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^^238, (2?l 

» tt H III#ffttttt»# 

Harvard College 



William Sumner Appleton 

OF BOSTON, lf A fW A <:HUSiH ' ra 
CLASS OF 1896 

it»4.44»»» # »»»»»|»»» 


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KZHunrnfo tbi 













Antbor of ' Cyelopcedia of Praetieal Beceipts, Proct*se»t and Data, in 
all the Arti of Life and CivilUatum ; * 




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fi// C/ i t-W^VL>^ (X'fi.fL <K<^V^ 

Edinbnrgb : 
Printed tty W. and R. Ouunbera. 


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l5 this work the orthography and pronimciation of the modem 1<^ g1ifb, 
according to the prevailing naage of corcect writers and speakers, is faithfoUy 
exhibited ; whilst the definitions of the words hare been carefolly attended 
to, and are sofficiently dear, fall, and aocurate to meet the wants of the 
student and critical inquirer, without being so diffuse or complicated as to 
unfit them for the use of the middle and upper ' fonns' of schools, and for 
the general and humbler class of readers. 

To this it may be added, that in most cases the definitions are given, 
or supplemented, on a plan which will b^ found to render this work not 
merely an * expository,' but also a * synonymous' Dictionary of the English 

Words, in respect to the pronunciation or orthography of which usage or 
orthoSpiflts differ, have such diverse pronunciation or spelling appended to 
each in its alphabetical place in the vocabulary; by which the possessor 
of this Dictionary, by almost a mere glance of the eye, is brought acquainted 
with the opinions and practice of our leading contemporary and previous 
writers, without the expense of possessing, or the loss of time in referring 
to, their respective works. 

A large number of the classical and foreign words which are now so 
freely introduced into the pages of our current and periodical literature, 
with a copious collection of the Terms of Modem Art and Science, are 
inserted in this work; whilst the Participles, and other Formatives, not 
usually found in Dictionaries, of which the orthography so often puzzles the 
beginner, and even the experienced writer, are given, in all cases, after their 
respective verbs, adjectives, &c. 

The scheme of elementary sounds adopted in this Dictionary, and the 
* notation' by which these soimds are expressed, will, it is trusted, be found 
not merely more accurate, but simpler than those of either Mr Walker or 
Mr Sheridan, or their followers. 

The system of indicating the sounds of the vowels, by figures placed over 
them, has been superseded by the introduction of simple * phonotypes,' whicB; 
by appealing to the eye, or fidling in with previous impressions, become self- 
explanatory after a single reference to the * Key to the Pronunciation ' given 
at the commencement of the work. 

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iv Preface, 

The impronounceable combinations of letters noticed in the ' Introduction, 
and used by Knowles and others, as worship unbishqpc^, &c., have been 
uniformly avoided as useless and deceptive. 

By the use of abbreviations (for the most part self-explanatory) to 
express the more familiar and frequently recurring words, many excellences 
hitherto characteristic of much more voluminous works, have been com- 
pressed into the space of a hand-dictionaiy, without in any degree sacrificing 
clearness to compression. 

Mr Sheridan's Pronouncing Dictionary contains about 37,000 words ; 
Mr Walker's, 33,178 ; this IHctionary, more than double the number of 
either of them. 

It now merely remains to observe, that» after the body of the Dictionary' 

was prepared, it was deemed necessary to omit several of the less important 

* Sections* of the Introduction, for the purpose of keeping the volume wit Lin 

certain limits. The sectional numbers, for which the reader will accordingly 

find no corresponding explanatory matter, are 47, 49-57, 59, Gl-87, and 


A. J. V. 
LoRDOK, October 1, 1861. 

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F&crAGx, ..... 

D1RSGT1053, Abbrbyiatioks, &c, 

l5T»ODCCn05 : — 

The Bnglish Alphabet, 
Elementary Sounds in English, 
Diphthongs and Triphthongs in English, 
Consonant-diphthongs, . m , . 

The Vowtls, Definition and Classification of, , 

m Organic Formation of, 
Diphthongs, Definition and Characteristics of^ 
Triphthongs, m h , 

Con9onantt, Definition and Classification of, 

R Organic Formation of, 

« Changes of, in Speech, 

EUmeats of Pronundation — Lsitxbs, 
Soand« of the Letters and their leading Combinations, 
Soands of J, . 

E, . 

0, . 


W, . 
Y, . 

01, OY, 
OU, OW, 

Alphabetic Vowels, .... 

Towels erpressed by other than their proper letters, 
Combined or Grouped Vowels, Table of the Powers of, 
Bffects of Accent on Vowels, . 
Unaccented Vowels, 
Influence of iZ on a preceding Vowel, 
Faint sound organically inserted between certain Conso- 
nants and certain Vowels— represented by (*), 


▼ii — T 


xi — ^xir 



xiv — XV 

xiT — Xf 

XV — xri 


xvi — x?iii 

xTii — xix 

xviii — xix 


xix — Ixvii 

XX — ^xxiii 

xxiii — xxvi 

xxvi — xxix 

xxix — xxxii 

xxxii — xxxiv 



xxxvi — xiii 


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Tahle of Contents. 


Written ConKmarUs and their Sounds, . . xIt 

£,C, xlv 

Cff, ...... xlTi 

J),F,Of . . . . . . xlviii 

jff, ..... . xlix 

J, K, L, M, N, KG, .... 1 

P^dliyS, li 

SH,T, liv 

Tff, Ir 

F, TF, X, Ivi 

T,Z,Zn, Ivii 

Combined Consonanta— Ghrouped Letters, Table of Powers of, Iviii— Ixvii 

Accent^ its Nature, Tendency, &c., . . . bcvii 

Quantity, ...... Ixviii 

Accentual Marks, ...... Ixviii 

Orthography : — 

Words "whidi double or alter their final letter in 

Composition or Derivation, . . . Ixiz 

Words in -c, -dfc, -wr, -toe, . . . Ixx 

Terms in Chemistry, Natural History, &c., . . Ixxi 

Verbs in -ise, -ize, . . • . . Ixxi 

Words in -ect, -ection, -cr, -ccion, . . . Ixxi 

Composition, Derivation, Formatives, &c., . . Ixxi — Ixxii 

Prefix, Affix or Suffix, ..... Ixxii 

Formaivoes from Yeebs, . . . . Ixxii — Ixxiii 

II n Substantives, .... Ixxiii — Ixxiv 

If n Adjectives, . . . Ixxv 

n » Adverbs, &c, .... bcxv 

The Hyphen, ...... Ixxri 

Foreign and ClasticaZ Words, .... Ixxri 

Sounds of the Letters in the leading Buropean Languages, Ixxvi — buux 

French Words, . .... Ixxix 

Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Words, . . . Ixxix 

Latin Accent, Quantity, &c., .... Ixxx 

Tabular Ket to the Prohuhciation, . . . Ixxxii 

English Diotionart, . • • • • • 1 902 

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^»ee, Ufte foUowing name* and word$ of frequent occurrence, are eommonty 
ia tte body of this Dieticneuy, by luch of their earlier letters as are printed below 
aiiafio.- — 

«. AbbreriatlocMi, &c^ of common words :— oMreTiat-ed, -ion : abounding ; about ; a^«olQte» 
-if', ohBdant, -t^i ceeent, -ed, -nation; oeeompan-v, -ied; a«vordingr. -Ij ; acqu\rt^i 
CMUiiioa; add-tng^ -cd» -ttion; adAtfMve, -ion; a4ftciiye, -U; adjoining \ adjacent', 
t^B*^l, Ay ; o^eoKtase, -OQ> ; atftMm«-tng, -€ment ; o^nst ; aiphabtt, -ic, -al, -\y ; a/ioayt ; 
Mfi fc i hr as; a»cient» -ly; otpply, -ing, -ied ; opp/ication; op^roprlate, -ly; aporoach, -ing; 
Hyriiaticii ; mriaiug ; arrange, -d, -ment ; a«crib-ed, -ing ; a«certaln-ing. -ed ; auum-ing, 
'ii.-pdcB: — &sdbeard, -«; Aeraose; frtfcoming; 6«Aind; 6«Aat;ioar: belongwg; beyond; 
krTv^fd'.—eartfnl, -ly, -neaa; comtrorons; carrying; cottfing; cavalry; ceUbrixt-fd, -ion; 
flpiya; cftroraccer, -teed, -tetie; cMef, -ly; etrcular, -ly ; ciril; company; co/our, -ing, -ed; 
aSannl, -ly ; collecting, -ed, -ion ; eo^lMtire, -ly (somet. eotl,); common, -ly ; commercial, 
-h; tBttmemumi-^ -ed, -Ion ; coMMnaicatHS, -ing, -ion ; compo-und, -n, -ed, -aiilon, (somet.) 
esBfarstive. -It ; e»n«eet^ing, -ed, -ion ; cofi/nnctiTe, -ly ; oonnsting ; con«d«'ration ; 
in i aitt -jag, -ed, -ioa ; eon/ain-ing, -ed ; con/ract-ing, -ed, -ion ; conrHMit-ing, -ed, -ion ; 
1— HUB I, -ly, -ee, (aomet.) eonventional ; correctly ; corrupt, -ed, -ly, -ion ; ctt/rivat-Ing, 
■< -ka z—dediatr^d^ -ion ; defiaitre^ -ly, -Ion : defic\en-t, -ey ; <f^ct-ing, -ed, -Ion ; 
rfiiL* i tt te, -in«, -«d, -fcm ; dcnot-ing, -ed : if<pend-ing, -ent : dcriv-ed, -ing, -ation ; derivtiU vo, 
-q; iacesd, -iag, -ed, -ant, -a; dcscri-biag, -ptlon ; deMtroj^ -ing; destntet-lrt, -ion; 
afits^ -y ; tf^ren-t, -ly, -«e ; d«minnt-lTe, -ion ; (2w*eet, -ing, -ion ; iliacnsfion ; (fi^'unctive, 
-7; Htfi^iag, -ition; iMsian-t, -ce; </wMbat-iTe, -ly, -ion; dioid-ing, -ed; dtdslon; 
dB»-a#, -axicQ ; <io«estiB ; during :— ^octesiaatlcal ; cfect, -ing ; c/cment, -al ; e/cvat-lng, -ed, 
hk; f ■trae^JBg, -ed ; tfMAa-aia, -tic, -ally ; cn^g-ed, -Ing, -ment; c^al, -ly ; ^^mValent; 
«9Kial, •^; esaentlal, -ly ; ntebliah, -ing, -ed, -ment; ctncfen-t, -ce; example, -s; 
Bn^a-lag, -ed, -atSon ; «ac«ept, -ing, -ed, -Jon, -s ; «c7xct-ing, -ation ; cxp/anat-ion, -ory 
{mmtt^ rxf.) ; ezyuiaite, -ly ; exUntil ; esecrior :— /amiliar, -ly ; /erment, -ing» -ed, -ation ; 
fyat^ -«xive, -It ; /^floiw-lng, -ed, -a ; /oreign ; /ormerly ; /onrard, -a ; /ov7id, -ed, -ation ; 
Jinfmk-t, -ly, -iy, -tingr, -ted; /Wmiah-ing, -ed j /V<<ur-e, -ity (somet., fu.) : -general, -ly, 
-st; 0c^a or awadSer ; pi^antie; ^nunma-r, -tical, -ly ; ^owfnal, -Iv :— Aence; Aaiitual, 
-is ; hm^\ karooBtal, -ly : — «ma^a-Ty. -tlon ; tmmediate, -ly ; tm^^^Ting, -ied ; «m;»orUn-t, 
-9; ayn^siy; anreaaant, -ly; taciaent, -al, -Iv; incorrect, -ly; <ncreaa-ing, -ed; 
■arfivftnstr.L'; rrtfrnt '"C- ~^ ~'<^° > MU^^nite, -ly ; m/bntry ; t>{/(ect, -Ing, -ion ; m^redient, 
-«; uitoti-isg; -ed, -able, -ant, -s; tnafnnnent, -al; tn#H^icien-t, -ly, -cy ; tn/erest, -a, 
-03; -id; tal^Acctnal, -ly, -Ity; Mention, -al, -\j; tn/crmcdlate, -ly; tn^crro^ative, -ly; 
■— fti [^. .«d ; irmtfcal, -ly ; trregnlar, -ly, -ity :— >tM2icial, -ly ; jW^-ing, -ment ; >nct-ion, 
-«t; ividieal, -ly; >B»t-ly, -iee:— isfiowJedge:— /«^, -ly; Hqnidi liquor; /i/eral, -ly; 
fiKk sMd ; Iking : — manner, -a ; mmlal, -ly ; mercantile ; mcrcAant, -able ; metrical, -ly ; 
wf.-rpfcertfil, -lyTeoaiet^ met.) ; ffio<fem ; moderate, -ly ; mowt-ened, -are ; moving ; miMlo, 
-d, Ij ne fill SI. -ly; «u>9VAt-ing, -ed; negative, -ly; no., number; nos., numbers; 

_ — s__. ,. _i- — .o^Vw^ _- _!-« 1-. ..I. — iioua, -ly; oftaolete, odao/escent; 

rd, -a ; ojrinion ; oppois-ing, -ed, 
-al, -y :— particular, -ly, -ity; 
"taining ; eAy^ical, -ly ; poe^-ical, 
; prcced-ing, -ed ; predoniinan-t, 
'-eaent-ing, -ation ; previous, -ly ; 
ed-ing, -ure; prorfuc-t, -s, -ing, 
iation ; prop-er, -ly ; propo«-ing, 
ism ; proverbiid, -It ; purpow, 
ntit-y, -atire ; j^uenion, -able :— 
«1, -ly ; rcduc-ing, -ed, -tion ; 
-ing, -ed, -ion, -Ive ; repular, -ly, 
rcmain-ing, -der ; represent-ing, 
re«ult-ing, -ed; rhetorical, -Iv; 
r, -ion : aeveral, -ly ; ftmilar, -ly, 
; special, -ly; tui/unctive, -ly; 
-ly* -cy ; auApoe-ed, -ing, -ition ; 
wqMO-ioas, -ly, -ion ; «ynonym-e, 
rcnd-ing, -ed, -ency; together; 
dentood ; unmhabWcd, -able ; 
>table ; vto<en-t, -ce ; vo/atile ; 
ritten; with a few others, of a 

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Directions, Explanations, Abbreviations, Sc. 

6. Names of Arts, Sciences, Professions, &c. (nsually in parentheses), expressed by 
their commencing syllable or letters. 











dy. eng.), 
ciy 1.), 

dom. eoon.), 


<eccl. 1. , 
* Jtr. , 



















, olncry. 




, urisprudence. 






lapidary, art of the. 




landscape gardening. 








Uquoriste, art of. 


















civil engineering. 



t law. 












cuiaine, or culinary art. 








military affairs or art. 







monetary afiidrs. 




eccleslasUcal law. 


natural philosophy. 

electric, -ol, -ity. 


nautical afikirs, seamanabip. 



navy, naval affairs or art. 

English history. 




, needle-work. 

























forest law. 


painting, art of. 







galvanic, -ism. 











phonology or phoneties. 






nat. philosophy. 



poetry, poesy. 



political economy. 







railways, railway engineering, 



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Direciionsy ExplancUions, AbbreviationSy Sc, 

h. Names of Art£s, Sdences, Professions, ftc. — ConiJUnued, 

(Bo. ORih.), 


Boman Catholieiam, papistry. 


Bojal Nary. # 















veg. anat), (ftc. 
Teg. phys.j, 

[▼et. snrg.) 


(Tolt. electr.) 






!.). Tegetable anatomy. 

m physiology. 
Tcterinary snrgery. 
Toltate. -tSM. 
Toltaic electricity, 

c Names of Authorities, &a. expressed by their bitial letter or letters. 




J. AM.. 







Ben Jonson. 


Brsnde (oecaa.. B.). 




CampbeU (Lord). 
Che«tafteid (Lord). 















MsueBon (somet*. J.). 


> James & MoI<^. 
Johnson (Dr 8am.}. 
Lord Campbell. 
Lowth (Dr). 

Penny Cydopssdla. 

















Richardson (Dr). 










Thomas (Dr Jot.). 

United Sutes nse. 






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Directions^ Ei^lanationsy Ahbreviaiioiw, Ac. 

t. Parts of Speech, Grammatical Terms, &c 

a. pro., 









pro. a., 
pro. demonst, 
pro. pou., 
pro. refl., 
pro. pers., 
pro. redpr., 
pro. rd., 



V. a., 
T. aax., 
T. def., 
T. imp., 
▼. irr., 


adjectire pronoon. 


a£Bz w termination. 




participle, present or active. 

, past or passiTe. 
prefix or Inseparable prepo- 


Sronomial adjectiTe. 
emonstratlTe pronoon. 
possessive t* 

reflective v 

personal » 

reciprocal 1* 

rdative » 

sabstantive or noun, 
collective sabetantiTe, 

* noon of multitude '., 
verb intransitive or neuter. 

n tranaiUvc or active. 

«r active. 

a auxiliary. 

tt defective. 

«r impersonal. 

1 irregular. 



ad. phr., 

CO., \ 

oomp., / 
f., fern., 
imp., > 
imper., ) 

na.. . 













ablative (case), 

accusative (case), 
adverbial pnrase. 

comparative (degree). 


imperatire (mood). 

impersonal, -If. 
indicative (mood), 
infinitive (mood), 

nominative (case), 
objective { ' ). 
plural (number), 
poesessive (case), 
potential (mood), 
present tense, 
preterite, or past tense, 
superlative (degree), 
subjunctive (mood), 
singular (number), 

(With a few others, induded in the 
preceding Tahlei.) 

f. Abbreviations denoting reference, &c. 

«. ^., exempli graUA (for example), 

ti., or t&tJ., ibi'dem (in the same place). 

idem (the same ; or Uie same 

id est (that is; or that is to say). 


idem quod (the same as). 

quod vi'de (which see), 
ut antd (as Wore). 

v) or {vid.)t vide (see: refer to). 

V. a.), see the adjective. 

I. f .), vide infrk (see bdow). 

. «.), see the sumtantive. 

. m.), vide suprk (see above). 

y. «.), see the verb, 

via., videlicet (namely). 
Ac., &c 

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L The EsoLiSH Lafquaox — Its Alphabet and Elementary BOUfuU — Voteds, 
CoMonantx, IHphtkongi, TriplithongSf their natmre, eloMsificatitniy organic 
formation, &c. 

L The Lettibs of the Esolibh lahouagi arranged in their customary order, 
called the ^ Englith Alphabet^ are twenty-six^ in nnmher, as follows: A^ a; 
B, h: C, c; 2), d; £, e; F, f; 0, g; if, h; /, i; /, j; K, 1c; X, I; M, m; 
N, «; O, o; P,p; Q, q; B, r; 5, s; T, t; U, u; F, vj W, w; Z, x; Y, y; 

This Alp^abety hesides possessing other faults, for some of which perhaps 
*A sufficient^ although not a satisfactory reason' can be giren, is — 1. Bedundant, 
in containing four superfluous letters' : — 2. D^ficientf in wanting signs for, at 
least, AX of the sounds heard in ^e *i^oken language '^ : and — 8. IncoTisistentf 
in expreaing ^e sounds of three double consonants^, and two diphthongs^, each hy 
a single dgn ; and three^ or more, of the single consonant-sounds heard in speech^ 
each by two signs or letters. Deducting ike four * superfluous letters* ooly 22 
aipkahetie characters remain to express the elementary sounds of the *spol:en 
language ', which are much more numerous^. 

2. The SncPLE or Elemehtabt soithps of the Eitqush languaqe do not 
' exceed* thirty-five in number, of which, howerer, two% at least, are doubtful ; 
whilst six^ of the remainder appear to be mere Tarieties of other sounds, and 
owe their dums to be regarded as distinct elements chiefly to the shortening and 
modi^ng influence of a following consonant Hence, the number of sounds iu 
fnglisfa, abtolutdy elementary ^ may be regarded as only twenty-aeven^^ ; or if the 
* irUled ' or ' initial ' r, and the * palatal ', * guttural *, or * final * r, be regarded as 
mere modifications of the same articulation — an opinion held by many writers on 
grammar, but with which we do not agree ^^^ — the number will be further reduced 
to twetUy-rix, 

1 Before the introduction of separate characters for • and y, and for u and r, which had 
alwBja separate powers though expressed by the same symbols, the Utter* of the Mmghuh 
ttiphahet were only twenty-four in number. 

> Tiz., c, J, q, and x; to these, to and y are added by those writers who regard them as 
heiag towels in all positions. 

s Viz., the M in * b«t\ the /A in ' th\n\ the ih in ' fAlne*, the «A in * lAine', the z (zh) in 
*«re ', and the ng in *lt^ng*, 

'* Viz., /, 9, and X. 

• Tix^jimandwCa). 

« Tiz., tfie th in * th\n \ the th in < <Mne ', and the sA in * sAine '. 

' A perftet alnJuiM would necessarily contain a separate character or letter for et?ery 
eiementanf soamtf of the * sp{»ken language *, and the name of each letter would be, as nearly 
■a poaaible, the sound of which it is the visible sign ; a degree of couTenience and acouracy 
eziMing, howerer, in the alphabet of no known language. 

• yiz., w and y; which, though junally and conveniently regarded as 'consonants' when 
Inltlai, are true * vowels' in all posRlons, as noticed hereafter. 

• y\x., dj i, {, d^ ^ dd (<R>) ; which appear to be mere varieties or modifloations of the 
■ long ' or ' open ' vowels that stand opposite to them in the Table of Stem, Sounde (below). 

M In practice, owing to the modifying influence of the consonants on the vowels and on 
eadi o^ier, and of accent and syllabication, these sounds are virtually extended to 86, or 
eertafiBly. at the least, to 34. 

n For the reasons, see y^oie 21 (below). 

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Elernentary Sounds. 


A Lut of these Elbmkrtart sounds, arranged in the order of their organic 
formation, or in accordance with the * Alph^et of Nature\ is given in the 
following Table : — 





The sound of o 

in ah, far^ father 

= d 




ti nle, fate 

= & 




11 brat. «e1, meto 
II all, bawl, talk, or, 

= 6 



a or 

nori^ = ft, iSR', oro 



II 00, ope, mote 

= 6 




II cool, food 

= 55 



The sound of a 

in hat, frtt, ham 

= it 




II b«d, «ll,p«t 

= d 




II 111, ptt,ttn 

= 1 




II on, not, what 

= a,ft,or«lr 




II but, cup, hmryw 

= fl 



u or 00 

II b«ll, piill, foot 

= <J6 




The sound of w 

In iooe,«olUiT 

= w 



1. w, yes, yet w 
II Aat,Aomei» 





,1 ;»ll,oaA 

= kl 




11 p«in,ao,e^ ' 

Z ^ 





II top, fsto 





11 dip.faie 

= d 




II cin, rotpe 

„ ftit, ftoast, rofto 

= g 





11 «Mne,bu«4 

= sh\ 



• or a 

II Tifion, ajBure 

= JSh/ 




.1 «eal,hl«8 

= 8 




11 seal, bun, blase 

= » . 




.1 fMn, <Aigh, breafA 

= thl 




II thjt f Aine, brea^Ae 

= til 


>2, i> See Section 8. 

14 The eharacters and digraphs in this column sre those used to represent the rcspectlTe 
sounds in the * notation ' employed in this DietUmary. 

i< This sound of o is represented in the * notation ' of this Dictionary by the simple ' o ' 
before r (t. e^ or), except in cases where somo other word, though similarly spelled, is dlflbr^ 
enUy pronounced, and then by *aw*, as given In the column of phonotypes (aboTe}. See 
Sections 17, 26. 

1* The u in ctrr, fur, &c, is radically the same sound, though lengthened and relatirely 
* unstopped' by the modifying influence of the r. 

I'That initial «o is a * rowel*, equlralent to 55 or a&, as taught by Lowth, Sheridan. 
Knowles, and Webster ; and not a * consonant \ as Walker says it * is generally acknowledged * 
to be ; will, we think, bo admitted by every one who, unbiassed bv school-teaching and 
popular opinion, will rigidly investigate the power and nature of this letter, and observe the 
position of the organs of speech during its formation. The advocates of the latter opinion 
havo evidratly forgotten that Initial v> la always followed br one or other of the vowels, 
forming diphthongs of easy pronunciation; and that 56-all, d&-ill, &c, separately pro- 
nounced, however rapidly, are dissyllables, d&all, 55111, die. (i. e., teall^ «rt7(, &c.), are mono- 
syllables ; the difference lying In the initial action of one vowel on the other, folk>wing from 
the glide of the voice which constitutes the very nature of a diphthong. The reason initial 
%o and V require the article 'a', instead of <an', before them, has been philosophically, and 
we think correctly, explained by Mr Knowles. 

u Initial y has the sound of 2 or « ; and, like it, owes Its apparent consonantal character to 
the peculiar conditions under which it is always uttered. Bisuop Lowth insists upon y being 
alwaye a * rower; Knowles, and sereral other orihilplsts, hold the same opinion. Dr 
Latham remarks : * This sound (y) is evidently allied to the sound of ee in fe«t; some writers 
oonsider It identical. It is, however, convenient to regard' it (as well as initial to) *ai a 
separate independent sound '. See Note 17. 

1* A letter of which the power is a strong breathing or forcible propulsion of imvoealised 
breath, which becomes vocal in the vowel element that follows it. Some grammarians deny 
its claim to be regarded as a * consonant* ; but any attempt to invalidate this claim militates 
with equal force against some other letters, whose title, in this respect, is undisputed. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§2.] Diphthongt — Triphthongs — Double Consonants. xiii 

Consonants — Contmved. 

28. The lotind of/ 



19. „ 


If MO, vttiByMre 

30. „ 


If fip, flfl 

ti rlU, row. trill M 


31. ,. 


». If 


H c«r, bare, flnn« 

= r 

33. N 


tr king,»ong,hungO 

= ng 

S4. „ 


II net,secf» 

«3 n 

85. „ 


II HMt, gleam 

= m 

From the abore elementary sounds certain oompouf]) soukds are formed, of 
wldch te»23 deserve a separate notice. Of these, /o«r are produced by the close 
moion in utterance of pairs of * simple Towels', four by a like coalescence of 
trip]«tB of * simple Towels', and two by a like union and utterance of pain of 

fn naman ta ; — 

CoXPOUlfl) VOWIM :— 1. DiPHTHOltOS. 

1. The amind of « in tee, pine, mtnd ** = lory 

2. n oi or ojf tt oOf Toice, boyss s= oi or oy 

3. II ou or oto ti lu>t»e, cow^ = ou or ow 

4. H 14 or no If mme, time, nnc^ ts iXor yCO 

2. TsiPHTHOiras. 

I. The sound of • in kind, gotde^ = *I 

J. II wi II «rtne» = wl 

8. H ffot or uojf II b«ioy, ouoit^ s woy 

4. u «coM If ivottndM as woaorwow 


1. The sound of ch In cAest, much, ehnreh^ = ch (t»h) 

3. It J org If jettf^em, ra^» =3 j (dsh) 

* Tbe reason of/ asid c, as well li the twelve preceding consonants, being linked in * poln'. 
Is giTCB at poft XTiii. 

» TbeM aoQ&ds are really distinct and different, although allied to each other ; whilst the 
•eats and SMde of their formation are more apurt and distinct, than It the case of several 
other pairs of allied eouonants, which no one has ever doubted were separate and indepen- 
dent artienlatioBa. The same * symbol' may, however, be safelv used to express both of these 
letters^ in Ksglish, since their poeition-->inltial or final, immediately indicates which of them 

^ A single eleaoentary sound, into which that of neither letter of the digraph enters. The 
iSBe reaiaiic applies to the sounds represented by sA, sA, and tA, in the above Tabh. 

9 Tkis nomber naight be extended by the addition of the diphthonga, &o., formed by 10 and 
y with vowels, which are true d^hthongt, though otherwise elsssed by many orthodpists. 
Ksowks enumerates tveniy-fioe diphthongs: Walker, twenty^ght; many of the latter are, 
kovever, merely ocoUr, as are all the six triphthongs given by Mr Walker in his TMe. A 
rigid saalyais shews that all the long vowels are diphthongal. See Section 4. 

" Its elements are the sound of a in fat, followed by that of 9 in h«, or y in yet, with the 
meat en the firat element. When the fr$t element is lengthened into the a In father, and 
Bsch rested on» the resulting diphthong is either the vulgar provincial «, or the old adverb 
sad iatajeetioii ay (ah'e). 

* lis elements are the a in all, and the « in eve or f«et, with the accent on the firat. In 
oyster, Toaee, Sui^ ihtfirtt element is somewhat shortened. 

* Ito elements are the sound of a in all, followed by that of 00 in foot (d&), or the u in hnll 
(the fp la «ill— Latham), with the accent on ihefirtt element 

' Its elenents are the t in pit, followed by the o in who, or the 00 in woo and coo (5C ; the w 
ix viD—Lathun), with the accent on the second element. In fmit, tmion, ftc, the first element 
is somewhat prolonged (s e or £), and the diphthongal character of the compound rendered 
mneh more dUtinct, being then eoulTalent in sound to the pronoun yoti. 

* Iteonsists of the faint Round, Sf^of a partly suppressed e, represented by ('), snd the 
drabthoiuml i. See Section 27. 

' Iti mments are d&-T or d5-&h6 (wT). 
■ Its Clements are d6-ftwe or db-oy (woy). 
*> Its elements are d&4wa& or d&ow (wow). 

* Its elenents sre /-sh. 

* Its deznents are <f-zh. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xiy Vowels — Organic Formation of Vowels. [§ 8. 

The Elkmsntabt soukds constUtUing language are formed by means of the 
breath passiDg through the throat and month; and being more or less acted upon, 
during its passage, by the tongue, palate, teeth, lips, and other organs of speech. 
These sounds are commonly and conveniently diyided by grammarians into two 
great classes ; viz., VoweU and Consonants. 

3. A Vowel ^, or vocal soundf is a simple sound formed by one impulse or stroke 
of Uie breath or voice, and one opening of the mouth, to give that impulse a form 
and free passage, without any particular movement or contact^ and only a position 
of the organs. In written language, a Vowel is a * symbol' or 'letter* which 
represents such a sound. 

The Vowels of the English alphahet are a, e, t, o, and u ; and w and y, which 
are mere duplicate forms of sounds represented by other vowels, or which, 
according to many grammarians, are vowels only when medial or final These 
letters, only ito;^ in number, either alone or combined, are employed in practice 
to represent the twdce simple vowels heard in the * spoken language' ; whilst two 
of them (iy it), in addition, often represent the diphthongs phonetically expressed 
by I or y, and d, ew, or yoo. 

The Vowels of the common alphabet were formerly divided by grammarians into 
two classes— Simple or pube towels, a^ e, o\ and Ck>MPouifi> or impure vowels, 
i, y, tt, and w ; but a more exact and philosophical classification is founded on the 
seat of their formation^ or with reference to the organs chiefly employed in giving 
them their characteristic forms, beginning at the larynx, and proceeding along the 
palate to the lips, as exhibited in the following Table : — 

( a (aw), & or 5 (atr) ( &, S ( Q, ii 

GuUwraL I Palatal I Labial \ 

( d (ah), « or & ( S, I ( oo> 66» 

The Orqahio fobmjlTIoh of the Yowblb is a subject which is both curious and 
instructive, and of sufiident importance to demand a brief notice in every work 
on orthoepy. If we * trace the letters to their seat', and, as it were, * touch the 
sounds which we articulate', we shall find that — 

In sounding a (a^) the tongue is drawn back toward the opening of the glottis, 
and contracted or depressed about its root, leaving a considerable cavity between 
it and the palate ; the mouth is opened in a nearly circular form, and wider than 
for any other vowel ; and the impulse or stroke of the voice is directed against 
the extreme back part of the palate, near the passage through which the breath, 
rendered vocal by the larynx, issues. 

In sounding a {dh) the tongue is slightly widened, and much advanced toward 
the teeth, at the sasie time that it is ndsed toward the pahite, by which the 
space between the two is considerably diminished ; the mouth is closed a little 
more than for a; and the stroke of the voice is less fall, and somewhat more 
advanced along the palate. 

In sounding ft {he) the tongue i» spread out on both sides toward the cheeks, 
and raised stUl higher toward the palate, leaving a shallow space only between 
the two ; the aperture of the lips is dilated, horizontally, to a lengthened oval ; 
and the stroke of the voice is more advanced toward the teeth than for a or a, 
and the resulting sound thus rendered slenderer, or less full and hollow, than 
either of them. 

In sounding e the tongue is advanced rathaiL nearer to the lips, and is still 
more elevated or swelled up toward the palate than in sounding & ; indeed, so 

** From the French roy«l/tf, a vowel ; a word derived from the Latin, f>oea*lis, a vowel, from 
voealis^ vocaU 
*^ Viz., a, 0, «', o, u, and w ; ' y * being regarded as merely a duplicate form of t or e. 
^ For the powers of the 'phonotypea', see the Tablss &i pages xii-xiii. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 4.] Clastijieaiicn of Vowels — Diphthongs, xr 

modi 80, as to reduce the spsfce between it and the palate to the ihallowest 
pooiUe ehannel eompatible with the free paasage of the breath, bat withont the 
iH^iieat contact of the oi-gana ; the i^wrtoie of the mouth ia still further extended 
sdewiae, and the lips are brooght cloeer together ; whilst, as a conaeqnenoe, the 
■tioke of the roiee reaches the palate nearer to the teeth, and issues^ as it were^ 
horiaatally frtnu the month, as a sovnd eren slenderer than &. 

In sounding 5 the tongne is advanced a little more into the middle of the 
month, its point * ia thickened and turned down on the paUte of the under jaw', 
and a groore or channel is formed by the swelling np of its sides, toward the 
middle, orer which the Toioe passes ; the lips are somewhat protraded, forming a 
dxedbz apertnre corresponding with that of the tongue ; whilst the cavity within 
the mooth, which receives the stroke of the vdoe, ia so great as to render the 
lesohzng Bonnd a full one, notwithstanding the strong action of the lips on it, as 
it escapes between them. 

In stmndmg oo the form and position of the tongue is the same as in sounding 
5 ; bat the lips are rather more protruded, and their sides are brought closer 
tocher, by which the aperture is slightly lessened ; whilst the stroke of the voice 
is dir^ted as far as possible toward the lips. 

In sounding & or d [tw)y &, S, I, ft, and d5, the organs assume the same forms 
and poeitioos as for the correspondent Mong* or 'open' rowels; but they are 
more rapidly pronounced, and the sound is suddenly * stopped' or abruptly cut off, 
and, as it were, modified by the following consonant, in a manner, and in a degree 
as to completeness of effect on the ear, varying with the class to which the 
partknlar consonant belongs. 

The Foioe2s, with reference to their use in the pr(munciati4m of words, may be 
divided into — long and tkoH vowels : 

The Long Yowds^ oociir under two conditions, in which, though always long, 
th^ vary as to their length : — 

(a.) LoHQ or opm? — as when they are accented, and have their fvU alphabetic 
sounds ; which occurs when they are final in an accented syllable, or medial if 
followed by a consonant and e mute, and in some other cases : as in ba'sia^ hcaie ; 
me, meie ; at), hop^^fnl ; <kc. 

(&.) AhPWABrsio — as heard in repeating the alphabet with ease and moderate 
rapidity, or when they are open but unaccented, and (except w and y) though still 
retaining sounds corresponding to their names, are not so fully and clearly 
proixmnced as when under the accent, or when marked with the long quantity : 
as in obey', proclaim', monop'oly, &c. 

The ^ort Vowels may be regarded under two distinct senses of the adjective — 
hie/ vowels, and stopped vowels: — 

(a.) B&IBV— as when the sound terminates rajndly, but not abruptly : as the 
f in happjr. They differ from the '-^pen vowels' chiefly in their length. 

(6.) SsPOFPsn— as when the sound terminates abruptly, or is suddenly arrested, 
and, as it were, * cut off*, by a following consonant : as in cot, hat, ptt'y, &c 
Tiieae are the true * short vowels ',^8 

4u A DiPHTHOHO^* is a compound vowel-sound composed of two elements, which 
are prodneed by one siroke or emission of the breath, and thus coalesce, or are so 

^ Tb« Qsaal comaentionul method* of shewing that a vowel is long, when this is not indi- 
catMl by its position, is— 1, by addinR a mute i at the end of the word or 8> ItHble, as b&t, bftt« : 
— 2, by doubling the rowel, as f£d, fied :-d, by adding a second rowel, and thus giving the 
eombrnatlon the apitearanee of a diphthong, an rM, rCad. 

«• Th« OKual etmvtntionnl method* of shewing that a vowel is 'short' or * stopped*, is by 
dodbttag the following consonant, as in tgg, ttut. fi//, happy ; but this ia seldom neoeMary In 

MKWvIlabl'S or final syllables ending wiUi a consonant, and conUining only a single vowel j 

, in Engllafa. the latter is neeessarilr * stopped ' by pcisition. 

■* jy^ktMtm^us, lAtin ; from the Greek, tn, double, and ^Qtyy/Amtt laotmd. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

x\'i Triphihonga — Consonants. [§ 6. 

closely united in ntterance, ns to exhibit but one 'radicaP and one 'vanishing* 
movement of the voice, forming a third compound vocal-sound, capable, like a 
single vowel, of performing the function of a syllable. In-its expression there is 
a manifest eflfort to condense the consecutive vowel-elements into one sound, or to 
pronounce them so far simultaneously, as to form but one syllable, instead of two, 
as in the usual condition of their distinct utterance. During this effort * there is 
an initial action of the one vowel on the other, following from a "glide" of the 
voice heard while the mouth is passing from the position required for one vowel 
to that required for the other.* *The second vowel may be prolonged, and is 
always the longer of the two*^; and the stress or accent mays rest on either 
element, though always on the same element in the same diphthong. \ The term is 
also popularly, though not correctly, applied to any vowel-digraph.*^ 

A TRiPHTHOifo*^ ig a compound vowel-sound composed of three elements, so 
uttered as to make but one syllable to the ear. Its definition and vocal expression 
are essentially the same as those of a diphthong, if extended to three elements. 
The term is lUso jwpularly, though incorrectly, applied to any vowel-trigraph.^^ 

5. A CoKSOiTANT**, or an abtioulatiok *^, is an interruption, or interception, 
either partial or complete, of the effusion of the breath or the voice, arising 
from the application of some of the organs of speech to each other, or from 
some particular motion of at least one of them, by which an obscure sound 
only is emitted, or the effusion of the breath or voice either wholly withheld or 
suddenly arrested, or otherwise modified ; the precise nature of the resulting sound, 
or, in some cases, of the modification of the immediately preceding or following one, 
depending on the particular oigans employed, and the character and extent of their 
peculiar action. Hence, from the mode of their formation, many of the consonants 
cannot be perfectly or fully uttered, and a few o| them^, cannot be uttered at all, 
without the aid of a vowel ; whilst not one of them by itself can form even the 
shortest word, and, with the exception of those of their number called liquids '^, 
not even the shortest syllable. In written language, a Consonant is a * symbol ' or 
' letter * representing an articulate sound. 

The Consonants of the English *spoJcen language^ are enumerated in the 
'Table of Elementary Sounds**^; those of the common alphabet are — 6, c, dyft y, 
h, j, kj I, m^ n, Pf 9, Tf «, t,v, X, z; and, according to some writers, initial 
w and y. 

The Consonants may be distributed into dansesy as in the following Tables : — 

^"^" {impure, 6, d,flr hard (g). 

«> Ellis. 

