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AMG-NYU No. 1^8 May 19^6 

Copy No. 2 

llsKtm ,J^^^ ^^^'^ UNIVERSITY 
4 Washington Pface, New York 3 N Y 


APRIL 1946 

April 15 

Got in touch with Bureau o£ Aeronautic a liaison 
people (Gojmaander Stevenson and Lieutenant Max in par- 
ticular) and made su*ran{ieiTienta to 50 to Aerojet. Saw 
Zwicky at Azusa in tiie aTternoon. Found him in good 
heal til and in a much aore relaxed mood than we had ever 
seen him before. It is cleaj? that he feela iiiuch leas 
\inder pressure than h© used to. He siiowed us hla con- 
tract for v/ork on the hydropulse which is very good 
from his point of view since this contract permits hin 
a very f^reat amount of freedom as to what he siiould do. 
Noticed tliat he raay even tal:e up the problem of tlae 
hydro-turbo jet. Unfortvmately, however. Aerojet haa 
aa yet no contract for the aero devices. Seenlnrjly 
thei"*e are some difficulties about obtaining a contract 
to work on those devices. 

Zwiclcy showed us through the plant at Azuaa. Vie 
ware shown everything that we wanted to aee, in marked 
contrast to wlxat happened when JJS and MS visited there 
on a former occasion. Tlie plant is much larger than 
JJS had lmap;ined it and it makes a very ^'ood Impression. 
Both JJS and JKI-M were very favorably impressed both by 
the people there and the facilltiea they seem to liave. 
Zwicky showed ua his throe volumes of notes on his trip 
throunh the German laboratories (JKIJ.I Is bringing; copies 
back) and other documents in which we were interested. 
Saw a compressed air driven hydropulse with a jet tube 
about 4 feet long and a fev/ Inches in diameter which 
developed a tlirust of 150 pounds. Pressure curves 


indicate desirability of timing injection of air to 
synchronize with pressure pulse due (apparently) to rar/i 
effect of inflowin.'j; water. Tlieoretical study seeris de- 
sirable. Sugr.Qst Prled-Tian emd some associate visit 
Aerojet to discuss theory some time within next 6 
months. Zwlolcy spoke of desirable feat^aros of alwainmn 
boro-hydride to replace the relatively inexpensive but 
slowly reacting sodium potassium alloy as a fuel for 
hydropulses . Saw various earlier models of hydropulse 
components as well as various kinds of aeropulses in- 
cluding an automatic rotary air- valve type, a heater 
and a recent Schmidt pulse- jet (which Zwicky broun;ht 
back with him from Germany) . This last type employs a 
conical banlc of reed valves (air intake), special types 
of fuel Injectors and a diverging jet- tube with a re- 
sulting hl;»h efficiency and long life; it is probably 
tho first step in an important development in pulse- jets. 
Schmidt was Tsrorkinij on a comprehensive extension of the 
field of pulse-jet devices when VE day arrived. He had 
plans for complicated free piston pulse- jet devices for 
use in the (general field of propulsion, Zwiclcy was in- 
terested in controlled coraWstion - he sees five sta^^es 
of design for combustion: (1) Combustion In quiescent 
gas, (2) Combustion in arbitrarily turbulent gas, (-3) 
Combustion with aero-dynamically developed turbulence, 
(4) combustion with thermally developed turbulence, (5) 
Purely chemical control. Zwicky plans use (in How 
Mexico) of a rocket noimted on V2 as two propul- 
sive device to hit moon (in relatively near future) to 
make telescopic study of dust developed by Inipact. V/e 
will return on Wednesday to Aerojet to spend the day. 

April 16 

"vVent to GalTech to speak briefly with Swlolcy and 
then went to talk with Tsien. Told Tslon that Priodrlchs 


has talcen up the work on the supersonic airroil ai^ain 
and hopes to carry that tlirough now. Learned that 
Tslen is tryln^^j to initiate raore abstract research than 
he did dtirln.]; the war, with particular reference to low 
density aerodynamics Involvinc hijher order derivatives 
in viscosity, heat flow and diffusion. Told Tsien we 
had heard he raisht be coning to Princeton but did not 
get much of a reaction except the general impression 
tliat Tsien would not be averse to c^ln^j, to the East. 
Had lunch with Tsien who talked mostly about ITexoaarm ' a 
plans for calculating machines. Tsien disapproves of 
these plans principally because he feels that ITe\iKiann 
claims more for the machine than it can deliver. He 
also feels that ITeumann therefore has a tendency to 
minimize the theoretical \vork that lias to be done, say 
to solve some of the basic problems in gas dynamics. 

