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Charles I. in Prison Frontispiece 

Photogravure after De La Roche. 

Lord William Russell Taking Leave of His Children, 1683. 180 
Photogravure after a painting by Bridges. 

Oliver Cromwell Dictating to John Milton .... 284 
The letter to the Duke of Savoy to stop the persecution 
of the Protestants of Piedmont, 1655. 

Photogravure from an engra\nng by Sartain after New- 


The Duke of Buckingham Frontispiece 

From an old painting. 

Nell Gwvnne 

Photogravure after Sir Peter Lely. 





2d January, 1665. 

THIS day was published by me that part of ** The Mys- 
tery of Jesuitism " translated and collected by me, 
though without my name, containing the Imaginary 
Heresy, with four letters and other pieces. 

4th January, 1665. I went in a coach, it being excessive 
sharp frost and snow, toward Dover and other parts of 
Kent, to settle physicians, chirurgeons, agents, marshals, 
and other officers in all the sea ports, to take care of such 
as should be set on shore, wounded, sick, or prisoners, in 
pursuance of our commission reaching from the North 
Foreland, in Kent, to Portsmouth, in Hampshire. The rest 
of the ports in England were allotted to the other Com- 
missioners. That evening I came to Rochester, where I 
delivered the Privy Council's letter to the Mayor to receive 
orders from me. 

5th January, 1665. I arrived at Canterbury, and went 
to the cathedral, exceedingly well repaired since his Maj- 
esty's return. 

6th January, 1665. To Dover, where Colonel Stroode, 
Lieutenant of the Castle, having received the letter I 
brought him from the Duke of Albemarle, made me lodge 
in it, and I was splendidly treated, assisting me from place 
to place. Here I settled my first Deputy. The Mayor 
and officers of the Customs were very civil to me. 

9th January, 1665. To Deal — loth. To Sandwich, a 
pretty town, about two miles from the sea. The Mayor 
and officers of the Customs were very dilligent to serve 
me. I visited the forts in the way, and returned that night 
to Canterbury. 

nth January, 1665. To Rochester, when I took order 
to settle officers at Chatham. 

12th January, 1665. To Gravesend, and returned home. 
A cold, busy, but not unpleasant journey. 

25th January, 1665. This night being at Whitehall, his 
Majesty came to me standing in the withdra wing-room, 


and gave me thanks for publishing *< The Mysteries of 
Jesuitism,* which he said he had carried two days in his 
pocket, read it, and encouraged me; at which I did not a 
little wonder: I suppose Sir Robert Murray had given it 
to him. 

27th January, 1665. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's, 
who caused me after dinner to sit two or three hours alone 
with him in his bedchamber. 

2d February, 1665, I saw a Masque performed at 
Court, by six gentlemen and six ladies, suprising his 
Majesty, it being Candlemas day. 

8th February, Ash Wednesday, 1665. I visited our 
prisoners at Chelsea College, and to examine how the 
marshal and sutlers behaved. These were prisoners taken 
in the war; they only complained that their bread was 
too fine. I dined at Sir Henry Herbert's, Master of the 

9th February, 1665. Dined at my Lord Treasurer's, 
the Earl of Southampton, in Bloomsbury, where he was 
building a noble square or piazza,* a little town; his own 
house stands too low, some noble rooms, a pretty cedar 
chapel, a naked garden to the north, but good air. I had 
much discourse with his Lordship, whom I found to be a 
person of extraordinary parts, but a valetudinarian. — I 
went to St. James's Park, where I saw various animals, 
and examined the throat of the Onocrotylus, or pelican, a 
fowl between a stork and a swan; a melancholy water- 
fowl, brought from Astrakhan by the Russian Ambassador; 
it was diverting to see how he would toss up and turn 
a flat fish, plaice, or flounder, to get it right into his 
gullet at its lower beak, which, being filmy, stretches to a 
prodigious wideness when it devours a great fish. Here 
was also a small water-fowl, not bigger than a moorhen, 
that went almost quite erect, like the penguin of America; 
it would eat as much fish as its whole body weighed; I 
never saw so imsatiable a devourer, yet the body did not 
appear to swell the bigger. The solan geese here are 
also great devourers, and are said soon to exhaust all the 
fish in a pond. Here was a curious sort of poultry not 
much exceeding the size of a tame pigeon, with legs so 
short as their crops seemed to touch the earth; a milk- 

* The Italians mean simply a square by their piazzas. 

1 665 JOHN EVELYN 3 

white raven; a stork, which was a rarity at this season, 
seeing he was loose, and could fly loftily; two Balearian 
cranes, one of which having had one of his legs broken 
and cut ofiE above the knee, had a wooden or boxen leg 
and thigh, with a joint so accurately made that the 
creature could walk and use it as well as if it had been 
natural; it was made by a soldier. The park was at this 
time stored with numerous flocks of several sorts of ordi- 
nary and extraordinary wild fowl, breeding about the 
Decoy, which for being near so great a city, and among 
such a concourse of soldiers and people, is a singular and 
diverting thing. There were also deer of several coun- 
tries, white; spotted like leopards; antelopes, an elk, red 
deer, roebucks, stags, Guinea goats, Arabian sheep, etc. 
There were withy-pots, or nests, for the wild fowl to lay 
their eggs in, a little above the surface of the water. 

23d February, 1665. I was invited to a great feast at 
Mr. Rich's (a relation of my wife's, now reader at Lin- 
coln's Inn) ; where was the Duke of Monmouth, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishops of London and Win- 
chester, the Speaker of the House of Commons, divers of 
the Judges, and several other great men. 

24th February, 1665. Dr. Fell, Canon of Christ Church, 
preached before the King, on 15 ch. Romans, v. 2, a very 
formal discourse, and in blank verse, according to his man- 
ner; however, he is a good man. — Mr. Philips, preceptor 
to my son, went to be with the Earl of Pembroke's son, 
my Lord Herbert. 

2d March, 1665. I went with his Majesty into the 
lobby behind the House of Lords, where I saw the King 
and the rest of the Lords robe themselves, and got into 
the House of Lords in a corner near the woolsack, on which 
the Lord Chancellor sits next below the throne: the King 
sat in all the regalia, the crown -imperial on his head, the 
sceptre and globe, etc. The Duke of Albemarle bore the 
sword, the Duke of Ormond, the cap of dignity. The rest 
of the Lords robed in their places: — a most splendid and 
august convention. Then came the Speaker and the 
House of Commons, and at the bar made a speech, and 
afterward presented several bills, a nod only passing 
them, the clerk saying, Le Roy le veult, as to public bills, 
as to private, Soit faite commeilest desir^. Then, his Majesty 
made a handsome but short speech, commanding my Lord 


Privy Seal to prorogue the Parliament, which he did, the 
Chancellor being ill and absent. I had not before seen 
this ceremony. 

9th March, 1665. I went to receive the poor creatures 
that were saved out of the London frigate, blown up by 
accident, with above 200 men. 

29th March, 1665. Went to Goring House, now Mr. 
Secretary Bennet's, ill-built, but the place capable of being 
made a pretty villa. His Majesty was now finishing the 
Decoy in the Park. 

2d April, 1665. Took order about some prisoners sent 
from Captain Allen's ship, taken in the Solomon, viz, the 
brave men who defended her so gallantly. 

5th April, 1665. Was a day of public humiliation and 
for success of this terrible war, begun doubtless at secret 
instigation of the French to weaken the States and Prot- 
estant interest. Prodigious preparations on both sides. 

6th April, 1665. In the afternoon, I saw acted *^Mus- 
tapha,^^ a tragedy written by the Earl of Orrery. 

nth April, 1665. To London, being now left the only 
Commissioner to take all necessary orders how to exchange, 
remove, and keep prisoners, dispose of hospitals, etc. ; the 
rest of the Commissioners being gone to their several dis- 
tricts, in expectation of a sudden engagement. 

19th April, 1665. Invited to a great dinner at the 
Trinity House, where I had business with the Commis- 
sioners of the Navy, and to receive the second ;;^5,ooo, 
impressed for the service of the sick and wounded pris- 

20th April, 1665. To Whitehall, to the King, who called 
me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom ,1 
showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York 
from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and 
some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with 
the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent 
me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty 
how he would have me treat them, when he commanded 
me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the 
word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) 
for the other, that he should render himself to me when- 
ever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon 
which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea 
House. I went also to Lord Arlington (the Secretary 


Bennet lately made a Lord ) about other business. Dined 
at my Lord Chancellor's; none with him but Sir Sackville 
Crowe, formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were 
very cheerful and merry. 

24th April, 1665 I presented young Captain Evertzen 
(eldest son of Cornelius, Vice-Admiral of Zealand and 
nephew of John, now Admiral, a most valiant person) to 
his Majesty in his bed-chamber. The King gave him his 
hand to kiss, and restored him his liberty; asked many 
questions concerning the fight (it being the first blood 
drawn), his Majesty remembering the many civilities he 
had formerly received from his relations abroad, who had 
now so much interest in that considerable Province. Then, 
I was commanded to go with him to the Holland Ambas- 
sador, where he was to stay for his passport, and I was 
to give him fifty pieces in broad gold. Next day I had 
the Ambassador's parole for the other Captain, taken in 
Captain Allen's fight before Calais. I gave the King an 
account of what I had done, and afterward asked the same 
favor for another Captain, which his Majesty gave me. 

28th April, 1665, I went to Tunbridge, to see a solemn 
exercise at the free-school there. 

Having taken orders with my marshal about my prison- 
ers, and with the doctor and chirurgeon to attend the 
wounded enemies, and of our own men, I went to Lon- 
don again, and visited my charge, several with legs and 
arms off; miserable objects, God knows. 

1 6th May, 1665. To London, to consider of the poor 
orphans and widows made by this bloody beginning, and 
whose husbands and relations perished in the London 
frigate, of which there were fifty widows, and forty-five 
of them with child. 

26th May, 1665. To treat with the Holland Ambassador 
at Chelsea, for release of divers prisoners of war in Hol- 
land on exchange here. After dinner, being called into 
the Council-Chamber at Whitehall, I gave his Majesty an 
account of what I had done, informing him of the vast 
charge upon us, now amounting to no less than ;^ 1,000 

29th May, 1665. I went with my little boy to my dis- 
trict in Kent, to make up accounts with my officers. 
Visited the Governor at Dover Castle, where were some 
of my prisoners. 


3d June, 1665, In my return went to Gravesend; the 
fleets being just now engaged, gave special orders for my 
officers to be ready to receive the wounded and prisoners. 

5th June, 1665. To London, to speak with his Majesty 
and the Duke of Albemarle for horse and foot guards 
for the prisoners at war, committed more particularly to 
my charge by a commission apart. 

8th June, 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to 
the Council, and moved for another privy seal for ^[,20,- 
000, and that I might have the disposal of the Savoy 
Hospital for the sick and wounded ; all which was granted. 
Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the phi- 

Came news of his highness's victory, which indeed 
might have been a complete one, and at once ended the 
war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or 
treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, 
bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 
9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I 
got to Rochester this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, 
where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hin- 
dered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and 
went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and on the 13th, 
hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and 
lay at Chatham, and on the 14th, I got home. On the 
15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of 
State to the French King, with much other company, to 
dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, 
to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave 
his Majesty an account of my journey to the coasts under 
my inspection, I also waited on his Royal Highness, 
now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. 
See the whole history of this conflict in my ** History of 
the Dutch War.» 

20th June, 1665. To London, and represented the state 
of the sick and wounded to His Majesty in Council, for 
want of money, he ordered I should apply to My Lord 
Treasurer and Chancellor of the Exchequer, upon what 
funds to raise the money promised. We also presented to 
his Majesty divers expedients for retrenchment of the 

This evening making my court to the Duke, I spake to 
Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his 


Highness granted me six prisoners, Embdeners, who were 
desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a merchant. 

2 2d June, 1665. We waited on the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and got an Order of Council for our money 
to be paid to the Treasurer of the Navy for our Receivers. 

23d June, 1665. I dined with Sir Robert Paston, since 
Earl of Yarmouth, and saw the Duke of Vemeuille, base 
brother to the Queen -Mother, a handsome old man, a 
great hunter. 

The Duke of York told us that, when we were in fight, 
his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in 
all the vessel. — In the afternoon, I saw the pompous 
reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Span- 
ish Ambassador, in the Banqueting - house, both their 
Majesties sitting together under the canopy of state. 

30th June, 1665. To Chatham; and, ist July, to the 
fleet with Lord Sandwich, now Admiral, with whom I 
went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the 
whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of 
ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, 
both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They 
made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three 
times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, 
and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all 
sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke, and 
Prince Rupert. Here I saw the King knight Captain 
Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It 
was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and 
plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship 
received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I 
went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot 
off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty, who there 
held a General Council, which determined that his Royal 
Highness should adventure himself no more this summer, 
I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that 
ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's yacht 
with my Lord Sandwich and Mr, Vice-Chamberlain, landing 
at Chatham on Sunday morning. 

5th July, 1665, I took order for 150 men, who had been 
recovered of their wounds, to be carried on board the 
Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus, and Zealand, ships that had 
been taken by us in the fight ; and so returned home. 

7th July, 1665. To London, to Sir William Coventry; 


and so to Sion, where his Majesty sat at Council during 
the contagion : when business was over, I viewed that seat 
belonging to the Earl of Northumberland, built out of an 
old nunnery, of stone, and fair enough, but more celebrated 
for the garden than it deserves; yet there is excellent 
wall-fruit, and a pretty fountain; nothing else extraor- 

9th July, 1665, I went to Hampton-Court, where now 
the whole Court was, to solicit for money ; to carry inter- 
cepted letters ; confer again with - Sir William Coventry, 
the Duke's secretary; and so home, having dined with 
Mr. Secretary Morice. 

1 6th July, 1665. There died of the plague in London 
this week 1,100; and in the week following, above 2,000. 
Two houses were shut up in our parish. 

2d August, 1665. A solemn fast through England to 
deprecate God's displeasure against the land by pestilence 
and war; our Doctor preaching on 26 Levit. v. 41, 42, that 
the means to obtain remission of punishment was not to 
repine at it; but humbly to submit to it. 

3d August, 1665. Came his Grace the Duke of Albe- 
marle, Lord General of all his Majesty's forces, to visit 
me, and carried me to dine with him. 

4th August, 1665. I went to Wotton with my Son and 
his tutor, Mr. Bohun, Fellow of New College (recom- 
mended to me by Dr. Wilkins, and the President of New 
College, Oxford), for fear of the pestilence, still increasing 
in London and its environs. On my return, I called at 
Durdans, where I found Dr. Wilkins, Sir William Petty, 
and Mr. Hooke, contriving chariots, new rigging for ships, 
a wheel for one to run races in, and other mechanical in- 
ventions ; perhaps three such persons together were not to 
be found elsewhere in Europe, for parts and ingenuity. 

8th August, 1665. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle, 
who was resolved to stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's 
Park. Died this week in London, 4,000. 

15th August, 1665. There perished this week 5,000. 

28th August, 1665. The contagion still increasing, and 
growing now all about us, I sent my wife and whole 
family (two or three necessary servants excepted) to my 
brother's at Wotton, being resolved to stay at my house 
myself, and to look after my charge, trusting in the provi- 
dence and goodness of God. 

1 665 JOHN EVELYN 9 

5th September, 1665. To Chatham, to inspect my 
charge, with ^^900 in my coach. 

7th September, 1665. Came home, there perishing near 
10,000 poor creatures weekly; however, I went all along 
the city and suburbs from Kent Street to St. James's, a 
dismal passage, and dangerous to see so many coflSns 
exposed in the streets, now thin of people ; the shops shut 
up, and all in mournful silence, not knowing whose turn 
might be next. I went to the Duke of Albemarle for a 
pest-ship, to wait on our infected men, who were not 
a few. 

14th September, 1665. I went to Wotton; and on i6th 
September, to visit old Secretary Nicholas, being now at 
his new purchase of West Horsley, once mortgaged to me 
by Lord Viscount Montague: a pretty dry seat on the 
Down. Returned to Wotton. 

17th September, 1665. Receiving a letter from Lord 
Sandwich of a defeat given to the Dutch, I was forced 
to travel all Sunday. I was exceedingly perplexed to 
find that near 3,000 prisoners were sent to me to dispose 
of, being more than I had places fit to receive and 

25th September, 1665. My Lord Admiral being come 
from the fleet to Greenwich, I went thence with him to 
the Cock-pit, to consult with the Duke of Albemarle. I 
was peremptory that, unless we had ^10,000 immediately, 
the prisoners would starve, and it was proposed it should 
be raised out of the East India prizes now taken by Lord 
Sandwich. They being but two of the commission, and 
so not empowered to determine, sent an express to his 
Majesty and Council, to know what they should do. In 
the meantime, I had five vessels, with competent guards, 
to keep the prisoners in for the present, to be placed as 
I should think best. After dinner (which was at the 
General's) I went over to visit his Grace, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, at Lambeth. 

28th September, 1665. To the General again, to acquaint 
him of the deplorable state of our men for want of pro- 
visions; returned with orders. 

29th September, 1665. To Erith, to quicken the sale of 
the prizes 'lying there, with order to the commissioner who 
lay on board till they should be disposed of, ;^5,ooo being 
proportioned for my quarter. Then I delivered the Dutch 


Vice-Admiral, who was my prisoner, to Mr. Lo. . . . 
*of the Marshalsea, he giving me bond in ^^500 to produce 
him at my call. I exceedingly pitied this brave unhappy 
person, who had lost with these prizes ^^40,000 after 
twenty years' negotiation [trading] in the East Indies. 
I dined in one of these vessels, of 1,200 tons, full of riches. 

ist October, 1665. This afternoon, while at evening 
prayers, tidings were brought me of the birth of a daughter 
at Wotton, after six sons, in the same chamber I had first 
taken breath in, and at the first day of that month, as I 
was on the last, forty-five years before. 

4th October, 1665. The monthly fast. 

nth October, 1665. To London, and went through the 
whole city, having occasion to alight out of the coach in 
several places about business of money, when I was en- 
vironed with multitudes of poor, pestiferous creatures 
begging alms; the shops universally shut up, a dreadful 
prospect ! I dined with my Lord General ; was to receive 
;^ 1 0,000, and had guards to convey both myself and it, 
and so returned home, through God's infinite mercy. 

17th October, 1665. I went to Gravesend; next day to 
Chatham; thence to Maidstone, in order to the march of 
500 prisoners to Leeds Castle, which I had hired of Lord 
Culpeper. I was earnestly desired by the learned Sir 
Roger Twisden, and Deputy-Lieutenants, to spare Maid- 
stone from quartering any of my sick flock. Here, Sir 
Edward Brett sent me some horse to bring up the rear. 
This country, from Rochester to Maidstone and the Downs, 
is very agreeable for the prospect. 

2ist October, 1665. I came from Gravesend, where Sir 
J. Grifl&th, the Governor of the Fort, entertained me very 

31st October, 1665. I was this day forty-five years 
of age wonderfully preserved; for which I blessed God 
for his infinite goodness toward me. 

23d November, 1665. Went home, the contagion hav- 
ing now decreased considerably. 

27th November, 1665. The Duke of Albemarle was 
going to Oxford, where both Court and Parliament had 
been most part of the summer. There was no small sus- 
picion of my Lord Sandwich having permitted divers 
commanders, who were at the taking of the East India 

•Mr. Lowtnan. 

1665-66 JOHN EVELYN . ii 

prizes, to break bulk, and to take to themselves jewels, 
silks, etc. : though I believe some whom I could name filled 
their pockets, my Lord Sandwich himself had the least 
share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created 
him enemies, and prepossessed the Lord General, for 
he spoke to me of it with much zeal and concern, and I 
believe laid load enough on Lord Sandwich at Ox- 

8th December, 1665. To my Lord of Albemarle (now 
returned from Oxford), who was declared General at Sea, 
to the no small mortification of that excellent person, the 
Earl of Sandwich, whom the Duke of Albemarle not 
only suspected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant; 
himself imagining how easy a thing it were to confound 
the Hollanders, as well now as heretofore he fought 
against them upon a more disloyal interest. 

25th December, 1665. Kept Christmas with my hospit- 
able brother, at Wotton. 

30th December, 1665. To Woodcot, where I supped at 
my Lady Mordaunt's at Ashsted, where was a room hung 
with pintado^ full of figures great and small, prettily 
representing sundry trades and occupations of the Indians, 
with their habits; here supped also Dr. Duke, a learned 
and facetious gentleman. 

31st December, 1665. Now blessed be God for his 
extraordinary mercies and preservation of me this year, 
when thousands, and ten thousands, perished, and were 
swept away on each side of me, there dying in our parish 
this year 406 of the pestilence ! 

3d January, 1665-66. I supped in Nonesuch House, * 
whither the office of the Exchequer was transferred 
during the plague, at my good friend Mr. Packer's, and 
took an exact view of the plaster statues and bass-relievos 
inserted between the timbers and puncheons of the out- 
side walls of the Court; which must needs have been the 
work of some celebrated Italian. I much admired how 
they had lasted so well and entire since the time of Henry 
VIII., exposed as they are to the air; and pity it is they 
are not taken out and preserved in some dry place; a 
gallery would become them. There are some mezzo- 
relievos as big as the life; the story is of the Heathen 

* Of this famous summer residence of Queen Elizabeth not a ves- 
tige remains. 


Gods, emblems, compartments, etc. The palace consists 
of two courts, of which the first is of stone, castle like, 
by the Lord Lumleys (of whom it was purchased), the 
other of timber, a Gothic fabric, but these walls incom- 
parably beautiful. I observed that the appearing timber- 
puncheons, entrelices, etc., were all so covered with scales 
of slate, that it seemed carved in the wood and painted, 
the slate fastened on the timber in pretty figures, that 
has, like a coat of armor, preserved it from rotting. 
There stand in the garden two handsome stone pyramids, 
and the avenue planted with rows of fair elms, but the 
rest of these goodly trees, both of this and of Worcester 
Park adjoining, were felled by those destructive and ava- 
ricious rebels in the late war, which defaced one of the 
stateliest seats his Majesty had. 

1 2th January, 1666. After much, and indeed extraor- 
dinary mirth and cheer, all my brothers, our wives, and 
children, being together, and after much sorrow and 
trouble during this contagion, which separated our fam- 
ilies as well as others, I returned to my house, but my 
wife went back to Wotton. I, not as yet willing to 
adventure her, the contagion, though exceedingly abated, 
not as yet wholly extinguished among us. 

29th January, 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty, 
now returned from Oxford to Hampton-Court, where the 
Duke of Albemarle presented me to him; he ran toward 
me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to 
kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in 
his service in a time of such great danger, when every- 
body fled their employments; he told me he was much 
obliged to me, and said he was several times concerned 
for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my 
service most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my 
duty, and O that I had performed it as I ought ! ) After 
this, his Majesty was pleased to talk with me alone, near 
an hour, of several particulars of my employment, and 
ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday follow- 
ing at Whitehall. Then the Duke came toward me, and 
embraced me with much kindness, telling me if he had 
thought my danger would have been so great, he would 
not have suffered his Majesty to employ me in that 
station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans, 
Lord Arlington, Sir William Coventry, and several great 

1 666 JOHN EVELYN 13 

persons; after which, I got home, not being very well in 

The Court was now in deep mourning for the French 
Queen- Mother. 

2d February, 1666. To London; his Majesty now come 
to Whitehall, where I heard and saw my Lord Mayor 
(and brethren) make his speech of welcome, and the two 
Sheriffs were knighted. 

6th February, 1666. My wife and family returned to 
me from the country, where they had been since August, 
by reason of the contagion, now almost universally ceas- 
ing. Blessed be God for his infinite mercy in preserving 
us! I, having gone through so much danger, and lost so 
many of my poor officers, escaping still myself that I might 
live to recount and magnify his goodness to me. 

8th February, 1666. I had another gracious reception 
by his Majesty, who called me into his bed-chamber, to 
lay before and describe to him my project of an Infirmary, 
which I read to him, who with great approbation, recom- 
mended it to his Royal Highness. 

20th February, 1666. To the Commissioners of the Navy 
who, having seen the project of the Infirmary, encouraged 
the work, and were very earnest it should be set about 
immediately ; but I saw no money, though a very moderate 
expense would have saved thousands to his Majesty, and 
been much more commodious for the cure and quartering 
of our sick and wounded, than the dispersing them into 
private houses, where many more chirurgeons and attend- 
ants were necessary, and the people tempted to debauch- 

2ist February, 1666. Went to my Lord Treasurer for 
an assignment of ^,^40,000 upon the last two quarters for 
support of the next year's charge. Next day, to Duke of 
Albemarle and Secretary of State, to desire them to pro- 
pose it to the Council. 

ist March, 1666; To London, and presented his Majesty 
my book intitled, * The Pernicious Consequences of the 
new Heresy of the Jesuits against Kings and States. * 

7th March, 1666. Dr. Sancroft, since Archbishop of 
Canterbury, preached before the King about the identity 
and immutability of God, on Psalm cii. 27. 

13th March, 1666. To Chatham, to view a place designed 
for an Infirmary. 


15th March, 1666. My charge now amounted to near 
^7,000 [weekly]. 

2 2d March, 1666. The Royal Society reassembled, after 
the dispersion from the contagion. 

24th March, 1666. Sent ^^2,000 to Chatham. 

I St April, 1666. To London, to consult about ordering 
the natural rarities belonging to the repository of the Royal 
Society; referred to a Committee. 

loth April, 1666. Visited Sir William D'Oyly, surprised 
with a fit of apoplexy, and in extreme danger. 

nth April, 1666. Dr. Bathurst preached before the 
King, from " I say unto you all, watch *^ — a seasonable and 
most excellent discourse. When his Majesty came from 
chapel, he called to me in the lobby, and told me he must 
now have me sworn for a Justice of Peace (having long 
since made me of the Commission); which I declined as 
inconsistent with the other service I was engaged in, and 
humbly desired to be excused. After dinner, waiting on 
him, I gave him the first notice of the Spaniards referring 
the umpirage of the peace between them and Portugal to 
the French King, which came to me in a letter from France 
before the Secretaries of State had any news of it. After 
this, his Majesty again asked me if I had found out any 
able person about our parts that might supply my place 
of Justice of Peace (the ofiice in the world I had most 
industriously avoided, in regard of the perpetual trouble 
thereof in these numerous parishes) ; on which I nominated 
one, whom the King commanded me to give immediate 
notice of to my Lord Chancellor, and I should be excused ; 
for which I rendered his Majesty many thanks. From 
thence, I went to the Royal Society, where I was chosen 
by twenty-seven voices to be one of their Council for the 
ensuing year ; but, upon my earnest suit in respect of my 
other affairs, I got to be excused — and so home. 

15th April, 1666. Our parish was now more infected 
with the plague than ever, and so was all the country 
about, though almost quite ceased at London. 

24th April, 1666. To London about our Mint-Commis- 
sion, and sat in the inner Court of Wards. 

8th May, 1666. To Queensborough, where finding the 
Richmond frigate, I sailed to the buoy of the Nore to my 
Lord-General and Prince Rupert, where was the Rendez- 
vous of the most glorious fleet in the world, now prepar- 

i666 JOHN EVELYN 15 

ing to meet the Hollander. Went to visit nay cousin, 
Hales, at a sweetly-watered place at Chilston, near Bock- 
ton. The next morning, to Leeds Castle, once a famous 
hold, now hired by me of my Lord Culpeper for a prison. 
Here I flowed the dry moat, made a new drawbridge, 
brought spring water into the court of the Castle to an 
old fountain, and took order for the repairs. 

2 2d May, 1666. Waited on my Lord Chancellor at his 
new palace; and Lord Berkeley's built next to it. 

24th May, 1666. Dined with Lord Combury, now made 
Lord Chamberlain to the Queen; who kept a very honor- 
able table. 

ist June, 1666. Being in my garden at 6 o'clock in the 
evening, and hearing the great guns go thick ojff, I took 
horse and rode that night to Rochester; thence next day 
toward the Downs and seacoast, but meeting the Lieu- 
tenant of the Hampshire frigate, who told me what 
passed, or rather what had not passed, I returned to Lon- 
don, there being no noise, or appearance at Deal, or on 
that coast of any engagement. Recounting this to his 
Majesty, whom I found at St. James's Park, impatiently 
expecting, and knowing that Prince Rupert was loose 
about three at St. Helen's Point at N. of the Isle of 
Wight, it greatly rejoiced him; but he was astonished 
when I assured him they heard nothing of the guns in 
the Downs, nor did the Lieutenant who landed there by 
five that morning. 

3d June, 1666, Whitsunday. After sermon came news 
that the Duke of Albemarle was still in fight, and had 
been all Saturday, and that Captain Harman's ship (the 
Henry) was like to be burnt. Then a letter from Mr. 
Bertie that Prince Rupert was come up with his squadron 
(according to my former advice of his being loose and in 
the way), and put new courage into our fleet, now in a 
manner yielding ground; so that now we were chasing 
the chasers; that the Duke of Albemarle was slightly 
wounded, and the rest still in great danger. So, having 
been much wearied with my journey, I slipped home, the 
guns still roaring very fiercely. 

5th June, 1666. I went this morning to London, where 
came several particulars of the fight. 

6th June, 1666, Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the 
General and related the dreadful encounter, on which his 


Majesty commanded me to dispatch an extraordinary- 
physician and more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn 
Fast-day when the news came; his Majesty being in the 
chapel made a sudden stop to hear the relation, which 
being with much advantage on our side, his Majesty com- 
manded that public thanks should immediately be given 
as for a victory. The Dean of the chapel going down to 
give notice of it to the other Dean officiating; and notice 
was likewise sent to St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey. 
But this was no sooner over, than news came that our 
loss was very great both in ships and men; that the 
Prince frigate was burnt, and as noble a vessel of ninety 
brass guns lost; and the taking of Sir George Ayscue, 
and exceeding shattering of both fleets; so as both being 
obstinate, both parted rather for want of ammunition and 
tackle than courage; our General retreating like a lion; 
which exceedingly abated of our former joy. There were, 
however, orders given for bonfires and bells; but, God 
knows, it was rather a deliverance than a triumph. So 
much it pleased God to humble our late overconfidence 
that nothing could withstand the Duke of Albemarle, 
who, in good truth, made too forward a reckoning of his 
success now, because he had once beaten the Dutch in 
another quarrel ; and being ambitious to outdo the Earl of 
Sandwich, whom he had prejudicated as deficient in courage. 

7th June, 1666. I sent more chirurgeons, linen, medica- 
ments, etc., to the several ports in my district. 

8th June, 1666. Dined with me Sir Alexander Fraser, 
prime physician to his Majesty; afterward, went on board 
his Majesty's pleasure-boat, when I saw the London frigate 
launched, a most stately ship, built by the City to supply 
that which was burnt by accident some time since; the 
King, Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, being there with g^eat 

nth June, 1666. Trinity Monday, after a sermon, 
applied to the remeeting of the Corporation of the Trinity- 
House, after the late raging and wasting pestilence: I 
dined with them in their new room in Deptford, the first 
time since it was rebuilt. 

15th June, 1666. I went to Chatham.— i6th. In the 
Jemmy yacht (an incomparable sailer) to sea, arrived by 
noon at the fleet at the Buoy at the Nore, dined with 
Prince Rupert and the General. 

i666 JOHN EVELYN 17 

17th June, 1666, Came his Majesty, the Duke, and many 
Noblemen. After Council, we went to prayers. My busi- 
ness being dispatched, I returned to Chatham, having lain 
but one night in the Royal Charles; we had a tempestu- 
ous sea. I went on shore at Sheerness, where they were 
building an arsenal for the fleet, and designing a royal 
fort with a receptacle for great ships to ride at anchor; 
but here I beheld the sad spectacle, more than half that 
gallant bulwark of the kingdom miserably shattered, hardly 
a vessel entire, but appearing rather so many wrecks and 
hulls, so cruelly had the Dutch mangled us. The loss of 
the Prince, that gallant vessel, had been a loss to be uni- 
versally deplored, none knowing for what reason we first 
engaged in this ungrateful war; we lost besides nine or 
ten more, and near 600 men slain and 1,100 wounded, 
2,000 prisoners; to balance which, perhaps we might de- 
stroy eighteen or twenty of the enemy's ships, and 700 or 
800 poor men. 

1 8th June, 1666. Weary of this sad sight, I returned 

2d July, 1666. Came Sir John Duncomb and Mr. Thomas 
Chicheley, both Privy Councillors and Commissioners of 
His Majesty's Ordnance, to visit me, and let me know 
that his Majesty had in Council, nominated me to be one 
of the Commissioners for regulating the farming and making 
of saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were 
to sit in the Tower the next day. When they were gone, 
came to see me Sir John Cotton, heir to the famous 
antiquary. Sir Robert Cotton: a pretended great Grecian, 
but had by no means the parts, or genius of his grand- 

3d July, 1666. I went to sit with the Commissioners at 
the Tower, where our commission being read, we made 
some progress in business, our Secretary being Sir George 
Wharton, that famous mathematician who wrote the yearly 
Almanac during his Majesty's troubles. Thence, to 
Painters' Hall, to our other commission, and dined at my 
Lord Mayor's. 

4th July, 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot 
preached an excellent discourse before the King on the 
terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on 
my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Win- 
chester, where the Dean of Westminster spoke to me 


about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, 
which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be 
distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the 
battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's to joy 
him of his Royal Highness's second son, now born at St. 
James's; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for 
our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall not being 
so convenient. 

1 2th July, 1666. We sat the first time in the Star- 
chamber. There was now added to our commission Sir 
George Downing (one that had been a great 
against his Majesty, but now insinuated into his favor; 
and, from a pedagogue and fanatic preacher, not worth a 
groat, had become excessively rich), to inspect the hospi- 
tals and treat about prisons. 

14th July, 1666. Sat at the Tower with Sir J. Duncomb 
and Lord Berkeley, to sign deputations for undertakers to 
furnish their proportions of saltpetre. 

17th July, 1666. To London, to prepare for the next 
engagement of the fleets, now gotten to sea again. 

22d July, 1666. Our parish still infected with the 

25th July, 1666. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord 
Berkeley's, at St. James's, where dined my Lady Harri- 
etta Hyde, Lord Arlington, and Sir John Duncomb. 

29th July, 1666. The pestilence now fresh increasing in 
our parish, I forbore going to church. In the afternoon 
came tidings of our victory over the Dutch, sinking some, 
and driving others aground, and into their ports. 

ist Augfust, 1666. I went to Dr. Keffler, who married 
the daughter of the famous chemist, Drebbell,* inventor 
of the bodied scarlet. I went to see his iron ovens, made 
portable (formerly) for the Prince of Orange's army: sup- 
ped at the Rhenish Wine-House with divers Scots gen- 

6th August, 1666. Dined with Mr. Povey, and then went 

•Cornelius Van Drebbell, bom at Alkmaar, in Holland, in 1572; 
but in the reign of Charles I. settled in London, where he died in 1634. 
He was famous for other discoveries in science besides that mentioned 
by Evelyn — the most important of which was the thermometer. He 
also made improvements in microscopes and telescopes; and though, 
like many of his scientific contemporaries, something of an empiric, 
possessed a considerable knowledge of chemistry and of different 
branches of natural philosophy. 

1 666 JOHN EVELYN 19 

with him to see a country house he had bought near Brent- 
ford; returning by Kensington; which house stands to a 
very graceful avenue of trees, but it is an ordinary build- 
ing, especially one part. 

8th August, 1 666. Dined at Sir Stephen Fox's with sev- 
eral friends and, on the loth, with Mr. Odart, Secretary of 
the Latin tongue. 

17th August, 1666. Dined with the Lord Chancellor, 
whom I entreated to visit the Hospital of the Savoy, and 
reduce it ( after the great abuse that had been continued ) 
to its original institution for the benefit of the poor, which 
he promised to do. 

25th August, 1666. Waited on Sir William D'Oyly, now 
recovered, as it were, miraculously. In the afternoon, vis- 
ited the Savoy Hospital, where I stayed to see the miserably 
dismembered and wounded men dressed, and gave some 
necessary orders. Then to my Lord Chancellor, who had, 
with the Bishop of London and others in the commission, 
chosen me one of the three surveyors of the repairs of 
Paul's, and to consider of a model for the new building, 
or, if it might be, repairing of the steeple, which was most 

26th August, 1666. The contagion still continuing, we 
had the Church service at home. 

27th August, 1666. I went to St. Paul's church, where, 
with Dr. Wren, Mr. Pratt, Mr. May, Mr. Thomas Chicheley, 
Mr. Slingsby, the Bishop of London, the Dean of St. Paul's, 
and several expert workmen, we went about to survey the 
general decays of that ancient and venerable church, and 
to set down in writing the particulars of what was fit to 
be done, with the charge thereof, giving our opinion from 
article to article. Finding the main building to recede 
outward it was the opinion of Chicheley and Mr. Pratt 
that it had been so built ab origine for an effect in per- 
spective, in regard of the height; but I was, with Dr. 
Wren, quite of another judgment, and so we entered it; 
we plumbed the uprights in several places. When we 
came to the steeple, it was deliberated whether it were 
not well enough to repair it only on its old foundation, 
with reservation to the four pillars ; this Mr. Chicheley and 
Mr. Pratt were also for, but we totally rejected it, and per- 
sisted that it required a new foundation , not only in regard 
of the necessity, but for that the shape of what stood was 


very mean, and we had a mind to build it with a noble 
cupola, a form of church-building not as yet known in 
England, but of wonderful grace. For this purpose, we 
offered to bring in a plan and estimate, which after much 
contest, was at last assented to, and that we should nom- 
inate a committee of able workmen to examine the present 
foundation. This concluded, we drew all up in writing, 
and so went with my Lord Bishop to the Dean's. 

28th August, 1666. Sat at the Star-chamber. Next day, 
to the Royal Society, where one Mercator, an excellent 
mathematician, produced his rare clock and new motion 
to perform the equations, and Mr. Rooke, his new pen- 

2d September, 1666. This fatal night, about ten, 
began the deplorable fire, near Fish street, in London. 

3d September, 1666. I had public prayers at home. 
The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my 
wife and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, 
where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in 
dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from 
the Bridge, all Thames street, and upward toward 
Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed ; 
and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become 
of the rest 

The fire having continued all this night (if I may call 
that night which was light as day for ten miles round 
about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a 
fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot 
to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the 
city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along 
Comhill (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as 
well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch street. Gracious 
street, and so along to Baynard's Castle, and was now 
taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which the scaffolds 
contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so uni- 
versal, and the people so astonished, that, from the begin- 
ning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they 
hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing 
heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running 
about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting 
to save even their goods; such a strange consternation 
there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and 
length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals, 

i666 JOHN EVELYN 21 

monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious 
manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great 
distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long 
set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, 
and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which 
devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, 
and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with 
goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what 
some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, 
the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many 
miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents 
erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could 
get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! 
such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation 
of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration 
thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of 
a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles 
round about for many nights. God gfrant mine eyes may 
never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses 
all in one flame ! The noise and cracking and thunder of 
the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and chil- 
dren, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and 
churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all 
about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not 
able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand 
still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near 
two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also 
of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, 
near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon 
burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It 
forcibly called to my mind that passage — *^ non enim. hie 
habemus stahilein civitatem */ the ruins resembling the 
picture of Troy. London was, but is no more ! Thus, I 

4th September, 1666. The burning still rages, and it is 
now gotten as far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet street, 
the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Warwick lane, Newgate, 
Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and most of it 
reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's flew like grenados, 
the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, 
and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so 
as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them, and the 
demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help 


could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetu- 
ously driving the flames forward. Nothing but the 
Almighty power of God was able to stop them; for vain 
was the help of man. 

5th September, 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; 
but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It 
pleased his Majesty to command me, among the rest, to 
look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if 
possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the 
gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and 
some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, 
and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxi- 
cated, with their hands across), and began to consider 
that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up 
of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any 
had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling 
them down with engines. This some stout seamen pro- 
posed early enough to have saved near the whole city, 
but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, 
etc., would not permit, because their houses must have 
been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to 
be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the 
Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had 
many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent 
to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It 
now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the 
industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing 
a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly 
to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the 
Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, 
north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous 
toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all de- 
spair. It also broke out again in the temple; but the 
courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses 
being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, 
as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire 
did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. 
There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing 
ruins by near a furlong's space. 

The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, 
etc. , did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little 
before I had dedicated to his Majesty and published,* 

*The Fumifugium. 

i666 JOHN EVELYN 23 

giving warning what probably might be the issue of suf- 
fering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as 
a prophecy. 

The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's 
Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several 
miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable 
huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary 
utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and 
easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, 
were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty. 

In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart 
to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy 
of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, 
was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound, 

6th September, 1666. Thursday. I represented to his 
Majesty the case of the French prisoners at war in my 
custody, and besought him that there might be still the 
same care of watching at all places contiguous to unseized 
houses. It is not indeed imaginable how extraordinary 
the vigilance and activity of the King and the Duke was, 
even laboring in person, and being present to command, 
order, reward, or encourage workmen; by which he showed 
his affection to his people, and gained theirs. Having, 
then, disposed of some under cure at the Savoy, I returned 
to Whitehall, where I dined at Mr. Offley's, the groom- 
porter, who was my relation. 

7th September, 1666. I went this morning on foot from 
Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet 
street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, 
Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence 
through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clam- 
bering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently 
mistaking where I was ; the ground under my feet so hot, 
that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the mean- 
time, his Majesty got to the Tower by water, to demolish 
the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely 
about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White 
Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubt- 
edly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the 
bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and 
rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several 
miles about the country. 

At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that 


goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that 
beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in 
Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now 
rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and 
nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the archi- 
trave showing by whom it was built, which had not one 
letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what im- 
mense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all 
the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of 
massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where 
a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six 
acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the 
vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being 
filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Sta- 
tioners, and carried thither for safety, they were all con- 
sumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable 
that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, 
and among the divers monuments the body of one bishop 
remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable 
church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in 
the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The 
lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely 
wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the 
august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Com- 
panies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust ; 
the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters 
remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, 
wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in 
stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six 
miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber 
unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined 
white as snow. 

The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared 
like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great 
city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added 
the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, 
beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's 
statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Ex- 
change, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since 
the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard 
in Comhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms 
on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the 
vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates 

i666 JOHN EVELYN 25 

of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to 
cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass 
through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; 
the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so 
intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet in- 
sufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets 
were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have 
possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some 
Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pin- 
nacle remaining. 

I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one 
might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees 
dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they 
could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though 
ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking 
one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger 
sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty and Coun- 
cil indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by pro- 
clamation for the country to come in, and refresh them 
with provisions. 

In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there 
was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French 
and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not 
only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in 
truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two 
nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion 
of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a 
sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they 
ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could 
come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some 
of those nations whom they casually met, without sense 
or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that 
it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with 
infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the 
people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause 
them to retire into the fields again, where they were 
watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and 
came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits 
thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now 
began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where 
such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the 
present to which his Majesty's proclamation also invited 


Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, 
without danger, adventure to our church. 

loth September, 1666. I went again to the ruins; for it 
was now no longer a city. 

13th September, 1666. I presented his Majesty with a 
survey of the ruins, and a plot for a new city, with a 
discourse on it ; whereupon, after dinner, his Majesty sent 
for me into the Queen's bed-chamber, her Majesty and 
the Duke only being present. They examined each par- 
ticular, and discoursed on them for near an hour, seeming 
to be extremely pleased with what I had so early thought 
on. The Queen was now in her cavalier riding-habit, 
hat and feather, and horseman's coat, going to take 
the air. 

1 6th September, 1666. I went to Greenwich Church, 
where Mr, Plume preached very well from this text: 
* Seeing, then, all these things shall be dissolved, * etc : 
taking occasion from the late unparalleled conflagration to 
remind us how we ought to walk more holy in all manner 
of conversation. 

27th September, 1666. Dined at Sir William D'Oyly's, 
with that worthy gentleman. Sir John Holland, of Suffolk. 

loth October, 1666. This day was ordered a general 
Fast through the Nation, to humble us on the late dread- 
ful conflagration, added to the plague and war, the most 
dismal judgments that could be inflicted ; but which indeed 
we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, burning 
lusts, dissolute court, profane and abominable lives, under 
such dispensations of God's continued favor in restoring 
Church, Prince, and People from our late intestine calam- 
ities, of which we were altogether unmindful, even to 
astonishment. This made me resolve to go to our parish 
assembly, where our Doctor preached on Luke, xix, 41 : 
piously applying it to the occasion. After which, was a 
collection for the distressed losers in the late fire. 

1 8th October, 1666. To Court. It being the first time 
his Majesty put himself solemnly into the Eastern 
fashion of vest, changing doublet, stiff collar, bands and 
cloak, into a comely dress, after the Persian mode, with 
girdles or straps, and shoestrings and garters into buckles, 
of which some were set with precious stones* resolving 

*This costume was shortly after abandoned, and laid aside; nor 
does any existing portrait exhibit the King so accoutered. 

1 666 JOHN EVELYN 27 

never to alter it, and to leave the French mode, which had 
hitherto obtained to our great expense and reproach. 
Upon which, divers courtiers and gentlemen gave his 
Majesty gold by way of wager that he would not persist 
in this resolution, I had sometime before presented an 
invective against that unconstancy, and our so much 
affecting the French fashion, to his Majesty; in which I 
took occasion to describe the comeliness and usefulness of 
the Persian clothing, in the very same manner his Majesty 
now clad himself. This pamphlet I entitled " Tyrannus, or 
the Mode, " and gave it to the King to read. I do not im- 
pute to this discourse the change which soon happened, 
but it was an identity that I could not but take 
notice of. 

This night was acted my Lord Broghill's tragedy, called 
" Mustapha, ** before their Majesties at Court, at which I was 
present ; very seldom going to the public theatres for many 
reasons now, as they were abused to an atheistical liberty ; 
foul and indecent women now (and never till now) per- 
mitted to appear and act, who inflaming several young 
noblemen and gallants, became their misses, and to some, 
their wives. Witness the Earl of Oxford, Sir R. Howard, 
Prince Rupert, the Earl of Dorset, and another greater 
person than any of them, who fell into their snares, to 
the reproach of their noble families, and ruin of both body 
and soul.* I was invited by my Lord Chamberlain to see 
this tragedy, exceedingly well written, though in my mind 
I did not approve of any such pastime in a time of such 
judgments and calamities. 

2ist October, 1666. This season, after so long and 
extraordinary a drought in August and September, as if 
preparatory for the dreadful fire, was so very wet and 
rainy as many feared an ensuing famine. 

28th October, 1666. The pestilence, through God's 
mercy, began now to abate considerably in our town. 

30th October, 1666. To London to our office, and now 
had I on the vest and surcoat, or tunic, as it was called, 

* Among the principal offenders here aimed at were Mrs. Margaret 
Hughes, Mrs. Eleanor Gwytine, Mrs. Davenport, Mrs. Uphill, Mrs. 
Davis, and Mrs. Knight. Mrs. Davenport (Roxolana) was « my Lord 
Oxford's Miss ; * Mrs. Uphill was the actress alluded to in connection 
with Sir R. Howard; Mrs. Hughes ensnared Prince Rupert; and the 
last of the *< misses » referred to by Evelyn was Nell Gwynne. 


after his Majesty had brought the whole court to it. It 
was a comely and manly habit, too good to hold, it being 
impossible for us in good earnest to leave the Monsieurs' 
vanities long. 

31st October, 1666. I heard the signal cause of my 
Lord Cleveland pleaded before the House of Lords; and 
was this day forty-six years of age, wonderfully protected 
by the mercies of God, for which I render him immortal 

14th November, 1666. I went my winter circle through 
my district, Rochester and other places, where I had men 
quartered, and in custody. 

15th November, 1666. To Leeds Castle. 

1 6th November, 1666. I mustered the prisoners, being 
about 600 Dutch and French, ordered their proportion of 
bread to be augmented and provided clothes and fuel. 
Monsieur Colbert, Ambassador at the Court of England, 
this day sent money from his master, the French King, 
to every prisoner of that nation under my guard. 

17th November, 1666. I returned to Chatham, my 
chariot overturning on the steep of Bexley Hill, wounded 
me in two places on the head ; my son. Jack, being with 
me, was like to have been worse cut by the glass; but I 
thank God we both escaped without much hurt, though 
not without exceeding danger. 

i8th November, 1666. At Rochester. 

19th November, 1666. Returned home. 

23d November, 1666. At London, I heard an extraor- 
dinary case before a Committee of the whole House of 
Commons, in the Commons* House of Parliament, between 
one Captain Taylor and my Lord Viscount Mordaunt, 
where, after the lawyers had pleaded and the witnesses 
been examined, such foul and dishonorable things were 
produced against his Lordship, of tyranny during his 
government of Windsor Castle, of which he was Constable, 
incontinence, and suborning witnesses (of which last, one 
Sir Richard Breames was most concerned), that I was ex- 
ceedingly interested for his Lordship, who was my special 
friend, and husband of the most virtuous lady in the world. 
We sat till near ten at night, and yet but half the counsel 
had done on behalf of the plaintiff. The question then 
was put for bringing in of lights to sit longer. This lasted 
so long before it was determined, and raised such a con- 

1666-67 JOHN EVELYN 29 

fused noise among the members, that a stranger would 
have been astonished at it. I admire that there is not a 
rationale to regulate such trifling accidents, which consume 
much time, and is a reproach to the gravity of so great an 
assembly of sober men. 

27th November, 1666. Sir Hugh Pollard, Comptroller 
of the Household, died at Whitehall, and his Majesty con- 
ferred the white staff on my brother Commissioner for 
sick and wounded, Sir Thomas Clifford, a bold young gen- 
tleman, of a small fortune in Devon, but advanced by 
Lord Arlington, Secretary of State, to the great astonish- 
ment of all the Court. This gentleman was somewhat 
related to me by the marriage of his mother to my nearest 
kinsman, Gregory Coale, and was ever my noble friend, a 
valiant and daring person, but by no means fit for a sup- 
ple and flattering courtier. 

28th November, 1666. Went to see Clarendon House, 
now almost finished, a goodly pile to see, but had many 
defects as to the architecture, yet placed most gracefully. 
After this, I waited on the Lord Chancellor, who was now 
at Berkshire House, since the burning of London. 

2d December, 1666. Dined with me Monsieur Kiviet, a 
Dutch gentleman-pensioner of Rotterdam, who came over 
for protection, being of the Prince of Orange's party, now 
not welcome in Holland. The King knighted him for some 
merit in the Prince's behalf. He should, if caught, have 
been beheaded with Monsieur Buat, and was brother-in-law 
to Van Tromp, the sea-general. With him came Mr. 
Gabriel Sylvius, and Mr. Williamson, secretary to Lord 
Arlington; M. Kiviet came to examine whether the soil 
about the river of Thames would be proper to make clinker 
bricks, and to treat with me about some accommodation 
in order to it. 

9th January, 1666-67. To the Royal Society, which since 
the' sad conflagration were invited by Mr. Howard to sit 
at Arundel- House in the Strand, who at my instigation 
likewise bestowed on the Society that noble library which 
his grandfather especially, and his ancestors had collected. 
This gentleman had so little inclination to books, that it 
was the preser\'-ation of them from embezzlement. 

24th January, 1667. Visited my Lord Clarendon, and 
presented my son, John, to him, now preparing to go to 
Oxford, of which his Lordship was Chancellor. This even- 


ing I heard rare Italian voices, two eunuchs and one 
woman, in his Majesty's green chamber, next his 

29th January, 1667. To London, in order to my son's 
Oxford journey, who, being very early entered both in 
Latin and Greek, and prompt to learn beyond most of his 
age, I was persuaded to trust him under the tutorage of 
Mr. Bohun, Fellow of New College, who had been his 
preceptor in my house some years before ; but, at Oxford, 
under the inspection of Dr. Bathurst, President of Trinity 
College, where I placed him, not as yet thirteen years 
old. He was newly out of long coats.* 

15th February, 1667. My little book, in answer to Sir 
George Mackenzie on Solitude, was now published, entitled 
« Public Employment, and an active Life with its Appan- 
ages, preferred to Solitude. '^f 

1 8th February, 1667. I was present at a magnificent 
ball, or masque, in the theatre at the Court, where their 
Majesties and all the great lords and ladies danced, in- 
finitely gallant, the men in their richly embroidered, most 
becoming vests. 

19th February, 1667. I saw a comedy acted at Court. 
In the afternoon, I witnessed a wrestling match for ;^i,ooo 
in St. James's Park, before his Majesty, a vast assemblage 
of lords and other spectators, between the western and 
northern men, Mr. Secretary Morice and Lord Gerard 
being the judges. The western men won. Many great 
sums were betted. 

6th March, 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor, 
Monsieur Kiviet's undertaking to wharf the whole river of 
Thames, or quay, from the Temple to the Tower, as far as 
the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting 
and ornamental. — Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious 

* In illustration of the garb which succeeded the "long coats » out of 
which lads of twelve or thirteen were thus suffered to emerge, it may 
be mentioned that there hung, some years ago, and perhaps may hang 
still, upon the walls of the Swan Inn at Leatherhead in Surrey, a 
picture of four children, dates of birth between 1640 and 1650, of whom 
a lad of about the age of young Evelyn is represented in a coat reach- 
ing to his ankles. 

t Reprinted in « Miscellaneous Writings, pp. 501-509. In a letter to 
Cowley, i2th March, 1666, Evelyn apologises for having written against 
that life which he had joined with Mr. Cowley in so much admiring, 
assuring him he neither was nor could be serious in avowing such a 

166; JOHN EVELYN 31 

at the vernal equinox ; indeed it had been a year of prodi- 
gies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet. 

14th March, 1667. Saw ^< The Virgin Queen,** a play- 
written by Mr. Dryden. 

2 2d March, 1667. Dined at Mr. Secretary Morice's, who 
showed me his library, which was a well chosen collec- 
tion. This afternoon, I had audience of his Majesty, con- 
cerning the proposal I had made of building the quay. 

26th March, 1667. Sir John Kiviet dined with me. 
We went to search for brick-earth, in order to a great 

4th April, 1667. The cold so intense, that there was 
hardly a leaf on a tree. 

1 8th April, 1667. I went to make court to the Duke 
and Duchess of Newcastle, at their house in Clerkenwell, 
being newly come out of the north. They received me 
with great kindness, and I was much pleased with the 
extraordinary fanciful habit, garb, and discourse of the 

22d April, 1667. Saw the sumptuous supper in the 
banqueting-house at Whitehall, on the eve of St. George's 
day, where were all the companions of the Order of the 

23d April, 1667. In the morning, his Majesty went to 
chapel with the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits 
and robes, ushered by the heralds; after the first service, 
they went in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign 
last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had 
about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and 
then the Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic), 
who wore the purse about his neck; then the Heralds 
and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But 
before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentle- 
men of the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched ; 
behind them two doctors of music in damask robes; this 
procession was about the courts at Whitehall. Then, 
returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed 
under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second 

* The Virgin Queen which Eveljm saw was Dryden's Maiden Queen. 
Pepys saw it on the night of its first production (twelve day's before 
Evelyn's visit) ; and was charmed by Nell Gwynue's Florimell. << So 
great a performance of a comical part was never, I believe, in the world 
before. » 


service began. Then, the King offered at the altar, an 
anthem was sung; then, the rest of the Knights offered, 
and lastly proceeded to the banqueting-house to a great 
feast. The King sat on an elevated throne at the upper 
end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right 
hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against 
them a cupboard of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, 
the music; on the balusters above, wind music, trumpets, 
and kettle-drums. The King was served by the lords and 
pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle 
of the dinner, the Knights drank the King's health, then 
the King, theirs, when the trumpets and music played and 
sounded, the guns going off at the Tower. At the Ban- 
quet, came in the Queen, and stood by the King's left 
hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff 
flung about the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was 
so great, that though I stayed all the supper the day 
before, I now stayed no longer than this sport began, for 
fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each 
Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or 
six high; the room hung with the richest tapestry. 

25th April, 1667. Visited again the Duke of Newcastle, 
with whom I had been acquainted long before in France, 
where the Duchess had obligation to my wife's mother for 
her marriage there; she was sister to Lord Lucas, and 
maid of honor then to the Queen-Mother; married in our 
chapel at Paris. My wife being with me, the Duke and 
Duchess both would needs bring her to the very Court. 

26th April, 1667. My Lord Chancellor showed me all 
his newly finished and furnished palace and library; then, 
we went to take the air in Hyde-Park. 

27th April, 1667. I had a great deal of discourse with 
his Majesty at dinner. In the afternoon, I went again 
with my wife to the Duchess of Newcastle, who received 
her in a kind of transport, suitable to her extravagant 
humor and dress, which was very singular. 

8th May, 1667. Made up accounts with our Receiver, 
which amounted to j£ 33,936 is. 4d. Dined at Lord Com- 
bury's, with Don Francisco de Melos, Portugal Ambassador, 
and kindred to the Queen : Of the party were Mr. Henry 
Jermyn and Sir Henry Capel. Afterward I went to 
Arundel House, to salute Mr. Howard's sons, newly re- 
turned out of France, 

1667 JOHN EVELYN 33 

nth May, 1667. To London; dined with the Duke of 
Newcastle, and sat discoursing with her Grace in her bed- 
chamber after dinner, till my Lord Marquis of Dorchester, 
with other company came in, when I went away. 

30th May, 1667. To London, to wait on the Duchess of 
Newcastle (who was a mighty pretender to learning, 
poetry, and philosophy, and had in both published divers 
books) to the Royal Society, whither she came in great 
pomp, and being received by our Lord President at the 
door of our meeting-room, the mace, etc., carried before 
him, had several experiments shown to her. I conducted 
her Grace to her coach, and returned home. 

ist June, 1667. I went to Greenwich, where his Majesty 
was trying divers grenadoes shot out of cannon at the 
Castlehill, from the house in the park; they broke not till 
they hit the mark, the forged ones broke not at all, but 
the cast ones very well. The inventor was a German there 
present. At the same time, a ring was shown to the 
King, pretended to be a projection of mercury, and mal- 
leable, and said by the gentlemen to be fixed by the juice 
of a plant. 

8th June, 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, 
who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, by a most 
audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of 
their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mis- 
chief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at 
anchor and moored there, and all this through our unac- 
countable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due 
time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might 
venture up the Thames even to London (which they 
might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in 
the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., 
from my house to another place. The alarm was so great 
that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and 
consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; 
everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, 
there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albe- 
marle, Lord Middleton, Prince Rupert, and the Duke, to 
hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying Upnor 
Castle, and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute 
enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and 
retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the 
fleet lying before the mouth of it. 

34 DIARY OF Chatham 

14th June, 1667. I went to see the work at Woolwich, 
a battery to prevent them coming up to London, which 
Prince Rupert commanded, and sunk some ships in the 

17th June, 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some 
chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire- 
ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, 
and caused such an uproar in the Tower (it being given 
out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed 
their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have 
done more mischief before people would be persuaded 
to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody 
went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times. 

24th June, 1667. The Dutch fleet still continuing to 
stop up the river, so as nothing could stir out or come in, 
I was before the Council, and commanded by his Majesty 
to go with some others and search about the environs of 
the city, now exceedingly distressed for want of fuel, 
whether there could be any peat, or turf, found fit for use. 
The next day, I went and discovered enough, and made 
my report that there might be found a great deal; but 
nothing further was done in it. 

28th June, 1667. I went to Chatham, and thence to view 
not only what mischief the Dutch had done ; but how tri- 
umphantly their whole fleet lay within the very mouth of 
the Thames, all from the North Fore-land, Margate, even 
to the buoy of the Nore — a dreadful spectacle as ever 
Englishmen saw, and a dishonor never to be wiped off! 
Those who advised his Majesty to prepare no fleet this 
spring deserved — I know what — but* — 

Here in the river off Chatham, just before the town, lay 
the carcase of the « London* (now the third time burnt), 
the * Royal Oak, * the ^^ James, " etc. , yet smoking ; and now, 
when the mischief was done, we were making trifling 
forts on the brink of the river. Here were yet forces, 
both of horse and foot, with General Middleton continually 
expecting the motions of the enemy's fleet. I had much 

*«The Parliament giving but weak supplies for the war, the King, 
to save charges, is persuaded by the Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, 
Southampton, the Duke of Albemarle, and the other ministers, to lay 
up the first and second-rate ships, and make only a defensive war in 
the next campaign. The Duke of York opposed this, but was over- 
ruled. » Life of King James II., vol. i., p. 425. 

i667 JOHN EVELYN 35 

discourse with him, who was an experienced commander. 
I told him I wondered the King did not fortify Sheemess* 
and the Ferry; both abandoned. 

2d July, 1667. Called upon my Lord Arlington, as from 
his Majesty, about the new fuel. The occasion why I was 
mentioned, was from what I said in my Sylva three years 
before, about a sort of fuel for a need, which obstructed a 
patent of Lord Carlingford, who had been seeking for it 
himself; he was endeavoring to bring me into the pro- 
ject, and proffered me a share. I met my Lord; and, on 
the 9th, by an order of Council, went to my Lord Mayor, 
to be assisting. In the meantime they had made an ex- 
periment of my receipt of houllies, which I mention in my 
book to be made at Maestricht, with a mixture of charcoal 
dust and loam, and which was tried with success at Gresham 
College (then being the exchange for the meeting of the 
merchants since the fire) for everybody to see. This 
done, I went to the Treasury for jQi2,ooo for the sick and 
wounded yet on my hands. 

Next day, we met again about the fuel at Sir J. Ar- 
mourer's in the Mews. 

8th July, 1667. My Lord Brereton and others dined at 
my house, where I showed them proof of my new fuel, 
which was very glowing, and without smoke or ill 

loth July, 1667. I went to see Sir Samuel Morland's 
inventions and machines, arithmetical wheels, quench-fires, 
and new harp. 

17th July, 1667. The master of the mint and his lady, 
Mr. Williamson, Sir Nicholas Armourer, Sir Edward Bow- 
yer, Sir Anthony Auger, and other friends dined with 

29th July, 1667. I went to Gravesend; the Dutch fleet 
still at anchor before the river, where I saw five of his 
Majesty's men-at-war encounter above twenty of the 
Dutch, in the bottom of the Hope, chasing them with 
many broadsides given and returned toward the buoy of 
the Nore, where the body of their fleet lay, which lasted 
till about midnight. One of their ships was fired, sup- 
posed by themselves, she being run on ground. Having 
seen this bold action, and their braving us so far up the 
river, I went home the next day, not without indignation 

•Since done. Evelyn's note. 

36 DIARY OF London 

at pur negligence, and the nation's reproach. It is well 
known who of the Commissioners of the Treasury gave 
advice that the charge of setting forth a fleet this year 
might be spared, Sir W. C. (William Coventry) by 

ist August, 1667. I received the sad news of Abraham 
Cowley's death, that incomparable poet and virtuous man, 
my very dear friend, and was greatly deplored. 

3d August, 1667. Went to Mr. Cowley's funeral, whose 
corpse lay at Wallingford House, and was thence conveyed 
to Westminster Abbey in a hearse with six horses and all 
funeral decency, near a hundred coaches of noblemen and 
persons of quality following; among these, all the wits of 
the town, divers bishops and clergymen. He was interred 
next Geoffry Chaucer, and near Spenser. A goodly mon- 
ument is since erected to his memory. 

Now did his Majesty again dine in the presence, in 
ancient state, with music and all the court ceremonies, 
which had been interrupted since the late war. 

8th August, 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg, a close 
prisoner in the Tower, being suspected of writing intel- 
ligence. I had an order from Lord Arlington, Secretary 
of State, which caused me to be admitted. This gentle- 
man was secretary to our Society, and I am confident 
will prove an innocent person. 

15th August, 1667. Finished my account, amounting to 

17 th August 1667. To the funeral of Mr. Farringdon, 
a relation of my wife's. 

There was now a very gallant horse to be baited to 
death with dogs; but he fought them all, so as the fiercest 
of them could not fasten on him, till the men run him 
through with their swords. This wicked and barbarous 
sport deserved to have been punished in the cruel con- 
trivers to get money, under pretense that the horse had 
killed a man, which was false. I would not be persuaded 
to be a spectator. 

2ist August, 1667. Saw the famous Italian puppet-play, 
for it was no other. 

24th August, 1667. I was appointed, with the rest of 
my brother commissioners, to put in execution an order 
of Council for freeing the prisoners at war in my custody 
at Leeds Castle, and taking oflE his Majesty's extraordinary 

1 667 JOHN EVELYN 37 

charge, having called before us the French and Dutch 
agents. The peace was now proclaimed, in the usual form, 
by the heralds-at-arms. 

25th August, 1667. After evening service, I went to 
visit Mr. Vaughan, who lay at Greenwich, a very wise and 
learned person, one of Mr. Selden's executors and intimate 

27th August, 1667. Visited the Lord Chancellor, to whom 
his Majesty had sent for the seals a few days before; I 
found him in his bedchamber, very sad. The Parliament 
had accused him, and he had enemies at Court, especially 
the buffoons and ladies of pleasure, because he thwarted 
some of them, and stood in their way; I could name some 
of the chief. The truth is, he made few friends during 
his grandeur among the royal sufferers, but advanced the 
old rebels. He was, however, though no considerable law- 
yer, one who kept up the form and substance of things 
in the Nation with more solemnity than some would have 
had. He was my particular kind friend, on all occasions. 
The cabal, however, prevailed, and that party in Parlia- 
ment. Great division at Court concerning him, and divers 
great persons interceding for him, 

28th August, 1667. I dined with my late Lord Chan- 
cellor, where also dined Mr. Ashbumham, and Mr. W. 
Legge, of the bedchamber; his Lordship pretty well in 
heart, though now many of his friends and sycophants 
abandoned him. 

In the afternoon, to the Lords Commissioners for money, 
and thence to the audience of a Russian Envoy in the 
Queen's presence-chamber, introduced with much state, 
the soldiers, pensioners, and guards in their order. His 
letters of credence brought by his secretary in a scarf 
of sarsenet, their vests sumptuous, much embroidered with 
pearls. He delivered his speech in the Russ language, 
but without the least action, or motion, of his body, which 
was immediately interpreted aloud by a German that spoke 
good English: half of it consisted in repetition of the 
Czar's titles, which were very haughty and oriental: the 
substance of the rest was, that he was only sent to see the 
King and Queen, and know how they did, with much com- 
pliment and frothy language. Then, they kissed their 
Majesties' hands, and went as they came; but their real 
errand was to get money. 


29th August, 1667. We met at the Star-chamber about 
exchange and release of prisoners. 

7th September, 1667. Came Sir John Kiviet, to article 
with me about his brickwork. 

13th September, 1667. Between the hours of twelve and 
one, was born my second daughter, who was afterward 
christened Elizabeth. 

19th September, 1667. To London, with Mr. Henry 
Howard, of Norfolk, of whom I obtained the gift of his 
Arundelian marbles, those celebrated and famous inscrip- 
tions, Greek and Latin, gathered with so much cost and 
industry from Greece, by his illustrious grandfather, the 
magnificent Earl of Arundel, my noble friend while he 
lived. When I saw these precious monuments miseratly 
neglected, and scattered up and down about the garden, 
and other parts of Arundel House, and how exceedingly 
the corrosive air of London impaired them, I procured 
him to bestow them on the University of Oxford. This 
he was pleased to grant me; and now gave me the key 
of the gallery, with leave to mark all those stones, urns, 
altars, etc., and whatever I found had inscriptions on 
them, that were not statues. This I did ; and getting them 
removed and piled together, with those which were in- 
crusted in the garden walls, I sent immediately letters to 
the Vice-Chancellor of what I had procured, and that if 
they esteemed it a service to the University (of which I 
had been a member), they should take order for their 

This done 21st, I accompanied Mr. Howard to his villa 
at Albury, where I designed for him the plot of his canal 
and garden, with a crypt through the hill. 

24th September, 1667. Returned to London, where I 
had orders to deliver the possession of Chelsea College 
(used as my prison during the war with Holland for such 
as were sent from the fleet to London) to our Society, as 
a gift of his Majesty, our founder. 

8th October, 1667. Came to dine with me Dr. Bathurst, 
Dean of Wells, President of Trinity College, sent by the 
Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, in the name both of him and 
the whole University, to thank me for procuring the in- 
scriptions, and to receive my directions what was to be 
done to show their gratitude to Mr, Howard. 

nth October, 1667. I went to see Lord Clarendon, late 

1 66; JOHN EVELYN 39 

Lord Chancellor and greatest officer in England, in con- 
tinual apprehension what the Parliament would determine 
concerning him. 

17th October, 1667. Came Dr. Barlow, Provost of 
Queen's College and Protobibliothecus of the Bodleian 
library, to take order about the transportation of the 

25 th October, 1667. There were delivered to me two 
letters from the Vice- Chancellor of Oxford, with the 
Decree of the Convocation, attested by the Public Notary, 
ordering four Doctors of Divinity and Law to acknowledge 
the obligation the University had to me for procuring the 
Marmora Arundeliana, which was solemnly done by Dr. 
Barlow, Dr. Jenkins, Judge of the Admiralty, Dr. Lloyd, 
and Obadiah Walker, of University College, who having 
made a large compliment from the University, delivered 
me the decree fairly written: 

Gesta venerahili domo Convocationis Universitatis Oxon.; . . 17. 
1667. ^uo die retulit ad Senatutn Academicum Dominus Vicecancel- 
larius, quantum Universitas deberet singulari benevolenticB Johannis 
Evelini Armigeri, qui pro ed pietate qud Almam Matrem prosequitur 
non solum Suasu et Consilio apud inclytum Heroem Henricum Howard, 
Ducis Norfolcice hceredem, inter cessit, et Universitati pretiosissimum 
erudites antiquitatis thesaurum Marmora Arundeliana largiretur; sed 
egregiufn insuper in i/s colligendis asservandisq; navavit operam, : ^ua- 
propter unanimi suffragio Venerabilis Domils decretum est, ut eidem 
publicce graticE per delegatos ad Honoratissimum Dominum Henricum 
Hotvard propediem mittendos solemnit^r reddantur. 

Concordant superscripta cum originali collatione fdcta per me Ben, 

Notarium Publicum et Registarium Universitat Oxon. 


« We intend also a noble inscription, in which also honorable mention 
shall be made of yourself ; but Mr. Vice-Chancellor commands me to 
tell you that that was not sufficient for your merits ; but, that if your 
occasions would permit you to come down at the Act (when we intend 
a dedication of our new Theater), some other testimony should be given 
both of your own worth and affection to this your old mother ; for we 
are all very sensible that this great addition of learning and reputation 
to the University is due as well to your industrious care for the Univer- 
sity, and interest with my Lord Howard, as to his great nobleness and 
generosity of spirit. 

« I am, Sir, your most humble servant, 

« Obadiah Walker, Univ. Coll.» 

The Vice-Chancellor's letter to the same effect was too 
vainglorious to insert, with divers copies of verses that 

40 DIARY OF London 

were also sent me. Their mentioning me in the inscrip- 
tion I totally declined, when I directed the titles of Mr. 
Howard, now made Lord, upon his Ambassage to 

These four doctors, having made me this compliment, 
desired me to carry and introduce them to Mr. Howard, 
at Arundel House; which I did, Dr. Barlow (Provost of 
Queen's) after a short speech, delivering a larger letter of 
the University's thanks, which was written in Latin, ex- 
pressing the great sense they had of the honor done them. 
After this compliment handsomely performed and as nobly 
received. Mr. Howard accompanied the doctors to their 
coach. That evening I supped with them. 

26th October, 1667. My late Lord Chancellor was ac- 
cused by Mr. Seymour in the House of Commons; and, 
in the evening, I returned home. 

31st October, 1667. My birthday — blessed be God for 
all his mercies! I made the Royal Society a present of 
the Table of Veins, Arteries, and Nerves, which great 
curiosity I had caused to be made in Italy, out of the 
natural human bodies, by a learned physician, and the help 
of Veslingius (professor at Padua), from whence I brought 
them in 1646. For this I received the public thanks of 
the Society; and they are hanging up in their repository 
with an inscription. 

9th December, 1667. To visit the late Lord Chancellor.* 
I found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting 
in his gout wheel-chair, and seeing the gates setting up 
toward the north and the fields. He looked and spake 
very disconsolately. After some while deploring his con- 
dition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he 
was gone; though I am persuaded that, had he gone 
sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it 
would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exas- 
perated them was his presuming to stay and contest the 

*This entry of the 9th December, 1667, is a mistake. Evelyn could 
not have visited the « late Lord Chancellor » on that day. Lord Clar- 
endon fled on Saturday, the 29th of November, 1667, and his letter 
resigning the Chancellorship of the University of Oxford is dated from 
Calais on the 7th of December. That Evelyn's book is not, in every 
respect, strictly a diary, is shown by this and several similar passages 
already adverted to in the remarks prefixed to the present edition. If 
the entry of the iSthof August. 1683, is correct, the date of Evelyn's 
last visit to Lord Clarendon was the 28th of November, 1667. 

1667-68 JOHN EVELYN 41 

accusation as long as it was possible: and they were on 
the point of sending him to the Tower. 

loth December, 1667, I went to the funeral of Mrs. 
Heath, wife of my worthy friend and schoolfellow. 

2ist December, 1667. I saw one Carr pilloried at Char- 
ing-cross for a libel, which was burnt before him by the 

8th January, 1667-68. I saw deep and prodigious gam- 
ing at the Groom- Porter's, vast heaps of gold squandered 
away in a vain and profuse manner. This I looked on as 
a horrid vice, and unsuitable in a Christian Court. 

9th January, 1668. Went to see the revels at the Middle 
Temple, which is also an old riotous custom, and has rela- 
tion neither to virtue nor policy. 

loth January, 1668, To visit Mr. Povey, where were 
divers great Lords to see his well-contrived cellar, and other 

24th January, 1668. We went to stake out ground for 
building a college for the Royal Society at Arundel- House, 
but did not finish it, which we shall repent of. 

4th February, 1668. I saw the tragedy of "Horace® 
(written by the virtuous Mrs. Philips) acted before their 
Majesties. Between each act a masque and antique dance. 
The excessive gallantry of the ladies was infinite, those 
especially on that . . . Castlemaine, esteemed at jC4o,- 
000 and more, far outshining the Queen. 

15th February, 1668. I saw the audience of the Swedish 
Ambassador Count Donna, in great state in the banquet- 
ing house. 

3d March, 1668. Was launched at Deptford, that goodly 
vessel, " The Charles. '* I was near his Majesty. She is 
longer than the * Sovereign, ** and carries no brass cannon; 
she was built by old Shish, a plain, honest carpenter, 
master-builder of this dock, but one who can give very 
little account of his art by discourse, and is hardly capable 
of reading, yet of great ability in his calling. The family 
have been ship carpenters in this yard above 300 

12th March, 1668, Went to visit Sir John Cotton, who 
had me into his library, full of good MSS. , Greek and Latin, 
but most famous for those of the Saxon and English 
antiquities, collected by his grandfather. 

2d April 1668. To the Royal Society, where I sub- 


scribed 50,000 bricks, toward building a college. Among 
other libertine libels, there was one now printed and 

thrown about, a bold petition of the poor w s to Lady 


9th April, 1668. To London, about finishing my grand 
account of the sick and wounded, and prisoners at war, 
amounting to above ;;^34,ooo. 

I heard Sir R. Howard impeach Sir William Penn, in 
the House of Lords, for breaking bulk, and taking away 
rich goods out of the East India prizes, formerly taken 
by Lord Sandwich. 

28th April, 1668. To London, about the purchase of 
Ravensboume Mills, and land around it, in Upper Dept- 
ford, of one Mr, Becher. 

30th April, 1668. We sealed the deeds in Sir Edward 
Thurland's chambers in the Inner Temple. I pray God 
bless it to me, it being a dear pennyworth; but the pas- 
sion Sir R. Browne had for it, and that it was contiguous 
to our other grounds, engaged me! 

13th May, 1668. Invited by that expert commander. 
Captain Cox, master of the lately built * Charles II.,* 
now the best vessel of the fleet, designed for the Duke of 
York, I went to Erith, where we had a great dinner. 

1 6th May, 1668. Sir Richard Edgecombe, of Mount 
Edgecombe, by Plymouth, my relation, came to visit me; 
a very virtuous and worthy gentleman. 

19th June, 1668. To a new play with several of my 
relations, " The Evening Lover, * a foolish plot, and very 
profane; it afflicted me to see how the stage was degen- 
erated and polluted by the licentious times. 

2d July, 1668, Sir Samuel Tuke, Bart, and the lady he 
had married this day, came and bedded at night at my 
house, many friends accompanying the bride. 

23d July, 1668. At the Royal Society, were presented 
divers glossa petras, and other natural curiosities, found in 
digging to build the fort at Sheerness. They were just 
the same as they bring from Malta, pretending them to 
be viper's teeth, whereas, in truth, they are of a shark, as 
we found by comparing them with one in our reposi- 

3d August, 1668. Mr. Bramstone (son to Judge B.), 
my old fellow-traveler, now reader at the Middle Temple, 

* Evelyn has been supposed himself ^to have written this piece. 

1 668 JOHN EVELYN 43 

invited me to his feast, which was so very extravagant 
and great as the like had not been seen at any time. 
There were ^the Duke of Ormond, Privy Seal, Bedford, 
Belasis, Halifax, and a world more of Earls and Lords. 

14th August, 1668. His Majesty was pleased to grant 
me a lease of a slip of ground out of Brick Close, to 
enlarge my fore-court, for which I now gave him thanks; 
then, entering into other discourse, he talked to me of a 
new varnish for ships, instead of pitch, and of the gilding 
with which his new yacht was beautified. I showed his 
Majesty the perpetual motion sent to me by Dr. Stokes, 
from Cologne; and then came in Monsieur Colbert, the 
French Ambassador. 

19th August, 1668. I saw the magnificent entry of the 
French Ambassador Colbert, received in the banqueting 
house. I had never seen a richer coach than that which 
he came in to Whitehall. Standing by his Majesty at 
dinner in the presence, there was of that rare fruit called 
the king-pine, growing in Barbadoes and the West Indies; 
the first of them I had ever seen. His Majesty having 
cut it up, was pleased to give me a piece off his own 
plate to taste of; but, in my opinion, it falls short of those 
ravishing varieties of deliciousness described in Captain 
Ligon's history, and others; but possibly it might, or cer- 
tainly was, much impaired in coming so far; it has yet a 
grateful acidity, but tastes more like the quince and melon 
than of any other fruit he mentions, 

28th August, 1668. Published my book on «The Per- 
fection of Painting,'^ dedicated to Mr. Howard. 

17th September, 1668. I entertained Signor Muccinigo, 
the Venetian Ambassador, of one of the noblest families 
of the State, this being the day of making his public 
entry, setting forth from my house with several gentle- 
men of Venice and others in a very glorious train. He 
staid with me till the Earl of Anglesea and Sir Charles 
Cotterell (master of the ceremonies) came with the King's 
barge to carry him to the Tower, where the guns were 
fired at his landing; he then entered his Majesty's coach, 
followed by many others of the nobility. I accompanied 
him to his house, where there was a most noble supper 
to all the company, of course. After the extraordinary 
compliments to me and my wife, for the civilities he 
received at my house, I took leave and returned. He is 

44 DIARY OF London 

a very accomplished person. He is since Ambassador at 

29th September, 1668. I had much discourse with Sig- 
nor Pietro Cisij, a Persian gentleman, about the affairs of 
Turkey, to my great satisfaction. I went to see Sir Elias 
Leighton's project of a cart with iron axletrees. 

8th November, 1668. Being at dinner, my sister Evelyn 
sent for me to come up to London to my continuing 
sick brother, 

14th November, 1668. To London, invited to the con- 
secration of that excellent person, the Dean of Ripon, 
Dr. Wilkins, now made Bishop of Chester; it was at 
Ely House, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cosin, 
Bishop of Durham, the Bishops of Ely, Salisbury, Roch- 
ester, and others officiating. Dr. Tillotson preached. 
Then, we went to a sumptuous dinner in the hall, where 
were the Duke of Buckingham, Judges, Secretaries of 
State, Lord-Keeper, Council, Noblemen, and innumera- 
ble other company, who were honorers of this incom- 
parable man, universally beloved by all who knew him. 

This being the Queen's birthday, great was the gal- 
lantry at Whitehall, and the night celebrated with very 
fine fireworks. 

My poor brother continuing ill, I went not from him 
till the 17th, when, dining at the Groom Porters, I heard 
Sir Edward Sutton play excellently on the Irish harp; 
he performs genteelly, but not approaching my worthy 
friend, Mr. Clark, a gentleman of Northumberland, who 
makes it execute lute, viol, and all the harmony an in- 
strument is capable of; pity it is that it is not more in 
use; but, indeed, to play well, takes up the whole man, 
as Mr. Clark has assured me, who, though a gentleman 
of quality and parts, was yet brought up to that instru- 
ment from five years old, as I remember he told me. 

25th November, 1668. I waited on Lord Sandwich, 
who presented me with a Sembrador he brought out of 
Spain, showing me his two books of observations made 
during his embassy and stay at Madrid, in which were 
several rare things he promised to impart to me. 

27th November, 1668. I dined at my Lord Ashley's 
(since Earl of Shaftesbury), when the match of my niece 
was proposed for his only son, in which my assistance 
was desired for my Lord. 

1668-69 JOHN EVELYN 45 

28th November, 1668. Dr. Patrick preached at Convent 
Garden, on Acts xvii. 31, the certainty of Christ's com- 
ing to judgTnent, it being Advent; a most suitable dis- 

19th December, 1668. I went to see the old play of 
" Cataline * acted, having been now forgotten almost 
forty years. 

20th December, 1668. I dined with my Lord Corn- 
bury, at Clarendon House, now bravely furnished, espe- 
cially with the pictures of most of our ancient and 
modem wits, poets, philosophers, famous and learned 
Englishmen; which collection of the Chancellor's I much 
commended, and gave his Lordship a catalogue of more 
to be added. 

31st December, 1668. I entertained my kind neigh- 
bors, according to custom, giving Almighty God thanks 
for his gracious mercies to me the past year. 

ist January, 1669, Imploring his blessing for the year 
entering, I went to church, where our Doctor preached 
on Psalm Ixv. 12, apposite to the season, and beginning 
a new year. 

3d January, 1669. About this time one of Sir William 
Penn's sons had published a blasphemous book against 
the Deity of our Blessed Lord. 

29th January, 1669. I went to see a tall gigantic woman 
who measured 6 feet 10 inches high, at 21 years old, bom 
in the Low Countries. 

13th February, 1669. I presented his Majesty with my 
* History of the Four Impostors ; * * he told me of other 
like cheats. I gave my book to Lord Arlington, to whom 
I dedicated it. It was now that he began to tempt me 
about writing "The Dutch War.'^ 

15th February, 1669. Saw Mrs. Phillips' "Horace" 
acted again. 

1 8th February, 1669. To the Royal Society, when 
Sig^or Malpighi, an Italian physician and anatomist, sent 
this learned body the incomparable " History of the Silk- 
worm. ^ 

ist March, 1669. Dined at Lord Arlington's at Goring 
House, with the Bishop of Hereford. 

4th March, 1669. To the Council of the Ro5''al Society, 
about disposing my Lord Howard's library, now given to us. 

♦Reprinted in Evelyn's « Miscellaneous Writings. » 

46 DIARY OF London 

1 6th March, 1669. To London, to place Mr. Chris- 
topher Wase about my Lord Arlington. 

1 8th March, 1669. I went with Lord Howard of Nor- 
folk, to visit Sir William Ducie at Charlton, where we 
dined; the servants made our coachmen so drunk, that 
they both fell off their boxes on the heath, where we 
were fain to leave them, and were driven to London 
by two servants of my Lord's. This barbarous custom 
of making the masters welcome by intoxicating the 
servants, had now the second time happened to my 

My son finally came from Oxford. 

2d April, 1669. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, where was 
(with many noblemen) Colonel Titus of the bedchamber, 
author of the famous piece against Cromwell, " Killing 
no Murder.* 

I now placed Mr. Wase with Mr. Williamson, Secretary 
to the Secretary of State, and Clerk of the Papers. 

14th April, 1669. I dined with the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, at Lambeth, and saw the library, which was not 
very considerable. 

19th May, 1669. At a Council of the Royal Society 
our grant was finished, in which his Majesty gives us 
Chelsea College, and some land about it. It was ordered 
that five should be a quorum for a Council. The Vice- 
President was then sworn for the first time, and it was 
proposed how we should receive the Prince of Tuscany, 
who desired to visit the Society. 

20th May, 1669. This evening, at 10 o'clock, was born 
my third daughter, who was baptized on the 25th by the 
name of Susannah. 

3d June, 1669. Went to take leave of Lord Howard, 
going Ambassador to Morocco. Dined at Lord Arling- 
ton's, where were the Earl of Berkshire, Lord Saint John, 
Sir Robert Howard, and Sir R. Holmes. 

loth June, 1669. Came my Lord Combury, Sir William 
Pulteney, and others to visit me. I went this evening to 
London, to carry Mr. Pepys to my brother Richard, now 
exceedingly afflicted with the stone, who had been suc- 
cessfully cut, and carried the stone as big as a tennis 
ball to show him, and encourage his resolution to go 
through the operation, 

30th June, 1669. My wife went a journey of pleasure 

i669 JOHN EVELYN 47 

down the river as far as the sea, with Mrs. Howard and 
her daughter, the Maid of Honor, and others, among 
whom that excellent creature, Mrs, Blagg.* 

7th July, 1669. I went toward Oxford; lay at Little 

8th July, 1669. Oxford. 

9th July, 1669. In the morning was celebrated the 
Encaenia of the New Theater, so magnificently built by 
the munificence of Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in which was spent ^^25,000, as Sir Christo- 
pher Wren, the architect (as I remember), told me; and 
yet it was never seen by the benefactor, my Lord Arch- 
bishop having told me that he never did or ever would 
see it. It is, in truth, a fabric comparable to any of this 
kind of former ages, and doubtless exceeding any of the 
present, as this University does for colleges, libraries, 
schools, students, and order, all the universities in the 
world. To the theater is added the famous Sheldonian 
printing house. This being at the Act and the first time 
of opening the Theater (Acts being formerly kept in St. 
Mary's Church, which might be thought indecent, that 
being a place set apart for the immediate worship of 
God, and was the inducement for building this noble 
pile), it was now resolved to keep the present Act in it, 
and celebrate its dedication with the greatest splendor and 
formality that might be; and, therefore, drew a world of 
strangers, and other company, to the University, from all 
parts of the nation. 

The Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, and Doctors, 
being seated in magisterial seats, the Vice-Chancellor's 
chair and desk, Proctors, etc., covered with brocatelle (a 
kind of brocade) and cloth of gold; the University Reg- 
istrar read the founder's grant and gift of it to the Uni- 
versity for their scholastic exercises upon these solemn 
occasions. Then followed Dr. South, the University's 
orator, in an eloquent speech, which was very long, and 
not without some malicious and indecent reflections on 
the Royal Society, as underminers of the University; 
which was very foolish and untrue, as well as unseason- 

* Afterward Mrs. Godolphin, whose life, written by Evelyn, has 
been published under the auspices of the Bishop of Oxford. The 
affecting circumstances of her death will be found recorded on pp. 
126-27 of the present volume. 

48 DIARY OF oxford 

able. But, to let that pass from an ill-natured man, the 
rest was in praise of the Archbishop and the ingenious 
architect. This ended, after loud music from the corri- 
dor above, where an organ was placed, there followed 
divers panegyric speeches, both in prose and verse, inter- 
changeably pronounced by the young students placed in 
the rostrums, in Pindarics, Eclogues, Heroics, etc., 
mingled with excellent music, vocal and instrumental, to 
entertain the ladies and the rest of the company. A 
speech was then made in praise of academical learning. 
This lasted from eleven in the morning till seven at 
night, which was concluded with ringing of bells, and 
universal joy and feasting. 

loth July, 1669. The next day began the more solemn 
lectures in all the faculties, which were performed in the 
several schools, where all the Inceptor-Doctors did their 
exercises, the Professors having first ended their read- 
ing. The assembly now returned to the Theater, where 
the TerrcB filius ( the University Buffoon ) entertained the 
auditory with a tedious, abusive, sarcastical rhapsody, 
most unbecoming the gravity of the University, and that 
so grossly, that unless it be suppressed, it will be of ill 
consequence, as I afterward plainly expressed my sense 
of it both to the Vice-Chancellor and several Heads of 
Houses, who were perfectly ashamed of it, and resolved 
to take care of it in future. The old facetious way of 
rallying upon the questions was left off, falling wholly 
upon persons, so that it was rather licentious lying and 
railing than genuine and noble wit. In my life, I was 
never witness of so shameful an entertainment. 

After this ribaldry, the Proctors made their speeches. 
Then began the music art, vocal and instrumental, above 
in the balustrade corridor opposite to the Vice-Chancellor's 
seat. Then Dr. Wallis, the mathematical Professor, 
made his oration, and created one Doctor of music ac- 
cording to the usual ceremonies of gown (which was of 
white damask), cap, ring, kiss, etc. Next followed the 
disputations of the Inceptor-Doctors in Medicine, the 
speech of their Professor, Dr. Hyde, and so in course 
their respective creations. Then disputed the Inceptors of 
Law, the speech of their Professor, and creation. Lastly, 
Inceptors of Theology : Dr. Compton ( brother of the Earl 
of Northampton) being junior, began with great modesty 

1 669 JOHN EVELYN 49 

and applause; so the rest. After which, Dr. Tillotson, 
Dr. Sprat, etc., and then Dr. Allestree's speech, the 
King's Professor, and their respective creations. Last of 
all, the Vice-Chancellor, shutting up the whole in a pane- 
gyrical oration, celebrating their benefactor and the rest, 
apposite to the occasion. 