*i The terms Ora/, Spoken^ or Proper diphthonas, have been applied to those in which both 
the written elements are sounded, or In which a diphthongal sound is represented by a single 
letter (as I or il) ; and Ocular or Improper diphthtmp$, to those in which one only of tha 
written elements arc sounded. 

« From Tfutt three^ and ^9vyyi^t found, 

« The onfy trtu triphihonga in English, are those formed by the union of a simple initial 
vowel with a diphthong, as in those numbered S, 8, 4, in the Table at page xiii. If initial «o 
and y be regarded as consonants, there is no true oral triphthong, such as the German aeu, in 
English; nor is there, strictly speaking, such a sonnd in French, unless the *ieu* of that 
language be so considered. Our improper triphihonga (trigraphs) having, at most, but two 
sounds, are classed, hy several grammarians, with diphthongs. 

** Con'sdntuu. Latin ; ^m eon-, with or together, and effnana, sounding ; because it 
requires the help of a vowel or a diphthong to sound it f^lly and clearly. 

** From ariicukiHio, Latin, a joint, a consonant; because it is the chief means of dlstinot^ 
nees and variety in speech. 

<• As the pure • sharp mutes ', Ac, p, t, 

*y li, »», «, r. 

^ See page xil. 

* Latham, and some other writers, Include p, 5,/, «, f, rf, ih (sharp and flat), ifc, g hard, m, 
9, shf and zh, among the * mutes*; or all the consonants except the liquida, and A, and ng. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ 5.] CloMnfieaHon of ConsonarUi. xrii 

/ vocal < doubtful, initial w and y.^ 

SemivoweU < ( impure, v, s, <A flat (th), sA. 

( a»pirat€d,f, *,*,«*,«* sharp ^th)*! 
Brtatkmgt, K 

'^'^^^ ( compound, cA (tab), gr soft or j (j, dih). 
CtmHnwmts, «A, 2&, «, z, ^ sbarp (t^), tk flat (til),/, v. 
Zt{«uia^ 3^ r. 
JVoM^g, m. It, «^.*» 

In e3q>1anaiion of tbe tem%$ used in the above TabUif it maj be stated, that — 

A HvTB is a close ' articulation' which motH/iei the Toioe, but has no dittind 
toumd of itseli, and of which the utterance is perceived by its efiect on other 
elements of ^teecb, rather than bj its own sound. A Pure mute is one whose 
sound camMt be at all prolonged :— an Impure mute^ one whose sound may be 
continued or prokmged, though only for a brief space of time. 

A SsuToiriL is an ' articulation * which may be continued at pleasure, like a 
loDg rowdy id whose nature it so far partakes. A Vocal semivowel is formed 
wholly, or diiefly, by the 'Toice' ; being, in the former case, called Pure; in the 
Tatter, from baring a mixture of * breath'. Impure. An Aipirated temivuwd is 
fonned entirefy by the * breath*. 

A BaiATHiBO^ or Aspirate, is a mere effusion of the 'breath*, either wholly 
free, or but slightly acted on by the organs. 

Ail SxPLDDBVT is an 'articulation* marked % the sudden occlusion of the 
' Toice' duiiig utterance ; or by the sudden bursting forth of the roioe, as it were 
explosiTely, sAer sudi interruption or occlusion. 

A ComisvAn is one of those * articulations ' commonly called ' semivowela *. 

A LiQriB is a 'semirowel*, so named from possessing the property of readily 
uniting with the other consonants, particularly the ' mutes *, and ' flowing*, as it 
were, into their sounds. 

A Naall is a ' semivowel* which is uttered through the nose, instead of through 
the lips, as with the other consonants, and the Towels. 

Another eku$ifeation of the Conwnantt based on the $eat of their formation, or 
on the organs chiefly engaged in producing them, is exhibited in the following 
Tabms : — 


Zabiais^ < labioHiental, /, v. 
( kbio-nasal, m. 
f pure, th sharp (^), th flat (tb). 

jj^j, « ] dento-palatal, t, d^ $, z, th, zk, L 

■^^^^ ] dcnto-nasal, n. 

(^compound, eh (tsh), g soft or j (j, dzh). 

*^ Ob flie praNriety of elaning initial «o and y with tha * consonants % see Ifotei 17, 18, itc. 

n Tfae e U ss tfc atkm of the etmmmant* in thia Tablt, la founded on that oonunonly adopted by 
Vfften on ortbodpy. 

m Tke amiDgenient adopted in this Table, is founded on that given by Mr Ellia in hia 
* Mthsiieai OrthoorMk^\ 

* Theptire latiaU art formed entirely by the < lipe* ; the lobio^eniaU, by the * under lip' 
•ad tlw *■ upper tcetik' ; the i<tbi(Mtaaal9, by the * lips' only, but the sound pasaea through the 

the detito-wuals, in a like manner, bnt the sound la'thrown through tha 

*• TW Mre tfmte/a are formed by placing the tip of the tonvue between the ' teeth' ; the 
demto-p«uaialg, by the application of the tongue to the gums of the 'upper teeth*, or to the 
• ' - • • — • "- "'^"rown through tha 

J by Google 

Digitized I: 

xviii ClamficaUon of Consonants, [§ 5u 

Palatals'^, I:, g hard (g), (palatal) r. 
ChMwvh^ \ P'^ (Pro^dal guttural) r. 
\ aspirated, A. 

i pure, ng. 
NcLScUs^ < labio-nasal, m, 
( dento-nasal, n. 

Or (and perhaps more correctly)-: — 

Labio-dentdla^,/, v, 

DeataU^, ih sharp (t&), th flat (tli). 

(TuteNralf ", ^ (proYincial guttural) r. 

The OontonantSy irrespectire of the 'liquids*, and 'h* and 'ng*, may also be 
divided into two great classes — sharp or thin, and— /at or thick ; those of the 
second dasB being distinguished from those of the first by the addition of a portion 
of ' Toice*, or a sort of guttural murmur ; the one being, as it were, simply the 
'thickened' sounds of the others,^ The consonants that thus fall into pairs are 
the following : — 

Pore mutes. TVhiqpered. Compound. 

Sharp or Thin, . ifc, j>, < ; s,sh,th (ti),/; ch (tsh). 

FlcU or Thick, . g hard, 6, d ; z, si, ti (ti), v ; g soft or / (ddi). 

SpdkieaL Oompoond. 

'noae\ The eomp&und dentals, ooniist of two artiealatioiu cloeely united, like a diphthong, 

M The Miolob are formed by the appUoation oC different parti of the tonane to dUTerent 
parts of the ' palate *, extending fhmi the upper gnma to the extreme roof of the mouth. The 
compwmd pakUaU are oonaonant diphtbonga. 

M The futhmls are ftmned in or modified by an effort of the < throat'. There are no deep 
or true gattarali in EngUah. Of the two giren in theTASua, one ia provincial or vulgar, and 
the other doubtful; they might, probably, be better ciHed palato-gutturals. 

ft The fuuale are so called, because their sounds paaa through the < nose' inttead of the lips. 
In the labio-naeaU, this is caused by the closure of the lips : in the dento-naeaie, the breath 
is thrown through the * noee', whilst the tongue rests against the onper gums ; in the pore 
nasal ng (also sometidies, thonah incorrectly, called a dento-ffiOtmal), the voice is thrown 
fjrom the throat or glottis directly through the * nose*. 

u Holder remarks, that when we only whisper, wc cannot distinguish ihefiret rank of these 
consonants from the corresponding members of the second. {*Slemente of Speech \) <It ia 
certain that the difference between them is very nice ; the tg>per letters seemine to have only 
a smarter, brisker appulse of the organs than the lower*. * The most marked distinction % 
however, * between them will be found to be a sort of autturdl murmur, which precedes the 
latter letters when we wish to pronounce them forcibly, but not the former*; a differenoe 
which * may be more peroeived In the • and s. than in any other of the letters'. (Walker.) 

A knowledge of the difference between the powers of the two classes of oonaonants just 
referred to, is of the highest importance to those who desire to pronounce oorrectly; sinee, 
owing to the nature of their organic formation, those of the on« class, when Joined with those 
of the other, in the same syllable— a union of common occurrence in writtng, form a eom> 
blnation of sounda which is absolutely unpronounceable, if each sound indicated by the letters 
remains wuhanged. In order to be pronounoed, one of the sounds of such a oombinatiofn 
must change its character^ and so accommodate itself to the other. This occurs in one of two 
ways— either the firet of the two sounds assumes the eharpneet or ftatneee peculiar to the 
'second', or the second assumes the sharpness or flatness peculiar to the 'first'. Thus, abt 
beeomes pronounceable either by changing the b into p^ forming < apt ', or the t into d, forming 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

I o.] Organic Formation of ConsoTuvnts — Sounds of Letters, xix 

The OftOAHio POBiCATion of the Cohsoxajtts is a sabjoot of even higher impoit- 
aace than the organic formation of the wwelt, sLuce without a knowledge of it, 
it is impoanble either to correct our own errors of articulation, or to impart to 
othera^ particularly foreignen» the true nature of those sounds of which they are 
wholly ignorant, or which they articulate imperfectly. 

The mechanical iMvements and posiiions of the organs of speech by which the 
aevend consoncaU-somids of our language are produced, are, with the sinde 
exo^ticm oi ng, described in their alphabetical places in the body of uis 
Dtdumary. The omitted one (ng) is formed in the same seat of sound as g 
haid ; but -whOe the middle of the tongue presses the roof of the mouth, as for 
^ the Toioe passes principally, or wholly, through the nose, as in pnmouneing n. 

n. FiBSf PanciPidK or BLnonras of ^MOwnmAnois^ZetUrs and combinations 
of iHterSj their townds, wuiual i^fiuence, &a, as exhMui in the formation of 
ifilaiies and wordSj and as modified hy Accent or its ahsmce. 

The SmgUA alphabet, as alreEidy noticed, is not merely d^ective in possessing 
an iiKraffident number of ' symbols' to represent aU the sounds of the * i^ken 
language', but many of its symbols or letters are employed to represent two or 
mare sounds ; whilst the same simple sound is frequently expressed in different 
words bj different letters, and almost as frequently, by digraphs or combinations 
of them. These defects in the 'common alphabet', and the prevailing qr^tem of 
orthography, are so numerous, that the unlettered reader is not always sure of 
'assodating the ri^t sound with the right sign' ; whilst the uneducated writer 
Sa rtHl more frequently embarrassed in determining the proper letters to be 
employed in the lisiUe representation of these sounds, as combined into words. 
Many of the discrqMmcies thus Arigting between the vnitten and the spoken word 
may be Hassified and reduced to rules, to all of which, howerer, many exceptions 
iriU Stan exist ; but others are wholly irregular, and can only be met by a know- 
ledge and a oomrtant recollection of the ' sounds' on the one hmd, and the ' letters' 
en the other, arbitrarily assigned by usage to eacL 

The sawsds of the letters and their leading comhinatitms, regular and irregular, 
are notioed in the foQowing Sections : 

*abd'; aAd, by like ebaoget, beooxnet either 'aaht* or *azhd'; and so of other like 

•This change ia necetnry and tmlvenal. It holds good not for the English alone, bnt 
far all languages. The only difference i& that different languages change different letters ; 

that ii^ one larunage aceommodates the nrtt letter to the second, whilst another aoeommo- 
datea the meond letter to the first*. (Latham.) In English, the latUr ohiefly ooonrs. Thus, 
the d m hemds aad the ^ in itaan are *flat*, whilst the s in each is * sharp', exhibiting a com- 

htoatian that ean eidst in MM«*n^only ; for in speech the • is changed into a, a sound oorre- 
inrtmilhig ia flatness with the d and g^ and these words are prononnoed as if they were written 
htad'i aad tlagt. In like noanner odbt is pronounced cabs ; Udt, lads ; loaves, lora ; &o. 
Similar changes occur in hi$»ed, looked^ plucked, toned, wished, and thousands of other like 
wOTda, which are respeetiyely pronounced (the e being silent) liist, lookt, plnkt, tost, wisht ; 
hat here the change is the reverse of that in the Jirst examples, being ftrom tLjIat co n so n a nt 
to a * sharp' one. 

* Then Is no &et that requirea to be more familiarly known than this* change of the oon- 
•ODants above noticed ; * since there are at least three formations In the English language where 
xta inflaenoe ia mott important. These are the potsessive fdrme in -s, the plurals in -«, and the 
pr^erUet Induidt*. * Neither are there many facU in language more diegtdeed than this m 
tiagtdsadinSfiglish*. (Latham.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Sotmds of Vomit — Long A — Long ' Italian 'A. [§ 6-7. 


6. Long a (ft)^ ; the first soand of the first letter of the alphabet, corresponding 
to its name, and that which it bears in almost eveiy word or syUable, and almost 
ereiy syllable of words in which it precedes a consonant, and sometimes, eren two 
consonants, followed, in each case, by a final silent e in the same syllable, as in 
base, face, lode, hate, name, change, range, haste, waste, kc*; and in almost 
every word of more than one syllable, in which it is final, with the accent on it, 
as in pa'per, ma'tron, crea'tion, specta'tor, &c.' 

A is also often preserved Umff by a following vowel, particularly t, as in gain, 
pain, stain ; and sometimes even by a preceding one, ai^ in bear, pear, swear, &c. 
This soond of a also oocnrs, 'contrary to every rale of pronunciation', in (AetV, 
there, where, and in the 'anomalous diphthong cm in gaol' ; whilst 'there is a 
oon-upt, but received pronunciation of this letter in the words any, many, Thames, 
where it sounds like h\* 

When long a (ft) occurs before r in the same syllable, as in bare, fare, pair, 
parent, &c^ its sound is so lengthened by the guttural vibration of the r, and the 
'radical' and * vanishing' movements of the voice become so apparent, that though 
oiganically the same as the a in fate, the effect on the ear is more or less diph- 
thongal — a fact which, in careless and affected speakers, frequently induces the 
error of breaking up the vowel into two distinct parts, and thus imparting to 
syllables in which it occurs, a dissyllabic character.' 

Long a (ft) accented, occurring in a word of two or more syllables before r, or in 
an antepenultimate syllable before any consonant (except c, s, or t) followed by e or 
% (not silent), and another vowel, or a vowel and a ponsonant, usually unites itself 
to the consonant in utterance, forming a long accented syllable, whilst the 6 or i 
either forms a short syUable by itself, or unites with the following vowel, forming 
a species of y-diphthong ; as in dairy (dftrc'-e), hai'em, vftr'y, Austrftl'ian (-yftn), 
Bacchanfil'ia (•/&), instant&n'eous (-e-iis), grammftr^ian (-e-ftn), sect&z^ian, kc? 

7. The long ^Italian* a (d, dh)"^ is always heard in monosyllables before r, and 
in every accented syllable of words in which it occurs before r followed by another 
consonant either in the same or the beginning of the succeeding syllable, as bar, 
car, far, farm, hark, marsh, bai^ter, farm'er, maf'tyr, par'liament, &c ; also 
before ^, as ah, Broh'ma ; before Im in the same syllable, as calm (koAm), psalm 

1 Commonly called by grammarians the lonf or ilender EnglUh a. 

s The difei exeepUon* vn-^tre, yOAe (prt. of *bid'), and h&r^; to which may be added 
MM» If the pronunciation (goApe) of Knowlea, Walker, and Webster be adopted. 

* The exeepiiotu are— farther, mama, papa, which have the * Italian' a; and wo'ter, which 
has the 'broad German' o ; and, perhaps, one or two others. 3fa»ter, given as an exception 
by Walker, la now always pronounced moAs'-tSr, and not moA'-et^r, as stated in his dictionary. 
Father is also similarly divided by many spealcers, and is so ' notated' by Mr Smart. Mather^ 
as often heard, resemmee *&ther', and, according to Jamleson and Knowlea, forms another 

* Walker.— So also of a, or at, in the first syllable of maintain' (m5n-). 

* Speakers of the class referred to commonly say bft'-fir, (ft'-Sr, p&^e-rtot, &o., instead of 
fKr&j^^-Snt, &e. ; errors, or rather vnlnrisms, which cannot be too carefnlly avoided. 

* Not va'ry, instanta'neous, grarama'rfan, seota'rlan, &c., as those words are commonly 
marked in dictionaries, no such a division of most of them existing naturally in the »pokcn 
language. Some words of the class referred to may, however, be pronounced both ways ; and 
a few, but only a few, may not be improred by adopting the Rule. The relative eaae of 
utterance, and the ear of the speaker, will in general prove a sufficient guide. This blending 
of the vowel with the r in utterance, alno occurs with other long vowels. 

7 Called by some grammarians and orthoSpists the * middle a '. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 8.] Long ' Broad* or * German* A, xxl« 

(sdAmX paolm'ist^ ; before « foUowed by » and another consonant, as aunt, 
laancfa, sann'ter' ; sometimes before //, Itf^ and gh sounded like £, as half (hdf >, 
oolf (k^, solve (sdAye), laagh (Idf) ; and bef(»re th sharp, aa bath (bdth), lotb, 
path, Ac ; and in father ^^. 

This scmnd of a (a) was also formerly much nsed before the nasal liquid «,. 
paiticokrly when followed by e, i; or (i, in snch words as dance, glance, lance, 
diant, grant, plant, slander, command, &c'' ; and before / and «, instead of & or 
2, in ask, daas, gkns, grasp, croft, graft, ftc ; a practice now regarded, except in 
a Tery few words, as rulgar or provincial." 

Wben d occnis in the same syllable, after ib, or ^ or <; hard, it is organically 
softened by the apparent intervention of a half-suppressed e, the causation of 
wbidi heihngii to the consonant, as expkined elsewhere. This faint sound, or 
efiart, is indicated in our * notation' by an apostrophe (' ) placed before the vowel. 
It is 4»ie which can never be omitted in clear and polite pronunciation ; although 
its exaggeration borders on affectation or vulgarity. Thus, card, cart, guatil^ 
r^cardy ftc, when clearly and elegantly pronounced, are k'ard, k*<Srt, g'c^rd, reg'drd, 
&C.; not kdrd, kdrt, ftc, nor ke-drd, ge-drd, &c, as sometimes heard among 
adSeeted speakers, and on the stage.^' 

8, The lonff * broad* or * German* a (a, ^^ iwy* is heard before U in mono- 
syllables, in' the final syUables of words ending in 22^ and in their formatives and 
oomponods, whether these drop one of the Ts in composition, or not, as all, call, 
£all, stall, thrall, albeit, instal, instalment, thraldom, kc ; and, in monosyllables 
and accented syllablea, before one I final, followed by any consonant bat p, b, /, and 
«*, except generally, in words from the Latin and Gh^ek and certain foreign lan- 
guages, as bald, false, salt, bal'sam, fal'con, faster, psal'ter (sawl'-), &c." ; also in 
every case in which a comes b^ore w, or before i* not followed in the same- 
syllable by % and another consonant, or by gk sounded as f, as in the anomalous-* 
diphtitongi ov and au, in bawl, dawn, law, awe, loud, sauce, caught, taught,, 
ftc** ; also after w or 9 when the vowel is followed by Z or r, or by two wnr 
sonants of which 2 or r is one, as walk, war, ward, warm, warn, swarm, warble, . 
warden, worloek, quality, &a ; and in the first syllable of water.'' 

> But mat in MOhMod'tCt pt&fmoiUtt p$iil'modjft &c., for the rMuon named in the text, and 
on aeooQBt of udr dlnct ftmnation f^om the Greek. See Section 45. 

* Except ia p mt mt and avaunt^ and two or three others, which hare the German a (aw), or 
the ootnnMW Kmad of the diphthong om. 

» See JToU t f above). 

u Ib iWMMiirf , demumA, rtmand, &e., usage is divided, the Italian a being even now Died 
ia these wcfrds by ssany good apeakers. 

n Fomwrly bravado, ferrago, hiinbago, tornado, and a few other like words of claasieal or 
Ibrcicn poreotage, were pronounced with the * JtaHam ' ; but except in bravo (well done I), 
and aoBBCtiiiwa, in bvavodo, thia is nowno longer heard. This sound of the a, derived from our 
aaeeatora, is stfU retained In America, in many words in which It has long been obsolete or 
MBwlves. Thus, we have often been unable to discover, except by the 
r am American speaker alluded to his *aunt ' or to an * ant.* 
1 37, 12, 14, fte. 

M gfle fl^rfiinm 3, 11, 17, 36. 

tf Bat aot in ullps, ^lUon, .Alcoran, ^Alfred, asphalt, aspholtlc, aiphalt'om, amal'gam, 
anwarnaaata, csfeutate, poolter'inm, &c which have S, according to Rule. 

ic The eUef emefiiont are mamtdrU, Mmmdy (Thursday). vmmU and avatmt, and maund 
(aasor. toVL^V.,ic Sh.), which retain the * broad ' a (aw) ; hautboy (Fr., kautboit) where oti 
ia aooaded like 5; laurei where, from the influcnoe of accent, it la contracted into dir or ; 
tfiBsff|^gip<r, UmioHum, &e., which are often similarly shortened ; and perhaps a few others. 

Tbe m in fMoesr and tquator. Is preserved long and slender by the influence of accent 

ur « Many words pronoaneed with a hrood were anciently written with on, as soult, matilt; 
and as ve atill write /oiift and vault, Thia vras probably the true Saxon sound, for it is yet 
I'etstaad in the ncrthem dialects, and in the rustic prononolation '. (Johnson.) 

* la SOBM words, aa salt, cobalt, fto^ the a is not so broad as in all, nor so thort as in what; 
bottareepeci to this nicer distinction the ear must decide*. (Webster.), , ^ , ,* 

' In some words where CMtom makes the sound something short, aa for instance, in tail 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xxii Sounds of Vovjels — ' Short ' or ' Stopped ' A. [§ 9. 

9. The *thori' or ^stopped* a (&)^8 heai-d in fat, hat, happy, &c, geaerally 
ooooTS in monoeyllables before any final consonant but r, before any ivro sucoessive 
oongonants (^th the exertions noticed in the preceding Sections), and oommonly, 
in an accented syllable, before a final consonant (subject to the same exc^ptums), 
and even r, if a vowel follow, or {except in * f oimatives ' from ' primitires ' ending 
in r^) the r be doubled ; as cab, pan, cot, cotty, capsule, fam'in«, ar'id, oar'ry, 
mar'ry, tcir'iy, &o.^ 

In many words in which & occurs before /, «, 8t, or n, there is a slight tendency 
to broadness, which is ' not quite in unison with the mode of indication * ; as may 
be i)eroeiTed in an degant and unaffected jmmunciation of craft, graft, staffs class, 
olasp, grasp, gross, lost, post, chant, plant, command, demand, remand, and 
othiff' like words ; whilst many speakers substitute the ' brief sound of a (i. e., 
k or dk), and eren d itself, for the * stopped ' one, in all or nearly all these words, 
'^niis broadness is' (in England) 'a decided vulgarism when it identifies the 
sound with d (&^)*, or evon approximates to it 'The exact sound, in every 
instanoe, lies between the one indicated, and the vulgar corruption*.^ In a few, 
and only a few words, should it even extend to the sound indicated by d (dh),*^ 
Nautical vords, as oft, abaft, avast, &a, in the mouth of nautical speakers, are 
allowable exc^ticms to the RuU, 

The sound of short or stopped a (like that of 8, 1, d, j^), in uiMccented sj/UahleSy 
except when it begins a word, and is followed by a doubled consonant, with the 
accent on the second syllable**, is relatively fainter and obscurer than in accented 
syllables'* ; but only in a few cases sanctioned by usage, and then chiefly collo- 
quially, should it be allowed te lose its disHnctive character, or to degenerate into 
tiie sound of tl in tub.*' 

Before r final in wuiceeittsd sylldhUsj and in accented syllables when the r is 
not doubled either in spelling (except in ' formatives ') or in pronunciation, or is 
followed by any other consonant, the a, though apparently e^ort by position, is 
relatively 'unstopped' and either open or Iri^fy as already noticed**; and in 
WMCcmied final syllables^ is relatively obscure, as noticed in Sections 10, 25, &c. 

mcUt, &c, it seems ilmost immaterial whether we denote the prononeiation thus, sa^t, 
mawlt I or thus, sOlt, mOlt*. (Smart.) 

18 This is the ' short ' or * stopped ' sound of the Italian a, though usually confounded with 
that of the Umg or slender a. 

V The a in all such *fonnativee% like the other vowels, remains long, as in their *primi' 
tivas \ notwithstanding the r is doub^ in the written word. Thus, tony (besmeued with 
tar) is pronounced tahr'-e; whilst tarry (to abide), which is not such a *formatiTe', is 
pronounced with the rowel short, t&r'-re. See Section 26. 

» The a before the r or rr in these words, when correotW pronounced, is precisely the same 
as the short, stopped a in hot; but, owing to the peculiar natnre of the consonant, the 
sound is soaroely so suddenly or abruptly arrested to the ear as it is by the other consonants, 
particnlarly the pure mutes. Any utterance of this sound which destroys its stopped character, 
or whieh approaches eren in the smallest degree to the a in tar, is a decided vulgarism. In 
our * notation' this sound is usually marked d, sometimes &; but where, from oversight, 
this is not done^ the positk>n of the vowel and the accent indicates its true aharaoter, and 
render its mi^ronttnolation impossible. 

1 Mr Smart. 

» See Note 11, &e. 

S3 Here the ft is presarred pure, as In assign', attraof , fto. 

M See iSMion 35. 

* But though an obscure or indistfaict pronuneiation of the ston>ed vowels. In unaoeented 
syllables, is a iriee in speedi which cannot be too strongly oenswed, the contrary error is 
equally open to ob}ee«k». * A earefUlly distinct nttenmoe of unaccented syllables, is often an 
elegance ; but here ' (refMrring to the * stepped ' vowels in unaccented final syllables) * it would 
convey the impresstoo of childish pedantry ' (Smart) ; or, we may add, of illiterate affectation, 
or rustic vulgarity. Thus, gen'tlemaBf, noTAeman', &c., are pedantic and vulgar pronunda- 
tioos of these words; and gen'tlemiin, noa>lemiin, &c., are certainly not less so; althoogii 
the latter are given l^ fflieridan and Walker, and by Knowles and their othnr followers. But 
usage, in this reeeeot. has greatly changed among polite speakers since the time of theae 
writers. See Sectum 25. 

» See Sections 7, 26, &c 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

% 10-12.] Bruf ' Italian * A—Short ' Oemum * A— Long E. xxiii 

10L ne5rtV/toZ«m'a(aK»WVi8geMnl]j baud wImb the fOw«l oeevn la 
open, wnacoenied syDabk^ as pop* , UnA'ao, ioAnOf tJb'maam, Ame^io^ Utml'tik ; 
amI eoBunonly bofore r in an vnaoeeBted s^Ue, aa in oe'dor, aa'adby, aa'aUloy, 
MOB'(arcii, mon'orQiiy, kc It im abo tlM aooiid irliidi a ahraya aauMB, is aa^y 
and rapid nttennee, when naed as an aitide or pxepo«ili<m, aa in tht ploaaei 
* vbai 'a a dodc t' * onee a year', * I am a going', fte.*^ 

n. Tlie i&4>r< sound of the ' broad^ or ' Oerman ' a (&, ^, &t^) is heard when 
the Towel ooeors after w, and, generally, after 9, and is tdDcw&i or stopped by any 
ain^ con sonant or oonsonant-aoond bat h, g bard, ng^ or /, or by some donUe 
letter OE digraph, aa x omJb, that indndae tiM sound of one of tlbsm ; also after 
V or 9 vben fi^owed by n doaUed consonant, or by two oonsoaanta in tiie same 
ayUaUe, el ^lieb neither r nor / is one; as in wcm), won, woa, woqp^ vluit^ waddle, 
woUoWy swallow, wanton, waziant, qnod, qoosh, quality, quantity, qnarrel, &e.* 


12. The soond of lomg e (9) is that which the Towd has when lengthened by e 
mote final, as in f^he, schema thon^ serere, thef, ftc* ; and when it ends an 
accen t ed ajllabk, as in adhe'aion, s^'cret, secre'tion, kc ; alao at the end of mono- 
fljilafales that haye no other Towel, as b«i, h«, me, she, we; at the end of words from 
the learned kngnages, not yet anglicised, as apoe'troi^e (-tro-ft), catas'trophe, 
epit'ome (-o-me), sim'ik, kc^; and in the termination -e$ of like words, as 
uud'yaes (-sSs), antip'oda (-dSs), aph'ides, Ha'd^ ma'nei (-n^)> millep'edes 
(-d&), ftc, as noticed in Section 99. 

B is abo long when it occurs in monoeyllableB and final ^Uables immediately 
before another e followed by a consonant, as in deep, feet, m«et, seen, auctioneer, 
piimeer*' ; also, generally, when it occurs in syllables followed in like manner by a, 
aa in beam, feat, mAn, treat, appear, beaver, creature ; sometimes, when similarly 
followed by i, as in seine, seise, deceire, receiTC, either, neither, &a ; and before o 
in tliie wozd people ; but, exc^ with the firtt of these, the instanoes are numerous 
in whiefa the e is short, or in whic& it is altogether silent^ and either the second 
Towel (d tbe written diphthongs othenrise silent, assumes its plaoe, or a sound is 
giren to the Towel combination which is proper to neither of its clients'*. The 
rowel combinations a and oe final in the accented qrllAbles of classical words, and 
the frequent tennination » in Latin plunls, have always the sound of €, and in 
the latter case, distinctly pronounced.^ 

The sound of long e before r is similarly lengthened and modified to that of 
fi (Section 6) and the other open vowels; and when oecuning in an accented 

V This is merdy the fkint or obeoure sound of lone a(^), more or Imb shertMed, aad that 
into wMdk tbe Towd naturally ftdb under the dreomrtaneee mentioned In the 2tarf. 

• Tbe phoooCype dt, in the « notation' of this DIetknary. Is used befcre r to represent both 
tbe atopftd « and the ob§tmt or hn^IUMam a [Ah) ; the diflnreaoe between them beinpr, 
however, elearlr ehewn by the presence of the accent in the Jlni ease, aad its abeenee in 
tlMother. aeeJire<«90^35. 

*BatnotiBie«^ wa«, thmadt, tmmg, twrnk, qutfft mtofg^h fte., in whieh IheTowelJsX, 
aeeordiny to the Bole. The Mxeeptkm* ere Um and cKmbtnu — qoiMa, q wiw a tio n, qnoeda, 
qpeeriwn, have now generally & ; bat are heard both weys. 

*• The ecetptfene are «re, th«re, wh«re, in whieh the rowel has the eound of ft ; and w«re, in 
which it h» the sound of i. In the artiole M«s exoept before a word beginning with a Towel, 
it is ttsoally brief, and more or less obsoure. 

*i In these words, as usually pnmouneed, tlie « though long or open, is not so kmir as €; 
and is tApisseid in the 'noUtten' of this DUiitmtHy by the *alphabetie' e, or e written 
wiftoot the marie of long quantity. 

3> Except in the poetical oontrMtioas ^er and n^er, whieh are proneunoed ftre, a&re; and, 
p e thjtM , in two or tliree other words. 

V For t x eeption*^ Ac, Me Seetioru 6, 18, 24, 45. 
M See See^ 99 (»}, &c 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xxiT Sounds of Voml^-^Skort E, [§ 13* 

sylkble before r, or in an accented antepenultimate syllable before any consonant 
(except c, f, or t), under the conditions noticed in Section 6, it nsaallj, or very 
frequently, coalesces with the following consonant in utterance in a like manner to 
that letter ; as in more, near, here, at'mosphere, fSr'ine, pCr'iod (-e-dd), endSm'ial 
(•/ftl), matCr'ial (-e-»l), mjWgr'ioua (-e-tts), sgr'ious, SibCr'ian (-e-&n), ftc"^ So 
also, like t, when it occurs in an unaccented syllable before a Towel, and is not 
preceded by a * dental', it very frequently unites with the foUo^ong vowel, forming 
a spedee of y-diphthong, as in malleable (•y'&bl), beauteous (bute^-y'&s), goi^^geous 
(-yis), out&n'eous (-y'fls), Ac** 

13. The sound usually called thort e (6)^ is that which the letter bears before 
any final conaonant but r, and before a doubled consonant, or any two sncoessiTe 
consonants of whUh. r is not one ; and generally, in accented qrllables before any 
final consonant, including even r if a vowel follow, or (except in the case of 
* formatives* from ' primitives' in r^), the r be doubled ; ae bet, men, red, egg, 
pett'y, dental, depth, resem'ble, dem'ency, meruit, der'ogate, imper^ative, inher'itance, 
ber'ry, fei^ry, per'ry, &c 

The thxirt or stopped Bound represented by e (like &, I, d, ii, j^) is relatively 
fainter and obscurer in unaccented, than in accented syllables ; but (subject to the 
exeeptiont mentioned below) only in a few cases sanctioned by usage, does it 
lose its distinctive character^, or degenerate into that of <L The true sound 
appears to lie between the & and % as heard in that and iuh. When, how- 
ever, this letter begins a word, and is followed by a doubled consonant, or by 
two consonants of which r is not one, with the accent on the second syllable, it 
preserves its regular short or stopped sound unaltered, as in efiace', embalm', 
explain', Ac.^ 

The e before r final in unaccented tyllaUet^^^ and before r, or r followed by 
another consonant, in monotyUabtes, though conveniently represented by ^ is not 
identical with it, having, in ^e first case, an obscure sound approaching that of a 
before r**, as in perform', en'ter, remem'ber, read'er, wonder, &c ; and in the 
Hcondy a longer sound caused by the palatal or guttural vibration of the r, in 
which the vowel, thou^ lengthened and somewhat obscured, preserves, in correct 
pronunciation, rather more of its distinctive character, as in her, herd, berth, 
earth, &c^; the e, in each case, being relatively unstopped, as compared with 
the e in pet or men. In accented tyttcSbUs, however, when the r is not doubled 
{except in 'formatives* from 'primitives* in r^, or is not followed by a vowel, 
and when it it followed by any other consonant, the e, though relatively 

>9 See SectioM 6, 3«, &c. 

» See Beetton 14, and piurtieidarly Note 67. 

S7 This is, in VMltty, the * short' or * stopped ' sound eorrc«pondIng to the long, slender a 
(ft). See AetiofM 8, «. 

M See N9U 19, wUch also applies here. 

w In ecrtein |»tora<s ending in •«• uaeceented, the e is apt to slide into the softer sound of 
I; as fa^oes (OsZ-ls), prftis'M (>Is). wag«s (-Iz), fte. So of pluraU in -tec, as cher'rtM (-rlz)> 
ladies (Ift'-dls), antiq'aities (-Ox), Ae. ; bat here, dilefly by the silence of the e. A Uke change 
ooenrt under the accent in the word i^ngland (Ing'-glSnd), and is made by the vulgar la 
en'gtoe. Mr Walker extends this lioenoe to many other kinds of words, as poet, covet, linen, 
dml, fte., a proanaeiation now regarded as affected or vulgar. 

* We may observe, that though uie e goes into the short sound of i ' fin the words referred 
to), * it is exaotly that sonnd which corresponds to Uie long sonnd of e* (Wallier) ; the reverse, 
however, applies when the sound approaches that of il. 

«» See 8ee&m$ 9, %i, 

tt The e after r preceded by another consonant, as in cen'tre, me'tr^, Sec, fidls under the 
fame rule, these words being always pronotmccd, and sometimes spelled, center, meter, Ao. 
So of acre, maasaere, Ao. ; bnt here the orthography is never altered, as a change would 
lead to the softening of the e^ and an erroneous pronunciation. 

«s * Ideotleal ' with it. (Smart ; Walker.) 

*^ See Jfote 44. 

« See Note 19, which also applies to e and the other vowclt. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 13.] Short Ey Unaccented and S^ippressed, zxv 

vnstqiped And leogUiaied, aa in the seoond oonditkm jmA inferred io, pvmenn 
(except in a yeiy few cases sanctioned bj mage) its diattnotiTe oliaimctar neaiiy 
entire, as in fo^ment, mer'cj, pa^aonal, etcr^nalt &a^ ; bat if, in an aeeenied 
qrllaUe, tbe r be followed by a vowel, or doubled (exctpt in ' formatlTes '), tbe e 
is 'stopped' by the r, as by any other consonant, and always preaerrts its pare, 
aluHi sound nnaltered^; the e, nnder all the conditions jost noticed, being 
aftcted and modified by r in precisely the same manner as the other short 

Tbe e in certain wiaccented final tyllablet in which it is ehort by position, is 
fiaUe to sappression, as noticed below : — 

a. The e in the -cci of the preteriU$ of rerbs, participleM, and pcirticipial 
adjedhetj when not preceded by d or t, is almost nnirersally suppressed, and th« 
final d, either puxe^ or changed to its corresponding sharp sound t, when necessary 
for onion in nttennce^, is united to the preceding consonant forming one 
lyllable ; as in bamd (bdrd), lov^sd (IftTd), composed' <-pdzd'), ebbed (dbd), faced 
(ftat^), loolud (lookt), staffed (stftft), tossed (tOet), Touched (rowcht), &c. But 
when these participles and adjectiTes are changed into adverbs by the addition of 
-Ufy or into abstract sobstantiTes by the addition of -nea, they generally preserve 
the tennfnation -ed entire ; as in confessed' (•f&t'), confeas'edly (-£d-le) ; designed' 
(-t&ndf), deaijgn'edly (-M-le) ; prepared' (-pAid'), jnepftr'edly (-id-le), prepAr'ediiess 
(•<d-n«8); fixed (flkst), fix'edness (-«d-n«s), &o.^ 

This supi^ession of the e, with some exceptions chiefly colloquial, does not 
properly oeeor in adjectiTes in -ed which are not deriTcd from verbs ; nor does it 
occur in bleas'ed, cnis'ed, leam'ed, wing'ed, and, perhaps, a few others, though 
Terbals, when used as adjectives; and all these retain tbe 'ed entire in their 
' fotmatzves *, bat not in composition ; as a'ged, a'gedly (-jM-le), bleas'ed, bless'- 
edneas, fork'ed, wing'ed, full-aged (-&jd'), tiiree'-forked (-forkt), sheath'-wingcd 
(-wingd), *ft« 

«« Tbe <r in theat words (sad so of tr when similarly situatsd) Is pronouneed ' b;jr tbe vufgtir 
aa itr; by fbe^«iite (except parchanot in words of very oomoion occurrence, as str, stir, &e.)» 
wltb m, pronaaeiatSaa which Lies between nr and Ilr« '. (Smart.) 

Tba in ekrk. ssr'geant, and s«rj«ant, has the sound of the long * Italian ' a ; aad this 
appears to bars ftnmsrly been the common sound of t befbre r, as still fluently heard in the 
pnmr aamca Dtrtrg (^r^-), BerkiUy (bark'-), te. 

^tha # in this esse is never misprenonneed, except by the most vulgar end Ignorant. 
Thas^ tteoffh the e In her, or'dtfr, UMr'ey, snd frr'ry, are each e xpiessed in onr 'notation ' by 
£, tiM eoadtticas as to accent or iu absence, &e., under which it occurs, unmistakably fixes 
the pieaanriatlon. See Jfotn 20, Ice. 
«• See &elMM 9. 10, 29-«, fta 
« See ^o<s U, ^ofe xviiL 

«• Attention to the points enumerated cannot be too frsqaeotly or strongly enforced on 
papila aad others desirona of speaking eorreeUy ; as their negleet, in many eases, not merely 
aordeta on vulgsority, bat leaves the mesning of the speaker obscure. 

