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Entered according to Art of Congress, in the year 1850, by 


Klerk's Office of the District Court for the District of Khode Island. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877, by 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at AVashington. 

Cambridge : 
Press of John Wilsoft 6r» Son. 


The second edition of this Dictionary was published in Boston 
in 1859, and a third the following year. The former was greatly 
enlarged from the first edition, the latter was a reprint of the 
second edition without alterations. 

During the eighteen years that have passed since the last 
revision, the vocabulary of our colloquial language has had 
large additions, chiefly from the sources whence additions usually 
come. To the Indian, the Dutch, the German, the French, and 
the Spanish elements, there have been but few contributions. 
From the arts, from new inventions, from new settlements, par- 
ticularly those in mining districts, from commerce, many words 
have been adopted ; while the late civil war has also fUmished 
its share. But, perhaps, the larger share of additions is from 
the vocabulary of slang, which may be divided into several 
classes. First are the terms used by the bankers and stock- 
brokers of Wall Street, which are well understood, and employed 
by those who operate in stocks in all our large cities. These 
may be classed among the more respectable slang. They are 
employed not only by merchants, but by all who have money to 
invest, or who operate in stocks. Educated men also make use of 
them, for the reason that there are no terms which so well express 
the operations connected with money. Next we have " College 
Slang," or words and expressions in common use among the 
students in our colleges and pupils of our higher schools. These 


words are so nmneroos that, when explained at length, and 
accompanied by examples, they make a volume of themselves. 
Then there is the slang of politicians, of the stage, of sportsmen, 
of Western boatmen, of pugilists, of the poHce, of rowdies and 
"roughs," of thieves, of work-shops, of the circus, of shop- 
keepers, workmen, &c., which taken together form a rich mine 
whence new words are derived ; some of which, after a struggle, 
become engrafted on our language, and finally obtain places in 
" Webster's Unabridged." 

Objections have been made to the incorporation of slang 
terms in. a work like the present, on the ground that it tends to 
preserve them and perpetuate their use. It is true that it does 
preserve them, but it does not perpetuate their use ; for they often 
disappear as suddenly as they come into existence. Slang terms 
will remain in use only so long as they may be useful in colloquial 
language. They may then be supplanted by others more ex- 
pressive, and sink into oblivion. But, even though they may 
become obsolete, it is no reason why they should not be included 
in a Dictionary or Glossary. Words having a political signifi- 
cance sometimes have an existence of ten or twenty years. 
They are employed by the newspaper press, are heard in the 
halls of legislation, and find a place in our political annals. The 
extinction of an old potitical party, the organization of another 
with new issues and a new platform, will be accompanied by new 
terms which will become the shibboleth or watchword of the 
party. The names of the older parties cease to be used, and are 
soon forgotten. Such is the history of the terms Federals, 
Bucktails, Barnburners, Old Hunkers, Loco-Focos, Silver Greys, 
and Know-Nothings. The clubs and flashy young men have their 
slang, often growing out of the fashion of the day, or out of 
the customs of society ; while the number introduced fh>m the 
humbler classes is much greater. Sometimes these strange 
words have a known origin ; but, of the larger number, no one 


knoivfl wheooc tliey come. Slang is thus the source whence 
lirge additious arc rnnde to our language. 

A writer in '* HouisehoU Wortis" (No, 183) has gone so far 
M to remark that a person '* isball not read one single parlia- 
mentar}* debate, as reported in a first-class newspaper, without 
meeting scores of slang words,'* and '' that from Mr. Speaker in 
his chair to the Cabinet ^linisters whispering behind it, from 
mover to seconder, fixsm true-blue Protectionist to extrcme«t 
Badltmlt the New House of Parliament echoes and re-echoes 
Willi eUwg." 

**The universality of slang," sajs Mr. Hotten/ ** is extraor- 
i^gmMy, Let any person for a short time narrowly examine the 
ooilTersatLon of their dearest and nearest friends ; a^^e* censor- 
like, even siioe and analyze their own supposed correct talk, and 
they fihaU be amazed at the numerons unauthorized, and what 
W0 can only call vulgar, words they continnall}' employ. . . , 
i aware that most new words are generally regarded as slang, 
ongh afterwards they may become useful and respectable 
additions to our standard dictionaries,** 

Within the last few years, several EngHsh writers have had the 
to acknowledge the importance of the slang element in 
our language, and to write in its defence. Among them Is 
Mr. E. B. Tylor, the learned author of ^^ Primitive Culture," 
and of ** Researches into the Early History of Mankind," who 
thud writes : — 

'* Skng, despised and ignored till lately by the lexicographers, 
IJ a genuine and influential branch of speech* It is one of the 
ibeders of what may be called standard language, which with 
little scruple adopts and adapts the words it happens to want, 
whether from the technical terms of shopmen and artisans, or 
out of the quainter vocabularies of coster- mongers and prize- 
fighters, school-boys and fops. This practical importance 

1 Slaag Dictionary, p, 40. 


entitles it to be treated linguistically, like any other working 
dialect. Nor is its theoretical value inconsiderable to the student. 
Like other dialects, slang is developed according to the general 
laws of language, and very striking are some of its illustrations 
of those laws. Many a philological hint may be gleaned from 
the talk of factories and stables, music-halls and thieves' kitchens 
and pawnbrokers' shops, which would be more hardly sought from 
the super-refined English of the school-room." * 

Philologists and other scholars, when a term is wanted for 
some new invention, some new product in the arts, in machinery 
or manufactures, usually form one from the Greek or Latin. 
A word thus formed may be plain to scholars familiar with those 
languages ; but, where one comprehends the meaning, a hun- 
dred fail to do so. This is particularly the case with the scien- 
tific names of plants and flowers. The botanist creates a name 
from the Latin, which is only familiar to scholars ; while the com- 
mon people invent a name which is descriptive of the plant, or 
of its habits, to which they cKng with great tenacity, and by 
which the plant is ever after known. Such are the "Pitcher- 
plant," " Love-Ues-bleeding," " Sweet WiUiam," " Jack-in-the- 
pulpit," "None-so-pretty." So, too, of birds. The peasant 
christens them, like his flowers, after their habits. 

The late civil war has given rise to many singular words. 
Some of these, in common use among our soldiers during the 
war, have since been dropped. Others have not only been pre- 
served in our colloquial dialect, but have been transplanted to 
and adopted in foreign countries where the English language is 
spoken. Among the former are the words contraband^ as applied 
to slaves, hummer^ copperhead^ confederates^ carpet-baggers^ jay- 
hawker^ greenback^ monitor^ ku-klux^ skedaddle^ skyugle^ &c. 

In the mining districts of California and Nevada, many 
strange words and phrases have sprung into existence, some of 

1 The PhUosophy of Slang, in MacmiUan's Mag., Vol. XXIX. p. 602. 


which have so taken root that they are heard in the colloquial 
langnage of the towns and cities, and have even crept into the 
ephemeral literature of the Pacific States. By no writers has 
this peculiar idiom been so much employed as by Bret Harte 
and Mark Twain. In speaking of the language of the mining 
regions, the latter says: ^^The slang of Nevada is the richest 
and most infinitely varied and copious that ever existed any- 
where in the world, perhaps, except in the mines of California 
in the ' early days.' It was hard to preach a sermon without it, 
and be understood." ^ 

The term '^Americanisms," as used in this Dictionary, will 
be found to include the following classes of words : — 

1. Archaisms, t. e, old English words, obsolete, or nearly so, in 
England, but retained in use in this country. 

2. English words used in a different sense from what they are in 
England. These include many names of natural objects differently 

3. Words which have retained their original meaning in the United 
States, although not in England. 

4. English provincialisms adopted into general use in America. 

5. Newly coined words, which owe their origin to the productions 
or to the circumstances of the country. 

6. Words borrowed from European languages, especially the French, 
Spanish, Dutch, and German. 

7. Indian words. 

8. Negroisms. 

9. Peculiarities of pronunciation. 

This fourth edition contains about one-third more matter than 
the preceding. In preparing it, I have to acknowledge my 
indebtedness to the following gentlemen, who have rendered me 

^ To any one desirous to become familiar with the slang of the raining 
regions of Nerada and California, we would recommend a perusal of chap. 
47 of Mark Twain's "Roughing It," in which he relates the interview 
between Scotty Briggs and the clergyman. A notorious character named 
Buck Fanshaw having " passed in his checks/' Scotty desired for him a 
funeral which " should be no slouch." 


aid : to the HoYi. J. Hammond Tbumbull, of Hartfbrd, for lists 
of words, together with examples of their use, and particularly 
for his etymologies of Indian words ; to the Hon. James Russbll 
Lowell, Professor William Eyerbtt, and Mr. William Botd 
of Cambridge, for copious lists of words ; to the Rev. R. Man- 
ning CmPMAN, of New Lisbon, Conn., for annotations on the 
previous edition of this work and very copious lists of words ; 
to Messrs. Chables E. Stratton of Boston, Edwabd Spen- 
cer of Randallstown, Maryland, John D. Sears of Upper 
Sandusky, Ohio, G. H. Curtis of New Orleans, Dr. F. C. 
Clarke of Providence, Professor William F. Allen of the 
University of Wisconsin, Mr. Albert R. Cooke of Chicago, 
and to Miss Christine Ladd of Union Springs, New York, for 
lists of words and phrases. 

At the end of the volume will be foxmd an Addenda, contain- 
ing words and phrases which were prepared too late for inser- 
tion in their proper places. Also a collection of Proverbs and 
of Similes ; and the names of the States and principal dties, 
accompanied by their vulgar or nicknames. 

J. R. B. 
Pbovidbnce, R. L, 

November, 1877. 


The first edition of this Dictionary was published in New York 
in 1848. It met with a quick sale, and soon passed out of print. 
Aware of its many imperfections, I began my preparations for a 
new edition before it had fUlly left the press. From that time 
to the day the last sheets of this edition left my hands for the 
printer, now ten years, I have been more or less occupied in its 
preparation. Nearly three years of this period I spent in the 
interior of the country, in the service of the United States as 
Commissioner on the Mexican Boundary ; but, even there, I 
failed not to note the peculiarities of the familiar language of 
the frontier, and carefUlly recorded the words and phrases I met 
with for fbture use. This experience enabled me to collect the 
singular words occurring in prairie and frontier life, as well as 
those conmion to Texas, New Mexico, and California. Most of 
these have come from the Spanish, and are now fairly engrafted 
on our language. 

The other alterations and improvements made in this edition 
consist in the addition of a very large number of words and 
phrases peculiar to the United States ; so that it now contains 
probably twice as many as the first edition. The examples or 
illustrations from authors, showing the use of words, have also 
been greatly multiplied. This seemed desirable, as examples 
convey a far more correct idea of their meaning and use than a 
simple definition. The histories of words and their definitions 
have also been corrected and improved. 


In the additions to this work, I have to acknowledge valuable 
contributions from several friends, who took an interest in the 
subject. To the Rev. Wm. S. Murpht, l*resident of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, I am indebted for many words and phrases 
peculiar to the West ; to Mr. John Gilmary Shea, for New 
York words ; to Dr. A. L. Elwin, of Philadelphia, for the use 
of a manuscript vocabulary of Americanisms collected by him ; 
to Mr. James Mitchell, of Nantucket, for words in use in 
that island ; to Professor Geo. C. Schaeffer, of Washington, 
for many terms of natural history, words relating to the arts, 
and Westemisms ; and to Dr. Francis Lieber, of Columbia 
College, New York, for many sound remarks, of which I have 
availed myself in the pages of the work. 

Large additions have been made to the common terms of plants, 
trees, and fruits of the United States, as well as of those which 
enter into our commerce. These, being familiar words of our 
language, seem as worthy of being noted and explained as others. 
For valuable contributions to this class of words, I am indebted 
to Dr. Edward Foreman, of Washington ; while Mr. Alex. J. 
Cotheal, a merchant of New York, and well known in the field 
of Oriental literature, has kindly furnished me the common names 
of the trees, fruits, nuts, &c., which enter into our commerce. 

In preparing the first edition of this work, I was at a loss what 
to include in the collection of words ; and, preferring to err on 
the side of copiousness, admitted many words common to the 
colloquial language of England and this country, which have 
now been rejected to make way for pure Americanisms. Of the 
words so rejected there are nearly eight hundred. The following 
are examples : ahave-board, Adam's ale, to advocate, afeard, afore, 
afierclaps, bamboozle, to bark one's shins, bobtail, bogtrotter, bolt-up- 
right, boozy, bo-peep, to bore, bom days, bran new, brown study, by- 
the-by^ to hold a candle, to catch a Tartar, caterwaul, catspaw, to 
chalk out, chink, chouse, chuffy, circumbendibus, clap-trap, clincher^ 


doutj cool, cosey, oowlich^ cramhoy criss-cross, cross-grained, crotchety^ 
crowsfeet, curmudgeon, curry favor, to cut one^s acquaintance, cut 
and run, cut a dash, dabster, dead alive, dawdle, demijohn, duds, 
IXcJ^s hatband, dilly-dally, dog cheap, down in the mouth, driving 
at, dumpy, elbow grease, to feather one^s nest, &c., &c. 

A good many such words have nevertheless been retained, on 
the principle that a word now used only in some out-of-the-way 
locality in England, but quite general here, may be regarded as 
a peculiarity of the English language as spoken in America, i. e. 
an Americanism ; but, as it is often impossible to know with 
exactness to what extent a word is used in England, it is likely 
that many of these should properly have been omitted. 

Many words common to the colloquial language both of Eng- 
land and America have been allowed to remain, because they 
have not yet been honored with a place in the current standard 
Dictionaries. Of these there are many which in the glossaries 
are ascribed to " various dialects," and which should be inserted 
in any general Dictionary of the English language which aims at 
completeness. Were such a work as the new English Dictionary 
projected by the Philological Society of London already in exist- 
ence, the insertion of a large number of words of this class could 
have been dispensed with. 

From what has been said, it will be seen that the present edi- 
tion, while it does not wholly reject words of English origin, 
claims to be more strictly American than the first. At the same 
time, the first edition will still have a value of its own, as show- 
ing more fully how much of the colloquial language of England 
is retained in use in this country. 

Due attention has been given to some valuable criticisms on 
the first edition, in a paper by the late Dr. Felix Flugel, entitled 
^ Die englische Philologie in NordameriJca,'' which appeared in 
Gersdorf's Repertorium for 1852 ; also, to criticisms which ap- 
peared in the " Western Continent" newspaper of Philadelphia, 


and the " Literary World" of New York, soon after the publi- 
cation of the volume. Some excellent illustrations have been 
obtained ftom a paper on '* Canadian English," by the Rev. A. 
Constable Geikie, read before the Canadian Institute, 28th of 
March, 1857, and printed in its Journal. 

The first edition was translated into the Dutch language under 
the title of " Woordenhoek van Americcmismen, etc. Bewerkt door 
M. Keijzer. Gorinchem^ 1854," leaving out the quotations which 
illustrate the use of words. It was hoped that this work would 
fhmish assistance in settling the etymology and meaning of some 
of the old Dutch words still used in New York ; but it has 
proved of little use. 

At the close of the book will be found a collection of Ameri- 
can similes and proverbs, together with the abbreviations of the 
names of States, &c., which were inserted in the body of the 
first edition. 

To my Mend, Mr. William W. Turner, of Washington, I 
take pleasure in again making my acknowledgments for the 
valuable aid fUmished me in the present as well as in the former 
edition, not only for the contribution of numerous words and 
illustrations, but for his correction and supervision of the whole 

J. R. B. 
Pboyidbnob, B. I, March, 1869. 


Im yentaring to lay before the public a Vocabular}^ of the col- 
loquial language of the United States, some explanation may 
be necessary for the broad ground I have been led to occupy. 

I began to make a list of such words as appeared to be, or at 
least such as had generally been called, Americanisms^ or pecu- 
liar to the United States, and at the same time made reference 
to the several authors in whose writings they appeared; not 
knowing whether, in reality, they were of native growth, or 
whether they had been introduced from England. When this 
list had expanded so as to embrace a large number of the words 
used in familiar conversation, both among the educated as well 
as among the uneducated and rustic classes, the next object was 
to examine the dialects and provincialisms of those parts of 
England from which the early settlers of New England and our 
other colonies emigrated. 

The provincialisms of New England are more familiar to our 
ears than those of any other section of the United States, as 
they are not confined within the limits of those States, but have 
extended to New York, Ohio, Indiana, IlUnois, and Michigan, 
which States have been, to a great extent, settled by emigrants 
£ix)m New England. 

On comparing tiiese familiar words with the provincial and 
coUoquial language of the northern counties of England, a most 
striking resemblance appeared not only in the words commonly 
regarded as pecuHar to New England, but in the dialectical pro- 


nunciation of certain words, and in the general tone and accent. 
In fact, it may be said, without exaggeration, that nine-tenths of 
the colloquial peculiarities of New England are derived directly 
from Great Britain ; and that they are now provincial in those 
parts from which the early colonists emigrated, or are to be found 
in the writings of well-accredited authors of the period when 
that emigration took place. Consequently, it is ob>'ious that we 
have the best authority for the use of the words referred to. 

It may be insisted, therefore, that the idiom of New England 
is as pure English, taken as a whole, as was spoken in England 
at the period when these colonies were settled. In making this 
assertion, I do not take as a standard the nasal twang, the 
drawling enunciation, or those perversions of language which 
the ignorant and uneducated adopt. Nor would I acknowledge 
the abuse of many of our most useM words. For these per- 
versions I make no other defence or apology but that they occur 
in aU countries and in every language. 

Having found the case to be as stated, I had next to decide 
between a vocabulary of words of purely American origin, or 
one in which should be embraced aU those words usually called 
provincial or vulgar, — aU the words, whatever be their origin, 
which are used in familiar conversation, and but seldom employed 
in composition, — all the perversions of language, and abuses of 
words into which people, in certain sections of the country, have 
faUen, and some of those remarkable and ludicrous forms of 
speech which have been adopted in the Western States. The 
latter plan seemed the most satisfactory, and this I determined 
to adopt. 

With so broad a ground, many words must necessarily be em- 
braced which are to be found in the dictionaries of Drs. Johnson 
and Webster, with the remark that they are low or vulgar, or 
only to be heard in familiar conversation. Another class, not in 
the dictionaries referred to, is contained in the provincial glos- 


sariea of England* A tlurd class, entirely distinct from the 
pnovdiDg, consists of slang ivordB which are not noticed by lead- 
ipberS) jet are so mueh employed a^ to dei»erve a place in a 

Such IB the plan which I have thought most advisable to adopt, 
and which 1 hope will grive satisfaction* In carrjing out this 
plan, I have endeavored to give the most accurate deMmtions, 
citing the aothorities in all cases where 1 have been enabled to 
find any. Except as regaitls words of purely American origin 
(«, ^. those derived from the Indian languages and from the 
Dntch) , I have generally kept aloof from et^Tnologies and ety- 
mt^togical discussions. These the reader will find in abundance 
— anch as they are — in the works of Johnson, Todd, Webster, 
Worcester, and otbers. 

Words of a pro\nneial cliaracter, and such as have become 
obsolete in composition, are often of doubtful eigniftcation. 
Iliustratious from well-known authors, wherein such words are 
employed, are of service in arriving at their true meaning. 
These have been employed in the present Glossary, and serve 
the doable purpose of iUastration, and of rendering the book 
more readable than if confined to a diy collection of definitions. 
This mode of showing the sense in which words have heea em- 
ployed by authors was first practised on a comprehensive scale 
by Dr. Johnson, whose labors are thereby greatly enhanced in 
value to the philologist ; and has since been carried out more 
• completely in Mr. Richardson's dictionary. 

llie class of words which are purely American in their origin 
and use, I have also attempted to illustrate, by extracts from 
American authors who^ writings relate to that class of |>eople 

ong which these words are chiefly found. These books con- 
i dcscnptloDs of country life, scenes in the backwoods, popu- 

■^talea^ aongs, dtc, in which the colloquial or familiar language 

particular States predominates. The htmaorous writings of 


^ Judge Haliburton of Nova Scotia give a tolerably correct thou^ 
I exaggerated specimen of the provincialiBms of New England* 
The letters of Major Downing are of the aame character, and 
portray the dialect of New England with less exaggeration.^ 
There are no books in which the Western words and phrases 
are so fUlly exhibited ; though all the works which aim to illus- 
trate Western life contain more or leae of the idioms peculiar to 
the j>eople. Judge Hall, IVIrs. Kirkland (Maiy Clavers), the 
author of the New Purchase, Chailes F. Hotlman, and vai-ious 
tourists, have displayed in their several works the peculiaritiea 
of the people of the West, and oocAsionally their language. 
Mr* Crockett, however, himself a native of that region, associ- 
aling from infancy with its woodsmen, hunters, and farmers^ 
whose language is ftiU of quaint words and figures of speech, 
lias unintentionally made us better acquainted with the colloquial 
' language of the West than any other author. 

I am also indebted to a series of books published by Messrs, 
Carey and Hart, called the *' Librar)^ of Humorous American 
Works,** which consist of a series of tales and adventures in the 
South-west and West, by Wm. T. Porter, editor of the '* New 
York Spirit of the Times;" John S. Robb and J. 31, Field, 
£sqs., of St. Louis, Missouri ; the editor of the *" New Orleans 
Picayune;" and some anon3Tnous wi-iters. In these several 
works, the drolleries and quaint savings of the West are admir- 
ably incorporated into tales of the settlers, their manners and 
customs, vivid descriptions of Western scenery, pohtical and 
dramatic scenes. We have no books which present so graphic 
an account of Western life, related in the exaggerated and 
metaphorical language peculiar to the people of that region. 

1 Among other hooka from which I have quoted examples of the use of 
word? coiQmoQ to New Engliind and the Northern Stfitea are Judd'fi " Mar- 
graret," the " Widow Be^ott Papers," **The Bigtow Papers " of Jamea Ru»» 
sell Lowell, and the Sermons of Dow, Junior (Elbridge G. PageJ, "My 
Acquaiulaaces and Bets/ Bob bet's/' 



In SQatheru provineialisms, I find myself most deficieat, 
having seen no booka except Major Jones's *'- Courtship" and 
** Sketches," '*Geoi^i Secmes," and *' Sherwood's Gazetteer 
of Georgia,** in whidi, however, a coiiBiderable number of local 
minia mt^ to be found. 

The nri/^'sfiaperfi have afforded me many illustrations of the 
use of wonjii, which I have not failed to make use of* These 
iUustnitiondt it will be seen, are chiefly from the New York 
paper!*, viz. the ** Commercial Advertiser," the *' Tribuue/^aud the 
**Henilil,** for the simple reason that I have beeu in the practice 
of reading them daily. When I met with a word or phrase 
pecnlliirly American, or one which was emplo3ed in a 8ense dif- 
IMllg (torn tlie use of the same in Kiigland, it was at once 
noticed and secured. All our newspaiKjrs contain more or less 
eolloc{iii4i] words ; In fact, tbere seems no other way of express^ 
log CM?rtain ideas connected with passing events of every -day life, 
witJi the requisite force and j)iquancy. In the English uewspa- 
f»er», the same thing is ubsei'vable* and certain of them euntain 
more of the class denominated sianff words than our own. The 
MTljig papers tlu"oughout the Unitc^tl States employ certain po- 
litical terms in advocating the principles of their paily, and in 
denimncing those of their opponents. The Democratic papera 
pnnme a similar course* The advocates anrl opponents of AIk>- 
lition, Fonrierism, &c,, invent and cnipkiy many words j)t*culiar 
lo thctnselves. So with the rebgious sects : each new-faugled 
ootiofi bnnga into existence some addition to our language, 
liiongh that a<Mitit»n is not always an improvement. 

The valoe of tliis Gloshary would have been greatly enhanced, 
if, as is usual in the ci>mpilatiou of similar works, I hatl been 
ftblc to avail myselt* of the assistance of persons residing \i\ 
varlaus parts of our countr>** No collection of words, proiess- 
ti^ to contain Uie collo<piial language of the entire country, can 
approach any degree of completeness or correctness, without the 


aid of many hands and heads. None but a native of New Eng- 
land, educated on her soil, and who has mingled with all classes 
of society, has the requisite familiarity with the words and phrases 
peculiar to her people. So with the Western and Southern pro- 
vincialisms. One bom and brought up where they are spoken, 
who has heard and used them when a boy, and grown up in their 
midst, can alone portray them in their true sense. The aid of 
such persons it was impossible to procure ; and the words here 
brought together have been, with very few exceptions, collected 
by myself. The deficiencies and imperfections are such, there- 
fore, as could not be avoided under the circumstances. 

The words of Dutch origin, most if not all of which are used 
or understood in the city of New York and those portions of its 
vicinity colonized by natives of Holland, were fhmished by Mr. 
Alexander J. Cotheal, a gentleman bom and educated in New 
York, whose learning in other branches of philological science is 
well known to many. A fisw other words have been given me 
from time to time by other friends, who knew that I was making 
this collection. To all of these I am happy to express my 
acknowledgments . 

When the work had advanced far towards completion, and one- 
half had been put in type, the occurrence of some terms common 
in political language, the exact meaning of which was not clear, 
led me to apply to my friend John Inman, Esq. , editor of the New 
York " Commercial Advertiser," for aid. He readily complied 
with my request, and kindly frirnished the definitions of several 
terms of daily occurrence in the political language of the day. I 
regret that I did not have his valuable aid in defining and illus- 
trating the use of words and phrases which occur in the early 
part of this Glossary. The contributions of Mr. Inman are 
acknowledged where they appear. 

To my friend Mr. Wm. W. Turner I am under great obliga- 
tions for aid rendered me in preparing this work for the press. 


Mr. Turner's extensive acquaintance with the European and 
Oriental languages, together with an unusual sagacity in philo- 
logical criticism, have peculiarly fitted him to give aid in the 
preparation of a work like this. I have therefore submitted 
the whole to his supervision, and adopted his views in aU my 
conclusions. At his suggestion, I have struck out many etymo- 
logies taken from standard dictionaries, which it was evident 
were wholly erroneous. 

In noticing the words embraced in this Glossary, the reader 
will probably think that many have been admitted which ought 
not to have a place in a Dictionary of American Provincialisms. 
From what has already been said, it will be seen that it is very 
difficult to draw the line between what should be admitted and 
what excluded ; and I have thought it better to err on the side 
of copiousness, than by too rigid a system of selection to run 
into the opposite extreme. 

A careful perusal of nearly all the English glossaries has 
enabled me to select what appeared most desirable to embrace, 
and what to avoid, in an American book of a similar kind. 
Cant words, except such as are in general use, the terms used 
at gaming-houses, purely technical words, and those only known 
to certain trades, obscene and blasphemous words, have been 

For a better understanding of the subject, as well as to show 
the importance of collecting and preserving the colloquial dia- 
lects of our country, I have prefixed to the Vocabulary some 
remarks on language, in which the reader will find that the 
study of dialects and provincialisms is considered as worthy the 
attention of philologists as the investigation of the language of 

J. R. B. 
Nbw Tokk, 1848. 



The most recent investigations in which the science of philo- 
logy has been brought to bear on the English language have 
shown that it is of purely Gothic origin, descended through 
languages of which sufficient remains to make grammatical as 
well as etjmological comparisons practicable. It is true that 
some have regarded it as a perfect mongrel, without any natural 
parent, compounded of various languages and dialects, Greek, 
Latin, Saxon, French, Welsh, &c., &c. But, although the lan- 
guage is very much mixed, it is a question whether it is not as 
pure, and as closely allied to the Anglo-Saxon and Mccso-Gothic, 
as the languages in the south of Europe are to the Latin. Or, 
in other words, it is probable that the English is not more im- 
pregnated with words of the Latin stock than the Italian, 
French, Spanish, and Portuguese are with words of the Teu- 
tonic stock. 

The natural tendency of language is to improve ; and, when a 
people cannot express in a comprehensive manner a particular 
idea or shade of meaning, they either form a word to denote it 
from a root or roots already in the language, or borrow a word 
from other languages which expresses it already. 

With regard to the English language, this last-mentioned pro- 
cess has been adopted to an extent which, while it has enriched 
our vocabulary with a vast number of terms, has, it must be 
confessed, greatly impaired its reproductive power. The origi- 
nal substratum of Anglo-Saxon speech has been overlaid with 
multitudes of common and conversational words frx>m the French, 


literary and ecclesiastical terms from the Latin, and technicalities 
from the Greek ; and the process is constantly going on. Yet, 
in spite of these immense accessions to its vocabulary, the 
structure of the English has remained in all essential respects 
the same from the period when it first became a language. 
Moreover, the number of foreign importations contained in our 
dictionaries gives by no means a correct idea of the number of 
such words which we actually make use of. The greater part 
of our household, colloquial, and poetical expressions are Saxon, 
and so are all those important words called particles, on which 
the whole structure of speech hinges ; whereas, an immense num- 
ber of the words derived ftt)m other sources belong exclusively 
to the language of books, and many even to particular sciences. 

There is another foct to be observed, which is that these dif- 
ferent classes of words are not used in the same proportion by 
all members of society. Persons without education, and who 
are consequently not familiar with the language of literature, 
employ almost exclusively in their conversation the simple and 
expressive Saxon terms ; while persons belonging to the more 
fevored classes of society supply the place of many of these 
terms by others derived from the language of books. The old 
words thus discarded, which are often far more expressive and 
more consonant to the genius of the language than the appar- 
ently more elegant novelties by which they are supplanted, are 
ftt)m that time considered as the exclusive property of the com- 
mon people, and receive the name of provincial, colloquial^ or 

But, notwithstanding all this, the common speech often enters 
largely into composition, and in some instances constitutes the 
chief excellence of a writer. In dramatic composition, the col- 
loquial language predominates. In Shakespeare, we find every 
variety of diction of which the English language is susceptible, 
from the loftiest flights of the statesman and philosopher to the 
familiar language of the lowest of the people. In Ben Jonson, 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Shirley, and the other dramatic authors, 
we find the familiar idiom to be the most prevalent. 

K we examine the literature of other countries, we shall find 
that the colloquial tongue has been employed in written com- 


i of « similar kind, and with equal success. In addition 
^3lH«iophaDcs and Pljuitus among the ancients, Cervantes may 
be mcntioDetl as an example in Spain, and the writings of Rabe- 
lais ari'i I ' in Frauce* The colloquial dialect is generally 
more ;^i uan the literary language^ as the latter is eon- 

itmntly changing^ while the former remains nearly stationary. 

Xt any pei-son will take the trouble to examine the early die- 
ttooaries of the EngUsh language, or the dictiunanes of wliieh 
Englinh forms a part, he will be surprised at the large number 
of words whieh have become so completely obsolete as to be 
mideterfilig a place in modem compilations. Even the EngUsh 
AcslkinaTT of Bailey, whieh at the lime Dr* Johnson pubUshed 
Us wva the standard, alwunds in words which are now never 
naed In cx)ujposition. This class of woi-ds was employed by 
atithors from Chaucer's time^ or about the year 1400, to the 
beginning of the seventeenth centiu-y. By the middle of that 
century, they had ceased to be used in books, but were preserved 
in dictionaries for a century longer. The great mass of them, 
however, are found in one or more of the numerous provincial 
dUlects of England to the present day. 

The dialects of the English language now spoken in England 
have existed IVom a very early period. It is not pretended by 
writers on the subject that any an* of recent origin. '* In early 
tiTiies," says Dr. Bosworth, ** there was clearly a considerable 
dialectic variety in the writings of men residing in dilferent 
provinces. The differences observable in the language of the 
most cultivated classes would be still more marked and apparent 
in the mass of population, or the less educated community, 
Thcf^c, IVom their agiienltural pursuits, had little communication 
with die inhabit^ints of other provinces ; and, having f^w oppor- 
timitirs and little inducement to leave their own neighborhood, 
tJ)( carried among each other, and, from their ILnited 

a* 1, M-e and circumscribed views , they would naturally be 

much attached to their old manners, customs, and language. 
The same cause operating from age to age would keep united 
the greater part of the population, or the families of tbe middle 
statlana of life : it may, therefore, be well expected that much 
of the pccuUarity of dialect prevalent in Anglo-Saxon times 



IB preserved even to the present day in the provincial dialects of 
the same districts. In these local dialects, then, remnants of 
the Anglo-Saxon tongue may be found in the least altered, most 
uncorrupt, and therefore its purest state." ^ 

In an ethnological point of view, the English dialects afford 
important materials for elucidating that portion of English his- 
tory which relates to the early colonization of Great Britain ; 
for, if history were silent on the subject, a philological test 
applied to the dialects of the country would show what nations 
contributed to its colonization. 

The "Edinburgh Review" for April, 1844, in an article on the 
Provincialisms of the European Languages, gives the following 
results of an inquiry into the number of provincial words which 
had then been arrested by local glossaries : — 

Shropshire .... 

. 1,003 1 

Devonshire and Cornwall 878 | 

Devonshire (North) . 




Herefordshire . . 


Lancashire .... 




Norfolk .... 


Somersetshire . . . 


Sussex 371 

Essex 580 

Wiltshire 602 

I Uallamshire 1,568 

! Craven 6,169 

North County . . 
Cheshire .... 
Grose and Pegge* . 





"Admitting that several of the foregoing are synonj-mous, 
superfluous, or common to each count}'', there are nevertheless 
many of them which, although alike orthographically, are vastly 
dissimilar in signification. Making these allowances, they amount 
to a little more than 20,000 ; or, according to the number of 
English counties hitherto illustrated, to the average ratio of 1478 
to a county. Calculating the twenty-six unpublished in the same 
ratio (for there are supposed to be as many words collected by 
persons who have never published them) , they will ftimish 36,428 
additional provincialisms, forming in the aggregate 59,000 words 
in the colloquial tongue of the lower classes, which can, for the 
chief part, produce proofs of legitimate origin." 

1 Preface to Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, p. xxri. 
^ Set dovm as Metropolitan. 


It XV 

'", ,1^ove wn9 writtpn. a most important contribution to 
t I ^ nt of lit<^rnturc has been made in the puljljcatiou 

of '* A Dictionarj of Arebaic and Provincial Wonis, Obsolete 
Plirascst l^roTerbs, and Ancient Customs, from the fourteenth 
oenttiTT. IlyJ,0. Hnlliwell. 2 vols. 8vo- London, 1847." This 
admirable! work actually contains 50,000 wortls, a great portion 
of which arc illustrated by extracts fVom manuscripts. It will be 
Ibaod by most persons to amply supply the place of the numerous 
aepanit<! glossane^ for studying the dialects of England, while it 
aflbrdft indispensable assistAncc for the correct understanding of 
the early writers* A still lat*ir publication of the same descrip- 
Uoo, and which has constantly been consulted with advantage in 
preparing the second edition of the present work, is the ** Dic- 
tionary of Obsolete and Provincial English, containing words 
lh>iu the Enghsh writers pit'vious to the ninet4?enth century, 
which are ua longur in use. or are not used in the same sense, 
and wonis which are now used only in the provincial dialects. 
ConipiUHl by Thomas Wright, Esq. 2 vols, l2rao. London, 

As it does not fall witliin the scope of these inquiries to dis- 
ctiss the langnages to which the English bears a i-elationship, we 
shall pass over these, and come at once to the Anglo-Saxon. 
This forms the basis of the English huiguagc. and is to be oon- 
sidcrt'd as the mother-tongue^ ujion w hich nianj' words and phrases 
flpom other languageSt at successive periods, during a space of 
foartf*cn centuries, have been engrafted. 

The Saxons brought their language into Britain in the year 
19, when the invasion under Hengist took place. What the 
liage was at this period it is impossible to show, as no writ- 
fllga of the time have come down to us. It probably approached 
Dearer to its immediat*^ progenitor, the Low German and Mosso- 
Gotliic, tlian the form it assumed several centuries later, when 
we firnt find written documents^* 

I ll If true ihnt the celebrated Aniflo-Saxon poem of Beowulf is consid- 
fted lo Ikt contemporary whh H**figri«t. But its wiitor, Mr. Kemble, 9tJtt<?9 
Ihit llie [H^f'iii an cuntaineil \n the Cuttonian MS , Britifh Museum, \a not eo 
old; an<i tliore occur in it Christian aOusiona winch ix thb text at least at 
a pcrii>il iuhtequenl to a. n. 607- 


ilie reign of Edward the Confessor.** ' It is the dialect spoken 
in the oorthrrn parts of France, and denominated Norman- 
Frcncb, which has had the greatest influence upon the English 

Those partu of Great Britain which have contributed most to 
our provincialisms are the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and 
the Scottish Borders. It was chiefly ft"oiu these counties that 
New England was colonized : henciN their peculiarities of Ian- 
gYia|;e are most numerous in the New England States. The 
pT Tus used in the districts reft'rred to have been collected 

anu ,■... - bed in For by 'a Vocabulary of East Anglia^ 2 vols. 
Itmo, London, 18S0; Moor's Suffolk Words and Phrases, 
l2nio, London, 1823 ; Bn>okettfs Glossary of North Country 
Words, with their etymology, 3d edition, 2 vols. 12mo, New- 
castle- opon-Tyne, 1846 ; and Carr's dialect of Craven in the 
West Hiding of York, 2 vols. 12mo, 2d edition, London, 1828. 


Dialects originate in various ways. First, by the proximity 
of nations speaking different languages, in which ease many 
words and phrases are borrowed from one into the other ; wit- 
iieaa tiie Scotch and Irish dialects of the English- Secondly, by 
migrations. This is the most fruitful and permanent source of 
dialects. We see its effects in the language of England; for 
the immigrations of varions nations into Great Britain from the 
Saxons down to the period of the Norman conquest are 3'et 
diadnctly marked in the dialects of that countr)\ 

In tlie United States, it is easy to point out causes which, in 
the course of a few generations, will materially affect the Eng- 
lish language in the particular districts of country where those 
Inrtnfnc'k**^ are at work. Dialects will spring up as marked as 

' Lalharn ofi tbi^ English Language, p, 4& 1st edit. 


those of Great Britain. A free intercourse may in some cases 
check the permanency of these dialects ; but in those parts of 
the country aside fh)m the great thoroughfares, where a dialect 
has once become firmly established, a thousand years will not 
suffice to eradicate it. 

The State of New York was originally settled by the Dutch. 
The number of their colonists was never large, nor did they 
extend their settlements beyond the valley of the Mohawk and 
lands adjacent ; yet we find even in this thickly settled State, 
after a lapse of two hundred years, that they have left evident 
traces on our spoken languages. In the cities of New York and 
Albany, many Dutch words have become incorporated into the 
common speech. In some of the inland villages of Dutch ori- 
gin, the inhabitants still use the language of their fathers ; and 
there are even individuals who never spoke any other. 

The words so adopted by us embrace geographical names, — a 
class of words which the first colonists of a country or the primi- 
tive inhabitants themselves generally leave to their posterity or 
to the subsequent occupants. Many of the other words which 
the Dutch have left us are terms belonging to the kitchen. 
These have been preserved and handed down by cooks and do- 
mestic servants, until from constant use they are become famil- 
iar to all. Among these terms are cooketf, cruller, olykoke, spack 
and applefees, noodlefees, rulltchtes, koolslaa, pit. 

The terms for various playthings, holidays, &c., preserve 
among children their original Dutch names ; as, sctip, snore^ 
hoople, peewee, pile, pinkster, poos. Other words confined to 
children are pinky, terawchy. 

Articles of wearing apparel in some instances retain their 
Dutch names ; as, harraclcide, chchnutch. 

Besides these there are terms, the use of which is not confined 
to the districts originally colonized fW)m Holland, but has been 
extended to New England and several of the Northern States, 
and even to Canada; such as stoop, a porch, boss, a master- 
workman, Ac. 

If a few Dutch colonists mingled with the English have been 
able to engraft so many words on our language, what may we 
not expect fh>m the hundreds of thousands of Germans in the 



of Fcnnsylvmnia? There the German language will doubt- 
exist for centuries ; for although they are aituated in the 
aidst of an EDgli^h-speaking populatiuu^ fai* more niimeroua 
UbAO UieiQaelves, and although the government and hiw^ are 
ooodaeUKi through the Eughsh language, still the tendency uf a 
peof^lo of common origin to cling together, — the publication of 
nt^^ almanacs, and books in German, — and the culti- 

v«t me extent of German literaturts will tend to preserve 

the idiom and nationality of the people. It is true the language 
i» mlremlv much cniTuptcd, and in the course of time it must 
giv4i way to the English ; but it wiU leave behind it an almost 
unpeiiahable dialect as a memento of its existeuce* In the 
hUkUm of Ohio and Texas, where there are large settlements of 
Gcnmu&s, a similiir result must follow^ 

In tlie State of Illinois is a colony of Norwegians. These 
people before coming to America sent out an agent, who selected 
and purchased for tliem a large tract of land in one Bection of 
that State. They were acci^mpanied by their cierg^-man and 
idioolmaster* They are thus Itept together, and will for a long 
tim« preserve their language and nationality. But it must also 
•v«t I -iv© wavi after engraftiiig on the English language in 

ihsi\ ■ } ^ Norwegian dialect. 

There are large aettlementa of Welsh emigrants in the Statue 
Htfeoiisylvania and New York. In the latter, in Oneida County, 
Wt »fty travel for miles and hear nothing but the Welsh Ian- 
gumgf*. Tbe^e people have their newspapers and magazines in 
Uicir native tongue, and support many churches wherein their 
kngiiage alone is preached. The Welsh, however^ are not in 
ffaHlcient numhers, nor are they sufficiently isolated, to retain 
fbr any length of time their native form of speech ; neither can 
they produce any sensible dialectical change in our language/ 
owing to the great dilTerence between it and their own. They 
will, however, add some worda to it. 

In tlie State of Louisiana, which was oolonized by the French, 
and in Fh^rida, which waa colonized by the Spanianls, there are 
man J words of foreign origin, scarcely known in the Northern 
Statee. The geographical diviaious, the names of rivers, moun* 
taifit, haya ; the pecuharities of soil and climate ; all that re- 



lates to the cultivation of the earth, the names of fishes, birds, 
fhiits, vegetables, coins, &c., &c., retain to a great extent the 
names given them by the first possessors of the country. The 
same classes of words are preserved in Lower Canada, where 
they were originally given by the French. We have adopted 
them into our own tongue, where they will for ever remain in 
use. Among the words of French origin are bagasse, hanquetUi 
cache, chute, bodette, bayou, satdt, levee, crevasse, habUan, portage, 

The Spanish colonists in Florida, and onr intercourse with 
Mexico and the Spanish main, were the means of introducing 
a few Spanish words. Since the annexation of Texas, New 
Mexico, and Califomia, our vocabulary has received numerous 
additions flrom this source. These consist of geographical terms, 
as arroyo, acequia, barranca, canyon, cienega, cieneguita, faraloneSy 
loma, mesa, mesilla, playa, ojo, sierra, jomada ; of names of arti- 
cles of food, as tortiUa^ frijoles, atole, pinole, chile ; and of various 
other terms, as arriero, adobe, corral, chaparai, pistareen, rancho^ 
ranchero, lariat, lasso, fandango, stampede, serape, tinafa, vaimos^ 

The Indian terms in our language, as might be supposed, are 
numerous. First, as to geographical names. These abound in 
every State in the Union, though more in some States than in 
others. In New England, particularly on the coast, Indian 
names are very common. Nearly all the rivers, bays, and 
prominent landmarks bear them, as Housatonic, Connecticut, Winr 
nepesaukicn Quinnebaug, Pawcatuch, Merrimack, Kennebec, Penob^ 
scot, Narragansett, Passamaquoddy, &c. In other parts of the 
country, too, the rivers retain their aboriginal names, as the 
Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Susquehanna, Roanohe, Altamaha^ 
Chattahoochee, Alabama, &c., &c. And the same may be said 
of the great lakes ; as, Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, as well 
as the lesser ones of Seneca, Cayuga, Canandaigua, Oneida, Win- 
nipeg, Winnebago ; and also of nearly all the bays, mountains, 
and numerous geographical divisions and localities. Many of 
the aboriginal names, however, have been discarded for others 
less appropriate. In New England, the towns and villages were 
chiefly named after the towns in England from which the early 


colonists emigrated. In the State of New York there is a strange 
discrepancy in the names of places. Before the Reyolution, the 
people seemed to prefer the aboriginal names: not only the 
rivers, lakes, hills, &c., bat many of the towns, received them. 
After tiie war, the names of distinguished statesmen and soldiers 
were applied to the new counties and towns. Besides geo- 
graphical names, the Indian languages have supplied us with : 
1st, many names of beasts and fishes, as caribou^ cayman, chipmuh, 
moose, ocelot, opossum, raccoon, skunk, mmiitee, squeteague, menha- 
den, pauhaugen, seuppaug^ quahaug, terrapin ; 2d, of plants, as 
persimmon, chincapin, pecan, tuckahoe, maize, hinnikinnik, tobacco, 
— particularly preparations of them for food, as samp, hominy, 
9uecotash,supawn, from Indian com, and, fVom the cassava plant, 
mandioca and tapioca ; 3d, names of articles known to and used 
by the Indians, and which the Europeans did not possess, as 
canoe, hammock, moccasin, wampum, sewan, wigwam, tomahawk^ 
pemmican, tepee, toboggin ; and, 4th, names applied by Indians 

to themselves in their various relations, as inca, cazique, cock- m 

arouse, mingo, sachem, sagamore, squaw, pappoose. 

The greatest perversions of the English language arise from 
two opposite causes. One of them is the introduction of vul- 
garisms and slang by uneducated people, who, not having the ^ 
command of proper words to express their ideas, invent others 
for the purpose. These words continue among this class, are 
transmitted by them to their children, and thus become perma- 
nent and provincial. They are next seized upon by stump- 
speakers at political meetings, because they are popular with the 
masses. Next we hear them on the floor of Congress and in our 
halls of legislation. Quoted b}' the newspapers, they become 
familiar to all, and take their place in the colloquial language of 
the whole people. Lexicographers now secure them and give 
them a place in their dictionaries; and thus they arc firmly 
engrafted on our language. The study of lexicography will 
show that this process has long been going on in KngUind, and 
doubtless other languages are subject to similar influences. 

But the greatest injuiy to our language arises from the per- 
version of legitimate words and the invention of hybrid and 
other inadmissible expressions by educated men, and particularly 


by the clergy. This class is the one, above all others, which 
ought to be the conservators rather than the perverters of lan- 
guage. It is nevertheless a fact which cannot be denied, that 
many strange and barbarous words, to which our ears are gradu- 
ally becoming familiar, owe to them their origin and introduc- 
tion : among them may be mentioned such verbs as to feUowshtp, 
to difficult, to eventuate, to resurrect, to doxologize, to happify, to 
donate, to funeraUze, &c., &o. 

Political writers have made, and are constantly making, large 
additions to our stock of words and phrases. Alex. Hamilton's 
writings abound in newly coined expressions ; many of which 
have been adopted b}' Dr. Webster, and have a place in his dic- 
tionary. But few, however, have come into general use, as his 
writings have not been widely diffused, and there is nothing to 
recommend them for adoption by scholars. Mr. N. P. Willis, 
also, has the reputation of inventing many new words, some of 
which, though not yet embodied in our dictionaries, are much 
used in familiar language. Judge Story has contributed his 
share of new words ; but, as they are confined to legal treatises 
and works on the Constitution, they can never seriously affect 
the language. 

Writers of political articles in the newspapers, stump-orators, 
and the members of legislative bodies, have added much to the 
English vocabulary. This class of words, though not remark- 
able for their elegance, are often highly expressive, and become 
more widely known than other classes. In many instances, 
however, their existence is but short. They often spring up 
with a party ; and as the parties become extinct, or give place 
to new ones, the terms which express tlieir peculiar ideas or doc- 
trines likewise fall out of use. In this class may be included 
such terms as Old Hunker, Bucktail, Federalist, Barnburner, Loco- 
foco. Young Democracy, Democratic Republican, Know-nothing, 
Native American, NuUifier, NuUijication, Coon, Coonery, Fire- 
eater. Black RepuUican, Silver-gray, Wire-puUer, &c. 

There are words, however, in this class, which, having grown 
out of our peculiar institutions, are of a permanent nature. 
The origin of some of these is involved in obscurity, while that 
of others is well known. Sometimes a little incident trivial in 



ilMir has brought into existeace words which are extremely 
«X|masiyo^ and which will remaia as long as our institutione 
«xist* Id this class, wq find caucus, mass-meeting^ buncombe or 
tmmkim if to Uhhy^ tx> gernjmandery mileage, gubernatorial^ senatorial^ 
tfmntter iomreignti/, stamping ground, stump, &c. 

The peculiar physical features of the country — its animals, 
pjoductions, aborigines, foresUlife, &c. — have been a most 
IhiitAd source, from which have sprung perhaps tbe largest 
mnnber af new words, as necessary and useful to ourselves as 
•liy derived from our Saxon ancestors. These terms are not 
aaed lo England, for the simple reason that there they are not 
wanted* Although I cannot agree with Dr, Webster, that " we 
nrelv find a new word introduced into a language which is 
entirely useless," — for there are unquestionably thousands of 
words encuml>ering our dictionaries which might well be dis- 
pcnsod with, — yet there is no doubt that, in most instances, 
** tiie use of new terms is dictated by necessity or utility : some- 
times to express shades of difference in signillcation, for which 
Uitt laogiiage did not supply a suitable term ; sometimes to 
axpreaa a combination of ideas by a single word, which other- 
wtoe would require a circumlocution. These benefits, which are 
often j)erceived, as it were, instinctively by a nation^ recommend 
socb words to common use, till the cavils of critics are silenced 
by the weight of authority.** — Letter to J, Pickering, p, 7, 

Were we to classify the periods when names were opplied to 
places in the Ktate of New York, for example, we would call 
Uial in which the Indian names were applied the aboriginal 
period. This is as far back as it would be safe for ordinary 
mortals to go, leaving the ^'^ antediluvian'* period to ^e second- 
sight of such seers as Mr. Rafinesque.* 

The Indian names seem to have prevailed till the Revolution. 
Theji came a burst of patriotism among the settlers, many of 
whom doubtless hail ser>*ed in tlie war, and every new place was 
christened with the names of the warriors and statesmen of the 
day. Thus arose Washington County^ Washington Village,imd Wash- 
in/ftan I follow; Jefferson Vounig^ Village ^ Lake, dc. The State 

1 See Introduction to Hiflorf of Kentucky. 



of New Yrjrk lins thus po-rpetuated, in her towns ai 
the names n( Af^ftms, Jatf^ Lafayette^ llamiUon^ Maduo 
Putnam ^ Pulmki^ SchutfUr^ De Kcdh^ Steuben^ Stillwofh Gafes^ 
Franklin^ Greene, Monroe, WaMugtoji^ Wafne^ «Sec, This may well 
be styled the piUriotic period* The names of statesmen and 
generals^ however^ did not suffice for the patriotism of our early 
pioneers ; for we find interspersed among them the names of 
Freedom^ Freetottn, Frteport^ FriendHhip^ Independence^ Ltl>erty^ 
Vtctmy, Hopi'uydl^ Harmony^ Concord, Union^ &c. 

Next eomes tlie clauictd period ; for by what other term could 
we designate a period when tow ns were christened by the names 
of such men as Homers Virgil^ Solon^ Ovid^ Caio^ Fuclid^ Brutus^ 
Pompey^ TuUy^ Cicero, Cincinnatus^ Aureliu^, Sctpio, UlyiieSy 
Seneca^ Ifannibcdy Hector^ liamyius^ J^iander^ Manltuit^ CmniUut^ 
and MarceMus ; or of sucli placeg as Athena^ Sparia* Marathoi^ 
TVoyt CortTd/t, Pharsalia^ Palm if ra, Utica^ Smyrna, Attica^ Mace* 
don^ Ithica^ PhcenictcL^ T^9, Mome, and Carthaye, 

Testimony to the piety (to say nothing of the good taste) of 
our forefathers is also atforded by the oeeurrenee of sueh names, 
also in the State of New York* as Eden, Paradise, Bahylon^ 
Ninavek, Mvmtl Stnat^ Jerusalem, Jericho, Hebron, Gos/ten, Canaan^ 
Methany^ Bethlthetn, Pethpaye, Sharon, Sodom^ Siloam^I^hanon^ Mo* 
riah, &c. Of the names of European cities there are Antwerp^ 
Amsterdam, Berlin^ BostoUj Cambridge^ Copenhayen^ Dresden^ Dun- 
dee, Florence^ Frankfort, Geneva^ Genoa, Hamburg^ Hagu^, Liibon, 1 
Leyden^ Lirerjiool, MancheMer, Madrid, Milan, Moscow, Naples 
Oxford^ Odessa^ Parma, Palermo^ Parii^ Jtome, Piga^ Stockholm^ 
7\ir%n^ l^crona^ Ftcima, Versailles, Veniet^ and Fork, There ar^ 
towns in the same State named after nearly every countr)^ in 
Europe, as Noricay, Sweden, Denmark, linssia, Poland, Greece^ 
Italy, Sardinia, Holland, and Wales. There is a town of Mexico, 
Clnli, Pern, Lima, Havana, Cuba^ Cairo, Alexandria^ Memphii^ 
Egypt, Arabia, Pei'sia, China, Pekin, Canton, Delhi, Bombay^ \ 
Manilla^ Batavia^ Java, and Teddo, Distingtiished authors and 
statesmen of England are remembered in the towns of Addison^ 
Bums, Burke, Byron, Clarendtm, Chesterfield, Dryden, Gray, Grmi- 
vilicy Hampden^ Hume, ** Junius,''* Lock^^ Marlborough^ MiH*m, Scott, 
Sheridan, Sidney^ Spencer, Somers, and WaHotu But little fond- 


ness is exhibited for dramatic authors, as the name of the 
greatest of them all has been forgotten ; not even a pond, a 
hollow, or a swamp in the United States has been honored with 
the name of Shakspeare. If we were to classify all the names 
of places in the State of New York, we should be puzzled to 
find a place for the names of Big Indian^ Cow Neck, Half Way^ 
Half Moon, Mud Creth, Mosquito Core, Oblong, Owl Pond, Oxbow, 
Painted Post, Pitcher, Bed Jacket, Bough and Beady, Success, Spe^ 
ont, Sing Sing, Sugar Loaf, Yaphank, and the like. The name 
of Penn Tan is said to have been manufactured by the first set- 
tlers, part of whom were ftx)m Pennsylvania and the rest from 
New England, by taking the first syllable from '*Penns3'lvania," 
and the last from "Yankee." 

In California, many places have been absurdly named from 
some trifling incident connected with the first settlement ; such 
are Hangfotcn, Shirt Tail Canyon, Flapjack Canyon, Whiskey 
Gulch, Port Wine Diggins, Humbug Flat, Murderer's Bar, Jackass 
Gulch, Bed Dog, Travellers' Best. Some of these retain their 
names even after they become ]X)pulou8 villages. The following 
are sufficiently important to have post-offices, as appears from 
the official Postal Guide : Big Trees, Big Pine, Dutch Flat, Big 
Oak Flat, Black Bear, Buck Eye, Hay Fork, Happy Camp, Horse^ 
town, Fair Play, Grizzly Flat, Gas Jet, Left Hand, Two Bocks, 
Uncle Sam, Tou Bet, and Zum Zum. 

But California is not alone in the oddness of the nomenclature 
of her towns. If any one curious in the subject will turn to the 
pages of the United States Postal Guide, he will find names 
quite as odd in some of the older States. In Arkansas will be 
found Black Fish, Bright Star, Black Jack, Blue Ball, Big Bottom, 
Buck Horn, Due West, Evening Shade, Oil Trough, Opposition, 
Bocky Comfort, Social Hill, Sub Bosa, Ten Mile, and War Eagle ; 
while niinois glories in her Bihle Grove, Lone TVee, Moonshine, 
Sugar Loaf, Fair Weather, Bed Bud, Bobin's Nest, and Blue Glass, 
From the Western States we turned to Georgia, one of the old 
original "Thirteen" States, to see what her nomenclature is, 
and found some names quite as odd as those of the new States. 
Among them are Air Line, Anvil Block, Cold Water, Cheery Ij>g, 



Dirt Tjwju Pine Log, Rising Fawn, Saw Dust, Soci&i CVrtffe, 
Taikmg Rock, Ttj Ty. Wolf Skin, tLXaH Wat Woman, 

Strangely formed factitious words are much atfet'ted at Uie 
West, abskizt^, ahsqiuUulatc, catawampottsf^, ej^fluncfij}/, obacute^ 
tlantendicular, «S:c., &c, : and in the South *suih ouomatopees as 
keslash. kettouse, keswolhp, keti?h(Jitix, &C- 

Thc battle-fields of the Mexican war are commemorated in 
eighteen Bnena Vistas, sixteen Mtmfrrei/s, nine Pah AUos, and 
three Re^acas, And the names of its heroes have given birth to 
a host of Tfit/hn and Tat/lorvUles, IVarihjt and WorthviUtK, Piertu 
and Pierre fi/ien, besides Piercetawn^ Pterceland^ and Pierce Point ; 
also several Pofh and PotkvVlrn, together with Polktown^ Polk 
City, Polk Patch, Polk Precinct, and Polk Run ; and two addi- 
tional Qnttmam, The officers who distinguished themselves in 
the late civil war, and the statesmen of the day, will not be for- 
gotten as the new States till up. 

In consequence of the variety of origin of the names of States 
and towns, the formation of nouns fh>m them to denote the 
native or citizen of such State or town is sometimes dirtleult and 
even impossible. Thus New Yorker^ Vermonter* Rhode hUtnder^ 
will do well enough ; and so will Viripnian^ Georgian, PhUadel- 
phian, Boitonian, MMlian ; but Baffaloan^ III i no tan, Ohioan* are 
hardly admiasible ; while Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Ar* 
kansas refuse to yield to the process at all* 

The class of new words and new meanings of old wonls which 
owe their t>rigin to cii*eumstances or productions peeuUiir to the 
United States, such as ark, backwoods, hackwoodtmen, breadstiiffs, 
hctrrens, blaze* bottoms^ broad'hom, buffalo-robe, cane4frake, ci/press- 
brake^ clearing, com*hroont, corn-sftttckinf/, deadening, diggings, dug- 
out, Jlat'boat, hog^wallow, husking, intenml^^ location^ pint-barrens^ 
prairie J pre-emption, reservation, salt lick, satHmnah, snag, sawger^ 
Mqv<itter, &c., are necessary additions to the langimge. 

The metaphorical and other t>dd expressions used first at the 
West, and aHenvards in other parts of the country", often origi- 
nate in some curious anecdote or event, which is transmitted 
from mouth to mouth, and soon made the property of all. Po- 
litical writers and stump speakers perform a prominent part in 
the invention and diffusion of these phrases. Among these may 


be mentioned to cave in, to txcknowledge the com, to flash in the 
pern, to bark up the wrong tree, to wake up the wrong passenger^ to 
pull up stakes, to be a caution, to fizzle out, to flat out, to peter out, 
to fix his flint, to be among the missing, to give him Jessy, to see the 
elephant, to flg around, to spread one*s self, to tucker out, to use up, 
to walk into, to cotton, to hifer, to chisel^ to slope, to lobby, to gerry- 
mander, to splurge, &c., &c. 

Our people, particularly those who belong to the West and 
South, are fond of using intensive and extravagant epithets, both 
as adjectives and adverbs, as awful, powerful, monstrous, dreadful^ 
mighty, almighty, all-fired, &c. ; while euphemistic oaths are one 
of the characteristics of the Yankee dialect. 

The words bankable, bootable, dutiable, mailable, mileage, are well 
formed and useful terms, which have been generally adopted by 
those who have occasion to make use of them. But the words 
duhersome, disremember, decedent, docity, and the like, can hartlly 
be called necessary additions to our language. 

There is a diversity in the pronunciation of certain words in £ 

different parts of the United States, which is so perceptible that ' 

a native of these particular districts may be at once recognized 
by a person who is observant in these matters. Residents of 
the city of New York are perhaps less marked in their pronun- -l 

ciation and use of words than the residents of any other city or 
State, the reason of which is ob>'iou8. The population is so 
fluctuating, so many people from every part of the country, as 
well as from England, Scotland, and Ireland, are congregated 
there, who are in daily contact with each other, that there is less 
chance for any idiom or peculiarity of speech to grow up. Nev- 
ertheless, grammatical inaccuracies are far from uncommon in 
the speech of the wealthier classes, and slang is cultivated to 
an increasing extent by the " rowdy" portion of the population. 

The large number of educated men in New England, her 
admirable schools and higher institutions of education, have had 
a powerful influence in moulding the language of her people. 
Yet, notwithstanding this fact, in Boston and other towns in 
Massachusetts, there exist some glaring errors in the vulgar 
speech. There are peculiarities also to be observed in the lite- 
rary language of the Bostonians. The great extent to which 


the scholars of New England have carried the study of the 
German language and literature for some years back, added 
to a very general neglect of the old masterpieces of English 
composition, have had the effect of giving to the writings of 
many of them an artificial, unidiomatic character, which has an 
inexpressibly unpleasant effect to those who are not habituated 
to it. 

The agricultural population who live in the interior of New 
England have a strongly marked provincial dialect, by which 
they may be distinguished fjx)m the people of every other part 
of the Union. The chief peculiarity is a drawling pronuncia- 
tion, sometimes accompanied by a speaking through the nose, 
as eend for endj dawg for dog^ Gawd and Gihod for God^ &c. 
Before the sounds aw and oo, they often insert a short t, which 
we will represent by the letter y ; as, kyow for cow, w/<ao for vow^ 
tyoo for tooy dyoo for do, &c., &o. The numerous words em- 
ployed in New England which are not heard in other parts of 
the country are mostly genuine old words still provincial in the 
north of England : very few are of indigenous origin. 

A very common mispronunciation in New England is in such 
words as New, Thtesday, Dew, Duke, where the vowel-sound in 
stoop is given for the vowel-sound in few, thereby pronouncing 
them Noo, Toosday, Doo, Dook, This error among us is noticed 
by all English people, who are very particular in giving these 
and similar words their correct pronunciation. The educated in 
the Middle States pronounce these words correctly. 

Among some of the Western people there are strange ideas 
regarding the use of certain words, which has led the mock- 
modest to reject them and substitute others. Thus, to speak of 
the names of animals only, the essentially English word bull is 
refined beyond the mountains, and perhaps elsewhere, into coW' 
creature, male-cow, and even gentleman-cow ! A fHend who re- 
sided many years in the West has told me of an incident where 
a graj'-headed man of sixty doffed his hat reverently and apolo- 
gized to a clergj^man for having used inadvertently in his hear- 
ing the plain Saxon term. Male sheep, male hog, &c., are of a 
piece with the preceding, to which we may add rooster, he hiddy^ 
game chicken, &c. 



The chief peculiarity in the pronunciation of the Southern and 
Western people is the giving of a broader sound than is proper 
to certain vowels ; as, whar for where, thar for therey bar for hear. 
Ear and here are both pronounced like year ; house^ ahout^ &c., 
have a pronunciation approaching to hootey ahoot^ &c. ; and the 
final r is omitted, as you do for your door^ &c. 

In the following table of words incorrectly pronounced, such 
as belong to New England are designated b}- the letters N. E. ; 
those exclusively Western, by the letter W. ; the Southern 
words, by S. ; the rest are common to various parts of the 
Union. In this attempt at classification there are doubtless 
errors and imperfections; for an emigrant from Vermont to 
Illinois would introduce the provincialisms of his native district 
into his new residence. Many of these inaccuracies are also 
heard in England. 


for actually. 


for carious. 


„ earn. 


„ cupola. 


„ area. 


„ curtesy. 


„ always, S. W. 


„ curse. 


„ arithmetic. 


„ dare, W. 


„ errand. 


„ daughter. 


., after. 


„ deaf. 


„ e'er a. 


„ do, N. E. 


,, attacked. 


,. district, N. E. 

„ anywhere. 


„ desperate, N. E. 


„ bachelor. 


„ does, N. E. 


„ bear, W. 


„ drop, S. 


„ because. 


„ dreadful, N. E. 


„ bellows. 


„ driblet. 


„ been, N. E. 


„ drown*d. 


„ boU. 


„ drove. 


„ by and by. 


,, dubious. 


„ burst. 


„ end. 


„ carried, N. E. 


,, everywhere. 


„ because. 


„ for. 


„ chair. 


„ forward, N. E. 


,, chimney. 


„ first 


„ chest, N. R 


M giri. 


„ clear, W. 


„ given. 


„ close. 


», general. 


„ considerable. 


„ get 


„ caught, W. 


M gown. 


,, creak. 


„ grievous. 


„ creature. 


•1 goings S. 


„ colonel. 


„ hmir, W. 




for health, S. 


„ handkerchief. 


f, hinder. 


„ hoist. 


„ hold. 


„ hoof. 


„ whole, N.E. 


„ home, N. B. 


„ homely, N. E. 


„ idea, S. 


.. ofl. 


„ engine. 


,. inwards. 


„ into. 


„ enemy. 


„ jaondioe. 


„ judge. N.R 


„ jost 


M join. 


„ joist 


„ care. 


M catch. 


„ can. 


„ keUle. 


„ cover. 


„ learn. 


„ learning. 


„ loath. 


„ little. 


,. lief. 


„ marsh. 


„ melon. 

„ mischieyons. 


„ mountainous. 

„ nothing, L. I. 


„ ne»era. 


„ negro. 


„ nurse. 


„ old. 


„ only, S. 

onst . 

„ once. 


„ point. 


„ pretty. 


„ pumpkin. 


„ purse, N. E. 


„ rocket 


„ real. 


„ reaUy. 


„ rather. 


„ rinse. 


„ rheumatism. 


for roof, N. £. 
„ sauce. 
„ saucer. 













































„ certain, N.E. 

„ sauce, N. E. 

„ saucy. 

„ scarce, W. 

„ scholar, S. W. 

„ since. 

„ shuts. 

„ shook, W. 

„ such. 

„ scared, 8. W. 

„ sort of. 

„ smart, S. 

„ spectacle. 

„ spoil. 

„ suppose. 

„ quench. 

„ stand. 

„ stair, W. 

„ staple, W. 

„ steady. 

„ stone, N. E. 

„ stretch, W. 

„ stupendous. 

„ something, N. £ 

„ touch. 

„ attend. 

„ told, N. E. 

„ to, N. E. 

„ there, W. 

„ told. 

„ tassel. 

„ took. 

„ directly, S. 

„ tremendous. 

„ twice. 

„ umbrella. • 

„ valuation. 

„ vermin, W. 

„ well, N. E. 

„ where, W. 

„ won't, N. E. 

„ once, W. 

„ worse. 

„ yellow. 

„ ear, S. 

„ here, S. 

„ yours. 


n^canisms exhibit thomselvo9» not in the use of peculiar 
and proouQciatious alone, bat also in some points of 
gnunznar. Thus, to mention a few ; — 

Tiie teraiinatioa -Uy for Rbstra<.'t nouna is preferred in many 
oiaes lo Uie English -ntsx; so that we Uavt% for ln«Uinc'e, sucli 
worda as aecauntahiUt^y instead of aecQuntableness : obtutity for 
okusefiesM, &c. Of a like nature are renditi&n for rendering^ 
rmmration for reserve^ 

The tenninations -er and -eiti, whidi indicate the degrees of 
ootnpariaon of adjectives, are often dist^nled for the adverbs 
nufrw and nw9tf even before monosj Ibblos, contrary to good Eng- 
lish usage. And the possessive n*liition is olteji denoted by the 
preposition o/", where the termination -s would be neater and 
more idiomatic. 

Tb«j influence of the French laDgmige t^eeniB to be visible, not 
only in the preceding instances, but also in the use of the definite 
article before the names of diseases ; as, the gout, the consumpi- 
tiont the headache, the erysipelas, *&c. 

It may be owing to the influence of the German language, in 
which the adverbs are notliing but apocopated adjectives^ that 
the adjectival ending is so often omitted by vulgar speakers ; as, 
"I have got wet bad;'* '*See that you do it good;** **He'U 
toko cold sure'' 

On liie other hand, it seems owing to the teachings of some 
priggish pedagogue, who had learned that ♦^ adverbs qualify 
verbs/* and knew nothing beyond it, that adverbs are now often 
employed where idiomatic usage requires an adjective; as, *''I 
feel veiy* }Midly;*" ** You look charmingly^'' dtc. So that we may 
expect soon to hear, '* She seems ignorantly ;'' *'He became 
quite crazi/y" &c. ; and to be unable any longer to make the dis- 
tinction between *' He feels warmly*' and *'He feels warm,'' The 
bdies seem more especially to affect this form of speech, whicli is 
more common at the South than at the North -, whence it is likely 
that it originated in a Southern boarding-school. The persona 
who use it are not aware that it is really the person or thing 
which is qualified in these CAses, and not the action or state 
of being. 

Among the American peculiarities of style, one of the most 


remarkable is a tendency to exaggeration. ^^The use of ex- 
travagant terms," says Dr. Lieber, in one of his letters to me 
on the subject, "is very common. These are often used by 
deficiently educated persons who edit newspapers, and more 
frequently by the same class of people when speaking in public. 
In the South and West, this custom prevails to a greater extent 
than at the North. ' This is the finest cow in the State of South 
Carolina,' observes one. ' The handsomest woman south of the 
Potomac,' says another. And a man who kept a country school 
with ten small scholars was said to be making ^ bushels of money ' 
by it." 

This sort of exaggeration frequently assumes the form of what 
in England is very appropriately termed "fine writing," but 
which with us is better known as " highfaluten." Thus, a West- 
em critic, speaking of the acting of a Miss Logan, says the way 
in which she chanted the Marseillaise was " terrible in its inten- 
sity," and that the impression made " must create for her a name 
that will never die." This, however, "does not begin "with 
Miss Wyatt, whose performances at Springfield, Illinois, are 
thus described in a criticism in one of the papers of that 
city : — 

" Illumined by the lyric muse, she is magnificent. All nerve, 
all palpitation, her rounded form is the fittest setting for her dia- 
mond soul ! She has grace which is more than beauty, and dis- 
tinction which adorns still more than grace. She appears the 
incarnation of genius! — it struggles within her! — inspiration 
quivers down her snow-white arms, and trembles on her fingers* 
ends, — passion wrestles in her quivering frame, and shudders 
through her limbs. Her soul fiickers in every accent, and looms 
up in every pantomime, while serene smiles pla}^ about her 
mouth. Her drapery follows her gestures, — her gestures her 
passions. Every attitude is a model, every pose is a classic 

" The very opposite," says Dr. Lieber, " is the case at pres- 
ent in England. There has been no period and no country in 
which perspicuity, simplicity, and manliness of style are so gen- 
eral as at present in English Reviews ; even newspapers, e. g, the 
" London Spectator," are models of these attributes of a good 


style. Monckton Milncs, M. P., told me he had not the least 
doubt but that the House of Commons of the present day would 
not stand the eloquence of Fox, Sheridan, or Burke. I asked, 
* What would they do ? ' ' The members would instantly leave 
their seats,' was the reply. Mr. Milncs also spoke of several 
American writers whose style was correct ; still, he could always 
detect some florid expression characteristic of their people." 

Before closing these observations on American provincialisms, 
I should do injustice to previous writers on the same subject, not 
to speak of their works. The earliest of these, as far as my 
knowledge extends, is that of Dr. Witherspoon. In a scries of 
essays entitled "The Druid," which appeared originally in a 
periodical publication in 1761, he devotes numbers 5, G, and 7 
of these essays, about twenty pages in all, to Americanisms, 
perversions of language in the United States, cant phrases, &c. 
They were afterwards published in his collected works, in 4 vols. 
8vo, Philadelphia, 1801, and may be found in the fourth 

The most important work of the kind is that of the late Hon. 
John Pickering. He began with an article in the " Memoirs of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences," Boston. This 
was soon after enlarged and published in a separate volume 
entitled *' A Vocahtilary, or Collection of Words <md Phrases which 
have been supposed to be peculiar to the United States of America. 
To which is prefixed an Essay on the Present State of the English 
Language in the United States.'' Boston, 1816. pp. 206. (Con- 
taining about 520 words.) This valuable and interesting work 
received much attention, and in the following year appeared a 
pamphlet, entitled "^ Letter to the Bon. John Pickering^ on the 
Subject of his Vocabularg^ or Collection of Words and Phrases sup' 
posed to be peculiar to the United States" By Noah Webster. 
8vo. Boston, 1817. pp. 69. 

In the Transactions of the Albany Institute, 1830, Vol. I., is 
an article entitled ^' Notes on Mr, Pickering's Vocabulary^ &c., 
with Preliminary Observations'* By T. Romeyn Beck. In Mr. 
Sherwood's " Gazetteer of Georgia" is a glossary of words pro- 
vincial in the Southern States. The latest work on provincial- 
isms, but chiefly of errors in grammar, is *'*' A Grammatical 




Oorret^tor^ or Vocabulary of the Common Erron of J^tfitfcn 
hetic(tfit/ arranfjed^ correeUd^ and explain td for the Ust of Schooh 
and Private IndividnaJg:' By Scth T. HurrL 12mo. riiUadel- 
phia, 1847.^ 

Since xXxit publication of the first edition of this work, there 
have been published two additions of a work entitled •' A Colffic- 
Hon of CoUtge Words and Ctufomit:' By B. H. HalL 12mo. 
Cambridge, The last edition in 1856, This is a very oomplcte 
work in its way, and contains many Americanisms which origi- 
aated at Colleges. An excellent little vohirae, by Dr* A* L« 
Elwyn of Philadelphia, entitled ** Glossary of Supposed America n- 
isTng^ has also appeared. This is a useful work, and shows how 
many of um supposed Americanisms are reall}^ English. 

As the charge has been frequentl}- made against us by Eng- 
lish crities of perverting our vernacular tongue, and of adding 
useless words to it. it will not be out of place to state here that/ 
in the belief of the author, the English language Is in no part 
of the world spoken in greater purity by the great mass of the 
people than in the United States. In making this assertion, he 
does not depend wholly on his own observation : it has repeat- 
edly been made by intelligent Englishmen who have travelled in 
the United States, and had an opportunity of judging. On this 
subject, the author of an English work, entitled the *' Back- 
woods of Canada," has the following judicious remarks : — 

'* With the exception of some few remarkable expressions, 
and an aUempt at introducing fine words, the lower onler of 
Yankees have a decided advantage over our English peasantry 
in the use of grammatical language : they speak better English 

1 In preparing this work, I have examined all the English provincial 
glofsan€i!«, and the principnl Enjflish dictionnries ; whieh il was neressnry fo 
do, in order to know what words iind pJirnsei* were still provincial in Eng- 
land. Many of the fact* in that portion of the Introduction which treats 
of English dialects have been drawn from fsmiiJar essays appended to the 
ftt'veral [floFFarie*, But I am chiefly indebted to tlie enlarged Preface to 
Dr. Bo» worth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, which presenia the best historical 
analysit ext«nl of the English lan^riia^e : and to the admirable and later 
work of ProfcMor Latham* "The Kngliflh Language," London, 18-11, which 
U unquestionably the raost valuable work on English philology and gram- 
mar which has yet appeared^ 


than you will hear fh)m persons of the same class in any part of 
England, Ireland, or Scotland ; a fact that we should be unwill- 
ing to allow at home." — p. 83. 

The Rev. Dr. Withcrspoon, President of Princeton College, 
bom and educated in Scotland, made a similar remark in 1784. 
In an essay on the language, he says : — 

"The vulgar in America speak much better than the vulgar 
in Great Britain, for a very ob\dous reason ; namely, that being 
much more unsettled, and moving frequently from place to place, 
they are not so liable to local peculiarities either in accent or 
phraseology'."— Works, Vol. IV. p. 281. 

The " London Quarterly Review," in noticing Silliman's "Trav- 
els in England," quotes his remark on the use of the English lan- 
guage in England and in America, wherein the Professor insists 
that it is " mare correctly spoken at this time (1805) h\ the mass 
of the Americans than by the mass of the English nation." 
"This assertion," adds the reviewer, " is founded upon a com- 
mon and ver}' easy mistake as to the nature of provincial dia- 
lects, and upon a curious fact in the history- of language. There 
are no provincial dialects in America : emigrants from all parts 
of Great Britain have met there, and intermixed with each other, 
and with natives of the country. The peculiarities of dialect 
have necessarily been melted down into the general speech, which 
is common English ; and this is the language, therefore, which 
all children learn as their mother tongue. The low-bred Lon- 
doner does not transmit his vulgar shibboleth, and the child of 
the Northumbrian is free from the burr which sticks in the throat 
of his father. Dialects can only be preser^'cd b}' collective bodies 
speaking the language which they acquired in their youth ; they 
cannot therefore continue in promiscuous colonies." — Vol. 15, 
p. 61. 

We cannot say as much, however, in favor of our literary dia- 
lect. The ripest scholars among us acknowledge the fact that 
in the best authors and public speakers of Great Britain there is 
a variety in the choice of expressions, a correctness in the uae of 
the particles, and an idiomatic vigor and raciness of style to 
which few or none of our writers can attain. The unfortunate 
tendency to flavor the Latin at the expense of the Saxon ele- 



ment of our language, which social and educational causes have 
long tended to foster in the mother country, has with us received 
an additional impulse from the great admixture of foreigners in 
our population. It is not likely that the pure old idiomatic Eng- 
lish style can ever be restored in this country ; but there is no 
good reason to doubt that the fusion of the present rather hete- 
rogeneous elements of which our society is composed will result 
in the production of a style and a literature which will also have 
their beauties and their merits, although fieishioned after a some- 
what different model. 






A 1. The highest classification of a vessel on Lloyd's list. Some- 
times "copper-bottomed** is added. Years ago it was common 
to see the mark appended to the name of a vessel in an advertise- 
ment for freight or passengers. So far the term and its use are 
English; but, in a commercial country, the use of such terms is 
often extended beyond their original application. 

It is well known to those who are in turn well known to Stewart, and who stand 
on his books rated A No. 1 fur the leni^tU of their bil!», that the fitting out a 
young lady nowadays for a winter season in town, or a summer season at a 
watering-fJace, afisimilates more nearly to preparing a vessel for a voyage 
around the world than any other analogous undertaking. — N. Y. Commercial 

The Niagara, New Orleans, and Louisville packet is one of the most mag- 
nificent steamers now running the river. Her interior arrangements are com- 
plete, and her officers A No. 1. — Western Paper, 

Got a prime nigger, said the slave-dealer; an A number one cook and no 
mistake ! Picked her up cheap. — Mrs. Stowe^ Dred^ Vol. I. p. 313. 

Abergoin. The term ** aborigines *' is corrupted by some of the illit- 
erate people of the West into Abergoins or Abrogam, 

AblBselfa. A, by itself, A. It will be recollected by many that in 
the olden time the first letter of the alphabet was denominated 
•*abisselfa** when it formed a syllable by itself, as in the word 
aUe. The scholar, in spelling the word, was taught to say, *' a, by 
itself, a (rapidly, abissel/a), b, /, e, bie, able.** We derive this 
word and the use of it from England, where it is used in Suffolk 
county. See Moor's Glossary. 

To abolitionlBe. To convert to the doctrines of the abolitionists. 




AboUtiondom. Said in the Confederate States, during the late civil 
war, of the loyal States. 

They [the people of Tennessee] cannot be sold to JboUtiondom. —KnoxvUk^ 
,--/ Tennessee Begister, 1867. 

About Right. To do a thing about right is to do it well. 

I fell foul of the old mare; and if I dMn't give it to her about right^ then 
there *8 none o* me, that *s all. — New England Stories. 

Aboya one's Bend. Out of one's power. A common expression in 
the Western States. Above one's hucJdeberry is a vulgarism Of the 
same signification. 

I shall not attempt to describe the curiosities at Peale*s Museum ; it is above 
my bend. — CrockeU, Tour down East. 

Above Par. A term originally applied to stocks, but often trans- 
ferred to other things which are superior; as, ** This horse is above 
par; ** ** These goods are above par; " meaning that they are above 
the ordinary standard, better than common. 

Above Snakes. Exaggerated cant for '*from the ground," or 
more than above the ground. 

Those two tall Kentuckians, Mrith their tufted chins, somewhere about seven 
feet above snakes. ~ WorUey's Travels in the United States. 

To absquatulate. To run away, to abscond. A factitious vulgarism. 

W was surrendered by his ball, who was security for his appearance at 

court, fearing he was about to absquatulate. — N. Y. Herald^ 1847. 

A railroad station-master at Oakdale has absquatulated with funds belonging 
to the railroad and various individuals. — N. T. Tribune. 

Hope^s brightest visions absquatulate with their golden promises before the 
least cloud of disappointment, and leave not a shinplaster behind. — Dow*» 
Sermons, Vol. I. p. 309. 

According to Gunter. Gunter was a distinguished arithmetician, 
and the inventor of a chain and scale for measuring. The Laws 
of Rhode Island, both colonial and recent, referring to measures, 
say, *^ All casks shall be gauged by the rule commonly caUed 
'gauging by Gunter.*'* This refers to the instrument called 
** Gunter 's Slide-rule,** adapted for gauging. Hence any thing cor- 
rectly and properly done is said to be ** according to Gunter.** 

Mr. K J a respected citizen of Detroit, has published a letter entirely ex- 
onerating General Cass from the charge of having defrauded his association in 
the land speculations. He is positive that all was done according to Gtmter. — 
N. 7. Tribune. 

The expression "according toHoyle'* is also. common; and an 
old fellow, who never played a game of whist in his life, always 
said ** according to Hodge.^* 


Aoooont. *'lli#fie hogs are of no account,^* meaning of no value- 
TU« word is ustjd in the West to the excliusion of other shinies 
at meaning. See No Account. 

▲ocountabllity. The state of being accountable. In England, the 
furm QccfiuntalflenesM is uned* The aarae difference is obi*en'able 
in ft ntmiber of words. 

▲oeqiilm. (Span») The iiii^uring ditches used in Texas and Xew 
Mexico are called Accqnlns, The larger or principal one, \\lurh 
•npplieft the smaller, is called the Acequia Maifre^ or main ditch. 
The w-ord is sometimes spelled azaquia or ztquia, 

Ai Uie ranRtang j^prang nver the ztqmn^ die flowing »kirt of the manga witt 
|ittff«4 forward. — Ma^t Riid, The War Trail. 

To sekoowledge the Com. An expression of recent origin, which 
ba» now bec<:»me very common. It means to confess or acknowledge 
a charge or imputation. The following story is told bb Uie origin of 
tiie phrase : — 

SoitM veara atrn, a raw copitomir, fn)ni ihe qpp*»r countr>% tititennmed to try his 
fecfun* at New Orleacid, Accordingly he provided him^i^otf with twu Dnt-boata, 
— one taden with ccini nod the other with pr*tfttoc*, — «nd cjown the river he 
went. The night aft^r hi* airival ho wmt up iovrn^ to a giimhling*hou**». Of 
octrB«» lie rcimmrnc**!! IwtlJng, and, hia hick proving unfortimate. he lost. Wheo 
' fr AS gune, he Ixit his "tmck ; '* and the com and prrrntoea followed 
itfi« money. At lait^ when completely cicnned out, he returned to liia btmtii at 
liliv wharf \ wh>'Ti the evidence^ nf a now mtiifortune presented themtielvea. 
•n>rtmgh prtjm' mviilirut or cither, the iha-hi>rtt ron taming the com was aitnk, and 
a tola] Jo«i)«. Ojrisr>lii])j; hhiiM'lf ai« well ar he could, he went to »leep, dreaming 

f'f » I .- i^Mjtntoe*, and com, It wn* fscnreely aunrise, however, when he waa 

ri V the '*ihild of * hanre/' wlm had arrived to take pn»<nf9^\on of th« 

1 - lii- winnings. Slowly awnkening from hia sltiep, our hero, rut»- 

y il luuking the man hi the lace, replied: "^^ Stranger. / acknowl^ 

f ■ ■'. t,ike 'em: hut the pot«toe« von ortw'/have, by thunder! " — Pitti- 

htArff d-owmrrnVt/ AdnfriiMtr. 

The Evening Mirn>r vi*ry iiaTvefy tomeii out and (wknotcUdpejtKe corn, admili 
thai a demand wa* made, &c, — AVmj York ffrtftUl, Jime 27, 1846, 

Enough, »ald the <^N|ifAhi, I *m hoax*'d, I *m gloriounly hoaxed, lachnowltd^ 
fit florji, — Pideif^fff/rom ih« Pienjfunt, p. 8^)* 

Now of my enterprifcf, howerer, hnve Wn omitted; aadf though a portion 
of my **Confe»iN inn »" may hy iMjtne lie considered injudicious, I prefer frankly 
to tidmovrUelfft the isim wherever I ha%'e had a hand in plucking it. — P. T. 

▲oroM LotM* By short cutii, In the quickest manner. 

f fwore {n Nauvoo, when my enemiea were looking ma in the face, that I 
would *rnd them to hell acraat ioeiil they meddled with mt, ^ Speech of Brit/ham 
l*om*f, 1857. 


Acting. Acting as; fulfilling the duties; holding the position of. It 
is said of one who, not formally inducted into an office or position, 
performs the duties of it ad interim; as ** Acting Governor," 
** Acting Pastor," &c. 

Action. An amusing article appeared in the ** National Intelli- 
gencer," Washington, in 1846, on the abuse of this word. The 
writer says : — 

" The proceedingt of Congress ; the dtdtion of Congress, or either House; the 
voU of the Senate or of the House, preliminary or final ; the consideration of a 
bill or measure; the signature of the President after a bill has passed both 
Houses; or the mnetion or approwd of the President, — these are modes of 
expression no longer known. The words I underscore have disappeared — gone 
for ever, it would seem. Nobody hears of them more. It is the action of the 
House, or the House taking action ; the action of the Senate, or the Senate taking 
action ; or what action will the House take, or what action will the Senate take; 
or both Houses are waiting for the action of the President.*' 

Adam and Bve, (Aplectum hyemale.) Putty root, so called from the 

bulb of the preceding year being always connected with the new 

To admire. 1. To wonder at; to be affected with slight surprise. — 

In New England, particularly in Maine, the word is used in this 

sense. Some of the old English writers so employed it. 

I perceive these lords 
At this encounter do so much admire^ 
That they devour their reason. — Shakqteare. 

2. To like very much. This verb is often and very absurdly used 
in New England in such expressions as, ** I should admire to see the 

Adobies. (Span, adobes.) Sun-baked brick used for building houses, 
fortifications, and making enclosures, in Texas, New Mexico, &c. 

The large and economical adoht brick, hardened in the sun and without fire, 
supersedes other materials for walls and fences in this dry atmosphere [that of 
the great Plains], and, as in Syria and Egypt, resists decay for centuries. — W, 
Gilpin in Nat. Intel., 1857. 

Adulterer. A person who adulterates. 

One of the gentlemen, while conversing with the Committee, remarked that 
his friend (indicating him) knew all about the adulteration of liquors; . . . 
whereupon the proverbial joker, Mr. Thaddeus Stevens (chairman of the Com- 
mittee), said: *'Then let the adulterer speak for himself.** — i^T. Y, Herald^ S7 
March, 1862. 

Adventism. See Millerism, 

Adventist See MiUerite. 


AfBnity. A man or a woman for whom one of the opposite sex feels 
a strong attachment, amounting to a passion ; indeed, so strong is 
this passion claimed to be, that husbands leave their wives, and 
wives their husbands, for one for whom they possess a stronger 
affection, and between whom they pretend there is a stroniifer affin- 
ity. This individual they call their ** affinity." The following 
example conveys the meaning of the word : — 

" Ain*t Theron Gusher a married man ? " [inquired Josiah Allen^s wife of Miss 
Betsy Bobbet]. 

**0h, yes, some.** 

" Some ! " I rei>eated in a cold accent " He is either married, or he hainH 
married, one or the other; ** and again I repeated coldly, ** Is he a married man, 

** Oh, yes, he has been a married man a few times, or what the cold world calls 
marrying* — he ha.s got a wife now; but I do not believe he has found his nffinity 
yet, though he has got several bills of divorcement from various wimmen, trying 
tofind her.'*— iB<t»y Bobbet, p. 190. 

**Say8 she [»'. e. Miss Bobbet], ' When a woman finds that her soul is clogged 
and hampered, it is a duty she owes to her higher nature to find relief* ** 

** Says I [t. e. Josiah Allen's wife], * When a woman has such feclin*s, instead 
of leavin* her husband, and goin* round huntin* up an affinitte^ let her take a 
good thoroughwort puke.* '* — JbuL^ p. 327. 

Referring to the four millions of Spirit ualii«ts which Judge Edmuudfl declared 
to be in the United States, J. Warren Chase afi!irms that all these Spiritualista 
accept the doctrine of special nffinitits l>ctween man and woman : affinititt which 
imply a spiritual relation of the sexes higher and holier than that of marriage. 
— DixoHy Spiritual Wivts^ p. 75. 

To Afrloanise. To place under Negro domination. 

AMoanisation. The act of placing under Negro domination. This 
and the preceding are words of recent introduction by Southern 
political writers. 

After Night After nightfall; in the evening; as, *' A meeting will 
be held in the court-house afier night. ^^ This expression is said to 
be peculiar to the Middle States. — Hurd^s Grammatical Corrector, 

Agnarcilante. (Span.) On the Mexican frontier, as well as in 
Spanish America, any distilled liquor, whether rum, brandy, or 

General Sherman, in speaking of a dinner at San Francisco, on 
the 4th July, 1846, says: — 

^ A man of some note, named Sinclair, presided, and, after a substantial meal 
and a reasonable supply of aguardiente^ we began the toasts.** — Memoir*^ Vol. I. 

AgOT-fortjr. Aquarfortis, yulg^ly so called at the Sonth-west 


The doctors fed me on lodlum tea and epecac, washed down with myrtle tea, — 
*t wasn't of no manner of U8e ; they then tried agur-foriy^ — if it had been agur- 
hondred, 't wouldn't have done. — N, Y, Spirit of the Timts^ Frontier Tale. 

Aguy and Agar for ague; feoer-an^-aguy for ** fever and ague; " com- 
mon among the uneducated, wherever this distressing disease is 
known. The word ague is pronounced in some localities so as to 
rhyme with plague. 

Ahead. Forward, in. advance. Thb word, originally a sea term, is 
now in very common use by all classes of spe^ers and writers. 

Oar banks, being anxious to make money for their stockholders, are probably 
right to drive ahead^ regardless of consequences, &c. — N, T, Com. Adv., Not. 
39, 1845. 

Agee. Askew; as ** to have one's hat agee.*^ From the term gee used 
h in driving cattle. 

fm^M* Airy. Conceited. Said of one who puts on airs. 
// y Alamo. (Span.) {Populus monili/era.) See Cotton-Wood. 
" '^^ Albany Beef. Sturgeon; so called because a part of the sturgeon's 
^*77^ flesh has much the look, and not a little of the taste, as well as 

texture, of ox muscle. It abounds in the Hudson River, and is 
much eaten in the city of Albany. 
Albany Hemp. (Urtica Canadensis.) Canada nettle, so called from 

the use made of its fibrous bark. 
Albany Regency. A name popularly given in the United States to a 
junto of astute Democratic politicians, having their head-quarters 
at Albany, who controlled the action of the Democratic party for 
many years, and hence had great weight in national politics. — 
Wheeler, Diet. 
Alcoholism. The practice, the results of using alcohol; drunken- 

Three deaths of akohoUam ; three of diseases of the bones, joints, &c ; forty 
of the brain and nerves. — N. Y. Herald^ March, 1862. 

Alder. Beside the true alders, various shrubs belonging to quite dif- 
ferent families are so called, generally on account of a resemblance 
in the leaves ; thus, Rhamnus alniflorus (alder-leaved buckthorn) is 
** dwarf alder; " Clethra alnifoUa (sweet pepper-bush) is "spiked " 
or *' white alder;*' Prinos verticUlatus (winter berry) is "black 

Alewife, plur, Alewives. {Alosa vemalis, Storer.) A fish of the 
herring kind, abounding in the waters of Xew England. In Mary- 
land and Virginia they are called " old wives ;'^ Alewhap, plur. 
Alewhapi, in Connecticut. 


The name appears to be an Indian one, though it is somewhat changed, as ap- 
pears by the earliest account we have of it. In former times, the Indians made 
VM of these fish to manure their lands, as the menhaden are now used. Mr. 
"Winthrop says : " Where the ground is bad or worn-out, they put two or three 
of the fishes called aloofes under or adjacent to each corn-hill ; whereby they had 
many times a double crop to what the ground would otherwise have produced. 
Hie English have learned the like hunbandry, where these aJoo/et come up in 
great plenty." — Phihsophieal Trans., 1678. 

High up in the open fire-place were two dozen hard-wood rods, that severally 
supported about a dozen gasperaux, or alewives^ that were undergoing the process 
of smoking. — Sam SUch^ Wise Saics^ p. 128. 

A plant derived from Chili, and now extensively cultivated 
in California. It is understood to be simply the lucerne of Europe 
(Medicago satica), differing in habit of growth, if at all, only as a 
result of difference of soil and climate. It is a plant allied to the 
clover family. It has lately been introduced into Texas, and is 
found to be admirably adapted to the black prairie soil of that 
State. — U. S. Agricultural Report for 1875, p. 394. 

Mr. Squier, who found the plant growing luxuriantly in Peru, 
thus speaks of it : — 

Our mules pricked up their ears, and, with visions of infinite alfalfa before 
them, broke into a lively trot. — Travels in Peru^ p. 475. 

Alglo. Relating to the Algonkin tribes. Formed by Mr. Schoolcraft 

from the word Algonkin. 
Alienage. The state of being an alien. — Webster, Neither this nor 

the following word is to be found in the English dictionaries, except 

the recent one of Mr. Knowles. They are common, however, in 

professional books. 

Where he sues an executor, &c., the plaintifiTs alienage is no plea. — Laireil'i 
Pkading on Assumpsit, p. 687. 
To restore estates, forfeitable on account of alienage. — Judge Story. 
AlleniBm. The state of being an alien. — Webster^ Knowles. 

The prisoner was convicted of murder; on his arraignment he suggested his 
aliemsm, which was admitted. — 2 Johnson's Reports, 381. 

Tlie law was very gentle in the construction of the disability of alienitm, — 
Chancellor Kent. 

Alkali Desert, Alkali Land. Wide districts of land in Colorado 
and Nevada, and more appropriately called a desert, covered with 
an efSorescence of alkali. 

As you drive over the uncultivated part of the plain, you see occasionally tha 
white flowery efflorescence of alkali. Frequently a farm would extend into the 
midst of this alkali land. -^NordhoJTs Cnli/omia, p. 144. 

And now we entered upon one of that species of deserts whose concentrated 
hideousness shames the diffused and diluted horrors of Sahara, — an alkali desert. 

8 ALL 

For sixtj-eight miles there was but one break in it. The oOboU dust cut through 
our lips, it persecuted our eyes, it ate through the delicate membranes and made 
our noses bleed and kept them bleeding. — Mark Twctin^ Houghing It^ p. 143-4. 

All any more. A common expression in Pennsylvania among the 
illiterate to mean **all gone." Thus a servant will say, "The 
potatoes is all any more, i. e. are all gone ; or she will say simply, 
** They 'sail." 

All-Day. Continuing a whole day, able to work a whole day or every 
day ; steady; strong. ** An all-day horse," &c. 

AU-fired. Enormous, excessive ; enormously, excessively. A low ex- 
pression ; probably a puritanical corruption of hell-fired, designed to 
have the virtue of an oath without offending polite ears. 

I was woked up by a noise in the street; so I jumps up in an aU-Jtred huiry, 
ups with the window, and outs with my head. — Sam Slick. 

I *m dying — I know I am ! My mouth tastes like a rusty cent. The doctor 
will charge an oil-fired price to cure me. — Knickerbocker Mag., 1845. 

The first thing I know'd, my trowsers were plastered all over with hot molas- 
ses, which burnt aU-Jired bad. — Major Joneses Courtthip, p. 87. 

Old Haines sweating like a pitcher with ice-water in it, and looking oil-fired 
tired. — Porter's Tales of the South-west, p. 58. 

Tou see the fact is, Squire (said the Hoosier), they had a mighty deal to say 
up in our parts about Orleans, and how aU-Jlred easy it is to make money in it ; 
but it '■ no ham and all hominy, I reckon. — Pickings from the Picayune, p. 67. 

AU-firedly. Enormously, excessively. 

Rum does every thing that is bad ; wonder if it is rum that makes potatoes rot 
so aW^firedly, — Milne, Farm Fence^ p. 8. 

All-holler. To beat one all-holler, or all hollow, is to beat him thor- 

AU-possessed. Affected by evil spirits, or demons ; possessed. 

Bill Jenkins was a dreadful mean man; used to get drunk every day, and 
swore like all-possessed when he got mad. — Widow Bedott Papers^ p. 30. 

All Sorts. Heel-taps of drinks of all sorts left in glasses at a public 
house, poured into a common receptacle, and sold to poor drinkers 
at half price. — Baltimore Farmer. 

All Sorts o£ A Southern expression, synonymous with expert, acute, 
excellent, capital. It answers to the English slang term hang-up 
or out-and-out. It is a prevalent idiom of low life, and often heard 
in the colloquial lan^age of the better informed. A man who in 
New England would be called a curious or a smart fellow would in 
the South be called all sorts of& fellow; expert in many ways. 

She was cdl sorts of a gal, — there wam't a sprinklin* too much of her : she had 
an eye that would make a fellow*s heart try to get out of his bosom, her step was 
light as a panther's, and her breath sweet as a prairie flower. — Bobb, Squatter 


f^^^ M;;f. 

ALL 9 

If you cmn only get Kit rid of them little failings [blindness and deafness], 
yoaUl find him all tortt of a horse. — Trait* o/Amtr. Hwnor, 
To pen an Ode upon Oil-of-Bob 
Is all mnis of a, job — Poe, Life of Thingum Bob. 

All-to-pieces. 1. Excessively ; as, ** I beat him last night at poker 
2. Excessivef out-and-out. 

Miss G sot down in a rocking-chair, hauled out her snuff-box (for she was 

an all-to-pieoes snuff-taker), and began to rock and snuff and rock as hard as ever 
ahe could. — Widow BtdoU Papers, p. 124. 

The expression is used in England, and is noticed by Halliwell, 
in the Int. to his Dictionary. 

They growl, shud you not own that it 

Beats Danbury all-khpieces. — Poem in Essex Dialect. 

All-to-smash. Smashed to pieces. This expression is often heard in 
low and familiar language. It is ^n English provincialism. Mr. 
Halliwell says, that a Lancashire man, telling his master the mill- 
dam had burst, exclaimed, ** Maister, maister, dam 's brossen, and 
aw^S'tO'Smash.^* — Archaic and Prov. Dictionary. See Smash. 

Alley. 1. A place where the game of nine or ten pins is played ; usu- ■ 

ally called a nine or ten pin alley, and sometimes simply an alley. 

2. An ornamental marble, used by boys for shooting in the ring, 
&c. ; also called in England a taw. It is made of marble or of 
painted clay or of alabaster. In some cities, the boys call white 
marbles alleys. 

Jim. I *11 give you a marble. I *11 give you a white alley. White alley, Jim! 
And it *s a bully taw. — if ark Tioain, Tom Sairytr, p. 27. 

Alligator. 1. A large American reptile, resembling the Egyptian cro- 
codile, having a wide, obtuse muzzle and unequal teeth. Though 
still numerous in Florida, Louisiana* and Texas, they are no longer 
regarded as very dangerous. Tlie name, according to Cuvier, is a 
corruption of the Spanish and Portuguese el lagarto, equivalent to 
the Latin lacerta. 

2. In the Western States, the name is applied also to the MenO' 
poma allegheniensis, a salamandroid animal. 

Alligator Gar. The gar-fish of the South, so called from the resem- 
blance its long jaws bear to those of the alligator. 

Alligator Pear. (Laurus persea.) A West Indian fruit, resembling 
a pear in shape. It contains within its rind a yellow butyraceous 
substance, which, when the fruit is perfectly ripe, constitutes an 
agreeable food, an English corruption of the Spanish avocato and 

10 ALL— ALM 

French avocat. In England this is sometimes called Vegetable 
Marrow, and so is the succada squash. 

To allot upon. To intend, to form a purpose; as, I ^lot upon going 
to Boston. Used by uneducated people in the interior of New Eng- 
land. See Lot upon. 

Allotment Certificate. A certificate specifying the land, &c., allotted 
to a person named in said certificate. 

President Lincoln has appointed the following persons to provide for aUoimetU 
certificates Among the Tolonteers from New York State. ^N, T. Tribune^ Dec 80, 

To allow. 1. To declare; assert; maintain; affirm; common in the 
Middle and Southern States, but never heard in New England. 
2. To think; to suppose. Western. 

The ladv of the cabin seemed kind, and allowed we had better stop where we 
were. — Carlton^ The New Pwchaa^. 

Gentlemen from Arkansas allowed that California was no better than other 
countries ; and the proof of it was, that they could only get twenty dollars a 
week and board offered them for driving an ox-team. — Famham^ California. 

He ^ lowed he* d ge me half a crown, 

An treat me wud some beer, 
If I wud make it up wud him. 

An let un goo off clear. 

Tom Cladpole^s Journey to Lunnun, 

AllBpioe. 1. The aromatic berry of the Eugenia pimenta j the Allspice 
Pimento or Bayberry Tree, a native of South America and the West 
India Islands. From being cultivated in Jamaica, it is often called 
Jamaica Pepper. 

2. The " sweet-scented shrub *' {Calycanthus floridus) is also 
known as Carolina Allspice, the bark and wood having a somewhat 
spicy flavor. 
All-two. The word both is so expressed by the negroes of South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, and Florida. — W, F. Allen, Int. to Slai^e Songs. In 
the following definition of love by a slave, the words appear in the 
last sentence : — 

Arter you lub, you lub, you know, boss. You can't broke lub. Man can't 
broke lub. Lub stan' — 'e ain't gwine broke. Man hab to be berry smart to 
broke lub. Lub is a ting stan* jus' like tar; arter he stick, he stick, he ain't 
gwine move. Hab to kill tM-two arter he lub befo' you broke lub. — Ibid., 
p. xxxvi. 

AImig;ht7 Dollar. A term applied to the love of money as *^ the root 
of all evil.** ** Almighty gold *' is used by Farquhar in the ** Re- 
cruiting Officer," Act iii. Sc. 2. 

ALO— AME 11 

The ahnigkty dollar^ that gfreat object of universal devotion throughout our 
land, seems to have no genuine devotee in these peculiar [Creole] villages. — 
W. Irving, WdftrV* Roott, p. 40. 

The almighty dottar exerted a more powerful influence in California than in 
the old States ; for it overcame all pre-existing false notions of dignity. — Borih- 
wick'* CaU/omia, p. 165. 

▲long. Forward, on. Mrs. Trollope has the following words : **'VVe 
must try to get along, as the Americans say." Lover also was 
puzzled to discover what the young American lady meant by saying 
that she was so unwell that she ^' could not get along.^* An Eng- 
lishman would say, get on, 

AionseneL The Mexican name for Cowania stansburiana, a plant 
growing extensively in the vicinity of Salt Lake, and held in great 
esteem as a styptic in hemorrhages, and as a general astnngent. 

Alnm-Root. (Henchera Americana.) A plant so called from its 

To amalgamate. This word, which properly denotes the uniting of 
mercury with other metals, is universally applied, in the United 
States, to the mixing of the black and white races. 

Amalgamation. The mixing or union of the black and white races. 

Ambia. Used in the South and West for tobacco juice. It is a 
euphemism for the spittle produced by this voluntary ptyalism. 
More commonly spelled and pronounced A/nheer, probably from 
Amber, — denoting its color. 

Ambition. In North Carolina this word is used instead of tlie word 
grudge; as, ** I had an anihition against that man." I am credibly 
informed that it is even employed in this manner by educated men. 

Ambitious. Angry, enraged. A native of Georgia was heard to say, 
** I was powerful ambitious and cussed snortin'." The word is used 
in the West in a similar sense. Thus, they say an '^^ ambitious 
horse," meaning thereby a horse that is fiery and unmanageable. 
In Massachusetts and Connecticut, energetic, industrious. 

Amenability. State of being amenable or answerable. — Judge Story, 
Webster. Xot in the English dictionaries. 

Americanism. A way of speaking peculiar to tliis country. — Wither- 

** By Americanism,'* says Dr. Witherspoon, ** I understand a use 
of phrases or terms, or a construction of sentences, even among 
persons of rank and education, different from the use of the same 
terms or phrases, or the construction of similar sentences, in Great 
Britain. In this sense it is exactly similar in its formation and 
signification to the word * Scotticism.* " — Works, Vol. IV. 


12 AME— ANO 

To Americanise. To render American; to naturalize in America.— 

Amerioaniaation. The act of rendering American, or of subjection 

to the laws and usages of the United States. 
Among, for between. This word is often used when reference is made 

only to two persons. £x. : '* The money was divided among us two. " 
Among the Miasing. To be among the missing is to absent one's self. 

If a person inquires if you. are at home, the servant is directed to say, No, if 
you don*t want to be seen, and choose to be anumg the nUmng.^S. Sticky 
Nature and Human Nature^ p. 17. 

The crowd of office-seekers in Washington vrill be among the missing^ when 
they learn the President's decision. — N. Y, Herald, 

Anagreeta. *' Com gathered before maturity, and dried in an oven 
or the hot sun, by which means it retains its sweetness, and is easily 
dressed, making a fine mixture in puddings, especially with pease; 
but this is only practised in the provinces of New York and New 
Jersey." — i2oTOafw'« Nat. Hist, of Florida, p. 122. 

Anan (from anon). How ? What do you say ? It is made use of in 
vulgar discourse by the lower class of persons addressing a superior, 
when they do not hear or comprehend what is said to them. It 
is going out of use now. — Halliwell. The word is common in 

Anohovy Pear. (Grias caulijlora.) A fruit of Jamaica. It is large, 
contains a stone, and is esculent. This plant Ls imperfectly known 
to botanists, and does not yet appear to be classed. 

Ancient Dominion. Virginia. See Old Dominion. 

Andpersand. Two generations ago, when Irish schoolmasters were 
common at the South, this expression, equivalent to the & annexed 
to the alphabet (meaning *^ (f per se, and,** to distinguish it from 
jrc.) was in frequent use. 

Annatto. (Anotta, Annotto, Webst.) The West Indian name of the 
dye ** orlian,^* called by the Indians anoty. — De Vries, 1634. 

Annexation. Often used in the restricted sense of the addition of 
new territory to that of the United States, and often with the acces- 
sory idea of unlawful acquisition. 

Annexationist. One who favors the policy of annexation. 

Annexion was solemnly advocated by Mr. Sumner as a better word 
than annexation. 

Anog. An andiron. Amasa Lincoln's inventory of Mary Stratton's 
estate, Athol, Mass., 1840. See Hand-dog. 


ANT 18 

T6 ante. To risk; to venture a bet. The anie is the stake first 
put np, before the cards are dealt, or betting on the hands begins. 
Each player puts his ante in the pool, before [ante] beginning the 
game or hand. 

Ton have heard of the difficalty that ** The Bulletin ** has fallen into. I have 
had to antt up there at the rate of $200. I hope the friends there have made 
arrangements which will ensure the permanency of the paper. — N. Y, 7Vi6un«, 
Aug. 10, 1881, LttitT of TrtuUm Polk, of Tenneuee. 

Antehumons. Published before the death of the author; as post- 
humous is after the death. In speaking of a forthcoming work 
called the ** Life and Times of James Buchanan," the ** New York 
Herald," Jan. 3, 1862, says: — 

The venerable ex-President could not wait until the grass grew over his grave 
to have his life written, for the popular estimation of Mr. Buchanan is too well 
settled to be duturbed or altered by this antehumou* attempt at self-justification. a^^TiCxM.cS/e 

Anti-Bank. Adverse to banking. 

Had this constitution been submitted whole, with all its anti-Bank, anti-Negro 
imperfections on its head, it would have stood a better chance. — N. Y. Tribune, 
June 23, 1862. 

Anti-Federalist **This word was formed al)0ut the year 1788, to 
denote a person of the political party that opposed the adoption 
of the Constitution of the United States, which was then always 
spoken of by the name of the Federal Constitution. The word 
is not now much used ; having been superseded by various other 
names, which have been successively given to the same party." — 
Pickering^s Vocabulary, 

Anti-Mason. One hostile to masonry or free-masonry. — Worcester. 

Anti-Masonic. Hostile to masonry. 

Anti-Masonry. Hostility to masonry. 

Anti-Negro. Hostility to Negroes. See Anti-Bank, 

Anti-Rentism. An organized opposition to manorial rights of agri- 
cultural lands in the State of New York. The early Dutch land 
proprietor of New Netherland (now New York) was invested with 
titles and privileges of a lord patroon or protector, and his colony or 
manor was governed by the same customs and laws as were the 
feudal manors of Holland. A large number of manors were created 
nnder the Dutch, and subsequently under the English colonial gov- 
ernment, and existed at the outbreak of the American Revolution. 
The result was, that at the close of the Revolution a large propor- 
tion of this land in the settled parts of the State was held by the 
patroons, and the cultivators occupied their farms on leases, for one 



or more lives, or from year to year, stipulating^ for the partuent of 
rents, dues, and sen ires, copied from the feudal t«nures of England 
and Holland, In 1770 and 1785, laws were enacted aboUahing 
feudal tenures; but the proprietors of manor grants contriTed to 
form a deed by which the grauteea covenanted to perform certain 
services, and pay rents and dueB, similar to the feudal incidents 
abolished. After many years of suffering under these exactiona, 
the tenants, in 1839, held meetings to form some plan to rid them- 
selves of their grievances. Societies to effect thi^ object were 
formed, which became known as anti^rent osMociaHans* Following 
these eame a secret armed organ ixati on ^ extending through several 
counties, pledged to protect tenant*! from arrest, and to guard their 
property from levy aud sale U[xin execution. These armed bodies, 
dressed as Indians, appeared mitsked, aud prevent-ed the sheriff 
from performing his duties. They insulted all who sympathized 
with the patroons, aud held public meetings, and passed resolutions 
denouncing the landed proprietors* These violent proceedings finally 
led to bloodslied. In 1M2, a commission, appointed to hear wit- 
neaaies and counsel, failed to accoinplwh any thing. The disaffection 
increased, owing to the unyielding exactions of landlords. Governor 
Wright finally felt compelled to issue a proclamation declaring one 
of the counties in a state of insuiTection. Trials and convictions 
followed. Next came the organization of a political party which 
favored the measures of the and-rentern. At the State Constitutional 
Convetition of 1816, so many members had been elected in the 
interest of the anti-renters^ that they were enabled to procure the 
insertion of a clause in the new constitution* abolishing all feudal 
tenures and incidents, and forbidding the leasing of agricultural 
land for a term not exceeding twenty years. After 1847, no instance 
of resistance to law or to the serving of process occurred* The 
excitement died out, and the anii-reni influence ceased to l>e a dis* 
turbing force in politics. The organization contented itself with 
efforts to contest the validity of the titles of their hmdlords, and to 
the legality of tbe conditions and covenants contained in the manor 
grant*!. — Aff^riam Ct/vhpedia. 

Antl-SIaveiy* L Hostile to slavery. 2. Hostility to slavery. 

Anti-Slaveryiat, An opposer of slavery. 

lie [Pri'iiirlent Lincitlw] li«d ljw«Jti (ex^eil and prt!«Med by rmdiral atUi'^fftryiHt 
until be was compelled to offer a eompromlso. — ^Jp^ecA »j/* Mr, WeuhMforth of 
Kfntudy, in Contjrtu. N. Y. Htiitkl, March 13, 18G2, 

Anti-Southern. Opposed to the alleged interests of Southern men. 
I woA ftti^nnatlxed a« sti AboHtlonitt or Black Uepiibiicaii, aq «nfi^o^them 
maa, &c. — JNT. r. THlmnt^ Nov, 8, 1861. LtiUr of W* 5. Bpter, o/Tenntmet. 


, Asti*noloii. Hostility to the American Union. 
Any how you oun fix It. At tiny rate whatever. 
Any Thing ElBa. A hrf^erlxiliCi^l phrase, deiiotiug a strong affirma- 
tion, ifhieh itii» recently Hprtitig up and become quite common, is 
fivpu 111 th« following quotation : — 

^ XiocvKfVKu. Didn't General Cm* g«t mud »t Httll's cowardicei and break his 
|irctr>l ? 

Whiff. H* didn't do any ihinfji eUe, — Newapnptr, 

Amdona Meeting. A religious meeting consequent on a revival. 

Anzloiia Seat. A term used in revival phraseology, A seat occu- 
pied by those who feel anxious about their Bpiritual welfare* In 
Maryland called the jtwitmern^ bench. 

At>aTejOL (Spant, pron. opardho*) A pack-saddle. The word is em- 
ployed in the countries acquired from Mexico, where pack-saddles 
ikTti us«d. 

Apisbaixiorre. (Chippewa, «/)f<A«mon,) Any thing to lie down on; a 
bed. A Aoddle-blanket. made of butlalo-calf skinSf uned on the 
grieai praiiiea. 

Woly«4 art ft coDitaiit innoyance on tti^ pi ninf, creep! oj^ to the »unp4rc«, and 
puiwin(c the «»<Ullet mid npisknnwm^ —MttJ^ion^ Fnr \Vt4t, 

Appellate. Relating to appeals. 

in nil easea afffictitig atnbiui«Adorti, Sic,^ the auprcme court fihall have originai 
furitdictUm: in all other i'u*p« hvfone mpntionpfl, the sinprpme court shall have 
apptiint* jiiri^'sdiction. — Ofttttitutum of tht Unittd SiotcK, Art« 3. 

T1}r \dfifr of France b not the fountain of ju^ttice i ttu' jiidgt^^ neither tbe 
ori^nal nur the appcUate, are of bis nomJimtion. — Hutka, Mertdution, 

For a fuller account of this word, about which there has been 
Much dwcussion by lexicographers, see Mr. Pickerin^*s Vocabulary, 
^here many authorities are cited. It was first given by Mason, in 
h\» flupplement to Johnson *s Dictionary, and was afterwards adopted 
by Todd. 

AppfltitioaL Pertaining to the appetite. Ree the illustration to 
Planked Shad. 

Appetiser. That which will provoke an appetite. The verb to ap- 

ptthe is provincial in the north of Eng^land. 
Apple. Thift name is given in the tropica to fruits of various kinds 

which are not apples; aa the Bel-apple, Cashew-applf^ CusUird- 

•pple, Conch-apple, Ground-apple, Mamma-apple, Monkey-apple ^ 

Pine-ajiple, Sugar-apple, Wood-apple, &c. 

Apple-fiiitter. A sauoe made of apples stewed down in cider. This 
is generally mode in quaiititv, and kept for use during the winter. 

16 APP 

The manufacture occupies a whole night, and is made the occasion 
of a frolic among the young folks. 

Oh, dear, I am so thimtj ; 

I *Te just been down to sapper; 
I drank three quarts of apple-jack, 
And a pound of appU-butter. — Comic Song, 

Apple-Brandy. A liquor distilled from fermented apple-juice; also 
called Apple-Jack and Cider-Brandy. 

It was feared that the conquerors of Goed Hope, flushed with victory and appU- 
brandy, might march to the capital, take it by storm, and aiinex the whole prov- 
ince to Connecticut. — Irving^ Knickerbocker, 

Apple-Cart. ** He upset his apple-cart," t. e. he knocked him 

down. See Lobster Cart. 
Apple-Cut. A collection of young people for the purpose of cutting 

up apples for drying; also called an Apple-Bee. These gatherings, 

like husking-bees, which take place in the country, are the occasion 

of much merriment. See Bee. 
I have seen enough boldness used by a parcel of girls at one huskin* or appU- 

eutf to supply four presidential elections. — Befgy Bobbety p. 290. 

Apple-Jack. A liquor distilled from fermented apple-juice; apple- 

/ * brandy. In England the term is applied to flapjacks, — Forby. 

"/T^ Young's men, dressed in the Confederate uniform, mingled with the people, told 

V y VHl them the news and got news of them, cursed the Yankees, and drank stirrup- 

^ cups of (tppie-Jack to their discomfiture. — Woodbury^ Hist, ^ R, I. Beg't, 

p. 837. 

Apple-Leather. Apples parboiled and stirred into a paste of consid- 
erable consistency; then rolled out and dried in the sun. When 
dry, it is about as tough as leather, and comes away in sheets of the 
thickness of tanned cowhide, — whence its name. — Pennsylvania 
and Maryland. 

Apple-Peeling. A gathering of neighbors in the country for the 
purpose of peeling apples for drying or preserving; an Apple- Cut or 
Apple-Bee, which see above. 

I never knowed but one gal in my life as had cyphered into fractions, and 
she was so dog on stuck up, that she turned up her nose one night at an c^U- 
peeHn* bekase I tuck a sheet off the bed to splice out the table-cloth, which was 
rather short. — EggUston, The Eootier Schoolmaster, 

(t ^J/if.£^ Apple [of] Peru. See Jamestown Weed, 
i^^ Apple-Toddy. A favorite mixture made of whiskey or brandy, re- 
/'^' sembling punch, in which roasted apples take the place of lemon- 


In speaking of the Swedish invaders of New Netherland, Irving 
says: — 


APP 17 

Like [the Yankees] they were great roystercw, much given to revel on ho*> 
cake and bacon, mint-julep, and applt-toddy. — Knicktrbocktry p. 247. 

Applioant. One who applies himself closely to his studies. A sense 
of the word common in New England. 

The English appear to use the word only in the sense of •* one 
who applies for any thing," in which sense it is most commonly 
employed by us. 

Appointabla That may be appointed or constituted ; as officers are 
appointed by the Executive. — Federalist^ Webster, 

To ajipreoiate, v, a. To raise the value of. — Webster, This sense 
of the word is not in any English dictionary except Knowles's, 
which is quite a recent work. 

Lest a sudden peace should appreciate the money. — Ramsay. 

Also, V, n., to rise in value; as, ** The currency of the country 
appreciates." — Webster, The common acceptation of the word, 
however, with us, as in England, is to estimate correctly; to put 
a thing at its right value. 

Appreciation. A rising in value; increase of worth or value. — ■ 

Webster. This noun, like the verb from which it is derived, is 
commonly used by us in its appropriate meaning of estimation, val- "" 

nation; and this will hereafter be understood of all similar words k . ^ 

where a peculiar meaning is assigned to them, unless an express 
statement is made to the contrary. 

To approbate. (Lat. approbo^ to approve.) This word was for- 
merly much used at our colleges, instead of the old English word 
approve. The students used U) si)6ak of having their performances 
approbated by their instructors. It is now in common use with our 
clergy as a sort of technical term, to denote a person who is licensed 
to preach ; they would say, such a one is approbated^ that is, licensed 
to preach. It is also common in Xew England to say of a i>erson 
who is licensed by the county courts to sell spirituous liquors, or to 
keep a public house, that he is approbated ; and the term is adopted 
in the law of Massachusetts on this subject. — Pickering's Vocabu- 

Dr. Webster observes that this is a modem word, but in common 
use in America. Mr. Todd introduces it in his edition of Johnson, 
from Cockeram*s old vocabulary, the definition of which is, ** to 
allow, to like." Mr. Todd says it is obsolete. 

All tbingB contained in Scripture is approbate by the whole consent of all the 
elergie of Christendom. — ^Sir T. ElyoVt Governor, fol. 226. 

18 ARA— ARM 

Arab. ** Street Arabs " is a term applied to ragamuffin boys, or 

what are in France called gamins. 
To argufy. To argue; also to import, signify. This word has a 

place in several of the English glossaries. In this country it is only 

heard among the most illiterate. 

Argufying. Arguing. 

I listen to a preacher, and try to be better for his argufying. — Sam SUck, 
Bumau Nature. 

ArlBtooratia Strangely misapplied in those parts of the country 
where the population is not dense. The city, in the surrounding 
country towns, is deemed ** aristocratic. ' ' The people in the villages 
consider the inhabitants of the towns *■ * aristocratic, ' ' and so on. The 
term is not applied so much to those who make pretensions as to those 
who live in better style, -and have more of the comforts and refine- 
ments of life about them ; it is very common in small country news- 
papers and in political speeches in out-of-the-way places. 

There have been more than one hundred steamboat arrivals here since our last 
issue. We believe that the aristocratic " Mayflower " was among them. — IJUnoii 

Ark. A large boat, employed on our rivers before the introduction of 
steamboats, to transport merchandise. These boats are first men- 
tioned in ** A Description of the Settlement of Genesee County, 
N. Y.," published in 1799. The writer says: ** When the waters of 
the Susquehanna are high by the melting of the snow on the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, a species of boat may be made to descend the 
stream, that will carry from two hundred to five hundred barrels of 
flour." In a note, it is stated that these boats were invented by a 
Mr. Knyder, of Juniata River, who first tried the experiment, and 
reached Baltimore in safety. ** They are made of plank, are broken 
up after discharging their cargo, and sold for lumber, with little or 
no loss. They are navigated by three or five men, and will float 
down at the rate of eighty miles a day; they are called ^Irib." 
See also Doc. Hist, of New York, Vol. II. p. 668. See Flat-Boat, 

Arkansas Toothpick. A bowie-knife of a peculiar kind, the blade 
of which shuts up into the handle. 

Straightway leaped the valiant Slingsby 

Into armor of Seville, 
With a strong Arkansas toothpick 

Screwed in every joint of steel. 

B<m Gnultier, American Ballads, 

Armory. A place or building where fire-arms are manufactured; as, 
the ** Springfield Armory." 

ARO— ASS 19 

Axoand. About, near; as, ** Sam is artmnd in New York." 
I wan standing around when the fi|cht took place. — Police Gazette. 
A friend assures me he has heard a clergyman in his sermon say 
of one of the disciples that *' he stood around the cross.'' 

Arrastra. (Span., properly -.4 rra»fre.) The drag-stone mill for pulver- 
izing or amalgamating ore. 

Arxlera (Span.) A muleteer. The Mexicans, who are the most 
expert in this bijsiness, are invariably employed in Texas, and for 
all mule-trains used in the commerce of the i)rairie8. 

Arro^r-Head. (Sagitfaria variahUh.) A common and very variable 
aquatic plant, so called from the shape of its leaf. 

AzTo^r-'Wood. (Viburnum deniatum.) It is from the long and 
straight stems of this shrub that the Indians between the Missis- 
sippi and the Pacific make tlieir arrows. 

Arroyo. (Span.) 1. A small river; a rivulet. 

2. The dry bed of a small stream ; a deep ravine caused by the 
action of water. Common in New Mexico and California. 

Down the arroyo^ out across the mead, f 

By heath and hollow, sped the flying maid. ^ 

Brtt Harle, Friar Ptdro^i Ride. 

Am, for that, which; as, '* Nolxxly as I ever heard on." This vulgar- 
ism is confined to the illiterate. It is noticed in the Craven and 
Herefordshire Glossaries. 

Asootch. A name given by boys in New York to a small mass of 
wet gunpowder. 

As good as. In the phrase, I *d a.s goods go to New York, instead 
of, "I might as well go to New York." Only heard among the 

As long as. Because, since. '* We '11 come, as long as it 's pleasant." 

New York. 
Ash-Cake. A corn-cake baked in the ashes. Southern. 
Ash-Cart. A cart that goes from door to door to collect ashes. 
Ash-Hopi>er. A lye-cask, or an inverted pjTamidal Ik)x to contain 

ashes, resembling a hopper in a mill. They are common in the 

conntry, where people make their own soap. 
Ashlanders. A club of Baltimore rowdies, so named from Ashland 

Square, near which they lived. 
Aflsamblyauui. A member of the House of Representatives in New 

York, and in some of the New England States. 

20 ASS— ATA 

A small party of the members of the Legislature, both Senators and AtBemUff" 
tneri, accompanied the Commissioners. — N. Y. Tribune^ Dec. 18, 1861. 

ABsistant A member of the Governor's Council. An officer both 
judicial and executive, next in rank to the Chief Magistrate. New 
England, 1621 to 1848. See Court of Assistants, 

AsBooiated Press. A number of newspaper establishments in New 
York and elsewhere, which have entered into a joint arrangement 
for procuring telegraphic and other news to be equally furnished to 
them all, have assumed the name of ** The AssSciated Press,'* 

Association. In civil affairs, this word is much used at the present 
day, to denote the principle of uniting the producing classes in 
societies, for the purpose of obtaining for themselves a larger share 
of the fruits of their labor. 

We do not claim that onr rules are perfect, but we wish to make them so; 
being firmly convinced that the science taught by Fourier will ultimately lead na 
into true AssocicUion, if we follow it as a science, and that we must have some 
correct rules of progress to govern us during the transition period from dvilisa* 
tion to Astodation. — N. Y, Tribune, 

AssooiationaL Pertaining to an association of clergymen. — Webster, 

In order to obtain a license, and afterwards to be admitted to ordination, they 
[the students in divinity] must, in each case, pans through the AatocuUional or 
Presbyterian examination. — Quarterly Review^ 1815. 

AsBociationiBt One who advocates the Fourier doctrine of associa- 
OcT^i^n. ^m tion. 

S^ljkv L jyir ^^ Used as a verb ; as, * ^ I a^ him to do it. ' ' To demand ; to require. 
V ' tf \yg y^ng a-layin' out to carry half a barrel of pork [to the donation party], and 

I made a big jar of butter, and sold it for five dollars, and I atted Josiah to sell 
the pork, and get the money for that. — Betty Bobbet, p. 206. 

At, for by. Used in the expression, ** sales at auction." 

The English say, ** sales by auction,** and this is in analogy with 
the expressions, ** sales by inch of candle; '* ** sales by private con- 
tract. * * — Pickering's Vocabulary. 

At, for in. The very common expressions ** at the North,'* ** at the 
West,** instead of »* in the North,*' «♦ in the West,'* offend an 
English ear. 

At is often used superfluously in the South and West, as in the ques- 
tion, ** Where is he a/ f* 

Atajo. (Span., pron. atdho.) A drove of pack-mules. 

Atamasoo Lily. (Amaryllis atamasco.) A small one-flowered lily, 
held in like esteem, in Virginia and North Carolina, with the daisy 
in England. 

ATH— AVA 21 

Atiiens of Amerioa. A name sometimes given to Boston, Massachu- 
setts. Also called Modern Athens and The Hub, which see. 

Atlantio States. States bordering on the Atlantic. 

Atol^ In the Spanish portions of North America, gruel, generally 
of corn-meal. 

At that A cant phrase, which has recently become popular. It is used 
to define more nearly or intensify something already said; as, ** He *s 
got a scolding wife, and an ugly one at that.^* 

"Liquor up, gentlemen." We bowed. *' I^t me introduce you to some of the 
most highly esteemed of our citizens." We bowed again. ** Now then, Mis- 
ter," turning to the man at the bar, " drinks round, and cobblers at that,*' — 
Notes on the North-western States, Blackwood, Sept., 1855. 

A-tremble. Trembling, quivering; deeply moved. 

And beholding a noble and venerable tree, he says. ** Oh, what majesty and 
glory! Five hund^d years sit enthroned on the top of that monarch of the 
forest." And he feels himself all a-trtnUUe. — The Indepeiultnt, Aug. 14, 1862. 
Sermon by H. W. Beecher. 

Attitudinize. To assume affected attitudes. — Worcester. 

Antliority. In Connecticut the justices of the peace are denominated 
the civil authority. — Webster. 