Thus was the Theater dedicated by the scholastic exer- 
cises in all the Faculties with great solemnity; and the 
night, as the former, entertaining the new Doctor's 
friends in feasting and music. I was invited by Dr. 
Barlow, the worthy and learned Professor of Queen's 

nth July, 1669. The Act sermon was this forenoon 
preached by Dr. Hall, in St. Mary's, in an honest, prac- 
tical discourse against atheism. In the afternoon, the 
church was so crowded, that, not coming early, I could 
not approach to hear. 

12th July, 1669. Monday. Was held the Divinity Act 
in the Theater again, v^rhen proceeded seventeen Doc- 
tors, in all Faculties some. 

13th July, 1669. I dined at the Vice-Chancellor's, and 
spent the afternoon in seeing the rarities of the public li- 
braries, and visiting the noble marbles and inscriptions, now 
inserted in the walls that compass the area of the 
Theater, which were 150 of the most ancient and worthy 
treasures of that kind in the learned world. Now, ob- 
serving that people approach them too near, some idle 
persons began to scratch and injure them, I advised that 
a hedge of holly should be planted at the foot of the 
wall, to be kept breast-high only to protect them; 
which the Vice-Chancellor promised to do the next sea- 

14th July, 1669. Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church and 
Vice-Chancellor, with Dr. Allestree, Professor, with bea- 
dles and maces before them, came to visit me at my lodg- 
ing. I went to visit Lord Howard's sons at Magdalen 

15th July, 1669. Having two days before had notice 
that the University intended me the honor of Doctor- 
ship, I was this morning attended by the beadles be- 
longing to the Law, who conducted me to the Theater, 
where I found the Duke of Ormond (now Chancellor of 
the University) with the Earl of Chesterfield and Mr. 

50 DIARY OF oxford 

Spencer (brother to the late Earl of Sunderland) . Thence, 
we marched to the Convocation House, a convocation 
having been called on purpose; here, being all of us 
robed in the porch, in scarlet with caps and hoods, we 
were led in by the Professor of Laws, and presented re- 
spectively by name, with a short eulogy, to the Vice- 
Chancellor, who sat in the chair, with all the Doctors 
and Heads of Houses and masters about the room, which 
was exceedingly full. Then, began the Public Orator his 
speech, directed chiefly to the Duke of Ormond, the 
Chancellor ; but in which I had ray compliment, in course. 
This ended, we were called up, and created Doctors ac- 
cording to the form, and seated by the Vice-Chancellor 
among the Doctors, on his right hand; then, the Vice- 
Chancellor made a short speech, and so, saluting our 
brother Doctors, the pageantry concluded, and the con- 
vocation was dissolved. So formal a creation of honor- 
ary Doctors had seldom been seen, that a convocation 
should be called on purpose, and speeches made by the 
Orator; but they could do no less, their Chancellor be- 
ing to receive, or rather do them, this honor. I should 
have been made Doctor with the rest at the public Act, 
but their expectation of their Chancellor made them de- 
fer it. I was then led with my brother Doctors to an 
extraordinary entertainment at Doctor Mewes's, head 
of St. John's College, and, after abundance of feasting 
and compliments, having visited the Vice-Chancellor and 
other Doctors, and given them thanks for the honor 
done me, I went toward home the i6th, and got as far 
as Windsor, and so to my house the next day. 

4th August, 1669. I was invited by Sir Henry Peck- 
ham to his reading feast in the Middle Temple, a pom- 
pous entertainment, where were the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, all the great Earls and Lords, etc. I had 
much discourse with my Lord Winchelsea, a prodigious 
talker; and the Venetian Ambassador. 

17th Augfust, 1669. To London, spending almost the 
entire day in surveying what progress was made in re- 
building the ruinous city, which now began a little to 
revive after its sad calamity. 

20th August, 1669. I saw the splendid audience of 
the Danish Ambassador in the Banqueting House at 

1669-70 JOHN EVELYN 51 

23d August, 1669. I went to visit my most excellent 
and worthy neighbor, the Lord Bishop of Rochester, at 
Bromley, which he was now repairing, after the delapi- 
dations of the late Rebellion. 

2d September, 1669. I was this day very ill of a pain 
in my limbs, which continued most of this week, and 
was increased by a visit I made to my old acquaintance, 
the Earl of Norwich, at his house in Epping Forest, 
where are many good pictures put into the wainscot of 
the rooms, which Mr. Baker, his Lordship's predecessor 
there, brought out of Spain; especially the History of 
Joseph, a picture of the pious and learned Picus Mirandula, 
and an incomparable one of old Breugel. The gardens 
were well understood, I mean the potager. I returned 
late in the evening, ferrying over the water at Green- 

26th September. 1669. To church, to give God thanks 
for my recovery. 

3d October, 1669. I received the Blessed Eucharist, 
to my unspeakable joy. 

2ist October, 1669. To the Royal Society, meeting for 
the first time after a long recess, during vacation, accord- 
ing to custom; where was read a description of the pro- 
digious eruption of Mount Etna ; and our English itinerant 
presented an account of his autumnal peregrination about 
England, for which we hired him, bringing dried fowls, 
fish, plants, animals, etc. 

26th October, 1669. My dear brother continued ex- 
tremely full of pain, the Lord be gracious to him! 

3d November, 1669. This being the day of meeting 
for the poor, we dined neighborly together. 

26th November, 1669. I heard an excellent discourse 
by Dr. Patrick, on the Resurrection; and afterward, 
visited the Countess of Kent, my kinswoman. 

8th December, 1669. To London, upon the second 
edition of my " Sylva, ** which I presented to the Royal 

6th February, 1669-70, Dr. John Breton, Master of 
Emmanuel College, in Cambridge (uncle to our vicar), 
preached on John i. 27; "whose shoe-latchet I am not 
worthy to unloose,^* etc., describing the various fashions 
of shoes, or sandals, worn by the Jews, and other nations : 
of the ornaments of the feet: how great persons had 


servants that took them off when they came to their 
houses, and bore them after them : by which pointing the 
dignity of our Savior, when such a person as St. John 
Baptist acknowledged his unworthiness even of that mean 
office. The lawfulness, decentness, and necessity, of 
subordinate degrees and ranks of men and servants, as 
well in the Church as State: against the late levelers, 
and others of that dangerous rabble, who would have all 

3d March, 1670. Finding my brother [Richard] in 
such exceeding torture, and that he now began to fall 
into convulsion-fits, I solemnly set the next day apart to 
beg of Grod to mitigate his sufferings, and prosper the 
only means which yet remained for his recovery, he being 
not only much wasted, but exceedingly and all along 
averse from being cut (for the stone); but, when he at 
last consented, and it came to the operation, and all 
things prepared, his spirit and resolution failed. 

6th March, 1670, Dr. Patrick preached in Covent Gar- 
den Church. I participated of the Blessed Sacrament, 
recommending to God the deplorable condition of my 
dear brother, who was almost in the last agonies of death. 
I watched late with him this night. It pleased God to 
deliver him out of this miserable life, toward five o'clock 
this Monday morning, to my unspeakable grief. He was 
a brother whom I most dearly loved, for his many vir- 
tues; but two years younger than myself, a sober, pru- 
dent, worthy gentleman. He had married a great fortune, 
and left one only daughter, and a noble seat at Woodcot, 
near Epsom. His body was opened, and a stone taken 
out of his bladder, not much bigger than a nutmeg. I 
returned home on the 8th, full of sadness, and to bemoan 
my loss. 

20th March, 1670. A stranger preached at the Savoy 
French church; the Liturgy of the Church of England 
being now used altogether, as translated into French by 
Dr. Durell. 

2ist March, 1670. We all accompanied the corpse of 
my dear brother to Epsom Church, where he was de- 
cently interred in the chapel belonging to Woodcot House. 
A great number of friends and gentlemen of the country 
attended, about twenty coaches and six horses, and in- 
numerable people. 

i67o JOHN EVELYN 53 

2 2d March, 1670, I went to Westminster, where in the 
House of Lords I saw his Majesty sit on his throne, but 
without his robes, all the peers sitting with their hats 
on; the business of the day being the divorce of my 
Lord Ross. Such an occasion and sight had not been 
seen in England since the time of Henry VHL* 

5th May, 1670. To London, concerning the office of 
Latin Secretary to his Majesty, a place of more honor 
and dignity than profit, the reversion of which he had 
promised me. 

2ist May, 1670. Came to visit me Mr. Henry Saville, 
and Sir Charles Scarborough. 

26th May, 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip 
Howard, Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur 
Evelin, first physician to Madame (who was now come to 
Dover to visit the King her brother), was come to town, 
greatly desirous to see me ; but his stay so short, that he 
could not come to me, I went with my brother to meet 
him at the Tower, where he was seeing the magazines 
and other curiosities, having never before been in Eng- 
land : we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much 
regret on both sides that, he being to return toward 
Dover that evening, we could not enjoy one another 
any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, 
Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted 
into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from 
Paris, 1650. 

1 6th June, 1670. I went with some friends to the Bear 
Garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, bear and 
bull-baiting, it being a famous day for all these butch- 
erly sports, or rather barbarous cruelties. The bulls did 

* Evelyn subjoins in a note: «When there was a project, 1669, for 
getting a divorce for the King, to facilitate it there was brought into 
the House of Lords a bill for dissolving the marriage of Lord Ross, on 
account of adultery, and to give him leave to marry again. This Bill, 
after great debates, passed by the plurality of only two votes, and that 
by the g^eat industry of the Lord's friends, as well as the Duke's 
enemies, who carried it on chiefly in hopes it might be a precedent and 
inducement for the King to enter the more easily into their late propo- 
sals ; nor were they a little encouraged therein, when they saw the King 
countenance and drive on the Bill in Lord Ross's favor. Of eighteen 
bishops that were in the House, only two voted for the bill, of which 
one voted through age, and one .[was reputed Socinian.» The two 
bishops favorable to the bill were Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham, and 
Dr. Wilkins, Bishop of Chester. 

54 DIARY OF London 

exceedingly well, but the Irish wolf dog exceeded, which 
was a tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who 
beat a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls tossed a dog full 
into a lady's lap as she sat in one of the boxes at a con- 
siderable height from the arena. Two poor dogs were 
killed, and so all ended with the ape on horseback, and 
I most heartily weary of the rude and dirty pastime, 
which I had not seen, I think, in twenty years before. 

i8th June, 1670. Dined at Goring House, whither my 
Lord Arlington carried me from Whitehall with the Mar- 
quis of Worcester; there, we found Lord Sandwich, Vis- 
count Stafford,* the Lieutenant of the Tower, and others. 
After dinner, my Lord communicated to me his Maj- 
esty's desire that I would engage to write the history of 
our late war with the Hollanders, which I had hitherto 
declined; this I found was ill taken, and that I should 
disoblige his Majesty, who had made choice of me to do 
him this service, and, if I would undertake it, I should 
have all the assistance the Secretary's office and others 
could give me, with other encouragements, which I could 
not decently refuse. 

Lord Stafford rose from the table, in some disorder, 
because there were roses stuck about the fruit when the 
dessert was set on the table ; such an antipathy, it seems, 
he had to them as once Lady Selenger also had, and to 
that degree that, as Sir Kenelm Digby tells us, laying 
but a rose upon her cheek when she was asleep, it 
raised a blister: but Sir Kenelm was a teller of strange 

24th June, 1670. Came the Earl of Huntington and 
Countess, with the Lord Sherard, to visit us. 

29th June, 1670. To London, in order to my niece's 
marriage, Mary, daughter to my late brother Richard, 
of Woodcot, with the eldest son of Mr. Attorney Mon- 
tague, which was celebrated at Southampton- House chapel, 
after which a magnificent entertainment, feast, and danc- 
ing, dinner and supper, in the great room there; but the 
bride was bedded at my sister's lodging, in Drury-Lane. 

6th July, 1670. Came to visit me Mr. Stanhope, gen- 

*Sir William Howard, created in November, 1640, Viscount Stafford. 
In 1678, he was accused of complicity with the Popish Plot, and upon 
trial by his Peers in "Westminster Hall, was found guilty, by a majority 
of twenty-four. He was beheaded, December 29, i68o, on Tower Hill. 

1670 JOHN EVELYN 55 

tleman-usher to her Majesty, and uncle to the Earl of 
Chesterfield, a very fine man, with my Lady Hutcheson. 

19th July, 1670. I accompanied my worthy friend, that 
excellent man. Sir Robert Murray, with Mr. Slingsby, 
master of the mint, to ^see the latter's seat and estate 
at Burrow-Green in Cambridgeshire, he desiring our 
advice for placing a new house, which he was resolved 
to build. We set out in a coach and six horses with 
him and his lady, dined about midway at one Mr. 
Turner's, where we found a very noble dinner, venison, 
music, and a circle of country ladies and their gallants. 
After dinner, we proceeded, and came to Burrow-Green 
that night. This had been the ancient seat of the 
Cheekes (whose daughter Mr. Slingsby married), formerly 
tutor to King Henry VI. The old house large and ample, 
and built for ancient hospitality, ready to fall down with ■ 
age, placed in a dirty hole, a stiff clay, no water, next 
an adjoining church-yard, and with other inconveniences. 
We pitched on a spot of rising ground, adorned with 
venerable woods, a dry and sweet prospect east and 
west, and fit for a park, but no running water; at a mile 
distance from the old house. 

20th July, 1670. We went to dine at Lord AUington's, 
who had newly built a house of great cost, I believe a 
little less than ;^2o,ooo. His architect was Mr. Pratt. It 
is seated in a park, with a sweet prospect and stately 
avenue; but water still defective; the house has also its 
infirmities. Went back to Mr. Slingsby's. 

2 2d July, 1670. We rode out to see the great mere, 
or level, of recovered fen land, not far off. In the way, 
we met Lord Arlington going to his house in Suffolk, 
accompanied with Count Ogniati, the Spanish minister, 
and Sir Bernard Gascoigne; he was very importunate 
with me to go with him to Euston, being but fifteen 
miles distant; but, in regard of my company, I could 
not. So, passing through Newmarket, we alighted to see 
his Majesty's house there, now new-building; the arches 
of the cellars beneath are well turned by Mr. Samuel, 
the architect, the rest mean enough, and hardly fit for a 
hunting house. Many of the rooms above had the chim- 
neys in the angles and corners, a mode now introduced 
by his Majesty, which I do at no hand approve of. I 
predict it will spoil many noble houses and rooms, if 

56 DIARY OF newmarket 

followed. It does only well in very small and trifling 
rooms, but takes from the state of greater. Besides, this 
house is placed in a dirty street, without any court or 
avenue, like a common one, whereas it might and ought 
to have been built at either end of the town, upon the 
very carpet where the sports are celebrated ; but, it being 
the purchase of an old wretched house of my Lord 
Thomond's, his Majesty was persuaded to set it on that 
foundation, the most improper imaginable for a house of 
sport and pleasure. 

We went to see the stables and fine horses, of which 
many were here kept at a vast expense, with all the art 
and tenderness imaginable. 

Being arrived at some meres, we found Lord Wotton 
and Sir John Kiviet about their draining engines, having, 
it seems, undertaken to do wonders on a vast piece of 
marsh-ground they had hired of Sir Thomas Chicheley 
(master of the ordnance). They much pleased them- 
selves with the hopes of a rich harvest of hemp and cole- 
seed, which was the crop expected. 

Here we visited the engines and mills both for wind 
and water, draining it through two rivers or graffs, cut 
by hand, and capable of carrying considerable barges, 
which went thwart one the other, discharging the water 
into the sea. Such this spot had been the former winter ; 
it was astonishing to see it now dry, and so rich that 
weeds grew on the banks, almost as high as a man and 
horse. Here, my Lord and his partner had built two or 
three rooms, with Flanders white bricks, very hard. One 
of the great engines was in the kitchen, where I saw the 
fish swim up, even to the very chimney hearth, by a 
small cut through the room, and running within a foot 
of the very fire. 

Having, after dinner, ridden about that vast level, 
pestered with heat and swarms of gnats, we returned 
over Newmarket Heath, the way being mostly a sweet 
turf and down, like Salisbury Plain, the jockeys breath- 
ing their fine barbs and racers and giving them their heats. 

23d July, 1670. We returned from Burrow Green to 
London, staying some time at Audley End to see that 
fine palace. It is indeed a cheerful piece of Gothic 
building, or rather antico moderno, but placed in an ob- 
scure bottom. The cellars and galleries are very stately. 

i67o JOHN EVELYN 57 

It has a river by it, a pretty avenue of limes, and in a 

This is in Saffron Walden parish, famous for that use- 
ful plant, with which all the country is covered. 

Dining at Bishop Stortford, we came late to London. 

5th August, 1670. There was sent me by a neighbor a 
servant maid, who, in the last m.onth, as she was sitting 
before her mistress at work, felt a stroke on her arm a 
little above the wrist for some height, the smart of 
which, as if struck by another hand, caused her to hold 
her arm awhile till somewhat mitigated; but it put her 
into a kind of convulsion, or rather hysteric fit. A 
gentleman coming casually in, looking on her arm, found 
that part powdered with red crosses, set in most exact 
and wonderful order, neither swelled nor depressed, 
about this shape 


X X 


X X 


not seeming to be any way made by artifice, of a reddish 
color, not so red as blood, the skin over them smooth, 
the rest of the arm livid and of a mortified hue, with 
certain prints, as it were, of the stroke of fingers. This 
had happened three several times in July, at about ten 
days' interval, the crosses beginning to wear out, but 
the successive ones set in other different, yet uniform 
order. The maid seemed very modest, and came from 
London to Deptford with her mistress, to avoid the dis- 
course and importunity of curious people. She made no 
gain by it, pretended no religious fancies; but seemed 
to be a plain, ordinary, silent, working wench, some- 
what fat, short, and high-colored. She told me divers 
divines and physicians had seen her, but were unsatisfied; 
that she had taken some remedies against her fits, but 
they did her no good; she had never before had any 
fits; once since, she seemed in her sleep to hear one say 
to her that she should tamper no more with them, nor 
crouble herself with anything that happened, but put her 
trust in the merits of Christ only. 

This is the substance of what she told me, and what I 
•saw and curiously examined. I was formerly acquainted 

58 DIARY OF London 

with the impostorious nuns of Loudun, in France, which 
made such noise among the Papists; I therefore thought 
this worth the notice. I remember Monsieur Monconys * 
(that curious traveler and a Roman Catholic) was by no 
means satisfied with the stigmata of those nuns, because 
they were so shy of letting him scrape the letters, which 
were Jesus, Maria, Joseph (as I think), observing they 
began to scale off with it, whereas this poor wench was 
willing to submit to any trial ; so that I profess I know not 
what to think of it, nor dare I pronounce it anything 

2oth August, 1670. At Windsor I supped with the 
Duke of Monmouth; and, the next day, invited by Lord 
Arlington, dined with the same Duke and divers Lords. 
After dinner my Lord and I had a conference of more 
than an hour alone in his bedchamber, to engage me 
in the History. I showed him something that I had 
drawn up, to his great satisfaction, and he desired me to 
show it to the Treasurer. 

28th August, 1670. One of the Canons preached; then 
followed the offering of the Knights of the Order, accord- 
ing to custom; first the poor Knights, in procession, 
then, the Canons in their formalities, the Dean and 
Chancellor, then his Majesty (the Sovereign), the Duke 
of York, Prince Rupert; and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford, 
being all the Knights that were then at Court. 

I dined with the Treasurer, and consulted with him 
what pieces I was to add; in the afternoon the King 
took me aside into the balcony over the terrace, ex- 
tremely pleased with what had been told him I had begnn, 
in order to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed 
vigorously in it. He told me he had ordered the Secre- 
taries of State to give me all necessary assistance of 
papers and particulars relating to it and enjoining me to 
make it a little keen, for that the Hollanders had very 
unhandsomely abused him in their pictures, books, and 

Windsor was now going to be repaired, being ex- 
ceedingly ragged and ruinous. Prince Rupert, the Con- 

*Balthasar de Monconys, a Frenchman, celebrated for his travels 
in the East, which he published in three volumes. His object was to 
discover vestiges of the philosophy of Trismegistus and Zoroaster; 
in which, it is hardly necessary to add, he was not very successful 

i67o JOHN EVELYN 59 

stable, had begian to trim up the keep or high round 
Tower, and handsomely adorned his hall with furniture 
of arms, which was very singnlar, by so disposing the 
pikes, muskets, pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, 
breast, and headpieces, as was very extraordinary. Thus, 
those huge steep stairs ascending to it had the walls in- 
vested with this martial furniture, all new and bright, 
so disposing the bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to 
represent festoons, and that without any confusion^ 
trophy-like. From the hall we went into his bedcham- 
ber, and ample rooms hung with tapestry, curious and 
effeminate pictures, so extremely different from the 
other, which presented nothing but war and horror. 

The King passed most of his time in hunting the 
stag, and walking in the park, which he was now plant- 
ing with rows of trees, 

13th September, 1670. To visit Sir Richard Lashford, 
my kinsman, and Mr. Charles Howard, at his extraordi- 
nary garden, at Deepden. 

15th September, 1670. I went to visit Mr. Arthur 
Onslow, at West Clandon, a pretty dry seat on the Downs, 
where we dined in his great room. 

17th September, 1670. To visit Mr. Hussey, who, being 
near Wotton, lives in a sweet valley, deliciously watered. 

23d September, 1670. To Albury, to see how that gar- 
den proceeded, which I found exactly done to the design 
and plot I had made, with the crypta through the moun- 
tain in the park, thirty perches in length. Such a Pausil- 
ippe * is nowhere in England. The canal was now digging, 
and the vineyard planted. 

14th October, 1670. I spent the whole afternoon in 
private with the Treasurer who put into my hands those 
secret pieces and transactions concerning the Dutch war, 
and particularly the expedition of Bergen, in which he 
had himself the chief part, and gave me instructions, till 
the King arriving from Newmarket, we both went up 
into his bedchamber. 

2ist October, 1670. Dined with the Treasurer; and, 
after dinner, we were shut up together. I received other 
[further] advices, and ten paper books of dispatches and 
treaties; to return which again I gave a note under my 

*A word adopted by Evelyn for a subterra^jean passage, from the 
famous g^ot of Pausilippo, at Naples. 

6o DIARY OF london 

hand to Mr. Joseph Williamson, Master of the Paper 

31st October, 1670. I was this morning fifty years of 
age; the Lord teach me to number my days so as to 
apply them to his glory! Amen. 

4th November, 1670. Saw the Prince of Orange, newly 
come to see the King, his uncle; he has a manly^ cour- 
ageous, wise countenance, resembling his mother and the 
Duke of Gloucester, both deceased. 

I now also saw that famous beauty, but in my opinion 
of a childish, simple, and baby face, Mademoiselle Querou- 
aille,* lately Maid of Honor to Madame, and now to be 
so to the Queen. 

23d November, 1670. Dined with the Earl of Arlington, 
where was the Venetian Ambassador, of whom I now took 
solemn leave, now on his return. There were also Lords 
Howard, Wharton, Windsor, and divers other great persons. 

24th November, 1670. I dined with the Treasurer, 
where was the Earl of Rochester, a very profane wit. 

15th December, 1670. It was the thickest and darkest 
fog on the Thames that was ever known in the memory 
of man, and I happened to be in the very midst of it. I 
supped with Monsieur Zulestein, late Governor to the late 
Prince of Orange. 

loth January, 1670-71. Mr. Bohun, my son's tutor, 
had been five years in my house, and now Bachelor of 
Laws, and Fellow of New College, went from me to 
Oxford to reside there, having well and faithfully per- 
formed his charge. 

1 8th January, 167 1. This day I first acquainted his 
Majesty with that incomparable young man. Gibbon, f 
whom I had lately met with in an obscure place by 
mere accident, as I was walking near a poor solitary 
thatched house, in a field in our parish, near Sayes 
Court. I found him shut in; but looking in at the win- 

* Henrietta, the King's sister, married to Philip, Duke of Orleans, 
was then on a visit here. Madame Querouaille came over in her train, 
on purpose to entice Charles into an union with Louis XIV. ; a design 
which unhappily succeeded but too welL She became the King's mis- 
tress, was made Duchess of Portsmouth, and was his favorite till his 

f Better known by the name of Grinling Gibbon ; celebrated for his 
exquisite carving. Some of his most astonishing work is at Chatsworth 
and at Petworth. 

1670-71 JOHN EVELYN 61 

dow, I perceived him carving that large cartoon, or 
crucifix, of Tintoretto, a copy of which I had myself 
brought from Venice, where the original painting re- 
mains. I asked if I might enter; he opened the door 
civilly to me, and I saw him about such a work as for 
the curiosity of handling, drawing, and studious exact- 
ness, I never had before seen in all my travels. I 
questioned him why he worked in such an obscure and 
lonesome place; he told me it was that he might apply 
himself to his profession without interruption, and 
wondered not a little how I found him out. I asked if 
he was unwilling to be made known to some great man, 
for that I believed it might turn to his profit; he 
answered, he was yet but a beginner, but would not be 
sorry to sell off that piece; on demanding the price, he 
said ^100. In good earnest, the very frame was worth 
the money, there being nothing in nature so tender and 
delicate as the flowers and festoons about it, and yet 
the work was very strong; in the piece was more than 
one hundred figures of men, etc. I found he was 
likewise musical, and very civil, sober, and discreet 
in his discourse. There was only an old woman in the 
house. So, desiring leave to visit him sometimes, I 
went away. 

Of this young artist, together with my manner of 
finding him out, I acquainted the King, and begged 
that he would give me leave to bring him and his work 
to Whitehall, for that I would adventure my reputation 
with his Majesty that he had never seen anything ap- 
proach it, and that he would be exceedingly pleased, 
and employ him. The King said he would himself go 
see him. This was the first notice his Majesty ever had 
of Mr. Gibbon. 

20th January, 167 1. The King came to me in the 
Queen's withdrawing-room from the circle of ladies, to 
talk with me as to what advance I had made in the 
Dutch History. I dined with the Treasurer, and after- 
ward we went to the Secretary's Office, where we con- 
ferred about divers particulars. 

2ist January, 1671. I was directed to go to Sir George 
Downing, who having been a public minister in Holland, 
at the beginning of the war, was to give me light in some 
material passages. 


This year the weather was so wet, stormy, and un- 
seasonable, as had not been known in many years. 

9th February, 167 1. I saw the great ball danced by 
the Queen and distinguished ladies at Whitehall Theater. 
Next day ; was acted there the famous play, called, *^ The 
Siege of Granada,* two days acted successively; there 
were indeed very glorious scenes and perspectives, the 
work of Mr. Streeter, who well understands it.* 

19th February, 1671, This day dined with me Mr, Sur- 
veyor, Dr. Christopher Wren, and Mr. Pepys, Clerk of 
the Acts, two extraordinary, ingenious, and knowing 
persons, and other friends. I carried them to see the 
piece of carving which I had recommended to the King. 

25th February, 167 1. Came to visit me one of the 
Lords Commissioners of Scotland for the Union. 

28th February, 1671. The Treasurer acquainted me 
that his Majesty was graciously pleased to nominate me 
one of the Council of Foreign Plantations, and give 
me a salary of j£s°° P^^ annum, to encourage me. 

29th February, 1671. I went to thank the Treasurer, 
who was my g^eat friend and loved me; I dined with 
him and much company, and went thence to my Lord 
Arlington, Secretary of State, in whose favor I likewise 
was upon many occasions, though I cultivated neither of 
their friendships by any mean submissions. I kissed his 
Majesty's hand, on his making me one of the new-estab- 
lished Council. 

1st March, 1671. I caused Mr. Gibbon to bring to 
Whitehall his excellent piece of carving, where being 
come, I advertised his Majesty, who asked me where it 
was; I told him in Sir Richard Browne's (my father-in- 
law) chamber, and that if it pleased his Majesty to ap- 
point whither it should be brought, being large and 
though of wood, heavy, I would take care for it. *No,* 
says the King, * show me the way, I'll go to Sir Rich- 
ard's chamber, * which he immediately did, walking along 
the entries after me ; as far as the ewry, till he came up 
into the room, where I also lay. No sooner was he en- 
tered and cast his eyes on the work, but he was aston- 
ished at the curiosity of it; and having considered it a 
long time, and discoursed with Mr. Gibbon, whom I 
brought to kiss his hand, he commanded it should be 

* Evelyn here refers to Dryden's « Conquest of Granada » 

1 67 1 JOHN EVELYN 63 

immediately carried to the Queen's side to show her. It 
was carried up into her bedchamber, where she and the 
King looked on and admired it again; the King, being 
called away, left us with the Queen, believing she would 
have bought it, it being a crucifix ; but, when his Majesty 
was gone, a French peddling woman, one Madame de 
Boord, who used to bring petticoats and fans, and baubles, 
out of France to the ladies, began to find fault with sev- 
eral things in the work, which she understood no more 
than an ass, or a monkey, so as in a kind of indigfnation, 
I caused the person who brought it to carry it back to 
the chamber, finding the Queen so much governed by 
an ignorant Frenchwoman, and this incomparable artist 
had his labor only for his pains, which not a little dis- 
pleased me; and he was fain to send it down to his cot- 
tage again; he not long after sold it for ^80, though 
well worth ^100, without the frame, to Sir George 

His Majesty's Surveyor, Mr, Wren, faithfully promised 
me to employ him.* I having also bespoke his Majesty 
for his work at Windsor, which my friend, Mr. May, the 
architect there, was going to alter, and repair univers- 
ally; for, on the next day, I had a fair opportunity of 
talking to his Majesty about it, in the lobby next the 
Queen's side, where I presented him with some sheets of 
my history. I thence walked with him through St. 
James's Park to the garden, where I both saw and heard 
a very familiar discourse between . . . and Mrs. 
Nelly, f as they called an impudent comedian, she looking 
out of her garden on a terrace at the top of the wall, 
and . . . standing on the green walk under it. I was 
heartily sony at this scene. Thence the King walked to 
the Duchess of Cleveland, another lady of pleasure, and 
curse of our nation. 

5th March, 1671. I dined at Greenwich, to take leave 
of Sir Thomas Linch, going Governor of Jamaica. 

loth March, 167 1. To London, about passing my patent 
as one of the standing Council for Plantations, a con- 
siderable honor, the others in the Council being chiefly 
noblemen and officers of state. 

* The carving in the choir, etc. , of St. Paul's Cathedral was executed 
by Gibbon, 

f Nell Gwynne : there can be no doubt as to the name with which we 


2d April, 167 1. To Sir Thomas Clifford, the Treasurer, 
to condole with him on the loss of his eldest son, who 
died at Florence. 

2d May, 167 1. The French King, being now with a 
great army of 28,000 men about Dunkirk, divers of the 
grandees of that Court, and a vast number of gentlemen 
and cadets, in fantastical habits, came flocking over to 
see our Court and compliment his Majesty. I was 
present, when they first were conducted into the Queen's 
withdrawing-room, where saluted their Majesties the 
Dukes of Guise, Longueville, and many others of the first 

loth May, 167 1. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's,* in com- 
pany with Monsieur De Grammont and several French 
noblemen, and one Blood, that impudent, bold fellow who 
had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown 
itself out of the Tower, pretending only curiosity of see- 
ing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though 
not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all 
the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse fall- 
ing down. How he came to be pardoned, and even 
received into favor, not only after this, but several other 
exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I 
could never come to understand. Some believed he 
became a spy of several parties, being well with the 
sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty services 
that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but 
it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason 
of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had 
not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false 
countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insin- 

nth May, 167 1. I went to Eltham, to sit as one of 
the commissioners about the subsidy now given by Par- 
liament to his Majesty. 

17th May, 167 1. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's [Sir 

are to fill up these blanks. This familiar interview of Nelly and the 
King has afiEorded a subject for painters. 

*This entry of loth May, 1671, so far as it relates to Blood, and the 
stealing of the crown, etc., is a mistake. Blood stole the crown on the 
9th of May, 1 67 1 — the very day before; and the «not long before* 
of Evelyn, and the circumstance of his being «pardoned,» which 
Evelyn also mentions, can hardly be said to relate to only the day 



Photogravure after Sir Peter Lely 


1 67 1 JOHN EVELYN 65 

Thomas Clifford] with the Earl of Arlington, Carling- 
ford, Lord Arundel of Wardour, Lord Almoner to the 
Queen, a French Count and two abbots, with several 
more of French nobility; and now by something I had 
lately observed of Mr. Treasurer's conversation on occa- 
sion, I suspected him a little warping to Rome. 

25th May, 167 1. I dined at a feast made for me and 
my wife by the Trinity Company, for our passing a fine 
of the land which Sir R. Browne, my wife's father, 
freely gave to found and build their college, or alms- 
houses on, at Deptford, it being my wife's after her 
father's decease. It was a good and charitable work and 
gift, but would have been better bestowed on the poor 
of that parish, than on the seamen's widows, the Trinity 
Company being very rich, and the rest of the poor of 
the parish exceedingly indigent. 

26th May, 167 1. The Earl of Bristol's house in Queen's 
Street [Lincoln's Inn Fields] was taken for the Commis- 
sioners of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with 
rich hangings of the King's. It consisted of seven rooms 
on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc. This day 
we met the Duke of Buckingham, Earl of Lauderdale, 
Lord Culpeper, Sir George Carteret, Vice-Chamberlain, 
and myself, had the oaths given us by the Earl of Sand- 
wich, our President. It was to advise and counsel his 
Majesty, to the best of our abilities, for the well-govern- 
ing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little 
differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then 
took our places at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a 
very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts, 
globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando 
Bridgeman, Earl of Arlington, Secretary of State, Lord 
Ashley, Mr. Treasurer, Sir John Trevor, the other Sec- 
retary, Sir John Duncomb, Lord Allington, Mr. Grey, 
son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir Hum- 
phrey Winch, Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller, and Colonel 
Titus, of the bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary 
to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, who had 
all been sworn some days before. Being all set, our 
Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in 
which was recited this new establishment; then, was de- 
livered to each a copy of the Patent, and of instructions: 
after which, we proceeded to business, 


The first thing we did was, to settle the form of a 
circular letter to the Governors of all his Majesty's Plan- 
tations and Territories in the West Indies and Islands 
thereof, to give them notice to whom they should apply 
themselves on all occasions, and to render us an account 
of their present state and government; but, what we 
most insisted on was, to know the condition of New 
England, which appearing to be very independent as to 
their regard to Old England, or his Majesty, rich and 
strong as they now were, there were great debates in 
what style to write to them; for the condition of that 
Colony was such, that they were able to contest with all 
other Plantations about them, and there was fear of 
their breaking from all dependence on this nation; his 
Majesty, therefore, commended this affair more expressly. 
We, therefore, thought fit, in the first place, to acquaint 
ourselves as well as we could of the state of that place, 
by some whom we heard of that were newly come from 
thence, and to be informed of their present posture and 
condition; some of our Council were for sending them a 
menacing letter, which those who better understood the 
peevish and touchy humor of that Colony, were utterly 

A letter was then read from Sir Thomas Modiford, 
Governor of Jamaica; and then the Council broke up. 

Having brought an action against one Cocke, for money 
which he had received for me, it had been referred to an 
arbitration by the recommendation of that excellent good 
man, the Chief- Justice Hale, * but, this not succeeding, I 
went to advise with that famous lawyer, Mr. Jones, of 
Gray's Inn, and, 27th of May, had a trial before Lord Chief 
Justice Hale; and, after the lawyers had wrangled suffi- 
ciently, it was referred to a new arbitration. This was 
the very first suit at law that ever I had with any crea- 
ture, and oh, that it might be the last! 

ist June, 167 1. An installation at Windsor. 

6th June, 167 1. I went to Council, where was pro- 
duced a most exact and ample information of the state 

* Sir Matthew Hale, so famous as one of the justices of the bench 
in Cromwell's time. After the Restoration, he became Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer; then Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and 
died in 1676. The author of numerous works, not only on profes- 
sional subjects, but on mathematics and philosophy. 

1 6; I JOHN EVELYN 67 

of Jamaica, and of the best expedients as to New Eng- 
land, on which there was a long debate; but at length 
it was concluded that, if any, it should be only a con- 
ciliating paper at first, or civil letter, till we had better 
information of the present face of things, since we un- 
derstood they were a people almost upon the very brink 
of renouncing any dependence on the Crown. 

19th June, 167 1. To a splendid dinner at the great 
room in Deptford Trinity House, Sir Thomas Allen 
chosen Master, and succeeding the Earl of Craven. 

20th June, 167 1. To carry Colonel Middleton to White- 
hall, to my Lord Sandwich, our President, for some in- 
formation which he was able to give of the state of the 
Colony in New England. 

2ist June, 167 1. To Council again, when one Colonel 
Cartwright, a Nottinghamshire man, (formerly in com- 
mission with Colonel NichoUs) gave us a considerable 
relation of that country ; on which the Council concluded 
that in the first place a letter of amnesty should be 

24th June, 167 1. Constantine Huygens, Signor of Zuy- 
lichem, that excellent learned man, poet, and musi- 
cian, now near eighty years of age, a vigorous, brisk 
man,* came to take leave of me before his return into 
Holland with the Prince, whose Secretary he was. 

26th June, 167 1. To Council, where Lord Arlington 
acquainted us that it was his Majesty's proposal we 
should, every one of us, contribute jQzo toward building 
a Council chamber and conveniences somewhere in White- 
hall, that his Majesty might come and sit among us, and 
hear our debates; the money we laid out to be reim- 
bursed out of the contingent moneys already set apart 
for us, viz, ;;^i,ooo yearly. To this we unanimously 
consented. There came an uncertain bruit from Barba- 
does of some disorder there. On my return home I 

* He died in 1687, at the great age of 90 years and 6 months. Constan- 
tine and his son, Christian Huygens, were both eminent for scientific 
knowledge and classical attainments; Christian, particularly so; for 
he was the inventor of the pendulum, made an improvement in the 
air-pump, first discovered the ring and one of the satellites of Saturn, 
and ascertained the laws of collision of elastic bodies. He died in 
1695. Constantine, the father, was a person of influence and distinc- 
tion in Holland, and held the post of secretary to the Prince of 

68 DIARY OF i>ondon 

Stepped in at the theater to see the new machines for the 
intended scenes, which were indeed very costly and mag- 

29th June, 1 67 1. To Council, where were letters from 
Sir Thomas Modiford, of the expedition and exploit of 
Colonel Morgan, and others of Jamaica, on the Spanish 
Continent at Panama. 

4th July, 167 1. To Council, where we drew up and 
agreed to a letter to be sent to New England, and made 
some proposal to Mr. Gorges, for his interest in a planta- 
tion there. 

24th July, 1 67 1. To Council. Mr. Surveyor brought 
us a plot for the building of our Council chamber, to be 
erected at the end of the Privy garden, in Whitehall. 

3d August, 1 67 1. A full appearance at the Council. 
The matter in debate was, whether we should send a 
deputy to New England, requiring them of the Massa- 
chusetts to restore such to their limits and respective 
possessions, as had petitioned the Council ; this to be the 
open commission only; but, in truth, with secret instruc- 
tions to inform us of the condition of those Colonies, 
and whether they were of such power, as to be able to 
resist his Majesty and declare for themselves as inde- 
pendent of the Crown, which we were told, and which 
of late years made them refractory. Colonel Middleton, 
being called in, assured us they might be curbed by a 
few of his Majesty's first-rate frigates, to spoil their trade 
with the islands; but, though my Lord President was 
not satisfied, the rest were, and we did resolve to advise 
his Majesty to send Commissioners with a formal com- 
mission for adjusting boundaries, etc., with some other 

19th August, 1 67 1 To Council. The letters of Sir 
Thomas Modiford were read, giving relation of the ex- 
ploit at Panama, which was very brave ; they took, burned, 
and pillaged the town of vast treasures, but the best of 
the booty had been shipped off, and lay at anchor in 
the South Sea, so that, after our men had rapiged the 
country sixty miles about, they went back to Nombre de 
Dios, and embarked for Jamaica. Such an action had not 
been done since the famous Drake. 

I dined at the Hamburg Resident's, and, after din- 
ner, went to the christening of Sir Samuel Tuke's son^ 

1 67 1 JOHN EVELYN 69 

Charles, at Somerset House, by a Popish priest, and many 
odd ceremonies. The godfathers were the King, and Lord 
Arundel of Wardour, and godmother, the Countess of 

29th August, 167 1. To London, with some more papers 
of my progress in the Dutch War, delivered to the 

ist September, 1671. Dined with the Treasurer, in 
company with my Lord Arlington, Halifax, and Sir 
Thomas Strickland; and next day, went home, being the 
anniversary of the late dreadful fire of London. 

13th September, 167 1. This night fell a dreadful tem- 

15th September, 167 1. In the afternoon at Coimcil, 
where letters were read from Sir Charles Wheeler, con- 
cerning his resigning his government of St. Christopher's. 

2 1 St September, 167 1. I dined in the city, at the fra- 
ternity feast in Ironmongers' Hall, where the four stew- 
ards chose their successors for the next year, with 
a solemn procession, garlands about their heads, and 
music playing before them; so, coming up to the upper 
tables where the gentlemen sat, they drank to the new 
stewards; and so we parted. 

2 2d September, 167 1. I dined at the Treasurer's, 
where I had discourse with Sir Henry Jones (now come 
over to raise a regiment of horse), concerning the French 
conquests in Lorraine; he told me the King sold all 
things to the soldiers, even to a handful of hay. 

Lord Sunderland was now nominated Ambassador to 

After dinner, the Treasurer carried me to Lincoln's 
Inn, to one of the Parliament Clerks, to obtain of him, 
that I might carry home and peruse, some of the Jour- 
nals, which were, accordingly, delivered to me to examine 
about the late Dutch War. Returning home, I went on 
shore to see the Custom House, now newly rebuilt since 
the dreadful conflagration. 

9th and loth October, 167 1. I went, after evening 
service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment 
with Mr. Treasurer, to Newmarket, where the King then 
was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed 
thrice, first, at Bishop- Stortford, and last, at Chesterford; 
so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry 

70 DIARY OF London 

Jermain (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban) lodged 
me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, 
the King and all the English gallants being there at their 
autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; 
and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, 
where I saw the great match run between Woodcock 
and Flatfoot, belonging to the King, and to Mr. Eliot, 
of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; 
a more signal race had not been run for many years. 

This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer to 
Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's, where we found 
Monsieur Colbert (the French Ambassador), and the fa- 
mous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle Que- 
rouaille, now coming to be in great favor with the King. 
Here was also the Countess of Sunderland, and several 
lords and ladies, who lodged in the house. 

During my stay here with Lord Arlington, near a fort- 
night, his Majesty came almost every second day with 
the Duke, who commonly returned to Newmarket, but the 
King often lay here, during which time I had twice 
the honor to sit at dinner with him, with all free- 
dom. It was universally reported that the fair lady , 

was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung, 
after the manner of a married bride ; I acknowledge she 
was for the most part in her undress all day, and that 
there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; 
nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it 
is utterly false ; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing 
while I was there, though I had been in her chamber, 
and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself 
observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it 
was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss, 
as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at 
this time. 

On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an 
excellent sermon in the chapel, the King and the Duke 
of York being present. 

i6th October, 167 1. Came all the great men from New- 
market, and other parts both of Suffolk and Norfolk, to 
make their court, the whole house filled from one end 
to the other with lords, ladies, and gallants; there was 
such a furnished table, as I had seldom seen, nor any- 
thing more splendid and free, so that for fifteen days 

i67i JOHN EVELYN 71 

there were entertained at least 200 people, and half as 
many horses, besides servants and gfuards, at infinite ex- 

In the morning-, we went hunting and hawking; in the 
afternoon, till almost morning, to cards and dice, yet I 
must say without noise, swearing, quarrel, or confusion 
of any sort. I, who was no gamester, had often dis- 
course with the French Ambassador, Colbert, and went 
sometimes abroad on horseback with the ladies to take 
the air, and now and then to hunting; thus idly passing 
the time, but not without more often recess to my pretty 
apartment, where I was quite out of all this hurry, and 
had leisure when I would, to converse with books, for 
there is no man more hospitably easy to be withal than 
my Lord Arlington, of whose particular friendship and 
kindness I had ever a more than ordinary share. His 
house is a very noble pile, consisting of four pavilions 
after the French, beside a body of a large house, and, 
though not built altogether, but formed of additions to 
an old house (purchased by his Lordship of one Sir T. 
Rookwood) yet with a vast expense made not only capa- 
ble and roomsome. but very magnificent and commo- 
dious, as well within as without, nor less splendidly 
furnished. The staircase is very elegant, the garden 
handsome, the canal beautiful, but the soil dry, barren, 
and miserably sandy, which flies in drifts as the wind 
sits. Here my Lord was pleased to advise with me about 
ordering his plantations of firs, elms, limes, etc., up his 
park, and in all other places and avenues. I persuaded 
him to bring his park so near as to comprehend his 
house within it; which he resolved upon, it being now . 
near a mile to it. The water furnishing the fountains, 
is raised by a pretty engine, or very slight plain wheels, 
which likewise serve to gfrind his com, from a small cas- 
cade of the canal, the invention of Sir Samuel Morland. 
In my Lord's house, and especially above the staircase, 
in the g^reat hall and some of the chambers and rooms 
of state, are paintings in fresco by Signor Verrio, being 
the first work which he did in England. 

17th October, 167 1. My Lord Henry Howard coming 
this night to visit my Lord Chamberlain, and staying a 
day, would needs have me go with him to Norwich, prom- 
ising to convey me back, after a day or two; this, as I 


could not refuse, I was not hard to be pursuaded to, hav- 
ing a desire to see that famous scholar and physician, 
Dr. T, Browne, author of the '-^ Religio MedicV^ and 
* Vulgar Errors,* now lately knighted. Thither, then, 
went my Lord and I alone, in his flying chariot with six 
horses; and by the way, discoursing with me of several 
of his concerns, he acquainted me of his going to marry 
his eldest son to one of the King's natural daughters, by 
the Duchess of Cleveland ; by which he reckoned he should 
come into mighty favor. He also told me that, though 

he kept that idle creature, Mrs, B , and would leave 

j[,2oo a year to the son he had by her, he would never 
marry her, and that the King himself had cautioned him 
against it. All the world knows how he kept his prom- 
ise, and I was sorry at heart to hear what now he confessed 
to me ; and that a person and a family which I so much 
honored for the sake of that noble and illustrious friend 
of mine, his grandfather, should dishonor and pollute 
them both with those base and vicious courses he of late 
had taken since the death of Sir Samuel Tuke, and that 
of his own virtuous lady (my Lady Anne Somerset, sister 
to the Marquis); who, while they lived, preserved this 
gentleman by their example and advice from those many 
extravagances that impaired both his fortune and repu- 

Being come to the Ducal palace, my Lord made very 
much of me ; but I had little rest, so exceedingly desirous 
he was to show me the contrivance he had made for the 
entertainment of their Majesties, and the whole Court 
not long before, and which, though much of it was but 
temporary, apparently framed of boards only, was yet 
standing. As to the palace, it is an old wretched build- 
ing, and that part of it newly built of brick, is very ill 
understood ; so as I was of the opinion it had been much 
better to have demolished all, and set it up in a better 
place, than to proceed any further; for it stands in the 
very market-place, and, though near a river, yet a very 
narrow muddy one, without any extent. 

Next morning, I went to see Sir Thomas Browne (with 
whom I had some time corresponded by letter, though I 
had never seen him before ) ; his whole house and garden 
being a paradise and cabinet of rarites; and that of the 
best collection, especially medals, books, plants, and 

i67i JOHN EVELYN 73 

natural things. Among other curiosities, Sir Thomas had 
a collection of the eggs of all the fowl and birds he could 
procure, that country ( especially the promontory of Nor- 
folk) being frequented, as he said, by several kinds 
which seldom or never go further into the land, as cranes, 
storks, eagles, and variety of water fowl, He led me 
to see all the remarkable places of this ancient city, being 
one of the largest, and certainly, after London, one of the 
noblest of England, for its venerable cathedral, number 
of stately churches, cleanness of the streets, and build- 
ings of flint so exquisitely headed and squared, as I was 
much astonished at ; but he told me they had lost the art 
of squaring the flints, in which they so much excelled, 
and of which the churches, best houses, and walls, are 
built. The Castle is an antique extent of ground, which 
now they call Marsfield, and would have been a fitting 
area to have placed the Ducal palace in. The suburbs 
are large, the prospects sweet, with other amenities, not 
omitting the flower gardens, in which all the inhabitants 
excel. The fabric of stuffs brings a vast trade to this 
populous town. 

Being returned to my Lord's, who had been with me 
all this morning, he advised with me concerning a plot 
to rebuild his house, having already, as he said, erected 
a front next the street, and a left wing, and now resolv- 
ing to set up another wing and pavilion next the garden, 
and to convert the bowling green into stables. My 
advice was, to desist from all, and to meditate wholly on 
rebuilding a handsome palace at Arundel House, in the 
Strand, before he proceeded further here, and then to 
place this in the Castle, that ground belonging to his 

I observed that most of the church yards ( though some 
of them large enough ) were filled up with earth, or rather 
the congestion of dead bodies one upon another, for 
want of earth, even to the very top of the walls, and 
some above the walls, so as the churches seemed to be 
built in pits. 

1 8th October, 167 1. I returned to Euston, in Lord 
Henry Howard's coach, leaving him at Norwich, in com- 
pany with a very ingenious gentleman, Mr. White, whose 
father and mother (daughter to the late Lord Treasurer 
Weston, Earl of Portland ) I knew at Rome, where this 

74 DIARY OF London 

gentleman was born, and where his parents lived and 
died with much reputation, during their banishment in 
our civil broils. 

2ist October, 167 1. Quitting Euston, I lodged this 
night at Newmarket, where I found the jolly blades rac- 
ing, dancing, feasting, and reveling; more resembling a 
luxurious and abandoned rout, than a Christian Court. 
The Duke of Buckingham was now in mighty favor, and 
had with him that impudent woman, the Countess of 
Shrewsbury, with his band of fiddlers, etc. 

Next morning, in company with Sir Bernard Gascoyne, 
and Lord Hawley, I came in the Treasurer's coach to 
Bishop Stortford, where he gave us a noble supper. The 
following day, to London, and so home. 

14th November, 1671. To Council, where Sir Charles 
Wheeler, late Governor of the Leeward Islands, having 
been complained of for many indiscreet managements, it 
was resolved, on scanning many of the particulars, to 
advise his Majesty to remove him ; and consult what was 
to be done, to prevent these inconveniences he had brought 
things to. This business staid me in London almost a 
week, being in Council, or Committee, every morning 
till the 25 th. 

27th November, 1671. We ordered that a proclamation 
should be presented to his Majesty to sign, against what 
Sir Charles Wheeler had done in St. Christopher's since 
the war, on the articles of peace at Breda. He was 
shortly afterward recalled. 

6th December, 167 1. Came to visit me Sir William 
Haywood, a great pretender to English antiquities. 

14th December, 167 1. Went to see the Duke of 
Buckingham's ridiculous farce and rhapsody, called the 
**The Recital,** buffooning all plays, yet profane enough. 

23d December, 167 1. The Councillors of the Board of 
Trade dined together at the Cock, in Suffolk street. 
: ...12th January, 1671-72. His Majesty renewed us our 
lease of Sayes Court pastures for ninety-nine years, but 
ought, according to his solemn promise f (as I hope he 
will still perform), have passed them to us in fee-farm. 

23d January, 1672. To London, in order to Sir Rich- 
ard Browne, my father-in-law, resigning his place as Clerk 

*The well-known play of <<The RehearsaP* is meant. 

fThe King's engagement, under his hand, is now at Wotton. 

1671-72 JOHN EVELYN 75 

of the Council to Joseph Williamson, Esq., who was ad- 
mitted, and was knighted. This place his Majesty had 
promised to give me many years before; but, upon con- 
sideration of the renewal of our lease and other reasons, 
I chose to part with it to Sir Joseph, who gave us and 
the rest of his brother clerks a handsome supper at his 
house; and, after supper, a concert of music. 

3d February, 1672. An extraordinary snow ; part of the 
week was taken up in consulting about the commission 
of prisoners of war, and instructions to our officers, in 
order to a second war with the Hollanders, his Majesty 
having made choice of the former commissioners, and 
myself among them. 

nth February, 1672. In the afternoon, that famous 
proselyte. Monsieur Brevall, preached at the Abbey, in 
English, extremely well and with much eloquence. He 
had been a Capuchin, but much better learned than most 
of that order. 

12th February, 1672. At the Council, we entered on 
inquiries about improving the plantations by silks, galls, 
flax, senna, etc., and considered how nutmegs and cinna- 
mon might be obtained and brought to Jamaica, that soil 
and climate promising success. Dr. Worsley being called 
in, spoke many considerable things to encourage it. We 
took order to send to the plantations, that none of their ships 
should adventure homeward single, but stay for company 
and convoys. We also deliberated on some fit person to 
go as commissioner to inspect their actions in New Eng- 
land, and, from time to time, report how that people stood 
affected. In future, to meet at Whitehall. 

20th February, 1672. Dr. Parr, of Camberwell, preached 
a most pathetic funeral discourse and panegyric at the 
interment of our late pastor, Dr. Breton (who died on the 
1 8th), on * Happy is the servant whom, when his Lord 
Cometh,* etc. This good man, among other expressions, 
professed that he had never been so touched and con- 
cerned at any loss as at this, unless at that of King 
Charles our martyr, and Archbishop Usher, whose chap- 
lain he had been. Dr. Breton had preached on the 28th 
and 30th of January: on the Friday, having fasted all 
day, making his provisionary sermon for the Sunday fol- 
lowing, he went well to bed; but was taken suddenly ill 
and expired before help could come to him. 

76 DIARY OF London 

Never had a parisli a greater loss, not only as he was 
an excellent preacher, and fitted for our great and vulgar 
auditory, but for his excellent life and charity, his meek- 
ness and obliging nature, industrious, helpful, and full of 
good works. He left near ;^4oo to the poor in his will, 
and that what children of his should die in their minor- 
ity, their portion should be so employed. I lost in par- 
ticular a special friend, and one that had an extraordinary 
love for me and mine. 

25th February, 1672. To London, to speak with the 
Bishop, and Sir John Cutler, our patron, to present Mr. 
Frampton (afterward Bishop of Gloucester). 

I St March, 1672. A full Council of Plantations, on the 
danger of the Leeward Islands, threatened by the French, 
who had taken some of our ships, and began to interrupt 
our trade. Also in debate, whether the new Governor 
of St. Christopher should be subordinate to the Governor 
of Barbadoes. The debate was serious and long. 

12th March, 1672. Now was the first blow given by 
us to the Dutch convoy of the Smyrna fleet, by Sir Robert 
Holmes and Lord Ossory, in which we received little 
save blows, and a worthy reproach for attacking our 
neighbors ere any war was proclaimed, and then pre- 
tending the occasion to be, that some time before, the 
Merlin yacht chancing to sail through the whole Dutch 
fleet, their Admiral did not strike to that trifling vessel. 
Surely, this was a quarrel slenderly grounded, and not 
becoming Christian neighbors. We are likely to thrive, 
accordingly. Lord Ossory several times deplored to me 
his being engaged in it; he had more justice and honor 
than in the least to approve of it, though he had been 
over-persuaded to the expedition. There is no doubt but 
we should have surprised this exceeding rich fleet, had 
not the avarice and ambition of Holmes and Spragge 
separated themselves, and willfully divided our fleet, on 
presumption that either of them was strong enough to 
deal with the Dutch convoy without joining and mutual 
help; but they so warmly plied our divided fleets, that 
while in conflict the merchants sailed away, and got safe 
into Holland. 

A few days before this, the Treasurer of the House- 
hold, Sir Thomas Clifford, hinted to me, as a confidant, 
that his Majesty would shut up the exchequer (and, 

i672 JOHN EVELYN 77 

accordingly, his Majesty made use of infinite treasure 
there, to prepare for an intended rupture ) ; but, says he, 
it will soon be open again, and everybody satisfied; for 
this bold man, who had been the sole adviser of the 
King to invade that sacred stock (though some pretend 
it was Lord Ashley's counsel, then Chancellor of the 
Exchequer), was so over-confident of the success of this 
unworthy design against the Smyrna merchants, as to 
put his Majesty on an action which not only lost the 
hearts of his subjects, and ruined many widows and 
orphans, whose stocks were lent him, but the reputation 
of his Exchequer forever, it being before in such credit, 
that he might have commanded half the wealth of the nation. 

The credit of this bank being thus broken, did exceed- 
ingly discontent the people, and never did his Majesty's 
affairs prosper to any purpose after it, for as it did not 
supply the expense of the meditated war, so it melted 
away, I know not how. 

To this succeeded the King's declaration for an uni- 
versal toleration; Papists and swarms of Sectaries, now 
boldly showing themselves in their public meetings. This 
was imputed to the same council, CliflEord warping to 
Rome as was believed, nor was Lord Arlington clear of 
suspicion, to gratify that party, but as since it has proved, 
and was then evidently foreseen, to the extreme weaken- 
ing of the Church of England and its Episcopal Govern- 
ment, as it was projected. I speak not this as my own 
sense, but what was the discourse and thoughts of others, 
who were lookers-on; for I think there might be some 
relaxations without the least prejudice to the present 
establishment, discreetly limited, but to let go the reins 
in this manner, and then to imagine they could take 
them up again as easily, was a false policy, and greatly 
destructive. The truth is, our Bishops slipped the occa- 
sion ; for, had they held a steady hand upon his Majesty's 
restoration, as they might easily have done, the Church 
of England had emerged and flourished, without interrup- 
tion; but they were then remiss, and covetous after 
advantages of another kind while his Majesty suffered 
them to come into a harvest, with which, without any 
injustice he might have remunerated innumerable gallant 
gentlemen for their services who had ruined themselves 
in the late rebellion. 

78 DIARY OF Rochester 

2ist March, 1672. I visited the coasts in my district 
of Kent, and divers wounded and languishing poor men, 
that had been in the Smyrna conflict. I went over to see 
the new-begun Fort of Tilbury; a royal work, indeed, 
and such as will one day bridle a great city to the pur- 
pose, before they are aware. 

23d March, t6j2. Captain Cox, one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Navy, furnishing me with a yatch, I sailed 
to Sheemess to see that fort also, now newly finished; 
several places on both sides the Swale and Medway to 
Gillingham and Upnore, being also provided with re- 
doubts and batteries to secure the station of our men-of- 
war at Chatham, and shut the door when the steeds 
were stolen. 

24th March, 1672. I saw the chirurgeon cut off the 
leg of a wounded sailor, the stout and gallant man en- 
during it with incredible patience, without being bound 
to his chair, as usual on such painful occasions. I had 
hardly courage enough to be present. Not being cut off 
high enough the gangrene prevailed, and the second 
operation cost the poor creature his life. 

Lord! what miseries are mortal men subject to, and 
what confusion and mischief do the avarice, anger, and 
ambition of Princes, cause in the world ! 

25th March, 1672. I proceeded to Canterbury, Dover, 
Deal, the Isle of Thanet, by Sandwich, and so to Margate. 
Here we had abundance of miserably wounded men, his 
Majesty sending his chief chirurgeon, Sergeant Knight, to 
meet me, and Dr. Waldrond had attended me all the 
journey. Having taken order for the accommodation of 
the wounded, I came back through a country the best 
cultivated of any that in my life I had anywhere seen, 
every field lying as even as a bowling-green, and the 
fences, plantations, and husbandry, in such admirable 
order, as infinitely delighted me, after the sad and afflict- 
ing spectacles and objects I was come from. Observing 
almost every tall tree to have a weathercock on the top 
bough, and some trees half-a-dozen, I learned that, on a 
certain holyday, the farmers feast their servants; at 
which solemnity, they set up these cocks, in a kind of 

Being come back toward Rochester, I went to take order 
respecting the building a strong and high wall about a 

i672 JOHN EVELYN 79 

house I had hired of a gentleman, at a place called Hart- 
lip, for a prison, paying j^^o yearly rent. Here I settled 
a Provost-Marshal and other officers, returning by Fever- 
sham. On the 30th heard a sermon in Rochester cathe- 
dral, and so got to Sayes Court on the first of April 

4th April, 1672. I went to see the fopperies of the 
Papists at Somerset- House and York- House, where now 
the French Ambassador had caused to be represented our 
Blessed Savior at the Pascal Supper with his disciples, 
in figures and puppets made as big as the life, of wax- 
work, curiously clad and sitting round a large table, the 
room nobly hung, and shining with innumerable lamps 
and candles: this was exposed to all the world; all the 
city came to see it. Such liberty had the Roman Catho- 
lics at this time obtained. 

1 6th April, 1672. Sat in Council, preparing Lord Wil- 
loughby's commission and instructions as Governor of 
Barbadoes and the Caribbee Islands. 

17th April, 1672. Sat on business in the Star Chamber. 

19th April, 1672. At Council, preparing instructions for 
Colonel Stapleton, now to go Governor of St. Christopher's , 
and heard the complaints of the Jamaica merchants 
against the Spaniards, for hindering them from cutting 
logwood on the mainland, where they have no pretense. 

2ist April, 1672. To my Lord of Canterbury, to entreat 
him to engage Sir John Cutler, the patron, to provide us 
a grave and learned man, in opposition to a novice. 

30th April, 1672. Congratulated Mr. Treasurer Clifford's 
new honor, being made a Baron. 

2d May, 1672. My son, John, was specially admitted of 
the Middle Temple by Sir Francis North, his Majesty's 
Solicitor-General, and since Chancellor. I pray God bless 
this beginning, my intention being that he should seri- 
ously apply himself to the study of the law. 

loth May, 1672. I was ordered, by letter from the 
Council, to repair forthwith to his Majesty, whom I found 
in the Pali-Mall, in St. James's Park, where his Majesty 
coming to me from the company, commanded me to go 
immediately to the seacoast, and to observe the motion of 
the Dutch fleet and ours, the Duke and so many of the 
flower of our nation being now under sail, coming from 
Portsmouth, through the Downs, where it was believed 
there might be an encounter. 

8o DIARY OF Margate 

xith May, 1672. Went to Chatham. 12th. Heard a 
sermon in Rochester Cathedral. 

13th May, 1672. To Canterbury; visited Dr. Bargrave, 
my old fellow-traveler in Italy, and great virtuoso. 

14th May, 1672. To Dover; but the fleet did not appear 
till the 1 6th, when the Duke of York with his and the 
French squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 
were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who were 
newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy 
never, I think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly 
yet terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing east- 
ward by the straits between Dover and Calais in a 
glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could 
not well go aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. 
The next day, having visited our prisoners and the Castle, 
and saluted the Governor, I took horse for Margate. 
Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which is 
a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle 
of iron, in which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all 
the year long, when the nights are dark, for the safeguard 
of sailors), we could see our fleet as they lay at anchor. 
The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of sight 
to the N.E. 

19th May, 1672. Went to Margate; and, the following 
day. was carried to see a gallant widow, brought up a 
farmeress, and I think of gigantic race, rich, comely, 
and exceedingly industrious. She put me in mind of 
Deborah and Abigail, her house was so plentifully stored 
with all manner of country provisions, all of her own 
growth, and all her conveniences so substantial, neat, and 
well understood; she herself so jolly and hospitable; and 
her land so trim and rarely husbanded, that it struck me 
with admiration at her economy. 

This town much consists of brewers of a certain heady 
ale, and they deal much in malt, etc. For the rest, it is 
raggedly built, and has an ill haven, with a small fort of 
little concernment, nor is the island well disciplined ; but 
as to the husbandry and rural part, far exceeding any 
part of England for the accurate culture of their ground, 
in which they exceed, even to curiosity and emulation. 

We passed by Rickborough, and in sight of Reculvers, 
and so through a sweet garden, as it were, to Canter- 

i672 JOHN EVELYN 8i 

24th May, 1672. To London and gave his Majesty an 
account of my journey, and that I had put all things in 
readiness upon all events, and so returned home suffi- 
ciently wearied. 

31st May, 1672. I received another command to repair 
to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, where I found 
many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore 
after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of 
Sandwich, that incomparable person and my particular 
friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My 
Lord ( who was Admiral of the Blue ) was in the ** Prince, * 
which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever 
spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this 
brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell ( Master of the 
Ceremonies), and a son of Sir Charles Harbord (his 
Majesty's Surveyor-General), two valiant and most ac- 
complished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might 
have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my 
Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own 

Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things 
past. It was not above a day or two that going to 
Whitehall to take leave of his Lordship, who had his 
lodgings in the Privy-Garden, shaking [me by the hand 
he bid me good-by, and said he thought he would see 
me no more, and I saw, to my thinking, something bod- 
ing in his countenance : * No, '* says he, " they will not 
have me live. Had I lost a fleet ( meaning on his return 
from Bergen when he took the East India prize ) I should 
have fared better ; but, be as it pleases God — I must do 
something, I know not what, to save my reputation.* 
Something to this effect, he had hinted to me ; thus I took 
my leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle, 
and my now Lord Clifford, had, I know not why, no 
great opinion of his courage, because, in former conflicts, 
being an able and experienced seaman (which neither 
of them were ), he always brought off his Majesty's ships 
without loss, though not without as many marks of true 
courage as the stoutest of them ; and I am a witness that, 
in the late war, his own ship was pierced like a colander. 
But the business was, he was utterly against this war 
from the beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the 
Smyrna fleet; he did not favor the heady expedition of 


Clifford at Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident 
as was the Duke of Albemarle, who believed he could van- 
quish the Hollanders with one squadron. My Lord Sand- 
wich was prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his 
affairs with success and little loss; he was for delibera- 
tion and reason, they for action and slaughter without 
either; and for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich 
was not so gallant, because he was not so rash, and knew 
how fatal it was to lose a fleet, such as was that under 
his conduct, and for which these very persons would 
have censured him on the other side. This it was, I am 
confident, grieved him, and made him enter like a lion, 
and fight like one too, in the midst of the hottest service, 
where the stoutest of the rest seeing him engaged, and so 
many ships upon him, dared not, or would not, come to 
his succor, as some of them, whom I know, might have 
done. Thus, this gallant person perished, to gratify the 
pride and envy of some I named. 

Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished 
persons, not only of this nation, but of any other. He 
was learned in sea affairs, in politics, in mathematics, and 
in music: he had been on divers embassies, was of a 
sweet and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, 
a true nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince ; 
nor has he left any behind him who approach his many 

He had, I confess, served the tyrant Cromwell, when a 
young man, but it was without malice, as a soldier of for- 
tune; and he readily submitted, and that with joy, bring- 
ing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at the first 
tidings of his Majesty's restoration. I verily believe him 
as faithful a subject as any that were not his friends. I 
am yet heartily grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I call 
it to my thoughts without emotion. 

ad June, 1672, Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; 
and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Mon- 
sieur Rabini^re, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a 
gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in 
the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed 
with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and 
Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins 
was there with his guards; and the Dean and Preben^ 
daries : one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral ora^ 

i672 JOHN EVELYN 83 

tion at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug 
in the choir. This is more at large described in the 
« Gazette '* of that day ; Colonel Reymes, my colleague in 
commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany 
me from London, though it was not his district; for 
indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by 
far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in 
theirs. I went to see Upnore Castle, which I found 
pretty well defended, but of no great moment. 

Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy 
of the *Nore,'^ where I met his Majesty, the Duke, Lord 
Arlington, and all the great men, in the <^ Charles, '^ lying 
miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich re- 
doubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazard- 
ing so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for 
no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in 
industry, and in all things but envy. 

At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty and his Royal High- 
ness an account of my charge, and returned to Queen- 
borough; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of 
Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day, 

12th June, 1672. To London to his Majesty, to solicit 
for money for the sick and wounded, which he promised 

19th June, 1672. To London again, to solicit the same. 

2ist June, 1672. At a Council of Plantations. Most of 
this week busied with the sick and wounded. 

3d July, 1672. To Lord Sandwich's funeral, which was 
by water to Westminster, in solemn pomp. 

31st July, 1672. I entertained the Maids of Honor 
(among whom there was one I infinitely esteemed for her 
many and extraordinary virtues*) at a comedy this after- 
noon, and so went home. 

1st August, 1672. I was at the betrothal of Lord Ar- 
lington's only daughter (a sweet child if ever there was 
anyt) to the Duke of Grafton, the King's natural son by 

♦Mrs. Blagg whom Evelyn never tires of instancing and charac- 
terizing as a rare example of piety and virtue, in so rare a wit, 
beauty, and perfection, in a licentious court, and depraved age. She 
was afterward married to Mr. Godolphin, and her life, written by 
Evelyn, has been edited and published by the Bishop of Oxford. 

■j-She was then only fifteen years old. 

84 DIARY OF London 

the Duchess of Cleveland ; the Archbishop of Canterbury 
officiating, the King and the grandees being present. I 
had a favor given me by my Lady; but took no great 
joy at the thing for many reasons. 

1 8th August, 1672. Sir James Hayes, Secretary to 
Prince Rupert, dined with me ; after dinner I was sent to 
Gravesend to dispose of no fewer than 800 sick men. 
That night I got to the fleet at the buoy of the * Nore, * 
where I spoke with the King and the Duke; and, after 
dinner next day, returned to Gravesend. 

ist September, 1672. I spent this week in soliciting 
for moneys, and in reading to my Lord Clifford my papers 
relating to the first Holland war. Now, our Council of 
Plantations met at Lord Shaftesbury's (Chancellor of the 
Exchequer) to read and reform the draft of our new 
Patent, joining the Council of Trade to our political ca- 
pacities. After this, I returned home, in order to an- 
other excursion to the seaside, to get as many as possible 
of the men who were recovered on board the fleet. 

8th September, 1672. I lay at Gravesend, thence to 
Rochester, returning on the nth. 

15th September, 1672. Dr. Duport, Greek Professor of 
Cambridge, preached before the King, on i Timothy vi. 
6. No great preacher, but a very worthy and learned 

25th September, 1672. I dined at Lord John Berke- 
ley's, newly arrived out of Ireland, where he had been 
Deputy; it was in his new house, or rather palace; for I 
am assured it stood him in near ^^30,000. It was very 
well built, and has many noble rooms, but they are not 
very convenient, consisting but of one Corps de Logis; 
they are all rooms of state, without closets. The stair- 
case is of cedar, the furniture is princely: the kitchen 
and stables are ill placed, and the corridor worse, having 
no report to the wings they join to. For the rest, the 
fore-court is noble, so are the stables; and, above all, 
the gardens, which are incomparable by reason of the 
inequality of the ground, and a pretty piscina. The holly 
hedges on the terrace I advised the planting of. The 
porticos are in imitation of a house described by Pal- 
ladio; but it happens to be the worst in his book, 
though my good friend, Mr. Hugh May, his Lordship's 
architect, effected it. 


26th September, 1672. I carried with me to dinner my 
Lord H. Howard (now to be made Earl of Norwich and 
Earl Marshal of England) to Sir Robert Clayton's, now 
Sheriff of London, at his new house, where we had a 
great feast; it is built indeed for a great magistrate, at 
excessive cost. The cedar dining room is painted 
with the history of the Giants' War, incomparably 
done by Mr, Streeter, but the figures are too near the 

6th October, 1672, Dr, Thistlethwaite preached at 
Whitehall on Rev. v, 2, — a young, but good preacher. 
I received the blessed Communion, Dr. Blandford, Bishop 
of Worcester, and Dean of the Chapel, officiating. Dined 
at my Lord Clifford's, with Lord Mulgrave, Sir Gilbert 
Talbot, and Sir Robert Holmes. 

8th October, 1672. I took leave of my Lady Sunder- 
land, who was going to Paris to my Lord, now ambassa- 
dor there. She made me stay to dinner at Leicester 
House, and afterward sent for Richardson, the famous 
fire-eater. He devoured brimstone on glowing coals be- 
fore us, chewing and swallowing them ; he melted a beer- 
glass and ate it quite up; then, taking a live coal on his 
tongue, he put on it a raw oyster, the coal was blown 
on with bellows till it flamed and sparkled in his mouth, 
and so remained till the oyster gaped and was quite 
boiled. Then, he melted pitch and wax with sulphur, 
which he drank down as it flamed; I saw it flaming in 
his mouth a good while; he also took up a thick piece 
of iron, such as laundresses use to put in their smooth- 
ing boxes, when it was fiery hot, held it between his 
teeth, then in his hand, and threw it about like a stone; 
but this, I observed, he cared not to hold very long; then 
he stood on a small pot, and, bending his body, took a 
glowing iron with his mouth from between his feet, with- 
out touching the pot, or ground, with his hands; with 
divers other prodigious feats. 

13th October, 1672. After sermon (being summoned 
before), I went to my Lord Keeper's, Sir Orlando Bridge- 
man, at Essex House, where our new patent was opened 
and read, constituting us that were of the Council of 
Plantations, to be now of the Council of Trade also, both 
united. After the patent was read, we all took our oaths, 
and departed. 

86 DIARY OF London 

24th October, 1672. Met in Council, the Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, now our president, swearing our secretary and his 
clerks, which was Mr. Locke, an excellent learned gen- 
tleman, and student of Christ Church, Mr, Lloyd, and 
Mr. Frowde. We dispatched a letter to Sir Thomas 
Linch, Governor of Jamaica, giving him notice of a de- 
sign of the Dutch on that island. 

27th October, 1672. I went to hear that famous preacher, 
Dr. Frampton, at St. Giles's, on Psalm xxxix. 6. This 
divine had been twice at Jerusalem, and was not only a 
very pious and holy man, but excellent in the pulpit for 
the moving affections. 

8th November, 1672, At Council, we debated the busi- 
ness of the consulate of Leghorn. I was of the com- 
mittee with Sir Humphry Winch, the chairman, to 
examine the laws of his Majesty's several plantations and 
colonies in the West Indies, etc. 

15th November, 1672. Many merchants were summoned 
about the consulate of Venice; which caused great dis- 
putes; the most considerable thought it useless. This 
being the Queen-Consort's birthday, there was an extraor- 
dinary appearance of gallantry, and a ball danced at Court. 

30th November, 1672. I was chosen secretary to the 
Royal Society. 

2ist December, 1672. Settled the consulate of Venice. 

I st January, 1672-73. After public prayers in the chapel 
at Whitehall, when I gave God solemn thanks for all his 
mercies to me the year past, and my humble supplica- 
tions to him for his blessing the year now entering, I 
returned home, having my poor deceased servant (Adams) 
to bury, who died of pleurisy. 

3d January, 1673. ^Y son now published his version 
of " Rapinus Hortorum. " 

28th January, 1673. Visited Don Francisco de Melos, 
the Portugal Ambassador, who showed me his curious 
collection of books and pictures. He was a person of 
good parts, and a virtuous man. 

6th February, 1673. To Council about reforming an 
abuse of the dyers with saundus, and other false drugs ; ex- 
amined divers of that trade. 

23d February, 1673. The Bishop of Chichester preached 
before the King on Coloss. ii. 14, 15, admirably well, 
as he can do nothing but what is well. 

1672-73 JOHN EVELYN 87 

5th March, 1673. Our new vicar, Mr. Holden, preached 
in Whitehall chapel, on Psalm, iv. 6, 7. This gentle- 
man is a very excellent and universal scholar, a good 
and wise man; but he had not the popular way of 
preaching, nor is in any measure fit for our plain and 
vulgar auditory, as his predecessor was. There was, 
however, no comparison between their parts for pro- 
found learning. But time and experience may form him 
to a more practical way than that he is in of University 
lectures and erudition; which is now universally left 
off for what is much more profitable. 

15th March, 1673. I heard the speech made to the 
Lords in their House by Sir Samuel Tuke, in behalf of 
the Papists, to take off the penal laws; and then dined 
with Colonel Norwood. 

i6th March, 1673. Dr. Pearson, Bishop of Chester, 
preached on Hebrews ix. 14; a most incomparable ser- 
mon from one of the most learned divines of our nation. 
I dined at my Lord Arlington's with the Duke and 
Duchess of Monmouth; she is one of the wisest and 
craftiest of her sex, and has much wit. Here was also 
the learned Isaac Vossius. 

During Lent there is constantly the most excellent 
preaching by the most eminent bishops and divines of 
the nation. 

26th March, 1673. ^ was sworn a younger brother of 
the Trinity House, with my most worthy and long-ac- 
quainted noble friend. Lord Ossory (eldest son to the 
Duke of Ormond), Sir Richard Browne, my father-in- 
law, being now Master of that Society ; after which there 
was a great collation. 

29th March, 1673. I carried my son to the Bishop of 
Chichester, that learned and pious man. Dr. Peter Gun- 
ning, to be instructed by him before he received the 
Holy Sacrament, when he gave him most excellent 
advice, which I pray God may influence and remain with 
him as long as he lives; and O that I had been so 
blessed and instructed, when first I was admitted to that 
sacred ordinance! 

30th March, 1673. Easter day. Myself and son re- 
ceived the blessed Communion, it being his first time, 
and with that whole week's more extraordinary prepa- 
ration. I beseech God to make him a sincere and 

88 DIARY OF London 

good Christian, while I endeavor to instill into him the 
fear and love of God, and discharge the duty of a 

At the sermon coram Rege, preached by Dr. Sparrow^ 
Bishop of Exeter, to a most crowded auditory; I stayed 
to see whether, according to custom, the Duke of York 
received the Communion with the King; but he did not, 
to the amazement of everybody. This being the second 
year he had forborne, and put it off, and within a day 
of the Parliament sitting, who had lately made so severe 
an Act against the increase of Popery, gave exceeding 
grief and scandal to the whole nation, that the heir of 
it, and the son of a martyr for the Protestant religion, 
should apostatize. What the consequence of this will be, 
God only knows, and wise men dread. 

nth April, 1673. I dined with the plenipotentiaries 
designed for the treaty of Nimeguen. 

17th April, 1673. I carried Lady Tuke to thank the 
Countess of Arlington for speaking to his Majesty in her 
behalf, for being one of the Queen Consort's women. 
She carried us up into her new dressing room at Goring 
House, where was a bed, two glasses, silver jars, and 
vases, cabinets, and other so rich furniture as I had 
seldom seen; to this excess of superfluity were we now 
arrived and that not only at Court, but almost univer- 
sally, even to wantonness and profusion. 

Dr. Compton, brother to the Earl of Northampton, 
preached on i Corinth, v. 11-16, showing the Church's 
power in ordaining things indijff erent ; this worthy per- 
son's talent is not preaching, but he is likely to make a 
grave and serious good man. 

I saw her Majesty's rich toilet in her dressing room, 
being all of massy gold, presented to her by the King, 
valued at ;^4,ooo. 

26th April, 1673. Dr. Lamplugh preached at St. Mar- 
tin's the Holy Sacrament following, which I partook of, 
upon obligation of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining 
everybody in office, civil or military, under penalty of 
jCs°°i to receive it within one month before two authentic 
witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterward 
produced in the Court of Chancery, or some other Court 
of Record ; which I did at the Chancery bar, as being one 
of the Council of Plantations and Trade ; taking then also 

i673 JOHN EVELYN 89 

the oath of allegiance and supremacy, signing the clause 
in the said Act against Transubstantiation. 

25th May, 1673. My son was made a younger brother 
of the Trinity House. The new master was Sir J. Smith, 
one of the Commissioners of the Navy, a stout seaman, 
who had interposed and saved the Duke from perishing 
by a fire ship in the late war. 

28th May, 1673. I carried one Withers, an ingenious 
shipwright, to the King to show him some new method 
of building. 

29th May, 1673. I saw the Italian comedy at the Court, 
this afternoon. 

loth June, 1673. Came to visit and dine with me my 
Lord Viscount Cornbury and his Lady; Lady Frances 
Hyde, sister to the Duchess of York; and Mrs. Dorothy 
Howard, maid of Honor. We went, after dinner, to see 
the formal and formidable camp on Blackheath, raised to 
invade Holland; or, as others suspected for another 
design Thence, to the Italian glass-house at Greenwich, 
where glass was blown of finer metal than that of Murano, 
at Venice. 

13th June, 1673. Came to visit us, with other ladies 
of rank, Mrs. Sedley,* daughter to Sir Charles, who was 
none of the most virtuous, but a wit. 

19th June, 1673. Congratulated the new Lord Treas- 
urer, Sir Thomas Osborne, a gentleman with whom I had 
been intimately acquainted at Paris, and who was every 
day at my father-in-law's house and table there ; on which 
account I was too confident of succeeding in his favor, 
as I had done in his predecessor's; but such a friend 
shall I never find, and I neglected my time, far from 
believing that my Lord Clifford would have so rashly 
laid down his staff, as he did, to the amazement of all 
the world, when it came to the test of his receiving 
the Communion, which I am confident he forbore 
more from some promise he had entered into to 
gratify the Duke, than from any prejudice to the Prot- 
estant religion, though I found him wavering a pretty 

23d June, 1673. To London, to accompany our Coun- 
cil who went in a body to congratulate the new Lord 

* The Duke of York's mistrsss, afterward created by him Countess 
of Dorchester. 



Treasurer, no friend to it because promoted by my Lord 
Arlington, whom he hated. 

26th June, 1673. Came visitors from Court to dine with 
me and see the army still remaining encamped on Blackheath. 

6th July, 1673. This evening I went to the funeral of 
my dear and excellent friend, that good man and ac- 
complished gentleman. Sir Robert Murray, Secretary of 
Scotland. He was buried by order of his Majesty in 
Westminster Abbey. 

25th July, 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, to visit 
my Lord Clifford, late Lord Treasurer, who was there 
to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed 
that he had so engaged himself to the Duke, that rather 
than take the Test, without which he was not capable of 
holding any office, he would resign that great and hon- 
orable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the 
heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with 
him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came 
to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would 
not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in 
his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, 
he could not long brook the necessity he had brought 
on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, 
he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, 
as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very un- 
prosperous. These things his high spirit could not sup- 
port. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained 
leave of my Lord to return. 

In my way, I saw my Lord of Dorset's house at 
Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a great old-fashioned house. 

30th July, 1673. To Council, where the business of 
transporting wool was brought before us, 

31st July, 1673, I went to see the pictures of all the 
judges and eminent men of the Long Robe, newly 
painted by Mr. Wright, and set up in Guildhall, costing 
the city ^1,000. Most of them are very like the persons 
they represent, though I never took Wright to be any 
considerable artist, 

13th August, 1673. I rode to Durdans, where I dined 
at my Lord Berkeley's of Berkeley Castle, my old and 
noble friend, it being his wedding anniversary, where I 
found the Duchess of Albemarle, and other company, 
and returned home on that evening late. 

1 673 JOHN EVELYN 91 

15th August, 1673. Came to visit me my Lord Chan- 
cellor, the Earl of Shaftesbury. 

1 8th August, 1673. My Lord Clifford, being about this 
time returned from Tunbridge, and preparing for Dev- 
onshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford 
House ; he was packing up pictures, most of which were 
of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, 
bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored 
to him several papers of state, and others of importance, 
which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to 
write the * History of the Holland War,*^ with other pri- 
vate letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arling- 
ton, who from a private gentleman of a very noble 
family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him 
from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in 
Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Com- 
missioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we 
sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, 
he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy 
Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the 
death of Lord Fitz- Harding, Treasurer of the Household, 
he, by letters to Lord Arlington, which that Lord showed 
me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the 
very height of his ambition. These were written with 
such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I 
had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of 
Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Com- 
missioners of the Treasury. His Majesty inclining to put 
it into one hand, my Lord Clifford, under pretense of 
making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arling- 
ton, cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for 
himself, assuring the King that Lord Arlington did not 
desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington protested to me 
that his confidence in Lord Clifford made him so remiss 
and his affection to him was so particular, that he was 
absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford, all the 
world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, 
now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. 
This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford showed, 
keeping my Lord Arlington in ignorance, continually 
assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was 
the Duke's into whose great favor Lord Clifford was 
now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss 


of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his in- 

For the rest, my Lord Clifford was a valiant, incorrupt 
gentleman, ambitious, not covetous ; generous, passionate, 
a most constant, sincere friend, to me in particular, so as 
when he laid down his office, I was at the end of all my 
hopes and endeavors. These were not for high matters, 
but to obtain what his Majesty was really indebted to my 
father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and 
which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had 
stood. Sir Thomas Osborn, who succeeded him, though 
much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family, 
and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more 
haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for 
little; a man of excellent natural parts; but nothing of 
generous or grateful. 

Taking leave of my Lord Clifford, he wrung me by 
the hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, 
adding, * Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see thee more. *' "No ! ** 
said I, * my Lord, what's the meaning of this ? I hope 
I shall see you often, and as great a person again.** 
" No, Mr. Evelyn, do not expect it, I will never see this 
place, this city, or Court again,* or words of this sound. 
In this manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted 
from him ; nor was it long after, but the news was that he 
was dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, 
he made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. 
This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived 
in the house, and afterward with Sir Robert Clayton, 
Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when 
I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his 
trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse. 

It was reported with these particulars, that, causing 
his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking 
himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the 
bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dis- 
missing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I 
remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in 
before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting 
a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words : 
" Well ; let men say what they will, there is a God, a 
just God above " ; after which he spoke no more. This, 
if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of 

1 673 JOHN EVELYN 93 

the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at 
Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole 

This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor 
Shaftesbury afi&rmed, not to me only, but to all my 
brethren the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not 
long after, this accident being mentioned as we were one 
day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remark- 
able passage: that, being one day discoursing with him 
when he was only Sir Thomas CliflEord, speaking of men's 
advancement to great charges in the nation, *^ Well, '* says 
he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in 
England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or 
vanity; I am certain that I shall be a mighty man; but 
it will not last long ; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody 
death. " *^ What, *^ says my Lord, * your horoscope tells 
you so ? '^ " No matter for that, it will be as I tell you. * 
* Well, ® says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, * if I were 
of that opinion, I either would not be a great man, but 
decline preferment, or prevent my danger.'* 

This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several 
gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. 
And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what 
Sir Edward Walker (Garter King-at-Arms) had likewise 
affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was 
first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord 
Clifford on his being created a peer, and, finding him 
busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself 
there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about 
some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir 
Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calcu- 
lated, with some writing under it, where he read that 
he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state 
that could be conferred upon him, but that he should 
not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that 
sense ; and I think, ( but cannot confidently say) a bloody 
death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and Sir 
Richard Browne ; nor. could I forbear to note this extra- 
ordinary passage in these memoirs. 

14th September, 1673. Dr. Creighton, son to the late 
eloquent Bishop of Bath and Wells, preached to the 
Household on Isaiah, Ivii. 8. 

15th September, 1673. I procured ;,£'4,ooo of the Lords 

94 DIARY OF London 

of the Treasury, and rectified divers matters about the 
sick and wounded. 

1 6th September, 1673. To Council, about choosing a 
new Secretary, 

17th September, 1673. I went with some friends to visit 
Mr. Bernard Grenville, at Abs Court in Surrey ; an old 
house in a pretty park. 

23d September, 1673. I went to see Paradise, a room 
in Hatton Garden furnished with a representation of all 
sorts of animals handsomely painted on boards or cloth, 
and so cut out and made to stand, move, fly, crawl, roar, 
and make their several cries. The man who showed it, 
made us laugh heartily at his formal poetry. 

15th October, 1673. To Council, and swore in Mr. Locke, 
secretary, Dr. Worsley being dead. 

27th October, 1673, To Council, about sending succors 
to recover New York: and then we read the commission 
and instructions to Sir Jonathan Atkins, the new Gover- 
nor of Barbadoes. 

5th November, 1673. This night the youths of the 
city burned the Pope in effigy, after they had made pro- 
cession with it in great triumph, they being displeased 
at the Duke for altering his religion and marrying an 
Italian lady. 

30th November, 1673. On St. Andrew's day I first saw 
the new Duchess of York, and the Duchess of Modena, 
her mother. 

I St December, 1673. To Gresham College, whither the 
city had] invited the Royal Society by many of their 
chief aldermen and magistrates, who gave us a collation, 
to welcome us to our first place of assembly, from whence 
we had been driven to give place to the City, on their 
making it their Exchange on the dreadful conflagration, 
till their new Exchange was finished, which it now was. 
The Society having till now been entertained and having 
met at Arundel House. 

2d December, 1673. I dined with some friends, and 
visited the sick; thence, to an almshouse, where was 
prayers and relief, some very ill and miserable. It was 
one of the best days I ever spent in my life. 

3d December, 1673. There was at dinner my Lord 
Lockhart, designed Ambassador for France, a gallant and 
sober person. 

1673-74 JOHN EVELYN 95 

9th December, 1673. I saw again the Italian Duchess 
and her brother, the Prince Reynaldo. 

20th December, 1673. I had some discourse with certain 
strangers, not unlearned, who had been born not far from 
Old Nineveh ; they assured me of the ruins being - still 
extant, and vast and wonderful were the buildings, 
vaults, pillars, and magnificent fragments;* but they 
could say little of the Tower of Babel that satisfied me. 
But the description of the amenity and fragrancy of the 
country for health and cheerfulness, delighted me; so 
sensibly they spoke of the excellent air and climate in 
respect of our cloudy and splenetic country. 

24th December, 1673. Visited the prisoners at Ludgate, 
taking orders about the releasing of some. 