* Tbia eoBtraotioa of the participial -td^ snd the verbal -en (sea belov), is so fixed sn idiom 
of oar pcooundatien, that to ak«r it, would be to alter the socMd of the whoU Umguagt \ 

It mast, however, * be carefhUy noted, that ' (according to tbe prevailing usage of Mit fuifU) 
* tteva is a lemsrkable exception to many of these contractions whMi we are pronoaadng the 
1tmpmg§B 0/Seripture: here every participial -ed ought to make a distinct syllable^ where it 
ie not pieeedcd by a vowel : thus, ** Who hath bellev'eti onr report, snd to whom is the arm 
of tbe Ixod leveaTstf " 1 Here the participles are both pronounced in thret syllablss ; but in 
tbe following passage, '*Whoro he did predestinate, them be slso calVsii.* and whom he 
ealI'Mf, them he also JnsUflfd; and whom he jnstifl^nl, them he also fflorifl«d": "called" 
f rt se r va the «, and is pronounced in two syllsbles ; and ** Justified " snd ** glorified " tuj^rtea 
tbe «, and are proaoanoed in three syllables*. (Wslkw.) But in making the termination -ed 
a aatwurato syllahls» in the oases referred to, the greatest possible care must be taken to 
d^ver it catSp and naturally, and to avoid giving it more distinctnsss or importance in 
nttermee than that which is due to it as a final and unaccented syllable. A contrary course 
destroys tba effect intended, weakens the fbrce of the other members of the sentenoe, and 
etoeely borders on affectation. 
<■ For a iMt of the vords referred to, see Section 45. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xrvi Sounds of Vowels — Short E, Suppressed or Mute — Long L [§ 14 

b. The eia-el, not preceded by a ' liquid ', is aometimeB Buppresaed, and some- 
times not, in a manner scarcdy reducible to rtUe'^. 

e. The e in -ei» (with some exceptions) is generally suppressed when the yowel 
is not preceded by a Miquid'; and alua^ so in rerbs and YerbaLa^ whether 
|ireeeded hy a liquid or not"^. 

E is always mMte at the end of Bnglish words^, except in monoeiyllables that 
have no other vowel, and in unangticised words from the learned languages", 
when it is long or alphabetic, and in certain foreign words ^. This mute e 
is commonly used as an (Hihographio e^qtedient to shew that the preceding rowel 
is long^ as ccm, c&n^ hat, hftt«, &cJ^ ; or to soften or modify a preceding consonant, 
as in tone, rage, sinc^ oblige &&, where it shews that the c is sounded like s, 
and the^asj". 

B is also nwie or suppress^ in the third person singalar of verbs and the 
l^urals of substantives in -ies^ when the first ponon, or the substantive singular, 
ends in -y ; as I repl^, he repdioi i'V^^) ; a ^'^pkh ^^ replies (-pUxe') ; chtt^ries 
(-1^, nuo^ries (-ris), antiq'mtiM (-tite), fto.^ 

The e mute^ at the end of substantives singular and the first persons of verbs, 
continues silent in their plniak and 'formativee', as theme^ themol (thimz), 
make, makes, &e. 

Where ?, or the sound of e, followed by r (= dr, er) occurs in the same syllable 
after ik, or ^ or e hard, there is the same oigiuue softening of the vowel I7 the 
intervention of the slight sound . indicated in our 'notation' by ('), as occurs 
with &r and I ; as (faintly) in k*6m, kf lirchief, (more perceptibly in) g'irl (g'firl), 
g'iid (gf&d), &cw 


14. Long % (1, y)f as noticed in Section 2, is a pure diphthong, composed of the 
sound of & or ^ and € ; and is precisely equivalent to the sound of the word 
eye {the organ of sight). This sound it idways bears in fnonot^Udblee ending in 
Silent e, as ice, hie, mine, shuie, time, wife, shire, wire, ko,^ ; and in aec^ted 
ttyUabkSf in which it is final, as bi'as, di'gest, i'tem, ti'tie^ V*'^} di'alogue, 
vi'olate, &c. 

/ is also long in monon^laMes ending with, nd, as buid, find, mind, wind (to 
twist, to enfold)^ ; and, in monosyllabic before gh and ght, as in high (hi), nigh, 

M For Listi of exceptions, see Section 45. 

There la a vioioas prononolation of many words in these termiaatioBa oommooly beard ia 
the pulpit, particularly amongst young and illiterate ministers, in which the « is not merely 
sounded when it should be snppieased, bnt has a degree of distinotneas and Importa&ee given, 
to it, whldi apart from eonv^ingthe impreesfon ol aifeetatlon or vulgarity, tends greaay to 
lessen the fbrce of the other worda of the aentenoea In whieh they ooenr. Thn^ e^m (6v^) 
ia pronoonced e'rdn, hapjfen (*n), happ^fo, var^en ('n), war'dfin, fto. ; yet, strange to aay. the 
Important word * heaven ' ia uniformly given by the same persona aoeording to ue ^erailin^ 
usage of poliahed apeakera, with the snppreaaed. This usage of the polpU defeats its own. 
olrieet— if oMeot It naa, and borders on abanrdity. See Note tf, dco. 

n See si^nm, 13. 

B See aetA^om 12, 99. 

«• See aattk>n 99. 

»• See N<Ae8 87-B, page xv. 

» See Qectione 38, 80, S3, fte. 

M See Note 89 ; also Section* 33, dtc. 

f See SeoHone 37, 3, 7, 18-4, Sec 

* €Fli90 and dveecnexeeptione; also «t^ in 'houaewife' (httz'-If ; aneedle-caae), and 'house- 

.... ,.- .__^-. ..._... --.-_,,_._. .^._ ^_.. . „_ "'t^^ provlaeiaUyattd 

.. r 'formatiTea' and 

'eompoooda', except occaaionaUy in poetry, hare departed from the Rule, and are now 
always heard with the i short So of window. WinaUue and windle (from the v, to wind) 
have also I. 

"« ortwrana nve are exwyMonj , uaow^vxa 'nouBewue (onr-u, snfinue-oai 
wife' (hfiz'-wYf ; the mistTeaa of a fkmiW) aa often heard colloquially. Shire, ] 
eoUoqnfadly, la commonly prooonnoed ah€re ; and, in nnaeoented ayllablee, -ah 

» Wind (air in motion), and wind (to blow or ventilate), with their * f< 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^14.] I in Unaccented SyUdl>Us and Foreign Wards. xrm 

tbi^ \i^t (fiit), ntgki"*, w%ht; before ^ in the aune syllable, as in stgn, 
rm^, BftHga' ; ftnd before iU in the irregnlar -word ptnt ; also, generallj, at the 
end of tke fini mflMe of words of which the 9ee(md syllable is aoeented, and 
cMBBMnees vith a 90wd, as in biogf raphj, dtam'eter, prtor'itj, tiix^a ; or when H 
froBS aneh an initial i^Uable bj itself, as in tamlde, ion'ic, to'ta ; sometimes in a 
Ifte pontion vhen the teamd syllable commenoes with a e<m9ommt^ as in gtgan'tie, 
ttiu'enot, tdd'a^, porfme'Tal, Tfra'cioas*^ ; and always at the end of Greek and 
Lstin words, an in ^am'Tiri (-rl), tro'phi (entom.), fte.*. The • is also genersHy 
lomg asad diphthong in the piepositiTe syllables m-, eki-y di-y fr>-, fte., when the 
aeeent is on the second gyilafale, whetiter this begins with a rowel or not, as btax'al, 
bib^nlar, digain'ma, trien'nial ; (tften so in the final nnaeoented syllables of words 
eadbif in « mute, as fi'ntt«, ex'pedfk, sn'icvk, oon"cuben^ &c ; and in several other 
easea^ althoi^ in oti^ like eomUnations to the Jfrst of tiiose last mentioned, 
partiealarly when the eeoond syllable oommenees with a consonant, the Towd. 
BSQsIly slides into the dender sound of «, and in those referred to in the second^ 
iaito that o£ I ; but ' the eaceqptioM to eadi of these are so nnmerons, that nothing 
bat' a cUmified Uti ci Hha words alhided to, * will giro a tolerable idea of the 
skate of pncmdation in tiiis p<Hnt\ (Walker.)** 

When % ends sd wuteeenUd syUahUy or forms one by itself (except in the eases 
already notioed), it nsnally drops the first dement of the diphthong and has 
prednly ihe mmnd of the rowel e when oecuring in similar positions, as in dtgestf 
(de-), dn^ct*, dtrers'ify, ir'rvtate (-re-), med'tcine (-e-), ptmen'to (pe-), stli"cia 
(ae-), kc ; aad in many eases, partieiilarly in certain pennhimate syllables, this 
aoond is farther ahartened into e ' brief or * alphabetic', or into its correspon- 
dent ' stopped' sonnd I, as in assim'tlate (-e-l&te), rat'tfy (-e-fi), affin'ttr (-U-e or 
-e-te), im'ttate (•«-), fiex'tble (-Ibl), sens'tble, inim'tcal (-e-k41 or -Ik-U), crif teal 
(-&.), Ae.** 

!Eke i in Ae freqnent rowdl-digraph ie, except when it is final in monosyUftbles, 
ham alao neariy always the sonnd of S or e ; as in chief (ohCfe), grtere (grSr«), 
tfatcre, yidd, greaadter (-dlM), reVene (-e), &o.** 

Thos sofud of i is also ccmmionly heard in words borrowed from foreign lan- 
gm^ea (particolady the Fr., /t, and Sp.)f and ia many words derived from these 
iBsngfmgtM though now partially anglicised, or, in some eases^ long since perma- 
meAf inecuparated with ear- own ; as antique (•tdk^'), bombasine (-aSn«^, oaprtce 
(-pviaOt tiiMgnn (-gr«n«% critiqae (-t6k^ fattgne (-t«^), ^acis (-sW— mil), 
m»nga£ ('trieg^, invalid (-i^def), machine (-shSn^), magaiine (-aSn0^, marine 
/•niB^y oUiqne (-l§ks^, piqne (pdlu), police (-1W), pro'file (-fiiltf), rontine 
(AMa^t aeijgiiior or signor (s§n^-yttr), tontnie (-t^ne'), rw'digris and am'bergrts 
(-giiai^ aa popi pfrononnoed), and many others.** 

Vken tiie l^ter i oecnrs in an WMceeitted tyUdbU before another rowel, and 

^ a'night (-It; q. v.). 

« Bat more freanenUy like 0. See Seetum 12. 
«■ See Aefum Ml 

«s a«faral sneh IJttU are gtren in auHtm 45. 

Tka Un§th aad aoimd of the I in the nnaeoented final syllable of words, depends chiefly on 
» foM^n of the aeceat, aad the nwrnber oi syUablea; sometimeB, on the qnaatity of the 
1iBg romfH la the ' primitive' ; bat the diversity of elaasee so arfalng , ai^ tbetr 
, ■retoommMaoastoadmitof niore than a few leading o&ea being notieed in this 

M Tbm •xtepHam to hotii the sonnda of i referred to in the laat two paragraphs are so 
anmeroos, as to defy redootkm to jRviU$, Donbtftal eases may be best settled by reflnrence to 
fbe words tbenndTes, as given in the bodv of the DieHonary, See N^te 63. 

** JPtiind and Its 'formatives* and * compounds', «Y«ve, and one or two others, are 
exeepekms. So also is turee^ when prononnoed tSrse, as marked by Walker and Webster. 
See JlwMbna 24,99,^ 

• • CtKft was fonnsrty also prononnoed in the same manner (o-blfj^) ; a praetice now 
r^arded as aifccted or vulgar. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xxviii Sounds of Vowels — Long I (contintudj, [^ 14* 

IB preceded by any consonant not a * dental', and particularly by 2, n, or m, tbis 
flound of i (t e., « ; ▼. ta.) very frequently, and, in colloquial diaooune, nearly 
alwayg unites with the following vowel or TOwel-digraph in utterance, forming a 
apeciea of y-diphthong ; as Wl'iary <-y&r-e), bril'liant (-ytot), fil'wl (-y'&l), mftn'ta 
<-y'^, m&n'foc (-yftc), min'ton (-yin), pon'tard (-y&d), span'tel (-y«l), famil'tor 
(-ytfr), ftm'table (-y4blj), abatftn'tMcs (•y'tts), harmto'tema, ignomin'tows, particip'tal 
(-/iU), conTiViol, ke. So alao, Bometimes, after a * dental', if preoeded by 
another consonant, aa in Christian (•y'in), combust'ton (-yfin), oord'tol (-y'ft]), 
digeat'ion (-ylkn), mizt'um, quest'ton, &c ; and sometimes ooUoquially, ercn after 
a ' dental' when preceded by a Towel, aa in id'tot (-ytlt), &c^ 

The sound of Umg % before r, in monosyllables and accented syllables, is simi- 
larly lengthened and modified, and, in the latter, coalesces with the following 
consonant in utterance, in a similar manner to that of the other long Towelt ; ai 
fire, mtre, stre, mlr'y, wfr'y, pfr^ate, pfr'acy, sir'en, &c^ 

When long or diphthongal i (I), or the sound of 1, occurs in the same syllable 
after g hard, hy<rte hard, the Ukat sound, aa of €, indicated in our * notation' b) 
<'), is, of neoessi^, interposed between them during the separation of the organs in 
dirtmet utterance ; as in guide (g'Ide), gutle (g'lU), gutse (g^se), chyle (k'Ue), kfnd 
(k'ind), aky (ski), beguile (-g*!!^), disgutse (-gfl^?'), (and less perceptibly in] 
cat'echtse, &c ; but great care must be taken not to lengthen this sound into i 
separate e, as ke-Ind, ge-Id^, ftc, a ' monster of pronunciation heard only on the 
stage* (Nares), and among aJfected and illiterate speakers. A similar interposecl 
Bound, but one very much fainter, occurs between th and I, as in child (ch'Ild) 
chime (ch'Ime), &c, of which, however, the sli^teet exaggeration becomes mlga] 
and intolerable.^" 

The ^MOfKtty or mtmi of i in the wiaceenUd fatal tyUaJtlet of words ending ii 
sUent €y is subject to much dirersity and uncertainty. * There is', however, * on< 
rule of very great extent in words of this termination which have the accent oi 
the penultimate syllable, and that is, that the i in the final syllable of these wordi 
is short '7<>; as in adamant'ine (-In), amethjTst'tne, depos'tte (-It), hot'ttle (-tU) 
xes'pite (-pit), serr'ile (-11), ^ The chief excepHom are an'ile, ai^ehires, ca'prfni 
(a.), oar'bfne, cailfne, car'mine, oer'vine, con'f!ne («.), con'flne (v., to borde 
npon), eon'trite (a.), eor'vine, oo'sine, e'dile, em'pfre, e'quine, er^rhtne, exfili 
fe'line, fgr'fae, fi'nlte^, gen'tile, length'wise (-wfc^), lika'wtoe (-wla«),7« mjfr^rfafnc 
o'vUe, part^ile, Paul'ine, pis'eine, pis'mfre, porcine, quag^mire, ram'pire, aalCni 
(when ace on the first iylL), se'nile, su'pfne (<.), um'pire, vam'pire, vnl'pin 
(as sometimes heard), and a few others, in all of whidi the i is long. But whei 
the accent is on the antepenultimate syllable, in words of this termination, th 
length of the vowel is not so easily ascertained. Indeed, there is then so llttl 
reguhirity in the sound of this letter in the final syllable, that, in a vast numbe 
of cases, nothing but a constant reference to analogy, and an acquaintano 
with polite usage, will enable the speaker to pronounce them with ocrtunty an 

^ The reader will reooUect that i (u with «) and snother vowel, followiag «, «, or (, mi 
czoloded firam tbii eoaleseenee bv the JiiOe, 8o alfo, in most easn, it tbould not be adoptc 
aaer a long aooented syUaUe eodinf with r ; for what eould sound worse than impfr'ial f-yi! 
iSar impSr'Ml (-e-Al), Inqaisttdr'ial (-yftl) for inqoisitdr'tal f-e^), or SibSr'ian (-vto) fc 
SibCr'ton (-e-in) ; althooafa these, and many like words, have been so narked by moi 
than one of onr later orthoeplats. wlien Indidoosly employed, this union of the vowela ad^ 
a grace and eate to prooonaatlon ; b«t when otherwiae used, it not merely offlmds the e« 
bnt is a grow vnlgariam. See Sutiom 13. 

«• Bee S0ctiont S, 13, U (aMt«), and 96. 

<* See 80ctioM 27, 2, 7, 18-4, kc. 

7« Walker. 

^ But not in In'finTte. 

^ With other disByllabte cosipounds of -wie. 

^ For severtl litts of such words, see Section 45. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 15-16.] 53bort I-^Lwig or Open 0. xxix 

15. Themwnd utntdlj eaXM akart % (I, p^\ and expreased by ihafc Irtter, or bj 
tto diplieato ^, in tbe words tU, htm, pity sptr'it, l^ie, mir'ror, (r'ritate, eon- 
ipii'acy, Tb^Ue^ v<i^«ilemtk &&, is beftrd jMire whenoTor th« rowel it ooiii>letelj 
'•topped' by a final or £[^owing costonant, under precisely the aame oonditioos 
at iritk S (^^eetioA 13), and the other short or stopped rowels.^' 

When this letter (I, 5^) occart before r and another oooaonanti in a qrllaUe not 
%MM\t H is preeiaely eqniralent to « in the aam» position, as in fir^gin (rtr^-), Tu/tue, 
E^tle (b<i'-)» Ae.'* ; so also in monosyllables and final qrlUbles before r fbl- 
lowed by another consonant, as in bird (b«rd), btrth (bfirdi), d«rt (dirt), frrm 
<fibrm), gird (g'&xl), shtrt <sh«rt), skurt <sk6rt or sk'«rt)^ whtrl (hw«ri), kc^ ; 
and before r final in monoqdlablea, and in nnaooented final «yUablM» as fir (ftr), 
sir ^), stir (st«rX na'djrr (-d«r), mar^V (-t^X ^^ ; in aU of whioh the rowel 
c mi^t be snbiAitated for i, wi^ont produoing the slightest difierenoe in the 

When AoH i ooours, wi^oat another rowel, in an nnaooented syllable before a 
final eoDsooant or eonsonants (except r, or of which r is not one), it retains its 
regnlaar 'short' or 'stopped' sonnd^imre, thongh slightly lessened in force and 
dittinetnesB by the abaenee of accent ; as in de'tst (-Ist), famish (-nish), mbbi th, 


16. Lomg or open o (5) is heard pore when the rowel ends or forms a syllable 
with the accent on it, as in mo'tion, po'tent, o'rer, &c ; and when it forms an 
nnacoented qrllnUe by itself, or ends one, eitlier immediately before or after the 
accent, as in obe'dient, xylite', im'potent, pota'to, &c ; also when it forms a mono- 
syflable by itself or with a silent h, or (except in <fo, to, vho^ ends one baring 
no odier rowel, as O, o^ go, no, so ; and generally, when it oocnrs in words or 
syllableB ending in silent ^ as bone, hom£, note, rore, alone, hoe, woe, &c ; hot not 
in lose, move, wkoee, behove (and their compounds), which hare the o like 5o^; nor 
In ooai«, close, dote, love, glove, none, eome, ^ove, iponge, above, and a few othera, 
in whieh the o hat the sound of H ; nor in gone, in which it has the eonnd of 5, in 
vor$e where it sonnds like «(r), in one where it soonds Hke w&, in corte where it 
IB eqnlralent to Sir, and sereral others. 

O is also long before // in knoll, poll, roll, stroll, toll, troll, &c ; before Id in 

7* In reality the *^ort' or * stopped' toond oorresponding to 6, and not to T, as the aamt 
implk^ S^SeeHoH9t,ke, 
^ The uiwintioa of this toond pt<r«, in the cases embraced by the XuU, is one of the 
duoraeterbtifis of refined taste, education, and polished life ; Just as allowing it to 

d eg an tia te into the deeper sound of 8 is a mark Of iUiterateness «nd rnlgarity. 

^ Hm tr io these words is oommonly pronounced w hy the mlgar, and the rulgar only.— 
'The sonnd oft in this situation ought to be carefully attended to '. (Wallur.) 

n Use JfoU 76. 

^ Jir, sir, tthr, and other like words, are often eollogmally pronounced fur, sur, &c. ; and 
alwm so hy the rulgar. 

3» Belier to the Stetitmt relating to the other short rowels ; also to Seethns 35-S6. 

•• That la the * stopped' sonnd corresponding to fi, as heard in pit, ptVy ; not #. 

n * When this letter is nnaeoenttd in the nnmerons terminations -«Mr, -iiv, &e., it is i^e- 
^■cntly praumaeed Uke ft ; but it may be observed that the pare sonnd oii like e' (Le., • 
brioi; «rl) «iB these vorda, is as moch the mark of an elegant speaker, as that of a in 
a w yf or , eSyemie, Ac' (Walker.) 

•* Sberidan, and the older orthoeplstt generally, notice only tkrte aonnds of this letter, as 
besrd in n^te, n^t, prove (50}. Mr Walker adds to these tbe Bounds of o in dore (0), nor 
(aw), wolf (6S}, making six. For such of them as are not notieed, or fnily noticed, under 
O. refer to 8eeHan$ 8, 11, 19, 30-1, &o. 

"^ la which the o is sounded SO <nr d5 ; which sound is carried into their oases and 

•* Kor in canot (-nW), and one or two others. Kor in the rowel digraph or improper 
dipbtliong m or oe, which hss ncuftUy the sound of 6. isee Seetiom 13, 99. 

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XXX Sounds of VoioeU — Long {continued) — Sliort 0. [§ 17. 

bold, oold, fold, gold, liold, sold, told, wold, fto. ; before smgle I in control, pitrol, 
&0. ; before H in fort, port, sport ; before 9i in g^oet, Invt, moit, post ; bdSore «t 
in gross ; and before sereral oUier gnmps of consonsats, in<diiding their f ozmftttyei 
and oomponnds. 

The ling tofmd of o is also found under several of its oombinatioiis vith other 
▼owels ; as oo, in boost, hoard, groan ; on, in coiot, so«l, motild ; ow, in blotr, 
floir, groion, knoion, bestow; a» and earn in hontbois, hawteor, eent, baoai^ and other 
vords from the French ; and ooeaskNudly in several other combinations, both 
Towel and consonantal.* 

The Bound of Umg o, before r, is similarly affected and modified to tiiat of the 
other open vowels ; and in aeemted gjfUcibla before r, and aoeented anUpmtdimaU 
ijfUablei before any consonant fbnt c, 9,iT t), it nsoally, or very freqroently, like 
them, coslesoes with the following consonant in utterance ; as in p^ous, stOr'y, 
emp^r'inm (-e-tim), hyperb^r'ean (-e-ftn), matrimAi'ial, metabdl'ian (-yin)» &c* 

The irregolar sound of o (= 55) in more, prove, ftc^, is noticed in the first 
paragraph of this 8eeU<m. It also ooonrs in tomb, whom, womb ; in the adopted 
Frendi words pohron, ponton, e^nUm or eqponton, Ac., as heard in Ea^ish 
months ; and in a fow oiben. 

17« The sound usually called short o (5)^, and represented by this letter in 
got, lot, not, op, upon, fdr'age, jjr'ifioe, stoHd, top'io, t^i^rent^ auth^r'ity, &&, 
is that which the vowel generally beurs when * stopped ' by a pure consonant, 
and this under precisely the same conditions as wiUi S (Section 18), and the 
other short or stopped vowels ; but the exaptioni are numerous, as will be seen 
by reference to the paragraphs immediately preceding and following the present 

When this ihort townd of o occurs before s«, s<, t^, or a li^[iUd (except r) f oUowed 
by a mute, as in cross (krte), dross, loss, moss^, cost, frost, broth, doth, solve and 
its compounds absolve, dissolve, resolve, &C., there is a dight tendency to ' broad- 
ness*, which, when exaggerated or even perceptibly inoressed, becomes a decided 
vulgarism. < The exact sound, in every instance, lies between the one indicated * 
(by 6 or &) * and the vulgar corruption'.*^ Sohe, and its compounds, are * the 
only words where a somewhat longer sound of the o is agreeable to polite pronun- 
ciation \^ This broadness of the o is often, by the illiterate, particularly in the 
provinces, extended to the vowel before other consonants than those mentioned 
above, and this to a degree which converts cSSee into oawffee, SS into aiof, frffst 
into ^tost, ftc ; a perversity and vulgarity of utterance easily acquired, but» in 
the adult, usually very difficult to eradicate.^ 

The sound of short o in unaooented eyikiAeB, like that of 5 {Section 18) and the 
other stopped vowels, is in general regular, though relatively fainter and obscurer 
than in accented syllablee, as concrete', concur'rent, connective, dedar'atory, and'- 
itory, incompress'ible, observs', obsorva'tion, pollute', pontif He, &c ; but with 
many exceptions, particularly in the initial and final syllables of words not dassical 

«5 See Seelions S4,.4ff. 99. 

M Not po'roos, emix/ream, matrimo'nlal, ftc Ses Seetiom 6, 13, 14, 96, Ac 

«T CftUad by Walker its < lon^. «toMi«r «0MMd '. 

" The short or stopped sound oorrespooding to * it ', not tod, as th* name ioipUes. It te 
predsely identioal ^th the a in what (hwdt). See StetioHM 3, 11, 4o. 

* Short 0, of all the vowels, not even excepting <, is the most irregular and uncertain in it* 
sound, as noticed in the Test Even the accent is not always sufficient to restrain its tendency 
to obworenea^ or its degeneration into the sound of tl. 

«> Oroa having the o long, is an exoepUon, 

91 Smart 

M Walker. 

M < As it would be gross, to a decree, to sonnd the a in castle, mask, and plant, like the o 
in palm, peolm, &e. ; so it would be equally exceptionable to pronoonoe tbe o in moss, dross, 
froet, &o., as if they were written matrae, drowse, ftratcst, &o.' (Walker.) 

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§ 17.] Irregular Sounds of Short 0. xxxi 

or tftff^ym ^i sad in otber caaes, in whkh it has sunk eitlier into the sonnd of 0, or 
tm BMxij spimnoliing it, or k altogetker mppreaMd in nttennoe.** 

So $Mo <^ in tbe acc en ted sjfihblee of man j wotda in which it ia now pro* 
noanoed like Ik and its modificationa ; and in a lew otheri, liko d6.** 
AflWBg the tapwplMMu to tho naaal and proper aoand of 6, aboTo releoed to» an — 
e^aralent to Ik ; heatrd in many words wfaoi tha Towel ia followed and atopped 
hf tba 'liqnida' m^ «, r, and the 'aemirowels'*, z, and (aometimes) th and t, both 
in MBMiteH a&d imaoeented qrUi^bleai and even in aereral monoayUaUea ending in # 
mate, as in the following liit : — aooom'panj, aoeom'paniment ; aifrent', afronf ; 
amo^, amoved ; attar'nay ; bomb, bombard', bombard'meat, bombardier^ ; bom- 
r ^tmAmnnff ; bombaat', bombaaf ie ; boz^age ^oolkq.), bor^ongh ; broth'er ; 
SM|U*^ ; oodli'ineal (kfttoh'-) ; eofander ; ool onrv ool'oining, ool'oiuahle ; 
eera'bai {&, «. ; aoeor. to S., Wa^ &a), oomltatant (do.), oomliatiTe (do.) ; oom'ber ) 
come, oom'ing, oam«lj; oom'fit; oom'£ort (n, «.), oom'forlaUe; eaok'hej; com- 
pn^on, oompan'ioiiable ; eom'pany {t^ v.); oompan', oompai'iaoii ; com'paaa 
($^ «.) ; eompiain', ownphuwV ; eompate' ; oom'rade (aooor. to E., P., SL, Wa.) ; 
eon'daH (-dtt); con'jnre, oon'jnrer; con'ateUe, con'staUeiy, eonstaVnlarj ; oov'- 
eDaBt(iL, «),oeT'enanter; cor'er {t^ v.), oor'ering, ooy'ercle, eor'eilei; ooyert^ 
eov'ertare ; eor'et, oor'etoiia ; coVej ; ooy'in, oor^oaa ; oox'en, coz'enage ; diaoMn'* 
fit ; dSaeom'fert (a., «.) ; done (dftn) ; donf on ; doat) doth ; dore, dore'let, dora'tail ; 
drom'adaiy ; cneom'paaa ; fell'-monger, fidi'monger** ; front (a., t^ v.), front'age^ 
fronfed (a.); ghnre («., «.), gkVer; gor'em, gor'emanoe, goremant^, gor'emor, 
gor'eniment^ ke. ; homm'ock ; hon'ey, hon'eyed (-Id) or hon'ied ; hoVer, hor'ering 
(a..); kve ^ «.), lonfMB, lo^er, lortfly, &c.; Mon'day; mon'etary, mon'ey, 
mon'eycd {-Id) or monled ; mong'com ; mon"ger (and ita eomponnda) ; mon''grel ; 
monk (mfaigk), monk'ey; month, monthly; moth'er, moth'erly, moth'ery ; none 
^rtn) ; noth'iBg ; onee (winac ), one (wttn), one'neea ; onion ; oth'er (and its oomp.) ; 
tfv'en ; ptor'er ; pon'aoe, pom^gran ate (aooor. to Wa. and We.), pomm'age ; pomm« 
or pommette' (her. — Fr.) ; pomm'el (<., v.) ; pommSl'ion (artil.) ; pomj)et (typ.) ; 
pem'pkfn, po m' p ue ; potii'er (oolloq.); rom'age; rhomb (rttmb; in narig., not in 
geam.) ; acoVel ; shore (s., v.) ; shor'el, ahoT'dler or shor'dard : sloVen, sloT'enly ; 
onoth'er (&, ti), Bioth'ezy ; some, aom^'body, somAow, aom/ihin^ &c. ; aom'er- 
wmnh cr ana'enet ; Som'eraet (eonnty of) ; son ; aof'ereign (aooor. to E., Na., Wa., 
We.), m^eamffk^ (do.) ; sponge (a, v.\ spon^'gy, spon'^giole ; stom'ach (-&k ; «., v.), 

aton/adia], stom'adkoos^, stom'aoher (-cher) ; thoi^oiigh,thoi^oag^ly, thor'oQi^ifare ; 

ton ^a weight), tonn'age ; tongne (tftng ; «., r.) ; won'der, won'derfnl, won'drous ; 

wora (a., «.) ; work U^ v.), worVer, workman, ftc ; world, worldling, worldly ; 

wonn, wonn'y; wornil, vro^^rj; worse, worst (a., «., v,); wor'ship, wor'shipfol, 

wm^ahopper ; wort ; worth, wor'thy ; and a few others, with their f ormatiyes and 

eu mpoun ds when they retain the accents of their primitiyes.*^ 

Tbis aoMui of o (ft) alao occazs, with a few exceptions, in the nnaooented termin- 

ationa -oc, -oek, -od, -61, -oro, -o»^, -op, -or, -oi, -oth, and -eome; as in hay'oc, 

caai^o^ meth'od, dto^ol, dnke'dom, king'dom, ftnlon, lock'rtm, am'azon ^aa Bnglish), 

geiyiopf ta^TOtf ta'tor, car'rot^ ri'ot, tnrlwt, mam'moth, frolicsome (-stbn), glad'somtf, 

tro6bl€aom€^ kc^ 

** Tide tha foUowinf paragraphs of this Section, 

** And so of all the other oomponndi of mongtr, 

** Bat not in ftooiaob'io (a., «.), atomsch'ioai, Ae. 

^ For the fUl 'aotatlon * of tbe words in the abore Ijitty refer to the body of the IHetumary. 

** Bat after ecreral consonants, the o in this termination, ii altogether suppressed. Yide 
M^ also &e<»o» 4A, fte. 

"* Th«e ehief «seeption$ are technical terms and proper names from the Greek and Latin, 
wMeh p reset Te the o distinct, though tlightly ohecared hy the absence of accent Author^ 
editor, pallor, termor, and some other words adopted entire from the learned languages, with 
€wss o rifc , epoc, and several others, also do the same in formal disoonrpe, but otherwise follow 
the general rule. 

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xxxii Sounds of Vowels — Irregular Sounds of Short — Long U, [§ 18, 

So of before m, r, n, and 2, in the prepositive lyllables com-t cor-, cor-, col-, 
occarring immediately before the accent (principal or secondary), where it losts i 
much of its distinctness, and in many cases coUoqaially, sinks into a sound more I 
or less approaching that of ft, as may be perceived in an unaffected or rapid utter- I 
ance of combing, command', common^, complaint', oomposAi', compress', commis"- i 
•ion, oompen'sate, compo'nent, correct', corrode, oormpt', corrap'tion, concrete', i 
concur', connect', conceir^', concep'tioo, oonsid'er, concatena'tion, considera'tion, i 
ooUecf , oolleo'tion, collu'siou, kc ^^ ; but this faintness or obsourenessi except in | 
the words referred to at page xxxi, does not occur in syllables under the acoent 
{whether primary or secondary), in which the vowel retains ita regular stopped 
sound (6), as heard in com'pact, com'plez, com'presa, com'parable, oommenda'tion, i 
compliment'al, comprehend', cc^rody, correspond', con"orete, con'seqoent, conae- | 
qnen'tial, constella'tion, collect, ftc I 

The Of in the frequent unaccented termination -on, is generally silent or sup* | 
pressed after c or ky d, Z, p, <, t (unless preceded by x^^^), and s ; as in beaooa 
(bdlu), reckon (rfik'n), ps/don (-dn), Bil'ton (-tn), capon (k&p'n), crim'son (-sn), | 
glutf on (-n), bU son (-zn), kc The chief exceptions ooour in words from the | 
learned languages, in which the d, in formal discourse, retains its distinctire , 
character, though somewhat fainter and obscurer by the absence of accent, but 
colloquially assumes a sound nearly approaching that of ft, as in am'aion, diapa'- 
son, Ac ; and in a few other words in which the o, though not suppressed, siaka 
completely into the sound of ft, as in advow'son (-sfin), con^Mur'ison, hori'son, 
u'nison, ic}^ 

as & (aw, or)^** ; generally heard when the vowel is followed by r final, or by 
r and another consonant, as in or (^^), for, nor, north, adorn' (-da^^m'), form, 
for'mer, oroh'ard, ftc. ; but not, in accented ^llables, before a final r followed by 
a vowel, or rr (except in 'formativee'), as f^age, (^ifice^ sSi^zy, tffr'rid, &a, Ia 
which the o, like 'a' and ' e' under the same coiudiitions, as noticed at pages xxii, 
xxiv, preserves its short sound pure. 

as dd ; a sound exactly corresponding to the tt in bull, f«ll, pvll, &c., and the 
00 in wool, with one exception, is heard only in a few words in which the voprel 
comes between «o and 2, m, or r ; as in bosom (bdSz'-), wolf (wd61f), wol'verene, 
wom'an^^ (wd&m'-), wor'sted, and their ' formatives* and ' compounds', and in the 
proper names Wol'sey, Wolverhamp'ton, Wol'verton, Worcester (wdfis'-tfir), and, 
perhi4)s, one or two others.'^ 


18. The long diphthongal u (ft, yoo) ^^, like the open vowels, is generally bearvl 
pure in syllables ending in e mute, and when it is final in an accented syllable, o^ 

>M This ob sc nre nMi of the vowel is the most marked fn the syllable com', and ooeurs in tiki 
otben in a diminishing degree in the order given in the TkU, When not marked in ttij 
* notation', this fsintncss or obecnreness must be understood not to pus beyond tbat eommoi 
to the nnseeented short vowels, or, in referenoe to the given words, to be dther coUoq^al oi 
valfimr. See Seettona 18, S5, &c. 

>M As in sex'ton (-tftn). 

>tt For lAttt and EaeepHons, see Section 4S fet ante). 

Mi Called by Mr Walker the * long, broad o\ and commonly represented in oar * notation 
by the simple o before r (or), except in cases where some other word, thongh similarly speUeci 
i« diftorently prononnoed, and then by the phonotype given in the Tkrt, or, when the aomid 1 
slightly shortened, by a^ : and in each case generally followed by S6, referring to the iSecMo 
where this soond is explained. 

iM Bat not ia its plural, women (wlm'-^). 

M»8ceA0r<ofM2, 19,S1. 

1M See iStetiofM 9. S6 ; a]80|w^ 810. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^19.] L<mg U (conHnued) — Shmi V. xxxiii 

fonns «n aoeented syllable hj itself, as in cube, due, t«oe, cn'bic, mtit'ual, 
pti'txid, u'liioii, if'iiit, tf'niaon, ftc ; alao when it ends or fonns a tillable eitber 
immediately before or after the accent, as fn mtita'tion, vnit^, ed'ttcate, reg^nltf , 
sttt^'gnkr, fta^ The chief txceptwfM are when u occars in an open syllable 
after r, in which case it drops its iirst element, and is eqnitaleat to 95, as 
in erode (kr6od«), rtide (rtiode), intrtt'iion (-tr65'-), &c. ; and after j or /, and 
flOBifltittes after s, sonnded as xh or sb, when it partially suffers the same lov, 
letaining only the slight sound of e, indicated in our 'notation* by (*), as in 
jwy (f oor'-e), jiidi"cial (j'o5-), lute (l»5ot«), poli«tion (-P5o'-), Wi'sore (.xh*3or), 
stMve (th*5or), anca^anoe, £3.^^ 

When hmg « oecors before r in the same syllable, or ending an accented syl- 
khie is ftdkiwed by another qrllable beginning with r, or (sometimes) with another 
OQoaoiiast, it is similarly affected to &, d, and the other open Towels, as in cure, 
ft^j, p^ity, cA/alare, immfit'able, &o.^ Before another vowel, in the same 
qrUftUe, « has geneimlly the sound of tr."^ 

U after q is generally silent in words adopted from the French, and with the e 
(ue) ia always so in the terminations -ffue and -que; as cheque (oh£k), cheq'fier (-dr), 
eiiqucit/ (-kH^, masq«crad«' (-k«r-), dem'agogve (-g6g), ep'ilogwe (-l«g), opflq(i«' 
(.pikO, k^^ 

19. The sound usually called sAorf or slopped u (fi) 1^, is that which the letter 
genenlly bear- (witii the excepttom noticed below) when it is followed and stopped 
by a oooaonant, and that under precisely similar conditions to d (Section 18), and 
the othor short Towels ; as in but, etep^ sun, bust, thus, cus'tom, cutlass, cilr'rent, 
hSr'ry, tc 

This soumd of w (<k) ia ftequently expressed by the letter 0, as in oom« (kftm). 
don«, son, and many other words noticed in Section 17. 

U, equrralent to d6"*, a sound of the rowel chiefly confined to words beginning 
viih one of the * mute labials^ 6, p, or the * labio-dental* semiTowel /, and which 
end with the *Uquid' Z, or the 'dentals' t, tft, t, and d, as heard in the words 
eootained in the following Ltit^ which embraces almost all those in the language 
in which u has this sound :— bttU (bd61), huU'ace, bull'ary (a collea of papal 
bulls), bttJ'cbin, bvll'etin, bull^et, buU'lon, buU'ock, tmll'y, burwark, bush (j., v.), 

1^ Tbere is a s^ong tendency to ebiinge the xmnd of d after i, <, /, a, and «, into ^ eren 
vlieB it it under the aeeent, as in dWtjt tti'tor, lu'dd, enu'merate, Inau'peraUe. dn^ which 
careleas and illiterate •peakers pronounce doo'ty, too'tor, &c ; bnt Ui aToiding tUa error, the 
u BBBBt not be broken up into e-oo, as ia often done by afreoted speakers, who pronounce these 
vords as If spelled d«-0'ty, tS-tl'tor, lie. 