Mr. Pickering says: ** This word is also used in some of the States 
in speaking collectively of the professors, &c., of our colleges, to 
whom the government of those institutions is intrusted." 

The authority required him to give bonds for his good behavior. — Miss H. 
Adams's History of New Enylami, p. 64. 

Available. That may be used with success or advantage. — Worcester, 

For some months past, a regular system of crying down Mr. Clay as unavaiU 
able has been prosecuted with indefatigable energy and adroitness throughout 

the Union Mr. Clay is a great man— able statesman— all of us prefer 

him to anybody else ty he could be elected, but I 'm afraid he isn't nvniUible. — 
LetUr in N. Y, Tribune, May, 1848. 

Availability. Quality of being available. — Worcester. That qualifi- 
cation in a candidate which implies or supposes a strong probability 
of his success, apart from substantial merit, — a probability result- 
ing from mere personal or accidental popularity. The thing has 
long existed in the papal government, where the advanced age of a 
candidate for the triple crown has often been the motive of his 
election ; the idea being that he would soon die out of the way, and 
leave the chair vacant for a new trial of strength under more favor- 
able auspices, perhaps, foi^some of the electing cardinals. luoifen- 
siveness — exemption from strong hostility in any quarter — is a 
frequent element of availability. — /. Inman, 

22 AVA— AWF 

As this word is not noticed by any lexicographer except Dr. 
Worcester, and is now much used, it is thought advisable to give 
several examples of its use. 

These political conveatioiis are certainly becoming more odious and objection- 
able from year to year; and avcUkUnlity^ not merit or qualifications, is the only 
requisite to secure a nomination. — Baltimore Cor. of the N. Y. Herald^ Blay, 1848. 

The only possible motive for the choice of Mr. Cass, that we can imagine, is 
his presumed atfaikUnUty. the elements of this being his known predilection, real 
or assumed, for territorial acquisition in all quarters, by warlike means as well 
as others, and his avowed devotion to the Southern or slave-holding interest. — 
N. Y. Com. Adv, May 2G, 1848. 

The Whigs, within the last few days, have presented candidates for the highest 
office in the gift of the people, who are without any principles. . . . What do 
they mean by this in thus presenting candidates who have no principles? They 
proceed on the principle of mere ataUability^ and nothing else. They are again 
going to insult your judgments, and tarnish the character of the nation, by their 
exhibitions of coon-skins and hard cider, and their midnight debaucheries, as 
they did in l%\Xi.^ Speech of J. Bowlin, N. Y, Herald, June 12, 1848. 

Availed. Dr. Witherspoon notices tliLs word as used in the following 
example: ^* The members of a {.lopalar government should be con- 
tinually availed of the situation and condition of every part."-^ 
Works, Vol. IV. p. 296. 

The newspapers sometimes say, ** An offer " (for instance) ** was 
made, but not availed of,^"* 

Avalanche. A Texan corruption of the French i4m6u/ance. A spring 

Avocado Pear. See Alligator Pear, 

AwfoL 1. Disagreeable, detestable, ugly A word much used among 
the common people in New England, and not unfrequently among 
those who are educated. The expression ** an atr/uMooking 
woman'* is as often heard as "an ugly woman." The word is 
now more common in England than in the United States. 

The country people of the New England States make use of many quaint ex- 
pressions in their conversation. Every thing that creates surprise is awful with 
them : '* What an awful wind ! awful hole ! awful hill ! awful mouth I awful 
nose ! '* &c. — Lambert's Travels in Canada and the United States. 

The practice of mo\ing on the first day of May, with one half the New-Yorkers, 
is an awful custom. — Major Downing, May-dag in New York. 

2. Very great, excessive. 

Pot-pie is the favorite dish, and woodsmen, sharp set, are awful eaters. — 
Carlton, The New Purchttse, Vol. I. p. 182. 

It is even used in this sense adveft)ially, and with still g^reater 
impropriety, like many other adjectives. Thus, we not unfrequently 
hear such expressions as '' an awful cold day.*' 

AWF— BAG 23 

There waa Old Crane pokin* round among the gals, and mighty particular to 
Kezier Winkle. Ain't it ridiculous ? I don't see what he could fancy about her. 
I neyer thought she was so awful handsome as some folks does. — Widow Bedott 

3. EnormoiM, flagitious; as, ^*&naipful crime.** 
AifTfully. 1. Exceedingly, excessively. Now an adjective of all 
work in English society. '^ O thanks very much! I *m so awfully 
2. Enormously. 
The chimneys were awfully given to smoking. — Carlton^ New Purchase. 
To aze. (Ang.-Sax., acsian, axian.) To ask. This word is now 
considered a vulgarism ; though, like many others under the same 
censure, it is as old as the English language. Among the early 
writers it was used with the same frequency as ask is now. In Eng- 
land it still exists in the colloquial diale<;t of Norfolk and other 
counties. "A true-boni Londoner,** says Pegge, ** always axes 
questions, azes pardon, and at quadrilles axes leave.** 

And Pilate oxide him. Art thou Kyng of JewidV And Jhcsus answeride and 
seide to him. Thou seist. — Widiff, Tram, of the B'Me. 
A poor lazar, upon a tide, 
Came to the gate, and aaxd meate. — Gower, Conf. Amantit. 

Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, in a letter to her 
son, Henry VII., concludes with — 

As herty blessings as ye can axe of God. ^ Lord Howard. 

In the next reign, Dr. John Clarke writes to Cardinal Wolsey, 
and tells him that — 

The King nxed after your Grace's welfare. — Peggts Anecdote. 

The word is much used by the uneducated in tlie United States. 

Day before yesterday, I went down to the post-office, and ax'd the postmaster 
if there was any thing for me. — Major Jones'^s Courtship^ p. 172. 

I haye often axed myttelf what sort of a gall that splendiferous Lady of the 
Lake of Scott's was. — 8am Slick in England ^ ch. 30. 

Babes. The name of a set of Baltimore rowdies. 

Back, V. To back a letter is Western for to ** direct ** it. 

Back is often used for ago; as in the phrase, '* a little while Jacifc," 
t. e. ** a short time ago.** 

Back and forth. Backwards and forwards, applipd to a person in 
walking; as, ** He was walking back and forth. ^^ A common ex- 
pression in the familiar language of New England, /y ;^-^ y. ^ , /^ 

24 BAG 

Backbone. Moral stamina, strength of will, firmness of purpose; the 
antithesis to doughface. A figurative expression recently much 
used in political writings. 

Infirmity of purpose is the cause of more serious lapses of infirmity of principle. 
Men do not know bow to resist the small temptations of life, from some deficiency 
in their dorsal arrangements; and the natural result is a departure from the 
right. Backbone is the material which is designed to make an upright man; 
and he must be firm on all points, if he would pass scatheless through the struggle 
of life. — The Bepublic, 1857. 

Back Country. The interior and sparsely settled portions. See Back- 

To back down. To back out; to retreat. 

Back-Furrow. To plough so that the second and fourth ridge of earth 
made is laid against or on the first and third ridges ; to turn the 
soil every other time reversely. 

Back-House. A necessary house, privy; so called from its position. 
In some parts of England it is called the Backward. Comp. the 
Lat. posticum. 

To back out, t;. To retreat from a difficulty, to refuse to fulfil a 
promise or engagement. A metaphor borrowed from the stables. 
Equivalent expressions are to back xcater^ to take the hack track. Or 
from passengers who have met in a road not wide enough for one to 
pass by the other. 

Mr. Bedinger, in his remarks in the House of Representatives on the Mexican 
war, J»n. 25, 1848, said: "He regretted the bloodshed in Mexico, and wished 
it would stop. But, he asked, would gentlemen be willing to buck out^ and for- 
sake our rights? No, no. No turning back. This great country must go ahead.'* 
The Whigs undertook to cut down the price of printing to a fair rate, but at 
last backed out^ and voted to pay the old prices. — N. Y. Tribune, 

To all appearance, we are on the eve of a bloody contest, if not a revolution. 
What will be the consequence V One or the other party must back out, or no one 
can tell what will be the result, — National Intelligencer. 
'T would save some whole cart-loads of fuss, an' three or four months o* jaw. 
If some illustrious patriot should back out and withdraw. 

Biyhw Papers^ p. 124. 

Back out To give up. 

Well, boys, you know Hoss Allen, — no back out in him, anyhow ! — Hots AUen^ 

Back Track. To take the hack track is to retrace one's steps, to 
retreat; and hence is equivalent to to hack out. Western. 

To back Water, t\ To retreat, or withdraw ; a Western metaphor, 
derived from steamboat langua^. 

Backing and Filling. Advancing and retreating, shilly-shally, inde- 
cision. A nautical metaphor, used also, it is believed, in England. 

BAC— BAD 25 

There hw been M) much backing and fUing not only upon tlie Cuba question, 
but upon every other, that no confidence can be placed in the declaration which 
either General Pierce or his cabinet may make. — N. Y. Herald^ June 15, 1854. 

A backin' andJilliiC and wri^lin* policy will never fetch any thing about. — 
Major Downing. 

Back-Log. A large piece of wood u»ed in fire-places where wood is 

burned. Fore-sticks form part of the same fire. ^^g^c^^ ^ ^ 

Baokward. Is sometimes used in the West for bashful^ unwilling to 
appear in company, on the same principle as ** forward '* in correct 
language means the very contrary. 

Back^roods. The partially cleared forest region on the Western 
frontier of the United States, called also the back settlements. This 
part of the country is regarded as the back part or rear of Anglo- 
American civilization, which front** on the Atlantic. It is rather 
curious that the English word back has thus acquired the meaning 
of western, which it has in several Oriental languages, and also in 
Irish. Probably, for the like reason. 

Backwoodsman. In the United States, an inhabitant of the forest 
on the Western frontier. — Webster. 

The project of tnin»mutin^ the classes of American citizens and converting 
Bailors into bnrkwiH)dim(n i< not too monstrous for speculaton* to conceive and 
desire. — Fitiher Ame8*» Works^ p. 144 

I presume, ladies and ^ntlemcn, it is your curiosity to hear the plain, unedu- 
cated bnckwood»mnn in his home style. — CrochetCt Tour^ p. 120. 

Bacon-Color. Being of a color of bacon. 

Maria is eighteen ^'ears old, very likely; has a very pleasnnt countenance, light 
bacon-rtilored skin. Plato is nineteen years old, bacon-color and squarely built. 
— N. Y. Tribune, Letter from Norfolk, May 19, 1802. * /S<^ if 4 

Bad Lands. ** In the arid region of the AVratem portion of the United ^ ^^y 
States, there are certain tracts of country which have received thd 
name of mawahes terres, or barl lands. These are dreary wastes, 
naked hills with rounded or conical forms, composed of sand, sandy 
clays, and fine fragments of shaly rocks, with steep slopes, and, 
yielding to the pressure of the foot, they are climbed only by the 
greatest toil, and it is a labor of no inconsiderable magnitude to 
penetrate or cross such a district of country." — Powell* s Explora- 
tion of the Colorado of the West, p. 149. 

There is an immense clayey formation that extends towards the south, prodnc- 
injr, in the vicinity of draina^ courses, a series of bad land*, that probably causes 
this repon of bad land*. — Captain Ludlow, Reconnoisaance of the Block Hills of 
Dacotah, p. 58. 

Bad. Badly; greatly, very much. Examples: "That bile hurts me 
bad; " ** I want to see him bad,*' 



A** *^hf-cJ) hyji- 

26 BAG— BAI 

Bagasse. (Ft,) Stalks of sugar-cane, from which the juice has been 
expressed. It is used as fuel under the sugar-kettle. Called also 

Bagasse Furnace. A furnace arranged to bum the sugar-cane stalks. 
Baggage. Literally, what is contained in a bag or bags ; the clothing 
or other conveniences which a traveller carries with him on a jour- 
ney. The English appear to have discarded the word altogether 
for the less appropriate term luggage. 
Having despatched my baggage by water to Altdorf. — Coxe, Traveli. 
This is sometimes called more fully bag and baggage. 

Seventeen members of Congress arrived to-day with their bag and baggage, — 
Waahington paper. 

Get ye packing then ont of our churches, with your bagt and baggages, hoyae 
up sail for New England, &c. — Afercuriw JRtuticus^ p. 167. 

Baggage-Car. The car on a railroad in which the baggage is stowed. 

It is placed next behind the tender. 
Baggage-Smasher. 1. A man who transfers baggage to and from 

railroad cars, steamboats, &c. So called from the reckless manner 

in which these persons handle the property of travellers. 

The following is from the Ballad of the ** Centennial Baggage 

Smasher,*^ printed in the ** Indianapolis Sentinel: *' — 

Pete was a tip-up baggage-man : he ran on Number 4, 

Where the tears and g^ans of travelling folks unflinchingly he bore ; 

He cared not how the women wept, or strong men raved and swore, 

While he mutilated sample-cases, desolated Saratogas, annihilated ordinary luggage, 

immolated carpet-bags, exterminated bandboxes, and extinguished travellers' 

outfits by the score. — 
This fine old T. P. baggage-man, one of the modem time. 

Then Pete he seized a shabby trunk, with snorts of wrath and scorn, 
And in two seconds both the handles from the ends had torn ; 
And, heedless of the pleadings of the passenger forlorn, 

He banged the trunk on the platform, and then threw it over the top of the car, and 
let an omnibus run over it. 

2. A rough, brutal person. 

Gamblers, ticket-swindlers, emigrant robbers, baggage-amcukers^ and all the 
worst classes of the city. — N. Y, Tribune^ Nov. 23, 1861. 

Bagging. See Cotton- Bagging, 

Bail. The handle of a bucket or pail. New England; and provincial, 
Norfolk County, England. — Forbifs Glossary, 

Bait A fulcrum. A term common in New England. 
Baiting.' Lunch in the field at hay-time. 



The place where articles made by bakers are ^Id, a . ^ 

Bake-Oren. (Dutcb.) This term is often used in the West for the 
simple WOP I oven ill a bakeiT* It is also applied to the iron hake- 


Am s piimml thm^^ lh«f stores lire closed : ... the bake-4hopf, however, bcoui 
U» bi» dflvitJg A greAt businea*. — X T. Tribune^ May 10, 1862, Lftttr /torn 

BalAnoQ. A merQautile iN^rd originaUy introduced into the ordinary 
iwig-ua^ of life by tlie Suuthern people, but dow improperly used 
thrciughout the United StatCH to wiguify the remainder oi any thiing. 
The Mmict of aioney. or the balance of an account^ are terms well 
ftutlioriz^ed and proper; but we also frequently hear such expressions 
BJt th*e ** baianre of a speech ; " *' Th<i balance of the day was idly 
fpeiit; ** ** A great nmuy i»eople assembled at the clmrcli: a part got 
in, the fmlance reniaiued without/' 

Thff yawl rptamcd to the wrock, took ten or eleven peT*cni» wnd landed Ihein, 
uid Uien wejit mni^. got i\%^ hulnnce frum ibe floaUog cabin. — Mbtiny jQunml^ 
Jw*. 7, 1846. 

Host of llie ref|wctiib1c h»UMbUfttttB held comiuisBions in the array or govcJTi- 
DMOt nIEcefk; ttie butumft of the people kept little thops, cultivated the ground, 
Ice. ^ — W^tUiau$**i FUtrifia, p. 115. 

The UvAVt of lh« South F*Try forwd their way through the ice^ aad kept up 
their Mimmu II teal ion for the ikjltince uf th** day. — Ntif Vark Tnhunt. 

Tbfl iiiiimf|«dy of tlie thiiijj:» of this world that art* neresearA' to hiinian Mibsist- 
ence b\ a fww roi)iititut*'f' those few the iRa.«tcr« of the balance of mankind. — 
The SUitfi \ Wn4hint}ifm), March 2'!, 1858. 

Bald Face. Common (penny) whiskey, particularly when it ij* new; 
abo figuratively and appropriately called ** Red Eye ** or ** Pine 
Top; ** perhaps fmra the siiRpicion that it contains a laTjre proportion 
of turpentine. This latter sort xs also called '* Lightning Whiskey,** 
because ** warranted tt> kill at forty rods,'* 

Bald*headed. To rfo it hnhl-hf^fttUd ; in great haste, as where one 
mshe« out w^ithout his hat. 

Balk, baulk. A balky bor!*e, Thi^ word has been considered an 
Americanism, but it is found in Spenser 'a Faery Queen e. See Baulk. 

Ball-Faoe. A eont«mptuoua epithet applied by negroes to white pei> 
dtinn, Salem, Mass., 1810-20. 

Ballot-Box Btufflngp A new name for a new crime. This consists 
in the u^ oi a lx»x for r«ceivir»jj ballots at an election » so constructed 
with a falne bottom and cnmpartmentji tin to j>enuit the iMtruduction 
of spurious baJlotji to any extent by the party having it in charge. 
Tlie most outmgeaua frauds have been committed by this means. 

28 BAL— BAN 

Three or four men are here [in Indianapolis] from New York and Baltimon, 
who are in reality detectives sent on to look after the Democratic roogha and baUoi' 
box ituffers. — Car. N. Y, Tribune, Oct., 1876. 

The following telegram was received from Cincinnati a few days 
preceding the Presidential election, Nov. 7, 1876. 

The city is strangely quiet to-night. Both parties are full of business. Several 
experts at battot-box stuffing were spotted here to-day. 

The Rev. Iklr. Tallmadge, of Brooklyn, in his sermon, when 
speaking of the Presidential candidates, Hayes and Tilden, said: 

If either accepts the Presidential chair at the hands of the baUU-ttufftrty he wUl 
be but the bramble of discord therein. — N, Y, paptr. 

Ballooning, in Wall Street parlance, is running up a stock beyond 

its value, by newspaper articles, fictitious sales, or other means. 
Ballyhack. "Go to Ballyhack ! ^^ A common expression in New 
England. I know not its origin. It savors in sound, however, of 
the Emerald Isle. 
** You and Obed are here too.'* 
** Let Obed go to BaUyhack. Come along out** — Margaret^ p. 65. 

Balm of GKlead. (Populus caudicans.) A tree, which extends from 
New England to Wisconsin and Kentucky. It is rare in a wild 
state, but common in cultivation. — Orag. 

Balaam Fir. (Abies haUamea.) A slender tree growing in cold, damp 
woods and swamps, from New England to Pennsylvania and north- 
wards. The blisters under the bark furnish the well-known ** Can- 
ada Balsam;'* hence its name. It is also called Canada Balsam 
and Gilead Fir. 

Balaam Poplar. (Populus balsamifera.) A tall tree growing from 
New England to Wisconsin and northwards. Its large buds are 
varnished with a fragrant, resinous matter. — Gray, 

To bamboo; to bam. To cheat; to bamboozle. Connecticut, but 
probably imported from the South. Bam is provincial in England. 
— Wright. 

Banana. The fruit of the Musa sapientumy a well-known tropical 
fruit, imported into the United States from the West Indies. 

Band. A troop or herd of bisons is called, in prairie parlance, **a 
fta/irfof bufPalo." 

Banded Drum. See Grunter. 

Bango ! A common exclamation among the Negroes both North and 

Bang up. Any thing of good quality; superior; first rate. **Thi8 
cloth is bang up.** 

BAN— BAR 29 

Banjo. Probably a corruption of the O. E. bandore. A rude sort of 
guitar, a favorite instrument with the Negroes. The term itself is 
probably of negro origin. Spelled by Miss Edgeworth, who was very 
familiar with West India usages, Banjah. — See Belinda, 

How oft when a boy, with childish joy, 

I 've roam'd at the close of day. 
When our work was done, to have some ftin, 
And hear the banjo play. -— Ntgro Melody. 
Ole Nashville dey say is a very nice town, 
Dar de niggers pick de cotton till de sun goes doMm ; 
Dey dance all night to de ole banjo^ 
Wid a corn-stalk fiddle and a shoe-string bow. — Nft/ro Mtlodies. 

Bankable. Receivable at a bank, as bills; or discountable, as notes. 

— Webster. 

Among the great variety of bank-notes which constitute our cir- 
culating medium, many are below par, and consequently are not 

received at the banks. Those only which are redeemed with specie 

or its equivalent are received at the banks, and are of the class called 

Banker. A vessel employed in fishing on the banks of Newfoundland. .' 

** There were employed in the fisheries 1 ,232 vessels, — namely, 584 to ^ 

the Banks, 048 to tlie Bay and Labrador; the hankers may be put 

down at 36,540 tons." 

The ve?j»«ls that fish at the Labrador and Bay are not so valuable as the bnnktrs, 
more particularly those from Maine, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. — J. Q, 
AdavM on the Fisheries^ p. 219. 

Bankit. (Fr. banquette.) Sidewalk. Louisiana. 

Banquette. The name for the sidewalk in some of our Southern 

To banter. To challenge, defy; namely, to a race, a shooting-match, 

&c. Southern and Western. 
Banter. A challenge. Southern and Western. ** There will be a 

banter on the bare ground,'' meaning a shooting-match. 
Bar, for bear. The common pronunciation in certain parts of the 

Southern and Western States. 
Barbecue. (Span. barhacSa.) A term used in the Southern States 

and in the West Indies for dressing a hog whole; w^hich, l)eing split 

to the backbone, is laid flat upon a large gridiron, and roasted over 

a charcoal fire. — Johnson, Webster. 
A writer in the ** Westminster Review " supposes the word to be a 

corruption of the French barbe-brqueue^ i. e. from snout to tail. 

Comp. cap-a-pUf from bead to foot. 

80 BAB 

Oldfield, with more than harpj' throat endued, 

Cries, *' Lend me, gods, a whole hog barbecued." — Pqp«. 

l^ow the festive board with viands is stored. 

Savory dishes be there, I ween ; 
Rich puddings and big, and a barbecued pig. 

And ox-tail soup in a China tureen. — IngoldAy Legends, 

This word is now much used in the South and West for a public 
meeting in the open air ¥dth a dinner or other refreshments. 

A genuine Virginia barbecuey whether of a social or a political character, is a 
rural entertainment which deserves more praise than censure ; and we know of 
none which affords the stranger a better opportunity of studying the character of 
the yeomanry of the Southern States. — LammaiC* Adveniure$y Vol. II. p. 259. 

To barberise. A term among country hairdressers. *^ I can shoemake 
through the week, and barberke on public days; ** that is, on days 
of public business, which call farmers to the country town. To 
barber is so used in old writers. 

Barely tolerable. Referring to the state of one's health. " How are 

you, Mr. B. ? " " Wall, I 'm barely tolerable,'* 
Barfoot. ** I take my tea barfoot,** said a backwoodsman when asked 

if he would have cream and sugar; t. e., without either. 

Barge. A vessel of burden, employed on the Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries before the introduction of steamboats. It is thus described 
by Flint: ** The barge is of the size of an Atlantic schooner. It had 
sails, masts, and rigging, not unlike a sea vessel, and carried from 
fifty to an hundred tons. On the lower courses of the Mississippi, 
when the wind did not serve and the waters were high, it was 
worked up stream by the operation that is called 'warping,' — a 
most laborious, slow, and difficult mode of ascent, in which six or 
eight miles a day was good progress." — Hist, and Geogr. of Miss. 
Valley. See Safety Barge. 

To bark a Tree. To make a circular incision through the bark so 
as to kill the tree. See Girdle. 

To bark o£f Squirrela. A common way of killing squirrels among 
those who are expert with the rifle, in the Western States, is to 
strike with the ball \h^ bark of the tree immediately beneath the 
squirrel, the concussion produced by which kills the animal in- 
stantly without mutilating it. — Audubon, Ornithology, Vol. I. p. 294. 

To bark up the "Wrong Tree. A common expression at the West, 
denoting that a person has mistaken his object, or is pursuing the 
wrong course to obtain it. In hunting, a dog drives a squirrel or 
other game into a tree, where, by a constant barking, he attracts its 

BAR 31 

attention until the hunter arrives. Sometimes the game escapes, or 
the dog is deceived, and barks up the wrong tree. 

If 70a think to mn a rig on me, yon have made a mistake in the child, and 
barked up the wrong tre*. — S. Sticky Human Naturty p. 124. 

When people try to hunt [office] for themftelves, . . . and seem to be 
barking vp the wrong tqpUng^ I want to put them on the right trail. — CrockttCt 
Tour, p. 205. 

Barm. (Ang.-Sax. beorm.) Yeast. This old English word is pre- 
served in New England. 

Barnburners. A nickname given in the State of New York to the 
more radical and progressive section of the Democratic party, other- 
wise called the Young Democracy, as opposed to the conservative 
tendencies of old Hunkerism. See Hunker. 

This school of Democrats was tenned BambumerB, in allusion to the story of an 
old Dutchman, who relieved himself of rats by burning down his barns which 
they infested, — just like exterminating all banks and corporations, to root out 
the abuses connected therewith. — N. Y. Tribune. 

"A certain hind, it has been said, 
Whose weakest member was his head. 
But full as wise as Democrats, 
Burned down his barn to kill the rats." 
Pi/Zf, Poetical^ Political^ and Plulosophictil^ and by Peter Pepper Box^ Phila., 1809. 

Barrack. (From the Haitian hajaraque^ a large house capable of 
holding many persons, whence Span, harraca, Eug. barracks. Wedg- 
wood derives it from the Gaelic barrack. The Indian origin is the 
most plausible.) A straw-thatclied roof supported by four posts, 
capable of being rai.*<ed or lowered at pleasure, under which hay ia 
kept. Also called, in New York, hay-harrach, proba>)ly from the 
Dutch. In Marj'land, and perhaps elsewhere, the term is applied 
to any kind of building intended for the reception of straw or hay. 
See Hag- Barrack. 

Barraolade. (Dutch, barre kledeeren^ cloths undressed or without a 
nap.) A home-made woollen blanket without nap. Tins word is 
peculiar to New York City, and those parts of the State settled by 
the Duteh. 

Barraooon. (Span., barraca; Haitian, bajaraqtte.) A slave-house, or 

Barranca. (Span.) A deep break or ravine, caused by heavy rains 
or a watercourse. The banks of such are always steep and abrupt, 
like a wall, owing to the tenacity of the soil, and the suddenness 
with which they are made. A sloping bank by a river*s side, or a 
similarly formed ravine, is not a barranca. These perpendicular 



82 BAE— BAS 

walls of earth are found in Texas and New Mexico, and are a 
marked feature in their topography. 
Barrens. Elevated lands or plains upon which grow small trees, but 
never timber. They are classed as Pine-barrens, Oak-barrens, &c., 
according to the kind of tree which prevails upon them. In Ken- 
tucky, the term is applied to certain regions in the carboniferous 
limestone formation, the soil of which is really very fertile. Hence 
Barren County and Barren River. In these places, the water flows in 
subterranean channels; and hence a dryness of the surface, which, 
according to some, has permitted annual fires to sweep off the tim- 
ber, while, according to others, it has not permitted its growth. 

Barren-Oround Reindeer. (Tarandus arcticvs^ Rich.) A species of 
Caribou confined almost entirely to the ** Barren Grounds," the 
north-eastern corner of North America. It occurs also in Green- 
land. — Baird, 

Base. A game of ball much played in America, so called from the 
three bases or stations used in it. A country game mentioned in 
Moor*s Suffolk Words. Yet it is asserted by the English cricket- 
players that the game was wholly unknown in England until intro- 
duced from this country. Of all games of ball, this is now played 
more than any other, and it is only known as ** Base-BalW^ 

Baae-Borner. A sheet-iron stove for burning anthracite coal, which 
is only fed at the top, while the fire is confined to the base, or lower 
* part, of the stove. 
>77^' Basket Meeting. In the West, a sort of picnic, generally with some 
religious *' exercises." 

Bass. A name applied to several species of excellent sea and lake fish. 
See Black Bass^ Sea BasSy Striped Bass. 

Basswood. (Tilia Americana.) A tree resembling the European lime 
or linden ; from the use of its inner bark for making mats or cord- 
age, the tree is also called bast or bass. The name, however, is now 
obsolete in England. In the United States, it is also called White- 

From its want of strength (both in the bark and wood), the name 
of the tree is made a reproach in the following extract from one of 
Brigham Young's ** sermons I " 

I say, as the Lord lives, we are bound to become a sovereign State in the Union, 
or an independent nation by ourselves ; and let them drive us from this place if 
they can, — they cannot do it. I do not throw this out as a banter. You Gen- 
tiles and hickor}' and bcuswood Mormons can write it down, if you please ; but 
write it as I speak it 

BAT— BAT 88 

To bat. To hat the eyes, in Southern parlance, is to wink. We also 
hear the expression *' to to a man over the head; '' t. e., to strike 

Battery. A sort of boat used for duck-shooting in the Chesapeake, in 
which the shooter lies below the surface of the water. It is also 
called, among other local names, a Surface-boat, Coffin-boat, Sink, 
or Box. — Lewis, American Sportuman, 

A friend in Maryland informs me that the usual term there is 
Sink-boat, — so called, because the whole body of the boat is below 
the surface, — one of the common forms being a hogshead, ballasted 
BO that the upper end shall be only an inch or two above water. 

To banlk. A horse in harness who stands still and refuses to go for- 
ward is said to balk. Baulking is one of the most serious vices of a 
horse. The word is noticed by Webster, but not by Worcester; nor 
is it found in this sense in the English dictionaries or provincial 
glossaries. See Balk. 

Nen-ous, well-bred horses are more susceptible of the influences 
which induce baulking than are cold-blooded and indolent ones. — 
Jennings, The Horse and his Diseases, p. 200. 

Batilky. .1 baulky horse is one that stands still and refuses to go 

Bay. 1. A well-known Southern tree, sometimes called ^rty-Zrture/. It 
is of the same family as the Magnolia grand ijlora^ which it resem- 
bles except in size. 

2. A piece of low, marshy ground, producing large numbers of 
Bay-trees. North Carolina. 

3. An arm of a prairie extending into, and partly surrounded by, 

Bayberry. (Myrica cerifera.) A shrub, with fragrant leaves, having an 

odor resembling that of the bay. The berries, when boiled in water, 

yield a fragrant green wax, known as ** bayberry tallow,'* used for 

making candles, &c. 

Bay Laurel. See Bay, above. 

Bay Rum. A liquor obtained by distilling the leaves of the bay-tree. 

It is chiefly used for the purposes of the toilet. 
Bay State. The Stat^ of Massachusetts. The original name of the 
colony was Massachusetts Bay. Hence among the New England 
people it was usually called the Bay State. 
Lift Again the stately emblem on the Bay State's rusted shield, 
Give to Northern winds the pine-tree on our banner's tattered field! — Whittitr. 
When first the Pilgrims landed on the Bay State's iron shore, 
Tlie word went forth that slavery should one day be no more. — Lowell. 


84 BAY— BEA 

Bayou. (Fr. hoyau^ a gat. See Fr. hoyauy voyau; Fr. vcie^ a way, a 

course.) In Louisiana, the outlet of a lake; a channel for water. 
Beaoh-Combera. 1. The long waves rolling in from the ocean. 

2. A term much in vogue among sailors in the Pacific. ** It 
is applied to certain roving characters, who, without attaching 
themselves permanently to a vessel, ship now and then for a short 
cruise in a whaler, hut upon condition only of being honorably 
discharged the very next time the anchor takes hold of the bot- 
tom, no matter where they are. They are, mostly, a reckless, 
rollicking set, wedded to the Pacific, and never dreaming of ever 
doubling Cape Horn again on a homeward-bound passage. Hence 
their reputation is a bad one." — Mellville, OmoOy p. 109. 
. Beach Plum. See Sand Plum. 

t^^**jrif77^' ^®*'*' '^^^ ^^'^ unqualified means, in America, the various kinds 
of kidney-beans (phaseolus)^ called in England French beans; while 
the simple word beans, in England, would imply the varieties of 
broad-bean (faba). 
Bear. A word to denote a certain description of stock-jobbers. — John' 
son. The same term is used among the brokers and stock-jobbers 
of Wall Street, Xew York. Their "plans of operation are as accu- 
rately described in the annexed extract from Warton as they can 
be at the present moment: — 

He who sells that of which he is not possessed is proverbially said 
to sell the skin before he has caught the bear. It was the practice 
of stock-jobbers, in the year 1720, to enter into a contract for trans- 
ferring South Sea stock at a future time for a certain price; but he 
who contracted to sell had frequently no stock to transfer, nor did 
he who bought intend to receive any in consequence of his bargain; 
the seller was therefore called a bear^ in allusion to the proverb, and 
the buyer a bull^ perhaps only as a similar distinction. The con- 
tract was merely a wager, to be determined by the rise or fall of 
stock: if it rose, the seller paid the diflFerence to the buyer, propor- 
tioned to the sum determined by the same computation to the seller. 
— Dr. Warfon on Pope. The *' bear " pulls down (with his paws) ; 
so the broker buying lowers the price. 

There has been a very important revolution made in the tactics of a certain 
extensive operator in Wall Street. The l>irge«t bull in the street has become a 
bear^ and the rank and file have been thrown into the greatest confusion and left 
without a leader. — Neio York Herald. 

My salary was doubled when Bullion & Co. 
Decided that into the street I should go. 
And attend all the buying and selling of shares, 
As well keeping track of the butts and the bears: 

BEX »5 

A few hiekj hits, when the bean were all short, 
And a twist of my own, where the bulls were all caught, 
Gave me prestige and fame, bo what could I fear V 
I was sailing ahead on three thousand a year. 

Beynoldt^ Romance of Smoke, p. 22. 

Bear-Chraas. (Yucca Jilamentosa.) Sometimes called Silk Grass, from 
the fibres which appear on the edges of the leaves. It is not a grass. 

Bear State. A name by which the State of Arkansas is known at the 
West. I once asked a Western man if Arkansas abounded in bears, 
that it should be designated as the ** Bear State.'* ** Yes,'* said 
he, " it does; for I never knew a man from that State but he was a 
bar, and in fact the people are all baruth to a degree." 

To bear the I€arket. To operate upon the stock market by selling or 
agreeing to deliver a large amount of a particular stock which the 
seller does not possess ; to influence or affect the price of stocks by 
sensational reports. 

There is no truth in the startling developments, implicating British officials, 
in the ** Herald's" despatch. . . . His Lordship is wholly guiltless of the charge 
which the ** Herald/' in its anxiety to bear the market, has brought against him. 
— N. r. Tribune, Nov. 29, 1861.' 

Bear-Wallow. See Hog- Wallow. 

Beast A common name for a horse in the Southern and Western 
States. It is quite common to see in villages the invitation to trav- 
ellers, ** Entertainment for man and boast; " and in the Bible we 
read, ** A certain Samaritan ... set him on his own beast. ^* 

To beat 1. To excel, surpass in a contest. Thus we say, one racer 
or steamer beats another. So, too, ** It beats all creation,'* t. e. 
surpasses every thing. 

The Widow Bedott is the brazen-facede^t critter t' ever lived, — it does be€U 
all. I never see her equal. — Bedott Papers, p. 77. 

2. To overcome with astonishment, to amaze, astound. We some- 
times hear, especially from the mouths of old people, such expres- 
sions as, ** I felt beaty^* ** I was quite beat^*^ i. e. utterly astonished. 

There is a common expression, ** That beats Buck^^^ synonymous 
with the Irish, ** That bangs Bannagher." 

Beat, n. One who excels or surpasses another, a superior. See Dead- 

Sam Slick was a queer chap. I never see the beat of him. — Yankee Hilt's 

To beat all hollow. To beat thoroughly. 

Beat 'em. ** Well, that is the beat 'em;'' t. e., it beats all, it sor- 

86 BEA— BEE 

passes all others. The thing in question may be better, or it maj 
be worse than any other. 

Beat oat Tired or fagged out. 

Beau. This word, nearly obsolete in England, is in common use with 
us to mean a lover, sweetheart. 

The expression is quite familiar in a less intimate sense, also; as 
for young ladies to speak of the beaux, meaning simply the young 
gentlemen who used to ** wait on ** them. 

To beau. To act in the capacity of a gallant or beau. 

Well, I got to freowV Blisa Patience about a spell ; and kept my eye on Nance, 
to see how the cat was jumpin*. — Yankee HiWt Storiei, 

Beaver-Dam. The obstruction placed across a stream by beavers. 

Beaver-Tree. (Magnolia glauca.) Called also Beaver-wood, and 
sometimes Castor-wood, probably from the preference shown by the 
beavers for the bark as food, or for the wood as useful in their 
structures. The Hoop-ash (Celtis occidentalis), or Hackberry, is also 
called Beaver-wood. 

Bed-Spread. In the interior parts of the country, the common name 
for a bed-quilt, counterpane, or coverlet. See Spread. 

Bee. An assemblage of people, generally neighbors, to imite their 
labors for the benefit of an individual or family. The quiiting-hees 
in the interior of New England and New York are attended by 
young women, who assemble around the frame of a bed-quilt, and 
in one afternoon accomplish more than one person could in weeks. 
Refreshments and beaux help to render the meeting agreeable. 
Apple-bees are occasions when the neighbors assemble to gather 
apples or to cut them up for drying. The terms apple-cut and peach-' 
cut are also common. Husking-beeSy for husking com, are held in 
barns, which are made the occasion of much frolicking. Spelling- 
bees are assemblages for competition in spelling, which see else- 
where. In new countries, when a settler arrives, the neighboring 
farmers unite with their teams, cut the timber, and build him a 
log house in a single day; these are termed raising-bees, alluding to 
a bee-swarm. See Spelling-Bee, 

Bee-Hive. A mercantile establishment in which activity is, or is 
assumed to be, exhibited in receiving and attending to many 

Beech-Drops. A term applied to various plants without green foliage, 
parasitic on the roots of the beech. 

BEE— BEI 87 

Beel In Louisiana, Texas, and some other parts of the South-west, 
an ox is called a beef; and oxen, beeves: in New York, and occa- 
sionally in New England, any grown animal of the ox-kind. 

Beef-Cattla Oxen for the beef -market; or to be Hold for food. 

Beef-Dodger. Meat biscuit. Comp. Corn-Dwlger. 

It ia a small party, but great in the requisite qualifications, and goes unincum- 
bered with superfluities: no whceN, two or three mules apiece, and pinole, peni- 
mican, and beef-dodyevM for their principal support. — Speech of Colonel Benton^ 
May 7, 1853. 

Bee-Ooin. In the South and West, a term originally applied to a 
species of the gum-tree from which beehives were made ; and now 
to beehives made of any kind of boards. See Gum. 
Bee-Line. Bees, after having loaded themselves with honey, always 
fly back to the hive in a direct line. Hence, a bee-line is the 
straightest course from one jwint to another. It is sometimes called 
an air-line. 

In England, the expression ** as the crow flies ** would convey 
the same idea. 

This road is one of nature's laying. It goes determinedly straight up and 
straight down the hilI.H, and in a b€e4ine, as we say. — Afit. Claven. 

The sweetened whiskey I had drank made me so powerful tiiick-Ie^^ed, that 
when I started to walk my track wam*t any thing like a b*.e-Une. — The Ameri^ 
cans at Honie^ Vol. I. 

We moved on like men in a dream. Our foot-marks, seen afterwards, showed 
that we had steered a bet-lint for the brig. — Kant, Arctic ExpUmttiont^ Vol. I. 
p. 198. 

Sinners, you are making; a hre-line from time to eternity ; and what you have 
once passed over you will never pass again. — Doto's Semums^ Vol. I. p. 215. 

Bee-Tree. In the South and West a tree, often found hollow, in which 

the wild honey-bee makes its hive or nest. See Gum- Tree. ^ ^ ^^^^ 

Beggar-Tioks. A species of Bldens whose seeds (fruit) adhere to the 'o*^^ /V/ •• 
clothes. The term is also applied to a .species of Desmodium whose 
pods break at the joints ; the latter is sometimes called Beggar-lice. 
See Harvest Lice. 

Behindments. Arrearages. 

Being. Pres. part, of the verb to be, equivalent to because. 

This word is noticed by Boucher, as much in use in the Middle 
States of America, and as an idiom of the Western counties of Eng- 
land. It is also heard among the illiterate in New England. 

The word is used in the same way that we hear seeing as em- 
ployed in common sjieech ; a usage which we have directly from the 
English vulgar, and which is the idiomatic form in French. E. g. : 

88 BEL 

**Well, sir, seein* as it's you;" "#fetV as how I couldn't 
help it." 

I sent yoa no more peasen, been the rest would not have suited you. — Boucher^* 

And beinge that a barrell of furs was lost in the shippe, the collonie hath taken 
order for the recruitinge of that loss. — Rhode Jdand Rtcordt^ 16d8. 

The charge of the matter shall be borne by the towne of Warwick, beinge they 
have been at some charges already. — Ibid.^ 1659. 

"Got a prime nigger,** said the slave-trader; **an A number one cook, and 
no mistake! Picked her up real cheap, and I '11 let you have her for eight hun- 
dred dollars, being as you 're a minister.** — Mrt. Stowe^ Dredy Vol I. p. 813. 

The mug cost fifteen pence when 't was new ; but bein^ it had an old crack in 
it, I told her she needn't pay but a shilling for it. — Major Downing, 

Bein" ye '11 help Obed, I '11 give ye the honey. — Margaret^ p. 20. 

Beliked. Liked, beloved. A Western term. 

I do believe me and Nancy was beliked by the Indians ; and many *8 the veni- 
son and turkey they fotch'd us as a sort of present, and maybe a kind of pay 
for breadstufib and salt Nancy u»ed to give them. — Carlton^ The New Purehate. 

This gentleman is generally beliked bv his fellow-citizens. — Baltimore Cor. of 
the N. Y. Herald. 

Belittle. To make smaller, to lower in character. — Webster. To 
speak of a thing in a depreciatory or contemptuous way. 

Mr. Pickering says: A well-known English Review, in enumer- 
ating the faults of our writers, thus mentions this, among other 
words: ** President Jefferson talks of belittling the productions of 
nature." — Qua^^ Rev., X. 528. 

We fear men*9 minds grow really belittled, where they ought to be enlarged. 
Brooh Eattford, p. 124. 

Mr. Goodrich, in his ** Reminiscences," says, when he returned 
to his native place, after many years' absence in Europe: — 

Every thing looked belittled, degenerated in dimensions. The church seemed 
small, the galleries low, the pulpit mean. — Vol. I. p. 309. 

** I w^on't stand that,*' said Mr. Slick, ** I won't stay here and see you beUjtHe 
Uncle Sam for nothin*. He ain't worse than John Bull, arter all." — Sam Slick 
in England, ch. 19. 

An article in the ** New York Times," Jan. 10, 1857, relative to 
Congressional corruptions being made the subject of discussion in 
the House of Representatives, says : — * 

Upon a motion being made for a committee of investigation, the usual efforts- 
were made to belittle the press, and treat its censures with contempt. — N. Y. 

Bellows FlBh. See Sea-Devil. 

BellowB-Top. ** When ^^g was beaten in it [flip], it was called bellows- 
top; partly, perhaps, from its superior quality and partly from the 

BEL— BEN 39 

greater quantity of white froth that swelled to the top of it." — Joel 
Parker^ Centennial Address, 1873. 
Belly-Bender. Floating pieces of ice, or weak ice, which bend under 
one, as he passes from one cake to another. Boys take great pleasure 
in this precarious amusement. 
BeUy-Boand. A sort of apple. (Fr. belle et ban.) Connecticut. 
Belly-Bumba A mode of sliding down hill by boys on their sleds, 

when lying on their bellies. See Belly-Guts, 
Belly-Button. The navel. 

Belly-Plumper. (Germ, plompen, to plump; to plunge.) The same 
as Belly-Guts, No. 1. Sometimes when the slide is without the sled. 
Eastern Massachusetts. 
Belly-Outs. More commonly Belly Gutter, 1 . A term applied by boys 
to the manner of sliding down hill on their sleds, when lying on 
their bellies. Boys also characterize this sport by the names of 
helly-flounders, flumps and bump. See Belly- Plumper, Belly-Bumbo, 
2. In Pennsylvania, molasses candy is so called. 
Bellwort. The popular name of plants of the genus Uvutaria, 
Belongings. In the ** Washington Union*' is an advertisement 
headed ** Gentlemen's Belongings ; ** from which it appears that tliis 
tenn means the under-garments of gentlemen, such as shirts 
drawers, stockings, &c. The tenn is merely a Saxon translation 
of appurtenances. 
Bender. In New York, a spree, a frolic. To ** go on a bender "is / \ ^j/rL t Ld^ 
to go on a spree. In this case, a man comes uud«ir spiritual influ- v Fm ^ 

ences so potent, that, not being able to stand straight under them, fx*- l^^^ 
he must bend. 

The friends of the iiew-inarrietl couple did nothin;; for a whole month bat 
nnokeand drink muthcKlin during tiie bender tliey called thu huuoymoou. — Sam 
Slick, Human Nature, p. 270. 

A couple of studcntH of William* Collej^c went over to North Adams on a 
bender. This would have been a serious matter undur the be^t of circumstances, 
but each returned with " a brick in his hat," &c. — Newspajyer, April, 1857. 
I met her at the Chinese room; 
She wore a wreath of roses, 
She walked in beauty like the night. 
Her breath was like sweet posies. 
I led her through the festal hall, 

Her glance was soft and tender ; 
She whispered gently in my ear, 
** Say, Mose, ain't this a bender t " 

Putnam's Monthly, Aug., 1854. 

A passenger on board a Mississippi steamboat, fast aground on a 
Band-bar, thus describes the state of things: — 


/U^M*v f^i^i. 

40 BER— BET 

The captain and bar-keeper were playing poker, ... the crew all on a htntder 
in the engine-room, firemen all drunk on the boiler-deck, and everybody gener- 
ally enjoying themselves. — Doetticks^ p. 169. 

Bermudian Vine. See Chicken-Grape, 

To beat. To get the better of. ** I Ve bested him more than he ever 

bested me." 
Beato'VTment. 1. The act of giving gratuitously; a conferring. — 
Webster. This ^ord, which is much used by our theological writers, 
is not in the English dictionaries. 

God the Father had committed the bettowment of the blessings purchased to his 
Son. — Edwards on RedtmpHon. 
If we consider the bettowmeni of gifts in this view. — Ckauncy^ U. Lab, 

2. That which is conferred or given. — Webster, 

They strengthened his hands by their liberal bestawmentt on him and his fam- 
ily. — Christian Magazine^ III. 665. 

The free and munificent bestowment of the Sovereign Judge. — Thtodtf, 

Mr. Todd has bestowal in his edition of Johnson, but cites no 
authority for its use. Dr. Webster thinks bestowment preferable on 
account of the concurrence of the two vowels in bestowal. 
Betterments. (Grenerally used in the plural number.) 1. The im- 
provements made on new lands, by cultivation and the erection of 
buildings. — Pickering^ s Vocabulary, 

2. The improvement received by an estate from the widening of 
a highway, and also the sum assessed upon such estate for such 

•* This word," adds Mr. Pickering, ** was first used in the State 
of Vermont^ but it has for a long time been common in the State of 
New Hampshire ; and it has been getting into use in some parts of 
Massachusetts y since the passing of the late law, similar to the Bet- 
terment Acts (as they are called) of the States above mentioned. It 
is not to be found in Mr. Webster^s nor in any of the English dic- 
tionaries that I have seen, except Ash's; and there it is called * a 
bad word.' It is thus noticed by an English traveller in this 
country, in speaking of those people who enter upon new lands 
without any right, and proceed to cultivate them : — 

These men demand either to be left owners of the soil or paid for their better- 
ments; that is, for what they have done towards clearing the ground. — KendaU, 
Travels in the United States, Vol. III. p. 160. 

Bettermoat. The best. The word, which is provincial in England, 
is used in New England. 

The bettermost cow, an expression we do not find in Shakspeare or Milton. -^ 
Mrs, Kirkland, 

BET— BIG 41 

Sometimes is heard the expression beUermost lest; as, <* These 
girls are dressed iu their hettermosi beitL** 

Betty. (Ital. boccetta.) A pear-shaped bottle wound around with 
straw, in which olive oil is brought from Italy. Called by chemists 
a ** Florence flask.'* 

Between Hay and Ghrasa. Neither one thing nor another. Between 
boyhood and manhood. Between two stages of existence, of pro- 
gress, age, development, &c. 

Be^el. A slope, or declivity. Long Island. *' The road is laid on a 
bevelt** i. e. higher in the middle. — Forhy^s Vocab. of East Anglia. 

Blioys, t. €. Boys, a name applied to a class of noisy young men of 
the lower ranks of society in the city of New York. 

The "New York Commercial Advertiser,** April 1*J, 1847, in 
speaking of the approaching election, uses the following lan- 
guage: — 

All the b'hoysyfiW vote, — ay, more than all. I^t every Whig do his duty. 
Another year with a iXunocratic mayor, — and such a mayor as the b'hoys would 
force upon the city! Who can tell what the taxes will be ? 

Then come, every friend of the Union, 

Come, old men, and come, yc b'hityt; 
Let 'h ^0 it for old Rough and Ready, 

Who never was scared at a noise I — Political Song, 

Bible Christiana. The ** Philadelphia Mercury " thus gives a summary 
of the creed of this new sect: *' This denomination abstain from all 
animal food and spirituous liquors, and live on vegetables and fruits. 
They maintain the unity of God, the divinity of Jesus, and the 
salvation of man, attainable only by a life of obedience to the light 
manifested to his mind and a grateful acknowledgment of his in- 
debtedness to the great Giver of all.** 

Biddable. This Irish word is in use in the West. ** White servants 
are not biddable; ** that is, manageable, obedient, tractable. 

Teach your boys, too, to yoke up the young steers, to use them kindly, with 
patient perseverance, to make them as bidnble [sic] as this boy has made these 
[now on exhibition].— J^. Y. Tribune, Sept. 9, 1801, Letter from Wattrtown^ 

N. r, 

Biddy. An Irish servant girl, probably from Bridget y a common name 
among the class. 

Biff. Great, fine, excellent. The *»% bell,** the »»% altar,** and 
the **W^desk*' of a church, are assuredly big vulgarisms. The 
*• big horn,** for the last trumpet, is almost profane. 
'* Hello I *' sez he, " what 'b that ? *' 

42 BIG 

** That ere,'* sez I, '* *8 some o* the biggttt whiskey that ever slipped down a 
feller's throat, without smellin' o' the customs." — N, Y. Spirit of Uie Tima. 

Big Bugs. People of consequence. Probably the origin of this word 
lies hid in some anecdote that would be worth finding out. 

Then we 'II go to the Lord's house, — I don't mean to the meetin' house, but 
where the nobles meet, pick out the biff bugs^ and see what sort o' stuff they »pe 
made of. — Sam Slick in England^ ch. 24. 

These preachers dress like big bugs, and go ridin* about on hundred-dollar 
horses, a-spungin' poor priest-ridden folks, and a-eaten chicken-fixens so power- 
ful fast that chickens has got scarce in these diggins. — Carlton's New Purchase, 
Vol. n. p. 140. 

The free-and-easy ipanner in which the hare-brained Sir Robert Peel described 
some of the big bugs at Moscow has got him into difficulty. — JNT. Y, Times, Feb- 
ruary, 1857. 

Miss Samson Savage is one of the big bugs, — that is, she 's got more money 
than a'most anybody else in town. — Bedott Papers^ p. 301. 

Big Dog. In some parts of the country, the principal man of a place 
or in an undertaking is called the big dog with a brass collar, as 
opposed to the little curs not thought worthy of a collar. 

Big Drink. 1. A large glass of liquor. 

2. A cant term applied, at the South-west, to the Mississippi River. 

Well, a» I was savin', off I sot, went through Missi.«sippi, crossed the big drink, 
come too now and then, when the chill come it too strong, but couldn't git shut 
of the ager. — N. Y. Spirit of the Times, Frontier Incident. 

Big Figure. To go the big figure, or do things on the big figure, means 
to do them on a large scale. This vulgar phrase is used at the West 
and South. 

Well, I glory in her spunk, but it's monstrous expensive and unpleasant to do 
things on the bigjigure that she 's on now. — Major Jones's Courtship. 

Biggest Greatest, finest, most excellent; as, **He's the biggest 
kind of a musician." 

The thermal springs are regarded by the trappers as the breathing-places of 
his Satanic majesty; and considered, moreover, to be the biggest kind of medi- 
cine to be found in the mountains. — Ruxton, Life in the Far West, p. 129. 

Biggest Toad. Biggest toad in the puddle. A Western expression for 
a head-man; a leader of a political party, or of a crowd. Not an 
elegant expression, though sometimes well applied. Thus a Western 
newspaper, in speaking of the most prominent man engaged in the 
political contest for one of the Presidential candidates before Con- 
gress, says : ** Mr. D. D. F. — is the biggest toad in the puddle,^ ^ 

Big Head. 1. A swelling of the head in cattle. 

2. A term used in the West to denote that affection in youth 
which has recently found a more elegant designation in the term 

BIG— BIL 43 

••Young America." It is applied to boys who smoke cigars, chew 
tobacco, drink strong liquors, gamble, and treat their parents and 
superiors as their inferiors. Of such a boy it is said, ** lie has got 
the big head.^^ Also called swell head. 

Big Horn. {Ovis motitana.) Another name for the Rocky Mountain 
Sheep, an animal extensively distributed through Xorth America 
along tlie highlands of the Rocky Mountains from California to the 
parallel of 68°. — S, F. Baird. 

Big Meeting. Common in the West for ^^ protracted meeting." In 
country towns where there are no churches and where preachers are 
seldom seen, the arrival of one is a matter of importance to the 
whole surrounding region. The j>eople assemble in great numbers 
and from a distance, and, having come so far, one sermon will not ' 
suffice; so for several days together religious servicas are held. 
This has originally no rcffTence to any especial interest in the 
hearers, but the transition to the ordinary ''protracted meeting" ^ 

is natural. n^ ^t^m^t^ 

Big Trees. (Sequoia gigantea, Washingtoma, WelUngtonla.) The giant fk ^>/ 
pine trees of California are universally known as the Big Trees, 

Professor Brewer saw trees on th«^ western flanks of the Sierra 
Madre, one of which measured one hundred and six feet in circum- 
ference four feet al)ove the ground, and was two hunrlred and seventy- 
six feet in height. Another is spoken of which measured one 
hundred and twelve in circumference, but had been broken off at 
the height of three hundred feet, where it was eighteen feet in 
diameter. It was conjectured that, when entire, it could not have 
been less than four hundred feet in hei;^ht. The Redwood (Se- 
quoia sempervireuii) ^ another of these giants of the forest, has been 
found growing to the height of two hundred and seventy feet. 

The industriea of the Pacific coant, like the big t re et^ frrow in great clumps; 
and a single axe well laid at the roots will do surprising things among them. 
But the ground will shake when these Bonanza kings come down. — Providence 
Journal, May 5, 1876. 

Bilberry. (Vacrininm.) The popular name of shrubs belonging to 
different species of whortleberry. 

Biling, Bilen. A vulgar pronunciation of boi/ing. The phrase the 
whole (or more commonly hull) kit and bilin^ means the whole lot, 
applied to persons or things. 

The United States Marshal, who was looking for crooked whiskey, was on his 
way to arrest the whole bilin' of [men] for treasonable proceedings. — Petroleum 

44 BIL— BIT 

Tes, Evelina, I Ve been pisoned, — so are all the Loweiys, the whole bUin' of 
them; and somebody ought to be hung for it, — who, I can't say. — Grindtr 
Paptri^ p. 101. 

Bilk. In the Far West, the most degrading epithet that one can apply 
to another is to call him a bUk. 

The term was entirely novel to me, and I first asked its meaning of a landlord, 
who explained to me by saying that a htlk is a man who never misnes a meal 
and never pays a cent. — MeCUtrt, Rock^ Mountain^ p. 211. 

Bill-Board. A board on which to affix handbills or bulletins. 

A bill-board is the only news-sheet we know of which is subject to the editorial 
supervision of every man who comes along; yet people who fail ignominiously in 
their efforts to edit a bill-board are firmly convinced that they could edit a news- 
paper. — Borne {N. Y,) SentineL 

Bill-FiBh. (Belone truncata,) A small sea-fish fond of running up 
into fresh water during the summer, and often taken a considerable 
distance from the ocean. Also called Sea-pike, Silver Gar-fish, &o. 

Billy. A weapon used by desperadoes, and sometimes carried by 
policemen. See Slung-Skot. 

A day or two since a poor German was taken to prison, and, on examining 
him, it was discovered that he was a victim to the bUlj/, — N. Y, Herald, 

Bindweed. The popular name in Massachusetts for the conoolviUus. 
— Bigelow^s Flora, This term is preferable to the provincial Eng- 
lish ** Robin run over the hedge.'* 

Bindery. A place where books are bound. 

Bird's-eye Limestone. The name of a formation in the New York 

system of Geology. 
Bishop. An appendage to a lady's wardrobe, otherwise called a 

I sing the bUhcp^ alias the bustle, 

A theme transcendent for a human tongue; 
Prepare, my muse, for a heroic tnssel ! 
Let every nerve with energy be strung! 

The BudUy a PhUot, Poem, 

Mr. Saxe, in his poem on " Progress,** says that Imperial Fash- 
ion decides the gravest questions which divide the world. 

If wrong may not, by circumstance, be right, — 
If black cravats be more genteel than white — 
If, by her bishop^ or her "grace,*' alona 
A genuine lady, or a church, is known. 

Bison. See Buffalo, 

Bit. (Span, pieza.) The name, in some Southern States, of a silver 
coin of the value of one eighth of a dollar, the Spanish real (de 

BLA 45 

plaid). It is called also an eleven penny hit or a levy. See the article 

Federal Currency, 
Blaok, n. A slave. 
Blaok, adj. Pertaining to, consisting in, favorable or unfavorable to, 

a negro or slave. 

They proclaim the emancipation of the whites from slave-holding thraldom, 
and predict that the downfall of Black bondage is not far distant. — The Inde- 
pendent, Xov. 14, 1861, Art, by H. Greeley. 

Blaok Bass. 1. A favorite game fish, found in abundance in most of 
our Northern lakes and Western rivers. 

2. On the Jersey coast, this name is also given to the Sea Bass. 
{CentroprUtts nigricans.') 

Blackberry. This term is universal in the United States for the Eng- 
lish Bramble-berry. ^ g 
Blaokbeny Biuh. Bramble-bush. /W*^ Ho^^nJ^ 

Blaokfish. See Tautaug, ^ * 7 7 ^« 

Blaokgum. (Genus Nyssa.) A tree common to the Middle States. 

Blaokle. A neg^o; formerly in the Southern States, a slave. 

Families and hotels cannot depend on their servants [i. e. slaves] remaining to 
cook the morrow's dinner; and helpless misses and masters, who have needed 
Blackie to pull on their stockings and brush their hair, are brought to contem- 4 .... « 
plate the awful time when they must take care of their own hose and hair. -— ' 
N. y. Tribune, June 13, 1SQ2J Letter from Beaufort, N. C. .- ». 

Blaok-Jack. 1. The Quercus nigra, or Barren Oak; its more common 
name is Scrub Oak. 

2. Rum sweetened with molasses. Xew England. 

3. A face blackened by difficulty of breathing; as the cause of 
Buch a face, hanging. 

If the rebel troops become guerillas, they will have to be hung. The bhck- 
jackt will be far more fatal to them than yellow jack was to our troops. — .V. Y, 
Observer, June 5, 1862. 

4. A miner's name for an ore of zinc. It is composed of sulphur 
and zinc, and chemically is sulphuret of zinc. It is often associated 
with a lead ore called galena, and its presence in such cases is always 
objectionable and lessens the value of the lead ore. The Black Hills* 
Cor^. 0/ the Philadelphia Times »ays: — 

" We found here a small layer of silver ore containing lead and some copper, 
and a large underlayer of black-jack of too poor a quality to work. The green- 
horns here call this black-Jack galena, and some are actually putting it up for 
galena.** • 

Blaok Maria. A close, box-carriage, generally painted black, used 
for carrying convicts to a prison or i>enitentiary. 

•46 BLA 

Blaokstrap. Gin and molasses. The English sailors call the com- 
mon wines of the Mediterranean blackstrap, — Falconer* 9 Marine 

Come, Molly dear, no ftbdbtrosp to-ni^t, switchel or ginger pop. — MargairH^ 
p. 800. 

Mister, I gness you never drinkM no hlackstrap, did yon ? Why, bless you, 
St * 8 the sweetest drink that ever streaked down a gullet — ffiWi Yaaihee Storiet, 

Blackstrap in old times was the common beverage of engine com- 
panies at fires in Boston, and is thus poetically alluded to by one of 
her writers : — 

But oh ! let blackftmpU sable god deplore 
Those engine-heroes so renowned of yore ! 

Harvard Register, p. 235. 

Blackwood. Hemlock, pine, spruce, and fir. Maine. 

Bladder-Tree. (Straphylea.) A handsome shrub, from six to ten feet 
• * • » ■ • higR, remarkable for its large inflated capsules. — Bigelmb*8 Flora 
Bladder- Wort. (UtrictUaria vulgaris.) The popular name of aa 
aquatic plant, appearing above water only with its stalks and flowers. 
— Ibid. 
Blamed. A euphemism for doomed or damned. New England. 
y^ „ Is^ ^ j|*.^»^jBlanket. A term used distinctively for the clothing of an Indian. To 
/ . say of one's father or mother that they ** wore the blanket " implies 

^^77^ ' that they were but half -civilized Indians. Western. 

Blanket Coat. A coat made from a blanket, common in the West, 
and often seen with the black stripe of the border of the original 
blanket crossing various parts of the garment. Such a coat, of a 
bright blue, would be deemed a great oddity in the Atlantic States; 
in the West, a green one would be considered equally ridiculous. 
See Mackinaw Blanket, 

Blanket Indian. A wild Indian, whose principal article of dress is 
the blanket. 

Blatancy. A blatant habit; quality of being blatant. 

The senile weakness of Crittenden, the loud-mouthed Uatancy of Yallandigham, 
and the harmless venom of Cox. — N. Y. Tribune, April 15, 1862, Letter from 
Washington. • 

Blauser. (Dutch, blazer, a blower.) The name given by the Dutch 

settlers to the hog-nosed snake, from its habit of distending or 

^ blowing up the skin of its neck and head. The other popular names 

in New York are Deaf- Adder and Buckwheat-nosed Adder. — Nat. 

Hist, of New York. 

BLA— BLO 47 

Blaxe. In traversing the dense forests of the West, a person would 
soon lose his way and find it difficult to retrace his steps, without 
some landmark. This is made by cuttinp: a piece out of the side 
of trees at a sufficient distance from each other to enable the trav- 
eller readily to discover them, and thus follow the diroct path or 
road. Such a mark is called a hlme^ and trees thus marked are 
said to be Mazed. ** That horse has a blazed forehead," meaning 
a white spot on it. 

Three hlnzes in a perpendicular line on the same tree indicatinp^ a legislative 
road; the single blaze^ a settlement or neighborhood road. — Cnrltan^ The New 

After traversing a broad marsh, however, where my horse seemed loath to ven- 
ture, I struck a burr-oak opening, and soon found my way by the blatfd trees 
hack to the mail trail. — Hoffman, Winter in the West. 

I kept the banks of the bayou, and determined to mark the tree with a blaze. 
— A Stray Yankee in Texnt^ p. 03. 

Do you see that blaze in the hemlock tree ? Well, he up and as quick as a 
wink fired and hit it in the centre. — S Slick, ITumnn Nature, p. 112. 

To blaze or blaze out To designate by blazing (see the preceding 
article) ; to mark out. 

ChampoIIion died in 1832. having done little more than blaze out the road to be 
travelled by others. — NotVs Chronology^ Ancient and Scriptural, p. 30. 

Blazing Star. {Aletris farinnsn.) A plant, the root of which is 
greatly esteemed by the Indians and people of the West for its 
medicinal virtues. Ft is also called Devil's Bit. Both names are 
also applied to other and very difFf*rent plants. 

Blickey. (Dutch, hlik, tin.) In Now York and New Jersey, a tin 

Blind Bel. When a fisherman brings up a piece of sea-weed on his 
hook, he is said to have caught a blind eel. 

Blizzard. A jwser. This word is not known in the Eastern States. 

A gentleman at dinner a«ked me for a toast; and, supposing he meant to have 
some fun at my expense, I con<'lu<k'd to go ahead, and give him and his likes a 
blizzarfl. — CntcketVa Tour, p. 10. ^^ 

Bloated Bela. Eels skinned and eviscerated. Connecticut. 

To blind aTraiL To conceal a person's foot-prints, or to give them '^ 

tlie appearance of going in a different direction; and, figuratively, 
to deceive a person by putting him on the wrong track. 

Block. A term applied in America to a square mass of houses in- 
cluded between four streets. It is a very useful one. The term is 
used in the ** London Quarterly Review,*' vol. Ixxxviii. p. 477, in an 
article on *^ Sanitary Consolidation." It is also applied, sometimes. 




48 BLO 

to large houses or other large buildings, which have accommodations 
for several families, several shops, &c. 

Such an average block, comprising two hundred and eighty-two houses and 
covering nine acres of ground, exists in Oxford Street. It forms a compact square 
mass, or "insula/* to borrow a term from the Romans, favorably situated for 
military engineering. 

This term is not universal, for in many cities square is used. 

A block of shares is a Wall Street phrase, and means a large 
number of shares in a railroad or other stock company massed to- 
gether and sold in a lump. 
Blockade. Embarrassment to shipping by ice; an ice-field. 

The condition of the ice at Port Huron, Michigan, is unchanged. The field 
has reached St. Clair River. . . . The blockade will remain until, &c. — Boston 

Blook-Island Turkey. Salted codfish. Common in Connecticut and 

Rhode Island. Comp. Taunton Turkey, 
Blooded. Blooded cattle^ or stocky is a term applied to horses, homed 

cattle, swine, &c., of choice breeds. 

Blood Orange. An orange, the pulp and juice of which are reddish 
or blood-like in their color. 

Blood-Root. (Sanguinaria Canadensis,) The plant is so called from 
the blood-red juice which exudes from a fresh root when broken. 
See Puccoon, 

Blood-Tubs. A set of rowdies in Baltimore, chiefly butchers, who 
got their epithet from having on an election day dipped an obnox- 
ious German head down in a tub of warm blood, and then drove 
him running through the town. See Plug- Ugly, 

From the song of the Irish Legion, written after the attack on 
the Union soldiers while passing through Baltimore, in 1861: — 

Blood-Tubs and Plug-Uglies, and others galore. 
Are sick for a thrashing in sweet Baltimore ; 
t ^ I • t ^ jabers ! that same I *d be proud to inform 

\j$^^M Ifclf ^^ ^^^ terrible force of an Irishman's arm. 

^j Bloomer. The Bloomer costume is one devised by a Mrs. Bloomer, 

^'Y7 *^^ worn by some of the more ardent advocates for woman's rights. 

It consists of a short gown, reaching a little below the knees, and 


To blow. 1. To boast, brag; to ** talk big." ** You blow behind my 

back, but dare not say any thing to my face." 

2. To expose one. 

3. To flout at; to reproach; to censure. 

ft£n-»^^*M* jl»7<2^. 

BLO— BLU 49 

Blower. 1. A plate of sheet-iron, used to partially stop the opening 
of a grate or furnace, and thus increase the draft. 

2. A braggart; a teller of incredible anecdotes, feats, and hair- 
breadth escapes. 

Blowin' his Bazoo. Gasconade ; braggadocio. Tennessee. 

Blow of Cotton. In the South, the bursting of the pods. 

Blow oat. A festive entertainment. Frequently used for a party or 
ball. ** Mr. B gave a big * blow out,^ last night," &c. 

To blow out. To talk violently or abusively. The pious Uncle Tiff, 
as related by Mrs. Stowe, wonders how people get to heaven among 
the conflicting doctrines. 

Dcre *8 de Methodists, dey cuts up de Presbyterians ; de Presbyterians pitch 
into de Methodists, and both are down on de Episcopals ; while de Baptists tink 
dey none on dem right ; and while dey *s all hlotcing out at each other dat ar way, 
I *8 wondering whar 's de way to Canaan. — Mr$, Stowt, Drtd, Vol. I. p. 276. 

To blow up. To give one a blowing up is to accuse, berate, or 
denounce him; to scold. 

Blowih. (Ang.-Sax. Ablossom.) The blossoming of flowers. **Ther*s 
ben a good blowth o* apples this year; " i. «., the flowers are numer- 
ous. The word is provincial in the west of England, and is pre- 
served in New England. 

The first age after the flood was, by ancient historians, called Golden. Ambi- 
tion and covctou!>nes8 being as then but green and pewly grown up ; the seeds 
and effects whereof were as yet but potential, and in the blowth and bud. — 
Raleigh, Hitt. of the World, Part 1, book 1, ch. 9, p. 107, edit. 1677. 

Blue. 1. Gloomy, severe; extreme, ultra. In the former sense, it is 
applied especially to the Presbyterians, to denote their severe and 
mortified appearance. Thus, beneath an old portrait of the seven- * 
teenth century, in the Woodburn Gallery, is the following inscrip- 
tion: — 

A true Uut Priest, a IJncey Woolsey Brother, 

One legg a pulpit holds, a tub the other ; 

An Orthodox grave, moderate Presbyterian, 

Half surplice cloake, half Priest, half Puritan. 

Made up of all these halfes, hee cannot pass 

For any thing entirely but an ass. 

In the latter sense, it is used particularly in politics. 

The Uutst description of old Van Rensselaer Federalists have followed Colo- 
oel Prentiss (in Otsego County). — N, Y. Tribune, 

2. A sjmouyme in the tippler's vocabulary for drunk. To drink 
•* till all 's blue *' is to get exceedingly tipsy. 

Blue Baoks. A term applied to the paper money of the Confederate 


60 BLU 

government in contradistinction to the Greenbacks of the North. 
When they depreciated , they became known as shucks, 

Blue-Berry. (Vaccinium tenellum.) A fruit resembling the whortle- 
berry in appearance and taste. 

Blue-Blood. An aristocrat; one of high family. 

** The Nation ** itself declftres that Professor Seelye was elected to Congress by 
a thoroughly Ume-diood Massachusetts commanity. — Let. of Gail Hamilton in 
N. Y. Tribune. The writer adds, ** No sooner did Professor Seelye deliver an 
opinion opposed to that of * The Nation/ than that journal — to use a pioneer 
[backwoodsman*8] but picturesque Western phrase — sat up on its hind legs and 

Blue-blooded. Proud of assumed high descent; regarding one's self 
as of good birth. 

This high-toned and blue-blooded Christian statesman was [so thought or said 
'' The Nation **] tiio victim of disease. — Ibid. 

Blue-Book. A printed book containing the names of all the persons 
holding office under the government of the United States, with their 
place of birth, amount of salary, &c. It answers to the Red-Book 
of England and Canada. 

Blue Curls. (^Trichostema dichotomum.) From the shape and color of 
its flowers. A common plant resembling pennyroyal, and hence 
called bastard pennyroyal. 

Blue-Fieh. (Temnodon scdtator.) A salt-water fish of the mackerel 
order, but larger in size. It is one of the moat voracious fishes on 
the Atlantic coast. It bites readily at any object drawn rapidly 
through the water; as a bone squid or metal spoon, a minnow, white 
rag, and in fact any conspicuous bait. On the Jersey coast, these 
fish are called Horse-mackerel ; and in Virginia, Salt-water Tailors. 
Another name is the Skip-jack. On the Jersey coast, the name 
Blue-fish is applied to the Weak-fish, Squeteauge, or Chickwit. 
See Horse-Mackerel. 

Blue-Qras8. The name of the grass of the rich limestone land of Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. It affords pasture for ten or eleven months 
in the year, and flourishes in the partial shade of the woods in which 
there is no undergrowth. The change from the fertile soil upon 
which this grass flourishes to that which is poorer is sudden and 
well marked. Hence the term ** Blue-grass " is applied both to the 
region and its inhabitants. ** Grape-vine,'' for similar reasons, is 
used in opposition to ** Blue-grass," although not with equal pro- 
priety, as the vine does grow well on either soil, while the blue-grass 
does not. — Owen*s Geological Survey of Kentucky, 



A I<M}k at the BIu^Gtom rt^cm of Kentucky will of iti^lf make one forget the 
fAt}|2rtie« of A joumej fmro New YoTk. *' God's own coimtT7' " was the chmo^ 
tenzation given by one gi?ntleraan. Here are the celebrated stock farms, wban 
the raceliorseiPi of the country are bred. — Corr. N. Y. Po»t^ June^ 1877* 

In Maryland and some other States, the term ia applied to a spo- 
ciea of grass that volunteers atid causes much trouble ; being injuri- 
ous to wheat and clover, and hard to eradicat-e. In Connecticut, 
QmckgroJfs^ or Twitchgrass, 

Blue Hen. A popular name applied to the State of Delaware. 

Blue Hen's Ghickens. The sobriquet or cant name ol the people of 

At the beginning of the Revolution arj' war» there lived in Sussex 
County of that colony a gentleman of fortune, named Caldwell, who 
was a sportsman and breeder of fine horneit and game-cocks. His 
favorite axiom was, that the character of the progeny depends more 
on the mother than on the father* and that the finest game-cocks 
depended on the hen, rather than on the cock, Hb obser\'ation 
led him to select a Mite hen und he never failed to hatch a good 
game-cock from a blue hen's egg. Caldwell distinguwhed himself 
as an officer in the First Delaware Regiment for hia daring spirit. 
The high state of its discipline was conceded to hia exertions^ ao 
that when officers were sent on recruiting service it was said that 
they had gone home for more of Caldweir*! game-cocks; but, as Cald- 
well insisted that no cock could be truly game unless its mother 
w&B a blue hen^ the exptresaion Blue Hen*s Chickens was substituted 
for game-cocks. — Dehfrar^' State Journal^ July, I860. 

Let the word be Forwani ! Until you ace the Stars and Stripes floating over 
Sumter, «nd c%'cry other fort in the harbor in the city of Charleston. D(»t«wiiro'ii 
honor id in your hand«. . . . Blck Hkn's Chickkxs to the fmut! Forward! 
March! — Dtiattare Itujuirtr^ May 5, IfikJL 

Blae Laws. "Where and how the Ftf>ry of the New Haven Blue Latiis 
originated is a matter of some curitxsity, According to Dr. Peters, 
the epithet blue was applied to the laws of New Haven by the neigh- 
boring colonies, because these laws were thought fteculiarly sangui- 
nary; and he says thitt friue is equivalent io bloody. It is a Butficient 
refutation of this account of the matter to say that, if there was 
any distinction between the colony of New Haven and the other 
anited colonies of New England in the severity of their punishments, 
New Haven was the last of the number to gain this bad pre-emi- 
nence* Others have said that certain laws of New Haven, of a 
more private and domestic kind, were bound in a blue cover; and 
bexice the name. This explanation has aa little probability aa the 

52 BLU 

preceding for its support. It is well known that, on the restoration 
of Charles II., the Puritans became the subject of every kind of 
reproach and contumely. Not only what was deserving of censure 
in their deportment, but their morality, was especially held up to 
scorn. The epithet blue was applied to any one who looked with 
disapprobation on the licentiousness of the times. The Presbyte- 
rians, under which name all dissenters were often included, as they 
still dared to be the advocates of decency, were more particularly 
designated by this term; their religion and their morality being 
marked by it as mean and contemptible. Thus Butler : — 

For his religion, it was fit 

To match his learning and his wit ; 

'Twas Presbyterian true blue. — ffudib., Canto I. 

That this epithet of derision should find its way to the colonies 
was a matter of course. It was here applied not only to persons, 
but to customs, institutions, and laws of the Puritans, by those who 
wished to render the prevailing system ridiculous. Hence probably 
a belief with some, that a distinct system of laws, known as the 
Bltie Latosy must have somewhere a local habitation. — Prof, Kings" 
ley*s Hist, Discourse. 

Blue Law State. Connecticut. 

Blue-Lighta. During the war of 1812, while the British fleet lay off 
New London, blue lights were often seen at night near the shore, 
which were attributed by Commodore Decatur (whose vessels lay 
there for security) to persons who were friendly to the British, and 
hence traitors. The conclusion was an unjust one, as no American 
was ever discovered or even suspected of burning them. Hence, 
says Mr. Goodrich, ^^Blue-lights, meaning treason on the part of 
Connecticut Federalists during the war, is a standard word in the 
flash dictionary of Democracy." ** Even to this day,*' he says else- 
where, ** Connecticut Blue-Lights are the grizzly monsters w^ith 
which the nursing fathers and mothers of Democracy frighten their 
children into obedience — just before elections I " — Recollections , 
Vol. I. p. 439 and 484. 

Horace Greeley, and a train of real blue light Clayites from your State, have 
arrived this morning, and make their head-quarters at the Franklin. Horace has 
fastened on his armor with rivets and hammer, and the Taylor men will find him 
a regular *' barnburner! '* — New York Herald. 

Blue-Nose. The slang name for a native of Nova Scotia. 

'* Pray, sir,*' said one of my fellow-passengers, " can you tell me why the Nova 
Scotlans are called 'Blue-No$est* '* 

BLU 58 

"It !■ the name of a potato,*' said I, ** which they produce in great perfection, 
and hoast to be the best in the world. The Americans have, in consequence, 
ghren them the nickname of Blue-Nose*,^^ — Sam Slick. 

The sort o* trash a feller gits to eat doos beat all nater. 

I *d give a year's pay for a smell o' one good bltte-nose tater. 

LowtUf The Biglow Papers. 
Do yon know the reason monkeys are no good? Because they chatter all day 
long, — so do the niggers, — and so do the ^/tt€-iVo«e« of Nova Scotia. — Sam 

After a mn [in the steamer] of fourteen days, we entered the harbor of Hali- 
fax, amid the hearty cheers of a large number of Blu^Notes. — Sir Oeorgt Simp- 
mm*s Overland Journey ^ Vol. I. p. 19. 

Blue Perch. See BurgcdL 

Blue PilL A bullet 

Between line pittt, halters, and the penitentiary, we shall soon work off thb 
element of rascaldom and hozfe-thieves. — N. T. Tribune^ Let. /rom Missouri^ 
Nov. 19, 1861. 

Blue-Skixie. A nickname applied to the Presbyterians, from their 
alleged grave deportment. 

Blue-Stooklng. The American avocet {Recurvirostra Americana). A 
common bird in the Northern States. 

Bluets. (Oldentandriacasntlea.) A delicate little herb, producing in 
spring a profusion of light-blue flowers fading to white, with a 
yellowish eye. — Grai/f The Houstonia of Linnaeus. 

Blue Weed. (Chicorium.) Wild endive, bearing a large dark-blue 
flower. New England. 

Bluff, n. A high bank, almost perpendicular, projecting into the sea. 

In America, it is applied to: 1. A high bank, presenting a steep 
front along a river, in the interior of the country. Hence it is also 
used as a geological term to denote the lacustrine formation where 
these high banks occur. 

Here you have the advantage of mountain, bluff, interval, to set off the view. 
— Margaret, p. 282. 

2. A game of cards, alias Poker, 

To bluff off. To put off a troublesome questioner or dun with a gruff 
answer; to frighten a person in anyway, in order to deter him from 
accomplishing his ends. 

**I goes yon five dollars, this time," says Jim, posting at the same time the 

**I sees dat, and I goes you ten better," said Bill; "you ain't a-goin' to bluff 
dis child, nohow you can fix it." 

64 BLU— BOA 

**! sees you again/* said Jim, ** and goeti you forty better; dis Orleans nigg«r 
woD*t stay stumped, dat I tells you, sartin.** ~ N, Y. Spirit of the Timet. 

In the course of the dispute, Jim let out some offensive remark, which brought 
a rejoinder from Joe. The former tried the bluffing etfttem; but Joe said he had 
stood enough, and would put up with no more insults from his bullying neighbor. 
— Southern Sketches^ p. 187. / 

To bluff on Poker is to bet on a worthless baud as if it were a good 
hand, and force your antagonist to back down in fear; so to bluff a 
many and to bluff him off, are slightly different, the latter probably 
being English, the former the technical form of ** Bluffing off," 
which the game brings about. 

Blummeohles. (Dutch.) This Dutch word for small flowers is still 
preserved in the New York markets. 

Blnmmies. (Dutch.) Flowers. In the State of New York, and par- 
ticularly in the city and along the HudSon and Mohawk Rivers. 

A gentleman, ruralizing along the banks of the Hudson, stopped 
to pick some wild flowers near where sat an aged man, and said: — 

"These flowers are beautiful, — it is a treat for one from the city to gaze on 

" Flowers ? ** replied the old man, with an air of bewilderment. ** Flowers! 
what be they ? " 

** Why, these! " replied I, stooping and picking some. 

'* Oh, the Uummiet I Tes, the blummies be very thick hereabouts ! *' he replied. 

Blur-eyed. Blear-eyed. ** The Wur-cycJ slanderer." — N. Y. Tribune, 
June 14, 1862. 

To board round. To supply, to receive board in rotation; as, ** to 
board round." ** They will board him round." In New England, 
formerly a general expression, relating to a custom once prevalent in 
rural districts, when the school-teacher received board in different 
families from which children were sent to school. 

Boards. In the South-west, boards are strips of wood from two to 
four feet in length, riven from blocks, and differing only in size 
from shingles. All sawed stuff, which at the North is called boards j 
is here called plank, 

Boatable. Navigable for boats or small river-craft — Webster. This 
useful word has only recently been adopted into the English Dic- 

The inhabitants of this State shall have liberty ... to fish in all bootable and 
other waters, not private property. — Constitution of Vermont, 1786, eh. ii. 

The Seneca Indians say, they can walk foiir times a day from the boat(Me 
waters of the Alleghany to those of the Tioga. — Morse' t Oeoffra^hy. 


Tliw word, eays Dr; Webster, though of modern origin, is well 
Idnnad sceording to the English analo^es, like fordahle, crefiUabk, 
&0. The advAntiige of using it is obviouB, aa it expresses an impor- 
iaat distinction in the capacity of water to bear vesaeb, Naviffabie 
ig a generic tenn, of which boatahie is the species; and aa the use 
of it saves a circumlocution » instead of being proscribedi it should 
be neceired a^ a reil improvement. — Letter to J. Pickering on his 
VocahulaTy, p* C. 

The objection to this word is thai it is a hybrid, composed of a 
Saxon noun and a Latin ending. It ia like fordahk, but not like 
€r€diiahU^ which is all Latin, We should hardly use the word trust' 
ahlt. We can well enough do with truatfal. 

Bosttog. Transporting in boats. — Webiter, 

Bob. A knot of worms or chicken-guts on a string, used in fishing 
for eels, and in the ikjuth for trout. The bob is frequently made 
of oolored rags^ red, black, &o. ; and, for large trout, it ia a bait 
equivalent to the artificial fly. 

BolKiliQk. (fcterui af/ripennis.) A lively little bird, 90 called from 
ita i)oU*a, which in the fall frcMjuent's the wild rice of shallow rivers 
and inttrabes, where it become.*i very fat. It is highly esteemed by 
eftieureia. Other t^Njpular names by which it ia known in different 
ptJtaof t>ie country are Rice-bird, Rice-bunting, Reed-bird, Meadow- 
biltd. May-bird, Butter-bird, American Ortolaiii and lastly— and 
mmi inappropriately — Skunk Blackbird. 

Xh9 liii)jpic5t bird of our Kpring^ u the BoboUnk* This ii the chosen s«4l»oq of 
ltv«]fy for him* Bo come* ftrni(Ut the pomp and fntgmaco of the season; Lis lif« 
•WMt iJ] tMstuibiliiy And enjoyment, alt song and tunshme. — iV, Irving^ Wol- 
/bTi Hooti. 

rhflosopheri may l*ach Ihy wht^reahotita and nature, 

But wi»e,» an all of us, perfon-4', mu^t think Vm, 
The •cbool^boy be«t has Irx d thy nomenclature, 

Tbu poet*, I4K», muKt tall thee Buit-it-Linkmn* — Floffman^ Potms, 

Merriiy iwmji^mg on briar and weed, 

Near to lb« nest of h'm litik dame, 
Over the mountain 4>ide or mead, 

Rob«rt nf Lincoln h lelljniBf his namCi 

Spiak, rpank, npink.— W* C, Br^tmL 

BothSled. A sled much used for the transportation of large timber 
from the forest to a river or public road. Maine* Its p*>culiarity 
Qotii»l6t^ in its having two pair of bobs or short nmners, So is also 
tli« BolhdeigK 


66 BOC— BOG 

Bookey. (Dutch, bokacU,) A bowl or vessel made from a gourd. A 
term peculiar to the city of New York and its vicinity. 

Booking. So called from the name of the town in Essex County, 
England, where made. A kind of baize or woollen cloth, either 
plain or stamped with colored figures, used to cover floors or to 
protect carpets. It is also called ^oor-c/o^A. 

I knew that the large cloth which covered the middle of the floor, and which 
the women call a bockiny^ had been brought and nailed down there, after a solemn 
family council, as the beot means of concealing the dams ... in the carpet. — 
Mr$. Stowt [Houte and Home Papers)^ Atlantic Monthly^ Jan., 1S64, p. 43. 

Bodette. (Fr. heaudette.) In Canada, the common name for a cot- 

Bodewash. (Fr. hois de vtiche,) Dried cow-dung, used for fuel on 
the treeless plains of the Far West. Also called Buffalo Ckips^ which 

Body-Bolt. A king-bolt. 

The front wheels of the wagon became detached, and the hody-bdU . . . was 
driven into the ground up to its head. — Tht Preu, PhiUdelphia, Nov. 17, 1869. 

Bogue. ** I don't git much done without I bogue right in along with 
my men." 

Bogus, n. A liquor made of rum and molasses. Comp. Calibogus, 

Bogus, adj. Counterfeit, false. 

The ** Boston Courier " of June 12, 1857, in reporting a case before 
the Superior Com*t in that city, gives the following as the origin of 
this word: ** The word bogus is a corruption of the name of one 
Borghese, a very corrupt individual, who, twenty years ago or more, 
did a tremendous business in the way of supplying the gi*eat West, 
and portions of the South-west, with counterfeit bills and bills on 
fictitious banks. The Western people fell into the habit of shorten- 
ing the name of Borghese to that of Bogtu ; and his bills, as well 
as all others of like character, were universally styled by them 
** bogus currency." By an easy and not very unnatural transition, 
the word is now applied to other fraudulent papers, such as sham 
mortgages, bills of sale, conveyances, &c. 

**Look at these bank-bills,** said the stranger; **keep those that are good, and 
return me the bad.** 

** I guess the whole pile are &o^tM,** said Confidence Bob, as he turned over 
his roll. — iVortA, The Slave of the Lamp, p. 33. 

The wide- awake citizens of Boston have been sadly bitten by a bogus issue of 
the old ** Pine-Tree Shilling currency,** got up by a smart Gothamite. — American 
Notes and Queries, July, 1857. 



tKfngv of Mii».^m*huA«ttji moat betiftve ibeTnaelve& better than 
vii»lt (0 the (Niljiiutie nuniien\ or itiey will he repudiAled bj 
ll^r bf\{lina ai ofhor 8Uk*t, «s tmgu4 members of the order. —iV. 1'. ffcmtd. 

No* one cent •hnulil be irireu to piiy the rncjnberft of the boffus legi^Uture of 
Ka&i«*, ur for the «u|»pi»n of Uie do^tu Uwt passed by tbem. — BmUtn Atlat. 

Bogoilj. In A fake way. 

land ntj W9i:it«nlfl [in TeuueMee] are toyal lii ibc United States; that when 
tJiHtfilSce euau under tbe rebel government, and tbe oatb was sent to ust we 
filed it bf^i/frttsU/ fffHJ, and eeiit it to Uiehiuoiid without swearing to it- — iST. T, 

fioiled Sldit, A while MtL Western. 

Ifl onlcr to atU'tuJ ihi? Governor** reception^ I borrowed a boiled iJnrt^ and 
plunji^ed ia with a Uyrun eolUr, and poHshed boott^ and also the other aeceHaar/ 
•pparel. — McCtme^ Tht Hociij Mouutainj^ p. 412. 

*T ws« un\y tsiil nightr sure, they gave me a call 

To deliver It lecture at Hitu'rnla Halb 

T put on a bihd shirty and hoiilencd there quicks 

But tbe blacJcj^anio did eerve me the divir* own trfck. — Ed> Burton* a Bo^^ 

Bote d*Aro. (lif actum auranHaca.) The Osage orange of Misamui 
Acd Arkaiiajia, which se^. 

TTie bows (of the Comanche^] are madu of tbe totjg^h nnd elaatie wood of tba 
lets d*aiT, or Owige oranfi;i% ^trcrii^theiied and reinfurred with the sinews of tho 
deer wrap]^ firuiiy aroiitid tbem. — Marcy^ I^srp, of the Bed Biver^ pw $f&. 

Bolt de Vache. See Buffalo-Cklpi. 

Bolivar Hat. A Leghorn bonnet with a broad btim, worn a few years 

To bolt. To omit voting for; to reject; to desert a political pajrty 
soddenlj; aSi ** Air. B^ was di^aatiafied with the political plat- 
form, and holtttL" 

We may InAt particular candidates on tiiose tickets. Bolt a frauduleat iiomi- 
[ AatiuHi mrraich «vify unwurthy candidate, but sustala tbe Union ticket and 
aose. — iV. r Tribune, Oct 3, 1861. 

This 9*in3e of the word ia derived from ita sense aa meaning to 
spring a^Ide; to be off from. 

Bombo. An animal of North Carolina, aaid to resemble the hedge- 
hog, and by m>ine called a Badger. 

Wbtrn the pitople [{»f Xortb Camlinft] entertain their friends, they fail not to 
tot before tltrm a eapsi'jouii bowl of Bombo^ so called from the animal of that 
■aoiSL -^ WisUrt^r Papers^ p. 28. 

BonaiuM. (Span, prosperity; ancoesit.) In California and Nevada, 
a rich mine; a lucky hit; a Boccessful enterprise^ particularly b 
gold and ailver mining. 

Ui^i^ .yCt. 

58 BON— BOO 

The principal place for mining is at the foot of a naked granite mountaiii, the 
so-called Bonanza. — WizlizemUf Northern Mexico^ 1847. 

The contract for the Legislative printing, awarded by the Controller to Par- 
menter, of Troy, has been generally regarded here as in the nature of a big 
bonanza. —N. Y. Tribune, March S, 1876. 

The recent rapid decline in Bonanza stocks in the San Francisco nuurket has 
occasioned considerable uneasiness among the holders of these securities. . . . 
A reporter inter\iewed Mr. Flood on the subject. The Bonanza king was bitterly 
indignant at the means employed to depreciate his mines. — Boeton Poit, May 5, 

The buyer of lottery tickets is ever hopeful of a big bonanza, that he may 
recover the thousands of dollars sunk during many years of indulging in thia 
folly. — Botton Herald, March, 1875. 

To bone. To apply one's self closely. ** To bone into it." 

Bone. A term well understood in New York, and perhaps in other 
large commercial cities; it means a fee paid by passengers to cus- 
tom-house officers for permission to pass their baggage with a slight 
examination. If the bone is large, the trunks may not be opened 
at all. 

Bones. Substitutes for castanets, so called from the substance from 
which they are made. Among *' negro minstrels," one is always a 
performer on these instruments, whence he is styled '* Brudder 


*T was the finest place for miles around. 

And ole galls wouldn't all come dovm. 
And they *d so light on every night 

To the old banjo* s sweet sound. 
The fiddle there, and den de bonez. 

And de merry tambourine. 
Oh, wish dat I could see again 

De ole plantation green. — Negro Melody, 

Boneset. (Eupatorium perfoliatum.) The popular name of a medi- 
cinal plant. So called because it was popularly reported to be a 
specific for the Dengud, or Breakbone fever. — Rqfinesque's Med, 
Flora, I. 179. Its properties are sudorific and tonic. 

Bony-Fish. See Menhaden. 

Booby-Hut. A carriage-body put upon sleigh-runners. New Eng- 
land. It is a slight alteration of the term booby-hutch, used in the 
east of England to denote a clumsy, ill-contrived, covered carriage 
or seat. 

Boodle. (Fr. botel, boteau, a bundle; Germ, beutel) ** The whole 
kit and boodle of them," i e, all, the whole. New England. Per- 
haps from the O. Eng. battel , a bunce, or a bundle, as of straw. 
See Caboodle, 

BOO— B05 

Toboo^boo. To cry aloud; to bawl, beJlgw, roar, 

TIj<? Uuh wtmian fiwytnjti*d H^ht out, threw h<;r5«ilf iocontinently full on hia 
bf*t»t, huug nfotind hi« txt^k, juu! wejtl on »u a surprising w^y for such a roere 
tttidcLiAl fts tti ACtresA. — FicU, Drama in PokcrvtUe. 

7« n«h ftod {iicoii«idctttte chx]dri?D of iniquity! You will go down to your 
grmre^ buo-hooing like a kicked boobv, i»oiil-t»hattered, body-tAttert!id, looking t» 
Ibough you had made vonr escape from a regiment of wild-<cat». ^Dow*t Strmom, 


Bookstore. A place where books are kept aod sold. It is the €om> 
iiir.ii tt^rin in the United States for what is called, in England^ a 
Uiidjieller'x nkop, 

Boondet or Bounder. A scrubbing-brush. New York. 

\ booat. To lift or raise by pushing. — Wth$ttr. Chiefly used by 
Ncirtliern boys, who apply it to the act of shoving a peraon by the 
posteriori up a tree or over a feuctir *^ Boost me up this tree, and 
1 *ll ho<»k you some applet.** 

Heclainb«r«d back into tlie box (tn the tbeatre), the manaj^r assisting to boost 
bki) with tbe mufti friendly iiolii itudi*. — AV^/^, Dinimti in PoktrvtU*. 

1 kavii often riotiuvd the alacrity with wliirh tlie polii-emen of N«w Tork pilot 
ttfiprotected female* aerots the »trect, and hof>9i them into stog^.«. — Dofsiicki. 

It i* juAt aa ditfieult to hoo»t a sinner up to heaven withotit eorre$ipo tiding effort 
on hii part« a» it would b« for a child to shoulder a sack of Tiirk*i Island salt — 

OfBf^e-ftceke^ft aftk you to give them a ^^i^ into the tree of office. And what 
do they do? Tliey eat the appieit, and th^ti throw the cores at your heads* — 
Ihie*9 Sermim*, 

L^rd Palmcritofi was boosUd into power by the agriottltural intereata of Eng* 
land. — ^^ttlf Tttrk Btrald, 

To boot. To ** boot a man ^* is to kick hirn, 

Boote«. A kind of short or half boot. — Worcester* 

Boot-Idck. One who cringes to and flatters a superior for the purpose 
of obUining favors; a lickspittle, a toacly. 

Native soil. 

West Indies, as given in Thome's 


R*^p*>rt» &c. 

Bosaal. (Span, hi^sal^ a muzzle,) A peculiar kind of halter, used in 
breaking and riding unruly horses. 

Boaa. The o pmnounced like a in alL (Dutch, ham.) A masterj 
ail employer of mechanics or laborers. Hence we henr of a 6om- 
carpenter, a fcow-bricklayer, /iOi<jt-shoemaker, &g,, instead of master- 
oarpenter, he. The word probably originated in New York, and is 

60 BOS 

now used in many parts of the United States. The blacks often 
employ it in addressing white men in the Northern States, as they 
do nuusa (master) in the Southern States. 

At a meeting of the journeymen boot and shoemakers in New 
York, April 9, 1850, it was 

'* Retoivedf That it is the opinion of this meeting that it ia very desirable that 
the boot and shoemakers form an incorporated company for the purpose of secur- 
ing to its members constant employment and direct patronage of shoe-buyers, 
and independence from the tjrrannical dictation of intermediate capitalists or 

It isn't saying much for your boss politicianer that he chose you, when I was on 
his list for promotion. — /. Neal^ Peter Brush. 

The Eternal City is in a very curious position. The Pope has returned to his 
ancestral home ; but he has nothing in his pocket, and Rothschild refuses to let 
him have any more money. A thousand years ago, and the boot would have been 
on t'other leg. . . . To-day it is very different. The Father of Holiness is the 
dependent of the Jew, and Rothschild is the real Pope and boss of all Europe. — 
New York Herald, May 24, 1850. 

A correspondent of the '' New York Times," Oct. 21, 1876, on 
board ttie U. S. ship ** Franklin," thus wrote of a notorious char- 
acter whom they were carrying to New York from Spain: — 

We are conveying no less public celebrity than Boss Tweed ; . . . but the 
slippery old eel may again evade the clutches of the law, and want to know 
** what we are going to do about it.*' The old Boss looks quite jolly, &c. 

The candidates named by John Kelley, the Bou of Tammany Hall, for city 
officers, furnish a bone of contention among Democrats. — New York papers^ 
Oct., 1876. 

Bobs. (Lat. bos.) Among the hunters of the prairies, a name for 
the buffalo. 

Bo88, adj. Some late writers are so fond of this word, that they 
use it as an adjective. Thus one says : " Veteran Hatch caught 
the boss string of trout,** meaning probably a very large lot. 

To boss. To rule over; to direct. To **6om a job** is to super- 
intend it 

Let his Woman's Rights companion 
I Boss the house and take the money, — 

^o«9 them, and cut off the dead-heads 
When she made it pay expenses. — PlurUmttah. 

** What detains you at court ? " said a lawyer to an unsophisticated country- 
man attending in a court-room in Arkansas. 

" Why, sir," said tlie countrjrman, ** I 'm fotched here as a jury, and they say 
if I go home they will have to find me, and they moutn't do that, as I live a good 

" What jury are you on ? " asked a lawyer. 

"What jury?" 

BOS— BOU 61 

" Yes, what jury ? Grand or traverse jury ? " 

" Grand or travis jury ? Dad-fetched if I know." 

•* Well," said the lawyer, ** did the judge charge you ? " 

"Well, squire," said he, **the little fellow that sits up in the pulpit, and kinder 
b<mu it over the crowd, gin as a talk ; but I don't know whether he charged any 
thing or not." 

The crowd broke up in a roar of laughter, and the sheriff called court — Nat, 
InUlUgencer, Nov. 8, 1856. 

Bossy. A familiar name applied to a calf. In Dorsetshire, England, 

a spoilt child is called a bossy calf. Cf . /xoo-xo; . /i^n/if*% ^ol0^ 

Bothersome. Inconvenient; vexatious. ^* 77 ?# 

The entente cordiaU does not include this particular point of policy, as it might A^^ ^Vw A^^ 
prove a trifle bothename. — N. Y. Tribune. . • J**^ 

The great naval expedition has been a laughably bothersome subject to the New 
York press. — Winstead Herald, Oct. 1, 1881. 

Bottom Dollar. The last dollar. When a man's money is gone, he 
will say, ** I 've seen my bottom dollar,^* 

The brother of Miss Kate Field, having witnessed the opening of 
Parliament, said to her : — 

I saw the whole play; admired the Queen's dipn^ity, and you may bet your 
bottom dollar I don't want to go again. — London Truths Feb. 8, 1877. 

Bottom Fact. An nndoubted fact; that which is unquestionable. 
•* The Methodist " newspaper, in speaking of raising money for 
churches, says: — 

** Take it altogether, there is no way to raise money for the church without 
giving it. And here is the * bottom fact ' in the trouble : we want the church 
to have the money; but we want somebody else to pay it." 

The public has a large interest in the case of the election of Senator Grover 
[of Or^n]. Curiosity has been on the tiptoe these many weeks to know the 
bottom facts in it. — N. Y. Tribune, March 17, 1877. 

Bottom-Lands. In the Western States, this name is given to the rich 
flat land on the banks of rivers, which in New England is generally 
called •* interval land," or simply ** inter\'al." — Pickering^ s Vocab., 

Our sleigh, after winding for some time among this broken ground, and passing 
over one or two small but beautiful pieces of bottom-land among the ravines, 
reached at last the top of the bluff. ~ Hoffman. 

To bouge. (Old Fr. bouge, swelling. — Cotgrave.) To swell out, to 
bulge. This old word is noticed by Dr. Johnson. It is nearly ob- 
solete in England, but is preserved in the interior of New England. 

When the sun gets in one inch, it is ten o'clock ; when it reaches the stone that 
b<mges oat there, it is dinner-time. — Margaret, p. 6. 


62 BOU 

Boaghten. Which is bought. This is a common word in the interior 
of New England and New York. It is applied to articles purchased 
from the shops, to distinguish them from articles of home manu- 
facture. Many farmers make their own sugar from the maple-tree, 
and their coffee from barley or rye. West India sugar or coffee is 
then called boughten sugar, &c. ** This is a home-made carpet; that 
a boughten one," t. e. one bought at a%hop. In the north of Eng- 
land, bakers' bread is called bought-hread, 

I *m going to buy a dress and half a dozen pairs of stockings. Common ones 
I knit, but I took a notion for some boughten ones for best. — Grinder Paptrt, 

' p.20. 
JU^ titfu^tl To bounce. A word now extensively used for the forcible excluding 
of a troublesome or noisy person from a house or bar-room, a car, 
&c., sometimes with the addition **out." — ** I daresn't go in 
there, the bar-tender 's drunk, and I might get bounced,** The 
word may be found in the police reports. See Bounce in Addenda. 

Bound. 1. Determined, resolved. A vulgarism not peculiar to the 

United States. 

A handsome nigger *s bound to shine, 
Like dandy Jim of Caroline. — Song. 

I 'm on the way to be as sombre and solemn as you are, but I *m bound to have 
a good time first — Mr$, Stowe, Dred. 

Tou see, my buck brethren, that the women are bound to get the better of us. 
If they can*t do it in one way, thev will in another. In them you behold the wild- 
cat, the lamb, and the dove. Thev first let loose their untamed feline propensi- 
ties ; next they give the juvenile sheep a trial; and, if that fail, they rely upon 
the lo\nng pigeon. — Dow'$ Sermons, 

2. Certain. To a limited extent, bound has been made synony- 
mous with sure, certain. Thus it is said of a young man of talent, 
** He is bound to succeed; " of a candidate for political office, ** He 
is bound to be elected;'* of a young and growing village, •* It is 
bound to become a large place. *' This is a revival of the old sense of 
the term, which has been obsolete or provincial in England, and has 
no sanction from Johnson, Richardson, or any of our leading lexi- 
cographers. — Webster, 
Bounty-Jumper. A terra applied during the late civil war to men who 
received a bounty when enlisting; who then ran away, enlisted in 
another State, and received a second bounty. Instances are known 
where men received three bounties in this way. 

My song is of a fas( young man whose name was Billy Wires; 
He used to run with the machine, and go to all the fires : 
But as he loved a soIdier*s life, and wished strange things to see, 
So the thought struck him that he would go And Jump the Bounti^, 

Song of the Bountf-Jun^ter* 

BOU— BOW 63 

Bourbon. 1. Whiskey from Bourbon County, Kentucky. A term 
generally used to distinguish the better kinds of whiskey, which are 
mostly made from com instead of rye. 

2. A political name for a Democrat, especially of one factious or 

The Bourbon in South Curolina, as everywhere else, makes a tremendous 
racket, but he dwindles when the vote is taken. — JV. Y. ITerald^ May 17, 1877. 

It seems hardly creilible, yet the Mixftisftippi journalsi at^Mrt that ex-Governor 
Humphreys u almost certain to be the Democratic candidate for Governor of that 
State. He is an irredeemable Bourbon. — N. Y. Tribune, June 15, 1877. 

The temper of it [Senator Morton*s letter] may repel or harden the hearts of* 
the fire-eatinf^ Bourboni, — Cor. Washington Star. 

Bow-dark Tree. (Fr. bois d^arc.) The Osage orange (Madura 
aurantiaca), A Western tree, much used by tlie Indians to make 
bows from. See Osage Orange. 

Bower. In the game of euchre, the two highest cards are called 
bowers. The knave of trumps is the right bower ; the knave of the 
suit of the same color, the left bower. The name comes from the 
German packs of cards, in which the card corresponding to our knave 
is a peasant, called bauer. 

But the hands that were played 

By that heathen Chinee, 
And the points that he made 
Were quite frightful to see, — 
Till at last he put down a right bower, 
Which the same Nye had dealt unto me. 

Bret UarU, The Heathen Chinee, 
Bowie. A bowie-knife. 

He has already made 12,000 pikes and a number of bowies. — N. Y. Tribune, 
June 12, 1862, Despatch from Richmond. 

Bowie-ELnife. (Pron. boo-ee.) A knife from ten to fifteen inches 
long, and about two inches broad, so named after its inventor, 
Colonel Bowie. They are worn as weapons by persons in the South 
and South-western States only, and concealed in the back part of 
the coat or in the sleeve. Bon Gaultier, in his American Ballads, 
describes a scene in Congress, where a young member turning to Mr. 
Clay asks, ** What kind of a Locofoco 's that? '* alluding to a con- 
spicuous character who had just entered. 

" Younff man,*' quoth Clay, ** avoid the way of Slick of Tennessee, 
Of gougers fierce, the eyes that pierce, the fiercest goup^r he ; 
He chews and spits as there he sits, and whittles at the chairs. 
And in his hand, for deadly strife, a bowie-hnife he bears." 
I advise you, one and all, to enter every election district in Kansas, and vot« 

64 BOW— BOY 

at the point of the b(noie4m{fe and revolver. Neither give nor take quarter, M 
our case demands it. — Speech of Gen, StringftUow in the Kantaa Legidatwrt, 
There *s some men here as I have got to shoot, 

There *8 some men here as I have got to stick, 
Let any on you jest my words dispute, 
I *I1 put this botoie-hni/e into him, slick. 

Sang of the Border Ruffian, 
Bowling-AUey. A place for playing at bowls, or ten-pins. In Eng- 
land, long bowling, as described by Strutt, was played on the 
ground ; our game is played on a plank flooring. There were other 
differences, which it is not necessary to specify. 
Bowman. A term used in Virginia for a military body-servant. 

Each captain and lieutenant was entitled, and I believe is so now, to select from 
the rank of his company a soldier to wait on him, to carr}' messages, to cater for 
him, and to cook for him ; and the soldier thus selected was called boioman. 
The term is very ancient, and traces as far back as before the invention of gun- 
powder and muskets. — Sketches qf Virginia, 

Bowman's Root. (Gillenia trifoliata.) A medicinal plant; also called 
Indian physic. 

Box. 1. A boat for duck-shooting. See Battery. 

2. An incision made in trees so as to.hold a quantity of the sap 
exuding into it, as, in North Carolina, for collecting turpentine. — 
Olmsted*8 Sea-Board Slave States, 

To box. In North Carolina, to make the box, or bowl-like incisions 
in trees. — Olmsted. 

Box-Car. A house-car, so called ; a close car used to convey merchan- 
dise on railroads. 

Box-Coat. A heavy overcoat, originally worn by coachmen; when 
not in use, usually carried by teamsters and drivers under their box 
or seat. 

Box-Elder. (Negundo aceroides,) Sometimes ash-leaved maple. 

Box-Settle. A settle whose seat is the cover of a box (t. e. a bunk). 
0. W. Holmes. 

Box-Turtle. A species of tortoise, the lower shell of which has, in 
one variety two parts, in another variety three parts, joined by a 
sort of ligamentous hinge. It moves so as to enclose the body as if 
in a box. 

Boy. At the South, the universal name for a black male servant. 
In Ireland, the word denotes an immarried man in any menial em- 
ployment, whatever his age. In many languages, as in Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, and French, the same word expresses a male child 
and a serving-man; just as **girl" and **maid*' denote a female 



Brtoil. A brtak or crack, & flaw* — HaUiweU. Tbia old word is gtill 
iBM»d in Ntfw Enj^tandt m it id by early English authors, of a break 
or iaw in a piece of cloth. See Brmh. 

If«ving • totijE:ue ts nimble «« his needle, with fertile f^atehes of glArering 
datlsrv to »titcb up the brackt^ ike — Anttmitt and AhUirf^, Wfi. 

The calico WRs bcaatifulf while not m ^rack could be found id it. — JVetf 

Brmhma. Brahma /omlM. From Brahmapootra, a river in India. 
A\m> called Bramam, 

BralDj. Having braiiis; clear-headed. A fresh, clean brainy ^ cour- 
■geofu man. — Alhanf Journal, March , 1877. 

^mo^* A brook, Almt^t every stream in the South is known 
either as a river, a bayou, or a launch ; bayou being synonjrmous 
with creek, and branch with brook. **5ra»c^- water'* is distin- 
g^uiabed from " well-water/' 

The pAfltunige oi the prafries wm ftcunty And parched; and mcwt of the 
IwMclw^ or ttrvamn, were dried tip. — IF. Irvine's row on the Prairtet* 

Bran^Doater. A sort of bolt in which the bran is freed from adhering 

Brittle. In New England, this word is used in Bpeaking of 

: wood or timber that is brittle. In New York, it is often beard in 

ti]« markutd, applied to vegetables. Ex» : ** These radishes are 

brash^^^ i. e. brittle. In many parts of England, twigs are called 

L^riMA. See Brack. 

An Indian warrior; a term borrowed from the French. 

The Count prumiiod himself many hanly ad venture? and exploits in company 
wiih hiB youthful brftt>e, when wc should g«t among the buffaloei in tho Pawneo 
btioting-grotmdo. — Irmng't Ttmnm the Pmlriti. 

Breacby, A terra applied to unruly oxen in New England, particu- 
larly to such aa break down fences or through enclosures. It ia 
prof iacial iu the south of England in the aame sense. 

Bread-Root. (PforaUa enculenta,) A plant resembling the beet in 
form, which is found near the Rocky Mountains, sometimes grow- 
ing from twenty to thirty inches in circumference. It contains a 
whit*j pulpy substance, sweet and palatable. — Scenes in the Bocty 
Mountain^t p* 50. 

Brtad-Btuff. Bread-corn, meal, or flour; bread. — Webster ^ Pickering, 
Thb very useful word is American. Mr. Pickering says, *' It was 
fifat used in some of the official papers of our government, soon after 
(he adoption of the present Constitution. ... It has probably 


66 BRE 

been more readily allowed among us, because we do not, like the 
English, use the word com as a general name for all sorts of grain, 
but apply it almost exclusively to Indian com^ or maixe." He cites 
the following authorities : — 

The articles of exports . . . anbreadttuffsf that is to say, bread-grains, meals, 
and bread. — Report of the Secretary of State {Mr. Jeffermm) on Commercial 
^Bestrictiotu, Dec. 16, 1793. 

One great objection to the conduct of Britain was her prohibitory duty on the 
imporUtion of breadstuff, &c. — Manhall, Life of WatkuiffUm, Vol. V. p. 510. 

In Jamaica, the term bread-kind is applied to esculent rootd, &c., 
substituted for bread. 

Break. A regular sale of tobacco at the '* breaking " or opening of 
the hogsheads. Local in Virginia. 

Break. A break in the stock-market, A Wall Street phrase : where 
stock is kept up by artificial means, and a money stringency, or 
similar cause, makes it difficult to carry a load, the attack of a bear 
clique or the actual inability to holders will produce a decline in 
yalue. The market breaks down, — Medbery^ Men and Mysteries 
of Wall Street, 

The Rey. Mr. Cuyler visited the Stock Exchange abont the time of the Erie 
break, and reported his views to a religious paper. . . . The clerical looker-on 
took a cheerful view of things, and was confident that a fair proportion of these 
keen stock-heroes were not unfitted for spiritual communion. — Ibid., p. 327. 

Break-Back. A term applied to a peculiar roof, common in the coun- 
try, where the rear portion is extended beyond the line of the oppo- 
site side, and at a different angle. The addition thus acquired is 
used as a wash-room, a storehouse, or for farming implements. 

The house of neighbor B was a low edifice, two stories in front ; the rear 

being called a break-back, that is sloping dovm to a height of ten feet — Oood- 
rich's Reminiscences, VoL I. p. 78. 

Breakbone. A species of fever. 

The warm weather is adding to this the typhoid, the bilious, and another fever 
to which the natives [of the South-western States] give the name (said to be 
very graphic) ot BrecJebone, in which every bone in the body feels as if it were 
broken. It is a cousin-german to the typhus. — N. Y, Tribune, 'ilLsiy 16, 1862, 
Letter from Cincinnati. 

Breakbone Fever. A term commonly used to denote the 
** Dengu^," a malarious fever of the South. It is so called either 
from the ** pain in the bones,*' of which the patients complain, or 
from the great debility which follows the attack; both reasons have 
been assigned for the appellation. 



aKMk-dawo. 1. A riotous dance, with which balls are often tenni- 
omied m the oountTT. 
TUbe up tht CAtptt^mo>v§ the bed--- call the fiddler, utd let** liEve i T«gtilAr 

Cooc, bold fffi, bojfi, don't clvAr onl when the qacdfillea an over, for we are 
going to b4T« a brtak-<i^«*n to windup with. — JNTew England Talt*^ 

2. A dAiic« in the peculiar style of the Negroes, 

8. Failure of an attempt; withdrawing from what one had begun. 

Hie Diitriot Attorney entered a noilt proiequi in iU [« coiirt'i] indictment 
el » * . It would tra ititert«tiag after thb flat brtak-dowi^.'^If. ¥. Tnltunt^ 
Kmf lU 1877. 

To break down. To produce atrang emotion in; g^atly move; aSi 
" He broke right down," t. e. was deeply aifected* 

Oh, Ton don*! know what a new life it put into tne and my husband. It wae 
foHi a kmd, t^iiichinglcttert it hmke ub both oFottfA, and filled ui with joji^. — Jjett. 
im Homt Mimionaty, May. 1877. 

Breaklab Frail; brittle. See Brtnhf. fS iJt ^ 

To break out in a Newr Spot, To do some new thing; to do eoro#^ / 0/ ^* 

thing else, - ^^ 

Breaky. As hreakuh. New England, /* * / / /, 

Bream. See SurtfitL 
Bireesy. Noisy, 
Brewla. In the North of England, a pottage made of sHoea oi bread 

with fat broth poured over them. — HalUwelL 
In N*»w Knjjland, the trf^rin l-i applied to crusts of rye and Indian 

or other bread softened with milk and eaten with molasses. 

Brick In the Hat. '' He has got a brick in his hat *^ is an expression 

applied to an intoxicated person; meaning he is top-heavy, and /I ^ j 
cannot walk steady, Hx^c^K 

Bricklej, for brittle. (Dn, brickie,) Used in Georgia, —Sherwood's ^ * 7771 

Brief. Rife, eomraon, prevalent. This word ia provincial in Eng- 
land, and \H much used by the uneducated in the interior of New 
England and in Virgiuia, when speaking of epidemic diseases. It 
ia probably a corruption of rife. 

Bright. Intellipfcntt quick, having an active mind. A term often 
applied to children; as, '* Although he has had but little schooling, 
our Jonathan ie a bright lad." 

BrllL Hiiugh edge of iiut &g,, made by cutting; a burr. Eastern 

68 ^ BBI— BBO 


Britishers. The use of this word is often by British writers sscribed 
to the Americans. The charge is unjust. We never heard an 
American call an Englishman a ** Britisher;" yet, by English 
authors, it is constantly put in the mouth of Americans. Thus 
Lord Macaulay, in his journal, says: — 

An American has written me from Arkansas, and sent me a copy of Bancroft's 
** History." Very civil and kind; but by some odd mistake he directs to me at 
Abbotsford. Does he think that all BriUtken who write books live together? — 
Life and LeUen, Vol. II. p. 250. 

Broadbill. (Anan marilaJ) The common name of a wUd duck, which 
appears on our coast in large numbers in October. On the Chesa- 
peake it is called Black-head; and in Virginia, Raft-duck. 

Broad-Horn. A name by which the flat-boats on the Mississippi were 
formerly known. See Fiat-Boat, 

At Wheeling, I embarked in a flat-bottomed family boat, technically called a • 
broad4u>my a prime river conveyance. — W. Irving^ Woffert^s RootL, p. 258. 

**Been boatinfi^, Ben, since I met you ? ** I inquired, after a short pause. 

'* Well, yes, mostly,*' answered Ben, deliberately. ** Drove a pretty fair busi- 
ness last year; only sunk one broad-homy and that war snagged on the Bfissis- 
sippi.** — Ben Wilton' $ Jug Race. 

I 'm the roan that, single^anded, towed the hroad-hom over a sand-bar, — the 
identical infant, who girdled a hickory by smiling at the bark ; and if any one 
denies it, let him make his will and pay the expenses of a funeral. — Thorp, in 
Harper' t Mag. 

Brogues. (Dutch, hroek,) Breeches. 

[General Von Poffenburgh's] men being thus gallantly arrayed, — those who 
lacked muskets shouldering spades and pickaxes, and every man being ordered 
to tuck in his shirt-tail and pull up his brogues^ &c. — Knickerbocker^ N. Y. 

Broncho. A native California horse. 

If low in purse, [the miner] traverses the mountains on foot; but, if able to 
own an animal, he has a broncho (native or Califomian) pony, mule, jack on 
which he carries his outfit, consisting of grub, pan, spade, blanket, and revolver. 
— McClure^ The Rocky Mountains^ p. 319. 

The emigrants travelled in an old wagon, drawn by a pair of broncho or native 
horses, and would probably be six or eight months on the road [to Missouri]. — 
Nordhopt CaU/omia, p. 1S8. 

Broom-Corn. (Sorghum saccharatum.) A species of com which 
grows from six to eight feet high, from the tufts of which brooms 
are made. Very different plants are used for this purpose in 
Europe, and the English broom is as unlike ours as possible. 

Brother Jonathan. The origin of this term, as applied to the United 
States, is given in a recent number of the ** Norwich Courier.** 
The editor says it was communicated by a gentleman now upwards 



jhty y«%ar9 of nge, who was an active participator in the sceaca 
<jf Ute Revolution. The story is as follows: — 

When General Wa«hiagtoa, after being ■ppotnted coDunuider of tbt umj of 
Um R«vdttttQn«n' w«r, ejwne to Mii»ft«chusetti to orgnnlze it mid niAke prepura- 
tioQM fur tUif defence of the country^ he found a gre&t want of aminuliitton and 
Olk<T UMAfli ncce^t<ar>' to meet the powerful fcM! he bad to contend with^ and 
pisl difiicuthr to rihtain tboiti. If attacked in ^uch condition* the oauf^c at once 
l^gfal be hopd«i>8. On one occafiion^ at that anxiouii penod, a consultali(»n of 
tbtpHoeri andoth^n wa» had, when it seemed no waycnuld be dtfri^^d to make 
waeh prtpanttinn a« traa n«c««9ary. H!« Excellency Jonathan Trumbull the 
dder waa Ibiui ^>v«rnor of the State of Connecticut, on who»e jud^j^nviu and aid 
Iht g«aeral placed the nrreaia^t reliance, and remarked: " We must consult 
*B»©theT Jonathan ' on the «ubj«ct ** Tho general did so, and the governor waa 
mtcotutul in suppiring iriany of the wants of the army. When dlfHcultias 
flflannvda armc, and the army was tpread over the counirj', it became a 
bj-irofd» We mitft eoiuutt Brother Jtmnthan, The term Yankee i* still applied 
to a portion: but Brother J unnthan hms now become a desigtiattoQ of the whole 
country, a» Juhu Bull ht$ tor Eiiglatid. 

Brottis^ (Pmn. t^rou^ht us.} A word found exclusively in the mouthu 
of negro market womeo and itinerant street hucksters and school* 
bop, in Charleston, S.C, — ^ who always ask for it in their pur- 
ebased of peanuts, plums, chinquapins, chestnuts, &c. Brotwt roeaiid 
Ute superfluity of a helping, — the running over of a meanure which 
h^ been *' heaped up and shaken down.** It is the extra and 
gratiiitouA surplusage which the vendor of peanuts gives her cua- 
tomer for hi* patronage. In New Orleans, the Creole word (in Gumbo 
French) which exactly represents brottL^ is lagniappe (Ian-yap). 

SroagliteaB np. Bringing up, educating. A vulgar corruption, often 
tiaed jocosely. 

1 *m a Yankee, Mud Slick, and I ain't above owtiio* to it, and io arc you ; but 
ymi sMin aahamed nf your hnmtjhttnt up, and I must aay you are no great credit 
to thein^ — 8. Slick, ftunvm Nuturt, p. 83. 

Brorwu. A colored person of lighter hue than a b!ack. 

The jealoiuy between the btadt* and browna^ whieh has done so much mischief 
to Um Weat (ndiea, is not foetered by American people of color. -- Tkt Indv- 
ptmUni, A^ii 10, 1863. 
Bvtyvm. To do a thing up brown is to do it to perfection. A com- 
SDOD vnlgari^^m, derived from the kitchen* 

" Well, t think Ellen *« a dmn* k up brown ! Then *1I bo another wcddin* soon, 
I gue«a." — Soulhtm Skttckt*^ p. hi. 

From Jefferson Dam^s Froclamation, freely paraphrased from 
Vanity Fair: — 

To ftay bit b«»t in duty bouxid each faithful reb«l knave i«, 
So kl the thisg be cfuiw ttp broten^ for tbingit look black, 

Jtff. Davii, 

70 BRO— BUG 

John Ball, slyl j winkin', then uid onto he : 
** M7 dear Time*, my old covey, go pitch into he ; 
Let us wallop great Doodle now when he is down; 
If we wallops him well, we will do him ^ broumV 

The London Times on American Affain^ 1861. 

^ tc/^ Brown-Bread. Bread made of rye meal and Indian meal (maize) 

^^^^ Ifu^i^ baked very slowly in an iron vessel. Much used in New England; 
y ^ ^ hence, in other States, it is generally called Boston Brown Bread. 

Brown Stone. A dark variety of the red sandstone, now so fashion- 
able as a building material that its imitations in paint and mastic 
outdo the original in darkness, and rows of houses in some of our 
cities are now to be seen almost black. 
Brown Thrasher. {Txirdus rufus,) The popular name of the Ferru- 
ginous Thrush, called also the Brown Thrush. It is also called the 
Ground Mocking-bird. In Maryland, it is called the French block- 

I love the city as dearly as a hrown thrtuher loves the green tree that shel- 
tered its young. — C Mathews, Worke^ p. 125. 

Bronunagen. A worthless copper coin, said to have been made for- 
merly in Birmingham, England. Hence, any thing of no worth; 
factitious; spurious. 

This silence on the part of the Rebel President as to the cause of the war, and 
the sole reason for setting up his brummagen government, &c. — N. Y, Trilmntf 
Nov. 28, 1861. 

Brung, for brought. Used by ignorant persons, especially by blacks, at 
the South. 

Bruflh, for hrushwoody is an Americanism, and moreover is not con- 
fined to undergrowth, but comprises also branches of trees. 

In Maryland, the term is applied to whatever wood, in clearing 
up wood-land, cannot be cut into cord-wood. It is piled up into 
brush-heaps^ suffered to dry, and is then burned. 

Bnbber. A stout or stoutly mammalated old woman. Used in 
Salem, Mass., in 1820, and since. ** Bubber Jones." (Fr. poitron, 
old woman; Old Fr. pect, poitron; Lat. pectus^ ihe breast.) 

Babbler. A fish found in all the waters of the Ohio River. Its name 
is derived from the singular grunting noise which it makes, a noise 
which is familiar to every one who has been much on the Ohio. — 
FlirU*8 Mississippi Valley, 

Buccaneer. A long musket, a term applied to it by the early settlers 
of New England. 
One Woodcock discharged his long musquet, called in those days a buoeaneer. 



m • liagh lfl4iMi« mi^ brolce Us tJi%b4M>ne. — Mam. ma. CcU., 1 Ser. YtA, X. 

Bodb (Sw^. b&rk^ Di], frr)l% a He-goat) L A frame or stand of 
pecnluu' coiistniction, on which wood is siiwed for fuel, lo New 
Euglaud it h calltsd a Saw-horse > See Sawbuck, 
2. The Peunsylvanian does not saw wood; he **fruc'Jbr*' it. 

Buck. A ** bu^lt nigger " i« a term often vulgarly applied to a negro 
man* Western, So in London, a **bu€k sweep," among the 

Dnring the discussion preceding the Presidential election, in I860, 
one argument against the Republican ticket was, ** Should you like 
to have your sbler marry a big buet nujgerf " 

Hielmliiin* [of Utah) wander abfmt in s^^uftdA, the bucki aod the sqmiws, a.v 
thty ^Tc de«lgDAted, always Mparat«« — jITcC/ure, Rock^ MiMntamt^ p. 151. 

To back. 1. Used instead of ^u/^ applied to animals pushing with 
I and bonis, and metaphorically of players at football and 
, s, pugilists, &c. Comp. Bunt. 
i. Tu rear up^ applied to horses and mules. Western. 

JkM if Home devllifth infection p«n'aded the atmoRphert;, one of aur horven, a 
►Kirijsr, t>T ritttirr ponr, took a fit of hurl-mg itonn after we left, and was particular 
I lift ttl«ct the mo^l tUu^eroii» portlonf^ of the rimd for the dis^play of his «kj]l in 
Chat Mne. " JUeClurt, Rocky M(»*nUiins, p. 301, 

A correspondent of the ** Chicago Tribune/* writing from Texas, 
baa a word of caution to those who ha%*e to travel on horseback in 
tliat country: — 

** In thi* cir*i?nt>*' writes he, '* do not eelfret a tnn^tang . . . unlew you waDt to 
I h9 mtttated tnti) the mmterieR of butkintf. The mustang it the only animal in the 
world that can butk, nud it uii^bt to b« a source of th&nkioi^ivio^ that anch is the 
caae, The frM<*X consinti* of the niu«tnii;;'jii f}»rinping forward with quick, short, 
plunging leap", and cfimin^ dovrn still-l<*ff^ed, with his head between his for©- 
laga, and lu atcar the in^und as posaihle.*' 

Bock Beer, (ficrmau, hnrk hier,) The strongest kind of German 
beer, said to be »o culled from causirjg the drinker to caper like a 
goat (boi^k)* It is, of course, intoxicating* 

Bucket The term is applied, in the South and West, to all kindu of 
pails and cans holding over a gallon. 

Bnckey. An alewife. Western Connecticut. See Alewffe. 

Bnokeye. 1. (Msculut glabra.) A small tree growing on the river 
banki) from West Pennsylvania and Virginia to Michigan and Ken- 
tucky, the bark of which exhales an unpleasant odor. Other species 
have the same name. The word is in some places applied to the 

72 BUC 

2. A native of the State of Ohio, in which the JE^culus glabra 

A newspaper correspondent, speaking of the Western soldiers, 
says: — 

The Hoosiers and Bucktyet hankered after the hot wheaten cake with which 
their States are always so abundantly supplied, 

Buckeye State. The State of Ohio; so called from the Buckeye-tree, 
which abounds there. 

When President Hayes visited Providence, on the 28th June, 
1877, after being introduced by Mayor Doyle, he was greeted with 
cheers, and spoke as follows: — 

It is with the greatest pleasure that I meet you here. For the past hoar I have 
been shaking hands, but we have found it impossible, in this retail way, to greet 
all the people of the State. We have, accordingly, thought it best to exchange 
greetings with you by wholesale. I, therefore, ask evety lady and gentleman to 
consider that here and now I give you a hearty Buckeye shake. 

Buck Fever. Agitation of inexperienced hunters, caused by seeing 
a deer, or other large game. 

Smith blazed away at the deer; but where the ball went, mercy knows. The 
animal dashed forward and went crashing up the hillside. Smith acknowledged 
to a severe attack of the buck fever, — Hammond^ Wild Northern Scenes, p. 127. 