30th December, 1673. I gave Almighty God thanks 
for his infinite goodness to me the year past, and begged 
his mercy and protection the year following; afterward, 
invited my neighbors to spend the day with me. 

5th January, 1673-74. I saw an Italian opera in music, 
the first that had been in England of this kind. 

9th January, 1674. Sent for by his Majesty to write 
something against the Hollanders about the duty of the 
Flag and Fishery. Returned with some papers. 

25th March, 1674. I dined at Knightsbridge, with the 
Bishops of Salisbury, Chester, and Lincoln, my old 

29th May, 1674. His Majesty's birthday and Restora- 
tion. Mr. Demalhoy, Roger L'Estrange, and several of 
my friends, came to dine with me on the happy occasion. 

27th June, 1674. Mr. Dryden, the famous poet and 
now laureate, came to give me a visit. It was the an- 
niversary of my marriage, and the first day I went into 
my new little cell and cabinet, which I built below to- 
ward the south court, at the east end of the parlor. ^ 

9th July, 1674. Paid ^^360 for purchase of Dr. Ja- 
combe's son's share in the mill and land at Deptford, 
which I bought of the Beechers. 

2 2d July, 1674. I went to Windsor with my wife 
and son to see my daughter Mary, who was there with 
my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his Majesty. Next 
day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's at 

*The remarkable discoveries of Mr. Layard give now a curious inter- 
est to this notice by Evelyn. 

96 DIARY OF groombridge 

Cranbourne Lodge, in the Forest; there were his Maj- 
esty, the Queen, Duke, Duchess, and all the Court. I 
returned in the evening with Sir Joseph Williamson, now 
declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor 
clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at 
Queen's College, Oxford, of which he came to be a fel- 
low ; then traveled with . . . and returning when the 
King was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr. 
Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (now Lord Arling- 
ton) succeeding, Williamson is transferred to him, who 
loving his ease more than business (though sufficiently 
able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to his man 
Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the 
secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) 
there was a kind of necessity to advance him ; and so, by 
his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, he got now to be 
principal Secretary; absolutely Lord Arlington's creature, 
and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of this 
obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their 
original. Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at Jeu 
de Goblets^ exceedingly formal, a severe master to his serv- 
ants, but so inward with my Lord O'Brien, that after a 
few months of that gentleman's death, he married his 
widow,* who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Rich- 
mond, brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they 
lived not so kindly after marriage as they did before. 
She was much censured for marrying so meanly, being 
herself allied to the Royal family. 

6th August, 1674. I went to Groombridge, to see my 
old friend, Mr. Packer; the house built within a moat, 
in a woody valley. The old house had been the place of 
confinement of the Duke of Orleans, taken by one Waller 
(whose house it then was) at the battle of Agincourt, 
now demolished, and a new one built in its place, though 
a far better situation had been on the south of the wood, 
on a graceful ascent. At some small distance, is a large 

* Lady Catherine Stuart, sister and heir to Charles Stuart, Duke of 
Richmond and Lennox, the husband of Mrs. Prances Stuart, one of the 
most admired beauties of the Court, with whom Charles II. was so 
deeply in love that he never forgave the Duke for marrying her, hav- 
ing already, it is thought, formed some similar intention himself. He 
took the first opportunity of sending the Duke into an honorable exile, 
as Ambassador to Denmark, where he shortly after died, leaving no 
issue by the Duchess. 

1 674 JOHN EVELYN 97 

chapel, not long since built by Mr. Packer's father, on a 
vow he made to do it on the return of King Charles I. 
out of Spain, 1625, and dedicated to St. Charles, but 
what saint there was [then of that name I am to seek, 
for, being a Protestant, I conceive it was not Borromeo. 

I went to see my farm at Ripe, near Lewes. 

19th August, 1674, His Majesty told me how exceed- 
ingly the Dutch were displeased at my treatise of the 
"History of Commerce;*' that the Holland Ambassador 
had complained to him of what I had touched of the 
Flags and Fishery, etc., and desired the book might be 
called in; while on the other side, he assured me he was 
exceedingly pleased with what I had done, and gave me 
many thanks. However, it being just upon conclusion of 
the treaty of Breda (indeed it was designed to have been 
published some months before and when we were at de- 
fiance), his Majesty told me he must recall it formally; 
but gave order that what copies should be publicly 
seized to pacify the Ambassador, should immediately be 
restored to the printer, and that neither he nor the ven- 
der should be molested. The truth is, that which touched 
the Hollander was much less than what the King him- 
self furnished me with, and obliged me to publish, hav- 
ing caused it to be read to him before it went to press ; 
but the error was, it should have been published before 
the peace was proclaimed. The noise of this book's sup- 
pression made it presently to be bought up, and turned 
much to the stationer's advantage. It was no other than 
the preface prepared to be prefixed to my * History of the 
Whole War;'* which I now pursued no further. 

2ist August, 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot 
of the long Terrace below the Castle [Windsor], works 
were thrown up to show the King a representation of the 
city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bas- 
tians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, hom-works, 
counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked 
by the Duke of Monmouth (newly come from the real 
siege) and the Duke of York, with a little army, to 
show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they 
made their approaches, opened trenches, raised bat- 
teries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout 
defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, 
mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of rais- 

98 DIARY OF London 

ing the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all 
the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, 
what is most strange all without disorder, or ill acci- 
dent, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. 
Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being 
over, I went with Mr. Pepys back to London, where we 
arrived about three in the morning. 

15th September, 1674. To Council, about fetching away 
the English left at Surinam, etc., since our reconciliation 
with Holland. 

2ist September, 1674. I went to see the great loss that 
Lord Arlington had sustained by fire at Goring House, this 
night consumed to the ground, with exceeding loss of 
hangings, plate, rare pictures, and cabinets; hardly any- 
thing was saved of the best and most princely furniture 
that any subject had in England. My lord and lady were 
both absent at the Bath. 

6th October, 1674. The Lord Chief Baron Turner, and 
Sergeant Wild, Recorder of London, came to visit me. 

20th October, 1674. At Lord Berkeley's, I discoursed 
with Sir Thomas Modiford, late Governor of Jamaica, and 
with Colonel Morgan, who undertook that gallant exploit 
from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of 
America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all 
the Spanish Indies, they were so secure. They took great 
booty, and much greater had been taken, had they not 
been betrayed and so discovered before their approach, by 
which the Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure 
on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men, 
who had no boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and 
ravaged the country sixty miles about. The Spaniards 
were so supine and unexercised, that they were afraid to 
fire a great gfun. 

31st October, 1674. My birthday, 54th year of my life. 
Blessed be God ! It was also preparation day for the Holy 
Sacrament, in which I participated the next day, imploring 
God's protection for the year following, and confirming my 
resolutions of a more holy life, even upon the Holy Book. 
The Lord assist and be gracious unto me! Amen. 

15th November, 1674. The anniversary of my baptism: 
I first heard that famous and excellent preacher, Dr. 
Burnet) author of the « History of the Reformation » on 
Colossians iii. jo, with such flow of eloqence and fullness 

1674-75 JOHN EVELYN 99 

pf matter, as showed him to be a person of extraordinary 

Being her Majesty's birthday, the Court was exceeding 
splendid in clothes and jewels, to the height of excess. 

17th November, 1674. To Council, on the business of 
Surinam, where the Dutch had detained some English in 
prison, ever since the first war, 1665. 

19th November, 1674. I heard that stupendous violin, 
Signor Nicholao (with other rare musicians), whom I never 
heard mortal man exceed on that instrument. He had a 
stroke so sweet, and made it speak like the voice of a 
man, and, when he pleased, like a concert of several 
instruments. He did wonders upon a note, and was an 
excellent composer. Here was also that rare lutanist, Dr. 
Wallgrave ; but nothing approached the violin in Nicholao's 
hand. He played such ravishing things as astonished us all. 

2d December, 1674. At Mr. Slingsby's, master of the 
mint, my worthy friend, a great lover of music. Heard 
Signor Francisco on the harpsichord, esteemed one of the 
most excellent masters in Europe on that instrument; 
then, came Nicholao with his violin, and struck all mute, 
but Mrs. Knight, who sung incomparably, and doubtless 
has the greatest reach of any English woman; she had 
been lately roaming in Italy, and was much improved in 
that quality. 

15th December, 1674. Saw a comedy at night, at 
Court, acted by the ladies only, among them Lady Mary 
and Ann, his Royal Highness' two daughters, and my 
dear friend Mrs. Blagg, who, having the principal part, 
performed it to admiration. They were all covered with 

2 2d December, 1674. Was at the repetition of the 
* Pastoral, * on which occasion Mrs, Blagg had about her 
near ^^^20,000 worth of jewels, of which she lost one 
worth about ;^8o, borrowed of the Countess of Suffolk. 
The press was so great, that it is a wonder she lost no 
more. The Duke made it good. 

20th January, 1674-75. Went to see Mr. Streeter, 
that excellent painter of perspective and landscape, 
to comfort and encourage him to be cut for the stone, 
with which that honest man was exceedingly afflicted. 

2 2d March, 1675. Supped at Sir William Petty 's, with 
the Bishop of Salisbury, and divers honorable persons. 


We had a noble entertainment in a house gloriously- 
furnished; the master and mistress of it were extraor- 
dinary persons. Sir William was the son of a mean 
man somewhere in Sussex, and sent from school to Ox- 
ford, where he studied Philosophy, but was most eminent 
in Mathematics and Mechanics; proceeded Doctor of 
Physic, and was grown famous, as for his learning so 
for his recovering a poor wench that had been hanged 
for felony; and her body having been begged (as the 
custom is) for the anatomy lecture, he bled her, put 
her to bed to a warm woman, and, with spirits and 
other means, restored her to life. The young scholars 
joined and made a little portion, and married her to a 
man who had several children by her, she living fifteen 
years after, as I have been assured. Sir William came 
from Oxford to be tutor to a neighbor of mine; thence, 
when the rebels were dividing their conquests in Ireland, 
he was employed by them to measure and set out the 
land, which he did on an easy contract, so much per 
acre. This he effected so exactly, that it not only 
furnished him with a great sum of money; but enabled 
him to purchase an estate worth ^^4,000 a year. He 
afterward married the daughter of Sir Hardress Waller; 
she was an extraordinary wit as well as beauty, and a 
prudent woman. 

Sir William, among other inventions, was author of 
the double-bottomed ship, which perished, and he was 
censured for rashness, being lost in the Bay of Biscay 
in a storm, when, I think, fifteen other vessels miscar- 
ried. This vessel was flat-bottomed, of exceeding use to 
put into shallow ports, and ride over small depths of 
water. It consisted of two distinct keels cramped together 
with huge timbers, etc., so as that a violent stream ran 
between; it bore a monstrous broad sail, and he still 
persists that it is practicable, and of exceeding use; and 
he has often told me he would adventure himself in such 
another, could he procure sailors, and his Majesty's per- 
mission to make a second Experiment; which name the 
King gave the vessel at the launching. 

The Map of Ireland made by Sir William Petty is be- 
lieved to be the most exact that ever yet was made of 
any country. He did promise to publish it; and I am 
told it has cost him near ;^ 1,000 to have it engraved at 

i675 JOHN EVELYN loi 

Amsterdam. There is not a better Latin poet living, when 
he gives himself that diversion ; nor is his excellence less 
in Council and prudent matters of state; but he is so 
exceedingly nice in sifting and examining all possible 
contingencies, that he adventures at nothing which is 
not demonstration. There was not in the whole world 
his equal for a superintendent of manufacture and im- 
provement of trade, or to govern a plantation. If I were 
a Prince, I should make him my second Counsellor, at 
least. There is nothing difficult to him. He is, besides, 
courageous; on which account, I cannot but note a true 
story of him, that when Sir Aleyn Brodrick sent him a 
challenge upon a difference between them in Ireland, 
Sir William, though exceedingly purblind, accepted the 
challenge, and it being his part to propound the weapon, 
desired his antagonist to meet him with a hatchet, or 
axe, in a dark cellar; which the other, of course, re- 

Sir William was, with all this, facetious and of easy 
conversation, friendly and courteous, and had such a 
faculty of imitating others, that he would take a text 
and preach, now like a grave orthodox divine, then fall- 
ing into the Presbyterian way, then to the fanatical, the 
Quaker, the monk and friar, the Popish priest, with such 
admirable action, and alteration of voice and tone, as it 
was not possible to abstain from wonder, and one would 
swear to hear several persons, or forbear to think he 
was not in good earnest an enthusiast and almost beside 
himself; then, he would fall out of it into a serious dis- 
course; but it was very rarely he would be prevailed on 
to oblige the company with this faculty, and that only 
among most intimate friends. My Lord Duke of Ormond 
once obtained it of him, and was almost ravished with 
admiration; but by and by, he fell upon a serious repri- 
mand of the faults and miscarriages of some Princes and 
Governors, which, though he named none, did so sensi- 
bly touch the Duke, who was then Lieutenant of Ireland, 
that he began to be very uneasy, and wished the spirit 
laid 'which he had raised, for he was neither able to 
endure such truths, nor could he but be delighted. At 
last, he melted his discourse to a ridiculous subject, and 
came down from the joint stool on which he had stood ; but 
my lord would not have him preach any more. He never 



could get favor at Court, because he outwitted all the 
projectors that came near him. Having never known 
such another genius, I cannot but mention these partic- 
ulars, among a multitude of others which I could produce. 
When I, who knew him in mean circumstances, have 
been in his splendid palace, he would himself be in 
admiration how he arrived at it; nor was it his value or 
inclination for splendid furniture and the curiosities 
of the age, but his elegant lady could endure nothing 
mean, or that was not magnificent. He was very negli- 
gent himself, and rather so of his person, and of a phil- 
osophic temper. **What a to-do is here!" would he say, 
* I can lie in straw with as much satisfaction. " 

He is author of the ingenious deductions from the 
bills of mortality, which go under the name of Mr. 
Graunt; also of that useful discourse of the manufacture 
of wool, and several others in the register of the Royal 
Society. He was also author of that paraphrase on the 
104th Psalm in Latin verse, which goes about in MS., 
and is inimitable. In a word, there is nothing impene- 
trable to him. 

26th March, 1675. Dr. Bridcoak was elected Bishop of 
Chichester, on the translation of Dr. Gunning to Ely. 

30th March, 1675. Dr. Allestree preached on Romans, 
vi. 3, the necessity of those who are baptized to die to 
sin ; a very excellent discourse from an excellent preacher. 

25th April, 1675. Dr. Barrow, that excellent, pious, 
and most learned man, divine, mathematician, poet, 
traveler, and most humble person, preached at Whitehall 
to the household, on Luke, xx. 27, of love and charity 
to our neighbors. 

29th April, 1675. I read my first discourse, **0f Earth 
and Vegetation,*' before the Royal Society as a lecture 
in course, after Sir Robert Southwell had read his, the 
week before ,*0n Water.'* I was commanded by our 
President and the suffrage of the Society, to print it. 

i6th May, 1675. This day was my dear friend, Mrs. 
Blagg, married at the Temple Church to my friend, Mr. 
Sidney Godolphin, Groom of the Bedchamber to his 

1 8th May, 1675. I went to visit one Mr. Bathurst, a 
Spanish m^erchant, my neighbor. 

31st May, 1675. I went with Lord Ossory to Dept- 

i675 JOHN EVELYN 103 

ford, where we chose him Master of the Trinity Com- 

2d June, 1675. I was at a conference of the Lords 
and Commons in the Painted Chamber, on a difference 
about imprisoning some of their members; and on the 
3d, at another conference, when the Lords accused the 
Commons for their transcendent misbehavior, breach of 
privilege, Magna Charta, subversion of government, and 
other high, provoking, and diminishing expressions, show- 
ing what duties and subjection they owed to the Lords 
in Parliament, by record of Henry IV. This was likely 
to create a notable disturbance. 

15th June, 1675. This afternoon came Monsieur Quer- 
ouaille and his lady, parents to the famous beauty and 
. . . favorite at Court, to see Sir R. Browne, with 
whom they were intimately acquainted in Bretagne, at 
the time Sir Richard was sent to Brest to supervise his 
Majesty's sea affairs, during the latter part of the King's 
banishment. This gentleman's house was not a mile 
from Brest; Sir Richard made an acquaintance there, 
and, being used very civilly, was obliged to return it 
here, which we did. He seemed a soldierly person and 
a good fellow, as the Bretons generally are ; his lady had 
been very handsome, and seemed a shrewd understanding 
woman. Conversing with him in our garden, I found 
several words of the Breton language the same with our 
Welsh. His daughter was now made Duchess of Ports- 
mouth, and in the height of favor; but he never made 
any use of it. 

27th June, 1675. At Ely House, I went to the conse- 
cration of my worthy friend, the learned Dr. Barlow, 
Warden of Queen's College, Oxford, now made Bishop 
of Lincoln. After it succeeded a magnificent feast, 
where were the Duke of Ormond, Earl of Lauderdale, 
the Lord Treasurer, Lord Keeper, etc. 

8th July, 1675. I went with Mrs. Howard and her 
two daughters toward Northampton Assizes, about a trial 
at law, in which I was concerned for them as a trustee. 
We lay this night at Henley-on-the Thames, at our 
attorney, Mr. Stephens's, who entertained us very hand- 
somely. Next day, dining at Shotover, at Sir Timothy 
Tyrill's, a sweet place, we lay at Oxford, where it was 
the time of the Act. Mr. Robert Spencer, uncle to the 

104 DIARY OF London 

Earl of Sunderland, and my old acquaintance in France, 
entertained us at his apartment in Christ Church with 
exceeding generosity. 

loth July, 1675. The Vice Chancellor Dr Bathurst 
(who had formerly taken particular caie of my son), 
President of Trinity College, invited me to dinner, and 
did me great honor all the time of my stay. The 
next day, he invited me and all my company, though 
strangers to him. to a very noble feast. I was at all the 
academic exercises. — Sunday, at St. Mary's, preached a 
Fellow of Brasen-nose, not a little magnifying the dignity 
of Churchmen. 

nth July, 1675. We heard the speeches, and saw the 
ceremony of creating doctors in Divinity, Law, and 
Physic. I had, early in the morning, heard Dr. Morison, 
Botanic Professor, read on divers plants in the Physic 
Garden ; and saw that rare collection of natural curiosities 
of Dr. Plot's, of Magdalen Hall, author of « The Natural 
History of Oxfordshire,* all of them collected in that 
shire, and indeed extraordinary, that in one county there 
should be found such variety of plants, shells, stones, 
minerals, marcasites, fowls, insects, models of works, 
crystals, agates, and marbles. He was now intending to 
visit Staffordshire, and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give 
us the natural, topical, political, and mechanical history. 
Pity it is that more of this industrious man's genius 
were not employed so to describe every county of Eng- 
land; it would be one of the most useful and illustrious 
works that was ever produced in any age or nation. 

I visited also the Bodleian Library and my old friend, 
the learned Obadiah Walker, head of University College, 
which he had now almost rebuilt, or repaired. We then 
proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived the next 

In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Gra- 
ham (since Privy Purse to the Duke), a young gentleman 
exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard, one of the 
maids of honor in our company. I could not but pity 
them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady 
was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and 
excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the 
best of men. My advice was required, and I spoke to 
the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity 

i675 JOHN EVELYN 105 

than that she deserved no better match; for, though he 
was a gentleman of good fapiily, yet there was great in- 

14th July, 1675 I went to see my Lord Sunderland's 
Seat at Althorpe, four miles from the ragged town of 
Northampton (since burned, and well rebuilt). It is 
placed in a pretty open bottom, very finely watered and 
flanked with stately woods and groves in a park, with a 
canal, but the water is not running, which is a defect. 
The house, a kind of modern building, of freestone, 
within most nobly furnished; the apartments very com- 
modious, a gallery and noble hall ; but the kitchen being 
in the body of the house, and chapel too small, were de- 
fects. There is an old yet honorable gatehouse standing 
awry, and out-housing mean, but designed to be taken 
away. It was moated round, after the old manner, but 
it is now dry, and turfed with a beautiful carpet. Above 
all, are admirable and magnificent the several ample gar- 
dens furnished with the choicest fruit, and exquisitely 
kept. Great plenty of oranges, and other curiosities. 
The park full of fowl, especially herons, and from it a 
prospect to Holmby House, which being demolished in 
the late civil wars, shows like a Roman ruin shaded by 
the trees about it, a stately, solemn, and pleasing view. 

15th July, 1675. O^r cause was pleaded in behalf of 
the mother, Mrs. Howard and her daughters, before Baron 
Thurland, who had formerly been steward of Courts for 
me; we carried our cause, as there was reason, for here 
was an impudent as well as disobedient son against his 
mother, by instigation, doubtless, of his wife, one Mrs. 
Ogle (an ancient maid), whom he had clandestinely 
married, and who brought him no fortune, he being heir- 
apparent to the Earl of Berkshire. We lay at Brickhill, 
in Bedfordshire, and came late the next day to our jour- 
ney's end. 

This was a journey of adventures and knight-errantry. 
One of the lady's servants being as desperately in love 
with Mrs. Howard's woman, as Mr. Graham was with 
her daughter, and she riding on horseback behind his 
rival, the amorous and jealous youth having a little drink 
in his pate, had here killed himself had he not been pre- 
vented; for, alighting from his horse, and drawing his 
sword, he endeavored twice or thrice to fall on it, but 

io6 DIARY OF London 

was interrupted by our coachman, and a stranger passing 
by. After this, running to his rival, and snatching his 
sword from his side (for we had beaten his own out of 
his hand), and on the sudden pulling down his mistress, 
would have run both of them through; we parted them, 
not without some blood. This miserable creature poi« 
soned himself for her not many days after they came to 

19th July, 1675. The Lord Treasurer's Chaplain 
preached at Wallingford House. 

9th Augfust, 1675. Dr. Sprat, prebend of Westminster, 
and Chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham, preached on 
the 3d Epistle of Jude, showing what the primitive faith 
was, how near it and how excellent that of the Church 
of England, also the danger of departing from it. 

27th August, 1675. I visited the Bishop of Rochester, 
at Bromley, and dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, at Frog- 
poole [Frognall]. 

2d September, 1675. I went to see Dulwich College, 
being the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous 
comedian, in King James's time. The chapel is pretty, 
the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet main- 
tains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy 
part of Camberwell parish. I came back by certain me- 
dicinal Spa waters, at a place called Sydenham Wells, in 
Lewisham parish, much frequented in summer. 

loth September, 1675. I was casually shown the 
Duchess of Portsmouth's splendid apartment at White- 
hall, luxuriously furnished, and with ten times the rich- 
ness and glory beyond the Queen's ; such massy pieces of 
plate, whole tables, and stands of incredible value. 

29th September, 1675. I saw the Italian Scaramuccio 
act before the King at Whitehall, people giving money 
to come in, which was very scandalous, and never so be- 
fore at Court diversions. Having seen him act before in 
Italy, many years past, I was not averse from seeing the 
mosc excellent of that kind of folly. 

14th October, 1675. Dined at Kensington with my old 
acquaintance, Mr. Henshaw, newly returned from Den- 
mark, where he had been left resident after the death 
of the Duke of Richmond, who died there Ambassador. 

15th October, 1675. I got an extreme cold, such as was 
afterward so epidemical, as not only to afflict us in this 


island, but was rife over all Europe, like a plague. It 
was after an exceedingly dry summer and autumn. 

I settled affairs, my son being to go into France with 
my Lord Berkeley, designed Ambassador-extraordinary 
for France and Plenipotentiary for the general treaty of 
peace at Nimeguen. 

24th October, 1675. Dined at Lord Chamberlain's 
with the Holland Ambassador L. Duras, a valiant gentel- 
man whom his Majesty made an English Baron, of a cadet, 
and gave him his seat of Holmby, in Northamptonshire. 

27th October, 1675, Lord Berkeley coming into Coun- 
cil, fell down in the gallery at Whitehall, in a fit of 
apoplexy, and being carried into my Lord Chamberlain's 
lodgings, several famous doctors were employed all that 
night, and with much ado he was at last recovered to 
some sense, by applying hot fire pans and spirit of amber 
to his head; but nothing was found so effectual as cup- 
ping him on the shoulders. It was almost a miraculous 
restoration. The next day he was carried to Berkeley 
House. This stopped his journey for the present, and 
caused my stay in town. He had put all his affairs and 
his whole estate in England into my hands during his 
intended absence, which though I was very unfit to 
undertake, in regard of many businesses which then took 
me up, yet, upon the great importunity of my lady and 
Mr. Godolphin (to whom I could refuse nothing) I did 
take it on me. It seems when he was Deputy in Ireland, 
not long before, he had been much wronged by one he 
left in trust with his affairs, and therefore wished for 
some unmercenary friend who would take that trouble 
on him; this was to receive his rents, look after his 
houses and tenants, solicit supplies from the Lord Treas- 
urer, and correspond weekly with him, more than enough 
to employ any drudge in England; but what will not 
friendship and love make one do ? 

31st October, 1675. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's, 
with my son. There were the learned Isaac Vossius, 
and Spanhemius, son of the famous man of Heidelberg; 
nor was this gentleman less learned, being a general 
scholar. Among other pieces, he was author of an excel- 
lent treatise on Medals. 

loth November, 1675. Being the day appointed for 
my Lord Ambassador to set out, I met them with my 

io8 DIARY OF dover 

coach at New Cross. There were with him my Lady 
his wife, and my dear friend, Mrs. Godolphin, who, 
out of an extraordinary friendship, would needs accom- 
pany my lady to Paris, and stay with her some time, 
which was the chief inducement for permitting my son 
to travel, but I knew him safe under her inspection, and 
in regard my Lord himself had promised to take him 
into his special favor, he having intrusted all he had to 
my care. 

Thus we set out, three coaches (besides mine), three 
wagons, and about forty horses. It being late, and my 
Lord as yet but valetudinary, we got but to Dartford, 
the first day, the next to Sittingbourne. 

At Rochester, the major, Mr. Cony, then an officer of 
mine for the sick and wounded of that place, gave the 
ladies a handsome refreshment as we came by his house. 

12th November, 1675. We came to Canterbury: and, 
next morning, to Dover. 

There was in my Lady Ambassadress's company my 
Lady Hamilton, a sprightly young lady, much in the 
good graces of the family, wife of that valiant and worthy 
gentleman, George Hamilton, not long after slain in 
the wars. She had been a maid of honor to the Duchess, 
and now turned Papist. 

14th November 1675. Being Sunday, my Lord having 
before delivered to me his letter of attorney, keys, seal, 
and his Will, we took a solemn leave of one another up- 
on the beach, the coaches carrying them into the sea to 
the boats, which delivered them to Captain Gunman's 
yacht, the " Mary. * Being under sail, the castle gave them 
seventeen guns, which Captain Gunman answered with 
eleven. Hence, I went to church, to beg a blessing on 
their voyage. 

2d December, 1675. Being returned home, I visited 
Lady Mordaunt at Parson's Green, my Lord, her son, 
being sick. This pious woman delivered to me ;!{^ioo to 
bestow as I thought fit for the release of poor prisoners, 
and other charitable uses. 

2 1 St December 1675. Visited her Ladyship again, 
where I found the Bishop of Winchester, whom I had long 
known in France ; he invited me to his house at Chelsea. 

23d December, 1675. Lady Sunderland gave me ten 
guineas, to bestow in charities. 

I67S-76 JOHN EVELYN 109 

20th February, 1675-76. Dr. Gunning, Bishop of Ely, 
preached before the King from St. John xx 21, 22, 23, 
chiefly against an anonymous book^ called " Naked Truth,* 
a famous and popular treatise against the corruption in 
the Clergy, but not sound as to its quotations, supposed 
to have been the Bishop of Hereford's and was answered 
by Dr. Turner, it endeavoring to prove an equality of 
order of Bishop and Presbyter. 

27th February, 1676. Dr. Pritchard, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, preached at Whitehall, on Isaiah, v. 5, very alle- 
gorically, according to his manner, yet very gravely and 

29th February, 1676. I dined with Mr. Povey, one of 
the Masters of Requests, a nice contriver of all elegancies, 
and exceedingly formal. Supped with Sir J. Williamson, 
where were of our Society Mr. Robert Boyle, Sir Chris- 
topher Wren, Sir William Petty, Dr. Holden, subdean 
of his Majesty's Chapel, Sir James Shaen, Dr. Whistler, 
and our Secretary, Mr. Oldenburg. 

4th March, 1676. Sir Thomas Linch was returned from 
his government of Jamaica. 

1 6th March, 1676. The Countess of Sunderland and I 
went by water to Parson's Green, to visit my Lady Mor- 
daunt, and to consult with her about my Lord's monu- 
ment. We returned by coach. 

19th March, 1676. Dr. Lloyd, late Curate of Deptford, 
but now Bishop of Llandaff, preached before the King, 
on I Cor. XV. 57, that though sin subjects us to death, 
yet through Christ we become his conquerors. 

23d March, 1676. To Twickenham Park, Lord Berke- 
ley's country seat, to examine how the bailiffs and serv- 
ants ordered matters. 

24th March, 1676. Dr. Brideoake, Bishop of Chiches- 
ter, preached a mean discourse for a Bishop. I also 
heard Dr. Fleetwood, Bishop of Worcester, on Matt, 
xxvi. 38, of the sorrows of Christ, a deadly sorrow caused 
by our sins; he was no great preacher. 

30th March, 1676. Dining with my Lady Sunderland, 
I saw a fellow swallow a knife, and divers great pebble 
stones, which would make a plain rattling one against 
another. The knife was in a sheath of horn. 

Dr. North, son of my Lord North, preached before 
the King, on Isaiah liii. 57, a very young but learned 

no DIARY OF enfield 

and excellent person. Note. This was the first time the 
Duke appeared no more in chapel, to the infinite grief 
and threatened ruin of this poor nation. 

2d April, 1676. I had now notice that my dear friend, 
Mrs. Godolphin, was returning from Paris. On the 6th, 
she arrived to my great joy, whom I most heartily wel- 

28th April, 1676. My wife entertained her Majesty at 
Deptford, for which the Queen gave me thanks in the 
withdrawing room at Whitehall. 

The University of Oxford presented me with the * Mar- 
mora Oxoniensia Arundeliana */ the Bishop of Oxford 
writing to desire that I would introduce Mr. Prideaux, 
the editor ( a young man most learned in antiquities ) to 
the Duke of Norfolk, to present another dedicated to his 
Grace, which I did, and we dined with the Duke at 
Arundel House, and supped at the Bishop of Rochester's 
with Isaac Vossius. 

7th May, 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York about 
my Lord Berkeley's going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the 
Queen's Council at Somerset House, about Mrs. Godol- 
phin's lease of Spalding, in Lincolnshire. 

nth May, 1676. I dined with Mr. Charleton, and went 
to see Mr Montague's new palace, near Bloomsbury, 
built by Mr. Hooke, of our Society, after the French 
manner * 

13th May, 1676. Returned home, and found my son 
returned from France; praised be God! 

22d May, 1676. Trinity Monday. A chaplain of my 
Lord Ossory's preached, after which we took barge to 
Trinity House in London. Mr. Pepys (Secretary of the 
Admiralty) succeeded my Lord as Master. 

2d June, 1676. I went with my Lord Chamberlain to 
see a garden, at Enfield town; thence, to Mr. Secretary 
Coventry's lodge in the Chase. It is a very pretty place, 
the house commodious, the gardens handsome, and our 
entertainment very free, there being none but my 
Lord and myself. That which I most wondered at was, 
that, in the compass of twenty-five miles, yet within 
fourteen of London, there is not a house, bam, church, 
or building, besides three lodges. To this Lodge are 
three great ponds, and some few inclosures, the rest a 

* Now the British Museum. 

1676 JOHN EVELYN 111 

solitary desert, yet stored with no less than 3,000 deer. 
These are pretty retreats for gentlemen, especially for 
those who are studious and lovers of privacy. 

We returned in the evening by Hampstead; to see 
Lord Wotton's house and garden (Bellsize House), built 
with vast expense by Mr. O'Neale, an Irish gentleman 
who married Lord Wotton's mother, Lady Stanhope. 
The furniture is very particular for Indian cabinets, por- 
celain, and other solid and noble movables. The gal- 
lery very fine, the gardens very large, but ill kept, yet 
woody and chargeable The soil a cold weeping clay, 
not answering the expense. 

12th June, 1676. I went to see Sir Thomas Bond's 
new and fine house by Peckham; it is on a flat, but has 
a fine garden and prospect through the meadows to 

2d July, 1676. Dr. Castillion, Prebend of Canterbury, 
preached before the King, on John xv. 22, at Whitehall. 

19th July, 1676. Went to the funeral of Sir William 
Sanderson, husband to the Mother of the Maids, and 
author of two large but mean histories of King James 
and King Charles I. He was buried at Westminster. 

ist August, 1676. In the afternoon, after prayers at 
St. James's Chapel, was christened a daughter of Dr. 
Leake's, the Dukes Chaplain: godmothers were Lady 
Mary, daughter of the Duke of York, and the Duchess 
of Monmouth: godfather, the Earl of Bath. 

15th August, 1676. Came to dine with me my Lord 
Halifax, Sir Thomas Meeres, one of the Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, Sir John Clayton, Mr. Slingsby, Mr. 
Henshaw, and Mr Bridgeman. 

25th August, 1676. Dined with Sir John Banks at his 
house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, on recommending Mr. 
Upman to be tutor to his son going into France. This 
Sir John Banks was a merchant of small begfinning, but 
had amassed ;^ 100, 000. 

26th August, 1676. I dined at the Admiralty with 
Secretar}"- Pepys, and supped at the Lord Chamberlain's. 
Here was Captain Baker, who had been lately on the 
attempt of the Northwest passage. He reported prodi- 
gfious depth of ice, blue as a sapphire, and as transparent. 
The thick mists were their chief impediment, and cause 
of their return. 


2d September, 1676. I paid ;^ 1,700 to the Marquis de 
Sissac, which he had lent to my Lord Berkeley, and which 
I heard the Marquis lost at play in a night or two. 

The Dean of Chichester preached before the King, on 
Acts xxiv. 16; and Dr. Crichton preached the second 
sermon before him on Psalm xc. 12, of wisely numbering 
our days, and well employing our time. 

3d September. 1676. Dined at Captain Graham's, where 
I became acquainted with Dr. Compton (brother to the 
Earl of Northampton), now Bishop of London, and Mr. 
North, son to the Lord North, brother to the Lord Chief- 
Justice and Clerk of the Closet, a most hopeful young 
man. The Bishop had once been a soldier, had also 
traveled in Italy, and became a most sober, grave, and ex- 
cellent prelate. 

6th September, 1676. Supped at the Lord Chamber- 
lain's, where also supped the famous beauty and errant 
lady, the Duchess of Mazarine (all the world knows her 
story), the Duke of Monmouth, Countess of Sussex (both 
natural children of the King by the Duchess of Cleve- 
land*), and the Countess of Derby, a virtuous lady, 
daughter to my best friend, the Earl of Ossory. 

loth September, 1676. Dined with me Mr. Flamsted, 
the learned astrologer and mathematician, whom his Maj- 
esty had established in the new Observatory in Greenwich 
Park, furnished with the choicest instruments. An hon- 
est, sincere man. 

12th September, 1676. To London, to take order about 
the building of a house, or rather an apartment, which 
had all the conveniences of a house, for my dear friend, 
Mr. Godolphin and lady, which I undertook to contrive 
and survey, and employ workmen until it should be quite 
finished; it being just over against his Majesty's wood- 
yard by the Thames side, leading to Scotland Yard. 

19th September, 1676. To Lambeth, to that rare mag- 

* Evelyn makes a slip here. The Diike of Monmouth's mother was, 
it is well known, Lucy Walters, sometimes called Mrs. Barlow, and 
heretofore mentioned in the « Diary. » Nor is he more correct as to the 
Countess of Sussex. Lady Anne Fitzroy, as she is called in the Peerage 
books, was married to Lennard Dacre, Earl of Sussex, by whom she left 
a daughter only, who succeeded on her father's death to the Barony of 
Dacre. On the other hand, the Duke of Southampton, the Duke of 
Grafton, and the Duke of Northumberland, were all of them children 
of Charles II. by the Duchess of Cleveland. 

1676 JOHN EVELYN 113 

azine of marble, to take order for chimney-pieces, etc., 
for Mr. Godolphin's house. The owner of the works had 
built for himself a pretty dwelling house ; this Dutchman 
had contracted with the Genoese for all their marble. 
We also saw the Duke of Buckingham's glasswork, where 
they made huge vases of metal as clear, ponderous, and 
thick as crystal; also looking-glasses far larger and bet- 
ter than any that come from Venice. 

9th October, 1676. I went with Mrs. Godolphin and 
my wife to Blackwall, to see some Indian curiosities ; the 
streets being slippery, I fell against a piece of timber 
with such violence that I could not speak nor fetch my 
breath for some space; being carried into a house and 
let blood, I was removed to the water-side and so home, 
where, after a day's rest, I recovered. This being one of 
my greatest deliverances, the Lord Jesus make me ever 
mindful and thankful! 

31st October, 1676. Being my birthday, and fifty-six 
years old, I spent the morning in devotion and imploring 
God's protection, with solemn thanksgiving for all his 
signal mercies to me, especially for that escape which 
concerned me this month at Blackwall. Dined with Mrs. 
Godolphin, and returned home through a prodigious and 
dangerous mist. 

9th November, 1676. Finished the lease of Spalding, 
for Mr. Godolphin. 

1 6th November, 1676. My son and I dining at my 
Lord Chamberlain's, he showed us among others that in- 
comparable piece of Raphael's, being a Minister of State 
dictating to Guicciardini, the earnestness of whose face 
looking up in expectation of what he was next to write, 
is so to the life, and so natural, as I esteem it one of 
the choicest pieces of that admirable artist. There was 
a woman's head of Leonardo da Vinci ; a Madonna of old 
Palma, and two of Vandyke's, of which one was his own 
picture at length, when young, in a leaning posture; the 
other, an eunuch, singing. Rare pieces indeed! 

4th December, 1676. I saw the great ball danced by 
all the gallants and ladies at the Duchess of York's. 

loth December, 1676. There fell so deep a snow as 
hindered us from church. 

12th December, 1676. To London, in so great a snow, 
as I remember not to have seen the like. 


17th December, 1676. More snow falling, I was not 
able to get to church. 

8th February, 1676-77. I went to Roehampton, with 
my Lady Duchess of Ormond. The garden and perspec- 
tive is pretty, the prospect most agreeable. 

15th May, 1677, Came the Earl of Peterborough, to 
desire me to be a trustee for Lord Viscount Mordaunt 
and the Countess, for the sale of certain lands set out 
by Act of Parliament, to pay debts. 

12th June, 1677. I went to London, to give the Lord 
Ambassador Berkeley (now returned from the treaty at 
Nimeguen ) an account of the great trust reposed in me 
during his absence, I having received and remitted to 
him no less than ;;^2o,ooo to my no small trouble and 
loss of time, that during his absence, and when the 
Lord Treasurer was no great friend [of his] I yet 
procured him great sums, very often soliciting his 
Majesty in his behalf; looking after the rest of his 
estates and concerns entirely, without once accepting 
any kind of acknowledgment, purely upon the request of 
my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin. I returned with abun- 
dance of thanks and professions from my Lord Berkeley 
and my Lady. 

29th June, 1677. This business being now at an end, 
and myself delivered from that intolerable servitude and 
correspondence, I had leisure to be somewhat more at 
home and to myself. 

3d July, 1677. I sealed the deeds of sale of the manor 
of Blechingley to Sir Robert Clayton, for payment of 
Lord Peterborough's debts, according to the trust of the 
Act of Parliament. 

i6th July, 1677, I went to Wotton. — 22d. Mr. Evans, 
curate of Abinger, preached an excellent sermon on 
Matt. v. 12. In the afternoon, Mr. Higham at Wotton 

26th July, 1677. I dined at Mr. Duncomb's, at Sheere, 
whose house stands environed with very sweet and quick 

29th July, 1677. Mr. Bohun, my Son's late tutor, 
preached at Abinger, on Phil., iv. 8, very elegantly and 

5th August, 1677. I went to visit my Lord Brounker, 
now taking the waters at Dulwich. 

1676-77 JOHN EVELYN 115 

9th August, 1677. Dined at the Earl of Peterborough's 
the day after the marriage of my Lord of Arundel to 
Lady Mary Mordaunt, daughter of the Earl of Peter- 

28th August, 1677. To visit my Lord Chamberlain, in 
Suffolk; he sent his coach and six to meet and bring 
me from St. Edmund's Bury to Euston. 

29th Aug-ust, 1677. We hunted in the Park and killed a 
very fat buck. 

31st August, 1677. I went a hawking. 

4th September, 1677. I went to visit my Lord Crofts, 
now dying at St. Edmunds Bury, and took the oppor- 
tunity to see this ancient town, and the remains of that 
famous monastery and abbey. There is little standing 
entire, save the gatehouse; it has been a vast and mag- 
nificent Gothic structure, and of great extent. The gates 
are wood, but quite plated over with iron. There are 
also two stately churches, one especially. 

5th September, 1677. I went to Thetford, to the 
borough-town, where stand the ruins of a religious house : 
there is a round mountain artificially raised, either for 
some castle, or monument, which makes a pretty land- 
scape. As we went and returned, a tumbler showed his 
extraordinary address in the Warren. I also saw the 
Decoy; much pleased with the stratagem. 

7th September, 1677. There dined this day at my 
Lord's one Sir John Gaudy, a very handsome person, 
but quite dumb, yet very intelligent by signs, and a 
very fine painter; he was so civil and well bred, as it 
was not possible to discern any imperfection in him. 
His lady and children were also there, and he was at 
church in the morning with us. 

9th September, 1677. A stranger preached at Euston 
Church, and fell into a handsome panegyric on my Lord's 
new building the church, which indeed for its elegance 
and cheerfulness, is one of the prettiest country churches 
in England. My Lord told me his heart smote him that, 
after he had bestowed so much on his magfnificent palace 
there, he should see God's House in the ruin it lay in. 
He has also rebuilt the parsonage-house, all of stone, 
very neat and ample. 

loth September, 1677. To divert me, my Lord would 
needs carry me to see Ipswich, when we dined with one 


Mr. Mann by the way, who was Recorder of the town. 
There were in our company my Lord Huntingtower, son 
to the Duchess of Lauderdale, Sir Edward Bacon, a 
learned gentleman of the family of the great Chancellor 
Verulam, and Sir John Felton, with some other knights 
and gentlemen. After dinner came the bailiff and 
magistrates in their formalities with their maces to com- 
pliment my Lord, and invite him to the town-house, 
where they presented us a collation of dried sweetmeats 
and wine, the bells ringing, etc. Then, we went to see 
the town, and first, the Lord Viscount Hereford's house, 
which stands in a park near the town, like that at Brus- 
sels, in Flanders; the house not great, yet pretty, espe- 
cially the hall. The stews for fish succeeded one another, 
and feed one the other, all paved at bottom. There is a 
good picture of the blessed virgin in one of the parlors, 
seeming to be of Holbein, or some good master. Then 
we saw the Haven, seven miles from Harwich. The tide 
runs out every day, but the bedding being soft mud, it 
is safe for shipping and a station. The trade of Ipswich 
is for the most part Newcastle coals, with which they 
supply London; but it was formerly a clothing town. 
There is not any beggar asks alms in the whole place, 
a thing very extraordinary, so ordered by the prudence 
of the magistrates. It has in it fourteen or fifteen beau' 
tiful churches: in a word, it is for building, cleanness, 
and good order, one of the best towns in England. Car- 
dinal Wolsey was a butcher's son of Ipswich, but there 
is little of that magnificent Prelate's foundation here, 
besides a school and I think a library, which I did not 
see. His intentions were to build some great thing. 
We returned late to Euston, having traveled about fifty 
miles this day. 

Since first I was at this place, I found things exceed- 
ingly improved. It is seated in a bottom between two 
graceful swellings, the main building being now in the 
figure of a Greek II with four pavilions, two at each 
comer, and a break in the front, railed and balustered at 
the top, where I caused huge jars to be placed full of earth 
to keep them steady upon their pedestals between the stat- 
ues, which make as good a show as if they were of 
stone, and, though the building be of brick, and but 
two stories besides cellars and garrets covered with 

i677 JOHN EVELYN 117 

blue slate, yet there is room enough for a full court, the 
offices and outhouses being so ample and well disposed. 
The King's apartment is painted ct fresco, and magnifi- 
cently furnished. There are many excellent pictures of 
the great masters. The gallery is a pleasant, noble 
room; in the break, or middle, is a billiard table, but 
the wainscot, being of fir, and painted, does not please 
me so well as Spanish oak without paint. The chapel is 
pretty, the porch descending to the gardens. The orange 
garden is very fine, and leads into the greenhouse, at 
the end of which is a hall to eat in, and the conserva- 
tory some hundred feet long, adorned with maps, as the 
other side is with the heads of the Caesars, ill cut in 
alabaster; above are several apartments for my Lord, 
Lady, and Duchess, with kitchens and other offices be- 
low, in a lesser form; lodgings for servants, all distinct 
for them to retire to when they please and would be in 
private, and have no communication with the palace, 
which he tells me he will wholly resign to his son-in- 
law and daughter, that charming young creature. 

The canal running under my Lady's dressing room 
chamber window, is full of carps and fowl, which come 
and are fed there. The cascade at the end of the canal 
turns a cornmill that provides the family, and raises 
water for the fountains and offices. To pass this canal 
into the opposite meadows, Sir Samuel Morland has in- 
vented a screw bridge, which, being turned with a key, 
lands you fifty feet distant at the entrance of an ascend- 
ing walk of trees, a mile in length, — as it is also on the 
front into the park, — of four rows of ash trees, and reaches 
to the park pale, which is nine miles in compass, and the 
best for riding and meeting the game that I ever saw. 
There were now of red and fallow deer almost a thou- 
sand, with good covert, but the soil barren and flying 
sand, in which nothing will grow kindly. The tufts of 
fir, and much of the other wood, were planted by my di- 
rection some years before. This seat is admirably 
placed for field sports, hawking, hunting, or racing. 
The mutton is small, but sweet. The stables hold thirty 
horses and four coaches. The out-offices make two large 
quadrangles, so as servants never lived with more ease 
and convenience; never master more civil. Strangers 
are attended and accommodated as at their home, in 


pretty apartments furnished with all manner of conven- 
iences and privacy. 

There is a library full of excellent books ; bathing rooms, 
elaboratory, dispensary, a decoy, and places to keep and fat 
fowl in. He had now in his new church (near the gar- 
den) built a dormitojy, or vault, with several repositories, 
in which to bury his family. 

In the expense of this pious structure, the church is 
most laudable, most of the houses of God in this country 
resembling rather stables and thatched cottages than 
temples in which to serve the Most High. He has built 
a lodge in the park for the keeper, which is a neat dwell- 
ing, and might become any gentleman. The same has he 
done for the parson, little deserving it for murmuring 
that my Lord put him some time out of his wretched 
hovel, while it was building. He has also erected a fair 
inn at some distance from his palace, with a bridge of 
stone over a river near it, and repaired all the tenants* 
houses, so as there is nothing but neatness and accommo- 
dations about his estate, which I yet think is not above 
;;^i,5oo a year. I believe he had now in his family one 
hundred domestic servants. 

His lady (being one of the Brederode's daughters, 
gfrandchild to a natural son of Henry Frederick, Prince 
of Orange) is a good-natured and obliging woman. They 
love fine things, and to live easily, pompously, and hos- 
pitably; but, with so vast expense, as plunges my Lord 
into debts exceedingly. My Lord himself is given into 
no expensive vice but building, and to have all things 
rich, polite, and princely. He never plays, but reads 
much, having the Latin, French, and Spanish tongues in 
perfection. He has traveled much, and is the best bred 
and courtly person his Majesty has about him, so as the 
public Ministers more frequent him than any of the rest 
of the nobility. While he was Secretary of State and 
Prime Minister, he had gotten vastly, but spent it as 
hastily, even before he had established a fund to main- 
tain his greatness ; and now beginning to decline in favor 
(the Duke being no great friend of his), he knows not 
how to retrench. He was son of a Doctor of Laws, whom 
I have seen, and, being sent from Westminster School to 
Oxford, with intention to be a divine, and parson of Ar- 
lington, a village near Brentford, when Master of Arts 

i677 JOHN EVELYN 119 

the Rebellion falling out, he followed the King's Army, 
and receiving an honorable wound in the face, gfrew 
into favor, and was advanced from a mean fortune, at his 
Majesty's Restoration, to be an Earl and Knight of the 
Garter, Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and first 
favorite for a long time, during which the King married 
his natural son, the Duke of Grafton, to his only daughter 
and heiress, as before mentioned, worthy for her beauty 
and virtue of the greatest prince in Christendom. My 
Lord is, besides this, a prudent and understanding person 
in business, and speaks well ; unfortunate yet in those he 
has advanced, most of them proving ungrateful. The 
many obligations and civilities I have received from this 
noble gentleman, extracts from me this character, and I 
am sorry he is in no better circumstances. 

Having now passed near three weeks at Euston, to 
my great satisfaction, with much difficulty he suffered 
me to look homeward, being very earnest with me to 
stay longer; and, to engage me, would himself have 
carried me to Lynn-Regis, a town of important traffic, 
about twenty miles beyond, which I had never seen; as 
also the Traveling Sands, about ten miles wide of Eus- 
ton, that have so damaged the country, rolling from 
place to place, and, like the Sands in the Deserts of 
Lybia, quite overwhelmed some gentlemen's whole estates, 
as the relation extant in print, and brought to our So- 
ciety, describes at large 

13th September, 1677. My Lord's coach conveyed me 
to Bury, and thence baiting at Newmarket, stepping in 
at Audley-End to see that house again, I slept at Bishop- 
Stortford, and, the next day, home. I was accompanied 
in my journey by Major Fairfax, of a younger house 
of the Lord Fairfax, a soldier, a traveler, an excel- 
lent musician, a good-natured, well-bred gentleman. 

1 8th September, 1677. I preferred Mr. Phillips (nephew 
of Milton) to the service of my Lord Chamberlain, who 
wanted a scholar to read to and entertain him some- 

12th October, 1677. With Sir Robert Clayton to Mar- 
den, an estate he had bought lately of my kinsman. Sir 
John Evelyn, of Godstone, in Surrey, which from a des- 
picable farmhouse Sir Robert had erected into a seat 
with, extraordinary expense. It is in such a solitude 


among hills, as, being not above sixteen miles from Lon- 
don, seems almost incredible, the ways up to it are so 
winding and intricate. The gardens are large, and well- 
walled, and the husbandry part made very convenient 
and perfectly understood. The bams, the stacks of com, 
the stalls for cattle, pigeon house, etc., of most laudable 
example. Innumerable are the plantations of trees, 
especially walnuts. The orangery and gardens are very 
curious. In the house are large and noble rooms. He 
and his lady (who is very curious in distillery) enter- 
tained me three or four days very freely. I earnestly 
suggested to him the repairing of an old desolate dilap- 
idated church, standing on the hill above the house, 
which I left him in good disposition to do, and endow 
it better; there not being above four or five houses in 
the parish, besides that of this prodigious rich Scrivener. 
This place is exceedingly sharp in the winter, by reason 
of the serpentining of the hills: and it wants running 
water; but the solitude much pleased me. All the 
ground is so full of wild thyme, marjoram, and other 
sweet plants, that it cannot be overstocked with bees; 
I think he had near forty hives of that industrious in- 

14th October, 1677. I went to church at Godstone, 
and to see old Sir John Evelyn's dormitory, joining to 
the church, paved with marble, where he and his Lady 
lie on a very stately monument at length; he in armor 
of white marble. The inscription is only an account 
of his particular branch of the family, on black marble. 

15th October, 1677. Returned to London; in the even- 
ing, I saw the Prince of Orange, and supped with Lord 

23d October, 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange; 
his marriage with the Lady Mary, eldest daughter to 
the Duke of York, by Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was 
now declared. 

nth November, 1677. I was all this week composing 
matters between old Mrs. Howard and Sir Gabriel Syl- 
vius, upon his long and earnest addresses to Mrs. Anne, 
her second daughter, maid of honor to the Queen My 
friend, Mrs. Godolphin ( who exceedingly loved the young 
lady) was most industrious in it, out of pity to the lan- 
guishing knight ; so as though there were great differences 

1677-78 JOHN EVELYN 121 

in their years, it was at last effected, and they were 
married the 13th, in Henry VII. 's Chapel, by the Bishop 
of Rochester, there being besides my wife and Mrs, Gra- 
ham, her sister, Mrs. Godolphin, and very few more. 
We dined at the old lady's, and supped at Mr. Graham's 
at St. James's. 

15th November, 1677. The Queen's birthday, a great 
ball at Court, where the Prince of Orange and his new 
Princess danced. 

19th November, 1677. They went away, and I saw 
embarked my Lady Sylvius, who went into Holland with 
her husband, made Hoffmaester to the Prince, a consider- 
able employment. We parted with great sorrow, for the 
great respect and honor I bore her, a most pious and 
virtuous lady. 

27th November, 1677. Dined at the Lord Treasurer's 
with Prince Rupert, Viscount Falkenburg, Earl of Bath, 
Lord O'Brien, Sir John Lowther, Sir Christopher Wren, 
Dr. Grew, and other learned men. 

30th November, 1677. Sir Joseph Williamson, Princi- 
pal Secretary of State, was chosen President of the Royal 
Society, after my Lord Viscount Brounker had possessed 
the chair now sixteen years successively, and therefore 
now thought fit to change, that prescription might not 

4th December, 1677. Being the first day of his taking 
the chair, he gave us a magnificent supper. 

20th December, 1677. Carried to my Lord Treasurer 
an account of the Earl of Bristol's Library, at Wimble- 
don, which my Lord thought of purchasing, till I 
acquainted him that it was a very broken collection, con- 
sisting much in books of judicial astrology, romances, and 

25th December, 1677. I gave my son an office, with 
instructions how to govern his youth; I pray God give 
him the grace to make a right use of it! 

23d January, 1677-78. Dined with the Duke of Nor- 
folk, being the first time I had seen him since the death 
of his elder brother, who died at Padua in Italy, where 
he had resided above thirty years. The Duke had now 
newly declared his marriage to his concubine, whom he 
promised me he never would marry. I went with him 
to see the Duke of Buckingham, thence to my Lord 


Sunderland, now Secretary of State, to show him that 
rare piece of Vosterman's (son of old Vosterman), which 
was a view, or landscape of my Lord's palace, etc., at 
Althorpe in Northamptonshire. 

8th February, 1678. Supping- at my Lord Chamber- 
lain's I had a long discourse with the Count de Castel 
Mellor, lately Prime Minister in Portugal, who, taking 
part with his master. King Alphonso, was banished by 
his brother, Don Pedro, now Regent; but had behaved 
himself so uncorruptly in all his ministry that, though 
he was acquitted, and his estate restored, yet would 
they not suffer him to return. He is a very intelligent 
and worthy gentleman. 

1 8th February, 1678. My Lord Treasurer sent for me 
to accompany him to Wimbledon, which he had lately 
purchased of the Earl of Bristol; so breaking fast with 
him privately in his chamber, I accompanied him with 
two of his daughters, my Lord Conway, and Sir Bernard 
Gascoyne; and, having surveyed his gardens and altera- 
tions, returned late at night. 

22d February, 1678. Dr. Pierce preached at Whitehall, 
on 2 Thessalonians iii. 6, against our late schismatics, in 
a rational discourse, but a little over-sharp, and not at all 
proper for the auditory there. 

2 2d March, 1678. Dr. South preached coram Rege, an 
incomparable discourse on this text, *A wounded spirit 
who can bear ! * Note : Now was our Communion table 
placed altarwise; the church steeple, clock, and other 
reparations finished. 

1 6th April, 1678. I showed Don Emmanuel de Lyra 
(Portugal Ambassador) and the Count de Castel Mellor, 
the Repository of the Royal Society, and the College of 

i8th April, 1678. I went to see new Bedlam Hospital, 
magnificently built, and most sweetly placed in Moorfields, 
since the dreadful fire in London. 

28th June, 1678. I went to Windsor with my Lord 
Chamberlain (the castle now repairing with exceeding 
cost) to see the rare work of Verrio, an incomparable 
carving of Gibbons. 

29th June, 1678. Returned with my Lord by Hounslow 
Heath, where we saw the newly raised army encamped, 
designed against France, in pretense, at least ; but which 

1678 JOHN EVELYN 123 

gave umbrag-e to the Parliament. His Majesty and a 
world of company were in the field, and the whole army 
in battalia; a very glorious sight. Now were brought 
into service a new sort of soldiers, called Grenadiers, 
who were dexterous in flinging hand grenados, everyone 
having a pouch full; they had furred caps with coped 
crowns like Janizaries, which made them look very fierce, 
and some had long hoods hanging down behind, as we 
picture fools. Their clothing being likewise piebald, yel- 
low and red. 

8th July, 1678. Came to dine with me my Lord 
Longford, Treasurer of Ireland, nephew to that learned 
gentleman, my Lord Aungier, with whom I was long 
since acquainted ; also the Lady Stidolph, and other com- 

19th July, 1678. The Earl of Ossory came to take his 
leave of me, going into Holland to command the English 

20th July, 1678, I went to the Tower to try a metal 
at the Assay-master's, which only proved sulphur; then 
saw Monsieur Rotiere, that excellent graver belonging to 
the Mint, who emulates even the ancients, in both metal 
and stone;* he was now molding a horse for the King's 
statue, to be cast in silver, of a yard high. I dined with 
Mr. Slingsby, Master of the Mint. 

23d July, 1678. Went to see Mr. Elias Ashmole's 
library and curiosities, at Lambeth. He had divers 
MSS., but most of them astrological, to which study he 
is addicted, though I believe not learned, but very in- 
dustrious, as his History of the order of the Garter 
proves. He showed me a toad included in amber. The 
prospect from a turret is very fine, it being so near 
London, and yet not discovering any house about the 
country. The famous John Tradescant bequeathed his 
Repository to this gentleman, who has given them to 
the University of Oxford, and erected a lecture on them, 
over the laboratory, in imitation of the Royal Society. 

Mr. Godolphin was made master of the robes to the King. 

25th July, 1678. There was sent me jQto; from whom 
I knew not, to be by me distributed among poor people ; I 

♦Doubtless Philip Rotiere, who introduced the figfure of Britannia 
into the coinage, taking for his model the King's favorite, Frances 
Stewart, Duchess of Richmond. 


afterward found it was from that dear friend ( Mrs. Godol- 
phin), who had frequently given me large sums to be- 
stow on charities. 

1 6th August, 1678, I went to Lady Mordaunt, who 
put jQioo into my hand to dispose of for pious uses, re- 
lief of prisoners, poor, etc. Many a sum had she sent 
me on similar occasions; a blessed creature she was, and 
one that loved and feared God exemplaily. 

23d August, 1678. Upon Sir Robert Reading's impor- 
tunity, I went to visit the Duke of Norfolk, at his new 
palace at Weybridge, where he has laid out in building 
near ;^i 0,000, on a copyhold, and in a miserable, bar- 
ren, sandy place by the street side ; never in my life had 
I seen such expense to so small purpose. The rooms are 
wainscotted, and some of them richly pargeted with ce- 
dar, yew, cypress, etc. There are some good pictures, 
especially that incomparable painting of Holbein's, where 
the Duke of Norfolk, Charles Brandon and Henry VHL, 
are dancing with the three ladies, with most amorous 
countenances, and sprightly motion exquisitely expressed. 
It is a thousand pities (as I told my Lord of Arundel, 
his son), that that jewel should be given away. 

24th August, 1678. I went to see my Lord of St. Al- 
ban's house, at Byfleet, an old, large building. Thence, 
to the papermills, where I found them making a coarse 
white paper. They cull the rags which are linen for 
white paper, woolen for brown; then they stamp them 
in troughs to a pap, with pestles, or hammers, like the 
powder mills, then put it into a vessel of water, in which 
they dip a frame closely wired with wire as small as a 
hair and as close as a weaver's reed; on this they take 
up the pap, the superfluous water draining through the 
wire ; this they dexterously turning, shake out like a pan- 
cake on a smooth board between two pieces of flannel, 
then press it between a great press, the flannel sucking 
out the moisture; then, taking it out, they ply and dry 
it on strings, as they dry linen in the laundry; then dip 
it in alum water, lastly, polish and make it up in quires. 
They put some gum in the water in which they macer- 
ate the rags. The mark we find on the sheets is formed 
in the wire. 

25th August, 1678. After evening prayer, visited Mr. 
Sheldon (nephew to the late Archbishop of Canterbury), 

i678 JOHN EVELYN 125 

and his pretty melancholy garden; I took notice of the 
largest arbor thuyris I had ever seen. The place is finely 
watered, and there are many curiosities of India, shown 
in the house. 

There was at Weybridge the Duchess of Norfolk, Lord 
Thomas Howard ( a worthy and virtuous gentleman, 
with whom my son was sometime bred in Arundel House), 
who was newly come from Rome, where he had been 
some time; also one of the Duke's daughters, by his first 
lady. My Lord leading me about the house made no 
scruple of showing me all the hiding places for the Pop- 
ish priests, and where they said mass, for he was no 
bigoted Papist. He told me he never trusted them with 
any secret, and used Protestants only in all businesses 
of importance. 

I went this evening with my Lord Duke to Windsor, 
where was a magnificent Court, it being the first time 
of his Majesty's removing thither since it was repaired. 

27th August, 1678. I took leave of the Duke, and dined 
at Mr. Henry Bruncker's, at the Abbey of Sheene, form- 
erly a monastery of Carthusians, there yet remaining one of 
their solitary cells with a cross. Within this ample in- 
closure are several pretty villas and fine gardens of the 
most excellent fruits, especially Sir William Temple's 
(lately Ambassador into Holland), and the Lord Lisle's, 
son to the Earl of Leicester, who has divers rare pictures, 
above all, that of Sir Brian Tuke's, by Holbein. 

After dinner I walked to Ham, to see the ^house and 
garden of the Duke of Lauderdale, which is indeed in- 
ferior to few of the best villas in Italy itself; the house 
furnished like a great Prince's; the parterres, flower- 
gardens, orangeries, groves, avenues, courts, statues, 
perspectives, fountains, aviaries, and all this at the banks 
of the sweetest river in the world, must needs be ad- 

Hence, I went to my worthy friend. Sir Henry Capel 
[at Kew], brother to the Earl of Essex ; it is an old timber- 
house ; but his garden has the choicest fruit of any plan- 
tation in England, as he is the most industrious and 
understanding in it. 

29th August, 1678. I was called to London to wait 
upon the Duke of Norfolk, who having at my sole re- 
quest bestowed the Arundelian Library on the Royal 


Society; sent to me to take charge of the books, and re- 
move them, only stipulating that I would suffer the 
Herald's chief officer, Sir William Dugdale, to have such 
of them as concerned heraldry and the marshal's office, 
books of armory and genealogies, the Duke being Earl 
Marshal of England. I procured for our Society, besides 
printed books, near one hundred MSS. some in Greek of 
great concernment. The printed books being of the old- 
est impressions, are not the less valuable ; I esteem them 
almost equal to MSS. Among them, are most of the 
Fathers, printed at Basil, before the. Jesuits abused them 
with their expurgatory Indexes; there is a noble MS. of 
Vitruvius. Many of these books had been presented by 
Popes, Cardinals, and great persons, to the Earls of Arun- 
del and Dukes of Norfolk ; and the late magnificent Earl 
of Arundel bought a noble library in Germany, which is 
in this collection. I should not, for the honor I bear the 
family, have persuaded the Duke to part with these, had 
I not seen how negligent he was of them, suffering the 
priests and everybody to carry away and dispose of what 
they pleased; so that abundance of rare things are irre- 
coverably gone. 

Having taken order here, I went to the Royal Society 
to give them an account of what I had procured, that 
they might call a Council and appoint a day to wait on 
the Duke to thank him for this munificent gift. 

3d September, 1678. I went to London, to dine with 
Mrs. Godolphin, and found her in labor; she was brought 
to bed of a son, who was baptized in the chamber, by 
the name of Francis, the susceptors being Sir William 
Godolphin (head of the family), Mr. John Hervey, Treas- 
urer to the Queen, and Mrs. Boscawen, sister to Sir 
William and the father. 

8th September, 1678. While I was at church came a 
letter from Mr. Godolphin, that my dear friend his lady 
was exceedingly ill, and desiring my prayers and assist- 
ance. My wife and I took boat immediately, and went 
to Whitehall, where, to my inexpressible sorrow, I found 
she had been attacked with a new fever, then reigning 
this excessive hot autumn, and which was so violent, 
that it was not thought she could last many hours. 

9th September, 1678. She died in the 26th year of her 
age, to the inexpressible affliction of her dear husband, 

1678 JOHN EVELYN 127 

and all her relations, but of none in the world more than 
of myself, who lost the most excellent and inestimable 
friend that ever lived. Never was a more virtuous and 
inviolable friendship; never a more religious, discreet, 
and admirable creature, beloved of all, admired of all, 
for all possible perfections of her sex. She is gone to 
receive the reward of her signal charity, and all other 
her Christian graces, too blessed a creature to converse 
with mortals, fitted as she was, by a most holy life, to 
be received into the mansions above. She was for wit, 
beauty, good nature, fidelity, discretion, and all accom- 
plishments, the most incomparable person. How shall I 
ever repay the obligations to her for the infinite good 
offices she did my soul by so often engaging me to make 
religion the terms and tie of the friendship there was 
between us! She was the best wife, the best mistress, 
the best friend, that ever husband had. But it is not 
here that I pretend to give her character, having de- 

Her husband, struck with unspeakable affliction, fell 
down as dead. The King himself, and all the Court, 
expressed their sorrow. To the poor and miserable, her 
loss was irreparable; for there was no degree but had 
some obligation to her memory. So careful and provi- 
dent was she to be prepared for all possible accidents, 
that (as if she foresaw her end) she received the heav- 
enly viaticum but the Sunday before, after a most sol- 
emn recollection. She put all her domestic concerns into 
the exactest order, and left a letter directed to her hus- 
band, to be opened in case she died in childbed, in 
which with the most pathetic and endearing expressions 
of the most loyal and virtuous wife, she begs his kind- 
ness to her memory might be continued by his care and 
esteem of those she left behind, even to her domestic 
servants, to the meanest of which she left considerable 
legacies, as well as to the poor. It was now seven years 
since she was maid of honor to the Queen, that she re- 
garded me as a father, a brother, and what is more, a 
friend. We often prayed, visited the sick and miserable, 
received, read, discoursed, and communicated in all holy 
offices together. She was most dear to my wife, and 
affectionate to my children. But she is gone! This only 
is my comfort, that she is happy in Christ, and I shall 


shortly behold her again. She desired to be buried in 
the dormitory of his family, near three hundred miles 
from all her other friends. So afflicted was her husband 
at this severe loss, that the entire care of her funeral 
was committed to me. Having closed the eyes, and 
dropped a tear upon the cheek of my dear departed friend, 
lovely even in death, I caused her corpse to be embalmed 
and wrapped in lead, a plate of brass soldered thereon, 
with an inscription, and other circumstances due to her 
worth, with as much diligence and care as my grieved 
heart would permit me ; I then retired home for two days, 
which were spent in solitude and sad reflection. 

17th September, 1678. She was, accordingly, carried 
to Godolphin, in Cornwall, in a hearse with six horses, 
attended by two coaches of as many, with about thirty 
of her relations and servants. There accompanied the 
hearse her husband's brother. Sir William, two more of 
his brothers, and three sisters ; her husband was so over- 
come with grief, that he was wholly unfit to travel so 
long a journey, till he was more composed. I went as 
far as Hounslow with a sad heart; but was obliged to 
return upon some indispensable affairs. The corpse was 
ordered to be taken out of the hearse every night, and 
decently placed in the house, with tapers about it, and 
her servants attending, to Cornwall; and then was hon- 
orably interred in the parish church of Godolphin. This 
funeral cost not much less than ;2ri,ooo. 

With Mr. Godolphin, I looked over and sorted his 
lady's papers, most of which consisted of Prayers, Medi- 
tations, Sermon-notes, Discourses, and Collections on 
several religious subjects, and many of her own happy 
composing, and so pertinently digested, as if she had been 
all her life a student in divinity. We found a diary of 
her solemn resolutions, tending to practical virtue, with 
letters from select friends, all put into exact method. 
It astonished us to see what she had read and written, 
her youth considered. 

I St October, 1678, The Parliament and the whole Na- 
tion were alarmed about a conspiracy of some eminent 
Papists for the destruction of the King and introduction 
of Popery, discovered by one Gates and Dr. Tongue,* 

* Ezrael Tonge was bred in University College, Oxford, and being 
puritanically inclined, quitted the University; but in 1648 retiimed, 



Tiits' Morals**; I went to see and converse with him at 
Whitehall, with Mr. Gates, one that was lately an apos- 
tate to the church of Rome, and now returned again 
with this discovery. He seemed to be a bold man, and, 
in my thoughts, furiously indiscreet; but everybody be- 
lieved what he said; and it quite changed the genius and 
motions of the Parliament growing now corrupt and in- 
terested with long sitting and court practices; but, with all 
this. Popery would not go down. This discovery turned 
them all as one man against it, and nothing was done 
but to find out the depth of this. Gates was encouraged, 
and everything he affirmed taken for gospel; the truth 
is, the Roman Catholics were exceedingly bold and busy 
everywhere, since the Duke forbore to go any longer to 
the chapel. 

1 6th Gctober, 1678. Mr. Godolphin requested me to 
continue the trust his wife had reposed in me, in behalf 
of his little son, conjuring me to transfer the friendship 
I had for his dear wife, on him and his. 

2 1 St Gctober, 1678. The murder of Sir Edmondbury 

and was made a Fellow. He had the living of Pluckley, in Kent, which 
he resigned in consequence of quarrels with his parishioners and 
Quakers. In 1657, he was made fellow of the newly-erected College at 
Durham, and that being dissolved in 1660, he taught school at Islington. 
He then went with Colonel Edward Harley to Dunkirk, and subse- 
quently took a small living in Herefordshire (Lentwardine); but quitted 
it for St. Mary Stayning, in London, which, after the fire in 1666, was 
united to St. Michael, Wood Street. These he held till his death, in 
1680. He was a great opponent of the Roman Cathohcs, Wood men- 
tions several publications of his, among which are, « The Jesuits Un- 
masked,» 1678; « Jesuitical Aphorisms, » 1678; and «The Jesuits' Morals," 
1680 ( 1670) ; the two latter translated from the French. (Wood's ^'■Athena, 
Oxon?'* vol. ii. p. 502.) Evelyn speaks of the last of these translations as 
having been executed by his desire : and it figures in a notable passage 
of Oates's testihiony. Oates said, for example, «that Thomas Whit- 
bread, a priest, on 13th of June, 16 . . did tell the rector of St. Omer's 
that a Minister of the Church of England had scandalously put out the 
< Jesuits' Morals* in English, and had endeavored to render them 
odious, and had asked the Rector whether he thought Oates might know 
him? and the Rector called the deponent, who heard these words as he 
stood at the chamber door, and when he went into the chamber of the 
Provincial, he asked him < If he knew the author of the « Jesuits' Mor- 
als ? » * deponent answered, < His person, but not his name.* Whitbread 
then demanded, whether he would undertake to poison, or assassinate 
the author; which deponent undertook, having ;^5o reward promised 
him, and appointed to return to England.** 



Godfrey, found strangled about this time, as was mani- 
fest, by the Papists, he being the Justice of the Peace, 
and one who knew much of their practices, as convers- 
ant with Coleman (a servant of the . . . now ac^ 
cused), put the whole nation into a new ferment against 

31st October, 1678. Being the 58th of my age, re- 
quired my humble addresses to Almighty God, and that 
he would take off his heavy hand, still on my family; 
and restore comforts to us after the death of my excellent 
friend. \ 

5th November, 1678. Dr. Tillotson preached before the 
Commons at St. Margaret's. He said the Papists were 
now arrived at that impudence, as to deny that there 
ever was any such as the gunpowder-conspiracy; but he 
affirmed that he himself had several letters written by 
Sir Everard Digby (one of the traitors), in which he 
gloried that he was to suffer for it ; and that it was so 
contrived, that of the Papists not above two or three 
should have been blown up, and they, such as were not 
worth saving. 

15th November, 1678. The Queen's birthday. I never 
saw the Court more brave, nor the nation in more appre- 
hension and consternation. Coleman and one Staly had 
now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this, 
Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen of 
intending to poison the King; which certainly that pious 
and virtuous lady abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's 
circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my opinion. 
He probably thought to gratify some who would have 
been glad his Majesty should have married a fruitful 
lady J but the King was too kind a husband to let any of 
these make impression on him. However, divers of the 
Popish peeis were sent to the Tower, accused by Oates; 
and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act 
forever excluded the Parliament; which was a mighty 
blow. The King's, Queen's, and Duke's servants, were 
banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who pre- 
tended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would 
not be suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William 
Godolphin, a member of the Commons' House, to the 
Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning), to be resolved 
whether masses v/ere idolatry, as the text expressed it, 

16/8-79 JOHN EVELYN 131 

which was so worded, that several good Protestants 
scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man and 
excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. The 
Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he 
wished it had been otherwise worded in the text. 

15th January, 1678-79. I went with my Lady Sunder- 
land to Chelsa, and dined with the Countess of Bristol 
[her mother] in the great house, formerly the Duke of 
Buckingham's, a spacious and excellent place for the ex- 
tent of ground and situation in a good air. The house 
is large but ill-contrived, though my Lord of Bristol, 
who purchased it after he sold Wimbledon to my Lord 
Treasurer, expended much money on it. There were 
divers pictures of Titian and Vandyke, and some of 
Bassano, very excellent, especially an Adonis and 
Venus, a Duke of Venice, a butcher in his shambles 
selling meat to a Swiss; and of Vandyke, my Lord of 
Bristol's picture, with the Earl of Bedford's at length, in 
the same table. There was in the garden a rare collec- 
tion of orange trees, of which she was pleased to bestow 
some upon me. 

1 6th January, 1679. I supped this night with Mr. Sec- 
retary at one Mr. Houblon's, a French merchant, who 
had his house furnished en Prince^ and gave us a splendid 

25th January, 1679. I'^^ Long Parliament, which had 
sat ever since the Restoration, was dissolved by persua- 
sion of the Lord Treasurer, though divers of them were 
believed to be his pensioner. At this, all the politicians 
were at a stand, they being very eager in pursuit of the 
late plot of the Papists. 

30th January, 1679. Dr. Cud worth preached before the 
King at Whitehall, on 2 Timothy iii. 5, reckoning up the 
perils of the last times, in which, among other wicked- 
ness, treasons should be one of the greatest, applying it 
to the occasion, as committed under a form of reforma- 
tion and godliness; concluding that the prophecy did in- 
tend more particularly the present age, as one of the last 
times ; the sins there enumerated, more abundantly reign- 
ing than ever. 

2d February, 1679. Dr. Durell, Dean of Windsor, 
preached to the household at Whitehall, on i Cor. xvi. 
22; he read the whole sermon out of his notes, which I 


had never before seen a Frenchman do, he being of Jer- 
sey, and bred at Paris. 

4th February, 1679. ^^- Pierce, Dean of Salisbury, 
preached on i John, iv. i, ^^Try the Spirits, there being 
so many delusory ones gone forth of late into the world" ; 
he inveighed against the pernicious doctrines of Mr. 

My brother Evelyn, was now chosen Knight for the 
County of Surrey, carrying it against my Lord Longford 
and Sir Adam Brown, of Bechworth Castle. The country 
coming in to give him their suffrages were so many, that 
I believe they ate and drank him out near ^2,000, by a 
most abominable custom. 

ist April, 1679. My friend, Mr. Godolphin, was now 
made one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, 
and of the Privy Council. 

4th April, 1679. The Bishop of Gloucester preached in 
a manner very like Bishop Andrews, full of divisions, and 
scholastical, and that with much quickness. The Holy 
Communion followed. 

20th April, 1679. Easter day. Our vicar preached ex- 
ceedingly well on I Cor. v. 7. The Holy Communion fol- 
lowed, at which I and my daughter, Mary (now about 
fourteen years old), received for the first time. The Lord 
Jesus continue his grace unto her, and improve this 
blessed beginning! 

24th April, 1679. The Duke of York, voted against by 
the Commons for his recusancy, went over to Flanders ; 
which made much discourse. 

4th June, 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys in the Tower, 
he having been committed by the House of Commons for 
misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary ; I 
believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my 
Lords Stafford and Petre, who were committed for the 
Popish plot. 

7th June, 1679. I saw the magnificent cavalcade and 
entry of the Portugal Ambassador. 

17th June, 1679. I was godfather to a son of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren, surveyor of his Majesty's buildings, that 
most excellent and learned person, with Sir William 
Fermor, and my Lady Viscountess Newport, wife of the 
Treasurer of the Household. 

Thence to Chelsea, to Sir Stephen Fox, and my lady, 

1679 JOHN EVELYN 133 

in order to the purchase of the Countess of Bristol's 
house there, which she desired me to procure a chapman 

19th June, 1679. I dined at Sir Robert Clayton's with 
Sir Robert Viner, the great banker. 

22d June, 1679. There were now divers Jesuits executed 
about the plot, and a rebellion in Scotland of the fanatics, 
so that there was a sad prospect of public affairs. 

25th June, 1679. The new Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty came to visit me, viz. Sir Henry Capell, brother to 
the Earl of Essex, Mr. Finch, eldest son to the Lord 
Chancellor, Sir Humphry Winch, Sir Thomas Meeres, Mr. 
Hales, with some of the Commissioners of the Navy. I 
went with them to London. 

ist July, 1679. I dined at Sir William Godolphin's, and 
with that learned gentleman went to take the air in Hyde 
Park, where was a glorious cortege. 

3d July, 1679. Sending a piece of venison to Mr. 
Pepys, still a prisoner, I went and dined with him. 

6th July, 1679. Now were there papers, speeches, and 
libels, publicly cried in the streets against the Dukes of 
York and Lauderdale, etc., obnoxious to the Parliament, 
with too much and indeed too shameful a liberty; but 
the people and Parliament had gotten head by reason of 
the vices of the great ones. 

There was now brought up to London a child, son of 
one Mr. Wotton, formerly amanuensis to Dr. Andrews, 
Bishop of Winton, who both read and perfectly under- 
stood Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac, and most of 
the modern languages ; disputed in divinity, law, and all 
the sciences ; was skillful in history, both ecclesiastical and 
profane ; in politics ; in a word, so universally and solidly 
learned at eleven years of age, that he was looked on as 
a miracle. Dr. Lloyd, one of the most deeply learned 
divines of this nation in all sorts of literature, with Dr. 
Burnet, who had severely examined him, came away 
astonished, and they told me they did not believe there 
had the like appeared in the world. He had only been 
instructed by his father, who being himself a learned 
person, confessed that his son knew all that he himself 
knew. But, what was more admirable than his vast 
memory, was his judgment and invention, he being tried 
with divers hard questions, which required maturity of 

134 DIARY OF London 

thought and experience. He was also dexterous in chro- 
nology, antiquities, mathematics. In sum, an intellectus 
universalis, beyond all that we read of Picus Mirandula, 
and other precocious wits, and yet withal a very humble 

14th July, 1679. I went to see how things stood at 
Parson's Green, my Lady Viscountess Mordaunt (now 
sick in Paris, whither she went for health ) having made 
me a trustee for her children, an office I could not refuse 
to this most excellent, pious, and virtuous lady, my long 

15th July, 1679. I dined with Mr. Sidney Godolphin, 
now one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 

i8th July, 1679. I went early to the Old Bailey Ses- 
sions House, to the famous trial of Sir George Wakeman, 
one of the Queen's physicians, and three Benedictine 
monks; the first (whom I was well acquainted with, and 
take to be a worthy gentleman abhorring such a fact), 
for intending to poison the King; the others as accom- 
plices to carry on the plot, to subvert the government, 
and introduce Popery. The bench was crowded with 
the judges. Lord Mayor justices, and innumerable spec- 
tators. The chief accusers. Dr. Gates (as he called him- 
self), and one Bedlow, a man of inferior note. Their tes- 
timonies were not so pregnant, and I fear much of it from 
hearsay, but swearing positively to some particulars, 
which drew suspicion upon their truth; nor did circum- 
stances so agree, as to give either the bench or jury so 
entire satisfaction as was expected. After, therefore, a 
long and tedious trial of nine hours, the jury brought 
them in not gfuilty, to the extraordinary triumph of the 
Papists, and without sufficient disadvantage and reflec- 
tions on witnesses, especially Gates and Bedlow. 

This was a happy day for the lords in the Tower, 
who, expecting their trial, had this gone against the pris- 
oners at the bar, would all have been in the utmost 
hazard. For my part, I look on Gates as a vain, inso- 
lent man, puffed up with the favor of the Commons for 
having discovered something really true, more especially 
as detecting the dangerous intrigue of Coleman, proved 
out of his own letters, and of a general design which the 
Jesuited party of the Papists ever had and still have, to 
ruin the Church of England; but that he was trusted 

i679 JOHN EVELYN 135 

with those great secrets he pretended, or had any solid 
ground for what he accused divers noblemen of, I have 
many reasons to induce my contrary belief. That among 
so many commissions as he affirmed to have delivered to 
them from P. Oliva* and the Pope, — he who made no 
scruple of opening all other papers, letters, and secrets, 
should not only not open any of those pretended com- 
missions, but not so much as take any copy or witness 
of any one of them, is almost miraculous. But the Com- 
mons (some leading persons I mean of them) had so 
exalted him that they took all he said for Gospel, and 
without more ado ruined all whom he named to be con- 
spirators; nor did he spare whoever came in his way. 
But, indeed, the murder of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey, 
suspected to have been compassed by the Jesuits' party 
for his intimacy with Coleman (a busy person whom I 
also knew), and the fear they had that he was able to 
have discovered things to their prejudice, did so exasper- 
ate not only the Commons, but all the nation, that much 
of these sharpnesses against the more honest Roman 
Catholics who lived peaceably, is to be imputed to that 
horrid fact. 

The sessions ended, I dined or rather supped (so late it 
was) with the judges in the large room annexed to the 
place, and so returned home. Though it was not my 
custom or delight to be often present at any capital 
trials, we having them commonly so exactly published by 
those who take them in short-hand, yet I was inclined to 
be at this signal one, that by the ocular view of the car- 
riages and other circumstances of the managers and 
parties concerned, I might inform myself, and regulate 
my opinion of a cause that had so alarmed the whole 

2 2d July, 1679. Dined at Clapham, at Sir D. Gauden's; 
went thence with him to Windsor, to assist him in a 
business with his Majesty. I lay that night at Eton Col- 
lege, the Provost's lodgings (Dr. Craddock), where I was 
courteously entertained. 

23d July, 1679. To Court: after dinner, I visited that 
excellent painter, Verrio, whose works in fresco in the 
King's palace, at Windsor, will celebrate his name as long 
as those walls last. He showed us his pretty garden, 

* Padre OHva. General of the Order of Jesuits. 

136 DIARY OF London 

choice flowers, and curiosities, he himself being a skillful 

I went to Clifden, that stupendous natural rock, wood, 
and prospect, of the Duke of Buckingham's, and buildings 
of extraordinary expense. The grots in the chalky rocks 
are pretty: it is a romantic object, and the place alto- 
gether answers the most poetical description that can be 
made of solitude, precipice, prospect, or whatever can con- 
tribute to a thing so very like their imaginations. The 
stand, somewhat like Frascati as to its front, and on the 
platform is a circular view to the utmost verge of the hori- 
zon, which, with the serpenting of the Thames, is admi- 
rable. The staircase is for its materials singular; the 
cloisters, descents, gardens, and avenue through the wood, 
august and stately; but the land all about wretchedly 
barren, and producing nothing but fern. Indeed, as I 
told his Majesty that evening (asking me how I liked 
Clifden) without flattery, that it did not please me so well 
as Windsor for the prospect and park, which is without 
compare; there being but one only opening, and that 
narrow, which led one to any variety; whereas that of 
Windsor is everywhere great and unconfined. 

Returning, I called at my cousin Evelyn's, who has a 
very pretty seat in the forest, two miles by hither Clif- 
den, on a flat, with gardens exquisitely kept, though 
large, and the house a staunch good old building, and 
what was singular, some of the rooms floored dove tail- 
wise without a nail, exactly close. One of the closets is 
pargeted with plain deal, set in diamond, exceeding staunch 
and pretty. 

7th August, 1679. Dined at the Sheriff's, when, the 
Company of Drapers and their wives being invited, there 
was a sumptuous entertainment, according to the forms 
of the city, with music, etc., comparable to any prince's 
service in Europe. 

8th August, 1679. I went this morning to show my 
Lord Chamberlain, his Lady, and the Duchess of Grafton, 
the incomparable work of Mr. Gibbon, the carver, whom 
I first recommended to his Majesty, his house being 
furnished like a cabinet, not only with his own work, 
but divers excellent paintings of the best hands. Thence, 
to Sir Stephen Fox's, where we spent the day. 

31st August, 1679. After evening service, to see a 

i679 JOHN EVELYN 137 

neighbor, one Mr. Bohun, related to my son's late tutor 
of that name, a rich Spanish merchant, living in a neat 
place, which he has adorned with many curiosities, 
especially several carvings of Mr. Gibbons, and some pic- 
tures by Streeter. 

13th September, 1679. To Windsor, to congratulate his 
Majesty on his recovery; I kissed the Duke's hand, now 
lately returned from Flanders* to visit his brother the 
King, on which there were various bold and foolish dis- 
courses, the Duke of Monmouth being sent away. 

19th September, 1679. My Lord Sunderland, one of 
the principal Secretaries of State, invited me to dinner, 
where was the King's natural son, the Earl of Plymouth, 
the Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Essex, Earl of Mul- 
grave, Mr. Hyde, and Mr. Godolphin. After dinner I 
went to prayers at Eton, and visited Mr. Henry Gk>dolphin, 
fellow there, and Dr. Craddock. 

25th September, 1679. Mr. Slingsby and Signor Verrio 
came to dine with me, to whom I gave China oranges 
off my own trees, as good, I think, as were ever eaten. 

6th October, 1679. A very wet and sickly season. 

23d October, 1679. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's, 
the King being now newly returned from his Newmarket 

4th November, 1679. Dined at the Lord Mayor's; and, 
in the evening, went to the funeral of my pious, dear, 
and ancient learned friend, Dr. Jasper Needham, who 
was buried at St. Bride's Church. He was a true and 
holy Christian, and one who loved me with great affec- 
tion. Dr. Dove preached with an eulogy due to his 
memory. I lost in this person one of my dearest remain- 
ing sincere friends. 

5th November, 1679. I was invited to dine at my 
Lord Teviotdale's, a Scotch Earl, a learned and knowing 
nobleman. We afterward went to see Mr. Montague's 
new palace near Bloomsbury, built by our curator, Mr. 
Hooke, somewhat after the French; it was most nobly 
furnished, and a fine, but too much exposed garden f 

6th November, 1679. Dined at the Countess of Sun- 

*He returned the day before, the 12th of September. This is 
another of the indications that the entries of this Diary were not 
always made on the precise da^'S they refer ta 

f Now the British Museum. 

138 DIARY OF London 

derland's, and was this evening at the remarriage of 
the Duchess of Grafton to the Duke (his Majesty's nat- 
ural son), she being now twelve years old. The cere- 
mony was performed in my Lord Chamberlain's (her 
father's) lodgings at Whitehall by the Bishop of Roches- 
ter, his Majesty being present. A sudden and unexpected 
thing, when everybody believed the first marriage would 
have come to nothing ; but, the measure being determined, 
I was privately invited by my Lady, her mother, to be 
present. I confess I could give her little joy, and so I 
plainly told her, but she said the King would have it so, 
and there was no going back. This sweetest, most hope- 
ful, most beautiful, child, and most virtuous, too, was sacri- 
ficed to a boy that had been rudely bred, without any- 
thing to encourage them but his Majesty's pleasure. I 
pray God the sweet child find it to her advantage, who, 
if my augury deceive me not, will in a few years be such a 
paragon as were fit to make the wife of the greatest 
Prince in Europe! I staid supper, where his Majesty 
sat between the Duchess of Cleveland (the mother of the 
Duke of Grafton) and the sweet Duchess the bride ; there 
were several great persons and ladies, without pomp. 
My love to my Lord Arlington's family, and the sweet 
child made me behold all this with regret, though as the 
Duke of Grafton affects the sea, to which I find his 
father intends to use him, he may emerge a plain, useful 
and robust officer: and were he polished, a tolerable per- 
son; for he is exceedingly handsome, by far surpassing 
any of the King's other natural issue. 

8th November, 1679. At Sir Stephen Fox's, and was 
agreeing for the Countess of Bristol's house at Chelsea, 
within ;^5oo. 