An eqniiny Ticions error prendla with «, when ending or forminjr an nnaceented syllable. In 
giviog ic an obscure sound reaenbUnff that of e, 6, <» 0. lliiia, mngvlor, reoular^ partieular, 
«^ are nften eorrapted Into sing-«-lar, reg-«(r)-lar, Ac ; bnt * ttothing tenos more to tarnish 
aad ^rvifarise the pnmondation than this short and obsetare sound of the unaccented «'. 

The sonnd of « in bury (b£r'-re), burUl (Whr'-e-al), bi»y (bis'-e), businosa rUx'-ndu), and 
tbdr other deriTetfrea and 'formatiTca', ia a wanton corruption, which nothing but long 
maice can now joatiiy. See Noi§ 108. 

1^ Tb« srmnd of « after j, /, r, Ac, here noticed, ia that now given to it by ali polite 
•peahen. It has the anthority of Mr Walker and of oil oor lateat ortho^tta, including 
Hr Smart, who adopts this 'notation' of the Towel in his Dietionaty» 

M* See SeetioM 6, IS, 14» fto. 

» See SeetioHM 94, 44. 


10 This is the * stopped' aound corresponding to 5, or the one most nearly allied to it, and 
bears no relation to a except in form and name. See Section 3. 

It mar here be useful to mention, that * the letter u is never subject to the shortraing 
powCT Of either the primary or secondary accent ; bnt, when accented, is always long, nnlesa 
•hortened by a doable (doubled) consonant' (Walker) ; or, it may be added, by two sueeeaslTe 

u^Kr Walker caBathia* the «ti(//c or oMuteu'. 6t9 Section 91, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xxxiv Sownds of VoweU—Long 00—ShoH 00. [§ 20-21. 

bnah'el, bush'y, butoh'er, bwtdi'eiy, ouek'oo, Cfwh'ion, ftdl (cl, ad,, «., v. ; and whtat 
final in oompoanda» though irith only one I), fulfil', full^age, full'er (j.), ftiU'eory, 
Ml'mg (a.), F«cl1uun (Middlesex), Ft»rton (a proper name), hussar' (bd6i-idr'), 
hmia' (-tdftf), pudd'ing^ pull (&, vX ptdl'en, piiU'ei, puU'ey, ptil'i»t, push, pttm^ 
put {v.)y ptfi (tv a forced action) ^^^ ptctt'ing (an ana game), sug'ar (shdSg'-), ai^ 
two or three others; with their 'fonnatives' and * compounds* ^ To these may 
be added a lew words from foreign langoages, partdoolarly proper names, as Buddh'% 
(bd5d'-^, BuddA'ism, BuddA'ist, buffo, bul'bttl, BulglU/ia, Ful'da, puoe'ron (as a 
9r. w<»d in English months), PunjanV, &o.^ 

This sound of te, except in fuU, fidler, fulling, &e. (£r<»n fuUOf L.), does not 
extend to words from the learned langaa^es, whieh preserve the nsosl sonnd ef % 
ae in eWfllf'tion, f iH'minate, zepfil'sion, sep'^due^ sepid'ehral, &c. So also of the 
pore English words bttge, bfiss, bite'taid, bfis'tle (bfisl), b4ks'ard, eifa'terd, mf- 
some, h^ and two or three others, in which the « oontinneB nncormpted, not- 
withstanding their form resembles that of some of the words indnded in tiie Litt 
giTon abore. 

The soond of ii in nnaooented syllables, partionlaily final ones before r, safot ia 
loudness and distinctness, like the other ^rt TOweU ; and, like them, is similazly 
lengthened and united with r final in utterance ; and in * formatiyes' ending with 
r, this occurs eren when the r is doubled ; as in cur, fur, cuiL curlew, OMn/ish, 


20, The Umg 90und (oo) expressed by the Towd-digraph oo in boon, booth, 
boo'ty, 000, food, fool, moon, rood, soon, stool, woo, platoon', ke^ is a simple vowel, 
notwithstanding the double character by which it is unally and conveniently 
represented^ In some words, as move, proves tomb^ who, whose, ke^ it is 
expressed by a sin^e o^ ; in others, and particularly in words from ^ French, 
by ou, as in croup, group, soup, wound, youtii, cirtouoh' (-tSSshl gout (goo ; taste), 
ragout, ren'deivous (^^So), rouge (rooshs), tow/maline, ko, ;^" imd after r, hy u 
or ut, as in crude (krood«), rude, fruit, recrutt, &c^*^ 

Tlids sound is similarly afiected by r to the other long vowels, as in moor, poor, 
rfir'al (rSor'-), kc 

21. The 9kort or stopped mnrnd (66)^, coneqwnding to the preceding lon^ 
one, is represented by the vowd-digrai^ oo in foot (!d6t), good, hood, soot^ stood 
and its compounds, wood, wool, and perhaps one or two oth^ ; by « in bul^ 
Atll, p«U, and the other woids enumecsted in Section 19 ; and by both o» 
and « in the popular Bnii^Jsh pronunciation of many French woids^ as cotrtSF^ 

n^But not In ptft, a game at cards. 

lis This LUt might, perhaps, be extended by the addition of a few prorladal words. 
*Some ipeaken give bulk and puniih this obtnse sonnd of «, hat luckily have not beea 
followed'. (WalkerO 
u« See SteHon 99. 
U7 On thia subject, and the reason for marking the u before r (iir), see the ilTotot SO, 85^ 

us See Section S. 


i» See ^^e<i<m« 24, 4«, 99. 

3A8eetfMtiMwl8,94,*o*; also iTote 196. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^23-34.] W—Y—OI, OY—OU, OW—Vemliigra/U xxxr 


(See aettim 39.) 


(See &el>0M 41-8.) 

01, OY. 

7SL The aoimd ezpreaaed "bs the Toyel-conbinatioM ci and oy (01, <>y) ii a pore 
dipliihong^, as heard in otJ, boil, tad, aiiouit\ appouiV, bdf^ •mploy, and lUI 
ether EngUA -vords in vhich theae leitexs come together in the nme sylhihle. 
The exc^iUna to this aoond of the Towel-digraph ci, ooear chiefly in a iew wonk 
iroia the Fieneh.^ 

ou, ow. 

S3. Th» wowad r o|i r o ao pt ed in the 'notation' el this DietioBaiy by <m and ow 
(oUf ow)^ is the proper diphthong heard in abo«t» noun, iMad, ipmad, house, 
hoirr, onnpoiaid', brow, caw, how, bower, iloiser, fowl, fromi, town, Ae,, and is the 
nsiial and zegnlar power of these letters wbdrn ihej ooonr tOfetlMr in the sasM 
syllable. In some words, howerer, cu has the sound of ii ; in othei% that of d or 
o5 ; and, in % tew, that of at, d, or 06^. So also of ow, whi<^ instead of its 
reffalar soond, has frequently that of S, a sound whidi it dkooffi bean in the final 
imaeee&ted sylkhleB of wiird% as in biHow, fdlow, mellow, wil'low, bor'row, 
wr'iow, Itc^* 

24. The torn Alj^aletie VoweU is explained in Section 3 (p. zr). In the 
' notstian' of this JHctionary they are expressed hy the simple vowels, without 
any maik d accent or quantity, as a, e, i, 0, u ; w is eqiiivalent to initial 00 ; and 
jr toi, or when initial, to e. 

3%e Foweii, both long and alphabetie, and sometimes eren when Aort or 
Mtopped, oecar nnder other modes of spelling, or as Towel-digraph% of which one 
of tiie lettcn is nsoally silent^ though effeotiye in kngthwiing, modifying, or 
iadifating tte aoond <^ the otiier ; asi,bya»oray, asin boil, sojr, ftc ; $ or e, 
by ee^ eo, €y, <e in sweet, meat, gallsy, minntia;; C, ^ ea or ie, as in sweat, friend, 
ie. ; and so of the other vowels, as noticed under each, and in the Tablea given 
bdow and in iSwtion 45. 

The natore ef the compottiMi «owe2« called < i)»pA<&on^ * is explained in /SSsceums 
2, 4 ; and the principal ones are enumerated and ansJysed in Section 2, and its 
Nata. The jMwen, &a, of I, fU oi or oy, and on or ow, are also sqMurately 
notifled m Sections 14, 18, 22-8, 41-8 ; and these, with others, are again referred 
to, andXrisCf of exertions. to thdr more usoal or regular sounds are given in 
^ !Mble bdow, and in Section 45. 

Tht pcmen of tiie usual vowelrdigraphi or ' Improper diphthong$ ', as well as 

IB On its natorc, ftc., see SeotUmt 2, 8. 

^ For LiiU of worda, tto., see 8«etio$ts 84, 45, 99. The vulgar often change this •oond into 
tkatofl; aBUlefor&oa,tIleforto<J,4Eo. 
'M See Aeftow 2, S, fto. 
i» For Id$t$ of the principal words in which theee Irregular sounds ooenr, see Seetioiu 

H* The vulgar commonly shorten this soimd, aad pronounce the o ofasearcly ; ■■dn<g 
BBftvqoently, even pervert It Into «r, and say Wkr for feUfiw, wind'ar for wlndffw, &c wod 
- kera, as oheerred by Mr WallLer, always give the <m> In this poeiUon the Ml sound of 
i o(5). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xzxvi S(mnd8 of Vovjel'ddgraphs and Voioelririffraphs. [§ 24. 

of a few vewel'trtgraphs oommonly called * Tn'pkikongs\ Are exhibited in the 
following Tabla^^ :— 

ACi as = ^ia words from the classical languages, when oocttrring either under the 
accent, or (with a few exceptions) immediately before it, as in cS'olian, 
oorio, cenigo, <rathet'ic («s-), ce'ther, ^thiop's (mineral), aphcnr'esis 
(-ffire'-), forces, fcc'cal, pof'an, Ue'dinm, taenia, &c ; and in Latin genitires 
and plurals having this termination, as ro'sce (of a rose), Ti't<s (oi life), 
antenn'cB (pL), comaco'pifs (pL), exn'vio;, lam'uuE, minu'tiee, stri'ce, ftc^^ 

oe, (S = 6, in dioT'esis (-Si'-), Mi'choel (-kH), Mich'cKlmas (mIk'-Sl-), &c. ; and 
when shortened hj the seoondaiy aooent, as in pevdobap'tist (accor. to S. and 
Wa.), .J^obar^bus (9n-), See. ; and in certain classical proper names when 
under the accent, as uEcWniks (6k'-), Dced'alus, DcranWes, &c 

ae = &, in tod, fosr'y (oba. orthcg. of /airy), Ac. 

ilt = A, as in paid, plat'n, arotT, Ac The exceptiont are few : — 

a» ~ &, in pl^ (pl&d), r&'U'eiy, Brit'^'n^^, pldis'ter (obs. orthog. oi plaster), and 
perhaps two or three others. 

at = d, again (-gfin'), against', sotd^ aforg'said, saith. 

ai =s !, in atsle (lie), 

ai = I, as in cur'toln, Till'oln (exc. in formal discourse), and a few other words of 
frequent occurrence, as heard colloquially.*'^ 

^o = iL, in the sin^e word gaol (jftl^), and its compounds. 

Au= % (aw), as in fault, caught (kawt), soiioe, taught, daugh'ter (daw'-), &c. The 
chief excepfioiM are — 

au =i d (M), as in aunt, launch, jaun'dice, laun'dress, soun'ter, and nearly all 
other words in which au precedes n followed by another consonant, except 
Tount, aYaunt', maun'dril, and Maun'dy (-thursday), in which it is regular ; 
also in drought (draft), laugh (Idf ), laugh'ter, &c 

au = A, in gduge (<., v.). 

au = «, in caul'iflower, laur'el (I5r'-), loud'anum. 

^ It shoald be observed, that the sonndi given in the TahleBj refer only to the vowel* when 
oooarring together In the ionu syllable ; and not when they follow each other in aeparate 

When ofie of the vowels of an improper diphthong or triphthong is marked with the lonf or 
$hort quantity (- or u), it is that one which alone is sounded ; the other, or others, brinir 
silent. * Skeleton ' letters are always silent, thoogh generally significant or eflbotive with 
reference to the letter or letters vrhich precede them. 

To avoid unnecessar}* repetition, it may be as well to state here, that many of the vowel- 
eombinations which follow, are also noticed in the preceding Section* ; snd again, in their 
oombinations with consonants, in Section* 43, 99; alvo that the pronnnoiaiion of the 'primi- 
tives' are, with a few exoepHont, cnrried into their * common formatives' and * compounds'. 
For the fall * notation ', &e., of the words given as examples, refer to the body of the 

» In many words of fk^uont oocorrenoe, pB e'thcr, ^qoa'tor, /qninoz, Jkc, the e& of the 
Bomans has been changed to simple e, which, however, usually mllowa the diphthong In 
quantity, but with greater licence and more numerous exceptions, in whidi It is more fre- 
quently liable to be shortened by the secnndnrj accent. In proper nanu$^ as ^ne'as, JPsop, 
Caesar, ftc, the m is nlwajrs preserved by correct writers, although the contrarv course was 
reeommended by Dr Johnson. In a'er (air, Xr.)» and its derivatives o^r'tal, t^iH/orm, 
fi'ttromaut, &e,^ the ae form separate sjUables, ftnd do not fall under the mfe. The same 
applies to tiio word Is'racly which is properly pronounced in three syllablei>, though often 
lieard in two ; and so of many other wnrdA. 

IS* CoUoqniaUy, brlt^n, anciso marked by Dr Thomas, in Baldwin's * Universal Pronovneing . 

i*> When an adjective and emphatic, some speakers give the ai a sound between that of h 
and 11. Mr Walker says, * When this word is an adjectiTe, as the ** eaid man ", it Is regular, 
and rhymes with trsde*. 

"^ Knowles and Walker mark the at as X in eaptam, fountain, mmmtain^ and all, or nearly 
all. other words of this termination ; a pronunciation now avoided by polite speakers, «k 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

|5!4] SoundM of Veicri^igraphij <te, {conUnuid). xxrrii 

am = tt, in FTeneh ▼orda, and in many words derived fVom the French, a« batite«r 

(bd-ttre'), hatctboy (h5'-boy ; &om hautfxnt, Pr.), ftc 
J» = a (mt), as in bavl, bravn, saw, &c. It is always regular. 
Awe = a (fl»), as in a«WL 
jfy = ft, as in dc^, pk^, soy, delay', ke. When nnaocented and final, as in 

Siin'di^, Mon'day, Ac,* it sinks into the sonnd of the feeble alphabetic 

a^ = flTe {dh'-f)f beard in the oolloqnial adverb ay (yes).^ 

a^ = 9, in qw0f. See ttoy. 

^ane = ft (ft«), in ogre (poet, always, ever). 

iib = e, as in beat, eretne, esst, fear, xi«an, wraak, appear, heawer^ easy, creotnre, 
4e. The ehief exe^^tums, in the order of their frequency, are — 

ea = £, in aMost, ah^od, afarfody, bedsUfod, behfod, bespWtad, bestjfdd, brifad, 
breadth, brAikfast, bWTast, brtoth, cleanse, eUfaniy (&), dlfad, deadly, d^o^ 
(Uofen, djforth, dlfoth, jfarl, Iforidom, farly, lam, lamest, larth, larthen, 
«RtUy, Alt (prt), endJTovoar, flarfal (terrible— thea.), flother, hiad, hlad> 
strong, hiady, hialth, hiard (prt, pp.), hlorse, bloren, hlory, instead, 
jloloBs, Vfad (a metal), UFaden, Ifont (colloq. prt and pp. of to ' lean '), 
&am, Ufoming, UFother, Ufaven, Uovened (cl, pp.), Uaped (I^ ; prt^ pp. of 
to 'leap', as heard ooPoq.), mladow, mlant (prt, ppy of to *mean*), 
mlonre, paglant and pageantry (as often heard ; r. i.), plorl, peasant, 
phftnant, pllosant, i^losantry, pUosnre, rited {prt, pp., of to *read*),. 
Tlody, riafan, rehforae, rehearsal, reelarch, sicimstress (for 'semptress*), 
afoiee, sSorch, sergldnt, serjiant, spread, stiad, steadfast, steady, stlalth, 
sttelthy, swAst, swMy, thread, thrl^ thriraten, trifdcfaery, triad, tWfadle, 
tvtasare, renglanoe, vfolth, widlthy, wlapon, wlotber, ylom, ilalot, 
sidloaa, sod a few oUiers, with their * formatives* and ' oomponads*. 

ea = ft» in bear, breSk, giedt, peAr, ste^ swedr, tedr (v.), te^ (a rent), we& 
(s^ v.)^ *nd a very few others. 

ea = d (dA), in hearken (hdrk'n), heart, hearten, hearty, hearth. 

ea = ft, in psgefot (p&j'-ftnt) and page&tiy (v. sn.). 

ta = flor%aE in malleable, &e.^ 

Bam = d or 0, in words from the French, as eau (6 ; water), beat*, boreav', flam'* 
bean (-bo), portman'teaic (-to), &c 

ea» = 0, in bBreoMoracy (-rOk'- ; as heard colloq.). 

earn = d^ in beofity, beatlteoos, ke. 

Ee = e, as in fle^, meet, proceed, &c. 

ee = I, in bireeehes (a garment), and to breech.^* 

ee = ft, in the poetical contractions e*er (ftrg) and ne'er (nire). 

K = ft, the general soond of this digraph, as heard in de/gn (dftne), &«gn, freight, 
Keir, neigh, thev'r, weight, eight, heinous, invetgh, netghbonr, obeimnee, &c 

ei =s £, as in cl£l, dtling, conceit, oonclive, dec^'t, deceive^ Ifther^ invligle, 
Uuore, neither ^"^j pleblian (as often heard colloq.)^ rec^Ve, setgnenriai, 
sS^gnior, seigniory, s^e, setie, s^idn, seunre, wlt'r, wlt'rd, and a few others. 

n these words, is proriBcial or valgsr. It shoald, 
1 pare, and n«T*r be ehanged into -dy (de), as 

the a in thii word is m. Bot this sound of the 

* In the JSToMM of CInmNOfu. when this word is 

Jy, bear it m> pronounced in ue phrsic ** <A« «y«s 

uoed to !. B«^ls«b«b (b«r-, for be-fil'-), it a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xxxriii Sowids of V(welrdigraphi, dtc (conttnueflZ). [§24. 

ei = S, in hjfifer and nonparj^ 

ei = I, in h«^lit (liit«)i delght ; alao mhtm it forms a diphthong in classical 

ei = % heard in unaccented ^Uables, particolarly final ones, as oonn'terfelt (-fit), - 

for'dign (-In), fo pB l piflr , fbr^fdt^ for'feitnre^ sor'eiel^ stur^fsft^ and a few 

JSo = S, as in &off (fSf), iMfee', fi^'or, fifof 'ment, jifof 'ail, j^op'ard, jtepardise, 

jeopardy, l^op'aid, and two or three others. 
eo = e, in people. 

eo = O, in food, f eod'al, feod'atory, &c"* 
fo = ft, or (somedmes) 'ft, when oocomng afier ek^dg^g soft, or j, in final nnac- 

oented syllaUes, as Und^geon, eoimodgaon, dudgeon, dangeon, escntchfon, 

godgwn, haVeigeoBy lanehson, pigeon, puncheon, soatohcon, suigMo, 

truncheon, widgeon, &o. 
eo = S^ in jeffman, jeOmaiay^*^ 

to = Si (iS^, or), in Geoige Qorj), getiigic**', Georgium-aidus (ast).*** 
' £km s e-ft, in the unaccented termination -eouf, when distinctly or formally 

uttered, as bonn'teotcs (-te-fis), hid'eovs, plen'teiws, Tif recms, Ice. ; but more 

commonly, and always coIlo<iuially, contracted into -y'i&s, -yfts, or -*tU, as in 

cutin'sous (-/us), goigeotts (-yfts), oourf eofcs, nau'seoKS (-di'tts), outrage'ous 

(-*as), &&, as noticed in Sedion 12. 
JCu =s % as in fisAd, ddioe, te. 
JSto = 11, as in dew, few, nat , jev, ew'er, te. ; changing after r into d5, as in creio 

E), drew; and after j, I, and cA, into '5S, as in Jew <j*o9), jeir'el, letrd 
), diei0 (di'o5), Iec. ; just as u does when it is similaiiy situated. 
aB0»f»onsare — 
ei0 = 5, in (to) s«w (with a needle), sewiter, shew (v., &), strew (v. ; accor. to Jo. 
' and Wa.), Shreiosbury (shrSz^'-; a town), and sewer (share; as heard 
among the Tulgar) ^ 
ew = 00, in sew ^ drain), sewage, sewer (an underground drain), sewerage.^^* 

J^ = ft, as in bey, dey, eyre, grey, prey, they, wh^, obey', surrey', and all other 
monosyllables and accented syllsUes in wUdi it occurs, eaooept key (k€), 
ley (15 ; for lea), and ley (U ; for lye). It also sounds as ft, or rather a, in 
sTur'yey (e.), though not under the accent 

ey =« or e, as in alley, barley, gal'lcy, valley, and other unaccented syUables, 
with the single exception just noticed. 

JBye = T, in eye (the oigan of sight). 

la = y'ft, yft, or *ft, when it occurs after the accent, under the condidons noticed 
in SietumlL 

ia a I, in the unaoo^ted termination -iage; as cartridge, mai'rVage, lea 

ia s e^ in pailMzment (-le-mfot). 

le =3 S, the usual sound of this digraph in monosyllables and accented syllables 
when followed hj a consonant, as ohtlf (ch€fe), fiHd, fi<ind, frilK, gri^, 
gri^ Ugt, Uig^ thtffre, tierce, lea It has ahw this sound (}r Bi^ish 
mouths), when accented, at the end of words adopted from the Fren^ as 
in coterie (-^ ; but when unaccented, that of brief or alphabetie e, as in. 
mar^quetrM (-re), reVerie, &a 

13S See Ao<J9n M. 

- , - ... ^ -^,^ ,,^eora'«ia, 4o^ the « and occur In Bepartte eyllaWee. 

1** Now generally written /eiM?, feudal^ < 

i«i But not in «9»«<, tewer (as ofllcer), sneitwle, &c, in which ew is regnlar. In ew'er t^ 
i» and € form separate gyUablea. See Eiv. 
^^ Ynlgirly and proTinoiallj yO. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


♦*7 Somub of TomMi^digrafhi, Sc (omiMHMf). xxiix 

«r = 4iK trOadrnMA ito ' fomKtrrea ', and tilroo and tdfroel (aeoor. to Wa. and 
Ve^; abo la tba iiB^niwitad tenaiaatiaB -Mr, aa bfa'sifr (-ik*«r), ^'»fr, 
ffm'mSSt, fte. 

«r^ Z^ vfeM ftial in aaowMTiUUblea, ashfe(hl),l{^ tk, W^; aad In ike pluab of 
aS aabiteDtiTeB, snd the tliird penoM lingiilar and past partidplM of all 
Yerfci in vkidi as ctr y fijial lias the wand of L aajfy, flies (iUaeK^ Hm. 
dem^, daOs^, deDMsd', d/i^^'mfy, dig'nif fed, &a /•-»*—» 

w = I, aa in dfenftftai (-tlsX exceUttoda, sqllta, nUlcd, and all other worda in 
wMtb jr finaJ, rt?— m^^'^ as e, nuikefl -tei or -Md bj InflectiML 

M jifll, !■ qjiT'id, ami n frnr otker woads in wiiidi it fbUmra the aooenl 

Jba = «,aa a adtei' {-de&O; afaortenad, Hka ft, after i into '^, aa in Imu (1*55), 

iar = ^ia\ 

h = ^ la tfce fregpcn* f rrafaa twwai -gots -wioa, and -titm (anleea pieoaded by »), 
M la Ja'awn (-aliftii), ml— i rw i (mlidi'.ttn), pSr'tion (ndiftn), fte. ; alao after i4 
ia iiBriVaii sad atter «*• in mar chMueeL Betiveen ^» and n ftaaL it ia 
«M^ aaAaned into '«, aa in xeUpon W -'An), &ai« 
• = 7«, m Ite Jliatinai> ^qrmfnation -ton, when not preceded hj • or it, or by < 
ta^b$m it Ibllavaa)* aa in InlTton (-yftn), min^ioa, digeet'ion, fto. The 

-^-» pfftrrrr oeour in formal diaoouae, where -ton foUowa liquid r, or a 

ixeeadad by anotlier lalaal or a Uqoid, hi which oaae the % aaanmes 

of iKief or aJpliabetio e, forming a ahoit i^UaUe Inr itaeli; aa in 

I /-pa-tfeiaX aooz^paon, dik'ton (-e-iln), ^ ; bat erea here the two 

\ eonviflnlT 1^««^ eoUoqaiaUy, in one ayDable, aa fint noticed. 

Blann ociamiing after any coaaonaaibat e aoft, «, orl, onder the 

mmirrn xxoUoed in iSn:^a li, aa in ahetam'toaa (-y'tta), bQ'iotta 

(-fM. &«u - lna» laesey ^trbcai it cornea alter a long or mn antepenultimate 
1^3L ^pi^ ^pctftaeolJKrly after r, the rowela are naoally prononneed aepar- 
2Z^ farmnl dSjacomae, aa oo'ptoaa (-pe-tU), ingin'ioaa (-e-ta), te'dsotta 

i-, . f ,C follcnrliie « "wft* «,«,<Kr«ia8infac'tM)aB(-ah'<i8),pree»o«a(prfBh'- 

Ai ^ n li&zft. o^icU, li>«*» ^^»*'»cal» *c The chief or onfy txoeplifmM are— 

^ r ?^^r^^i«i. (bnie^d) and i<a * f<»matiye8 ', aroot (gr«H), and groats. 

J rf S. faSi^ ^■'^'^^ and ^DahKwifc, hoe, throe, woe, woij'fal,&c.; 

^ " ^iJ^^fc2\Soimln e# anbatantiTee and the inflecfciona of Terba ending in o 
"■ ™^^1,Smc *o -«««. •• foe, I&8 (flae), potato, potatffn, forego^ foregoes, 
?. w^^SdkW ciaTif^ •»« "0^ in which oe sonnda aa 55 : nor in (he) 
il'/^V^ wSuOa ifc l»«i *ta wwid erf 4. 

.. . - i -nSia^xia««> «, and aabject to the aame fcwa aa aingle e (now often 
~.^iS«adS^«ox- ik> »» '^•J^.^T^ learned langoagea; aa in fa'toB, 

A.- - """'^ ?-^^^ Ivj^y ^^^ •erwal other Prendi worda, in which its aound 

^a ^acBMa^i n ^^ ^ ^^ French; alao in the obaolete word enTiad (e-Il'.yftd— 

j^yioa irara -yy^^^ Ff.), in which the Towala are diTeraehr marked by 

^SL j^^ a^ iSaijiiiiinir ^*^"' * rl^tiHrn ttt Ttnn^^ ^ 

/w " yriT^ 4fco a*dfiqp*ed French word manfinme (-nSSr'r, a, u ; thns as 
*»-2S\ M^ .^rit^ n Bomewhat different pronunciation in many pare French 

^ «^^if <n« «««)» *"*^^ l'^*^' chef-d'ajum, kc.i« 
« . Jr^^^e" aipl»*^<»«^?*?^ in boil, toil, point, &a, and noticed in 
^ ^ ^ilL^22- ^ri»e chief taseeptwM are ayoirdnpois (»T-Cr-dn-poize'), 

-urn 8ea AtflipM 8«-6, 45. 
%a* See SmKoiu 16, 90. 
i^m^e^atetianni also p<^ 438. 


by Google 

zl S<mndi of VoweMigrafkiy Sc {corUimtei), [§ 24. 

choir (tmtre), iot'toim <-iIs); and genenUy in uuuigUciaed Frauii wordt, 
as abattotr (•iror'), ohamocs (fthim-w&' ; ooUoq., shim'-e), ooBnotlnear (-Is- 
ifteiOy derotr (d^y-wor^), tiixqiiotie (-kmiwuf), Vandais (▼o'-di)» ftc'^ 

Oo = 00, the regular aound of tbia digimph, being tlM pore long Towel notioed in 
SecUim 20. The chief €xoef4ion$ are— 

00 3= ^ the short or slopped aoand of this digraph notioed, with examples^ in 
Section 21. 

oo = d, in door (ddre) and floor. 

<x> = <1^ in blood (blftd) and flood. 

Ou = ou or ow, the proper and nuHre usoal soand of this Towel-digraph, being the 
pore diphthong described in 8ecticn$ 2, 23. The eaooeptions, however, are 
nomerons, and follow below nearly in the order of their frequency in 
English words :^ — 

on = tt, in adjoim (-jAm), diofigh (diftf), cloi|^ (hlftf), eofin'tiy, ooltple, cofir'age, 
oefir'teons (aa often heard), oo^tesan, oofir'te^y (poUteness), eofirttf'sj (act 
of salutation), ooto'in (kfts'n), dotfUe, enough' (-nttf '), flotfr'ish, gottr'net^ 
hofisewife (htta'-If ; a needle-eaae), jote'nal, lottr'nalise, jofimey, iotfat, 
motfnch, noft/ish, nofir'itnre, noiirsle, rofigh (rOf), sooArge, sloifgh (slftl ; 
a oast skin)'^, soAgh (sflf), sofith'eiij, sotfthW, softth'i^mid, sofith'ron 
(and other compoonds of souths as heard colloq.), toifch, to^ (tftf), toOm, 
tofim'amenti toAm'ej, tofan'icpiet, tnHO^le, troi^lesome, yo&ig, yofing'ster, 
and a few others ; abo in the nnaooented syllables of English words, and in 
angiidsed fSordgn words geoerally (except ' componnds' which retain the 
soimd of the * primary* ^^, as so'joiJrn, so'jotfmer, bofiigeoise (-joyse') ; and 
in efeiy termination in -oitr and -om^ aa fa'vofir, hon'oftr, o'doftr, fa'nKHfe, 
griiv'ofis, on'erpis^ Jus. 

Lu = ^ or 00, heard in a few pore Bn^ish word% but chiefly in words derived 
from the Frendi, and in French words ^^ generally ; as aocoudiear' (-sb&er'), 
aeeoiieh'ment, accon'tre, aggnmp', amour', bijou' (-zhSo'), Ujotct^'rie, billet- 
doux' (-doo'). Mouse, boudoir' (•dwor'), bou'gie (-she), bouqnet' (-kft'), 
bourse, bouae (bSose), bous'y, cartouch', oontoto^, coupee', ooirpon, coictil 
(•t£le', coUoq.), croup, doueear (•sisr'), douche (d59sh«), fou'mait, go«ge> 
Qouburd', ftmi^mand, gout (mS^; taste, relidi), Lou'is (l5o'-e), loif'Ter, 
Louv'rs, moustache', ou'sel (wi), par'amour, poudiong' (•ahteg'), poudreittf'^ 
ngfi^ <-^'), roi'desvoua (-de-vS5), rouge (iCodie), roufble, tom6 (ro5'-ft}» 
roulean' {-iBf), roulette', roup, route, routine' (-t&ie'), sou, souchong' (ndiOng^^ 
soujee', sous (s5o), souv^nance, souv/nir (-nSre), spcml, stoup, sartout', 
through (thro5), tour, tour'mallne^ toumnre', tous (too), tout (as a Ante or 
horn), larou'badottr, troussean' (-s5'), nnooutii', wound (t., r.; a hnrt, ta 
hnrt, ko.), j&u, j<mr^ youth, youth'fnl, ke, 

6U s 0^ in altboi^' (-th6'), bor'ou^ (bftr'-ro), bM'der, bourne, cAd'ter, ocm"- 
c^rse, e^urse^ effurs'ei^ ctes'ing^ ctftnt, effurt'eous, c^urt'ier, c^urfW, 
o^urt'ahip^ disoffune' (i., «.), dAigh (dO), ddu^'y, f^ur, fMcr'teen, Utn^, 
forlAigh (-IdX gfuid, in'tece^uise, m^uld, mould'y, m^d'er, mfftUt^ 
m^Ving^ m^uld'warp^ mdun, mifnne, ptelt, pM'terer, pful'tice (-tls)» 
pM'tiy, p^ur, reoffurse', resource', shM'der, sm^'der, aiM, s^roe, 
thAi^ (th«), thof'ough (thir'-n>), tr^ and a few otbets. 

ott B &(ii^, in besougjit' (-sfitf), boaght (bfilH), brought, fought, noufl^t, otight, 
sot^ht, thought^ wroMg^t (rfi^), and one or two others. 

ott = d6^ in could (kSM), sh^ld, would. 

i« TWJMf' (for fHTfuote), tod adroif and lu * fomattTn % are regnlar. See the w»rd* 
giTtn in the TeseL in the 'Dtetionary ; %\wo see Section 99. 
M7 Bat not ta «M«|fA (oVro «f slow}, a miry phMe, in wbioh the digraph ia rcgnlar. 

)« Id ISngliph montht. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ov = OK or ow, Uie re^Qlar aod mon xml mmnd oi ibis Towd-digmph, being 
the pan dipktlMag notioed in SeeH<m$ % 2S. Tbe chief exeeptUmi an— 

aiB = fl^ in haUw* (-16% bei*«u/, bl««it» bffio (MoneUiiDg cimred), bWie (-knife), 
'hSvA {/Lf v,\ hSti/^ne, hdv/tpni, on^ flAr, ^dwn, frifv/trf ^iho, 
poK^ tpeihomj grftoth, j^l, knA/7 (ad), knAni, 1^9 (not higb), l^er (to 
bring low), Utfhjudf l^lj. m^ (to eat gms), ndwel, Owe, dtim, Ani'er, 
dv/dfty (?), pr^ (of a ship ; aceor. to K., 8^ ^.), prffid (aoeor. to K^ Nn^ 
P.)y T&w (n line ol penons or things), x6w {v.; as n boat), r^lock, riha'an^ 
HUHvlMadt abdttv d^» d^ly, an^, Sn^dA, s0«7 («l, as seed), sftm, 
atiAo, Btr^fii, thr^, thvffini, t^, tAt/age, t^'aid (od, jm*.), t^aids 
(«io.)y irjhv (tut), tr^u^l, and n few others ; also in the Jhiid unaectaiUed 
t^UahU* o£ words, as bil']^, fell^, scu/r^, will^, win'ddc^&a 

o9 = Sv in knSelfedge (nOl'-4^j), ackn0i£?l'edge, and aeknSt&redgment'^. 

<K<; = oo, in the obsoleta or proTineial words flowk and nowes (n56ae), and tbe 
heraldio word noie'ed. 

py = <B or oy, the diphthong ootioed in SettUmt 2, 22. It is always regnlar in 
Kn^jwfc woidSfc 

Va = wi> as in an'tiqudtedy assudge', gitdlacnni, kng"«dge, persudd^', lic.^ 

«a = wi^ in t'qiUlL^ 

«a = ^ d^ or i» in gudrd (g*drd), guiid'ian, gutentee', piq'nclnt (-ftnt), and one 

na = fi-a, in aot'fidZ, mftt'i^a, Man't^Uf, zesid^Mfa^, and other words of a sinukr 
tion in which it ocean after the aooettt^ and the Towels form 
qrOaUea. They are silent in qmaj (k«; «. i.), Tiet'vol (vlt'l). 

▼id^vols (fWl%\ Tict'iMiller, Tict'iioUin^ ko. In uan'tMO-maker, as heaid 

ceDoq^ iSie • it nsoally sunk, md the « aonnded as brief oo or d6. 
f/cqf = ^ in quay (kS ; v, iu,), 
{7e = w« er we, as in oon'sMtode (-swe-), des'uetnde (-we-), qtutrj (kwC), 

we = w«, inhM^qua (bftngk'-wM), qirifll (kwll), qv^fhch, quern, qti^aloas, qiOfst, 

ifrngatTwa, qiriM'or, con'^qtust^", reqiO'sf , ^us.^ 
t£^ = fl^ when iiud in a word or qrUaUe, and sabject to like dianges after j, i, 

and r, to ^i letter, as noticed in Secttm 18. 
nc =s i^bk gnfcs (gte), guitt, gialr'don, and a few others, where ' the « is mlent^ 

Mad merely nets aa a semle, to preserre tbe g hard'. (Walker.) 
He is sileBt in the teraiinalions -g«e and -qtcc^ as in caf alogice (•%), antiqiee' 

<-tik^ &0. 
Uof fonns two ayUahka in glu^'y, lea 
(^ = wl, as in an"g««Bh (ftng'-gwbh), oolloqtttst» etOkh. caXss^ distin^gietsh, 

eUtiok'pMb, gHtn'iad, lan'V^ lan^gutsh, lin^ginet, pen'gu^n, qietbble, 

qiieek, quilly quiltk quince, qusn'sey, qtttn'tal, qtiJntess'ence, qutp, quit, 

^fthtac, q^ ielin"qiMBh, Tan"q«tMh, and many others of like fonnati(m.>^ 
id ss^wt,m. esUo'qJMal, fro. ; and in ctttrasa (kwe-iis'), evtrassiai', cutsine (-i6ne')y 

pui^iMiiant (««we-), mid many other miang^icised Frendi woids.^ 

»• Hm proaottBdag ef the flrat syUahlB ef thsM words as R is hesri In the Ttrb to ftnoMT 
(aSL U now atanort vkollT coniasd to a mbsU ninori^ of tbe elergy, sad a few pedagogaw 
and ptttenden to dauieal karning, who miftake oTer-dittineuieM of artiealatloa for 
iapr—lffineiii and ekgance. * The Sinaie and the Stop* bold ont inflexibly againtt it ; sad 
the iMliM at iarge ocmtiBue to pronounce, m in the oM Indieroaa liaet— 

* Among the mighty men at kn^^wl^ge. 
That are proicssofi at Orefhtm coHege*. (Wi^cerO 

»> In tfaeee eaice aa, ««,««, «o, kt^ form proper diphthongs, as notle^ In Stetkmi. 
"» O uugmr Is now alwaya proi " ** " '^ .-^ ^ . ,. «_ - 

Bewcver, * analogy andonhtedly i 

ifo, fte.* form proper mpbthongs, as notieni in stettcn 2. 
ironooneed kdngMitr, tbonsb marked -kwAr by Mr Knowlea 
iy demands c5ngk'-ver*. (walker.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

klii Ejffhet of Accent, and iU Ahmnee, on the Vowels. [§Si 

m ±^l,ialeeuiaB('iltU'),d3Mgtam,gMie,f;¥^^ 

whkh the M is maielj ' ferrile , keejung the g hard. 
ui = I, •■ in bvOd (bUd), bttUd'er, bMOd'ing, built, Wesit, di'oitit, con'did 

(kftn'-dlt), guOd, gHlld'er, gvUd'hiai, guillemot^ giillleTBt^ guOH 

(.IfldiO, ridloohML' (-IddiiO, giim'oline, guilt, guXlt'y, gtOm'e^ guiU 

(gB- or gtt-X •nd a few othen, in all of which, where % ooeon after 

or e, its office ia meroly to shew that thcM letten hsfe their hard aonnd. 
ui = % and ml^ect to the nme ohangea aa that letter alter J, I, and r ; a« ! 

htwm (bt^). fanwt (broot), ortnae (kro5i«), friMt^, juice (j'oSat), alin 

(8l*59ai), 8i»t (8au)w pnrmiit', recncit' {-la^i), kc 
Uo := W0, aa in quSriam (kwftre'-), qiu/ta» ({ttote, quota'tion, qMotid'ian, q«</tLei 

idOiqiioa/, ie^ and in monoByll*blea and open aeoented vyllables generally.' 
«o s wA, in qM> (kw0b), qnM, qModHbet, q«^ qvfo'dam, and two or thi 

mo = w«, in the obiolete word a«oth (kwfith).^ 
Uci = woy, aa in qwotf (kwoyf) "*, quoin (kwoyn), quoit (kwoyt)."* 
Coy =3 woy, in huiy fl)woy)."* 
£^ s I, when final in monosyllables and accented ^yUablei, as in buy fbl), gt 

biiy'ing^ hm^^, the only words in which this digraph is so ntoateo. 
«fy = we, as in colloquy (-kwe), obloquy, solil'oquy, snd final nnacoented vyllab 

genarally ; bat not in the 'fonnatbea* of words in which ue final is sUet 

as the ooUoquial adjectiTes plagmr (pUg'-e), rogny (rfig'-e), Ice^ in vhi 

the tt fonns part of the 'simple*]^ 
Tew = Ik or y5o, a diphthongal aonnd heard in yew, yew'en, and yfv'-tree.^ 
Tom =3 fL or yoo^ as in you, youi^ ke?*' 

25* The dteet of accent, and of ita aheenee, on the eoundi of the twipelf, ] 
been alloded to in the preyioos Sectumt?^ The peculiar exertion of the orgi 
of speech necessary to produce accent, haa an obrions tendency to preeerwe 
sounds of the letten under it, whether Towel or consonantal, pure^ disfa'nfft, i 
uniform ; whilst the preparation and attention neoeaaiy to this exertion of 
organs, and the relaxation and feeUeness which succeed it, in most cases, 
naturally cause the sounds immediately preceding and following i1^ to si^er 
length and distinctness, or to sink into others somewhat di£6Brent bat of eat 
ntteranoe than those which th^ replace. These effects and changes occor in 
most marked degree with the vaweU, both * open' and ' stopped*, becMise on th 
depend the caasation and length of syllables, and on them chiefly depends 
concrete moTement of the Toioe through all the yarioua intezrals of pitoh emplo. 
in the emphatic and elegant purposes of speedi. 

