of Whitehall on the eve of the death 
of Charles the Second ranks among the memorable pas- 
sages of the language. It is nevertheless full of inter- 
esting anecdotes and curious notices, especially of the 


scientific research which, in default of any adequate pub- 
lic organization, was in that age more efficaciously pro- 
moted by students than by professors. De Quincey 
censures Evelyn for omitting to record the conversation 
of the men with whom he associated, but he does not 
consider that the Diary in its present shape is a digest 
of memoranda made long previously, and that time failed 
at one period and memory at the other. De Quincey, 
whose extreme acuteness was commonly evinced on the 
negative side of a question, saw the weak points of the 
Diar}'^ upon its first publication much more clearly than 
his contemporaries did, and was betrayed into illiberality 
by resentment at what he thought its undeserved vogue. 
Evelyn has in truth been fortunate; his record, which 
his contemporaries would have neglected, appeared (1818) 
just in time to be a precursor of the Anglican move- 
ment, a tendency evinced in a similar fashion by the 
vindication, no doubt mistaken, of the Caroline authorship 
of the "Icon Basilike." Evelyn was a welcome encounter 
to men of this cast of thought, and was hailed as a model 
of piety, culture, and urbanity, without sufificient consid- 
eration of his deficiencies as a loyalist and a patriot. It 
also conduced to his reputation that all his other writ- 
ings should have virtually perished except his ' ' Sylva, " 
like his Diary a landmark in the history of improvement, 
though in a widely different department. But for his 
lack of diplomatic talent, he might be compared with an 
eminent and much applauded, but in our times some- 
what decrescent, contemporary. Sir William Temple. Both 
these eminent persons would have aroused a warmer feeling 
in posterity, and have effected more for its instruction 
and entertainment, if they could occasionally have dashed 
their dignity with an infusion of the grotesqueness, we 
will not say of Pepys, but of Roger North. To them, 
however, their dignity was their character, and although 
we could have wished them a larger measure of geniality, 
we must feel indebted to them for their preservation of 
a refined social type. 






I WAS bom at Wotton, in the County of Surrey, about 
twenty minutes past two in the morning, being on 

Tuesday the 3 1 St and last of October, 1620, after my father 
had been married about seven years,* and that my mother 
had borne him three children ; viz, two daughters and one 
son, about the 33d year of his age, and the 23d of my 

My father, named Richard, was of a sanguine com- 
plexion, mixed with a dash of choler : his hair inclining to 
light, which, though exceedingly thick, became hoary by 
the time he had attained to thirty years of age; it was 
somewhat curled toward the extremities; his beard, 
which he wore a little peaked, as the mode was, of a 
brownish color, and so continued to the last, save that it 
was somewhat mingled with gray hairs about his cheeks, 
which, with his countenance, were clear and fresh-colored ; 
his eyes extraordinary quick and piercing; an ample 
forehead, — in sum, a very well-composed visage and 
manly aspect: for the rest, he was but low of stature, 
yet very strong. He was, for his life, so exact and 
temperate, that I have heard he had never been sur- 
prised by excess, being ascetic and sparing. His wisdom 
was great, and his judgment most acute; of solid dis- 
course, affable, humble, and in nothing affected; of a 
thriving, neat, silent, and methodical genius, discreetly 
severe, yet liberal upon all just occasions, both to his 
children, to strangers, and servants ; a lover of hospitality ; 
and, in brief, of a singfular and Christian moderation in 
all his actions ; not illiterate, nor obscure, as, having con- 
tinued Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, he 
served his country as High Sheriff, being, as I take it, 

*He was married at St. Thomas's, Southwark, 27th January, 1613. 
My sister Eliza was bom at nine at night, 28th November, 1614; Jane 
at four in the morning, i6th February, 1616; my brother George at nine 
at night, Wednesday, i8th June, 1617; and my brother Richard, 9th 
November, 1622. — Note by Evelyn. 

I (I) 


the last dignified with that office for Sussex and Surrey- 
together, the same year, before their separation. He was 
yet a studious decliner of honors and titles ; being already 
in that esteem with his country, that they could have 
added little to him besides their burden. He was a 
person of that rare conversation that, upon frequent 
recollection, and calling to mind passages of his life and 
discourse, I could never charge him with the least pas- 
sion, or inadvertency. His estate was esteemed about 
;^4ooo per annum, well wooded, and full of timber. 

My mother's name was Eleanor, sole daughter and 
heiress of John Standsfield, Esq., of an ancient and 
honorable family (though now extinct) in Shropshire, by 
his wife Eleanor Comber, of a good and well-known 
house in Sussex. She was of proper personage; of a 
brown complexion; her eyes and hair of a lovely black; 
of constitution more inclined to a religious melancholy, 
or pious sadness ; of a rare memory, and most exemplary 
life; for economy and prudence, esteemed one of the 
most conspicuous in her country : which rendered her loss 
much deplored, both by those who knew, and such as only 
heard of her. 

Thus much, in brief, touching my parents; nor was it 
reasonable I should speak less of them to whom I owe 
so much. 

The place of my birth was Wotton, in the parish of 
Wotton, or Blackheath, in the county of Surrey, the 
then mansion-house of my father, left him by my grand- 
father, afterward and now my eldest brother's. It is 
situated in the most southern part of the shire; and, 
though in a valley, yet really upon part of Leith Hill, 
one of the most eminent in England for the prodigious 
prospect to be seen from its summit, though by few 
observed. From it may be discerned twelve or thirteen 
counties, with part of the sea on the coast of Sussex, in 
a serene day. The house is large and ancient, suitable 
to those hospitable times, and so sweetly environed with 
those delicious streams and venerable woods, as in the 
judgment of strangers as well as Englishmen it may be 
compared to one of the most pleasant seats in the 
nation, and most tempting for a great person and a 
wanton purse to render it conspicuous. It has rising 
grounds, meadows, woods, and water, in abundance. 


The distance from London little more than twenty 
miles, and yet so securely placed, as if it were one hun- 
dred; three miles from Dorking, which serves it abun- 
dantly with provision as well of land as sea; six from 
Guildford, twelve from Kingston. I will say nothing of 
the air, because the pre-eminence is universally given to 
Surrey, the soil being dry and sandy; but I should speak 
much of the gardens, fountains, and groves that adorn 
it, were they not as generally known to be among the 
most natural, and (till this later and universal luxury of 
the whole nation, since abounding in such expenses) the 
most magnificent that England afforded; and which 
indeed gave one of the first examples to that elegancy, 
since so much in vogue, and followed in the managing 
of their waters, and other elegancies of that nature. 
Let me add, the contiguity of five or six manors, the 
patronage of the livings about it, and what Themistocles 
pronounced for none of the least advantages — the good 
neighborhood. All which conspire here to render it an 
honorable and handsome royalty, fit for the present pos- 
sessor, my worthy brother, and his noble lady, whose 
constant liberality gives them title both to the place and 
the affections of all that know them. Thus, with the 

Nescio qud natale solum dulcedine cunctos 
Duett, et immemores non stmt esse sut. 

I had given me the name of my grandfather, my 
mother's father, who, together with a sister of Sir Thomas 
Evelyn, of Long Ditton, and Mr. Comber, a near relation 
of my mother, were my susceptors. The solemnity (yet 
upon what accident I know not, unless some indisposition 
in me) was performed in the dining-room by Parson 
Higham, the present incumbent of the parish, according 
to the forms prescribed by the then glorious Church of 

I was now (in regard to my mother's weakness, or 
rather custom of persons of quality ) put to nurse to one 
Peter, a neighbor's wife and tenant, of a good, comely, 
brown, wholesome complexion, and in a most sweet place 
toward the hills, flanked with wood and refreshed with 
streams; the affection to which kind of solitude I sucked 
in with my very milk. It appears, by a note of my 


father's, that I sucked till 17th of January, 1622, or at 
least I came not home before.* 

1623. The very first thing that I can call to memory, 
and from which time forward I began to observe, was 
this year ( 1623) my youngest brother, being in his nurse's 
arms, who, being then two days and nine months younger 
than myself, was the last child of my dear parents, 

1624. I was not initiated into any rudiments until near 
four years of age, and then one Frier taught us at the 
church-porch of Wotton; and I do perfectly remember 
the great talk and stir about II Conde Gondomar, now 
Ambassador from Spain (for near about this time was 
the match of our Prince with the Infanta proposed ) ; and 
the effects of that comet, 16 18, still working in the pro- 
digious revolutions now beginning in Europe, especially 
in Germany, whose sad commotions sprang from the 
Bohemians' defection from the Emperor Matthias; upon 
which quarrel the Swedes broke in, giving umbrage to 
the rest of the princes, and the whole Christian world 
cause to deplore it, as never since enjoying perfect tran- 

1625. I was this year (being the first of the reign of 
King Charles ) sent by my father to Lewes, in Sussex, to 
be with my grandfather, Standsfield, with whom I passed 
my childhood. This was the year in which the pestilence 
was so epidemical, that there died in London 5,000 a week, 
and I well remember the strict watches and examinations 
upon the ways as we passed; and I was shortly after so 
dangerously sick of a fever that (as I have heard) the 
physicians despaired of me. 

1626. My picture was drawn in oil by one Chanterell, 
no ill painter. 

1627. My grandfather, Standsfield, died this year, on 
the 5th of February : I remember perfectly the solemnity 
at his funeral. He was buried in the parish church of 
All Souls, where my grandmother, his second wife, erected 
him a pious monument. About this time, was the con- 

* The whole of this passage, so characteristic of the writer's tastes 
and genius, and both the paragraphs before and after it, are printed for 
the first time in this edition. Portions of the preceding description of 
Wotton are also first taken from the origfinal ; and it may not be out of 
place to add that, more especially in the first fifty pages of this volume, 
a very large number of curious and interesting additions are made to 
Evelyn's text from the Manuscript of the Diary at Wotton, 

1623-32 JOHN EVELYN 5 

secration of the Church of South Mailing, near Lewes, 
by Dr. Field, Bishop of Oxford (one Mr. Coxhall preached, 
who was afterward minister); the building whereof was 
chiefly procured by my grandfather, who having the im- 
propriation, gave ^20 a year out of it to this church. I 
afterward sold the impropriation. I laid one of the first 
stones at the building of the church. 

1628-30. It was not till the year 1628, that I was put 
to learn my Latin rudiments, and to write, of one Citolin, 
a Frenchman, in Lewes. I very well remember that 
general muster previous to the Isle of Rhfe's expedition, 
and that I was one day awakened in the morning with 
the news of the Duke of Buckingham being slain by that 
wretch, Felton, after our disgrace before La Rochelle. 
And I now took so extraordinary a fancy to drawing and 
designing, that I could never after wean my inclinations 
from it, to the expense of much precious time, which 
might have been more advantageously employed. I was 
now put to school to one Mr. Potts, in the Cliff at Lewes, 
from whom, on the 7th of January, 1630, being the day 
after Epiphany, I went to the free-school at Southover, 
near the town, of which one Agnes Morley had been the 
foundress, and now Edward Snatt was the master, under 
whom I remained till I was sent to the University.* This 
year, my grandmother (with whom I sojourned) being 
married to one Mr. Newton, a learned and most religious 
gentleman, we went from the Cliff to dwell at his house 
in Southover. I do most perfectly remember the jubilee 
which was universally expressed for the happy birth of 
the Prince of Wales, 29th of May, now Charles II., our 
most gracious Sovereign. 

1 63 1. There happened now an extraordinary dearth in 
England, corn bearing an excessive price; and, in imita- 
tion of what I had seen my father do, I began to observe 
matters more punctually, which I did use to set down in 
a blank almanac. The Lord of Castlehaven's arraign- 
ment for many shameful exorbitances was now all the talk, 
and the birth of the Princess Mary, afterward Princess of 

2ist October, 1632. My eldest sister was married to 
Edward Darcy, Esq., who little deserved so excellent a 

* Long afterward, Evelyn was in the habit of paying g^eat respect 
to his old teacher. 


person, a woman of so rare virtue. I was not present 
at the nuptials; but I was soon afterward sent for into 
Surrey, and my father would willingly have weaned me 
from my fondness of my too indulgent grandmother, in- 
tending to have placed me at Eton ; but, not being so prov- 
ident for my own benefit, and unreasonably terrified with 
the report of the severe discipline there, I was sent back 
to Lewes; which perverseness of mine I have since a 
thousand times deplored. This was the first time that 
ever my parents had seen all their children together in 
prosperity. While I was now trifling at home, I saw Lon- 
don, where I lay one night only. The next day, I dined 
at Beddington, where I was much delighted with the 
gardens and curiosities. Thence, we returned to the Lady 
Darcy's, at Sutton; thence to Wotton; and, on the i6th 
of August following, 1633, back to Lewes. 

3d November, 1633. This year my father was ap- 
pointed Sheriff, the last, as I think, who served in that 
honorable office for Surrey and Sussex, before they were 
disjoined. He had 116 servants in liveries, every one 
liveried in green satin doublets; divers gentlemen and 
persons of quality waited on him in the same garb and 
habit, which at that time (when thirty or forty was the 
usual retinue of the High Sheriff) was esteemed a great 
matter. Nor was this out of the least vanity that my 
father exceeded (who was one of the greatest decliners 
of it) ; but because he could not refuse the civility of 
his friends and relations, who voluntarily came them- 
selves, or sent in their servants. But my father was 
afterward most unjustly and spitefully molested by that 
jeering judge, Richardson, for reprieving the execution 
of a woman, to gratify my Lord of Lindsey, then Ad- 
miral: but out of this he emerged with as much honor 
as trouble. The king made this year his progress into 
Scotland, and Duke James was born. 

15th December, 1634: My dear sister, Darcy, departed 
this life, being arrived to her 20th year of age; in virtue 
advanced beyond her years, or the merit of her husband, 
the worst of men. She had been brought to bed the 
2d of June before, but the infant died soon after her, 
the 24th of December. I was therefore sent for home 
the second time, to celebrate the obsequies of my sister; 
who was interred in a very honorable manner in our 

1633-35 JOHN EVELYN 7 

dormitory joining to the parish church, where now her 
monument stands. 

1635. But my dear mother being now dangerously 
sick, I was, on the 3d of September following, sent for 
to Wotton. Whom I found so far spent, that, all human 
assistance failing, she in a most heavenly manner de- 
parted this life upon the 29th of the same month, about 
eight in the evening of Michaelmas-day. It was a ma- 
lignant fever which took her away, about the 37th of her 
age, and 2 2d of her marriage, to our irreparable loss 
and the regret of all that knew her. Certain it is, that 
the visible cause of her indisposition proceeded from 
grief upon the loss of her daughter, and the infant that 
followed it; and it is as certain, that when she per- 
ceived the peril whereto its excess had engaged her, she 
strove to compose herself and allay it ; but it was too late, 
and she was forced to succumb. Therefore summoning all 
her children then living (I shall never forget it), she ex- 
pressed herself in a manner so heavenly, with instructions 
so pious and Christian, as made us strangely sensible of 
the extraordinary loss then imminent; after which, em- 
bracing every one of us she gave to each a ring with 
her blessing and dismissed us. Then, taking my father 
by the hand, she recommended us to his care; and, be- 
cause she was extremely zealous for the education of my 
younger brother, she requested my father that he might 
be sent with me to Lewes; and so having importuned 
him that what he designed to bestow on her funeral, he 
would rather dispose among the poor, she labored to 
compose herself for the blessed change which she now 
expected. There was not a servant in the house whom 
she did not expressly send for, advise, and infinitely af- 
fect with her counsel. Thus she continued to employ 
her intervals, either instructing her relations, or prepar- 
ing of herself. 

Though her physicians, Dr. Meverell, Dr. Clement, 
and Dr. Rand, had given over all hopes of her recovery, 
and Sir Sanders Duncombe had tried his celebrated and 
famous powder, yet she was many days impairing, and 
endured the sharpest conflicts of her sickness with ad- 
mirable patience and most Christian resig^nation, retain- 
ing both her intellectuals and ardent affections for her 
dissolution, to the very article of her departure. When 


near her dissolution, she laid her hand on every one of 
her children ; and taking- solemn leave of my father, with 
elevated heart and eyes, she quietly expired, and resigned 
her soul to God. Thus ended that prudent and pious 
woman, in the flower of her age, to the inconsolable af- 
fliction of her husband, irreparable loss of her children, 
and universal regret of all that knew her. She was 
interred, as near as might be, to her daughter Darcy, 
the 3d of October, at night, but with no mean cere- 

It was the 3d of the ensuing November, after my 
brother George was gone back to Oxford, ere I returned 
to Lewes, when I made way, according to instructions 
received of my father, for my brother Richard, who was 
sent the 12th after. 

1636. This year being extremely dry, the pestilence 
much increased in London, and divers parts of England. 

13th February, 1637: I was especially admitted (and, 
as I remember, my other brother) into the Middle Tem- 
ple, London, though absent, and as yet at school. There 
were now large contributions to the distressed Palatinates. 

The loth of December my father sent a servant to 
bring us necessaries, and the plague beginning- now to 
cease, on the 3d of April, 1637, I left school, where, 
till about the last year, I have been extremely remiss in 
my studies ; so as I went to the University rather out of 
shame of abiding longer at school, than for any fitness, 
as by sad experience I found: which put me to re-learn 
all that I had neglected, or but perfunctorily gained. 

loth May, 1637. I was admitted a Fellow-commoner of 
Baliol College, Oxford; and, on the 29th, I was matricul- 
ated in the vestry of St. Mary's, where I subscribed the 
Articles, and took the oaths: Dr. Baily, head of St. John's, 
being vice-chancellor, afterward bishop. It appears by 
a letter of my father's, that he was upon treaty with one 
Mn Bathurst (afterward Doctor and President), of Trin- 
ity College, who should have been my tutor; but, lest 
my brother's tutor, Dr. Hobbs, more zealous in his life 
than industrious to his pupils, should receive it as an 
affront, and especially for that Fellow-commoners in 
Baliol were no more exempt from exercise than the 
meanest scholars there, my father sent me thither to one 
Mr. George Bradshaw ( yiomen invisufnf yet the son of an 


excellent father, beneficed in Surrey). I ever thought 
my tutor had parts enough; but as his ambition made 
him much suspected of the College, so his grudge to Dr. 
Lawrence, the governor of it (whom he afterward sup- 
planted), took up so much of his time, that he seldom or 
never had the opportunity to discharge his duty to his 
scholars. This I perceiving, associated myself with one 
Mr. James Thicknesse (then a young man of the founda- 
tion, afterward a Fellow of the house), by whose learned 
and friendly conversation I received great advantage. 
At my first arrival, Dr. Parkhurst was master: and after 
his decease, Dr. Lawrence, a chaplain of his Majesty's 
and Margaret Professor, succeeded, an acute and learned 
person; nor do I much reproach his severity, consider- 
ing that the extraordinary remissness of discipline had 
(till his coming) much detracted from the reputation of 
that College. 

There came in my time to the College one Nathaniel 
Conopios, out of Greece, from Cyrill, the patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, who, returning many years after, was made (as 
I understand) Bishop of Smyrna. He was the first I ever 
saw drink coffee; which custom came not into England 
till thirty years after.* 

After I was somewhat settled there in my formalities 
(for then was the University exceedingly regular, under 
the exact discipline of William Laud, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, then Chancellor), I added, as benefactor to the 
library of the College, these books — *^ ex dono Johannis 
Evelyni, hujus Coll. Socio- Contmensalis, filii Richardi Eve- 
lyni^ i com. Surrics, armig''.^^ — 

^•'•Zanchii Opera,'*'* vols, i, 2, 3. 

"-Granado in Thomam Aquinatem.,'*'* vols, i, 2, 3. 

*•*■ Novarini Electa Sacra,^^ and ^-^Cresolii Anthologia Sacra'' ; 
authors, it seems, much desired by the students of divinity 

Upon the 2d of July, being the first Sunday of the 
month, I first received the blessed Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper in the college chapel, one Mr. Cooper, a Fellow 
of the house, preaching; and at this time was the Church 
of England in her greatest splendor, all things decent, 
and becoming the Peace, and the persons that governed. 

* Evelyn should have said « till twenty years after,* not thirty. Coffee 
was introduced into England, and coffee-houses set up, in 1658. 


The most of the following week I spent in visiting the 
Colleges, and several rarities of the University, which do 
very much affect young comers. 

i8th July, 1637. I accompanied my eldest brother, who 
then quitted Oxford, into the country ; and, on the 9th of 
August, went to visit my friends at Lewes, whence I re- 
turned the 1 2 th to Wotton. On the 17 th of September, 
I received the blessed Sacrament at Wotton church, and 
23d of October went back to Oxford. 

5th November, 1637. I received again the Holy Com- 
munion in our college chapel, one Prouse, a Fellow (but 
a mad one), preaching. 

9th December, 1637. I off ered at my first exercise in the 
Hall, and answered my opponent; and, upon the nth fol- 
lowing, declaimed in the chapel before the Master, Fel- 
lows, and Scholars, according to the custom. The 15 th 
after, I first of all opposed in the Hall, 

The Christmas ensuing, being at a Comedy which the 
gentlemen of Exeter College presented to the University, 
and standing, for the better advantage of seeing, upon a 
table in the Hall, which was near to another, in the dark, 
being constrained by the extraordinary press to quit my 
station, in leaping down to save myself I dashed my right 
leg with such violence against the sharp edge of the other 
board, as gave me a hurt which held me in cure till almost 
Easter, and confined me to my study. 

22d January, 1638. I would needs be admitted into 
the dancing and vaulting schools; of which late activity 
one Stokes, the master, did afterward set forth a pretty 
book, which was published, with many witty elogfies be- 
fore it. 

4th February, 1638. One Mr. Wariner preached in our 
chapel; and, on the 25th, Mr. Wentworth, a kinsman of 
the Earl of Strafford; after which followed the blessed 

13th April, 1638. My father ordered that I should be- 
gin to manage my own expenses, which till then my 
tutor had done; at which I was much satisfied. 

9th July, 1638. I went home to visit my friends, and, on 
the 26th, with my brother and sister to Lewes, where 
we abode till the 31st; and thence to one Mr. Michael's, of 
Houghton, near Arundel, where we were very well treated; 
and, on the 2d of August, to Portsmouth, and thence. 

1637-40 JOHN EVELYN u 


having surveyed the fortifications (a great rarity in that 
blessed halcyon time in England), we passed into the 
Isle of Wight, to the house of my Lady Richards, in a 
place called Yaverland ; but were turned the following day 
to Chichester, where, having viewed the city and fair 
cathedral, we returned home. 

About the beginning of September, I was so afflicted 
with a quartan ague, that I could by no means get rid 
of it till the December following. This was the fatal 
year wherein the rebellious Scots opposed the King, upon 
the pretense of the introduction of some new ceremonies 
and the Book of Common Prayer, and madly began our 
confusions, and their own destruction, too, as it proved 
in event. 

14th January, 1639. I came back to Oxford, after my 
tedious indisposition, and to the infinite loss of my time ; 
and now I began to look upon the rudiments of music, 
in which I afterward arrived to some formal knowledge, 
though to small perfection of hand, because I was so 
frequently diverted with inclinations to newer trifles. 

20th May, 1639. Accompanied with one Mr. J. Crafford 
(who afterward being my fellow-traveler in Italy, there 
changed his religion), I took a journey of pleasure to see 
the Somersetshire baths, Bristol, Cirencester, Malmes- 
bury, Abington, and divers other towns of lesser note; 
and returned the 25th. 

8th October, 1639. I went back to Oxford. 

14th December, 1639, According to injunctions from the 
Heads of Colleges, I went (among the rest) to the Con- 
firmation at St. Mary's, where, after sermon, the Bishop 
of Oxford laid his hands upon us, with the usual form 
of benediction prescribed: but this received (I fear) for 
the more part out of curiosity, rather than with that due 
preparation and advice which had been requisite, could 
not be so effectual as otherwise that admirable and use- 
ful institution might have been, and as I have since de- 
plored it. 

2 1 St January, 1640. Came my brother, Richard, from 
school, to be my chamber-fellow at the University. He 
was admitted the next day and matriculated the 31st. 

nth April, 1640. I went to London to see the solemn- 
ity of his Majesty's riding through the city in state to the 
Short Parliament, which began the 13th following, — a very 



glorious and magnificent sight, the King circled with his 
royal diadem and the affections of his people: but the 
day after I returned to Wotton again, where I stayed, 
my father's indisposition suffering great intervals, till 
April 27th, when I was sent to London to be first resi- 
dent at the Middle Temple: so as my being at the Uni- 
versity, in regard of these avocations, was of very small 
benefit to me. Upon May the 5th following, was the 
Parliament unhappily dissolved; and, on the 20th I re- 
turned with my brother George to Wotton, who, on the 
28th of the same month, was married at Albury to Mrs. 
Caldwell (an heiress of an ancient Leicestershire family, 
where part of the nuptials were celebrated). 

loth June, 1640. I repaired with my brother to the 
term, to go into our new lodgings (that were formerly in 
Essex-court), being a very handsome apartment just over 
against the Hall-court, but four pair of stairs high, which 
gave us the advantage of the fairer prospect ; but did not 
much contribute to the love of that impolished study, to 
which (I suppose) my father had designed me, when he 
paid ;j^i45 to purchase our present lives, and assignments 

. London, and especially the Court, were at this period 
in frequent disorders, and great insolences were com- 
mitted by the abused and too happy City: in particular, 
the Bishop of Canterbury's Palace at Lambeth was as- 
saulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, my Lord 
Chamberlain imprisoned and many scandalous libels and 
invectives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of 
Government, and the fermentation of our since distrac- 
tions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to 
Wotton, and the 27th after, my father's indisposition 
augmenting, by advice of the physicians he repaired to 
the Bath. 

7th July, 1640. My brother George and I, understanding 
the peril my father was in upon a sudden attack of his 
infirmity, rode post from Guildford toward him, and found 
him extraordinary weak; yet so as that, continuing his 
course, he held out till the 8th of September, when I re- 
turned home with him in his litter. 

15th October, 1640. I went to the Temple, it being 
Michaelmas Term. 

30th December, 1640. I saw his Majesty (coming from 

1640-41 JOHN EVELYN 13 

his Northern Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of 
ovation, with all the marks of a happy peace, restored to 
the affections of his people, being conducted through 
London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d 
of November following (a day never to be mentioned 
without a curse), to that long ungrateful, foolish, and 
fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our sorrows for 
twenty years after, and the period of the most happy 
monarch in the world : Quis talia fando ! 

But my father being by this time entered into a 
dropsy, an indisposition the most unsuspected, being a 
person so exemplarily temperate, and of admirable 
regimen, hastened me back to Wotton, December the 
1 2th ; where, the 24th following, between twelve and one 
o'clock at noon, departed this life that excellent man 
and indulgent parent, retaining his senses and piety 
to the last, which he most tenderly expressed in 
blessing us, whom he now left to the world and the 
worst of times, while he was taken from the evil to 

1 64 1. It was a sad and lugubrious beginning of the 
year, when on the 2d of January, 1 640-1, we at night 
followed the mourning hearse to the church at Wotton; 
when, after a sermon and funeral oration by the minister, 
my father was interred near his formerly erected monu- 
ment, and mingled with the ashes of our mother, his 
dear wife. Thus we were bereft of both our parents in 
a period when we most of all stood in need of their 
counsel and assistance, especially myself, of a raw, vain, 
uncertain, and very unwary inclination : but so it pleased 
God to make trial of my conduct in a conjuncture of 
the greatest and most prodigious hazard that ever the 
youth of England saw; and, if I did not amidst all this 
impeach my liberty nor my virtue with the rest who 
made shipwreck of both, it was more the infinite good- 
ness and mercy of God than the least providence or 
discretion of mine own, who now thought of nothing 
but the pursuit of vanity, and the confused imaginations 
of young men. 

15th April, 1 641. I repaired to London to hear and see 
the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord- Deputy of 
Ireland, who, on the 2 2d of March, had been summoned 
before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in 


Westminster-hall,* which was prepared with scaffolds for 
the Lords and Commons, who, tog-ether with the King, 
Queen, Prince, and flower of the noblesse, were specta- 
tors and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest 
innocency that ever met before so illustrous an assembly. 
It was Thomas, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl 
Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon 
this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need 
any notice of the event. 

On the 27th of April, came over out of Holland the 
young Prince of Orange, with a splendid equipage, to 
make love to his Majesty's eldest daughter, the now 
Princess Royal. 

That evening, was celebrated the pompous funeral of 
the Duke of Richmond, who was carried in effigy, with 
all the ensigns of that illustrious family, in an open 
chariot, in great solemnity, through London to West- 
minster Abbey. 

On the 12th of May, I beheld on Tower-hill the fatal 
stroke which severed the wisest head in England from 
the shoulders of the Earl of Strafford, whose crime com- 
ing under the cognizance of no human law or statute, a 
new one was made, not to be a precedent, but his de- 
struction. With what reluctancy the King signed the 
execution, he has sufficiently expressed; to which he 
imputes his own unjust suffering — to such exorbitancy 
were things arrived. 

On the 24th of May, I returned to Wotton ; and, on the 
28th of June, I went to London with my sister, Jane, 
and the day after sat to one Vanderborcht for my picture 
in oil, at Arundel-house, whose servant that excellent 
painter was, brought out of Germany when the Earl 
returned from Vienna ( whither he was sent Ambassador- 
extraordinary, with great pomp and charge, though with- 

*0n the 15th of April Strafford made his eloquent defense, which 
it seems to have been Evelyn's good fortune to be present at. And 
here the reader may remark the fact, not without significance, that 
between the entries on this page of the Diary which relate to Lord 
Strafford, the young Prince of Orange came over to make love to 
the Princess Royal, then twelve years old; and that the marriage 
was subsequently celebrated amid extraordinary Court rejoicings and 
festivities, in which the King took a prominent part, during the short 
interval which elapsed between the sentence and execution of the 
King's great and unfortunate minister. 

1641 JOHN EVELYN 15 

out any effect, through the artifice of the Jesuited Spaniard 
who governed all in that conjuncture ). With Vander- 
borcht, the painter, he brought over Winceslaus Hollar, 
the sculptor, who engraved not only the unhappy Deputy's 
trial in Westminster-hall, but his decapitation; as he did 
several other historical things, then relating to the acci- 
dents happening during the Rebellion in England, with 
great skill; besides many cities, towns, and landscapes, 
not only of this nation, but of foreign parts, and divers 
portraits of famous persons then in being; and things 
designed from the best pieces of the rare paintings and 
masters of which the Earl of Arundel was possessor, 
purchased and collected in his travels with incredible 
expense: so as, though Hollar's were but etched in 
aquafortis, I account the collection to be the most 
authentic and useful extant. Hollar was the son of a 
gentleman near Prague, in Bohemia, and my very good 
friend, perverted at last by the Jesuits at Antwerp to 
change his religion; a very honest, simple, well-meaning 
man, who at last came over again into England, where 
he died. We have the whole history of the king's reign, 
from his trial in Westminster-hall and before, to the 
restoration of King Charles H., represented in several 
sculptures, with that also of Archbishop Laud, by this 
indefatigable artist; besides innumerable sculptures in 
the works of Dugdale, Ashmole, and other historical 
and useful works. I am the more particular upon this 
for the fruit of that collection, which I wish I had 

This picture* I presented to my sister, being at her 
request, on my resolution to absent myself from this ill 
face of things at home, which gave umbrage to wiser 
than myself that the medal was reversing, and our calam- 
ities but yet in their infancy: so that, on the 15th of 
July, having procured a pass at the Custom-house, where 
I repeated my oath of allegiance, I went from London 
to Gravesend, accompanied with one Mr. Caryll, a Sur- 
rey gentleman, and our servants, where we arrived by 
six o'clock that evening, with a purpose to take the first 
opportunity of a passage for Holland. But the wind as 
yet not favorable, we had time to view the Block-house 
of that town, which answered to another over against it 

*His own portrait 


at Tilbury, famous for the rendezvous of Queen Eliza- 
beth, in the year 1588, which we found stored with 
twenty pieces of cannon, and other ammunition propor- 
tionable. On the 19th of July, we made a short excur- 
sion to Rochester, and having seen the cathedral went 
to Chatham to see the Royal Sovereign, a glorious vessel 
of burden lately built there, being for defense and orna- 
ment, the richest that ever spread cloth before the wind. 
She carried an hundred brass cannon, and was 1,200 tons; 
a rare sailer, the work of the famous Phineas Pett, in- 
ventor of the frigate-fashion of building, to this day 
practiced. But what is to be deplored as to this vessel 
is, that it cost his Majesty the affections of his subjects, 
perverted by the malcontent of great ones, who took occa- 
sion to quarrel for his having raised a very slight tax 
for the building of this, and equipping the rest of the 
navy, without an act of Parliament; though, by the suf- 
frages of the major part of the Judges the King might 
legally do in times of imminent danger, of which his 
Majesty was best apprised. But this not satisfying a 
jealous party, it was condemned as unprecedented, and 
not justifiable as to the Royal prerogative; and, accord- 
ingly, the Judges were removed out of their places, fined, 
and imprisoned.* 

We returned again this evening, and on the 21st of July 
embarked in a Dutch frigate, bound for Flushing, con- 
voyed and accompanied by five other stout vessels, where- 
of one was a man-of-war. The next day at noon, we 
landed at ' Flushing. 

Being desirous to overtake the Leagure,f which was 
then before Genep, ere the summer should be too far 
spent, we went this evening from Flushing to Middle- 
burg, another fine town in this island, to De Vere, whence 
the most ancient and illustrious Earls of Oxford derive 
their family, who have spent so much blood in assisting 
the state during their wars. From De Vere we passed 

* In such manner Evelyn refers to the tax of Ship-money. But com- 
pare this remarkable passage, now first printed from the original, with 
the tone in which, eight years later, he spoke of the only chance by 
which monarchy in England might be saved ; namely, that of « doing 
nothing as to government but what shall be approved by the old way of 
a free parliament, and the known laws of the land. » 

f The meaning of this expression is. that they should be in time ta 
witness the siege. 

i64i JOHN EVELYN 17 

over many towns, houses, and ruins of demolished sub- 
urbs, etc., which have formerly been swallowed up by 
the sea ; at what time no less than eight of those islands 
had been irrecoverably lost. 

The next day we arrived at Dort, the first town of 
Holland, furnished with all German commodities, and es- 
pecially Rhenish wines and timber. It hath almost at 
the extremity a very spacious and venerable church; a 
stately senate house, wherein was holden that famous 
synod against the Arminians in 16 18; and in that hall 
hangeth a picture of * The Passion,* an exceeding rare 
and much-esteemed piece. 

From Dort, being desirous to hasten toward the army, 
I took wagon this afternoon to Rotterdam, whither we 
were hurried in less than an hour, though it be ten miles 
distant; so furiously do those Foremen drive. I went 
first to visit the great church, the Doole, the Bourse, 
and the public statue of the learned Erasmus, of brass. 
They showed us his house, or rather the mean cottage, 
wherein he was born, over which there are extant these 
lines, in capital letters: 


The 26th of July I passed by a straight and commodious 
river through Delft to the Hague; in which journey I 
observed divers leprous poor creatures dwelling in solitary 
huts on the brink of the water, and permitted to ask the 
charity of passengers, which is conveyed to them in a 
floating box that they cast out. 

Arrived at the Hague, I went first to the Queen of 
Bohemia's court, where I had the honor to kiss her 
Majesty's hand, and several of the Princesses', her daugh- 
ters. Prince Maurice was also there, newly come out of 
Germany; and my Lord Finch, not long before fled out 
of England from the fury of the Parliament. It was a 
fasting day with the Queen for the unfortunate death of 
her husband, and the presence chamber had been hung 
with black velvet ever since his decease. 

The 28th of July I went to Leyden; and the 29th to 
Utrecht, being thirty English miles distant (as they 
reckon by hours). It was now Kermas, or a fair, in this 


town, the streets swarming with boors and rudeness, so 
that early the next morning, having visited the ancient 
Bishop's court, and the two famous churches, I satisfied 
my curiosity till my return, and better leisure. We then 
came to Rynen, where the Queen of Bohemia hath a neat 
and well built palace, or country house, after the Italian 
manner, as I remember ; and so, crossing the Rhine, upon 
which this villa is situated, lodged that night in a country- 
man's house. The 31st to Nimeguen; and on the 2d of 
Augnst we arrived at the Leagure, where was then the 
whole army encamped about Genep, a very strong castle 
situated on the river Waal; but, being taken four or 
five days before, we had only a sight of the demoli- 
tions. The next Sunday was the thanksgiving sermons 
performed in Colonel Goring's regiment (eldest son of 
the since Earl of Norwich) by Mr. Goffe, his chaplain 
(now turned Roman, and father-confessor to the Queen- 
mother). The evening was spent in firing cannon and 
other expressions of military triumphs. 

Now, according to the compliment, I was received a 
volunteer in the company of Captain Apsley, of whose 
Captain-lieutenant, Honywood (Apsley being absent), I 
received many civilities. 

The 3d of Augfust, at night, we rode about the lines of 
circumvallation, the general being then in the field. The 
next day I was accommodated with a very spacious and 
commodious tent for my lodging; as before I was with a 
horse, which I had at command, and a hut which during 
the excessive heats was a great convenience ; for the sun 
piercing the canvas of the tent, it was during the day 
unsufferable, and at night not seldom infested with mists 
and fogs, which ascended from the river. 

6th August, 1 64 1. As the turn came about, we were 
ordered to watch on a horn-work near our quarters, and 
trail a pike, being the next morning relieved by a com- 
pany of French. This was our continual duty till the castle 
was refortified, and all danger of quitting that station se- 
cured ; whence I went to see a Convent of Franciscan Friars, 
not far from our quarters, where we found both the chapel 
and refectory full, crowded with the goods of such poor 
people as at the approach of the army had fled with them 
thither for sanctuary. On the day following, I went to 
view all the trenches, approaches, and mines, etc. of the 

i64i JOHN EVELYN 19 

besiegers; and, in particular, I took special notice of the 
wheel-bridge, which engine his Excellency had made to 
run over the moat when they stormed the castle ; as it is 
since described (with all the other particulars of this siege) 
by the author of that incomparable work, ** Hollandia Illus- 
trata. * The walls and ramparts of earth, which a mine had 
broken and crumbled, were of prodigious thickness. 

Upon the 8th of August, I dined in the horse-quarters 
with Sir Robert Stone and his lady. Sir William Stradling, 
and divers Cavaliers ; where there was very good cheer, but 
hot service for a young drinker, as then I was ; so that, be- 
ing pretty well satisfied with the confusion of armies and 
sieges (if such that of the United Provinces may be called, 
where their quarters and encampments are so admirably 
regular, and orders so exactly observed, as few cities, the 
best governed in time of peace, exceed it for all con- 
veniences), I took my leave of the Leagnre and Came- 
rades; and, on the 12th of August, I embarked on the 
* Waal, " in company with three grave divines, who enter- 
tained us a great part of our passage with a long dispute 
concerning the lawfulness of church-music. We now 
sailed by Teil, where we landed some of our freight; 
and about five o'clock we touched at a pretty town named 
Bommell, that had divers English in garrison. It stands 
upon Contribution-land, which subjects the environs to the 
Spanish incursions. We sailed also by an exceeding strong 
fort called Lovestein, famous for the escape of the learned 
Hugo Grotius, who, being in durance as a capital offender, 
as was the unhappy Bameveldt, by the stratagem of his 
lady, was conveyed in a trunk supposed to be filled with 
books only. We lay at Gorcum, a very strong and con- 
siderable frontier. 

13th August, 1 64 1. We arrived late at Rotterdam, where 
was their annual mart or fair, so furnished with pictures 
(especially landscapes and drolleries, as they call those 
clownish representations), that I was amazed. Some of 
these I bought and sent into England. The reason of 
this store of pictures, and their cheapness, proceeds from 
their want of land to employ their stock, so that it is an 
ordinary thing to find a common farmer lay out two or 
three thousand pounds in this commodity. Their houses 
are full of them, and they vend them at their fairs to 
very great gains. Here I first saw an elephant, who was 


extremely well disciplined and obedient. It was a beast 
of a monstrous size, yet as flexible and nimble in the joints, 
contrary to the vulgar tradition, as could be imagined 
from so prodigious a bulk and strange fabric; but I most 
of all admired the dexterity and strength of its proboscis, 
on which it was able to support two or three men, and by 
which it took and reached whatever was offered to it ; its 
teeth were but short, being a female, and not old. I was 
also shown a pelican, or onocratulas of Pliny, with its 
large gullets, in which he kept his reserve of fish; the 
plumage was white, legs red, flat, and film-footed, likewise 
a cock with four legs, two rumps and vents : also a hen 
which had two large spurs growing out of her sides, pen- 
etrating the feathers of her wings. 

17th August, 1 64 1. I passed again through Delft, and 
visited the church in which was the monument of Prince 
William of Nassau, — the first of the Williams, and savior 
(as they call him) of their liberty, which cost him his life 
by a vile assassination. It is a piece of rare art, consisting 
of several figures, as big as the life, in copper. There is in 
the same place a magnificent tomb of his son and suc- 
cessor, Maurice. The senate-house hath a very stately 
portico, supported with choice columns of black marble, 
as I remember, of one entire stone. Within, there hangs 
a weighty vessel of wood, not unlike a butter-chum, which 
the adventurous woman that hath two husbands at one 
time is to wear on her shoulders, her head peeping out 
at the top only, and so led about the town, as a penance 
for her incontinence. From hence, we went the next day 
to Ryswick, a stately country-house of the Prince of 
Orange, for nothing more remarkable than the delicious 
walks planted with lime trees, and the modem paintings 

19th August, 1 64 1. We returned to the Hague, and went 
to visit the Hoff, or Prince's Court, with the adjoining 
gardens full of ornament, close walks, statues, marbles, 
grots, fountains, and artificial music. There is to this 
palace a stately hall, not much inferior to ours of West- 
minster, hung round with colors and other trophies taken 
from the Spaniards ;* and the sides below are furnished with 

* Westminster hall used to be so in Term time, and during the sit- 
ting of Parliament, as late as the beginning of the reign of George 

i64i JOHN EVELYN 21 

shops. Next day (the 20th) I returned to Delft, thence 
to Rotterdam, the Hague, and Leyden, where immedi- 
ately I mounted a wagon, which that night, late as it 
was, brought us to Haerlem. About seven in the morn- 
ing after I came to Amsterdam, where being provided 
with a lodging, the first thing I went to see was a Syn- 
agogfue of the Jews (being Saturday), whose ceremonies, 
ornaments, lamps, law, and schools, aflEorded matter for 
my contemplation. The women were secluded from the 
men, being seated in galleries above, shut with lattices, 
having their heads muffled with linen, after a fantastical 
and somewhat extraordinary fashion; the men, wearing 
a large calico mantle, yellow colored, over their hats, all 
the while waving their bodies, while at their devotions. 
From thence, I went to a place without the town, called 
Overkirk, where they have a spacious field assig^ned them 
to bury their dead, full of sepulchers with Hebraic 
inscriptions, some of them stately and costly. Looking 
through one of these monuments, where the stones were 
disjointed, I perceived divers books and papers lie about 
a corpse; for it seems, when any learned Rabbi dies, 
they bury some of his books with him. With the help 
of a stick, I raked out several, written in Hebrew char- 
acters, but much impaired. As we returned, we stepped 
in to see the Spin-house, a kind of bridewell, where 
incorrigible and lewd women are kept in discipline and 
labor, but all neat. We were shown an hospital for 
poor travelers and pilgrims, built by Queen Elizabeth of 
England; and another maintained by the city. 

The State or Senate-house of this town, if the design 
be perfected, will be one of the most costly and magnifi- 
cent pieces of architecture in Europe, especially for the 
materials and the carvings. In the Doole is painted, on 
a very large table, the bust of Marie de Medicis, supported 
by four royal diadems, the work of one Vanderdall, who 
hath set his name thereon, ist September, 1638. 

On Sunday, I heard an English sermon at the Presby- 
terian congregation, where they had chalked upon a slate 
the psalms that were to be sung, so that all the congre- 
gation might see them without the bidding of a clerk. I 
was told, that after such an age no minister was permitted 
to preach, but had his maintenance continued during 


I purposely changed my lodgings, being desirous to 
converse with the sectaries that swarmed in this city, 
out of whose spawn came those almost innumerable broods 
in England afterward. It was at a Brownist's house, 
where we had an extrordinary good table. There was in 
pension with us my Lord Keeper, Finch, and one Sir J, 
Fotherbee. Here I also found an English Carmelite, who 
was going through Germany with an Irish gentleman. I 
now went to see the Weese-house, a foundation like our 
Charter-house, for the education of decayed persons, 
orphans, and poor children, where they are taught sev- 
eral occupations. The girls are so well brought up to 
housewifery, that men of good worth, who seek that 
chiefly in a woman, frequently take their wives from this 
hospital. Thence to the Rasp-house, where the lusty 
knaves are compelled to work; and the rasping of brasil 
and logwood for the dyers is very hard labor. To the 
Dool-house, for madmen and fools. But none did I so 
much admire, as an Hospital for their lame and decrepit 
soldiers and seamen, where the accommodations are very 
great, the building answerable; and, indeed, for the like 
public charities the provisions are admirable in this coun- 
try, where, as no idle vagabonds are suffered (as in 
England they are), there is hardly a child of four or five 
years old, but they find some employment for it. 

It was on a Sunday morning that I went to the Bourse, 
or Exchange, after their sermons were ended, to see the 
Dog-market, which lasts till two in the afternoon, in this 
place of convention of merchants from all parts of the 
world. The building is not comparable to that of London, 
built by that worthy citizen. Sir Thomas Gresham, yet 
in one respect exceeding it, that vessels of considerable 
burden ride at the very quay contiguous to it; and in- 
deed it is by extraordinary industry that as well this city, 
as generally all the towns of Holland, are so accommo- 
dated with graffs, cuts, sluices, moles, and rivers, made 
by hand, that nothing is more frequent than to see a 
whole navy, belonging to this mercantile people, riding 
at anchor before their very doors: and yet their streets 
even, straight, and well paved, the houses so uniform 
and planted with lime trees, as nothing can be more 

The next day we were entertained at a kind of tavern, 

i64i JOHN EVELYN 23 

called the Brilof t, appertaining to a rich Anabaptist, where, 
in the upper rooms of the house, were divers pretty 
waterworks, rising 108 feet from the ground. Here were 
many quaint devices, fountains, artificial music, noises of 
beasts, and chirping of birds; but what pleased me most 
was a large pendant candlestick, branching into several 
sockets, furnished all with ordinary candles to appearance, 
out of the wicks spouting out streams of water, instead 
of flames. This seemed then and was a rarity, before 
the philosophy of compressed air made it intelligible. 
There was likewise a cylinder that entertained the com- 
pany with a variety of chimes, the hammers striking upon 
the brims of porcelain dishes, suited to the tones and notes, 
without cracking any of them. Many other waterworks 
were shown. 

The Kaiser's or Emperor's Graft, which is an ample 
and long street, appearing like a city in a forest ; the lime 
trees planted just before each house, and at the margin 
of that goodly aqueduct so curiously wharfed with Klin- 
card brick, which likewise paves the streets, than which 
nothing can be more useful and neat. This part of Am- 
sterdam is built and gained upon the main sea, supported 
by piles at an immense charge, and fitted for the most 
busy concourse of traffickers and people of commerce be- 
yond any place, or mart, in the world. Nor must I forget 
the port of entrance into an issue of this town, composed 
of very magnificent pieces of architecture, some of the 
ancient and best manner, as are divers churches. 

The turrets, or steeples, are adorned after a particular 
manner and invention; the chimes of bells are so rarely 
managed, that being curious to know whether the motion 
was from any engine, I went up to that of St. Nicholas, 
where I found one who played all sorts of compositions 
from the tablature before him, as if he had fingered an 
organ; for so were the hammers fastened with wires to 
several keys put into a frame twenty feet below the bells, 
upon which (by the help of a wooden instrument, not 
much unlike a weaver's shuttle, that gnarded his hand) 
he struck on the keys and played to admiration. All this 
while, through the clattering of the wires, din of the too 
nearly sounding bells, and noise that his wooden gloves 
made, the confusion was so great, that it was impossible 
for the musician, or any that stood near him, to hear 


anything at all; yet, to those at a distance, and espe- 
cially in the streets, the harmony and the time were the 
most exact and agreeable. 

The south church is richly paved with black and white 
marble, — the west is a new fabric; and generally all the 
churches in Holland are furnished with organs, lamps, 
and monuments, carefully preserved from the fury and 
impiety of popular reformers, whose zeal has foolishly 
transported them in other places rather to act like mad- 
men than religious. 

Upon St. Bartholomew's day, I went among the book- 
sellers, and visited the famous Hondius and Bleaw's shop, 
to buy some maps, atlases, and other works of that kind. 
At another shop, I furnished myself with some shells and 
Indian curiosities; and so, toward the end of August, I 
returned again to Haerlem by the river, ten miles in 
length, straight as a line, and of competent breadth for 
ships to sail by one another. They showed us a cottage 
where, they told us, dwelt a woman who had been married 
to her twenty-fifth husband, and being now a widow, was 
prohibited to marry in future ; yet it could not be proved 
that she had ever made away with any of her husbands, 
though the suspicion had brought her divers times to trouble. 

Haerlem is a very delicate town and hath one of the 
fairest churches of the Gothic design I had ever seen. 
There hang in the steeple, which is very high, two silver 
bells, said to have been brought from Damietta, in Egypt, 
by an earl of Holland, in memory of whose success they 
are rung out every evening. In the nave hang the good- 
liest branches of brass for tapers that I have seen, esteemed 
of great value for the curiosity of the workmanship ; also a 
fair pair of organs, which I could not find they made use of 
in divine service, or so much as to assist them in singing 
psalms, but only for show, and to recreate the people 
before and after their devotions, while the burgomasters 
were walking and conferring about their affairs. Near the 
west window hang two models of ships, completely 
equipped, in memory of that invention of saws under 
their keels, with which they cut through the chain of 
booms, which barred the port of Damietta. Having visited 
this church, the fish-market, and made some inquiry about 
the printing-house, the invention whereof is said to have 
been in this town, I returned to Leyden. 

1641 JOHN EVELYN 25 

At Leyden, I was carried up to the castle, or Pyrgus, 
built on a very steep artificial mount, cast up (as reported) 
by Hengist tbe Saxon, on his return out of England, 
as a place to retire to, in case of any sudden inunda- 

The churches are many and fair; in one of them lies 
buried the learned and illustrious Joseph Scaliger, without 
any extraordinary inscription, who, having left the world 
a monument of his worth more lasting than marble, needed 
nothing more than his own name; which I think is all 
engraven on his sepulcher. He left his library to this 

28th August, 1 64 1. I went to see the college and 
schools, which are nothing extraordinary, and was com- 
plimented with a viatriaila by the magnificus Professor, 
who first in Latin demanded of me where my lodging in 
the town was, my name, age, birth, and to what Faculty 
I addicted myself ; then, recording my answers in a book, 
he administered an oath to me that I should observe the 
statutes and orders of the University while I stayed, 
and then delivered me a ticket, by virtue whereof I was 
made excise-free; for all which worthy privileges, and 
the pains of writing, he accepted of a rix-dollar. 

Here was now the famous Dan. Heinsius, whom I so 
longed to see, as well as the no less famous printer, 
Elzevir's printing-house and shop, renowned for the 
politeness of the character and editions of what he 
has published through Europe. Hence to the physic- 
garden, well stored with exotic plants, if the catalogue 
presented to me by the gardener be a faithful register. 

But, among all the rarities of this place, I was much 
pleased with a sight of their anatomy-school, theater, and 
repository adjoining, which is well furnished with natural 
curiosities ; skeletons, from the whale and elephant to the 
fly and spider; which last is a verj'- delicate piece of art, 
to see how the bones ( if I may so call them of so tender 
an insect) could be separated from the mucilaginous 
parts of that minute animal. Among a great variety of 
other things, I was shown the knife newly taken out of 
a drunken Dutchman's gfuts, by an incision in his side, 
after it had slipped from his fingers into his stomach. 
The pictures of the chirurgeon and his patient, both liv- 
ing, were there. 


There is without the town a fair Mall, curiously 

Returning to my lodging, I was showed the statue, 
cut in stone, of the happy monk, whom they report to 
have been the first inventor of typography, set over the 
door; but this is much controverted by others, who strive 
for the glory of it, besides John Gutenberg. 

I was brought acquainted with a Burgundian Jew, who 
had married an apostate Kentish woman. I asked him 
divers questions: he told me, among other things, that 
the World should never end ; that our souls transmigrated, 
and that even those of the most holy persons did penance 
in the bodies of brutes after death, — and so he inter- 
preted the banishment and savage life of Nebuchadnezzar : 
that all the Jews should rise again, and be led to Jeru- 
salem; that the Romans only were the occasion of our 
Savior's death, whom he affirmed (as the Turks do) to 
be a great prophet, but not the Messiah. He showed me 
several books of their devotion, which he had translated 
into English, for the instruction of his wife; he told me 
that when the Messiah came, all the ships, barks, and 
vessels of Holland should, by the power of certain strange 
whirlwinds, be loosed from their anchors, and transported 
in a moment to all the desolate ports and havens through- 
out the world, wherever the dispersion was, to convey 
their brethren and tribes to the Holy City; with other 
such like stuff. He was a merry drunken fellow, but 
would by no means handle any money (for something I 
purchased of him), it being Saturday; but desired me to 
leave it in the window, meaning to receive it on Sunday 

ist September, 1641. I went to Delft and Rotterdam, 
and two days after back to the Hague, to bespeak a suit 
of horseman's armor, which I caused to be made to fit 
me. I now rode out of town to see the monument of the 
woman, pretended to have been a countess of Holland, 
reported to have had as many children at one birth, as 
there are days in the year. The basins were hung up in 
which they were baptized, together with a large descrip- 
tion of the matter-of-fact in a frame of carved work, in 
the church of Lysdun, a desolate place. As I returned, 
I diverted to see one of the Prince's Palaces, called the 
Hoff Van Hounsler's Dyck, a very fair cloistered and 

1 64 1 JOHN EVELYN rj 

quadrangular building. The gallery is prettily painted 
with several huntings, and at one end a gordian knot, 
with rustical instruments so artificially represented, as to 
deceive an accurate eye to distinguish it from actual re- 
lievo. The ceiling of the staircase is painted with the 
** Rape of Ganymede, * and other pendant figures, the work 
of F. Covenberg, of whose hand I bought an excellent 
drollery, which I afterward parted with to my brother 
George of Wotton, where it now hangs. To this palace 
join a fair garden and park, curiously planted with limes. 

8th September, 1641. Returned to Rotterdam, through 
Delftshaven and Sedan, where were at that time Colonel 
Goring's winter quarters. This town has heretofore been 
very much talked of for witches. 

loth September, 1641. I took a wagon for Dort, to be 
present at the reception of the Queen-mother, Marie de 
Medicis, Dowager of France, widow of Henry the Great, 
and mother to the French King, Louis XIII., and the 
Queen of England, whence she newly arrived, tossed to 
and fro by the various fortune of her life. From this 
city, she designed for Cologne, conducted by the Earl 
of Arundel and the Herr Van Bredrod. At this inter- 
view, I saw the Princess of Orange, and the lady her 
daughter, afterward married to the House of Branden- 
burgh. There was little remarkable in this reception 
befitting the greatness of her person; but an universal 
discontent, which accompanied that unlucky woman 
wherever she went. 

12th September, 1641. I went toward Bois-le-Duc, 
where we arrived on the i6th, at the time when the new 
citadel was advancing, with innumerable hands, and 
incomparable inventions for draining off the waters out 
of the fens and morasses about it, being by buckets, 
mills, cochleas, pumps, and the like; in which the Hol- 
landers are the most expert in Europe. Here were now 
sixteen companies and nine troops of horse. They were 
also cutting a new river, to pass from the town to a 
castle not far from it. Here we split our skiff, falling 
foul upon another through negligence of the master, who 
was fain to run aground, to our no little hazard. At our 
arrival, a soldier conveyed us to the Governor, where our 
names were taken, and our persons examined very 


17th September, 1641. I was permitted to walk the round 
and view the works, and to visit a convent of religious 
women of the order of St. Clara (who by the capitulation 
were allowed to enjoy their monastery and maintenance 
undisturbed, at the surrender of the town twelve years 
since), where we had a collation and very civil entertain- 
ment. They had a neat chapel, in which the heart of 
the Duke of Cleves, their founder, lies inhumed under a 
plate of brass. Within the cloister is a garden, and in the 
middle of it an overgrown lime tree, out of whose stem, 
near the root, issue five upright and exceeding tall suck- 
ers, or bolls, the like whereof for evenness and height I 
had not observed. 

The chief church of this city is curiously carved within 
and without, furnished with a pair of organs, and a most 
magnificent font of copper. 

1 8th September, 1641. I went to see that most impreg- 
nable town and fort of Hysdune, where I was exceedingly 
obliged to one Colonel Crombe, the lieutenant-governor, 
who would needs make me accept the honor of being 
captain of the watch, and to g^ve the word this night. 
The fortification is very irregular, but esteemed one of 
the most considerable for strength and situation in the 
Netherlands. We departed toward Gorcum. Here Sir 
Kenelm Digby, traveling toward Cologne, met us. 

The next morning, the 19th, we arrived at Dort, pas- 
sing by the Decoys, where they catch innumerable 
quantities of fowl. 

2 2d September, 1641. I went again to Rotterdam to re- 
ceive a pass which I expected from Brussels, securing me 
through Brabant and Flanders, designing to go into Eng- 
land through those countries. The Cardinal Infante, 
brother to the King of Spain, was then governor. By this 
pass, having obtained another from the Prince of Orange, 
upon the 24th of September I departed through Dort ; but 
met with very bad tempestuous weather, being several 
times driven back, and obliged to lie at anchor off Keele, 
other vessels lying there waiting better weather. The 
25th and 26th we made other essays; but were again 
repulsed to the harbor, where lay sixty vessels 
waiting to sail. But, on the 27th, we, impatient of the 
time and inhospitableness of the place, sailed again with 
a contrary and impetuous wind and a terrible sea, in 

1641 JOHN EVELYN 29 

great jeopardy; for we had much ado to keep ourselves 
above water, the billows breaking desperately on our 
vessel: we were driven into Williamstadt, a place gar- 
risoned by the English, where the governor had a fair 
house. The works, and especially the counterscarp, are 
curiously hedged with quick, and planted with a stately 
row of limes on the rampart. The church is of a round 
structure, with a cupola, and the town belongs entirely 
to the Prince of Orange, as does that of Breda, and some 
other places. 

28th September, 1641. Failing of an appointment, I was 
constrained to return to Dort for a bill of exchange; but 
it was the ist of October ere I could get back. At 
Keele, I numbered 141 vessels, who durst not yet ven- 
ture out; but, animated by the master of a stout bark, 
after a small encounter of weather, we arrived by four 
that evening at Steenbergen. In the passage we sailed over 
a sea called the Plaats, an exceeding dangerous water, by 
reason of two contrary tides which meet there very im- 
petuously. Here, because of the many shelves, we were 
forced to tide it along the Channel; but, ere we could 
gain the place, the ebb was so far spent, that we were 
compelled to foot it at least two long miles, through a 
most pelting shower of rain, 

2d October, 1641. With a gentleman of the Rhyngraves, 
I went in a cart, or tumbrel (for it was no better; no 
other accommodation could be procured), of two wheels 
and one horse, to Bergen-op-Zoom, meeting by the way 
divers parties of his Highness's army now retiring toward 
their winter quarters; the convoy skiflfs riding by 
thousands along the harbor. The fort was heretofore 
built by the English. 

The next morning I embarked for Lillo, having refused 
a convoy of horse which was offered me. The tide being 
against us, we landed short of the fort on the beach, 
where we marched half leg deep in mud, ere we could 
gain the dyke, which, being five or six miles from Lillo, 
we were forced to walk on foot very wet and discomposed ; 
and then entering a boat we passed the ferry, and came 
to the castle. Being taken before the Governor, he de- 
manded my pass, to which he set his hand, and asked two 
rix-dollars for a fee, which methought appeared very ex- 
orbitant in a soldier of his quality. I told him that I had 

30 DIARY OF Antwerp 

already purchased my pass of the commissaries at Rotter- 
dam; at which, in a great fury, snatching the paper out 
of my hand, he flung it scornfully under the table, and 
bade me try whether I could get to Antwerp without his 
permission: but I had no sooner given him the dollars, 
then he returned the passport surlily enough, and made me 
pay fourteen Dutch shillings to the cantone, or searcher, 
for my contempt, which I was glad to do for fear of 
further trouble, should he have discovered my Spanish 
pass, in which the States were therein treated by the 
name of rebels. Besides all these exactions, I gave the 
commissary six shillings, to the soldiers something, and, 
ere perfectly clear of this frontier, thirty-one stivers to 
the man-of-war, who lay blocking up the river between 
Lillo and the opposite sconce called Lifkinshoeck. 

4th October, 1641, We sailed by several Spanish forts, 
out of one of which, St. Mary's port, came a Don on board 
us, to whom I showed my Spanish pass, which he signed, 
and civilly dismissed us. Hence, sailing by another man- 
of-war, to which we lowered our topsails, we at length 
arrived at Antwerp. 

The lodgings here are very handsome and convenient. 
I lost little time; but, with the aid of one Mr. Lewkner, 
our conductor, we visited divers churches, colleges, and 
monasteries. The Church of the Jesuits is most sumptu- 
ous and magnificent ; a glorious fabric without and within, 
wholly incrusted with marble, inlaid and polished into 
divers representations of histories, landscapes, and flowers. 
On the high altar is placed the statue of the Blessed 
Virgin and our Savior in white marble, with a boss in 
the girdle set with very fair and rich sapphires, and divers 
other stones of price. The choir is a glorious piece of 
architecture: the pulpit supported by four angels, and 
adorned with other carvings, and rare pictures by Rubens, 
now lately dead, and divers votive tables and relics. Hence, 
to the Vroii Kirk, or Notre Dame of Antwerp : it is a 
very venerable fabric, built after the Gothic manner, es- 
pecially the tower, which I ascended, the better to take a 
view of the country adjacent; which, happening on a day 
when the sun shone exceedingly bright, and darted his 
rays without any interruption, afforded so bright a reflec- 
tion to us who were above, and had a full prospect of 
both land and water about it, that I was much confirmed 

i64i JOHN EVELYN 31 

in my opinion of the moon's being of some such substance 
as this earthly globe : perceiving all the subjacent country, 
at so small an horizontal distance, to repercuss such a 
light as I could hardly look against, save where the river, 
and other large water within our view, appeared of a 
more dark and uniform color; resembling those spots in 
the moon supposed to be seas there, according to Hevelius, 
and as they appear in our late telescopes. I numbered 
in this church thirty privileged altars, that of St. Sebastian 
adorned with a painting of his martyrdom. 

We went to see the Jerusalem Church, affirmed to 
have been founded by one who, upon divers great wagers, 
passed to and fro between that city and Antwerp, on 
foot, by which he procured large sums of money, which 
he bestowed on this pious structure.* Hence, to St. 
Mary's Chapel, where I had some conference with two 
English Jesuits, confessors to Colonel Jaye's regiment. 
These fathers conducted us to the Cloister of Nuns, 
where we heard a Dutch sermon upon the exposure of 
the Host. The Senate-house of this city is a very spa- 
cious and magnificent building. 

5th October, 1641. I visited the Jesuits' School, which, 
for the fame of their method, I greatly desired to see. 
They were divided into four classes, with several inscrip- 
tions over each: as, first. Ad major em Dei gloriam; over 
the second, Princeps diligentice; the third, Imperator 
Byzantiorum; over the fourth and uppermost, Imperator 
Romanorum. Under these, the scholars and pupils and 
their places, or forms with titles and priority according 
to their proficiency. Their dormitory and lodgings above 
were exceedingly neat. They have a prison for the 
offenders and less diligent; and, in an ample court, to 
recreate themselves in, is an aviary, and a yard, where 
eagles, vultures, foxes, monkeys, and other animals are 
kept, to divert the boys withal at their hours of remis- 
sion. To this school join the music and mathematical 
schools, and lastly a pretty, neat chapel. The great 
street is built after the Italian mode, in the middle 
whereof is erected a glorious crucifix of white and black 
marble, greater than the life. This is a very fair and 
noble street, clean, well paved, and sweet to admiration. 

•This notice, slipped by accident into the entries which refer to 
Antwerp, belongs to those of Bruges. 


The Oesters house, belonging to the East India Com- 
pany, is a stately palace, adorned with more than 300 
windows. From hence, walking into the Gun-garden, I 
was allowed to see as much of the citadel as is per- 
mitted to strangers. It is a matchless piece of modern 
fortification, accommodated with lodgments for the sol- 
diers and magazines. The graffs, ramparts, and platforms 
are stupendous. Returning by the shop of Plantine, I 
bought some books, for the namesake only of that famous 

But there was nothing about this city which more rav- 
ished me than those delicious shades and walks of stately 
trees, which render the fortified works of the town one 
of the sweetest places in Europe ; nor did I ever observe 
a more quiet, clean, elegantly built and civil place, than 
this magnificent and famous city of Antwerp. In the 
evening, I was invited to Signor Duerte's, a Portuguese 
by nation, an exceeding rich merchant, whose palace I 
found to be furnished like a prince's. His three daugh- 
ters entertained us with rare music, vocal and instru- 
mental, which was finished with a handsome collation. 
I took leave of the ladies and of sweet Antwerp, as late 
as it was, embarking for Brussels on the Scheldt in a 
vessel, which delivered us to a second boat (in another 
river) drawn or towed by horses. In this passage, we 
frequently changed our barge, by reason of the bridges 
thwarting our course. Here I observed numerous families 
inhabiting their vessels and floating dwellings, so built 
and divided by cabins, as few houses on land enjoyed 
better accommodation; stored with all sorts of utensils, 
neat chambers, a pretty parlor, and kept so sweet, that 
nothing could be more refreshing. The rivers on which 
they are drawn are very clear and still waters, and pass 
through a most pleasant country on both the banks. We 
had in our boat a very good ordinary, and excellent com- 
pany. The cut is straight as a line for twenty English 
miles. What I much admired was, near the midway, 
another artificial river, which intersects this at right 
angles, but on an eminence of ground, and is carried in 
an aqueduct of stone so far above the other as that the 
waters neither mingle, nor hinder one another's passage. 

We came to a town called Villefrow, where all the 
passengers went on shore to wash at a fountain issuing 

id4i JOHN EVELYN 33 

out of a pillar, and then came aboard again. On the 
margin of this long tract are abundance of shrines and 
images, defended from the injuries of the weather by 
niches of stone wherein they are placed. 

7th October, 1641. We arrived at Brussels at nine in 
the morning. The Stadt-house, near the market place, 
is, for the can-ing in freestone, a most laborious and 
finished piece, well worthy observation. The flesh-sham- 
bles are also built of stone. I was pleased with certain 
small engines, by which a girl, or boy, was able to draw 
up, or let down, great bridges, which in divers parts of 
this city crossed the channel for the benefit of passen- 
gers. The walls of this town are very entire, and full of 
towers at competent distances. The cathedral is built 
upon a very high and exceeding steep ascent, to which 
we mounted by fair steps of stone. Hence I walked to 
a convent of English Nuns, with whom I sat discoursing 
most part of the afternoon. 

8th October, 1641. Being the morning I came away, 
I went to see the Prince's Court, an ancient, confused 
building, not much unlike the Hofft, at the Hagne : there 
is here likewise a very large hall, where they vend all 
sorts of wares. Through this we passed by the chapel, 
which is indeed rarely arched, and in the middle of it 
was the hearse, or catafalque, of the late Archduchess, the 
wise and pious Clara Eugenia. Out of this we were con- 
ducted to the lodgings, tapestried with incomparable 
arras, and adorned with many excellent pieces of Rubens, 
old and young Breugel, Titian, and Stenwick, with stories 
of most of the late actions in the Netherlands. 

By an accident we could not see the library. There 
is a fair terrace which looks to the vineyard, in which, 
on pedestals, are fixed the statues of all the Spanish 
kings of the house of Austria. The opposite walls are 
painted by Rubens, being an history of the late tumults 
in Belgia: in the last piece, the Archduchess shuts a 
great pair of gates upon Mars, who is coming out of 
hell, armed, and in a menacing posture; which, with 
that other of the Infanta taking leave of Don Philip IV. , 
is a most incomparable table. 

From hence, we walked into the park, which for being 
entirely within the walls of the city is particularly 
remarkable: nor is it less pleasant than if in the most 

34 DIARY OF Brussels 

solitary recesses; so naturally is it furnished with what- 
ever may render it agreeable, melancholy, and country- 
like. Here is a stately heronry, divers springs of water, 
artificial cascades, rocks, grots; one whereof is composed 
of the extravagant roots of trees, cunningly built and 
hung together with wires. In this park are both fallow 
and red deer. 

From hence, we were led into the Menage, and out of 
that into a most sweet and delicious garden, where was 
another grot of more neat and costly materials, full of 
noble statues, and entertaining us with artificial music; 
but the hedge of water, in form of lattice-work, which 
the fountaineer caused to ascend out of the earth by 
degrees, exceedingly pleased and surprised me; for thus, 
with a pervious wall, or rather a palisade hedge of water, 
was the whole parterre environed. 

There is likewise a fair aviary; and in the court next 
it are kept divers sorts of animals, rare and exotic fowl, 
as eagles, cranes, storks, bustards, pheasants of several 
kinds, and a duck having four wings. In another divis- 
ion of the same close are rabbits of an almost perfect 
yellow color. 

There was no Court now in the palace; the Infante 
Cardinal, who was the Governor of Flanders, being dead 
but newly, and every one in deep mourning. 

At near eleven o'clock, I repaired to his Majesty's 
agent, Sir Henry de Vic, who very courteously received 
me, and accommodated me with a coach and six horses, 
which carried me from Brussels to Ghent, where it was 
to meet my Lord of Arundel, Earl Marshal of England, 
who had requested me when I was at Antwerp to send 
it for him, if I went not thither myself. 

Thus taking leave of Brussels and a sad Court, yet full 
of gallant persons (for in this small city, the acquaintance 
being universal, ladies and gentlemen, I perceived had 
great diversions, and frequent meetings), I hastened 
toward Ghent. On the way, I met with divers little wagons, 
prettily contrived, and full of peddling merchandise, 
drawn by mastiff dogs, harnessed completely like so many 
coach horses; in some four, in others six, as in Brussels 
itself I had observed. In Antwerp I saw, as I remember, 
four dogs draw five lusty children in a chariot : the master 
commands them whither he pleases, crying his wares 

1641 JOHN EVELYN 35 

about the streets. After passing through Ouse, by six in 
the evening, I arrived at Ghent, This is a city of so great 
a circumference, that it is reported to be seven leagues 
round; but there is not half of it now built, much of it 
remaining in fields and desolate pastures even within the 
walls, which have strong gates toward the west, and two 
fair churches. 

Here I beheld the palace wherein John of Gaunt and 
Charles V. were born ; whose statue* stands in the market- 
place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which 
(as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to 
repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about 
their necks, in token of submission and penance for an old 
rebellion of theirs; but now the hemp is changed into a 
blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great gun, 
so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meeting in 
this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are 
united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. 
This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleas- 
ant and courteous priest. 

8th October, 1641. I passed by a boat to Bruges, taking 
in at a redoubt a convoy of fourteen musketeers, because 
the other side of the river, being Contribution-land, was 
subject to the inroads and depredations of the bordering 
States. This river was cut by the famous Marquis Spi- 
nola, and is in my judgment a wonderful piece of labor, 
and a worthy public work, being in some places forced 
through the main rock, to an incredible depth, for thirty 
miles. At the end of each mile is built a small redoubt, 
which communicates a line to the next, and so the whole 
way, from whence we received many volleys of shot, in 
compliment to my Lord Marshal, who was in our vessel, 
a passenger with us. At five that evening, we were met 
by the magistrates of Bruges, who came out to convey my 
Lord to his lodgings, at whose cost he was entertained 
that night. 

The morning after we went to see the Stadt-house and 
adjoining aqueduct, the church, and market-place, where 
we saw cheeses and butter piled up in heaps; also the 
fortifications and graffs, which are extremely large. 

The 9th, we arrived at Ostend by a straight and arti- 
ficial river. Here, with leave of the captain of the watch, 

* That of Charles V. 

36 DIARY OF cover 

I was carried to survey the river and harbor, with forti- 
fications on one side thereof: the east and south are mud 
and earth walls. It is a very strong place, and lately 
stood a memorable siege three years, three months, three 
weeks, and three days. I went to see the church of St. 
Peter, and the cloisters of the Franciscans. 

loth October, 1641. I went by wagon, accompanied with 
a jovial commissary, to Dunkirk, the journey being made 
all on the sea sands. On our arrival, we first viewed the 
court of guards, the works, the townhouse, and the new 
church; the latter is very beautiful within; and another, 
wherein they showed us an excellent piece of ** Our Sav- 
ior's Bearing the Cross.* The harbor, in two channels, 
coming up to the town, was choked with a multitude of 

From hence, the next day, I marched three English 
miles toward the packet boat, being a pretty frigate of 
six gTins, which embarked us for England about three in 
the afternoon. 

At our going off, the fort, against which our pinnace 
anchored saluted my Lord Marshal with twelve great 
guns, which we answered with three. Not having the 
wind favorable, we anchored that night before Calais. 
About midnight, we weighed; and, at four in the morn- 
ing, though not far from Dover, we could not make the 
pier till four that afternoon, the wind proving contrary 
and driving us westward: but at last we got on shore, 
October the 12th. 

From Dover, I that night rode post to Canterbury. 
Here I visited the cathedral, then in great splendor; those 
famous windows being entire, since demolished by the 
fanatics. The next morning by Sittingbourne, I came to 
Rochester, and thence to GraveSend, where a light-horse- 
man ( as they call it ) taking us in, we spent our tide as 
far as Greenwich. From hence, after we had a little re- 
freshed ourselves at the College ( for by reason of con- 
tagion then in London we balked the inns ), we came to 
London, landing at Arundel stairs. Here I took leave of 
his Lordship, and retired to my lodgings in the Middle 
Temple, being about two in the morning, the 14th of 

1 6th October, 1641. I went to see my brother at Wot- 
ton. On the 31st of that month (unfortunate for the 

1641-42 JOHN EVELYN 37 

Irish Rebellion, which broke out on the 23d), I was one 
and twenty years of age. 

7th November, 1641. After receiving the Sacrament at 
Wotton church, I visited my Lord Marshal at Albury. 

23d November, 1641. I returned to London; and, on 
the 25th, saw his Majesty ride through the City after 
his coming out of Scotland, and a Peace proclaimed, with 
great acclamations and joy of the giddy people. 

15th December, 1641. I was elected one of the Comp- 
trollers of the Middle Temple revellers, as the fashion of 
the young students and gentlemen was, the Christmas 
being kept this year w*ith great solemnity; but, being 
desirous to pass it in the country, I got leave to resign 
my stafif of office, and went with my brother Richard to 

loth January, 1642. I gave a visit to my cousin Hatton, 
of .Ditton. 

19th January, 1642. I went to London, where I stayed 
till 5th of March, studying a little, but dancing and fool- 
ing more. 

3d October, 1642. To Chichester, and hence the next 
day to see the siege of Portsmouth; for now was that 
bloody difference between the King and Parliament 
broken out, which ended in the fatal tragedy so many 
years after. It was on the day of its being rendered to 
Sir William Waller; which gave me an opportunity of 
taking my leave of Colonel Goring, the governor, now 
embarking for France. This day was fought that signal 
battle at Edgehill. Thence I went to Southampton and 
Winchester, where I visited the castle, school, church, 
and King Arthur's Round Table; but especially the 
church, and its Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed 
a worthy antiquity. 

The 12th of November was the battle of Brentford, sur- 
prisingly fought; and to the great consternation of the 
City, had his Majesty (as it was believed he would) 
pursued his advantage. I came in with my horse and 
arms just at the retreat; but was not permitted to stay 
longer than the 15th, by reason of the army marching 
to Gloucester; which would have left both me and my 
brothers exposed to ruin, without any advantage to his 

7th December, 1642. I went from Wotton to London, 

38 DIARY OF London 

to see the so much celebrated line of communication, 
and on the loth returned to Wotton, nobody knowing of 
my having been in his Majesty's army. 

loth March, 1643. I went to Hartingford-berry to visit 
my cousin, Keightly. 

nth March, 1643. I went to see my Lord of Salis- 
bury's Palace at Hatfield, where the most considerable 
rarity, besides the house (inferior to few then in England 
for its architecture), were the garden and vineyard, rarely 
well watered and planted. They also showed us the pic- 
ture of Secretary Cecil, in Mosaic work, very well done 
by some Italian hand. 

I must not forget what amazed us exceedingly in the 
night before, namely, a shining cloud in the air, in shape 
resembling a sword, the point reaching to the north; it 
was as bright as the moon, the rest of the sky being 
very serene. It began about eleven at night, and van- 
ished not till above one, being seen by all the south of 
England. I made many journeys to and from London. 

15th April, 1643. To Hatfield, and near the town of 
Hertford I went to see Sir J. Harrison's house new built. 
Returning to London, I called to see his Majesty's house 
and gardens at Theobald's, since demolished by the 

2d May, 1643. I went from Wotton to London, where 
I saw the furious and zealous people demolish that stately 
Cross in Cheapside. 

On the 4th I returned, with no little regret, for the 
confusion that threatened us. Resolving to possess my- 
self in some quiet, if it might be, in a time of so great 
jealousy, I built by my brother's permission, a study, 
made a fish-pond, an island, and some other solitudes 
and retirements at Wotton ; which gave the first occasion 
of improving them to those waterworks and gardens which 
afterward succeeded them, and became at that time the 
most famous of England. 

1 2th July, 1643. I sent my black menage horse and 
furniture with a friend to his Majesty, then at Oxford. 

23d July, 1643. The Covenant being pressed, I ab- 
sented myself; but, finding it impossible to evade the 
doing very unhandsome things, and which had been a 
great cause of my perpetual motions hitherto between 
Wotton and London, October the 2d, I obtained a 

i643 JOHN EVELYN 39 

license of his Majesty, dated at Oxford and signed by the 
King, to travel again. 

6th November, 1643. Lying by the way from Wotton 
at Sir Ralph Whitfield's, at Blechingley (whither both my 
brothers had conducted me), I arrived at London on the 
7th, and two days after took boat at the Tower-wharf, 
which carried me as far as Sittingboume, though not 
without danger, I being only in a pair of oars, exposed 
to a hideous storm: but it pleased God that we got in 
before the peril was considerable. From thence, I went 
by post to Dover, accompanied with one Mr. Thicknesse, 
a very dear friend of mine. 

nth November, 1643. Having a reasonable good 
passage, though the weather was snowy and untoward 
enough, we came before Calais, where, as we went on 
shore, mistaking the tide, our shallop struck on the sands, 
with no little danger; but at length we got off. 

Calais is considered an extraordinary well-fortified 
place, in the old castle and new citadel regarding the 
sea. The haven consists of a long bank of sand, lying 
opposite to it. The market place and the church are re- 
markable things, besides those relics of our former domin- 
ion there. I remember there were engraven in stone, 
upon the front of an ancient dwelling which was showed 
us, these words in English — " God save the King, * to- 
gether with the name of the architect and date. The 
walls of the town are substantial; but the situation to- 
ward the land is not pleasant, by reason of the marshes 
and low grounds about it. 

12th November, 1643. After dinner we took horse 
with the Messagere, hoping to have arrived at Boulogne 
that night; but there fell so great a snow, accompanied 
with hail, rain, and sudden darkness, that we had much 
ado to gain the next village; and in this passage, being 
to cross a valley by a causeway, and a bridge built over 
a small river, the rain that had fallen making it an im- 
petuous stream for near a quarter of a mile, my horse 
slipping had almost been the occasion of my perishing. 
"We none of us went to bed; for the soldiers in those 
parts leaving little in the villages, we had enough to do 
to get ourselves dry, by morning, between the fire and 
the fresh straw. The next day early, we arrived at Bou- 

40 DIARY OF ST. denis 

^his is a double town, one part of it situate on a high 
rock, or downs ; the other, called the lower town, is yet 
with a great declivity toward the sea; both of them de- 
fended by a strong castle, which stands on a notable 
eminence. Under the town runs the river, which is yet 
but an inconsiderable brook. Henry VIII., in the siege of 
this place is said to have used those great leathern guns 
which I have since beheld in the Tower of London, in- 
scribed, *-'• Non Marte opus est cui non deficit Mercurius^'* ; 
if at least the history be true, which my Lord Herbert 

The next morning, in some danger of parties [Spanish] 
surprising us, we came to Montreuil, built on the sum- 
mit of a most conspicuous hill, environed with fair and 
ample meadows ; but all the suburbs had been from time 
to time ruined, and were now lately burnt by the Span- 
ish inroads. This town is fortified with two very deep 
dry ditches; the walls about the bastions and citadel are 
a noble piece of masonry. The church is more glori- 
ous without than within ; the market place large ; but the 
inhabitants are miserably poor. The next day, we came 
to Abbeville, having passed all this way in continual ex- 
pectation of the volunteers, as they call them. This 
town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence 
we descended: nor does it deceive us; for it is hand- 
somely built, and has many pleasant and useful streams 
passing through it, the main river being the Somme, 
which discharges itself into the sea at St. Valery, al- 
most in view of the town. The principal church is a 
very handsome piece of Gothic architecture, and the 
ports and ramparts sweetly planted for defense and or- 
nament. In the morning, they brought us choice of 
guns and pistols to sell at reasonable rates, and 
neatly made, being here a merchandise of great account, 
the town abounding in gunsmiths. 

Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good 
note, and having the first vineyards we had seen. The 
next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to Paris, having 
taken our repast at St. Denis, two leagues from that great 
city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathe- 
dral, and the dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed 
as ours at Westminster Abbey. The treasury is esteemed 
one of the richest in Europe. The church was built by 

i643 JOHN EVELYN 41 

King Dagobert,* but since much enlarged, being now 390 
feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without com- 
prehending the cover: it has also a very high shaft of 
stone, and the gates are of brass. Here, while the monks 
conducted us, we were showed the ancient and modem 
sepulchers of their kings, beginning with the founder to 
Louis his son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and 
father of Charlemagne. These lie in the choir, and without 
it are many more: among the rest that of Bertrand du 
Guesclin, Constable of France ; in the chapel of Charles V. , 
all his posterity ; and near him the magnificent sepulcher 
of Francis I., with his children, wars, victories, and triumphs 
engraven in marble. In the nave of the church lies the 
catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIII., Henry II., a noble 
tomb of Francis II. , and Charles IX. Above are bodies of 
several Saints; below, under a state of black velvet, the 
late Louis XIII., father of this present monarch. Every 
one of the ten chapels, or oratories, had some Saints in 
them; among the rest, one of the Holy Innocents. The 
treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in which are crosses 
of massy gold and silver, studded with precious stones, one 
of gold three feet high, set with sapphires, rubies, and great 
oriental pearls. Another given by Charles the Great, 
having a noble amethyst in the middle of it, stones and 
pearls of inestimable value. Among the still more valu- 
able relics are, a nail from our Savior's Cross, in a box of 
gold full of precious stones; a crucifix of the true wood of 
the Cross, carved by Pope Clement III., enchased in a 
crystal covered with gold; a box in which is some of the 
Virgin's hair; some of the linen in which our blessed 
Savior was wrapped at his nativity; in a huge reliquary, 
modeled like a church, some of our Savior's blood, hair, 
clothes, linen with which he wiped the Apostles' feet ; with 
many other equally authentic toys, which the friar who 
conducted us would have us believe were authentic relics. 
Among the treasures is the crown of Charlemagne, his 
seven-foot high scepter and hand of justice, the agraflfe of 
his royal mantle, beset with diamonds and rubies, his 
sword, belt, and spurs of gold; the crown of St. Louis, 
covered with precious stones, among which is one vast ruby, 
uncut, of inestimable value, weighing 300 carats (under 
which is set one of the thorns of our blessed Savior's 
♦A. D. 630. 

42 DIARY OF ST. denis 

crown), his sword, seal, and hand of justice. The two 
crowns of Henry IV., his scepter, hand of justice, and 
spurs. The two crowns of his son Louis. In the cloak- 
royal of Anne of Bretagne is a very great and rare ruby. 
Divers books covered with solid plates of gold, and 
studded with precious stones. Two vases of beryl, two 
of agate, whereof one is esteemed for its bigness, color, 
and embossed carving, the best now to be seen: by a 
special favor I was permitted to take the measure and 
dimensions of it; the story is a Bacchanalia and sacrifice 
to Priapus ; a very holy thing truly, and fit for a cloister ! 
It is really antique, and the noblest jewel there. There 
is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge urn of por- 
phyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx, the largest I 
had ever seen of that stone; two of crystal; a morsel of 
one of the waterpots in which our Savior did his first 
miracle; the effigies of the Queen of Saba, of Julius, 
Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, upon 
sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians: that of the 
queen of Saba* has a Moorish face; those of Julius and 
Nero on agates are rarely colored and cut. A cup in 
which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a 
great amethyst. There lay in a window a mirror of a 
kind of stone said to have belonged to the poet Virgil. 
Charlemagne's chessmen, full of Arabic characters. In 
the press next the door, the brass lantern full of crystals, 
said to have conducted Judas and his company to appre- 
hend our blessed Savior. A fair unicorn's horn, sent by 
a king of Persia, about seven feet long. In another 
press (over which stands the picture in oil of their 
Orleans Amazon with her sword), the effigies of the late 
French kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered 
with their robes ; with a world of other rarities. Having 
rewarded our courteous friar, we took horse for Paris, 
where we arrived about five in the afternoon. In the 
way were fair crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at 
every furlong's end, where they affirm St. Denis rested 
and laid down his head after martyrdom, carrying it 
from the place where this monastery is builded. We lay 
at Paris at the Ville de Venice ; where, after I had some- 
thing refreshed, I went to visit Sir Richard Browne, his 
Majesty's Resident with the French king. 

1643 JOHN EVELYN 43 

5th December, 1643. The Earl of Norwich came as Am- 
bassador extraordinary : I went to meet him in a coach and 
six horses, at the palace of Monsieur de Bassompifere, 
where I saw that gallant person, his gardens, terraces, and 
rare prospects. My lord was waited on by the master of 
the ceremonies, and a very great cavalcade of men of 
quality, to the Palais Cardinal, where on the 23d he had 
audience of the French king, and the queen Regent his 
mother, in the golden chamber of presence. From thence, 
I conducted him to his lodgings in Rue St. Denis, and 
so took my leave. 

24th December, 1643. I went with some company to 
see some remarkable places without the city: as the Isle, 
and how it is encompassed by the Rivers Seine and the 
Ouse. The city is divided into three parts, whereof the 
town is greatest. The city lies between it and the Uni- 
versity in form of an island. Over the Seine is a stately 
bridge called Pont Neuf, begun by Henry III. in 1578, 
finished by Henry IV. his successor. It is all of hewn 
freestone found under the streets, but more plentifully at 
Montmartre, and consists of twelve arches, in the midst 
of which ends the point of an island, on which are built 
handsome artificers' houses. There is one large passage 
for coaches, and two for foot passengers three or four feet 
higher, and of convenient breadth for eight or ten to go 
abreast. On the middle of this stately bridge, on one 
side, stands the famous statue of Henry the Great on 
horseback, exceeding the natural proportion by much ; and, 
on the four faces of a stately pedestal (which is composed 
of various sorts of polished marbles and rich moldings), 
inscriptions of his victories and most signal actions are 
engraven in brass. The statue and horse are of copper, 
the work of the great John di Bologna, and sent from 
Florence by Ferdinand the First, and Cosmo the Second, 
imcle and cousin to Mary de Medicis, the wife of King 
Henry, whose statue it represents. The place where it is 
erected is inclosed with a strong and beautiful grate of 
iron, about which there are always mountebanks showing 
their feats to the idle passengers. From hence is a rare 
prospect toward the Louvre and suburbs of St. Germains, 
the Isle du Palais, and Notre Dame. At the foot of this 
bridge is a water-house, on the front whereof, at a great 
height, is the story of Our Savior and the woman of 

44 DIARY OF paris 

Samaria pouring water out of a bucket. Above, is a very- 
rare dial of several motions, with a chime, etc. The water 
is conveyed by huge wheels, pumps, and other engines, 
from the river beneath. The confluence of the people 
and multitude of coaches passing every moment over 
the bridge, to a new spectator is an agreeable diversion. 
Other bridges there are, as that of Notre Dame and the 
Pont-au-Change, etc., fairly built, with houses of stone, 
which are laid over this river; only the Pont St. Anne, 
landing the suburbs of St. Germains at the Tuileries, is 
built of wood, having likewise a water house in the midst 
of it, and a statue of Neptune casting water out of a 
whale's mouth, of lead, but much inferior to the Samaritan. 

The University lies southwest on higher ground, con- 
tiguous to, but the lesser part of, Paris. They reckon no 
less than sixty-five colleges ; but they in nothing approach 
ours at Oxford for state and order. The booksellers dwell 
within the University. The schools (of which more here- 
after) are very regular. 

The suburbs are those of St. Denis, Honor^, St. Marcel, 
St. Jaques, St. Michael, St. Victoire, and St. Germains, 
which last is the largest, and where the nobility and 
persons of best quality are seated: and truly Paris, com- 
prehending the suburbs, is, for the material the houses 
are built with, and many noble and magnificent piles, 
one of the most gallant cities in the world; large in 
circuit, of a round form, very populous, but situated in 
a bottom, environed with gentle declivities, rendering 
some places very dirty, and making it smell as if sulphur 
were mingled with the mud; yet it is paved with a kind 
of freestone, of near a foot square, which renders it 
more easy to walk on than our pebbles in London. 

On Christmas eve, I went to see the Cathedral at Notre 
Dame, erected by Philip Augustus, but begun by King 
Robert, son of Hugh Capet. It consists of a Gothic 
fabric, sustained with 120 pillars, which make two aisles 
in the church round about the choir, without comprehend- 
ing the chapels, being 174 paces long, 60 wide, and 100 
high. The choir is inclosed with stonework graven with 
the sacred history, and contains forty-five chapels chan- 
celled with iron. At the front of the chief entrance are 
statues in relievo of the kings, twenty-eight in number, 
from Childebert to the founder, Philip; and above them 

1643-44 JOHN EVELYN 45 

are two high square towers, and another of a smaller size, 
bearing a spire in the middle, where the body of the 
church forms a cross. The great tower is ascended by 
389 steps, having twelve galleries from one to the other. 
They greatly reverence the crucifix over the screen of 
the choir, with an image of the Blessed Virgin. There 
are some good modern paintings hanging on the pillars. 
The most conspicuous statute is the huge colossal one of 
St. Christopher ; with divers other figures of men, houses, 
prospects and rocks, about this gigantic piece; being of 
one stone, and more remarkable for its bulk than any 
other perfection. This is the prime church of France for 
dignity, having archdeacons, vicars, canons, priests, and 
chaplains in good store, to the number of 127. It is also 
the palace of the archbishop. The young king was there 
with a great and martial gfuard, who entered the nave 
of the church with drums and fifes, at the ceasing of 
which I was entertained with the church music; and so 
I left him. 

4th January, 1644. I passed this day with one Mr. J. 
Wall, an Irish gentleman, who had been a friar in Spain, 
and afterward a reader in St. Isodore's chair, at Rome; 
but was, I know not how, getting away, and pretending 
to be a soldier of fortune, an absolute cavalier, having, 
as he told us, been a captain of horse in Germany. It 
is certain he was an excellent disputant, and so 
strangely given to it that nothing could pass him. He 
would needs persuade me to go with him this morning 
to the Jesuits' College, to witness his polemical talent. 
We found the Fathers in their Church at the Rue St. 
Antoine, where one of them showed us that noble fab- 
ric, which for its cupola, pavings, incrustations of mar- 
ble, the pulpit, altars (especially the high altar), organ, 
lavatorimn, etc., but above all, for the richly carved and 
incomparable front I esteem to be one of the most per- 
fect pieces of architecture in Europe, emulating even 
some of the greatest now at Rome itself. But this not 
being what our friar sought, he led us into the adjoin- 
ing convent, where, having shown us the library, they 
began a very hot dispute on some points of divinity, 
which our cavalier contested only to show his pride, and 
to that indiscreet height, that the Jesuits would hardly 
bring us to our coach, they being put beside all patience. 


The next day, we went into the University, and into the 
College of Navarre, which is a spacious, well-built quad- 
rangle, having a very noble library. 

Thence to the Sorbonne, an ancient fabric built by one 
Robert de Sorbonne, whose name it retains, but the res- 
toration which the late Cardinal de Richelieu has made 
to it renders it one of the most excellent modem build- 
ings; the sumptuous church, of admirable architecture, is 
far superior to the rest. The cupola, portico, and whole 
design of the church, are very magnificent. 

We entered into some of the schools, and in that of 
divinity we found a grave Doctor in his chair, with a 
multitude of auditors, who all write as he dictates; and 
this they call a Course. After we had sat a little, our 
cavalier started up, and rudely enough began to dispute 
with the doctor; at which, and especially as he was clad 
in the Spanish habit, which in Paris is the greatest bug- 
bear imaginable, the scholars and doctor fell into such a 
fit of laughter, that nobody could be heard speak for a 
while: but silence being obtained, he began to speak 
Latin, and made his apology in so good a style, that 
their derision was turned to admiration; and beginning 
to argue, he so baffled the Professor, that with universal 
applause they all rose up, and did him great honors, 
waiting on us to the very street and our coach, and tes- 
tifying great satisfaction. 

2d February, 1644. I heard the news of my nephew 
George's birth, which was on January 15th, English style, 

3d February, 1644. I went to the Exchange. The 
late addition to the buildings is very noble ; but the gal- 
leries where they sell their petty merchandise nothing so 
stately as ours at London, no more than the place where 
they walk below, being only a low vault. 

The Palaise, as they call the upper part, was built in 
the time of Philip the Fair, noble and spacious. The 
great Hall annexed to it, is arched with stone, having a 
range of pillars in the middle, round which, and at the 
sides, are shops of all kinds, especially booksellers*. One 
side is full of pews for the clerks of the advocates, who 
swarm here (as ours at Westminster). At one of the ends 
stands an altar, at which mass is said daily. Within are 
several chambers, courts, treasuries, etc. Above that is 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 47 

the most rich and glorious Salle d 'Audience, the chamber 
of St. Louis, and other superior Courts where the Par- 
liament sits, richly gilt on embossed carvings and frets, 
and exceedingly beautified. 

Within the place where they sell their wares, is another 
narrower gallery, full of shops and toys, etc., which looks 
down into the prison-yard. Descending by a large pair 
of stairs, we passed by Sainte Chapelle, which is a church 
built by St. Louis, 1242, after the Gothic manner: it 
stands on another church, which is under it, sustained 
by pillars at the sides, which seem so weak as to appear 
extraordinary in the artist. This chapel is most famous 
for its relics, having as they pretend, almost the entire 
crown of thorns: the agate patine, rarely sculptured, 
judged one of the largest and best in Europe. There 
was now a very beautiful spire erecting. The court be- 
low is very spacious, capable of holding many coaches, 
and surrounded with shops, especially engravers', gold- 
smiths', and watchmakers'. In it are a fair fountain and 
portico. The Isle du Palais consists of a triangular brick 
building, whereof one side, looking to the river, is inhab- 
ited by goldsmiths. Within the court are private dwell- 
ings. The front, looking on the great bridge, is possessed 
by mountebanks, operators, and puppet-players. On the 
other part, is the every day's market for all sorts of pro- 
visions, especially bread, herbs, flowers, orange trees, 
choice shrubs. Here is a shop called Noah's Ark, where 
are sold all curiosities, natural or artificial, Indian or 
European, for luxury or use, as cabinets, shells, ivory, 
porcelain, dried fishes, insects, birds, pictures, and a 
thousand exotic extravagances. Passing hence, we viewed 
the port Dauphine, an arch of excellent workmanship; 
the street bearing the same name, is ample and straight. 

4th February, 1644. I went to see the Marais de 
Temple, where are a noble church and palace, heretofore 
dedicated to the Knights Templar, now converted to a 
piazza, not much unlike ours at Covent Garden ; but large 
and not so pleasant, though built all about with divers 
considerable palaces. 

The Church of St. Genevieve is a place of great devo- 
tion, dedicated to another of their Amazons, said to have 
delivered the city from the English; for which she is 
esteemed the tutelary saint of Paris. It stands on a 

48 DIARY OF Paris 

steep eminence, having a very high spire, and is governed 
by canons regular. At the Palais Royal Henry IV. built 
a fair quadrangle of stately palaces, arched underneath. 
In the middle of a spacious area, stands on a noble 
pedestal a brazen statue of Louis XIII., which, though 
made in imitation of that in the Roman capitol, is 
nothing so much esteemed as that on the Pont Neuf. 

The hospital of the Quinze-Vingts, in the Rue St. 
Honor6, is an excellent foundation; but above all is the 
Hotel Dieu for men and women, near Notre Dame, a 
princely, pious, and expensive structure. That of the 
Charity gave me great satisfaction, in seeing how decently 
and christianly the sick people are attended, even to deli- 
cacy. I have seen them served by noble persons, men and 
women. They have also gardens, walks, and fountains. 
Divers persons are here cut for the stone, with great 
success, yearly in May. The two Chatelets (supposed to 
have been built by Julius Caesar) are places of judicature 
in criminal causes; to which is a strong prison. The 
courts are spacious and magnificent. 

8th February, 1644. I took coach and went to see the 
famous Jardine Royale, which is an inclosure walled in, 
consisting of all varieties of ground for planting and cul- 
ture of medical simples. It is well chosen, having in it 
hills, meadows, wood and upland, natural and artificial, 
and is richly stored with exotic plants. In the middle of 
the parterre is a fair fountain. There is a very fine 
house, chapel, laboratory, orangery, and other accom- 
modations for the President, who is always one of the 
king's chief physicians. 

From hence, we went to the other side of the town, 
and to some distance from it, to the Bois de Vincennes, 
going by the Bastille, which is the fortress, tower, and 
magazine of this great city. It is very spacious within, 
and there the Grand Master of the artillery has his 
house, with fair gardens and walks. 

The Bois de Vincennes has in it a square and noble 
castle, with magnificent apartments, fit for a royal court, 
not forgetting the chapel. It is the chief prison for per- 
sons of quality. About it there is a park walled in, full 
of deer ; and in one part there is a grove of goodly pine trees. 