1 8th November, 1679. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, 
being desired by the Countess of Sunderland to carry 
her thither on a solemn day, that she might see the 
pomp and ceremony of this Prince of Citizens, there 
never having been any, who for the stateliness of his 
palace, prodigious feasting, and magnificence, exceeded 
him. This Lord Mayor's acquaintance had been from the 
time of his being apprentice to one Mr. Abbot, his uncle, 
who being a scrivener, and an honest worthy man, one 
who was condemned to die at the beginning of the troubles 
forty years past, as concerned in the commission of 

1 679 JOHN EVELYN 139 

array for King Charles I. had escaped with his life ; I often 
used his assistance in money matters. Robert Clayton, 
then a boy, his nephew, became, after his uncle Abbot's 
death, so prodigiously rich and opulent, that he was reck- 
oned one of the wealthiest citizens. He married a free- 
hearted woman, who became his hospitable disposition; 
and having no children, with the accession of his partner 
and fellow apprentice, who also left him his estate, he 
grew excessively rich. He was a discreet magistrate, 
and though envied, I think without much cause. Some 
believed him guilty of hard dealing, especially with the 
Duke of Buckingham, much of whose estate he had swal- 
lowed, but I never saw any ill by him, considering the 
trade he was of. The reputation and known integ- 
rity of his uncle, Abbot, brought all the royal party to 
him, by which he got not only great credit, but vast 
wealth, so as he passed this ofl&ce with infinite magnifi- 
cence and honor. 

20th November, 1679. I dined with Mr. Slingsby, 
Master of the Mint, with my wife, invited to hear music, 
which was exquisitely performed by four of the most 
renowned masters: Du Prue, a Frenchman, on the lute; 
Signor Bartholomeo, an Italian, on the harpsichord; 
Nicholao on the violin; but, above all, for its sweetness 
and novelty, the viol d'amore of five wire strings played 
on with a bow, being but an ordinary violin, played on 
lyre- way, by a German. There was also a fiute douce, 
now in much request for accompanying the voice. Mr. 
Slingsby, whose son and daughter played skillfully, had 
these meetings frequently in his house. 

2 1 St November, 1679. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, to 
accompany my worthiest and generous friend, the Earl 
of Ossory; it was on a Friday, a private day, but the 
feast and entertainment might have become a King. Such 
an hospitable costume and splendid magistrature does no 
city in the world show, as I believe. 

23d November, 1679. Dr. Allestree preached before the 
household on St. Luke xi. 2 ; Dr. Lloyd on Matt, xxiii. 
20, before the King, showing with how little reason the 
Papists applied those words of our blessed Savior to 
maintain the pretended infallibility they boast of. I 
never heard a more Christian and excellent discourse; 
yet were some offended that he seemed to say the Church 


of Rome was a true church ; but it was a captious mistake ; 
for he never affirmed anything that could be more to 
their reproach, and that such was the present Church of 
Rome, showing how much it had erred. There was not 
in this sermon so much as a shadow for censure, no 
person of all the clergy having testified greater zeal 
against the errors of the Papists than this pious and 
most learned person. I dined at the Bishop of Roches- 
ter's, and then went to St. Paul's to hear that great wit. 
Dr. Sprat, now newly succeeding Dr. Outram, in the 
cure of St. Margaret's. His talent was a g^eat memory, 
never making use of notes, a readiness of expression in a 
most pure and plain style of words, full of matter, easily 

26th November, 1679. I met the Earl of Clarendon 
with the rest of my fellow executors of the Will of my 
late Lady Viscountess Mordaunt, namely, Mr. Laurence 
Hyde, one of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and 
lately Plenipotentiary- Ambassador at Nimeguen; Andrew 
Newport; and Sir Charles Wheeler; to examine and 
audit and dispose of this year's account of the estate 
of this excellent Lady, according to the direction of her 

27th November, 1679. I went to see Sir John Stone- 
house, with whom I was treating a marriage between 
my son and his daughter-in-law. 

28th November, 1679. Came over the Duke of Mon- 
mouth from Holland unexpectedly to his Majesty; while 
the Duke of York was on his journey to Scotland, 
whither the King sent him to reside and govern. The 
bells and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke 
of Monmouth publishing their joy, to the no small regret 
of some at Court. This Duke, whom for distinction they 
called the Protestant Duke (though the son of an aban- 
doned woman), the people made their idol. 

4th December, 1679. I dined, together with Lord 
Ossory and the Earl of Chesterfield, at the Portugal 
Ambassador's, now newly come, at Cleveland House, a 
noble palace, too good for that infamous. . . . The 
staircase is sumptuous, and the gallery and garden; but, 
above all, the costly furniture belonging to the Ambas- 
sador, especially the rich Japan cabinets, of which I 
think there were a dozen. There was a billiard table. 

i679-8o - JOHN EVELYN 141 

with as many more hazards as ours commonly have; the 
game being only to prosecute the ball till hazarded, 
without passing the port, or touching the pin; if one 
miss hitting the ball every time, the game is lost, or if 
hazarded. It is more difficult to hazard a ball, though 
so many, than in our table, by reason the bound is made 
so exactly even, and the edges not stuffed; the balls are 
also bigger, and they for the most part use the sharp 
and small end of the billiard stick, which is shod with 
brass, or silver. The entertainment was exceedingly civil ; 
but, besides a good olio, the dishes were trifling, hashed 
and condited after their way, not at all fit for an Eng- 
lish stomach, which is for solid meat. There was yet good 
fowls, but roasted to coal, nor were the sweetmeats good. 

30th December, 1679. I went to meet Sir John Stone- 
house, and give him a particular of the settlement on 
my son, who now made his addresses to the young lady 
his daughter-in-law, daughter of Lady Stonehouse. 

25th January, 1679-80. Dr. Cave, author of ^* Primitive 
Christianity,** etc., a pious and learned man, preached at 
Whitehall to the household, on James iii. 17, concerning 
the duty of grace and charity. 

30th January, 1680. I supped with Sir Stephen Fox, 
now made one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 

19th February, 1680. The writings for the settling 
jointure and other contracts of marriage of my son were 
finished and sealed. The lady was to bring ;,£"5,ooo, in con- 
sideration of a settlement of ^^500 a year present mainte- 
nance, which was likewise to be her jointure, and ^500 
a year after mine and my wife's decease. But, with God's 
blessing, it will be at the least ;^ 1,000 a year more in a 
few years. I pray God make him worthy of it, and a 
comfort to his excellent mother, who deserves much from 

2ist February, 1680. Shrove-Tuesday. My son was 
married to Mrs. Martha Spencer, daughter to my Lady 
Stonehouse by a former gentleman, at St. Andrew's, 
Holbom, by our Vicar, borrowing the church of Dr. Still- 
ingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's, the present incumbent. We 
afterward dined at a house in Holborn; and, after the 
solemnity and dancing was done, they were bedded at 
Sir John Stonehouse's lodgings in Bow Street, Convent 


26th February, 1680. To the Royal Society, where I 
met an Irish Bishop with his Lady, who was daughter to 
my worthy and pious friend, Dr. Jeremy Taylor, late 
Bishop of Down and Connor; they came to see the Re- 
pository. She seemed to be a knowing woman, beyond 
the ordinary talent of her sex. 

3d March, 1680. I dined at my Lord Mayor's, in order 
to the meeting of my Lady Beckford, whose daughter (a 
rich heiress) I had recommended to my brother of Wot- 
ton for his only son, she being the daughter of the lady 
by Mr. Eversfield, a Sussex gentleman. 

1 6th March, 1680. To London, to receive ;i£"3,ooo of my 
daughter-in-law's portion, which was paid in gold. 

26th March, 1680. The Dean of Sarum preached on 
Jerem. xlv. 5, an hour and a half from his common-place 
book, of kings and great men retiring to private situations. 
Scarce anything of Scripture in it. 

1 8th April, 1680. On the earnest invitation of the Earl 
of Essex, I went with him to his house at Cashiobury, 
in Hertfordshire. It was on Sunday, but going early 
from his house in the square of St. James, we arrived 
by ten o'clock ; this he thought too late to go to church, 
and we had prayers in his chapel. The house is new, a 
plain fabric, built by my friend, Mr. Hugh May. There 
are divers fair and good rooms, and excellent carving by 
Gibbons, especially the chimney-piece of the library. 
There is in the porch, or entrance, a painting by Verrio, 
of Apollo and the Liberal Arts. One room pargeted 
with yew, which I liked well. Some of the chimney 
mantels are of Irish marble, brought by my Lord from 
Ireland, when he was Lord- Lieutenant, and not much 
inferior to Italian. The tympanum, or gable, at the front 
is a bass-relievo of Diana hunting, cut in Portland stone, 
handsomely enough. I do not approve of the middle 
doors being round: but, when the hall is finished as de- 
signed, it being an oval with a cupola, together with 
the other wing, it will be a very noble palace. The 
library is large, and very nobly furnished, and all the 
books are richly bound and gilded; but there are no 
MSS., except the Parliament Rolls and Journals, the 
transcribing and binding of which cost him, as he assured 
me, ;^5oo. 

No man has been more industrious than this noble 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 143 

Lord in planting about his seat, adorned with walks, ponds, 
and other rural elegancies ; but the soil is stony, churlish, 
and uneven, nor is the water near enough to the house, 
though a very swift and clear stream runs within a flight- 
shot from it in the valley, which may fitly be called 
Coldbrook, it being indeed excessively cold, yet producing 
fair trouts. It is a pity the house was not situated to more 
advantage: but it seems it was built just where the old 
one was, which I believe he only meant to repair; this 
leads men into irremediable errors, and saves but a 

The land about is exceedingly addicted to wood, but 
the coldness of the place hinders the growth. Black 
cherry trees prosper even to considerable timber, some 
being eighty feet long; they make also very hand- 
some avenues. There is a pretty oval at the end of a 
fair walk, set about with treble rows of Spanish chest- 
nut trees. 

The gardens are very rare, and cannot be otherwise, 
having so skillful an artist to govern them as Mr. Cooke, 
who is, as to the mechanic part, not igfnorant in mathe- 
matics, and pretends to astrology. There is an excellent 
collection of the choicest fruit. 

As for my Lord, he is a sober, wise, judicious, and 
pondering person, not illiterate beyond the rate of most 
noblemen in this age, very well versed in English history 
and affairs, industrious, frugal, methodical, and every way 
accomplished. His Lady (being sister of the late Earl 
of Northumberland) is a wise, yet somewhat melancholy 
woman, setting her heart too much on the little lady, 
her daughter, of whom she is over fond. They have a 
hopeful son at the Academy. 

My Lord was not long since come from his Lord- 
Lieutenancy of Ireland, where he showed his abilities in 
administration and government, as well as prudence in 
considerably augmenting his estate without reproach. 
He had been Ambassador-extraordinary in Denmark, 
and, in a word, such a person as became the son of that 
worthy hero his father to be, the late Lord Capel, who 
lost his life for King Charles I. 

We spent our time in the mornings in walking, or rid- 
ing, and contriving [alterations], and the afternoons in the 
library, so as I passed my time for three or four days with 


mucli satisfaction. He was pleased in conversation to 
impart to me divers particulars of state, relating to the 

present times. He being no great friend to the D 

was now laid aside, his integrity and abilities being not 
so suitable in this conjuncture. 21st. I returned to 

30th April, 1680. To a meeting of the executors of 
late Viscountess Mordaunt's estate, to consider of the sale 
of Parson's Green, being in treaty with Mr. Loftus, and 
to settle the half year's account. 

ist May, 1680. Was a meeting of the feoffees of the 
poor of our parish. This year I would stand one of the 
collectors of their rents, to give example to others. My 
son was added to the feoffees. 

This afternoon came to visit me Sir Edward Deering, 
of Surrendon, in Kent, one of the Lords of the Treasury, 
with his daughter, married to my worthy friend, Sir Rob- 
ert Southwell, Clerk of the Council, now Extraordinary- 
Envoy to the Duke of Brandenburgh, and other Princes 
in Germany, as before he had been in Portugal, being a 
sober, wise, and virtuous gentleman. 

13th May, 1680. I was at the funeral of old Mr. Shish, 
master-shipwright of his Majesty's Yard here, an honest 
and remarkable man, and his death a public loss, for his 
excellent success in building ships (though altogether 
illiterate), and for breeding up so many of his children 
to be able artists. I held up the pall with three knights, 
who did him that honor, and he was worthy of it. It 
was the custom of this good man to rise in the night, 
and to pray, kneeling in his own cofiin, which he had lying 
by him for many years. He was born that famous year, 
the Gunpowder-plot, 1605. 

14th June, 1680. Came to dine with us the Countess 
of Clarendon, Dr. Lloyd, Dean of Bangor (since Bishop 
of St. Asaph), Dr. Burnet, author of the *< History of the 
Reformation,* and my old friend, Mr, Henshaw. After 
dinner we all went to see the Observatory, and Mr. 
Flamsted, who showed us divers rare instruments, espe- 
cially the great quadrant. 

24th July, 1680. Went with my wife and daughter to 
Windsor, to see that stately court, now near finished. 
There was erected in the court the King on horseback, 
lately cast in copper, and set on a rich pedestal of white 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 145 

marble, the work of Mr. Gibbons, at the expense of Toby 
Rustate, a page of the back stairs, who by his wonder- 
ful frugality had arrived to a great estate in money, and 
did many works of charity, as well as this of gratitude 
to his master, which cost him _;!^i,ooo. He is very sim- 
ple, ignorant, but honest and loyal creature. 

We all dined at the Countess of Sunderland's, after- 
ward to see Signor Verrio's garden, thence to Eton Col- 
lege, to salute the provost, and heard a Latin speech of 
one of the alumni (it being at the election) and were 
invited to supper ; but took our leave, and got to London 
that night in good time. 

26th Jtily, 1680. My most noble and illustrious friend, 
the Earl of Ossory, espying me this morning after ser- 
mon in the privy gallery, calling to me, told me he was 
now going his journey ( meaning to Tangier, whither he 
was designed Governor, and General of the forces, to 
regain the losses we had lately sustained from the Moors, 
when Inchiquin was Governor), I asked if he would 
not call at my house ( as he always did whenever he went 
out of England on any exploit). He said he must em- 
bark at Portsmouth, **wherefore let you and me dine to- 
gether to-day; I am quite alone, and have something to 
impart to you ; I am not well, shall be private, and desire 
your company.^* 

Being retired to his lodgings, and set down on a couch, 
he sent to his secretary for the copy of a letter which he 
had written to Lord Sunderland (Secretary of State), 
wishing me to read it; it was to take notice how ill he 
resented it, that he should tell the King before Lord 
Ossory's face, that Tangier was not to be kept, but would 
certainly be lost, and yet added that it was fit Lord 
Ossory should be sent, that they might give some ac- 
count of it to the world, meaning (as supposed) the 
next Parliament, when all such miscarriages would prob- 
ably be examined ; this Lord Ossory took very ill of Lord 
Sunderland, and not kindly of the King, who resolving to 
send him with an incompetent force, seemed, as his 
Lordship took it, to be willing to cast him away, not 
only on a hazardous adventure, but in most men's opin- 
ion, an impossibility^ seeing there was not to be above 
300 or 400 horse, and 4,000 foot for the garrison and all, 
both to defend the town, form a camp, repulse the enemy, 


and fortify what ground they should get in. This touched 
my Lord deeply, that he should be so little considered 
as to put him on a business in which he should probably 
not only lose his reputation, but be charged with all the 
miscarriage and ill success ; whereas, at first they promised 
6,000 foot and 600 horse effective. 

My Lord, being an exceedingly brave and valiant person, 
and who had so approved himself in divers signal battles, 
both at sea and land ; so beloved and so esteemed by the 
people, as one they depended on, upon all occasions worthy 
of such a captain; — he looked on this as too great an 
indifference in his Majesty, after all his services, and the 
merits of his father, the Duke of Ormond, and a design 
of some who envied his virtue. It certainly took so deep 
root in his mind, that he who was the most void of fear 
in the world (and assured me he would go to Tangier with 
ten men if his Majesty commanded him) could not bear 
up against this unkindness. Having disburdened himself 
of this to me after dinner, he went with his Majesty to 
the sheriffs at a great supper in Fishmongers' Hall; but 
finding himself ill, took his leave immediately of his 
Majesty, and came back to his lodging. Not resting well 
this night, he was persuaded to remove to Arlington 
House, for better accommodation. His disorder turned 
to a malignant fever, which increasing, after all that six 
of the most able physicians could do, he became delirious, 
with intervals of sense, during which Dr. Lloyd (after 
Bishop of St. Asaph) administered the Holy Sacrament, 
of which I also participated. He died the Friday follow- 
ing, the 30th of July, to the universal grief of all that 
knew or heard of his great worth, nor had any a greater 
loss than myself. Oft would he say I was the oldest 
acquaintance he had in England (when his father was in 
Ireland), it being now of about thirty years, contracted 
abroad, when he rode in the Academy in Paris, and when 
we were seldom asunder. 

His Majesty never lost a worthier subject, nor father a 
better or more dutiful son; a loving, generous, good- 
natured, and perfectly obliging friend ; one who had done 
innumerable kindnesses to several before they knew it; 
nor did he ever advance any that were not worthy; no 
one more brave, more modest ; none more humble, sober, 
and every way virtuous. Unhappy England in this illus- 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 147 

trious person's loss! Universal was the mourning for 
him, and the eulogfies on him; I stayed night and day by 
his bedside to his last gasp, to close his dear eyes! O 
sad father, mother, wife, and children ! What shall I add ? 
He deserved all that a sincere friend, a brave soldier, a 
virtuous courtier, a loyal subject, an honest man, a 
bountiful master, and good Christian, could deserve of his 
prince and country. One thing more let me note, that 
he often expressed to me the abhorrence he had of that 
base and unworthy action which he was put upon, of en- 
gaging the Smyrna fleet in time of peace, in which though 
he behaved himself like a great captain, yet he told me 
it was the only blot in his life, and troubled him ex- 
ceedingly. Though he was commanded, and never exam- 
ined further when he was so, yet he always spoke of it 
with regret and detestation. The Countess was at the 
seat of her daughter, the Countess of Derby, about 200 
miles off. 

30th August, 1680. I went to visit a French gentleman, 
one Monsieur Chardin, who having been thrice in the 
East Indies, Persia, and other remote countries, came 
hither in our return ships from those parts, and it being 
reported that he was a very curious and knowing man, 
I was desired by the Royal Society to salute him in their 
name, and to invite him to honor them with his com- 
pany. Sir Joseph Hoskins and Sir Christopher Wren 
accompanied me. We found him at his lodgings in his 
eastern habit, a very handsome person, extremely affable, 
a modest, well-bred man, not inclined to talk wonders. 
He spoke Latin, and understood Greek, Arabic, and 
Persian, from eleven years' travels in those parts, 
whither he went in search of jewels, and was become 
very rich. He seemed about 36 years of age. After 
the usual civilities, we asked some account of the extraor- 
dinary things he must have seen in traveling over 
land to those places where few, if any, northern Euro- 
peans, used to go, as the Black and Caspian Sea, Mingrelia 
Bagdad, Nineveh, Persepolis, etc. He told us that the 
things most worthy of our sight would be, the draughts 
he had caused to be made of some noble ruins, etc. ; 
for that, besides his own little talent that way, he had 
carried two good painters with him, to draw landscapes, 
measure and design the remains of the palace which 

148 DIARY OF London 

Alexander burned in his frolic at Persepolis, with divers 
temples, columns, relievos, and statues, yet extant, 
which he affirmed to be sculpture far exceeding anything 
he had observed either at Rome, in Greece, or in any 
other part of the world where magnificence was in 
estimation. He said there was an inscription in letters 
not intelligible, though entire. He was sorry he could 
not gratify the curiosity of the Society at present, his 
things not being yet out of the ship ; but would wait on 
them with them on his return from Paris, whither he 
was going the next day, but with intention ro return 
suddenly, and stay longer here, the persecution in 
France not suffering Protestants, and he was one, to be quiet. 

He told us that Nineveh was a vast city, now all buried 
in her ruins, the inhabitants building on the subterranean 
vaults, which were, as appeared, the first stories of the 
old city, that there were frequently found huge vases of 
fine earth, columns, and other antiquities ; that the straw 
which the Egyptians required of the Israelites, was not 
to bum,, or cover the rows of bricks as we use, but being 
chopped small to mingle with the clay, which being dried 
in the sun (for they bake not in the furnace) would else 
cleave asunder ; that in Persia are yet a race of Ignicolac, 
who worship the sun and the fire as Gods; that the wo- 
men of Georgia and Mingrelia were universally, and 
without any compare, the most beautiful creatures for 
shape, features, and figure, in the world, and therefore 
the Grand Seignor and Bashaws had had from thence 
most of their wives and concubines; that there had 
within these hundred years been Amazons among them, 
that is to say, a sort or race of valiant women, given to 
war; that Persia was extremely fertile; he spoke also of 
Japan and China, and of the many great errors of our 
late geographers, as we suggested matter for discourse. 
We then took our leave, failing of seeing his papers; 
but it was told us by others that indeed he dared not open, 
or show them, till he had first showed them to the French 
King; but of this he himself said nothing. 

2d September, 1680. I had an opportunity, his Maj- 
esty being still at Windsor, of seeing his private library 
at Whitehall, at my full ease. I went with expectation 
of finding some curiosities, but, though there were about 
1,000 volumes, there were few of importance which I had 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 149 

not perused before. They consisted chiefly of such books 
as had from time to time been dedicated, or presented to 
him; a few histories, some Travels and French books, 
abundance of maps and sea charts, entertainments and 
pomps, buildings and pieces relating to the navy, some 
mathematical instruments ; but what was most rare, were 
three or four Romish breviaries, with a great deal of 
miniature and monkish painting and gilding, one of which 
is most exquisitely done, both as to the figures, gro- 
tesques, and compartments, to the utmost of that curious 
art. There is another in which I find written by the 
hand of King Henry VII., his giving it to his dear 
daughter, Margaret, afterward Queen of Scots, in which 
he desires her to pray for his soul, subscribing his name 
at length. There is also the process of the philosophers' 
great elixir, represented in divers pieces of excellent 
miniature, but the discourse is in high Dutch, a MS. 
There is another MS. in quarto, of above 300 years old, 
in French, being an institution of physic, and in the 
botanical part the plants are curiously painted in minia- 
ture; also a folio MS. of good thickness, being the sev- 
eral exercises, as Themes, Orations, Translations, etc., of 
King Edward VI., all written and subscribed by his own 
hand, and with his name very legible, and divers of the 
Greek interleaved and corrected after the manner of 
schoolboys' exercises, and that exceedingly well and 
proper; with some epistles to his preceptor, which show 
that young prince to have been extraordinarily advanced 
in learning, and as Cardan, who had been in England 
affirmed, stupendously knowing for his age. There is 
likewise his journal, no less testifying his early ripeness 
and care about the affairs of state. 

There are besides many pompous volumes, some em- 
bossed with gold, and intaglios on agates, medals, etc. I 
spent three or four entire days, locked up, and alone, 
among these books and curiosities. In the rest of the 
private lodgdngs contiguous to this, are divers of the 
best pictures of the great masters, Raphael, Titian, etc., 
and in my esteem, above all, the '-'•Noli me tangere''* of 
our blessed Savior to Mary Magdalen after his Resurrec- 
tion, of Hans Holbein; than which I never saw so much 
reverence and kind of heavenly astonishment expressed 
in a picture. 


There are also divers curious clocks, watches, and pen- 
dules of exquisite work, and other curiosities. An ancient 
woman who made these lodgings clean, and had all the 
keys, let me in at pleasure for a small reward, by means 
of a friend. 

6th September, 1680. I dined with Sir Stephen Fox, 
now one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 
This gentleman came first a poor boy from the choir of 
Salisbury, then he was taken notice of by Bishop Duppa, 
and afterward waited on my Lord Percy (brother to 
Algernon, Earl of Northumberland), who procured for him 
an inferior place among the clerks of the kitchen and Green- 
cloth side, where he was found so humble, diligent, in- 
dustrious, and prudent in his behavior, that his Majesty 
being in exile, and Mr. Fox waiting, both the King and 
Lords about him frequently employed him about their 
affairs, and trusted him both with receiving and paying 
the little money they had. Returning with his Majesty 
to England, after great want and great sufferings, his 
Majesty found him so honest and industrious, and withal 
so capable and ready, that, being advanced from clerk of 
the kitchen to that of the Greencloth, he procured to be 
paymaster of the whole army, and by his dexterity and 
punctual dealing he obtained such credit among the 
bankers, that he was in a short time able to borrow vast 
sums of them upon any exigence. The continual turning 
thus of money, and the soldiers' moderate allowance to 
him for keeping touch with them, did so enrich him, that 
he is believed to be worth at least ;^2oo,ooo, honestly got 
and unenvied ; which is next to a miracle. With all this 
he continues as humble and ready to do a courtesy as 
ever he was. 

He is generous, and lives very honorably, of a sweet 
nature, well-spoken, well-bred, and is so highly in his 
Majesty's esteem, and so useful, that being long since 
made a knight, he is also advanced to be one of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and has the rever- 
sion of the Cofferer's place after Harry Brouncker. He 
has married his eldest daughter to my Lord Cornwallis, 
and gave her ;j^i 2,000, and restored that entangled family 
besides. He matched his son to Mrs. Trollop, who brings 
with her (besides a great sum) near, if not altogether, 
;^2,ooo per annum. Sir Stephen's lady (an excellent 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 151 

woman) is sister to Mr. Whittle, one of the King's chi- 
rurgeons. In a word, never was man more fortunate than 
Sir Stephen ; he is a handsome person, virtuous, and very- 

23d September, 1680. Came to my house some German 
strangers and Signor Pietro, a famous musician, who had 
been long in Sweden in Queen Christina's Court; he sung 
admirably to a guitar, and had a perfect good tenor and 
bass, and had set to Italian composure many of Abraham 
Cowley's pieces which showed extremely well. He told 
me that in Sweden the heat in some part of summer 
was as excessive as the cold in winter; so cold, he affirmed, 
that the streets of all the towns are desolate, no creatures 
stirring in them for many months, all the inhabitants 
retiring to their stoves. He spoke high things of that 
romantic Queen's learning and skill in languages, the 
majesty of her behavior, her exceeding wit, and that the 
histories she had read of other countries, especially of 
Italy and Rome, had made her despise her own. That 
the real occasion of her resigning her crown was the 
nobleman's importuning her to marry, and the promise 
which the Pope had made her of procuring her to be 
Queen of Naples, which also caused her to change her 
religion; but she was cheated by his crafty Holiness,* 
working on her ambition; that the reason of her killing 
her secretary at Fontainebleau, was, his revealing that 
intrigue with the Pope. But, after all this, I rather 
believe it was her mad prodigality and extreme vanity, 
which had consumed those vast treasures the great 
Adolphus, her father, had brought out of Germany during 
his [campaigns] there and wonderful successes ; and that, 
if she had not voluntarily resigfned, as foreseeing the 
event, the Estates of her kingdom would have compelled 
her to do so. 

30th October, 1680. I went to London to be private, 
my birthday being the next day, and I now arrived at 
my sixtieth year; on which I began a more solemn sur- 
vey of my whole life, in order to the making and con- 
firming my peace with God, by an accurate scrutiny of 
all my actions past, as far as I was able to call them to 
mind. How difficult and uncertain, yet how necessary a 
work! The Lord be merciful to me, and accept me! 

♦Pope Alexander VII., of the fami.v of Chighi, at Sienna. 


Who can tell how oft he offendeth ? Teach me, there- 
fore, so to number my days, that I may apply my heart 
unto wisdom, and make my calling and election sure. 
Amen, Lord Jesus! 

31st October, 1680. I spent this whole day in exer- 
cises. A stranger preached at Whitehall* on Luke xvi. 
30, 31. I then went to St. Martin's, where the Bishop 
of St. Asaph preached on i Peter iii. 15; the Holy Com- 
munion followed, at which I participated, humbly im- 
ploring God's assistance in the great work I was entering 
into. In the afternoon, I heard Dr. Sprat, at St. Mar- 
garet's, on Acts xvii. 11. 

I began and spent the whole week in examining my 
life, begging pardon for my faults, assistance and bless- 
ing for the future, that I might, in some sort, be pre- 
pared for the time that now drew near, and not have the 
great work to begin, when one can work no longer. The 
Lord Jesus help and assist me ! I therefore stirred little 
abroad till the 5th of November, when I heard Dr. Tenison, 
the now vicar of St. Martin's ; Dr. Lloyd, the former in- 
cumbent, being made Bishop of St. Asaph. 

7th November, 1680. I participated of the blessed 
Communion, finishing and confirming my resolutions of 
giving myself up more entirely to God, to whom I had now 
most solemnly devoted the rest of the poor remainder of 
life in this world ; the Lord enabling me, who am an un- 
profitable servant, a miserable sinner, yet depending on 
his infinite goodness and mercy accepting my endeavors. 

15th November, 1680. Came to dine with us Sir Rich- 
ard Anderson, his lady, son and wife, sister to my daugh- 

30th November, 1680. The anniversary election at the 
Royal Society brought me to London, where was chosen 
President that excellent person and great philosopher, 
Mr. Robert Boyle, who indeed ought to have been the 
very first; but neither his infirmity nor his modesty 
could now any longer excuse him. I desired I might for 
this year be left out of the Council, by reason my dwell- 
ing was in the country. The Society according to cus- 
tom dined together. 

The signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) 

* Probably to the King's housf hold, very early in the morning, as the 
custom was. 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 153 

of my Lord Viscount Stafford, (for conspiring the death 
of the King), second son to my Lord Thomas Howard, 
Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, 
and grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk, whom 
I so well knew, and from which excellent person I re- 
ceived so many favors. It was likewise his birthday. 
The trial was in Westminster Hall, before the King, 
Lords, and Commons, just in the same manner as, forty 
years past, the great and wise Earl of Strafford (there 
being but one letter differing their names) received 
his trial for pretended ill government in Ireland, in the 
very same place, this Lord Stafford's father being then 
High Steward. The place of sitting was now exalted 
some considerable height from the paved floor of the 
hall, with a stage of boards. The throne, woolsacks for 
the Judges, long forms for the Peers, chair for the Lord 
Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of Lords. The 
sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof for the 
members of the House of Commons. At the upper end, 
and on the right side of the King's state, was a box for 
his Majesty, and on the left others for the great ladies, 
and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public min- 
isters. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and place 
for the prisoner, the Lieutenant of the Tower of London, 
the ax-bearer and guards, ray Lord Stafford's two daughters, 
the Marchioness of Winchester being one ; there was like- 
wise a box for my Lord to retire into. At the right 
hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood the wit- 
nesses; at the left, the managers, in the name of the 
Commons of England, namely, Serjeant Maynard (the 
great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause against 
the Earl of Strafford forty years before, being now near 
eighty years of age). Sir William Jones, late Attorney- 
General, Sir Francis Winnington, a famous pleader, and 
Mr. Treby, now Recorder of London, not appearing in 
their gowns as lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, 
as representing the Commons of England: to these were 
joined Mr. Hampden, Dr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel 
Titus, Sir Thomas Lee, all gentlemen of quality, and 
noted parliamentary men. The first two days, in which 
were read the commission and impeachment, were but a 
tedious entrance into matter of fact, at which I was but 
little present. But, on Thursday, I was commodiously 

154 DIARY OF London 

seated among- the Commons, when the witnesses were 
sworn and examined. The principal witnesses were Mr. 
Dates (who called himself Dr.), Mr. Dugdale, and Turber- 
ville. Gates swore that he delivered a commission to 
Viscount Stafford from the Pope, to be Paymaster- 
General to an army intended to be raised; Dugdale, that 
being at Lord Aston's, the prisoner dealt with him plainly 
to murder his Majesty; and Turberville, that at Paris he 
also proposed the same to him. 

3d December, 1680. The depositions of my Lord's 
witnesses were taken, to invalidate the King's witnesses; 
they were very slight persons, but, being fifteen or six- 
teen, they took up all that day, and in truth they rather 
did my Lord more injury than service. 

4th December, 1680. Came other witnesses of the 
Commons to corroborate the King's, some being Peers, 
some Commons, with others of good quality, who took off 
all the former days objections, and set the King's wit- 
nesses recti in curid. 

6th December, 1680. Sir William Jones summed up the 
evidence ; to him succeeded all the rest of the managers, 
and then Mr. Henry Poule made a vehement oration. 
After this my Lord, as on all occasions, and often during 
the trial, spoke in his own defense, denying the charge 
altogether, and that he had never seen Gates, or Turber- 
ville, at the time and manner affirmed: in truth, their 
testimony did little weigh with me; Dugdale's only 
seemed to press hardest, to which my Lord spoke a great 
while, but confusedly, without any method. 

One thing my Lord said as to Gates, which I confess 
did exceedingly affect me : That a person who during his 
depositions should so vauntingly brag that though he 
went over to the Church of Rome, yet he was never a 
Papist, nor of their religion, all the time that he seemed 
to apostatize from the Protestant, but only as a spy; 
though he confessed he took their sacrament; worshiped 
images, went through all their oaths and discipline of 
their proselytes, swearing secrecy and to be faithful, but 
with intent to come over again and betray them; that 
such a hypocrite, that had so deeply prevaricated as 
even to turn idolater (for so we of the Church of Eng- 
land termed it), attesting God so solemnly that he was 
entirely theirr, and devoted to their interest, and conse- 

i68o JOHN EVELYN 155 

quently (as he pretended) trusted; I say, that the wit- 
ness of such a profligate wretch should be admitted 
against the life of a peer, — this my Lord looked upon as 
a monstrous thing, and such as must needs redound to 
the dishonor of our religion and nation. And verily I 
am of his Lordship's opinion: such a man's testimony 
should not be taken against the life of a dog. But the 
merit of something material which he discovered against 
Coleman, put him in such esteem with the Parliament, 
that now, I fancy, he stuck at nothing, and thought every- 
body was to take what he said for Gospel. The consid- 
eration of this, and some other circumstances, began to 
stagger me ; particularly how it was possible that one who 
went among the Papists on such a design, and pretended 
to be intrusted with so many letters and commissions 
from the Pope and the party, — nay, and delivered them to 
so many great persons, — should not reserve one of them 
to show, nor so much as one copy of any commission, 
which he who had such dexterity in opening letters 
might certainly have done, to the undeniable conviction 
of those whom he accused; but, as I said, he gained 
credit on Coleman. But, as to others whom he so madly 
flew upon, I am little inclined to believe his testimony, 
he being so slight a person, so passionate, ill bred, and of 
such impudent behavior; nor is it likely that such pierc- 
ing politicians as the Jesuits should trust him with so 
high and so dangerous secrets. 

7th December, 1680. On Tuesday, I was again at the 
trial, when judgment was demanded; and, after my Lord 
had spoken what he could in denying the fact, the man- 
agers answering the objections, the Peers adjourned to 
their House, and within two hours returned again. There 
was, in the meantime, this question put to the judges, 
" whether there being but one witness to any single crime, 
or act, it could amount to convict a man of treason. " They 
gave an unanimous opinion that in case of treason they all 
were overt acts for though no man should be condemned 
by one witness for any one act, yet for several acts to 
the same intent, it was valid; which was my Lord's case. 
This being past, and the Peers in their seats again, the 
Lord Chancellor Finch (this day the Lord High-Steward) 
removing to the woolsack next his Majesty's state, after 
summoning the Lieutenant of the Tower to bring forth 


his prisoner, and proclamation made for silence, de- 
manded of every Peer (who were in all eighty-six) 
whether William, Lord Viscount Stafford, were guilty of 
the treason laid to his charge, or not guilty. 

Then the Peer spoken to, standing up, and laying his 
right hand upon his breast, said guilty, or not guilty, 
upon my honor, and then sat down, the Lord Steward 
noting their suffrages as they answered upon a paper: 
when all had done, the number of not guilty being but 
31, the guilty 55; and then, after proclamation for silence 
again, the Lord Steward directing his speech to the 
prisoner, against whom the ax was turned edgeways 
and not before, in aggravation of his crime, he being 
ennobled by the King's father, and since received many 
favors from his present Majesty: after enlarging on his 
offense, deploring first his own unhappiness that he who 
had never condemned any man before should now be 
necessitated to begin with him, he then pronounced sen- 
tence of death by hanging, drawing, and quartering, 
according to form, with great solemnity and dreadful 
gravity; and, after a short pause, told the prisoner that 
he believed the Lords would intercede for the omission 
of some circumstances of his sentence, beheading only 
excepted; and then breaking his white staff, the Court 
was dissolved. My Lord Stafford during all this latter 
part spoke but little, and only gave their Lordships 
thanks after the sentence was pronounced; and indeed 
behaved himself modestly, and as became him. 

It was observed that all his own relations of his name 
and family condemned him, except his nephew, the Earl 
of Arundel, son to the Duke of Norfolk. And it must 
be acknowledged that the whole trial was carried on 
with exceeding gravity: so stately and august an appear- 
ance I had never seen before ; for, besides the innumerable 
spectators of gentlemen and foreign ministers, who saw 
and heard all the proceedings, the prisoner had the con- 
sciences of all the Commons of England for his accusers, 
and all the Peers to be his judges and jury. He had 
likewise the assistance of what counsel he would, to direct 
him in his plea, who stood by him. And yet I can hardly 
think that a person of his age and experience should en- 
gage men whom he never saw before (and one of them 
that came to visit him as a stranger at Paris) point 

i68o-8i JOHN EVELYN 157 

BLANK to murder the King : God only, who searches hearts, 
can discover the truth. Lord Stafford was not a man 
beloved especially of his own family. 

12th December, 1680. This evening, looking out of my 
chamber window toward the west, I saw a meteor of an 
obscure bright color, very much in shape like the blade 
of a sword, the rest of the sky very serene and clear. 
What this may portend, God only knows \ but such another 
phenomenon I remember to have seen in 1640, about 
the trial of the great Earl of Strafford> preceding our 
bloody Rebellion. I pray God avert his judgments! We 
have had of late several comets, which though I believe 
appear from natural causes, and of themselves operate 
not, yet I cannot despise them They may be warnings 
from God, as they commonly are forerunners of his 
animadversions. After many days and nights of snow, 
cloudy and dark weather, the comet was very much wasted. 

17th December, 1680. My daughter-in-law was brought 
to bed of a son, christened Richard. 

2 2d December, 1680. A solemn public Fast that God 
would prevent all Popish plots, avert his judgments, and 
g^ve a blessing to the proceedings of Parliament now as- 
sembled, and which struck at the succession of the Duke 
of York. 

29th December, 1680. The Viscount Stafford was be- 
headed on Towerhill. 

10th February, 1680-81. I was at the wedding of my 
nephew, John Evelyn of Wotton, married by the Bishop 
of Rochester at Westminster, in Henry VII. 's chapel, to 
the daughter and heir of Mr. Eversfield, of Sussex, her 
portion ;j^8,ooo. The solemnity was kept with a few 
friends only at Lady Beckford's, the lady's mother, 

8th March, 1681. Visited and dined at the Earl of 
Essex's, with whom I spent most of the afternoon alone. 
Thence to my (yet living) godmother and kinswoman, 
Mrs. Keightley, sister to Sir Thomas Evelyn and niece to 
my father, being now eighty-six years of age, sprightly, 
and in perfect health, her eyes serving her as well as 
ever, and of a comely countenance, that one would not 
suppose her above fifty. 

27th March, 1681. The Parliament now convened at 
Oxford. Great expectation of his Royal Highness's case 
as to the succession, against which the House was set. 

1 58 DIARY OF London 

An extraordinary sharp, cold spring, not yet a leaf on 
the trees, frost and snow lying: while the whole nation 
was in the greatest ferment, 

nth April, 1 68 1. I took my leave of Dr. Lloyd (Bishop 
of St. Asaph) at his house in Leicester Fields, now going 
to reside in his diocese. 

1 2th April, i68i. I dined at Mr. Brisbane's, Secretary 
to the Admiralty, a learned and industrious person, 
whither came Dr. Burnet, to thank me for some papers 
I had contributed toward his excellent ** History of the 
Reformation. *^ 

26th April, 1 68 1. I dined at Don Pietro Ronquillo's, 
the Spanish Ambassador, at Wild House, who used me 
with extraordinary civility. The dinner was plentiful, 
half after the Spanish, half after the English way. After 
dinner, he led me into his bedchamber, where we fell 
into a long discourse concerning religion. Though he 
was a learned man in politics, and an advocate, he was 
very ignorant in religion, and unable to defend any point 
of controversy; he was, however, far from being fierce. 
At parting, he earnestly wished me to apply humbly to 
the blessed virgin to direct me, assuring me that he 
had known divers who had been averse from the Roman 
Catholic religion, wonderfully enlightened and convinced 
by her intercession. He importuned me to come and 
visit him often. 

29th April, 1 68 1. But one shower of rain all this 

5th May, 1 68 1. Came to dine with me Sir William 
Fermor, of Northamptonshire, and Sir Christopher Wren, 
his Majesty's architect and surveyor, now building the 
Cathedral of St. Paul, and the column in memory of the 
city's conflagration, and was in hand with the building of 
fifty parish churches. A wonderful genius had this incom- 
parable person. 

1 6th May, 1681. Came my Lady Sunderland, to desire 
that I would propose a match to Sir Stephen Fox for 
her son. Lord Spencer, to marry Mrs. Jane, Sir Stephen's 
daughter. I excused myself all I was able ; for the truth 
is, I was afraid he would prove an extravagant man : for, 
though a youth of extraordinary parts, and had an excel- 
lent education to render him a worthy man, yet his early 
inclinations to extravagance made me apprehensive, that 

1 68 1 JOHN EVELYN 159 

I should not serve Sir Stephen by proposing- it, like a 
friend; this being now his only daughter, well-bred, and 
likely to receive a large share of her father's opulence. 
Lord Sunderland was much sunk in his estate by gaming 
and other prodigalities, and was now no longer Secretary 
of State, having fallen into displeasure of the King for sid- 
ing with the Commons about the succession; but which, 
I am assured, he did not do out of his own inclination, 
or for the preservation of the Protestant religion, but by 
mistaking the ability of the party to carry it. However, 
so earnest and importunate was the Countess, that I did 
mention it to Sir Stephen, who said it was too great an 
honor, that his daughter was very young, as well as my 
Lord, and he was resolved never to marry her without 
the parties' mutual liking; with other objections which I 
neither would or could contradict. He desired me to ex- 
press to the Countess the great sense he had of the honor 
done him, that his daughter and her son were too young, 
that he would do nothing without her liking, which he 
did not think her capable of expressing judiciously, till 
she was sixteen or seventeen years of age, of which she 
now wanted four years, and that I would put it oflE as 
civilly as I could. 

20th May, 1 68 1. Our new curate preached, a pretty 
hopeful young man, yet somewhat raw, newly come from 
college, full of Latin sentences, which in time will wear 
off. He read prayers very well. 

25th May, 1 68 1. There came to visit me Sir William 
Walter and Sir John Elowes : and the next day, the Earl 
of Kildare, a young gentleman related to my wife, and 
other company. There had scarce fallen any rain since 

2d June, 1 68 1. I went to Hampton Court, when the 
Surrey gentlemen presented their addresses to his Majesty, 
whose hand I kissed, introduced by the Duke of Albe- 
marle. Being at the Privy Council, I took another occa- 
sion of discoursing with Sir Stephen Fox about his 
daughter and to revive that business, and at least brought 
it to this: That in case the young people liked one the 
other, after four years, he first desiring to see a particular 
of my Lord's present estate if I could transmit it to him 
privately, he would make her portion ^14,000, though to 
all appearance he might likely make it _;;^5 0,000 as easily. 


his eldest son having no child and growing very cor- 

1 2th June, i68i. It still continued so great a drought as 
had never been known in England, and it was said to be 

14th August, 1 68 1. No sermon this afternoon, which I 
think did .not happen twice in this parish these thirty 
years; so gfracious has God been to it, and indeed to the 
whole nation: God grant that we abuse not this great 
privilege either by our wantonness, schism, or unfaithful- 
ness, under such means as he hag-^not favored any other 
nation under Heaven besides! 

23d Augfust, 1 681. I went to Wotton, and, on the fol- 
lowing day, was invited to Mr. Denzil Onslow's at his 
seat at Purford, where was much company, and such an 
extraordinary feast, as I had hardly seen at any country 
gentleman's table. What made it more remarkable was, 
that there was not anything save what his estate about 
it did aflEord; as venison, rabbits, hares, pheasants, par- 
tridges, pigeons, quails, poultry, all sorts of fowl in season 
from his own decoy near his house, and all sorts of fresh 
fish. After dinner we went to see sport at the decoy, 
where I never saw so many herons. 

The seat stands on a flat, the ground pasture, rarely 
watered, and exceedingly improved since Mr. Onslow 
bought it of Sir Robert Parkhurst, who spent a fair 
estate. The house is timber, but commodious, and with 
one ample dining-room, the hall adorned with paintings 
of fowl and huntings, etc., the work of Mr. Barlow, who 
is excellent in this kind from the life. 

30th August, 1681. From Wotton I went to see Mr. 
Hussey (at Sutton in Shere), who has a very pretty seat 
well watered, near my brother's. He is the neatest hus- 
band for curious ordering his domestic and field accom- 
modations, and what pertains to husbandry, that I have 
ever seen, as to his granaries, tacklings, tools, and utensils, 
plows, carts, stables, wood piles, wood houses, even to 
hen roosts and hog troughs. Methought, I saw old Cato, 
or Varro, in him ; all substantial, all in exact order. The 
sole inconvenience he lies under, is the great quantity of 
sand which the stream brings along with it, and fills his 
canals and receptacles for fish too soon. The rest of my 
time of stay at Wotton was spent in walking about the 

i68 JOHN EVELYN i6i 

grounds and goodly woods, where I have in my youth so 
often entertained my solitude ; and so, on the 2d of Sep- 
tember, I once more returned to my home, 

6th September, i68i. Died my pretty grandchild, and 
was interred on the 8th [at Deptford]. 

14th September, 1681. Dined with Sir Stephen Fox, 
who proposed to me the purchasing of Chelsea College, 
which his Majesty had sometime since g^ven to our 
Society, and would now purchase it again to build a 
hospital; or infirmary for soldiers there, in which he 
desired my assistance as one of the Council of the Royal 

15th September, i68i. I had another opportunity of 
visiting his Majesty's private library at Whitehall. 

To Sir Samuel Morland's, to see his house and me- 

17th September, 1681. I went with Monsieur Faubert 
about taking the Countess of Bristol's house for an acad- 
emy, he being lately come from Paris for his religion, 
and resolving to settle here. 

23d September, 1681. I went to see Sir Thomas Bond's 
fine house and garden at Peckham. 

2d October, 1681. I went to Camberwell, where that 
good man Dr. Parr (late chaplain to Archbishop Usher) 
preached on Acts xvi. 30. 

nth October, 168 1. To Fulham, to visit the Bishop 
of London, in whose garden I first saw the Sedum ar- 
borescens in flower, which was exceedingly beautiful. 

5th November, 1681. Dr. Hooper preached on Mark 
xii. 16, 17, before the King, of the usurpation of the 
Church of Rome. This is one of the first rank of pulpit 
men in the nation. 

15th November, 1681. I dined with the Earl of Essex 
who, after dinner in his study, where we were alone, 
related to me how much he had been scandalized and 
injured in the report of his being privy to the marriage 
of his Lady's niece, the rich young widow of the late 
Lord Ogle, sole daughter of the Earl of Northumberland; 
showing me a letter of Mr. Thynn's, excusing himself for 
not communicating his marriage to his Lordship. He 
acquainted me also with the whole story of that unfor- 
tunate lady being betrayed by her grandmother, the 
Countess of Northumberland, and Colonel Bret, for money; 


and that though, upon the importunity of the Duke of 
Monmouth, he had delivered to the grandmother a par- 
ticular of the jointure which Mr. Thynn pretended he 
would settle on the lady, yet he totally discouraged the 
proceeding as by no means a competent match for one 
that both by birth and fortune might have pretended 
to the greatest prince in Christendom; that he also pro- 
posed the Earl of Kingston, or the Lord Cranburn, but 
was by no means for Mr. Thynn. 

19th November, 1681. I dined with my worthy friend, 
Mr. Erskine, Master of the Charter House, uncle to the 
Duchess of Monmouth; a wise and learned gentleman, 
fitter to have been a privy councillor and minister of 
state than to have been laid aside. 

24th November, 1681. I was at the audience of the 
Russian Ambassador before both their Majesties in the 
Banqueting House. The presents were carried before 
him, held up by his followers in two ranks before the 
King's State, and consisted of tapestry (one suite of 
which was doubtlessly brought from France as being of 
that fabric, the Ambassador having passed through that 
kingdom as he came out of Spain), a large Persian car- 
pet, furs of sable and ermine, etc. ; but nothing was so 
splendid and exotic as the Ambassador who came soon 
after the King's restoration. This present Ambassador 
was exceedingly offended that his coach was not per- 
mitted to come into the Court, till, being told that no 
King's Ambassador did, he was pacified, yet requiring 
an attestation of it under the hand of Sir Charles Cot- 
terell, the Master of the Ceremonies; being, it seems, 
afraid he should offend his Master, if he omitted the 
least punctilio. It was reported he condemned his son 
to lose his head for shaving off his beard, and putting 
himself in the French mode at Paris, and that he would 
have executed it, had not the French King interceded 
— but qy. of this. 

30th November, 1681. Sir Christopher Wren chosen 
President [of the Royal Society], Mr. Austine, Secretary, 
with Dr. Plot, the ingenious author of the " History of 
Oxfordshire." There was a most illustrious appearance. 

nth January, 1681-82. I saw the audience of the 
Morocco Ambassador, his retinue not numerous. He 
was received in the Banqueting House, both their Maj- 

1681-82 JOHN EVELYN 163 

esties being present. He came up to the throne without 
making any sort of reverence, not bowing his head, or 
body. He spoke by a renegado Englishman, for whose 
safe return there was a promise. They were all clad in 
the Moorish habit, cassocks of colored cloth, or silk, 
with buttons and loops, over this an alkaga, or white 
woolen mantle, so large as to wrap both head and body, 
a sash, or small turban, naked-legged and armed, but 
with leather socks like the Turks, rich scymetar, and 
large calico sleeved shirts. The Ambassador had a string 
of pearls oddly woven in his turban. I fancy the old 
Roman habit was little different as to the mantle and 
naked limbs He was a handsome person, well featured, 
of a wise look, subtle, and extremely civil. Their pres- 
ents were lions and ostriches; their errand about a 
peace at Tangier. But the concourse and tumult of the 
people was intolerable, so as the officers could keep no 
order, which these strangers were astonished at at first, 
there being nothing so regular, exact, and performed 
with such silence, as is on all these public occasions 
of their country, and indeed over all the Turkish dominions. 

14th January, 1682. Dined at the Bishop of Roches- 
ter's, at the Abbey, it being his marriage day, after 
twenty-four years. He related to me how he had been 
treated by Sir William Temple, foreseeing that he might 
be a delegate in the concern of my Lady Ogle now 
likely come in controversy upon her marriage with Mr. 
Thynn ; also how earnestly the late Earl of Danby, Lord 
Treasurer, sought his friendship, and what plain and 
sincere advice he gave him from time to time about his 
miscarriages and partialities; particularly his outing Sir 
John Duncomb from being Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and Sir Stephen Fox, above all, from being Paymaster 
of the Army. The Treasurer s excuse and reason was, 
that Fox's credit was so over great with the bankers and 
monied men, that he could procure none but by his 
means , " for that reason, * replied the Bishop, ^* I would 
have made him my friend, Sir Stephen being a person both 
honest and of credit. ** He told him likewise of his state- 
liness and difficulty of access, and several other miscar- 
riages, and which indeed made him hated. 

24th January, 1682. To the Royal Society, where at 
the Council we passed a new law for the more accurate 

1 64 DIARY OF London 

consideration of candidates, as whether they would really 
be useful; also concerning the honorary members, that 
none should be admitted but by diploma. 

This evening I was at the entertainment of the Mo- 
rocco Ambassador at the Duchess of Portsmouth's glori- 
ous apartments at Whitehall, where was a great banquet 
of sweetmeats and music; but at which both the Am- 
bassador and his retinue behaved themselves with extraor- 
dinary moderation and modesty, though placed about 
a long table, a lady between two Moors, and among 
these were the King's natural children, namely, Lady 
Lichfield and Sussex, the Duchess of Portsmouth, Nelly, 
etc., concubines, and cattle of that sort, as splendid as 
jewels and excess of bravery could make them; the 
Moors neither admiring nor seeming to regard anything, 
furniture or the like, with any earnestness, and but de- 
cently tasting of the banquet. They drank a little milk 
and water, but not a drop of wine; they also drank of 
a sorbet and jacolatt;* did not look about, or stare on 
the ladies, or express the least surprise, but with a 
courtly negligence in pace, countenance, and whole be- 
havior, answering only to such questions as were asked 
with a great deal of wit and gallantry, and so gravely 
took leave with this compliment, that God would bless 
the Duchess of Portsmouth and the Prince, her son 
meaning the little Duke of Richmond, The King came 
in at the latter end, just as the Ambassador was going 
away. In this manner was this slave (for he was no 
more at home) entertained by most of the nobility in 
town, and went often to Hyde Park on horseback, where 
he and his retinue showed their extraordinary activity in 
horsemanship, and flinging and catching their lances at 
full speed; they rode very short, and could stand upright 
at full speed, managing their spears with incredible 
agility. He went sometimes to the theaters, where, upon 
any foolish or fantastical action, he could not forbear 
laughing, but he endeavored to hide it with extraordi- 
nary modesty and gravity. In a word, the Russian Am- 
bassador, still at Court behaved himself like a clown 
compared to this civil heathen. 

27th January, 1682. This evening, Sir Stephen Fox 
acquainted me again with his Majesty's resolution of pro- 

* Sherbet and chocolate. 

i682 JOHN EVELYN 165 

ceeding in the erection of a Royal Hospital for emerited 
soldiers on that spot of ground which the Royal Society 
had sold to his Majesty for ;;^i,3oo, and that he would 
settle ;,^5,ooo per annum on it, and build to the value of 
;^2 0,000 for the relief and reception of four companies, 
namely, 400 men, to be as in a college, or monastery. 
I was therefore desired by Sir Stephen ( who had not 
only the whole managing of this, but was, as I per- 
ceived, himself to be a grand benefactor, as well it 
became him who had gotten so vast an estate by the sol- 
diers) to assist him, and consult what method to cast it 
in, as to the government. So, in his study we arranged 
the governor, chaplain, steward, housekeeper, chirurgeon, 
cook, butler, gardener, porter, and other officers, with 
their several salaries and entertainments. I would needs 
have a library, and mentioned several books, since some 
soldiers might possibly be studious, when they were at 
leisure to recollect. Thus we made the first calculations, 
and set down our thoughts to be considered and digested 
better, to show his Majesty and the Archbishop. He 
also engaged me to consider of what laws and orders 
were fit for the government, which was to be in every 
respect as strict as in any religious convent. 

After supper, came in the famous treble, Mr. Abel, 
newly returned from Italy; I never heard a more excel- 
lent voice ; one would have sworn it had been a woman's, 
it was so high, and so well and skillfully managed, being 
accompanied by Signor Francesco on the harpsichord. 

28th January, 1682. Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to the 
Admiralty, showed me a large folio containing the whole 
mechanic part and art of building royal ships and men- 
of-war, made by Sir Anthony Dean, being so accurate a 
piece from the very keel to the lead block, rigging, guns, 
victualing, manning, and even to every individual pin 
and nail, in a method so astonishing and curious, with a 
draught, both geometrical and in perspective, and several 
sections, that I do not think the world can show the like. 
I esteem this book as an extraordinary jewel. 

7th February, 1682. My daughter, Mary, began to 
learn music of Signor Bartholomeo, and dancing of Mon- 
sieur Isaac, reputed the best masters. 

Having had several violent fits of an ague, recourse 
was had to bathing my legs in milk up to the knees, made 


as hot as I could endure it : and sitting so in it in a deep 
churn, or vessel, covered with blankets, and drinking 
carduiis posset, then going to bed and sweating, I not 
only missed that expected fit, but had no more, only- 
continued weak, that I could not go to church till Ash 
Wednesday, which I had not missed, I think, so long in 
twenty years, so gracious had God been to me. 

After this warning and admonition, I now began to 
look over and methodize all my writings, accounts, letters, 
papers; inventoried the goods, and other articles of the 
house, and put things into the best order I could, and 
made my will; that now, growing in years, I might 
have none of these secular things and concerns to 
distract me, when it should please Almighty God to call 
me from this transitory life. "With this, I prepared 
some special meditations and devotions for the time of 
sickness. The Lord Jesus grant them to be salutary for 
my poor soul in that day, that I may obtain mercy and 
acceptance ! 

ist March, 1682. My second grandchild was bom, 
and christened the next day by our vicar at Sayes 
Court, by the name of John.* I beseech God to bless 

2d March, 1682. Ash Wednesday. I went to church: 
our vicar preached on Proverbs, showing what care and 
vigilance was required for the keeping of the heart up- 
right. The Holy Communion followed, on which I gave 
God thanks for his gracious dealing with me in my 
late sickness, and affording me this blessed opportunity 
of praising him in the congregation, and receiving the 
cup of salvation with new and serious resolutions. 

Came to see and congratulate my recovery, Sir John 
Lowther, Mr. Herbert, Mr. Pepys, Sir Anthony Deane, 
and Mr. Hill 

loth March, 1682. This day was executed Colonel 
Vrats, and some of his accomplices, for the execrable 
murder of Mr Thynn, set on by the principal Konings- 
mark. He went to execution like an undaunted hero, as 
one that had done a friendly office for that base coward. 
Count Koningsmark, who had hopes to marry his widow, 
the rich Lady Ogle, and was acquitted by a corrupt jury, 
and so got away. Vrats told a friend of mine who 

* Who became his successor, and was created a baronet in 17 13. 

i682 JOHN EVELYN 167 

accompanied him to the gallows, and gave him some advice 
that he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped and 
believed God would deal with him like a gentleman. 
Never man went, so unconcerned for his sad fate. 

24th March, 1682. I went to see the corpse of that 
obstinate creature, Colonel Vrats, the King permitting 
that his body should be transported to his own country, 
he being of a good family, and one of the first embalmed 
by a particular art, invented by one William Russell, a 
coffin-maker, which preserved the body without disbowel- 
ing, or to appearance using any bituminous matter. 
The flesh was florid, soft, and full, as if the person 
were only sleeping. He had now been dead near fif- 
teen days, and lay exposed in a very rich coffin lined 
with lead, too magnificent for so daring and horrid a 

At the meeting of the Royal Society were exhibited 
some pieces of amber sent by the Duke of Brandenburg, 
in one of which was a spider, in another a gnat, both very 
entire. There was a discourse of the tingeing of glass, 
especially with red, and the difficulty of finding any red 
color effectual to penetrate glass, among the glass- 
painters; that the most diaporous, as blue, yellow, etc., 
did not enter into the substance of what was ordinarily 
painted, more than very shallow, unless incorporated in 
the metal itself, other reds and whites not at all beyond 
the superfices. 

5th April, 1682. To the Royal Society, where at a 
Council was regulated what collections should be pub- 
lished monthly, as formerly the transactions, which 
had of late been discontinued, but were now much 
called for by the curious abroad and at home. 

12th April, 1682. I went this afternoon with several 
of the Royal Society to a supper which was all dressed, 
both fish and flesh, in Monsieur Papin's digestors, by 
which the hardest bones of beef itself, and mutton, were 
made as soft as cheese, without water or other liquor, 
and with less than eight ounces of coals, producing an 
incredible quantity of gravy ; and for close of all, a jelly 
made of the bones of beef, the best for clearness and 
good relish, and the most delicious that I had ever seen, 
or tasted. We ate pike and other fish, bones and all, 
without impediment; but nothing exceeded the pigeons, 

i68 DIARY OF London 

which tasted just as if baked in a pie, all these being 
stewed in their own juice, without any addition of water 
save what swam about the digestor, as in balneo; the 
natural juice of all these provisions acting on the grosser 
substances, reduced the hardest bones to tenderness ; but 
it is best descanted with more particulars for extracting 
tinctures, preserving and stewing fruit, and saving fuel, 
in Dr. Papin's book, published and dedicated to our 
Society of which he is a member. He is since gone to 
Venice with the late Resident here (and also a member 
of our Society), who carried this excellent mechanic, 
philosopher, and physician, to set up a philosophical 
meeting in that city. This philosophical supper caused 
much mirth among us, and exceedingly pleased all the 
company. I sent a glass of the jelly to my wife, to the 
reproach of all that the ladies ever made of their best 

The season was unusually wet, with rain and thunder. 

25th May, 1682. I was desired by Sir Stephen Fox 
and Sir Christopher Wren to accompany them to Lam- 
beth, with the plot and design of the college to be built 
at Chelsea, to have the Archbishop's approbation. It was 
a quadrangle of 200 feet square, after the dimensions of 
the larger quadrangle at Christ church, Oxford, for the 
accommodation of 440 persons, with governor and officers. 
This was agreed on. 

The Duke and Duchess of York were just now come 
to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by 
sea for Scotland. 

28th May, 1682. At the Rolls' chapel preached the 
famous Dr. Burnet on 2 Peter, i. 10, describing excellently 
well what was meant by election; viz, not the efifect of 
any irreversible decree, but so called because they em- 
braced the Gospel readily, by which they became elect, 
or precious to God. It would be very needless to make 
our calling and election sure, were they irreversible and 
what the rigid Presbyterians pretend. In the afternoon, 
to St. Lawrence's church, a new and cheerful pile. 

* Denys Papin, a French physician and mathematician, who possessed 
so remarkable a knowledge of mathematics, that he very nearly brought 
the invention of the steam engine into working order. He assisted Mr. 
Boyle in his pneumatic experiments, and was afterward mathematical 
professor at Marburg. He died in 17 10. 

1 682 JOHN EVELYN 169 

29th May, 1682. I gave notice to the Bishop of Rocli- 
ester of what Maimburg had published about the 
motives of the late Duchess of York's perversion, in his 
** History of Calvinism;*^ and did myself write to the Bishop 
of Winchester about it, who being concerned in it, I 
urged him to set forth his vindication. 

31st May, 1682. The Morocco Ambassador being ad- 
mitted an honorary member of the Royal Society, and 
subscribing his name and titles in Arabic, I was deputed 
by the Council to go and compliment him. 

19th June, 1682. The Bantam, or East India Ambas- 
sadors (at this time we had in London the Russian, 
Moroccan, and Indian Ambassadors), being invited to 
dine at Lord George Berkeley's (now Earl), I went to the 
entertainment to contemplate the exotic guests. They 
were both very hard-favored, and much resembling in 
countenance some sort of monkeys. We ate at two tables, 
the Ambassadors and interpreter by themselves. Their 
garments were rich Indian silks, flowered with gold, viz, 
a close waistcoat to their knees, drawers, naked legs, and 
on their heads caps made like fruit baskets. They wore 
poisoned daggers at their bosoms, the hafts carved with 
some ugly serpents' or devils' heads, exceedingly keen, and 
of Damascus metal. They wore no sword. The second 
Ambassador (sent it seems to succeed in case the first 
should die by the way in so tedious a journey), having 
been at Mecca, wore a Turkish or Arab sash, a little part 
of the linen hanging down behind his neck, with some 
other difference of habit, and was half a negro, bare leg- 
ged and naked feet, and deemed a very holy man. They 
sat cross-legged like Turks, and sometimes in the pos- 
ture of apes and monkeys; their nails and teeth as black 
as jet, and shining, which being the effect, as to their 
teeth, of perpetually chewing betel to preserve them from 
the toothache, much raging in their country, is esteemed 

The first ambassador was of an olive hue, a flat face, 
narrow eyes, squat nose, and Moorish lips, no hair ap- 
peared ; they wore several rings of silver, gold and copper 
on their fingers, which was a token of knighthood, or 
nobility. They were of Java Major, whose princes have 
been turned Mahometans not above fifty years since; the 
inhabitants are still pagans and idolaters. They seemed 


of a dull and heavy constitution, not wondering at any- 
thing they saw; but exceedingly astonished how our law 
gave us propriety in our estates, and so thinking we were 
all kings, for they could not be made to comprehend 
how subjects could possess anything but at the pleasure 
of their Prince, they being all slaves; they were pleased 
with the notion, and admired our happiness. They were 
very sober, and I believe subtle in their way. Their 
meat was cooked, carried up, and they attended by 
several fat slaves, who had no covering save drawers, 
which appeared very uncouth and loathsome. They ate 
their pilaw, and other spoon-meat, without spoons, taking 
up their pottage in the hollow of their fingers, and very 
dexterously flung it into their mouths without spilling 
a drop. 

17th July, 1682. Came to dine with me, the Duke of 
Grafton and the young Earl of Ossory, son to my most 
dear deceased friend. 

30th July, 1682. Went to visit our good neighbor, Mr. 
Bohun, whose whole house is a cabinet of all elegancies, 
especially Indian; in the hall are contrivances of Japan 
screens, instead of wainscot; and there is an excellent 
pendule clock inclosed in the curious flowerwork of Mr. 
Gibbons, in the middle of the vestibule. The landscapes 
of the screens represent the manner of living, and country 
of the Chinese. But, above all, his lady's cabinet is 
adorned on the fret, ceiling, and chimney-piece, with 
Mr. Gibbons's best carving. There are also some of 
Streeter's best paintings, and many rich curiosities of 
gold and silver as growing in the mines. The gardens 
are exactly kept, and the whole place very agreeable and 
well watered. The owners are good neighbors, and Mr. 
Bohun has also built and endowed a hospital for eight 
poor people, with a pretty chapel, and every necessary 

ist August, 1682. To the Bishop of London at Fulham, 
to review the additions which Mr. Marshall had made to 
his curious book of flowers in miniature, and collection 
of insects. 

4th August, 1682. With Sir Stephen Fox, to survey 
the foundations of the Royal Hospital begun at Chelsea. 

9th August, 1682. The Council of- the Royal Society 
had it recommended to them to be trustees and visitors, 

i682 JOHN EVELYN 171 

or supervisors, of the Academy which Monsieur Faubert 
did hope to procure to be built by subscription of worthy 
gentlemen and noblemen, for the education of youth, and 
to lessen the vast expense the nation is at yearly by 
sending children into France to be taught military' 
exercises. "We thought to give him all the encouragement 
our recommendation could procure. 

15th August, 1682. Came to visit me Dr. Rogers, an 
acquaintance of mine long since at Padua. He was then 
Consul of the English nation, and student in that Uni- 
versity, where he proceeded Doctor in Physic ; presenting 
me now with the Latin oration he lately made upon the 
famous Dr. Harvey's anniversary in the College of Phy- 
sicians, at London. 

20th August, 1682. This night I saw another comet, 
near Cancer, very bright, but the stream not so long as 
the former. 

29th August, 1682. Supped at Lord Clarendon's, with 
Lord Hyde, his brother, now the great favorite, who 
invited himself to dine at my house the Tuesday follow- 

30th October, 1682. Being my birthday, and I now en- 
tering my great climacterical of 63, after serious recollec- 
tions of the years past, giving Almighty God thanks for 
all his merciful preservations and forbearance, begging 
pardon for my sins and unworthiness, and his blessing 
on me the year entering, I went with my Lady Fox to 
survej' her building, and give some directions for the 
garden at Chiswick; the architect is Mr, May, — somewhat 
heavy and thick, and not so well understood: the garden 
much too narrow, the place without water, near a high- 
way, and near another great house of my Lord Burling- 
ton, little land about it, so that I wonder at the expense; 
but women will have their will. 

25 th November, 1682. I was invited to dine with 
Monsieur Lionberg, the Swedish Resident, who made a 
magnificent entertainment, it being the birthday of his 
King. There dined the Duke of Albemarle, Duke of 
Hamilton, Earl of Bath, Earl of Aylesbury, Lord Arran, 
Lord Castlehaven, the son of him who was executed fifty 
years before, and several great persons. I was exceedingly 
afraid of drinking (it being a Dutch feast), but the Duke 
of Albemarle being that night to wait on his Majesty, 


excess was prohibited; and, to prevent all, I stole away 
and left the company as soon as we rose from table. 

28th November, 1682. I went to the Council of the 
Royal Society, for the auditing the last year's account, 
where I was surprised with a fainting fit that for a time 
took away my sight; but God being merciful to me, I 
recovered it after a short repose. 

30th November, 1682. I was exceedingly endangered 
and importuned to stand the election,* having so many 
voices, but by favor of my friends, and regard of my 
remote dwelling, and now frequent infirmities, I desired 
their suffrages might be transferred to Sir John Hoskins, 
one of the Masters of Chancery ; a most learned virtuoso 
as well as lawyer, who accordingly was elected. 

7th December, 1682. Went to congratulate Lord Hyde 
(the great favorite) newly made Earl of Rochester, and 
lately marrying his eldest daughter to the Earl of 

1 8th December, 1682. I sold my East India adventure 
of ;^25o principal for ;^75o to the Royal Society, after I 
had been in that company twenty-five years, being ex' 
traordinarily advantageous, by the blessing of God. 

23d January, 1682-83. Sir Francis North, son to the 
Lord North, and Lord Chief Justice, being made Lord 
Keeper on the death of the Earl of Nottingham, the Lord 
Chancellor, I went to congratulate him. He is a most 
knowing, learned, and ingenious man, and, besides being 
an excellent person, of an ingenious and sweet disposi- 
tion, very skillful in music, painting, the new philosophy, 
and politer studies. 

29th January, 1683. Supped at Sir Joseph William- 
son's, where was a select company of our Society, Sir 
William Petty, Dr. Gale (that learned schoolmaster of 
St. Paul's), Dr. Whistler, Mr. Hill, etc. The conversation 
was philosophical and cheerful, on divers considerable 
questions proposed; as of the hereditary succession of 
the Roman Emperors; the Pica mentioned in the pref- 
ace to our Common Prayer, which signifies only the 
Greek Kalendarium. These were mixed with lighter 

2d February, 1683. I made my court at St. James's, 
when I saw the sea charts of Captain Collins, which that 

* For President of the Royal Society. 

1682-83 JOHN EVELYN 173 

industrious man now brought to show the Duke, having 
taken all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, 
as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, 
island, rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intend- 
ing next spring to proceed till he had finished the whole 
island, and that measured by chains and other instru- 
ments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He afi&rmed, 
that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant 
so true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the 
first in Queen Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous. 

12th February, 1683. This morning I received the 
news of the death of my father-in-law. Sir Richard 
Browne, Knt. and Bart., who died at my house at Sayes 
Court this day at ten in the morning, after he had 
labored under the gout and dropsy for nearly six months, 
in the 78th year of his age. The funeral was solemnized 
on the 19th at Deptford, with as much decency as the 
dignity of the person, and our relation to him, required; 
there being invited the Bishop of Rochester, several 
noblemen, knights, and all the fraternity of the Trinity 
Company, of which he had been Master, and others of 
the country. The vicar preached a short but proper 
discourse on Psalm xxxix. 10, on the frailty of our mortal 
condition, concluding with an ample and well-deserved 
eulogy on the defunct, relating to his honorable birth 
and ancestors, education, learning in Greek and Latin, 
modem languages, travels, public employments, signal 
loyalty, character abroad, and particularly the honor of 
supporting the Church of England in its public worship 
during its persecution by the late rebels' usurpation and 
regicide, by the suffrages of divers Bishops, Doctors of 
the Church, and others, who found such an asylum in his 
house and family at Paris, that in their disputes with the 
Papists (then triumphing over it as utterly lost) they 
used to argue for its visibility and existence from Sir R. 
Browne's chapel and assembly there. Then he spoke of 
his great and loyal sufferings during thirteen years' exile 
with his present Majesty, his return with him in the sig- 
nal year i66o; his honorable employment at home, his 
timely recess to recollect himself, his great age, infirm- 
ities, and death. 

He gave to the Trinity Corporation that land in Dept- 
ford on which are built those almshouses for twenty-four 

174 DIARY OF London 

widows of emerited seamen. He was born the famous 
year of the Gunpowder Treason, in 1605, and being the 
last [male] of his family, left my wife, his only daughter, 
heir. His grandfather, Sir Richard Browne, was the great 
instrument under the great Earl of Leicester ( favorite to 
Queen Elizabeth) in his government of the Netherland. 
He was Master of the Household to King James, and 
Cofferer; I think was the first who regulated the com- 
positions through England for the King's household, 
provisions, progresses,* etc., which was so high a service, 
and so grateful to the whole nation, that he had acknowl- 
edgments and public thanks sent him from all the coun- 
ties; he died by the rupture of a vein in a vehement 
speech he made about the compositions in a Parliament 
of King James. By his mother's side he was a Gunson, 
Treasurer of the Navy in the reigns of Henry VIII., 
Queen Mary, and Queen. Elizabeth, and, as by his large 
pedigree appears, related to divers of the English nobil- 
ity. Thus ended this honorable person, after so many 
changes and tossings to and fro, in the same house where 
he was born. ^* Lord teach us so to number our days, 
that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom!^* 

By a special clause in his will, he ordered that his 
body should be buried in the churchyard under the south- 
east window of the chancel, adjoining to the burying 
places of his ancestors, since they came out of Essex 
into Sayes Court, he being much offended at the novel 
custom of burying everyone within the body of the 
church and chancel ; that being a favor heretofore granted 
to martyrs and gpreat persons; this excess of making 
churches charnel houses being of ill and irreverend ex- 
ample, and prejudicial to the health of the living, besides 
the continual disturbance of the pavement and seats, and 
several other indecencies. Dr. Hall, the pious Bishop of 
Norwich, would also be so interred, as may be read in 
his testament. 

1 6th March, 1683. I went to see Sir Josiah Child's 
prodigious cost in planting walnut trees about his seat, 
and making fish ponds, many miles in circuit, in Epping 

* Notice was taken of this in a previous passage of the « Diary.*' 
The different counties were bound to supply provisions of various 
kinds, and these were collected by officers called purveyors, whose 
extortions often excited the attention of Parliament. 

1 683 JOHN EVELYN 175 

Forest, in a barren spot, as oftentimes these suddenly 
monied men for the most part seat themselves. He from 
a merchant's apprentice, and management of the East 
India Company's stock, being arrived to an estate (it is 
said) of ;^2oo,ooo; and lately married his daughter to 
the eldest son of the l!)uke of Beaufort, late Marquis of 
Worcester, with ^^50,000 portional present, and various 

I dined at Mr. Houblon's, a rich and gentle French 
merchant, who was building a house in the Forest, near 
Sir J. Child's, in a place where the late Earl of Norwich 
dwelt some time, and which came from his lady, the 
widow of Mr. Baker. It will be a pretty villa, about 
five miles from Whitechapel. 

18th March, 1683. I went to hear Dr. Homeck preach 
at the Savoy Church, on Phil. ii. 5. He was a Grerman 
bom, a most pathetic preacher, a person of a saint-like 
life, and hath written an excellent treatise on Considera- 

20th March, 1683. Dined at Dr. Whistler's, at the 
Physicians College, with Sir Thomas Millington, both 
learned men; Dr. W. the most facetious man in nature, 
and now Censor of the college. I was here consulted 
where they should build their library ; it is a pity this college 
is built so near Newgate Prison, and in so obscure a hole, 
a fault in placing most of our public buildings and 
churches in the city, through the avarice of some few 
men, and his Majesty not overruling it, when it was in 
his power after the dreadful conflagration. 

2ist March, 1683. Dr. Tenison preached at Whitehall 
on I Cor. vi. 12; I esteem him to be one of the most 
profitable preachers in the Church of England, being also 
of a most holy conversation, very learned and ingenious. 
The pains he takes and care of his parish will, I fear, 
wear him out, which would be an inexpressible loss. 

24th March, 1683. I went to hear Dr. Charleton's lec- 
ture on the heart in the Anatomy Theater at the Physi- 
cians' College. 

30th March, 1683. To London, in order to my passing 
the following week, for the celebration of the Easter 
now approaching, there being in the Holy Week so many 
eminent preachers officiating at the Court and other 

176 DIARY OF London 

6th April, 1683. Good Friday. There was in the aft- 
ernoon, according to custom, a sermon before the King, 
at Whitehall ; Dr. Sprat preached for the Bishop of Roch- 

17th April, 1683. I was at the launching of the last of 
the thirty ships ordered to be newly built by Act of Parlia- 
ment, named the *^ Neptune, '^ a second rate, one of the 
goodliest vessels of the whole navy, built by my kind 
neighbor, young Mr. Shish, his Majesty's master ship- 
wright of this dock. 

I St May, 1683. I went to Blackheath, to see the new 
fair, being the first procured by the Lord Dartmouth. 
This was the first day, pretended for the sale of cattle, 
but I think in truth to enrich the new tavern at the 
bowling-green, erected by Snape, his Majesty's farrier, a 
man full of projects. There appeared nothing but an in- 
numerable assembly of drinking people from London, 
peddlars, etc., and I suppose it too near London to be of 
any great use to the country. 

March was unusually hot and dry, and all April exces- 
sively wet. 

I planted all the out limits of the garden and long walks 
with holly.* 

9th May, 1683. Dined at Sir Gabriel Sylvius's and 
thence to visit the Duke of Norfolk, to ask whether he 
would part with any of his cartoons and other drawings 
of Raphael, and the great masters; he told me if he 
might sell them all together he would, but that the late 
Sir Peter Lely (our famous painter) had gotten some of 
his best. The person who desired me to treat for them 
was Vander Douse, grandson to that great scholar, con- 
temporary and friend of Joseph Scaliger. 

i6th May, 1683. Came to dinner and visited me Sir 
Richard Anderson, of Pendley, and his lady, with whom 
I went to London. 

8th June, 1683. On my return home from the Royal 
Society, I found Mr. Wilbraham, a young gentleman of 

nth June, 1683. The Lord Dartmouth was elected 
Master of the Trinity House; son to George Legge, late 

* Evelyn adds a note: "400 feet in length, 9 feet high, 5 in diame- 
ter, in my now ruined garden, thanks to the Czar of Muscovy. » — 
^Sylva,'*^ book ii. chap. vi. 

i683 JOHN EVELYN 177 

Master of the Ordnance, and one of the grooms of the 
bedchamber; a great favorite of the Duke's, an active 
and understanding gentleman in sea affairs. 

13th June, 1683. To our Society, where we received 
the Count de Zinzendorp, Ambassador from the Duke of 
Saxony, a fine young man; we showed him divers ex- 
periments en the magnet, on which subject the Society 
were upon. 

16th June, 1683. I went to Windsor, dining by the 
way at Chiswick, at Sir Stephen Fox's, where I found 
Sir Robert Howard (that universal pretender), and Sig^or 
Verrio, who brought his draught and designs for the 
painting of the staircase of Sir Stephen's new house. 

That which was new at Windsor since I was last there, 
and was surprising to me, was the incomparable fresco 
painting in St. George's Hall, representing the legend of 
St. George, and triumph of the Black Prince, and his 
reception by Edward III. ; the volto, or roof, not totally 
finished; then the Resurrection in the Chapel, where 
the figfure of the Ascension is, in my opinion, com- 
parable to any paintings of the most famous Roman 
masters; the Last Supper, also over the altar. I liked 
the contrivance of the unseen organ behind the altar, nor 
less the stupendous and beyond all description the in- 
comparable carving of our Gibbons, who is, without contro- 
versy, the gfreatest master both for invention and rareness 
of work, that the world ever had in any age; nor doubt 
I at all that he will prove as great a master in the statuary 

Verrio's invention is admirable, his ordnance full and 
flowing, antique and heroical; his figures move; and, if 
the walls hold (which is the only doubt by reason of the 
salts which in time and in this moist climate prejudice), 
the work will preserve his name to ages. 

There was now the terrace brought almost round the 
old castle; the grass made clean, even, and curiously 
turfed; the avenues to the new park, and other walks, 
planted with elms and limes, and a pretty canal, and 
receptacle for fowl ; nor less observable and famous is the 
throwing so huge a quantity of excellent water to the 
enormous height of the castle, for the use of the whole 
house, by an extraordinary invention of Sir Samuel Mor- 


17th June, 1683. I dined at the Earl of Sunderland's 
with the Earls of Bath, Castlehaven, Lords Viscounts 
Falconberg, Falkland, Bishop of London, the Grand Master 
of Malta, brother to the Duke de Vendome (a young 
wild spark), and Mr. Dryden, the poet. After evening- 
prayer, I walked in the park with my Lord Clarendon, 
where we fell into discourse of the Bishop of Salisbury 
(Dr. Seth Ward), his subtlety, etc. Dr. Durell, late Dean 
of Windsor, being dead, Dr. Turner, one of the Duke's 
chaplains was made dean. 

I visited my Lady Arlington, groom of the stole to her 
Majesty, who being hardly set down to supper, word was 
brought her that the Queen was going into the park to 
walk, it being now near eleven at night ; the alarm 
caused the Countess to rise in all haste, and leave her 
supper to us. 

By this one may take an estimate of the extreme slav- 
ery and subjection that courtiers live in, who had not 
time to eat and drink at their pleasure. It put me in 
mind of Horace's * Mouse,* and to bless God for my own 
private condition. 

Here was Monsieur de I'Angle, the famous minister 
of Charenton, lately fled from the persecution in France, 
concerning the deplorable condition of the Protestants 

1 8th June, 1683. I was present, and saw and heard 
the humble submission and petition of the Lord Mayor, 
sheriffs, and aldermen, on behalf of the city of London, 
on the quo warranto against their charter which they 
delivered to his Majesty in the presence chamber. It 
was delivered kneeling, and then the King and Council 
went into the council chamber, the mayor and his breth- 
ren attending still in the presence chamber. After a 
short space they were called in, and my Lord Keeper 
made a speech to them, exaggerating the disorderly and 
riotous behavior in the late election, and polling for 
Papillon and Du Bois after the Common hall had been 
formally dissolved: with other misdemeanors, libels on 
the government, etc., by which they had incurred his 
Majesty's high displeasure : and that but for this submission, 
and under such articles as the King should require their 
obedience to, he would certainly enter judgment against 
them, which hitherto he had suspended. The things 

i683 JOHN EVELYN 179 

required were as follows: that they should neither elect 
mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, recorder, common Serjeant 
town clerk, coroner> nor steward of Southwark, without 
his Majesty's approbation; and that if they presented any 
his Majesty did not like, they should proceed in wonted 
manner to a second choice; if that was disapproved, his 
Majesty to nominate them ; and if within five days they 
thought good to assent to this, all former miscarriages 
should be forgotten. And so they tamely parted with 
their so ancient privileges after they had dined and been 
treated by the King. This was a signal and most 
remarkable period. What the consequences will prove, 
time will show. Divers of the old and most learned 
lawyers and judges were of opinion that they could not 
forfeit their charter, but might be personally punished 
for their misdemeanors; but the plurality of the younger 
judges and rising men judged it otherwise. 

The Popish Plot also, which had hitherto made such a 
noise, began now sensibly to dwindle, through the folly, 
knavery, impudence, and giddiness of Oates, so as the 
Papists began to hold up their heads higher than ever, 
and those who had fled, flocked to London from abroad. 
Such sudden changes and eager doings there had been 
without anything steady or prudent, for these last seven 

19th June, 1683. I returned to town in a coach with 
the Earl of Clarendon, when passing by the glorious 
palace of his father, built but a few years before, which 
they were now demolishing, being sold to certain under- 
takers, I turned my head the contrary way till the coach 
had gone past it, lest I might minister occasion of speak- 
ing of it ; which must needs have grieved him, that in so 
short a time their pomp was fallen. 

28th June, 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now 
a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, 
that certain Lords and others should design the assassi- 
nation of the King and the Duke as they were to come 
from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and 
especially of the city of London, disaffected to the pres- 
ent Government. Upon which were committed to the 
Tower, the Lord Russell, eldest son of the Earl of Bed- 
ford, the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney, son to the 
old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord 

i8o DIARY OF London 

Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was is- 
sued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth, Sir 
Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped 
beyond sea ; of these some were said to be for killing the 
King, others for only seizing on him, and persuading him 
to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, 
should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again ad- 
mitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords 
Essex and Russell were much deplored, for believing 
they had any evil intention against the King, or the 
Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by 
their enemies for not approving some late counsels and 
management relating to France, to Popery, to the per- 
secution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by 
the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of 
the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken 
effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the 
Government to unknown and dangerous events; which 
God avert! 

Was bom my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and chris- 
tened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiat- 
ing. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better 

13th July, 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yar- 
borough and his Lady, in Covent Garden, the astonishing 
news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex having cut 
his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the 
Tower, and this happened on the very day and instant 
that Lord Russell was on his trial, and had sentence of 
death. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord 
Essex being so well known by me to be a person of such 
sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and 
so much obliged to the King. It is certain the King and 
Duke were at the Tower, and passed by his window about 
the same time this morning, when my Lord asking for a 
razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the hor- 
rid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was pos- 
sible he should do it in the manner he was found, for 
the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through 
the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached 
to the very vertebrae of the neck, so that the head held 
to it by a very little skin as it were ; the gapping too of 
the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little 

i683 JOHN EVELYN i8i 

strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he 
should have strength to proceed so far, that an execu- 
tioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There 
were odd reflections upon it. 

The fatal news coming to Hicks's Hall upon the article 
of my Lord Russell's trial, was said to have had no little 
influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. 
Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted 
that in case he should be in danger of having his life 
taken from him by any public misfortune, those who 
thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim ; and that 
he should speak favorably of that Earl of Northumber- 
land,* and some others, who made away with themselves; 
but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent 
conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. 
What might instigate him to this devilish act, I am not 
able to conjecture. My Lord Clarendon, his brother-in-law, 
who was with him but the day before, assured me he was 
then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of his 
innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty 
had no severe intentions against him, though he was alto- 
gether inexorable as to Lord Russell and some of the rest. 
For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious Earl of 
Shaftesbury had brought them into some dislike of the 
present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design 
of destroying the monarchy (which Shaftesbury had in 
confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he 
would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt 
the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps 
of setting up some other whom he might govern, and 
frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to 
the religion established under the hierarchy, for which he 
had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he 
had engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day 
past, reproaching his accomplices that a second day for 
an exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave 
them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, 
three months before these unhappy Lords and others were 
discovered or suspected. Every one deplored Essex and 
Russell, especially the last, as being thought to have been 

* Henry Percy, eighth Earl of Northumberland, shot himself in the 
Tower, to which he had been committed on a charge of high treason, in 
June, 1585. 


drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring to rescue 
the King from his present councilors, and secure religion 
from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, 
now so much apprehended; while the rest of those who 
were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless 
some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth, and turn 
all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles 
is Sydney. 

I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, 
son to the famous and wise prime President of Bor- 
deaux. This gentleman was owner of that excellent vig- 
noble of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the 
choicest of our Bordeaux wines ; and I think I may truly 
say of him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that 
much learning had made him mad. He had studied well 
in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and v/as exceed- 
ingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador 
[romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance 
of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spoke all lan- 
guages, was very rich, had a handsome person, and was 
well bred, about forty-five years of age. 

14th July, 1683. I visited Mr. Eraser, a learned Scotch 
gentleman, whom I had formerly recommended to Lord 
Berkeley for the instruction and government of his son, 
since dead at sea. He had now been in Holland at the sale 
of the learned Heinsius's library, and showed me some 
very rare and curious books, and some MSS., which he 
had purchased to good value. There were three or four 
Herbals in miniature, accurately done, divers Roman 
antiquities of Verona, and very many books of Aldus's 

15th July, 1683. A stranger, an old man, preached on 
Jerem. vi. 8, the not hearkening to instruction, porten- 
tous of desolation to a people; much after Bishop An- 
drew's method, full of logical divisions, in short and 
broken periods, and Latin sentences, now quite out of 
fashion in the pulpit, which is grown into a far more 
profitable way, of plain and practical discourses, of which 
sort this nation, or any other, never had greater plenty 
or more profitable (I am confident) ; so much has it to 
answer for thriving no better on it. 

The public was now in great consternation on the 
late plot and conspiracy; his Majesty very melancholy, 

i683 JOHN EVELYN 183 

and not stirring without double guards; all the avenues 
and private doors about Whitehall and the Park shut 
up, few admitted to walk in it. The Papists, in the 
meantime, very jocund; and indeed with reason, seeing 
their own plot brought to nothing, and turned to ridi- 
cule, and now a conspiracy of Protestants, as they called 

The Turks were likewise in hostility against the Ger- 
man Emperor, almost masters of the Upper Hungary, 
and drawing toward Vienna. On the other side, the 
French King ( who it is believed brought in the infidels ) 
disturbing his Spanish and Dutch neighbors, having swal- 
lowed up almost all Flanders, pursuing his ambition of 
a fifth universal monarchy; and all this blood and disorder 
in Christendom had evidently its rise from our defections 
at home, in a wanton peace, minding nothing but luxury, 
ambition, and to procure money for our vices. To this 
add our irreligion and atheism, great ingratitude, and 
self-interest; the apostacy of some, and the suffering 
the French to grow so great, and the Hollanders so 
weak. In a word, we were wanton, mad, and surfeiting 
with prosperity; every moment unsettling the old foun- 
dations, and never constant to anything. The Lord in 
mercy avert the sad omen, and that we do not provoke 
him till he bear it no longer! 

This summer did we suffer twenty French men-of-war 
to pass our Channel toward the Sound, to help the Danes 
against the Swedes, who had abandoned the French in- 
terest, we not having ready sufficient to guard our coasts, 
or take cognizance of what they did; though the nation 
never had more, or a better navy, yet the sea had never 
so slender a fleet. 

19th July, 1683. George, Prince of Denmark, who had 
landed this day, came to marry the Lady Anne, daughter 
to the Duke ; so I returned home, having seen the young 
gallant at dinner at Whitehall. 

20th July, 1683. Several of the conspirators of the 
lower form were executed at Tyburn; and the next day, 

2ist July, 1683. Lord Russell was beheaded in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, the executioner giving him three butch- 
erly strokes. The speech he made, and the paper which 
he gave the Sheriff declaring his innocence, the nobleness 
of the family, the piety and worthiness of the unhappy 

i84 DIARY OF London 

gentleman, wrought much pity, and occasioned various 
discourses on the plot. 