When a vowel other than e mote ends an vnaeeented tffUaUe, or when it f oi 
one, it has^ unless otherwise marked, a «mnd relatiTely fainter or obscorer, : 
somewhat ihorter, than in an aooented qrllabl^ or in monosyllables and oerl 
final syllables ending in e mute. Thi$ e^md of a is usually the 'brief Italiai 
(^, heard in ab'cKus, imp&r^otive, iimCr^ioo, pops', &c.^ The correepondmg soi 
of e, % and y, is usually the ' open* or 'alphabetic' e (e), slightly shortened, aj 

i** Bat ia/HtT'fiofi, sad many o 

>M Ufloallj neUed M(r, sad prottotmeed regalarly. See <ML 

>M The MQBd glTen to «0< sad f 

r other wordi, the « end < oeeor fai wparate sjIUblM. 
. . ^rottotmeedregalarly. See <ML 

y* The Mwad ciTen to «0< and uoy in thtee words, li a proper trlpbthonff. See Seeeiiyi 
t, Oatbesooadof ffanduinall the preMdiBgTowel-eombbuitioo8,Me&0«bfwl8&n< 


u* A remark whieh appUai seaeraUy to the 'fSonaatiTea' of wordt ending to m alien 
rojralih (rOf'-lah, from rof««), Im.; bat Mgacry (rOg'-ir-e) is ahrays proooonetd tm i 

*^ur See Av^jom % 14; abo Mfct 81«, 8M, Ac 
Ml On the Naimt ^fAeeeiU, see Section 46. 
>« See a0atioH9 6, 10. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^S.] Jn/lifenoe of Bona preceding Vcwd. zl2i 

cfodfiBOEiA/, fXi&o^ WbuJ, i9tm''gft, fcc. ; Int sooMt^eB, as wHh salistaiitiTM, 
ad^Biifa^ sad adrerlMi ending vith y» this loimd u even reduced to ' brieT e, •■ 
IB bn'ty^ ch^fi, dii^^* bmrd'sf^ freely, fta^** The vmaceaUed o and « hmre gene- 
nif liu^ open, alpbabetie aoimd, full, or neariy fall, when occoiring eiilier 
JMiiiiUlj \ftim or after the aeoenty and in certain final syllables en£ng in e 
■ie,s m(»0p'<%, xDom'porafte, finite, ed'tfeate, lee'tAre, regftiar, &a, bat otherwise 
d^ Aoitaicd and iiamter, like the other Towels ^*i. The diphthongs <n or oy, 
■d M or ow, alao, imder Hke cireamstaiicei^ preserre their charaeteristie soonds, 
ad ti a mmilar de^ee ^ 

3W dm^ rpffprto— to the above sounds of the vnaecented open wnods ooeor 
vok % y (which is merely another form of %), and « : — ^With i and y, when these 
Ifin retain *&« aoimd of the long diphthongal i (I), as in monosyllables ending 
^& % and in the final syllable of ed'ify, pfli'ify, and other Terbs of lil» forma- 
te; in many initial and prepositiTO syllableti^ and some final syllables, when 
'—falilj followed or pireeeded by the aooent, as fdd'a, biqaad'rate, h^pei'bola, 
b^ ke. ; at the end ot ipoids firam the €keek and Latin ; and in some other 
cHv^ : — WHk «, when tins letter follows r, y, or 2 in the same syllable, in whidi 
OSS n otiher whaOy or partially loses its diphthongal character, being reduced to 
5 «r "S, as notked in iSsclira la 

"VIb SB — WOTfpff syfloMs ends in a eoruonantf the vowel which it contains if 
m^ ^m, in general, its regolar short or stopped sound, though somewhat fainter 
lad ksi £afcznet than in an accented syllable, as asmgn', entreat', the'ortst, oon- 
. cafMnay, ke. This tendency to obscurity is greatest in syllables occurring 
' the seeent, and pnrtienhffiy in final ones ; bat» except with o in the cases 
17, sad with «^ s, o, y, in tiie final and relatiTely unstopped 
, md yr, and in a few othen indicated in the ' notation *, or 
ts iDsdo' the respectiTe Towels, this soand should nerer be allowed, 
i]^ to detgenerate into that of ti in tub, or even into one doeely 

in this DietUnusrjf which hare, or which may have, this 
. ^ fte ^nnaceentad Towelii^ particularly with o or a before r^, are 
fcnesdff idrasd^ by figures, to this SteUcn?'^ 

2ik Stf mtdifyinff imfmen/u of r on a preceding vowel has been alluded to 
^"itn qwai i^i^ dE tibe leqpectlYe Towels, in the pneeding Seeiiont, The general 
cfat if ttii Jsttsr on ittd Towels requires^ howerer, a separate notice: — 

b iLfcit e to the long or opei» «oise2f^ it must be obserred, that 'the Towel 
mmk in kse, wmen, ire, ore, cure, poor, our, are so modified by the guttural 

let ar, «r. tr, wr. or, vr, and crea re, 
tm SberMan, Knowlet, and Walker, 
and we think eorreotlVi a oontrarr 
Um esentiom notioea ia the TWrf, 
)aiid of Q, each Towel prcMrring, to 
neatly oheeored or ilurred In utter- 

r anything more disthignishet aper- 
on of the unaccented TOweU. when 
of the people In the Metropolia. with 
er; but the "unaceentcdToweu" in 
pedflo aoond, while the lotttr often 
) aoond. Those, therefore, who wi»h 
to the vnacemUd voveh : as a neat 
I of apeaking V (Walker.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xliT Influence of Ron VbweU — Use of Apostrophe, [§ 2^ 

Tibr»timi in wbich they terminate, as to be diphtbongal* (but not dissyllabic) 'in tbel 
effect on the ear* ; and this ' not only where the sound -was preriondy diphthongal 
bat where it was simple. The remark is practically important, because it ma; 
prevent a prorineial pronunciation of the rowels we hear in the first syllable o 
Tory (Tftre'-e), serious (sfire'-e^^), wtry (wlre'^), porous (piJw'-ils), curat 
^kQr«'-ftt«), and the Kke ; which are wrongly \ though usually rHferred in diction 
aries, * to the same mode of pronunciation as the first syllables of va'cant, se'crel 
wily, cu'bic, Icc'^ In the words containing r, abore given, and in all simila 
woids when easily and degantly pronounced, the Towel is not merely lengthens 
and modified as noticed, but unites itself to the r in utterance, in the mann^ 
indicated in the parenthMis following each of the words given as examples. 

Of voweU, ordinarily riiort by position, occurring brfore r final, it must b 
obeerred, that — 

a. When, in an €icoeHted tyllabU, a vcwel occurs before r final, and the fdlowin 
syllable commences with a vowel, or with another r, so that ending the one spoke 
f^llable the r also begins the next^ the vowel is ' shortened* or ' stopped ' by the i 
as completely as by any other consonant, and, under like conditions, preserve 
this * short* or 'stopped* sound pure, as in &^id, mSx^ry, bfr'yl, pIr'U, fifr^r 
•splr'it, mlr'ror, fljfr'id, siJr'row, cihr'rier, hftr^ricane, Ijfr'io, &c ; ^t not in starr 

<st£r'-e), torr'y (smeared with tar), ending, stuping, otar^ish, concicrr'ing, or oth< 
like * formativee* from words in -r, which follow thcSr * primitives * in pronunciatio] 
as noticed below.^* 

b. When, in an aecmUd syUabU, in mono^yUabUs, and often in niMeoetde 
itjUahUs immediately preceding tiie accent^ a vowel ooenzs before r final, or b«fo] 
V followed by another oonsonaat, or even wnder the aeomt before rr in ' foomi 
tives* fron 'primitives* ending in r, the vowel, though otherwise short by pontioi 
and often marked as abort, is not identical with Uie corresponding letter In a 
men, p»t» cot, hut, &c, but is relatively ' unstopped ', and has a longer, and with 
and 0, a broader sound, caused by the palatal or guttural vibration of the r, int 
which the vowel runs, as heard in bar, fca>, oart» parity, her, berth, mei'cy, per^M 
cute, vir'tue, chord, mor'tal, or'der, poform', fitr, curb^ disturb', myrrh, myr'tli 
proferr^ing, inducing, whin'ing, lEo. ; in which it may be observed, that the i 
before ' r* is identical with the * Italian a* (£, sometimes, in unaoe. syL, shortene 
to ^, whilst the o before 'r*, is identi«d with the 'broad* or 'German a 
<i, 0^, or)^**. This effect of the r on the vowels, however, ceases the momen 
that r becomes a 'decided consonant*, which occurs under the conditions notice 
in the preeeding paragraph ^ ; and it is, for the most party «ther wholly lost c 
obacured in the final unaooented ayUftbles of worda^ as explained in the previov 

27. ^^ peculiar slight sound, as of a funt or partially suppressed e^ indl 
cated in the 'notation* of this XHctionary by (' ) written before tiie foUowii 
vowel, occurs after 9* and { before the sound of oo, as in Jew (fS^), jury (f^dr^-^ 
luU (TSote), lurid (l*oor'-Id), poUuUcn (-rSo'-ahftn), jcc^ ; bcbre d (d^), er, an 
I, when preceded by k, ore or ^ hard, as in card (k*Ard), guard (g'M), gi^ 
(g*«rl), hind (k*Ind), Ac.''*; after e and a sounded as sh or xh, as in $ocu 

MT Mr Snart ; sUghUy modifl^d by the sdditioa of the * noUtkm ', Ac 

M Bee Seetiotu 9, 10, 19, Ifi, 17, 19, 84, 4bc^ and ptfticularly JfoUM 19, 30, 41, 44-d, & 

M»UBd«rlb«ae*olreQ«MtftiNesJI«MlrtBiiotatftad0i2eon«Niant\ (Sowrt.) 
no < Tlie dMbreaoM' between the rmlsriy ttopped vowels and «r, er, tr, er, ur, * eees 
the BBooeot the letter r beeonea a decided oonsonant '. (Smart.) 
m See the SeetkmM e-Si, M, Ae., tod their ITetei. 
i» See teetion 18. 
!•* See Setiiime % 7, 13, 14, ftc 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

VaSj fFriOen QuwmcaitM, thoir Sound*, Acc%d$HtSy dh.—B-^. xlr 

wlwa itnffnB a aisiilar cbaage of sound, «• ia ta'tiaU (-vfa'&U), 9iov»<Mi<e (-rbh'- 
'It^; and aooMtimes after tke Mnnd of ^ aoft^ and (me or tvo othor ooaaeiuuito 
^^ liDBow«d l^ Towels, as in bludgeon (-j'ftn), i^Tciier (-j'«r), ammdn'ia (-fdh 

Tlub alii|^ aoBAd, as of a faint or balf-mppreesed e, is not always mariLsd 'in 
th« ' QotaiioB ' oi the words in wbick it oocurs ; bot only in some of tbem, to 
tkn .as fjaapl e s of the rest As, howBTer, it is orsaaically, and almoet of 
aaeesstj inseried in a clear, wsj, and elegant proaunoiation of all wocda of the 
dMBei zeiiened to^ the ^leaker has only to be oarefal to avoid giviag it too mooh 
distaetoeH^ or, bj ex ag yeratio n, to allow a grace of elocatioA to degenerate into 
ildgKntj or affbctatioD.^'* 

& apo ahropke (' ) is also sometimes used in the * notation' of words, to ahew 
that l(K n after a sni^iressed e, still forma a separate, though an obscnre vjUahle, 
as in sporUa^ (spdrV-l-Ing), deadening (d«d'-'n-Xng), 4a, which ara often 
iaconectly mfcteced in only two ^llables by careless speakers.'^ 


Of the CmtaemtjvU of the common alphabet, thoae which are (except in intensity) 
nifbnn im thtir soond under all the conditions arising from Uie position of the 
aoecnt and oomhination with other letters, do not require a particalar notice here. 
!Aoee wbidi aie otherwise cizonmstanoed, t(>gether with the leading cwuonantal 
't of the spoiim language, are briefly noticed in the following pages' i — 


(See page SS, and SectioM % 5, 45, &c.*) 

28. C has two sonnds— the one, hardf like it, when it oecors before a, o, and «, 
as in eot^ eocd, ewrd, scot ; or before I or r, or X; or t final, as ia cloth, ciaft^ crack, 

i» See Sedwm 13, 15, IA, 28, 85-6, &e. 

»*lbeTiekMs ezagRention of this faint sonnd (*) haA been alrtsdj bii«fly referred to in 
]«««1e«» BMtmm; Afl^eted rp^akert often intattitiite 6 for (*), and ioy kS-Ind, ff6-lde, &e., 
Ibr k'M, gaide te'ldtf), fte., an error not anfkwiaently perpetrated on the stage. Rigidlf 
■ylin^, cMi MMM Mrand after Ar, and g and c hard, belongs to the contonant, and not to the 
Towclf tkt f^ is this tmti being *tbe proper sonnd of the Sanscrit palatal ^', a separato 

, ateordlag^to Mr Elild, *now eallied >'. The tame alio applien to A, and to e aoonded 
as ki aad, probably, to other eases. This toond oeoors tn French, * where it is represented by 
fm or mm*. (Ellis.) 

i^ Ime applicAtions of the apoctrophe, of oonrse, do not interfere with its common uses in 
pWKtnatiaa, or to shew the omiaelon of a letter, or other part of a word, or as a sign of 
the genitive CMe. 

^ For litU and an mutltftit of the Ooitkmanttt both * spoken ' and * written ', see Stetiont 1. 
X ii and on their Orgama formation^ see mge xiz, and the respeetive letters and digraphs 
la tMr alphabetioal places in the body of the Di^Howtry. For the * powen ' of tarioos com- 
tiaatiaaa and ftroapa of letters whieh are irrcfrular or uncertain in sound, or whiob do not 
I in qteesh and writing, when not notised. under their UMdmg UtUr or Mlera below, 

~i 3 softer flh or before f, in the same syllable, is nsnally silent;, as Jiotloed iaSecHm 45. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xlvi TFritten Gontonantt, Ikeir SomuU, Sc. {c&nliiMud)---G-^H, [§ 29. 

tract ; and when it ends a lyllaUe or word, as in rie^tun, flac'eid, froFie, nni'sitf, 
traff 'ie, fra' : — the other, $oft^ like $, when it eomes before e (eren if mate), i, or jr, 
as in od], ciVil, ^prea^ seep'trc, sd'enotf, face, yue, tranod^ &c^ In many wor<k^ 
as eau'ctat, ooncW, dr'eaity oertifieate, &o^both these sounds of e ooeor. 

YHien 6* comes after the accent, either primary or secondary, and is followed by 
c or «, and another Towel or Towels, it takes the sonnd of sh, and nsnally with 
more or leas absorption of the e or « in ntteianoe ; as in o'cean (-sh'ftn), eeWceons 
^sh'iis), so'cial (-sh'il), gra'cioos (-sh'fts), fsscia'tion (fiUdi-e-), negoda'ticB 
(-she-&'-), Ie& The diief eote^ptioru are confined to cases in which the ce or c» 
precedes a combination baring the sound of i^ when, in order to prereoi aa 
unpleasant or difficult liqMitition of the aspirate, the c may retain its usual soft 
sound, as it always does, according to polite usage, in certain words, as d0preda'tie& 
(-se4l'-sh4n ; not -she-ft'-), proauncia'tlon (-se-ft'-), jcc' When, however, the ce 
or a is aspirated in this position, the Towel either retains its usual sound (e), or is 
more freely giren than if indicated by (' ), as may be seen in the abore examples.* 

is silent in czar, <sarina» csarish, csarowits, &e. ; also bef (oe I in the words 
Tictuals (f,), victual (v.), indict (•dite'), and their ' formatives' ; and after » in the 
termination -sde, as u:l)U8cle, cor^pusde, musde, && In discern', discem'ing, 
diseem'ment, &g^ sacrifice (v.), sice, and suffice' (as often heard), it has the sound 


29. ^Che regular iovmd of this digraph in EngUtk wordM, and -v^ch it is 
always used to ezparess in the ' notatiim * of tiiis JHcUonaryy is that <d Uk, tm 
heard in cAeap (tsh<pe), eac4 ($ctsh), c&uro^ (tshttrtahX rie^ (iltdi), HxJ 

Oh is hoard, or has the sound otk,in. words from the Latin, Gredc, and Hetesw, 
and their cognate languages, in scientific terms formed from them, and in Latinised 
words generally, as in ache (ik^), tichoty acftromat'ic (&k-)» An'arcAy, anc^'or 
(ftngk'-), ancA'oret^ arcAa'al (-kS'-), arc^ed'ogy, arc^'ic (-kft'-), ardUpel'ago, 
ar'c^ives, ar'c^n, cac&ec'tic, caucheixfj, catecAeo'tic, cat'ecUse (-kbs), cat'ec^isniy 
cat'ecAist^ catecAu'men (-ku'-), cAahsed'ony (kil-s6d'-), c&alcog'raphy, C%alda'ic, 
e&alfVeate (kH-), cAamSreon, cAam'omile, cAa'os, cAaot'ic, cAiur'acter (k^-), 
cAaraoterise, cAaracteris'tic, cAar'ta*, c&asm (kftcm), cAem'ist (kim'-) or cA^m'ist, 
cAem'ical or cAj^m'ical, OAer'sonese, cAimdr'a (ke-), cAirog'raphy (kl-), cAirop'odist, 
cAiru]<gery, cAirur^gical, cAi'tine, cAoir Hcwfrc^ dlol'agogue (kdl'-), cAorer, cAol'era, 
cAd'eric, cAondrd'cgL c&ord, cAordec^ (-dd ), cAore'a, cMre^. dWister (k^-), 
cAorog'raphy, cAdr'us (kijre'-), cAyls, cAyuM, cocAleary (Wk'-), cocVleate, conc^ 
(kdngk), con'^cAoid, conc/bid'al, concAorogy) dis'ticA (-tik), diacA'ma, eccAymo'sis 

s On the orihopraphy of the * formatives' of aneh wordi, wnt Section SU 

* ScM/He (8k«pr-)f tct^HcoL aeeprUeiim, teir'rkm (aklr'-}, jcir'rAMM, scirros'iiy. &o^ are 
exoepttont. Dr Johnson qMUi tcepfic with k, insteaa of ; bat this orthography hM never 
obtained credit among reipeetable writers. In other eases in which c eomes between « and m 
or t, in the same syllaUe, it may be regarded either ass^ or muU. 

s Sheridan and Walker aspirate the c in all, or nearly all the words alladed to as exeeptiotu; 
Smart does the same in many of them ; Knowles in none of them ; of each of which examples 
will be fbond in the body of this Dietitmary. See Seotioiu 85, 36. 

« Cal'oeated, and a few other words accented oa the first syllable, are now also nsuaUy^ 
heard with th^ ce or oi pore. JBn^cia, caFeiuMt and sereral other Latin or Latinised sdentifie 
words, are Areqnently prononnoed both ways ; bat generally with the c as sh, unless otherwise 
marked in the Diotiman/, 

1 For the sound of the in oe and ei, in Italian worA, see Section 99. 

< Mr Walker states that ch soonda * like «A after < or n, as in heleh, benehf ftlch, &e., pro^ 
ttonnced bOtA, bdn<^ fOsA, Ao.' ; bat this Is a licence bow only tolerated in familiar diseoaree^ 
and is partiealarly avoided by all correct and elegant speakers. Mr Smart, the 'Editor of 
* WaUttr SewtodeUei\ and the chief living exponent of Mr Walker's principles, prononnoea 
these, and all similar words, b«ltch (<. #.. blltsh), b&it6h, f ntch, Ac. See Section 9. 

* Bat in chart, chapter , ^iarf alary, the ch is usually, and correctly, sonnded as tch. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 99.] JVriOm OonmmtmU, dc (cow limud) OB, xlfii 

(&-•-), tarmMJke, edU'nna, eeko (dV-o), edU>m'etz7, ei/odk (-dk), ep'odU (-kZO, 
^'Bvdl, eo'niidhAte, head'adk^ hem isticA^ kere'siareA, M'azareA, hi'enffcAy, iekneu'- 
mm (Kk-nft'-), icAiiQ^nipfay, TcAor (-k0r), i'e&oroiii, IdkthWr^hy, idUhyorogy, 
ITcien^, lodti'a (kf-X sAdk'iMte (mik'-^ midUiia'tionU, mart'tid^ medUn'io 
(-kte'-)» »edhiB^ieaI» aAdbaif'ouui (m<k-), mftcA'aniim, mte^'aaist^ num'arcAy 
BOB'trcAy, nunardk'iaJ, xscn'ostUA) oreWtra (-kit'-}, or^cAcstav, or'dUstral, 
■dUdaTeeoai^ oare^d'ms, pflrai'^e^yma ^rfing'-ke-), pen'tateodl (-tOk^), BcAeme 
(ikiBu), MAe'ii% a^etfio, uekb^AojiB, tcAWma (ikl^-), KiAol'ar, BcAoWtio, aeho^A, 
stOB^adk (-1^), stomadi'io (•mftk'-)^, tee&'nktl (Uk"-), tee&'nioi, tacAnoirgiod, 
tedboTogj, tnd^% tnd^fomy, trocU'ie (-k&'-), trodbn'tar, tro'dU, tro'eh«<, 
tnrdia» trodbifio^ trSdk'ilu, trde&Oea, troehlmrj, tn/eAoid, and many others; 
aad 9BB0ni^ in aU wordi and <y22a&<e8 in whieh mUUU eh ia followed by 2 or r, as 
tUaPlae, CuuSA, dkromat'i^ oatadbre'si% eAronoTogj, cAij^alia^ kc ; and in all 
icMwf proper mmu$ and ocfMefMWf formed from them, as ArcAune'dea (-ke-m^- 
&^ aidUmedto'an, Ba"nid^ frnocA, Ite.; alao in theCU^ word locA (lOk), and a 
ipw vofda fkma the ArMe and Ccpkc 

The dht^ampCMmt to the preceding Rida are areA (aee 5e2ow}, arcAed, areA'er, 
srcA'ery, dUk'xty, cAnTitable, eA«]/nbu, dUr'nbim, cAenliio (die-ifRT-), and 
Sa'dkely idnA he^ perftotly ang^died, haTe the cA as in Bngliflh wordi (teA). 

In refanenee to euA (pfz), aigi^fjing ' ohief *, it maj be remarked, that when it 
oeenn brfore a v&wtl, in words from the Oruk, the cA has the aoond of k, as in 
anoAfto'gd (^bk-), areAiepis'copa], aroA'itect» fcc. ; bat when it is prefixed to a mere 
EngUA word beginwiag wiUi a eonsonan^ it has the sonnd of teA (ch), as in 
ardUnsh'opii ■rciAdcafeon (-dA'kn), aroAdnk/, ftc ; a soond which it also aometimea 
hsBn in oumpomda ot onr own, eren before words beginning with a Towel, as 
srcA-eo'eBy (Artch-), arcA-fiend, arcA-rogne, &c 

€^ k mflf like «A> in many words adopted or derived from the French, or 
ieeeiv«d thrcnii^ tiisct language, thong^ now folly incorporated with onr own, a« 
eapvdbin' (-^bte/), eartoocA' (-tooBh"), cAagreoi' (shaP), cAagrin' (-grtnO, cAaise 
(Aias)j dilsm'eb (riOkm'-), CAampign/, cAampAign^, eAam'perty, cAampignon 
l^^fia)^ cAsBoe (atiing^-)* c^^mot, «Aateaa' (-tc/), cAef, cAef-d'oraVre, cAemis/ 
{'WiBm^ dnemSaM, eAeroot', cAfivafiSi^, eAer'roii, cAeVrotain, eAiean/, cAioin'ery, 
dlijflbBi^, dUrsfrie, cAiValrons, cAiValry, macAintf' ^shfoe'), macAin'al {-shfin^'-), 
macAm'er, madUn'ery, madlin'ing ((l, i.), nadiinist'^, mar'dUonesB (-ehtln-), 
maof^idU (oidi'-diil) or ma/6eAal, and many others. The ehief taaotptUnu occnr 
In woods whidi, ihoogh reeeiTed through the French, are primarily derifed from 
tibe learned langnagei^ and in whidi Uie dk is hence preserred hard (A) by the 

Ti«nli llmwiliia'* 

Ck ia aUaU in dracAm^, sdked'ule (s8d'-), sdUsm (sbm), seAismat'io, sdlis'- 
Bsatiae, jadbi (ydtX yacAt'ing, and, perhaps, one or two others. Oitrick has the di 
ae in Bnglish words (teA), though marked os'tolj by Mr Walker, and often heard so 

WTkH as a Latia, boCaatoal, or mediesl word ; but nteh'-te, as an English word dtnoting 
*^lBiiaBtf awfli*, sad in other oommon applleatlons. So also of ndbeino, UM'eoIn;, and 
BalWMg*iaphj, whSah always prssenra ttie oA hard, whan aaed as aoiaiiUfle terms. 

II Bat BOC in smmAwm' (-sofiAi')> nor its direst 'formatiTea' smmAAmZ, fiuMMiMr, macMMij, 
— > **Ma<^ whlA-hara ths eh lika «A, on aseoant of their haTing been reeeiTed by os throagti 

» Bat not ia afoi^acAir (-eh^. 

9 Bat Chentb^ a dty of Babylonia, ia regular, being pr o noaaeed kS'-rfib. 

i« Bat aot in wtaehtnaU (mik'-), and its •forsMttTea', on aoeonat of Its dlreet deriTation 
taathaLatin. SeeJIToCail. 

* Bsfina ^ff^— p»ff of the kind refsRed to» win be found in the lAH of words with M bar^ 
ilna la tho M T^ ^ jwg parasraph* 

m^^UU^MBtS^JrHSfM (drSk^; tf. m;). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xlyiil WrUten Consotumts, timr Sounds, dtc. {c<mthiued)-^D — F-^. [^ 30. 


(^page 180, and SecHant 19, 45, &c^^ 


(See page 210, and Sectiom 2, 5, 45, &c^ 


30. has two Boondfl — ^the one, mmpU and hard, and which thia lefeter 
always expresses in the ' notation * of this Dictionary, heard when it oconra before 
o", 0, u, h (jg^^), I (gl-), or r (gr-), as in pame, go, gun, gJiQ^ glorj, prandenr, 
▼al'^ar, Ti^oor ; and at the end of words, and in the * common formatiyes * of soch. 
woitls (even though the ^ be doobled, and followed by e, i, or y), as in baor, frogr, 
^gg, TBgg'^, twiy^en, dicing, dru^jst^ slupsr'isb, cngf^j, iog^j, &c.":— the 
other, compound and 90ft, like i, which (subject to the exception$ below) it gener- 
ally bears before e, i, and y, as in ^m (j$m), ^'nios, ^'ant^ B'^ypt (-jlpt), d'^^y, 
Ovp'vj, conceal' ('}^), chanoe^ (chinjc), iftn^^ ayei^ (-T&ij'), &a*^ 

The exceptions to the sofi sound of g before e, i, and y, occur chiefly in words 
from the Saxon, in HArew proper names", in some words adopted or derired 
from the German, and in a reiy few scientific terms from the Greek which have, as 
yet, escaped the general rule, though liable to its application. Thus, the ^ is hard 
in an"^r, be^t', bepin', b^inn'er, be^rinn'ing, be^^', hegirif, biggr'in, oon"geir, 
dagg^er, doggred, do^er, dogf/erel, do^erman, defers, drug/et^ it^'ger, Ca'jrer- 
ness, El^in, f oi^t', foijret'ful, for^yg', for^Wness, foij^Ving, flfear, gFeck, geese^ 
geeat, ^henn'a, ^Id {s^ v.), jreld'ing, geii (prL), flreld'er-roee, ge'nh, gei, peVgaw 
i^')* gey'eei (g^f -), ^ib, ^ib'-caf, gihhe, giWer, ^bb'erish, ^bble-j^bble, ^bboBc", 

uia iwo or uu-eo omera. ur waucer extenas hub iieeneo to au r 
* after the accent, either primarT or seoondary, and is foUowed by io, 
H * where it is a diphthong' (t.0., a): as in grandeur, verdur*^ « 
marks grfta'-t^* ▼ir'-^rtf, M-ia-lai'-«hfln, &c., instead of grfind'-] 

17 When 2> follows the aecent, it is apt to slide Into the sound of j ; as in lOI'dier (-JOr), 
and two or three others. Mr Walker extends this lieenee to aU words in which d occurs 

ndanr, and is foUowed by io, f>, io, or «o«', and even 
•dvcation, ftc, which he 
I'-yflr, T«rd'-ar«, dd-a-k&'- 
ahan, &o. Hds proaaneiaUon Mr Walker calls * elegant ' ; but the vitiation of the li, in such 
cases, is now carelkilly avoided by all oorreet and unaffected speakers. 

u In o/the < f has the sound of v ; but when this preposition Is final in compounds, aa in 
hsreof, thereof, whereof ^ the / remains sharp or pure. PTk is a common equivalent of this 
letter, as heard in j»Aantom, philosophy, &o. 

^ Oool (Jftl«)t ftnd its * compounds', are the only exeeption*. 

» This * hard sound ' may be regarded as the natural sound of the * alphabetic g ', and la so 
called by Latham and others. 

When gg ooeors before «, and la so idtuated that WxeJUret g ends a syllable, and the seotmd ^ 
hegint one, the /orm«r usually takes the sound of d^ or is altogether dropped, whilst the UUer 
is soft and regular, as in sne^t {tAA-i^isIC), exagperate (<^-V-^r-ate), 4o. This change ia 
necessary to render the woroTor combination pronounceable. 

tt In the last three words, and in others of the same orthography, the first element of the 
soft g (i. e., the d of the dih)^ is less strongly marked in utterance, than in its other combina- 
tions; and is hence, often wholly sunk by careless, illiterate, and feeble speakers, whe say 
atrftosAe^ dte., for strftn/s or strambAe, Sec. 

s> As Ot'htX (g6'- ; not JS'-), (7ethsem'ane (-ft-ne), (Tld'eon, k^ But G^eu'esia (|te'-). 
^Ten'tiltfs, &ef falcon or ^j^r'falcon, ^idr'-Cagle, and GorViM* haTe the « soft, like/. Betkma§e 
also, (irom being received through the Greek of the New Testament, has the ^ soft, bSth -pft-Je ; 
oftMi incorrectly pronounced by the unlettered in two svllables, bdth'-p&g«. Otne^areth, for 
a like reason, is also sometimes heard with the g soft ; but is now very seldom ao pronounced 
by classical speakers. 

« Oib'-ttafis heard both ways ; but usually with the g soft. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

\ 31.] WriUm OotntoncmU^ <te. (continued) — K xlix 

rigsfle, ^g'let, yild, yild'er, ^'ing^ pill 
m*htiiMf ^m'Uet or gim'Ui, 0>mm pW- 
0» ^«i tf^id), pird'ed, gitiv, girdfU^ 
th, ^ve^ jjriss'Ardy ^l/-tan (brew. ; diit), 
T (mlg. for negro), nog^en (o.), noggin 
t), pett'ifog^er, pift/ery, pig^r'iii, rigger 
lagfli'er (jx)t), •tag^f'er (t>.), ttagsr^en (».), 
)9eth'er, togj^el (naal), togpf'eiy, triggf'tr 

_ ,, r *foniuiiTet' and ' oomponndB'" ; to 

whkh mmj be added the 'fonnatiTes' of cdl iroids ending wiih g hurd, as noticed 
in a prerioiiB paxagraph. 

In a/ew wrde adopted from tbe French, the a before e and i, retaina ita Gallio 
aooad of dk ; as in bon'^e (-ab^X min^ (-r^bfa^, roo^ (r53ib<), kc 
The powen of the ooneonant'^MmbinationB gh, ght, gm. and gn, are noticed in 
' -' r 46, W. 

3L This letter is generally etmnded at the heginmng of ifonb and t^UMee, as 
in Aal^ AoEae, AnO, fSre'Aead, perAaps", Te'Aemen^ &c. The exeeptione in Bnglish 
an iew, and easi^ remembered. 

It waajmrnerlf aiwaja W M ff e d in — 

Aeix^ Aox^eai^ 

Aerb^ Awfaa'ceons, Aerb'age, AerVal, (f) 

AoD'eet^ Aonesty, 

Aoaoar, Aon'oorahle^ 

Aon'oraxy (!),» 


AoaUer (te'-Ur), 

AoVy AoQiiy, 


Aombles (uiera-. orthog. of umblei), Aom'ble-pie, 

Asmonx^ An'monmsy Aa'moriit^ Aa'monome, Aa'moial, (?) 
vitli their 'fnnatiTeB' and 'compoonds'. At p r eem U it is nsnal to j>retWTe the 
A in ' hespital*, and in *herb' and its formatiTes and compounds; and many 
eBeM qpnkets do the nme in honairarg, humUe, humour, humoriet, humoroue, 
hmmarwomef ke,, a practice which seems to be daily increasing in preraleDoe. As, 
howefo^ nsage is not strict or uniform in respect to those of the words in above 
ImI wfaidi are followed by a ' note of interrogation ', they are still heard both ways, 
efon anoog the educated.^ 

^is always eilent after r (rh- or -rh), as in r/tap'sody (rip'-), rAet'oric, rAeu'- 
iMftHA, catarrA', myrrA, &c ; and after g (gh-) at the beginning of a word or 
qrDahk^ as in gAoat^ g^ast'ly : also when final and preceded by a rowel, as in aA 1, 

m A follows w {wh'), it is sounded' hrfore that letter, as in «^t (hwOt), 
(hwftre), «Aile (hwfle), &c The only exeeptione are irho (hSo), i:;hom 

(jTres), from Its OelUe offlgla, ought to hsTs the f hard, and It so marked by 

» on; a SMMVc b Tfgular 00). 

*6m« (jTTes),from Ito OelOe orl,^. __^ , _ 

Itovfae,8eoU, sad Sheridan; bat aaage hat decided othenriM. 

'V^BM la ko m e r ae 'i mm the A li alwa jt loanded. 

'Mr Smart mtftratte the A la herb (and ite * formatiTes '), hwfiiat, end humor (hnmoar) ; 
. NMSlB >— IS M (tarn or temper of mind), and its * formatites*. Dr Webster retains the 
AmiMpaiai^ Asiflcr, AumMs, and humour, with their ' foraaaTSs ', whilit Mr Walker marks 
ttaaaOentte all the words ooDtained In the aboreXM. Ben Jonson omitted the A in Aesf. 

• Bee AmKsii 4S ; also ilTete 39 (below). 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1 TFrittm Coruoncmts, dftc {<miimscfy~^^K'-L^M^N--Ng. [§ 32, 

(hSom), K?ho» (h85»), loAde (hSle), wAok'aale, wAoU'gome, «(7*ooViib (ha8V-), 
loAoop (a8 oommoiiJIy heud), iokooi, iohon, wiih their ' formatiyei *, &a, in whioh 
tiie tp is ■ileiit.'* 


33. ThiB letter has one miifbrm Bonnd, that of dMhy aa heard inieat (dabMi), 
/odge, jom^nQT, &a ; ^rfaich aoond it is always used to express in the 'notation* of 
this JHetUmary, It is thus equiralent to 9oft g; and only differs from that 
letter in retaining its sound nnahered before aU the yowels. In halleln'/ah (now 
gen. wr. hdUdwiah) it has the sound of y or t*^. 


(Seepage 839, and SeetUmt 28, 46, &&») 


(See page 848, and SecUoiu 7, 8, 10, Ice.**) 


(See page 372, and SectioM 2, 6, 45, fee") 


(See |>a^ 417, and iSsctions 2, 5, 45, &c**) 


(See iSsctums 2, 5, 45, &o.) 

K oooon m ue nuaaie oi ironu wier uie sooenu uuierv noi oiuj omic a wnc 
mmmM, bat aspirate it where it ihoald be sflent, and eren inteit it in woi 
does not oeenr. The improper omlieion and insertion of the A, is in the 1 
Tolgsr; snd * trifling as It i^pears at first eight, tends greatly to weaken a 

9 Many persons omit the aspirate at the beginning of words, and more pertieolarly when 
It oooort in the middle of woroa after the aooent. Others not aalj omit A wlkere it ihoold be 

~ 1 words in whioh it 

B hifbest degree 

w , - ^ , ^ . I and imporeriak 

the pTonnnoiation, as well as, sometimes, to oonfoond words of rery dliliBrent meaning'. 

•0 See SecUom 3, 0, 99. 

a> It is always silent before a, as in teell, teifi, fto. 

■ X is often silent before a final consonant. particQlarly m. and sometimes befbre this letter 
eren when it oommenoes the following syllable, as in ahMnd (oA'-mfind). It also often. 
l en g thens, and eren changes the <iasli^ of the vowel, as in oa^ calm, toU, fto.; as noticed 
in tbe prerioos $$etkmM, 

*> m the obsolete orthographies eompt, aeeomptf e(mgirolf cotntroUtr (obs. eso. as sppUed 
to a pnblio oiBoer or soperTlsor), Ac, the sip sounds like n. Jfis also silent before^ mltial 
or finaL See Station 4s. 

M J\r final, after I or m in the msm syllable, is silent, as in kibi, hymn, eondemn, aolenm, 
Ad.; bat it ia always sounded in those oompoonds in which the m or » ocoors in ssMrate 
syllables, as eondemwa'tion (-dfim-nt'-), oondem'natory, hym'nic, dec It is also osaal^ pr»> 
serred ia lim'iiing («.); snd in iolemm difoowrss, by some speakers in the jv and jy. of th« 
verbs condtmn^ ooaUmn, hffnrn, and one or two others. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ 3a-5.] fFrittm Consonants, <lte, (continueet)—P'~'Q^B^, li 


(See jM^ 456, and SecUam 2, ff, 45, fto.*) 


33. This letter baa the aonnd of l, and only oooan belore u, tiie (xnnhination 
Itariagi in English vordfl, the aouid of ibp; aainoua«k(kwik),9iie«B,9Han'tity, Ite. 