The sensation is also called the Buck-ague, the term used by Mr. 
Kendall, who was so agitated that he missed several fine shots at 

There is a very common disease prevalent among young and inexperienced 
hunters in Texas, which is known as the Bueh-ague. — Santa Fi Expedition, 
Vol. II. p. 821, 

Bnck-Fly. An insect which torments the deer at certain seasons. 

Buckra. A white man. A term universaUy applied to white men by 
the blacks of the African coast, the West Indies, and the Southern 
States. In the language of the Calabar coast, buckra means devil; 
not, however, in the sense we apply to it, but that of a demon, a 
powerful and superior being. The term swanga buckra, often used 
by the blacks, means an elegantly dressed white man or dandy. I 
am indebted to the Rev. J. L. Wilson, who is familiar with the 
African language alluded to, for the etymology of this word. 

Which country you like best? Buckra country very good, plenty for yam 
(food), plenty for bamboo (clothing). Buckra man book lam. Buckra man rise 
early, — he like a cold morning; nigger no like cold. — Carmichaett Westlndiei, 
VoL I. p. 811. 

Great way ofF at sea, 

"When at home I binny, 

Buckra man take me 

From de coast of Guinea. — Song, 



Si<|(ji«n«Ufnai ihe mgro own* a itptder, and gtncrally « cofTee-pot ind mill, which 
ii before hiive b«>cu broken to u»« in the &tfcirm'« hoUM, — Ji/!((n/:ici Monthijft 
Jtsat, 187T, p. 6T8. 
BufCk-Sliot Larg« »hot, or small bullets, used m deer-shooting. 

Th# vfmmn tUat so ttiaoy m<inj of tho King** troops wiere wouudetl than killed 
bitJieUte u:ta»ii [of Breed's Hill] hi New Euj^lmud la tlmt the Americant^ iiee 
i imtU thot, cAlletl bufkshot, which i» much tiiiiatler than the soldiers* bullets. — 
Ldirr /nm nn EntjlUh Officer, in Gct^eral Oftf/r^s Army^ in Gaints't Mtrcuty^ 
Aug. U, 1775. 
Buckskins. A term applied to the American troops during the Rev* 
olotionarT war. The Marquis de Chustellux, in h\» Travels in North 
Ameriea, in 1780-82, says: ** Tlie name oi Buckskin is giveo to the 
tnhAhitantd of Virginia, because Iheir ancestors were hunt^ra^ acif^ 
sold hnck or ratiier deer ^kins." 

A« applied to certain American soldiers, w© are inclined to believe 
that from Lhuir wearing garmenta made of dressed deerskins the 
l«!rm ^iwj applied to them. 

Cornwall is fouf^ht aa long *« he dought. 
An" did tho tmckAitu cIaw hini. — Buthm, 

BucktallB. The name of a political party in the State of New York^ 
which Mpriiiig up about the year 1615. Its origin is thus described 
by Mr, Hammond: ** There was an order of the Tammany Society 
who wore in their hats, af) an insignia, on certain occasions, a portion 
ol the lail of the deer. They were a leading order, and from this 
circumstance the friends of DeWitt Clinton gave those who adopted 
th# views of the members of tiie Tammany Society, in relation to 
him« the name of BuckiaiU ; which name was eventually applied to 
their friends and supporters in the country. Hence the party op- 
poeed to tlie administration of Mr. Clinton were for a long time 
called the ♦ Bpcktail Party.' '' — PoliL Hist, of Ntm lorJfc, Vol I. 

p. 450. 

That beer and those hucktmU I never forget; 
Bnt ofl, when alone auU unnoticed by all, 
I thinks la the porter cask foaming there yet, 
Ar* the hitckiaUt atill swiuging at Tammany Hall V 

liitUetk't Farmjf. 

Buffalo. T (Bison Amerieanus.} This, the most gigantic of the in* 
digenotiM mammalia of America, once overspread the entire Northern 
half of Uie American continent. At the time of the discovery by 
the Spaniards, an inhabitant even down to the shores of the Atlan- 
tic, it has been beaten back by the western mareh of civilization, 
until, at the present day, it is only after passing the giant Missouri 
and the hfaii waters of the Mississippi that we find the Amerioan 
Bison or Buffalo. — S, F. Baird, 

74 BUP 

The term buffalo is often used independently for ** buffalo robe," 
whence a story is told of two Englishmen just arrived at Boston. 
They ordered a sleigh, having heard of such a thing in a general 
way, without being conversant with the particulars. ** Will you 
have one buffalo or two? " asked the hostler. ** Why," said the 
cockney, looking a little frightened, ^* we '11 have only one the first 
time, as we 're not used to driving theml " 

Edward Everett used to tell this story somewhat differently. The 
sleigh being ordered, the stable-keeper said to the hostler, ** Put in 
a buffalo, Bill." ** Well," said the Englishman, " if you 've got a 
horse, I 'd rather drive him." 

He tears along behind him a sleigh of the commonest constmction, furnished 
with an ancient and fragmentary buffalo, which serves for robe and cushion both. 
— TU Upper Ten Thoutand, p. 17. 

2. A sort of fresh-water fish resembling the Sucker. It is foimd 
in the Mississippi and other Southern rivers. 

Buffalo-Berry. (Shepherdia argentea,) A small tree growing in 
thickets on the banks of streams in the valleys of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Its scarlet berries are eaten by the Indians. 

Buffalo-Bash. A shrub growing near Humboldt River, Utah. Its 
fruit is called Bull-berry. 

Bnffialo-Chips. The dry dung of the buffalo, used for fuel on the 
prairies, and hence called by the French bois de cache. The dung 
of cattle is extensively used for the same purpose in other parts of 
the world. In Armenia, according to Mr. Curzon, it is collected 
from the cattle-yards and mixed with chopped straw by tramping 
on it with the naked feet while it is in a moist state. It is then 
cut into square blocks and treasured up for winter's use, forming 
the exclusive fuel, under the name of tezek, for all classes. In 
Thibet it is used under the name of arghoL Hue, in his travels in 
Mongolia, describes its use there. In fact, throughout all Tartary 
or Turkestan, where there is a deficiency of wood, this article is in 
universal use for fuel. On the woodless plains of Texas, New 
Mexico, and Chihuahua, travellers use dry cattle-dung for fuel, 
gathering it up near springs frequented by cattle. 

We were fortunate enough to find some lodge-poles, which, eked out by boit de 
vache for fuel, served to give us a capital roast of buffalo-meat. — Standmry't 
8aU Lake Eap., p. 37. 

Buffalo-Clover. ( Trifolium reflexum and stoloniferum . ) The Western 

species of clover. 
Boffialo-Gnat A small black insect found on the prairies, which not 

only attacks the face and hands, but insinuates itself under the 



Its bite ia poisonous, hence ft 
— Greggt Com* of ihe Pr/trnV.'?, 

liig« npon the arms atid breast, 
I dreaded th&u the Qiusqiiito* • 
Tot n. p. 28, 
B«flalo-Or4«fl. {Sestcria dacti^hldeji,) A species of short grass jrom 
iwu U^ four inches hig^h^ covering the boundleaa prairies on which 
>e« feed. A remarkable cbaracterisUc of some varieties 
asa is that ♦Hhe blade, kiUed by the frost of winter^ is 
rr ;i- 'led in spiin^t and gradually becomes green from the root 
ujj, wiUiuut casting its stubble or emitting new shoots/' — Colonel 
Dodfft* *' The buifiUo grass of the high plains and the gramma grass 
are identical, though entirely different in growth and uppeariuice.'' 
— Plaimt v/tke (irmt Wc«t, p. 32. 
Bofialo*Httt {Pyrtilarlu olei/era.) Oil nut. Western. 
Bnfiilo-Robe. The skin of the buffalo , dressed for use. 

X«i hiiviing time to robt* myself exAclly for h dayli{;:ht street-WAlk, I dunned a 
htt j/t tio ^ robe^ slipped on my bo<)t», und put out. — Life on tht Pmirtri, 

B^Ailo- Wallow. A depression in n prairie caused by heavy mina. 
Ill** water l»eing soon absorbed, the ground opens in cracks; when 
another hartl rain ci»mes, it iii again absorbed » leaving wider cracks 
than before. This process is rejjeated until quite a depression is made 
in the soil^ which has l)ecome so burdened that it will retain wtiter. 
Wlien the buffalo is shedding his hair« for the watit of trees he rolls 
ftod rubs himself In the*e water-h<>lea» which are his especial delight. 
Sometimes the prairie will be dotted fur a mile with these holes, 
which aie from five to ten feet in length and from six inches to two 
feet in depth. — Dodge ^ Plains of the Great West, p. 27. 

Biftg. In the United Stales^ oolecipterous insecta are generally called 
ktipt; thus Afay bug, June bug, Golden bug, Ac. In England, they 
Br» called heetleg^ and the word bti^ is restricted to the species found 
In bedding. The Spanish word chinch is in moi^ geueriU uAe at the 

Bog Jtiloe. Bad whiskey. 

We have taken wood, <?ggii, cabbageB, lurnbtiirf fiaur kmut.ctiori'Akmfi, and hug 
jutct t>n ftabM:riprioDfi in our time, nnd now a mau wHttii as to know if w« would 
tike to »end our paper his iiionthi^. for a large owL if we come across any fellow 
wbo it oat of owl we 41 do it^ — Osttome (Kansiut) Fttrtntr* 

BQ§le-W«ed. {Lifcopm Virgtmcus,) A plant which has much reputa- 
tion for its medicinal properties. It la also known as the Virginian 

To buUd a Fire, instead of to make a fire ^ is a common phrase, origi- 
nating, pixibably, in the backwoods, where large fires are made of 
log« piled one above the other. 

76 BUI— BUL 

To bnild np. To erect; and, metaphorically, to establish. 

In this manner, it waa thought we should sooner build vp a settlement, as the 
phrase goes. In America, the reader should know, every thing is built. The 
priest builds up a flock ; the speculator, a fortune ; the lawyer, a reputation ; and 
the landlord, a settlement. — Cooper, Satanttoe. 

Mr. R. has never done any thing to the ** Courier " and "Enquirer" to make 
them hunt him down or cast ridicule on him, while endeavoring to build 191 for 
himself an unsullied character among his fellow-men. — JVT. T. Tribune, 1848. 

To build clothes. Tailors use this expression for making clothes. 
** Guess we can buUd you a neat pant off these goods, sir." 

Cf . Ger. bUden, 
Bulger. Something uncommonly large, a whopper. Western. 

We soon came in sight of New York ; and a bulger of a place it is. — Crodcett, 
p. 87. 

Bull. A stock-exchange term for one who buys stock on speculation 
for time, t. e, agrees with the seller, called a ** bear," to take a cer- 
tain sum of stock at a future day at a stated price; if at that day 
stock fetches more than the price agreed on, he receives the differ- 
ence; if it faUs or is cheaper, he either pays it, or becomes a *^ lame 
duck." This description of a bull, from Grose's Slang Dictionary, 
corresponds precisely with the hulls of Wall Street, who speculate in 
stocks in the same manner. See Lame Duck and Bear, 

There was a muve qui peut movement to-day in the stock-market; and the 
clique of bulla, finding it impossible to stem the rush, gave up the attempt to sus- 
tain the market, and let things go down with a run. . . . Such a state of the 
market as is now exhibited is nearly as bad for the bears as the bulls. — N, T, 
Tribune, Dec. 10, 1845. 

Boll-Bat. (Caprimulffus Americanus.) Night-hawk; whippoorwiU. A 
gang of blackguard boys in Washington City have adopted this very 
appropriate name. 

Bull-Boat. A boat made of ox-hides, used for crossing rivers in the 
Far West 

We obtained hides, and, by the aid of some Indians, constructed a btdl-boat, by 
taking willow rods and laying a keel and ribs between two stakes driven in the 
ground, . . . and then cross-sticks, tied with thongs, making the skeleton of a 
canoe. Three hides were sewed together, and stretched over the willow-work. — 
— Standfury's Salt Lake, p. 21. 

Bull Briar, Bamboo Briar. A large briar in the alluvial bottoms of 
the South-west, the root of which contains a farinaceous substance 
from which the Indians make bread. 

Bulldoae, Bulldoze. To intimidate. 

The origin of this term has been furnished me by Dr. J. Dickson 
Bruns, of New Orleans. Bulldose originated in Louisiana with the 
** Union Rights Stop " Leagues (Negro), whose enthusiasm on the 



! rjiiestion letl tbem to fomi oath -bound sociGties, which sctni- 

DiBed closely the politics of disaffected brethren ; and if any Negro 
irep© found voting, or was Biispected of an intention to vote the 
DerDOcr&tic ticket^ he waa first wnrned, then flogged . and, if th«sd 
tnilder measure-s failed to convert hira to the true faith, shot. 

Give him a bulldoze meant give him a flogging, —a '• cowhid- 
ing,'* — the cow's hide (a strip of untanued hide, rolled into a 
vhip) stjinding for the bnlFa hide, —the '* koorbatch '* of Egypt, 
nude tliere of the hide of the rhinoceros. 

Hence, from the noun, ^^ bulldoae,^* the verb **to buUdote^^^ ^ 
erponeoasly spelled *' hnltdoze,*^ — and its participle *' bulldoifing,^* 

The ** New York Tribune ^^ givea the following ejcplanation of the 
term : — 

The term '^ Bulldozent^** which is ao variously printed in the 
New Orleans despatches, is the name applied to an organization of 
armed white men, whose ostensible business it is to keep the 
Negroes from stealing the cotton crop. On election day, however, 
the " Bulldoztrs^^ go gunning for Negroes who manifest a disposi- 
tion to vote the Republican ticket 

Bultdoslng. Intimidating by violent means* 

Ther* WIS s b^d ewe of ^^hulMtistn^** in Cincinmit! oit Bio ndny night. A 
|«ir<)fi)l of twUl IVmocrsiIs had pathtrcd fo let out their penl-up desire fi»r Tlldea 

r hlocitl. . , ♦ Mr. C wns \n the clmr^ and was wanning'- ap the faithful vriih 

t %d6ttM^ irhea the Republican? crowded around him in «ij threat en injur a manner 

at be mounted the table, ihook h\n addreiitK in their fares, and declared^ like a 
troeIt»fO| that he waa not to be ** intimidated." — iV. T. Tribune, Dec, 1876, 

We «re fohl, ami there i* cause to believe, that the record of neither party m 
LoMi'tan* i't perfectly clean, and that upon both Hides there has been »» lack of 
•*bi*IUlr.xing/'— A^' r r*Wx 

** But rau tkatt go to !»choot.** iaid a Chicago man to his yonthful son, one 
BomiDg lUi« wrck^ **aud I want no more argument about ti," 

Th«n« t» (he paternal reached for something hanging up behind the stove, thu 
boy looked him aadly in the eye» and inquired : " Father, would you bulidou ma 
Into U ? " — Chien^qo JourmU. 

The *' Providence Journal,** Jan. til, 1877, alluding to the win- 
lerritjg of the Russian ships of war in New York, says : -- 

Tb« Rush! an fleet ii not engitj^d in a bulldotinff mission in American wattra, 
but In the !>«fer occnpation of keeping out of the way 

To bnlldoso. To intimidate by Tiolent and unlawful means. 

The ♦* New York Tribune ** of Bee. 2d, 1876, in an article entitled 
»♦ Not fo be Bulldozed,** says : — 

If the State of Connecticut . . . had any apprehensions lest, in the pret^ent oa- 
IcKftiAg of tongues in Congnms, their reprasentalives . * . might be intjmidatedi 

fXxM^/ .^-t--ji-4 



or hvUdoted^ or terrorised, or choked down by ntnrpation and trmniT, Senator 
Eaton diapelled it in his courageoos ottertnces on the floor of the Senate; 

The ** Providence Press," in its New Year's Address for 1S77, 
when speaking of the political situation in several of the Southern 
States, says : — 

Louisiana, too, was mixed, 

And ere they got the matter fixed, 

BuBdanng had been introduced. 

And many from their homes vamoosed. 

A man and a brother was bulldozed into buying a large number of small flags 
by a gang of street Arabs in City Hall Park. This intimidation was doubtless a 
delicate compliment to the Southern atmosphere that visited the city yesterday. 
N. r. Herald, 

The ** New York Herald," March 7, 1877, in speaking of the 
new cabinet of President Hayes and the desire of the party leaders 
to dictate who shall compose it, says : — 

If he yields, he will only be nominal President; not even a peer of the party 
leaders, but a bulldozed vassal. ... If he has strength of character and tact, 
the bulldozen cannot subdue him. ... If he gives up Mr. Evarts, he can 
make a stand on nobody, and the buUdozert will dictate his cabinet. 

The carpet-bagger and bulldozer are not successful agents of civilization. — 
J^. r. Tribune, 

Bnllionist. One that favors coin instead of paper, as a monetary 

Bullion State. The State of Mi8.souri ; so called in consequence of 
the exertions made by its Senator, Mr. Benton, in favor of gold and 
silver currency, in opposition to banks and a paper cuiTency. The 
honorable Senator was hence often nicknamed Old Bullion^ and the 
State he represented tlie Bullion State. 

At the Democratic meeting in New York, June 12, 1848, to ratify 
the nomination of General Cass, the Hon. James Bowlin, of Mis- 
souri, in denouncing the Whig party, said : — 

I deny that the election of 1840 was carried by the people. It was carried by 
duplicity. It was carried by the unfortunate state of the time?, which was not 
the result of Democratic rule, and by false charges against the American Democ- 
racy; and, thank God, in my own State, in the Bullion State, they did not 
succeed in depreciating our majority. — N, Y. Herald, June 13, 1848. 

Bull-Lion. John Bull; England. 

This profuse magnanimous Lion, or Bult^Lion^ [talks] as if it were glory to 
adore guineas, and shame to be fond of dollars, — as if BuXULion^ as he is, would 
not give Magna Charta, Milton, Shak^eare, and even Bacon, for the convenience 
and profit of a single cotton crop. — N, Y. Tribune, June 1, 1862. 

Bull-Nut A large kind of hickory-nut. 

Bnira-Bye. A small and thick old-fashioned watch. 

^}huUC d^^Ac^fC ,i^ A' 777* 


',«rfy. Pine, capita]. The highest terra of commendation- A 
low word, tiHe<i in the same manner m the English uae the word 
am^k ; as, ** n W/y horae," a hullif picture/' 

Th^ huUy stcAmboit "Cryjital Palace" pii«#e<! irp to St. Ijcniis on Mondtj. 
W» have no doubt the left paper*. — Ottro Ciiif Times^ 1855. 

f dt»a*t want no better friend than Burk Fnii-^haw. , . . Take him all ronnd, 
^ard, there never was a hnllitr maa in the tntnes. . . . Sn tnati ever know^d 
Biick to go hAck on a friend. — 3fnrk Ttcnin, Rimijhin^ !t^ p. 3JI,1. 

The lliasidsippi botatman^ when eng^.a^ed In a race, exclaims: — 

Now Is the time for a huUy trip^ 

80 ahake her up and let her rip. — ^oalmaii'i Song. 

Hal BuJly for me again, when my tiim (or picket b over ; 

And now for a iinoke, a.^ I lie, with the mciH^nlit^ht in the clover. 

Bhnnlty^ The Britr-uxiod Pipe* 

Th« following stanza is from a poem on American affairs that 
appeared ia England daring the late civil war. It hfia reference to 
blockade nmners sent by John Bull from England, 

So h« sent not a vessel across the broad pca, 
Vieh vai hawfal *ard timei for poor Jefferson D., 
Aod wrote unto Doodle, *' Hold on, and be true I " 
And Jonatban answered Bull, *^ Bully for yew*/* 

Toii*ft dmn* the politico hully^ ai all our family a|^e; 

JiMt keep jonr old gooM-quill a-iloppitif and give 'em a f^ood one for me. 

Gtrftoii, ilomt Ballndt^ p. 86. 

BnUyra^ To revile in vulgar ternw; to abase or scold vehemently, 
— Porh^-s Glossary, 

I don't wiktit nothing better *Q this; I don *t git enough to eat gin*aHv, — and 
iMtrr iher can't cotne and pit:k a feller and buUjfraff him »o^ — Mark Tttfain^ Tom 
SuHytr, p. 118. 

Btimmer. An idle, worthless fellow without any visible meann of 
support. A word much used by our soldiers during the late civil 
war. The »' New York Herald,'* May 2» 1876, thus desonlies the 
individual: Tlie army bummfr is usually a ** General " who has been 
in the Quartermaster's or Commwsary Department, and whose rank 
^ influence about the War Office, and days and nights of 

ii . al>out Willard\<i and the Arlington. Since the war, he 

haj^ b<»<?Ti very ** loyal." He has '' sustained ** the Union, and ♦* aup- 
p*»rted '^ the government. Unable to earn an honest livings with- 
out brains for any position higher thun that of a ear conductor, he 
lives by lobbying. He knows the intside of every office* the favorite 
wine of a wecretary, and ihf kind of dinner fancied by this states- 
mau or the other. So, in time, he finds himself in the enjoyment 
of a good income^ for which be does nothing bub eat and drink and 


80 BUM 

talk. He is a disgrace to the army, whose uniform he wears for 
his own gain. 

When it was reported that the Federal government refused to recognize Con- 
federate prisoners as " prisoners of war," General Jackson and myself advocated 
that the Confederate government shoald then proclaim a **war to the knife,** 
neither asking nor granting quarter. We thought that the war would thereby 
sooner come to an end, with less destruction of life; we thought also that such a 
mode of warfare would inspire terror to the armed invaders and re<1uce the num- 
ber of army followers, bummert^ &c., who were the curse of all armed invasions. 
— Extract of LtHer from General Beauregard to the Governor of Tenneuee, 
N. r. fferaid, April 30, 1876. 

So long as substantial citizens choose to leave politics to shoulder-hitters, rum- 
sellers, and bummere of every degree, so long will they be robbed at every turn. 
—N, Y, Commercial Adv., Sept 9, 1874. 

In speaking of the order of General Grant sending Greneral Custer 
to his regiment, the ** New York Herald," May 4, 1876, says: — 

This action of the President in the case of General Custer is unfortunate. If he 
had any thing against the General, he should have ordered him before a Court of 
Inquiry. But because Custer has evidence of the corruption of certain army 
bummen, he is sent to his regiment under circumstances that amount to a humil- 

A bill is before the Legislature of Illinois, with a view to control the operations 
of the hummer element in the primary meetings of political parties. — Bottom 
Herald, April 8, 1877. 

** The Bar-tender's Story," portraying a frequenter of the bar- 
room, says: — 

For he got to increasin* his doses. 

And took *em more often, he did ; 
And it growed on him faster and faster, 

Till into a hummer he slid. 

Bummerism. Character of a bummer ; bummers collectively regarded. 

If Deputy Sheriffs might attend without scandal; if beautiful hummeriam^ 
feminine and fair, &c. — Philadelphia Press, Jan. 5, 1870. 

Bumper. That part of the frame of a railroad car which is provided 
with springs for an elastic material to meet the shock of the sim- 
ilar part of the next car. In England, they use the words buffer 
and hunter. 

Bumptious. Self -conceited; forward; pushing. — Halliwell. See 

Sir E. L. B. Lytton, in ** My Novel," gives an amusing disquisi- 
tion on the words gumption and bumptious : — 

** She was always — not exactly proud-like— but what I call gumptious.*' 
**I never heard that word before," said the parson. ** Bumptious, indeed, 
though I believe it is not in the dictionary, has crept into familiar parlance, 
especially amongst young folks at school and college.** 

** SmmpiumM h bmmpiwua^ ind gumptions is f^umptiotiti/' »m<\ Utcr landlord. 
"Kow, tha town lM!Ad)el* bumptiuus, and Mrs* Avenel b gumpdoua/' 

**Sbe ii A I'cr/ respectable womin/' »ajd Mr, L>«le. 

** Ifi coiir»e, tir ; aU ^umpttotJ«i fottcA nrt* ; thr^r valtie themstilves on their 
fV»pc«tAbittty« and l*>»k down on tlieir neijifhlKtrs.** 

Pttrmm, 'Miuntptious^ i^tmption. i iliinlt ( rMnember the »ubttintlv« st 
•rhciid; not thi&t mr masiter titiight it to tne. Giimption — it tneatu devemess*^* 

trtmlUtrd. *''nu'rip's gumption and giimptkiUM ! Gumptlcni is knowing; but 
whfti 1 ur that 9ura un h g-umptiou'i, I mean — though that *a more vul^j^iir like 
— turn un whfj dix"* not tliink small beer of bisself. You tuke toe, *.ir ? ** 

To banch. To bring together; to corral, which see. 

Ttii^ bMi>#!i not oiptured br the Indians have b«en huncAtdMimthtr end of th« 

hit-O^v juii] I doubt If tbero wilt be regular eoachea for a mouth to coow* — 
Mt'ilurt^ Rtyck^ Af(7untaiiu, p. SHI). 

fioncli-QraBfl. A species of Ftstuca which grows on the plains of New 

To bundle. Mr. Grofse iliaa describes thb custom: ** A man and 
woman lying o" the same bed with their clothes on ; an expedient 
practised in Ara erica on a scarcity of bed*, where, on such occasions, 
bufibanila and parents frequently permitted travellers to bundle with 
their wives and daughters," — Dictionary of the Vulgar Tonrfue, 

The Rev. Samuel Peters* in his ** General History of Connecti- 
cut '■ (LfDudon, 1781)» enters largely into the custom of hundling as 
(>ractised there. He say«: ** Notwithstanding the great modesty of 
the fetnales is such that it would be accounted the greatest rude- 
ness for a gentleman to speak before a lady of a garter or Ieg» yet it 
ia thought hut a piece of civility to ask lier to bundle.** The learned 
;' Tian endeavors to prove lhi%t hundlinfj was not only a 

< »m, but a very polite and prudent one. 

The Rev. lir. Emmons a«ks, — 

I» nol thi» i;ii«tom, which bait no name in the dictionary^ but which ijt com* 
oionly called httmliing^ a aiiiful cuatom ? — Worka, Vol I. p. 81. 

The Ri?v* Andrew Bamaby^ who travelled in New England* in 
l7oP-6()t notices this custom » which then prevailed. He thinka that 
LiJtough it may at first '* appear to be the effects of gro^sness of char* 
•cter. it will, upon deeper research, l>e found to proceed from sim- 
plicity and inoocenoe/' — Trattelx, p. HL 

Van Corleaf stopped occasionally in the Tillages to eat pumpk»n-pie*» dance at 
eoontry fWdic*. an<l bunfiU with the Yankee !a«»eii. — Knickerbocker^ Ntto iWk, 

Bundling is said to be practised in Wales. — Wright^ m Dlctionanj, 
Whatever may have been tlie custotn in former times, I do not 
thinli bundling is now practised anywhere in the United States. 

Mr. Maason describes a similar custom in Central Asia: ** Many 


82 BUN 

of the Afghan tribes have a custom in wooing similar to what in 
Wales is known as bundling-up^ and which they term namzat haz^. 
The lover presents himself at the house of his betrothed with a 
suitable gift, and, in return, is allowed to pass the night with her, 
on the understanding that innocent endearments are not to be 
exceeded." — Journeys in Beloochistan^ Afghanistan^ ifc.^ Vol. III. 
p. 287. 

Boncome, Bonknm. Judge Halliburton, of Nova Scotia, thus ex- 
plains this very expressive word, which is now as well understood 
as any in our language: *• All over America, every place likes to 
hear of its member of Congress, and see their speeches; and, if they 
don't, they send a piece to the paper, inquirin' if their members 
died a natural death, or was skivered with a bowie-knife, for they 
hante seen his speeches lately, and his friends are anxious to know 
his fate. Our free and enlightened citizens don^t approbate silent 
members; it don't seem to them as if Squashville, or PunkinsviUe, 
or Lumbertown was right represented, unless Squashville, or Pun- 
kinsviUe, or Lumbertown makes itself heard and known, ay, and 
feared too. So every feller, in bounden duty, talks, and talks big 
too, and the smaller the State, the louder, bigger, and fiercer its 
members talk. Well, when a crittur talks for talk's sake, jist to 
have a speech in the paper to send to home, and not for any o^er 
airthly puppus but electioneering, our folks call it Bunltim." 

The origin of the phrase, ** talking for Buncombe," is thus re- 
lated in Wheeler's History of North Carolina: ** Several years ago 
in Congress, the member from this district arose to address the 
House, without any extraordinary powers, in manner or matter, to 
interest the audience. Many members left the hall. Very naively 
he told those who remained that they might go too; he should speak 
for some time, but * he was only talking for Buncombe.* " 

Mr. Groodrich, in his pleasant '* Reminiscences," in describing 
his native valleys, says: — 

On every side the ear was saluted by the mocking screams of the red-headed 
woodpecker, the cawing of congresses of crows, clamorous as if talking to 6tti»- 
comie. — Vol. I. p. 101. 

Mr. Saxe, speaking of the Halls of Congress, says: — 

Here, would-be Tullys pompously parade 

Their tumid tropes for simple buncombe made, 

Full on the chair the chilling torrent shower. 

And work their word-pumps through the allotted hour. 

Progresif A Poem, 


Gbfne en, ye Ntump men eloquent, in nevtir-^tidin^ Ktr^iimf 
Let olGce Im» your gloriou« g*>»l, and bunkum be your iheme ; 
Til* viut And viiulted en^ittol ^hnll echo to yoar jawa^ 
And unit'^crsnl Tankrrdom shull •^\umi in your applaum** 

Dr, Bufihiw^ Am, R«jtcfrd Adtirtmt*^ The Americun CtmffruL 
Tb* ffdtt»« of R*pre!ietitiitfvo* brok<» down upon the corruption committee'e bill 
to pnK«ct th« intc^ty nf mvmhen o( Corigresi, bjiving^ (int passed it for tnu^ 
ttmU^^N. r. Trihunt., yimxh 2, 18^7, 

Here i» »n aniutjng bioicTA pby ^( Generel H*>tiii»on, bulky in ai^c, c*ptU) in 
p^»r, mnd i»yidtnt1y ^>t up for tmncttmlif. — .V. 7, Tribune. 

Our people t«tk « ^rvaf dml of tmn^enni^ nhout ein*ncipaiion, but they know 
|1*»&]1 b^notfmbe, — Stun Stivk^ I/umnn Xaturt^ p, 175* 

Bunkvm 18 9,\m nm*] as an Adjective. 

Ofnenl SfbW wai^ within ibirty rail*-* of Fort rraiff^with twenty-five hundred 
TexAitv, wifh artillery, and hiid i^suetl A bunkum procUmAtion. — JV. JT. Tribumt 
Ftt»' ]1| 12S62, DupatchJ'roin Kansas, 

Biui^7. On td Bunifu^ ! A mild way of paying, ** Go to h — ;'' 
r r L^tng ft plAoe where there is auppoaed to bo less caiorio, 

MB^ (Span. /!^n<7o.) A kind of boat ii«ed at the South. 

Ht^ r ~ it nU'^ were bcini^ taken to press every ^Vfi^ and eiinoe tu itie 

faraiP' 1 tli(* t'^oplc Mlung the coAst^ in order to embark them without 

dalfty- — -T 1 r. i ti:xtyuHt, 

Bttsgtowo Copper* A spurious coin, of base metal, a very cliunsy 
counterfeit of the English halfpenny or copper. It derived its name 
from tit*? plnce where it was first manufactured^ tlien called Bung' 
lM0n, now Bivmeysville, in the town of Rehoboth, Maas. The 
0im^oic*n coppr.r never waa a legal coin- The British halfpenny or 
copper waa. The term is used only in New England. 
Thcte flower* wouldn't (bieh m Bum§igrwn capper. — Afnrgat*et^ p. 19» 
Auti-tUvery professions jusi befofu an ebetion atnH worth a Btmylown eoppw* 
^- Biyio*p I'aptrM, p. Ii7. 

Th« lA^tlhing I remember [having been tipsy] waa trying to pay my fare with 
a Bw^ytov^n topptr. — Dof*tkh, p, 1*2. 

Bojik. 1» (Aug,- Sax. henc^ a bench, a form.) A wooden eaae, used 
in country taverns and in office8» which aervea alike for a aeat dur- 
ing the day and for a bed at night. The name is also applied to 
the lierH of fctanding bed- places used in the lowest claaa of lodging- 

Dr. Jamie»on htis the word bunker, a bench or sort o£ low cha«its, 
that Kerve for seat*?. — also» a seat in the window, which serves for 
tk chest, opening with a hingetl lid. — Etym* Diet. Scattish Language. 

Uhen frae off the bunkert tAnk, 

W« e'en lik« the collopa acor'd. ^^Ramtajf^t Focmt, Vol. h p. S80. 

84 BUN— BUR 

In some parts of Scotland, a bunker or hunkart, which Dr. Jamie- 
son thinks to be the same word, means an earthen seat in the 
fields. In the north of England, a seat in front of a house, made 
of stones or sods, is called a link, 

2. Bank, also applied to berths in second-class steamboats. In 
some of them, the engine-honse has a bunk-room, and those who 
sleep there at night are termed bunkers. The same language ap- 
plies to the ** cribs " of rowdy clubs; and the word ** to bunk " has 
become very generally engrafted upon our conmion language of the 

3. A piece of wood placed on a lumberman's sled to enable it to 
sustain the end of heavy pieces of timber. — Maine. 

To bunk. 1. To retire to bed in a bunk. 

2. Among lumbermen, to pile wood deceitfully so as to increase 
the apparent quantity in the survey. 

Bunker. (Alosa menhaden,) The Menhaden or Mossbunker, an abbre- 
viation of the latter, which see; also Menhaden. 

In an article on the Long Island Fishery, the '* Sag Harbor Ex- 
press " says: — 

During the last two weeks, the bunker or menhaden fishery has been very 
brisk. During the last week, the Sterling Oil Works at Cedar Point took in 
800,000 fish, and in three days of the same week Wells*s factory took 1,000,000. 
The ** Greenport Times " states that large quantities of bunken are taken in 
pounds, as high as 50,000 being secured in some of them at a single lift. 

Bunknm. See Buncome. 

Bureau. 1. The name commonly given, in America, to a chest of 
drawers. ^* A» ///. 

2. A subdivision of one of the government departments, as the 
" Indian Bureau," the ** Pension Bureau,*' &c. 

Burgall. (fitenolabrus coeruleus.) A small fish, very common in New 
York; also found on the coast of New England, and as far south as 
Delaware Bay. The usual length is about six inches, though they 
are sometimes found twelve inches. Other names for the same fish 
are Nibbler, from its nibbling off the bait when thrown for other 
fishes; Chogset, the Indian name; and in New England, those of 
Blue Perch and Conner. 

Borgaloo. Pear. See Virgalieu, 

To burgle. To commit burglary; to break into; to rob. 

Robbed. The Waverly National Bank burgled. ^ PhUa. Pren, March 15, 

To bum np. In correct English, papers, haystacks, briars, &c., are 



banspd up. Th« gnuss is also said to be burned up by drought; but 
It U harilly prof>er t*^ my tjiat such a man was ruined by being 
humed up, ** Mr. Smith's factory was humed up^*^ it should be 
•* humed down; *' and, applied to a man, *' burned otit.^' 
Bort^ak, (Querctts tnacrocarpa*} A beautiful tree, more than sixty 
feet in height^ laden with dark tufted foliage. It id found mostly 
beyond the Alleg-hanieSf in the fertile districts of Kentucky and 
West Tennessee, and in Upper Louisiana near tl»e Missouri, It i& 
ftlao called Overcup White Oak. — Michaux. 

The lr^«, with very few oxceptioni. were wliftt is cftlkd the Awrr-wi*, a atnaQ 
r»»tT rtf « v<!ry extfnsivt' gviutiA; aail th« stptireM between Ihetu^ alwnyt irregti- 
' Afid often ftf •ing^uliir beauty, have obtained Ui« niune of '*opeQingi,** — 
C^eptr, Tkt Oak Op€m%g§, 

Bmr-Stone, A Rpeciea of ailex or quarts occurring in amorphoua 
imami, partly compact, but containing many irregular cavities. 
\i h URed for mill-fttonea. — Cleveland* s Minemlogy* 

BTiratcd. A fom» of the past tenfie and participle frequently employed 
\ of the correct form, hunt. So **bust" and •♦busted," 

BqbIl (l)ulcbt bmcht a wood.) The woodB, a forest* or a thicket of 
t r c oa or buahea. This term, which ia much used in the Northern 
SlaAea aad C&Dada, prol^ably originated in New York, 

Boali-Beaii. (Pkiiseolus vulffurig.) The useful vegetable, brought 
originally from Asia and long cultivated in Europe, called in Eng- 
land Kidney-bean and French Bean. With us they are al8o called 
String-bea^ns aad Snap-beans, or Snapfl. f^ 

Btiah-Meeting. Gatherings in the wooda for the purpose of religious 
worship, A few rough benches are put up at «otne conv»^nient 
. point, and the meeting la*t3 from early moniing till late at night. 
)iBtlngui^hed from catnp^meetittgs in the fact of la^^titig only one day 
'(ilie Sabbath usually), having no tent*« put up, and being in every 
riMipect more impromptu. At present they are done iiway with in 
many places, except at the South among the Negroes, to whom there 
cart btt nn rnore delightful frolic than a bush-meetin^, 

Btsihwhacker. 1. One nocuatomed to beat about or travel through 
bujihes; a clwlhopper, raw countryman, greenhorn. 

00 yoit think aU our cantcrn di^itnrie^^ combined coald have compeKed young 
hwhtelmek*rt to w«»f coaU and elio«a in redtatioo-ioomAj' — CarUon, JVeie Pur* 
cikiu#. Vol. If. p. 87. 

The Van B — * of Nyack wens the first that did ever kick with the left foot; 
thfx WHm* i^aJtaQt &ujA whacktn and hunters of raccoons by moonlight. — Kntcker' 
M^§ New r&rk. 

86 BUS 

EveTT hu$k whacker and forest ranger thought he knew where to find the trees. 
— 8, SUek, Naturt and Human Nature, p. 16. 

2. In the late civil war, an irregular, or guerilla Confederate 

Should guerillas or buthwkackert molest our march, or should the inhabitants 
bum bridges, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should 
order and enforce a derastation more or less relentless. — General ShervMoCt 
Fieid Order, Nov. 9, 1864. 

8. A scythe or other instrument used for cutting brush or bushes. 
I know not the victim soon destined to fall before the keen-edged bu^whacker 
of Time, or I would point him out. — Dow^t Sermont, Vol. I. 

Buahiwrhaoking. 1. Travelling or pulling through bushes. 

The propelling power of the keel-boat is by oars, sails, setting-poles, the cor- 
delle, and, when the waters are high and the boat runs on the margin of the 
bushes, bu^whadnng, or pulling up by the bushes. — FUnt*t Hist, and Oeogr, <^ 
Missimppi VaiUy, 

2. Fighting in guerilla style, much in vogue at the South during 
the late civil war. 

The fiends in small parties select a position behind fences, trees, &c., firs 
upon the Union troops as they pass, and then run. . . . This infernal hn^wkack' 
ing shall not be practised on the men of my command, without my enforcing the 
severest retaliation. — • Colonel DeitzUr, in N, T. Herald, June 39, 1862. 

Bust A burst, failure. The following conundrum went the rounds 
of the papers at the time the Whig party failed to elect Mr. Clay 
to the Presidency: ** Why is the Whig party like a sculptor? Bo- 
cause it takes Clay, and makes a bust.** 
2. A frolic; a spree. Vulgar. 

In old times, Joshua sent Jericho on a bu$t yrith his horns. — N. T* Herald, 
Jan. 11, 1862. 

And when we get our pockets ftill 

Of this bright, shinin* dust. 
We '11 travel straight for home again, 
And spend it on a butt. — CaUfomia Song. 

To bust To burst; to fail in business. This vulgar pronunciation 
of the word burst is very common. 

I was soon fotch'd up in the victualling line — and I hutted for the benefit of 
my creditors. — J, C Neal, Dolly Jonet. 

When merchants fondly trust to paper, 
And find too late that banks betray, 
What art can help them through the scrape, or 
Suggest the means wherewith to pay ? 

The only way to stop each croaker, 

And pay the banks to whom they trust; 
To bring repentance to the broker, 

And wring his bosom, is ** to butt,'* — If. Y. Evening PoeL 

Buster. 1. A roistering blade, a dashing fellow. 



I went «n, luniin^ aoroethini^ every d»T, until I wm rerkened s hmter^ sud 
•Jloired to be the beat bur hunter in my dblrict, — Thorpe, Bi<; Bear of ArkantoM, 

A|ipUed hIho to any liirge person, es|»ecially to overgrown children. 
** Ain't be a bwtter,^^ ** Come here, buster,^^ in the sense of '* sonnyi" 
*• wlia '# war daddy ? " 
5. A frolic, a itptee. 
finst'Head, i\ f . Burst-hesid. Common whiskey. 
Btttcher-BUd, See Nine-Kmer. 

Bott L Th€» stnall pipe affixed to the hose of a fire-engine. 

2, *rbe buttocks* The word is used in the West in duch phranei 
w, **I f*U on my6y///***He kicked my6««," In the west of 
Kuglaiid, it deni>t«'8 a buttock of beef. 

S. A sort of flftt and short hingei thatt when foldedt butts on 

To bntt To iipp^ne. Soath-west. 

Butte. (French.) This word is of frequent occurrence in books that 
relatf^ to the Rocky Mountain and Oregon regions, " where," saya 
^Colonel Fr<5mont, " it i^ naturalized, and, if desirable to render into 
English, there is no word which would be its precise equivalent. 
; is apj»lied to the detached hills and ridges which rise abruptly, 
and reach too high to be called hilLs or ridgen, and not high enough 
to h? called moontainr-i. Knoh^ as applied in the Western States, 
iji their most descriptive tenn in English; but no translation or 
paraphrasis would presers-e the identity of these picturesque land* 
marks." — Exped. to the Rocky Mountains, p, 145. 

Sir George Simpson, In his ** Overland Jouniey," when travers- 
ing the Red River w^untry, speaks of a conspicuous landmark in the . 
sea of plains, known as the Burte aux Chiens^ . - . towering with 
a height of about four hundred feet over a boundless prairie as level 
and smooth as a pond. — Vol. L p. 54. 

On entering the broken i^ound, the creek iurn» more to the westward, sod 
piMw by two remarkable huUt* of a red conglomerate, which appear at a dis> 
taaet lik£ tables cut m the mouutaia &iile. — MutUm*§ Mtjaoo ami Rocky Motu^ 
taMM, p. 241. 

Butter -Bird. See Bobolink. 

BBtter-Baali. The Cephfilanihu$ Canadensis^ or butter ^hush, grows in 
iwamps and low, wet, mar^^hy gnjunds in almost every jmrt of the 
Unitifd States. --iV. F, Tribune, July 24, 1^1. This is a cornip- s 
tion of Bution-BuMh^ which see. th-ft^L f^^^ 

Bnttet-Ftah. {MurC£noide$,y So called from the slime with which A * 7 7 ^ 

88 BUT— BUY 

fj it is covered, rendering it difficult to handle. Found all along our 

"* 1/ coast. 

'^7i* Perch are found aboat the rodu, and lump or ImUer^JUk are sometimeji caught 

~ ThaxUr, I. of Shook, p. 88. 

Butterine. Another name for oleomargarine, or butter made of fat, 
and greasy or oily substances. See Oleomargarine. 

Butternuts. A term applied to the Confederate soldiers during the 
late civil war, so called from the color of their clothes, a cinnamon 
color, which color is obtained from the skins of the butternut. 

We manrelled as we went by that no ambitious butternut discharged his rifle 
or shot-gun at the fleet as it passed ; but he did not. — N. Y. TrUmne^ June 11, 
1862, Letter/rom Tentuttee. 

The butternut gentry . . . about four hundred of them [here prisoners] are in 
the camp hospitals. — The Independent^ March 22, 1862, Letter from Chicago, 

Button-Bush. (Cephalanthus occidentalis.) A shrub which grows 
along the water-side, its insulated thickets furnishing a safe retreat 
for the nests of the blackbird. Its flowers appear at a distance like 
the balls of the sycamore tree ; hence its name. — Bigelow, 

Buttoning up. A Wall Street phrase. When a broker has bought 
stock on speculation and it falls suddenly on his hands, whereby 
he is a loser, he keeps the matter to himself, and is reluctant to 
confess the ownership of a share. This is called buttoning up, — A 
Walk in WaU Street, p. 47. 

Buttonwood or Button-Tree. (Platanus occidentalis,) The popular 
name, in New England, of the sycamore-tree; so called from the 
balls it bears, the receptacle of the seeds, which remain on the 
trees during the winter. — Michaux^s Sylva, Sometimes called But- 
ton-ball tree. 

Buyer's Option. A purchaser of stocks at the broker's board, buyer*s 
option, thirty, sixty, or ninety days, can call for the stock any day 
within that time, or wait until its expiration. He pays interest at 
the rate of six per cent up to the time he calls. A purchase on 
buyer^s option is generally a fraction above the cash price. 

To buy in. The act of purchasing stock in order to meet a ** short '* 
contract, or to enable one to return stock which has been borrowed. 
Medbery, Men and Mysteries of Wall Street, 

To buy one's Time. An apprentice ** buys his time; " t. «., he pays 
his employer, to whom he is bound, a certain sum of money, to 
release him before his term of apprenticeship has expired. 

To buy or sell Plat A broker's phrase, meaning to buy or sell divi- 
dend-making stocks, or securities having interest coupons attached. 



lit making aci*oant of thd interest acertied since the last pre- 
' payment of dii^dend or interest* 
Buisar. A pickpocket. 

Vn*ik the (Kcw York] police ftfld no right to «iTC»t pickpockfJts unleita tfiey 
caught Umm cam mil Ling a ihnfi^ yet an they had the power to do so, they cxer- 
daed it, ami ntsny wer« the oar-im&er$ they led captives to police head-quAiteiv* 
Galary/vr IdOT, p. 034. 

By and Again. Occai«ionBlly, now and then. A Southern expre-^iHion. 

'• Btf ami then *^ is given in *' Robinson Crusoe '* as Friday's corrup- 

tioD oC by and by* 
Bf and Ufs*. From every point of view; on the whole; after due 


TViim 6y awl lnrQ€, it [General Shertiiin^a prediction] was A good phito«opht> 
cal IbncML — Bmltm JoumaL 
Titk4n bff and hrgt^ \i hat be«n a profitable toa^on for buflineas. — StaU of th« 

By-Bidder. A person employed at public aiiction* to bid on articles 
put up for aale, to enhance the price. 

By Bon. Before sunset, Georgia, 

By tba Nsune of. 8ome persons will say, < ■ I met to-day a man 6y 
the name of Smith." An Englishman woultl say *' o/the name/* 
ko»i €xoept in aucb phrases as ^' he went by the name of Smith. 


Oal>bage*Tree. (Fafma altissima.) A palm-tree found in East Florida. 
From iU pith very giwd sago ia made, and its long trunks serve for 
I'i|M?» to convey water underground. — BtJrtram^a Floriffa JoumaL 
TWiH name, according to locality, is given to all palms tliat bear an 
e3K;iih^nt shoot. See Palm Cabbage. 

Otberoa. (Span, cabestro, a halter.) A rope made of hair, used for 
catching wild horses and cattle. It is oseil in the same manner as 
th^ •♦lariat/' which is made of raw hide. These two word^ are in 
common use in Louiaiana and Texas, and imply what is, at the 
Xorth, tenned a la^so, 

Bill Sranc hud hin rlt\v lor himself and a strong ctibArvt for his hor*e, and so 
did A't Wlher an v body about feeding* — X. Y, Spint of the Tinci^ Western Tal^, 

Cablegram. Telegram by the Atlantic Cable. 

Ct%bitfjnim§ received by the StJite Department indicate that there u no Inuger 
aav |KJi)iUlity of averting war between Russia and Turkey. — TUtymphit 
BipoH, Apnl 21, 18TT. 

90 CAB— CAC 

Caboodle. The whole caboodle is a oommon expression, meaning the 
whole lot. It is used in all the Northern States as well as in some 
of the Southern. The word boodle is used in the same manner. 

They may recommend to the electors of Hamilton County to dUregard so much 
of the law as constitutes two election districts of Hamilton County. Having done 
this, Medary will be looking oat for n job ; Olds will be often in Fairfield cozen- 
ing for a nomination to Congress ; and the whole caboodle will act upon the rec- 
ommendation of the " Ohio Sun/' and endeavor to secure a triumph in the old 
fashion way. — Ohio State Journal. 

Up with the stripes and stars, and down with stars and bars, 

Let the cry of the Eagle still be Union. 
Hail Columbia, Yankee Doodle, God bless the whole caboodle. 

Chriets'9 Bon^tter, 
When Josiah Allen's wife visited Stewart's great store in New 
York, she says, in describing her visit, — 

I walked up to the counter as collected lookin' as if I owned the whole caboodle 
of them, and New York village and Jonesville. -^ Betty Bobbet^ p. 351. 

Caboose Car. The last car of a freight-train on a railway for the 
conductor's use. 

Cacao. The fruit of the cacao-tree (Theobroma cacao), of which choco- 
late is made; hence also called Chocolate-nuts, commonly spelled 
and pronounced Cocoa. 

Caohe. (French.) A hole in the ground for hiding and preserving 
provisions which it is inconvenient to carry. Travellers across 
the prairies, hunters, and the settlers in the Far West, often resort 
to this means for preserving their provisions. 

The term cache is also used to designate other means of preserving 
articles of various kinds. See in ** Harper's Mag." for Nov., 1869, 
description and illustrative woodcut of a cache, which was a* plat- 
form on which, supported on branches of trees, provisions, &c., were 
kept from the reach of bears and other animals. 

I took adv'antege of a detached heap of stones, to make a cache of a bag of 
pemmican. — Back, Journal of an Arctic Voyage. 

The cache, which I had relied so much upon, was entirely destroyed by the 
bears. — Dr. Kane, Arctic Eacploratione, Vol. I. 

To cache. To hide or conceal in the gp^nnd. 

We returned to camp, and cached our meat and packs in the forks of a cotton- 
wood-tree, out of reach of wolves. — Ruxton*i Adventures in New Mexico. 

When Dr. IIovey*8 party reached Mann*s Fori, they were well-nigh exhausted. 
The fort was vacant, but after much search the}' found plenty of salt pork 
which had been cached by iU former occupanto. — New York Tribune. 

Caohnnki A word like thump! describing the sound produced by 
the fall of a heavy body. Also written kerchunk! A number of 


cifiil onomatopOL'ttc words of this sort are used in the South aud 
Ttfltj iti all of which the first syllable, which h unacc*iOted, is sub- 
j«<tt to the liame variety of spelling. These words are o£ recent 

CbolqiM or Cadque. (\\\ lud. ca^e, cachic.) A chief or king among 
lilt* aborigines of the We^t India Islands, This, like other terma 
oX the 8ort, haa been extended by the whites beyond iis original 

Caok. A small shoe ; a shoe for a child. Massachusetts. 

Oaooolte. A name for the bidbous root of a species of TigrttUa from 
whldi a good flour is prepared, in Mexico. 

Cade« A calf; ap«^t. 

Cadeaa. (Fr.) A present ; giJft ; compliment, 

\ frrv^piii, a fiiit, nil some wrt'tch^^d b«itig« afTectlTig to ftdora English saji i 
OM/taM.^jV. r Trit»un«, D«c. 30, 18(11. 

Cahoot. (Perhaj>s Fr. capule, a hut, a cabin.) It is used in tlie South 
and West to denote a company, or partnership. 51en who live in 
the flame hut or shanty » or who muke one family, are ** in ctAkoot^^^ 

iVte Hopkiit* Ain't no better than he alK>nld be, aud I wotiTdaH swar he wasnH 
ia cuhoot Mfith the deviL *- ChnmicIfM of l^intvilU. 

I 'd liAve no tihjecijou to go in cnhmit wUH a decent fellow for « rhnmctert but 
kare no lund« ta pun ha^i^ on my aum account. ^JVetf Orttmu Picn^wt, 

The UoQAier tmilc him nmde, told him there was a smart chsaoe of • pile on one 
of Ihv [canl] taldes and thjil it hu like<l he would gri in with him — in ctihooti 
^FUid, Wtittm TaltM. 

To caboot To act in partnertdiip. 

Commodore Mor^jin »eUn out h\a interest to Commodore GarriaoQ in the Nlcs- 
m^ita tini% »nd Garriwoti nettle!* hi^ ditHcultieii with Commodore VanderbiU, and 
tliey all ajrr«« to Cithnot with their claims against Nicarngua and Cowtn Rica. — 
Iff » TQrk tltt^l, May 20, 18li7. 

tMlot. (Fr* Jolt.) A bank of snow across a road made by sleighs, 
which heap up the snow in fnont and leave a corrpspondinfr depress 
sion or hollow. Cahou are common through out Canada where the 
mow is deep, and are greiit obstructions to travelling. A particular 
kind of sleigh called a *' traineau '* chiefly cause these cahotA. An 
'^cffort was made by act of Parliament a few years since to prevent 
llie use of the train f*aux» but it met with so much opjx:>sition frc>m 
the Canadians that the law could not be enforced. In the United 
States, we call these '''■ thank-ye-md'ams.''^ 

Calabash. 1. A large gourd, the fruit of the CucurhUa lagenaria^ or 
ruItibaBh vine. 


92 CAL 

2. (Crescentia cujete.) A gourd that groyn upon trees in Spanish 
America and the West Indies. The fruit is large and round, and 
serves for bowls. That of another species or variety is oval, and 
furnishes drinking-cups and chocolate-cups. In South America, 
the name is Totuma; in Central America, Jicara; and in Cuba, 

3. A humorous name for the head, generally implying emptiness; 
as, ** He broke his c<d(ib€uh,** Possibly a corruption of the Spanish 

Calaboose. (Fr. calabottse ; Span, calabozo,) In the South-western 
States, the common jail or prison. 

There *e no peace in a steamer, it is nothing bat a laige oalaboou chock foil of 
prisoners. — Sam 8Uck, Human Naiure. 

I went on board the other day. 

To hear what the boatmen had to say ; 

While there I let my passion loose. 

When they clapped me in the oalahoose. — The Boalman*$ B<mg, 

To calabooae. To imprison. South-western. 

We have a special telegraphic despatch from St. Louis, giving the information 
that Colonel Titus, late of Nicaragua, now claiming to be of Kansas, was oolo- 
boosed on Tuesday for shooting at the porter of the Planters* House. — Cincinnati 
Commercial^ 1857. 

Calash. (Fr. caleche,) 1. A two- wheeled carriage, resembling a 
chaise, used in Canada. 

2. A covering for the head, usually worn by ladies to protect 
their head-dresses when going to evening parties, the theatre, &c. 
It is formed of hoops after the manner of a chaise-top. 

To calculate. 1. This word, which properly means to compute, to 
estimate, has been erroneously transferred from the language of the 
counting-house to that of common life, where it is used for the 
words to esteem; to suppose; to believe; to think; to expect; intend, 
&c. It is employed in a similar way to the word gvtess^ though not 
to so great an extent. Its use is confined to the illiterate of New 
England. Calculated is, in New England much, by some almost 
exclusively, used in the sense of adapted (to), designed (for); and 
in the former of these mischosen and ill-applied applications is seen 
in English writers, e, g. Harris's ** Great Commission '* (often). 

Mr. Cram requested those persons who calculated to join the singin* school to 
come forward. — Knickerbocker Mag., Vol. XVII. 

2. To adapt, as in ^* calculated." 

Calf-Kill. {Kalmia angusti/olia,) A plant, so called from its poison- 


opertica^ wbicli ar©^ however, not ao great as the name im- 
Alfio called Lamb-kill and Sheep Laurel 

Cilibosisa. Ruin and spruce-beer. — Cartwrif^kt'^ Labrador (1792), 
Vol. m. Glossary. An American beverage. — Grose, 

Calico. The word was originally applie*! to wlnt-e cottoia* from India, 
In £U)^landf white eotton goods are still called caiicoe*. In the 
United StaU*a, Uie term h applied exclusively U) printed cutton cloth* 

GalL An invitation from the vestry of a church to a clergyman to oc- 
eupy their pulpit ia technically termed a call^ the loudness of which 
call is considered to be in a direct ratio to the salary offered. 

The renowned Mr. Dow, Jr.. at the cloi^e of one of his sermoDS, 

I ttsre (ib«erved th«t a grent many country people liave lately joined my con' 
grtgatioft. tjet ll»« gttod work go on I I hope to coajc a few more such sheep 
hilo my fold before I preach my farewell SNermoa ; and that may bo pretty soon, 
at f lta%*e had a Joud S<iOO ctiU elsewhere. — ^cniionji, Vol. L p. 317. 

CaU Contract. A contract for the future delivery of stock b» termed 
a call* and gives the holder the privilege of purchasing of the party 
with whom the contract is made a certain numlniir of shares of the 
itock named, within a definite time^ at a stipulated price. 

C^UiUmnipiaiia^ It was a common practice in New York^ m well as 
other parts of the country^ on >few Year's Eve* for persons to ajt«em- 
bl* with tin hornSf bells, rattles, and similar euphonious instruments, 
and parade the streets, making all the uoise and diiicord posieiible. 
This party was called the Callithumpianit, or tlie Callithumpian hand. 
An allusion to CaltiofH* and as well to tkumpimf. Fortunately^ the 
eufitom has now fallen almost, if not entirely, into disuse. 

A gang of Baltimore rowdies once aasumed the name. The 
present fiubstitute for this is a similar procession at sunrise on the 
ith of July, in grotesque or worse attire, callitig themselves 
•* Antif|uca and Horribles,'* a corruption of the venerable AncUni 
and IfnfutraUc Artillerj* Company of Boston. 

Applied alj^o to any burlesque sei^uade, particularly when given 
to unpjpular persons on their marriage. 

C^'Loaoa, Loans on call are loans of money where tlie borrower 
agre«fs to pay at any moment when called for. Banks having large 
deposits which are liable to be called for any day often loan money 
it le!W than the ordinary rates in Uiis way to brokers. 

To fpeciifate In fancy »tncka on c«//4ort«jt is uimply \o pwt yonr hand in the 
UoQ't month, or yountelf m the hands of a Shylock, with the expcctatioa of 
fittlog oat without being fleeced. —-^. /- Herald, 

94 CAL— CAM 

If the merchants of New York in this year 1870 wish to warn the banks agarast 
eaU-loatUy bj which oar present trade is imperilled, let them organize a sub- 
scription for an accurate histofy of banking in the metropolis during 1853-M. — 
Mtdbery, Men and MffsUria of Wall Street, p. 808. 

Calls. Operations of this kind are made generaUy by those •* curb- 
stone brokers" who are under the impression that higher prices 
will soon rule in certain stocks. A speculator is desirous of making 
a little operation, and he offers to give 950 for the privilege of call- 
ing for 100 shares New York Central Railroad stock at 91 per cent 
in ten or fifteen days. The price fixed on the part of the buyer is 
always a fraction above the cash price. If the stock goes down ten, 
twenty, or thirty per cent, the party buying the call can only lose 
950. If it goes up to 01^, he gets his money back, and all above 
that is so much profit. This business is confined almost entirely to 
the curbstone brokers : it is a species of betting about on a par 
with ** roulette." — HurU^s Merchant's Mag., 1857. 

Calumet. Among the aboriginals of America, a pipe, used for smok- 
ing tobacco, whose bowl is usually of soft red marble, and the tube 
a long reed, ornamented with feathers. An old Norman word de- 
rived from chalumeau. — Charlevoix, Vol. II. 212. It was introduced 
into Canada by the settlers from Normandy. The Iroquois name 
for a pipe is ganondaoe, and among some other tribes poagan. The 
calumet is used as a symbol or instrument of peace and war. To 
accept the calumet is to agree to the terms of peace ; and to refuse 
it is to reject them. The calumet of peace is used to seal or ratify 
contracts and alliances, to receive strangers kindly, and to travel 
with safety. The calumet of war, difiEerently made, is used to pro- 
claim war. 

As soon as we sat down, the Illinois [Indians] presented us, according to 
custom, their calumet, which one must needs accept, or else he would be looked 
upon as an open enemy or a mere brute. — Marquette, 1673. 

The savages make use of the calumet in all their negotiations and state affairs; 
for when they have a calumet in their hand, they go where they will in safety. 
— La Hontan, Voyage* dan* fAmerique (1704). 

To camp. (Old Eng. To contend.) To kick with the foot, especially 
a ball, so as to raise it in the air. Eastern Massachusetts. The 
word is also provincial in England for a game of ball. — Wright. 

Campaie;n. The season of political excitement preceding an election. 
The word ** canvass," which the English use with this meaning, is 
much used with us for the official counting of votes. See, for 
instance, the Election Laws of the State of New York, **of the 
canvass and estimate of the votes." 

CAM— CAN 96 

Cunpballita. A follower of ihe doctrines of Alexander Campbell. 

See Ckrittian, 
Camphene. Pure oil of turpentine, a compound of eight parts of 

hydrogen and ten of carbon. Used for burning in lamps. 

If a man will lig^ht his lamp with whale oil when gaa and camphene are 
at hand, he must be content with a bad illumination. — E. Forbes^ Literartf 
Papen^ p. 158. 

Camp-Meetlxig. A meeting held in the wood or field for religious 
purposes, where the assemblage encamp and remain several days. 
These meetings are generally held by the Methodists. The Mor- 
mons calls it a Wood-meeting. 

To can. To put into cans; to preserve by ** canning," as meats, 
fruits, &c. 

CluSada. (Span., pron. canyirfa.) A narrow valley or glen between 
mountains ; a small cafion. 

Cimada Balsam. See Balsam Fir, 

Canada Nettle. See Albany Hemp, 

Canada Rice. (Zizania aquatica.) A plant which grows in deep 
water along the edges of ponds and sluggish streams, in the North- 
em States and Canada. It is called, in some places, Wild Rice and j. 
Water Oats. (f^--^-^ VL, t(c 

Cancer Root. A species of orobanche of Linmeus. Yellowish plants, /^ ^yy^^ 

famous as ingredients in ** cancer powders." 
Candidacy. Candidateship; the position of a candidate. — Webster. 

Mr. Opdike then boldly came forth, and, by the unprecedentcdly brilliant and 
energetic canvass made under his candidacy^ carried the party with vast prestige, 
&c — -y. Y. Tribunt, Nov. 22, 1861. 

To candidate. To be a candidate ; to act, or be received as a can- 
Setting him to be eandidating in season. — The Congregaiionalitt^ Jan. 6, 1870. 

Candidateship. The state of being a candidate. — Webster. 

Candle-Lighting. Time of, or near the time of lighting candles ; as, 
** at early candle-lighting; " sometimes we hear, ** at early candle- 
light." New England. 

Cane-Brake. A thicket of canes. They abound in the low lands 
from South Carolina to Louisiana. 

Did yon ever hear of a bar bustin* in through a eanerhrake^ and know how 
near a hurricane it is ? — Story of the Bear-HunUr. 

Cane-Meadow. The Carolinian name for a cane-brake. — Bartram. 

Cane-Trash. See Bagasse. 

Cafiey. Caney Fork or Btanch is a frequent name for etreams in 
Kentucky and Tennessee, undoubtedly from canes having grown 
there fonnerly, ]il though r»ow extirpated. 

Can Hook. A rope with an iron hook at each end, used for hoisting 
casks. See Cant Hook, 

CEmker-Hash. The disease called Scarlatina. 

Canoe. (West Indian, canakuay cau6a^) An Indian boat made of hark 
or skins* 

Canoo Biroh. (Betttia papyracea.) Also called Paper Rirch^ the 
Boieau a canot pf the French Canadians* Common in the forests of 
the Eastern States north of lat. 43®, and in Canada, where it attains 
the height of seventy-five feet. Its bark is a hriiliant white: it is 
often used for roofing houses and for the manufacture of small 
Ixjxes; but it4 most imj>ortant une is for canoes, — Michaux. 

Canon. (Span., pron. cantjon.) Anarrow^ tunnel- like passage between 
high nxid precipitous banks, formed by mountains or table-landa, 
often with a river running beneath, 

Tho Plutte forces it» way through ii bttrripr of tabte-kndi, forming one of tboM 
Btnking peculiarilfo.H inci<!iMit to niotintain slreanis, c&lled a cafkon. — ^cffiei tn 
tht Rochj Mmtntmn*^ p. IH. 

Major Powell, in describing the to[w>graphy of the country wat- 
ered by the Colorado of the West, gives a particular acc<>unt of the 
great canon of that river through which he passed in a boat, the 
only instance known of any one having descended it in safety. 
After describing the formation of cafions in generiil, he thus 
writes: — 

'* For more than a thousand milea along its course, the Colorado 
has cut for itself such a caff on; but at some few points, where 
lateral streams jnin it, the cation is broken, and narrow, transverse 
valleys divide it properly into a jveries of caHom/^ Twelve rivers, 
whose names are given, " have also cut for themselves such narrow, 
winding gorges, or deep cations.-^ 

*' Every river entering these has cut another caff on ; every lateral 
creek has cut a caitim ; evei*y brook runs into a rarlon ; every rill 
born of a shower, and born again of a shower, and living only 
during thei*e jihowers, has cut for itself a eafSon ; m that the whole 
upi^r portion of the basin of the Colorado is traversed by a laby- 
rinth of these deep gorges/* 

The longest carbon of the Colorado is 217^ miles in length ; then 
there 13 a break, which is followed by 65 miles more; its sides in 



Can-Opener. An instrumetit foropeniiig tin cans of preserved meats, 

TegeUblea, sardinen, &c* 
Cant oome It is a vulgar expression for cannot do it. ^^ You ranU come 
ii over me so ; '* i, e. , you cannot take such an advantag^e of me. Mr, 
Hamilton notices this expression among the provincialisms of York- 
fihire. — Nugee Liter an(r^^ p. 353. 

The following^ dialogue is reported to have occurred in a crowded 
New York omnibus: — 

Oid Gtnt, Let me Lake yon on mj lap. 
Woman. No, you caii't comt tAat, otd chap{ 
H% that takes that tAsk tr> do 
Must be some likelier one iban yon. 

Cant-Haok. A wooden lever with an iron hook at one end, with which 
heavy articles of merchandi:*e or timber are canted over. Some- 
times called Can-hook* 
Ganticoy or Cantica. An Algonkin word» denoting an act of wor- 
ship; applied by the early Duteh of New Nethcrland to social 
gatherings. Carapanius, in his Vocabulary of New Sweden 
(Delaware) t has siwehiman chintita, pnest, «piritnal (or religious) 
man; and in his translation of the Lord's Prayer has chinfikat for 
** hallowed l>e ** of the English. So chintika manetto, for *' God the 
Holy Ghost/* or third person of the Trinity, The word is still 
QJied by aged people in New York and on Ijong Island. Mr. 
Muq>hy» in a note to his translation of Bankers 'a and Sluyter's 
** Voyage to New York/' 1679-SO (p. 275) » says the Can^iVrti/ appears 
to have been a dance which the Indians practised on varions occa- 
BionSt Denton calls it ** a dancing match, where all persona that 
came were freely entertained, it l>eing a festival time. — Desc. of 
New York, 1670. 

The first of these Indians hnWag rec€iT«d t horriblt* wound , . . wished them 
to let htm kintt-kaetfe^ — being a dunce performed by them a§ a religiouN rite, &c. 
^ Broad Adtia (1649), 2 .V. Y. HiitL Coll, 3. a&s/ 

Thewe Indiana had mnfieoyed (gfkintebiift} there to^ay, that is, conjured the 
devil, and Ubemted a vrnrnan among them, who was posiejised by him^ as thty 
said. — Z)rt«iJter/r, Voynge trt X T. (W70), p 375. 

Canuck. A Canadian ; colloquial and in newspapers. ^^ ^ 7 7 ^* 
Canvas-Back. (Anns valijmeriana,) A wild duckf fonnd chiefly in 
the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, and highly esteemed for the 
delicacy of its flesh. It derives its name from the color of its back. 
When all the folk* who love good eating, 
And think of little elw but treating. 
With pleasure oft their lip^ will smack, 
Wbeo apeaking of a mnva$^ck. 

Mm Ramtojf^ Potticai Picture o/Am^riea^ p, 56. 

98 CAP 

To oap all. To surpass all; to cap the climax. 

Well, the hone got stuck in one of them snowbanks, and there we sot unable 
to stir; and, to cap aU^ Deacon Bedott was took with a dreadful crick in his 
back. — Widow BedoU Papen. 

Cape Cod Turkeys. Codfish. See MaMehead Turkeyi. 

Cape May Qoodji^ The name given, on the Jersey coast, to the 

Lafayette fish. 
Capper. A by-bidder; men and women in the employ of auctioneers 

in the city of New York, to bid on articles put up for sale. 

Cap-Sheaf. A small sheaf of straw forming the top of a stack. — 
Dorset Glossary, Figuratively used, in the United States, to denote 
the highest degree, the summit. 

Of all the dajTB that I ever did see in this *ere world, moving-day fai New York 
is the cap^eaf. — Major Downrng^ May-day in New York, p. 43. 

There *s one manufacture in New England that might stump all Europe to pi^ 
duce the like, — the manufacture of wooden nutmegs. That*s a oap-sktaftbMt. 
bangs the bush. — Sam Slick, 

Sam Pendergrass's wife has been tellin* me about the party; and of all the 
strains ever I heard on, I should think that the oe^p^eaf, — Widow BedoU 
Papen, p. 88. 

The ecq»-ehea/j though, of mean Americans, 
Is the biowin* Congressman, that goes an* stan's 
Afore the wisdom o* this mighty nation, 
Forgettin* all about his lofty sUtion. 

Ballad from Vanity Fair. 

Josiah Allen's wife, in describing a female lecturer on woman's 
rights, says: — 

I didn*t like her looks. Of all the painted, and frizzled and ruffled, and 
humped-up and laced-down critters I ever see, she was the cap-sheaf, — Betsy 
Bobbety p. 337. 

Captain's Beat. The limits within which the membera of a military 

company reside. Within the same limits the votes are received on 

election days. Southern. 
Caption. This legal term is used in the newspapers in cases where 

an Englishman would say title, head, or heading. 
To captivate, v, a, (Lat. captivo; Fr. captiver,) To take prisoner; 

to bring into bondage. — Johnson, To seize by force ; as an enemy 

in war. — Webster. 

How ill-becoming is it in thy sex. 
To triumph like an Amazonian trull 
Upon their woes, whom fortune captivates! — ShaJapeare, 
Tliey stand firm, keep out the enemy, truth, that would captivate or disturb 
them. — Lodee. 




Hh* vnosturml bretfareii who f^oM t>ii*ir brnther rnto cftptivttr are now *boai lA 
It tuj^t9ti\i themji«]vr!t, and thi Atm/er hiiit»ell to be bound in Mi turn — Dr^ 
Jdam darke, RtJIsc., Uh Genesla. 

I hAve au Knglish engraving publisJied in 1758^ entitled *' A 
IVoepective View of the Battle fought near Lake George, 6th Sep- 
teniber, 1755» ... in which the English were victorious, capti* 
tutinff the French general with a number of his men, and putting 
thereat to flight." 

In hb remarks on this word, Mr. Pickering says it was new to 
hina» and that he had never seen it in the newspaperst Sub^e- 
qoentlj, however, he disoovered it in two or three of oar authors* 
It cannot be said to be in OBe among writers at the present day* It 
ii well known that Congre.«(8, in adopting the Declaration of Inde> 
pen deuce, prepared by Mr. Jefferson, omitted certain jiaasages 
oontained in the original draft. Among these was the following 
pftragraph relating to the slave-trade : — 

Hii h«9 wAgpd rriiel war agam^t human nature itself, violating its moit sarred 
light* of Uf** and librrty in the p<*r*on» of a distant people who never offended 
bhfn. mptimfing and carrying thpm Into slavery in another hemi^pbero, or to 
%Ktnm miserable death in traniiportAtion thither. 

In noticing the above pai^aage, Lord Brougham sayst The word 
enpiimtinff will be reckoned an Americanism (aa the Greeks used 
to nay of their coloninta, a Soloecism)* But it has undoubted Eng- 
lUh authority, — Locke, among others. — Statesmen of Grorrie III, 

Twenty-thire peopl« were billed in thin purpri*al, and twenty -nin« were mpH-^ 
vattd. — Brthmp, But. Xtte Ham/vhire, Vul I ch. 10. 

The pin^rularly iiireTr*t»ng evf*r)t of captivating a iecoad Rojal army [Lord 
ComwnlllwK] prodtfced utrong emotions, — Rammy^ ffitUtry Am^tncan Rtvoltttitn^ 
Tol. IL p, Sr7i 

Cv. L Tbt' carriages that compose a railway tr^n are, with us, 
called ** railroad cars.'* These are of various kinds: as the paloet 
OT drav?tnff-rmm rvjr*, which are luxuriously fitted up; the deeping 
car and the ordinary pntxenfftr-cant^ one of which is the s^noking^car^ 
tor those who mu^t needs indulge in that luxury; the baggage-car; 
mad the mail-car. Sometimes a whole train ia composed of freight- 
can. The English travel by **rail,** or take the ** train'* from 
one plaee to another. We go by the can, or take the ears, 

2. A nquare l>ox, in which, floating, live fish are preserved. In 
England, it is called a cawf 

To carboDado. To )x>il ; to cook upon eoab. Soutbem* See Olm' 
MenfVfi Sifabftard Siave States, 

Car-Brake. A lever which, acting by friction on the wheel0» helps to 

stop the train. 

100 CAB 

CarcajoiL A name now appropriated to the American Badger {MeUi 
Labradorica, a species so named, apparently, because not found in 
Labrador), but which originally was applied to the CercoUptei 
eaudivolviUus, See Kinkajou. 

Not unlike a badger, only they are bigger and more mischievoas. — La B<m- 
tan, Voifngti (1708), Vol. I. p. 81. 

DeEay makes the carcajou of La Hontan the Wolverene (Oulo 
luscui), or Glutton, which, as John Hunter informed him, was 
caUed by the Indians of his tribe gtoingwahgay^ which he interpreted 
a ** tough thing," and afterwards explains it as '* a hard character." 
But Charlevoix (Vol. II. 129) describes the Canadian carcajou^ 
or guincajou, as having a long tail (which the wolverene has not), 
and of a reddish-brown color. 

This creature [the carcajou] is of the cat kind. ... He comes upon piis 
enemy] . . . unperceived, or climbs up into a tree, and, taking his station on 
some of the branches, waits till one of them takes shelter under it; when 
he fastens upon his neck, soon brings blood, and drags his prey to the ground. 
This he is enabled to do by his long tail, with which he encircles the body of hit 
adversary. — TraveU^ p. 450. 

Carfl The mark made in a tree to be felled. 
Car-House. A building in which railroad cars are kept. 
Caribou. The American reindeer, of which there are two species, the 
Barren Ground and the Woodland Caribou. 

Harts and oariboui are killed, both in summer and winter, after the same man- 
ner with the elks ; excepting that the caribou*^ which are a kind of wild asses, 
make an easy escape, when snow is at hand, by virtue of their broad feet — La 
Hontan^ North America^ 1704. 

Carlicuea or Curlycues. Boyish tricks, capers. To cut or cut up 
carlicues is to cut capers. From curly and cue; or, perhaps, a cor- 
ruption of the Fr. caracole^ Span. caracoL Comp. ** cavort," by 
transposition made from curcet, 

" Sally," says I, " will you take me for better or worse ? " 
This put her to considering, and I gave a flourishing about the room, and aU 
a cur/ycue with my right foot, as much as to say, "Take your own time.'* — 
McCUntock'i Talti 

It is generally supposed that nature is perfect in all her works, — except when 
she gets odd freaks in her head, and cut» tip carUcuti by way of experiment. — 
Dow't Sermons, Vol. lU. p. 48. 

Carolina AllBpioe. See Allspice. 

Carolina Potato. The sweet potato (Convolvulus batata), so called in 
the Eastern States. 

Carpet-Baggers. ** Unprincipled adventurers, who sought their for- 
tunes in the South by plundering the disarmed and defenceless 



people. Some of thetn wer©^ the dregs of the Federal army, — the 
Vidifieftt of ibe camp folbworr'; manv were fu^tives from Northern 
Jtuftioe; the best of tliera were Ihost* whc went down after thepeacei 
roacty for any di*ed of »)jame Uiat was 'saie'and profitable. The^^e, 
<nanbiiiitig with a few treacherous * fu:^alfirv^'a^'^/-al)tj some learllng 
ttmiiiiu to serve m decoys for the reat^ and backe4 *:by tlie power of 
the groerml government, became the strongest body of thie^^es th*t 
ever plUaged a people. Their ixioral grade was far louV-. -'. *' .1 • 
Thej swarmed on all tlie States from the Potomac to the Gulf, Uiid : 
atitled in hordes, not with the intent to remain there, but merely 
to f«ed 00 the eubstance of a prostrate and defenceless people. 
They took whatever came within their reach, intruded themaelveg 
into ail private coriiorations, assumed the fimctiona of all ofl^cea, 
including the courts of justice, and in many places they even * run 
the diurches/ By force of fraud» they either controlled all electiont, 
Of el*e prevented elections from being held,** — North American 
Rgmtw^ for July, 1877. 

Wo are indebted to President Hayea for his idea of what onnsti- 
lotai a earptt'haffgrr. It apjiears that on the 12th June, 1877^ a 
delegmtion from Alabama waited upon the President. After dia^ 
CttiaiDg variouB tnattere, the telegraphic report to the newspapers 
»yii: — 

Thi* convenMitiou tumpcl upon the Auhjfif't of Cftrpft-hnf/^en, when the PrefticJent ' 
Miid bfr did pot regnrii as a etirprt^batjgtr % iiinu who went S«u<h Ui becttme a 
komajMe rc»lid«nt. Only tho««> who went BoutU for the purpoftci of bcrlUlng office 
li i mittrr of bupfoend should hv s'tigm Allied n» a cnrpft-bngf^tv^ 

We are fortunate in obtaining a description of the carprfJntf/<jt!r 
from Wade Hampton, Governor of South Carolina, who, in a speech 
made at Auburn, N. Y., on the 19th June, 1877, in alluding to the 
latepoUUcal contest in that State, said: — 

f J WAft A foji»c»t WAgrd by the people of South CarolinA noU m deinBja;og«Ai 
wnuld tell yrtu, Af;AiriiRit Northern mpfl. It Wft» A conffijit WRged Af^nmnt finrp«&^ 
ha^fftn^ mwl mUvn I »Ay cnf-ptl-^Mit/f/crB J me«n by that ihic^f. Wc do nnt call 
iDv Northern nmn, in> [ri«hmflni, Any GertnAJi, jiny En^lifihnian whft Acttlfs in 
oqr inid»t m An honeji citizcti, a carp^t'lHitftitr, We welcome »uch with upea 
AfmK. W# u\\ lUiitt to mini.' to uur genial «kieii And ft^rtile soiL Come one, 
enne Atl, AOd pledge them in the nAnie of the State a hoffpftAbte^ WAnn-heArtcd 

"You call me A eor/ift-fHtf^tftr," contemptnofisly extl«imed an iniliifoAnt hut 
witJy Iir|vi]hlirAn, who h»d Ivr^n interrupted in a fK^itit'ttl jipeeeh m a Ml«ini*-lppi 
bAck crmnty. **l Am a aitju't Utif/t/tr, I hAve neither house nor lamJ nor shelter 
nor piTope.rty of Any kind' I Am a cnrptt^-^ffffer^ — perhAp* the only on*« you ever 
«w. You people Are pneat fools. You call Governor Amcft a aifptt-bn^^tf. 
Ha '• no cnrjffi^jtttjTftr: hf own* A houw tn Boston/' WbereAt the wbo1« crowd 
•b0ttt4id AAftent. — Wathi^gUm Cor, N. F. BtrM, 



• • • 


Dt, O* W, Holrae», iu a receDt poem upon the contest in Con* 
gress on the Fresideutial qiij^tioci, entitled ** How not to settle it/* 
gays: — ♦ \ \ ' 

Od« bdf crioC!^ ^t ttie choice u S. J. T, t ** 

Anij ^i|e lodf ^dre stoutly it wts t' attier; 
BoUidf^w^Uffi knife to Riive the Natiwu'i life 
V By wholesale viriMctioa of e*cli oiber. 

*.'•. .*• ^^^ '^** '*' "*" *^** OTonumeotal Claja, — 

**Hold! hold! *' they cried, *'|five os, give lu the daggeni " 
Content ! conteut ! " exclaimed with one consent 
The gauDi ex-reUels and ihc cArptt-hag^tr*.'*' 

We have an anitisiDg instance of ^* What 'b in a name ? " Captain Parr, a 
delegate from Nanfiemond to ttie recent ConititutionaJ Convention tn Vlrgiiiiai 
waa the iiivt'iitor of the now vrell-known epithet *^* Cntpvt-hatjtjtr.^^ In ooom- 
quence of ihi* term, c^i^-pH-bags have falttin into such disrepute tiuit not one can 
be »old in the South; and those have jsuflfervd who had a stock on hand of an 
article before re idilyBalahlp. As usual, men have run inio the oppose! te extreme ; 
and although th<^ habits of the cftrptt-ba^ytf have changed as Uttle tkSk hiii ward- 
robe has int^^rtjisied^ yet nothing but trunks the (-izo of a Newfouadland's kennel 
will now sufHce,«and the railway officials are disgusted at the change. — Anglo- 
Amtriean Timti. 

The mrptt^g Governments of llie Soutliem States, under the protection of 
Grant*M hayutiets, have rolled up an aggregate debt in the nine cotton States of 
$1»4,000.000, — jV, F. Worid. 

St-e also thi* poem on the Carpet-bagger at the word *' Some.** 

A small spreading plants comnion in cultivated ground. 
{AloUugo.) "^ Bigeliiio* M Planta of Boston. 

GaiTom. (Fr. carambole.) In the game of billiard'*, the act of hit- 
ting two balls at once with the ball struck by the cue. — H&gle. 
A caromt or earromf thereforCi ia a lucky blow. 

Dana hit Greeley over the head with the account books of the establishment; 

but (his proved to be a blank shot. Greeley retaliated by overwhelming him with 

back files of the '* THbuuep" . . . Dana knocked Greeley into a cocked hat by a 

aplendM chance carrom with one of A. Oakey Hall's pamphlets. — J^. Y* ffMraid^ 

^ April 3, imi. 

To carry away. To move to ecstasy, to transport, to be charmed* 
A puritatiical deacoti, shocked at the idea of introducing an organ 
into a church, getting much excited, exclaimed: — 

Organs of wood and brass seem like idolatry, as if we coaldn*t praise the Lord 
with our natnial voices I I got canied amaif^ and am cerutnly afraid all this 
care for the outir portion will only make it worse for the better part of na. — 
East/otd, or Hatuehold Skelches. 

**l}o voo remember old Jabe Oreeu's wife up to Wiggletown?" said tb« 

l^<mr^ Carpet' Weed. 



«p with it. Again she wu wide awake againiit Sabbatk-breaktii*, — then *tw» 
monl reform/' — Widow BtdoU Paptn^ p, 128. 
I was completely cnrritd aust^ with the tnafllc 
Comp. Job XV* 12 with Faalma xc. 6. 

Cany. A porta^. Maine. 

Cany -All. A four* wheeled pleasure carriage, capable of holding 
several persons or a family; hence itn name. Some, however, con- 
sider it a corruption of the French carriole. The name is common 
i» the Northern States. In Canada^ it is applied to a sleigh. 

Cazry GiiU to a Bear. ** He ain't fit ft^ cnmj (/uts in a hear** is a 
phrase that expre^*se« a degree of worth lessiiess impossible to be 

Cany-IfOg. A set of wheels used for transporting timber. 

Otut dajf 'bout two weeks after I commenced workin' for the Squire, I wan 
driTiD* 'long, settio' titruddli; of a stock on my carr^-iftff, when f (sorter druv over 
a little fftiairip, and the dumed log come unfastened. — N". Y. Spirit o/ tkti Times, 

The only carry4v</ we could ohtaiii broke in attempting to traneport the fir«t 
gun, —NJ Y* Trihtme, Feb. 27, 1862, LttUr/rom Roanoke Jdand. 

To carry on. To riot; to frolic. 

Wo notke frorae young scape graces, who get up their wild freaks at night and 
continue them till morniiig. Soinetimea Ihey earr^ cm even longer than thia. — 
N,Y, Triimnt. 

To cany Block, When a broker is holding stock for a customer, 
retaining it in his own possession nntil ordered to sell, he is said to 
be carrying the stock for his cu.stomt'r'a account, 

Mr. M [who had failed, siib«eqiiently] paid up every dolljir of hi* Indebted* 

nettf, entering the market a« an outride bull oi>emtDr, and invariably eurrying 
whatever stock be touchiKi, until it reached a Higtirc- admitting of »uperb realizft'^ 
tiont. — Mcdberfj, Mm and Mysttrif* of WaU Strttl^ p. 189. 

Canyinga-on. Rio tings, froli (.'kings. 

There is good authority fur the use of this term by English 
writers of the seventeenth century. 

I» this the end 
To which theno canyinf^-on did lend V 

BtttUr'i HuAlUfvas, Pt. 1, Cant. 2. 
Everybody tuck Chri^tmafi, e!»peciatly the nijjg^rs, and mch carry\n*$-ofi — sich 
dancin' and «lngiu' - and ahootin' poppera and ^ky-racketa — you never did ace. 

— Iftf/or Jtme^'i Courtship, 

When be reflected that wherever there were singin* achoola, there would be 
aartyinyi-un, he thou^iit the cheapest plan wtmld heto let them have thetr fun oot. 

— Ptt«r Cram^ in Knicktrbodccr Mag, 

*'Jeff, let them seminary gall« alone/' said his aunt { *4hey are a wildset; 
and doft'r have §uch oarryitw-oii with them.** ^ Widow Btdtdt Papers. 

Cartman, (Pron» carman,) One who drives a cart. New York. 

104 CAS— CAT 

CaAe. A character, a queer one; as, ** That Sol Haddock is a c<ue,** 
** What a hard case he is,'' meaning a reckless scapeg^race, mau- 
vats sujeL 

**I say, Jeky],** said Tom Gordon, " this sister of mine is a pretty rapid little 
oeue, as yoa saw by the way siie circumvented us this inoming.'* — Mrs. Stowe^ 
Dred, Vol. I. p 20*8. 

Caahaw, sometimes spelt kershaw. (Algonkin.) A pumpkin. 

[The Indians of Virginia] have growing near their towns Peaches, Strawberries, 
Cuskawesy Melons, Pompions, &c. The Cvshawes and Pompions they lay by, 
which will keep several months good after they are gather'd.— Beverly^ Hist. 0/ 
Virffinia (1722), p. 162. 

Caaaareap. The juice of the bitter yucca-root boiled down to a sauce. 

Heat dissipates the poisonous property of the fresh juice. West 

Caaaava or Caaaader. (W. Ind. casavi.) The native name of a 

shrub of Central and South America, from the root of which Tapi(5ca 

and Mandioca are extracted. See Tapioca. 

The plant of whose root the Indian bread easava is made is a low herbe. — 
Gerard, fferbaU, ed. of 1633, p. 1543. 

Hariot in speaking of the plant says: — 

Some of our company called it Cassavy ; ... it groweth in very muddie pooles 
and moist groundes. Being dressed according to the countrey, it maketh a good 
bread, and also a good spoonemeate, and is used verie much by the inhabitants. 
— Newfoundland of Virginia, 159<), p. 17. 

And here Cassawder, to which, though its juice 
Be Poyson, yet they now have a device 
To press and grate it, so in time of need, 
And sometimes else, they safely on it feed. 

Bardie* s Last Voyage to Bermudas (1671), p. 11. 

Caatanaa, or Cheatnuta, in tropical America, is the name given some- 
times to the Jack Fruit {Artocarpus integrifolid)^ and sometimes to 
the edible fruit of the Screw Pine (Pandanus). 

Caatoria. Castor oil so prepared that its offensive properties are 

Caawaah ! Dash ! splash ! The noise made by a body falling into the 
water. See Cachunk. 

Catalpa. (Catalpa cordifolia.) An ornamental tree; a shade-tree 
with large flowers, common in the Middle and Southern States. 
The aboriginal name. 

Catamount A name applied synonymously with Panther and Painter 
to several wild, fierce animals analogous to Felis concoloTy but not 
specially employed to designate that species. 



Catawampoualj or Catawamptiotisly. Fiercely, eagerly. To be 
catawamfihouahf chawed up iti to be completely demolii^hed, utterly 
defeftted. Doe of the ludicrous monatroaitie^ in wlucli the vulgar 
language of the South-western States abounds. 

In thift debate, Mr, B. was cnUifcamptiouifjf chafctd vp; his argumenlA were 
not only met, but hb sarcasm returned upon hinisdf with great elTisct — ChnrUs- 

There in Homethin^ cowardly in the idea of disunion, Wliure is Ihc wealth 
■od power that nhouM muke iia fourteen millions take to our htQh bc^fare ihrfM 
Imndred ihoufand tv^lavf^hulderA, fur fear of being oataman^ioud^ ijhawtd upf -* 
8p€€ch of Fnd. Dott^iti^s, 1857. 

Citizen* and fellers : on tlie blocwiy gjound on whith our fathem eaUtwampfml^ 
poured out rhetr clurct free as oil, let the catamoutit loo»t% and prepanj the en- 
ginea ol vengcanoe. -' B, H, HiU, Spttch tm the Ortgom QtutHvn. 

Catawba Grape, A cultivated Tariety of Vitia lahrusca. It is the 
great wijie-grape of the United States, 

Cat-Bird. {Mimut Carolinensis.) A bird of the thrush family. 

Catch. A term used among fishermen to denote a quantity of fish 
taken at one time. In some districts^ they say '^ a haul of fish.^' 

It is iaid that the txtich of blue ti«h In the inlet and river is gjeater than ever 
known «o early in the Mafton, and Ihat they arv aervini up secunJutn arttm at 
Mr, WillifttoQ'9, — iV, T. Courier and Enquirer, June 24, 185S. 

To oatcb. To caicti the railway train is to be in time for obtaining 
a passage in it. 

To catch a Weaael asleep. It is supposed that this little animal ia 
never caught napping, for the obvious reason thtit he sleeps in his 
bole beyond tlie reach of man. The expression is applied to per* 
sons who are watchful and always on the alert ^ or who cannot be 
■urprised; act, ** You cannot deceive me, any sooner than you can 
eateh a weaael ankept^^ or ** You cau*t catch a weaael asleep.^* The 
expressions are common. 

To oatcb up. Among travellera across the great prairies, the phrase 
means, to prepare the horses and mules for the march. 

The mule mitit have been there seven or eijLflii hours, by the graM she had 
eat; a pony had been hitchet! there too, and after the mule had been caicked up, 
^N. y Spirit of the Timts, FnmtUr Tnh. 

Thej travelled alt night, and when day broke took to th« bush, camped down 
4 emart piece off the trail, fitavcd till about noon, ecUchtd up their fres^h horsei, 
took a bee-tine through the timber, and, when night came, pushed for the trail 
m^n. — Jhid, 

Come, boys, it*s daylight, we've a hng inarcli twforo u»; so catch ttp^ and 
we *U Im off, — Prairi* Scena. 

106 CAT— CAU 

« Cateohise. A yulgarism once common in New England, among 

school-children and their elders, for catechism (t. «. the West- 
minster Assembly's Shorter Catechism). Boys and girls **8aid 

their catechise." 

All seeming, to hU knowing eyes. 
Familiar aa his catechise. 

Or " Webster's Spelling Book." 

WhUUer^ Extr./rom a N, Eng, Ltgtnd, 

Catfish. (Grenus Pimelodus. Cuvier.) This fish, in several varieties, 
is common throughout the United States under different popular 
names. It is also called by the name of Horned-pout, Bull-head, 
Mud-pout, Minister, or simply Cat. Often called catties by the 
Negroes, especially in many parts of the South. There is a very 
large species called the Channel Catfish, which is noticed by Dr. 
Kirtland in his Report on the Geology of Ohio. 

Cat-Rig. A boat-rig with one mast near the bow with only one sail, 
and that one a boom-sail. 

Catatiok. A bat or cudgel, used by New England boys in a game at 

ball. It is known by the same name in England, though used for 

wt^f^ & different play. In Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland, and 

*JL^y^ further South, the term is applied to small wood for burning. In 

/• f /§ i( Ernest Bracebridge," a very nice boy's book, a similar meaning 

is given to Dogsiick, 

f , , . \ ^ When the cat is laid upon the ground, the player with his cudgel or catstick 

strikes it smartly, it matters not at which end, and it will rise high enough for 
* • )' him to beat it away as it falls, in the same manner as he would a ball. — StntU^ 

Sports and Pastimes. 

Armed with a few rusty swords, catsticks, pitchmops, and clubs, &c. — Drakt*s 
Hist, of Boston^ Vol. I. p. 624. 

Cat-Tail Grass. Herd's-grass, or timothy. 

Catting. Fishinp: for ** cat.*' Thus, a story is told of an old Negro, 
who, while fishing, was seen to keep only the catfish and throw all 
others, even of the better kinds, back into the water. On being 
asked the reason, he replied, ** Lilly massa, when I goes a catting I 
goes a cattin\^* 

CatUe-Mark. The brand bearing the owner's name. 
^ V^U*#4 Cattle-Range. In Kentucky, a park. 

Cattle-Train. See Stock-Train. 

Caucus. A private meeting of the leading politicians of a party, to 
agree upon the plans to be pursued in an approaching election. 
Gk)rdon, in his History of the American Revolution, 1788, says : 




** Hie word is not of novel iDvention. More than fifty years ago, 
Mr. SAtnuel Atijims^s luther, and twenty others^ one or two from the 
nortli entl of the town, wher^ all ahip businesa is carried on^ used 
li> me«»t, make a caucun, and lay their plan for intnxlucing ceilain 
personA into places of trust and t»ower. When tliey had settled it, 
they separated, and uBed each hia particular influence witliin his 
©wa eircle," &e. — Vol L p, 240. ^- 

♦*From the alxire remarks of Dr. Gordon on tnti^j^ord/' saya 
Ml* Pickering, '* it would seem that these meetirtgH were in some 
AMAfture under the direction of men couperned in the * akip hminess; * 
and I ha^l therefore thought it not improbable that cauattt might be 
a corruption of caulkers^ ^ the word * meetings * being underafcood, 
I WBfl afterwards informed that several gentlemen in Salem and 
Boston believed this to be the origin of the word" 

The earliest mention of this word^ that has come mider my notice, 
is in John Adamses Diary, under date of February i 1763, where he 
aay g ; 

Tint dar learned that tho aiucus dub mmis^ at certain tinif«i in the garret of 
Tom Dawes, the adjutant of the Ek^ston regimiinL — Worbt^ Vol, II. p. 144. 

I 'U be a votetf and tUU is a big character, able to ahouMer n ffteambont, and 
earnr any candidate that the muffM at Baltimons may set up aj^iist thB pe<tple. 
Wbat 't the people to a oauciut Nothiag but a dead agaa to an eartliiiuake. — 
CrvcktW* Tour, p, 206. 

Caoaalty. Much used for ccumatty. 

To be a Caution. To be a warning. A common slang expression. 

'Hu? way the Hepealere were ui«d up teat a mutiim to the trinity of O^Connell, 
Bapeal, and Attti-Slarery, when they attempt to interfere with true Auiericaa 
dtltvn*. ^ Neie York Htmld. 

Tbare'i a plaguy sight of folk* m America, Major, and the way they swallow 
down the chea;p t^mika h a tuiutitm to old nigji and papcr-makern. — Major Botim^ 
I'a^r, Ma^-day in Nea* Kof'Jb, p. 3* 

Mo««« wound up hia description of the piano, by saying that the way the dear 
creettiri could pull muAtc out of it tffoi a eamtion to hoarse owls, — Thttrpe^t Jfya- 
teriist^the BftrktcoofU, p, J4» 

A targ« portion ol' f *apLnin Marryatfn ** Travels of Mond. Violet " is stolen 
Irom the ** New Orlt^ans Picayune ; '* and it will not be surpnsing if Kendall [the 
iwtliorj letn hid sting into this t ran n- Atlantic robber. He can do it in a way that 
will h% a caution. — Pravuletict Ji/umnL 

Oar route wa* along the fihowj of the lalte in a northerly direction, awd (he way 
lh# iry hlast would come down the bleak shore was a cnution. — IJoffqmnf Wmitr 
<a tki Wear, p. n^, ^^ ^^^ 

Cautian to Snake* is often heard. jI . *- •» ^ 

Cavindiali. Tobacco aoftened and pressed — Webster. Also called 

108 CAV 

Cavern Limestone. The carboniferous limestone of Kentucky, so 

called from the innumerable caves which its hard strata contain. 

In the softer limestone of the West, the roof of the cavern falls in 

and forms on the surface a ** sinkhole/' a funnel-shaped depression, 

which, if the opening is not closed, sometimes proves fatal to 

animals and even to man. 
Cavallard. (Span, caballaday pron. cav-vy-yard,) A term used, in 

Louisiana and Texas, by the caravans which cross the prairies, to 

denote a band of horses or mules. 
The ehe/d'csuore of this Indiaii*s rascality was exhibited in his stealing our 

whole cavaUard^ consisting of ten head of horses and mules, which he drove to 

the mountains. — Sctnu m ikt Rocky Mountaint, p. 80. 
Two or three were mounted, and sent into the prairie in search of the caviardt 

of horses. — A Stray Yankee in Ttxae^ p. 97. 

Cave. A caving in ; a yielding, submission. 

There is evidence all around that the diftaffected portion of the people of Kasb- 
yille and vicinity are becoming more reconciled to the Union *' invasion.** . . . 
While I do not believe that there will be a speedy general cave of all Secession 
sympathies, I am satisfied that the majority of our citizens will feel little regret 
at the change of rulers. — N. Y. Tribune, March 31, 1862, Lett, from Nathville, 

To oave in. Said of the earth which falls down when one digs into a 
bank. Fig^atively, to break down ; to give up. 

He was a plucky fellow, and wam*t a-goin* to care in that way — S. SUckj 
Human Nature, p. 55. 

At the late dinner, Mr. W arose to make a speech, but soon caved in, — > 

WoMkinyton Paper, 

The South-western and Western Locos, it is thought, will cave in, and finally 
go for the Treaty [of peace with Mexico], though they talk loud against it now. 

— JST. Y. Tribune, March 4, 1848. 

Dr. Kane, in alluding to the weak state of his companions, says, Morton felt so 
much better that he got up at six ; but he caved in soon after. — Arctic Eaplorct' 
Hone, Vol. II. p, 94. 

Caveson. (Fr. cavegon.) A muzzle for a horse. New England. 

There, Chilion, it is just as I told you. The rake-shame put a caveton on him. 

— Margaret, p. 804. 

To oavort. To ride ; to prance ; to curvet. 

He tossed himself into every attitude which mnn could assume on horseback. 

In short, he cavorted most magnanimously. — Georgia Scene*. 
For several days past, they [the soldiers] have cavorted around the suburbs in 

sufficient numbers to pillage with impunity. — N. Y, Herald, June 9, 1862, from 

Richmond, Va., Despatch. 
Cavortin'. A corruption of the word ** curvetting," applied to 

horses and their riders when prancing about in order to show off; 

and then figuratively to any person capering about. A word chiefly 

used in the Southern States. 


CAW— CILA. 109 

A whole gmng of fellen, and a heap more of young ladies, came ridin* np and 
reinin* in, and prancin* and carorfiV. — Major J<me»*t Courtship^ p. 41. 

Old Alic had a daughter, that war a most enticin* creatur; and I seed Tom 
Settlers onrw^in* round her like a young buffalo. — Rvbb^ Squatter Life, 

There *s some monstrous fractious characters down in our be^t, and they 
mustn't come a cavortitC about me when I give orders. — MojttrJonet'i Courtthipt 
p. 20. 

Ca^vhaluz ! "VMiop ! The noise made by a box on the ear. 

I hadn't sot no time before, caichalux! some one took me the right side o' the 
head with a dratted big book. The tire tlew out of my eyes like red coals. — 
Major Jonet't Courtship. 

Cayman. (West Indian.) This native name for the alligator is still 
retained in the West Indies. 

Cedar. A name applied in the United States to di£ferent genera of •> ^«ib^ 
the Pine family. The Red Cedar (Juniperus Virffiniana) is a jimiper. ^'7?ff 

The AMiite Cedar {Cnpressus thyoides) is a c^'press, which is foupd 
in the ** Cedar Swamps." 

Cent. A copper coin of the United States, whose value is the hun- 
dredth part of a dollar. — Webster, There is a bad habit, west of ^» ^?f 
New England, of calling a cent a penny, CJLm^s ^ '*^«<%c 

Centre. The central part of a township, where, if not elsewhere ^*?7f. U ^ 

witliin the township, are usually a church, and more or less of a ^l^^'Zl f^l^ 
villajre. In Killingly, Connnecticut, are North Killingly, South ^'"^Tf 

Killingly, East Killingly, and ** Killingly Centre,^* Many other 
townships in New England have similar divisions. 

Centre-Boeurd. A board or plank keel which is drawn up or let down 
through a case made in small craft that ply in shallow waters; a 
sliding keel. 

Certain, for certainly. *' lie *s dead certain. ^^ ** I *11 go to-morrow, 
sure and certain/^ *' Certain sure ** and ** Sartin sure/^ All very 

While the flames were getting the better of our firemen, in their attempts to 
save the Baptist church, an aged African shouted out, '* De idea ob try in' to 
sabe a BnptiM cditiss by sprinklm', — nuflin but *mersion do dat work dis 
time, sartin sure / " — N. Y. Tribune. 

To certificate off. Sometimes the *'ojf*' is omitted; as, ** lie cer- 
tificated,'* i. e, he went off by, after having presented a certificate. 
See Sign off. 

Chained Ligfajtning. Western, for forked lightning. 

Chalk. A long chalk vulgarly means a great distance, a good deaL 

110 CHA 

When a person attempts to effect a particular object, in which he 
fails, we say, ** He can't do it by a long chalk.** 

'T WM about calf-tf me, and not a hnndred year ago, btf a long chalkj that the 
biggest kind of rendezvous was held to Independence, a mighty handsome little 
location away up on old Missouri. — Buxton^ Far Wut^ p. 14. 

Put on your hat, or you may get a sunstroke, which will cause you more pain 
than the helmet did by a long chaUc. — Sam Slick^ Human Naturt, 

IM^ova Scotia is behind in intelligence, it is a long ckaOc ahead on fks in other 
respects. — Sam SHck, 

To chance. To risk. 

Change. To meet with a change is to have change of heart, to expe- 
rience religion. 

** Do you mean to insinuate that ye 've met with a change f '* said the Widow 
Bedott to Jim Clarke, the peddler. 

" I think I may confidently say I hev,** said Jim. 
. " How tong since V *' 

'* Wall, about a year and a half. I experienced religion over in Varmont, at 
a protracted meetin'. I tell ye, Widow, them special e£Forts is great things; 
ever sence I *ve come out, I *re felt like another critter." — Widow Bedott 
Papen, p. 108. 

Chaparral. In Spain, a chaparral is a bnsh of a species of oak. The 
termination eU signifies a place abounding in ; as, chaparral a place 
of oak-bushes; almendralf an almond orchard; parral, a vineyard; 
ca/etal, a coffee plantation, &c. 

This word, chaparral, has been introduced into the language 
since our acquisition of Texas and New Mexico, where these bushes 
abound. It is a series of thickets, of various sizes, from one hun- 
dred yards to a mile through, with bushes and briars, all covered 
with thorns, and so closely entwined together as almost to prevent 
the passage of any thing larger than a wolf or hare. 

We had, too, a lieutenant of His Majesty^s Royal Marines, another of Nature*8 
noblemen, who preferred a camp to the toils of field sports, when a scrub was to 
be crawled under or forced through at the risk of tattered garments, scratched 
hands, and bleeding noses, to say nothing about a basking rattlesnake or so, as 
formidable as the chaparral of Palo Alto, defended by gigantic cactus here, 
sharp-pointed yuccas there, and cat-claw briars everywhere. — N, T, Spirit o/ the 

The Mexicans laid their plans right well, 

And placed their men in a chaparreU, 

But Rough-and-Ready made them smell 

Gunpowder a la Polka. — Comic Song. 

To cha'w up. To demolish, discomfit. 

I heerd Tom Jones swar he M chaw roe tip, if an inch big of me was found in 
them diggins in the momin*. — Eobb, Squatter Li/ej p. 68. 

CHA—CHE 111 

Mifls Patience smiled, and looked at Joe Cash. Cash's knees trembled. AH 
eyes were upon him. He sweat all over. Miss Patience said she was gratified 
to bear Mr. Cash was a musician ; she admired people who had a musical taste. 
Whereupon Cash fell into a chair, as he afterwards observed, chawed tip. — 
Tkorpt*s Backwoodt, p. 28. 

To oha'w up one's Words. To eat one's words; to retract. 

Do you want me to tell a lie by chawing iq> my ovm words f— Southern 
Sketches, p. 84. 

Cheat. See Chess. 

Chebaoco Boat. A description of fishing vessel employed in the 
Newfoundland fisheries. So called from Chebacco Parish, Ipswich, 
Mass., where many were fitted out They are also called Pink- 
stems, and sometimes Tobacco Boats. 

Checker-Berry. (Mitchella.) A handsome little plant, the only 
species of its genus. Also called Chickberry. The Wintergreen 
(Gualtheria) is also in some places called Box-berry and Tea-berry. 

Check Guerilla. One who frequents gambling rooms, and solicits 
money, or the checks used therein to represent money, from the 
proprietors, by-standers, or betters, and who has no other means of 
living other Isic'} than the money so obtained. — Statutes of Nevada 
(1877), chap. ex. sec. 2. 

Ohecka. 1. Money, cash. See Pass in one*8 Checks, 

The old man's toast: '* It ^s hard work to keep your sons in check while they 
*re young; it's harder to keep them in checks when they grow older." 

2. Counters used in gambling, which are handed in to the banker 
at the end of the game; hence ** Pojtsing in his checks '' is a euphe- 
mism for dying. 

How Jimmy Bludsoe passed in his checks, 
The night of the " Prairie Belle." ^John Hay, Jim Bludsoe. 

From a fugitive poem in a newspaper, entitled " Grandpa's Solilo- 
quy," in which many slang words are used: — 

Of death we spoke in language plain, 

That no one would perplex ; 
But in these days one doesn't die. 

But passes in his checks. 

Cheek. Courage; impudence. Provincial in England. — WrighVs 
Prov. Die. 

I *Te known men rise by talent, though such are exceptions rare. 
And some by perseverance and industry and care; 
There are men who build up fortune by saving a dollar a week ; 
Bat the best thing to make your way in the world is to travel upon your c^eaft. 

Boston Traveller^ P. ThoK^mm. 





Cheese. Tlutt *s i\e cheeaty i. e. jiiat the tiling; that was well done* 

If gjeenbackB ain't not jr'cul ikt chetu^ 

I ifuesa there *» evils that '9 extremer; 
For inftiince, — shmplAster idecaf 

Lik« them put out by Gov'iior Seymour. — LoietU, 

dieeae Box. 1. A box in which cheese h kept. 

2. A cupolated iron-caaed gunboat (in allusion to its cupola or 
round tower). The Confederates termed the *' Monitor** a cA^Jff- 
box on a raft. 

\^nier« is the ** Monitor *' ? We have not henrd n word of the littk cheese-box 
lince the repulse in Jumei River until y^esterday. — N, Y, THA'Wrtfi, June 10^ 1863. 

Oiemiloon. A dress-reform garment combining the chemise and 
drawers in one garment. From the Fr. chemise. 

" I feel awful good In my chtmilucm^** she said, "and then I wear fuspenders," 
Dr. ^f^tty Walker f Ltct on Drew. 

diequet. An Indian name of the Lafirus squeteaffue, or weak-fish^ 
retained in parts of Connecticut and Rliode Inland. 

Kifih has e been scarce and high. A fine lot of Chtqutt^ a scarce liah In thU 
market, made tlieir appearance yesterday and mjM readily at 12J cents & potiod. 
— Hart/urd 3farket Itrp^L 

Cherlmoya. Went India and South America. The fruit of the Awyna 
cherimolia. full of wJiite, creamy, and cusifird-like pulp. Much 
esteemed. A variety {A, giabra) is called by the Spaniards of 
Cuba Mamon; by the French » Cachmeni cccur hzuf* 

Cherry-Tomato. See Tomato. 

Cheaa. {Brnmus secaUnus.) A troublesome weed, often fotind in 
^ wheat-fields, which gave rise to the erroneous opinion that it was 
degenerated wheat. It ia also called Cheat. 

CbeflByoat. (Ch<*,shire Cat.) Altlumgh Charles Lamb*s query as to 
the reason why cat.^ grin in Cheshire has not yet met with a satis- 
factory solution, still the fact itself seems to remain undi!*puted. 
A correspondent of the ** New York Tribune," discussing the dis- 
tinctive quality that separates man from the brute creation, ob- 
aerves, ** Rabelais^ forgetting the hyena and the Chesstfcat^ says it 
\A laughter.** 

Cbewink. The ground robin; so called from its peculiar note. On 
Long Island it la called the Towhee Goldfinch ,- and in Louisiana^ 
from iU plumpness, Grasset, — Natural History of New York. 

Chicba. (West Ind ) A sweet fermented Jiquor made of Indian com, 
pine-apple, bananai 3to. 


dllclMdee. (PaniM ntrkaplUun.) The black-cap titmouse, a very 
eonmiHn ISuIr l>ir.1 rh p;tiu..l fn.m its peculiar note. — *4«</u&on, 

Fur distant pounds ilu' bidden chickadee 

CIos4i ftt mv »]de; far tltfttaut snuml the Ic^aves. . . . 

I^icefi, An Indian Bummtr Eeittrie* 
When the ditekatftt is fwepltig 

In the hmni'heA uverhead« 
And the bluebird »eems to bptcn 
To liAch lovttig vord that*B finid. — 7*. Z, Mitchell, 

Cblokaree. (5eiwnj# HudBomi.) The popular tj am e of the Red Squir- 

Cbf oka«aw Plu m , ( Pru n wi ch tcasa . ) A pi um grow i n g on th e banka 
of the Ued River, Arkansas, upon small bushes from two to six feet 
hl^h. They are very lai'ge and sweety and vary id color from a light 
pink to a deep crimson. — Capt, Mnrct/'s Report, p. 19. 

Uhickea Fixiogs. Tit the Western States, a chicken frjca«see« 

Tbp feiniimd<?r of th^ breakfjut table [in New Yorkl wus filled up with iom« 
wftnttetl-up old hen. culled chicken Jixinijt, — Ri*bio^ Tmrth in the U. S. 

We iTtjttrd on very fa!4t, in (he Assurance of rapidly npprojiching a 4nug breftll- 
fmt of rhirken Jirin^, *^gg*T ^^^ doins, and com ^lapjackit. — Cartfxm^ Ntm 
PurthoMf, Vul II. p. es. 

I i;oeM I *U order nttpper. What sball it be ? Corn-bread and common doina, 
or wheat brtMd aud ehicktnfjinsf — Sam Siick, 3d Ser., p. 118, 

Chicken-Orape, The River Grape, or Vifi^ rifmrta ; alao called Fro«Bt- 
Grape. The sterile vine is cultivated for its sweet-soeuted bios- 
soms^ and U Lben called Bermudian Vine. 
Chicken Snake. A name popularly applied to variona species of 
n.ikpH which are considered as particularly destructive to chickena' 
irl eggs. 

Chlckwit Of Chiekewit. The «» weak-fish." Connecticut. See Blue Fuh. 
Chigoe, sj^elled al«o vhiyre^ chigfjeTt jigger^ &c» 1. {Pulex penetrans,) 
Sand-flea.^, which ]:ienetrate under the skin of the feet, particularly 
the toes. As soon as they accomplish this, an itithing Bensation is 
felt; when the chigre ought to be removed by means of a needle 
breaking the skin. Ko uneasiness follows; but, should this pre- 
caution t^ neglected, the insect breeds in the toe^ and sometimes 
produces dreadful sores, These insects are found in the West 
Indies and the adjacent shores of the GaH of Mexico. — CarmivhaeVs 
We*i Indi€», Vol. I. p, 189, 

2* In Kentucky, the term is applied to a minute red acarun, or 
tick, which buries itself in the skin, while the feme chico of the 


114 CHI 

South (a pulex) causes torment by the growth of the eggs which it 
deposits under the skin. They are found in abundance in the sand 
along the bays and rivers of Maryland and Virginia. 

Child. This child is a common expression in the West for *^ this per- 
son," t. e. myself. • 

Human nature can*t go on feeding on civilized fixings in this big village ; and 
this child has felt like going West for many a month, being half froze for buffler 
meat and mountain doin's. — Ruxton^ Far Wut. 

Chili Colorado. (Span.) Red pepper. In California, Texas, and in 
the States bordering on Mexico, the Spanish term is universally 
used. It is used as a liquid, and in great quantities. 

I was helped to a dish of rabbit, with what I thought to be an abundant sauce 
of tomato. Taking a good mouthful, I felt as though I had taken liquid fire. 
The tomato was Chili cohrado. — General Sherman^ t Memoirs^ Vol. I. p. 22. 

Chills and Fever. A name for fever and ague. 

Chincapin, Chinquapin. (Powhatan Ind.) (Ccutanea pumila.) A 

diminutive species of chestnut, shaped like a boy's top, common 

south of Pennsylvania. 

They have a small fruit growing on little trees, husked like a chestnut, but 
the fruit most like a very small Acome. This they call ChechinguanUna^ which 
they esteeme a great daintie. — Smith's General Hist, of Virginiay 1624. 
Their nuts, black walnuts, persimins, 
Kiscatoma.nuts and chinquapint. 

Ramsay, Picture of America, p. 161. 
Chinee. A marble. 

Chinch or Chintz. (Span, chinche.) The name given in the South- 
em and Middle States to the Bed-bug (cimex). 

Chinches are a sort of flat bug, which lurks in the bedsteads and bedding, and 
disturbs people's rest a-nights. — Beverly's Virginia, 1705. 

Miss Ramsay, in her poetical account of her residence in Virginia, 
in describing the apartments she occupied, says: — 

I thought I on the wall espy*d innumerable insects move, 
And swiftly o*er the whitewash rove ; 

She called the mistress, and asked ** who owned this live and 
moving wall ? " 

•*0h ma'am, they 're chintzes," she did say. 

»* Chintzes,'' said I ; " pray what are they ?*" 

** They 're insects, ma'am," she coolly said, 

"That sometimes trouble us in bed." 

Poetical Picture of America, p. 72. 

Chinch-Bu§;. A fetid insect^ destructive to wheat, maize, &c., in the 

Southern and Western States. — Farm, Encyclop, 
Chinese Sugar-Cane. See Sorghum, 


To cblcik. To fill up climks, or inter«tices* The prooesB of filling 
with cky the iiit^^i'Htices between tlie logs of hoiiaes in the new 
oountries, and then plastering them over with the same material, is 
called vhmJting and dnubitifj. In tlie north of England, it is culled 
dttuhitnj and Jilting. — Moor. Also to cklnce. 

Our lc^tou*« cjitartem, however, vrvrv^ clo9c\y chinked and dauhtd^ and we 
pan«d i Mimfortable tu^Uu-^KtwttiWt Santa Fe Ejj*., Vol L p, 28. 

Tht ltttentw«ff of Lite log wnll were ^'cAmleii/' the duuhlntj bi'injr large irhipa 
end *mn\\ afabi, ili^fftin^ tike i»iratA of rocks in |j:«>n1t>gT; und (he dnubii^j^Yf^Wmt 
f-i 'W •|>lH»hod in toft by the hmnd of the architect. — CbWton, Th^ 

> r, v.»r r. p. ei. 

A i u [ wr iif »nili;r5 occupied aconjipicunus pTace in the little cabin, and tipon 
iti •• . ' / wall* iiiiiuy a coon and dear skin wnre drying, — Tht Fire ffufU. 

t Ui4.t wilh a bl orttieae the other day in Suuthern lltinois ; and, a» it con hare 
00 b^arin^;; ui*fp» tht? election now, p«rhapH you would like to have it to u»e for 
ti^mUt^ In amon^ your election rotunis. — jV, 1'. Spirit of the Tim€4, 

Chinning. Fillitijcj witli moss the vacancies between the studs of 
hoQM<!i, to keep out wind and frost — CariwrighVs Labrador (1792), 
VoL in. Glo«8iiry, 

To chip In. To put in a piece of money or a bank-note; to con- 

An id« :i •♦-» tnN viry LTnimtly t a prevail that the printer should ^* chip in" to 
ev^rrv' rtuLritaLlu Antl r -i-iinii- .jh iLition. — The Winstead (Conn.) Herald^ KoT. 

Chipmok, or Chlpmonk, The pcjpular name for the Striped Squirrel 
(Scinrui itriatus). Probably an Indian word* 

The rhildr«n were nevtr tired of watrhing the vagaries of the little chipmtmk, 
m he glaured from braniih tci branch. — Mm, Ciat^r*** Forest Lije. 

Chipper. Lively - 

Over the hill in thi; p<ic*r-liouse I 'm trodgin' my weary way, — 
I» a woman of Mventy, and only a trifle jfray, — 
I^ who am »mart and rhippfr^ for all the years I *tc told^ 
A* mvay other woman ihnl *8 only half a« old, 

CfirUfm, Fftrm B(tUadt, p. 51. 

Chip-Tar d, A yard, or that portion of a yard^ in which logs are 
chop^ied for fuel. 

U iht soil around the body of the trees should become too stiff, it may be 
carefntly mnoved and if^t place supptii^d by coar»e manure, or the ecrapingB of 
the chip^ard. — New Entjamt Farmer. 

Chhrm^mrl (Fr., pron. chn'nrf*>.) A custom that prevaib in tbo«e 
|»art» of the lTnit4>d Stjitea which were originally colonized by thd 
Trench, m T^umiium, Missouri, kc, Abo common in Canada* 
When an unequal match tttkes place, when an old bachelor maniet, 

116 CHI 

or a widow or widower marries soon after they become such, their 
friends assemble on the night of the wedding with tin horns, bells, 
tin kettles, and whatever will make a discordant noise. This 
^* serenade " is nightly continued until the party is invited in and 
handsomely entertained. See Callithumpians, 

Chirimoya. (Annona chirimoya.) The Custard Apple of the more 
temperate part of the tropics. 

Chirk. 1. Lively, cheerful, in good spirits, in a comfortable state; as 
when one inquires about a sick person, it is said, he is chirk. The 
word is wholly lost, except in New England. — Webster. It is 
doubtless derived from the old verb to chirk. (^Ang. Sax. cercian)^ 
t. e. to chirp, which is found in old English writers. 
2. To make more comfortable. Connecticut. 

Afore I had mixed a second glass of switchel, up they came, and the General 
looked as chirk and lively as a skipper. — Major Downing't Letter$. 

To chisel. To cheat; to swindle. Comp. To gouge. A Western 

The banking-house of have, by their recent failure, chiteUed the people 

of California out of a million of dollars. — AUa Cali/amian. 

To those who are in the habit of being chiselled by their butchers and grocers, 
we would advise a visit to the governor's room and examine the standard of 
weights and measures. — New York Herald. 

**StHte your case," said a Western lawyer to a "sucker," who had applied 
for advice. 

"It *8 an infamal mean case of woman-swindling; it sets my teeth a gritten to 
think on it. I've been owdaciously cAwe^W, dan darn my foolish pictur! I 
might have known that puke warn't to be trusted. — St. Louis BeveiUe. 

Chisel. To go full chisel, to go forcibly, earnestly, violently, or as at 
great speed. Connecticut. See Full Chisel. 

Chitlins. (A contraction of chitterlings.) Rags, tatters. 

While I was in this way rolling in clover, they were tearing my character all 
to chitlins up at home. — Robb^ Squatter Life. 

They did all they could to tear my reputation to chitlins. — Sam Slick, Human 
Nature, p. 188. 

I told you it wur a sorrowful stor}-; but you would hev it out, and jest see how 
it makes parfect chitlins of your feelin's. — Western Tales. 

Chiv. The California term for Southerner, — an abbreviation for 

Chivalry. A cant term for the people of the South. 

Had the Free States been manly enough, true enough, to enact the Wilmot 
Proviso as to all present or future territories of the Union, we should have had 
just about the same didoes cut up by the chivalry that we have witnessed, and 
with no more damage to the Union. —N. Y. Tribune, April 10, 1851. 

CHO 117 

Chock-fall. Entirely full; see also Chuch-fuU. 

I *m chock/idl of genius and running over, said Pigwiggin. — NeaL 
By this time we got into a shabby-looking street, chock-fuU of hogs and boys. 
— Major Downinfff May-day in Ntw York. 

Chock up. Close, tight; said of a thing which fits closely to another. 

Chogset. (Indian.) A small fish common along the coast of New 
England and farUier South ; also called Salt Water Perch. In New 
York, it is called a Burgall, which see. 

Choke-Berry. (Pyrus arbutifolia.) A plant having astringent prop- 

Choke-Cherry. The popular name of the Prunwt Virginiana, so called 
from its astringent properties. 

To choke oflf. To stop (a person) in the execution of a purpose. A 
figurative expression, borrowed from the act of choking a dog to 
make him loose his hold. To arrest a public speaker when growing 
tedious is called choking him off. This is done by shuffling the feet, 
applauding where applause is uncalled for, by putting questions of 
order, &c. 

I spent a couple of hours in the House, amused by watching the dignified pro- Aw 

ceedings of our KepreKentatives. The operation of ** choking off^' a speaker was 
very funny, and reminded me of the lawless conduct of fighting school-boys. — 
N. Y. Exprest, Feb. 21, 1848. 

Choker. A cravat. See Whitechokered, 

To chomp. To chew loudly; to champ. This pronunciation is com- 
mon to the north of England and to New England. (Also used in 
the West and South.) 

Chompine or Champina. The residuum of an apple or other fruit 
after it has been chewed, or ** chomped,** and the juice only swal- 

Chop. A Chinese word signifying quality; first introduced by mari- 
ners in the China trade, but which has now become common in all 
our sea-ports. Originally the word was applied only to silks, teas, or 
other goods from China; now the phrase first-chop is an equivalent 
to ** first-rate," and applied to every thing. 

A smart little boss, says I, you are a cleaning of: he looks like a Jirgt-chop 
article. — Sam Slick in England^ ch. 2. 

I went to bonrd at a famous establishment in Broadway, where puudry young 
merdiants of Xhejirtt-chop were wont to board. — PeriU of Pearl Strtet, 

Chore. A small piece of domestic work; a little job; a char. 

In England, the word char is used both as a noun and as a verb. 

118 CHO— CHU 

The pronunciation also varies; in some of the southern counties, it 
is pronounced cheure, or choor. 

In America, only the noun is employed, and generally in the 
plural. The pronunciation is uniformly chore. It is mostly con- 
fined to New England. 

** Hunting cAtUe is a dreadful chorej** remarked one of our neighbore, after 
threading the country for three weeks in search of his best ox. — Mrs. Clavenl's 
Forest Life. 

Radney comes down and milks the cow, and does some of my other little chores. 
Margaret, p. 388. 

Girl-hunting is certainly among our most formidable chores. — Mrs. Kirkhnd, 
Western Clearings. 

The editor of the ** Boston Daily Star," in recently relinquishing 
his charge, gives the following notice: — 

Any one wishing com hoed, gardens weeded, wood sawed, coal pitched in, 
paragraphs written, or small chores done with dcsfiatch and on reasonable terms, 
will please make immediate application to the retiring editor. 

To chore. (Anglice, char.) ** Bridget was choring [working] when I 

left home." To ** chore about." Connecticut. 
Chore-Boy. A boy who does chores. In the north of England where 

** char " is still used, they have char-hoys and char-women. — Wright, 

And look that the hangings in the matted room be brushed down, and the 
char-woman rub the rest of the rooms. — Revet, The Town Shijls, 1671. 

Chowder. A favorite dish in New England, made of fish, pork, 
onions, and biscuit stewed together. Cider and champagne are 
sometimes added. Picnic parties to the sea-shore generally have a 
dish of chowder, prepared by themselves in some grove near the 
beach, from fish caught at the same time. Grose describes the 
same as a sea-dish. A veal chowder when fish are scarce is a very 
agreeable soup. 

Chowderhead. A word corresponding with the forcible, if not classi- 
cal, teiTOS numskull and dunderhead. See Muttonhead. 

ChrlBtian. (Pron. with the first t long.) A name assumed by a sect 
which arose from the great revival in 1801. 

ChrlBtianizatlon. This substantive is to be found occasionally in 
our religious publications. The verb to chrManize, which is in the 
dictionaries, is in use among the English writers; but the substan- 
tive is never employed by them. — Pickering, Vocabulary. 

Chub. 1. A name sometimes given to the Blackfish. 

2. A round squash. Connecticut. 
Chttb Suoker. A sea-fish, otherwise called the Horned Sucker. 

CHU 119 

Ohnok-a-Imck. A Western game played with dice. 

At Hollj Fork, Tenn., any one can be accommodated. Cards or chuck-a-luck^ 
old corn or cider, a fight or a foot-race mattered not: it was to be had at a 
moments notice. — Southern Sketches^ p. 160. 

Chnck-fuU. Entirely full. Common in familiar language, as well as 
chock-fully Which see for other examples. 

[At dinner] the sole labor of the attendants was to keep the plates chuck-fuU 
of something. — Carlton, The New Purchase, Vol. I. p. 181. 

I *11 throw that in, to make chuck-fuU the ** measure of the country's glory.*' 
— Crockett^ Tour, p. 86. 

Chnck-Will's-Widow. The common name of a bird of the whip- 
poorwill family. (Caprimulffus Carolinensh.) Mr. Audubon says : 
" About the middle of March, the forests of Louisiana are heard to 
echo with the well-known notes of this interesting bird. No sooner 
has the sun disappeared, and the nocturnal insects emerge from 
their burrows, than the sound * Chuck-wilVs-widow,^ repeated with 
great clearness and power six or seven times in as many seconds, 
strike the ear." — Ornithology, Vol. I. p. 273. 

Chofa. (See Earth Almond.) 

Chnk! A noise made in calling swine. Always repeated at least 
three times. Ciacco is one of the Italian words for hog. 

Chcink. A short, thick piece of wood, or of any thing else; a chump. 
The word is provincial in England, and colloquial in the United 

I rode an all-fired smart chunk of a pony, — real Creole, — cane-ralscd, — walk 
six miles an hour, and run like a scared deer in a prairie a-fire. — N. Y. SpirU 
of the Times, Frontier Incident. 

It is true that now and then a small chunk of sentiment or patriotism or philan- 
thropy is thrown in awkwardly among the. crudities and immoralities [of the 
stage], but it evidently has no business there. — New York in Slices, The 

To chunk. To throw sticks or chips at one. Southern and Western. 

Chunked. Any person who is impudent or bold, at the South-west, 

is said to be chunked. See chunk. 
Chunk-Head. A name of the Trigonocephalus contortrix, red snake, 

or copper-head. See Storer and Holbrook, 

Chunky. Short and thick. Often applied to the stature of a person, 
as ** he is a chunky little fellow. '* 

Chunk Tard or Chnnkee Yard. A name given by the white traders 
to the oblong four-square yards adjoining the high mounts and 
rotundas of the modern Indians of Florida. In the centre of these 



stands the obelisk; ftnd at each comer of the further end standi a 
Blave post, or ,strong stake ^ where the captives tlmt are burnt alive 
are bound. — Bart ram. 