The next day, I went to see the Louvre with more 
attention, its several courts and pavilions. One of 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 49 

the quadrangles, begun by Henry IV., and finished 
by his son and grandson, is a superb, but mixed struc- 
ture. The cornices, moldings, and compartments, with 
the insertion of several colored marbles, have been of 
great expense. 

We went through the long gallery, paved with white 
and black marble, richly fretted and painted ^ fresco. 
The front looking to the river, though of rare work for 
the carving, yet wants of that magnificence which a 
plainer and truer design would have contributed to it. 

In the Cour aux Tuileries is a princely fabric; the 
winding geometrical stone stairs, with the cupola, I take 
to be as bold and noble a piece of architecture as an)'- 
in Europe of the kind. To this is a corps de logis, worthy 
of so great a prince. Under these buildings, through a 
garden in which is an ample fountain, was the king's 
printing house, and that famous letter so much esteemed. 
Here I bought divers of the classic authors, poets, and 

We returned through another gallery, larger, but not 
so long, where hung the pictures of all the kings and 
queens and prime nobility of France. 

Descending hence, we were let into a lower very large 
room, called the Salle des Afitiques, which is a vaulted 
Cimelia, destined for statues only, among which stands 
that so celebrated Diana of the Ephesians, said to be the 
same which uttered oracles in that renowned Temple. 
Besides these colossean figures of marble, I must not 
forget the huge globe suspended by chains. The pav- 
ings, inlayings, and incrustations of this Hall, are very 

In another more private garden toward the Queen's 
apartment is a walk, or cloister, under arches, whose ter- 
race is paved with stones of a great breadth; it looks 
toward the river, and has a pleasant aviary, fountain, 
stately cypresses, etc. On the river are seen a prodigious 
number of barges and boats of g^eat length, full of hay, 
com, wood, wine, and other commodities, which this vast 
city daily consumes. Under the long gallery we have 
described, dwell goldsmiths, painters, statuaries, and 
architects, who being the most famous for their art in 
Christendom have stipends allowed them by the King. 
Into that of Monsieur Saracin we entered, who was then 

50 DIARY OF st. cloud 

molding for an image of a Madonna to be cast in gold 
of a great size to be sent by the Queen Regent to 
Loretto, as an offering for the birth of the Dauphin, now 
the young King. 

I finished this day with a walk in the great garden of 
the Tuileries, rarely contrived for privacy, shade, or 
company, by groves, plantations of tall trees, especially 
that in the middle, being of elms, the other of mulberries ; 
and that labyrinth of cypresses; not omitting the noble 
hedges of pomegranates, fountains, fish-ponds, and an 
aviary; but, above all, the artificial echo, redoubling the 
words so distinctly; and, as it is never without some fair 
nymph singing to its gfrateful returns ; standing at one of 
the focuses, which is under a tree or little cabinet of 
hedges, the voice seems to descend from the clouds; at 
another, as if it was underground. This being at the 
bottom of the garden, we were let into another, which 
being kept with all imaginary accurateness as to the 
orangery, precious shrubs, and rare fruits, seemed a Par- 
adise. From a terrace in this place we saw so many 
coaches, as one would hardly think could be maintained 
in the whole city, going, late as it was in the year, 
toward the course, which is a place adjoining, of near an 
English mile long, planted with four rows of trees, mak- 
ing a large circle in the middle. This course is walled 
about, near breast high, with squared freestone, and has a 
stately arch at the entrance, with sculpture and statues 
about it, built by Mary di Medicis. Here it is that the 
gallants and ladies of the Court take the air and divert 
themselves, as with us in Hyde Park, the circle being 
capable of containing a hundred coaches to turn commo- 
diously, and the larger of the plantations for five or six 
coaches abreast. 

Returning through the Tuileries, we saw a building in 
which are kept wild beasts for the King's pleasure, a 
bear, a wolf, a wild boar, a leopard, etc. 

27th February, 1644. Accompanied with some English 
gentlemen, we took horse to see St. Germains-en-Laye, 
a stately country house of the King, some five leagues 
from Paris. By the way, we alighted at St. Cloud, 
where, on an eminence near the river, the Archbishop of 
Paris has a garden, for the house is not very consider- 
able, rarely watered and furnished with fountains, statues, 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 51 

and groves; the walks are very fair; the fountain of 
Laocoon is in a large square pool, throwing the water 
near forty feet high, and having about it a multitude of 
statues and basins, and is a surprising object. But noth- 
ing is more esteemed than the cascade falling from the 
great steps into the lowest and longest walk from the 
Mount Parnassus, which consists of a grotto, or shell- 
house, on the summit of the hill, wherein are divers 
waterworks and contrivances to wet the spectators; this 
is covered with a fair cupola, the walls painted with the 
Muses, and statues placed thick about it, whereof some 
are antique and good. In the upper walks are two per- 
spectives, seeming to enlarge the alleys, and in this 
garden are many other ingenious contrivances. The 
palace, as I said, is not extraordinary. The outer walls 
only painted h fresco. In the court is a Volary, and the 
statues of Charles IX., Henry III., IV., and Louis XIII., 
on horseback, mezzo-relievo'd in plaster. In the garden 
is a small chapel; and under shelter is the figure of 
Cleopatra, taken from the Belvidere original, with others. 
From the terrace above is a tempest well painted; and 
thence an excellent prospect toward Paris, the meadows, 
and river. 

At an inn in this village is a host who treats all the 
great persons in princely lodgings for furniture and 
plate, but they pay well for it, as I have done. Indeed, 
the entertainment is very splendid, and not unreason- 
able, considering the excellent manner of dressing their 
meat, and of the service. Here are many debauches 
and excessive revelings, as being out of all noise and 

From hence, about a league further, we went to see 
Cardinal Richelieu's villa, at Ruell. The house is small, 
but fairly built, in form of a castle, moated round. The 
offices are toward the road, and over against it are large 
vineyards, walled in. But, though the house is not of 
the greatest, the gardens about it are so magnificent, 
that I doubt whether Italy has any exceeding it for all 
rarities of pleasure. The garden nearest the pavilion 
is a parterre, having in the midst divers noble brass 
statues, perpetually spouting water into an ample basin, 
with other figures of the same metal; but what is most 
admirable is the vast inclosure, and variety of ground, 

52 DIARY OF ST. germains 

in the large garden, containing vineyards, cornfields, 
meadows, groves (whereof one is of perennial greens), 
and walks of vast length, so accurately kept and culti- 
vated, that nothing can be more ageeable. On one of 
these walks, within a square of tall trees, is a basilisk 
of copper, which, managed by the fountaineer, casts water 
near sixty feet high, and will of itself move round so 
swiftly, that one can hardly escape wetting. This leads 
to the Citronifere, which is a noble conserve of all those 
rarities ; and at the end of it is the Arch of Constantine, 
painted on a wall in oil, as large as the real one at 
Rome, so well done, that even a man skilled in paint- 
ing, may mistake it for stone and sculpture. The sky 
and hills, which seem to be between the arches, are so 
natural, that swallows and other birds, thinking to fly 
through, have dashed themselves against the wall. I 
was infinitely taken with this agreeable cheat. At the 
further part of this walk is that plentiful, though arti- 
ficial cascade, which rolls down a very steep declivity, 
and over the marble steps and basins, with an astonish- 
ing noise and fury; each basin hath a jetto in it, flowing 
like sheets of transparent glass, especially that which 
rises over the great shell of lead, from whence it glides 
silently down a channel through the middle of a spacious 
gravel walk, terminating in a grotto. Here are also 
fountains that cast water to a great height, and large 
ponds, two of which have islands for harbor of fowls, of 
which there is store. One of these islands has a recep- 
tacle for them built of vast pieces of rock, near fifty 
feet high, grown over with moss, ivy, etc., shaded 
at a competent distance with tall trees: in this rupellary 
nidary do the fowl lay eggs, and breed. We then saw 
a large and very rare grotto of shell-work, in the shape 
of Satyrs, and other wild fancies: in the middle stands 
a marble table, on which a fountain plays in divers 
forms of glasses, cups, crosses, fans, crowns, etc. Then 
the fountaineer represented a shower of rain from the 
top, met by small jets from below. At going out, two 
extravagant musketeers shot us with a stream of water 
from their musket barrels. Before this grotto is a long 
pool into which ran divers spouts of water from leaden 
escalop basins. The viewing this paradise made us late 
at St. Germains. 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 53 

The first building of this palace is of Charles V., called 
the Sage ; but Francis I. (that true virtuoso) made it com- 
plete; speaking as to the style of magnificence then in 
fashion, which was with too great a mixture of the Gothic, 
as may be seen in what there is remaining of his in the 
old Castle, an irregular piece as built on the old founda- 
tion, and having a moat about it. It has yet some spacious 
and handsome rooms of state, and a chapel neatly painted. 
The new Castle is at some distance, divided from this by 
a court, of a lower, but more modern design, built by 
Henry IV. To this belong six terraces, built of brick and 
stone, descending in cascades toward the river, cut out of 
the natural hill, having under them goodly vaulted gal- 
leries; of these, four have subterranean grots and rocks, 
where are represented several objects in the manner of 
scenes and other motions, by force of water, shown by the 
light of torches only; among these, is Orpheus with his 
music ; and the animals, which dance after his harp ; in the 
second, is the King and Dolphin;* in the third, is Nep- 
tune sounding his trumpet, his chariot drawn by sea 
horses ; in the fourth, the story of Perseus and Andromeda ; 
mills ; hermitages ; men fishing ; birds chirping ; and many 
other devices. There is also a dry grot to refresh in ; all 
having a fine prospect toward the river, and the goodly 
country about it, especially the forest. At the bottom, is 
a parterre ; the upper terrace nearly half a mile in length, 
with double declivities, arched and balustered with stone, 
of vast and royal cost. 

In the pavilion of the new Castle are many fair rooms, 
well painted, and leading into a very noble garden and 
park, where is a pall-mall, in the midst of which, on one 
of the sides, is a chapel, with stone cupola, though small, 
yet of a handsome order of architecture. Out of the park 
you go into the forest, which being very large, is stored 
with deer, wild boars, wolves, and other wild game. The 
Tennis Court, and Cavallerizzo, for the managed horses, 
are also observable. 

We returned to Paris by Madrid, another villa of the 
King's, built by Francis I., and called by that name to 
absolve him of his oath that he would not go from Madrid 
(in which he was prisoner), in Spain, but from whence 
he made his escape. This house is also built in a park, 
* Dauphin. 

54 DIARY OF Paris 

and walled in. We next called in at the Bonnes-hommes, 
well situated, with a fair chapel and library. 

ist March, 1644. I went to see the Count de Liancourt's 
Palace in the Rue de Seine, which is well built. Toward 
his study and bedchamber joins a little garden, which, 
though very narrow, by the addition of a well-painted 
perspective, is to appearance greatly enlarged; to this 
there is another part, supported by arches in which runs 
a stream of water, rising in the aviary, out of a statue, 
and seeming to flow for some miles, by being artificially 
continued in the painting, when it sinks down at the wall. 
It is a very agreeable deceit. At the end of this garden 
is a little theater, made to change with divers pretty 
scenes, and the stage so ordered, with figfures of men and 
women painted on light boards, and cut out, and, by a 
person who stands underneath, made to act as if they 
were speaking, by guiding them, and reciting words in 
different tones, as the parts require. We were led into a 
round cabinet, where was a neat invention for reflecting 
lights, by lining divers sconces with thin shining plates 
of gilded copper. 

In one of the rooms of state was an excellent painting 
of Poussin, being a Satyr kneeling; over the chimney, 
the Coronation of the Virgin, by Paulo Veronese ; another 
Madonna over the door, and that of Joseph, by Cigali; 
in the Hall, a Cavaliero di Malta, attended by his page, 
said to be of Michael Angelo; the Rape of Proserpine, 
with a very large landscape of Correggio. In the next 
room are some paintings of Primaticcio, especially the 
Helena, the naked Lady brought before Alexander, 
well painted, and a Ceres. In the bedchamber a picture 
of the Cardinal de Liancourt, of Raphael, rarely colored. 
In the cabinet are divers pieces of Bassano, two of 
Polemburg, four of Paulo Brill, the skies a little too 
blue. A Madonna of Nicholao, excellently painted on a 
stone; a Judith of Mantegna; three women of Jeronimo; 
one of Stenwick ; a Madonna after Titian, and a Magdalen 
of the same hand, as the Count esteems it: two small 
pieces of Paulo Veronese, being the Martyrdoms of St. Jus- 
tina and St. Catherine ; a Madonna of Lucas Van Leyden, 
sent him from our King ; six more of old Bassano ; two ex- 
cellent drawings of Albert ; a Magdalen of Leonardo da 
Vinci ; four of Paulo ; a very rare Madonna of Titian, given 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 55 

him also by our King; the Ecce Hotno^ shut up in a 
frame of velvet, for the life and accurate finishing exceed- 
ing all description. Some curious agates, and a chaplet 
of admirable invention, the intaglios being all on fruit 
stones. The Count was so exceeding civil, that he would 
needs make his lady go out of her dressing room, that he 
might show us the curiosities and pictures in it. 

We went thence to visit one Monsieur Perishot, one of 
the greatest viri;uosos in France, for his collection of 
pictures, agates, medals, and flowers, especially tulips 
and anemonies. The chiefest of his paintings was a 
Sebastian, of Titian. 

From him we went to Monsieur Frene's, who showed 
us many rare drawings, a Rape of Helen in black chalk; 
many excellent things of Sneiders, all naked; some of 
Julio and Michael Angelo; a Madonna of Passignano; 
some things of Parmensis, and other masters. 

The next morning, being recommended to one Monsieur 
de Hausse, President of the Parliament, and once Ambas- 
sador at Venice for the French King, we were very civilly 
received, and showed his library. Among his paintings 
were a rare Venus and Adonis of Veronese, a St. An- 
thony, after the first manner of Corregg^o, and a rare 
Madonna of Palma. 

Sunday, the 6th of March, I went to Charenton, two 
leagues from Paris, to hear and see the manner of the 
French Protestant Church service. The place of meet- 
ing they call the Temple, a very fair and spacious room, 
built of freestone, very decently adorned with paintings 
of the Tables of the Law, the Lord's Prayer, and Creed. 
The pulpit stands at the upper end in the middle, hav- 
ing an inclosure of seats about it, where the Elders and 
persons of greatest quality and strangers, sit; the rest of 
the congregation on forms and low stools, but none in 
pews, as in our churches, to their great disgrace, as 
nothing so orderly, as here the stools and other cumber 
are removed when the assembly rises. I was greatly 
pleased with their harmonious singing the Psalms, which 
they all learn perfectly well, their children being as duly 
taught these, as their catechism. 

In our passage, we went by that famous bridge over the 
Mame, where that renowned echo returns the voice of a 
good singer nine or ten times. 

56 DIARY OF paris 

7th March, 1644. I set forward with some company 
toward Fontainebleau, a sumptuous Palace of the King's, 
like ours at Hampton Court, about fourteen leagues from 
the city. By the way, we pass through a forest so pro- 
digiously encompassed with hideous rocks of whitish hard 
stone, heaped one on another in mountainous heights, 
that I think the like is nowhere to be found more hor- 
rid and solitary. It abounds with stags, wolves, boars, 
and not long after a lynx, or ounce, was killed among 
them, which had devoured some passengers. On the 
summit of one of these gloomy precipices, intermingled 
with trees and shrubs, the stones hanging over, and men- 
acing ruin, is built an hermitage. In these solitudes, 
rogues frequently lurk and do mischief (and for whom 
we were all well appointed with our carabines) ; but we 
arrived safe in the evening at the village, where we lay 
at the Home, going early next morning to the Palace. 

This House is nothing so stately and uniform as Hamp- 
ton Court, but Francis I. began much to beautify it ; most 
of all Henry IV. (and not a little) the late King. It 
abounds with fair halls, chambers, and galleries; in the 
longest, which is 360 feet long, and 18 broad, are painted 
the Victories of that great Prince, Henry IV. That of 
Francis I., called the grand Gallery, has all the King's 
palaces painted in it; above these, in sixty pieces of ex- 
cellent work in fresco, is the History of Ulysses, from 
Homer, by Primaticcio, in the time of Henry III., es- 
teemed the most renowned in Europe for the design. 
The Cabinet is full of excellent pictures, especially a 
Woman, of Raphael. In the Hall of the Guards is a 
piece of tapestry painted on the wall, very naturally, 
representing the victories of Charles VII. over our country- 
men. In the Salle des Festins is a rare Chimney-piece, 
and Henry IV, on horseback, of white marble, esteemed 
worth 18,000 crowns; Clementia and Pax, nobly done. 
On columns of jasper, two lions of brass. The new stairs, 
and a half circular court, are of modem and good archi- 
tecture, as is a chapel built by Louis XIII., all of jasper, 
with several incrustations of marble through the inside. 

Having seen the rooms, we went to the volary, which 
has a cupola in the middle of it, great trees and bushes, 
it being full of birds who drank at two fountains. There 
is also a fair tennis court, and noble stables; but the 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 57 

beauty of all are the gardens. In the Court of the Foun- 
tains stand divers antiquities and statues, especially a 
Mercury. In the Queen's Garden is a Diana ejecting a 
fountain, with numerous other brass statues. 

The great Garden, 180 toises long and 154 wide, has 
in the center a fountain of Tyber of a Colossean figure 
of brass, with the Wolf over Romulus and Remus. At 
each comer of the garden rises a fountain. In the gar- 
den of the piscina, is a Hercules of white marble; next, 
is that of the pines, and without that a canal of an 
English mile in length, at the end of which rise three 
jettos in the form of a fleur-de-lis, of a great height ; on 
the margin are excellent walks planted with trees. The 
carps come familiarly to hand (to be fed). Hence they 
brought us to a spring, which they say being first dis- 
covered by a dog, gave occasion of beautifying this 
place, both with the palace and gardens. The white 
and terrific rocks at some distance in the forest, yield 
one of the most august and stupendous prospects imag- 
inable. The park about this place is very large, and the 
town full of noblemen's houses. 

Next morning, we were invited by a painter, who was 
keeper of the pictures and rarities, to see his own col- 
lection. We were led through a gallery of old Rosso's 
work, at the end of which, in another cabinet, were three 
Madonnas of Raphael, and two of Andrea del Sarto. In 
the Academy where the painter himself wrought, was a 
St. Michael of Raphael, very rare; St. John Baptist of 
Leonardo, and a Woman's head; a Queen of Sicily, and 
St. Margaret of Raphael; two more Madonnas, whereof 
one very large, by the same hand; some more of del 
Sarto; a St. Jerome, of Perino del Vaga; the Rape of 
Proserpine, very good : and a great number of drawings. 

Returning part of our way to Paris, that day, we 
visited a house called Maison Rouge, having an excellent 
prospect, grot, and fountains, one whereof rises fifty feet, 
and resembles the noise of a tempest, battle of guns, etc., 
at its issue. 

Thence to Essone, a house of Monsieur Essling, who 
is a great virtuoso ; there are many good paintings in it ; 
but nothing so observable as his gardens, fountains, fish- 
pools, especially that in a triangular form, the water cast 
out by a multitude of heads about it; there is a noble 

58 DIARY OF rouen 

cascade and pretty baths, with all accommodations. Under 
a marble table is a fountain of serpents twisting about a 

We alighted next at Corbeil, a town famous for the 
siege by Henry IV. Here we slept, and returned next 
morning to Paris. 

1 8th March, 1644. I went with Sir J. Cotton, a Cam- 
bridgeshire Knight, a journey into Normandy. The first 
day, we passed by Gaillon, the Archbishop of Rouen's 
Palace. The gardens are highly commended, but we did 
not go in, intending to reach Pontoise by dinner. This 
town is built in a very gallant place, has a noble bridge 
over the Oise, and is well refreshed with fountains. 

This is the first town in Normandy, and the furthest 
that the vineyards extend to on this side of the country, 
which is fuller of plains, wood, and inclosures, with some 
towns toward the sea, very like England. 

We lay this night at a village, called Magny. The next 
day, descending a very steep hill, we dined at Fleury, 
after riding five leagues down St. Catherine, to Rouen, 
which affords a goodly prospect, to the ruins of that 
chapel and mountain. This country so abounds with 
wolves that a shepherd whom we met, told us one of his 
companions was strangled by one of them the day before, 
and that in the midst of his flock. The fields are mostly 
planted with pears and apples, and other cider fruits. It 
is plentifully furnished with quarries of stone and slate, 
and hath iron in abundance. 

I lay at the White Cross, in Rouen, which is a very 
large city, on the Seine, having two smaller rivers be- 
sides, called the Aubette and Robec. There stand yet 
the ruins of a magnificent bridge of stone, now supplied 
by one of boats only, to which come up vessels of con- 
siderable burden. The other side of the water consists 
of meadows, and there have the Reformed a church. 

The Cathedral Notre Dame was built, as they acknowl- 
edge, by the English; some English words graven in 
Gothic characters upon the front seem to confirm it. The 
towers and whole church are full of carving. It has three 
steeples, with a pyramid; in one of these, I saw the 
famous bell so much talked of, thirteen feet in height, 
thirty-two round, the diameter eleven, weighing 40,000 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 59 

In the Chapel d'Amboise, built by a Cardinal of that 
name, lies his body, with several fair monuments. The 
choir has behind it a great dragon painted on the wall, 
which they say had done much harm to the inhabitants, 
till vanquished by St. Romain, their Archbishop ; for which 
there is an annual procession. It was now near Easter, 
and many images were exposed with scenes and stories 
representing the Passion; made up of little puppets, to 
which there was great resort and devotion, with offerings. 
Before the church is a fair palace. St. Ouen is another 
goodly church and an abbey with fine gardens. Here the 
King hath lodgings, when he makes his progress through 
these parts. The structure, where the Court of Parlia- 
ment is kept, is very magnificent, containing very fair 
halls and chambers, especially La Chambre Dor^e. The 
town-house is also well built, and so are some gentle- 
men's houses; but most part of the rest are of timber, 
like our merchants' in London, in the wooden part of the 

2 1 St March, 1644. On Easter Monday, we dined at 
Totes, a solitary inn between Rouen and Dieppe, at which 
latter place we arrived. This town is situated between 
two mountains, not unpleasantly, and is washed on the 
north by our English seas. 

The port is commodious; but the entrance difficult. It 
has one very ample and fair street, in which is a pretty 
church. The Fort Pollet consists of a strong earth-work, 
and commands the haven, as on the other side does the 
castle, which is also well fortified, with the citadel be- 
fore it ; nor is the town itself a little strong. It abounds 
with workmen, who make and sell curiosities of ivory 
and tortoise-shells; and indeed whatever the East Indies 
afford of cabinets, porcelain, natural and exotic rarities, 
are here to be had, with abundant choice. 

23d March, 1644. We passed along the coast by a very 
rocky and rugged way, which forced us to alight many 
times before we came to Havre de Grace, where we lay 
that night. 

The next morning, we saw the citadel, strong and reg- 
ular, well stored with artillery and ammunition of all 
sorts : the works furnished with fair brass cannon, having 
a motto, Ratio ultima Regum. The allogements of the 
garrison are uniform; a spacious place for drawing up 

6o DIARY OF caen 

the soldiers, a pretty chapel, and a fair house for the 
Governor. The Duke of Richelieu being now in the fort, 
we went to salute him ; who received us very civilly, and 
commanded that we should be showed whatever we de- 
sired to see. The citadel was built by the late Cardinal 
de Richelieu, uncle of the present Duke, and may be 
esteemed one of the strongest in France. The haven is 
very capacious. 

When we had done here, we embarked ourselves and 
horses to pass to Honfleur, about four or five leagues 
distant, where the Seine falls into the sea. It is a poor 
fisher- town, remarkable for nothing so much as the odd, 
yet useful habits which the good women wear, of bears' 
and^ other skins, as of rugs at Dieppe, and all along these 
maritime coasts. 

25th March, 1644. We arrived at Caen, a noble and 
beautiful town, situate on the river Orne, which passes 
quite through it, the two sides of the town joined only 
by a bridge of one entire arch. We lay at the Angel, 
where we were very well used, the place being abundantly 
furnished with provisions, at a cheap rate. The most con- 
siderable object is the great Abbey and Church, large 
and rich, built after the Gothic manner, having two spires 
and middle lantern at the west end, all of stone. The 
choir round and large, in the center whereof elevated 
on a square, handsome, but plain sepulcher, is this 
inscription : 

« Hoc sepulchrum invictissimi juxta et clementissimi conquestoris, 
Gulielmi, dum viverat Anglorum Regis, Normannorum Cenoraanno- 
rumque Principis, hujus insignis Abbatiae piissimi Fundatoris: Cum- 
anno 1562 vesano haereticorum furore direptum fuisset, pio tandem 
nobilium ejusdem Abbatiae religiosorum gratitudinis sensu in tam bene- 
ficum largitorem, instauratum fuit, a" D'ni 1642. D'no Johanne de 
Bailhache Assaetorii proto priore. D.D.*' 

On the other side are these monkish rhymes: 

<< Qui rexit rigidos Northmannos, atq. Britannos 

Audacter vicit, fortiter obtinuit, 
Et Cenomanensis virtute ceorcuit ensis, 

Imperiique sui Legfibus applicuit. 
Rex magnus parvS. jacet h^c Gulielm* in UrnS,, 

Sufl&cit et magno parva domus Domino. 
Ter septem gradibus te volverat atq. duobus 

Virginis in gremio Phoebus, ethic obiit.*> 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 6i 

We went to the castle, which is strong and fair, and 
so is the town-house, built on the bridge which unites 
the two towns. Here are schools and an University for 
the Jurists. 

The whole town is handsomely built of that excellent 
stone so well known by that name in England. I was 
led to a pretty garden, planted with hedges of alatemus, 
having at the entrance a screen at an exceeding height, 
accurately cut in topiary work, with well understood 
architecture, consisting of pillars, nibhes, friezes, and other 
ornaments, with great curiosity; some of the columns 
curiously wreathed, others spiral, all according to art. 

28th March, 1644. We went toward Paris, lying the 
first night at Evreux, a Bishop's seat, an ancient town, 
with a fair cathedral ; so the next day we arrived at Paris. 

ist April, 1644. I went to see more exactly the rooms 
of the fine Palace of Luxemburg, in the Fauxbourg St. 
Germains, built by Mary di Medicis, and I think one of 
the most noble, entire, and finished piles that is to be 
seen, taking it with the garden and all its accomplish- 
ments. The gallery is of the painting of Rubens, being 
the history of the Foundress's Life, rarely designed; at 
the end of it is the Duke of Orleans* library, well fur- 
nished with excellent books, all bound in maroquin and 
gilded, the valance of the shelves being of green velvet, 
fringed with gold. In the cabinet joining to it are only 
the smaller volumes, with six cabinets of medals, and an 
excellent collection of shells and agates, whereof some 
are prodigiously rich. This Duke being very learned in 
medals and plants, nothing of that kind escapes him. 
There are other spacious, noble, and princely furnished 
rooms, which look toward the gardens, which are nothing 
inferior to the rest. 

The court below is formed into a square by a corridor, 
having over the chief entrance a stately cupola, covered 
with stone: the rest is cloistered and arched on pilasters 
of rustic work. The terrace ascending before the front, 
paved with white and black marble, is balustered with 
white marble, exquisitely polished. 

Only the hall below is low, and the staircase somewhat 
of a heavy design, but the facia toward the parterre 
which is also arched and vaulted with stone, is of admir- 
able beauty and full of sculpture. 

6a DIARY OF paris 

The gardens are near an English mile in compass, 
inclosed with a stately wall, and in a good air The 
parterre is indeed of box, but so rarely designed and 
accurately kept cut, that the embroidery makes a won- 
derful effect to the lodgings which front it. 'Tis divided 
into four squares and as many circular knots, having in 
the center a noble basin of marble near thirty feet in 
diameter (as I remember), in which a Triton of brass 
holds a dolphin, that casts a girandola of water near 
thirty feet high, playing perpetually, the water being con- 
veyed from Arceuil by an aqueduct of stone, built after 
the old Roman magnificence. About this ample parterre, 
the spacious walks and all included, runs a border of 
freestone, adorned with pedestals for pots and statues, 
and part of it near the steps of the terrace, with a rail 
and baluster of pure white marble. 

The walks are exactly fair, long, and variously descend- 
ing and so justly planted with limes, elms, and other 
trees, that nothing can be more delicious, especially that 
of the hornbeam hedge, which being high and stately, 
buts full on the fountain. 

Toward the further end, is an excavation intended for 
a vast fish-pool, but never finished, and near it is an 
inclosure for a garden of simples, well kept; and here 
the Duke keeps tortoises in great number, who use the 
pool of water on one side of the garden. Here is also a 
conservatory for snow. At the upper part, toward the 
palace, is a grove of tall elms cut into a star, every ray 
being a walk, whose center is a large fountain. 

The rest of the ground is made into several inclosures 
(all hedge-work or rows of trees) of whole fields, meadows, 
bocages, some of them containing divers acres. 

Next the street side, and more contiguous to the house, 
are knots in trail, or grass work, where likewise runs a 
fountain. Toward the grotto and stables, within a wall, 
is a garden of choice flowers, in which the duke spends 
many thousand pistoles. In sum, nothing is wanted to 
render this palace and gardens perfectly beautiful and 
magnificent; nor is it one of the least diversions to see 
the number of persons of quality, citizens and strangers, 
who frequent it, and to whom all access is freely permitted, 
so that you shall see some walks and retirements full of 
gallants and ladies ; in others melancholy friars ; in others, 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 63 

studious scholars; in others, jolly citizens, some sitting or 
lying on the grass, others running and jumping; some 
playing at bowls and ball, others dancing and singing; and 
all this without the least disturbance, by reason of the 
largeness of the place. 

What is most admirable, you see no gardeners, or men 
at work, and yet all is kept in such exquisite order, as if 
they did nothing else but work; it is so early in the 
morning, that all is dispatched and done without the least 

I have been the larger in the description of this para- 
dise, for the extraordinary delight I have taken in those 
sweet retirements. The Cabinet and Chapel nearer 
the garden-front have some choice pictures. All the 
houses near this are also very noble palaces, especially 
Petite Luxemburg. The ascent of the street is handsome 
from its breadth, situation, and buildings. 

I went next to view Paris from the top of St. Jacques' 
steeple, esteemed the highest in the town, from whence 
I had a full view of the whole city and suburbs, both 
which, as I judge, are not so large as London: though 
the dissimilitude of their several forms and situations, 
this being round, London long, — renders it diflScult to 
determine ; but there is no comparison between the build- 
ings, palaces, and materials, this being entirely of stone 
and more sumptuous, though I esteem our piazzas to ex- 
ceed theirs. 

Hence I took a turn in St. Innocent's churchyard, 
where the story of the devouring quality of the ground 
(consuming bodies in twenty-four hours), the vast char- 
nels of bones, tombs, pyramids, and sepulchers, took up 
much of my time, together with the hieroglyphical char- 
acters of Nicholas Flamel's philosophical work, who had 
founded this church, and divers other charitable estab- 
lishments, as he testifies in his book. 

Here divers clerks get their livelihood by inditing let- 
ters for poor maids and other ignorant people who come 
to them for advice, and to write for them into the coun- 
try, both to their sweethearts, parents, and friends; 
every large gravestone serving for a table. Joining to 
this church is a common fountain, with good relievos 
upon it. 

The next day I was carried to see a French gentle- 


man's curious collection, which abounded in fair and rich 
jewels of all sorts of precious stones, most of them of 
great sizes and value; agates and onyxes, some of them 
admirably colored and antique; nor inferior were his 
landscapes from the best hands, most of which he had 
caused to be copied in miniature; one of which, rarely 
painted on stone, was broken by one of our company, by 
the mischance of setting it up: but such was the temper 
and civility of the gentleman, that it altered nothing of 
his free and noble humor. 

The next morning, I was had by a friend to the gar- 
den of Monsieur Morine, who, from being an ordinary 
gardener, is become one of the most skillful and curious 
persons in France for his rare collection of shells, flowers, 
and insects. 

His garden is of an exact oval figure, planted with cy- 
press, cut flat and set as even as a wall: the tulips, ane- 
mones, ranunculuses, crocuses, etc., are held to be of 
the rarest, and draw all the admirers of that kind to his 
house during the season. He lived in a kind of hermit- 
age at one side of his garden, where his collection of 
porcelain and coral, whereof one is carved into a large 
crucifix, is much esteemed. He has also books of prints, 
by Albert [Durer], Van Leyden, Callot, etc. His collec- 
tion of all sorts of insects, especially of butterflies, is 
most curious; these he spreads and so medicates, that no 
corruption invading them, he keeps them in drawers, so 
placed as to represent a beautiful piece of tapestry. 

He showed me the remarks he had made on their prop- 
agation, which he promised to publish. Some of these, 
as also of his best flowers, he had caused to be painted 
in miniature by rare hands, and some in oil. 

6th April, 1644. I sent my sister my own picture in 
water colors,* which she requested of me, and went to see 
divers of the fairest palaces of the town, as that of Ven- 
dome, very large and stately ; Lougueville ; Guise ; Cond^ ; 

* In the first and second editions of the « Diary » many trifling personal 
details, such as this mention of the author having sent his ovra picture 
in water colors to his sister, were omitted. It is not necessary to point 
them out in detail. They are always of this personal character ; as, 
among other examples, the mention of the wet weather preventing the 
diarist from stirring out, and that of his coming weary to his lodg- 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 65 

Chevereuse, Nevers, esteemed one of the best in Paris 
toward the river. 

I often went to the Palais Cardinal, bequeathed by 
Richelieu to the King, on condition that it should be 
called by his name; at this time, the King resided in it, 
because of the building of the Louvre. It is a very 
noble house, though somewhat low; the galleries, paint- 
ings of the most illustrious persons of both sexes, the 
Queen's baths, presence-chamber with its rich carved 
and gilded roof, theater, and large garden, in which is 
an ample fountain, grove, and mall, worthy of remark. 
Here I also frequently went to see them ride and exer- 
cise the great horse, especially at the Academy of Mon- 
sieur du Plessis, and de Veau, whose schools of that art 
are frequented by the nobility ; and here also young gen- 
tlemen are taught to fence, dance, play on music, and 
something in fortification and the mathematics. The design 
is admirable, some keeping near a hundred brave horses, 
all managed to the great saddle. 

12th April, 1644. I took coach, to see a general 
muster of all the gens d'anncs about the city, in the Bois 
de Boulogne, before their Majesties and all the Grandees. 
They were reputed to be near 20,000, besides the spec- 
tators, who much exceeded them in number. Here they 
performed all their motions; and, being drawn up, horse 
and foot, into several figures, represented a battle. 

The summer now drawing near, I determined to spend 
the rest of it in some more remote town on the river 
Loire; and, on 19th of April, I took leave of Paris, and, by 
the way of the messenger, agreed for my passage to Or- 

The way from Paris to this city, as indeed most of the 
roads in France, is paved with a small square freestone, 
so that the country does not much molest the traveler 
with dirt and ill way, as in England, only 'tis somewhat 
hard to the poor horses' feet, which causes them to ride 
more temperately, seldom going out of the trot, or grand 
pas, as they call it. We passed divers walled towns, or 
villages; among others of note, Chartres and Etampes, 
where we lay the first night. This has a fair church. The 
next day, we had an excellent road; but had liked to 
come short home : for no sooner were we entered two or 
three leagues into the Forest of Orleans (which extends 


itself many miles), but the company behind us were set 
on by rogfues, who, shooting from the hedges and fre- 
quent covert, slew four upon the spot. Among the slain 
was a captain of Swiss, of the regiment of Picardy, a 
person much lamented. This disaster made such an 
alarm in Orleans at our arrival, that the Prevot Marshal, 
with his assistants, going in pursuit, brought in two 
whom they had shot, and exposed them in the great 
market place, to see if any would take cognizance of 
them. I had great cause to give God thanks for this 
escape; when coming to Orleans and lying at the White 
Cross, I found Mr. John Nicholas, eldest son to Mr. 
Secretary. In the night a cat kittened on my bed, and 
left on it a young one having six ears, eight legs, two 
bodies from the middle downward, and two tails. I found 
it dead, but warm, in the morning when I awaked. 

2ist April, 1644. I went about to view the city, 
which is well built of stone, on the side of the Loire. 
About the middle of the river is an island, full of 
walks and fair trees, with some houses. This is con- 
tiguous to the town by a stately stone bridge, reach- 
ing to the opposite suburbs, built likewise on the edge 
of a hill, from whence is a beautiful prospect. At one 
of the extremes of the bridge are strong towers, and 
about the middle, on one side, is the statue of the 
Virgin Mary, or Pieta, with the dead Christ in her 
lap, as big as the life. At one side of the cross, kneels 
Charles VII., armed, and at the other Joan d'Arc, 
armed also like a cavalier, with boots and spurs, her 
hair disheveled, as the deliveress of the town from our 
countrjrmen, when they besieged it. The figures are 
all cast in copper, with a pedestal full of inscriptions, as 
well as a fair column joining it, which is all adorned 
with fleurs-de-lis and a crucifix, with two saints pro- 
ceeding (as it were) from two branches out of its capital 
The inscriptions on the cross are in Latin : * Mors Christi in 
cruce nos d contagione^ labis et csternorum morborum sana- 
vit. " On the pedestal : " Rex in hoc signo hostes profliga- 
vit, et Johanna Virgo Aureliam obsidio liber avit. Non diu 
ab impiis diruta, restituta sunt hoc anno D'ni 1578. Jean 
Buret^ m. f. " — ^' Octannoque Galliam servitute Britannicd 
liberavit. A Domino factum est illud, et est ntirabile in 
oculis nostris; in quorum memorid hcBc nostm fidei Insignia.^^ 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 67 

To this is made an annual procession on 12th of May, 
mass being- sung before it, attended with great cere- 
mony and concourse of people. The wine of this place 
is so strong, that the King's cup bearers are, as I was 
assured, sworn never to give the King any of it: but it 
is a very noble liquor, and much of it transported 
into other countries. The town is much frequented by 
strangers, especially Germans, for the great purity of 
the language here spoken, as well as for divers other 
privileges, and the University, which causes the Eng- 
lish to make no long sojourn here, except such as can 
drink and debauch. The city stands in the county of 
Bealse (Blaisois) ; was once styled a Kingdom, after- 
ward a Duchy, as at present, belonging to the second 
son of France. Many Councils have been held here, 
and some Kings crowned. The University is very an- 
cient, divided now by the students into that of four 
nations, French, High Dutch, Normans, and Picardines, 
who have each their respective protectors, several of- 
ficers, treasurers, consuls, seals, etc. There are in it two 
reasonable fair public libraries, whence one may bor- 
row a book to one's chamber, giving but a note under 
hand, which is an extraordinary custom, and a confi- 
dence that has cost many libraries dear. The first 
church I went to visit was St. Croix; it has been a 
stately fabric, but now much ruined by the late civil 
wars. They report the tower of it to have been the 
highest in France. There is the beginning of a fair 
reparation. About this cathedral there is a very spa- 
cious cemetery. The townhouse is also very nobly 
built, with a high tower to it. The market place and 
streets, some whereof are deliciously planted with limes, 
are ample and straight, so well paved with a kind of 
pebble, that I have not seen a neater town in France, 
In fine, this city was by Francis I. esteemed the most 
agreeable of his vast dominions. 

28th April, 1644. Taking boat on the Loire, I went 
toward Blois, the passage and river being both very 
pleasant. Passing Mehun, we dined at Baugenci, and 
slept at a little town called St. Dieu. Quitting our bark, 
we hired horses to Blois, by the way of Chambord, a 
famous house of the King's, built by Francis I. in the 
middle of a solitary park, full of deer, inclosed with a 

68 DIARY OF blois 

wall. I was particularly desirous of seeing this palace, 
from the extravagance of the design, especially the stair- 
case, mentioned by Palladio. It is said that 1800 work- 
men were constantly employed in this fabric for twelve 
years: if so, it is wonderful that it was not finished, it 
being no greater than divers gentlemen's houses in Eng- 
land, both for room and circuit. The carvings are indeed 
very rich and full. The staircase is devised with four 
entries, or assents, which cross one another, so that 
though four persons meet, they never come in sight, but 
by small loopholes, till they land. It consists of 274 
steps (as I remember), and is an extraordinary work, 
but of far greater expense than use or beauty. The 
chimneys of the house appear like so many towers. About 
the whole is a large deep moat. The country about is 
full of com, and wine, with many fair noblemen's houses. 
We arrived at Blois in the evening. The town is hilly, 
uneven, and rugged, standing on the side of the Loire, 
having suburbs joined by a stately stone bridge, on which 
is a pyramid with an inscription. At the entrance of 
the castle is a stone statue of Louis XII. on horseback, 
as large as life, under a Gothic state; and a little below 
are these words: 

* Hie ubi natus erat dextro Ludovicus Olympo, 

Siimpsit honoratS. regia sceptra manu; 

Felix quae tanti fulsit Lux nuncia Regis ! 

Gallica non alio principe digna fuit.>> 

Under this is a very wide pair of gates, nailed full of 
wolves and wild-boars' heads. Behind the castle the 
present Duke Gaston had begun a fair building, through 
which we walked into a large garden, esteemed for its 
furniture one of the fairest, especially for simples and 
exotic plants, in which he takes extraordinary delight. 
On the right hand is a long gallery full of ancient statues 
and inscriptions, both of marble and brass; the length, 
300 paces, divides the garden into higher and lower 
ground, having a very noble fountain. There is the por- 
trait of a hart, taken in the forest by Louis XII., which 
has twenty-four antlers on its head. In the Collegiate 
Church of St. Savior, we saw many sepulchres of the 
Earls of Blois. 

On Sunday, being May-day, we walked up into Pall 
Mall, very long, and so noble shaded with tall trees 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 69 

(being in the midst of a great wood), that unless that of 
Tours, I had not seen a statelier. 

From hence, we proceeded with a friend of mine through 
the adjoining forest, to see if we could meet any wolves, 
which are here in such numbers that they often come 
and take children out of the very streets ; yet will not the 
Duke, who is sovereign here, permit them to be destroyed. 
We walked five or six miles outright; but met with 
none ; yet a gentleman, who was resting himself under a 
tree, with his horse grazing by him, told us that half an 
hour before, two wolves had set upon his horse, and had 
in probability devoured him, but for a dog which lay by 
him. At a little village at the end of this wood, we ate 
excellent cream, and visited a castle builded on a very 
steep cliff. 

Blois is a town where the langfuage is exactly spoken; 
the inhabitants very courteous ; the air so good, that it is 
the ordinary nursery of the King's children. The people 
are so ingenious, that, for goldsmith's work and watches, 
no place in France affords the like. The pastures by the 
river are very rich and pleasant. 

2d May, 1644. We took boat again, passing by Char- 
mont, a proud castle on the left hand; before it is a 
sweet island, deliciously shaded with tall trees. A little 
distance from hence, we went on shore at Amboise, a 
very agreeable village, built of stone, and the houses 
covered with blue slate, as the towns on the Loire gen- 
erally are ; but the castle chiefly invited us, the thickness 
of whose towers from the river to the top, was admi- 
rable. We entered by the drawbridge, which has an 
invention to let one fall, if not premonished. It is full 
of halls and spacious chambers, and one staircase is large 
enough, and sufficiently commodious, to receive a coach, 
and land it on the very tower, as they told us had been 
done. There is some artillery in it; but that which is 
most observable is in the ancient chapel, viz, a stag's 
head, or branches, hung up by chains, consisting of 
twenty browantlers, the beam bigger than a man's mid- 
dle, and of an incredible length. Indeed, it is mon- 
strous, and yet I cannot conceive how it should be artificial 
they show also the ribs and vertebrae of the same beast; 
but these might be made of whalebone. 

Leaving the castle, we passed Mont Louis, a village 

70 DIARY OF tours 

having no houses above ground but such only as are 
hewn out of the main rocks of excellent freestone. Here 
and there the funnel of a chimney appears on the sur- 
face among the vineyards which are over them, and in 
this manner they inhabit the caves, as it were sea-cliflEs, 
on one side of the river for many miles. 

We now came within sight of Tours, where we were 
designed for the rest of the time I had resolved to stay 
in France, the sojournment being so agreeable. Tours 
is situate on the east side of a hill on the river Loire, 
having a fair bridge of stone called St. Edme ; the streets 
are very long, straight, spacious, well built, and exceed- 
ing clean ; the suburbs large and pleasant, joined to the 
city by another bridge. Both the church and monastery 
of St. Martin are large, of Gothic building, having four 
square towers, fair organs, and a stately altar, where they 
show the bones and ashes of St. Martin, with other relics. 
The Mall without comparison is the noblest in Europe for 
length and shade, having seven rows of the tallest and 
goodliest elms I had ever beheld, the innermost of which 
do so embrace each other, and at such a height, that 
nothing can be more solemn and majestical. Here we 
played a party, or party or two, and then walked about 
the town walls, built of square stone, filled with earth, 
and having a moat. No city in France exceeds it in 
beauty, or delight. 

6th May, 1644. We went to St. Gatian, reported to 
have been built by our countrymen; the dial and clock- 
work are much esteemed. The church has two handsome 
towers and spires of stone, and the whole fabric is very 
noble and venerable. To this joins the palace of the 
Archbishop, consisting both of old and new building, 
with many fair rooms, and a fair garden. Here I grew 
acquainted with one Monsieur Merey, a very good mu- 
sician. The Archbishop treated me very courteously. 
We visited divers other churches chapels, and monas' 
teries for the most part neatly built, and full of pretty 
paintings, especially the Convent of the Capuchins, 
which has a prospect over the whole city, and many fair 

8th May, 1644. I went to see their manufactures in 
silk (for in this town they drive a very considerable trade 
with silk- worms), their pressing and watering the gro- 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 71 

grams and camlets, with weights of an extraordinary poise, 
put into a rolling engine. Here I took a master of the 
language, and studied the tongue very diligently, recre- 
ating myself sometimes at the Mall, and sometimes aboijt 
the town. The house opposite my lodging had been for- 
merly a King's palace; the outside was totally covered 
with fleur-de-lis, embossed out of the stone. Here Mary 
de Medicis held her Court, when she was compelled 
to retire from Paris by the persecution of the great Cardinal. 

25th May, 1644. Was the Fete Dieu, and a goodly 
procession of all the religious orders, the whole streets 
hung with their best tapestries, and their most precious 
movables exposed; silks, damasks, velvets, plate, and pic- 
tures in abundance ; the streets strewed with flowers, and 
full of pageantry, banners, and bravery. 

6th June, 1644. I went by water to visit that goodly 
and venerable Abbey of Marmoutiers, being one of the 
greatest in the kingdom ; to it is a very ample church of 
stone, with a very high pyramid. Among other relics 
the Monks showed us is the Holy AmpouUe, the same 
with that which sacres their Kings at Rheims, this being 
the one that anointed Henry IV. Ascending many 
steps, we went into the Abbot's Palace, where we were 
showed a vast tun (as big as that at Heidelberg), which 
they report St. Martin (as I remember) filled from one 
cluster of grapes growing there. 

7th June, 1644. We walked about two miles from the 
city to an agreeable solitude, called Du Plessis, a house 
belonging to the King. It has many pretty gardens, 
full of nightingales; and, in the chapel, lies buried the 
famous poet, Ronsard. 

Returning, we stepped into a Convent of Franciscans, 
called St. Cosmo, where the cloister is painted with the 
miracles of their St. Francis h Paula, whose ashes lie in 
their chapel, with this inscription : ** Corpus Sancti Fran, ct 
Paula i^oj, ij Aprilis, concrematur verb ab Hcereticis anno 
1562^ cujus quidem ossa et cineres h\c jacent. ** The tomb has 
four small pyramids of marble at each comer. 

9th June, 1644. I was invited to a vineyard, which 
was so artificially planted and supported with arched 
poles, that stooping down one might see from end to 
end, a very great length, under the vines, the bunches 
hanging down in abundance. 


2oth June, 1644. We took horse to see certain natural 
caves, called Gouttifere, near Colombifere, where there is 
a spring within the bowels of the earth, very deep and 
so excessive cold, that the drops meeting with some 
lapidescent matter, it converts them into a hard stone, 
which hangs about it like icicles, having many others in 
the form of comfitures and sugar plums, as we call 

Near this, we went under the ground almost two fur- 
longs, lighted with candles, to see the source and spring 
which serves the whole city, by a passage cut through 
the main rock of freestone. 

28th June, 1644. I went to see the palace and gardens 
of Chevereux, a sweet place. 

30th June, 1644. I walked through the vineyards as 
far as Roche Corb6, to the ruins of an old and very 
strong castle, said to have been built by the English, of 
great height, on the precipice of a dreadful cliff, from 
whence the country and river yield a most incomparable 

27th July, 1644. I heard excellent music at the Jesuits, 
who have here a school and convent, but a mean chapel. 
We have now store of those admirable melons, so much 
celebrated in France for the best in the kingdom. 

ist August, 1644. My valet, one Garro, a Spaniard, 
bom in Biscao, having misbehaved, I was forced to dis- 
charge him; he demanded of me (besides his wages) no 
less than 100 crowns to carry him to his country; refus- 
ing to pay it, as no part of our agreement, he had the 
impudence to arrest me; the next day I was to appear 
in Court, where both our avocats pleaded before the 
Lieutenant Civil; but it was so unreasonable a pretense, 
that the Judge had not patience to hear it out. The 
Judge immediately acquitted me, after he had reproached 
the avocat who took part with my servant, he rose from 
the Bench, and making a courteous excuse to me, that 
being a stranger I should be so used, he conducted me 
through the court to the street-door. This varlet after- 
ward threatened to pistol me. The next day, I waited 
on the Lieutenant, to thank him for his great civility. 

1 8th August, 1644. The Queen of England came to 
Tours, having newly arrived in France, and going for 
Paris. She was very nobly received by the people and 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 71 

clergy, who went to meet her with the trained bands. 
After the harangue, the Archbishop entertained her at 
his Palace, where I paid my duty to her. The 20th she 
set forward to Paris 

8th September, 1644. Two of my kinsmen came from 
Paris to this place, where I settled them in their pension 
and exercises. 

14th September, 1644. We took post for Richelieu, 
passing by I'lsle Bouchard, a village in the way. The 
next day, we arrived, and went to see the Cardinal's 
Palace, near it. The town is built in a low, marshy 
ground, having a narrow river cut by hand, very even 
and straight, capable of bringing up a small vessel. It 
consists of only one considerable street, the houses on 
both sides ( as indeed throughout the town ) built exactly 
uniform, after a modem handsome design. It has a 
large goodly market house and place, opposite to which 
is the church built of freestone, having two pyramids of 
stone, which stand hollow from the towers. The church 
is well built, and of a well-ordered architecture, within 
handsomely paved and adorned. To this place belongs 
an Academy, where, besides the exercise of the horse, 
arms, dancing, etc., all the sciences are taught in the 
vulgar French by professors stipendiated by the great Car- 
dinal, who by this, the cheap living there, and divers privi- 
leges, not only designed the improvement of the vulgar 
language, but to draw people and strangers to the town ; 
but since the Cardinal's death, it is thinly inhabited; 
standing so much out of the way, and in a place not 
well situated for health, or pleasure. He was allured to 
build by the name of the place, and an old house there 
belonging to his ancestors. This pretty town is hand- 
somely walled about and moated, with a kind of slight 
fortification, two fair gates and drawbridges. Before 
the gate, toward the palace, is a spacious circle, where 
the fair is annually kept. About a flight-shot from the 
town is the Cardinal's house, a princely pile, though on 
an old design, not altogether Gothic, but mixed, and 
environed by a clear moat. The rooms are stately, most 
richly furnished with tissue, damask, arras, and velvet, 
pictures, statues, vases, and all sorts of antiquities, 
especially the Caesars, in oriental alabaster. The long 
gallery is painted with the famous acts of the Founder; 

74 DIARY OF boukges 

the roof with the life of Julius Caesar; at the end of it 
is a cupola, or singing theatre, supported by very stately 
pillars of black marble. The chapel anciently belonged 
to the family of the Founder. The court is very ample. 
The gardens without are very large, and the parterres 
of excellent embroidery, set with many statues of brass 
and marble; the groves, meadows, and walks are a real 

1 6th September, 1644. We returned to Tours, from 
whence, after nineteen weeks' sojourn, we traveled to- 
ward the more southern part of France, minding now 
to shape my course so, as I might winter in Italy. With 
my friend, Mr. Thicknesse, and our guide, we went the 
first day seven leagues to a castle called Chenonceau, 
built by Catherine de Medicis, and now belonging to the 
Duke de Vendome, standing on a bridge. In the gallery, 
among divers other excellent statues, is that of Scipio 
Africanus, of oriental alabaster. 

2ist September, 1644, We passed by Villefranche, where 
we dined, and so by Muneton, lying at Viaron-au-mouton, 
which was twenty leagues. The next day by Murg to 
Bourges, four leagues, where we spent the day. This is 
the capital of Berry, an University much frequented by 
the Dutch, situated on the river Eure. It stands high, 
is strong, and well placed for defense; is environed with 
meadows and vines, and the living here is very cheap. 
In the suburbs of St. Priv6, there is a fountain of sharp 
water which they report wholesome against the stone. 
They showed us a vast tree which they say stands in the 
center of France. The French tongue is spoken with 
great purity in this place. St. Stephen's church is the 
cathedral, well built h la Gothigue, full of sepulchres with- 
out-side, with the representation of the final Judgment 
over one of the ports. Here they show the chapel of 
Claude de la Chastre, a famous soldier who had served 
six kings of France in their wars. St. Chapelle is built 
much like that at Paris, full of relics, and containing the 
bones of one Briat, a giant of fifteen cubits high. It was 
erected by John, Duke of Berry, and there is showed the 
coronet of the ^ukedom. The great tower is a Pharos 
for defense of the town, very strong, in thickness eigh- 
teen feet, fortified with graffs and works ; there is a garri- 
son in it, and a strange engine for throwing great stones, 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 75 

and the iron cage where Louis, Duke of Orleans, was 
kept by Charles VIII. Near the Town-house stands the 
College of Jesuits, where was heretofore an Amphitheater, 
I was courteously entertained by a Jesuit, who had us 
into the garden, where we fell into disputation. The 
house of Jaques Coeur is worth seeing. Bourges is an 
Archbishopric and Primacy of Aquitaine. I took my leave 
of Mr. Nicholas, and some other English there; and, on 
the 23d, proceeded on my journey by Pont du Charge; 
and lay that evening at Coulaiure, thirteen leagues. 

24th September, 1644. By Franchesse, St. Menoux, 
thence to Moulins, where we dined. This is the chief 
town of the Bourbonnois, on the river Allier, very nav- 
igable. The streets are fair ; the castle has a noble pros- 
pect, and has been the seat of the Dukes. Here is a 
pretty park and garden. After dinner, came many who 
offered knives and scissors to sell ; it being a town famous 
for these trifles. This Duchy of Bourbon is ordinarily 
assigned for the dowry of the Queens of France. 

Hence, we took horse for Varennes, an obscure village, 
where we lay that night. The next day, we went some- 
what out of the way to see the town of Bourbon I'Arch- 
ambaut, from whose ancient and rugged castle is derived 
the name of the present Royal Family of France. The 
castle stands on a flinty rock, overlooking the town. In 
the midst of the streets are some baths of medicinal 
waters, some of them excessive hot, but nothing so neatly 
walled and adorned as ours in Somersetshire ; and indeed 
they are chiefly used to drink of, our Queen being then 
lodged there for that purpose. After dinner, I went to 
see the St. Chapelle, a prime place of devotion, where is 
kept one of the thorns of our Savior's crown, and a piece 
of the real cross; excellent paintings on glass, and some 
few statues of stone and wood, which they show for curi- 
osities. Hence, we went forward to La Palise, a village 
that lodged us that night. 

26th September, 1644. We arrived at Roane, where we 
quitted our guide, and took post for Lyons, Roane 
seemed to me one of the pleasantest and most agreeable 
places imaginable, for a retired person: for, besides the 
situation on the Loire, there are excellent provisions 
cheap and abundant. It being late when we left this 
town, we rode no further than Tarare that night (passing 


St. Saforin), a little desolate village in a valley near a 
pleasant stream, encompassed with fresh meadows and 
vineyards. The hills which we rode over before we de- 
scended, and afterward, on the Lyons side of this place, 
are high and mountainous; fir and pines growing fre- 
quently on them. The air methought was much altered 
as well as the manner of the houses, which are built 
flatter, more after the eastern manner. Before I went 
to bed, I took a landscape of this pleasant terrace. There 
followed a most violent tempest of thunder and lightning. 
27th September, 1644. We rode by Pont Charu to 
Lyons, which being but six leagues we soon accom- 
plished, having made eighty-five leagues from Tours in 
seven days. Here at the Golden Lion, rue de Flandre, I 
met divers of my acquaintance, who, coming from Paris, 
were designed for Italy. We lost no time in seeing the 
city, because of being ready to accompany these gentle- 
men in their journey. Lyons is excellently situated on 
the confluence of the rivers Soane and Rhone, which 
wash the walls of the city in a very rapid stream; each 
of these has its bridge; that over the Rhone consists of 
twenty-eight arches. The two high cliffs, called St. Just 
and St, Sebastian, are very stately; on one of them stands 
a strong fort, garrisoned. We visited the cathedral, St. 
Jean, where was one of the fairest clocks for art and 
busy invention I had ever seen. The fabric of the 
church is gothic, as are likewise those of St. Etienne and 
St. Croix. From the top of one of the towers of St. 
Jean (for it has four) we beheld the whole city and 
country, with a prospect reaching to the Alps, many 
leagues distant. The Archbishop's palace is fairly built. 
The church of St. Nisier is the greatest; that of the 
Jacobins is well built. Here are divers other fine 
churches and very noble buildings we had not time to 
visit, only that of the Charit6, or great hospital for poor, 
infirm people, entertaining about 1,500 souls, with a school, 
granary, gardens, and all conveniences, maintained at a 
wonderful expense, worthy seeing. The place of the Belle 
Cour is very spacious, observable for the view it affords, 
so various and agreeable, of hills, rocks, vineyards, gar- 
dens, precipices, and other extravagant and incomparable 
advantages presenting themselves together. The Pall 
Mall is set with fair trees. In fine, this stately, clean, 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 77 

and noble city, built all of stone, abounds in persons of 
quality and rich merchants: those of Florence obtaining 
great privileges above the rest. In the Town-house, they 
show two tables of brass, on which is engraven Claudius's 
speech, pronounced to the Senate, concerning the fran- 
chising of the town, with the Roman privileges. There 
are also other antiquities. 

30th September, 1644. We bargained with a waterman 
to carry us to Avignon on the river, and got the first 
night to Vienne, in Dauphin^. This is an Archbishopric, 
and the province gives title to the heir-apparent of 
France. Here we supped and lay, having among other 
dainties, a dish of truffles, which is a certain earth-nut, 
found out by a hog trained to it, and for which those 
animals are sold at a great price. It is in truth an in- 
comparable meat. We were shown the ruins of an 
amphitheatre, pretty entire ; and many handsome palaces, 
especially that of Pontius Pilate, not far from the town, 
at the foot of a solitary mountain, near the river, having 
four pinnacles. Here it is reported he passed his exile, 
and precipitated himself into the lake not far from it. 
The house is modem, and seems to be the seat of some 
gentleman; being in a very pleasant, though melancholy 
place. The cathedral of Vienne is St. Maurice; and 
there are many other pretty buildings, but nothing more 
so, than the mills where they hammer and polish the 
sword blades. 

Hence, the next morning we swam ( for the river here 
is so rapid that the boat was only steered) to a small 
village called Thein, where we dined. Over against this 
is another town, named Toumon, where is a very strong 
castle under a high precipice. To the castle joins the 
Jesuits' College, who have a fair library. The prospect 
was so tempting, that I could not forbear designing it 
with my crayon. 

We then came to Valence, a capital city carrying the 
title of a Duchy; but the Bishop is now sole Lord tem- 
poral of it, and the country about it. The town having 
a University famous for the study of the civil law, is 
much frequented ; but the churches are none of the fairest, 
having been greatly defaced in the time of the wars. 
The streets are full of pretty fountains. The citadel is 
strong and garrisoned. Here we passed the night, and 

78 DIARY OF avignon 

the next morning by Pont St. Esprit, which consists of 
twenty-two arches; in the piers of the arches are windows, 
as it were, to receive the water when it is high and full. 
Here we went on shore, it being very dangerous to pass 
the bridge in a boat. 

Hence, leaving our barge, we took horse, seeing at a 
distance the town and principality of Orange ; and, lodging 
one night on the way, we arrived at noon at Avignon. 
This town has belonged to the Popes ever since the time 
of Clement V.; being, in 1352, alienated by Jane, Queen 
of Naples and Sicily. Entering the gates, the soldiers 
at the guard took our pistols and carbines, and examined 
us very strictly ; after that, having obtained the Governor's 
and the Vice-Legate's leave to tarry three days, we were 
civilly conducted to our lodging. The city is on the 
Rhone, and divided from the newer part, or town, which 
is on the other side of the river, by a very fair stone 
bridge ( which has been broken ) ; at one end is a very 
high rock, on which is a strong castle well furnished 
with artillery. The walls of the city are of large, square 
freestone, the most neat and best in repair I ever saw. 
It is full of well-built palaces; those of the Vice-Legate 
and Archbishop being the most magnificent. There are 
many sumptuous churches, especially that of St. Magda- 
lene and St. Martial, wherein the tomb of the Cardinal 
d'Amboise is the most observable. Clement VI. lies 
buried in that of the Celestines, the altar whereof is ex- 
ceedingly rich : but for nothing I more admired it than the 
tomb of Madonna Laura, the celebrated mistress of 
Petrarch. We saw the Arsenal, the Pope's palace, and 
the Synagogue of the Jews, who here are distinguished 
by their red hats. Vaucluse, so much renowned for the 
solitude of Petrarch, we beheld from the castle; but 
could not go to visit it for want of time, being now 
taking mules and a guide for Marseilles. 

We lay at Loumas; the next morning, came to Aix, 
having passed that extremely rapid and dangerous river 
of Durance. In this tract, all the heaths, or commons, 
are covered with rosemary, lavender, lentiscus, and the 
like sweet shrubs, for many miles together; which to me 
was very pleasant. Aix is the chief city of Provence, 
being a Parliament and Presidential town, with other 
royal Courts and Metropolitan jurisdiction. It is well 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 79 

built, the houses very high, and the streets ample. The 
Cathedral, St. Savior's, is a noble pile adorned with in- 
numerable figures; especially that of St. Michael; the 
Baptisterie, the Palace, the Court, built in a most spac- 
ious piazza, are very fair. The Duke of Guise's house 
Is worth seeing, being furnished with many antiquities 
in and about it. The Jesuits have here a royal College, 
'And the City is a University. 

7th October, 1644. We had a most delicious journey 
to Marseilles, through a country sweetly declining to the 
south and Mediterranean coasts, full of vineyards and 
olive-yards, orange trees, myrtles, pomegranates, and 
the like sweet plantations, to which belong pleasantly- 
situated villas to the number of above 1,500, built all of 
freestone, and in prospect showing as if they were so 
many heaps of snow dropped out of the clouds among 
those perennial greens. It was almost at the shutting 
of the gates that we arrived. Marseilles is on the sea- 
coast, on a pleasant rising ground, well walled, with an 
excellent port for ships and galleys, secured by a huge 
chain of iron drawn across the harbor at pleasure; and 
there is a well-fortified tower with three other forts, 
especially that built on a rock; but the castle command- 
ing the city is that of Notre Dame de la Garde. In the 
chapel hung up are divers crocodiles* skins. 

We went then to visit the galleys, being about twenty- 
five in number; the Capitaine of the Galley Royal gave 
us most courteous entertainment in his cabin, the slaves 
in the interim playing both loud and soft music very 
rarely. Then he showed us how he commanded their 
motions with a nod, and his whistle making them row 
out. The spectacle was to me new and strange, to see 
so many hundreds of miserably naked persons, their 
heads being shaven close, and having only high red 
bonnets, a pair of coarse canvas drawers, their whole 
backs and legs naked, doubly chained about their middle 
and legs, in couples, and made fast to their seats, and 
all commanded in a trice by an imperious and cruel 
seaman. One Turk among the rest he much favored, 
who waited on him in his cabin, but with no other dress 
than the rest, and a chain locked about his leg, but not 
coupled. This galley was richly carved and gilded, and 
most of the rest were very beautiful. After bestowing 

8o DIARY OF perigueux 

something on the slaves, the capitaine sent a band of 
them to give us music at dinner where we lodged. I 
was amazed to contemplate how these miserable caitiffs 
lie in their galley crowded together ; yet there was hardly 
one but had some occupation, by which, as leisure and 
calms permitted, they got some little money, insomuch 
as some of them have, after many years of cruel servi- 
tude, been able to purchase their liberty. The rising- 
forward and falling-back at their oar, is a miserable 
spectacle, and the noise of their chains, with the roaring 
of the beaten waters, has something of strange and fear- 
ful in it to one unaccustomed to it. They are ruled and 
chastised by strokes on their backs and soles of their 
feet, on the least disorder, and without the least humanity, 
yet are they cheerful and full of knavery. 

After dinner, we saw the church of St. Victoire, where 
is that saint's head in a shrine of silver, which weighs 
600 pounds. Thence to Notre Dame, exceedingly 
well built, which is the cathedral. Thence to the Duke 
of Guise's Palace, the Palace of Justice, and the Maison 
du Roi; but nothing is more strange than the great 
number of slaves working in the streets, and carrying 
burdens, with their confused noises, and jingling of 
their huge chains. The chief trade of the town is in 
silks and drugs out of Africa, Syria, and Egypt, and 
Barbary horses, which are brought hither in great 
numbers. The town is governed by four captains, has 
three consuls, ■ and one assessor, three judges royal ; the 
merchants have a judge for ordinary causes. Here we 
bought umbrellas against the heats, and consulted of our 
journey to Cannes by land, for fear of the Picaroon 
Turks, who make prize of any small vessels about these 
parts; we not finding a galley bound for Genoa, whither 
we were designed. 

9th October, 1644. We took mules, passing the first 
night very late in sight of St. Baume, and the solitary 
grot where they affirmed Mary Magdalen did her pen- 
ance. The next day, we lay at Perigueux, a city built 
on an old foundation ; witness the ruins of a most stately 
amphitheatre, which I went out to design, being about a 
flight-shot from the town; they call it now the Rolsies. 
There is also a strong tower near the town, called 
the Visone, but the town and city are at some distance 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 8i 

from each other. It is a bishopric; has a cathedral 
with divers noblemen's houses in sight of the sea. The 
place was formerly called Forum Julij, well known by 

loth October, 1644. We proceeded by the ruins of a 
stately aqueduct. The soil about the country is rocky, 
full of pines and rare simples. 

nth October, 1644. We lay at Cannes, which is a 
small port on the Mediterranean; here we agreed with 
a seaman to carry us to Genoa, and, having procured a 
bill of health (without which there is no admission at any 
town in Italy), we embarked on the 12th. We touched 
at the islands of St. Margaret and St. Honore, lately re- 
taken from the Spaniards with great bravery by Prince 
Harcourt. Here, having paid some small duty, we 
bought some trifles oflfered us by the soldiers, but with- 
out going on shore. Hence, we coasted within two leagues 
of Antibes, which is the utmost town in France. Thence 
by Nice, a city in Savoy, built all of brick, which gives 
it a very pleasant appearance toward the sea, having a 
very high castle which commands it. We sailed by 
Morgus, now called Monaco, having passed Villa Franca, 
heretofore Portus Herculis, when, arriving after the gates 
were shut, we were forced to abide all night in the 
barge, which was put into the haven, the wind coming 
contrary. In the morning, we were hastened away, hav- 
ing no time permitted us by our avaricious master to go 
up and see this strong and considerable place, which 
now belongs to a prince of the family of Grimaldi, of 
Genoa, who has put both it and himself under the pro- 
tection of the French. The situation is on a promontory 
of solid stone and rock. The town walls very fair. We 
were told that within it was an ample court, and a 
palace, furnished with the most rich and princely mov- 
ables, and a collection of statues, pictures, and massy 
plate to an immense amount. 

We sailed by Menton and Ventimiglia, being the first 
city of the republic of Genoa; supped at Oneglia, where 
we anchored and lay on shore. The next morning, we 
coasted in view of the Isle of Corsica, and St. Remo, 
where the shore is furnished with evergreens, oranges, 
citrons, and date trees; we lay at Port Mauritio. The 
next morning by Diano, Araisso, famous for the best 


coral fishing, growing in abundance on the rocks, deep 
and continually covered by the sea. By Albenga and 
Finale, a very fair and strong town belonging to the 
King of Spain, for which reason a monsieur in our ves- 
sel was extremely afraid, as was the patron of our bark, 
for they frequently catch French prizes as they creep by 
these shores to go into Italy ; he therefore plied both sails 
and oars, to get under the protection of a Genoese gal- 
ley that passed not far before us, and in whose company 
we sailed as far as the Cape of Savona, a town built at the 
rise of the Apennines: for all this coast (except a little 
of St. Remo) is a high and steep mountainous gpround, 
consisting all of rock-marble, without any grass, tree, or 
rivage, formidable to look on. A strange object it is, to 
consider how some poor cottages stand fast on the de- 
clivities of these precipices, and by what steps the inhab- 
itants ascend to them. The rock consists of all sorts of 
the most precious marbles. 

Here, on the 15th, forsaking our galley, we encoun- 
tered a little foul weather, which made us creep terra, 
terra, as they call it, and so a vessel that encountered 
us advised us to do; but our patron, striving to double 
the point of Savona, making out into the wind put us 
into great hazard; for blowing very hard from land be- 
tween those horrid gaps of the mountains, it set so vio- 
lently, as raised on the sudden so great a sea, that we 
could not recover the weather-shore for many hours, 
insomuch that, what with the water already entered, and 
the confusion of fearful passengers (of which one was 
an Irish bishop, and his brother, a priest, were confess- 
ing some as at the article of death), we were almost 
abandoned to despair, our pilot himself giving us up for 
lost. And now, as we were weary with pumping and 
laving out the water, almost sinking, it pleased God on 
the sudden to appease the wind, and with much ado and 
great peril we recovered the shore, which we now kept 
in view within half a league in sight of those pleasant 
villas, and within scent of those fragrant orchards which 
are on this coast, full of princely retirements for the 
sumptuousness of their buildings, and nobleness of the 
plantations, especially those at St. Pietro d'Arena; from 
whence, the wind blowing as it did, might perfectly be 
smelt the peculiar joys of Italy in the perfumes of orange, 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 83 

citron, and jasmine flowers, for divers leagues sea- 
ward. * 

1 6th October, 1644. We got to anchor under the Pharos, 
or watch-tower, built on a high rock at the mouth of the 
Mole of Genoa, the weather being still so foul that for 
two hours at least we durst not stand into the haven. 
Toward evening we adventured, and came on shore by 
the Prattique-house, where, after strict examination by 
the Syndics, we were had to the Ducal Palace, and there 
our names being taken, we were conducted to our inn, 
kept by one Zacharias, an Englishman. I shall never 
forget a story of our host Zachary, who, on the relation 
of our peril, told us another of his own, being ship- 
wrecked, as he affirmed solemnly, in the middle of a great 
sea somewhere in the West Indies, that he swam no less 
than twenty-two leagues to another island, with a tinder- 
box wrapped up in his hair, which was not so much as 
wet all the way; that picking up the carpenter's tools 
with other provisions in a chest, he and the carpenter, 
who accompanied him (good swimmers it seems both), 
floated the chest before them; and, arriving at last in a 
place full of wood, they built another vessel, and so 
escaped! After this story, we no more talked of our 
danger; Zachary put us quite down. 

17th October, 1644. Accompanied by a most courteous 
marchand, called Tomson, we went to view the rarities. 
The city is built in the hollow or bosom of a mountain, 
whose ascent is very steep, high, and rocky, so that, 
from the Lantern and Mole to the hill, it represents the 
shape of a theater; the streets and buildings so ranged 
one above another, as our seats are in the playhouses; 
but, from their materials, beauty, and structure, never 
was an artificial scene more beautiful to the eye, nor is 
any place, for the size of it, so full of well-designed and 
stately palaces, as may be easily concluded by that rare 
book in a large folio which the great virtuoso and painter, 
Paul Rubens, has published, though it contains [the de- 
scription of] only one street and two or three churches. 

The first palace we went to visit was that of Hieronymo 
del Negros, to which we passed by boat across the har- 

* Evelyn seems to have been much enchanted by the fragrancy of 
the air of this coast, for he has noticed it again in his dedication of 
the « Fumifugium,» to Charles the Second. 

84 DIARY OF Genoa 

bor. Here I could not but observe the sudden and devil- 
ish passion of a seaman, who plying us was intercepted 
by another fellow, that interposed his boat before him 
and took us in; for the tears gushing out of his eyes, he 
put his finger in his mouth and almost bit it off by the 
joint, showing it to his antagonist as an assurance to him 
of some bloody revenge, if ever he came near that part 
of the harbor again. Indeed this beautiful city is more 
stained with such horrid acts of revenge and murders, 
than any one place in Europe, or haply in the world, 
where there is a political government, which makes it 
unsafe to strangers. It is made a galley matter to carry a 
knife whose point is not broken off. 

This palace of Negros is richly furnished with the rarest 
pictures ; on the terrace, or hilly garden, there is a grove 
of stately trees, among which are sheep, shepherds, and 
wild beasts, cut very artificially in a gray stone; foun- 
tains, rocks, and fish ponds ; casting your eyes one way, 
you would imagine yourself in a wilderness and silent 
country; sideways, in the heart of a great city; and back- 
ward, in the midst of the sea. All this is within one 
acre of ground. In the house, I noticed those red-plaster 
floors which are made so hard, and kept so polished, that 
for some time one would take them for whole pieces of 
porphyry. I have frequently wondered that we never 
practiced this [art] in England for cabinets and rooms of 
state, for it appears to me beyond any invention of that 
kind; but by their carefully covering them with canvass 
and fine mattresses, where there is much passage, I 
suppose they are not lasting there in glory, and haply 
they are often repaired. 

There are numerous other palaces of particular curi- 
osities, for the marchands being very rich, have, like our 
neighbors, the Hollanders, little or no extent of ground 
to employ their estates in ; as those in pictures and hang- 
ings, so these lay it out on marble houses and rich fur- 
niture. One of the greatest here for circuit is that of the 
Prince Doria, which reaches from the sea to the summit 
of the mountains. The house is most magnificently built 
without, nor less gloriously furnished within, having whole 
tables and bedsteads of massy silver, many of them set 
with agates, on^-xes, cornelians, lazulis, pearls, torquoises, 
and other precious stones. The pictures and statues are 

1044 JOHN EVELYN 85 

innumerable. To this palace belong three gardens, the 
first whereof is beautified with a terrace, supported by- 
pillars of marble; there is a fountain of eagles, and one 
of Neptune, with other sea-gods, all of the purest white 
marble; they stand in a most ample basin of the same 
stone. At the side of this garden is such an aviary as 
Sir Francis Bacon describes in his *-^ Sermones Fidelium,^^ or 
* Essays, * wherein grow trees of more than two feet diame- 
ter, besides cypress, myrtles, lentiscuses, and other rare 
shrubs, which serve to nestle and perch all sorts of birds, 
who have air and place enough under their airy canopy, 
supported with huge iron work, stupendous for its fabric 
and the charge. The other two gardens are full of orange 
trees, citrons, and pomegranates, fountains, grots, and 
statues. One of the latter is a colossal Jupiter, under 
which is the sepulchre of a beloved dog, for the care of 
which one of this family received of the King of Spain 
500 crowns a year, during the life of that faithful animal. 
The reservoir of water here is a most admirable piece of 
art; and so is the grotto over against it. 

We went hence to the Palace of the Dukes, where is 
also the Court of Justice ; thence to the Merchant's Walk, 
rarely covered. Near the Ducal Palace we saw the pub- 
lic armory, which was almost all new, most neatly kept 
and ordered, sufficient for 30,000 men. We were showed 
many rare inventions and engines of war peculiar to that 
armory, as in the state when guns were first put in use. 
The garrison of the town chiefly consists of Germans and 
Corsicans. The famous Strada Nova, built wholly of 
polished marble, was designed by Rubens, and for state- 
liness of the buildings, paving, and evenness of the street, 
is far superior to any in Europe, for the number of 
houses; that of Don Carlo Doria is a most magnificent 
structure. In the gardens of the old Marquis Spinola, 
I saw huge citrons hanging on the trees, applied like 
our apricots to the walls. The churches are no less splen- 
did than the palaces; that of St. Francis is wholly built of 
Parian marble; St. Laurence, in the middle of the city, 
of white and black polished stone, the inside wholly in- 
crusted with marble and other precious materials ; on the 
altar of St. John stand four sumptuous columns of por- 
phyry; and here we were showed an emerald, supposed 
to be one of the largest in the world. The church of St. 

86 DIARY OF genoa 

Ambrosio, belonging to the Jesuits, will, when finished, 
exceed all the rest; and that of the Annunciada, founded 
at the charges of one family, in the present and future 
design can never be outdone for cost and art. From 
the churches we walked to the Mole, a work of solid huge 
stone, stretching itself near 600 paces into the main sea, 
and secures the harbor, heretofore of no safety. Of all 
the wonders of Italy, for the art and nature of the de- 
sign, nothing parallels this. We passed over to the Pha- 
ros, or Lantern, a tower of very great height. Here we 
took horses, and made the circuit of the city as far as 
the new walls, built of a prodigious height, and with 
Herculean industry; witness those vast pieces of whole 
mountains which they have hewn away, and blown up 
with gunpowder, to render them steep and inaccessible. 
They are not much less than twenty English miles in ex- 
tent, reaching beyond the utmost buildings of the city. 
From one of these promontories we could easily discern 
the island of Corsica; and from the same, eastward, we 
saw a vale having a great torrent running through a most 
desolate barren country ; and then turning our eyes more 
northward, saw those delicious villas of St. Pietro d'Ar- 
ena, which present another Genoa to you, the ravishing 
retirements of the Genoese nobility. Hence, with much 
pain, we descended toward the Arsenal, where the gal- 
leys lie in excellent order. 

The inhabitants of the city are much affected to the 
Spanish mode and stately garb. From the narrowness 
of the streets, they use sedans and litters, and not coaches. 

19th October, 1644. We embarked in a felucca for 
Livomo, or Leghorn ; but the sea running very high, we 
put in at Porto Venere, which we made with peril, be- 
tween two narrow horrid rocks, against which the sea 
dashed with great velocity; but we were soon delivered 
into as great a calm and a most ample harbor, being in 
the Golfo di Spetia. From hence, we could see Pliny's 
Delphini Promontorium, now called Capo fino. Here stood 
that famous city of Luna, whence the port was named 
Lunaris, being about two leagues over, more resembling 
a lake than a haven, but defended by castles and exces- 
sive high mountains. We landed at Lerici, where, being 
Sunday, was a great procession, carrying the Sacrament 
about the streets in solemn devotion. After dinner we 

1 64+ JOHN EVELYN 87 

took post-horses, passing through whole groves of olive 
trees, the way somewhat rugged and hilly at first, but aft- 
erward pleasant. Thus we passed through the towns of 
Sarzana and Massa, and the vast marble quarries of Car- 
rara, and lodged in an obscure inn, at a place called 
Viregio. The next morning we arrived at Pisa, where I 
met my old friend, Mr. Thomas Henshaw, who was then 
newly come out of Spain, and from whose company I never 
parted till more than a year after. 

The city of Pisa is as much worth seeing as any in 
Italy; it has contended with Rome, Florence, Sardinia, 
Sicily, and even Carthage. The palace and church of St. 
Stefano (where the order of knighthood called by that 
name was instituted) drew first our curiosity, the outside 
thereof being altogether of polished marble ; within, it is 
full of tables relating to this Order; over which hang 
divers banners and pendants, with other trophies taken 
by them from the Turks, against whom they are particu- 
larly obliged to fight; though a religious order, they are 
permitted to marr>'. At the front of the palace stands a 
fountain, and the statue of the great Duke Cosmo. The 
Campanile, or Settezonio, built by John Venipont, a Ger- 
man, consists of several orders of pillars, thirty in a row, 
designed to be much higher. It stands alone on the right 
side of the cathedral, strangely remarkable for this, that 
the beholder would expect it to fall, being built exceed- 
ingly declining, by a rare address of the architect; and 
how it is supported from falling I think would puzzle a 
good geometrician. The Duomo, or Cathedral, standing 
near it, is a superb structure, beautified with six columns 
of great antiquity; the gates are of brass, of admirable 
workmanship. The cemetery called Campo Santo is made 
of divers galley ladings of earth formerly brought from 
Jerusalem, said to be of such a nature, as to consume 
dead bodies in forty hours. 'Tis cloistered with marble 
arches; and here lies buried the learned Philip Decius, 
who taught in this University. At one side of this church 
stands an ample and well-wrought marble vessel, which 
heretofore contained the tribute paid yearly by the city 
to Caesar. It is placed, as I remember, on a pillar of 
opal stone, with divers other antique urns. Near this, 
and in the same field, is the Baptistery of San Giovanni, 
built of pure white marble, and covered with so artificial 

88 DIARY OF livorno 

a cupola, that the voice uttered under it seems to break 
out of a cloud. The font and pulpit, supported by four 
lions, is of inestimable value for the preciousness of the 
materials. The place where these buildings stand they 
call the Area. Hence, we went to the College, to which 
joins a gallery so furnished with natural rarities, stones, 
minerals, shells, dried animals, skeletons, etc., as is hardly 
to be seen in Italy. To this the Physic Garden lies, 
where is a noble palm tree, and very fine waterworks. 
The river Arno runs through the middle of this stately 
city, whence the main street is named Lung 'Arno. It is 
so ample that the Duke's galleys, built in the arsenal 
here, are easily conveyed to Livorno; over the river is 
an arch, the like of which, for its flatness, and serving 
for a bridge, is nowhere in Europe. The Duke has a 
stately Palace, before which is placed the statue of Ferdi- 
nand the Third; over against it is the Exchange, built 
of marble. Since this city came to be under the Dukes 
of Tuscany, it has been much depopulated, though there 
is hardly in Italy any which exceeds it for stately edifices. 
The situation of it is low and flat; but the inhabitants 
have spacious gardens, and even fields within the walls. 

2 1 St October, 1644. We took coach to Livorno, through 
the Great Duke's new park full of huge cork trees, the 
underwood all myrtles, among which were many buffaloes 
feeding, a kind of wild ox, short nose with horns re- 
versed; those who work with them command them, as 
our bearwards do the bears, with a ring through the 
nose, and a cord. Much of this park, as well as a great 
part of the country about it, is very fenny, and the air 
very bad. 

Leghorn is the prime port belonging to all the Duke's 
territories; heretofore a very obscure town, but since 
Duke Ferdinand has strongly fortified it (after the mod- 
em way), drained the marshes by cutting a channel 
thence to Pisa navigable sixteen miles, and has raised a 
Mole, emulating that at Genoa, to secure the shipping, 
it is become a place of great receipt; it has also a place 
for the galleys, where they lie safe. Before the sea is 
an ample piazza for the market, where are the statues 
in copper of the four slaves, much exceeding the life for 
proportion, and, in the judgment of most artists, one of 
the best pieces of modern work. Here, especially in this 


piazza, is such a concourse of slaves, Turks, Moors, and 
other nations, that the number and confusion is prodi- 
gious ; some buying, others selling, others drinking, others 
playing, some working, others sleeping, fighting, singing, 
weeping, all nearly naked, and miserably chained. Here 
was a tent, where any idle fellow might stake his lib- 
erty against a few crowns, at dice, or other hazard; and, 
if he lost, he was immediately chained and led away to 
the galleys, where he was to serve a term of years, but 
from whence they seldom returned; many sottish per- 
sons, in a drunken bravado, would try their fortune in 
this way. 

The houses of this neat town are very uniform, and 
excellently painted d fresco on the outer walls, with 
representations of many of their victories over the Turks. 
The houses, though low on account of the earthquakes 
which frequently happen here, (as did one during my 
being in Italy), are very well built; the piazza is very 
fair and commodious, and, with the church, whose four 
columns at the portico are of black marble polished, 
gave the first hint to the building both of the church 
and piazza in Covent Garden with us, though very im- 
perfectly pursued. 

z2d October, 1644, From Livomo, I took coach to 
Empoly, where we lay, and the next day arrived at 
Florence, being recommended to the house of Sigtior 
Bariti^re. in the Piazza del Spirito Santo, where we were 
exceedingly well treated. Florence is at the foot of the 
Apennines, the west part full of stately groves and 
pleasant meadows, beautified with more than a thousand 
houses and country palaces of note, belonging to gentle- 
men of the town. The river Arno runs through the 
city, in a broad, but very shallow channel, dividing it, as 
it were, in the middle, and over it are four most sump- 
tuous bridges of stone. On that nearest to our quarter 
are the four Seasons, in white marble; on another are 
the goldsmiths' shops; at the head of the former stands 
a column of ophite, upon which a statue of Justice, with 
her balance and sword, cut out of porphyry, and the 
more remarkable for being the first which had been 
carved out of thcA hard material, and brought to per- 
fection, after the art had been utterly lost; they say this 
W-vs done by hardening the tools in the juice of certain 

90 DIARY OF Florence 

herbs. This statue was erected in that corner, because 
there Cosmo was first saluted with the news of Sienna 
being taken. 

Near this is the famous Palazzo di Strozzi, a princely 
piece of architecture, in a rustic manner. The Palace of 
Pitti was built by that family, but of late greatly beau- 
tified by Cosmo with huge square stones of the Doric, 
Ionic, and the Corinthian orders, with a terrace at each 
side having rustic uncut balustrades, with a fountain that 
ends in a cascade seen from the great gate, and so form- 
ing a vista to the gardens. Nothing is more admirable 
than the vacant staircase, marbles, statues, urns, pictures, 
court, grotto, and waterworks. In the quadrangle is a 
huge jetto of water in a volto of four faces, with noble 
statues at each square, especially the Diana of porphyry 
above the grotto. We were here shown a prodigious 
great loadstone. 

The garden has every variety, hills, dales, rocks, groves, 
aviaries, vi varies, fountains, especially one of five jettos, 
the middle basin being one of the longest stones I ever 
saw. Here is everything to make such a Paradise de- 
lightful. In the garden I saw a rose grafted on an orange 
tree. There was much topiary-work, and columns in 
architecture about the hedges. The Duke has added an 
ample laboratory, over against which stands a fort on a 
hill, where they told us his treasure is kept. In this 
Palace the Duke ordinarily resides, living with his Swiss 
guards, after the frugal Italian way, and even selling 
what he can spare of his wines, at the cellar under his 
very house, wicker bottles dangling over even the chief 
entrance into the palace, serving for a vintner's bush. 

In the Church of Santo Spirito the altar and reliquary 
are most rich, and full of precious stones; there are four 
pillars of a kind of serpentine, and some of blue. Hence 
we went to another Palace of the Duke's, called Palazzo 
Vecchio, before which is a statue of David, by Michael 
Angelo, and one of Hercules, killing Cacus, the work of 
Baccio Bandinelli. The quadrangle about this is of the 
Corinthian order, and in the hall are many rare marbles, 
as those of Leo X. and Clement VII., both Popes of the 
Medicean family; also the acts of Cosmo, in rare paint- 
ing. In the chapel is kept (as they would make one 
believe) the original Gospel of St. John, written with his 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 91 

own hand; and the famous Florentine Pandects, and 
divers precious stones. Near it is another pendent Tower 
like that of Pisa, always threatening ruin. 

Under the Court of Justice is a stately arcade for men to 
walk in, and over that, the shops of divers rare artists who 
continually work for the great Duke. Above this is that 
renowned Ceimeliarcha, or repository, wherein are hun- 
dreds of admirable antiquities, statues of marble and 
metal, vases of porphyry, etc. ; but among the statues none 
so famous as the Scipio, the Boar, the Idol of Apollo, 
brought from the Delphic Temple, and two triumphant 
columns. Over these hang the pictures of the most 
famous persons and illustrious men in arts or arms, to 
the number of 300, taken out of the museum of Paulus 
Jovius. They then led us into a large square room, in the 
middle of which stood a cabinet of an octangular form, 
so adorned and furnished with crystals, agates, and sculp- 
tures, as exceeds any description. This cabinet is called 
the Tribuna and in it is a pearl as big as an hazelnut. 
The cabinet is of ebony, lazuli, and jasper; over the door 
is a round of M. Angelo; on the cabinet, Leo X, with 
other paintings of Raphael, del Sarto, Perugino, and 
Correggio, viz, a St. John, a Virgin, a Boy, two Apostles, 
two heads of Durer, rarely carved. Over this cabinet is 
a globe of ivory, excellently carved; the Labors of Her- 
cules, in massy silver, and many incomparable pictures in 
small. There is another, which had about it eight Ori- 
ental columns of alabaster, on each whereof was placed a 
head of a Caesar, covered with a canopy so richly set with 
precious stones, that they resembled a firmament of stars. 
Within it was our Savior's Passion, and the twelve 
Apostles in amber. This cabinet was valued at two 
hundred thousand crowns. In another, with calcedon 
pillars, was a series of golden medals. Here is also 
another rich ebony cabinet cupolaed with a tortoise shell, 
and containing a collection of gold medals esteemed worth 
50,000 crowns; a wreathed pillar of Oriental alabaster, 
divers paintings of Da Vinci, Pontomo, del Sarto, an 
Ecce Homo of Titian, a Boy of Bronzini, etc. They 
showed us a branch of coral fixed on the rock, which they 
affirm does still grow. In another room, is kept the 
Tabernacle appointed for the chapel of St. Laurence, 
about which are placed small statues of Saints, of precious 


material; a piece of such art and cost, that having been 
these forty years in perfecting, it is one of the most 
curious things in the world. Here were divers tables of 
Pietra Commesso, which is a marble ground inlaid with 
several sorts of marbles and stones of various colors rep- 
resenting flowers, trees, beasts, birds, and landscapes. In 
one is represented the town of Leghorn, by the same hand 
who inlaid the altar of St. Laurence, Domenico Benotti, of 
whom I purchased nineteen pieces of the same work for 
a cabinet. In a press near this they showed an iron nail, 
one half whereof being converted into gold by one Thurn- 
heuser, a German chemist, is looked on as a great rarity ; 
but it plainly appeared to have been soldered together. 
There is a curious watch, a monstrous turquoise as big as 
an egg, on which is carved an emperor's head. 

In the armory are kept many antique habits, as those 
of Chinese kings; the sword of Charlemagne; Hannibal's 
headpiece ; a loadstone of a yard long, which bears up 
86 lbs. weight, in a chain of seventeen links, such as the 
slaves are tied to. In another room are such rare turn- 
eries in ivory, as are not to be described for their curi- 
osity. There is a fair pillar of oriental alabaster ; twelve 
vast and complete services of silver plate, and one of 
gold, all of excellent workmanship; a rich embroidered 
saddle of pearls sent by the Emperor to this Duke; and 
here is that embroidered chair set with precious stones 
in which he sits, when, on St. John's day, he receives 
the tribute of the cities. 

25th October, 1644. We went to the Portico where 
the famous statue of Judith and Holofernes stands, also 
the Medusa, all of copper; but what is most admirable 
is the Rape of a Sabine, with another man under foot, 
the confusion and turning of whose limbs is most admir- 
able. It is of one entire marble, the work of John di 
Bologna, and is most stupendous; this stands directly 
against the great piazza, where, to adorn one fountain, 
are erected four marble statues and eight of brass, repre- 
senting Neptune and his family of sea gods, of a Colos- 
sean magnitude, with four sea horses, in Parian marble 
of Lamedrati, in the midst of a very great basin : a work, 
I think, hardly to be paralleled Here is also the famous 
statue of David, by M. Angelo; Hercules and Cacus, by 
Baccio Bandinelli ; the Perseus, in copper, by Benevento, 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 93 

and the Judith of Donajtelli, which stand publicly before 
the old Palace with the Centaur of Bologna, huge Colos- 
sean figures. Near this stand Cosmo di Medicis on horse- 
back, in brass on a pedestal of marble, and four copper 
bassorelievos by John di Bologna, with divers inscrip- 
tions; the Ferdinand the First, on horseback, is of Pietro 
Tacca. The brazen boar, which serves for another public 
fountain, is admirable. 

After dinner, we went to the Church of the Annun- 
ciata, where the Duke and his Court were at their devo- 
tions, being a place of extraordinary repute for sanctity : 
for here is a shrine that does great miracles, [proved] by 
innumerable votive tablets, etc. , covering almost the walls 
of the whole church. This is the image of Gabriel, who 
saluted the Blessed Virgin, and which the artist finished so 
well, that he was in despair of performing the Virgin's 
face so well; whereupon it was miraculously done for him 
while he slept; but others say it was painted by St. Luke 
himself. Whoever it was, infinite is the devotion of both 
sexes to it. The altar is set off with four columns of 
oriental alabaster, and lighted by thirty great silver lamps. 
There are innumerable other pictures by rare masters. 
Our Savior's Passion in brass tables inserted in marble, 
is the work of John di Bologna and Baccio Bandinelli. 

To this church joins a convent, whose cloister is painted 
in fresco very rarely. There is also near it an hospital for 
1 , 000 persons, with nurse-children, and several other charit- 
able accommodations. 

At the Duke's Cavalerizza, the Prince has a stable of the 
finest horses of all countries, Arabs, Turks, Barbs, Gen- 
nets, English, etc., which are continually exercised in the 

Near this is a place where are kept several wild beasts, 
as wolves, cats, bears, tigers, and lions. They are loose in 
a deep walled court, and therefore to be seen with more 
pleasure than those at the Tower of London, in their 
grates. One of the lions leaped to a surprising height, 
to catch a joint of mutton which I caused to be hung 

♦There are many plain brick towers erected for de- 
fense, when this was a free state. The highest is called 

* There seems to be here an omission in the MS. betv.xen their leav- 
ing Florence and going to Sienna. 

94 DIARY OF sienna 

the Mangio, standing at the foot of the piazza which we 
went first to see after our arrival. At the entrance of 
this tower is a chapel open toward the piazza, of marble 
well adorned with sculpture. 

On the other side is the Signoria, or Court of Justice, 
well built a la moderna^ of brick; indeed the bricks of 
Sienna are so well made, that they look almost as well 
as porphyry itself, having a kind of natural polish. 

In the Senate-house is a very fair Hall where they 
sometimes entertain the people with public shows and 
operas, as they call them. Toward the left are the stat- 
ues of Romulus and Remus with the wolf, all of brass, 
placed on a column of ophite stone, which they report 
was brought from the renowned Ephesian Temple. These 
ensigns being the arms of the town, are set up in divers 
of the streets and public ways both within and far with- 
out the city. 

The piazza compasses the facciata of the court and 
chapel, and, being made with descending steps, much re- 
sembles the figure of an escalop shell. The white ranges 
of pavement, intermixed with the excellent bricks above 
mentioned, with which the town is generally well paved, 
render it very clean. About this market place ( for so it 
is) are many fair palaces, though not built with excess 
of elegance. There stands an arch, the work of Baltaz- 
zar di Sienna, built with wonderful ingenuity, so that it is 
not easy to conceive how it is supported, yet it has some 
imperceptible contiguations, which do not betray them- 
selves easily to the eye. On the edge of the piazza is a 
goodly fountain beautified with statues, the water issu- 
ing out of the wolves' mouths, being the work of Jacobo 
Quercei, a famous artist. There are divers other public 
fountains in the city, of good design. 

After this we walked to the Sapienza, which is the 
University, or rather College, where the high Germans 
enjoy many particular privileges when they addict them- 
selves to the civil law: and indeed this place has produced 
many excellent scholars, besides those three Popes, Alex- 
ander, Pius II., and III., of that name, the learned ^neas 
Sylvius ; and both were of the ancient house of the Picco- 

The chief street is called Strada Romana, in which 
Pius II. has built a most stately palace of square stone. 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 95 

with an incomparable portico joining near to it. The 
town is commanded by a castle which hath four bastions 
and a garrison of soldiers. Near it is a list to ride horses 
in, much frequented by the gallants in summer. 

Not far from hence is the Church and Convent of the 
Dominicans, where in the chapel of St. Catherine of 
Sienna they show her head, the rest of her body being 
translated to Rome. The Duomo, or Cathedral, both 
without and within, is of large square stones of black and 
white marble polished, of inexpressible beauty, as is the 
front adorned with sculpture and rare statues. In the 
middle is a stately cupola and two columns of sundry 
streaked colored marble. About the body of the church, 
on a cornice within, are inserted the heads of all the Popes. 
The pulpit is beautified with marble figures, a piece of 
exquisite work; but what exceeds all description is the 
pavement, where (besides the various emblems and other 
figures in the nave ) the choir is wrought with the history 
of the Bible, so artificially expressed in the natural colors 
of the marbles, that few pictures exceed it. Here stands 
a Christo, rarely cut in marble, and on the large high altar is 
a brazen vessel of admirable invention and art. The organs 
are exceeding sweet and well tuned. On the left side of 
the altar is the library, where are painted the acts of 
^neas Sylvius, and others by Raphael. They showed us 
an arm of St. John the Baptist, wherewith, they say, he 
baptized our Savior in Jordan; it was given by the King 
^f Peloponnesus to one of the Popes, as an inscription 
testifies. They have also St. Peter's sword, with which 
he smote ofiE the ear of Malchus. 

Just against the cathedral, we went into the Hospital, 
where they entertain and refresh for three or four days, 
gratis, such pilgrims as go to Rome. In the chapel be- 
longing to it lies the body of St. Susorius, their founder, 
as yet uncorrupted, though dead many hundreds of years. 
They show one of the nails which pierced our Savior, and 
Saint Chrysostom's ** Comment on the Gospel," written by 
his own hand. Below the hill stands the pool called 
Fonte Brande, where fish are fed for pleasure more than 

St. Francis's Church is a large pile, near which, yet a 
little without the city, grows a tree which they report in 
their legend grew from the Saint's staff, which, on going 

g6 DiARY OF torrinieri 

to sleep, he fixed in the ground, and at his waking found 
it had grown a large tree. They affirm that the wood of 
it in decoction cures sundry diseases. 