JICLU spent most of ai'ternoon preparing; for 
day's talk to Aerojet people and trip to Inyokern. 

JJ3 saw Epstein in the afternoon. Learned that MS 
was considered for a position but Bohnenblust ;ot the 
job. (Zwiclcy stated, however, that they took Bolinenblust 
to manage landergradixate affairs, not to take Bato^nan's 
place, and for tlmt H3 would not be the man anyway, in 
JJS opinion.) 

iTpstein then told of Karman's support of the idea 
of having LIS go to GIT. Epstein feels that there still 
might be a place for JUS there and recommends that KOP 
and JJS write strong letters about this to him or to 
Bell. Epstein then told of his work on elastic shells 
wiiich is interesting. He may have beaten S. Reisner in 
the extension of the Kirchoff thin plate theory. Told 
him of i'lOP's recent work. iHpstoin no longer does war 
work and v/ants to get back to quantum mechanics as rapidly 


as possible. He doea not have lauch i'alth in the Navy as a 
supporter of raaearoh - nor much faith in the national 
Science J^'oundation either. 

Later in the arternoon JJ3 .ju..< i-annan »^.^ vvu.a Vux j 
jovial and friendly. Spoke about Shlffraan and mentioned 
the possibility Ox" a job for him in the EliGlneerinrj; School, 
Do not thinlc this would be a proper Job for IS and recoramended 
DePritoa instead. Have to see ■^. ^, Linvall, Chairman of the 
Ensineerins Division, later on i>^ i.all: to him about this. 
Linvall said Karman was leaving for the East the next day. 
Told Karraan we had heard that he Intended to leave the West 
Coast to stay permanently in the East and aslred him if that 
v/ere true. He said that he was oin,<^ East the next day and 
intended to make up his nind on this occasion. Doubt that 
he will. Also told him that if he did come East Courant 
and all the rest of us would be happy to have him work with 
u» in any form that would suit liim. He inquired as to what 
was going on at Brown, Told him that Prager, rather tioan 
Richardson, was now runnln^t; the Mechanics School v/hich 
Karman did not seem to know. Karman does iiot care for Prager, 
he says, and voltmteered the statement that we had done very 
much better war work than the people at Brown. In the even- 
ing we had dinner with Zwicky and a Ion;; conversation after- 
wards, mostly about astrophysics, Zwiclry's travels in Japan 
and skiing In Switzerland, 

April 17 

JJS and JKLM had breakfast v/itii Zwxclcy and then drove 
out to Aerojet with him. MacDonald gave a comprehensive talk 
about hia theory of the intermittent jet motors to a group of 
a dozen or more people working; in the research department, 
JJS thinks that the talk was very £,ooa and was well received. 
Zwicky told JJS later that he thou^it it an excellent approach. 
The Chief £ig!neer, llorton Moore, wants JICLM to keep them 


Infonaed currently of Ms results and hopes he can get then 
directly from us without the necessity of sendin;; thora tlirouch 
Washincton first. Aerojet has published quite a number of re- 
ports in the last year which we have not received. JKLM had 
fruitful talk with various members of Aerojet research group 
about characteristics of pulse- Jets and measurinr; devices. 
Learned that Navy not so broad:alnded about contracts with 
groups affiliated with industry as v/ith universities. Aerojet 
not i^iven appropriation for adequate instrxicientatlon for basic 
research. Think very desirable chat ITavy be approached by RC 
to allow Aerojet do such research for us, at least. Aerojet 
has the pulse- jets, machine shops and staff but lacks author- 
ization as well as spectroscopes, li;;ht sources and other ap- 
paratus necessary for fmida-nental studies which should lead to 
basic improvements in jet devices. 

Had lunch at Azusa with Zwicky and V/arfel, who to our 
surprise now works on contract matters for Aerojet., After- 
wards JJS drove to UCLA with Berjgren (of Aerojet - in charge 
of developinr; the aero devices - he seems to be a vory excel- 
lent person, very capable) to hear a lecture by Langmuir and 
to try to find out whether it is worthwhile to go to LaJolla to 
the Pcrippe Institute of Oceaiaography. Pound out that the 
Seripps people continue to v/ork on water waves and that we 
should go there. In fact, met a young man named champion from 
ocripps who described in some detail what they aro doing there. 
Champion may visit us in Hew York as he expects to go to Woods 
Hole for a visit soon. Met Boelter (whom JKLM knov/s in connec- 
tion with heat flow) , Dykstra, and a number of other pleasant 
people. UCLA looks very pleasant. 