25th July, 1683. I again saw Prince George of Den- 
mark: he had the Danish countenance, blonde, of few 
words, spoke French but ill, seemed somewhat heavy, 
but reported to be valiant, and indeed he had bravely 
rescued and brought off his brother, the King of Den- 
mark, in a battle against the Swedes, when both these 
Kings were engaged very smartly. 

28th July, 1683. He was married to the Lady Anne 
at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled 
as the Duke's, her father, had been, and they to con- 
tinue in England. 

ist August, 1683. Came to see me Mr. Flamsted, the 
famous astronomer, from his Observatory at Greenwich, to 
draw the meridian from my pendule, etc. 

2d August, 1683. The Countesses of Bristol and Sunder- 
land, aunt and cousin-german of the late Lord Russell, 
came to visit me, and condole his sad fate. The next day, 
came Colonel Russell, uncle to the late Lord Russell, and 
brother to the Earl of Bedford, and with him Mrs. Mid- 
dleton, that famous and indeed incomparable beauty, 
daughter to my relation, Sir Robert Needham. 

19th August, 1683. I went to Bromley to visit our 
Bishop, and excellent neighbor, and to congratulate his 
now being made Archbishop of York. On the 28th, he 
came to take his leave of us, now preparing for his jour- 
ney and residence in his province. 

28th August, 1683. My sweet little grandchild, Martha 
Maria, died, and on the 29th was buried in the parish 

2d September, 1683. This morning, was read in the 
church, after the office was done, the Declaration setting 
forth the late conspiracy against the King's person. 

3d September, 1683. I went to see what had been 
done by the Duke of Beaufort on his lately purchased 
house at Chelsea, which I once had "the selling of for the 
Countess of Bristol, he had made great alterations, but 
might have built a better house with the materials and 
the cost he had been at. 

Saw the Countess of Monte Feltre, whose husband I had 
formerly known , he was a subject of the Pope's, but be- 
coming a Protestant he resided in England, and married 

1 683 JOHN EVELYN 185 

into the family of the Savilles, of Yorkshire. The Count, 
her late husband, was a very learned gentleman, a great 
politician, and a goodly man. She was accompanied by 
her sister, exceedingly skilled in painting, nor did they 
spare for color on their own faces. They had a great 
deal of wit. 

9th September, 1683. It being the day of public thanks- 
giving for his Majesty's late preservation, the former 
Declaration was again read, and there was an office used, 
composed for the occasion. A loyal sermon was preached 
on the divine right of Kings, from Psalm cxliv. 10. 
* Thou hast preserved David from the peril of the sword. * 

15th September, 1683. Came to visit me the learned 
anatomist, Dr. Tyson,* with some other Fellows of our 

1 6th September, 1683. At the elegant villa and gar- 
den of Mr. Bohun, at Lee. He showed me the zinnar 
tree, or platanus, and told me that since they had 
planted this kind of tree about the city of Ispahan, in 
Persia, the plague, which formerly much infested the 
place, had exceedingly abated of its mortal effects, and 
rendered it very healthy. 

1 8th September, 1683. I went to London to visit the 
Duchess of Grafton, now great with child, a most vir- 
tuous and beautiful lady. Dining with her at my Lord 
Chamberlain's, met my Lord of St. Alban's, now grown 
so blind, that he could not see to take his meat. He has 
lived a most easy life, in plenty even abroad, while his 
Majesty was a sufferer; he has lost immense sums at play, 
which yet, at about eighty years old, he continues, hav- 
ing one that sits by him to name the spots on the cards. 
He ate and drank with extraordinary appetite. He is a 
prudent old courtier, and much enriched since his Maj- 
esty's return. 

After dinner, I walked to survey the sad demolition of 
Clarendon House, that costly and only sumptuous palace 

* Doctor Edward Tyson, a learned physician, bom at Clevedon, Som- 
ersetshire, in 1649, who became reader of the anatomical lecture in 
Surgeons' Hall, and phj-sician to the hospitals of Bethlehem and Bride- 
well, which offices he held at his death, Aug. i, 1708. He was an in- 
genious writer, and has left various Essays in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions and Hook's Collections He published also «The Anatomy of a 
Porpoise Dissected at Gresham College, » and «The Anatomy of a Pig- 
my Compared with a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man,» 4to., 1698-99. 

i86 DIARY OF London 

of the late Lord Chancellor Hyde, where I have often 
been so cheerful with him, and sometimes so sad: hap- 
pening to make him a visit but the day before he fled 
from the angry Parliament, accusing him of maladminis- 
tration, and being envious at his grandeur, who from a 
private lawyer came to be father-in-law to the Duke of 
York, and as some would suggest, designing his Majesty's 
marriage with the Infanta of Portugal, not apt to breed. 
To this they imputed much of our unhappiness ; and that 
he, being sole minister and favorite at his Majesty's 
restoration, neglected to gratify the King's suffering 
party, preferring those who were the cause of our troubles. 
But perhaps as many of these things were injuriously 
laid to his charge, so he kept the government far steadier 
than it has proved since. I could name some who I 
think contributed greatly to his ruin, — the buffoons and 
the MISSIS, to whom he was an eye-sore. It is true he 
was of a jolly temper, after the old English fashion; but 
France had now the ascendant, and we were become 
quite another nation. The Chancellor gone, and dying 
in exile, the Earl his successor sold that which cost 
;^5o,ooo building, to the young Duke of Albemarle for 
;^2 5,000, to pay debts which how contracted remains yet 
a mystery, his son being no way a prodigal. Some 
imagine the Duchess his daughter had been chargeable 
to him. However it were, this stately palace is decreed 
to ruin, to support the prodigious waste the Duke of 
Albemarle had made of his estate, since the old man died. 
He sold it to the highest bidder, and it fell to certain 
rich bankers and mechanics, who gave for it and the 
ground about it, ;^35,ooo; they design a new town, as it 
were, and a most magnificent piazza [square]. It is said 
they have already materials toward it with what they 
sold of the house alone, more worth than what they paid 
for it. See the vicissitudes of earthly things! I was 
astonished at this demolition, nor less at the little army 
of laborers and artificers leveling the ground, laying 
foundations, and contriving great buildings at an expense 
of ^£"200,000, if they perfect their design. 

19th September, 1683. In my walks I stepped into a 
goldbeater's workhouse, where he showed me the won- 
derful ductility of that spreading and oily metal. He 
said it must be finer than the standard, such as was 

1 683 JOHN EVELYN 187 

old angel-gold, and that of such he had once to the value 
of ;^ioo stamped with the agnus del, and coined at the 
time of the holy war; which had been found in a ruined 
wall somewhere in the North, near to Scotland, some of 
which he beat into leaves, and the rest sold to the curi- 
osi in antiquities and medals. 

23d September, 1683. We had now the welcome tidings 
of the King of Poland raising the siege of Vienna, which 
had given terror to all Europe, and utmost reproach to 
the French, who it is believed brought in the Turks for 
diversion, that the French King might the more easily 
swallow Flanders, and pursue his unjust conquest on 
the empire, while we sat unconcerned and under a deadly 
charm from somebody. 

There was this day a collection for rebuilding New- 
vnarket, consumed by an accidental fire, which removing 
his Majesty thence sooner than was intended, put by the 
assassins, who were disappointed of their rendezvous and 
expectation by a wonderful providence. This made the 
King more earnest to render Winchester the seat of his 
autumnal field diversions for the future, designing a pal- 
ace there, where the ancient castle stood; infinitely in- 
deed preferable to Newmarket for prospects, air, pleasure, 
and provisions. The surveyor has already begun the 
foundation for a palace, estimated to cost ;^35,ooo, and 
his Majesty is purchasing ground about it to make a 
park, etc. 

4th October, 1683. I went to London, on receiving a 
note from the Countess of Arlington, of some considera- 
ble charge or advantage I might obtain by applying my- 
self to his Majesty on this signal conjuncture of his 
Majesty entering up judgment against the city charter; 
the proposal made me I wholly declined, not being well 
satisfied with these violent transactions, and not a little 
sorry that his Majesty was so often put upon things of 
this nature against so great a city, the consequence 
whereof may be so much to his prejudice; so I returned 
home. At this time, the Lord Chief- Justice Pemberton 
was displaced. He was held to be the most learned of 
the judges, and an honest man. Sir George Jeffreys was 
advanced, reputed to be most ignorant, but most daring. 
Sir George Treby, Recorder of London, was also put by, 
and one Genner, an obscure lawyer, set in his place. 

1 88 DIARY OF London 

Eight of the richest and chief aldermen were removed, 
and all the rest made only justices of the peace, and no 
more wearing of gowns, or chains of gold; the Lord 
Mayor and two sheriffs holding their places by new gfrants 
as custodes, at the King's pleasure. The pomp and 
grandeur of the most augrust city in the world thus changed 
face in a moment ; which gave great occasion of discourse 
and thoughts of hearts, what all this would end in. Pru- 
dent men were for the old foundations. 

Following his Majesty this morning through the gal- 
lery, I went with the few who attended him, into the 
Duchess of Portmouth's dressing room within her bed- 
chamber, where she was in her morning loose garment, 
her maids combing her, newly out of her bed, his Majesty 
and the gallants standing about her; but that which en- 
gaged my curiosity, was the rich and splendid furniture 
of this woman's apartment, now twice or thrice pulled 
down and rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive 
pleasures, while her Majesty's does not exceed some gen- 
tlemen's ladies in furniture and accommodation. Here I 
saw the new fabric of French tapestry, for design, ten- 
derness of work, and incomparable imitation of the best 
paintings, beyond anything I had ever beheld. Some 
pieces had Versailles, St. Germains, and other palaces of 
the French King, with huntings, figures, and landscapes, 
exotic fowls, and all to the life rarely done. Then for 
Japan cabinets, screens, pendule clocks, great vases of 
wrought plate, tables, stands, chimney- furniture, sconces, 
branches, braseras, etc., all of massy silver and out of 
number, besides some of her Majesty's best paintings. 

Surfeiting of this, I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's and 
went contented home to my poor, but quiet villa. What 
contentment can there be in the riches and splendor of 
this world, purchased with vice and dishonor ? 

loth October, 1683. Visited the Duchess of Grafton, 
not yet brought to bed, and dining with my Lord Cham- 
berlain (her father), went with them to see Montague 
House, a palace lately built by Lord Montague, who had 
married the most beautiful Countess of Northumberland. 
It is a stately and ample palace. Signor Verrio's fresco 
paintings, especially the funeral pile of Dido, on the 
staircase, the labors of Hercules, fight with the Centaurs, 
his effeminacy with Dejanira, and Apotheosis or reception 

1 683 JOHN EVELYN 189 

among the gods, on the walls and roof of the great room 
above, — I think exceeds anything he has yet done, both 
for design, coloring, and exuberance of invention, com- 
parable to the greatest of the old masters, or what they 
so celebrate at Rome. In the rest of the chamber are 
some excellent paintings of Holbein, and other masters. 
The garden is large, and in good air, but the fronts of 
the house not answerable to the inside. The court at 
entry, and wings for offices seem too near the street, and 
that so very narrow and meanly built, that the corridor 
is not in proportion to the rest, to hide the court from 
being overlooked by neighbors; all which might have 
been prevented, had they placed the house further into 
the gfround, of which there was enough to spare. But 
on the whole it is a fine palace, built after the French 
pavilion- way, by Mr. Hooke, the Curator of the Royal 
Society. There were with us my Lady Scroope, the 
great wit, and Monsieur Chardine, the celebrated trav- 

13th October, 1683. Came to visit me my old and 
worthy friend, Mr. Packer, bringing with him his nephew 
Berkeley, grandson to the honest judge. A most ingenious, 
virtuous, and religious gentleman, seated near Worcester, 
and very curious in gardening. 

17th October, 1683. I was at the court-leet of this manor, 
my Lord Arlington his Majesty's High Steward. 

26th October, 1683. Came to visit and dine with me, 
Mr. Brisbane, Secretary to the Admiralty, a learned and 
agreeable man. 

30th October, 1683. I went to Kew to visit Sir Henry 
Capell, brother to the late Earl of Essex; but he being 
gone to Cashiobury, after I had seen his garden and the 
alterations therein, I returned home. He had repaired his 
house, roofed his hall with a kind of cupola, and in a niche 
was an artificial fountain ; but the room seems to me over- 
melancholy, yet might be much improved by having the 
walls well painted a fresco. The two green houses for 
oranges and myrtles, communicating with the rooms below, 
are very well contrived. There is a cupola made with 
pole-work between two elms at the end of a walk, which 
being covered by plashing the trees to them, is very 
pretty; for the rest there are too many fir trees in the 

I90 DIARY OF London 

17th November, 1683. I took a house in Villiers Street, 
York Buildings, for the winter, having many important con- 
cerns to dispatch, and for the education of my daughters. 

23d November, 1683, The Duke of Monmouth, till now 
proclaimed traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord 
Russell was lately beheaded, came this evening to White- 
hall and rendered himself, on which were various dis- 

26th November, 1683. I went to compliment the Duchess 
of Grafton, now lying-in of her first child, a son, which 
she called for, that I might see it.s She was become more 
beautiful, if it were possible, than before, and full of 
virtue and sweetness. She discoursed with me of many 
particulars, with great prudence and gravity beyond her 

29th November, 1683. Mr. Forbes showed me the plot 
of the garden making at Burleigh, at my Lord Exeter's, 
which I looked on as one of the most noble that I had seen. 

The whole court and town in solemn mourning for the 
death of the King of Portugal, her Majesty's brother. 

30th November, 1683. At the anniversary dinner of the 
Royal Society the King sent us two does. Sir Cyril Wych 
was elected President. 

5th December, 1683. I was this day invited to a wed- 
ding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, 
and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of 
the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom- 
man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, 
whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, 
and was a very honest man ; he was sheriff of Surrey, where 
I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his 
daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this 
daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the 
wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen 
and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys, 
newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. 
Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were ex- 
ceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the 
afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking 
tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, 
who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Al- 
gernon Sidney, who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill, 
on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord 

i683 JOHN EVELYN 191 

Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in 
Mr. Sidney's study, pretended to be written by him, but 
not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to 
have been written before his Majesty's Restoration, and 
then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though 
Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse 
to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper 
was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was 
thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet 
observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to 
the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a 
man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which 
he showed both at his trial and death ; for, when he came 
on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only 
that he had made his peace with God, that he came not 
thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's 
hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as 
short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the execu- 
tioner do his office. 

The Duke of Monmouth, now having his pardon, re- 
fuses to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot; for 
which he is banished Whitehall, This is a great dis- 
appointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, 
Hampden, etc, that for want of a second witness were 
come out of the Tower upon their habeas corpus. 

The King had now augmented his guards with a new 
sort of dragoons, who carried also grenades, and were 
habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps, 
very fierce and fantastical. 

7th December, 1683, I went to the Tower, and visited 
the Earl of Danby, the late Lord High Treasurer, who 
had been imprisoned four years: he received me with 
great kindness, I dined with him, and stayed till night. 
We had discourse of many things, his Lady railing 
sufficiently at the keeping her husband so long in prison. 
Here I saluted the Lord Dumblaine's wife, who before 
had been married to Emerton, and about whom there 
was that scandalous business before the delegates. 

23d December, 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and 
mortal; the Thames frozen. 

26th December, 1683. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, 
where I was to meet that ingenious and learned gentle- 
man, Sir George Wheeler, who has published the excellent 

tgi DIARY OP London 

description of Africa and Greece, and who, being a knight 
of a very fair estate and young, had now newly entered 
into holy orders. 

27th December, 1683. I went to visit Sir John Chardin, 
a French gentleman, who traveled three times by land 
into Persia, and had made many curious researches in his 
travels, of which he was now setting forth a relation. It 
being in England this year one of the severest frosts 
that has happened of many years, he told me the cold in 
Persia was much greater, the ice of an incredible thick- 
ness ; that they had little use of iron in all that country, 
it being so moist (though the air admirably clear and 
healthy) that oil would not preserve it from rusting, so 
that they had neither clocks nor watches; some padlocks 
they had for doors and boxes. 

30th December, 1683. Dr. Sprat, now made Dean of 
Westminster, preached to the King at Whitehall, on Matt, 
vi. 24. Recollecting the passages of the past year, I gave 
God thanks for his mercies, praying his blessing for the 

ist January, 1683-84. The weather continuing intoler- 
ably severe, streets of booths were set up on the Thames ; 
the air was so very cold and thick, as of many years there 
had not been the like. The smallpox was very mortal. 

2d January, 1684. I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's: after 
dinner came a fellow who ate live charcoal, glowingly 
ignited, quenching them in his mouth, and then champ- 
ing and swallowing them down. T^^re was a dog also 
which seemed to do many rational actions. 

6th January, 1684. The river quite frozen. 

9th January, 1684. I went across the Thames on the 
ice, now become so thick as to bear not only streets of 
booths, in which they roasted meat, and had divers shops 
of wares, quite across as in a town, but coaches, carts, 
and horses passed over. So I went from Westminster 
stairs to Lambeth, and dined with the Archbishop : where 
I met my Lord Bruce, Sir George Wheeler, Colonel Cooke, 
and several divines. After dinner and discourse with his 
Grace till evening prayers, Sir George Wheeler and I 
walked over the ice from Lambeth stairs to the Horse- 

loth January, 1684. I visited Sir Robert Reading, where 
after supper we had music, but not comparable to that 

1683-84 JOHN EVELYN 193 

which Mrs. Bridgeman made us on the guitar with such 
extraordinary skill and dexterity. 

1 6th January, 1684. The Thames was filled with peo- 
ple and tents selling all sorts of wares as in the city. 

24th January, 1684. The frost continues more and 
more severe, the Thames before London was still planted 
with booths in formal streets, all sorts of trades and 
shops furnished, and full of commodities, even to a 
printing press, where the people and ladies took a fancy 
to have their names printed, and the day and year set 
down when printed on the Thames: this humor took so 
universally, that it was estimated that the printer gained 
j^5 a day, for printing a line only, at sixpence a name, 
besides what he got by ballads, etc. Coaches plied from 
Westminster to the Temple, and from several other stairs 
to and fro, as in the streets, sleds, sliding with skates, 
a bull-baiting, horse and coach-races, puppet-plays and 
interludes, cooks, tippling, and other lewd places, so that 
it seemed to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on 
the water, while it was a severe judgment on the land, 
the trees not only splitting as if the lightning struck, but 
men and cattle perishing in divers places, and the very 
seas so locked up with ice, that no vessels could stir out 
or come in. The fowls, fish, and birds, and all our 
exotic plants and greens, universally perishing. Many 
parks of deer were destroyed, and all sorts of fuel so 
dear, that there were great contributions to preserve the 
poor alive. Nor was this severe weather much less in- 
tense in most parts of Europe, even as far as Spain and 
the most southern tracts. London, by reason of the ex- 
cessive coldness of the air hindering the ascent of the 
smoke, was so filled with the fuliginous steam of the 
sea-coal, that hardly could one see across the street, and 
this filling the lungs with its gross particles, exceedingly 
obstructed the breast, so as one could scarcely breathe. 
Here was no water to be had from the pipes and engines, 
nor could the brewers and divers other tradesmen 
work, and every moment was full of disastrous acci- 

4th February, 1684. I went to Sayes Court to see how 

the frost had dealt with my garden, where I found many 

of the greens and rare plants utterly destroyed. The 

oranges and myrtles very sick, the rosemary and laurels 


194 DIARY OF London 

dead to all appearance, but the cypress likely to en- 
dure it. 

5tli February, 1684. It began to thaw, but froze again. 
My coach crossed from Lambeth, to the Horse-ferry at 
Milbank, Westminster. The booths were almost all taken 
down ; but there was first a map or landscape cut in cop- 
per representing all the manner of the camp, and the 
several actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory 
of so signal a frost. 

7th February, 1684. I dined with my Lord Keeper, 
[North], and walking alone with him some time in his 
gallery, we had discourse of music. He told me he had 
been brought up to it from a child, so as to sing his 
part at first sight. Then speaking of painting, of which 
he was also a great lover, and other ingenious matters, 
he desired me to come oftener to him. 

8th February, 1684. I went this evening to visit that 
great and knowing virtuoso, Monsieur Justell. The 
weather was set in to an absolute thaw and rain; but 
the Thames still frozen. 

loth February, 1684. After eight weeks missing the 
foreign posts, there came abundance of intelligence from 

12th February, 1684. The Earl of Danby, late Lord- 
Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords im- 
peached of high treason in the Popish Plot, had now 
their habeas corpus^ and came out upon bail, after five 
years' imprisonment in the Tower. Then were also tried 
and deeply fined Mr. Hampden and others, for being 
supposed of the late plot, for which Lord Russell and 
Colonel Sidney suffered; as also the person who went 
about to prove that the Earl of Essex had his throat 
cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the 
author of that famous piece called Julian. 

15th February, 1684. News of the Prince of Orange 
having accused the Deputies of Amsterdam of crimen 
1<BS(Z MajestatiSy and being pensioners to France. 

Dr. Tenison communicated to me his intention of erect- 
ing a library in St. Martin's parish, for the public use, 
and desired my assistance, with Sir Christopher Wren, 
about the placing and structure thereof, a worthy and 
laudable design. He told me there were thirty or forty 
young men in Orders in his parish, either governors to 

i684 JOHN EVELYN 19^ 

young gentlemen or chaplains to noblemen, who being 
reproved by him on occasion for frequenting taverns or 
coflEeehouses, told him they would study or employ their 
time better, if they had books. This put the pious Doc- 
tor on this design ; and indeed a great reproach it is that 
so great a city as London should not have a public library 
becoming it. There ought to be one at St. Paul's; the 
west end of that church (if ever finished) would be a 
convenient place. 

23d February, 1684. I went to Sir John Chardin, who 
desired my assistance for the engraving the plates, the 
translation, and printing his History of that wonderful 
Persian Monument near Persepolis, and other rare an- 
tiquities, which he had caused to be drawn from the 
originals in his second journey into Persia, which we now 
concluded upon. Afterward, I went with Sir Christopher 
Wren to Dr. Tenison, where we made the drawing and 
estimate of the expense of the library, to be begun this 
next spring near the Mews. 

Great expectation of the Prince of Orange's attempts 
in Holland to bring those of Amsterdam to consent to 
the new levies, to which we were no friends, by a pseudo- 
politic adherence to the French interest. 

26th February, 1684. Came to visit me Dr. Turner, 
our new Bishop of Rochester. 

28th February, 1684. I dined at Lady Tuke's, where 
I heard Dr. Walgrave (physician to the Duke and Duchess) 
play excellently on the lute. 

7th March, 1684. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester, 
preached an incomparable sermon (the King being now 
gone to Newmarket), on Heb, xii. 15, showing and 
pathetically pressing the care we ought to have lest we 
come short of the grace of God. Afterward, I went to 
visit Dr. Tenison at Kensington, whither he was retired 
to refresh, after he had been sick of the smallpox. 

15th March, 1684. At Whitehall preached Mr. Henry 
Godolphin, a prebend of St. Paul's, and brother to my 
dear friend Sydney, on Isaiah Iv. 7. I dined at the Lord 
Keeper's, and brought him to Sir John Chardin, who 
showed him his accurate drafts of his travels in Persia. 

28th March, 1684. There was so great a concourse of 
people with their children to be touched for the Evil, 
that six or seven were crushed to death by pressing at 


the chirurgeon's door for tickets. The weather began to 
be more mild and tolerable; but there was not the least 
appearance of any spring. 

30th March, 1684. Easter day. The Bishop of Roches- 
ter preached before the King; after which his Majesty, 
accompanied with three of his natural sons, the Dukes 
of Northumberland, Richmond, and St. Alban (sons of 
Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Nelly), went up to the altar; 
the three boys entering before the King within the rails, 
at the right hand, and three bishops on the left : London 
(who officiated), Durham, and Rochester, with the sub- 
dean, Dr. Holder. The King, kneeling before the altar, 
making his offering, the Bishops first received, and then 
his Majesty; after which he retired to a canopied seat on 
the right hand. Note, there was perfume burned before 
the office began. I had received the Sacrament at White- 
hall early with the Lords and household, the Bishop of 
London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's, where 
Dr. Tenison preached (recovered from the smallpox) ; 
then went again to Whitehall as above. In the after- 
noon, went to St. Martin's again. 

4th April, 1684. I returned home with my family to 
my house at Sayes Court, after five months* residence in 
London; hardly the least appearance of any spring. 

30th April, 1684. A letter of mine to the Royal Soci- 
ety concerning the terrible effects of the past winter being 
read, they desired it might be printed in the next part 
of their * Transactions. * 

loth May, 1684. I went to visit my brother in Surrey. 
Called by the way at Ashted, where Sir Robert Howard 
(Auditor of the Exchequer) entertained me very civilly 
at his newly-built house, which stands in a park on the 
Down, the avenue south ; though down hill to the house, 
which is not great, but with the outhouses very conven- 
ient. The staircase is painted by Verrio with the story 
of Astrea; among other figures is the picture of the 
painter himself, and not unlike him; the rest is well 
done, only the columns did not at all please me; there 
is also Sir Robert's own picture in an oval ; the whole in 
fresco. The place has this great defect, that there is no 
water but what is drawn up by horses from a very deep well. 

nth May, 1684. Visited Mr. Higham, who was ill, 
and died three days after. His grandfather and father 

i684 JOHN EVELYN 197 

(who christened me), with himself, had now been rectors 
of this parish loi years, viz, from May, 1583. 

12th May, 1684. I returned to London, where I found 
the Commissioners of the Admiralty abolished, and the 
office of Admiral restored to the Diike, as to the dispos- 
ing- and ordering all sea business; but his Majesty signed 
all petitions, papers, warrants, and commissions, that the 
Duke, not acting as admiral by commission or ofiSce, 
might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Pa- 
pists and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the oath 
and test. Every one was glad of this change, those in 
the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, 
to the g^eat damage of the Navy. 

The utter ruin of the Low Country was threatened by 
the siege of Luxemburg, if not timely relieved, and by 
the obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refused to assist the 
Prince of Orange, being corrupted by the French. 

1 6th May, 1684. I received ;!£"6oo of Sir Charles Bick- 
erstaff for the fee farm of Pilton, in Devon. 

26th May, 1684. Lord Dartmouth was chosen Master 
of the Trinity Company, newly returned with the fleet 
from blowing up and demolishing Tangier. In the ser- 
mon preached on this occasion. Dr. Can observed that, 
in the 27th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, the cast- 
ing anchor out of the fore ship had been caviled at as 
betraying total i^orance: that it is very true our seamen 
do not do so; but in the Mediterranean their ships were 
built differently from ours, and to this day it was the 
practice to do so there. 

Luxemburg was surrendered to the French, which 
makes them master of all the Netherlands, gives them 
entrance into Germany, and a fair game for universal 
monarchy; which that we should suffer, who only and 
easily might have hindered, astonished all the world. 
Thus is the poor Prince of Orange ruined, and this nation 
and all the Protestant interest in Europe following, unless 
God in his infinite mercy, as by a miracle, interpose, 
and our great ones alter their counsels. The French 
fleet were now besieging Genoa, but after burning much 
of that beautiful city with their bombs, went off with 

nth June, 1684. My cousin, Vemey, to whom a very 
great fortune was fallen, came to take leave of us, going into 


the country; a very worthy and virtuous young gentle- 

12th June, 1684. I went to advise and give directions 
about the building of two streets in Berkeley Garden, re- 
serving the house and as much of the garden as the 
breadth of the house. In the meantime, I could not but 
deplore that sweet place (by far the most noble gardens, 
courts, and accommodations, stately porticos, etc., any- 
where about the town) should be so much straitened 
and turned into tenements. But that magnificent pile 
and gardens contiguous to it, built by the late Lord 
Chancellor Clarendon, being all der&olished, and designed 
for piazzas and buildings, was some excuse for my Lady 
Berkeley's resolution of letting out her ground also for 
so excessive a price as was offered, advancing near 
_;^i,ooo per annum in mere ground rents; to such a mad 
intemperance was the age come of building about a city, 
by far too disproportionate already to the nation :* I hav- 
ing in my time seen it almost as large again as it was 
within my memory. 

2 2d June, 1684. Last Friday, Sir Thomas Armstrong 
was executed at Tyburn for treason, without trial, having 
been outlawed and apprehended in Holland, on the con- 
spiracy of the Duke of Monmouth, Lord Russell, etc., 
which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, 
in regard it was on an outlawry that judgment was given 
and execution.! 

2d July, 1684. I went to the Observatory at Green- 
wich, where Mr. Flamsted took his observations of the 
eclipse of the sun, now almost three parts obscured. 

There had been an excessively hot and dry spring, and 
such a drought still continued as never was in my mem- 

13th July, 1684, Some small sprinkling of rain; the 
leaves dropping from the trees as in autumn. 

*What wotild. Evelyn think if he conld see what is now called Lon- 

t When brought up for judgment, Armstrong insisted on his right to 
a trial, the act giving that right to those who came in within a year, 
and the year not having expired. Jefferies refused it ; and when Arm- 
strong insisted that he asked nothing but law, Jefferies told him he 
should have it to the full, and ordered his execution in six days. When 
Jefferies went to the King at Windsor soon after, the King took a ring 
from his finger and gave it to Jefferies. Burnet, ii. 989, 

i684 JOHN EVELYN 199 

35th July, 1684. I dined at Lord Falkland's, Treasurer 
of the Navy, where after dinner we had rare music, there 
being among- others, Signor Pietro Reggio, and Signor 
John Baptist, both famous, one for his voice, the other 
for playing on the harpsichord, few if any in Europe ex- 
ceeding him. There was also a Frenchman who sung an 
admirable bass. 

26th July, 1684. I returned home, where I found my 
Lord Chief Justice [Jefferies], the Countess of Clarendon, 
and Lady Catherine Fitzgerald, who dined with me. 

loth August, 1684. We had now rain after such a 
drought as no man in England" had known. 

24th August, 1684. Excessively hot. We had not had 
above one or two considerable showers, and those storms, 
these eight or nine months. Many trees died for the want 
of refreshment. 

31st August, 1684. Mr. Sidney Godolphin was made 
Baron Godolphin. 

26th September, 1684. The King being returned from 
Winchester, there was a numerous Court at Whitehall. 

At this time the Earl of Rochester was removed from 
the Treasury to the Presidentship of the Council; Lord 
Godolphin was made first Commissioner of the Treasury in 
his place, Lord Middleton (a Scot) made Secretary of 
State, in the room of Lord Godolphin. These alterations 
being very unexpected and mysterious, gave great occa- 
sion of discourse. 

There was now an Ambassador from the King of Siam, 
in the East Indies, to his Majesty. 

2 2d October, 1684. I went with Sir William Godolphin 
to see the rhinoceros, or unicorn, being the first that I 
suppose was ever brought into England. She belonged 
to some East India merchants, and was sold (as I re- 
member) for above ^^2,000. At the same time, I went to 
see a crocodile, brought from some of the West India 
Islands, resembling the Egyptian crocodile. 

24th October, 1684. I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's with 
the Duke of Northumberland. He seemed to be a young 
gentleman of good capacity, well bred, civil and modest: 
newly come from travel, and had made his campaign at 
the siege of Luxemburg. Of all his Majesty's children 
(of which he had now six Dukes) this seemed the most 
accomplished and worth the owning. He is extraordi- 


narily handsome and well shaped. What the Dukes of 
Richmond and St. Alban's will prove, their youth does 
not yet discover; they are very pretty boys. 

26th October, 1684. Dr. Goodman preached before the 
King on James ii. 12, concerning the law of liberty: an 
excellent discourse and in good method. He is author 
of "The Prodigal Son,** a treatise worth reading, and 
another of the old religion. 

27th October, 1684. I visited the Lord Chamberlain, 
where dined the black Baron and Monsieur Flamerin, 
who had so long been banished from France for a duel. 

28th October, 1684. I carried Lord Clarendon through 
the city amid all the squibs and bacchanalia of the Lord 
Mayor's show, to the Royal Society, where he was pro- 
posed a member; and then treated him at dinner. 

I went to St. Clement's, that prettily built and contrived 
church where a young divine gave us an eloquent ser- 
mon on I Cor. vi. 20, inciting to gratitude and glorify- 
ing God for the fabric of our bodies and the dignity of 
our nature. 

2d November, 1684. A sudden change from temperate 
warm weather to an excessive cold rain, frost, snow, and 
storm, such as had seldom been known. This winter 
weather began as early and fierce as the past did late; 
till about Christmas there then had been hardly any 

4th November, 1684. Dr. Turner, now translated from 
Rochester to Ely upon the death of Dr. Peter Gunning, 
preached before the King at Whitehall on Romans iii. 8, 
a very excellent sermon, vindicating the Church of Eng- 
land against the pernicious doctrines of the Church of 
Rome. He challenged the producing but of five clergy- 
men who forsook our Church and went over to that of 
Rome, during all the troubles and rebellion in England, 
which lasted near twenty years ; and this was to my cer- 
tain observation a great truth. 

15th November, 1684. Being the Queen's birthday, 
there were fireworks on the Thames before Whitehall, 
with pageants of castles, forts, and other devices of gir- 
andolas, serpents, the King and Queen's arms and mot- 
toes, all represented in fire, such as had not been seen 
here. But the most remarkable was the several fires and 
skirmishes in the very water, which actually moved a 

i684 JOHN EVELYN 201 

long- way, burning under the water, now and then ap- 
pearing above it, giving reports like muskets and cannon, 
with grenades and innumerable other devices. It is said 
it cost p^i,5oo. It was concluded with a ball, where all 
the young ladies and gallants danced in the great hall. 
The court had not been seen so brave and rich in apparel 
since his Majesty's Restoration. 

30th November, 1684. In the morning, Dr. Fiennes, 
son of the Lord Say and Seale, preached before the King 
on Joshua xxi. 11. 

3d December, 1684. I carried Mr. Justell and Mr. 
Slingsby (Master of the Mint), to see Mr. Sheldon's 
collection of medals. The series of Popes was rare, and 
so were several among the moderns, especially that of 
John Huss's martyrdom at Constance; of the Roman 
Emperors, Consulars some Greek, etc., in copper, gold, 
and silver; not many truly antique; a medallion of 
Otho Paulus ^milius, etc., ancient. They were held 
at a price of ^1,000; but not worth, I judge, above 

7th December, 1684. I went to see the new church at 
St. James's, elegantly built; the altar was especially 
adorned, the white marble mclosure curiously and richly 
carved, the flowers and garlands about the walls by 
Mr. Gibbons, in wood: a pelican with her young at 
her breast; just over the altar in the carved compart- 
ment and border environing the purple velvet fringed 
with I. H. S. richly embroidered, and most noble plate, 
were given by Sir R. Geere, to the value ( as was said ) 
of ;^2oo. There was no altar anywhere in England, nor 
has there been any abroad, more handsomely adorned. 

17th December, 1684. Early in the morning I went 
into St. James's Park to see three Turkish, or Asian 
horses, newly brought over, and now first shown to his 
Majesty. There were four, but one of them died at sea, 
being three weeks coming from Hamburg. They 
were taken from a Bashaw at the siege of Vienna, at 
the late famous raising that leaguer. I never beheld 
so delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat 
a bright bay, two white feet, a blaze; such a head, 
eyes, ears, neck, breast, belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, 
and feet, in all reg-ards, beautiful, and proportioned to 
admiration; spirited, proud, nimble, making halt, turning 

2oa DIARY OF London 

with that swiftness, and in so small a compass, as was 
admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as 
called to mind what I remember Busbequius, speaks of 
them, to the reproach of our grooms in Europe, who 
bring up their horses so churlishly, as makes most of 
them retain their ill habits. They trotted like does, as 
if they did not feel the ground. Five hundred guineas 
was demanded for the first; 300 for the second; and 
200 for the third, which was brown. All of them were 
choicely shaped, but the two last not altogether so perfect 
as the first, \ 

It was judged by the spectators, among whom was the 
King, Prince of Denmark, Duke of York, and several of 
the Court, noble persons skilled in horses, especially Mon- 
sieur Faubert and his son (provost masters of the Acad- 
emy, and esteemed of the best in Europe), that there 
were never seen any horses in these parts to be compared 
with them. Add to all this, the furniture consisting of 
embroidery on the saddle, housings, quiver, bow, arrows, 
scymitar, sword, mace, or battle-ax, h, la Turcisq; the 
Bashaw's velvet mantle furred with the most perfect 
ermine I ever beheld; all which, ironwork in common 
furniture being here of silver, curiously wrought and 
double gilt to an incredible value. Such and so extraor- 
dinary was the embroidery, that I never saw anything 
approaching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson 
silk, covered with chains of silver gilt. There was also 
a Turkish royal standard of a horse's tail, together with 
all sorts of other caparisons belonging to a general's 
horse, by which one may estimate how gallantly and 
magnificently those infidels appear in the field; for noth- 
ing could be seen more glorious. The gentleman (a Ger- 
man) who rode the horse, was in all this garb. They were 
shod with iron made round and closed at the heel, with 
a hole in the middle about as wide as a shilling. The 
hoofs most entire. 

1 8th December, 1684, I went with Lord Cornwallis to 
see the young gallants do their exercise. Mr. Faubert 
having newly railed in a manage, and fitted it for the 
academy. There were the Dukes of Norfolk and North- 
umberland, Lord Newburgh, and a nephew of (Duras) 
Earl of Feversham. The exercises were, i, running at 
the ring; 2, flinging a javelin at a Moor's head; 3, dis- 

1684-85 JOHN EVELYN 203 

charging a pistol at a mark; lastly taking up a gauntlet 
with the point of a sword; all these performed in full 
speed. The Duke of Northumberland hardly missed of 
succeeding in every one, a dozen times, as I think. The 
Duke of Norfolk did exceeding bravely. Lords Newburgh 
and Duras seemed nothing so dexterous. Here I saw 
the difference of what the French call <* bel homme h. cheval,^ 
and "^(?« homme h chevaP^; the Duke of Norfolk being the 
first, that is rather a fine person on a horse, the Duke 
of Northumberland being both in perfection, namely, a 
graceful person and an excellent rider. But the Duke of 
Norfolk told me he had not been at this exercise these 
twelve years before. There were in the field the Prince 
of Denmark, and the Lord Lansdowne, son of the Earl 
of Bath, who had been made a Count of the Empire last 
summer for his service before Vienna. 

20th December, 1684. A villainous murder was perpe- 
trated by Mr. St. John, eldest son to Sir Walter St. John, 
a worthy gentleman, on a knight of quality, in a tavern. 
The offender was sentenced and reprieved. So many 
horrid murders and duels were committed about this time 
as were never before heard of in England; which gave 
much cause of complaint and murmurings. 

ist January, 1684-85. It proved so sharp weather, and 
so long and cruel a frost, that the Thames was frozen 
across, but the frost was often dissolved, and then froze again. 

nth January, 1685. A young man preached upon St. 
Luke xiii. 5, after the Presbyterian tedious method and 

24th January, 1685. I dined at Lord Newport's, who 
had some excellent pictures, especially that of Sir Thomas 
Hanmer, by Vandyke, one of the best he ever painted; 
another of our English Dobson's painting; but, above 
all, Christ in the Virgin's lap, by Poussin, an admirable 
piece; with something of most other famous hands. 

25th January, 1685. Dr. Dove preached before the 
King. I saw this evening such a scene of profuse gam- 
ing, and the King in the midst of his three concubines, 
as I have never before seen — luxurious dallying and 

27th January, 1685. I dined at Lord Sunderland's, be- 
ing invited to hear that celebrated voice of Mr. Pordage, 
newly come from Rome ; his singing was after the Vene- 

204 DIARY OF London 

tian recitative, as masterly as could be, and with an ex- 
cellent voice both treble and bass; Dr. Walgrave 
accompanied it with his theorbo lute, on which he per- 
formed beyond imagination, and is doubtless one of the 
greatest masters in Europe on that charming instrument. 
Pordage is a priest, as Mr. Bernard Howard told me in 

There was in the room where we dined, and in his 
bedchamber, those incomparable pieces of Columbus, a 
Flagellation, the Grammar school, the Venus and Adonis 
of Titian ; and of Vandyke's that picture of the late Earl 
of Digby (father of the Countess of Sunderland), and 
Earl of Bedford, Sir Kenelm Digby, and two ladies of 
incomparable performance ; besides that of Moses and the 
burning bush of Bassano, and several other pieces of the 
best masters. A marble head of M, Brutus, etc. 

28th January, 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel's, 
of Wardour (now newly released of his six years' con- 
finement in the Tower on suspicion of the plot called 
Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage 
entertained us with his voice, that excellent and stupen- 
dous artist, Signor John Baptist, playing to it on the 
harpsichord. My daughter Mary being with us, she also 
sang to the great satisfaction of both the masters, and a 
world of people of quality present. 

She did so also at my Lord Rochester's the evening 
following, where we had the French boy so famed for 
his singing, and indeed he had a delicate voice, and had 
been well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter 
to my old friend) sing before his Majesty and the Duke, 
privately, that stupendous bass. Gosling, accompanying 
her, but hers was so loud as took away much of the 
sweetness. Certainly never woman had a stronger or 
better ear, could she possibly have governed it. She 
would do rarely in a large church among the nuns. 

4th February, 1685. I went to London, hearing his 
Majesty had been the Monday before (2d February) sur- 
prised in his bedchamber with an apoplectic fit, so that 
if, by God's providence. Dr. King (that excellent chirur- 
geon as well as physician) had not been accidentally 
present to let him bleed (having his lancet in his pocket), 
his Majesty had certainly died that moment; which might 
have been of direful consequence, there being nobody else 

1 685 JOHN EVELYN 205 

present with the King save this Doctor and one more, as 
I am assured. It was a mark of the extraordinary dex- 
terity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Doctor, to 
let him bleed in the very paroxysm, without staying the 
coming of other physicians, which regularly should have 
been done, and for want of which he must have a regular 
pardon, as they tell me. This rescued his Majesty for the 
instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still com- 
plained, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes 
epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was 
cupped, let bleed in both jugfulars, and both vomit and 
purges, which so relieved him, that on Thursday hopes of 
recovery were signified in the public ^^ Gazette,® but that 
day about noon, the physicians thought him feverish. 
This they seemed glad of, as being more easily allayed 
and methodically dealt with than his former fits ; so as they 
prescribed the famous Jesuit's powder; but it made him 
worse, and some very able doctors who were present did 
not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleed- 
ing and other sharp operations used by them about his 
head, so that probably the powder might stop the circula- 
tion, and renew his former fits, which now made him very 
weak. Thus he passed Thursday night with gfreat diffi- 
culty, when complaining of a pain in his side, they drew 
twelve ounces more of blood from him ; this was by six in 
the morning on Friday, and it gave him relief, but it did 
not continue, for being now in much pain, and struggling 
for breath, he lay dozing, and, after some conflicts, the 
physicians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at half 
an hour after eleven in the morning, being the sixth of 
February, 1685, in the 36th year of his reign, and 54th of 
his age. 

Prayers were solemnly made in all the churches, espe- 
cially in both the Court Chapels, where the chaplains 
relieved one another every half quarter of an hour from 
the time he began to be in danger till he expired, ac- 
cording to the form prescribed in the Church offices. 
Those who assisted his Majesty's devotions were, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London, Dur- 
ham, and Ely, but more especially Dr. Ken, the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells.* It is said they exceedingly urged 

*The account given of this by Charles's brother and successor, is, 
that when the King's life was wholly despaired of, and it was time 

3o6 DIARY OF \ London 

the receiving Holy Sacrament, but his Majesty told them 
he would consider of it, which he did so long till it was 
too late. Others whispered that the Bishops and Lords, 
except the Earls of Bath and Feversham, being ordered 
to withdraw the night before, Huddleston, the priest, 
had presumed to administer the Popish offices. He gave 
his breeches and keys to the Duke who was almost con- 
tinually kneeling by his bedside, and in tears. He also 
recommended to him the care of his natural children, all 
except the Duke of Monmouth, now in Holland, and in 
his displeasure. He entreated the Queen to pardon him 
( not without cause) ; who a little before had sent a Bishop 
to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in regard 
of her excessive grief, and withal that his Majesty would 
forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spoke 
to the Duke to be kind to the Duchess of Cleveland, 
and especially Portsmouth, and that Nelly might not 

Thus died King Charles II. , of a vigorous and robust 
constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. 
He was a prince of many virtues, and many great imper- 

to prepare for another world, two Bishops came to do their function, 
who reading the prayers appointed in the Common Prayer Book on 
that occasion, when they came to the place where usually they exhort 
a sick person to make a confession of his sins, the Bishop of Bath 
and Wells, who was one of them, advertised him, it was not of ob- 
ligation; and after a short exhortation, asked him if he was sorry 
for his sins? which the King saying he was, the Bishop pronounced 
the absolution, and then, asked him if he pleased to receive the 
Sacrament ? to which the King made no reply ; and being pressed by 
the Bishop several times, gave no other answer but that it was time 
enough, or that he would think of it. 

King James adds, that he stood all the while by the bedside, and 
seeing the King would not receive the Sacrament from them, and 
knowing his sentiments, he desired the company to stand a little 
from the bed, and then asked the King whether he should send for a 
priest, to which the King replied: «For God's sake, brother, do, and 
lose no time.® The Duke said he would bring one to him; but none 
could be found except Father Huddleston, who had been so assistant 
in the King's escape from Worcester; he was brought up a back 
staircase, and the company were desired to withdraw, but he (the 
Duke of York) not thinking fit that he should be left alone with the 
King, desired the Earl of Bath, a Lord of the Bedchamber, and the 
Earl of Feversham, Captain of the Guard, should stay; the rest being 
gone, Father Huddleston was introduced, and administered the Sacra- 
ment — <^Life of James H.» 

1685 JOHN EVELYN 207 

fections; debonair, easy of access, not bloody nor cruel; 
his countenance fierce, his voice great, proper of person, 
every motion became him ; a lover of the sea, and skillful 
in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a 
laboratory, and knew of many empirical medicines, and 
the easier mechanical mathematics ; he loved planting and 
building, and brought in a politer way of .living, which 
passed to luxury and intolerable expense. He had a 
particular talent in telling a story, and facetious pas- 
sages, of which he had innumerable; this made some 
buffoons and vicious wretches too presumptuous and 
familiar, not worthy the favor they abused. He took 
delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him 
and lie in his bedchamber, where he often suffered the 
bitches to puppy and give suck, which rendered it very 
offensive, and indeed made the whole court nasty and 
stinking. He would doubtless have been an excellent 
prince, had he been less addicted to women, who made 
him uneasy, and always in want to supply their unmeas- 
urable profusion, to the detriment of many indigent per- 
sons who had signally served both him and his father. 
He frequently and easily changed favorites to his great 

As to other public transactions, and unhappy miscar- 
riages, 'tis not here I intend to number them; but cer- 
tainly never had King more glorious opportunities to 
have made himself, his people, and all Europe happy, and 
prevented innumerable mischiefs, had not his too easy 
nature resigned him to be managed by crafty men, and 
some abandoned and profane wretches who corrupted his 
otherwise sufl&cient parts, disciplined as he had been by 
many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him 
much experience and knowledge of men and things; but 
those wicked creatures took him from off all application 
becoming so great a King. The history of his reign 
will certainly be the most wonderful for the variety of 
matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages: 
the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and 
hardships, his miraculous restoration, conspiracies against 
him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions 
abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other par- 
ticulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious 
upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot without ingrati- 

2o8 DIARY OF London 

tude but deplore his loss, which for many respects, as 
well as duty, I do with all my soul. 

His Majesty being dead, the Duke, now King James 
II , went immediately to Council, and before entering 
into any business, passionately declaring his sorrow, 
told their Lordships, that since the succession had fallen 
to him, he would endeavor to follow the example of his 
predecessor in his clemency and tenderness to his people ; 
that, however he had been misrepresented as affecting 
arbitrary power, they should find the contrary ; for that the 
laws of England had made the King as great a monarch 
as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain 
the Government both in Church and State, as by law es- 
tablished, its principles being so firm for monarchy, and 
the members of it showing themselves so good and loyal 
subjects;* and that, as he would never depart from the 
just rights and prerogatives of the Crown, so he would 
never invade any man's property, but as he had often 
adventured his life in defense of the nation, so he would 
still proceed, and preserve it in all its lawful rights and 

* This is the substance (and very nearly the words employed) of what 
is stated by King James II. in the MS. printed in his life ; but in that 
MS. are some words which Evelyn has omitted. For example, after 
speaking of the members of the Church of England as good and loyal 
subjects, the King adds, «and therefore i shall always take care to 
DEFEND AND SUPPORT IT.® James then goes on to say, that being desired 
by some present to allow copies to be taken, he said he had not committed 
it to writing; on which Mr. Finch (then Solicitor-General and afterward 
Earl of Aylesford) replied, that what his Majesty had said had made so 
deep an impression on him, that he believed he could repeat the very 
words, and if his Majesty would permit him, he would write them 
down, which the King agreeing to, he went to a table and wrote them 
down, and this being shown to the King, he approved of it, and it was 
immediately published. The King afterward proceeds to say: *No one 
can wonder that Mr. Finch should word the speech as strong as he 
could in favor of the Established Religion, nor that the King in such a 
hurry should pass it over without reflection ; for though his Majesty in- 
tended to promise both security to their religion and protection to their 
persons, he was afterward convinced it had been better expressed by 
assuring them he never would endeavor to alter the Established Re- 
ligion, than that he would endeavor to preser^'e it, and that he would 
rather support and defend the professors of it, than the religion itself ; 
they could not expect he should make a conscience of supporting what 
in his conscience he thought erroneous: his engaging not to molest the 
professors of it, nor to deprive them or their successors of any spiritual 
dignity, revenue, or employment, but to suffer the ecclesiastical affairs 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 209 

This being- the substance of what he said, the Lords 
desired it might be published, as containing matter of 
great satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, 
which his Majesty consented to. Then were the Council 
sworn, and a Proclamation ordered to be published that 
all officers should continue in their stations, that there 
might be no failure of public justice, till his further 
pleasure should be known. Then the King rose, the 
Lords accompanying him to his bedchamber, where, while 
he reposed himself, tired indeed as he was with grief and 
watching, they returned again into the Council chamber 
to take order for the proclaiming his Majesty, which 
(after some debate) they consented should be in the very 
form his grandfather. King James I., was, after the death 
of Queen Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, etc., 
should proceed in their coaches through the city for the 
more solemnity of it. Upon this was I, and several 
other gentlemen waiting in the Privy gallery, admitted 
into the Council chamber to be witness of what was re- 
solved on. Thence with the Lords, Lord Marshal and 
Heralds, and other Crown officers being ready, we first 
went to Whitehall gate, where the Lords stood on foot 
bareheaded, while the Herald proclaimed his Majesty's 
title to the Imperial Crown and succession according to 
the form, the trumpets and kettledrums having first 
sounded three times, which ended with the people's ac- 
clamations. Then a herald called the Lords' coaches 
according to rank, myself accompanying the solemnity in 
my Lord Cornwallis's coach, first to Temple Bar, where 
the Lord Mayor and his brethren met us on horseback, 
in all their formalities, and proclaimed the King; hence 
to the Exchange in Cornhill, and so we returned in the 

to go on in the track they were in, was all they could wish or desire from 
a Prince of a different persuasion ; but having once approved that way 
of expressing it which Mr. Finch had made choice of, he thought it nec- 
essary not to vary from it in the declarations or speeches he made after- 
ward, not doubting but the world would understand it in the meaning 

he intended. 'Tis true, afterward it was pretended he kept not up to 

this engagement; but had they deviated no further from the duty and al- 
legience which both nature and repeated oath obliged them to, than he 
DID FROM HIS WORD, they had still remained as happy a people as they 
really were during his short reign in England. >> — «Life of James II. ,» 
ii. 435. The words printed in small caps in this extract are from the 
interlineations of the son of King James II. 



order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all 
went and kissed the King and Queen's hands. He had 
been on the bed, but was now risen and in his undress. 
The Queen was in bed in her apartment, but put forth 
her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she 
was, having deported herself so decently upon all occa- 
sions since she came into England, which made her 
universally beloved. 

Thus concluded this sad and not joyful day. 

I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and pro- 
faneness, gaming, and all dissoluteness, and as ,it were 
total forgetfulness of God (it being Sunday evening), 
which this day se'nnight I was witness of, the King sit- 
ting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleve- 
land, and Mazarin, etc., a French boy singing love 
songs * in that glorious gallery, while about twenty of 
the great courtiers and other dissolute persons were at 
Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2,000 in 
gold before them; upon which two gentlemen, who were 
with me, made reflections with astonishment. Six days 
after, was all in the dust. 

It was enjoined that those who put on mourning should 
wear it as for a father, in the most solemn manner. 

loth February, 1685. Being sent to by the Sheriff of 
the County to appear and assist in proclaiming the King, 
I went the next day to Bromley, where I met the Sheriff 
and the Commander of the Kentish Troop, with an appear- 
ance, I suppose, of about 500 horse, and innumerable 
people, two of his Majesty's trumpets, and a Sergeant 
with other officers, who having drawn up the horse in a 
large field near the town, marched thence, with swords 
drawn, to the market place, where, making a ring, after 
sound of trumpets and silence made, the High Sheriff 
read the proclaiming titles to his bailiff, who repeated 
them aloud, and then, after many shouts of the people, 
his Majesty's health being drunk in a flint glass of a yard 
long, by the Sheriff, Commander, Officers, and chief 
gentlemen, they all dispersed, and I returned. 

13th February, 1685, I passed a fine on selling of Hon- 
son Grange in Staffordshire, being about ;^2o per annum, 
which lying so great a distance, I thought fit to part 
with it to one Burton, a farmer there. It came to me 

*Ante, p. 204. 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 211 

as part of my daughter-in-law's portion, this being but a 
fourth part of what was divided between the mother and 
three sisters. 

14th February, 1685. The King was this night very 
obscurely buried in a vault under Henry VII.'s Chapel at 
Westminster, without any manner of pomp, and soon for- 
gotten after all this vanity, and the face of the whole 
Court was exceedingly changed into a more solemn and 
moral behavior; the new King affecting neither profane- 
ness nor buffooner}''. All the great ofl&cers broke their 
staves over the grave, according to form. 

15th February, 1685. Dr. Tenison preached to the 
household. The second sermon should have been before 
the King; but he, to the gpreat grief of his subjects, did 
now, for the first time, go to mass publicly in the little 
Oratory at the Duke's lodgings, the doors being set wide open. 

1 6th February, 1685. I dined at Sir Robert Howard's, 
auditor of the exchequer, a gentleman pretending to all 
manner of arts and sciences, for which he had been the 
subject of comedy, under the name of Sir Positive; not 
ill-natured, but insufferably boasting. He was son to the 
late Earl of Berkshire. 

17th February, 1685. This morning his Majesty re- 
stored the staff and key to Lord Arlingfton, Chamberlain; 
to Mr. Savell, Vice-chamberlain; to Lords Newport and 
Maynard, Treasurer and Comptroller of the household. 
Lord Godolphin made Chamberlain to the Queen; Lord 
Peterborough groom of the stole, in place of the Earl of 
Bath; the Treasurer's staff to the Earl of Rochester; and 
his brother, the Earl of Clarendon, Lord Privy Seal, in 
the place of the Marquis of Halifax, who was made Presi- 
dent of the Council; the Secretaries of State remaining 
as before. 

19th February, 1685. The Lord Treasurer and the 
other new ofl&cers were sworn at the Chancery Bar and 
the exchequer. 

The late King having the revenue of excise, customs, and 
other late duties granted for his life only, they were now 
farmed and let to several persons, upon an opinion that 
the late King might let them for three years after his 
decease; some of the old commissioners refused to act. 
The lease was made but the day before the King died;* 

•James, in his Life, makes no mention of this lease, but only says 


the major part of the Judges (but, as some think, not 
the best lawyers), pronounced it legal, but four dissented. 

The clerk of the closet had shut up the late King's 
private oratory next the Privy-chamber above, but the 
King caused it to be opened again, and that prayers 
should be said as formerly. 

2 2d February, 1685. Several most useful tracts against 
Dissenters, Papists and Fanatics, and resolutions of 
cases were now published by the London divines. 

4th March, 1685, Ash Wednesday. After evening 
prayers, I went to London. 

5th March, 1685. To my grief, I saw the new pulpit 
set up in the Popish Oratory at Whitehall for the Lent 
preaching, mass being publicly said, and the Romanists 
swarming at Court with greater confidence than had ever 
been seen in England since the Reformation, so that 
everybody grew jealous as to what this would tend. 

A Parliament was now summoned, and great industry 
used to obtain elections which might promote the Court 
interest, most of the corporations being now, by their 
new charters, empowered to make what returns of mem- 
bers they pleased. 

There came over divers envoys and great persons to 
condole the death of the late King, who were received 
by the Queen-Dowager on a bed of mourning, the whole 
chamber, ceiling and floor, hung with black, and tapers 
were lighted, so as nothing could be more lugubrious and 
solemn The Queen-Consort sat under a state on a black 
foot-cloth, to entertain the circle (as the Queen used to 
do), and that very decently. 

6th March, 1685. Lent preachers continued as formerly 
in the Royal Chapel. 

7th March, 1685. My daughter, Mary, was taken with 
smallpox, and there soon was found no hope of her re- 
covery. A great affliction to me : but God's holy will be 

loth March, 1685. She received the blessed sacrament; 
after which, disposing herself to suffer what God should 

HE continued to collect them, which conduct was not blamed ; but, on 
the contrary, he was thanked for it, in an address from the Middle 
Temple, penned by Sir Bartholomew Shore, and presented by Sir 
Humphrey Mackworth, carrying g^eat authority with it; nor did the 
Parliament find fault. 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 213 

determine to inflict, she bore the remainder of her sick- 
ness with extraordinary patience and piety, and more 
than ordinary resignation and blessed frame of mind. 
She died the 14th, to our unspeakable sorrow and afflic- 
tion, and not to our's only, but that of all who knew 
her, who were many of the best quality, greatest and 
most virtuous persons. The justness of her stature, person, 
comeliness of countenance, gracefulness of motion, unaf- 
fected, though more than ordinarily beautiful, were the 
least of her ornaments compared with those of her mind. 
Of early piety, singularly religious, spending a part of 
every day in private devotion, reading, and other virtu- 
ous exercises; she had collected and written out many of 
the most useful and judicious periods of the books she 
read in a kind of common-place, as out of Dr. Hammond 
on the New Testament, and most of the best practical 
treatises. She had read and digested a considerable deal 
of history, and of places. The French tongue was as 
familiar to her as English; she understood Italian, and 
was able to render a laudable account of what she read 
and observed, to which assisted a most faithful memory 
and discernment; and she did make very prudent and 
discreet reflections upon what she had observed of the 
conversations among which she had at any time been, 
which being continually of persons of the best quality, 
she thereby improved. She had an excellent voice, to 
which she plaj^ed a thorough-bass on the harpsichord, in 
both which she arrived to that perfection, that of the 
scholars of those two famous masters, Signors Pietro and 
Bartholomeo, she was esteemed the best; for the sweet- 
ness of her voice and management of it added such an 
agreeablcness to her countenance, without any constraint 
or concern, that when she sung, it was as charming to 
the eye as to the ear ; this I rather note, because it was 
a universal remark, and for which so many noble and 
judicious persons in music desired to hear her, the last 
being at Lord Arundel's, at Wardour. 

What shall I say, or rather not say, of the cheerfulness 
and agreeableness of her humor ? condescending to the 
meanest servant in the family, or others, she still kept 
up respect, without the least pride. She would often 
read to them, examine, instruct, and pray with them if 
they were sick, so as she was exceedingly beloved of 


everybody. Piety was so prevalent an ingredient in her 
constitution (as I may say), that even among equals and 
superiors she no sooner became intimately acquainted, 
but she would endeavor to improve them, by insinuating 
something religious, and that tended to bring them to a 
love of devotion; she had one or two confidants with 
whom she used to pass whole days in fasting, reading, 
and prayers, especially before the monthly communion, 
and other solemn occasions. She abhorred flattery, and, 
though she had abundance of wit, the raillery was so in- 
nocent and ingenius that it was most agfreeable; she 
sometimes would see a play, but since the stage grew 
licentious, expressed herself weary of them, and the time 
spent at the theater was an unaccountable vanity. She 
never played at cards without extreme importunity and 
for the company; but this was so very seldom, that I 
cannot number it among anything she could name a fault. 
No one could read prose or verse better or with more 
judgment; and as she read, so she wrote, not only most 
correct orthography, with that maturity of judgment and 
exactness of the periods, choice of expressions, and 
familiarity of style, that some letters of hers have as- 
tonished me and others, to whom she has occasionally 
written. She had a talent of rehearsing any comical 
part or poem, as to them she might be decently free 
with; was more pleasing than heard on the theater; she 
danced with the greatest grace I had ever seen, and so 
would her master say, who was Monsieur Isaac; but she 
seldom showed that perfection, save in the gracefulness 
of her carriage, which was with an air of sprightly 
modesty not easily to be described. Nothing affected, 
but natural and easy as well in her deportment as in her 
discourse, which was always material, not trifling, and 
to which the extraordinary sweetness of her tone, even 
in familar speaking, was very charming. Nothing was 
so pretty as her descending to play with little children, 
whom she would caress and humor with great delight. 
But she most affected to be with grave and sober men, 
of whom she might learn something, and improve her- 
self. I have been assisted by her in reading and praying 
by me; comprehensive of uncommon notions, curious of 
knowing everything to some excess, had I not sometimes 
repressed it. 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 315 

Nothing was so delightful to her as to go into my 
Study, where she would willingly have spent whole days, 
for as I said she had read abundance of history, and all 
the best poets, even Terence, Plautus, Homer, Virgil, 
Horace, Ovid ; all the best romancers and modem poems ; 
she could compose happily and put in pretty symbols, as 
in the ^'-Mundus Muliebris, '* wherein is an enumeration of 
the immense variety of the modes and ornaments belong- 
ing to the sex. But all these are vain trifles to the 
virtues which adorned her soul; she was sincerely reli 
gious, most dutiful to her parents, whom she loved with 
an affection tempered with great esteem, so as we were 
easy and free, and never were so well pleased as when 
she was with us, nor needed we other conversation; she 
was kind to her sisters, and was still improving them by 
her constant course of piety. Oh, dear, sweet, and desir- 
able child, how shall I part with all this goodness and 
virtue without the bitterness of sorrow and reluctancy of 
a tender parent! Thy affection, duty and love to me 
was that of a friend as well as a child. Nor less dear to 
thy mother, whose example and tender care of thee was 
unparalleled, nor was thy return to her less conspicuous. 
Oh! how she mourns thy loss! how desolate hast thou 
left us! To the grave shall we both carry thy memory! 
God alone (in whose bosom thou art at rest and happy!) 
give us to resign thee and all our contentments (for thou 
indeed wert all in this world) to his blessed pleasure! 
Let him be glorified by our submission, and give us grace 
to bless him for the graces he implanted in thee, thy 
virtuous life, pious and holy death, which is indeed the 
only comfort of our souls, hastening through the infinite 
love and mercy of the Lord Jesus to be shortly with thee, 
dear child, and with thee and those blessed saints like 
thee, glorify the Redeemer of the world to all eternity! 

It was in the 19th year of her age that this sickness 
happened to her. An accident contributed to this disease ; 
she had an apprehension of it in particular, which struck 
her but two days before she came home, by an impru- 
dent gentlewoman whom she went with Lady Falkland 
to visit, who, after they had been a good while in the 
house, told them she has a servant sick of the smallpox 
(who indeed died the next day): this my poor child 

3i6 DIARY OF SAVES court 

acknowledged made an impression on her spirits There 
were four gentlemen of quality offering to treat with me 
about marriage, and I freely gave her her own choice, 
knowing her discretion. She showed great indifference 
to marrying at all, for truly, says she to her mother 
(the other day), were I assured of your life and my dear 
father's, never would I part from you; I love you and 
this home, where we serve God, above all things, nor 
ever shall I be so happy ; I know and consider the vicis- 
situdes of the world, I have some experience of its vani- 
ties, and but for decency more than inclination, and that 
you judge it expedient for me, I would not change my 
condition, but rather add the fortune you design me to 
my sisters, and keep up the reputation of our family 
This was so discreetly and sincerely uttered that it could 
not but proceed from an extraordinary child, and one 
who loved her parents beyond example. 

At London, she took this fatal disease, and the occasion 
of her being there was this: my Lord Viscount Falk- 
land's Lady having been our neighbor ( as he was Treas- 
urer of the Navy ), she took so great an affection to my 
daughter, that when they went back in the autumn to 
the city, nothing would satisfy their incessant importu- 
nity but letting her accompany my Lady, and staying 
some time with her ; it was with the greatest reluctance I 
complied. While she was there, my Lord being musical, 
when I saw my Lady would not part with her till Christ- 
mas, I was not unwilling she should improve the oppor- 
tunity of learning of Signor Pietro, who had an admirable 
way both of composure and teaching. It was the end of 
February before I could prevail with my Lady to part 
with her; but my Lord going into Oxfordshire to stand 
for Knight of the Shire there, she expressed her wish to 
come home, being tired of the vain and empty conversa- 
tion of the town, the theaters, the court, and trifling 
visits which consumed so much precious time, and made 
her sometimes miss of that regular course of piety that 
gave her the greatest satisfaction. She was weary of 
this life, and I think went not thrice to Court all this 
time, except when her mother or I carried her. She did 
not affect showing herself, she knew the Court well, and 
passed one summer in it at Windsor with Lady Tuke, 
one of the Queen's women of the bedchamber (a most 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 217 

virtuous relation of hers ) ; she was not fond of that 
glittering scene, now become abominably licentious, 
though there was a design of Lady Rochester and Lady 
Clarendon to have made her a maid of honor to the 
Queen as soon as there was a vacancy. But this she did 
not set her heart upon, nor indeed on anything so much 
as the service of God, a quiet and regular life, and how 
she might improve herself in the most necessary accom- 
plishments, and to which she was arrived at so great a 

This is the little history and imperfect character of my 
dear child, whose piety, virtue, and incomparable endow- 
ments deserve a monument more durable than brass and 
marble. Precious is the memorial of the just. Much I 
could enlarge on ever>^ period of this hasty account, but 
that I ease and discharge my overcoming passion for the 
present, so many things worthy an excellent Christian 
and dutiful child crowding upon me. Never can I say 
enough, oh dear, my dear child, whose memory is so 
precious to me! 

This dear child was bom at Wotton, in the same house 
and chamber in which I first drew my breath, my wife 
having retired to my brother there in the great sickness 
that year upon the first of that month, and the very hour 
that I was bom, upon the last: viz, October. 

1 6th March, 1685. She was interred in the southeast 
end of the church at Deptford, near her grandmother and 
several of my younger children and relations. My desire 
was she should have been carried and laid among my own 
parents and relations at Wotton, where I desire to be in- 
terred myself, when God shall call me out of this uncer- 
tain transitory life, but some circumstances did not permit 
it. Our vicar, Dr. Holden, preached her funeral sermon 
on Phil. i. 21. ** For to me to live is Christ, and to die 
is gain," upon which he made an apposite discourse, as 
those who heard it assured me (for grief suffered me not 
to be present), concluding with a modest recital of her 
many virtues and signal piety, so as to draw both tears 
and admiration from the hearers. I was not altogether 
unwilling that something of this sort should be spoken, for 
the edification and encouragement of other young people. 

Divers noble persons honored her funeral, some in per- 
son, others sending their coaches, of which there were 

2i8 DIARY OF SAYES court 

six or seven with six horses, viz, the Countess of Sunder- 
land, Earl of Clarendon, Lord Godolphin, Sir Stephen 
Fox, Sir William Godolphin, Viscount Falkland, and 
others. There were distributed among her friends about 
sixty rings. 

Thus lived, died, and was buried the joy of my life, and 
ornament of her sex and of my poor family ! God Al- 
mighty of his infinite mercy grant me the grace thank- 
fully to resign myself and all I have, or had, to his 
divine pleasure, and in his good time, restoring health 
and comfort to my family : * teach me so to number my 
days, that I may apply my heart to wisdom,* be pre- 
pared for my dissolution, and that into the hands of my 
blessed Savior I may recommend my spirit! Amen! 

On looking into her closet, it is incredible what a nimi- 
ber of collections she had made from historians, poets, 
travelers, etc., but, above all, devotions, contemplations, 
and resolutions on these contemplations, found under her 
hand in a book most methodically disposed ; prayers, med- 
itations, and devotions on particular occasions, with many 
pretty letters to her confidants; one to a divine (not 
named) to whom she writes that he would be her ghostly 
father, and would not despise her for her many errors 
and the imperfections of her youth, but beg of God to 
give her courage to acquaint him with all her faiilts, im- 
ploring his assistance and spiritual directions. I well 
remember she had often desired me to recommend her 
to such a person; but I did not think fit to do it as yet, 
seeing her apt to be scrupulous, and knowing the g^eat 
innocency and integrity of her life. 

It is astonishing how one who had acquired such sub- 
stantial and practical knowledge in other ornamental parts 
of education, especially music, both vocal and instru- 
mental, in dancing, paying and receiving visits, and neces- 
sary conversation, could accomplish half of what she has 
left; but, as she never affected play or cards, which con- 
sume a world of precious time, so she was in continual 
exercise, which yet abated nothing of her most agreeable 
conversation. But she was a little miracle while she lived, 
and so she died! 

26th March, 1685. I was invited to the funeral of Cap- 
tain Gunman, that excellent pilot and seaman, who had 
behaved himself so gallantly in the Dutch war. He died 

1 68 5 JOHN EVELYN 219 

of a gangrene, occasioned by liis fall from the pier of 
Calais. This was the Captain of the yacht carrying the 
Duke (now King) to Scotland, and was accused for not 
gi^^ng timely warning when she split on the sands, where 
so many perished; but I am most confident he was no 
ways guilty, either of negligence, or design, as he made 
appear not only at the examination of the matter of fact, 
but in the vindication he showed me, and which must 
needs give any man of reason satisfaction. He was a 
sober, frugal, cheerful, and temperate man; we have few 
such seamen left. 

8th April, 1685. Being now somewhat composed after 
my great affliction, I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison 
(it being on a Wednesday in Lent) at Whitehall. I ob- 
served that though the King was not in his seat above in 
the chapel, the Doctor made his three congees, which 
they were not used to do when the late King was absent, 
making then one bowing only. I asked the reason ; it was 
said he had a special order so to do. The Princess of 
Denmark was in the King's closet, but sat on the left hand 
of the chair, the Clerk of the Closet standing by his 
Majesty's chair, as if he had been present. 

I met the Queen Dowager going now first from White- 
hall to dwell at Somerset Housie. 

This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow were 
candidates for Surrey against Sir Adam Brown and my 
cousin. Sir Edward Evelyn, and were circumvented in 
their election by a trick of the Sheriff's, taking advan- 
tage of my brother's party going out of the small village 
of Leatherhead to seek shelter and lodgfing, the afternoon 
being tempestuous, proceeding to the election when they 
were gone; they expecting the next morning; whereas 
before and then they exceeded the other party by many 
hundreds, as I am assured. The Duke of Norfolk led Sir 
Edward Evelyn's and Sir Adam Brown's party. For this 
Parliament, very mean and slight persons ( some of them 
gentlemen's serv^ants, clerks, and persons neither of rep- 
utation nor interest ) were set up ; but the country would 
choose my brother whether he would or no, and he missed 
it by the trick above mentioned. Sir Adam Brown was 
so deaf, that he could not hear one word. Sir Edward 
Evelyn was an honest gentleman, much in favor with his 


loth April, 1685. I went early to Whitehall to hear 
Dr. Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury, preaching on Eccles. 
ix. 18. I returned in the evening, and visited Lady 
Tuke, and found with her Sir George Wakeman, the 
physician, whom I had seen tried and acquitted, among 
the plotters for poisoning the late King, on the accusa- 
tion of the famous Gates; and surely I believed him 

14th April, 1685. According to my custom, I went to 
London to pass the holy week. 

17th April, 1685. Good Friday. Dr. Tenison preached 
at the new church at St. James, on i Cor. xvi. 22, upon 
the infinite love of God to us, which he illustrated in 
many instances. The Holy Sacrament followed, at which 
I participated. The Lord make me thankful! In the 
afternoon, Dr. Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, preached in 
Whitehall chapel, the auditory very full of Lords, the 
two Archbishops, and many others, now drawn to town 
upon occasion of the coronation and ensuing Parliament. 
I supped with the Countess of Sunderland and Lord 
Godolphin, and returned home. 

23d April, 1685. Was the coronation of the King and 
Queen. The solemnity was magnificent as is set forth 
in print. The Bishop of Ely preached; but, to the sor- 
row of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have been. 
However, the King begins his reign with great expeC' 
tations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late 
vices and profaneness of both Court and country. Having 
been present at the late King's coronation, I was not 
ambitious of seeing this ceremony. 

3d May, 1685. A young man preached, going chaplain 
with Sir. J. Wibum, Governor of Bombay, in the East 

7th May, 1685. I was in Westminster Hall when Gates, 
who had made such a stir in the kingdom, on his reveal- 
ing a plot of the Papists, and alarmed several Parliaments, 
and had occasioned the execution of divers priests, 
noblemen, etc., was tried for perjury at the King's 
bench ; but, being very tedious, I did not endeavor to see 
the issue, considering that it would be published. Abun- 
dance of Roman Catholics were in the hall in expectation 
of the most grateful conviction and ruin of a person who 
had been so obnoxious to them, and as I verily 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 221 

believe, had done much mischief and great injury to several 
by his violent and ill-grounded proceedings ; while he was 
at first so unreasonably blown up aiid encouraged, that 
his insolence was no longer sufferable. 

Mr. Roger L'Estrange (a gentleman whom I had long 
known, and a person of excellent parts, abating some 
affectations) appearing first against the Dissenters in 
several tracts, had now for some years turned his style 
against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they 
called Whigs and Trimmers, under the title of ** Observa- 
tor," which came out three or four days every week, in 
which sheets, under pretense to serve the Church of Eng- 
land, he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by 
several passages which rather kept up animosities than 
appeased them, especially now that nobody gave the 
least occasion.* 

loth May, 1685. The Scots valuing themselves exceed- 
ingly to have been the first Parliament called by his 
Majesty, gave the excise and customs to him and his 
successors forever ; the Duke of Queensberry making elo- 
quent speeches, and especially minding them of a speedy 
suppression of those late desperate Field-Conventiclers 
who had done such unheard of assassinations. In the 
meantime, elections for the ensuing Parliament in Eng- 
land were thought to be very indirectly carried on in 
most places. God grant a better issue of it than some 
expect ! 

1 6th May, 1685, Gates was sentenced to be whipped 
and pilloried with the utmost severity. 

2ist May, 1685. I dined at my Lord Privy Seal's with 
Sir William Dugdale, Garter King-at-Arms, author of 
the " MoNASTicoN * and other learned works ; he told me 
he was 82 years of age, and had his sight and memory 
perfect. There was shown a draft of the exact shape 
and dimensions of the crown the Queen had been crowned 
withal, together with the jewels and pearls, their weight 
and value, which amounted to ^100,658 sterling, attested 

* In the first Dutch war, while Evelyn was one of the Commissioners 
for sick and wounded, L'Estrange in his « Gazette >> mentioned the bar- 
barous usage of the Dutch prisoners of war: whereupon Evelyn wrote him 
a very spirited letter, desiring that the Dutch Ambassador (who was 
then in England) and his friends would visit the prisoners, and examine 
their provisions ; and he required L'Estrange to publish^that vindication 
in his next number. 


at the foot of the paper by the jeweler and goldsmith 
who set them. 

22d May, 1685. In the morning, I went with a French 
gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seal to the House of 
Lords, where we were placed by his Lordship next the 
bar, just below the bishops, very commodiously both for 
hearing and seeing. After a short space, came in the 
Queen and Princess of Denmark, and stood next above 
the archbishops, at the side of the House on the right 
hand of the throne. In the interim, divers of the Lords, 
who had not finished before, took the test and usual 
oaths, so that her Majesty, the Spanish and other Ambas- 
sadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and 
the worship of the Virgin Mary, etc., renounced very 
decently, as likewise the prayers which followed, stand- 
ing all the while. Then came in the King, the crown 
on his head, and being seated, the Commons were intro- 
duced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper 
containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, 
to this effect : " That he resolved to call a Parliament 
from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best 
means to settle all the concerns of the nation, so as to 
be most easy and happy to himself and his subjects ; that 
he would confirm whatever he had said in his declaration 
at the first Council concerning his opinion of the prin- 
ciples of the Church of England, for their loyalty, and 
would defend and support it, and preserve its government 
as by law now established; that, as he would invade no 
man's property, so he would never depart from his own 
prerogative; and, as he had ventured his life in defense 
of the nation, so he would proceed to do still ; that, having 
given this assurance of his care of our religion ( his word 
was YOUR religion ) and property ( which he had not said 
by chance, but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable 
returns of his subjects' duty and kindness, especially as 
to settling his revenue for life, for the many weighty 
necessities of government, which he would not suffer to 
be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it 
were better to feed and supply him from time to time 
only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments; 
but that that would be a very improper method to take 
with him, since the best way to engage him to meet 
oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore 


he expected their compliance speedily, that this session 
being but short, they might meet again to satisfaction." 

At every period of this, the House gave loud shouts. 
Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of 
Argyle's being landed in the West Highlands of Scotland 
from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had 
published, which he would communicate to them, and 
that he should take the best care he could it should meet 
with the reward it deserved, not questioning the Parlia- 
ment's zeal and readiness to assist him as he desired; at 
which there followed another " Vive le Roi,^^ and so his 
Majesty retired. 

So soon as the Commons were returned and had put 
themselves into a grand committee, they immediately put 
the question, and unanimously voted the revenue to his 
Majesty for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against 
many elections, and would have had those members who 
(he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had 
cleared the matter of their being legally returned ; but no 
one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the 
new members whose elections and returns were universally 
censured, many of them being persons of no condition, or 
interest, in the nation, or places for which they served, 
especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, etc., said to have 
been recommended by the Court, and from the effect of 
the new charters changing the electors. It was reported 
that Lord Bath carried down with him [into Cornwall] 
no fewer than fifteen charters, so that some called him the 
Prince Elector: whence Seymour told the House in his 
speech that if this was digested, they might introduce what 
religion and laws they pleased, and that though he never 
gave heed to the fears and jealousies of the people before, 
he was now really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed 
list of members of 505, there did not appear to be above 135 
who had been in former Parliaments, especially that lately 
held at Oxford, 

In the Lords' House, Lord Newport made an exception 
against two or three young Peers, who wanted some 
months, and some only four or five days, of being of age. 

The Popish Lords, who had been sometime before re- 
leased from their confinement about the plot, were now 
discharged of their impeachment, of which I gave Lord 
Arundel of Wardour joy. 


Oates, who had but two days before been pilloried at 
several places and whipped at the cart's tail from New- 
gate to Aldgate, was this day placed on a sledge, being 
not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and 
dragged from prison to Tyburn, and whipped again all 
the way, which some thought to be severe and extraor- 
dinary; but, if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of 
the death of many innocents (as I fear he was), his 
punishment was but what he deserved. I chanced to pass 
just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution ! 

Note: there was no speech made by the Lord Keeper 
[Bridgman] after his Majesty, as usual. 

It was whispered he would not be long in that situa- 
tion, and many believe the bold Chief Justice Jefferies, 
who was made Baron of Wem, in Shropshire, and who 
went thorough stitch in that tribunal, stands fair for that 
office. I gave him joy the morning before of his new 
honor, he having always been very civil to me. 

24th May, 1685. We had hitherto not any rain for 
many months, so as the caterpillars had already devoured 
all the winter fruit through the whole land, and even 
killed several greater old trees. Such two winters and 
summers I had never known. 

4th June, 1685. Came to visit and take leave of me 
Sir Gabriel Sylvius, now going Envoy-extraordinary into 
Denmark, with his secretary and chaplain, a Frenchman, 
who related the miserable persecution of the Protestants 
in France; not above ten churches left them, and those 
also threatened to be demolished; they were commanded 
to christen their children within twenty-four hours after 
birth, or else a Popish priest was to be called, and then 
the infant brought up in Popery. In some places, they 
were thirty leagues from any minister, or opportunity of 
worship This persecution had displeased the most in- 
dustrious part of the nation, and dispersed those into 
Switzerland, Burgundy, Holland, Germany, Denmark, 
England, and the Plantations. There were with Sir 
Gabriel, his lady, Sir William Godolphin and sisters, and 
my Lord Godolphin's little son, my charge. I brought 
them to the water side where Sir Gabriel embarked, and 
the rest returned to London. 

14th June, 1685. There was now certain intelligence 
of the Duke of Monmouth landing at Lyme, in Dorset- 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 225 

shire, and of his having set up his standard as King of 
England. I pray God deliver us from the confusion 
t^'hich these beginnings threaten! 

Such a dearth for want of rain was never in my 

17th June, 1685. The Duke landed with but 150 men; 
but the whole kingdom was alarmed, fearing that the 
disaffected would join them, many of the trained bands 
flocking to him. At his landing, he published a Declar- 
ation, charging his Majesty with usurpation and several 
horrid crimes, on pretense of his own title, and offering 
to call a free Parliament. This declaration was ordered 
to be burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaimed a 
traitor, and a reward of ^5,000 to any who should kill 

At this time, the words engraved on the monument in 
London, intimating that the Papists fired the city, were 
erased and cut out. 

The exceeding drought still continues. 

i8th June, 1685. I received a warrant to send out a 
horse with twelve days' provisions, etc. 

28th June, 1685. We had now plentiful rain after two 
years' excessive drought and severe winters. 

Argyle taken in Scotland, and executed, and his party 

2d July, 1685. No considerable account of the troops 
sent against the Duke, though great forces sent. There 
was a smart skirmish; but he would not be provoked to 
come to an encounter, but still kept in the fastnesses, 

Dangerfield whipped, like Gates, for perjury. 

8th July, 1685. Came news of Monmouth's utter de- 
feat, and the next day of his being taken by Sir William 
Portman and Lord Lumley with the militia of their 
counties. It seems the Horse, commanded by Lord 
Grey, being newly raised and undisciplined, were not to 
be brought in so short a time to endure the fire, which 
exposed the Foot to the King's, so as when Monmouth 
had led the Foot in great silence and order, thinking to 
surprise Lieutenant-General Lord Feversham newly en- 
camped, and given him a smart charge, interchanging 
both great and small shot, the Horse, breaking their own 
ranks, Monmouth gave it over, and fled with Grey, leav- 
ing their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 


2,000. The whole number reported to be above 8,000; the 
King's but 2,700. The slain were most of them Mendip- 
MiNERS, who did great execution with their tools, and 
sold their lives very dearly, while their leaders flying 
were pursued and taken the next morning, not far from 
one another. Monmouth had gone sixteen miles on foot, 
changing his habit for a poor coat, and was found by 
Lord Lumley in a dry ditch covered with fern-brakes, 
but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might 
have passed for some countryman, his beard being grown 
so long and so gray as hardly to be known, had not his 
George discovered him, which was found in his pocket. 
It is said he trembled exceedingly all over, not able to 
speak. Grey was taken not far from him. Most of his 
party were Anabaptists and poor cloth workers of the 
country, no gentlemen of account being come in to him. 
The Bxoh-boutefeu, Ferguson, Matthews, etc., were not yet 
found. The ;;^5,ooo to be given to whoever should bring 
Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the mili- 
tia by agreement between Sir William Portman and Lord 
Lumley. The battle ended, some words, first in jest, 
then in passion, passed between Sherrington Talbot (a 
worthy gentleman, son to Sir John Talbot, and who had 
behaved himself very handsomely) and one Captain Love, 
both commanders of the militia, as to whose soldiers 
fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one 
another. Sherrington was wounded to death on the spot, 
to the great regret of those who knew him. He was Sir 
John's only son. 

9th July, 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings 
at Whitehall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devon- 
shire standing very near his Majesty's bedchamber door 
in the lobby, came Colonel Culpeper, and in a rude man- 
ner looking at my Lord in the face, asked whether this 
was a time and place for excluders to appear; my Lord 
at first took little notice of what he said, knowing him 
to be a hotheaded fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord 
asked Culpeper whether he meant him ; he said yes, he 
meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no ex- 
cluder (as indeed he was not) ; the other affirming it 
again, my Lord told him he lied; on which Culpeper 
struck him a box on the ear, which my Lord returned, and 
felled him. They were soon parted, Culpeper was seized, 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 227 

and his Majesty, who was all the while in his bedchamber, 
ordered him to be carried to the Greencloth officer, who 
sent him to the Marshalsea, as he deserved. My Lord 
Devon had nothing said to him. 

I supped this night at Lambeth at my old friendls Mr. 
Elias Ashmole's, with my Lady Clarendon, the Bishop of 
St. Asaph, and Dr. Tenison, when we were treated at a 
great feast. 

loth July, 1685. The Count of Castel Mellor, that 
great favorite and prime minister of Alphonso, late King 
of Portugal, after several years' banishment, being now 
received to grace and called home by Don Pedro, the 
present King, as having been found a person of the 
greatest integrity after all his sufferings, desired me to 
spend part of this day with him, and assist him in a col- 
lection of books and other curiosities, which he would 
carry with him into Portugal. 

Mr. Hussey, a young gentleman who made love to my 
late dear child, but whom she could not bring herself to 
answer in affection, died now of the same cruel disease, 
for which I was extremely sorry, because he never en- 
joyed himself after my daughter's decease, nor was I 
averse to the match, could she have overcome her disin- 

15th July, 1685, I went to see Dr. Tenison's library 
[in St. Martin's]. 

Monmouth was this day brought to London and ex- 
amined before the King, to whom he made great sub- 
mission, acknowledged his seduction by Ferguson, the 
Scot, whom he named the bloody villain. He was sent 
to the Tower, had an interview with his late Duchess, 
whom he received coldly, having lived dishonestly with 
the Lady Henrietta Went worth for two years. He ob- 
stinately asserted his conversation with that debauched 
woman to be no sin; whereupon, seeing he could not be 
persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent 
to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Com- 
munion to him. For the rest of his faults he professed 
great sorrow, and so died without any apparent fear. He 
would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but 
lying down, bid the fellow to do his office better than to 
the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold ; but the wretch 
made five chops before he had his head off; which so 


incensed the people, that had he not been guarded and 
got away, they would have torn him to pieces. 

The Duke made no speech on the scaffold (which was 
on Tower Hill), but gave a paper containing not above 
five or six lines, for the King, in which he disclaims all 
title to the Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his 
father, had indeed told him he was but his base son, and 
so desired his Majesty to be kind to his wife and children. 
This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. 
Martin's), who, with the Bishops of Ely and Bath and 
Wells, were sent to him by his Majesty, and were at the 

Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father 
and the ladies, being extremely handsome and adroit , an 
excellent soldier and dancer, a favorite of the people, of 
an easy nature, debauched by lust; seduced by crafty 
knaves, who would have set him up only to make a prop- 
erty, and taken the opportunity of the King being of 
another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. 
He failed and perished. 

He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent 
lady that brought him great riches, and a second dukedom 
in Scotland, He was Master of the Horse, General of the 
King his father's army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, 
Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word, 
had accumulations without end. See what ambition and 
want of principles brought him to ! He was beheaded on 
Tuesday, 14th of July. His mother, whose name was Bar- 
low, daughter of some very mean creatures, was a beauti- 
ful strumpet, whom I had often seen at Paris; she died 
miserably without anything to bury her; yet this Perkin 
had been made to believe that the King had married her, a 
monstrous and ridiculous forgery! And to satisfy the 
world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father 
(if his father he really was, for he most resembled one 
Sidney who was familiar with his mother) publicly and 
most solemnly renounced it, to be so entered in the 
Council Book some years since, with all the Privy Council- 
lors' attestation.* 

* The « Life of James II.» contains an account of the circumstances 
of the Duke of Monmouth's birth, which may be given in illustra- 
tion of the statements of the text. Ross, tutor to the Duke of 
Monmouth, is there said to have proposed to Bishop Cosins to sign a 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 229 

Had it not pleased God to dissipate tnis attempt in the 
beginning, there would in all appearance have gathered 
an irresistible force which would have desperately pro 
ceeded to the ruin of the Church and Government; so 
general was the discontent and expectation of the oppor- 
tunity. For my own part, I looked upon this deliver- 
ance as most signal. Such an inundation of fanatics 
and men of impious principles must needs have caused 
universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrileg-e, 
and confusion, an unavoidable civil war, and misery with- 
out end Blessed be God, the knot was happily broken, 
and a fair prospect of tranquillity for the future, if 
we reform, be thankful, and make a right use of this 
mercy ! 

1 8th July, 1685. I went to see the muster of the six 
Scotch and English regiments whom the Prince of 
Orange had lately sent to his Majesty out of Holland 
upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, 
there having been no occasion for their use. They 
were all excellently clad and well disciplined, and were 
encamped on Blackheath with their tents: the King and 
Queen came to see them exercise, and the manner 
of their encampment, which was very neat and magnificent. 