2d November, 1644. We went from Sienna, desirous 
of being present at the cavalcade of the new Pope, Inno- 
cent X.,* who had not yet made the grand procession to 
St. John di Laterano. We set out by Porto Romano, 
the country all about the town being rare for hunting 
and game. Wild boar and venison are frequently sold in 
the shops in many of the towns about it. We passed 
near Monte Oliveto, where the monastery of that Order 
is pleasantly situated, and worth seeing. Passing over a 
bridge, which, by the inscription, appears to have been 
built by Prince Matthias, we went through Buon-Convento, 
famous for the death of the Emperor, Henry VII., who 
was here poisoned with the Holy Eucharist. Thence, we 
came to Torrinieri, where we dined. This village is in a 
sweet valley, in view of Montalcino, famous for the rare 
Muscatello.f After three miles more, we go by St. Quirico, 
and lay at a private osteria near it, where, after we were 
provided of lodging, came in Cardinal Donghi, a Genoese 
by birth, now come from Rome; he was so civil as to 
entertain us with great respect, hearing we were English, 
for that, he told us he had been once in our country. 
Among other discourse, he related how a dove had been 
seen to sit on the chair in the Conclave at the election 
of Pope Innocent, which he magnified as a great good 
omen, with other particulars which we inquired of him, 
till our suppers parted us. He came in great state with 
his own bedstead and all the furniture, yet would by no 
means suffer us to resign the room we had taken up in 
the lodging before his arrival. Next morning, we rode 
by Monte Pientio, or, as vulgarly called, Monte Mantu- 
miato, which is of an excessive height, ever and anon 
peeping above any clouds with its snowy head, till we 
had climbed to the inn at Radicofani, built by Ferdinand, the 
great Duke, for the necessary refreshment of travelers 
in so inhospitable a place. As we ascended, we entered 
a very thick, solid, and dark body of clouds, looking like 
rocks at a little distance, which lasted near a mile in going 
up ; they were dry misty vapors, hanging undissolved for 

* John Baptista Pamphili, chosen Pope in October, 1644, died in 1655. 
f The wine so called. 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 97 

a vast thickness, and obscuring both the sun and earth, 
so that we seemed to be in the sea rather than in the 
clouds, till, having pierced through it, we came into a 
most serene heaven, as if we had been above all human 
conversation, the mountain appearing more like a great 
island than joined to any other hills ; for we could perceive 
nothing but a sea of thick clouds rolling under our feet 
like huge waves, every now and then suffering the top 
of some other mountain to peep through, which we could 
discover many miles off: and between some breaches of 
the clouds we could see landscapes and villages of the 
subjacent country. This was one of the most pleasant, 
new, and altogether surprising objects that I had ever 

On the summit of this horrid rock (for so it is) is built 
a very strong fort, garrisoned, and somewhat beneath it 
is a small town; the provisions are drawn up with ropes 
and engines, the precipice being otherwise inaccessible. 
At one end of the town lie heaps of rocks so strangely 
broken off from the ragged mountain, as would affright 
one with their horror and menacing postures. Just op- 
posite to the inn gushed out a plentiful and most useful 
fountain which falls into a great trough of stone, bear- 
ing the Duke of Tuscany's arms. Here we dined, and I 
with my black lead pen took the prospect. It is one of 
the utmost confines of the Etrurian State toward St. 
Peter's Patrimony, since the gift of Matilda to Gregory 
VII., as is pretended. 

Here we pass a stone bridge, built by Pope Gregory 
XIV., and thence immediately to Acquapendente, a town 
situated on a very ragged rock, down which precipitates 
an entire river (which gives it the denomination), with a 
most horrid roaring noise. We lay at the posthouse, on 
which is this inscription: 

'•^ U Insegna dell a Post a, d post a a post a. 
In questa posta, fin che habbia d sua posta 
Ogn' un Cavallo a Vetturiin Posta?^ 

Before it was dark, we went to see the Monastery of 
the Franciscans, famous for six learned Popes, and sun- 
dry other great scholars, especially the renowned physi- 
cian and anatomist, Fabricius de Acquapendente, who 
was bred and born there. 

98 DIARY OF viterbo 

4th November, 1 644. After a little riding, we descended 
toward the Lake of Bolsena, which being above twenty 
miles in circuit, yields from hence a most incomparable 
prospect. Near the middle of it are two small islands, 
in one of which is a convent of melancholy Capuchins, 
where those of the Farnesian family are interred. Pliny 
calls it Tarquiniensis Lacus^ and talks of divers floating 
islands about it, but they did not appear to us. The 
lake is environed with mountains, at one of whose sides 
we passed toward the town Bolsena, anciently Volsinium, 
famous in those times, as is testified by divers rare sculp- 
tures in the court of St. Christiana's church, the urn, 
altar, and jasper columns. 

After seven miles' riding, passing through a wood 
heretofore sacred to Juno, we came to Montefiascone, 
the head of the Falisci, a famous people in old time, 
and heretofore Falernum, as renowned for its excellent 
wine, as now for the story of the Dutch Bishop, who 
lies buried in St. Flavian's church with this epitaph: 

*-*• Propter Est, Est, dominus meus mortuus est?'* 

Because, having ordered his servant to ride before, and 
inquire where the best wine was, and there write Est^ 
the man found some so good that he wrote Est, Est, 
upon the vessels, and the Bishop drinking too much of 
it, died. 

From Montefiascone, we travel a plain and pleasant 
champaign to Viterbo, which presents itself with much 
state afar off, in regard of her many lofty pinnacles and 
towers; neither does it deceive our expectation; for it is 
exceedingly beautified with public fountains, especially 
that at the entrance, which is all of brass and adorned 
with many rare figures, and salutes the passenger with a 
most agreeable object and refreshing waters. There are 
many Popes buried in this city, and in the palace is 
this odd inscription: 

^^Ostridzs victoriam in Gig ant as Htteris historiographtcis in hoc 
antiquissimo marmore inscriptam, ex Herculis dim, nunc Divi 
Laurentij Teniplo translatam, ad conversanda: veins tiss . patria 
monument a atg' decora hie locandum statuit S.P.Q. K» 

Under it: 

^*- Sum Osiris Rex Jupiter universo in t err arum orbe.*^ 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 99 

« Sunt Osiris Rex qui ab Itala in Gig antes exercitus veni, vidi, 
et vici.'"* 

* Sum Osiris Rex qu terrarum pacata Italiam decern cCnos quorum 
inventor fui^^ 

Near the town is a sulphurous fountain, which con- 
tinually boils. After dinner we took horse by the new 
way of Capranica, and so passing near Mount Ciminus 
and the Lake, we began to enter the plains of Rome; 
at which sight my thoughts were strangely elevated, but 
soon allayed by so violent a shower, which fell just as 
we were contemplating that proud Mistress of the world, 
and descending by the Vatican (for at that gate we 
entered), that before we got into the city I was wet to 
the skin. 

I came to Rome on the 4th of November, 1644, 
about five at night ; and being perplexed for a convenient 
lodging, wandered up and down on horseback, till at last 
one conducted us to Monsieur Petit's, a Frenchman, near 
the Piazza Spagnola. Here I alighted, and, having bar- 
gained with my host for twenty crowns a month, I caused 
a good fire to be made in my chamber and went to bed, 
being so very wet. The next morning (for I was resolved 
to spend no time idly here) I got acquainted with several 
persons who had long lived at Rome. I was especially 
recommended to Father John, a Benedictine monk and 
Superior of his Order for the English College of Douay, 
a person of singular learning, religion, and humanity; 
also to Mr. Patrick Gary, an Abbot, brother to our 
learned Lord Falkland, a witty young priest, who after- 
ward came over to our church ; Dr. Bacon and Dr. Gibbs, 
physicians who had dependence on Cardinal Caponi, the 
latter being an excellent poet; Father Courtney, the 
chief of the Jesuits in the English College; my Lord 
of Somerset, brother to the Marquis of Worcester; and 
some others, from whom I received instructions how to 
behave in town, with directions to masters and books to 
take in search of the antiquities, churches, collections, 
etc. Accordingly, the next day, November 6th, I began 
to be very pragmatical.* 

•The sense in which Evelyn uses this word is that of its old 
signification, as being very active and full of business, setting to 
work systematically with what he came upon, namely, to view the 
antiquities and beauties of Rome. 


In the first place, our sights-man (for so they name 
certain persons here who get their living by leading 
strangers about to see the city) went to the Palace Far- 
nese, a magnificent square structure, built by Michael 
Angelo, of the three orders of columns after the ancient 
manner, and when architecture was but newly recovered 
from the Gothic barbarity. The court is square and ter- 
raced, having two pairs of stairs which lead to the upper 
rooms, and conducted us to that famous gallery painted 
by Augustine Caracci, than which nothing is more rare of 
that art ; so deep and well-studied are all the figures, that 
it would require more judgment than I confess I had, to 
determine whether they were flat, or embossed. Thence, 
we passed into another, painted in chiarosctiro, represent- 
ing the fabulous history of Hercules. We went out on a 
terrace, where was a pretty garden on the leads, for it is 
built in a place that has no extent of ground backward. 
The great hall is wrought by Salviati and Zuccharo, fur- 
nished with statues, one of which being modern is the 
figure of a Farnese, in a triumphant posture, of white 
marble, worthy of admiration. Here we were shown the 
Miiseum of Fulvius Ursinos, replete with innumerable 
collections; but the Major-Domo being absent, we could 
not at this time see all we wished. Descending into the 
court, we with astonishment contemplated those two in- 
comparable statues of Hercules and Flora, so much cele- 
brated by Pliny, and indeed by all antiquity, as two of the 
most rare pieces in the world; there likewise stands a 
modem statue of Hercules and two Gladiators, not to be 
despised. In a second court was a temporary shelter of 
boards over the most stupendous and never-to-be-suffi- 
ently-admired Torso of Amphion and Dirce, represented 
in five figures, exceeding the life in magnitude, of the 
purest white marble, the contending work of those famous 
statuaries, Apollonius and Taurisco, in the time of Augus- 
tus, hewed out of one entire stone, and remaining un- 
blemished, to be valued beyond all the marbles of the 
world for its antiquity and workmanship. There are 
divers other heads and busts. At the entrance of this 
stately palace stand two rare and vast fountains of garnito 
stone, brought into this piazza out of Titus's Baths. 
Here, in summer, the gentlemen of Rome take the fresco 
in their coaches and on foot. At the sides of this court 

i644 JOHN EVELYN loi 

we visited the palace of Signer Pichini, who has a good 
collection of antiquities, especially the Adonis of Parian 
marble, which my Lord Arundel would once have pur- 
chased, if a great price would have been taken for it. 

We went into the Campo Vaccixo, by the ruins of the 
Temple of Peace, built by Titus Vespasianus, and thought 
to be the largest as well as the most richly furnished of 
all the Roman dedicated places: it is now a heap rather 
than a temple, yet the roof and volto continue firm, show- 
ing it to have been formerly of incomparable workman- 
ship. This goodly structure was, none knows how^ 
consumed by fire the very night, by all computation, that 
our blessed Savior was bom. 

From hence we passed by the place into which Curtius 
precipitated himself for the love of his country, now 
without any sign of a lake, or vorago. Near this stand 
some columns of white marble, of exquisite work, sup- 
posed to be part of the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, built 
by Augustus; the work of the capitals (being- Corinthian) 
and architrave is excellent, full of sacrificing utensils. 
There are three other of Jupiter Stator. Opposite to 
these are the oratories, or churches, of St, Cosmo and 
Damiano, heretofore the Temples of Romulus; a pretty 
old fabric, with a tribunal, or tholus within, wrought all 
of Mosaic. The gates before it are brass, and the whole 
much obliged to Pope Urban VIII. In this sacred place 
lie the bodies of those two martyrs; and in a chapel on 
the right hand is a rare painting of Cavaliere Baglioni. 

We next entered St. Lorenzo in Miranda. The portico 
is supported by a range of most stately columns ; the in- 
scription cut in the architrave shows it to have been the 
Temple of Faustina. It is now made a fair church, and 
has an hospital which joins it. On the same side is St. 
Adriano, heretofore dedicated to Saturn. Before this 
was once placed a military column, supposed to be set 
in the center of the city, from whence they used to com- 
pute the distance of all the cities and places of note 
under the dominion of those universal monarchs. To 
this church are likewise brazen gates and a noble front; 
just opposite we saw the heaps and ruins of Cicero's pal- 
ace. Hence we went toward Mons Capitolinus, at the 
foot of which stands the arch of Septimus Severus, full 
and entire, save where the pedestal and some of the 



lower members are choked up with ruins and earth. 
This arch is exceedingly enriched with sculpture and tro- 
phies, with a large inscription. In the terrestrial and 
naval battles here graven, is seen the Roman Aries (the 
battering-ram); and this was the first triumphal arch set 
up in Rome. The Capitol, to which we climbed by very 
broad steps, is built about a square court, at the right 
hand of whicn, going up from Campo Vaccino, gushes a 
plentiful stream from the statue of Tiber, in porphyry, 
very antique, and another representing Rome ; but, above 
all, is the admirable figure of Marforius, casting water 
into a most ample concha. The front of this court is 
crowned with an excellent fabric containing the Courts 
of Justice, and where the Criminal Notary sits, and 
others. In one of the halls they show the statues of 
Gregory XIII. and Paul III., with several others. To 
this joins a handsome tower, the whole faciata adorned 
with noble statues, both on the outside and on the 
battlements, ascended by a double pair of stairs, and a 
stately Posario. 

In the center of the court stands that incomparable 
horse bearing the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, as big as 
the life, of Corinthian metal, placed on a pedestal of 
marble, esteemed one of the noblest pieces of work now 
extant, antique and very rare. There is also a vast head 
of a colossean magnitude, of white marble, fixed in the 
wall. At the descending stairs are set two horses of 
white marble governed by two naked slaves, taken to be 
Castor and Pollux, brought from Pompey's Theatre. On 
the balustrade, the trophies of Marius against the Cim- 
brians, very ancient and instructive. At the foot of the 
steps toward the left hand is that Colonna Miliaria, with 
the globe of brass on it, mentioned to have been formerly 
set in Campo Vaccino. On the same hand, is the palace 
of the Signiori Conservatori, or three Consuls, now the 
civil governors of the city, containing the fraternities, or 
halls and guilds (as we call them), of sundry companies, 
and other offices of state. Under the portico within, are 
the statues of Augustus Caesar, a Bacchus, and the so 
renowned Colonna Rostrata of Duillius, with the excellent 
bassi-relievi. In a smaller court, the statue of Constan- 
tine, on a fountain, a Minerva's head of brass, and that 
of Commodus, to which belongs a hand, the thumb whereof 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 103 

is at least an ell long, and yet proportionable; but the 
rest of the colosse is lost. In the comer of this court 
stand a horse and lion fighting, as big as life, in white 
marble, exceedingly valued; likewise the Rape of the 
Sabines ; two cumbent figures of Alexander and Mammea ; 
two monstrous feet of a colosse of Apollo; the Sepulchre 
of Agrippina; and the standard, or antique measure of 
the Roman foot. Ascending by the steps of the other cor- 
ner, are inserted four basso-relievos, viz, the triumph and 
sacrifice of Marcus Aurelius, which last, for the antiquity 
and rareness of the work, I caused my painter, Carlo 
Neapolitano, to copy. There are also two statues of the 
Muses, and one of Adrian, the Emperor; above stands 
the figure of Marius, and by the wall Marsyas bound to 
a tree ; all of them excellent and antique. Above in the 
lobby are inserted into the walls those ancient laws, on 
brass, called the Twelve Tables ; a fair Madonna of Pietro 
Perugino, painted on the wall; near which are the ar- 
chives, full of ancient records. 

In the great hall are divers excellent paintings of Cava- 
liero Giuseppe d'Arpino, a statue in brass of Sextus V. 
and of Leo X., of marble.. In another hall are many 
modern statues of their late Consuls and Governors, set 
about with fine antique heads ; others are painted by ex- 
cellent masters, representing the actions of M. Scsevola, 
Horatius Codes, etc. The room where the Conserva- 
tori now feast upon solemn days, is tapestried with crim- 
son damask, embroidered with gold, having a state or 
balduquino of crimson velvet, very rich ; the frieze above 
rarely painted. Here are in brass, Romulus and Remus 
sucking the wolf, of brass, with the Shepherd, Faustulus, 
by them ; also the boy plucking the thorn out of his foot, 
of brass, so much admired by artists. There are also 
holy statues and heads of Saints. In a gallery near ad- 
'joining are the names of the ancient Consuls, Praetors, 
and Fasti Romani, so celebrated by the learned ; also the 
figure of an old woman; two others representing Poverty; 
and more in fragments. In another large rooin, furnished 
with velvet, are the statue of Adonis, very rare, and 
divers antique heads. In the next chamber, is an old 
statue of Cicero, one of another Consul, a Hercules in 
brass, two women's heads of incomparable work, six 
other statues; and, over the chimney, a very rare basso- 

I04 DIARY OF home 

relievo, and other figures. In a little lobby before the 
chapel, is the statue of Hannibal, a Bacchus very antique, 
busioes of Pan and Mercury, with other old heads. All 
these noble statues, etc., belong to the city, and cannot 
be disposed of to any private person, or removed hence, 
but are preserved for the honor of the place, though great 
sums have been offered for them by divers Princes, 
lovers of art, and antiquity. We now left the Capitol, 
certainly one of the most renowned places in the world, 
even as now built by the design of the famous M. 

Returning home by Ara Coeli, we mounted to it by 
more than loo marble steps, not in devotion, as I ob- 
served some to do on their bare knees, but to see those 
two famous statues of Constantine, in white marble, 
placed there out of his baths. In this church is a 
Madonna, reported to be painted by St. Luke, and a 
column, on which we saw the print of a foot, which they 
affirm to have been that of the Angel, seen on the Castle 
of St. Angelo. Here the feast of our Blessed Savior's 
nativity being yearly celebrated with divers pageants, 
they began to make the preparation. Having viewed the 
Palace and fountain, at the other side of the stairs, we 
returned weary to our lodgings. 

On the 7th of November, we went again near the 
Capitol, toward the Tarpeian rock, where it has a goodly 
prospect of the Tiber. Thence, descending by the Tul- 
lianum, where they told us St. Peter was imprisoned, 
they showed us a chapel ( S. Pietro de Vincoli ) in which 
a rocky side of it bears the impression of his face. In 
the nave of the church gushes a fountain, which they 
say was caused by the Apostle's prayers, when having 
converted some of his fellow-captives he wanted water 
to make them Christians. The painting of the Ascension 
is by Raphael. We then walked about Mount Palatinus 
and the Aventine, and thence to the Circus Maximus, 
capable of holding 40, 000 spectators, now a heap of ruins, 
converted into gardens. Then by the Forum Boarium^ 
where they have a tradition that Hercules slew Cacus, 
some ruins of his temple remaining. The Temple of 
Janus Quadrifrons, having four arches, importing the four 
Seasons, and on each side niches for the months, is still 
a substantial and pretty entire antiquity. Near to this is 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 105 

the Arcus Argentariorum. Bending now toward the 
Tiber, we went into the Theater of Marcellus, which 
would hold 80,000 persons, built by Augustus, and ded- 
icated to his nephew; the architecture, from what 
remains, appears to be inferior to none. It is now wholly 
converted into the house of the Savelli, one of the old 
Roman families. The people were now generally busy 
in erecting temporary triumphs and arches with statues 
and flattering inscriptions against his Holiness's grand 
procession to St. John di Laterani, among which the 
Jews also began one in testimony of gratitude for their 
protection under the Papal State. The Palazzo Barberini, 
designed by the present Pope's architect, Cavaliero Ber- 
nini, seems from the size to be as princely an object, as 
any modern building in Europe. It has a double portico, 
at the end of which we ascended by two pair of oval 
stairs, all of stone, and void in the well. One of these 
led us into a stately hall, the volto whereof was newly 
painted d fresco^ by the rare hand of Pietro Berretini il 
Cortone. To this is annexed a gallery completely fur- 
nished with whatever art can call rare and singular, and 
a library full of worthy collections, medals, marbles, and 
manuscripts; but, above all, an Egyptian Osiris, remark- 
able for its unknown material and antiquity. In one of 
the rooms near this hangs the Sposaliccio of St. Sebas- 
tian, the original of Annibal Caracci, of which I pro- 
cured a copy, little inferior to the prototype; a table, in 
my judgment, superior to anything I had seen in Rome. 
In the court is a vast broken giiglia, or obelisk, having 
divers hieroglyphics cut on it. 

8th November, 1644. We visited the Jesuits' Church, 
the front whereof is esteemed a noble piece of architec- 
ture, the design of Jacomo della Porta and the famous 
Vignola. In this church lies the body of their renowned 
Ignatius Loyola, an arm of Xaverius, their other Apos- 
tle ; and, at the right end of their high altar, their cham- 
pion, Cardinal Bellarmine. Here Father Kircher (professor 
of Mathematics and the oriental tongues) showed us many 
singular courtesies, leading us into their refectory, dis- 
pensatory, laboratory, gardens, and finally (through a 
hall hung round with pictures of such of their order as 
had been executed for their pragmatical and busy adven- 
tures) into his own study, where, with Dutch patience, 

io6 DIARY OF rome 

lie showed us his perpetual motions, catoptrics, magnet- 
ical experiments, models, and a thousand other crotchets 
and devices, most of them since published by himself, 
or his industrious scholar, Schotti. 

Returning home, we had time to view the Palazzo de 
Medicis, which was an house of the Duke of Florence 
near our lodging, upon the brow of Mons Pincius, hav- 
ing a fine prospect toward the Campo Marzo. It is a 
magnificent, strong building, with a substruction very- 
remarkable, and a portico supported with columns to- 
ward the gardens, with two huge lions, of marble, at 
the end of the balustrade. The whole outside of the 
facciata is incrusted with antique and rare basso-relievos 
and statues. Descending into the garden is a noble foun- 
tain governed by a Mercury of brass. At a little dis- 
tance, on the left, is a lodge full of fine statues, among 
which the Sabines, antique and singularly rare. In the 
arcade near this stand twenty-four statues of great price, 
and hard by is a mount planted with cypresses, rep- 
resenting a fortress, with a goodly fountain in the mid- 
dle. Here is also a row balustred with white marble, 
covered over with the natural shrubs, ivy, and other 
perennial greens, divers statues and heads being placed 
as in niches. At a little distance are those famed stat- 
ues of Niobe and her family, in all fifteen, as large as 
the life, of which we have ample mention in Pliny, es- 
teemed among the best pieces of work in the world for 
the passions they express, and all other perfections of 
that stupendous art. There is likewise in this garden a 
fair obelisk, full of hieroglyphics. In going out, the 
fountain before the front casts water near fifty feet in 
height, when it is received in a most ample marble basin. 
Here they usually rode the great horse every morning; 
which gave me much diversion from the terrace of my 
own chamber, where I could see all their motions. This 
evening, I was invited to hear rare music at the Chiesa 
Nova; the black marble pillars within led us to that 
most precious oratory of Philippus Nerius, their founder; 
they being of the oratory of secular priests, under no 
vow. There are in it divers good pictures, as the As- 
sumption of Girolamo Mutiano; the Crucifix; the Visita- 
tion of Elizabeth; the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin; 
Christo Sepolto, of Guido Rheno, Caravaggio, Arpino, and 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 107 

others. This fair church consists of fourteen altars, and 
as many chapels. In it is buried (besides their Saint) 
Caesar Baronius, the great annalist. Through this, we 
went into the sacristia, where, the tapers being lighted, 
one of the Order preached ; after him stepped up a child 
of eight or nine years old, who pronounced an oration 
with so much grace, that I never was better pleased 
than to hear Italian so well and so intelligently spoken. 
This course it seems they frequently use, to bring their 
scholars to a habit of speaking distinctly, and forming 
their action and assurance, which none so much want as 
ours in England. This being finished, began their inotet- 
tos, which in a lofty cupola richly painted, were sung by 
eunuchs, and other rare voices, accompanied by theor- 
boes, harpsichords, and viols, so that we were even rav- 
ished with the entertainment of the evening. This room 
is painted by Cortona, and has in it two figures in the 
niches, and the church stands in one of the most stately 
streets of Rome. 

loth November, 1644. We went to see Prince Ludo- 
visio's villa, where was formerly the Viridarium of the 
poet, Sallust. The house is very magnificent, and the 
extent of the ground exceedingly large, considering that 
it is in a city ; in every quarter of the garden are antique 
statues, and walks planted with cypress. To this garden 
belongs a house of retirement, built in the fignire of a 
cross, after a particular ordonnance, especially the stair- 
case. The whiteness and smoothness of the excellent 
pargeting was a thing I much observed, being almost as 
even and polished, as if it had been of marble. Above, 
is a fair prospect of the city. In one of the chambers 
hang two famous pieces of Bassano, the one a Vulcan, 
the other a Nativity; there is a German clock full of 
rare and extraordinary motions; and, in a little room 
below are many precious marbles, columns, urns, vases, 
and noble statues of porphyr)% oriental alabaster, and 
other rare materials. About this fabric is an ample area, 
environed with sixteen vast jars of red earth, wherein 
the Romans used to preserve their oil, or wine rather, 
which they buried, and such as are properly called testcB. 
In the Palace I must never forget the famous statue of 
the Gladiator, spoken of by Pliny, so much followed by 
all the rare artists as the many copies testify, dispersed 

io8 DIARY OF rome 

through almost all Europe, both in stone and metal. 
There is also a Hercules, a head- of porphyry, and one 
of Marcus Aurelius. In the villa-house is a man's body 
flesh and all, petrified, and even converted to marble, as 
it was found in the Alps, and sent by the Emperor to 
one of the Popes; it lay in a chest, or coffin, lined with 
black velvet, and one of the arms being broken, you may 
see the perfect bone from the flesh which remains entire. 
The Rape of Proserpine, in marble, is of the purest 
white, the work of Bernini. In the cabinet near it are 
innumerable small brass figures, and other curiosities. 
But what some look upon as exceeding all the rest, is a 
very rich bedstead (which sort of gross furniture the 
Italians much glory in, as formerly did our grandfathers 
in England in their inlaid wooden ones) inlaid with all 
sorts of precious stones and antique heads, onyxes, 
agates, and cornelians, esteemed to be worth 80 or 90,000 
crowns. Here are also divers cabinets and tables of the 
Florence work, besides pictures in the gallery, especially 
the Apollo — a conceited chair to sleep in with the legs 
stretched out, with hooks, and pieces of wood to draw 
out longer or shorter. 

From this villa, we went to see Signor Angeloni's 
study, who very courteously showed us such a collection 
of rare medals as is hardly to be paralleled; divets good 
pictures, and many outlandish and Indian curiosities, and 
things of nature. 

From him, we walked to Monte Cavallo, heretofore 
called Mons Quirinalis, where we saw those two rare 
horses, the work of the rivals Phidias and Praxiteles, as 
they were sent to Nero (by Tiridates King) out of Ar- 
menia. They were placed on pedestals of white marble 
by Sextus V., by whom I suppose their injuries were 
repaired, and are governed by four naked slaves, like 
those at the foot of the Capitol. Here runs a most noble 
fountain, regarding four of the most stately streets for 
building and beauty to be seen in any city of Europe. 
Opposite to these statues is the Pope's summer palace, 
built by Gregory XIII. ; and, in my opinion, it is, for 
largeness and the architecture, one of the most conspic- 
uous in Rome, having a stately portico which leads round 
the court under columns, in the centre of which there 
runs a beautiful fountain. The chapel is incrusted with 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 109 

such precious materials, that nothing can be more rich, 
or glorious, nor are the other ornaments and movables 
about it at all inferior. The hall is painted by Lanfranci, 
and others. The garden, which is called the Belvedere 
di Monte Cavallo, in emulation of that of the Vatican, 
is most excellent for air and prospect; its exquisite foun- 
tains, close walks, grots, piscinas, or stews for fish, planted 
about with venerable cypresses, and refreshed with water- 
music, aviaries, and other rarities. 

12th November, 1644. We saw Dioclesian's Baths, 
whose ruins testify the vastness of the original founda- 
tion and magnificence; by what M. Angelo took from 
the ornaments about it, 'tis said he restored the then 
almost lost art of architecture. This monstrous pile was 
built by the labor of the primitive Christians, then under 
one of the ten great persecutions. The Church of St. 
Bernardo is made out of one only of these ruinous cupolas, 
and is in the form of an urn with a cover. 

Opposite to this, is the Fontana delle Therme, otherwise 
called Fons Felix; in it is a basso-relievo of white marble, 
representing Moses striking the rock, which is 'adorned 
with camels, men, women, and children drinking, as large 
as life ; a work for the design and vastness truly magnifi- 
cent. The water is conveyed no less than twenty-two 
miles in an aqueduct by Sextus V., ex agro Columna, by 
way of Praeneste, as the inscription testifies. It gushes 
into three ample lavers raised about with stone, before 
which are placed two lions of a strange black stone, very 
rare and antique. Near this are the store-houses for the 
city's corn, and over against it the Church of St. Susanna, 
where were the gardens of Sallust. The facikta of this 
church is noble, the soffito within gilded and full of 
pictures ; especially famous is that of Susanna, by Baldassa 
di Bologna. The tribunal of the high altar is of exquisite 
work, from whose marble steps you descend under ground 
to the repository of divers Saints. The picture over this 
altar is the work of Jacomo Siciliano. The foundation is 
for Bernadine Nuns, 

Santa Maria della Vittoria presents us with the most 
ravishing front. In this church was sung the Te Deum by 
Gregory XV., after the signal victory of the Emperor at 
Prague; the standards then taken still hang up, and the 
impress waving this motto over the Pope's arms, Extir- 


pentur. I observed that the high altar was much fre- 
quented for an image of the Virgin. It has some rare 
statues, as Paul ravished into the third heaven, by Fia- 
mingo, and some good pictures. From this, we bent 
toward Dioclesian's Baths, never satisfied with contem- 
plating that immense pile, in building which 150,000 Chris- 
tians were destined to labor fourteen years, and were then 
all murdered. Here is a monastery of Carthusians, called 
Santa Maria degli Angeli, the architecture of M. Angelo, 
and the cloister encompassing walls in an ample garden. 

Mont Alto's villa is entered by a stately gate of stone 
built on the Viminalis, and is no other than a spacious 
park full of fountains, especially that which salutes us at 
the front; stews for fish; the cypress walks are so beset 
with statues, inscriptions, relievos, and other ancient 
marbles, that nothing can be more stately and solemn. 
The citron trees are uncommonly large. In the palace 
joining to it are innumerable collections of value. Return- 
ing, we stepped into St. Agnes church, where there is a 
tribunal of antique mosaic, and on the altar a most rich 
ciborio of brass, with a statue of St. Agnes in oriental 
alabaster. The church of Santa Constanza has a noble 
cupola. Here they showed us a stone ship borne on a 
column heretofore sacred to Bacchus, as the relievo inti- 
mates by the drunken emblems and instruments wrought 
upon it. The altar is of rich porphyry, as I remember. 
Looking back, we had the entire view of the Via Pia down 
to the two horses before the Monte Cavallo, before men- 
tioned, one of the most glorious sights for state and 
magnificence that any city can show a traveler. We re- 
turned by Porta Pia, and the Via Salaria, near Campo 
Scelerato, in whose gloomy caves the wanton Vestals were 
heretofore immured alive. 

Thence to Via Felix, a straight and noble street but 
very precipitous, till we came to the four fountains of 
Lepidus, built at the abutments of four stately ways, 
making an exact cross of right angles; and, at the foun- 
tains, are as many cumbent figures of marble, under very 
large niches of stone, the water pouring into huge basins. 
The church of St. Carlo is a singular fabric for neatness, 
of an oval design, built of a new white stone; the col- 
umns are worth notice. Under it is another church of a 
structure nothing less admirable. 

i644 JOHN EVELYN iii 

Next, we came to Santa Maria ^laggiore, built upon 
the Esqueline Mountain, which gives it a most conspicu- 
ous face to the street at a great distance. The design is 
mixed partly antique, partly modem. Here they affirm 
that the Blessed Virgin appearing, showed where it should 
be built 300 years since. The first pavement is rare and 
antique; so is the portico built by P. P. Eugenius 11. 
The ciborio is the work of Paris Romano, and the tri- 
bunal of Mosaic. 

We were showed in the church a concha of porphyry, 
wherein they say Patricius, the founder, lies. This is one 
of the most famous of the seven Roman Churches, and 
is, in my opinion at least, after St. Peter's, the most mag- 
nificent. Above all, for incomparable glory and mate- 
rials, are the two chapels of Sextus V. and Paulus V. 
That of Sextus was designed by Dom. Fontana, in which 
are two rare gpreat statues, and some good pieces of 
painting; and here they pretended to show some of the 
Holy Innocents' bodies slain by Herod: as also that re- 
nowned tabernacle of metal, gilt, sustained by four angels, 
holding as many tapers, placed on the altar. In this 
chapel is the statue of Sextus, in copper, with basso- 
relievos of most of his famous acts, in Parian marble; 
but that of P. Paulus, which we next entered, opposite to 
this, is beyond all imagination glorious, and above de- 
scription. It is so encircled with agates, and other most 
precious materials, as to dazzle and confound the behold- 
ers. The basso-relievos are for the most part of pure 
snowy marble, intermixed with figures of molten brass, 
double gilt, on lapis lazuli. The altar is a most stupen- 
dous piece; but most incomparable is the cupola painted 
by Giuseppe Rheni, and the present Baglioni, full of ex- 
quisite sculptures. There is a most sumptuous sacristia; 
and the piece over the altar was by the hand of St. 
Luke ; if you will believe it. Paulus V. hath here likewise 
built two other altars; under the one lie the bones of 
the Apostle, St. Matthias. In another oratory, is the 
statue of this Pope, and the head of the Congo Ambas- 
sador, who was converted at Rome, and died here. In a 
third chapel, designed by Michael Angelo, lie the bodies 
of Platina, and the Cardinal of Toledo, Honorius III., 
Nicephorus IV., the ashes of St. Hierom, and many 
others. In that of Sextus V., before mentioned, was 


showed us part of the crib in which Christ was swaddled 
at Bethlehem ; there is also the statue of Pius V. ; and 
going out at the further end, is the resurrection of Laz- 
arus, by a very rare hand. In the portico, is this late 
inscription: *-'- Cardinal Antonio Barberino Archypresbytero, 
aream niarnioreafn quvm Christianorum pietas exsculpsit, 
laborante sub Tyrannis ecclesid, ut esset loci sanctitate vener- 
abilior, Francis Gualdus Arm. Eques S. Stephani i suis 
cedibus hue transtulit et ornavit, 16^2?'* Just before this 
portico, stands a very sublime and stately Corinthian 
column, of white marble, translated hither for an orna- 
ment from the old Temple of Peace, built by Vespasian, 
having on the plinth of the capital the image of our 
Lady, gilt on metal; at the pedestal runs a fountain. 
Going down the hill, we saw the obelisk taken from the 
Mausoleum of Augustus, and erected in this place by 
Domenico Fontana, with this epigraph: *■*• Sextus V. Pont. 
Max. Obeliscum ex Egypto advectum., Augusti in Mausoleo 
dicatum, eversum deinde et in pliires confractum partes, in 
via ad S. Rochuni j'acentem, in pristinam faciem restitutunt 
Salutiferce Cruci feliciiis hicerigijussit, anno MDLXXXVIII, 
Pont. IIP^\ and so we came weary to our lodgings. 

At the foot of this hill, is the church of St. Prudentia, 
in which is a well, filled with the blood and bones of 
several martyrs, but grated over with iron, and visited 
by many devotees. Near this stands the church of her 
sister, S. Praxedeis, much frequented for the same reason. 
In a little obscure place, canceled in with iron work, is 
the pillar, or stump, at which they relate our Blessed 
Savior was scourged, being full of bloody spots, at which 
the devout sex are always rubbing their chaplets, and convey 
their kisses by a stick having a tassel on it. Here, besides a 
noble statue of St. Peter, is the tomb of the famous Cardinal 
Cajetan, an excellent piece; and here they hold that St. 
Peter said his first mass at Rome, with the same altar 
and the stone he kneeled on, he having been' first lodged 
in this house, as they compute about the forty-fourth 
year of the Incarnation. They also show many relics, or 
rather rags, of his mantle. St. Laurence in Panispema 
did next invite us, where that martyr was cruelly broiled 
on the gridiron, there yet remaining. St. Bridget is 
buried in this church under a stately monument. In the 
front of the pile is the suffering of St. Laurence painted 

1604 JOHN EVELYN 113 

d fresco on the wall. The fabric is nothing but Gothic. On 
the left is the Therma Novatii ; and, on the right, Agrip- 
pina's Lavacrum. 

14th November, 1644. We passed again through the 
stately Capitol and Campo Vaccino toward the Amphi- 
theater of Vespasian, but first stayed to look at Titus's 
Triumphal Arch, erected by the people of Rome, in 
honor of his victory at Jerusalem; on the left hand 
whereof he is represented drawn in a chariot with four 
horses abreast; on the right hand, or side of the arch 
within, is sculptured in figures, or basso-relievo as big 
as the life (and in one entire marble) the Ark of the 
Covenant, on which stands the seven-branched candle- 
stick described in Leviticus, as also the two Tables of 
the Law, all borne on men's shoulders by the bars, as 
they are described in some of St. Hierom's bibles; be- 
fore this, go many crowned and laureated figures, and 
twelve Roman fasces with other sacred vessels. This 
much confirmed the idea I before had ; and therefore, for 
the light it gave to the Holy History, I caused my 
painter, Carlo, to copy it exactly. The rest of the work 
of the Arch is of the noblest, best understood composita; 
and the inscription is this, in capital letters: 

s. p. Q. R. 


Santa Maria Nova is on the place where they told us 
Simon Magus fell out of the air at St. Peter's prayer, 
and burst himself to pieces on a flint. Near this is a 
marble monument, erected by the people of Rome in 
memory of the Pope's return from Avignon. 

Being now passed the ruins of Meta-Sudante (which 
stood before the Colosseum, so called, because there once 
stood here the statue of Commodus provided to refresh 
the gladiators), we enter the mighty ruins of the Ves- 
pasian Amphitheatre, begun by Vespasian, and finished 
by that excellent prince, Titus. It is 830 Roman palms 
in length {i. e. 130 paces), 90 in breadth at the area, 
with caves for the wild beasts which used to be baited 
by men instead of dogs; the whole oval periphery 28884^ 
palms, and capable of containing 87,000 spectators with 
ease and all accommodation: the three rows of circles are 
yet entire; the first was for the senators, the middle for 



the nobility, the third for the people. At the dedication 
of this place were 5,000 wild beasts slain in three months 
during which the feast lasted, to the expense of ten 
millions of gold. It was built of Tiburtine stone, a vast 
height, with the five orders of architecture, by 30,000 
captive Jews. It is without, of a perfect circle, and was 
once adorned thick with statues, and remained entire, 
till of late that some of the stones were carried away to 
repair the city walls and build the Famesian palace. 
That which still appears most admirable is, the contriv- 
ance of the porticos, vaults, and stairs, with the exces- 
sive altitude, which well deserves this distich of the poet : 

^^Oninzs CcEsareo cedat labor Amphitheatro; 
Unum pro cunctis fama loquatur opus.^ 

Near it is a small chapel called Santa Maria della Pieta 
nel Colisseo, which is erected on the steps, or stages, very 
lofty at one of its sides, or ranges, within, and where there 
lives only a melancholy hermit. I ascended to the very 
top of it with wonderful admiration. 

The Arch of Constantine the Great is close by the 
Meta-Sudante, before mentioned, at the beginning of the 
Via Appia, on one side Monte Celio, and is perfectly entire, 
erected by the people in memory of his victory over Max- 
entius, at the Pons Milvius, now Ponte Mole. In the front 
is this inscription: 


P. F. AVGVSTO S. P. Q. R. 






Hence, we went to St. Gregorio, in Monte Celio, where 
are many privileged altars, and there they showed us an 
arm of that saint, and other relics. Before this church 
stands a very noble portico. 

15th November, 1644. Was very wet, and I stirred 
not out, and the i6th I went to visit Father John, Pro- 
vincial of the Benedictines. 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 115 

17th November, 1644. I walked to Villa Borghese, a 
house and ample garden on Mons Pincius, yet somewhat 
without the city walls, circumscribed by another wall full 
of small turrets and banqueting-houses ; which makes it 
appear at a distance like a little town. Within it is an 
elysium of delight, having in the centre of it a noble 
palace; but the entrance of the garden presents us with 
a very glorious fabric, or rather door-case, adorned with 
divers excellent marble statues. This garden abounded 
with all sorts of delicious fruit and exotic simples, foun- 
tains of sundry inventions, groves, and small rivulets. 
There is also adjoining to it a vivarium for ostriches, 
peacocks, swans, cranes, etc., and divers strange beasts, 
deer, and hares. The grotto is very rare, and repre- 
sents, among other devices, artificial rain, and sundry 
shapes of vessels, flowers, etc. ; which is eflFected by 
changing the heads of the fountains. The groves are of 
cypress, laurel, pine, myrtle, and olive. The four sphinxes 
are very antique, and worthy observation. To this is a 
volary, full of curious birds. The house is square with 
turrets, from which the prospect is excellent toward 
Rome, and the environing hills, covered as they now are 
with snow, which indeed commonly continues even a 
gfreat part of the summer, affording sweet refreshment. 
Round the house is a baluster of white marble, with fre- 
quent jettos of water, and adorned with a multitude of 
statues. The walls of the house are covered with antique 
incrustations of history, as that of Curtius, the Rape of 
Europa, Leda, etc. The cornices above consist of fruit- 
ages and festoons, between which are niches furnished 
with statues, which order is observed to the very roof. 
In the lodge, at the entry, are divers good statues of 
Consuls, etc., with two pieces of field artillery upon car- 
riages, ( a mode much practiced in Italy before the great 
men's houses ) which they look on as a piece of state 
more than defense. In the first hall within, are the 
twelve Roman Emperors, of excellent marble; between 
them stand porphyry columns, and other precious stones 
of vast height and magnitude, with urns of oriental 
alabaster. Tables of pietra-commessa : and here is that 
renowned Diana which Pompey worshiped, of eastern 
marble: the most incomparable Seneca of touch, bleeding 
in an huge vase of porphyry, resembling the drops of 

u6 DIARY OF rome 

his blood; the so famous Gladiator, and the Hermaph- 
rodite upon a quilt of stone. The new piece of Daphne, 
and David, of Cavaliero Bernini, is observable for the 
pure whiteness of the stone, and the art of the statuary 
plainly stupendous. There is a multitude of rare pictures 
of infinite value, by the best masters; huge tables of 
porphyry, and two exquisitely wrought vases of the 
same. In another chamber, are divers sorts of instru- 
ments of music : among other toys that of a satyr, which 
so artificially expressed a human voice, with the motion 
of eyes and head, that it might easily afright one who 
was not prepared for that most extravagant sight. They 
showed us also a chair that catches fast any one who 
sits down in it, so as not to be able to stir out, by cer- 
tain springs concealed in the arms and back thereof, 
which at sitting down surprises a man on the sudden, 
locking him in by the arms and thighs, after a true 
treacherous Italian guise. The perspective is also con- 
siderable, composed by the position of looking-glasses, 
which render a strange multiplication of things resembling 
divers most richly furnished rooms. Here stands a rare 
clock of German work; in a word, nothing but what is 
magnificent is to be seen in this Paradise. 

The next day, I went to the Vatican, where, in the 
morning, I saw the ceremony of Pamfilio, the Pope's 
nephew, receiving a Cardinal's hat; this was the first 
time I had seen his Holiness in pontificalibus. After the 
Cardinals and Princes had met in the consistory, the 
ceremony was in the Pope's chapel, where he was at the 
altar invested with most pompous rites. 

19th November, 1644. I visited St. Peter's, that most 
stupendous and incomparable Basilica, far surpassing any 
now extant in the world, and perhaps, Solomon's Temple 
excepted, any that was ever built. The largeness of the 
piazza before the portico is worth observing, because it 
affords a noble prospect of the church, not crowded up, 
as for the most part is the case in other places where 
great churches are erected. In this is a fountain, out of 
which gushes a river rather than a stream which, ascend- 
ing a good height, breaks upon a round emboss of marble 
into millions of pearls that fall into the subjacent basins 
with great noise ; I esteem this one of the goodliest foun- 
tains I ever saw. 

i644 JOHN fiVELYl\^ ' 117 

Next is the obelisk transported out of Egypt, and dedi- 
cated by Octavius Augustus to Julius Caesar, whose 
ashes it formerly bore on the summit; but, being since 
overturned by the barbarians, was re-erected with vast 
cost and a most stupendous invention by Domenico 
Fontana, architect to Sextus V. The obelisk consists of 
one entire square stone without hieroglyphics, in height 
seventy-two feet, but comprehending the base and all it 
is 108 feet high, and rests on four lions of gilded copper, 
so as you may see through the base of the obelisk and 
plinth of the pedestal. 

Upon two faces of the obelisk is engraven 





It now bears on the top a cross in which it is said 
that Sextus V. inclosed some of the holy wood ; and under 
it is to be read by good eyes: 







On the four faces of the base below: 
























A little lower: 



It is reported to have taken a year in erecting, to have 
cost 37,975 crowns, the labor of 907 men, and 75 horses: 
this being the first of the four Egyptian obelisks set up 
at Rome, and one of the forty-two brought to the city 
out of Egypt, set up in several places, but thrown down 
by the Goths, Barbarians, and earthquakes. Some coaches 
stood before the steps of the ascent, whereof one, belong- 
ing to Cardinal Medici, had all the metal work of massy 
silver, viz, the bow behind and other places. The coaches 
at Rome, as well as covered wagons also much in use, 
are generally the richest and largest I ever saw. Before 
the facciata of the church is an ample pavement. The 
church was first begun by St. Anacletus, when rather a 
chapel, on a foundation, as they give out, of Constan- 
tine the Great, who, in honor of the Apostles, carried 
twelve baskets full of sand to the work. After him, 
Julius II. took it in hand, to which all his successors 
have contributed more or less. 

The front is supposed to be the largest and best- 
studied piece of architecture in the world; to this we 
went up by four steps of marble. The first entrance is 
supported by huge pilasters; the volto within is the rich- 
est possible, and overlaid with gold. Between the five 
large anti-ports are columns of enormous height and 
compass, with as many gates of brass, the work and 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 119 

sculpture of Pollaivola, the Florentine, full of cast figures 
and histories in a deep relievo. Over this runs a terrace 
of like amplitude and ornament, where the Pope, at 
solemn times, bestows his Benediction on the vulgar. 
On each side of this portico are two campaniles^ or 
towers, whereof there was but one perfected, of admira- 
ble art. On the top of all, runs a balustrade which 
edges it quite round, and upon this at equal distances 
are Christ and the twelve Disciples of gigantic size and 
stature, yet below showing no greater than the life. 
Entering the church, admirable is the breadth of the 
volto, or roof, which is all carved with foliage and roses 
overlaid with gold in nature of a deep basso-relievo, ^ 
Vantique. The nave, or body, is in form of a cross, 
whereof the foot-part is the longest; and, at the interno- 
dium of the transept, rises the cupola, which being all 
of stone and of prodigious height is more in compass 
than that of the Pantheon (which was the largest among 
the old Romans, and is yet entire) or any other known. 
The inside, or concave, is covered with most exquisite 
Mosaic, representing the Celestial Hierarchy, by Giuseppe 
d Arpino, full of stars of gold; the convex, or outside, 
exposed to the air, is covered with lead, with great ribs 
of metal double gilt (as are also the ten other lesser 
cupolas, for no fewer adorn this glorious structure), 
which gives a great and admirable splendor in all parts 
of the city. On the summit of this is fixed a brazen globe 
gilt, capable of receiving thirty-five persons. This I 
entered, and engraved my name among other travelers. 
Lastly, is the Cross, the access to which is between the 
leaden covering and the stone convex, or arch-work; a 
most truly astonishing piece of art! On the battlements 
of the church, also all overlaid with lead and marble, 
you would imagine yourself in a town, so many are the 
cupolas, pinnacles, towers, juttings, and not a few houses 
inhabited by men who dwell there, and have enough to 
do to look after the vast reparations which continually 
employ them. 

Having seen this, we descended into the body of the 
church, full of collateral chapels and large oratories, most 
of them exceeding the size of ordinary churches ; but the 
principal are four incrusted with most precious marbles 
and stones of various colors, adorned with an infinity of 

lao DIARY OF romb 

statues, pictures, stately altars, and innumerable relics. 
The altar-piece of St. Michael being of Mosaic, I could 
not pass without particular note, as one of the best of 
that kind. The chapel of Gregory XIII., where he is 
buried, is most splendid. Under the cupola, and in the 
center of the church, stands the high altar, consecrated 
first by Clement VIII., adorned by Paul V., and lately 
covered by Pope Urban VIII. ; with that stupendous 
canopy of Corinthian brass, which heretofore was brought 
from the Pantheon ; it consists of four wreathed columns, 
partly channelled and encircled with vines, on which 
hang little puti birds and bees (the arms of the Barber- 
ini), sustaining a baldacchino of the same metal. The 
four columns weigh an hundred and ten thousand pounds, 
all over richly gilt; this, with the pedestals, crown, and 
statues about it, form a thing of that art, vastness, and 
magnificence, as is beyond all that man's industry has 
produced of the kind; it is the work of Bernini, a Flor- 
entine sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, who, a little 
before my coming to the city, gave a public opera (for 
so they call shows of that kind), wherein he painted the 
scenes, cut the statues, invented the engines, composed 
the music, writ the comedy, and built the theater. Op- 
posite to either of these pillars, under those niches which, 
with their columns, support the weighty cupola, are 
placed four exquisite statues of Parian marble, to which 
are four altars; that of St. Veronica, made by Fra. Mochi, 
has over it the reliquary, where they showed us the 
miraculous Sudarium indued with the picture of our Sav- 
ior's face, with this inscription: ^*- Salvatoris imaginem Ve- 
roniccB Sudario exceptant ut loci majestas decenttr custodiret, 
Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. Marmoreum signum et Altar e 
addidit, Conditorium extruxit et ornavit. *' 

Right against this is that of Longinus, of a Colossean 
magnitude, also by Bernini, and over him the conserva- 
tory of the iron lance inserted in a most precious crystal, 
with this epigraph : " Longini Lanceam quam Innocentius 
VIII. h Bajazete Turcarum Tyranno accepit, Urbanus VIII. 
statud appositd, et Sacello substructo^ in exornatutn Condito- 
rium transtulit.^'* 

The third chapel has over the altar the statue of our 
countrywoman, St. Helena, the mother of Constantine the 
Great ; the work of Boggi, an excellent sculptor ; and here 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 121 

is preserved a great piece of the pretended wood of the 
holy cross, which she is said to have first detected mirac- 
ulously in the Holy Land. It was placed here by the late 
Pope with this inscription : *^ Partem Crucis quain Helena 
Imperatrix i Calvario in Urbem adduxit, Urbanus VIII. 
Pont. Max. i Sissoriand Basilicd desumptam, additis ard et 
statud, h\c in Vaticano collocavit.^'* 

The fourth hath over the altar, and opposite to that 
of St. Veronica, the statue of St. Andrew, the work of 
Flamingo, admirable above all the other; above is pre- 
served the head of that Apostle, richly enchased. It is 
said that this excellent sculptor died mad to see his 
statue placed in a disadvantageous light by Bernini, the 
chief architect, who found himself outdone by this artist. 
The inscription over it is this: 

<< St. AndrecB caput quod Pius II. ex Achaid in Vaticanum aspor- 
tandum curavit, Urbanus VIII. novis hie ornamentis decoratum 
sacrisque statues ae Saeelli honoribus eoli voluit.'"'* 

The relics showed and kept in this church are without 
number, as are also the precious vessels of gold, silver, 
and gems, with the vests and services to be seen in the 
Sacristy, which they showed us. Under the high altar 
is an ample grot inlaid with pietra-commessa, wherein 
half of the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul are pre- 
served; before hang divers great lamps of the richest 
plate, burning continually. About this and contiguous 
to the altar, runs a balustrade, in form of a theater, of 
black marble. Toward the left, as you go out of the 
church by the portico, a little beneath the high altar, is 
an old brass statue of St. Peter sitting, under the soles 
of whose feet many devout persons rub their heads, and 
touch their chaplets. This was formerly cast from a 
statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. In another place, stands 
a column grated about with iron, whereon they report 
that our Blessed Savior was often wont to lean as he 
preached in the Temple. In the work of the reliquary 
under the cupola there are eight wreathed columns 
brought from the Temple of Solomon. In another 
chapel, they showed us the chair of St. Peter, or, as 
they name it, the Apostolical Throne. But among all the 
chapels the one most glorious has for an altar-piece a 
Madonna bearing a dead Christ on her knees, in white 


marble, the work of Michael Angelo. At the upper end 
of the Cathedral, are several stately monuments, espe. 
cially that of Urban VI 11. Round the cupola, and in 
many other places in the church, are confession seats, 
for all languages, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, 
French, English, Irish, Welsh, Sclavonian, Dutch, etc., as 
it is written on their friezes in golden capitals, and there 
are still at confessions some of all nations. Toward the 
lower end of the church, and on the side of a vast pillar 
sustaining a weighty roof, is the depositum and statue of 
the Countess Matilda, a rare piece, with basso-relievos 
about it of white marble, the work of Bernini. Here 
are also those of Sextus IV. and Paulus III,, etc. 
Among the exquisite pieces in this sumptuous fabric is 
that of the ship with St. Peter held up from sinking by 
our Savior; the emblems about it are the Mosaic of the 
famous Giotto, who restored and made it perfect after 
it had been defaced by the Barbarians. Nor is the 
pavement under the cupola to be passed over without 
observation, which with the rest of the body and walls 
of the whole church, are all inlaid with the richest of 
pietra-commessa, in the most splendid colors of polished 
marbles, agates, serpentine, porphyry, calcedon, etc., 
wholly incrusted to the very roof. Coming out by the 
portico at which we entered, we were shown the Porta 
Santa, never opened but at the year of jubilee. This 
glorious foundation hath belonging to it thirty canons, 
thirty-six beneficiates, twenty-eight clerks beneficed, with 
innumerable chaplains, etc., a Cardinal being always 
archpriest; the present Cardinal was Francisco Barberini, 
who also styled himself Protector of the English, to whom 
he was indeed very courteous. 

2oth November, 1644, I went to visit that ancient See 
and Cathedral of St. John di Laterano, and the holy 
places thereabout. This is a church of extraordinary 
devotion, though, for outward form, not comparable to 
St. Peter's, being of Gothic ordonnance. Before we went 
into the cathedral, the Baptistery of St. John Baptist 
presented itself, being formerly part of the Great Con- 
stantine's palace, and, as it is said, his chamber where 
by St. Silvester he was made a Christian. It is of an 
octagonal shape, having before the entrance eight fair 
pillars of rich porphyry, each of one entire piece, their 

1 644 JOHN EVELYN 123 

capitals of divers orders, supporting lesser columns of 
white marble, and these supporting a noble cupola, the 
molding whereof is excellently wrought. In the chapel 
which they affirm to have been the lodging place of this 
Emperor, all women are prohibited from entering, for 
the malice of Herodias who caused him to lose his head. 
Here are deposited several sacred relics of St. James, 
Mary Magdalen, St. Matthew, etc. , and two goodly pictures. 
Another chapel, or oratory near it, is called St. John the 
Evangelist, well adorned with marbles and tables, es- 
pecially those of Cavaliere Giuseppe, and of Tempesta, 
in fresco. We went hence into another called St. Ve- 
nantius, in which is a tribunal all of Mosiac in figures 
of Popes. Here is also an altar of the Madonna, much 
visited, and divers Sclavonish saints, companions of Pope 
John IV. The portico of the church is built of materials 
brought from Pontius Pilate's house in Jerusalem. 

The next sight which attracted our attention, was a 
wonderful concourse of people at their devotions before 
a place called Scala Sancta, to which is built a noble 
front. Entering the portico, we saw those large marble 
stairs, twenty-eight in number, which are never ascended 
but on the knees, some lip-devotion being used on every 
step; on which you may perceive divers red specks of 
blood under a grate, which they affirm to have been 
drops of our Blessed Savior, at the time he was so bar- 
barously misused by Herod's soldiers ; for these stairs are 
reported to have been translated hither from his palace 
in Jerusalem. At the top of them is a chapel, whereat 
they enter (but we could not be permitted) by gates of 
marble, being the same our Savior passed when he went 
out of Herod's house. This they name the Sanctum Sanc- 
torum, and over it we read this epigraph: 

Non est in toto sanctior orbe locus. 

Here, through a grate, we saw that picture of Christ 
painted (as they say) by the hand of St. Luke, to the 
life. Descending again, we saw before the church the 
obelisk, which is indeed most worthy of admiration. It 
formerly lay in the Circo Maximo, and was erected here 
by Sextus V., in 1587, being 112 feet in height without 
the base or pedestal; at the foot nine and a half one 
way, and eight the other. This pillar was first brought 


from Thebes at the utmost confines of Egypt, to Alex- 
andria, from thence to Constantinople, thence to Rome, 
and is said by Ammianus Marcellinus to have been dedi- 
cated to Rameses, King of Egypt. It was transferred to 
this city by Constantine the son of the Great, and is full 
of hieroglyphics, serpents, men, owls, falcons, oxen, in- 
struments, etc., containing (as Father Kircher the Jesuit 
will shortly tell us in a book which he is ready to publish ) 
all the recondite and abstruse learning of that people. 
The vessel, galley, or float, that brought it to Rome so 
many hundred leagues, must needs have been of wonder- 
ful bigness and strange fabric. The stone is one and 
entire, and (having been thrown down) was erected by 
the famous Dom. Fontana, for that magnificent Pope, 
Sextus v., as the rest were; it is now cracked in many 
places, but solidly joined. The obelisk is thus inscribed 
at the several faciatas: 

Fl. Const antinus Augustus, Constantini Augusti F. Obeliscum 
d, patre suo mo turn diuq; AlexandricB jacentem, trecentorum re- 
migum impositum navi mirandcB vastitatis per mare Tyberitnq; 
magnis molibus Romam convectum in Circo Max. i)onendum S.P. 

On the second square: 

Fl. Const antinus Max: Aug: Christiana fidei Vindex Sf As- 
sertor Obeliscum ab ^gyptio Rege impuro voto Soli dicatum, sedi- 
bus avulsum suis per Nilum transfer. Alexandriam, ut Novam 
Romam ab se tune conditam eo decoraret monumento. 

On the third: 

Sextns V. Pontifex Max: Obeliscum hunc specie eximid temporum 
calamitate fr actum, Circi Maximi ruinis humo, limog; altk demer- 
sum, multd impetisd extraxit, hunc in locum magno labore transtulit, 
formaq; pristind accurate vestitum, Cruci invictissima dicavit 
anno M.D.LXXXVIII. Pont. II I I. 

On the fourth: 

Constantinus per Crucem Victor d Silvestro Mc Baptizatus Cru- 
cis gloriam propagavit. 

Leaving this wonderful monument (before which is a 
stately public fountain, with a statue of St. John in the 
middle of it), we visited His Holiness's palace, being a 
little on the left hand, the design of Fontana, architect 
to Sextus V. This I take to be one of the best palaces 

1644 JOHN EVELYN 125 

in Rome; but not staying we entered the church of St. 
John di Laterano, which is properly the Cathedral of 
the Roman See, as I learned by these verses eng^raven 
upon the architrave of the portico: 

Dogmate Papali datur, et simul Imperiali 

Qudd Sim cunctarum mater caput EcclesiarH 

Hinc Salvatoris caelestia regna datoris 

Nomine Sanxerunt, cum cuncta per acta fuerunt; 

Sic vos ex toto conversi supplice voto 

Nostra qudd hcBc cedes; tibi Christe sit inclyta sedes. 

It is called Lateran, from a noble family formerly 
dwelling it seems hereabouts, on Mons Caelius. The 
church is Gothic, and hath a stately tribunal; the paint- 
ings are of Pietro Pisano. It was the first church that 
was consecrated with the ceremonies now introduced, 
and where altars of stone supplied those of wood hereto- 
fore in use, and made like large chests for the easier 
removal in times of persecution ; such an altar is still the 
great one here preserved, as being that on which (they 
hold) St. Peter celebrated mass at Rome; for which 
reason none but the Pope may now presume to make 
that use of it. The pavement is of all sorts of precious 
marbles, and so are the walls to a great height, over 
which it is painted d fresco with the life and acts of 
Constantine the Great, by most excellent masters. The 
organs are rare, supported by four columns. The soffito 
is all richly gilded, and full of pictures. Opposite to the 
porta is an altar of exquisite architecture, with a taber- 
nacle on it all of precious stones, the work of Targoni; 
on this is a coeyia of plate, the invention of Curtius 
Vanni, of exceeding value; the tables hanging over it 
are of Giuseppe d' Arpino. About this are four excellent 
columns transported out of Asia by the Emperor Titus, 
of brass, double gilt, about twelve feet in height; the 
walls between them are incrusted with marble and set 
with statues in niches, the vacuum reported to be filled 
with holy earth, which St. Helena sent from Jerusalem 
to her son, Constantine, who set these pillars where they 
now stand. At one side of this is an oratory full of rare 
paintings and monuments, especially those of the great 
Connest^bile Colonna. Out of this we came into the 
sacristia, full of good pictures of Albert and others. At 
the end of the church is a flat stone supported by four 


pillars which they affirm to have been the exact height 
of our Blessed Savior, and say they never fitted any 
mortal man that tried it, but he was either taller or 
shorter; two columns of the veil of the Temple which 
rent at his passion; the stone on which they threw lots 
for his seamless vesture; and the pillar on which the 
cock crowed, after Peter's denial; and, to omit no fine 
thing, the just length of the Virgin Mary's foot as it 
seems her shoemaker affirmed! Here is a sumptuous 
cross, beset with precious stones, containing some of the 
VERY wood of the holy cross itself; with many other 
things of this sort: also numerous most magnificent 
monuments, especially those of St. Helena, of porphyry; 
Cardinal Farneze; Martin I., of copper; the pictures of 
Mary Magdalen, Martin V., Laurentius Valla, etc., are of 
Gaetano; the Nunciata, designed by M. Angelo; and the 
great crucifix of Sermoneta. In a chapel at one end of 
the porch is a statue of Henry IV. of France, in brass, 
standing in a dark hole, and so has done many years; 
perhaps from not believing him a thorough proselyte. 
The two famous CEcumenical Councils were celebrated 
in this Church by Pope Simachus, Martin I., Stephen, 

Leaving this venerable church (for in truth it has a 
certain majesty in it), we passed through a fair and large 
hospital of good architecture, having some inscriptions 
put up by Barberini, the late Pope's nephew. We then 
went by St. Sylvia, where is a noble statue of St. Greg- 
ory P., begun by M. Angelo; a St. Andrew, and the 
bath of St. Cecilia. In this church are some rare paint- 
ings, especially that story on the wall of Guido Reni. 
Thence to St. Giovanni e Paula, where the friars are 
reputed to be great chemists. The choir, roof, and paint- 
ings in the tribuna are excellent. 

Descending the Mons Caelius, we came against the ves- 
tiges of the Palazzo Maggiore, heretofore the Golden 
House of Nero; now nothing but a heap of vast and 
confused ruins, to show what time and the vicissitude of 
human things does change from the most glorious and 
magnificent to the most deformed and confused. We 
next went into St. Sebastian's Church, which has a hand- 
some front: then we passed by the place where Romulus 
and Remus were taken up by Faustulus, the Forum 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 127 

Romanum, and so by the edge of the Mons Palatinus; 
where we saw the ruins of Pompey's house, and the 
Church of St. Anacletus ; and so into the Circus Maximus, 
heretofore capable of containing a hundred and sixty 
thousand spectators, but now all one entire heap of rub- 
bish, part of it converted into a garden of pot herbs. 
We concluded this evening with hearing the rare voices 
and music at the Chiesa Nova. 

2 1 St November, 1644. I was carried to see a great 
virtuoso, Cavali^ro Pozzo, who showed us a rare collection 
of all kind of antiquities, and a choice library, over 
which are the effigies of most of our late men of polite 
literature. He had a great collection of the antique 
basso-relievos about Rome, which this curious man had 
caused to be designed in several folios : many fine medals ; 
the stone which Pliny calls Enhydros; it had plainly in 
it the quantity of half a spoonful of water, of a yellow 
pebble color, of the bigness of a walnut. A stone paler 
than an amethyst, which yet he affirmed to be the true 
carbuncle, and harder than a diamond; it was set in a 
ring, without foil, or anything at the bottom, so as it 
was transparent, of a gfreenish yellow, more lustrous 
than a diamond. He had very pretty things painted on 
crimson velvet, designed in black, and shaded and height- 
ened with white, set in frames; also a number of choice 
designs and drawings. 

Hence we walked to the Suburra and -^rarium Satumi, 
where yet remain some ruins and an inscription. From 
thence to St. Pietro in vinctilis, one of the seven churches 
on the Esquiline, an old and much-frequented place of 
great devotion for the relics there, especially the bodies 
of the seven Maccabean brethren, which lie under the 
altar. On the wall is a St. Sebastian, of mosaic, after 
the Greek manner: but what I chiefly regarded was, that 
noble sepulchre of Pope Julius II., the work of M. Angelo; 
with that never-sufficiently-to-be-admired statue of Moses, 
in white marble, and those of Vita Contemplativa and 
Activa, by the same incomparable hand. To this church 
belongs a monastery, in the court of whose cloisters grow 
two tall and very stately palm trees. Behind these, we 
walked a turn among the Baths of Titus, admiring the 
strange and prodigious receptacles for water, which the 
vulgar call the Setti Sali, now all in heaps. 


2 2d November, 1644. Was the solemn and greatest 
ceremony of all the State Ecclesiastical, viz, the proces- 
sion of the Pope (Innocent X.) to St. John di Laterano, 
which, standing on the steps of Ara Cell, near the Cap- 
itol, I saw pass in this manner: — First went a guard of 
Switzers to make way, and divers of the avant guard of 
horse carrying lances. Next followed those who carried 
the robes of the Cardinals, two and two; then the Cardi- 
nals mace bearers ; the caudatari, on mules ; the masters 
of their horse; the Pope's barber, tailor, baker, gardener, 
and other domestic officers, all on horseback, in rich liv- 
eries; the squires belonging to the Guard; five men in 
rich liveries led five noble Neapolitan horses, white as 
snow, covered to the ground with trappings richly em- 
broidered ; which is a service paid by the King of Spain for 
the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, pretended feudatories 
to the Pope; three mules of exquisite beauty and price, 
trapped in crimson velvet; next followed three rich lit- 
ters with mules, the litters empty; the master of the 
horse alone, with his squires ; five trumpeters ; the armerieri 
estra muros; the fiscal and consistorial advocates; capel- 
lani. camerieri de honore^ cubiculari and chamberlains, 
called secreti. 

Then followed four other camerieri, with four caps of 
the dignity-pontifical, which were Cardinals' hats carried 
on staves; four trumpets; after them a number of noble 
Romans and gentlemen of quality, very rich, and followed 
by innumerable staffi^ri and pages ; the secretaries of the 
chancellaria, abbreviatori-accoliti in their long robes, and 
on mules ; auditori di rota; the dean of the rdti and mas- 
ter of the sacred palace, on mules, with grave but rich 
footclothes, and in flat episcopal hats; then went more 
of the Roman and other nobility and courtiers, with 
divers pages in most rich liveries on horseback ; fourteen 
drums belonging to the Capitol; the marshals with their 
staves; the two syndics; the conservators of the city, in 
robes of crimson damask; the knight-gonfalonier and 
prior of the R. R., in velvet toques; six of his Holiness's 
mace bearers ; then the captain, or governor, of the Castle 
of St. Angelo, upon a brave prancer; the governor of 
the city; on both sides of these two long ranks of Switz- 
ers, the masters of the ceremonies; the cross bearer on 
horseback, with two priests at each hand on foot ; pages, 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 1^ 

footmen, and guards, in abundance. Then came the 
Pope himself, carried in a litter, or rather open chair, of 
crimson velvet, richly embroidered, and borne by two 
stately mules; as he went he held up two fingers, bless- 
ing the multitude who were on their knees, or looking 
out of their windows and houses, with loud vivas and 
acclamations of felicity to their new Prince, This chair 
was followed by the master of his chamber, cup bearer, 
secretary, and physician ; then came the Cardinal-Bishops, 
Cardinal- Priests, Cardinal-Deacons, Patriarchs, Arch- 
bishops, and Bishops, all in their several and distinct 
habits, some in red, others in green flat hats with tassels, 
all on gallant mules richly trapped with velvet, and led 
by their servants in gi^eat state and multitudes; after 
them, the apostolical protonotary, auditor, treasurer, and 
referendaries ; lastly, the trumpets of the rear guard, two 
pages of arms in helmets with feathers, and carrying 
lances ; two captains ; the pontifical standard of the Church ; 
the two alfieri^ or comets, of the Pope's light horse, who 
all followed in armor and carrying lances; which, with 
innumerable rich coaches, litters, and people, made up 
the procession. What they did at St. John di Laterano, 
I could not see, by reason of the prodigious crowd; so I 
spent most of the day in \'iewing the two triumphal 
arches which had been purposely erected a few days be- 
fore, and till now covered ; the one by the Duke of Parma, 
in the Foro Romano, the other by the Jews in the Capi- 
tol, with flattering inscriptions. They were of excellent 
architecture, decorated with statues and abundance of 
ornaments proper for the occasion, since they were but 
temporary, and made up of boards, cloth, etc., painted 
and framed on the sudden, but as to outward appear- 
ance, solid and very stately. The night ended with fire- 
works. What I saw was that which was built before the 
Spanish Ambassador's house, in the Piazza del Trinita, 
and another, before that of the French. The first ap- 
peared to be a mighty rock, bearing the Pope's Arms, a 
dragon, and divers figures, which being set on fire by one 
who flung a rocket at it, kindled immediately, yet pre- 
serving the figure both of the rock and statues a very 
long time; insomuch as it was deemed ten thousand re- 
ports of squibs and crackers spent themselves in order. 
That before the French Ambassador's Palace was a Diana 

130 DIARY OF rome 

drawn in a chariot by her dogs, with abundance of other 
figures as large as the life, which played with fire in the 
same manner. In the meantime, the windows of the 
whole city were set with tapers put into lanterns, or 
sconces, of several colored oiled paper, that the wind 
might not annoy them; this rendered a most glorious 
show. Besides these, there were at least twenty other 
fireworks of vast charge and rare art for their invention 
before divers Ambassadors, Princes, and Cardinals' Pal- 
aces, especially that on the Castle of St. Angelo, being 
a pyramid of lights, of great height, fastened to the ropes 
and cables which support the standard pole. The streets 
were this night as light as day, full of bonfires, cannon 
roaring, music playing, fountains running wine, in all 
excess of joy and triumph. 

23d November, 1644. I went to the Jesuits' College 
again, the front whereof gives place to few for its 
architecture, most of its ornaments being of rich marble. 
It has within a noble portico and court, sustained by 
stately columns, as is the corridor over the portico, at 
the sides of which are the schools for arts and sciences, 
which are here taught as at the University. Here I heard 
Father Athanasius Kircher upon a part of Euclid, which 
he expounded. To this joins a glorious and ample church 
for the students ; a second is not fully finished ; and there 
are two noble libraries, where I was showed that famous 
wit and historian, Famianus Strada. Hence we went to 
the house of Hippolito Vitellesco (afterward bibliothecary 
of the Vatican library), who showed us one of the best 
collections of statues in Rome, to which he frequently 
talks as if they were living, pronouncing now and then 
orations, sentences, and verses, sometimes kissing and 
embracing them. He has a head of Brutus scarred in 
the face by order of the Senate for killing Julius; 
this is much esteemed. Also a Minerva, and others of 
great value. This gentleman not long since purchased 
land in the kingdom of Naples, in hope, by digging the 
ground, to find more statues; which it seems so far suc- 
ceeded, as to be much more worth than the purchase. 
We spent the evening at the Chiesa Nova, where was 
excellent music; but, before that began, the courteous 
fathers led me into a nobly furnished library, contiguous 
to their most beautiful convent. 

i644 JOHN EVELYN 131 

28th November, 1644. I went to see the garden and 
house of the Aldobrandini, now Cardinal Borghese's. 
This palace is, for architecture, magnificence, pomp, and 
state, one of the most considerable about the city. It 
has four fronts, and a noble piazza before it. Within 
the courts, under arches supported by marble columns, 
are many excellent statues. Ascending the stairs, there 
is a rare figure of Diana, of white marble. The St. 
Sebastian and Hermaphrodite are of stupendous art. 
For paintings, our Savior's Head, by Correggio; several 
pieces of Raphael, some of which are small; some of 
Bassano Veronese ; the Leda, and two admirable Venuses, 
are of Titian's pencil; so is the Psyche and Cupid; the 
head of St. John, borne by Herodias; two heads of 
Albert Durer, very exquisite. We were shown here a fine 
cabinet and tables of Florence work in stone. In the 
gardens are many fine fountains, the walls covered with 
citron trees, which, being rarely spread, invest the stone 
work entirely; and, toward the street, at a back gate, 
the port is so handsomely clothed with ivy as much 
pleased me. About this palace are many noble antique 
bassi-relievi : two especially are placed on the gfround, 
representing armor, and other military furniture of the 
Romans; beside these, stand about the garden numer- 
ous rare statues, altars, and urns. Above all for an- 
tiquity and curiosity (as being the only rarity of that 
nature now known to remain) is that piece of old Roman 
painting representing the Roman Sponsalia, or celebration 
of their marriage, judged to be 1,400 years old, yet are 
the colors very lively, and the design very entire, though 
found deep in the ground. For this morsel of painting's 
sake only, it is said the Borghesi purchased the house, 
because this being on a wall in a kind of banqueting 
house in the garden, could not be removed, but passes 
with the inheritance. 

29th November, 1644. I a second time visited the 
Medicean Palace, being near my lodging, the more ex- 
actly to have a view of the noble collections that adorn 
it, especially the bassi-relievi and antique friezes inserted 
about the stone work of the house. The Saturn, of metal, 
standing in the portico, is a rare piece ; so is the Jupiter 
and Apollo, in the hall. We were now led into those 
rooms above we could not see before, full of incompar- 


able statues and antiquities ; above all, and haply prefer- 
able to any in the world, are the Two Wrestlers, for the 
inextricable mixture with each other's arms and legs is 
stupendous. In the great chamber is the Gladiator, whet- 
ting a knife; but the Venus is without parallel, being 
the masterpiece of one whose name you see graven under 
it in old Greek characters ; nothing in sculpture ever ap- 
proached this miracle of art. To this add Marcius, Gany- 
mede, a little Apollo playing on a pipe; some relievi 
incrusted on the palace walls ; and an antique vas of 
marble, near six feet high. Among the pictures may be 
mentioned the Magdalen and St. Peter, weeping. I pass 
over the cabinets and tables of pietra commessa, being 
the proper invention of the Florentines. In one of the 
chambers is a whimsical chair, which folded into so many 
varieties, as to turn into a bed, a bolster, a table, or a 
couch. I had another walk in the garden, where are two 
huge vases, or baths of stone. 

I went further up the hill to the Pope's Palaces at 
Monte Cavallo, where I now saw the garden more exactly, 
and found it to be one of the most magnificent and pleas- 
ant in Rome. I am told the gardener is annually al- 
lowed 2,000 scudi for the keeping of it. Here I observed 
hedges of myrtle above a man's height; others of laurel, 
oranges, nay, of ivy and juniper; the close walks, and 
rustic grotto; a crypt, of which the laver, or basin, is 
of one vast, entire, antique porphyry, and below this 
flows a plentiful cascade ; the steps of the grotto and the 
roofs being of rich Mosiac. Here are hydraulic organs, 
a fish pond, and an ample bath. From hence, we went 
to taste some rare Greco; and so home. 

Being now pretty weary of continual walking, I kept 
within, for the most part, till the 6th of December; and, 
during this time, I entertained one Signor Alessandro, 
who gave me some lessons on the theorbo. 

The next excursion was over the Tiber, which I crossed 
in a ferry-boat, to see the Palazzo di Ghisi, standing in 
Transtevere, fairly built, but famous only for the paint- 
ing a fresco on the volto of the portico toward the garden ; 
the story is the Amours of Cupid and Psyche, by the 
hand of the celebrated Raphael d'Urbino. Here you al- 
ways see painters designing and copying after it, being 
esteemed one of the rarest pieces of that art in the 

1644 JOHN EVELYN 133 

world; and with great reason. I must not omit that in- 
comparable table of Galatea (as I remember), so care- 
fully preserved in the cupboard at one of the ends of this 
walk, to protect it from the air, being a most lively 
painting. There are likewise excellent things of Baldas- 
sare, and others. 

Thence we went to the noble house of the Duke of 
Bracciano, fairly built, with a stately court and fountain. 

Next, we walked to St. Mary's Church, where was the 
Taberna Meritoria, where the old Roman soldiers received 
their triumphal garland, which they ever after wore. 
The high altar is very fair, adorned with columns of 
porphyry: here is also some mosaic work about the choir, 
and the Assumption is an esteemed piece. It is said 
that this church was the first that was dedicated to the 
Virgin at Rome. In the opposite piazza is a very sump- 
tuous fountain. 

12th December, 1644. I went again to St. Peter's to 
see the chapels, churches, and grots under the whole 
church (like our St. Faith's under Paul's), in which lie 
interred a multitude of Saints, Martyrs, and Popes; 
among them our country^man, Adrian IV., (Nicholas 
Brekespere) in a chest of porphyry; Sir J. Chrysostom; 
Petronella; the heads of St. James minor, St. Luke, St. 
Sebastian, and our Thomas k Becket; a shoulder of St. 
Christopher; an arm of Joseph of Arimathea; Longinus; 
besides 134 more bishops, soldiers, princes, scholars, 
cardinals, kings, emperors, their wives; too long to par- 

Hence we walked into the cemetery, called Campo 
Santo, the earth consisting of several ship-loads of mold, 
transported from Jerusalem, which consumes a carcass 
in twenty-four hours. To this joins that rare hospital, 
where once was Nero's circus ; the next to this is the In- 
quisition-house and prison, the inside whereof, I thank 
God, I was not curious to see. To this joins His Holi- 
ness's Horsegnards. 

On Christmas-eve, I went not to bed, being desirous 
of seeing the many extraordinary ceremonies performed 
then in their churches, at midnight masses and sermons. 
I walked from church to church the whole night in ad- 
miration at the multitude of scenes and pageantry which 
the friars had with much industry and craft set out, to 

134 DIARY OF rome 

catch the devout women and superstitious sort of people, 
who never parted without dropping some money into a 
vessel set on purpose; but especially observable was the 
puppetry in the Church of the Minerva, representing the 
Nativity. I thence went and heard a sermon at the Apol- 
linare; by which time it was morning. On Christmas- 
day his Holiness sang mass, the artillery of St. Angelo 
went off, and all this day was exposed the cradle of our 

29th December, 1644. We were invited by the English 
Jesuits to dinner, being their great feast of Thomas [k 
Becket] of Canterbury. We dined in their common re- 
fectory, and afterward saw an Italian comedy acted by 
their alumni before the Cardinals. 

January, 1645. We saw pass the new officers of the 
people of Rome; especially, for their noble habits were 
most conspicuous, the three Consuls, now called Con- 
servators, who take their places in the Capitol, having 
been sworn the day before between the hands of the 
Pope. We ended the day with the rare music at the 
Chiesa Nova. 

6th January, 1645. Was the ceremony of our Savior's 
baptism in the Church of St. Athanasius, and at Ara 
Celi was a great procession, del Bambino, as they call it, 
where were all the magistrates, and a wonderful con- 
course of people. 

7th January, 1645. A sermon was preached to the 
Jews, at Ponte Sisto, who are constrained to sit till the 
hour is done; but it is with so much malice in their 
countenances, spitting, humming, coughing, and motion, 
that it is almost impossible they should hear a word 
from the preacher. A conversion is very rare, 

14th January, 1645. The heads of St. Peter and St. 
Paul are exposed at St. John Laterano. 

15th January, 1645. The zitelle, or young wenches, 
which are to have portions given them by the Pope, being 
poor, and to marry them, walked in procession to St. 
Peter's, where the Veronica was shown. 

I went to the Ghetto, where the Jews dwell as in a 
suburb by themselves; being invited by a Jew of my 
acquaintance to see a circumcision. I passed by the 
Piazza Judea, where their seraglio begins; for, being 
environed with walls, they are locked up every night. 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 135 

In this place remains yet part of a stately fabric, which 
my Jew told me had been a palace of theirs for the 
ambassador of their nation, when their country was sub- 
ject to the Romans. Being led through the Synagogue 
into a private house, I found a world of people in a 
chamber: by and by came an old man, who prepared 
and laid in order divers instruments brought by a little 
child of about seven years old in a box. These the man 
laid in a silver basin; the knife was much like a short 
razor to shut into the half. Then they burnt some in- 
cense in a censer, which perfumed the room all the 
while the ceremony was performing. In the basin was 
a little cap made of white paper like a capuchin's hood, 
not bigger than the finger: also a paper of a red astrin- 
gent powder, I suppose of bole; a small instrument of 
silver, cleft in the middle at one end, to take up the 
prepuce withal; a fine linen cloth wrapped up. These 
being all in order, the women brought the infant 
swaddled, out of another chamber, and delivered it to 
the Rabbi, who carried and presented it before an altar, 
or cupboard, dressed up, on which lay the five Books of 
Moses, and the Commandments, a little unrolled. Before 
this, with profound reverence, and mumbling a few 
words, he waved the child to and fro awhile; then he 
delivered it to another Rabbi, who sat all this time 
upon a table. While the ceremony was performing, all 
the company fell singing a Hebrew hymn, in a barbarous 
tone, waving themselves to and fro; a ceremony they 
observe in all their devotions. — The Jews in Rome all 
wear yellow hats, live only upon brokage and usury, 
very poor and despicable, beyond what they are in other 
territories of Princes where they are permitted. 

1 8th January, 1645. I went to see the Pope's Palace, 
the Vatican, where he for the most part keeps his Court. 
It was first built by Pope Symmachus, and since augmented 
to a vast pile of building by his successors. That part of 
it added by Sextus V. is most magnificent. This leads us 
into divers terraces arched sub dio, painted by Raphael 
with the histories of the Bible, so esteemed, that artists 
come from all parts of Europe to make their studies from 
these designs. The foliage and grotesque about some of 
the compartments are admirable. In another room are 
represented at large, maps and plots of most countries in 


the world, in vast tables, with brief descriptions. The 
stairs which ascend out of St. Peter's portico into the 
first hall, are rarely contrived for ease; these lead into 
the hall of Gregory XIII., the walls whereof, half way to 
the roof, are incrusted with most precious marbles of 
various colors and works. So is also the pavement inlaid 
work; but what exceeds description is, the volta, or roof 
itself, which is so exquisitely painted, that it is almost 
impossible for the skillfuUest eyes to discern whether it be 
the work of the pencil upon a flat, or of a tool cut deep 
in stone. The Rota dentata, in this admirable perspec- 
tive, on the left hand as one goes out, the Setella, etc., 
are things of art incomparable. Certainly this is one of 
the most superb and royal apartments in the world, much 
too beautiful for a guard of gigantic Switzers, who do 
nothing but drink and play at cards in it. Going up these 
stairs is a painting of St Peter, walking on the sea 
toward our Savior. 

Out of this I went into another hall, just before the 
chapel, called the Skla del Conclave, full of admirable 
paintings; among others is the Assassination of Coligni, 
the great [Protestant] French Admiral, murdered by the 
Duke of Guise, in the Parisian massacre at the nuptials 
of Henry IV. with Queen Margaret; under it is written, 
* Coligni et sociorum ccedes : *^ on the other side, * Rex Coligi 
necem prohat. * 

There is another very large picture, under which is 
inscribed : 

^^ Alexander Pafa III., Frederici Primi Imferatoris iram et im- 
fetum ftigiens, ahdidit se Venetijs; cognitum et cl senatu j^erhonorifich 
susceptum, Othone Imperatoris filio navali prcelio victo captoq; Freder- 
icus, pace facta, supplex adorat; fidem et obedtentiam pollicitus. Ita 
Pontifici sua dignitas Venet. Reip. beneficio restituta MCLXXVIII.^'** 

This inscription I the rather took notice of, because 
Urban VIII. had caused it to be blotted out during the 
difference between him and that State; but it was now 
restored and refreshed by his successor, to the great honor 

*Pope Alexander III., flying from the wrath and violence of the 
Emperor Frederick I., took shelter at Venice, where he was acknowl- 
edged, and most honorably received by the Senate. The Emperor's 
son, Otho, being conquered and taken in a naval battle, the Emperor, 
having made peace, became a suppliant to the Pope, promising fealty 
and obedience. Thus his dignity was restored to the Pontiff, by the 
aid of the Republic of Venice, mclxxviii. 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 137 

of the Venetians. The Battle of Lepanto is another fair 
piece here. 

Now we came into the Pope's chapel, so much cele- 
brated for the Last Judgment painted by M. Angelo 
Buonarotti. It is a painting in fresco, upon a dead wall 
at the upper end of the chapel, just over the high altar, 
of a vast design and miraculous fancy, considering the 
multitude of naked figures and variety of posture. The 
roof also is full of rare work. Hence, we went into 
the sacristia where were showed all the most precious 
vestments, copes, and furniture of the chapel. One 
priestly cope, with the whole suite, had been sent from 
one of our English Henr>''s, and is shown for a great 
rarity. There were divers of the Pope's pantoufles that 
are kissed on his foot, having rich jewels embroidered on 
the instep, covered with crimson velvet; also his tiara, 
or triple crown, divers miters, crosiers, etc., all bestudded 
\sath precious stones, gold, and pearl, to a very gfreat 
value; a very large cross, carved (as they affirm) out of 
the holy wood itself; numerous utensils of crystal, gold, 
agate, amber, and other costly materials for the altar. 

We then went into those chambers painted with the 
Histories of the burning of Rome, quenched by the pro- 
cession of a Crucifix; the victory of Constantine over 
Maxentius ; St. Peter's delivery out of Prison ; all by Julio 
Romano, and are therefore called the Painters' Academy, 
because you always find some young men or other de- 
signing from them: a civility which is not refused in 
Italy, where any rare pieces of the old and best masters 
are extant, and which is the occasion of breeding up 
many excellent men in that profession. 

The Sala Clementina's Suffito is painted by Cherubin 
Alberti, with an ample landscape of Paul Bril's. 

We were then conducted into a new gallery, whose 
sides were painted with \4ews of the most famous places, 
towns, and territories in Italy, rarely done, and upon the 
roof the chief Acts of the Roman Church since St. Pe- 
ter's pretended See there. It is doubtless one of the 
most magnificent galleries in Europe. — Out of this we 
came into the Consistory, a noble room, the volt a painted 
in grotesque, as I remember. At the upper end, is an 
elevated throne and a baldachin, or canopy of state, for 
his Holiness, over it 


From thence, through a very long gallery (longer, I 
think, than the French Kings at the Louvre), but only 
of bare walls, we were brought into the Vatican Library. 
This passage was now full of poor people, to each of 
whom, in his passage to St. Peter's, the Pope gave a 
mezzo grosse I believe they were in number near 1,500 
or 2,000 persons. 

This library is the most nobly built, furnished, and beau- 
tified of any in the world ; ample, stately, light, and cheer- 
ful, looking into a most pleasant garden. The walls and 
roof are painted, not with antiques and grotesques, like 
our Bodleian at Oxford, but emblems, figures, diagrams, 
and the like learned inventions, found out by the wit 
and industry of famous men, of which there are now 
whole volumes extant. There were likewise the effigies 
of the most illustrious men of letters and fathers of the 
church, with divers noble statues, in white marble, at 
the entrance, viz., Hippolytus and Aristides. The Gen- 
eral Councils are painted on the side walls. As to the 
ranging of the books, they are all shut up in presses of 
wainscot, and not exposed on shelves to the open air, 
nor are the most precious mixed among the more ordi- 
nary, which are showed to the curious only; such are 
those two Virgils written on parchment, of more than a 
thousand years old ; the like, a Terence ; the ^* Acts of the 
Apostles * in golden capital letters; Petrarch's ^* Epigrams,* 
written with his own hand; also a Hebrew parchment, 
made up in the ancient manner, from whence they were 
first called ^* Volumina * , with the Comua ; but what we 
English do much inquire after, the book which our Henry 
Vni. writ against Luther.* 

The largest room is 100 paces long; at the end is the 
gallery of printed books ; then the gallery of the Duke of 
Urban's library, in which are MSS. of remarkable minia- 

* This very book, by one of those curious chances that occasionally 
happen, found its way into England some forty years ago, and was 
seen by the Editor of the early edition of this « Diary. » It may be 
worth remarking that wherever, in the course of it, the title of « De- 
fender of the Faith » was subjoined to the name of Henry, the 
Pope had drawn his pen through the title. The name of the 
King occurred in his own handwriting both at the beginning 
and end; and on the binding were the Royal Arms. Its pos- 
sessor had purchased it in Italy for a few shillings from an old 


ture, and divers Chinese, Mexican, Samaritan, Abyssinian, 
and other oriental books. 

In another wing of the edifice, 200 paces long, were 
all the books taken from Heidelberg, of which the learned 
Gruter, and other great scholars, had been keepers. 
These walls and volte are painted with representations of 
the machines invented by Domenico Fontana for erection 
of the obelisks; and the true design of Mahomet's sepul- 
chre at Mecca. 

Out of this we went to see the Conclave, where, during 
a vacancy, the Cardinals are shut up till they are agreed 
upon a new election; the whole manner whereof was de- 
scribed to us. 

Hence we went into the Pope's Armory, under the 
library. Over the door is this inscription: 


I hardly believe any prince in Europe is able to show a 
more completely furnished library of Mars, for the quality 
and quantity, which is 40,000 complete for horse and 
foot, and neatly kept. Out of this we passed again by 
the long gallery, and at the lower end of it down a very 
large pair of stairs, round, without any steps as usually, 
but descending with an evenness so ample and easy, that 
a horse-litter, or coach, may with ease be drawn up; the 
sides of the vacuity are set with columns: those at Am- 
boise, on the Loire, in France, are something of this 
invention, but nothing so spruce. By these, we de- 
scended into the Vatican gardens, called Belvedere, where 
entering first into a kind of court, we were showed those 
incomparable statues (so famed by Pliny and others) of 
Laocoon with his three sons embraced by a huge ser- 
pent, all of one entire Parian stone, very white and 
perfect, somewhat bigger than the life, the work of those 
three celebrated sculptors, Agesandrus, Polydorus, and 
Artemidorus, Rhodians; it was found among the ruins of 
Titus's baths, and placed here. Pliny says this statue is 
to be esteemed before all pictures and statues in the 
world; and I am of his opinion, for I never beheld any- 
thing of art approach it. Here are also those two famous 
images of Nilus with the children playing about him, 
and that of Tiber; Romulus and Remus with the Wolf; 
the dying Cleopatra; the Venus and Cupid, rare pieces; 


the Mercury; Cybel Hercules; Apollo; Antinous: most 
of which are, for defense against the weather, shut up 
in niches with wainscot doors. We were likewise showed 
the relics of the Hadrian Moles, viz, the Pine, a vast 
piece of metal which stood on the summit of that mauso- 
leum; also a peacock of copper, supposed to have been 
part of Scipio'o monument. 

In the garden without this (which contains a vast cir- 
cuit of ground) are many stately fountains, especially two 
casting water into antique lavers, brought from Titus's 
baths; some fair grots and water- works, that noble cas- 
cade where the ship dances, with divers other pleasant 
inventions, walks, terraces, meanders, fruit trees, and a 
most goodly prospect over the greatest part of the city. 
One fountain under the gate I must not omit, consisting 
of three jettos of water gushing out of the mouths or 
proboscides of bees (the arms of the late Pope), because of 
the inscription: 

« Quid miraris Apem, quae niel de Jioribus haurit? 
Si tibi me Hit am gutture fundit aquam. » 

23d January, 1645. We went without the walls of the 
city to visit St Paul's, to which place it is said the 
Apostle bore his own head after Nero had caused it to 
be cut off. The church was founded by the great Con- 
stantine; the main roof is supported by 100 vast columns 
of marble, and the Mosaic work of the great arch is 
wrought with a very ancient story A° 440; as is likewise 
that of the facciata. The gates are brass, made at Con- 
stantinopole in 1070, as you may read by those Greek verses 
engraven on them. The church is near 500 feet long 
and 258 in breadth, and has five great aisles joined to it, 
on the basis of one of whose columns is this odd title: 
" Fl. Eugenius Asellus C. C. Prcef. Urbis V. S. L reparavit. *' 
Here they showed us that miraculous Crucifix which they 
say spake to St. Bridget: and, just before the Ciborio, 
stand two excellent statues. Here are buried part of the 
bodies of St. Paul and St. Peter. The pavement is richly 
interwoven with precious Oriental marbles about the high 
altar, where are also four excellent paintings, whereof 
one, representing the stoning of St. Stephen, is by the 
hand of a Bolognian lady, named Lavinia. The taber- 
nacle on this altar is of excellent architecture, and the 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 141 

pictures in the Chapel del Sacramento are of Lanfranco. 
Divers other relics there be also in this venerable church, 
as a part of St. Anna; the head of the Woman of Samaria; 
the chain which bound St. Paul, and the eculeus used 
in tormenting the primitive Christians. The church 
stands in the Via Ositensis, about a mile from the walls 
of the city, separated from many buildings near it except 
the Trie Fontana, to which (leaving our coach) .we walked, 
going over the mountain or little rising, upon which story 
says a hundred seventy and four thousand Christians had 
been martyred by Maximianus, Dioclesian, and other 
bloody tyrants. On this stand St. Vincent's and St. 
Anastasius; likewise the Church of St. Maria Scala del 
Cielo, in whose Tribuna is a very fair Mosaic work. The 
Church of the Trie Fontana (as they are called) is per- 
fectly well built, though but small (whereas that of St. 
Paul is but Gothic), having a noble cupola in the mid- 
dle; in this they show the pillar to which St. Paul was 
bound, when his head was cut off, and from whence it 
made three prodigious leaps, where there immediately 
broke out the three remaining fountains, which give de- 
nomination to this church. The waters are reported to 
be medicinal : over each is erected an altar and a chained 
ladle, for better tasting of the waters. That most ex- 
cellent picture of St. Peter's Crucifixion is of Guido. 

25th January, 1645. ^ went again to the Palazzo Farnese, 
to see some certain statues and antiquities which, by rea- 
son of the Major-Domo not being within, I could not 
formerly obtain. In the hall stands that triumphant 
Colosse of one of the family, upon three figures, a mod- 
em, but rare piece. About it stood some Gladiators; and, 
at the entrance into one of the first chambers, are two 
cumbent figures of Age and Youth, brought hither from 
St. Peter's to make room for the Longinus under the 
cupola. Here was the statue of a ram running at a man 
on horseback, a most incomparable expression of Fury, 
cut in stone ; and a table of pietra-commessa, very curious. 
The next chamber was all painted a fresco, by a rare 
hand, as was the carving in wood of the ceiling, which, 
as I remember, was in cedar, as the Italian mode is, and 
not poor plaster, as ours are; some of them most richly 
gilt. In a third room, stood the famous Venus, and the 
child Hercules strangling a serpent, of Corinthian brass, 


antique, on a very curious basso-relievo ; the sacrifice to 
Priapus; the Egyptian Isis, in the hard, black ophite 
stone, taken out of the Pantheon, greatly celebrated by 
the antiquaries: likewise two tables of brass, containing 
divers old Roman laws. At another side of this chamber, 
was the statue of a wounded Amazon falling from her 
horse, worthy the name of the excellent sculptor, whoever 
the artist was. Near this was a bass-relievo of a Baccha- 
nalia, with a most curious Silenus. The fourth room was 
totally environed with statues; especially observable was 
that so renowned piece of a Venus looking backward over 
her shoulder, and divers other naked figures, by the old 
Greek masters. Over the doors are two Venuses, one of 
them looking on her face in a glass, by M. Angelo; the 
other is painted by Caracci. I never saw finer faces, 
especially that under the mask, whose beauty and art are 
not to be described by words. The next chamber is also 
full of statues; most of them the heads of Philosophers, 
very antique. One of the Caesars and another of Hanni- 
bal cost 1,200 crowns. Now I had a second view of that 
never-to-be-sufl&ciently-admired gallery, painted in deep 
relievo, the work of ten years' study, for a trifling reward. 
In the wardrobe above they showed us fine wrought plate, 
porcelain, mazers of beaten and solid gold, set with dia- 
monds, rubies, and emeralds; a treasure, especially the 
workmanship considered, of inestimable value. This is all 
the Duke of Parma's. Nothing seemed to be more curious 
and rare in its kind than the complete service of the 
purest crystal, for the altar of the chapel, the very bell, 
cover of a book, sprinkler, etc., were all of the rock, in- 
comparably sculptured, with the holy story in deep Levati ; 
thus was also wrought the crucifix, chalice, vases, flower- 
pots, the largest and purest crystal that my eyes ever 
beheld. Truly I looked on this as one of the greatest 
curiosities I had seen in Rome. In another part were 
presses furnished with antique arms, German clocks, per- 
petual motions, watches, and curiosities of Indian works. 
A very ancient picture of Pope Eugenius ; a St. Bernard ; 
and a head of marble found long since, supposed to be a 
true portrait of our Blessed Savior's face. 

Hence, we went to see Dr. Gibbs, a famous poet and 
countryman of ours, who had some intendency in an 
hospital built on the Via Triumphalis, called Christ's 

1045 JOHN EVELYN 143 

Hospital, which he showed us. The Infirmatory, where 
the sick lay, was paved with various colored marbles, 
and the walls hung with noble pieces; the beds are 
very fair; in the middle is a stately cupola, under which 
is an altar decked with divers marble statues, all in 
sight of the sick, who may both see and hear mass, as 
they lie in their beds. The organs are very fine, and 
frequently played on to recreate the people in pain. To 
this joins an apartment destined for the orphans; and 
there is a school: the children wear blue, like ours in 
London, at an hospital of the same appellation. Here 
are forty nurses, who give suck to such children as are 
accidentally found exposed and abandoned. In another 
quarter, are children of a bigger growth, 450 in num- 
ber, who are taught letters. In another, 500 girls, under 
the tuition of divers religious matrons, in a monastery, 
as it were, by itself. I was assured there were at least 
2,000 more maintained in other places. I think one 
apartment had in it near 1,000 beds; these are in a very 
long room, having an inner passage for those who at- 
tend, with as much care, sweetness, and conveniency as 
can be imagined, the Italians being generally very neat. 
Under the portico, the sick may walk out and take the 
air. Opposite to this, are other chambers for such as 
are sick of maladies of a more rare and difficult cure, 
and they have rooms apart. At the end of the long 
corridor is an apothecary's shop, fair and very well stored; 
near which are chambers for persons of better quality, 
who are yet necessitous. Whatever the poor bring is, at 
their coming in, delivered to a treasurer, who makes an 
inventory, and is accountable to them, or their represen- 
tatives if they die. 