JIvLM went -co Inyokern in the late afternoon. JJ3 had din- 
ner with Zwiclcy and talked to him afterwards about cascadint; 
and about the hydropulse but was not able to maderstaiid too well 
Zwicky 's comments on KOP's v/ork with respect to the cascading 
problem. Tills point will be dealt with in more detail by JICLM 
later on in this diary. 


April 13 ( ITotea bj JJS in Pasadena ) 

Saw i''« 0. Lindvall, Chairman of the Brit^inoerliijj; Division, 
in accordance with Kantian' s raqueac. iliey want a mail to talce 
charge of givin3 a year's ooursa to xuadergraduatca in the 
,Sn{jlneoring School based on soaethin; like the book of Karnian- 
Blot» I recoKL.ionded DoPrima for the job, DePriioa shoxild send 
in his record. 

J J'' talked next with H. Einstein, son of the famous 
ulnstcirx, who works uftder Knapp on a siaall project concerned 
with water wavep. They are studylncj shock interactions by 
means of the analc^ ' otween shallow water theory for gravity 
waves in water and ^.^^J ^as dynamics theory. Tliey liave a 
rather elaborate apparatus which permits photographlns the 
interactions. It was not possible to see, the laboratory at 
this time. Will r:o back later '"-^ this piirpose* 

Vi'ent to liinch with Epstein. He says the new president 
of GIT lias been chosen, he thinks, and that it la a c;ood 
choice, but he woul.l not say who he thou'^ht it v/as. Spoke to 
Epstein about ny conversation with Lindvall. i^nteln thinks 
he is not in j.avor of introducing courses of this kind since 
he believes that enf^ineers should be taught rigorous laathe- 
matics. What an optimist I 

"lent to Aerojet in the afternoon to see the hydropulse 
in operation. As we have laaown for nearly a year, they operate 
a hydropulse in a circular canal so that it can be kept running 
more or less indefinitely without atoppin,;. On this oecasion 
they attained a apeed of about 15 laiota with a double actins 
unit. I v/aa told that th^y have attained a apeed of XQ .mots. 
I was very iuo-c^ impressed ai^ce I had never ao.en a jot propelled 
device work before with the exception of a rocket. iTie jnan 
IXi charge of the hydropulse, named Spsigawajae^ impressed no 
yery favorably as an cnercetlc fellow who will pvish bIiiA:,s 
to some aort of a conclusion. I inquired whether he waa to 
ha\ro any theoretical work done or calculations made, but he 
felt that for the time being it was more important for tliem 


to try to overcome any mechanical difficulties they en- 
counter and that theoretical work might well wait for a 
time. So far they have never achieved a higher peak 
pressure in the hydropulae than about 3 atraa. Of course 
Zmicky'a hopes are based on achieving very much higher 
iwak pressures through the use of the new chemicals. At 
present they are still using sodium potassium alloy. 

Notes by JKIil In Inyokern 

Stayed with Dr. Elvey and family in their nice Civil 
Service provided air-conditioned bungalow. Considerable 
improvement in appearance and facilities noted at Inyokern, 
Clear desert air very refreshing after the haze and fumes 
of Los Angeles region. Elvey says that he thinks someone 
in Washington is opposing development of fundamental re- 
search at Inyokern. Present plan is to have most of basic 
science work concentrated at Pasadena. Elvey's group la 
getting started on heat flow and combustion problems in 
rockets using solid and liquid propellanta. He is organ- 
izing seminars and would like talks such as JKLM on in- 
strumentation, turbulence and combustion. Evidence of 
social friction and difficulties noted at Inyokern - 
Utopia apijeara to be very elusive. Returned to Pasadena 
on evening bus after being out-priorltied from airplane 
by some Brass Hats. 