In words imm the French, the u after q, in the aame qikUe, m gpainJQj 
aksl, and, with the ^ is alwaja io in the freqoent termination -jwe^ as in antiove 
(-liks), 1»^<^ ^"^*^' che3'«€r {^), oon^jtier (k«ng'-k«r)« oblique (-»:*7«^, 


34. This letter has two sounds— the one, tiiUed and strong onksonantal, heard' 
st the beginning of words and ^llahle% as in rose, pnde, trffl, spray, destroy, 
ko. : — the oAsty siAOother and deeper, hot kn Tibratoiy and daoided, hcMffd at the- 
end of words aoid ^IkUes, or helore a final letter, as in bar, bare^ matter, eard, 
fwarmydarlun, regard, Ice* 

£ is nevBr sOent ; bnt its sound is sometimes tnuuposed, u in a'orf (ft'-k#r)^r 
een'tff^ tlire, maaS'aore^, mfia'gre^, the'atn^ sep'nlidirfl^ Acl, and all words ending 
in -re afto- a oonsonant in the same syllable, and nnaeeented. Also in the word 
irot^ (f-ttxn) and its oomponnds^ ; and in the coUoqmal pronnneiation of c^pron 
(-pftm), and safrom {-ta)^. 

The ^eet of the letter r on a preceding vcwd, vowel^Ugrapky or dipM4mgf is 
notaoed in Section 26, and under tiie indiyidoal Toweb. 


35. The letter s has two sonnds— the one, aAorp and kissing, whioh may be 
regarded as its proper and peooliar sound, heard in saint^ send, thii^ sif'ter, ^pmi : 

** p it tOtmt beiore «, «A, and LaX the beginnliiff of irord^ as In .paalm (aoJbn), osaltff, 
pan'd»-k jMhaw (I), jrtar'migan, Ptd'emy, &o. It It tUmt, or but rery faintly heard, when 
eworrlag Between m and < at the end of a word or syllable, as in tempt, attemjff , exempt. 

tiflA (euept in formal disooarae), per'eBBptory. prosip'titiidSb fte.; bat it is generally 
' Itt tbifl pesition whenever the t goes to the loUowing syllable, uA in thr * "" 

, ^ the middle of 

It can be nttered withont any particular effort of the orsans of speech, as in 

t, asBomp'tiTe, preenmj/tloD, somp'tnoos, Ac. CblhqulaUff the p is often, or 

vsoally omitted in words of this elass; but this ihoald be aToided in formal 

Pie deomnte in riM/berry (ris'-), reedpt, semp'ster, semp'streis, semptressy, aooomp( 
fsee Wste SS). and the Fir. word corps (k6r«) : and in a few others. In onp'board (kfib'-tird) 
tteoaliaessimk, and assumes the sonnd of the following consonant See irbte 18 (antd), and 

*> Bat'not In vmquut (kdng'-kwSst), which Is regular. 

sr Bnt not fat <Mquttif (-idP-wlt^). 

w Quo(f, quern, ^pnit,JiM,r9 the fn as kw, tl|ongb often heard eonoquiaUT with It as simple 
km Tile irons fiwi i a , qiiofable, quota' tion, are also regular ; the pronunolatton kOt«, kota'tion, 
te. Js now oiaiolsle or Tnlgar. 

<^Qn the natore of these sounds and the distinction between them, see Section 2, and 

'^Xhe trsssposltkm is necesrary in these words to keep the c and g hard. Mtager tat 
*wmssgf'i tiieash often met with, is hence objectionable. 

A Bat not in Jr on u (r-r&n-e), which has a difliBrent deriyation. 

escttiWB, di&'dMrn, and hon'dttrd, for cifron (-ran), dxil'dran, and hun'drsd, though 
hy Mr Walker, colloquially, are now Tulgarisms. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ Writtm ContoncMiUSf th&ir Sotmdsy <&c, {contiamed) — S, [§ 35. 

— the €iher,Jlat and buzzing (= 2), heard in hi< (hiz), wat, desir^ (-ilr^^, wi/dom, 
Ac It alBO, in certain podtiona» passes into the sound of sA or zA, as noticed 

8 has alvfavi its sharp tound at the beginning cf words, as in tiie above 
examples ; and when it immediately follows a * sharp consonant' in the same 
syllable, as in scoffs, block*, hipt^ pit«, cap'fule, tip'ay, trick'^, kc^ or when it ia 
added to e mnte crfier any of these letters, as strife flak^ pi^P^ mitef, &c. ; alao^ 
generally, when it immediateli/ foUows a *flat consonant' or a * liquid' if not m 
the same syllable, as in subsenri', subtid^', aVsplute, &c^ It is also shcu^ when 
douhled and fined in words, aa guesi, hist, kiM, anuM', or {excntt before % or e or 
• followed hj another vowel) when it is dovUed in the middle of words, as in 
diJs'onant, difsuad^ (-swftde'), lesa^m, xnitt'ile, paM^ive, progrest'iye, ke,*^; alao 
.^except in vfherecu, •&e', which follows its 'simple') when single at the md of 
aU words of two or more spUdbles, if it be preceded by any vowel but e, and at 
the same time occurs in a distinct syllable, as Atla«, ba'si^ bi'aa, cha'o<^ chSi<u<, 
Cfpnxs, mctrop'olit, &c; and in the words thi«, thus, u«, ga«, yei, though 
monos^bles. It is also sharp (except in cleanse and its * formatires') in woi^ 
ending in -se preceded by I, n, or r, as puke, dense, sense, transe (for trance), 
intense', Terse, ad'vene, ko, ; and (exc^ in wise, wise, o^Aef^ise, -g'Ize, these, 
those) aiways in adjectives, and generally in substantives of this tennination, when 
it is preceded by a vowel, aa in base, obese, dose, arenose', verbose', looae, 
abstruse', difiuie', reduse', abuse' (s.), crease, grouse, house, &c ; also incept in 
^Useem 9sid its ' fbrmatives') in all words in which s occun beiore c, aa 
descend' (-aSnd'), emas'culatet, fres'co, nai'cent (nfta'-fint), os'dllate, Ice. 

8 is siMfp in the ' inseparable preposition' dis- when under the accent, either 

'iprimary or secondary, as diss'olute, disabil'ity, disagree', fca^; and when unac- 

oented, if the following syllable be accented, and begins with a sharp consonant, 

^ai in discred'it, disfa'vonr, dispense', distaste', &c ; also always in the * inseparable 

prepcMution' mis-, as mis'creaut, misapply', misuse' {s^ v,), miigov'em, kc 

It is also generally sharp after the * inseparable prepositions' pre- and pro-, and 
is always so after pre- and re- when the ' added woid' is significant by itsd^ or 
when ike s after re- is followed by a ' sharp' consonant, as in presuppose', pne- 
eormise', resign' (to sign again^, research' (s., v.), respect', restrict', &c 

It is also generally sharp in the 'terminations' -sary, -sery, -sory, -sive, 'Sffme; 
and often so in other combinations at the end of words, as noticed in Stx^wn 45. 

Svisoft ot fiat, like z, when it immediately follows a *flat consonant' at the 
end of a syllable, either in spelling or utterance, as heads (hfidz), ribs, stags, 
cat'alogues (-ISgz) ; when it is final after a ' liquid', as in mdr'als, seems, meant, 
hers ; and when it precedes a ' liquid' or a ' flat consonant*, as in cosmet'io (kfe-), 
desmol'ogy, dis'mal, pis'mire, chasm, prism, mi'crocosm ^kdzm), par'oxj^sm, wist'- 
dom, preside' ^, jnes'ident (pr^-), &e., sometimes even if a vowel intervenes, and 
particuiariy if the s occurs between two vowels, as in besom (b5'-sftm), na'sal, 
desire', desTr'ous, &c ^ ; also {except in this, thus, us, gas, yes, hebae noticed), when 
it is single and final in moTiosyllables, as his (hIz), was, trees, eyes flze), ki, and 
when it forms an additional syllable with e before it, in the plurals of substantwes, 

« Alio refer to SeeHons 9. $; vadpaaes 614, 650, 900, ftc. 

M Abioivet and Us formaaves, which have tbe « flat, are the chief txentions, 

tf JSxmpt in tUsBoht and possess^ with their * compounds' , dessert, huMsar, hussy , sdssorWt 
rtsdufory, mi$atl (mlzl), miM^eWViM, tnit^eitoe (for * mistletoe'), and, perhaps, two or three 
others, in which the sis flat, Ukes. - / r r-. 

^ The ^ in 4itfwtul is not a * preposition', and therefore, does not come under the BuU, 

*i But not in rssigH (to gire up) ; nor in retound (to echo, &c). 

« Preside yrmsfonneHy pronounced with the • sharp, and is so marked by Walker ; resit 
always has the • flat, aeeordiar to the Bule, 

<* l)etipn and desist have the • sharp; resist, like reside, owing to the tendency of f«-» 
noticed in the Ttzt, presenres the s flat, and is regular. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

S 35.] WrUUn Ckmtonanii, Sc (corUmuid^^, liii' 

aad tin tkirdpenon nngnUnr of ver&«, whether the ' finguUr' and * fint penont' 
hsv* the 9 ikarp or iiot» •■ in aWet, box'e*, cig'et, honf'et, pieef (prW-te)* 
pa^es» fcCL** ; and in all jphuraU and the vt^UetUmt of vtrU in wliieh the tingrdar 
emit in a iwwef, or in a vowel followed by e mote, w, or y, aa conun'ai, op'erai, 
aToet (-^Su), duet, shoes (ihSoi), newt, riewt, rayt, mjM, hetraja', ko. ; idao coa- 
Bonly wheal oecnrring between a vowel or diphthong (particnlariy s e, on, Ik), and 
wmte e final, espedally at the end of varftt, to diatingniah them from mfaatantiTea 
and adjeetiTes of correqMnding forma, aa greaM ig^M ; v.)* '^ (rts<)i premla/, 
dflK,roae (&), hoiue (howu ; v.), raonae, aboj^, amnae', difftue', penut', vm (v.), fto. 

5 Is /at, like s, in the * inseparable i»epooition* dU- when it is not wider the 
oeeait, and the foUowmg tylkile having the aoeent begins with or consists of a 
^vewd% a ^Uqud', or a *iat consonant' ; as in diia'ble (dlx-)*i, diseastf" (dli-te^'), 
disoc^do', disOwn', dUlih^, dialodge', diama/, diamem'ber, dioiaf ftralise, diarerisb, 
diiiDbe', diaband', diadam', diagraee', diifal'na, &c^ 

8 has also (snbjeci to the exceptione noticed above) almost ahrajs the sound cf> 
s after the 'pr^mition* or prroositiTe aylhible re-, particolarly when fdlowed by 
a Towd ; as in reaem'ble (-sCm •), reaent' (-a^nt'), reaerre', reaign' (to giro or yield 
up, to snbmit)*, reaiFieaoe^ rea'in (rte'-), reaoWe' (to analyse, to soIto, to dnr ct 
doabt)^, reaimnd' (to echo, to eelebrate)**, leauH', reanme', reanmp^tion, &o. It is 
9oftf aeorading to the Bute (see above), in »(unif -Mm, -oeai, -yan; and also, some- 
tinie^ in other * tenninations' ^. 

S before e or t and another vowel or vowels, and before u, assomes the sonnd of 
' j&' when it foUowt the accent, either primary or secondaiy, and is preceded by a 
' fiqnid' (v another i, and usually, as with c, with more or less, or often entire 
abaoiptioa ol the e or « in utterance, as in naoaea'tion (-she-ft'-), nan'aeate (-sh'tta), 
nan'seons (-di^lks), erooraion (-sbtia), dimen'aion, rever'aion, paa"aion (pAsh'-ftn)^, 
sua^sion (midi'-ltai)'', sen'aore (-sh^SSr), sen'aual (-sh'oo-U), prea"aare (prteh'-fUre), 

Sy when preceded by an accented vowel or vowel-digraph, and followed by e or i 
and €BwOier vowel or Towels, or bv «, assumes the sonnd of * xh\ as in eva'aioa 
(•shfin), eobe'aioB, ded^aion (-dzh'-lin), intru'aion (-ihfin), viaion (vlsh'-ftn), 
ie^vrine (Ish'-fi-), mSaa'nre (mfoV-), plSa/nre (pl^'-), trtaa'are, vl'^sual (vlzh'«), 
n'aiiiy (-A*o5r-e)*', n'aOrer, &c" 

8 has the soimd of a4 in the words aure (sh'oor) and aigar (8hd6g^-&r), and their 
' fbffinaiivea* and * compoonds' aarely, aore'ty, aaaure' (cl-sh'oor'), aa^anoe, inaore', 
iasOr^anee^ enfftjj (shA^-), aag'ar-cane, fte^ tbongh under the aooeat** 

* See fftethftu IS. 94; and their NoUs, 

B Bai te ijMAint^ the t is tbarp, being under the aeeondsry aoeent 8o of ditunU^, and 

any odMr wfsdt (8m tekiw.) 

« Mr Vattar atUs Si$m$§; bat b«e, •« weU m in diMnM/brm, dimmiU, dimmity, and 
ffmmiiu^ aatet to the peeoliar nature of 0, the « is now always fretenred iherp by poUta 
peahen, aad ts eorrectty lo marked by Mr Smart. 

'B B«i BOS !■ fwAm, reaoiwrf, neokn (to aign, aonnd, or aolve again), &0., aa before noticed. 

** 3e» JMiba 4>. 


** 'Ihongh the aa fai ^oaa^M, auiaion, fte., belong to arparate' (written) 'ivllablee, yet the 

. ^ ^j^ H^^ ^^^ j^^ ^1^ ^^^ aspiration as the last, and they are both pronounced 

I nowMpirated hiaa aa if they werebnt one a*. (Walker.) 

a*See4MaimM3,28, S6,fte.; also Abtea a7-8 (below). 
** Bat Boc in mminu (-aOr^-), tta^ owlnir to the inflneaee of the aeoent. 
"* ^'aJa (•ili'4), aMyn/aio, wuipt^tianf m<tgtuf$umt, and a few other words, have the a 
"*■ ■ * -' ' and * sharp ', tboagh, aceordlng to analogy, it shoold be flat. Art^tian (-sh'ta). 

- jmgame^tian, wumeem^timm, Ae., are regular, but are nearly aa often heard with the a flat 
and anaapiratad; One, Ar-tSs/-yin, mAog-gA-n«z«'*yia, fte. See Seetim 38, and NoU 99 

* Theoe worda may be regarded aa irregalar ; bat this irregalarity being sanctioned by 
MIf naoge, baa now beeome a * part and parcel' of our language, aa far aa these words only 
aae eaaeemed. Mr Sheridan, from inattention to analogy, feU into the important error of 
as|> alliig tlie a in the words suieide (sh5&'-), presmno (-thoSm'), resume, Ac., but, lortu- 
aaMly, without imitators beyond the ranks of the illiterate and affected, (v. sn.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

lir fTrUtm (h7i$(mmt9, iheir 8<mndif Sc. ((mH^^ [§36. 

8 18 lUeni in aule Qle\ iAd, iiluid (f •), demetne' (-iii6ii«0> pnuno (pft'-neX 
i/oount (tIj) ; and at tne end of Freof ' * 

Ti/oonnt (tIM ; and at tae end of Freneh wordi generally, af ooipt (k6i»)y pti 


(See Sectiont % 5, 85 ; also jpa^e 650.) 

36. The usual and proper sound of this letter is that heard jn fttke, lale, maL 
Sampler, &a, being the tkarp articulation d which c2 is the corresponding 'flat* 

2*, before i and cmotJUr vowel or Towels, when it foUowi the accent either 
primavy or seeondaiy, and is not immediately preceded by «*^, like e and i in the 
SMoa poiiftion, beoomes aspirated, and anumes the sound of «)l, as in nego'^able 
(•^*ftU), neg</tia*e (-sh'ftif), pa'Cient (-sh'fint), pa'Cience (-shfins^), propr<iate 
(•pUh'-e-&t0), sa'tiate (-uVhie)^, pioprtious (-pW-'ils), nn/tion (-shttn), negoda'- 
tbn (-8he-&'-ehibi)«*, salm'tion, satia'fion (-she-ft'-ahtln), &o.^ 

T is mlmU in ohesteut (chte'-), Ohzistaias (kztt'-), Aosder (ds'-), mis'eietoe 
(mlil-to), mortlgage (mer'-), and ostler ; and, coUoqnially, in bankrapl'cj, cur'ranf^ 
oor'nnli, and a few others ; also after $ when followed by e mute and n final, or 
l^ ^ er 4e final with the e mute, as in chiston (chfts'n), fasten (ftfl'n), castle 
(eisi), neade (nM), thisde (AM), throsde (SDi6e% rusile (riisi}, whisile (hwls'l), 
^^ ; and in often (5f n), soften ^f n), and their * formatiTes*.*" 

It is also iUmif when initial before «» or c^ in ebssical proper nanua*, and 
abnost always so at the end of Prench words*^. 

A See SeoHan 99, ftc 

*t When the t ispreoedad by m tooentsd, it retidns its own soond pore, as In besAtl (bMf- 
VU), oatosrial, Ghiisrian (taMT-yia), digesllan (-j«sr-yltB). raesllon, &o. So tbo in 
^ftnnatiyM', wUA in all oust follow their 'limplM^ ; u pifiM (pltf-ls), ptTied (-U), from 
jpiey ; twen'OsOi (-te-fith), from twmUifi m^hHer, from «^M^; Ae. See 8t$ti<mt 14, Ht 
Ao. ; also JToU 64 (below). 

« Bnt aaK'ety, snd all other words in whiah U JB nnder the aceent. p retMTe the < pure. The 

jne applies to c and s in ce. d, ie, ti, &o., when simihffly dreosMtenoed. 

* In mis word, and in a Um similar ones, in which two aqfeates would oeenr, some polite 
speakers merely soften the first t into s, without aspirating it : bat this is mnah lass fraqnent]^ 
doM with t than with c, or even «, when rfsailariy attnitao, althoagfa the praadaa haa the 
aaaatloa of Mr Knowlaa and a law other writera. SaHaihm ia alwaya heard with both ff s 
aspirated, on aooonnt of the preceding «. See 8$eii<m 28. tew 

M Mr walker aoonda the I as tab (L e., eh), in natm^ (n&'-abOra), poitera^ wirtm, and other 
like words in whioh tu oooors after the aooent— a practice wbich be alao extanded to U and 
U in certain words, ss pifeom (itftah'-e-fia), JintriUmr. etlmfOaL admia^tion, Ac; bat this 
pnmunoiation|tiioagh atill fkvqaantly heard amooff o rmma rp apeakera (who, in>b«r oaaea out 
of yiM, follow walker, right or wrong), is scnvakmaly avoided by the edooated and pdite. 
Mr Sberldan extended tbia cMng of tu STan to worda In whioh theae lettera oecor in i 

nUablaa and J^der the aaaeiit, aa Jn {■■•^_^tef%_Aa.,^ which he groncmiaad ttAoon 0. e^ 

chOtef), teAocTtar, Ae.; alao to te and M: barbariama of nonanaiation which 
ganaraL and whica haTs now loa« aiace fulen into entire cUsoss. 

« B^ not in putU (p^s^)> nor in the obMlate wscda hmrtffm and htwBftmmi, 

* On thsss tm mimmioM, see StcHtm 48. 

•r But in claaaloal and gaogrspbical words, the t before 1 being pronounceable, is always 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 37-&] Writtem OoiuommU, Se. (oMiMmMl)— 2\ It 


Tbu dign^ lias two dutinefc elementaiy aoimdii — ^the one, Han or thorp, heard 
in 'fting^ l^dSik, tiieakre, breath, &c., and represented in the ' notation' of thia 
Liditmary by lii ; the other JUU and trnd v ocal, heard in the*, tbin«, heatben, 
&CL, and jcpicaon ted by the phono^npe t3i^. 

In mik'mB, (JUif-ni), phMia'ie (tb'.), pht&ia'ical^, Thamn (tftns), 7%omaa 
(tfim'-ia), tkjmB, and perhi^ one or two othera, and in aU the continental 
Baxopean laognagei except Greek, it ia pronounced aa aimple 1 In tw8]ft4'tide*'^ 
ai hflfod cdUo^niaQy, it ia naoally ailent. 

37. 2% 18 aAorp (» &) at the hegkmmg of woida, om^ in than, that» tbe, 
ttee, ttfiir, Oban, tten, tfienoe, there, tteee, they, thine, thia, thither, thoae, 
IhoB, thongli, thna, thy, and their ' componnda' : alao at the end ci worda, aaKcpl 
in booth, moatti (o.), patii («. — 1)^^, imooth (cl, a, vX aooth (<l, a. ; pleaainfe 
ddi^thl; sweetneaa, lindnesa)^, witii'*, wreath («.)'*, the old orthonphiea 
eKMh («), ISaflk (v.)f ad*^ («•)> nncldath' («.)", and two or three othera.^^ 

J% m also naoally aharp in the m id t Ue of worda when it either preoedea or 
follows a conacmant, or precedes w, aa in a&wart\ eth'nioal, or'thodoz, panther, 
philan'thropy, &&, bat not in In^th'ren, bnrth'en, far'ther, far^thing, fiu^thingale, 
farther, noi'therly, noi'them, northing, wor'thy, and a few others, in irhioh it ia 
flat; and generally {except in words pu«iy Bn^^ish^^) when it ooeui between two 
Towdb, paxtLcnlarly in words from the learned languages, as am'ethfst, an^'a&y, 
sff'alhy, apolh'eeaiy, a'tfaeist, A&'ens, aaliien'tio, an'thor, anthor ity, caliai'iie^ 
calh'Qfic^ eUer^ ethlca, lel^'azgy, Lethe, leth^an, lavi'athan, mathanafifl^ 
BMftti^ed, pa&et^io^ pleth'oza» idethAi'ie, sjfm'patiiy, he. 

3& Th, between two vowels, in words jpure^ EngUthj ia generally a^ (= tii), 
aa in fa'ttier, ei'lher (e'-), fSath'er, gathV, hSa'then (hfi'-thn), hilh'er, mothW, 
mofli'eiy, norther (nS^), poth'er, thitfa'er (thItii'-)> t(^;eth'er, wfcih'eiv wett'ar, 
whett'er (hwfifli'-), whitfa'er (hwith'-), witii'er, and then < fonnativeB', fte.^ ; and 
at the cHd of words, particularly yerbs, when followed hy e mute, as in breattM^ 
dolhc, sheafte, ha ; and in booth (s.), montii {vX smooth {cl, a, v.), sooth (in 
cartain aenaes), with ^when not compounded and final), wreatii (v.), and a lew 
othcn notioed in Sedton 87, thongh without the final e ; also in the plurala of 
aoBia worda baring final tk * sharp' in the aingolar, particalarly after the Italian 
a (^ aa batib (baths), paAs, ho.'^ 

A is also $o)i, thou^ initial, in than, that, the, and the other words enumer- 
ated at tiie commencement of Section 37 (q. t.). 

pore, by osrefel ipsaken, fai ^tkUe (thf-) ; often, 
I, u maned by Smart tad 'Walker, 
ea, a deeldad Tnlgarism. 

Uke tba tabBtaiitlTe, with the th ahtrp, but frequently 
■o marked by Webatar. Its third paraon aiagnlar ii, 
t, Uka the plural of tha subatantlTa* 
truth, fkith. Sec), uaually haa the tA aharp. As a vtrb^ 
Id, and foUowa tha general ruU, (See below.) 
»tha<A aharp. 

Murd with the iS both Sharp and flat, but now mora 
ie& with tha flat eft by K., Sh., Wa., and We. 

OD, in other olaaaea of words, aae Seetkm Zl (aboTe). 
often heard ooUoquiaUy otharwfae. 

B th aharp, though often I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

hi Written OoMonmtt, dte. {con^mOy-V—W—X. [§ 38^ 40, 


ifi^pagt 842, and SeciMM 2, ^P) 


39. TT, al the hegvMwng of a «M>r(2 or iyUaibUy or after an initial conaoBant, im 
commonly, and, parhapi, oonremenily regarded tm a comuommit^ thoa^ in reali^ s 
* vowel', eqnlTaknt to dS or 9S, from which it diffon merely in its written ibni» 
as alieady noticed, and aa heard in tca'ter (d6&'-tdr), win (^In), bewars' (-^dire^t 
siooon (8d655n), swung (sd6ting), kaP 

W, when mUial £a a word or syllable, before r (wr-) is always tUent^ as in 
lOTap (rip), lOTodc, i^nrong, MOrf (i-xl^, &c ; and when oocnrring before h (wh-) 
it changes plaees with that letter, as in wkj (hwf), when (hwfin), wAich (hwHeb)^ 
kc^ It is 9iUni in the words an'su^er (ftn'-sSr), si^rd (sOoni)^, to'ioard or 
to'ioards (od, jdt.^*, and Uoo (to5). 

IF, when medtal or jinat, is dther $UeiUt though generally significant, aa in 
draw, law, fi^^w, grihcm, knOw, kc ; or, like «, it forms a diplrthong with thA 
previoos Towel, aa in new (nft), how, town, tow'el, &c.^ 


40. The regular sonnd of this letter (= ks)^ is that which it always bears at 
the end of wordi, as in box, mix, Tex, p^lex ; and when it end$ a tyUable with 
either the primary or secondary accent on it, as in eo/crdse, ea^cellence, exhibl^tion, 
and even when the accent is on the foUowmg syllable, provided this b(^;ins with a 
'^consonant', as in excuse', eorpense', exten'sive, fca ; also, irrespective of accent or 
position, in compounds of which the ' ample* ends in x sharp, as fixa'tion, proo?- 
im'ity, vexa'tious, &c^; but, under other conditions, it is subject to similar 
changes from position as the other consonants, passing into the fiat sound gzot z, 
and, in some cases, its second element becomes aspirated, as noticed below. 

X, in the inseparable preposition ex-, has \\Afiat or wft sound (= gz) when not 
under the aeeent, either primary or secondary, and the following syUable having 
the accent, begins with any vowel except long u (a), or with A, as in anxi'ety 
(ftng-il'-), exalt' (Cgs-awlf), exam'ple ftgs-), exist' («gs-lst'), uxOr'ions (tig-a5r«'-), 
exhibit (agz-hYb'-), eadium^' (egz-hfUnr), &c^ ; also, though wnder the accent, in 

^ *If ever »Uent, It to in the word tKelvewMnih\ whloh, *in coUoqoUl pronunciation*, is 
pronounoed * aa if written tw£l'mftnth'. ( Walker. ) 

f See jHv« 864; also Stctiona 8, 6, with their Ifotei. 

•0 For the exeeptwrn, tee Stetion tl. 

n Dr Webster retains the to in this word; but this to en Amerioanlsm. 

n In t&ward (a.), to'wardij/t to'wardUnsst, and Ufv!ardne$9t the to U now always preserved 
by careful speakers. Mr Smart omiu the w in toward and iowards, whether used as a, ad^ 

a See Seetuma 8, 11, 16, 18. 23-4, &e. 

S4 Usually called * sAarv x '. 

u DomVof^^ a « simple^ in Englinh, thongfa in reality sn angUoised Oreek compound, exhlbito 
the same tendeney, and with doxolif'ffical^ doxoVogiu, Ac, preserve the x sharp. So also of 
several other words. 

M Lvxnr'iant (lag-sOre'-e-Ant), luxt^iats. and huttb^iouB, with their * formatives', now 
always have the x toft ; whilst in luafury (loks'-a-), owing to the influence of the accent, it 
to as constantly preserved sAonv, and sometimes, but on/y coUomUaUy. pronounced l(lk'« 
»h'dd-re (-S.) or ItUc'-eha-ro (— Wa.). Mr Sheridan's * notation' lflg-zM6^-re-ftat, lOg-sAA' 
re- as, dte., U contrary to both analogy and polite usage. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ 41-4.] Written ComonemU, Sc (eontinued)^Y^Z—Zh, Ml 

%ymjhw ' compo nn da* from words in whieh the x is wtft, as ex'emplsiy (Igs'-tai-), 
and its ' fonDatires'.^ 

The aeeond element of x, like aimple ''a ' when it followa the accent and pre- 
cedes eitlier e or s and anotlier rowel, aaaamea the aonnd of ik, and under precisely 
iiaiilar eonditionB to those which affect that letter, as in an^onons (ing'-sh'Os)^ 
an^aoasly^ ftc"; also, sometimes, before u when it follows the accent, aa in the 
eoDoqiiial prcmondation of Ina/nry (l&k'-sh*oo-), already referred to.* 

At the heginmng of words x hasUie sound of i, as in aean'thic (z&n'-), JTen'ophon, 

U b geoeraUy sileBt at the end of French words, bat fteavs*^ (pL), is prononnced 

4L llus letter when miiial in words and syllables, as in yam, yes, jroongf 
Tlii^nrd, A&, is eommonly, and perhaps conveniently, regarded as a * consonant \ 
thoodi in tetiafy a TOwel or semi-consonant Yowel, eqaiTsIent to i or e, from which 
it diien mere^ in its written form '^. 

4SL T, when wtedial in a syllable, has eiaeUy the sane sound as % would haTt 
in the saae ritoation, as in bye (bl), r%me {time), t^yme, am'ethjtat (-thIstX 
m|l^tle^ paneglhr^c, pj^amid, sjte'tax, §p%'tem, keJ^ 

43. T, when/noJ^ in monoeyilaUes^ and in syllaUes under the aceentf whether 
primary or seeondsry, has exactly the sound of long t (I), as in by (bl), bu^^, cxy, 
try, cyder, mul'tzply, oe'eupy, reply, if^niiit, trying, fro. ; but when Jknal and 
wtaceinted in a word or syllable {except in the cases noticed above and below), has 
tShnjn the sound of eitber the * alphabetic' or * brief' e^ as in cop'y (-e), du'ty 
(M\ tuk'eg, liVerty, quality, ran'ity, fta 

T, preceded by /, at the end of verbs, is uniformly loTtg^ as in defy' (-f fy, 
]ui^^, qualify, && ; and {except before the accent, as in substantives in -a'tion); 
^s long sound is retained in the * formatives* even when y is changed into t, as 
in WtiffaUe, qualified, ftc. 

The 'qaantHy' of y at the end of a syllable immediately preceding the accent, is 
subjeeft to the ssme variety and uncertunty as that of i when similarly situated, 
and must be settled in a similar manner.^ 


4i^ £% exeept in the cases noticed below, has one uniform sound, as heard in 
aeal, sooe^ busz^ mase, frGe'en, fcc 

IVhea this letter comes after the accent, either primary or secondary, and is 
IbHowed by e or « and another vowel, or l^ 11, it assumes the sound of s^ as heard 
in ^'ner (-sh^fir), gra'rier (-sh'Sr), a'^srore (&zh'-ilre), &c^ 


(See Sections 2, 5, 44 ; also jxi^ 900.) 

9 These sie Ihso^ words in whieh x, under the aoeent, has unifonnly its eoft sound. 

*B But act ia oiuf dy, on aocoont of the dlflBerent position of the aoeent. See Stetion 9S. 


«> * Oftn' (~-f soawtlBiea) <aud better written beau»\ (Walker.) 

nsSeSMlJMiS; aIaojHi^896. 

» Th ^ee last two wordi sound alihe. See SiettorM 18, S4. 

*■ 0es AmImnm 14-5. 49. 

•• See SeetioHi 28, 85-«, 99, Ac 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

hiU [§45. 


45. The foUowing Table of * lAUral equiivaUnU\ with ike aooompaiiTUig NoUt, 
ctmiBiBM, in a oondensed fonn, mQch mefol infbnnation in additioa to or in 
extonsion of the prerioiu SeeUoiu, and will fnznish, in many instanoea, a key to 
the pronimcli^on of whole dance of worda, and obviate the neoeanfy of xeferenoe 
to i£em indlTidoaHy in the Dictionary^ : — 

H-. See SeetUm 14. 

•Ne = bl or Vl, aa in tJlU (kV), blAm'ftftZe, del'i>ble, ioefhU, isndHbU, el'igX&2e, 

nsttbUj doii&'^ &c ; and whdn thia tennination ia pieoeded by any nnao- 

eented yowel ^xoept v), the Towel ia either ' abort ' or 'brief *, aa may be 

Been in the above ezamplea. 
-(e = t^ aa in de&e (d6t), deft^or, redon5f , &c ; and in the word aodfle (atttl), and 

ita * fonnativea % though the lettera apparently occur in aeparate ayOaUea*. 
-ee- (after the ace^t). ESee Section 28. 
"Cde = aila, aa in bron^dioo^ v&r'iooo?;^ and other like pathological and medioal 

isk (^ daasioal and acuentific worda). See SeetUxu 29, 99. 
dU-. See Seetum, 14. 
•ehre = kfir. See -r«. 
-ci- (after the aooent). See Section 28. 
-c% => -a'-It-e, aa in ver&"aty (-ite'-), pablT'oty (-lU'-), kc 

[^ I » .k% aa in ^IdU (f Ikl), mir'ftcif (-ikl), frc See 4e (bdow). 

€0^, eony-f con-, eor-. See SecUon 17. 

-ere. See -re, 

'Ction = -V-ahihi, aa in connec'fion.' 

'dge s= j, aa in l^edge, &c 

Si-, See Section 14. 

dU'. See Section 35. 

-«d s dd, in a'ged^ awn'ej (oolloq., a^nd), barVee^ belov^eii (see "Mei^ bebw), 
ohnbVed^ crabb'ee^ cragg'ee^ orook'ec^ crotoh'«i (colloq., krOtcht), cmtoh'ei^ 
eorVed (oolloq., cttrbd ; hav. a. onrb), coap'ed (do.), dea^ced (leas prop., 
dd&atl, dogg'et^ embOu/ec^ fleah'eii (more na., flteht), f orkfed (oolloq^ foikt), 
gnari'ec^ hagg^xi (oolloq. or ynlg:, hftgd), hflir'ed (more na., and ahrays 
ooUoq., hfterd), hawk'ei (crooked, &a), hefan'ei (heuneted), h^a^ed (heiXK 
aged, &c^, hook'eci^ hom'ed^ hnmp'ea (oolloq., hiimpt), bnak'ei (oolloq^ 
hftakt—K., We.; hav. L), jagg'ee^ legg^ei (colloq., \ji^\ V^'ed (oolloq., 
I5bd), loVei (l&Vfid— pulpit oral ; otherw., Itlvd), mBi^ea (coUoq.. mftnd ; 
hav. a m.), na'kecZ, neck'ed (colloq., nfikt : need ch. in comp.), nerr ed (bar. 
n.), nick'^ (colloq., nlkt; hav. nicka), now'ed (noo'-; knotted— her.), 
orVei (colloq., orbd), pAl'eti (her.), pall'id (her.), paroh'ed (but cmly in, 
fonnal diacoorae; otherw., p&rcht), pawned (more na, pfipm; hav. p.), 
-pfak'ed (coUoq., pdekt; hav. a p. or peaka), penn'ed (^nme4 winged)^ 
piek'efi (pointed), pik^ec^ pik'eet (more nai, p!kt), ragged, xng^edf acabbVd, 

1 The KoU 11^, pa^e zzxtL alio, for thejmoft part, appUea to the following lUli and ZiMc. 
The Utter will be found highly serrioeable to stodents, and partteolarly to foreignera itodylner 

s But not in nit^file, suVtUiw, fto., irhkh alwaya preMrve the » in nttaranoe. See JTote 


See -Mom (infra) ; aUo Section 86. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 45.3 TahU of^IAientlSfiMiodlaUs* (continued). lix 

Btng^ed, scnbb'ed (aerabbj), Bbagsftd (tluiggy), tmMofed (oolloq^ mlgd— 
E, We.), stiff-neok'ed (pvlidt acat ; t. so.), tfXk!id (oolloq., ra£kt ; bar. •.— 
bot), sieU'cd (stony), rtrWed (ooUoq., iMiigd— K^ Wa., We.), tMh'ed, 
^•i (m tbe 6ffe), tiil'ai (ooUoq., tidd), trW«i (ooQoq., titol), tiuk'ed, 
vnk'tfci; T6im'i(2 {hsr. t^ ^--bot), w&Vttf (or wftTd), weU-beloT'tfei (pulpit 
Qxak ; T. SB.}, iddt'tfd^ 'ving'ecf (hay. w.), wietdi'ed^ sdn'eci, and in most 
o&er 'a4b*eai»VM* de^yed from '8al)Btaativet*^; alao in tlis ^vetbal 
adjec^na^ Ueau'ee^ con'ed^ dam'nMJ (-ndd ; a., <.), hjBi'n«< (in fonnal 
diacxraxve ; pp^ a,\ ttazn'etf, mftim'ed (in formal diaooarse), pertnrb'ac^ and 
impotarVttl^ Tdl ed (when emphatio), and a Urn others ; and in all ^pn- 
ieriie$\ *participlei*, and ^participial adfeetivei^ when -ed is pnoeded by 
i2 or i; as ba&iAnd'ad^ mbided, -pcanifedf spoti/ed, fto, and all these retain 
tlie -ul entire in their ' oommim formatiTeB', bat not in other oamponnda^ 
as nolioed in Section 18. 

^ s d or t^ m tH pnteritee, pairticiplet, and partieipial adQcetwee (subject only 
to tiie taxtptume noticed aboye), the t being suppressed, and the a changed 
to t, when neceomy for union with the pireoeding consonant in ntteranoe, 
as explained in Se^on IS. 