To this building joins the house of the commendator, 
who, with his officers attending the sick, make up ninety 
persons; besides a convent and an ample church for the 
friars and priests who daily attend. The church is ex- 
tremely neat, and the sacristia is very rich. Indeed it is 
altogether one of the most pious and worthy foundations 
I ever saw. Nor is the benefit small which divers young 
physicians and chirurgeons reap by the experience they 
learn here among the sick, to whom those students have 
free access. Hence, we ascended a very steep hill, near 
the Port St. Pancratio, to that stately fountain called 

144 DIARY OF Rome 

Acqua Paula, being the aqueduct which Augustus had 
brought to Rome, now re-edified by Paulus V. ; a rare 
piece of architecture, and which serves the city after a 
journey of thirty-five miles, here pouring itself into divers 
ample lavers, out of the mouths of swans and dragons, 
the arms of this Pope. Situate on a very high mount, it 
makes a most glorious show to the city, especially when 
the sun darts on the water as it gfusheth out. The in- 
scriptions on it are: 

^^ Paulus V. Romanus Ponttfex Oft. Max. Aquceductus ah Augusta 
Ccesare extructos, ceii longinqua vetusiate collafsos, in ampliorem for- 
man restituit anno salutis M.D.CIX. Pont. F.* 

And toward the fields: 

'■^Paulus V. Rom. Pontifex Oftimus Maximus, priori ductu longis- 
simi tern f oris injuria pene diruto, sublimiorem?* 

[One or more leaves are here wanting in Evelyn's MS., descriptive 
of other parts of Rome, and of his leaving the city.] 

Thence to Velletri, a town heretofore of the Volsci, 
where is a public and fair statue of P. Urban VIII., in 
brass, and a stately fountain in the street. Here we lay 
and drank excellent wine. 

28th January, 1645. We dined at Sermonetta, descend- 
ing all this morning down a stony mountain, unpleasant, 
yet full of olive trees; and, anon, pass a tower built on a 
rock, kept by a small guard against the banditti who in- 
fest those parts, daily robbing and killing passengers, as 
my Lord Banbury and his company found to their cost 
a little before. To this gTiard we gave some money, and 
so were suffered to pass, which was still on the Appian 
to the Tres Taberncs (whither the brethren came from 
Rome to meet St. Paul, Acts, c. 28) ; the ruins whereof 
are yet very fair, resembling the remainder of some con- 
siderable edifice, as may be judged by the vast stones 
and fairness of the arched work. The country environ- 
ing this passage is hilly, but rich; on the right hand 
stretches an ample plain, being the Pomptini Campi. We 
reposed this night at Pipemo, in the posthouse without 
the town ; and here I was extremely troubled with a sore 
hand, which now began to fester, from a mischance at 
Rome, upon my base, unlucky, stiff-necked, trotting, car- 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 145 

rion mule; which are the most wretched beasts in the 
world. In this town was the poet Virgil's Camilla 

The day following, we were fain to hire a strong con- 
voy of about thirty firelocks, to 'guard us through the 
cork woods (much infested with the banditti) as far as 
Fossa Nuova, where was the Forum Appii, and now 
stands a church with a great monastery, the place where 
Thomas Aquinas both studied and lies buried. Here we 
all alighted, and were most courteously received by the 
Monks, who showed us many relics of their learned Saint 
and at the high altar the print forsooth of the mule's 
hoof which he caused to kneel before the Host. The 
church is old, built after the Gothic manner; but the 
place is very agreeably melancholy. After this, pursuing 
the same noble [Appian] way (which we had before left 
a little), we found it to stretch from Capua to Rome it- 
self, and afterward as far as Brundusium. It was built 
by that famous Consul, twenty-five feet broad, every 
twelve feet something ascending for the ease and firmer 
footing of horse and man ; both the sides are also a little 
raised for those who travel on foot. The whole is paved 
with a kind of beach-stone, and, as I said, ever and anon 
adorned with some old ruin, sepulchre, or broken statue. 
In one of these monuments PanciroUus tells us that, in 
the time of Paul III., there was found the body of a 
young lady, swimming in a kind of bath of precious oil, 
or liquor, fresh and entire as if she had been living, 
neither her face discolored, nor her hair disordered; at 
her feet burnt a lamp, which suddenly expired at the 
opening of the vault; having flamed, as was computed, 
now 1,500 years, by the conjecture that she was Tulliola, 
the daughter of Cicero, whose body was thus found, and 
as the inscription testified. We dined this day at Ter- 
racina, heretofore the famous Anxur, which stands upon 
a very eminent promontory, the Circean by name. 
While meat was preparing, I went up into the town, 
and viewed the fair remainders of Jupiter's Temple, now 
converted into a church, adorned with most stately col- 
umns ; its architecture has been excellent, as may be de- 
duced from the goodly cornices, moldings, and huge 
white marbles of which it is built. Before the portico 
stands a pillar thus inscribed: 

146 DIARY OF fondi 

Jnclyta Gothorum Regis monumenta vetusta 
Anxuri hoc Oculos exposuere loco;^'* 

for, it seems, Theodoric drained their marches. 
On another more ancient: 

*•*• Imp. CcBsar Divi NervcE Filius Nerva Trojanus Aug. German- 
icus Dacicus. Pontif. Max. Trib. Pop. xviii. Imp. vi. Cos. v. p. p. 
xviii. Silues sud pecunid stravit. » 

Meaning doubtless, some part of the Via Appia. Then : 

* Tit. Upio. Aug. optato Pontano Procuratori et Prcefect. CI as sis. 
— 7/1 Julius. T. Fab. optatus ii. viry> 

Here is likewise a Columna Milliaria, with something 
engraven on it, but I could not stay to consider it. Com- 
ing down again, I went toward the sea-side to contem- 
plate that stupendous strange rock and promontory, 
cleft by hand, I suppose, for the better passage. Within 
this is the Circean Cave, which I went into a good way; 
it makes a dreadful noise, by reason of the roaring and 
impetuous waves continually assaulting the beach, and 
that in an unusual manner. At the top, at an excessive 
height, stands an old and very great castle. We arrived 
this night at Fondi, a most dangerous passage for rob- 
bing; and so we passed by Galba's villa, and anon en- 
tered the kingdom of Naples, where, at the gate, this 
epigraph saluted us: *•*- Hospes^ hie sunt fines Regni Neopol- 
itani; si amieus advents, pacati omnia invenies, et malis 
moribus pulsis, bonas leges.^^ The Via Appia is here a 
noble prospect; having before considered how it was car- 
ried through vast mountains of rocks for many miles, by 
most stupendous labor: here it is infinitely pleasant, 
beset with sepulchres and antiquities, full of sweet shrubs 
in the environing hedges. At Fondi, we had oranges 
and citrons for nothing, the trees growing in every cor- 
ner, charged with fruit. 

29th January, 1645. We descried Mount Caecubus, fa- 
mous for the generous wine it heretofore produced, and 
so rode onward the Appian Way, beset with myrtles, len- 
tiscuses, bays, pomegranates, and whole groves of orange 
trees, and most delicious shrubs, till we came to Formi- 
ana [Formiae], where they showed us Cicero's tomb, 
standing in an olive grove, now a rude heap of stones 
without form or beauty; for here that incomparable ora- 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 147 

tor was murdered. I shall never forget how exceedingly 
I was delighted with the sweetness of this passage, the 
sepulchre mixed among all sorts of verdure; besides 
being now come within sight of the noble city, Cajeta 
[Gaieta], which gives a surprising prospect along the 
Tyrrhene Sea, in manner of a theater: and here we be- 
held that strangely cleft rock, a frightful spectacle, which 
they say happened upon the passion of our Blessed Sa- 
vior; but the haste of our procaccio did not suffer us to 
dwell so long on these objects and the many antiquities 
of this town as we desired. 

At Formi, we saw Cicero's grot; dining at Mola, and 
passing Sinuessa, Garigliano (once the city Mintem), and 
beheld the ruins of that vast amphitheater and aqueduct 
yet standing; the river Liris, which bounded the old La- 
tium, Falemus, or Mons Massacus, celebrated for its wine, 
now named Garo; and this night we lodged at a little 
village called St. Agatha, in the Falemian Fields, near 
to Aurunca and Sessa. 

The next day. having passed [the river] Vultumus, we 
come by the Torre di Francolisi, where Hannibal, in 
danger from Fabius Maximus, escaped by debauching 
his enemies ; and so at last we entered the most pleasant 
plains of Campania, now called Terra di Lavoro; in very 
truth, I think, the most fertile spot that ever the sun 
shone upon. Here we saw the slender ruins of the 
once mighty Capua, contending at once both with Rome 
and Carthage, for splendor and empire, now nothing but 
a heap of rubbish, except showing some vestige of its 
former magnificence in pieces of temples, arches, theatres, 
columns, ports, vaults, colosses, etc., confounded together 
by the barbarous Goths and Longobards; there is, 
however, a new city, nearer to the road by two miles, 
fairly raised out of these heaps. The passage from this 
town to Naples (which is about ten or twelve English 
post miles) is as straight as a line, of great breadth, 
fuller of travelers than I remember any of our greatest 
and most frequented roads near London; but, what is 
extremely pleasing, is the great fertility of the fields, 
planted with fruit trees, whose boles are serpented with 
excellent vines, and they so exuberant, that it is com- 
monly reported one vine will load five mules with its 
grapes. What adds much to the pleasure of the sight 


is, that the vines, climbing to the summit of the trees, 
reach in festoons and fruitages from one tree to another, 
planted at exact distances, forming a more delightful 
picture than painting can describe. Here grow rice, 
canes for sugar, olives, pomegranates, mulberries, citrons, 
oranges, figs, and other sorts of rare fruits. About the 
middle of the way is the town Aversa, whither came 
three or four coaches to meet our lady travelers, of whom 
we now took leave, having been very merry by the way 
with them and the capitdno, their gallant. 

31st January, 1645. About noon we entered the city 
of Naples, alighting at the Three Kings, where we found 
the most plentiful fare all the time we were in Naples. 
Provisions are wonderfully cheap ; we seldom sat down to 
fewer than eighteen or twenty dishes of exquisite meat 
and fruits. 

The morrow after our arrival, in the afternoon, we 
hired a coach to carry us about the town. First, we went 
to the castle of St. Elmo, built on a very high rock, 
whence we had an entire prospect of the whole city, 
which lies in shape of a theatre upon the sea-brink, with 
all the circumjacent islands, as far as Capreae, famous 
for the debauched recesses of Tiberius. This fort is 
the bridle of the whole city, and was well stored and 
garrisoned with native Spaniards. The strangeness of 
the precipice and rareness of the prospect of so many 
magnificent and stately palaces, churches, and monas- 
teries, with the Arsenal, the Mole, and Mount Vesuvius 
in the distance, all in full command of the eye, make it 
one of the richest landscapes in the world. 

Hence, we descended to another strong castle, called 
II Castello Nuovo, which protects the shore; but they 
would by no entreaty permit us to go in; the outward 
defense seems to consist but in four towers, very high, 
and an exceeding deep graff, with thick walls. Opposite 
to this is the tower of St. Vincent, which is also 
very strong. 

Then we went to the very noble palace of the Vice- 
roy, partly old, and part of a newer work; but we did 
not stay long here. Toward the evening, we took the 
air upon the Mole, a street on the rampart, or bank, 
raised in the sea for security of their galleys in port, 
built as that of Genoa. Here I observed a rich fountain 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 149 

in the middle of the piazza, and adorned with divers rare 
statues of copper, representing the Sirens, or Deities of 
the Parthenope, spouting large streams of water into an 
ample shell, all of cast metal, and of great cost. This 
stands at the entrance of the Mole, where we met many 
of the nobility both on horseback and in their coaches 
to take the fresco from the sea, as the manner is, it be- 
ing in the most advantageous quarter for good air, de- 
light and prospect. Here we saw divers goodly horses 
who handsomely become their riders, the Neapolitan gen- 
tlemen. This Mole is about 500 paces in length, and 
paved with a square hewn stone. From the Mole, we 
ascend to a church of great antiquity, formerly sacred to 
Castor and Pollux, as the Greek letters carved on the 
architrave and the busts of their two statues testify. It 
is now converted into a stately oratory by the Theatines. 

The Cathedral is a most magnificent pile, and except 
St. Peter's in Rome, Naples exceeds all cities for stately 
churches and monasteries. We were told that this day 
the blood of St. Januarius and his head should be ex- 
posed, and so we found it, but obtained not to see the 
miracle of the boiling of this blood. The next we went 
to see was St. Peter's, richly adorned, the chapel espe- 
cially, where that Apostle said mass, as is testified on the 

After dinner we went to St. Dominic, where they showed 
us the crucifix that is reported to have said these words 
to St. Thomas, * Ben^ de me scripsisti, Thoma. * Hence, to 
the Padri Olivetani, famous for the monument of the 
learned Alexander-ab- Alexandre. 

We proceeded, the next day, to visit the church of 
Santa Maria Maggiore, where we spent much time in sur- 
veying the chapel of Joh. Jov. Pontanus, and in it the 
several and excellent sentences and epitaphs on himself, 
wife, children, and friends, full of rare wit, and worthy 
of recording, as we find them in several writers. In the 
same chapel is shown an arm of Titus Livius, with this 
epigraph. '•'• Titi Livij brachiuvi quod Anton. Panortnita 
a Patavinis impeiravit^ Jo. Jovianus Pontanus multos post 
annos hdc in loco ponendum curavit. * 

Climbing a steep hill, we came to the monastery and 
Church of the Carthusians, from whence is a most goodly 
prospect toward the sea and city, the one full of galleys 


and ships, the other of stately palaces, churches, mon- 
asteries, castles, gardens, delicious fields and meadows. 
Mount Vesuvius smoking, the promontory of Minerva 
and Misenum, Capreae, Prochyta, Ischia, Pausilipum, 
Puteoli, and the rest, doubtless one of the most diver- 
tissant and considerable vistas in the world. The church 
is most elegantly built; the very pavements of the com- 
mon cloister being all laid with variously polished mar- 
bles, richly figured. They showed us a massy cross of 
silver, much celebrated for the workmanship and carving, 
and said to have been fourteen years in perfecting. The 
choir also is of rare art; but above all to be admired, is 
the yet unfinished church of the Jesuits, certainly, if ac- 
complished, not to be equalled in Europe. Hence, we 
passed by the Palazzo Caraffii, full of ancient and very 
noble statues: also the palace of the Orsini. The next 
day, we did little but visit some friends, English mer- 
chants, resident for their negotiation; only this morning 
at the Viceroy's Cavalerizza I saw the noblest horses that 
I had ever beheld, one of his sons riding the menage 
with that address and dexterity as I had never seen any- 
thing approach it. 

4th February, 1645. ^^ were invited to the collection 
of exotic rarities in the Museum of Ferdinando Impe- 
rati, a Neapolitan nobleman, and one of the most ob- 
servable palaces in the city, the repository of incomparable 
rarities. Among the natural herbals most remarkable 
was the Byssus marina and Pinna marina; the male and 
female chameleon ; an Onocrotatus ; an extraordinary great 
crocodile; some of the Orcades Anates, held here for a 
great rarity; likewise a salamander; the male and female 
Manucordiata, the male having a hollow in the back, in 
which it is reported the female both lays and hatches 
her eggs; the mandragoras, of both sexes; Papyrus, 
made of several reeds, and some of silk; tables of 
the rinds of trees, written with Japonic characters; 
another of the branches of palm; many Indian fruits; 
a crystal that had a quantity of uncongealed water 
within its cavity; a petrified fisher's net; divers sorts of 
tarantulas, being a monstrous spider, with lark-like claws, 
and somewhat bigger. 

5th February, 1645. This day we beheld the Vice- 
king's procession, which was very splendid for the relics, 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 151 

banners, and music that accompanied the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. The ceremony took up most of the morning. 

6th February, 1645. We went by coach to take the 
air, and see the diversions, or rather madness of the 
Carnival; the courtesans (who swarm in this city to the 
number, as we are told, of 30,000, registered and paying 
a tax to the State ) flinging eggs of sweet water into our 
coach, as we passed by the houses and windows. Indeed, 
the town is so pestered with these cattle, that there 
needs no small mortification to preserve from their en- 
chantment, while they display all their natural and arti- 
ficial beauty, play, sing, feign compliment, and by a 
thousand studied devices seek to inveigle foolish young 

7th February, 1645. The next day, being Saturday, 
we went four miles out of town on mules, to see that 
famous volcano, Mount Vesuvius. Here we pass a fair 
fountain, called Labulla, which continually boils, supposed 
to proceed from Vesuvius, and thence over a river and 
bridge, where on a large upright stone, is engraven a 
notable inscription relative to the memorable eruption 
in 1630. 

Approaching the hill, as we were able with our mules, 
we alighted, crawling up the rest of the proclivity with 
great difficulty, now with our feet, now with our hands, 
not without many untoward slips which did much bruise 
us on the various colored cinders, with which the whole 
mountain is covered, some like pitch, others full of per- 
fect brimstone, others metallic, interspersed with innu- 
merable pumices (of all which I made a collection), we at 
the last gained the summit of an extensive altitude. 
Turning our faces toward Naples, it presents one of the 
goodliest prospects in the world; all the Baiae, Cuma, 
Elysian Fields, Capreas, Ischia, Prochyta, Misenus, Puteoli, 
that goodly city, with a great portion of the Tyrrhene 
Sea, offering themselves to your view at once, and at so 
agreeable a distance, as nothing can be more delightful. 
The mountain consists of a double top, the one pointed 
very sharp, and commonly appearing above any clouds, 
the other blunt. Here, as we approached, we met many 
large gaping clefts and chasms, out of which issued such 
sulphurous blasts and smoke, that we dared not stand 
long near them. Having gained the very summit, I laid 


myself down to look over into that most frightful and 
terrible vorago, a stupendous pit of near three miles in 
circuit, and half a mile in depth, by a perpendicular 
hollow cliff (like that from the highest part of Dover 
Castle), with now and then a craggy prominency jetting 
out. The area at the bottom is plane, like an even floor, 
which seems to be made by the wind circling the ashes 
by its eddy blasts. In the middle and centre is a hill, 
shaped like a great brown loaf, appearing to consist of 
sulphurous matter, continually vomiting a foggy exhala- 
tion, and ejecting huge stones with an impetuous noise 
and roaring, like the report of many muskets discharg- 
ing. This horrid barathrum engaged our attention for 
some hours, both for the strangeness of the spectacle, 
and the mention which the old histories make of it, as 
one of the most stupendous curiosities in nature, and 
which made the learned and inquisitive Pliny adventure 
his life to detect the causes, and to lose it in too desper- 
ate an approach. It is likewise famous for the stratagem 
of the rebel, Spartacus, who did so much mischief to the 
State lurking among and protected by, these horrid 
caverns, when it was more accessible and less dangerous 
than it is now; but especially notorious it is for the last 
conflagration, when, in anno 1630, it burst out beyond 
what it had ever done in the memory of history; throw- 
ing out huge stones and fiery pumices in such quantity, 
as not only environed the whole mountain, but totally 
buried and overwhelmed divers towns and their inhabit- 
ants, scattering the ashes more than a hundred miles, 
and utterly devastating all those vineyards, where form- 
erly grew the most incomparable Greco; when, bursting 
through the bowels of the earth, it absorbed the very 
sea, and, with its whirling waters, drew in divers galleys 
and other vessels to their destruction, as is faithfully 
recorded. We descended with more ease than we climbed 
up, through a deep valley of pure ashes, which at the 
late eruption was a flowing river of melted and burning 
brimstone, and so came to our mules at the foot of the 

On Sunday, we with our guide visited the so much cele- 
brated Baia, and natural rarities of the places adjacent. 
Here we entered the mountain Pausilypus, at the left 
hand of which they showed us Virgil's sepulchre erected 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 153 

on a steep rock, in form of a small rotunda or cupolated 
column, but almost overgrown with bushes and wild bay- 
trees. At the entrance is this inscription: 

Stanisi Cencovius. 


Qui cinceres ? Tumuli hcec vestigia, conditur olim 

Ille hdc qui cecinit Pascua, Rura Duces. 

Can Ree MDLIII* 

After we were advanced into this noble and altogether 
wonderful crypt, consisting of a passage spacious enough 
for two coaches to go abreast, cut through a rocky moun- 
tain near three quarters of a mile (by the ancient Cim- 
merii as reported, but as others say by L. Cocceius, who 
employed a hundred thousand men on it), we came to 
the midway, where there is a well bored through the 
diameter of this vast mountain, which admits the light 
into a pretty chapel, hewn out of the natural rock, wherein 
hang divers lamps, perpetually burning. The way is 
paved under foot ; but it does not hinder the dust, which 
rises so excessively in this much-frequented passage, that 
we were forced at midday to use a torch. At length, 
we were delivered from the bowels of the earth into one 
of the most delicious plains in the world: the oranges, 
lemons, pomegranates, and other fruits, blushing yet on 
the perpetually green trees; for the summer is here 
eternal, caused by the natural and adventitious heat of 
the earth, warmed through the subterranean fires, as was 
shown us by our guide, who alighted, and, cutting up a 
turf with his knife, and delivering it to me, it was so hot, 
I was hardly able to hold it in my hands. This moun- 
tain is exceedingly fruitful in vines, and exotics grow 

We now came to a lake of about two miles in circum- 
ference, environed with hills; the water of it is fresh and 
sweet on the surface, but salt at bottom; some mineral 
salt conjectured to be the cause, and it is reported of that 

* Such is the inscription, as copied by Evelyn ; but as its sense is not 
very clear, and the Diary contains instances of incorrectness in tran- 
scribing, it may be desirable to subjoin the distich said (by Keysler in 
his « Travels, >> ii. 433) to be the only one in the whole mausoleum: 

« Qucp cifteris tu7nulo here vestigia f conditur olim 
Ille hoc qtii cecinit pascua, rura, duces?^ 

154 DIARY OF lago d'agnano 

profunditude in the middle that it is bottomless. The 
people call it Lago d'Agnano, from the multitude of 
serpents which, involved together about the spring, fall 
down from the cliffy hills into it. It has no fish, nor will 
any live in it. We tried the old experiment on a dog in 
the Grotto del Cane, or Charon's Cave; it is not above 
three or four paces deep, and about the height of a man, 
nor very broad. Whatever having life enters it, presently 
expires. Of this we made trial with two dogs, one of 
which we bound to a short pole to guide him the more 
directly into the further part of the den, where he was no 
sooner entered, but — without the least noise, or so much 
as a struggle, except that he panted for breath, lolling out 
his tongue, his eyes being fixed : — we drew him out dead 
to all appearance ; but immediately plunging him into the 
adjoining lake, within less than half an hour he recovered, 
and swimming to shore, ran away from us. We tried the 
same on another dog, without the application of the 
water, and left him quite dead. The experiment has been 
made on men, as on that poor creature whom Peter of 
Toledo caused to go in ; likewise on some Turkish slaves ; 
two soldiers, and other foolhardy persons, who all per- 
ished, and could never be recovered by the water of the 
lake, as are dogs; for which many learned reasons have 
been offered, as Simon Majolus in his book of the Canic- 
ular-days has mentioned, colloq. 15. And certainly the 
most likely is, the effect of those hot and dry vapors 
which ascend out of the earth, and are condensed by the 
ambient cold, as appears by their converting into crystal- 
line drops on the top, while at the bottom it is so 
excessively hot, that a torch being extinguished near it, 
and lifted a little distance, was suddenly re-lighted. 

Near to this cave are the natural stoves of St. Germain, 
of the nature of sudatories, in certain chambers parti- 
tioned with stone for the sick to sweat in, the vapors 
here being exceedingly hot, and of admirable success in 
the gout, and other coid distempers of the nerves. Hence, 
we climed up a hill, the very highway in several places 
even smoking with heat like a furnace. The mountains 
were by the Greeks called Leucogaei, and the fields 
Phlegraen. Hercules here vanquished the Giants, assisted 
with lightning. We now came to the Court of Vulcan, 
consisting of a valley near a quarter of a mile in breadth, 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 155 

the margin environed with steep cliffs, out of whose 
sides and foot break forth fire and smoke in abundance, 
making a noise like a tempest of water, and sometimes 
discharging in loud reports, like so many guns. The 
heat of this place is wonderful, the earth itself being 
almost unsufferable, and which the subterranean fires 
have made so hollow, by having wasted the matter for 
so many years, that it sounds like a drum to those who 
walk upon it; and the water thus struggling with those 
fires bubbles and spouts aloft into the air. The mouths 
of these spiracles are bestrewed with variously colored 
cinders, which rise with the vapor, as do many colored 
stones, according to the quality of the combustible mat- 
ter, insomuch as it is no little adventure to approach 
them. They are, however, daily frequented both by sick 
and well; the former receiving the fumes, have been 
recovered of diseases esteemed incurable. Here we found 
a great deal of sulphur made, which they refine in certain 
houses near the place, casting it into canes, to a very 
gfreat value. Near this we were showed a hill of alum, 
where is one of the best mineries, yielding a considerable 
revenue. Some flowers of brass are found here; but I 
could not but smile at those who persuade themselves 
that here are the gates of purgatory (for which it may 
be they have erected, very near it, a convent, and named 
it St. Januarius), reporting to have often heard screeches 
and horrible lamentations proceeding from these caverns 
and volcanoes ; with other legends of birds that are never 
seen, save on Sundays, which cast themselves into the 
lake at night, appearing no more all the week after. 

We now approached the ruins of a very stately temple, 
or theater, of 172 feet in length, and about 80 in 
breadth, thrown down by an earthquake, not long since; 
it was consecrated to Vulcan, and under the ground are 
many strange meanders; from which it is named the 
Labyrinth ; this place is so haunted with bats, that their 
perpetual fluttering endangered the putting out our links. 

Hence, we passed again those boiling and smoking hills, 
till we came to Pozzolo, formerly the famous Puteoli, the 
landing-place of St. Paul, when he came into Italy, after 
the tempest described in the Acts of the Apostles. Here 
we made a good dinner, and bought divers medals, an- 
tiquities, and other curiosities, of the country people, who 

156 DIARY OF PozzoLO 

daily find such things among the very old ruins of those 
places. This town was formerly a Greek colony, built by 
the Samians, a seasonable commodious port, and full of 
observable antiquities. We saw the ruins of Neptune's 
Temple, to whom this place was sacred, and near it the 
stately palace and gardens of Peter de Toledo, formerly 
mentioned. Afterward, we visited that admirably built 
Temple of Augustus, seeming to have been hewn out of 
an entire rock, though indeed consisting of several square 
stones. The inscription remains thus: **Z. Calphurnius 
L. F. Templum Augusto cutn ornametitis D. Z)./" and under 
it, *Z. Coccejus L. C. Postu^ni L. Auctus Architectus?'* It is 
now converted into a church, in which they showed us huge 
bones, which they affirm to have been of some giant. 

We went to see the ruins of the old haven, so compact 
with that bituminous sand in which the materials are laid, 
as the like is hardly to be found, though all this has not 
been sufficient to protect it from the fatal concussions of 
several earthquakes (frequent here) which have almost 
demolished it, thirteen vast piles of marble only remain- 
ing; a stupendous work in the bosom of Neptune! To 
this joins the bridge of Caligula, by which (having now 
embarked ourselves) we sailed to the pleasant Baia, almost 
four miles in length, all which way that proud Emperor 
would pass in triumph. Here we rowed along toward a 
villa of the orator Cicero's, where we were shown the 
ruins of his Academy; and, at the foot of a rock, his 
Baths, the waters reciprocating their tides with the neigh- 
boring sea. Hard at hand, rises Mount Gaurus, being, as 
I conceived, nothing save a heap of pumices, which here 
float in abundance on the sea, exhausted of all inflam- 
mable matter by the fire, which renders them light and 
porous, so as the beds of nitre, which lie deep under 
them, having taken fire, do easily eject them. They dig 
much for fancied treasure said to be concealed about this 
place. From hence, we coasted near the ruins of Portus 
Julius, where we might see divers stately palaces that had 
been swallowed up by the sea after earthquakes. Coming 
to shore, we pass by the Lucrine Lake, so famous here- 
tofore for its delicious oysters, now producing few or none, 
being divided from the sea by a bank of incredible labor, 
the supposed work of Hercules ; it is now half choked up 
with rubbish, and by part of the new mountain, which 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 157 

rose partly out of it, and partly out of the sea, and that 
in the space of one night and a day, to a very great al- 
titude, on the 29th September, 1538, after many terrible 
earthquakes, which ruined divers places thereabout, when 
at midnight the sea retiring near 200 paces, and yawning 
on the sudden, it continued to vomit forth flames and 
fiery stones in such quantity, as produced this whole 
mountain by their fall, making the inhabitants of Pozzolo 
to leave their habitations, supposing the end of the world 
had been come. 

From the left part of this, we walked to the Lake 
Avernus of a round form, and totally environed with 
mountains. This lake was feigned by the poet for the 
gates of hell, by which ^neas made his descent, and 
where he sacrificed to Pluto and the Manes. The waters 
are of a remarkably black color; but I tasted of them 
without danger; hence, they feign that the river Styx 
has its source. At one side, stand the handsome ruins 
of a Temple dedicated to Apollo, or rather Pluto, but it 
is controverted. Opposite to this, having new lighted 
our torches, we enter a vast cave, in which having gone 
about two hundred paces, we pass a narrow entry which 
leads us into a room of about ten paces long, propor- 
tionably broad and high; the side walls and roof retain 
still the golden mosaic, though now exceedingly decayed 
by time. Here is a short cell or rather niche, cut out 
of the solid rock, somewhat resembling a couch, in which 
they report that the Sibylla lay, and uttered her Oracles ; 
but it is supposed by most to have been a bath only. 
This subterranean grot leads quite through to Cuma, 
but is in some places obstructed by the earth which has 
sunk in, so as we were constrained back again, and to 
creep on our bellies, before we came to the light. It is 
reported Nero had once resolved to cut a channel for 
two great galleys that should have extended to Ostia, 
150 miles distant. The people now call it Licola. 

From hence, we ascended to that most ancient city of 
Italy, the renowned Cuma, built by the Grecians. It 
stands on a very eminent promontory, but is now a 
heap of ruins. A little below, stands the Arco Felice, 
heretofore part of Apollo's Temple, with the foundations 
of divers goodly buildings; among whose heaps are fre- 
quently found statues and other antiquities, by such as 


dig for them. Near this is the Lake Acherutia, and 
Acheron. Returning to the shore, we came to the Bagni 
de Tritoli and Diana, which are only long narrow pas- 
sages cut through the main rock, where the vapors 
ascend so hot, that entering with the body erect you 
will even faint with excessive perspiration; but, stooping 
lower, as sudden a cold surprises. These sudatories are 
much in request for many infirmities. Now we entered 
the haven of the Bahise, where once stood that famous 
town, so-called from the companion of Ulysses here 
buried; not without great reason celebrated for one of 
the most delicious places that the sun shines on, accord- 
ing to that of Horace: 

'•^■Nullus in Orbe locus Baits prcBlucet antcenis.'^ 

Though, as to the stately fabrics, there now remain 
little save the ruins, whereof the most entire is that of 
Diana's Temple, and another of Venus. Here were those 
famous poles of lampreys that would come to hand when 
called by name, as Martial tells us. On the summit of 
the rock stands a strong castle garrisoned to protect the 
shore from Turkish pirates. It was once the retiring 
place of Julius Caesar. 

Passing by the shore again, we entered Bauli, observa- 
ble from the monstrous murder of Nero committed on 
his mother Agrippina. Her sepulchre was yet shown 
us in the rock, which we entered, being covered with 
sundry heads and figures of beasts. We saw there the 
roots of a tree turned into stone, and are continually 

Thus having viewed the foundations of the old Cimmeria, 
the palaces of Marius, Pompey, Nero, Hortensius, and 
other villas and antiquities, we proceeded toward the 
promontory of Misenus, renowned for the sepulchre of 
.^Eneas's Trumpeter. It was once a great city, now hardly 
a ruin, said to have been built from this place to the 
promontory of Minerva, fifty miles distant, now discon- 
tinued and demolished by the frequent earthquakes. Here 
was the villa of Caius Marius, where Tiberius Caesar 
died ; and here runs the Aqueduct, thought to be dug by 
Nero, a stupendous passage, heretofore nobly arched with 
marble, as the ruins testify. Hence, we walked to those 
receptacles of water called Piscina Mirabilis, being a 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 159 

vault of 500 feet long, and twenty-two in breadth, the 
roof propped up with four ranks of square pillars, twelve 
in a row; the walls are brick, plastered over with such 
a composition as for strength and politure resembles 
white marble. 'Tis conceived to have been built by Nero, 
as a conservatory for fresh water; as were also the Centi 
Camerelli, into which we were next led. All these crypta 
being now almost sunk into the earth, show yet their 
former amplitude and magnificence. 

Returning toward the Baia, we again pass the Elysian 
Fields, so celebrated by the poets, nor unworthily, for 
their situation and verdure, being full of myrtles and 
sweet shrubs, and having a most delightful prospect 
toward the Tyrrhene Sea. Upon the verge of these 
remain the ruins of the ^lercato di Saboto, formerly a 
Circus ; over the arches stand divers urns, full of Roman 

Having well satisfied our curiosity among these antiqui- 
ties, we retired to our felucca, which rowed us back 
again toward Pozzolo, at the very place of St, Paul's 
landing. Keeping along the shore, they showed us a 
place where the sea water and sands did exceedingly boil. 
Thence, to the island Nesis, once the fabulous Nymph; 
and thus we leave the Baia, so renowned for the sweet 
retirements of the most opulent and voluptuous Romans. 
They certainly were places of uncommon amenity, as 
their yet tempting site, and other circumstances of natural 
curiosities, easily invite me to believe, since there is not 
in the world so many stupendous rarities to be met with, 
as in the circle of a few miles which environ these bliss- 
ful abodes. 

8th February, 1645. Returned to Naples, we went to 
see the Arsenal, well furnished with galleys and other 
vessels. The city is crowded with inhabitants, gentle- 
men and merchants. The government is held of the 
Pope by an annual tribute of 40,000 ducats and a white 
jennet; but the Spaniard trusts more to the power of 
those his natural subjects there; Apulia and Calabria 
yielding him near four millions of crowns yearly to main- 
tain it. The country is divided into thirteen Provinces, 
twenty Archbishops, and one hundred and seven Bishops; 
the estates of the nobility, in default of the male line, 
reverting to the King. Besides the Vice-Roy, there is 

i6o DIARY OF Naples 

among the Chief Magistrates a High Constable, Admiral, 
Chief Justice, Great Chamberlain, and Chancellor, with a 
Secretary; these being prodigiously avaricious, do won- 
derfully enrich themselves out of the miserable people's 
labor, silks, manna, sugar, oil, wine, rice, sulphur, and 
alum; for with all these riches is this delicious country 
blest. The manna falls at certain seasons on the adjoin- 
ing hills in form of a thick dew. The very winter here 
is a summer, ever fruitful, so that in the middle of Feb- 
ruary we had melons, cherries, apricots, and many other 
sorts of fruit. 

The building of the city is for the size the most mag- 
nificent of any in Europe, the streets exceeding large, 
well paved, having many vaults and conveyances under 
them for the sulliage; which renders them very sweet 
and clean, even in the midst of winter. To it belongeth 
more than 3,000 churches and monasteries, and these the 
best built and adorned of any in Italy. They greatly 
affect the Spanish gravity in their habit ; delight in good 
horses; the streets are full of gallants on horseback, in 
coaches and sedans, from hence brought first into Eng- 
land by Sir Sanders Duncomb. The women are gener- 
ally well featured, but excessively libidinous. The country 
people so jovial and addicted to music, that the very 
husbandmen almost universally play on the guitar, sing- 
ing and composing songs in praise of their sweethearts, 
and will commonly go to the field with their fiddle ; they 
are merry, witty, and genial; all which I much attribute 
to the excellent quality of the air. They have a deadly 
hatred to the French, so that some of our company were 
flouted at for wearing red cloaks, as the mode then was. 

This I made the non ultra of my travels, sufficiently 
sated with rolling up and down, and resolving within 
myself to be no longer an individuum vagum, if ever I 
got home again; since, from the report of divers experi- 
enced and curious persons, I had been assured there was 
little more to be seen in the rest of the civil world, 
after Italy, France, Flanders, and the Low Countries, 
but plain and prodigious barbarism. 

Thus, about the 7th of February,* we set out on our 
return to Rome by the same way we came, not daring 

♦Evelyn's dates in this portion of his. Diary appear to require oc- 
casionally that qualification of « about.* 

i645 JOHN EVELYN i6i 

to adventure by sea, as some of our company were in- 
clined to do, for fear of Turkish pirates hovering on that 
coast ; nor made we any stay save at Albano, to view the 
celebrated place and sepulchre of the famous duelists 
who decided the ancient quarrel between their imperious 
neighbors with the loss of their lives. These brothers, 
the Horatii and Curiatii, lie buried near the highway, 
under two ancient pyramids of stone, now somewhat de- 
cayed and overgrown with rubbish. We took the oppor- 
tunity of tasting the wine here, which is famous. 

Being arrived at Rome on the 13th of February, we 
were again invited to Signor Angeloni's study, where with 
greater leisure we surveyed the rarities, as his cabinet 
and medals especially, esteemed one of the best collec- 
tions of them in Europe. He also showed us two antique 
lamps, one of them dedicated to Pallas, the other Laribus 
Sacru\ as appeared by their inscriptions ; some old Roman 
rings and keys; the Egyptian Isis, cast in iron; sundry 
rare basso-relievos; good pieces of paintings, principally 
of Christ of Correggio, with this painter's own face admi- 
rably done by himself; divers of both the Bassanos; a 
great number of pieces by Titian, particularly the 
Triumphs; an infinity of natural rarities, dried animals, 
Indian habits and weapons, shells, etc. ; dives very antique 
statues of brass: some lamps of so fine in earth that 
they resembled cornelians, for transparency and color; 
hinges of Corinthian brass, and one great nail of the 
same metal found in the ruins of Nero's golden house. 

In the afternoon, we ferried over to Transtevere, to the 
palace of Gichi, to review the works of Raphael: and, 
returning by St. Angelo, we saw the castle as far as was 
permitted, and on the other side considered those admi- 
rable pilasters supposed to be of the foundation of 
the Pons Sublicius, over which Horatius Codes passed; 
here anchor three or four water mills, invented by Beli- 
zarius: and thence had another sight of the Farnesi's gar- 
dens, and of the terrace where is that admirable paint- 
ing of Raphael, being a Cupid playing with a Dolphin, 
wrought a fresco, preserved in shutters of wainscot, as 
well it merits, being certainly one of the most wonder- 
ful pieces of work in the world. 

14th February, 1645. ^ went to Santa Cecilia, a church 
built and endowed by Cardinal Sfrondaeti, who has erected 


a stately altar near the body of this martyr, not long be- 
fore found in a vesture of silk girt about, a veil on her 
head, and the bloody scars of three wounds on the neck ; 
the body is now in a silver chest, with her statue over it, 
in snow-white marble. Other Saints lie here, decorated 
with splendid ornaments, lamps, and incensories of great 
cost. A little farther, they show us the Bath of St. 
Cecilia, to which joins a Convent of Friars, where is the 
picture of the Flagellation' by Vanni, and the columns of 
the portico, taken from the Baths of Septimius Severus. 

15th February, 1645. Mr. Henshaw and I walked by 
the Tiber, and visited the Stola Tybertina ( now St. Bar- 
tholomew's), formerly cut in the shape of a ship, and 
wharfed with marble, in which a lofty obelisk repre- 
sented the mast. In the church of St. Bartholomew is 
the body of the Apostle. Here are the ruins of the Temple 
of -^sculapius, now converted into a stately hospital and 
a pretty convent. Opposite to it, is the convent and church 
of St. John Calabita, where I saw nothing remarkable, save 
an old broken altar. Here was the Temple of Fortuna 
Virilis. Hence, we went to a cupola, now a church, 
formerly dedicated to the sun. Opposite to it, Santa 
Maria Schola Graeca, where formerly that tongue was 
taught; said to be the second church dedicated in Rome 
to the Blessed Virgin; bearing also the title of a Car- 
dinalate. Behind this stands the great altar of Hercules, 
much demolished. Near this, being at the foot of Mount 
Aventine, are the Pope's salt houses. Ascending the hill, 
we came to St, Sabina, an ancient fabric, formerly sacred 
to Diana; there, in a chapel, is an admirable picture, 
the work of Livia Fontana, set about with columns of 
alabaster, and in the middle of the church is a stone, 
cast, as they report, by the Devil at St. Dominic, while 
he was at mass. Hence, we traveled toward a heap of 
rubbish, called the Marmorata, on the bank of the Tiber, 
a magazine of stones; and near which formerly stood a 
triumphal arch, in honor of Horatius vanquishing the 
Tuscans. The ruins of the bridge yet appear. 

We were now got to Mons Testaceus, a heap of pot- 
sherds, almost 200 feet high, thought to have been thrown 
there and amassed by the subjects of the Commonwealth 
bringing their tribute in earthen vessels, others (more 
probably ) that it was a quarter of the town where pot- 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 163 

ters lived ; at the summit Rome affords a noble prospect. 
Before it is a spacious green, called the Hippodrome, 
where Olympic games were celebrated, and the people 
mustered, as in our London Artillery-Ground. Going 
hence, to the old wall of the city, we much admired the 
pyramid, or tomb, of Caius Cestius, of white marble, 
one of the most ancient entire monuments, inserted in the 
wall, with this inscription: 

« C. Cestius L. F. Fob. Epulo ( an order of priests ) Fr. Tr. pi. 
VII. Vir. Epuionum.^^ 

And a little beneath: 

*^Opus absolutum ex testamento diebus CCCXXX. arbitratu. 
Fonti F. F. Cla. Melee Heredis et Fothi L. » 

At the left hand, is the Port of St. Paul, once Terge- 
mina, out of which the three Horatii passed to encounter 
the Curiatii of Albano. Hence, bending homeward by St. 
Saba, by Antoninus's baths (which we entered), is the 
marble sepulchre of Vespasian. The thickness of the 
walls and the stately ruins show the enormous magni- 
tude of these baths. Passing by a corner of the Circus 
Maximus, we viewed the place where stood the Septi- 
zonium, demolished by Sextus V., for fear of its falling. 
Going by Mons Coelius, we beheld the devotions of St. 
Maria in Navicula, so named from a ship carved out in 
white marble standing on a pedestal before it, supposed to 
be the vow of one escaped from shipwreck. It has a 
glorious front to the street. Adjoining to this are the 
Hortii Mathaei, which only of all the places about the 
city I omitted visiting, though I was told inferior to no 
garden in Rome for statues, ancient monuments, aviaries, 
fountains, groves, and especially a noble obelisk, and 
maintained in beauty at an expense of 6,000 crowns 
yearly, which, if not expended to keep up its beauty, 
forfeits the possession of a greater revenue to another 
family: so curious are they in their villas and places of 
pleasure, even to excess. 

The next day, we went to the once famous Circus Cara- 
calla, in the midst of which there now lay prostrate one 
of the most stately and ancient obelisks, full of Egyptian 
hieroglyphics. It was broken into four pieces, when over- 
thrown by the Barbarians, and would have been pur- 
chased and transported into England by the magnificent 


Thomas Earl of Arundel, could it have been well re- 
moved to the sea. This is since set together and placed 
on the stupendous artificial rock made by Innocent X., 
and serving for a fountain in Piazza Navona, the work 
of Bernini, the Pope's architect. Near this is the sepul- 
chre of Metellus, of massy stone, pretty entire, now 
called Capo di Bovo. Hence, to a small oratory, named 
^^ Domine, quo vadis^^; where the tradition is, that our 
Blessed Savior met St. Peter as he fled, and turned him 
back again. 

St. Sebastian's was the next, a mean structure (the 
faccidta excepted, but is venerable, especially for the 
relics and grots, in which lie the ashes of many holy 
men. Here is kept the pontifical chair sprinkled with 
the blood of Pope Stephen, to which great devotion is 
paid; also a well full of martyrs' bones, and the sepul- 
chre of St. Sebastian, with one of the arrows (used in 
shooting him). These are preserved by the Fulgentine 
Monks, who have here their monastery, and who led us down 
into a grotto which they affirmed went divers furlongs 
under ground ; the sides, or walls which we passed were 
filled with bones and dead bodies, laid (as it were) on 
shelves, whereof some were shut up with broad stones 
and now and then a cross, or a palm, cut in them. At 
the end of some of these subterranean passages, were 
square rooms with altars in them, said to have been the 
receptacles of primitive Christians, in the times of per- 
secution, nor seems it improbable. 

17th February, 1645. I was invited, after dinner, to 
the Academy of the Humorists, kept in a spacious hall 
belonging to Signor Mancini, where the wits of the town 
meet on certain days to recite poems, and debate on 
several subjects. The first that speaks is called the 
Lord, and stands in an eminent place, and then the rest 
of the Virtuosi recite in order. By these ingenious ex- 
ercises, besides the learned discourses, is the purity of 
the Italian tongue daily improved. The room is hung 
round with devices, or emblems, with mottoes under 
them. There are several other Academies of this nature, 
bearing like fantastical titles. In this of the Humorists 
is the picture of Guarini, the famous author of the Pas- 
tor Fido, once of this society. The chief part of the day 
we spent in hearing the academic exercises. 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 165 

1 8th February, 1645. We walked to St. Nicholas in 
Carcere; it has a fair front, and within are parts of the 
bodies of St. Mark and Marcellino; on the Tribuna is a 
painting of Gentileschi, and the altar of Caval ; Bag- 
lioni, with some other rare paintings. Coming round 
from hence we passed by the Circus Flaminius, formerly 
very large, now totally in ruins. In the afternoon, we 
visited the English Jesuits, with whose Superior, P. Staf- 
ford, I was well acquainted; who received us courteously. 
They call their church and college St. Thomasso de gli 
Inglesi, and is a seminary. Among other trifles, they 
show the relics of Becket, their reputed martjT. Of 
paintings there i5 one of Durante, and many represent- 
ing the sufiferings of several of their society executed in 
England, especially F. Campion. 

In the Hospital of the Pelerini della S. Trinita, I had 
seen the feet of many pilgrims washed by Princes, Car- 
dinals, and noble Romans, and served at table, as the 
ladies and noble women did to other poor creatures in 
another room. It was told us that no less than 444,000 
men had been thus treated in the Jubilee of 1600, and 
25,500 women, as appears by the register, which brings 
store of money. 

Returning homeward, I saw the palace of Cardinal 
Spada, where is a most magnificent hall painted by Daniel 
de Volterra and Giulio Piacentino, who made the fret in 
the little Court; but the rare perspectives are of Bolog- 
nesi. Near this is the Mont Pieta, instituted as a bank 
for the poor, who, if the sum be not great, may have 
money upon pawns. To this joins St. Martino, to which 
belongs a Schola, or Corporation, that do many works of 
charity. Hence we came through Campo di Fiori, or 
herb-market, in the midst of which is a fountain casting 
out water of a dolphin, in copper; and in this piazza is 
common execution done. 

19th Februar)'', 1645. I went, this afternoon, to visit 
my Lord John Somerset, brother to the Marquis of 
"Worcester, who had his apartment in Palazzo della Can- 
cellaria, belonging to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, as 
Vice-chancellor of the Church of Rome, and Protector of 
the English. The building is of the famous architect, 
Bramante, of incrusted marble, with four ranks of noble 
lights; the principal entrance is of Fontana's design, and 

1 66 DIARY OF rome 

all marble ; the portico within sustained by massy columns ; 
on the second peristyle above, the chambers are rarely 
painted by Salviati and Vasari; and so ample is this 
palace, that six princes with their families have been 
received in it at one time, without incommoding each other. 

2oth February, 1645. I went, as was my usual custom, 
and spent an afternoon in Piazza Navona, as well as to 
see what antiquities I could purchase among the people 
who hold market there for medals, pictures, and such 
curiosities, as to hear the mountebanks prate and dis- 
tribute their medicines. This was formerly the Circus, 
or Agonales, dedicated to sports and pastimes, and is 
now the greatest market of the city, having three most 
noble fountains, and the stately palaces of the Pamfilii, 
St. Giacomo de Spagnoli belonging to that nation, to 
which add two convents for friars and nuns, all Span- 
ish. In this Church was erected a most stately catafalco, 
or capellar ardente, for the death of the Queen of Spain ; 
the church was hung with black, and here I heard a Span- 
ish sermon, or funeral oration, and observed the statues, 
devices, and impresses hung about the walls, the church 
and pyramid stuck with thousands of lights and tapers, 
which made a glorious show. The statue of St. James 
is by Sansovino; there are also some good pictures of 
Caracci. The faccidta, too, is fair. Returning home, I 
passed by the stumps of old Pasquin, at the comer of a 
street, called Strada Pontificia; here they still paste up 
their drolling lampoons and scurrilous papers. This had 
formerly been one of the best statues for workmanship 
and art in all the city, as the remaining bust does still show. 

2ist February, 1645. I walked in the morning up the 
hill toward the Capuchins, where was then Cardinal Un- 
ufrio (brother to the late Pope Urban VIII.) of the same or- 
der. He built them a pretty church, full of rare pictures, 
and there lies the body of St. Felix, that they say still 
does miracles. The piece at the great altar is by Lan- 
frame. It is a lofty edifice, with a beautiful avenue of 
trees, and in a good air. After dinner, passing along the 
Strada del Corso, I observed the column of Antoninus, 
passing under Arco Portugallo, which is but a relic, here- 
tofore erected in honor of Domitian, called now Portu- 
gallo, from a Cardinal living near it. A little further on 
the right hand stands the column in a small piazza, here- 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 167 

tofore set up in honor of M. Aurelius Antoninus, com- 
prehending in a basso-relievo of white marble his hostile 
acts against the Parthians, Armenians, Germans, etc; 
but it is now somewhat decayed. On the summit has 
been placed the image of St. Paul, of gilded copper. 
The pillar is said to be 161 feet high, ascended by 207 
steps, receiving light by fifty-six apertures, without de- 
facing the sculpture. 

At a little distance, are the relics of the Emperor's 
palace, the heads of whose pillars show them to have 
been Corinthian. 

Turning a little down, we came to another piazza, in 
which stands a sumptuous vase of porphyry, and a fair 
fountain; but the grace of this market, and indeed the 
admiration of the whole world, is the Pantheon, now called 
S. Maria della Rotonda, formerly sacred to all the Gods, 
and still remaining the most entire antiquity of the city. 
It was built by Marcus Agrippa, as testifies the architrave 
of the portico, sustained by thirteen pillars of Theban 
marble, six feet thick, and fifty- three in height, of one 
entire stone. In this porch is an old inscription. 

Entering the church, we admire the fabric, wholly 
covered with one cupola, seemingly suspended in the air, 
and receiving light by a hole in the middle only. The 
structure is near as high as broad, viz, 144 feet, not 
counting the thickness of the walls, which is twenty- 
two more to the top, all of white marble ; and, till Urban 
VIII, converted part of the metal into ordnance of war 
against the Duke of Parma, and part to make the high 
altar in St. Peter's, it was all over covered with Corinthian 
brass, ascending by forty degrees within the roof, or 
convex, of the cupola, richly carved in octagons in the 
stone. There are niches in the walls, in which stood 
heretofore the statues of Jupiter and the other Gods and 
Goddesses; for here was that Venus which had hung in 
her ear the other Union* that Cleopatra was about to dis- 

• And in the cup an union shall he throw, 
Richer than that which four successive kings 
In Denmark's crown have worn. 

— Shakespeare, « Hamlet,* Act v. Sc. 2. 

Theobald says, an union is the finest sort of pearl, and has its place 
in all crowns and coronets. The Latin word for a single large pearl, it 
is hardly necessary to add, is unto. 


solve and drink up, as she had done its fellow. There 
are several of these niches, one above another for the 
celestial, terrestrial, and subterranean deities; but the 
place is now converted into a church dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin and all the Saints. The pavement is ex- 
cellent, and the vast folding-gates, of Corinthian brass. 
In a word, it is of all the Roman antiquities the most 
worthy of notice. There lie interred in this Temple the 
famous Raphael di Urbino, Perino del Vaga, F. Zuccharo, 
and other painters. 

Returning home, we pass by Cardinal Cajetan's Palace, 
a noble piece of architecture of Vincenzo Ammanatti, 
which is the grace of the whole Corso. 

2 2d February, 1645. I went to Trinitd del Monte, a 
monastery of French, a noble church built by Louis XI. 
and Charles VIII., the chapels well painted, especially 
that by Zaccara da Volterra, and the cloister with the 
miracles of their St. Francis de Paulo, and the heads of 
the French Kings. In the pergolo above, the walls are 
wrought with excellent perspective, especially the St. 
John; there are the Babylonish dials, invented by Kir- 
cher, the Jesuit. This convent, so eminently situated 
on Mons Pincius, has the entire prospect of Campus 
Martins, and has a fair garden which joins to the Palazzo 
di Medici. 

23d February, 1645. I went to hear a sermon at St. 
Giacomo degli Incurabili, a fair church built by F, da 
Volterra, of good architecture, and so is the hospital, 
where only desperate patients are brought. I passed the 
evening at St. Maria del Popolo, heretofore Nero's 
sepulchre, where his ashes lay many years in a marble 
chest. To this church joins the monastery of St. Augus- 
tine, which has pretty gardens on Mons Pincius, and in 
the church is the miraculous shrine of the Madonna 
which Pope Paul III. brought barefooted to the place, 
supplicating for a victory over the Turks in 1464. In a 
chapel of the Ghisi, are some rare paintings of Raphael, 
and noble sculptures. Those two in the choir are by 
Sansovino, and in the Chapel de Cerasii, a piece of Cara- 
vaggio. Here lie buried many great scholars and artists, 
of which I took notice of this inscription: 

* Hospes, disce novum mortis genus; improba felts, 
Dum trahitur, dig Hum mordet, et inter eo?^ 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 169 

Opposite to the faccidtce of the church is a superb 
obelisk full of hieroglyphics, the same that Sennesertus, 
King of Egypt, dedicated to the Sun; brought to Rome 
by Augustus, erected in the Circus Maximus, and since 
placed here by Pope Sextus V. It is eighty-eight feet 
high, of one entire stone, and placed with great art and 
engines by the famous Domenico Fontana. 

Hence, turning on the right out of the Porto del 
Popolo, we came to Justinian's gardens, near the Muro 
Torto, so prominently built as threatening every moment 
to fall, yet standing so for these thousand years. Under 
this is the burying place for the common prostitutes, 
where they are put into the ground, sans ceremonie. 

24th February, 1645. We walked to St. Roche's and 
Martine's, near the brink of the Tiber, a large hospital 
for both sexes. Hence, to the Mausoleum Augusti, be- 
tween the Tiber and the Via Flaminia, now much ruined, 
which had formerly contended for its sumptuous archi- 
tecture. It was intended as a cemetery for the Roman 
Emperors, had twelve ports, and was covered with a 
cupola of white marble, environed with stately trees and 
innumerable statues, all of it now converted into a gar- 
den. We passed the afternoon at the Sapienza, a very 
stately building full of good marbles, especially the por- 
tico, of admirable architecture. These are properly the 
University Schools, where lectures are read on Law, 
Medicine, and Anatomy, and students perform their 

Hence, we walked to the church of St. Andrea della 
Valle, near the former Theater of Pompey, and the 
famous Piccolomini, but given to this church and the 
Order, who are Theatins. The Barberini have in this 
place a chapel, of curious incrusted marbles of several 
sorts, and rare paintings. Under it is a place where St. 
Sebastian is said to have been beaten with rods before 
he was shot with darts. The cupola is painted by Lan- 
franc, an inestimable work, and the whole fabric and 
monastery adjoining are admirable. 

25th February, 1645. ^ was invited by a Dominican 
Friar, whom we usually heard preach to a number of 
Jews, to be godfather to a converted Turk and Jew. The 
ceremony was performed in the Church of Santa Maria 
sopra la Minerva, near the Capitol. They were clad in 

I70 DIARY OF rome 

white; then exorcised at their entering the church with 
abundance of ceremonies, and, when led into the choir, 
were baptized by a Bishop, in pontificalibus. The Turk 
lived afterward in Rome, sold hot waters and would 
bring us presents when he met us, kneeling and kissing 
the hems of our cloaks; but the Jew was believed to 
be a counterfeit. This church, situated on a spacious 
rising, was formerly consecrated to Minerva. It was well 
built and richly adorned, and the body of St. Catherine 
di Sienna lies buried here. The paintings of the chapel 
are by Marcello Venuti; the Madonna over the altar is 
by Giovanni di Fiesole, called the Angelic Painter, who 
was of the Order of these Monks. There are many 
charities dealt publicly here, especially at the procession 
on the Annunciation, where I saw his Holiness, with all 
the Cardinals, Prelates, etc., in pontificalibus; dowries 
being given to 300 poor girls all clad in white. The 
Pope had his tiara on his head, and was carried on men's 
shoulders in an open armchair, blessing the people as 
he passed. The statue of Christ, at the Columna, is 
esteemed one of the masterpieces of M. Angelo: innum- 
erable are the paintings by the best artists, and the 
organ is accounted one of the sweetest in Rome. Car- 
dinal Bembo is interred here. We returned by St. 
Mark's, a stately church, with an excellent pavement, 
and a fine piece by Perugino, of the Two Martyrs. Ad- 
joining to this is a noble palace built by the famous 

26th February, 1645. Ascending the hill, we came to 
the Forum Trajanum, where his column stands yet en- 
tire, wrought with admirable basso-relievo recording the 
Dacian war, the figures at the upper part appearing of 
the same proportion with those below. It is ascended 
by 192 steps, enlightened with 44 apertures, or windows, 
artificially disposed; in height from the pedestal 140 

It had once the ashes of Trajan and his statue, where 
now stands St. Peter's of gilt brass, erected by Pope 
Sextus V. The sculpture of this stupendous pillar is 
thought to be the work of Apollodorus ; but what is very 
observable is, the descent to the plinth of the pedestal, 
showing how this ancient city lies now buried in her 
ruins; this monument being at first set up on a rising 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 171 

ground. After dinner, we took the air in Cardinal Ben- 
tivoglio's delicious gardens, now but newly deceased. He 
had a fair palace built by several good masters on part 
of the ruins of Constantine's Baths; well adorned with 
columns and paintings, especially those of Guido Reni. 

27th February, 1645. In the morning Mr. Henshaw 
and myself walked to the Trophies of Marius, erected in 
honor of his victory over the Cimbrians, but these now 
taken out of their niches are placed on the balusters of 
the Capitol, so that their ancient station is now a ruin. 
Keeping on our way, we came to St. Croce of Jerusa- 
lem, built by Constantine over the demolition of the 
Temple of Venus and Cupid, which he threw down; and 
it was here, they report, he deposited the wood of the 
true Cross, found by his mother, Helena; in honor 
whereof this church was built, and in memory of his vic- 
tory over Maxentius when that holy sign appeared to 
him. The edifice without is Gothic, but very glorious 
within, especially the roof, and one tribuna (gallery) 
well painted. Here is a chapel dedicated to St. Helena, 
the floor whereof is of earth brought from Jerusalem; 
the walls are of fair mosaic, in which they suffer no 
women to enter, save once a year. Under the high altar 
of the Church is buried St. Anastasius, in Lydian mar 
ble, and Benedict VII. ; and they show a number of relics, 
exposed at our request; with a phial of our blessed Sav- 
ior's blood; two thorns of his crown; three chips of 
the real cross; one of the nails, wanting a point; St. 
Thomas's doubting finger; and a fragment of the title (put 
on the cross), being part of a thin board; some of Judas's 
pieces of silver; and many more, if one had faith to be- 
lieve it. To this venerable church joins a Monastery, the 
gardens taking up the space of an ancient amphitheatre. 

Hence, we passed beyond the walls out at the Port of 
St. Laurence, to that Saint's church, and where his ashes 
are enshrined. This was also built by the same great 
Constantine, famous for the Coronation of Pietro Altissio- 
dorensis. Emperor of Constantinople, by Honorius 11. 
It is said the corpse of St. Stephen, the proto martyr, 
was deposited here by that of St. Sebastian, which it 
had no sooner touched, but Sebastian gave it place of 
its own accord. The Church has no less than seven 
privileged altars, and excellent pictures. About the walls 


are painted this martyr's sufferings; and, when they built 
them, the bones of divers saints were translated to other 
churches. The front is Gothic. In our return, we saw a 
small ruin of an aqueduct built by Quintus Marcius, 
the praetor; and so passed through that incomparable 
straight street leading to Santa Maria Maggiore, to our 
lodging, sufficiently tired. 

We were taken up next morning in seeing the imperti- 
nences of the Carnival, when all the world are as mad 
at Rome as at other places; but the most remarkable 
were the three races of the Barbary horses, that run in 
the Strada del Corso without riders, only having spurs so 
placed on their backs, and hanging down by their sides, 
as by their motion to stimulate them : then of mares, then 
of asses, of buffalos, naked men, old and young, and 
boys, and abundance of idle ridiculous pastime. One 
thing is remarkable, their acting comedies on a stage 
placed on a cart, or plaustrum, where the scene, or tir- 
ing place, is made of boughs in a rural manner, which 
they drive from street to street with a yoke or two of 
oxen, after the ancient guise. The streets swarm with 
prostitutes, buffoons, and all manner of rabble. 

ist March, 1645. At the Greek Church, we saw the 
Eastern ceremonies performed by a Bishop, etc., in that 
tongue. Here the unfortunate Duke and Duchess of 
Bouillon received their ashes, it being the first day of 
Lent. There was now as much trudging up and down 
of devotees, as the day before of licentious people; all 
saints alike to appearance. 

The gardens of Justinian, which we next visited, are 
very full of statues and antiquities, especially urns; among 
which is that of Minutius Felix ; a terminus that formerly 
stood in the Appian way, and a huge colossi of the Em- 
peror Justinian. There is a delicate aviary on the hill; 
the whole gardens furnished with rare collections, fresh, 
shady, and adorned with noble fountains. Continuing 
our walk a mile farther, we came to Pons Milvius, now 
Mela, where Constantine overthrew Maxentius, and saw 
the miraculous sign of the cross. In hoc signo vinces. It 
was a sweet morning, and the bushes were full of night- 
ingales. Hence, to Aqua Claudia again, an aqueduct fin- 
ished by that Emperor at the expense of eight millions. 
In the afternoon, to Famese's gardens, near the Campo 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 173 

Vaccino; and upon the Palatine Mount to survey the 
ruins of Juno's Temple, in the Piscina, a piazza so-called 
near the famous bridge built by Antoninus Pius, and re- 
edified by Pope Sextus IV. 

The rest of this week, we went to the Vatican, to hear 
the sermons, at St. Peter's, of the most famous preach- 
ers, who discourse on the same subjects and text yearly, 
full of Italian eloquence and action. On our Lady day, 
25th March, we saw the Pope and Cardinals ride in pomp 
to the Minerva, the great guns of the Castle of St. An- 
gelo being fired, when he gives portions to 500 zitelle 
(young women), who kiss his feet in procession, some 
destined to marry, some to be nuns; — the scholars of the 
college celebrating the blessed Virgin with their compo- 
sitions. The next day, his Holiness was busied in bless- 
ing golden roses, to be sent to several great Princes ; the 
Procurator of the Carmelites preaching on our Savior's 
feeding the multitude with five loaves, the ceremony 
ends. The sacrament being this day exposed, and the 
relics of the Holy Cross, the concourse about the streets 
is extraordinary. On Palm -Sunday, there was a great 
procession, after a papal mass, 

nth April, 1645. St. Veronica's handkerchief (with 
the impression of our Savior's face) was exposed, and 
the next day the spear, with a world of ceremony. On 
Holy Thursday, the Pope said mass, and afterward car- 
ried the Host in procession about the chapel, with an 
infinity of tapers. This finished, his Holiness was carried 
in his open chair on men's shoulders to the place where, 
reading the Bull In Ccend Domini, he both curses and 
blesses all in a breath; then the guns are again fired. 
Hence, he went to the Ducal hall of the Vatican, where 
he washed the feet of twelve poor men, with almost the 
same ceremony as it is done at Whitehall ; they have clothes, 
a dinner, and alms, which he gives with his own hands, 
and serves at their table ; they have also gold and silver 
medals, but their garments are of white woolen long 
robes, as we paint the Apostles. The same ceremonies 
are done by the Conservators and other officers of state 
at St. John di Lateran; and now the table on which 
they say our blessed Lord celebrated his last supper is 
set out, and the heads of the Apostles. In every famous 
church they are busy in dressing up their pageantries to 

174 DIARY OF rome 

represent the Holy Sepulchre, of which we went to visit 

On Good Friday, we went again to St. Peter's, where 
the handkerchief, lance, and cross were all exposed, and 
worshiped together. All the confession seats were filled 
with devout people, and at night was a procession of sev- 
eral who most lamentably whipped themselves till the blood 
stained their clothes, for some had shirts, others upon 
the bare back, having visors and masks on their faces; 
at every three or four steps dashing the knotted and 
raveled whip cord over their shoulders, as hard as they 
could lay it on ; while some of the religious orders and 
fraternities sung in a dismal tone, the lights and crosses 
going before, making all together a horrible and indeed 
heathenish pomp. 

The next day, there was much ceremony at St. John 
di Laterano, so as the whole week was spent in running 
from church to church, all the town in busy devotion, 
great silence, and unimaginable superstition. 

Easter day, I was awakened by the guns from St. 
Angelo: we went to St, Peter's, where the Pope himself 
celebrated mass, showed the relics before-named, and 
gave a public Benediction. 

Monday, we went to hear music in the Chiesa Nova; 
and, though there were abundance of ceremonies at the 
other great churches, and great exposure of relics, yet 
being wearied with sights of this nature, and the season 
of the year, summer, at Rome being very dangerous, by 
reason of the heat minding us of returning northward, 
we spent the rest of our time in visiting such places as 
we had not yet sufficiently seen. Only I do not forget 
the Pope's benediction of the Gonfalone^ or Standard, and 
giving the hallowed palms; and, on May Day, the great 
procession of the University and the muleteers at St. 
Anthony's, and their setting up a foolish May pole in the 
Capitol, very ridiculous. We therefore now took coach a 
little out of town, to visit the famous Roma Soterr^nea, 
being much like what we had seen at St. Sebastians. 
Here, in a cornfield, guided by two torches, we crept on 
our bellies into a little hole, about twenty paces, which 
delivered us into a large entry that led us into several 
streets, or alleys, a good depth in the bowels of the earth, 
a strange and fearful passage for divers miles, as Bosio 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 175 

has measured and described them in his book. We ever 
and anon came into pretty square rooms, that seemed to 
be chapels with altars, and some adorned with very ordi- 
nary ancient painting. Many skeletons and bodies are 
placed on the sides one above the other in degrees like 
shelves, whereof some are shut up with a coarse flat stone, 
having engraven on them Pro Christo^ or a cross and 
palms, which are supposed to have been martyrs. Here, 
in all likelihood, were the meetings of the Primitive 
Christians during the persecutions, as Pliny the Younger 
describes them. As I was pr^'ing about, I found a glass 
phial, filled (as was conjectured) with dried blood, and 
two lachrymatories. Many of the bodies, or rather bones 
(for there appeared nothing else) lay so entire, as if 
placed by the art of the chirurgeon, but being only 
touched fell all to dust. Thus, after wandering two or 
three miles in this subterranean meander, we returned 
almost blind when we came into the daylight, and even 
choked by the smoke of the torches. It is said that a 
French bishop and his retinue adventuring too far into 
these dens, their lights going out, were never heard of 

We were entertained at night with an English play at 
the Jesuits', where we before had dined; and the next day 
at Prince Galicano's, who himself composed the music to 
a magnificent opera, where were present Cardinal Pam- 
philio, the Pope's nephew, the Governors of Rome, the 
cardinals, the ambassadors, ladies, and a number of nobil- 
ity and strangers. There had been in the morning a 
joust and tournament of several young gentlemen on a 
formal defy, to which we had been invited; the prizes 
being distributed by the ladies, after the knight-errantry 
way. The lancers and swordsmen running at tilt against 
the barriers, with a great deal of clatter, but without 
any bloodshed, giving much diversion to the spectators, 
and was new to us travelers. 

The next day Mr. Henshaw and I spent the morning in 
attending the entrance and cavalcade of Cardinal Medici, 
the ambassador from the Grand Duke of Florence, by the 
Via Flaminia. After dinner, we went again to the Villa 
Borghese, about a mile without the city; the garden is 
rather a park, or a Paradise, contrived and planted with 
walks and shades of myrtles, cypress, and other trees, 


and gproves, with'abundance of fountains, statues, and bass- 
relievos, and several pretty murmuring rivulets. Here 
they had hung large nets to catch woodcocks. There 
was also a vivary, where, among other exotic fowls, was 
an ostrich; besides a most capacious aviary; and, in an- 
other inclosed part, a herd of deer. Before the palace 
(which might become the court of a great prince) stands 
a noble fountain, of white marble, enriched with statues. 
The outer walls of the house are encrusted with excellent 
antique bass-relievos, of the same marble, incomished 
with festoons and niches set with statues from the foun- 
dation to the roof. A stately portico joins the palace, 
full of statues and columns of marble, urns, and other 
curiosities of sculpture. In the first hall were the Twelve 
Caesars, of antique marble, and the whole apartments fur- 
nished with pictures of the most celebrated masters, and 
two rare tables of porph3rry, of great value. But of this 
already: for I often visited this delicious place. 

This night were glorious fire-works at the palace of 
Cardinal Medici before the gate, and lights of several 
colors all about the windows through the city, which they 
contrive by setting the candles in little paper lanterns 
dyed with various colors, placing hundreds of them from 
story to story; which renders a gallant show. 

4th May, 1645. Having seen the entry of the ambassa- 
dor of Lucca, I went to the Vatican, where, by favor of 
our Cardinal Protector, Fran. Barberini, I was admitted 
into the Consistory, heard the ambassador make his ora- 
tion in Latin to the Pope, sitting on an elevated state, 
or throne, and changing two pontifical mitres ; after which, 
I was presented to kiss his toe, that is, his embroidered 
slipper, two Cardinals holding up his vest and surplice; 
and then, being sufficiently blessed with his thumb and 
two fingers for that day I returned home to dinner. 

We went again to see the medals of Signor Gotefredi, 
which are absolutely the best collection in Rome. 

Passing the Ludovisia Villa, where the petrified human 
figure lies, found on the snowy Alps ; I measured the 
hydra, and found it not a foot long ; the three necks and 
fifteen heads seem to be but patched up with several 
pieces of serpents' skins. 

5th May, 1645. We took coach, and went fifteen miles 
out of the city to Frascati, formerly Tusculum, a villa 


of Cardinal Aldobrandini, built for a country house; but 
surpassing-, in my opinion, the most delicious places I 
ever beheld for its situation, elegance, plentiful water, 
groves, ascents, and prospects. Just behind the palace 
(which is of excellent architecture) in the centre of the 
inclosure, rises a high hill, or mountain, all over clad 
with tall wood, and so formed by nature, as if it had 
been cut out by art, from the summit whereof falls a 
cascade, seeming rather a great river than a stream pre- 
cipitating- into a large theatre of water, representing an 
exact and perfect rainbow, when the sun shines out. 
Under this, is made an artificial grot, wherein are curious 
rocks, hydraulic organs, and all sorts of singing birds, 
moving and chirping by force of the water, with several 
other pageants and surprising inventions. In the centre 
of one of these rooms, rises a copper ball that continu- 
ally dances about three feet above the pavement, by vir- 
tue of a wind conveyed secretly to a hole beneath it; 
with many other devices to wet the unwary spectators, 
so that one can hardly step without wetting to the skin. 
In one of these theaters of water, is an Atlas spouting 
up the stream to a very great height; and another mon- 
ster makes a terrible roaring with a horn; but, above 
all, the representation of a storm is most natural, with 
such fury of rain, wind, and thunder, as one would 
imagine oneself in some extreme tempest. The garden 
has excellent walks and shady groves, abundance of rare 
fruit, oranges, lemons, etc., and the goodly prospect of 
Rome, above all description, so as I do not wonder that 
Cicero and others have celebrated this place with such 
encomiums. The Palace is indeed built more like a 
cabinet than anything composed of stone and mortar; 
it has in the middle a hall furnished with excellent mar- 
bles and rare pictures, especially those of Gioseppino 
d'Arpino; the movables are princely and rich. This 
was the last piece of architecture finished by Giacomo 
della Porta, who built it for Pietro Cardinal Aldobran- 
dini, in the time of Clement VIII. * 

We went hence to another house and o^arden not far 
distant, on the side of a hill called Mondragone, finished 
by Cardinal Scipio Borghese, an ample and kingly edifice. 

•Cardinal Hippolito Aldobrandini was elected Pope in January, 
2592, by the name of Clement VIII., and died in March, 1605. 


178 DIARY OF tivoli 

It has a very long gallery, and at the end a theatre for 
pastimes, spacious courts, rare grots, vineyards, olive- 
grounds, groves and solitudes. The air is so fresh and 
sweet, as few parts of Italy exceed it; nor is it inferior 
to any palace in the city itself for statues, pictures, and 
furniture; but, it growing late, we could not take such 
particular notice of these things as they deserved. 

6th May, 1645. We rested ourselves; and next day, in 
a coach, took our last farewell of visiting the circumja- 
cent places, going to Tivoli, or the old Tiburtum. At 
about six miles from Rome, we pass the Teverone, a 
bridge built by Mammea, the mother of Severus, and so 
by divers ancient sepulchres, among others that of Val- 
erius Volusi; and near it past the sinking suphurous 
river over the Ponte Lucano, where we found a heap, or 
turret, full of inscriptions, now called the Tomb of 
Plautius. Arrived at Tivoli, we went first to see the 
palace d'Este, erected on a plain, but where was form- 
erly an hill. The palace is very ample and stately. In 
the garden, on the right hand, are sixteen vast conchas 
of marble, jetting out waters; in the midst of these 
stands a Janus quadrifrons, that cast forth four girandolas, 
called from the resemblance (to a particular exhibition 
in fireworks so named ) the Fountana di Spdccho (look- 
ing-glass ). Near this is a place for tilting. Before the 
ascent of the palace is the famous fountain of Leda, and 
not far from that, four sweet and delicious gardens. 
Descending thence are two pyramids of water, and in a 
grove of trees near it the fountains of Tethys, Escula- 
pius, Arethusa, Pandora, Pomona, and Flora; then the 
prancing Pegasus Bacchus, the Grot of Venus, the two 
Colosses of Melicerta and Sibylla Tiburtina, all of ex- 
quisite marble, copper, and other suitable adornments. 
The Cupids pouring out water are especially most rare, 
and the urns on which are placed the ten nymphs. The 
grots are richly paved with pietra-commessa, shells, coral, 

Toward Roma Triumphans, leads a long and spacious 
walk, full of fountains, under which is historized the 
whole Ovidian Metamorphosis, in rarely sculptured mezzo 
relievo. At the end of this, next the wall, is the city of 
Rome as it was in its beauty, of small models, repre- 
senting that city, with its amphitheatres; naumachi, 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 179 

thermae, temples, arches, aqueducts, streets, and other 
magnificences, with a little stream running through it for 
the Tiber, gushing out of an urn next to the statue of 
the river. In another garden, is a noble aviary, the birds 
artificial, and singing till an owl appears, on which they 
suddenly change their notes. Near this is the fountain 
of dragons, casting out large streams of water with great 
noise. In another grotto, called Grotto di Natura, is an 
hydraulic organ; and below this are divers stews and 
fish ponds, in one of which is the statue of Neptune in 
his chariot on a seahorse, in another a Triton ; and lastly, 
a garden of simples. There are besides in the palace 
many rare statues and pictures, bedsteads richly inlaid, 
and sundry other precious movables: the whole is said 
to have cost the best part of a million. 

Having gratified our curiosity with these artificial 
miracles, and dined, we went to see the so famous natural 
precipice and cascade of the river Anio, rushing down 
from the mountains of Tivoli with that fury that, what 
with the mist it perpetually casts up by the breaking of 
the water against the rocks, and what with the sun 
shining on it and forming a natural Iris, and the 
prodigious depth of the gulf below, it is enough to 
astonish one that looks on it. Upon the summit of this 
rock stands the ruins and some pillars and cornices of 
the Temple of Sibylla Tyburtina, or Albunea, a round 
fabric, still discovering some of its pristine beauty. Here 
was a gread deal of gunpowder drying in the sun, and a 
little beneath, mills belonging to the Pope. 

And now we returned to Rome. By the way, we were 
showed, at some distance, the city Praeneste, and the 
Hadrian villa, now only a heap of ruins; and so came 
late to our lodging. 

We now determined to desist from visiting any more 
curiosities, except what should happen to come in our 
way, when my companion, Mr. Henshaw, or myself should 
go to take the air: only I may not omit that one after- 
noon, diverting ourselves in the Piazza Navona, a mounte- 
bank there to allure curious strangers, taking off a ring 
from his finger, which seemed set with a dull, dark stone 
a little swelling out, like what we call (though untruly) 
a toadstone, and wetting his finger a little in his mouth, 
and then touching it, it emitted a luculent flame as bright 

i8o DIARY OF rome 

and large as a small wax candle; then, blowing it out, 
repeated this several times. I have much regretted that 
I did not purchase the receipt of him for making that 
composition at what price soever; for though there 
is a process in Jo. Baptista Porta and others how to do 
it, yet on several trials they none of them have suc- 

Among other observations I made in Rome are these: 
as to coins and medals, ten asses make the Roman denarius, 
five the quinarius, ten denarii an aureus; which accompt 
runs almost exactly with what is now in use of quatrini, 
baiocs, julioSy and scudi, each exceeding the other in the 
proportion of ten. The sestertius was a small silver coin, 
marked h. s. or rather ll% valued two pounds and a 
half of silver, viz, 250 de?iarii, about twenty-five golden 
ducati. The stamp of the Roman denarius varied, having 
sometimes a Janus bifrons, the head of Roma armed, or 
with a chariot and two horses, which were called bigi; 
if with four, quadrigi: if with a Victoria, so named. 
The mark of the denarius was distinguished > | < thus, 
or X; the quinarius of half value, had, on one side, the 
head of Rome and V; the reverse. Castor and Pollux on 
horseback, inscribed Roma, etc. 

I observed that in the Greek church they made the 
sigfn of the cross from the right hand to the left; con- 
trary to the Latins and the schismatic Greeks; gave the 
benediction with the first, second, and little finger 
stretched out, retaining the third bent down, expressing 
a distance of the third Person of the Holy Trinity from 
the first two. 

For sculptors and architects, we found Bernini and 
Algardi were in the greatest esteem; Fiamingo, as a 
statuary; who made the Andrea in St. Peter's, and is 
said to have died mad because it was placed in an ill 
light. Among the painters, Antonio de la Cornea, who 
has such an address of counterfeiting the hands of the 
ancient masters so well as to make his copies pass for 
originals; Pietro de Cortone, Monsieur Poussin, a French- 
man, and innumerable more. Fioravanti, for armor, 
plate, dead life, tapestry, etc. The chief masters of 
music, after Marc Antonio, the best treble, is Cavalier 
Lauretto, an eunuch; the next Cardinal Bichi's eunuch, 
Bianchi, tenor, and Nicholai, bass. The Jews in Rome 


Ftiotogravtire after a painting by Bridges 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN i8i 

wore red hats, till the Cardinal of Lyons, being short- 
sighted, lately saluted one of them, thinking him to be 
a Cardinal as he passed by his coach ; on which an order 
was made, that they should use only the yellow color. 
There was now at Rome one Mrs. Ward, an English de- 
votee, who much solicited for an order of Jesuitesses. 

At executions I saw one, a gentleman, hanged in his 
cloak and hat for murder. They struck the malefactor 
with a club that first stunned him, and then cut his 
throat. At Naples they use a frame, like ours at 

It is reported that Rome has been once no less than 
fifty miles in compass, now not thirteen, containing in 
it 3,000 churches and chapels, monasteries, etc. It is 
divided into fourteen regions or wards; has seven moun- 
tains, and as many campi or valleys; in these are fair 
parks, or gardens, called villas, being only places of 
recess and pleasure, at some distance from the streets, 
yet within the walls. 

The bills of exchange I took up from my first entering 
Italy till I went from Rome, amounting to but 616 ducati 
di banco, though I purchased many books, pictures, and 

1 8th May, 1645. I intended to have seen Loretto, but, 
being disappointed of moneys long expected, I was forced 
to return by the same way I came, desiring, if possible, 
to be at Venice by the Ascension, and therefore I di- 
verted to take Leghorn in the way, as well to furnish 
me with credit by a merchant there, as to take order for 
transporting such collections as I had made at Rome. 
When on my way, turning about to behold this once and 
yet glorious city, from an eminence, I did not, without 
some regret, give it my last farewell. 

Having taken leave of our friends at Rome, where I 
had sojourned now about seven months, autumn, winter, 
and spring, I took coach, in company with two courteous 
Italian gentlemen. In the afternoon, we arrived at a 
house, or rather castle, belonging to the Duke of Parma, 
called Caprarola, situate on the brow of a hill, that over- 
looks a little town, or rather a natural and stupendous 
rock; witness those vast caves serving now for cellarage, 
where we were entertained with most generous wine of sev- 

*A g^illDtine. 


eral sorts, being just tinder the foundation. The palace 
was built by the famous architect, Vignola, at the cost 
of Cardinal Alex. Farnese, in form of an octagon, the 
court in the middle being exactly round, so as rather 
to resemble a fort, or castle; yet the chambers within 
are all of them square, which makes the walls exceed- 
ingly thick. One of these rooms is so artificially con- 
trived, that from the two opposite angles may be heard 
the least whisper; they say any perfect square does it. 
Most of the paintings are by Zuccari. It has a stately 
entry, on which spouts an artificial fountain within the 
porch. The hall, chapel, and a great number of lodging 
chambers are remarkable; but most of all the pictures 
and witty inventions of Hannibal Caracci; the Dead 
Christ is incomparable. Behind are the gardens full of 
statues and noble fountains, especially that of the Shep- 
herds. After dinner, we took horse, and lay that night 
at Monte Rossi, twenty miles from Rome. 

19th May, 1645. W® dined at Viterbo, and lay at St. 
Laurenzo. Next day, at Radicofani, and slept at Tur- 

2ist May, 1645. ^® dined at Sienna, where we could 
not pass admiring the great church built entirely both 
within and without with white and black marble in pol- 
ished squares, by Macarino, showing so beautiful after 
a shower has fallen. The floor within is of various col- 
ored marbles, representing the story of both Testaments, 
admirably wrought. Here lies Pius II. The bibliot^ca 
is painted by P. Perrugino and Raphael. The life of 
-^neas Sylvius is in fresco; in the middle are the 
Three Graces, in antique marble, very curious, and the 
front of this building, though Gothic, is yet very fine. 
Among other things, they show St. Catharine's dis- 
ciplining cell, the door whereof is half cut out into 
chips by the pilgrims and devotees, being of deal wood. 

Setting out hence for Pisa, we went again to see the 
Duomo in which the Emperor Henry VII. lies buried, 
poisoned by a monk in the Eucharist. The bending tower 
was built by Busqueto Delichio, a Grecian architect, and 
is a stupendous piece of art. In the gallery of curiosities 
is a fair mummy: the tail of a sea-horse; coral growing 
on a man's skull ; a chariot automaton ; two pieces of rock 
crystal, in one of which is a drop of water, in the other 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 183 

three or four small worms; two embalmed children; divers 
petrifactions, etc. The garden of simples is well furnished, 
and has in it the deadly yew, or taxus, of the ancients; 
which Dr. Belluccio, the superintendent, affirms that his 
workmen cannot endure to clip for above the space of 
half an hour at a time, from the pain of the head which 
surprises them. 

We went hence from Leghorn, by coach, where I took 
up ninety crowns for the rest of my journey, with letters 
of credit for Venice, after I had sufficiently complained 
of my defeat of correspondence at Rome. 

The next day, I came to Lucca, a small but pretty 
territory and state of itself. The city is neat and well 
fortified, with noble and pleasant walks of trees on the 
works, where the gentry and ladies used to take the air. 
It is situate on an ample plain by the river Serchio, yet 
the country about it is hilly. The Senate-house is mag- 
nificent. The church of St. Michael is a noble piece, as 
is also St. Fredian, more remarkable to us for the corpse 
of St. Richard, an English king,* who died here on his 
pilgrimage toward Rome. This epitaph is on his tomb : 

Htc rex Richardus requtescit, sceptifer, altnus; 
Rex Fuit Angloruvi; regnuni tenet iste Poloruin. 
Regnum demisit; pro Christo cuncta reliquit. 
Ergo, Richardum nobis debit Anglia sanctum. 
Uic genitor Sanctce Wulburgoe Virginis alma; 
Est Vrillebaldi sancti simul et Vinebaldi, 
Suffragium quorum nobis det regna Polorum. 

Next this, we visited St. Croce, an excellent structure 
all of marble both without and within, and so adorned 
as may vie with many of the fairest even in Rome: wit- 
ness the huge cross, valued at ^^ 15, 000, above all vener- 
able for that sacred volto which ( as tradition goes ) was 
miraculously put on the image of Christ, and made by 
Nicodemus, while the artist, finishing the rest of the 
body, was meditating what face to set on it. The in- 
habitants are exceedingly civil to strangers, above all 
places in Italy, and they speak the purest Italian. It is 
also cheap living, which causes travelers to set up their 
rest here more than in Florence, though a more cele- 

* What partictilar Richard King of England this was, it is impossible 
to say ; the tomb still exists, and has long been a crux to antiquaries 
and travelers. 


brated city ; besides, the ladies here are very conversable, 
and the religious women not at all reserved ; of these we 
bought gloves and embroidered stomachers, generally 
worn by gentlemen in these countries. The circuit of 
this state is but two easy days' journey, and lies mixed 
with the Duke of Tuscany's but having Spain for a pro- 
tector (though the least bigoted of all Roman Catholics), 
and being one of the fortified cities in Italy, it remains 
in peace. The whole country abounds in excellent 
olives, etc. 

Going hence for Florence, we dined at Pistoria, where, 
besides one church, there was little observable: only in 
the highway we crossed a rivulet of salt water, though 
many miles from the sea. The country is extremely 
pleasant, full of gardens, and the roads straight as a line 
for the best part of that whole day, the hedges planted 
with trees at equal distances, watered with clear and 
plentiful streams. 

Rising early the next morning we arrived at Peggio Im- 
periale, being a palace of the Great Duke, not far 
from the city, having omitted it in my passage to Rome. 
The ascent to the house is by a stately gallery as it were 
of tall and overgrown cypress trees for near half a mile. 
At the entrance of these ranges, are placed statues of the 
Tiber and Arno, of marble; those also of Virgil, Ovid, 
Petrarch, and Dante. The building is sumptuous, and 
curiously furnished within with cabinets of pietra-com- 
messa in tables, pavements, etc. , which is a magnificence, 
or work, particularly affected at Florence. The pictures 
are, Adam and Eve by Albert Durer, very excellent; as 
is that piece of carving in wood by the same hand stand- 
ing in a cupboard. Here is painted the whole Austrian 
line; the Duke's mother, sister to the Emperor, the foun- 
dress of this palace, than which there is none in Italy 
that I had seen more magnificently adorned, or furnished. 

We could not omit in our passage to re-visit the same, 
and other curiosities which we had neglected on our first 
being at Florence. We went, therefore, to see the famous 
piece of Andrea del Sarto, in the Annunciata. The story 
is, that the painter in a time of dearth borrowed a sack of 
corn of the religious of that convent, and repayment being 
demanded, he wrought it out in this picture, which repre- 
sents Joseph sitting on a sack of corn, and reading to the 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN i8 

Blessed Virgfin; a piece infinitely valued. There fell down 
in the cloister an old man's face painted on the wall in 
fresco, greatly esteemed, and broke into crumbs; the 
Duke sent his best painters to make another instead of 
it, but none of them would presume to touch a pencil 
where Andrea had wrought, like another Apelles; but 
one of them was so industrious and patient, that, pick- 
ing up the fragfments, he laid and fastened them so 
artificially together, that the injury it had received was 
hardly discernible. Andrea del Sarto lies buried in the 
same place. Here is also that picture of Bartolomeo, 
who hax-ing spent his utmost skill in the face of the angel 
Gabriel, and being troubled that he could not exceed it in 
the Virgin, he began the body and to finish the clothes, 
and so left it, minding in the morning to work on the face ; 
but, when he came, no sooner had he drawn away the cloth 
that was hung before it to preserve it from the dust, than 
an admirable and ravishing face was found ready painted ; 
at which miracle all the city came in to worship. It is now 
kept in the Chapel of the Salutation, a place so enriched by 
devotees, that none in Italy, save Loretto, is said to exceed 
it. This picture is always covered with three shutters, one 
of which is of massy silver; methinks it is very brown, the 
forehead and cheeks whiter, as if it had been scraped. 
They report that those who have the honor of seeing it 
never lose their sight — happy then we ! Belonging to this 
church is a world of plate, some whole statues of it, and 
lamps innumerable, besides the costly vows hung up, some 
of gold, and a cabinet of precious stones. 

Visiting the Duke's repository again, we told at 
least forty ranks of porphyr}'- and other statues, and 
twenty-eight whole figures, many rare paintings and re- 
lievos, two square columns with trophies. In one of the 
galleries, twenty-four figures, and fifty antique heads; a 
Bacchus of M. Angelo, and one of Bandinelli; a head of 
Bernini, and a most lovely Cupid, of Parian marble; at 
the further end, two admirable women sitting, and a man 
fighting with a centaur ; three figures in little of Andrea ; 
a huge candlestick of amber; a table of Titian's painting, 
and another representing God the Father sitting in the 
air on the Four Evangelists; animals; divers smaller 
pieces of Raphael ; a piece of pure virgin gold, as big as 
an ^%Z, In the third chamber of rarities is the square 

1 86 DIARY OF Florence 

cabinet, valued at 80,000 crowns, showing on every front, 
a variety of curious work; one of birds and flowers, of 
pietra-commessa\ one, a descent from the cross, of M. 
Angelo; on the third, our Blessed Savior and the Apostles, 
of amber; and, on the fourth, a crucifix of the same. 
Between the pictures, two naked Venuses, by Titian; 
Adam and Eve, by Durer; and several pieces of Portde- 
none, and del Frate. There is a globe of six feet diame- 
ter. In the Armory, were an entire elk, a crocodile, and 
among the harness, several targets and antique horse- 
arms, as that of Charles V. ; two set with turquoises, and 
other precious stones; a horse's tail, of a wonderful 
length. Then, passing the Old Palace, which has a very 
great hall for feasts and comedies, the roof rarely painted, 
and the side walls with six very large pictures represent- 
ing battles, the work of Gio. Vassari. Here is a maga- 
zine full of plate; a harness of emeralds; the furnitures 
of an altar four feet high, and six in length, of massy 
gold; in the middle is placed the statue of Cosmo 
II., the bass-relievo is of precious stones, his breeches 
covered with diamonds; the moldings of this statue, and 
other ornaments, festoons, etc., are garnished with jewels 
and great pearls, dedicated to St. Charles, with this in- 
scription, in rubies: 

*< Cosimus Secundus Dei gratia Magnus Dux EtruricB ex voto^ 

There is also a King on horseback, of massy gold, two 
feet high, and an infinity of such like rarities. Looking 
at the Justice, in copper, set up on a column by Cosmo, 
in 1555, after the victory over Sienna, we were told that 
the Duke, asking a gentleman how he liked the piece, he 
answered, that he liked it very well, but that it stood too 
high for poor men to come at it. 

Prince Leopold has, in this city, a very excellent col- 
lection of paintings, especially a St. Catherine of P. Ver- 
onese ; a Venus of marble, veiled from the middle to the 
feet, esteemed to be of that Greek workman who made 
the Venus at the Medici's Palace in Rome, altogether as 
good, and better preserved, an inestimable statue, not 
long since found about Bologna. 

Signor Gaddi is a lettered person, and has divers rari- 
ties, statues, and pictures of the best masters, and one 
bust of marble as much esteemed as the most antique in 

i6i5 JOHN EVELYN 187 

Italy, and many curious manuscripts; his best paintings 
are, a Virgin of del Sarto, mentioned by Vassari, a St. 
John, by Raphael, and an Ecce Homo, by Titian. 

The hall of the Academy de la Crusca is hung about 
with impresses and devices painted, all of them relating 
to corn sifted from the bran; the seats are made like 
breadbaskets and other rustic instruments used about 
wheat, and the cushions of satin, like sacks. 

We took our farewell of St. Laurence, more particularly 
noticing that piece of the Resurrection, which consists of a 
prodigious number of naked figxires, the work of Pontormo. 
On the left hand is the Martyrdom of St. Laurence, by 
Bronzino, rarely painted indeed. In a chapel is the tomb 
of Pietro di Medici, and his brother John, of copper, 
excellently designed, standing on two lions' feet, which 
end in foliage, the work of M. Angelo. Over against this, 
are sepulchres of all the ducal family. The altar has a 
statue of the Virgin giving suck, and two Apostles. 
Paulus Jovius has the honor to be buried in the cloister. 
Behind the choir is the superb chapel of Ferdinand I., 
consisting of eight faces, four plain, four a little hollowed ; 
in the other are to be the sepulchres, and a niche of 
paragon, for the statue of the prince now living, all of 
copper gilt; above, is a large table of porphyry, for an 
inscription for the Duke, in letters of jasper. The whole 
chapel, walls, pavement, and roof, are full of precious 
stones united with the moldings, which are also of gilded 
copper, and so are the bases and capitals of the columns. 
The tabernacle, with the whole altar, is inlaid with cor- 
nelians, lazuli, serpentine, agates, onyxes, etc. On the 
other side are six very large columns of rock crystal, 
eight figures of precious stones of several colors, inlaid in 
natural figures, not inferior to the best paintings, among 
which are many pearls, diamonds, amethysts, topazes, 
sumptuous and sparkling beyond description. The win- 
dows without side are of white marble. The library is 
the architecture of Raphael; before the port is a square 
vestibule of excellent art, of all the orders, without con- 
fusion; the ascent to it from the library is excellent. 
We numbered eighty-eight shelves, all MSS. and bound in 
red, chained; in all about 3,500 volumes, as they told us. 

The Arsenal has sufHcient to arm 70,000 men, accurately 
preserved and kept, with divers lusty pieces of ordnance. 

1 88 DIARY OF bologna 

whereof one is for a ball of 300 pounds weight, and 
another for 160, which weighs 72,500 pounds. 

When I was at Florence, the celebrated masters were: 
for pietra-commessa (a kind of mosaic, or inlaying, of 
various colored marble, and other more precious stones), 
Dominico Benetti and Mazotti ; the best statuary, Vincentio 
Brochi. This statuary makes those small figures in plaster 
and pasteboard, which so resemble copper that, till one 
handles them, they cannot be distinguished, he has so rare 
an art of bronzing them ; I bought four of him. The best 
painter, Pietro Beretino di Cortona. 

This Duke has a daily tribute for every courtezan, or 
prostitute, allowed to practice that infamous trade in his 
dominions, and so has his Holiness the Pope, but not so 
much in value. 

Taking leave of our two jolly companions, Signor Gio- 
vanni and his fellow, we took horses for Bologna; and, 
by the way, alighted at a villa of the Grand Duke's, 
called Pratolino. The house is a square of four pavil- 
ions, with a fair platform about it, balustred with stone, 
situate in a large meadow, ascending like an amphithea- 
ter, having at the bottom a huge rock, with water run- 
ning in a small channel, like a cascade; on the other 
side, are the gardens. The whole place seems conse- 
crated to pleasure and summer retirement. The inside 
of the palace may compare with any in Italy for furni- 
ture of tapestry, beds, etc., and the gardens are deli- 
cious, and full of fountains. In the grove sits Pan feeding 
his fi[ock, the water making a melodious sound through 
his pipe; and a Hercules, whose club yields a shower of 
water, which, falling into a great shell, has a naked 
woman riding on the backs of dolphins. In another 
grotto is Vulcan and his family, the walls richly com- 
posed of corals, shells, copper, and marble figures, with 
the hunting of several beasts, moving by the force of 
water. Here, having been well washed for our curiosity, 
we went down a large walk, at the sides whereof several 
slender streams of water gush out of pipes concealed un- 
derneath, that interchangeably fall into each other's chan- 
nels, making a lofty and perfect arch, so that a man on 
horseback may ride under it, and not receive one drop 
of wet. This canopy, or arch of water, I thought one 
of the most surprising magnificences I had ever seen, 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 189 

and very refreshing in the heat of the summer. At the 
end of this very long walk, stands a woman in white 
marble, in posture of a laundress wringing water out of 
a piece of linen, very naturally formed, into a vast laver, 
the work and invention of M. Angelo Buonarotti. Hence, 
we ascended Mount Parnassus, where the Muses played 
to us on hydraulic organs. Near this is a great aviary. 
All these waters came from the rock in the garden, on 
which is the statue of a giant representing the Apen- 
nines, at the foot of which stands this villa. Last of all, 
we came to the labyrinth, in which a huge colosse of 
Jupiter throws out a stream over the garden. This is 
fifty feet in height, having in his body a square cham- 
ber, his eyes and mouth serving for windows and door. 

We took horse and supped that night at II Ponte, pass- 
ing a dreadful ridge of the Apennines, in many places 
capped with snow, which covers them the whole summer. 
We then descended into a luxurious and rich plain. The 
next day we passed through Scarperia, mounting the 
hills again, where the passage is so straight and precip- 
itous toward the right hand, that we climbed them with 
much care and danger; lodging at Firenzuolo, which is 
a fort built among the rocks, and defending the confines 
of the Great Duke's territories. 

The next day we passed by the Pietramala, a burn- 
ing mountain. At the summit of this prodigious mass 
of hills, we had an unpleasant way to Pianura, where we 
slept that night and were entertained with excellent 
wine. Hence to Scargalasino, and to bed at Loiano. 
This plain begins about six miles from Bologna. 