The pyramidal hillft or artificiAl mounts, and highways or BVcmjeii, tending 
from them lo artificial Jakes or p<.md?, vnst tetnigoii terraces, chvnk-i^tinh, aud 
obelisk:^ or pntarM>f wood, are the mily monuments of lal»or, inpenutty, mut mng- 
nlAccincef llmt I hove seen worthy oC notice. — Bartram^ Tra^l* in Florida 
(1773), p. 518. 

This m doubtlesa an Indian term, and the enclosure a place where 
the natives played a ^me called chuniec^ as will appoar by the fol- 
lowing extract from Dn Prutz : — 

** The waniora practise a diversion which they call the game of 
the pole ^ at \vhii;h only two play at a time. Each fH>le is about eight 
feet loD^, resembling a Roman f ; und the game conaists in nulling a 
flat, round Btone» aboat three iiit^hes in diameter aud one inch thick, 
and throwing the pole in such a manner that when the stone rests 
the pole may be at or near it. Both the antagonists throw their 
poles at tlie same Lime, and he whose pole is nearest the stone 
countj? one, and has the right of rolling the stone " — Htstorjf of 
Lotilaiartii, 1720. 

Speaking of the Indian.s of Florida, Romans says, — 

Their fiivurile jjam** of dmnke h a pltLin proftf of the evi! conapqiiencea of a 
violent }>ai<.4ion for gaiidn^, ufMm aII cIahim?* j at this they phiy from morning till 
night, ... and they bet high. — NaL Hist, of Florida, 177K, p. 80. 

Chnrcli. Mr. Pickering has the following remarks on this word : ** A 
church, as a hmitf ofpersom^ is distinguished , in New England, from 
a ccmfjregation^ by the privileges which the former in general reserve 
to themselves of receiving exclusively in that church the sacrament 
and baptism, in conseqaence of their having publicly declared their 
assent to the creed which that church maintains, Marriagei burial, 
and public worship are open to the members of the congregation 
at largCt according to the forma and methods employed in each 
church ; as are also catechising for children and visits to th6 sick," 
— Vocahularif. 

Church-Maul. To call to account \ to discipline bj ecclesiastical 
methods, N. England. Vulgar. 

Chute. 1. A rush ; a sLimpede. 

Ttie Douj];lns and BreckenridjTje men . . . »t€ mahing to Lincoln with a per- 
fect fttumpetU^ Besides tlut, the Bell men arc al^o taking the same chute every 
lUy. — Baidmort Patriot, Sept., 18«0. 

2. A bayou ; a side channel, Louisiana and along the Missis^ 
Bippi River. 

!riD— CIT 


Wbeit ffp wirrir to i bfyou ur rAM/«v the fieirt would divide, part going tlie irreg- 
ttlftrwAv, and ynn kvcping the direct course, — JVT. K, rniwiie, Junu 11, 1801, 
X«<f./nwi Fort Piltuic^ Ttnn, 

W« wrn? rtmning rftut^ after e^tif*, — i new world to me, — And If there wfti 
A ptftkulMrt V mtinjHul pUiec m a c/tuti, wc were pretty fiiire to m«cta broadhorii 
there { *iid^ U he fiLilrd lu tiu there, ^u would find him Hi lh« hvad of the ckuU. 
Mark Trrtiw, in Ati'intie }f<*ntUtf, for Ajiril, U7f>. 

8> (Fr. cAo/*,) A water-fall ; a cascade. See Shoot and Schute. 

Cider. All talk and no cider is a phrase eqtiiTalent to *' great cry and 

lit lie %iool/* 
Cider Brandy. See Apple Brandy, 
Oldst OIL Ciiler concentrated by boiling, to which honey L«* siibse- 

qaenily ndded. Aluo called cider royals probably the original name; 

such basing found in old receipt books, and h perhaps English, or 

mftY come from tlie supposed superior quality of the beverage, 
Ctonega. (Span.) A marsh. New Mexico and Texas. A small 

marsh is called a eieneguifa, 

Ctmltn. A squash, so called in the Middle and Southern States. See 

Qncinnati Oysters. Pigs' feet. 

To circulate. To travel. Used in this sense many times in a pam- 
phlet on the *' Frauds, Extortions, and Oppressions of the Railroad 
Monopoly in New Jersey.** In comparing the rates of travel in 
various States, by which it is showti that the rates in New Jersey 
an? the highest in the world, tlie author says of the traveller: — 

Arriving ia ^Inryliind, a aliive State, he cit'cultlu at « rtwt of frum three to 
II VI? CCDI& per mile. 

drouoistanoe. Nat a cireumMance^ in the Bense of a thing of no 
account, nothing in comparison, is a vulgarism which has become 
popular withiti the last few years. 

I never urn*' fo Icjin iind fpare a gull »» Mm A »inc« I was rnt^ed. Pba- 

raohV lean kinc warn*t the pntaUe^C part of a eireumttanve to Ii«?r, I had to look 
twke Ueforu ( could see her at all. — Sam Siick, Uunuin Nature, p. ISI. 

Ctoco. The popular name of a fish of the herrincrkind which abounds 
in Lake Ontario, particularly in CThtiuraont Bay at the eatt end, 
where thousands of barrels are annually caught and salted. 

ClUfied. Having and exhibiting the peculiarities of residents of 
cities. New England. 

To citlzentze. To make a citizen ; to admit to the rank and privileges 
of a citizen. — IVehater. Rarely used. 

Ttneymttd wa% eitUemztd io PeiiaAylvAJjia, when thar© in the form of an tmU 
grant. — T, Pickering, 

122 CTT— CLA 

Citron. Sweetmeats made from a melon, so as closely to resemble 
that made from the fruit of the citron-tree. 

Citron Melon. The sort of melon employed for that purpose. 

City. The new settlers and miners in the far Western States and 
Territories, anxious that the particular spots upon which they have 
built their rude cabins or pitched their tents, or where they hare 
** located,** may become a great town or city, at once add the word 
*^ city " to the name they have chosen. For example, at the present 
time (Dec., 1876), when it is hardly safe for white men to be in the 
district in Wyoming and Dakota known as the ** Black Hills,*' 
seven places are marked on the maps bearing the names of '* Crook 
City," *' Gay City," ** Deadwood City," ** Spring City," •* Golden 
City," *' Custer City," and ** Rapid City." Modest towns and vil- 
lages are unknown. It is safe to say that there are not five hundred 
inliabitant^ in either of these so-called cities. In New KngUnd, 
too, many villages are so named. 

Civil Authority. Justices of the peace are considered as the cirQ 
authority of the town in which they dwell. — Swifi^s Sygiem of Ike 
Laws of Connecticut (1795). I. 109. 

The term is yet retained in the Connecticut Statute Book, and 
in common use. 

Civism. Love of country; patriotism. — Webster. This, like the pre- 
ceding word, is one of the productions of the French Revolution ; 
and, though frequently used several years ago, is now ol^>lete here 
as well a* in France. — Pickering^s Vocabulary. 

Claim. A piece of public land which a squatter marks out for him- 
self and sf^ttles upon, with the intention of purchasing it when the 
government will offer it for sale. There are also claims for mines. 

To claim. To assert. 

Tliis verb, although in common use, is not found in the dic- 

A boy of fonrteen. named G«org:e LaDoo, applied for a nifHit> l^l^n^; at tbe 
Third Police Station la<t evening, and stated that he had left hi$ home in Green- 
field. X. H . that rooming, at the command of his parents, who dximtd to be 
unable to f upport him. — Boston Jovmal. 

John Bfloher has brtkas:ht a writ aj^ain^t John F. Costello, to recover on certain 
note^ pven ^ y the latter for a grocery store in Wiothrop. The notes are eiaimtJ 
to be worthless- 
There i« a curious legal complication in onr coun« pendinsr the distribntion of 
the estate of the late John D. Lewi*, a decreased wealthy meix-hant of this city. 
... He never made known his history, and ciaimtd he had do rehi:i*^as living. 
BottKm T.xinfcrijA, Feb. 7. 1876. 



ClaLm-Jainper. One who violently seizes on another's land claim. 
Claim-Jtimplng. Yiolentlj Behing on another^s claim. 
CUm. The popular name of certain shell-fish, highly esteemed for 
food. They are of two principal kitidB: — 

1. Tlio Hani Clam (Vcnaa mt^rct'nana)^ a very eommon mollusk, 
found buried in the sand or f^hored of marine districts at half-tide. 
See Quaho^* 

2, The Soft Clam, or Mananosay (3///a arenaria)^ obtained from 
tiie nhore-s of tidal rivers by digging one or two feet in the loose 
fan J- It has a loug» ext«insiibk\ cartilaginous snout, or proboscis* 
tlirough which it ejects water; whence it is also called Stem-clam. 
Abundant on the sliores of Narragaiisett Bay. 

A friend informs me that in Maryland the latter ia always called 
the manmofte^ and never mfl-nhtU clam. 

Clira*Balce. Chims, baked in the primitive style of Uje Indians, fur- 
liinh one of the most popular dishes on those parts of the coast 
where tliey abound, and constitute a main featm-e in the bill of fare 
it picnics and other festive gtitherings. The method of baking is 
fts follows: A cavity i« dug in the earth, about eighteen inches deep, 
which is lined with round stones. On this a fire is made; and, 
when the stones are sufficiently heated, a bushel or more of soft 
clams {according to the number of pei'sons who are to partake of 
the fea.Ht) is thrown ujjon tlicm. On this is put a layer of rock- 
weed gathered from the beach » and over this a second layer of sea- 
weed. Sometimes the clams are simply placed close together on 
the ground, with the hinges uppermost, and over them is made a 
fire of brush, Tliis is called an Intiian htd of clams, Clama baked 
in this manner are preferred to those cooked in the usual way in 
the kitchen. 

Parties of ten or twenty persons, of both sexes, are the most 
common. Often they ejttend to a hundred^ when other amuse- 
ments are added; and on one occasion, that of a grand fwilitical 
mas^^meeting in favor of General flarrisou on the 4th of July, 1810, 
Dearly lO^MO persons assembled in Rhode Island* for whom a W«m- 
IkiI^ atuJi tjhowtirr were prepared. This was pr<>baldy the greatest 
feast of the kind that ever took place in New England. 

The •* Boston Atlaa '' quotes the following as the opinion of a 
Gennan Professor who had written on the United States: — 

TTie y>^oplo ii«^fnih1«» ul the 3»i<lj* of the river, /iiirl frnst wptin n 'fHricH oi oyiter 
rmlldl thr rlnm. Hfl*.'r whk li (hry grow nony dtkI clamor oJwiUt their rigfU^. 

rifitf, httht tire a Rhode Island institution, 80 much so that the 



aldtftm.anic prnpKjrtionB of some of her joUiest aons rise and faU with 
the tide; and they are uolorioiusly happy at high-water. When 
given pro bano publico^ claiii-Uakes ai^e like cattle-show dinners in 
manimoth tents*; but when enjoyed by a select party, on some re- 
tired beach or tiwy islet^ Uiey are gorgeous. 

**At such times, 
With sboea aiad stockings doffed, ami trowscm rolled 
Abovu their knees, the men adveDtumufi wade 
Through mud and WRter ' for to dig Tor dims ; ' 
While on some smooth-wora stonea ihe maideai pile 
A tieiip of dUQ-drled branches, which caflamed 
By loco'foco match or other meam^f 
Kindlei^ Atraightway, and heati* the hrnrth bcneatli; 
Kext »wei?ping off the ai^he*, lay the ciamii, 
And co\'er o'er with Aeaweed, that ttiay keep 
Encloaed the tierce caloric* Then when done, 
And the sheli open* of it^ielf, the morsel sweet 
Ij* gobbled from that uaiura! jspMin, its jiuces all 
ReEained, ita Eavor fmh and jjcrfect." — Ptrky, 

Clara-SheU. The lipta, or mouth. There ia a common though Tulgar 
expreasion in New England of ** Shut your r/aw4-.<A^//; '* thai ia» 
** Shut your mouth, ht>ld your tongue/' The padlock tiow u^d on 
the United Statea ra ail-bags is called the ** Clam-shell padlock.*' 

Yoti don' I f«ei much like Hpeakm*, 
When if you let your damMhtth ga|)e, a quart of tar will leak in.*' 

LoweU^ Bifflow Paptrg^ Vol. II. p. 19. 

Clapboard. A tliin, narrow board, used bo cover the sides id hottaes, 
and phui-ed so as to overlap the one below it. Originally c^itv-tvoard, 
or board made by cleavinf^. In England, according t/O Bailey's 
Dictionary, a clapftoard is a thin board formed ready for the cooper^s 
use, in order to make casks or vessels. 

Ship'plankei^, clovL'-board and pike-«taveg, theac lade home shipa twice a year 
hence. — Detc, tif Neto Alifion (1G48), Forceps Rtpr., p. 31. 

Mr. Ohlham had a Funall hou«<e near ihe weir at WatertowB, made all of dap- 
boanU [i. e. of cloven boanlfi, without limber], bunted Atigu»t, 16t}2* — WiMhrnp^ 
Journal, Vol. T p. 87. 

Kichard I>ongo was flned^ ta 1&S5, for riving divera good treei into tltapboardM, 
Mau. MtcordM, VoLl, p. 103. 

To clapboard. To cover with clapboard ing. 

The house wa« neat and comfortable, tt was a amalt frame buildiog, ck^ 
bo(irt!td on the sides and roof, — Margaret, p. 18. 

Clape, The common name of the Gtddeu- winged Woodpecker, in the 
btate of New York. Dr, DeKay thinks it »* a pro vine utl word, in* 
troduced by the early English colonists/* It is elsewhere called 
High-hole, Old Eng. Ht^gh-trhde^ Hig-hawe; mod, Ilic;kwall and 



Hlcliway fBc>otli); Tucker, Yucktl (WilUhw); Flicker, Wake- 
np^ Pige«:tii WockI pecker, and Yeliow-hammer ; in Louisiana, P^ue- 
hmM-jaunt. — Nat. HUt, of New York, 
CUpmatcb. I. A kind of woman's cap. See Chekmutck* 

2. A kind of seal-skin. CL'^i/L *^«| 

CtatterwtLackiii|;> A clatter, racket. 

When we went a bar hunting, I hennl tfa« dAfndest elatt^rwhtickinff nod Doite 
tn the roiif! behind us. — Southern Sketches^ p. 33. 

CUjr-Baters, otherwiae Dirt-Eaters. A miserable set of people iii- 
halntiug some of liie Southern Stateii^, who subBieit chieliyon tur- 
pentine i»hiskey, and appease their craving for more jsuhstantial 
food by filling their stomachs with a kind of aluminous earth 
which alriounds everywhere. This gives them a yellowinh, drab- 
oolored complexion, with dull eyen, and faceit who^^e idiotic expres- 
aiaa in only varied by a dull despair or a devilish malignity. They 
are lookM down up>n by the Negroes with a contempt which they 
return iw a heaj'ty hatred. — Ida May, See fully in •* Thompson's 
Practice of Medicine," 
Thm Clean Tbiiae. A low expression, denoting propriety, or wlmt m 

It \% ftdiiittl«d thit ending out ftWp« to plunder your neiuhbnr or ndveTsaiy is 
U> mtu h Its ititfn; wonts in muking^ war. I dan't Uku it. It i»nH tb<! cltan thing. 
Crockett, Timr, p. 103. 

A m«ii m»y lie lh« strajght thing, that is^ right up and down like a f*jw's tail; 
but haii^ me if he citii do die clciin thinif aay how he can dx It. — S. SUck^ 

Clean Ticket. The entire regularly nominated ticket at an election; 

ft ticket wiUiout any erasures; al^o called a ** straight ticket.'* 

'* He went the clean ticket on the Whig nominations.'' 
Clear Qrit. The right sort; having no lack of spirit; unalloyed; 

Nor do we tbtnk the matter much mended by a dtar grit Republican canvea- 

tkm, pulling one or two Deiiiocnit» at the foot of their ticket. — Ntw York 

Tnimnt, Oct. 10. 1«!1. 

In Canada, a Clear Grit means a Liberal in politics. 
Clearing. A place or tract of land cleared of wood for cultivation; 
a ct^mnion use of the word in America. — Webster. 

ASU'T we reatthed the tK^undaries of the charing and plunged into the timbf^red 
Unt!^ thit heat was exdianged for a grotto-like coolness. — Jfr<, Clavfn'ii FortU 
X.I/V. Vol. I. p. 64. 

Clearing House. An establishment recently organized in the city of 
New York, where clerks from the various banks daily meet to aettla 
the balances of their respective institutions, 



^o clear out To take one^s self off; to depart^ dt^amp. A figxire 
boiTowed from the* A vessel ** takea her c]eai*aiice 
papers/' or *^ clears out *^ for departure. 

Thiit thinji; of»hip t Ain a tttningcr to; I dtni't like it; it tJiints crer^ 
at'tlun of life; it is tike A »kiiak gcttjnj^ into & Uoune, — long after he has citnrtfi 
oti^, you smell him in every mcmi and closet from the cellar to the gparret, — 
Crockett « Speech^ Tifur, p. 74. 

1 tnmed rnund^ and was goingf to clear out. Bat, pays he, Stop, Mister I — 
Major Douming'M Mt^^-dtiy i»i jVeir Vark. 

Not a soul ha5 diatiirhed our peaci'ful repone, exwpt fliat Colonel Colden and 
the Dickenses came, one niirlfit after we hnd jjjone to bed, and cleared out the next 
day at nocnj. — Tichnnr^t Life and Letters^ Ldt. (a II. S, Lf*jarv^ Vol. 11. p. 207. 

Clear Swing. Good opportunity. See Full Swing. 

As ^wm a^ civilizatimi amves at yeans nf <lf*rr«?tion, vre expect to see our ritics 
pKlirgied of rowdyisni„ incentive* to vice abzitrd, and a clear tvping Hud ample 
reward grunted to hi]>or and Intelligence. — N. Y. Tribune. 

To clerk or to clerk it To act in the capacity of a clerk. In com- 
mon use at the West^ and occasionally heard in New York, 

Teaching;, clerking, law. &e., are *o very preiariouB, except to men of estab- 
Ijfihed reputation und bu»)ne!iR, that it i» next to madne»ji for a youth to ooow 
here relytng upon them. — jV. Y. Tribune^ April 19t ISii). 

Young Soublette bad b*"cn clrrking down to the fort on the Platte, io he know'd 
•omething. — littxton, Far li'cjrf, p. 17. 

I was struck with the original mode in which the young gentleman who waa 
dtrhinfjl it manag;ed his .^pelting. — A Stray Yankte in Texas^ p» 197. 

Clever. The following are the English eenses of this word b» giyen 
by Dr. Worcester: Dextrons, Rkilful (AfldLton) ; just, fit, proper^ 
comtnodious (Pope); well-shaped, handsome (Arhurhnot). 

In the United States, rtta^r in much used a.'^ a colloquial word in 
the sense of good-natured, well-disposed, honest; and the phrase 
*^ clever man** or *^ clever fellow *' is employed to denote a person 
of g^ood-n attire, gwd disposition, or good intention, — Worcet^er-it 

llie hitidlord of the hotel was a n^rr either man, and made me ffcl quite al 
home in his house, — CrackeU*M Tour dovn EnM, p, 22. 

It ii related that an Engliah lady arriving in New York, being 
recommended to take a servat;t-girl who was described to her a^ clever^ 
but not avmrt, answered that such a maid would suit her admir- 
ably. But she soon learjied that her new {icquisition was merely 
inoffensive and didl; whereas, ahe had expected one brisk and 
intelligent, without being t*howy or dressy. We sometimes hear the 
expressions ** English clever '* and ** Yankee clever " iiswd to indi- 
cate the sense in which the word is to be taken. 

CLE— CLI 127 

We have also heard the word used in a sort of hybrid sense , as in 
the question and answer: ** How are you getting on ? " ** First- 
rate, thank you." ** Well, that *8 clever,'' 

Cleverly. This is much used in some parts of New England, instead 
of well or very well. In answer to the common salutation, ** IIow do 
you do? " we often hear, ** I am cleverly,*' It is also used in the 
sense of fairly, completely. 

The landlord comes to me, as soon as I was cleverly up this morning, looking 
fall of importance. — Sam Slick in England^ ch> 8. 

Cleverness. Mildness or agreeableness of disposition; obligingness; 

good nature. Used in New England. — Webster, 
Clevis, or Clevy. (Fr. clef, clavette.) An iron, bent to the form of 

an ox-bow, with the two ends perforated to receive a pin, used on 

the end of a cart-neap, to hold the chain of the forward horse or 

oxen; or, a draft-iron on a plow. — Webster, 

Clitt. A part of the Silurian limestones of the West have been called 
»* Cliff limestone," from the bold cliffs found on the banks of 
streams. The word much used in this way is usually pronounced 
elifts, and hence the adjective cli/iyj frequently applied to streams as 
a proper name. Thus, **a cli/ty country" is one abounding in 

Climb do^vn. To climb is to ascend, to mount, to rise, but in no 
sense to descend. Yet we sometimes find it used with the latter 
signification. Thus, Mr. H. Ward Beecher, in describing his visit 
to Oxford, says: — 

To climb down the wall was easy enoagh, too easy for a man who did not lore 

And ac^in : — 

I partly climbed down^ and wholly clambered back again, satisfied that it was 
easier to get myself in than to get the flowers out. — Star Papert^ p. 41. 

Cling or Clingstone. A variety of the peach in which the flesh 
adheres, or clings, firmly to the stone. When the stone readily 
separates from the flesh, they are called free-stones or open stones. 
The word peach frequently designates the free-stone, while the others 
are called clings, 

Clingjohn. A soft cake of rye. 

Clinker-bnilt A term applied to a class of boats in which the 
lower edge of every plank overlays the next under it, like clap- 
hoards on the side of a house. It is a variation of the English term 


^f'K\f\ /<-?*- 




Clip, A blow or stroke with the hand; as^ ** He hit him a cUpy — 
Wf hater. Provincial in Eu gland mid the Northern States. 

Clipper-Ship. Ships hiiilt in the clipper style, with a special view to 
quick Yoyagen; clipper-lmilt ships. They owed their origin t^ the 
immetisely profitahle tra4e wltich sprang up between the Atlantic 
8eiVIK>rts and 8aii Francisco » soon after the occupation of California 
by AmerieanM frojn the United States, 

Clique. A combination of stock-brokers or capitalists, for the pur- 
pose of increasing^ or diminisliing the price of stocks^ in order to 
break down the market, AL*?o called a ring. 

Clitchy. Clammy, sticky, glutinons, ^ — Pivkerinffit Vocah, Mr. Pick- 
ering say3 he has ** heard this word used in a few instances by old 
people in New England; but it is rarely heard/' In Devonshire^ 
England^ they urc the verb to elitrh, meaning to f^tick, to adhere, 
to become thick or glutinous. From thin our word is evidently 

Clockmutch. (Du., liapmuts^ a night-cap ) A woman *9 cap com- 
posed of three pieces, — a straight centre one, from the forehead to 
tlie net?]c, with two side pieces. A New York term. 

Close. Held firmly; difficult to obtain; scarce. Usually said of money j 

as, ** Money is dose.*' 
Cloud. A woman's knit head-covering. 
To cloud up. To g^ow cloudy; to cloud over. 

Although the morning wm fine and ple^u^unt, it clouded up before eight o'clock 
«nd cwmroenced raining. — BnjnnV» Jftumvy to California^ p. 43. 

Club'Tall. The common shad, the fatter portion of which have the 
tail swollen, and on the coast of Carolina, where they are taken, are 
called clulHaits. — Nut. Hht. N. \\ 

Coachee. Fr. A coachman ; a stage-driver, 

Coaoli-Whlp. In Virginia^ the name of a snake. 

Of no de^cripijun I ^hnll make 

Of eithtirgliwia nr rntlle-snake; 
I 'v€ not tlie cctttcti-tefnp^ or the greeny 

Tlte iiioce&«in or wampum seen. 

Jiapufttf^ PictHTt o/Amtriea^ p. 100. 

Coad. The anthracite coal of commerce is thus cla«ii*ified in the mar- 
kets where »old : 1. Broken or furnace coal, being the largest 
lumps; 2. Stove or range ooal; 3. Pea or nut coal; 4. Egg coal; 
5, Coal duint. 

Coal-OiL Oil extracted from cejtaiu coal; petroleum* 



To coast To slide down hill with «l«d8 cm the mow; a term used by 
boys in New England. See Tabogganmg> 

OiwHiig. The araii.Hement of sliding^ down hill with aleds on the 

1 guw» Annt Libl*v never Uutk*! one i>f Uiv ninnera nf her a!ed some Saturdfty 
tftittmoon, when it wn* prinie f^mring. — Ffinny Ftm. 

Coat Used in the South for peUkooL Formerly common, and «till 

provincial, in England. 
Cob. The spike on which the kernels of maize, or Indian corni ^ow. 

When the coni is attached to it, it is called an **ear/' The old 

EitgHfih word eoh^ the top or liead (from the Saxon cop)^ is doubtless 

the urigin of the term. 
The following short but pithy dialogue is represented as passing 

between two Virginia Negroes soon after the surrender of Lord 

Coruwallis, at the siege of Yorktown: — 

JfMjPo. Halloo, brudJer Sum ; how you do ? 

Sam, fHij Jon* I know, bnidJer Mmjujn; mighty poorly. 

Mm^. rutirlyt Indcc'd ! you no hcnr do ncwM? 

Snm^ No, What fitrtcr news ? 

Mtn^, Why, d(»n*t you knr>w ilat tti^ great man dey v&\\ Cornwall^ ? 

Yes, I hem nuff ^bouL him ahooting after white folks all over da 

TMUiffOk Wen» I »'{Mji« yon know Gin'ral Wajshittgton ? 
S4sm* Oh. yp^ 1 I know ole maaser. 

Mintft>. Wfll, I Urll yt>a what: he no Comwallis now, he Co&wallis ; Gin'nd 
Waidiiugton shell all dt eom off him too slick. — Cherokee Phmnijr, May 21, 183S. 

Cobb* A blow on the buttock. Wrights in his Dictionary of Obso- 
lete and Provincial EngliBh, explains the word as follows: ** A pun- 
t(ihm<»nt u«ed among seamen for petty offences or irregularities, by 
bnntin.'uloing tJte offender on the posteriors with a cobbing-stick or 

Shrtitl'i -"■' V. ,rTt* ti^ found vending jipiriluon? liquors, without p^^rroi'sion from 
hif oi» I -TO §0 olTendinjc: *httU rec<?ive fiftoen c*tbh» or puddles for every 

fiich oi'^ 'bv hand^ of ihe patroHera of thp H<HiU?nienl m nei^hUirhood 

in which Itie oScncc waa committed, — CAero^*« Phianix^ April Ift, 1828. 

Cobbler. I. A drink made of wine, sugar, lemon, and pounded ice, 
and unbibeil through a straw or other tut>e; as, a ** ahen7 nobhler,** 
2. A sort of pie, bak**d in a jx^t lined with dough of great thick* 
nestt, upon which the frxiit is placed; according to the fruit, it is 
ail apple or a ^K?ach cobbler. Western. 
Coe»sb ant) Squaw*weed. Names given to Erigeron CanadenM (and 
other ipecica of the genus), used by the Northern Indians for medi- 
cioe. — Rqfine»tpie^ Med. Flora, I. 167* 





Cockarouse. A title of honor nmnntjj the Iiidianfl of Tir^nia, and 
long aftt^rwards used by the English settlerg as a term fc^r a ji^rson 
of conaequence. ** Werowance or cockarouse/* says Captain John 
Smithy ** means a captain," — Hist. Virginia, 1621. 

A eochnrcmsf h one thnt baa Ihc honor to b« of the king or quecn*B coiim il, 
with reliition to the aSkirH of ^vtrnraefit. — B&errltf*t Vir^nia^ 1706, Book III 
With npur of punch which lay in pate, 
Ere tong we lighted at the giate; 
Where in An anricti! cpkIot house, 
Dwi'Il my new irit-nd, a cockermue, 

Tht Std-wftd Factor; or, A Voj/agt to Maryland^ 1708. 

Cocktaii A atinuiljitinjq^ beverage, made of brandy, gin, or other 
liquor, mixed with bitters, sugar, and a very little water* A friend 
thinks that this term was sugg^ted by the shape which froth, as 
of a glass of porter, assumes when it flows over the sides of a tumbler 
contuhiing the liquid eirf?rveitoing. ** A bowie-knife and a foaming 
cocktail/' ^N, }\ Trihtm^, May 8, 1862. 

In the Anif^rican*s Aix>stTophe to Bon Gaultier, addressed to 
Dickens, after his visit to the United States, he says: — 

Did we Jipape our brandy cockiaiitf utiut thee of our whiskey-ji^rog^ ? 
Unif the jukps that we gave thee would have floored n Kewnmn NoggA. 

Book of BfiUtuh. 

Coco Q^raas, An insidious grass or weed much dreaded by Southern 
planters, as it will speedily overran and ruin any field in whiclt it 
takes root, 

Cocoa-Nut 1. The well-known fruit of the Cocos nuciftra^ a kind of 
palm which is a native of the West Indies and South America, aa 
well as of the other parts of the world. 
2. The head, 

Coco-Plum. (Sp. hicaco, Chrifmhalanm hicacoJ) A fniit grown at 

Cocoa or Bddoea. The tuberous root of the Arum escukntum, the 
principal dependence for a supply of food among the Iatx>ring popu- 
lation of the We.^t Indie<«, 

C. O- D, Collect on delivery. Letters put upon packages sent by 
express, the charges on which must be paid on delivery. 

Codding. Fishing for codfish. A common tenn in New England 
Heaport*^, where vessels are fitted out for the purpose. 

Codfiah Aristocracy. A clana of people who, with wealth, are too 
apt to be deficient in intelligence and good manners, and who, 
MwrtheliM.MBiimaMi»(rfimiii»tBiiBB. Sm^Skaddm. 


Coffee-Tree or Kentucky Coffee-Tree* 

An oruainetit^ iree wttb viiluable wood 

(Gffmnocladux CanaderunM, 

feeds of which 


ODce tided m a substitute for coffee. 

Qoih»<Bo«t. See BaUerff. 

Cobaee^ A t^rm applied to the people of certain settlements in 
Weitem Pennsylv^ania from tlieir use of the archaic form Q«o* he^ 
— "Quoth ha.'* 

Colioeli. soroetime^t callfHi Black Cohosli or Bkck Snake-root {L'lmici' 
fugri racemofa)^ a well-known mediciual plant* Th^re are also (Acta 
4lZ&a) Wliite Banebeny, Blue Cohosh, {LetmHct thalktroidts) Pap- 
pooee Root» or S<pmw Root, and otlier allied plants. 

Wkite txihuah wilt bring out tins wbelk in less than fio time ; and brook lime will 
break an^ fever. — Marffaret^ p. 375. 

€^d, ojij, 1, Applied in a peculiar way to those who do not en^ge 
in some particular undert.akirig, e* tj, a revival in a church (this seems 
Jto be the original uae), a railroad comjwiny, a bank, or even a con- 
' to cheat some one. He who does not earnestly engage in 
\ is said to be cold. 

now mtny share* in the " Bank hare be^n vabucrtbed to-day Y Why, Smith 

tpcik ti«ti ind .Tone* twenty. And how ininy did Jackson take 'i Oh» ho '» coW, 
ht *4 only take one^ providecj E M stwap hor'«e!i with him. 

^* In looker, to have a jEjtwd hand cold is to have it dealt you at 
flie st«.rt, without having t<* draw new cards. 

3. Dij^tant. Said of one who, in play hunting to find the thing 
coDoealed, is remote from it. New England. 

C36ld as Presbyterian Charity. A relic of the dislike had towards 
Pre jtbyterians when Episcopacy was e^rtablished in Vir^^nia by law, 
and the leaders of Virginia society sympathized with the English 
Presbyterians, especially as Cromwell and the other Puritaift about 
1540-1045 were known as Pre.sbyteriuns. 

T^ey are ci^td m Ptf»byffriftn charitij, and mean enough to pot tha inn in 
ettipae, Kn Uie Riijjlish, ^-Hnm Stkk in Knt/lnnd. 

Why, CoUtnel, the river i* pretl y cnn^iderable for a run ; but the wat«r li eoel 
0§PrrwlhfUrinn eharitjf^ — CrocJtttt'i Tour. 

It was conunon in England, particularly during and after Crom« 
wcirs time, to ridicule the Presbyterians; thus Hudibras says: — 

When thou at uny thing would'st rail| 
Thtiu niak'iit rresbytery thy fcale. 
Ai il Prc*hytery were a ftnndard 
To Bixf whatever 'fl to lie slandered. 

Part I. Canto S. 




Cold Bread. The adjective cold is ooastaatly applied to bread that 
is not coid at all, but simply not hot^ also, to stale bread. 

Cold Slaw. See Kool Sha, 

Cold Sore. An eruption usually about the mouthy and generally 

accompauying a culd in the head, 
Collapaity. Collapt; collapsion- 

Many emigrantB arriving at Chat state otcoH'fpnty lem^^d Kat broke stayed at 
Los ADgekn bocauM they could not go on. — 5fin Frttneuco paper. 

Collar. To wear the collar. To be under the control of another; to 
be flubjeet to. 

So, when one ^i cbow to Congrea!!^ ex fiucin ese he *« la it, 
K collar grows right roand his neck in a m in net. 

LotctU, The Bitflouf Paptrt. 

CoUards. A comiption of Colewort, a kind of cabbage grown in the 
Souths the leaves of which do not form a close head, and which are 
much us€d an " greens." In the South they are called coUards. 
" Bacon and cnllardi '* are a universal dish there. 

The pcRtr tra«ih who #cratehed a hare siib*i?'tonce from a sorry pntch of beam 
t^d cfitltrth^MUtX llie 6tfl|;£?ering bully, who did not condeecend to do any thing. — 
Giltnort^ Mif MSoutJiem Fiiendt, p. &4. 

In England T young cabbage is called cohworU 

How turnips hide their swelling hemdR below. 

And how the clo«iiig coitworU upwards grow.^-o Guy* 

ColIarett& (Fr.) A peculiar shaped collar of muslin, lace, or linen 
worn by ladies. 

Colonel. A title of courtesy. There is a great fondness in the West 
and South fur the higher military titles, but particularly for that of 
Colonel. New England, too, may be charged with the same weak- 

A Yriend has related to me the following anecdote: — 

A gentleman hud taken a fine Htallion to a fair in Kentucky, and wi* T«?elved 
with great cordiality and restpect. lie had never held any military rank, and 
notirtng thai he wa* addressed by every one as Colonel, although others of the 
party were not, he inijuired the reason, and received the following reply: 
•*Well, Rir, Colonel, sir, is a title of courtesy; and here in Kfntmky, «tr» we 
always pve it to any gentleman who keeps a hotel or owns a stml hurse, sir." 

Cold Plour. A preparation made of rndiau com (maize) parched 
and pulverized, mixed with one-third its quantity of sugar. Two 
or three tea.^poonfuls of this compound stirred in a glass of water 
will answer for a meal when food is scarce. See Nocake and Pinole. 

Collect. (Du. kolk\ a pit, a lake.) A pond supplied by rainj a 

imfmrnintilliif Mw Yirb Itot wrtitta rt M titY rt Mw Yflrt 



IMV occupied by the ** Tombs/* the ** Five Points," and vicinity, 
waa formerly known as »* The CoUnct.** 

Collector. There are three pviucipal officers in each of the large Cus- 
tom Houae^i in Uiia country^ the Collector, Naval Officer* and Sur- 

Il it th« 4ut;)' nf (lie mlltctor to re<!cive alt miititfe«U, reports, and docutnentB 
M^nlivd 10 l>« i«*d« or cxUibitetl an the entry of imv ve*»el or c«ri^; record atl 
nanlfeiiCs ^t^d^ tc^j^cther with the uavft) officer, estimute the uuiouDt of diitiefi 
fajwXtW on imports, ludomini; the satne on the nrt^pectlve entries; receive, or 
•«c«ire by bund, juiVMiont of dnlie'*; gmtir permits for the nnladin^p or delivery of 
impoftft; and, with the rtpprobation of the Socretiiry of the Treasury, employ 
p«n>unf as uupectxtrB, weighers, g:Aug«;r», meiL«urer«^, and clerkis. — Act March % 


To collide. To strike or dash agaiui^t each other ; to strike or da«h, 
— folluwed by with. — Wcbitter. To come into ctdlision. particularly 
in thi? ca«e of railroad trains approaching each other from oppxisite 

Many ohjrctious have been made to the use of this word, under 
the imprej^sion that it is new and coined for the occasion ; but it hiia 
long^ b^en used by English writers precUely in iJie sense now used 
when »p«;aking of collisions of railway trains. 

The flinti that hide 
Thfl ieedi of fire^ thuft toued in air, oulUdt. 

Diydcn^ Ovid^ Mttam.^ b. xv. 
Ttif ontwanl [ayre], being stracke or coUidtd by a solid body, still strikes the 
aext ayre. — Bitrton^ Anatomy of Mtlanchol^f (1632). p. 274. 

Colored. A term applied to persons who have Negro blood in their 

vf'ins. They are called *' people of color," ** colored people.** 
Comb. A ridge or hill; a bluif. 

The jwMition of Drury'a Bluff po»M*Mea a nataral filren^flh . , . The turn of 
Iha Hvnr that brini48 the boal> in Aghi U only fiOO yard* dislanl. Th^ bluff la a 
^fh n^f^ Of eemh, — JHchmond Enquirer^ May 19, 18U2. 

To come. Tn make ctmte^ m Western parlance, applied to gatne^ 
an» to bring it down with your rifle, 

Vt!^, them English are djinu'd fwl^, they can't fix n rifle any ways ; but that 
ooa did nhoot ** M)mc; ** leastwise, he made rt throw plumb-centre. He mtidt the 
boifer nafiK, lie did, and foui wpU at Pawnee Fork too — jV. V. Spirit of ihc 

To Tunke (trunk come means to produce intoxicatiou. 
To come around. To coax, wheedle, entice. To get around is used 
in the same sense. 

IfrK. Truxton, bealdet doing the wanhing for a number of famt1ie«, and making 
!OQda oo f^arral occ«eioi»| was a great stickler for equal marriagca ; and ob- 




served tli«t ^Mt wm onA(*counUble to ber tJint nuch a proper nice voung i 
Mr, Pttddelfortl coiiM bv |)ervttiled on to go and innrry s«i'h a gtl k« that I 
Ann Lyiies.'* ** But ycl," she tonlinuedt as Ou>ugli *i»e had riHccted lurther oii 
the subject, ** I can tell yau bow it '« all buen broug'tit about ; thtiy \*c Of'tntf 
tntmad tbat yuong tnaii^ lb«y *ve ctnne iirmiiKi bJm. Oil, dou'L I kaciw that old 
Mr*. Lvujijj,'* {hUh meant Sailv Aun'a luulber^) ***be 'a cunning o* a bUark/' 
y*^- A Wtdding at NutrntifvitU. 

"A 77/, ^Q come in with. To bear, bring forth, have. <* The mare will 
,' ^^-u>*^ come in iie^tt summer.*' ** The cow cornea in with a calf in good 

t time.** Connecticut. 

^ To come it stroag. To work vigorously. 

Alluding to the Chinaman Ah Singi when playing euchre, Bret 

Uarte says : — 

Id hi* aleeves which were long 

He had twenty-fouf packs, 
Whith was cutnin^/ it ttntny^ 

Yet I »tttt« but die fact*. — Tht Utaihm Cktme. 

To come out. 1, An expreii^siou utsed among certain religious enthu- 
fiiastaf meaning to make an oi)eu profefcuvlon of religion. 

I experienced rtdiijiuti at one of brothtr Ann^trimg's protracted meer ln*«. Tliein 
epecja) efforts it ^eat iliin^^ — over *incc I come out, I 've foJt like a new critt«r. 
Wifioto StdoU Pnptra^ p. 108, 

2. ** How did you come onif** means, how did you fare in your 
undertaking ? Come oj/' would be more agreeable to English linage* 
To come nut at the little end of the honi means to fare badly, to Tail* 

Can yoa wonder that the btue no8t*s who k^p i»uch an unprofitable ittock come 
out at the imatl ttnd of the hQm in the lon^ run? — Sam Stick, Ist Sen'ea. 

3. A young lady when she first makes her appearance in society 
in said to e&tM out. 

Clara, juat seventeen, and a very protiy girl^ is iooking torwarti with unpatience 
to next year, and coming out in society. ^ Mias GouU^ Marjorie'M Qutst, p. 46> 

Come-Outerst This name luvs been applied to a considerable number 
of persons in various parts of the Northern States, principally in 
New England, who have recently come out of the various religious 
denominations with which tliey have been connected; hence Uie 
name. They have not themselves assumed any distinctive organi- 
zation. They have no creed, l>elieving that every one should be 
left free to hold such opinions on religious subjects as he pleases, 
without being held accountable for the same to any human 

They hold a diversity of opinions on many pointa, — some believ< 
in g in the divine inspiration of the Scripturee^ and others that they 




at hiimau eompositious* They believe Jesus Christ to liave 

a divinely iuHpireil teacher, aud his rehgioti h rev»?latiou of 

fAeraai truths thiit, accordiojB; to his teachiiigaf true religion consists 

L|i> ptmty of heart, holitiesa of life, and not in opinioas; that Chria- 

ItUai^, as it exi^tt^d in Christ, is a Jife riitlier than 4l belief. — 

£«afiJi*« Hiftitry of Religiontf^ wiih Atldifianit bfj an American Editor, 

r«tn • Chmtiitti lain of tlio ftect called Lvm(-outti% And have b«d eitpcHence i 
i tfU^ji I ttie€t lite bretiinrni someiimu I «peak n word iii season. — £f. SUek, 
f'Mmmam \ittHrf. 

lu describing Harry Franco, Mr. Lowell saj's, he — 

Ih hfllf upright Quuker, half downright C^mt-mtter, 

Love* Frccdtun too well to go itark mad about b«r. — Fabkfor Critics, 

fc <SOtiie over. To come over, or come it over one, means to get the 
adTantoge of one. Vulgar. 

To coma up to the Chalk. To come up to the mark^ t. e. to do one's 

duty, fulfil one*s promiaes. 
To come upon the Town. To be supported at the public charge, or in 

lh«-' poor-house. Common in all parts of New England. 

Totomt ufnm the Unen^ in Aiiifrica, does not mean pret'lsvly ili« Mime tiling 
a« for a lady to come tipon tKc town in London, It in like a f>i>oT person in Eiig- 
ufjoti iht pnruh^ or Iwecoming a public charge. — Nf^t^ to the Eni/lish 
'*^i/ (li9-2), p. 10, itt LliB llnt^ji (referring to the debts of ♦'Mother 

And now 't woa thought^ ik> high they M grown. 
She *d bruak, iinfi <■<!»** npi^n the <o«?«* 

Ooming-oist Sunday. The day on which a new-married couple made 
Uieir fiitit appearance at church ; tisually, the Sunday after the wed- 
ding. *' Thi» ciiMtom continued more than a century after 1719 
[i»hen Mather mentioned it]. It waa termed ' coming out groom 
and bride.* It still remains in many places." — Judd's Hadley^ 
p. 244. 

Commander. A beetle or wooden mauL New York. 

Commiaaionex. L A government officer, the next in rank to a Secre- 
tary. l*hus the ConiinisMoner of patents, the Commin^iontr of the 
Land Office, and the Coinmimonrr of Indian Affairs, are subordi- 
nates of the Secretary of the Interior. 
2. Corporator : corjiorate members of tlie A. B. C. F. M. 

O(»nnion. ** As well as common ** is an expression much in use for 
**as well as usuaL^* 

Comnon Doinga. Originally employed in the West to d obsignate 
plain or common food in opposition to daintiesi but now applied to 



persons, actiotis, or things in general of an inferior kind. See 

Chicken Fixhiffs. 
Commtinity is by aome persons uiied as is ^* society,'* for jierBona^ 

neiglilwrbooti, Stc, — without the definite article predxed. See 

Felt'i EccleM, Hist of N. E. 
Compass! ve. Compassionating. (Sp. cr^m/)(wiVo.) — <\ A. Uooiirich, 
Complected, Of a certain complexion » colored in the fnce. Western. 

Tliat faJ y is mighty pale coniplecttd. I 'm afmnl f^hc 'a cosAumpted ; sbe *• 
ii] wav:^ cum plain inj^ of some misen\ ^ IVvttem Sketchti*. 

You *re rather tlurk cmapitcted^ and blue is a trying color for dark akias. — 
Widow Btdott Pigpen, 

Compliment. A present. South-western. 

Compus. Sane ; of sound mind ; compos mentis. ** He is not compus.'" 
Litchlield. Conn. 

Concageer. A name applied to the small lizards and salamanders of 
the United States. 

To conceit. (Pron, connate by those who use the word.) To form an 
idea ; bo think. An old English word, but now obsolete. It is pre- 
K*^i'ved in the interior parts of New England; as, ** She ctmceiteif 
ahe would go; *' ». e., she thought Rtrongly of going. 

Those whose , . , vtilg^sppreheiifitiua ouncei^ but low of matrioioaial purposes^ 
— MUtim, 

Twice-laid di^bei I ean atand ; salt flMh and com b«ef twice bid I Bometimat 
conaak in ok goo<l ait when it was flrst cooked. — iSaifi Slick , JTim Shwm^ p. 12* 

Concern. In raei-caTitile usage, an esiiibliHhrnent or lirnj for the 
LranHaction of business. It is provincial in England and Ireland, 
where it denotes a small estate; business. 

Concerned. 1. {Pron. cofimrned,) A euphonistic Yankeeismi e(|ui' 
valent to deuced, devilish, i. e. very greatly, 
2. Sorrowful, distressed; as, ^' Concerned for his soul.** 

You can ke«p yoor money. I 'm ocmmm^d norry for it, but 1 raoat take that 
ar ynllfcr gjil back with mn — A $tm*f Ynnkit in Teaxu^ p. 61. 

Concession. A subdivision of towushii>8 in Canada, along each of 

which is a road. 
Co nek. A wrecker. The Hame as Conk and Konck. 

A Nej^rn on \\\h Key, familiarly culled Old Sandy^ is a mftre suecewful ctiUl* 
viitor of the soil than nil the rebel nomckM togeiiier. — N. Y, 7»ii&«a<, Nov. S7, 
1801, Lett from Ketf Wtst, 

Concoa. The butternut. So called (or oftener pronounced as the 
word eon(fttrr), and thus written aad printed in Essex County, Maas. 
Perhape of Indian origin. 



To oonduct, \tiBiem\ of '* to conduct onc*M telf; '* leaving out the reflex- 
ive firifiiMUii. This offifusive barbarism is happily coiidiied to New 
Kngfand, vrhere it is common botli in speech and writing. Like 
some other expressions in th*» Kttme predicament, it has received the 
tiR'it H^nclion of Dr. Webster, him^ielf n, New England man, 

Conductor. TIha man who takes the fare, and haa ciiarge generally 
of a rnilroiui train. 

Conettoga Horse. A heavy draught horse well known in the States 
if y^-vv York and PennBvIvania* Before the introduction of railroads, 
li' lior»e!4 wejv the great carriers of produce from tlie inU^rior of 
pfunKvlvania to the 8ea< board. Six and sometimea mor« of these 
obje animals, attached to a hnge, white-topped wagon, were a 
jijarked feature in the landscape of this State. They originated in 
Pennsylvania toward** the close of the last century, and are ijelieved 
to have deM^ended from a mixture of the Flemish cart-horse with an 
English breed. — Herbert^ Horse and Hnra^majn^hip. 

CSbneatoga W^agon* A wagon of the kind described in the preceding 
artiote. first made in Conestocfii, Lancaster County, Penn, 

The vAst, white-topped wn^m, drawn by »uperb iuums or thu Mattly CoHfgiQ-^ 
fOA, weft [uwvAf] « di»ti(tgubhtiig f<!iiture of that great tgricuttaral State. — 
Jtfming*^ The //ur#r, p. Gl. 
Cooleotioner. Uswtd in this country pretty much in the sense of the 
English pa9trtf-cooi% In England, a confectioner never sells eakes^ 
ice-cream, Jkc, 
ConfectiODery. In the Soutli-west and some parts of the West, a 

Confederate. One who lives in^ pertaining to, the so-calted Southern 

Confederate States. The term assumed by the government of 
Southern StaJe?* on s^^ceding from the United States. 
Hmrmh I for ihe Southern Con/tiitrftte StnieM^ 

Wirh Ut'T \mniwr of white, red, atitl hhie; 
BuitaJi ! for hor ddUj;ht«r», tlio fairest on earth, 
And ii«r 80d« ever loyal and trtie. 

Mnum^ Sotithtm Potrntcfthe War^ p. 41- 

Conference. The nam«^ of a religiotis bmly or association, 

In the pabliiihed report of the Providence Annual Conference held 
at New BtMlfordt its name is used as follows wittiout the articlef the 
same as we speak of Congress. 

LmI *»v<?niiig it WM annottnccd tH»t Conference wonld miike a final Hf^journ- 
mimt lht» nmrnifjg, . . . Not bt'CAuw they wisih Conferenctt to close, bat becftuse 
of the jttti'n^iitini; chAmot«r of certain features of thiji latt Asaeiiibling of Conftr- 
mot, — Cor, ii/ Providence Przu. 



Conference-House. A chapel for week-day religious worsbip, &c 

Conference-Meeting. An assembly in which prayer and exhorta- 
tions are made ; a lecture-room for religious societies. New Eng- 

Conference -Room. A room for conference and prayer, and for the 
pa^^tor*s less formal addresses. 

Confidence Man. One who by plausible stones and falsehoodst or 
by assurance, obtains the confidence of k in rl -hearted people. 

This well-known plirase is aaid to have thus originated: A few 
years ago, a man in New York^ well dressed, and of exceedingly 
genteel manners, went about saying, in a very winning manner, to 
almost every gentleman he met, ** Have you confidence enough in 
me, an entire stranger, to lend me five dollars for an hour or two? *' 
In thiii \\a.y\ he got a good deal of inoiipy, and came to !>« generally 
known in the courts and elsewhere as *' the amfiienee man.''' 

Congress. ThtK term 18 applied by us espe^^ially to three differently 
coitstitiited bodies of represeulatives of the people that have suc- 
ceeded each other in the government of the country, Tlie fir«t is 
the Continental Cf/ngres,^, assembled in 1774. and which conducted 
the national affairs until near the close of the Hevtilution. The 
second h the FeAerat Congrt^ss^ which met under the Articles of 
Confederation, adopted March, 1781, and ruled the country till 1780. 
The third is the Comjreu of the United States, which first met under 
the Constitution, on the 4th of March, 1789. 

Congressional. Pertaining to a congress, or to the Congress of the 
United States ; as, Congressional debates* — Webster. 

The cunffir&siunal innikuthm of AmphictyoQft, IP Greece*^ Bmitm, 
Thfl conflict between Ctmyrttsionnt and Stale ttuthority originated with tha 
creation uf tho.*e aiithonties. — MmshftU, Life, of Wmhin^um. 

Congressman. A member of Congress. 

Our mfttjfitsimtn^ my dear hearer*, what are th«y ? Nothing but bloodsuckers 
opon the chci*k of the Uuited Sratei. They talk and drink for eight dutlara a 
day, iind you have to stand the treat, — lhu>^» S^tmom^ Vol. 111. p. 137, 

From the ballad of the ** Sharp Congresaman,** m *»Vwii^ 

Fair," 18^3: — 

Not A biisker Cmde was going 
Worth knowing or showing 
Than that fn>nj t'ooiracU i^rowing 

To the iUarp dm^ttigmcm* 

Ocmiacker. A eouutoisleUer of ooiu. . ^ 


ConaectioD. ^* In this connection.** In connection Vbiih tlik tubject. 
A New EnglAiid phrase t used to such a degree timt U has become 
quite shocking to nervoua people. 
Cozmer. See BurgalL 

Conniption Fit. Thia term is exclusively iLwd by the fair sex, who 
oati h^i explahi it» meaning. Ex. ; *^ George, if you keep coming 
bom*^ H(» late to dinner, I shall have a connipthn.*' Ab near as 
1 can judge, conniption Jitf Jire tantruniH or hystt?ric8. 

6tm Slicks in bit v'mt to m *' fcmalo coUegr/' made proposals to the *^(>rc9i- 
duitTe^*/^ which tha nt 1ir»t Untngined wms for her bund. On dfpicovt^rtiif^ hur 
«fTr»r, hUc fninted and fell into ft (HfHmplion^fiL — Nature and HumuH Nutttre* 

Conaequeutious. Affectedly great; pompotis; pretending to impnr- 

t-ance. New England. 
CoaAeqnentlouftneas* That quality which is characterbtic of a con- 
sequent 10 us (jei^on* 

Ue ridci at the Stato'a expense op^n ateamboAta and milroftd CAm, atetdn^ in 
All plarct to iftipfeM tifHiti tiv<liohkr» «u idl<;ii of hi* mi|;htjr cxritjtf r/wenltottaaMk — 
N^ r. Nrruiil, A|>ril 26, 1802. 

CoDslderable. L A gcwNJ tJc^l This word is frequently used in the 
folhiwing manner in Uie Northern States: ** He is counderahU of a 
iurreyor; ** ** Contideraih of it may be found in the country." — 

ranoo Tutilo 'a wR»itifrahU ot a man i but in my opinion ho won't never bt 
ftblfl to hold a c«ndl« to Elder Snime*. — fFiV/ntf BtuUt Paptrt, p. 128. 

2. Pretty, considerably. A common valgariam, 

A body haa ix^ ttir about cotrnderaUe amart in this country, to mokd a Uvin\ 
I tall you. '- Sim HUck in Ent/titml^ t*h. fi, 

Ta consociate* To unite in an asisenibly or convention, as pastors 
and m«8«6tig^ni or delegates of chuj'ches. — Wehster, 

ConsoclatlOQ. Fellowship or union of churches by their pastors and 
1 ; a meeting of the pantors and delegates of a number of 

^tional Churches^ for aiding and anpfiorting each other, and 
(orinittg an advisoiy council in eccle^Hiasticnl affairs, — Wehter^ 
CQnJiociation of churches is their mutual and solemn agreement to 
exttroine communion in such acts as aforesaid, atnongst themselveo, 
with special reference to those churches, &c, — RtauU of the Synods 

CoD»tabIe> Mr. Webster notices the following di^^tinction b**tw©en 
th«^ application of this word in England and in the United States: 
*• In England there are high coustabifs, i»»tty constables, and con- 
stablttts of Loudon. In the United States, constables are town or city 



officers of the peace, with powers aiiuilar to those poftsesseti l»y the 
constriblea in Great Britain/- Mr» Pickering says that, ** in many 
of tlie cities, horouglia, and other local jurisdictions in Eng'land, they 
have peiic^ officers called congtableitf whose powers are not materially^ 
if at all, different from tho&e of our constable^/' 
Constituted Authorities. The officers of government colh^clivt^ly, in 
a kingdom, city, town, Slc, Thia expression has been adopted by 
sume of our writers from the vocabulary of the Freuch Revolution. 
— Pickering. 

Ncitht?r could he perceive danger to liberty exri?pt from the constUuUd author^ 
itie», and t'^pecinllyfroni the exccun'vc, — M'^rshiW* WiTdiingUm. 

ConBtitutioiiaMty. UHed chiefly in political language, to aigni^ the 
i$tatp of being agreeable to the constitutiou of a State or of the 
United Stiites. 

Tlte iirgniiH'nt upon thi!)qiip«itlonha» naturally divided itself into two part*, Ute 
one of fxptfiiency^ the other of consfttufuinntit^. — Dtbatt$ m Conffrejg im 1808, 

Thejudt^fl of the Supreme Oturtof (he United States have the power of deler* 
miiiiug the conMitutkiidlit^ of laws. — Webster, 

To contemplate. To consider or have in view, in reference to a 
future act nr event; to intctrd, — Wetfster. This senae of the word 
is not found iii Jo)ins*jn or Richardson. 

If a Imity coritainfl any stipulatlonft which tonUmpleUt a state of future war. — 
Ketit't CommentanrS, 

CoutiiientaL A wonl much used during the Revolution to deHignate 
what appertained tt:» the Colonies as a whole. This originated before 
the Declaration of Independence, when the terra *' United States** 
was employed; yet continental, variously applied, was used during 
the war, as ** confinejitai troops/' ** continentai money," &c, Mr. 
Irving^ in his Life of Washington, in speaking of the organization 
of the AmtTicau anny, says: ** -Many still dung to the idea that in 
aU tiiese proceedings they were merely opposing the measures of the 
ministry, and not the authority of the crown ; and thus the army 
before Jioston was designated as the Continental army, in contra- 
distinction to that under General Gage, which was called the Min- 
isterial army.'* 

This word will remind every one of the f amours reply of Colonel 
Ethan Allen, when anked by what autJiority he summoned Fort 
Ticonderoga to surrender, " I demaud it," said he, *' in the imme 
of the great Jehovah and of the Continental Congress 1 '* 

Cootrabands. Negro slaves, first ao called by Getieral B. F. Butler, 
and treated as Contrabdnd of War, The history of the application 



The establish raent of a military p^st by General Bntler at New- 
port News, on the 22d May, ISttl, threw the white inhahitiint« of 
Hatapfcon into such alarm tliat itiost of them prepared for Higlitt and 
mayy Itfft tlielr homes tiie same liii^^ht. *Mu tlfe cotifiision, three 
Xegroe« <?8ca^i«d, andi makiugr Lhoir way across the biidj^es, gave 
themselves up to a Union Picket, saying' that their master, Colonel 
Mallory, was alK^ut to remove them to North Carolina txi work tifKui 
rtbtil fortifioationi4 there. ♦ . . They were bmught to Fortress 
Monroe, and the circumstance was reported to the general in tlie 
morning. He questioned each of them si^paratelyi aud the truth of 
their utriTj became iiianifeHt. He neerled laliorors. He was aware 
that the rebel batteries that were rising around him were the work 
chiefly of daves, witliout whoj=ie assistance they could not have been 
erected in time to give him trouble. He wished t^j keep these men. 
The garnaon wished them kept. The country would iiave deplored 
or reaent<*d thr sending of them away. If they had been Colonel 
liallorjr's horsea, or Colonel ^Itilloi^^'s spade^i, or Colonel Mallory'a 
1 fi-capj=i, he would liave seized iViera, and used them, without 

.. Why not property more valuable for the pn raises of the 
relM^Uion than any other? He pronounced the electric words: * The«e 
men are Omfrahand of War. Set theui at work/ " — Part on ^ General 
ButiiT in New Orleans, and Sketch ft/ Previous Career, p 127. 

The escaped Negroes had scarcely beeu Ret at w*ork, when an 
interview wm reque^t^d by some of the Confederate officers with 
General Butler* At this interview, the question of these slaves was 
diw*UHH€fd, Genenil Butler said: ** I shall detain the Negroes aa 
contrnlmnd of tprtr. Yuu are using them upim your bit iter lea. It is 
merely a question whether they nhall be used for or against the 
govi*mmeni/' ..,*•! greatly need the labor which has provlden- 
li&lly fallen into my hands; but if Colonel Mallory [the ovrner] will 
come iuto the fort and take the oatli of allegiaiife to tlie United 
Stateflf he »haU have his Negroes, and T will endeavor to hire them 
from him/* 

BatliT pronminced the rtiftglc won! " C<mtrahand*' ntid iummoned 111© K^pro 
Into tHf amna. * , , Cantrahfnd is ■ bnd word, and miiy b« a Imd law, but it m 
vorth alt Ihe Constitution ; for in a ninmeui of criiical emtTgt'ncy tt MUiiinojicd 
the tavini; nicmf^ntu iiilo the national ari'na, and it !*howed the i;;civcrnnH''nt how 
far tba souod tlbre of the liaiion extended. — i^pttek of WtmltU PhWlpa, 

I 'vc jnat ctrme frmn Virginny, 

Dat i^nod ulc Siiutheni land; 
Pm a »iinp1« picaninny, 

Although a cmtraitand. 

142 CX)N 

A secesh soldier took my hand, 

"Come fight wid us/' says he. 
Says I, " I *m but a eantrdbandf 
But you donH secession we.** 

Song, The IrUelUffent Conirabamd, 
I owned a hundred niggers, 

All sound and likely working hands. 
Worth very pretty figgers, 
But now they *re cxxntrahandg. 

The Plaint of the Planter, VanUg Fair. 
Good-evening, white folks, here am I from old Vlrginny shore, 
A regular living specimen of a contraband of war. 

Song, The Happy Contraband. 
Dar *s a mighty famous Hunter in de apartment of the Souf, — 

An' he gubbems all ob Dixie, as yuu know, 
An* he talks to de darkies by de words of his mouf, — 
Sayin* : " Niggers, you *8 at liberty to go ! '* 
You may lay down de shobel an' de hoe-o-o ! 
You may dance wid de fiddle an' de bow ; 
Dar 18 no more cotton for de contixiband to pick, 
Dar is no more cotton for to mow. 

Chorus. — Den lay down, &c. 

New York Sunday TimtM, 186S. 

Although to General Butler has been ascribed the honor of the 
invention of the term *' contraband^* to slaves in the time of war, it 
had previously been applied to Negroes in Africa by Captain Canot. 
Speaking of the sale of Negroes by government officers and agents on 
the west coast of Africa, he remarks : — 

It is even said that the Captain-General himself is sometimes present in the 
sanctuary, and, after a familiar chat about the happy landing of the contraband, 
the requisite rouleaux are insinuated into the official desk, under the intense 
smoke of a fragrant cigar. — Twenty Years in an African Cruiser, 1854, p. 108. 

Contraption. Contrivance, device. A factitious word in frequent 

Contrive. The use of this word in the sense of to do or perform any 

thing by contrivance is perhaps peculiar to America. It is noticed 

by Dr. Witherspoon, in the '* Druid Letters." I have never heard 

it in New England. 

Rash mortals, ere you take a wife. 
Contrive your pile to last for life. 

B. Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanac for April, 1741. 

I am sorry for the accident of your son's captivity. . . . Any hard money 
which you may be able to forward to me, or Mr. Tilghman (who is of my family), 
shall be contrived to him, by some means or other. — Letter from General Wash- 
ington to Mrs. Graydon ( Graydon's Memoirs), p. 229. 

The expression is common among a portion of our countrymen, 

CON— coo 


dftd !fi not Qtitititii], it h believed » in New England. — yofe by Editor, 
on (he nhovr. 

To comrene. Tbi« i» used in some parts of New Enj^land in a very 
«tnM»g<> »eri8e; Uiat is, to he vonvenient. fit. or suitable. Ex,: '* This 
ro«H will eouvme the public/* i. €, will be convenient for the public. 
The word, however, i« used only l*y the illiterate- — Pickering, 

Convenient, lused to sigrnify ** near at hand/* *' easy of access/* is an 
Iri^bi.Mn frrqnently pointed out by English critics, which found its 
way even into President Polkas last message, where it is applied to 
timlier far ship-building in the neighborhood of Sun Francisco. 

ConventioD. An assembly of delegates to accomplish sonae specific 
nl)jet^t, civil, political, or ecclesiastical. — Wfksfcr, 

CoDTersationalifltj improperly uaed for conmr»ationi^t^ or convtrser, 

CoiiYttraionfl* Bonds are frequently issued with a provigiiun whereby 
they can at any moment be exchanged for pquivalent j?tock* Such 
i«H:urities are called a/nvrrtiNe^ and the act of substitution is atyled 
ronrerjnon. — Mcdbtry^ Men ami Mtfstcrics t\f Wail Strret. 

Coodiea. The name of a political sect in the State of New York, 
wluch originated in the year 1814. At that time, a ^ries of weD- 
written articles appeared in a New York paper, signed Abimeieck 
Coodtf. lie professed to be a mechanic. *' He wjis a Federalist, and 
addressed himself principally to the party to which he belonged. 
FTe endeavored to show the impropriety of opposing the war, and 
urged them to come forward in defence of their country. He aljio 
attacked De Witt Clinton with great severity," The writer waa 
a>^rvrtained to t>e Mr, Gulian C. Verplanck, then, a** now. distin- 
]riii-ht*d for his talents. He was replied to by a writer under the 
'itrriraiire of ** A TraveOer/' said to be De Witt Clinton, who thus 
^jM'Hks of this party: ** The political sect called the Confiieit, of 
hybrid nature, is composed of the combined spawn of Federaiism 
and Jacobinism* and generated in the venomous passions of dis- 
ap|.N>intmeut and revenge, without any definite charact-cir; neither 
finli nor lle,sh nor bird nor beast, but a nondescript made up of 
*all monstrous^ all prodigious things,* *' — Hmnmond^» Poiif. Iltjit. 
a/ .V. Y. 

To oook, ** To cook an account " is equivalent to falsify accounts for 
fraudulent end»* To cook up a charge^ in polite dialects, is to 
iiiVHiit some criminal accusation to get rid q! persons in anyway 
I I ; i s: i ou 3, Freq ue n tly pract Ised by recei ve rs o f s to le n good s , 

Cookey, (Dutch, loekje.) A little cake, UsM in New York and 
in Kew England* A AW Year's Cookey b a peculiar cake made 



only in New York, and at the Christmas holidays. In the olden 
time, each visitor, on New Year's day, was exacted to take one 
of these cakes. The custom is «till practised to a considerable 

Mre, Child think* it best to let the Utile denrs hAve their own way in every 
thin^, aud w^t to give them mora e&akie^ than they, tbe dear diildrcn, deem 
requisite, — Sundti^ Aftrcury^ Jf. Y* 

Cook-House. 1. Iloase for cook*s nae. Southern, 
2- On board of sliips. The galley. 

Cooler. A drink of spirits. 

Cooling -Board. The hoard on which a dead body is laid out. Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland. 

Coolwrort. (Tiarflla cordi/oim,} The popular name of an herb, the 
proi'»ertie8 of which are diuretic and tonic. It is prepared for iala 
hy the Shakers. 

CoOD. L A popular contraction of raccoffn, the name of an animal. 

Autumnal eve, whtMi phiiiesf the nilvor moon, 
The ijunter seeks to find the flitted awn. 
Hard cha*ed ami mute'd by the hunting dog^ 
He mi>unt» a tree or tindfl a bollnvr loj;? 

E. H. Smith, nut. of Blnck ffawk, p, 100. 

2. A nickname applied to members of the Whig party, which 
adopted the raccoon as an emblem. 

Democrat", fre^tupul k^^'p your council-fires brightly bnminij Let no ono 
njmniti Ij^tle.Hs, or doubt, or he*iilate; **pu'*h on your columnn,** rout the i?ooiUi, 
hfuX them, overwheliii them, and let t^ie vrelkin rinjrwith the scml-Atirriug tidingi 
that Ma?i-^achu!HiU!> h fdfe, — free from the eur*e of Whiggtry, — Boitmt Pott, 

% 'J. A goitc coon is said of a man whose case is hopeless. 
Coon's Age. A long time; as, ** I have not been there in a coon* 9 

The btckwoodsinflTi jumpit from hiM horM, and, tbppmg the jon^re-tookliig 
gcnttemai) on t1i€ back„ isayB: ** Hallo, old hoi^s^ whar have you )>e«fi thi^f coon^t 
atjtf and they go in and w<K>d up [f. e. drink]. — A Stm^ Yantfe in Tfjetts. 
Thin child liain*t bad much money in a coon'n atfe, — SoutAfm Skctchts. 
Cooner. A comtnon term, at the South, for a canoe. 
Coonery. Whiggery. See Coon, No, 2, 

Demucrati of (he old lioy .Statc^ one charge more, and the work is thoronghly 
done. *'Once more to (be breach/* and you will hear the eibotttJn of ncmo<*T&tic 
victory and the Tamentations of the vanqujifthed. We mn^t achieve a victory^ — 
the people must bo free, — cotmeiy mti^t tall with all tta corrupt ion » and nb^imtna- 
tion*, nc^Tr more to rij»e. — Bi/Mim Ptrnt, 

CooaUo Adka or Cooatto Qa^tta. ThA uiMm ol ml uiow^root 




prBpftintion obtained from the root of Zamla inteffrifoUa by the 
rndijuis in FloridHf where the plant is indigenous* 
Cooping of Voters. Collecting and confining tbenif several days 
previoua to an election, in a house or on a vessel hired for the pur- 
po«e. Here tliey are tj-eated with good living and liquors^ and at 
a propcir day are taken to the polb and '' voted/' as it ia called » for 
tha party. 

Coot^ (Futha.) The name of a small water^fowl which lives in 
mursbest and, when closely pnrsutHi^ buries its head in the miid* 
There is a species of tlie American coot that re5«embles a duck, 
and varies much from the European bird of the name. See Wil- 

Iion'f " Omith./' Vol. III. p. 82. It is often applied by us to a 
[ itnpid person; a^t ^' He is a poor coot,** Mr. HaEiwell notices the 
old proverbial saying, ** As stupid as a coot.** 
Little coot* don't you know the Bjbla is the beat book m the world ? — Mar^ 
fst^, p. lU. 
Coppcfhead. {Tri^onocep'halujt contortrix.) A poisonous serpent, 
I vho«e bite is considered as deadly as that of the rattlesnake. Its 
' geographical range extends from io^ north latitude to Florida, It 
has various other popular names, as Copper-belly, Red Viper, Red 
Adder, Red Eye, Deaf Adder, Dumb Rattlesnake, Chunk-head. 
' The roower mows on, though the adder may writhe. 

And the ceppfrhead curl round the bleeding scythe- 
2. A venomous biped, of Northern birth and Southern tendencies; 
a term applied early in the late civil war to Northern sympathizers 
with the Confederates; a disloyal person. 

Il 1* to be settled whether Copptrhendi or loyal iij«n are to rule this country. 
Thero U n perfect underAlanding between the leading Copptrhtad$ in the Xorth 
»od the leiuting Rt-b^'b in the South. — Gcntiral BlunCi Speech in Kansas^ N. Y* 
TrUnm*, Feb. 24, 1S63. 

From one of the beet and bitterest political poenjs of the late civil 
war, entitled the *' Copperhead," by John Hopely, we select the 
two following verses: — 

Of nil the rntrtioaft men we *ve «een, 
Existing^ now or long since dead, 
No one wms ever known m mean 
As him we call a Copperhead; 
A draft-evading Copptrhead; 
A rebelHiidini^ Cttpprrhtftd; 
A growling, tlandering, scowlinf^, pandering, 
Vktou*, StAtei»-Hght» Cupf^trhtad, 

When widows oiourned their lonely lot, 
And orphan children wept their dead, 


146 COP— COR 

Who said their jost deserts they got ? 
The Northern rebel Copptrhead; 

The widow-libelling Copperhead; 
The grief-deriding Copperhead; 
The false, conspiring, citjr-firing, 
Booth-admiring Copperhead, 

8. A term of contempt with the early Dutch colonists. 

These were the men who vegetated in the mud along the shores of Pavonia, 
being of the race of genuine Cqpperheade. — Irving^ Knickerbod^er. 

Copperheadism. Acts or management, policy of Copperheads; sym- 
pathy with insurrectionists. 

The celebrated People's Regiment, 44th New York, has spoken out in the 
matter of CqpperheadUm, — N. Y. Tribune, March 11, 1863. 

Coral Berry. (^Symphoricarpus vtdgarisJ) The Indian currant of 
/vJ«- t^HHfJ Cord. A large quantity. Western. 

Cordelle. (French.) A tow-line. Western. 

The propelling power of the keel-boat is by oars, sails, setting poles, the cordelUi 
Uc — Flint, Hist, of Miss. Valley. 

To oordelle. To drag by a tow-line. See Keel-Boat. 

We were obliged to cordeUe the boat along the left shore. — FremonVs Report, 
Corduroy Road. A road or causeway constructed with logs laid to- 
gether over swamps or marshy places. When properly finished, 
earth is thrown between them, by which the road is made smooth ; 
but in newly settled parts of the United States they are often left 
uncovered, and hence are extremely rough and bad to pass over 
with a carriage. Sometimes they extend many miles. They de- 
rive their name from their resemblance to a species of ribbed velvet, 
called corduroy. 

I had to cross bayous and criks (wall, it did beat all natur), 
Upon a kind o* corduroy, first log, then alligator. 

Lowell, Biglow Papers. 

To corduroy. To lay logs upon ; to convert into; to make a corduroy 

We had perfectly impassable roads, until corduroyed. — N. T. Tribune, Letter 
from Camp Scott, 

Cork. A misuse for caulk, which sometimes is found in print. ** A 
denial corked and graved. "— TAc Independent, Feb. 13, 1862. 

Corked. A term applied to wine which has acquired a taste of the 

Com. {Zea mays.) Maize, throughout the United States, is called 
Indian corn^ or simply com. 



In England, the term com k applied generically to wheat, barley, 
and other small g^rains. For this we wse the term gmin. 

Among the various iirticles of fo4»d nuvle from Indian com, cooked 
and uncotiked^ are the following^ : Aah Coke; Indian Brcati; Boiled 
and Roasted Com; Brown Bread; Corn Bread; Corn Cake; Corn 
I>odger; Com Fritters; Com Starch; Corn Oyster; Corn Juice 
(whiakey); Hanty Pudding:; Indian Meal; Indian Pudding; Hoe 
Cake; Hominy; Johnny Cake: Faritia; Mazina; Pinole; Pop Corn; 
Pone; Rye and Indian Bread; Snccota^sh; and Tort ilhis. 
Com. All for cam. Honest, well-meant, sincere. ** lie took it all 
for com ; " L e,^ he believed it bo be true. ** All for wheat '^ is also 

Surprised that he took it ftUfor wheat. And in innocence &f hi« heart was aboiit 
to caLTry it into effect* — A''. F, TrUttme, April, 187T- 

Com and Cob Mill. A mill lor grinding the entire ear of Indian 

Corn Basket A large basket for canring the ears of maize- ^ X 77f 

Corn-Blade. The leaf of the maize- Corn-blades are collected and 

used a^ fodder in some of the Southern States. — W^hnter^ 
Corn-Bread. Unleavened bread made from the meal of Indian com, 
Corn-Brooms. BroomB made from the tops of a species of com, 

called Broom-corn. 
Corn-Cob. The spike on which the kernels of wim fnt)w. 

BjTnn is Bftid to have rcnmrked that "the greatest trial to a Trnmftti'fl twnufy 

is the un^cmci^'fiil act of eating egg*" Some Yankee rejoices that the poet could 

uever have neon a ludy hangiag oo hy the te«tb to a hliLzing hot cor»-€oh. — 

Bail, Sun. 

Corn-Cracker. Tlie nit^kname for a native of Kentucky. It is said 

that this term is applied in some of the Southern .Sttitos to f»oor /^'>^|*«^* ^J^> 
whites living in the mountain regiona, . 

Com-Crib. A fitmcture raised some feet from the gronnd^ and with ^ ^Vi 
sides made of slats some distance apart, or of lattice- work, to admit Ctfu . 4^^^ 
the air. In it thejlriedeara of maize are kept. ¥ tt'f-vi. - 4t0^^ 

Com-Dodger. A kind of cake made of Indian com, and baked very 
hard. It is Rometimes simply caUed dodger (which see). Much 
Hied in the South. 

The uniTcrMl food nf the people of Texasi, both rich and poor^ seems to b« 
tom^-dodgtr and fried bacon. — Otnuted^ Texait^ 

The Sucker State, the ccxmtry of msi projected railroadflf pfood oe'm'dodgm% 
•pleodid baoking-hoiuet, and poor currency. — Jto6fr, 8Qnati9r Li/e^ p. 28. 



Ct%4* -Hf^t^ 




He opened a pouch wtikh lie wtire on hU Aide^ and took from thence one or 
two rom-diifdytrf and hall a broiled rabbit, which his wife hud put up for hont- 
ing: provisions, — J/r*, Siowe^ Dtedy Vol. IL p. 170* 

See Bacon-fed in 

Coru-fed Sfcout» pliiinp, spoken of a woman, 

Com-Fodder. Used especially of nmixo plants from med sown broad- 
cast and grown as oats are. Dried or undried» employed as fodder 
for cattle. 

Cora-Fritter. A fritter in the batter of which green Indian com has^ 
after being grated, been mingled. 

A very minute account whith Mr»> Kittridge was giving of the way to make 
com-fritUra which should laste exactly like oysters. — The haitpetulent^ Feb. 
13; 18d2, fry Mrs. II B. Slowt, 

Com-Huak or Coru-Ctiuok. The coarse outer leaves which enclose 
the tmr of Indian corn. 

Com-Hoflkiug or Corn-Sbucklxig. An occasion on which a farmer 
invites the yonng people of the neighborhood to his house or barnt 
to aid him in stripping the husks from his corn. See IhixJiring, 

There waa a ctJTJi-AiaitiMy, and I went alouf; with Sal Stchbins. There waa all 
the gals and boys settin' rounds and I got sot down «o near Sal Babit that 1*11 
be darned if I did n*t kiss her aft^re I kiiow'd what I waa about. — Traits of 
AmeiTiciin Humor, 

Cotn-JuicQ. Whi*ikey, A Western term. 

I informed the ohl fellow that Tom wanled a fij^hl ; and as he was too full of 
com-juice to eut carefully, I didn't want ti> take advantage of him. — Eobb^ 
Bguatter L\f€, 

Old Monotigahela whiskey, 

Whiskey made of Indian com-Jitict. — Phitilnatah. 

Corn-Oyster. A fritter to which the combined effects of grated 
Indian corn (not quite ripe) and heated butter impart a taate like 
tkat of oysters. 

In this iecret direction about the mact lay the whole mystery of com^dert, 
Mrs. H. B. St&we, in The IndtpentlcnL 

Corn Pone. A superior kind of corn bread » made with milk and 

eggs and baked in a pan. See Pone, 
Corn-Right. In early times^ a right acquired by settlers, wbo by 

planting an acre or more of com were entitled to one hundred acres 

of land. These privileges which were acquired in Virginia were 

called Corn-Rights, 
Corn-Shuok. The Southern tenn for com-Kmk^ which see. 

Yoa cati have a mattress of bar-«kin to sloop on, and a wtld-cat skin pulled off 



Corn-SIiQcklDg. The Southern term for eorn-huikinffy which see. 

The yaung people w«r© all gibbf rin' and tulbjri* and ku^hm", as if they 'd 
bees to a oorfi^wdttM' inoi«'& to a mectin^ boiue^ — Maj'tr Jtrnv*. 

Coru-8nake. The Coluftn- gutiahui of the Southern States. 

Com -Stalk. A &U\Xk of corn, particuliu'lj the stalk of the maize. — 
H'eiwfcr. Mr. Pickering «»ys, **Th#* farmers of New England w«e 
this term, and more frequently the simple term stalk^^ to denote the 
tipper part of the atalks of Indian corn (above the ear), which i.s cut 
off while green, and then dried to make fodder for their cattle. — 

Cofii-Stalk Fiddle. A child^H playthings made hy loosening the 
exU'rnal fibre of a corn-stalk , and placing a bridge under each 

There U no more seaiimtsnt in tbe bouI of an old bachtilor thaD tLiuni is itinaic 
in a coijt-ttaH jidiJU, — Doic't Sertnoiu^ 

Oofn-T^aah. The outer envelopes of Indian corn^ also called kuskt 
and tkuchf. in Jamaica, they are cut in strips and used for stuffing 
mattresses. See Shucks, 

The bed* with which they provided their fifUfsts were not of feathcira, but of 
whnlr*#«nn* flnr* pick*?d rorw-lrvwA* wirh clcnii sheets. — Dalla3^ HUt. qf tk* 
Marvtm*, Vohl. p. IVX 

Oom^. When a party is made up to buy a large amount of stock « a 

lari^M'T quantity than is known to l>e at the time in the market^ it is 

called a ct*rnei\ The plan is generally kept very private. As soon 

I tlie clique is foimed, tlie brokers purchaj^e gradually large loLs of 

on time. ** buyer's option. '* After this has been fixed, they 

tell on time» ** seller's option/* if possible nearly to the extent of 

■Jlieir purchanes on buyer^s option. The object of this is to provide 

i xoarkel for thjs stock after the corner has run out. This having 

ill nil arranged^ the clique commence buying for ca^^ht and in ho 

doing put uj> prices rapidly. Having inflated th** market pretty 

ell, they make a sudden call for several thousand shares of stock 

1 tlieir buyer's option, and then there coruflH ti sharp time among 

the sellers, who are generally all short. This creates an active 

demandt aiid the clique sell their cash stock to the bears or shorts, 

who pure!ia-«e at high rat-e.^ for delivery at much lower prices to the 

. vi s selling. — Hunt' it Merchant's Marf., Vol. XXXVH. See 

Fa ' i-y's ** Men and MyMteries of Wall Street," for a more 

eittfuded siccouut of the proccMS of cornering, p. 87-100. 

The •• New York Tribune.'* March 14, 1870, in speaking of the 
failure of Daniel Drew, who at one time was a large holder of Erie 
Hallway stock, says: — 



Iking poM«s§ed of the fflcilitiei to i^uurd igiiiiBt a cm-ner^ be began to eall 
Erie stock shorl it the previJltDg high prices. 

To corner. 1. To corner a periaou is to get the advantage of htm In an 
argument^ as though he were physically placed in a comer from 
which he could not escape. Tlii^ use of the word can hardly be aa 
Americauism ; yet it ia not found in the English dictionaries. 

2. A Wall Street word, which means to raise artificially the price 
of atoek in the maaaer described in the article Comer. 

There is n large cljif* of brokers in Wall Street, who Kometimca control a gtiod 
deal of money* and who make speculation their btisineitii. Tht-se generally unite 
in squads for the purpose of coi^trint}^ — which means that they fin«l get the 
control of HO m«! imrticuUr mIucIc, and then, hy making a great many cwntracta 
on time, compel the partica to pay vrhatever difference they cjioofte, or ratlier 
what they can get; for they sumetunoa overrate the purse of those they contract 
with. -^ J Wetkin Wtdl Strert, p. 81. 

The remarkable Auctuations in the stock-nmrket are chiefly the result of a 
iucccAsful coifierin^f operation. — JS"* K. Jttumal of Com* 

Tile Eric Railroad mrtvet-ing has l>een a %'cry unfortum&te aHmir for many mem- 
bers of the board. — N, 1' Herald, 

Corner'Tree*. See Wihmga-Trets, 

Corp. A corpse is so called iti Peimayirania. 

Corral (Span.) A pen or place of security for horses and cattle in 
the form of a circle, often temporarily made with wagons, &c,, by 
parties of emigrants crossing the prairies. The area of this circle is 
sufficiently large to permit the horses and cattle to graze during the 
night. On tlie outside of the corrai, the tents are pitched, with 
their doors outward; and in front of the5*e the camp-fires are lighted. 
— Texas mid Neit> Mexico. Thia in evidently the same as the Dutch 
Kraal t which in Southern Africa is usedf like the Spanibh^ both as 
a noun and a verb. 

Among the trees, in open irpacea, were drawn up the wagons^ formed into a 
corrtd or nquare, and close together, so that the whole made a most formidable 
fort, and, when tilled with ftome hundri?d ride», could defy the attacks of (ndieiia 
or Mexicans, — Suarton'a MtxiiXf and Rocky Mtjuntaim^ p> 177. 

I lost a portion of my cattle, which broke through the kraal in the night, and 
were never again heard of, — And€rsan^ Lake N*tfami^ p. 360. 

To corral. To corral cattle is to secure them in an enclosure , to pen 
them. To coop up; to put into a cIorc place. 

During the stay of the Indiiin% theanimflU were all collected and coriHilled^ at 
th^\ F pinchiint for horse-tle^h might lead some of the young men to appropriate 
a horee or a mule. — Ruxton*i Aiirtniures^ p. 238. 

The hyenas were in the habit of hara.«siug the goa1^kid!«, which for flecnrlty 
were krtutUtd against the wall of the house. — Anderton^ Lake N^yami^ p. J£>(i. 

Willi n imn n Ihn inimiln Mini nnliiirliirt fnni tin mwni fhi immntifci 



■ndfl out s ttrong gtitrd^ ievm boj>f and old hjtnds at that. It wu pretty nigh 
Qpiio viiTi-dQwii. and Bill had ju^tt 9uiig out to curniL Tlie boys were drivin* in 
Iha aiUmaJa, and we were all ^tandia' round tu get ^m in alkk, wbcn ** howgh* 
ovgh-owgh-ough '' we bear$ ricrlit b-eliind tho bluff, aud ^boul a minute and a 
pcffoct crowd of Injuns ji^allopa down upon the «itimiiU. — Wntei-n Advtnturu. 

Wheti the first edition of thia work was issued, the word corral 
WM tiaed only in iU original sense, us above given. But it b now 
lueci at the Far West and ou the plains iti a far more extended senae. 
Mr. McClure speaka of it as an expreijsive W ester ui»m in comtnon 
Q2«e. *'!£ a man is embarrassed in any way, he is corralled. The 
Indians corral men on the plains ; the storms corral tourists in the 
mountains; the crirniual is corralled in prison; the tender swain m 
cmralled by crinoline; the business man is corralled by debt^ or more 
ioooeaafiil competitors; the unfortunate p<^)litician is corrnlUd by the 
monntaineers, tlie giilchineni or the nettlers; the minister is corralled 
when he is called to be the pastor of a congregation ; and the gam- 
bler corraU the dust of the miner, — Rocky Mountains, p. 210. 

But the indioifions arc that^ between the brigatle moving up fmni Fort Scott 
aod tbia oombaad^ General ttaJiw will get corralled. — N, Y, Tribum, Jan, 10, 

Cotbetty. A man who mediHes in ihe woman *s part of liousehold 
affairs. Nortli and East. It is probably of Engli^sh origin. HalU- 
weli and Wright give both cot and eai-quean with the same meaning. 
See Betty. 

Ootoh, for caught, A Negro vidgarism. 

Snake baked a hoe cake, 

I^^n a frog to watch it; 

Frog went to ileep, 

Lbcard come and ooich it* — Virffinia Ne^ro Seng. 

Cotton-Bag^eiing. A coarse, hempen cloth, chieily manufactured in 
Ketitucky, for packing cotton in. Sometimes called simply Bag- 

CottoDdom. The States in which cotton is produced; generally at 

Uie South. C 

Gotton-Oro^Krer. A pei-son who cultivates the cotton-plant. 

It exhnru the eoU4m-^r0wer§ of other oountriea to take courage and pereerarQ. 
N. r. Tribune. 

Cotton ia King, King Cotton. Before the late rebellion, and for a 
year or two after the war broke out, Southern people saiil, '' Cotton 
iaKing;'* tliat the Nuitheru States could not do withtiut cotton, 
ad Uiat it would eventually conquer. Writers and politii-iil econo- 
\ &U uttered the same ci-y, and claimed the triumph of cotton, 

the gri-at product of the SoutJt. A book by E. N. Elliott, bearing 
the follow ing title^ was published at AugriBta^ in 1B60: — 

Cottuii JR King, and Pro-Slavcrv ArguinentH; romprisiiij^tlu" writinf^s of Hini- 
mondr llArptir^ Chmly^ Stringfeliijw, llud^ei Bleds«K\ ami Cartwrii^jit on thii 

See tbift new king wkn ram«ii apiure, 
And I re Jits hr like a L'ctnqui;rvd mee: 
He comes from UixieS l^nd by nul. 
Hit tiiroiic a ragi;^i»d lottiin Iwile. 

On to the White ilimsif straight 
He *» nia^rching-| — rallier tate ; 
Cl&nking alonj;^ the lniid« 
The shack li'H in his Imnd. 
Httl!* <iff, bats ulT, 
Te skve*, of cur* b^'t>otteti^ 
HilU off to gr«at Kint/ CoUtm. —H.H. Stoddard, 

Soni<d tbink it U Law tbat ruk^ our Ijind; 

Law m the \ui\ml£kT Ilritiiiih will; 
But I know l>i?tivr; I untterstwnd 
H[>w the Cotton Kin*/ hidd» the tipper hand^ 

For bis spindk'j^ are stjtnding stjll, 

Bati<td/(M- Yi BM BriUm^ A'. T* Vanity Fair. 

"Old Cottmi, the King^ boy?, — ahal 

Willi hi? lock* so flfecv and whitei" 
D«ace»(l6 like a fttlling »t«r, 

To the »€f ptre hu tiad no right. 

Old CoW^Wj the once potent Kin^, 

I» Blruck from biit impotent tbrone ; 
Each tH)ntincnt now cfjulmK a limb, 

Hii heart eold and chill it \m» grown > 

E. V, Smith, in N, Y, Evening Pott, 

For when I a topped to 8te«l and fight 

I thought that Cotton still was Kin^, 
I did not kniiw the Union'fr might, 

Nor count upon Ibit sort of thing. 

Th% itynu oftht RthtK Vamity Fair, 

To cotton to. ** To cotton to oae *' is to take a liking to him, to 
faticy hini; literally » to stick to him as cotton would* The term is 
common at the South and West. 

There were divers queer character* on board the steamer, with whom Tom was 
a great favorite; but none of them cott^jntd to him more kindly than an elderly 
Hooater from the deptlu of Indiana. — FkU. 

AJti*t you, now, a conni stent old critter V 

You tJiiU cracked your»elf up «« the great manumitter, 

To make love to the iystem jot* once proclaimed roUen, 
And 9oUom to slavery for rlaverv^'s CathtL 



In 11 poem in the ** London Timesi" on American affairs, published 
In IdOl, John Bull thus speaks: — 

t knows Jefferson D. it a ruAcallj chap, 
Wbo f^i^A in for cribbin* Uie j^uvemtueftt pap; 
That F-xettT Flail mny be down upon me, 
Bui, as Jistt. lum thtt ccitiou, I Ml cotton to he. 

The expression is in the fir»t edition of this Dictionary, but waa 
omitted fn>m the second for the reason that it was found to be an 
old En^'lish one. We have been called Uy uecount on several occa- 
sioni, by the *^ Atlantic Monthly " among others, {or the omission 
of the expression, in tlie belief that it wa.s an Americanism, and 
Uien^fore give place to it agaiui with examples showing its ancient 

Dr. Johnson has the verb To Cotton, ** to unite with.** Webster, 
** to unite; to agree; to adhere,** The former quotes the following 
£rom Swift: — 

X qiwrfrl will end in one of yoti being turned off, in which ca*e it will not be 
Mif to cott^m with anoLhcr. — Stti/l, 

Diilil fit% Frank, how the old guldsmith cott(mtd in with his beggarly com- 
panion ? — iVtUier Scvtt, 
Stylca atid T eaitnol cotton. — JJttt. qfCapt. Stukeftff B. 2« 
The following examples of the use of the expression may suffice to 
show its ancient nm : — 

So feyneth be, thinips true and f&Ue 

so always iujn|;leth he, 
That flwt with midst, und midst with laste 
mayo eoiton and a^ree. — 

Dmnt, Hi>mct, The Arte of potir^ (15(J7). 
He meaner whatever hor»«mun next he spied 

To take \m horve a frend or clw a fw. 
At thin in Discord pt^^aja'd, and satd to Prldc 
That ihe was ^hid tliffir buj^Sies cotnfd ao. 

NtirrintfUtn^ OrUindo^ b- xvU. a, 17 (1561)* 
Cottoola. The same as Coitondom^ which see. 

Tbe Confederatea having dt^tenninett to abandon all the Border Statea, tad 
make ii ftand iii Cottonia proper. — Cincinn'tti Timt4, April, 1862. 

Cotton-Mouth, A ptjisonous anake of Arkanssxs, 

Cottonocracy* A term applied to the Boston manufacturers, espe- 
cially by the ** Boston Whig*' newspaper. 

Cotton Rook. A variety of magiie«ian limestone, of a light hu£E or 
gray color, found in Missouri » It is very soft when fresh from the 
quarry, atid can \w easily wrought for building purpoaiis. — Swaliow^g 
Gtolotft/ of MUmuri, 

Cotton-Wood. {Popu!m monili/era.) A S[»ecie8 of poplar, so called 



from Ibe c?otton-like substance aurrouiiding the seeds, which growa 
on the margins of lakes and streams from New England to lUinoia 
and ^ontliward, especially westward. In Texaa and New Mexico, 
it ia called Alamo. 
Coulee. (French.) A narrow rocky valley of great depth, with in- 
clined fiide^i, and from ten to fifty miles in length, dlstingimhed 
from a cahon whicli has pi^^cipitoua sides. T!iey occur in Oregon. 
CqubgU Fire. The sacred fire kept burning while the Indians hold 

tlieir councils. 
Couacilmauic. Pertaining to a councilman. "^^ Fifth Councilmanic 

District Delegates nominated. " — N. Y. Tribune » Nov., 1891. 
To count. To reckon, suppose, tliink. *' I count on going " is very 
N*iiemnn. You^tl pas9 mnntatl & proper flue ftillow. 
Dtifiliitif,. 1 calculate I be. 
Nticimtn. Ready to enter on duty ? 

DooUtiU. I should bo gUd to ktiow what kind of way yott etmM to improyv 
me, — i>. Humjihrttfx, The Vunktt in Emjland, 

Count Sl Luc* Rend the suiK'nK;ripi:jt>n* Yow emu read ? 
DifolUiU. I ojunf I can, — and epcll, too. — Ibid* 

To eouDtcr-brand. To destroy a brand by branding on the opposite 
side. Ill the jtralrie regions of tlie South-west, the calves are 
marked by cropping their ears, the cross as well as the brand of each 
stock-owner being recorded in the county records. Wien cattle are a 
year old, they are branded; and, if afterwards sold, the same brand 
is burnt in on the opposite side, thus destroying the original title. 

Counter-Jtimper. A clerk in a retail ** store/* whose place is behind 
a couirter; sometimes called a counter-hopper, 

With phvfit'al forcea developed in tlie »chr»o1 of slavish enduranre^ and mind 
unLaidctid Aud neglfeted^ what winder the furmer^a boy dm^^msi the life of a dty 
count i^r-Jum/nr clo*c upon the confines of heaven ! -- E^viy by L, f\ Harvey ^ 18&2. 

Countersign Signal. A signal which serves as a countersign; much 
used during the late civil war. 

Day mid night wunUrngti dffmtls, by which friendly fegimentji may be di«- 
tiD^uished, xvill be aduptiad by thts Army of the Potomac. — Gtneral Ordtr ef 
Gtnerai AfcCteihtn, Oct., 1861.' 

Country- Jakea. People from the backwoods. Tennessee. 

County. ** In speaking of emiuticsy^* says Mr. Pickering, ** the names 
of which are comijosed of the word $hir€^ we say the county oi Uamp^ 
shire, tJie count y of Beri^kire, &c. In England, they would say 
either Hnmpuhlre or Berkshire sitnply, without the word count f/; or, 
tbe county oi UmiXt^ the couaty of B^rkt^ Sui^ The Moxd Mre oi 

cou— cow 


itKlf f aa everybody knows ^ racana count */ ; and in one instiince (in 
Mftssiichasetts) UiU latter word is used instead of jihire^ as a part 
of the name: * The county of Dule^s County.*** — Pickering** 

Couple. A couple of any things sometimes means a few ; as, ** Shall 
I go to market and get a couple of chemesV " Pennsylvania* 

Couit. In New England . this word is applied to a legislative body 
com|x)9ed of a" House of Representatives and a Senate; as^ the Qcn- 
trai Court of Masiiachn&etts. See Charter of Connecticut. 

Coujt-fioiiae. The county towns of Virginia are often caUed so 
without regard to their projjer names. Thus Providence, the 
county town of Fairfax, is unknown by that name, and passes as 
F^rfax Court-House ; Culpepper C&urt-Houjte has superseded ita 
proj^Ksr name of Fairfax, more common in Lower Virginia. The 
same practice has existed to some extent in South Carolina and 

Court of Aasiatanta. A court formerly in existence in New England 
where a magistrate or an Assistant presided. . . . These courts 
were subsequently merged in the County Court. — Caulktm^s Hist. 
Norwich, See A$mstQnt, 

Cove. A atrip of prairie extenrling into the woodland, ^'*^ *** 

CoTcr. To cotftr one*9 shortn. A Wall Street phrase. Where stock 
haji been sold and tJie market rises, the seller buys where he caui ia 
order to protect himself on the day of delivery. This is covering 
ihort sales. — Medlttry, Men and Mtfsteries of Wall Street^ p, 134. 

k Tbr affairs of the orijnniiaticiti i*ere wound up^ and on clhidlnif rhe a.4»et£ it 

WM discovered th&t the Tresjurer hud uaed up all the funds in a franUe effort to 
99m'. — Ibid., p. 2:37. 

OoTWtoUp, (Genus Achlus. Lttcep6de.) The pfjpular name of the 
sole, a iinh common in the waters of New York. Calico is another 
name for it — Nat. Hist, of Nfw York. 

CCfwhixd, Cow Blackbird, or Cowpen Bird* (Icterus pecoris.) A 
bird allied to the Crow Blackbird and Orchard Onole, So called 
fnim its often alighting on the backs of cattle aud searching for 
worms in their dung. 

CcfWberry. (Vaccinium vitis-idtBa,) A plant resembling the common 
cranberry 4 but larger. It is found on certain mountains in Massa- 
chusetts. — Biffctoiii^s Flora BoMonlensU, Also in Maint^— TAo- 
rtau^s Maine W(H)dg, p. 31 (J. The Wi-sa-gu-mi-nn of the Crees. 

Cowboys. L A cont(*mptiiouH appellation applied to some of the 
tury partisans of Weslcliester County^ New York, during the Hevo- 



lutionary war, wlio were exceedingly barbarous in the treatment of 
tlieir op|x>nent.s who favored tlie American rause, 

2. Many things will be taught you [in Texas] by the cowboys* 
The cowhotf is the cattle-herder and di-over, A cow-f>ony the mua^ 
tang hfi trains and usea. — Texas Cor, Chicago Tribune, 

CowboylBm. Spirit and practices of the Cowboifs, Applied, August, 
1H()1, in Fairlield County, Cotiiiecticut, to Bemi-secessioiiista there 
and elsewhere in Kew England. 

Cow-Catcher. A contrivance formerly fixed in front of a locomotive 
to take up cattle or other obstacles, and prevent them from getting 
lieneath tlie wbeels and throwing the cars off the track, 

Cow-Critter. A cow. New England and Western. 

And AD that pcruria* disi^icntionj!) in our cup; 

And BO that bkmMi cotth-criUer was mlw AVf cominfj up. 

CftrUon^ Fttrm Bnti/t/h, p. IflL 

Cowhide or Cowskin. A particnlar kind of whip made of twisted 
strips of raw hide^ it is also called a Raw Hide. 

To oowhide. To flog with a cowhide or cowskin- 

To be, out of office *nd in for a atirhkUng is not u pkoiiant change from eight 
doUftTft ■ dfty and all aorlH q( uic« pickings. [AJiudiug to an ex-member of Con- 
gresa.] — N. V. Tribune. 

Cow-Leaae. A right of pasturage for a cow^ in a common pasture, 
New England, — Pi^kerinff. Provincial in the west of England. 

CoW'Faranip. (Heracleitm latatium.) The popular name of a plant, 
classed among the herbs prepared by the '^ Shakers," as containing 
pro^jerties carminative and diuretic* 4 

Cow-Feaae. A small black bean growing luxuriantly in Texaa. 
They are eaten alike by cattle and their owners. 

Cow-Pony. A young and unbroken mustang* See Cowboy. 

Coyote. (Mexican, coi/ofL) The prairie-wolf (Cani^ latrans). 

Coyote Diggings. Small shafts aunk by the gold miners in California, 
so called from their resemblance to the holes dug or occupied by the 
coyote. This animal lives in cracks and crevices made in the plains 
by the intense summer heat. 

The coffote dif/^nfft require to be very rieh to pay, from tjie grcia smouni of 
labor nocessary heiorv any pay-dirt can be ohiiuaml. — Bi»rthifiick*t California^ 
p. 136. 

Crab>Gras8. (Gen. Digitarla.) A Bpeciea of grass which grows apou- 
taneously in the cultivated fields of Louisana and Texas, is very 
injurious to the crops * and yet makes excellent fodder, being e^ual 



to llie bort liftjr. 

In appearance, it resembles the Orchard grass of 

Ckmb-LaQtera. A smuU tiimoyer pie* South. 

Crab-Sehoooer. The sort of vessel otherwise termed Crab, Grab t 

Thf ''Reliance,** « vcflfcl belonging to our Potomac tiotllla^ hai cnptiircd a 
emh-srhfu^tr named the *'Mf»niror*" — N. K. Trifmne^ Jane 14^ 1862, L«W«r 

Orack of Daj. Break of day, or, as they say in England, '* creak of 
rfar/' The narrow crack of light on the horizon which is the first 
app<;arance of dawn. — WedgwooiL 

OracJur. 1. A little paper cylinder filled with powder, imported from 
China; called also a Fire-cracken It receiver its nam<* from the 
noise it produces in exploding. In England, it is called a »qmb. 

2. A Bmnll hij^cuit. So called alwi in the north of England. 
All the kitidn of hread called cracker k in this country are known aa 
biscuit in England. 

3. A nicknwne, applied to the poor white people of Georgia and 
South Carolina, otherwise called Sand^hilhn^ wliicb see. Probably, 
says Olinstcd, from their peculiar dialect, almost incomprehensible 
ftnd diflicuU to re]xirt or describe, ^^ f'^f fJSt ^*^ 7^ ^* 

**I was amuNifd ennujtrb,"finid Xhia, "with Old TTundred's indtgnation at h«v- 
Ijig got oui tli«! ejirTi»ig« ftnd Uot^s to go ov«r to what he calkd ft Cmcktr fan^ 
Tml/* — .V r'*, Stomt, Dretl, VoL I p. 153, 

Cracker-Boy. A boy employed aliout the crackers (machines that 
crush anthracite coal). 

Toung hnvn — cmvktir^fffM they are called — whose duty it is to pick oat ^nd 
thmtr jiwAv tlift bit* of flat* and other tm(>uritits which come whirling along with 
thrc-^jrtl —The Indfptndmt^ Mnrch 13, 18(31. 

CiackUnga, 1. Cinders, the n-niaius of a wood fire; a word used in 
the Southern States. 

When ii H|;IUened ttn^ E«he fniil 1' oHut e«:nd of the world was afire, and we*d 
ill be htimt to cro^Uint before morning, — Mtijor Jont$'§ CourUhip. 

2t The crisp residue of hog fat after the lard is fried out. It is 
kept for kitchen use. In New England called '*ix)rk scraps.** 
Crackting-hread is com bread in tern perked with cracklingfl. In 
England ♦ crackling is the crisp rind of roast pork. 

Well, fetch up yonr nag. I am pcrhnp» a Icctic, jni<t n leotle, of the beet man 
at a hone «wiip Uiat e%'er stole crncklin'tumi of hie uiammy'a fat gourd. Where *I 
yoiif lio«9 ? — Trai^i of American Ifutnor, Vol. I. 

Grack-Loo. A game among bar-room loafers and othera. Played by 
pitching coin so as to touch the ceiling, the object being to hare 


your coin foil as near as possible to the cracki in tbe floor; be who 
corner nearest winning. 
To crack on. To put on; to apply; to do energetically. 

It WM A yery easy matter for the lagging veawls, by cmcUng on alt steam, to 
come up with th« others, — A'. Y. TtidniH^ LfUcr/rom Steamer Atlantic. 

Cradle-Scythe. Called also simply a cradle. It consints of a common 
scythe with a light frame- work attached, corresponding in form with 
the scythe. It 13 used for cutting grain » instead of the sickje; and 
enables the farmer to perform treble thu work that could be accom- 
plished with the latter implement. On large farms, it h now super- 
seded by the istill more efficient Reaping Machine, 

To cradle. To cradle grain is to cut it in the same manner that 
grass is cid or mowed with the implement above described. 

The operaHnn ©f cmdiing is worth a journey to sjwb. The flick1« iruiy 1ms mora 
c1a9!^iriil : hut it tranfiiol compare In beauty with tlie Bwayitigf regular moUoQ of 
the cradle. — Mrt. Cltittn^ IVeMem CUni-inffg. 

Cradle. A machine resembling a child's cradle used in washing out 
the auriferous earth of California. Also caUed a Rocker. 

Cradle of liberty. The famous old building in Boston, known as 
Faneuil Hall, wht^re the orators of the Revolution roused the people 
to resistance to British opprt^ssion, 

Cramp-Bark {Viburnum oxifcaccus,) The popular name of a medi- 
cinal plant; its properties are anti-spasmodic. It bears a fruit in* 
tensely acid. In New England, it is called the Tree Cranberry, 

Cranberry Tree. A popular name, in the North-eastern States, of 
the Viburnum opulus vei oxycoccusy a shrub bearing a bright pinkish 
berry, which has a sharp acid taste. The ^Moose-berry {mougsim- 
mina) of the Crees. Charlevoix calls it the Pemine, 

Crank, Unsteady, capricious. In this last sense, it is applied to 
character or manner, whence it has passed into the signification of 
obstinate, self-conceited, opinionative, abrupt. 

If you strong df^etioners dirlu't think you wen* among the elect, yon wotddnH 
be 80 crank alwut it, — Mrt. Stowt, Drtd, Vol. I. p. 317, 

Cranky. 1. Unsteady, as the gait of a tipsy man. 
2. Queer, crotchety. 

Crawfiah. (Antacui Barttmii.) 1, The popular name of the freah- 
water lobeter, 

2. A political renegade. In Engliah parliamentary phraaet '* a 

To craw&ah. To back out from a position onoe t^eni particularly 





pTnnl in po1ii||^|p^iiHdent1y from the modf^ of progression ol the 
aimftl. Wesl^i^' IPbe English ti^nn is '* to rat,'' 

W««*^linowkdge the corn, nnd retreit, n'trograrte, cmuiflsh^ or elimb d*>wii| in 
'm patciai m, ilyle mm the ciretimatancca of the case mil AdtnU. — OiifO Times* 

GtftwfiAhjr, A term applied to wet land, because inhabited bj craw- 
fish. See Spout y, 

Gnis]r-Bone. The point of the elbow. 

Creamery. A place where butter is made; abo, where milk and 
eream are put up in cans for market. 

lit rNeotly purchased a crfantrry^ and b putting up milk for the New York 
ICiritvU — Bridtftpori Conn. Stnnrtnrd. 

In the general features of the butter murket there l» no change. The fine 
errtttntri** are ronsidered well wold at 23 ct«. j . . . Western creamery^ SES cts.( 
State crenmtry^ 20 ct«. — Neu> Vmk Butletin, 

To oteaee. To shoot an animal so that the bullet will cut the skin 
on the upper part of th« neck, without doing any serious injury. 
When a horse cannot be caught, he is frequently crtastfL Although 
Ke is not much hurt^ he will fall at the touch of the bullet, and 
Temain quiet and powerless until his pursuers secure him. Used 
<mly in the West. 

Piaiimg it impotwible to get within nfM>«vng distance [of the wild horse], and 
•Ming thiit bi« horse was receding and growing alanned^ Dealte slid down fWara 
the iaddle. levelled hi« rifle acrosj* the back of hi.^ mare, and took aim, with the 
hitention of rrtfitiny liim. — Irring^t Ttmr on the Prnirlu. 

Creature. In the phi nil numl>er, this word ia in conmion use among 
farmers as a general term for horses, oxen, Stc. Ex, : ** The creatures 
liiLl \m put into the pasture to-day.** ^ — Pickarintf. In the South, a 
horse is generally called a critter; while, to other animals, the term 
ti0ck h applied. 

The owners or claUner!! of uny such crtntum {i, e. *' «wine, neat rattle, horses, 
OTibecii"], impouiuled a» iifrtrevaid, i^hatl {uiy the fecj», &c. — Provinciai Late* 
tfMna^ —StrUutt 10^ Wnu UL 

Creek. In New York, Counecticut, the Middle and Western States, 
and in Canada* a small stream is called a cre«jL. The term is 
inoorn?ctly applied; as its original signification, according to the 
dictionaries, is a small port, a bay or cove, from which it has 
gradually been extended to small rivers. 

Creek-Bottom. Low land near a creek. 5 .*» mmA / 

Creeper. A shallow iron dish used in frying; a spider. New 

C^eolo. In the West Indies, iju Spanish America, and in the South- 



em States, one bom of Euroj>f!an parents; but as now used in tbe 
South it is applied to every tliinit; that h native, peculiar to, or 
raised there. In the New Orleans market, one may hear of creoh 
corn, Creole chickens, t^fole cattle, and creole horses. In that city ^ 
too, a crenU is a native of French extraction, as pure in pedigree as 
a Howard ; aud great offence has been given by strangers apply- 
ing the term to a good-looking mulatto or quadroon. 

Creosote Plant. (Larrea Mexicantj,) This plant abounds from the 
Arkansa.'i to the Uio del Norte, and in the sandy desert* of Cali- 
fomiji. It is characterized by a resinous matter of powerful odor. 
Animals refuse to eat it. It is employed as an external application 
in rhenuiati^sin* 

Crescent City. The city of New Orleans, so called from its peculiar 

In tbe Cit^ of the Crescent^ by red Missisftippi's wnvei, 

Walks tht" haughty Creole loity with hor daughters and her slavei. 

Bidiut of tht Creieent Cittj, Harper* i Weekly, 
The rejstwralion of the atiihority of the United States , . . is a gtmr&utee of 
the future prostpcrity and gh>ry of the Crr»cttit OVy under lh« protGclmn of the 
American goveniment.^ Proc. i>/ G«n, Shepky^ 18(*2. 

Crevasse. (French-) The breaking away of the embankments or 
leveeii on the lower Mississippi by pressure of the water, 

CrispsG and Crlpay, for crisp and cri.spy. 

Critters, for creatures^ is a common vulgarism in pronunciation. 

You hear folks say, ouch a man b an ug!y-gr»ine«i critter^ he Ul break his 
wife** heart; just as if a woman's heart was an brittle aa a pipe-stalk. — Sam 

Croaker. A amaO and very beautiful fish, found in great abundance 
in the bays and inlets of the Gulf of Mexico. It is sometimes 
found farther north. It derives its name from a peculiar croaking 
sound, which it utters when taken. 

CrDke. Miss Ramsay, speaking of the plants of Virginia, says: — 

They send their Negroes to the field* 
For the wild ^aladu nature 3 icids, 
Such as lamh'3! quarterly, doc'k and poke, 
FuTBlatn, wild ivy, beet, and croke. 

Po€tieaJ Picture of JmrUa. 

Croker. A water-fowl that inhabits the Chesapeake and the larger 

rivers of Virginia. 

Crook -Neck, A species of squash. New England* 



So AS I ftinH n croohrd §tidt, Just like, like old (I »wowr, 

t doD't konw «s I know his aatne) — i *11 gt> b«ck to my plough. 

Tb« widow R must hiiTe b«eii dreadfully put to it fo? ii hu^bnnd, to tJike 

ap with ttich A cnxtked stick as Elder B . — Major Dovminff. 

To orook. To rr/joA* one*s elbow or one's Jittle finger U iu tipple. 

Crooked OA a Virgiiiia Fence. A phrase applied to any thing very 
cro>k*:»«l; and (if^ratively to persona of a sfcubbom temper who are 
difficult. U* inartage. 

Crooked Wliiakej; Whiskey upou which the excise tax has not 
tMsenpaiU. See WHUletf, 

Cmppm, One who cutttvntes a fami on shares, or raises a crop In 
oou^ideration of rect-iving a portion of it* 

Cropping. This terra, in the South and West* means devoting the 
chief attention to the cultivation of one article. 

Ctoaa-Foz. (^Vutpt^ fuhus*) A fox whose color is between the com- 
mnn reddijsh-yelbiw and the silver-gray, having on its l»ack a Vtlack 
croea These animals are rare, and their skins commiiiifl a high 
price, Cartwright says, **The Cross Fox is bred betwet^n a silver 
and a yellow*'* — Labradar^ Vol. IlL Glossary. 

To oroea one's Track. To oppose one*s plans; synonymous with the 
nautical phrase ** to run athwart one's hawse." 

Qio«« Timbers. A helt of forest or woodland^ from 0ve to thirty 
mile* in width, which extends from the Arkansas River in a south- 
westerly direction to the Brazos^ a tlu^tance of four hundred miles. 
The wood is chiefly post-oak aiid black-jack. The forest is passable 
for wagons, and is a marked feature in the region where it is foundi 
being tlie boundary between the cultivable and the desert portions. 

Tb« whole of ihf crvM (imh*r abounds^ iti mwt. There h a pine oak which 
pn»ditc«# lUMirns pkaiuint to the ta«t«. — Irrinff*» Tour on tht Prainrs, 

CJTOtohioal. Crotchety. A common colloquial w^ord in New England- 

Too nevorr »e« nutli * crotehictti old critter a* ho la. He flica Hjurht off the 
btodle for nothtQ\ — Sam Slide in Entjhttd. 

^wd. Any number of persons together is called, in Western par- 
knee, ft crowd ; so that the word is often equivalent to " company." 

The fotiveni«?nw« of th*' toilet were wnnting;, aa in aH far Western places. A 
cmipfe of tin tuieilQitf fiUed with muddy water from the Mts§ouri| ptood on a 
tMArd ; while a »qa«re foot of mirror, with a brush and comb attached by tneanji 
of a ttrinfS, bung upon the wall for the u§e of the crotpd, — Dtscriptitm vfa tjottl 
in Kansas, 

nere, boys, drink, Llquora^ CAptain, for the croicd. Step np thif wiy, old 
boM, Slid Uquor. — Qtadakmt^ Engti*hmmt in K9n«n«, p. 43. 


162 CRO— CUN 

In a discussion pending the election of chaplain in the House of 
Representatives, Mr. Elliott, of Kentucky, nominated the Rev. John 
Morris : — 

** He is/' said Mr. E., " a regular member of the Hardshell Baptist Church, 
a very pious man, not of very eminent ability, but just the man to pray for such 
a croied as this." 

The "New York Tribune," of June 1, 1857, in speaking of 
"Walker's party of filibusters from Costa Rica, says : — 

Commodore Erskine has signified his intention not to carry any more of this 
crowd to Aspfnwall, out of deference to the New Orenadian authorities. 

I reco^lzed a man as one of my fellow-passengers from New York to Chagres. 
I was glad to see him, as he was one of the most favorable specimens of that 
crowd. — Borihwick^i CaUforma^ p. 196. 

Grower. Another squeamish substitute for Cock^ like Rooster, 
Cruel. One of the numerous substitutes for very, exceedingly. A 
man who had been seriously ill with cramp, or something of the 
kind, sent for the doctor, who arrived after the painful paroxysm 
had ceased, and when weakness had succeeded to pain. 

" How are you, my friend ? " said the Doctor. " Oh, Doctor, I 'm powerful 
weak, but cruel easy." 

Cruller. (Dutch knUler, a curler.) A cake, made of a strip of sweet- 
ened dough, boiled in lard, the two ends of which are twisted or 
curled together. Other shapes are also employed. The New York- 
ers have inherited the name and the thing from the Dutch. In 
Maryland, the words cruller, doughnut, &nd fossnock are used indis- 
criminately for the same kind of cake. 

Crush-Hat. A soft hat. 

To cry. To publish the banns of marriage in church. New England. 
I should not be surprised if they were cried next Sabbath. — Margaret. 

Cucumber Tree. {Magnolia acuminata.) A tree, so called from a 
slight resemblance of its young fruit to a cucumber. As it grows, 
the resemblance is lost, and the fruit becomes pinkish-red. 

CufFy. A very common term for a Negro. 

To cultivate. To use the implement named ** cultivator; " as a verb 

tr. and intr. The ordinary word in Eastern Connecticut. 
Cunners. Univalve shells of the genus Patella, New England. 

Two fishermen had been despatched at daybreak to procure a supply of cod 

for a chowder and cunners for a fry, and we were expecting a rare supper. — 

Lte, Merrimack^ p. 133. 

Coxming. A word used chiefly by women ; as, ** a cunning little hat," 
meaning a neat, pretty hat; tiny. 



Coiusiick or K^uck. A nmme iippl!e<i to Canadians by the people 
in the Northern States. See Canuck. 

MiMofl difln't &f!iH:tioii TAiiV«e» much ; iind CunnurJa ebe hated like poiton, 
*«ftiuie they etitic^^d oil Negrutse. — 8nm Stick, Human Nahirt, 

CliilialOi lor cupula, Ls a comnjon ermr of pronunoiation* It is also a 
yery old one, as appears fronj th« following passage: — 

Whose roof of copper nhineth *o, 

It vxitlla StUUl i'vivT^n cttjtello. ^Pfditicttl BaJhdt^ 1660. 

Curbstone Brokers. Stock-operfttora, whose place of business is on 
the edge of the pavement in the vicinity of the Merchnnts* Ex- 
change, and whose account-books are said to be kept in their hats, 
**Thi3 is a very large class of iipeeulat^tr^, and is cornj^osed of the 
oldest and most experienced operators in the street [Wall Street^ 
New York], Many of them have been members of the Stock Ex- 
change, but from having failed to ftillil their contracts during some 
of the numerous nps and downs of the market have been compelled 
to vacate their seats ^ and lo«t their rncmbership. The vurfh^tone 
hroket$ hi^ve leased a large room directly under that occupied by the 
regular bfjard; and during the session of the board a communicatioo 
IH kept up l>etwp«n the roomst so that any transaction is known 
below as 8<x>n a^ made, Ufiou information derived in this y^ixj^ 
the curh-stone hmkern operate among themselves, and fre<]ueutly 
wUh, ftnd for the account of, the out^iiders. This class of specula- 
tom are particularly fond of operating in * puts * and - calls/ and in 
hci T^'M'M t(» all tiie different mi'thrnb of doing a large business on 
atmall capital.*' — Hnnt^j^ MercknntU Mag,^ Vol. XXXVIf. 
A more recent name for curb-stone brokers is gutter- fnipex, 

Tht ouU^ld*; Boftnl \ra» becominj^ a jwwer. There were two hundred rtgiiliiT 
Inttktn ; but the irri^gnlnr, i'^rfh4tUmf ^ otit«i(1e phalanx was far more nuinerotin^ 
tad Lb43 ** N«w York Henild " ftsittJrted tlmi the mrb-^imt men wurv hetrl m better 
f«put«i tti m«tt<>rof iHintract«> than their competing brethren. — Mtdbtry^ Men and 
UfiUrus ^ Wall Strtet, p. d05. 

CuxiOA. Curio«itie«, ** He 's a dealer in curios.'* 

.f .tp4tie»e cvriot urc as powerful as mercury to attract gold. — Grijlt, Th4 
Mfkndot Empiit, p. 3dl. 

CaHous. •* 7*his word or cur'ous is often heard in New Efiglaud 
among the common farmers, in the sense of excellent, or peculmrl^ 
excellent ; as in these expressions : * These are curious apples ; * *" This 
is cun'ovf cid*>r/ tkc. This use of the word is hardly known in our 
•Mport towns,** — Pickering, 

OoxlflyouM. See Carlicuei* 

164 CU&-CUT 

CoBpidor, Ciupidore. (Sp. escupidor, a spitter.) A spittoon, usu- 
ally globe-shaped. 
Cobb. A vulgar pronunciation of the word curse. 
Cobs (for customer), A worthless fellow; a scamp. '* An ugly cuss." 

Colonel J f of New York, and being a jovial, festive, and lively etiM, his 

comrades always spoke of him as the Gay .Yorker. — Leavenworih ContervaHve. 
The cuss that specs in man's necessities, 
An* makes big profits, in sich times as these, 
An* has to lie in poor men's doubtin* faces 
To help him out, is was *n t' other cases. . 

BaUad, Vanity Fair, 1863. 
CoBBedneBB. Malice; perverseness ; spite. 

The Constitution is about to be used once more by the Democrats as a screen 
for "pure cuaiedness.'* They have already started the inquiry whether or not 
it will be constitutional for Congress when it meets to appropriate money for the 
support of the army which the President has maintained in an unconstitutional 
manner?— J^. Y. Tribune, May 12, 1877. 

CuBB-WordB. Oaths. 

CoBtard- Apple. See Sweet Sop ; also Papaw. 

CoBtomable . Subject to the payment of duties called customs, — Webster, 
The term dutiable is in general use in New York; customable is 
rarely heard. 

CuBtomer. A chap; and, figuratively* an awkward person to deal 
with or manage; as ** an ugly customer," a ** rum customer.** 

Cut. A term used in colleges to denote the failure of either an officer 
or a student to appear at the appointed time and place for prayers 
and recitations. 

To cut DidoBB. Synonymous with to cut capers, i. e. to be frolick- 

Who ever heerd them Italian singers recitin* their jabber, showin* their teeth, 
and cuttin' didoes at a private concert ? — S. Slick in England, 

Watchman ! take that *ere feller to the watch-house ; he comes here a cutting 
up his didoes every night — Pickings from the Picayune, 

On, on he splurged, until not two ounces of vital air filled his breathing appa- 
ratus ; over the fence of his relative*s grounds Nick flew, and up the lane he trav- 
elled, bustled into the house, foamed, fumed, and cut up such wondrous strange 
didoes that his wife and friends believed he had gone stark mad. — N, Y. Spirit 
of the Times. 

To cut Dirt. To run; to go fast. Synonymous with **to cut one's 
stick.'* A vulgar expression, probably derived from the quick 
motion of a horse or carriage over a country road, which makes the 
dirt fly. 

Well, the way the cow cut dirt was cautionary; she cleared stumps, ditches, 
windfalls, and every thing. — Shim Slick in England. 

Cuf4(K^) 117^1!. 



Pov e%tdir<J juMVJuned t; und, Jehn Olneral .Tackf^n! if be dIdnH mftke a 
bt dhin-tftii for the door, nuiv I never make another pass. — Fir LI ^ IVrxf^m 

To eat a Bwatbe. The same as (o cut a da^h. 

The eipresaion is ^enerallv applied to a person walking who is 
gayly divssed, and ha*< a potnpotis air or t^wajcfger in hia or her ^ait, 
in aUtiHioii to the sweeping motion of a scythe. 

The Mil* A < nti a tall #«WifAe, I tell you, for lh*y i>y lh«y nr© descended 
from a gnrprtior of Nova Sootin^ intl that their reiatiQtu in Englund are some 
punkttt* too. — Strm SUt'Jk, liumnn Naturt, 

Awake ! arotiiM* yp, sinners ! Know that you are but a notch or two lower than 
tike angrlM ; ihnl you are not only put here to make mDney^ ki»« the womeitf and 
ChI a fittJ^Ac, hut to 1)11 a higher and tnore important destiny. — Lhw** SermQm* 

To cot a Splttrge, The same as tiie foregoing^ to make a ahow or 
display in dress, 

8iTir« Mlnfi C-^^ has got a h\'st in tlie world, ithe tries to cut a ^iur^e^ and 
mak^ frtJkw think she *« a hidy* — Widow Btdott Paptrt. 

Cuta. (An abltfeviatiott of acute.) Acute, sharp, keen. It ia pro- 
vincial in rarious parta of England. In New England, it is a coih- 
nmn (x»Uoc[uialism, though never Ui^d by educated people. 

Kow, iayi I, 1 'in ,:mn* to ^how you nbnut as mte a thing an you *ve »eoa in 
naoy a day» — MnjiJr Douminii/'M LrUerg^ p. 214, 

Mr. Marcy wa* a rijyfht cute^ cunning sort of a man ; but in that corTeipondence 
Geaeral Taylor showed hiui<^elf able to defend him?telf ngainift the Ore in the 
nar. ^ >Wr, Gfntry*$ Rrmnrhi at the Tmjl&r Mtttimj in N. Y. 

Miss Allin, iu her ** Home Ballads/' in describing the Yankee, 
_ »ay»: — 

Ko matter whcsrc his home may be, 

Whiit rtng may be imfurled, 
He HI manaj^»» by swme cut€ device, 

To whittli? through the world, 

Catenew, AcutenoHs,* 

lie had n jwlr of bright, twinkling eyea, that gave an air of extreme euttntm 
ta kia iihyniognomy. — Kntek*rh*icktr Mtii/., Aug., 184ft. 

CttMlTafl8, {Ler.rnia orifzoidett,) The common name of a S]^^»ecie9 of 
gTfkaa^ witli leaves exceedingly rough backward, so as to cut the 
hands if drawn aeross tliem. — Bif/elow's Flora, 

To out It too Pat To overdo a thing* Synonymotifl with ** going it 

It *t had enough t/» be uncomfortable in your own house without knowing 
why; hqt to have a pbilonopher of the Sennaar school »how yoti why you are »o 
li etiitinff it rather too fat. — Pot^fmr Paperi^ p. 131. 

When the U, S. mail was carried to Califonila by stage, the con- 

166 CUT 

tractors claimed from the goyemment damage for the loss of horses 
by the Indians. 

When the teams are so placed as to invite the raids of the savage, and the 
government expected to pay the company double or treble value for practicably 
handing over their stock to the Indians, it is cutting it rather fat, — McClurt^ 
Rocky Mowttaifu^ p. 182. 

Cut-oft 1. Passages cut by the great Western rivers, particularly the 
Mississippi, affording new channels, and thus forming islands. 
These cut-offs are constantly made. 

When the Mississippi, in making its cut-offs^ is ploughing its way through the 
virgin soil, there float upon the top of this destroying tide thousands of trees, 
that covered the land and lined its curving banks. — Thorpe's Backwood*, p. 172. 

The settlement was .one of the prettiest places on the Mississippi, — a perfect 
location ; it had some defects, until the river made the ctit-offti Shirt Tail Bend, 
which remedied the evil. — Thorpe^ Big Btar of Arkansas. 

Since my own day on the Mississippi, cut-offs have been made, . . . which 
shortened the river sixty-seven miles. In my own time, a cutoff was made at the 
American Bend which shortened the river ten miles or more. — Mark Ttoatn, m 
Atlantic Monthly, for August, 1875, p. 198. 

2. A part of a steam-engine. " The Corliss cut-off. ^^ 
To cut round. To fly about; to make a display. 

The widow made herself perfectly ridiculous. She was dressed off like a 
young gal, and cut round, and laughed, and tried to be wonderful interesting. — 
Widow BedoU Papers, p. 91. 

Instead of sticking to me as she used to do, she got to cuttin* round with all 
the young fellows, just as if she cared nothin' about me no more. — N. Y. Spirit 
of the Times. 

To cut Stick or To cut one's Stick. To be off; to leave imme- 
diately, and go with all speed. A vulgar expression and often 
heard. It is also provincial in England. 
Dinner is over. It 's time for the ladies to cut stick. — Sam Slick in England, 
If ever you see her, and she begins that way, up hat and cut stick double quick. 
To out under. To undersell in price. New York. 
To cut up. 1. To employ severe language towards a person; to 
shame, to put to pain, &c., chiefly used in a passive sense; as, ** Mr. 
A. was quite cut up at what you said." 

2. To interrupt one rudely in talk. 

3. To be riotous. 

Now, say, what 's the use 

Of all this abuse. 
Of cutting up, and thus behaving rioty, 
And acting with such awful impropriety? 

Leland, Meister KarPs Sketch-Bo(A, p. S6ft. 

To cut up Shines. To cut capers, play tricks. 



X vttd Imtl at (he pmiricA was cuttimj up thines At no great distAnoe, fcearing 
Qp the wwt with boofis and horn». — Knichtrifocker Afng. 