By a gross mistake of the Secretary of his Majesty's 
Forces, it had been ordered that they should be quar- 
tered in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, 
but, on my informing his Majesty timely of it, it was 

certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name 
was Walters : but this the Bishop refused. She was bom of a gentle- 
man's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to 
London to make her fortune. Algernon Sydney, then a Colonel in 
Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her fifty broad pieces (as he told 
the Duke of York) ; but being ordered hastily away with his regfiment, 
he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the 
hands of his brother, Colonel Robert Sydney, who kept her for some 
time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the 
Colonel was heard to say. Let who will have her, she is already sped ; 
and, after being with the King, she was so soon with child, that the 
world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that 
when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in 
stature and countenance, even to a wart on his face. However, the King 
owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on 
his return from his escape at Worcester he would have no further com- 
merce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. 


, The two horsemen which my son and myself sent into 
the county troops, were now come home, after a month's 
being out to our great charge. 

2oth July, 1685. The Trinity Company met this day, 
which should have been on the Monday after Trinity, 
but was put off by reason of the Royal Charter being 
so large, that it could not be ready before. Some immu- 
nities were superadded. Mr. Pepys, Secretary to the 
Admiralty, was a second time chosen Master. There 
were present the Duke of Grafton, Lord Dartmouth, 
Master of the Ordnance, the Commissioners of the Navy, 
and Brethren of the Corporation. We went to church, 
according to custom, and then took barge to the Trinity 
House, in London, where we had a great dinner, above 
eighty at one table. 

7th August, 1685. I went to see Mr. Watts, keeper of 
the Apothecaries' garden of simples at Chelsea, where 
there is a collection of innumerable rarities of that sort 
particularly, besides many rare annuals, the tree bear- 
ing Jesuit's bark, which had done such wonders in 
quartan agues. What was very ingenious was the sub- 
terranean heat, conveyed by a stove under the conserv- 
atory, all vaulted with brick, so as he has the doors and 
windows open in the hardest frosts, secluding only the 

15th August, 1685. Came to visit us Mr. Boscawen, 
with my Lord Godolphin's little son, with whose educa- 
tion hitherto his father had intrusted me. 

27th August, 1685. My daughter Elizabeth died of the 
smallpox, soon after having married a young man, 
nephew of Sir John Tippett, Surveyor of the Navy, and 
one of the Commissioners. The 30th, she was buried in 
the church at Deptford. Thus, in less than six months 
were we deprived of two children for our unworthiness 
and causes be'st known to God, whom I beseech from 
the bottom of my heart that he will give us grace to 
make that right use of all these chastisements, that we 
may become better, and entirely submit in all things to 
his infinitely wise disposal. Amen! 

3d September, 1685. Lord Clarendon ( Lord Privy 
Seal ) wrote to let me know that the King being pleased 
to send him Lord-Lieutenant into Ireland, was also 
pleased to nominate me one of the Commissioners to 

1 68 5 JOHN EVELYN 231 

execute the office of Privy Seal during his Lieutenancy 
there, it behoving me to wait upon his Majesty to give 
him thanks for this great honor. 

5th September, 1685. I accompanied his Lordship to 
Windsor ( dining by the way of Sir Henry Capel's at 
Kew), where his Majesty receiving me with extraordinary 
kindness, I kissed his hand, I told him how sensible I 
was of his Majesty's gracious favor to me, that I would 
endeavor to serve him with all sincerity, diligence, and 
loyalty, not more out of my duty than inclination. 
He said he doubted not of it, and was glad he had the 
opportunity to show me the kindness he had for me. 
After this, came abundance of great men to give 
me joy. 

6th September, 1685. Sunday, I went to prayer in 
the chapel, and heard Dr. Standish. The second 
sermon was preached by Dr. Creighton, on i Thess. iv. 
II, persuading to unity and peace, and to be mindful of 
our own business, according to the advice of the 
apostle. Then I went to hear a Frenchman who 
preached before the King and Queen in that splendid 
chapel next St. George's Hall. Their Majesties going 
to mass, I withdrew to consider the stupendous painting 
of the Hall, which, both for the art and invention, deserve 
the inscription in honor of the painter, Signor Verrio. 
The history is Edward HI. receiving the Black Prince, 
coming toward him in a Roman triumph. The whole 
roof is the history of St. George. The throne, the 
carvings, etc., are incomparable, and I think equal to 
any, and in many circumstances exceeding any, I have 
seen abroad. 

I dined at Lord Sunderland's, with (among others) Sir 
William Soames, designed Ambassador to Constantinople. 

About 6 o'clock came Sir Dudley and his brother Roger 
North, and brought the Great Seal from my Lord Keeper, 
who died the day before at his house in Oxfordshire. 
The King went immediately to council ; everybody guess- 
ing who was most likely to succeed this great officer; 
most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief 
Justice Jefferies, who had so vigorously prosecuted the 
late rebels, and was now gone the Western Circuit, to 
punish the rest that were secured in several counties, and 
was now near upon his return. I took my leave of his 


Majesty, who spoke very graciously to me, and supping 
that night at Sir Stephen Fox's, I promised to dine there 
the next day. 

15th September, 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys to 
Portsmouth, whither his Majesty was going the first time 
since his coming to the Crown, to see in what state the 
fortifications were. We took coach and six horses, late 
after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. While sup- 
per was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. 
Graham, some time maid of honor to the Queen Dowager, 
now wife to James Graham, Esq., of the privy purse to 
the King ; her house being a walk in the forest, within a 
little quarter of a mile from Bagshot town. Very im- 
portunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that 
night ; but, being obliged by my companion, I returned to 
our inn, after she had shown me her house, which 
was very commodious, and well furnished, as she was an 
excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There 
is a park full of red deer about it. Her eldest son was 
now sick there of the smallpox, but in a likely way of 
recovery, and other of her children run about, and among 
the infected, which she said she let them do on purpose 
that they might while young pass that fatal disease she 
fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that 
this would be the best: the severity of this cruel dis- 
temper so lately in my poor family confirming much of 
what she affirmed. 

1 6th September, 1685. The next morning, setting out 
early, we arrived soon enough at Winchester to wait on 
the King, who was lodged at the Dean's (Dr. Meggot). 
I found very few with him besides my Lords Fever- 
sham, Arran, Newport, and the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. His Majesty was discoursing with the bishops 
concerning miracles, and what strange things the Salud- 
adors* would do in Spain, as by creeping into heated 

* Evelyn subjoins this note ; — « As to that of the Saludador (of which 
likewise I remember Sir Arthur Hopton, formerly an Ambassador at 
Madrid, had told me many like wonders), Mr. Pepys passing through 
Spain, and being extremely inquisitive of the truth of these pretended 
miracles of the Saludadors, found a very famous one at last, to whom 
he offered a considerable reward if he would make a trial of the oven, or 
any other thing of that kind, before him ; the fellow ingenuously told 
him, that finding he was a more than ordinary curious person, he 
would not deceive him, and so acknowledged that he could do none of 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 233 

ovens without hurt, and that they had a black cross in 
the roof of their mouths, but yet were commonly noto- 
rious and profane wretches; upon which his Majesty fur- 
ther said, that he was so extremely difficult of miracles, 
for fear of being imposed upon, that if he should chance 
to see one himself, without some other witness, he should 
apprehend it a delusion of his senses. Then they spoke 
of the boy who was pretended to have a wanting leg 
restored him, so confidently asserted by Fr. de Santa 
Clara and others. To all of which the Bishop added a 
great miracle happening in Winchester to his certain 
knowledge, of a poor, miserably sick and decrepit child 
(as I remember long kept unbaptized) who immediately 
on his baptism, recovered ; as also of the salutary effect 
of King Charles his Majesty's father's blood, in healing 
one that was blind. 

There was something said of the second sight happen- 
ing to some persons, especially Scotch; upon which his 
Majesty, and I think Lord Arran, told us that Monsieur 
. , . a French nobleman, lately here in England, see- 
ing the late Duke of Monmouth come into the playhouse 
at London, suddenly cried out to somebody sitting in the 
same box, ** Voila Monsieur comme il entre sans tete! *' 
Afterward his ^lajesty spoke of some relics that had ef- 
fected strange cures, particularly a piece of our blessed 
Savior's cross, that healed a gentleman's rotten nose by 
only touching. And speaking of the golden cross and 
chain taken out of the coffin of St. Edward the Confessor 
at Westminster, by one of the singing-men, who, as the 
scaffolds were taken down after his Majesty's coronation, 
espying a hole in the tomb, and something glisten, put 
his hand in, and brought it to the dean, and he to the 
King; his Majesty began to put the Bishop in mind how 
earnestly the late King (his brother) called upon him 
during his agony, to take out what he had in his pocket. 
" I had thought, '* said the King, * it had been for some keys, 
which might lead to some cabinet that his Majesty would 

the feats really, but that what they pretended was all a cheat, which he 
would easily discover, though the poor superstitious people were easily 
imposed upon ; yet have these impostors an allowance of the Bishops to 
practice their jugglings. This Mr. Pepys afl&rmed to me ; but said he, 
I did not conceive it fit to interrupt his Majesty, who so solemnly told 
what they pretended to do. J. E.» 

334 DIARY OF Portsmouth 

have me secure '^ ; but, says he, you will remember that I 
found nothing in any of his pockets but a cross of gold, and a 
few insignificant papers *^ ; and thereupon he showed us the 
cross, and was pleased to put it into my hand. It was 
of gold, about three inches long, having on one side a 
crucifix enameled and embossed, the rest was graved 
and garnished with goldsmiths' work, and two pretty 
broad table amethysts (as I conceived), and at the bottom 
a pendant pearl; within was enchased a little fragment, 
as was thought, of the true cross, and a Latin inscrip- 
tion in gold and Roman letters. More company coming 
in, this discourse ended. I may not forget a resolution 
which his Majesty made, and had a little before entered 
upon it at the Council Board at Windsor or Whitehall, 
that the negroes in the plantations should all be bap- 
tized, exceedingly declaiming against that impiety of 
their masters prohibiting it, out of a mistaken opinion 
that they would be ipso facto free ; but his Majesty per- 
sists in his resolution to have them christened, which 
piety the Bishop blessed him for. 

I went out to see the new palace the late King had 
begun, and brought almost to the covering. It is placed 
on the side of the hill, where formerly stood the old 
castle. It is a stately fabric, of three sides and a corri- 
dor, all built of brick, and cornished, windows and col- 
umns at the break and entrance of free-stone. It was 
intended for a hunting-house when his Majesty should 
come to these parts, and has an incomparable prospect, 
I believe there had already been ^^20,000 and more ex- 
pended; but his now Majesty did not seem to encourage 
the finishing it at least for a while. 

Hence to see the Cathedral, a reverend pile, and in 
good repair. There are still the coffins of the six Saxon 
Kings, whose bones had been scattered by the sac- 
rilegious rebels of 1641, in expectation, I suppose, of 
finding some valuable relics, and afterward gathered up 
again and put into new chests, which stand above the 
stalls of the choir. 

17th September, 1685. Early next morning, we went 
to Portsmouth, something before his Majesty arrived. 
We found all the road full of people, the women in their 
best dress, in expectation of seeing the King pass by, 
which he did, riding on horseback a good part of th«» 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 235 

way. The Mayor and Aldermen with their mace, and in 
their formalities, were standing at the entrance of the 
fort, a mile on this side of the town, where the Mayor 
made a speech to the King, and then the guns of the 
fort were fired, as were those of the garrison, as soon as 
the King was come into Portsmouth. All the soldiers 
(near 3,000) were drawn up, and lining the streets and 
platform to God's House (the name of the Governor's resi- 
dence), where, after he had viewed the new fortifications 
and shipyard, his Majesty was entertained at a magnifi- 
cent dinner by Sir . . . Slingsby, the Lieutenant 
Governor, all the gentlemen in his train sitting down at 
table with him, which I also had done, had I not been 
before engaged to Sir Robert Holmes, Governor of the 
Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, where 
likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful repast of 
excellent venison, fowl, fish, and fruit. 

After dinner, I went to wait on his Majesty again, who 
was pulling on his boots in the Town Hall adjoining the 
house where he dined, and then having saluted some 
ladies, who came to kiss his hand, he took horse 
for Winchester, whither he returned that night. This 
hall is artificially hung round with arms of all sorts, 
like the hall and keep at Windsor. Hence, to see 
the shipyard and dock, the fortifications, and other 

Portsmouth, when finished, will be very strong, and a 
noble quay. There were now thirty-two men-of-war in 
the harbor. I was invited by Sir R. Beach, the Commis- 
sioner, where, after a great supper, ^Ir. Secretary and 
myself lay that night, and the next morning set out for 
Guildford, where we arrived in good hour, and so the 
day after to London. 

I had twice before been at Portsmouth, the Isle of 
Wight, etc., many years since. I found this part of 
Hampshire bravely wooded, especially about the house 
and estate of Colonel Norton, who though now in being, 
having formerly made his peace by means of Colonel 
Legg, was formerly a very fierce commander in the first 
Rebellion. His house is large, and standing low, on the 
road from Winchester to Portsmouth. 

By what I observed in this journey, is that infinite in- 
dustry, sedulity, gravity, and great understanding and 


experience of affairs, in his Majesty, that I cannot but 
predict much happiness to the nation, as to its political 
government; and, if he so persist, there could be nothing 
more desired to accomplish our prosperity, but that he was 
of the national religion. 

30th September, 1685. Lord Clarendon's commission 
for Lieutenant of Ireland was sealed this day. 

2d October, 1685. Having a letter sent me by Mr. 
Pepys with this expression at the foot of it, *^ I have 
something to show you that I may not have another 
time,^* and that I would not fail to dine with him. I ac- 
cordingly went. After dinner, he had me and Mr. Hou- 
blon (a rich and considerable merchant, whose father had 
fled out of Flanders on the persecution of the Duke of 
Alva) into a private room, and told us that being lately 
alone with his Majesty, and upon some occasion of speak- 
ing concerning my late Lord Arlington dying a Roman 
Catholic, who had all along seemed to profess himself a 
Protestant, taken all the tests, etc., till the day (I think) 
of his death, his Majesty said that as to his inclinations 
he had known them long wavering, but from fear of 
losing his places, he did not think it convenient to de- 
clare himself. There are, says the King, those who 
believe the Church of Rome gives dispensations for going 
to church, and many like things, but that is not so ; for if 
that might have been had, he himself had most reason to 
make use of it. Indeed, he said, as to some matrimonial 


in any cases else. 

This familiar discourse encouraged Mr. Pepys to beg 
of his Majesty, if he might ask it without offense, and for 
that his Majesty could not but observe how it was whis- 
pered among many whether his late Majesty had been 
reconciled to the Church of Rome; he again humbly be- 
sought his Majesty to pardon his presumption, if he had 
touched upon a thing which did not befit him to look 
into. The King ingenuously told him that he both was 
and died a Roman Catholic, and that he had not long 
since declared that it was upon some politic and state 
reasons, best known to himself (meaning the King his 
brother), but that he was of that persuasion : he bid him 
follow him into his closet, where opening a cabinet, he 
showed him two papers, containing about a quarter of a 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 337 

sheet, on both sides written, in the late King's own 
hand, several arguments opposite to the doctrine of the 
Church of England, charging her with heresy, novelty, 
and the fanaticism of other Protestants, the chief whereof 
was, as I remember, our refusing to acknowledge the pri- 
macy and infallibility of the Church of Rome ; how impos- 
sible it was that so many ages should never dispute it, till 
of late ; how unlikely our Savior would leave his Church 
without a visible Head and guide to resort to, during his 
absence; ^vith the like usual topic; so well penned as to 
the discourse as did by no means seem to me to have been 
put together by the late King yet written all with his own 
hand, blotted and interlined, so as, if indeed it was not given 
him by some priest, they might be such arguments and 
reasons as had been inculcated from time to time, and 
here recollected; and, in the conclusion, showing his 
looking on the Protestant religion (and by name the 
Church of England) to be without foundation, and con- 
sequently false and unsafe. When his Majesty had shown 
him these originals, he was pleased to lend him the 
copies of these two papers, attested at the bottom in four 
or five lines under his own hand. 

These were the papers I saw and read. This nice and 
curious passage I thought fit to set down. Though all 
the arguments and objections were altogether weak, and 
have a thousand times been answered by our divines; 
they are such as their priests insinuate among their prose- 
lytes, as if nothing were Catholic but the Church of Rome, 
no salvation out of that, no reformation sufferable, bot- 
toming all their errors on St. Peter's successors' uner- 
ring dictatorship, but proving nothing with any reason, 
or taking notice of any objection which could be made 
against it. Here all was taken for granted, and upon it 
a resolution and preference implied. 

I was heartily sorry to see all this, though it was no 
other than was to be suspected, by his late Majesty's too 
great indifference, neglect, and course of life, that he had 
been perverted, and for secular respects only professed 
to be of another belief, and thereby giving great advan- 
tage to our adversaries, both the Court and generally the 
youth and great persons of the nation becoming dissolute and 
highly profane. God was incensed to make his reig^ very 
troublesome and unprosperous, by wars, plagues, fires, 


loss of reputation by an universal neglect of the public 
for the love of a voluptuous and sensual life, which a 
vicious Court had brought into credit. I think of it with 
sorrow and pity, when I consider how good and debonair 
a nature that unhappy Prince was ; what opportunities he 
had to have made himself the most renowned King that 
ever swayed the British scepter, had he been firm to 
that Church for which his martyred and blessed fathei 
suffered ; and had he been grateful to Almighty God, who 
so miraculously restored him, with so excellent a relig- 
ion; had he endeavored to own and propagate it as he 
should have done, not only for the good of his king- 
dom, but of all the Reformed Churches in Christendom, 
now weakened and near ruined through our remissness and 
suffering them to be supplanted, persecuted, and destroyed, 
as in France, which we took no notice of. The conse- 
quence of this, time will show, and I wish it may pro- 
ceed no further. The emissaries and instruments of the 
Church of Rome will never rest till they have crushed 
the Church of England, as knowing that alone to be able 
to cope with them, and that they can never answer her 
fairly, but lie abundantly open to the irresistible force 
of her arguments, antiquity and purity of her doctrine, 
so that albeit it may move God, for the punishment of a 
nation so unworthy, to eclipse again the profession of 
her here, and darkness and superstition prevail, I am 
most confident the doctrine of the Church of England 
will never be extinguished, but remain visible, if not 
eminent, to the consummation of the world. I have in- 
numerable reasons that confirm me in this opinion, which 
I forbear to mention here. 

In the meantime, as to the discourse of his Majesty 
with Mr. Pepys, and those papers, as I do exceedingly 
prefer his Majesty's free and ingenuous profession of what 
his own religion is, beyond concealment upon any politic 
accounts, so I think him of a most sincere and honest 
nature, one on whose word one may rely, and that he 
makes a conscience of what he promises, to perform it. 
In this confidence, I hope that the Church of England 
may yet subsist, and when it shall please God to open 
his eyes and turn his heart ( for that is peculiarly in the 
Lord's hands) to flourish also. In all events, whatever 
does become of the Church of England, it is certainly, of 

i685 JOHN EVELYN 239 

all the Christian professions on the earth, the most 
primitive, apostolical, and excellent. 

8th October, 1685. I had my picture drawn this week 
by the famous Kneller. 

14th October, 1685. I went to London about finishing 
my lodgings at Whitehall, 

15th October, 1685. Being the King's birthday, there 
was a solemn ball at Court, and before it music of in- 
struments and voices. I happened by accident to stand 
the very next to the Queen and the King, who talked 
with me about the music. 

1 8th October, 1685. The King was now building all 
that range from east to west by the court and garden to 
the street, and making a new chapel for the Queen, 
whose lodgings were to be in this new building, as also 
a new Council chamber and offices next the south end 
of the banqueting house. I returned home, next morn- 
ing, to London. 

226. October, 1685. I accompanied my Lady Clarendon 
to her house at Swallowfield, in Berks, dining by the 
way at Mr. Graham's lodge at Bagshot; the house, newly 
repaired and capacious enough for a good family, stands 
in a park. 

Hence, we went to Swallowfield; this house is after the 
ancient building of honorable gentlemen's houses, when 
they kept up ancient hospitality, but the gardens and 
waters as elegant as it is possible to make a flat by 
art and industry, and no mean expense, my lady being 
so extraordinarily skilled in the flowery part, and my lord 
in diligence of planting; so that I have hardly seen a 
seat which shows more tokens of it than what is to be 
found here, not only in the delicious and rarest fruits of 
a garden, but in those innumerable timber trees in the 
ground about the seat, to the greatest ornament and bene- 
fit of the place. There is one orchard of 1,000 golden, 
and other cider pippins ; walks and groves of elms, limes, 
oaks, and other trees. The garden is so beset with all 
manner of sweet shrubs, that it perfumes the air. The 
distribution also of the quarters, walks, and parterres, is 
excellent. The nurseries, kitchen-garden full of the most 
desirable plants; two very noble orangeries well furnished: 
but, above all, the canal and fish ponds, the one fed with 
a white, the other with a black running water, fed by a 

240 DIARY OF London 

quick and swift river, so well and plentifully stored with 
fish, that for pike, carp, bream, and tench, I never saw 
anything approaching- it. We had at every meal carp 
and pike of a size fit for the table of a Prince, and what 
added to the delight was, to see the hundreds taken by 
the drag, out of which, the cook standing by, we pointed 
out what we had most mind to, and had carp that would 
have been worth at London twenty shillings a piece. 
The waters are flagged about with Caldmus aromaticus, 
with which my lady has hung a closet, that retains the 
smell very perfectly. There is also a certain sweet wil- 
low and other exotics: also a very fine bowling-green, 
meadow, pasture, and wood; in a word, all that can 
render a country seat delightful. There is besides a well- 
furnished library in the house. 

26th October, 1685. We returned to London, having 
been treated with all sorts of cheer and noble freedom 
by that most religious and virtuous lady. She was now 
preparing to go for Ireland with her husband, made 
Lord Deputy, and went to this country house and ancient 
seat of her father and family, to set things in order 
during her absence; but never were good people and 
neighbors more concerned than all the country (the poor 
especially) for the departure of this charitable woman; 
everyone was in tears, and she as unwilling to part 
from them. There was among them a maiden of primi- 
tive life, the daughter of a poor laboring man, who 
had sustained her parents (some time since dead) by 
her labor, and has for many years refused marriage, or 
to receive any assistance from the parish, besides the 
little hermitage my lady gives her rent-free ; she lives on 
four pence a day, which she gets by spinning; says she 
abounds and can give alms to others, living in great 
humility and content, without any apparent affectation, 
or singularity; she is continually working, praying, or 
reading, gives a good account of her knowledge in reli- 
gion, visits the sick ; is not in the least given to talk ; very 
modest, of a simple not unseemingly behavior; of a 
comely countenance, clad very plain, but clean and tight. 
In sum, she appears a saint of an extraordinary sort, in 
so religious a life, as is seldom met with in villages now- 

27th October, 1685. I was invited to dine at Sir Stephen 

1 68 5 JOHN EVELYN 241 

Fox's with my Lord Lieutenant, where was such a dinner 
for variety of all things as I had seldom seen, and it 
was so for the trial of a master-cook whom Sir Stephen 
had recommended to go with his Lordship into Ireland; 
there were all the dainties not only of the season, but 
of what art could add, venison, plain solid meat, fowl, 
baked and boiled meats, banquet [dessert], in exceeding 
plenty, and ^exquisitely dressed. There also dined my 
Lord Ossory and Lady (the Duke of Beaufort's daughter), 
my Lady Treasurer, Lord Combury, and other visitors. 

28th October, 1685. At the Royal Society, an urn full 
of bones was presented, dug up in a highway, while re- 
pairing it, in a field in Camberwell, in Surrey; it was 
found entire with its cover, among many others, believed 
to be truly Roman and ancient. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley described to us a model of a 
chariot he had invented, which it was not possible to 
overthrow in whatever uneven way it was drawn, giving 
us a wonderful relation of what it had performed in that 
kind, for ease, expedition, and safety; there were some 
inconveniences yet to be remedied — it would not contain 
more than one person; was ready to take fire every ten 
miles; and being placed and playing on no fewer than 
ten rollers, it made a most prodigious noise, almost in- 
tolerable. A remedy was to be sought for these incon- 

31st October, 1685. I dined at our great Lord Chan- 
cellor Jefferies', who used me with much respect. This 
was the late Chief -Justice who had newly been the West- 
em Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had 
formerly done such severe justice among the obnoxious 
in Westminster Hall, for which his Majesty dignified 
him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chan- 
cellor. He had some years past been conversant in 
Deptford ; is of an assured and undaunted spirit, and has 
served the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is 
of nature cruel, and a slave of the Court. 

3d November, 1685. The French persecution of the 
Protestants raging with the utmost barbarity, exceeded 
even what the very heathens used: innumerable persons 
of the greatest birth and riches leaving all their earthly 
substance, and hardly escaping with their lives, dispersed 
through all the countries of Europe. The French tyrant 


abrogated the Edict of Nantes which had been made in 
favor of them, and without any cause; on a sudden 
demolishing- all their churches, banishing, imprisoning, 
and sending to the galleys all the ministers; plundering 
the common people, and exposing them to all sorts of 
barbarous usage by soldiers sent to ruin and prey on 
them; taking away their children; forcing people to the 
Mass, and then executing them as relapsers; they burnt 
their libraries, pillaged their goods, ate up their fields 
and substance, banished or sent the people to the galleys, 
and seized on their estates. There had now been num- 
bered to pass through Geneva only (and that by stealth, 
for all the usual passages were strictly guarded by sea 
and land) 40,000 toward Switzerland. In Holland, Den- 
mark, and all about Germany, were dispersed some hun- 
dred thousands; besides those in England, where, though 
multitudes of all degree sought for shelter and welcome 
as distressed Christians and confessors, they found least 
encouragement, by a fatality of the times we were fallen 
into, and the uncharitable indifference of such as should 
have embraced them; and I prey it be not laid to our 
charge. The famous Claude fled to Holland; Allix and 
several more came to London, and persons of great 
estates came over, who had forsaken all. France was 
almost dispeopled, the bankers so broken, that the tyrant's 
revenue was exceedingly diminished, manufactures 
ceased, and everybody there, save the Jesuits, abhorred 
what was done, nor did the Papists themselves approve 
it. What the further intention is, time will show; but 
doubtless portending some revolution. 

I was shown the harangue which the Bishop of Va- 
lentia on Rhone made in the name of the Clergy, cele- 
brating the French King, as if he was a God, for 
persecuting the poor Protestants, with this expression in 
it, *^ That as his victory over heresy was greater than all 
the conquests of Alexander and Caesar, it was but what 
was wished in England; and that God seemed to raise 
the French King to this power and magfnanimous action, 
that he might be in capacity to assist in doing the same 
here.** This paragraph is very bold and remarkable; 
several reflecting on Archbishop Usher's prophecy as now 
begun in France, and approaching the orthodox in all 
other reformed churches. One thing was much taken 

1 68 5 JOHN EVELYN 243 

notice of, that the ** Gazettes* which were still constantly- 
printed twice a week, informing us what was done all 
over Eiirope, never spoke of this wonderful proceeding 
in France; nor was any relation of it published by any, 
save what private letters and the persecuted fugitives 
brought. Whence this silence, I list not to conjecture; 
but it appeared very extraordinary in a Protestant coun- 
try that we should know nothing of what Protestants 
suffered, while great collections were made for them in 
foreign places, more hospitable and Christian to appearance. 

5th November, 1685. It being an extraordinarily wet 
morning, and myself indisposed by a very great rheum, 
I did not go to church, to my very great sorrow, it being 
the first Gunpowder Conspiracy anniversary that had been 
kept now these eighty years under a prince of the Ro- 
man religion. Bonfires were forbidden on this day; what 
does this portend! 

9th November, 1685. Began the Parliament. The King 
in his speech required continuance of a standing force 
instead of a militia, and indemnity and dispensation to 
Popish officers from the Test; demands very unexpected 
and unpleasing to the Commons. He also required a 
supply of revenue, which they granted; but returned no 
thanks to the King for his speech, till farther considera- 

12th November, 1685. The Commons postponed finish- 
ing the bill for the Supply, to consider the Test, and 
Popish officers; this was carried but by one voice. 

14th November, 1685. I dined at Lambeth, my Lord 
Archbishop carrying me with him in his barge; there 
were my Lord Deputy of Ireland, the Bishops of Ely 
and St. Asaph, Dr. Sherlock, and other divines; Sir Will- 
iam Hayward, Sir Paul Rycaut, etc. 

20th November, 1685. The Parliament was adjourned 
to February, several both of Lords and Commons ex- 
cepting against some passage of his Majesty's speech re- 
lating to the Test, and continuance of Popish officers in 
command. • This was a great surprise in a Parliament 
which people believed would have complied in all things. 

Popish pamphlets and pictures sold publicly; no books 
nor answers to them appearing till long after. 

2ist November, 1685. I resigned my trust for com- 
posing a difference between Mr. Thynn and his wife. 

244 DIARY OF Greenwich 

226. November, 1685, Hitherto was a very wet, warm 

4th December, 1685. Lord Sunderland was declared 
President of the Council, and yet to hold his Secretary's 
place. The forces disposed into several quarters through 
the kingdom are very insolent, on which are great com- 

Lord Brandon, tried for the late conspiracy, was con- 
demned and pardoned; so was Lord Grey, his accuser 
and witness. 

Persecution in France raging, the French insolently 
visit our vessels, and take away the fugitive Protestants; 
some escape in barrels. 

loth December, 1685. To Greenwich, being put into 
the new Commission of Sewers. 

13th December, 1685. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterbor- 
ough, preached at Whitehall, before the Princess of Den- 
mark, who, since his Majesty came to the Crown, 
always sat in the King's closet, and had the same 
bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where 
she was, as his Majesty had when there in person. 

Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer showed us an ex- 
periment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold 
liquor into a glass, and superfusing on it another, to ap- 
pearance cold and clear liquor also; it first produced a 
white cloud, then boiling, divers coruscations and actual 
flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a lit- 
tle shaken together, fixed divers suns and stars of real 
fire, perfectly globular, on the sides of the glass, and 
which there stuck like so many constellations, burning 
most vehemently, and resembling stars and heavenly 
bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhibit 
a theor}'' of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and 
the fixing or gathering of the universal light into lumi- 
nous bodies. This matter, or phosphorus, was made 
out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital 
flame, or heat in animal bodies. A very noble experi- 
ment ! 

i6th December, 1685. I accompanied my Lord-Lieu- 
tenant as far as St. Alban's, there going out of town 
with him near 200 coaches of all the great officers and 
nobility. The next morning taking leave, I returned to 

1 68s JOHN EVELYN 245 

1 8th December, 1685. I dined at the great entertain- 
ment his Majesty gave the Venetian Ambassadors, Sig- 
ners Zenno and Justiniani, accompanied with ten more 
noble Venetians of their most illustrious families, Cor- 
naro, Maccenigo, etc., who came to congratulate their 
Majesties coming to the Crown. The dinner was most 
magnificent and plentiful, at four tables, with music, 
kettledrums, and trumpets, which sounded upon a whistle 
at every health. The banquet [dessert] was twelve vast 
chargers piled up so high that those who sat one against 
another could hardly see each other. Of these sweet- 
meats, which doubtless were some days piling up in that 
exquisite manner, the Ambassadors touched not, but 
leaving them to the spectators who came out of curiosity 
to see the dinner, were exceedingly pleased to see in 
what a moment of time all that curious work was de- 
molished, the comfitures voided, and the tables cleared. 
Thus his Majesty entertained them three days, which 
(for the table only) cost him jQ6oo, as the Clerk of the 
Greencloth (Sir William Boreman) assured me. Dinner 
ended, I saw their procession, or cavalcade, to White- 
hall, innumerable coaches attending. The two Ambas- 
sadors had four coaches of their own, and fifty footmen 
(as I remember), besides other equipage as splendid as 
the occasion would permit, the Court being still in 
mourning. Thence, I went to the audience which they 
had in the Queen's presence chamber, the Banqueting 
House being full of goods and furniture till the galleries 
on the garden -side, council chamber, and new chapel, 
now in the building, were finished. They went to their 
audience in those plain black gowns and caps which they 
constantly wear in the city of Venice. I was invited to 
have accompanied the two Ambassadors in their coach to 
supper that night, returning now to their own lodgings, 
as no longer at the King's expense; but, being weary, I 
excused myself. 

19th December, 1685. My Lord Treasurer made me 
dine with him, where I became acquainted with Monsieur 
Barillon, the French Ambassador, a learned and crafty 

20th December, 1685. Dr. Turner, brother to the 
Bishop of Ely, and sometime tutor to my son, preached 
at Whitehall on Mark viii. 38, concerning the submission 

246 DIARY OF London 

of Christians to their persecutors, in which were some 
passages indiscreet enough, considering the time, and the 
rage of the inhuman French tyrant against the poor 

22d December, 1685. Our patent for executing the 
office of Privy Seal during the absence of the Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, being this day sealed by the Lord 
Chancellor, we went afterward to St. James, where the 
Court then was on occasion of building at Whitehall ; his 
Majesty delivered the seal to my Lord Tiviot and myself, 
the other Commissioners not being come, and then gave 
us his hand to kiss. There were the two Venetian Am- 
bassadors and a world of company; among the rest the 
first Popish Nuncio that had been in England since the 
Reformation ; so wonderfully were things changed, to the 
universal jealousy. 

24th December, 1685. We were all three Commissioners 
sworn on our knees by the Clerk of the Crown, before 
my Lord Chancellor, three several oaths: allegiance, 
supremacy, and the oath belonging to the Lord Privy 
Seal, which last we took standing. After this, the Lord 
Chancellor invited us all to dinner, but it being Christ- 
mas eve we desired to be excused, intending at three in 
the afternoon to seal divers things which lay ready at 
the office; so attended by three of the Clerks of the Sig- 
net, we met and sealed. Among other things was a par- 
don to West, who being privy to the late conspiracy, had 
revealed the accomplices to save his own neck. There 
were also another pardon and two indenizations; and so 
agreeing to a fortnight's vacation, I returned home. 

31st December, 1685. Recollecting the passages of the 
year past, and having made up accounts, humbly be- 
sought Almighty God to pardon those my sins which had 
provoked him to discompose my sorrowful family; that 
he would accept of our humiliation, and in his good time 
restore comfort to it. I also blessed God for all his unde- 
served mercies and preservations, begging the continuance 
of his grace and preservation. The winter had hitherto 
been extraordinarily wet and mild. 

I St January, 1685-6. Imploring the continuance of 
God's providential care for the year now entered, I 
went to the public devotions. The Dean of the Chapel 
and Clerk of the Closet put out, viz, Bishop of London 

1685-86 JOHN EVELYN 247 

and . . . , and Rochester and Durham put in their 
places ; the former had opposed the toleration intended, 
and shown a worthy zeal for the reformed religion as 

6th January, 1686. I dined with the Archbishop of 
York, where was Peter Walsh, that Romish priest so well 
known for his moderation, professing the Church of Eng- 
land to be a true member of the Catholic Church. He 
is used to go to our public prayers without scruple, and 
did not acknowledge the Pope's infallibility, only primacy 
of order. 

19th January, 1686. Passed the Privy Seal, among 

others, the creation of Mrs. Sedley ( concubine to ) 

Countess of Dorchester, which the Queen took very griev- 
ously, so as for two dinners, standing near her, I observed 
she hardly ate one morsel, nor spoke one word to the 
King, or to any about her, though at other times she 
used to be extremely pleasant, full of discourse and good 
humor. The Roman Catholics were also very angry: 
because they had so long valued the sanctity of their 
religion and proselytes. 

Dryden, the famous playwriter, and his two sons, and 

Mrs. Nelly (miss to the late ), were said to go to 

mass; such proselytes were no great loss to the Church. 

This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Mon- 
tague's palace in Bloomsbury, than which for painting 
and furniture there was nothing more glorious in England. 
This happened by the negligence of a servant airing, as 
they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist 
season ; indeed, so wet and mild a season had scarce been 
seen in man's memory. 

At this Seal there also passed the creation of Sir Henry 
Waldegrave to be a Peer. He had married one of the 
King's natural daughters by Mrs. Churchill. These two 
Seals my brother Commissioners passed in the morning 
before I came to town, at which I was not displeased. 
We likewise passed Privy Seals for ^^2 7 6, 000 upon sev- 
eral accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, privy purse, 
etc., besides divers pardons, and one more which I must 
not forget ( and which by Providence I was not present at) 
one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to 
Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a 

348 DIARY OF London 

2ist January, 1686. I dined at my Lady Arlington's, 
Groom of the Stole to the Queen Dowager, at Somerset 
House, where dined the Countesses of Devonshire, Dover, 
etc. ; in all eleven ladies of quality, no man but myself 
being there. 

24th January, 1686. Unheard-of cruelties to the perse- 
cuted Protestants of France, such as hardly any age has 
seen the like, even among the Pagans. 

6th February 1686. Being the day on which his Majesty 
began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solem- 
nized with a particular office and sermon, which the Bishop 
of Ely preached at Whitehall on Numb. xi. 12; a Court 
oration upon the regal office. It was much wondered at, 
that this day, which was that of his late Majesty's death, 
should be kept as a festival, and not the day of the 
present King's coronation. It is said to have been for- 
merly the custom, though not till now since the reign of 
King James I. 

The Duchess of Monmouth, being in the same seat 
with me at church, appeared with a very sad and affiicted 

8th February, 1686. I took the test in Westminster 
Hall, before the Lord Chief Justice. I now came to lodge 
at Whitehall, in the Lord Privy Seal's lodgings. 

12th February, 1686. My great cause was heard by 
my Lord Chancellor, who granted me a rehearing. I 
had six eminent lawyers, my antagonist three, whereof 
one was the smooth-tongued solicitor, whom my Lord 
Chancellor reproved in great passion for a very small 
occasion. Blessed be God for his great goodness to me 
this day! 

19th February, 1686. Many bloody and notorious duels 
were fought about this time. The Duke of Grafton killed 
Mr, Stanley, brother to the Earl of [Derby], indeed upon 
an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be hoped 
that his Majesty will at last severely remedy this un- 
christian custom. 

Lord Sunderland was now Secretary of State, President 
of the Council, and Premier Minister, 

I St March, 1686, Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treat 
with me about his son's marrying my daughter, Susanna. 
The father being obnoxious, and in some suspicion and 
displeasure of the King, I would receive no proposal till 

i686 JOHN EVELYN 249 

his Majesty had given me leave; which he was pleased 
to do; but, after several meetings we broke off, on his 
not being willing to secure anything competent for my 
daughter's children ; besides that I found most of his estate 
was in the coal-pits as far off as Newcastle, and on leases 
from the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make 
concurrent leases, with other difficulties. 

7th March, 1686. Dr. Frampton, Bishop of Gloucester, 
preached on Psalm xliv. 17, 18, 19, showing the several 
afflictions of the Church of Christ from the primitive to 
this day, applying exceedingly to the present conjuncture, 
when many were wavering in their minds, and great 
temptations appearing through the favor now found by 
the Papists, so as the people were full of jealousies and 
discouragement. The Bishop magnified the Church of 
England, exhorting to constancy and perseverance. 

loth March, 1686. A Council of the Royal Society 
about disposing of Dr. Ray's book of Fishes, which was 
printed at the expense of the Society. 

12th March, 1686. A docket was to be sealed, import- 
ing a lease of twenty-one years to one Hall, who styled 
himself his Majesty's printer (he lately turned Papist) 
for the printing missals, offices, lives of saints, portals, 
primers, etc., books expressly forbidden to be printed or 
sold, by divers Acts of Parliament; I refused to put my 
seal to it, making my exceptions, so it was laid by, 

14th March, 1686. The Bishop of Bath and Wells 
preached on John vi. 17, a most excellent and pathetic 
discourse : after he had recommended the duty of fasting 
and other penitential duties, he exhorted to constancy in 
the Protestant religion, detestation of the unheard-of 
cruelties of the French, and stirring up to a liberal con- 
tribution. This sermon was the more acceptable, as it 
was unexpected from a Bishop who had undergone the 
censure of being inclined to Popery, the contrary whereof 
no man could show more. This indeed did all our 
Bishops, to the disabusing and reproach of all their de- 
lators: for none were more zealous against Popery than 
they were. 

1 6th March, 1686. I was at a review of the army about 
London in Hyde Park, about 6,000 horse and foot, in 
excellent order; his Majesty and infinity of people being 

250 DIARY OF London 

i7tli March, 1686. I went to my house in the country, 
refusing to be present at what was to pass at the Privy 
Seal the next day. In the morning Dr. Tenison preached 
an incomparable discourse at Whitehall, on Timothy 

ii. 3, 4. 

24th March, 1686. Dr. Cradock (Provost of Eaton) 
preached at the same place, on Psalm xlix. 13, showing 
the vanity of earthly enjoyments. 

28th March, 1686. Dr. White, Bishop of Peterborough, 
preached in a very eloquent style, on Matthew xxvi. 29, 
submission to the will of God on all accidents, and at 
all times. 

29th March, 1686. The Duke of Northumberland (a 
natural son of the late King by the Duchess of Cleve- 
land) marrying very meanly, with the help of his brother 
Grafton, attempted in vain to spirit away his wife. 

A Brief was read in all churches for relieving the 
French Protestants, who came here for protection from 
the unheard-of cruelties of the King. 

2d April, 1686. Sir Edward Hales, a Papist, made 
Governor of Dover Castle, 

15th April, 1686. The Archbishop of York now died 
of the smallpox, aged 62, a corpulent man. He was my 
special loving friend, and while Bishop of Rochester 
(from whence he was translated) my excellent neighbor. 
He was an inexpressible loss to the whole church, and 
that Province especially, being a learned, wise, stout, 
and most worthy prelate ; I look on this as a great stroke 
to the poor Church of England, now in this defecting 

i8th April, 1686. In the afternoon I went to Camber- 
well, to visit Dr. Parr. After sermon, I accompanied 
him to his house, where he showed me the Life and 
Letters of the late learned Primate of Armagh (Usher), 
and among them that letter of Bishop Bramhall's to the 
Primate, giving notice of the Popish practices to pervert 
this nation, by sending a hundred priests into England, 
who were to conform themselves to all sectaries and 
conditions for the more easily dispersing their doctrine 
among us. This letter was the cause of the whole 
impression being seized, upon pretense that it was a politi- 
cal or historical account of things not relating to theol- 
ogy, though it had been licensed by the Bishop; which 

i686 JOHN EVELYN 25! 

plainly showed what an interest the Papists now had, — 
that a Protestant book, containing the life and letters of 
so eminent a man, was not to be published. There were 
also many letters to and from most of the learned per- 
sons his correspondents in Europe. The book will, I 
doubt not, struggle through this unjust impediment. 

Several Judges were put out, and new complying ones 
put in. 

25th April, 1686. This day was read in our church 
the Brief for a collection for relief of the Protestant 
French so cruelly, barbarously, and inhumanly oppressed 
without any thing being laid to their charge. It had 
been long expected, and at last with difficulty procured 
to be published, the interest of the French Ambassador 
obstructing it. 

5th May, 1686. There being a Seal, it was feared we 
should be required to pass a docket dispensing with Dr. 
Obadiah Walker and four more, whereof one was an 
apostate curate of Putney, the others officers of Univer- 
sity College, Oxford, who hold their masterships, fellow- 
ships, and cures, and keep public schools, and enjoy all 
former emoluments, notwithstanding they no more fre- 
quented or used the public forms of prayers, or com- 
munion, with the Church of England, or took the Test 
or oaths of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to twenty 
Acts of Parliament; which dispensation being also con- 
trary to his Majesty's own gracious declaration at the 
beginning of his reign, gave umbrage (as well it might) 
to every good Protestant; nor could we safely have 
passed it under the Privy Seal, wherefore it was done 
by immediate warrant, signed by Mr. Solicitor. 

This Walker was a learned person, of a monkish 
life, to whose tuition I had more than thirty years 
since recommended the sons of my worthy friend, Mr. 
Hyldyard, of Horsley in Surrey, believing him to be far 
from what he proved — a hypocritical concealed Papist — 
by which he perverted the eldest son of Mr. Hyldyard, 
Sir Edward Hale's eldest son, and several more, to the 
great disturbance of the whole nation, as well as of the 
University, as by his now public defection appeared. All 
engines being now at work to bring in Popery, which 
God in mercy prevent ! 

This day was burned in the old Exchange, by the com- 


mon hangman, a translation of a book written by the 
famous Monsieur Claude, relating only matters of fact 
concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceed- 
ings of the French King against his Protestant subjects, 
without any refutation of any facts therein; so mighty a 
power and ascendant here had the French Ambassador, 
who was doubtless in great indignation at the pious and 
truly generous charity of all the nation, for the re- 
lief of those miserable sufferers who came over for shel- 

About this time also, the Duke of Savoy, instigated by 
the French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, 
slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that 
there seemed to be an universal design to destroy all 
that would not go to mass, throughout Europe. Quod 
Aver tat D. O. M.! No faith in Princes ! 

1 2th May, 1686. I refused to put the Privy Seal to 
Doctor Walker's license for printing and publishing divers 
Popish books, of which I complained both to my Lord 
of Canterbury (with whom I went to advise in the Coun- 
cil Chamber), and to my Lord Treasurer that evening at 
his lodgings. My Lord of Canterbury's advice was, that 
I should follow my own conscience therein; Mr. Treas- 
urer's, that if in conscience I could dispense with it, for 
any other hazard he believed there was none. Notwith- 
standing this, I persisted in my refusal, 

29th May, 1686. There was no sermon on this anni- 
versary, as there usually had been ever since the reign 
of the present King. 

2d June, 1686. Such iStorms, rain, and foul weather, 
seldom known at this time of the year. The camp at 
Hounslow Heath, from sickness and other inconveniences 
of weather, forced to retire to quarters ; the storms being 
succeeded by excessive hot weather, many grew sick. 
Great feasting there, especially in Lord Dunbarton's 
quarters. There were many jealousies and discourses of 
what was the meaning of this encampment. 

A seal this day; mostly pardons and discharges of 
Knight Baronets' fees, which having been passed over for 
so many years, did g^reatly disoblige several families who 
had served his Majesty. Lord Tyrconnel gone to Ireland, 
with great powers and commissions, giving as much cause 
of talk as the camp, especially nineteen new Privy-Coun- 

i686 JOHN EVELYN 253 

cillors and Judges being now made, among which but 
three Protestants, and Tyrconnel made General. 

New judges also here, among which was Milton, a 
Papist (brother to that Milton who wrote for the Regi- 
cides), who presumed to take his place without passing 
the Test. Scotland refused to grant liberty of mass to 
the Papists there. 

The French persecution more inhuman than ever. The 
Protestants in Savoy successfully resist the French dra- 
goons sent to murder them. 

The King's chief physician in Scotland apostatizing 
from the Protestant religion, does of his own accord 
publish his recantation at Edinburg. 

nth June, 1686. I went to see Middleton's receptacle 
of water at the New River, and the New Spa Wells near. 

20th June, 1686. An extraordinary season of violent 
and sudden rain. The camp still in tents. 

24th June, 1686. My Lord Treasurer settled my great 
business with Mr. Pretyman, to which I hope God will at 
last give a prosperous issue. 

25th June, 1686. Now his Majesty, beginning with 
Dr. Sharp and Tully, proceeded to silence and suspend 
divers excellent divines for preaching against Popery. 

27th June, 1686. I had this day been married thirty- 
nine years — blessed be God for all his mercies! 

The new very young Lord Chief -Justice Herbert de- 
clared on the bench, that the government of England 
was entirely in the King; that the Crown was abso- 
lute; that penal laws were powers lodged in the Crown 
to enable the King to force the execution of the law, 
but were not bars to bind the King's power; that he 
could pardon all offenses against the law, and forgive the 
penalties, and why could he not dispense with them; by 
which the Test was abolished ? Everyone was aston- 
ished. Great jealousies as to what would be the end of 
these proceedings. 

6th July, 1686. I supped with the Countess of Roches- 
ter, where was also the Duchess of Buckingham and 
Madame de Govern^, whose daughter was married to 
the Marquis of Halifax's son. She made me a character 
of the French King and Dauphin, and of the persecu- 
tion; that they kept much of the cruelties from the 
King's knowledge; that the Dauphin was so afraid of 

254 DIARY OF lont50n 

his father, that he dared not let anything appear of his 
sentiments; that he hated letters and priests, spent all 
his time in hunting, and seemed to take no notice of 
what was passing. 

This lady was of a great family and fortune, and had 
fled hither for refuge. 

8th July, 1686. I waited on the Archbishop at Lam- 
beth, where I dined and met the famous preacher and 
writer, Dr. Allix, doubtless a most excellent and learned 
person. The Archbishop and he spoke Latin together, 
and that very readily. 

nth July, 1686. Dr. Meggot^ Dean of Winchester 
preached before the household in St. George's Chapel at 
Windsor, the late King's glorious chapel now seized on 
by the mass priests. Dr. Cartwright, Dean of Ripon, 
preached before the great men of the Court in the same 

We had now the sad news of the Bishop of Oxford's 
death, an extraordinary loss to the poor Church at this 
time. Many candidates for his Bishopric and Deanery, 
Dr. Parker, South, Aldrich, etc. Dr. Walker (now apos- 
tatizing) came to Court, and was doubtless very busy. 

13th July, 1686. Note, that standing by the Queen at 
basset (cards), I observed that she was exceedingly con- 
cerned for the loss of p^8o; her outward aflEability much 
changed to stateliness, since she has been exalted. 

The season very rainy and inconvenient for the camps. 
His Majesty very cheerful. 

14th July, 1686. Was sealed at our office the con- 
stitution of certain commissioners to take upon them full 
power of all Ecclesiastical affairs, in as unlimited a man- 
ner, or rather greater, than the late High Commission- 
Court, abrogated by Parliament; for it had not only 
faculty to inspect and visit all Bishops' dioceses, but to 
change what laws and statutes they should think fit to 
alter among the colleges, though founded by private 
men; to punish, suspend, fine, etc., give oaths and call 
witnesses. The main drift was to suppress zealous preach- 
ers. In sum, it was the whole power of a Vicar-General 
— note the consequence! Of the clergy the commission- 
ers were the Archbishop of Canterbury [Sancroft], Bishop 
of Durham [Crewe], and Rochester [Sprat] ; of the Tem- 
porals, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Chancellor [JeflPeries] 

i686 JOHN EVELYN 255 

(who alone was ever- to be of the quorum), the Chief 
Justice [Herbert], and Lord President [Earl of Sunder- 

18th July, 1686. I went to see Sir John Chardin, at 

4th Augfust, 1686. I dined at Signor Verrio's, the 
famous Italian painter, now settled in his Majesty's gar- 
den at St. James's, which he had made a very delicious 

8th August, 1686. Our vicar gone to dispose of his 
country living in Rutlandshire, having St. Dunstan in the 
east given him by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

I went to visit the Marquis Ravigne, now my neigh- 
bor at Greenwich, retired from the persecution in France. 
He was the deputy of all the Protestants of that king- 
dom in the parliament of Paris, and several times Am- 
bassador in this and other Courts; a person of great 
learning and experience. 

8th September, 1686. Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, 
was on Monday suspended, on pretense of not silencing 
Dr. Sharp at St. Giles's, for something of a sermon in 
which he zealously reproved the doctrine of the Roman 
Catholics. The Bishop having consulted the civilians, 
they told him he could not by any law proceed against 
Dr. Sharp without producing witnesses, and impleaded 
according to form; but it was overruled by my Lord 
Chancellor, and the Bishop sentenced without so much as 
being heard to any purpose. This was thought a very 
extraordinary way of proceeding, and was universally 
resented, and so much the rather for that two Bishops, 
Durham and Rochester, sitting in the commission and 
giving their suffrages the Archbishop of Canterbury 
refused to sit among them. He was only suspended ab 
officio, and that was soon after taken off. He was brother 
to the Earl of Northampton, had once been a soldier, 
had traveled in Italy, but became a sober, grave, and 
excellent prelate. 

1 2th September, 1 686. Buda now taken from the Turks ; 
a form of thanksgiving was ordered to be used in the 
(as yet remaining) Protestant chapels and church of 
Whitehall and Windsor. 

The King of Denmark was besieging Hamburg, no 
doubt bj the French contrivance, to embroil the Protes- 

256 DIARY OF London 

tant Princes in a new war, that Holland, etc,, being en- 
gaged, matter for new quarrel might arise : the unheard-of 
persecution of the poor Protestants still raging more than 

2 2d September, 1686. The Danes retire from Ham- 
burg, the Protestant Princes appearing for their succor, 
and the Emperor sending his minatories to the King of 
Denmark, and also requiring the restoration of the Duke 
of Saxe Gotha. Thus it pleased God to defeat the 
French designs, which were evidently to kindle a new 
war. "^ 

14th October, 1686. His Majesty's birthday; I was at 
his rising in his bedchamber, afterward in the park, where 
four companies of guards were drawn up. The officers, 
etc. , wonderfully rich and gallant ; they did not head their 
troops, but their next officers, the colonels being on horse- 
back by the King while they marched. The ladies not 
less splendid at Court, where there was a ball at night; 
but small appearance of quality. All the shops both in 
the city and suburbs were shut up, and kept as solemnly 
as any holiday. Bonfires at night in Westminster, but 
forbidden in the city. 

17th October, 1686. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterborough, 
preached at Covent Garden Church on Ephes. v. 18, 19, 
showing the custom of the primitive saints in serving 
God with hymns, and their frequent use of them upon 
all occasions: touching the profane way of mirth and 
intemperance of this ungodly age. Afterward I visited 
my Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, with whom I had long 
and private discourse concerning the miserable condition 
that kingdom was like to be in, if Tyrconnel's counsel 
should prevail at Court. 

23d October, 1686. Went with the Countess of Sun- 
derland to Cranbourne, a lodge and walk of my Lord 
Godolphin's in Windsor park. There was one room in 
the house spared in the pulling down the old one, because 
the late Duchess of York was born in it; the rest was 
built and added to it by Sir George Carteret, Treasurer 
of the Navy ; and since, the whole was purchased by my 
Lord Godolphin, who spoke to me to go see it, and advise 
what trees were fit to be cut down to improve the dwelling, 
being environed with old rotten pollards, which corrupt 
the air. It stands on a knoll which though insensibly 

1686 JOHN EVELYN 257 

rising, gives it a prospect over the Keep of Windsor, 
about three miles N. E. of it. The ground is clayey and 
moist; the water stark naught; the park is pretty; the 
house tolerable, and gardens convenient. After dinner, 
we came back to London, having two coaches both going 
and coming, of six horses apiece, which we changed at 

24th October, 1686. Dr. Warren preached before the 
Princess at Whitehall, on 5th Matthew, of the blessedness 
of the pure in heart, most elegantly describing the bliss 
of the beatifical vision. In the afternoon, Sir George 
Wheeler, knight and baronet, preached on the 4th Matt, 
upon the necessity of repentance, at St. Margaret's, an 
honest and devout discourse, and pretty tolerably per- 
formed. This gentleman coming from his travels out of 
Greece, fell in love with the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Higgins, his Majesty's resident at Venice, niece to the 
Earl of Bath, and married her. When they returned into 
England, being honored with knighthood, he would needs 
turn preacher, and took orders. He published a learned 
and ingenious book of his travels, and is a very worthy 
person, a little formal and particular, but exceedingly 

27th October, 1686. There was a triumphant show of 
the Lord Mayor both by land and water, with much so- 
lemnity, when yet his power has been so much diminished, 
by the loss of the city's former charter. 

5th November, 1686. I went to St. Martin's in the 
morning, where Dr. Birch preached very boldly against the 
Papists, from John xvi. 2. In the afternoon I heard Dr. 
Tillotson in Lincoln's Inn chapel, on the same text, but 
more cautiously. 

1 6th November, 1686. I went with part of my family 
to pass the melancholy winter in London at my son's 
house in Arundel Buildings. 

5th December, i686. I dined at my Lady Arlington's, 
Groom of the Stole to the Queen Dowager at Somerset 
House, where dined divers French noblemen, driven out 
of their country by the persecution. 

1 6th December, 1686. I carried the Coimtess of Sun- 
derland to see the rarities of one Mr. Charlton in the 
Middle Temple, who showed us such a collection as I had 
never seen in all my travels abroad either of tDrivate 


gentlemen, or princes. It consisted of minatures, draw- 
ings, shells, insects, medals, natural things, animals (of 
which divers, I think 100, were kept in glasses of spirits 
of wine), minerals, precious stones, vessels, curiosities in 
amber, crystal, agate, etc. ; all being very perfect and rare 
of their kind, especially his books of birds, fish, flowers, 
and shells, drawn and minatured to the life. He told us 
that one book stood him in ^300; it was painted by 
that excellent workman, whom the late Gaston, Duke of 
Orleans, employed. This gentleman's whole collection, 
gathered by himself, traveling over most parts of Europe, 
is estimated at ;^8,ooo. He appeared to be a modest and 
obliging person.* 

29th December, 1686. I went to hear the music of the 
Italians in the new chapel, now first opened publicly at 
Whitehall for the Popish Service. Nothing can be finer 
than the magnificent marble work and architecture at the 
end, where are four statues, representing St. John, St. 
Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the 
work of Mr. Gibbons, with all the carving and pillars of 
exquisite art and great cost. The altar piece is the Sal- 
utation ; the volto in fresco^ the Assumption of the blessed 
Virgin, according to their tradition, with our blessed 
Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The 
throne where the King and Queen sit is very glorious, in 
a closet above, just opposite to the altar. Here we saw 
the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, with six or seven 
Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously habited, 
often taking oflE and putting on the Bishop's mitre, who 
sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and 
censed by three Jesuits in their copes; then he went to 
the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the im- 
ages and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now 
and then changing place : the crosier, which was of silver, 
was put into his hand with a world of mysterious cere- 
mony, the music playing, with singing. I could not have 
believed I should ever have seen such things in the King 
of England's palace, after it had pleased God to enlighten 
this nation ; but our great sin has, for the present, eclipsed 
the blessing, which I hope he will in mercy and his good 
time restore to its purity. 

* This collection was afterward purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and 
now forms part of the British Museum. 

1686-87 JOHN EVELYN 359 

Little appearance of any winter as yet. 

ist January, 1686-87. Mi"- Wake preached at S*, Mar- 
tin's on I Tim. iii. 16, concerning the mystery of god- 
liness. He wrote excellently, in answer to the Bishop 
of Meaux. 

3d January, 1687. A Seal to confirm a gift of ;j£"4,ooo 
per annum for 99 years to the Lord Treasurer out of the 
Post Office, and ;^i,7oo per annum for ever out of Lord 
Grey's estate. 

There was now another change of the great ofi&cers. 
The Treasury was put into commission, two professed 
Papists among them, viz, Lords Bellasis and Dover, 
joined with the old ones. Lord Godolphin, Sir Stephen 
Fox, and Sir John Ernley. 

17th January, 1687. Much expectation of several great 
men declaring themselves Papists. Lord Tyrconnel gone 
to succeed the Lord-Lieutenant [Clarendon] in Ireland, 
to the astonishment of all sober men, and to the evident 
ruin ot the Protestants in that kingdom, as well as of 
its great improvement going on. Much discourse that 
all the White Staff officers and others should be dis- 
missed for adhering to their religion. Popish Justices 
of the Peace established in all counties, of the meanest 
of the people; Judges ignorant of the law, and pervert- 
ing it — so furiously do the Jesuits drive, and even com- 
pel Princes to violent courses, and destruction of an 
excellent government both in Church and State. God of 
his infinite mercy open our eyes, and turn our hearts, 
and establish his truth with peace! The Lord Jesus 
defend his little flock, and preserve this threatened 
church and nation! 

24th January, 1687. I saw the Queen's new apartment 
at Whitehall, with her new bed, the embroidery of which 
cost p^3,ooo. The carving about the chimney piece by 
Gibbons, is incomparable. 

30th January, 1687. I heard the famous eunuch, Cifaccio, 
sing in the new Popish chapel this afternoon; it was in. 
deed very rare, and with great skill. He came over 
from Rome, esteemed one of the best voices in Italy. 
Much crowding — little devotion. 

27th February, 1687. Mr. Chetwin preached at White- 
hall on Rom. i. 18, a very quaint, neat discourse of 
Moral righteousness. 

26o DIARY OF London 

2d March, 1687. Came out a proclamation for universal 
liberty of conscience in Scotland, and depensation from 
all tests and laws to the contrary, as also capacitating 
Papists to be chosen into all offices of trust. The mystery 

3d March, 1687. Dr. Meggott, Dean of Winchester, 
preached before the Princess of Denmark, on Matt. 
xiv. 23. In the afternoon, I went out of town to meet 
my Lord Clarendon, returning from Ireland. 

loth March, 1687. His Majesty sent for the Commis- 
sioners of the Privy Seal this morning into his bedcham- 
ber, and told us that though he had thought fit to dispose 
of the Seal into a single hand, yet he would so provide 
for us, as it should appear how well he accepted our 
faithful and loyal service with many gracious expres- 
sions to this effect; upon which we delivered the Seal 
into his hands. It was by all the world both hoped and 
expected, that he would have restored it to my Lord 
Clarendon; but they were astonished to see it given to 
Lord Arundel, of Wardour, a zealous Roman Catholic. 
Indeed it was very hard, and looked very unkindly, his 
Majesty (as my Lord Clarendon protested to me, on my 
going to visit him and long discoursing with him about 
the affairs of Ireland) finding not the least failure of 
duty in him during his government of that kingdom, 
so that his recall plainly appeared to be from the stronger 
influence of the Papists, who now got all the preferments. 

Most of the great officers, both in the Court and coun- 
try, Lords and others, were dismissed, as they would not 
promise his Majesty their consent to the repeal of the 
test and penal statutes against Popish Recusants. To 
this end, most of the Parliament men were spoken to in 
his Majesty's closet, and such as refused, if in any place 
of office or trust, civil or military, were put out of their 
employments. This was a time of great trial ; but hardly 
one of them assented, which put the Popish interest 
much backward. The English clergy everywhere preached 
boldly against their superstition and errors, and 
were wonderfully followed by the people. Not one con- 
siderable proselyte was made in all this time. The party 
were exceedingly put to the worst by the preaching and 
writing of the Protestants in many excellent treatises, 
evincing the doctrine and discipline of the reformed 

1 687 JOHN EVELYN 261 

religion, to the manifest disadvantage of their adversaries. 
To this did not a little contribute the sermon preached 
at Whitehall before the Princess of Denmark and a 
great crowd of people, and at least thirty of the greatest 
nobility, by Dr. Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, on John 
viii. 46 (the Gospel of the day), describing through his 
whole discourse the blasphemies perfidy, wresting of 
Scripture preference of tradition before it, spirit of 
persecution, superstition, legends, and fables of the 
Scribes and Pharisees, so that all the auditory under- 
stood his meaning of a parallel between them and the 
Romish priests, and their new Trent religion. He 
exhorted his audience to adhere to the written Word, 
and to persevere in the Faith taught in the Church of 
England, whose doctrine for Catholic and soundness he 
preferred to all the communities and churches of Chris- 
tians in the world; concluding with a kind of prophecy, 
that whatever it suffered, it should after a short trial 
emerge to the confusion of her adversaries and the glory 
of God. 

I went this evening to see the order of the boys and 
children at Christ's Hospital. There were near 800 boys 
and girls so decently clad, cleanly lodged, so wholesomely 
fed, so admirably taught, some the mathematics, espe- 
cially the forty of the late King's foundation, that I was 
delighted to see the progress some little youths of 
thirteen or fourteen years of age had made. I saw them 
at supper visited their dormitories, and much admired 
the order, economy, and excellent government of this 
most charitable seminary. Some are taught for the 
Universities, others designed for seamen, all for trades 
and callings. The girls are instructed in all such work 
as becomes their sex and may fit them for good wives, 
mistresses, and to be a blessing to their generation. 
They sang a psalm before they sat down to supper in 
the great Hall, to an organ which played all the time, 
with such cheerful harmony, that it seemed to me a 
vision of angels. I came from the place with infinite 
satisfaction, having never seen a more noble, pious, and 
admirable charity. All these consisted of orphans only.* 
The foundation was of that pious Prince King Edward 
VI., whose picture (held to be an original of Holbein) 

♦This is by no means the case now. 


is in the court where the Governors meet to consult on 
the affairs of the Hospital, and his statue in white 
marble stands in a niche of the wall below, as you go 
to the church, which is a modem, noble, and ample 
fabric. This foundation has had, and still has, many 

i6th March, 1687. I saw a trial of those devilish, 
murdering, mischief doing engines called bombs, shot 
out of the mortar piece on Blackheath. The distance 
that they are cast, the destruction they make where they 
fall, is prodigious. 

20th March, 1687. The Bishop of Bath and Wells (Dr. 
Ken) preached at St Martin's to a crowd of people not 
to be expressed, nor the wonderful eloquence of this 
admirable preacher; the text was Matt. xxvi. 36 to verse 
40, describing the bitterness of our Blessed Savior's agony, 
the ardor of his love, the infinite obligations we have to 
imitate his patience and resignation ; the means by watch- 
ing against temptations, and over ourselves with fervent 
prayer to attain it, and the exceeding reward in the end. 
Upon all which he made most pathetical discourses. The 
Communion followed, at which I was participant. I 
afterward dined at Dr. Tenison's with the Bishop and 
that young, most learned, pious, and excellent preacher, 
Mr Wake. In the afternoon, I went to hear Mr. Wake 
at the newly built church of St^ Anne, on Mark viii. 34, 
upon the subject of taking up the cross, and strenuously 
behaving ourselves in time of persecution, as this now 
threatened to be. 

His Majesty again prorogued the Parliament, foreseeing 
It would not remit the laws against Papists, by the ex- 
traordinary zeal and bravery of its members, and the 
free renunciation of the great officers both in Court and 
state, who would not be prevailed with for any temporal 

25th March, 1687. Good Friday. Dr. Tenison preached 
at St. Martin s on i Peter ii. 24. During the service, a 
man came into near the middle of the church, with his 
sword drawn, with several others in that posture ; in this 
jealous time it put the congregation into great confusion , 
but it appeared to be one who fled for sanctuary, being 
pursued by bailiffs. 

8th April, 1687. I had a rehearing of my great cause 

i687 JOHN EVELYN 263 

at the Chancery in Westminster Hall, having seven of the 
most learned Counsel, my adversary five, among which 
were the Attorney General and late Solicitor Finch, son to 
the Lord Chancellor Nottingham. The account was at 
last brought to one article of the surcharge, and referred 
to a Master. The cause lasted two hours and more. 

loth April, 1687. In the last week there was issued a 
Dispensation from all obligations and tests, by which 
Dissenters and Papists especially had public liberty of 
exercising their several ways of worship, without incurring 
the penalty of the many Laws and Acts of Parliament to 
the contrary. This was purely obtained by the Papists, 
thinking thereby to ruin the Church of England, being 
now the only church which so admirably and strenuously 
opposed their superstition. There was a wonderful con- 
course of people at the Dissenters' meeting house in this 
parish, and the parish church [ Deptford ] left exceedingly 
thin. What this will end in, God Almighty only knows; 
but it looks like confusion, which I pray God avert. 

nth April, 1687. To London about my suit, some terms 
of accommodation being proposed. 

19th April, 1687. I heard the famous singer, Cifaccio, 
esteemed the best in Europe. Indeed, his holding out and 
delicateness in extending and loosing a note with incom- 
parable softness and sweetness, was admirable; for the 
rest I found him a mere wanton, effeminate child, very 
coy, and proudly conceited, to my apprehension. He 
touched the harpsichord to his voice rarely well. This 
was before a select number of particular persons whom 
Mr. Pepys invited to his house ; and this was obtained by 
particular favor and much difficulty, the Signor much 
disdaining to show his talent to any but princes. 

24th April, 1687. At Greenwich, at the conclusion of the 
Church service, there was a French sermon preached 
after the use of the English Liturgy translated into 
French, to a congregation of about 100 French refugees, 
of whom Monsieur Ruvigny was the chief, and had ob- 
tained the use of the church, after the parish service 
was ended The preacher pathetically exhorted to pa- 
tience, constancy, and reliance on God amidst all their 
sufferings, and the infinite rewards to come. 

2d May, 1687 I dined with Mynheer Diskvelts, the 
Holland Ambassador, a prudent and worthy person. 


There dined Lord Middleton, principal Secretary of State, 
Lord Pembroke, Lord Lumley, Lord Preston, Colonel Fitz- 
patrick, and Sir John Chardin. After dinner, the Ambassa- 
dor discoursed of and deplored the stupid folly of our 
politics, in suffering the French to take Luxemburg, it 
being a place of the most concern to have been defended, 
for the interest not only of the Netherlands, but of 

1 2th May, 1687. To London. Lord Sunderland being 
Lord President and Secretary of State, was made Knight 
of the Garter and Prime favorite. This day there was 
such a storm of wind as had seldom happened, being a 
sort of hurricane. It kept the flood out of the Thames, 
so that people went on foot over several places above 
bridge. Also an earthquake in several places in England 
about the time of the storm. 

26th May, 1687. To London, about my agreement with 
Mr. Pretyman, after my tedious suit. 

2d June, 1687. I went to London, it having pleased 
his Majesty to grant me a Privy Seal for j£6,ooo, for 
discharge of the debt I had been so many years perse- 
cuted for, it being indeed for money drawn over by my 
father-in-law. Sir R. Browne, during his residence in the 
Court of France, and so with a much greater sum due 
to Sir Richard from his Majesty; and now this part of 
the arrear being paid, there remains yet due to me, as 
executor of Sir Richard, above ^^6,500 more; but this 
determining an expensive Chancery suit has been so great 
a mercy and providence to me (through the kindness 
and friendship to me of Lord Godolphin, one of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury,) that I do ac- 
knowledge it with all imaginable thanks to my gracious 

6th June, 1687. I visited my Lady Pierpoint, daughter 
to Sir John Evelyn, of Deane [in Wilts], now widow of 
Mr. Pierpoint, and mother of the Earl of Kingston. She 
was now engaged in the marriage of my cousin, Evelyn 
Pierpoint, her second son. 

There was about this time brought into the Downs a 
vast treasure, which was sunk in a Spanish galleon about 
forty-five years ago, somewhere near Hispaniola, or the 
Bahama islands, and was now weighed up by some gen- 
tlemen, who were at the charge of divers, etc., to the 

i687 JOHN EVELYN 265 

enriching- them beyond all expectation. The Duke of 
Albemarle's share [Governor of Jamaica] came to, I be- 
lieve, ^50,000. Some private gentlemen who adventured 
j£ioo, gained from ;^8,ooo to ;;^io,ooo. His Majesty's 
tenth was ;,^i 0,000. 

The Camp was now again pitched at Hounslow, the 
Commanders profusely vying in the expense and mag- 
nificence of tents. 

12th June, 1687. Our Vicar preached on 2 Peter ii. 21, 
upon the danger of relapsing into sin. After this, I went 
and heard M. Lamot, an eloquent French preacher at 
Greenwich, on Prov. xxx. 8, 9, a consolatory discourse to 
the poor and religious refugees who escaped out of France 
in the cruel persecution. 

i6th June, 1687. I went to Hampton Court to give his 
Majesty thanks for his late gracious favor, though it was 
but granting what was due. While I was in the Coun- 
cil Chamber, came in some persons, at the head of whom 
was a formal man with a large roll of parchment in his 
hand, being an Address (as he said, for he introduced 
it with a speech) of the people of Coventry, giving his 
Majesty their great acknowledgments for his granting a 
liberty of conscience ; he added that this was not the ap- 
plication of one party only, but the unanimous address 
of Church of England men, Presbyterians, Independ- 
ents, and Anabaptists, to show how extensive his Maj- 
esty's grace was, as taking in all parties to his indulgence 
and protection, which had removed all dissensions and 
animosities, which would not only unite them in bonds 
of Christian charity, but exceedingly encourage their 
future industry, to the improvement of trade, and spread- 
ing his Majesty's glory throughout the world; and that 
now he had given to God his empire, God would estab- 
lish his ; with expressions of great loyalty and submission ; 
and so he gave the roll to the King, which being re- 
turned to him again, his Majesty caused him to read. 
The address was short, but much to the substance of 
the speech of their foreman, to whom the King, pulling 
oflE his hat, said that what he had done in giving liberty 
of conscience, was, what was ever his judgment ought to 
be done; and that, as he would preserve them in their 
enjoyment of it during his reign, so he would endeavor 
to settle it by law, that it should never be altered by his 

266 DIARY OF wotton 

successors. After this, he gave them his hand to kiss. 
It was reported the subscribers were above i,ooo. 

But this is not so remarkable as an address of the 
week before (as I was assured by one present), of some 
of the Family of Love. His Majesty asked them what 
this worship consisted in, and how many their party might 
consist of; they told him their custom was to read the 
Scripture, and then to preach; but did not give any fur- 
ther account, only said that for the rest they were a sort 
of refined Quakers, but their number very small, not con- 
sisting, as they said, of above threescore in all, and those 
chiefly belonging to the Isle of Ely. 

i8th June, 1687. I dined at Mr. Blathwaite's (two miles 
from Hampton). This gentleman is Secretary of War, 
Clerk of the Council, etc., having raised himself by his 
industry from very moderate circumstances. He is a very 
proper, handsome person, very dexterous in business, and 
besides all this, has married a great fortune. His income 
by the Army, Council, and Secretary to the Committee of 
Foreign Plantations, brings him in above ;^2,ooo per 

23d June, 1687. The Privy Seal for jQ6,ooo was passed 
to me, so that this tedious affair was dispatched. Hith- 
erto, a very windy and tempestuous summer. The French 
sermons to the refugees were continued at Greenwich 

19th July, 1687. I went to Wotton. In the way, I 
dined at Ashted, with my Lady Mordaunt. 

5th August, 1687. I went to see Albury, now pur- 
chased by Mr. Finch (the King's Solicitor and son to the 
late Lord Chancellor) ; I found the garden which I first 
designed for the Duke of Norfolk, nothing improved. 

15th August, 1687. I went to visit Lord Clarendon at 
Swallowfield, where was my Lord Cornbury just arrived 
from Denmark, whither he had accompanied the Prince 
of Denmark two months before, and now come back. 
The miserable tyranny under which that nation lives, he 
related to us; the King keeps them under an army of 
40,000 men, all Germans, he not daring to trust his own 
subjects. Notwithstanding this, the Danes are exceedingly 
proud, the country very poor and miserable. 

22d August, 1687. Returned home to Sayes Court from 
Wotton, having been five weeks absent with my brother 

1687-88 JOHN EVELYN 267 

and friends, who entertained us very nobly. God be 
praised for his goodness, and this refreshment after my 
many troubles, and let his mercy and providence ever 
preserve me. Amen. 

3d September, 1687. The Lord Mayor sent me an Of- 
ficer with a staff, to be one of the Governors of St. 
Thomas's Hospital. 

Persecution raging in France; divers churches there 
fired by lightning, priests struck, consecrated hosts, etc., 
burnt and destroyed, both at St. Malos and Paris, at the 
grand procession on Corpus Christi day. 

13th September, 1687. I went to Lambeth, and dined 
with the Archbishop. After dinner, I retired into the 
library, which I found exceedingly improved; there are 
also divers rare manuscripts in a room apart. 

6th October, 1687. I was godfather to Sir John Char- 
din's son, christened at Greenwich Church, named John. 
The Earl of Bath and Countess of Carlisle, the other 

29th October, 1687. An Anabaptist, a very odd igno- 
rant person, a mechanic, I think, was Lord Mayor. The 
King and Queen, and Dadi, the Pope's Nuncio, invited 
to a feast at Guildhall. A strange turn of affairs, that 
those who scandalized the Church of England as favorers 
of Popery, should publicly invite an emissary from Rome, 
one who represented the very person of their Antichrist! 

loth December, 1687. My son was returned out of 
Devon, where he had been on a commission from the Lords 
of the Treasury about a concealment of land. 

20th December, 1687. I went with my Lord Chief- 
Justice Herbert, to see his house at Walton-on-Thames : it 
is a barren place. To a very ordinary house he had 
built a very handsome library, designing more building 
t6 it than the place deserves, in my opinion. He desired 
my advice about laying out his gardens, etc. The next 
day, we went to Weybridge, to see some pictures of the 
Duchess of Norfolk's, particularly the statue, or child in 
gremio, said to be of Michael Angelo ; but there are rea- 
sons to think it rather a copy, from some proportion in 
the figures ill taken. It was now exposed to sale. 

12th January, 1687-88. Mr. Slingsby, Master of the 
Mint, being under very deplorable circumstances on ac- 
count of his creditors, and especially the King, I did my 

268 DIARY OF London 

endeavor with the Lords of the Treasury to be favorable 
to him. 

My Lord Arran, eldest son to the Duke of Hamilton, 
being now married to Lady Ann Spencer, eldest daughter 
of the Earl of Sunderland, Lord President of the Coun- 
cil, I and my family had most glorious favors sent 
us, the wedding being celebrated with extraordinary 

15th January, 1688. There was a solemn and particu- 
lar office used at our, and all the churches of London 
and ten miles round, for a thanksgiving to God, for her 
Majesty being with child. 

22d January, 1688. This afternoon I went not to church, 
being employed on a religious treatise I had undertaken. 

Post annum 1588 — 1660 — 1688, Annus Mir abilis Tertius* 

30th January, 1688. Being the Martyrdom day of King 
Charles I., our curate made a florid oration against the 
murder of that excellent Prince, with an exhortation to 
obedience from the example of David; i Samuel xxvi. 6. 

12th February, 1688. My daughter Evelyn going in 
the coach to visit in the city, a jolt (the door being not 
fast shut) flung her quite out in such manner, as the 
hind wheels passed over her a little above her knees. 
Yet it pleased God, besides the bruises of the wheels, 
she had no other harm. In two days she was able to 
walk, and soon after perfectly well; through God Al- 
mighty's great mercy to an excellent wife and a most 
dutiful and discreet daughter-in-law. 

17th February, 1688. I received the sad news of my 
niece Montague's death at Woodcot on the 15th. 

15th March, 1688. I gave in my account about the 
sick and wounded, in order to have my quietus. 

23d March, 1688. Dr. Parker, Bishop of Oxford, who 
so lately published his extravagant treatise about tran- 
substantiation, and for f abrogating the test and penal 
laws, died. He was esteemed a violent, passionate, 
haughty man, but yet being pressed to declare for the 
Church of Rome, he utterly refused it. A remarkable 

The French Tyrant now finding he could make no 
proselytes among those Protestants of quality, and others, 
whom he had caused to be shut up in dungeons, and 

*This seems to have been added after the page was written. 

1 688 JOHN EVELYN 269 

confined to nunneries and monasteries, gave them, after 
so long trial, a general releasement, and leave to go out 
of the kingdom, but utterly taking their estates and their 
children ; so that great numbers came daily into England 
and other places, where they were received and relieved 
with very considerate Christian charity. This Providence 
and goodness of God to those who thus constantly held 
out, did so work upon those miserable poor souls who, to 
avoid the persecution, sig^ned their renunciation, and to 
save their estates went to mass, that reflecting on what 
they had done, they grew so affected in their conscience, 
that not being able to support it, they in great numbers 
through all the French provinces, acquainted the magis- 
trates and lieutenants that being sorry for their apostacy, 
they were resolved to return to their old religion; that 
they would go no more to mass, but peaceably assemble 
when they could, to beg pardon and worship God, but so 
without weapons as not to give the least umbrage of 
rebellion or sedition, imploring their pity and commis- 
eration; and, accordingly, meeting so from time to time, 
the dragoon-missioners. Popish officers and priests, fell 
upon them, murdered and put them to death, whoever 
they could lay hold on ; they without the least resistance 
embraced death, torture, or hanging, with singing psalms 
and praying for their persecutors to the last breath, yet 
still continuing the former assembling of themselves in 
desolate places, suffering with incredible constancy, that 
through God's mercy they might obtain pardon for this 
lapse. Such examples of Christian behavior have not 
been seen since the primitive persecutions ; and doubtless 
God will do some signal work in the end, if we can with 
patience and resignation hold out, and depend on his 

24th March, i688. I went with Sir Charles Littleton 
to Sheen, a house and estate given him by Lord Broun- 
ker ; one who was ever noted for a hard, covetous, vicious 
man; but for his worldly craft and skill in gaming few 
exceeded him. Coming to die, he bequeathed all his 
land, house, furniture, etc., to Sir Charles, to whom he 
had no manner of relation, but an ancient friendship con- 
tracted at the famous siege of Colchester, forty years 
before. It is a pretty place, with fine gardens, and well 
planted, and given to one worthy of them, Sir Charles 


being an honest gentleman and soldier. He is brother 
to Sir Henry Littleton of Worcestershire, whose great 
estate he is likely to inherit, his brother being without 
children. They are descendants of the great lawyer of 
that name, and give the same arms and motto. He is 
married to one Mrs. Temple, formerly maid of honor to 
the late Queen, a beautiful lady, and he has many fine 
children, so that none envy his good fortune. 

After dinner, we went to see Sir William Temple's 
near to it; the most remarkable things are his orangery 
and gardens, where the wall-fruit-trees are most exquis- 
itely nailed and trained, far better than I ever noted. 

There are many good pictures, especially of Vandyke's, 
in both these houses, and some few statues and small 
busts in the latter. 

From thence to Kew, to visit Sir Henry Capel's, 
whose orangery and myrtetum are most beautiful and 
perfectly well kept. He was contriving very high palisa- 
does of reeds to shade his oranges during the summer, 
and painting those reeds in oil. 

ist April, 1688. In the morning, the first sermon was 
by Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's (at Whitehall), on 
Luke X. 41, 42. The Holy Communion followed, but was 
so interrupted by the rude breaking in of multitudes zealous 
to hear the second sermon, to be preached by the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, that the latter part of that holy office 
could hardly be heard, or the sacred elements be distrib- 
uted without great trouble. The Princess being come, he 
preached on Mich. vii. 8, 9, 10, describing the calamity of 
the Reformed Church of Judah under the Babylonian per- 
secution, for her sins, and God's delivery of her on her 
repentance; that as Judah emerged, so should the now 
Reformed Church, whenever insulted and persecuted. 
He preached with his accustomed action, zeal, and en- 
ergy, so that people flocked from all quarters to hear 

15th April, 1688. A dry, cold, backward spring; easterly 

The persecution still raging in France, multitudes of 
Protestants, and many very considerable and great per- 
sons flying hither, produced a second general contribu- 
tion, the Papists, by God's Providence, as yet making 
small progress among us, 

1 688 JOHN EVELYN 271 

29th April, 1688. The weather was, till now, so cold 
and sharp, by an almost perpetual east wind, which had 
continued many months, that there was little appearance 
of any spring, and yet the winter was very favorable as 
to frost and snow. 

2d May, 1688. To London, about my petition for al- 
lowances upon the account of Commissioner for Sick and 
Wounded in the former war with Holland, 

8th May, 1688. His Majesty, alarmed by the great fleet 
of the Dutch (while we had a very inconsiderable one), 
went down to Chatham; their fleet was well prepared, 
and out, before we were in any readiness, or had any 
considerable number to have encountered them, had there 
been occasion, to the great reproach of the nation; while 
being in profound peace, there was a mighty land army, 
which there was no need of, and no force at sea, where 
only was the apprehension; but the army was doubtless 
kept and increased, in order to bring in and countenance 
Popery, the King beginning to discover his intention, by 
many instances pursued by the Jesuits, against his first 
resolution to alter nothing in the Church Establishment, 
so that it appeared there can be no reliance on Popish 

1 8th May, 1688. The King enjoining the ministers to 
read his Declaration for giving liberty of conscience (as 
it was styled) in all churches of England, this evening, 
six Bishops, Bath and Wells,* Peterborough,! Ely, J Chi- 
chester,! St. Asaph, § and Bristol,^ in the name of all 
the rest of the Bishops, came to his Majesty to petition 
him, that he would not impose the reading of it to the 
several congregations within their dioceses ; not that they 
were averse to the publishing it for want of due tender- 
ness toward dissenters, in relation to whom they should 
be willing to come to such a temper as should be thought 
fit, when that matter might be considered and settled in 
Parliament and Convocation; but that, the Declaration 
being founded on such a dispensing power as might at 
pleasure set aside all laws ecclesiastical and civil, it ap- 
peared to them illegal, as it had done to the Parliament 
in 1 66 1 and 1672, and that it was a point of such conse- 
quence, that they could not so far make themselves 

♦Thomas Ken. f Thomas White. :|: Francis Turner. J John Lake. 
^William Lloyd. ^ Sir John Trelawny, Bart. 


parties to it, as the reading of it in church in time of 
divine service amounted to. 

The King was so far incensed at this address, that he 
with threatening expressions commanded them to obey 
him in reading it at their perils, and so dismissed them. 

2oth May, 1688. I went to Whitehall Chapel, where, 
after the morning lessons, the Declaration was read by 
one of the choir who used to read the chapters. I hear 
it was in the Abbey Church, Westminster, but almost 
universally forborne throughout all London: the conse- 
quences of which a little time will show. 

25th May, 1688, All the discourse now was about the 
Bishops refusing to read the injunction for the abolition 
of the Test, etc. It seems the injunction came so crudely 
from the Secretary's office, that it was neither sealed nor 
signed in form, nor had any lawyer been consulted, so as 
the Bishops who took all imaginable advice, put the 
Court to great difficulties how to proceed against them. 
Great were the consults, and a proclamation was expected 
all this day; but nothing was done. The action of the 
Bishops was universally applauded, and reconciled many 
adverse parties. Papists only excepted, who were now 
exceedingly perplexed, and violent courses were every 
moment expected. Report was, that the Protestant 
secular Lords and Nobility would abet the Clergy. 

The Queen Dowager, hitherto bent on her return into 
Portugal, now on the sudden, on allegation of a great 
debt owing her by his Majesty disabling her, declares her 
resolution to stay. 

News arrived of the most prodigious earthquake that 
was almost ever heard of, subverting the city of Lima 
and country in Peru, with a dreadful inundation following it. 

8th June, 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, with the Bishops of Ely, Chichester, St. Asaph, 
Bristol, Peterborough, and Bath and Wells, were sent from 
the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to 
give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the 
Declaration for liberty of conscience ; they refused to give 
bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The con- 
cern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds 
on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for 
them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower 

i688 JOHN EVELYN 273 

loth June, 1688, A young prince bom, which will cause 

About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance dis- 
charged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of 
Wales. This was very surprising, it having been univer- 
sally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next 

13th June, 1688. I went to the Tower to see the 
Bishops, visited the Archbishop and the Bishops of Ely, St. 
Asaph, and Bath and Wells. 

14th June, 1688. Dined with the Lord Chancellor. 

15th June, 1688. Being the first day of term, the 
Bishops were brought to Westminster on habeas corpus, 
when the indictment was read, and they were called on to 
plead; their counsel objected that the warrant was illegal; 
but, after long debate, it was overruled, and they pleaded. 
The Court then offered to take bail for their appearance ; 
but this they refused, and at last were dismissed on their 
own recognizances to appear that day fortnight; the 
Archbishop in jC^oo, the Bishops in ;^ioo each. 

17 June, 1688. Was a day of thanksgiving in London 
and ten miles about for the young Prince's birth ; a form 
of prayer made for the purpose by the Bishop of 

29th June, 1688. They appeared; the trial lasted from 
nine in the morning to past six in the evening, when the 
jury retired to consider of their verdict, and the Court 
adjourned to nine the next morning. The jury were 
locked up till that time, eleven of them being for an ac- 
quittal; but one (Arnold, a brewer) would not consent. 
At length he agreed with the others. The Chief Justice, 
Wright, behaved with great moderation and civility to the 
Bishops. Alibone, a Papist, was strongly against them; 
but Holloway and Powell being of opinion in their favor, 
they were acquitted. When this was heard, there was 
great rejoicing; and there was a lane of people from the 
King's Bench to the water side, on their knees, as the 
Bishops passed and repassed, to beg their blessing. Bon- 
fires were made that night, and bells rung, which was 
taken very ill at Court, and an appearance of nearly sixty 
Earls and Lords, etc., on the bench, did not a little com- 
fort them ; but indeed they were all along full of comfort 
and cheerful. 


Note, they denied to pay the Lieutenant of the Tower 
(Hales, who used them very surlily), any fees, alleging 
that none were due. 

The night was solemnized with bonfires, and other fire- 
works, etc. 

2d July, 1688. The two judges, Holloway and Powell, 
were displaced. 

3d July, 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin and his 
brother Sir William to St. Alban's, to see a library he 
would have bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright, 
late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection 
of books, especially in divinity; he was to give ;^3oo 
for them. Having seen the great Church, now newly 
repaired by a public contribution, we returned home. 

8th July, 1688. One of the King's chaplains preached 
before the Princess on Exodus xiv. 13, ^^ Stand still, and 
behold the salvation of the Lord,** which he applied so 
boldly to the present conjuncture of the Church of Eng- 
land, that more could scarce be said to encourage de- 
sponders. The Popish priests were not able to carry their 
cause against their learned adversaries, who confounded 
them both by their disputes and writings. 

12th July, 1 688. The camp now began at Hounslow, 
but the nation was in high discontent. 

Colonel Titus, Sir Henry Vane (son of him who was 
executed for his treason), and some other of the Pres- 
byterians and Independent party, were sworn of the 
Privy Council, from hopes of thereby diverting that party 
from going over to the Bishops and Church of England, 
which now they began to do, foreseeing the design of 
the Papists to descend and take in their most hateful of 
heretics (as they at other times expressed them to be) 
to effect their own ends, now evident; the utter extir- 
pation of the Church of England first, and then the rest 
would follow, 

17th July, 1688. This night the fireworks were 
played off, that had been prepared for the Queen's up- 
sitting. We saw them to great advantage; they were 
very fine, and cost some thousands of pounds, in the 
pyramids, statues, etc., but were spent too soon for so 
long a preparation. 