-«i s fl, when imaooented and final, in aU words except the following — barbW 
(fawbU be'tst (-tl), bey's; (ooUoq. ; otherw., beVil), bes'sL ehaU'sI, chis'e^ 
(efaWl ; ynlg., to cheat"), dras'e^ drif'e^ eas'e^ (Ssl), groy'd; ha'xd; mange^ 
iKux'uiy manff^ mant'dpiece» mispidc'e^ nuss'd (misl), miss^eZ-bird, 
aiss'sld&M^ isMetUie (mistletoe), mxxaa'd (mtbl), naVeZ^ noos'eZ (niixl ; for 
mmaU\ waid (for noedtV ons'd (oisa), raVd, riVeZ, eooVd (skftVl), shek'd, 
dioy'si (shftrl), ahoy'dard (a bird), shoVsfler (da), shiiVd, sniVsZ, swin'^geZ, 
swiy'sL tass'st (bnt onhr so ooUeq. or ynlg.), teas'eZ (tSsl), togg'st, toa's£2 
(tow^il), tresi's^ nnrar<2^ weaW (we'd), wisy's^ yf^td, and, perh&pe, 
three or fimr othen coQoqmally.* 

<em s 8n, in wodKoi (-in), worn m (wim'-), flan'nd, ^e» or m^'rea^ sall'e»> war'- 
ren, and (with the exccptiofi of a few ' yerbals ' ; see below) in aU other 
words in which it is nnaooented, and follows a 'liqoid ' ; alao in some worda 
floaAronr to the general Bule, whm it is not preceded by a liqnid, as as'pm 
(-ffin), boon'dm (a. ; colloq., bown'dn — S., We.), ehiek'en, hv'phen^ kitch'en^ 
Istfea (0QD04., l&fn), ISaVm (colloq., IfiVn— Ki, We.), Lent^m (—8. ; more 
OEy ana always ooUoq^ Ifint'n; v. i.), mar'tM, mitfsfi (scnnek coUoq., 
mit'n), mpt'cbim, paf en^ patVeH) plaf €N^ shipp'm (ooUoq., ship'n ; a stable 
or eow-honse), sloVm (coUoq. or ynlg^ Bitten — ^fc), sloVerUy, sloy'airy, 
sadd'en, tiek'as twigg'ett (coUoq, twl^n— K., We.), wiok'en, yeVen, and a 
few others.* 

««i = II or 'n» in the following words— batt'sn (bftt'n ; i., v.), beeeh'sn, behsld'en 
{pp^ a.),box'«n» bracVm or bcak'sis bra'sc* (-in) or bra'am, brolcM (pp., a.), 
bordsA (JL, c.), borth'cii (a, v.), hiirth'sfioo% bmrth'siMOms, chfis'sfi (chlie'n ; 
pp^ a.), christ'sM (kili'n), dhriBtei»ing, Christendom, craVefi (a., s., v.), den'- 
iaen, d(ken (dos'n), dnmVei*^ Sarth'^ eley'evs eleVanth, ^y'en (leyel, exactly, 
fdn, Am. ; a^ od, «.), SVm (eyening), «T^aning (a., s.), iax'sn, gar'dsn (a., 
&, «.), gaz^dmr, gar'dsmng^ dftd'en (a). gGld'en, haVefi, h^ath'flt (hS'tlm ; 
&, 11), hteth'sidse, hSathVaish, h^th^dvdsm, hfiaVen, hCay'dnly, hidd'sn 
(jB>p., a.), hodd'en (-gray), hoid'«n» hooy'm (far.), j(Nr'dei»§, IdtV^is Ited'eis 
Uaf s% IteF'stt (coUoq. ; v., sv.), Lenf a» (1^., •».), m&id'ai, maid'etdy, 
midd'en (a dnnghiH — proy.), milk'sn^ mix'ai («.), mizz'en (a., a), mOlt'en 
{pp^ <l), mdOifen (mothy), nodd'M (bent), Oak^SM^ aat'en, oft'en (df n ; a, 

I (mtta'-U) or wtoi^ied (-Id), though d«riTMl from 'money' («.), ahrtys lin the • 

i; and thte else oerara in two or Hbsne oCh«n. 

t not Sb ehi$a (s^ y. : a tool, *«.), In whkh the « Is always sooaded. 
« See AeeioA IS. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Iz Table of ' Literal EquiwUente ' (cwUimteij, [§ 46^ 

ad,), Old'en, Sp'en (o^ t., v.), cr/en (ftr'ii), oK'en («. pi), pdrtsftk'Ai, riVen* 
r&y'enoiis (r&r -Sn-fts — E^ 8. ; bat only in formiid dieooune), TtAAfen (o.)^ 
tcny'ener, ahipp'cji (ooUoq. ; v, $u.), Aot^en (a.), nik'em (o^ v.)i lUiek'M^ 
(t., v.)» lodd'm (seethed), itdr'tfn (sM'-Tin— S. ; an ontciy), striok'at (a.),. 
thrfiadW (a.), tdk'im («^ v.), turf ^ yix.'ei^ wmrd'0% wax'M (a.), whtet'en, 
irfd'«iH ▼is'^ wood'^n, and a few others ; also in all * verbi* and * verbale'f, 
even when preceded by a ' liquid*, as in l&ll'^ tMU'en, 8w(SU'^, ke, ; witb 
the ' formatives' and * componnda' of each.' 

-e»«, -enes. See Section 99, 

-a, eeeSeetunun,Z5,99. 

-€9ce = te, as in mequieece^, ke, 

-etie = St^, as in KoaetU^, coquette', eAqnetUf, guetk^, ke., and at the end of Freneb 
words generally. 

'fien. See -en (ante), and -ten (below). 

•^ = fa51, as in beau'tiytt;, hope'yia, fto. See Section 19. 

'fy. See Section 43. 

gh' (initial) = g hard, as In g^ost (gSst), g^tly, g^ei'kin, fcc* 

-^A- (medial). See -ghL 

'fjh (final). These letters, when final, are usually tilent, as in Ugh (hi), nla^ 
tlm>u^A (thrSS), thor'on^A (th1ii^-o), wei^A (wft), ke, ; but someUmes in tlda 
poation they have the sound of /, as in ehou^A (chfif), cou^A (hfif), roi^ 
(rftf), sou^A (sftf), tou^A (tfif), tiou^A (tr5f), enou^A' (-nt^O* ^^^9^ (1^ 
lau^Vter, ^ ; in a few words, as hou^A (hdk), lon^A (Idh), diou^£ (>bdk)y 
that of h ; whilst in buri^A. (b&rg)*, bui^^Ver, &a, the g alone is sounded'. 

»g1U = t, as in {ight (fite), i&ghi, au^At (a^), oau^it, nau^^ bonyAt (bt^)» 
fou^At, nou^At, ou^At, vjtoviglU, dtongkt (drowt), the effect of the gk 
being usually to keep the preceding yowel or vowel-digraph long. Ilie 
exoepHone are senn'i^At (-It), for * serennight', where the vowel is abort ; 
and dran^A^ (dr^), drau^Ate (a game), in which the ^A has the sound 

-geon, -gion. See Sectiom 24, SO-2. 

-gm = m, with the preceding vowel short, as in phlei^ (flSm), ap'othe^m (-liitai), 
di'aphra^ (-fr&m), p&r^adijrm (-dim), &c ; but in compounds other than 
the 'common formatives* noticed under -gn (below), both letters are 
separately articulated, as diaphragmatic (-frftg-m&t'-), phl^monons, ke, 

gn- (initial) = n, as in ^mat (n&t), ^maw, ^marred, gn&mon, ke, 

-gn- (medial). See -gn (below). 

-gn (final) = n, as in deip* (dftne), feiflm, benl^' (•nine'), reOgn' (-idne')> impre^w' 
(.prdn^), impQ^' (-pOne'), fro. ; and in their * formatives', as resl^'ing^ 
resl^'edly, mii%r»'er, benl^'est, oondl^'nees, ke,^^ ; but in every othef 
compound or class of words in which these letters occur, the combinatioB 
is broken np, and the ^ is articulated, whilst the n goes to the followincp 

7 The n^pTMiioii of the « when it ehoold be *heerd', and iu prmerutti<m whim it should 
be * sapprmed', in the terminations -«<i, -tl, -en, -t/, -ifi, are errors whieh should be eare- 
ttxWy avoided, s« being now almost ezolosiTely confined to the illiterate and Tulgar. See 
SeetioHM IS, 16. 

B The use of A after the g in some of these words, as ghtrltm, burphtr, fte., appears t» 
be an orthographic expedient to shew that the/ is hard, ana in some others to shew that the 
preoeding vowel or diphthong is long. See -/At. 

* Drought was anciently, and is still vulgarly pronounced drowth ; and is eren written 
•drouth* and « drowth' by XUton. So also of Mfkt, speUed hclghth by Milton, and 8» 
pronounced by the vulgar. Both these words are now regular. 

10 It will be seen that the/ here merely perftNrms the office of indiseting that the preoeding 
vowel or vowel-dlsraph is long or open. FWAgH (-In), mnfn^i^n^ and a few others, where 
gn occurs In a final unaccented syllable, do not come under the BmU, See Qteium 36 ; also /A, 
ght, and gn (above). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

5 45.] TMe of * LUeral EqidvalmUs' (conHnwi), Ixi 

t^fiMe, 9M io beni^^mtj (-nl^-)* maU^nity, d^nify, aan^na'tum (•B](g-ii&'-), 
mfognim (-«g-), phjPsi<^iK>my, &c." 

^ ^ ioreigB wordB). See i%e«um 99. 

-^« = f hasd, M in cafftloflme (-Iflg), dem'ngogue (-g6g), fetl^ (-tC«g'), rt^u^, 
mad aearly iH timilar words, with their * formatiyes'." 

•^ = fc» «8 in aocom'pUe^ (-I^b), ben'eRc«, jui'tlce, diTla (o#fc«r), and almost 
efwy other word, except eocJ^airiee (-trlM), and mufr^fce (-£Im" ; i.), in 
whidi it it final and imacoented.*^ 

-ide = !d^ as in par^riekfe, nHOde^ &c. 

-«2c =r Id. See SteHam l^, 

.-t{ = 0, aa in cav'ti, dVO, ooQn'c»2, pen'e»4 &c ; bat the » is mtpprtmd in her'tl 
(h«Viy, deVH (d«yi), deVtHsh (dfirl-lsh), e'Wl (rvl), weer'il (w*^!), and, 
perhaps, two or three others. 

-iZe = U, when nnacoented, in aU words txcept the following, in which the % is 
Umg :^9so!aey carn'oatOf, cham'omtie; e'df&, eW'opl&, ex'Ife (*, v.)W 
gen'ttie^, in'£anti^ inree'onoiJe, o'riik, part'tie, reo'onctfe, se'ni/^, and, 
perhaps, two or three othen.^ 

-imt = bne, in pan'tomlsM ; bat the » is short in muTtOmB, 

-•» = iBf as Lat'tis saf«is fte." ; bat the » is iupprated in ha'sin (ba'sn), ooos'tn 
Okis'n), rsis'tn (r&'sn), and two or three others. 

•Mr » la, when naaeeented, in ail words txeept the following, in whidi the i is 
long :— aa'aerliM, arlioftrTtfie, asln^ arent'orin^ (-r6n«), bell'atfM 
(^IB^ Ut^yUSM (aecor. to E. and S.), Bjfs'antiii^ (s.)^, cab'alliiitf, oaT. 
aaffM (aeoor. to K. and Wa.), eann'abfiM (a.)**, caidt^oline, cs'prlii^ (a,)^, 
dto^ablMC, ear1)Ctie, caz^liM (a., ii), car'miiM, oeFandfine, oer'Tfn^, ooInl)irfn«, 
ec^nmbiM, eon^'onbln^ oon'ffiM {t^ v, ; border, edge, &c), Con'stantin^**, 
eos^Ttes^ eo'siiM, ooon'termiiia (<.), crjfs'talline, Oymbelin^**, eglantfiM, 
e'^piM (-kwln£), er'rAifie, es'orifM (teh'-), felfiM, fdr'Ine, in'iknt{fM» 
lai^ei tins , kg'alliM, le'onfn^, kp'orlne, met'allfiie, nem'aUn^ nerr'ine 
(aoocff. to K. and S.), o'Tiwe, Paal'{ji«, payonfiie, pis'olMd, por'cfiie, por'ca- 
pitos, Baech'ariM (as somet. heard, and as marked bj K., Sh., and Wa.), 
aar'eelAM^ mUfunOne, seo'andin^, ser'pentiiie, Sj^jfUfii^ staph'i^ soW- 
Am^ si'pAi« (a— L. gram.), tor^pentfiM, Tao'oiiM (aooor. to 8. and Wa.), 
TaKenMatf^, Tal'entiii^ Tes'pertliie, if 'cine (vIs'-),Tal'p{M (as somet heard), 

-«se = b or Ii, as in anti^ (-Is), fran'ohiM (-ohls), moi^tlM (-tb), ti«at^ (-Is), 

» ofltA heard witboat the f, poigmmt, foigmmtiif, p ol 0nmt0y, always so. 
'9t$ fteie WQffdi ta Am Ji'<<foiNij'f. 
»B i ASfMvgtag). tte iM U not merely iDsnt, bat leares the np with iu natural ringing 

siar-ce-IUe-^L, fli.. We., We. 

t* JUV («.) has eleo the i long, bat the rowel ie then aeeented. 
^ Mmjfmfdiuh, tm^miam, fnt^fUU^ have the • abort. 

<r Ai^ («.)» when aeeented on the Virae syllable (aa ia done by Mr Smart}, also bdongs to 
ttii mL ^^ fvm% ii § f mer'§tmtiU, and m^trde have the i marked long by Knowlee and 

mj and w m tmUik la alao eo OMrked by Mr Smart. See Not* H (below). 

t Lafn, eat^ Ae^ which are Tolgariama. 

!«.), with the I abort 

»(t.—«hem«), baa thai abort. 

s B«t eap'rlae («.— diem.), haa the < abort. 

w.ff Mtmm hum • auwr». 

rattrntku and QmsUmUm seem atrongly to incline* to the »hort 
»dif. (Walb 

ri£«aad ea the stage O^mUlmt baa enttrdy adopted it'. (Walker.) 

■« appears to be a atroog tendeney in the laagnage to shorten the ^ in the unaccented 
tfoaa nUe, -ima, Aow, and thoa to render the pronnnciation of worda in which they 

Ob woide from the Frendt, terminating in -tn and ^m, lee Seetion It. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ixii Table of * Literal Equivalents ' (continued). [| 41! 

and aU oiher wordi {except the oompovnds of -wiee ; t. i) whioh have th 
accent on the last lyUahle but one.*' 

-tie B lie, in oZZ, or nearly all words of thia termination, Nrhlch hare the aooent o 
the laat ^^laUe bat two ; and at the end of almoat aU Terhe {exeept fran' 
chiM, -cbli, and its eomp.), whether nnder the aooent or not ; as in oat'eohii 
(•Utf), en'terpriM (t^ v.), le'gallie> baptCic', chaatCif', oom'promiM (i^ «. 
oth'erwttd", ke,^ 

'tee = be, in all adjeetlTes, as noticed nnder -ml 

-t(« = It, as in compoe'Utf (-It ; a.), gran'tte, ree'pUs, and aU other words {exeet 
oon'trite, cri'nUe, i'nUe, mann'Ue, o'phits, and gentile t. and a. ; t. 1 
which hare the pennhima aooented ; also in app'oattc (-dt), com'posUf («. 
deflntte, ez'qnIsUtf, fa'Tonrltc, hyp'oorlte, indef intte, in'fintte, opp'oeTt 
per^qni^ttf, req'nisU^ prereq'nislte, and a veiy few others, though wit 
the aooent on Uie antepennltimate syllable. (See below.) 

-Oe = It«, as in i^n/eilte, ez'pedttc, pir^asite, saf ellfte, theod'olffe, hef eroclf« 
qnadrip'artlte, and (with the exe^ptUme gi^en in the last paiagr^) i 
most other words which have the antepennltimate or pre-antepennltima;! 
aooent; also in all sabatantiyes deno&ng race, sect, oonntry, ke, {%. t 
* gentiles*), as bedlamite, oosmop'dCte, Hit'tite, Sam'nite, Pn'sejUs, Whit 
fieldlte, &a ; and in the names of Wfinerahf fomili, plainte, and ehemia 
bodiet ^enlly, as ao'onfte, oop'rolite, hem'at(t«, lig'nite, mell'tte, poKydiH 

-«ty = tt-e Of e-te, as in abil'tfy, eter^ntty, Terft"e»ty, kc ; and atways with tl 

aooent on the immediately preeeding oonsonank 
-ttit = f-tXs, as in branohs'tJs (-if -tb), phrent'tif, and other pathological an 

medical terms of a like formation, 
-fpe = It, as in am'atlw, defen'sloe, plain'tfM, pos'itVv*, remn'neratlvf, and (wii 

the exeepticm noticed below) in all other words in whioh this terminatic 

is nnaeoented ; also in the rerbs glvs, live", and their ' formatiTes', ax 

the word Hr^long (&, $.). 
.tre = lT«, in monosyllables {except gln^ Hts ; «. su.), and in all final aooent< 

syllables, as striM, deprfos', Ice.; and in all gentUe substantireB ai 

adieetiTes, whether aooented or noi, as Ar'gitw (Greek, or a Greek) ; alao 

a/Mve (now need only in the pi, ar'ohlTA"), though aooented oih tl 

pennltima, with their ' formatiyes', &a 
•tse a lis, in a2{ words, whether aooented or not.*'^ 
In- s n, as in ibiack (n&k), l;nell, ibiife, ibiock, l;iinck1^ &c. 
4(i s d, in txmld (kd5d), Axnld (shd6d), would (w«d). 
4e =» 1 Of '1, as in a!)?* (a'bl), dftr'ibfe, el'iglbfe, an^cfe, nee't?* (n«s1), li'f 

pm^tOtf, poaa'tc, spherleZ^ ti'ttc, yeelc2^ and all other English or angUcis 

words in which it is nnaeoented and final See -bUf -i^ -pie, '$tle, -t 

•upU, kc 

t, in ist^f (kdV)* ha(f (hof), and their * fonnatiyes * and < oompoonds*. 

iL in ba£k (hsiok), chafib (ch&iok), statt^ wMlk, and other words in which 

foIlowB a, which it lengthens and broadens; also in f&fib, yGO;; ai 

perhaps^ one or two others.*^ 


n BometinM coUoqnUUy, oth'erwlM (-wlx), u marked by Sheridan. 

* See •«» (b«k>w). 

^ 8m 8§otion$ 14, 58. 

» Alt <lM (a.), OM'/jf (a.), ttv^Kkood («.)> and their «formatiTes', are regular, witK th 

» But ar'ehwal and ar'cMritt haye the i either short or aa brief e, though marked Ioob 
Enowlea and Smart. * 

M The obsolete 'yerb tndmifiM (-b), baying the accent on the second sjllaUe, has t] 
short*. (Walker.) 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

\4a] Tabu of ' LitenU Eqiiwo(Uent8' (corUiw^ Iziii 

^|. See Actum 8, 11, 16, 99, Iw. 

4k = i,mi^ UgKtfilf'^ gMeOi", qjaaAnlU (UK-dzXl'), and words from the French 
faeBBy, and vsoally viUi the aoeent. 

-hi = B, whoL >biay, ea in tJmM (44ms), \mim (Mm), calm, \aJim (Kivm)» 
haolM, pete (pA^m)', pea/m (adAm)**, qiu^ shai^ (sh&um), and othn* 
wards, with their * fomatiTes*, in which it fc^ws a, to whidi (exeqrt hi 
soih caaas aa kaJm and Ma^ for ' haohn ' and ' shawm*) it imparts the 
soand of the 'Italiazi a'; also, aometimei^ in the middle of a word, as 
aisi^ottd (dV-mflnd), malm'sey, palm'ary (of the palm), paZsi'er, pa/m'er- 
woKB, aaftis'ai (aim'-ttn)'*, saka'onet, and two or three others." 

•^ Bas&tlMm4S. 

H^ s a^ as la homtb (bt&m), bdaid'-shell, eUmb, dtmb, Vkmb, Vbnh, nftmi, thftm^, 
itamb (toom), fte. ; hot aoetbN^', E^dsi^, rAAmi'', snocami', have the fr 

■iK Sesfi00«m85. 

IB- = ■, » ut Bit monies (ne-), iMi^moteeh'ny, Ifnemoe'Tne (-e-ne), kc 

•«s s B, ae IB ag' tniw (-tfim), condemn', contemn', hjNiMi> lirnn^ soremn, kc.^ 

^|. B»NifieZ5,page\L 

-ne, ••#-, -neft- Qm wnds from the learned languages), 'tth, -nq, -nque s ngk, as in 

UsHC (falftng^), bkmk, nmk, hnuic&late (brftngk'-)> bra^K^'iie, ban^'uet, 

Sal, tidaJfc, Uini^er, and monosyUaUeB generally, and most other words in 

vh^ these conaonant-combinations occur under the acoent^. 

•sf s 1^ ft ^Sg'-^^ which, at the end of words and syllables, represents the 

pecafiar anal elementary sonnd heard in clano, Uaig, length, stren^^ 

bn^, loB^ aoiMr, prolong, hnn^, strung, tjaonff, &c ; i^ aU of which it 

Bay be ohserred that the sonnd of the ng conclndes that of the word. The 

BSM WBBXB in the * common formatiTes* of verbs and adjectives in -ng, sa 

lim^im§, htmffed, m»{/er, ttrmf/y, and aU others (with the three aooqplioma 

maid hetow), m which merely the sonnd of -mg, -ed, -er, -y (e), kc, is 

sdM io the ' simple ' ; but in all * simples ' in which ng ia not Jhud, 

a perfset sound of ^ is organically interposed between the ng and iha 

ibflsvz^ lettar in ntteraace, as heard in an^yer {taig^-giii), an"gie (ftng'-gl), 

aa^^oii (ing'-gwlah), distin'^onish, fin^'per (flng'-gUr), hnn'^, lin'^er^ 

', (ikng'-gwfint), &c. ; also in the 'comparatives* and 'snperlativee' 

maUdt pHl'mtito, 
hich, from, their 

, psiUmo^rapktr, 

the m sad ft ftdl 

seding vowel i sn 

mdtm'nchle, eon- 
se). kjfm'ning mnd 
'; imt not in the 

even when Uie n 
Is aoocnted, m in 
Mis on the neti 
c5n-), eonetftow. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

bdv Table of ' LUtral EquiwUenti ' (continued). [| 45. 

Icm"g9r (Idng'-gOr), lon'^est (from long), i^xon"ffer, Btton"geei (from ttronff}^ 
and yojin"gerf joun"gest (from yo«n^), which are almost solitiury exceptUme 
to the ' general role, that nouns, adjeotives, and verbs, do not alter their 
original sound upon taking an additional syllable*^ in their 'formatiTeB*.^ 

-11^ = ngth, as in leT^t^ stren^A, &o. 

-no, "uque. See -nc 

off, off', -off' = 6^ as in diff'ee, «/, «/'ice, iJ/'icer, &c*» 

•ague = dg, as in cat'slo^^tie, and otho: wtnrds of more than one sjUable, in which 
it is unaccented. See -gue, 

-on = n or 'n, as in ba'con (b&lui), bar'ton (-tn), ba'son (-sn), bia'o»n (bia'oonage), 
beck'on, ben'ison (-e-zn), Ua'ion (bWsoniy), Bil'ton^ Bur^ton^ batt'oii, 
c&p'on, caz'on, oott'on^ crim'son (-sn), dam'son (-a), dSa'oon, embIa'sof» 
(embla'zoniy), fal'con (tSiw'kn; fal'ooniy^), free'm&son (freoBa'soiiiy}, 
g&r'rison (-sn), glutt'on (glutt'oniae, gluttVmons, glutt'ony^), imparsonee' 
(from jMirton), impris'on (v. t.), lesi'on, Lefdan, mal'ison (-sn), ma'son (-sn ; 
ma'sonij^), Mel'ton^ Mil'ton^, mj^z'on (colloq.)» par'don^ par'son (par'< 
sonage^), pers'on (us., and always oolloq. ; v, i), pois'on (poyz'n), prason, 
ivis'on ^pris'n ; pris'oner), ram'son (-zn), rSa'ion (rgs'n), reck'on^ sSa'son 
(•zn), se ton» trBas'on (trdz'n), ven'ison (-sn), wtopon (colloq. ; v. i.), and 
two or three others, with their ' formatives *, &c^ 

*on = iin, adToVson, am'aion, oap&r'ison, oompfa^ison, diapa'son, hoti'zon, mfxan 
(▼. sn.), per'son (in formal disoourse ; v. mt."^), wfiap'on", Wil'ton, Win'ton, 
and a few others, with words from the learned languages generally, as 
noticed in Section 17. 

"Or. See Section 17. 

•OH ~ OH, and usually (always in adjectiyes) with the accent, as irenoM', gbbose', 
operow', &a*^ 

«i Walker. 

M A oonunon error of ipeeeh is to drop the ^ ia the final unaeoented -«i^of the * formatives' 
of words ending with tbete letters; and to aay bring'tn, fling'tn, sing^M, Ac, for hrin^img, 
fllng'tn^, ains'MV, dco. In Mr Walker's time, Jadging by his statementt, this was the nsoai, 
though not the anivertal praetioe ; bat, at theprsamt dajf, this omiaaioo, or rather substitu- 
tion, is caref ally aToided Vy all oorreet and polite speakers. * It la a good rale with renwet 
to prononeiation, to adhere to the lorif/sn words, unleas euttom has cl§arlv decided other- 
wiie ' ; and henoe * it does not seem proper to adopt this innovation '. f L. Morrar.) 

The omiaaion of the g, when the * simple ' doea not end in -ng, as read'tn, sinn'M, speak'Wp 
wmfM, &0., for read'M^, sinn'tn^, Ac, is now wholly eonfined to the vulgar. 

A like substitntion, that of the aoond of n. for na, in the middle of words, is common In 
some parts of the West of England, partisalarly in ue word Idngdom, whieh even as a proper 
name, is nsoally pronoanoed kln'-dom ; nor is this eorroption confined to the vulgar, bat Is 
common among nearly all claaees. Another corruption of -«t^ is its undne prolongation, and* 
as it wero, partial repetition in the nose, often with the addition of an obsouro sound of 6 or 
a ; as long'-ge or long'-«flh for hnff, sing -g6h for stn^, fto. Tliis is not merely a provindallsm. 
but is also a decided valgariam. 

« Not awf, or orf, eawfee or ooffte, auf'teer or oifictar, &o., which aro commoa, but 
unpardonable vulgarisms. 

«4 '^^XfiU'coHti preserves the o pure, with the I Bounded, and the a abort. 

4ft Olfit'-fin-Ise, glfif-fin-fia, glfif -ftn-e— Wa. 

«* But not in fM$8ri%e, owing to the efflsct of accent. 

«7 Fastidiously aocorate speakers, as observed by Mr Walker, sometimes struggle to pre- 
serve the o, either as obacnro 5, or tk, in the name of our great epic poet MUUm, and a few 
other proper names. 

M Fturmmage, in fonnal disooarse, is generally heard with the o as fi ; parton'ie, owing to 
the infiuence of the accent, preserves the 5 pure. 

• See Seeiiom 17. 

w But ptr^aonahk, pe/iomiMt jmKsono^ pi/mmatiieyper'ionaiiif, per^Mmate, ptr'toitiMe, with. 
their * formatives', alwajs nave the o sounded as obsouro fi. some speakers, in formal 
discourse, also pronounce jMnon in this manner, but the practice is fur fhMu general amonir 
the educated. 

a Often heard, oolloqnially, with the o s upp re ss ed, and so marked by Wa. and We. Se« 
— 874. 

The semibarbarous technical ^nrbs Muukmum^ and iiagnotf, an usually pronounced 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§45.] TabU cf * Literal EqwvalmUs' {continued). Ixr 

-cu^ oHfAi; -omffkL Seegk^-ght (abore) ; also Sectunu 24, 80. 

HNW. St»Seaion$l7j2L 

•^m. QeeSeeiiam24. 

'fei^-ftiL. See <2B<ulnijM(i ([wge 552). 

p4-, •jnik = t aa in jpAan'tom, j»&&r^iaee, PMTip, jB^Uoa'op^y, &c. Almosl the o^l^y 
exe^tiena are — ^nep&ev (ndr'-ft) and SWj>Aen, in which it has the sound of 
v; dipA'thong**, dip^thon'^gal, napVtha**, napAthal'io, nap^'thaUn^", 
OfifrAarmia", opAihal'aiie, qihilhalmi'tis, qpVttialmy (and other allied 
words), trijoA'thong", trip^thon"gal» in whi^ the digraph pK is osoallj 
■oimded as dmple p ; and ap'op^th^g;m (ttp'-o-t^em), joAthiri^Mris, pAtiiis'io 
(fis'.ftXB jti^this^RaO, joAiluslcky, pAthi'sis (tbl'-ds)**, jpMhongom'eter, 
pftthoo, ia whieb both letten are silent In Sapi>A'io (s&f '-&), ^Mopk'o^ 
fBtffk'ist, nffh'ftbxej the first p is sank, or, as obserred by Mr Walker, 
*alides into the pA, by an acoentoal coalition of similar letters, reiy 
agieeable to analogy'. 

-fk s -pi or p^I, as in ripp'20, Iec See -hU^ 4e^ -upU^ fcc 

f^\. ^pagelMNoU). 

-gue = k, as in antigw^ (-tiskO, buries^ (-l^SdcO, opaoW (-pik^O* pi^u^ (p^ktf), 

&&, and geneciUy in all words deriyed from the French", 
-rv = «r. See Return 84 
M-, -rJl, -frk =3 r. See Setti&n 81. 
-m = r, as in Inmrs', and other words from the French. 
•SB^ = s&l, as in moi'M^ nnlTer^so^ and other words in which it follows a 

-tal = sal, as in na'soZ (-sftl), propOi'al, repri'sol, and other words in which it is 
pneeded by a Towel**. 

•scftol = sh&l, as in mftr^tcAo^ fcc 

-seioA = -d^'-yln, as in antis^eums (antis^'di, -yl), &c 

•seseaef, -eetenf = ik'tes^ sh'Snt» as in con'soMnce, lixtf'cUneey ^re'teientf and other 
words in wbieh it follows the accent.'' 

-sefe = si, as in ce^'putde (•p4il)'', mot'cZe, and other words in whidi the -de is 
uiaoeeBtod. See -e2^ 4e. 

-« = -as (L e^ s), the t bang sharp or hissing, and the preceding Towtl long, in 
aU 'adjeekres', as bftse, obese', ooncif^, precise', globose', laehrymose'» 
afaslnije', profnse', rednse', ko, ; also, genmlly, when the same words are 
nsed as 'snbstaatiTes', and always in sabstantiros in -oie, as (a) reduse', 
endosmose', ezoemose', &c The s in -se is also sharp, but with the pre- 
eediqg Towel lAori in all words in which this termination follows the 
* liquids' 2, n^ or r, as in pulse, repulse', dense, sense, intense, yene, ad'verse, 
lemae', kc The only excepHcnt are cleanse (klfins ; v.), and its * for- 

•se =s If (L e., z), as in adTise', confuse', use (&xe), and most other 'verbs*. See -tse. 

-mi = t&, when preceded by a contomuU, as in mor^ael, tress'eL fcc. ; but when 

pteeeded by a vcwd, tiie s is soft (= sA), as in chis'ei^ hou se2, &o. See -eoL 

•am = ste or ^ after a vowe2, as in Wsei» (-m), chosefi (chOs'n), &e. See -en 

vilh Ike s ass. JWjms* («., *.), wiA their «lonnaftm', hSTe the -m« as -«f, from not 
«lsa tlMi^iMrds la their alph. i^aoss ia ths JMMoiMry. 


* BM Ihe # is heard in eorpvs'tfais, as here SMriced. 


by Google 

Ixvi Tahli of ' LiUrai JBquivalmU ' {corUiwued), [§ 4& 

ik. See Sectiom 2, 35 ; also jxtge 650. 

'gin = zin or (mare us.) zn, after a Towel, as in coonn (kfiz'ii), rai'^m, renn (rSi'n), 
&C. See -t» and -son, 

-m = sXs, as in anohylo'^is, antith'ests, &e. ; rhanging, in the phml, tlie last s 
into a, with the e long^ aa aaal'ji^ (-sSz), syn'theset (-aSi), Jec'' 

'dc = A0rtn. Bet-d, In aisZe, i<^ OarlI<2«', .Liile (l6i«), and a few others, the 
f is silent. 

-fM = sm, as in chaim (klim), prirni, the'i«m, enthu'siaam (-ze-ftam), tagk'onsm, 
Ju'daina^ mi'oroootm, pai'oxjfsm, fcc 

-tome = sfim, aa in glad'sffaie, haiid'«2tai«, trotih'ladme, kc^ 

•son. See -on (the « being genevallj flat, like t, after a 'Towel* or 'm' ; except in 
ba'aiaH h&'sn, c^tftrljon, -Is^ttn, comp&r'iMffi, g&r'riaon, -e-siin, Bia'son, -sn, 
and after r, in piu/joi» and per'ton, in which it is shaip)."* 

-tten = sn or s'n, as in dO^tm (ohis'n), chiit'<M (Wn), GhiU'ecndein, fi^ten 
(fiks'n), glb'^ h&s'ten, Wteny moi/^ &c., with their *fonnatiTes*, and 
* compounds.* See -ten. 

-8^ = sth, as in sUven'io, h/pervfAene, kc In Asthenic (&s-), calistAen'ic (-Is-)^ 
DemoftAenlo, &c., the consonants are heard in separate syllables. 

-ttial, 'Stkai, -sUon = -st'-ylU, -st'-y&n, -st-yiin, as in h^ial, oiltitiai, ObOMt^itm, 
digetf'ioii^ qjaiutfion, 3ce.** 

-ttwrt = -st'-fLre or -s'-tib«, aa in getf'firs, fMfibre, lea See -tme, -vre. 

-s^ = si or s'l, as in apot't^ (^p5sl), hnt^tU (brlsl), hat^tU (bttsl), oax'tff (olsl), 
epWtle, fsm'tle, mbfUe (miz'l), mi^'tZ^toc, net'tfe (n«sl), nif'e2e, thix'tfe, 
whis't^s, &c In pef'tif (pia'U) the ( is always heard^. l%e < is also silent 
in Aof'tfer (dslfir) ; and in mos'tfm (mia'-lin), another allied word. See -tie. 

•ten = nor % Mm ch&s'ten (ohis'n), fas't^ (ffts'n), hapten (Qs'n), oi'tm (df 'n), 
sof 'ten^ and all other words of thia tennination in which the f is snppraesed^ 
and the t is preceded by f or s {eoBcept the obeolete word hmrttem), with 
their * formatiTes', fro. See Section 86 ; also -en, -ften, 'Stm, kc 

•tial, 'tkOe, -tUnee, -Hent. See SecUom 36, 24 ; also -tUal, &c (abore). 

-tion = sh«bD, as in mo'tton, amhl'^eion^ and aU other wrads in which this termi- 
nation follows the accent^ and is not preceded by i.** 

fZ = tl, as in ThpoVemoM, kc^ 

im-f tc- = m, B, as in Tti^uB, tme'ma, I^'ones, and other dassicai proper 

.fitre B -t-fiM or -tOn**, aa in ftafAv, moiit'firf, lOt^ibrg, tem'peraticf^ fto. 
'Vfle s ftpl, as in dw^HpU, qatd'nmU (-rCSpl), aafviple, kc, in which the 

accent iUls hefbre tlie n^ See 42t (which U follows in analeg]^ 
•■wre =5 tlr« or yftrt.** 
'Uae, See •^e. 
«^ = hw, as in wiat (hwdt), «AUe (hwiU), fro. See Sectiom 81, 8&. 

<r 8m a$otim u 13, 8^ 99. 

• 8m Action t5. 

^ Sm -iUm; idso AetioM SS, 34, fte. 

«i lVta« to mailMd p«il by Smart and Webtter; bat this is oppowd to Mr Walker^ 
■notation' of the word, and to the praetiee of a</ eduoated chemists and medkal men. 
ttSM&««oful6,34.&c; alM> -.ttioM (abora). 

* See 6(Mtio» 86. 

*• Not -ckm-t or -tfVoar, whieh, with a few aaiwntioiis, are now obaoleaeent or aflbeteA. 
Sm Stetkmt 18, 86, partionlarly Ifote 6i, pagi Mr ; abo -urt (below). 

« The present prabtioe is to give « Ita ftiU diphthongal aooad (= yi») in nearly all words end- 

tg in -wre, particalarly after t. This praotioe Is adopted l^ oorreot and elegant speakara, to 

aroid the oommon oorruption of the t into oh (teA), as marked by Sheridan and walker, and 

their followers ; but which is oondemned by onr latest and best ortho^pists. Sm 8tetion» 18 
and 86, with their Notet; also -4^$ (above). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 46.] Acc&fU, Primary and Secondary-^IU TVmieney, rfc bmi 

«r- = r, as in torftp (ifip), && See Section 89. 

-aAm = -k'-sbfln, as in oompleaBMm (-plCk'-shttn), oonnei/toii^, reflex'um**, ^ 

-zon. See -ow. 

-ffl = Q, as in dac'^2. 

-jrlf = 0, as in bas'j^ \ea!t$U, me'th j^^ aal'icj^Ie, and most other words in which 
it is vDmcoentedy inelnding all cihemiral compounds ; bnt the jf is Umg in 
the oomponnds of style, as hez'ast^te, pdr'ist^ ^Vyt^le, kc^ which 
foQow their ' simple ', but would otherwise hsTo the y long, owing to ths 
influence of the secondaiy aeoent. 

■ync = fn«, in an'od^n^. In oUier words in which thte tennination is nnacoented, 
the y is generally equiralent to 1^ In the accented syllable of Itaaff^nif, 
the y is pn^perly long (= i), but is often ooUoquially prononnoed as 6. 

-yti = fte, as in aSrophyte, elec'trophifte, epiphyte, lith'opbyte, ne'ofAyte^, and 
gafteraDy in words with the antepenultimnte accent, and fai * gentiles', 
and mineralogical and other scientiflc terms ; but in other words the y 
UQslly followB the same rules as i when similariy situated. 

:%. See SecAmt 2, 44 ; aUo jpage 900. 

IIL Aason—primarif and Mtcondary, Q^ianiiiyf Accentual morJb, ke,^ 

46L AoooT, in EngUsh, is the Ume or forest laid on n vowd or tyUaible in a 
woid ; jnst as ' emphasis ' is the ' streas ' used to disttnguidi the more significaat 
wocd or words in a dnuse or sentence.' 

The obrious temdehcy ci accent is to presenre the sounds <^ the letters distinct, 
pore, and omiform ; whilst its absence, and the relaxation or feebleness of ths 
(xgans consequent on its production, as naturally cause the sounds of the letters 
which precede or succeed it» to suffer in distinctness, and often, in the latter case, 
to nnk into others of easier pronunciation or utterance. This tendency of the 
aooent is most conspicnous in the Towels ; but some of the consonants are no less 
altered in their soimd by the position of the accent, than the rowels ; and, in 
many cases^ even groups d letters are also so affected. JBxamplet of these chaoges, 
and of the powers of the letters liable to them, will be found in the preceding 

'Srerj momc^Uaile is, by its Tcry nature, accented ; and eveiy word d ttoo or 
more $yUablei, has orte syllable clearly and distinctly accented, and without which 
aoeentnation it cannot be correctly uttered. But trUyUdbla and polytyUaJblei are 
esBUDonly liable to have more than one pliable accented ; but in these eases, the 
stress laid on the syllables so affected differs in degree. Thus it will be ofaeerred, 
Ast tiie streas of the Tdce is laid upon the/rsf and third syllables of ' as'pira'tion', 
'gMla'tor', and 'rep'arte«", and on the/rrt and fowrth of 'ar'teriofon^' and 
* hyp'oehondifacal '. The former aeoent in the first, third, and fourth of these 
wOTds, and the latter in the second, is called the sioomABT Aoonrf , beoanse it is 
kas fittdUe than that on the other accented syllable, on which we dwell longer, 
and gire greater distinctness to, and which is, therefore, called the pnvcifiii or 
rwxnAMt Asxmant ; and the ^nable on which this latter hUa, is the only one 

* Ses fbese words in their places in the Dietumary. 

« See -4m (abore). 

•Bnt MiJkepkjftrie, iUhepi'jflous (-e-lito], sad tuophffeie, have the y short (= I). 

*B nay w hen oseM to remark, that thonch * emphaaifl' is used to distiBgabh words, as 
llVOsed to * aeeent ' which relates to tflkMet, It b etaiefly, if not wtaoUjr, tks aeoeBted syUsble, 
Vsyllahlesi'of an emphaaised word, which 1^ or are, affected by Terbal st r ew or emphasis. 