April 19 

JJS and JKIJ4 went to Santa Monica in the morning to 
■ee Francis Clauser at the Douglas Aircraft Go. We were 
both very favorably impressed by Clauser. Of course we 
told him of the plans for research in jet propulsion here 
in the East and asked him whether he would be interested 
in taking a position at NYTI at the Guggenheim Institute 
to work on this project. He said that he would be inter- 
ested although his position with the Douglas Aircraft Go. 


was good and he was not discontented there. Fig salary 
is quite high although he la only 3S. (He la married and 
has two children.) Hla salary la 7300 (plus a promised 
15 percent) a year. We think that Clauaer would be will- 
ing to come iilast for a somewhat smaller salary If he had 
a permanent academic position and if In addition he could 
increase his earnings at least temporarily by working on 
a project. In any case we both feel that Glauser would 
be a very great asset and in fact Is Just the man for the 
job. As a person he was also most agreeable and would 
make a good collea/^ue we ai»e sure. Hb Is very interested 
in problems on combustion and on jet propulsion and there- 
fore would fit Into the BuAer program very effectively. 
The university should get him if at all possible. 

Returned to Pasadena. JJS to see H. Einstein and 
JKLM to visit the Glannlnnl people. JJS saw demonstra- 
tion by H. Einstein of an apparatus for producing water 
waves and photographing them. They produced analogs of 
steep compression waves in gas dynamics, and it was very 
interesting to observe them. It appeared, however, that 
none of these people understand the basic theory, perhaps 
because they have not tried to learn it so far. Their 
interest has been mainly in perfecting their apparatus. 
H. jbiinsteln was, however, very much interested to hear 
what we were doing and thought it would be an excellent 
idea if we were to prepare a monograph on the subject of 
water waves in general. 

J¥JM, provided Tslth clearance through BuAer and 
'Alright Field, kept an appointment with G. M. Oiannlnni 
(a fomer physics research student of Permi in Rome) who 
heads a company doing development work on pulse -jets 
under contract to the Army Air Force. Glannlnnl is 
genial and enthusiastic and appears to be doing effective 
work primarily of an empirical character. As a recent 



side line his company has started to manufacture small 
pulae-jets for model airplanes. These devices make an 
ungodly racket and probably will be outlawed by every 
civilized community shortly after their appearance on the 
market. Gianninni took me out to their testing laboratory 
in Azusa where I saw numerous pulse-jet devices. They 
have developed an efficient jet driven propeller (jets at 
the tips) but their main effort has been in the develop- 
ment of long-life reed valves and of efficient fuel in- 
jection, turbulence makers and jet shapes. They were 
very interested to learn that we had started a general 
investigation of turbulent combustion. Gianninni asked 
if we could investigate the suction characteristics of 
pulsed flow around small nozzles in a venturi tube. He 
promised to send us contract numbers which we could use 
to get the reports they submitted to Wright Field. 

At 5:30 JJS and JKLM met at the hotel and a little 
later interviewed Chambre. Charabre stated at once that 
he would be interested in going Bast. His particular in- 
terest lies in the study of combustion processes and re- 
lated fields. We feel that Chambre would fit In very 
well In the proposed project and would favor offering him 
a position. As a person he made on excellent Impression, 
appearing both modest and well Informed. 

Had dinner with Zwicky and Warfel and his wife at 
the Huntington. The Huntington la as full of old fossils 
as ever and struck us just as unfavorably as on former oc- 
casions. The dinner with Zwicky and the Warfels was very 
pleasant and Warfel is really quite a nice person. As a 
sidelight on living conditions on the West Coast, we 
learned that Warfel and his wife and child rent little 
more than one room in a private house and pay $270 a 
month rent. 


April 20 

JJS and JKIM went by train to La Jolla, which Is a 
place juat a few miles north of San Diego. We were met 
at the train by Sverdrup, Director of the Scrlpps Insti- 
tute of Oceanography, who drove ua to the Institute. The 
scenery from the train and in the region around La Jo 11a 
was very beautiful. JKLM had almost his first opportunity 
to take a lot of Kodachrome pictures. The Scrlpps Insti- 
tute has a moat beautiful location, on a cliff overlooking 
the bay. Sverdrup was very cordial. He told us at some 
length about their work on water waves which continues on 
a considerable scale. They are very much interested in 
the problem of breakers on a beach - their amplitude, the 
location of the point of breaking, etc. - In accordance 
with conditions in the deep water. Both JKLM and JJS had 
the impression that they did not understand the theory 
very well. Sverdrup was very much interested in nearly 
all the various things we are doing concerning water waves 
and wants to be kept informed. He may visit us in the 
course of the suauner. Bs recommended that we get In touch 
with Commander Roger Revelle, BuShips, Code 940, and with 
the I^drographic Office in Washington. It seems that the 
Eydrographic Office has organized a new divialon of ocean- 
ography which will be, to some degree at least, concerned 
with water wave problems. Sverdrup la supposed to train 
6 or 8 young people who apparently will then later on 
work in the I^ydrographlc Office. JJS la of the opinion 
that they ought to take someone trained by us to aasiat 
them in their work on water waves. 