** Wlwi feme th(i«i« uiftu bitn doing ? '* a<<ked the Recorder. 

"Oh, they were ntftinijupn]] kiriHs of ^Amrj'; kinicking: over the a»hei bftirels, 
•bving *t4>ni«* itt UnifM, ki4kittg M Aoorn^ atid duturbiug Cbe peace of the wbok 

4BiVf*^*-^I*icJtiHf^ftvM (tit Pictiyfunf^ p« Gl. 

Cottor. A light one-horse sleigh. 

81«ighi iifn ftMfjirminu up and dowfn the street, of ntl sorts and nizes, from the 
bug* (imnllmii with tis ihifty pA!<-«en^erA to the li^ht, icnyly painted cuften^ with 
Ihtir »oliCan% fur-capped tenants^ Jitc. — Tfit tJpptr 7'tn Thouvmd^ p. 4. 

And then we '11 go fltett^htug, in warm raimetit dad^ 

With fine horses neighing aj» if they were g:lad| 

The uhlniii^ bells jinjjle* the ^wift cutHr tJie»; 

And, if our ears tingle, no matter; who cries ? — JV, 7, TnbtmA. 

Cuttoes. (French eouteau^ a knife.) A large knife, UBt*d in olden 
times ijj New England. 

Them were no knives and fork;:.^ and the family helped themselveai on wooden 
plates, wtlh c*ttb*rs. — Margnrti^ p» 10. 

C^riabling. A x^arlety of Bqusifih, bo called at the South, in speaking 
of which Beverly saya* ^'The Cl>^>eatae are sometimes called 
Cfttmth^ from the lenteu>cake of that name, which matiy of them 
much resemble/* — Hift, of Virginia, p, 113. In the dinleet of 
Somerset, slmlln is a kind of cake; and elsewhere filmnel is u rich 
e^e of a peculiar form. In Salop the term is appli<?d to a plttm- 
cake with a raised cnist* — HaUhvrtL 

CypreiA-Brake. A Vja8in-Hha|»ed depression of land near the margin 
of shallow, sluggish bayous, iuto which the Buperalmudaiit waters 
find their way. In tljese places, ar*> vast fu^cumidations of fallen 
ajprew<-tre«!s* whicJt have been accumulating for aj^s. These are 
called c]fpr€4tihifrah9s* — Dicktmn on the Cypress Timber of Louisiana* 

Paddock. The heart or body of a tree thoroughly rotten. — A9h» 

This old word Ih not noticed by Johnson, Todd, or Webster. It 
ia introduced by Mr. Worcester iu his new dictionary. 

*n>e great red dadtiacka lay in the jfreen paj«ttins»t, where they had lain rear after 
jraar, cnimhlliig away, and seadiiig forth iiiimmcrabk foimA of vegelahte life. — 
Mnrparti, p, 215. 

I>addj-LoDg*Iiege. A .**ra all-bodied spider with very long legs. 

Dagoa. Originally people of Spanish parentage^ boni in Louisiana, 

uow applied tbere to all Italians, Sicilians, Spanish, and For- 


163 DAM— DAB 


» of the West Izufioi See Star^AppU. 
I. Scarf at the rooti of the hair; dandmfL 

2. To ^ &mi'i tiamier up, or £0 ibi4r« 0fi«'« dander raued, is to get 
int^ a paMioci. H«^n», it wonlii jeem. die dandniff is Iridicrouslj 
pot for the hair isdelf. which. Ls repre:)ented m beii^ ru:3ed on end, 
like the for- of aotae animals when enraged. This za well as the 
preceding me of the word h§ Coinui in Fngiwh ifialectA. 

Tbe Dftpartnunt «f Sface dM noC keep bttcfc the leoerv of Mr Krrcs. in wUch 
h« h«M.4tji dttt ke had ^Mcmxaed tim fnndu WciL Chs «offt ^pmtwptJu damitr 
of th« Frrae&. — CmHottt. Tmr, p. IM. 

Hke (in and fsrr t!int Mnaed m h«r «jt gaiTe 4iralnr cridence of her limmder 
heimywp — Pwdkim^fnm dl« .V«r Orieou .Piov^vM. p^ 143. 

A» vc bir4c«d ac the Kanae ftrcagth cf tbe ** XortkamberfaBd's ** MMt, w« 
cfKiLi aoc luelp tidnkxnir chnc X«ccaae most hav« Ids dbn rfg r eomdembij rmmd 
before be omIiI carnr it cwar. — A*. T. CVmh. .Adr. 

I fek mr dtndtr ritim' vfacn dw impercxnent cuai went amd tack a icnt akmg- 
•ide «f XkM Xarr. and s&e begun to wmikt mad talk wkb bia ae pleaon* as co«ld 
be. — linjor J<mar» C&mrtakip. p^ TT. 

Dandjrfied. Dandjiak; like a dandr. 

Dandj-Trap. Loose bride in the parement: when stef^wd npon, the 
moddj waUer nndemeath gushes op and soils boots or cJothing. 

Dangerous. Endangered, being in danger. — Foriy. This sense is 
local in England, and colloqaial in the United States. — Worcester, 

Dangle-Beny. {GaylHssacia.) A species of the bhie whortleberry. 

Dangnation. A enphemi^m for damnation. 


If the enemies of the Mormons sre to be trusted, they hare a 
secret battalion of Daniteif, serpents in the path, destroying angels, 
who are banded for any deed of daring and assassination : and the 
frequerit violent deaths of travellers are attributed to the treacher- 
ouA stroke of some brother of the fraternity. — Xarth Am. Rev,^ 
Articlt on Mormonism, July. 1^2. 

Dark and Bloodj Gronnd (The). An expression formerly much 
D.*^ in aIIn«ion to Kentucky, of which name it L> said to be a trans- 
lation. The (>hrase is an epitome of the early history of the State, 
of the dark and bhxdy conflicts of the first white settlers with their 
savacre foes : hut the name originated in the fact that this was the 
grand battle-^rround between the Xorthem and Southern Indians. 
— Wk^eUr'i Dictionary. s 

On the occasion of the reception of President Hayes at Lonisrille. 
Kentucky, Sept. 17, 1877, Got. Wade Hampton said: — 



I tAtn* Tjcre chiefly* thut I might extent! a warra greeting to the PreHultfut m» b« 
■truek Souilicni *«!], ae he *t«oil on the once dark and bloody nfmurvt of Kon* 
mckVf no lofif^r ao, but, as I tru»t in Go4, b«re and elsewhere a Lind of pesce, 
|m» fieri tr. itnd Uiippi»>es«, 

Datky. A c<3tiinioij Uivm for a Kegro, 

I wLsh de ic^^latur would »ct di« dnvMe fre^i 

Obt whftt « hapin- |ila(.-e deu de darkit land would b«. 

Wo^'d tiivc tt datkic partiaaiGnt^ 

An' tiarkir code* of law, 
An* darkU judge«i ou de heuch, 

DarHc barristen and nw, — Sikiopiai^ Mchditi (IB-tS). 

Daik Mooa. Thd iiit6i*yai between the old and the new moon. 
Western, Qu» Dark o' the Moon? 

1 alwsyik iiUer niy colu and plant tay 'taters during tha dark mocn* — Lettttr 
Jr&m a Westcfn yarmtr* 
DarBen^ti for daren not. It is vulgarly used in all persons and numbers* 
To deacon a Calf h to knock it iu the head aa soon aa it is bom. — 

To deacon Land is to extend one*8 fence so as to include a portion 
of Un« highwiiy^ — HmUlnm, Cotinecticut. 

To ** Dtacon Berrlex ** is to put the largest on top. To ** Deactm 
Apples " U, when barrelliiig thtm for sale* to put the best ou top. 
To deaooD o£ To givit the cue to. I>erived from a cuHtonii once 
ttniTersftl but now extinct^ in the New England Congregational 
Cburehee, An iinjiortant part of the ofee of deacon waa to read 
alouil ih*} byniii)!* given out by the niinister, one line at a time, the 
I i'»n singing each line as soon as read, — Lntr^iL In some 
• ■rior parts of New England, the custom of lifaconing off 
hytuuB u» still coritinutKb It used to be called ** lining out the 

The custom is nearly as old as the Reformation, and long ante- 
dates early colon nil d*iys in New England. It was recommended to 
churches not supplied with books, by the Wt^atminst^r Assembly, 
in I6»H: and Dr. Wiitts c?omplain6d of its prevalence in congregiir 
tions and private families in England, — in the preface to aii early 
edition of faiA paalms. — Hood^s Hist, Mmtic in New England^ p. 184, 

Wlieji all was ready [to commenco Ihe religioiii cixerci^eA], a prHver was made 
and the cfaorifier dtax^omd the flret two tinea. — Ouodiich*t JitmtHiacencts, Vol* L 
p. 77, 

T€» funk righl ftiil o' p'lit'cal «trile ain't thought t« bo ilte thinp, 
H'iltiout you de^tcon ojf the tune you want your folks ihould ^ing. 

The Bigliiw Papen, 

170 DEA 

Deacons' Hiding-Plaoas. Curtained stallfl in Boston oyster-saloons. 
Deacon's Meeting. One, in the pastor's absence, conducted by a 

Deacons' Seat. A pew formerly made on the pulpit's front, for 
deacons to occupy. The chief edifice at Hanover (Dartmouth 
College) had, in 1832, and before, a pulpit buttressed by two pews, 
the higher for a ** ruling elder." 

Dead-Beat. 1. A mixture of ginger-soda and whiskey, taken by hard 
drinkers after a night's carousal. 

2. One who lives on others; a most hardened sponge. 

Dead-beat. Worn out; exhausted; good for nothing. 

Dead-broke. Utterly exhausted of cash, penniless. -^ ^m^vx^^^* 

Damphool squared up his board bill and paid his washer-woman, which left 
him dtad-hroke. — DoetHckt^ p. 141. 

To be dead-broke was really, as far as a man^s comfort was concemedf a matter 
of less importance in the mines than in almost any other place. — Borikwick*9 
California, p. 255. 

To deaden. 1. In newly settled parts of the West, where it is de- 
signed to make a ** clearing," some of the trees are cut down; the 
others are girdled, or deadened, as they say, t. e, deprived of force 
or sensation. If the majority of trees are thus girdled, the field is 
called a deadening; otherwise, it is a clearing. — Carlton, The New 
Purchase, Vol. I. 240. 

2. A political candidate at the West deadens his competitor's 
votes in a district by doing away with false impressions, misstate- 
ments, &c., originating with the other party. 

Deadening. A piece of land the trees on which have been deadened 
by girdling. 

Dead Heads. Persons who drink at a bar, ride in an omnibus or 
railroad car, travel in steamboats, or visit the theatre, without 
charge, are called dead heads. These consist of the engineers, 
conductors, and laborers on railroads; the keepers of hotels; the 
editors of newspap^s, Sec. M^^nx • ^«^^»^i^ w-> »*»Xr^v w-iX«V-«*^ 

5'4 *vA 

** The principal avenue of our city," writes a learned friend in Detroit, " hns a 
toll-gate just by the Elmwood Cemetery road. As the cemetery had been laid 
out some time previous to the construction of the plank-road, it was made one of 
the conditions of the company's charter that all funeral processions should go 
back and forth free. One day, as Dr. Price, a celebrated physician, stopped to 
pay his toll, he remarked to the gate-keeper: — 

DEA 171 

** ' CoDaSdering the benevolent character of our profession, I think yuu ought 
to let UK pass fVee of charge.* 

** * No, no, doctor/ the keeper readily replied, * we couldn't afford that. You 
•end too many detid heads through here as it is.* 

" The doctor paid his toll, and never a»kcd anj favors after that** — Wash, 
Even, Star, Oct., 1857. 

Doadheadism. The practice of travelling vrith free tickets. 

As I had never experienced the blessed privilege of deadhentllsm^ I could not 
naturally resist the opportunity of enjoyiug so new a sentiation; and I beg to 
assure yuu that it is by no means so unpleasant as you might imugiue. It was a 
pleasure similar to that which Lucretius describes a^ enjoyed by Btaiidcrn on the 
shore when they see ships tossed about on the sea, to behold wretche> crowding 
to the ticket-fifijces and disbursing their money, when you have nutliing to do but 
to take your seat and be carried through the air without money and without price. 
Letter in, iV. Y, Trilmne, June, 1857. 

It ia also too much the practice of rail sf ay companies to give free 
passes to members of State Legislatures, in order to make them 
friendly disposed. In many instances, however, the members 
exact the privilege of riding free over the roads. 

The Superior (,-ourt has enjoined the New York and New Haven Railroad 
from issumg free passes to members of the Legislature. . . . This action will be 
rather agreeable to the Railroad ('onipaiiy, a^ it will relieve all the railroads in 
the State from the practice of dtad-hduUntj members of the legislature. — Co^ 
ntcticut Paper. 

Dead Horse. Work for which one has been paid l)efore it is per- 
formed. When a printer, on Saturday ni'jlit, includes in his bill 
work not yet finished, he is said, on the following week, to ** work 
off a dead horse.^* Also used in England. d-CA^r Ca^^i, 

Dead Rabbits. A name recently assumed by the Irish faction in the A * 7 f't' 
city of Kew York. 

If the Dead Rabbit think he slays. 

Or the Plug-Ugly think he *8 slain. 
They do but pave the subtle ways 

I *ve trod, and mean to tread again. 

Parody on Eint ram's Brahma, JV. Y. Even^g Post, 

Dead-Set. Opposition; resolute antagonism; hostility; as '' it was 
a decul-set between them.*' 

Dead set against. Strongly opposed to. 

Deaf Adder. See Blauser. 

Deaf Nut A nut the kernel of which is decayed. Pennsylvania. 
Provincial in England. 

Death. To be death on a thing is to be completely master of it, a 
capital hand at it; like the quack-doctor who could not manage the 

172 DEA— DEE 

whooping-cough, but was, as he expressed it, ^^ death on fits." 

Did yott ever beam tell of the man they calls Chunkey ? born in Kaintuck and 
raised on the MissiBsippi I death on bar, and smartly in a panther fight. —N. T. 
Spirit of the Times. 

Women, I believe, are bom with certain natural tastes. Sally was death on 
lace, and old Aunt Thankfnl goes the whole figure for furs. — Sam Slids^ Human 
Nature, p. 226. 

Death-Horses. An insect, perhaps the ^* death's head moth." 
Among the insects of Virginia, Miss Ramsay mentions : — 

Locusts, tobacco-worms, and slugs, 
Death'horeeSf or the hard-ehell bugs. 

Poetical Picture of America, p. 166. 

Deoedent. A deceased person. — Laws of Pennsylvania. 
DeceiTlng for deceitful; as, '* A very deceiving hole in the road." 
Deck. A pack of cards. This term is old English. Thus Shak- 
soeare says, — 

But, whiles, he thought to steal the single ten, 
The king was slily fingered from the deck, — 3 Henry VI., v. 1. 
rU deal the cards, and cut you from the deck. — Two Maids of Moredadke, 1609. 
"Waiter," cried out an Arkansas traveller, '* bring down my baggage.** 
** What is it, sir ?'* '* A bowie-knife, a pair of pistols, a deck of cards, and one 

Deck is defined by Ash, ** a pack of cards piled one upon 

Deck. Twenty-Deck Poker is a variety where twenty cards are used. 
Declension. We sometimes see this word used in the newspapers, in 

speaking of a person's declining to be a candidate for office. Ex. : 

In consequence of the declension of our candidate, we shall be 

obliged to vote for a new one. — Pickering. 

Declination. Used in the same sense as the preceding word. It is 
said to have been first employed by Mr. John Piutard, when he 
declined a re-election as president of the American Bible Society. 

Decoration-Day. Day appointed for decoration, especially of graves 
of soldiers and sailors, who fell in the late civil war. 

Deed, for indeed. Very common throughout the South. Ask a 
Negro if it is cold, he will answer, ** Deed it is." 

To deed. To convey or transfer by deed. A popular use of the 
word in America; as, ** He deeded all his estate to his eldest son." 
— Webster. 

Deestrick. A common pronunciation among the illiterate for district 



v. Many of the clergy now-a-days ** deliver " the ScriptureB 
I hyimis to their hearers instead of reading them. 
Delivery* In Wall Street parlance ^ when stock is brought to the 
bit3fQr in i ^ ,■ with the nilea of the Steele Exchange, it is 
eJllW fi *' L ' ry," When there are irregnlaritips, the power 

: I [aii;_^ itM iitory, or in nome other way the riileg 
r: iTi^H ar>M'()i J tni VI npfl, the r/<?/iV#ry is pronounced bad, aiid 

the btiyer can appeal to the Board. — Medbery^ Men and M^steritM j 
^ Wittl StTttt, p, 135. ^ 

P^te demo08tTate. To show one's Jielf ; to make exHbitions. 

tVrtain )iic]i><»!i> hostJIfi to the purpose ond «cop<» of the law, ioon began CO ^c^*^ m %xJ^f> 
dtmon^nte «*:»in9t it. — iV. F. Trif/unf, Feb. 10, 1802. f 

To demoraliie* To corrupt and undermine the morals of; to destroy 
or h'ssen the efifect of moral principles on. — Webster, Professor 
Lyt?ll« who visited I>r. Webster, says, ** Wlien the Doctor was asked 
how many worda he harl coined for his Dictionary, he r*^p)ied» only 
one, * fo th' moral ize ; * and that not for bis Dictionary, but in a pam- 
biet p>nhlished in the last century." — Travels in the United Stateit^ 
53, Mr* Jodrell, in his ** Philology of the English Language/' 
f^rm the word a place ^ and cites as an example a passage from 
a speecli by Lord Liverpool, in the House of lyords, March 11, 
1817: — 

Ttiey had endeavored to guard B.nd protL'ct the people ogaiDst the attempU 
whft'Ji mem made to corrupt and fhmomUze them. 

The native vi^r of the soal inuwt wholly diiappear, under the steady inflneno* 
aj>il th« demoralitinff example of prodlgate power and prosperoiw crime.— 
WaUk^ Leiien on France, 

Deoga^ See Break-Bone Fever. 

I>epeTtmeiit. (Fr. d/partement) The principal offices of the fedenl 

government at Washington, at the head uf each of which is a Seo» 

tetary. are styled deimrtmen/K. Tliiii we have tJie State Department, 

literior Department, Treasury Department, &c. This expression 

Ptnd tilm the following are borrowed from the French. 

Departmental. Pertaining to a department or division. — Webster* 

The jijnrne played by the revoltitionlsts In 1789 wa» now pbyed agninnl the 
departmfntjif gnarda railed together for the protection of revolutionist*,— 
Burk^, pfcf, to Briuoi*$ AHfirtM. 

Wfiirh h required all the exertion of the dtpurtmental force toiuppreM.^- 
U. M. Wiilinms, Litter* cm Fmnce. 

X>epot. French. (Pron. deafpo.) A railroad atation-houBe. In Bug* 
land, it is called a Station, 
V^t* hiLve nlm provision depots, butter depots* ko* 



To depntl«e. To depute; to appoini a deputy; to empower to net ft>r 
another, aa a sheriff. ^ — Wehtter, 

Thi« word is not in any of the English dictionaries except one of 
the early editions of Bailey, where it appears in the preface among 
words in intideni authors, coUect-ed after the Dictionary wa« printed. 
Mr. Pickering remarks that *♦ the word is soraeiimea hesird in con- 
versation, but rarely occurs in writing^ and hiL«? always bt?en consid- 
ered m A mere vulgarism.'* 

Thty aeldfim think It oeceAfiAry to deputize more than one |>en«on to ftttend to 
their intcrcfts at the 9«tt of goveramenL — Pitri FqHq^ Januiirv, l8iL 

Deseret« A name (which they eay means honey bee) given by the 
2ilormonB to the Territory of Utah, which Uiey iiceuf»y. When Mr. 
Edward Everett was Secretary of State, he preveuted the name 
being used a« the official one for the Territory, 

Desk. The pujpit in a church, and figuratively the clerical profea* 
aion. **The Rev. Mr. Pound text appears well at the r/e#/%'* ♦* He 
intends one son for the bar, and another for the tlest.** This Kew 
England word is not generally uned in other parts of the country. 

The pulpit, or m? it is here [in Connecticut] en] led, the desk, was filled by three, 
if not foiif, cIiT^vmen ; a numlwr which, by it« form and dim envious, it ww ible 
to accornmod&le. — K<ndalVt Tract U^ Vol. I. p. 4- 

Tlic y are iromwon to every spcciej of oratory, tbough d rarer use in the dtsk, 
&c* — Adafn£t Lecture en iJAe^wtc. 

Iletiert. (Fr. dessert^ dessermr^ to clear away.) This term, which 
properly signifiea the fruits and nuts or second course brought on 
the table after the parts of a dinner, is often improperly 
applied in the United States to the puddings and pies. A common 
error is that of accenting the first syllable. 

To deaulphurise. To take the sulphur out of viilcanisced Caoutchouc. 

Devil's Damiug-Needle. Devil's Needle. A common name for the 
Dragon-fly. In England, according to Wright, it is called the 
Devil's Needle, 

Kow and then a tong-le^c^d tpider would run acrOM our track with iucn>dible 
rapidity, or a detiVt dot-ninr/^nrfdU wotdd pertroaciouftly hover abov^ f»ur beadsi. 
and cauEic me. in\pre!(<«<'d wtlii an eld nur»«iry cantion, to duck and dr>dgie, and 
hold tny handi over my earB, until the winged spectre would fly away acrow the 
garde n- — Ptitfmm*» Jttmtldy, June« 1S54. 

Devil'Fish. (Genus LophitM. Cuvier.) 1. The common name of 

the Amrrican Angltr, so called from its hideous form. It is also 

known by tbe names of 8ea-devil, Fishing- frog, Bellows-fish, 

Goose-fish, Monk-fish, and others. — Storcr^K Finh&s of Mann. 

2. At the Souths Urn name is applied to the Stingray^ vulg. StJr»- 

DEV— DIG 176 

ffaree (Cephaloptera vampyras), which sometimes grows to a great 
size. See Stingaree, 

The Devil'fah of the Mediterranean is the Octopus, a gigantic 
DavUment. Deviltry; wickedness. 

As thoM bridges took fire while I was out of town, they swore that I was the 
bell-wether and ringleader of all the devilment that was goiiif; on, and hence that 
I must have had a band in it. — N, Y, Jlemld, Speech of W. G. Brvumlow of 

Devil Wood. (Olea Americana.) American olive growing in the 
Southern States. A small evergreen, but its fruit has no value. 
It is impossible to split, hence its name. 
De'wberry. {Rubus Canaderu^is.) A low- trailing species of Black- 
berry. See Louj Blackberry. 
Dicker. Barter; also articles received in barter. Western. 
Grant that the North *s insulted, scorned, betrayed, 
0*erreache<l in I)argain8 with her neighbor made. 
When selfish thrift and party held the scales 
For peddling dicker^ not for honest sales, 
Whom shall we strike? — TKAiV/iVr, Thf Panoramn. 

To dicker. To barter. Used in Xew York and New England. 

The white men who penetrated to the semi-wilds [of the West] were always 
ready to dicker and to swap, and to trade rifles and watcher, and whatever else 
they might happen to possess. — Cooper^ The Oak Openings. 

Difference. Among stock opei*ators, the price at which a stock is bar- 
gained for and the rate on day of delivery are iu*ually not the same. 
The variation is known as the dijference, and occasionally brokers 
pay over this money balance instead of funiishing the stock. — Med- 
berg, Men and Mysteries of Wall Street. 

Difiiorent from. AVe say one thing is ** different /ro7/i '* another. In 
England, the expression is ** different /o,'* and so the old English 
writers quoted in KicharcLson's Dictionary. Conip. Averse. 

Diffioulted. Perjilexed. Mr. Sherwood has this among the words 
peculiar to Georgia, and there are examples of its use to be found 
in some of our well-known authors. It is in common use at the 
bar: ** The gentlemen, I think, will be difficu/ted to find a parallel 

There is no break in the chain of vital operation; and conseqnently we are not 
diffieuUed at all on the score of the relation which the new plant lioars to the old. 
Biuh on the Resurrection, p. 51. 

Dr. Jaiuieson has tiie verb to difficult in his Scottish Dictionary. 

X>ig. 1. A diligent student, one who learns his lessons by hard and 
tong-oontinued exertion. — Hallos College Words. 

176 ' DIG 

There goes the dig^ jtut look ! 
How like a parson he eyes his book I 

N. Y. LiUrary World, Oct. 11, 1861. 
By this *t is that we get ahead of the dig. 
*T is not we that prevail, but the wine that we swig. 

AmhtrH Indicator, Vol. IL p. 989. 

2. A thrust. ** Hit him a rfi^r." In vulgar use. 

Digger, Digger Indian. A name applied to various wretched tribes 
of Indians, of California, too degraded or enfeebled to hunt. They 
live chiefly upon roots, which they obtain by digging. Hence their 

Digging. 1. A word first used at the Western lead mines, to denote a 
place where the ore was dug. Instead of saying this or that mine, 
the phrase in vogue is these diggings or those diggings. 

Mr. Charles F. Hoffman visited the Galena lead-mines, and while 
there was shown about to the various estates, where the people were 
digging for ore. The person who accompanied him said: — 

Mr. , from your State, has lately struck a lead, and a few years will 

make him independent. We are now, you ob8er>'e, among his digging$. — PFin- 
Ur in the West, Let. 25. 

The principal digging$ near Hangtown were surface diggings, but, with the 
exception of river diggings, every kind of mining was seen in full force. — Borth- 
mdk's California, p. 120. 

In Califoniia, the term is applied to places near gold mines. Wet 
diggings are near rivers or wet places. Dry diggings are upon flats 
or higher lands which are usually dry. 

The phrase these diggings is now provincial in the Western States, 
and is occasionally heard in the Eastern, to denote a neighborhood 
or particular section of country. 

Boys, fellars, and candidates, I am the first white man ever seed in these 
diggings. I killed the first bar [bear] ever a white skinned in the county, and 
am the first manufacturer of whiskey, and a powerful mixture it is too. — Robb, 
Squatter Life. 

I ain*t a vain man, and never was. I hante a morsel of it in my composition. 
I don't think any of us Yankees is vain people; it *s a thing don't grow in our 
diggings. — Sam Slick in England, ch. 24. 

2. The act of studying hard; diligent application. — Hall. 

I Ve had an easy time in college, and enjoyed the "otium cum dignitate,** — 
the learned leisure of a scholar's life, — always despised digging, you know. — 
Harvard Beg., p. 194. 

3. Dear or costly; as, ** A mighty dig^ng ^lice.*^ A Southern 
word. — Sherwood^s Georgia. 

4. To dig is used among the lower classes at the South for the 

DIL— DIN 177 

act of dipping or rubbing suuif . A friend informs me that to dig 
is more common than to dip snuff. 
To dill. (Probably the same as to dull.) To soothe. The word is 
used in the north of England. 

I know what is in this medicine. It Ml dill fevers, dry up sores, stop rheumatis, 
drive out rattlesnake's bite, kill worms, &c. — Margaret, p. 140. 

Dime. (Fr. dixme or dime, tenth.) A silver coin of the United 
States, in value the tenth of a dollar, or ten cents. 

This term, peculiar to our decimal currency, is now in common 
use at the South and West; but^n the Ku^teru and Northern States, 
whence the Spanish real and half-real, which long formed a large 
portion of the circulation, have only recently been banished, it is 
usually called a ten-cent piece, and the half -dime & Jive-cent piece. 

Small articles are sold in the New Orleans markets by the picayune or dimes 
worth. If you ask for a pound of figs, you will not be understood; but for a 
dime*s worth, and thev are in vour hands in a trice. — Sketches of New Orleans, 
N. Y. Tribune. 

The currency [in New Orleans] is more truly national than that of any other 
part of the United States. Every thing sells by dimes and haU-dimes, **bit8 " 
and "picayunes" being the same value; and as for copper money, I have not 
teen the Ant red cent. — Bayard Taylor, Letter from N. 0., July, 1840. 

Dimes. Common in the West and South for money. ^* She 's got 

the dimes; *^ i. e., she is an heiress. 
Dime Novels. Cheap, trashy novels sold for a dime (ten cents) each. 

There is also a great variety of song books, known as ** Dime Song 


Ding. Very, excessively. A Southern word. See Darn. 

It was ding hot ; so I sot down to rest a bit under the trees. — Chron. of Pint^ 

Dingbat. A bat of wood that may be thrown (dinged) ; a piece of 
money; a cannon-ball; a bullet. 

Instead of feathers and bristles flying in all directions [shooting fowls], it has 
been found necessary [by the United States governmeut] to expend the dingbats, 
to put something more substantial on the "fly" [in motion] to bring our unruly 
relatives to their P's and Q's. — -Y. H. Palladium, Letter from W. 8, Ship 
''Cumberland,'' Dec. 25, 1861. 

Dinged. Very, excessively. An expletive peculiar to the South, the 
equivalent of the Northern darned. 

Tou know it *s a dinged long ride from Pineville, and it took me most two days 
to get there. — Major Jones's Courtship. 

Dlngee, Dinky. Common in New England for a flat-bottomed boat 
made of boards. Used indiscriminately with Dory. 




DingUn^ Tottering; insecure; prob. i. q. dangling. 

We httve b<*en telling our readers th*t FedemliHm b just now in a verydingling 
way, white the '* Expness " infsistts that Llie Deniocracjr U iu Uw uoie coodltloa* 
— >. r, Trti* Sun, Au^, 20, 1848. 

Diolng-Room Sercrant A male house-serviuit or waiter. 

Dip, Sauce for puddiiips. South-western. 

To dip Snttff. A mode of taking tobacco, practised by women iu 
gome parts of the Uriitc»d States, iind particularly at the South, may 
be thu« described: A little pine stick or bit of rattan about three 
inches long*, split up like a brush%t one end. is first wetted and then 
dipped into suuff; with this tlie teetli are rublwd, sumetinies by the 
bc»ur trignther. Some tie the snuff in a little Uig^ and chew it* 
These filthy practices originated in the use of snuff for cJeausing 
tbe teeth. 

Dipper. L A veaael, generally with a handle, used to dip water or other 
liquor, jf 

2, The seven bright stars in the oonstellalion of the Great Bear; 
popularly so called from their arrangement in the fujm of u. dipper 
with a handle; they are also known as Charles's Wain. 

8. A small aquatic bird, common throughout the United States; 
also called the Water- witch and Hell-diver. {Homed Grtbe. Nut- 
tall, Ornith.) — ^a^ Hisf, of Nttc Vork, 

Dippers. Those who use snuif aa above. ** She 'a a dipper." 

Dipay. A term applied, in some parts of Pennsylvania, to the float of 
a fishing-line. From **deep sea." The deep sea or cft/wy lead is 
used for obtaining soundings ofif-shore or in deep water ^ 

Dirt, This word is used more commonly and frequently with us than 
in England, to denote earth, clay, &c. An English traveller in the 
United States observes that he heard a man speak of his having 
wheeled dirt, to repair a road. A **//tV/ road/* as dlsiinginshed 
from a turnpike-road, is often heard in the West. The *^ t/irf-cart/* 
or cart whi«:!h removes street swec'ping^, would in London be 
called a **dust-carf 

In Cftlifomm, ♦*</»K" j» the univenial word to signify rht* «ii bs t ance du^c, — 
oartli, rbiy, ^avel, or l(»o*c ?Int<?. The minor«i talk of nth diri aud p«»or tfirt, 
and of »trippiiig off so mntir feet nf '* top rliri '* before getting to ** pay dirt,*' tho 
latter meaning dirt inlh no mnch gold in it that it «ritl pay to dig it up aod wash 
H. — Bifrthipiik'$ C(di/omi*i, p. 120, 

Dirt-Eatera, Dirt-Bating. See Clay-Eaterg. 

DlacipleA of Christ. Sometimes called Campbellites, or Reformers, 
As is Uiiual in similar cases^ the brethren who unite under the name 




of Disciples of Chriit^ ot OiriatianFi, are iiicknamed aft^r thoFe who 
have been prominent in gathering them together. — Enri//?. ReJigimt^ 

Mr. Campbell, the author of the above ** article," affirm b that, in 
1S2JJ. the Baptists at first favored his views. He had adopted their 
kadin^ tenet. The editor of *^The Christian Rt*ft>nner/* Rev. W. 
B. Orvis, *' was originally a Baptbt. He now recogniaes no New 
Testament ordinances to be binding as a ritiial htw, in that rei^pect 
agreeing with the Frienda." Campbell was originally a Presby- 

To diafeUo^v^sblp, To disposaeas of church- member&iiip. A mon- 
atroua word, See To fdtowship, 

No person ihxi baa been di»feilf)ic$hij)ped, or excommnnlr Ate<] from the chtirch, 
will be illoweil to go forth in the djinci' thAt h eondiiicttid by the sanction and 
tDtbority nf the churcb* — Mormon Rtffuidtitm^ pubiidfied in tht Frofitier (Iowa) 
GmartH^ Xov, 28, 1849. 

IHsgnintled. Dif^appointed ; dtsconcerted. 

CongTc.ofliTiait Carr nf IiidtAnft wan not brought ap by hand. He miflne? ju} 
oppoft unity of gt^ttiti^ in a whack At his dtstpmniitd party friendi.^M F» 
Tribune, Feb 28, IBH. 

At a hearing before the Legislative Committee of Rhode laknd, 
on the subject of rfduchig the number of the school eommittee of 
Providence, Mr. D. E. Ballou made a speech against th»^ measure, 
in which he said: — 

We have had enough exercise of extrtiordinAry power, and thiji confiuuAl 
grsiping after authority for the piirpfvf^i? ofmreting the individufll cn?<(' of i*ome 
diMffrwUied per!^n» should receive the stamp of this committee'ii difrapprohation. 
Providtnct Journal, Maroh 1, J 877. 

The men of all otben mo?t Inconsolable in view of thc' eleirtion of Haye?^ are 
the di*yrMntit4 Rcpubticdns who forscn^tk their party and went over to Tilden, 
counting upon his euccea^ and the rewarfb he was to ben tow on I hem. — Orange 
{N. J,) JoumaL 

We have also beard the word undisgrunfted used. 

B«%% Dr. Newman Hall, of London, tellii how when he was journeying t© 
Chicago, AH applif'peddlin^ l>oy, on the cars, without any preliminarieR took hold 
of and immedintt'ty examined his!' breA»t-)nn. Keverltie'le*s the reverend (jfentle- 
maa, quite unfllAfjrunfUd^ remarked, *' Was it not there to be ^e*n ? Wa* he not 
ainaa oud a brother? "' — Sprin^dd RcpuhUcan^ Nov. 20, 1869. 

Diagnlsed in Iifquor, or simply dtjtffuiud. Intoxicated 

To diaremember. To forget. U&ed chiefly in the Southern States. 

*' Wcll^ I di^tmmnher about that/' faid the Widow Dedott, " but 1 do nsmem- 
ber n^ hearia' you blow the Elder up for goiB^ to BApUat meetia*.*^ — Widow 
Btdm Paittr§l p. 129. 



180 DIS— DIV 

It *8 a carioas stoiy, nod I *I1 tell you all of it I can think on. But some 
things perhaps I may dititmtmhtr, — Weittm Tale, N. T. Spirit of the TinuM. 

I *1I thank you, when we meet again, not to ditremember the old saying, bat 
let every man skin his own skunks. — David CrocketL 

Distressed. (Pron, dis-tressf-ed.) Miserable; wretched. ^* Distressed 
man! " was, and perhaps is, a favorite exclamation with ladies at 
the North. 

'* Why,** said the peddler to the Widow Bedott, who had selected an article 
for her wedding-dress, **a body *d think *t was some everlastin' old maid, instead 
of a handsome young widder that had chosen such a dittreued thing for a weddin' 
dress.** — Widow BedoU Papen, p. 113. 

District. A common pronunciation of this word in the country is 

District Courts. In American law. Courts held in each of the 
thirty>five districts into which the United States are divided, con- 
sisting each of a single judge, and which act both as courts of com- 
mon law and as courts of admiralty. 

District School. A public or free school within a district. 

District Schoolmaster. The teacher of a district school. 

The district schoolmaster hain*t got a friend on the flat side of earth. The 
boys snowball him during recess ; the girls put hot water in his hair-dye ; and 
the school-committee make him work for half the money a bar-tender gets, and 
board him around the neighborhood, where they give him rye coffee, sweetened 
with molasses to drink, and codfish balls three times a day for victuals. — Joeh 
BUUngs's Works, p. 325. 

Dite. A little thing; a doit. ** I don't care a (/if«." New England. 

Ditty-Bag. A sailor's housewife, containing his thread, needles, tape, 

&c. , for mending his clothes. 
Divide. The name applied by Western hunters and guides to a ridge 

of land which divides waters running in different directions; a 

dividing ridge. 

We commenced to ascend another divide ; and, as we approached the summit, 
the narrow valley leading to it was covered with timber and long grass. — 
Emory*s New Mexico and Calijomia, p. 105. 

The eastern fork [of the Arkansas] skirts the base of the range, coming from 
the ridge, called the divide, which separates the waters of the Platte from 
the Arkansas. — Buxton's Adventures, p. 241. 

Continued our route towards an opening in the elevated ridge which stretched 
across our path in a direction from north to south, called the divide. — Bartlett*i 
Personal Narrative, Vol. I. p. 73. 

Divert. This word expresses fully what no word at present does. 
The word '* divide " is not etymologically applicable, as it does not 
convey the idea of altitude as the cause of separation ; while the 

DIX— DOC 181 

word divort implies elevation, the cause of the divortia aquarum^ 
whence its derivation also. — Dr, Antisell, Geolog. Repi. Pacific R,R, 
Survey, Vol. VIT. 
We think the word watershed expresses the meaning as fully. 

On crossing the divort hetxfeen the fniall stream, a tributary of the Salinas, and 
the waters of the San Antonio, this bed was found to occupy a Urge surface and 
to be the uppermost rock. — Dr. AntUtll^ Ibid.^ p. 40. 

Diziaiilo. Noting Dixie and what pertains to it. 

Unless the blockade is raised very soon, the Dixinnic provinces will soon be 
resolved into . . . Egyptian darkness. — Cincinnati Gazette^ Feb., 1862. 

Dixie, Dixie Land. An ideal pariulise in the Southern States. 

In a small volume entitled Bryant's '* Songs from Dixie's Land " 
is the following note on the origin of the term of Dixie^s Land: — 

"In the popular mythology of New York City, Dixie was the 
Negro's paradise on earth in times when slavery and the slave- 
trade were flourishing in that quarter. Dixie owned a tract of land 
on Manhattan Island, and also a large numl>er of slaves ; and his 
slaves increasing faster than his land, an emigration ensued, such 
BA has taken place in Virginia and other States. Naturally, the 
Negroes who left it for distant parts looked to it as a place of un- 
alloyed happiness, and it was the * old Virginny' of the Negroes 
of that day. Hence Dixie became s^-nonymous with an ideal 
locality, combining ineffable happiness and every imaginable re(iui- 
Bite of earthly beatitude." 

The sweetest, the happiest place on earth 
Is Dimty sweet Dixie the land of my birth. 
I wish I was in de land of cotton, 
^Simmon seed and sandy bottom — 

Chortu. I^>ok away — look away — Dixit Lamd, 
In Dime's La ml whar I was bom in, 
Early on one frosty mom in*. 

Chorus. Look away — look away — Dixie Land. 

Negro Afelofiies^ Dixie* s Land. 

Dobber. A float to a fishing-line. So called in New York. 

The most singular luck attended Ten Broeck, who, falling overboard, was mi- 
raculously preserved from sinking by his nether garments. Thus buoyed up, he 
floated on the waves like an angler's dobber^ &c. — Knickerbocktr^ N. York. 

Dooiona. A corruption of docile^ as ** a docious young man," »'a 
docious horse." 

I was eo mad that I swore just nigh on to half an hour, right straight on cend. 
I can hardly keep my tongue docious now to talk about it. — Western Life^ 
N. T. Spirit of the Times. 

Dooity. (Fr. dociliU,) A low word, used in some parts of the 



182 DOC— DOG 

United States to signify quick comprehension. It is only nsed in 
conversation, and generally with a negative, thus : •* He has no 
docity,** It is a provincial word in England. — Pickering. 

Dock. We often apply the term to the ** slip " or space between two 
piers for the reception of vessels. It is believed to be restricted in 
England to an enclosed basin. ** Balance dock,** ^* sectional dock,** 
^* screw dock^** are none of them really docks, but contrivances by 
which vessels are raised from the water for repair. 

Dock-Loafer. A loafer that hangs about the docks. 

Dock-loafen^ rag-pickers, wandering gypsies, wild Indians. — The Indq>en^ 
dent, March, 1862. 

Dockmackie. (Viburnum acerifolium). Probably named by the 
Dutch, among whom the plant was used for external applications 
in tumors, &c. , — a practice learned by ^tliem from the Indians. 

Dock Walloper. A loafer that hangs about the wharves. New 

Doctor. The cook on board a ship ; so called by seamen. 

To doctor. To cook up; manage, oversee, modify.' 

The news [of success to the United States armies, said the English leading 
joomals] all came through Northern channels, and was doctored by the govern- 
ment which controlled the telegraph. — ff. Greeley ^ in the N. Y. Independent, 
June, 1862. 

Dod Fetched. A euphemistic form of swearing. 

Liddv, don't be so pesky starch, I Ml be dad/etched if I meant any harm. —' 
Southern Sketches. 

Dodger. A hard-baked cake or biscuit. Dead and garred, i. e. thor- 
oughly done. Dead gar. — Thomson* s Eng. Etymons. See Corn- 
Dodger and Beef- Dodger. 

Do don't, for do not or don*t, is a common expression in Georgia and 
South Carolina, and not by any means confined to the uneducated 
classes. ^ ^ Ut»^ i/h^ft ^ • 

Dod rot it, Dod drat it. Confound it. A euphemistic oath. 

He began cassin* like all wrath, and says he, Dod rot that old Mike Shouter. — 
Southern Sketches, p. 31. 

Here *s the old man agoin* to give you another wallopin*. I *II cut and run, 
and dot drot me if I don^t. — Sam Slick, Human Nature, p. 60. 

To dog. To hunt with dogs. 

What is to be the fate of Soulouque and his subjects ? How long will it take 
to pick a quarrel with them, and when will regiments from the South, tnuned at 
home to the hunting and dogging of fugitive alaves, achieve what Bonaparte could 
not, the re-enslavement of Ilayti, and wipe out in blood "the. horrors of St. 
Domingo,*' the standing bugbear of emancipation V — N. T. Ti-ibune, Nov. 8, 1854. 



Do§-gauQed. A euphemistic form of swearing. Southern, 

If there *i tt doff^^ontd abolilioni<it aboard thin boat, I §hould like to ^e« him. 
1 *m the man to put « chunk o" Iciwi into hb wwlly head right off* -^ Gla^ttonSf 
Engliikhtnan in Kan$a»^ p. 46. 

No, iiaya I, I wonH do no »kh 4q^ on thing; for when I llkea a chap, I likef 
hjin. Bai if you want to tight, I 'm your man. — Southern Sktteht*^ p* ^. 

Mr. Carlton, in ciescribiug the reception by the choir of the new 
church organ, says: — 

But when that choir got up to iing,, 

I couldn't cat<!h a word; 
Tbay sang the most dog-^anfittt thing 

A body erer heard t — Farm Bailtids, p. 80. 

Dogged. A euphemistic oath; as, ** I Ul be dogged if I do it** 

Poggery. A low dritikiug-huuse. West and South, The '* Cleve* 
laod Plairidealer,'^ in speaking of the riotous proceedings connected 
with the Erie Railroad troubles, says: — 

The mob erowded the sheriff on, and drove him into the Key Stoie Saloon, a 
tmall fifojryery, where they kept huu lor half an hour. 

Dog my Cat. Small s wearing. 

Dog-pQ^wer. 1. Force exerted by a dog, 

2. A machine for churning worked by a dog. ** The dog Carlo 
refused to go on the doff-power,^* Such machines are much used in 
Central New York, and probably ebe where. 

Dog^s Age. A long time. 

Doings. (Pron- doln.f.) Prepared food; victuals. A Western vul- 
garism. See Chicken Fixfrj^r*- 

If tliar wa.^n't cold ^oTiw about that time (in the mountains), thi» child woutdn'l 
aay m. Thar wa* i^o buffalo and no meat, and we hod been liviii' on imr mocca- 
•ins for weeks } and poor d<ntu that fuedin' is. — Rtucton*^ Lift in the Far irril, 
p. 17. 

Dollar Mark ($). The origin of thia sign to represent the iJnIlar has 
been the caua« of much discussion. One writer ways it comes from 
the letters U, S, (United States), which, aft<?r the adoption of the 
Federal Conatitution, were prefixed to the Federal currency » and 
which afterwards, in the huny of writing, were run itito one 
another; the U being made first and the S over it. Anntlier, tliat 
it is derived from the contraction of the Spanish word pe.^oi^, dollars^ 
or pesot fuertes^ hard dollars* A third, that it is a contraction for 
the Spanish fuertes^ hard, to distinguish silver or hard dollars 
from paper-money. The more probable explanation is that it is a 
modification of the figures |, formerly used to denote a piece o£ 
eight reals, or, as a dollar was then called, a piece of eight. 

184 DOL— DON 

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me be would 
buy it of me for the ship's use ; and asked me what I would have for it. I told 
him that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to 
him ; upon which he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty 
yiects of eight for it in Brazil. He offered me also t\yLXy pUce* of tujhi more for 
my boy Xury, which I was loath to take ; not that I was not willing to let the 
captain have him, but I was loath to sell the poorboy^s liberty, who had assisted 
me so faithfully in procuring my own. —' Robinton Crumte, sec. 4. 

/^/fc A variety of other theories will be found in the *' Historical 

^ X 7^^ Magazine," Vol. L pp. 122, 186, 245. 

Doless. Inefficient. '* He 's a doless sort of a fellow." 

Dolittle. A drone; an idle person. 

Do me. Such a thing will do m«, meaning that it will answer my 

Domestics. (Used only in the plural.) Domestic goods, t. e. cotton 

goods of American manufacture. 
To donate. To give as a donation; to contribute. The word has 

only recently been admitted into the dictionaries of Worcester and 


There have been received from the Foreign Bible Society $7,000, not including 
$1,000 recently donated, —Bqptitt Mimonary Herald^ Rep. 1846. 

The display of articles exhibited [at the Fair in Albany] was very tastefnl and 
attractive ; and the friends of the cause in Massachusetts and other places donated 
liberally. — -Y. Y, Tribune, Nov 6, 1846. 

Mr. Peabody donatet to the city of Baltimore an institute for the moral and 
intellectual culture of the inhabitants. — JNT. Y. Herald, Feb. 19, 1857. 

Donation. That which is given or bestowed; a gift, a grant. Do- 
nation is usually applied to things of more value than presents. — 

Webster says that donation is usually applied to things of more value than 
presents; but while such may be true in the States, I have known it applied here 
to a basket of musty cakes. I suppose that donation has a certain meaning in 
law. Its most ordinary English application is to a single gift in money, in con> 
tradistinction to the periodical payments of a fixed sum or subscription. When 
applied to a present, public or private, I apprehend such an application of the 
term has its origin in mere pomposity. The language stands in no need of such 
an expression so long as we have our old Saxon yi/t. — Rev. A. C. Geikie, Cana- 
dian Journal, Sept., 1857. 

Donation Party. A party consisting of the friends and parishioners 
of a country clergyman assembled together, each individual bring- 
ing some article of food or clothing as a present to him. Where 
the salary of a clergyman is small, the contributions at a donation 
party are very acceptable. It is also called a giving party. See 
Pound Party. 

DON 186 

In the ** Bedott Papers " is an amusing description of a donation 
party given to a country minister who hw\ a salary of but 8400 a 
year. On this occasion, the visitors were very nuniei-ous, and the 
articles presented so very few that the minister's family were com- 
pelled to contribute the larger portion of the refreshments. The 
poor clergjTnan sent in his resignation immediately after, and, on 
being asked by a deacon for the reason of his sudden withdrawal, 
answered : — 

I *ve been your pastor two yearj>, and you *ve had the kindness to fjive nic two 
donation pnfties. I We 9tood it ro far, but I can't otaud it any longer; brethren, 
I feel convinced that one more dotuit ion party would completely break me down. 
p 271. 

Marietta Holley, in her amusing book called ** My Opinions and 
Betsy Bohl>et's,'* has an amusing account of a donation party. 

Some folks carried the littlest thini^. There was a family of seven hearty 
men and women, and all they carried was a book-mark of |H^rforated [mper and 
a plate of co<»keys. There were seven book-marks and fourtofn pair of slips for 
the minister's only boy. Of" course there were some othrr thinjfs; a few sassige, 
a little tlour, and some dried blackberries. — Ibid.» p. 207. 

Done, instead of did: as, "I done it,'* ♦* They donr the business.** 
A common vulgarism in the State of Xew York, also heanl in the 
province of Leinster, Ireland. An officer wrote to his general, in 
the late war, that his troops *W/o;i<? their duty;" and in certain 
letters puriwrting to be from the '* upi">er ten," in praise of Dr. 
Townsend's medicines, we read that *' they done the writers great 

Done with a participle, as ** he *s done come, done gone, done 
said, done did it,** &c., is a Negro vulgarism frecjuently heard at 
the South. 

Oh! she waked me in the momin', and it's broad day; 
I lookM for ray canoe, and it '» d<me gone away. 

Porter's Ttdts of the Suuth-westy p. 133. 

I 'm mighty easy on the trigger, and the next momin' I was done gone. I 
kissed the old woman, spanked the children, threatJ'n'd thi* niggers, promised 
the overseer a new covering and demijohn of red eye if all went straight, got all 
my little fixins together, and off I set. — N. Y Spirit oftht Timet. 

*• Why, Tomtit, what upon earth is thi* for? " said Nina. 

" I-aws, missiH, there's l>een a gentleman waiting for you these two hours. 
And, misf^^is, she's^/on^ got on her best cap, and gone down in the parlor for 
him." — Afrs. Stoice, Dnd, Vol. I. p. 139. 

" How d'y Miss Kate," returuejl Bob, grinning; " Uncle Pete is done dead and 

" U that a fact ?" asked Mr. Mitchell, looking out. 

** Fac truf, Mas'rl an' what 's more, Aunt Milly is like to die too; she 's gruv 
herself nearly to death 'bout it." — Emma BartltU, 

186 DON— DOO 

When you oome in too late for the early breakfast at a Texas hotel, the sable 
attendant will tell you **dey *8 all done had breakfast an hour ago.'* A thing 
is never done in Texas, it is done done, A person has never gone anywhere, 
but done gone. And if the waiter tells 3'ou he has really done something you 
have employed him to do, he will say that he has " done gone and done done it.** 
His power of assertion can go no further. — Texat Cor. Chicago Tribune. 

Donock. A stone; a term almost peculiar to Arkansas, though used 
more or less throughout the South. In the West it is Domick. 

Then bring me a couple of donocH, 

Place them at my head and my toe, 

And do not forget to write on it 

The name of old Rosin-the-bow. — Song^ Ronn the Bow. 

Do-Nothing. An idle, worthless fellow, who will take his ease in 
his own way, and labor only when compelled to. 

Every New England village, if you only think of it, must have its do-nothing 
as regularly as it has its school-house or meeting-house. — Mn. Stowe^ Oldioum 
FoUce, ch. iv. 

There is on the face of the earth no do-mcthing whose softness, idleness, general 
inaptitude of labor, and universal shiftlessness can compare with that of this 
worthy as found in a brisk Yankee village. — Jind.^ ch. iv. 

The Rip Van Winkle of Irving is a good specimen of the do- 
nothing class of village idlers. 

Don't amount to much. In speaking of a person of little account, 
or one of no consequence, it is common to say, ** He don't amount 
to much.** In England, they would say ** no great shakes." 

Don't kno'w. Often, indeed generally, pronomiced dunno. 

Don't know as I know. These expressions are often used intro- 
ductorily in reply to a question. One asks a question, when the 
reply is, ** Wall, don't know as I know," though pronounced 
Dono-zi-no. A story told in Salem, Mass., runs thus: — 

A West India merchant described to an English friend the Yankees as being 
remarkable for their want of information ; they didn't know what they had, and 
they readily confessed to that effect. The friend was incredulous, but at that 
moment a Yankee skipper entered the counting-room, was asked, " What have 
you brought this time?'* and replied "Well, I don't know: onions, flour, &c.'* 
Said the merchant to his friend, *' Didn't I tell you the truth ? " 

I don't know as I shan't, for I don't know but I shall. This un- 
couth expression, Mr. Hurd says, is very common in the eastern 
towns of Massachusetts, near Cape Cod. — Grammatical Corrector. 

Don't see it. / donU see it is a very common expression, equivalent 

to dissent. 
Doodle. A Yankee-doodle; a Yankee; a Unionist. 



Whoop ! tfa« Doodlts h*ve broken loose, 

Roaring round like the very deuce! 
Waat a weafw»n ? Why, capture one] 

Every IhM^U hm n^t a ^an^ 
Belt, And bayou «t, bright aiul new, — 

Kill a Doodle, and capture two. 

BocMnt/ham Virg, EefftsUr^ War Bonff. 

Doodle Bugs. A kind of beetles which live in holes in the ground. 

By calling doodU several timea near their holes, it is aaid the bug« 

will come out. LnuLHiana- 
To doom. To tax at discretion. A New England tenii, 

\V*hen a person neglects to make a returti of hia taxable property 

to the assessors of a town, those o fleers floom \ihn\ tliat is, Judffg 

upon, and fix his tax accorditig to their discretion. — Pkktiring. 

The e»tatei of all merchanti, ibopkeeperi, and faetora, $biill be tai^mwd by 
the rule of common eBtimatioti, nceordlng (a tbtj will and docfm of die aBseaaorit 
^ MoMctchtutUt Colontf Linc$, p. U^ tid. 164)0. 

Doomage. A penalty or fine for neglect. Laws of New Hampshire- — 

Door- Rock. The door stone or st-ep. Wet<tera. 

Doree. A Esh commonly called John Dor^ with us as in England. 
This last name is a conuption of the French Jaune dor^e^ golden 
yellow, which is the color of the fish. 

Dory. A kind of boat for fishermen. 

Doted. Changed, or half rotten ; as, * * doted wood. * ' West and South. 

Do tell I A vulgar exclanuition common in New England, and synony- 
mous with. Really! Indeed ! Is it possible! 

A brigbt-eyed little deiiioI«elle from Virginia came running into the dairy of a 
COontr3*«bou»e in New Hampshire, at wbith her mother was spending the sum- 
iner, with a Ion f^ »tory about a muj^t buaultful butterfly i^he bad bi-en chafing; 
•nd the dairy-maid, after hearirij: the story throui;b. exclaimed, Do tttU The 
child immediately repeated the story, and the jt^Qod-natured maid, after hearing 
il through a second time, exclaimed again, in a tone of wtill greater wonder* Da 
iiU! A third lime the story wa--^ told, and the third time eame the exckmatiun 
of wonder, Dv teill The child'*i spirit* weric dji^hed, and i^he went tti her mother 
with li iafi tale about Riub'ii teaming her] while poor Ruth »aid that " Ihone 
dnoHm country gain were mo jitraof^ ; keep telling me the eatne thing over and 
over. I never see any thing like it ! " — JV. T. Com, Adv, 

Double. A flower the number of whose petals is increased by cidti- 
r^tion is said to be double ; when the increase is very great, it is 
termed very double J 

Double-Under. A kind of steam gtuiboat built and employed dur» 
ing the lat-e civil war, rotmd at both ends. 

Double-Horse. Doing or attempting to do two things at once; 

188 DOU 

twaddling; having a two-faced character or position. See One" 

Members of Congress who perform the great double-horse act of riding both 
[Gen. FremoDt^s] proclamation and Halleck^s General Order No. 3 [regarded 
as contradictory to or inconsistent with said Proclamation]. — N. Y. Tribune^ 
Dec 27, 1861. 

Doable-jaded. To ride double-jaded is to ride with a pillion. 

Doable Ripper. Two sleds from six to ten feet apart connected by a 

plank, upon which boys slide down hill. Many accidents have 

been caused by their use. Also called a Doubler. 

The double-ripper now is laid aside with other engines of calamity. — Newi- 
Doogh. Dough-f acism ; semi-secessionism ; want of loyalty. 

The Rhode Islanders should have given us our Loyalty and our Dough on 
separate plates ; for the strongest stomachs will hardly relish, such a salmagundi 
as this— JV. r. Tribune, Feb. 27, 1862. 

Dough-Faoes. A contemptuous nickname, applied to the Northern 
favorers and abettors of negro slavery. The term generally means 
a pliable politician, one who is accessible to personal influences 
and considerations. It was first applied, however, by John Ran- 
dolph of Roanoke to such Northern members of Congress as mani- 
fested especial willingness to fall in with the views and demands of 
the South on questions involving the * * peculiar institution. ' ' Speak- 
ing of the Northern Democrats, he bitterly said: — 

I knew that these men would give way. They were scared at their own dough" 
face*, — yes, they were scared at their own dough-faces. We had them ; and, if 
we had wanted more, we could have had them. 

The truth is that, while the Southerners need and are willing to pay for the 
services of the dough-face*^ they dislike their persons and despise their discourse. 
N. r. Tribune, April, 1848. 

Thanks to a kind Providence and the manly straightforwardness of John C. 
Calhoun, the great question of extension or non-extension of human slavery 
under the flag of this republic is to be pressed to a decision now. Desperate, 
idolatrous, and blind as is his devotion to slavery, we would sooner see him 
President to-morrow than any dough-face in the Union. 

This term has also been applied to Southern men who are false 
to the principles of slavery, as Northern dough-faces are to the 
principles of freedom. 

There was a disposition in the Senate to evade the question, — to nlip a bill for 
the establishment of the Oregon territory through the Senate, without calling 
attention to the slavery question, and under the immediate pressure of the demand 
made for the military defence of the territory from the Indians The Whigs of 
the North and of the South were silent. The Democratic Cass men of the North 
and of the South were nmm. Two-thirds of the Senate were dough faced. There 
are Southern as well as Northern dough-face* i men looking to the spoils care 

DOU— DOW 189 

not for principles, whether they be of the North or of the South. — WaAing^ 
Urn Cor. N. Y. Com. Adv., June 4, 1848. 

Donsh-FaoiBm. Truckling to the slave power. 

The slaveholdeni will cling to tlie institutions of slavery as lonj^ as new markets 
mre being opened for their slaves. I^t the people of the free States see to it that 
it is circumvented by every reasonable means. If they are timi, the douyh-facwn 
of their representatives will be cured. — Ltiter of J. C. Snodyrau^ of BeUtimore, 

Dongh-Head. A soft-pated fellow, a fool. 

Doughnut A small, roundish cake, made of flour, eggs, and sugar, 
moistened with milk, and boiled in lard. — Webster. According to 
Halliwell, the term donnut is used in Hertshire, to denote a pancake 
made of dough instead of batter. In speaking of the preparations 
for a picnic, Mr. Shillal)er says : 

And then he lays in lots of pickings, 
Mammoth doufjhnut»^ lefpt of chickens ; 
For prices down at Hampton Beach 
Are verj' much beyond his reach. — Poetns. 

Mr. Elliott, in describing the manners and customs of the olden 
time in New England, says : — 

At the supper-table many a sweet thing was whispered l)ehind a dtmghnut, 
and many a sentiment tucked in a pie. — New Enylaml History^ Vol. I. p. 4G8. 

Hannah is a smart, willin' gall, and a racl worker, and a prime cook into the 
bargain; but let her alone for in the dvuyhnut line and for pumpkin pies. — 
McClintock^t Tales. 

Do^e. Dived. Very common among seamen, and not confined to 
them. The Rev. A. C. Geikie says: In England, when a swimmer 
makes his first leap, head foremost, into the water, he is said to dive, 
and is spoken of as having (//tW, in accordance with the ordinary 
and regular construction of the verb. Not so, however, is it with 
the modern refinements of our Canadian English. In referring to 
Buch a fact here, it would be said, not that he dived, but that he 
dove. Even Longfellow makes use of this form — so harsh and 
unfamiliar to English ears — in the musical measures of his Hia- 
watha: — 

** Straight into the river Kwasind 
Plunged as if he were an otter, 
Dove as if he were a beaver,'* &c 

Canadian Journal, Sept., 1857. 

Dowd. A woman's night-cap, composed of two pieces of cloth, the 
seam miming from the forehead to the neck. It is sometimes called 
a " squaw-shaped cap." New York. The word is used in the same 
aense in Devonshire, England. 

190 DOW— DRA 

DoiRm. A low condition; feeling less sanguine than is usual; as 
' ** Up^* denotes a condition or state of mind higher than is usual. 
** He has his ups and downs." ** The ups and downs of business." 
See at In. 

Down Cellar, for down in or into the cellar, is a common New England 
expression. So, too, is ** up garret." 

Down Country. Used in the interior to denote on or toward the sea- 
board; occasionally, the sea-board, or the land near a river's mouth. 
Comp. dp Country^ &c. 

Down Bast. 1 . In or into the Eastern States, t. e. New England. 
2. Maine, sea-coast of Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. 

We have never heard of better missionary ground than down Eatt ; the people 
intelligent, the climate healthful, the villages numerous and wealthy. — N. T. 
Christian Enquirer^ Sept 9, 1848. 

Mr. Hill, in one of his visits dotpn East, was belated one evening, and was 
compelled to seek shelter in a farm-house. -^ G, H. HiU, Tales. 

Down Baiter. 1. A New Englander. 

2. Properly, as used in Massachusetts, a native or resident of 
Down upon. To be down upon is to seize with avidity, as a bird of 
prey would pounce down upon its victim. Alluding to the state of 
the poultry market, the ** New York Tribune ** says: — 
The boarding-house keepers are doum upon geese. 

This phrase is also used to express disapprobation, dislike, or 
enmity; as, ** I 'U be down upon you," t. e. I '11 come up with you, 
or pay you off for some injury or insult, &c. A common expression 
at the West is, ** I '11 be down upon you like a thousand of brick." 
To dozologize. To give glory to God, as in doxology; to praise 
with doxologies. — Webster. 

No instance is to be found in which primitive Christians doxologized the spirit 
of God as a person. — Christian Disciple^ Vol. II. p. 295. 

Mr. Pickering says he ** never met with the word in any other 
American work nor in any English publication, hut that it may 
possibly be a part of the professional language of divines." Mr. P. 
further observes that he found it in the early editions of the diction- 
aries of Ash and Bailey, from which it was afterwards discarded. 
Drag out. A "knock down and drag out^^ is a fight carried to 
extremities. The term drag out seems to be also used at the South, 
to denote a buUy, a tearer. 

** Knock down and drag out, — 
Carry on the war, boys." — Old War Song q/'lSlS. 



Set to your partner, Dolly, — cnt him out, Jini, — Sal does put her foot rlowti 
good. The yallow rojin *s up! He *» a rael stormer^ ring clipper, iDOW belcher, 
and dm^ <mf. — South tm Sketch <s. 

Dragged-out. Fatigued; eadiausted ; worn out with labor. 

Brat it. To curse a thing. Derived, probably, from tlie expression 
^* Odd rot it/* 

To dxsw a Bead. To take aim with a rifle, by pjadiially raising the 
front sight, called the bead^ to a level with the hind si^ht- 

Oiie look from the Colonel bmught While* b rifle ap to hisf^heek; he ifret? a 
head tm hirn mighty (^tiick, artrl ilic lawyer ittoppiid hl» tuniberingiind moved off* 
N. r SpinUifthe TifH^s, U'tittm Tah. 

The Miivf^ouriAns, with their Iong» five-foot barrwl riflea, which wei^ their con- 
stant companionti^, could draw a bead on a deer, it f^uirreL or the white of an 
Indian^ eye, with equal coolaess and certainty of killiuj:. — ^or/ArrrcA-'i Cali/or^ 
mnn^ p, 151, 

The mo<m mw^ . . . and rifle in hand we approached I he tree* where the 
unconscioai birdu were roostinp. Creepitiii* along the round* t raii^'d my rifie 
and endeavored to obtain a *ight, hot the light was too obscure to dr<tte a bead. 
JtitxUm't AdvftUurt^ in Afexiat, p, IBh 

To draw a Strajglit Furrow » A metaphor taken from the pUiugh- 
man. ALso^ ** to run a straight fnrraw," To mind oriels own busi- 
neaa; to do one's proper work, without turning aside or being 
diverted to *'8ide issues; ** to go straight ahead. 

Governor B. la a senAible man ; 

He atay« to hia liome and looks arier his folks; 
He drawt kujkrrtm ns »Trai«:ht a» he can, 

And into nobody ^§ tater-pMtch pokes. 

Lvwett, The Bigiow Pn^rra. 

DreadfuL Very, exceedingly. This and the words awful ^ terrihiei 
desperate, monMrou9^ &c., are indiscriminately used by uneducated 
people for the purpose of giving emphasis to an expression. 

I never *ee a wonian on the road so rfrmdfuU late, in all the days of my *ver- 
sall life. Who are you V — Mndtim Knight" m Joutvnl tl704U p. 12» 

A con'pspt»ndent says, ** T Hhall never forget how emphatically a 
man in about 1842 said what I did not understand, 'Dr. Fisk [of 
New Brain tree, Mass.] is a dreadful good man.' " 

There was a »wod of fine folks at Saratoga, and drtndfuJ Dice galls. — Jfajor 
Ik>iemnff*s Lttter, p. 35. 

It *» A fact, Ma}or, the public haaa dreo^Mcravin* appetite for books. — IMd., 
Moji-dajf in iV, >'., p. 4. 

The young ladie* thought Mr. Harley'a new storekeeper a drm^ul nice young 
itfi, if he hadn't »uch a horrid noM. — ChronieUt of PinevHU. 

Sb« waa a drtadftd good ereatare to work. ^ Mr$, Cto/ctrt. 



It h iLsed in the same way Id England^ in the Westmoreland and 
Ciinilffiiiand dialects r^ — 

I send lo this an, lo tell thee ftiimckily wliat tirtat^uJ flue ths»g» I saw V th' 
road tuv at yon Dublin. — Poenu and Gtotmryt p. 125, 

Dreaa, A woman's gown. 

To dresa. To drejts to deaths dress to I'iU^ dreits to the ntnen^ and, in 

tlie South, to dress up drunk, are women's phrases, which signify to 

overrlress, dress to excess. 

When you M:e a gientlcmnn tipteering along Broadway, with a lady wiggle 

wagging by hi* side, and both dr€«S€/l to l*i7/, a? the vulgar would snyt ymi may 

say that he^ hmks out for him»ell and take« care of A. No, L — Dvw't StmumB^ 

Vol. r p. 208. 

DfeaalDg. Stuffing; forced meat; gravy. 

Drink. A river. ♦^The Big- Drink ^* is a common term applied by 
South-westenj people to the Mis^Hisaippi River* 

Ttie old b*>at wa* a rtmwr, — the biggest on the JWnJt, had the best ofHcen, 
ftod paid tllc l>ej*t pricf«. — Major Bnt^kum, in X. Y. S/dfit of the Timr*. 

He kept shoviug the lK>at out, niui the (ii^l Ihiiig I knowd, down I went, ker- 
wmh, into (he drink. — Houtifent Sk'ttche*^ p. M. 

About oveiiiFi' I got my wmall dug-out, and, fixin* my rifie in the fore eend^ I 
jeat paddled o^rer the drink. — A Niyht on the .Hisgouri. 

Drtnking* ** lie *s a drinking man,** i. e. a toper. 

DrinkB. MtJ^ed Dnnk:i. See Liffuors, 

Drive, 1. In TexaSi the annual gathering of large herda of cattle for 

the purpose of branding* Thia ia provided for by law in California. 

See Rodeo and Judges of the Plain. 

When a regular ifn've is made, a dozen neighbors, from twenty miles or more 
atraut, assemble at ii place agreed upon, each man bringing two or thre« extra 
faoraes. These are drivf n before the company, and form the nncl^ns of the cattle 
herd coltoctcd. They flrnt drive the outer part of the circuit, within which their 
cattltii arc siipfM>fl«'d lo range, the mdHH of which is* htn* about forty mile*. All 
cattle having their mark?, and nil cjilvc* following their cows, are herded and 
driven to pens which have been prepared, Tliey are absent from two to three 
wcek« up*>ii the firrit diivt, usually contriving to arrive by night at a pen in 
which the etoek are endowed, otherwijic guanling them in the open prairie. 
When the vicinity of a hou»e U reached, the cattle are divided. Th© calrea are 
branded, and all turned loose again. — Olmstr<rs Ttxa^ p. 369. 

2. The gjeat masp of lojfs accumulated during the winter near a 
stream for the purpose of being floated down to tide- water in the 
following spring. Maine and Canada. 

Driver. 1, He or that which drives; a coachman, a carman. — Wot^ 
ctuer. In England, the driver of a carriage is called a *' coachman." 
2* A negro-drivery aa oTerseer of slaves on a plaatatioii. 




pTiinters] were itiAfia^vit by overseer*, who directed the 
lions und managed the 5laT«?« through colored deputieA eatled 
^>,,nl/l CctrtUina Societtf^ Atlantic Munthly for 1877, p. <J71. 

3, Among hiiuljennen, the man who directs the floating or driving 
of !it^^ and timber from the wt>o<k where cut down a river to nivi- 
gmble wateni. Maine and Canada. 

TliTOU|;}i(»ul Uda loa^aiid painful journey, ihednver i» ever pre««Dl^ conBtBatly 

'^ - -niii; nc&r hi» prtecioua charge ; now working for hours in the chilling water, 

the Ire mn» in ma^sea, lifting with heavy pikea, &c- — llavptr't 3fa^,^ 

Tb drive the River. An expression used by lumbermen, meaning to 
dir^t the parage of raft§, logs, or timber down a river to tide-water. 
It i* a hazardous} business, and requires men of great experience. 
Maine and Canada. 

How glad I am, dear Tom, that yciu have obtained a sabsUtate to drivt the 
Hmr^ hiottiad of going down yourself; you will be home tooner, and eacape tbe 
many dangen of the river. — Harptr^» Mag.^ Vol, XX. p, 448. 

Dii^e^Way. L A passage; aa from the passage to one^s stable, or 
into a yard. 

% An uuftoored strip of ground covered with a hay-loft used in 
«iage-coacb days at hoteb, &c« 

8. A paaaage overhuog with a root tjo shelter church-goers alight- 
ing at the side door of a church. New England* 

Dfiviag Park. Euphemistic designation of a race-course; ground 
apjiropriated to horse-racing. *' A five-mtle race at the Driving^ 
Park.'* — Boston JournaL 

To be driving at. ** What are you dnving a/P* that is, what are 
you about? uliat object have you in view? A ctjlloquial expres- 
sion, in very common use. 

We cunf«9]i th«l we aru exceedingly piix^kd to know exftetly what onr long- 
chrrl^bcd friend is dritinff nt^ in \\U repcatod discutiiotiA of th^ quoation aboro 
iiiVfilved. — N, F. Cow, Adveriiser. 

Peopli* ludicmte my nit nation, and »ay they don*t know what the dcuco t 'm 
driving at. — Stat* CharcntU SkticMe^. 

*• t have h*'rtrd enough now/* Miid the recorder^ **to know what you and ho 
WOoJd he driving tU.** '^ PicJnnfftJrvm the Picttyune, p. 13&. * 

Droger or Drogher. (Dutch* draaffer^ a carrier, a porter.) Lumlier 
droger, cotton droger, &c. A vessel built solely for burden, and 
for transporting cotton, lumber, and other heavy articles. 

Drop. The top-front of pantaloons. See the nam© formerly used for 
the same part, at FatL 

Drop Game. A trick practised by the light-fingered gentry of ^ew 


194 DRO— DUB 

York and other Eastern cities on their country cousins. One drops 
a pocket-book containing a large roll of bank-notes a short distance 
before an approaching stranger, which a confederate picks up just 
as the stranger is about to do so. He opens the roll, affects surprise 
at his discovery, manifests sympathy for the loser, and tells the 
stranger that, being about to leave town, he will surrender it to 
him for $10 or $20, on condition that he will advertise it and en- 
deavor to find the owner. Greenhorn eagerly snaps at the tempt- 
ing bait; but on reaching his hotel finds, of course, that he is the 
possessor of a package of spurious money. 

Drop-Letter. A letter dropped into the post-office for a resident of 
the same place, and which is therefore not to be mailed. 

Drummer. A person employed by city houses to solicit the custom of 
country merchants. See Drumming, 

Drumming;, in mercantile phrase, means the soliciting of customers. 
It is chiefly^ used in reference to country merchants, or those 8)ip- 
posed to be such. Instead of patiently waiting for these persons to 
come and purchase, the merchant or his clerk goe9 to them and 
solicits their custom. In this manner, the sale of goods is often 
expedited ; and though the practice of drumming is held by some to 
be neither very modest nor very digpiified, still it must be owned to 
add very largely, in certain cases, to the amount of goods sold. 
Indeed, without drumming^ it is suspected that sundry houses which 
make a remarkable show and noise would do very little business. 

The expenses of drumming amount to no small sum. Besides 
employing extra clerks and paying the extra price for their board 
at the hotels, the merchant has to be very liberal with his money in 
paying for wine, oyster suppers, theatre tickets, and such other 
means of conciliating the favor of the country merchant as are usu- 
ally resorted to by drummers. — Perils of Pearl Street, ch. 9. 

Dmnk. A drinking bout. The expression is common, ** Such a 
one is on a big drunk,^^ 
li y in^^ Dry up. 1. To be or become cheerful. 2. To be silent; to ** hush up." 

' Dubersome. Doubtful. A vulgarism common in the interior of New 
England. Duberous is used in England. 

I have been studyiir Tatten^U's considerable, to see whether it is a safe shop 
to trade in or no. But I ^ra dubersome ; I don't like the cut of the sporting folks 
here. — Sam Slick in Ent/land^ ch. 28. 

Before noon, rain came, and then the pilot muttered that he felt dubersome 
about the appearances. — Lieutenant Wise, Seampavia^ p. 18. 

Dnbous. A mispronunciation of dubious. 



Bisd-Ch«8t A clotlies* chest, Dufh is a Scottish word for old clothes » 

antl \n rmich vi*ed here in the same 8<>nse, 
Diik' q' Darby. (Duke of Derby,) The bobolinkf which see. 
Zhis-oat. 1. The name, in the Western States, for a boat or CHUoe 

hewn or dug out of a large log. Tliey are common in all the riveiii 

Aud creeks of the United States and Canada, In the latter country, 

they are called fofj canoes* 

A typrtm «uit4ble for u c^noe, orduff-4mt^ ww selected, *fid in two djiys shitped, 
hollowed out, aiul launched. -—Jl Strfty Yankee in Ttxn», p. 35. 

After a f«»hjoii I got to my duff-init, whh no \|:eapon alon^ but the paddle. 
So^gi w«re plenty. I felt itmng rh a hoM too: ftnd lh« dttff-imt hmAu'i ]v»\wA 
morr'n *lx lengtht aforo — co-$oufii; Cwcntl —lin: front •"ciul je^l llfled hscU 
9g^ a aawycr and em plied me into the element. — Hiihb, Squntirr L{ft. 

% A house set on, and partly consisting of, a hillHide. Western. 

Dull Mtiaic. A terra applied to any thing fccdioas. 

Dumb Betty. A washing macliine, barrel- shaped, with a rotary shank. 

Doinb Chill or Dumb A^e. An expression common In malaria 

regions to denote that form of intermittent fever which has no well 

defined *♦ chill.** 
To domp. To unload wood, coal, &c., from a cart by tilting it up. 

The word b used in Devonshire in the j^^nsi^ of to knock heavily, 

to slump . Hence, probably, its American application. 

Yoii would have thought it ridieulou«, my fa?r friend*, if your pftrent* had told 
ytnx that you wcrr to love auch a une, aud nohody eUe, aji though the lieart'a 
allfectmn» irenf a lout of woo<tf — a«i Easily dumped at oae door aa anotbcr. -^ Dow'i 
Strmtm*, Vol. L p. 254. 

I once ifot twenty tlt>llani from an omnibu;^ driver for running into my carriage, 
knocking otf a wheel, and ihtmpim/ my vr\h and child into the street* — rA« 
(jp§^r Ttn ThtntMnntl^ p, 14iK 

DmnpA^ K The privilege of slumping loads from carts, especially 

buds of refuse matter. — Wthsttr. 
2. A fee paid for such a privilege. — Ihid. 
Doiiip-Cait, A cart that tilts up In frontt and so '* dumps '^ its load 

Dumplng'Oround. A low piece of ground where earth, Ice, is to be 

defiofdted for the purpose of raising its level. 

Tlwiv ia omd) ilUnculty in g^ttin}; dumpinff-ffroundi for the dirt from the streets j 
bat the QontnetoTi tuy they can a»d will do the work. — N* K. 7W6rm«, 

Btimpy, Sad; surly; dumpish. 

The rwre^Pl, t'uurteottM, amiAble, artd good-natured "Saturday Review*' Ijitu 
dutnff mir.|<^iviii(;s ujKon the same [toiiii, — N. V. Tnbi*ne, Marph 12, 1802, 

Oiuliab. Codfish cured in a particulivr rawiner, by which they acquire 

196 DUN— DUT 

a dun color. They command a higher price, and are much superior 
to those cured in the ordinary way. 

Dungaree. A vessel used for conveying dung^ as at New York and in 
^^^^ ^ along the shores of Connecticut. 

[ y/^2 Dunning. A peculiar operation for curing codfish. — Webster. Fish 

for dunning are caught early in the spring, and often in Februaiy. 
At the Isles of Shoals, o£E Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the cod are 
taken in deep water, split, and slack-salted ; then laid in a pile for 
two or three months, in a dark store, covered for the greatest part 
of the time with salt hay or eel-grass, and pressed with some weight. 
In April or May, they are opened and piled as close as possible in the 
same dark store till Jidy or August, when they are fit for use. — 
/. Haven, 

The process of dunning, which made the [Isle of] Shoals fish so famons a cen- 
tury ago, is almost a lost art, though the chief fisherman at Star still dum a few 
yearly. — Thaxter, Ides of ShoaU, p. 83. 

Dnnnow'B I know. The nearest your true Yankee ever comes to 
acknowledge ignorance. — Lowell, 

Durliam Boat. A large, open, flat-bottomed boat, formerly used on 
the St. Lawrence, Mohawk, and other rivers. They were used as 
freight boats only, and were propelled against the current by means 
of poles. 

Dnmed. A softened pronunciation of damned, 

^ A. ' Dust. To dust is to depart rapidly, ^k ji y ri — 

Duster. An outside garment, generally made of brown linen, to protect 
railway travellers from dust. During the late Centennial Exhibi- 
tion, thousands of people from the country flocked to the Eastern 
cities, wearing this garment, who were known to the hotel-clerks as 
the ** duster community.'* 

** They go everywhere," said a clerk of a New York hotel, '* and are the busiest 
people you ever heard of. They doif t have time to take their dusters off; they 
come in their dusters, they eat in their dusters, and to the best of my belief they 
sleep in their dusters. Why, a man told me that he counted 914 linen dusters the 
other morning on Broadway between Union Square and Wall Street. But if any 
one supposes that behind that expanse of linen there beats a heart unused to the 
ways of the world, he is very much mistaken. I have found our guests to be 
shrewd, well-informed, woll-to-do persons, with no desire to take advantage of 
others, and with no intention of being cheated themselves." — N, Y. Tribune, 
Sept. 23, 1876. 

Dutch. It beats the Dutch is an expression often applied, in New York 
and New England, to any thing astonishing. The earliest instance 



of its oooQireiice tlmt T have met with is in n Rewlutioiiary song 
WritteD during the siege of Boston, in 1775: — 

And bcAJdes all the mortJin>f botnbf, cannonii ui4 ihells, 
And bulkts aud j^itik, ah the m^wft|mpcr tellir, 
Out CAFgtieiK af mHM% drink, and cloaulis Iteat the Dutch ; 
Now who would not ULtry mtd t«ki: t' other tounh ? 

New Lng, HUU RrtfUicr, ApnU 1857, p. 191. 

Dutch-CttxBe. The white field daiityf so called from its antioyanoe to 

Dutohnum. A fijiw iu a stone or marble slab, filled tip by an insertion. 
Dutch Oven. A tin screen placed before a kitchen range, or open 

wood- fire, within which is the meat to be roasted. 
DntUble. Subject to tiie imposition of duties or customs. — Wthster. 
This is a very convenietit word, and ia in common use, both by the 

officers of the cnsfcoins, and by merchants having transactions with 


The dutiable Importj thu yeor iiniount to tbout tW0 hundred and ten aiiiliop 
dollan, o«arly oti&-hA)f of which wore inii)ort«d thQ firat qu»rt«r of the yeir* — 
Sfi€4ch u/ Stnator WiUon^ May 24, 1868. 

Dyed In the Wool. Ingrained; thorough. 

Til* Dciuocmt^, *.m the authority of Mr. Cameron** letter, are hegi lining to 
daiai G^nerftl Tu>hir&a a IX-inwrat ili/fd in thr irool^ a* a Democrat nf the Jtffer- 
•odUo order of im.—N. Y. Cum. Adff, May 24, 1847. 

^-gold coin of tlie ITnited States, of the value of ten dollars, 

to called from its bearing, on the reverse, the figure of the American 
eagle. There are ako double-eagles of twenty dollars, as well iis 
half and (Quarter eagles. 

Dar-Bob, An ear-drop. 

Harly Can die- Light Used to denote the beginning of the evening; 
aa, ** The meeting will begin at early candU-liijhty 
'Mark. The mark made on the ear of a horse, cow, [>ig, «»r sheup 
by its owner; and hence the token or signal by which a thing is 
known. So Uf^ed also in the north of EnglufitL The laws of sev- 
eral of the States require the ear-mark of even' proprietor to be 
recorded with the town- clerk, as evidence for reclaiming strays, &c. 
meat Boys call it playing marbles in earnest, when it is under- 
5t»-K xl that the winners shall keep tlie marbles. Sometimes they say, 
Let^s play for teepi^ 

^ a.- I 

198 EAR— EEL 

Barth Almond. (Cyperus esculenius.) A perennial, indigenous to 
Southern Europe, growing in the form of a rush, some three feet 
high, producing small tubers the size of a common bean, and called 
by the Valencians ** Chufas." It was one of the plants distributed 
by the Patent Office in 1854. — White, Gardening for the South. It 
is the hub al azeez of Egypt. 

Eaay. A word in common use among merchants and bankers. ** Our 
bank is 6(wy,*' meaning that its loans are not extended, or that 
money is plentiful. ** The money market is easy ; " or ** money is 
«aj?y," i. e. loans of money may easily be procured. 

Eaat, for yeast. North Carolina. 

Eaat About east is about right; in a proper manner. A common 
slang expression in New England. 

I went into the dining-room, and sot down afore a plate that had my name writ 

on a card onto it ; and I did walk into the beef and *tater8 and things about east, 

'-C^ri^*^ ^' ^*9^^'* Letters in Family Comp. 

*^ / To eat, V. a. To supply witli food. A Western use of the word. It 

^ ' was used in the same way along the line of the Massachusetts and 

Vermont railways in 1843-47 at the cheap boarding-houses. 

Hooder. Squire, what pay do you give ? 
Cifntractor, Ten bits a day. 

Hoosier. Why, Squire, I was told you *d give us two dollars a day and eat 
us. — Pickings from the Picayune^ p. 47. 

To eat Dirt. To retract; to be penitent. 

A poem in the ** New York Evening Post,'* entitled ** A Vision of 
January 4, 1861,*' in describing a procession in Broadway, says: — 
Houses in the Southern trade, although their skirts were clear, 
Had, for the sake of example, come in from far and near ; 
They bore a sable banner, all lettered in gold foil, 
'* After eating so much dirt^ are we asked to swallow free soil ? ** 

Eddoes. See Cocos. 

EducationaL Pertaining to education; derived from education; as, 
educational habits. — Webster, The authority cited by Webster for 
the use of this word is ** Smith," — a rather indefinite one. Mr. 
Pickering says the word was new to him until he saw it in the 
following extract: — 

It is believed that there is not an individual of the college who would, if ques- 
tioned, complain that he has, in any instance, felt himself pressed with opinions 
which interfered with his educational creed. — Dr, Grant's Report to the Trustees 
of New Jersey CoUtge, 1816. 

Eel-OraBs. (Zostera marina.) A plant thrown ashore in large quan- 
tities by the sea. It is also called Sea-wrack. 

^7 A;/2-. 

EjIjIj — jitijlit 


A Urgt number nf igt^tvA looking 9Winv Mrcv kept^ «nd ftre liltertid with ttl^^ram^ 
which l« cabrert^d into compost ^^JacJaon, Gtoloffg qfUktide Idami^ p. 153. 

Bel'Skin* A thin, narrow nHp of pnper. with the niune of a candi- 
dat« on one side, and coaled with mucilage on the other, so as to be 
<)(iickly and ««cretly placed over the name of an op|Mjnent» on a 
print-eil bffcllot. (New England and New York ) ** Eel-skins,'* 
judiciously distributed^ are the mostelBcient instrufnents for ^^split- 
ttQg tickets, *' and securing the election of some favored nominee on 
a UbIcbI oilier wide in the minority. 

INf 0pliMli A sort of trident for catching eels. Called, in England^ 
an Eel-shear. 

ffeii a'moet, for atmast. A vulgarism. 

He knowi the cAtechiAJUf nJitl has got the whole Bible e'tfwjf moti by heart — 
Mar^arttj, p. 113, 

Tb« 7iUij!« boyt would mm « p«rty of g«la, and etArt otf early hi the miming 
for Toad Hill^ where the blackberries waa «*efi a*moti as plentiful at mosquitooa 
ia ihete diggings. — Ltifatftitt Chnmich. 

Dh, 'dii a dreadful thini^ to be 

In iuch di>itr«fi8 and misery ! 

I 'm t'tn ti*im>$t a iialeniil fool, 

AH on acxount o* Sully Poole. — Widow BtdoU Paptn. 

•nd, for tnd. A 'vnilgar prontinoiation of tlie word, which is also 
common in rarious parts of England. 
To eg& To pelt with rotten eggs. 

W. S, Bailey, the abolition editor of the *^ Newport (Ky.) New^** was r^^e^crat 
of Alexandria^ Campbell County, in tliat State, on Monday. — B(dt, Suh, Aug, 1, 


To egg on. To urge on. 

Bgypt A nickname giren to Aoutbem Illinois: according to some, 
on occiaunt of its fcxtility; according to others, because of the men- 
tal darkness of its inhabitantit. See example at Yankcedom. ♦ 

To elect. To choose^ to prefer, to detenniiie in favor of. — Webster. 
The Arnerlcaniam consists in the coDntruetion of this verb with a 
following iaftnitive. 

In panuanee of the joint rewjlution of C«jnj!rre8R '* for nnnexin;^ Texan td the 
Uniird 8tateii»'" ray predetesniiior, on tlie tljiiil dny of Sfanh, 1Mb, fttetrd to sub- 
mi i i!»M first and i»cixmd sectioni* of that roMilntion to the repidilu: of Cexaf, aa aa 
' I riHre^ cm the part of the Vnltcd Stfllen, for b«r ttdmi<<Mimi ns n Stnte into our 
L'nM»n. ThU election I appn>vril. — AfeM't/r tu Ctmffrt*$, Oi«?. I, 1845. 

U It be laid that all travellers will not tint to go by the cxprcni^ train^ and that 
iHere ihould be further time nud |^*ul«r allowariee than five dayi, uteny trai'- 
•lleT> will take other rt)Uti£«, 5cc. — lUport on Pacfjie Railroad. , 

Elephant To »ee the elephant is to gain experience of the world, gen- 

200 ELK— ENG 

erally at some cost to the investigator. The phrase doubtless origi- 
nated from some occurrence at a menagerie. 

Blevator. 1. A mechanical contrivance for lifting grain, &c., to an 
upper floor; also a building containing one or more elevators. 

2. A mechanical contrivance now in use at large hotels for carry- 
ing guests to the upper stories. 

Josiah Allen^s wife, being on a vi^it to New Torkt stopped at the Astor Honse. 

" BIy room/* savs she, ** was on the fifth story, and I told J. Beans^es ex-wife 
that how I was goin* to climb up them stairs I didn*t know, I was so tuckered 
out. ... I guess I can weather it some way/* 

Mr$. Bean. ** Here is the tUvator, be carried up." 

There was a big nigger coniin* right towards us, and I thought she meant him; 
for they have been called such funny names ever since the war, that I thought 
like ** Elevator** was oue of 'em. But I jest put my foot right down to once, 
and sa^-s I, firmly, — 

*'I hain't^a-goin' to be dogged upstairs by that nigger,*' &c. 

But Beans*es ex-wife explained it [the elevator] to me. There wi« a little room 
about as big as our smoke-house, all fixed off as neat as a pin, and all we had to do 
was to get in, and then we was histed right up in front of our room. — Bettjf 
Bobbet, p. 295. 

Xfanpire State. The State of New York ; so called from the enter- 
prise of its people, its wealth, population, extent of canals, rail- 
roads, &c. 

The Empire State is your New York ; 

I grant it hard to mate her; ' 

Yet still give me the Nutmeg State, 
Where shall we find a greater? — AUin^ Yankee BalkuU. 

C'fjJ * f^*' Empt From the participle emptied, a word coined by old ladies in 
New England; as, '* Go and empt out the water.** 

Smpt3ring8. (Pron. emptins.) The lees of beer, cider, &c. ; yeast, or 
^ / 0^ « any thing by which bread is leavened. 

*T will take more emptins^ by a long chalk, than this new party 's got, 
To give such heavy cakes as these a start, I tell ye what. 

The Bit/low Papers, 

To engage. To promise or pledge one's self to perform certain duties. 
In the State of Rhode Island, all civil or military officers, instead of 
being sworn to perform the duties which appertain to their offices, 
and to obey the laws, are engaged so to do. 

From the formation of this colony in 1647, no person was compelled to take an 
oath, for the reason, probably, that it involved an act of worsliip : nor has any 
person since, under any circumstances, been obliged to take one. An afiirmation, 
on penalty of i^rjury, has been received with as full effect as an oath. Persons 
appointed to ofllce were, in the technical language of Rhode Island, engaged to 
the faithful performance of their duties : and the appointing power at the same 
time entered into a reciprocal engagement to the ofilicer, wherein they engage 



fkfMBWtlrBai to thcr atmoAt of thtW pciwer to i^upport and uphold the olBeer in tbe 
lavfol perfommtiec of \i\a duties, — Cohnmi litconit of RUn/k Jslmid. 

Ha^kne. (Pron. iftjine, the last syllable rhyming with line.) A Fire- 

engine. See Jfacfiine, 
Bngin^er. The eugiiie-driver on our railroads is thus magiuloquently 

To enjoy. To ^lyoy bad hetiith is a whimsical yet by no means un- 
conunon ex^ireasiou, 

Mjr hu*haj)d cnjoytd mUertthU hetUUi for a number of year? JtfoFe hu died. — 
Wiinf Mtdidt, p. 143. 

A coirespondent furnishes me the following: — 

On meeting a fmiid, he ^&ifl to himt How are rou todnr ? On h\» replyioft, 
widi 4 very lobei face, " Uh, / nyoy vtt^ poor healthy indeed," he stared a inO' 
B«nt It myaasumncc: Then you tiave nittde a high attainment iu respect to 
CKri*tmn tlutiea. I have enjvytd poor health considerable in my life, but never 
did I ettjoy %ii nfiuch skkn«ffd, in so j»hurt a (imCf ft« I did on lliat pleasure ejccur* 
aioo to tbf" it land. 

B&pifthemo. A word un©d West at the Rocky MoiintaitiH, to denote 
tlie housings of a saddle, the blnnket beneath it, &c. The late 
G^org*" Gibbs, wlio grave me the word, said he could not trace it 
to the S|>anif*h, and thoug^ht it might be Indian. 

To ooAila^. (Fr,) The act of preparing fermeiited corn-fodder; 
process, &c. This method is known in France as the emtUaffe of 
fodder, because the fodder is sometimes packed in ** silos *' or pita. 
In Gt«rmany, the product is called *^ sour hay.** — N, F. Tribune^ 
April, 1877. 

To enthuse. 1. To show enthusiasm; to manifest great delight in 
any tiling, A recsent word which is still confined to newspapers. 

Eic did nal^ if wi; may br alUtvrcd the expression, enthuse to any extent on tks 
occasion. — Cor. X. f. Tribunf* 

The Providence hcjttor-4e«kn» »ent in emi*tary to this city to free if they could 
ao{ work up tome enthu;iia>m for BAniAby ; but the dealers here would not«alAii#« 
mrttl a ceiU. — Ct*r. Proviffenrr Jourmd. 

2» In A religious sense, to infuse a dinne spirit within. 

Teu pf«ient to them am object large enough to eniAiwe an angel* s »ouI* — J9e9. 

C L, Woofticorth. 
Btotry. The fee paid to the State upon entering an action in the 

Suprenje Court or Court of Common Pleas in Rhode Ishmd. Some 

other States use the same term. 
To enweave. To inweave. 

it JM iru<^ that God hA!!i ^$\ven to u«, and tnw€ren in our nature, a desire for per- 
fe<rti4in and wmploti^nrM mnde manifest to our 8«nse«. ^Mrt II, B. Stowei^ 
Tk% Jnd^ptndtnt, ApriJ 3. 1862. 

202 EEI— EVE 

Erie. Hennepin (ch. xix.) says, ** The Havens call this Lake Erige, 
or Erilkey that is, the Lake of the Cat; '' but the inhabitants of 
Canada have softened it into Erie, In ch. Ixix. he again men- 
tions it as ** Lake Eriey or of the Cat.'' 

Esquipomgole. Another name for Kinnickinnick, or a mixture of 
tobacco and cornel bark. 

Esquire. In England, this title is given to the younger sons of noble- 
men, to officers of the king's courts and of the household, to coun- 
sellors at law, justices of the peace while in commission, sheriffs, 
and other gentlemen. In the United States, the title is given to 
public officers of all degrees, from governors down to justices and 
attorneys. Indeed, the title, in addressing letters, is bestowed on 
any person at pleasure, and contains no definite description. It is 
merely an expression of respect. — Webster. 

In our own dear title-bearing, democratic land, the title of ttqutre^ officially 
and by courtesy, has come to include pretty much everybody. Of course every- 
body in office is an e»quire^ and all who have been in office enjoy aud glory in 
the title. And what with a standing army of legislators, an elective and ever- 
changing magi!<tracy, and almost a whole population of militia officers, present 
and past, all named as etquires in their commissions, the title is nearly oniveraal. 
N. Y. Com. Advertiser. 

Essenoe-Pedler. A skunk. 

Euchre. A sort of game played with cards, very much in vogue 

throughout the United States. See Yuca. 
Euchred. To be beaten at Euchre ; checkmated ; used up ; and figura- 
tively applied to one who has been defeated, outwitted, or foiled in 
any scheme. Com p. Looed. 

Now Jefferson D., when you come to reflect, 

Don't it strike you that somehow you *ve failed to connect ? 

Don't you think you cried game just a little too fast, 

That you played a lone hand and got euchred at last V — Vanity Fair. 

Evacuation Day. The day on which the British army evacuated the 
city of New York, Nov. 25, 1783, the annual return of which has 
been celebrated in that city for nearly a century. Speaking of old 
times in New York, Samuel Wood worth thus alludes to the day • — 

The British troops had gone away; 

And every patriot true 
Then kept Evacuation Day^ 

When this old house was new. 

New York Post, March 27, ISH. 

Evener (of a carriage). The swing splinter-bar. 

Evening;. In the South and West there is no afternoon. From noon 
till dark is evening. It is strange to an unaccustomed ear to be 

EVE— EXP 203 

accosted with ** Good evening ^^^ at two or three o'clock in the day. 
Where this usage prevails, immediately after sunset it is ^* night." 

To eventuate. To happen; to issue; to take effect. A word not 
unfrequently used in the United States, but rarely used by English 
writers. — Worcester. 

Bverglades. Tracts of land covered with water and grass; peculiar 
to the Southern States. In Florida, the term is applied to i)ortion8 
of the land lower than the coast, and but little above the level of 
the sea, covered with fresh watt^r. The islands elevated above this 
swamp are called ^* hummocks." 

Bverlasting. Very; exceedingly. 

New York is an tvtrlasting great concern. — Major Downing^ May-day in New 

Bverlastine;. Life Everlasting. (Gnapha/ium.) So called from its 
medicinal proi^erties (so the books say), but much more likely from 
the French ** Immortelle," a similar plant, so named from the en- 
durance of its flowers when dried. 

Bvery Onoe in a While. A singular though very common expression, 
signifying the same as erery now and then. It is probably English. 

Every which Way. Everyway: anywise. Colloquial. It sometimes 
mars otherwise well-written works; e. g., ** The Land and the Book." 

Ezoellenoy. A title given by courtesy to governors of States and to 
ministers of foreign countries. In Massachusetts, the title is given 
by the Constitution. We sometimes see it given to the Pre.sideut 
of the United States, for which there is no authority. 

Exchangeability. The quality or state of being exchangeable. — 

The law ought not to be contravened by an express article admitting the ex- 
changeabUity of such persons. — Washington. 

Ezcursionist A person who goes on a pleasure trip. A common 
newspaper term. 

At a few minutes past seven o'clock, on Saturday evening, the steamer " Pow- 
hatan ** was loosed from her moorings, and, with some two hundred excurmmiits 
on board, steamed down the Potomac River. — Wash. /•Evening Star^ July 6, 1858. 

The Executive. The officer, whether king, president, or other chief 
magistrate, who sui>erintend8 the execution of the laws; the person 
who administers the government; executive power and authority in 
government. — Webster. 

The Executive City. Washington. 

To expect To think; to suppose, to anticix)ate. As, ** I expect he 

204 EXP— EYE 

is at home." In speaking of this use of the word, Webster says, 
*' This blunder, which is far too common, even among educated 
persons, ought to be studiously avoided by every one." 
Xbq;)erience. To give, tell, or relate one's experience, are phrases in 
use among certain sects, and meaning, to relate before a meeting 
of the church the progress of one's mind in becoming an ardent 
believer in the doctrines of Christianity. 

Now, brethren and sisters, I *m going to give my ta^erienct, — to tell how I 
got religion. — WetUm PulpU, 

At these meetings there was praying and exhorting, and telling eacperiences^ 
and singing sentimental religious hymns. — Goodrich's BetniniacenceSf Vol. I. 
p. 214. 

To experience Religion. To become converted. 

I experienced religion at one of brother Armstrong's protracted meetings ; — 
and I tell ye, them special efforts is great things, — ever since I came out I *ve 
felt like a new critter. — Widow Bedott Papertj p. 108. 

Bxpreas. A rapid conveyance of packages and goods, which in the 
course of the last twenty years has grown up into an enormous busi- 
ness in the United States. 

To express. To transmit by a special messenger in anticipation of 
the regular mail. 

The President's message will be expressed through to Boston, by order of the 
Postmaster-General. — Washington BepubUc. 

Bzpress-Man. A man belonging to an express office, who calls for and 
brings parcels with a wagon. 

Bzpress-Offlce. An establishment from which are transmitted par- 
cels and goods. 

Express -Wagon. The wagon in which packages, boxes, &c., are 
taken to and from an express office. 

ZSye-Opener. That which causes surprise. 

liyes skinned. To keep one's eyes skinned or eyes peeled is to be on 
the alert. 

Keep your eyes skinned and your rifles cle«n ; and the minute you find I *m 
back, setoff. — JV. Y. Spirit of the Times. 

Keep your eye skinned for sign, and listen to my horn. — Traits of American 
Humor, Vol. II. 

Now, Mr. Arch, I 've got you, and if you don't keep your eye skinned^ I '11 lick 
you till your hide won't hold shucks. — i/tike Hooter^ by a Missourian. 



To face the Masic^ To meet tlie emergency. Tt c^sire^ponda to the 
EDglidh slang pbnirSe, ** to come up to the scratch/' 

The ** Worcester Spy/' Sept. 22, 1857» in commenting upon the 
commercial failures, says :■ — 

Altbough «uct] reverses would fteem to fall willi cruihiog weight upon some of 
our moi^t substjuitial citizeos, » strong dciteniiiDstion to /ace the mude is every* 
where munife^ted. 

Governor Charaberlain pnys hp atandji ready at nil timp* to face the mwnc. , . . 
He sayji, " I am amenable to the laws of South Carolina for my actjftt and when- 
ever the officers of the law wish to call me to account I Pball respond.'' — Nei» 
York jtaptr. 

Factory Cotton. Unbleached cotton gooda, of domestic manufao- 

Faculate. To arrange, put in order, prepare* Ltxral in New Eng- 
land, and «?vkiently formed irom/acitlfti^ as \{ Jhcultafe. 

Fair and Square. Perfectly correct^ honorable ; straightforward. 

As to my principle*, I glory 

In hevin* ntithin' o* ibe port; 
I ain't a Wig, I «iu"i a Tory, 

I'm jeflt a eandidate, in ji<hiirt; 
Thet ^Bjhir ftn gt/tutif mi' pnr pen dicier. 

Lowdl^ The Bigiow Papers 

To fair off, to fair up. To clear off, clear up. South-western. 

He quitted the boat at Natcbesc, moved to the North, and, whenever he see a fog 
rising took to hi;* t>ed and kept it till it fmr*d qjf, — JFf#fcni Tfilct. 

There 'd going to be a nasty fog to-night, and yon hud best nin tbi3 boat till 
nine, and then tie upn — have the fiteam kept up, and call me if it fain up.-* 
Mnjor Bunlmm^ N. Y. Spirit of the TimtM, 

Fair Shake, A fair trade; a satisfactory bargain or exchange. A 

New England vulgarism* 
To fall. Often improperly used for fell in the United Statea, and in 

some parts of England; as ** to fall a tree,*' instead of ** to fell a 

tree,*' — W^rce^ter. 

Fall. 1. The fall of the leaf; autumn; the time when the lenyei 
drop from the trees, 

This beautifully picturesque expre.saion, which correspootls so well 
to its opposite spring^ haa been &aid to be peculiar t<» the United 
States. Mr. Pickering notices the foUowing remark in Rees'a 
Cyclopaedia : ** In Xorth America, the season in which the faU of 



the leaf takes placi* derives its name from that €irciiriistiinre» and 
instead of autumn is universally called the fall.'** — Aut. Dt^^ithtoun 
Lcaoes. It is uaedt however, in England in the same sense ; although 
autumn is as generally employe<i there as fall is in the Uaited 

Whit erowdi of patientu the town doctor kilK 
Or how Ia!«it/riif/ lie niiHedi the weekly blllH. — Drydtn^i JurenaL 
Hiwh worked I he fann, burnt cool in ihe/o//, m«Ue sugar in the spnug^ ilraak, 
emokedf &c. — Mfirt/arrt^ p. 13, 

2. The apparatus used in hoisting and lowering goods in ware- 
hou^Si &c. The term ia borrowed from a contrivance for the same 
purpose ujted on chipboard, 

3. The upper front part of a pair of pantaloons ; a drop. 
Falling Weather. A rainy or snowy time. 

Pall-'Way. The opening or well throiij^h which goods are raised and 
lowered hy a falL It is often men^ly a sticeession of openings 
through the several floors of the huildiiig, which are generally unen- 
oloaed, and the source of frequent accidents. 

Family. This word is oft-en iLsed to denote? a man^s wife and children, 
especially the latter. Hence the phrases, ** a man of /timi/y/^ '* Have 
you any family f ** How is your father's family » ** 

The term is also used in law books and statutes, exempting 
property from execution for debt. 

Family Room, This term is applied, iti the West, to a room gener- 
ally tjceiipied by the mother and young children to the exclusion of 
visitors and strangers. 

To fan out. To make a show at an examination, alhuling probably to 
the peacock spreading his tail. Thb term originated at the United 

* States Military Academy at West Point, wliere for years it was 
local; but it ia now gradually finding its way through the country. 

Fancie«. Fancy stocks, which see below. 

Yeiilerdfty was a bltie day in WaH Street: \\v^ fancit§ looked down, And the 
beAHi looked up. — Bt€>ck HtpoH N. Y, ffernid. 

Take up Any Atinual regi«try of the Stuck Exchange, and yoa can check off in 
A moment the teroporar}' fnncltt of the year by such as show tho wid«*»t varhi- 
tion>, — Mrn and Afiffttritt of Wall Strtet, p. 213. 

Fkncy Stocks. A species of stocks which are bought atid sold to a 
greftt extent in New York. Cnlike articles of merchandise, which 
may be seen and examined by the dealer, and which always have 
an intrinsic value in every fluctuation of the market, these stocks 
are wholly wrapped in mystery. No one knows any thing about 

. them, gjroept the officers and director& of tb^ oaaapaaita, wkot Irom 

FAN— FEA 207 

their position, are not the most likely men to tell you the truth. 
They serve no other purpose, therefore, than as the representative 
of value in stock gambling. Nearly all tlie fluctuations in their 
prices are artificial. A small fluctuation is more easily produced 
than a large one ; and, as the calculations are made on the par value, 
a fluctuation of one per cent on stock worth i|20 a share is just five 
times as much on the amount of money invested as it would be on a 
par stock Consequently, if a ** Flunkie " can be drawn in, he may 
be fleeced five times as quick in these as in good stocks. — A Week in 
Wall Street. 

Fandango. (Spanish.) A lively dance. In Texas, New Mexico, and 
California, this term is applied to a ball or dance of any sort. 

Farallon. (Spanish, pron. faray6n.) A small, pointed island in the 
sea. The meaning of this geographical term, applied to islands on 
the California coast, has puzzled many. 

Farina. 1. Wheaten grits. 

2. Extra superfine flour of wheat. 

Farzino or Fandner. A vulgar contraction of far-as-I-hnow, exten- 
sively used through New England and New York, including Ijong 

Gen. And what kind of charactcnt are the Count and Countens? 

DoolittU. Why, I han't been here such ade^pud while as to have lamt my- 
self much al)out the matter. But, by hcarjiay, they are a tupping 8ort of people, 
and pretty much like the Boston folks, full of notions. At times he is obstropu- 
lous. He may be a straight-Koinf; critter, farzino, man wards ; but in his dealings 
with t'other sex, he is a little twistical. — I). Ifumphreyn^ Yankee in Knyland, 

Fast. That lives at a rapid rate ; dissipated. A flash word. 

Mr. Cephas Bubble is undeniably the /<i^tf«/ young man in the market; for 
he's not only ashamed of his parentai^e and birthplace, but he is actually 
ashamed he was ever a boy. — MIm Wettmvnt^ Substance and Sha<h^ p. 108. 

/Vrnf books, like/rT«< men, soon exhaust their constitutions — Norton" i Liter- ^ i . 
ary Gazette. ^ " * A 7? Z , 

Fat-Pork Tree. A name of the Coco-Plum. Barbadoes. 

Favored. A term applied to the face; the expression of countenance; 
as, ** She is long/at-orer/,'' which means that she has a long, pointed 
face. This use of the word was once common in England, but is 
now obsolete. Thus Shakspeare : — 

\ good//irottr you have, but that you have a hanging look. 
The porter owned that the gentleman /(irourtfc/ his master. — Tkt Spectator, 

Fearfnl. Much, great, strongly. Pennsylvania. 

208 FEA— FED 

FeaBt. A corruption of the Dutch rie«, nicCf fastidious. '* I ^mfeoii of 
it," is a literal translation of the Dutch Ik hen er vies van^ i. e. I am 
disgusted with, I loathe it. A New York phrase, mostly confined 
to the descendants of the Dutch. 

To feather. A friend has reminded me of this colloquial word, which 
is used in some parts of New England to denote the appearance of 
curdled cream, when it rises upon the surface of a cup of tea or 
coffee, in the form of little flakes, somewhat resembling feathers. 
We say, * * The cream feathers. ' ' — Pickering. 

Fease. The same 2a feeze and pheeze. 

England is, we are told, about to send three regiments to Canada. Don*t get 
into tiftaze about it —N. Y. Tribune, June 28, 1861, Lett, from Paris. 

Federal. 1. Founded upon or formed by a league, treaty, or compact 
between independent States. The* government of the United States 
is a federal government, as being formed by the union of several 
independent States, each surrendering a portion of its power to 
the central authority. A federal is strictly distinguishable from a 
national government (though in the United States the terms are 
often used indiscriminately), the latter being properly an aggrega- 
tion of individual citizens. The Constitution of the United States 
is pronounced by Mr. Madison to be neither a national nor a fed- 
eral constitution, but a composition of both. — Federalist, No. 39. 

2. Pertaining to the United States; often in contradistinction 
from any or all of the States, as functionally considered. 

Federal City. Washington, as the seat of government. 

Federal Currency. The legal currency of the United States. Its 
coins are the gold eagle of ten dollars; the double eagle, twenty 
dollars ; half and quarter eagles of proportionate value. The silver 
dollar of one hundred cents, its half, quarter, tenth, and twentieth 
parts. The coin of ten cents value is called a dime ; that of five 
cents, a half -dime. The lowest coin in common use was the copper, 
now supplanted by the nickel cent. Half-cent coins have been 
made, but few or none of late years. In the commercial cities and 
along the sea-board, Spanish coins of a dollar and the fractional 
parts of a dollar were very common, and passed currently for their 
original valuo, until the act of February 21, 1857, which, by reduc- 
ing the value of the quarter, eighth, and sixteenth of a dollar by 
twenty per cent, caused the foreign coinage to l>e suddenly with- 
drawn from the currency. 

Previous to the adoption of our federal currency, pounds, shillings^ 
and pence were used. But these denominations became unstable in 



▼alue, in consequence of the great deprecifttion which took place iti 
the paper-money issued by the colonies. 

In the year 1702 » exchange on England was 33 1 per cent above 
par ; and silver and gold biire the same relative valtie to paper- 
motiey. The depreciation in the latter continued to increase until, 
in the year 1740, £1 JC)0 currency was only equal ta £100 sterling, 
or eleven for one. In 17*>0, a stop was put to the further deprecia- 
tion of the money of the province of MassachusettH by a remittance 
from England of £18^i,(>00 stprling, in Spanish dollars, to reimburse 
the expense the province had been at in the rednptinn of C^ye Breton 
in the old French war. T\w depreciated money was then called in, 
and paid off at the rate of a S|uiiiish dollar for forty-five ahillinga of 
the paper currency. At tiie ^ame time, a law was made fixing the 
par of exchange between England and Massachusetta at £133| cur- 
rency for £10<) sterling, and six shillings to the Spanish dollar. 

The difference of exchange, or depreciation of the paper-money, 
regulated in the same manner the cnrrencies of the other colonies. 
Throughout New England, an has been l>efore stilted, it wai^ six 
shillings to the dollar of 4*. <3r/, siteiiing. Jn New York, eight «hib 
lings, or about seventy- five pe% cent depreciation. Fenni^yivania, 
7jf. 6rf., or about sixty-six per cent depreciation. In some of the 
Southern States, it was it. 6rf. to the dollar, and accordingly no 
depreciation. In Halifax currency, including the present British 
provinces, it was five flhillingi* to the dollar, or about eleven per 
cent, &c. 

In consequence of the above-namfd diversity in the colonial cur- 
rencies, in New England the Spanish re^il of one-eighth of a doilaff 
or l2^ cents, is called a ninepence ; in New York, a ithilliTiff; in 
Pennsylvania, Mar^dand^ and Virginia, elei'enpence or a levy; and in 
Ttiany of the Southern States, a bit. The half -real, of the value of 
one-sixteenth of a dollar, is called in New York a sixpence ; m New 
England, /our/)<*fic<f ha^penny^ or ^xuixAy fourpenct ; in Pennsylvania, 
M&iyland, and Virginia, ^Jip ; and in Louisiana, a picayune. The 
disappearance of the coins from circulation already caused these 
names to fall likewise into disuse. 

Federaliats. An appellation in America given to the friends of the 
Constitution of the United States, at its formation and adoption; 
nd to the political party which favored the administration of Presi- 
ent Washington, — Webster. 

To federalize. To unite in compact, as dUferent States; to confed- 
erate for political purposes. — Webster, 


210 FEE— FEL 

Feed. Used as a nonn, for grass; as, ** tall /<?«</," i. e. high grass. 
Feed-Trongh. A trough in which is placed the food for animals, as in 
sheds, and as fastened to posts, at which horses, &c. , are fed in towns. 
i I^aJc. To feel. To feel to do a thing is an expression commonlj' used by 

/( 7/ 2^ # some clergymen, for to feel inclined, to be disposed to do it. 

Feelay, or Gumbo feelay. Sassafras leaves dried and powdered. 

Feet. There are people who consider it witty to use this plural 
instead of its singular foot. 

When I was tifett high, I was my mamm7*8 joy. 
The ladies all caressed me, and called me pretty boy, 
They said I was a beauty, my face it was complete, 
Except this tamal ngly nose, but it stuck out a/e el. 

WeUtm MelodUt, 
, Feeae, Feaxe. ** To be in a feeze " is to be in a state of excitement. 

Provincial in England. (Comp. Fr.fache, angry.) 

Larcenie is the felonious taking away of another man*s personal goods without 
his knowledge or insight, yet without making any assault upon his person or 
putting him into a. f ease. — Code of Laws of Rhode Ittand^ 1647. 

Some years ago, we remember. New York was in its annual feexe about mad 
dogs, and the public mind was some^at exercised touching the best method 
of doing murder upon the unhappy canines. — N» F. Commercial AdvertUer^ 
Oct. 16, 1848. 

When a man *s in a feeze, there *s no more sleep that hitch. — Sam SUek in 
England, ch. 2. 
Fellow or Feller. Very commonly used in the United States, in the 

sense of lover, sweetheart. See Beau, 
Fellow or Blaok Fellow. A black man. Southern. 
Fellow-Countryman. One belonging to the same country, a com- 
patriot. This has been censured as an American pleonasm, like 
play-actor, inasmuch as good English usage has conferred this mean- 
ing on the word countryman alone. (See Pickering, sub voce.) 
Still, the want of a more definite expression has been felt in Eng- 
land as well as in this country ; and the term fellow-countryman, 
as distinguished from countryman, nistic, as the French compatriote 
and German landsmann are distinguished from paysan and land- 
mann, has long been used in America, and in England has been 
adopted and sanctioned by such authorities as Southey and Lord 
Fellowship. Companionship; consort; society. — Johnson. With 
us it is often used in religious writings and discourses, instead of 
the word communion, to denote ** mutual intercourse or union in 
religious worship, or in doctrine and discipline." 



To fellowftblp, A verb formed from the preoeding noun. Tofellow' 
Mhip with in to bold communion with; to unite with in doctrine nnd 
discipline. This barbariara appaara with disgusting frequency in 
the report* of ecclesiAstical conventions, fitc, and in the i-eligiouii 
newspapers generally. Mr. Pickering, in the Supplement to hia 
Vocabulary, said he had just benome acciuainted with the word. 
The following i» the first example which he gives: — 

W« eonsidered him heretical, eMentialty untound in tbe faith; and on tbla 
jifroand refused io JtttowMhip with him. — Addrtu to tht Christian Put/He ^ Green- 
Jiekl, 1813. 

If the ChiintiAa Allknce coutd not fellowship with Ihe Soatbcni sUveboldera 
for gain, they ought to say »o outright. — Spttch ai the Chrisiian AUianee Con- 
ference, May S, 1847. 

It is also used actively without the preposition, as in the following 
examples: — 

How can we expect Ihe feHowAhip of the preaehers lyt the Reformation ? I do 
not expect it, beeatiM our fellowiihip wa.^ predit nied upon a vain uniformity of 
belief. If it wef«i 1 coald never have ftlktu^shipptd them ? — Rtv. J. B. Ftrgu- 
ton*$ Piscottrte. 

We therefore fellotct^ip him in taking a cfiuine of preparatory tt tidies lor the 
Chrifftiiin ministry. — Board of Mtufimn i7»irentVy, New York, Jan. 1, 1840. 

Fexsaie. A person of the female sex, a woman or girl. There has 
been much said of the iise and abuse of this word, and whether it 
18 proper to de8ignate women by it. Doctor John.«5on tha^ defines 
female: ** A she; one of the sex that brings forth young.'*- Mrs. 
Sarah J. Hale, in speaking of the word, has the following remarks 
(we do not indorse her grammatical criticism): ** Where used to 
diacriminate between the piexe,s, the word femak is an adjective. 
We do not object to the term when used necessarily, as an adjec- 
tive; but many writers employ the word as a noun, which» when 
applied to woman, is improper, and sounds unpleasantly, as refer- 
ring to an animal. To illu.strate: almost every newspaj»er we open, 
or book we read, will have sentences like these: ' A man and two 
femaUa were seen,' &c , * A gentleman was walking- with a ffmate 
companion,' ♦ The females were much alarmed,* * A female child/ 
&c. Now why is such a style of writing tolerated? Why i« the 
adjective, which applies to all female animals, used as the noun 
defiij^nating woman ? It is inelegant as well as absurd. Expressed 
correctly, thua, * A man and two women,' &c., * A gentleman and 
a ladyt* *The women were alarmed/ ♦A little girl.* Who does 
not tee and feel that these la^t sentences are in better taste, more 
ooireoi in language, and more definite In meaning? We call on 

212 FEN 

our sex, on women, to nse pen and Toice to correct the error of lan- 
guage which degrades them by the animal epithet only." 

In the House of Delegates in Maryland, in a debate '* on the passage of the bill 
to protect the reputation of unmarried yemo/M/* the title was amended by strik- 
ing out the word "fenudtt^** and inserting " women,*' as the word "/em<rfe '* 
was an Americanism in that application. — Baltimore Patriot^ March, 1839. 

At Birmingham, England, a few years since a woman advertised 
to walk a rope, blindfolded and in a sack, fell to the ground and was 
killed. Queen Victoria, on hearing of it, sent a letter to the Mayor 
of Birmingham, asking him to use his influence to put a stop to 
such exhibitions. Her Majesty's letter does credit to her good 
heart; but her amanuensis, who signs his name C. B. Phipps, thus 
wrote: — 

'* Her Majesty cannot refrain from making known through you her personal 
feelings of horror that one of her subjects — a female — should have been sacri- 
ficed to the gratification of the demoralizing taste, unfortunately prevalent, for 
exhibitions attended with the greatest danger to the performers.*' 

Again, we have high English authorities for the use or rat-her 
misuse of the word. The ** New York Post," March 8, 1877, in 
an article on the Tractarian Controversy in England, quotes the 
following remarks by Gold win Smith, on the subject of the edu- 
cation of women : — 

** Many young hearts and many deep heads,** says the Professor, ** naturally 
inclined to this reaction [Tractarian ism], and a change in university and female 
education would extinguish the tendency almost in its source.** To which the 
" Post '* adds, " Mark the word female^ 

In the summer time, our inns are filled to bursting. Coaches run frantically 
fh>m ever)' point of the compass. . . . The donkeys in our streets multiply a hun- 
dred-fold, tottering under the weight of enormou«/<r?»m/M visiting our waterfalls. 
— Miss Martineau^ Autobiography^ VoL I. p. 529, Boston ed. 

Fen. A prohibitory exclamation used by boys in their games; as, 
»* Fen play ! *' t. «. I forbid you to play, stop! Compare the Latin 
defendoy French defendre. 
Fence. 1. In politics, ** to be on the fence *' is to be neutral, or to 
be ready to join the strongest party, whenever it can be ascertained 
which is so. 

When every fool knows that a man represents, 

Not the fellows that sent him, but them on thefenee^ 

Impartially ready to jump either side. 

And make the first use of a turn of the tide. — Biglow Papen, 

2. A house where stolen goods are received. 

Fence-Man. A politician who is '* on the fence.* * 

All the fenee-men, all the doubters, all the seekers after majorities, will now 
bustle up, come out, and declare that Chneral Taylor is the most popular man in 

PEN— F. F. V. 


tbo country, and that he was ilwaya thisir first choie«. 

-A^ r i7f rtOr/, Oct. 14, 



Fence-Rail. A rail used in fences- 

Hii /tnct-miis were atl bumed for firewood. — N. T. Tribune, 

Fence-Riding. The practice of *' sitting on tht* fence,'* or remaining^ 
neutral in a political contest until it can be men ** which way the 
Cftt is going to jump.*' 

The Sotnh will not vote for a Northprn cnndidnte who ia nomitiAted as »uch^ 
nor the North for a Southern man who isi nominated on exclui^vve Southern 
prindplei. In this matter there can be no neutral ground. The dividinj^ line i« 
OBfTow^ but di»tinct; it iidmits of no/enct-ndinff; the candidnte must bo on one 
fide or the othtr; and whi-n tbe lime ihall come^ that eittier the North or the 
South adopts a candidate on sectioaal groundii it will not be di^cult to foretell 
the Iwue. — N. T. Mirror. 

Ferry-Flat. A flat boat used for crossing, and sometimes for descend- ^i , A y jhf 
ing, the Miasissippi River and '\X% tributaries. Flint says; *' The 
f^rrif'Jlat is a scow-boat^ and, when used as a boat of descent for 
families, has a roof or covering. These are sometimes in the ver- 
nacular phrase called sleds/' ^ Hut. and Geog* of Miss. ValU^y. 

To fetcli up. To stop suddenly. This sense of the word is not 
noticed in the English dictionaries, nor by Webster. ** He fetched 
up all standing; '' tbat is, he made a sudden halt. The more com- 
mon phrase with us is, ** He hrourjhi up all standing.*' It is a 
nautical vulgarism, tlie figure beitig that of a ship which is suddenly 
brought to, while at full speed and with all her sails set. 

Fetterlock. Fetlock. New England. See Feltertock-deep, 

Fetterlock-deep. As high as, rising to, sinking in as far as to, the 

t determined to . . . g?o on horseback to the Intet. J founds however, that the 
dt»tance wa» forty miles through heavy saud, feUertock-de^* — N. T. TnAiMM, 
LH,/ram Forh*es$ Monrotr 

Fettlcus or Vettikost, vulg. Fiittiko^wa. (Vateriitnella.) Corn- 
salad or Lamb^s-lettuce, A word used in New York. 

F#v^er-Bush. Wild allspicet so called in Massachusetts. See Spio&' 

F«w. Used 88 a slang term, a few means a little. 

** 1 «ay, stranger* tell me about the trick of the welk' blowing up; And I'll 

tell yoQ the trick of the gun, whkh rather skcared you a /tw^ as I think.^* — 

Bufn^^ FortJd Scenes, 

T. F. V. First Families of Virginia. 

Tlie famous initiate F. F. V. have luid their ilgnlfieance changed by some of 
our t)oy« in the late campaign, in consequence of thetr fonntant alacrity in nmning, 
to Fast Footed VirginiiuiB. — A^ F. Tribune, Aug. 2, 1S61. 



Tbe life of a trooper it pl^oaura «tid etta«, 
Jiut auited to spriga of the old F, F, K.V, 

TU CamlUr'i 8<mf. 
Dire yoa difipraiee my roval parta, 
And prate of Frteedom* Commence, Aiti ? 
What arc they to my pedigree ? 
Why, Adam waa an F, F. VJ — BaUad of King Colim. 

Hoe, Fyse, A term applied in Kentucky to a small dog; a cur, A 
friend infonna me he has heai'd the term in Washington, It ia an 
old English word, now ob.solete and not found in recent English 
dictionaries or glossarieft. Nares alone notices it under the name 
of fy»f, from wliich comes /'>/</» as a ** foisting- Hound, or Curi 
a small dog of the lap-dog kind, '* Narea quotes Coles's Diet. : ** A 
fysting (foisting) cur.** But the word is not in the first edt of 
Coles, 1708* See Fitte. 

A» for fJieplienlA' dogi, foitHnff cwr«« and tuch whom sotne fond ladtet make 
their daily, iiay,ni|;htlycompatiio»»too, I shall paasover. — Gentleman'* Atcf^o- 
ftofia, p. 23. 

Pid- A fol of tobacco, ia a * * pi ug " or small piece, from * * /"/i, " a bunch 
of oakum put into the touch-hole of a gun to kei»p the powder dry. 

Fiddler. A kind of smail crab, with one large claw and a very small 
one. It lives on the ^It meadows, where it makes its burrows. 

Fidtara are a sort of smaTl crabs, that lie la bolo* in the marBhet . The racc<K>nt 
eat Ihcm very much. I never lunew any one to try whether they were good meat 
or no. — Lawmm't Carolina, 1718. 

Down from the pine woods we turn on the sandy beach, whero whole annioa 
oi^0ddler» are scurrying to their boles and marvellously disappear while wc am 
looking at them, vanishing a:9 huge rain-dropa when they strike the earth, — 
Florida Cor. FtrrtU and Btrtam. 

[The Fiah-Crowa) alight on l»i^ mud flata bordering^ the tait-water marshea 
for the pnrpoM of catching the small crabs called Fiddltn, — Audubon^ Ormtk* 
Biitg., Vol, II. p. 269. 

Pleld-Drivor. A civil officer, whose duty it is to take up and impound 
swine, cattle, aheep, horsea, &c., going at large in the public high- 
ways, or on common and unimproyed lands, and not imder the 
charge of a keeper. New England. 

Field Martin. A name sometimes given in the South to the King^ 

Field-Hand. A person who works In a field. A common term lu 

the Slave States for an agricultural laborer. ** A prime^e/rf-Aow/," 

Fiendlahment. A fiendish act or spirit. 

The Proclamation will be but UttU more than the iiideceiit axpreaiioii of Lin* 
cola's rage and JfcntiiM mefilf. — RUkmand Enqairtr^ Dec, 1883. 



To fight the Tiger, To gamble. 

Strange, i^n't it, ih*t ao mnny coantryrnen who come to New York to **ia« 
the elephant'^ will go and^^Af the tigtr* — N. Y. CommercUU Adt, 

To figure. " Figure on tbut ** means to coniider it; to think it over. 

File. A cloth used for wiping a floor after acrubbing. 
File-Pail or PlHjjg-Patl, A wash-paiL 

Filibuster. (Spanbh, JiUbtistero.) A freebooter, A word brought 
into common use in consequence of the exj^ieditiona against Cuba 
under Lopez in the year 1851 , to the members of which expedition 
it was applied. It is from the Spanish Jiiihiistero^ which, like the 
French Jlibustier^ is itself a corruption of the English freeboohr^ 
German /r€*Z>fiti/«r, a term iinixjrted into England during the Low 
Country warn of Queen Elimbeth^a timp, and pretty genenilly 
applied to the Buccaneers who ravaged Spanish America alK>ut 
1680-00. An attempt has been made to deduce the etymology of 
the word from the Low Dutch vlie-boot^ i. e.^^6oaf, a sort of Dutch 

Our modem Jiiihwitert are the ncum of our aociety^ not men whom ** quick 
bo9Qtii» " drive upon de!»pcrate ftdv-eritur^n; l>ut men whom ra-^cality ha^ outlawed^ 
men whom society » iii*tpiid of sendinjjr forth with bksiiin^, kick» o tit with eon- 
tempt. Broken-down jratiihleni, dniriken lawyerf!„ unnucceRsful pub!ican», dist*i* 
pated ahoe-nmkers, detested swindlers, m«n under whose feel every pUnk h&n 
broken f are thoie who now-a-day^ a at u me the bearings and atlempt to walk in the 
footstepii, of Cortex or of Clive. — jV. Y. Courier and £ttquirer. 