26th July, 1688. I went to Lambeth to visit the Arch- 
bishop, whom I found very cheerful. 

i688 JOHN EVELYN 275 

loth August, 1688. Dr. Tenison now told me there 
would suddenly be some g^eat thing discovered. This 
was the Prince of Orange intending to come over. 

15th August, 1688. I went to Althorpe, in Northamp- 
tonshire, seventy miles. A coach and four horses took 
up me and my son at Whitehall, and carried us to Dun- 
stable, where we arrived and dined at noon, and from 
thence another coach and six horses carried us to Al- 
thorpe, four miles beyond Northampton, where we ar- 
rived by seven o'clock that evening. Both these coaches 
were hired for me by that noble Countess of Sunderland, 
who invited me to her house at Althorpe, where she 
entertained me and my son with very extraordinary kind- 
ness; I stayed till the Thursday. 

1 8th August, 1688. Dr. Jeff ryes, the minister of Al- 
thorpe, who was my Lord's chaplain when ambassador in 
France, preached the shortest discourse I ever heard; 
but what was defective in the amplitude of his sermon, 
he had supplied in the largeness and convenience of the 
parsonage house, which the doctor (who had at least 
;^6oo a year in spiritual advancement) had newly built, 
and made fit for a person of quality to live in, with 
gardens and all accommodation according therewith. 

My lady carried us to see Lord Northampton's Seat, a 
very strong, large house, built with stone, not altogether 
modern. They were enlarging the garden, in which was 
nothing extraordinary, except the iron gate opening into 
the park, which indeed was very good work, wrought in 
flowers painted with blue and gilded. There is a noble 
walk of elms toward the front of the house by the 
bowling green. I was not in any room of the house be- 
sides a lobby looking into the garden, where my Lord 
and his new Countess (Sir Stephen Fox's daughter, whom 
I had known from a child) entertained the Countess and 
her daughter the Countess of Arran (newly married to 
the son of the Duke of Hamilton), with so little good 
grace, and so dully, that our visit was very short, and so 
we returned to Althorpe, twelve miles distant. 

The house, or rather palace, at Althorpe, is a noble 
uniform pile in form of a half H, built of brick and 
freestone, balustered and h la moderne; the hall is well, 
the staircase excellent; the rooms of state, galleries, 
ofifices and furniture, such as may become a great prince. 

276 DIARY OF althorpe 

It is situated in the midst of a garden, exquisitely planted 
and kept, and all this in a park walled in with hewn 
stone, planted with rows and walks of trees, canals and 
fish ponds, and stored with game. And, what is above 
all this, governed by a lady, who without any show of 
solicitude, keeps everything in such admirable order, both 
within and without, from the garret to the cellar, that I 
do not believe there is any in this nation, or in any 
other, that exceeds her in such exact order, without 
ostentation, but substantially great and noble. The mean- 
est servant is lodged so neat and cleanly; the service at 
the several tables, the good order and decency — in a 
word, the entire economy is perfectly becoming a wise 
and noble person. She is one who for her distinguished 
esteem of me from a long and worthy friendship, I must 
ever honor and celebrate. I wish from my soul the Lord, 
her husband (whose parts and abilities are otherwise 
conspicuous), was as worthy of her, as by a fatal apostasy 
and court-ambition he has made himself unworthy! This 
is what she deplores, and it renders her as much affliction 
as a lady of great soul and much prudence is capable of. 
The Countess of Bristol, her mother, a grave and honor- 
able lady, has the comfort of seeing her daughter and 
grandchildren under the same economy, especially Mr. 
Charles Spencer, a youth of extraordinary hopes, very 
learned for his age, and ingenious, and under a governor 
of great worth. Happy were it, could as much be said 
of the elder brother, the Lord Spencer, who, rambling 
about the world, dishonors both his name and his family, 
adding sorrow to sorrow to a mother, who has taken all 
imaginable care of his education. There is a daughter 
very young married to the Earl of Clancarty, who has a 
great and fair estate in Ireland, but who yet gives no 
great presage of worth, — so universally contaminated is 
the youth of this corrupt and abandoned age! But this 
is again recompensed by my Lord Arran, a sober and 
worthy gentleman, who has espoused the Lady Ann Spen- 
cer, a young lady of admirable accomplishments and 

23d August, 1688. I left this noble place and conver- 
sation, my lady having provided carriages to convey us 
back in the same manner as we went, and a dinner being 
prepared at Dunstable against our arrival. Northampton, 

i688 JOHN EVELYN 277 

having been lately burned and re-edified, is now become 
a town that for the beauty of the buildings, especially 
^the church and townhouse, may compare with the neatest 
in Italy itself. 

Dr. Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, wrote a very honest 
and handsome letter to the Commissioners Ecclesiastical, 
excusing himself from sitting any longer among them, 
he by no means approving of their prosecuting the Clergy 
who refused to read the Declaration for liberty of con- 
science, in prejudice of the Church of England. 

The Dutch make extraordinary preparations both at sea 
and land, which with no small progress Popery makes 
among us, puts us to many difficulties. The Popish Irish 
soldiers commit many murders and insults; the whole 
nation disaffected, and in apprehensions. 

After long trials of the doctors to bring up the little 
Prince of Wales by hand (so many of her Majesty's chil- 
dren having died infants) not succeeding, a country 
nurse, the wife of a tile maker, is taken to give it suck. 

1 8th September, 1688. I went to London, where I 
found the Court in the utmost consternation on report 
of the Prince of Orange's landing; which put Whitehall 
into so panic a fear, that I could hardly believe it possi- 
ble to find such a change. 

Writs were issued in order to a Parliament, and a dec- 
laration to back the good order of elections, with great 
professions of maintaining the Church of England, but 
without giving any sort of satisfaction to the people, who 
showed their high discontent at several things in the 

Earthquakes had utterly demolished the ancient Smyrna, 
and several other places in Greece, Italy, and even in 
the Spanish Indies, forerunners of greater calamities. 
God Almighty preserve his Church and all who put 
themselves under the shadow of his wings, till these 
things be overpassed. 

30th September, 1688. The Court in so extraordinary 
a consternation, on assurance of the Prince of Orange's 
intention to land, that the writs sent forth for a Parlia- 
ment were recalled. 

7th October, 1688. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Mar- 
tin's on 2 Tim. iii. 16, showing the Scriptures to be our 
only rule of faith, and its perfection above all traditions. 

278 DIARY OF London 

After which, near i,ooo devout persons partook of the 
Communion. The sermon was chiefly occasioned by a 
Jesuit, who in the Masshouse on the Sunday before had 
disparaged the Scripture and railed at our translation, 
which some present contradicting, they pulled him out 
of the pulpit, and treated him very coarsely, insomuch 
that it was like to create a great disturbance in the city. 

Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's invasion 
heightened to that degree, that his Majesty thought fit 
to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power 
(but retaining his own right still to dispense with all 
laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 
Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protes- 
tants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places 
of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing 
the universal discontent. It brought people to so des- 
perate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for 
and desire the landing of that Prince, whom they looked 
on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying 
incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the 
only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army 
ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, 
and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation re- 
duced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The appre- 
hension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's forces 
would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that 
vigor requisite to repel invaders. 

The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile 
matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion 
among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter 
was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury,* informing 

*By Evelyn himself. The letter was as follows: — 
*My Lord, The honor and reputation which your Grace's piety, 
prudence, and signal courage, have justly merited and obtained, not 
only from the sons of the Church of England, but even universally 
from those Protestants among us who are Dissenters from her dis- 
cipline; God Almighty's Providence and blessing upon your Grace's 
vigilancy and extraordinary endeavors will not suffer to be diminished 
in this conjuncture. The conversation I now and then have with some 
in place, who have the opportunity of knowing what is doing in the 
most secret recesses and cabals of our Church's adversaries, obliges me 
to acquaint you, that the calling of your Grace and the rest of the 
Lords Bishops to Court, and what has there of late been required of 

1688 JOHN EVELYN 279 

him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. 
A paper of what the Bishops advised his Majesty was 
published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form 
of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon pub- 
lished. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed, j 

14th October, 1688. The King's birthday. No guns 
from the Tower as usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. 
This day signal for the victory of William the Conqueror 
against Harold, near Battel, in Sussex. The wind, which 
had been hitherto west, was east all this day. Wonder- 
ful expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers ordered 
to be read in the churches against invasion. 

28th October, 1688. A tumult in London on the rab- 

you, is only to create a jealousy and suspicion among well-meaning 
people of such compliances, as it is certain they have no cause to appre- 
hend. The plan of this and of all that which is to follow of seeming 
favor thence, is wholly drawn by the Jesuits, who are at this time 
more than ever busy to make divisions among us, all other arts and 
mechanisms having hitherto failed them. They have, with other things 
contrived that your Lordships the Bishops should give his Majesty 
advice separately, without calling any of the rest of the Peers, which, 
though maliciously suggested, spreads generally about the town. I do 
not at all question but your Grace will speedily prevent the operation 
of this venom, and that you will think it highly necessary so to do, 
that your Grace is also enjoined to compose a form of prayer, wherein 
the Prince of Orange is expressly to be named the Invader: of this I 
presume not to say anything; but for as much as in all the Declara- 
tions, etc., which have hitherto been published in pretended favor of 
the Church of England, there is not once the least mention of the 
Reformed or Protestant Religion, but only of the Church of Eng- 
land AS BY Law established, which Church *,he Papists tell us is the 
Church of Rome, which is (say they) the Catholic Church of England 
— that only is established by Law; the Church of England in the 
Reformed sense so established, is but by an usurped authority. The 
antiquity of that would by these words be explained, and utterly 
defeat this false and subdolous construction, and take off all exceptions 
whatsoever; if, in all extraordinary offices, upon these occasions, the 
words Reformed and Protestant were added to that of the Church 
OF England by Law established. And whosoever threatens to in- 
vade or come against us, to the prejudice of that Church, in Grod's 
name, be they Dutch or Irish, let us heartily pray and fight against 
them. My Lord, this is, I confess, a bold, but honest period; and, 
though I am well assured that your Grace is perfectly acquainted 
with all this before, and therefore may blame my impertinence, as 
that does aX?ioTpio£niaKOTrelv; yet I am confident you will not reprove 
the zeal of one who most humbly begs your Grace's pardon, with 
j-our blessing. Lond., 10 Oct., i688.» ( From a copy in Evelyn's band- 
writing.) Seeposi, p. 285. 

a8o DIARY OF London 

ble demolishing a Popish chapel that had been set up in 
the city. 

29th October, 1688. Lady Sunderland acquainted me 
with his Majesty's taking away the Seals from Lord 
Sunderland, and of her being with the Queen to inter- 
cede for him. It is conceived that he had of late grown 
remiss in pursuing the interest of the Jesuitical counsels ; 
some reported one thing, some another; but there was 
doubtless some secret betrayed, which time may discover. 

There was a Council called, to which were summoned 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Judges, the Lord 
Mayor, etc. The Queen Dowager, and all the ladies and 
lords who were present at the Queen Consort's labor, 
were to give their testimony upon oath of the Prince of 
Wales's birth, recorded both at the Council Board and at 
the Chancery a day or two after. This procedure was 
censured by some as below his Majesty to condescend to, 
on the talk of the people. It was remarkable that on 
this occasion the Archbishop, Marquis of Halifax, the 
Earls of Clarendon and Nottingham, refused to sit at the 
Council table among Papists, and their bold telling his 
Majesty that whatever was done while such sat among 
them was unlawful and incurred prcemunire; — at least, 
if what I heard be true. 

30th October, 1688, I dined with Lord Preston, made 
Secretary of State, in the place of the Earl of Sunder- 

Visited Mr. Boyle, when came in the Duke of Hamil- 
ton and Earl of Burlington. The Duke told us many 
particulars of Mary Queen of Scots, and her amours with 
the Italian favorite, etc. 

31st October, 1688. My birthday, being the 68th year 
of my age. O blessed Lord, grant that as I grow in 
years, so may I improve in grace! Be thou my pro- 
tector this following year, and preserve me and mine 
from those dangers and great confusions that threaten a 
sad revolution to this sinful nation ! Defend thy church, 
our holy religion, and just laws, disposing his Majesty 
to listen to sober and healing counsels, that if it be thy 
blessed will, we may still enjoy that happy tranquility 
which hitherto thou hast continued to us ! Amen, Amen ! 

ist November, 1688. Dined with Lord Preston, with 
other company, at Sir Stephen Fox's. Continual alarms 


of the Prince of Orange, but no certainty. Reports of 
his great losses of horse in the storm, but without any 
assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and 
printed manifestoes, and carried to Newgate, after ex- 
amination at the Cabinet Council. There was likewise a 
declaration of the States for satisfaction of all public 
ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the 
French. There was in that of the Prince's an expres- 
sion, as if the Lords both spiritual and temporal had in- 
vited him over, with a deduction of the causes of his 
enterprise. This made his Majesty convene my Lord of 
Canterbury and the other Bishops now in town, to give 
an account of what was in the manifesto, and to enjoin 
them to clear themselves by some public writing of this 
disloyal charge. 

ad November, 1688. It was now certainly reported by 
some who saw the fleet, and the Prince embark, that 
they sailed from the Brill on Wednesday morning, and 
that the Princess of Orange was there to take leave of 
her husband. 

4th November, 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince be- 
ing landed somewhere about Portsmouth, or the Isle of 
Wight, whereas it was thought it would have been north- 
ward. The Court in great hurry. 

5th November, 1688. I went to London; heard the 
news of the Prince having landed at Torbay, coming 
with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Chan- 
nel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not 
intercept, or molest them. This put the King and Court 
into great consternation, they were now employed in 
forming an army to stop their further progress, for they 
were got into Exeter, and the season and ways very im- 
proper for his Majesty's forces to march so great a dis- 

The Archbishop of Canterbury and some few of the 
other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to 
Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of 
this invasion. They assured his Majesty that they had 
never invited any of the Prince's party, or were in the 
least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testi- 
mony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, 
being so few, they desired that his Majesty would call 
the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might 


consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not 
thinking it right to publish anything without them, and 
till they had themselves seen the Prince's manifesto, in 
which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, 
spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King; 
so they departed. 

A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to 
see or read the Prince's manifesto, in which was set forth 
at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one 
before from the States. 

These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his 
mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dis- 
sensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can 
effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope 
to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray 
God to protect and direct the King for the best and 
truest interest of his people! — I saw his Majesty touch 
for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating. 

14th November, 1688. The Prince increases every day 
in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Combury 
carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, the 
Prince's headquarters. The city of London in disorder; 
the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the 
Papists of Lord Berkeley, at St. John's. The Queen pre- 
pares to go to Portsmouth for safety, to attend the issue 
of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect. 

1 8th November, 1688. It was now a very hard frost. 
The King goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and 
return to London. Lord Delamere appears for the Prince 
in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and some Bishops, and such Peers 
as were in London, address his Majesty to call a Parlia- 
ment. The King invites all foreign nations to come 
over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the 
Germans more than ever. 

29th November, 1688. I went to the Royal Society. 
We adjourned the election of a President to 23d of April, 
by reason of the public commotions, yet dined together 
as of custom this day. 

2d December, 1688. Dr. Tenison preached at St. Mar- 
tin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I 
received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my 
Lord Godolphin, then going with the Marquis of Halifax 

i688 JOHN EVELYN 283 

and Earl of Nottingham as Commissioners to the Prince 
of Orange ; he told me they had little power. Plymouth 
declared for the Prince. Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and 
all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through 
England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and 
go to meet the Prince, who every day sets forth new 
Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at 
Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, 
till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is 
cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince com- 
ing to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure 
sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover being Gov- 
ernor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Maj- 
esty. The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, 
and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks 
like a revolution. 

7th December, 1688. My son went toward Oxford. I 
returned home. 

9th December, 1688. Lord Sunderland meditates flight. 
The rabble demolished all Popish chapels, and several 
Papist lords and gentlemen's houses, especially that of 
the Spanish Ambassador, which they pillaged, and burned 
his library. 

13th December, i688. The King flies to sea, puts in at 
Faversham for ballast; is rudely treated by the people; 
comes back to Whitehall. 

The Prince of Orange is advanced to Windsor, is invited 
by the King to St. James's, the messenger sent was the 
Earl of Faversham, the General of the Forces, who going 
without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the 
Prince, who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty 
to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may 
be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken 
heinously and the King goes privately to Rochester; is 
persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to 
mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was 

17th December, 1688. That night was a Council; his 
Majesty refuses to assent to all the proposals ; goes away 
again to Rochester. 

1 8th December, 1688. I saw the King take barge to 
Gravesend at twelve o'clock — a sad sight! The Prince 
comes to St. James's, and fills Whitehall with Dutch 

284 DIARY OF London 

guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to 
call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The 
Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough, and divers others taken. 
The Earl of Sunderland flies; Sir Edward Hale, Walker, 
and others, taken and secured. 

All the world go to see the Prince at St. James's, where 
there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of 
my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very 
stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent 
out of town to disband them; not well pleased. 

24th December, 1688. The King passes into France^ 
whither the Queen and child were gone a few days before. 

26th December, 1688. The Peers and such Common- 
ers as were members of the Parliament at Oxford, being 
the last of Charles H. meeting, desire the Prince of 
Orange to take on him the disposal of the public reve- 
nue till a convention of Lords and Commons should meet 
in full body, appointed by his circular letters to the 
shires and boroughs, 2 2d of January. I had now quartered 
upon me a Lieutenant-Colonel and eight horses. 

30th December, 1688. This day prayers for the Prince 
of Wales were first left off in our Church. 

7th January, 1688-89. -^ long frost and deep snow; the 
Thames almost frozen over. 

15th January, 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, where I found the Bishops of St. Asaph, Ely, 
Bath and Wells, Peterborough, and Chichester, the Earls 
of Aylesbury and Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie, Lord- 
Advocate of Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Arch- 
bishop, etc. After prayers and dinner, divers serious 
matters were discoursed, concerning the present state of 
the Public, and sorry I was to find there was as yet no 
accord in the judgments of those of the Lords and Com- 
mons who were to convene; some would have the Princess 
made Queen without any more dispute, others were for 
a Regency; there was a Tory party (then so called), who 
were for inviting his Majesty again upon conditions; and 
there were Republicans who would make the Prince of 
Orange like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy 
among these several parties to bring them into confu- 
sion: most for ambition or other interest, few for con- 
science and moderate resolutions. I foiind nothtng of all 
this in this assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to 

; 688-89 JOHN EVELYN 285 

admit me into their discourses; they were all for a Re- 
gency, thereby to salve their oaths, and so all public 
matters to proceed in his Majesty's name, by that to 
facilitate the calling of Parliament, according to the laws 
in being. Such was the result of this meeting. 

My Lord of Canterbury gave me great thanks for the 
advertisement I sent him in October, and assured me 
they took my counsel in that particular, and that it came 
very seasonably. 

I found by the Lord-Advocate that th« Bishops of Scot- 
land (who were indeed little worthy of that character, and 
had done much mischief in that Church) were now com- 
ing about to the true interest, in this conjuncture which 
threatened to abolish the whole hierarchy in that kingdom ; 
and therefore the Scottish Archbishop and Lord- Advocate 
requested the Archbishop of Canterbury to use his best 
endeavors with the Prince to maintain the Church there 
in the same state, as by law at present settled. 

It now growing late, after some private discourse with 
his Grace, I took my leave, most of the Lords being 

The trial of the bishops was now printed. 

The great convention being assembled the day before, 
falling upon the question about the government, resolved 
that King James having by the advice of the Jesuits and 
other wicked persons endeavored to subvert the laws of 
the Church and State, and deserted the kingdom, carry- 
ing away the seals, etc., without any care for the man- 
agement of the government, had by demise abdicated 
himself and wholly vacated his right; they did therefore 
desire the Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the 
crown on the next heir, the Prince of Orange, for his 
life, then to the Princess, his wife, and if she died with- 
out issue, to the Princess of Denmark, and she failing, 
to the heirs of the Prince, excluding forever all possi- 
bility of admitting a Roman Catholic. 

27th January, 1689. I dined at the Admiralty, where 
was brought in a child not twelve years old, the son of 
one Dr. Clench, of the most prodigious maturity of knowl- 
edge, for I cannot call it altogether memory, but some- 
thing more extraordinary. Mr. Pepys and myself 
examined him, not in any method, but with promiscuous 
questions, which required judgment and discernment to 

286 DIARY OF London 

answer so readily and pertinently. There was not any- 
thing in chronology, history, geography, the several sys- 
tems of astronomy, courses of the stars, longitude, latitude, 
doctrine of the spheres, courses and sources of rivers, 
creeks, harbors, eminent cities, boundaries and bearings 
of countries, not only in Europe, but in any other part 
of the earth, which he did not readily resolve and dem- 
onstrate his knowledge of, readily drawing out with a 
pen anything he would describe. He was able not only 
to repeat the most famous things which are left us in 
any of the Greek or Roman histories, monarchies, re- 
publics, wars, colonies, exploits by sea and land, but all 
the sacred stories of the Old and New Testament; the 
succession of all the monarchies, Babylonian, Persian, 
Greek, Roman, with all the lower Emperors, Popes, 
Heresiarchs, and Councils, what they were called about, 
what they determined, or in the controversy about Easter, 
the tenets of the Gnostics, Sabellians, Arians, Nestorians; 
the difference between St. Cyprian and Stephen about re- 
baptism, the schisms. We leaped from that to other 
things totally different, to Olympic years, and synchro- 
nisms ; we asked him questions which could not be resolved 
without considerable meditation and judgment, nay of 
some particulars of the Civil Laws, of the Digest and 
Code. He gave a stupendous account of both natural 
and moral philosophy, and even in metaphysics. 

Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this won- 
derful child, or angel rather, for he was as beautiful and 
lovely in countenance as in knowledge, we concluded with 
asking him if, in all he had read or heard of, he had 
ever met with anything which was like this expedition of 
the Prince of Orange, with so small a force to obtain 
three great kingdoms without any contest. After a little 
thought, he told us that he knew of nothing which did 
more resemble it than the coming of Constantine the 
Great out of Britain, through France and Italy, so te- 
dious a march, to meet Maxentius, whom he overthrew at 
Pons Milvius with very little conflict, and at the very 
gates of Rome, which he entered and was received with 
triumph, and obtained the empire, not of three king- 
doms only, but of all the then known world. He was 
perfect in the Latin authors, spoke French naturally, 
and gave us a description of France, Italy, Savoy, Spain, 

1 689 JOHN EVELYN 287 

ancient and modemly divided ; as also of ancient Greece, 
Scythia, and northern countries and tracts: we left ques- 
tioning further. He did this without any set or formal 
repetitions, as one who had learned things without book, 
but as if he minded other things, going about the room, 
and toying with a parrot there, and as he was at din- 
ner ( tanquam aliiia agens, as it were ) seeming to be full 
of play, of a lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, 
and exceedingly pleasant, without the least levity, rude- 
ness, or childishness. 

His father assured us he never imposed anything to 
charge his memory by causing him to get things by 
heart, not even the rules of grammar; but his tutor 
(who was a Frenchman) read to him, first in French, 
then in Latin; that he usually played among other boys 
four or five hours every day, and that he was as earnest 
at his play as at his study. He was perfect in arithme- 
tic, and now newly entered into Greek. In sum i^hor- 
rescc refer ens), I had read of divers forward and precocious 
youths, and some I have known, but I never did either 
hear or read of anything like to this sweet child, if it be 
right to call him child who has more knowledge than 
most men in the world. I counseled his father not to 
set his heart too much on this jewel, 

« Immodicis brevis est at as, et rara senectus,^ 

as I myself learned by sad experience in my most dear 
child Richard, many years since, who, dying before he 
was six years old, was both in shape and countenance 
and pregnancy of learning, next to a prodigy. 

29th January, 1689. The votes of the House of Com- 
mons being carried up by Mr. Hampden, their chairman, 
to the Lords, I got a station by the Prince's lodgings at 
the door of the lobby to the House, and heard much of 
the debate, which lasted very long. Lord Derby was 
in the chair ( for the House was resolved into a grand 
committee of the whole House ) ; after all had spoken, it 
came to the question, which was carried by three voices 
against a Regency, which 51 were for, 54 against; the 
minority alleging the danger of dethroning Kings, and 
scrupling many passages and expressions in the vote of 
the Commons, too long to set down particularly. Some 
were for sending to his Majesty with conditions: others 

288 DIARY OF London 

that the King could do no wrong, and that the mal- 
administration was chargeable on his ministers. There 
were not more than eight or nine bishops, and but two 
against the Regency; the archbishop was absent, and 
the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit 
and discourse, on their old passive obedience, so as 
people began to talk of the bishops being cast out of 
the House. In short, things tended to dissatisfaction on 
both sides ; add to this, the morose temper of the Prince 
of Orange, who showed little countenance to the noble- 
men and others, who expected a more gracious and 
cheerful reception when they made their court. The 
English army also was not so in order, and firm to 
his interest, nor so weakened but that it might give 
interruption. Ireland was in an ill posture as well as 
Scotland. Nothing was yet done toward a settlement. 
God of his infinite mercy compose these things, that we 
may be at last a Nation and a Church under some fixed 
and sober establishment! 

30th January, 1689. The anniversary of King Charles 
I.'s martyrdom; but in all the public offices and pulpit 
prayers, the collects, and litany for the King and 
Queen were curtailed and mutilated. Dr. Sharp preached 
before the Commons, but was disliked, and not thanked 
for his sermon. 

31st January, 1689. At our church (the next day 
being appointed a thanksgiving for deliverance by the 
Prince of Orange, with prayers purposely composed), 
our lecturer preached in the afternoon a very honest 
sermon, showing our duty to God for the many signal 
deliverances of our Church, without touching on politics. 

6th February, 1689. The King's coronation day was 
ordered not to be observed, as hitherto it had been. 

The Convention of the Lords and Commons now declare 
the Prince and Princess of Orange King and Queen of 
England, France, and Ireland (Scotland being an inde- 
pendent kingdom), the Prince and Princess being to 
enjoy it jointly during their lives; but the executive 
authority to be vested in the Prince during life, though 
all proceedings to run in both names, and that it should 
descend to their issue, and for want of such, to the 
Princess Anne of Denmark and her issue, and in want 
of such, to the heirs of the body of the Prince, if be 

i689 JOHN EVELYN 289 

survive, and that failing, to devolve to the Parliament, 
as they should think fit. These produced a conference 
w^ith the Lords, when also there was presented heads of 
such new laws as were to be enacted. It is thought on 
these conditions they will be proclaimed. 

There was much contest about the King's abdication, 
and whether he had vacated the government. The Earl 
of Nottingham and about twenty Lords, and many Bishops, 
entered their protests, but the concurrence was great 
against them. 

The Princess hourly expected. Forces sending to Ireland, 
that kingdom being in great danger by the Earl of Tyrcon- 
nel's army, and expectations from France coming to assist 
them, but that King was busy in invading Flanders, and 
encountering the German Princes. It is likely that this 
will be the most remarkable summer for action, which 
has happened in many years. 

2 1 St February, 1689. Dr. Burnet preached at St. James's 
on the obligation to walk worthy of God's particular and 
signal deliverance of the nation and church. 

I saw the new Queen and King proclaimed the very 
next day after her coming to Whitehall, Wednesday, 13th 
February, with great acclamation and general good re- 
ception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed that 
both, especially the Princess, would have shown some 
(seeming) reluctance at least, of assuming her father's 
crown, and made some apology, testifying by her regfret 
that he should by his mismanagement necessitate the 
nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would have 
shown very handsomely to the world, and according to 
the character given of her piety; consonant also to her 
husband's first declaration, that there was no intention of 
deposing the King, but of succoring the nation ; but noth- 
ing of all this appeared ; she came into Whitehall laugh- 
ing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite 
transported. She rose early the next morning, and in her 
undress, as it was reported, before her women were up, 
went about from room to room to see the convenience 
of Whitehall ; lay in the same bed and apartment where 
the late Queen lay, and within a night or two sat down 
to play at basset, as the Queen, her predecessor used to 
do. She smiled upon and talked to everybody, so that 
no change seemed to have taken place at Court since her 


last going away, save that infinite crowds of people 
thronged to see her, and that she went to our prayers. 
This carriage was censured by many. She seems to be 
of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to heart: 
while the Prince, her husband, has a thoughtful counte- 
nance, is wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat 
all persons alike gravely, and to be very intent on affairs : 
Holland, Ireland, and France calling for his care. 

Divers Bishops and Noblemen are not at all satisfied 
with this so sudden assumption of the Crown, without any 
previous sending, and offering some conditions to the ab- 
sent King; or on his not returning, or not assenting to 
those conditions, to have proclaimed him Regent; but 
the major part of both Houses prevailed to make them 
King and Queen immediately, and a crown was tempt- 
ing. This was opposed and spoken against with such 
vehemence by Lord Clarendon (her own uncle), that it 
put him by all preferment, which must doubtless have 
been as great as could have been given him. My Lord 
of Rochester, his brother, overshot himself, by the same 
carriage and stiffness, which their friends thought they 
might have well spared when they saw how it was like 
to be overruled, and that it had been sufficient to have 
declared their dissent with less passion, acquiescing in 
due time. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury and some of the rest, 
on scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had 
taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the 
Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as ap- 
peared out of Lambeth. This occasioned the wonder of 
many who observed with what zeal they contributed to 
the Prince's expedition, and all the while also rejecting 
any proposals of sending again to the absent King; that 
they should now raise scruples, and such as created 
much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the 
old courtiers, and especially the Papists. 

Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done 
by a convention only, and the as yet unabrogated laws; 
this drew them to make themselves on the 2 2d [Feb- 
ruary] a Parliament, the new King passing the act with 
the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but ne- 
cessity prevailed, the government requiring a speedy 

i689 JOHN EVELYN 191 

Innumerable were the crowds, who solicited for, and 
expected oflSces; most of the old ones were turned out. 
Two or three white staves were disposed of some days 
before, as Lord Steward, to the Earl of Devonshire; 
Treasurer of the household, to Lord Newport; Lord 
Chamberlain to the King, to my Lord of Dorset; but 
there were as yet none in offices of the civil govern- 
ment save the Marquis of Halifax as Privy Seal. A 
council of thirty was chosen, Lord Derby president, but 
neither Chancellor nor Judges were yet declared, the 
new Great Seal not yet finished. 

8th March, 1689. Dr. Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury, 
made an excellent discourse on Matt. v. 44, exhorting to 
charity and forgiveness of enemies; I suppose purposely, 
the new Parliament being furious about impeaching those 
who were obnoxious, and as their custom has ever been, 
going on violently, without reserve, or modification, while 
wise men were of opinion the most notorious offenders 
being named and excepted, an Act of Amnesty would be 
more seasonable, to pacify the minds of men in so general 
a discontent of the nation, especially of those who did not 
expect to see the government assumed without any regard 
to the absent King, or proving a spontaneous abdication, 
or that the birth of the Prince of Wales was an im- 
posture ; five of the Bishops also still refusing to take the 
new oath. 

In the meantime, to gratify the people, the hearth-tax 
was remitted forever; but what was intended to supply it, 
besides present great taxes on land, is not named. 

The King abroad was now furnished by the French 
King with money and officers for an expedition to Ireland. 
The great neglect in not more timely preventing that 
from hence, and the disturbances in Scotland, give appre- 
hensions of great difficulties, before any settlement can be 
perfected here, while the Parliament dispose of the great 
offices among themselves. The Great Seal, Treasury and 
Admiralty put into commission of many unexpected 
persons, to gratify the more; so that by the present 
appearance of things (unless God Almighty graciously 
interpose and g^ve success in Ireland and settle Scot- 
land) more trouble seems to threaten the nation than 
could be expected. In the interim, the new King refers 
all to the Parliament in the most popular manner, but 


is very slow in providing against all these menaces, 
besides finding difficulties in raising men to send abroad ; 
the former army, which had never seen any service 
hitherto, receiving their pay and passing their summer in 
an idle scene of a camp at Hounslow, unwilling to engage, 
and many disaffected, and scarce to be trusted. 

29th March, 1689. The new King much blamed for 
neglecting Ireland, now likely to be ruined by the Lord 
Tyrconnel and his Popish party, too strong for the 
Protestants. Wonderful uncertainty where King James 
was, whether in France or Ireland. The Scots seem as 
yet to favor King William, rejecting King James's letter 
to them, yet declaring nothing positively. Soldiers in 
England discontented. Parliament preparing the corona- 
tion oath. Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the 
vote for preserving the Protestant religion as established 
by law, without mentioning what they were to have as to 

The Archbishop of Canterbury and four other Bishops 
refusing to come to Parliament, it was deliberated whether 
they should incur Prcemunire; but it was thought fit to let 
this fall, and be connived at, for fear of the people, to 
whom these Prelates were very dear, for the opposition 
they had given to Popery. 

Court offices distributed among Parliament men. No 
considerable fleet as yet sent forth. Things far from 
settled as was expected, by reason of the slothful, sickly 
temper of the new King, and the Parliament's unmind- 
fulness of Ireland, which is likely to prove a sad omission. 

The Confederates beat the French out of the Palatinate, 
which they had most barbarously ruined. 

nth April, 1689. I saw the procession to and from the 
Abbey Church of Westminster, with the great feast in 
Westminster Hall, at the coronation of King William 
and Queen Mary. What was different from former cor- 
onations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. 
Dr. Burnet, now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with 
g^eat applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and 
places which took up the one whole side of the Hall. 
When the King and Queen had dined, the ceremony of 
the Champion, and other services by tenure were per- 
formed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Ex- 
chequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal 

1 689 JOHN EVELYN 293 

given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one 
side were the effigies of the King and Queen inclining 
one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a 
bolt at Phaeton the words, ** Ne totus absumatur^K- which 
was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the 
poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very 

Much of the splendor of the proceeding was abated by 
the absence of divers who should have contributed to it, 
there being but five Bishops, four Judges ( no more being 
yet sworn), and several noblemen and great ladies want- 
ing; the feast, however, was magnificent. The next day 
the House of Commons went and kissed their new Ma- 
jesties' hands in the Banqueting House. 

12th April, 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph 
to visit my Lord of Canterbury at Lambeth, who had 
excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which 
was performed by the Bishop of London, assisted by the 
Archbishop of York. We had much private and free dis- 
course with his Grace concerning several things relating 
to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension 
to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged 
that when they went about to reform some particulars 
in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the bap- 
tizing in private houses without necessity might be 
reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; 
the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bring- 
ing that into custom which was only indulged in case 
of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the 
rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil 
wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in 
some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permis- 
sion to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their 
livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and 
gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily 
assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, 
utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent. 

We discoursed likewise of the great disturbance and 
prejudice it might cause, should the new oath, now on 
the anvil, be imposed on any, save such as were in new 
office, without any retrospect to such as either had no 
office, or had been long in office, who it was likely would 
have some scruples about taking a new oath, having 

294 DIARY OF London 

already sworn fidelity to the government as established by 
law. This we all knew to be the case of my Lord Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and some other persons who were 
not so fully satisfied with the Convention making it an 
abdication of King James, to whom they had sworn al- 

King James was now certainly in Ireland with the Mar- 
shal d'Estrades, whom he made a Privy Councillor; and 
who caused the King to remove the Protestant Council- 
lors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling 
him that the King of France, his master, would never as- 
sist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it 
is apparent how the poor Prince is managed by the 

Scotland declares for King William and Queen Mary, 
with the reasons of their setting aside King James, not 
as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by mal-administra- 
tion; they proceeded with much more caution and pru- 
dence than we did, who precipitated all things to the 
great reproach of the nation, all which had been man- 
aged by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy 
Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining 
all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the 
Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be 
able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they 
get into all places of trust and profit. 

2ist April, 1689. This was one of the most seasonable 
springs, free from the usual sharp east winds that I have 
observed since the year 1660 (the year of the Restora- 
tion), which was much such an one. 

26th April, 1689. I heard the lawyers plead before the 
Lords the writ of error in the judgment of Oates, as to 
the charge against him of perjury, which after debate 
they referred to the answer of Holloway, etc. , who were 
his judges. I then went with the Bishop of St. Asaph 
to the Archbishop at Lambeth, where they entered into 
discourse concerning the final destruction of Antichrist, 
both concluding that the third trumpet and vial were now 
pouring out. My Lord St. Asaph considered the killing 
of the two witnesses, to be the utter destruction of the 
Cevennes Protestants by the French and Duke of Savoy, 
and the other the Waldenses and Pyrenean Christians, 
who by all appearance from good history had kept the 

1 689 JOHN EVELYN 195 

primitive faith from the very Apostles' time till now. 
The doubt his Grace suggested was, whether it could be 
made evident that the present persecution had made so 
great a havoc of those faithful people as of the other, 
and whether there were not yet some among them in be- 
ing who met together, it being stated from the text, Apoc. 
xi,, that they should both be slain together. They both 
much approved of Mr. Mede's way of interpretation, and 
that he only failed in resolving too hastily on the King 
of Sweden's (Guatavus Adolphus) success in Germany. 
They agreed that it would be good to employ some in- 
telligent French minister to travel as far as the Pyrenees 
to understand the present state of the Church there, it 
being a country where hardly anyone travels. 

There now came certain news that King James had 
not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised 
Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to 
the great shame of our government, who had been so 
often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and 
which they might so easily have done. This is a terri- 
ble beginning of more troubles, especially should an army 
come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaf- 
fected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and 
landmen would scarce serve without compulsion. 

A new oath was now fabricating for all the clergy to 
take, of obedience to the present Government, in abroga- 
tion of the former oaths of allegiance, which it is foreseen 
many of the bishops and others of the clergy will not 
take. The penalty is to be the loss of their dignity and 
spiritual preferment. This is thought to have been driven 
on by the Presbyterians, our new governors. God in 
mercy send us help, and direct the counsels to his glory 
and good of his Church! 

Public matters went very ill in Ireland: confusion and 
dissensions among ourselves, stupidity, inconstancy, emu- 
lation, the governors employing unskillful men in greatest 
offices, no person of public spirit and ability appearing, 
— threaten us with a very sad prospect of what may be 
the conclusion, without God's infinite mercy. 

A fight by Admiral Herbert with the French, he im- 
prudently setting on them in a creek as they were land- 
ing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great 
slaughter and little honor — so strangely negligent and 

296 DIARY OF London 

remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. 
The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new 
King and Queen on conditions. — Act of Poll-money came 
forth, sparing none. — Now appeared the Act of Indul- 
gence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from 
paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving 
in office according to law, with several other clauses. — 
A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate 
the King and Queen on their accession to the crown. 

4th June, 1689. A solemn fast for success of the fleet, etc. 

6th June, 1689. I dined with the Bishop of Asaph; 
Monsieur Capellus, the learned son of the most learned 
Ludovicus, presented to him his father's works, not pub- 
lished till now. 

7th June, 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and stayed with him till about seven o'clock. He 
read to me the Pope's excommunication of the French 

9th June, 1689. Visited Dr. Burnet, now Bishop of 
Sarum; got him to let Mr. Kneller draw his picture. 

1 6th June, 1689. King James's declaration was now 
dispersed, offering pardon to all, if on his landing, or 
within twenty days after, they should return to their 

Our fleet not yet at sea, through some prodigious sloth, 
and men minding only their present interest ; the French 
riding masters at sea, taking many great prizes to our 
wonderful reproach. No certain news from Ireland; 
various reports of Scotland; discontents at home. The 
King of Denmark at last joins with the Confederates, 
and the two Northern Powers are reconciled. The East 
India Company likely to be dissolved by Parliament for 
many arbitrary actions. Oates acquitted of perjury, to all 
honest men's admiration. 

20th June, 1689. News of a plot discovered, on which 
divers were sent to the Tower and secured. 

23d June, 1689. An extraordinary drought, to the 
threatening of great wants as to the fruits of the earth. 

8th July, 1689. I sat for my picture to Mr. Kneller, 
for Mr. Pepys, late Secretary to the Admiralty, holding 
my * Sylva ** in my right hand. It was on his long and 
earnest request, and is placed in his library. Kneller 
never painted in a more masterly manner. 

1 689 JOHN EVELYN 297 

nth July, 1689. I dined at Lord Clarendon's, it being 
his lady's wedding day, when about three in the after- 
noon there was an unusual and violent storm of thunder, 
rain, and wind; many boats on the Thames were over- 
whelmed, and such was the impetuosity of the wind as 
to carry up the waves in pillars and spouts most dread- 
ful to behold, rooting up trees and ruining some 
houses. The Countess of Sunderland afterward told me 
that it extended as far as Althorpe at the very time, 
which is seventy miles from London. It did no 
harm at Deptford, but at Greenwich it did much mis- 

1 6th July, 1689. I went to Hampton Court about busi- 
ness, the Council being there. A great apartment and 
spacious garden with fountains was beginning in the park 
at the head of the canal. 

19th July, 1689. The Marshal de Schomberg went now 
as General toward Ireland, to the relief of Londonderry. 
Our fleet lay before Brest. The Confederates passing the 
Rhine, besiege Bonn and Mayence, to obtain a passage 
into France. A great victory gotten by the Muscovites, 
taking and burning Perecop. A new rebel against the 
Turks threatens the destruction of that tyranny. All 
Europe in arms against France, and hardly to be found 
in history so universal a face of war. 

The Convention (or Parliament as some called it) sit- 
ting, exempt the Duke of Hanover from the succession 
to the crown, which they seem to confine to the present 
new King, his wife, and Princess Anne of Denmark, who 
is so monstrously swollen, that it is doubted whether her 
being thought with child may prove a tympany only, so 
that the unhappy family of the Stuarts seems to be ex- 
tinguishing; and then what government is likely to be 
next set up is unknown, whether regal and by elec- 
tion, or otherwise, the Republicans and Dissenters 
from the Church of England evidently looking that 

The Scots have now again voted down Episcopacy 
there. Great discontents through this nation at the slow 
proceedings of the King, and the incompetent instruments 
and officers he advances to the greatest and most neces- 
sary charges. 

23d August, 1689. Came to visit me Mr. Firmin. 


25th August, 1689. Hitherto it has been a most sea- 
sonable summer. Londonderry relieved after a brave and 
wonderful holding- out. 

2ist September, 1689. I went to visit the Archbishop 
of Canterbury since his suspension, and was received with 
great kindness. A dreadful fire happened in Southwark. 

2d October, 1689. Came to visit us the Marquis de 
Ruvignfe, and one Monsieur le Coque, a French refugee, 
who left great riches for his religion; a very learned, 
civil person; he married the sister of the Duchess de la 
Force. Ottobone, a Venetian Cardinal, eighty years old, 
made Pope.* 

31st October, 1689. My birthday, being now sixty- 
nine years old. Blessed Father, who hast prolonged my 
years to this great age, and given me to see so great 
and wonderful revolutions, and preserved me amid them 
to this moment, accept, I beseech thee, the continuance 
of my prayers and thankful acknowledgments, and grant 
me grace to be working out my salvation and redeeming 
the time, that thou mayst be glorified by me here, 
and my immortal soul saved whenever thou shalt call 
for it, to perpetuate thy praises to all eternity, in that 
heavenly kingdom where there are no more changes or 
vicissitudes, but rest, and peace, and joy, and consum- 
mate felicity, forever. Grant this, O heavenly Father, 
for the sake of Jesus thine only Son and our Savior. 

5th November, 1689. The Bishop of St, Asaph, Lord 
Almoner, preached before the King and Queen, the 
whole discourse being an historical narrative of the 
Church of England's several deliverances, especially that 
of this anniversary, signalized by being also the birthday 
of the Prince of Orange, his marriage (which was on the 
4th), and his landing at Torbay this day. There was a 
splendid ball and other rejoicings. 

loth November, 1689. After a very wet season, the 
winter came on severely. 

17th November, 1689. Much wet, without frost, yet the 
wind north and easterly. A Convocation of the Clergy 
meet about a reformation of our Liturgy, Canons, etc., 
obstructed by others of the clergy. 

* Peter Otthobonus succeeded Innocent XI. as Pope in 16S9, by the 
title of Alexander VIII. 

1689-90 JOHN EVELYN 299 

27th November, 1689. I went to London with my 
family, to winter at Soho, in the great square. 

nth January, 1689-90. This night there was a most 
extraordinary storm of wind, accompanied with snow 
and sharp weather; it did great harm in many places, 
blowing down houses, trees, etc., killing many people. 
It began about two in the morning, and lasted till five, 
being a kind of hurricane, which mariners observe 
have begun of late years to come northward. This 
winter has been hitherto extremely wet, warm, and windy. 

12th January, 1690. There was read at St. Ann's 
Church an exhortatory letter to the clergy of London 
from the Bishop, together with a Brief for relieving the 
distressed Protestants, and Vaudois, who fled from the 
persecution of the French and Duke of Savoy, to 
the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland. 

The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2d of 
April to the discontent and surprise of many members who, 
being exceedingly averse to the settling of anything, pro- 
ceeding with animosities, multiplying exceptions against 
those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing 
as universal a discontent against King William and them- 
selves, as there was before against King James. The 
new King resolved on an expedition into Ireland in per- 
son. About 150 of the members who were of the more 
royal party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern near 
St. Dunstan's, sent some of their company to the King, 
to assure him of their service; he returned his thanks, 
advising them to repair to their several counties and pre- 
serve the peace during his absence, and assuring them 
that he would be steady to his resolution of defending 
the Laws and Religion established. The great Lord sus- 
pected to have counselled this prorogation, universally 
denied it. However, it was believed the chief adviser 
was the Marquis of Carmarthen, who now seemed to be 
most in favor. 

2d February, 1690. The Parliament was dissolved by 
proclamation, and another called to meet the 20th of 
March. This was a second surprise to the former mem- 
bers ; and now the Court party, or, as they call themselves, 
Church of England, are making their interests in the 
country. The Marquis of Halifax lays down his office of 
Privy Seal, and pretends to retire. 


1 6th February, 1690. The Duchess of Monmouth's 
chaplain preached at St. Martin's an excellent discourse 
exhorting to peace and sanctity, it being now the time 
of very great division and dissension in the nation; first, 
among the Churchmen, of whom the moderate and sober 
part were for a speedy reformation of divers things, 
which it was thought might be made in our Liturgy, 
for the inviting of Dissenters; others more stiff and 
rigid, were for no condescension at all. Books and 
pamphlets were published every day pro and con; the 
Convocation were forced for the present to suspend any 
further progress. There was fierce and great carousing 
about being elected in the new Parliament. The King 
persists in his intention of going in person for Ireland, 
whither the French are sending supplies to King James, 
and we, the Danish horse to Schomberg. 

19th February, 1690. I dined with the Marquis of 
Carmarthen (late Lord Danby), where was Lieutenant- 
General Douglas, a very considerate and sober comman- 
der, going for Ireland. He related to us the exceeding 
neglect of the English soldiers, suffering severely for 
want of clothes and necessaries this winter, exceedingly 
magnifying their courage and bravery during all their 
hardships. There dined also Lord Lucas, Lieutenant of 
the Tower, and the Bishop of St Asaph. The Privy 
Seal was again put in commission, Mr. Cheny (who 
married my kinswoman, Mrs. Pierrepoint), Sir Thomas 
Knatchbull, and Sir P. W. Pultney. The imprudence of 
both sexes was now become so great and universal, per- 
sons of all ranks keeping their courtesans publicly, that 
the King had lately directed a letter to the Bishops to 
order their clergy to preach against that sin, swearing, 
etc., and to put the ecclesiastical laws in execution with- 
out any indulgence. 

25th February, 1690. I went to Kensington, which 
King William had bought of Lord Nottingham, and al- 
tered, but was yet a patched building, but with the gar- 
den, however, it is a very sweet villa, having to it the 
park and a straight new way through this park. 

7th March, 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys, late Secre- 
tary to the Admiralty, where was that excellent ship- 
wright and seaman (for so he had been, and also a 
Commission of the Navy), Sir Anthony Deane. Among 

1690 JOHN EVELYN 301 

other discourse, and deploring the sad condition of our 
navy, as now governed by inexperienced men since this 
Revolution, he mentioned what exceeding advantage we 
of this nation had by being the first who built frigates, 
the first of which ever built was that vessel which was 
afterward called ^* The Constant Warwick, " and was the 
work of Pett of Chatham, for a trial of making a vessel 
that would sail swiftly; it was built with low decks, the 
guns lying near the water, and was so light and swift of 
sailing, that in a short time he told us she had, ere the 
Dutch war was ended, taken as much money from priva- 
teers as would have laden her ; and that more such being 
built, did in a year or two scour the Channel from those 
of Dunkirk and others which had exceedingly infested it. 
He added that it would be the best and only infallible 
expedient to be masters of the sea, and able to destroy 
the greatest navy of any enemy if, instead of building 
huge great ships and second and third rates, they would 
leave off building such high decks, which were for noth- 
ing but to gratify gentlemen-commanders, who must have 
all their effeminate accommodations, and for pomp; that 
it would be the ruin of our fleets, if such persons were 
continued in command, they neither having experience 
nor being capable of learning, because they would not 
submit to the fatigue and inconvenience which those who 
were bred seamen would undergo, in those so otherwise 
useful swift frigates. These being to encounter the great- 
est ships would be able to protect, set on, and bring off, 
those who should manage the fire ships, and the Prince 
who should first store himself with numbers of such fire 
ships, would, through the help and countenance of such 
frigates, be able to ruin the greatest force of such vast 
ships as could be sent to sea, by the dexterity of work- 
ing those light, swift ships to guard the fire ships. He 
concluded there would shortly be no other method of 
seafight ; and that great ships and men-of-war, however 
stored with guns and nien, must submit to those who 
should encounter them with far less number. He repre- 
sented to us the dreadful effect of these fire ships; that 
he continually observed in our late maritime war with 
the Dutch that, when an enemy's fire ship approached, 
the most valiant commander and common sailors were in 
such consternation, that though then, of all times, there 

302 DIARY OF London 

was most need of the guns, bombs, etc., to keep the 
mischief off, they grew pale and astonished, as if of a quite 
other mean soul, that they slunk about, forsook their 
guns and work as if in despair, every one looking about 
to see which way they might get out of their ship, though 
sure to be drowned if they did so. This he said was 
likely to prove hereafter the method of seafight, likely 
to be the misfortune of England if they continued to put 
gentlemen-commanders over experienced seamen, on ac- 
count of their ignorance, effeminacy, and insolence. 

9th March, 1690. Preached at Whitehall Dr. Burnet, late 
Bishop of Sarum, on Heb. iv, 13, anatomically describing 
the texture of the eye; and that, as it received such in- 
numerable sorts of spies through so very small a passage 
to the brain, and that without the least confusion or 
trouble, and accordingly judged and reflected on them ; so 
God who made this sensory, did with the greatest ease 
and at once see all that was done through the vast uni- 
verse, even to the very thought as well as action. This 
similitude he continued with much perspicuity and apt- 
ness; and applied it accordingly, for the admonishing us 
how uprightly we ought to live and behave ourselves 
before such an all-seeing Deity ; and how we were to con- 
ceive of other his attributes, which we could have no 
idea of than by comparing them by what we were able to 
conceive of the nature and power of things, which were 
the objects of our senses; and therefore it was that in 
Scripture we attribute those actions and affections of God 
by the same of man, not as adequately or in any pro- 
portion like them, but as the only expedient to make some 
resemblance of his divine perfections ; as when the Scrip- 
ture says, ** God will remember the sins of the penitent 
no more:'' not as if God could forget anything, but as 
intimating he would pass by such penitents and receive 
them to mercy. 

I dined at the Bishop of St. Asaph's, Almoner to the 
new Queen, with the famous lawyer Sir George Mac- 
kenzie (late Lord Advocate of Scotland), against whom 
both the Bishop and myself had written and published 
books, but now most friendly reconciled.* He related to 

• Sir George, as we have seen, had written in praise of a Private Life, 
which Mr. Evelyn answered by a book in praise of Public Life and Ac- 
tive Employment. 

1690 JOHN EVELYN 303 

us many particulars of Scotland, the present sad condi- 
tion of it, the inveterate hatred which the Presbyterians 
show to the family of the Stuarts, and the exceeding 
tyranny of those bigots who acknowledge no superior on 
earth, in civil or divine matters, maintaining that the 
people only have the right of government ; their implaca- 
ble hatred to the Episcopal Order and Church of Eng- 
land. He observed that'" the first Presbyterian dissents 
from our discipline were introduced by the Jesuits* order, 
about the 20 of Queen Elizabeth, a famous Jesuit among 
them feigning himself a Protestant, and who was the first 
who began to pray extempore, and brought in that which 
they since called, and are still so fond of, praying by 
the Spirit. This Jesuit remained many years before he 
was discovered, afterward died in Scotland, where he 
was buried at . . . having yet on his monument, 
® Rosa inter spinas. * 

nth March, 1690. I went again to see Mr. Charlton's 
curiosities, both of art and nature, and his full and rare 
collection of medals, which taken altogether, in all kinds, 
is doubtless one of the most perfect assemblages of rar- 
ities that can be any where seen. I much admired the 
contortions of the Thea root, which was so perplexed, 
large, and intricate, and withal hard as box, that it was 
wonderful to consider. The French have landed in Ire- 

1 6th March, 1690. A public fast. 

24th May, 1690. City charter restored. Divers ex- 
empted from pardon. 

4th June, 1690. King William set forth on his Irish 
expedition, leaving the Queen Regent. 

loth June, 1690. Mr. Pepys read to me his Remon- 
strance, showing with what malice and injustice he was 
suspected with Sir Anthony Deane about the timber, of 
which the thirty ships were built by a late Act of Par- 
liament, with the exceeding danger which the fleet would 
shortly be in, by reason of the tyranny and incompetency 
of those who now managed the Admiralty and affairs of 
the Navy, of which he gave an accurate state, and showed 
his great ability. 

1 8th June, 1690. Fast day. Visited the Bishop of St. 
Asaph; his conversation was on the Vaudois in Savoy, 
who had been thought so near destruction and final 

304 DIARY OF London 

extirpation by the French, being totally given up to 
slaughter, so that there were no hopes for them ; but now 
it pleased God that the Duke of Savoy, who had hitherto 
joined with the French in their persecution, being now 
pressed by them to deliver up Saluzzo and Turin as 
cautionary towns, on suspicion that he might at last 
come into the Confederacy of the German Princes, did 
secretly concert measures with, and afterward declared 
for, them. He then invited these poor people from their 
dispersion among the mountains whither they had fled, 
and restored them to their country, their dwellings, and 
the exercise of their religion, and begged pardon for the 
ill usage they had received, charging it on the cruelty 
of the French who forced him to it. These being the 
remainder of those persecuted Christians which the Bishop 
of St. Asaph had so long affirmed to be the two witnesses 
spoken of in the Revelation, who should be killed and 
brought to life again, it was looked on as an extraor- 
dinary thing that this prophesying Bishop should persuade 
two fugitive ministers of the Vaudois to return to their 
country, and furnish them with ;^2o toward their journey, 
at that very time when nothing but universal destruction 
was to be expected, assuring them and showing them 
from the Apocalypse, that their countrymen should be 
returned safely to their country before they arrived. 
This happening contrary to all expectation and appear- 
ance, did exceedingly credit the Bishop's confidence how 
that prophecy of the witnesses should come to pass, just 
at the time, and the very month, he had spoken of some 
years before. 

I afterward went with him to Mr. Boyle and Lady 
Ranelagh his sister, to whom he explained the necessity 
of it so fully, and so learnedly made out, with what 
events were immediately to follow, viz, the French King's 
ruin, the calling of the Jews to be near at hand, but 
that the Kingdom of Antichrist would not yet be utterly 
destroyed till thirty years, when Christ should begin the 
Millenium, not as personally and visibly reigning on 
earth, but that the true religion and universal peace 
should obtain through all the world. He showed how 
Mr. Brightman, Mr. Mede, and other interpreters of these 
events failed, by mistaking and reckoning the year as 
the Latins and others did, to consist of the present cal- 

1690 JOHN EVELYN 305 

culation, so many days to the year, whereas the Apoca- 
lypse reckons after the Persian account, as Daniel did, 
whose visions St. John all along explains as meaning 
only the Christian Church. 

24th June, 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys, who the next 
day was sent to the Gatehouse,* and several great per- 
sons to the Tower, on suspicion of being afifected to King 
James; among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's 
uncle. King William having vanquished King James in 
Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the 
Irish in King James's army would not stand, but the 
English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schom- 
berg was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended 
Londonderry. King William received a slight wound by 
the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he 
endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Ham- 
ilton, who broke his word about Tyrconnel, was taken. 
It is reported that King James is gone back to France. 
Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William 
be returning, we may say of him as Caesar said, * Veni^ 
vidi^ vici?^ But to alloy much of this, the French fleet 
rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and 
the enemy threatening to land. 

27th June, 1690. I went to visit some friends in the 
Tower, when asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mis- 
take directed me to the Earl of Torrington, who about 
three days before had been sent for from the fleet, and 
put into the Tower for cowardice and not fighting the 
French fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hol- 
landers, while Torrington did nothing, did now ride mas- 
ters of the sea, threatening a descent. 

20th July, 1690. This afternoon a camp of about 4,000 
men was begun to be formed on Blackheath. 

30th July, 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys, now suffered 
to return to his house, on account of indisposition. 

I St August, 1690. The Duke of Grafton came to visit 
me, going to his ship at the mouth of the river, in his 
way to Ireland (where he was slain). 

3d August, 1690. The French landed some soldiers at 

•Poor Pepys, as the reader knows, had akeady undergone an im- 
prisonment, with perhaps just as much reason as the present, on the 
absurd accusation of having sent information to the French Court of 
the state of the English Navy. 


3o6 DIARY OF London 

Teignmouth, in Devon, and burned some poor houses. The 
French fleet still hovering about the western coast, and 
we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the bay of 
Plymouth, our fleet began to move toward them, under 
three admirals. The country in the west all on their 
guard. A very extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th 
was a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on 
the 15th the season much changed to wet and cold. 
The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which 
were up through England, were dismissed. The French 
King having news that King William was slain, and his 
army defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris, 
and all over France, as was never heard of ; when, in the 
midst of it, the unhappy King James being vanquished, 
by a speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news 
of his own defeat. 

15 th August, 1690. I was desired to be one of the 
bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the 
Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph 
expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys, etc. The 
troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet 
and hopeful youth. Sir Charles Tuke, died of the wounds 
he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow 
of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that 
family, to which my wife is related. A more virtuous 
young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his 
age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding 
abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, 
but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfor- 
tunate King. 

The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather hap- 
pening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extrem- 
ity of wet causes the siege of Limerick to be raised. 
King William returned to England. Lord Sidney left 
Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near 
three parts [in four]. 

17th August, 1690. A public feast. An extraordinary 
sharp, cold, east wind. 

12th October, 1690. The French General, with Tyrcon- 
nel and their forces, gone back to France, beaten out by 
King William. Cork delivered on discretion. The Duke 
of Grafton was there mortally wounded and dies. Very 
great storms of wind. The 8th of this month Lord 

1690-91 JOHN EVELYN 307 

Spencer wrote me word from Althorpe, that there hap- 
pened an earthquake the day before in the morning, 
which, though short, sensibly shook the house. The 
^^ Gazette '* acquainted us that the like happened at the same 
time, half-past seven, at Barnstaple, Holyhead, and Dub- 
lin. We were not sensible of it here. 

26th October, 1690, Kinsale at last surrendered, mean- 
time King James's party bum all the houses they have in 
their power, and among them that stately palace of Lord 
Ossory's, which lately cost, as reported, ^40,000 By a 
disastrous accident, a third-rate ship, the Breda, blew up 
and destroyed all on board; in it were twenty-five pris 
oners of war. She was to have sailed for England the 
next day. 

3d November, 1690. Went to the Countess of Clan- 
carty, to condole with her concerning her debauched and 
dissolute son, who had done so much mischief in Ireland, 
now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower. 

1 6th November, 1690. Exceeding great storms, yet a 
warm season 

23d November, 1690. Carried Mr. Pepys's memorials 
to Lord Godolphin, now resuming the commission of the 
Treasury, to the wonder of all his friends. 

ist December, 1690. Having been chosen President 
of the Royal Society, I desired to decline it, and with 
great difiiculty devolved the election on Sir Robert 
Southwell, Secretary of State to King William in Ireland. 

20th December, 1690. Dr. Hough, President of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, who was displaced with several 
of the Fellows for not taking the oath imposed by King 
James, now made a Bishop Most of this month cold 
and frost One Johnson, a Knight, was executed at Ty- 
burn for being an accomplice with Campbell, brother to 
Lord Argyle, in stealing a young heiress. 

4th January, 1690-91. This week a plot was discov- 
ered for a general rising against the new Government, 
for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent 
to the Tower The next day, I went to see Lord Clar- 
endon. The Bishop of Ely searched for. Trial of Lord 
Preston, as not being an English Peer, hastened at the 
Old Bailey. 

1 8th January, 1691. Lord Preston condemned about a 
design to bring in King James by the French. Ash ton 

3o8 DIARY OF London 

executed. The Bishop of Ely, Mr. Graham, etc., ab- 

13th March, 1691. I went to visit Monsieur Justell 
and the Library at St. James's, in which that learned 
man had put the MSS. (which were in good number) 
into excellent order, they having lain neglected for 
many years Divers medals had been stolen and em- 

2ist March, 1691. Dined at Sir William Fermor's, 
who showed me many good pictures. After dinner, a 
French servant played rarely oil the lute. Sir William 
had now bought all the remaining statues collected 
with so much expense by the famous Thomas, Earl of 
Arundel, and sent them to his seat at Easton, near Tow- 
cester. * 

25th March, 1691. Lord Sidney, principal Secretary 
of State, gave me a letter to Lord Lucas, Lieutenant of 
the Tower, to permit me to visit Lord Clarendon; which 
this day I did, and dined with him. 

loth April, 1 69 1. This night, a sudden and terrible 
fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery 
at Whitehall to the water side, beginning at the apart- 
ment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (which had been 
pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to 
please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd 
creatures, who debauched both King Charles II. and 
others, and were his destruction. 

The King returned out of Holland just as this accident 
happened — Proclamation against the Papists, etc. 

1 6th April, 1691. I went to see Dr. Sloane's curiosities, 
being an universal collection of the natural productions 
of Jamaica, consisting of plants, fruits, corals, minerals, 
stones, earth, shells, animals, and insects, collected with 
great judgment; several folios of dried plants, and one 
which had about 80 several sorts of ferns, and another 
of grasses; the Jamaica pepper, in branch, leaves, flower, 
fruit, etc. This collection,! with his Journal and other 
philosophical and natural discourses and observations, 
indeed very copious and extraordinary, sufficient to 

* They are now at Oxford, having been presented to the University 
in 1755 by Henrietta, Countess Dowager of Pomfret, widow of Thomas, 
the first Earl. 

f It now forms part of the collection in the British Museum. 

1 69 1 JOHN EVELYN 309 

furnish a history of that island, to which I encouraged 

19th April, 1 69 1. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
Bishops of Ely, Bath and Wells, Peterborough, Glouces- 
ter, and the rest who would not take the oaths to King 
William, were now displaced; and in their rooms. Dr. 
Tillotson, Dean of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop: 
Patrick removed from Chichester to Ely; Cumberland to 

22d April, 1691. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the 

24th April, 1 691. I visited the Earl and Countess of 
Sunderland, now come to kiss the King's hand after his 
return from Holland. This is a mystery. The King pre- 
paring to return to the army. 

7th May, 1 69 1. I went to visit the Archbishop of 
Canterbury [ Bancroft ] yet at Lambeth. I found him 
alone, and discoursing of the times, especially of the newly 
designed Bishops ; he told me that by no canon or divine 
law they could justify the removing of the present incum- 
bents; that Dr. Beveridge, designed Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, came to ask his advice; that the Archbishop told 
him, though he should give it, he believed he would not 
take it; the Doctor said he would; why then, says the 
Archbishop, when they come to ask, say *iVi?/c?,* and say 
it from the heart ; there is nothing easier than to resolve 
yourself what is to be done in the case: the Doctor 
seemed to deliberate. What he will do I know not, but 
Bishop Ken, who is to be put out, is exceedingly beloved 
in his diocese; and, if he and the rest should insist on 
it, and plead their interest as freeholders, it is believed 
there would be difficulty in their case, and it may endan- 
ger a schism and much disturbance, so as wise men think 
it had been better to have let them alone, than to have 
proceeded with this rigor to turn them out for refusing 
to swear against their consciences. I asked at parting, 
when his Grace removed; he said that he had not yet 
received any summons, but I found the house altogether 
disfumished and his books packed up. 

I St June, 1 69 1. I went with my son, and brother-in- 
law, Glanville, and his son, to Wotton, to solemnize the 
funeral of my nephew, which was performed the next 
day very decently and orderly by the herald in the 

310 DIARY OF London 

afternoon, a very great appearance of the country being 
there. I was the chief mourner; the pall was held by 
Sir Francis Vincent, Sir Richard Onslow, Mr. Thomas 
Howard (son to Sir Robert, and Captain of the King's 
Guard), Mr. Hyldiard, Mr. James, Mr. Herbert, nephew 
to Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and cousin-german to my 
deceased nephew. He was laid in the vault at Wotton 
Church, in the burying place of the family. A great 
concourse of coaches and people accompanied the so- 

loth June, 1691. I went to visit Lord Clarendon, still 
prisoner in the Tower, though Lord Preston being par- 
doned was released. 

17th June, 1 69 1. A fast. 

nth July, 1 69 1, I dined with Mr, Pepys, where was 
Dr. Cumberland, the new Bishop of Norwich,* Dr. Lloyd 
having been put out for not acknowledging the Govern- 
ment. Cumberland is a very learned, excellent man. 
Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson, at Lambeth, 
by the Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone, but had 
left his nephew to keep possession; and he refusing to 
deliver it up on the Queen's message, was dispossessed 
by the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanor of 
the few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King 
William, animated a great party to forsake the churches, 
so as to threaten a schism; though those who looked 
further into the ancient practice, found that when (as 
formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular ac- 
counts, the people never refused to acknowledge the new 
Bishops, provided they were not heretics. The truth is, 
the whole clergy had till now stretched the duty of 
passive obedience, so that the proceedings against these 
Bishops gave no little occasion of exceptions; but this 
not amounting to heresy, there was a necessity of re- 
ceiving the new Bishops, to prevent a failure of that 
order in the Church. I went to visit Lord Clarendon 
in the Tower, but he was gone into the country for 
air by the Queen's permission, under the care of his 

1 8th July, 1 69 1. To London to hear Mr, Stringfellow 
preach his first sermon in the newly erected Church of 

*A mistake. Dr. Cumberland was made Bishop of Peterborough 
and Dr. John Moore succeeded Dr. Lloyd in the see of Norwich. 

1691 JOHN EVELYN 311 

Trinity, in Conduit Street; to which I did recommend 
him to Dr. Tenison for the constant preacher and lec- 
turer. This Church, formerly built of timber on Houn- 
slow-Heath by King James for the mass priests, being 
begged by Dr. Tenison, rector of St. Martin's, was set 
up by that public-minded, charitable, and pious man near 
my son's dwelling in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge 
of the Doctor. I know him to be an excellent preacher 
and a fit person. This Church, though erected in St. 
Martin's, which is the Doctor's parish, he was not only 
content, but was the sole industrious mover, that it should 
be made a separate parish, in regard of the neighbor- 
hood having become so populous. Wherefore to counte- 
nance and introduce the new minister, and take possession 
of a gallery designed for my son's family, I went to 
London, where, 

19th July 1691. In the morning Dr. Tenison preached 
the first sermon, taking his text from Psalm xxvi. 8. 
^* Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the 
place where thine honor dwelleth." In concluding, he 
gave that this should be made a parish church so soon 
as the Parliament sat, and was to be dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity, in honor of the three undivided persons in 
the Deity; and he minded them to attend to that faith 
of the church, now especially that Arianism, Socinianism, 
and atheism began to spread among us. In the after- 
noon, Mr. Stringfellow preached on Luke vii. 5, '^ The 
centurion who had built a synagogue.* He proceeded to 
the due praise of persons of such public spirit, and thence 
to such a character of pious benefactors in the person 
of the generous centurion, as was comprehensive of all 
the virtues of an accomplished Christian, in a style so 
full, eloquent, and moving, that I never heard a sermon 
more apposite to the occasion. He modestly insinuated 
the obligation they had to that person who should be 
the author and promoter of such public works for the 
benefit of mankind, especially to the advantage of religion, 
such as building and endowing churches, hospitals, libra- 
ries, schools, procuring the best editions of useful books, 
by which he handsomely intimated who it was that had 
been so exemplary for his benefaction to that place. 
Indeed, that excellent person. Dr. Tenison, had also erected 
and furnished a public library [in St. Martin's]; and set 


up two or three free schools at his own charges. Besides 
this, he was of an exemplary, holy life, took great pains 
in constantly preaching, and incessantly employing him- 
self to promote the service of God both in public and 
private. I never knew a man of a more universal and 
generous spirit, with so much modesty, prudence, and 

The great victory of King William's army in Ireland 
was looked on as decisive of that war. The French 
General, St. Ruth, who had been so cruel to the poor 
Protestants in France, was slain, with divers of the best 
commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having i,ooo killed, 
but of the enemy 4,000 or 5,000. 

26th July, 1 69 1. An extraordinary hot season, yet 
refreshed by some thundershowers. 

28th July, 1691. I went to Wotton. 

2d August, 1 69 1. No sermon in the church in the after- 
noon, and the curacy ill-served. 

1 6th August, 1 69 1. A sermon by the curate; an honest 
discourse, but read without any spirit, or seeming con- 
cern; a great fault in the education of young preachers. 
Great thunder and lightning on Thursday, but the rain 
and wind very violent. Our fleet come in to lay up the 
great ships; nothing done at sea, pretending that we 
cannot meet the French. 

13th September, 1691. A gfreat storm at sea; we lost 
the ^Coronation* and "Harwich,* above 600 men perishing. 

14th October, 1691. A most pleasing autumn. Our 
navy come in without having performed anything, yet 
there has been great loss of ships by negligence, and 
unskillful men governing the fleet and Navy board. 

7th November, 1691. I visited the Earl of Dover, who 
having made his peace with the King, was now come 
home. The relation he gave of the strength of the 
French King, and the difficulty of our forcing him to 
fight, and any way making impression into France, was 
very wide from what we fancied. 

8th to 30th November, 1691. An extraordinary dry and 
warm season, without frost, and like a new spring; such 
as had not been known for many years. Part of the 
King's house at Kensington was burned. 

6th December, 1691. Discourse of another plot, in which 
several great persons were named, but believed to be a 

1691-92 JOHN EVELYN 313 

sham. — A proposal in the House of Commons that every 
officer in the whole nation who received a salary above 
^^500 or otherwise by virtue of his office, should contrib- 
ute it wholly to the support of the war with France, and 
this upon their oath. 

25th December, 1691. My daughter-in-law was brought 
to bed of a daughter. 

26th December, 1691. An exceedingly dry and calm 
winter; no rain for many past months. 

28th December, 1691. Dined at Lambeth with the 
new Archbishop. Saw the effect of my greenhouse fur- 
nace, set up by the Archbishop's son-in-law. 

30th December, 1691. I again saw Mr. Charlton's col- 
lection of spiders, birds, scorpions, and other serpents, 

ist January, 1691-92. This last week died that pious, 
admirable Christian, excellent philosopher, and my worthy 
friend, Mr. Boyle, aged about 65, — a great loss to all that 
knew him, and to the public. 

6th January, 1692. At the funeral of Mr. Boyle, at 
St. Martin's, Dr. Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, preached 
on Eccles. ii. 26. He concluded with an eulogy due to 
the deceased, who made God and religion the scope of 
all his excellent talents in the knowledge of nature, and 
who had arrived to so high a degree in it, accompanied 
with such zeal and extraordinary piety, which he showed 
in the whole course of his life, particularly in his ex- 
emplary charity on all occasions, — that he gave ^^ 1,000 
yearly to the distressed refugees of France and Ireland; 
was at the charge of translating the Scriptures into the 
Irish and Indian tongues, and was now promoting a 
Turkish translation, as he had formerly done of Grotius 
" on the Truth of the Christian Religion '' into Arabic, 
which he caused to be dispersed in the eastern countries ; 
that he had settled a fund for preachers who should 
preach expressly against Atheists, Libertines, Socinians, 
and Jews; that he had in his will given ;^8,ooo to char- 
itable uses ; but that his private charities were extraordi- 
nary. He dilated on his learning in Hebrew and Greek, 
his reading of the fathers, and solid knowledge in the- 
ology, once deliberating about taking Holy Orders, and 
that at the time of restoration of King Charles II., when 
he might have made a great figure in the nation as to 


secular honor and titles, his fear of not being able to 
discharge so weighty a duty as the first, made him de- 
cline that, and his humility the other. He spoke of his 
civility to strangers, the great good which he did by his 
experience in medicine and chemistry, and to what noble 
ends he applied himself to his darling studies ; the works, 
both pious and useful, which he published ; the exact life 
he led, and the happy end he made. Something was 
touched of his sister, the Lady Ranelagh, who died but 
a few days before him. And truly all this was but his 
due, without any grain of flattery. 

This week a most execrable murder was committed on 
Dr. Clench, father of that extraordinary learned child 
whom I have before noticed. Under pretense of carrying 
him in a coach to see a patient, they strangled him in it ; 
and, sending away the coachman under some pretense, 
they left his dead body in the coach, and escaped in the 
dusk of the evening. 

12th January, 1692. My granddaughter was christened 
by Dr. Tenison, now Bishop of Lincoln, in Trinity Church, 
being the first that was christened there. She was named 

24th January, 1692. A frosty and dry season continued; 
many persons die of apoplexy, more than usual. Lord 
Marlborough, Lieutenant-General of the King's army in 
England, gentleman of the bedchamber, etc., dismissed 
from all his charges, military and other, for his excessive 
taking of bribes, covetousness, and extortion on all occa- 
sions from his inferior officers. Note, this was the Lord 
who was entirely advanced by King James, and was the 
first who betrayed and forsook his master. He was son 
of Sir Winston Churchill of the Greencloth. 

7th February, 1692. An extraordinary snow fell in most 

13th February, 1692. Mr. Boyle having made me one of 
the trustees for his charitable bequests, I went to a meet- 
ing of the Bishop of Lincoln, Sir Rob. . . . wood, and 
Serjeant, Rotheram, to settle that clause in the will which 
related to charitable uses, and especially the appointing 
and electing a minister to preach one sermon the first 
Sunday in the month, during the four summer months, 
expressly against Atheists, Deists, Libertines, Jews, etc., 
without descending to any other controversy whatever, 

1692 JOHN EVELYN 315 

for which j^^o per annum is to be paid quarterly to the 
preacher; and, at the end of three years, to proceed to 
a new election of some other able divine, or to continue 
the same, as the trustees should judge convenient. We 
made choice of one Mr. Bentley, chaplain to the Bishop 
of Worcester (Dr. Stillingfleet). The first sermon was 
appointed for the first Sunday in March, at St. Martin's; 
the second Sunday in April, at Bow Church, and so 

28th February, 1692. Lord Marlborough having used 
words against the King, and been discharged from all his 
great places, his wife was forbidden the Court, and the 
Princess of Denmark was desired by the Queen to dismiss 
her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes 
away from Court to Sion house. Divers new Lords made : 
Sir Henry Capel, Sir William Fermor, etc. Change of 
Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament ad- 
journed, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of 
the East India Company, which they would have reformed, 
let fall. The Duke of Norfolk does not succeed in his 
endeavor to be divorced.* 

20th March, 1692. My son was made one of the Com- 
missioners of the Revenue and Treasury of Ireland, to 
which employment he had a mind, far from my wishes. 
I visited the Earl of Peterborough, who showed me 
the picture of the Prince of Wales, newly brought out of 
France, seeming in my opinion very much to resemble 
the Queen his mother, and of a most vivacious countenance. 

April, 1692. No spring yet appearing. The Queen 
Dowager went out of England toward Portugal, as pre- 
tended, against the advice of all her friends. 

4th April, 1692. Mr. Bentley preached Mr. Boyle's 
lecture at St. Mary-le-Bow. So excellent a discourse 
against the Epicurean system is not to be recapitulated 
in a few words. He came to me to ask whether I 
thought it should be printed, or that there was anything 
in it which I desired to be altered. I took this as a 
civility, and earnestly desired it should be printed, as 
one of the most learned and convincing discourses I had 
ever heard. 

6th April, 1692. A fast. King James sends a letter 
written and directed by his own hand to several of the 
* See pos/ pp. 351-52. 


Privy Council, and one to his daughter, the Queen 
Regent, informing them of the Queen being ready to 
be brought to bed, and summoning them to be at the 
birth by the middle of May, promising as from the 
French King, permission to come and return in safety. 

24th April, 1692. Much apprehension of a French 
invasion, and of an universal rising. Our fleet begins to 
join with the Dutch. Unkindness between the Queen 
and her sister. Very cold and unseasonable weather, 
scarce a leaf on the trees. 

5th May, 1692, Reports of an invasion were very 
hot, and alarmed the city. Court, and people; nothing 
but securing suspected persons, sending forces to the 
seaside, and hastening out the fleet. Continued dis- 
course of the French invasion, and of ours in France. 
The eastern wind so constantly blowing, gave our fleet 
time to unite, which had been so tardy in preparation, 
that, had not God thus wonderfully favored, the enemy 
would in all probability have fallen upon us. Many 
daily secured, and proclamations out for more con- 

8th May, 1692, My kinsman, Sir Edward Evelyn, of 
Long Ditton, died suddenly. 

12th May, 1692. A fast. 

13th May, 1692. I dined at my cousin Cheny's, son to 
my Lord Cheny, who married my cousin Pierpoint. 

15th May, 1692. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now mar- 
ried to Sir Cyril Wyche, Secretary of State for Ireland, 
After all our apprehensions of being invaded, and 
doubts of our success by sea, it pleased God to give us 
a great naval victory, to the utter ruin of the French 
fleet, their admiral and all their best men-of-war, trans- 
port-ships, etc. 

29th May, 1692. Though this day was set apart 
expressly for celebrating the memorable birth, return, 
and restoration of the late King Charles II., there was 
no notice taken of it, nor any part of the office annexed 
to the Common Prayer Book made use of, which I 
think was ill done, in regard his restoration not only 
redeemed us from anarchy and confusion, but restored 
the Church of England as it were miraculously. 

9th June, 1692. I went to Windsor to carry my grand- 
son to Eton School, where I met my Lady Stonehouse 

i62f JOHN EVELYN 317 

and other of my daughter-in-law's relations, who came on 
purpose to see her before her journey into Ireland. We 
went to see the castle, which we found furnished and 
very neatly kept, as formerly, only that the arms in the 
g^ard chamber and keep were removed and carried away. 
An exceeding great storm of wind and rain, in some 
places stripping the trees of their fruit and leaves as if 
it had been winter; and an extraordinary wet season, 
with great floods. 

23d July, 1692. I went with my wife, son, and daugh- 
ter, to Eton, to see my grandson, and thence to my Lord 
Godolphin's, at Cranburn, where we lay, and were most 
honorably entertained. The next day to St. George's 
Chapel, and returned to London late in the even- 

25th July, 1692. To Mr. Hewer's at Clapham, where 
he has an excellent, useful, and capacious house on the 
Common, built by Sir Den. Gauden, and by him sold to 
Mr. Hewer, who got a very considerable estate in the 
Navy, in which, from being Mr. Pepys's clerk, he came 
to be one of the principal officers, but was put out of all 
employment on the Revolution, as were all the best 
officers, on suspicion of being no friends to the change; 
such were put in their places, as were most shamefully 
ignorant and unfit. Mr. Hewer lives very handsomely 
and friendly to everybody. Our fleet was now sailing 
on their long pretense of a descent on the French coast; 
but, after having sailed one hundred leagues, returned, 
the admiral and officers disagreeing as to the place where 
they were to land, and the time of year being so far 
spent, — to the great dishonor of those at the helm, who 
concerted their matters so indiscreetly, or, as some 
thought, designedly. 

This whole summer was exceedingly wet and rainy, the 
like had not been known since the year 1648; while in 
Ireland they had not known so great a drought. 

26th July, 1692. I went to visit the Bishop of Lincoln, 
when, among other things, he told me that one Dr. 
Chaplin, of University College in Oxford, was the per- 
son who wrote the ^* Whole Duty of Man " ; that he used 
to read it to his pupil, and communicated it to Dr. 
Sterne, afterward Archbishop of York, but would never 
suffer any of his pupils to have a copy of it. 

3r8 DIARY OF London 

9th August, 1692. A fast. Came the sad news of the 
hurricane and earthquake, which has destroyed almost 
the whole Island of Jamaica, many thousands having 

nth August, 1692. My son, his wife, and little daugh- 
ter, went for Ireland, there to reside as one of the Com- 
missioners of the Revenue. 

14th August, 1692. Still an exceedingly wet season. 

15th September, 1692. There happened an earthquake, 
which, though not so great as to do any harm in Eng- 
land, was universal in all these parts of Europe. It 
shook the house at Wotton, but was not perceived by any 
save a servant or two, who were making my bed, and an- 
other in a garret. I and the rest being at dinner below 
in the parlor, were not sensible of it. The dreadful one 
in Jamaica this summer was profanely and ludicrously 
represented in a puppet play, or some such lewd pastime, 
in the fair of Southwark, which caused the Queen to put 
down that idle and vicious mock show. 

ist October, 1692. This season was so exceedingly 
cold, by reason of a long and tempestuous northeast wind, 
that this usually pleasant month was very uncomfortable. 
No fruit ripened kindly. Harbord dies at Belgrade; 
Lord Paget sent Ambassador in his room. 

6th November, 1692. There was a vestry called about 
repairing or new building of the church [at Deptford], 
which I thought unseasonable in regard of heavy taxes, 
and other improper circumstances, which I there de- 

loth November, 1692. A solemn Thanksgiving for our 
victory at sea, safe return of the King, etc. 

20th November, 1692. Dr. Lancaster, the new Vicar of 
St. Martin's, preached. 

A signal robbery in Hertfordshire of the tax money 
bringing out of the north toward London. They were 
set upon by several desperate persons, who dismounted 
and stopped all travelers on the road, and guarding them 
in a field, when the exploit was done, and the treasure 
taken, they killed all the horses of those whom they 
stayed, to hinder pursuit, being sixteen horses. They then 
dismissed those that they had dismounted. 

14th December, 1692. With much reluctance we grati- 
fied Sir J. Rotherham, one of Mr, Boyle's trustees, by 

1692-93 JOHN EVELYN 319 

admitting the Bishop of Bath and "Wells to be lecturer 
for the next year, instead of Mr. Bentley, who had so 
worthily acquitted himself. We intended to take him in 
again the next year. 

January, 1692-93. Contest in Parliament about a self- 
denying Act, that no Parliament man should have any 
office; it wanted only two or three voices to have been 
carried. The Duke of Norfolk's bill for a divorce thrown 
out, he having managed it very indiscreetly. The quar- 
rel between Admiral Russell and Lord Nottingham yet 

4th February, 1693. After five days' trial and extraor- 
dinary contest, the Lord Mohun was acquitted by the 
Lords of the murder of Montford, the player, notwith- 
standing the judges, from the pregnant witnesses of the 
fact, had declared him guilty; but whether in commiser- 
ation of his youth, being not eighteen years old, though 
exceedingly dissolute, or upon whatever other reason, the 
King himself present some part of the trial, and satisfied, 
as they report, that he was culpable. 69 acquitted him, 
only 14 condemned him. 

Unheard of stories of the universal increase of witches 
in New England; men, women, and children, devoting 
themselves to the devil, so as to threaten the subversion 
of the government.* At the same time there was a con- 
spiracy among the negroes in Barbadoes to murder all 
their masters, discovered by overhearing a discourse of 
two of the slaves, and so preventing the execution of 
the design. Hitherto an exceedingly mild winter. France 
in the utmost misery and poverty for want of com and 
subsistence, while the ambitious King is intent to pursue 
his conquests on the rest of his neighbors both by sea 
and land. Our Admiral, Russell, laid aside for not pur- 
suing the advantage he had obtained over the French in 
the past summer; three others chosen in his place. Dr. 
Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury's book burned by the hangman 
for an expression of the King's title by conquest, on a 

• Some account of these poor people is g^ven in Bray and Manning's 
« History of Surrey,* ii. 714, from the papers of the Rev. Mr. Miller, 
Vicar of Efi&ngham. in that county, who was chaplain to the King's 
forces in the colony from 1692 to 1695. Some of the accused were 
convicted and executed; but Sir William Phipps, the Governor, had 
the good sense to reprieve, and afterward pardon, several; and the 
^ueen approved his conduct. 


complaint of Joseph How, a member of Parliament, 
little better than a madman. 

19th February, 1693. The Bishop of Lincoln preached 
in the afternoon at the Tabernacle near Golden Square, 
set up by him. Proposals of a marriage between Mr. 
Draper and my daughter Susanna. Hitherto an exceed- 
ingly warm winter, such as has seldom been known, and 
portending an unprosperous spring as to the fruits of 
the earth; our climate requires more cold and winterly 
weather. The dreadful and astonishing earthquake swal- 
lowing up Catania, and other famous and ancient cities, 
with more than 100,000 persons in Sicily, on nth Janu- 
ary last, came now to be reported among us. 

26th February, 1693. An extraordinary deep snow, 
after almost no winter, and a sudden gentle thaw. A 
deplorable earthquake at Malta, since that of Sicily, 
nearly as great. 

19th March, 1693. A new Secretary of State, Sir John 
Trenchard; the Attorney-General, Somers, made Lord- 
Keeper, a young lawyer of extraordinary merit. King 
William goes toward Flanders; but returns, the wind 
being contrary, 

31st March, 1693. I met the King going to Gravesend 
to embark in his yacht for Holland. 

23d April, 1693. An extraordinary wet spring. 

27th April, 1693. My daughter Susanna was married to 
William Draper, Esq., in the chapel of Ely House, by 
Dr. Tenison, Bishop of Lincoln (since Archbishop). I 
gave her in portion ;^4,ooo> her jointure is ;^5oo per 
annum. I pray Almighty God to give his blessing to 
this marriage! She is a good child, religious, discreet, 
ingenious, and qualified with all the ornaments of her 
sex. She has a peculiar talent in design, as paint- 
ing in oil and miniature, and an extraordinary genius for 
whatever hands can do with a needle. She has the 
French tongue, has read most of the Greek and Roman 
authors and poets, using her talents with great modesty ; 
exquisitely shaped, and of an agreeable countenance. 
This character is due to her, though coming from her 
father. Much of this week spent in ceremonies, receiv- 
ing visits and entertaining relations, and a gfreat pait of 
the next in returning visits. 

nth May, 1693. We accompanied my daughter to her 

i693 JOHN EVELYN 321 

husband's house, where with many of his and our rela- 
tions we were magnificently treated. There we left her 
in an apartment very richly adorned and furnished, and 
I hope in as happy a condition as could be wished, and 
with the great satisfaction of all our friends; for which 
God be praised! 

14th May, 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. 
Muttering of a design to bring forces under color of an 
expected descent, to be a standing army for other pur- 
poses. Talk of a declaration of the French King, offering 
mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of King 
William; and another of King James, with an universal 
pardon, and referring the composing of all differences to 
a Parliament. These were yet but discourses ; but some- 
thing is certainly under it. A declaration or manifesto 
from King James, so written, that many thought it rea- 
sonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his 

June, 1693, Whitsunday. I went to my Lord Griffith's 
chapel; the common church office was used for the King 
without naming the person, with some other, apposite to 
the necessity and circumstances of the time. 

nth June, 1693. I dined at Sir William Godolphin's; 
and, after evening prayer, visited the Duchess of Grafton. 

2ist June, 1693. I saw a great auction of pictures in 
the Banqueting house, Whitehall. They had been my 
Lord Melford's, now Ambassador from King James at 
Rome, and engaged to his creditors here. Lord Mulgrave 
and Sir Edward Seymour came to my house, and desired 
me to go with them to the sale. Divers more of the 
great lords, etc., were there, and bought pictures dear 
enough. There were some very excellent of Vandyke, 
Rubens, and Bassan. Lord Godolphin bought the pic- 
ture of the Boys, by Murillo the Spaniard, for 80 guineas, 
dear enough; my nephew Glanville, the old Earl of 
Arundel's head by Rubens, for ^20. Growing late, I did 
not stay till all were sold. 

24th June, 1693. A very wet hay harvest, and little 
summer as yet. 

9th July, 1693, Mr. Tippin, successor of Dr. Parr at 
Camberwell, preached an excellent sermon. 

13th July, 1693. I saw the Queen's rare cabinets and 
collection of china ; which was wonderfully rich and plenti- 


ful, but especially a large cabinet, looking-glass frame 
and stands, all of amber, much of it white, with his- 
torical bas-reliefs and statues, with medals carved in 
them, esteemed worth ;^4,ooo, sent by the Duke of Bran- 
denburgh, whose country, Prussia, abounds with amber, 
cast up by the sea; divers other China and Indian cab- 
inets, screens, and hangings. In her library were many 
books in English, French, and Dutch, of all sorts ; a cup- 
board of gold plate; a cabinet of silver filagree, which I 
think was our Queen Mary's, and which, in my opinion, 
should have been generously sent to her. 