Bologna belongs to the Pope, and is a famous Univer- 
sity, situate in one of the richest spots of Europe for all 
sorts of provisions. It is built like a ship, whereof the 
Torre d'Asinelli may go for the mainmast. The city is 
of no great strength, having a trifling wall about it, in 
circuit near five miles, and two in length. This Torre 
d'Asinelli, ascended by 447 steps of a foot rise, seems 
exceedingly high, is very narrow, and the more con- 
spicuous from another tower called Garisendi, so artifi- 
cially built of brick (which increases the wonder) that it 
seems ready to fall. It is not now so high as the other; 
but they say the upper part was formerly taken down, 
for fear it should really fall, and do mischief. 

190 DIARY OF bologna 

Next, we went to see an imperfect church, called St. 
Petronius, showing the intent of the founder, had he 
gone on. From this, our guide led us to the schools, which 
indeed are very magnificent. Thence to St. Dominic's, 
where that saint's body lies richly enshrined. The stalls, 
or seats, of this goodly church have the history of the Bible 
inlaid with several woods, very curiously done, the work 
of one Fr. Damiano di Bergamo, and a friar of that 
order. Among other relics, they show the two books of 
Esdras, written with his own hand. Here lie buried Jac, 
Andreas, and divers other learned persons. To the 
church joins the convent, in the quadrangle whereof are 
old cypresses, said to have been planted by their saint. 

Then we went to the palace of the Legate; a fair 
brick building, as are most of the houses and buildings, 
full of excellent carving and moldings, so as nothing in 
stone seems to be better finished or more ornamental ; wit- 
ness those excellent columns to be seen in many of their 
churches, convents, and public buildings; for the whole 
town is so cloistered, that one may pass from house to 
house through the streets without being exposed either 
to rain or sun. 

Before the stately hall of this palace stands the statue 
of Paul IV. and divers others; also the monument of 
the coronation of Charles V. The piazza before it is 
the most stately in Italy, St. Mark's at Venice only ex- 
cepted. In the center of it is a fountain of Neptune, a 
noble figure in copper. Here I saw a Persian walking 
about in a rich vest of cloth of tissue, and several other 
ornaments, according to the fashion of his country, which 
much pleased me; he was a young handsome person, of 
the most stately mien. 

I would fain have seen the library of St. Savior, fa- 
mous for the number of rare manuscripts ; but could not, 
so we went to St. Francis, a glorious pile, and exceed- 
ingly adorned within. 

After dinner I inquired out a priest and Dr. Montal- 
bano, to whom I brought recommendations from Rome: 
this learned person invented, or found out, the composi- 
tion of the lapis illuminabilis, or phosphorus. He showed 
me their property (for he had several), being to retain 
the light of the sun for some competent time, by a kind 
of imbibition, by a particular way of calcination. Some 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 191 

of these presented a blue color, like the flame of brim- 
stone, others like coals of a kitchen fire. The rest of 
the afternoon was taken up in St. Michael in Bosco, 
built on a steep hill on the edge of the city, for its 
fabric, pleasant shade and groves, cellars, dormitory, and 
prospects, one of the most delicious retirements I ever 
saw; art and nature contending which shall ekceed; so 
as till now I never envied the life of a friar. The whole 
town and country to a vast extent are under command 
of their eyes, almost as far as Venice itself. In this 
convent there are many excellent paintings of Guido 
Reni; above all, the little cloister of eight faces, painted 
by Caracci in fresco. The carvings in wood, in the 
sacristy, are admirable, as is the inlaid work about the 
chapel, which even emulates the best paintings; the work 
is so delicate and tender. The paintings of the Savior 
are of Caracci and Leonardo, and there are excellent 
things of Raphael which we could not see. 

In the church of St. John is a fine piece of St. Cecilia, 
by Raphael. As to other paintings, there is in the 
church of St. Gregory an excellent picture of a Bishop 
giving the habit of St. Bernard to an armed soldier, 
with several other figures in the piece, the work of 
Guerchino. Indeed, this city is full of rare pieces, espe- 
cially of Guido Domenico, and a virgin named Isabella 
Sirani, now living, who has painted many excellent 
pieces, and imitates Guido so well, that many skillful 
artists have been deceived. 

At the Mendicants are the Miracles of St. Eloy, by 
Reni, after the manner of Caravaggio, but better; and 
here they showed us that famous piece of Christ calling 
St. Matthew, by Annibal Caracci. The Marquis Magni- 
ani has the whole frieze of his hall painted in fresco by 
the same hand. 

Many of the religious men nourish those lapdogs 
which the ladies are so fond of, and which they here 
sell. They are a pigmy sort of spaniels, whose noses they 
break when puppies ; which, in my opinion, deforms them. 

At the end of the turning in one of the wings of the 
dormitory of St. Michael, I found a paper pasted near 
the window, containing the dimensions of most of the 
famous churches in Italy compared with their towers 
here, and the length of this gallery, a copy whereof I took. 





Piedi di Bolognia 

Canna di 

St. Pietro di Roma, longo 
Cupalo del muro, alta . . 
Torre d' Asinello, alto 
Dormitorio de St. Mich, a 
Bologn. longo .... 





59 pr. "• 6 


From hence being brought to a subterranean territory 
of cellars, the courteous friars made us taste a variety of 
excellent wines; and so we departed to our inn. 

The city is famous also for sausages; and here is sold 
great quantities of Parmegiano cheese, with Botargo, 
Caviare, etc., which makes some of their shops perfume 
the streets with no agreeable smell. We furnished our- 
selves with wash balls, the best being made here, 
and being a considerable commodity. This place has also 
been celebrated for lutes made by the old masters, Mollen, 
Hans Frey, and Nicholas Sconvelt, which were of extraor- 
dinary price; the workmen were chiefly Germans. The 
cattle used for draught in this country (which is very rich 
and fertile, especially in pasturage) are covered with 
housings of linen fringed at the bottom, that dangle about 
them, preserving them from flies, which in summer are 
very troublesome. 

From this pleasant city, we proceeded toward Ferrara, 
carrying with us a bulletino, or bill of health ( customary 
in all these parts of Italy, especially in the State of 
Venice ) and so put ourselves into a boat that was towed 
with horses, often interrupted by the sluices (inventions 
there to raise the water for the use of mills, and to fill 
the artificial canals) at each of which we stayed till 
passage was made. We went by the Castle Bentivoglio, 
and, about night arrived at an ugly inn called Mai Al- 
bergo, agreeable to its name, whence, after we had supped, 
we embarked and passed that night through the Fens, 
where we were so pestered with those flying glow- 
worms, called Luccioli, that one who had never heard of 
them, would think the country full of sparks of fire. 
Beating some of them down and applying them to a 
book, I could read in the dark by the light they afforded. 

Quitting our boat, we took coach, and by morning got 
to Ferrara, where, before we could gain entrance, our 

*A measure of half an elL 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 193 

guns and arms were taken from us of custom, the lock 
being- taken off before, as we were advised. The city is 
in a low marshy country, and therefore well fortified. 
The houses and streets have nothing of beauty, except 
the palace and church of St. Benedict, where Ariosto lies 
buried, and there are some good statues, the palazzo del 
Diamante, citadel, church of St. Dominico. The market- 
place is very spacious, having in its centre the figure of 
Nicholao Olao once Duke of Ferrara, on horseback, in 
copper. It is, in a word, a dirty town, and, though the 
streets be large they remain ill paved; yet it is a Uni- 
versity and now belongs to the Pope. Though there are 
not many fine houses in the city, the inn where we 
lodged was a very noble palace, having an Angel for its 

We parted from hence about three in the afternoon, 
and went some of our way on the canal, and then embarked 
on the Po ; or Padus ; by the poets called Eridanus, where 
they feign Phaeton to have fallen after his rash attempt, 
and where lo was metamorphosed into a cow. There 
was in our company, among others, a Polonian Bishop, 
who was exceeding civil to me in this passage, and after- 
ward did me many kindnesses at Venice. We supped 
this night at a place called Corbua, near the ruins of the 
ancient city, Adria, which gives name to the Gulf, or 
Sea. After three miles, having passed thirty on the Po, 
we embarked in a stout vessel, and through an artificial 
caaal, very straight, we entered the Adige, which carried 
us by break of day into the Adriatic, and so sailing pros- 
perously by Chioza (a town upon an island in this sea), 
and Palestina, we came over against Malamocco (the chief 
port and anchorage where our English merchantmen lie 
that trade to Venice) about seven at night, after we had 
stayed at least two hours for permission to land, our bill 
of health being delivered, according to custom. So soon 
as we came on shore, we were conducted to the Dogana, 
where our portmanteaus were visited, and then we got 
to our lodging, which was at honest Signor Paulo Rhodo- 
mante's at the Black Eagle, near the Rialto, one of the 
best quarters of the town. This journey from Rome to 
Venice cost me seven pistoles, and thirteen julios. 

June, 1645. The next morning, finding myself ex- 
tremely weary and beaten with my journey, I went to 


one of their bagnios, where you are treated after the 
eastern manner, washing with hot and cold water, with 
oils, and being rubbed with a kind of strigil of seal- 
skin, put on the operator's hand like a glove. This bath 
did so open my pores, that it cost me one of the greatest 
colds I ever had in my life, for want of necessary caution 
in keeping myself warm for some time after ; for, coming 
out, I immediately began to visit the famous places of 
the city; and travelers who come into Italy do nothing 
but run up and down to see sights, and this city well 
deserved our admiration, being the most wonderfully 
placed of any in the world, built on so many hundred 
islands, in the very sea, and at good distance from the 
continent. It has no fresh water except what is reserved 
in cistern from rain, and such as is daily brought from 
terra firma in boats, yet there was no want of it, and all 
sorts of excellent provisions were very cheap. 

It is said that when the Huns overran Italy, some 
mean fishermen and others left the mainland, and fled 
for shelter to these despicable and muddy islands, which, 
in process of time, by industry, are grown to the great- 
ness of one of the most considerable States, considered 
as a Republic, and having now subsisted longer than any 
of the four ancient Monarchies, flourishing in great state, 
wealth, and glory, by the conquest of great territories in 
Italy, Dacia, Greece, Candia, Rhodes, and Sclavonia, and 
at present challenging the empire of all the Adriatic Sea, 
which they yearly espouse by casting a gold ring 
into it with great pomp and ceremony, on Ascension-day; 
the desire of seeing this was one of the reasons that 
hastened us from Rome. 

The Doge, having heard mass in his robes of state 
(which are very particular, after the eastern fashion), 
together with the Senate in their gowns, embarked in 
their gloriously painted, carved, and gilded Bucentora, 
environed and followed by innumerable galleys, gondo- 
las, and boats, filled with spectators, some dressed in 
masquerade, trumpets, music, and cannons. Having 
rowed about a league into the Gulf, the Duke, at the 
prow, casts a gold ring and cup into the sea, at which a 
loud acclamation is echoed from the great guns of the 
Arsenal, and at the Liddo. We then returned. 

Two days after, taking a gondola, which i« their water- 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 195 

coach (for land ones, there are many old men in this 
city who never saw one, or rarely a horse), we rode up 
and down the channels, which answer to our streets. 
These vessels are built very long and narrow, having 
necks and tails of steel, somewhat spreading at the beak 
like a fish's tail, and kept so exceedingly polished as to 
give a great lustre; some are adorned with carving, 
others lined with velvet (commonly black), with curtains 
and tassels, and the seats like couches, to lie stretched 
on, while he who rows, stands upright on the very edge 
of the boat, and, with one oar bending forward as if he 
would fall into the sea, rows and turns with incredible 
dexterity; thus passing from channel to channel, landing 
his fare, or patron, at what house he pleases. The beaks 
of these vessels are not unlike the ancient Roman ros- 

The first public building I went to see was the Rialto, 
a bridge of one arch over the grand canal, so large as to 
admit a galley to row under it, built of good marble, 
and having on it, besides many pretty shops, three am- 
ple and stately passages for people without any incon- 
venience, the two outmost nobly balustered with the same 
stone; a piece of architecture much to be admired. It 
was evening, and the canal where the Noblesse go to 
take the air, as in our Hyde Park, was full of ladies and 
gentlemen. There are many times dangerous stops, by 
reason of the multitude of gondolas ready to sink one 
another; and indeed they affect to lean them on one 
side, that one who is not accustomed to it, would be 
afraid of over-setting. Here they were singing, playing 
on harpsichords, and other music, and serenading their 
mistresses; in another place, racing, and other pastimes 
on the water, it being now exceeding hot. 

Next day, I went to their Exchange, a place like ours, 
frequented by merchants, but nothing so magnificent; 
from thence, my gfuide led me to the Fondigo di Todes- 
chi, which is their magazine, and here many of the 
merchants, especially Germans, have their lodging and 
diet, as in a college. The outside of this stately fabric 
is painted by Giorgione da Castelfranco, and Titian 

Hence, I passed through the Mercera, one of the most 
delicious streets in the world for the sweetness of it. 


and is all the way on both sides tapestried as it were 
with cloth of gold, rich damasks and other silks, which 
the shops expose and hang before their houses from the 
first floor, and with that variety that for near half the 
year spent chiefly in this city, I hardly remember to 
have seen the same piece twice exposed; to this add the 
perfumes, apothecaries' shops, and the innumerable cages 
of nightingales which they keep, that entertain you 
with their melody from shop to shop, so that shutting 
your eyes, you would imagine yourself in the country, 
when indeed you are in the middle of the sea. It is 
almost as silent as the middle of a field, there being 
neither rattling of coaches nor trampling of horses. 
This street, paved with brick, and exceedingly clean, 
brought us through an arch into the famous piazza of 
St. Mark. 

Over this porch stands that admirable clock, celebrated, 
next to that of Strasburg, for its many movements; 
among which, about twelve and six, which are their 
hours of Ave Maria, when all the town are on their knees, 
come forth the three Kings led by a star, and passing 
by the image of Christ in his Mother's arms, do their 
reverence, and enter into the clock by another door. 
At the top of this turret, another automaton strikes the 
quarters. An honest merchant told me that one day 
walking in the piazza, he saw the fellow who kept the 
clock struck with this hammer so forcibly, as he was 
stooping his head near the bell, to mend something amiss 
at the instant of striking, that being stunned, he reeled 
over the battlements, and broke his neck. The buildings 
in this piazza are all arched, on pillars, paved within 
with black and white polished marble, even to the shops, 
the rest of the fabric as stately as any in Europe, being 
not only marble, but the architecture is of the famous 
Sansovini, who lies buried in St. Jacomo, at the end of the 
piazza. The battlements of this noble range of buildings, 
are railed with stone, and thick-set with excellent statues, 
which add a great ornament. One of the sides is yet 
much more Roman-like than the other which regards the 
sea, and where the church is placed. The other range 
is plainly Gothic; and so we entered into St. Mark's 
Church, before which stand two brass pedestals exqui- 
sitely cast and figured, which bear as many tall masts 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 197 

painted red, on which, upon great festivals, they hang 
flags and streamers. The church is also Gothic; yet for 
the preciousness of the materials, being of several rich 
marbles, abundance of porphyry, serpentine, etc., far ex- 
ceeding any in Rome, St. Peter's hardly excepted. I 
much admired the splendid history of our blessed Savior, 
composed all of Mosaic over the facciata, below which 
and over the four chief gates are cast four horses in 
copper as big as the life, the same that formerly were 
transported from Rome by Constantine to Byzantium, 
and thence by the Venetians hither.* They are supported 
by eight porphyry columns, of very great size and value. 
Being come into the church, you see nothing, and tread 
on nothing, but what is precious. The floor is all inlaid 
with agates, lazulis, chalcedons, jaspers, porphyries, and 
other rich marbles, admirable also for the work ; the walls 
sumptuously incrusted, and presenting to the imagination 
the shapes of men, birds, houses, flowers, and a thou- 
sand varieties. The roof is of most excellent Mosaic; 
but what most persons admire is the new work of the 
emblematic tree at the other passage out of the church. 
In the midst of this rich volto rise five cupolas, the mid- 
dle very large and sustained by thirty-six marble columns, 
eight of which are of precious marbles: under these cu- 
polas is the high altar, on which is a reliquary of several 
sorts of jewels, engraven with figures, after the Greek 
manner, and set together with plates of pure gold. The 
altar is covered with a canopy of ophite, on which is 
sculptured the story of the Bible, and so on the pillars, 
which are of Parian marble, that support it. Behind 
these, are four other columns of transparent and true 
Oriental alabaster, brought hither out of the mines of 
Solomon's Temple, as they report. There are many chap- 
els and notable monuments of illustrious persons, dukes, 
cardinals, etc., as Zeno, J. Soranzi, and others: there is 
likewise a vast baptistry, of copper. Among other ven- 
erable relics is a stone, on which they say our blessed 
Lord stood preaching to those of Tyre and Sidon, and 
near the door is an image of Christ, much adorned, es- 
teeming it very sacred, for that a rude fellow striking 
it they say, there gushed out a torrent of blood. In one 

♦They were taken away by Bonaparte to Paris; but in 1815, were 
rent back to Venice. 


of the comers lies the body of St. Isidore, brought hither 
500 years since from the island of Chios. A little farther, 
they show the picture of St. Dominic and Francis, 
affirmed to have been made by the Abbot Joachim (many 
years before any of them were born). Going out of the 
church, they showed us the stone where Alexander III. 
trod on the neck of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 
pronouncing that verse of the psalm, *■*• super basiliscum,^^ 
etc. The doors of the church are of massy copper. 
There are near 500 pillars in this building, most of them 
porphyry and serpentine, and brought chiefly from Athens, 
and other parts of Greece, formerly in their power. At 
the comer of the church, are inserted into the main 
wall four figures, as big as life, cut in porphyry; which 
they say are the images of four brothers who poisoned 
one another, by which means were escheated to the Re- 
public that vast treasury of relics now belonging to the 
church. At the other entrance that looks toward the 
sea, stands in a small chapel that statue of our Lady, 
made (as they affirm) of the same stone, or rock, out of 
which Moses brought water to the murmuring Israelites 
at Horeb, or Meriba. 

After all that is said, this church is, in my opinion, 
much too dark and dismal, and of heavy work; the fab- 
ric, — as is much of Venice, both for buildings and other 
fashions and circumstances, — after the Greeks, their 
next neighbors. 

The next day, by favor of the French ambassador, I 
had admittance with him to view the Reliquary, called 
here Tesoro di San Marco, which very few, even of trav- 
elers, are admitted to see. It is a large chamber full of 
presses. There are twelve breastplates or pieces of pure 
golden armor, studded with precious stones, and as many 
crowns dedicated to St. Mark, by so many noble Vene- 
tians, who had recovered their wives taken at sea by 
the Saracens; many curious vases of agates; the cap, or 
coronet, of the Dukes of Venice, one of which had a 
ruby set on it, esteemed worth 200,000 crowns; two uni- 
corns' horns; numerous vases and dishes of agate, set 
thick with precious stones and vast pearls; divers heads 
of Saints enchased in gold; a small ampulla, or glass, 
with our Savior's blood ; a great morsel of the real cross ; 
one of the nails; a thorn-, a fragment of the column *.o 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 199 

which our Lord was bound, when scourged; the standard 
or ensign, of Constantine ; a piece of St. Luke's arm ; a 
rib of St. Stephen; a finger of Mary Magdalen; numer- 
ous other things, which I could not remember. But a 
priest, first vesting himself in his sacerdotals, with the 
stole about his neck, showed us the gospel of St. Mark 
(their tutelar patron) written by his own hand, and whose 
body they show buried in the church, brought hither 
from Alexandria many years ago. 

The Religious de li Servi have fine paintings of Paolo 
Veronese, especially the Magdalen. 

A French gentleman and myself went to the Courts of 
Justice, the Senate House, and Ducal Palace. The first 
court near this church is almost wholly built of several 
colored sorts of marble, like checkerwork on the outside; 
this is sustained by vast pillars, not very shapely, but 
observable for their capitals, and that out of thirty-three 
no two are alike. Under this fabric is the cloister where 
merchants meet morning and evening, as also the grave 
senators and gentlemen, to confer of state affairs, in their 
gowns and caps, like so many philosophers; it is a very 
noble and solemn spectacle. In another quadrangle, 
stood two square columns of white marble, carved, which 
they said had been erected to hang one of their Dukes 
on, who designed to make hirfiself Sovereign. Going 
through a stately arch, there were standing in niches 
divers statues of great value, among which is the so 
celebrated Eve, esteemed worth its weight in gold; it is 
just opposite to the stairs where are two Colossuses of 
Mars and Neptune, by Sansovino. We went up into a 
Corridor built with several Tribunals and Courts of Jus- 
tice; and by a well-contrived staircase were landed in 
the Senate hall, which appears to be one of the most 
noble and spacious rooms in Europe, being seventy-six 
paces long, and thirty-two in breadth. At the upper end, 
are the Tribunals of the Doge, Council of Ten, and 
Assistants: in the body of the hall, are lower ranks of 
seats, capable of containing 1,500 Senators; for they con- 
sist of no fewer on grand debates. Over the Duke's 
throne are the paintings of the Final Judgment, by 
Tintoret, esteemed among the best pieces in Europe. 
On the roof are the famous Acts of the Republic, painted 
by several excellent masters, especially Bassano; next 

200 DIARY OF VENici 

them, are the effigies of the several Dukes, with their 
Elogies. Thm, we turned into a great Court painted 
with the Batt'e of Lepanto, an excellent piece; afterward, 
into the Chamber of the Council of Ten, painted by the 
most celebrated masters. From hence, by the special 
favor of an Illiistrissimo, we were carried to see the 
private Armory cf the Palace, and so to the same court 
we first entered, nobly built of polished white marble, 
part of which is the Duke's Court, pro tempore; there 
are two wells adorned with excellent work in copper. 
This led us to the seaside, where stand those columns 
of ophite stone in the entire piece, of a great height, 
one bearing St. Mark's Lion, the other St. Theodorus: 
these pillars were brought from Greece, and set up by 
Nicholas Baraterius, the architect; between them public 
executions are performed. 

Having fed our eyes with the noble prospect of the 
Island of St. George, the galleys, gondolas, and other 
vessels passing to and fro, we walked under the cloister 
on the other side of this goodly piazza, being a most 
magnificent building, the design of Sansovino. Here we 
went into the Zecca, or mint; at the entrance, stand two 
prodigious giants, or Hercules, of white marble, we saw 
them melt, beat, and coin silver, gold, and copper. We 
then went up into the Procuratory, and a library of 
excellent MSS. and books belonging to it and the public. 
After this, we climbed up the tower of St. Mark, which 
we might have done on horseback, as it is said one of 
the French Kings did; there being no stairs, or steps, 
but returns that take up an entire square on the arches 
forty feet, broad enough for a coach. This steeple stands 
by itself, without any church near it, and is rather a 
watch tower in the corner of the great piazza, 230 feet in 
height, the foundation exceeding deep; on the top, is 
an angel, that turns with the wind; and from hence is 
a prospect down the Adriatic, as far as Istria and the 
Dalmatian side, with the surprising sight of this miracu- 
lous city, lying in the bosom of the sea, in the shape of 
a lute, the numberless islands tacked together by no 
fewer than 450 bridges. At the foot of this tower, is a 
public tribunal of excellent work, in white marble 
polished, adorned with several brass statues and figures of 
stone and mezzo-relievo, the performance of some rare artist. 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 201 

It was now Ascension- week, and the gfreat mart, or fair, 
of the whole year was kept, everj^body at liberty and jolly; 
the noblemen stalking with their ladies on choppines. These 
are high-heeled shoes, particularly affected by these proud 
dames, or, as some say, invented to keep them at home, it 
being very difficult to walk with them ; whence, one being 
asked how he liked the Venetian dames, replied, they were 
" mezzo car7ie, mezzo legno^ *^ half flesh, half wood, and he 
would have none of them. The truth is, their garb is 
very odd, as seeming always in masquerade; their other 
habits also totally different from all nations. They wear 
very long, crisp hair, of several streaks and colors, which 
they make so by a wash, disheveling it on the brims of 
a broad hat that has no crown, but a hole to put out their 
heads by; they dry them in the sun, as one may see them 
at their windows. In their tire, they set silk flowers and 
sparkling stones, their petticoats coming from their very 
arm-pits, so that they are near three quarters and a half 
apron; their sleeves are made exceedingly wide, under 
which their shift-sleeves as wide, and commonly tucked 
up to the shoulder, showing their naked arms, through 
false sleeves of tiffany, girt with a bracelet or two, with 
knots of point richly tagged about their shoulders and 
other places of their body, which they usually cover with 
a kind of yellow veil of lawn, very transparent. Thus 
attired, they set their hands on the heads of two matron- 
like servants, or old women, to support them, who are 
mumbling their beads. It is ridiculous to see how these 
ladies crawl in and out of their gondolas, by reason of 
their choppines ; and what dwarfs they appear, when taken 
down from their wooden scaffolds; of these I saw near 
thirty together, stalking half as high again as the rest of 
the world. For courtesans, or the citizens, may not wear 
choppines, but cover their bodies and faces with a veil of 
a certain glittering taffeta, or lustr^e, out of which they 
now and then dart a glance of their eye, the whole face 
being otherwise entirely hid with it: nor may the com- 
mon misses take this habit; but go abroad barefaced. 
To the comer of these virgin-veils hang broad but flat 
tassels of curious Point de Venice. The married women 
go in black veils. The nobility wear the same color, but 
a fine cloth lined with taffeta, in summer, with fur of the 
bellies of squirrels, in the winter, which all put on at a 


certain day, girt with a girdle embossed with silver; 
the vest not much different from what our Bachelors of 
Arts wear in Oxford, and a hood of cloth, made like a 
sack, cast over their left shoulder, and a round cloth black 
cap fringed with wool, which is not so comely ; they also 
wear their collar open, to show the diamond button of the 
stock of their shirt. I have never seen pearls for color and 
bigness comparable to what the ladies wear, most of the 
noble families being very rich in jewels, especially pearls, 
which are always left to the son, or brother who is des- 
tined to marry ; which the eldest seldom do. The Doge's 
vest is of crimson velvet, the Procurator's, etc. of damask, 
very stately. Nor was I less surprised with the strange 
variety of the several nations seen every day in the streets 
and piazzas; Jews, Turks, Armenians, Persians, Moors, 
Greeks, Sclavonians, some with their targets and buck- 
lers, and all in their native fashions, negotiating in this 
famous Emporium, which is always crowded with strangers. 
This night, having with my Lord Bruce taken our 
places before we went to the Opera, where comedies and 
other plays are represented in recitative music, by the 
most excellent musicians, vocal and instrumental, with 
variety of scenes painted and contrived with no less art 
of perspective, and machines for flying in the air, and 
other wonderful notions; taken together, it is one of the 
most magnificent and expensive diversions the wit of man 
can invent. The history was, Hercules in Lydia; the 
scenes changed thirteen times. The famous voices, Anna 
Rencia, a Roman, and reputed the best treble of women ; 
but there was an eunuch who, in my opinion, surpassed 
her ; also a Genoese that sung an incomparable bass. This 
held us by the eyes and ears till two in the morning, 
when we went to the Ghetto de san Felice, to see the 
noblemen and their ladies at basset, a game at cards 
which is much used ; but they play not in public, and all 
that have inclination to it are in masquerade, without 
speaking one word, and so they come in, play, lose or 
gain, and go away as they please. This time of license 
is only in carnival and this Ascension-week; neither are 
their theatres open for that other magnificence, or for 
ordinary comedians, save on these solemnities, they being 
a frugal and wise people, and exact observers of all 
sumptuary laws. 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 203 

There being at this time a ship bound for the Holy 
Land, I had resolved to embark, intending to see Jerusa- 
lem, and other parts of Syria, Egypt and Turkey; but 
after I had provided all necessaries, laid in snow to cool 
our drink, bought some sheep, poultry, biscuit, spirits, 
and a little cabinet of drugs in case of sickness, our ves- 
sel (whereof Captain Powell was master), happened to be 
pressed for the service of the State, to carry provisions to 
Candia, now newly attacked by the Turks; which alto- 
gether frustrated my design, to my great mortification. 

On the ... of June, we went to Padua, to the fair of 
their St. Anthony, in company of divers passengers. 
The first terra firma we landed at was Fusina, being 
only an inn where we changed our barge, and were then 
drawn up by horses through the river Brenta, a straight 
channel as even as a line for twenty miles, the country 
on both sides deliciously adorned with country villas and 
gentlemen's retirements, gardens planted with oranges, 
figs, and other fruit, belonging to the Venetians. At 
one of these villas we went ashore to see a pretty con- 
trived palace. Observable in this passage was buying 
their water of those who farm the sluices; for this arti- 
ficial river is in some places so shallow, that reserves of 
water are kept with sluices, which they open and shut 
with a most ingenious invention, or engine, governed 
even by a child. Thus they keep up the water, or let 
it go, till the next channel be either filled by the stop, 
or abated to the level of the other; for which every boat 
pays a certain duty. Thus, we stayed near half an hour 
and more, at three several places, so as it was evening 
before we got to Padua. This is a very ancient city, if 
the tradition of Antenor's, being the founder, be not a 
fiction; but thus speaks the inscription over a stately 

^^Hanc antiqutssimam urbent liter arum omnium asylum, cujus 
agrum fertilitatis Lumen Natura esse voluit, Antenor condidit, 
anno ante Christum natum M. Cxviii; Senaius autem Venetus his 
belli propugnaculis ornavit.^'* 

The town stands on the river Padus, whence its name, 
and is generally built like Bologna, on arches and on 
brick, so that one may walk all around it, dry, and in 
the shade; which is very convenient in these hot coun- 
tries, and I think I was never sensible •£ S9 burning a 


heat as I was this season, especially the next day, which 
was that of the fair, filled with noble Venetians, by 
reason of a great and solemn procession to their famous 
cathedral. Passing by St. Lorenzo, I met with this 
subscription : 

*■*■ Inclytus Antenor patriam vox nisa quietem 

Transtulit hue Henetu?n Dardanidumq ; fuga, 
Expulit Euganeos, Patavinam condtdit urbetn. 
Quern, teg it hie humili marmore ecesa domus?'* 

Under the tomb, was a cobbler at his work. Being 
now come to St. Antony's (the street most of the way 
straight, well built, and outside excellently painted in 
fresco)^ we surveyed the spacious piazza, in which is 
erected a noble statue of copper of a man on horseback, 
in memory of one Catta Malata, a renowned captain. 
The church, h la Greca, consists of five handsome 
cupolas, leaded. At the left hand within is the tomb of St. 
Antony and his altar, about which a mezzo-relievo of 
the miracles ascribed to him is exquisitely wrought in 
white marble by the three famous sculptors, Tullius 
Lombardus, Jacobus Sansovinus, and Hieronymus Com- 
pagno. A little higher is the choir, walled parapet- 
fashion, with sundry colored stone, half relievo, the work 
of Andrea Reccij. The altar within is of the same 
metal, which, with the candlestick and bases, is, in my 
opinion, as magnificent as any in Italy. The wainscot 
of the choir is rarely inlaid and carved. Here are the 
sepulchres of many famous persons, as of Rodolphus 
Fulgosi, etc. ; and among the rest, one for an exploit at 
sea, has a galley exquisitely carved thereon. The pro- 
cession bore the banners with all the treasure of the 
cloister, which was a very fine sight. 

Hence, walking over the Prato delle Valle, I went to 
see the convent of St. Justina, than which I never be- 
held one more magnificent. The church is an excellent 
piece of architecture, of Andrea Palladio, richly paved, 
with a stately cupola that covers the high altar enshrin- 
ing the ashes of that saint. It is of pietra-commessa, con- 
sisting of flowers very naturally done. The choir is inlaid 
with several sorts of wood representing the holy history, 
finished with exceeding industry. At the far end, is that 
rare painting of St. Justina's Martyrdom, by Paolo Vero- 
nese; and a stone on which they told us divers primitive 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 205 

Christians had been decapitated. In another place (to 
which leads a small cloister well painted) is a dry well, 
covered with a brass-work grate, wherein are the bones 
of divers martyrs. They show also the bones of St. Luke, 
in an old alabaster coffin; three of the Holy Innocents; 
and the bodies of St. Maximus and Prosdocimus.* The 
dormitory above is exceedingly commodious and stately; 
but what most pleased me, was the old cloister so well 
painted with the legendary saints, mingled with many 
ancient inscriptions, and pieces of urns dug up, it seems, 
at the foundation of the church. Thus, having spent 
the day in rambles, I returned the next day to Venice. 

The arsenal is thought to be one of the best furnished 
in the world. We entered by a strong port, always 
guarded, and, ascending a spacious gallery, saw arms of 
back, breast, and head, for many thousands; in another 
were saddles; over them, ensigns taken from the Turks. 
Another hall is for the meeting of the Senate ; passing a 
graff, are the smiths' forges, where they are continually 
employed on anchors and iron work. Near it is a well 
of fresh water, which they impute to two rhinoceros's 
horns which they say lie in it, and will preserve it from 
ever being empoisoned. Then we came to where the car- 
penters were building their magazines of oars, masts, etc., 
for an hundred galleys and ships, which have all their 
apparel and furniture near them. Then the foundry, 
where they cast ordnance; the forge is 450 paces long, 
and one of them has thirteen furnaces. There is one 
cannon, weighing 16,573 pounds, cast while Henry the 
Third dined, and put into a galley built, rigged, and 
fitted for launching within that time. They have also 
arms for twelve galeasses, which are vessels to row, of 
almost 150 feet long, and thirty wide, not counting prow 
or poop, and contain twenty-eight banks of oars, each 
seven men, and to carry 1,300 men, with three masts. 
In another, a magazine for fifty galleys, and place for 
some hundreds more. Here stands the Bucentaur, with 
a most ample deck, and so contrived that the slaves are 
not seen, having on the poop a throne for the Doge to 
sit, when he goes in triumph to espouse the Adriatic. 
Here is also a gallery of 200 yards long for cables, and 
above that a magazine of hemp. Opposite these, are the 

*St Peter's disciple, first Bishop of Padua. 

2o6 DIARY OF Venice 

saltpetre houses, and a large row of cells, or houses, to 
protect their galleys from the weather. Over the gate, 
as we go out, is a room full of great and small guns, 
some of which discharge six times at once. Then, there 
is a court full of cannon, bullets, chains, grapples, grena- 
does, etc., and over that arms for 800,000 men, and by 
themselves arms for 400, taken from some that were in 
a plot against the state ; together with weapons of ofEense 
and defense for sixty-two ships ; thirty- two pieces of ord- 
nance, on carriages taken from the Turks, and one pro- 
digious mortar-piece. In a word, it is not to be reckoned 
up what this large place contains of this sort. There 
were now twenty-three galleys, and four galley-grossi, of 
too oars to a side. The whole arsenal is walled about, 
and may be in compass about three miles, with twelve 
towers for the watch, besides that the sea environs it. 
The workmen, who are ordinarily 500, march out in 
military order, and every evening receive their pay 
through a small hole in the gate where the governor 

The next day, I saw a wretch executed, who had mur- 
dered his master, for which he had his head chopped off 
by an ax that slid down a frame of timber, between the 
two tall columns in St. Mark's piazza, at the sea-brink; 
the executioner striking on the ax with a beetle; and 
so the head fell off the block. 

Hence, by Gudala, we went to see Grimani's Palace, 
the portico whereof is excellent work. Indeed, the world 
cannot show a city of more stately buildings, considering 
the extent of it, all of square stone, and as chargeable 
in their foundations as superstructure, being all built on 
piles at an immense cost. We returned home by the 
church of St. Johanne and Paulo, before which is, in 
copper, the statue of Bartolomeo Colone, on horseback, 
double gilt, on a stately pedestal, the work of Andrea 
Verrochio, a Florentine, This is a very fine church, and 
has in it many rare altarpieces of the best masters, es- 
pecially that on the left hand, of the Two Friars slain, 
which is of Titian. 

The day after, being Sunday, I went over to St. 
George's to the ceremony of the schismatic Greeks, who 
are permitted to have their church, though they are at 
defiance with Rome. They allow no carved images, but 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 207 

many painted, especially the story of their patron and 
his dragon. Their rites differ not much from the Latins, 
save that of communicating in both species, and distri- 
bution of the holy bread. We afterward fell into a dis- 
pute with a Candiot, concerning the procession of the 
Holy Ghost. The church is a noble fabric. 

The church of St. Zachary is a Greek building, by Leo 
IV., Emperor, and has in it the bones of that prophet, 
with divers other saints. Near this, we visited St. Luke's, 
famous for the tomb of Aretin, 

Tuesday, we visited several other churches, as Santa 
Maria, newly incrusted with marble on the outside, and 
adorned with porphyry, ophite, and Spartan stone. Near 
the altar and under the organ, are sculptures, that are 
said to be of the famous artist Praxiteles. To that of 
St. Paul I went purposely, to see the tomb of Titian. 
Then to St. John the Evangelist, where among other 
heroes, lies Andrea Baldarius, the inventor of oars ap- 
plied to great vessels for fighting. 

We also saw St. Roche, the roof whereof is, with the 
school, or hall, of that rich confraternity, admirably 
painted by Tintoretto, especially the Crucifix in the 
sacristia. We saw also the church of St. Sebastian, and 
Carmelites' monastery. 

Next day, taking our gondola at St. Mark's, I passed 
to the island of St. George Maggiore, where is a Con- 
vent of Benedictines, and a well-built church of Andrea 
Palladio, the great architect. The pavement, cupola, 
choir, and pictures, very rich and sumptuous. The 
cloister has a fine garden to it, which is a rare thing at 
Venice, though this is an island a little distant from the 
city; it has also an olive orchard, all environed by the 
sea. The new cloister now building has a noble staircase 
paved with white and black marble. 

From hence, we visited St. Spirit©, and St. Laurence, 
fair churches in several islands; but most remarkable is 
that of the Padri Olivetani, in St. Helen's island, for the 
rare paintings and carvings, with inlaid work, etc. 

The next morning, we went again to Padua, where, 
on the following day, we visited the market, which is 
plentifully furnished, and exceedingly cheap. Here we 
saw the great hall, built in a spacious piazza, and one of 
the most magnificent in Europe ; itc ascent is by steps a 

2o8 DIARY OF Padua 

good height, of a reddish marble polished, much used in 
these parts, and happily found not far off; it is almost 
200 paces long, and forty in breadth, all covered with 
lead, without any support of columns. At the further end 
stands the bust, in white marble, of Titus Livius, the 
historian. In this town is the house wherein he was born, 
full of inscriptions, and pretty fair. 

Near to the monument of Speron Speroni, is painted 
on the ceiling the celestial zodiac, and other astronomical 
figures; without side, there is a corridor, in manner of 
a balcony, of the same stone ; and at the entry of each 
of the three gates is the head of some famous person, 
as Albert Eremitano, Julio Paullo (lawyers), and Peter 
Aponius. In the piazza is the Podesta's and Capitano 
Grande's Palace, well built; but above all, the Monte 
Pietk, the front whereof is of most excellent architec- 
ture. This is a foundation of which there is one in most 
of the cities in Italy, where there is a continual bank 
of money to assist the poorer sort, on any pawn, and at 
reasonable interest, together with magazines for deposit of 
goods, till redeemed. 

Hence, to the Schools of this flourishing and ancient 
University, especially for the study of physic and anatomy. 
They are fairly built in quadrangle, with cloisters beneath, 
and above with columns. Over the great gate are the 
arms of the Venetian State, and under the lion of St. 

Sic ingredere, ut teipso quotidie doctior; sic egredere ut indies 
Patrice Christianceq ; Repicblicce utilior evadas; it a dgtnitm Gym- 
nasium d, te felicit^r se ornatum existimabit. 


About the court walls, are carved in stone and painted 
the blazons of the Consuls of all the nations, that from 
time to time have had that charge and honor in the 
University, which at my being there was my worthy friend 
Dr. Rogers, who here took that degree. 

The Schools for the lectures of the several sciences are 
above, but none of them comparable, or so much fre- 
quented, as the theater for anatomy, which is excellently 
contrived both for the dissector and spectators. I was 
this day invited to dinner, and in the afternoon (30th 
July) received my matricula^ being resolved to spend 

i645 JOHN EVELYN 209 

some months here at study, especially physic and anatomy, 
of both which there were now the most famous professors 
in Europe. My matricula contained a clause, that I, my 
goods, servants, and messengers, should be free from all 
tolls and reprises, and that we might come, pass, return, 
buy, or sell, without any toll, etc. 

The next morning, I saw the garden of simples, rarely 
furnished with plants, and gave order to the gardener to 
make me a collection of them for an hortus hy emails^ by 
permission of the Cavalier Dr. Veslingius, then Prefect 
and Botanic Professor as well as of Anatomy. 

This morning, the Earl of Arundel,* now in this city, a 
famous collector of paintings and antiquities, invited me 
to go with him to see the garden of Mantua, where, as 
one enters, stands a huge colosse of Hercules. From 
hence to a place where was a room covered with a noble 
cupola, built purposely for music ; the fillings up, or cove, 
between the walls, were of urns and earthen pots, for the 
better sounding; it was also well painted. After dinner, 
we walked to the Palace of Foscari all' Arena, there re- 
maining yet some appearances of an ancient theater, 
though serving now for a court only before the house. 
There were now kept in it two eagles, a crane, a Mauri- 
tanian sheep, a stag, and sundry fowls, as in a vivary. 

Three days after, I returned to Venice, and passed over 
to Murano, famous for the best glasses in the world, 
where having viewed their furnaces, and seen their work, 
I made a collection of divers curiosities and glasses, which 
I sent for England by long sea. It is the white flints 
they have from Pavia, which they pound and sift ex- 
ceedingly small, and mix with ashes made of a seaweed 
brought out of Syria, and a white sand, that causes this 
manufacture to excel. The town is a Podestaria by it- 
self, at some miles distant on the sea from Venice, and 
like it, built on several small islands. In this place, are 
excellent oysters, small and well tasted like our Colches- 
ter, and they were the first, as I remember, that I ever 
could eat; for I had naturally an aversion to them. 

At our return to Venice, we met several gondolas full 
of Venetian ladies, who come thus far in fine weather to 

* The celebrated Thomas, Earl of Arundel, part of whose coUectifra 
was eventually procured for the University of Oxford by Evelyn, and is 
distinguished by the name Marmora Arunde liana, 


take the air, with music and other refreshments. Besides 
that, Murano is itself a very nobly built town, and has 
divers noblemen's palaces in it, and handsome gardens. 

In coming back, we saw the islands of St. Christopher 
and St. Michael, the last of which has a church enriched 
and incrusted with marbles and other architectonic orna- 
ments, which the monks very courteously showed us. It 
was built and founded by Margaret Emiliana of Verona, 
a famous courtesan, who purchased a great estate, and 
by this foundation hoped to commute for her sins. We 
then rowed by the isles of St. Nicholas, whose church, 
with the monuments of the Justinian family, entertained 
us awhile; and then got home. 

The next morning, Captain Powell, in whose ship I 
was to embark toward Turkey, invited me on board, 
lying about ten miles from Venice, where we had a din- 
ner of English powdered beef and other good meat, with 
store of wine and great guns, as the manner is. After 
dinner, the Captain presented me with a stone he had 
lately brought from Grand Cairo, which he took from the 
mummy-pits, full of hieroglyphics; I drew it on paper 
with the true dimensions, and sent it in a letter to Mr. 
Henshaw to communicate to Father Kircher, who was 
then setting forth his great work " Obeliscus Pamphilius," 
where it is described, but without mentioning my name. 
The stone was afterward brought for me into England, 
and landed at Wapping, where, before I could hear of it, 
it was broken into several fragments, and utterly defaced, 
to my no small disappointment. 

The boatswain of the ship also gave me a hand and 
foot of a mummy, the nails whereof had been overlaid 
with thin plates of gold, and the whole body was per- 
fect, when he brought it out of Egypt; but the avarice 
of the ship's crew broke it to pieces, and divided the 
body among them. He presented me also with two 
Egyptian idols, and some loaves of the bread which the 
Coptics use in the Holy Sacrament, with other curiosities. 

8th August, 1645. I ^^^ news from Padua of my 
election to be Syndicus Artist arum, which caused me, 
after two days idling in a country villa with the Consul 
of Venice, to hasten thither, that I might discharge 
myself of that honor, because it was not only chargeable, 
but would have hindered my progress, and they chose a 

1 645 JOHN EVELYN 211 

Dutch gentleman in my place, which did not well please 
my countrymen, who had labored not a little to do me 
the greatest honor a stranger is capable of in that 
University. Being freed from this impediment, and hav- 
ing taken leave of Dr. Janicius, a Polonian, who was go- 
ing as physician in the Venetian galleys to Candia, I went 
again to Venice, and made a collection of several books 
and some toys. Three days after, I returned to Padua, 
where I studied hard till the arrival of Mr. Henshaw, 
Bramstone, and some other English gentlemen whom I 
had left at Rome, and who made me go back to Venice, 
where I spent some time in showing them what I had 
seen there. 

26th September, 1645. ^7 dear friend, and till now my 
constant fellow-traveler, Mr. Thicknesse, being obliged 
to return to England upon his particular concern, and 
who had served his Majesty in the wars, I accompanied 
him part of his way, ,and, on the 28th, returned to 

29th September, 1645. Michaelmas day, I went with 
my Lord Mowbray (eldest son to the Earl of Arundel, 
and a most worthy person) to see the collection of a 
noble Venetian, Signor Rugini. He has a stately palace, 
richly furnished with statues and heads of Roman Em- 
perors, all placed in an ample room. In the next, was a 
cabinet of medals, both Latin and Greek, with divers 
curious shells and two fair pearls in two of them; but, 
above all, he abounded in things petrified, walnuts, eggs 
in which the yoke rattled, a pear, a piece of beef with 
the bones in it, a whole hedgehog, a plaice on a wooden 
trencher turned into stone and very perfect, charcoal, a 
morsel of cork yet retaining its levity, sponges, and a 
piece of taffety part rolled up, with innumerable more. 
In another cabinet, supported by twelve pillars of oriental 
agate, and railed about with crystal, he showed us sev- 
eral noble intaglios of agate, especially a head of Ti- 
berius, a woman in a bath with her dog, some rare 
cornelians, onyxes, crystals, etc., in one of which was a 
drop of water not congealed, but moving up and down, 
when shaken; above all, a diamond which had a very 
fair ruby growing in it; divers pieces of amber, wherein 
were several insects, in particular one cut like a heart 
that contained in it a salamander without the least 


defect, and many pieces of mosaic. The fabric of this 
cabinet was very ingenious, set thick with agates, tur- 
quoises, and other precious stones, in the midst of which 
was an antique of a dog in stone scratching his ear, 
very rarely cut, and comparable to the greatest curiosity 
I had ever seen of that kind for the accurateness of the 
work. The next chamber had a bedstead all inlaid with 
agates, crystals, cornelians, lazuli, etc., esteemed worth 
16,000 crowns; but, for the most part, the bedsteads in 
Italy are of forged iron gilded, since it is impossible to 
keep the wooden ones from the cimices. 

From hence, I returned to Padua, when that town 
was so infested with soldiers, that many houses were 
broken open in the night, some murders committed, and 
the nuns next our lodging disturbed, so as we were 
forced to be on our guard with pistols and other fire- 
arms to defend our doors; and indeed the students them- 
selves take a barbarous liberty in the evenings when 
they go to their strumpets, to stop all that pass by the 
house where any of their companions in folly are with 
them. This custom they call chi vali^ so as the streets 
are very dangerous, when the evenings grow dark; nor 
is it easy to reform this intolerable usage, where there 
are so many strangers of several nations. 

Using to drink my wine cooled with snow and ice, as 
the manner here is, I was so afflicted with an angina 
and sore throat, that it had almost cost me my life. 
After all the remedies Cavalier Veslingius, chief professor 
here, could apply, old Salvatico (that famous physician) 
being called, made me be cupped, and scarified in the 
back in four places; which began to give me breath, 
and consequently life; for I was in the utmost danger; 
but, God being merciful to me, I was after a fortnight 
abroad again, when, changing my lodging, I went over 
against Pozzo Pinto; where I bought for winter provi- 
sion 3,000 weight of excellent grapes, -and pressed my own 
wine, which proved incomparable liquor. 

This was on loth of October Soon after came to visit 
me from Venice Mr. Henry Howard, grandchild to the 
Earl of Arundel, Mr. Bramstone, son to the Lord Chief 
Justice, and Mr. Henshaw, with whom I went to another 
part of the city to lodge near St. Catherine's over against 
the monastery of nims, where we hired the whole house, 

1645-46 JOHN EVELYN 213 

and lived very nobly. Here I learned to play on the 
theorb, thought by Signor Dominico Bassano, who had a 
daughter married to a doctor of laws, that played and 
sung to nine several instruments, with that skill and 
address as few masters in Italy exceeded her; she like- 
wise composed divers excellent pieces: I had never seen 
any play on the Naples viol before. She presented me 
afterward with two recitativos of hers, both words and 

31st October, 1645. Being my birthday, the nuns of 
St. Catherine's sent me flowers of silkwork. We were 
very studious all this winter till Christmas, when on 
Twelfth-day, we invited all the English and Scots in 
town to a feast, which sunk our excellent wine consider- 

1645-46. In January, Signor Molino was chosen Doge 
of Venice, but the extreme snow that fell, and the cold, 
hindered my going to see the solemnity, so as I stirred 
not from Padua till Shrovetide, when all the world repair 
to Venice, to see the folly and madness of the Carnival ; 
the women, men, and persons of all conditions disguising 
themselves in antique dresses, with extravagant music 
and a thousand gambols, traversing the streets from house 
to house, all places being then accessible and free to enter. 
Abroad, they fling eggs filled with sweet water, but some- 
times not over-sweet. They also have a barbarous custom 
of hunting bulls about the streets and piazzas, which is 
very dangerous, the' passages being generally narrow. 
The youth of the several wards and parishes contend in 
other masteries and pastimes, so that it is impossible to 
recount the universal madness of this place during this 
time of license. The great banks are set up for those 
who will play at bassett ; the comedians have liberty, and 
the operas are open; witty pasquils are thrown about, 
and the mountebanks have their stages at every corner. 
The diversions which chiefly took me up was three noble 
operas, where were excellent voices and music, the most 
celebrated of which was the famous Anna Rencia, whom 
we invited to a fish dinner after four days in Lent, 
when they had given over at the theater. Accompanied 
with an eunuch whom she brought with her, she enter- 
tained us with rare music, both of them singing to a 
harpsichord. It growing late, a gentleman of Venice 


came for her, to show her the galleys, now ready to sail 
for Candia. This entertainment produced a second, given 
us by the English consul of the merchants, inviting us 
to his house, where he had the Genoese, the most cele- 
brated bass in Italy, who was one of the late opera band. 
This diversion held us so late at night, that, conveying a 
gentlewoman who had supped with us to her gondola at 
the usual place of landing, we were shot at by two car- 
bines from another gondola, in which were a noble Vene- 
tian and his courtesan unwilling to be disturbed, which 
made us run in and fetch other weapons, not knowing 
what the matter was, till we were informed of the danger 
we might incur by pursuing it farther. 

Three days after this, I took my leave of Venice, and 
went to Padua, to be present at the famous anatomy 
lecture, celebrated here with extraordinary apparatus, 
lasting almost a whole month. During this time, I saw 
a woman, a child, and a man dissected with all the man- 
ual operations of the chirurgeon on the human body. 
The one was performed by Cavalier Veslingius and Dr. 
Jo. Athelsteninus Leonoenas, of whom I purchased those 
rare tables of veins and nerves, and caused him to prepare a 
third of the lungs, liver, and nervi sexti par: with the gastric 
veins, which I sent into England, and afterward presented 
to the Royal Society, being the first of that kind that 
had been seen there, and, for aught I know, in the world, 
though afterward there were others. When the anatomy 
lectures, which were in the mornings, were ended, I went 
to see cures done in the hospitals; and certainly as there 
are the greatest helps and the most skillful physicians, so 
there are the most miserable and deplorable objects to 
to exercise upon. Nor is there any, I should think, so 
powerful an argument against the vice reigning in this 
licentious country, as to be spectator of the misery these 
poor creatures undergo. They are indeed very care- 
fully attended, and with extraordinary charity. 

2oth March, 1646. I returned to Venice, where I took 
leave of my friends. 

2 2d March, 1646. I was invited to excellent English 
potted venison, at Mr. Hobbson's, a worthy merchant. 

23d March, 1646. I took my leave of the Patriarch and 
the Prince of Wirtemberg, and Monsieur Grotius (son of 
the learned Hugo) now going as commander to Candia; 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 215 

and, in the afternoon, received of Vandervoort, my mer- 
chant, my bills of exchange of 300 ducats for my jour- 
ney. He showed me his rare collection of Italian books, 
esteemed very curious, and of good value. 

The next day, I was conducted to the Ghetto, where 
the Jews dwell together in as a tribe or ward, where I 
was present at a marriage. The bride was clad in white, 
sitting in a lofty chair, and covered with a white veil; 
then two old Rabbis joined them together, one of them 
holding a glass of wine in his hand, which, in the midst 
of the ceremony, pretending to deliver to the woman, he 
let fall, the breaking whereof was to signify the 
frailty of our nature, and that we must expect disas- 
ters and crosses amid all enjoyments. This done we 
had a fine banquet, and were brought into the bride- 
chamber, where the bed was dressed up with flowers, 
and the counterpane strewn in works. At this ceremony, 
we saw divers very beautiful Portuguese Jewesses, with 
whom we had some conversation. 

I went to the Spanish Ambassador with Bonifacio, his 
confessor, and obtained his pass to serve me in the Span- 
ish dominions ; without which I was not to travel, in this 
pompous form: 

'•^ Don Caspar de Teves y Guzman, Marques de la Fuente, Sehor 
Le Lerena y Verazuza, Commendador de Colos, en la Orden de Sant 
Yago, Alcalde Mayor perpetuo y Escrivano Mayor de la Ciudad 
de Sevilla, Gentilhombre de la Camara de S. M. su Azimtlero 
Mayor, de su Consejo, su Embaxador extraor dinar to a los Prin- 
cipes de Italia, y Alemania, y a est a serenissima Republica de 
Venetia, etc. Haviendo de partir de esta Ciudad para La Milan 
el Signior Cavallero Evelyn Ingles, con un Criado, mi han ped- 
ido Passa-porte para los Estatos de su M. Le he niandado dar 
el presente, firmando de mi mano, y sellado con el sello de mis 
armas, por el qual encargo a todos los menestros de S. M. antes 
quien le presentase y a los que no lo son, supplico les dare passar 
libramente sin permitir que se le haya vexacion alguna antes 
mandar le las favor para continuar su viage. Fecho en Vene- 
cia a 24 del mes de Marzo del atio 1646. 

Mar. de la Fuentcs, etc.'*'* 

Having packed up my purchases of books, pictures, casts, 
treacle, etc. (the making an extraordinary ceremony 
whereof I had been curious to observe, for it is ex- 
tremely pompous and worth seeing), I departed from 
Venice, accompanied with Mr. Waller (the celebrated 


poet), now newly gotten out of England, after the Par- 
liament had extremely worried him for attempting to put 
in execution the commission of Array, and for which 
the rest of his colleagues were hanged by the rebels. 

The next day. I took leave of my comrades at Padua, 
and receiving some directions from Dr. Salvatico as to 
the care of my health, I prepared for my journey toward 

It was Easter- Monday that I was invited to breakfast 
at the Earl of Arundel's. I took my leave of him in his 
bed, where I left that great and excellent man in tears 
on some private discourse of crosses that had befallen 
his illustrious family, particularly the undutifulness of 
his grandson Philip turning Dominican Friar (since 
Cardinal of Norfolk), and the misery of his country now 
embroiled in civil war. He caused his gentleman to 
give me directions, all written with his own hand, what 
curiosities I should inquire after in my journey; and, so 
enjoining me to write sometimes to him, I departed. 
There stayed for me below, Mr. Henry Howard (after- 
ward Duke of Norfolk), Mr. J. Digby, son of Sir Kenelm 
Digby, and other gentlemen, who conducted me to the 

The famous lapidaries of Venice for false stones and 
pastes, so as to emulate the best diamonds, rubies, etc., 
were Marco Terrasso and Gilbert. 

An account of what Bills of Exchange I took up at Venice since 
my coming from Rome, till my departure from Padua: 

nth Aug., 1645 


7th Sept. 


ist Oct. . 


15th Jan., 1646 


23d April 


835 Ducati di Banco. 

In company, then, with Mr. Waller, one Captain Wray 
(son of Sir Christopher, whose father had been in arms 
against his Majesty, and therefore by no means welcome 
to us), with Mr. Abdy, a modest and learned man, we 
got that night to Vicenza, passing by the Eugan^an hills, 
celebrated for the prospects and furniture of rare simples, 
which we found growing about them. The ways were 
something deep, the whole country flat and even as a 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 217 

bowling-green. The common fields lie square, and are 
orderly planted with fruit trees, which the vines run and 
embrace, for many miles, with delicious streams creeping 
along the ranges. 

Vicenza is a city in the Marquisate of Treviso, yet 
appertaining to the Venetians, full of gentlemen and 
splendid palaces, to which the famous Palladio, bom here, 
has exceedingly contributed, having been the architect. 
Most conspicuous is the Hall of Justice; it has a tower 
of excellent work ; the lower pillars are of the first order ; 
those in the three upper corridors are Doric ; under them, 
are shops in a spacious piazza. The hall was built in 
imitation of that at Padua, but of a nobler design, h la 
moderne. The next morning, we visited the theater, as 
being of that kind the most perfect now standing, and 
built by Palladio, in exact imitation of the ancient 
Romans, and capable of containing 5,000 spectators. The 
scene, which is all of stone, represents an imperial city, 
the order Corinthian, decorated with statues. Over the 
Scenario is inscribed : " Virtuti ac Genio Olympior: Aca- 
demia Theatrum hoc a fundainentis erexit Palladio Architect: 
1584.. ® The scene declines eleven feet, the soffito painted 
with clouds. To this there joins a spacious hall for 
solemn days to ballot in, and a second for the Academics. 
In the piazza is also the podesta, or governor's house, 
the facciata being of the Corinthian order, very noble. 
The piazza itself is so large as to be capable of jousts 
and tournaments, the nobility of this city being exceed- 
ingly addicted to this knight-errantry, and other martial 
diversions. In this place are two pillars in imitation of 
of those at St. Mark's at Venice, bearing one of them 
a winged lion, the other the statue of St. John the Bap- 

In a word, this sweet town has more well-built palaces 
than any of its dimensions in all Italy, besides a number 
begun and not yet finished ( but of stately design ) by 
reason of the domestic dissensions between them and those 
of Brescia, fomented by the sage Venetians, lest by com- 
bining, they might think of recovering their ancient 
liberty. For this reason, also, are permitted those dis- 
orders and insolences committed at Padua among the 
yoath of these two territories. It is no dishonor in this 
country to be some generations in finishing their palaces. 

ai8 DIARY OF verona 

that without exhausting themselves by a vast expense at 
once, they may at last erect a sumptuous pile. Count 
Oleine's Palace is near perfected in this manner. Count 
Ulmarini is more famous for his gardens, being without 
the walls, especially his cedrario, or conserve of oranges, 
eleven score of my paces long, set in order and ranges, 
making a canopy all the way by their intermixing branches 
for more than 200 of my single paces, and which being 
full of fruit and blossoms, was a most delicious sight. 
In the middle of this garden, was a cupola made of wire, 
supported by slender pillars of brick, so closely covered 
with ivy, both without and within, that nothing was to 
be perceived but green ; between the arches there dangled 
festoons of the same. Here is likewise a most inextric- 
able labyrinth. 

I had in this town recommendation to a very civil and 
ingenious apothecary, called Angelico, who had a pretty 
collection of paintings. I would fain have visited a 
palace, called the Rotunda, which was a mile out of town, 
belonging to Count Martio Capra; but one of our com- 
panions hastening to be gone, and little minding any- 
thing save drinking and folly, caused us to take coach 
sooner than we should have done. 

A little from the town, we passed the Campo Martio, 
set out in imitation of ancient Rome, wherein the nobles 
exercised their horses, and the ladies make the Corso; it 
is entered by a stately triumphal arch, the invention of 

Being now set out for Verona, about midway we dined 
at Ostaria Nova, and came late to our resting-place, 
which was the Cavaletto, just over the monument of 
the Scalageri,* formerly princes of Verona, adorned with 
many devices in stone of ladders, alluding to the name. 

Early next morning, we went about the city, which is 
built on the gentle declivity, and bottom of a hill, en- 
vironed in part with some considerable mountains and 
downs of fine grass, like some places in the south of 
England, and, on the other side, having the rich plain 
where Caius Marius overthrew the Cimbrians. The city 
is divided in the midst by the river Adige, over which 
are divers stately bridges, and on its banks are many 
goodly palaces, whereof one is well painted in chiaro-oscuro 


1646 JOHN EVELYN 219 

on the outside, as are divers in this dry climate of 

The first thing that engaged our attention and wonder, 
too, was the amphitheater, which is the most entire of 
ancient remains now extant. The inhabitants call it the 
Arena : it has two porticos, one within the other, and is 
thirty-four rods long, twenty-two in breadth, with forty- 
two ranks of stone benches, or seats, which reach to the 
top. The vastness of the marble stones is stupendous. 
* L. V. Flaniinius^ Consul, anno. urb. con. liii. * This I 
esteem to be one of the noblest antiquities in Europe, it 
is so vast and entire, having escaped the ruins of so 
many other public buildings for above 1,400 years. 

There are other arches, as that of the victory of 
Marius; temples, aqueducts, etc., showing still consider- 
able remains in several places of the town, and how 
magnificent it has formerly been. It has three strong 
castles and a large and noble wall. Indeed, the whole 
city is bravely built, especially the Senate house, where 
we saw those celebrated statues of Cornelius Nepos, 
^milius Marcus, Plinius, and Vitruvius, all having hon- 
ored Verona by their birth; and, of later date, Julius 
Caesar Scaliger, that prodigy of learning. 

In the evening we saw the garden of Count Giusti's 
villa where are walks cut out of the main rock, from 
whence we had a pleasant prospect of Mantua and Parma, 
though at great distance. At the entrance of this gar- 
den, grows the goodliest cypress, I fancy, in Europe, cut 
in a pyramid; it is a prodigious tree both for breadth 
and height, entirely covered, and thick to the base. 

Dr. Cortone, a civilian, showed us, among other rarities, 
a St. Dorothea, of Raphael. We could not see the rare 
drawings, especially of Parmensis, belonging to Dr. Mar- 
cello, another advocate, on account of his absence. 

Verona deserved all those elogies Scaliger has hon- 
ored it with ; for in my opinion, the situation is the most 
delightful I ever saw, it is so sweetly mixed with rising 
ground and valleys, so elegantly planted with trees on 
which Bacchus seems riding as it were in triumph every 
autumn, for the vines reach from tree to tree ; here, of all 
places I have seen in Italy, would I fix a residence. 
Well has that learned man given it the name of the very 
eye of the world: 


® Oscelle mundt, Sidus Itali ccelz, 
Flos Urbiutn, Jlos cornicuuTnq' amcenum, 
Quot sunt, eruntve, quot fuere, Verona?'* 

The next morning we traveled over the downs where 
Marius fought and fancied ourselves about Winchester, 
and the country toward Dorsetshire, We dined at an inn 
called Cavalli Caschieri, near Peschiera, a very strong 
fort of the Venetian Republic, and near the Lago di 
Garda, which disembogues into that of Mantua, near forty 
miles in length, highly spoken of by my Lord Arundel 
to me, as the most pleasant spot in Italy, for which reason 
I observed it with the more diligence, alighting out of 
the coach, and going up to a grove of cypresses growing 
about a gentleman's country-house, from whence indeed 
it presents a most surprising prospect. The hills and 
gentle risings about it produce oranges, citrons, olives, 
figs, and other tempting fruits, and the waters abound 
in excellent fish, especially trouts. In the middle of this 
lake stands Sermonea, on an island; here Captain Wray 
bought a pretty nag of the master of our inn where we 
dined, for eight pistoles, which his wife, our hostess, was 
so unwilling to part with, that she did nothing but kiss 
and weep and hang about the horse's neck, till the cap- 
tain rode away. 

We came this evening to Brescia, which next morning 
we traversed, according to our custom, in search of an- 
tiquities and new sights. Here, I purchased of old Laz- 
arino Cominazzo my fine carbine, which cost me nine 
pistoles, this city being famous for these firearms, and 
that workman, Jo. Bap. Franco, the best esteemed. The 
city consists most in artists, every shop abounding in 
guns, swords, armorers, etc. Most of the workmen come 
out of Germany. It stands in a fertile plain, yet the 
castle is built on a hill. The streets abound in fair 
fountains. The Torre della Pallada is of a noble Tuscan 
order, and the Senate house is inferior to few. The pi- 
azza Ts but indifferent; some of the houses arched as at 
Padua. The Cathedral was under repair. We would 
from hence have visited Parma, Piacenza, Mantua, etc. ; 
but the banditti and other dangerous parties being 
abroad, committing many enormities, we were contented 
with a Pisgah sight of them. 

We dined next day, at Ursa Vecchia, and, after din- 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 221 

ner, passed by an exceeding strong- fort of the Venetians, 
called Ursa Nova, on their frontier. Then by the river 
Oglio, and so by Sonano, where we enter the Spanish 
dominions, and that night arrived at Crema, which belongs 
to Venice, and is well defended. The Podesta's Palace is 
finely built, and so is the Duomo, or Cathedral, and the 
tower to it, with an ample piazza. 

Early next day, after four miles' riding, we entered 
into the State of Milan, and passed by Lodi, a great city 
famous for cheese, little short of the best Parmeggiano. 
We dined at Marignano, ten miles before coming to 
Milan, where we met half a dozen suspicious cavaliers, 
who yet did us no harm. Then, passing as through a 
continual garden, we went on with exceeding pleasure; 
for it is the Paradise of Lombardy, the highways as even 
and straight as a line, the fields to a vast extent planted 
with fruit about the inclosures, vines to every tree at 
equal distances, and watered with frequent streams. 
There was likewise much com, and olives in abundance. 
At approach of the city, some of our company, in dread 
of the Inquisition (severer here than in all Spain), 
thought of throwing away some Protestant books and 
papers. We arrived about three in the afternoon, when 
the ofl&cers searched us thoroughly for prohibited goods; 
but, finding we were only gentlemen travelers, dismissed 
us for a small reward, and we went quietly to our inn, 
the Three Kings, where, for that day, we refreshed our- 
selves, as we had need. The next morning, we delivered 
our letters of recommendation to the learned and courte- 
ous Ferrarius, a Doctor of the Ambrosian College, who 
conducted us to all the remarkable places of the town, 
the first of which was the famous Cathedral, We entered 
by a portico, so little inferior to that of Rome that, 
when it is finished, it will be hard to say which is the 
fairest; the materials are all of white and black marble, 
with columns of great height, of Egyptian granite. The 
outside of the church is so full of sculpture, that you may 
number 4,000 statues, all of white marble, among which 
that of St. Bartholomew is esteemed a masterpiece. The 
church is very spacious, almost as long as St. Peter's at 
Rome, but not so large. About the choir, the sacred 
Story is finely sculptured, in snow-white marble, nor know 
I where it is exceeded. About the body of the church 


are the miracles of St. Charles Borromeo, and in the 
vault beneath is his body before the high altar, grated, 
and inclosed, in one of the largest crystals in Europe. 
To this also belongs a rich treasure. The cupola is all 
of marble within and without, and even covered with 
great planks of marble, in the Gothic design. The win- 
dows are most beautifully painted. Here are two very 
fair and excellent organs. The fabric is erected in 
the midst of a fair piazza, and in the center of the 

Hence, we went to the Palace of the Archbishop, which 
is a quadrangle, the architecture of Theobaldi, who de- 
signed much for Philip II. in the Escurial, and has built 
much in Milan. Hence, into the Governor's Palace, who 
was Constable of Castile. Tempted by the glorious tapes- 
tries and pictures, I adventured so far alone, that peep- 
ing into a chamber where the great man was under the 
barber's hands, he sent one of his negroes (a slave) 
to know what I was. I made the best excuse I could, 
and that I was only admiring the pictures, which he re- 
turning and telling his lord, I heard the Governor reply 
that I was a spy; on which I retired with all the speed 
I could, passed the guard of Swiss, got into the street, 
and in a moment to my company, who were gone to the 
Jesuits' Church, which in truth is a noble structure, the 
front especially, after the modern. After dinner, we 
were conducted to St. Celso, a church of rare architec- 
ture, built by Bramante ; the carvings of the marble fac- 
ciata are by Annibal Fontana, whom they esteem at 
Milan equal to the best of the ancients. In a room join- 
ing to the church, is a marble Madonna, like a Colosse, of 
the same sculptor's work, which they will not expose to 
the air. There are two sacristias^ in one of which is a 
fine Virgin, of Leonardo da Vinci ; in the other is one of 
Raphael d'Urbino, a piece which all the world admires. 
The Sacristan showed us a world of rich plate, jewels, 
and embroidered copes, which are kept in presses. 

Next, we went to see the Great Hospital, a quadran- 
gular cloister of a vast compass, a truly royal fabric, with 
an annual endowment of 50,000 crowns of gold. There 
is in the middle of it a cross building for the sick, and, 
just under it, an altar so placed as to be seen in all 
places of the Infirmary. 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 223 

There are divers colleges built in this quarter, richly- 
provided for by the same Borromeo and his nephew, the 
last Cardinal Frederico, some not yet finished, but of ex- 
cellent design. 

In St. Eustorgio, they tell us, formerly lay the bodies 
of the three Magi, since translated to Cologne in Ger- 
many; they, however, preserve the tomb, which is a 
square stone, on which is engraven a star, and, under it, 
*•*• Sepulchrujn triuni Magoruni.^^ 

Passing by St. Laurence, we saw sixteen columns of 
marble, and the ruins of a Temple of Hercules, with this 
inscription yet standing: 

«//«/. Ccesart L. Aurelio Vera Aug. Arminiaco Medio Parthdco 
Maxi Tribi Pott VII. Impi IIII. Cos. III. P. P. Divi Antonini 
Pij Divi Hadriani Nepoti Divi Trajani Parthici Pro-Nepoti Divt 
Nervce Abnepoti Dec. Dec.''* 

We concluded this day's wandering at the Monastery of 
Madonna delle Grazie, and in the refectory admired that 
celebrated Coena Dommi of Leonardo da Vinci, which 
takes up the entire wall at the end, and is the same 
that the great virtuoso, Francis I., of France, was so 
enamored of, that he consulted to remove the whole wall 
by binding it about with ribs of iron and timber, to con- 
vey it into France. It is indeed one of the rarest paint- 
ings that was ever executed by Leonardo, who was long 
in the service of that Prince, and so dear to him that the 
King, coming to visit him in his old age and sickness, he 
expired in his arms. But this incomparable piece is now 
exceedingly impaired. 

Early next morning came the learned Dr. Ferrarius to 
visit us, and took us in his coach to see the Ambrosian 
Library, where Cardinal Fred Borromeo has expended so 
vast a sum on this building, and in furnishing with curi- 
osities, especially paintings and drawings of inestimable 
value among painters. It is a school fit to make the 
ablest artists. There are many rare things of Hans 
Breugel, and among them the Four Elements. In this 
room, stands the glorious [boasting] inscription of Cav- 
aliero Galeazzo Arconati, valuing his gift to the library of 
several drawings by Da Vinci ; but these we could not see, 
the keeper of them being out of town, and he always 
carr}4ng the keys with him; but my Lord Marshal, who 
had seen them, told me all but one book are small that 


a huge folio contained 400 leaves full of scratches of 
Indians, etc. But whereas the inscription pretends that 
our King Charles had offered ^^1,000 for them, — the truth 
is, and my Lord himself told me, that it was he who 
treated with Galeazzo for himself, in the name and by 
permission of the King, and that the Duke of Feria, who 
was then Governor, should make the bargain; but my 
Lord, having seen them since, did not think them of so 
much worth. 

In the great room, where is a goodly library, on the 
right hand of the door, is a small wainscot closet, fur- 
nished with rare manuscripts. Two original letters of the 
Grand Signor were shown us, sent to two Popes, one of 
which was (as I remember) to Alexander VI. [Borgia], and 
the other mentioning the head of the lance which pierced 
our Blessed Savior's side, as a present to the Pope: I 
would feign have gotten a copy of them, but could not; 
I hear, however, that they are since translated into Italian, 
and that therein is a most honorable mention of Christ 

We revisited St. Ambrose's church. The high altar is 
supported by four porphyry columns, and under it lie the 
remains of that holy man. Near it they showed us a pit, or 
well (an obscure place it is), where they say St. Ambrose 
baptized St. Augustine, and recited the Te Deum; for so 
imports the inscription. The place is also famous for some 
Councils that have been held here, and for the coronation 
of divers Italian Kings and Emperors, receiving the iron 
crown from the Archbishop of this see.* They show the 
History by Josephus, written on the bark of trees. The 
high altar is wonderfully rich. 

Milan is one of the most princely cities in Europe : it has 
no suburbs, but is circled with a stately wall for ten miles, 
in the center of a country that seems to flow with milk 
and honey. The air is excellent; the fields fruitful to 
admiration, the market abounding with all sorts of pro- 
visions. In the city are near 100 churches, 71 monas- 
teries, and 40,000 inhabitants; it is of a circular figure, 
fortified with bastions, full of sumptuous palaces and rare 
artists, especially for works in crystal, which is here cheap, 
being found among the Alps. They have curious straw- 
work among the nuns, even to admiration. It has a good 
river, and a citadel at some small distance from the city, 
♦ Bonaparte afterward took it, and placed it on his own head. 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 225 

commanding- it, of great strength for its works and 
munitions of all kinds. It was built by Galeatius II., 
and consists of four bastions, and works at the angles and 
fronts ; the graff is faced with brick to a very great depth ; 
has two strong towers as one enters, and within is another 
fort, and spacious lodgings for the soldiers, and for exer- 
cising them. No accommodation for strength is wanting, 
and all exactly uniform. They have here also all sorts of 
work and tradesmen, a great magazine of arms and pro- 
visions. The fosse is of spring water, with a mill for 
gprinding corn, and the ramparts vaulted underneath. Don 
Juan Vasques Coronada was now Governor; the garrison 
Spaniards only. 

There is nothing better worth seeing than the collection 
of Signor Septalla, a canon of St. Ambrose, famous over 
Christendom for his learning and virtues. Among other 
things, he showed us an Indian wood, that has the perfect 
scent of civet; a flint, or pebble, that has a quantity of 
water in it, which is plainly to be seen, it being clear as 
agate; divers crystals that have water moving in them, 
some of them having plants, leaves, and hog's bristles in 
them; much amber full of insects, and divers things of 
woven amianthus. 

Milan is a sweet place, and though the streets are nar- 
row, they abound in rich coaches, and are full of noblesse, 
who frequent the course every night. Walking a turn in 
the portico before the dome, a cavaliero who passed by, 
hearing some of us speaking English, looked a good while 
earnestly on us, and by and by sending his servant, desiring 
we would honor him the next day at dinner. We looked 
on this as an odd invitation, he not speaking to us him- 
self, but we returned his civility with thanks, though not 
fully resolved what to do, or indeed what might be the 
meaning of it in this jealous place ; but on inquiry, it was 
told us he was a Scots Colonel, who had an honorable 
command in the city, so that we agreed to go. This after- 
noon, we were wholly taken up in seeing an opera rep- 
resented by some Neapolitans, performed all in excellent 
music with rare scenes, in which there acted a celebrated 

Next morning, we went to the Colonel's, who had sent 
his servant again to conduct us to his house, which we 
found to be a noble palace, richly furnished. There were 


other guests, all soldiers, one of them a Scotchman, but 
we could not leam one of their names. At dinner, he 
excused his rudeness that he had not himself spoken to 
us; telling us it was his custom, when he heard of any 
English travelers (who but rarely would be known to 
pass through that city for fear of the Inquisition), to in- 
vite them to his house, where they might be free. We 
had a sumptuous dinner; and the wine was so tempting, 
that after some healths had gone about, and we had risen 
from the table, the Colonel led us into his hall, where 
there hung up divers colors, saddles, bridles, pistols, and 
other arms, being trophies which he had taken with his 
own hands from the enemy; among them, he would needs 
bestow a pair of pistols on Captain Wray, one of our 
fellow-travelers, and a good drinking gentleman, and on 
me a Turkish bridle woven with silk and very curiously 
embossed, with other silk trappings, to which hung a half 
moon finely wrought, which he had taken from a bashaw 
whom he had slain. With this glorious spoil, I rode the 
rest of my journey as far as Paris, and brought it after- 
ward into England. He then showed us a stable of brave 
horses, with his menage and cavalerizzo. Some of the 
horses he caused to be brought out, which he mounted, 
and performed all the motions of an excellent horseman. 
When this was done, and he had alighted, — contrary to 
the advice of his gfroom and page, who knew the nature 
of the beast, and that their master was a little spirited 
with wine, he would have a fiery horse that had not yet 
been managed and was very ungovernable, but was other- 
wise a very beautiful creature; this he mounting, the 
horse, getting the reins in a full carriere, rose so desper- 
ately that he fell quite back, crushing the Colonel so 
forcibly against the wall of the menage, that though he 
sat on him like a Centaur, yet recovering the jade on all 
fours again, he desired to be taken down and so led in, 
where he cast himself on a pallet; and, with infinite 
lamentations, after some time we took leave of him, be- 
ing now speechless. The next morning, going to visit 
him, we found before the door the canopy which they 
usually carry over the host, and some with lighted tapers ; 
which made us suspect he was in a very sad condition, and 
so indeed we found him, an Irish Friar standing by his 
bedside as confessing him, or at least disguising a con- 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 227 

fession, and other ceremonies used in extremis; for we 
afterward learned that the gentleman was a Protestant, 
and had this Friar, his confidant ; which was a dangerous 
thing at Milan, had it been but suspected. At our entrance, 
he sighed grievously, and held up his hands, but was not 
able to speak. After vomiting some blood, he kindly took 
us all by the hand, and made signs that he should see us ^ 
no more, which made us take our leave of him with 
extreme reluctancy and affliction for the accident. This 
sad disaster made us consult about our departure as soon 
as we could, not knowing how we might be inquired 
after, or engaged, the Inquisition being so cruelly formi- 
dable and inevitable, on the least suspicion. The next 
morning, therefore, discharging our lodgings, we agreed 
for a coach to carry us to the foot of the Alps, not a little 
concerned for the death of the Colonel, which we now 
heard of, and who had so courteously entertained us. 

The first day we got as far as Castellanza, by which 
runs a considerable river into Lago Maggiore; here, at 
dinner, were two or three Jesuits, who were very prag- 
matical and inquisitive, whom we declined conversa- 
tion with as decently as we could; so we pursued our 
journey through a most fruitful plain, but the weather • 
was wet and uncomfortable. At night, we lay at 

The next morning, leaving our coach, we embarked 
in a boat to carry us over the lake (being one of the 
largest in Europe), and whence we could see the 
towering Alps, and among them the great San Ber- 
nardo, esteemed the highest mountain in Europe, appear- 
ing to be some miles above the clouds. Through this 
vast water, passes the river Ticinus, which discharges 
itself into the Po, by which means Helvetia transports 
her merchandizes into Italy, which we now begfin to 
leave behind us. 

Having now sailed about two leagues, we were hauled 
ashore at Arona, a strong town belongfing to the Duchy 
of Milan, where, being examined by the Governor, and 
paying a small duty, we were dismissed. Opposite to 
this fort, is Angiera, another small town, the passage 
very pleasant with the prospect of the Alps covered 
with pine and fir trees, and above them snow. We 
passed the pretty island Isabella, about the middle of 


the lake, on which is a fair house built on a mount; 
indeed, the whole island is a mount ascended by sev- 
eral terraces and walks all set above with orange and 
citron trees. 

The next we saw was Isola, and we left on our right 
hand the Isle of St. Jovanni; and so sailing by another 
small town built also on an island, we arrived at night 
at Margazzo, an obscure village at the end of the lake, 
and at the very foot of the Alps, which now rise as it 
were suddenly after some hundreds of miles of the most 
even country in the world, and where there is hardly a 
stone to be found, as if Nature had here swept up the 
rubbish of the earth in the Alps, to form and clear the 
plains of Lombardy, which we had hitherto passed since 
our coming from Venice. In this wretched place, I lay 
on a bed stuffed with leaves, which made such a crack- 
ling and did so prick my skin through the tick, that I 
could not sleep. The next morning, I was furnished 
with an ass, for we could not get horses ; instead of stir- 
rups, we had ropes tied with a loop to put our feet in, 
which supplied the place of other trappings. Thus, with 
my gallant steed, bridled with my Turkish present, we 
passed through a reasonably pleasant but very narrow 
valley, till we came to Duomo, where we rested, and, 
having showed the Spanish pass, the Governor would 
press another on us, that his secretary might get a 
crown. Here we exchanged our asses for mules, sure- 
footed on the hills and precipices, being accustomed to 
pass them. Hiring a gfuide, we were brought that night 
through very steep, craggy, and dangerous passages to a 
village called Vedra, being the last of the King of Spain's 
dominions in the Duchy of Milan. We had a very in- 
famous wretched lodging. 

The next morning we mounted again through strange, 
horrid, and fearful crags and tracts, abounding in pine 
trees, and only inhabited by bears, wolves, and wild 
goats; nor could we anywhere see above a pistol shot be- 
fore us, the horizon being terminated with rocks and 
mountains, whose tops, covered with snow, seemed to 
touch the skies, and in many places pierced the clouds. 
Some of these vast mountains were but one entire stone, 
between whose clefts now and then precipitated great 
cataracts of melted snow, and other waters, which made 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 289 

a terrible roaring, echoing from the rocks and cavities; 
and these waters in some places breaking in the fall, 
wet us as if we had passed through a mist, so as we 
could neither see nor hear one another, but, trusting to 
our honest mules, we jogged on our way. The narrow 
bridges, in some places made only by felling huge fir trees, 
and laying them athwart from mountain to mountain, over 
cataracts of stupendous depth, are very dangerous, and 
so are the passages and edges made by cutting away the 
main rock; others in steps; and in some places we pass 
between mountains that have been broken and fallen on 
one another; which is very terrible, and one had need 
of a sure foot and steady head to climb some of these 
precipices, besides that they are harbors for bears and 
wolves, who have sometimes assaulted travelers. In these 
straits, we frequently alighted, now freezing in the snow, 
and anon frying by the reverberation of the sun against 
the cliffs as we descend lower, when we meet now and 
then a few miserable cottages so built upon the declining 
of the rocks, as one would expect their sliding down. 
Among these, inhabit a goodly sort of people, having 
monstrous gullets, or wens of flesh, growing to their 
throats, some of which I have seen as big as an hundred 
pound bag of silver hanging under their chins; among 
the women especially, and that so ponderous, as that to 
ease them, many wear linen cloth bound about their 
head, and coming under the chin to support it; but quis 
tumidum guttur miratur in Alpibus? Their drinking so 
much snow water is thought to be the cause of it; the 
men using more wine, are not so strumous as the women. 
The truth is, they are a peculiar race of people, and 
many great water drinkers here have not these prodigious 
tumors; it runs, as we say, in the blood, and is a vice 
in the race, and renders them so ugly, shriveled and de- 
formed, by its drawing the skin of the face down, that 
nothing can be more frightful; to this add a strange 
puffing dress, furs, and that barbarous language, being a 
mixture of corrupt High German, French, and Italian. 
The people are of great stature, extremely fierce and 
rude, yet very honest and trusty. 

This night, through almost inaccessible heights, we 
came in prospect of Mons Sempronius, now Mount Sam- 
pion, which has on its summit a few huts and a chapel. 


Approaching this, Captain Wray's water spaniel (a huge 
filthy cur that had followed him out of England ) hunted . 
a herd of goats down the rocks into a river made by the 
melting of the snow. Arrived at our cold harbor ( though 
the house had a stove in every room) and supping on 
cheese and milk with wretched wine, we went to bed in 
cupboards so high from the floor, that we climbed them 
by a ladder; we were covered with feathers, that is, 
we lay between two ticks stuffed with them, and all little 
enough to keep one warm. The ceilings of the rooms 
are strangely low for those tall people. The house was 
now ( in September ) half covered with snow, nor is there 
a tree, or a bush, growing within many miles. 

From this uncomfortable place, we prepared to hasten 
away the next morning; but, as we were getting on our 
mules, comes a huge young fellow demanding money for 
a goat which he affirmed that Captain Wray's dog had 
killed ; expostulating the matter, and impatient of staying 
in the cold, we set spurs and endeavored to ride away, 
when a multitude of people being by this time gotten 
together about us (for it being Sunday morning and at- 
tending for the priest to say mass), they stopped our 
mules, beat us off our saddles, and, disarming us of our 
carbines, drew us into one of the rooms of our lodging, 
and set a guard upon us. Thus we continued prisoners 
till mass was ended, and then came half a score grim 
Swiss, who, taking on them to be magistrates, sat down 
on the table, and condemned us to pay a pistole for the 
goat, and ten more for attempting to ride away, threat- 
ening that if we did not pay it speedily, they would send 
us to prison, and keep us to a day of public justice, 
where, as they perhaps would have exaggerated the crime, 
for they pretended we had primed our carbines and would 
have shot some of them ( as indeed the Captain was about 
to do ), we might have had our heads cut off, as we were 
told afterward, for that among these rude people a very 
small misdemeanor does often meet that sentence. 
Though the proceedings appeared highly unjust, on con- 
sultation among ourselves we thought it safer to rid our- 
selves out of their hands, and the trouble we were brought 
into; and therefore we patiently laid down the money, 
and with fierce countenances had our mules and arms 
delivered to us, and glad we were to escape as we did. 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 231 

This was cold entertainment, but our journey after was 
colder, the rest of the way having been ( as they told us) 
covered with snow since the Creation; no man remem- 
bered it to be without; and because, by the frequent 
snowing, the tracks are continually filled up, we passed by 
several tall masts set up to guide travelers, so as for 
many miles they stand in ken of one another, like to our 
beacons. In some places, where there is a cleft between 
two mountains, the snow fills it up, while the bottom, 
being thawed, leaves as it were a frozen arch of snow, 
and that so hard as to bear the greatest weight; for as 
it snows often, so it perpetually freezes, of which I was 
so sensible that it flawed the very skin of my face. 

Beginning now to descend a little. Captain Wray's 
horse (that was our sumpter and carried all our baggage) 
plunging through a bank of loose snow, slid down a fright- 
ful precipice, which so incensed the choleric cavalier, his 
master, that he was sending a brace of bullets into the 
poor beast, lest our guide should recover him, and run 
away with his burden ; but, just as he was lifting up his car- 
bine, we gave such a shout, and so pelted the horse with 
snow-balls, as with all his might plunging through the 
snow, he fell from another steep place into another bot- 
tom, near a path we were to pass. It was yet a good 
while ere we got to him, but at last we recovered the 
place, and, easing him of his charge, hauled him out of 
the snow, where he had been certainly frozen in, if we 
had not prevented it, before night. It was as we judged 
almost two miles that he had slid and fallen, yet with- 
out any other harm than the benumbing of his limbs for 
the present, but, with lusty rubbing and chafing he began 
to move, and, after a little walking, performed his jour- 
ney well enough. All this way, affrighted with the dis- 
aster of this horse, we trudged on foot, driving our mules 
before us; sometimes we fell, sometimes we slid, through 
this ocean of snow, which after October is impassible. 
Toward night, we came into a larger way, through vast 
woods of pines, which clothe the middle parts of these 
rocks. Here, they were burning some to make pitch and 
rosin, peeling the knotty branches, as we do to make 
charcoal, reserving what melts from them, which hard- 
ens into pitch. We passed several cascades of dissolved 
snow, that had made channels of formidable depth in the 

23* DIARY OP sioN 

crevices of the mountains, and with such a fearful roaring 
as we could hear it for seven long miles. It is from 
these sources that the Rhone and the Rhine, which pass 
through all France and Germany, derive their originals. 
Late at night, we get to a town called Briga, at the 
foot of the Alps, in the Valteline. Almost every door had 
nailed on the outside and next the street a bear's, wolf's, 
or fox's head, and divers of them, all three; a savage 
kind of sight, but, as the Alps are full of the beasts, the 
people often kill them. The next morning, we returned 
to our guide, and took fresh mules, and another to con- 
duct us to the Lake of Geneva, passing through as pleas- 
ant a country as that. we had just traveled was melancholy 
and troublesome. A strange and sudden change it seemed; 
for the reverberation of the sunbeams from the moun- 
tains and rocks that like walls range it on both sides, not 
above two flight-shots in breadth, for a very great num- 
ber of miles, renders the passage excessively hot. 
Through such extremes we continued our journey, that 
goodly river, the Rhone, gliding by us in a narrow and 
quiet channel almost in the middle of this Canton, fer- 
tilizing the country for grass and corn, which grow here 
in abundance. 

We arrived this night at Sion, a pretty town and city, 
a bishop's seat, and the head of Valesia. There is a 
castle, and the bishop who resides in it, has both civil 
and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Our host, as the custom 
of these Cantons is, was one of the chiefest of the town, 
and had been a Colonel in France: he treated us with 
extreme civility, and was so displeased at the usage we 
received at Mount Sampion, that he would needs give 
us a letter to the Governor of the country, who resided 
at St. Maurice, which was in our way to Geneva, to 
revenge the affront. This was a true old blade, and had 
been a very curious virtuoso, as we found by a hand- 
some collection of books, medals, pictures, shells, and 
other antiquities. He showed two heads and horns of 
the true Capricorn, which animal he told us was fre- 
quently killed among the mountains ; one branch of them 
was as much as I could well lift, and near as high as 
my head, not much unlike the greater sort of goat's, 
save that they bent forward, by help whereof they climb 
up and hang on inaccessible rocks, from whence the 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 233 

inhabitants now and then shoot them. They speak pro- 
digious things of their leaping from crag to crag, and of 
their sure footing, notwithstanding their being cloven- 
footed, unapt (one would think) to take hold and walk 
so steadily on those horrible ridges as they do. The 
Colonel would have given me one of these beams, but the 
want of a convenience to carry it along with me, caused me 
to refuse his courtesy. He told me that in the castle 
there were some Roman and Christian antiquities, and 
he had some inscriptions in his own garden. He invited 
us to his country-house, where he said he had better 
pictures, and other rarities; but, our time being short, I 
could not persuade my companions to stay and visit the 
places he would have had us see, nor the offer he made 
to show us the hunting of the bear, wolf, and other 
wild beasts. The next morning, having presented his 
daughter, a pretty well-fashioned young woman, with a 
small ruby ring, we parted somewhat late from our 
l^enerous host. 

Passing through the same pleasant valley between the 
horrid mountains on either hand, like a gallery many 
miles in length, we got to Martigni, where also 
We were well entertained. The houses in this country 
are all built of fir boards, planed within, low, and seldom 
above one story. The people very clownish and rusticly 
clad, after a very odd fashion, for the most part in blue 
cloth, very whole and warm, with little variety of dis- 
tinction between the gentleman and common sort, by a 
law of their country being exceedingly frugal. Add to 
this their great honesty and fidelity, though exacting 
enough for what they part with : I saw not one beggar. 
We paid the value of twenty shillings English, for a 
day's hire of one horse. Every man goes with a sword 
by his side, the whole country well disciplined, and 
indeed impregnable, which made the Romans have such 
ill success against them; one lusty Swiss at their nar- 
row passages is sufficient to repel a legion. It is a 
frequent thing here for a young tradesman, or farmer, 
to leave his wife and children for twelve or fifteen years, 
and seek his fortune in the wars in Spain, France, 
Italy, or Germany, and then return again to work. I 
look upon this country to be the safest spot of all Europe, 
neither envied nor envying; nor are any of them rich, 

234 DIARY OF beveretta 

nor poor; they live in great simplicity and tranquillity; 
and, though of the fourteen Cantons half be Roman 
Catholics, the rest reformed, yet they mutually agree, 
and are confederate with Geneva, and are its only 
security against its potent neighbors, as they themselves 
are from being attacked by the greater potentates, by 
the mutual jealousy of their neighbors, as either of 
them would be overbalanced, should the Swiss, who are 
wholly mercenary and auxiliaries, be subjected to France 
or Spain. 

We were now arrived at St. Maurice, a large handsome 
town and residence of the President, where justice is 
done. To him we presented our letter from Sion, and 
made known the ill usage we had received for killing a 
wretched goat, which so incensed him, that he swore if we 
would stay he would not only help us to recover our 
money again, but most severely punish the whole rabble ; 
but our desire of revenge had by this time subsided, and 
glad we were to be gotten so near France, which we reck- 
oned as good as home. He courteously invited us to dine 
with him; but we excused ourselves, and, returning to 
our inn, while we were eating something before we took 
horse, the Governor had caused two pages to bring us a 
present of two great vessels of covered plate full of ex- 
cellent wine, in which we drank his health, and rewarded 
the youths; they were two vast bowls supported by two 
Swiss, handsomely wrought after the German manner. 
This civility and that of our host at Sion, perfectly recon- 
ciled us to the highlanders; and so, proceeding on our 
journey we passed this afternoon through the gate which 
divides the Valais from the Duchy of Savoy, into which 
we were now entering, and so, through Montei, we arrived 
that evening at Beveretta. Being extremely weary and 
complaining of my head, and finding little accommodation 
in the house, I caused one of our hostess's daughters to 
be removed out of her bed and went immediately into it 
while it was yet warm, being so heavy with pain and 
drowsiness that I would not stay to have the sheets 
changed ; but I shortly after paid dearly for my impatience, 
falling sick of the smallpox as soon as I came to Geneva, 
for by the smell of frankincense and the tale the good 
woman told me of her daughter having had an ague, I 
afterward concluded she had been newly recovered of the 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 235 

smallpox. Notwithstanding this, I went with my com- 
pany, the next day, hiring a bark to carry us over the 
lake ; and indeed, sick as I was, the weather was so serene 
and bright, the water so calm, and air so temperate, that 
never had travelers a sweeter passage. Thus, we sailed 
the whole length of the lake, about thirty miles, the 
countries bordering on it (Savoy and Berne) affording one 
of the most delightful prospects in the world, the Alps 
covered with snow, though at a great distance, yet show- 
ing their aspiring tops. Through this lake, the river 
Rhodanus passes with that velocity as not to mingle with 
its exceeding deep waters, which are very clear, and breed 
the most celebrated trout for largeness and goodness of 
any in Europe. I have ordinarily seen one of three feet 
in length sold in the market for a small price, and such 
we had in the lodging where we abode, which was at the 
White Cross. All this while, I held up tolerably; and the 
next morning having a letter for Signor John Diodati, 
the famous Italian minister and translator of the Holy 
Bible into that language, I went to his house, and had a 
gfreat deal of discourse with that learned person. He told 
me he had been in England, driven by tempest into Deal, 
while sailing for Holland, that he had seen London, and 
was exceedingly taken with the civilities he received. He 
so much approved of our Church-government by Bishops, 
that he told me the French Protestants would make no 
scruple to submit to it and all its pomp, had they a king of 
the Reformed religion as we had. He exceedingly deplored 
the difference now between his Majesty and the Parliament. 
After dinner, came one Monsieur Saladine, with his little 
pupil, the Earl of Caernarvon, to visit us, offering to carry 
us to the principal places of the town ; but, being now no 
more able to hold up my head, I was constrained to keep 
my chamber, imagining that my very eyes would have 
dropped out; and this night I felt such a stinging about 
me, that I could not sleep. In the morning, I was very 
ill, but sending for a doctor, he persuaded me to be 
bled. He was a very learned old man, and, as he said, 
he had been physician to Gustavus the Great, King of 
Sweden, when he passed this way into Italy, under the 
name of Monsieur Gars, the initial letters of Gustavus 
Adolphus Rex Sueciae, and of our famous Duke of Buck- 
ingham, on his returning out of Italy. He afterward 


acknowledged that he should not have bled me, had he 
suspected the smallpox, which broke out a day after. 
He afterward purged me, and applied leeches, and God 
knows what this would have produced, if the spots had 
not appeared, for he was thinking of bleeding me again. 
They now kept me warm in bed for sixteen days, tended 
by a vigilant Swiss matron, whose monstrous throat, 
when I sometimes awakened out of unquiet slumbers, would 
affright me. After the pimples were come forth, which 
were not many, I had much ease as to pain, but infi- 
nitely afflicted with heat and noisomeness. By God's 
mercy, after five weeks' keeping my chamber, I went 
abroad. Monsieur Saladine and his lady sent me many re- 
freshments. Monsieur Le Chat, my physician, to excuse 
his letting me bleed, told me it was so burnt and vicious 
as it would have proved the plague, or spotted fever, had 
he proceeded by any other method. On my recovering 
sufficiently to go abroad, I dined at Monsieur Saladine 's, 
and in the afternoon went across the water on the side 
of the lake, and took a lodging that stood exceedingly 
pleasant, about half a mile from the city for the better 
airing; but I stayed only one night, having no company 
there, save my pipe; so, the next day, I caused them to 
row me about the lake as far as the great stone, which 
they call Neptune's Rock, on which they say sacrifice 
was anciently offered to him. Thence, I landed at cer- 
tain cherry gardens and pretty villas by the side of the 
lake, and exceedingly pleasant. Returning, I visited 
their conservatories of fish; in which were trouts of six 
and seven feet long, as they affirmed. 

The Rhone, which parts the city in the midst dips into 
a cavern underground, about six miles from it, and after- 
ward rises again, and runs its open course, like our Mole, 
or Swallow, by Dorking, in Surrey. The next morning 
(being Thursday) I heard Dr. Diodati preach in Italian, 
many of that country, especially of Lucca, his native 
place, being inhabitants of Geneva, and of the Reformed 

The town lying between Germany, France, and Italy, 
those three tongues are familiarly spoken by the inhab- 
itants. It is a strong, well-fortified city, part of it built 
on a rising ground. The houses are not despicable, but 
the high pent-houses (for I can hardly call them clois- 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 237 

ters, being all of wood), through which the people pass 
dry and in the shade, winter and summer, exceedingly 
deform the fronts of the buildings. Here are abundance 
of booksellers; but their books are of ill impressions; 
these, with watches (of which store are made here), crys- 
tal, and excellent screwed guns, are the staple commod- 
ities. All provisions are good and cheap. 