To filibuster. I. To acquire by freebooting. 

Whrtt wft« Moics but n filibuster, whose missjon woi to dlspoAS«fe tribes retro* 
ipiulinf; (or whose cirilization was corrupting before cnatured), and to plant in 
their itii^Ad another people^ wbofle snbnequent flnnitls show tkem to hiive be«n at 
iMit in no wiw superior to our own ? What were the Normnns, fnan whom the 
■overei|rnB of Great Britain flffect ro <1ptSv« ttiejr deMrent^ *nd a portion of their 
title to the crown, hut filihui^tera V What the Pilgrim Fathers but tilibuj^lera ? 
Whit State, what territory in this Union haft not beenjtlibttrftr^dfrnm the IndiatiR, 
or purthiwed from tho«e who hudjiiibiutr red ii? Have ever tlve yeflm elapsed 
dowti to the present time since the Inndinji; of the Pilgrim Fathers that som^ of 
the monarchies of Europe have not, ^fnewhere. he^n JUiinutirinff aomething? 
JAUtr of General iftnningten to Senator Toom&$^ 1867> 

9» To lie, to act as, a filibuster. 
FUibaBterln^ Pillbnateriatii. Freel:»ooting, freebootery. The word 
is now (1877) much used in politica, particularly in Congress, and 
means the sharp manceuvriug of one political party to get an advan- 
tage over an opponent. 

Th« history of Britiftti India la but oti« vast scheme otJUibustering, Alexander 
t]i« Great wai» a tilibuater; to wu C«eftAr, and *o Napoleon, Nicholas in hh dtkj 

216 FIL— FIN 

is a filibuster, and so was Charles the XII. Cortez was a filibuster, and every 
foot of Spanish dominion in America was acquired hy JiWnuUring alone. Ever^ 
foot of Mexican soil is now under the dominion, language, laws, usages, and lit 
urgy of JUibutUrimn, — California Pioneer^ Jan., 1854. 

Colonel H. P. Watkins was convicted, March 24, 1854, in the United State 
District Court, of setting on foot a military expedition against the republic oi 
Mexico, — in other words, of JtUhugterimi. — Anfmlt of San Franoisco^ p. 525. 

Fillipeen or Phillipina. (German, VieUiebchen.) There is a custon 
common in the Northern States, at dinner or evening parties, when 
almonds or other nuts are eaten, to reserve such as are double or 
contain two kernels, which are called ^//tpeerw. If found by a lady, 
she gives one of the kernels to a gentleman, when both eat their 
respective kernels. When the parties again meet, each strives to 
be the first to exclaim Fillipeen ! for by so doing he or she is en- 
titled to a present from the other. Oftentimes the most ingenious 
methods are resorted to by both ladies and gentlemen to surprise 
each other with the sudden exclamation of this mysterious word, 
which is to bring forth a forfeit. Another way of obtaining the 
forfeit by this game is to get one to take something from the hand 
of the other. 

In a book on German life and manners, entitled ^* A Bout with 
the Burschens, or Heidelberg in 1844," is an account of the exis- 
tence of this custom in Germany, which at the same time furnishes 
us with the etymology of the word : — 

Amongst the queer customs and habits of Germany, there is one which struck 
me as being particularly original, and which I should recommend to the consid- 
eration of turf-men in England; who might, perhaps, find it nearly as good a 
way of getting rid of their spare cash as backing horses that have been made 
safe to lose, and prize-fighters who have never intended to fight. It is a species 
of betting, and is accomplished thus : Each of two persons eats one of the ker- 
nels of a nut or almond which is double. The first of the two who, after so doing, 
takes any thing from the hand of the other, without saying Ich denke^ ** I think,*' 
has to make the other a present of a value which is sometimes previously deter- 
mioed, and sometimes left to the generosity of the loser. The presents are called 
VielUebchenSj and are usually trifies of a few fiorins' value ; a pipe, ridiiig-whip, 
or such like. 

To fill the Bin. To acknowledge ; to come up to the mark. Cf . to 
acknowledge the corn? 

**Sir,'* said he, — and he [W. L. Yancey] is a beautiful speaker and person- 
ally a very fine-looking man, — **are you the celebrated Parson Brownlow ?" 
"I 'm the only man on earth," I replied, *'that^^ the Wn." — Speech ofW, (?. 
Brownlow o/Ttnn. in iV. F. Herald, May 16, 1862. 

Fills. A common mispronunciation for thills, the shafts of a wagon 

or chaise. 
Finefied. Made fine ; dandified. 

FIP— FIR 217 

If this new judge h the Blicked-up,/n«/fe</ dort of a character they pictur' him, 
I don't want to see him. — Robb^ Squaiier JAfr, p. 73. 

Flppenny Bit, or, contracted, Pip. Fivepence. In Pennsylvania, 
and several of the South»*rn States, the vulgar name for the Spanish 
half-real. (See Federal Currency.) Fippcnce, for fivepence, is 
provincial in England. 

To fire. To fling with the hand, as a stone or other missile. 

To fire away. To begin; to go on. An expression borrowed from 
the language of soldiers and sailors. 

The chairman rose and said : ** We are not ready yet, we must go on in order." 
Calls for Mr. H . Mr. H from the midst of the audience said, ** Gentle- 
men, I beg to be excused. I came here to listen, not to speak.'* Loud cries of 
*• Go ahead ! " ** Out with it ! '* " Fire away / " Whereupon he commenced. — 
N, Y. Herald, Sketch of a Political Metting. 

Fire-DogpB. A support for wood in a fire-place ; andirons. — Webster, 
Fire-Eaters. A name given by their political opponents to the advo- 
cates of extreme Southern views. Of recent introduction. 

The^r<-«o/«r» in the territory and ihejire-eattrs outside do not at all agree in 
their views of what is proper to be done in reference to voting ou the constitu- 
tion. — Lecompton {Kama*) Democrat, Nov., 1857. 

The ^re-eaters are making a very "big !)oo for a little goose." There is no 
strength whatever out of the Gulf States ; and, although they kcej) Walker very 
close in his n>om, he is seen and known enough to make all effort:* to elevate 
him even to the rank of a bold pirate ridiculous. — N. Y. Ettniny Pott, 1857. 

The ** Savannah Republican," in noticing the call for a convention 
of the Southern States previous to the late war, said : — 

** Our noble band of sisters, all embarked in one common bottom, need not be 
taught their duty by a set of gM»y,Jire-tatiny politicians, such as are likely to 
constitute the staple of a Southern Convention.** 

Fire-Hook. A stout hook at the end of a spar, used in pulling down 
buildings when on fire. 

Fire-Hant A hunt for game in the night with the aid of a long- 
handled pan containing light wood or pitch-pine knots ignited. 
This is carried on the shoulder of the hunter until he sees the eyes 
of the animal of which he is in pursuit. 

Thejire-hunt was Sam*s hobby. He had often urged me to accompany him, 
just to see how slick he could shine a buck's eyes, and had drawn from me a 
promise to go with him on some of these hunts. — Traits of American Humor, 
Vol. n. p. 171. 

To fire into the "Wrong Flook is a metaphorical expression used at the 
West, denoting that one has mi.'^taken his object, as when a sjwrts- 
man fires at a different flock from what he intended. It is synony- 
mous with ** To bark up the wrong tree." 



I sftid, when General J coclced his gun iind began hU war vpat &kt S«ii- 

»t#, be would find he had Jlred into the vrrofiffjiock. — Cfockett*t Spetcht Timr^ 
p. 81. 

I will make that gooej a cautkrn to tiniierB I know. He has jfred ink* the 
wnmff Jlork thi6 time. I'll tench him not to do it %gMin. — Sam SUck, Hmman 
Nature, p. 107. 

Fire-'Water. The name ^veu by some of the Indian tribea to ardent 

Magna't Canada fathers came into the woode^ and taught him to drtnk Jfm- 
isaler, and he became a rascal, — Cotjper^ Tkt LaM nftht Mtthican*^ p. 146. 

The Taos whiskey, a raw, tiery spirit, ha* a ready market among the trappers 
and lodhui tniderM, who find the ^rt-tcaUr the moat profitable article of trade 
wttli the aborigines. — RuxUm"* Adeenturu m tkt Eocky MiniHtaiH$^ p. 200. 

Pire-Wood. WcM>d designed for fuel. 

Plre Zouave. A tenn popularly applied to companies of Zouaves, the 
members of which had been firemen in the city of New York. 

A Pet F^mh a.%toni.Hhes Uie Secessionists. The Richmond paper« tell of a Fire 
Z&uave who waa caught and taken to Fairfax, Sec. — X. Y, Tribune, July 18, 

FiiBt One, single. An abeiird use of the word, which has recently 
crept into the newspapers and public 9y»eeehes from the colloquial 
language of the West, ** 1 won^t pay you the first red ceut^ '* u <»>, I 
win not pay you a single cent. 

And ht>re wju I, who had been half tempted to fret beeAU5«e a fttream of water 
leaking through the top of the roiich couldn't alight anywhere el.*e but on my 
knee-1%, which I couldn't move tjiit^firai inch, abftunlly fancying that but fbr that 
I might luue slept — LutUr in .V, F. Tiittuut^ Mj*y 23, 1849. 

Thitik how many of the yoau^ mechanicii of New York, who are earuing their 
ten or twelve dollar?) per week, do not save the/tr'*t cfut from o»e year'ji end to 
the other, but squander ali they ought to lav up in diti&tpatioii. — Ilnd,, Aug. 20| 

I am not aware of having committed ih^Jirwi act which shonld bKng npon me 
tha dif pleaeuie of the houAO or any of iU mambers. — IF. X GiiberVt Spetck in 
Souse of Jttpruentaiiffei, Feb. 27, 1887. 

PlrBt-ClaBs. A man in England possesses notable capacityi and people 
style him capable, or able, or great. In Canada, he is designated 
Jirst-daas, To speak of ?Lfir»t'class carriage, or s^ Jirst-clms prize, or 
even a fimf-cktifit prize ox, may be right enough ; but why apply 
phrases with such poor associations to men of splendid intellect? la 
it not enong^h that a man be jireat f Will he seem any greater when 
indissolubly associated with a railway van? — Bei\ A. C- 6VrAi>, in 
Canadian Journal^ Sept., 1857. 

Flrat-Rate. Of the first class or order; superior; superexcellent. An 
expression now in very oommon tise, applied, as moat superlatives 



«ro in the United States, with verj little discriiiiiiiation. It was 
fornierly ftaid of large and important things, afl *• ^Jir$t*mie ship^" 
Now we hear of ^^Jirst-rate piga," ^^^rst-rate liquors," ^^Jirftt-rate 

The fim^mu importAnce of th« mbjeet, tntt the r«Al mi^rit.^ of th« work, are 
deserving of a portion of our space. — WtMtmintitr Remew^ "Tuly, 1847. 

A youn^ woman wants a situaiinn a«t a chambermaid. She \» aJirttH/'nU WMher 
and iroiier, and plain tewer. — AdrtrtMemtni in JV, Y. TAhunt. 

It is a!80 used adverbially ; thiw, if we ask a person how he is, he 
replies, '' T aro first-mte^^^ i. e. in excellent health, very well, 

Mr, Borthwick found the California Lidians hod acquired this use 
of the phraHe ; for, says he ; — 

When you salute them with ** How d* y« do,*' or if you really want to know 
th« Btate of their healthi, they invariably AXi^^^x fun-rait, B>q having ascertained 
that the>- were all ftttthrtttt^ I made Jiititiiiries as to my way.— Three Yeart in 
CtU^ifVnia^ p. 211. 

Well, there *» mmt men whose namral trnartnesn helps them along Jlrtt-rtUe, 
MtJ9r Jm€*'$ Qmrtdh^f p. 31, 

Mary liked all the tpeake rs. /^mtf^ra^e, except one feller who gin the galla all 
■orta of a »hak{n% — Bid., p. 168. 

The " Ijondon Illustrated NewB/' Dec. B, 1856, in speaking of 
Assheton Smith, a celebrated huntsman, says: — 

In his Ldcesternhirc days, he vranjir^^rfite s.^ ahomeman ; . . . . and in one of 
the wor«t teenting countries, he has for years shown the j^rMt-rate sport. 

First Rate and a Half. Any thing .somewhat better than what is 

coru^idert'd jini-rale ; or fir it- ra te i u te nsifi ed . 
First Swathe. First quality; first chop* New York, 

Xotliing *ll nerve yoo but a^rstsicaihe mug, about twenty-thpee ye^n old, — 
C. Mathetcs, Puftr HopHn*. 

Fiali-Ball, Salt codfish chopped fine and mixed with potatoes; it is 
then made into balb and fried, or, for thf)8e wlio dou^t like grease, 
baked upon a griddle. An amusing song called the ** Lone Fish- 
Ball " was very popular a few years ago. At one of the cheap 
eating-houses, a cuatamer whu had one of these balls, having caOed 
for a piece of bread, 

The waiter ro&red it through the hall, 

** We don't give bread with one ^Ah-hall.** 

Flah-Crow, (Corvwt osnifmgwi, Wilson.) A bird almost entirely 
confined to the maritime districta of the Southern States. During 
the summer, they are sometinies found a» far north as Pennsylvania. 
They are generally seen hovering over bays and id vers as well as over 
Bait poufls and marshes, searching for small fry or for small crabs 
CftUed Fiddles. — Audubon. 

220 FIS— FIX 

FUherman-Farmer. Said of such persons as alternate farming and 
fishing at different periods, especially such as customarily farm in 
one, and fish in another part of each year. Sea-coast of Massachu- 

FUh-Flake. A frame covered with fagots, for the purpose of drying 
fish. New England. See Flakes. 

Fishing-Frog. See Devil-Fish. 

Fiah-Pot A wicker basket, sunk, with a cork float attached, for 
catching crabs, lobsters, &c. 

Fish-Poiind. A net attached to stakes, and used for entrapping and 
catching fish ; a wear. Connecticut. 

Fish-Story. A story that taxes credulity; an incredible narration. 

Fishy. Having the characteristics of a fish-story; rather incredible. 

We did not lose a man. This soands rather /(Ay ; but they bad no artilleiy. 
JV. F. Tribune, Nov. 26, 1861. 

Fiste (» as in mic«). A small dog; a puppy. Pennsylvania. 

Fits. ** To give one fits " means, by a vulgar hyperbole, to give one 

such a punishing as to throw him into fits, to punish him very 


Mot. Now look a-here, Liz, — I go in for Bill Sykes, *cause he runs wid our 
machine; but he mnstn*t come fooliu* round my gal, or I Ml give him Jits* — A 
Glance at New York, 

Aid. Voorhiet. Cro on, Mr. Jones. 

Witness. He said that the Atlas was ooming out, to give Mayor Wood and 
myself "/to." 

Aid. Ely. Was he to give any thing else? 

Witnets. Yes, he said he was going to ''give as Jessie." — New York dig 
Council Debates, 

Sometimes additional force is given to this epithet by threatening 
to ** ^YQ particular fits y*^ as in the following example: — 

Lady Bulwer has just published a new novel, called " Very Successful," in 
which rumor reports that Sir Edward is to get particular Jits. — N. Y. Times, 

I rather guess as how tht<) old man will give particular fitt to our folks to-day. 
Eggleston, The Hoosier Schoolmaster^ p. 101. 

Fix. A condition; predicament; dilemma. 

Some feller jest come and tuck my bundle and the jug of spirits, and left me in 
this here Jix. — Chron. oj Pineville, p. 47. 

Are you drunk too ? Well, I never did see you in that Jix in all my llTe4ong 
bom days. — Georgia Scenety p. 163. 

The gentleman must be stronger in the faith than ourselves, if he does not find 
himself in an awkward^. —N. Y. Commercial Advertiser^ Oct. 18, 1845. 

To fix. In popular use, to put in order; to prepare; to adjust; to set 



or place in the manner deaired or most suitable. Mr, Lyell, in his 
" Travels in North America^" chap, iii., has the following remnrks 
on thia word: — 

At one of the ftAtions where the trnln «tof)f«d. we heArd florae younj^ woman 
from Ohio exclaitn, " Well* we are m a prpttyjfa*/** and foumJ their dilcfittna to 
be chunictenwtic of the financial criaia of theae times, for none of their dcJIar notes 
of the Ohio b&nk* would pas* here. The subsiiantive '\fijp** if* ftii licktuiwludifed 
mlgAriem -, b«t tbe verb is U!*ed in New En^flund by well-educnt* d pcf>|ile, in tho 
■eoHiof the French "Erranger,*^ or the En^jflinh **do.'* To jtf j the hair, the 
table, the flre^ means to drens the h&iT^ lay the tablcj and lunke up the fire ; and 
tlhti appliearion in, I pre^^ume, of Hibemiain origin^ a« ao Irl^^h ^.>iith'mftn. King 
Coniey, in Mhn Edgeworth^B tale of Ormoadi save, ** I *1! Jix him and hij 

** Wiere they might Jix their pieces** [muskets]. — Brndford^s 
Hui. of Phfmouth^ lOitJ. In citinpf this passap^e^ Palfrey says, ** Brad- 
ford put the word to that use when he spoke only his native Not- 
tinghaniishire/* — Hist, of New England ^ Vo!- II. p, 08» note. 

The word is equally common iu Ontario, Canada- Boya threaten- 
ing vengeance say, **l'\\fix you! '* 

One of their tiioit remarkable termji is to ^/u^ Whatever work requires to \m 
done mu*l h«^x€d. '' Fix the room " 1a to «et it in order» *'^ Fix the table/' 
" Fix the fire/* says the miatress to her servants; and the things are^xtd accord- 
ingly. — BackuHJodt of Canada, p. 83, 

To fix it. A vulgarism of re<:ent origin, hat now very common. It 
is heard in such phrases as, ** I will not do so and so, att^ how you 
can fiz it^^^ or, still worse, ** no how you can fix t/,'' i. e. not in uny 
way that you can arrange it; not by any means. 

A wet day ifl cotiaideni1)le tiresome, (m^ wajf jfou can Jixii.^Sftm 8Uck in 
Emglatid, ch. 2, 

If I was an engineer, I "d clap on steam, — I *d fire up, I tell yoo -, you wouldn't 
get m« to stop the engine, rw waif jfou could Jtx it, — Ptckinffit from the Picnyune. 

The master called them up. and ax^d them the hardest questions be could find 
in the book; but he cguldn't itump 'era, no hoip he couid fx it — Mnjor Jonta't 
dmrtskip, p, 36. 

Wrtrkin* ato*t ^nteel nor independent^ no how you can fix it. — Pickinff* from 
lie Picayunt, p* 74. 

" According to my notioni» richer and grandeur ain^t to be compared to religion, 
no hme you can ftx it; and I always said so/' aaid the Widow Bedott. — BedttU 
Paptrt, p, 1U5. 

To fix one'a Flint is a phnme taken from hackwooda life, and means 
the same as to settle, to do for, to dish. 

**Tiike jt ea«y, Sam," says I, '* yourfiini iMfixtdi you are wet through ; " and 
I Httted down to ■ carelese walk, quilD desperate. — Sam Slick in Enylnnd^ ch. 2. 

The Blueno«e haute the tools; and, if he had, he couldn't use them* lliat 'a 
lihi reaaoQ tny one almost can *'*fix hitjiint for hitn,** — J bid. 



To fix out. To set out (aflom, aiTAnge), supply, fit out, dispmj, 

Pix-out Adornment, arrangement, ** out-fit." 

To fix up. As fix out; and also to mend, repair; and to contrive. 

Fix-up. From the verb as abore. It is used to denote an omamenti 
a supply, a contrivance, device, arranj^ement. 

Th« "Albany Argui/' sUIl hoping for aoiiie Mirt of m oompromiio vx Jim-vp 
witli the rebels, smys; — 

Fixed Fact. A positive or welJ-establisbed fact, what the French coll 
un/ait aecomplu The origin of tiie phrase is attributed to the Hon. 
Caleb Cushing. 

The ** Boston Post,'' June, 1847, in speaking of the trial of 
Captain Stetson for piratically running away with a aliip and cargo, 
says : — 

Thst he did dt!(po»e of a lArge quantity of oil, and afterwsrdu d««ert from tb« 
TBssel. tif^^xtd facts* 

In many locaJitieft, spirituftliam \\^ bet-onje %fiitdf<ict^ and ita modkU€f>tr&iiidi 
U well understood by tho^ wlio havf invcstlfi^Atcd it u a inentnl soionc<< on the 
platform of cauM and cITeot. — ChritUan SpiriiuaU»L 

FfxlngB. A word used with absurd laxity, especially in the t>o\nn and 
West, to signify arrangemeuts, embellishments, trirumingB, gar* 
nishings of auy kind. 

The thcRtne was bett<?r filled, And theJlsBmff$ look^ nicer, Ihan in PhflAddptut. 
Crodxtt^ Tour dou>n Emt, p. 38^ 

All tlie felltjws full to gttlin^ gmpca for theUdie«; bnt they all had their Sunday 
finnt on, and were afraid to g^) into the brush. — Major Jonts'i OntrUhip, p. 42. 

A ni»in who fftw* iwto the woods, a« one of these veteran *ettlcrs obaerred to me, 
h&H a hcrap of tittle Jixim to atiidy out, and a great deal of projecting to do. — 
Judgt H^tU, Lett erg from the West, Lftter 18. 

When we parted, I wanted to pay him «nmcthing hAnd^ome for at! Ilia tfonble; 
but I couldn't git him to take nothifi||f but an X, to buy i^oine wimmin Jiin* for 
tho old kdy as a compliment from roe. — A^. Y. Spirit qftke Time*. 

** Ah! ** exclaimed ttie teamster [to a gentleman who bad a j^ood deal of lug* 
gmge], "what anybody on earth can want with «ach lota of Jixini, I 'm aura *B 
dark to m^**—Mrs, Chvers, FortU Life, Vol. I. p. 97. 

One half of the country is overflowed in the winter, and t* other half, which ia 
a darned t^Xf^i the bigjjest, is covered with cane, pimento, and other JLcins. — 
Porttr'i South'Wrstem I'aUs^ p. 1*23. 

The following advice was given to the editor of a new W<-st^m 
p^en — 

Advertii« oar doias la ginera], Kuch aa we got to a«ll, and throw yourself wide 
on the liUmr^^Mm and poetry for the j^IIa ; and, M iitter, if yau do thta with Aptrit| 
tho whole town will take your paper —/if oW, S*/ttttttcr L{ft^ p, 31. 

For a use of the tenn as applied to food, see Chiclen FixingB, 



Flss. To fiule the elbow is to knock the ** crazy bone.** 

Ftssle, A ridiculous failure. The figure is that of wet powder, 
which burns with a hissing noise and then goes otit without pro- 
rl I' ing any effect. It is nearly equiralent to the analogous expret- 
, i u, '* a flash in the pan.*' 

There is an English proverb which nays, *' Every p»?a has ita vease^ 
•ad a bean fifteen.'* This establishes the etyniol<igy of the word; 
for rea$e is simply the Italian vescia (ere f tit u,^ vtntuA), which Baretti, 
in his Italian Dictionary » expreaaly defines by the yvovd J^zzle. 

In many colleges of the United States, thi» elegant term is used 
to denote a blundering recitation. It ha« been held that to hit just 
Ofie third of the meaning constitutes "a perfect /xr/c.'* — Hali^tt 
CoUeijfe Worrls, The *' Brnnonian," Fi*b. *Ji, lf377, deftnevS the 
^irord to mean ** where the tttudent thinks he knows, but can't 
quite express it,** or ^* he tries to express it, and the professor 
thinks he doesn't quite know.** 

With mind and bod^ to nearly at rest that nn Dgbt interrupted my inmost rvpOM 
iar* cloudy reniini»cence« cjf n mnrn'mfi Jiztlr aincl nn ftfti?nit>on flunk, my tran- 
qutUitjr wm Btiflicienily enviablu. — Fak Littnu^ Magnsint^ Vol. XV. p* 114. 

H^ru be could /^z/r* ninrk, without a *igh| 

And »€« onitioas urnvf^parded die. — Tht TomakmBh, Nov^ 1S49. 

In Princeton College* the word blue is used with Jizde^ to render 
it bttensive; as^ he made ** a UueJizzU^^^ ** Uefiszkd hlue,^^ 

The term is used with equally happy effect in political as in 
college slang. 

T!ie trick of the adminSstnllnn to palm off the Washington Union tipon the 
Sf Tt It* mn ihi! Xatlonal Democrat organ was a Jiedt and a shocking 5i!lur«t — 
.V. )'. fltruU. 

To ftssle. 1. To fail in reciting; to recite badly. A correspondent 
from Williams College saya: ** Flunk is the common word when 
some unfortunate man makes au utter failure in recitation. He 
!ta/ft» when he stumbles through at laat.*' A writer in the ** Yale 
^Literary jMeesenger ^* thus aptly defines the word: " Fizzle, To rise 
llritb modest reluctance, to hesitate often, to decline finally; gen- 
•paDyt to misunderstand th« question,*^ — HaiVtt Coilege Words, 

Ky dlcmitr U outraged at b«holdinf? those who JbaU and flunk in m j presence 
lower above me, — Tht YaU Bangtr^ Oct. 22, 1S47. 

2» To cause one to fail in reciting. Said of an instructor. — HoU* 

Fitzit him tenderly. 

Bore him with care ; 
Fitted 4o slenderly^ 

Tutor, beware* ^ Taie LU. Mag,^ YoL XHl* p. UL* 

224 FIZ— FLA 

To fiizle out. To be quenched, extinguished; to prove a failure. 
A favorite expression in Ohio. 

The factious and revolutiojiaiy action of the fifteen has interrupted the regular 
business of the Senate, dl»f|^ced the actors, AndJixzledotUf — Cincinnati Gazette. 

Is the new hotel [one called the Burnet House] to be given up or to go on ? 
To go on. It cannot be possible, after all that has been said and done about a 
** splendid hotel/* that our enterprising business men will let itjizzle out. — Ibid. 

You never get tired of a good horse. He don*t^z2^ out. You like him better 
and better every day. — Sam Slickj Human Nature^ p. 65. 

Flakea. (Old £ng. JUyke or hyrdylle, Du. vlaeck.) Fish-flakes. 
(Dutch, vlaaky a hurdle for wool.) Long poles laid upon crotched 
posts driven into the ground, parallel to each other, about two feet 
apart and covered with brush, upon which codfish are spread 
to dry. 

Some tear downe Flakes, whereon men yeerely dry their fish, to the great hurt 
and hindrance of many other that come after them. — Wkitboume^ Disc, and Di*- 
coterie of New-Found4and (Lond. 1622), p. 66. 

The owners of vessels [in fishing districts] have Afidke-yard in the vicinity of 
the landing-places, to which the fish are carried on being landed. — Peter Gott, 
the Fisherman. 

Yish-Jlakee were spread upon the beach, and the women were busy in turning 
the cod upon them. — Sam SUcky Human Nature. 

Flap-Doodle. Nonsense, vain boasting; as of a cock flapping his 
wings and crowing. 

McMahon goes on to say, in a dreadfully low-spirited style, that the South is 
a Pelican ; that we are her progeny ; that she has drained her breasts to feed 
us; and to utter other Jlap-doodle for the nourishment of the Richmond mind. — 
N. r. Tribune, Jan. 20, 1862. 

Flapjack. A flat pancake fried upon a griddle ; also called a slapjack. 
It is an old English word, and is mentioned by Shakspeare. 

We Ml have flesh for holidays, fish for fasting-days, and, moreover, puddings 
and JlapJacJcM ; and thou shalt be welcome. — Periclet^ ii. 1. 

Sarah Wilkerson, good cretur, she was, one of the likeliest heifers that was 
ever raised. She could heft a barrel of flour as easy as I can flirt Ajhjyack. — 
Mark Ticnin, Roughing It^ p. 384. 

To flaah in the Pan. To fail of success. A metaphor borrowed 
from the old-fashioned flint-and-steel gun, which, after being primed 
and ready to be discharged, sometimes flashed in (he jmn. 
Mr. I^well, in his poem on the school-house, speaks of the dame 

who, prim and calm, 

could detect at once 
Who Jlashed in the pan, and who was downright dunce. 

Flash-Board. A board placed upon a mill-dam when a river is low, 
in order to obtain a greater fall of water. It is temporary, being 
placed and removed ^m the dam as circumstances require. 

FLA 226 

Tlmt. 1. In America, this word is applied to low alluvial lands. <* The 
Mohawk flats " is a term universally applied to the valley of the 
Mohawk River, on either side of which are alluvial lands. See Bot- 
tom Lands, It is also applied to river shoals, where they are of 
much extent. 

In New England, all the spaces between high and low water 
mark on the seashore, or in bays, inlets, &c., where the sea flows 
and ebbs. 

The title of the Commonwealth, an owner thereof in fee, to all the Jhts or l&ndf^, 
. . . below the ordinary line of riparian ownership, from which the natural flow 
of the tides in Boston harbor has been out oft by dams or otherwi^, and alno the 
Jlats below said line, is hereby assertod and declared, &c. — Latrs of Momm- 

And now the airy Flats we pass, their church. 
Litigious hall, and taverns, and approach 
The gloomy shade of dark continuous wood, 
That runs high westward to the Mohawk's fonnt. 

McK\nnon*» Poems^ p. 34. 

2. A broad-brimmed, low-cro^Tied, straw hat, worn by women. 

3. A species of flat-l>ottomed boat, used on the Mississippi and 
other rivers. See Flat- Boat. 

4. A rejection, dismissal. See To flat, 

5. A terra used where money or stocks are lent without interest. 

6. A dull-headed person. 

To flat To reject a lover; as, **Miss Deborah gave Ike the flat, *^ 
•» He 's got the flat,'' *♦ She flatted him." Western. 

Fiat-Boat. A rude sort of vessel used for transporting produce, &c., 
down the Mississippi River. It is thus described by Flint: ** They 
are simply an oblong ark, with a roof slightly curved from the cen- 
tre to shed rain. They are generally above fifteen feet wide, and 
from fifty to eighty and sometimes an hundred feet in length. The 
timbers of the bottom are massive beams, and they are intended to 
be of great strength, and to carrj' a burden of from two to four hun- 
dred barrels. Great numbers of cattle, hogs, and horses are conveyed 
to market in them. We have seen family boats of this description, 
fitted up for the descent of families to the lower country, with a 
stove, comfortable apartments, V>ed3, and arrangements for commo- 
dious habitancv. — Hist, and Geogr. of Miss, Valley, These boats 
are also called Kentucky Flats and Broad-honis. See Ark. 

Finally one of 'em ses, "Don't make fun of the unfortunate; he's hardly pfot 
over bein' blowed up yet. I>et 's make up a puss for him." Then they all throwed 
in and made up five dollars. As the sp<>ke.'<man handed me the change, be axed 
me, ** Whar did you find yourself arter the 'splosion V" *' In a flat-boat,''* ses I. 
Widow Bagly'9 Hmband. 



226 FLA— FLO 

To flat-boat. To transport in a flat-boat. 

The first enterprise of Josiah Hedges on his own account was a trading excor- 
sion to New Orleans with fruit, which he flat-boaied from Wheeling to that 
point — JVa<. InUUigenctr, July 29, 1868. 

Flat-Boatman. A hand employed on a flat-boat. 

Flat-broke. Utterly bankrupt, entirely out of money. The Calif or- 

** nia correspondent of the ** Boston Post/' in speaking of the emigra- 
tion, says: **Many emigrants, arriving in that state of collapeity 
termed Jlat-broke, staid at Los Angeles because they couldn't go on." 

To flat out. To collapse; to prove a failure. A Western phrase 
applied to a political meeting; as, ** The meeting flatted out,** 
President Dwight was criticising a passage in a theme, and, being 
hard up for a simile, said : •* Why, it 's as flat — it *s as flat — it *s as 
flat as a flat piece of lead, flatted out flat." 

The word is also used as a noun. '* It was a complete ^ZoZ-ou/." 
''Hemadea^t out.'' 

Flat-footed. Downright, resolute; firmly, resolutely. A term be- 
longing to the Western political slang, with which the halls of 
Congress, as well as the newspapers, are now deluged. 

Colonel M attempted to define his position, bnt, being unable, exclaimed : 

I *m an independent, flat-foottd man, and am neither for nor against the mill- 
dam. — Ttnnemet Newspaper. 

At the forks of the road there lived a brawny, stalwart son of Vulcan. He wai 
a man of strong will, and a zealous disciple of Tom Paine. His Herculean frame, 
and bold, flat-footed way of saying things, had impressed his neighbors, and he 
held the rod in ttrrorem over them. — IIarper*8 Mag.^ Sept., 1858. 

Mr. Pickens, of South Carolina, has come out flat-footed for the administra- 
tion, — a real red-hot Democrat, dyed in the wool, — denounces Mr. Calhoun, — 
and is ready now to take any high office. But the mission to England is beyond 
his reach. — A'. Y. Herald, June 30, 1846. 

Plat Top. See Iron Weed. 

To flax round. To be energetic ; to move quickly. New England. 

Flea-Bane. (Erigeron Canadense.) One of the most hardy and com- 
mon weeds. It propagates itself rapidly, and since the discovery of 
America has been introduced and spread through most countries in 
Europe. — Bigelow's Flora Bost. 

This plant is sold by the Shakers for its medical properties, which 
are astringent and diuretic. 

Flicker. See Clape. 

Flitter. A coiTuption of the word fritter, a pancake. 

Floor. Used in Congress, in this expression, to get the floor; to have 
the floor; to obtain the floor , — that is, to obtain an opportunity of 



taking part in a debate. The English saji to be in pone^twn of lh§ 
So%i»e, — Pickerififf^a Vocabul€trif, 

To flour. To grind and holt ; to convert into flour. — Webitter. A 
word uBed in those paii^ of t}ie ctmiitry where there are mUh for 
grinding wheat. Ejl : *' The mill can Jiour two hundred barrela a 
day ;'* i- f., it can make m many barrels of flour, 

noniiDg-Mill, A grist-mill, eapedaUy one iu which flour h made 
from wheat 

Flummiix. In eollegeai applied to a poor recitation; a failure. — 
Hairs College Word$, 

To flummux. To give in* give up; to die* The word is used in 
England, but not in the Hame manner. According to Halliwell, it 
means **to overcome, frighten, bewilder, foil, diaappoint^ or rajB- 
tify, also to maul or mangle." — Did, of Arch, and Proi\ Worth, 

PrehAps PurMnn Hjine didn't put into Pok<?r%'nie for two mniial hour^; wnd 
prehapA Pokervilte rlidtiH mizLlle, winciP, and ^ni^iy fiummix right beneath him. 
FitUi^ Bramn in Poktrrillt, 

Eo yc men of mighty fsioiimchs, 
Men thai can't be made to fiummwe. 

Otfgier IVar of Accmnnc, N. Y, Trihunt^ April, 1849. 

I thought I should fifiummuxtd! The dogs they »idled back ; m\* Ike cursed; 
AD(1 t lar down an" riolled, till I was ao full I thought I sbtiuld ■ htiDt my biler. 
JfiJte ffovttr's Bear Story. 

Flunk. A backing out; a total failure in a college recitation. ^M^t^ g^'^**'^^ 

Th« Sftbhath dawo^ upon the poor student burdened with the thL>ught of the 
leaaoci or^«tnJt of the morrow morninf^, — Ynlt Tomtthntrk^ Feb., 1851. 

In mnody mpciitotion sunk. 

Reflecting on my futun Junk. -^ Stm^t of Tah, 1863. 

To flunk. To fail utterly in a college examination. The ** Bruno- 
nian,'* Feb. 24^ 1877» says ^ Jiunk is a complete fizzle, and a dead 
flunk h where one refa«te8 to get out of his 8eat 

They know thai a man who ha» funked^ becxntiici too much of a ji^nitij to get 
bJA lessoD, it not in a state to appreciate j/nklnf^. -^ AmherM Indicaior^ YoL I. 
p. 253, 

Way down in Hoosic Valley 

Minds put forth their shoots, 
And many weary hours are i>aased 

In grubbing linji^tiil roots. 
There I tiEzled and therts IJlu^td, 

3n mournful all the day; 
Till the welcome pony came at Uft, 
And bore my toil away. 

Carmina CoUet/enda^ Sonpt if WUiMmt^ p, 9d. 



To flunk out. To Tetire through fear; to give up, Vack out. 

WhVt littJe one, you must be cracked, if you Jlwdc tmi before we begin. — J* C 

We mwat hnve at leaat as many ?ab«»<*r1ber8 as there are studenU in coflfge, or 
flunk ouL— The CVeiyon, Yale Coll, 18^3. 

Flunky. 1. A ckkss of people, who, unacquainted with the manner 
in which stocks are boii|;-ht and sold, and deceived by api^arances, 
oome into Wall Street without any knowledge of tlie market. The 
consequence is, they make bad investments, or lose their money. 
These the brokers <i^Jiunhits.—A Wtek in WaU Street, p. 81. 

A broker, wlio tiad met with heavy Insses, exclaimed : *' I 'm in a b«ar-tnip, — 
tht» won't do. The dogs, will come over mt* I abatl be mulct In a los?. But 
Pve got time; 111 turn the scale; I'll help the bulb operate for a rise, and 
draw ia iheJIunkieM.** — Ibid, p. 80. 

2. In college parlance, says ^tr. Hall, in km ** College Words," 
**one who makes a complete failure; one who Jiunks.** 
I bore him safe Ihroujjh Horace^ 
Saved him from U^Kjtunhrjf'i doom. 

Yait Lit. Moff., Vol. XX. 

Flntter-Wlieel. A water-wheel of smali diameter, which from the 
rapidity of its motion makes a fluttering noise; hence its name* 
Used mostly for ordinary saw-millf » 

Fly. (Dutch, t%.) lu New York, a swamp, a marsh. *'The Fly 
market '^ of New York ia well known. 

To fly around. To stir about; to be active. A very common ex- 
pression. Fly round and tear ^ounhirt ia not an infrequent Inten- 

Come, gall, fy rmmd^ and let *« get Mrs. Clayen some supper. —A Ntw Eom9^ 
p. Id. 

Fetch on the pies and puddings. /7y round and change the plates. — Widoie 
Btdott Paptrg, p. 167. 

Flyer. A venture. To take a fyer in stocks is the expression used 
in Wall Street when persons not stock- brokers, or dealers in stocki, 
occasionally make a venture. Their orders are given to the regular 
brokers, who execute them for a commission, without becoming 
personally responsible to the parties with whom they make the^ 

The most nuccessful bankers and merchants often employ their spare fiindi in 
UikingfyerM, -^ New York SUKk EeporL 

When the open and close Boards [of broken] so far coalesced as to meet in 
one Long RooiOt old notions had become so thoroughly rubbed away that mem* 
bers npoke frankly of their neat turns and^yen. — JHed&ery, Men and MytitneM 
i^ WaU Stnei, jt. 111. 

W^iwWtali inn yin gnftfi 



To tij off the Handle. To break outf become excited ; nlso, to break 

When I ttsed to tell miniater this, u he wms /tfinff of the hartdU, he 'd aay, 
Sam, you 're &a correct u Euclid, but as cold mid dry. — Sum Slit^k^ Uutttan 
Nature, p. 149. 

Now «m] then one of the girli! would pmniis«, ami then /Fy fijfr^r /Ar hmxtlh; 
but most all tontrivod mma reason for giving me the bag to hold. — MiCUninckrf 
SetdWt Marriiiffe, 

Fos-Bom, A huge born blown by uteani, chiefly used at st^a to Wftni 
vessels when in a fog. It id gaid that the Bound can be worked up to 
a power of being heard sixty miles away. It is also called a Sjfren, 

FoUu, This old word is much used in New England, in.stead of 
** people** or ''personfl/' 1, For the persons in one's family, as 
in this common phrase, ** How do your foih do ? *' that h, your 
family. 2. For people in general; aa in expressions of this kind, 
** What do folkji think of it ? " &c. Dr. Johnson observes tlmt ** it 
is now only used in familiar or burlesque language,** ^PiVi-ermiy. 
When English writers try to imitate Yaukee talk, they make us 
saj/o/Jt ; ou the other hand, they make us say helpx^ instead of help. 

Old good man iNbuon of the gTeea 

Remembers he the tree has seen, 

And goe» with /ulk* to »hew ihe i*i*ght. — Swi/i. 

Foo-Foo. In New York, a term of contempt, nearly equivalent to 
** small potatoes, ■' a man not worth notice. 

DonH know what a fm-/ot> is? Well, ai you're a greenhorn, til enlighten 
you. A fixt-foo^ or an out»ider, is* a cli«p diat can't come the hlg (Igur^. — A 
Ghmct ai Ntw TorL 

Fool-Fiah. (Genus Monocanfhm, Cuvier.) The popular name of the 
Long- finned File-fiyh. *' Our fi.shermen apply to it the whirnnical 
name of Fool-fish/* says l>r. DeKay, **in allusion tji w hat they 
consider it* absurd mode of swimming with a w^rig^Utig motion, its 
body being sunk, and its mouth just on a level with the water," — 
Nat. HiaL of New JVl*. 

Foot. ** To foot it" is familiar English; but the Western phrase* 
•*To take his foot in his hand," ia assuredly a Ijold stretch of lan- 
guage. ** Put doum one^sfmt,'* To b© determined. 

Foot-^^n* A cotton-gin moved by the foot; it is more used than 
tlie gin oj^^erated by steam. 

Footstool. The earth An irreverent familiarization of Isiniah Ixri, 1, 

Foot-Stove. A contrivance for keeping the feet warm, formerly 
curried by old ladies to the meeting*hou5«a^ on Simtlays. and ussed by 
huckster-women in the markets. It consists of a small stjuare tin 
lox, perforated with holes and enclosed in a wooden frame, with a 




wire handle. It has a door on one side, througb which is thrufit m 

small square iron dish of live coals, spriiikJed OTer with a few asiies. 
Footy, Pouty. A mistake; a simpleton; a bjunderer; any one 

alightly valued. Local in Massachuaetta. 
For, l>eft>re the infinitive particle ** to,'* ao frequent in early writem, 

but now deemed a vulgarism, is still retained in the West, 
rorbiddea Fruit. {Citr\iA Paradixi.) The Paradise Orange, a fruit 

almost as large as a slmddock. Jamaica, W. Ind. The shrub is 

now cultivated by our horticulturists. 
Force. In the J>outht the slaves of a planter able to work iu the field. 
To force Quotatioiia ia where brokers wish to keep up the price of 

stock, and to prevent its falling out of sight. This is accomplished 

by a smaU sale or by ** washing." — Medbfiy^ Men and Mtfsteries nf 

Wall Stre*^t. 
Foiefathera' Day. In New England, the day on which the PUgriius 

latirled at Plymouth (the 21st December). 
Tore Ood. A negro asseveration. 

A »tarv h laid of a slave, tti^ MJinewhere between 90 And 100, who, a( what- 
ever time of clay he met his master, alwayi Atid, ** *F9r€ Ged^ toMsa, hain*t had 

a moMtMul U> eat t4>-day.'* 
Fore-handed. To be fure-handtd is to be in good circumstances, to 

be coinfortjibly off* Compare A/orehamJ. The expression is much 

used m the interior parts of the country. 

Many or the new boases which have been built have been built by macbanica, 
fare-hcrndtd men, ai we iay in New Eiii^laiid^ who have accumulated unall iiinia. 
Promdence Joumttl. 

Mm. Ainiiworth made io long A Tiait among her Ela»tcm fnends^ who are now 
Jort-handfd folk*, th»t slie hafl come back imbued mo^t witisfactorily with a 
loTtntg appreciatiDQ of the adrantagvaof cIvilizatioQ, — Mrt, Clofen^ ForutLffk, 
VcL I, p. &0. 

Foreign-born. Bom elsewhere than in United States. 

Out native mfK^hanics and working men, in the average, tecetre room wages, 

and h^>]d mure eligible position^ than they would if nojot^iffm-bom laborer were 

DOW m the country* — !^- Y^ Tribum, Dw. U, 1861. 
Fore Pay. ** There are two bad paymasters, no pay and /ore jjay/* 

This proverbial expression is frequently heard in the West. 
Forest City. Cleveland, in the State of Ohio; and Portland in 

For Ood*B Bake. Thoroughly. *' They used to build for God'a aake 

in those days." ** That was nailed for God's sake." 
T^ fork overt To hand over; to pay over, as money. A alang 

eip^aaaioa of frequent uaft. 



He groaned in spirit ml the thougfit of jwrting with io much money. Them 

via, however, no help for it, m he/orktd over the five dolbirB. — Knicktrbocksr 

A woiiM4ie prophet down Strnth latelv- sjiid* in one of hi$ frL-niionn, that "he 

WM sent to redeem ihe world ajkI all thinpi thervin.** Whereupon, a native 

pulled out two tl^ e-flitnar bilU of a brukeii bunk, and asked hjiu tujhrk ovtr the 

tpecie for them. — Ntwtpnpir, 

What more riKht has a man to f*ay to you, "Stand tind deliver your name/' 

than Jo eav, ** Stand and fork Ofitr your pane " ? — iSawi Stkk^ Human Naturt^ 

p. 17. 
To fork up. To pay up; as, ** Jonathan, I've trusted you long 

enough: no fork upJ^ 
Forks. In the plural, the point where a road paiia into two; and the 

point where a river divides, or ratlier where two rivera meet and 

tLuite in one stream. Each branch is called a fork, — Weh&ter. 

Finally, the Pamraeei ahundoned the field tn th«ir victoriouB eoemies, leaving 
sixty of ihelf warriors upon the ensanguined bjat tie-ground. Tlie defeated party 
w?re pursued only a short distance, and theii pmnitted to R'turn wiibnut further 
molestation to their village^ at the Forka of the Platte. — Hctnet in lk« Hachf 
MoumUtint, p. 50> 

About the same time, the tillage on Republican Fork of Kansas was also than- 
doned, and its Inhabitaiitif united with the Loup». — Ibid. 

Porlornity. F^prlom coudilion. Thi5 word appeared in a Sunday 
SchiXiil book by Mra. ■, 

To fort in. To intrench i^ a fort, 

A few inhahitantaybrJ!<«iF in on the Potomac. — Mar^MiT* Weuhinffton. 

Fortiner, Portiiio, (For-auf^hhl-k'now.) This remarkable specimen 
of clipping and condensing a phrase approaches the Indian method 
of Conning words. The word m very common through New Eng- 
laud, Long Island^ and the rest of New York. See Farziner, 

Forward. Forehead; &> Forrerd for forward. 

Forwarding MerchaDt. One whos^e business it is to receive and for- 
ward giioda for others. The internal navigation and trade of the 
United States, bo great ia the extent of onr country, requirea for- 

J<r>-'i^">-*- ^^'^ 

itarding merchanfs in all the principal towns. ^ 

Fotch, lor fetched y is used by ignorant |:«r8nns» especially the blacks at ^ ^**^^^^ 

the South. 
Found. Ignorant and careless speakers say, ** The prisoner yr^A found 

ten dollars,'' instead of he vfnA fined. They want to fonn the past 

tense, and the proper word sounds too much like the present find. 

Comp. Held. 
To fox. 1. To fox boots is to repair them by renewiiig the lower 


2. To play truant. So employed in some parts of Canada. 

232 FOX— FRE 

Foz Orape. (Vitis labrusca,) A large grape common on the borders 
of streams. The surface of the leaf is characterized by its foxy 
pubescence. The Southern /ox (/ra^je is Vitis vulpina. Its fruit is 
larger, and its taste more agreeable, than the former. 

To fraggle. To rob. A word used in Texas. 

Frame-House. A house whose frame is of squared timber. Used 
much as ^* timber-house " is in England, for distinction's sake. 

Opposite Faniholt*8 house is a quaint old windmill, which, with the suiroaiid- 
ing jframe-houtes, seems to date from the first settlement of the country. — N, T, 
Trilmne, April 23, 1862. 

Fraud. A deceitful person ; a cheat. 

Free-Figfater. A partisan ranger; a guerilla soldier. 

We publinh the recent act of [the Confederate] Congress, authorizing the rais- 
ing and bringing into service of partisan rangers. Now is the time for fite^ 
Jightert, men of dash and daring. — Petersburg ( Va,) Rxpreu^ April 29, 1862. 

Free Labor. Labor performed by freemen, in contradistinction to that 
of slaves, a term formerly in vogue both at the North and South. 

So, wheresoever our destiny sends forth 
Its widening circles to the South or North, 
Where'er our banner flaunts beneath the stars 
Its mimic splendors and its cloud-like bars. 
There shall Frtt Labor* a hardy children stand. 
The equal sovereigns of a slaveless land. 

Jt G. WhitHer, The Panorama, 

Free Love. Freedom of the afPections ; the right to consort with those 
with whom we have ** elective affinities," regardless of the shackles 
of matrimony. Within the last few years, several associations have 
been organized in the North, for the purpose of carrying this doc- 
trine into practical effect. See Affinity, 

*' And you believe in Free Love^ do you not?" [said Prof. Gusher to Josiah 
Allen's wife]. 

** How free ? " said she, coolly. 

*'Free to marry anybody you want to, and as long as you want to, from half 
a day up to five years or so." 

*' No. sir! " says she, '* I believe in rij^hts, but I don't believe in wrongs; for, 
of all the miserable doctrines that was ever let loose upon the world, the doctrine 
of Free Lore is the miserablcst. Free Love .'" she repeated in indignant tones, 
*'it ought to be called free deviltry." — Bttty Bobbet^ p. 195. 

''Josiah Allen's wife" called on Mrs. Victoria Woodhull to discuss with her 
the subject of womeir.*i rights and/ree tore. 

"You are right, Victoria, in your views of wimmen's votin," . . . said the 
former, " but you arc wrong in this/re« love business ; you are wrong in keepin* 
bouse with two husbands at the same time." — Ibid.^ p. 319. 

Free Lover. An advocate of the free-love doctrine. 

A " reform convention " assembled at Rutland, Vermont, on Friday. About a 

FBE 288 

tliooMUid persons — abolitionists, spiritualists, and frtt lovers — attended, the 
spiritualists predominating. — Bah. Sun^ June 28, 1858. 

Berlin Heights is a village in Ohio, in which bands of Free Lovershaxe settled, 
so as to be a comfort and protection to each other; also, for the convenience of 
hapless pairs by a large matrimonial exchange. — Dixon^ Spiritual Wires^ p. 387 

Tree LoviBxn. The doctrine of free love. 

Free-Nigger. A reproachful tenn in the Southern States of America, 
to denote an alx>litionist, or a Northerner. 

ThouMinds, sir, voted the Secession ticket just to prove that they were not 
abolitionists, — not Lincoln men, — and that they abhorred yVfe-nt^/^r barba- 
rianism. — A'. Y, Tribune^ Isov. 8, 1861, Letter from Tenneuee. 
Free SoiL Freedom of the soil belon^ng to the United States, and 
not yet formed into States, from Negro slavery. 

The people are rousted ! Tliey ' ve slumbered too long, 
While Freedom grew weak, and Tyranny strong. 
But now they are coming from hill and glen, 
They come to the rescue, — the Free-Suil men. 

Mrs. Child, Free Sail Song. 

Free-Soiler. An advocate of the exclusion of slaveiy from the territo- 
ries belonging to the United States. A word which first came into 
use in the year 1848. 

I only want to see the drst /re e-aoiler here. I '11 drop the first one that opens 
his mouth for alK>lition cusses. I Ml be dog-gauned if I don't. — Glndstoney Eng- 
fijAmon iJt Kaiuat^ p. 48. 

Free-SoilisQL The principles or doctrines of the advocates of free- 
dom in the territories in opposition to those of slavery. 

I tell you, mark every scoundrel among you that is the least tainted witbyVee- 
soiUsm or abolitionism, and extenninate him. Neither give nor take quarter 
from them. — Speech of Gtneral Strinfjfdloic in the Kansas Lryislnture. 

Aree to say, Free to confess. Common expressions equivalent to 
'* I do not hesitate to say.'' To acknowledge. 

We are free to say that an intelligent aprirchciision of all the facts which might 
here be exposed, and a candid allowance for them, ought to afTcct the tone towards 
England in which our histories are written. — North Am. Jitr., Oct., 1858, 
p. 468. 
Tree States. Those States in which Negro slavery does not exist. 

Equal and exact justice to both slave and^re^ Stntts is the only ground upon 
which the Southern States can maintain their claim to equal rights in the Federal 
Union. — Richmond Enquirer^ Aug., 1858. 

Freeze. A Southern term for frosty weather. 

The effects of the \aie freeze have been severely felt. — Charleston paper. 

To freeze. 1. To have a longing desire for any thing. South-western. 

This child has felt like going West for many a month, being half froze for 
buffalo meat and mountain dolus. — Buxton's Far West, 

284 FEE— FRI 

2. To freeze to. To cling to any person; to "cotton to;" to 

A clergyman, coming from an inland town to a parish in Boston 
that was supposed to be somewhat effete and old-fogyish, received 
this advice: *^ If you can find a young man in that church, /reese to 
him; '' and he literally did, but hardly in the sense intended. 

Freezer. A refrigerator. 

To Creese out Nearly equivalent to "leaving out in the cold," as 
the South threatened to serve New England in a new confederacy. 
The expression is heard frequently, of late, in various applications. 
It has lately been employed, ** the freezing out policy,*' with refer- 
ence to the management of some life-insurance companies, to com- 
pel policy-holders to surrender their policies by unfair devices, &c. 
I find a game of "Freeze-out Poker" mentioned in a letter from 
Badwood (Black Hills), in " Harper's Monthly," October, 1877, 
p. 799: ** They doant do nuthin* but drink whiskey and playe frease 
aotU poker.** 

Freigfat-Car. A railway car for carrying merchandise. 

Freight-Train. A ti'ain of cars on a railway, expressly for carrying 
merchandise, lumber, &c. In England, called a " goods train." 

TxeBh, n. 1. An abbreviation for Freshman. 

2. Used locally in Maryland for a stream distinct from the tide- 
water; as, " Allen's Fresh,** ** Pile's Fresh.** The lands in Talbot 
County, Md., are divided into freshes and salts. 

Freah, adj. Forward, bold; as, " Don't make yourself too fresh here." 

Freahet. A flood, or overflowing of a river, by means of heavy rains 
or melted snow; an inundation. — Webster. 

This word is used in the Northern and Eastern States. That it 
is an old English word is evinced by the following extract from the 
" Description of New England," written and published in England, 
in 1658: — 

'* Between Salem and Charlestown is situated the town of Lynn, near to a river, 
whose strong freshet at the end of the winter filleth all her banks, and with a 
violent torrent vents itself into the sea." — p. 29. 

It appears to be now confined to America; but the word fresh is 
still used in the north of England and in Scotland in precisely the 
same sense. It is also used in Louisiana. See Pickering's Vocab- 
ulary for a full discussion of the word and its uses. 
Frijolea. (Spanish, pron. fre-h&les.) Kidney beans (Phaseolus) in 
all their varieties. A common article of food upon the plains and 
on the Mexican frontier. 


Pil»oo- The city of San Francisco, so called througbout Califomia- 
lYoe* An iron cleaver, or splitting- knife. 

The fihingle^-tiiaker fiUnds with /roe m <me hand and msllet in the other, tn- 
deavarinij tt> rive a biU<?t of hemlock on n block. — Marff^iret., p* 159, 

*''He beat his bead all to ^TiiiiHh with a frot,^" said one. " Na, H was witb an 
KKa," Mud anothiir — Ibid., p. :j2a. 

Frog. The iron plate where two lines of railroad intersect; probably 

fio called from its resemblance to the ** frog " of a horse's foot. 
Frolic* A favorite term in the West for a party. 
Promety, Frumty. Wheat boiled with milk, to which snt^-ar and 

spice are added. — ffuUtiffishire Ohii^mrif. Used in M^rjland, 

where it is called furmeity. 
Front Name. Chrktiau name, ** The familiar manner in which 

the teleg^raph handlen my front name^^* i. e, in callincr him Ben. 
Froat-Fiah. (Genus Morrhtin.) A sumll finh which ahonnds on our 

coast during llie winter months. It is also called Tom-cod. — Storer* 
Frost- G-rape. See Ckkken-Grape. 
I^oatwort. {Cistus Canademls,) A medicinal plant prepared by the 

Shakers I and uaed for its astringent and totjic properties. 

Itoostiy. Frfiugh is provincial in ttie north of England, and means 

any thing loose, spongy, or ertsily broken; often applied to wood, as 

*• brittle *Ma to mineral substances. — BrocketCn Glm^ur^. ^' Froughy 

butter *' is rancid butt-er. 

This word is in common \x^^ in many parts of New England. It 

ia doubtless a corruption of /rough, wliicb is sometimes used here. 

Frowchcy. (Dutch, vrouwtje.) A f urbelowed old woman. Local in 

New York and its vicinity. 
To feump. To mock; to insult. A verj-- old word» occurring in the 

dictionaries of Cotgrave and Minshew. 

I was »bAN'd and/mmped^ «»ir, — Beaumont and Flrtcher, 
Tliis old word, though long out of use in England, still lingers 
among the descendants of the first settlers in New England. 

The sleiffh* warpMl from side to ^hU; the n'deri sereamed, CTmB-hi% Jhtrnped^ 
and hootfd at each otlmr* — Margartt^ p. 174, 

Fry, Judging from what travellers say, one of the moat abominable 
di«hes among the farmers of Texas is what is there called a ** fry," 
It is thus described by a correspondent of the ** Chicago Tribune \ ** 

If you an? n^kt'd Jwth at supper and breakfast to help your^plf to thr^frU', don't 
you do so uolejsa you have acquired a reli<h for *ole-le»lJier, Tliis/ry ia the most 

236 FUF— FUN 

abominable dish in the thirty-eight Statei and Territories. It consists of lam 
beef salted and dried, parboiled and fried in grease. Saw-dust is juicier, tod 
sole-leather is tenderer. 

Faffy. Light; soft; puffy. Used in Yorkshire, England, and pre- 
served in some parts of New England. 

She mounted the high, white, /u^ plain; a dead and unbounded waste lay all 
about her. — Margaret^ p. 168. 

Full ChiseL At full speed. A metaphor from a chisel, which, when 
not properly struck, starts off violently sidewise ; an equivalent for 
the phrases " full drive '* and " full split," both of which are used 
in England and in this country. A modem New England vul- 

" Oh, ye»^ sir, I '11 get you my master*s seal in a minute." And off he set ffM 
ckuel. — Sam Slick in EngUmd, oh. 2. 

The moose looked round at us, shook his head a few times, then turned round 
and fetched a spring right at WBfuU chisel. — John Smithes Letters. 

At that the boys took arter them full chisel^ and the galls run as if a catamotmt 
had been arter them. — Downing, May-day in New York^ p. 46. 
And so the Yankee staves along 
FvU chisel^ hitting right or wrong ; 
And makes the burden of his song, 

By Golly ! — Anonymous. 

Full Swing. '* He 's going full swing," i. e. very fast; at full speed. 
Not peculiar to the United States. 

Pull Team. A powerful man; a man of consequence. See Whole 

Fundum. A sea-bottom. This term, used first by Governor Wise of 
Virginia, in a message to the Legislature, is occasionally heard 
derisively. ** The great Virginia Fundum. Re-opening of the 
Oyster Trade." — iV. Y. Tribune, Dec. 20, 1861. 

Funeral. ** To preach a funeral.** In some parts of the West, the 
funeral sermon is preached, not at the time of the burial, but long 
after, sometimes even a year after the death of the person. The 
custom arose, probably, from the difficulty of obtaining a competent 
** preacher '' in a thinly settled country. After so long an interval, 
** preaching the funeral," which is almost always accompanied by a 
feast, becomes rather an occasion of merrymaking than of lamen- 

This custom is universal among the Negroes at the South, who 
will devote a year's wages to secure a handsome funeral to a de- 
ceased relative ; and the importance of the individual seems to be 
rated by the time suffered to elapse between the death and the 

y^-^^-^-^-^ « f ^ /^ <^« ■ ■ ■*> 

FUN— GAL 287 

To ftmmrallBe. To perform the clerical duties preparatory to a fun- 
eral. Southern. 

Funk. 1. Fear, or sensibility to fear; cowardice. •ii^*- V-^****^^ 

So niy friend's fault is timidity. ... I grant, then, that the funk is sublime, 
which is a true and friendly admission. — Letter in Literary IVorld^ Nov. 30, 

2. A coward. 

To funkify. To frighten ; to alarm. New England. 

Scared ! says he, ser\'es him right then ; he might have knowed how to feel for 
other folks, and not funki/y them so poskily. — Sam Slick in England, ch. 8. 

To funk out To ^* back out '' in a cowardly manner. 

To/unk right out o' political strife ain't thought to be the thing, 
Without you deacon off the tune you want your folks should sing. 

Biglow Papert. 
Pnr fly (To make). See Make the Fur fly, 

FoiTGW. To draw a straight furrow is to go straight ahead; to mind 
one^s own business. 

Governor B. is a sensible man ; 

He stays to his home, and looks arter his folks; 
He draws his furrow as straight as he can, 
And into nobody's tater-patch pokes. 

Lowell^ The Biglow Peepers. 

To foah out. To come to nothing. Comp. To fizzle out, 

Fnata. (Span., pron. foos-te.) A strong saddle tree, made of wood 

and covered with raw-hide, used for lassooing. California. 
X^ke. (Dutch, /liil-, a weel, bow-net.) The large bow-nets in New 

York Harbor, used for catching shad, are called shad-fykes. 
Tj%e, (Fyst V) A cur. Common in and about Washington and 

elsewhere. It is the old foistiug hound, fysting cur. See Fice. 


Gabblement Gabble, prate. A Southern word. 

"This court *8 got as good ears as any man," said the magistrate; "but they 
ain*t for to hear no old woman's gabbltment^ though it 's under oath." — Chrvn, 
Qad. A long stick or switch, especially one used for driving oxen. 
So used also in the north of England. 

I looked around and saw where the three had set down on a log. I measured 
the length of the foot, and found where they had cut a big gad.—N, T. Spirit 
qfthe Times, Oct, 1848. 

Qal-Boy. A girlish boy. 



Gale. Among the ladies, a state of excitement; as, " Mra. A 

wa« in quit^ a gaie on New Year's Day/^ 

T}iG lailie^t laugh ing hpartJly, were fast getting into wbat, in N«w England, ii 
ftometiines called a gfilt, — Brooktf EoMtford, 

Oall. 1. A kind of low land in Florida* It consists of a matted soil 
of vegetable fibre^s, spongy and treacherous to the foot, unpleasant 
AS well as dangerons to crop. — Vignole.f^ Fhrida^ p. 01. 

Romans Hpeaks of two kind^ of these lands, *'^^ and cypresii 
ffalhJ^ The haif galls are pJHDperly watercourses, covered with a 
spongy earth mixed with matted vegetable fibres, dangerous to crosSp 
and so repkte with vitriolic principles that the water is impreg- 
nated witli acid. The ctjpreas if ails are a firm, sandy soil, have no 
vitriolic ta.sbe in the water, and are never used for purposes of 
planting. The c^^irean they produce is a dwarf kind, not fit for 
me. — Nat. HisL of Florida {1776), p. 3L 

Mr. 3 » living near the Oclawaha, while crowing a bay gall, or »awr grass, in 
company with his son, lant VV^edni*i*clay. wns at'rjou.*ly injnnrd by thr attack of 
an alligator. The water in the ffali wae aboat knee-deep. — £(ut Florida pajar, 

2* (Ger. qualte.) A name applied by tlie New York children to 
the jelly-fishes. The medusse, or sea-nettlea {Diicophm-a) , they call 
stinghiff-galls (called also in some part* of England Mang-Jisheg), 
The ovoidal, phosphorescent jelly-fishes (Ctenophora) they call 

Gallinipper. An insect pest at the South resembling a mosquito, but 
much larger. 

To gallivant. To gaUantj to *'do the agreeable.** Hotten caUs it 
an old English word. — Slang Die. 

[Marjorie was] jffotHtxtntinff with the cook; — juftt wait until papa and in am m a 
come home^ and *e« what tht-y will say to such doings in the hnUMj. — Mi*s G'juid^ 
MtirJone*i Qaest^ p. 1S5. 

Senator Seward h gaUimntinff ^ayly about Etirope. Now at C<>nipi^gn«T Miying 
soft tilings to (hf Kmpre»» and ^t tidying des put inm, now treading tht^ battl«-i3etd of 
Waterloo, then back at Paris, and bo on. — Boitcm Pott^ D«q. 10, IdoU 

Wbat buKifiens bad he to 6irt and gnUivant all summer with Satly RittHdge ? 
Jfr#. jy. B. Stowc, in Tht indtptwdeni, Feb. 27, 1862, 

Ghalloplng Consumption. A quick consumption, or where the disease 
terminate* after brief illnf^sa. George Doughty having died after a 
short illness, the question waa asked, ** How did it happen? ** 

**Why,** replied the Squir^^ '* the doctor »^ it 'a a tfnllf^ng conntmpthn. 
♦ . . He M.yB it '■ the quickest case he ever knew. * * . The idea of a f^Uow 
being at work for me, and dying right straight along. Why^ it *i awful P* ^-^ 
g«l£arto>H TU Bation A'lgwriwairt, p. 7&. 




Oallo^WB. Showy; dashing. New York slang. 
Mote, LirE\% you 're a yaUut gal, Anyhow ! 
Uay. \ *itrt nothin' el*e. — j4 GUmtt at New York, 

On another occasion, Mope goes off in raptures at the personal 
Appearance and many accomplL^h merits of his sweetheart, and ei* 

Look, what a ^tlut walk tbe 'a got! Fve strong suspidona 1 11 kavr to get 
dittiig to her one of tliede daya. 

Q^allowaes. Stispendera. So called in »ome parts of England. 

Win nkilt* [^ntaloons] were supported by no brnccs or gfillowst*^ m\A rentinp' 
on his hipi. — Martfartt^ p. 1». 

Galoot, A worthless fellow ; a rowdy, 

I Ml hold her noxzlc agin the bank, 

Till r he last ^nloot'i ashore, ^Jakn Haf, in Mm Sludao^, 
It wasn't so when I waa jmmg. 

We used plain language theni 
We didn't Hp«?ak of them ^looiM, 

When meaning bov!* or men, — Grnndpn^it Sofitoqu^, 

Oaio«lie«. (Fr.) Overshoes worn before the age of india-rubbers, to 
keep the feet dry. The term was nnivei-sal in Canada. 

It is an old English word, the same aa Galagu^ originally meaning 
a wooden sole fastened by a strap to the foot. — Wadgwoml^ Etyni. 
Die. '* GcUache or Gahche vndersolyuge of mannys fot«. ' ' — Promp- 
iffrium Parv, (1440), In a note to Way's ed. (lat^), he says, '* The 
galache was a sort of patten fastened to the fc»ot by cross- latrhets, 
and worn by men as early as the time of Edward IIL" Allusion is 
made to it by Chaucer: — 

Ne wcfc worthy to unbocle his gahche, — SywiVe'jr Tfi/e, 10, 889. 

Gam. (Ang.-Sax. tjtmana,) A social visit. A »ea-fanng term. 

When two whalers meet in any of the whaling-gronndfl, it is iipunl to have a 
IpaiMf or mutual vmt^ tftr the purpose of interchanging the latent news, comparing 
reckoning, discussing the prospect of whales, and enjoying a general chit-chat. — 
Browne' » Whnlimj Crttur^ p. 76. 

GambreL A hipped roof to a house; so called from its resemblance 
to the hind leg of a horse, which by farriers is termed a gamhrd. 

Here and there was a houiM? in the then new style, three-come red, wilh gumr- 
brtlUd rtrtjf iiud dttrmvr wimlows, — Mari/nrtt^ p. tJ3. 

Gander-Party, A social gathering of men only. 

Gander-Pulling. A brittal species of amusement practised in England 
as well ix» in Xova Scotia. It is also known at the South. We quote 
Jtidge Haliburtoo'S account of it from the ** Sayings and Doings of 
Sam Slick: " — 


240 GAN— GAB 

"But describe this gandtr^^uUingy 

'' Well, I *11 tell yoA bow it is/* sais I. '* First and foremost, a ring-road is 
formed, like a small race-course; then two great long posts is fixed into the 
ground, one on each side of the road, and a rope made fast by the cends to each 
post, leavin* the middle of the rope to hang loose in a curve. Well, then they 
take a gander and pick his breast as clean as a baby*s, and then grease it most 
beautiful all the way from the breast to the head, till it becomes as slippery as a 
soaped eel. Then they tie both his legs together with a strong piece of cord, of 
the size of a halyard, and hang bim by the feet to the middle of the swingin* 
rope, with his head downward. Ail the youngsters, all round the country, come 
to see the sport, mounted a-horseback. 

" Well, the owner of the goose goes round with his hat, and gets so much a-piece 
in it fh>m every one that enters for the * Puttin' ; * and when all have entered, 
they bring their horses in a line, one arter another, and at the words, * Go 
a-head ! ' off they set, as hard as they can split; and as they pass under the 
goose, make a grab at him, and whoever carries oif the head wins. 

** Well, the goose dodges his head and flaps his wings, and swings about so, it 
ain't no easy matter to clutch his neck; and, when you do, it 's sogreassy, it slips 
right through the fingers like nothin.* Sometimes it takes so long, that the 
horses are fairly beat out, and canH scarcely raise a gallop; and then a man 
stands by the post with a heavy-loaded whip, to lash *em on, so that they mayn*t 
stand under the goose, which ain't fair. The whoopin\ and hollerin*, and 
screamin*, and bettin', and excitement, beats all ; there ain't hardly no sport equal 
to it. It is great fun to ail except the poor ffootey-gander.*^ 

To gange. (Span, gancho, a hook^ a crook.) To attach a hook to a 
line or snell. 

Oap. 1. This pure English word is used properly of any breach of 
continuity, as of the line of a saw's edge, or of the line of a moun- 
tain, as projected on the horizon. Hence it is applied to such open- 
ings in a mountain as are made by a river, or even a high road. 
Thus the Water-Ga/>/ and, in Virginia, Brown's Gapj Rockfish 
Gap, &c. 

2. An opening in a fence, A Slip Gap is a place prorided in a 
fence, where the bars may be slipped aside and let down. 

Oar ; also Alligator Gar. (Belone truncata.) A species of pike found 
in the Southern rivers. It grows to a large size, and has been 
known to fight with the alligator. 

At least three species of this fish are found in our Western riyers : 
the Duck's-bill Gar, and the Ohio, or common Gar. 

Oarden City. Chicago. So called from the number of its gardens. 

Oarden Spot. A term applied to the rich Silurian limestone region 
in Kentucky and Tennessee. 

So characteristic are the agricultural peculiarities stamped upon the surface of 
every county, that it has given rise to that generally recognized divi^iion of the 
State known as the " Blue Grass " county of Kentucky, justly celebrated for its 
fertility and consequent wealth. The unbroken tracts lying towards the heads 

^A-^i^ Ivu^i^k, ^7^7 



of the ttream4 are indeed tli« ^' Garden 8poU ** of the State. We ev«ii heAr tho 
inhabitanta of thii pitrt of Keotucky frcqueDtfy styled '' Bluc-grni^K men" in 
co£ttriidi!<(inctinn lo ihc *'Mount«irt men,"' reiideotJS of the adJAc<;nt hill *Tiid 
mountain eountn'. — Ouftn'i Otology of Kentucky. 

0«xmenture. Dress, 

The *»New York Tribune," Sept. 28, 1876, in criticisiog the 
statue of W* H. Seward^ says : — 

No man can involuntarily tbrow one leg over tbe other witbotil a shortening 
of what the recent Dresa Kefomi Ciinventioucalla the yarmenture. 

GarDiataee. Tti law, one in who&e hands the property of another has 
been attached in a suit against tlie latter by a third person, and 
who is garnished or warned of the proceedings, and liaa notice of 
what ia required of him in reference to it: a tru.*<tee. — BurrUr» Lam 

I hold in my hands for collection a judicriTicnt a^inst the pantar of a larpp city 
church. Shall the execurion be pubU!iih«:d for itale izi hit city pApen;? Shall his 
church true«iN»» be gnmiMhud. 

Oanijon^ At the Westj the term is oftener applied to the pout itself 
than to those who hold it. ThiLs old, empty, and deserted forte, 
those llmt have been actually abandoned and are devoted to decay, 
are almost universally styled the ** ganisong^^^ even though a soldier 
had not put a foot in them for a quarter of a century, — J, Feni- 
mart Cooper* 

Qat or O-ate. (Dutch , gat^ a hole, gap. ) A narrow passage ; a strait. A 
term applied to several places in the vicinity of New York, as Bar- 
negat and Ilellgate (formerly llidle-gat). Ad resfiects this latter 
name, Mr, Irving, in a note to his '* Knickerbocker ** (chap. Iv,), 
remarks : — 

Certain mcalyHmouthed men of nqueamiah consciences, who are loath to give 
the devil hi* due, have ioftened the above characferi^tic narae lo Ilitfi-^tff for- 
ioolh ? Ivet tlione take care how they venture into the Gart% or Ihey may be 
hurled into the Put before they are aware of it. Hie namt: of thijJi j^rrait, a^ given 
by our author, h ^upporti'd by the map iti Vander PonckV Hi^tor],' published in 
1656, —by Ogilvy'a History of America, 1G71, ^aa also by a journal iDt ill extant, 
written in the nixteenth century, and to l>e found in Ilax&rd*!* Slate Pttpcrs, 
And an old MS. written in French, ^[teakirig of vadoua alterations in names 
ftboui tbia city, obaervea, *' I>e HtU^-yni, Trou d' Knfer, il» out fait ffeU-gnief 
Porte d*Enfer/' 

Gate City. Keokuk » Iowa, at the foot of the lower rapids of tlie 
Miswi.Hfjip>pi, the natural head of navigation. 

To gather* (Fron. gtiher.) Universally used in the West to to take 
opi as, '* I gathered a stick. ^* 






To gaum. To snieiii". ** Put the child's aj»ron on, and don*t Tet her 
ffaum herself all over with mola^Aes/* Local in KuglAnd. 

GaveL L A amaU mallet ui^d by a ohairmtitt or prenidiug olficer to 
attract attention and preserve order* It is used by our les^islative 
bodies^ bat originated, probably, with the Free-Masons. Mr. Paton 
aays, ** The name of gavd is derived from the German gipfel^ a peaki 
from which also comen (he same term applied to the end of a hous6f 
the gaml or gaUt^ runnings up to a point at the summit, the form in 
the one case and in the other being somewhat similar," ^ — Free- 
Masonry , its Symbolvtm^ &c- (Loud,, 1673). 

In describing scenes at the New York Stock Exchange, Mr. 
Medbery says : — 

The ro»r from the cock-pit mile «p detiMir «ii(l (leaser. The Prp»identpnes 
hi« ffartl, the A»»i»taiit Secruturics ^icralch acmss the puper, reg:isteriii4j bid« and 
offifra. — J/«n (Hid M^ti^rit* of U^all Strttt^ p. 30. 

2. {Fr. jaudle,) A quantity of grain sufficient to make a sheaf. 

Thia old word, which is in use in the east of England, is now very 

freipiently employed in describing the operation of American reap- 

injcr niiichinea, 
Qawiiicuft. A dolt. Analogous to the EngU&h gawh and gawctmi, a 

iiKjl, a Hirapleton. 
Gtominy. 8ee Jiminy. 
Qeneral Aasembly. A representative body having legislative powers, 

and authorized to enact laws in l>ebalf of fkiuie community, church, 

or State. — Worcester. 
Oeneral Court. The legal name of the two legislative bodies of 

General Treat. A general treat is a treat of a glass of liquor given by 

a person in a tavern to the whole company present, 
I nearly got myAclf into m diflkulty with my new acqunintancea by handing 

the Landlord & Kharv of the reckontng, fur having pre«umed to pay s pfirt of a 

tftnerat treat whilo iabormg undtT the dl^qualiBcation of being a »tmugcr. — 

JJofman, p. 211. 

Gent. 1 . For genteel. 

Lawyou, Mii ihe, itS rifcht ^i*^, do yoQ take it, — 'iia dreadful! pretty.— 
Mad. Knight's Jtmi-wil (1704), p. 44. 

2. An abbreviation for gentleman. 
QeutUea. The name given by the Mormons to all who are not of 

^eLr faith. 
Ctontleman. Properly, this word should be applied to men of educsv- 

lion and good-breeding of evety occupation ; but, like lady^ ia used 





indiacrimiQatelj. It is applied to men of every grade and every 
caUin]^. Postmaaterd, in adverti&mg letterSf Bay, ^* Gentlemen's 
Lifit/* ♦* Ladies' Li8U*' 

A Htrariger arriving at a hotel tells a waiter he wanta his boots 
blacked. The waiter cails out to a negro bootrbkok. 

^* I aay> Jioit here ^a a chap a^i wants a shine/ ^ 

The boot- black advance^! to do the job, 

(Waiter to the stranger.) ** This ia the gentleman, Bir» who * 11 
give yoa a shine*'* 

Gentleman Turkey, A turkey cock- The mock modesty of tlie 
Western States requires that a male turkey should be so called. 

I remember, in my yomiger daiy*, to have been put id a state of boilily peril by 
A pugnacioui^ fftntUman tut'kftf who took umbr 'g* »t a flaming red flnd yellow 
^Ue that coii»tituted my apparet — Afirtnturts of Cnptftin Prie*t^ p. 111. 

"This 18 A tough old fellow/' remarki'd a (^tnikmafi on boanl a Miflfissippt 
ftc«mboat, who was end^ivorin^ to can^c a lar^ turkey. 

*'Wall, I kind o* think you're right, stranger," m id a Eooiier oppottte. 
** But I reckoo it 'm a fftniktnan tmrktjf."' — Western Skeickit, 

Q^TTjmAndeTing, Arranging the politi- 
cal divisions of a State eio that, in an 
election, one party may oltl^un an 
at] vantage over ita opponent, even 
though the latter may possess a ma- 
jority of the votes in the State. This 
term came into use in the year 1811 
in JIassachusetts, where, for s»everal 
years previoiis, the Federal an^l Demo- 
eratic parties stood nearly equal. In 
that year, the Democratic party, 
liaving a majority in the T/e^^islature, 

determined so to district the State anew, that those sections whit^h 
gave a large number of Federal votes might be brought into one 
district. To effect this f>lau, the Leg-iftlature divided counties in 
opposition to the prote.sts and argiitnents of the Federalis^is; and 
those of Essex and ^Vorcester were so divided as to foiTu a Demo- 
cratic district in each of tjiose Federal counties, without any 
Apparent regard to convenience or propriety. The w^ork was sanc- 
tioned, and became law by the signature of GoveriKir Gerr)\ He 
probably had no hand in the matter, yet he received the most 
severe castigation from the opjxjsition. The result Wiis that the 
Democratic party carried evei^ thin^ before them at the following 
election, and filled everv office in the State ^ although it appeared 






by the votes returned that nearly two-thlrda of the voters were 
Federalists. In Essex County, the arrangement of the district in 
its reltttion to the towns waa singulur and abeurd. RosseD, the 
veteran editor of the " Boston Ceiitinel," who had fought the 
Bcheme valiantly^ took a map of that county » and designated by 
particular coloring the towns thus selected, and hung it on the wall 
of hia editorial room. One day, Gilbert Stuart, the eminent painter, 
looked at the map and said that the towns which Rus^vell liatl Uiua 
distinguished resembled some monstrous animaL He t*cM»k a pencil » 
and with a few touches added what might repi-eseut a head, wings, 
claws, and taiL '' There, ^^ Stuart said, <^ that wiU do for a sola* 
mander/* Rusaell, who waa busy with hi« pen, Icjoked up at the 
bideou5 figure, and exclaimed, •* Salamander ! Call it GerrymantUr ! '* 
The word was immediately adopted into the political vocabulary as 
a term of reproach to the l>emt>cratic Legislature. 

A hand-bill was subsequently issued, bearing Stuart *s figure of 
the Gerrymander^ foDowed by a natural and political history of the 
animal. — BuckinghatfCs Specimens of Newspaper Literature* Lo§»^ 
ing'f FiM-Booko/the IKaro/ 1812, p 210, 

To get To get the better of, *» Got you there/' See To git. 

To get one'e Back up. To get excited, become enraged. A figura- 
tive e3q>re3sion drawn from the attitude of a cat, which, when angry, 
raijea up its baek m well vu& its hair. 

Get out I A New England expression, equivalent to let me atone. Alao 
used as an expreg^ion of incredulity. 

To get Heligioa. To become pious ; to experience religion. A term 
m commou use among ceiiain religious sects. 

Stranger, I rati't boar to think of the murder of Charley Birkbam now; bitC, 
when 1 heard it thu first time, it wa« je«t mrter I yo* rttUtpan, 1 fouldnH help it, 
I a won- jc«t iii^h on to half an hour right straight on ecnd. — Frontier tnddtfiity 
N, Y. Spirit of the Timr4, 

CaptJiiQ Uiiderhill klltt^d hl^ nutghbor^s wife, and got hit retigion on a pipt of 
tobacco,— EltMd*i NtiD England Ei$t,, Vol. I, p, 460. 

To get round. To get the better of, take advantiige of one. 

One fn>m the knd of cakes sought to get r&und a right smart raiikce, btit 
couldn't <ihine. — Rttxton^ Life in the Far Wrtt, p* 89. 

To get the Mitten. To be a rejected suitor. See Mitten* 

To get the W^rong Pig by the Tall is to make a mistake in Belecting 
a person for any object. This is also called getting the wrong §ow hg 
the ettr. 



New England. 
One whose lower jaw is loose and 

I did not P«ifk (he ofRw I h«v« novf. and was not at the meeting when I w«i 
fttwct^ i but ti)« WhigB supposed Iboy coutd by eomei mcsna mnke me t«f 
to mv psrlv. Hut, dr, as iho <*id euving is, they ^< the wron^jpiy btf the tniL — 
Ltttir </ Mr, C a BeU. 

O^bal. A filjing term for ffirl, correspond! tig to B^hoyt wlucb see. 

II >uu would tee the ZTAoy in his glorj^ — at llii* top of hi» career, — in the «M 
I iJ>r«t o( hi* uiundflne »rjae, — you mu«t tec him tuking ■ drive witj) \mg'hfil 

I the wenue— A'^fip fork in Slictik 

I Vo glbet To go w«?U ; to be acceptalile. 

Mr* TKnigUi My* 6ome people tJiink Mr. IJncoln'i Innugiirikl f\ov$ not pb* 
with Uie CLiirji^t ptatform. Wfll^ what of it V I dnu't tn^y it du«a or it doet 
hot ; but, if it du*i* not, it fthowa that Mr. LiihoId hiis the nerv« to My WUM b 
rijtht, pUtfiyrm or no plAtfonn, — jV. Y. TimtM, 

To gigs^. To take, as in a gig; to convey; to move rapidly; to gig 
it or jig it. New England. 

H« nemrly like to have got her cat up by shirks, by gig^fUg h«r off in th« 
boat out to »ea, when »he warn^t more *n three years oid. — Mra. S. B, Btowt in 
Tkt JmUptmifiU, Feb. 27, 1862* 

Oilead Pir. See Baham Fir, 
OllJy -Flower, A variety oi apple. 
Odmbal>J«wed or JLmber- jawed. 

Qiiopy. Sprightly, active; as, ** a gimp^j liovm**^ Forby notices tlie 

adjective gimp^ meaning nice, epnice, as provincial in EiigkiuJ, 

Ofa and Tidy. Neatly dressed ; gpruce. 

What wtmien happened to be there were very gin t%nd Htiy in tlie w<jrk of their 
Wfk b«ndft, which made tlietn look tempting ia the erea of um forL>«ler9, — Wtst^ 
■ P^ptri^ p. 119. 

Gfn MilK A tippling Khop, 

To giidla, Jn America, to make a circular incision, like ti belt, 
thrtiijgli the bark and aJburaum of a tree to kill it. — Webnter, 
Bettlera in new conn tries often adopt this method to clenr their 
land; for when the trees are dead they net them on fire, and thus 
ave '1 - the trouble of chopping them down with the axe. 

lie I :ired is thence called a gmlUug. 

Th*» ». r , r lining cut round its whole cireumf^frenre, tli<* tree dies. Thta 

oprrati. :: I. ill yirtUing, — Ktmlatti TrartU{\%fn), Vol. I. p, 2-J5. 

The 4>mi|i^ntn(ii purchase a lot or two of j^overoment IjiJid, Imild a hT^-houne, 
fenca a dujeea acres or m^ jilotigh half ti( thenu gir^lte the trce^, and then aell 
out to a new comer. — Mr§, Clavett, Furest Lift^ VoL 1. 

Oixdling. A place where the trees are girdled. See the preceding 

Ofam. Spirit. *' I koockM a]l the gism out of Mm." 



Qimt, The main point of a question or action; that on which it lies 
or turns, — Jamieson. A word introduced from the language of law 
into very common use, 

Qit, A favorite Western vulgarism for ** go " or " go ahead/' ** move 
on/* leave quickly, equivalent to »' go it/* ol which it may he a 
contraction* It is the iuvariahle word by which the hero of the 
whip and line* starts hit* team, and they understand it well. •* You 
g^t/- says Mr. McClure, *" is the most emphatic notice that can he 
given to any luckleaa chap to leave the roomt or to escape a re* 

The d Hv4^r flnAlly mounted hla box with a coolness that showed him to b« per* 
fetl mttstt^r i>f his s^'jluutiou; imd, ii*hc yi'llijd to tJivm (hi* horiie«] to tfit, hU kwsn 
silk cracker flashed about their tliuiks till all started on a ruu. — i?udkjf M^mh 
tmn4^ p, 149. 

In describing tlie muring of a teamster, in his California jour- 
neys » Ross Brown© thus gives the outburst of the feelings of tlie 
man : — 

*' No, I can't fbrg«t bert ^* and, with sn audibU nob, he started as If in a trance, 
and, Awingiug his whip, yelltid out at the muk's with ung^tivernable fury. *'\'v\i 
gift dod burn you ! What d *ye stand flopping yer cairs for ? GU! — Adi^ttUuru 
in the Apftcht Coun/ry, p. &0. 

Git up and git means to get out of the way as soon as poraible. 

Oh» whit« folks, your attention pray^ a mng I "11 »)ug for yo«^ 

TUe tune I know is very uld, but the words are freah and new; 
To pletLit' tny frii-uds is my UeUght, when together they are met ; 
I 'U tell tliem in my song to*night how " to ^t up nn*i gtt.** 

Comic Bong. 
An infantry captain belonging to one of the Tennessee regintentfl, 
at Cuml>erland Gap^ . . . had his men in two ranks, ttt»d wished to 
change them fi^om that into four ranks. Either not knowing or 
forgetting Uxe usual coinniaud, he called out, much to the aiuuB&* 
ment of the bystanders: — 

Compaovl trom two atnagi to four atrill9^ — gitl — Harptr'i Mag,^ JuDAt 
1864, p. lib. 

Thb remarkable expression has even found its way into our 
legislative halls, as will be seen by the following report of the Senate 
proceedings of the General Assembly of Rhode Island of March 14, 
1877: — 

Iklr. Lapham, of Providence, called up his resolution to adjourn to meet accord- 
ing to law, Marrh 2%. Mr, V hoped no action would be taken. The A^fcmi- 

bly, he said, can fix no day. W<» must do what there b to dn, and then we can 
g€t up ami ffH. — Providencti Journal. 

In Kentucky and Tennessee, they say^ "Git up and dust," 
^o sit to go. To be i^rmitted. Pennsylvania, ** You didn't git to 
go.'» "No, 1 didn't git." 



Given Name. The ChriBtian name, or name that is givtn to a person » 
to distiiiguiAb it from the mmame, vThich ia not giveiii but inher- 
ited. Cobbett calla it a Scotticism. It was probably introduced by 
the Puritans instead of ** Saint's name " or ** Chriiitian name/* 
Itft origin is pl&inly from the Catechism: ** Q. Who ^ave you this 
nanie? A. My sponsors in baptism." 

To give out To desist; to give over; to become faint; to fail. 

Tea, coffee, and clothing Arc riearly uxhauit&d^ or Imvcs oj; the Ameriean phraaa 
li*ft it, *'yi>e« out ** be€AUii« there h iiotjo t& give out at fttl- — Lotuion Times^ 
fmUd in N, Y. Tribune, Oct 10, 1861. 

Qlvj. A term applied to tobaeco leaves, in a certain condition of 
their preparation for market. Yielding^ pliable, 

QlBsard'Shacl. In North Carolina, the name by which alewives are 
known. (Chatoessus eltipttcm. Kirtlaiid,) A fish of the Ohio, 
common in the Cincinnati markets. So called because **it pos- 
mam» a muscular stomach which reaembles the gizzard of a gallina- 
ceous fowL" 

Olade. In New England, amooth ice; glare ice* 

Qladee. Everglades; tracts of land at the South covered with water A^kM, lyfj 
and grasa. So called in Marj'land^ where they are divided into wet 
and dry glades. The term m also u.sed in Virginia. 

Q lang. Go along. Universal among coachmen, as weU as among 
gentlemen who hold the **ribbon8/* 

** Git up, thmrel G 'hnff.*' The lonjer whip swung round and cracked threat' 
eningly over the haancheA pf his leader?, making them stiut &ji the cuach turned 
a comer. — Et/KfltMon^ Mt^stcrtf o/' MtttfjxiiUvttU, p, 14. 

Olare Ice. Smooth and transparent ice. Newly frozen ice is gener- 
ally glare; i. e., it has a glassy surface. 
To glimpse. To get a glimpse of; as, ** I barely glimpsed him.** 

To glorify. To boast; to brag; to be elated. 

At the same lime, I mui^l kiiuw huw much I 've hurt him, and how badly I 'm 
hurt Oivselfj before I vah deteruiine whether I 'd hailvT (/hn/if over it mueh or 
noL *- Cincinnati Gaztttn^ April, 184L 

Oltit. A thick wooden wedge used in splitting blocks. — HaliiweU. 

So also in New England. 
Oo. ** Make a ^fo of it," i. e. make it succeed. 
To go. To taste. ** Don*t that ga good? '» 
To go a Cruiac. To take a ride or walk. An exprewion borroifed 

from the sea, much used in some of the seaports of New Bnglacul, 

and particularly in Nantucket. 
To go ahead. To go forward, proceeds A seaman's phrase, which 

had got into very common Ui^. 



I WAS tired owl Aiid w&nted a day to rest; but, my face l>t'iri^ lunii 
Wftahiii^ton^ I thotiglit I had better t/o aht^^ — CtocktU^ T%mr dowtk Ka§t^ p. 101, 

We alip on a pftir of IndU nibber bootSt genuine and iiu[H!Uetnibtc, «tid go 
aAf^icK wiihoul fvar. — ,V, T. Cam. .^f/rrrifijwir, 

Tbe apuJHciriHtructiijiiA to cooquer and bold Caltfornia were i.s^tied to Cotnino- 
dore Sloir, by Mr. Btttierofr^ on ihu \1\\\ of July, 1810. IVvious \u thi&, how- 
ever, be h4d been odida1l,v tiotitiivJ that wmr e&l»tt^d, and brietly instructed to 
"^tfit (thetuL** — IlfitLy June 13. 

My dtjiir hearers* the good work i»hiiU go on. 1 will prvacb iu ^pit« of Old 
Nick; tliti Ktettui h up, mu\ I will ^j^ fthtiuL Uackcd by aomuJ d«>ctrine'tf I will 
square of! lo opfKjjsititm, — »luuil billy, — lake ahu^ with Ajn, — tipsei iittUtelity, — 
Jkk SjttAti i.»utof the land, iicid kitlnaphin imp5<. — Ootp^MSetuwHt^ VoUUL p. IT. 

Go-ahead. Rapidly jwlvaacing^, pmgressive. 

Ill our opinion, wliitb we expr<;sH^ of course, wilh our wontt'd And charaeler^ 
ijitic dilHdcnce, AmcHca is a dn^hing, ^o-rrAr/irf. and hij^hly prngrc^slve country, 
giving by her ini^titutjons and Minnnou^i {;^n>wtli the KiUttiou of tlit: greateat politi- 
cal probk-m in the world. — Tht {PhiUuL) Presi, July 24, 1858. 

Go-abeadativeneas. Spirit of progress^ progi^essivt-neiiis. 

Tbe ** MeTvliant'a MagHxme ** jujDtly tbink» that, in the) prevfrnt complication of 
European difticultief, a favorable opportunity opeuft for the nutoral activity and 
go-ahemintivtmu of our American busine^di men. — A' Y. Timt*, May 17, 1855. 

Virginia City, Montana, ia but littl*? over iwfi ycan« old, but it boa.iit)i of its 
population of st*vc'u thousmiid, ami of more ao! id men, moru capital^ inoru hand* 
some and well-tilled Atoren. more fast boys and frail women, more biib^itiLnce and 
prctenc**, more virtue and vice, more prcacber& and gTO)?goric5, and more ^ 
ahead fitivtntM generally, tbitu any other city in the mountain mining regions. — 
McCiure^ Uock^ MtmntaifU, p. 285. 

To go back on one is tx3 abaiidon one, or one's cause; to turn against 
one; to expose, to retrace, obliterate, annul. 

The Dcwitpaper b«llef that Vanderbilt never ^t4 frrtdt <m hin friend-t is oot 
generally a#»uined as truth lb 1 by brokers. — Mtdbery^ Men ami M^tttriet of 
WaU Streei, p, 159. 

We wer« Fomcwhnt reassured when it was announced that <nir noble Chief 
Magistrate bad telegraphed to our Miiii»ter at the Court of St. JautKn that he WAft 
not *' (j^tinf/ bark on htm^'* but our appro bcn-'iuns for bis saftty were not entirely 
quieted until w^ leanied that be wa.q safe on tbe " Aby»»itiia *' ou bi!» return. ^ 
N, r. rri6i*i*e. 

Tbe proprietor of tlie ** New York Herald " having reduced its 
price, while some of ita agents failed to do so: -^ 

A goofl many pntr^m* w«ni baek im the p.*iper this morning, ai their tilent pro- 
teat against the swindle. — ^r (If I'otk Jfm7, Oct 21, 1870, 
If A man wa» In trouble, I- i!»k helped him along. 

To drive the grim wolf frotn tbe door: 
He strove to do right, though he may have done wrong, 
But he never wttU AfUfJt on Ihe poor. — Wttion^ Sontji*, 

Ton Ve alway* b«en fair and square with me. Mull Potter, and I won't ffo ^ck 
oo you. Tbafa m foir a* a man t*n say. — Murk Ttmin^ Ttm Bauyer^ p* 09. 



Hr, W, H. Martin, a lawj'er of New York, hftvirig sued the 
Wiodaor Hotel Comj^any of that city for 8OO1QDO, for legid servicer 
during two years, Mr, Daly, counsel of the latter, Hiddi — 

I havB rweJved a mt;»s«ge (mm the pUiimff timt there wiu Mf> use of contesting 
hit cUim hi this acdoai thai it «rou1d be referred bv the court to a lawyer; aod 
that lawyers would never go bade on each other. — N. T. Tribaney Cvari Btjxfrt^ 
Dec. tl,'l8T6. 

Pearey asked hlrn, " What he [Mur[}hy. arrestisd on euspicion of killing Mr. 
Daacomb] would do if Mr«. DjiMromb should f;o buck tm Aim/* H*j auHw^red 
promptly, '* I can tell a» much ani she can/' — Re/Mtrl of Pitigimin^ Cnst in Nttc 

It mem» more likely to ili that within ten years Wyoming will ^ro back on her 
woman *iiffragtt r«coitl thait thai aay St*te of the Uiiiun will follow her pneseiit 
example. — 8cribntr'§ Mag,^ VoL IX. 

Gobbler. A male turk*?y; a turkey cock. / 

t * *"^' * ' 1^* JJS '>#•« *t\^ t 
It wae a nice weddin* ; aioh raisins »nd orani^cj and Iminfi, flour doini and -*- " * 

chicken fixinni, and futir «ii'h oticutnuiun big ^obider4 roasted, I never 6eed. — 

N. r. Spirit 0/ the TimtM, 

To gobble up. To remove as by swallowing; to rout; to scatter; to 
vanquish. Much used in the late civil \var» and, in somewhat 
modified applications, is still sometimes need. 

To go by. To call ; to stop at. U»ed in the Southern States, — 
Sherwood* 8 Georgia. Mr. Pickerliig says this singular expression ia 
often used at the South. ** Will you go 6y and dine with me?*' 
L e., in passing my house will you stop and dine ? **It8 origin,** 
observes Mr. Pickering, **is very natural. When a gentleman is 
about riding a great distance through that country, where there are 
few great roatls and the houses or platitations are often two or three 
inilee from them, a friend living near his route askjs him to go hi/ 
hia plantation and dine or lodge with him." 

Go-Cart. A hand-cart. 

To go for. L To he in favor of. ThuB, ** I g& for peace witli Mex- 
ico,'* means I am iu favor of peace with Mexico, or, as an Euglish- 
man would say, I am for peace with Mexico. This vulgar idiom is 
greatly aifected by political and other public speakers, who ought 
to be tJie guardians of the purity of the language i instead of its 
moat indefatigable corrupters. In the following extract from a 
so-called religious paper, the reader of correct taste and feeling 
will hardly know which to admire moat, the sen time tax or the lan- 

Will Mr. Greeley »ay that he or any other citizen haa the right to oppose ** the 
csonfitry,** — that is, it n laws, — whenever he or they »hall ilioooie lo ptonnunce 
^ham '* WToog '' ? Wtt say, ^for your country, — right, aa ahe may b« ia some 



IhiogA, — wnmg^ as she ii, perhnfm, in otJiers ; but whether right or wrong, or 
right Aod wrnn^ (which is Always n«Arer Che truth in all b«r proc«cdin^)^ still, 
ffojbr your country. — Go^tl Banntr, 

2. To decide in favor of is another acceptation in which this 
phraae is often used, especially in stating for which man or measure 
itny particular section of the cotintry haa decided; as, *^* Ohio has 
gone for Clay,** *' Louisiaria has gone for the annexation of Mexico." 
Or, still worse, *'Ohio has gone Whig," ** Louisiana has gone 

3. Go for (it), to fail; to die* 

4. To attack. Southern* 

To go in for. To advocate, be in favor of. 

W« go in for all tho postage reduction Presideat Taylor reGommendi. — N* T, 
Tribwie, Dec. 2.^, 18-19. 

Going. Travelling; as, ** The ^otn^ is bad, owing to the deep snow 

in the roads,** 
To go it. To tiudertake a thing; to go at it; to succeed in a thing, 
go through it; to be earnestly engaged in. 

An anecdote is related of a card of invitiition which read, ** Come 
at seven and go at i"lev<>u/* and which was altered by a wag by the 
insertion of the word **it *' after go. 

Hartford is gettini; to be quite a i«ensation city, gcing U over every novelty, 
♦*aa crazy a^ a bed-bug. ■' — Tht Wituttd Herald, OcL 35, IMl. 

To go it alone. In euchre, one of two partners can, in various 
cases, play single-handed against the combined hands of his adver- 
saries, the other partner simply standing neutral and not playing. 
In thii*, a complete success or failure scores double. This operation 
is called *' going it alone,** and is often used of any venture where 
no aid is asked or needed. 

To f o it blind. To accede to any object without due consideration. 
An expression derived from the game of ^^Pnker,** where the 
player has tlie privilege, before seeing hia hand» of blinding a stake, 
I. tf. betting on the chances, »o that, unless the others »te his blind 
{by doubling the bet), he wins the ante. So, go it blind uieana to 
run all risks, with the chance of profiting from the risk. 

( Icfiow that in Wayhington 1 am incompreheni^ible, because at the outset of the 
war I would not^ it bliml, and rush headlong into a war uJiprfpHrt-d lud with 
an utter i^numnce of its extent and purpose. — General Shernmn*» Mtmmr§^ 
Vol. I. p. 342. 

I ktinw what I am at, and doa*t go it hUnd. — B, Slick, Muman Natutu^ p. 18* 
To go it strong. To act vigorously; to advocate energetically; to live 



President Polk In b» tnM»4g« gou it ttron^ for tJie Sub-Treasury. — N. T, 

The Senate baa of lato years refuted to take any part of the book plunder, but 
they have gons ii Btnmg on the mileage* — LtUen frvm Wn^ifiston^ N. Y. Com, 

I would have rou tindorvtand, my dear hearers, that I have no objection to 
■oin« of the Boas and daughters of the i^arth goioj^ it while Ibey are young, pro- 
vided Ihay don't go it ioo ^nmg. — Dom** Strmora^ Vwl. I. p. 176. 

A regular, irre^Iar life, 

Ben ftnlrny tiv«d along. 
And nightly did he i^o it hai'd^ 

And weekly i^eiU it 4irong, 

Battad^ A Legtnd of Broadwag, 

To go it while you're young. To enjoy one*8 self; to have a good 

Id ppeaking of the ** Genteel, Fiiie, Old Negro," the Bong gayi*. 

He had a good old tianjo, — mi well he kept it strung; 
He u*ed to play that gtH>d «dd ttine of** Go it tchile gou're g<yung ; '^ 
He ptayed so long^ an" played «o Inud, he ^cart-d the pign and goats, 
Becaoae he took a pmt of yuast to rai»e the highest notes. 

Negro Mtlodiu. 

To go it ^mtli a LooBeness is to act in an imrestrained, rash, head- 
strong manner* See Lmsentsn. So also ** to go it with a rusL'^ 

Oolden-Rod. (Genus Solidago.) A tall plant beajring yellow iowera; 
very common* 

QoUatlon* '* By goJIationl" **0 gollationl" ** GoUation large.*' 
**Gollation mean/' Derived from GoUg, 

O^ollyl Used euphemistically for '*Godl" Chiefly by Negroes in 

I wunt down to the spring branch one morning to wash. 1 looked into the 
water, and I »een the ahtidow of my face. Ga-at G^Mg / how I run batk, huUerin* 
for niftrnmy every Jump. — Widoio Bngl^'i Husband. 

GN>iabo or Gumbo. L The Southern naran for what i.*i called, at the 
North, Okra, the pod of the Hibiscus nsculenius. The term is some- 
times heard in New England. 

2. In the Suuthem States, a soup in which this plant enters largely 
as an ingredient. 

Ck>ndola. A flat^bottomed boat or scow formerly used in New Eng* 
lan<i. — Pickering. 

Ill Pennsylvania and Marj'land, this word is spelled as well as 
pronounced gundalo or gundelow. A friend informs me he has also 
heard it in Haasachnsetts. Comp. Cupalo. 

262 GON 

Oone Case. When a man is used up, it is said to be a gone case with 
him. ** The Bar-tender," in his poem, describes a drunkard, who 
entered the bar-room, — 

And sot himself down to the table 

With a terrible sorrowful face, 
And sot there a groanin* repeated, 

A calling himself a gone cote, 

Gk>ne Coon. ** He 's a gone coon^^* is a Western phrase, meaning 
that a man is past recovery, that his case is hopeless. 

Bill was never one minit unwatched, awake or asleep; he wasn*t allowed to 
speak, although he was fed and not abused, and he M pretty much made up his 
mind that he was a gone coon. — Spirit o/tke Time*, 

Gk>ne Qk>OBe. ** It's a gone goose with him,'* means that he is lost, 
is past recovery. The phrase is a vulgarism in New England. In 
New York, it is said, ** He 's a gone gander ^^^ i. e. a lost man; and in 
the West, ** He 's a gone coonV 

If a bear comes after you, Sam, you must be up and doin*, or it *b a gone goorn 
with you. — Sam Slick in England^ ch. 18. 

It may be the doctor can do sonietbing fur her, though she looks to me as 
though it was a gone goose with her. — Major Downing^ p. 87. 

I *ve generally noticed if a man begins to gape in church at seventhly and 
eighthly in the sermon, it's a gone goose with him before he gets through the 
^/^ tenthly ; from that up he 's as dead as a door nail. — Seba Smithy Yankee Ltfe. 

^j , The poor greenhorn who falls into the clutches of the sharpers upon arriving 

r#>>^ in the metropolis may regard himself as a gone gosling. — Nea York paper, 

r*yf\ Gk>nene8s. A peculiar sensation of weakness, or of great depression. 

Gk>ner. ** He 's a goner ^^^ means he is lost, is past recovery, is utterly 
demolished, **u8ed up;" synonymous with gone goose ^ gone coon^ 
&c. So, in the West, a bad debt is called a goner. A Western 
sportsman, in pursuit of a deer, exclaims; — 

Aha ! my fine boy ! you are our meat ! Put in your bluest licks ; for you are 
a goner now, for sartin ! — New York Spirit of the Times, 

"Yes, but she ain't dead; and what 's more, she '5 getting better too.'* 

"All right, you wait and see. She '9 a goner^ just &» dead sure as Muff 

Potter 's a goner. That 's what the niggers say, and they know all about these 

kind of things. — If ark T^iootn, Tom Sawyer^ p. 99. 

I 've done my best on Frank [to reform him], but he 's a goner if God don't 
put in a special hand. — Habberton^ The Barton Experiment^ p. 121. 

Gk>ne with. 1. For become of. ** What is gone with it or him ? " f or 
** What has become of it or him ? " — Sherwood'' s Georgia, 

Mr. Punch, in his *' Bit from the Mining Districts," thus uses the 
expression : — 



**Gien itto thcshiIcl." 
" Dang the ifalld ! Th«e ftboutd'it « gwn it to V ball-pap.*' 
2, Prospered; succeeded; been. 
Ooney or Qony. A greiit goose, a Btnpid fellow. New England, 

Provincial in Gloucestershire, England. 
" How the fftfnttf swallowed it all, didn't he / " said Mr. Slick, wirh great glee. 

Stick in Enfflan<I, ch. 21. 
Some on *ern weru fwls enough to believe the gonfy ; that 'a a fart. — Ibid, 
Formerly, they poked 9ap-he»4ed gontyt into parliament, to play Jummy ; or 

Into the army and navy, rbe chnivh, and the colonial office. But clever fellows 

they kept for the law, the "' Times*/' &c, — Nature ami Human Nature ^ p, 142. 

Oong'pQDOh. An instrument tised by condtictora and those who 
receive the fare in horse-railrotnl cam and omnibuses, by means of 
which a complete record is kept of the nimiber of pa.«?«engera who 
pny their fare; a bell-punch. See Reffisterinff Patich. 

The rorelty paid for a^e of f/ont^^uncltet jand the money used in maintaining 
•potters would be quite adet|uate to »tipply the means for rewarding the fidelity 
of tbe servant. — Pronticnce Pr($$. 

The line of horse-cars running from New York to Ilarlaem charges 
three different rate-i^ of fare, according to the di.stance travelled. In 
these cars, the conductors carry slips* of paj>er of various color.s, each 
for the different rate^ charged. In order to make the system per- 
fectly clear to passengers, Mark Twain has thus rendered it in 
▼eree;^ — 

Conductor, when yon take a fare^ 

Punch in the presence of %\ivi pasttnjartt 

A blue trip-^lip for An eight cvntii fare? 

A bu0 trip-slip fur a »ix cents fare; 

A pink trip-elip for a three cents fare: 

Punch in the presence of the patHnjart, 

Punch, brother!*, punch, punch with care^ 
Punch ia the preflience of the pataevja re, 

Oonufl. A stupid fellow* A student's modification of gonerj^ used in 
some of our colleges, according to Mr. 11 all. 

One day I heard a Senior call a fellow a yontu. " f;onta/' echoed I, *' what 
does tJiat mean'/" *' Oh/* paid he, ''you 're a Fre^^hmanf and don't under- 
stand. A Ktupid fellow, a iloU, a boot- jack, an ignorumuit, ia here called a gown. 
All Freshmen," he continued gravely^ ** are ffonutu.*' — Th€ Darimovtk^ Vol. IV, 

p. no. 

Goober-Giabbers. In Georgia and Alabamai backwoods people. 

Qoobers. Peanuts; groiind-peoR. See Peanufn, 

it yoD are a theatre-goer when in Chicago you may have developed a fondness 
for pcaoata. Beware of asking for them \m Texas] ander that name, tmlesi you 



want to proclftim youndlf • Ttnkte. Cat) boldlj for jpn^n^ or gmnnH^ft^at*. ~ 
Ttxm C(>r, of tht^ Chicago 7VldlM«, 

Good as 'Wheat. A phrase sometimess uaed instead of the more gen- 
eral one, ''grnxl iw guld/* H rnny f»ossibly have originated in the 
usAge of clAiraing rent, or parment of debts, in wheat. 

CnECK'MATKT>. — It i^ sistcd thst Ute fftther of ji lady in thU vidnity recently 
preMQted her wilh a chtfck — •* goad as trhmt '* — fttr S30,lX)C) in view of her tttJit- 
rimoniAr alJUncv. Truly, sucti a rArclr-^red ltf« H9 Hmt w<»uMn't tie tianl (o lead. 
W« wish soni*body would endeavor to " check " our caretr ia Ihat way. — N^w 
Bedford Standnrd] Aug., 1858* 

Goodies. Sweetmeats, cakes, &c* ; as^ a box of goodies. Provincial 
in Suffolk^ England. 

Arrera whilr, tko kiMin' an* fooHn* was all over, an' we pitched into tb« 
yrWrV^ ,' au cf evcf f saw sweetiiiru fly, it wa* th«u. — Hou^ Sttt and Me pd 

Goods. This word ia tued by WeJttetn shopkeepetii as a singtilar 
notin for a piece of goods; as, ** that goods,^* speaking of cloth or 
Goody. 1 . A well-disposed but small-minded person ; sometimes said 
of men* 
2. Interjection expressing gratification; as, " Oh^ goody J ^* 
8, A middle-aged woman in the service of a college, whose busi- 
ness it is to keep tidy the students' rooms. Probahly contracted 
from goodunfe, — Webster. 
To go off. To expire, 

** O Mr. Crane ! " said the Widow Bedott, ** f thnughl I ahould go o/ hist night 
when I tee that old critter ii«|uev£c up and hook on to you. TerHhle impudsat, 
— wam't ity " ^- Witlow BrdoH Paptr*^ p. 77* 

Gool for Goal is universal with New Knglivnd boys, the same as Loom 

is ttsed for Loam. 
To go one's Death on a thing is equivalent to ** lay one's life " on it* 
Goose. ** To be nound on the goose^^"* or *' all right on the goose,** hi a 
8i>tith-western phrase, meaning to be ortliodox on the slavery ques- 
tion, L e. pro-slavery. A corres|»ondent states that he had heard 
the expression first in the Eastern States, whence it travelled west^ 
ward. 1 atn not able to give its origin. 

The border rufflanB held a secret meetinfj in fjeavcnworth, and appointed thfin* 
•elvea s vigilance conimiUeo. All pcr^un* who could not aiuwer, ** Alt right rm 
the goo§e,** according to thfir definition of ri^ht, were«earche«l, kept nndnrguardf 
snd threatened with death. — \fm. Robim</iv*$ Kanms, p. 252 

A poetical writer in llie ** Providence Journal,*' June 18i 1857, in 
speaking of the claims of a candidate for the office of mayor, 

says: — 

To aeek for politkal tiawa h no u^e, 

Hia opponsoU wiil tiod be it " iotiiMl on lAe fp<«t^*' 



To goose Boots. To repair them by putting on a new frrnit half way 
up, and a new bottom ; elsewhere called " footing boota," Derived 
probably, for diatinction^s sake* from *' tofoi.^'' 

Ooose-Flah. See Dtml-Fiitk, 

Gopher. (Ft. gaufrtiur ; from ^rt^yr*? /honeycomb, ■wattle.) Applied 
to several npecied of burrowing animals. See Webster's Diction- 
ary. Goafs, a name given by miner:* to cavities from which ore 
ot ooal has been removed, in the lateral walls of giilliea, has the 
lame origin. See ** AthencTPum," Sept, 19, 1868, p. 380. 

1, In Georgia, a species of land turtle, borrow ing in tlie ground 
in the low csountry. It is able to walk with a heavy man on its back. 
Shertcooff'g Georfjta. 

2. A little animal found in the valleys of the MisBiaaippi and 
Misaouri Rivem. A species of mole, more thuu twice the size of 
the common field mole. It burrows in the prairies^ and there are 
immense tracts covered with the little hillocks made by the earth 
which these aaimaU have dug from their burrows. — Flint^s Geogr. 
c/Mm. Valley, 

The gopher often burrows in the artificial tumuli, to find n dry place for ita 
li««t ; antl roots of treea penetrate to itiuir lowest depths. — Lopftam** Anfiq* of 

Mr* Bryant^ in alluding to the same factt 9^&ynl-^ 
The ffopher minvft the jejound 
Where at*>od the i$.wanp|iij( dtien. All in gone? 
All fiAve the plks of i^arth that Imld their bones. 

Oosh. Used in the euphemistic form of oath, Bif Gosh ! 

Gospelixing Pedler. An itmerant or other preacher of the gospel. 
Au idler at a tavern, having vainly sought to lead a clergyman to 
avow his being such, said at last: ** But, anyliow, ain't you one of 
these goitprlizing pedknsf^* This actually occurred in 1842 at 
Greenwich, Mass, 

Gospel I*ot. A lot set apart in new townships for a church, on the 
same principle as a school lot, New York. 

Gotham. The city of New York, an appellation first given to it in 
♦* Salmagundi,'* a humorous work by J. K. Paulding and Washing- 
ton Irving, evidently from the singular wisdom attributed bo its 

Yt dandiei of QofJiam, I 've »een foola and faps in forty difTerent dtk«, but 
none to compare with you. — Df>*P*$ Stt^mtmi. 

Goth ami tes. The people of the city of New York \ the New Yorkers. 

I jut* tided to present you with some phases of outward life and maQnem, -* 
■uch ihiQgs aa would strike or tnterest a Blraoger in our beloved Gotham, aoil to 

256 GOT 

the places to which regular Ootkamitet —Amenean cockneys, lo to Bpeak—an 
wont to repair. — SHtches of American 5oae/y, FraMer'9 Magwdnt, 

To go the Big Figure. To do things on a large scale. 

Why, our senators go the big figure on fried oysters and wliislcey punch. — 
Burton^ Waggeries. 

To go the Whole Figure. To go to the fullest extent in the attain- 
ment of any object. 

Go the whole figure for religious liberty; it has no meanin* here, where all are 
free, but it *s a cant word and sounds well. — Sam Slick. 

** If you go the whole figure on temperance,** said Mrs. Mudlaw, in giving her 
receipt for pudding sauce, ** then some other flavorin* must be used instead of 
brandy or wine.** — Widow Bedott Papers, p. 877. 

Suppose we keep thanksgivin* to home this year, and invite all our whole grist 
of cousins and aunts and things, — go the whole figure and do the genteel thing. 
— McCUntockU Talen. 

To go the Whole Hog. A Western vulgarism, meaning to do a thing 
out and out. A softened form of the phrase is To go the entire 

The expression is supposed to have been suggested by Cowper's 
poem ** Of the Love of the World reproved," in which is discussed 
the eating of pork by the Turks. The question arose whether a 
portion might not be eaten, — 

But for one piece they thought it hard 
From the whole hog to be debarred. 

Of the congressional and State tickets we can only form a conjecture ; but the 
probability is that the Democrats have carried the whole, for they generally go 
the whole hog, — they never scratch or split differences. — New/paper. 

The phrase has l>een caught up by some late English writers: — 

The Tiger has leapt up heart and soul. 

It *s clear that he means to go the whole 

Hog, in his hungry efforts to seize 

The two defianceful Bengalese. — New Tale of a Tub, 

To go through. We say, Does this train ** go through to Portland ? " 
An Englishman would simply say ** (70 to Portland." Our expres- 
sion would indicate a tunnel to him. 

To go through the Mill. To acquire experience, and especially to 
meet with difficulties, losses, &c. The metaphor is derived from 
grain which has undergone the process of grinding. 

The now common phrase, ** To see the elephant," conveys the 
same meaning. 

Ok> to Oraesl Be off! Gret out! ** Stop your nonsense, — tell that 
to the marines." 



Oo-to-meetiag. ♦* Goto-meeting clothes/* one^a best clothes, auch 
as are worn on Sundays, when attending church. Common in Kew 
To go to Smash. To be utterly ruined^ or broken. 
If Minie finaiiGiAl Solomon , 
Before anolher i$et af sun, 
Don*! tell us wbAt is to be done 

To §ctiff^ up c**h, 
We aU perforce must cut and run, 
Or go to 0miu^. — JV. Y. Evtning Pott. 

To go to the Bad. To go to ruin, to destruction. 

How if Fred could be put at the head of [some enterpri«iiig busin^sa] tbey 
mif^ht save him from goitifj to the bad. — Tht Barton Eaptrimeni., p. 30. 

Oouge. A cheat, frauds robbery. 

E and H-- — will probably receive from Mr. PoIk*B adminijitmtion f tOO.CNK) 

more than re^pctitablit printers would have done the work for. There ia a cleaiii 
ptUin ffomgt of tbia anm ottt of tbe people's Ktrong box- — N, Y. Tribunt, T^ec. 10, 

If the people of Mr, I — — 's district see at to Indorse and jti^tify his cnormoui 
goufft, and bi^ more pro6igiite defence of it, they virtually make it Iheir own. 
Netc York HeraU. 

To gouge. 1. To chouse; to cheat. 

Very well, gentlemen! gouge Mr. Crosby oat of the seat, if you think it wbole- 
•ome to do it^^A". Y. Tribnnt, Nov\ 26, 1845. 

2. ** Gffuging is performed by twiating the forefinger in a lock of 
hftir, near the temple, and turning the eye out of the socket with 
the thiinil>riail, which ia sufFered to grow long for that puipose.** 
Lambert's Travels, Vol. IL p. 300. 

This practice is only known by hearsay at the Korth and East, 
and appears to have existed at no time except among the lower 
class of people in the interior of some of the Southeni States. An 
instance has not lieen heard of for years. Grose has the word ia 
his Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue^ and defines It as ** a cruel 
custom, practised by the Bostonians in America**! 

Major Beatty^ Paymaster in the Western army, in his Diary 
1786-1787, til us speaks of the custom as witnessed by him in 

Saw the barbarous cxistom of gouging, practitped b*stween two of the lower clasa 
of people here, their unvaried way of fi^bting. When two men quarrel^ they 
SCiTer have an idea of sitrikiing, but s^hvt each other and twist each other's 
thambe or 6ngQn into the eye, and push It out of the socket till it falb on thei 
cheek. — Mag, of Am. ffUtoiy, N. Y., Vol. L p- iU. 

Mr. Weld found this custom prevailing in Virginia in 1796. In 
speaking of his visit to Richmond, he says: — 


Wh<?iii?ver these people come to blow*, tb^y fight like wild beast*, bitinf^i ktrk- 
ing, and eodeavoriiiji[ fo tear out CAch other's eyes with their nail r. It is by nft 
nueftHH uiicomnmn to meet widi thoT^e who Have lont an eytf in ooinbat, and there 
are men who pride them*elvt^ft npon the dexterity with which tticy can »coop one 
out. This they calli ^uqintf. — TntveU in Xarth America^ p. 143. 
" Gmifjt him. B— t ! dam ye, gow^ him; 
Gt^uiffr him while he *n «>n the nhore ! ** 
And his thumbs wcr« wtraiiihtway buried 
Where no thuriiibs had pierced before* 

Bon GnuUttr^ BftUads, 

A man who was payiu^j hia addresses to a Western belle lotmd 
one day another suitor, of whom h« thutj speaks i — 

I got i aide squint into one of his ixTcketn^ *"'! »ftw J* ^^ ftill of eyes that had 
been tpufftd from the people of my acquflfntaiice. t knew my jig was up^ for 
such ft feller could out-court me, aivd I thought the gall brought me on purpose 
to have a fight* ^ Traits o/ AmcrienH Iluntt^r^ Vol. I. 

Tq go tinder. To perish* Adler, in hia German Dictionary, defi.nea 
unterffehen to perish, fallj go to min. Common atiiotig the residents 
of the prairies. 

Thar was old Sam OwinR^ — him as |;ot nibbed out by the Spaniards at Sacra- 
oiento or l^hihuahua^ thn hoHs doefio't know which, but he went umier any bow. 
Jtmitm. Uff^ in the Far We*t, p. 14. 

Being entirely naked, there was no sign left by dnpping ganw-nts to betray 
him; beside^v the blood upon the w^ater bad proved his friend. On seein,:,' that 
the hunters were under the full belief that he had *^ ffone under^" and therefore 
took but little pains to search further* — Coptain J/aync Rcid, OMftmla^ p. 1&2. 

To go Up. To be used up» worn out; applied to things as well as to 

To go up tJie Bpont To mount the gallows; to be hung; to die. 

We give surh creatures timely and due notice to hnve n painted l>o3t [coffin] 
prepared, if they e%'er intend to apply »uch insultinf^ epithets to us, tor if they do 
they *^icill tfo up the tpout^'' an surely aa there is virtue in jjowder. — PoifU 
Pleatant Ettpfttr, Fa., June, 1862, 

C3x>vevnmeiitaL Rtslating to government* A modern word, some- 
times used, and yet censured, l)oth in England and America, and 
characterized by the ** Eclectic Review** as an ** execrable bar- 
barism.'* — Worcester. 

G-rab'Box. A box u.sed at ladies' fairi, filled with trifles* For the 
privilege of inserting the hiind and making a grab^ a charge is made. 
Whatever is taken is the property of the ** grabber.'* 

Young woman wanted me to inx'est in the ** ^mi-5oac; " gave half a doliar, and 
fished in; got^ in three times trying, a tin whistle, half a stick of candy, and a 
peanut done up in tissue-paper. — Dmsticks^ p. 135. 

Gkab Game* A mode of swindling, or rather stealing, practised by 
gh&rpers in our large cities. Beta are mad« ia wMch m>nii4flPihle 



sums of moDey are iiivolyed, when a dispute is purposely planned, 
iD the midst of which one of the confederates seizes or *' grabs ** 
the money at stake and runs off. This t<^rm is also iL^^ed in a more 
general sense to signify stealiugi and making ofi with the liooty, a« 
in the following example; — 

** The fact i»." replied Uiy\\ " this country in iietijng rather too hot fop me» and 
I *11 bear you company 1 What d' ye »ay to that j* '* 

**Jtiit ai you like," re*pon<kd hu two couip&nion«; **that w^ providtd you 
won*t attempt th^ ffrab gnme on ua.*' ~—8ctne$ in the Eacktf Mountnim^ p. 283* 

Gkace of God. This remarkable expression for a writ, I find used in 
a letter written at Philadelphia, in I77*i, addressed to William 
Ellery, a signer of the Declaration of Independence: — 

Ray Sands Is truly lotig-winded -, aod^ if joggini;; of him will not do after tiying 
him again, thou must put the " Gmce of Gttd " upon his back, which I would 
ehaae to avoid, if he would pay without. 

OraolotiA. "Gracious sakesP^ ** My gracioual" ** Gracious sakea 
aiiTel " are common expressions* 

Chrade. (French.) L A degree or rank in order or dignity, civil, 
military^ or ecclesiastical* 

2, A step or degree in any ascending aeries; aa, ** crimes of every 

This word is of comparatively modem use. It is not in tha 
English dictionaries previous to Todd*s edition of Johnson in 1818. 
Mr, Todd calls it ** a word brought forward in some modern pam- 
phlets," and aays, ** It will hardly be adopted.'* Mr. Richardgon 
says the word ** has crept into frequent use." Mr. Knowles^ iu the 
ninth edition of his dictionary, introduces the word as once belong- 
ing to tlie language, without comment. The ** British Critic " and 
other reviews have critici.^ed the word as an unauthotized Ameri- 
canism; but, as we have seen, it has l>een adopted at last by the 
Boglish themselves. 

Ov«r grammaf'fchools, the clergy possesacd an authority fully equal to that 
I they had la the uaiversitieB. Tbey also appoiuted and removed, at their 
pleaaiire, teachcm of every gradt^ &c. — Bttcklcy Hiitvry of CiniuxiHon m 
" TngUmd^ Vol II. eh, vi. 

To talent N of the highest grade he [Hamilton] united a patient indtiRtry Bot 
atwBVA the companion of geniui* — J/arMoW** Lift cf WathingUm, Vol. V. 
p. m. 

U. The amoimt of inclination on a road* In England gradiant. 

To grade. To reduce to a certain degree of ascent or descent, aa a 
road or way, — Weh^ter, 




To graft. 1. To ** graft boots '' is to repair them by adding nefWrnUm^ 
and surrotinding the feet with new leather* So called in 
cot. Elsewhere called ** foxing boots,** 
2. To pick pMKikets, A alang term* 

Scotrb Moll h making out goodffrajting in llie 8th Areaue ears.- 
ptMce Gmttit, 

Graham Bread. Braad made of nnbolted wheat. It is easier to digest 
thmi common wheaten bread, and is, in conaequence, much oaed hj 
invalids, ^ 

Orahamites. People who follow the iij«tem of Graham in their H 

A gUttcc At bis round, ru^dy face would shame a Grahamite or teetotaller out > 
of his abstineDce principlea. — Pickings from the Picayune^ p, 130. ^H 

Oraliam Bystem. A system of dietetics recommended by SylveAterS 
Graham, a lecturer of some celebrity on temperance and dietetics, 
which eichidea the use of all animal food and stimulating drinkSf 
including tea, coffee, &c. 

Grain. L A particle; a bit; a little. Ex.: ** I don't care a grain ;**^M 
** Push the candle a grain further from you*" ^| 

2. The universal name, in the United States, for what is called 
e<fm in England; tJiat is, wheat, rye, oats, barley, Sec, See Br^ad* ^ 
Stuff. f 

Grama Orasa. (Span, grama. Chondrofium.) Several Bpeciea of this 
grass are found on our Western borders, where it is esteemed excel- 
lent food for cattle. 

The rtock-raiter who has fed hia cattle npon gramn during the winter fliidt 
them in quite aa good condition in the »pring na does tbe Eaatem fanner hill 
■tall-fed AnimaU. — Cozztru** MarveUow Countf^, p. 224. 

Grandaoioua. Magniiicent. A factitious HXird, 
Grandiferoua. Magnificent, extensive. A fitctitious word. 

l_ e^l^l^/t Granito State. The State of Xew Hampshire, so called from tha^ 

abundance of granite found in it. 
Grannyfiad. Having the character of a granny. 

That querulous and grannlHed manner f^cultar to oM people who hav« < 
lived their uiiefLilneAit. — The Cotuiitution^ \fitldU(oic»,C*mn.^ May 7, 1S$2. 

To grant, for to vouchsafe, is used iu prayer; as, *' Grant to lit?ar m 

Grape-Fruit. A variety of Ciirtts racemasui. Barbadoea. 
Grape Vine* See Blue-Gr'asa, 
Grass. A vulgar contraction of sparrow-groM^ i. e. asparagus. Fur> 

thor than this the force of corruption can hardly go. 




Orasset. See ChewinL 

Graaa-'Widow. A wife who has been separated from her husband j 
called also a "widow hewltched.** In England » the t^rm ffrass- 
widow sij^^oifies an unmarried woman who has had a child. 

** California wid»ivv ** is an annlotfniis tprm, wbleh csime into ns© 
during the rush to California, 1850 to I860, when the nt^w-found 
treaeurea of th^t eountrj^ separated «o many busbandsi from their 
wives. During the late war such were termed war-widows. 