JJS flew back to Burbank from San Diego, and JKLM 
returned later by train after unsuccessfully trying to 
contact some Underwater Sound people. Apparently that 
project has been disbanded. 



April 21 

Easter - Had breakfast mith Ziilcky and then diacuaaed 
cascading once more. JKIM was present this tiai© and made 
notes which he has since considered In connection with 
Aerojet reports on the 'Universal Thrust liquation' ori- 
ginally due to Zwloky. The following was the interpreta- 
tion made of Zwioky'a rather cryptic ooaunenta: Zwicky's 
universal thrust equation for jet motors is 

(1) 1=0 

;3 - 1 -^ jt^^d . ^ ^^-^T) 

which is based on the following definitions (suitable av- 
erages for nonsteady jets): 

/5 = Kq/Cw^ + m^) (augmentation parameter) with 

m^ = mass flux of fuel and mx. = mass flux of 
air through jet 

Up = free stream air speed relative to motor » 

^^^ ~ exhaust gas speed relative to motor 

At = mech. work available from unit mass of 

fuel in mixture which is regarded as pass- 
ing through a themiodynamlc cycle (e.g. 
adiabatic compression from free stream at- 
mospheric pressure p, to pre -combustion 
pressure pg, then combustion at constant 
volume up to p^, then adiabatic expansion 
to p^, then, to close the cycle, a cooling 
at constant pressure) 

Igp (= "specific thrust") = change In momentum of 
working substance per unit mass of fuel = 



^l (= "en;;ine eff icloncy") = kinetic eneray of 
exixaxist gas divided by a\x. o£ kinetic 
energy in Tree atream and laeclx, work 
available irom tiiermodjT,ia-iilo cycle = 

Zwicky aocns to tMnic that ti„ = 1 (practically inde- 
pendent of u , ^ etc.)> which JICTjM finds liard to believe 
since part of tt (=y*pdY) is used in conpresaion heating 
of adjacent layers of the jet jases (in contrast v/ith the 
casG In ordinar^^ internal corabuation enf^ines for v/hich 
cntlialpy is of minor importance). Zwicky considers the 
followinr cases as practical extremes: 

depends markedly on the au.'smontation /Q 
but not on tiie air speed u . 

(2) u^^ -* 00 , y5 - 0, ti^ = 1; then I^p - 


7^ ^ -^^ Tidilo'-* "06 3 not depend on the 

au»;;nentation and which varies nore 
strongly with Ae than in the first case. 

Zwiclcy a'rrees that Prledrich's calctilatlons are correct 
but do not consider contributions from u and /Q , More- 
over he probably somewhat confixses his "thermodynamic 
cycle efficiency" -^ with Friedrich's notions of speci- 
flc thrust efficiency, since he kept stressing: the rela- 
tively minor changes in T that he expected on the basis 
of practical possibilities for Increaslnr^ the thermo- 
dynaraic cycle efficiency. In particular he stressed the 
fact tiiat for the explicit cycle mentioned abovo (see 


derinltion of At) the efficiency -^ la only about 53 
percent for p^ » 12 atmosphores, and that in practice it 
is hard to get nuch more tiian the considerably less effi- 
cient pressure P3 = 2 atmospheres, ills main thesis 
seemed to be tliat efficiency should be considered only in 
connection with all factors concerned. JKLM feels tliat 
Zwicky believes too much in his universal tiirust equation 
but that the only effective procedure would be to devise 
a more scientific substitute before attemptin,: to discuss 
the matter v/lth him. 