The town-house is fairly built of stone ; the portico has 
four black marble columns ; and, on a table of the same, 
under the city arms, a demi-eagle and cross, between 
cross-keys, is a motto, "Post Tenebras Lux," and this 
inscription : 

Quum anno ijjj projligatd Romand Anti-Christi Tyranntde, 
abrogatisq: ejus super stitionibus, sacro-sancta Christi Religio hie 
in suatn puritate7n, Ecclesid in meliorem ordinem singulari Dei 
beneficio repositd, et simul pulsis fugatisq; hostibus, urbs ipsa in 
suam libertatem, non sine insigni miraculo, restituta fuerit; Sen- 
atus Populusq ; Genevensis Monutnentum hoc perpetuce memorice 
causd fieri atque hoc loco erigi curavii, quod suam erga Deunt 
gratitudinem ad posteros testatum fuerit. 

The territories about the town are not so large as many 
ordinary gentlemen have about their country farms, for 
which cause they are in continual watch, especially on 
the Savoy side; but, in case of any siege the Swiss are 
at hand, as this inscription in the same place shows, 
toward the street: 


Anno a verd Religiotte divinitHs cum veteri Libertate Genevas reS' 
titutd, et quasi novo Jubilceo ineunte, plurimis vitatis domi et 
forsi insidiis et superatis tempestatibus, et cum. Helvetiorum. Pri- 
mari Tigurini cequo jure in societatem. perpetuam nobiscum. ven- 
erint, et veteres fidissimi socii Bernenses prius vinculum, novo 
adstrinxerint, S.P.Q.G. quod felix esse velit D.O.M. tanti, ben- 
eficii monumentutn consecrdrunt, anno temporis ultimi^Vf. 

In the Senate-house, were fourteen ancient urns, dug 
up as they were removing earth in the fortifications. 

A little out of the town is a spacious field, which they 
call Campus Martins ; and well it may be so termed, with 
better reason, than that at Rome at present (which is no 
more a field, but all built into streets), for here on every 
Sunday, after the evening devotions, this precise people 
permit their youth to exercise arms, and shoot in guns, 
and in the long and cross bows, in which they are 


exceedingly expert, reputed to be as dexterous as any peo- 
ple in the world. To encourage this, they yearly elect 
him who has won most prizes at the mark, to be their 
king, as the king of the long-bow, gun, or cross-bow. 
He then wears that weapon in his hat in gold, with a 
crown over it made fast to the hat like a brooch. In 
this field, is a long house wherein their arms and furni- 
ture are kept in several places very neatly. To this joins 
a hall, where, at certain times, they meet and feast; in 
the glass windows are the arms and names of their kings 
[of arms]. At the side of the field, is a very noble Pail- 
Mall, but it turns with an elbow. There is also a bowling- 
place, a tavern, and a trey-table, and here they ride 
their menaged horses. It is also the usual place of 
public execution of those who suffer for any capital 
crime, though committed in another country, by which law 
divers fugitives have been put to death, who have fled 
hither to escape punishment in their own country. 
Among other severe punishments here, adultery is death. 
Having seen this field, and played a game at mall, I 
supped with Mr. Saladine. 

On Sunday, I heard Dr. Diodati preach in French, 
and after the French mode, in a gown with a cape, and 
his hat on. The Church Government is severely Presby- 
terian, after the discipline of Calvin and Beza, who set 
it up, but nothing so rigid as either our Scots or English 
sectaries of that denomination. In the afternoon, Monsieur 
Morice, a most learned young person and excellent poet, 
chief Professor of the University, preached at St. Peter's, 
a spacious Gothic fabric. This was heretofore a cathedral 
and a reverend pile. It has four turrets, on one of 
which stands a continual sentinel; in another cannons 
are mounted. The church is very decent within; nor 
have they at all defaced the painted windows, which are 
full of pictures of saints; nor the stalls, which are all 
carved with the history of our Blessed Savior. 

In the afternoon, I went to see the young townsmen 
exercise in Mars' Field, where the prizes were pewter- 
plates and dishes; 'tis said that some have gained com- 
petent estates by what they have thus won. Here I 
first saw huge ballistae, or cross-bows, shot in, being such 
as they formerly used in wars, before great guns were 
known ; they were placed in frames, and had great screws 

1646 JOHN EVELYN 239 

to bend them, doing execution at an incredible distance. 
They were most accurate at the long-bow and musket, 
rarely missing the smallest mark. I was as busy with 
the carbine I brought from Brescia as any of them. 
After every shot, I found them go into a long house, and 
cleanse their guns, before they charged again. 

On Monday, I was invited to a little garden without 
the works, where were many rare tulips, anemones, and 
other choice flowers. The Rhone, running athwart the 
town out of the Lake, makes half the city a suburb, 
which, in imitation of Paris, they call St. Germain's 
Fauxbourg, and it has a church of the same name. On 
two wooden bridges that cross the river are several 
water-mills, and shops of trades, especially smiths and 
cutlers; between the bridges is an island, in the midst 
of which is a very ancient tower, said to have been 
built by Julius Caesar. At the end of the other bridge 
is the mint, and a fair sun-dial. 

Passing again by the town-house, I saw a large crocodile 
hanging in chains; and against the wall of one of the 
chambers, seven judges were painted without hands, 
except one in the middle, who has but one hand; I know 
not the story. The Arsenal is at the end of this build- 
ing, well furnished and kept. 

After dinner Mr. Morice led us to the college, a fair 
structure ; in the lower part are the schools, which consist 
of nine classes; and a hall above, where the students 
assemble; also a good library. They showed us a very 
ancient Bible, of about 300 years old, in the vulgar French, 
and a MS. in the old Monkish character: here have the 
Professors their lodgings. I also went to the Hospital, 
which is very commodious ; but the Bishop's Palace is now 
a prison. * 

This town is not much celebrated for beautiful women, 
for, even at this distance from the Alps, the gentlewomen 
have somewhat full throats ; but our Captain Wray (after- 
ward Sir William, eldest son of that Sir Christopher, who 
had both been in arms against his Majesty for the Parlia- 
ment) fell so mightily in love with one of Monsieur Sala- 
dine's daughters that, with much persuasion, he could not 
be prevailed on to think on his journey into France, the 
season now coming on extremely hot. 

My sickness and abode here cost me forty-five pistoles of 


gold to my host, and five to my honest doctor, who for six 
weeks' attendance and the apothecary thought it so gener- 
ous a reward that, at my taking leave, he presented me 
with his advice for the regimen of my health, written with 
his own hand in Latin. This regimen I much observed, 
and I bless God passed the journey without inconvenience 
from sickness, but it was an extraordinarily hot unpleas- 
ant season and journey, by reason of the craggy ways. 

5th July, 1646. We took, or rather purchased, a boat, 
for it could not be brought back against the stream of the 
Rhone. "We were two days going to Lyons, passing many 
admirable prospects of rocks and cliffs, and near the town 
down a very steep declivity of water for a full mile. From 
Lyons, we proceeded the next morning, taking horse to 
Roanne, and lay that night at Feurs. At Roanne we 
indulged ourselves with the best that all France affords, 
for here the provisions are choice and plentiful, so as the 
supper we had might have satisfied a prince. We lay in 
damask beds, and were treated like emperors. The town 
is one of the neatest built in all France, on the brink of 
the Loire ; and here we agreed with an old fisher to row 
us as far as Orleans. The first night we came as far as 
Nevers, early enough to see the town, the Cathedral (St. 
Cyre), the Jesuits' College, and the Castle, a palace of the 
Duke's, with the bridge to it nobly built. 

The next day we passed by La Charit6, a pretty town, 
somewhat distant from the river. Here I lost my faithful 
spaniel Piccioli, who had followed me from Rome. It 
seems he had been taken up by some of the Governor's 
pages, or footmen, without recovery; which was a great 
displeasure to me, because the cur had many useful 

The next day we arrived at Orleans, taking our turns 
to row, of which I reckon my share came to little less 
than twenty leagues. Sometimes, we footed it through 
pleasant fields and meadows ; sometimes, we shot at fowls, 
and other birds; nothing came amiss: sometimes, we 
played at cards, while others sung, or were composing 
verses; for we had the g^reat poet, Mr. Waller, in our 
company, and some other ingenious persons. 

At Orleans we abode but one day; the next, leaving 
our mad Captain behind us, I arrived at Paris, rejoiced 
that, after so many disasters and accidents in a tedious 

1646-47 JOHN EVELYN 241 

peregrination, I was gotten so near home, and here I 
resolved to rest myself before I went further. 

It was now October, and the only time that in my 
whole life that I spent most idly, tempted from my more 
profitable recesses; but I soon recovered my better reso- 
lutions and fell to my study, learning the High Dutch 
and Spanish tongues, and now and then refreshing my 
dancing, and such exercises as I had long omitted, and 
which are not in much reputation among the. sober Italians. 

28th January, 1647. I changed my lodging in the Place 
de Monsieur de Metz, near the Abbey of St. Germains; 
and thence, on the 12th of February, to another in Rue 
Columbier, where I had a very fair apartment, which 
cost me four pistoles per month. The i8th, I frequented 
a course of Chemistry, the famous Monsieur Le Febure 
operating upon most of the nobler processes. March 3d, 
Monsieur Mercure began to teach me on the lute, though 
to small perfection. 

In May, I fell sick, and had very weak eyes; for which 
I was four times let bleed. 

2 2d May, 1647, My valet (Herbert) robbed me of 
clothes and plate, to the value of three score pounds; 
but, through the diligence of Sir Richard Browne, his 
Majesty's Resident at the Court of France, and with 
whose lady and family I had contracted a great friend- 
ship (and particularly set my affections on a daughter), 
I recovered most of them, obtaining of the Judge, with 
no small difficulty, that the process against the thief 
should not concern his life, being his first offense, 

loth June, 1647. We concluded about my marriage, in 
order to which I went to St. Germains, where his Maj- 
esty, then Prince of Wales, had his court, to desire of 
Dr. Earle, then one of his chaplains (since Dean of West- 
minster, Clerk of the Closet, and Bishop of Salisbury), that 
he would accompany me to Paris, which he did; and, on 
Thursday, 27th of June, 1647, he married us in Sir Richard 
Browne's chapel, between the hours of eleven and twelve, 
some few select friends being present. And this 
being Corpus Christi feast, was solemnly observed in this 
country; the streets were sumptuously hung with tap- 
estry, and strewed with flowers, 

loth September, 1647. Being called into England, to 
settle my affairs after an absence of four years, I took 


leave of the Prince and Queen, leaving my wife, yet 
very young, under the care of an excellent lady and 
prudent mother, 

4th October, 1647. I sealed and declared my will, and 
that morning went from Paris, taking my journey through 
Rouen, Dieppe, Ville-dieu, and St. Vallerie, where I 
stayed one day with Mr. Waller, with whom I had some 
affairs, and for which cause I took this circle to Calais, 
where I arrived on the nth, and that night embarking 
in a packet boat, was by one o'clock got safe to Dover; 
for which I heartily put up my thanks to God who had 
conducted me safe to my own country, and been merci- 
ful to me through so many aberrations. Hence, taking 
post, I arrived at London the next day at evening, be- 
ing the 2d of October, new style. 

5th October, 1647. I came to Wotton, the place of my 
birth, to my brother, and on the 10th to Hampton Court 
where I had the honor to kiss his Majesty's hand, and 
give him an account of several things I had in charge, 
he being now in the power of those execrable villains 
who not long' after murdered him. I lay at my 
cousin, Sergeant Hatton's at Thames Ditton, whence, on 
the 13th, I went to London. 

14th October, 1647. To Sayes Court, at Deptford, in 
Kent (since my house), where I found Mr. Pretyman, 
my wife's uncle, who had charge of it and the estate 
about it, during my father-in-law's residence in France. 
On the 15th, I again occupied my own chambers in the 
Middle Temple. 

9th November, 1647. My sister opened to me her 
marriage with Mr. Glanville. 

14th January, 1647-48. From London I went to Wotton 
to see my young nephew; and thence to Baynards [in 
Ewhurst], to visit my brother Richard. 

5th February, 1648. Saw a tragi-comedy acted in the 
cockpit, after there had been none of these diversions 
for many years during the war. 

28th February, 1648. I went with my noble friend. 
Sir William Ducy (afterward Lord Downe), to Thistle- 
worth, where we dined with Sir Clepesby Crew, and 
afterward to see the rare miniatures of Peter Oliver, and 
rounds of plaster, and then the curious flowers of Mr. 
Barill's garden, who has some good medals and pictures. 

1647-48 JOHN EVELYN 243 

Sir Clepesby has fine Indian hangings, and a very good 
chimney-piece of water colors, by Breughel, which I 
bought for him. 

26th April, 1648. There was a great uproar in London, 
that the rebel army quartering at Whitehall, would plun- 
der the City, on which there was published a Proclama- 
tion for all to stand on their guard. 

4th May, 1648. Came up the Essex petitioners for an 
agreement between his Majesty and the rebels. The i6th, 
the Surrey men addressed the Parliament for the same; 
of which some of them were slain and murdered by 
Cromwell's guards, in the new palace yard. I now sold 
the impropriation of South Mailing, near Lewes, in Sus- 
sex, to Messrs. Kemp and Alcock, for ;^3,ooo. 

30th May, 1648. There was a rising now in Kent, my 
Lord of Norwich being at the head of them. Their iirst 
rendezvous was in Broome-field, next my house at Sayes 
Court, whence they went to Maidstone, and so to Col- 
chester, where was that memorable siege. 

27th June, 1648. I purchased the manor of Hurcott, 
in Worcestershire, of my brother George, for ^^3,300. 

ist July, 1648. I sate for my picture, in which there 
is a Death's head, to Mr. Walker, that excellent painter. 

loth July, 1648. News was brought me of my Lord 
Francis Villiers being slain by the rebels near Kingston. 

i6th August 1648. I went to Woodcote (in Epsom) to 
the wedding of my brother, Richard, who married the 
daughter and coheir of Esquire Minn, lately deceased; 
by which he had a great estate both in land and money 
on the death of a brother. The coach in which the bride 
and bridegroom were, was overturned in coming home; 
but no harm was done. 

28th August, 1648. To London from Sayes Court, and 
saw the celebrated follies of Bartholomew Fair. 

1 6th September, 1648. Came my lately married brother, 
Richard, and his wife, to visit me, when I showed them 
Greenwich, and her Majesty's Palace, now possessed by 
the rebels. 

28th September, 1648. I went to Albury, to visit the 
Countess of Arundel, and returned to Wotton. 

31st October, 1648. I went to see my manor of Pres- 
ton Beckhelvyn, and the Cliffhouse. 

29th November, 1648. Myself, with Mr. Thomas Offley, 


and Lady Gerrard, christened my niece Mary, eldest 
daughter of my brother, George Evelyn, by my Lady 
Cotton, his second wife. I presented my niece a piece 
of plate which cost me ;!^i8, and caused this inscription 
to be set on it- 

In memo ri am facti: 
Anno cic Ix. XLiix. Cal.Decem.viii. Virginum castiss: Xtianorum 


SuscEPTOR Vasculum HOC CUM Epigraphe L. M. Q. D. 
Ave Maria Gratia sis plena; Dominus tecum. 

ad December, 1648. This day I sold my manor oi 
Hurcott for ^3,400 to one Mr. Bridges. 

13th December, 1648. The Parliament now sat up the 
whole night, and endeavored to have concluded the Isle 
of Wight Treaty ; but were surprised by the rebel army ; 
the members dispersed, and great confusion every where 
in expectation of what would be next. 

17th December, 1648. I heard an Italian sermon, in 
Mercers' Chapel, one Dr. Middleton, an acquaintance of 
mine, preaching. 

1 8th December, 1648. I got privately into the council 
of the rebel army, at Whitehall, where I heard horrid 

This was a most exceedingly wet year, neither frost nor 
snow all the winter for more than six days in all. Cat« 
tie died every where of a murrain. 

ist January, 1648-49. I had a lodging and some books 
at my father-in-law's house, Sayes Court. 

2d January, 1649. I went to see my old friend and 
fellow-traveler, Mr. Henshaw, who had two rare pieces 
of Stenwyck's perspective. 

17th January, 1649. To London. I heard the rebel, 
Peters, incite the rebel powers met in the Painted Cham- 
ber, to destroy his Majesty; and saw that archtraitor, 
Bradshaw, who not long after condemned him. 

19th January, 1649. ^ returned home, passing an ex- 
traordinary danger of being drowned by our wherries 
falling foul in the night on another vessel then at anchor, 
shooting the bridge at three quarters' ebb, for which 
His mercy God Almighty be praised. 

2ist January, 1649. Was published my translation of 
Liberty and Servitude, for the preface of which I was 
severely threatened. 

1648-49 JOHN EVELYN 245 

2 2d January, 1649. I went through a course of chem- 
istry, at Sayes Court. Now was the Thames frozen over, 
and horrid tempests of wind. 

The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to 
try, condemn, and murder our excellent King on the 
30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I 
kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be 
present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad 
account of it from my brother George, and Mr. Owen, 
who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all 
the circumstances. 

ist February, 1649. Now were Duke Hamilton, the 
Earl of Norwich, Lord Capell, etc., at their trial before 
the rebels' New Court of Injustice. 

15th February, 1649. I went to see the collection of 
one Trean, a rich merchant, who had some good pictures, 
especially a rare perspective of Stenwyck ; from thence, 
to other virtuosos. 

The painter. La Neve has an Andromeda, but I think 
it a copy after Vandyke from Titian, for the original is 
in France. Webb, at the Exchange, has some rare things 
in miniature, of Breughel's, also Putti, in twelve squares, 
that were plundered from Sir James Palmer. 

At Du Bois, we saw two tables of Putti, that were 
gotten, I know not how, out of the Castle of St. Angelo, 
by old Petit, thought to be Titian's; he had some good 
heads of Palma, and one of Stenwyck. Bellcar showed 
us an excellent copy of his Majesty's Sleeping Venus and 
the Satyr, with other figures; for now they had plun- 
dered, sold, and dispersed a world of rare paintings of 
the King's, and his loyal subjects. After all. Sir William 
Ducy showed me some excellent things in miniature, and 
in oil of Holbein's; Sir Thomas More's head, and a whole- 
length figure of Edward VI., which were certainly his 
Majesty's; also a picture of Queen Elizabeth; the Lady 
Isabella Thynne; a rare painting of Rothenhamer, being 
a Susanna; and a Magdalen, of Quintin, the blacksmith; 
also a Henry VIII., of Holbein; and Francis I., rare 
indeed, but of whose hand I know not. 

1 6th February, 1649. Paris being now strictly besieged 
by the Prince de Cond^, my wife being shut up with her 
father and mother, I wrote a letter of consolation to her: 
and, on the 2 2d, having recommended Obadiah Walker, 


a learned and most ingenious person, to be tutor to, and 
travel with, Mr. Hillyard's two sons, returned to Sayes 

25th February, 1649. Came to visit me Dr. Joyliffe, 
discoverer of the lymphatic vessels, and an excellent anat- 

26th February, 1649, Came to see me Captain George 
Evelyn, my kinsman, the great traveler, and one who 
believed himself a better architect than really he was; 
witness the portico in the Garden at Wotton; yet the 
great room at Albury is somewhat better understood. 
He had a large mind, but over-built everything. 

27th February, 1649. Came out of France my wife's 
uncle ( Paris still besieged ), being robbed at sea by the 
Dunkirk pirates: I lost, among other goods, my wife's 
picture, painted by Monsieur Bourdon. 

5th March, 1649. Now were the Lords murdered in 
the Palace Yard. 

i8th March, 1649. Mr. Owen, a sequestered and learned 
minister, preached in my parlor, and gave us the blessed 
Sacrament, now wholly out of use in the parish churches, 
on which the Presbyterians and fanatics had usurped. 

2ist March, 1649. I received letters from Paris from 
my wife, and from Sir Richard [Browne], with whom I 
kept up a political correspondence, with no small danger 
of being discovered. 

25th March, 1649. I heard the Common Prayer (a 
rare thing in these days ) in St. Peter's, at Paul's Wharf, 
London ; and, in the morning, the Archbishop of Armagh, 
that pious person and learned man. Usher, in Lincoln's- 
Inn Chapel. 

2d April, 1649. To London, and inventoried my 
movables that had hitherto been dispersed for fear of 
plundering: wrote into France, touching my sudden 
resolutions of coming over to them. On the 8th, again 
heard an excellent discourse from Archbishop Usher, on 
Ephes. 4, V. 26-27. 

My Italian collection being now arrived, came Moulins, 
the great chinirgeon, to see and admire the Tables of 
Veins and Arteries, which I purchased and caused to be 
drawn out of several human bodies at Padua. 

nth April, 1649. Received news out of France that 
peace was concluded; dined with Sir Joseph Evelyn, at 

1649 JOHN EVELYN 247 

Westminster; and on the 13th I saw a private dissection 
at Moulins's house. 

17th April, 1649. I fell dangerously ill of my head; 
was blistered and let bleed behind the ears and forehead : 
on the 23d, began to have ease by using the fumes of 
camomile on embers applied to my ears, after all the 
physicians had done their best, 

29th April, 1649. I saw in London a huge ox bred in 
Kent, 17 feet in length, and much higher than I could 

12th May, 1649. I purchased the manor of Warley 
Magna, in Essex: in the afternoon went to see Gildron's 
collections of paintings, where I found Mr. Endymion 
Porter, of his late Majesty's bedchamber. 

17th May, 1649. Went to Putney by water, in the 
barge with divers ladies, to see the schools, or colleges, 
of the young gentlewomen. 

19th May, 1649. To see a rare cabinet of one Dela- 
barr, who had some good paintings, especially a monk 
at his beads. 

30th May, 1649. Unkingship was proclaimed, and his 
Majesty's statues thrown down at St. Paul's Portico, and 
the Exchange. 

7th June, 1649. I visited Sir Arthur Hopton * (brother 
to Sir Ralph, Lord Hopton, that noble hero), who having 
been Ambassador extraordinary in Spain, sojourned some 
time with my father-in-law at Paris, a most excellent person. 
Also Signora Lucretia, a Greek lady, whom I knew in 
Italy, now come over with her husband, an English 
gentleman. Also, the Earl and Countess of Arundel, 
taking leave of them and other friends now ready to de- 
part for France. This night was a scuffle between some 
rebel soldiers and gentlemen about the Temple. 

June loth, 1649. Preached the Archbishop of Armagh 
in Lincoln's-Inn, from Romans 5, verse 13. I received 
the blessed Sacrament, preparatory to my journey. 

13th June, 1649. I dined with my worthy friend, Sir 
John Owen, newly freed from sentence of death among 
the lords that suffered. With him was one Carew, who 
played incomparably on the Welsh harp, afterward I 
treated divers ladies of my relations, in Spring Garden. 

* Sir Arthur Hopton was uncle, not brother to Lord Hopton (so 
well known for his services to Charles in the course of the Civil War). 


This night was buried with great pomp, Dorislaus, slain 
at the Hague, the villain who managed the trial against 
his sacred Majesty. 

17th June, 1649. I got a pass from the rebel Brad- 
shaw, then in great power. 

20th June, 1649. I went to Putney, and other places 
on the Thames, to take prospects in crayon, to carry into 
France, where I thought to have them engraved. 

2d July, 1649. I went from Wotton to Godstone (the 
residence of Sir John Evelyn), where was also Sir John 
Evelyn of Wilts., when I took leave of both Sir Johns 
and their ladies. Mem. the prodigious memory of Sir 
John of Wilts' daughter, since married to Mr. W. Pierre- 
pont, and mother of the present Earl of Kingston. I 
returned to Sayes Court this night. 

4th July, 1649. Visited Lady Hatton, her lord sojourn- 
ing at Paris with my father-in-law. 

9th July, 1649. Dined with Sir Walter Pye, and my 
good friend, Mr. Eaton, afterward a judge, who corre- 
sponded with me in France. 

nth July, 1649. Came to see me old Alexander Rosse, 
the divine historian and poet; Mr. Henshaw, Mr. Scud- 
amore, and other friends to take leave of me. 

12th July, 1649. It was about three in the afternoon, 
I took oars for Gravesend, accompanied by my cousin, 
Stephens, and sister, Glanville, who there supped with 
me and returned; whence I took post immediately to 
Dover, where I arrived by nine in the morning; and, 
about eleven that night, went on board a barque guarded 
by a pinnace of eight guns; this being the first time the 
Packet-boat had obtained a convoy, having several times 
before been pillaged. We had a good passage, though 
chased for some hours by a pirate, but he dared not 
attack our frigate, and we then chased him till he got 
under the protection of the castle at Calais. It was a 
small privateer belonging to the Prince of Wales. I 
carried over with me my servant, Richard Hoare, an 
incomparable writer of several hands, whom I afterward 
preferred in the Prerogative Office, at the return of his 
Majesty, Lady Catherine Scott, daughter of the Earl of 
Norwich, followed us in a shallop, with Mr. Arthur 
Slingsby, who left England incognito. At the entrance 
of the town, the Lieutenant Governor, being on his hor^e 

i649 JOHN EVELYN 249 

with the guards, let us pass courteously. I visited Sir 
Richard Lloyd, an English gentleman, and walked in the 
church, where the ornament about the high altar of black 
marble is very fine, and there is a good picture of the 
Assumption, The citadel seems to be impregnable, and 
the whole country about it to be laid under water by 
sluices for many miles. 

1 6th July, 1649. We departed from Paris, in company 
with that very pleasant lady. Lady Catherine Scott, and 
others. In all this journey we were greatly apprehensive 
of parties, which caused us to alight often out of our 
coach and walk separately on foot, with our guns on our 
shoulders, in all suspected places. 

ist August, 1649. At three in the afternoon we came 
to St. Denis, saw the rarities of the church and treasury; 
and so to Paris that evening. 

The next day, came to welcome me at dinner the Lord 
High Treasurer Cottington, Sir Edward Hyde, Chancel- 
lor, Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State, Sir George 
Carteret, Governor of Jersey, and Dr. Earle, having now 
been absent from my wife above a year and a half. 

1 8th August, 1649. I went to St. Germains, to kiss his 
Majesty's hand; in the coach, which was my Lord Wil- 
mot's, went Mrs. Barlow, the King's mistress* and mother 
to the Duke of Monmouth, a brown, beautiful, bold, but 
insipid creature. 

19th August, 1649. I went to salute the French King 
and the Queen Dowager; and, on the 21st, returned in 
one of the Queen's coaches with my Lord Germain, Duke 
of Buckingham, Lord Wentworth, and Mr. Croftes, since 
Lord Croftes. 

7th September, 1649. Went with my wife and dear 
Cousin to St. Germains, and kissed the Queen-Mother's 
hand ; dined with my Lord Keeper and Lord Hatton. Divers 
of the great men of France came to see the King. The 
next day, came the Prince of Cond6. Returning to Paris, 
we went to see the President Maison's palace, built cas- 

* The lady here referred to was Lucy, daughter of Richard "Walters, 
Esq.. of Haverfordwest. She had two children by the King; James, 
subsequently so celebrated as the Duke of Monmouth, and Mary, whose 
lot was obscure in comparison with that of her brother, but of course 
infinitely happier. She married a Mr. William Sarsfield, of Ireland, 
and after his death. William Fanshawe, Esq, 

250 DIARY OF »aw» 

tie-wise, of a milk-white fine freestone; tlie house not 
vast, but well contrived, especially the staircase, and the 
ornaments of Putti, about it. It is environed in a dry 
moat, the offices under ground, the gardens very excel- 
lent with extraordinary long walks, set with elms, and a 
noble prospect toward the forest, and on the Seine to- 
ward Paris. Take it altogether, the meadows, walks, 
river, forest, corn-ground, and vineyards, I hardly saw 
anything in Italy to exceed it. The iron gates are very 
magnificent. He has pulled down a whole village to 
make room for his pleasure about it. 

1 2th September, 1649. Dr. Crighton, a Scotchman, and 
one of his Majesty's chaplains, a learned Grecian who set 
out the Council of Florence, preached. 

13th September, 1649. The King invited the Prince 
of Cond6 to supper at St. Cloud ; there I kissed the Duke 
of York's hand in the tennis court, where I saw a famous 
match between Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke, 
and so returned to Paris. It was noised about that I 
was knighted, a dignity I often declined. 

ist October, 1649. Went with my cousin Tuke (after- 
ward Sir Samuel), to see the fountains of St. Cloud and 
Ruel; and, after dinner, to talk with the poor ignorant 
and superstitious anchorite at Mount Calvary, and so to 

2d October, 1649. Came Mr. William Coventry (after- 
ward Sir William) and the Duke's secretary, etc., to visit 

5th October, 1649. Dined with Sir George Ratcliffe, 
the great favorite of the late Earl of Strafford, formerly 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, decapitated. 

7th October, 1649. To the Louvre, to visit the Countess 
of Moreton, governess to Madame. 

15th October, 1649. Came news of Drogheda being 
taken by the rebels, and all put to the sword, which 
made us A'-ery sad, forerunning the loss of all Ireland. 

2 1 St October, 1649. I went to hear Dr. d'Avinson's 
lecture in the physical garden, and see his laboratory, 
he being Prefect of that excellent garden, and Professor 

30th October, 1649. I was at the funeral of one Mr. 
Downes, a sober English gentleman. We accompanied 
his corpse to Charenton, where he was interred in a 

i649 JOHN EVELYN 251 

cabbage-garden, yet with the office of our church, which 
was said before in our chapel at Paris. Here I saw also 
where they buried the great soldier, Gassion, who had a 
tomb built over him like a fountain, the design and ma- 
terials mean enough. I returned to Paris with Sir Philip 
Musgrave, and Sir Marmaduke Langdale, since Lord 
Langdale — Memorandum. This was a very sickly and 
mortal autumn. 

5th November, 1649. I received divers letters out of 
England, requiring me to come over about settling some 
of my concerns. 

7th November, 1649. Dr. George Morley (since Bishop 
of Winchester) preached in our chapel on Matthew 4, 
verse 3. 

1 8th November, 1649, I went with my father-in-law to 
see his audience at the French Court, where next the 
Pope's Nuncio, he was introduced by the master of cere- 
monies, and, after delivery of his credentials, as from our 
King, since his father s murder, he was most graciously 
received by the King of France and his mother, with 
whom he had a long audience. This was in the Palais 

After this, being presented to his Majesty and the 
Queen Regent I went to see the house built by the late 
great Cardinal de Richelieu. The most observable thing 
is the gallery, painted with the portraits of the most 
illustrious persons and single actions in France, with in- 
numerable emblems between every table. In the middle 
of the gallery, is a neat chapel, rarely paved in work 
and devices of several sorts of marble, besides the altar- 
piece and two statues of white marble, one of St. John, 
the other of the Virgin Mary, by Bernini. The rest of 
the apartments are rarely gilded and carved, with some 
good modem paintings. In the presence hang three 
huge branches of crystal. In the French King's bed- 
chamber, is an alcove like another chamber, set as it 
were in a chamber like a movable box, with a rich 
embroidered bed. The fabric of the palace is not mag- 
nificent, being but of two stories; but the garden is so 
spacious as to contain a noble basin and fountain con- 
tinually playing, and there is a mall, with an elbow, or 
turning, to protract it. So I left his Majesty on the 
terrace, busy in seeing a bull-baiting, and returned 


home in Prince Edward's coach with Mr. Paul, the Prince 
Elector's agent. 

19th November, 1649. Visited Mr. Waller, where meet- 
ing Dr. Holden, an English Sorbonne divine, we fell into 
some discourse about religion. 

28th December, 1649. Going to wait on Mr. Waller, 
I viewed St. Stephen's church; the building, though 
Gothic, is full of carving; within it is beautiful, espe- 
cially the choir and winding stairs. The glass is well 
painted, and the tapestry hung up this day about the 
choir, representing the conversion of Constantine, was 
exceedingly rich. 

I went to that excellent eng^raver, Du Bosse, for his 
instruction about some difficulties in perspective which 
were delivered in his book, 

I concluded this year in health, for which I gave solemn 
thanks to Almighty God.* 

29th December, 1649. I christened Sir Hugh Rilie's 
child with Sir George Radcliffe in our chapel, the par- 
ents being so poor that they had provided no gossips, 
so as several of us drawing lots it fell on me, the 
Dean of Peterborough ( Dr. Cousin ) officiating : we named 
it Andrew, being on the eve of that Apostle's day. 

ist January, 1649-50. I began this Jubilee with the 
public office in our chapel: dined at my Lady Herbert's, 
wife of Sir Edward Herbert, afterward Lord Keeper. 

i8th January, 1650. This night was the Prince of 
Cond^ and his brother carried prisoners to the Bois de 

6th February, 1650. In the evening, came Signor 
Alessandro, one of the Cardinal Mazarine's musicians, 
and a person of great name for his knowledge in that 
art, to visit my wife, and sung before divers persons of 
quality in my chamber. 

ist March, 1650. I went to see the masquerados, which 
was very fantastic; but nothing so quiet and solemn as 
I found it at Venice. 

13th March, 1650. Saw a triumph in Monsieur del 
Camp's Academy, where divers of the French and Eng- 
lish noblesse, especially my Lord of Ossory, and Rich- 
ard, sons to the Marquis of Ormond (afterward Duke), did 

* This he does not fail to repeat at the end of every year, but it will 
not always be necessary here to insert IL 

1649-50 JOHN EVELYN 253 

their exercises on horseback in noble equipage, before a 
world of spectators and great persons, men and ladies. 
It ended in a collation. 

25th April, 1650. I went out of town to see Madrid, a 
palace so called, built by Francis I. It is observable 
only for its open manner of architecture, being much 
of terraces and galleries one over another to the very 
roof; and for the materials, which are mostly of earth 
painted like porcelain, or China-ware, whose colors appear 
very fresh, but is very fragile. There are whole statues 
and relievos of this pottery, chimney-pieces, and columns 
both within and without. Under the chapel is a chimney 
in the midst of a room parted from the Salle des Gardes. 
The house is fortified with a deep ditch, and has an ad- 
mirable vista toward the Bois de Boulogne and river. 

30th April, 1650. I went to see the collection of the 
famous sculptor, Steffano de la Bella, returning now into 
Italy, and bought some prints ; and likewise visited Perelle, 
the landscape graver. 

3d May, 1650. At the hospital of La Charit€ I saw the 
operation of cutting for the stone. A child of eight or 
nine years old underwent the operation with most extra- 
ordinary patience, and expressing great joy when he saw 
the stone was drawn. The use I made of it was, to give 
Almighty God hearty thanks that I had not been subject 
to this deplorable infirmity. 

7th May, 1650. I went with Sir Richard Browne's lady 
and my wife, together with the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord 
Ossory and his brother, to Vamber, a place near the city 
famous for butter; when, coming homeward, being on 
foot, a quarrel arose between Lord Ossory and a man in 
a garden, who thrust Lord Ossory from the gate with 
uncivil language ; on which our young gallants struck the 
fellow on the pate, and bade him ask pardon, which he 
did with much submission, and so we parted. But we 
were not gone far before we heard a noise behind us, and 
saw people coming with guns, swords, staves, and forks, 
and who followed, flinging stones ; on which, we turned, and 
were forced to engage, and with our swords, stones, and 
the help of our servants (one of whom had a pistol) made 
our retreat for near a quarter of a mile, when we took 
shelter in a house, where we were besieged, and at length 
forced to submit to be prisoners. Lord Hatton, with 

254 DIARY OF Paris 

some others, were taken prisoners in the flight, and his 
lordship was confined under three locks and as many 
doors in this rude fellow's master's house, who pretended 
to be steward to Monsieur St. Germain, one of the presidents 
of the Grand Chambre du Parlement, and a Canon of Notre 
Dame. Several of us were much hurt. One of our lack- 
eys escaping to Paris, caused the bailiff of St. Germain 
to come with his guard and rescue us. Immediately 
afterward, came Monsieur St. Germain himself, in great 
wrath, on hearing that his housekeeper was assaulted; 
but when he saw the King's ofl&cers, the gentlemen and 
noblemen, with his Majesty's Resident and understood 
the occasion, he was ashamed of the accident, requesting 
the fellow's pardon, and desiring the ladies to accept their 
submission and a supper at his house. It was ten o'clock 
at night ere we got to Paris, guarded by Prince Griffith 
(a Welsh hero going under that name, and well known 
in England for his extravagancies), together with the 
scholars of two academies, who came forth to assist and 
meet us on horseback, and would fain have alarmed the 
town we received the affront from : which, with much ado, 
we prevented. 

12th May, 1650. Complaint being come to the Queen 
and Court of France of the affront we had received, the 
President was ordered to ask pardon of Sir R. Browne, 
his Majesty's Resident, and the fellow to make submis- 
sion, and be dismissed. There came along with him the 
President de Thou, son of the gfreat Thuanus [the his- 
torian ], and so all was composed. But I have often heard 
that gallant gentleman, my Lord Ossory, afl&rm solemnly 
that in all the conflicts he was ever in at sea or on land 
(in the most desperate of both which he had often been), 
he believed he was never in so much danger as when 
these people rose against us. He used to call it the 
hataile de Vambre, and remember it with a g^eat deal of 
mirth as an adventure, en cavalier. 

24th May, 1650. We were invited by the Noble Acad- 
emies to a running at the ring where were many brave 
horses, gallants, and ladies, my Lord Stanhope entertain- 
ing us with a collation. 

12th June, 1650. Being Trinity Sunday, the Dean of 
Peterborough preached ; after which there was an ordina- 
tion of two divines, Durell and Brevent (the one was 

1650 JOHN EVELYN 455 

afterward Dean of Windsor, the other of Durham, 
both very learned persons). The Bishop of Galloway 
officiated with great gravity, after a pious and learned 
exhortation declaring the weight and dignity of their 
function, especially now in a time of the poor Church of 
England's affliction. He magnified the sublimity of the 
calling, from the object, viz, the salvation of men's souls, 
and the glory of God; producing many human instances 
of the transitoriness and vanity of all other dignity; that 
of all the triumphs the Roman conquerors made, none 
was comparable to that of our Blessed Savior's, when he 
led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men, namely, that 
of the Holy Spirit, by which his faithful and painful 
ministers triumphed over Satan as often as they reduced a 
sinner from the error of his ways. He then proceeded 
to the ordination. They were presented by the Dean in 
their surplices before the altar, the Bishop sitting in a 
chair at one side; and so were made both Deacons and 
Priests at the same time, in regard to the necessity of 
the times, there being so few Bishops left in England, 
and consequently danger of a failure of both functions. 
Lastly, they proceeded to the Communion. This was all 
performed in Sir Richard Browne's chapel, at Paris. 

13th June, 1650. I sate to the famous sculptor, Nan- 
teuil, who was afterward made a knight by the French 
King for his art. He engraved my picture in copper. 
At a future time he presented me with my own picture, 
done all with his pen; an extraordinary curiosity. 

2ist June, 1650. I went to see the Samaritan, or pump, 
at the end of the Pont Neuf, which, though to appear- 
ance promising no great matter, is, besides the machine, 
furnished with innumerable rarities both of art and na- 
ture; especially the costly grotto, where are the fairest 
corals, growing out of the very rock, that I have seen; 
also great pieces of crystals, amethysts, gold in the mine, 
and other metals and marcasites, with two great conchas, 
which the owner told us cost him 200 crowns at Amster- 
dam. He showed us many landscapes and prospects, 
very rarely painted in miniature, some with the pen and 
crayon; divers antiquities and relievos of Rome; above 
all, that of the inside of the amphitheater of Titus, in- 
comparably drawn by Monsieur St. CI ere himself; two 
boys and three skeletons, molded by Fiamingo; a book 


of statues, with the pen made for Henry IV., rarely ex- 
ecuted, and by which one may discover many errors in 
the taille-douce of Perrier, who has added divers conceits 
of his own that are not in the originals. He has like- 
wise an infinite collection of taille-douces^ richly bound 
in morocco. 

He led us into a stately chamber furnished to have en- 
tertained a prince, with pictures of the greatest masters, 
especially a Venus of Perino del Vaga; the Putti carved 
in the chimney-piece by the Fleming; the vases of porce- 
lain, and many designed by Raphael; some paintings of 
Poussin, and Fioravanti; antiques in brass; the looking- 
glass and stands rarely carved. In a word, all was great, 
choice, and magnificent, and not to be passed by as I 
had often done, without the least suspicion that there 
were such rare things to be seen in that place. At a 
future visit, he showed a new grotto and a bathing place, 
hewn through the battlements of the arches of Pont 
Neuf into a wide vault at the intercolumniation, so that 
the coaches and horses thundered over our heads. 

27th June, 1650. I made my will, and, taking leave 
of my wife and other friends, took horse for England, 
paying the messenger eight pistoles for me and my serv- 
ant to Calais, setting out with seventeen in company 
well-armed, some Portuguese, Swiss, and French, whereof 
six were captains and officers. We came the first night 
to Beaumont; next day, to Beauvais, and lay at Pois, 
and the next, without dining, reached Abbeville; next, 
dined at Montreuil, and proceeding met a company on 
foot (being now within the inroads of the parties which 
dangerously infest this day's journey from St. Omers 
and the frontiers), which we drew very near to, ready 
and resolute to charge through, and accordingly were 
ordered and led by a captain of our train; but, as we 
were on the speed, they called out, and proved to be 
Scotchmen, newly raised and landed, and few among 
them armed. This night, we were well treated at 
Boulogne. The next day, we marched in good order, the 
passage being now exceeding dangerous, and got to Calais 
by a little after two. The sun so scorched my face, 
that it made the skin peel off. 

I dined with Mr. Booth, his Majesty's agent; and, 
about three in the afternoon, embarked in the packet- 

1650 JOHN EVELYN 257 

boat; hearing there was a pirate then also setting sail, 
we had security from molestation, and so with a fair S. 
W. wind in seven hours we landed at Dover. The busy 
watchman would have us to the mayor to be searched, 
but the gentleman being in bed. we were dismissed. 

Next day, being Sunday, they would not permit us to 
ride post, so that afternoon our trunks were visited. 

The next morning, by four, we set out for Canterbury, 
where I met with my Lady Catherine Scott, whom that 
very day twelve months before I met at sea going for 
France; she had been visiting Sir Thomas Peyton, not 
far off, and would needs carry me in her coach to 
Gravesend. We dined at Sittingboume, came late to 
Gravesend, and so to Deptford, taking leave of my lady 
about four the next morning. 

5th July, 1650. I supped in the city with my Lady 
Catherine Scott, at one Mr. Dubois, where was a gentle- 
woman called Everard, who was a very great chemist. 

Sunday 7th July, 1650. In the afternoon, having a mind 
to see what was doing among the Rebels, then in full 
possession at Whitehall, I went thither, and found one at 
exercise in the chapel, after their way; thence, to St. 
James's, where another was preaching in the court abroad. 

17th July, 1650. I went to London to obtain a pass,* 
intending but a short stay in England. 

25th July, 1650. I went by Epsom to Wotton, saluting 
Sir Robert Cook and my sister Glanville; the country 
was now much molested by soldiers, who took away 
gentlemen's horses for the senace of the state, as then 

* A copy of it is subjoined . « These are to will and require you to 
permit and suffer the bearer thereof, John Evelyn, Esq., to transport 
himself, two servants, and other necessaries, into any port of France 
without any your lets or molestations, of which you are not to fail, and 
for which this shall be your suflBcient warrant Given at the Council 
of State at Whitehall this 25th of June, 1650. 

« Signed in the Name and by Order of the Council of State, 
appointed by authority of Parliament, 

Jo. Bradshawe, President 
® To all Customers, Comptrollers and Searchers, and 

all other officers of the Ports, or Customs. » 
Subjoined to the signature, Evelyn has added in his own writing; 
« The hand of that villain who sentenced our Charles I.*of B[lessed] 
M[emory.»] Its endorsement, also in his writing, is, "The Pass from 
the Council of State, 1650. » 


4th August, 1650. I heard a sermon at the Rolls; and, 
in the afternoon, wandered to divers churches, the pul- 
pits full of novices and novelties. 

6th August, 1650. To Mr. Walker's, a good painter, 
who showed me an excellent copy of Titian. 

12th Augfust, 1650. Set out for Paris, taking post at 
Gravesend, and so that night to Canterbury, where being 
surprised by the soldiers, and having only an antiquated 
pass, with some fortunate dexterity I got clear of them 
though not without extraordinary hazard, having before 
counterfeited one with success, it being so difficult to 
procure one of the rebels without entering into oaths, 
which I never would do. At Dover, money to the 
searchers and officers was as authentic as the hand and 
seal of Bradshawe himself, where I had not so much as 
my trunk opened. 

13th August, 1650, At six in the evening, set sail for 
Calais ; the wind not favorable, I was very sea-sick, com- 
ing to an anchor about one o'clock; about five in the 
morning, we had a long boat to carry us to land, though 
at a good distance; this we willingly entered, because 
two vessels were chasing us; but, being now almost 
at the harbor's mouth, through inadvertency there broke 
in upon us two such heavy seas, as had almost sunk the 
boat, I being near the middle up in water. Our steers- 
man, it seems, apprehensive of the danger, was preparing 
to leap into the sea and trust to swimming, but seeing 
the vessel emerge, he put her into the pier, and so, God 
be thanked! we got to Calais, though wet. 

Here I waited for company, the passage toward Paris 
being still infested with volunteers from the Spanish 

i6th August, 1650. The Regiment of Picardy, consist- 
ing of about 1,400 horse and foot (among them was a 
captain whom I knew), being come to town, I took horses 
for myself and servant, and marched under their protec- 
tion to Boulogne. It was a miserable spectacle to see 
how these tattered soldiers pillaged the poor people of 
their sheep, poultry, corn, cattle, and whatever came in 
their way ; but they had such ill pay, that they were ready 
themselves to starve. 

As we passed St. Denis, the people were in uproar, 
the guards doubled, and everybody running with their 

i6so-5i JOHN EVELYN 259 

movables to Paris, on an alarm that the enemy was 
within five leagues of them; so miserably exposed was 
even this part of France at this time. 

The 30th, I got to Paris, after an absence of two months 

ist September, 1650. My Lady Herbert invited me to 
dinner; Paris, and indeed all France, being full of loyal 

Came Mr. Waller to see me, about a child of his which 
the Popish midwife had baptized. 

15th October, 1650. Sir Thomas Osborne (afterward 
Lord Treasurer) and Lord Stanhope shot for a wager of 
five louis, to be spent on a treat ; they shot so exact that 
it was a drawn match. 

I St November, 1650. Took leave of my Lord Stanhope, 
going on his journey toward Italy; also visited my Lord 
Hatton, Comptroller of his Majesty's Household, the 
Countess of Morton, Governess to the Lady Henrietta, 
and Mrs. Gardner, one of the Queen's maids of honor. 

6th November, 1650. Sir Thomas Osborne supping with 
us, his groom was set upon in the street before our house, 
and received two wounds, but gave the assassin nine, who 
was carried off to the Charit6 Hospital. Sir Thomas went 
for England on the 8th, and carried divers letters for me 
to my friends. 

1 6th November, 1650. I went to Monsieur Visse's, the 
French King's Secretary, to a concert of French music and 
voices, consisting- of twenty-four, two theorbos, and but 
one bass viol, being a rehearsal of what was to be sung 
at vespers at St. Cecelia's, on her feast, she being patroness 
of Musician's. News arrived of the death of the Princess 
of Orange of the smallpox. 

14th December, 1650. I went to visit Mr. Ratcliffe, in 
whose lodging was an imposter that had liked to have 
imposed upon us a pretended secret of multiplying gold ; 
it is certain he had lived some time in Paris in extraordi- 
nary splendor, but I found him to be an egregious cheat. 

2 2d December, 1650. Came the learned Dr. Boet to 
visit me, 

31st December, 1650. I gave Grod thanks for his mercy 
and protection the past year, and made up my accounts, 
which came this year to 7,015 livres, near jQ6oo sterling. 

ist January, 1650-51. I wrote to my brother at Wotton, 


about his garden and fountains. After evening prayer, 
Mr. Wainsford called on me : he had long been Consul at 
Aleppo, and told me many strange things of those coun- 
tries, the Arabs especially. 

27th January, 165 1. I had letters of the death of Mrs. 
Newton, my grand-mother-in-law; she had a most tender 
care of me during my childhood, and was a woman of 
extraordinary charity and piety. 

29th January, 165 1. Dr. Duncan preached on 8 Matt. 
V. 34, showing the mischief of covetousness. My Lord 
Marquis of Ormonde and Inchiquin, come newly out of 
Ireland, were this day at chapel. 

9th February, 165 1. Cardinal Mazarin was proscribed 
by Arret du Parlement, and great commotions began in 

23d February, 165 1. I went to see the Bonnes Hommes, 
a convent that has a fair cloister painted with the 
lives of hermits; a glorious altar now erecting in the 
chapel ; the garden on the rock with divers descents, with 
a fine vineyard, and a delicate prospect toward the city. 

24th February, 1651. I went to see a dromedary, a 
very monstrous beast, much like the camel, but larger. 
There was also dancing on the rope; but, above all, sur- 
prising to those who were ignorant of the address, was 
the water-spouter, who, drinking only fountain-water, 
rendered out of his mouth in several glasses all sorts of 
wine and sweet waters. For a piece of money he dis- 
covered the secret to me, I waited on Friar Nicholas at 
the convent at Chaillot, who, being an excellent chemist, 
showed me his laboratory, and rare collection of spagyr- 
ical remedies. He was both physician and apothecary of 
the convent, and, instead of the names of his drugs, he 
painted his boxes and pots with the figure of the drug, 
or simple, contained in them. He showed me as a rarity 
some of antimony. He had cured Monsieur Senatin of 
a desperate sickness, for which there was building a 
monumental altar that was to cost ;;^i,5oo. 

nth March, 165 1. I went to the Chatelet, or prison, 
where a malefactor was to have the question, or tort- 
ure, given to him, he refusing to confess the robbery 
with which he was charged, which was thus: they first 
bound his wrist with a strong rope, or small cable, and 
one end of it to an iron ring made fast to the wall, about 

1651 JOHN EVELYN 261 

four feet from the floor, and then his feet with another 
cable, fastened about five feet further than his utmost 
length to another ring on the floor of the room. Thus 
suspended, and yet lying but aslant, they slid a horse of 
wood under the rope which bound his feet, which so ex- 
ceedingly stiffened it, as severed the fellow's joints in 
miserable sort, drawing him out at length in an extraor- 
dinary manner, he having only a pair of linen drawers 
on his naked body. Then, they questioned him of a rob- 
bery (the lieutenant being present and a clerk that 
wrote), which not confessing, they put a higher horse 
under the rope, to increase the torture and extension. 
In this agony, confessing nothing, the executioner with 
a horn (just such as they drench horses with) stuck the 
end of it into his mouth, and poured the quantity of two 
buckets of water down his throat and over him, which 
so prodigiously swelled him, as would have pitied and 
aflErighted any one to see it; for all this, he denied all 
that was charged to him. They then let him down, and 
carried him before a warm fire to bring him to himself, 
being now to all appearance dead with pain. What be- 
came of him, I know not; but the gentleman whom he 
robbed constantly averred him to be the man, and the 
fellow's suspicious pale looks, before he knew he should 
be racked, betrayed some guilt; the lieutenant was also 
of that opinion, and told us at first sight (for he was a 
lean, dry, black young man) he would conquer the tor- 
ture; and so it seems they could not hang him, but did 
use in such cases, where the evidence is very presumptive, 
to send them to the galleys, which is as bad as death. 

There was another malefactor to succeed, but the 
spectacle was so uncomfortable, that I was not able to 
stay the sight of another. It represented yet to me the 
intolerable sufferings which our Blessed Savior must needs 
undergo, when his body was hanging with all its weight 
upon the nails on the cross. 

20th March, 165 1. I went this night with my wife to 
a ball at the Marquis de Crevecoeur's, where were divers 
princes, dukes, and great persons; but what appeared to 
me very mean was, that it began with a puppet-play. 

6th May, 1651. I attended the ambassador to a masque 
at Court, where the French King in person danced five 
entries, but being engaged in discourse, and better enter- 


tained with one of the Queen- Regent's secretaries, I 
soon left the entertainment. 

nth May, 165 1. To the Palace Cardinal, where the Mas- 
ter of the Ceremonies placed me to see the royal masque, 
or opera. The first scene represented a chariot of sing- 
ers composed of the rarest voices that could be procured, 
representing Comaro* and Temperance; this was over- 
thrown by Bacchus and his revelers; the rest consisted 
of several entries and pageants of excess, by all the ele- 
ments, A masque representing fire was admirable; then 
came a Venus out of the clouds. The conclusion was a 
heaven, whither all ascended. But the glory of the masque 
was the great persons performing in it, the French King, 
his brother the Duke of Anjou, with all the grandees of 
the Court, the King performing to the admiration of all. 
The music was twenty-nine violins, vested h V antique, 
but the habits of the masquers were stupendously rich 
and glorious. 

23d May, 1 65 1. I went to take leave of the ambassa- 
dors for Spain, which were my Lord Treasurer Cotting- 
ton and Sir Edward Hyde; and, as I returned, I visited 
Mr. Morine's garden, and his other rarities, especially 
corals, minerals, stones, and natural curiosities; crabs of 
the Red Sea, the body no bigger than a small bird's &%Z> 
but flatter, and the two legs, or claws, a foot in length. 
He had abundance of shells, at least 1,000 sorts, which 
furnished a cabinet of great price; and had a very curi- 
ous collection of scarabees and insects, of which he was 
compiling a natural history. He had also the pictures of 
his choice flowers and plants in miniature. He told me 
there were 10,000 sorts of tulips only. He had taille- 
douces out of number; the head of the rhinoceros bird, 
which was very extravagant, and one butterfly resembling 
a perfect bird. 

25th May, 165 1. I went to visit Mr. Thomas White, a 
learned priest and famous philosopher,! author of the book 
"De Mundo," with whose worthy brother I was well 

* The famous Venetian writer on Temperance. 

t A native of Essex, who was bom in 1582, educated abroad, and, his 
family being Catholic, became a priest of that church, the sub-rector of 
the college at Douay. He advocated the Cartesian philosophy, and this 
brought him into an extensive correspondence with Hobbes and Des. 
cartes, in the course of which he Latinized his name into Thomas Albius, 
pr De Albis. He died in 1676. 

1651 JOHN EVELYN 263 

acquainted at Rome. I was shown a cabinet of Maroquin, or 
Turkey leather, so curiously inlaid with other leather, and 
gilding, that the workman demanded for it 800 livres. 

The Dean (of Peterborough) preached on the feast of 
Pentecost, perstringing those of Geneva for their irrever- 
ence of the Blessed Virgin. 

4th June, 165 1. Trinity Sunday, I was absent from 
church in the afternoon on a charitable affair for the 
Abbess of Bourcharvant, who but for me had been abused 
by that chemist, Du Menie. Returning, I stepped into the 
Grand Jesuits, who had this high day exposed their Cibarium, 
made all of solid gold and imagery, a piece of infinite 
cost. Dr. Croydon, coming out of Italy and from Padua, 
came to see me, on his return to England. 

5th June, 165 1. I accompanied my Lord Strafford, and 
some other noble persons, to hear Madam Lavaran sing, 
which she did both in French and Italian excellently well, 
but her voice was not strong. 

7th June, 165 1. Corpus Christi Day, there was a grand 
procession, all the streets tapestried, several altars erected 
there, full of images, and other rich furniture, especially 
that before the Court, of a rare design and architecture. 
There were abundance of excellent pictures and great 
vases of silver. 

13th June, 1 65 1. I went to see the collection of one Mon- 
sieur Poignant, which for variety of agates, crystals, onyxes, 
porcelain, medals, statues, relievos, paintings, taille-douces, 
and antiquities, might compare with the Italian virtuosos. 

2ist June, 1 65 1. I became acquainted with Sieur 
William Curtius, a very learned and judicious person of the 
Palatinate. He had been a scholar to Alstedius, the Ency- 
clopedist, was well advanced in years, and now Resident 
for his Majesty at Frankfort. 

2d July, 1 65 1. Came to see me the EarJ of Strafford, 
Lord Ossory and his brother, Sir John Southcott, Sir 
Edward Stawell, two of my Lord Spencer's sons, and Dr. 
Stewart, Dean of St. Paul's, a learned and pious man, 
where we entertained the time upon several subjects, 
especially the affairs of England, and the lamentable 
condition of our Church. The Lord Gerrard also called 
to see my collection of sieges and battles. 

2ist July, 1651. An extraordinary fast was celebrated 
in our Chapel, Dr. Stewart, Dean of St. Paul's, preaching. 

264 DIARY OF Paris 

2d August, 165 1. I went with my wife to Conflans, 
where were abundance of ladies and others bathing in 
the river; the ladies had their tents spread on the 
water for privacy. 

29th August, 1 65 1. Was kept as a solemn fast for 
the calamities of our poor Church, now trampled on 
by the the rebels. Mr. Waller, being at St. Germains, 
desired me to send him a coach from Paris, to bring 
my wife's goddaughter to Paris, to be buried by the 
Common Prayer. 

6th September, 165 1. I went with my wife to St. 
Germains, to condole with Mr. Waller's loss. I carried 
with me and treated at dinner that excellent and pious 
person the Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Stewart, and Sir 
Lewis Dives (half-brother to the Earl of Bristol), who 
entertained us with his wonderful escape out of prison 
in Whitehall, the very evening before he was to have 
been put to death, leaping down out of a jakes two 
stories high into the Thames at high water, in the 
coldest of winter, and at night; so as by swimming he 
got to a boat that attended for him, though he was 
gfuarded by six musketeers. After this, he went about 
in women's habit, and then in a small-coal-man's, travel- 
ing 200 miles on foot, embarked for Scotland with 
some men he had raised, who coming on shore were 
all surprised and imprisoned on the Marquis of Mont- 
rose's score ; he not knowing anything of their barbarous 
murder of that hero. This he told us was his fifth 
escape, and none less miraculous; with this note, that 
the charging through 1,000 men armed, or whatever 
danger could befall a man, he believed could not more 
confound and distract a man's thoughts than the execu- 
tion of a premeditated escape, the passions of hope and 
fear being so strong. This knight was indeed a val- 
iant gentleman ; but not a little given to romance, when 
he spoke of himself. I returned to Paris the same 

7th September, 1651. I went to visit Mr. Hobbes, the 
famous philosopher of Malmesbury, with whom I had 
long acquaintance. From his window we saw the whole 
equipage and glorious cavalcade of the young French 
Monarch, Louis XIV., passing to Parliament, when first 
he took the kingly government on him, now being in his 

W.irrant to ExcciUe King Charles the First, A.D. /64S 

At the High Court 0/ Justice for the trying and judging 0/ Charles 
Steuart, king of England, January 29, Anno Domini 164S. 

Whereas Charles Steuart, king of England, is and standeth cotivicted, 
attaynted, and condemned of high Treason and other high crymes, and 
Sentence uppon Saturday last zuas pronounced against him by this Court to 
be putt to death by the severing of his head from his body, of which Sentence 
execution yet reniayneth to be done : These arc therefore to ivilland require 
you to see the said sentence executed in the open Strcete before Whitehall upon 
the morrow being the Thirtieth day of this instant month of January, 
between the hours of Tenn in the morning and five in the afternoon of the 
same day, with full effect. And for so doing this shall be your sufficient 
warrant. And these are to require all Officers and Soldiery and other the 
good people of this nation of England to be assisting unto you in this Service. 
Given under our hands and Seals. 

To Collonell Ffrancis Hacker 
Colonell Hunks 

and Lieutenant Colonell Phayre, 
and to every of them. 

Jo. Bradshawe 
Tho. Grey 
O. Cromwell 
Edw. Whalley 

F. Livesey 
John Okcy 
J. Danvers 
Jo. Bourchier 
H. Ireton 

Har. Waller 
John Blakiston 
J. Hutchinson 
Will. Goff 
Tho. Pride 

Tho. Maulevercr Pr. Temple 
T. Harrison 
J. Hewson 

Hcfi. Smyth 
Per. Pel ham 
Ri. Deane 
Robert Tichborne 
H. Edwards 
Daniel Blag rave 
Oiven Rowe 
William Per soy 
Adrian Scrape 
James Temple 

A. Garland 
Edm. Ludlowe 
Henry Martcii 
Vincent Potter 
Win. Constable 
Rich. Ingoldsby 
Will. Cawley 
Jo Barkstead 
Isaac Ewer 
Johfi Dixwell 
Valetititie Wauton 

Symon Mayne 
Tho. Horton 
J. Jones 
John Brown 
Gilbert Miliington 
George Fleetwood 
J A lured 
Robert Lilburne 
Will. Gay 
Anth. Staplcy 
Gre. Norton 
Tho. Challoner 

Tho. Wogan 
John Venne 

Gregory Clement 
Jo. Downcs 
Jiio. Wayte 

Tho. Scot 
Jo. Careiv 
Miles Corbet 

Cdarrant to €«calt lUog 

J* » . J3 t<l-ft*^to'^ 




jarle^ a^ im.^.D. 1648. 



1651 JOHN EVELYN 365 

14th year, out of his minority and the Queen Regent's 
pupilage. First came the captan of the King's Aids, at 
the head of 50, richly liveried; next, the Queen-Mother's 
Light Horse, 100, the lieutenant being all over covered 
with embroidery and ribbons, having before him four 
trumpets habited in black velvet, full of lace, and casques 
of the same. Then, the King's Light Horse, 200, richly 
habited, with four trumpets in blue velvet embroidered 
with gold, before whom rode the Count d'Olonne coronet 
[cornet], whose belt was set with pearl. Next went the 
grand Pr^vot's company on foot, with the Pr^vot on 
horseback; after them, the Swiss in black velvet toques, 
led by two gallant cavaliers habited in scarlet-colored 
satin, after their country fashion, which is very fantastic ; 
he had in his cap a pennach of heron, with a band of 
diamonds, and about him twelve little Swiss boys, with 
halberds. Then, came the Aide des C^r ^monies; next, 
the grandees of court, governors of places and lieuten- 
ants-general of provinces, magnificently habited and 
mounted; among whom I must not forget the Chevalier 
Paul, famous for many sea-fights and signal exploits 
there, because it is said he had never been an Academist, 
and yet governed a verj' unruly horse, and besides his 
rich suit his Malta Cross was esteemed at 10,000 crowns. 
These were headed by two trumpets, and the whole 
troop, covered with gold, jewels, and rich caparisons, 
were followed by six trumpets in blue velvet also, pre- 
ceding as many heralds in blue velvet semie with fleurs- 
de-lis, caduces in their hands, and velvet caps on their 
heads; behind them, came one of the masters of the 
ceremonies ; then, divers marshals and many of the nobil- 
ity, exceeding splendid; behind them Count d'Harcourt, 
grand Ecuyer, alone, carrying the King's sword in a 
scarf, which he held up in a blue sheath studded with fleurs- 
de-lis; his horse had for reins two scarfs of black taffet. 
Then came abundance of footmen and pages of the King, 
new-liveried with white and red feathers ; next, the garde 
du corps and other officers ; and lastly, appeared the King 
himself on an Isabella barb, on which a housing semee, 
with crosses of the Order of the Holy Ghost, and fleurs- 
de-lis; the King himself, like a young Apollo, was in a 
suit so covered with rich embroidery, that one could 
perceive nothing of the stuff under it; he went almost 

266 DIARY OF paris 

the whole way with his hat in hand, saluting the ladies 
and acclamators, who had filled the windows with their 
beauty, and the air with Vive le Roi. He seemed a 
prince of a grave yet sweet countenance. After the 
King, followed divers great persons of the Court, ex- 
ceeding splendid, also his esquires; masters of horse, on 
foot; then the company of Exempts des Gardes^ and six 
guards of Scotch. Between their files were divers princes 
of the blood, dukes, and lords; after all these, the 
Queen's guard of Swiss, pages, and footmen; then, the 
Queen-Mother herself, in a rich coach, with Monsieur the 
King's brother, the Duke of Orleans, and some other 
lords and ladies of honor. About the coach, marched 
her Exempts des Gardes: then the company of the King's 
Gens d'armes, well mounted, 150, with four trumpets, 
and as many of the Queen's; lastly, an innumerable 
company of coaches full of ladies and gallants. In this 
equipage, passed the monarch to the Parliament, hence- 
forth exercising his kingly government. 

15th September, 1651. I accompanied Sir Richard 
Browne, my father-in-law, to the French Court, when he 
had a favorable audience of the French King, and the 
Queen, his mother ; congratulating the one on his coming 
to the exercise of his royal charge, and the other's pru- 
dent and happy administration during her late regency, 
desiring both to preserve the same amity for his master, 
our King, as they had hitherto done, which they both 
promised, with many civil expressions and words of 
course upon such occasions. We were accompanied both 
going and returning by the Introductor of Ambassadors 
and Aid of Ceremonies. I also saw the audience of 
Morosini, the Ambassador of Venice, and divers other Min- 
isters of State from German Princes, Savoy, etc. Afterward 
I took a walk in the King's gardens, where I observed 
that the mall goes the whole square there of next the 
wall, and bends with an angle so made as to glance the 
wall; the angle is of stone. There is a basin at the end 
of the garden fed by a noble fountain and high jetto. 
There were in it two or three boats, in which the King 
now and then rows about. In another part is a complete 
fort, made with bastions, graft, half-moons, ravelins, 
and furnished with great guns cast on purpose to instruct 
the King in fortification. 

1651 JOHN EVELYN 267 

226. September, 1651. Arrived the news of the fatal 
battle at Worcester, which exceedingly mortified our ex- 

28th September, 1651. I was shown a collection of 
books and prints made for the Duke of York. 

ist October, 165 1. The Dean of Peterborough [Dr. 
Cosin] preached on Job xiii., verse 15, encouraging our 
trust in God on all events and extremities, and for estab- 
lishing and comforting some ladies of great quality, who 
were then to be discharged from our Queen-Mother's 
service unless they would go over to the Romish Mass. 

The Dean, dining this day at our house, told me the 
occasion of publishing those Ofl&ces, which among the 
Puritans were wont to be called Cosin's cozening Devo- 
tions, by way of derision. At the first coming of the 
Queen into England, she and her French ladies were 
often upbraiding our religion, that had neither appointed 
nor set forth any hours of prayer, or breveries, by which 
ladies and courtiers, who have much spare time, might 
edify and be in devotion, as they had. Our Protestant 
ladies, scandalized it seems at this, moved the matter to 
the King; whereupon his Majesty presently called Bishop 
White to him and asked his thoughts of it, and whether 
there might not be found some forms of prayer proper 
on such occasions, collected out of some already approved 
forms, that so the court ladies and others (who spent 
much time in trifling) might at least appear as devout, 
and be so too, as the new-come-over French ladies, who 
took occasion to reproach our want of zeal and religion. 
On which, the Bishop told his Majesty that it might be 
done easily, and was very necessary; whereupon the 
King commanded him to employ some person of the 
clergy to compile such a Work, and presently the Bishop 
naming Dr. Cosin, the King enjoined him to charge the 
Doctor in his name to set about it immediately. This 
the Dean told me he did; and three months after, bring- 
ing the book to the King, he commanded the Bishop of 
London to read it over, and make his report ; this was so 
well liked, that (contrary to former custom of doing it 
by a chaplain) he would needs give it an imprimatur 
under his own hand. Upon this there were at first only 
200 copies printed; nor, said he, was there anything in 
the whole book of my own composure, nor did I set any 

268 DIARY OF paris 

name as author to it, but those necessary prefaces, etc., 
out of the Fathers, touching the times and seasons of 
prayer; all the rest being entirely translated and col- 
lected out of an Office published by authority of Queen 
Elizabeth, anno 1560, and our own Liturgy. This I 
rather mention to justify that industrious and pious 
Dean, who had exceedingly suffered by it, as if he had 
done it of his own head to introduce Popery, from which 
no man was more averse, and one who in this time of 
temptation and apostacy held and confirmed many to our 

29th October, 165 1. Came news and letters to the 
Queen and Sir Richard Browne (who was the first that had 
intelligence of it) of his Majesty's miraculous escape after 
the fight at Worcester; which exceedingly rejoiced us. 

7th November, 165 1. I visited Sir Kenelm Digby, with 
whom I had much discourse on chemical matters. I 
showed him a particular way of extracting oil of sulphur, 
and he gave me a certain powder with which he affirmed 
that he had fixed (mercury) before the late King. He 
advised me to try and digest a little better, and gave me a 
water which he said was only rain water of the autumnal 
equinox, exceedingly rectified, very volatile ; it had a taste 
of a strong vitriolic, and smelt like aqua fortis. He in- 
tended it for a dissolvent of calx of gold; but the truth 
is. Sir Kenelm was an arrant mountebank. Came news 
of the gallant Earl of Derby's execution by the rebels. 

14th November, 1651. Dr. Clare preached on Genesis 
xxviii., verses 20, 21, 22, upon Jacob's vow, which he 
appositely applied, it being the first Sunday his Majesty 
came to chapel after his escape. I went, in the after- 
noon, to visit the Earl of Norwich; he lay at the Lord 
of Aubigny's. 

i6th November, 165 1. Visited Dean Stewart, who had 
been sick about two days; when, going up to his lodg- 
ing, I found him dead; which affected me much, as be- 
sides his particular affection and love to me, he was of 
incomparable parts and great learning, of exemplary life, 
and a very great loss to the whole church. He was 
buried the next day with all our church's ceremonies, 
many noble persons accompanying the corpse. 

17th November, 165 1. I went to congratulate the mar- 
riage of Mrs. Gardner, maid of honor, lately married to 

1651 JOHN EVELYN 269 

that odd person, Sir Henry Wood: but riches do many 

To see Monsieur Febur's course of chemistry, where I 
found Sir Kenelm Digby, and divers curious persons of 
learning and quality. It was his first opening the course 
and preliminaries, in order to operations. 

ist December, 1651. I now resolved to return to 

3d December, 1651. Sir Lewis Dives dined with us, 
who relating some of his adventures, showed me divers 
pieces of broad gold, which, being in his pocket in a 
fight, preserved his life by receiving a musket bullet on 
them, which deadened its violence, so that it went no 
further ; but made such a stroke on the gold as fixed the 
impressions upon one another, battering and bending 
several of them ; the bullet itself was flatted, and retained 
on it the color of the gold. He assured us that of a 
hundred of them, which it seems he then had in his 
pocket, not one escaped without some blemish. He 
affirmed that his being protected by a Neapolitan Prince, 
who connived at his bringing some horses into France, 
contrary to the order of the Viceroy, by assistance of 
some banditti, was the occasion of a difference between 
those great men, and consequently of the late civil war 
in that kingdom, the Viceroy having killed the Prince 
standing on his defense at his own castle. He told me 
that the second time of the Scots coming into England, 
the King was six times their number, and might easily 
have beaten them; but was betrayed, as were all other 
his designs and counsels, by some, even of his bed- 
chamber, meaning M. Hamilton, who copied Montrose's 
letters from time to time when his Majesty was asleep. 

nth December, 1651. Came to visit me, Mr. Obadiah 
Walker, of University College, with his two pupils, the 
sons of my worthy friend, Henry Hyldiard, Esq., whom 
I had recommended to his care. 

2 1 St December, 165 1. Came to visit my wife, Mrs, 
Lane,* the lady who conveyed the King to the seaside 
at his escape from Worcester. Mr. John Cosin, son of 

* Sister of Colonel Lane, an English officer in the army of Charles II. 
dispersed at the battle of Worcester. She assisted the King in effecting 
his escape after that battle, his Majesty traveling with her disguised as 
her serving man, William Jackson. 


the Dean, debauched by the priests, wrote a letter to 
me to mediate for him with his father, I prepared for 
my last journey, being now resolved to leave France 

25th December, 1651. The King and Duke received 
the Sacrament first by themselves, the Lords Byron and 
Wilmot holding the long towel all along the altar. 

26th December, 1651. Came news of the death of that 
rebel, Ireton. 

31st December, 165 1. Preached Dr. Wolley, after which 
was celebrated the Holy Communion, which I received 
also, preparative of my journey, being now resolved to 
leave France altogether, and to return God Almighty 
thanks for His gracious protection of me this past 

2d January, 1651-52. News of my sister Glanville's 
death in childbed, which exceedingly affected me. 

I went to one Mark Antonio, an incomparable artist in 
enameling. He wrought by the lamp figures in boss, of 
a large size, even to the life, so that nothing could be 
better molded. He told us stories of a Genoese jeweler, 
who had the great arcanum, and had made projection 
before him several times. He met him at Cyprus trav- 
eling into Egypt; in his return from whence, he died at 
sea, and the secret with him, that else he had promised 
to have left it to him ; that all his effects were seized on, 
and dissipated by the Greeks in the vessel, to an immense 
value. He also affirmed, that being in a goldsmith's shop 
at Amsterdam, a person of very low stature came in, and 
desired the goldsmith to melt him a pound of lead ; which 
done, he unscrewed the pommel of his sword, and taking 
out of a little box a small quantity of powder, casting it 
into the crucible, poured an ingot out, which when cold 
he took up, saying, * Sir, you will be paid for your lead 
in the crucible,* and so went out immediately. When he 
was gone the goldsmith found four ounces of good gold in 
it; but could never set eye again on the little man, though 
he sought all the city for him. Antonio asserted this 
with great obtestation; nor know I what to think of it, 
there are so many impostors and people who love to tell 
strange stories, as this artist did, who had been a great 
rover, and spoke ten different languages. 

13th January, 1652. I took leave of Mr. Waller, who, 

1651-52 JOHN EVELYN 271 

having been proscribed by the rebels, had obtained of 
them permission to return, was going to England. 

29th Januar}', 1652. Abundance of my French and Eng- 
lish friends and some Germans came to take leave of me, 
and I set out in a coach for Calais, in an exceedingly hard 
frost which had continued for some time. We got that 
night to Beaumont; 30th, to Beauvais; 31st, we found the 
ways very deep with snow, and it was exceedingly cold; 
dined at Pois ; lay at Pem^e, a miserable cottage of miser- 
able people in a wood, wholly unfurnished, but in a little 
time we had sorry beds and some provision, which they 
told me they hid in the wood for fear of the frontier 
enemy, the garrisons near them continually plundering 
what they had. They were often infested with wolves. 
I cannot remember that I ever saw more miserable 

ist February, 1652. I dined at Abbeville; 2d, dined at 
Montreuil, lay at Boulogne ; 3d, came to Calais, by eleven 
in the morning ; I thought to have embarked in the even- 
ing, but, for fear of pirates plying near the coast, I dared 
not trust our small vessel, and stayed till Monday follow- 
ing, when two or three lusty vessels were to depart. 

I brought with me from Paris Mr. Christopher Wase, 
sometime before made to resign his Fellowship in King's 
College, Cambridge, because he would not take the Cove- 
nant. He had been a soldier in Flanders, and came 
miserable to Paris. From his excellent learning, and 
some relation he had to Sir R. Browne, I bore his charges 
into England, and clad and provided for him, till he 
should find some better condition ; and he was worthy of 
it. There came with us also Captain Griffith, Mr. Tyrell, 
brother to Sir Timothy Tyrell, of Shotover (near Oxford). 

At Calais, I dined with my Lord Wentworth, and met 
with Mr. Heath, Sir Richard Lloyd, Captain Paine, and 
divers of our banished friends, of whom understanding 
that the Count de la Strade, Governor of Dunkirk, was 
in the town, who had bought my wife's picture, taken by 
pirates at sea the year before (my wife having sent it 
for me in England), as my Lord of Norwich had informed 
me at Paris, I made my address to him, who frankly told 
me that he had such a picture in his own bedchamber 
among other ladies, and how he came by it; seeming 
well pleased that it was his fortune to preserve it for me, 


and he generously promised to send it to any friend I 
had at Dover ; I mentioned a French merchant there and 
so took my leave. 

6th February, 1652. I embarked early in the packet 
boat, but put my goods in a stouter vessel. It was calm, 
so that we got not to Dover till eight at night. I took 
horse for Canterbury, and lay at Rochester; next day, to 
Gravesend, took a pair of oars, and landed at Sayes Court, 
where I stayed three days to refresh, and look after my 
packet and goods, sent by a stouter vessel. I went to 
visit my cousin, Richard Fanshawe, and divers other 

6th March, 1652. Saw the magnificent funeral of that 
arch-rebel, Ireton, carried in pomp from Somerset House 
to Westminster, accompanied with divers regiments of 
soldiers, horse and foot; then marched the mourners, 
Greneral Cromwell (his father-in-law), his mock-parlia- 
ment-men, officers, and forty poor men in gowns, three 
led horses in housings of black cloth, two led in black 
velvet, and his charging horse, all covered over with em- 
broidery and gold, on crimson velvet ; then the guidons, en- 
signs, four heralds, carrying the arms of the State (as 
they called it), namely, the red cross and Ireland, with the 
casque, wreath, sword, spurs, etc. ; next, a chariot can- 
opied of black velvet, and six horses, in which was the 
corpse; the pall held up by the mourners on foot; the 
mace and sword, with other marks of his charge in Ire- 
land (where he died of the plague), carried before in 
black scarfs. Thus, in a grave pace, drums covered with 
cloth, soldiers reversing their arms, they proceeded 
through the streets in a very solemn manner. This Ire- 
ton was a stout rebel, and had been very bloody to the 
King's party, witness his severity at Colchester, when in 
cold blood he put to death those gallant gentlemen, Sir 
Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle. My cousin, R. 
Fanshawe, came to visit me, and informed me of many 
considerable affairs. Sir Henry Herbert presented me 
with his brother, my Lord Cherbury's book, '-'•De Veritate. * 

9th March, 1652. I went to Deptford, where I made 
preparation for my settlement, no more intending to go 
out of England, but endeavor a settled life, either in 
this or some other place, there being now so little 
appearance of any change for the better, all being entirely 

1654 JOHN EVELYN 273 

in the rebels' hands; and this particular habitation and 
the estate contiguous to it (belonging to my father-in- 
law, actually in his Majesty's service) very much suffer- 
ing for want of some friend to rescue it out of the power 
of the usurpers, so as to preserve our interest, and take 
some care of my other concerns, by the advice and 
endeavor of my friends I was advised to reside in it, 
and compound with the soldiers. This I was besides 
authorized by his Majesty to do, and encouraged with 
a promise that what was in lease from the Crown, if 
ever it pleased God to restore him, he would secure 
to us in fee farm. I had also addresses and cyphers, to 
correspond with his Majesty and Ministers abroad: upon 
all which inducements, I was persuaded to settle hence- 
forth in England, having now run about the world, most 
part out of my own country, near ten years. I therefore 
now likewise meditated sending over for my wife, whom 
as yet I had left at Paris. 

14th March, 1652. I went to Lewisham, where I heard 
an honest sermon on i Cor, ii. 5-7, being the first Sun- 
day I had been at church since my return, it being now 
a rare thing to find a priest of the Church of England 
in a parish pulpit, most of which were filled with Inde- 
pendents and Fanatics. 

15th March, 1652. I saw the * Diamond** and "Ruby** 
launched in the Dock at Deptford, carrying forty-eight 
brass cannon each; Cromwell and his grandees present, 
with great acclamations. 

i8th March, 1652. That worthy divine, Mr. Owen, of 
Eltham, a sequestered person, came to visit me. 

19th March, 1652. Invited by Lady Gerrard, I went 
to London, where we had a great supper; all the vessels, 
which were innumerable, were of porcelain, she having 
the most ample and richest collection of that curiosity in 

2 2d March, 1652. I went with my brother Evelyn to 
Wotton, to give him what directions I was able about 
his garden, which he was now desirous to put into some 
form; but for which he was to remove a mountain over- 
grown with huge trees and thicket, with a moat within 
ten yards of the house. This my brother immediately 
attempted, and that without great cost, for more than a 
hundred yards south, by digging down the mountain, 

274 DIARY OF London 

and flinging it into a rapid stream; it not only carried 
away the sand, etc., but filled up the moat, and leveled 
that noble area, where now the garden and fountain is. 
The first occasion of my brother making this alteration 
was my building the little retiring place between the 
great wood eastward next the meadow, where, some time 
after my father's death, I made a triangular pond, or 
little stew, with an artificial rock after my coming out 
of Flanders. 

29th March, 1652. I heard that excellent prelate, the 
primate of Ireland (Jacobus Usher) preach in Lin- 
coln's Inn, on Heb. iv. 16, encouragping of penitent sin- 

5th April, 1652. My brother George brought to Sayes 
Court Cromwells Act of Oblivion to all that would sub- 
mit to the Government. 

13th April, 1652. News was brought me that Lady 
Cotton, my brother George's wife was delivered of a son. 

I was moved by a letter out of France to publish the 
letter which some time since I sent to Dean Cosin's pros- 
elyted son; but I did not conceive it convenient, for 
fear of displeasing her Majesty, the Queen. 

15th April, 1652. I wrote to the Dean, touching my 
buying his library, which was one of the choicest collec- 
tions of any private person in England. 

The Count de Strade most generously and handsomely 
sent me the picture of my wife from Dunkirk, in a large 
tin case without any charge. It is of Mr. Bourdon, and 
is that which has the dog in it, and is to the knees, but 
it has been somewhat spoiled by washing it ignorantly 
with soapsuds. 

25th April, 1652. I went to visit Alderman Kendrick, 
a fanatic Lord Mayor, who had married a relation of ours, 
where I met with a Captain who had been thirteen times 
to the East Indies. 

29th April, 1652. Was that celebrated eclipse of the 
sun, so much threatened by the astrologers, and which 
had so exceedingly alarmed the whole nation that hardly 
any one would work, nor stir out of their houses. So 
ridiculously were they abused by knavish and ignorant 

We went this afternoon to see the Qtieen's house at 
Greenwich, now given by the rebels to Bulstrode White- 

1652 JOHN EVELYN 275 

locke, one of their unhappy counselors, and keeper of 
pretended liberties. 

loth May, 1652. Passing by Smithfield, I saw a miser- 
able creature burning, who had murdered her husband, 
I went to see some workmanship of that admirable artist, 
Reeves, famous for perspective, and turning curiosities in 

29th May, 1652. I went to give order about a coach 
to be made against my wife's coming, being my first 
coach, the pattern whereof I brought out of Paris. 

30th May, 1652. I went to obtain of my Lord Devon- 
'shire that my nephew, George, might be brought up 
with my young Lord, his son, to whom I was recom- 
mending Mr. Wase. I also inspected the manner of 
camleting silk and grograms at one Monsieur La Dories 
in Moor-fields, and thence to Colonel Morley, one of their 
Council of State, as then called, who had been my school- 
fellow, to request a pass for my wife's safe landing, and 
the goods she was to bring with her out of France ; which 
he courteously granted, and did me many other kind- 
nesses, that was a great matter in those days. 

In the afternoon, at Charlton church, where I heard a 
Rabinical sermon. Here is a fair monument in black 
marble of Sir Adam Newton, who built that fair house 
near it for Prince Henry, and where my noble friend. 
Sir Henry Newton, succeeded him. 

3d June, 1652. I received a letter from Colonel Mor- 
ley to the Magistrates and Searchers at Rye, to assist 
my wife at her landing, and show her all civility. 

4th June, 1652. I set out to meet her now on her 
journey from Paris, after she had obtained leave to come 
out of that city, which had now been besieged some 
time by the Prince of Condi's army in the time of the 
rebellion, and after she had been now near twelve years 
from her own country, that is, since five years of age, 
at which time she went over. I went to Rye to meet 
her, where was an embargo on occasion of the late con- 
flict with the Holland fleet, the two nations being now 
in war, and which made sailing very unsafe. 

On Whit Sunday, I went to the church (which is a very 
fair one), and heard one of the canters, who dismissed 
the assembly rudely, and without any blessing. Here I 
stayed till the loth with no. small impatience, when I 

2y6 DIARY OP tunbridge 

walked over to survey the ruins of Winchelsea, that an- 
cient cinq-port, which by the remains and ruins of ancient 
streets and public structures, discovers it to have been 
formerly a considerable and large city. There are to be 
seen vast caves and vaults, walls and towers, ruins of 
monasteries and of a sumptuous church, in which are 
some handsome monuments, especially of the Templars, 
buried just in the manner of those in the Temple at 
London. This place being now all in rubbish, and a few 
despicable hovels and cottages only standing, hath yet a 
Mayor. The sea, which formerly rendered it a rich and 
commodious port, has now forsaken it. 

nth June, 1652. About four in the afternoon, being 
at bowls on the green, we discovered a vessel which 
proved to be that in which my wife was, and which got 
into the harbor about eight that evening, to my no small 
joy. They had been three days at sea, and escaped the 
Dutch fleet, through which they passed, taken for fishers, 
which was great good fortune, there being seventeen 
bales of furniture and other rich plunder, which I bless 
God came all safe to land, together with my wife, and 
my Lady Browne, her mother, who accompanied her. 
My wife being discomposed by having been so long at 
sea, we set not forth toward home till the 14th, when, 
hearing the smallpox was very rife in and about London, 
and Lady Browne having a desire to drink Tunbridge 
waters, I carried them thither, and stayed in a very 
sweet place, private and refreshing, and took the waters 
myself till the 23d, when I went to prepare for their 
reception, leaving them for the present in their little 
cottage by the Wells. 

The weather being hot, and having sent my man on 
before, I rode negligently under favor of the shade, till, 
within three miles of Bromley, at a place called the 
Procession Oak, two cutthroats started out, and striking 
with long staves at the horse, and taking hold of the 
reins, threw me down, took my sword, and hauled me 
into a deep thicket, some quarter of a mile from the high- 
way, where they might securely rob me, as they soon 
did. What they got of money, was not considerable, 
but they took two rings, the one an emerald with dia- 
monds, the other an onyx, and a pair of buckles set 
with rubies and diamonds, which were of value, and 

1652 JOHN EVELYN 277 

after all bound my hands behind me, and my feet, hav- 
ing before pulled off my boots; they then set me up 
against an oak, with most bloody threats to cut my throat 
if I offered to cry out, or make any noise; for they 
should be within hearing, I not being the person they 
looked for. I told them that if they had not basely sur- 
prised me they should not have had so easy a prize, 
and that it would teach me never to ride near a hedge, 
since, had I been in the midway, they dared not have 
adventured on me; at which they cocked their pistols, 
and told me they had long guns, too, and were fourteen 
companions. I begged for my onyx, and told them it 
being engraved with my arms would betray them; but 
nothing prevailed. My horse's bridle they slipped, and 
searched the saddle, which they pulled off, but let the 
horse graze, and then turning again bridled him and 
tied him to a tree, yet so as he might graze, and thus 
left me bound. My horse was perhaps not taken, be- 
cause he was marked and cropped on both ears, and 
well known on that road. Left in this manner, griev- 
ously was I tormented with flies, ants, and the sun, nor 
was my anxiety little how I should get loose in that 
solitary place, where I could neither hear nor see any 
creature but my poor horse and a few sheep straggling 
in the copse. 

After near two hours attempting, I got my hands to turn 
palm to palm, having been tied back to back, and then it was 
long before I could slip the cord over my wrists to 
my thumb, which at last I did, and then soon un- 
bound my feet, and saddling my horse and roaming 
a while about, I at last perceived dust to rise, and 
soon after heard the rattling of a cart, toward which 
I made, and, by the help of two countrymen, I got 
back into the highway. I rode to Colonel Blount's, a 
great justiciary of the times, who sent out hue and 
cry immediately. The next morning, sore as my wrists 
and arms were, I went to London, and got 500 tickets 
printed and dispersed by an officer of Goldsmiths' Hall, 
and within two days had tidings of all I had lost, ex- 
cept my sword, which had a silver hilt, and some trifles. 
The rogues had pawned one of my rings for a trifle 
to a goldsmith's servant, before the tickets came to 
the shop, by which means they escaped; the other 


ring was bought by a victualer, who brought it to a 
goldsmith, but he having seen the ticket seized the 
man. I afterward discharged him on his protestation 
of innocence. Thus did God deliver me from these 
villains, and not only so, but restored what they took, 
as twice before he had graciously done, both at sea and 
land, I mean when I had been robbed by pirates, and 
was in danger of a considerable loss at Amsterdam; for 
which, and many, many signal preservations, I am ex- 
tremely obliged to give thanks to God my Savior. 

25th June, 1652. After a drought of near four months, 
there fell so violent a tempest of hail, rain, wind, thun- 
der, and lightning, as no man had seen the like in his 
age; the hail being in some places four or five inches 
about, broke all glass about London, especially at Dept- 
ford, and more at Greenwich. 

29th June, 1652. I returned to Tunbridge, and again 
drank the water, till loth of July. 

We went to see the house of my Lord Clanrickarde 
at Summer hill, near Tunbridge (now given to that 
villain, Bradshawe, who condemned the King). 'Tis 
situated on an eminent hill, with a park ; but has nothing 
else extraordinary. 

4th July, 1652. I heard a sermon at Mr. Packer's 
chapel at Groomsbridge, a pretty melancholy seat, well 
wooded and watered. In this house was one of the 
French kings* kept prisoner. The chapel was built 
by Mr. Packer's father, in remembrance of King Charles 
the First's safe return out of Spain. 

9th July, 1652. We went to see Penshurst, the Earl 
of Leicester's, famous once for its gardens and excel- 
lent fruit, and for the noble conversation which was 
wont to meet there, celebrated by that illustrious per- 
son. Sir Philip Sidney, who there composed divers of 
his pieces. It stands in a park, is finely watered, and 
was now full of company, on the marriage of my old 
fellow-collegiate, Mr. Robert Smith, who married my 
Lady Dorothy Sidney, widow of the Earl of Sunderland. 

One of the men who robbed me was taken; I was ac- 
cordingly summoned to appear against him; and, on the 

•The Duke of Orleans, taken at the battle of Agpincourt, 4 Hen. 
v., by Richard Waller, then owner of this place. See Hasted'3 
• Kent,» vol. i., p. 431. 


lath, was in Westminster Hall, but not being bound 
over, nor willing to hang the fellow, I did not appear, 
coming only to save a friend's bail; but the bill being 
found, he was turned over to the Old Bailey. In the 
meantime, I received a petition from the prisoner, whose 
father I understood was an honest old farmer in Kent. 
He was charged, with other crimes, and condemned, but 
reprieved. I heard afterward that, had it not been for 
his companion, a younger man, he would probably have 
killed me. He was afterward charged with some other 
crime, but, refusing to plead, was pressed to death. 

23d July, 1652. Came my old friend, Mr. Spencer, to 
visit me. 

30th July, 1652. I took advice about purchasing Sir 
Richard's [ Browne ] interest of those who had bought 
Sayes Court. 

ist August, 1652. Came old Jerome Lennier, of Green- 
wich, a man skilled in painting and music, and another 
rare musician, called Mell. I went to see his collection 
of pictures, especially those of Julio Romano, which surely 
had been the King's, and an Egyptian figure, etc. There 
were also excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, 
and Tintoretto. Lennier had been a domestic of Queen 
Elizabeth, and showed me her head, an intaglio in a rare 
sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me 
was exceedingly like her. 

24th August, 1652. My first child, a son, was bom 
precisely at one o'clock. 

2d September, 1652. Mr. Owen, the sequestered divine, 
of Eltham, christened my son by the name of Rich- 

2 2d September, 1652. I went to Woodcott, where Lady 
Browne was taken with scarlet fever, and died. She 
was carried to Deptford, and interred in the church near 
Sir Richard's relations with all decent ceremonies, and 
according to the church-ofl!ice, for which I obtained per- 
mission, after it had not been used in that church for 
seven years. Thus ended an excellent and virtuous lady, 
universally lamented, having been so obliging on all oc- 
casions to those who continually frequented her house in 
Paris, which was not only an hospital, but an asylum to 
all our persecuted and afflicted countrymen, during eleven 
years' residence there in that honorable situation. 

28o DIARY OF saves court 

25th September, 1652. I went to see Dr. Mason's house, 
so famous for the prospect (for the house is a wretched 
one) and description of Barclay's *-*- Icon Animarum?^* 

5th November, 1652. To London, to visit some friends, 
but the insolences were so great in the streets that I 
could not return till the next day. 

Dr. Scarborough was instant with me to give the Tables 
of Veins and Arteries to the College of Physicians, pre- 
tending he would not only read upon them, but celebrate 
my curiosity as being the first who caused them to be 
completed in that manner, and with, that cost ; but I was 
not so willing yet to part with them, as to lend them to 
the College during their anatomical lectures; which I did 

2 2d November, 1652. I went to London, where was 
proposed to me the promoting that great work (since 
accomplished by Dr. Walton, Bishop of Chester), *^Biblia 
Polyglot t a, ^'* by Mr. Pierson, that most learned divine. 

25th December, 1652. Christmas day, no sermon any- 
where, no church being permitted to be open, so observed 
it at home. The next day, we went to Lewisham, where 
an honest divine preached. 

31st December, 1652. I adjusted all accompts, and 
rendered thanks to Almighty God for his mercies to me 
the year past. 

ist January, 1652-53. I set apart in preparation for the 
Blessed Sacrament, which the next day Mr. Owen ad- 
ministered to me and all my family in Sayes Court, 
preaching on John vi. 32, ^^t^ showing the exceeding 
benefits of our blessed Savior taking our nature upon 
him. He had christened my son and churched my wife 
in our own house as before noticed. 

17th January, 1653. I began to set out the oval garden 
at Sayes Court, which was before a rude orchard, and 

*The book here referred to is in the British Museum, entitled 
^^/oannis Barclaii Icon Amntarum,^^ and printed at London, 1614, 
small i2mo. It is written in Latin, and dedicated to Louis XIII. 
of France, for what reason does not appear, the author speaking ot 
himself as a subject of this country. It mentions the necessity of 
forming the minds of youth, as a skillful gardener forms his trees ; the 
different dispositions of men, in different nations; English, Scotch, 
and Irish, etc. Chapter second contains a florid description of the 
beautiful scenery about Greenwich, but does not mention Dr. Mason, 
or his bouse, 

1652-53 JOHN EVELYN 281 

all the rest one entire field of 100 acres, without any 
hedge, except the hither holly hedge joining to the bank 
of the mount walk. This was the beginning of all the 
succeeding gardens, walks, groves, inclosures, and plan- 
tations there. 

2ist January, 1653. I went to London, and sealed 
some of the writings of my purchase of Sayes Court. 

30th January, 1653. At our own parish church, a 
stranger preached. There was now and then an honest 
orthodox man got into the pulpit, and, though the present 
incumbent was somewhat of the Independent, yet he 
ordinarily preached sound doctrine, and was a peaceable 
man; which was an extraordinary felicity in this age. 

I St February, 1653. Old Alexander Rosse (author of 
« Virgiliiis Evangelizans^^'* and many other little books) 
presented me with his book against Mr. Hobbes's " Levi- 
athan. * 

19th February, 1653. I planted the orchard at Sayes 
Court; new moon, wind west. 

2 2d February, 1653. Was perfected the sealing, livery, 
and seisin of my purchase of Sayes Court. My brother, 
George Glanville, Mr. Scudamore, Mr. OflSey, Co. Wil- 
liam Glanville (son to Sergeant Glanville, sometime 
Speaker of the House of Commons), Co. Stephens, and 
several of my friends dining with me. I had bargained 
for ;^3,2oo, but I paid ^3,500. 

25th March, 1653 Came to see me that rare graver in 
taille-douce, Monsieur Richett, he was sent by Cardinal 
Mazarine to make a collection of pictures. 

nth April, 1653 I went to take the air in Hyde 
Park, where every coach was made to pay a shilling, 
and horse sixpence, by the sordid fellow who had pur- 
chased it of the state, as they called it. 

17th May, 1653. My servant Hoare, who wrote those 
exquisite several hands, fell of a fit of an apoplexy, 
caused, as I suppose, by tampering with mercury about 
an experiment in gold. 

29th May, 1653. I went to London, to take my last 
leave of my honest friend, Mr. Barton, now dying; it 
was a great loss to me and to my affairs. On the 
sixth of June, I attended his funeral. 

8th June, 1653. Came my brother George, Captain 
Evelyn, the ^eat traveler, Mr. Muschamp, my cousin, 


Thomas Keightly, and a virtuoso, fastastical Simons, 
who had the talent of embossing so to the life. 

9th June, 1653. I went to visit my worthy neighbor, 
Sir Henry Newton [at Charlton], and consider the pros- 
pect, which is doubtless for city, river, ships, mea- 
dows, hill, woods, and all other amenities, one of the 
most noble in the world; so as, had the house running 
water, it were a princely seat. Mr. Henshaw and his 
brother-in-law came to visit me, and he presented me 
with a seleniscope. 

19th June, 1653. This day, I paid all my debts to a 
farthing; oh, blessed day! 

2ist June, 1653. My Lady Gerrard, and one Esquire 
Knight, a very rich gentleman, living in Northampton- 
shire, visited me. 

23d June, 1653, Mr. Lombart, a famous graver, came 
to see my collections. 

27th June, 1653. Monsieur Roupel sent me a small 
phial of his aurum potabile, with a letter, showing the 
way of administering it, and the stupendous cures it 
had done at Paris; but, ere it came to me, by what 
accident I know not, it was all run out. 

17th August, 1653. I went to visit Mr. Hyldiard, at 
his house at Horsley (formerly the great Sir Walter 
Raleigh's*), where met me Mr, Oughtred, the famous 
mathematician ; he showed me a box, or golden case, of 
divers rich and aromatic balsams, which a chemist, a 
scholar of his, had sent him out of Germany. 

2ist August, 1653. I heard that good old man, Mr. 
Higham, the parson of the parish of Wotton where I was 
bom, and who had baptized me, preach after his very 
plain way on Luke, comparing this troublesome world to 
the sea, the ministers to the fishermen, and the saints to 
the fish. 

2 2d August, 1653. We all went to Guildford, to rejoice 
at the famous inn, the Red Lion, and to see the hospital, 
and the monument of Archbishop Abbot, the founder, 
who lies buried in the chapel of his endowment. 

28th September, 1653. At Greenwich preached that 
holy martyr. Dr. Hewer, on Psalm xc. 11, magnifying 
the g^ace of God to penitents, and threatening the 

♦Eveljm is here in error: Mr. Hyldiard •^as of East Horsley, Sir 
Walter of West 

1653-54 JOHN EVELYN 283 

extinction of his Gospel light for the prodigious impiety 
of the age. 

nth October, 1653. My son, John Stansfield, was born, 
being my second child, and christened by the name of 
my mother's father, that name now quite extinct, 
being of Cheshire. Christened by Mr. Owen, in my 
library, at Sayes Court, where he afterward churched my 
wife, I always making use of him on these occasions, be- 
cause the parish minister dared not have officiated ac- 
cording to the form and usage of the Church of England, 
to which I always adhered. 