Orasa-Wido^whood. " Her life proj^rly be devoted to grass-mdoro' 
hmd,*^ — Congregationalht^ Jan. 6, 1870. 

OraTe-Tard. Mrs. Trollope italicizes this word as novel to her 
English ears, accustomed to ^^ ehurch-^ard.*^ 

Qrairy . Used in New England instead of juice ; as, the grav^ of an 
apple-pie, Oft«n reversed, as juice for dish gravy. 

Gray Deal, the common pronunciation for great dmL 

Orease-Wood. {Oblone cancMcens.). The chamizo of the MexicanB. 
{SarcobatiLi vermictdaris,) A scraggy, stunted shrub, very abun- 
dant in the Up|:>er Missouri and Yelk»wstc>ne Valleys, is ealled Grease- 
Wood by the traders. — Hai/den^ Missouri Vallet/, p. 202. 

The soil [near the Sftit Lake] was tterjle, acrid, full of alkali, and refused to 
produce any thing but the dreary sage and t/rtast-tccuxf ; but MomiDt) mctuttiy 
flooded it with artilicial raias, , . . OJid it now produces fine wheat. — McCtur^^ 
Rocky Mountnim, p. M7. 

To sreaae the WTieela is a metaphorical expression used in the West 
V to sig^nify paying occasionally a little mouey to your creditor, 

grocer, &c. 
Oreaaer, 1. A term vnlgarly applied to the Mexicans and other 

Spanish Americans. It first became common during the war with 


The Ajnericans call the Mexicans ffretuert^ which h ncarcely a complitnentary 
soubriquet; although the term ** ffrmMcr camp*^ ta applied to a Mexican en- 
compmont is truthfully suggestive of iihh and squalur. — Afurryitt^ Jftfuntaiiu 
and MolekiiU, p. 2^6. ' 

Tell the old coon then to quit that, and make them darned ffreattrM clear oqt 
of the lodge, nu4 pock f ome com and »huek« here for the animalt^, fur Ihey *re 
nigh give out.— ItujrUm^ Lift in the Far Wt$t^ p. 176. 

The ** Providence Press," Feb- 15, 1870, in its remarks ou the 
prtipijHed a<lmlssiou of New Mexico as a State, says : — 

The Terrltorj' coniaiiia lew than 100,000 inhabitants, and many of these are 
ffrtatern and Spani.<ih herdsmcD, about h» well fitted to organise and conduct a 
Stite govemiaent as the natives of Korthem Alaska* 




2. An assistant to the fireman of a steamboat; cue who oils 

3 . A produce of oil, Pean syh^aoia petroleum region , — Ph iL Prtu* 
Oreaae Spot. The slightest piy^le of a hamaii beiug. See imd^ 

Oreasj. We call this word grttof^ the English greezy. 
Great. Distinguished, excellent^ admirable. Thus, ^*a grtat Chrii 
tian ** means a pious man ; ** a great horse/* a horse of good qual 
ties and bottom \ ** a grtat plantation/' a fertile one. So, too» ** Ih 
is great at running;*' ** She is great on the piano." **A grti 
woman/* 2 Kings, iv. 8. 
Or eat Big. Very large; as, ** I 've got a great big watermelon, 
Often used by clnldren. 

Qreat Spirit. The term applied by the North American Indiat^ 
the Stipreme being. 

Bi|^ Mouth [the Iroquois chief] toM Denonvitlc, the GoTemor of CatittdA, 
he aiid his people wer« suhjet-ts mrilhor of the French nor of the Eiiglbh, timt the; 
held their country of tht Grtat Spirit ,* and that they h^d never be«n eOgftgeA! 
in w»r. — Porkman, Count Frtmttmic an€i Xtia FrnncCy p. 172. 

At a conference with a delegation of Indian chiefs, held at thi 
Executive Mansion, in Washington, Sept. 28, 1877, Spotted Tail, 
a Sioux, made a long sp«*»ch^ in which, addressing President Hayes, 
he said : — 

Your people m»k9 raids and drive away the game. The land we occupy was 
given UB by the Great Spirit^ who said we could live there, but the white people 
ore trying to drive us from the country to one where we con do nothing. Yoa 
live hepB, The Grt^it Spirit gave you the land. You tlay here with aU youf^ 
people. That 'a the way all nitione ought to live. — Telegram to Nfwqxiptrg. 

Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Iiilandt thus said to 
aaaoit, tlie chiuf of the Narragansetts, when buying laudj* from 

tribe : — 

Brother, I know that all these lands are thtne, ^-^ 
TheM rolling riven* and these waving trees, — 
From tb* Great Spirit came the gift divine; 
And who would trespass upon grants like these? 

Durftt^ Whatiih€a\ Canto iii. 3Ud. 
Greatle. A great while. Long Island. 

Greek. A sobriquet often applied to Irishmen, in jocular allttsion^ 
to their soi-ditsant MUeman origin. 

In some of our Atlantic cities, the men of foreign hlrth, especiftlly tho»e hi rtil*' 
gar style called G't^^Jb, con^iUute so nearly a mAJority that it b only tbeif 
^noroaoe that pnsveuta the saying of Mriro frrjm Ijclng ^Idlled* — 

» . . ItanaT ilamlnajiLtir In urbe^ 
At it ii, demagogues rule through them. — N, Y, Tribfimt^ July % 1858. 



-* in 

-Tii* I -iHif 



Greenback. Legal tender notes. The national paper-money cur- 
rency of the United States, first issued on the breaking out of the 
l&te civil war. The backs of note« m issued hy the gt^)veniment» 
and by the National banks, are printed in gi'een, mainly for the 
purpose of preventing alterations and counterfeits. The term green- 
hacks was given these bills by tlie Hon. 8. P. Chase, Secretary of 
the Treasurj^ who devised and successfully carried out the great 
financial plan which produced such favorable results to the conn- 
try. Mr. Chase told the writer that he claimed the honor of adding 
the term to our vocabulary. 

Th«a came the war with its conieqiiencefl. Lftrg« emiABiotii of ffn€nbaek qur- 
r«iicy tof^k the pUce of p?ld, and by Ita immeaee vnlmne stimulited production. 
— JUtdlttrif, Men and Mj^ttfriti r/ Wall Strtft, p. S, 

The ffreen&avics are poptitmr; the |>enple have had a freah ta«t6 of a paper cur- 
rencj that will pay dvltia and buy ^t>oda alike in New York and Nebraska* — 
If, r. Tribune, June U. 1862. 

The efforts made iu Congress to extend the issue of legal tenders, 
or grtenhacks^ rendered it necessary to convert the term into an adjec- 
tive. Thus we have these examples of such use : — 

Gold yeiterday touched 108 7-8, a point below any scoring of the gold market 
lor aevcral years. Let it gn down, dowm, down^ until the ffrtenlnidk promise of 
a dollar aball purchase one hundred cents of value in gold coin. — A". Y, Tt-ihune^ 
Oct., 1870. 

A direct tax and a lot of greenbatkit 

Nut backed by financial solidity, 
Render ii»ele»s, we 're told, copper^ silver, and gold, 
And redeem the exchequer's avidity. 

Sontf/mm Vanify Fair, 

Greenbaokers. The supportera of greenback or paper money; also 
called inflationists, as they are opposed to the resuini>lion of npecie 

Some steps are beinji^ taken to secune after the State election a union of (he 
f/reefdnvkert and the Pemocrats on a fuAjon electoral ticket, — N. York Tribuntf 
Oct,, 1870. 

The ** Afbany Timea '* h striving to prevent the return of any t/rrenhnck votera 
to the Deinijcralic fold. It says: '*Thc Tildcnitc§ forpet that they have no 
daim whatever ou a i ingle grttnhack vnfer. . . . W© don't see how any so- 
called grttnbftck advocate can vote for anybody except Mr. {li^inct for Freai^ 
dent. ** —N€te Yvrk paper . 

The Democratic prest of Ohio ii trying to »educe the Greenbncken hack to tli« 
Democratic fold, on the (fround that there it every thing that the wanderer after a 
Mfter currency can dettite In the Demoeratio fklatform. — jV. T. HrtaU^ Aug., 

Gteeniag. The Rhode I&land greening is a favorite apple. 

Oieen Mountain State. The State of Vertnont. 

264 GRI 

Griddles. Cakes baked on a griddle. Pennsylvania. 

OrifiBn, Qriffe. This word, like the French griffone, is constantly used 

f-U in Louisiana, both in conversation and in print, for a mulatto, par- 

' ticuiarly the woman ; probably in allusion to the fabulous griffin, 

half eagle, half lion. 

To grig. To ver, irritate. To grig means to pinch, in Somerset, 


That word "superiors " griyged me. Thinks I, "My boy, I '11 just take that 
expression, roll it up in a ball, and shy it back at you." — 8. SUck^ Humam 
Nature^ p. 83. 

Orist. A large number or quantity. 

There *8 an unaccountable grist of bees, I can tell you ; and, if you mean to 
charge upon sich enemies, you must look out for somebody besides Whiskey 
Centre for your vanguard. — Cooper, The Oak Openings, 

I went down to the Squire's to have a talk with his daughter. There was a 
whole grist of fellows there. — N. Y. Spirit of the Times, 

1 says, says T, " Hannah, s'posin* we keep thanksgiving to home this year,** 
says 1, "and invite all our hull grist o* cousins and aunts and things, — go the 
whole figure, and do the thing genteel.** — JfcCUntock's Tales, 

Qrit. Hard sandstone, employed for millstones, grindstones, pave- 
ment, &c. And hence the word is often vulgarly used to mean 
courage, spirit. See Clear Grit, 

Mr. Whipple*s subject was " Grit^'' ... of which the lecturer said there was 
defiance in the very sound. Grit was spirit and will thrust into heart and back- 
bone, so as to form part of the physical substance of man. — N. Y. TrUnmt^ 
Oct. 17, 1866. 

The command of a battalion was given to Mr. Jones, a pretty decided Whig 
in politics, and, like many other men of Zacchean stature, all grit and spirit. — 
N, Y, Com. Advertiser, June 24. 

Honor and fame from no condition rise. It*s the grit of a fellow that makes 
the man. — Crockett^ Tour, p. 44. 

If he hadn*t a had the clear ^rtV in him, and showed his teeth and claws, they *d 
a nullified him so you wouldn't see a grease spot of him no more. — Sam SUd in 
England, ch. 17. 

The Hunters grew into a class in New England. They were a breed by them- 
selves, a kind of cross between the Puritan and Indian, with all the gi-it of the 
one and lawless love of libertv of the other. — Elliott, New England History/, 
Vol. I. p. 459. 

I reckon the chaplain was the real grit for a parson, — always doin' as he *d be 
done by, and practisin* a dam'd sight more than he preached. — Traits of Amer- 
ican Humor, Vol. I. 

Oritting. Grating dry com into coarse meal, a process much resorted 
to by Nortliern soldiers in the late war. For this puriK)se, soldiers 
ordinarily use tin plates. One of these is placed on a smooth stump 
or a flat rail, and with his bayonet the soldier soon punches holes 



enough In to it to make a coarse g^rater. Rubbing the ear of com 
over this furniBhes the iDtlu^trious and j>eri><^'veriiig' a fine parcel of 
good, «w©et» coarse meal, which makes a good pudding, an excel- 
lent hoe cake, and a mo^l inviting corn dodger. 

Some UBe a piece of old dtcjve'pipe, others a sheet of tin made 
oonveXf and othei-s again au old tin pan. The result, however, to 
the diligent is the sjime, — gtx)dt fresh corii'meal. 

It Wis excepiliuglj amuRing to nUnd by ihe roftd^ide and watcli ttie divUion 
mAreb by. Men were ffriitintf on tl^e cAiN^Aona ; convulci^cints in tho nmbuluiMS 
w trt ffritiintjf ; the tendf^r-footed aud exhjiUBt«d iu the wtigi>ii!<i^ audi \h@ blacky 
ycUow^ and white iacvM in ih*i tjx-iart, — all, all were grilfinfj. And the moment 
** Halt ft ad rest '* was hc>ard, down Mt many and resumed *;ritfinff^ Some car* 
lied the ffritUr in rbetr haversncks, olliers had it plung to their belt*, and olhere 
took turn* in tKaring forward th« niiniature mill. — N, V. Paper^ Extrait frotn 
a StAditr*i LeiUr, 

Oritty. Courageous; spirited. 

My decided opinion is that there never wa« a ffriUjfer cmwd congregated on 
thMt itream: and »ueh dancin" and drinkin\ And catin* bsir i<Teaks and com 
dodgcrHf nn>d hu^^^in' the jl^I^^ don't happen but oncfi in a fdlow's Ufetime. — 
Madh, St/uiitUr Li/*, p. IW\. 

Oroan. To give a groan in disapprobation of. 

Yesterday they uiet, aa agreed upon, and, after Qvonning iho Ward Comnutteei 
went to the mayorV office, — N. K, Tribune^ I>ec- 19, 18S1. 

Ofooerj. A grocer^a shop* In the phiral, the commoditiea sold by 

In the South- west » a grocery is a bar-room, and the term gr&ceriei 
nuea&s liquors. The bar-keeper is often told to ** fetch on his 

The *^ffroeer^** —consisting of a whiskey barrel, idx tin ctip^, two green glau 
tninblerR, a lot of pipes and tobacco — wai in clo<<«e proximity to the inn 1 waa 
in; and there the qualitJen of a very recent extraction of the corn» an^l o( the fit- 
Deat of the candidates to receive the votes of the corned, wa» dihcuBHcd in the 
manner uaual in such time* and places, — N. Y. Spint o/ tht Times. 

Every other hou.*e in Santa Fif was a ffroctrtfj as they call a gtn and wbiakey 
•hop, coDtJnually dii«gorging reelings drunken men, and es-ery where flltb and dirt 
triumpbant. — Ruxtun^ Mexico and Rocky Afountains, p. 190. 

Oroggery. A place where spirituous liquors are sold and drank; a 
grog-shop. In the West, often called a Doggery or Dog-hole; and 
in New York, a Hum-hole; elsewhere, a Ruin-mill. 

GroDud Bridge* The well-known corduroy road of the South, laid on 
tlie bed of a creek or other body of water, to render itfordable; 
while the hollow bridge is one that is thrown ocer the water. 

Gfoond Cherry. (Pfii/xalin.) A wild fruit lately introduced into 
our gardens and markets. Sometimes called Winter Cherry. 

Oround'Hog. See WoodchucJt. 

GrouBd-Hog Day. Candlemas (Feb. 2) is sometimM io designated 
Id the Middle and Western States, from a popular belief that the 
appearance of the ground-hog on that day predicts a return of cold 
weatlier and a late spring. In European folk-lore, the bear is the 
CftDdlemas weather-prophet (See Notes and Queries^ June 2, 1855| 
p. 421.) 

TeKt<!rday waji ^^ ffrtmnd-hoff'i day*' in m&ny parts of the Uoited Htates^ snd 
CAndlemaji tiny in many other parta of tlie world. From tim* immemorial, it has 
bwQ a Lritieal day in the affairs of the weather. The character of th*^ ♦ecotid of 
February U Really of much more importance than whether the first of March 
ootnes In like a hon or a lamb^ The simplest form of the adage ia; — 

If Caiadlcmaa dftj b« hrtght and clear, 
There '11 he two winters In that year. 

In America, paying due deference to thy cT«flture*« imp<jrtanc*e in our nationat 
tnytbologyt it i* left to the pround-hog to decide the day, and m* the fate of the 
•eaaon. Uts h iuppotted to come out of hl^ hole on that day, and take a look at 
the world. If it i;f a brinpht day, he will *ie« his shadow on the gr«mtid,and^ takiiig 
fright at it, will run back iuto hh home and stay there. A fre«h attack of winter 
will set mj and he will be justitlcd in the slpps he has taken. If it i« cloudy, he 
will emit no shadow, take no fright, and gives us no further attack of winter. 
So far MB we recollect yesterday, it was a day far the tjrftund-hotf to majtttaiii Kb 
uaterrified poi»e and a#sare us of an early spring. — HnH/itrd CoutHint^ Feb. 9> 

Gkound-Nut. (Amchi$ h^pogfta.) The peanut. It buries its pods 
under gioutid aft«r floweriiigt to ripen its nuts. It is cultivated in 
the West Indies and Southern States. 

Ground -Peaa. The peanut, Virginia, 

Ground- Plum. {Aftrutjalu^ cary&carpus.) A plant growing on dry 
soil on the Missis8ippi River at the junction of the St. Peter*B, and 
westward and southward. The fruit, which is a pod, closely reaem- 
blei* a phttn, whence its name. 

Diound-Slulcing. Among gold-miners, the process of washing down 
banks of earth by throwing upon them a stream of water from a 
pipe or leathern ho«e. It is thus used as a substitute for shovelling, 
to remove heavy layers of e^rth from places where gold is supposed 
Io be deposited. 

During oar stay at Gold Hill, one of our purty bought an interest in a company 
of ffrcnnd-duiceri, and, on our departure, sold out hia ahare at aa advam^. — 
Barptr'i Mng,, Vol, XX. p. 612, 

Of ouud-Squirrel. A name sometimes erroneously given to the striped 

and spotted prairie squirrel {SptrmophUvs tredecimlineatui), Tbo 


Thert* are not«» of joy from th« h»n^-bird «nd wren, 

And the goMrp of sifrallowi thmugh »I1 Ihts fskj^' ; 
Tbe i/nmnd-^quimt u^Wy chirpit by hi» den, 
And the wilding-W hiiiiid iticrrily by. 

The Gtfulneu of Nature, W. C, Bryant, 
GrotindB. ** Tobacco grounds^^* ** low tjronnth^*^ ** com grountU^^^ are 
terms applied to lands in Vir^iiia. They never \\m the tenn 
** bottoms ** or ** bottom lands/* which they call ♦* jow frrouuffn.'" 
Gxoup-Mcetlag. Held for a few days continnottsly, or under charge 
of peraouF voluntarily associated, and Bcrvinfj ejich in rotation. 

About thirty conversion* inav^e resulted from |>rflyeriind efTurl within thcehMfth^ 
ikl«d by th« liiflueticc of "yrcn//wfiee<wiy#.*' — /2<7»*< of Confertttct, JteHyiftm 
Swmht, Barfforti. 

QroQty. Cross, ill-natured- Northern. 

Qrubby. See Toad-FUh, Gruhhif and Grumpy, Masflachusetts. 

Orunter. 1. (Oenus Po^onm*. Cuvier.) One of the popular names 
of the fish called by naturalists the Banded Drum. It is common 
to the Atlantic coast south of Npw York. Grnnts and Young 
Sheepskin are other names of the same fish. — Nut, HUt. of N, T. 
2. A hog; a pig, 

OmT. Grieved. *♦ Gtu^ herself nearly to death. ** — Emma Bardetit 
p. 18a 

Oaauo. (Quichua, huanu^ tbe dung of birds.) A compound of the 
excrement* of sea-birds and the remains of penguins and other 
water-fowls. According to Garcillasso de la Vega, it was exten- 
«iveiy used by the ancient Peiuvirtns to manure their lands, for 
which purpose it is now imported in large quantities into the Uni- 
ted States and Europe. 

The earliest mention of gtmno as a manure is foimd in Aco8ta*B 
Hittoria natural ^ vtoraf de ia.<t htdiax^ first printed in Sevilh^ in 
1590. In an Engliwh translation by E. G. (supposed to have Wen 
Edward Grimestone)^ publi^)lled in 1(104, is the following at p. ;ili : 

In some blAiidA m ph»re^ which arp joyning to the coast of Peru, wee set tbe 
fOppM of the nioiintaine« n\\ white, and to ai^ht you would take it for ^mtw, i»r 
Hot fame white land : but ihty an? henps of elmig of t^a fowie, whkh j;o oiiiuinu- 
sHy thither- . . , They fjo with boatr* to the^e i1and$i, ohpIv for tbe rhintr; for 
tbere u no other pro6t in them. And thin dunff i* m rommodiou* and pnifltabb'^ 
•sit makes the earth yeelde f^*jit alinunftance of fruite, Th**y call thi;* dunp 
^mtno^ whereof the valley hath taken tlie iiamf;, whirh the^'' €al1 Limii^^uiinA. in 
tlie valley* of Peru, where they us*e thin iiung, and it is the moj^t fertile cif all that 
oountrie. ... Ho as the^e btnl?i have not only tbe tle^b to nerve for meate, their 
iSngini^ for nervation, their featbtr* for omauient aod beataiCi, but alaoe ibuir 
duttg tfvts* to fatten the fcrouud. 
Otta^rdeea, stronf^Iy accented on the last syllable , is often heard in 
New England for guardian. 


Gttava. (W. Ind. ffuaf/aha^ ^uaivri.) Applied by the Spaniards » m-^ 
differently, to the fruit of two nearly allied species of Psidium^ — 
the P, potm/erum ajid P, pyriferum — Grefnwood^s Fruits of Ou6a 
iBQ$u Jour, NqL Hust.), VoL II. pp, 2a7» 238. 

Tliere is Another trtiii {In Cubii] which they cat! Owt^u^ Hke Filberds, mm 
biggMMB figgfes. — ffukiuyt^ Virtjiaia Richi^ Vultietl (IGOO), th. v. 

John Hardie, in speaking of the fruits of Bermuda, says: — 
Pctni^inAteBf (ir«iKii>erf, Papuwijf , Fi(;-lre6$ too, 
Whereof t Plem««iil kind of Driuk they brew. 

i>«4C< of La4i V(*yaff^ Ui Btrmudaa {1«71), p. lOf 

OubernatoriaL Pertaining to government or to a governor. — 

To guess. 1. To conjecture; to judge without any certain principles 
of judgment. 
2. To conjecture rightly, or upon some just reaaou* — Jokmon* 

Tf clothed wi» the, fresh for to devise; 
Her yellow hair wa* bruided in a trm» 
Behind her back, a yard long I ffuett, — Chaucer g IltromM^ 

There halh be no default, I prMe. — Gotter, Conf. jMOfUk (ed. Pauli), flij 
11$ comp. n. &9, MS; ill ISO, noted by Prof. Child. 

Incapable iind f hallow innoceitt»! 

Von cannnt ffutsa who caused your father's death. — Sftttknpeare* 

One may fpttsi by PIato*» writings that his meaning a* to the inferior deitiet 
wa^t that (bey who would have them miji^ht^ and they who would not might let 
thera Rlonc; but that himaelf had aright opinion concerning the tru« Uod» — 

We thuB see that the le^tiraate, English sense of this word is to 
conJechiTf! ; but with us, and especially in New England, it is con- 
stantly used in common conversation instead of to believe, to suppose, 
to thinks to imagine, to fancy. It is even used to make ait emphatic 
assertion; a«, *' Jem^ wouldn't you like a jnlep to cool you off this 
sultry morning? *' ^* I gutAs I would! ** From such example* as 
the words to fix and to guess^ it will be seen that> while on the one 
hand we have a passion for coining new and unn**cef*sary wortls and 
often in a manner oppc-^ed to the analogies of the langnuge, there is 
on the other hand a tendency to banish irotn common use a number 
of the most UNeful and classical English expreBsion.s, by forcing one 
word tf> do duty for a ha*^t of others of somewhat similar meaning. 
This latter practice is by far the more dangerous of the two; because, 
if not checked and guarded against in time, it will corrode the very 
texture and substance of the language, and rob posterity of the 
power of appreciating and enjoying those masterpieces of literature 



l)eqae&tl)ed to us by our forefathers^ which form the richest inheri- 
tanoe of all that speak the English tongue. 

But the most common vulgar use of the word h when there ia no 
guessing, and where the statement made is known and beyond a 
doubt. Thus a |3er»on in taking his departure from a company 
will take his hat and say, ** Well» I guevs I HI go/' when he knows 
he is going. Again, a lady in shopping, after making' her choice of 
an article, will nay, '^ I gnestit I 'II take thia.*' These expi"e,H»ions 
are equivalent to *' think/' in which sense there is English authority, 
both old and recent. 

Mr. Rifhard Grant White, in a note on the passage from King 
Kichard III. (Act III. Sc. 4), *'\Vell! as you^we.-r.-t/' has the fol- 
lowing remarks: — 

'* If there he two words for the um of witich, mure than any others, our Enp- 
liib eouiiiiB twil u?, ihey are * well* sls an interroi^aUvfe ^xclomfttirm, and * gitttm.* 
MiUcm usef both, aa Shake^pt^ar alpo frefiiie^iitly does, and exactly in the way in 
which they are u*ed in Anicrira; and b*«fo wo have them li'*th iti half a line. 
Like mo»t of those wonis and phnuiea which it phrases John lHuU to call Amen- 
canismii, they are English of the ptireiit and \>cnt, which have lived here whil<3 
they have died out in the mother country," — Shaktpenrc'§ iScAoiar, p. 343. 

(See remarks on the lise of the word Wett.) 

In fact, thia word has been used in England in ever^ s^nse, in 
which it is used by ua, which can be established from Locke. For 
example: — 

1. If we earn find out how far the undemtanding^ can extend its view, how 
far it ha.« faeultied to attain certainty, in what cases it can cnily jud^e and ^»rM, 
we may learn how to content ourselven with what in atraiualile by its in this 
atate. — Lwke^ Euatf on iht Mutnan Und^rsMnd\n<j^ Bttok I. Ch. iv. Bohn't ed» 
Vof. I p. im). 

2, Thb readiness of exteniion to inftke itxelf be taken notice of no eonstantly 
\ other ideas liaa been rhe Qcc&^ion, [ ymu, tliat i«ome have made the whole 

! of body to consist in that extension. — Ibhl., Book If. Vh. xiii. p. 25. 
S. This appearance of theirs in tmin^ though perhap-* il may he Bometimei 
fitter and sometimes flower, yct^ f gutn^ varies not much in a waking man,&c. 
Ihifi, Book n. Ch. xiv. Vol. I. p. 305. 
G'Oider. A guidon; a small flag. * 

One thouf^and pikes or ppeara, each marked with a miniature rebel fln|^^ a 
nmnberof ^mall flags for ^mdtr$, ammunition, »hot, ^.hell, and varioun other 
article*. — .V. Y, HtmU, March 17, im% Ltittr from NnshmlU. 

Gtilnea Com. (Holcus sorghum.) Egyptian millet, Durrah of the 

Arabs, a plant with a atalk of the aijie and appearance of maize. 

The grain grows in a single pendant bunch at the top, like the 

Guinea Grass. A species of grass cultivated in the We«t Indies, used 

as fodder for horaas. — Carmichaei^i West Indiei. 




Guinea Keet or simply Keet A name gfiTen in some loc&Iitiei to 

the guinea fowl, and probably deriTed from its cry, 
Qulch* A deep ni?ine, caused by the action of water. California. 

The word ^Ich, which u in general use here, m«y not be fmmiiiar to your euv; 
l^m^ it* found fomewhat express^ iu meuntngf with<jut further dednitioo. 
It denotes a monntain raviae, dlffmitg from ravines el»ewh«rr, a» ibe mouotalna 
of Calif uniia differ f mm all oCheim, more Meep, ahrupri, and inaccessible. The 
sound oC gutch i* tike that of a 9udd«n plunge ioto a deep hole, which i» just tbm 
eharacfer of the thing it*elf. It heard the Mime relation to a ra% ioe that a canon 
doe§ to a pan* or gorge. -^ Baynrd Tajflor^a Lttttrtfrom Cfiii/irrma, Sept., IBW. 

Gulch-Mimag. The same as placer-mining; the simplest method of 
taking gold from the earth. The gold-crapping»of rich leads in the 
mountain-cliffi are washed into the ravines or giilchea, where 
its existence is easily ascertained by the simplest implements; a 
spade, a pick, and a pan of sheet-iron being all that are required* 
Thfi pan is half-filled with earth, and b then shaken. The gold 
sinks to the bottom, while the looiie earth escapes with the water. 

The ffukh-minen work their claims verj- imperftetly. It la deemed a ealio 
cakulatiof] that they leave quite as much in the earth at they extract: and more 
irvstematic men with heavy capital follow, buy up the abandoned claims, and 
Bometimen concentrate a whole gukh in one company^ — McClmrt^ Roekji Mcnm^ 
tains, p. 346. 

0-ulfatates. The States bordering on the Gulf of Mexico; namdy, 

Florida^ Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. 
To gully. To wear a hollow channel in the earth. — IVehsier. This 
conversion of the noun into a verb is an Americimism. ** The roads 
are much gutlUdy^* is a common expression. 
Gully Plum. The fruit of the Sponftia lufen. So called in Barbadoe«. 
Gum. 1. I'he name of many Southern trees. The Sour Gum and 
Black Gum are species of Ntfsm. The Sweet Gum. oft^^n called 
simply Gum or Gum-tree, is Liquidamhar st^raci/fita. The treea oi 
this last species resemble the Hornbeam of the North. They grow 
to a large size, and, in many instances, decay at the heart, leaving a 
shell of some few inches in thick ne^s. Hence, they are frequently 
cut into convenient lengths, and, after due preparation, couvert^ 
into casks, beehives, &c. From this practice, beehives, though 
made of boards, have come to be called bee-gums, and any thing like 
eaaks or firkins for domestic use is called a gum. Southern. 
What dat? What dat di>* nigg«r*» eye§ 
Diiplore, wid miRihty b\^ f urprise, 

Upon de gum-ir«t itwingin' ? 
It am de pospum at his eaae, 
Bocked in dt* cradle ob de breeze, 



7. Tn<1ia-nihh6r. Hence the plural Gums is often applied to 
Indm-mbber vhom See Buhbers, 
S. Lrtrgv TesMis or bins made from a hollow gum-tree. 

Quoibo. See Gomho. 

Oum Game. A trick; a dodge. Opossums and raccoons, when pur- 
sued, will flj for refuge to the Sweet Gum tree, in preference to any 
other. This tree is very tall, slim, smooth, and void of branches 
except a tuft at the top, which w a place of security for any animal 
expert enough to reach it. As they are hunted in the night, they 
am, of course, beyond tiie reach of the huntpr's penetrating eye at 
tiie great height of the gum-tree. This is called ** commg the gum 
ffome ** over the hunter, 

Otittt-XjOff. Log of a gum-tree. Southern. 

To (tua a Saw. To punch out the t-eeth of a saw, by means oi a 
madilne called a <7umm<?r. The phrase alludes to the growth of the 
teeth from the gums. 

dummer. A machine for gumming saws. See To gum. 

Oumnio Limbo. {Bursea gummifera.} The largest of the Florida 
trees, alxyuuding in gum. 

Oimixnxf An exclamation, used in New England* 

'*^ Gummy!** retorted the womari. "He hsa been a talkin' nboat me, and a 
runnin* me down." — Margnrft, p. 1-^7. 

0iim-6ucking. A disgusting word, applied to the tendency of lovers, 
yofing ont^s especially, to carry their innocent endeannents to an 
excess that displeitses a third party. A friend informs me that he 
Ibist hffiard it at Princeton College, in 1854, and thinks it may be a 
Jersey wor<l, 

OumptiouB. One who has a good opinion of himself; a ** knowing 
one.*' **He *s a gumptioun fellow,'* t. e. he*8 smart, clever. See 

Oasinlng. The term used in the Northern States for the act of going 
nut with a gun, to shoot garnet At the South, the word hunting i» 

Tbe American* were, however, mostly mJirkwmeii, bnvinjf b«»en accustomed to 
gwtmng from their youth. ^ ^oimioA Adam$^ IJint. of New Entjhtui. 

Ofmnlois a Stock is to use every art to produce a '* break/ ^ when it 
b known that a certain house is heavily supplied, and would be 
unable to resist an attack. — M^dhcryy Men and Mif*t€rits t}/ Wall 

Omn-Stlck. A ramrod. Western. 



Garry. Among fishermen ^ and in commerce, the crude oil made fron 
the livers of cod and other fish, — or» rather, the livers themselve.^, I 
in a state of de<:ompositton^ with the oil that has been tried out froni| 
them by the sun'^i heat. It is used by tanners, and for varion 

The Ushe^mian dips a bucket of fresh water from the spring, antl, wnshing the' 
fffttrif from hb handm and face, HtJirts for hom«. -^ Peltr Gidt^ tht Fuhrrman. 

Oufth. A great abundance. A Texan would say, ** We have got aJ 

tjush of peaches in our neck of the wooda*** 
Gutter-Soipee. A Wall Street term for brokers who do battin(»»l 

chiefly on the sidewalk or in the strett, and who are not meraberaj 

of the Stock Exchange, They are also known as Cvrb-stone BrohentA 

which see. 

A recent ordiiiancc by the Board of AMennen makes ffuUer-mipinff a m\'^ 
mejtiior, and charg^A are to be made against the captains of preciuctA where th«1 
oHeQce WM committed for neglect of duty* — A\ F, ffernU, 


Habitan. (French.) A terra applied to what, in English, is calle 
yeoman; L «,, a small country proprietor. Canada and Lonisiana. 

My coacbmait wa« a hnhitan^ and I had a fine opportanily of studying the c<m- J 
flicting imits of character which djdtinguisb the tucq. — Lanrnan'* Tour to tke] 

At Lake Mfgnatlc, General Arnold laetan emUaary whom he bad ^ent in advance 1 
to atcertaiu the feeling of the habitnni^ or French yeomanry, — Irvinff'i IJft q/* 1 
Wathinf/trm, Vol. 11. p. 96. 

Haokbeny. (Celtis occitientaUs.) A small or middle-sized tree, with 
sweet and edible fniita as large as bird-cherries, and which makes 
good firewood, it is alflo called Sugar Berry, 

Hackee. A name given, in some of the Eastern States, to the Chip- 

Hackmatack. The American larch, or Tamarack (Lnriz AmetieanaX I 
This tree abounds in the Xorth-eastern States and British America. 
It ia 11 hard, strong, and durable wood, is frequently used in ship- 
building, while the hoases of the settlers are almost entirely con- 
structed of it. The name is probably of fndian origin. 

Had hava. This astonishing combination of auxiliaries is often tised ] 
by speakers and writers who should know better, 
ffad we hnv« known tbii. — Noit^ on Hamilton* § Duel. 

Hadn't oughter, i\ e. had not ought to, for ** ought not to." A oom- 
inon vulgarism in Kew England* See Ought, 



Indnlghig »o in thnitgbts nf tleiith nod! ^Tatif^hter, 
Of course^ my friend, yon know yoii hmln't orltr. 

Ltlarui^ MtUttr Karl's Skctch'B'iok, p. 2^, 
If Anybody thmks they arc hftppit^r and freer from care witlioat Win* murriedf 
ooWly compel* *cm to be miirrif^d; but if they Arc, they ht^dn't ouykt to want to 
be iDArrit'd And ^iu^le aL Ihe ^muB tiuie^ tt 'a onrtiAftonablo. — Selrif B^?l>&tt^ p. IBS. 

To liail from. A phm»e probably originating with seamen or boat- 
jneii, and mt^aning to come from, to belmig to; aa^ ** He hails from 
Kentucky^ " i. e.^ he is a native of Kentucky i or lives in Kentucky. 

Hake. Id New England and along the Atlantic coa^t, the nama 
applied to the Phycis Americanus, or ** Codling" (Mitchell). In 
MassachuBetts, the fishermen call ihU Rpepies " Old English Hake,*' 
or, as it is generally pronounced, ** Hawk." The European Hake 
(^Merhiciut vulgaris^ Fletiir) is known to fishermen in New England 
as the Whiiing, 

Half-baked. A term applied to a silly or unsophisticated person. 

Half'Cock, **To go off lit half^coek'*^ is a metiiphorical expression 

borrowed from the language of sportsmen » and is apj»lied to a i>er- 

m\ who attempts a thing in a hurry without due preparation, and 

Dii^equently failfl. 

Mr. ClAyton of Georgia i» a fine sjteAkeT ; he » Alwayt ready, atid never goes 

crff haif-eork- — CrockcH, Tour dfn^^n Eftst. 

Half-faced Camp. A shelter of the frontiersmen of the South of the 
last generation, and {sertiaps of the present. They are sometimes 
open on the south side, whence the name, 

YoamA}^ talk about your reunions, your Noirt-es, and all tliat the world tails 
•octal relincment; but for truc-hf'urt«d benevolence, void of parade, commend me 
to a huutiujyj-party in a hnlf-fuctd camp, — Tht American* at Iftrme, VoL I. p. 96. 

Half-saved. Half-witted. Provincial in Hereford.shire, England, 

and in New England. 
Half- Widow. A w^oman who haa a shiftleas huaband. New Eng- 
land and New York. 
Hammock. (Carib amaca^ Sp. Jamaca, pron. hojnjndca.) 1. A 
swinging-bed. This word, now in such general use, especially 
among seamen » and the etymology of which has been so much dis- 
puted, is undoubtedly of Indian orighi. 

Cotton frjr the making of kaiinacas, which are Indian beds. — HnUi^h^ Dhc. of 
Guiiifui, itm. 

Tl»e Brazilians call their beds hamacm; they ara a aheet laced at both ends, 
tud f o tbey»it rocking themselves in them. — ^i> J?, fffiwkint^ Voff, to South 

2. ** A piece of ground thickly wooded, whether a prairie or a 
hiUt and diatinguiahed from the open oak and hickory land, or the 


immense forests of thinly Bcattered pines^ which with few excep- 
tions cover the whole face of the country. The word has be^-u ©on- 
founded ^ith hitmmoclf, used by marine* U> de.*iigTiate the kitotb, or 
small elevations, along the coast/* — North American /J^r., April, 
1828, p. 486. See Hummock, 

AJthou^ the krg«»i portion of ihe couqItt it covered with pino bsrreas, md 
cnuiih of it extremely poor, vet there is aIm) much upland^ inten'iil^ And hammotk 
land, of the mo«t excellent quality. . . . The border* of the waterconr««s, t» 
wel) Afl the A/iffifiiof:ii:«, are covered with thick wood* of hard timber, tangled with 
Innaraerable vinea.— WUUamt'i Vitie of E. Fhtida (1827), p, 6. 

The hnmmock !and, lO called from its appearing in tiift« among lofty piiieif « • • 
has a very ronuintic appearance. ^- Jtomam** fUrridn^ p. 17. 

H^nd. An adept or proficient in any thing; one who i^ fond of any 

It In a wonder to me how witne fnlk§ can content themsdveii dofn* nothin* ; I 
never conld. I mutt be doin* »omething, or I thontd gape znyeelf to death. I *m 
A great hand to gape : why, afore now I "ve gaped «o much on Sundays that my 
mouth wouldn't *tay shnl for a week after. — Tnnktt Hitf* Storie*. 

*'T«ke a pickle, Mr. Crane," said the Widow Bedott. **I'in gUd yon like 
pickIe-% — they 're a delightful beverage. Mel)»?« never eat* *eni, — she ftiu*t 
pickle ArtW."*— Widow B«sdott Papert, p. TL 

Hand 'Dog. A fire dog; an andiron. New England. 

Haud-Glaaaes. £ye-gla«8es; apectftcles* Fancy hand-glajutes are ad- 
vertised for sale in New York. 

Hand Running. Consecutively; as, ** He can hit the bull** eye at 
fifty paces ten times hand runninff," So too in the north of Eng- 

To handle. 1. To manage; to overcome an opponent, particularly 
in wrestling. Ex. : ** Yon can't handle him." 

2- To trouble; to distress ; as, ** How the disease handled him." 

Hand-Shake. The shaking of hands. •'The warm hand-shake, the 
cordial word." — i%e CongregationalUL 

Handsome. To d& the handsome thing is to be generona, particularly 

in returning a favor; to be very polite. 

When a fuller hat juKt given me a »nug travellin' job ona»ked, and dm4 
handm>tnt thing, it ain*t any great return to make to let him put in his oar 




' B^rthe is to fasten the blade to the handle; and so to hang an axe, 
A hoe, or other implement- Every workman hm\f^ liis scythe to 
fliiit himself; and cannot^ at once^ easily use that of another mower, 
i«rbich is differently hang. In the exchange of took or implements^ 
some time w required for ** getting the hang " of each, in the hands 
of ft new possessor. 

If ever you tniij*t have an iridifTerent teachpr ff»r your rliildren^ let it be after 
they bare got a fair Htart and have acquired the hant/ of the touJs iar themselves, 
Prime^ But. of Li>n^ Island^ p. 82. 

He had been in pursuit oF the Acicnue of money-making all hijt life^ but could 
never g^t the hany of it- — Ptckinffs/rom fht Picft^nne^ 

Saggt lost his money and bit hor«e, but then he badn't got the hang of the 
game. — Simtm Su^^t, p, 14. 

Well^ now, I can tell you that the sbenfFa are the ea^^iei^t men for you to get 
tb» hnnff of» aiitotig all the public officefs, — Grrene cm GatnUing. 

To bang. To stick fa.'^t, cf»me to a Btand-stilt; as^ the jury hnng^ and 
*'the man got a new trial." Probably liorrowed frctm tlie sports- 
man*3 term ^' to hang fire,'* said of a gun which does not go off at 

To hang aroundi^ To loiter al)ont. The English expression is to 
hang about. 

Every time I oome «p from Loui<iiana, T found Jew hftngin* rmmd thar ^aU 
lookin' awful sweet, and a fellow couldn't go near hor without niisin* bis dander. 
Rfibb, SqualUr Life. 

To hang out. To reside. ** He hangs out at Chicago." Western. 

I 'm gtitng to look out for that crowd myself; they need somebody tu pusaeh 
to them wherever he can catch them, and I know where they Imng tmL — The 
SarUm EsijmHmtnf, p, 99. 

To hang up one's Fiddla To desist; to give np. 

When a man lose^i his temper and ain't eool, he might a« well hang*^ hiiJIddU, 
Snm Slick. 

If a man at fi/rty-two i» not in a fair way to got his share of the world's spoils, 
he mtgrht aa well Hftnij up ku^fihlle^ and be content to dig his way tbrouj?h life 
as b^st he may, — Do*c** Strtmma^ p. 78, 

Bannahill and Black Harrtf. Popular names for the Black Sea Bass 
(Centropriftes nigri{'an<). One of the most savory" and delicate of 
fishes which appear in our markets from May to July. — D'-Kag^ 
Fhhes of New Yorl', p. 25. 

To happen in, To happen to call in ; to go or oome in accidentally, 

ffftppemng into the Suffolk jail on a buamess errand, we were somewhat slar* 
tied by hearing our name familiarly called from a prisoner** cell, &c* — Bo§t<m 
Bft, Ftb^ la-id. 
To happify. To make happy. This mongrel barbarism, according to 
^Ir, Pickering, is sometimes heard in oar pulpits. 


276 HAP— HAB 

Happy as a Clam is a common simile in New England, sometiines 
enlarged to ** happy as a clam at high-water." 

Inglorious friend ! most confident I am 

Thy life is one of very little ease; 

Albeit men mock thee with their similes, 
And prate of being happy at a clam. — Saxe, Sonnet to a Clam, 

The poor peasant who satisfies his hunger with submission and salt pork, peni- 
tence, and potatoes, is as sound as a live oak corporeally, and as happy at a dam 
at high-water. — Dow^t Sermont. 

Happifying. Making happy. 

I feel myself Providence has reposed in me a high and responsible trust, in 
guidin*, govemin*, advancin', and happifyin* this great nation. — Sam Slick, 
Wise Saictf p. 33. 

Harbor-Police. Policemen whose special duty is to prevent roguery 
in or near the shipping. New York. 

Hard Case. A worthless, dissipated fellow; a drunkard. 

Hard Coal. Anthracite coal, so called to distinguish it from bitumi- 
nous coal, which is called soft coal. 

Since the introduction of hard coal, the infernal regions have become greatly 
enlarged, so that they can now uncomfortably accommodate the whole human 
race, whither they all appear to be bound, for a certainty. — Dow^t Strmont, 
Vol. III. p. 112. 

Hardback. {Spircea tomentosa.) The popular name of a well-known 
and common plant in pastures and low grounds. It is celebrated 
for its astringent prop>erties. 

She made a nosegay of mountain-laurel leaves, red cedar with blueberries, and 
a bunch of the white hardhnck, a cream-like flower. — Margartt^ p 206. 

Hard Head. A fish of the herring species, the mefthaden ; so called 

in the State of Maine. See Menhaden. 
Hard Pan. In geology, the hard stratum of earth that lies below the 

soil, throu;jh which water cannot penetrate; and, figuratively, a firm 

and solid foundation ; the bottom. 

[Granite soils] when underlaid by a hard pan of clay, bog iron, or hard gravel, 
cemented together water-tight, they are capable of retaining soluble manures, 
and may be rendered fertile. — Jackson, Geology of Rhode Island, p. 126. 

The immense friction [caused by getting money] rubs away a vast deal of 
fribbling honestj', small prejudices, super-niceties of conscience. Hard pan is 
soon reached, and both Old World and New are full of hard-pan capitalists. — 
Medbery, Men and Mysteiiet of WaU Street, p. 212. 

The Chamber of Commerce denounces the Naval Office as a costly annoyance, 
which demonstrates a fiendish persistence of endeavor on the part of the mer- 
chants of the port to reduce Custom-house methods to a hard-pan business basis. 
N. Y. Tribune, June, ISH. 



Th^ people beprm to lak wbiit thejr tre to gmin bf vofiBg for the pirtiH&n ckd- 
dtftare*. PoUtica apR, like other thuigs, coming down to hard pan, — N. !'► J7er- 
ald, July 17, 1877. 

Hard'piiBhed. Hard preaaed, iti a diflBculty; and especially as a mer- 
caDtik phrase, hard pressed for moiiey, short of cmk* 

All said, at the end of aix month* we be(u;an to be futi*d-pushed. Our crwiit, 
however,, was BlilJ fair -^ PttiU o/ Pearl Strett^ p. 12-1. 

A Hard Row to hoe. A metaphor df^rived from hoeing corn, mean- 
ing a difficult matter or job to accomplish. 

Geotletoen, I never oppowd Andrew Jncksori for the sake ©f popularUy. ^ — ^ . 
knew it was a hard rtjup to hot ; but I sUxwi up to this niunk, considerini^ it a duty X- n^^^u/"! 
T owed to the coantrv that governed me. — CrocktU's Sptech^ Tour down East, ' 

Hard Ran. To be hard pre^spd; and especially to be in want of 
money. The same as harti -pushed. 

We knew the Tarn many party were hnrd run j bat we did not know it wai 
nduced to the nece^^siiy of atcaliriij the principli^s of Nativism. — iV. T. Ttihtit^ 
Kov. 1, 1845 

HardalieU Baptiflti. The name of a sect of Baptisb* in the Southern 
StateSf known as those of the straight-laced order; while those of 
liberal views are called ** Soft^sheO Baptists,^* 

Wc had a variety of pai^^en^rt in the utafff to Mnio<lpeTiIle. There wii* an 
old gentleman in black, a dandy gambkr, an old Hnrd^heU prtarher, ns they call 
them in Georipna^ with the btgi^st mouth I i-ver ficcd, a circtiA c!own, a cro»« old 
feiaid, A beautiful voting lady» &c. — -iV, I' Spirit of the Timu. 

In a debate in the House of Representatives, in 1857, Mr. Elliott » 
of Kentucky, in nominating the Key. John Morris for chaplain, 
said: — 

Mr. HorHe is a regular m^^mber of the FfarJuheU Baptist Cbun-Ii, a very pioua 
man, not of very eminent ability, but just the man to pray for eiach a crowd as 

A writer in the *^ Providence Jom'nal/' May 5, 1877, thus de- 
scribes the Rev. Joseph Cook : — 

He h a large man witFi florid ciountonance, brown hair, ... a large month, a 
full, hu^ky. explosive voice, used imperfi.'Ctly, often in a »ing-«ong tone, like a 
*^hnrtlthefl S'tptist'* preacher, yet powerful. 

Hardshell Democrata; also called ^' HardshellB/' and a^ain abbre» 
viated into **Hardfl.** The name of a political party, of which 
the foUowincr history \a given by the ** New York Tribune" of 
April 2, 18.>3 : — 

These tf*rras date from the efToils made to reunite the Cass and 
Van Buren democracy of 1848, who were known as Hunkers and 
Bambnrners. Some di^culty attended this reunion, which gave 



rise to the tise of tbe new political epithets. The difference between" 
a Harthhall and Fi Sfifiith^U ia this : one favors the eiectition of the 
Fugitive Slave Law and goes for a distribution of the offices among 
the Nationals, while the other is i\ loud stickler for Union and Har- 
mony. The Hard* embrace the Cms Hunkers nf 1848, of the 
National school of politics; while the Softs are composed of the 
remnants of the Vaa Buren and Adams party of 1848, and such 
Hunkers as Secretary Marcy and Governor Seymour. 

Hard Tack. Dry biscuit, in seamen's or soldiers* rations. The term 
is to be found in almoat every letter from the army during the late 

Hard up. In straits for want of mnney; short of funds; pressed: per- 
plexerL Not peculiar to the United States, A cones jv>n dent of the 
'*New York Post'^ desires to know the author of the following 

pathetic poem : — 

Hnril was he *ip ; 

And ill the hardnesj! of his upneaft 

Stole a hnm. 

Down on him nwoiipi^d, 

And, swoopjTip;, up him scooped^ 

The minions of the law. 

fiau'd Wood, A term applied to ww^ds of solid texture that soon 
decay, including frpiierally hccch, birch, maple, rush^ &c. Used by 
shipwrights and farmers in Maiue, in oppc^Kition to oftk and pine. 
In the South and West, it is opposed to ** light wood." 

Harm, (idj\ *^ He never said a harm word against you." Georgia. 

Harness-Cask. A conical cask iKinnd with iron hoops, from which 
salt mvfii is served out at sea. The cask is usually painted green 
an*l the hoops black: the resemblance of the latter to the black 
IpatlifTii straps of harness, or the way by which the cask is fastened 
to the deck, has prt>bribly i^iven rise to the name. 

Harael Stuff. The children's dictionaries of the last century gave 
this as a pronunciation of Hoit^ehM Stuffs to be avoided. The late 
E«l\vard Everett said his mother always used the term. 

Harvest Iiice. A s}iecies of Bidens whose seeds (fruit) adhere to the 
clothes. S*'e Begifar-TicL^, 

Hastj Pudding. Indian meal stirred into boiling wat«r until it 
becomes a thick batter or pudding, and eaten with milk» butter, and 
sugar or molasses. In I'ennsylYania and some other States it Is 
called mttsh ; in New York, .supfttitrn. Joel Harlow wrote a poem on 

thfi iiihifntii in whirli hf tilmn ftfy^imtfi for Wa VMrn- n 



Thy D&nte h Snst^ Puddinff! thus our lircs 
Were wont to pret't thee fuminiif from their tires; 
An'i wbil*f they jirjirued in t'ly just defence^ 
With logic clear ihcy tbu.^ explained the sense ; 
''^ Iq htittt the boiling cftldron o'er the blaze 
Beceivee and cooki< the ri'aiiy-powdureU maize; 
In hnMe *tia »erv*d; and tbeii in equal hnste^ 
With c*x>Ung milk, we make the sweet repftst.^^ 
Sucb in thy name, al^nificiint and cloar, 
A nome^ a sound to ev«n^ Y«Jike« dear. — Cant^ I, 

Father and I went do¥m to camp. 
Along wi* Captain Goodin, 

And there we s«* the meti and boyi, 
As thick as hasti^ pttddin.* — Song^ Yankte DoodU* 

Hasty puddings or ** hasty' has long been eaten in Eng- 
hkndt where it is made of milk and oatriieai, Mr, Greave, in his 
Spiritual Quixote » printed in Lpndon, in 177B, says: '* There is a 
certaiti farinaceoua composition » which, from its being frequently 
used by our ancestors as an extempore supplement io a scanty din- 
ner, lias obtained the appellation of a hasty puddingy, Tt ih com* 
posed of milk and fioiir Ijoiled together.'' We find it again 
mentioned in the '*Euro|>ean Magazine'* for March, 1790| in an 
'* Epitiiph,** seat as a hint to a water-drinker t- — 

Hcire lie«i Ned Rand, who on a siiddtun 

fwefl off ruast beff for hfiitf^ ptuldint/ ; 

Fonook old Stingo mild and «talG, 

And «vcry driiilt| for A darn's ale. 

Biiti Om- Northern women have almost discarded the word bonnet , lU^ t^^^k- k^ 
except in ^*^ xnu'ltonTiet,** and ui^e the term fmf instead. A like fate J^^t^^**^*^ 
has befallen the word gown, for which both they and their Southern ^f>^^^* - .^^^^. 
Slaters commonly use /rod- or t/rejjr. 

Hatchet. 1, A consideration or bribe received by the customs offi- 
cers in New York for fiermitting imported dutiable gotT>da to remain 
on the wharf, when they ought to go to the general storehoiLse, See 

2, ** To burtf the hatchet ** is to make peace. A phnise alluding 
to the Indian cei^mony of bmying the war-hatchet, or toujahawk, 
when making a jieace. See Toumhawk, 

They imoked the jtifna of peace together, and the colonel claimed the credit of 
htvin^, by hi^i diplomacy, persuaded the sachetn id bury th€ hatchet. — Irvingl*t 
WoMfiinf/ton, Vol. I. |>. 361. 

At a council of the Iroquois (16^), in reply to the speech of La 
Barre, the French commander-in-chief said : — 

I thank you for bnngintf hack the calumet of peace, , . . and t ij^ve yon joy 
tiiat y<iu have not dug up the hatdtat which has been so often buried with the 

280 HAT— HAZ 

blood of your countrymea. — Parlman, Cvunt Frontenao and New Framet, 
p. 108. 

Buried wa» the bloody hatchet^ 

Buried was the dreadful war-club ; 

Buried were all warlike weapons. 

And the war-cry was forgotten ; 

There was peace among all nations. 

Lontjfdlow^ Hiawatha^ XIII. 

So **to take up the hatchet** is to declare war; to commence 

Shingis, sachem of the Delawares, was one of the greatest warriors of his tribe, 
and ** tooib up thehatahet" at various times against the English. — Irving, Life 
of Washington, Vol. I. p. 78. 

Hate. A bit; as, " I don't care a hate,** " I didn't eat a hate.** " I 

didn't get a hate.** It is the Scotch haet, as in the phrase, ''fient 

a haet" i. e. the devil a bit. 
To have. To coop up; to find or put into a position that gives a 

strong hope of receiving, conquering, &c. 
Don Piatt, in a letter from the seat of war to the '* New York 

Tribune," of Dec. 30, 1861, says : — 

We hnd Floyd. We had his six thousand men from Georgia, Tennessee, &c., 
the flower of the rebel army. We hatl his artillery, his horses, his contrabands, 
his every thing. ... At the tr^-ing moment. General Benham foiled us, . . . and 
our fond dreams melted into thin air. 

Haw-haw. To laugh heartily. 

I sat down in front of the General, and we hatp-haw*dj I tell you, for more 
than half an hour. — Mnjur Doicning's Letters^ p. 189. 

He bur^t out a Iarfin\ and staggered over to the sophy, and laid down and 
h'jw-hawed like thunder. — Snm Slick^ 3d Ser., ch. 7. 

Hawk-Eye State. The State of Iowa. It is said to be so named after 

an Indian chief who was once a terror to voyageurs to its borders. 
Hawkins's 'Whetstone. Rum ; in derision of one Hawkins, a well- 
known temperance-lecturer. 
Hay Barrack. (Dutch, hnoi-herg, a hay-rick.) A straw-thatched 
roof, supported by four posts, capable of being raised or lowered at 
\a})h pleasure, under which hay is kept. A term peculiar to the State of 

^^ I . New York. 

* / »*'• To haze. 1. To riot, frolic. 

W. had been drinking, and was hazing about the street at night, acting some- 
what suspicion pIv or strangely [when the officer arrested him]. — N. Y. Com. 
Adv., Dec 2, 1848. 

I wish to all-tired smash I was to home, doin* chores about house, or htuin* 
round with Chanty Bunker and the rest o' the gals at a squantum. — Wise, 
Tale* for the Marines. 



2, To urge or diive, especially with work ; to harass, A seaman's 

Mack WM rery dull at leaminjir any tUmf^ conn<?ctod with ^ea^tifp^ »nd made a 
clumsy sailor^ The eaptajn disliked liiin, And eotitlivually h<t£cd him for his Bwk- 
wmrdneB^— Browm** W%aHn^ Crui»t^ p, 187. 

The sureet way to makt « mAti worthless imd tudifferent to the hiicc€}<>^ rif the 
TOTftge !!• to kazr him, mnd find fault with him when he does hia duty to the beat 
of his ability, — Ihid,, p. 90. 

Thii^ t*?rnj is used to express tlie treatment wliieli Fresbtoeii 
gometimes receive from the higher clasaesi and especiuOy froiri tha 

Freahrnen have ^ot quietly nettled dnwn to work, — Sopha have given up their 
hatinff,^ WilUamM Qunrttrltj, Vol II p. 285. 

We arc ^liwi to be able to rpud that the abi^urd and barbaTOus cuRtorn of himng^ 
whkh has long prevailed in the colkjj;:*, is, to a great degree, dbcontinued- — 
Harvard Magoaxnt^ Vol I. p. 41% 

He, Used almost exclusively by some wives in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut wiieu speiikiog of their ImabandSt instead of employing 
hi9 name, or his relation Ui themselves. 

Head'Cheeae. Scraps of the head and feet of swine cut up fine, and, 
after being boiled, pressed into the form of a cheese. Also called 
iouce. In Maryland^ it i^* always called ** hogshead cheese.** 

Header. (In carpentry.) A joist. New York, In England, a trim- 
mer or trimmer-beam. 

Head-Rights. Grants of land made by Texas to the bends of families, 
under the colonization laws, in order to promote emigration. 

S<^ much of the vacant land* of the republic shall be surveyed and m ctioniied, 
in traebt of six hundred and forty, miA thrfne^ hundred and twenty arrej* each, as 
will be sulHcient to wti'^fy nil cliiima for scrip sold, soldJera' claiiii?^ and head- 
righU. -^ Laws of Tejetu, Nov., 1828. 

Headfltall. A knitted worsted cap, covering all the head !>ut the 
face, worn by boys in winter. 

Heap. A great many; a crowd; a great deal; much. So m^ed at the 
South and West. A corresjxjndent of the "■' Commercial Advertiser ** 
thos n£>tices the variou.s ustm of tliis word at the South: ^^ Heap is a 
moat prolific word in the Carolinas and Georgia among the common 
people t and, with chihiri'n at leftst, in the beHt^regnlated families. 
* How did you like Mr, Smith ? ^ I ask. * Oh ! I liked him a htnp^^ 
wiJl l^ the answer, i f affirmative, in five cases out of six. It is spiony- 
mous with a majority, or a great many; as, * We should have plenty 
of peaches, but a heap of them were killed by the frost.' It is synony- 
mous even with very; aSf * I heard him preach a heap often; * * Oh I 

282 HEA— HEF 

I 'm lazy a heap.* " A friend in Boston informs me he has heard 
the word intensified into heapsight / It is also an English vulgarism, 
except in the adverbial sense. 

To go to church in New York in any kind of tolerable style costs a htnp a-year. 
I know very well the reason why a majority of you go to Beelzebub is because 
you can't a£ford to go to heaven at the present exorbitant prices. — I>ow*< 

I was not idle, for I had a heap of talk with the folks in the house. — Crockett, 
Tour, p. 87. 

Baltimore used to be called Mob-town; but they are a heap better now, and 
are more orderly than some of their neighbors. — Ibid., p. 13. 

Hearn, for heard. 

I beg leave to suggest to you that the Tinnecum people don't care much about 
the elements of music, of which they *ve heam tell these two hundred years. — 
Knickerbocker Mag., Vol. XVII. p. 37. 

Hear to. To permit; to receive favorably; to give consent. Familiar 
in some parts of Connecticut, &c. 

Mrs. Ladd told her there was not a word of truth in the story that Woodward 
had been endeavoring to court Hannah, but they [Mr. and Mrs. L.] would not 
hear to it. — Powers" i Hitt. of the Coot Country, p. 69. 

Hearty as a Buck. A hunter's phrase, now in very common use. 

Well, how d' ye do, any how ? 

So, 60, middlin*. I *m hearty at a buck, but can't jump jest so high. — Crockett, 
• Tour, p. 8. 

Heater Piece. A gore or triangular piece of land, so called, probably, 

from a flat-iron, the form of which it resembles. New England. 
To heave. To throw. *' I heaved a stone at him.*' 
Heavy. Large, &c. ** Altering a bond from a small to a heavy 

A heavy ice in the straits of the Western lakes yet. — Bottom Journal. 
There was a heavy failure in Wall Street yestenlay. — N. Y. papers. 

Heeler. A hanger-on, waiting, as Micawber would say, for some- 
thing to turn up; as a political appointment, or a goveniment 

In speaking of the appointment by Presidont Grant of Wirt Sykes 
as consul to Florence, the *' N. Y. Herald " says: — 

Wirt Sykes as a journalist would make as g{>od a consul as Wirt Sykcs the poli- 
tician, who has been a heeler about the capital, or Wirt Sykea the army bummer. 

^i . u' 4 - (T Heft. 1. Weight; ponderousness. A colloquial term common to some 
A^ /i^tf / P*''*^ of England and the Northern States. 

5/ *-w5'^/t*^* "Wal, now, just think on 't," said the [slave] trader; "just look at them 
limbs, — broad-chested, strong as a horse. Look at his head ; them high forrads 
always shows calculatin' niggers, that Ul do any thing. Now, a nigger of that ar 


krft and buiJd U considerable, even suppoBU]' lit'i ituptd.*' — Mr*. Siotpf^ UncU 
Tvm'i Cabin, p. 128. 

2. ^Ir. Pickering aays: ♦* This noun is also used crjlloquially in/'^^^/^-*' 
America to signify the greater part or liulk of any thing, in exprea- '' 
Biotis of thi5 kind: * A part of the crop was good, but the hfft of it 
was bad.' " 

We Mippo*e the plan of Mr. Benton Is to connect the Continental Railroad 
with the ljn« of communiratlon by the gr^at hk^»^ ihuii throwing' the hrflli of the 
P«ciHc tnwle across the Goniin«nL into thu port of New York. — A^ 1'. HefoM^ 
Feb. 5, 1819. 

My grief ! 'twas perfectly ttBtoninhin* to me that one mortnl body cotjid bnhl 
a* much ail the doctor put in. No wonder he*s sn fat: tht'v *«y he gt'tfl the hrJTt 
of hiff Ih'in' by contrivin* to get to one patient V hous« je«t aa dinner's ready, to 
Another at tea time, and so on. — /" J/. Which tr^ Account o/a Dmaition ParUj^ 
f> 202. 

Mr. Ma^wire carries on the ^ho^^raakiug hnf^itieidi quite exteosiTe, and be *fl to 
hia shup th« ftr/? of his time. — Witlow Btdutt Papci'», p. 100, 

To heft To try the weight of any thing by lifting it Local in Engf- 

laiid, and colloquial in the l*nited States* ^-Worcegter, Af^ry/^»4.*. 

I rtmeraber the great ho^ np in Dan wich, that: A e/iftfii!' nitrh twenty *core. — 1 ^.^^ i, fL *>^ 

Hefty.' IleavT..^^w-H<r.^.-i^l'l''^''-^^^H>7>-c.-*^^^ .^'^;}^^\ 

Held. Billiard players say, **I Md the ball/' instead of I holed it. ^^u^ ♦x^'«- 
8ee FounfL Uji§Ar* , 

Hell-Bender. (Menoponia AUeghanknsis,) 1. An animal allied to the 
Balatniuider. — Nat, Hist, New York, 

2. Often used as a qualitative noun. ** Jack has been on a per- 
fect hdl-hentUr of a spree.'* 

Hell -Diver. See Dipper, 

Hell Hound. An iron-ciad gunboat. 

**One of our hdl-koundM'* (as the rebel pridoners call ourgunboata).— -iV. F. 
BtniUL Feb. 25, iafi2. 

Hell's Mint An immense quantity. Tennessee. 

Hellyum or lldlion, ** He 'b a |>erfect heUynm at billiards. ** #^, J^ *j ^ 
Help. The coniinon name, in New England, ff»r eenants, and for 
tlie o|ierative8 in a cotton or woollen factory; a term long in iii*e, and 
evidently brought from England. 

It ts ordered that Jame& Feim shall havu twenty HhilJiDgii, to be din-ided among; 
tacb of hi? »er\'ant.^ and htfpi n* bftve 1t>een eln|^!(lyed about y attendance of 
y* court, &*.'. — AffiMavJittsctU CoUminl Met'oiHls^ 1(i45, Vol. II p. lilll. 

*' I hain't kt-pt no ^^al since Mehs^y was big enouj4;h to aid me/' «aid the Wiiiow 
Bedott. " I think At//>#more plajjfue Ihan profit.'* — Wiftow BcfltM Paprrjty p. 7U. 
I alwnv!^ want the kitehon ktfp to do thinga a» I want to hare tbem done^^ 
JVleiff Knglnn4 Taits. 

/^*v*. U^^. y;?f./. 

284 HEN— HIC 

Hen-Hawk. (Falco lineatus, ) The popular name of the Red-shouldered 
Hawk of naturalists. 

Herb. In America, universally pronounced erb ; whereas in England 
the h is often aspirated. Thus in the ** Quarterly Review '* for July, 
1857, occurs the following passage: ** The peasant gathered a herb 
which was considered a specific in the district where he was bom." 
An American would have written **an herb." 

Herring-Salmon. Congonus Artede of Le Sueur. So called, when 
taken, in Lake Erie, and at Lewiston. — Kirtland's Fishes of the 
Ohio J &c. 

Hessian. A hireling; a mercenary politician; a fighter for pay. De- 
rived from the traditional dislike toward the Hessian soldiers em- 
ployed by England against her American colonies in the war of the 
Revolution. During the late civil war, it was used at the South as a 
term of reproach towards the loyal United States citizens and sol- 
diers. ** The Hessians of the North," frequently said the ** Rich- 
mond Despatch." 

Hessian Fly. {Cecidomyia destructor.) An insect famous for its 
ravages on wheat. The jwpular name of it is owing to the belief 
that it was introduced into America by the Hessian troops in their 
straw from Germany, during the year 1776, at which time the 
British army, then in occupation of Staten Island, received large 
reinforcements of Hessians under General de Heister. This idea 
has been ridiculed by many Euro^w^an entomologists, who have 
asserted that the insect is strictly American. It api>ears, however, 
that its existence has long been known, probably for more than a 
century, in France, Germany, Switzerland, and some of the larger 
islands of the Mediterranean. — N. Y. Hind. Insects and Diseases 
Injurious to Wheat. 

Mr. Bryant, in speaking of the introduction of the ** Old World 
sparrow" into America, for the purpose of destroying insects and 

wonns, says: — 

And the army-worm and Hessian flyy 
And the dreadful canker-worm, Bhall die. 

Hickory. A name given to several si>ecies of Carya. It is a hand- 
some tree, with timber valuable for its hardness and toughness, 
and with edible nuts. Hence, a ^^ hickory Catholic," a ^^ hickory 
Quaker," for instance, is a flexible, yielding one. Western. It 
sometimes means tough, firm. Thus, Parson Brownlow wa.s called 
tlie hickory Unionist. General Andrew Jackson was known as ** Old 



Smith describee ei |>reparatioii of pounded walnut meats 
with woter, ♦* which they call Pawcohk-cora^ and keep it for their 
n&e." — //£s^ of Virf^inm (W2i), h. 2, p, 20. 

But Popler, Flum, Crab, Qake, and Apple tree, 
Yest, CJieiT}% ind tree called Puhtckery, 

J. Ftrmr^ in Rtjoemtil Viif/in!ri Sitk Worm (1653)* 
** Ptkickfty,'" niimed witli **Wallnut," &c., I'muii^ the tree* of Vtrgintiu — 
Shri^Uff^a True M elation of ViTginia. find Mf^r^hmi^ liJGy. 

It 18 curioua that ^'hickory ** seemA both in sound and sense to be 
pure Greek, viz., ^ ttapva (he eartfa)^ the walnut. The resemblance 
18, however, casual; since tlie name b in fiitt of American alKiiigi- 
nal derivation. 

Hickory Nut See Walnut. 

Hickory Shirt A shirt made of heavy twilled cotton with a narrow 
blue stripe, so called from its stren^h. These shirts are much 
worn by laljorers. 

Swtnrniii;;; prm tisefs of trade flaunt in silks, while honest virtue stAve§ off 
SiUrvAttoQ by making hickory ahtrts at eight cents a piece. — DottHchty p, 68. 

Hioksitefl. A sect of Quakers, so called from their leader's surname. 

To hifer. To loiter. U^ed in North Pennsylvania. 

Highbinder. A riotous fellow. See same word in Addenda, f j fi( 

Highbelia. See Lowhtlia. 

High Blackberry, Generally used in the United States, as the dis- 
tinctive name of the fruit of the Ruhun mtlosus. 

Higher hsLvr, A law higher, or above that of the Constitution ; the 
laws of Gf>d. This term wa^ first used by the Hon. William II- 
Seward, in a sj)eech in the United States Senate, in March, 1850, 
on "" Freedom in the New Territories," and has since been fre- 
quently heard in that l>ody and elsewhere. In this speech, the 
Senator said: — 

I know there are laws of various kindi, which rej^ulate the conduct of men. 
Thert are cpiiHtttnhons and stftluti*?, codes mcrcRiuik ami ciril; hut when we are 
legl»Iattnf( for Slates* trspec^ially whi-n we an? founding States, all tliewe laws mu^t 
he brcju^ht to the standard t'f the bw^^ of iJod. The (^ou!«titutiiJii retrulates our 
tleward«hip; the Conetitution dpvotfi^ the domain to unitm, to ju*itiee^ to defence, 
to wrlfar^, to llberti'. But there h a hitjhtr htw than *he C^optitution, which 
regiilatej our authority over the dunmin. — Spitehts^ YoL. I. pp 66, 74. 

Hlghfaluten. ITigh-flown language, bombsist. There can be little 
doubt of its derivation from '* hif^bfiighting'." 

Mr, Hot ten, in hi^j '* Dictionary' of Slang," says it is now heard 
in Liverpool and London. He derives it from the Dutch verhntenf 
a derivation wiiich we doubt. It originated in the Western States. 

iriG— HIT 

I wiw fft the Bnmbumrr** r^nvcntion m Ulica, and tlip fir*f p<»r»nn T !i*^r4 w$M 
a good-lmiking, fat^ rojiy-lookmgr mnn, whu ijjot up nnd gmunil imt whnt ire 
lenn «( the Wt^st a re^lar buitt founb-fjf-July — stftr'*pflnglcfl4>aiiti<?r — ttinc4- 
th at-tHH -men *9 -sou Is — Jefferson speech, mrtktn^ gvi^mrr* to null the hiffhfh^ 
luttns. ^ Speech f[f Lfdit Coomhtt^ in N. 1' ^Jt, St^pt. 2S>, 1«48» 

Ouc of the boy*, I reckon? All right on the goose, ch? No hiyhfaluUn airs 
here, you kn<>w, — GhulMone^ Englishman in Knnm*, p. 43. 

High-heeled Boots. A promlt haughty person is said to ** have on 
his high heeled-boots/^ 

High-heeled Shoes. To say of a womftn that she ♦* hns on her higk- 
hcekff sfiocx *' in to intimate thtit she iiet.s herself up as u j>erson of 
more consequence than others allow her to be ; or, iu other words, 
that she is *' stuck up." New England, 

High-Hole. See Clape and YellowHammer, 

High JiukB. A great frolic. *' To kick up high jinks " is to kick up 
a row : to have a roistering time* In the north of England, ** to 
jink *M8 to be very gay. — HcUUwdL To be on the high jinks ia to 
assume an undue superiority. — Hotten, S(ang Die. 

All along onr mute, we thafifed our pretty lover, and expected hu/h jinkM at 
Damai5cus» where his marriage wa* to be »o1em nixed. — T. G. A^qtUtmi^ Syrian 
StifLihinr, p, 20. 

Hlgh-etudded. Airy. Said of one who alfects great dignity. 
Hindoos. A narae given to the Know Nothing patty » in oonsequanoe 

of their candidate for the presidency, Daniel Ullman, having been 

charged with being a native of Calcutta, 

To hire. Often improperly applied to renting a house. In good 
English, a house is rente*f^ while a vehicle or workman is hired. 

Hired Man, A man-servant. Hired woman, a servant-girl. Many 
servants dislike to be called such, and think it more respectable to 
say ** help ^' or *' hired woman/* 

To hire his Time. A slave is said to **Atrf hU time*" who contracts 
with his mjkster to pay a stipulated price for his time, and during 
such time regulates his own conduct in respect ta labor to be f>er- 
fonned by him, or makes contracts as to such labor. 

Ill TZuAsia, A certain yearly payment called Obrock, equivalent lo a practice 
which prevails to a certain extent in ^cme of our Southern States, of allowing 
ulave^t iM hirr thtir ovn time, gom a grvat way io extiupiliih nil the difltinctioSi 
betwMin lerfs aud riavei.— JV. Y. Tribunt^ Aug. 20, 186a. 

HUt, for hoist. To lift. '' Hijft her up." 
Hitch. An entanglement, impediment. 

All the hitches in the caw of McNutty beinjjfgot ovcTt ^^^ gentlemen of the long 
robe act thomfelvea at work ia earnest. — ^^ Y. Com. Advi., 1846. 



This word 19 iiaed in the same sense iii England, l)tit is not an 
elegant word, even though ur^tnl by Lord Cke^tfrjiefti , wlio ^uyst — 

I am ewrlibly infomKrii tl^iat th<*rt' i» still ft con^^ideroble hit eh or hoHble in 
yn«r enunciation. 

Tire ** London Athenicum/' in its review of the Journal of the 
Persian Boundary Commission, Oct. 7, 1876, p, 457, thus speaks of 
tiie itnj^ediments met with. 

Then arose kitdt number two; , ♦ . hew hitch nnmber three »ro»e . . . Then 
ftroM hUck number five. 

To hltoh. It is a comtnon expression, when porHoiis do not agree', to 
say, '' They don't hitch ^^* or ** They don't hihk tog^<^ther»*^ 

I *ve been team in' on *t some for old Pendleton^ and hrtve come to driv^D a Bpetl 
for this old fellow, but I guess wc s^mifihUdt long. — J/ra. Clnvtr»^ Fared Hft, 
Vol. L p. 116. 

To hitch Horses. Same as the foregoing, and quite as commoii. 
** They don't hitch horsed,*' i. e. "they don't a^ee;** i. «?., '* they 
hav^e qiiarreHed/* , 

I nevf^r truckle t<> nmn, if he > as big a» all out-drKim. And after bfl poked 
his fiit in my face, one election, we never hitchtui ht'r»f$ ttii^tlier. — AfcClintotk^ 

An' *« we fin'lly made it up, conrhided to hitch ho»eM, 
An* here I ht 'n my oncrnicnt amnrg crvjitiim's bossefi, 

Lowetf, The Bitjlow Pnptm* 

Ttm have seen a gnat deal, and he baa read a great deal, and you are jest the 
hoy. I tf> hitch youF Aomtfji tof/ethtr, t know. — Sam SUck, Wise Stucg^ p. 64. 

Hither and Ton. This expression is often lu^efl in tlio country towns 
of New England for here itnd there. It is provincial in the north 
of England. It is never heard in our seaport towna. — Picierinff. 
A j>erson btirn in New Hampshire in 180D »nys hether and yen. 

Ho. A word used by team,sters to stop their t*?ams. It ha«« been used 
as a noun» for ntop, moderation, bounds.^ Webster . Ses Whon. 

Because, forwmth, *omc rj<ld poet or some Mich fantafllic fellowi^ mfike much on 
him, there 's no ho with him : the vile dandiprat will overlook ih.V' pniudejit of his 
jtrqiuainEnnre. — Linifwi^ Ol*i Phty, 

Mr. Malone says it is yet common in Ireland; as, ** There *s no ha 

in him," that is, he knows no boands. This erpressioa is common 

in the ITniterl States. 
Hoarse up ** He *8 got a bad cold, and is all hoarxed up^^* i. e. he is 

hi Hirsts 
Hobble-Bush. (Vihumum hrdanoides.) A straggling shnih, also 

o&lled TangIe*Legs and Wayfaring. 
To hobble. To hobble a horse is to tie its feet together, to hopple it 


288 HOB— HOG 

The horees were now hobbled ; that is to say, their fore legs were fettered with 
cords and leathern straps, so as to impede their movements and prevent their 
wandering from camp. — Irving' t Tour on the Prairies, 

Ho-Boy or Haut-Boy. A nightman. New York. 

The Thames, below London, is odorous with the sewerage matter it bean from 
that metropolis ; and there is scarce a stream flowing through a civilized comma- 
nity but is degraded to the occupation of a haut-boy^ by the adoption along the 
banks of itself and tributaries of more or less ingenious devices for dissolving and 
wasliing away rather than hoarding up and rendering useful the nitrogenized 
material which, if properly applied, will enable the earth to yield the most bounti- 
ful har\*ests. — Scientific American^ Aug. 8, 1857. 

Hookey-Stick. A stick used in playing hockey. 

I guess Aunt Libby never had a hockey-stick. — Fanny Fern. 

Hod-Carrier. A laborer that carries mortar and bricks in a hod to 

masons ; a hodman. 
Hoe-Cake. A cake of Indian meal, baked before the fire. In the 

interior parts of the country, where kitchen utensils do not abound, 

they are baked on a hoe ; hence the name. 

Some talk of hoe-cake, fair Virginia's pride ; 
Rich Johnny-cake this mouth has often tryed. 
Both please me well, their virtues much the same; 
Alike their fabric as allied their fame. 

/. Barlow, Hasty Pudding. 
As we *ve broken hoe-cake together, we cannot rake up the old ashes to make 
dust with. — SimmSy The Wigioam and Cabin, p. 10. 

They [the ancient Marylandcrs] were great horse-racers and cock-fighters, 
mighty wrestlers and jumpers, and enormous consumers of hoe-cake and bacon. 
W. Irving, Knickerbocker. 

Hoe-down. Another name for Break-down, which see. 

To hoe one's Row. To do one's share of a job; to attend to one's 

own business. 

In ole Virginny, whar I war bom, 

I eat hoe-cake and hoe de corn ; 

And Massa T^'ler, he not slow 

To show me how to hoe my row. — Negro Melodies. 

Hog-Age. The age between boyhood and manhood. Nantucket. 

Hog Backs. *' Ridges of upheaval, or * hog hacks, ^ as they are some- 
times called in the West, . . . occur to a greater or less extent all 
along the eastern flanks of the Rocky Mountains.'' — Dr. Bayden*8 
Report on the Geol. Survey of Wyoming Ter., &c. (1870), p. 162. 

Hog and Hominy. Pork and Indian corn, the usual fare of country 
people in the West. The term is used for the sake of the allitera- 
tion, even where the ground meal is much more common than the 



I can give yoii plenty to eat; for, beside* hotj und hominjf, yoa cjin hive bar 
(bear) ham and bur 6iau»agp», and a mattm^s of bar-skinn to »!* ip t>u. — Thorpt^ 
Bijf Bear o/Arktmmi. 

Tbera waa a raember in the House [of R^preAetitatives] from swrne back- 
woodftf benighted region in Ohio, by the name of SiiwyiT. Now, Mr. Sawyer, -^ 
the Honorable Mr. Sawyer, — having Hvf*d ^ill bl^ life lu a ptnm, backwoods 
itjie, on "^httg and Aomin^^/' or, for a iipecial luxury in the wititi^r, fin RaaKAgea 
And com^bread, found hi» ijitomach reb«rMiou!i a^hii^t the way» of Washington, 
■nd especially (he way of dining at supper-time. — Sar^entU^ Public Mtn find 
Etenti, Vol. 11. p. 287. 

Hog-Choke, In North C^roliua, tlie flounder is wo called. — HarperU 

May , March, 1857, p. 442. 
Hog-Fish. (Efheoiffoma caprodes. Rfifinef^que.) Convmon in all the 

We^t«rn rivers, and »o ** called almost everywhere/* say Kafinesque 

and Kirtland, — /?(j*fofi Jot/r. NfiL Hht., III. 846, 

Hog Guessing. A sport peculiar to Long Island. In the fall, a fat 
hog is selected to be ** guessed for/* The chances are put at a 
given price, as in a raffle ; and at the time appointed each holder of 
a chance ** guesses '* at the weight of the hog, which k then deter- 
mined in the presence of all by the scales. The best guess, of course, 
takes the animal. 

Hog' Minder. One who has charge of swine. 

Hog-Plum. (Ximema Americana,} A tall shrub of South Florida. 
It hears a drupe the size of a plum, which is yellow and ple^isant to 

Hog-Reeve. (Ang,-Sai. §er€fa. Old. Eng. revty an officer; a stew- k*7f"r 

ard; whence shrieve and sheriff.) An oflieer vvho^ie duty it ia to take 
up hogs running at large for the puq^^st* of irnjXJundhig them. New 
England. In the Statutes, he is called a Field- Driver^ which see. 

A man who can g«t down on bis face and eat dirt after that fttj^hion far nothiag' 
but • beggarly office h not ftt fur a Kag-rttrt. — N, Y. Tribune, June, J 868. 

In an article in '' Harper's Mag.,** of Sept., 1877, p. 61:*. by his 
nephew, Mr. Benjamin, i.^^ the following saying of the late J. L, 
Motley, taken from the ** New World ** newspaper: ^- 

I began [said Mr Motley] a tremendous p«iliticfll care«?r dtiring the election of 
[Frcffideni Polk), having made two stomp ^pci?che!* of an houraiiJ afutlf each, — 
one in Dcdhajn Town-hall, and one in Jaffiaica Plains, — with Ruch eminent pac- 
ceits that many invkationii came to mt; from the f^urrounding villugoA. If I bed 
continued in active pcliiical life, I might have risen to be a vote dJatributor, or 
fence-viewer, or aelectman, or hoff-reevt^ or something of the kind. 

Hog- tight and Horse-MglL Always used together ^ of fences that 
are sufficiexit to restrain trespassing stock. Marylandt 




Testeni prairitis^ but particularly 
those in Texaa» the ground hiia every lippearance of havings been 
rooted or torn np hy liogfs; hvTice th*:* namA, 

Professor Riddell gives the following account of the hot^-ffuUnw 
prairies and of their origin: ♦* The long droughts in summer cause 
the woodless surface of t!ie prairie4i to crock deeply, and oftentiinea 
symmetrically; subsequent rains wash the adjacent earth into tJiese 
cracka, filling them up» converting them into little vallevn^ aod 
leaving intermediate hillocks. Next year the same round of cause 
aud effects occurs in the same places; and thus a^jiccesMV© years 
contribute for a long time to produce a maximum of effect, the 
appearance of which is very striking. Wheu the prairie 19 levels 
the hillocks are exactly hexagonal, atid usually eight or teu feet tu 
diameter. The depressions between them are commonly tw»i|ve to 
eighteen inches deep. If the surface is inclined, the hexagons 
become elongated at nght angles to the elongation of the dip, when 
they frequently resemble the waves of the ocean « From diflTerence 
of surface, soil, and exposure, there arises a great diverF»ity in the 
size» depths and general appearance of the hoff-ttalhim. They never 
occur in a sandy soil, consequently they are not seen on the sandy 
prairies near the sea-coaat." — Silliman'g Journal of ScUnce^ Vol. 
XXXIX. p. 21L 

The ground wo were riding over, known as hoff-ttfaUov, being « iwwuaioii of 
wmttll mound* mnd corresponding bollown. — A Stmjf Tttnkte m T^xhm, 

To hold on. To wait, stop; as, ^^ Hold on a minute.^' Originally a 
sea phrase. Also, to hold fast, to keep; m^ *' He held on to the 

To hold the Market, iu Wall Street parlance, is to buy and hold ao 
large amount of a particular stock that the price cannot easily 

To hoUoo. (Pron. holler.) To give up; to quit; to yield* In vulgar 
use in the West, originating probably in wrestling or fighting, 
where the party down haUooa^ i. e. cries out, in which cafte he is 
understood to yield, I once heard a Western man my he bad 
♦♦ hollered on drinking,'^ meaning that he had quit tlie practice. 

Tig« was itfing »ne powerful rough, mnd had don« whipped tUft ; but pahAwt I 
npvcr dill AoWjrr. — jV. T. Spint fifth t Times, 

To hollo o before one is out of the 'Woods, To rejoice prematurely, 
before one is out of a difficulty. 

In a few minutes, we wens back in the hftrbor agiiSii, and I gtre Joe a pieco of 
my mind tibout hijUtring bt/ore we wert old of Ik* woodt^^A Strtty Yimk$€ m 



T«l, fellpvrs, in«Kt I warn you not in ahmU 
£n we haw Itft the trnubloua ttoitd heltind. 

W, Mttrrh, The Earthly Pamdw^ Prolftffue, p. «3. 

Hol|x The old pretfirite liDd piist jmrt. of help. •• Thb fttitkiuiited 
ixiilMiion of tlit* verb to heip i» still u*»ed in Virginia! where it in 
comij>ted iiil^ hofp^d/' — Pickering, A friend says he has heard 
tb« word in Xew England. 

Someu I- Knglaod* Great Britain; a t^rm in common use anvong 
xiailrrs of (treat Britain, ais well as thot^e of English descent resident 
in the United Sinter and Canada, Some say *• the Old Country*" 
This t^rm is of ttncj<*nt nm; and Mr, Irving, in his " Life of Wash- 
ington,** says he ** remembers when the endearing phrase still Un- 
jpved on AngloSaxon lipa even after the Revolution;** and that 
ill iMe by Washington him^^elf ** evinces the chord which Btill 
Tibrated in the American bosom.*' In a letter to George Mason 
(1769), speaking of the difficulty arising from the clashing interests 
of merchants^ Washington says: — 

Ir the tobacco eoIoute» where the trade it>> ao difTusedt and in n manner wholly 
conducted by fiiclor? fnr their pHncip«l« at htfrnt^ lhc*e dilBcuitJCT ure «nhane«d' 

Again, in a letter to his brother Augustine^ written in April, 
1755, he says: — 
Ify comm&nd wi« reduced, nndor a prretenoe of an ^der from homt, 
2, Home is frequently used for at home, in one's own dwelling; 
m^ ** I breakfjij^U'd home" *' How ^s all home f ' A New England 
Yank«>e of tUr Sam Slick stamp would say, ** How *8 all fo humf '* 
Hominy. Food made of maize or Indian com boiled, the maize V>eing 
either coarsHy gronnd or broken, or the kernels merely hulled. — 
Flinty Miitj^Uiippi Vatteij, Roger Williams, in his ** Key to the 
Iitdlan Language,'* has the word attpuminea, parched corn, — which, 
with the accent on the second syllabh^, ha3 much the sound of 
horning. The word appears to have been extensively used by various 
Iitdian tribes and nations. See Fone, 

X mil W1M flpread wfthout ihe house, . , , fumJshed with Pone ffomini, oy«ter«, 
and other things. — yoneood** Vo^ngt to Virpma^ 1049, Forct^$ Ti'nci*^ IIL 

Tb« Indiaai »lft the flour out of their mejil, whit^b lli«y caII inmp ; the remiilnder 
tbey caU tmmmin^. TUi» t* rnixt with Hour and niJido Into puddiag». — JtMeljfn't 
^tic Knytand Hiintiu^ 1072, p. 53. 
Tbe IndUiis livcj chit-fly on maize, or lodlan com roasted in the ashe*, mmtt^ 
tim b«it«o mid boyled with water, called homine* — ThommU PrnnsylvaniOf 

1608, p. 4U. 
ilomvny « . « i» IndUn Com eoaked, broken in a mortar, husked, and thea 
, boilcil la water over i geatle fire for tea or mare hours, to the coavifrieucy of 



Furmily, — the thin of this ia what my Lord Bacon calta ** Cream of lfa!«e."— 
Bemrtif'* VirffiHto, Hook UL{m&). 

"Stranger/' »aid old Schultz (the backwoodsman), ** vou hAvt been welcoino 
under m.v roof. I 've given you nothing but wild meat and hommtf, because I 
bad no better ; but I We b««a glad of youf company.*' ^Irtnn^f Widftrt^* Roott^ 
p. 97K 

Bommock, Hummock, or Hammock. In Florida, a name given to 
small elevatious or iKlauils in the *' everglades,*' or lands covered by 
fresb-T?vat€r swamp. Tliey are supposed to have been coral islands 
before the mud and sand were deposited around them. 

The tenn hammttckt ... we believe, is one peculiar to the South- 
em 8t^it*f8. It means a piece of ground tliickly wooded* whether a 
plain or a hiUf and distinguished £ix>m the open oak and hickorj 
]and, or immense fore»ta of thinly scattered pines, which, with few 
exceptions, cover the whole face of the country. The word has been 
confounded with hummock^ used by marinei*s to designate the knolls 
or sraalJ elevationa along the coast. — North Am* Review^ April, 
1828» p. 486. 

The Indians retired from the neighborhood of the whites, and burymg tbem-^ 
ielveit in the deep fore^btf intricate swamp* and hommnrki^ nnd vast 9Avnnnaha, 
devoted ihemHeives to a pastoral life, — ir, /m"n</, >fV/VK'f Ihiott^ p. 2R0. 

Although the larper portion of the counlry h corffcd with ptne barrens^ . . . 
yet there is »hn much upland, interval, And futmmock land of the moat exreHent 
quality > — Williafw, Vitw of Ftftriffa ilS21\ p. 0. 

Hommocky. Filled with horn mocks. Used also of elevations in ice. 

The Seminoles possess a va^t territory in Florida; and being flnch a jrwaiopy, 
/lonamori'^ count rvt it fiirnishepi fiuppl left for the nourishment of varieties of atii- 
mals. — B'wtnim'i TrnvcU in Nitrtk America, 

Hoaey-fogle, Honey-fuggle. To humbug, swindle, cheat. West 
and South. Conty-fogU^ to lay plots, a Lancashire word, noticed by 
Mr. Halliwell in his *' Dictioaary of Archaic and Prov. Words,** 
may be the origin of it. 

When the Loc(vfocos take you roand a comer, and try to haneff-fof/h yoa, as 
they tiay in Kentncky, ank them what are Caas's ctvil qualities. — Sjitech of 
F. Smith fU a Tnyhr Meeting, Wa^iuffton, 

The Washington correspondent of ** The New Orleans D-if * ' 
writes, 1868, as follows: — 

I have a pastton for Seward. He comes up to my idea of Korltn in tht^ \\ m- 
dering Jew, — the must delectable devil that was ever drown by humnn pen, — 
so cool, to clear-headed, bo Indomitattle, »o relentless In the pursuit of htsf!endl*h 
pnrpf>!*r<s, f f he bectuncs our next T'n^j^ident, and disunion does not immeiltately 
follow his election, 1 will wager that be will so beanttfulty htmey-futfrfU both 
South and North that the people will pronounce him one of the beat Prealdenta 
we have ever haiL . 



B01107 Itocast, (GUditscJiia triacanthus.) A tree so called from the 
«weet ptilp m its ripe pods. In the West and South, it is called the 
Thorny Lociist. 

Honor. ** HU llonnr *' is the title applied in MjissachuRotts and Rhode 
Inland to a Lie utetirtnt- Governor while in office. When his terra of 
office has expired, he is, like the Governor, Htyled '' Honoml>le.** 

Honorable, A title given by oonrtesy to ni embers of botli Houi^es of 
Congress, and of State legislatures; in some States, ttj Senators 
only; aUo to heaiis of depaitinent*? of the government, as secretaries 
sad commissiouerH. The title is ever afterwards retidned, under the 
rule of **Once an honorable, always an honorable.*^ Newspapers 
and jKisters often bestow the title on any stump-speaker. 

Hoodlum. A ragamuffin; a*' gamin;** a rongh fellow ; a rowdy. A ^^ , A yfS' 
California word. ** You at the Et\st/' says a correspondent in San ^ 
FranciscOf ** have but little idea of the hoodluim of this city. They 
compose a class of criminals of both sexes, far more dangerous than 
are to be found in the Eastern citiev^. They travel in gan^, aud 
are ready at any momejit for the perpetration of any crime/' — Brntion 
Journals Aug., 1877* 

The origin of the name is said to \w. this; A newspaper man in 
San Francisco, in attempting to coin a word to designate a gang of 
young street Arabs under the beck of one named '^ Muldoon/' hit 
upon the idea of dubbing them nnndlufwi ; tliat is, Himply reversing 
the leader's name. In writing the w^ord, the strokes of the n rlld 
not correspond in height^ and the comjjositor^ taking the* n for an A, 
printed it hoodlum. ** Hoodlum " it is, and probably ever will be. 
The Congrfffadonaivtt, Sept. 26» 1877. See same word in Addenda. 
The stotting nnd hcaHni? nf rbinaiuen [in CallfitmiA]^ bm^ time a popular 
recnfation a.aiong young hoodlumi^ have rectntly gtown iinpnpiiilar through the 
eZForta uf a Pctlice iJurtge. — San FimfKueo C<fr. of N, Y. Evtning Post* 

Thrift' hthHllumt in Snii FninclM-o, under npe, wer«! convirleii mii r chjirg'e of 
ttoAlifii; beor, . , . Tlu^ frferirU uf lh»! h*Mt*ifHmi ciimc tn the front, and tiquidjitecl 
th& danm^. . . . /f»w>*V/(/i?i jns«H<'<' is iitii tnt<*ri;j<tjng study of tlie jnmprudleneo of 
the century. —» A'. Y. Tribunt, Nov. 7, 187<J. 
The outrages thiw far, m Sau Francisco, E^ern to have been tommilted by 
• iLnor^^nized gangs of vicious homiluma, — Tehfftam from San Fri^ncunco^ July 
«5, 18T7. 

Hook. (DatchT hoel\ a corner^ a cape.) This name is given, in Xew 
York, to fteveral angular points in the North atid East Rivers; as, 
CorIear*s Hook^ Powle*.s Ilooi^ Sandy HqoI'. 

To hoolc To steal. A common vnlgansm, formerly iiaed in England. 

K maid hooktd one of hmr raiytrc-^a^a drc??P3 tlic other day ; but the iitTtir wai 
|iM»ed liver, because it wai done behind the Udy't bock. — JV, F. Triiuin!, 1857. 



The devil and I Are swam cQemiei ever since he put me up to koohi»ff WKbet' 
mehuB for the fun of the thing. — Dow't Ser^fnan*, Vol, !♦ p, 5. 

And while Aunt Polly closed with ii l»*ppy Scriptural flourish, Tom kooieed a 
doughnut, — Mark 7 worn, Tom 3iitP}fer^ p, 34. 

On one's own Hook. A phrase much viA&l in familiar langtiage, 
denoting on one's own account; aa« '^Ue is doing buaiJiess on his 
own hooky*^ i. e. for himself. 

I now resolved lo do business entirely alone^ — to go cm my own houk. If I 
get rich, tlie money will all be mine. —FtriU *yf Ptari Strtet^ p. 11*5. 

Every man tm hi$ ourn hmk h the flv*steui In notion of the Amencjin volunteer 
soldier; And trusting to, And eonfideut in, their uudenbUle brrnvtry^ they ^ 
aliead And overcome a11 obataeteM. — Jlazton^i Adetntitrvi in Mf^co, p. 170* 

Wo have every reason to tielieve that the time is fast approach in g: when w« 
Mhall have our AuierieaiD Fope, our Amerit-aii Cittltulic CardtimU^ and Ainericui 
Catholic evefy thiug aw wtr oicn AooJt, — M V, IhraUi^ October, 18^5, 

I went to tlie openi in ixindon, where I kept lookin' round ; ind when any- 
body laughed^ ( lauf^^hed loo, and when they ^plauded^i I ^ptaudcd too; audaome- 
time*. je*t to make *em tlrink I was a ref^Ur Freochy, I *d taugh rt|{lit out im m^ 
oumkoffk, — N, ¥. Famiiif Vompanion. 

Hookey, To ♦* play hookey ** i» to pkiy truant. A term used among 
8chnol-boys, chiefly in the State of New York. 

lie moped to school ^ooiny and sad, and took hia flo^^giti^ along with Joe 
Harper for (ilayiog hixthy the day iMjfore. — Murk Tieain^ Tom Sittnfer^ p. 100. 

Hook Jack. To play truant. New En g;! and. 

Hoop-la. A stage-driver's ejaculation to hi^ horses, California* 

The Stock Fxehange to-4ifty t-omtnenced \t» bu«Uiessof <peculAtiofi with a gn»d 
**ho(*p iftt'* rei^Ardtees of the closing pHcaA of yeit«rdAy» — ^V. y. Tribuntf 
March 1, 1877. 

//oiT?*-^, — Melicnii mAU ho heap rauth nice, — fetchcc me home all light, top 
tilde up OQ slippery walk. — Sptcituen o/ChintM Piytan Enifll*h^ ilarp&r*9 B^wnr* 

Hoople. (Dutch, koepeL) The boys Ln the city of New York still 
retain this Dutch name for a truudliug hoop, 

Hoosier. A nickname f^ven, at the West, to natives of Indiana, 

A correspondeut of the Providence Joarnal, writing from Indiana, 
gives the following account of the origin of this term: ** Through- 
out all the early Western settlements were men wlio rejoiced in 
their physical strength, and on numerous occaj^ions, at log-rollings 
and house-raisings, demonstrated this to their entire satisfaction. 
They were styled by their fellow-citizens hmkers, from their piiraary 
capacity to still their opfioneuta. It was a conunon tje» in for a bully 
throughout the West. The boatmen of Indiana were formerly as 
rude and as primitive a set as could well belong to a civil ixed or»un- 
tiy, and they were often in the haldt of displaying their pugilistic 
acoomplishments upon the Levee at New Orleans. Upon a certain 



OOCSflion there ^ one of tliese rustic professors of the 'noble art * 
Tery adroitly and ,s^iccessfully prnetised th^ * fancy * upon &everal 
individuals at one time. Being hiuiiieli not a native of thi^ Western 
world, in the exuberance of his exultation he spvaiig up, exclaim- 
ing, in foreign accent, * I 'm a koomer^ I *m a koosier,^ Some of 
the New Orle^ins papers reported the case» and afterwards trans- 
ferred the corruption of the epithet 'hnsher^ (hooifier) to all the 
boatmen from Indiana^ and from thence to all her citizeua* The 
Kentockiann, on the coutmry, mEiintaiiied that the nickname ex- 
presses the gruff exclamation of their neighbors^ when one knocks 
at a door, &c. , * Who V i/ere ? * '* 

There wm a long-b&ired hooder fmm Indiani^ n couple of «mart-lookiagr 
•ackers fmm LlllnoiSf a keen-^yedf leather-belted badj^r from WijiconRin ; and 
wbo oouhi refiuwj to drink with such a compauy? — Boj^man, Winter in thd 
WtM^ p. 210. 

fimad Indiana^s hootitr sons her fame muat needs keep good, 
By hcalthM iport of rolling \q^ uid stumping; in the wood. 

Tht Americftn Congrt**^ Am, Rrjecivd AddrtMei. 
It hds been in my mind since I witu a Hfxmtr boy to 4o ftomething toward 
dei:»eribm|L: lifu iu the back-ccniutrjr dUlricti* of the Wentem Staler. — EggltMon^ 
The JTmmrr Schoolmaster^ p. 5. 

Hooaier Cake. A Western name for n sort of coarse gingerbread, 
whichf say the Kentuckians, is the best bait to catch a hoosier with, 
the biped being fond of it. 

Hooaierdom, The Stat« of Indiana. 

A young laily from the rural dij^trkt* of Roosierdom lately vjfited Chicago 
wftli her b*au. — N. F. Obsert^er, Dec. 26, 18C1. 

Hooter, Probably a corruption of iota. Common in New York in 
such phrases a^ ** I don't care a hoofer for him/* ** This note ain't 
worth A hooter, ^^ 

Ii b the trtith that politteiaiie who pretend to have such regard for the dear 
people don't care a hooter, so long as their own teltish ends are attained. — Dme't 
$tr»an*^ Vol. I* p. e. . 

And aifin to impress on the poppylar mind ' 

The comfort an' wUdoni a' go in' it blind, — 
To say thai I didn't abate not a hovttr 
0' my faith in a happy an' Kinrirtua futur! — J. R. LooftU. 

Hoped. Used among- the illiterate in North Carolina as the past part, 

of to help, Ex. : " It can't be hoped,''^ See Ilofp. 
Hopper. 1. Hopper-car, A sort of car nsed on railroadR, it« form 

resembling the hopper of a mill. 

There were one hundrwi and eighty-three iron hfypptr-cnn recovered in a con- 
dhioii fo be rentorrd. Of the tifty-aeven hopptn thrown o%'er Opnequan bridge, 
itfie-hatf caa be put into tarriceable order agaia. — N. Y. Tribmnt^ June 10, lSti2. 


296 HOP— HOR 

2. A grass-hopper, especially the ravaging locust called grass- 
hopper at the West. 

Hopping John. A stew of bacon and peas with red pepper. South 

Hopping Mad. Exceedingly ang^, in a violent rage. A very com- 
mon colloquial expression. 

Misfl Fu9tick paid Liddy Ann was too old to wear pliuncs. Old Miss C 
went straight and told her; which made Liddy hoppin^ mad^ and led to an awful 
quarrel. — Widow Bedott Papers^ p. 276. 

Hop-Tree. (Ptelia trifoliata.) A tall shrub found in the Eastern 
States. The fruit, a wafer-like seed, grows in clusters, is a bitter 
tonic, and has been used as a substitute for hops. 

Horn. A dram. Probably so named from the old custom of drinking 
out of a horn. 

The chaplain gave us a pretty stiff ham of liquor a-piece, —and first-rate staff 
it was, I swow. — Burton^ Waggeritt. 

Faith, said Patrick, if you had seen me sell Father Matthews's medal, which 
he blessed and gave roe with his own hand, to a boy, for three cents, just to get 
a horn of whiskey, you would not ask me if I loved the creatur*. — MUnt^ Ten^ 
ptranct Tale. 

He poured out a tumbler of brandy and water, that wam't half and half, bat 
almost the whole hog. Oh, gummy, what a horn ! It was strong enough to 
throw an ox over a five-bar gate. — $am SUck^ Human Nature. 

In a Horn. A low phrase, now common, used to qualify a falsehood, 
equivalent to the English *' over the left.'* A boy will say, ** I saw 
a man jump over the house," and add sotto voce, ** /« o horn;*^ 
meaning thereby directly the reverse. 

" Tie the boat up ! " says Jim. *' I Ml tie her up, in a horn ! Do you reckon I 
can't run her in such a fog as we '11 have to-night? " — Major BuiJcum^ in New 
York Spirit of the Times. 

I have mentioned before the innumerable comforts — in a horn — of the old 
White Sulphur Springs. I think it hardly necessary that I should recnpitulate ; 
for there is never any chantre : raw beef, tough mutton, and tolerably fine ham 
is the regular bill of fare, and there is no variation that I have seen or heard of. 
Evening ( Wash.) Star^ Aug. 26, 1858. 

Horned Grebe. See Dipper. 
Horned Pout See CatJiKh and Pout. 
^T^Tl Ho"*«^ Sucker. See Chxih Sucker. 

Horrors. *' To have the horrors *' is to be in low spirits, to have a fit 
of the blues. It also means to have delirium tremens. 

Now, when steam distilling wrenches the last possible drop of spirit out of the 
com, it brings with it an unusual quantity of this poison [fusil oil], which acts 
with terrible results on the nerves; seeming like a diabolical inspiration, stirring 




up mania, conrutj^ions md the horrQrt in an incredibly short spnce of time. — 
Pkihd, Ettninf^ BulUlin, 1807- 

Horse and Horae. Even. Originally applied to horses which in 
running u race cume in side by side, or» aa the phrase is, '* neck 
and neck;" and then transferred to gamesters. A st<">ry is told of 
ft planter, who, sending his Kon tc> market with a load of cotton, re- 
ceiTcd from young hopeful the following statement on his retnrn ; — 

"Why, daddy, you Mre, [ mA down to uld sledjire nlong with Jrtki' Stt-ljldns. 
It waa Aorte nnd korfc^ and Ms deal* Says be, * Bill, will you go the cotton ? • 
• Done,* says I ; and don*t you think if the deni fool didn't turn jaek ! *' — Bun- 
him*t EecoHtctiont. 

Horse- BarzL A stable. 

Hoise^Boat. A boat propelled by horse-power, common in the 
Western waters. Usually a ferry-boat, 

Horse-Cake. Gingerbread radely fashioned into the shape of a horse. 

Horae-Car. A car drawn by horses on a railway, common in all 
American cities, and recently introduced into European cities. 

Horse-Colt. We frequently see in ad verti.«(e merits these terms, hone" 
cott, mare'CalU &c. A horse-coM is simply a colt ; a mare-colt, b. filly. 

Horse-Ferry. A ferry which is passed by a horse-boat. — Webster. 

Horse-Foot. (Ltmulus polt/phemus.) The common name of a crustar 
cean found in our waters from MasAoohusctta to Virginia, miA in 
some places so abundant as to be used for nianure. In form it much 
resembles a horw's hf>of. It is also called Horse-Khoe and King- 
crab, which latter is the name by which it is knowD in England. 

Horse- Mackerel. When the Blw-ftsh reappeared on the coast of 
New England, — ^some twenty-live years ago, — the fishermen, who 
were unacquainted with the species, sometimes called it Horse- 
mackercL iJuL thiit name was previously, and is now usually given 
to the C*/f>rym mamUthim (Mitchell), sometimes called Spauhh mach- 
trtl (Af/r^M, m Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. iv. 2<)1 (1SI2), says the C. 
macul^tum received both tliese names from the fishermen of Long 
Island.) Dr. Storer, in describing the IVrnttor/oM .mltator of Cuvier, 
says, **This species described by llitchell as the Sromher plumbeun, 
and called the horge-mackerd by the vulgar, is better known in those 
portions of our State where it is taken as the blue-fish/^ — FUhat of 
Mqu^^ p. 57. See Blue-FUh, 

Borse-Mint. {\ftmurda punctata,) A large species of mint, grow- 
ing from New York southward. — Wtbster. 



Hone-Nettle. (SQinnum Carofinen^e) A plant well kncmTi for ita 
orange-yellow berries. It is remarkable that a Bimilar species Is 
known in Brassil by Uie same name in PortugueM. 

Bone-RailTOad. A railroa^l runtiing through the streets of a town or 
city, on which the cars are drawn by horsea. — Webster^ 
In England, they are called framwa^i. 

Borse-8boe. See Horse- Foot, 

Hoee. The Western term for '* stockings/* which is considered 
extremely indelicate, although ♦* long socks " is pardonable. 

HoBB. (A corruption of the word horfe.) A man remarkable for his 
ttrength, courage, &c. A vulgarism peculiar to the West, Even 
of a prominent lady, a Western eulogist will say, ** She's a Aom;** 
that is, a sort of Pandora or nonsuch. 

n<Hat Allen is powerful popidtir, and the **b«r" hunten admire his fre»>aad- 
easy tniLuneni, And lOUAid'er hint oim of iha people, — none of yoiir ftnck up im- 
ported chaps from the dandy States, but a g<.*nuiiio Wotti^mer, — in »liortf a kamf 
EntA, Sfwttttr Lift, p. 70. 

I fM;-e tbnr wa» miiiohief in th« preacher an big as a nieetin* lioupe, and I deter- 
mined tn give htm as ^ood as he mdI; »o ( looked at him sorter »ttvagerotu like, 
and fiAj^ I, ** Look here, A^«, how can jou liave the face t« talk to me, arlcr 
what you said V '" — Mike Hoottr^ by a MiMouriiui, 

Hostiles. Enemies. Western. 

Hotel Disease. A disease which broke out among tlie guests at tlie 
National Hotel in Washiugtou m the year 185(J, somewhat resem- 
bling cholera, attended with vomiting, diarrhcBa, an<l ra^iid gt^neral 
prostratifjii. Similar t^ymptoms Irnve since shown themselves at 
some other hotels, though not with the a^ame virulence. 

Hot Slaw. Cabbage, minced and heated with vinegar : thus called to 
distinguish it from Kool Siaa (erroneously etymologized into Cold 
Slaw). Litchfield Co., Conn. 

Honnd. A negro-catcher. 

A racogrujied Hm*wl or nit^f^er hunt«r, named McCabe, stated that on W«fdnee- 
diy, &c. — .V, r. Tj-iimnt^ July, 181)1. 

Hounds. 1. A gang of ruffians who infested San FranHsen in 1849. 
They al«o styled themselves ♦♦ Regulatoi^/* Their nmrderous ex- 
ce*H**8 were committed utider the pretence of guarding the com- 
munity against the encroachments of Spanish foreigners. 

2. The yjortions of a wagon which, projf^cting from tbe forward 
axle, form a support for the tongue or pole. The term is bcfrrowed 
from nautical language^ in ^hich it means the projecting parts or 



li«ad of tHe mast, seiring as sho aiders for the top or trestle-trees to 
tfiAl cm* 
To hottad. To pursue m with m hound* Used by the police and 
doteetires of New York* A man arrested for cnrae in New York 
Biid: — 

He bft^ Iwen h/fmtdtd ilmost to deith b^ poticem«ii, detectives^ Aad repoitera. 
K. r. Trilmmt. 

Boot. An haur t^f sun ©eaus an hour before sunset. Southern jind 

Hourly. Formerly used in and about Boston for an omnibus* 

House* Usad to form compounds, such as meat-home^ wa»h-hoii»e^ 
mUi>kif>u*0 ; where an Englishman would &ay, resjiectively, larder, 
laundry f diiiry. 

Houa^e-Car* A sort of close car u^ned on railways; a box car. 

Houae- Hunting. In the city of New York, most houses are let from 
Uie ftrst day of May; and the landlords have assumed to themselves 
the ri^ht of requiring from their tenants a dedsion, as to whether 
tliey will keep their houses or not» three months l^efore the period 
for which they hired thcra expires. On those houses which are not 
hired for another term (ut^nally a year), " hiils '^ are put up by the 
landlords, signifying that they are to let* Persons who intend to 
**move *' trayer^e that section of Uie city in which tliey desire to 
MtAbliah themselveSf in search of a suitable liouse, in whicli search 
they are guided by the landlord's ** bills*'' This is called houne- 
ktmiing^ and is practii^id by thousands every year- 
Folly begjtn to grow unoAfy now, becauii« we hadoU got no h.uu«e, and nahl I 
ougfit ti> go A hftiu^ -hunting a» evi-rybodv else did, or eUc we jbotild be turned 
out tif d*H»rs. — Jffi/or DQwning^ Mntf^lnt^ in AVw York. 

To houaekeep is a verb, formed on the same principle as the verb to 
UoiidUt^ which is credited in the dictionaries to Arhuthnot, South- 
ern and New England* English cricket-players always say to 
tiHctet'keep : and, in the past, he wicket-keeped* 

Souaeii, aA the plural of home. This old form is still used by the 
illiterate in the interior of New England* m also in the States of 
New York and New Jersey. It is provincial in various p^irta of 

Comftiu* Nepot writfttti that tJie himten In Home were no oth«niriiie covered 
overhoiitl hm with ftltindleii [^^hinjiles) until the war with King Prrrhti*, fo wit 
lOT the •f*40c of 470 ye«ri after the foatidjilioo of iJie cily.^HuUdnd's Plinjf, 

That day at howen »o Mhe ttopjied 

Shfi Ytaj$ bokiad for diaaer. -^ EmtJt Dialect^ p* 14. 

500 HOU— HOW 


7H. '■ 

Th 8 o >i H P m %% ^ is used as a noun collective, for all that apper- 
tains to the house or homestead, its outbuildings, &c. 

It is enacted by the court and authoritie thereof, that henceforth no peraon or 
persons shall permit any meetings of the Quakers to bee in his houne or hovaing, 
PlymmUh Colony LawB, 1661. 

I testifie that about forty-two yeares from this date Richard Smith had kept 
possession of his hownng^ land, and meadows. — Letter from Roger WUlianu^ 
R. I, Col. Records, 1679, Vol. III. p. 67. 

Beside the house and lot, there waa the housing upon it — New Itawen 
Records (1654). 

Housen-Stoff Household furniture. 

On the first day of May, at 12 o'clock, if the tenant isn*t out, an officer goes 
and puts him into the street, neck and heels, with his wife and children and all 
hb housennstuff. — Major Douming, May-day in New York, p. 80. 
A wife would make good housen-stuff, 

If she were downright clever ; 
And Sail could suit nie well enough, 
If she would let me have her. — Song, Yankee Doodle. 

Hove. (Ang.-Sax. hof, pret. of heafan, to heave.) This old preterite 
is much used by illiterate persons in the United States. 

How? Used chiefly in New England, like the French comment t in 
asking for the repetition of something not understood. 

Do put your accents in the proper spot ; 

Don't— let me beg you — don't say ** ffow f " for •* What ? " 

0. W. Holmes, Poems. 

How are you, Johnny ? A term of address used by the soldiers in 

the late war, and now applied to any stranger. 
How come? (Pron. huc-cum.) How came it ? how did it happen ? 


How de ? A still further contraction of how d^ye f for how do you do? 
Southern. Used also as a noun; as, ** to send howdy, ''^ 

Howdy. A desideratum accomplished. *' That 's the howdy, ^* — the 
very thing desired. 

How fare you ? This is a common expression, in some parts of New 
England, for ** How do you do? " It is pronounced short; as, ** How 
fa* yef*^ In English prov. dialect, ** How fare 'e P* 

Newman. WTiat, come back so soon ? How fare you, Doolittle ? 
DovHttle. Cleverly. Steady, pretty steady, and quite chirk again, I thank 
you. — />. Humphreys, The Yankee in England. 

How la that for high? A slang expression and quite common, 
equivalent to ** What is your opinion as to the height of it? " •* How 
is that for grandeur? " *' What do you think of it? ** 



A Quaker imused to the slang phrases of the day, and quite 
myBtified with what he has heard, thus speaks of the manner in 
which he was aoco.^ted hy a rude fellow t — 

The€ kttow§ I cuUivjite the peaceful habit of our sect, 

Hut thU miLn'A cuiulnct wrqught on m*^ n »Iir];gukr effect; 

For whf ti bf flapped my hroad-briin off, and OAked, " Horn '§ thai Jot hiffh f " 

It miiMid the Xihun jn mc, nod I smote tiim hip and thigh I 

T\lien Scotty Brig^, the Califoruia miner, called upon the min- 
wter to preach the funeral disconrse of Buck Fanshaw, a noted 
character, he said: — 

We arc griiog to g^et it up rt^g^ardl «-.-»» of ^xpenpte. [Buck] was always nifty 
himself, and «o you bet hh funeral Aln''t going to lie no slouch, — solid silver 
door-ptatf on his cofUn^ hix plumes on the hearse, and a niKger on the box in a 
bikd fhlrt and a plug hat, — how'iihai for kighf*^ — Mark Ttcnin, Roughing 
It, p, i\U. 

How you talk ! Said in order to indicate surprise or other emotionB. 
New England. 

Hub. •* The Hub ** is a term applied to Boston. ** The Huh of the 
Univergey** i. e. tlie great centre, or chief city, like the huh of a 
wheel, to which the apokes are subservient* This term is applied 
by the n|teciiil corresfjondent of the ** London Daily News/* Jan. 18, 
187G, to the greatest commercial city of India- Iti describing the 
Tisit of the Prince of Wales, he says: — 

Calcutta, with no trivial infusion of downright vulgarity, ewaggers &8 if it 
were the huh q/ the urUvtrtt^ the veritable »a1t of the ^rth. 

Hubbj. Hubbly, Uneven; rough, A term applied to roads, par- 
ticularly when frozen. The original word, atill used provincially in 
England, m hobhltf. 

Huckleberry. {GaiflwtMacia.) A small shrub, and its small, globu- 
lar, black, sweet fruit, re»erriWing the Wliortleberry of England, 
whence it is sometimes called by that name. 

AAto kudelebernf and blackberry plea, you will And them [in Connecticut] juat 
fti our mother made them fifty yeiirB ngo. — GtttMiricA't HtminUctncttf YoK L 
p. a05. 

A »pecies found in w^et land, of a bluish color and sweeter than 
the blacky is known as the Swamp-Huvkleberry, 

Huckleberry above the Persimmon. To be a hucklehtrry abave on^B 
per»immon in a Soutliern phraae» meaning to excel. 

The way he and hii companionp ujed to destroy the beasti of the foreita was 
hmBM€btrry 9bw9 t^epemmman of aay native in the country. ^ Tkorpt^ Bach- 
tBOotUi p. 16&. 

802 HUG— HUM 

Hnge Paw8. A nickname given to the working men of the Demo- 
cratic party in New York. Said to have been first used by the late 
J. T. Buckingham, in the ** Boston Courier." 

The Hugt Paws ought to have another meeting in Tammany Hall, before they 
make their nominations. — N, T. Herald^ Oct. 7, 1846. 

Hugger-Mugger. 1. To hush ; to smother. 

If a British captain board an American ship, and make a selection of the 
choicest of her crew, that is a venial offence, to be hugger-muggered up; while 
all our complaints are drowned by a chorus of *' Britannia rules the waves.** — 
N. F. Tribune, June 1, 1862. 

2. To take secret counsels; to act clandestinely; to complot. 

Listening to key-hole revelations, and hugger-muggering with disappointed 
contractors and bar-room politicians, . . . they went home to reek themselves, 
&c. — -Y. r. Tribune, Feb. 26, 1862. 

Hulking. Exhibiting bulk ; bulky; bulky. 

Great, vigorous, healthy men, . . . walking rapidlj back from the first toooh 
of the foe, . . . great huOcing poltroons. — N. Y. Tribune, June 5, 1862. 

Hull. A vulgar pronunciation of the word whole, very common in 

New England. 
Hulled Com. Indian com scalded or boiled in lye, until the hulls 

come off. It is then rinsed and boiled, making a most palatable 

dish. See Tortilla, 
When I was about nineteen, I ate so much huUed com that it made my jaws 

ache. — A'eOo^jr, Black Rifle, p. 19. 

Hulls. The husks of peas, &c. At the South, applied also to the 

shells of oysters. 
To hull. To free from the husks: accordingly, to hull peas is to shell 

them; to hull oysters, to open them. Southern. 
Huly. A noise, uproar. ** To raise huhj,''^ New England. 

Hum. A vulgar^ pronunciation of home; as, **My old man ain't to 
hum,^^ i. e. is not at home. New England. 

Well, well, I know it now, — " hum is hum, be it ever so humbly." I am desperd 
sick of being in strange parts. I wish I was at hum apn, under mother's own 
ruff, I guess — I know I do. —D. Humphreys, The Yankee in Enghtnd. 

When is charity like a top ? When it begins to hum. — Baltimore Sun. 

Human, for human being. Western, and sometimes Eastern. 

As I was lookin' down the gully, I espied a mighty big bear, that was travellin* 
my way. I had no idee that he was around, and am quite sartin he didn't expect 
to meet a human in such a place. — Hammond, Wild Northern Scenes, p. 224. 

Parson Brown low, the editor of the ** ELnoxville Whig," is just as fierce upon 
dogs when they annoy him as he is upon the humans who cross his path. —Ear' 
per't Mag., Dec, 1857, p. 136. 



Whit briogi ft duck a streftkiniir it down ctrt&m if humanM iiin*t bi-hind her? 
and who *a in the»« diggitre bui Iiyliann V — Ruxtfm*s Far HVat, p. UK 

The Aubject of woman, my dear hcjirer*, is n difflcuU, n tender^ and a delicate 
one. Woman, primiirily, wiw. ii sort of jiecoad-hrtnd hunum^ or, I might say, the 
carniited Raperfluily of man. — Drnte^M Sernutf**, Vol. 01. 

Homanitariaii. (Lat. htmumm.) One who deDies the divinity of 
Christ, And believes hini a mere man. 

The ** X. Y, Evening Post/' July 15» 1859, in a poem relating 
to ft Chinaman, who had committed a murder in California, eays: — 

Wretched Barbarian, Wf>r»e Omn n Ptinan 

Cradlcil in malico, 
What kumanittirian 
Dare »natch from his ljip« till he |>alnfu,lly sip« 
The murderer** eh dice ? 

Humbly. A vulgar migpronunciation of homely. 

Hununock. Knolla or small elevations along the ooasti fto designated 
by seamen, 8ee Hommock. 

BuQg. In England, it occasionally happens that great offenders are 
hanged ; but in the States and Canada criminals are never hanged t 
they are all hung. In England, beef in hung^ gates are hung^ and 
curtains are hung ; but felons are hanged; in Canada, felons, bt^ef, 
gates, and curtains are all treat^^d the same way. • — Rev. A. C- Geikie, 
in Canadian Journal^ Sept., 1857. 

Rung Beet Dried t»eef , so called from being hung up in tlie air to 
dry; also called chip beef. 

The hainsi were cat out, « lightly §alted, and hang up in the chimnoy to dryi 
ADfl thui) became dried or Aun^ bee/. — Goodrich's Reminisce ncei^ Vol. I. p 6(5 » 

Hunk. 1. A large piece or slice; a big lump, Ex.: ♦* A great hunk 
of bread and cheene/ * It is a variation of the word hunch, which 
is used in England in precisely the same manner. See Giro#e ftnd 
Moor^s Glosi^ries. 

2. (Dutch, hotd\) Place, post, home. A word descended from 
the Dutch children, and much ui^ed by New York boys in their play. 
**To lie /tunk^^^ or ** all AwfJ",'' is to have reached the goal or place 
of meeting without being intercepted by one of the opposite partyt 
to be all safe. 

Tills word has also tnad© iU way into political life* In a debate 
of the Board of Aldermen of New York (December, 1856), on the 
purchase of certain grounds on the Ea^t River for a market site, 
Alderman Ely .«iaid : — 

Mr. L had fllled m and made thb ground in the watem of the East River 

without autboriry; and now he felt himoelf all A«MMb, and wanted to get lliis cnor- 
iDOu» torn out of the city. — iV'. T, Triimn*^ Dec* W, UW. 



804 HUN 

Hnnkers. Tliose who cling to the homestead or to old principles. A 
nickname given in the State of New York to the Conservative wing 
of the Democratic party as opposed to the Young Democracy, or 
Barnburners. They are often called Old Hunkers, from Hunk, 
home, as above. 

Senator A has long coveted, and finally obtained, a leading position. He 

is now the leader of the hunkers of Missouri, — a noble band, with just seven 
principles, and a foresight the exact length of their noses. — New York Evening 
Pott, 1849. 

Hunkerism. The doctrines of the Conservative Democracy, or Old 

Honkey. Very fine; ** tip-top;" "just the thing." Applied more 
commonly to things than to persons. ** That 's hunkey,** 

In one of the songs of the late w^ar called " The Men of the Day," 
allusion is thus made to the Confederates and a distinguished 

Greneral: — 

And though they many a plan have tried, 

They cannot him inveigle ; 
The *MittIe Dutchman's *' wide awake, 
A hunkey-hoy is Sigel. 

On the trial of General Babcock for connection with the whiskey 
frauds at St. Louis, Feb., 1876, the following telegram, from J. H. 
Joyce to General McDonald, was submitted: — 

Matters are hunkey, go it lively, and watch sharply. Every thing looks well. 
Send a report. Feel hunkey. 

Hunkidori. Superlatively good. Said to be a word introduced by 
Japanese Tommy, and to be (or to be derived from) the name of a 
street, or a bazaar, in Yeddo. 

Oh, the noble class of '08 is just old hunkedore; 

It 's bound to cover Hamilton, likewise itself, with glorj'. 

Hamilton Colleye Songs in Carmina CuUeyenda, p. 147. 

At the trial of General Bal>cock, at St. Louis (Feb., 1876), a 
witness was asked if he got a receipt for a certain telegram delivered 
Mr. Joyce. He replied, *' No." 

Counsel. ** What did he say when you asked for it V *' 

Witness. He said, ''Oh! that's all right, hunkidori, or something like that 
It *s only a blind." — Report in New Yotk Tribune. 

To hunt for Meat At the Far West, the hunter hunts for meat, when 
in search of food, in contradistinction to hunting for skins. 

Hunting-Shirt. A blouse or shirt originally made of deerskin and 
highly ornamented, worn by trappers and hunters as well as by 
travellers on the Western frontier. 



A Ughf, figuredt and fringed hnntinff^thiri of cotton covpi-ed his body, while 
leggings of deerekin rose to his knee. — Coaptr, Oaic Openiny^. 

'Blm up, Fremont ! and go before ; 

ITic hour must have its irmi; 
Put on the huniint/shirt onee mon^ 

Awl lead in rreetlom^s van! — WhUHer. 

Bnrra's Nest. A state of confusion. A womaifs word, 

"Now just look at rou, Mr. .Toneji! [ declare, it Rivot^ me a chill to tet you 
gti to a drawer What do you want ? Tell me, arid I will fjet it for you.'* 

Mrs. Joncfi Hprinprs to the *idc of her tiutband, who hus j?on« to the bureau for 
something, and puxhefl him away. 

*'Tb<:fe now! Just Ifxik at the A «*rmV wfnrt you have made! What do yon 
want, itr. Jone» ? '* — Arthur'* LntlU*" Mntfrttine. 

'* Hallo/' ffay* she, ^* here '» the devil to pay, and no pitch hot Are you goln* 
to kill that h<^y ? Here 's a pretty kurrn's nest ; let me we "ne of you dare to lay 
hand? on thi«j pickanniny.*' — Snm SUch, FTumnn N^niurt, p. 59. 

I lay till after dfl_vlight, and then one of my eommdes «hook. me, to tell me that 
the Itidian ^Mtyn hn.<\ found a Awn"ri'# ntsi Out 1 went, and about a hundred 
yards from camp there war an old bulTalo bull with a hundrt'cl littlu streer hing 
impi about him with their hows and arrowft, — Cmrktit't Atlrtnfurt*. 

** You *ve got our nloek all to pieces, and have h^ecu keeping up a perfect 
hvrrfth'* nest in our kittheii for three dayi. Do either put that clock together 
or let it nlone/* — Mn, Stowe^ Oldtown /^ofifct, chap. if. 

Hurricane. (W. Ind. urican.) This Tvord does not appear in tiny 
English dictionary before 1720, when Phillips notices it as a word 
denoting ** a violent storm of wind» which often happens in Jamaica 
anil other parts of the West Indies, making very great havoc and 
overthrow of trees, houf^es, &c." Other dictionaries of a later 
period describe it as a violent wind in the West Indies, It is the 
Carib name for a high wind, such as is described by Phillips, and 
waa doubtless carried by seamen to Europe, whence it became 
introduced into various languages. 

I phflll next speak of hurfioynr*. The^e are %iolent stormy raging chiefly 
among the faribce t.^landa; though t)y refatinn Jamaica bty; of lat« ytam beon 
much anooyed by them. They are expected in July, August, or Septcmbef,— 
Bm^i^^ Vojfa^ti, VoL II* ch. 6. 

To its covert glides the silent bird, 
While the hurrimnr't distant voice is heard 
Uplifted among the mnuntaina round, 
And the forests h«ar and answer the sound. 

Brynni, Tht Hufrica»e* 

Hurrygraph. A sketch luade; a letter written hurriedly. 

But T must cloFe this hurry ffraph^ which I bav« no time to review. «- The 
JmitpendtHt, July 31, 186 L 


806 HUE— HUS 

Hnrryment. Hurry; confusion. Southern. 