1 8th July, 1693. I dined with Lord Mulgrave, with 
the Earl of Devonshire, Mr. Hampden ( a scholar and 
fine gentleman). Dr. Davenant, Sir Henry Vane, and 
others, and saw and admired the Venus of Correggio, 
which Lord Mulgrave had newly bought of Mr. Daun 
for ;^25o; one of the best paintings I ever saw. 

ist August, 1693. Lord Capel, Sir Cyril Wyche, and 
Mr. Duncomb, made Lord Justices in Ireland; Lord 
Sydney recalled, and made Master of the Ordnance. 

6th August, 1693. Very lovely harvest weather, and a 
wholesome season, but no garden fruit, 

31st October, 1693. A verj'^ wet and uncomfortable 

12th November, 1693. Lord Nottingham resigned as 
Secretary of State; the Commissioners of the Admiralty 
ousted, and Russell restored to his office. The season 
continued very wet, as it had nearly all the summer, if 
one might call it summer, in which there was no fruit, 
but com was very plentiful. 

14th November, 1693. In the lottery set up after the 
Venetian manner by Mr. Neale, Sir R. Haddock, one of 
the Commissioners of the Navy, had the greatest lot, 
jCSfOoo; my coachman ^40. 

17th November, 1693. Was the funeral of Captain 
Young, who died of the stone and great age. I think he 
was the first who in the first war with Cromwell against 
Spain, took the Governor of Havanna, and another rich 
prize, and struck the first stroke against the Dutch fleet 
in the first war with Holland in the time of the Rebellion ; 
a sober man and an excellent seaman. 

30th November, 1693. Much importuned to take the 
office of .'.President of the Royal Society, but I again 

1693-94 JOHN EVELYN 323 

declined it. Sir Robert Southwell was continued. We all 
dined at Pontac's as usual. 

3d December, 1693. Mr. Bentley preached at the Tab- 
ernacle, near Golden Square. I gave my voice for him 
to proceed on his former subject the following year in 
Mr. Boyle's lecture, in which he had been interrupted by 
the importunity of Sir J. Rotheram that the Bishop of 
Chichester * might be chosen the year before, to the great 
dissatisfaction of the Bishop of Lincoln and myself. We 
chose Mr. Bentley again. The Duchess of Grafton's ap- 
peal to the House of Lords for the Prothonotary's place 
g^ven to the late Duke and to her son by King Charles 
IL, now challenged by the Lord Chief Justice. The 
judges were severely reproved on something they said. 

10th December, 1693. A very great storm of thunder 
and lightning. 

1st January, 1693-94. Prince Lewis of Baden came to 
London, and was much feasted. Danish ships arrested 
carrying corn and naval stores to France. 

nth January, 1694. Supped at Mr. Edward Sheldon's, 
where was Mr. Dryden, the poet, who now intended to 
write no more plays, being intent on his translation of 
Virgil. He read to us his prologue and epilogue to his 
valedictory play now shortly to be acted. 

2ist January, 1694. Lord Macclesfield, Lord Warrington, 
and Lord Westmorland, all died within about one week. 
Several persons shot, hanged, and made away with 

nth February, 1694. Now was the great trial of the 
appeal of Lord Bath and Lord Montagu before the Lords, 
for the estate of the late Duke of Albemarle. 

loth March, 1694. Mr. Stringfellow preached at Trin- 
ity parish, being restored to that place, after the con- 
test between the Queen and the Bishop of London who 
had displaced him. 

2 2d March, 1694. Came the dismal news of the disas- 
ter befallen our Turkey fleet by tempest, to the almost utter 
ruin of that trade, the convoy of three or four men-of-war, 
and divers merchant ships, with all their men and lading, 
having perished. 

25th March, 1694. Mr. Goode, minister of St. Mar- 
tin's, preached; he was likewise put in by the Queen, 

*A mistake for Bath and Wells. Bishop Kidder is referred to. 


on the issue of her process with the Bishop of Lon- 

30th March, 1694. I went to the Duke of Norfolk, to de- 
sire him to make cousin Evelyn of Nutfield one of the Dep- 
uty-Lieutenants of Surrey, and entreat him to dismiss my 
brother, now unable to serve by reason of age and infirm- 
ity. The Duke granted the one, but would not suffer my 
brother to resign his commission, desiring he should keep 
the honor of it during his life, though he could not act. 
He professed great kindness to our family. 

ist April, 1694. Dr. Sharp, Archbishop of York, 
preached in the afternoon at the Tabernacle, by Soho. 

13th April, 1694. Mr. Bentley, our Boyle Lecturer, Chap- 
lain to the Bishop of Worcester, came to see me. 

15th April, 1694. One Mr. Stanhope preached a most 
excellent sermon. 

2 2d April, 1694. A fiery exhalation rising out of the sea, 
spread itself in Montgomeryshire a furlong broad, and 
many miles in length, burning all straw, hay, thatch, and 
grass, but doing no harm to trees, timber, or any solid 
things, only firing barns, or thatched houses. It left such 
a taint on the grass as to kill all the cattle that eat of 
it. I saw the attestations in the hands of the sufferers. 
It lasted many months. ^* The Berkeley Castle * sunk by 
the French coming from the East Indies, worth ;;i^2oo,ooo. 
The French took our castle of Gamboo in Guinea, so that 
the Africa Actions fell to ^30, and the India to j£8o. 
Some regiments of Highland Dragoons were on their 
march through England ; they were of large stature, well 
appointed and disciplined. One of them having reproached 
a Dutchman for cowardice in our late fight, was attacked 
by two Dutchmen, when with his sword he struck off the 
head of one, and cleft the skull of the other down to his 

A very young gentleman named Wilson, the younger 
son of one who had not above j^zoo a year estate, lived 
in the garb and equipage of the richest nobleman, for 
house, furniture, coaches, saddle horses, and kept a table, 
and all things accordingly, redeemed his father's estate, 
and gave portions to his sisters, being challenged by one 
Laws, a Scotchman, was killed in a duel, not fairly. The 
quarrel arose from his taking away his own sister from 
lodging in a house where this Laws had a mistress, which 

i694 JOHN EVELYN 325 

the mistress of the house thinking a disparagement to it, 
and losing by it, instigated Laws to this duel. He was 
taken and condemned for murder. The mystery is how 
this so young a gentleman, very sober and of good fame, 
could live in such an expensive manner; it could not be 
discovered by all possible industry, or entreaty of his 
friends to make him reveal it. It did not appear that he 
was kept by women, play, coining, padding, or dealing in 
chemistry ; but he would sometimes say that if he should live 
ever so long, he had wherewith to maintain himself in 
the same manner. He was very civil and well-natured, 
but of no great force of understanding. This was a sub- 
ject of much discourse. 

24th April, 1694. I went to visit Mr. Waller, an ex- 
traordinary young gentleman of great accomplishments, 
skilled in mathematics, anatomy, music, painting both in 
oil and jniniature to great perfection, an excellent bota- 
nist, a rare engraver on brass, writer in Latin, and a poet ; 
and with all this exceedingly modest. His house is an 
academy of itself. I carried him to see Brompton Park 
[by Knightsbridge], where he was in admiration at the 
store of rare plants, and the method he found in that 
noble nursery, and how well it was cultivated. A public 
Bank of ;^ 140, 000, set up by Act of Parliament among 
other Acts, and Lotteries for money to carry on the war. 
The whole month of April without rain. A great rising 
of people in Buckinghamshire, on the declaration of a 
famous preacher, till now reputed a sober and religious 
man, that our Lord Christ appearing to him on the i6th 
of this month, told him he was now come down, and 
would appear publicly at Pentecost, and gather all the 
saints, Jews and Gentiles, and lead them to Jerusalem, 
and begin the Millennium, and destroying and judging 
the wicked, deliver the government of the world to the 
saints. Great multitudes followed this preacher, divers 
of the most zealous brought their goods and considerable 
sums of money, and began to live in imitation of the primi- 
tive saints, minding no private concerns, continually danc- 
ing and singing Hallelujah night and day. This brings 
to mind what I lately happened to find in Alstedius, that 
the thousand years should begin this very year 1694; it 
is in his ** Encyclopaedia Biblica. ^* My copy of the book 
printed near sixty years ago. 

326 DIARY OF wotton 

4th May, 1694. I went this day with my wife and 
four servants from Sayes Court, removing much furniture 
of all sorts, books, pictures, hangings, bedding, etc., to 
furnish the apartment my brother assigned me, and now, 
after more than forty years, to spend the rest of my days 
with him at Wotton, where I was born; leaving my 
house at Deptford full furnished, and three servants, to 
my son-in-law Draper, to pass the summer in, and 
such longer time as he should think fit to make use 
of it. 

6th May, 1694. This being the first Sunday in the 
month, the blessed sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
ought to have been celebrated at Wotton church, but in 
this parish it is exceedingly neglected, so that, unless at 
the four great feasts, there is no communion hereabouts ; 
which is a great fault both in ministers and people. I 
have spoken to my brother, who is the patron, to discourse 
the minister about it. Scarcely one shower has fallen 
since the beginning of April. 

30th May, 1694. This week we had news of my Lord 
Tiviot having cut his own throat, through what discon- 
tent not yet said. He had been, not many years past, 
my colleague in the commission of the Privy Seal, in 
old acquaintance, very soberly and religiously inclined. 
Lord, what are we without thy continual grace! 

Lord Falkland, grandson to the learned Lord Falk- 
land, Secretary of State to King Charles L, and slain in 
his service, died now of the smallpox. He was a pretty, 
brisk, understanding, industrious young gentleman; had 
formerly been faulty, but now much reclaimed; had 
also the good luck to marry a very great fortune, be- 
sides being entitled to a vast sum, his share of the Spanish 
wreck, taken up at the expense of divers adventurers. 
From a Scotch Viscount he was made an English Baron, 
designed Ambassador for Holland ; had been Treasurer of 
the Navy, and advancing extremely in the new Court. 
All now gone in a moment, and I think the title 
is extinct. I know not whether the estate devolves to 
my cousin Carew. It was at my Lord Falkland's, whose 
lady importuned us to let our daughter be with her some 
time, so that that dear child took the same infection, 
which cost her valuable life. 

3d June, 1694. Mr. Edwards, minister of Denton, in 

i694 JOHN EVELYN 327 

Sussex, a living in my brother's gift, came to see him. 
He had suffered much by a fire. Seasonable showers, 

14th June, 1694. The public fast. Mr. Wotton, that 
extraordinary learned young man, preached excellently. 

ist July, 1694. Mr. Duncomb, minister of Albury, 
preached at Wotton, a very religious and exact dis- 

The first great bank for a fund of money being now 
established by Act of Parliament, was filled and com- 
pleted to the sum of ;^ 120,000, and put under the 
government of the most able and wealthy citizens of Lon- 
don. All who adventured any sum had four per cent,, 
so long as it lay in the bank, and had power either to 
take it out at pleasure, or transfer it. Glorious steady 
weather; com and all fruits in extraordinary plenty gen- 

13th July, 1694. Lord Berkeley burnt Dieppe and 
Havre de Grace with bombs, in revenge for the defeat at 
Brest, This manner of destructive war was begfun by 
the French, is exceedingly ruinous, especially falling on 
the poorer people, and does not seem to tend to make a 
more speedy end of the war; but rather to exasperate 
and incite to revenge. Many executed at London for 
clipping money, now done to that intolerable extent, that 
there was hardly any money that was worth above half 
the nominal value. 

4th August, 1694. I went to visit my cousin, George 
Evelyn of Nutfield, where I found a family of ten chil- 
dren, five sons and five daughters — all beautiful women 
grown, and extremely well-fashioned. All painted in one 
piece, very well, by Mr. Lutterell, in crayon on copper, 
and seeming to be as finely painted as the best minia- 
ture. They are the children of two extraordinary beau- 
tiful wives. The boys were at school. 

5th AugTist, 1694. Stormy and unseasonable wet 
weather this week. 

5th October, 1694. I went to St. Paul's to see the 
choir, now finished as to the stone work, and the scaffold 
struck both without and within, in that part. Some ex- 
ceptions might perhaps be taken as to the placing col- 
umns on pilasters at the east tribunal. As to the rest 
it is a piece of architecture without reproach. The pull- 
ing out the forms, like drawers, from under the stalls, is 

328 DIARY OF London 

ingenious. I went also to see the building beginning 
near St. Giles's, where seven streets make a star from a 
Doric pillar placed in the middle of a circular area; said 
to be built by Mr. Neale, introducer of the late lotteries, 
in imitation of those at Venice, now set up here, for 
himself twice, and now one for the State. 

28th October, 1694. Mr. Stringfellow preached at Trinity 

2 2d November, 1694. Visited the Bishop of Lincoln 
[Tenison] newly come on the death of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, who a few days before had a paralytic 
stroke, — the same day and month that Archbishop San- 
croft was put out. A very sickly time, especially the 
smallpox, of which divers considerable persons died. 
The State lottery* drawing, Mr. Cock, a French refu- 
gee, and a President in the Parliament of Paris for the 
Reformed, drew a lot of ;^i,ooo per annum. 

29th November, 1694. I visited the Marquis of Nor- 
manby, and had much discourse concerning King Charles 
II. being poisoned. Also concerning the quinqui7ia which 
the physicians would not give to the King, at a time 
when, in a dangerous ague, it was the only thing that 
could cure him (out of envy because it had been brought 
into vogue by Mr. Tudor, an apothecary), till Dr. Short, 
to whom the King sent to know his opinion of it privately, 
he being reputed a Papist ( but who was in truth a very 
honest, good Christian), sent word to the King that 
it was the only thing which could save his life, and then 
the King enjoined his physicians to give it to him, which 
they did and he recovered. Being asked by this Lord 
why they would not prescribe it. Dr. Lower said it 
would spoil their practice, or some such expression, and 
at last confessed it was a remedy fit only for kings. 
Exception was taken that the late Archbishop did not 
cause any of his Chaplains to use any office for the sick 
during his illness. 

9th December, 1694. I had news that my dear and 
worthy friend, Dr. Tenison, Bishop of Lincoln, was made 
Archbishop of Canterbury, for which I thank God and 
rejoice, he being most worthy of it, for his learning, 
piety, and prudence. 

13th December, 1694. I went to London to congratu- 

* State lotteries finally closed October 18, 1826. 

1 695 JOHN EVELYN 329 

late him. He being my proxy, gave my vote for Dr. 
Williams, to succeed Mr, Bentley in Mr. Boyle's lectures. 

2 9tli December, 1694. The smallpox increased exceed- 
ingly, and was very mortal. The Queen died of it on 
the 28th. 

13th January, 1694-95. The Thames was frozen over. 
The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more 
than in the preceding week. The King and Princess 
Anne reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court 
at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley 
House; she was desired to take into her family divers 
servants of the late Queen; to maintain them the King 
has assigned her ;;^5,ooo a quarter. 

20th January, 1695. The frost and continual snow have 
now lasted five weeks. 

February, 1695. Lord Spencer married the Duke of 
Newcastle's daughter, and our neighbor, Mr. Hussey, 
married a daughter of my cousin, George Evelyn, of 

3d February, 1695. The long frost intermitted, but not 

17th February, 1695. Called to London by Lord Godol- 
phin, one of the Lords of the Treasury, offering me the 
treasurership of the hospital designed to be built at 
Greenwich for worn-out seamen. 

24th February, 1695. I saw the Queen lie in state. 

27th February, 1695. The Marquis of Normanby told 
me King Charles had a design to buy all King Street, 
and build it nobly, it being the street leading to West- 
minster. This might have been done for the expense of 
the Queen's funeral, which was ;^5o,ooo, against her 

5th March, 1695. I went to see the ceremony. Never 
was so universal a mourning; all the Parliament men had 
cloaks given them, and four hundred poor women; all 
the streets hung and the middle of the street boarded 
and covered with black cloth. There were all the nobility, 
mayor, aldermen, judges, etc. 

8th March, 1695. I supped at the Bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry's, who related to me the pious behavior of 
the Queen in all her sickness, which was admirable. She 
never inquired of what opinion persons were, who were 
objects of charity; that, on opening a cabinet, a paper 

330 DIARY OF London 

was found wherein she had desired that her body might 
not be opened, or any extraordinary expense at her fun- 
eral, whenever she should die. This paper was not found 
in time to be observed. There were other excellent 
things under her own hand, to the very least of her 
debts, which were very small, and everything in that 
exact method, as seldom is found in any private per- 
son. In sum, she was such an admirable woman, abat- 
ing for taking the Crown without a more due apology, 
as does, if possible, outdo the renowned Queen Eliza- 

loth March, 1695. ^ dined at the Earl of Sunder- 
land's with Lord Spencer. • My Lord showed me his 
library, now again improved by many books bought at 
the sale of Sir Charles Scarborough, an eminent physi- 
cian, which was the very best collection, especially of 
mathematical books, that was I believe in Europe, once 
designed for the King's Library at St. James's; but the 
Queen dying, who was the great patroness of that 
design, it was let fall, and the books were miserably 

The new edition of Camden's ^* Britannia * was now pub- 
lished (by Bishop Gibson), with great additions; those to 
Surrey were mine, so that I had one presented to me. 
Dr. Gale showed me a MS. of some parts of the New 
Testament in vulgar Latin, that had belonged to a mon- 
astery in the North of Scotland, which he esteemed to 
be about eight hundred years old; there were some con- 
siderable various readings observable, as in John i., and 
genealogy of St. Luke. 

24th March, 1695. Easter Day. Mr. Duncomb, par- 
son of this parish, preached, which he hardly comes to 
above once a year though but seven or eight miles 
off; a florid discourse, read out of his notes. The 
Holy Sacrament followed, which he administered with 
very little reverence, leaving out many prayers and 
exhortations; nor was there any oblation. This ought 
to be reformed, but my good brother did not well con- 
sider when he gave away this living and the next [Abin- 

March, 1695. The latter end of the month sharp and 
severely cold, with much snow and hard frost ; no appear- 
ance of spring. 

1 695 JOHN EVELYN 331 

31st March, 1695. Mr. Lucas preached in the afternoon 
at Wotton. 

7th April, 1695. Lord Halifax died suddenly at Lon- 
don, the day his daughter was married to the Earl of 
Nottingham's son at Burleigh. Lord H. was a very rich 
man, very witty, and in his younger days somewhat posi- 

14th April, 1695. After a most severe, cold, and snowy 
winter, without almost any shower for many months, the 
wind continuing N. and E. and not a leaf appearing; the 
weather and wind now changed, some showers fell, and 
there was a remission of cold. 

2ist April, 1695. The spring begins to appear, yet the 
trees hardly leafed. Sir T. Cooke discovers what pro- 
digious bribes have been given by some of the East India 
Company out of the stock, which makes a great clamor. 
Never were so many private bills passed for unsettling 
estates, showing the wonderful prodigality and decay of 

5th May, 1695. I came to Deptford from Wotton, in 
order to the first meeting of the Commissioners for en- 
dowing an hospital for seamen at Greenwich; it was at 
the Guildhall, London. Present, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Lord Keeper, Lord Privy Seal, Lord Godol- 
phin, Duke of Shrewsbury, Duke of Leeds, Earls of 
Dorset and Monmouth, Commissioners of the Admiralty 
and Navy, Sir Robert Clayton, Sir Christopher Wren, 
and several more. The Commission was read by Mr. 
Lowndes, Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury, Sur- 

17th May, 1695. Second meeting of the Commission- 
ers, and a committee appointed to go to Greenwich to 
survey the place, I being one of them. 

2ist May, 1695. We went to survey Greenwich, Sir 
Robert Clayton, Sir Christopher Wren, Mr. Travers, the 
King's Surveyor, Captain Sanders, and myself. 

24th May, 1695. We made report of the state of 
Greenwich house, and how the standing part might be made 
serviceable at present for ;^6,ooo, and what ground would 
be requisite for the whole design. My Lord Keeper or- 
dered me to prepare a book for subscriptions, and a 
preamble to it. 

31st May, 1695. Met again. Mr. Vanbrugh was made 

332 DIARY OF wotton 

secretary to the commission, by my nomination of him 
to the Lords, which was all done that day. 

7th June, 1695. The commissioners met at Guildhall, 
•when there were scruples and contests of the Lord Mayor, 
who would not meet, not being named as one of the 
auorum, so that a new commission was required, though 
the Lord Keeper and the rest thought it too nice a 

14th May, 1695. Met at Guildhall, but could do noth- 
ing for want of a quorum. 

Sth July, 1695. At Guildhall; account of subscriptions, 
about jQt,ooo or ;^8,ooo. 

6th July, 1695. I dined at Lambeth, making my first 
visit to the Archbishop, where there was much company, 
and great cheer. After prayers in the evening, my Lord 
made me stay to show me his house, furniture, and gar- 
den, which were all very fine, and far beyond the usual 
Archbishops, not as affected by this, but being bought 
ready furnished by his predecessor. We discoursed of 
several public matters, particularl)'- of the Princess of 
Denmark, who made so little fignire. 

nth July, 1695. Met at Guildhall: not a full commit- 
tee, so nothing done. 

14th July, 1695. No sermon at church; but, after 
prayers, the names of all the parishioners were read, in 
order to gathering the tax of 4s. for marriages, burials, 
etc. A very imprudent tax, especially this reading the 
names, so that most went out of the church. 

19th July, 1695. I dined at Sir Purbeck Temple's, near 
Croydon; his lady is aunt to my son-in-law. Draper; the 
house exactly furnished. Went thence with my son and 
daughter to Wotton. At Wotton, Mr. Duncomb, parson 
of Albury, preached excellently. 

28th July, 1695. A very wet season. 

nth August, 1695. The weather now so cold, that 
greater frosts were not always seen in the midst of 
winter; this succeeded much wet, and set harvest ex- 
tremely back. 

25th September, 1695. Mr. OfBey preached at Abinger ; 
too much controversy on a point of no consequence, for 
the country people here. This was the first time I had 
heard him preach. Bombarding of Cadiz; a cruel and 
brutish way of making war, first began by the French. 

1695 JOHN EVELYN 333 

The season wet, great storms, unseasonable harvest 
weather. My good and worthy friend, Captain GifiEord, 
who that he might get some competence to live decently, 
adventured all he had in a voyage of two years to the 
East Indies, was, with another great ship, taken by some 
French men-of-war, almost within sight of England, to the 
loss of near ^^70,000, to my great sorrow, and pity of his 
wife, he being also a valiant and industrious man. The 
losses of this sort to the nation have been immense, and 
all through negligence, and little care to secure the same 
near our own coasts; of infinitely more concern to the 
public than spending their time in bombarding and 
ruining two or three paltry towns, v/ithout any benefit, 
or weakening our enemies, who, though they began, ought 
not to be imitated in an action totally averse to humanity, 
or Christianity. 

29th September, 1695. Very cold weather. Sir Purbeck 
Temple, uncle to my son Draper, died suddenly. A great 
funeral at Addiscombe. His lady being own aunt to my 
son Draper, he hopes for a good fortune, there being no 
heir. There had been a new meeting of the commission- 
ers about Greenwich hospital, on the new commission, 
where the Lord Mayor, etc. appeared, but I was prevented 
by indisposition from attending. The weather very sharp, 
winter approaching apace. The King went a progress into 
the north, to show himself to the people against the 
elections, and was everywhere complimented, except at 
Oxford, where it was not as he expected, so that he 
hardly stopped an hour there, and having seen the 
theater, did not receive the banquet proposed. I dined 
with Dr. Gale at St. Paul's school, who showed me many 
curious passages out of some ancient Platonists' MSS. 
concerning the Trinity, which this great and learned 
person would publish, with many other rare things, if he 
was encouraged, and eased of the burden of teaching. 

25th October, 1695. The Archbishop and myself went 
to Hammersmith, to visit Sir Samuel Morland, who was 
entirely blind; a very mortifying sight. He showed us 
his invention of writing, which was very ingenious; also 
his wooden calendar, which instructed him all by feeling; 
and other pretty and useful inventions of mills, pumps, 
etc., and the pump he had erected that serves water to 
his garden, and to passengers, with an inscription, and 

334 DIARY OP London 

brings from a filthy part of the Thames near it a most 
perfect and pure water. He had newly buried ;^2oo 
worth of music books six feet under ground, being, as 
he said, love songs and vanity. He plays himself psalms 
and religious hymns on the theorbo. Very mild weather 
the whole of October. 

loth November, 1695. Mr. Stanhope, Vicar of Lewis- 
ham, preached at Whitehall. He is one of the most ac- 
complished preachers I ever heard, for matter, eloquence, 
action, voice, and I am told, of excellent conversation. 

13th November, 1695. Famous fireworks and very 
chargeable, the King being returned from his progfress. 
He stayed seven or eight days at Lord Sunderland's at 
Althorpe, where he was mightily entertained. These fire- 
works were shown before Lord Romney, master of the 
ordnance, in St. James's great square, where the King 

17th November, 1695. I spoke to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to interest himself for restoring a room be- 
longing to St. James's library, where the books want 

2ist November, 1695. I went to see Mr. Churchill's 
collection of rarities. 

23d November, 1695. To Lambeth, to get Mr. Wil- 
liams continued in Boyle's lectures another year. Among 
others who dined there was Dr. Covel, the great Oriental 

ist December, 1695. I dined at Lord Sunderland's, 
now the great favorite and underhand politician, but not 
adventuring on any character, being obnoxious to the 
people for having twice changed his religion. 

23d December, 1695. The Parliament wondrously in- 
tent on ways to reform the coin ; setting out a Proclama- 
tion prohibiting the currency of half-crowns, etc., which 
made much confusion among the people. 

25th December, 1695. Hitherto mild, dark, misty, 
weather. Now snow and frost. 

12th January, 1695-96. Great confusion and distraction 
by reason of the clipped money, and the difficulty found 
in reforming it. 

2d February, 1696. An extraordinary wet season, though 
temperate as to cold. The <^ Royal Sovereign '^ man- 
of-war burned at Chatham. It was built in 1637, and hav- 

1695-96 JOHN EVELYN 335 

ing given occasion to the levy of ship money was perhaps 
the cause of all the after troubles to this day. An earth- 
quake in Dorsetshire by Portland, or rather a sinking of 
the ground suddenly for a large space, near the quarries 
of stone, hindering the conveyance of that material for 
the finishing St. Paul's. 

23d February, 1696. They now began to coin new 

26th February, 1696. There was now a conspiracy of 
about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them 
Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so 
called), to murder King William on the first opportunity 
of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or 
to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from 
Dover Cliff to Calais, an invasion was designed. In 
order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of- 
war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, 
the Duke of Berwick having secretly come to London to 
head them. King James attending at Calais with the 
French army. It was discovered by some of their own 
party. ;^i,ooo reward was offered to whoever could ap- 
prehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who 
were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parlia- 
ment, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discov- 
ery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King 
William should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged 
on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of 
Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to 
sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be dis- 
posed of according to the late settlement at the Revolu- 
tion. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten 
miles from London. This put the nation into an incred- 
ible disturbance and general animosity against the French 
King and King James. The militia of the nation was 
raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, 
and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. 
This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were 
already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, 
and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have 
had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it 
pleased God that Admiral Rooke wanting a wind to pur- 
sue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others 
at Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel, 

336 DIARY OF London 

and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the 
ships which could be got together, so that there is hope 
this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great 
deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. 
Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, 
this design of assassination and bringing over a French 
army, alienated many of his friends, and was likely to 
produce a more perfect establishment of King William. 

ist March, 1696. The wind continuing N. and E. all 
this week, brought so many of our men-of-war together 
that, though most of the French finding their design de- 
tected and prevented, made a shift to get into Calais and 
Dunkirk roads, we wanting fire-ships and bombs to dis- 
turb them ; yet they were so engaged among the sands 
and flats, that 'tis said they cut their masts and flung 
their great guns overboard to lighten their vessels. We 
are yet upon them. This deliverance is due solely to 
God. French were to have invaded at once England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. 

8th March, 1696. Divers of the conspirators tried and 

Vesuvius breaking out, terrified Naples. Three of the 
unhappy wretches, whereof one was a priest, were exe- 
cuted* for intending to assassinate the King; they ac- 
knowledged their intention, but acquitted King James 
of inciting them to it, and died very penitent. Di- 
vers more in danger, and some very considerable per- 

Great frost and cold. 

6th April, 1696. I visited Mr. Graham in the Fleet. 

loth April, 1696. The quarters of Sir William Perkins 
and Sir John Friend, lately executed on the plot, with 
Perkins's head, were set up at Temple Bar, a dismal 
sight, which many pitied. I think there never was such at 
Temple Bar till now, except once in the time of King 
Charles II., namely, of Sir Thomas Armstrong. f 

12th April, 1696. A very fine spring season. 

19th April, 1696. Great offense taken at the three min- 
isters who absolved Sir William Perkins and Friend at 
Tyburn. One of them (Snatt) was a son of my old school- 

* Robert Chamock, Edward King, and Thomas Keys. 
\ He was concerned in the Rye-House plot, fled into Holland, was 
given up, and executed in his own country, 1684. See p. 198. 

1696 JOHN EVELYN 337 

master. This produced much altercation as to the ca- 
nonicalness of the action. 

2ist April, 1696. We had a meeting at Guildhall of the 
grand committee about settling the draught of Green- 
wich hospital. 

23d April, 1696. I went to Eton, and dined with Dr. 
Godolphin, the provost. The schoolmaster assured me 
there had not been for twenty years a more pregnant 
youth in that place than my grandson. I went to see the 
King's House at Kensington. It is very noble, though 
not great. The gallery furnished with the best pictures 
[from] all the houses, of Titian, Raphael, Correggio, Hol- 
bein, Julio Romano, Bassan, Vandyke, Tintoretto, and 
others ; a great collection of porcelain ; and a pretty pri- 
vate library. The gardens about it very delicious. 

26th April, 1696, Dr. Sharp preached at the Temple. 
His prayer before the sermon was one of the most ex- 
cellent compositions I ever heard. 

28th April, 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a 
stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four 
rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More 
executions this week of the assassins. Gates dedicated a 
most villainous, reviling book against King James, which 
he presumed to present to King William, who could not 
but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his 
late beloved Queen's own father. 

2d May, 1696. I dined at Lambeth, being summoned 
to meet my co-trustees, the Archbishop, Sir Henry As- 
hurst, and Mr. Serjeant Rotheram, to consult about 
settling Mr Boyle's lecture for a perpetuity; which we 
concluded upon, by buying a rent charge of ;!^5o per 
annum, with the stock in our hands. 

6th May, 1696. I went to Lambeth, to meet at din- 
ner the Countess of Sunderland and divers ladies. We 
dined in the Archbishop's wife's apartment with his 
Grace, and stayed late; yet I returned to Deptford at 

13th May, 1696. I went to London to meet my son, 
newly come from Ireland, indisposed. Money still con- 
tinuing exceedingly scarce, so that none was paid or 
received, but all was on trust, the mint not supplying 
for common necessities. The Association with an oath 
required of all lawyers and officers, on pain of proemunire^ 

338 DIARY OF deptford 

whereby men were obliged to renounce King James as 
no rightful king, and to revenge King William's death, 
if happening by assassination. This to be taken by all the 
Counsel by a day limited, so that the Courts of Chan- 
cery and King's Bench hardly heard any cause in Easter 
Term, so many crowded to take the oath. This was 
censured as a very entangling contrivance of the Parlia- 
ment in expectation, that many in high office would lay 
down, and others surrender. Many gentlemen taken up 
on suspicion of the late plot, were now discharged out 
of prison. 

29th May, 1696, We settled divers offices, and other 
matters relating to workmen, for the beginning of Green- 
wich hospital. 

ist June, 1696. I went to Deptford to dispose of our 
goods, in order to letting the house for three years to 
Vice Admiral Benbow, with condition to keep up the 
garden. This was done soon after. 

4th June, 1696. A committee met at Whitehall about 
Greenwich Hospital, at Sir Christopher Wren's, his Maj- 
esty's Surveyor-General. We made the first agreement 
with divers workmen and for materials; and gave the 
first order for proceeding on the foundation, and for 
weekly payments to the workmen, and a general account 
to be monthly. 

nth June, 1696. Dined at Lord Pembroke's, Lord 
Privy Seal, a very worthy gentleman. He showed me 
divers rare pictures of very many of the old and best 
masters, especially one of M. Angelo of a man gather- 
ing fruit to give to a woman, and a large book of the 
best drawings of the old masters. Sir John Fenwick, 
one of the conspirators, was taken. Great subscriptions 
in Scotland to their East India Company. Want of cur- 
rent money to carry on the smallest concerns, even for 
daily provisions in the markets. Guineas lowered to 
twenty-two shillings, and great sums daily transported 
to Holland, where it yields more, with other treasure 
sent to pay the armies, and nothing considerable coined 
of the new and now only current stamp, cause such a scarcity 
that tumults are every day feared, nobody paying or re- 
ceiving money; so imprudent was the late Parliament to 
condemn the old though clipped and corrupted, till they 
had provided supplies. To this add the fraud of the 

1696 JOHN EVELYN 339 

bankers and goldsmiths, who having gotten immense 
riches by extortion, keep up their treasure in expecta- 
tion of enhancing its value. Buncombe, not long since 
a mean goldsmith, having made a purchase of the late 
Duke of Buckingham's estate at nearly ^,^90,000, and re- 
puted to have nearly as much in cash. Banks and lotteries 
every day set up. 

i8th June, 1696. The famous trial between my Lord 
Bath and Lord Montague for an estate of ;^ 11,000 a 
year, left by the Duke of Albemarle, wherein on several 
trials had been spent ^20,000 between them. The Earl 
of Bath w'as cast on evident forgery. 

20th June, 1696. I made my Lord Cheney a visit at 
Chelsea, and saw those ingenious waterworks invented 
by Mr. Winstanley, wherein were some things very sur- 
prising and extraordinary. 

2ist June, 1696. An exceedingly rainy, cold, unseason- 
able summer, yet the city was very healthy. 

25th June, 1696. A trial in the Common Pleas between 
the Lady Purbeck Temple and Mr. Temple, a nephew of 
Sir Purbeck, concerning a deed set up to take place of 
several wills. This deed was proved to be forged. The 
cause went on my lady's side. This concerning my son- 
in-law. Draper, I stayed almost all day at Court. A great 
supper was given to the jur^^ being persons of the best 
condition in Buckinghamshire. 

30th June, 1696. I went with a select committee of 
the Commissioners for Greenwich Hospital, and with Sir 
Christopher Wren, where with him I laid the first stone 
of the intended foundation, precisely at five o'clock in 
the evening, after we had dined together. Mr. Flam- 
stead, the King's Astronomical Professor, observing the 
punctual time by instruments. 

4th July, 1696. Note that my Lord Godolphin was the 
first of the subscribers who paid any money to this noble 

7th July, 1696. A northern wind altering the weather 
with a continual and impetuous rain of three days and 
nights changed it into perfect winter. 

12th July, 1696. Very unseasonable and uncertain 

26th July, 1696. So little money in the nation that 
Exchequer Tallies, of which I had for ^^2,000 on the 

340 DIARY OF London 

best fund in England, the Post Office, nobody would take 
at 30 per cent discount. 

3d August, 1696. The Bank lending the ;^2oo,ooo to 
pay the army in Flanders, that had done nothing against 
the enemy, had so exhausted the treasure of the nation, 
that one could not have borrowed money under 14 or 15 
per cent on bills, or on Exchequer Tallies under 30 per 
cent. Reasonable good harvest weather. I went to 
Lambeth and dined with the Archbishop, who had been 
at Court on the complaint against Dr. Thomas Watson, 
Bishop of St. David's, who was suspended for simony. 
The Archbishop told me how unsatisfied he was with the 
Canon law, and how exceedingly unreasonable all their 
pleadings appeared to him. 

September, 1696. Fine seasonable weather, and a great 
harvest after a cold, wet summer. Scarcity in Scotland. 

6th September, 1696. I went to congratulate the mar- 
riage of a daughter of Mr. Boscawen to the son of Sir 
Philip Meadows; she is niece to my Lord Godolphin, 
married at Lambeth by the Archbishop, 30th of August. 
After above six months' stay in London about Green- 
wich Hospital, I returned to Wotton. 

24th October, 1696. Unseasonable stormy weather, and 
an ill seedtime. 

November, 1696. Lord Godolphin retired from the 
Treasury, who was the first Commissioner and most 
skillful manager of all. 

8th November, 1696. The first frost began fiercely, 
but lasted not long. More plots talked of. Search for 
Jacobites so called. 

i5th-2 3d November, 1696. Very stormy weather, rain, 
and inundations. 

13th December, 1696. Continuance of extreme frost 
and snow. 

17th January, 1696-7. The severe frost and weather 
relented, but again froze with snow. Conspiracies con- 
tinue against King William. Sir John Fenwick was be- 

7th February, 1697. Severe frost continued with snow. 
Soldiers in the armies and garrison towns frozen to 
death on their posts. 

(Here a leaf of the MS. is lost.) 

1696-98 JOHN EVELYN 341 

17th August, 1697. I came to Wotton after three 
months' absence. 

September, 1697. Very bright weather, but with sharp 
east wind. My son came from London in his melancholy 

12th September, 1697. Mr. Buncombe, the rector, 
came and preached after an absence of two years, though 
only living seven or eight miles off [at Ashted]. Wel- 
come tidings of the Peace. 

3d October, 1697. So great were the storms all this 
week, that near a thousand people were lost going into the 

1 6th November, 1697. The King's entry very pompous; 
but is nothing approaching that of King Charles II. 

2d December, 1697. Thanksgiving Day for the Peace, 
the King and a great Court at Whitehall. The Bishop 
of Salisbury preached, or rather made a florid panegyric, 
on 2 Chron. ix. 7, 8. The evening concluded with fire- 
works and illuminations of great expense. 

5th December, 1697. Was the first Sunday that St. 
Paul's had had service performed in it since it was burned 
in 1666. 

6th December, 1697. I went to Kensington with the 
Sheriff, Knights, and chief gentlemen of Surrey, to pre- 
sent their address to the King. The Duke of Norfolk 
promised to introduce it, but came so late, that it was 
presented before he came. This insignificant ceremony 
was brought in in Cromwell's time, and has ever since 
continued with offers of life and fortune to whoever 
happened to have the power. I dined at Sir Richard 
Onslow's, who treated almost all the gentlemen of Sur- 
rey. When we had half dined, the Duke of Norfolk 
came in to make his excuse. 

12th December, 1697. At the Temple Church; it was 
very long before the service began, staying for the 
Comptroller of the Inner Temple, where was to be kept 
a riotous and reveling Christmas, according to custom. 

i8th December, 1697. At Lambeth, to Dr. Bentley, 
about the Library at St. James's. 

23d December, 1697. I returned to Wotton. 

1697-98. A great Christmas kept at Wotton, open house, 
much company. I presented my book of Medals, etc., to 
divers noblemen, before I exposed it to sale. 

342 DIARY OF London 

2d January, 1698. Dr. Fulham, who lately married 
my niece, preached against atheism, a very eloquent 
discourse, somewhat improper for most of the audience 
at [Wotton], but fitted for some other place, and very 
apposite to the profane temper of the age. 

5th January, 1698. Whitehall burned, nothing but walls 
and ruins left. 

30th January. 1698. The imprisonment of the great 
banker Buncombe: censured by Parliament; acquitted 
by the Lords; sent again to the Tower by the Commons. 

The Czar of Muscovy being come to England, and 
having a mind to see the building of ships, hired my 
house at Sayes Court, and made it his court and palace, 
newly furnished for him by the King.* 

2ist April, 1698. The Czar went from my house to 
return home. An exceedingly sharp and cold season. 

8th May, 1698, An extraordinary great snow and frost, 
nipping the corn and other fruits. Com at nine shillings 
a bushel [;^i8 a load]. 

30th May, 1698. I dined at Mr. Pepys's, where I heard 
the rare voice of Mr. Pule, who was lately come from 
Italy, reputed the most excellent singer we had ever 
had. He sung several compositions of the late Dr. 

5th June, 1698. Dr. White, late Bishop of Norwich, 
who had been ejected for not complying with Govern 
ment, was buried in St. Gregory's churchyard, or vault, 
at St. Paul's. His hearse was accompanied by two non- 
juror bishops, Dr. Turner of Ely, and Dr. Lloyd, with 
forty other non-juror clergymen, who would not stay the 
Office of the burial, because the Dean of St. Paul's had 
appointed a conforming minister to read the Office; at 
which all much wondered, there being nothing in that 
Office which mentioned the present King. 

8th June, 1698. I went to congratulate the marriage 
of Mr. Godolphin with the Earl of Marlborough's 

* While the Czar was in his house, Evelyn's servant writes to him: 
« There is a house full of people, and right nasty. The Czar lies next 
your library, and dines in the parlor next your study. He dines at ten 
o'clock and at six at night ; is very seldom at home a whole day ; very 
often in the King's yard, or by water, dressed in several dresses. The 
King is expected here this day ; the best parlor is pretty clean for him 
to be entertained in. The King pays for all he has.» 

1698 JOHN EVELYN 343 

9th June, 1698. To Deptford, to see how miserably 
the Czar had left my house, after three months making 
it his Court. I got Sir Christopher Wren, the King's 
surveyor, and Mr. London, his gardener, to go and esti- 
mate the repairs, for which they allowed ;^i5o in their re- 
port to the Lords of the Treasury. I then went to see the 
foundation of the Hall and Chapel at Greenwich Hospital. 

6th August, 1698. I dined with Pepys, where was Cap- 
tain Dampier,* who had been a famous buccaneer, had 
brought hither the painted Prince Job, and printed a re- 
lation of his very strange adventure, and his observations. 
He was now going abroad again by the King's encour- 
agement, who furnished a ship of 290 tons. He seemed a 
more modest man than one would imagine by the relation 
of the crew he had assorted with. He brought a map of 
his observations of the course of the winds in the South 
Sea, and assured us that the maps hitherto extant were 
all false as to the Pacific Sea, which he makes on the 
south of the line, that on the north end running by the 
coast of Peru being extremely tempestuous. 

25th September, 1698. Dr. Foy came to me to use my 
interest with Lord Sunderland for his being made Pro- 
fessor of Physic at Oxford, in the King's gift, I went 
also to the Archbishop in his behalf. 

7th December, 1698. Being one of the Council of the 
Royal Society, I was named to be of the committee 
to wait on our new President, the Lord Chancellor, our 
Secretary, Dr. Sloane, and Sir R. Southwell, last Vice- 
President, carrying our book of statutes ; the office of the 
President being read, his Lordship subscribed his name, 
and took the oaths according to our statutes as a Corpo- 
ration for the improvement of natural knowledge. Then 
his Lordship made a short compliment concerning the 
honor the Society had done him, and how ready he would 
be to promote so noble a design, and come himself among 
us, as often as the attendance on the public would per- 
mit; and so we took our leave. 

1 8th December, 1698. Very warm, but exceedingly 

* The celebrated navigator, bom in 1652, the time of whose death 
is uncertain. His « Voyage Round the World >' has gone through 
many editions, and the substance of it has been transferred to many 
collections of voyages. 

344 DIARY OF London 

January, 1698-99. My cousin Pierrepoint died. She 
was daughter to Sir John Evelyn, of Wilts, my father's 
nephew; she was widow to William Pierrepoint, brother 
to the Marquis of Dorchester, and mother to Evelyn 
Pierrepoint, Earl of Kingston ; a most excellent and pru- 
dent lady. 

The House of Commons persist in refusing more than 
7,000 men to be a standing army, and no strangers to be 
in the number. This displeased the Court party. Our 
county member, Sir R. Onslow, opposed it also; which 
might reconcile him to the people, who began to suspect 

17th February, 1699. My grandson went to Oxford with 
Dr. Mander, the Master of Baliol College, where he was 
entered a fellow-commoner. 

19th February, 1699. A most furious wind, such as 
has not happened for many years, doing great damage to 
houses and trees, by the fall of which several persons 
were killed. 

5th March, 1699. The old East India Company lost 
their business against the new Company, by ten votes in 
Parliament, so many of their friends being absent, going 
to see a tiger baited by dogs. 

The persecuted Vaudois, who were banished out of 
Savoy, were received by the German Protestant Princes. 

24th March, 1699. My only remaining son died after a 
tedious languishing sickness, contracted in Ireland, and 
increased here, to my exceeding grief and affliction ; leav- 
ing me one grandson, now at Oxford, whom I pray God 
to prosper and be the support of the Wotton family. 
He was aged forty-four years and about three months. 
He had been six years one of the Commissioners of the 
Revenue in Ireland, with great ability and reputation. 

26th March, 1699. After an extraordinary storm, there 
came up the Thames a whale which was fifty-six feet 
long. Such, and a larger of the spout kind, was killed 
there forty years ago (June 1658). That year died Cromwell. 

30th March, 1699. My deceased son was buried in the 
vault at Wotton, according to his desire. 

The Duke of Devon lost ^^1,900 at a horse race at New- 

The King preferring his young favorite Earl of Albe- 
marle to be first Commander of his Guard, the Duke of 

1698-99 JOHN EVELYN 345 

Ormond laid down his commission. This of the Dutch 
Lord passing over his head, was exceedingly resented by 

April, 1699. Lord Spencer purchased an incomparable 
library* of . . , wherein," among other rare books, 
were several that were printed at the first invention of 
that wonderful art, as particularly " Tully's OflSces, etc. " 
There was a Homer and a Suidas in a very good Greek 
character and good paper, almost as ancient. This gen- 
tleman is a xery fine scholar, whom from a child I have 
known. His tutor was one Florival of Geneva. 

29th April, 1699. I dined with the Archbishop; but 
my business was to get him to persuade the King to pur- 
chase the late Bishop of Worcester's library, and build 
a place for his own library at St. James's, in the Park, 
the present one being too small. 

3d May, 1699. At a meeting of the Royal Society I 
was nominated to be of the committee to wait on the 
Lord Chancellor to move the King to purchase the Bishop 
of Worcester's library (Dr. Edward Stillingfleet). 

4th May, 1699. The Court party have little influence 
in this Session. 

7th May, 1699. The Duke of Ormond restored to his 
commission. All Lotteries, till now cheating the people, 
to be no longer permitted than to Christmas, except that 
for the benefit of Greenwich Hospital. Mr. Bridgman, 
chairman of the committee for that charitable work, died; 
a great loss to it. He was Clerk of the Council, a very 
industrious, useful man. I saw the library of Dr. John 
Moore, f Bishop of Norwich, one of the best and most 
ample collection of all sorts of good books in England, 
and he, one of the most learned men. 

nth June, 1699. After a long drought, we had a re- 
freshing shower. The day before, there was a dreadful 
fire at Rotherhithe, near the Thames side, which burned 
divers ships, and consumed nearly three hundred houses. 
Now died the famous Duchess of Mazarin ; she had been 
the richest lady in Europe. She was niece of Cardi- 
nal Mazarin, and was married to the richest subject in 

* The foundation of the noble library now at Blenheim. 

t Afterward Bishop of Ely. He died 31st of July, 1714. King George 
I. purchased this library after the Bishop's death, for ;i^6,ooo, and pre- 
sented it to the University of Cambridge, where it now is. 

346 DIARY OF London 

Europe, as is said. She was born at Rome, educated in 
France, and was an extraordinary beauty and wit, but 
dissolute and impatient of matrimonial restraint, so as to 
be abandoned by her husband, and banished, when she 
came into England for shelter, lived on a pension given 
her here, and is reported to have hastened her death by 
intemperate drinking strong spirits. She has written her 
own story and adventures, and so has her other extrava- 
gant sister, wife to the noble family of Colonna. 

15th JunCj 1699. This week died Conyers Seymour, 
son of Sir Edward Seymour, killed in a duel caused by 
a slight affront in St. James's Park, given him by one 
who was envious of his gallantries; for he was a vain, 
foppish young man, who made a great ^cldt about town 
by his splendid equipage and boundless expense. He was 
about twenty-three years old; his brother, now at Oxford, 
inherited an estate of ^^7, 000 a year, which had fallen to 
him not two years before. 

19th June, 1699. My cousin^ George Evelyn, of Nut- 
field, died suddenly. 

25th June, 1699. The heat has been so great, almost 
all this month, that I do not remember to have felt much 
greater in Italy, and this after a winter the wettest, 
though not the coldest, that I remember for fifty years 
last past. 

28th June,, 1699. Finding my occasions called me so 
often to London, I took the remainder of the lease my 
son had in a house in Dover Street, to which I now re- 
moved, not taking my goods from Wotton. 

23d July, 1699. Seasonable showers, after a continuance 
of excessive drought and heat. 

August, 1699. I drank the Shooters' Hill waters. At 
Deptford, they had been building a pretty new church. 
The Bishop of St. David's [Watson] deprived for 
simony. * The city of Moscow burnt by the throwing of 

3d September, 1699. There was in this week an 
eclipse of the sun, at which many were frightened by 
the predictions of the astrologers. I remember fifty 
years ago that many were so terrified by Lilly, that they 
dared not go out of their houses. A strange earthquake 
at New Batavia, in the East Indies. 

* Ante, p. 330. 

1699 JOHN EVELYN 347 

4th October, 1699. My worthy brother died at Wotton, 
in the 83d year of his age, of perfect memory and 
understandingf. He was religious, sober, and temperate, 
and of so hospitable a nature, that no family in the 
county maintained that ancient custom of keeping, as 
it were, open house the whole year in the same manner, 
or gave more noble or free entertainment to the county 
on all occasions, so that his house was never free. 
There were sometimes twenty persons more than his 
famil)', and some that stayed there all the summer, 10 
his no small expense; by this he gained the universal 
love of the county. He was bom at Wotton. went 
from the free school at Guildford to Trinity College, 
Oxford, thence to the Middle Temple, as gentlemen of 
the best quality did, but without intention to study the 
law as a profession. He married the daughter of Colwall, 
of a worthy and ancient family in Leicestershire, by 
whom he had one son; she dying in 1643, left George 
her son an infant, who being educated liberally, after 
traveling abroad, returned and married one Mrs. Gore, 
by whom he had several children, but only three 
daughters survived. He was a young man of good 
understanding, but, over-indulging his ease and pleasure, 
grew so very corpulent, contrary to the constitution of 
the rest of his father's relations, that he died. My 
brother afterward married a noble and honorable lady, 
relict of Sir John Cotton, she being an Offley, a worthy 
and ancient Staffordshire family, by whom he had several 
children of both sexes. This lady died, leaving only 
two daughters and a son. The younger daughter died 
before marriage; the other afterward married Sir Cyril 

Wych, a noble and learned gentleman ( son of Sir 

Wych), who had been Ambassador at Constantinople, 
and was afterward made one of the Lords Justices of 
Ireland. Before this marriage, her only brother married 

the daughter of Eversfield, of Sussex, of an honorable 

family, but left a widow without any child living; he 
died about 1691, and his wife not many years after, 
and my brother resettled the whole estate on me. His 
sister, Wych, had a portion of ;^6,ooo, to which was 
added ^^300 more; the three other daughters, with what 
I added, had about ;^5,ooo each. My brother died on the 
5th of October, in a good old age and great reputation, 

348 DIARY OF London 

making his beloved daughter, Lady Wych, sole executrix, 
leaving me only his library and some pictures of my 
father, mother, etc. She buried him with extraordinary 
solemnity, rather as a nobleman than as a private 
gentleman. There were, as I computed, above 2,000 
persons at the funeral, all the gentlemen of the county 
doing him the last honors. I returned to London, till 
my lady should dispose of herself and family. 

2 1 St October, 1699. After an unusual warm and pleas- 
ant season, we were surprised with a very sharp frost. 
I presented my *^ Acetaria,^^ dedicated to my Lord Chancel- 
lor, who returned me thanks in an extraordinarily civil letter. 

15th November, 1699. There happened this week so 
thick a mist and fog, that people lost their way in the 
streets, it being so intense that no light of candles, or 
torches, yielded any (or but very little) direction. I was 
in it, and in danger. Robberies were committed between 
the very lights which were fixed between London and 
Kensington on both sides, and while coaches and trav- 
elers were passing. It began about four in the after- 
noon, and was quite gone by eight, without any wind to 
disperse it. At the Thames, they beat drums to direct 
the watermen to make the shore. 

19th November, 1699. At our chapel in the evening 
there was a sermon preached by young Mr. Homeck, 
chaplain to Lord Guilford, whose lady's funeral had been 
celebrated magnificently the Thursday before. A pane- 
gyric was now pronounced, describing the extraordinary 
piety and excellently employed life of this amiable young 
lady. She died in childbed a few days before, to the 
excessive sorrow of her husband, who ordered the 
preacher to declare that it was on her exemplary life, 
exhortations and persuasion, that he totally changed the 
course of his life, which was before in great danger of 
being perverted; following the mode of this dissolute 
age. Her devotion, early piety, charity, fastings, econ- 
omy, disposition of her time in reading, praying, recol- 
lections in her own handwriting of what she heard and 
read, and her conversation were most exemplary. 

24th November, 1699. I signed Dr. Blackwell's election 
to be the next year's Boyles Lecturer. 

Such horrible robberies and murders were committed, 
as had not been known in this nation; atheism, profane- 

1699-1700 JOHN EVELYN 349 

ness, blasphemy, among all sorts, portended some judg- 
ment if not amended; on which a society was set on foot, 
who obliged themselves to endeavor the reforming of it, 
in London and other places, and began to punish of- 
fenders and put the laws in more strict execution ; which 
God Almighty prosper! A gentle, calm, dry, temperate 
weather all this season of the year, but now came sharp, 
hard frost, and mist, but calm. 

3d December, 1699. Calm, bright, and warm as in the 
middle of April. So continued on 21st of January. A 
great earthquake in Portugal. 

The Parliament reverses the prodigious donations of 
the Irish forfeitures, which were intended to be set apart 
for discharging the vast national debt. They called some 
great persons in the highest offices in question for setting 
the Great Seal to the pardon of an arch-pirate,* who had 
turned pirate again, and brought prizes into the West 
Indies, suspected to be connived at on sharing the prey; 
but the prevailing part in the House called Courtiers, 
out-voted the complaints, not by being more in number, 
but by the country party being negligent in attendance, 

14th January, 1 699-1 700. Dr. Lancaster, Vicar of St, 
Martins, dismissed Mr. Stringfellow, who had been made 
the first preacher at our chapel by the Bishop of Lincoln 
[ Dr. Tenison, now Archbishop ], while he held St, Martin's 
by dispensation, and put in one Mr, Sandys, much against 
the inclination of those who frequented the chapel. The 
Scotch book about Darien was burned by the hangman by 
vote of Parliament.! 

21st January, 1700. Died the Duke of Beaufort, a 
person of great honor, prudence, and estate. 

25th January, 1700. I went to Wotton, the first time 
after my brother's funeral, to furnish the house with 
necessaries. Lady Wych and my nephew Glanville, the 
executors having sold and disposed of what goods were 
there of my brother's. The weather was now altering 
into sharp and hard frost. 

♦Captain Kidd; he was hanged about two years afterward with 
some of his accomplices. This was one of the charges brought by 
the Commons against Lord Somers. 

fThe volume alluded to was «An Enquiry into the Causes of the 
Miscarriage of the Scots Colony at Darien: Or an Answer to a Libel, » 
entitled «A Defense of the Scots abdicating Darien. » See Votes of 
the House of Commons, 15th January, 1699-1700. 

350 DIARY OF London 

One Stephens, who preached before the House of Com- 
mons on King Charles's Martyrdom, told them that the 
observation of that day was not intended out of any 
detestation of his murder, but to be a lesson to other 
Kings and Rulers, how they ought to behave themselves 
toward their subjects, lest they should come to the same 
end. This was so resented that, though it was usual to 
desine these aniiiversary sermons to be printed, they 
refused thanks to him, and ordered that in future no one 
should preach before them, who was not either a Dean 
or a Doctor of Divinity. 

4th February, 1700. The Parliament voted against the 
Scots settling in Darien as being prejudicial to our trade 
with Spain. They also voted that the exorbitant number 
of attorneys be lessened (now indeed swarming, and evi- 
dently causing lawsuits and disturbance, eating out the 
estates of the people, provoking them to go to law). 

1 8th February, 1700. Mild and calm season, with 
gentle frost, and little mizzling rain. The Vicar of St. 
Martin's frequently preached at Trinity chapel in the 

8th March, 1700. The season was like April for warmth 
and mildness. — nth. On Wednesday, was a sermon at 
our chapel, to be continued during Lent. 

13th March, 1700. I was at the funeral of my Lady 
Temple, who was buried at Islington, brought from Ad- 
discombe, near Croydon. She left my son-in-law Draper 
(her nephew) the mansion house of Addiscombe, very nobly 
and completely furnished, with the estate about it, with 
plate and jewels, to the value in all of about ^^20,000. 
She was a very prudent lady, gave many great legacies, 
with ^^500 to the poor of Islington, where her husband, 
Sir Purbeck Temple, was buried, both dying without issue. 

24th March, 1700. The season warm, gentle, and ex- 
ceedingly pleasant. Divers persons of quality entered into 
the Society for Reformation* of Manners; and some lec- 
tures were set up, particularly in the city of London. 
The most eminent of the clergy preached at Bow Church, 
after reading a declaration set forth by the King to sup- 
press the growing wickedness ; this began already to take 
some effect as to common swearing, and oaths in the 
mouths of people of all ranks. 

* Ante, p. 349. 


25th March, 1700, Dr. Burnet preached to-day before 
the Lord Mayor and a very great congregation, on Prov- 
erbs xxvii. 5, 6, "Open rebuke is better than secret love; 
the wounds of a friend are better than the kisses of an 
enemy.'* He made a very pathetic discourse concerning 
the necessity and advantage of friendly correction. 

April, 1700. The Diike of Norfolk now succeeded in 
obtaining a divorce from his wife by the Parliament for 
adultery with Sir John Germaine, a Dutch gamester, of 
mean extraction, who had got much by gaming; the 
Duke had leave to marrj^ again, so that if he should have 
children, the Dukedom will go from the late Lord 
Thomas's children. Papists indeed, but very hopeful and 
virtuous gentlemen, as was their father. The now Duke 
their uncle is a Protestant. 

The Parliament nominated fourteen persons to go into 
Ireland as commissioners to dispose of the forfeited es- 
tates there, toward payment of the debts incurred by the 
late war, but which the King had in great measure given 
to some of his favorites of both sexes, Dutch and others 
of little merit, and very unseasonably. That this might 
be done without suspicion of interest in the Parliament, 
it was ordered that no member of either House should 
be in the commission. The great contest between the 
Lords and Commons concerning the Lords' power of 
amendments and rejecting bills tacked to the money bill, 
carried for the Commons. However, this tacking of bills 
is a novel practice, suffered by King Charles 11. , who, 
being continually in want of money, let anything pass 
rather than not have wherewith to feed his extrava- 
gance. This was carried but by one voice in the 
Lords, all the Bishops following the Court, save one; so 
that near sixty bills passed, to the great triumph of the 
Commons and Country party, but high regret of the 
Court, and those to whom the King had given large es- 
tates in Ireland. Pity it is, that things should be brought 
to this extremity, the government of this nation being 
so equally poised between King and subject; but we are 
satisfied with nothing; and, while there is no perfection 
on this side heaven, methinks both might be contented 
without straining things too far. Among the rest, there 
passed a law as to Papists' estates, that if one turned 
not Protestant before eighteen years of age, it should 

352 DIARY OF wotton 

pass to his next Protestant heir. This indeed seemed a 
hard law, but not only the usage of the French King to 
his Protestant subjects, but the indiscreet insolence of 
the Papists here, going in triumphant and public proces- 
sions with their Bishops, with banners and trumpets in 
divers places (as is said) in the northern counties, has 
brought it on their party. 

24th April, 1700. This week there was a great change 
of State officers. The Duke of Shrewsbury resigned his 
Lord Chamberlainship to the Earl of Jersey, the Duke's 
indisposition requiring his retreat. Mr. Vernon, Secre- 
tary of State, was put out. The Seal was taken from the 
Lord Chancellor Somers, though he had been acquitted 
by a great majority of votes for what was charged against 
him in the House of Commons. This being in term 
time, put some stop to business, many eminent lawyers 
refusing to accept the office, considering the uncertainty 
of things in this fluctuating conjuncture. It is certain 
that this Chancellor was a most excellent lawyer, very 
learned in all polite literature, a superior pen, master of 
a handsome style, and of easy conversation; but he is 
said to make too much haste to be rich, as his prede- 
cessor, and most in place in this age did, to a more pro- 
digious excess than was ever known. But the Commons 
had now so mortified the Court party, and property and 
liberty were so much invaded in all the neighboring 
kingdoms, that their jealousy made them cautious, and 
every day strengthened the law which protected the peo- 
ple from' tyranny. 

A most glorious spring, with hope of abundance of 
fruit of all kinds, and a propitious year. 

loth May, 1700. The great trial between Sir Walter 
Clarges and Mr. Sherwin concerning the legitimacy of 
the late Duke of Albemarle, on which depended an es- 
tate of ;^i,5oo a year; the verdict was given for Sir 
Walter. 19th. Serjeant Wright at last accepted the Great 

24th May, 1700. I went from Dover street to Wotton, 
for the rest of the summer, and removed thither the rest 
of my goods from Sayes Court. 

2d June, 1700. A sweet season, with a mixture of re- 
freshing showers. 

9th-i6th June, 1700. In the afternoon, our clergy- 

1700 JOHN EVELYN 353 

man had a catechism, which was continued for some 

July, 1700. I was visited with illness, but it pleased 
God that I recovered, for which praise be ascribed to him 
by me, and that he has again so graciously advertised 
me of my duty to prepare for my latter end, which at 
my great age, cannot be far off. 

The Duke of Gloucester, son of the Princess Anne of 
Denmark, died of the smallpox. 

13th July, 1700. I went to Marden, which was origin- 
ally a barren warren bought by Sir Robert Clayton, who 
built there a pretty house, and made such alteration by 
planting not only an infinite store of the best fruit; but 
so changed the natural situation of the hill, valleys, 
and solitary mountains about it, that it rather repre- 
sented some foreign country, which would produce spon- 
taneously pines, firs, cypress, yew, holly, and juniper; 
they were come to their perfect growth, with walks, 
mazes, etc., among them, and were preserved with the 
utmost care, so that I who had seen it some years before 
in its naked and barren condition, was in admiration of it. 
The land was bought of Sir John Evelyn, of Godstone, 
and was thus improved for pleasure and retirement by 
the vast charge and industry of this opulent citizen. He 
and his lady received us with great civility. The tombs 
in the church at Croydon of Archbishops Grindal, Whit- 
gift, and other Archbishops, are fine and venerable; but 
none comparable to that of the late Archbishop Sheldon, 
which, being all of white marble, and of a stately ordi- 
nance and carvings, far surpassed the rest, and I judge 
could not cost less than ^700 or ;^8oo. 

20th September, 1700. I went to Beddington,the ancient 
seat of the Carews, in my remembrance a noble old struc- 
ture, capacious, and in form of the buildings of the age 
of Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, and proper for the 
old English hospitality, but now decaying with the house 
itself, heretofore adorned with ample gardens, and the 
first orange trees* that had been seen in England, 
planted in the open ground, and secured in winter 
only by a tabernacle of boards and stoves removable in 
summer, that, standing 120 years, large and goodly trees, 

* Oranges were eaten in this kingdom much earlier than the time of 
King James I. 

354 DIARY OF London 

and laden with fruit, were now in decay, as well as the 
grotto, fountains, cabinets, and other curiosities in the 
house and abroad, it being now fallen to a child under 
age, and only kept by a servant or two from utter 
dilapidation. The estate and park about it also in de- 

23d September, 1700. I went to visit Mr, Pepys at 
Clapham, where he has a very noble and wonderfully well- 
furnished house, especially with Indian and Chinese curi- 
osities. The offices and gardens well accommodated for 
pleasure and retirement. 

31st October, 1700. My birthday now completed the 80th 
year of my age. I with my soul render thanks to God, 
who, of his infinite mercy, not only brought me out of 
many troubles, but this year restored me to health, after 
an ague and other infirmities of so great an age; my 
sight, hearing, and other senses and faculties tolerable, 
which I implore him to continue, with the pardon of my 
sins past, and grace to acknowledge by my improvement 
of his goodness the ensuing year, if it be his pleasure to 
protract my life, that I may be the better prepared for 
my last day, through the infinite merits of my blessed 
Savior, the Lord Jesus, Amen! 

5th November, 1700. Came the news of my dear grand- 
son (the only male of my family now remaining) being 
fallen ill of the smallpox at Oxford, which after the dire 
effects of it in my family exceedingly afflicted me ; but so 
it pleased my most merciful God that being let blood at 
his first complaint, and by the extraordinary care of Dr. 
Mander (Head of the college and now Vice Chancellor), 
who caused him to be brought and lodged in his own 
bed and bedchamber, with the advice of his physician 
and care of his tutor, there were all fair hopes of his 
recovery, to our infinite comfort. We had a letter every 
day either from the Vice Chancellor himself, or his tutor, 

17th November, 1700. Assurance of his recovery by a 
letter from himself. 

There was a change of great officers at Court. Lord 
Godolphin returned to his former station of first Commis- 
sioner of the Treasury; Sir Charles Hedges, Secretary of 

30th November, 1700. At the Royal Society, Lord 
Somers, the late Chancellor, was continued President. 

i7o<^i JOHN EVELYN 355 

8th December, 1700. Great alterations of ofl5cers at 
Court, and elsewhere, — Lord Chief Justice Treby died; he 
was a learned man in his profession, of which we have 
now few, never fewer; the Chancery requiring so little 
skill in deep law-learning, if the practicer can talk elo- 
quently in that Court ; so that probably few care to study 
the law to any purpose. Lord Marlborough Master of the 
Ordnance, in place of Lord Romney made Groom of the 
Stole. The Earl of Rochester goes Lord Lieutenant to 

January, 1700-01, I finished the sale of North Stoake in 
Sussex to Robert Michell, Esq. , appointed by my brother 
to be sold for payment of portions to my nieces, and 
other incumbrances on the estate. 

4th January, 1701. An exceeding deep snow, and 
melted away as suddenly. 

19th January, 1701. Severe frost, and such a tempest 
as threw down many chimneys, and did great spoil at 
sea, and blew down above twenty trees of mine at Wot- 

9th February, 1701. The old Speaker laid aside, and 
Mr. Harley, an able gentleman, chosen. Our country- 
man, Sir Richard Onslow, had a party for him. 

27th February, 1701. By an order of the House of 
Commons, I laid before the Speaker the state of what 
had been received and paid toward the building of 
Greenwich Hospital. 

Mr Wye, Rector of Wotton, died, a very worthy good 
man. I gave it to Dr. Bohun, a learned person and ex- 
cellent preacher, who had been my son's tutor, and lived 
long in my family. 

i8th March, 1701. I let Sayes Court to Lord Car- 
marthen, son to the Duke of Leeds. 28th. I went to the 
funeral of my sister Draper, who was buried at Edmon- 
ton in great state. Dr. Davenant displeased the clerg^y 
now met in Convocation by a passage in his book, p. 40. 
April, 1 701. A Dutch boy of about eight or nine years 
old was carried about by his parents to show, who had 
about the iris of one eye the letters of Deus mens, and 
of the other Elohim, in the Hebrew character. How 
this was done by artifice none could imagine ; his parents 
affirming that he was so bom. It did not prejudice his 
sight, and he seemed to be a lively playing boy. Every- 

356 DIARY OF London 

body went to see him; physicians and philosophers ex- 
amined it with great accuracy; some considered it as 
artificial, others as almost supernatural. 

4th April, 1 70 1. The Duke of Norfold died of an apo- 
plexy, and Mr. Thomas Howard of complicated disease 
since his being cut for the stone; he was one of the 
Tellers of the Exchequer. Mr. How made a Baron. 

May, 1 701. Some Kentish men, delivering a petition to 
the House of Commons, were imprisoned.* 

A great dearth, no considerable rain having fallen for 
some months. 

17th May, 1 701. Very plentiful showers, the wind com- 
ing west and south. The Bishops and Convocation at 
difference concerning the right of calling the assembly 
and dissolving. Atterbury and Dr. Wake writing one 
against the other. 

20th June, 1 701. The Commons demanded a conference 
with the Lords on the trial of Lord Somers, which the 
Lords refused, and proceeding on the trial, the Commons 
would not attend, and he was acquitted. 

2 2d June, 1 70 1. I went to congratulate the arrival of 
that worthy and excellent person my Lord Galway, newly 
come out of Ireland, where he had behaved himself so 
honestly, and to the exceeding satisfaction of the people : 
but he was removed thence for being a Frenchman, 
though they had not a more worthy, valiant, discreet, 
and trusty person in the two kingdoms, on whom they 
could have relied for his conduct and fitness. He was 
one who had deeply suffered, as well as the Marquis, his 
father, for being Protestants. 

July, 1701. My Lord Treasurer made my grandson 
one of the Commissioners of the prizes, salary £s°° P®r 

8th July, 1 701. My grandson went to Sir Simon Har- 
court, the Solicitor-General, to Windsor, to wait on my 
Lord Treasurer. There had been for some time a 
proposal of marrying my grandson to a daughter of 

♦Justinian Champneys, Thomas Culpepper, William Culpepper, 
William Hamilton, and David Polhill, gentlemen of considerable prop- 
erty and family in the county. There is a very good print of them in 
five ovals on one plate, engraved by R. White, in 1701. They desired 
the Parliament to mind the public more, and their private heats less. 
They were confined till the prorogation, and were much visited. Bur- 
net gives an account of them. 


Mrs. Boscawen, sister of my Lord Treasurer, which was 
now far advanced. 

14th July, 1 701. I subscribed toward rebuilding Oak- 
wood Chapel, now, after 200 years, almost fallen down. 

August, 1 701. The weather changed from heat not 
much less than in Italy or Spain for some few days, to 
wet, dripping, and cold, with intermissions of fair. 

2d September, 1701. I went to Kensington, and saw 
the house, plantations, and gardens, the work of Mr. 
Wise, who was there to receive me. 

The death of King James, happening on the 15th of 
this month, N. S., after two or three days' indisposition, 
put an end to that unhappy Prince's troubles, after a 
short and unprosperous reign, indiscreetly attempting to 
bring in Popery, and make himself absolute, in imitation 
of the French, hurried on by the impatience of the 
Jesuits; which the nation would not endure. 

Died the Earl of Bath, whose contest with Lord Mon- 
tague about the Duke of Albemarle's estate, claiming 
under a will supposed to have been forged, is said to have 
been worth ;^i 0,000 to the lawyers. His eldest son shot 
himself a few days after his father's death; for what 
cause is not clear. He was a most hopeful young man, 
and had behaved so bravely against the Turks at the 
siege of Vienna, that the Emperor made him a Count of 
the Empire. It was falsely reported that Sir Edward 
Seymour was dead, a great man; he had often been 
Speaker, Treasurer of the Navy, and in many other lucra- 
tive offices. He was of a hasty spirit, not at all sincere, 
but head of the party at any time prevailing in Parlia- 

29th September, 1701. I kept my j&rst courts in Sur- 
rey, which took up the whole week. My steward was 
Mr. Hervey, a Counsellor, Justice of Peace, and Member 
of Parliament, and my neighbor. I gave him six gnineas, 
which was a guinea a day, and to Mr. Martin, his clerk, 
three guineas. 

31st October, 1701. I was this day 81 complete, in 
tolerable health, considering my great age. 

December, 1701. Great contentions about elections. I 
gave my vote and interest to Sir R. Onslow and Mr. 

27th December, 1701. My grandson quitted Oxford. 

358 DIARY OF London 

2ist January, 1701-02. At the Royal Society there was 
read and approved the delineation and description of my 
Tables of Veins and Arteries, by Mr. Cooper, the chinir- 
geon, in order to their being engraved. 

8th March, 1702. The King had a fall from his horse, 
and broke his collar bone, and having been much indis- 
posed before, and aguish, with a long cough and other 
weakness, died this Sunday morning, about four o'clock. 

I carried my accounts of Greenwich Hospital to the 

12th April, 1702. My brother-in-law, Glanville, departed 
this life this morning after a long languishing illness, 
leaving a son by my sister, and two granddaughters. 
Our relation and friendship had been long and great. He 
was a man of excellent parts. He died in the 84th year 
of his age, and willed his body to be wrapped in lead and 
carried down to Greenwich, put on board a ship, and 
buried in the sea, between Dover and Calais, about the 
Goodwin sands ; which was done on the Tuesday, or Wednes- 
day after. This occasioned much discourse, he having 
no relation at all to the sea. He was a gentleman of an 
ancient family in Devonshire, and married my sister Jane. 
By his prudent parsimony he much improved his fortune. 
He had a place in the Alienation Office, and might have 
been an extraordinary man, had he cultivated his parts. 

My steward at Wotton gave a very honest account of 
what he had laid out on repairs, amounting to ;^ 1,900. 

3d May, 1702. The report of the committee sent to 
examine the state of Greenwich hospital was delivered 
to the House of Commons, much to their satisfaction. 
Lord Godolphin made Lord High Treasurer. 

Being elected a member of the Society lately incor- 
porated for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign 
parts, I subscribed ;^io per annum toward the carrying 
it on. We agreed that every missioner, besides the ^^20 
to set him forth, should have j^s° P®^ annum out of the 
stock of the Corporation, till his settlement was worth to 
him ;^ioo per annum. We sent a young divine to New York. 

2 2d June, 1702. I dined at the Archbishop's with the 
newly made Bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Nicolson, my worthy 
and learned correspondent. 

27th June, 1702. I went to Wotton with my family 
for the rest of the summer, and my son-in-law, Draper, 

I70I-02 JOHN EVELYN 359 

with his family, came to stay with us, his house at Ad- 
discombe being new-building, so that my family was 
above thirty. Most of the new Parliament were chosen 
of Church of England principles, against the peevish 
party. The Queen was magnificently entertained at Ox- 
ford and all the towns she passed through on her way to 

31st October, 1702. Arrived now to the 826. year of 
my age, having read over all that passed since this day 
twelvemonth in these notes, I render solemn thanks to 
the Lord, imploring the pardon of my past sins, and the 
assistance of his grace; making new resolutions, and im- 
ploring that he will continue his assistance, and prepare 
me for my blessed Savior's coming, that I may obtain a 
comfortable departure, after so long a term as has been 
hitherto indulged me. I find by many infirmities this 
ye&x (especially nephritic pains) that I much decline; 
and yet of his infinite mercy retain my intellect and 
senses in great measure above most of my age. I have 
this year repaired much of the mansion house and several 
tenants' houses, and paid some of my debts and engage- 
ments. My wife, children, and family in health: for all 
which I most sincerely beseech Almighty God to accept 
of these my acknowledgments, and that if it be his holy 
will to continue me yet longer, it may be to the praise 
of his infinite grace, and salvation of my soul. Amen! 

8th November, 1702. My kinsman, John Evelyn, of 
Nutfield, a young and very hopeful gentleman, and 
Member of Parliament, after having come to Wotton 
to see me, about fifteen days past, went to London and 
there died of the smallpox. He left a brother, a 
commander in the army in Holland, to inherit a fair 

Our affairs in so prosperous a condition both by sea 
and land, that there has not been so great an union in 
Parliament, Court, and people, in memory of man, which 
God in mercy make us thankful for, and continue! The 
Bishop of Exeter preached before the Queen and both 
Houses of Parliament at St. Paul's; they were wonder- 
fully huzzaed in their passage, and splendidly entertained 
in the city. 

December, 1702. The expectation now is, what treas- 
ure will be found on breaking bulk of the galleon brought 

36o DIARY OF London 

from Vigo by Sir George Rooke, which being made up 
in an extraordinary manner in the hold, was not begun 
to be opened till the fifth of this month, before two of 
the Privy Council, two of the chief magistrates of the 
city, and the Lord Treasurer. 

After the excess of honor conferred by the Queen on 
the Earl of Marlborough, by making him a Knight of 
the Garter and a Duke, for the success of but one cam- 
paign, that he should desire ;^5,ooo a year to be settled 
on him by Parliament out of the Post Office, was thought 
a bold and unadvised request, as he had, besides his 
own considerable estate, above ;^3o,ooo a year in places 
and employments, with ;^5o,ooo at interest. He had 
married one daughter to the son of my Lord Treasurer 
Godolphin, another to the Earl of Sunderland, and a third 
to the Earl of Bridgewater. He is a very handsome 
person, well-spoken and affable, and supports his want of 
acquired knowledge by keeping good company. 

January, 1702-03. News of Vice-Admiral Benbow's con- 
flict with the French fleet in the West Indies, in which 
he gallantly behaved himself, and was wounded, and 
would have had extraordinary success, had not four of his 
men-of-war stood spectators without coming to his assist- 
ance; for this, two of their commanders were tried by a 
Council of War, and executed;* a third was condemned 
to perpetual imprisonment, loss of pay, and incapacity 
to serve in future. The fourth died. 

Sir Richard Onslow and Mr, Oglethorpe (son of the 
late Sir Theo. O.) fought on occasion of some words 
which passed at a committee of the House. Mr. Ogle- 
thorpe was disarmed. The Bill against occasional con- 
formity was lost by one vote. Corn and provisions so 
cheap that the farmers are unable to pay their rents. 

February, 1703. A famous cause at the King's Bench 
between Mr. Fenwick and his wife, which went for him 
with a great estate. The Duke of Marlborough lost his 
only son at Cambridge by the smallpox. A great earth- 
quake at Rome, etc. A famous young woman, an Italian, 
was hired by our comedians to sing on the stage, dur- 

* The Captains Kirby and Wade, having been tried and condemned 
to die by a court-martial held on them in the West Indies, were sent 
home in the « Bristol ; » and, on its arrival at Portsmouth were both 
shot on board, not being suffered to land on English ground. 

I702-03 JOHN EVELYN 361 

ing so many plays, for which they gave her ^^^'soo; 
which part by her voice alone at the end of three scenes 
she performed with such modesty and grace, and above 
all with such skill, that there was never any who did 
anything comparable with their voices. She was to go 
home to the Court of the King of Prussia, and I believe 
carried with her out of this vain nation above ;^ 1,000, 
everybody coveting to hear her at their private houses. 

26th May, 1703. This day died Mr. Samuel Pepys, a 
very worthy, industrious and curious person, none in 
England exceeding him in knowledge of the navy, in 
which he had passed through all the most considerable 
offices. Clerk of the Acts and Secretary of the Admiralty, 
all which he performed with great integrity. When 
King James II. went out of England, he laid down his 
office, and would serve no more; but withdrawing him- 
self from all public affairs, he lived at Clapham with his 
partner, Mr. Hewer, formerly his clerk, in a very noble 
house and sweet place, where he enjoyed the fruit of 
his labors in great prosperity. He was universally be- 
loved, hospitable, generous, learned in many things, 
skilled in music, a very great cherisher of learned men 
of whom he had the conversation. His library and col- 
lection of other curiosities were of the most consider- 
able, the models of ships especially. Besides what he 
published of an account of the navy, as he found and 
left it, he had for divers years under his hand the His- 
tory of the Navy, or Navalia, as he called it; but how 
far advanced, and what will follow of his, is left, I sup- 
pose, to his sister's son, Mr. Jackson, a young gentle- 
man, whom Mr. Pepys had educated in all sorts 
of useful learning, sending him to travel abroad, from 
whence he returned with extraordinary accomplishments, 
and worthy to be heir. Mr. Pepys had been for near 
forty years so much my particular friend, that Mr. Jack- 
son sent me complete mourning, desiring me to be one 
to hold up the pall at his magnificent obsequies; but my 
indisposition hindered me from doing him this last office. 

13th June, 1703. Rains have been great and continual, 
and now, near midsummer, cold and wet. 

nth July, 1703. I went to Addiscombe, sixteen miles 
from Wotton, to see my son-in-law's new house, the 
outside, to the coving, being such excellent brickwork, 

36a DIARY OF London 

based with Portland stone, with the pilasters, windows, 
and within, that I pronounced it in all the points of good 
and solid architecture to be one of the very best gentle- 
men's houses in Surrey, when finished. I returned to 
Wotton in the evening, though weary. 

25th July, 1703. The last week in this month an un- 
common long-continued rain, and the Sunday following, 
thunder and lightning. 

12th August, 1703. The new Commission for Green- 
wich hospital was sealed and opened, at which my son- 
in-law, Draper, was present, to whom I resigned my 
office of Treasurer, From August 1696, there had been 
expended in building j£Sg,^64 14s. 8d. 

31st October, 1703. This day, being eighty-three years 
of age, upon examining what concerned me, more par- 
ticularly the past year, with the great mercies of God 
preserving me, and in the same measure making my 
infirmities tolerable, I gave God most hearty and humble 
thanks, beseeching him to confirm to me the pardon of 
my sins past, and to prepare me for a better life by the 
virtue of his grace and mercy, for the sake of my blessed 

2ist November, 1703. The wet and uncomfortable 
weather staying us from church this morning, our Doctor 
officiated in my family; at which were present above 
twenty domestics. He made an excellent discourse on i 
Cor. XV., V. 55, 56, of the vanity of this world and uncer- 
tainty of life, and the inexpressible happiness and satis- 
faction of a holy life, with pertinent inferences to prepare 
us for death and a future state. I gave him thanks, and 
told him I took it kindly as my funeral sermon. 

26-7th November, 1703. The effects of the hurricane 
and tempest of wind, rain, and lightning, through all 
the nation, especially London, were very dismal. Many 
houses demolished, and people killed. As to my own 
losses, the subversion of woods and timber, both orna- 
mental and valuable, through my whole estate, and about 
my house the woods crowning the garden mount, the 
growing along the park meadow, the damage to my own 
dwelling, farms, and outhouses, is almost tragfical, not to 
be paralleled, with anything happening in our age. I 
am not able to describe it; but submit to the pleasure 
of Almighty God. 

1703-04 JOHN EVELYN 363 

7th December, 1703. I removed to Dover Street, where 
I foimd all well; but houses, trees, garden, etc., at Sayes 
Court, suffered very much. 

31st December, 1703. I made up my accounts, paid 
wages, gave rewards and New Year's gifts, according to 

January, 1703-04. The King of Spain * landing at Ports- 
mouth, came to Windsor, where he was magnificently 
entertained by the Queen, and behaved himself so nobly, 
that everybody was taken with his graceful deportment. 
After two days, having presented the great ladies, 
and others, with valuable jewels, he went back to Ports- 
mouth, and immediately embarked for Spain. 

1 6th January, 1704. The Lord Treasurer gave my 
grandson the office of Treasurer of the Stamp Duties, 
with a salary of ^^300 a year. 

30th January, 1704. The fast on the Martyrdom of 
King Charles I. was observed with more than usual 

May, 1704. Dr. Bathurst, President of Trinity College, 
Oxford, now died,f I think the oldest acquaintance now 
left me in the world. He was eighty-six years of age, 
stark blind, deaf, and memory lost, after having been a 
person of admirable parts and learning. This is a seri- 
ous alarm to me. God grant that I may profit by it! 
He built a very handsome chapel to the college, and his 
own tomb. He gave a legacy of money, and a third part 
of his library, to his nephew. Dr. Bohun, who went hence 
to his funeral. 

7th September, 1 704. This day was celebrated the thanks- 
giving for the late gfreat victory, J with the utmost pomp 
and splendor by the Queen, Court, great Officers, Lords 
Mayor, Sheriffs, Companies, etc. The streets were scaf- 
folded from Temple Bar, where the Lord Mayor presented 
her Majesty with a sword, which she returned. Every 
company was ranged under its banners, the city militia 
without the rails, which were all hung with cloth suitable 

* Charles III., afterward Emperor of Germany, by the title of 
Charles VI. 

t There is a very good Life of him, with his portrait prefixed, by 
Thomas Warton, Fellow of Trinity College, and Poetry Professor at 

J Over the French and Bavarians, at Blenheim, 13th August, 1704. 


to the color of the banner. The Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, 
and Aldermen were in their scarlet robes, with capari- 
soned horses ; the Knight Marshal on horseback ; the Foot- 
Guards; the Queen in a rich coach with eight horses, 
none with her but the Duchess of Marlborough in a very- 
plain garment, the Queen full of jewels. Music and 
trumpets at every city company. The great officers of 
the Crown, Nobility, and Bishops, all in coaches with six 
horses, besides innumerable servants, went to St. Paul's, 
where the Dean preached. After this, the Queen went 
back in the same order to St. James's. The city companies 
feasted all the Nobility and Bishops, and illuminated at 
night. Music for the church and anthems composed by 
the best masters. The day before was wet and stormy, 
but this was one of the most serene and calm days that 
had been all the year. 

October, 1704. The year has been very plentiful. 

31st October, 1704. Being my birthday and the 84th 
year of my life, after particular reflections on my concerns 
and passages of the year, I set some considerable time 
of this day apart, to recollect and examine my state and 
condition, giving God thanks, and acknowledging his 
infinite mercies to me and mine, begging his blessing, 
and imploring his protection for the year following. 

December, 1704. Lord Clarendon presented me with 
the three volumes of his father's ** History of the Rebel- 
lion. » 

My Lord of Canterbury wrote to me for suffrage for 
Mr. Clarke's continuance this year in the Boyle Lecture, 
which I willingly gave for his excellent performance of 
this year. 

9th February, 1704. I went to wait on my Lord Treas- 
urer, where was the victorious Duke of Marlborough, who 
came to me and took me by the hand with extraordinary 
familiarity and civility, as formerly he was used to do, 
without any alteration of his good-nature. He had a 
most rich George in a sardonyx set with diamonds of 
very great value; for the rest, very plain. I had not 
seen him for some years, and believed he might have 
forgotten me. 

2ist February, 1704. Remarkable fine weather. Agues 
and smallpox much in every place. 

nth March, 1704. An exceedingly dry season. Great 

1704-05 JOHN EVELYN 365 

loss by fire, burning the outhouses and famous stable of 
the Earl of Nottingham, at Burleigh [Rutlandshire], full 
of rich goods and furniture, by the carelessness of a serv- 
ant. A little before, the same happened at Lord Pem- 
broke's, at Wilton. The old Countess of Northumberland, 
Dowager of Algernon Percy, Admiral of the fleet to 
King Charles I,, died in the 83d year of her age. She 
was sister to the Earl of Suffolk, and left a great estate, 
her jointure to descend to the Duke of Somerset. 

May, 1704. The Bailiff of Westminster hanged him- 
self. He had an ill report. 

On the death of the Emperor, there was no mourning 
worn at Court, because there was none at the Imperial 
Court on the death of King William. 

1 8th May, 1704. I went to see Sir John Chardin, at 
Turnham Green, the gardens being very fine, and exceed- 
ingly well planted with fruit. 

20th May, 1704. Most extravagant expense to debauch 
and corrupt votes for Parliament members. I sent my 
grandson with his party of my freeholders to vote for 
Mr. Harvey, of Combe. 

4th January, 1704-05. I dined at Lambeth with the 
Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. King, a sharp and ready man 
in politics, as well as very learned. 

June, 1705. The season very dry and hot. I went 
to see Dr. Dickinson the famous chemist. We had long 
conversation about the philosopher's elixir, which he be- 
lieved attainable, and had seen projection himself by one 
who went under the name of Mundanus, who sometimes 
came along among the adepts, but was unknown as to 
his country, or abode; of this the doctor had written a 
treatise in Latin, full of very astonishing relations. He 
is a very learned person, formerly a Fellow of St. John's 
College, Oxford, in which city he practiced physic, but 
has now altogether given it over, and lives retired, being 
very old and infirm, yet continuing chemistry. 

I went to Greenwich hospital, where they now began 
to take in wounded and worn-out seamen, who are ex- 
ceedingly well provided for. The buildings now going 
on are very magnificent. 

October, 1705. Mr. Cowper made Lord Keeper. Ob- 
serving how uncertain great officers are of continuing 
long in their places, he would not accept it, unless 

366 DIARY OP London 

_;^2,ooo a year were gfiven him in reversion when he was 
put out, in consideration of his loss of practice. His pred- 
ecessors, how little time soever they had the Seal, usually 
got ;^ 1 00,000 and made themselves Barons. A new Sec- 
retary of State. Lord Abingfton, Lieutenant of the Tower, 
displaced, and General Churchill, brother to the Duke of 
Marlborough, put in. An indication of great unsteadi- 
ness somewhere, but thus the crafty Whig party (as 
called) begin to change the face of the Court, in oppo- 
sition to the High Churchmen, which was another 
distinction of a party from the Low Churchmen. The Par- 
liament chose one Mr. Smith, Speaker. There had never 
been so great an assembly of members on the first day 
of sitting, being more than 450. The votes both of the 
old, as well as the new, fell to those called Low Church- 
men, Contrary to all expectation. 

31st October, 1705. I am this day arrived to the 85th 
year of my age. Lord teach me so to number my days 
to come, that I may apply them to wisdom! 

ist January, 1705-06. Making up my accounts for the 
pasc year, paid bills, wages, and New Year's gifts, accord- 
ing to custom. Though much indisposed and in so ad- 
vanced a stage, I went to our chapel [in London] to 
give God public thanks, beseeching Almighty God to 
assist me and my family the ensuing year, if he should 
yet continue my pilgrimage here, and bring me at last 
to a better life with him in his heavenly kingdom. 
Divers of our friends and relations dined with us this day. 

27th January, 1706. My indisposition increasing, I was 
exceedingly ill this whole week. 

3d February, 1706. Notes of the sermons at the chapel 
in the morning and afternoon, written with his own hand, 
conclude this Diary.* 

*Mr. Evelyn died on the 27th of this month. 


Date Due 





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Evelyn, John. 
The diary of...