25th October, 1653. Mr. Owen preached in my library 
at Sayes Court on Luke xviii. 7, 8, an excellent discourse 
on the unjust judge, showing why Almighty God would 
sometimes be compared by such similitudes. He after- 
ward administered to us all the Holy Sacrament. 

28th October, 1653. Went to London, to visit my Lady 
Gerrard, where I saw that cursed woman called the Lady 
Norton, of whom it was reported that she spit in our 
King's face as he went to the scaffold. Indeed, her talk 
and discourse was like an impudent woman. 

2ist November, 1653. I went to London, to speak with 
Sir John Evelyn, my kinsman, about the purchase of an 
estate of Mr. Lambard's at Westeram, which afterward 
Sir John himself bought for his son-in-law. Leech. 

4th December, 1653. Going this day to our church, I 
was surprised to see a tradesman, a mechanic, step up; 
I was resolved yet to stay and see what he would make 
of it. His text was from 2 Sam. xxiii. 20 : << And Benaiah 
went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in 
the time of snow ^* ; the purport was, that no danger was 
to be thought difficult when God called for shedding of 
blood, inferring that now the saints were called to de- 
stroy temporal governments ; with such feculent stuff ; so 
dangerous a crisis were things grown to. 

25th December, 1653. Christmas day. No churches, or 
public assembly. I was fain to pass the devotions of that 
Blessed day with my family at home. 

20th January, 1653-54. Come to see my old acquaint- 
ance and the most incomparable player on the Irish harp, 
Mr. Clark,* after his travels. He was an excellent musi- 
cian, a discreet gentleman, born in Devonshire (as I re- 

*See under the year 1688, November. 

284 DIARY OF London 

member). Such music before or since did I never hear, that 
instrument being neglected for its extraordinary difficulty ; 
but, in my judgment, far superior to the lute itself, or 
whatever speaks with strings. 

25th January, 1654. Died my son, J. Stansfield, of con- 
vulsion fits; buried at Deptford on the the east comer 
of the church, near his mother's great-grandfather, and 
other relatives. 

8th February, 1654. Ash Wednesday. In contradiction 
to all custom and decency, the usurper, Cromwell, feasted 
at the Lord Mayor's, riding in triumph through the 

14th February, 1654. I saw a tame lion play familiarly 
with a lamb ; he was a huge beast, and I thrust my hand 
into his mouth and found his tongue rough like a cat's ; 
a sheep also with six legs, whicL made use of five of 
them to walk ; a goose that had four legs, two crops, and 
as many vents. 

29th March, 1654. That excellent man, Mr. Owen, 
preached in my library on Matt, xxviii. 6, a resurrection 
sermon, and after it we all received the Holy Com- 

6th April, 1654. Came my Lord Herbert, Sir Kenelm 
Digby, Mr. Denham, and other friends to see me. 

15th April, 1654. I went to London to hear the fa- 
mous Jeremy Taylor ( since Bishop of Down and Connor ) 
at St. Gregory's ( near St. Paul's ) on Matt, vi, 48, con- 
cerning evangelical perfection. 

5th May, 1654. I bound my lackey, Thomas Headly, 
apprentice to a carpenter, giving with him five pounds 
and new clothing; he thrived very well, and became rich. 

8th May, 1654. I went to Hackney, to see Lady Brook's 
garden, which was one of the neatest and most cele- 
brated in England, the house well furnished, but a 
despicable building. Returning, visited one Mr. Tomb's 
garden ; it has large and noble walks, some modem statiies, 
a vineyard, planted in strawberry borders, staked at ten 
feet distances, the banqueting-house of cedar, where the 
couch and seats were carved h Vantique; some good pic- 
tures in the house, especially one of Vandyke's, being a 
man in his shirt; also some of Stenwyck. I also called 
at Mr, Ducie's, who has indeed a rare collection of the 
best masters, and one of the largest stories of H- HqI- 


The letter to the Duke of Savoy to stop' the persecution of thf 
Protestants of Piedmont, 1635. ■ Photogravure from an rn- 
gratnng by Sartain after Newenham 

1654 JOHN EVELYN 285 

bein. I also saw Sir Thomas Fowler's aviary, which is 
a poor business. 

loth May, 1654. My Lady Gerrard treated tis at Mul- 
berry Garden, now the only place of refreshment about 
the town for persons of the best quality to be exceedingly 
cheated at; Cromwell and his partisans having shut up 
and seized on Spring Garden, which, till now, had been 
the usual rendezvous for the ladies and gallants at this 

nth May, 1654. I now observed how the women be- 
gan to paint themselves, formerly a most ignominious 
thing, and used only by prostitutes. 

14th May, 1654. There being no such thing as church 
anniversaries in the parochial assemblies, I was forced 
to provide at home for Whit Sunday. 

15th May, 1654. Came Sir Robert Stapylton, the trans- 
lator of "Juvenal," to visit me. 

8th June, 1654. My wife and I set out in a coach and 
four horses, in our way to visit relations of hers in Wilt- 
shire, and other parts, where we resolved to spend some 
months. We dined at Windsor, saw the Castle and Chapel 
of St. George, where they have laid our blessed Mart}T, 
King Charles, in the vault just before the altar. The 
church and workmanship in stone is admirable. The 
Castle itself is large in circumference; but the rooms 
melancholy, and of ancient magnificence. The keep, or 
mount, hath, besides its incomparable prospect, a very 
profound well ; and the terrace toward Eton, with the park, 
meandering Thames, and sweet meadows, yield one of the 
most delighful prospects. That night, we lay at Reading. 
Saw my Lord Craven's house at Causam [Caversham], 
now in ruins, his goodly woods felling by the Rebels. 

9th June, 1654. Dined at Marlborough, which having 
been lately fired, was now new built. At one end of this 
town, we saw my Lord Seymour's house, but nothing ob- 
servable save the Mount, to which we ascended by wind- 
ings for near half a mile. It seems to have been cast up 
by hand. We passed by Colonel Pophams, a noble seat, 
park, and river. Thence, to Newbury, a considerable town, 
and Donnington, famous for its battle, siege, and castle, 
this last had been in the possession of old Geoffrey 
Chaucer. Then to Aldermaston, a house of Sir Humphrey 
Forster's, built h la moderne. Also, that exceedingly 

286 DIARY OF oxford 

beautiful seat of my Lord Pembroke, on the ascent of a 
hill, flanked with wood, and regarding the river, and so, 
at night, to Cadenham, the mansion of Edward Hunger- 
ford, Esq., uncle to my wife, where we made some stay. 
The rest of the week we did nothing but feast and make 
good cheer, to welcome my wife. 

27th June, 1654. We all went to see Bath, where I 
bathed in the cross bath. Among the rest of the idle 
diversions of the town, one musician was famous 
for acting a changeling, which indeed he personated 

The faccidta of this cathedral is remarkable for its 
historical carving. The King's Bath is esteemed the 
fairest in Europe. The town is entirely built of stone, 
but the streets narrow, uneven and unpleasant. Here, 
we trifled and bathed, and intervisited with the company 
who frequent the place for health, till the 30th, and then 
went to Bristol, a city emulating London, not for its 
large extent, but manner of building, shops, bridge, 
traffic, exchange, market-place, etc. The governor showed 
us the castle, of no great concernment. The city wholly 
mercantile, as standing near the famous Severn, com- 
modiously for Ireland, and the Western world. Here I 
first saw the manner of refining sugar and casting it into 
loaves, where we had a collection of eggs fried in the 
sugar furnace, together with excellent Spanish wine. 
But, what appeared most stupendous to me, was the rock 
of St. Vincent, a little distance from the town, the prec- 
ipice whereof is equal to anything of that nature I have 
seen in the most confragose cataracts of the Alps, the 
river gliding between them at an extraordinary depth. 
Here, we went searching for diamonds, and to the Hot 
Wells, at its foot. There is also on the side of this hor- 
rid Alp a very romantic seat : and so we returned to Bath 
in the evening, and July ist to Cadenham. 

4th July, 1654. On a letter from my wife's uncle, Mr. 
Pretyman, I waited back on her to London, passing by 
Hungerford, a town famous for its trouts, and the next 
day arrived at Deptford, which was 60 miles, in the ex- 
tremity of heat. 

6th July, 1654. I went early to London, and the follow- 
ing day met my wife and company at Oxford, the eve of 
the Act. 

1654 JOHN EVELYN 287 

8th July, 1654. Was spent in hearing several exercises 
in the schools ; and, after dinner, the Proctor opened the 
Act at St. Mary's (according to custom), and the Prevari- 
cators, their drollery. Then, the Doctors disputed. We 
supped at Wadham College. 

9th June, 1654. Dr. French preached at St. Mary's, 
on Matt. xii. 42, advising the students the search after 
true wisdom, not to be had in the books of philosophers, 
but in the Scriptures alone. In the afternoon, the fam- 
ous Independent, Dr. Owen, perstringing Episcopacy. 
He was now Cromwell's Vice-Chancellor. We dined with 
Dr. Ward, Mathematical Professor (since Bishop of Sarum), 
and at night supped in Baliol College Hall, where I had 
once been student and fellow-commoner, and where they 
made me extraordinarily welcome. 

loth June, 1654. On Monday, I went again to the 
schools, to hear the several faculties, and in the after- 
noon tarried out the whole Act in St. Mary's, the long 
speeches of the Proctors, the Vice-Chancellor, the several 
Professors, creation of Doctors, by the cap, ring, kiss, 
etc., those ancient ceremonies and institution being as 
yet not wholly abolished. Dr. Kendal, now Inceptor 
among others, performing his Act incomparably well, 
concluded it with an excellent oration, abating his Pres- 
byterian animosities, which he withheld, not even against 
that learned and pious divine, Dr. Hammond. The Act 
was closed with the speech of the Vice-Chancellor, there 
being but four in theology, and three in medicine, which 
was thought a considerable matter, the times considered. 
I dined at one Monsieur Fiat's, a student of Exeter 
College, and supped at a magnificent entertainment of 
Wadham Hall, invited by my dear and excellent friend. 
Dr. Wilkins, then Warden (after. Bishop of Chester). 

nth July, 1654. Was the Latin sermon, which I could 
not be at, though invited, being taken up at All Souls, 
where we had music voices, and theorbos, performed by 
some ingenious scholars. After dinner, I visited that 
miracle of a youth, Mr. Christopher Wren, nephew to 
the Bishop of Ely. Then Mr. Barlow (since Bishop of 
Lincoln), bibliothecarius of the Bodleian Library, my 
most learned friend. He showed us the rarities of that 
most famous place, manuscripts, medals, and other curi- 
osities. Among the MSS. an old English Bible, wherein 

288 DIARY OF oxford 

the Eunuch mentioned to be baptized by Philip, is 
called the Gelding : * and Philip and the Gelding went 
down into the water,* etc. The original Acts of the 
Council of Basil 900 years since, with the bulla^ or leaden 
affix, which has a silken cord passing through every 
parchment; a MSS. of Venerable Bede of 800 years antiq- 
uity; the old Ritual secundum usuni Sarum exceeding 
voluminous ; then, among the nicer curiosities, the " Pro- 
verbs of Solomon,** written in French by a lady, every 
chapter of a several character, or hand, the most ex- 
quisite imaginable; an hieroglyphical table, or carta, 
folded up like a map, I suppose it painted on asses' hide, 
extremely rare; but, what is most illustrious, there were 
no less than 1,000 MSS. in nineteen languages, especially 
Oriental, furnishing that new part of the library built by 
Archbishop Laud, from a design of Sir Kenelm Digby and 
the Earl of Pembroke. In the closet of the tower, they 
show some Indian weapons, urns, lamps, etc. , but the rarest 
is the whole Alcoran, written on one large sheet of calico, 
made up in a priest's vesture, or cope, after the Turkish 
and Arabic character, so exquisitely written, as no printed 
letter comes near it; also, a roll of magical charms, 
divers talismans, and some medals. 

Then, I led my wife into the Convocation House, finely 
wainscoted; the Divinity School, and Gothic carved roof; 
the Physic, or Anatomy School, adorned with some rari- 
ties of natural things; but nothing extraordinary save the 
skin of a jackal, a rarely-colored jackatoo, or prodigious 
large parrot, two humming birds, not much bigger than 
our bumblebee, which indeed I had not seen before, 
that I remember. 

12th July, 1654. We went to St. John's, saw the library 
and the two skeletons, which are finely cleansed and put 
together; observable is here also the store of mathematical 
instruments, chiefly given by the late Archbishop Laud, 
who built here a handsome quadrangle. 

Thence we went to New College, where the chapel 
was in its ancient garb, notwithstanding the scrupulosity 
of the times. Thence, to Christ's Church, in whose 
library was shown us an Office of Henry VIII., the 
writing, miniatures, and gilding whereof is equal, if not 
surpassing, any curiosity I had seen of that kind; it was 
given by their founder. Cardinal Wolsey. The glass win- 

j654 JOHN EVELYN 289 

dows of the cathedral (famous in my time) I found much 
abused. The ample hall and column, that spreads its 
capital to sustain the roof as one goes up the stairs, is 
very remarkable. 

Next we walked to Magdalen College, where we saw 
the library and chapel, which was likewise in pontifical 
order, the altar only I think turned tablewise, and there 
was still the double organ, which abominations (as now 
esteemed) were almost universally demolished; Mr. Gib- 
bon, that famous musician, giving us a taste of his skill 
and talents on that instrument. 

Hence, to the Physic Garden, where the sensitive plant 
was shown us for a great wonder. There grew canes, 
olive trees, rhubarb, but no extraordinary curiosities, be- 
sides very good fruit, which, when the ladies had tasted, 
we returned in our coach to our lodgings. 

13th July, 1654. We all dined at that most obliging 
and universally-curious Dr. Wilkins's, at Wadham College. 
He was the first who showed me the transparent apiaries, 
which he had built like castles and palaces, and so or- 
dered them one upon another, as to take the honey with- 
out destroying the bees. These were adorned with a 
variety of dials, little statues, vanes, etc. ; and, he was 
so abundantly civil, finding me pleased with them, to 
present me with one of the hives which he had empty, 
and which I afterward had in my garden at Sayes Court, 
where it continued many years, and which his Majesty 
came on purpose to see and contemplate with much sat- 
isfaction. He had also contrived a hollow statue, which 
gave a voice and uttered words by a long, concealed pipe 
that went to its mouth,* while one speaks through it at 
a good distance. He had, above in his lodgings and gal- 
lery, variety of shadows, dials, perspectives, and many 
other artificial, mathematical, and magical curiosities, a 
waywiser, a thermometer, a monstrous magnet, conic, 
and other sections, a balance on a demi-circle; most of 
them of his own, and that prodigious young scholar Mr. 
Christopher Wren, who presented me with a piece of 
white marble, which he had stained with a lively red, 
very deep, as beautiful as if it had been natural. 

Thus satisfied with the civilities of Oxford, we left it, 

* Such were the speaking figures long ago exhibited in Spring Gar- 
dens, and in Leicester Fields. 


dining at Farringdon, a town which had been newly- 
fired during the wars; and, passing near the seat of Sir 
Walter Pye, we came to Cadenham. 

1 6th July, 1654. We went to another uncle and rela- 
tive of my wife's, Sir John Glanville, a famous lawyer, 
formerly Speaker of the House of Commons; his seat is 
at Broad Hinton, where he now lived but in the gate- 
house, his very fair dwelling house having been burnt 
by his own hands, to prevent the rebels making a garri- 
son of it. Here, my cousin William Glanville 's eldest son 
showed me such a lock for a door, that for its filing, 
and rare contrivances was a masterpiece, yet made by 
a country blacksmith. But, we have seen watches made 
by another with as much curiosity as the best of that 
profession can brag of; and, not many years after, there 
was nothing more frequent than all sorts of ironwork 
more exquisitely wrought and polished than in any part 
of Europe, so as a door lock of a tolerable price was es- 
teemed a curiosity even among foreign princes. 

Went back to Cadenham, and, on the 19th, to Sir 
Edward Baynton's at Spie Park, a place capable of being 
made a noble seat; but the humorous old knight has 
built a long single house of two low stories on the precipice 
of an incomparable prospect, and landing on a bowling- 
green in the park. The house is like a long barn, and 
has not a window on the prospect side. After dinner, 
they went to bowls, and, in the meantine, our coachmen 
were made so exceedingly drunk, that in returning home 
we escaped great dangers. This, it seems, was by order 
of the knight, that all gentlemen's servants be so treated ; 
but the custom is barbarous, and much unbecoming a 
knight still less a Christian. 

20th July, 1654. We proceeded to Salisbury; the ca- 
thedral I take to be the most complete piece of Gothic 
work in Europe, taken in all its uniformity. The pillars, 
reputed to be cast, are of stone manifestly cut out of the 
quarry; most observable are those in the chapter house. 
There are some remarkable monuments, particularly the 
ancient Bishops, founders of the Church, Knights Tem- 
plars, the Marquis of Hertford's, the cloisters of the 
palace and garden, and the great mural dial. 

In the afternoon we went to Wilton, a fine house of 
the Earl of Pembroke, in which the most observable are 

i65+ JOHN EVELYN 291 

the dining room in the modem-built part toward the 
garden, richly gilded and painted with story, by De Crete ; 
also some other apartments, as that of hunting land- 
scapes, by Pierce ; some magnificent chimney-pieces, after 
the best French manner ; a pair of artificial winding stairs 
of stone, and divers rare pictures. The garden, hereto- 
fore esteemed the noblest in England, is a large hand- 
some plain, with a grotto and waterworks, which might 
be made much more pleasant, were the river that passes 
through cleansed and raised ; for all is effected by a mere 
force. It has a flower garden, not inelegant. But, after all, 
that which renders the seat delightful is, its being so near 
the downs and noble plains about the country contiguous 
to it. The stables are well ordered and yield a graceful 
front, by reason of the walks of lime trees, with the 
court and fountain of the stables adorned with the Caesars' 

We returned this evening by the plain, and fourteen- 
mile race, where out of my lord's hare warren we were 
entertained with a long course of a hare for near two 
miles in sight. Near this, is a pergola, or stand, built to 
view the sports; and so we came to Salisbury, and saw 
the most considerable parts of the city. The market 
place, with most of the streets, are watered by a quick 
current and pure stream running through the middle of 
them, but are negligently kept, when with a small 
charge they might be purged and rendered infinitely 
agreeable, and this made one of the sweetest towns, but 
now the common buildings are despicable, and the streets 

2 2d July, 1654. We departed and dined at a farm 
of my Uncle Hungerford's, called Damford Magna, sit- 
uated in a valley under the plain, most sweetly watered, 
abounding in trouts caught by spear in the night, 
when they come attracted by a light set in the stem of a boat. 

After dinner, continuing our return, we passed over the 
goodly plain, or rather sea of carpet, which I think for 
evenness, extent, verdure, and innumerable flocks, to be 
one of the most delightful prospects in nature, and 
reminded me of the pleasant lives of shepherds we read 
of in romances. 

Now we arrived at Stonehenge, indeed a stupendous 
monument, appearing at a distance like a castle ; how so 


many and huge pillars of stone should have been brought 
together, some erect, others transverse on the tops of 
them, in a circular area as rudely representing a clois- 
ter or heathen and more natural temple, is wonderful. 
The stone is so exceedingly hard, that all my strength 
with a hammer could not break a fragment ; which hard- 
ness I impute to their so long exposure. To number 
them exactly is very difficult, they lie in such variety 
of postures and confusion, though they seemed not to 
exceed loo; we counted only 95. As to their being 
brought thither, there being no navigable river near, is 
by some admired; "but for the stone, there seems to be 
the same kind about 20 miles distant, some of which ap- 
pear above ground. About the same hills, are divers 
mounts raised, conceived to be ancient intrenchments, or 
places of burial, after bloody fights. We now went by 
Devizes, a reasonable large town, and came late to Ca- 

27th July, 1654. To the hunting of a sorel deer, and had 
excellent chase for four or five hours, but the venison 
little worth. 

29th July, 1654. I went to Langford to see my Cousin 
Stephens. I also saw Dryfield, the house heretofore of 
Sir John Pretyman, grandfather to my wife, and sold by 
her uncle; both the seat and house very honorable and 
well built, much after the modem fashion. 

31st July, 1654. Taking leave of Cadenham, where we 
had been long and nobly entertained, we went a com- 
pass into Leicestershire, where dwelt another relation of 
my wife's; for I indeed made these excursions to 
show her the most considerable parts of her native 
country, who, from her childhood, had lived altogether in 
France, as well as for my own curiosity and informa- 

About two miles before coming to Gloucester, we have 
a prospect from woody hills into a most goodly vale and 
country. Gloucester is a handsome city, considerable for 
the church and monuments. The minster is indeed a 
noble fabric. The whispering gallery is rare, being 
through a passage of twenty-five yards in a many-angled 
cloister, and was, I suppose, either to show the skill of 
the architect, or some invention of a cunning priest, who, 
standing unseen in a recess in the middle of the chapel, 

i654 JOHN EVELYN 293 

might hear whatever was spoken at either end. This is 
above the choir, in which lies buried King Stephen * under 
a monument of Irish oak, not ill carved considering the 
age. The new library is a noble though a private design. 
I was likewise pleased with the Severn gliding so sweetly 
by it. The Duke's house, the castle works, are now al- 
most quite dismantled; nor yet without sad thoughts did 
I see the town, considering how fatal the siege had been 
a few years before to our good King. 

ist August, 1654. We set out toward Worcester, by a 
way thickly planted with cider fruit. We deviated to the 
Holy Wells, trickling out of a valley through a steep 
declivity toward the foot of the great Malvern Hills; 
they are said to heal many infirmities, as king's evil, 
leprosy, sore eyes, etc. Ascending a great height above 
them to the trench dividing England from South Wales, 
we had the prospect of all Herefordshire, Radnor, Breck- 
noch, Monmouth, Worcester, Gloucester, Shropshire, War- 
wick, Derbyshires, and many more. We could discern 
Tewkesbury, King's road, toward Bristol, etc. ; so as I 
esteem it one of the goodliest vistas in England. 

2d August, 1654. This evening we arrived at Worcester, 
the Judges of Assize and Sheriff just entering as we did. 
Viewing the town the next day, we found the Cathedral 
much ruined by the late wars, otherwise a noble structure. 
The town is neatly paved and very clean, the goodly 
river Severn running by it, and standing in a most fertile 

3d August, 1654. We passed next through Warwick, 
and saw the castle, the dwelling house of the Lord Brook, 
and the furniture noble. It is built on an eminent rock 
which gives prospect into a most goodly green, a woody 
and plentifully watered country; the river running so 
delightfully under it, that it may pass for one of the 
most surprising seats one should meet with. The gardens 
are prettily disposed ; but might be much improved. Here 
they showed us Sir Guy's great two-handed sword, staff, 
horse-arms, pot, and other relics of that famous knight- 
errant. Warwick is a fair old town, and hath one church 
full of ancient monuments. 

Having viewed these, I went to visit my worthy friend, 

•King Stephen was buried at Faversham. The effigy Eveljm 
alluded to is that of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. 

294 DIARY OF Leicester 


Sir H. Puckering, at the Abbey, and though a melancholy 
old seat, yet in a rich soil. 

Hence to Sir Guy's grot, where they say he did his 
penances, and died. It is a squalid den made in the rock, 
crowned yet with venerable oaks and looking on a goodly 
stream, so as, were it improved as it might be, it were 
capable of being made a most romantic and pleasant place. 
Near this, we were showed his chapel and gigantic statue 
hewn out of the solid rock, out of which there are like- 
wise divers other caves cut, and some very capacious. 

The next place to Coventry. The cross is remarkable 
for Gothic work and rich gilding, comparable to any I 
had ever seen, except that of Cheapside in London, now 
demolished. This city has many handsome churches, a 
beautiful wall, a fair free school and library to it; the 
streets full of great shops, clean and well paved. At 
going forth the gate, they show us the bone, or rib, of a 
wild boar, said to have been killed by Sir Guy, but 
which I take to be the chine of a whale. 

4th August, 1654. Hence, riding through a consider- 
able part of Leicestershire, an open, rich, but unpleasant 
country, we came late in the evening to Horninghold, a 
seat of my wife's uncle. 

7th August, 1654. Went to Uppingham, the shire town 
of Rutland, pretty and well built of stone, which is a 
rarity in that part of England, where most of the rural 
parishes are but of mud ; and the people living as wretch- 
edly as in the most impoverished parts of France, which 
they much resemble, being idle and sluttish. The coun- 
try (especially Leicestershire) much in common; the 
gentry free drinkers. 

9th August, 1654. To the old and ragged city of 
Leicester, large and pleasantly seated, but despicably 
built, the chimney flues like so many smiths' forges; 
however, famous for the tomb of the tyrant, Richard III., 
which is now converted to a cistern, at which ( I think ) 
cattle drink. Also, here in one of the churches lies 
buried the magnificent Cardinal Wolsey. John of Gaunt 
has here also built a large but poor hospital, near which 
a wretch has made him a house out of the ruins of a 
stately church. Saw the ruins of an old Roman Temple, 
thought to be of Janus. Entertained at a very fine col- 
lection of fruits, such as I did not expect to meet with 

1654 JOHN EVELYN 295 

so far North, especially very good melons. We returned 
to my uncle's. 

14th August, 1654. I took a journey into the Northern 
parts, riding through Oakham, a pretty town in Rutland- 
shire, famous for the tenure of the Barons (Ferrers), 
who hold it by taking off a shoe from every nobleman's 
horse that passes with his lord through the street, unless 
redeemed with a certain piece of money. In token of 
this, are several gilded shoes nailed up on the castle 
gate, which seems to have been large and fair. Hence, 
we went by Brook, a very sweet seat and park of the 
old Lady Camden's. Next, by Burleigh House, belong- 
ing to the Duke of Buckingham, and worthily reckoned 
among the noblest seats in England, situate on the brow 
of a hill, built ii la moderne near a park walled in, and 
a fine wood at the descent. 

Now we were come to Cottsmore, a pretty seat be- 
longing to Mr. Heath, son of the late Lord Chief Jus- 
tice of that name. Here, after dinner, parting with 
the company that conducted us thus far, I passed that 
evening by Belvoir Castle, built on a round mount at 
the point of a long ridge of hills, which affords a 
stately prospect, and is famous for its strenuous resist- 
ance in the late civil war. 

Went by Newark-on- Trent, a brave town and gar- 
rison. Next, by Wharton House, belonging to the Lord 
Chaworth, a handsome seat; then by Home, a noble 
place belonging to the Marquis of Dorchester, and 
passed the famous river Trent, which divides the South 
from the North of England; and so lay that night at 

This whole town and county seems to be but one 
entire rock, as it were, an exceedingly pleasant shire, full 
of gentry. Here, I observed divers to live in the rocks 
and caves, much after the manner as about Tours, in 
France. The church is well built on an eminence; 
there is a fair house of the Lord Clare's, another of 
Pierrepont's ; an ample market place; large streets, full 
of crosses; the relics of an ancient castle, hollowed 
beneath which are many caverns, especially that of the 
Scots' King, and his work while there. 

This place is remarkable for being the place where 
his Majesty first erected his standard at the beginning 


of our late unhappy differences. The prospects from 
this city toward the river and meadows are most de- 

15th August, 1654. We passed next through Sherwood 
Forest, accounted the most extensive in England. Then, 
Paplewick, an incomparable vista with the pretty castle 
near it. Thence, we saw Newstead Abbey, belonging to 
the Lord Byron, situated much like Fontainebleau in 
France, capable of being made a noble seat, accom- 
modated as it is with brave woods and streams; it has 
yet remaining the front of a glorious abbey church. 
Next, by Mansfield town; then Welbeck, the house of 
the Marquis of Newcastle, seated in a bottom in a 
park, and environed with woods, a noble yet melancholy 
seat. The palace is a handsome and stately building. 
Next to Worksop Abbey, almost demolished; the church 
has a double flat tower entire, and a pretty gate. The 
manor belongs to the Earl of Arundel, and has to it 
a fair house at the foot of a hill in a park that affords 
a delicate prospect. Tickel, a town and castle, has a 
very noble prospect All these in Nottinghamshire. 

i6th August, 1654. We arrived at Doncaster, where 
we lay this night; it is a large fair town, famous for 
great wax lights, and good stockings. 

17th August, 1654. Passed through Pontefract; the 
castle famous for many sieges both of late and ancient 
times, and the death of that unhappy King murdered in 
it (Richard II.), was now demolishing by the Rebels; it 
stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a dis- 
tance. The Queen has a house here, and there are many 
fair seats near it, especially Mr. Pierrepont's, built at the 
foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all alighted in 
the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call 
Robin Hood's Well ; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron 
ladle to drink out of, chained to the seat. We rode to 
Tadcaster, at the side of which we have prospect of the 
Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and in sight 
of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a 
goodly, fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abound- 
ing with pasture and plenty of provisions. 

To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of 
a circular form, watered by the brave river Ouse, bear- 
ing vessels of considerable burden on it; over it is a. 

i654 JOHN EVELYN 297 

stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on; 
the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in Eng- 
land, with a wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river 
appear very neat. But most remarkable and worth see- 
ing is St. Peter's Cathedral, which of all the great 
churches in England had been best preserved from the 
fury of the sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels 
when they took the city, during the many incursions of 
Scotch and others. It is a most entire magnificent piece 
of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is of 
stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of 
the old kings. Many of the monuments are very ancient. 
Here, as a great rarity in these days and at this time, 
they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book cov- 
ered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver 
gilt ; also a service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flag- 
ons, basin, ewer, plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gor- 
geous covering for the altar and pulpit, carefully preserved 
in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof rises a plentiful 
spring of excellent water, I got up to the tower, whence 
we had a prospect toward Durham, and could see Ripon, 
part of Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor, 
the Spas of Knaresborough, and all the environs of that 

admirable country. Sir Ingoldsby has here a large 

house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King's house 
and church near the castle, which was modernly fortified 
with a palisade and bastions. The streets are narrow 
and ill-paved, the shops like London. 

1 8th August, 1654. We went to Beverley, a large town 
with two stately churches, St. John's and St. Mary's, not 
much inferior to the best of our cathedrals. Here a 
very old woman showed us the monuments, and, being 
above 100 years of age, spoke the language of Queen 
Mary's days, in whose time she was born; she was 
widow of a sexton who had belonged to the church a 
hundred years. 

Hence, we passed through a fenny but rich country to 
Hull, situated like Calais, modernly and strongly fortified 
with three block-houses of brick and earth. It has a 
good market place and harbor for ships. Famous also 
(or rather infamous) is this town for Hotham's refusing 
entrance to his Majesty. The water-house is worth see- 
ing. And here ends the south of Yorkshire. 


19th August, 1654. We pass the Humber, an arm of 
the sea of about two leagues breadth. The weather was 
bad, but we crossed it in a good barge to Barton, the 
first town in that part of Lincolnshire. All marsh ground 
till we came to Brigg, famous for the plantations of 
licorice, and then had brave pleasant riding to Lincoln, 
much resembling Salisbury Plain. Lincoln is an old con- 
fused town, very long, uneven, steep, and ragged; for- 
merly full of good houses, especially churches and ab- 
beys. The Minster almost comparable to that of York 
itself, abounding with marble pillars, and having a fair 
front (herein was interred Queen Eleanora, the loyal 
and loving wife who sucked the poison out of her 
husband's wound) ; the abbot founder, with rare carving 
in the stone; the great bell, or Tom, as they call it. I 
went up the steeple, from whence is a goodly prospect 
all over the country. The soldiers had lately knocked 
off most of the brasses from the gravestones, so as few 
inscriptions were left; they told us that these men went 
in with axes and hammers, and shut themselves in, till 
they had rent and torn off some barge loads of metal, 
not sparing even the monuments of the dead; so hellish 
an avarice possessed them: beside which, they exceed- 
ingly ruined the city. 

Here, I saw a tall woman six feet two inches high, 
comely, middle-aged, and well-proportioned, who kept a 
very neat and clean alehouse, and got most by people's 
coming to see her on account of her height. 

20th August, 1654. From hence we had a most pleas- 
ant ride over a large heath open like Salisbury Plain, to 
Grantham, a pretty town, so well situated on the side of 
a bottom which is large and at a distance environed 
with ascending grounds, that for pleasure I consider it 
comparable to most inland places of England; famous is 
the steeple for the exceeding height of the shaft, which 
is of stone. 

About eighteen miles south, we pass by a noble seat, 
and see Boston at a distance. Here, we came to a parish 
of which the parson had tithe ale. 

Thence through Rutland, we brought night to Horning- 
hold, from whence I set out on this excursion. 

2 2d August, 1654. I went a setting and hawking, where 
we had tolerable sport. 

1 654 JOHN EVELYN 299 

25th August, 1654. To see Kirby, a very noble house 
of my Lord Hatton's, in Northamptonshire, built ^ la 
moderne; the garden and stables agreeable, but the 
avenue ungraceful, and the seat naked: returned that 

27th August, 1654. Mr. AUington preached an excel- 
lent discourse from Romans vi. 19. This was he who 
published those bold sermons of the members warring 
against the mind, or the Jews crucifying Christ, applied 
to the wicked regicides; for which he was ruined. We 
had no sermon in the afternoon. 

30th August, 1654. Taking leave of my friends, who 
had now feasted me more than a month, I, with my 
wife, etc., set our faces toward home, and got this eve- 
ning to Peterborough, passing by a stately palace 
(Thorpe) of St. John's (one deep in the blood of our good 
king), built out of the ruins of the Bishop's palace and 
cloister. The church is exceeding fair, full of monu- 
ments of great antiquity. Here lies Queen Catherine, 
the unhappy wife of Henry VIH., and the no less un- 
fortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On the steeple, we 
viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much inclosed and 
drained with infinite expense, and by many sluices, cuts, 
mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like inventions; 
at which the city and country about it consisting 
of a poor and very lazy sort of people, were much 

Peterborough is a handsome town, and hath another 
well-built church. 

31st August, 1654. Through part of Huntingdonshire, 
we passed that town, fair and ancient, a river running 
by it. The country about it so abounds in wheat that, 
when any King of England passes through it, they 
have a custom to meet him with a hundred plows. 

This evening, to Cambridge; and went first to St. 
John's College, well built of brick, and library, which I 
think is the fairest of that University. One Mr. Ben- 
lowes has given it all the ornaments of pietra commessa* 
whereof a table and one piece of perspective is very 
fine ; other trifles there also be of no great value, besides 
a vast old song-book, or Service, and some fair manu- 
scripts. There hangs in the library the picture of John 

•Marble, inlaid of various colors, representing flowers, birds, etc. 

300 DIARY OF Cambridge 

Williams, Archbishop of York, sometime Lord Keeper, 
my kinsman, and their great benefactor. 

Trinity College is said by some to be the fairest quad- 
rangle of any university in Europe; but in truth is far 
inferior to that of Christ Church, in Oxford; the hall is 
ample and of stone, the fountain in the quadrangle is 
graceful, the chapel and library fair. There they showed 
us the prophetic manuscript of the famous Grebner, but 
the passage and emblem which they would apply to our 
late King, is manifestly relating to the Swedish ; in truth, 
it seems to be a mere fantastic rhapsody, however the 
title may bespeak strange revelations. There is an office 
in manuscript with fine miniatures, and some other an- 
tiquities, given by the Countess of Richmond, mother 
of Henry VIII., and the before-mentioned Archbishop 
Williams, when Bishop of Lincoln. The library is pretty 
well stored. The Greek Professor had me into another 
large quadrangle cloistered and well built, and gave us 
a handsome collation in his own chamber. 

Thence to Caius, and afterward to King's College, where 
I found the chapel altogether answered expectation, es- 
pecially the roof, all of stone, which for the flatness of 
its laying and carving may, I conceive, vie with any in 
Christendom, The contignation of the roof (which I went 
upon), weight, and artificial joining of the stones is ad- 
mirable. The lights are also very fair. In one aisle lies 
the famous Dr. Collins, so celebrated for his fluency in 
the Latin tongue. From this roof we could descry Ely, 
and the encampment of Sturbridge fair now beginning 
to set up their tents and booths; also Royston, Newmar- 
ket, etc., houses belonging to the King. The library is 
too narrow. 

Clare -Hall is of a new and noble design, but not finished. 

Peter-House, formerly under the government of my 
worthy friend, Dr. Joseph Cosin, Dean of Peterborough ; 
a pretty neat college, having a delicate chapel. Next to 
Sidney, a fine college. 

Catherine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous 
for the learned Bishop Andrews, once Master. Emanuel 
College, that zealous house, where to the hall they have 
a parlor for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed, ab 
originc, built north and south, and meanly erected, as is 
the library. 

i6s4 JOHN EVELYN 301 

Jesus- College, one of the best built, but in a melan- 
choly situation. Next to Christ-College, a very noble 
erection, especially the modern part, built without the 
quadrangle toward the gardens, of exact architecture. 

The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library 
but mean, though somewhat improved by the wainscot, 
ing and books lately added by the Bishop Bancroft's 
library and MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, 
only King James's Works, being his own gift, and kept 
very reverently. 

The market place is very ample, and remarkable for 
old Hobson, the pleasant carrier's beneficence of a foun- 
tain.* But the whole town is situate in a low, dirty, un- 
pleasant place, the streets ill-paved, the air thick and 
infected by the fens, nor are its churches, (of which St, 
Mary's is the best) anything considerable in compare to 
Oxford, f 

From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent 
some time in seeing that goodly place built by Howard, 
Earl of SuflEolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is a mixed 
fabric, between antique and modem, but observable for 
its being completely finished, and without comparison is 
one of the stateliest palaces in the kingdom. It consists 
of two courts, the first very large, winged with cloisters. 
The front had a double entrance; the hall is fair, but 
somewhat too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is 
very large, as are the cellars, arched with stone, very 
neat and well disposed; these offices are joined by a wing 
out of the way very handsomely. The gallery is the 
most cheerful and I think one of the best in England ; a 
fair dining-room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, 
with a pretty chapel. The gardens are not in order, 
though well inclosed. It has also a bowling-alley, a noble 
well-walled, wooded and watered park, full of fine collines 
and ponds: the river glides before the palace, to which 
is an avenue of lime trees, but all this is much diminished 
by its being placed in an obscure bottom. For the rest, 
is a perfectly uniform structure, and shows without 
like a diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas and 
other ornaments on the pavilions; instead of rails and 
balusters, there is a border of capital letters, as was 

* A conduit it should rather be called. 

t The reader must remember that an Oxford man is speaking. 

302 DIARY OF London 

lately also on Suffolk- House, near Charing-Cross, built 
by the same Lord Treasurer. 

This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, 
famous for the abundance of saffron there cultivated, and 
esteemed the best of any foreign country. 

3d October, 1654. Having dined here, we passed 
through Bishop Stortford, a pretty watered town, and so 
by London, late home to Sayes Court, after a journey of 
700 miles, but for the variety an agreeable refreshment 
after my turmoil and building. 

loth October, 1654. To my brother at Wotton, who 
had been sick. 

14th October, 1654. I went to visit my noble friend 
Mr. Hyldiard, where I met that learned gentleman, my 
Lord Aungier, and Dr. Stokes, one of his Majesty's 

15th October, 1654. To Betch worth Castle, to Sir Am- 
brose Browne, and other gentlemen of my sweet and 
native country. 

24th October, 1654. The good old parson, Higham, 
preached at Wotton Church: a plain preacher, but inno- 
cent and honest man. 

23d November, 1654. I went to London, to visit my 
cousin Fanshawe, and this day I saw one of the rarest 
collections of agates, onyxes, and intaglios, that I had 
ever seen either at home or abroad, collected by a con- 
ceited old hatmaker in Blackfriars, especially one agate 
vase, heretofore the great Earl of Leicester's. 

28th November, 1654. Came Lady Langham, a kins- 
woman of mine, to visit us; also one Captain Cooke, 
esteemed the best singer, after the Italian manner, of 
any in England; he entertained us with his voice and 

30th November, 1654. My birthday, being the 34th 
year of my age: blessing God for his providence, I went 
to London to visit my brother. 

3d December 1654. Advent Sunday. There being no 
Office at the church but extemporary prayers after the 
Presbyterian way, for now all forms were prohibited, and 
most of the preachers were usurpers, I seldom went to 
church upon solemn feasts; but, either went to London, 
where some of the orthodox sequestered divines did 
privately use the Common Prayer, administer sacraments, 

1654-55 JOHN EVELYN 303 

etc., or else I procured one to officiate in my house; 
wherefore, on the loth, Dr. Richard Owen, the sequest- 
ered minister of Eltham, preached to my family in my 
library, and gave us the Holy Communion. 

25th December, 1654. Christmas day. No public offices 
in churches, but penalties on observers, so as I was con- 
strained to celebrate it at home. 

ist January, 1654-55. Having with my family performed 
the public offices of the day, and begged a blessing on 
the. year I was now entering, I went to keep the rest of 
Christmas at my brother's, R. Evelyn, at Woodcot. 

19th January, 1655. My wife was brought to bed of 
another son, being my third, but second living. Chris- 
tened on the 26th by the name of John. 

28th January, 1655. A stranger preached from Colos- 
sians iii. 2, inciting our affections to the obtaining heav- 
enly things. I understood afterward that this man had 
been both chaplain and lieutenant to Admiral Penn, 
using both swords ; whether ordained or not I cannot say ; 
into such times were we fallen ! 

24th February, 1655. I was showed a table clock whose 
balance was only a crystal ball, sliding on parallel wires, 
without being at all fixed, but rolling from stage to stage 
till falling on a spring concealed from sight, it was 
thrown up to the utmost channel again, made with an 
imperceptible declivity, in this continual vicissitude of 
motion prettily entertaining the eye every half minute, 
and the next half giving progress to the hand that showed 
the hour, and giving notice by a small bell, so as in 120 
half minutes, or periods of the bullet's falling on the 
ejaculatory spring, the clock part struck. This very ex- 
traordinary piece (richly adorned) had been presented by 
some German prince to our late king, and was now in 
the possession of the usurper; valued at ;^2oo. 

2d March, 1655. Mr. Simpson, the King's jeweler, 
showed me a most rich agate cup, of an escalop-shape, and 
having a figure of Cleopatra at the scroll, her body, hair, 
mantle, and veil, of the several natural colors. It was 
supported by a half Mark Antony, the colors rarely 
natural, and the work truly antique, but I conceived 
they were of several pieces ; had they been all of one 
stone, it were invaluable. 

1 8th March, 1655. Went to London, on purpose to 


hear that excellent preacher, Dr. Jeremy Taylor, on Matt, 
xiv. 17, showing what were the conditions of obtaining 
eternal life; also, concerning abatements for unavoidable 
infirmities, how cast on the accounts of the cross. On the 
31st, I made a visit to Dr. Jeremy Taylor, to confer with 
him about some spiritual matters, using him thencefor- 
ward as my ghostly father. I beseech God Almighty to 
make me ever mindful of, and thankful for, his heavenly 
assistances ! 

2d April, 1655. This was the first week, that, my 
uncle Pretyman being parted with his family from me, I 
began housekeeping, till now sojourning with him in my 
own house. 

9th April, 1655. I went to see the great ship newly 
built by the usurper, Oliver, carrying ninety-six brass 
guns, and 1,000 tons burden. In the prow was Oliver on 
horseback, trampling six nations under foot, a Scot, Irish- 
man, Dutchman, Frenchman, Spaniard, and English, as 
was easily made out by their several habits. A Fame held 
a laurel over his insulting head; the word, God with us. 

15th April, 1655. I went to London with my family, to 
celebrate the feast of Easter. Dr. Wild preached at St. 
Gregory's; the ruling Powers conniving at the use of the 
Liturgy, etc., in the church alone. In the afternoon, Mr. 
Pierson (since Bishop of Chester) preached at Eastcheap, 
but was disturbed by an alarm of fire, which about this 
time was very frequent in the city, 

29th May, 1655. I sold Preston to Colonel Morley. 

17th June, 1655. There was a collection for the perse- 
cuted churches and Christians in Savoy, remnants of the 
ancient Albigenses. 

3d July, 1655. I was shown a pretty Terella, described 
with all the circles, and showing all the magnetic deviations. 

14th July, 1655. Came Mr. Pratt, my old acquaintance 
at Rome, also Sir Edward Hales, Sir Joseph Tufton, with 
Mr. Seymour. 

ist August, 1655, I went to Dorking, to see Mr. Charles 
Howard's amphitheater, garden, or solitary recess, being 
fifteen acres environed by a hill. He showed us divers 
rare plants, caves, and an elaboratory. 

loth August, 1655. To Albury, to visit Mr. Howard, 
who had begun to build, and alter the gardens much. 
He showed me many rare pictures, particularly the Moor 

i655 JOHN EVELYN 305 

on horseback; Erasmus, as big as the life, by Holbein; a 
Madonna, in miniature, by Oliver ; but, above all, the skull, 
carved in wood, by Albert Durer, for which his father was 
offered ^100; also Albert's head, by himself, with divers 
rare agates, intaglios, and other curiosities. 

2 1 St August, 1655. I went to Ryegate, to visit Mrs. 
Gary, at my Lady Peterborough's, in an ancient monastery 
well in repair, but the park much defaced; the house is 
nobly furnished. The chimney-piece in the great chamber, 
carved in wood, was of Henry VIH., and was taken from 
a house of his in Bletchingley. At Ryegate, was now 
the Archbishop of Armagh, the learned James Usher, 
whom I went to visit. He received me exceeding kindly. 
In discourse with him, he told me how great the loss of 
time was to study much the Eastern languages; that, ex- 
cepting Hebrew, there was little fruit to be gathered of 
exceeding labor ; that, besides some mathematical books, 
the Arabic itself had little considerable; that the best 
text was the Hebrew Bible ; that the Septuagint was fin- 
ished in seventy days, but full of errors, about which he 
was then writing; that St. Hierome's was to be valued 
next the Hebrew; also that the seventy translated the 
Pentateuch only, the rest was finished by others ; that the 
Italians at present understood but little Greek, and Kircher 
was a mountebank; that Mr. Selden's best book was his 
* Titles of Honor * ; that the church would be destroyed 
by sectaries, who would in all likelihood bring in Popery. 
In conclusion he recommended to me the study of phi- 
lology, above all human studies ; and so, with his blessing, 
I took my leave of this excellent person, and returned to 

27th August, 1655. I went to Boxhill, to see those rare 
natural bowers, cabinets, and shady walks in the box 
copses: hence we walked to Mickleham, and saw Sir F. 
Stidolph's seat, environed with elm trees and walnuts in- 
numerable, and of which last he told us they received a 
considerable revenue. Here are such goodly walks and 
hills shaded with yew and box, as render the place ex- 
tremely agreeable, it seeming from these evergreens to 
be summer all the winter. 

28th August, 1655. Game that renowned mathematician, 
Mr. Oughtred, to see me, I sending my coach to bring him 
to Wotton, being now very aged. Among other discourse, 

3o6 DIARY OF London 

he told me he thought water to be the philosopher's first 
matter, and that he was well persuaded of the possibility 
of their elixir; he believed the sun to be a material fire, 
the moon a continent, as appears by the late selenog- 
raphers; he had strong apprehensions of some extraor- 
dinary event to happen the following year, from the 
calculation of coincidence with the diluvian period; and 
added that it might possibly be to convert the Jews by our 
Savior's visible appearance, or to judge the world; and 
therefore, his word was, ^'^ Par ate in occur sum *V be said 
original sin was not met with in the Greek Fathers, yet 
he believed the thing; this was from some discourse on 
Dr. Taylor's late book, which I had lent him. 

1 6th September, 1655. Preached at St. Gregory's one 
Darnel, on Psalm iv. 4, concerning the benefit of self- 
examination; more learning in so short a time as an 
HOUR I have seldom heard. 

17th September, 1655. Received ;^ 2,600 of Mr. Hurt, 
for the Manor of Warley Magna, in Essex, purchased by 
me some time since. The taxes were so intolerable that 
they ate up the rents, etc., surcharged as that county had 
been above all others during our unnatural war. 

19th September, 1655. Came to see me Sir Edward 
Hales, Mr. Ashmole, Mr. Harlakenton, and Mr. Thornhill: 
and, the next day, I visited Sir Henry Newton at Charl- 
ton, where I met the Earl of Winchelsea and Lady 
Beauchamp, daughter to the Lord Capel. 

On Sunday afternoon, I frequently staid at home to 
catechize and instruct my family, those exercises univer- 
sally ceasing in the parish churches, so as people had no 
principles, and grew very ignorant of even the common 
points of Christianity; all devotion being now placed in 
hearing sermons and discourses of speculative and na- 
tional things. 

26th September, 1655. I went to see Colonel Blount's 
subterranean warren, and drank of the wine of his vine- 
yard, which was good for little. 

30th September, 1655. Sir Nicholas Crisp came to treat 
with me about his vast design of a mole to be made for 
ships in part of my grounds at Sayes Court. 

3d November, 1655. I had accidentally discourse with 
a Persian and a Greek concerning the devastation of Po- 
land by the late incursion of the Swedes. 

1 65 5 JOHN EVELYN 307 

27th November, 1655. To London about Sir Nicholas 
Crisp's designs. 

I went to see York House and gardens, belonging to the 
former great Buckingham, but now much ruined through 

Thence, to visit honest and learned Mr. Hartlib, a pub- 
lic spirited and ingenious person, who had propagated 
many useful things and arts. He told me of the castles 
which they set for ornament on their stoves in Germany 
(he himself being a Lithuanian, as I remember), which 
are furnished with small ordnance of silver on the bat- 
tlements, out of which they discharge excellent perfumes 
about the rooms, charging them with a little powder to 
set them on fire, and disperse the smoke: and in truth 
no more than need, for their stoves are suflBciently nasty. 
He told me of an ink that would give a dozen copies, 
moist sheets of paper being pressed on it; and remain 
perfect; and a receipt how to take off any print without 
the least injury to the original. This gentleman was 
master of innumerable curiosities, and very communica- 
tive. I returned home that evening by water; and was 
afflicted for it with a cold that had almost killed me. 

This day, came forth the Protector's Edict, or Procla- 
mation, prohibiting all ministers of the Church of Eng- 
land from preaching or teaching any schools, in which 
he imitated the apostate, Julian; with the decimation of 
all the royal party's revenues throughout England. 

14th December, 1655. I \'isited Mr. Hobbes, the fa- 
mous philosopher of Malmesbury, with whom I had been 
long acquainted in France. 

Now were the Jews admitted. 

25th December, 1655. There was no more notice taken 
of Christmas-day in churches. 

I went to London, where Dr. Wild preached the fun- 
eral sermon of Preaching, this being the last day; after 
which Cromwell's proclamation was to take place, that 
none of the Church of England should dare either to 
preach, or administer Sacraments, teach schools, etc., on 
pain of imprisonment, or exile. So this was the most 
mournful day that in my life I had seen, or the Church 
of England herself, since the Reformation; to the great 
rejoicing of both Papist and Presbyter.* So pathetic 

* The text was 2 Cor. xiii 9. That, however persecution dealt 

3o8 DIARY OF London 

was his discourse, that it drew many tears from the 
auditory. Myself, wife, and some of our family, re- 
ceived the Communion, God make me thankful, who 
hath hitherto provided for us the food of our souls as 
well as bodies! The Lord Jesus pity our distressed 
Church, and bring back the captivity of Zion! 

5th January, 1655-56. Came to visit me my Lord Lisle, 
son to the Earl of Leicester, with Sir Charles Ouseley, 
two of the Usurper's council; Mr. John Hervey, and 
John Denham, the poet. 

1 8th January, 1656. Went to Eltham on foot, being a 
great frost, but a mist falling as I returned, gave me 
such a rheum as kept me within doors near a whole 
month after. 

5th February, 1656. Was shown me a pretty perspec- 
tive and well represented in a triangfular box, the great 
Church of Haarlem in Holland, to be seen through a 
small hole at one of the corners, and contrived into a 
handsome cabinet. It was so rarely done, that all the 
artists and painters in town flocked to see and admire it, 

loth February, 1656. I heard Dr. Wilkins preach be- 
fore the Lord Mayor in St. Paul's, showing how obedi- 
ence was preferable to sacrifice. He was a most obliging 
person, who had married the Protector's sister, and took 
great pains to preserve the Universities from the ignorant, 
sacrilegious commanders and soldiers, who would fain 
have demolished all places and persons that pretended 
to learning. 

nth February, 1656. I ventured to go to Whitehall, 
where of many years I had not been, and found it very 
glorious and well furnished, as far as I could safely go, 
and was glad to find they had not much defaced that 
rare piece of Henry VII., etc., done on the walls of the 
King's privy chamber. 

14th February, 1656. I dined with Mr. Berkeley, son 
of Lord Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle, where I renewed 
my acquaintance with my Lord Bruce, my fellow-traveler 
in Italy. 

19th February, 1656. Went with Dr. Wilkins to see 
Barlow, the famous painter of fowls, beasts, and birds. 

with the Ministers of God's Word, they were still to pray for the 
flock, and wish their perfection, as it was the flock to pray for and 
assist their pastors, by the example of St. Paul. — Evelyn's Note. 

1656 JOHN EVELYN 309 

4th March, 1656. This night I was invited by Mr. 
Roger L'Estrange to hear the incomparable Lubicer on 
the violin. His variety on a few notes and plain ground, 
with that wonderful dexterity, was admirable. Though a 
young man, yet so perfect and skillful, that there was 
nothing, however cross and perplexed, brought to him by 
our artists, which he did not play off at sight with 
ravishing sweetness and improvements, to the astonish- 
ment of our best masters. In sum, he played on the 
single instrument a full concert, so as the rest flung down 
their instruments, acknowledging the victory. As to 
my own particular, I stand to this hour amazed that God 
should give so great perfection to so young a person. 
There were at that time as excellent in their profession 
as any were thought to be in Europe, Paul Wheeler, Mr. 
Mell, and others, till this prodigy appeared. I can no 
longer question the effects we read of in David's harp to 
charm evil spirits, or what is said some particular notes 
produced in the passions of Alexander, and that King of 

12th April, 1656. Mr. Berkeley and Mr. Robert Boyle 
(that excellent person and great virtuoso). Dr. Taylor, 
and Dr. Wilkins, dined with me at Sayes Court, when I 
presented Dr. Wilkins with my rare burning-glass. In the 
afternoon, we all went to Colonel Blount's, to see his 
newly-invented plows. 

2 2d April, 1656. Came to see Mr. Henshaw and Sir 
William Paston's son, since Earl of Yarmouth. After- 
ward, I went to see his Majesty's house at Eltham, both 
palace and chapel in miserable ruins, the noble woods 
and park destroyed by Rich, the rebel. 

6th May, 1656. I brought Monsieur le Franc, a young 
French Sorbonnist, a proselyte, to converse with Dr. 
Taylor; they fell to dispute on origfinal sin, in Latin, 
upon a book newly published by the Doctor, who was 
much satisfied with the young man. Thence, to see Mr. 
Dugdale, our learned antiquary and herald. Returning, 
I was shown the three vast volumes of Father Kircher's, 
* Obeliscus Pamphilius '^ and ^-^-jEgyptiacus *^- in the second 
volume I found the hieroglyphic I first communicated and 
sent to him at Rome by the hands of Mr. Henshaw, 
whom he mentions; I designed it from the stone itself 
brought me to Venice from Cairo by Captain Powell. 

3IO DIARY OF London 

7th May, 1656. I visited Dr. Taylor, and prevailed on 
him to propose Monsieur le Franc to the Bishop that 
he might have Orders, I having sometime before brought 
him to a full consent to the Church of England, her doc- 
trine and discipline, in which he had till of late made 
some difficulty; so he was this day ordained both deacon 
and priest by the Bishop of Meath. I paid the fees to 
his lordship, who was very poor and in great want; to 
that necessity were our clergy reduced ! In the afternoon 
I met Alderman Robinson, to treat with Mr. Papillion 
about the marriage of my cousin, George Tuke, with Mrs. 

8th May, 1656. I went to visit Dr. Wilkins, at White- 
hall, when I first met with Sir P. Neal, famous for his 
optic glasses, Greatorix, the mathematical instrument 
maker, showed me his excellent invention to quench fire. 

12th May, 1656. Was published my ^^ Essay on Lucre- 
tius,* with innumerable errata by the negligence of Mr. 
Triplet, who undertook the correction of the press in my 
absence. Little of the Epicurean philosophy was then 
known among us. 

28th May, 1656. I dined with Nieuport, the Holland 
Ambassador, who received me with extraordinary courtesy. 
I found him a judicious, crafty, and wise man. He gave 
me excellent cautions as to the danger of the times, and 
the circumstances our nation was in. I remember the 
observation he made upon the ill success of our former 
Parliaments, and their private animosities, and little care 
of the public. 

Came to visit me the old Marquis of Argyle (since 
executed), Lord Lothian, and some other Scotch noble- 
men, all strangers to me. Note, the Marquis took the 
turtle-doves in the aviary for owls. 

The Earl of Southampton (since Treasurer) and Mr. 
Spencer, brother to the Earl of Sunderland, came to see 
my garden. 

7th July, 1656. I began my journey to see some parts 
of the northeast of England; but the weather was so 
excessively hot and dusty, I shortened my progress. 

8th July, 1656. To Colchester, a fair town, but now 
wretchedly demolished by the late siege, especially the 
suburbs, which were all burned, hut were then repairing. 
The town is built on a rising ground, having fair 

1656 JOHN EVELYN 311 

meadows on one side, and a river with a strong ancient 
castle, said to have been built by King Coilus, father of 
Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, of whom I find 
no memory save at the pinnacle of one of their wool- 
staple houses, where is a statue of Coilus, in wood, 
wretchedly carved. The walls are exceedingly strong, 
deeply trenched, and filled with earth. It has six gates, 
and some watchtowers, and some handsome churches. 
But what was shown us as a kind of miracle, at the out- 
side of the Castle, the wall where Sir Charles Lucas and 
Sir George Lisle, those valiant and noble persons who 
so bravely behaved themselves in the last siege, were 
barbarously shot, murdered by Ireton in cold blood, after 
surrendering on articles ; having been disappointed of re- 
lief from the Scotch army, which had been defeated 
with the King at Worcester. The place was bare of 
grass for a large space, all the rest of it abounding with 
herbage. For the rest, this is a ragged and factious 
town, now swarming with sectaries. Their trading is in 
cloth with the Dutch, and baize and says with Spain; it 
is the only place in England where these stuffs are made 
unsophisticated. It is also famous for oysters and eringo 
root, growing hereabout, and candied for sale. 

Went to Dedham, a pretty country town, having a 
very fair church, finely situated, the valley well watered. 
Here, I met with Dr. Stokes, a young gentleman, but 
an excellent mathematician. This is a clothing town, as 
most are in Essex, but lies in the unwholesome hun- 

Hence to Ipswich, doubtless one of the sweetest, most 
pleasant, well-built towns in England. It has twelve 
fair churches, many noble houses, especially the Lord 
Devereux's; a brave quay, and commodious harbor, being 
about seven miles from the main ; an ample market place. 
Here was bom the great Cardinal Wolsey, who began a 
palace here, which was not finished. 

I had the curiosity to visit some Quakers here in prison ; 
a new fanatic sect, of dangerous principles, who show no 
respect to any man, magistrate, or other, and seem a 
melancholy, proud sort of people, and exceedingly igno- 
rant. One of these was said to have fasted twenty days ; 
but another, endeavoring to do the like, perished on the 
loth, when he would have eaten, but could not. 


loth July, 1656. I returned homeward, passing again 
through Colchester; and, by the way, near the ancient 
town of Chelmsford, saw New Hall, built in a park by 
Henry VII. and VIII., and given by Queen Elizabeth to 
the Earl of Sussex, who sold it to the late great Duke of 
Buckingham, and since seized on by Oliver Cromwell 
(pretended Protector). It is a fair old house, built with 
brick, low, being only of two stories, as the manner then 
was ; the gate-house better ; the court, large and pretty ; the 
staircase, of extraordinary wideness, with a piece repre- 
senting Sir Francis Drake's action in the year 1580, an 
excellent sea-piece; the galleries are trifling; the hall is 
noble; the garden a fair plot, and the whole seat well 
accommodated with water; but, above all, I admired the 
fair avenue planted with stately lime trees, in four rows, 
for near a mile in length. It has three descents, which 
is the only fault, and may be reformed. There is another 
fair walk of the same at the mall and wilderness, with a 
tennis-court, and pleasant terrace toward the park, which 
was well stored with deer and ponds. 

nth July, 1656. Came home by Greenwich ferry, where 
I saw Sir J. Winter's project of charring sea-coal, to burn 
out the sulphur, and render it sweet. He did it by burn- 
ing the coals in such earthen pots as the glass men melt 
their metal, so firing them without consuming them, using 
a bar of iron in each crucible, or pot, which bar has a 
hook at one end, that so the coals being melted in a 
furnace with other crude sea-coals under them, may be 
drawn out of the pots sticking to the iron, whence they 
are beaten off in great half-exhausted cinders, which being 
rekindled, make a clear, pleasant chamber-fire, deprived 
of their sulphur and arsenic malignity. What success it 
may have, time will discover.* 

3d August, 1656. I went to London, to receive the 
Blessed Sacrament, the first time the Church of England 
was reduced to a chamber and conventicle ; so sharp was 
the persecution. The parish churches were filled with 
sectaries of all sorts, blasphemous and ignorant mechanics 
usurping the pulpits everywhere. Dr. Wild preached in a 

* Many years ago, Lord Dundonald revived the project, with the pro- 
posed improvement of extracting and saving the tar. Unfortunately he 
did not profit by it. The coal thus charred is sold as coke, a very 
useful fuel for many purposes. 

1656 JOHN EVELYN 313 

private house in Fleet Street, where we had a great meet- 
ing of zealous Christians, who were generally much more 
devout and religious than in our greatest prosperity. In 
the afternoon, I went to the French Church in the Savoy, 
where I heard Monsieur d'Espagne catechize, and so 
returned to my house. 

20th August, 1656. Was a confused election of Parlia- 
ment called by the Usurper. 

7th September, 1656. I went to take leave of my ex- 
cellent neighbor and friend, Sir. H. Newton and lady, 
now going to dwell at Warwick; and Mr. Needham, my 
dear and learned friend, came to visit me. 

14th September, 1656. Now was old Sir Henry Vane* 
sent to Carisbrook Castle, in Wight, for a foolish book 
he published; the pretended Protector fortifying himself 
exceedingly, and sending many to prison. 

2d October, 1656. Came to visit me my cousin, Stephens, 
and Mr. Pierce (since head of Magdalen College, Oxford), 
a learned minister of Brington, in Northamptonshire, and 
Captain Cooke, both excellent musicians. 

2d November, 1656. There was now nothing practical 
preached, or that pressed reformation of life, but high 
and speculative points and strains that few understood, 
which left people very ignorant, and of no steady princi- 
ples, the source of all our sects and divisions, for there 
was much envy and uncharity in the world; God of his 
mercy amend it ! Now, indeed, that I went at all to 
church, while these usurpers possessed the pulpits, was 
that I might not be suspected for a Papist, and that, 
though the minister was Presbyterianly affected, he yet 
was as I understood duly ordained, and preached sound 
doctrine after their way, and besides was an humble, 
harmless, and peaceable man. 

25th December, 1656. I went to London, to receive the 
Blessed Communion, this holy festival at Dr. Wild's lodg- 
ings, where I rejoiced to find so full an assembly of 
devout and sober Christians. 

* Evelyn means the younger Vane. This was << Vane, young in 
years, but in sage counsel old,^^ the nobleness and independence of whose 
character, as well as his claims to the affection of posterity, are not ill 
expressed in the two facts recorded by Evelyn — his imprisonment by 
Cromwell, and his judicial murder by Charles II. The foolish book to 
which Evelyn refers was an able and fearless attack on Cromwell's 

314 DIARY OF London 

26th December, 1656. I invited some of my neighbors 
and tenants, according to custom, and to preserve hospi- 
tality and charity. 

28th December, 1656. A stranger preached on Luke 
xviii. 7, 8, on which he made a confused discourse, with 
a great deal of Greek and ostentation of learning, to but 
little purpose. 

30th December, 1656. Dined with me Sir William 
Paston's son, Mr. Henshaw, and Mr. Clayton. 

31st December, 1656. I begged God's blessing and 
mercies for his goodness to me the past year, and set my 
domestic affairs in order. 

ist January, 1656-57. Having prayed with my family, and 
celebrated the anniversary, I spent some time in implor- 
ing God's blessing the year I was entered into. 

7th January, 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (since 
secretary to the Duke), slain in the Dutch war, eldest 
son to the Bishop of Ely, now a prisoner in the Tower; 
a most worthy and honored gentleman. 

loth January, 1657. Came Dr. Joyliffe, that famous 
physician and anatomist, first detector of the lymphatic 
veins ; also the old Marquis of Argyle, and another Scotch 

5th February, 1657. Dined at the Holland Ambassa- 
dor's; he told me the East India Company of Holland 
had constantly a stock of ^400,000 in India, and forty- 
eight men-of-war there : he spoke of their exact and just 
keeping their books and correspondence, so as no adven- 
turer's stock could possibly be lost, or defeated; that it 
was a vulgar error that the Hollanders furnished their 
enemies with powder and ammunition for their money, 
though engaged in a cruel war, but that they used to 
merchandise indiffierently, and were permitted to sell to 
the friends of their enemies. He laughed at our Com- 
mittee of Trade, as composed of men wholly ignorant of 
it, and how they were the ruin of commerce, by grati- 
fying some for private ends, 

loth January, 1657. I went to visit the governor of 
Havannah, a brave, sober, valiant Spanish gentleman, 
taken by Captain Young, of Deptford, when, after twenty 
years being in the Indies, and amassing great wealth, 
his lady and whole family, except two sons, were burned, 
destroyed, and taken within sight of Spain, his eldest 

1656-57 JOHN EVELYN 315 

son, daughter, and wife, perishing with immense treas- 
ure. One son, of about seventeen years old, with his 
brother of one year old, were the only ones saved. The 
young gentleman, about seventeen, was a well-complex- 
ioned youth, not olive-colored; he spoke Latin hand- 
somely, was extremely well-bred, and born in the Caraccas, 
1,000 miles south of the equinoctial, near the mountains 
of Potosi; he had never been in Europe before. The 
Governor was an ancient gentleman of great courage, of 
the order of St, Jago, sorely wounded in his arm, and his 
ribs broken; he lost for his own share ^100,000 sterling, 
which he seemed to bear with exceeding indifference, 
and nothing dejected. After some discourse, I went with 
them to Arundel House, where they dined. They were 
now going back into Spain, having obtained their liberty 
from Cromwell. An example of human vicissitude! 

14th January, 1657, To London, where I found Mrs. 
Cary ; next day came Mr. Mordaunt (since Viscount Mor- 
daunt), younger son to the Countess of Peterborough, to 
see his mistress, bringing with him two of my Lord of 
Dover's daughters: so, after dinner, they all departed. 

5th March, 1657. Dr. Rand, -a learned physician, dedi- 
cated to me his version of Gassendi's " Vita Peiriskii?^ 

25th March, 1657. Dr. Taylor showed me his MS. of 
** Cases of Conscience,* or '•'• Ductor Dubitantiuin,^'* now 
fitted for the press. 

The Protector Oliver, now affecting kingship, is peti- 
tioned to take the title on him by all his newly-made 
sycophant lords, etc. ; but dares not, for fear of the 
fanatics, not thoroughly purged out of his rebel army. 

2ist April, 1657. Came Sir Thomas Hanmer, of Han- 
mer, in Wales, to see me. I then waited on my Lord 
Hatton, with whom I dined: at my return, I stepped into 
Bedlam, where I saw several poor, miserable creatures 
in chains; one of them was mad with making verses. I 
also visited the Charter House, formerly belonging to 
the Carthusians, now an old, neat, fresh, solitary college 
for decayed gentlemen. It has a grove, bowling green, 
garden, chapel, and a hall where they eat in common. 
I likewise saw Christ Church and Hospital, a very good 
Gothic building; the hall, school, and lodgings in great 
order for bringing up many hundreds of poor children 
of both sexes; it is an exemplary charity. There is a 

3i6 DIARY OF London 

large picture at one end of the hall, representing the 
governors, founders, and the institution. 

25th April, 1657. I had a dangerous fall out of the 
coach in Covent Garden, going to my brother's, but with- 
out harm ; the Lord be praised ! 

I St May, 1657. Divers soldiers were quartered at my 
house; but I thank God went away the next day toward 

5th May, 1657. I went with my cousin, George Tuke, 
to see Baynard, in Surrey, a house of my brother Rich- 
ard's, which he would have hired. This is a very fair, 
noble residence, built in a park, and having one of the 
goodliest avenues of oaks up to it that ever I saw: there 
is a pond of 60 acres near it; the windows of the chief 
rooms are of very fine painted glass. The situation is 
excessively dirty and melancholy. 

15th May, 1657. Lawrence, President of Oliver's Coun- 
cil, and some other of his Court- Lords, came in the 
afternoon to see my garden and plantations. 

7th June, 1657. My fourth son was bom, christened 
George (after my grandfather); Dr. Jeremy Taylor offi- 
ciated in the drawing-room. 

i8th June, 1657. At Greenwich I saw a sort of cat"" 
brought from the East Indies, shaped and snouted much 
like the Egyptian racoon, in the body like a monkey, 
and so footed; the ears and tail like a cat, only the tail 
much longer, and the skin variously ringed with black 
and white; with the tail it wound up its body like a 
serpent, and so got up into trees, and with it would wrap 
its whole body round. Its hair was woolly like a lamb; 
it was exceedingly nimble, gentle, and purred as does the cat. 

i6th July, 1657. On Dr. Jeremy Taylor's recommen- 
dation, I went to Eltham, to help one Moody, a young 
man, to that living, by my interest with the patron. 

6th August, 1657. I went to see Colonel Blount, who 
showed me the application of the way wiser f to a coach, 

*This was probably the animal called a Mocock {maucaco), since 
well known. 

fBeckmann, in his « History of Inventions,* has written an account 
of the different instruments applied to carriages to measure the distance 
they pass over. He places the first introduction of the udometer in 
England at about the end of the seventeenth century, instead of about 
the middle, and states it to have been the invention of an ingenious 
artist named Butterfield. 

i657 JOHN EVELYN 317 

exactly measuring the miles, and showing them by an 
index as we went on. It had three circles, one pointing 
to the number of rods, another to the miles, by 10 to 
1,000, with all the subdivisions of quarters; very pretty 
and useful. 

loth August, 1657. Our vicar, from John xviii. 36, 
declaimed against the folly of a sort of enthusiasts and 
deperate zealots, called the Fifth-Monarchy-Men, pre- 
tending to set up the kingdom of Christ with the sword. 
To this pass was this age arrived when we had no King 
in Israel. 

2 1 St August, 1657 Fell a most prodigious rain in Lon- 
don, and the year was very sickly in the country 

I St September, 1657. I visited Sir Edmund Bowyer, 
at his melancholy seat at Camberwell. He has a very 
pretty grove of oaks, and hedges of yew in his garden, 
and a handsome row of tall elms before his court. 

15th September, 1657. Going to London with some 
company, we stepped in to see a famous rope-dancer, called 
THE TURK. I saw cvcu to astonishmeut the agility with 
which he performed. He walked barefooted, taking hold by 
his toes only of a rope almost perpendicular, and without so 
much as touching it with his hands; he danced blind- 
fold on the high rope, and with a boy of twelve years 
old tied to one of his feet about twenty feet beneath 
him, dangling as he danced, yet he moved as nimbly as 
if it had been but a feather. Lastly, he stood on his 
head, on the top of a very high mast, danced on a small 
rope that was very slack, and finally flew down the per- 
pendicular, on his breast, his head foremost, his legs and 
arms extended, with divers other activities. — I saw the 
hairy woman, twenty years old, whom I had before seen 
when a child. She was born at Augsburg, in Germany. 
Her very eyebrows were combed upward, and all her 
forehead as thick and even as grows on any woman's 
head, neatly dressed ; a very long lock of hair out of each 
ear; she had also a most prolix beard, and moustachios, 
with long locks growing on the middle of her nose, like 
an Iceland dog exactly, the color of a bright brown, fine 
as well-dressed flax. She was now married, and told me 
she had one child that was not hairy, nor were any of 
her parents, or relations. She was very well shaped, 
and played well on the hai-psichord. 

3i8 DIARY OF London 

17th September, 1657. To see Sir Robert Needham, 
at Lambeth, a relation of mine; and thence to John Tra- 
descant's museum, in which the chiefest rarities were, in 
my opinion, the ancient Roman, Indian, and other na- 
tions' armor, shields, and weapons; some habits of cu- 
riously-colored and wrought feathers, one from the phoenix 
wing, as tradition goes. Other innumerable things there 
were printed in his catalogue by Mr. Ashmole, to whom 
after the death of the widow they are bequeathed, and by 
him designed as a gift to Oxford. 

19th October, 1657. I went to see divers gardens about 
London: returning, I saw at Dr. Joyliffe's two Virginian 
rattlesnakes alive, exceeding a yard in length, small 
heads, slender tails, but in the middle nearly the size of 
i^y leg ; when vexed, swiftly vibrating and shaking their 
tails, as loud as a child's rattle; this, by the collision of 
certain gristly skins curiously jointed, yet loose, and 
transparent as parchment, by which they give warning; 
a providential caution for other creatures to avoid them. 
The Doctor tried their biting on rats and mice, which 
they immediately killed: but their vigor must needs be 
much exhausted here, in another climate, and kept only 
in a barrel of bran. 

226. October, 1657. To town, to visit the Holland Am- 
bassador, with whom I had now contracted much friendly 
correspondence, useful to the intelligence I constantly 
gave his Majesty abroad. 

26th November, 1657. I went to London, to a court 
of the East India Company on its new union, in Mer- 
chant-Taylors' Hall, where was much disorder by reason 
of the Anabaptists, who would have the adventurers 
obliged only by an engagement, without swearing, that 
they still might pursue their private trade; but it was 
carried against them. Wednesday was fixed on for a 
general court for election of officers, after a sermon and 
prayers for good success. The Stock resolved on was 

27th November, 1657. I took the oath at the East In- 
dia House, subscribing ;^5oo. 

2d December, 1657. Dr. Raynolds (since Bishop of 
Norwich) preached before the company at St. Andrew 
Under-shaft, on Nehemiah xiii. 31, showing, by the ex- 
ample of Nehemiah, all the perfections of a trusty per- 

1657-58 JOHN EVELYN 319 

son in public affairs, with many good precepts apposite 
to the occasion, ending with a prayer for God's blessing 
on the company and the undertaking. 

3d December, 1657, Mr. Gunning preached on John 
iii. 3, against the Anabaptists, showing the effect and 
necessity of the sacrament of baptism. This sect was 
now wonderfully spread, 

25th December, 1657. I went to London with my wife, 
to celebrate Christmas-day, Mr. Gunning preaching in 
Exeter chapel, on Micah vii. 2. Sermon ended, as he 
was giving us the Holy Sacrament, the chapel was sur- 
rounded with soldiers, and all the communicants and 
assembly surprised and kept prisoners by them, some in 
the house, others carried away. It fell to my share to 
be confined to a room in the house, where yet I was 
permitted to dine with the master of it, the Countess of 
Dorset, Lady Hatton, and some others of quality who 
invited me. In the afternoon, came Colonel Whalley, 
Goffe, and others, from Whitehall, to examine us one by 
one ; some they committed to the marshal, some to prison. 
When I came before them, they took .my name and abode, 
examined me why, contrary to the ordinance made, that 
none should any longer observe the superstitious time of 
the nativity (so esteemed by them), I durst offend, and 
particularly be at common prayers, which they told me 
was but the mass in English, and particularly pray for 
Charles Stuart; for which we had no Scripture. I told 
them we did not pray for Charles Stuart, but for all 
Christian kings, princes, and governors. They replied, 
in so doing we prayed for the king of Spain, too, who 
was their enemy and a Papist, with other frivolous and 
ensnaring questions, and much threatening; and, finding 
no color to detain me, they dismissed me with much pity 
of my ignorance. These were men of high flight and 
above ordinances, and spoke spiteful things of our Lord's 
nativity. As we went up to receive the Sacrament, the 
miscreants held their muskets against us, as if they would 
have shot us at the altar; but yet suffering us to finish 
the office of Communion, as perhaps not having instruc- 
tions what to do, in case they found us in that action. 
So I got home late the next day; blessed be God! 

27th January, 1657-58. After six fits of a quartan ague, 
with which it pleased God to visit him, died my dear son, 

330 DIARY OF London 

Richard, to our inexpressible grief and affliction, five 
years and three days old only, but at that tender age a 
prodigy for wit and understanding; for beauty of body, 
a very angel; for endowment of mind, of incredible and 
rare hopes. To give only a little taste of them, and thereby 
glory to God, who ^^out of the mouths of babes and in- 
fants does sometimes perfect his praises,* he had learned 
all his catechism; at two years and a half old, he could 
perfectly read any of the English, Latin, French, or Gothic 
letters, pronouncing the first three languages exactly. 
He had, before the fifth year, or in that year, not only 
skill to read most written hands, but to decline all the 
nouns, conjugate the verbs regular, and most of the 
irregular; learned out ^^Puerilis,* got by heart almost the 
entire vocabulary of Latin and French primitives and 
words, could make congruous syntax, turn English into 
Latin, and vice versd, construe and prove what he read, 
and did the government and use of relatives, verbs, sub- 
stantives, ellipses, and many figures and tropes, and made 
a considerable progress in Comenius's *-^Janua */ began 
himself to write legibly, and had a strong passion for 
Greek. The number of verses he could recite was pro- 
digious, and what he remembered of the parts of plays, 
which he would also act; and, when seeing a Plautus in 
one's hand, he asked what book it was, and, being told 
it was comedy, and too difficult for him, he wept for sor- 
row. Strange was his apt and ingenious application of 
fables and morals; for he had read -^sop; he had a won- 
derful disposition to mathematics, having by heart divers 
propositions of Euclid that were read to him in play, and 
he would make lines and demonstrate them. As to his 
piety, astonishing were his applications of Scripture upon 
occasion, and his sense of God; he had learned all his 
catechism early, and understood the historical part of the 
Bible and New Testament to a wonder, how Christ came 
to redeem mankind, and how, comprehending these neces- 
saries himself, his godfathers were discharged of their 

These and the like illuminations, far exceeding his age 
and experience, considering the prettiness of his address 
and behavior, cannot but leave impressions in me at the 
memory of him. When one told him how many days a 
Quaker had fasted, he replied that was no wonder; foT 

1658 JOHN EVELYN 321 

Christ had said that man should not live by bread alone, 
but by the Word of God. He would of himself select 
the most pathetic psalms, and chapters out of Job, to 
read to his maid during his sickness, telling her, when 
she pitied him, that all God's children must suffer afflic- 
tion. He declaimed against the vanities of the world, 
before he had seen any. Often he would desire those 
who came to see him to pray by him, and a year before 
he fell sick, to kneel and pray with him alone in some 
comer. How thankfully would he receive admonition! 
how soon be reconciled! how indifferent, yet continually 
cheerful! He would give grave advice to his brother,, 
John, bear with his impertinences, and say he was but 
a child. If he heard of or saw any new thing, he was 
unquiet till he was told how it was made ; he brought to 
us all such difficulties as he found in books, to be ex- 
pounded. He had learned by heart divers sentences in 
Latin and Greek, which, on occasion, he would produce 
even to wonder. He was all life, all prettiness, far from 
morose, sullen, or childish in anything he said or did. 
The last time he had been at church (which was at 
Greenwich), I asked him, according to custom, what he 
remembered of the sermon; two good things. Father, 
said he, bo?tum gratioe and bonum glories^ with a just 
account of what the preacher said. 

The day before he died, he called to me: and in a 
more serious manner than usual, told me that for all I 
loved him so dearly I should give my house, land, and 
all my fine things to his brother Jack, he should have 
none of them; and, the next morning, when he found 
himself ill, and that I persuaded him to keep his hands 
in bed, he demanded whether he might pray to God with 
his hands unjoined; and a little after, while in great 
agony, whether he should not offend God by using his 
holy name so often calling for ease. What shall I say of 
his frequent pathetical ejaculations uttered of himself: 
* Sweet Jesus, save me, deliver me, pardon my sins, let 
thine angels receive me! * So early knowledge, so much 
piety and perfection! But thus God, having dressed up 
a saint fit for himself, would not longer permit him with us, 
unworthy of the future fruits of this incomparable hope- 
ful blossom. Such a Child I never saw : for such a child 
I bless God, in whose bosom he is! May I and mine 


become as this little child, who now follows the child Jesus 
that Lamb of God in a white robe, whithersoever he 
goes; even so, Lord Jesus, fiat voluntas tua ! Thou 
gavest him to us, thou hast taken him from us, blessed 
be the name of the Lord ! That I had anything accept- 
able to thee was from thy grace alone, seeing from me 
he had nothing but sin, but that thou hast pardoned! 
blessed be my Grod for ever, Amen. 

In my opinion, he was suffocated by the women and 
maids that attended him, and covered him too hot with 
blankets as he lay in a cradle, near an excessive hot fire 
in a close room, I suffered him to be opened, when they 
found that he was what is vulgarly called liver-grown. 
I caused his body to be coffined in lead, and deposited on 
the 30th at eight o'clock that night in the church at Dept- 
ford, accompanied with divers of my relations and neigh- 
bors, among whom I distributed rings with this motto: 
* Dominus abstulit; * intending, God willing, to have him 
transported with my own body to be interred in our dor- 
mitory in Wotton Church, in my dear native county of 
Surrey, and to lay my bones and mingle my dust with 
my fathers, if God be gracious to me, and make me as 
fit for him as this blessed child was. The Lord Jesus 
sanctify this and all other my afflictions, Amen. 

Here ends the joy of my life, and for which I go even 
mourning to the grave. 

15th February, 1658. The afflicting hand of God being 
still upon us, it pleased him also to take away from us this 
morning my youngest son, George, now seven weeks 
languishing at nurse, breeding teeth, and ending in a 
dropsy. God's holy will be done! He was buried in 
Deptford Church, the 17th following. 

25th February, 1658. Came Dr. Jeremy Taylor, and my 
brothers, with other friends, to visit and condole with us. 

7th March, 1658. To London, to hear Dr. Taylor in a 
private house on Luke xiii. 23, 24. After the sermon, 
followed the blessed Communion, of which I participated. 
In the afternoon. Dr. Gunning, at Exeter House, ex- 
pounding part of the Creed. 

This had been the severest winter that any man alive 
had known in England. The crows' feet were frozen 
to their prey. Islands of ice inclosed both fish and fowl 
frozen, and some persons in their boats. 

i6s8 JOHN EVELYN 323 

15th May, 1658, was a public fast, to avert an epidem- 
ical sickness, very mortal this spring, 

20th May, 1658. I went to see a coach race in Hyde 
Park, and collationed in Spring Garden. 

23d May, 1658. Dr. Manton, the famous Presbyterian, 
preached at Covent Garden, on Matthew vi. 10, showing 
what the kingdom of God was, how pray for it, etc. 

There was now a collection for persecuted and seques- 
tered Ministers of the Church of England, whereof divers 
are in prison. A sad day ! The Church now in dens and 
caves of the earth. 

31st May, 1658. I went to visit my Lady Peterborough, 
whose son, Mr. Mordaunt, prisoner in the Tower, was 
now on his trial, and acquitted but by one voice; but 
that holy martyr, Dr. Hewer, was condemned to die 
without law, jury, or justice, but by a mock Council of 
State, as they called it. A dangerous, treacherous time! 

2d June, 1658. An extraordinary storm of hail and 
rain, the season as cold as winter, the wind northerly 
near six months. 

3d June, 1658. A large whale was taken between my 
land abutting on the Thames and Greenwich, which 
drew an infinite concourse to see it, by water, horse, 
coach, and on foot, from London, and all parts. It 
appeiared first below Greenwich at low water, for at high 
water it would have destroyed all the boats, but lying 
now in shallow water encompassed with boats, after a 
long conflict, it was killed with a harping iron, struck 
in the head, out of which spouted blood and water 
by two tunnels; and after a horrid groan, it ran quite 
on shore, and died. Its length was fifty-eight feet, 
height sixteen; black skinned, like coach leather; very 
small eyes, great tail, only two small fins, a peaked 
snout and a mouth so wide, that divers men might have 
stood upright in it; no teeth, but sucked the slime only 
as through a grate of that bone which we call whale- 
bone; the throat yet so narrow, as would not have ad- 
mitted the least of fishes. The extremes of the cetaceous 
bones hang downward from the upper jaw, and are hairy 
toward the ends and bottom within side: all of it prp- 
digious; but in nothing more wonderful than that an 
animal of so great a bulk should be nourished onlybv 
plime through those grates, 

324 DIARY OF London 

8th June, 1658. That excellent preacher and holy man, 
Dr. Hewer, was martyred for having intelligence with 
his Majesty, through the Lord Marquis of Ormond. 

9th June, 1658. I went to see the Earl of Northum- 
berland's pictures, whereof that of the Venetian Senators 
was one of the best of Titian's and another of Andrea 
del Sarto, viz, a Madonna, Christ, St. John, and an Old 
Woman; a St. Catherine of Da Vinci, with divers por- 
traits of Vandyck; a Nativity of Georgioni; the last of 
our blessed Kings (Charles I.), and the Duke of York, 
by Lely, a Rosary by the famous Jesuits of Brussels, 
and several more. This was in Suffolk House: the new 
front toward the gardens is tolerable, were it not drowned 
by a too massy and clumsy pair of stairs of stone, 
without any neat invention. 

loth June, 1658. I went to see the Medical Garden at 
Westminster, well stored with plants, under Morgan, a 
very skillful botanist. 

26th June, 1658. To Eltham, to visit honest Mr. Owen. 

3d July, 1658. To London, and dined with Mr. Hen- 
shaw, Mr. Dorell, and Mr. Ashmole, founder of the 
Oxford repository of rarities, with divers doctors of physic 
and virtuosos. 

15th July, 1658. Came to see my Lord Kilmurry and 
Lady, Sir Robert Needham, Mr. Offley, and two daugh- 
ters of my Lord Willoughby, of Parham. 

3d August, 1658. Went to Sir John Evelyn at God- 
stone. The place is excellent, but might be improved by 
turning some offices of the house, and removing the gar- 
den. The house being a noble fabric, though not com- 
parable to what was first built by my uncle, who was 
master of all the powder mills. 

5th August, 1658, We went to Squirries to visit my 
Cousin Leech, daughter to Sir John; a pretty, finely 
wooded, well watered seat, the stables good, the house 
old, but convenient. 6th. Returned to Wotton. 

loth August, 1658. I dined at Mr. Carew Raleigh's, at 
Horsley, son to the famous Sir Walter. 

14th August, 1658. We went to Durdans [at Epsom] 
to a challenged match at bowls for £10, which we won. 

1 8th August, 1658. To Sir Ambrose Browne, at Betch- 
worth Castle, in that tempestuous wind which threw down 
ply greatest trees at Sayes Court, and did so much mis- 

1658 JOHN EVELYN 325 

chief all over England. It continued the whole night; 
and, till three in the afternoon of the next day, in the 
southwest, and destroyed all our winter fruit. 

3d September, 1658. Died that arch-rebel, Oliver Crom- 
well, called Protector. 

1 6th September, 1658. Was published my translation 
of St. Chrysostom on ^* Education of Children,** which I 
dedicated to both my brothers to comfort them on the 
loss of their children, 

2ist September, 1658, My Lord Berkeley, of Berkeley 
Castle, invited me to dinner. 

26th September, 1658. Mr. King preached at Ashted, 
on Proverbs xv. 24; a Quaker would have disputed with 
him. In the afternoon, we heard Dr. Hacket (since Bishop 
of Litchfield) at Cheam, where the family of the Lum- 
leys lie buried. 

27th September, 1658. To Beddington, that ancient seat 
of the Carews, a fine old hall, but a scambling house, 
famous for the first orange garden in England, being now 
overgrown trees, planted in the ground, and secured in 
winter with a wooden tabernacle and stoves. This seat 
is rarely watered, lying low, and environed with good 
pastures. The pomegranates bear here. To the house is 
also added a fine park. Thence, to Carshalton, excellently 
watered, and capable of being made a most delicious 
seat, being on the sweet downs, and a champaign about it 
full planted with walnut and cherry trees, which aflford a 
considerable rent. 

Riding over these downs, and discoursing with the 
shepherds, I found that digging about the bottom near 
Sir Christopher Buckle's,* near Banstead, divers medals 
have been found, both copper and silver, with founda- 
tions of houses, urns, etc. Here, indeed, anciently stood 
a city of the Romans. See Antonine's ** Itineraries. " 

29th September, 1658. I returned home, after a ten 
weeks' absence. 

2d October, 1658. I went to London, to receive the 
Holy Sacrament. 

On the 3d, Dr. Wild preached in a private place on 

* Not far from the course of the Roman Road from Chichester, 
through Sussex, passing through Ockley, and Dorking churchyard. 
Considerable remains of a Roman building have since been found on 
Waltonheath, south of this house. 

326 DIARY OF London 

Isaiah i. 4, showing the parallel between the sins of Israel 
and those of England. In the afternoon, Mr. Hall (son 
to Joseph, Bishop of Norwich) on i Cor. vi. 2, of the 
dignity of the Saints; a most excellent discourse. 

4th October, 1658. I dined with the Holland ambas- 
sador, at Derby House : returning, I diverted to see a very 
WHITE RAVEN, bred in Cumberland; also a porcupine, of 
that kind that shoots its quills, of which see Claudian; it 
was headed like a rat, the fore feet like a badger, the hind 
feet like a bear. 

19th October, 1658. I was summoned to London, by 
the commissioners for new buildings; afterward, to the 
commission of sewers; but because there was an oath to 
be taken of fidelity to the Government as now constituted 
without a king, I got to be excused, and returned home. 

2 2d October, 1658. Saw the superb funeral of the pro- 
tector. He was carried from Somerset House in a velvet 
bed of state, drawn by six horses, housed with the same ; 
the pall held by his new lords; Oliver lying in effigy, 
in royal robes, and crowned with a crown, sceptre, and 
globe, like a king. The pendants and guidons were car- 
ried by the officers of the army; the imperial banners, 
achievements, etc., by the heralds in their coats; a rich 
caparisoned horse, embroidered all over with gold; a 
knight of honor, armed cap-a-pie^ and, after all, his 
guards, soldiers, and innumerable mourners. In this equi- 
page, they proceeded to Westminster : but it was the most 
joyful funeral I ever saw; for there were none that cried 
bnt dogs, which the soldiers hooted away with a barbar- 
ous noise, drinking and taking tobacco in the streets as 
they went. 

I returned not home till the 17th of November. 

I was summoned again to London by the commisioners 
for new foundations to be erected within such a distance 
of London. 

6th December, 1658. Now was published my "French 
Gardener,® the first and best of the kind that introduced 
the use of the olitory garden to any purpose. 

23d December, 1658. I went with my wife to keep 
Christmas at my cousin, George Tuke's, at Cressing 
Temple, in Essex. Lay that night at Brentwood. 

25th December, 1658. Here was no public service, but 
what we privately used. I blessed God for his mercies 

1658-59 JOHN EVELYN 327 

the year past; and ist of January, begged a continuance of 
them. Thus, for three Sundays, by reason of the in- 
cumbent's death, here was neither praying nor preach- 
ing, though there was a chapel in the house. 

17th January, 1659. Our old vicar preached, taking 
leave of the parish in a pathetical speech, to go to a 
living in the city. 

24th March, 1659. I went to London, to speak to the 
patron, Alderman Cuttler, about presenting a fit pastor 
for our destitute parish church. 

5th April, 1659. Came the Earl of Northampton and 
the famous painter, Mr, Wright, to visit me, 

loth April, 1659. One Mr. Littler, being now pre- 
sented to the living of our parish, preached on John vi. 
55, a sermon preparatory to the Holy Sacrament. 

25th April, 1659. A wonderful and sudden change in 
the face of the public; the new protector, Richard, 
slighted; several pretenders and parties strive for the 
government : all anarchy and confusion ; Lord have mercy 
on us! 

5th May, 1659. I went to visit my brother in London; 
and next day, to see a new opera, after the Italian way, 
in recitative music and scenes, much inferior to the Ital- 
ian composure and magnificence ; but it was prodigious 
that in a time of such public consternation such a vanity 
should be kept up, or permitted. I, being engaged with 
company, could not decently resist the going to see it, 
though my heart smote me for it. 

7th May, 1659. Came the Ambassador of Holland 
and his lady to visit me, and stayed the whole afternoon. 

12th May, 1659. I returned the visit, discoursing much 
of the revolutions, etc. 

19th May, 1659. Came to dine with me my Lord Gallo- 
way and his son, a Scotch Lord and learned: also my 
brother and his lady. Lord Berkeley and his lady, Mrs. 
Shirley, and the famous singer, Mrs, Knight,* and other 

23d May, 1659. I went to Rookwood, and dined with 
Sir William Hicks, where was a great feast and much 
company. It is a melancholy old house, environed with 
trees and rooks. 

26th May, 1659. Came to see me my Lord George 

•Afterward one of Charles II. 's mistresses. 

328 DIARY OF London 

Berkeley, Sir William Ducie, and Sir George Pott's son 
of Norfolk. 

29tii May, 1659, The nation was now in extreme con- 
fusion and unsettled, between the Armies and the 
Sectaries, the poor Church of England breathing as it 
were her last; so sad a face of things had overspread us. 

7th June, 1659. To London, to take leave of my 
brother, and see the foundations now laying for a long 
street and buildings in Hatton Garden, designed for a 
little town, lately an ample garden. 

ist September, 1659. I communicated to Mr. Robert 
Boyle, son to the Earl of Cork, my proposal for erecting 
a philosophic and mathematic college. 

15th September, 1659. Came to see me Mr. Brereton,* 
a very learned gentleman, son to my Lord Brereton, 
with his and divers other ladies. Also, Henry Howard 
of Norfolk, since Duke of Norfolk. 

30th September, 1659. I went to visit Sir William Du- 
cie and Colonel Blount, where I met Sir Henry Blount, 
the famous traveler and water drinker. 

loth October, 1659. I came with my wife and family 
to London : took lodgings at the Three Feathers, in Rus- 
sell Street, Covent Garden, for the winter, my son being 
very unwell. 

nth October, 1659. Came to visit me Mr. William 
Coventry (since secretary to the Duke), son to the Lord 
Keeper, a wise and witty gentleman. 

The Army now turned out the Parliament. We had 
now no government in the nation: all in confusion; no 
magistrate either owned or pretended; but the soldiers, 
and they not agreed. God Almighty have mercy on us, 
and settle us ! 

17th October, 1659. I visited Mr. Howard, at Arun- 
del House, who gave me a fair onyx set in gold, and 
showed me his design of a palace there. 

2ist October, 1659. A private fast was kept by the 
Church of England Protestants in town, to beg of God 
the removal of his judgments, with devout prayers for 
his mercy to our calamitous Church. 

7th November 1659. Was published my bold " Apology 

* William, afterward third Lord Brereton; an accompli shed and 
able man, who assisted Evelyn in establishing the Royal Society. He 
died in 1679. 


for the King" in this time of danger, when it was cap- 
ital to speak or write in favor of him. It was twice 
printed; so universally it took. 

9th November, 1659. We observed our solemn Fast 
for the calamity of our Church. 

13th November, 1659. I went to see the several drugs 
for the confection of treacle, dioscordium, and other 
electuaries, which an ingenious apothecary had not only 
prepared and ranged on a large and very long table, 
but covered every ingredient with a sheet of paper, on 
which was very lively painted the thing in miniature, 
well to the life, were it plant, flower, animal, or other 
exotic drug. 

15th November, 1659. Dined with the Dutch Ambas- 
sador. He did in a manner acknowledge that his nation 
mind only their own profit, do nothing out of gratitude, 
but collaterally as it relates to their gain, or security; 
and therefore the English were to look for nothing of 
assistance to the banished King. This was to me no very 
grateful discourse, though an ingenuous confession. 

1 8th November, 1659. Mr. Gunning celebrated the 
wonted Fast, and preached on Phil. ii. 12, 13. 

24th November, 1659. Sir John Evelyn [of Godstone] 
invited us to the forty-first wedding-day feast, where was 
much company of friends, 

26th November, 1659. I was introduced into the 
acquaintance of divers learned and worthy persons, Sir 
John Marsham, Mr. Dugdale, Mr. Stanley, and others. 

9th December, 1659. I supped with Mr. Gunning, it 
being our fast day, Dr. Feame, Mr. Thrisco, Mr. Cham- 
berlain, Dr. Henchman, Dr. Wild, and other devout and 
learned di\'ines, firm confessors, and excellent persons. 
Note: Most of them since made bishops. 

loth December, 1659. I treated privately with Colonel 
Morley, then Lieutenant of the Tower, and in great trust 
and power, concerning delivering it to the King, and the 
bringing of him in, to the great hazard of my life, but 
the Colonel had been my schoolfellow, and I knew would 
not betray me. 

12th December, 1659. I spent in public concerns for 
his Majesty, pursuing the point to bring over Colonel 
Morley, and his brother-in-law, Fay, Governor of Ports- 

330 DIARY OF London 

i8th December, 1659. Preached that famous divine, 
Dr. Sanderson (since Bishop of Lincoln), now eighty 
years old, on Jer. xxx. 13, concerning the evil of forsaking 

29th December, 1659. Came my Lord Count Arundel, 
of Wardour, to visit me. I went also to see my Lord 
Viscount Montague. 

31st December, 1659. Settling my domestic affairs in 
order, blessed God for his infinite mercies and preser- 
vations the past year. 

Annus Mirabilis, January ist, 1659-60. Begging God's 
blessings for the following year, I went to Exeter 
Chapel, when Mr. Gunning began the year on Galatians 
iv. 3-7, showing the love of Christ in shedding his 
blood so early for us. 

12th January, 1660. Wrote to Colonel Morley again to 
declare for his Majesty. 

2 2d January, 1660. I went this afternoon to visit 
Colonel Morley. After dinner I discoursed with him; 
but he was very jealous, and would not believe that Monk 
came in to do the King any service; I told him that he 
might do it without him, and have all the honor. He 
was still doubtful, and would resolve on nothing yet, so 
I took leave. 