I always hate to kiss old women what hain't got no teeth ; and I was monstrous 
glad old Miss Stallins had her handkerchief to her face, for in the kurrffment I 
kissed it. — Major Joneses Travels. 

Hurry np. A word derived from the eating-house direction to the 
servants below. It vexed a lover of good speech and apt, when he 
heard a boy at the foot of the hill call to one to come down by xuaug 
that phrase. 
Hurry up the Cakes, t. e. Be quick, look alive. This phrase, which 
has lately got in vogue, originated in the common New York eating- 
houses, where it is the custom for the waiters to bawl out the name 
of each dish as fast as ordered, that the person who serves up may 
get it ready without delay, and where the order, ** Hurry up them 
cakes f*^ &c., is frequently heard. 

If yott have any communications to make, hurry tfiem up, hot and hasty, like 
buckwheat cakes at a cheap eating-house. — Dow's SermotUy p. 61. 
Of General Lee, the Rebel chief, you all perhaps do know. 
How he came North, a short time since, to spend a month or so ? 
But soon he found the climate warm, although a Southern man. 
And quickly hurried up his cakes, and toddled home again. 

Ballad, Bow are you. General Leef 

To hush up. To cease speaking, to be silent, to hush. To dry up, 
give us a rest, and to shut up, are other vulgar expressions with the 
same meaning. 

We passed out, Greene following us with loud words, which brought the four 
sailors to the door, when I told him to A imA up, or I would take him prisoner. — 
General Sherman's Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 37. 

Husking. The act of stripping off husks from Indian com ; generally 
called ** shucking" in the South and West. In New England, it 
is the custom for farmers to invite their friends to assist them in 
this task. The ceremonies on these occasions, called also Husking 
Bees and Husking Frolics, are well described by Joel Barlow, in hia 
poem on Hasty Pudding: — 

For now, the cow-house fill'd, the harvest home, 

Th' invited neighbors to the husking come; 

A frolic scene, where work and mirth and play 

Unite their charms to chase the hours away. 

The laws of husking every wight can tell ; 

And sure no laws he ever keeps so well : 

For each red ear a general kiss he gains, 

With each smut ear she smuts the luckless swains; 

But when to some sweet maid a prize is cast. 

Red as her lips, and taper as her waist, 

She walks around, and culls one favored beau. 

Who leaps, the luscious tribute to bestow. 

Hus— nys 


Tarioii!! the sport, «*« lire the witjt aM bratnt 
Of Wfll-plea*'!! laj^jne^ and contendinj? ewaiiiB ; 
Tilt the va!*t mniiiirl of w>rn is swept awajf 
And be that ^aiiia the last ear vrini the day* — Ointa 3. 
He talked of a turkey-hunt, a huskinrf-bte, thank^viag ball, racingt and ft 
Tliiety of thin pi. — Mnrffnret^ p, 48. 

He counts hiH couscin Phebe no better in her home upon the Avenue than when 
abe played barefooted at the old hu*innff-/rotuv of Newtown — Ike Mnrj^ei^ 
Fudgt DtdnffB, 

My iiam« ift Jededlali llaniebi%d, — called Jed for iihort, —allowed to be tbe 
•tnortect clmp at aA»*Jl-if»' or log-rollni' in all our part*, besides knowin* something 
about grammar. — Tfrn Grtttn Mounttrin Boyi, A Dmma^ p. 9. 

According to Longfellow, the gocid lack attending the finding of 
a red ear is an Indian superstitioti : — 

And whenever (♦omc lucky inaiden 
Found a red far in the kugkitnj^ 
Found a raaiyi? car fpcI as bloof! it, 
Kushka ! cried they all tOju^ther, 
Nitshka! you .nhall have a sweetheart, 
You Bball have a handsome husband. 

Song of Htattmtha^ Canto xiiL 

Htua^Bran in Indiana ia the same as Coh in Virginia. A coiruption 

of hunk. 
Hyp«r. To bustle. ** I must hyper aWut an* git tea/^ 
Hyperion, (Cennoihux Americafia.) A plant, from the leave* of which 

was made formerly a beverage popular in New England. See 

Labrador Tea. 
Hypo. An abbreviation of hypochondria. 

Tlie old man would s'ive up to the hifpo^ and keep hid bed for week^. During 

this time, he wouldn't say n word, but '' f 'm not lotiff for this world." — EaUbur- 

tim^ The AmtricanM itt Home, VoL I. p. 176. 

Hypo-y, fttjra Hypo, ** She *s not sick, she '« only Aj/po-y.*' t^i /i^L^x^fl£ 

Hypped. One who has hypochondria is aaid to be hypped. Used 

ako in England. 
Hyst. (Corruption of HoUl) A violent fall. Ex. r ^* His foot slipped, 
and he got a hysiV Mr. J. C. Xeal thus disc^urgea on thia word : 
•* A falU for instance, is indeterminate. It may be an ea«y slip down, 
*-a gentle visitation nt mother oarth- but a hijM ia a rapid, forcible 
performance, which may be done either backward or forward, but 
of necessity with Buch violence a.^ to knock the breath out of the 
body, or it is unworthy of the noble appellation of hysi. It is an 
apt but figurative mode of expression, and it ia often carried still 
further; for people sometimes say, 'Lower him up, and hyst him 
dowa.' " — Charcoal Sketches, 



I can^t see the groundf nnd every dark night Am iiire to g«t a h^^ — ctther s 
forrenl hyti ar a bmckerd Ay</, or (lomii sort of a Ayii, but more bjickerds than for* 
TOTdi, — J. C, Ne(t{^ Sketches. 

One of the moH iiiifeelin' (ricks I know of is thft waj sonio folki h«v« got 6f 
laugliing out whrii they fee a gentlenian catching a reguUr Ay«E, wtth his It^gs in 
tbe air, and hi^i uoddle Kplat down on the cold brickt. A hynt i» bad enough 
without being sniggured at. —Utw Emjlmd Tales, 

ritv% kind^ gentle folks, friends of humanity, 

Twig how the pavemunt^ are cuwivd with ic«; 
Sprinkle the sidewalks with a^hes for ciiarity, 
Scalier the aahes and cave us a hyU. 

i WoMh,) Eptninff Star, Feb. 4, IB&T. 


I Dad ! An exclamation used in the Weatern States. 

" / dnd! if I didn^t snatch up Ruff fttid kits him/* Here the «ttioti«n of the 
old man made a pause. — Cariton, The Ntw PurchaUf VoL I. p. 17d. 

Ideal Brokerage. Among stock-brokers, the iileal of brokerage is the 
piirchixse or ni\lc of securities for outside parties^ where the object is 
an mbfiolute acquisition of ]>roperty» or absolute sale of property. 
Generally speaking, there roiwt be in such case a deposit of the 
stock or of the money value of the stock. — Medbety^ Men and 
M^iteries of Wall Sreet, p, 48, 

Hk. In Scotland and the North of England, it signiiies the same ; aS| 
" Mackintosh of that i/Jt" denotea a gentleman whose surname and 
the title of hk estate are the same", as, '* Mackintosh of Mackin- 
fcosk^' — Worcester. 

By a curious perversion , political newspaper writers in America 
often use the phrase **of that ilk ** in the sense of •* of that sort, 
itamp, class,'* Thus the *^ Baltimore Sun," of the 1 5th of May, 
18o4, wiys : — 

**The ^Journal of Commerce' and the * True Democrat' both denoonce ia 
advance the meeting uallt^d in the New York Park» Saturday afternoon [to cen* 
aure Senator Donglaa'i Nebraiika BiU], a(» a thorough abolition dt^moRj^tration; 
In proof of which the namea of John Van Buren, Benjamin F. Butler, and otbera 
of that ilk, that were promised to ^peiik^ arc referred to/' 

HI. Viciotis. This strange application of the word \^ common in 
Texas ; as, ** Is your dog iWf * meaning, is he vicious. — Oltn$ted*i 
Texas, p, 78. 

Hly. A word used by writers of an inferior class, who do not seem 
to perceive that Ul is itself an adverb, without the termination l^. 

Thfi IfltH Rti Mmnflri fmirtmt nt Brawn ttniTiiniity m WKinw 



this word in a composition submitted to his critical inspectiowi 
aaked of the atudeut who presented it, '* Why don't you say 
welly f' 

Diatmsittd mm my Diindl i», and hax been^ by a x'E^i(^ty of atlentioiis, I am ittjf 
able by letter to give you tUe fMiti^factitm I cotild wrish qd thv tsnhjtx-i of yitur 
letler* — ZreWcT* of Richard H. Lte to kU dster, i;78. 

"My good friend/* eaid the mun of |p*»vity» *' have you not undergone what 
they call hiird time^, — l>t*«n »et tifwjo and persecuted^ aud very i7/y eiitrcalied, by 
•omc of your f*3 1 low -creatures? ** — Puttmm^t Montht^^ August, 1854. 

Immediately, for as soon as. Ex, : *' The deer fell dead immediateiy 
they &hot iiim/' This wretched word is creeping into use from 
England, where directly is used in the same way. 

Xmznigrant. A person that removes into a country for the purpose of 
a permanent residence. — Webster, 

Immigration. (Lat. immiffralio.) The passing or removing into a 
country for the purptose of a i>ermaneiit residence. — Wth^fer^ 

The '* Lundou Quarterly Review, '^ in noticing *■■ D wight's Trav- 
els/* in a note, says, ** The Americana have jndieiuusly adopted this 
word from our old writers." — Vol. XXX. p. 39. 

The immiffrdtivnM of the Arabiani into Eurrtpc, and the Crusade*^ produced 
niimberleas accouttti<, piirtly true and partly fabuluna^ of iho wonders seen iu 
£astem countries. — Wartfm** IlUi. Any. Puttt^^ Vol. I. 

/mmiy$*tition has doubtless been a prolidc- source of multiplying words. — 
Bomiliim^ Nuf/a LiUraria, p. 381. 

Mr. Pickering, in his Vocabulary, observes that this word, as well 
M immigrant and the verb to immi^ate^ were first used iti this coun- 
try by Dr, Belknap, in History of New Ilanipshire, who giv6A 
his reasons for their use. fmmiffmnt is orig^inal with Dr. B* ; but 
the others have long been used by good EugliKh authors, though of 
course less frequently than by American writere, who have more 
need of them. 

To improve. L To render more valuable by additions, as houses, 
barns, or fences on a farm. Thus we freqiiputly see advertisements 
of a piece of ground improi^ed by a dwellitig and out- houses. 

Where lands lye in common unfencedi if one man «hal1 imprtn^t his land by 
reocing ja several, and another shall not, be who Rhall imprtJtt shall secure hia 
landfi against other men*i cattle. — Mass. €(*Um^ Laws, 164!2. 

2. To occupy ; to make use of, employ. Thus, some persons sjieak 
of an ** improved "or an '* unimproved " house, meaning one occn- 
pifid or unoccupied. ** This word/' says Mr. Pickering, "in the 
firat Mnse, is In constant use in all parts of New Enghmd, but iu 


the second sense (when applied to persons, aa in the following 
example) it is not so common.*' 

In miction of trespius iin^itist Bcvenil d(*fendAfiti, the pUintiffo mft>% ift«r ii«tM 
is closed, strike out any of them for the purpoMs of improting them «s wttnc!SM«. 
Bwifl'iB^ttetn qftht Cvl^ny Latas 0/ CofiMcciU^ul, Vol. II. p, 2>3^* 

In a petition from a Baptist society in the town of Newport, R< L, 
in 17S3» for relief » they say : — 

Our tQc«ting4ioufre ha« boon impj^oted ta a hospital by tht Englbh and After* 
wards by the French army, and !so murb injured an not to admit of b«*iiig re- 
paired. — Actio/ Atattnbiy, Rtiotlt hlarttl^ Jiinf, 1783, 

Dr. Franklin, in a letter t<3 Dr. Webster^ dated Dec, 26, 1789 » 
has the following remarks : *' Wlit^n I b.^ft New England in the 
year 17*23, this word had never been used among us, as far as I 
know, but in the sense of ameliorated or made better^ except once, in 
a very old book of Dr, Mather's entitled * Remarkable. Provi- 
dences.' *' 

Ann Cole, a pemon of seriout piety, iiring in Hartford, in 1002, waa taken 
with very strange Iks, wjicreoo her ton^^io wa« im/^rmW by a demon, to expreti 
tbiDgi unknown to herself— Co^^jii Mttihtr^ Jftitunfitia^ Book VI. 

8. To take an oppoi-tunlty; to do as occasion requires. *' He 
improved aecorditigly ** — Chaplin on the Sacramentu^ p. 54, n* par. 1. 

Improvexnent. The part of a dii^course intended to enforce and apply 
the doctrines is called the improvement. — Wehster, Mr. Pickering 
has ahowu that the word is uiied also by Scottish i^Titers. 

The conelufdon is termed, ftomewhat maccunitely, mokitt^ an imprviptimtnt of 
tbe whole. Tlie author, w<? presume, mean» dwluciug from the whole what may 
eon tribute to tbe j^uuera) improptmetU. — Brilitth Critic, VoL I. p. 37ft. 

The *' British Critic*' is wrong in the presumption. A minister 
improved the cwciiaionT or the subject of liis sermoUf by its pnictical 
application of it to his hearers. The improvement was the name 
given to snch application. 
Improvements. Valuable additions or ameliorations; as buildings, 
clearingSf drains, fences on a farm, — Wdn*fer. See Betterments. 

In, for into* Mr. Coleman, in remarking upon the prevalence of this 
inactuiracy in New York, says : *' We get in the stage, and have tlie 
rheumatism into our knees." — N, Y, Evening Post^ Jan. 0, 1814. 
An observing English friend at Philadelphia also speaks of its fre- 
quent use there in the following terms : ** The preposition into is 
almost unknown here. They say, ^ When did you come in town ? * 
* I met him riding in town** " — Pickering* Also heard in Boston, 

In, a. The reverse of QUt, So used in New England. 






lOf n. 1. A person having offioe or position ; the being in office, the 
opposite of out, 

2, A favorable disposition; the being ** in humor^*' 

Do you iiippose / would bear wilh Moses Peun*!, mM lii» ins and outs, luid api 
Aiid downs, and be aIwav^ putting bim before mysieilf in tvtry ibing^ ma yon do? 
The Indeprndrnt, Feb. 6, 1861, Tait btf Mr». SUace. 

la our midat. A very common and incorrect expression among 
dergjrmen, and much used at prftyer-mt!eting.H. The Newport cor- 
respondent of the '' Provitierice Journal/^ in de.'^crilnng a fashion- 
able wedding in that city, says : — 

Tbe whole mfSmir waft oat of tlie mo»t ■grwable that has occurred in our mtdM 
for A long time. 

We bave in ftur midM &ho our talea and LraditloDi of the devolution, — Appie- 
tm'tJourwil^ April, 1877, p. ^67^ 

Inaugnral. The address of a public officer on hia inauguration into 
office ; an inaugural address. Ex. : ^' Have you read the President's 
inmigural f** 

To Inangnxate. To begin- A word now coming much into use in this 
sense. The good English use of the word is to consecrate j to 
invest with new office by solemn rites, &c Good writers never use 
it as we now do. 

Inoa. (Kechua.) The title of a king or prince of Pern, before its con- 
quest by the Spaniards. 

Indebtednefta. The state of being indebted. — Chancellor Kent. A 
modern word, reputed of xVnierican origin; not often used by En- 
glish writers, yet it is found in recent English dictionaries. 

Iiidependeno9 Day, Tlie fourth day of July, the day on which the 
Congress of the United States renounced their subjection to Great 
Britain, and declared their indefjendence. 

Ipdian Bed. An Indian beri of clams is made by setting a number of 
dams together on the ground with the binge up|x^rmost, and then 
kindling over them a fire of brushwood, which is kept biiniing till 
they are thoroughly roasted. This is the best way of roasting 
dams, and is often practised by picnic parties. See Clamlmkt, 

Indlaii Bread. Brtmd made of the meid of Indian-corn and rye also 
called ** Bob ton bread,'' or ** Rye and Indian.'* 

If I don't make A }obnny-cakc every day, Kler *ayii, ** M8| why don't yon makfl 
some iHfiiftn brtadf** — Wtdptft BrdoH pftpcra^ p. 70, 

Indian Com. Maize ; so called l:>eeause cultivated by the aborigines. 
Indian Corn-Hillfi. 1, In Essex Co., Mass., a phit of ground where 
hummocks look like the hillocks in which maize is grown. 



2. A term given to hillocks covering broad fields near the ancient 
mounds and earthworks of Ohio, Wisconsin, &c. They are with- 
out order or ivrrmigement, being scattered over the surface with the 
utmost irregularity. That these iiiammiUary elevations were formed 
in the manner indicated by their nnme i^ inferred fnmi tlie present 
custom of the Indiana. The corn in planted in Iho name s\x>t each 
successive year, and the 8oil is gradually brought u]i to the size of a 
little hill by the annual additions- — Lapkam^i Antiquities of Wk- 
comtin . 

Thene rintlctu« com-hilU were unusually larf^v, mid wpre, u thi! Trmiuois ia- 
formed me, three or four iim«» llitr diameter of modern hillB. » size wbivh resiiltad 
fhjiii the want of a plough. — Schoulcnift' » Indian Tnbes<, Vol, I. p» 67. 

Indian Currant. See Coral Berry. 

Indian Dab, A kind of hatter-cake, Pennsylvania. 

Indian Fig. The fruit of a gigiintic plant (Cerey^H gitjantew) of the 
Cactus family, known ami>ng the Indiaus of New Mexico and 
Arizona ass the Pitahaya^ the fruit of which resembles the fig in 
taste. — Bartletfs Pers, Narrative, VoL IT. p- IB9. It is also ap- 
plied to the common prickly pear» and so is Barbary fig. 

Indian Pile. Single file; the usual vf^^ i" which the Indiana traverse 
the woods or march to battle, one following after and treading in 
the foot<jtep« of the other. 

Miig:u« aro^e and gave tlie signal to proceed, marching himftclf in advance. 
They followed their lender eiiijjly* and in that well-known order which haa ob» 
tainted the distinguishing appelbtJun of ImUun^lt. — Cuqper, LtiMt of tk^ MM^ 

Indian Fort Enclosures, usually by banks of earth three or four feet 
in height, found in West^em New York, Pennsylvania^ Ohio^ and 
other Western States. They were fouud by the early aettlers, and 
are apparently of great antiquity. 

Indiem Gift. A terra proverbially applied to any thing reclaimed 
after being g:iven. 

Indian Giver, When im Indian gives any thing, he expects to receive 
an equivalent, or to have hi» erift returned. This term ia applied 
by children to a child, who, after hiiving given away a thing, wishes 
to have it back again. 

Indian Hemp. (^Apoe^mtm eannabinumJ) A medicinal plant, 

Indian Ladder. A ladder made of a small tree by trimming it ao aa 
to leave only a few inches ul each branch as a support for the foot 




BBTing provided ourselves with a tong: BTiRior^d napling, catkd an Indian 
hddtr, we desccaded uufely to the buttom of the jp*olto. — Btirinnfk** Flarida^ 
p. 247. 

Indian Liqaor. Whiskey adulterated for sale to the Indians, 

A citken of St. Piiu! r\inmh»?ft mme pretty hnnl paper* on his frlhiw sinnerft 
who trade with the North*wiesteru Indiana. He ^^av!* a barrel of the "puwj 
Cincinnati,'* even after it has run the guuintlet of rtillruad niul lake tmvH, i^ A 
sufllr ietit bo-Hb upon which to innriufni'ture one hundred barwb of '* pood Indian 
iiquor!*'' He say it a small hiicketful of the Cincinnati artii-lD is poured into a 
wasb-tub almost full of rain wuTer : a lar^fR quantity nf ** dog-log *' tobacco and 
red-pepper h then thrown into the tubj a bitter spfcies of ruot, common in *' the 
land *kf the Dakota," h then cut up and added; burnt auj^r or »onic? audi article 
ia UMsd to re}<torL' ^>mcthing like the orighml color nf Ihe whiNkcy. The eoinpotind 
hfta to be kept on hand a few d«ys before it is Ht for nw!. It i» then admini>)tened 
to the aborigines ad libitum. — jVfi/. Inttilii/ttvctr, July 10, 1858. 

iBdiae Meal. Meal made from Indian corn. A tuixture of the flour 

of wheat and maize is called wheat and Indian. 
Xndiani Orchard. An old orcliard of ungrafted apple-trees, the time 

of planting being unknown . New York and Massachusetta, 
Indian Peache«. Un grafted jieach-trees, which are con«idered to be 

mure thrifty and to bear larger fruit thau the others. 
Indian Pliy«lo. See Bowman* a R&oi. 
Indian Pipe. See Wax Plant. 
Indian Pudding. A pudding, the chief ingredients of which are 

Indian meal and mokkSHe.^. 
A» to |:rrandmother'f Imiian pudiHnys, — aka ! I ehall never fee thuir like again. 

Goodrich" t HtmittUctma^ Vol I, p. ^TL 

Indian Reservation or Heaenre. A tract of land re^^erved for the 
use of Indiana. 

Indiana. The name improperly given by early navigators to the abo- 
rigines of America, in the belief that the countiT they inhabited 
was the ea.steni portion of India, a name then applied to far eastern 
Asia. The Spaniards^ until within the present century, applied 
the name of " India** and *' ludia-i ** to their im-^sessiions in Amer- 
ica t and even now it ia said that in Seville the department or olice 
where thp business of America i» transacted, and which in England 
would be called the ** Colonial Office/' is known as the ** India 

Columbus was the firat to call the natives of the New World 
Imiiang, believing that the laiida he hail discovered wi-re on the 
confines of India, in A^a. In his celebrated letter to Ferdinand 
and laabellai announcing his great discovet^, when speaking of the 
name^s he had given to the islandSf he says, ** To the drst island I 

314 IND 

fell in with I gave the name of San Salvador; . . . the Indians call 
it Guanahani " (andado los indies gnanaham). 

Indian Sign. Signs of the recent presence of Indians in the wilder- 
ness. See Sign, 

Indian Sunimer. A writer in the '* National Intelligencer " for 
Nov. 26, 1857, has the following remarks on this topic: "The 
short season of pleasant weather usually occurring about the middle 
of November is called the Indian Summer^ from the custom of the 
Indians to avail themselves of this delightful time for harvesting 
their corn ; and the tradition is that they were accustomed to say 
*• they always had a second summer of nine days just before the 
winter set in.' It is a bland and genial time, in which the birds, 
insects, and plants feel a new creation, and sport a short-lived sum- 
mer ere they shrink finally from the rigor of the wiuter*s blast. 
The sky in the mean time is generally filled with a haze of orange 
and gold intercepting the direct rays of the sun, yet possessing 
enough of light and heat to prevent sensations of gloom or chill, 
while the nights grow sharp and frosty, and the necessary fires give 
cheerful forecast of the social winter evenings near at hand. 

*^ This season is synonymous with the * Sunmier of St. Martin' 
of Europe, which derives its name from the festival of St. Martin, 
held on the 11th of November. Shakspeare alludes to it in the First 
Part of Henry IV. : — 

* Farewell thou latter spring ! 
Farewell all hallown suinmer ! ' 

** And more expressively in the First Part of Henry VI. : — 

* This night the siege assuredly I '11 raise ; 
Expect St. Martin's summer, halcyon days.' " 

Indian Tobacco. (Lobelia infiata.) A plant whose leaves contain a 
poisonous, white, viscid juice, of an acrid taste. The common Mul- 
lein (Verbascum thapsus) was formerly called ** Indian Tobacco,*' 
in New Jersey. — Kalm^s Travels, Vol. I. p. 401. 

Indian Turnip. 1. {Arum triphyllum.) The root of an acrid and 
powerful poison when fresh. Commonly called ** Wake Robin " in 
New England; and in Rhode Island ** Jack-in-the-pulpit." 

2. (Psoralca esadenta.) A common root in the West, much used 
by the Sioux Indians as food. It is also called Pomme Blanche and 
Pomme de Prairie. 

Indian TVeed. Tobacco. 

When Charles the First, long since came hither. 
In stormy and tempestuous weather. 



Learfng behind to rnhe np seed, 
And tend s stlTtking: Indian Wttd^ 
Scotch, Insb, and H ybemianfi wild^ &c. 
BiA^^td Rtdwimu . . . calcultUtA for tkt Meridian of Maryland (1730), p. 10. 
To indict. To indite. 

Never wait letter to the ** Conf^gmttonnlist " mdi4Stfd fmm tb« lociility before* — 
Conyrtf^tifmalitA^ Feb. 7^ 1862, LtU. from HatUr^M Jfdtt. 

Zndig;nation Meeting. A public meeting called by a pjlitiral or other 
party, for the purpose of devising means to correct au alleged or real 
public abiLse, 

Iiutead m( those indifjinaiifm mtftinfiM Mt on foot in the time of William (ha 
Testy, where tnea met together to rail at public abii»eji, ^irnn iiver the evLli ol 
the tlinc«, itnd make cjwrh other mt«criible» there were joyous meetings of the 
two sexes to djLiic« and mitke merry. — Irmng, Knichtrbickfr. 

The {lublic look chii;fly to thip prpHs for adviri' nod informntion fts to their 
ilgrhtA aJid duties, and had resolved that it should not be papged aiitl put d***ifn by 
''"illegal orders, attaclitiients fuieA and impmonuientJi fur itnii^iiqary cooictupta 
Against eoDrti which carinot be reduced much luwer than they have reduced thisn- 
•elve*," So said the rejHilulioiw of the indit/nnttwi mtetin^ of the 9lh Murrh, 1851 ; 
snd thii hingiui^ was generally applauded. — Ann*rU of San Fmncifco^ p. 324. 

iDfsir. The " reception '* party or entertain men t of a newljr mairied 
couple. Weat and South. 

The in/cnV, or wedding ■ upper, wa« all ready, we were marshalled to our ieatJi; 
md a mo»t t umpttsoai fe«»t it waa. — Southern SkftchvM^ p. iifJ. 

Inf onaato ry . Giving i n f o r in at io n . * * To indite long 1 e Uptb inform' 
atory and descriptive," — Lett, from Virginia in N. Y. Tribune , 
April 9, 1802, 

Ixuide of. Within; in lean time than. Tn common u.9e. 

They [the libertine Had the harlot] would pollute the society of Heaveti indde 
q/" twenty-four houm, if they went there. — BmUm Journal^ April 27, 1877. 

Institution. A flash word of recent iutroductioti, as applied to any 
prevalent practice or thing. 

The driving of vehicles ta a great iMtituiiun among ua, and may be safely said 
loeomitttute alrnof t the only out-tloor aniuiJement of the majority of our male popu- 
lation. The ambition of every faj*t man. ynun^^ or old, la to poiAaexd a wagon with 
one or two tniiting horAen attached. — M. Y. ffertitd. 

Garroting, as an imtituHfm, mny be mn\ to he nlmoi«t extinct In New Tork. Ft 
WtDtout tif fajihion in a de^pc-rato luirrv imfnediately aft^r a scn^^ihle juilge sen- 
teoced three garroters to the state prison, one for life» the others for twiMity-one 
yeiiri each. — Tricks and Trapt of S'ctp Vork, p. 47. 

Wlmtever Mnall thinkers and strmll actors may attempt, womnn cannot ha 
eotinteii out and clAJi»iiied as & mure appendaj;^. She is an inttittitiim^ and h^re* 
after must receive the most generous culture and recognition, if man and society 
ard ever tu be more Lluia Ihey have hema in times past. — * S, X. Stuart^ m N^ ¥• 
Tribiint, 1858. 



A very ijnwholeM>ine object, the c(irc»Mi of a Ufge dog, ha^ been suffcrod td I 
in Kinth Street^ nenr O, since Tueiwlav, jiltliuu^h um^t ftlKjinumbW offensive and 
unbeulth y. A simitar institution ha» occupied u f ite on the coinuione for 9<^me { 
time poist, flUij^ the air with uoxioua odor*. — ( WftAA Evtuiny Star^ *Tuly, 1856. i 

From the folio wing^ example, it appears that this use, or rather 
abuse, of the word, la not confined to thU country; — 

The cajnelsi form mn itutituti^m of Indi», — powibly « pnrt of the truditifioiJ 
policy, — and they must be respected accordingly. — London Titnu Cor. frrfm 
India. — April, 1858, 

To instruct out To remove from office, as a Member of Congress, 
by ins^tructions sent from a State Legislature. 

Mr Tyler , , . opposed the reinuviil u( the U. 8, depoidts from the U, S. Baok 
by General Jack»oii's order, ond wa» in 1%M inslructtdl out of the SctLat« on 
tbiit i>>«ue, having previously been very strongly stistained by the LegiaJatore of 
[Virginia]. —JV. Y. Trih*ne, Jan. 22, 1862, 

To inaurrect. To rise; to make an insurrection. 1 

If there '» any latitude in free ni|5y:eTS| wow Uiey *ll iimirrcci and take nit 
out of prison. — Vanitj/ fair, April 5, 1862. 

Interest. Mnnifej^tiition of uttention; escx^resaion of emotion; revived 
feeling, especially respecting religion. 

The South Church rn (Concord lia» had a quiet religjoua inltrcM fof iWO 
months or more. — Her. JtiSfph dxtk, in Conf/rrgfrtionaiitt, 

To Interfere. '' lie interfered with me/* in the West, generally implies 

rough usage. 
Zntorior. The Mississippi Valley. Recent and growing usage. 

Interval or Intervale. T>nw or alluvial land on the margins of riven, * 
So called in New England. Similar land ia called, in the Western 
States, ** bottom bind/* — Worcester, 

Tlic interval intended in New Eiiji^Und geography ii the interval or flpacA 
between a river and the inountain*, which on both tide* uaifonuly accompany 
it« courjie at a greater or 1c»b diiitiince frota itA margin, tlvnt'c intrrrnl tandf 
iuclttde meadow and uplands, and tn general tha whtde of the narrow valley 
thmiigh which, in theiM: regiona, the dveni 6ow. — KtmdnltM TravtU^ Vol. IIL^ 
p. 18:i. 

Interviewer. A person employed by some of the leading newi^pajiers, ] 
whose business it is to obtain an interview with a partienlnr party] 
for the purpose of obtaining information, which is to be made] 
known to the public. A Ciircinnati paper, of Sept 10, 1S77, thiwi 
heads an article upon the pcdicy of President Hayes, who was at thoj 
time on a visit to Ohio: **The President run down by Uie Inter- ] 

Then the intfrtitwtr began p.*ntly to exercise thoie lathery «rtt| fof illill ia J 
which bis jbort is rcnownedj — JV. Y, Tribune, 



SeiiAtor Rollins, of New fljimpshirCf refii<ie9 to tslk potiticf with Anybody, but 
1 vigorou!!i applicHtion of thp inftrpiewer'4 pump has cxtmcfcd fmm him the 
remark that the Civil Service onlcr &gaja»t offlce-hulders will eventtially be a 
dead letter, — Botton paptr. 

Tilt Hon. Znrbariali Chandler ha* paid a brief vinit tn Wa*hinston, ... The 
honijfn' inUt^fWer <)^ourided him m vain for an opinion, and had lo coiitpnt hltn- 
ftclf with rhe fjreneral observation tli»t the ex-Secre(nry lm>k# like a man who U 
Mjing nothing, but doing an awful amount of thinking* — N. ¥". Tribtm€f Scpt> 
18, 1877. 

To interview. To quefttioti; to obtain infoi-mation by qiiestiotiing; 
to " pump a pel-son for the purpose of obtaining secrets/' 

Mr. I]*'echer is inttrvieirtd even' day or two now on the fmlitical nituatioa, and 
each time he takes a more cheerful view of the outlook. — N. V. Triitune. 

Into. Used as denoting a nurnbi:*r or quantity, &c., deficient; as, ** I 
had enough [money] inln six cents.'* ** It was wide enough into an 
inch/* Contiecticut 

Zo-tf. Certainly; indeed, "Ye5;in-ty." U«ed by aged persons at 
Salem I Miw^s., al>out 1820, and also in Xew Ilampshii^. The word 
is probably Freiich, enfipr, euftre^ used much as th*? Englijib-f^peaking 
Irish now use entirety, ** Yes^ in-fcy ; ** ** Xo, in-ty/* were formerly 
used in the vicinity of Roxbury and of Newton, MasBachusetb, 
80 stated by Professor C E. Stowe to the Kev% R, M. Chipman. 

Inwardness, Intf*rei?t; purpose. Frf*quently employed in this sense 
in thn Beech er- Til ton correspondence. 

The true inu^ardneu of the late Southern policy of the Repabht-an party. — 
M F, Tribune, April, 1877. 

Iri»lL Temper; anger. Colonel Dick Johnson, of Tecumseb reputa- 
tion, used this Western substantive iti one of his Eastern speeches: 
** My friends say that ray friah is gt^tting up/* meaning, I am get- 
ting angry. 

Xititi Potato. A term used throughout the country to distinguish 
the common (Sohnnm tuiferoaum) from the sweet potato (Convolvulus 
bafafaA ) . t 

Iron-clad Oath. A term af>plied to an oath required to be taken by 
Sonthern men engaged in war against the Urtion^ to entitle them to 
the privileges of an American citizen, 

&on Weed. { Vernonia nov€lmrficf*nsi.<t.) A plant, called in the North- 
eastern States Flat Top, almost the only tall weed found iu the beau- 
tiful ** wood pastures ** of Kentucky and Tennessee. Western. 

IrreliabLlity. The quality of that which we cannot rely upon. 

Surely, the irrtUnbUtty of our war news mupt b« demoraliaing ail our chouuels 
of inrurmation. — The C(mgre$aHonalitt, Jan. ai, 18d3. 

818 IS— IWA 

Im. Some American grammarians condemn snch expressions as '* He 
is come, arrived, returned, gone; teas come," &c., universal in Eng- 
land and occurring everywhere, in the Bible and the best writers. 
No Englishman would say ** the boat 'has gone," ** has come: " he 
would say, '* he has gone to London many a time; " ** he has come 
several miles to no purpose;" *' he has returned by a different 

The difference in meaning is obvious, and contributes to enrich 
the language. In the former expression, gone, arrived, &c., are real 
participial adjectives, expressing a permanent state ; in the latter, 
they are verbs. 

Isabella Grape. A cultivated grape of Vitis labrusca^ not much es- 
teemed for its' wine-producing qualities, but grown for table use. 

Island. In prairie regions, the same terms are used as if the timber 
were land and the prairie water. A cluster of trees is called an 
island J sometimes a mot, — a small strip of prairie running into a 
wood, a cove, and a larger one, a bay. 

The soil of the prairies is deep and rich ; bat, being of a clayey nature, retains 
the water after heavy rains, so as to appear flooded. In some are little clumps of 
trees on higher ground, which are called itlands. — Harris, Journal of a Tour, 
&c., p. 178. 

At the summit of the hill is a beautiful grove, or idand of timber, where tha 
heroes that fell at the battle of San Jacinto sleep their last sleep. — A Stray 
Yankee in Texas, p. 252. 

iBBnanoe. The act of issuing. 

^ir. Wilson called up the bill for the reduction of the military 
peace establishment. 

A long discussion occurred on a portion of the bill providing for the issuance of 
arms to the State authorities for militia purposes. — Debate in U. S. Senate, 
July 20, 1868. 

Item. Information ; as, ** I got item of his being in town." This word 
is used among Southern gamblers to imply information of what 
cards may be in a partner's or an opponent's hands: this is called 
** giving iVcm." 

Keep your eves skinned and your rifles clean, and the minit yer get item that 
I *m back, set off for the cross roads, &c. — N. Y. Spirit of the Times. 

Itemize. To make, prepare, collect. 
I Itemizer. ** An itemizer of the * Adams Transcript.' " — Congrega- 

Jf^* tionalist, Sept. 21, 1860. 

^mm^^^^ Ivy. In Connecticut use, for Laurel. 

^rjL ^ I want to know! Exclamation of surprise. ** The Russians have 

^ gained a great battle." **I want to know I " 



To jab. To strike or thrust; as^ '* llejahhed a knife into me.*' 
Jacal. (Span., pron, hacal; from the Mexican xfienlfi, a straw hut.) 

A house built of erect stakes, with their iiitersticea fiUeit with mud. 

The}* are common in Texas and in new Spanish settleUM^nts, 

The mmlpm villaifp of GoIijmI js ct>rnpo*"ipii of Jibntit tvfvnty jncnh, liir^, and 
of A eompamllvely comfortable character, souttered over two hills, — Ofuittiffi't 
Tt^4, p. 26-2. 

Jackass -Rabbit (Ltp^nt caHofis.} A rabbit, found on the high plams 
of Texas and near the Rocky Mountains, »o called from its very 
long ears and long and Blender legs. It is known also by the namea 
of Mule Rabbit, Texan Hare, and Black- tailed Hare. The term is 
also applied to til e L^pwt Teimnu,t (Auduhon and Bach ma n^ HI. 156). 
Both species were so called by our sc>ldiers, in the Mexican war. 

Our coaversilifiti wt» cut ^hnrt by b jarkn»$-mhiiit bouudin^ from ntider our 
llOTSefl* ttei.^Awimhon'g Qurnhvpefis of Ntfrth America, VftL H. p Ofi. 

The jaclxig$-rnbkit crossed our path i^rciiHionjilly ; but it spranc up ^f> ^uddi^nly^ 
and durted throujErh Ibe low bu^beA or cbappnral so rapidly, thnt I could not g«t 
m shot At one. — Bartiett'M iV«uj ^ftxicp^ Vol. I. p. 76. 

Jack-at-a-Piuoh. As a last resort. A u pis ttUer, 

The fact is. Miss Coon fedii wonderfully cut up, becauM the knowa that ber 
husband tw>k h'dr Jack-at^a-pindt. — Widow Beffntt Paptrs, p, 27. 

Jacksoo Crackers, Fire crackers. South-western. 

Jack*ln-the-Piilpit- (ArhnFma tripkt/Ihim.) The Indian turnip. The 

recent tuber boiled in milk is a popular medicine iu coughs. Kbw 

England, In Connecticut, it in called One-herrif, 

Jack-inAhe-pulpit preaches to-^ayt 

Under the green tree* juwt over the wny, 
Squirret p,nd ^onj^-ApajTow, high on their ii«rch, 

Hear ihc sweet bty-bella hngiog to church. — Jnnt Taylor, 

Jack-Stones. A game played with five small stones, or ^ ith the same 
number of bones from the knees of a aheep. It is an old game, and 
is known in England as DM». See further iu Addenda, ^ "? ^7, 

Jag. A parcel or load. — JIaUiwelL And so in Xew England. 

Ai there wa* very little money in the country, the bank bought a good jog 
on 't in Europe. — Major Dntcnimja LetttrB^ p, ICS. 

Jam. In Maine, Canada, and elsewhere, where logs are floated down 
streams, they have often to pass where tlie channel is contracted by 
encroaching cliffs, or where the river is otherwise obstructed. In 
going down I the progress of the logs is sometimt?s checked, otlier 



logs are dri'v^en down until thousands are piled up in inextricftble 
confusion^ blocking up the river for hundreds of yards, and isome- 
tlmes where the streum is narrow for miles. Thb is called a jam* 
It is sometimes very difficult, and attended with great danger, to 
break these /rtmn* of logs. In aome cases, they form a dam, when the 
water rises until the dam gives way. The breakinjr of a Jam in- 
volves the failure or success, among luml>enneu, of a !ung winter 
camjjaign. It must be done quickly, ere the frpshet subsideSi or 
the labor of the year is io«t. The same term is applied to floaliug 
iee, which, floating down a river, meets with an obstruction and 
forms a jam. 
Jam up. A slang expression, equivalent to the English ^* slap ttp/* 
»' bang up,'' i\ e. capital, prime. 

There rau«t have been a obftmiing eliauite in Paradise. Tht* tetnpeniiure wm 
perfect, and connabim! bliaA^ I allot, was real jam i^. -^ Sam Sliek^ ffuman I^atmret 
p. 273. 

Jamaica Pepper, See Alhpice, 
Jamboree. A frolic; a row; a jollification. 

Ca*e was arrefted by « police oflicer. at hi» b(»u>io, drunk t loar through. He 
was havttig a go+xl dMil of ^jimb(*rt€t and dcOed the police to take him, — Ntw 
York Police Rtporl. 

G. B. went on a Te^\\\nT jambntft on Tbur»day night. FlUinp hittii»elf up with 
bad liquor, he raised a row and was taken wp by llie police. — Pront/enct Prtu. 

Jam.eBto'wn Weed. (Prou. Jimmn weetL) The Thorn A|>ple {Da^ 
turn stromonium). Its Northern names are Stinkweed and Apple 
of Peru. It is said to have been introduced frora tropical America* 
and to have been first observed about Jamestowti, Virginia, where it 
sprang up on Ueaps of ballast and other rubbish discharged from 
vessels; whence its Soutliern name. 

The JatneMtotcH tcttd ia one of tlie greatest coolen in the world. It, being an 
early plant» wa* ^thered very younjur for a boili-d *al«d by i»onie of the soldiers, 
to pacify the troubles of baeon, and some of them eat plentifully of \t^ the effect 
of which waa a very pleaaant comedy: for they turned natural fools upon it for 
several days — Bettrl^, Hut. of FiVyiwiVi^ Book II. 

The Jnmtgioirn vted t» exL'eliLMil for curing bunih and a«)^uaginu: inffammatinnx; 
but taken iuwiirdlv brings on a sort of dntuken inudne^. — /^ifTJiw** Carolina^ 
1738, p, 78. 

**Gcorg^e, did yon ever lee Sicily Boms ? *' **Te8» a vetr handsome girl." 
^' Handfiotne ! thi^ wurd don't kiver the eaye. She <thowi among wiuirn like a 
sun-flower as compared to dog-fennel, an* smart weed* imdJirMrn.*^ — Sut Lur^r^ 

Jammed. Mashed, when applied to potatoes. ** Will you have your 
potatoes whole or jammed f^ was aaked of a traveller at a hotel in 
the interior of tha^State of New York* 




Japonloadom. A word invented by X, P. Willis to denote the upper 
classes of society. Allusive to the fiower known as the Japoiiica 

Jaqolma. (Span., pron* hakte-ma.) Tbis bead- stall of a lialteri used 
in Texas and California for breaking^ wild horses. 

Jaybawker, A cant name in the Western States for a lawless op 
other soldier not enlisted; a free booting armed man; a guerilla. 
** The Leavenworth Conservative " says ** the term was first applied 
to Colonel Jennison, of New York, and, being a jovial, festive, and 
li?ely cuss, his comrades always spoke of him aa the * Gay Yorker.* 
This expression was afterwards used to designate bis men, and in 
its various travels imturally midei^went many changes until at last 
it crystallized into Jayhnwker.'' — N, Y. World, Jan. 8, 1862. 

We lire soldier*, not thieves or plunderers, or Jayhawkti^. — Prodamation (*f 
Oetumi Jnmcg Lrtm. Oct, 1861. 

General Sheridani in a despatch, having spoken of Louisiana 
** banditti,** gave much offence to the ]»eople of New Orleans. In 
explanation, the General said: — 

The terms /«yAaK?lr<T ind Banditti were ewployiid to dbUn|Lrnii«h them from 
the While League, a aecret military (jrRaiiiiz.atiozi. The tenn Jaifhaicker couid not 
be used, for tlio Whit© Leagues were nut plunderen and robbers. 

To jeopardise. To expose to loss or injuiy. — Wehgter, Thia word 
is often Been in the debates of Congrega, as they are reported in tlie 
newspapers. It is doubtless a corniption of the ancient verb (o 
jeopardy as depufize is of depute. — Pickering. The word is ranch 
Qsed in the United States, and less frequently in England. 

Tlie profound respect for the cri]p« of truth which led Mr. Tooke not ioJfojMrd- 
Mt its interests by any basty afiaumption of its name and pretenHinns fcir a 
diioo^ery y«t incomplete constitutes one of his surest holds upoi posterity. — 
Lemdtm Mhtnttum, March 18, 1348. 

A horse, with a wagon attAcbed, took fright yesterday afternoon in York 
Streett and tiartfd off at full 9^ed^ jt^^ardidng the lives and limbs of pede^itrittms. 
One female, with a rliild in her arms, narrowly escaped being knocked down and 
ran over. — N. Y, Courier and JL'nquirer. 

Jerked Meat. Dried meat; a term more generally applied to beef 
dried in the open air. Some imagine the word to have come from 
the Spanish Vharqui, the common term in all Spanish America, 
Hejtico alone excepted, for dried beef. 

Jerks and Jerking Ezerclae. The paroxysms into which certain 
religions enthusiasts fell at their camp-meetings in the West, thouj^ 
chiefly in Kentucky and Tennessee. It consisted in being jerked in 
all directions, and over whatever object hapi>eaed to be in the way. 


^^^ fvr 



In these- «iitit*itl» persons aflfected would be left to thomselrea, 
becansQ ilie peqile fftid that to opp'os^ them would he t'* rKsiMtthe 
influences of the Spirit of God. 

lesfiie. *• To give one Jesitie ** means to give him a flog^ng, 

Wellf hoss, you "ve stashed Ihe hide off 'er Lliat felter, touched his niw, *nd 
romplod hU fcalhers, — that 't the way to git^e kmjtmff, — Mobd, SquntUr ij^€, 

p. da. 

Tlie preacher went in for giving Jtmt to the Church of Rome. — Doutich, 
p, 106. 

It is Tvprestnted that a great many people from Salt Ijike have been met, und 
they nil Mj that the Mormoni* «re ifoing to gipt <*? Jtmv. — St. LoiU* MtpnUi* 
con^ 1867. 

The Judij^ [who w*» a caitdidttte for office] had to itay At a conrcnieiit divtaooe 
to hear that Hoas Allen wan giving him partiadar /eite. — Bom AU€n*$ Jpol^ffg. 

Jewhilllken*! A Western cxclamatton of anrprise, 

Ditln't you know that feller, Arch Cooney ? He was a hos^-fty* He *» a fewl 
wdl he tfl. JewhiUthn, how he could whip a nigger! and awear! wtiew! — 
Trmt* of Atn*rimn Humor* 

To jib. A horse in a carriage, when he stands still and refuses to go, 
is said to Jih. In England, the term is applied to a horse that 
backs iniit^aii of going forward. — HalUxcelL See Baulk. 

Jibber. A horae in harness who stands still and refuses to go forward. 

Let any p«r«Qn driving a «tran^ horse, with a load that he is not stire ha can 
start eaj^ily, proceed according U% directions; and he may be certain that, if th« 
animal he not already AJibber^ hs will not make hlmsjelf ao. — Jtnninga tm th€ 
fforte, p. 200 

To jibe. To suit, agree, harmonize. A variation of to gee, which last 
is used both in England and in this country. Nautical in its 
origin: ^^ to go about^ with the wind aft;** to jibe well is to tffork 
well. One vessel yi7/c,<f, another tads, l>etter, 

I attempted to sing the words of ** Old ritindrcd," while the lady played tha 
Jenny Und Polkji^ which didn't se^m to Jt&t, — Dotstkkt, p. 118. 

Jig. An artificial squid for trolling. New England, 

'* A achoni of blue-tish ! ** exclaimed the Profeaftor, as hit ayecatight tb« fiiov*> 
mii^nt to which 1 pointed. He i<hnuted frantically to the pilot to make haate with 
the d4)ry, and, throwing on an overcoat, teized from the Itw^ker whene we kept 
our fi^hin^f tat kit- a Jong, Rtoui h'ne, at the end of which was a ihining, apooo- 
ahaped piece tH* pewt4ir, terminated by a largfs hook. This apparatus he callcMl a 
jiff. — N. r. Tribune, July 22, 1858.' 

Upon the river St. Lawrence, the oontrivanoe referred to i^ called 
a spoon-hook^ where it is used for catching bass, pike, and mus- 



Th« Jig U up, i €, the game is up; it is all over with me. 

The limt! whs when \ could cut j>igeon-wmgii and perform the doubl&^hoffle 
with precision and Activity ; but ihoie days Are orer now, — the jiff i» up. -~ iTeit- 
dnil, Sanin F* £xpetiitum^ YaL I, p, 6*2. 
Jifamaree. A triTial or Tioti-senBible thing. A factitious word, eqtiiv- 
aletit to '' jiggiimbob ** and '* thingiiinbob.** It is explained in the 
English glossaries to mean a manosuvTe, a trick. 

He u alfio the iowentor of the ** housekeefwr's friend/* that crc jigamarec the 
wimmim icruba with^ nistvad of going on theiT hands ftjid knees ai^ tbt?y need to. 
N* r. Spirit Pfthe TimtM. 

1 went over t'other night to see then) all) vt they wah as busy ai bee* in & tmr 
b&met 6uwin' and miikin' up fint-rj-. Mary wns sowin' sometliing mighty fliw 
with ruffles andyi^iraarec* all around it. '—Major Junti^B C(mrt^ip, 

Jigger. 1. An insect. See Chigoe, 

2. A small fishiog vessel. New England. 

3. A sail 

JiggUng-Board. A board the en da of which are placed upon frames or 
stools, upon which a person staudd and springs up; also called a 
jolly-hoard, ^ 

Jlmbeijawed. Where the lower jaw projects unnaturally, i^jL J-^^"*^ \ 

Jim-Jama. Delirium tremens. Kentucky. 

Jimmy. A piece of iron, varying in length, Rharp-pointed atone end, 
used by burglars for prying open dcMjrs and iron safes, or for forcing 
a lock. 

Jlmpson or Jimaon "Weed. Jamestown Weed. iStramonlum^ Said 
to have been first introduced at Jamestown, Virginia. See Jame»^ 
town Weed. 

She went to the opea door and stood in it and looked oat »mon|^ t^e tomato 

vines And jimpwH wMdM that conithuled the garden. — Mark Tti^ain^ Tom Sauh. 

f er\ p. 18. 
Jobber. 1* Used only conventionally in Wall Street In London, it 

is the equivalent of a stock operator. — Ai^dhery. 
2- One who purchased goods from importers and manufacturers 

by the package, and sells to retailers. 
Jobbing-House. A mercantile estahlishnfient which purchases from 

imfforters and sells to retailers, — Webster, 
Joe-pye Weed. {Eupatoruim purpureum.) Maine, — Th&reau*a Maine 

Woods ^ p. 317. So called from an Indian of that name, who cured 

typhus fever with it, by copious perspiration* — Rajincgquc, Mtd. 

Flora, Vol. I. p. 179. 
Jog. A projection or deviation from a straight line or plain surface, 

e. g, in the oourse of a fence, or in the side of a building. Comp. 



Eo^liah provincial Jockey^ ** unevea ^* (Keut). Jogging, a prottlber- 
aiice on tlie surface of sawn wood. Eastern. 

The arid it ton which Billy Jacobs bAd niAt]< [tu the hou«e] wjie oblong, ruunlng 
out to llie south, and projecting on the from a few feet t>eyond the other part* 
Thi* obtrusive jr*<y^ wa* certuiuly very ugly. — Mercy Phtlbrick'a OnAce^ p. 7. 

The little clumsy, tueaninglessyo^ ruined the houfie^ — gmve it an uiicottifortA- 
bly awry look, kc. — lind,^ p. 8. 

John, A common name in California for a Chinaman. 

I pasAed out of the Chinese tbentre^ with a lady and two children. We had 
to walk through a crowd of Johns. . . . Morcorer^ all that John doe», he »eenia 
to du witii a sluijgiah aiuountof aluggisb decorum. — JVcW/ir^t CaU/omia, p. 85. 

Jolumies. During the late civil war, a term applied by the aoldiera 

of the Cuion army to those of the Confederate army. 
Johnny-Cake. A cake made of Indian meal mixed with milk or 
water. A New England Johnntf-Cake is invariably spread apoD thd 
aiave of a barrel-top, an<l baked before the fire. 8ometime« stewed 
pompkin is mixed with it. 

Some talk of hoe-cake, fair VirgiiLia** pride; 
Rich JoAiuty-caJU this mouth ha» often tried. 
BaLti pteaj»e uie wolt, their virtues much tlie same; 
Alike their fahric^ us allied their fame, 
Except in dear New England, wherv the la«t 
Recdviia a dash of pumpkin in the paste. 

Joel Barlow ^ Poem on Baity Pudding* 
Little Sarah she stood by her ^andmother's bed, 
^" And what %\\a\\ I get for your breakfast t ** she said. 
** You 0lialt get me a Johnntf-c<ikt ? quickly go make it. 
In one minute mix, and in two miuuteft tudke iL '" — L, Ifaria ChUA, 

The origin of the word is doubtful. Some imagioe it to have 
originally been journey-cake, 

AU the greatJiesa of our State haa been nouriithed on johnny^akaoi white corfi> 
meal. Johnny-cakt I ajHiU in dererence to modern usagt% though the old name, 
jonmty-cakt^ may well recall to u» that long and toiliome journey, when our great 
founder fled from the odjou* land of yellow corn. — Cor. of Providence Jnurmd, 

Johnny-jump-up-and-kiB9-nie, Johuny-jump-up, Johnny-Jomp- 
cr. Names given to the Heart*d Ease, or Violet. This name ia 
also given to the breast-bone of a goose, with its two ends brought 
together by a twisted string held by a stick pas.sing through it and 
stuck fast to the end by a piece of wax. 

Jornada. (Simniah, pron. kom&da,) A march or journey performed 
in a day. In the interior, it is only applied to a long reach of dedert 
country without water, and not to a day's jouniey; as, the ^^ Jornada 
del Muerto" in New Mexico, wliich h ninety miles across, and 
which it takes seyeral days to trarerse. 


If carperimentB with trteaijui wella ihontd prove iniccewful, the progreflfl of 
Agriaikure in New Mexico wntiJd bo mnre rupid, and evtu niAny dreaded jor^ 
nadus might be changed from waterlcsa d«a«rta into cultivated plains. — Widi^ 
■e»Hi, New Mtiico, 

Until the autumn of 1840, the Cnltfomia dei^ert wii» found to be a sandy and 
dntary jomnda^ wiUiout water or gra-^s. — Captain Whippk't E;tplorativn^ 
n. R. Survt^. 

Josej. A loose ^ light, upper garment, with sleeves and a short skirt, 
now worn by women and girls. Both the dress and the name are 
contractions of the old-fashioned Joseph, 

Jomh. A word shouted at the New York Stock Exchange to wake up 
a sleepy member. 

A member drop» asleep, worn out it may be by long mghta and feveriih daily 
wrettlingw witb bull or b*'ar. " JmA/" ^^J^^h,^' **/«>*/*/" comeK roaring from a 
dozen leatheni iungH, and the broiler liftm his headi and rubs htJi eyes, startied 
frotn iliunber by the tradittunal rullying cry. — Mtdbtry^ Mm tirul MyMtirieM ^f 
WaU Streti, p/l46. 

Jour or Jiir, An abbreviation of the word joumej/man. '• The boss 
quarrelled Willi the jur*; *' i. *,, the master quarrelled with his jour- 

jQba. One of the classical names often given to Nee^roes by their 
masters. *" Patting or Clapping Juba '* is keeping time by striking 
the feet on the floor and cUpping the hand^on the legs to the music 
of the banjo. It adds much to the excitement of the rustic deuces 
ftt the South. 

Here we saw rare sport! Here wei^ Yirginia ilaves. dancing jig* and clapping 
JulnTf over a barrel of persimmon beeri to the notes of the hanjo. — Southern 
Sketches, p. 98. 

Juber op And Jubtr down, 
Juhtr all around de town, 
Jtihtr dii* nrKl Juhtr dot^ 
And Juhtr round de simmon vat. 

Hoe cam and hill tobacco, 
Get over double trouble^ JvJi^r^ boyi^ Juterl — lifid., p. 101. 

In some versionSi the fourth line reads, ** Juba lub de 'possum fat." 

J^ndas Tree. See Red Bud. 

Judges of the Flaina. A translation of the Spanish Jueces del Campo. 
In CaUfornia, there are» by law, appointed certain persona in every 
county, whoKe dtity it is to attend all the rodeoR^ or gatherings of 
cattle f whether for the purpose of marking or branding, or fur sepa- 
rating the rattle, wlien called upon by any ranchpro, farmer, or 
Owner of atc>ck. These are callt^d Juttges of the P/am>t, and have the 
power to decide all disputes connected with the ownership of horses, 
moles, or horned cattle, — Laws of Cafifornia. See Rodeo. 


The following is an extmct irom a hand-bill stuck up m Sao 
Diego : — 

Ordcredf That the three Jud^ of the Plaint at largfi Ahall meet At S«n Lotili 
Rey ... for consiuJtatioo m aJl matters appertainiuf;; to their dutle* a* Judg*^ 
of X\\t PUiiiSi and to adopt surh niles and regalatioDi as may be aullionited by 
taw, &c. — Nordhof'* Cttltf&mia, p. 338. 

Judiciary, The judicittry power, or the power that admiuUteni jus- 
tice; judicature, — Judge Start/, Tliis word is often u«ed as a sub- 
Btantive in the United States, but is not often so used in England* 
Judy. 1. ** To make a Judy of one's self ** is what, with more vigor 
than politeneHS, is tenned making au ass of ouC'S self* 

The *' Boston Chronot^'pe,'* in speaking of the bad management 
and confusion at the Water celebration, says: — 
It ii thought that a Mt of luea never did make greator Judifs ot tKeaaselv«St 
2. A lamp formerly used in New England for burning blubber. 
Jug, A jail. 1* To be in/ii/;» or in the stone jufj, is to be in jaiL 

So arter this they sentenced me^ to mnkt all tigJil mid snug, 
Afore a reg'lar court o' Uw, to ten yi^ara in the ./my, 

2. Ill American Thief Slangs jug signifies a Bank. 

3. To jug money, &c. , to hide it away. 

Jugfol. ^* Not by A jugful** is a pliraae commonly used to mean, 
not by a gjeat deal, by no means. 

DowningviUe is a» §wect a^i a tow. But 'taint so in Nevr Ydrk, not by tijugftd. 
Major Downinf/^ Maif-day in New York. 

He wii^hed to titaie of the pro>«tairery mea of Kantas, lo that their frieada in 
Miiaouri might B«e into their plan^ mid policy, they bad not abandoned the idc* 
of makjug fLaniaa a slave State^ by SLJu^ui. — P. T. Able** Speech, %ftily, 1857* 

Jtdep. A drink, composed of brandy or whiskey with sugixr, pounded 
ice, and some sprigs of mint. Frequently Mint Juiep. 

Hoffman brings the go<ls together on Mount 01ymj>us, after their 
last butt of nectar had run out, to taste mint juleps: — 

Tho draug;ht wow delicious, each god did exefaltn, 
Though aoinething yet wanting they all did boirall; 

But jWfjM the drink of immortali became, 
When Jovti him^etf added u handful of hatt 

The ^ord julep suppojsed to be American, both in name and for a 
boreragei is mentioned by Beaumont and Fletcher: — 
Men drown themselves ftir joy to draw mjulepa^ 
Wbeu they are hot with wine; in dBBam» wo do it. 

Tht Mud Ufvtr^ Act il, Sc 1. 
Jump. '^ From the jump *^ ia a phrase meaning from the start, from 
the beginning. 



Here is A whole alriag of DemtMjratJir all of wLom hmd bevn going; tke whole 
hog for Cass J'rom (Ac jump, wilhuut regard lu our aUberuiice or opposiUon to 
Tiylor. — .V, r Trihune, Nov. II, 1848. 

To Jump a Claims in Weat<'ni jmrlance, in to endeavor la olituiii i>os- 
sea&ion of tlie land or ** claiDi ^^ which has been taken up and occu- 
pied by a settler, or ** ^(juatter," in ii new country. The first 
occupant is, by Bquatt«r law and custom, entitled to the first claim 
on the land. Sumtjtimes ni«ii att-empt to deprive the 
squatter of liia rights, wliich often lead^ to blood^ihed. 

When I huotcdl cluiuiH, I w^nt f&r audi near, 

Kcflolved from all others lo kiiep mysflf tlear; 

And if, Ihrough mistake, \ Jumped a man^s claim^ 

A» sooa A» I knew it I jumfwd off again* 

E. H. Smith, Hint, of Slack Hatch, 1848. 
If s Tnmi Jumped my cittim^ mid encroached on my boutidariesi and I didn't 
knock him on the bead with a pickaxe, I appeakd to the crowd, and, my claim 
beio^ carefully meaHurt^d and fooxid correct, tUe. J umpt'.r would be onirn^d to i-on- 
fine himself to hi* own territory. — F. Marrt/a/, Mountains and MokhiiU, p, 2IT. 
At Florence, Kebranka Territitry, on the 26th of May, seven men were arrested 
by a mob, for what la called ciaim-jumpifigt — that iff, settling down on sections 
of hiud already entered or claimed by otli^^r person*. They w*?re tried by a club 
asfKiciation, and condemned to deal h by hanjpng; but the urgent entreaties of 
their families averted the execution of the infamous sentence. — Boston TravtHtr, 

To Jump BaU. To abscond. *' Boss Tweed jmnped Aw 6<ii7;" i. «., 
he ran a\vay. 

JxunpeT. 1. One who takes a squatt-er'a claim. 

2, A couple of liickory poles so l>eiit that the runners and shafts are 
of the same piece , with a crate placed on four props, complete tkia 
primitive species of sledge^ and when the crate is filled with hay, 
and lh<j driver well w^rapped in a buffalo robe, the *' turn-out " is 
about as comfortable a one as a man could wish, — HaJ^man^ Wmter 
in the West, p. 20Q. 

Junk-Bottle. The ordinary black glass porter-bottle. 

Samas Root. (Camasvn escttf^ntn,) Breadroot. The Foinrae dea 
Prairies or Pcrmme Blaiiche nf tlie Canadians, and Prahie Turnip 
of the hunters and trapf^era of the West, It is very extensively used 
as food by the Digger Indjans. 

Kanacka. A native of the Sandwich Islands, Kanaka h the Sand- 
wich Island word for ** man," California, 

Kaotiooy. See Canticoij* 

828 EAR— KEE 

Karimption. A sqaad. Western. 

A whole karimption of Dutch emigrmnts were Imnded here jesterdaj. — Cairo, 
JQinoit^ Time*. 

KatowBo. (Germ. Getdse.) A din, tumult, rumpus; as, ** What a 

katowse you are making! '' New England. 
Katydid. (PlalyphyUum concavum.) The popular name of a species 
of grasshopper; so called from its peculiar note. Two of them will 
chirp alternately from different trees, one saying, Katy did ! and the 
other replying with equal positiveness, Katy didnH ! At least, so 
their conversation is interpreted by the children. 
I sit among the leaves here, 

When evening zephyrs sigh, 
And those that listen to my voice 

I love to mystify. 
J never tell them all I know, 

Altho* I *m often hid. 
I laugh at curiosity, 

And chirrup Katy did. — Ethicpian Songs, 
I love to hear thine earnest voice. 

Wherever thou art hid. 
Thou testy little dogmatist. 
Thou pretty Katydid. — 0. W. Holmes*$ Poems. 
Nature was fast asleep, and not a sound interrupted the solemn stillness, save 
the pitiful plaint of a lovelorn Katydid, or an occasional yawl from some sacri- 
legious cat — Dow't SermonSf Vol. III. 

Kay, Cay, Key. (Span, cayo.) A small island or rock in the sea. 

The term is generally applied to those on the Florida coast. 
Keohugl or Kerchug! Whop! The noise made by popping into the 
water. See the observations on interjections of this sort imder 
Cachunk. A modern poet, in speaking of the plunge of a frog, thus 
makes use of the word: — 

You see him sitting on a log 

Above the vasty deep ; 
You feel inclined to say, *• Old Chap, 

Just look before you leap! " 
You raise your cane to hit him on 

His ugly-looking mug, 
But ere you get it half way up 
Adown he goes, — kerchug ! 

Kedge. Brisk; in good health and spirits. Ex.: ** How do you do 
to-day? ** ** I am pretty kedge.*^ It is used only in a few of the 
country towns of New England. — Pickering. Provincial in Eng- 

Keel-Boat. A description of vessel formerly used on the Mississippi 
and its tributaries. It is thus described by Flint: *' The keel-hoot 



\ of a long, slender^ and elegant form, and genemlly carries from 
jBHeen to tliirty tons. Its advantage ia in its small draft of water 
and the lightneiis of it« construction. It is still used [1852] on the 
Ohio and Upper Mississippi in low st^es of water ^ and on all the 
bootable streams where nteamboatj^ do not yet run. Its propelling 
power ia by oara^ sails, setting poles, the oordelle, and, when the 
waters are high and the boat runs on the margin of the bushes, 
^bush-whacking/ or pulling up by the bushes/' — HC^tonf and 
Geography of MinaiM^fippi Vatietf. 

Keeler Tub. A tub in which dishes are washed. ** An greasy Joan 
doth iu:ft the pot." 

Ttie veDAcI in a brewery now ctlted a cooler wmi formerly called a i^eUr, — 
Wn(/hfs Gtottaty, 

To keel over. A nautical phrase, meaning to capsize or upset, and 
metaphorically applied to a sudden prostration. 

As it f^enii pretty evj(l(*t]! that fhf? !K'>vcri'igii<s of Eiiropt', instead of occupy- 
ing or Bharinp; throne*, art' prerlestimMl tn the walks of private UU\ it would be 
bi£^hly proper to cultivate in theiti a spirit of ac I f-abn citation and huiiiility. If 
the royal parents wi!*h to wee their offspring *' let clown easy " frnm their Wgh 
tffltat«, they will adopt thi* Cf^urse. AVcJ ocer they mu'.t, and a jrriidual eareen 
would be mciph better than a sudden cnpgtze. Now that the |>eople are assuming 
the ri|;htfl and privHegei of Aove reign ty, we trust that they will have some con- 
«ldcratioa fur prince* in distress. — N. Y. 8umhtf Denpatch. 

Steeled up. Laid up or worn out from sickness or old age- A sea- 
man's phrase, like the preceding. 

When we get htdtd tip, that will he the last of as. — Mi'». SUrwe^ Dred^ Vol. I. 
p. Hfl. 

Keener. A very shrewd person, one sharp at a bargain, what in Eng- 
land would he called *' a keeti hand." Western. 

Keep. Food, subsistence, keeping. In a letter to hia brother, Bishop 
Heber, sfieaking of Bishops' College costing so rauch, says; — 

Besides, it ha-i turne<! out so expenfitve in the monthly hilln and necewary ifc^qp 
of Its iotnateHi, that my resnurie*, &c. — Vol. IL p. 319. 

The cottager eithfr purchased hay for the kftp [nf the cow]^ or paid for her 
run in the straw-yard. — Edinburtfh Rrvitw^ Vol. IJCL p. S45, 

**Tliey tell me you puritanw preach by instinct.*' 

*• I don*l know how that b/* answered tiera.hi>m, ^'1 hcer'n Jell, ocroM at 
Boil Bruly, of wioh dt>hi>, and would pive you a wei:'k"* l'r<fp at Whi*key Centra 
to know how't was done.*' — Coaperf The Oah Opmlnfft, 

Poor fu1k.« like us can't afford to keep i]obody jest to look nt, and eo he 11 have 
to tlep spr)' and work smart to aim hia ke^. — Mr*. Stowt^ OUtoirn FoUct^ p. fiflt. 

To keep. The phrase to keep nkop is often shortened into to keep; a.<«, 
*' Where do you keep now? " i\ e», where ia your place of business? 



To Veep also has the sense of to live, to dwell, which u*e of the 
VFord ia provincial in the eastern ooanties of England. 

Keeper. A custodian of attached property , appointed by a confltable 

or siiiTiff. 
To keep a Stiff Upper Lip is to continue firm, keep up one's courage. 

** My friend,'* a»jd be, **daa*t cry for »pllt milk ; kttp a sf iff upper lip ; all irllJ 
come out riifht enougli yet." — Knicktrhocktr Mn^aane^ Vol XXV, 

*' Tut^ tut, Mujnr; kerp a itiff upper Up^ and yuu^ll brin^him this tinie.**^ 
ChroH. of Pinrriih, p, IfiO. 

To keep Company. To court. A common term applied to a man 
whose visitd to a lady are frequent, with the intention of gaining 
her band. ** He keeps company with her/* i\ *. he h courting her; 
or ** They are keeping company ^^^ i. e, are courting. Also used to 

A young tailore»» got a rordict ugaiQ^t Mr B , ft steadjr riinn«r, who **ki^ 

comp<tnff*' with Uur totnc m< nth»« und iiptHiititcd o tUy fur tlic wedding [but. 
■ttbftequpntlv cliaQ|;eci his mindl, — JV<u7 York Cummrrciat AdvtLiiiMer, 

*' I bad 110 idee that SftUy Smitii wub goiu' to Ih; married to S^ifii Pender^ra»j/* 
nn'd the Widow licdott. **She*d beea ktfpin* cvmpavtf \\h\\ Moj-e Ut'wh'tl for 
better 'ii a year, and everybody aald that was a settled Uiinj^/' — Widou^i BtJoU 
Paptra, j>. 22. 

Keeping-RoonL A common sitting-room; not the parlor, but the 
second' room. New England. The term is chiefly u^^>d in the 
interior, although it may 8<:traetimes be he.ird in the seaport town«, 
The same expression is uiied in Norfolk, England, for '* thp general 
8itting>room of tlie family, or oommou parlor.'' — Forby^s Nor/, 

Mr. <joodrich, in speaking of the period of his boyhood in Con- 
necticut, says; — 

Carp<?t9 were then only know a in a few (junilie«, and were confined to ilw 
heeping-rm^m and imrlor. — ReminitctnceM^ Vol. I. p. 74. 

Within there were but the kitchen, the kt€pin*/-room^ and a pantry^ together 
with the silcepitig ap^rtmeDt. — Eastfrrd, 

Keet* See Guinea KeeL 

Kellook. A small anchor. See Killock^ 

Kelumpua! Thump t The noise produced by a fall on a hard body. 

Only think, — a follow to come b«re drunk at night, and to fail keiumpm<iu %h» 
fenc« by the applc-troel — Adfu o/Pritsi^ p. 08. 

Keniption Pit. Any state of excitement. See Conniption* 
Kentucky Coffee. The fruit of the Gymnodadus Canadensis, A 
large tn-e, resembling the lociust--tree, bearing a pod with berriea 
which are used for coffee. Its wood is used for cabinet>work. 



Kentucky Flat, See Flat-Boat, 

Kerboodle. All; the whole. See Bmdle and Caboodle. 

Kerosene. (From Gr. icffpos^ Mai, with termination «ne, as in 
camphene.) A liquid hydrocarbon, or oil extracted from bituminous 
coal, used for illurai tuition and for other purposes. — Webster^ 

Eeshaw ! See Ctuitaw! 

Keslo5h ! Keswosb * Kewoshf Plash f splaeiht The noise pro- 
duced l»y a body fulling flat int^j the watur. 

Coa»tn Peter sat down between them [the kinp mid quiioii in a phy]\ but they 
ris up j|e»t Oft he went to nn (luwn, and the tirat thliij^he knowud, htrdmh he went 
into A tub of wAter, — Major Janu'i CvurUhip. 

The kiver-hing^P pin bein' }af,L lea-leavp?» and tea and klver 

Would all come doirn ker$Wi*6h I as though the dam hrokt^ in a river* 

Poatieijl EplsiU from a Viduntttr. 
I have »een manhood fall from the topmost cliCf of ambition htrtwoiih into Hie 
depths of noncnity, and lie for ever buried in the turbid wavf« of obltv Jon. — 
Dots'* M Strmtms. 

He slioved away the tmat^ and the Bimt thlcig^ I kiiowM doirn I went kenco^ 
into tbe drink. — Simthtm Skttches, p. 36, 

Keeouae ! Soubc! Tlie noise inadc by a body falling from a small 
height into the water* Cpmp, 7*t/u.^e, 

The duff-out hadn't Inafwjd more *n six lonjjtbii from the bank, afore — zip ^ 
chug — ke-soune I went; the eend lifted agin a aawyer, and emptied me into the 
element — Tht Americaru at Bomt^ Vol, I. 

To keaonse. To souse into the water. 

I kisousfd the old cock into a bucket of boilin* water, and — do you believe ? 
Wby» it look two of my youn;; onea jind a bf^ pair of pincers a whole day to get 
the critter's featben ouL — ^ JV, 1'. Spini of tit t Time*. 

Keawollop \ Flop! The noise made by a violent fall to the ground. 

The horses kept pretty even till they reached the third fence, a regular snag; 
aad then ktrtivolhp went one rider clear over the burse's beaci. —N. Y, Spirit 
of the Timti. 

Kettle. A pail, as of tin-plate; a dinner-paiL N. England* 

Key. See Kaif. 

Keystone State. The State of Pentisylvania. So called from its 

being the central State of the Union at the time of the formation 

of the Constitutiou. 

Kibliags. Parts of Bmall fish u.^ed by fishermen for bait on the banks 
of Newfoundland, See Stivers, 

To kick. To jilt. Eix. : " Miss A. has licked the Hon. Mr, B., and 
seut Uim off with a flea in hia ear.'' Confined to the South. 



Kick. To kick up a row is to create a disturbance; the same as t9| 
kick up a ilu»t. 

Mr Polk admitted Santa Anna^ because be knew htm to be capable of fi^htli^ 
notJiing but ehickenfl, and t& Hck up a fvw in Mexico^ and dUconrurt ^vemm«ot1 
nifta^iares, — J/r. Btdingtr, Speech in House of RepreMntntittM, 

Kid. 1. A larjje bar in fishing vessels, into which fish arc thrown aij 
they are caught. New England. 
2. A kidnapper. 

Attempted kidnapping in Waabin^on. Tbc kidnappers ranj^bt and locked! 
up. . . . The lad$ wcf« taken before CoJone! Chi Ids, wlio . . . ordered them ( 
be fteot to the Provoft-Marshal's office. — Wa*h'myton EtpuhUatti^ April 9, 1862. 

To kill. 1. To defeat, to neutralize. A political term. ** Do yon 
vote the Whig ticket? I'll go the Democrat, and kill your vote.*' 
♦* Ike Sap got a divorce from his old woman in the House, but it 
was killed in the Senate/* 

2. To do a tiling ta kill is a common vulgarism, and means to do • 
it to the utfcennost, to carry it to the fullest extent; as, *' lie drives 
to tUir' ** She dances to kilU' 

Kill. (Dutch kil.) A channel or arm of the sea; a stream, river. 
Thif* Dutch appellation in diill preserved in several instances; tUu 
the channel that separates State n Island from Bergen Neck is called! I 
Kill van Eull, or simply the Kilh ; to which we may add the nameslj 
Schuiflkill and Catskill, applied to streams. 

KiHdeer. {Charadrius lociferus.) A small bird of the plover kind; 80^ 
called from its peculiar note. Speaking of the great variety and 
number of water-fowl in Florida, Bret Harte says: — 

The sepulchral boom of the bittern, the shriek of the curlew, and the com- 
plaint of the ib7^/eer-p1oT«T were beyond the power of ejcpressioD. — Skiteha^ 
p. m, 

KlUhag. (Indian.) A wooden trap, used by the hunters in Maine. 

KUling Time. The season when hogs are slaughtered. 

Kill-Lamb. Connecticut usage. See Lamb- Kill* 

KUlock. KiUick. L A small anchor. A wooden anchor. — Ctxrh 

torighCs Labradar^ Vol. HI, 
2. The flue of an anchor. — Jamieson, An instrument used to moor 

a fishing-boat at sea, instead of a grapnel or anclior, A stone en* 

closed between the longer pieces of wood, fastened together with 

two others, — Notes and Qucne^^ Vol. X. p. 319, 

The stone slipping out of the kiUich, and th«*r«by th<*y driving fa»ter than ihty 
tliongbt, &Lc^ — Gor. Dadttf* Lftttr (o the ConnUuuf Limxdn, 1IS5JL [They had 
^'lot down their killichf that noe they might drive Ihe more klowly," in a gate.] 



They took their berths, unshipped their oors, threw over their JdUickt^ and 
mpsred for fishing. — Peltr 6'hW, the Fiskfrman. 

So I advise the num*roiig friends that *» in one luml with mo 
To just up kiUuck^ jam right down (heir hehii hitni a lea. 

lAfmtil^ Biff km Paptrt,^ 

An anecdote h related in '* Harper^s Mag:azine/' for April, 1876, 
p. 700, of H fishing-party becalmed in a fog near Newport, R, I», 
which during the night attempted to reach their home by vigoroua 

When the tog lifted at the approach of mornings they found, lo their g^at 
aatonifilinu'tit, that tb<?_v had forgtjftteri to raise the anchor, and had lieen rowing 
round the kiUerk all nighL 

The "' Pntblc '* stood off the har for an anchoreiRe* We fotind a tnitable place, 
and dropped the htUock.—N. T. TrUmnt^ Nov., IRttL, Lett, frmn tht Mumtnppi. 

EiUy-Fiilior KUly, (Genua Fundulm.) A small fiish found in the 
Bftlt water creeks and baya, from one to five inches in length. It is 
only iL^ed for bait for larger fish. They are so called from the 
** Kills " in which they al>ound- They so much re^^emhle the white- 
bait of England that they are only to be distinguished by actual 

Kilter. Oui of kilter. In a bad condition; out of shape. Ilalliwell 
notices the word helter as provincial in England ; and Barrow uses 
it with the prefixed ** out of.*' 

If the organs of prayer are out of heUer, or ont til tune, how can we prmy? 
Sermont^ $«mi. vi. 

Sir Charles Lyell, not knowing the word, wrote it "out of 

Kiln. See at Tar-Kiln, 

Kinaiera or Kindlings. Small pieces of wood for kindling a fire; 
kindling- wt>od. New England. 

Put some kindUrt under the pot, and then yoo may gfo. — Mnrtjnrff^ p 6. 

B£r. Goodrich, in describing the wood fires of olden lime in New 
England, says \ — 

There wa» a hack-log, top^log^ middle-stkk, and then a heap of hindUnffi^ 
reaching from the bowels down to the bottom. 

Kind o\ Kinder. In a manner, as it were^ in some respects; some- 

wiiat; a.s, ** 8he made game on it kind o\'* — Forby, Ste Kiny. 

A kinder notion jist then began to get into my head. — Major Doicning. 

At that the landlord and officer looked kindtr thunderstruck — DQicniny, 

It Idndtr teemed to me that aomothlng could be dooe, aud they lei me take the 

eolt. — Marffomi^ pw 829. 



884 KIN 

In the store that stands above ns. 
As I sat beneath the connteff 
Kind-a doing nothing, only 
Nibbling at a box of raisins. 

Ward, Song of Higher Water. 

Kinder Sorter. Somehow, rather ; sometimes reversed to sorter 

I have set my heart on a gall, though, whether she will give me hem, I a!n*t 
sartin ; but I rather lander torter guess so, than kinder sorter not so. — Aim 
SUckf Human Nature, p. 90. 

King-Bird. {Muscicapa tyrannus.) A bold and sprightly bird, which 
appears in Louisiana about the middle of March, and oontinaes 
until the middle of September. Further northward, over the entire 
country, it comes later and disappears earlier. — R. Kennicott. 

King-Bolt. An iron-bolt by which is connected the axle and the fore- 
wheels of a wagon to and with the other parts of the vehicle. New 
England. See Body-Bolt. 

King-Crab. See Horse-Foot. 

1 King-Fish. (Umbrina albumus.) A sea-fish of delicious flavor, called 

i .'If jf ^^ King-fish about New York, and Hake on the Jersey coast. 

Kink. 1. An accidental knot or sudden twist in a rope, thread, &c. 

I wanted to sit by an open window in the [railway] car, and Betsey Bobbet 
didn't. I mistrust she thought the wind would take the kink out of her frizzles. 
Betsey Bobbet^ p. 273. 

There is another financial kink in the case of the bond« of St. Charles County, 
Missouri, which lately became in default of interest — N. Y. Post, April 16, 

2. Figuratively, a fanciful notion, a crotchet. 

It is useless to persuade him to go, for he has taken a kink in his head that 
he will not. — Carlton, The New Purchase. 

I went down to Macon to the examination, whar I got a heap of new kinks. 
Major Jones's Courtship, p. 20. 

Never a Yankee was born or bred 
Without that pecuh'ar ib'nib in his* head 
By which he could turn the smallest amount 
Of whatever he had to the best account. 

Cozzens, California BaUad. 

Kinkajou. (Cercoleptes caudivohulus. Illiger.) *' Carcajou or Quin- 
cajou, a species of cat, whose tail is so long that it is obliged to take 
several turns of it around his body.'* — Charlevoix , Nouvelle France, 
Vol. III. p. 129. See Carcajou. Jonathan Carver, in describing 
the Carcajou, mentions his long tail ** with which,** he says, " he 
encircles the body of his adversary." — Travels, p. 450. 



Kinky. QueeFi eccentric^ crotchety. 

KinnikinniCik. An iQdian word for a preparation of tobacco, aumac- 
leaves, and willow tvvigi*, two-thirda tobacco and one of the latter, 
gathered when the leaves commence tuniiitpf red, This mixture is 
used by the Indians and the old settlers and hunters in the West» 
The preparation of kinnlkinniek varies in different localitiesi and 
with different tribes, Mr. J. Ilaraniond TiunibiiU, tlie best au- 
tljority on Indian words, says, '*The luinie, which is good Algonkin, 
means simply a mixture^ ^ that which m mixed/ In this mixture, 
the bark of the red willow is the principal in^edient, when it can 
be procured; and is often used by itself without admixture/* Mr. 
T. adds, ** I have smoked a half-dozen varieties of kinnikinnick in 
the North-west, — all genuine; and have scraped and prepared the 
red wilbw-bark, wliich is not much worse than SidField oak-leal'* 

At thh fnoment^ the TndiftnA wf're In deliberation. Seated in a iarjE^ drcle 
round a very smnll fire, the smoke from which a^ceiid^^d in a thm, FtraJiyht iJoIuTtin, 
they each in turii puffed n litige rl^md of Mmoke f mm three or Uhit lonji; cherry- 
■temmed pipes, which went tk<& round of the party; each warrior touching the 
ground with the heel of the |>ipe-bowI, and tnminp tli<? stem upward* iiBd away 
from him a*< ** medicine ** to tlie Great Spirit, before he himself inhaled the fra- 
grant kiimik-Jannik. — jV. V. Spirit of the Time*. 

I at thin moment presented tu the Duke the Indian pipe, through which h« had 
smoked the day before, and jiI^o an Indian tobacco-pouchy fllled with the J!*mck- 
k'neck (or Indian tobacco) with whkli he had b«en so much plcaned. — CfttUn'i 
Travels in Europe. 

There are al«o certain creeks where the Indiani report to lay in a e^tore of KiMii- 
Mnih, the inner bark of the tv4 willow^ which they U!«e oa a substJiute fnr tobaocO| 
and which haa an aromatic and very pungent flavor. ^ — Ruxitm, Life in the F)at 
West, p. lift. 

White IflTn writing, lam smoking a pipe filled with hinmlnnick, the dried kavea 
of the red nutnac^ — a very good lubititute for tobacco, — Cnrvalho^ Advent^rm 
m the Far We4t, p. 36. 

Kiny. Aa kind o\ *^ Kiny so." ** Kiny so and kiny not bo.** New 

Kiskitomas Nut. Indian, from luKhki or k6»hk'i^ roiig^h. A imt that 
may be cracked with the teeth, characterizing the tree by its bark. 
Basle g^vea, for the Abenaki uesGkouskaddmen, ** J*eii ca&'^e aveo lea 
dents/* I crai:k [walnuL*«] with my teeth, A writer in the**N. 
Y* Historical Mag./' 1864, says the word is still in use on Long 
laland. Michaux siay»» *' Descendants of the Dotch settlers who 
inhabit the parts of New Jersey near the city of New York call it 
KUhy Thamas nut.*' The French of Illinois knew it by the name of 
No^er tendre. -- North Am, Syim^ VoL L p, 123, 

886 KIS— KIT 

The following sonnet to it is taken from the " Literary World, ** 
of Nov. 2, 1850: — 

Hickory, shell-bark, kiskUonuu nvitl 

Or whatsoever thou art called, thy praise 

Has ne*er been sounded yet in poet's lays ; 
October's frosts now burst the husk where shut 
In snug recluse thou'st passed the summer: but 

Ushered at length into the world's broad blaze, 

Lo! throngs of merrj' children rush to raise 
Thy form, and give thee welcome; ever}' hut 

And statelier dwelling hails thy glad approach; 

Looking, when winter's snows and sleets encroach, 
To gather social circles round the hearth ; 

Who, while the generous cider-cask they broach, 
And munching apples laUd their various worth. 
Call in thine aid to crown with crackling noise the mirth. 

KlM-me. Used as is ** Thank-you- Ma'am " (which see) for a ridge 
or hollow place across a roadway; a jolting obstruction to yehicles. 
New England. 

BliBS-me-qaiok. A home-made, quilted bomiet which does not extend 
beyond the face. They are chiefly used to cover the head by ladies 
when going to parties or to the theatre. Noted as in general use in 
England, by Ducange Anglictu, for small bonnets worn during the 
year 1851, and for a short time after. 

She holds out with each hand a portion of her silk dress, as if she was walking 
a minuet, and it discloses a snow white petticoat Her step is short and minc- 
ing, and she wears a new bonnet called a kiss-me-quick. — Sam Sticky Human 
Nature^ p. 131. 

Kit. A man's baggage. 

Kit and Boodle. ** The whole kit and boodle " of any thing means 
the whole. See Boodle. 

Then you're jest one quarter richer 'n if you owned half, and jest three quar- 
ters richer 'n if you owned the hull kit and ttoodU of them. — T. Wintkropj John 
Brent, p. 19. 

Kitchen Cabinet. A nickname applied to certain advisers of Presi- 
dent Jackson. It was said that, to avoid observation, these advisers 
were accustomed, when they called upon the President, to go in by 
a back door. 

In the management of the "Washington Globe," the organ of the President, it 
became necessary for him to consult often with Blair and Kendall, which was a 
rea.<«on, among others, for the Whig party to ridicule and condemn ** Jackson's 
kitchen cabinet.'' — Lije and Times of Governor Reynolds^ p. 463. 

Kite. See Skite. 

Elite-Flier. A financier who practises the operation of <* kiie-Jlying," 



Kltm-Tljin^, An expreaHioti well known to meiratitile men of limited 
means, or who are sliort of cash. It ia n combination between two 
persons, neither of whom haa any fnnds in bank^ to exchange each 
other*8 checks, which may hu dej)*>sit^d in iieii of money, taking 
good care to make their bank aceonnta good before then- checka aro 
presented for payment. Kiie-jlt/ing u also practised by mercantil© 
houses or ]>ei*sons in diJferent cities. A hoiu^e in Boston draws on. 
a house in New York at sixty days or mt>re, and gete lis bill dis- 
counted. The Xew York hoiuje, in return, meets ita acceptance by 
r©-drawing on the Boston house. 

Fl$tny the kite la rmther a perilous ltd ¥tin tore, and 9ttb|ecU a man to a risk of 
detection. One who valucft liift credit &a a ^ound and fair dealer would by ao 
means hazard it. —PtriUo/Pmri Street, p. 82. 

It appears that Yankee land cannot claim the honor of inventing 
either the practice or tlie phrase ; for, at a legal dinner in Ireland, 
Lord Norbnry said to Chancellor Milford: — 

In England, you have to raiM a wind to fly a kite, bat in Ireland here we fy 
Jidtei to rai.^e the wind. 

Kitue. In the States of the Far West and on the plains, a native 

As if some devilii«h mfection pervaded Ihe atnio«pViere, one of otir honea, A 
kivstf took a fit of "bucking" ?oon after we left, and was pnrtieular (o iel«Gl 
the mofft dani^rerouH portlonjt of the road for the dJuptay of hia nkill in that Line. 
MeCture^ Raiky Mvuntnim, p. 301. 

Knee high to a Mosquito. A common hyperbolical expression to 
denote diminutive stature; as^ " I knew him before he was knee 
high to a mosquito ^''^ In Maryland, it is '* knee high to a grnsshopperJ* 
In New England, " kme high to u toad.*^ The latent expression is 
** knee high to a chaw of tobacker." 

Knickcr or Wicker. (Dut4?h, knikker.) A boy's clay marble ; a com- 
mon term in New York. It is also used in England, being defined 
by H alii well, ** a little ball of clay or earth baked hard and oiled 
over, for bcjys to play at mckern,** 

Knickerbocker. 1. A descendant of one of the old Dukh families 
of New York City. 

The old church in Nassnu Street (New York) was dedicjited in 1733. . . , The 
congn^gTitinn wns compo^^ft of the wealthiest itid mo^t pmmineiU p**ople of Mati- 
battati Island, — the veritable KmcktrbocktrM. — N. Y, Tribunt^ July 6, 1877. 

2. A boy* 8 garment. 

Knlcknackeiy or Nicknackery, A knick-knack. 

There t«i mie branch of tradfl which has not atiffered In common with other 
thlnga, and tlint iii the sale of cojttly kntdbnadnrk*, etpecially women'i suporlji- 
thr« gear. — A''f «p YQrk Tribune. 




Knob. In Kentucky, round hills or knolls are called tnoh*, 
hilla are formed by the weathering of the soft santlstone'^ and shn 
composing them. The approach to this ** kn^h formation *• from 
the rich land is very characteristic, and the sutlden change in noil 
iH accompanied by a corresponding change in the inhabitants. The 
woni, however, has extended its meaning, and in Kentucky, as well 
as other parta of the West, is used simply for hilL In Mar^^land 
and Virginia, the tenn Lntth is applied to the highest peaks of the 
Blue Ridge and other irregular mountains. 

Approaching Oaienft, the country becomes still more broken ftnd rockv, until 
at last a few short hllli, here called kmdn, iudlcjite our approach to Fever River. 
ffofmon. Winter in ttit Wett, p, dOa 

Knobby, 1, Hilly, The prairie of south-western Missouri is char- 
acterized by what are called knobs ot mound**; they are f^omewhat 
variable in size and form, but usually present the ap|tearance of a 

truncated cone Stmflow'x Geohgn of M'monri, p. 2()4. 

2. Fine; capital; *' bully." New York. See Nohb^, 

Knobite, A dweller in the *' knob " formation of Kentucky, 

Knob-Lick. The base of the ** knobs** contains shales, which fur- 
nij<h alum and other salte, forming ^Micks/* to which wild and 
domestic animals resort- One of these knob licks in Mercer county, 
Kentucky, is a very remarkable spot, aud was in former times a 
favorite resort of the buffaloes. Many acres are entirely devoid 
of vegetation, and clay banks in every p4:)ssible shape occupy the 

To knock about. To go or saunter about. An English phrase, 
though not in the dictionaries, 

A long wur«c of snlit^ltalion, (muntin^ public office*, and hnoekinff about town, 
had taught him [General Gates], it mtaa »aid, how to wheedle, and flatter, and 
aecommodute himself to the humor* of othem- -^ /nrtn^, Xi/e fif \V*ttktnfftpm, 
Vol L p. 423. 

KQOok-do'wn and Brag-out. A fight carried to extremities. 

Tliere arc go<id, quiet, efl«y people in the world who icircely op*in their U{M OT 
raise their flnperp, Ie«t Oogtwrry So-afid-*n across the wny mijfht bike it In higk 
dadgeonf and forthwith demand »n explimation or a Jbtodt-^fotpri aiiir/ i/mjT-ottJ. 
Ntw Vof'k t^/firit o/tfif Tirnn, Sept. 30, 1848. 

Mike profewied to h^i con.tidembh? «f a fif?hlcr, «nd, in a ref^*!*'' hnoek-^ottn and 
draff^ut row, was hnrd to l>eat.— Sottthet'n Sketchti^ p. 30* 

To knock down, L To embezzle; to appropriate the property of 

2. To assign to a bidder at an auction by a blow on the conn* 
ter; as, *' The tall copy of Shakspeare was knocked down to Mr. 


Mi iiii 




Knooked into « Cooked Hat. Knocked out of Rliape^ BpoUed, 
mined. The allusion or metaphor seems to be that of tlie hat of 
acme unlucky wight, which, by a violent blow, ha» been knocked 
into a sort of flattened* three-cornered shape, resembling nn old- 
iaahlonedf cCM;ked hat. 

A taJl^ tlatternlT^lookin;; woman, weArinp;^ a tVingy dd »Jlk br^nnet, which wu 
kltcck^ mio a cochtd hat, «p^)eared } estenlay before the Eccordflr* — New 
Oritaru Picayune, 

One of the omnihuses here rim ftiU tilt ngiiinst a cart^ and knodc4^ every Iblftg 
mto A kind of cocked hat. — Sfnjtyr Dfiwninff, May-dny in New Vorfc. 

At a Repeal meetinf^ in Now York, Mr, Locke was pr9ceedmg to ipeak of th« 
influence this party would have, when he was interrupted by a gafig o\ rnwdiei, 
who, with the desii^n of (liMurhin^j; the mcetiiiii;, crietl out, *'T!iree cheers for 
D'Co&nell — three cheer* for Hepeiil — and three itpmanN for Slavery ! " The «ix 
cb«ers for 0*Connell and Rufwal were ffiveti; but, by the time they raine to the 
grcMUii for Slavery, they found themmelrea all knocktd into a cocktd haL — Ntto 

Between three and four thounand persons were assemhied at the Broadway 
Tabernacle the other evening to hear a tem^rerance lecture from the lalenkd Mr. 
Goagti. There were **lotig-robcd cloctom" enough to have comlittited a stand- 
ing army. The Rev. Dr. , who opened the meeting with prayeri got through 

tn the x'ery Jihon *pace of three -quarter* of an hotir; hut it wa* full Icmg enough 
to jtmocJt the spirit of the meeting into a cocked hat. — Ntto York Tribune. 

Knack- kneed. One whose knees are so close that they ^' interfere " 
in walking. It is doubtlesa an English expression, though not in 
the dictiouaries. 

Riwngh, who eucoeeded to the command of New Sweden, looms largely In 
ftudent record)^ as a gigantic Swede, wliu, had he not been hnock^knetd and 
tplay-footed, might have served for the model of it Satnoon, — Knick€rb^)cktr, 
New i'ijrk. 

To knock off. To dock off; deduct. Vulgar. 

To knock round. To go about careleaalyj to wander or saunter 
about* i'. «. '' to knock alxjut." 

I 'm going to New York and Boston, and nil about thar, and spend the summer 
until pickiri* tim»?, knockin' round jn I hem bijLf cities, 'mong them people what** 
fto moiiitrou.<4 »mart, ami relti^inus, »nd retirifi'd, and see if I can't pick up son)« 
idean worth remembchn'. — 3/ti;V>r Jimtg*s Skrtcht*. 

The Indinn wilt kvse hi? hair, if he and bis band knock rovnd here too ©fteo. 
Ruxttm, Lift in fAe Air WtiL 

Kiio^7-No things. A new and more pro^criptive party of '* Native 
Americans," which originated in the year 1853. The *^ New York 
Times " gives the following account of the orig-in of the name: " The 
Knoio-Nothing party, it ib f^retty generally known, was first formed by 
ft person of some notoriety in New York, who called himfieLf * Ned 
BuDtUne.* *Ked' w&b once a nddabipman in the Uuited States 



Navy, but left the service and commenced the busine^ of Aineri- 
Cftnisin on a large acalo, by founding a secret political order, of so 
exclusive a character that none were to be admitted as members 
whose grandfathers were not natives of the country. It is a difficult 
matter, in a country like the United Stated, where free inquiry ia 
80 common, to keep any thing secret ; and Ned instructed his pros- 
elytes and acolytes to reply to all questions in respect to the move- 
ments of the new party, ' I don't know.* So they were at first 
called * Don^t-knows/ and then * Know-Nothings^* by outsiders^ who 
knew notliing more of them than that they invariably replied, ' I 
don't know/ to all questions/' The following articlen of their 
"platform** or aet of principles, according to the ** Americao 
Crusader/' one of the leading newspapers of the party, oontaiQ the 
giat of the whole ; — 

1. Repeft] of *1L natural! rati on kwn, 
S< None but auWe AiuericMis fur olBco^ 
8. A pure Americ&ri common sehool syitcm. 
4. War to tJie hilt on EomaniBm. 

These were the principles of the ultra men of the party. In 
Louisiana and other parts, they were disposed to be more lil>eral 
towards tlie Roman Catholics, admitting such as were bom in the 
United States, There was also a difference of opinion regarding 
slavery, and upon the latter issue the party became divided into 
North and South Americans. See also Sam and Hmdom, 

KnoW'Notbingiam. The doctrines of the Know-Nothings. 

The Know-Nothingi have had thejr day, aad ven* sioon there will he ooth!ng 
left of them but thcJr name. The earth hAth bubbles, and Kno»-Nothmgism 
was one of thtm.—Nr.w York Timtt, 

Knuck. 1. A name applied to Canadians by the people ou the 
frontier of Canada, See Connuck^. Also same in Addenda. 
2. The generic slang term for a thitf* ? Eiiglish gonnojf, 

KonckA or Conks. Wreckers are so called, familiarly, at Key 
West; and the place they inhabit is called Koncktown- See Conck, 

Koniackor. A counterfeiter. This word is undoubtedly American, 
as nearly all words relating to the issue and circulation of spuriouf 
paper money. 

Kool Slaa. (Cut cabbage.) A contraction for the Dutch Kool-falade, 
u e. Cabbage salad. Many persons who affect accuracy* but do not 
know the origin of the term» pronounce the first syllable as if it 
were the Engliah word cold. Some even write it so. See Hot 



Koayah Root, or Kooyaha. A term applied by the rndiansin Ore- 
gon to a root itiied hy them in making a bread called mtpitie. The 
plant yielding the root is Valeriana officinalis or V, £//«//>, probably 
the same as that sometimes written Rous. It is frequently calJod 
Tobftcoo Root. It should be baked in the ground two days, to de- 
prive it of poi,«M)nous pmpertiea. The bread has an of eriaive taste 
to those not familiarized to it. 
Kiiw-Kringlo, (Gemi. Christ Kintffein,) The infant Christ. The 
German for rljild is Hnd^ of which the diminutive in linfilein or 
kindchen. This, in some parts of Germany and in Pennsylvania, 
has been formed into kintkU and the children are promised gifts at 
Chriatmaa from '* ChrUt HndeU* The corrnption of this last into 
Kris9-Krinffle^ &8 a name for the babe of Bethlehem, h neither 
English nor bad German, hut a mere jargon or gibheriah of the 
vileiit kind. 
KU'Kluz^ Kn-KIuz-Klan, Originally a secret political organization 
in some of the Southern States, but which subsequently laid ai^ide 
all connection with politics, and resorted to murder to carry out their 

For Seyincmr understaiidft our pljin, 

11*3 *H make a nfH'erh to the Ku-Klux-Klan; 

Sftrs he: ** My fri*'m<lfl, I'm just your mjui, 

And Blair wtti lead your flrmy/' 

Ballad, Gtntnd Boom af tht C. 8. A. 

Labrador Tea. {Ledum paluMfre and L, latifoUunu) 
in the Korth-west a« a substitute for tea. 

Then? is a certain herb lately fi>und iu this Provmcc [Massachusetts], which 
iMgiiiii alretidy to take place In the room of Gf«.'eii and Bohca Tea, which is jtaid 
to be of A very Rft)utar]r Kature^ an wull as a more agreeable Flavour, — Hi* called 
Labrador. — Com, Coumnt^ Nov, IS, 1767, from a Boston paper of Novem- 
ber 9* 

The Hiperion or Lnhradcr Tm » Riiiche«teeTned, and by great nu»iib€ra vastly 
preferred to the p(*i««noufl Bi>hea, — Nticport Mtrcurtf^ Dec*, 170T. 

The Labrador Ten Plnnt loprigj^ up among the rich and thick moiw that every- 
whpri! eovftm the coiintn'^ <y{ Labrariof, I was infoniifd thai the (ishenuen and 
Indian* use it in*tettd of tea. — Autluhon^ Orntth, Blf>g.j Vnl. IL p. 53.1. 

IdicroasQ. T\vh f^ame was adopted as tbe national cjaine of Canada, 
on the 1st of Jnly, 1859. Attempts have been made to claim it as 
of Irish, Scotch, or other than Indian orig^in; but there ia no %\\\eA- 
tioD that it la a ^me of the North Amerit^an Indians, being prac- 
tised by the Sacs, Siotix, Ojibwaya, Dacotaha, Iroquois, Algookina, 

A plant used far /^f^l* 


Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks^ &c. It consiats in throwing & ball 
with a stick, three or four feet in len^h, bent on one end, tc* a g«>aK 
The ball is started in the centre of the field, when each party en- 
gaged in the play endeavors to carry or throw it through the goul 
of the opponent. 

Charlevoix, Catlin, and Basil Hall, who witnessed the game 
among the Indians, describe it at length. Twelve playera consti* 
tiite a field in a match* 

The origin of the name lacrosse \a attributed to Chiirlevoix, who, 
when ascending tlie St. Lawrence, at some point between Quel>ec 
and Three Rivei-s, saw the game, which he called **/< ^'eu rfe la 
crosfty^' played by the Algonkins with the present stick. The 
game is described at length in an article on Catuuiiati sports In 
** Scribner's Montlily '* for August, 1877. 
Ladles' Tressea. (Neottia tortiittjt.) The popular name for an herb, 
so called from tlie spiral arrangement of its flowers resembling caHft. 

Lafayette Fiah. (Leio^hfrntu ohUquuf^.) A delicious sea-fish, which 
appears in the summer in great abundance at Caj^e Island on the 
Jersey coast, and is hence called the Cape May Goody. The name 
Lnfatjeilt Jisk, by which it is known in New York and its vicinity, 
was given it on account of its appearance one summer coinciding 
with the last visit of General Lafayette to America, — Professor 
S. F, Baird. 

Lager-Beer. (Germ. Lager- Bier ^ i, e. Stock-beer.) Sometimes con- 
tracted into lager, A kind of small beer introduced a few years 
ago into the American cities by the Germans, and now much in 
vogue among all classes. 

Lagniappe. Something over and above, Louisiana. See Brotua, 

Lagoons, The aouruls or long channels bt?tween the islands and the 
main, along the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Lake Lawyer. (Genus Amia, Linnieus.) The Western Mud-fish. 
It is found in Lakes Erie and Ontario, where it is known by the 
name of Dog-fish. Dr. Kirtland says, it is also called the lake 
lawyer from its *^ ferocious looks and voracious habits." 

To lam. (Belg. lamcu.) To beat soundly; to drub. ColloquiAl in 
some of Uie Northern States. It is provincial in Yorkshire i Eng- 
land. — W Ulan* a Ghuartf. 

If MiUwocid wens here, djuh my wig', 
Qtiolh he, I wduUi bcal her nnd lam her we*sl. — Rtjtcttii Addrtani. 
The ^nllLTJiBn, who fondly imagined himself & but, Ktimd his grotiitd Uke « 
nguint built chicken, aad ^^ went in ** a number of times; bat bia adversarj, a 



stalwart batcher, wit loo mucli u»ed to '* lam "' to be v«nqaisliedf ktid his superioT 
prowes» w*s Kwn m«de oimiife^t by the commercial gciilkrouu'A face* — Netc 
y^frk spirit of the Tiinei, 

Cooney would pitch Inta a privite dispute, when h« didn't care a dura ceat 
which waIlop<fd this uthur^ mad Urn them both* — Soulhtm SktlcAes^ p, 31. 

If 1 liad gf»t a hold of biiiii I *d a lammed him worse than the devU bealin* tan 
bark, 1 know. — Sam SUck, Human Nature^ p. 1&8* 

Lamaniin. See Manitee, 

To lambaste. To beat, thresh, km. 

I«am baa ting. A beatiDg. 

liaiiib'KiU, Massachusetts. See Calf-Kill and KUl-LamL 

Itamb'B Quarter. The popular name of an tierb (^Chenopodlum album) 
at the South. — Willmms's Fi&rida. 

Lame Duck. A stock-jobber who haa failed, or one unable to meet 
his eagagements. A Dead Duck ia one absolutely bankrupt. If 
he continues to operate in stocks, it in only as a cnrb-sttme broker. 
These tenoB are as old as the '' London Stock Exchange." 

On the southern corner of the Exchangx? ^tantl half a score of cxcitpd faces. 
Thcae are the famouA Third Bomrd of Bnikirri^, — mostly Inme <ittcks\ who have 
baao df»abkcl (or life in their pa!»)^age thmugh the mon: secret upumtiona of the 
regular Board ups^tairs, and greenhorns who are very aiuduud to come in and be 
caught. — jV««7 York im Slices, Wail Sir eeL 

Land-Crab. A landsman. 

We "Old Whiles^' [seamen] are not supposed by some larvl-crabt to har« 
much of a taste for the feathery tril^e *' done up brown " [t. e. roasted fowla]. — 
H. N. Palladium, Lttt.fjvm Ship Cumherland, IS6L 

Land-Grant. A grant of land. Such grant» are URuaUy made bj the 
LT* S. government to aid in the construction of railwayj^* 

Land Office. An office or place in which the sale and tnatiagement 
of the public lands are conducted. — Worcester. These offi^^es are 
all imder the control of the General Land Offive at Wtisbington, 
which forms one of the bureaun of the Departnieiit of the Interior. 

Land of Steady Habits. A term often applied to the 8Uite of Con* 
necticut, on account of the staid deportment and excellent morals of 
the people. 

LandsoaplBt. A drawer of landscapes. — A^. Y. Tribune. 

Land Scrip « A certificate or certificates that the purchase- money for 
a certain portion of land has been paid to the officer entitled to 
receive it. See Land Warrant. 

The surveyors are authorized and directed, upon the application of any holder 
of hnd 4crip. to eurvey at the expense of tlie government n sufficient quantity ol 
vacant land tu satisfy 9ucb legal claitna of all holders of land iciip sold by this 
government. — Law* of Te^as. 

844 LAN— LAS 

Luid-Shark. 1. One who, as boarding-house keeper, preys upon 

2. A note-shaver. A man who takes advantage of one*s pecu- 
niary necessities, by charging a high rate of interest when discount- 
ing notes of hand. 

Ziand's Sake. ^* For the land^s sake / " An expression of surprise. 

** Far the lantTstake^ Melissy, you don't tell me Betsy 's got a beau ! I thouglit 
that feller kind o* hangin* round the old gal had a sneaking notion after her.*' ~- 
HumorouM TaU*. 

Land Warrant. An instrument or writing issued by the Secretary of 
the General Land Office, authorizing a person to locate or take up a 
tract of new or uncultivated land. 

Lane. In the Carolinas, all roads with fences on each side are called 

Lap-Tea. Wliere the guests are too many to sit at table. — Lowell, 

Lariat. (Span, la reata.) A rope made witli thongs of raw-hide 
twisted or braided, and sometimes of seargrass, used for catching 
and picketing wild horses or cattle. Some writers incorrectly say a 
riata. It is also called a lasso. 

The greatest display of skill and agility of the arrieros consists in their dexter- 
oos use of the lazo or lariat. — Gregg's Commerce of the Prairies. 

If the horse manifested the least restivencss, Beatte would worry him with the 
lariat so as almost to throw hiui on the ground. — Irving's Tour on the Prairies, 

The lariat [of the Californian boy] darted fh>m his hand with the force and 
precision of a rifle-ball, and rested on the neck of the fugitive horse. — Kmory^s 
New Mexico and California^ p. 97. 

We cooked tiup(>er, and at dark picketed the animals round the camp, their 
lariats^ or skin-ropes, being atUched to pegs driven in the ground. — RuxUm^s 
Mexico and Rocky Mountains^ p. 212. 

To lariat. To secure a horse or mule with a lariat, or rope, which is 
fastened to a stake driven in the ground, to the extent of which 
rope he is permitted to graze. 

Every animal should be lariated out for grazing. The best arrangement is a 
ver}' strong leather head-stall, to the lower part of which, well under the chin, 
is firmly secured an iron ring. — Dodge^ Vbiins of the Great Wvst^ p. 70. 

Lasso. (Span, /ozo, noose.) A long rope or cord, oftc'n made of raw- 
hide, with a noose, for the purpose of catching wild horses or 
buffaloes on the Western prairies. It is also used by the muleteers 
for catching their mules. See Lariat, 



Tolafioo. Tlie act of throve Ing the loam or rope ou the head of & 
horse, mule, or other aDimal. 

And ever after, on that faUl day 

That Friar I'edro rode abroad frw«n>^, 
A gfmnliy ruijplu cAnie and went away 

U ith sas'nge wbtwp and hcathpnish hallaoing, 
Which hroughc discredit on San Luii< Key. 

Bret Harie^ Friar Ptdro^a Rxdt, 

Ztast of Fea-Time. To he hard up. ** To look like the \^i of pei^ 

time " iiH to have a forlorn a|>f>earftnce. 
Latter-Da J Saints. Mormons; bo styled hy themselves. See Mor^ 


Joseph Smith and an associate were constituted apoBtlet to preach tb« gospel 
[i. €. thm I$<iok of Mormon] and to establish among the nations the church of 
Je!in» ChriHt iif the Luiter-dtiy Siiintt. — Btum/mrif'i Sait Laka Exp^i pt 13d. 

Ijathy. Thin, slender » like a lath. 

ZvaureL See Ivtj, 

I«auxeiiAtlc. Laureate; laurelled. 

He touk an active nud htniurabte fuiri in (hat fearful light, which will long be 
considered as one of the imM Iturdisik feats of our gullant nAxy, — The Jnde* 
jtendent^ May 1, 1862. 

Xiave. (French, iete) Get up! A term in common use among the 
hunters and mouutaineers of the Western prairies aud Rocky Moun- 

•*£airit, lio! Late! Prairies ou fi it I Qnkk, — eatch up! ctitch up! " This 
itartlini; announcement initautly brought every man to his feet — Seenti m the 
Bodky MounOiiiu, p. 34. 

Law Day, The day on which a mapstrat4i holds court at a country 
tavern. Common in thinly settled districts in the West. 

Lawin^. Going to law. ** I got my df^bt of him by iawmg.** 

LawBf Laws-a-mel Lord have mercy on me I 

He *s full of the Old Scratch, but Itiws-a^me! he *» my own dead sister's boy, 
poor thing, and I ain't gi>t the heart to loj-h him, — M*jrk Twain, Tom Sntcyer, 
p. 19. 

Law sakea. Law sakes alive ! i. t. for the Lord's sake ! an expression 
denoting surpri.*4e or astonishment. 

Xaip §akt4 aticff man! I^Iakc a question between our matJoa and Extglaiid 
about fifty deserters ! — Sam Slick, Human Nature^ p. *23. 

Law sud» I Loid save us\ 

Lawyer. 1. {llimantopui nlgricoUin.) The Idack-necked Stilt; a 
amall bird which livens on our shores, known abo by the names of 

846 LAY 

Tilt and Longshanks. On the New Jersey coast, it is sometimes 
called latoyer^ on account of its ** long bill." 

2. (Genus Lota.) A fish found in the river St. Lawrence. Mr. 
Hammond, in his •* Wild Northern Scenes," thus speaks of it: — 

There were taken in the net pickerel, white fish, bass, and pike by the dozen; 
and, what wait a stranger to me, a queer-looking specimen of the piscatory trib«, 
half bull-head and half eel, with a cross of the lizard. 

** What on earth is that? " said I to the fisherman. 

*' That,'* said he, " is a species of ling; which we call in these parts a 2cn0f«*.** 

" A lawyer ! " said I ; *' why, pray V " 

** I don't know," he replied, " unless it 's because he ain't of much use, and tlie 
slipp'riest fish that swims." — p. i5. 

lAy. 1. Terms or conditions of a bargain; price. Ex.: ** I bought 
the articles at a good lay ;** ** He bought his goods on the same lay 
that I did mine." A low word, used in New England. — Pickering. 
Probably a contraction for outlay, i. e. expenditure. 

2. The word is also used colloquially in New York and New Eng- 
land, in relation to labor or contracts performed upon shares ; as, 
when a man ships for a whaling voyage, he agrees for a certain lay, 
i. e. a share of the proceeds of the voyage. 

He took in his fish at such a lay that he made a good profit on them. — Ptter 
Gott. the Fisherman. 
t) ,' ^ ■ 
7 . 3. Situation ; condition ; relative aspect. ** The lay of the land," 

. , '1 the situation of affairs. Common use. In England, it would seem, 
**lie " is employed. 

I have just had an opportunity of conversing with a friend . . . from Italy and 
from . . . opportunities of knowing the lie of the land there. — Letter from 
Eurojyean Timet^ London^ May, 1862. 

To lay, for to lie. A vulprar error, equally common in England and 
in the United States. Thus we often hear and also see in print such 
phrases as, ♦* He hid down,** for he lay down to sleep; " That bed 
has been laid in,** for has been lain in; ** The land lays well," for 
lies well; it *' lays due north,** for lies, &c. 

In the following extract, English and German grammar are both 
set at naught: — 

I^ger beer derives its name from the long time it is allowed to lay (lager) in 
vats or casks, in cool cellars, previous to consumption. — Wells, Principles and 
AppUcaiions of Chemistry^ p. 436. 

To lay on thick. To flatter. 

Lay-out. Tn the Far West, a lay-out is any proposed enterprise, from 
organizing a State to digging out a prairie-dog. 

One cannot succeed without getting additional claims (to mines), so as to jus- 
tify shafts or tunnels ; and his necessities are appreciated by the other owners, 



who |^£ op ft moflt expenaivG lay-out tot him. — McCliBrty Mocky Mintntaim^ 
p. 919. 
To lay out- 1. To intend to do any thinj^ or to go anywhere; as, 
** 1 /uy oof to go to New York to-morrow.** 

We waji ft htfirt* tnttt la cBtry them hnlf tk bnrrvl of fiork; and I made a bifc j*r 
of btitUsr and sold it, and got tbe monev for it, five dollars. — Btt*tf B<fbUt, 

2. '*To layout" is the process to which deceased persona are 
subjected before burial; figuratively, it is applied to persons made 
politically dead. 

A Detroit aian who failed to pet a bill through Congreai*, allading to that body, 
8«y«j *'WolI, they laid me out, but I'll Iw even with Ihem Tot^ I've got a 
chattel niort^ai;^ on one of our country fjapcrs^ and I Ml go bnnif^ and tell the 
editor he 'a got to bust int£> that crowd about four €oluiun§ a weelc, or 1 11 fore- 
elo9€ on him in a mtnit/* 

Xteader. A leng1.h of finely twistt^d hair, gut, or grass, for attaching 
an angler's hook to the line; a bottom. Called also a SneU. 

Lean-to. A jient-hoiige; an addition made to a house l>ehind, or at 
the end of it, chiefly for doiUHt^fcic offices , of one story or more, lower 
than the main building, and the roof of it leaning against the wall 
of the hou^e. — Forhifn Nurfult Ghs-iari/. The word is used in New 
En^landf where it ia usually pronounced tinter, — Pickering. 

Many of the dotncatic offices of the household were performed upon the stoop 
or Uan-io, commonly calkd iinttr. — Brooke^ EnAtfard. 

Leastways. At leaflt. 

Leather^ Wood. (Dlrca pafustrhn.) A small shrub with flexible 
branches and a toupfh, leathery bark, which growa in woods in the 
Northern States, It ia also called Moose- wood; and, in New Eng- 
land, Wicopy. 

Wifj'hi, stringy bark, — .4/i«naJti Spelling-book (1830). Bark- 
oord. rather Abn, ipighebimaf. it, bois blanc (arbre) icif/hfhi\ lien de 
bois blanc : pi, — btar (cf. kanlTfhffh^bi, lien de cfedre. Rafinesque 
(Med. Flora, I., 158) gives, among vulj^ar names of D. pahistriSf 
** rope-bark, bois de plomb, in Cana^la,'^ '* The hark in very 
tough, can hardly be brciketi, and, torn in long strips, ia used yet 
in many parts for ropes, a practice borrowed f I'om the Indian tribes,** 
p. 15P. But it ia plain that the wigehi of Raslea was made from 
the Bois Blanc, or Rasa Wood, See Charlevoix^ Nouvelle France, 
Vol TIL p, 162. 

To leave out in the Cold. Ti) shut out; to neglect. 

The **Aiiscnt«^* continue to come in fn?ely at thw Erip Hnilrofld olTice; tnd 
the appearances are that at the clu'^ing of the l»mk9. . . there will be few 
•harea or bonds Ujl tmi tn tht t!oid.-^N. ¥. Triifime, July, 1S61. 



Leggings (Commonly written and prouounoed kfftjitis.) Indian wrap- 
l>ers for the lega ; aliK) worn hy tlie white hunters and trappers of 
the We,stt both on account of the mud and to save the pantal*x>n8 
fjom the sweat of the horse. By some they are called \\'rapp<Ars, 

How piquAQtJj do theae Irira and beaded ltgifing» peep from under that »imple 
dress of blftck* us its taII, uut-bmwn wearor niov^^ through Uie graceful inasea of 
the dance ! — Hi^fnuin, Winter in the Wtst, p. 239. ' 

The wolf springs with fearful growl towards Stemaw, who fiUghtlj wounda 
him with his axe. a» be jonip<i backwards ju«t in time to »avc bim.<clf from the 
inftimted animal, wbkb catcbea in it^ fatigs the fiijip of hu Uggin, — iV. T, 
Spit-it 0/ the Times, 

Iicg to Stand on. A person without a leg (0 starid on would, of course, 
have nothing to support him. The exprefwion k applied^ figura- 
tively, to one without support in an argument. 

£x-<]iovcn>or Clifford. . . . jsrettjng at I the points iDvolved, pfcp^red the wU 
diuice flo 8k it fully that the oppoiieats had ftof a teg to ttand tm at tb^ trial*-* 
SofUm Jnumnl, April 2&» 1877. 

Leg of the Law, also LinU^ 0/ the Law, A lawyer. 

A prominent saloon-keeper wwi hauled into court by a wcll-kn^wn leg qfA^ 
laiP| who made $3.00 out of him. — Bndgfpttrt^ Conn.^ Slamlard, 

LegiBlative. The Legislature. This, like the term ** executive,** is 
used in America as a noun; but it is by no means so common as 
til at word. — Pickering 

Leg-Stretoher, It is .«aid that drams are now called '* leg-stretchem " 
in Vermont, It is an every-day occurrence there for pa.s3engers In 
the stage-coaches, while tlie latter are waiting for the mails, to say, 
** I guess I 'II get out and stretch my legs/* which always ends in 
tJieir having a drink somewhere in the hotel. 

Lengthy. Having length, long, not brief; tiresomely long. Applied 
often Uy dissertations or discourses; as, ** a length g oration,** **a 
length if speech. ** — Worcester, 

This word was once very common among us, lioth in writing and 
in the language of conversation; but it has been so much ridiculed 
by Americans as well fm Englishmen that in writing it is now gen- 
erally avoided. Mr* Wiibster has admitted it intx) hys Dictionary; 
but (as need hardly W remarked) it is not in any of the English 
ones. It ifl appli(?d by us, as Mr. Webster justly observ^es, chiefly 
to writings or discourses. Thus we say, a tengthg pamphlet, a 
lengthy sermon, &c, The English would say, d^ long or (in tlie more 
familiar style) a longhh sermon. It may be here remarked, by the 
"way, that they make much more use of tJie termination w/r than we 
do; but this is only in the language of conversation. — Picktring* 



Mr. Pickering has many other interesting remnTka on this word» 
for which I refer the reader to his work. The word has been 
gradually forcing Us way into general use since the time in which 
be wrote; and that, too^ in Eiigliind as well as in Americ»^. Thus, 
Mr, Rushf in relating a conversation which he had in Loudon » ob- 
serves: ** Lord Harrowhy spoke of words that had ohtained a sanc- 
tion in the United States, in the condemnation of which he could 
not join; as» for example, lengihtf^ which imported, he Faid, what 
was tedious as well as long, — an idea that no otlicr English word 
seemed to convey as well." — Rflnid^jire in Lonflnn^ p. 294* 

We liave given back to England the excellent adjective hnfjthy^ 
formed honestly like earthly /froufhi/, and others, thus enahlirtg their 
jntimalists to characteiize our Preiiidenfc*a messages by a word civilly 
compromiBing between long and tedious, m as not to endanger the 
peace of the two countrien by wounding our national sensitiveness to 
British criticism — Lowell, Int. to Bi(/low Papers, 

A writer in the '' Btjston Daily Advertiser/' under the signature 
of ** W. X./' says that he has met with the word trngthi^ in the 
** London Times," the *^ Liverpool Chronicle," ** Blackwood'ti Mag- 
azine," the ** Saturday Magazine," the "British Critic," *' Quar- 
terly Eeview," ** Monthly Review," '* Eclectic Re\^ew," '^ West- 
minster and Foreign Quarterly Revdews," in the writings of Dr. 
Dibdin, Bi?hop Jebb, Lord Byron, Coleridji^e, &c. Granhy, an 
English author, ui*ea the word ienf^thinesji, which m a regularly 
formed noun from lengthif. Campbell uses the adverb lenffthilff, 
III bis "Letters from the South »" he says: — 

I coutd di»cour»e lengthily on ih« names of Jugtirtha, Juba, Syphax, See. 
And again: — • 
The hair of th« head ij bound hngtkitjf behind. 

Here follow a few examples from English and American writers, 
out of the many that present themselves: - - 

Hun-fty has sent, or will s€Dd,a dtnible copy of the ^' Bride** and " Giaour; " in 
the lip»t on<? ftoine Ungihif additions; pray accept theni according to the oW cuBtom. 
Lord Bgron's LtUtr to Br, Chrh, Dec. la, 1813. 

All this excitement was created by two length jf panigraph« in the Timeji. — 
London Aihencnm, July 12, 1844, p, 697. 

This man had timely warning from hi» God 

To build ft »pftcioiis ark of Gopher- wood ; 

He, moved thrc>ugh fear and failh, the structure rears, 

Which cost the arduous) tank of Bin K'ore years* 

While Noah thus employed thi« hngthy iipaee, &c. 

Noah*t Flood: a Fotm by Jm, Vml^ Ntw London, 1790. 

860 LEN— LET 

Cha)men*8 ** Political Annals,** in treating of Sooth Carolina, is by no i 
as lengthy as Mr. Hewitt*8 History. — DrayUm^t South Carolina. 
I did not mean to have been so lengthy when I began. — JefferwiCe Writmfft, 
I foiget whether Mr. Sibthorpe has mentioned, in any of his numeroos and 
lengthy epistles, this circimistance. — Mrs, Clavers*s Forest Life, 

laengthily. In a lengthy manner. Webster credits this word to 

In the report of a convention of ** Spiritualists " at Farmington, 
Michigan, it is said that — 

Mr. Simmons followed, addressing the convention quite lengthily, — Bpiriimal 

Ziet-down. A descent; fall; diminution in price, &c. 

Within the last few davs, there has been a shocking let-down among the fendes 
[stocks]. — JST. Y, Herald. 

I«et her rip, ** let her went.** The expression most likely had its ori- 
gin in steamboating, 

DonH fire, says Joe, it ain*t no use. 

That *s Deacon Peleg's tame wir-goose ; 

Says Isrel, ** I don*t care a cent 

I *ve sighted, an* I *11 let her went. — Lowell, Biglow Pn^tn. 

To let on. To mention: to disclose; to betray a knowledge or con- 
sciousness of any thing. ** He never let on," i. e. he never told me. 
This expression is often heard among the illiterate, and is not con- 
fined to any particular section of the United States. It is also used 
in the north of England and in Scotland. 

*Ti8 like I may, — but let na on what *s past 
*Tween you and me, else fear a kittle cast 

Ramsay, The Gentle Shepherd, 

The tears were runnin' out of my eyes ; but I didn't want to let on, for fear it 
would make her feel bad. — Major Jones's Courtship, p. 84. 

To let out. To begin a story or narrative. A Western expression. 

Tom squared himself for a yam, wet his lips with a little com juice, took a 
small strip of Missouri weed, and let out, — Ritbb, Squatter Life, 

To let slide. To let go; as, ^^ That fish you have hooked is not fit to 
eat: let him slide. ^* 

During a debate in Cong^ss, General Banks said, ** Let the Union 
slide,** a sentiment for which he was reproached. Mr. Lowell gives 
many examples of the early use of the expression. He finds ** let 
the world slide " in Hey wood's ** Edward I V. ; ** and in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's ** Wit without Money '* Valentine says, — 

Will you go drink, 
And Ut the world slide. 



We also find in Gower very early authority (or th^ same: — 

The hJ^he creator of things. 
Which i» the king of all kingCA, 
Full many womder worldes ciiaunce 
Ze£ §tidt uiid^r hi?^ Hufferftunce. 

Cmftssiir AmQntis (ed. Fauti), Tol. III. p. 6t. 
In bad placea^ you ma}' fasten a mpe hy the axlci t^f the wa^on, and, pasjiiog tba 
tnd round a tree, you ijiflv Id hiT tOffe, — F^ .Unritfftt, OiH/i/mia, 

In a debate in Congress on a bill providing^ for the estabH«hment 
of an overland mail to Califoniia, the annual coat of whicli was esti- 
mated at half a million of doEara, Mr. Iverson said: — 

If California was going to oo»t the Unioa so much, it would he better lo (itl 
California tlide. 

Sal Stehbinw married ■ feller blind iu one eye and deaf in one ear ; so I thought 
if ahe waa a mind to take such a chap, I 'd better let her tliJe. — TroiU of AmtH- 
eon Humor, 

**Comc, Solj let's have a game of poker,'' 

** Oh, ht the pt»ker tlidt^ Judjfe,'* replied Sol ; " dome other time wheu I want 
a stake, I *ll make a calL" — A Stm^ Yanktt in Ttmt^ p. 22L 

Let'Bp. A {et'Up is a release; a relief , ti^ when a stringency in tha 
money-market disappears. An expression borrowed from pugilists. 

Th«re was no hl-up in the »tock market to-day, and the differeocea |Aid on 
tb^ maturing eontrarLn w^re very* large. — N. Y. Tribune. 

Wherever the slave-traders resort, the name of our New York Marshal is 
tieartily curbed. He has heen threatened, and invited to name the terms tipoa 
which he would hi up the^e people. His tenoa are a short ah rift and a long 
rope. -^N. Y. Tnbunr, Ckt. 18, 1S61. 

To let up ia U> release ; to let go. 

Leiree. L (Fr. tcvte.) An embankment on the side of a river, to 
ccmflne it within its natural chaiineL The lower part of Louisiana, 
which has been formed by encroachments upon the sea, is subject 
to he iimndated by the Mississippi and its various branches, fur a 
distance of moi^ titan three hundred miles. In order to protect the 
rich lands on these rivers, mounds are thrown up, of clay, cypresa- 
loga, and green turf, sotiietimes to the height of fifteen feet, with a 
breadth of thirty feet at the base. These, in the language of that 
part of tlie countr5% are called levees. They extend for hundreds of 
mites: and, when the rivers are full, cultivated fields, covered with 
rich crops and studded with villages, are seen lying far below the 
iver courses. — Encyclopmdta Americana, 

The ffreat feature of New Orleans is the Lmvm. Extending for about flye 
milei in length, and an average of two hundred feet in width, on the w«»t baoJc 
of this river, whkb here runft to the iiortb-«a»t, it is made the great depot, Dot 
only for the products of the vai»t country bordering on the Mississippi and its 

852 LEV— LIB 

navigable tributaries, but also of every foreign port, bj means of abont five hun- 
dred steamboats on the one hand, and every variety of sea-craft on the other 
which are at all times to be seen in great numbers along the entire length, dis- 
charging and receiving their