One of the objects In visiting Zwlcky was to Infom 
him that KOP and JJS tto lon-er wished to work on the scni- 
engineering problems connected with the hydropulse and 
the aeropulae, since v;e feci tliat we are not particularly 
suited for this kind of work. However, JKLil, Frled2aan> 
and possibly others in the croup feel differently, said of 
course they may do what they like. JKLM and his c^oup 
particularly are very much Interested in extondlnc their 
work on the aero devices. Swlclcy did not seem either 
surprised or annoyed, but simply asked whether, for 
example, KOP would continue basic research In gas 
dynamics. Of course he v/as reassured that that was the 
case. (JlOiM noted that JJ3 and Zwiclry get along together 
exceptionally well and that Zwlclo,r'3 attitude entirely 
friendly towards the AIJG in general; possibility of JJS 
and Zwiclcy going together to Paris conference on mechanics.) 
Zwlcky, and all Iiis group at Aerojet, would like to con- 
centrate on what they consider to be basic research and 
they feel tlmt they arc to a certain degree prevented 
from doing so just because Aerojet Is an Industrial con- 
cern. In other words, the past history of Aerojet influ- 
ences the llavy in an adverse way with respect to getting 
contracts for doing basic research, r/e feel that this 
policy Is not sensible and that Aerojet has a group of 


people who could be very useful in carryin;; out basic re- 
searches for the intermittent motors and other aero de- 

Flew from Burbanic to san Francisco . Arrived at 
Berkeley In the evening where we were met by Lew^'' who iiad 
dinner with us. 

rook a uixj JxT. Lewy tool: us across the bay to Mt. 

Tamalpals . From this mountain one looks on one side on 

the Pacific and on the other over the Golden Gate to iJan 

Francisco. Have rarely spent an afternoon more agreeably. 

April 25 

Discussed Lewy's work in the morning. He iias solved 
the sloping beach problem for angles ^ tr with p any odd 
Integer and q any intei^er audi that 2q > p. The thing is 
very difficult, however, and I was not able to master it 
in the time I was there, particularly since Lowy load only 
a handwritten manuscript - a typical Lewy raanuscript. He 
expects to publish this before long in the Bulletin. 
Lunched with Lewy, Robinson and other membei's of the 
Mathematics Department. 

In the afternoon JKLK talked to some people at 
Boetter's old lieat flow lab and learned that practically 
all personnel has one to UCLA. Later we were introduced 
to Polsom, a co-^70^kcr of O'Brien at Berkeley, O'Brien 
and his group do extensive experimental research on water 
waves for a variety of purposes: 1 - Relation of waves 
to use of landing craft on beaches (Commander Revelle ap- 
pears to be the main officer in the Navy concerned with 
this), 2 - Breolrwater design for Imrbors, 3 - Bikini, 
4 - The water waves from the recent earthquake. Our work 
would interest them very much, especially the work on the 


problem of breakeps. This group lias quite extensive ex- 
perimental facilities and we were very favorably improsaed 
and considered o\xr afternoon to be very well spent. 

JJS went T/ith Lewy to Prantisc6k wolf's in the eve- 
ning. Wolf expects to visit the East within the next few 
weolcs in order to travel about and ?!ialce acquaintances 
with various croups. Lewy requested that we invito hln 
to talk to our group when he cones here, which I thlnlc we 
should do. Lewy thinlts highly of Wolf and hopes that hia 
visit East may work out to his advantar^e . 

April 24 

Went to Palo Alto to visit spencer and others at 
Stanford. Sav/ Spencer, Siiaeffer, Polya, Szegd, and 
Usponslcy. Tried to see Timoshenko (who has retired on 
iaalf pa7 but continues to teach a full schedule, appar- 
ently) . However, his v/if g is ill and it was not possible 
to see lilm. JJS talked to him on the telephone, gave him 
Courant's regards and invited him to visit us when he 
comes to New York, which will be some time in June. JKLM 
left Palo Alto in the late afternoon to return to Los 
Angeles by plane. JJS and JIvLM were very sorry to part 
- would have enjoyed a trip together to Yosemite. JJS 
had dinner v;ith Allen Wallis in the evening. This was 
very pleasant. Asked Wallia v/hether he would be inter- 
ested In ac3mlnl storing a research project in the East and 
he said probably not unless it concerned his particular 
field, I.e. economics and statistics. He seems quite 
satisfied at Stanford. Returned to Berkeley by train ar- 
riving very late . 