3d February, 1660. Kept the Fast. General Monk 
came now to London out of Scotland; but no man knew 
what he would do or declare; yet he was met on 
his way by the gentlemen of all the counties which 
he passed with petitions that he would recall the old 
long-interrupted Parliament, and settle the nation in 
some order, being at this time in most prodigious con- 
fusion, and under no government, everybody expecting 
what would be next and what he would do. 

loth February, 1660. Now were the gates of the city 
broken down by General Monk ; which exceedingly exas- 
perated the city, the soldiers marching up and down as 
triumphing over it, and all the old army of the fanatics 
put out of their posts and sent out of town. 

nth February, 1660. A signal day. Monk, perceiving 
how infamous and wretched a pack of knaves would have 
still usurped the supreme power, and having intelligence 
that they intended to take away his commission, repent- 
ing of what he had done to the city, and where he and 

1659-60 JOHN EVELYN 331 

his forces were quartered, marches to Whitehall, dissi- 
pates that nest of robbers, and convenes the old Parlia- 
ment, the Rump Parliament (so called as retaining some 
few rotten members of the other) being dissolved; and 
for joy whereof were many thousands of rumps roasted 
publicly in the streets at the bonfires this night, with 
ringing of bells, and universal jubilee. This was the first 
good omen. 

From 17th February to 5th April, I was detained in 
bed with a kind of double tertian, the cruel effects of the 
spleen and other distempers, in that extremity that my 
physicians, Drs. Wetherborn, Needham, and Claude, were 
in great doubt of my recovery ; but it pleased God to de- 
liver me out of this affliction, for which I render him 
hearty thanks : going to church the 8th, and receiving the 
blessed eucharist. 

During this sickness came divers of my relations and 
friends to visit me, and it retarded my going into the 
country longer than I intended; however, I wrote and 
printed a letter in defense of his Majesty,* against a 
wicked forged paper, pretended to be sent from Brussels 
to defame his Majesty's person and virtues and render 
him odious, now when everj'body was in hope and ex- 
pectation of the General and Parliament recalling him, 
and establishing the Government on its ancient and right 
basis. The doing this toward the decline of my sick- 
ness, and sitting up long in my bed, had caused a small 
relapse, out of which it yet pleased God also to free me, 
so as by the 14th I was able to go into the coun- 
try, which I did to my sweet and native air at Wot- 

3d May, 1660. Came the most happy tidings of his 
Majesty's gracious declaration and applications to the 
Parliament, General, and people, and their dutiful ac- 
ceptance and acknowledgment, after a most bloody and 
unreasonable rebellion of near twenty years. Praised be 
forever the Lord of Heaven, who only doeth wondrous 
things, because his mercy endureth forever. 

8th May, 1660. This day was his Majesty proclaimed in 
London, etc. 

*With the title of « The Late Ne\vs, or Message from Brussels Un- 
masked. » This, and the pamphlet which gave rise to it, are reprinted 
in "Evelyn's Miscellaneous Writings.® 

33a DIARY OF London 

9th May, 1660. I was desired and designed to accompany 
my fLord Berkeley with the public address of the Parliament, 
General, etc. , to the King, and invite him to come over and 
assume his Kingly Government, he being now at Breda; 
but I was yet so weak, I could not make that journey by 
sea, which was not a little to my detriment, so I went to 
London to excuse myself, returning the loth, having yet 
received a gracious message from his Majesty by Major 
Scot and Colonel Tuke. 

24th May, 1660. Came to me Colonel Morley, about 
procuring his pardon, now too late, seeing his error and 
neglect of the counsel I gave him, by which, if he had 
taken it he had certainly done the great work with the 
same ease that Monk did it, who was then in Scotland, 
and Morley in a post to have done what he pleased, but 
his jealousy and fear kept him from that blessing and 
honor. I addressed him to Lord Mordaunt, then in great 
favor, for his pardon, which he obtained at the cost of 
;^i,ooo, as I heard. Oh, the sottish omission of this gen- 
tleman! what did I not undergo of danger in this nego- 
tiation, to have brought him over to his Majesty's 
interest, when it was entirely in his hands ! 

29th May, 1660. This day, his Majesty, Charles II. 
came to London, after a sad and long exile and calami- 
tous suffering both of the King and Church, being seven- 
teen years. This was also his birthday, and with a 
triumph of above 20,000 horse and foot, brandishing their 
swords, and shouting with inexpressible joy; the ways 
strewn with flowers, the bells ringing, the streets hung 
with tapestry, fountains running with wine; the Mayor, 
' Aldermen, and all the companies, in their liveries, chains 
of gold, and banners ; Lords and Nobles, clad in cloth of 
silver, gold, and velvet; the windows and balconies, all 
set with ladies ; trumpets, music, and myriads of people 
flocking, even so far as from Rochester, so as they were 
seven hours in passing the city, even from two in the 
afternoon till nine at night. 

I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and blessed God. 
And all this was done without one drop of blood shed, 
and by that very army which rebelled against him : but it 
was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was never 
mentioned in any history, ancient or modem, since the 
return of the Jews from their Babylonish captivity; nor 

i66o JOHN EVELYN 333 

so joyful a day and so bright ever seen in this nation, 
this happening when to expect or efifect it was past all 
human policy, 

4th June, 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard 
Browne's landing at Dover, and also letters from the 
Queen, which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet 
presenting myself to his Majesty, by reason of the infinite 
concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and 
children, to see his Majesty, and kiss his hands, was so 
gfreat, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, 
coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the 
King being as willing to give them that satisfaction, 
would have none kept out, but gave free access to all 
sorts of people. 

Addressing myself to the Duke, I was carried to his 
Majesty, when very few noblemen were with him, and 
kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then 
returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne, who came 
not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all 
which time he kept up in his chapel the Liturgy and 
Ofi&ces of the Church of England, to his no small honor, 
and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought 
utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Pa- 
pists and Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the 
visibility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation, 

I was all this week to and fro at court about business, 

1 6th June, 1660. The French, Italian, and Dutch Min- 
isters came to make their address to his Majesty, one 
Monsieur Stoope pronouncing the harangfue with great 

1 8th June, 1660. I proposed the embassy to Constan- 
tinople for Mr, Henshaw ; but my Lord Winchelsea 
struck in. 

Goods that had been pillaged from Whitehall during 
the Rebellion were now daily brought in, and restored 
upon proclamation; as plate, hangings, pictures, etc, 

226. June, 1660. The Warwickshire gentlemen (as did 
all the shires and chief towns in all the three nations ) pre- 
sented their congratulatory address. It was carried by 
my Lord Northampton, 

30th June, 1660. The Sussex gentlemen presented their 
address, to which wcs my hand. I went with it, and 
kissed his Majesty's hand, who was pleased to own me 

334 DIARY OF London 

more particularly by calling me his old. acquaintance, 
and speaking very graciously to me. 

3d July, 1660. I went to Hyde Park, where was his 
Majesty, and abundance of gallantry. 

4th July, 1660. I heard Sir Samuel Tuke harangue to 
the House of Lords, in behalf of the Roman Catholics, 
and his account of the transaction at Colchester in mur- 
dering Lord Capel, and the rest of those brave men, that 
suffered in cold blood, after articles of rendition. 

5th July, 1660. I saw his Majesty go with as much 
pomp and splendor as any earthly prince could do to the 
great city feast, the first they had invited him to since 
his return ; but the exceeding rain which fell all that day 
much eclipsed its lustres. This was at Guildhall, and 
there was also all the Parliament men, both Lords and 
Commons. The streets were adorned with pageants, at 
immense cost. 

6th July, 1660. His Majesty began first to touch for 
THE evil! according to custom, thus: his Majesty sitting 
under his state in the banqueting house, the chirurgeons 
cause the sick to be brought, or led, up to the throne, 
where they kneeling, the King strokes their faces, or 
cheeks with both his hands at once, at which instant a 
chaplain in his formalities says, * He put his hands upon 
them, and he healed them.* This is said to every one 
in particular. When they have all been touched, they 
come up again in the same order, and the other chaplain 
kneeling, and having angel gold * strung on white ribbon 
on his arm, delivers them one by one to his Majesty, 
who puts them about the necks of the touched as they 
pass, while the first chaplain repeats, "That is the true 
light who came into the world. ** Then follows, an Epistle 
(as at first a Gospel) with the Liturgy, prayers for the 
sick, with some alteration; lastly the blessing; and then 
the Lord Chamberlain and the Comptroller of the House- 
hold bring a basin, ewer, and towel, for his Majesty to 

The King received a congratulatory address from the 
city of Cologne, in Germany, where he had been some 
time in his exile; his Majesty saying they were the best 
people in the world, the most kind and worthy to him 
that he ever met with. 

^^ Pieces of money, so called from the figure of an angel qn ft?ni. 

i66o JOHN EVELYN 335 

I recommended Monsieur Messary to be Judge Advo- 
cate in Jersey, by the Vice-Chamberlain's mediation 
with the Earl of St. Albans; and saluted my excellent 
and worthy noble friend, my Lord Ossory, son to the Mar- 
quis of Ormond, after many years' absence returned home. 

8th July, 1660. Mr. Henchman preached on Ephes. v. 5, 
concerning Christian circumspection. From henceforth, 
was the Liturgy publicly used in our churches, whence it 
had been for so many years banished. 

15th July, i66o. Came Sir George Carteret and lady 
to visit us: he was now Treasurer of the Navy. 

28th July, 1660. I heard his Majesty's speech in the 
Lords' House, on passing the Bills of Tonnage and 
Poundage; restoration of my Lord Ormond to his estate 
in Ireland; concerning the commission of sewers, and 
continuance of the excise. In the afternoon I saluted 
my old friend, the Archbishop of Armagh, formerly of 
Londonderry (Dr, Bramhall). He presented several Irish 
divines to be promoted as Bishops in that kingdom, most 
of the Bishops in the three kingdoms being now almost 
worn out, and the Sees vacant. 

31st July, 1660. I went to visit Sir Philip Warwick, 
now secretary to the Lord Treasurer, at his house in 
North Cray. 

19th August, 1660. Our vicar read the Thirty-nine 
Articles to the congregation, the national assemblies 
beginning now to settle, and wanting instruction. 

23d August, 1660. Came Duke Hamilton, Lord Lothian, 
and several Scottish Lords, to see my garden. 

25th August, 1660. Colonel Spencer, colonel of a regi- 
ment of horse in our county of Kent, sent to me, and 
intreated that I would take a commission for a troop of 
horse, and that I would nominate my lieutenant and 
ensigns; I thanked him for the honor intended me; but 
would by no means undertake the trouble. 

4th September, 1660. I was invited to an ordination 
by the Bishop of Bangor, in Henry VII. 's chapel, West- 
minster, and afterward saw the audience of an Envoy^e 
from the Duke of Anjou, sent to compliment his Maj- 
esty's return. 

5th September, 1660. Came to visit and dine with me 
the Envoy6e of the King of Poland, and Resident of the 
King of Denmark, etc. 

336 DIARY OF londoK 

7th September, 1660, I went to Chelsea to visit Mr. 
Boyle, and see his pneumatic engine perform divers ex- 
periments. Thence, to Kensington, to visit Mr. Hen- 
shaw, returning home that evening. 

13th September, 1660. I saw in South wark, at St 
Margaret's fair, monkeys and apes dance, and do other 
feats of activity on the high rope; they were gallantly 
clad d la monde^ went upright, saluted the company, 
bowing and pulling off their hats; they saluted one 
another with as good a grace as if instructed by a 
dancing master ; they turned heels over head with a bas- 
ket having eggs in it, without breaking any; also, with 
lighted candles in their hands, and on their heads, with- 
out extinguishing them, and with vessels of water 
without spilling a drop. I also saw an Italian wench 
dance, and perform all the tricks on the high rope to 
admiration; all the Court went to see her. Likewise, 
here was a man who took up a piece of iron cannon of 
about 4oolb. weight with the hair of his head only. 

17th September, 1660. Went to London, to see the 
splendid entry of the Prince de Ligne, Ambassador ex- 
traordinary from Spain; he was general of the Spanish 
King's horse in Flanders, and was accompanied with 
divers great persons from thence, and an innumerable 
retinue. His train consisted of seventeen coaches, with 
six horses of his own, besides a great number of Eng- 
lish, etc. Greater bravery had I never seen. He was 
received in the Banqueting House, in exceeding state, 
all the great officers of Court attending. 

23d September, 1650. In the midst of all this joy 
and jubilee, the Duke of Gloucester died of the small- 
pox, in the prime of youth, and a prince of extraor- 
dinary hopes. 

27th September, 1660. The King received the mer- 
chant's addresses in his closet, giving them assurances of 
his persisting to keep Jamaica, choosing Sir Edward 
Massey Governor. In the afternoon, the Danish Ambas- 
sador's condolences were presented, on the death of the 
Duke of Gloucester. This evening, I saw the Princess 
Royal, mother to the Prince of Orange, now come out 
of Holland in a fatal period. 

6th October, 1660. I paid the great tax of poll money, 
levied for disbanding the army, till now kept up. I 

i66o JOHN EVELYN 337 

paid as an Esquire ;^io, and one shilling for every serv- 
ant in my house. 

7th October, 1660. There dined with me a French 
count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave 
of me, being sent over to the Queen-Mother, to break 
the marriage of the Duke with the daughter of Chancellor 
Hyde. The Queen would fain have undone it; but it 
seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the 
Chancellor's to befriend the Queen, who was much in 
debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs 
go through his hands. 

nth October, 1660. The regicides who sat on the life 
of our late King, were brought to trial in the Old Bailey, 
before a commission of oyer and terminer. 

14th October, 1660. Axtall, Carew, Clement, Hacker, 
Hewson, and Peters, were executed. 

17th October, 1660. Scot, Scroop, Cook, and Jones, 
suffered for reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross, 
in sight of the place where they put to death their 
natural prince, and in the presence of the King his son, 
whom they also sought to kill. I saw not their execu- 
tion, but met their quarters, mangled, and cut, and 
reeking, as they were brought from the gallows in baskets 
on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous providence of God ! 

28th October, 1660. His Majesty went to meet the 

29th October, 1660. Going to London, my Lord Mayor's 
show stopped me in Cheapside ; one of the pageants rep- 
resented a great wood, with the royal oak, and history 
of his Majesty's miraculous escape at Boscobel. 

31st October, 1660. Arrived now to my fortieth year, 
I rendered to Almighty God my due and hearty thanks. 

ist November, 1660. I went with some of my relations 
to Court, to show them his Majesty's cabinet and closet 
of rarities; the rare miniatures of Peter Oliver, after 
Raphael, Titian, and other masters, which I infinitely 
esteem ; also, that large piece of the Duchess of Lennox, 
done in enamel, by Petitot, and a vast number of agates, 
onyxes, and intaglios, especially a medallion of Caesar, as 
broad as my hand; likewise, rare cabinets of pietra-com- 
messa, a landscape of needlework, formerly presented by 
the Dutch to King Charles I. Here I saw a vast book of 
maps, in a volume near four yards large ; a curious ship 

338 DIARY OF London 

model; and, among the cloclcs, one that showed the ris- 
ing and setting of the sun in the zodiac; the sun repre- 
sented by a face and rays of gold, upon an azure sky, 
observing the diurnal and annual motion, rising and set- 
ting behind a landscape of hills, — the work of our famous 
Fromantil, — and several other rarities. 

3d October, 1660. Arrived the Queen-Mother in Eng- 
land, whence she had been banished for almost twenty 
years ; together with her illustrious daughter, the Princess 
Henrietta, divers princes and noblemen, accompanying 

15th October, 1660. I kissed the Queen-Mother's hand. 

20th October, 1660. I dined at the Clerk Comptroller's 
of the Green Cloth, being the first day of the re-estab- 
lishment of the Court diet, and settling of his Majesty's 

23d October, 1660. Being this day in the bedchamber 
of the Princess Henrietta, where were many great beau- 
ties and noblemen, I saluted divers of my old friends 
and acquaintances abroad; his Majesty carrying my wife 
to salute the Queen and Princess, and then led her into 
his closet, and with his own hands showed her divers 

25th October, 1660. Dr. Rainbow preached before the 
King, on Luke ii. 14, of the glory to be given God for 
all his mercies, especially for restoring the Church and 
government ; now the service was performed with music, 
voices, etc., as formerly. 

27th November, 1660. Came down the Clerk Comp- 
troller [of the Green Cloth] by the Lord Steward's ap- 
pointment, to survey the land at Sayes Court, on which 
I had pretense, and to make his report. 

6th December, 1660. I waited on my brother and sis- 
ter Evelyn to Court. Now were presented to his Majesty 
those two rare pieces of drollery, or rather a Dutch 
Kitchen, painted by Dowe, so finely as hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from enamel. I was also shown divers rich 
jewels and crystal vases; the rare head of Jo. Bellino, 
Titian's master; Christ in the Garden, by Hannibal Ca- 
racci; two incomparable heads, by Holbein; the Queen- 
Mother in a miniature, almost as big as the life; an ex- 
quisite piece of carving; two unicorn's horns, etc. This 
in the closet. 

i66o-6i JOHN EVELYN 339 

13th December, 1660. I presented my son, John, to 
the Queen- Mother, who kissed him, talked with and made 
extraordinary much of him. 

14th December, 1660. I visited my Lady Chancellor, the 
Marchioness of Ormond, and Countess of Guildford, all of 
whom we had known abroad in exile. 

1 8th December, 1660. I carried Mr. Spellman, a most 
ingenious gentleman, grandchild to the learned Sir Henry, 
to my Lord Mordaunt, to whom I had recommended him 
as secretary. 

2ist December, 1660. This day died the Princess of 
Orange, of the smallpox, which entirely altered the face 
and gallantry of the whole Court. 

2 2d December, 1660. The marriage of the Chancel- 
lor's daughter being now newly owned, I went to see her, 
she being Sir Richard Browne's intimate acquaintance 
when she waited on the Princess of Orange ; she was now 
at her father's, at Worcester House, in the Strand. We 
all kissed her hand, as did also my Lord Chamberlain 
(Manchester) and Countess of Northumberland. This was 
a strange change — can it succeed well? — I spent the 
evening at St. James's, whither the Princess Henrietta was 
retired during the fatal sickness of her sister, the Princess 
of Orange, now come over to salute the King her brother. 
The Princess gave my wife an extraordinary compliment 
and gracious acceptance, for the ^^ Character * * she had 
presented her the day before, and which was afterward 

25th December, 1660. Preached at the Abbey, Dr. 
Earle, Clerk of his Majesty's Closet, and my dear friend, 
now Dean of Westminster, on Luke ii. 13, 14, condoling 
the breach made in the public joy by the lamented death 
of the Princess. 

30th December, 1660. I dined at Court with Mr. 
Crane, Clerk of the Green Cloth. 

31st December, 1660. I gave God thanks for his many 
signal mercies to myself, church, and nation, this won- 
derful year. 

2d January, 1661. The Queen-Mother, with the Prin- 
cess Henrietta, began her journey to Portsmouth, in 
order to her return into France. 

*«A Character of England, » reprinted in Evelyn's « Miscellane- 
ous Writing^," pp. 141-67. 

34© DIARY OF London 

5th January, 1661. I visited my Lord Chancellor Clar- 
endon, with whom I had been well acquainted abroad. 

6th January, 1661. Dr. AUestree preached at the Ab- 
bey, after which four Bishops were consecrated, Hereford, 
Norwich, .... 

This night was suppressed a bloody insurrection of 
some Fifth-Monarchy enthusiasts. Some of them were 
examined at the Council the next day; but could say 
nothing to extenuate their madness and unwarrantable 

I was now chosen (and nominated by his Majesty for 
one of the Council), by suffrage of the rest of the mem- 
bers, a Fellow of the Philosophic Society now meeting 
at Gresham College, where was an assembly of divers 
learned gentlemen. This being the first meeting since 
the King's return; but it had been begun some years 
before at Oxford, and was continued with interruption 
here in London during the Rebellion. 

There was smother rising of the fanatics, in which 
some were slain. 

1 6th January, 1661. I went to the Philosophic Club, 
where was examined the Torricellian experiment. I pre- 
sented my Circle of Mechanical Trades, and had recom- 
mended to me the publishing what I had written of 

25th January, 1661. After divers years since I had 
seen any play, I went to see acted *^ The Scornful Lady, '* 
at a new theater in Lincoln's-Inn Fields. 

30th January, 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day 
of humiliation to deplore the sins which had so long pro- 
voked God against this afflicted church and people, or- 
dered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to 
expiate the g^ilt of the execrable murder of the late 

This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments 
of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Crom- 
well, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty), 
and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of 
their superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to 
Tyburn, and hanged on the gallows there from nine in 
the morning till six at night, and then buried under that 
fatal and ignominious monument in a deep pit ; thousands 
of people who had seen them in all their pride being 

i66i JOHN EVELYN 341 

spectators. Look back at October 22, 1658,* and be 
astonished! and fear God and honor the King; but meddle 
not with them who are given to change! 

6th February, 1661. To London, to our Society, where 
I gave notice of the visit of the Danish Ambassador- 
Extraordinary, and was ordered to return him their 
acceptance of that honor, and to invite him the next 
meeting day. 

loth February, 1661. Dr. Baldero preached at Ely- 
house, on Matthew vi. S3, of seeking early the kingdom 
of God; after sermon, the Bishop (Dr. Wren) gave us the 
blessing, very pontifically. 

13th February, 1661. I conducted the Danish Ambas- 
sador to our meeting at Gresham College, where were 
shown him various experiments in vacuo, and other 

2ist February, 1661. Prince Rupert first showed me 
how to grave in mezzo tinto. 

26th February, 166 1. I went to Lord Mordaunt's, at 
Parson's Green. 

27th February, 1661. Ash Wednesday. Preached be- 
fore the King the Bishop of London (Dr. Sheldon) on 
Matthew xviii. 25, concerning charity and forgiveness. 

8th March, 1661. I went to my Lord Chancellor's, and 
delivered to him the state of my concernment at Sayes 

9th March, 1661. I went with that excellent person 
and philosopher. Sir Robert Murray, to visit Mr. Boyle 
at Chelsea, and saw divers effects of the eolipile for 
weighing air. 

13th March, 1661. I went to Lambeth, with Sir R. 
Browne's pretense to the Wardenship of Merton College, 
Oxford, to which, as having been about forty years before 
a student of that house, he was elected by the votes of 
every Fellow except one; but the statutes of the house 
being so that, unless every Fellow agree, the election 
devolves to the Visitor, who is the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Dr. Juxon), his Grace gave his nomination to 
Sir T. Clayton, resident there, and the Physic Professor: 
for which I was not at all displeased, because, though 
Sir Richard missed it by much ingratitude and wrong of 
the Archbishop (Clayton being no Fellow), yet it would 

* The entry in the « Diary » describing the Protector's funeral. 

34a DIARY OF London 

have hindered Sir Richard from attending at Court to 
settle his greater concerns, and so have prejudiced me, 
though he was much inclined to have passed his time in 
a collegiate life, very unfit for him at that time, for many 
reasons. So I took leave of his Grace, who was formerly 
Lord Treasurer in the reign of Charles I. 

This afternoon, Prince Rupert showed me, with his own 
hands, the new way of graving, called mezzo tinto, which 
afterward, by his permission, I published in my *^ History 
of Chalcography ** ; this set so many artists on work, that 
they soon arrived to the perfection it is since come to, 
emulating the tenderest miniatures. 

Our Society now gave in my relation of the Peak of 
Teneriffe, in the Great Canaries, to be added to more 
queries concerning divers natural things reported of 
that island. 

I returned home with my Cousin, Tuke, now going for 
France, as sent by his Majesty to condole the death of 
that great Minister and politician. Count Mazarine. 

29th March, 1661. Dr. Heylin (author of the * Geog- 
raphy**) preached at the Abbey, on Cant. v. 25, concern- 
ing friendship and charity; he was, I think, at this time 
quite dark, and so had been for some years. 

31st March, 1661. This night, his Majesty promised to 
make my wife Lady of the Jewels (a very honorable 
charge) to the future Queen (but which he never per- 

I St April, 1 66 1. I dined with that great mathematician 
and virtuoso. Monsieur Zulichem, inventor of the pendule 
clock, and discoverer of the phenomenon of Saturn's 
annulus: he was elected into our Society. 

19th April, 1 66 1. To London, and saw the bathing 
and rest of the ceremonies of the Knights of the Bath, 
preparatory to the coronation; it was in the Painted 
Chamber, Westminster. I might have received this honor; 
but declined it. The rest of the ceremony was in the 
chapel at Whitehall, when their swords being laid on the 
altar, the Bishop delivered them. 

2 2d April, 1 66 1. Was the splendid cavalcade of his 
Majesty from the Tower of London to Whitehall, when 
I saw him in the Banqueting House create six Earls, 
and as many Barons, viz: 

Edward Lord Hyde, Lord Chancellor, Earl of Claren- 

i66i JOHN EVELYN 343 

don; supported by the Earls of Northumberland and 
Sussex; the Earl of Bedford carried the cap and coronet, 
the Earl of Warwick, the sword, the Earl of Newport, 
the mantle. 

Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex. 
Brudenell, . . . Cardigan; 
Valentia, . . . Anglesea; 

Greenvill, . . . Bath; and 
Howard, Earl of Carlisle. 

The Barons were : Denzille Holies ; Comwallis ; Booth ; 
Townsend; Cooper; Crew; who were led up by several 
Peers, with Garter and officers of arms before them ; when, 
after obedience on their several approaches to the throne, 
their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, 
which being received by the Lord Chamberlain, and deliv- 
ered to his Majesty, and by him to the Secretary of 
State, were read, and then again delivered to his Maj- 
esty, and by him to the several Lords created; they 
were then robed, their coronets and collars put on by his 
Majesty, and they were placed in rank on both sides of 
the state and throne; but the Barons put off their caps 
and circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls 
keeping on their coronets, as cousins to the King. 

I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several 
archtriumphals built in the streets at several eminent 
places through which his -Majesty was next day to pass, 
some of which, though temporary, and to stand but one 
year, were of good invention and architecture, with in- 

23d April, 166 r. Was the coronation of his Majesty 
Charles IL in the Abbey-Church of Westminster; at all 
which ceremony I was present. The King and his Nobil- 
ity went to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Vis- 
count Mordaunt part of the way; this was on Sunday, 
the 2 2d; but indeed his Majesty went not till early this 
morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in 
this order: 

First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messen- 
gers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights of 
the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. 
The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the 
Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. 
Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of 

344 DIARY OF London 

the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chaplains 
in ordinary having dignities, lo. King's Advocates and Re- 
membrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery. 
Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's 
eldest Sergeant. Secretaries of the French and Latin 
tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily Waiters, Sewers, 
Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the 
body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsel- 
lors, viz, of the Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, 
Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the Ex- 
chequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief- 
Baron. Lord Chief -Justice of the Common Pleas. Master 
of the Rolls. Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. 
Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 
68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest 
show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty excepted. 
Knight Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of 
the Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of 
the Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. 
Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. 
Two Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. 
Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household. Two Her- 
alds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Nor- 
roy. Lord Chancellor. Lord High Steward of England. 
Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and 
Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert 
Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. 
Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York 
alone (the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of ^Eng- 
land. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The sword 
borne by the Earl Marshal of England. The King, in 
royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries, 
footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, 
leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. 
Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The 
Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, 
with many other officers and gentlemen. 

This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as em- 
broidery, velvet, cloth of gold and silver, and jewels, 
could make them and their prancing horses, proceeded 
through the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung 
with rich tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies; 
the London militia lining the ways, and the several com- 

i66 JOHN EVELYN 345 

panics, with their banners and loud music, ranked in 
their orders; the fountains running wine, bells ringfing, 
with speeches made at the several triumphal arches; at 
that of the Temple Bar (near which I stood) the Lord 
Mayor was received by the Bailiff of Westminster, who, 
in a scarlet robe, made a speech. Thence, with joyful 
acclamations, his Majesty passed to Whitehall, Bonfires 
at night. 

The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to 
Westminster Abbey. When his Majesty was entered, the 
Dean and Prebendaries brought all the regalia, and 
delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the 
King, who met them at the west door of the church', 
singing an anthem, to the choir. Then, came the Peers, 
in their robes, and coronets in their hands, till his Majesty 
was placed on a throne elevated before the altar. After- 
ward, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury being sick) went to every side of the throne to 
present the King to the people, asking if they would have 
him for their King, and do him homage; at this, 
they shouted four times * God save King Charles II ! * 
Then, an anthem was sung. His Majesty, attended by 
three Bishops, went up to the altar, and he offered a pall 
and a pound of gold. Afterward, he sat down in another 
chair during the sermon, which was preached by Dr. 
Morley, Bishop of Worcester. 

After sermon, the King took his oath before the altar 
to maintain the religion. Magna Charta, and laws of the 
land. The hymn V/ni S. Sp. followed, and then the 
Litany by two Bishops. Then the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, present, but much indisposed and weak, said * Lift 
up your hearts * ; at which, the King rose up, and put off 
his robes and upper garments, and was in a waistcoat so 
opened in divers places, that the Archbishop might com- 
modiously anoint him, first in the palms of his hands, 
when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read; then, his 
breast and between the shoulders, bending of both arms ; 
and, lastly, on the crown of the head, with apposite hymns 
and prayers at each anointing; this done, the Dean closed 
and buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif 
put on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over 
this a super-tunic of cloth of gold, with buskins and 
sandals of the same, spiirs, and the sword ; a prayer being 

346 DIARY OF London 

first said over it by the Archbishop on the altar, before 
it was girt on by the Lord Chamberlain. Then, the 
armill, mantle, etc. Then, the Archbishop placed the 
crown imperial on the altar, prayed over it, and set it on 
his Majesty's head, at which all the Peers put on their 
coronets. Anthems, and rare music, with lutes, viols, 
trumpets, organs, and voices, were then heard, and the 
Archbishop put a ring on his Majesty's finger. The King 
next offered his sword on the altar, which being redeemed, 
was drawn, and borne before him. Then, the Archbishop 
delivered him the sceptre, with the dove in one hand, and, 
in the other, the sceptre with the globe. The King kneel- 
ing, the Archbishop pronounced the blessing. His Majesty 
then ascending again his royal throne, while Te Deum 
was singing, all the Peers did their homage, by every one 
touching his crown. The Archbishop, and the rest of the 
Bishops, first kissing the King; who received the Holy Sac- 
rament, and so disrobed, yet with the crown imperial on 
his head, and accompanied with all the nobility in the 
former order, he went on foot upon blue cloth, which was 
spread and reached from the west door of the Abbey to 
Westminster stairs, when he took water in a tri- 
umphal barge to Whitehall where was extraordinary feast- 

24th April, 1 66 1. I presented his Majesty with his 
" Panegyric ** in the Privy Chamber, which he was pleased 
to accept most graciously; I gave copies to the Lord 
Chancellor, and most of the noblemen who came to me 
for it. I dined at the Marquis of Ormond's where was a 
magnificent feast, and many great persons. 

ist May, 1 66 1. I went to Hyde Park to take the air, 
where was his Majesty and an innumerable appearance 
of gallants and rich coaches, being now a time of uni- 
versal festivity and joy. 

2d May, 166 1. I had audience of my Lord Chancellor 
about my title to Sayes Court. 

3d May, 1 66 1. I went to see the wonderful engine for 
weaving silk stockings, said to have been the invention 
of an Oxford scholar forty years since; and I returned 
by Fromantil's, the famous clockmaker, to see some pen- 
dules, Monsieur Zulichem being with us, 

* A poem which Evelyn had composed on his Majesty's Coronation ; 
the 23d of April, 1661, being St George's day. 

i66i JOHN EVELYN 347 

This evening, I was with my Lord Brouncker, Sir 
Robert Murray, Sir Patrick Neill, Monsieur Zulichem, 
and Bull (all of them of our Society, and excellent mathe- 
maticians), to show his Majesty, who was present, Sat- 
urn's annulus, as some thought, but as Zulichem affirmed 
with his balteus (as that learned gentleman had published), 
very near eclipsed by the moon, near the Mons Porphy- 
ritis; also, Jupiter and satellites, through his Majesty's 
great telescope, drawing thirty-five feet; on which were 
divers discourses. 

8th May, 1661, His Majesty rode in state, with his 
imperial crown on, and all the peers in their robes, in 
great pomp to the Parliament now newly chosen (the old 
one being dissolved) ; and, that evening, declared in coun- 
cil his intention to marry the Infanta of Portugal, 

9th May, 1 66 1. At Sir Robert Murray's, where I met 
Dr. Wallis, Professor of Geometry in Oxford, where was 
discourse of several mathematical subjects. 

nth May, 1661. My wife presented to his Majesty the 
Madonna she had copied in miniature from P. Oliver's 
painting, after Raphael, which she wrought with extraor- 
dinary pains and judgment. The King was infinitely 
pleased with it, and caused it to be placed in his cabinet 
among his best paintings. 

13th May, 1 66 1. I heard and saw such exercises at 
the election of scholars at Westminster School to be sent 
to the University in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, 
in themes and extemporary verses, as wonderfully as- 
tonished me in such youths, with such readiness and wit, 
some of them not above twelve or thirteen years of age. 
Pity it is, that what they attain here so ripely, they 
either do not retain, or do not improve more consider- 
ably when they come to be men, though many of them 
do; and no less is to be blamed their odd pronouncing 
of Latin, so that out of England none were able to un- 
derstand, or endure it. The examinants, or 'posers, were, 
Dr. Duport, Greek Professor at Cambridge; Dr. Fell, Dean 
of Christ Church, Oxford; Dr. Pierson; Dr. Allestree, 
Dean of Westminster, and any that would. 

14th May, 1 66 1. His Majesty was pleased to discourse 
with me concerning several particulars relating to our 
Society, and the planet Saturn, etc., as he sat at sup- 
per in the withdrawing-room to his bedchamber. 

348 DIARY OF deptford 

i6th May, 1661. I dined with Mr. Garmus, the Resi- 
dent from Hamburg, who continued his feast near nine 
whole hours, according to the custom of his country, 
though there was no great excess of drinking, no man 
being obliged to take more than he liked. 

2 2d May, 1 66 1. The Scotch Covenant was burnt by 
the common hangman in divers places in London. Oh, 
prodigious change! 

29th May, 1 66 1. This was the first anniversary ap- 
pointed by act of Parliament to be observed as a day of 
general thanksgiving for the miraculous restoration of 
his Majesty: our vicar preaching on Psalm cxviii. 24, re- 
quiring us to be thankful and rejoice, as indeed we had cause. 

4th June, 1 66 1. Came Sir Charles Harbord, his Maj- 
esty's surveyor, to take an account of what grounds I 
challenged at Sayes Court. 

27th June, 1 66 1, I saw the Portugal ambassador at 
dinner with his Majesty in state, where was excellent 

2d July, 1 66 1. I went to see the New Spring-Garden, 
at Lambeth, a prettily contrived plantation. 

19th July, 1 66 1. We tried our Diving-Bell, or engine, 
in the water dock at Deptford, in which our curator con- 
tinued half an hour under water; it was made of cast 
lead, let down with a strong cable. 

3d August, 1661. Came my Lord Hatton, Comptroller 
of his Majesty's household to visit me. 

9th August, 1 66 1. I tried several experiments on the 
sensitive plant and humilis^ which contracted with the 
least touch of the sun through a burning glass, though 
it rises and opens only when it shines on it. 

I first saw the famous Queen Pine brought from Bar- 
badoes, and presented to his Majesty; but the first that 
were ever seen in England were those sent to Cromwell 
four years since. 

I dined at Mr. Palmer's in Gray's Inn, whose curiosity 
excelled in clocks and pendules, especially one that had 
innumerable motions, and played nine or ten tunes on the 
bells very finely, some of them set in parts: which was 
very harmonious. It was wound up but once in a quar- 
ter. He had also good telescopes and mathematical in- 
struments, choice pictures, and other curiosities. Thence, 
we went to that famous mountebank, Jo. Punteus. 

i66i JOHN EVELYN 349 

Sir Kenelm Digby presented every one of us his ** Dis- 
course of the Vegetation of Plants '^ ; and Mr. Henshaw, his 
" History of Saltpeter and Gunpowder. " I assisted him 
to procure his place of French Secretary to the King, 
which he purchased of Sir Henry De Vic. 

I went to that famous physician, Sir Fr. Prujean, who 
showed me his laboratory, his workhouse for turning, 
and other mechanics; also many excellent pictures, espe- 
cially the Magdalen of Caracci; and some incomparable 
pay sages done in distemper; he played to me likewise on 
the polythore^ an instrument having something of the harp, 
lute, and theorbo; by none known in England, nor de- 
scribed by any author, nor used, but by this skillful and 
learned Doctor. 

15th August, 1 66 1. I went to Tunbridge-Wells, my wife 
being there for the benefit of her health. Walking about 
the solitudes, I greatly admired the extravagant turnings, 
insinuations, and growth of certain birch trees among the 

13th September, 1661. I presented my *-'• Fumifugium''* * 
dedicated to his Majesty, who was pleased that I should 
publish it by his special commands, being much gratified 
with it. 

1 8th September, 1661, This day was read our petition 
to his Majesty for his royal grant, authorizing our Society 
to meet as a corporation, with several privileges. 

An exceedingly sickly, wet autumn. 

ist October, 1661. I sailed this morning with his 
Majesty in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels 
not known among us till the Dutch East India Company 
presented that curious piece to the King ; being very ex- 
cellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his 
other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of 
the Duke of York's; the wager ;!^ioo; the race from 
Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King lost it 
going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in re- 
turning. There were divers noble persons and lords on 
board, his Majesty sometimes steering himself. His 
barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this 
morning with the King at return in his smaller vessel, 
he being pleased to take me and only four more, who 

* This pamphlet having become scarce, was in 1772 reprinted in 4to. 
and is now incorporated in Evelyn's « Miscellaneous Writings. » 

35© DIARY OF London 

were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where 
we all ate together with his Majesty. In this passage 
he was [pleased to discourse to me about my book in- 
veighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, 
and proposing expedients how, by removing those par- 
ticulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; command- 
ing me to prepare a Bill against the next session of 
Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something 
done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improve- 
ment of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England 
comparatively to other countries. He then commanded 
me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the 
bloody encounter which then had newly happened be- 
tween the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the 
Tower, jcontending for precedency, at the reception of the 
Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir 
William Compton, Master of the Ordnance, to inform 
me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir 
Charles Berkeley, captain of the Duke's life guard, then 
present with his troop and three foot companies; with 
some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared 
with a declaration to take off the reports which went 
about of his Majesty's partiality in the affairs, and of 
his officers' and spectators" rudeness while the conflict 
lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morn- 
ing to London, where from the officers of the Tower, Sir 
William Compton, Sir Charles Berkeley, and others who 
were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three 
days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a 
Narrative in vindication of his Majesty, and the carriage 
of his officers and standers-by. 

On Thursday his Majesty sent one of the pages of the 
back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in 
his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett 
(Privy- Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty 
what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a 
page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice with a large paper, 
desiring to speak with his Majesty, who told him he was 
now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again 
some other time ; the Secretary replied that what he had 
in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the 
King rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside 
to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a whilc^ 

i66i JOHN EVELYN 351 

the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty returning- to 
me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame 
out of France;* this he read and then bid me proceed 
from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all 
the narrative, to his Majesty's great satisfaction; and, 
after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which 
his Majesty instructed me, commanded that it should 
that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord 
Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then 
at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. 
This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Sec- 
retary of State, with his Majesty's express command of 
dispatching them that night for France. Before I went 
out of the King's closet, he called me back to show me 
some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not 
seen before. 

3d October, 1661. Next evening, being in the with- 
dra wing-room adjoining the bedchamber, his Majesty espy- 
ing me came to me from a great crowd of noblemen stand- 
ing near the fire, and asked me if I had done; and told 
me he feared it might be a little too sharp, on second 
thoughts, for he had that morning spoken with the 
French Ambassador, who it seems had palliated the 
matter, and was very tame; and therefore directed me 
where I should soften a period or two, before it was pub- 
lished (as afterward it was). This night also he spoke to 
me to give him a sight of what was sent, and to bring 
it to him in his bedchamber; which I did, and received 
it again from him at dinner, next day. By Saturday, 
having finished it with all his Majesty's notes, the King 
being gone abroad, I sent the papers to Sir Henry Ben- 
nett (Privy-Purse and a great favorite), and slipped home, 
being myself much indisposed and harassed with going 
about, and sitting up to write. 

19th October, 1661. I went to London to visit my 
Lord of Bristol, having been with Sir John Denham (his 
Majesty's surveyor) to consult with him about the plac- 
ing of his palace at Greenwich, which I would have had 
built between the river and the Queen's house, so as a 
large square cut should have let in the Thames like a 
bay; but Sir John was for setting it on piles at the very 
brink of the water, which I did not assent to; and so 

* Henrietta Maxia. 


came away, knowing Sir John to be a better poet than 
architect, though he had Mr. Webb (Inigo Jones's man) 
to assist him. 

29th October, i66i. I saw the Lord Mayor pass in his 
water triumph to Westminster, being the first solemnity 
of this nature after twenty years. 

2d November, 1661. Came Sir Henry Bennett, since 
Lord Arlington, to visit me, and to acquaint me that his 
Majesty would do me the honor to come and see my 
garden; but, it being then late, it was deferred. 

3d November, 1661. One Mr. Breton preached his 
probation sermon at our parish church, and indeed made 
a most excellent discourse on John i. 29, of God's free 
grace to penitents, so that I could not but recommend 
him to the patron. 

loth November, 1661. In the afternoon, preached at 
the Abbey Dr. Basire, that great traveler, or rather 
French Apostle, who had been planting the Church of 
England in divers parts of the Levant and Asia. He 
showed that the Church of England was, for purity of 
doctrine, substance, decency, and beauty, the most perfect 
under Heaven ; that England was the very land of Goshen. 

nth November, 1661. I was so idle as to go to see a 
play called * Love and Honor.** Dined at Arundel House; 
and that evening discoursed with his Majesty about ship- 
ping, in which he was exceedingly skillful. 

15th November, i66i. I dined with the Duke of Or- 
mond, who told me there were no moles in Ireland, nor 
any rats till of late, and that in but one county; but it 
was a mistake that spiders would not live there, only 
they were not poisonous. Also, that they frequently 
took salmon with dogs. 

16th November, 1661. I presented my translation of 
* Naudaeus concerning Libraries * to my Lord Chancellor ; 
but it was miserably false printed. 

17th November, 1661. Dr. Creighton, a Scot, author of 
the ** Florentine Council, * and a most eloquent man and 
admirable Grecian, preached on Cant. vi. 13, celebrating 
the return and restoration of the Church and King. 

20th November, 1661. At the Royal Society, Sir Will- 
iam Petty proposed divers things for the improvement 
of shipping; a versatile keel that should be on hinges^ 
and concerning sheathing ships with thin lead. 

1 66 1 JOHN EVELYN 353 

24th November, 1661. This night his Majesty fell into 
discourse with me concerning bees, etc. 

26th November, 1661. I saw ^* Hamlet, Prince of Den- 
mark** played; but now the old plays began to disgust 
this refined age, since his Majesty's being so long 

28th November, 1661. I dined at Chiffinch's house- 
warming, in St. James's Park; he was his Majesty's 
closet-keeper, and had his new house full of good pic- 
tures, etc. There dined with us Russell, Popish Bishop 
of Cape Verd, who was sent out to negotiate his Majesty's 
match with the Infanta of Portugal, after the Ambassador 
was returned. 

29th November, 1661. I dined at the Countess of 
Peterborough's and went that evening to Parson's 
Green with my Lord Mordaunt, with whom I stayed 
that night. 

ist December, 1661. I took leave of my Lord Peter- 
borough, going now to Tanglier, which was to be deliv- 
ered to the English on the match with Portugal, 

3d December, 1661. By universal suffrage of our phil- 
osophic assembly, an order was made and registered that 
I should receive their public thanks for the honorable 
mention I made of them by the name of Royal Society, 
in my Epistle dedicatory to the Lord Chancellor, before 
my Traduction of Naudaeus. Too great an honor for a 

4th December, 1661. I had much discourse with the 
Duke of York, concerning strange cures he affirmed of 
a woman who swallowed a whole ear of barley, which 
worked out at her side. I told him of the knife swal- 
lowed* and the pins. 

I took leave of the Bishop of Cape Verd, now going in 
the fleet to bring over our new Queen. 

7th December, 1661. I dined at Arundel House, the 
day when the great contest in Parliament was concern- 
ing the restoring the Duke of Norfolk; however, it was 
carried for him. I also presented my little trifle 

♦This refers to the Dutchman, ante, 28th Augfust, 1641; and to an 
extraordinary case contained in a << Miraculous Cure of the Prussian 
Swallow Knife, etc., by Dan Lakin, P. C.,>> quarto, London, 1642, 
with a woodcut representing the object of the cure and the size of 
the knife. 


354 DIARY OF London 

of Sumptuary Laws, entitled " Tyrannus * [or ^* The 
Mode »]. 

14th December, 1661. I saw otter hunting with the 
King, and killed one. 

1 6th December, 1661. I saw a French comedy acted 
at Whitehall. 

20th December, 166 1. The Bishop of Gloucester 
preached at the Abbey at the funeral of the Bishop of 
Hereford, brother to the Duke of Albemarle. It was a 
decent solemnity. There was a silver miter, with epis- 
copal robes, borne by the herald before the hearse, which 
was followed by the Duke his brother, and all the bishops, 
with divers noblemen, 

23d December, 1661. I heard an Italian play and sing 
to the guitar with extraordinary skill before the Duke. 

ist January, 1661-62. I went to London, invited to the 
solemn foolery of the Prince de la Grange, at Lincoln's- 
Inn, where came the King, Duke, etc. It began with a 
grand masque, and a formal pleading before the mock 
Princes, Grandees, Nobles, and Knights of the Sun. He 
had his Lord Chancellor, Chamberlain, Treasurer, and 
other Royal Officers, gloriously clad and attended. It 
ended in a magnificent banquet. One Mr. Lort was the 
young spark who maintained the pageantry. 

6th January, 1662. This evening, according to custom, 
his Majesty opened the revels of that night by throwing 
the dice himself in the privy chamber, where was a table 
set on purpose, and lost his ;^ioo. (The year before he 
won ;^i,5oo.) The ladies also played very deep. I came 
away when the Duke of Ormond had won about ;^ 1,000, 
and left them still at passage, cards, etc. At other 
tables, both there and at the groom-porter's, observing 
the wicked folly and monstrous excess of passion among 
some losers; sorry am I that such a wretched custom as 
play to that excess should be countenanced in a Court, 
which ought to be an example of virtue to the rest of 
the kingdom. 

9th January, 1662. I saw acted «The Third Part of 
the Siege of Rhodes." In this acted the fair and famous 
comedian called Roxalana from the part she performed; 
and I think it was the last, she being taken to be the Earl 
of Oxford's Miss (as at this time they began to call lewd 
women). It was in recitative music. 

1 66 1 -62 JOHN EVELYN 355 

loth January, 1662. Being called into his Majesty's 
closet when Mr. Cooper, the rare limner, was crayoning 
of the King's face and head, to make the stamps for the 
new milled money now contriving, I had the honor to 
hold the candle while it was doing, he choosing the night 
and candlelight for the better finding out the shadows. 
During this, his Majesty discoursed with me on several 
things relating to painting and graving. 

nth January, 1662. I dined at Arundel House, where 
I heard excellent music performed by the ablest mas- 
ters, both French and English, on theorbos, viols, organs, 
and voices, as an exercise against the coming of the 
Queen, purposely composed for her chapel. Afterward, 
my Lord Aubigny (her Majesty's Almoner to be) showed 
us his elegant lodging, and his wheel-chair for ease and 
motion, with divers other curiosities; especially a kind 
of artificial glass, or porcelain, adorned with relievos of 
paste, hard and beautiful. Lord Aubigny (brother to 
the Duke of Lennox) was a person of good sense, but 
wholly abandoned to ease and effeminacy. 

I received of Sir Peter Ball, the Queen's attorney, a 
draft of an Act against the nuisance of the smoke of 
London, to be reformed by removing several trades 
which are the cause of it, and endanger the health of 
the King and his people. It was to have been offered 
to the Parliament, as his Majesty commanded. 

12th January, 1662. At St. James's chapel preached, 
or rather harangued, the famous orator. Monsieur Moms, 
in French. There were present the King, Duke, French 
Ambassador, Lord Aubigny, Earl of Bristol, and a world 
of Roman Catholics, drawn thither to hear this eloquent 

15th January, 1662. There was a general fast through 
the whole nation, and now celebrated in London, to avert 
God's heavy judgments on this land. Great rain had 
fallen without any frost, or seasonable cold, not only in 
England, but in Sweden, and the most northern parts, 
being here near as warm as at midsummer in some years. 

This solemn fast was held for the House of Com- 
mons at St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, 
preached on Joshua vii. 12, showing how the neglect of 
exacting justice on offenders (by which he insinuated 
such of the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved 

356 DIARY OF London 

and in the Tower) was a main cause of God's punishing 
a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites, as well as 
Achan and others, concluding with an eulogy of the Par- 
liament for their loyalty in restoring the Bishops and 
Clergy, and vindicating the Church from sacrilege. 

1 6th January, 1662. Having notice of the Duke of 
York's intention to visit my poor habitation and garden 
this day, I returned, when he was pleased to do me that 
honor of his own accord, and to stay some time viewing 
such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward 
he caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the 
Navy's house, and to sit with him covered at the same 
table. There were his Highness, the Duke of Ormond, 
and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my 
grounds about a project for a receptacle for ships to be 
moored in, which was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicho- 
las Crisp After this, I accompanied the Duke to an 
East India vessel that lay at Blackwall, where we had 
entertainment of several curiosities. Among other spirit- 
uous drinks, as punch, etc., they gave us Canary that 
had been carried to and brought from the Indies, which 
was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London 
with his Highness. This night was acted before his 
Majesty *The Widow,* a lewd play. 

i8th January, 1662, I came home to be private a lit- 
tle, not at all affecting the life and hurry of Court. 

24th January, 1662. His Majesty entertained me with 
his intentions of building his Palace of Greenwich, and 
quite demolishing the old one ; on which I declared my 

25th January, 1662. I dined with the Trinity Company 
at their house, that corporation being by charter fixed 
at Deptford. 

3d February, 1662. I went to Chelsea, to see Sir 
Arthur Gorges' house. 

nth February, 1662. I saw a comedy acted before 
the Duchess of York at the Cockpit. The King was not at it. 

17th February, 1662. I went with my Lord of Bristol 
to see his house at Wimbledon, newly bought of the 
Queen- Mother, to help contrive the garden after the 
modem, It is a delicious place for prospect and the 
thickets, but the soil cold and weeping clay. Returned 
that evening with Sir Henry Bennett. 

i662 JOHN EVELYN 357 

This night was buried in Westminster Abbey the Queen 
of Bohemia, after all her sorrows and afflictions being 
come to die in the arms of her nephew, the King; also 
this night and the next day fell such a storm of hail, 
thunder, and lightning, as never was seen the like in any 
man's memory, especially the tempest of wind, being 
southwest, which subverted, besides huge trees, many 
houses, innumerable chimneys (among others that of my 
parlor at Sayes Court), and made such havoc at land 
and sea, that several perished on both. Divers lamentable 
fires were also kindled at this time; so exceedingly was 
God's hand against this ungrateful and vicious nation 
and Court. 

20th February, 1662. I returned home to repair my 
house, miserably shattered by the late tempest. 

24th March, 1662. I returned home with my whole 
family, which had been most part of the winter, since 
October, at London, in lodgings near the Abbey of West- 

6th April, 1662. Being of the Vestry, in the afternoon 
we ordered that the communion-table should be set (as 
usual) altar- wise, with a decent rail in front, as before 
the Rebellion. 

17th April, 1662. The young Marquis of Argyle, whose 
turbulent father was executed in Scotland, came to see 
my garden. He seemed a man of parts. 

7th May, 1662. I waited on Prince Rupert to our 
Assembly where were tried several experiments in Mr. 
Boyle's vacuum. A man thrusting in his arm, upon ex- 
haustion of the air, had his flesh immediately swelled so 
as the blood was near bursting the veins: he drawing it 
out, we found it all speckled. 

14th May, 1662. To London, being chosen one of the 
Commissioners for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, 
and incumbrances, and regulating the hackney coaches in 
the city of London, taking my oath before my Lord 
Chancellor, and then went to his Majesty's Surveyor's 
office, in Scotland Yard, about naming and establishing 
officers, adjourning till the i6th, when I went to view 
how St. Martin's Lane might be made more passable 
into the Strand. There were divers gentlemen of quality 
in this commission. 

25th May, 1662. I went this evening to London, in 

358 DIARY OF hampton court 

order to our journey to Hampton Court, to see the new 
Queen; who, having landed at Portsmouth, had been 
married to the King a week before by the Bishop of 

30th May, 1662. The Queen arrived with a train of 
Portuguese ladies in their monstrous fardingales, or 
guard-infantes, their complexions olivader * and sufficiently 
unagreeable. Her Majesty in the same habit, her fore- 
top long and turned aside very strangely. She was yet 
of the handsomest countenance of all the rest, and, 
though low of stature, prettily shaped, languishing and 
excellent eyes, her teeth wronging her mouth by sticking 
a little too far out; for the rest, lovely enough. 

31st May, 1662. I saw the Queen at dinner; the Judges 
came to compliment her arrival, and, after them, the 
Duke of Ormond brought me to kiss her hand. 

2d June, 1662. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen made 
their addresses to the Queen, presenting her ;j^i,ooo in 
gold. Now saiw I her Portuguese ladies, and the Guarda- 
damas, or mother of her maids, f and the old knight, a 
lock of whose hair quite covered the rest of his bald 
pate, bound on by a thread, very oddly. I saw the rich 
gondola sent to his Majesty from the State of Venice; 
but it was not comparable for swiftness to our common 
wherries, though managed by Venetians. 

4th June, 1662, Went to visit the Earl of Bristol, at 

8th June, 1662. I saw her Majesty at supper privately 
in her bedchamber. 

9th June, 1662. I heard the Queen's Portugal music, 
consisting of pipes, harps, and very ill voices. 

Hampton Court is as noble and uniform a pile, and as 
capacious as any Gothic architecture can have made it. 
There is an incomparable furniture in it, especially hang- 
ings designed by Raphael, very rich with gold; also 
many rare pictures, especially the Caesarean Triumphs of 

* Of a dark olive complexion. It has been noticed in other accounts 
that Katharine of Braganza's Portuguese Ladies of Honor, who came 
over with her, were uncommonly ill-favored, and disagreeable in their 
appearance. See Faithome's curious print of the Queen in the costume 
here described. 

f The Maids of Honor had a mother at least as early as the reign of 
Elizabeth. The office is supposed to have been abolished about the 
period of the Revolution of 1688. 

i662 JOHN EVELYN 359 

Andrea Manteg^a, formerly the Duke of Mantua's; of 
the tapestries. I believe the world can show nothing 
nobler of the kind than the stories of Abraham and 
Tobit The gallery of horns is very particular for the 
vast beams of stags, elks, antelopes, etc. The Queen's 
bed was an embroidery of silver on crimson velvet, and 
cost ^8,000, being a present made by the States of Hol- 
land when his Majesty returned, and had formerly been 
given by them to our King's sister, the Princess of 
Orange, and, being bought of her again, was now pre- 
sented to the King. The great looking-glass and toilet, 
of beaten and massive gold, was given by the Queen- 
Mother, The Queen brought over with her from Portugal 
such Indian cabinets as had never before been seen here. 
The great hall is a most magnificent room. The chapel 
roof excellently fretted and gilt. I was also curious to 
visit the wardrobe and tents, and other furniture of 
state. The park, formerly a flat and naked piece of 
ground, now planted with sweet rows of lime trees ; and 
the canal for water now near perfected; also the air-park. 
In the garden is a rich and noble fountain, with Sirens, 
statues, etc. , cast in copper, by Fanelli ; but no plenty of 
water. The cradle-work of horn beam in the garden is, 
for the perplexed twining of the trees, very observable. 
There is a parterre which they call Paradise, in which is 
a pretty banqueting-house set over a cave, or cellar. 
All these gardens might be exceedingly improved, as 
being too narrow for such a palace. 

loth June, 1662. I returned to London, and presented 
my ** History of Chalcography" ( dedicated to Mr. Boyle ) 
to our Society.* 

19 June, 1662. I went to Albury, to visit Mr. Henry 
Howard, soon after he had procured the Dukedom to be 
restored. This gentleman had now compounded a debt 
of ;^2oo,ooo, contracted by his grandfather. I was much 
obliged to that great \artuoso, and to this young gentle- 
man, with whom I stayed a fortnight. 

2d July, 1662. We hunted and killed a buck in the 
park, Mr. Howard in\dting most of the gentlemen of the 
country near him. 

3d July, 1662. My wife met me at Woodcot, whither 
Mr. Howard accompanied me to see my son John, who 

* See Evelj-n's « Miscellaneous Writings,* 

36o DIARY OF London 

had been much brought up among Mr. Howard's children 
at Arundel House, till, for fear of their perverting him 
in the Catholic religion, I was forced to take him home. 

8th July, 1662. To London, to take leave of the Duke 
and Duchess of Ormond, going then into Ireland with an 
extraordinary retinue, 

13th July, 1662. Spent some time with the Lord Chan- 
cellor, where I had discourse with my Lord Willoughby, 
Governor of Barbadoes, concerning divers particulars of 
that colony. 

28th July, 1662. His Majesty going to sea to meet the 
Queen-Mother, now coming again for England, met with 
such ill weather as greatly endangered him. I went to 
Greenwich, to wait on the Queen, now landed. 

30th July, 1662. To London, where was a meeting 
about Charitable Uses, and particularly to inquire how 
the city had disposed of the revenues of Gresham College, 
and why the salaries of the professors there were no 
better improved. I was on this commission, with divers 
Bishops and Lords of the Council; but little was the 
progress we could make. 

31st July, 1662. I sat with the Commissioners about 
reforming buildings and streets of London, and we or- 
dered the paving of the way from St James's North, which 
was a quagmire, and also of the Haymarket about Piqu- 
dillo [Piccadilly], and agreed upon instructions to be 
printed and published for the better keeping the streets 

ist August, 1662. Mr. H. Howard, his brothers Charles, 
Edward, Bernard, Philip,* now the Queen's Almoner (all 
brothers of the Duke of Norfolk, still in Italy), came 
with a great train, and dined with me ; Mr. H. Howard 
leaving with me his eldest and youngest sons, Henry and 
Thomas, for three or four days, my son, John, having 
been sometime bred up in their father's house. 

4th August, 1662. Came to see me the old Countess 
of Devonshire, with that excellent and worthy person, 
my Lord her son, from Roehampton. 

5th August, 1662. To London, and next day to Hamp- 
ton Court, about my purchase, and took leave of Sir R. 
Fanshawe, now going Ambassador to Portugal. 

13th August, 1662. Our Charter being now passed 

♦Since Cardinal at Rome. « Evelyn's Note.» 

1^2 JOHN EVELYN 361 

under the broad Seal, constituting us a corporation un- 
der the name of the Royal Society for the improvement 
of natural knowledge by experiment, was this day read 
and was all that was done this afternoon, being very 

14th Augfust, 1662. I sat on the commission for Char- 
itable Uses, the Lord Mayor and others of the Mercers' 
Company being summoned, to answer some complaints 
of the Professors, grounded on a clause in the will of 
Sir Thomas Gresham, the founder. 

This afternoon, the Queen-Mother, with the Earl of 
St. Alban's and many great ladies and persons, was 
pleased to honor my poor villa with her presence, and 
to accept of a collation. She was exceedingly pleased, 
and staid till very late in the evening. 

15th August, 1662. Came my Lord Chancellor (the 
Earl of Clarendon) and his lady, his purse and mace 
borne before him, to visit me. They were likewise col- 
lationed with us, and were very merry. They had all 
been our old acquaintance in exile, and indeed this great 
person had ever been my friend. His son. Lord Com- 
bury, was here, too. 

17th August, 1662. Being the Sunday when the Com- 
mon Prayer Book, reformed and ordered to be used for 
tne future, was appointed to be read, and the solemn 
League and Covenant to be abjured by all the incum- 
bents of England under penalty of losing their livings; 
our vicar read it this morning. 

20th August, 1662. There were strong guards in the 
city this day, apprehending some tumults, many of the 
Presbyterian ministers not conforming. I dined with 
the Vice-Chamberlain, and then went to see the Queen- 
Mother, who was pleased to give me many thanks for 
the entertainment she received at my house, when she 
recounted to me many observable stories of the sagacity 
of some dogs she formerly had. 

2 1 St Augnst, 1662. I was admitted and then sworn 
one of the Council of the Royal Society, being nomi- 
nated in his Majesty's original g^ant to be of this 
Council for the regulation of the Society, and mak- 
ing laws and statutes conducible to its establishment 
and progress, for which we now set apart every Wednes- 
day morning till they were all finished. Lord Viscount 

362 DIARY OF London 

Brouncker (that excellent mathematician) was also by his 
Majesty, our founder, nominated our first President. 
The King gave us the arms of England to be borne in 
a canton in our arms, and sent us a mace of silver gilt, 
of the same fashion and size as those carried before his 
Majesty, to be borne before our president on meeting 
days. It was brought by Sir Gilbert Talbot, master of 
his Majesty's jewel house. 

22d August, 1662. I dined with my Lord Brouncker 
and Sir Robert Murray, and then went to consult about 
a newly modeled ship at Lambeth, the intention being to 
reduce that art to as certain a method as any other part 
of architecture. 

23d August, 1662. I was spectator of the most magnifi- 
cent triumph that ever floated on the Thames, consider- 
ing the innumerable boats and vessels, dressed and 
adorned with all imaginable pomp, but, above all, the 
thrones, arches, pageants, and other representations, 
stately barges of the Lord Mayor and companies, with 
various inventions, music, and peals of ordnance both 
from the vessels and the shore, going to meet and con- 
duct the new Queen from Hampton Court to Whitehall, 
at the first time of her coming to town. In my opinion, 
it far exceeded all the Venetian Bucentoras, etc., on the 
Ascension, when they go to espouse the Adriatic. His 
Majesty and the Queen came in an antique-shaped open 
vessel, covered with a state, or canopy, of cloth of gold, 
made in form of a cupola, supported with high Corinthian 
pillars, wreathed with flowers, festoons and garlands. I 
was in our newly built vessel, sailing among them. 

29th August, 1662. The Council and Fellows of the 
the Royal Society went in a body to Whitehall, to 
acknowledge his Majesty's royal grace in granting our 
Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; 
when the President made an eloquent speech, to which 
his Majesty gave a gracious reply and we all kissed his 
hand. Next day we went in like manner with our 
address to my Lord Chancellor, who had much promoted 
our patent: he received us with extraordinary favor. In 
the evening I went to the Queen-Mother's Court, and 
had much discourse with her. 

ist September, 1662. Being invited by Lord Berkeley, 
I went to Durdans, where dined his Majesty, the Queen, 

i662 JOHN EVELYN 363 

Duke, Duchess, Prince Rupert, Prince Edward, and 
abundance of noblemen. I went, after dinner, to visit 
my brother of Woodcot, my sister having been delivered 
of a son a little before, but who had now been two days dead. 

4th September, 1662. Commission for Charitable Uses, 
my Lord Mayor and Aldermen being again summoned, 
and the improvements of Sir Thomas Gresham's estate 
examined. There were present the Bishop of London, 
the Lord Chief Justice, and the King's attorney. 

6th September, 1662. Dined with me Sir Edward 
Walker, Garter King-at-Arms, Mr. Slingsby, master of 
the Mint, and several others. 

17th September, 1662. We now resolved that the Arms 
of the Society should be a field argent, with a canton 
of the arms of England ; the supporters two talbots argent ; 
crest, an eagle Or holding a shield with the like arms 
of England, viz, three lions. The words *^ Nullius in 
verbd.^^ It was presented to his Majesty for his appro- 
bation, and orders given to Garter King-at-Arms to pass 
the diploma of their office for it. 

20th September, 1662. I presented a petition to his 
Majesty about my own concerns, and afterward accom- 
panied him to Monsieur Febure his chemist (and who 
had formerly been my master in Paris), to see his ac- 
curate preparation for the composing Sir Walter Raleigh's 
rare cordial: he made a learned discourse before his 
Majesty in French on each ingredienL 

27th September, 1662. Came to visit me Sir George 
Saville, grandson to the learned Sir Henry Saville, 
who published St. Chr5'-sostom. Sir George was a 
witty gentleman, if not a little too prompt and daring. 

3d October, 1662. I was in\'ited to the College of 
Physicians, where Dr. Meret, a learned man and library- 
keeper, showed me the library, theater for anatomy, and 
divers natural curiosities; the statue and epigram under 
it of that renowned physician. Dr. Harvey, discoverer 
of the circulation of the blood. There I saw Dr. Gilbert, 
Sir William Paddy's and other pictures of men famous 
in their faculty. 

Visited Mr. Wright, a Scotchman, who had lived long 
at Rome, and was esteemed a good painter. The 
pictures of the Judges at Guildhall are of his hand, and 
so are some pieces in Whitehall, as the roof in his 


Majesty's old bedchamber, being Astraea, the St, Catherine, 
and a chimney-piece in the Queen's privy chamber ; but 
his best, in my opinion, is Lacy, the famous Roscius or 
comedian, whom he has painted in three dresses, as a 
gallant, a Presbyterian minister, and a Scotch highlander 
in his plaid. It is in his Majesty's dining room at 
Windsor. He had at his house an excellent collection, 
especially that small piece of Correggio, Scotus of de 
la Marca, a design of Paulo; and, above all, those ruins 
of Polydore, with some good agates and medals, espe- 
cially a Scipio, and a Caesar's head of gold. 

15th October, 1662. I this day delivered my " Discourse 
concerning Forest Trees* to the Society, upon occasion 
of certain queries sent to us by the Commissioners of 
his Majesty's Navy, being the first book that was printed 
by order of the Society, and by their printer, since it 
was a corporation. 

i6th October, 1662. I saw ^'•Volpone^'* acted at Court 
before their Majesties. 

2ist October, 1662. To the Queen-Mother's Court, 
where her Majesty related to us divers passages of her 
escapes during the Rebellion and wars in England. 

28th October, 1662. To Court in the evening where 
the Queen-Mother, the Queen-Consort, and his Majesty 
being advertised of some disturbance, forbore to go to the 
Lord Mayor's show and feast appointed next day, the new 
Queen not having yet seen that triumph. 

29th October, 1662. Was my Lord Mayor's show, with 
a number of sumptuous pageants, speeches, and verses. I 
was standing in a house in Cheapside against the place 
prepared for their Majesties. The Prince and heir of 
Denmark was there, but not our King. There were also 
the maids of honor. I went to Court this evening, and 
had much discourse with Dr. Basiers, one of his Majesty's 
chaplains, the great traveler, who showed me the syn- 
graphs and original subscriptions of divers eastern patri- 
archs and Asian churches to our confession. 

4th November, 1662. I was invited to the wedding of 
the daughter of Sir George Carteret (The Treasurer of 
the Navy and King's Vice-Chamberlain), married to Sir 
Nicholas Slaning, Knight of the Bath, by the Bishop of 
London, in the Savoy chapel; after which was an ex- 
traordinary feast. 

i662 JOHN EVELYN 365 

5tli November, 1662. The Council of the Royal So- 
ciety met to amend the Statutes, and dined together; 
afterward meeting- at Gresham College, where was a dis- 
course suggested by me, concerning planting his Majesty's 
Forest of Dean with oak, now so much exhausted of the 
choicest ship timber in the world. 

20th November, 1662. Dined with the Comptroller, Sir 
Hugh Pollard; afterward saw *The Young Admiral* 
acted before the King. 

2 1 St November, 1662. Spent the evening at Court, 
Sir Kenelm Digby giving me great thanks for my 

27th November, 1662. Went to London to see the 
entrance of the Russian Ambassador, whom his Majesty 
ordered to be received with much state, the Emperor not 
only having been kind to his Majesty in his distress, 
but banishing all commerce with our nation during the 

First, the city companies and trained bands were all 
in their stations: his Majesty's army and guards in 
great order. His Excellency came in a very rich coach, 
with some of his chief attendants; many of the rest on 
horseback, clad in their vests, after the Eastern manner, 
rich furs, caps, and carrying the presents, some carry- 
ing hawks, furs, teeth, bows, etc. It was a very magfnifi- 
cent show. 

I dined with the Master of the Mint, where was old 
Sir Ralph Freeman ; * passing my evening at the Queen- 
Mother's Court; at night, saw acted "The Committee,* 
a ridiculous play of Sir R. Howard, where the mimic, 
Lacy, acted the Irish footman to admiration. 

30th October, 1662. St. Andrew's day. Invited by the 
Dean of Westminster to his consecration dinner and cere- 
mony, on his being made Bishop of Worcester Dr. 
Bolton preached in the Abbey Church ; then followed the 
consecration by the Bishops of London, Chichester, Win- 
chester, Salisbury, etc. After this, was one of the most 
plentiful and magnificent dinners that in my life I ever 
saw ; it cost near ;i{^6oo as I was informed. Here were the 
judges, nobility, clergy, and gentlemen innumerable, this 
Bishop being universally beloved for his sweet and gentle 
disposition. He was author of those Characters which go 

*Of Betchwortli, in Surrey. 

366 DIARY OF London 

under the name of Blount. He translated his late Maj- 
esty's ** Icon '^ into Latin, was Clerk of his Closet, Chaplain, 
Dean of Westminster, and yet a most humble, meek, and 
cheerful man, an excellent scholar, and rare preacher. I 
had the honor to be loved by him. He married me at 
Paris, during his Majesty's and the Church's exile. When 
I took leave of him, he brought me to the cloisters in 
his episcopal habit. I then went to prayers at Whitehall, 
where I passed that evening. 

ist December, 1662. Having seen the strange and 
wonderful dexterity of the sliders on the new canal in St 
James's Park, performed before their Majesties by divers 
gentlemen and others with skates, after the manner of 
the Hollanders, with what swiftness they pass, how sud- 
denly they stop in full career upon the ice ; I went home 
by water, but not without exceeding difficulty, the Thames 
being frozen, great flakes of ice encompassing our boat. 

17th December, 1662, I saw acted before the King 
**The Law against Lovers. ^^* 

2ist December, 1662. One of his Majesty's chaplains 
preached; after which, instead of the ancient, grave, and 
solemn wind music accompanying the organ, was intro- 
duced a concert of twenty-four violins between every 
pause, after the French fantastical light way, better suit- 
ing a tavern, or playhouse, than a church. This was the 
first time of change, and now we no more heard the cor- 
net which gave life to the organ; that instrument quite 
left off in which the English were so skillful. I dined at 
Mr. Povey's, where I talked with Cromer, a great musi- 

23d December, 1662. I went with Sir George Tuke, 
to hear the comedians con and repeat his new comedy, 
** The Adventures of Five Hours, *^ a play whose plot was 
taken out of the famous Spanish poet, Calderon. 

27th December, 1662. I visited Sir Theophilus Bid- 

29th December, 1662. Saw the audience of the Mus- 
covy Ambassador, which was with extraordinary state, 
his retinue being numerous, all clad in vests of several 
colors, with buskins, after the Eastern manner ! their caps 
of fur; tunics, richly embroidered with gold and pearls, 

* By Sir William Davenant, a hotch-potch out of « Measure for Meas- 
ure » and "Much Ado about Nothing. » 

1662-63 JOHN EVELYN 367 

made a glorious show. The King being seated under a 
canopy in the Banqueting House, the Secretary of the 
Embassy went before the Ambassador in a grave march, 
holding up his master's letters of credence in a crimson 
taflEeta scarf before his forehead. The Ambassador then 
delivered it with a profound reverence to the King, who 
gave it to our Secretary of State : it was written in a long 
and lofty style. Then came in the presents, borne by 
165 of his retinue, consisting of mantles and other large 
pieces lined with sable, black fox, and ermine; Persian 
carpets, the ground cloth of gold and velvet; hawks, such 
as they said never came the like; horses said to be Per- 
sian; bows and arrows, etc. These borne by so long a 
train rendered it very extraordinary. Wind music played 
all the while in the galleries above. This finished, the 
Ambassador was conveyed by the master of the ceremonies 
to York House, where he was treated with a banquet, 
which cost ;^2oo, as I was assured. 

7th January, 1663. At night I saw the ball, in which 
his Majesty danced with several great ladies. 

8th January, 1663. I went to see my kinsman, Sir 
George Tuke's, comedy acted at the Duke's theater, 
which took so universally, that it was acted for some 
weeks every day, and it was believed it would be worth 
to the comedians ;^4oo or ^^500. The plot was incom- 
parable; but the language stiff and formal. 

loth January, 1663. I saw a ball again at Court, 
danced by the King, the Duke, and ladies, in great 

2ist January, 1663. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, of the 
Household, Sir Charles Berkeley's, where were the Earl 
of Oxford, Lord Bellassis, Lord Gerard, Sir Andrew 
Scrope, Sir William Coventry, Dr. Eraser, Mr. Windham, 
and others. 

5th February, 1663. I saw «The Wild Gallant, » a 
comedy;* and was at the great ball at Court, where his 
Majesty, the Queen, etc., danced. 

6th February, 1663. Dined at my Lord Mayor's, Sir 
John Robinson, Lieutenant of the Tower. 

15th February, 1663. This night some villains broke 
into my house and study below, and robbed me to the 

* By Dryden. It was unsuccessful on the first representation, but 
was subsequently altered to the form in which it now appears. 

368 DIARY OF London 

value of j£6o in plate, money and goods: — this being 
the third time I have been thus plundered. 

26th March, 1663. I sat at the Commission of Sewers, 
where was a great case pleaded by his Majesty's coun- 
sel; he having built a wall over a water course, denied 
the jurisdiction of the Court. The verdict went for the 

30th April, 1663. Came his Majesty to honor my poor 
villa with his presence, viewing the gardens, and even 
every room of the house, and was pleased to take a small 
refreshment. There were with him the Duke of Rich- 
mond, Earl of St. Alban's, Lord Lauderdale, and several 
I)ersons of quality. 

14th May, 1663. Dined with my Lord Mordaunt, and 
thence went to Barnes, to visit my excellent and ingen- 
ious friend, Abraham Cowley. 

17th May, 1663. I saluted the old Bishop of Durham, 
Dr. Cosin, to whom I had been kind, and assisted in his 
exile; but which he little remembered in his greatness. 

29th May, 1663. Dr. Creighton preached his extrava- 
gant sermon at St. Margaret's, before the House of 

30th May, 1663. This morning was passed my lease of 
Sayes Court from the Crown, for the finishing of which 
I had been obliged to make such frequent journeys to 
London. I returned this evening, having seen the Rus- 
sian Ambassador take leave of their Majesties with great 

2d July, 1663. I saw the great Masque at Court, and 
lay that night at Arundel House. 

4th July, 1663. I saw his "^Majesty's Guards, being of 
horse and foot 4,000, led by the General, the Duke of 
Albemarle, in extraordinary equipage and gallantry, con- 
sisting of gentlemen of quality and veteran soldiers, 
excellently clad, mounted, and ordered, drawn up in 
battalia before their Majesties in Hyde Park, where the 
old Earl of Cleveland trailed a pike, and led the right- 
hand file in a foot company, commanded by the Lord 
Wentworth, his son; a worthy spectacle and example, 
being both of them old and valiant soldiers. This was 
to show the French Ambassador, Monsieur Comminges; 
there being a great assembly of coaches, etc. , in the park. 

♦That is against the King. 

i663 JOHN EVELYN 369 

7th July, 1663. Dined at the Comptroller's; after din- 
ner we met at the Commission about the streets, and to 
regfulate hackney coaches, also to make up our accounts 
to pass the Exchequer. 

i6th July, 1663. A most extraordinary wet and cold 

Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of the Navy, had now 
married his daughter, Caroline, to Sir Thomas Scott, of 
Scott's Hall, in Kent. This gentleman was thought to be 
the son of Prince Rupert, 

2d August, 1663. This evening I accompanied Mr. 
Treasurer and Vice-Chamberlain Carteret to his lately 
married son-in-law's. Sir Thomas Scott, to Scott's Hall. 
We took barge as far as Gravesend, and thence by post 
to Rochester, whence in coach and six horses to Scott's 
Hall ; a right noble seat, uniformly built, with a handsome 
gallery. It stands in a park well stored, the land fat 
and good. We were exceedingly feasted by the young 
knight, and in his pretty chapel heard an excellent ser- 
mon by his chaplain. In the afternoon, preached the 
learned Sir Norton Knatchbull (who has a noble seat 
hard by, and a plantation of stately fir trees). In the 
churchyard of the parish church I measured an over- 
grown yew tree, that was eighteen of my paces in com- 
pass, out of some branches of which, torn off by the 
winds, were sawed divers goodly planks. 

loth August, 1663. We returned by Sir Norton's, whose 
house is likewise in a park. This gentleman is a worthy 
person, and learned critic, especially in Greek and Hebrew. 
Passing by Chatham, we saw his Majesty's Royal Navy, 
and dined at Commissioner Pett's,* master-builder there, 
who showed me his study and models, with other curios- 
ities belonging to his art. He is esteemed for the most 
skillful shipbuilder in the world. He hath a pretty gar- 
den and banqueting house, pots, statues, cypresses, re- 
sembling some villas about Rome. After a great feast 

* A monument to him in Deptford Church bears a most pompous in- 
scription: ^^ ^ui fuit patrice decus, patrice suce magnum munimentum j* 
to the effect that he had not only restored our naval affairs, but he in- 
vented that excellent and new ornament of the Navy which we call 
Frigate, formidable to our enemies, to us most useful and safe: he was 
to be esteemed, indeed, by this invention, the Noah of his age, which, 
like another Ark, had snatched from shipwreck our rights and oiu: do- 
minion of the seas. 


we rode post to Gravesend, and, sending the coach to 
London, came by barge home that night. 

i8th August, 1663. To London, to see my Lord Chan- 
cellor, where I had discourse with my Lord Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the Bishop of Winchester, who enjoined 
me to write to Dr. Pierce, President of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, about a letter sent him by Dr. Goffe, a 
Romish Oratorian, concerning an answer to Dean Cressy's 
late book. 

20th August, 1663. I dined at the Comptroller's [of 
the Household] with the Earl of Oxford and Mr. Ash- 
burnham; it was said it should be the last of the public 
diets, or tables, at Court, it being determined to put 
down the old hospitality, at which was great murmuring, 
considering his Majesty's vast revenue and the plenty of 
the nation. Hence, I went to sit in a Committee, to 
consider about the regulation of the Mint at the Tower; 
in which some small progress was made. 

27th August, 1663. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, 
Secretary to my Lord Treasurer, who showed me the 
accounts and other private matters relating to the revenue. 
Thence, to the Commissioners of the Mint, particularly 
about coinage, and bringing his Majesty's rate from fif- 
teen to ten shillings for every pound weight of gold. 

31st August, 1663. I was invited to the translation of 
Dr. Sheldon, Bishop of London, from that see to Canter- 
bury, the ceremony performed at Lambeth. First, went 
his Grace's mace bearer, steward, treasurer, comptroller, 
all in their gowns, and with white staves; next, the 
bishops in their habits, eight in number; Dr. Sweate, 
Dean of the Arches, Dr. Exton, Judge of the Admiralty, 
Sir William Merick, Judge of the Prerogative Court, with 
divers advocates in scarlet. After divine service in the 
chapel, performed with music extraordinary, Dr. French 
and Dr. Stradling (his Grace's chaplains) said prayers. 
The Archbishop in a private room looking into the chapel, 
the bishops, who were commissioners, went up to a table 
placed before the altar, and sat round it in chairs. Then 
Dr. Chaworth presented the commission under the broad 
seal to the Bishop of Winchester, and it was read by Dr. 
Sweate. After which, the Vicar-General went to the vestry, 
and brought his Grace into the chapel, his other officers 
marching before. He being presented to the Commis- 

1663-64 JOHN EVELYN 371 

sioners, was seated in a great armchair at one end of 
the table, when the definitive sentence was read by the 
Bishop of Winchester, and subscribed by all the bishops, 
and proclamation was three times made at the chapel 
door, which was then set open for any to enter, and give 
their exceptions; if any they had. This done, we all 
went to dinner in the great hall to a mighty feast. There 
were present all the nobility in town, the Lord Mayor of 
London, Sheriffs, Duke of Albemarle, etc. My Lord 
Archbishop did in particular most civilly welcome me. 
So going to visit my Lady Needham, who lived at Lam- 
beth, I went over to London. 

loth September, 1663. I dined with Mr. Treasurer of 
the Navy, where, sitting by Mr. Secretary Morice, we had 
much discourse about books and authors, he being a 
learned man, and had a good collection. 

24th October, 1663. Mr. Edward Phillips came to be 
my son's preceptor: this gentleman was nephew to Milton, 
who wrote against Salmasius's ^^Defensio^^; but was not 
at all infected with his principles, though brought up by him. 

5th November, 1663. Dr. South, my Lord Chancellor's 
chaplain, preached at Westminster Abbey an excellent dis- 
course concerning obedience to magistrates, against the 
pontificians and sectaries. I afterward dined at Sir Philip 
Warwick's, where was much company. 

6th November, 1663. To Court, to get Sir John Evelyn, 
of Godstone, off from being Sheriff of Surrey. 

30th November, 1663. Was the first anniversary of our 
Society for the choice of new officers, according to the 
tenor of our patent and institution. It being St. An- 
drew's day, who was our patron, each fellow wore a St. 
Andrew's cross of ribbon on the crown of his hat. After 
the election we dined together, his Majesty sending us 

1 6th December, 1663. To our Society, where Mr. P. 
Balle, our treasurer at the late election, presented the 
Society with an iron chest, having three locks, and in it 
j£ioo as a gift. 

1 8th December, 1663. Dined with the gentlemen of 
his Majesty's bedchamber at Whitehall. 

2d January, 1663-64. To Bam Elms, to see Abraham 
Cowley after his sickness; and returned that evening to 

372 DIARY OF London 

4th February, 1664. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick's; 
thence, to Court, where I had discourse with the King 
about an invention of glass-grenades, and several other 

5th February, 1664. I saw "The Indian Queen" acted, 
a tragedy well written,* so beautiful with rich scenes as 
the like had never been seen here, or haply (except 
rarely) elsewhere on a mercenary theater. 

i6th February, 1664. I presented my "Sylva* to the 
Society; and next day to his Majesty, to whom it was 
dedicated; also to the Lord Treasurer and the Lord 

24th February, 1664. My Lord George Berkeley, of 
Durdans, and Sir Samuel Tuke came to visit me. We 
went on board Sir William Petty's double-bottomed ves- 
sel, and so to London. 

26th February, 1664. Dined with my Lord Chancellor; 
and thence to Court, where I had great thanks for my 
** Sylva, * and long discourse with the King of divers par- 

2d March, 1664. Went to London to distribute some 
of my books among friends. 

4th March, 1664. Came to dine with me the Earl of 
Lauderdale, his Majesty's great favorite, and Secretary of 
Scotland ; the Earl of Teviot ; my Lord Viscount Brouncker, 
President of the Royal Society; Dr. Wilkins, Dean of 
Ripon; Sir Robert Murray, and Mr. Hooke, Curator to 
the Society. 

This spring I planted the Home field and West field 
about Sayes Court with elms, being the same year that 
the elms were planted by his Majesty in Greenwich 

9th March, 1664. I went to the Tower, to sit in com- 
mission about regulating the Mint; and now it was that 
the fine new-milled coin, both of white money and gfuineas, 
was established. 

26th March, 1664. It pleased God to take away my 
son, Richard, now a month old, yet without any sickness 
of danger perceivably, being to all appearance a most 
likely child; we suspected much the nurse had overlain 
him ; to our extreme sorrow, being now again reduced to 
one: but God's will be done. 

*By Sir Robert Howard and Dryden, 

1 664 JOHN EVELYN 373 

29th March, 1664. After evening prayers, was my 
child buried near the rest of his brothers — my very dear 

27th April, 1664. Saw a facetious comedy, called *Love 
in a Tub * ; and supped at Mr, Secretary Bennett's. 

3d May, 1664. Came the Earl of Kent, my kinsman, 
and his Lady, to visit us. 

5th May, 1664. Went with some company a journey 
of pleasure on the water, in a barge, with music, and at 
Mortlake had a great banquet, returning late. The occa- 
sion was. Sir Robert Carr now courting Mrs. Bennett, 
sister to the Secretary of State. 

6th May, 1664. Went to see Mr. Wright the painter's 
collection of rare shells, etc. 

8th June, 1664. To our Society, to which his Majesty 
had sent that wonderful horn of the fish which struck a 
dangerous hole in the keel of a ship in the India sea, 
which, being broken off with the violence of the fish, 
and left in the timber, preserved it from foundering. 

9th June, 1664. Sir Samuel Tuke* being this morning 
married to a lady, kinswoman to my Lord Arundel of 
Wardour, by the Queen's Lord Almoner, L. Aubigny in 
St. James's chapel, solemnized his wedding night at my 
house with much company. 

2 2d June, 1664. One Tomson, a Jesuit, showed me 
such a collection of rarities, sent from the Jesuits of 
Japan and China to their Order at Paris, as a present to 
be reserved in their repository, but brought to London 
by the East India ships for them, as in my life I had 
not seen. The chief things were, rhinoceros's horns; 
glorious vests, wrought and embroidered on cloth of 
gold, but with such lively colors, that for splendor and 
vividness we have nothing in Europe that approaches it; 
a girdle studded with agates and rubies of great value 
and size; knives, of so keen an edge as one could not 
touch them, nor was the metal of our color, but more 
pale and livid; fans, like those our ladies use, but much 
larger, and with long handles curiously carved and 
filled with Chinese characters ; a sort of paper very broad, 
thin, and fine, like abortive parchment, and exquisitely 
polished, of an amber yellow, exceedingly glorious and 
pretty to look on, and seeming to be like that which my 

*A Roman Catholic. 


Lord Verulam describes in his *-^ Nova Atlantis^^ ; several 
other sorts of paper, some written, others printed; prints 
of landscapes, their idols, saints, pagods, of most ugly 
serpentine monstrous and hideous shapes, to which they 
paid devotion; pictures of men and countries, rarely 
painted on a sort of gummed calico, transparent as glass ; 
flowers, trees, beasts, birds, etc., excellently wrought in 
a kind of sleeve silk, very natural ; divers drugs that our 
druggfists and physicians could make nothing of, espe- 
cially one which the Jesuit called Lac Tigridis : it looked 
like a fungus, but was weighty like metal, yet was a 
concretion, or coagulation, of some other matter; several 
book MSS. ; a grammar of the language written in Span- 
ish ; with innumerable other rarities. 

ist July, 1664. Went to see Mr. Povey's elegant house 
in Lincoln's-Inn Fields, where the perspective in his court, 
painted by Streeter, is indeed excellent, with the vases 
in imitation of porphyry, and fountains; the inlaying of 
his closet; above all, his pretty cellar and ranging of 
his wine bottles. 

7th July, 1664. To Court, where I subscribed to Sir 
Arthur Slingsby's lottery, a desperate debt owing me 
long since in Paris. 

14th July, 1664, I went to take leave of the two Mr. 
Howards, now going to Paris, and brought them as far 
as Bromley; thence to Eltham, to see Sir John Shaw's 
new house, now building; the place is pleasant, if not too 
wet, but the house not well contrived; especially the 
roof and rooms too low pitched, and the kitchen where 
the cellars should be ; the orangery and aviary handsome, 
and a very large plantation about it. 

19th July, 1664. To London, to see the event of the 
lottery which his Majesty had permitted Sir Arthur 
Slingsby to set up for one day in the Banqueting House, 
at Whitehall; I gaining only a trifle, as well as did the 
King, Queen-Consort, and Queen-Mother, for near thirty 
lots; which was thought to be contrived very unhand- 
somely by the master of it, who was, in truth, a mere 

2ist July, 1664. I dined with my Lord Treasurer at 
Southampton House, where his Lordship used me with 
singfular humanity. I went in the afternoon to Chelsea, 
to wait on the Duke of Ormond, and returned to London. 

i664 JOHN EVELYN 375 

28th July, 1664. Came to see me Monsieur Zuylichen, 
Secretary to the Prince of Orange, an excellent Latin 
poet, a rare lutinist, with Monsieur Oudart. 

3d August, 1664. To London; a concert of excellent 
musicians, especially one Mr. Berkenshaw, that rare ar- 
tist, who invented a mathematical way of composure 
very extraordinary, true as to the exact rules of art, but 
without much harmony. 

8th August, 1664. Came the sad and unexpected news 
of the death of Lady Cotton, wife to my brother George, 
a most excellent lady. 

9th August, 1664. Went with my brother Richard to 
Wotton, to visit and comfort my disconsolate brother; 
and on the 13th saw my friend, Mr. Charles Howard, 
at Dipden, near Dorking. 

1 6th August, 1664. I went to see Sir William Ducie's 
house at Charlton; which he purchased of my excellent 
friend. Sir Henry Newton, now nobly furnished. 

2 2d August, 1664. I went from London to Wotton, to 
assist at the funeral of my sister-in-law, the Lady Cotton, 
buried in our dormitory there, she being put up in lead. 
Dr. Owen made a profitable and pathetic discourse, con- 
cluding with an eulogy of that virtuous, pious, and de- 
serving lady. It was a very solemn funeral, with about 
fifty mourners. I came back next day with my wife to 

2d September, 1664. Came Constantine Huygens, Si- 
gnor de Zuylichen, Sir Robert Morris, Mr. Oudart, Mr. 
Carew, and other friends, to spend the day with us. 

5th October, 1664. To our Society. There was brought 
a newly-invented instrument of music, being a harpsi- 
chord with gut-strings, sounding like a concert of viols 
with an organ, made vocal by a wheel, and a zone of 
parchment that rubbed horizontally against the strings. 

6th October, 1664. I heard the anniversary oration in 
praise of Dr. Harvey, in the Anatomy Theatre in the 
College of Physicians; after which I was invited by Dr. 
Alston, the President, to a magnificent feast. 

7th October, 1664. I dined at Sir Nicholas Strood's, one 
of the Masters of Chancery, in Great St. Bartholomew's; 
passing the evening at Whitehall, with the Queen, etc. 

8th October, 1664. Sir William Curtius, his Majesty's 
Resident in Germany, came to visit me; he was a wise 

376 DIARY OF oxford 

and learned gentleman, and, as he told me, scholar to 
Henry Alstedius, the Encyclopedist. 

15th October, 1664. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's, 
where was the Duke of Ormond, Earl of Cork, and Bishop 
of Winchester. After dinner, my Lord Chancellor and 
his lady carried me in their coach to see their palace 
(for he now lived at Worcester- House in the Strand), 
building at the upper end of St. James's street, and to 
project the garden. In the evening, I presented him 
with my book on Architecture,* as before I had done to 
his Majesty and the Queen-Mother. His lordship caused 
me to stay with him in his bedchamber, discoursing of 
several matters very late, even till he was going into his bed. 

17th October, 1664. I went with my Lord Viscount 
Combury, to Cornbury, in Oxfordshire, to assist him in 
the planting of the park, and bear him company, with 
Mr. Belin and Mr. May, in a coach with six horses; 
dined at Uxbridge, lay at Wycombe. 

, i8th October, 1664, At Oxford. Went through Wood- 
stock, where we beheld the destruction of that royal seat 
and park by the late rebels, and arrived that evening at 
Combury, a house lately built by the Earl of Denbigh, in 
the middle of a sweet park, walled with a dry wall. The 
house is of excellent freestone, abounding in that part, 
(a stone that is fine, but never sweats, or casts any damp) ; 
it is of ample dimensions, has goodly cellars, the paving of 
the hall admirable for its close laying. We designed a 
handsome chapel that was yet wanting: as Mr. May had 
the stables, which indeed are very fair, having set out the 
walks in the parks and gardens. The lodge is a pretty 
solitude, and the ponds very convenient; the park well 

20th October, 1664. Hence, to see the famous wells, 
natural and artificial grots and fountains, called Bushell's 
Wells, at Enstone. This Bushell had been Secretary to 
my Lord Verulam. It is an extraordinary solitude. There 
he had two mummies ; a grot where he lay in a hammock, 
like an Indian. Hence, we went to Dichley, an ancient 
seat of the Lees, now Sir Henry Lee's; it is a low ancient 
timber-house, with a pretty bowling-green. My Lady gave 

*« Parallel between Ancient and Modern Architecture, origfinally 
written in French, by Roland Freart, Sieiir de Chambray," and trans- 
lated by Evelyn. See his « Miscellaneous Writings. » 

i664 JOHN EVELYN 377 

us an extraordinary dinner. This gentleman's mother was 
Countess of Rochester, who was also there, and Sir Walter 
St. John. There were some pictures of their ancestors, 
not ill painted; the great-grandfather had been Knight 
of the Garter; there was a picture of a Pope, and our 
Savior's head. So we returned to Combury. 

24th October, 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's 
at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and 
heir of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that 
learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain 
of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His 
plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. 
We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's, 
principal of Magdalen- Hall (related to the Lord Chan- 
cellor), brother to the Lord Chief Justice and that Sir 
Henry Hyde, who lost his head for his loyalty. We were 
handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, 
who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned 
Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of 
houses, came to visit Lord Combury (his father being 
now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited 
us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (now here), 
whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, 
in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or 
telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the pass- 
ing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was 
so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the 
rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my 
name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of 
some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's 
body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an 
exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury [Sheldon], to keep the Acts in for the future, 
till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation 
had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that 
incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher 
Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my 
advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture 
on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest 
piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for 
it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by 
the hand of one Fuller ; yet I fear it will not hold long. 
It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel. 

378 DIARY OF London 

Thence, to New College, and the painting of Magdalen 
chapel, which is on blue cloth in chiar oscuro, by one 
Greenborow, being a Ccena Domini, and a *^ Last Judg- 
ment" on the wall by Fuller, as in the other, but some- 
what varied. 

Next to Wadham, and the Physic Garden, where were 
two large locust trees, and as many platani (plane trees), 
and some rare plants under the culture of old Bobart. 

26th October, 1664. We came back to Beaconsfield ; 
next day to London, where we dined at the Lord Chan- 
cellor's, with my Lord Bellasis. 

27th October, 1664. Being casually in the privy gallery 
at Whitehall, his Majesty gave me thanks before divers lords 
and noblemen for my book of *' Architecture,* and again 
for my ^* Sylva * saying they were the best designed and 
useful for the matter and subject, the best printed and 
designed (meaning the taille-douces of the Parallel of 
Architecture) that he had seen. He then caused me to 
follow him alone to one of the windows, and asked me 
if I had any paper about me unwritten, and a crayon; I 
presented him with both, and then laying it on the 
window-stool, he with his own hands designed to me the 
plot for the future building of Whitehall, together with 
the rooms of state, and other particulars. After this, he 
talked with me of several matters, asking my advice, in 
which I find his Majesty had an extraordinary talent be- 
coming a magnificent prince. 

The same day at Council, there being Commissioners 
to be made to take care of such sick and wounded and 
prisoners of war, as might be expected upon occasion of 
a succeeding war and action at sea, war being already 
declared againt the Hollanders, his Majesty was pleased 
to nominate me to be one, with three other gentlemen. 
Parliament men, viz, Sir William Doily, Knt. and Bart., 
Sir Thomas Clifford, and Bullein Rheymes, Esq. ; with a 
salary of ;i^i,2oo a year among us, besides extraordi- 
naries for our care and attention in time of station, 
each of us being appointed to a particular district, mine 
falling out to be Kent and Sussex, with power to consti- 
tute officers, physicians, chirurgeons, provost-marshals, 
and to dispose of half of the hospitals through England. 
After the Council, we kissed his Majesty's hand. At this 
Council I heard Mr. Solicitor Finch plead most elegantly 

i664 JOHN EVELYN 379 

for the merchants trading to the Canaries, praying for a 
new Charter. 

29th October, 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph 
by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guild- 
hall at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett, 
Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor and 
the Duke of Buckingham, who sat between Monsieur 
Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer, 
the Dukes of Ormond and Albemarle, Earl of Manches- 
ter, Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the g^eat officers 
of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first 
drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's health, then 
the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; 
we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and 
drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for 
the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of per- 
sons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was 
said to cost ;^i,ooo, I slipped away in the crowd, and 
came home late. 

31st October, 1664. I was this day 44 years of age; 
for which I returned thanks to Almighty God, begging 
his merciful protection for the year to come. 

2d November, 1664. Her Majesty, the Queen-Mother, 
came across the gallery in Whitehall to give me thanks 
for my book of ** Architecture, " which I had presented 
to her, with a compliment that I did by no means de- 

1 6th November, 1664. We chose our treasurer, clerks, 
and messengers, and appointed our seal, which I ordered 
should be the good Samaritan, with this motto, " Fac 
similiter.^ Painters' Hall was lent us to meet in. In the 
great room were divers pictures, some reasonably good, 
that had been given to the Company by several of the 
wardens and masters of the Company. 

23d November, 1664. Our statutes now finished, were 
read before a full assembly of the Royal Society. 

24th November, 1664. His Majesty was pleased to tell 
me what the conference was with the Holland Ambas- 
sador, which, as after I found, was the heads of the 
speech he made at the reconvention of the Parliament, 
which now began. 

2d December, 1664. We delivered the Privy Council's 
letters to the Governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, in 

38o DIARY OF London 

Southwark, that a moiety of the house should be reserved 
for such sick and wounded as should from time to time 
be sent from the fleet during the war. This being de- 
livered at their Court, the President and several Alder- 
men, Governors of that Hospital, invited us to a great 
feast in Fishmongers' Hall. 

2oth December, 1664. To London, our last sitting, tak- 
ing order for our personal visiting our several districts. 
I dined at Captain Cocke's (our treasurer), with that 
most ingenious gentleman, Matthew Wren, son to the 
Bishop of Ely, and Mr. Joseph Williamson, since Secretary 
of State. 

2 2d December, 1664. I went to the launching of a new 
ship of two bottoms, invented by Sir William Petty, on 
which were various opinions; his Majesty being present, 
gave her the name of the * Experiment ** : so I returned 
home, where I found Sir Humphry Winch, who spent the 
day with me. 

This year I planted the lower grove next the pond at 
Sayes Court. It was now exceedingly cold, and a hard, 
long, frosty season, and the comet was very visible. 

28th December, 1664. Some of my poor neighbors 
dined with me, and others of my tenants, according to 
my annual custom. 

31st December, 1664. Set my affairs in order, gave God 
praise for His mercies the past year, and prepared for 
the reception of the Holy Sacrament, which I partook of 
the next day, after hearing our minister on the 4th of 
Galatians, verses 4, 5, of the mystery of our Blessed 
Savior's Incarnation. 

Date Due 



UAa 28 "57