April 26 

JKLM got in touch with noac flow people at UCLA and 
learned from E. El. llorrin that they were constructing 


caloulatlnc machines of various types under a Navy con- 
tract, and that they were also under contract to the 
Inyokern r;i''O^P« They want to continue contact v/ith us. 
(After six day vacation JKLM returned to Hew York by 
plane . ) 

JJ3 spent the whole day v/lth Lewy. He read my manu- 
script on waves and sloping beaches and I his - as much as 
I was able - and we then criticized each other's work. 
This was helpful to both of us. After dinner walked up 
on the hill back of Berkeley, Picked up a member of the 
Mathematics Department named Poster v/ith whom we took a 
long walk on the mountain overlooking the bay. This v/as 
very pleasant and Poster is a very agreeable person. 

April 26 

Again spent the day with Lewy. This time we made 
strenuous efforts to work out the problem of waves on a 
sloping beach in the tliree dimensional case - i.e. a case 
in which the wave crests at oo do not r\in parallel to 
shore. Even in this special case we ran into some diffi- 
culties which we were not able to straighten out entirely. 
This must be done however. In the evening went with L«wy 
to visit Neyman whom I had never met before. I like 
lleyiaan. He did not say so directly, but I infer that he 
was far from content with the treate^ient he ^ot from vari- 
ous members of the Panel, lleyman load just come back from 
Greece where he had been thrown off the Commission to 
Supervise Elections in Greece. It seems that Neyman took 
his duties seriously and really tried to investigate a 
few cases in which fraud was claimed. He found plenty of 
fraud but this apparently made him very unpopular with 
the Commission and so they asked him to leave. 


April 2'^ 

Attended the meeting of the Mathematical Society in 
Berkeley. A former student of ours, Horn, apoke briefly 
on the subject of his doctor's thesis. This made an ex- 
cellent irapreasion and I was told tiiat everyone at Berkeley 
was pleased v/lth Horn's work. He will stay at Berkeley 
next year but Indicated that he woiild like to return to 
Now York the following year. He is a good man. Spencer 
also spoke about his and Shaeffor's work on Sciillcht 
functions. This is exceedingly complicated and involved 
a terrific calculation. After lunch Spencer and I re- 
turned by train to Palo Alto v/here I stayed with hira 
overnight. Spencer wished to be remenbei'ed to everyone 
here. He said that he would be willing to keep in touch 
with Aerojet for us if we wished. He and Shaeffer would 
like to do something in Applied Mathematics at Stai^iford 
but he told rae tliat Folya and Uspenaky are vei'*y strongly 
opposed to doing anything in this direction. In fact, it 
appears that Polya considers inost of the people who work 
in applied mathematics now more or less swindlers who try 
to take advantage of the orend in this direction caused 
by the war to malce careers for themselves, Spencer did 
not say so directly but it seems at least probable that 
Polya would include us in this group to a certain degree. 
Apparently it is Uspensky, however, Y/ho is nost bitterly 
opposed to the idea of doing anything in applied mathe- 
matics at Stanford. Uspenaky seemed to me to be approach- 
ing senility. 

After being av/ay from our group for two v/eeks it be- 
comes possible to look at our work with a certain degree 
of detacliment. Also, the opportunity to compare our- 
selves with others at CalTech, UCLA, Berkeley and Stanford 
presented Itself. From talking vrlth these people one 


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also ^ots the Impression or the general state of affairs 
at other places in the coimtry. It la our considered 
thougla biased opinion that we have, with one possible ex- 
ception, the liveliest and 2nost proriising group of people 
working in matheaatics in this covin try. 

In the eveninr; Polya and his wife cane to the 
Spencers ' and we spent a very pleasant evening talking 
about many things. Polya was exceedingly pleasant and in 
spite of my observations above I can't believe that he is 
unfriendly toward us. 

April 28 

Allen "iVallis drove me to the San Francisco airport 
in the morning where I took a plaiio for Los An,;eies and 
from there to Hew York. Cannot help but add how amazing 
It is that one can be in San Francisco at 12 noon New 
York time, fly to Los Angeles and from there to New York 
and arrive in Nev; York an hour or so after midnight. For 
the corifort of those who xaay also fly in the new Constel- 
lations, I recommend that they take seats far in the back 
as those toward the front are very noisy and there is 
very much vibration. Hov/ever, these planes seem to be 
rather rough and the seats in back are the worst in this 

qUO510 20iT/ NEv/ YORK liNtVERsW''''^^^^'^^ ^^^"^ ^^^ 
4 Wmhinglon Place, New York 3, N. Y