^ fa £D^lsh. aoeent and empha^ d^sr chiefly in degree— not in natare. Oi these 

Ibto ths reader had better satisfy himself by oral experiment; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ixviii AecMt — QuantUy-^Aecmtual Marluy dc [^ 46. 

alluded to in gpeaking of the locented ajllftbles of woidB. In uttering the words 
nnglff, both accents are always heard ; but, in discourse, the ' secondary accent ' la 
9(tmeUme$ omitted or slighted without impropriety. The greatest care must, ho\r- 
eter, be taken in the use of the secondary accent, to lay it upon the right syllable ; 
its place in words being fixed with as much certainty as that of the primaxy oi 
principal accent Itsalf, whilst its ^eet upon the sounds of certain oonsonaats and 
▼owels, whether it be used, or not used, is, in general, precisely similar, as notioeij| 
in the previous Seetum$, 

The tmdtney of the teeondary accent is to shorten all the Towels (except u) oo 
which it falls, unless they are followed by io, or a similar vowel-oombination ; a^ 
in d^grada'tion from deginads', dl^monstra'tion from dtmon'atratey prdfana'tion iron 
profane^ rifpara'tion from rep€dr\ ko. ; but not in ddvio'tion, mediaUir'iid, ko* 
for the reason jost giren. In rttttd"oinate (rftsh-e-ds'-), rftttdcina'tion, r&t»0"cln 
ative, and a few othen^ the seoondaiy accent, however, exerts its full shortenini 

QuARTiTT, as &r as is connected with the pronunciation of single words, is tb< 
ttine which a letter or syllable takes in utterance. 

A ffowel or tyllabU is * lono' when the accent is on the voictl, or the rowel i 
open by position ; as in me'tre, mu'sic, bak, mot^, regak', mat^r'ial, pdr'ouj) 
▼dca'tion, edfica'tion, reg'tilar, &c 

A vowd or e^UcMe is *8Hobt* when the accent is on the coiwyMmt^ or, ii 
unaccented syllables, when the rowel is comluned with or ' stopped' by a * mute* 
as in bonn'et, haVit, matter, pot'ronage, mat, pU"cid, com'poss, suspect'ing, &c. 
but when the consonant is a ' semivowel *, particularly r, the time of the syllable i 
sometimes protracted, and the Yowel is not strictly ' short* or * stopped', as wit! 
the other consonants.' 

The MAKO or sighs by which Accent and QucmtUy are indicated, are— 

('), placed by the tide of a letter, shewing that the preceding letter or eyUabit \ 
accented; as mo'tive, rem'edy, repeat', &c. 

{")*, shewing that the preceding rowel or syllable eoaletca with ih^foUottiTi 
consonant, forming one accented spoken syllable ; as coura'^geous, distin"guis1 
nOk'^cerate, n&''tional, Ac" 

(*)*, placed over the rowel, shewing that it is long; as m&te, MUe, Tde 
rlrftdouB, fro. 

C')^ fdaoed over the rowel, shewing that it is $kort; as m&t, Mlble, fdminld 
TftpftiW, &c 

O^ plaoed over the rowel, shewing that the pliable in which it occurs, 
which it forms, is accented, commonly without reference to the ' quanti^* of t1 
rowel ; as iknejf f&rorite, 16rely, &c ; but sometimes it is used to distiqgaisl^ 
short accented syllaUa, as noticed below. 

• 8es AeMoiM i, 7, 9, *e., with their J^oNi. 

• rmnmoiily called tho ' rfoiii<i aoomt'. "^ 

• Tbls Oga is uDsroldaMy «a«d after both long ind short rowels, in the < title words' of i 
« Toesbiilary ' of this Dietfonmy, In whloh marks of qoantttr are iDsdmiasible, bat only wH 
tbs tame word or its leading portion has been just prerloiisly retpelied for pronaaoiatloii. I 
other esses (ehitfly in 'ft »^ •" ' k-. „ 

taatkm woold plaee soft , 

when the vowel ItloDf—srtr^ian,^ „ 

and the vowel i* Hmr, more osoally thos—hyperbOr'esn, mat§r'i«l, fte. 

When pfaMcd between n and #, the double sesent shews that the ^ Is, as U were, dra 
baek to the prerloos syllable, forming with the n the eleneatsnr sonnd repr— entad by I 
whilst it is slto retafaMd and artiooUted, with its proper hard sound, la the foUowiBg otIUI 

^ OSHed s *brt9f' 
• Oslled the « aeule accent'. Sec y<ftet 9^ 10 (bebw), 

Dg with the n the eleneatsnr sonnd repr— entad by I 
ed, with its proper hard sound, in the fMlowiag ^llal 
> as in fia"g«r. See Seeiicn 4s. - 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^47-8.] OrUiographf — CTian^es arisin^yhmi C^ponfton <:& JDmva^i&n. box 

(^)*, pheed over the Tovel, is sometimes used to shew that it is both Icng and 
€i/t€tiaed; SB Brely, rival, oonnlraiioe, Ac In Latin, it is used to distinguish 
adr^hs and eertain prepoaitions, without reference to stress or accent ; as mal^ 
(ad.), seaTit^r (ad.) rolgd (ad.), it (pr.), ^ (pr.), kc 

(a)'*, ocenrring chiefly in elassieal and French word& In Xoftn, it either 
denote* a eotUroetiot^ or distingaishes the gtHfUvte or Mative case, without 
vpferenee to stross or aooent, the Towel over which H is placed being nsnaUy 
Ung : as adlsae (for odtiniMe), dlxti (for dMB»ff»), mnsi, rosi, virftm, &c.^ 

(" )^, placed over one of two vowels, shewing tiiat they are to be pronoanced 
separately ; as aSrial, orthoJSpy, fce. 

(J", pfakoed wnder the letter e, chiefly in French words, to shew that it has its 
m4^ soand (== f), tiumgh hard by position ; as in fa^e, Fran^ais, &c. 

IV. Obtho«b1pht — Participlts and other Formative^, Words in retpect qf 
which usage dijferSy kc 

47.^ * * • * 

48L Some words retain their terminoHons unaltered in composition and dert- 
vation, whilst others double or drop their final letter, or change it for another of 
corresponding character. This asnally occurs according to the following Ruleg : — and woRne aoobhtsd on the last stllabls, ending in a dngle 
eousomant preceded by a single vowels or by ^u followed by a single vowel, usually 
MMTBUi their final consonant when they t^ke another syllable beginning with a 
Towel in declension, inflection, or derivation, particularly in participles, verbal 
sabstantivea, and the other ' common formativeB* : thus, bet becomes betting, betted ; 
Uotf blollSng, bhrftedy blotter ; ahelf, abettor ; begin', begitiHing, begimier ; commit!, 
ernaaiittinB, oommittod, oommittlable^ committal ; drfer', deferring ; regret!, regrett- 
ing, regretted ; reaiit', remittance, remitted ; sin, annex ; swab, swa56ing, swaft6ed' ; 
thin, thiiHier, thwaest ; vit, witty ; writ, written ; acquit!, aoquitting, acquitted, 
ke.; and thisdoaUing of the final consonant in *formatives* and allied words, 
ooenrs enren when the aeeeiU is shifted, as in excel', exWtoice, ex'ce^^ent,' kc 

The ehief excqttions are with x final, and the t in ' gas*, which are f»er^r 
doubled hk the 'formatives' or derivatives, aB fix, fiodng, Ax^; wax, wa^Mn; 
gas, fijiioous, gasify, kCm 

Bat t/a PiPBTHova or a towxl-dioraph prxcsdes the fual ooirsoirAiiT (anle»- 

nil, In which, 
nte accent' is 
I Urns one, as 
SheridsB, the 
vowel of the - 
owel, leaving 
short. Thto- 

erence in the 
be word; the 

otUjf when it 
ed osaally in 

> Tbe onisiion of thSe Section i» explained in the Prt/act (q. v.). 

> IT to here, for eoavenience' nke (though always a vowel), regarded as a ooneoDant, in 
fsamiience with popolur opinion, and the eommon •chool grammars. See Sections 7, 89. 

* Primarily flrom we Latin exeellens, from exeello. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

hx Orthographf — Wordt in -c and -ck. [§ 4&-51. 

the former Towel is u, and immediatelj follows q), or i/ the Aooure is on the 
pivuLiXMAfa or <my preceding sjUahk^ the eon$onafU nmiaUj remiuns 8Dr«i.K, as 
fcdlj faifing, failed ; load, loMfin^ kMuied ; qfer, ofiering, dbred, ofikraUe ; 
repeat, repot&ig ; (oiZ, toi^ng ; moici,' auuiien ; fro. 

The eaMsgilMmt ooeor ehie^ in wordn in which a fear of the last rowel of tJie 
*siBple' being ]>roiioiinoed Umg in the ' deriTatires' and ' fnnnatiTes,* has induced 
printers, and, after them, writecs, to dombU the final eoimmaml, contzaiy to the 
Bxile, Hence, in respeet to words ending ul I, p, and t more espeoiaUy, usage 
is not settled. In many of them these letters are generallj, tiioogh, perhaps, 
nnnecessarilj donbled in derivation. 

The wOTdbi firiUowing^ chiedy verbs, gpenenlly doMe ihe final consonant, contrary 
to the RvU : — ^bias, cancel, earboret (carbnreMed^), carol, caril, counsel, cndgel, dkd 
(dia^fing, diaZ^age, dialfist), duel, equal, gravel, grovel, handsel, hnmbog, jewel, 
kennel, kidnap, level, libel, marshal, marvel, model, parallel, parcel, pendl, pom- 
mel, qnarrel', revel, rivel, rival, shovel, shrivel, snivel, solphuret (solphnrefted), 
trammel, travel, wool (woo22en), worahip. 

The following verbi, thongh with the same final letters as those in the last list, 
usoally preserve them mngU, in conformity to the general Rule : apparel^ barrel, 
benefit, bigot, billet^ boffet, channel^ combat, drivel^ filled gallop, gambd^ gibbet, 
gossip, limit, rivet, visit, waggon, wainscot, wallop^ whimper, wherret 

The 'formativeB' fdfoot (Uiongh with ^) also eoirform to the JSule, as footing, 
fooled; jnst as hoot, fool, &c. (wi& oo), make booted, footing, fooHsh, &c. ; though, 
if the sound alone were followed, the farst would haye the t donUed.' 

49-60.' • ♦ • ♦ 

5L O, |n«oeded by a vowel, assumes h at the end of nearly all xoitostliablks, 
as in oheoi^ lidk, locib, tick, strucik, &c. ; and this h is retained in their compounds, 
as brain-sidi:, candlevkicib, ke. The ezcepUons are — arc, lac, roc (a bird of Arab, 
myth.), and tmc 

Woids of more than one ijfUdble ending in -ic and -iac, fbrmeriy spelled with -ek, 
have dropped the h ; as cubie, masic, pubK^ elegiac^ mantcu;, and aU similar words 
from the Qreek and Latin, with others formed in analogy with them*. The chief 
txcepHont occur in a few derivatives, in whidi the c assumes *k' on taking an 
additional syllable beginning with «, «, or y, to prevent an erroneous pronundaSon ; 
as coUc, colidby, frolic, frolidHng, mimic, mimidbing, mimicl^d, phfiic, physidKng, 
tra^ timffidHng, traffidbed, traffidber, &c. ; also in words of Teutonic, €h>thic, or 
Saxon origin, with nearly all words in other terminatione than -ic and -iac, as 
anadb, f eUodb, hemlodb, paddodl^ wedlodk, &c > , 

1 The ODiMiOB of thsM SeetloM Is exphdned in the Preface (q. r.). 

* OarbonetteA hm tOm lioo f s. 

• Bat the otaoMe a^eettve quarrehut, hm vsnally only one I 

• Bat tiw I is eosunoaly doaSled la the partldpiAi adjectives apparelled and unappareUrti, 
though apparently without Joot reasoa. 

7 But tteqfamOf written with U. 

s Dr Webster, and thooo who follow htm— now a larger respeotaUe, sad rapidly inerewdng 
body of writen sad vrinten, rifidtf adhere to the above IMee in a« eases; and tiiis practice 
was reoommended, thoagh not adopted, by Walker, Lowth, Perry, and many of our older and 
most distiBgnished orthoCplsts. at does not Interfere with the mis, that ektmeeOer, and 
the derivatives of erutai and SMtoC, as erystalAne, meta/nne, See,, have the I doubled, siaee 
they eome ditectly irom the Latin eatteettaritu and m etml ki m , and the Greek mfi6rrmXX»e\ 

It may oe observed, that when the writer is in doubt as to the prevailing usage in respeet 
to any particular word, his safest coarse will be to adhere to the Sate, aad adopt the 
orthopraphy of Dr Webster. 

* Most et these admit the terminadona -cf and -ally, as cabieai, musical, mosieaZ/y ; and 
it is ineonvenient to add A; to the 'primitive words end to be obligsd to emit it iu the 
* formative*. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ii.86.lTmMinSeiemie,ttt.—rciUiM4uS-iM,Sc.-X>>iapotUi«^ Ixxi 


r ti^ pnnWwd with the i Aort. •« »« •^^lilliSr'J?^ SL^ 
^ l^i^^t it, «nd henee this orthography 5. .dapjed ^"0 «* »^ 
S^LrinthiB2)fclio»«ry. The word «& i. the orij on. «Uted t» thi. 

^W, K> prono>i~«J. Kk« t^e hrt, with the » short, «. g-^^LT^ 
^^ fiiJl rfter the French, thioogh whiAl««»ge m^U them h»w 
SS «Si«d ; »d ihe other, h.Te be« ft"-**^ ^« -»" -<^ 

^' ' ' ' '. ^ 

,VJ!4A^flni«tiTMM>at thSee in -u« ana -<m ; while •«*. diwetly fiwn tte 
S^^^tt«»e ButataitiTe. fro« the wne Ungues »d a few words 

ST^ SS MBSSfc«5ian'eMi«(T. I), erterpri«,eMrc««.iran'eM» (-ohb), 
^S^to^ewS *» ito^V^h ""^ snperrm, stmnue. mjftm, te, 

rS.^r3tS^»or8h«Wan, WJker. Webster, Sn^ Hooper^ Brsade, aad 
!!£^-iSL t^S^SS^wtth that if aU onr present standard wnters who 

^LTt**^ ^S^^ have alwa^ been the great refonnas and sbs- 
S2^i'?iXrS^oTTO5%r.S sua a deter»in.d <^P^^^^ 
^rf ,i, 5^ <rf the>wMr dass ((acept pi*^ «d 0^ or two^^ 
TiC!. !^ !.!^ and taking the whole body oi woAs osmng from the pnss, 

O- See J2i5^l«*, i2^«wn» pages 575-6.1 

e-«r ^ • ' * * 

88. OoMPOsmo^ etymologi«aiy ^oi^derea^b the^p^^ 

1 TIw «irii*o «fth«M SwttOM U explained U the Pr</b<» (q. v.)^ 
JiCbmet!y,*iUl^i»«^.Jfw^»^^,«^ ^ ^ ^opt this mode of epellinf to tiii« 

"^^^^^^C^Sf iiJi rco^^ssfrr o7ssi •J.'srx 

»to eonftoe tlie reader. The dd^ 
aheolntelj neoeaaary ta arold error wnen wc^xub 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


budi Derivation — Prefix — Affix^FcmuUives from Verbs, [\ S9^ 

BsuYAHOif 18 the addxtUm of a UtUr^ a stjllable, <^ a part of a foord, to 
{mother word called the * radical' or * tdmple', so as to form a new word, which 
ia called a *deri9ativ€\ a 'deriTatiye word', or a 'formatiye' ; as loWn^, \oredy 
from love; neatly, neatne«, firom neat; bravery from brave; woollen from wool; 
haithen from bear ; fcc^ 

GomcoH FoEMATiTXS are 'derlTatires* formed by adding or changing termina- 
ttone in common nee; such as -tng^ -«d, -«r, -or, -able, -kood^ -dom, -Mtp, -al, -icy 
•ly^ -oie, -oa«, -nese, -fy, -tee or -we, fcc 

A Pashz is a letter^ eyUabley or partiele, pot at the beginning of a word, to 
modify its signifieation ; as along, lUMeTer, <£tameter, engraTe, tmpartial, miaoDn- 
stme, |)er8iiaiioD, unbent, /orbeaiLig, &c.* 

An Amx or Scmx, is a letter, tyUabUf or particle, pat at the fiu2 of a word, 
to modify its meaning ; as lovtn^, qnieteci, reasonoi^, wconful, critical, kingcfom, 
concealment creation, golden, rogats^ &c 

The *Formaiive8** of which a separate, or a fall definition, is not 'given in this 
JHctionarjf, except in special cases, are — 

89. PoRXATiyss from Verbs : — 

o. PARnapiiSS : — 1. Participles in -ing, express a continuaHon of the action, 
passion, or state, denoted by the Terb ; as * he is building a house ', * I am writing 
a letter ', ' they are moving in haste *, &c. :— When used as Adjeetiva*, tbej 
express the possession of the qoality, &c., denoted by the Terb, or that the snb- 
stance which they qualify belongs or pertains to the one which is the correlative of 
the verb ; to which is often added, the sense of a * disposition to % or an * exhibi- 
tion of* this quality ; as ' a loving child ' {u e., a child * that loves *), ' he is very 
loving * (i. e., fond, affectionate, or amorous), ' a ^otn'ti^ epistle ' (». e., an epistle 
'expressing' love) ; 'a moving spectacle* (i e^ 'that moves', or is 'adapted to 
move * ; or, figuratively, to ' excite ' or ' affisot *, as the feelings or passions) ; * his 
djfing widies* (t. &, those uttered or expressed immediately before * death '), 
* dying groans*, * parting words* (k e., those pertaining to 'death*, or to 'de- 
parture *) : — When used as Svhstantives^ they express the a/it or staU denoted by 
the verb, or that which is dons, or which reeults from It ; as (a) covering (the act 
of hiding, concealing, or protecting "by something placed over ; also that which 
covers), humming (act ; also the noise made), painting (act, art, employment, or 
trade chT &c ; also a picture or surface so produced, &c.), sewing (act, art, or occu- 
pation; also its result — needle-work), sleeping (state of sleep), doings (things, 
done ; behaviour, conduct), &c* 

2. Participles in -ed, -d, -t, -en, -n, &c^ express the completion or past exist- 
ence of the action, passion, or state, denoted by the verb, just as the participle in 
'ing, expresses the ' continuance * of it, and, in their unqualified form, invariably 
convey the idea of 'past* time, or tiie past effect or result of an action, Ac^ 
sometime present ; as ' he was heated with liquor,* ' he is loved for bis virtues', 
' she has wept in vain*, * he was chosen mayor*, ' the letter is written', ' the bird is 
jtown\ 'having seen him*, fro.:— When used as Adjectives*, like the 'present 
participle *, they express possession of the quality, &c, denoted by the verb ; as '-a 

i« See Xote, paoe Izxi. 
"^ slpj^'p] - 

Latin, kc ; the reference of tbete * formatiTes ' to the leading word, in these caaea, being a 
mere matltr of eonvealenoe. 

* Then ealled *partieipiai a4itttiv€s\ 

< Then called *particMal aMMtantitiei', 

* The «iM of partieipU* aa * acUectivea' and * sabstantiTea' ia allowable whenever the aena^ 
will admit of it, being Umited only by the ezlatence of other adjectivea and verbal substantives 
which are more appropriate or ezprassive, and of better authority. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

\ 9a] FenMiimi from SuhtUmtives, faomi 

Abated inmgittlo B ', 'a much loved himd\ he. i^YThvi u»ed m aubttamfimt^, 
there ia commonly, as with other adjeetiTes, an eUipns of a inlistaiitiTe or pro- 
iHHiD, as * the bkned (aoola) in heaven*, * the cumd (thoae cuned) are doomed to 
psoiriimeot', ftc* 

b. SvBRAjnnm : — 1. Subttantivei of the (Mctor or offmt in -one, hw, 'ord, 
-md^ -itt, -«r, -«■, -tier. Ice., with their OOTielatiTes in -00 ; as attendoia (one who 
'attends '), liar (one who tells 'lies'), blinkord (one who * blinks ', or who has had 
cyeaX adhemU (one who * adheres* ; i. e^ a follower or partisan), moralstf (one who 
'moimlxseB' ; or appr^ one who teaches or prao. morally), loTer (one who ' lores*, 
or ^M is in ' love * ; appr^ a soitor), oimqaeror (one who * oonqners *, or has * eon- 
(jnered*), pnnsfer (one who 'pons*, or is prone to 'panning*), songiCgr (one who 
ntten'sQog'; a* singer*), pvsUe, lessee (one to whom a*giant* or a 'lease' is 
madeX Ik. 

2. Ahttrad Smbttantivei in -al, -menty -ton, 'tum^ -tUmj -iirf, -ry, &c., express- 
ing the act denoted by the 'yerb*, or the state or eoadition fasential to it, or 
arinng from it ; also, sometimes, the thing or matter done, ooneecned, or pro- 
dneed, or the object acted on ; as arowo/ (the act of one who 'arows*, or the 
thing 'avowed'), dispoeo/ (act or right of 'disposing*, or the resulting order or 
state), rerrro/ (act of 'reriTing *, or the state of being * rerired *), abatentaU (act 
or rtate of 'abating', or the sam, &c, 'abated*), pnnishmcn/ (act; also the 
chastisement or eril inflicted), opinum (that which is 'opined* or thought), con- 
TeisrVm (act of 'conTerting* ; state of being ' converted*), creafion (act of 'creating* ; 
also tfas* -which is 'created*), regala<u>» (act ; state), pressvre (act ci. 'prearing*; 
state of being ' preosed ' ; force acting or employed), seizure (act ; state), arowrjf 
(trowal ; v, ««.), rivalry (act or state of being a ' rival '), &c 

c Asjscnm: — 1. AdjecHvea in -able, -ible, -uble, &a, expresdng capacity-, 
fiahifitf, t ttu ea i, tendency, kc ; as abatoife (that may be 'abated'), combataftle 
(thai may be ' combated ' ; prone to 'combat'), lovofr^ (fit to be 'loved'; inducing 
'^kfVB'),TeasDna5^ (capable of 'reason'; endowed with 'r.'; oonformaUe to 'r.'), 
T«dnetUe (thai m^ be 'reduced'; liable to 'reduction'), aoltiMe (that may be 
'dssBoived'; sohable), Itc. 

± Adj eet ivti b -mUf -etU, &c, borrowed from the Latin, and which express 
qoali^ er hahil^ and, for the most part, agree in meaning with the corresponding 
ptitfaiaal adjectives in -tn^, as observant (* observing ' ; habitually attentive, &c), 
a k utMi {* eooering * ; connected, suitable, consistent), &c 

90l FoAMATrvxs frtmi SuBSTAimvis : — 

a. BowBtAMTmm: — 1. 8ub$t€mthe$ in -o^ expressing state of being or con- 
dStistt, as orphanage (state or cond. of an ' orplum '), persona^ (state of being a 
'pervm'; a *penon' emphat); act, boldness, or occupation of, or matters con- 
wfrnhig, as hiikerage (act or bus., or charges of a * broker ') ; also, frequently, 
eoPe tti t eue e s or general character, as cellarage (' cellars ' collectively, or their gen. 
^lar.; alsa. Paiges for 'cellar-room'), cordage ('cords' and ropes collec), herba^^c 
C Iwiba' cdDec), pastoro^ (* pastures' collec ; bus. of ' pasturing ' cattle). Ice 

2. Abtfroet and coUtctive Substantives in -ocy, -cy, -dom, •'head, -koodf 'ing, 
-skip, -ry, -ly, -y, expressing essential state, condition viewed as a whole, duty, 
power, office^ aBth<»ity, &0., as curoey (the office^ employm., or benefice of a 
'•cmBte *) ; eoleael^ (the commission, poii^ or rank of a ' oobnel '), idiotcy (state 
or «nid. of aa 'idiot*) ; dukedom (the title, dignity, or territory of a 'duke'), 
kSawdon (the territory of a ' king*), Hasidom (^ cond. of a 'thrall* or alave) ; 
Qo&ead (state of being GKxl; deity personified); brotherAood (an assoa or 
fraternity), ehildibod (state or cond. of a ' child ', or the time of it), manAoo<2 
frtate of being a 'man ' ; essen. qualities of a 'man' ; virility ; courage, braveiy, &c) ; 
Utanaa ^nateiials of a 'floor*, or for 'floors'), roofing (m. of or for a 'roof; 
^reolB^ ooDeetively); friendsA«p ^itate of being a 'frigid' ; attaofam. or relation of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IzziT FormaUves from SuhttanUve$ (continued). [§ dO. 

'friends'), ttewirdaib^ (oflloe or oocup. of a * steward*), woAmMMtkip (fkiH or art 
of a ' worionaa ', or that produced l^ it ; also the ezecation or particaJar maimer 
in which any tidng is 'wrought' or made) ; masont^ (art, trader or woA of a 
' mason *), prioiy (a convent or chorch presided orer by a * prior *), dayery (state or 
oond. of a * slare'), soldisf^f (' soldiers ' ooUec), &e. 

8. SmbttaMivei in -ins implying tenets^ doetrines, or principles, as CSalvinisni, 
Stotousi, Tory»n% Wesleyifm or Wesl^yanwm, &a (the doctrines, &c^ of ' Gahin', 
ol the * Stoics ', of the ' Tories', of * John Wesley ' or the * Wesl^yans*, &c) ; oper- 
atiTs a^|ttncy, principle, powei^ or its efEeets, ss in magnetum (£rom the ' munet'), 
Gahamssi or Vohat'iw (d&emical deofcridty, or its effects, &c.; after 'Galfani' 
and 'Yoha*), Mesmerim (animal magnetism; after 'Mesmer*), nerrtfia (the 
exciting power or piineipk peonUar to the ' nerres '), ke. ; and from these tttb- 
9tcmtive$f and others in -iomff -praphy, &a, are commonly formed SubUanUha in 
"dit and -«r, denoting one who professes or holds snbh doctrinei^ or who is versed 
in, or who tsaohes or psastises the particular art or seience referred to^ as atheist 
(from 'athsMM'), GalTiniif (fnm 'OalTinisa'), botanwt (from 'botany'), geokew^ 
(from ' geology '), hydrographcr (from ' hydrogn^^'), &c. 

K AsjaofiTH : — 1. Adjeetiifei in -oi, -on, -or, -ory, -ate, -en^ -ie, -kal, -tsA, 
•Uke, 'Iff, -% -ose, -ouf, -soaie, -y, Icc^ in^lying na^ne, likoiess, quality, agreement 
«ffBct, kiLf and commonly eqaiTalent to * of*, ' pwiaining, relating', or 'impropriate 
te ', or ' resemUing ', placed before the word from which th^ are formed ; m 
antauMtl (of or peenliar to < antomn *), ohoraZ (of or beL to a ' choms,' or to i 

* choir*)* cntiooZ (of or done by a ' oritie '), dinretiona^ (pert or left to, or done a 
'diseretioB'); ^lartan (pert, toaao. 'Spiui»'; res. the 'Spartans'); hmar, pcOor 
solar (of, or beL to, or caused by the 'moon', ' pde *, or ' sua '), popular {o(, or bel 
io^ or is To nr ed by the ' populaee ' or ' people') ; discretioaary (discietional ; v. su.) 
▼isioaary (of tiie natun ol ' visions' ; affiMsted by ' v.') ; roseofe (peri to, rasL, o 
of the eoliHir of a 'rose'; full of 'roses'), stylafe (formed like or res. a'stjle') 
ashm (of or beL to the 'ash-tree', or its wood), oaten (made of 'oats', or of su 
*oatHrtraw'or'reed'),wiood«»(of the nature of 'wood'; made of 'w.'),woolU 
(pert, to ' wool', or cons, or made of it) ; aristocratic or aristoerattooZ (pert, to, c 
eharaeteristio of an 'aristocrat' or the 'anstocraoy'), symbolic or symbolieaJ (< 
the nature or import of a ' ^mbol*) ; booku^ (pert, to 'books ' ; ad d icted to * W 
knavish (beL to, charse. of, or done hj a ' knave') ; dove4Ae, god-2il», tos. <re 
or like a 'dove', 'god', lea » .&f; r. i); homefy (pert, or saitahle to, or re 

* home ' ; done at ' h.'), man^ (beL or suitable to, or charac o^ or beooming 
'man' or 'manhood'; man-l^Le); alden» 6nade of 'alder'); fszinoM (pert to» i^e^ 
or oov. with, or as with, ' furina' or meal), globose (shaped as or res. a 'globe * 
damomif (cons, in or full of 'damour'), Idioiis ('leaf '-like; aboun. in or lis 
'leaves'; 'leaiy), religioHt (of or reL to 'religion'), sohistoiit (formed of or r< 
'schist'; slaty), seditiotM (pert to or tainted with 'sedition'); frdliciome (gi^i 
to or fun of 'froUe'), mettletosM (hav. 'mettle' ; hi^^-spirited, sprightly) ; ersd 
(poss. 'craft', or ol the nature of it), motory (pert to, or acting as a ' BUitar ' 
mover ; ghr. 'motion*), noi^ (marked by or fuU of 'noise'), starchy (cons, o^ n 
aboun. in, or of the nature of ' starch ') ; kc 

2. Adjeetive$ in -ed, implying the possession ol some quality or form, or 11] 
nesstoit; asbeak'crf (hav. a 'beak'), n^g^erf (reduced to or res. 'rags*; wra^n 
«r.*, kc), wiyed (hav. a ' w.» or 'wings*), &e: Also— 

8. Adjeeiiva in -fid, denoting abundaaee or diarscteristioalness ; as bosMi^ 
(FuU of 'boasts*; chanusu by 'boasting *),carQ/W (f. of or char, by 'csre*), merc\ 
(hav. or exerds. 'mercy*), pit^^c^ womfw/kd, &o.: — Actjeetivei in -2sit, in^xA^ 
absence or want of ; as care^ (without 'care'), mercites (without 'merqr' ; er^ 
unsparing) i—Adjuiha in -taoi^ implying nearness ; ss endMoif (nearest to 
'end*); fcc. 

e, Adtsabs in -ward, implying direction, and in -long and "wm, impt^izi^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ 91-2.3 FarmaHvesfrom AdjtcUveiy Adverbsj Prepontians, d^c, Izxr 

ih» dirediaa or naimer of; as easiirarti (toward the 'east *), homeiKrcI (toward 
*ki»M'); ndetony (oa or in the directioiL of the 'side' ; laterally); endwiie (oa 
tiia *«Dd'; with the 'end' forwazd), lengthwiie (in the manner or direc. of the 

91. PosMATiTB from AnjEOTXYis:— 

a. Atjbcxitxs: — 1. The Dtgrea of comparison by ^lich the signifioation o£ 
tlie «s«M adjectire is increased by means of the affix -er and -ett ; as bold, bolder, 
IxildfK ; ^JPP¥* happifr, happiest ; wue, wiser, wisett ; &c 

2. (Hher AdjecHtja in -isA^ expressing approximation or resemblance ; as 
f^sjitk (nrtlier *gnu'), whituJl (somewhai * white*) : — Adj$etinti in -motiy imply- 
ing in the greatest or highest degree ; as foreoioil (first in i^ace or rank), hindaioe< 
(most badcward or behind) : — Adjectives in -some, esquressing equality ; as Uithe- 
9om€ C bGihe *)> lonefome (* lone *), &c 

S. Adtxbbb in -ly, implying in the manner, time, degree, &c^ expressed by the 
adjectire, or viih ^ qaaUty referred to in the correlatiTe snbstantiTe ; as fStetAly 
(m a 'great' degree), jnst^v ^ a ' jnst ' manner, or with 'justice*), loving^ (in a 

* lormg' m.), monthly (in [every] * month ' ; onoe a * m.*), wisely (in a * wise ' m., 
or with * wisdom '), kc 

c SiTBSiAMTrrm : — 1. Substantives in -anetf -ancy, -met, -ency, -don^ -hood, 
-isn, -mess, -tk, -Uiiy, -eity, -ity, -ty, -y, expressing abstract quality or condition, 
or its resolty and sometimes, that which constitntes it» or is so ; as elegance or 
degoney (the quality of being ' elegant ' ; or that which is so, or which constitutes 
it), r^ragnonce or repugnofiey (^e qual. or state of being * repugnant'); oon- 
▼enience or conTenieney (the q. of being * conyenient* ; or that which is so) ; free- 
dom (Hie q. or oond. of being 'free'), wisiiom (the q. of being 'wise') ; falseAooci 
(the q. of being * fidse ' ; also that which is ' 1') ; trutsm (q. of being ' true ', or 
that which Is so) ; alneetneM (the q. or cond. of being * abject '), goodfteat (q. of 
haag *good'); dearth (the state of being 'dear' [i. e., scarce], or its r^dt), 
warmlJk (stake or q. of bdng ' warm ') ; possibi^ (q. or state of bdng ' possible') ; 
^QotaDeity (q. or s. of bSng ' spontaneous *) ; purity (q. or s. of being ' pare '), 
fHroIify (q. of being ' frirolous' ; also a ' f.' act. Ice.), legality (q. or a of being 
'l^gal*); piety (the q. of being *pious'), royalty (q. or state of being 'royal' ; 
Tdnifitap) ; hoMNBty (q. of being ' honest ') ; &c. 

2L Snbtia m iives in -ard, a termination implying permanent state, halnt, or 
^poattioa, as dullard (a ' dull ', heary person), drunkafic? (one who is habitually 
''dmk*, or^ven to 'drinking'), shiggord (one who has the disposition or habits 
of a 'stng", or who indulges in sloth), &c. 

d. TxBBS in -«», -fyy and -tie or -ize, terminations implying 'to make', or ' to 
become' ; as brighten (to make or to become ' bright') ; pxaify (to make 'pure') ; 
equaUte (to render 'equal') ; iuiJ 

92. 9oufAnvaB and compounds from Abtsbbs, Pupostfiohb, fcc. — Adverbs in 
-oioiU, as htanabout ('about ' this place), tberea6ou< ('about' that place ; nearly) : 
—in 'fartik, as henoe/ora ('forth' from thia time), theneq/brti ('forth* from that 
time) ^-in -fnum, as then^^^om ('from' this or that) : — in -0/, as hereof (' of' 
this; from this) : — ^in -out, as hereout (' out' of this) :-*in -ward, as baokiford 
(with the 'bide' in advance; ina 'back' ^re<^tt; 'towards' the 'baok' or the 

* h.' part), hithertmir(2 ('toward' this place), thithenrani (* toward' that place) ; 
witii others fra: the most part self-explsmatory. 

7 -at«f another common Terbal termfnation, in English , is from the Latin passive participle 

In -atus ; as commanioat0 (v, ; from * eommnnTeatas '}, congregale (9. ; trcm * eongre- 

-gataa*), ptmeote («. ; from *permeatas')» ^* And the past pftrtfelples of these verbs, in 

mttdi, nnlak a nomcnma tribe of * jmrtieipial a4)ectlvea * wbieh, by dropping the -d, produce 

an almost equally nnmerooa tribe or adjecuves in -ate, of equivalent signification. 

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Ixxvi The Hyphen — Foreign Words and ' Literal Equimlents\ [§ 93-9. 

93. The use or non-uae of the Hyphen (-) is often a matter of embarrassment to 
inexperienoed writers. Some compound words and expressions are properly 
written with it» and others withoul it ; bat usage is not always nniform even with 
respect to the same words. In general, a careful consideration of the sense to be 
oonTeyed, and of the grammatiod construction of the daose or sentenoe, will be 
sufficient to prevent any gross error, either in its use or omission.^ 

94-a« ♦ ♦ • ♦ 

VL Foxuox mnd CLAsnoiL woem— j^'teroj EqiU/odlenia, AcemU, fta^ 

99. — a. Foreign words which are not anglicised, or familiarised by long use, 
are pronounced, by educated Bnglishmen, as nearly as posdble, in the same man- 
ner as they are in the countries to which the languages in which th^ oocor 

The following TdbUe exhibit the usual sounds of the letters in the leading 
European languages, so far as they differ from the English :*— 

A, has usually the sound of * a* in far, father; or when shorty neariy that of 'a* 
in fat; never that of & in fate. 

<t, Fr., has always the sound of * a * in bar, far, &c. 

jE*, generally soiuids like ' a' in mote ; but not unfrequently like the * e* in met, 

^, Fr., has the sound of ' a' in day when xapidly uttered : — ^ that of ' e' in best, 
often approaching closely to the * a' in mate : — i, that of * e * in there, or 
* a ' in more : — e (unaccented), that of ^h (nearly = * u ' in bat, f«r) ; or 
it is wholly silent, and always so when final in a word or ayllable after & 
consonant preceded by a rowel, and at the end of words of two or more 

/, has usuaUy the sound of ' e ' in treat, or of ' i * in magastne ; and not unfre- 
quently that of *r in fig; never that of 'I ' in ptne. I final, in Fr., is, 
like the Bug. * y % equiv. to the * brief * or ' alphabetic ' e. 

0, has nearly the aame sounds as in English ; heard in bone, not, nor. In Swed. 
and^Norw., that of oo or d6. In Fr., when preceded 1^ a consonant, aad 
followed by a long or circumflexed vowel, it has sometimes a sound resembling 
' w ', as in poiU (pwftle). 

6^ Fr., is always long and open. 

l\ has generally the sound of oo or d6, heard in mood, and in foot and bull. Id 
Dutch and Fr., long u or ik, has a sound between that of oo and d, ariBLog 

* The doe enplovmeBt of the kyphm in the paces of this DiaUmmry has bees partlealarlj: 
atteaded to^ and the writer may aaftly take it as nit authority on thl« sttl^ect. 

Foreign printers usually employ itoo kinds of hyphens ; the oiu (-), when a word is parted 
by the sudden eonelasion of a line ; the 9t1ur (s), to shew that the parts of a word so separ> 
ated, would have been oonnected by a hyphen if such separation had not takss plaee^ : 

The London book- I The trade of a negro= 
sellers are Ac. { merchant is Ito. 

* The omission of these Sections is explained in the Prtfact (q. v.). 
1 See Prtfact. 

" The English * equivalents* given in these TakUt are, In some eaees, merely approxisia^ 
tioBs to the sounds referred to ; dnoe several foreign soundii can only be aeeorately eonveyed 
by a living t"''" 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

\S^ Liieral EqmmlenU of European Languages. Ixn-ii 

fns aa attempt to pronoanoe these vowels simultaneously, daring which 
Ifce fi|fi are * eantracted ', nearly as for whistling, instead of being pro- 
faned, as for the Sng. da ^Hiis « nearly resembles that in the Sootch 
vsrd *g«ide '*. The short Fr. «» also somewhat partakes of this peculiarity. 
T, IhL, Borw^ aad Swed., resembles the Fr. u ; in Ihitch, it sounds like the long 
*" -i^O; '^hQat in the other continental languages, it is equiv. to the 
t * i ' (f . &, the Eng. i), noticed abore. 

IHphthonffa and Vowd-digraplia, 

i^ a; ^ are geiienJIj Bounded like ' a* in fate ; but sometimes short, lIKe ' e ' in 

meL In Doteh, like the * a ' in bar or father. 
«as as, QoLy aound somewhat like * oi ' or ' oy ', in otl and toy / but with a 

pecaiar modifieation derired from the initial vowel, and which renders 

Ihe soand triphthongaL 
«, sy, are goMxallj soonded like the long Eng. t (I) ; but in Fr., like 'a * in fate 

cvtks gBKraDy the sound of * on * or * ow *, heard in otcr, power ; but in Pr., that 

£n. Rr^ reaemhiea cm (Fr.), equiv. to 5. 
o^tf^mt ^eaenllj pronoimced like the long diphthongal Eng. ' a ', heard in fty^, 

4ay, bore, when folly and slowly pronounced. In Pr., they have a sound 

dBsefy resembling the 'a ' in fate ; in G^r., that of the long Eng. t (T). 
9k,fz-,\am thr» gradations of sound, varying from the *V in S»r, or the * u * iu 

bat «- mAj to the ' e ' in her, or ' u ' in fur ; as heard in the Pr. words 

Bdcte, jeme, and peur or minear, but in each tUghUy longer. In Ger., 

^eas ktten soand like * oi * or * oy' in boil, toy. 
le, M, S asttiBy aoond like < or ee in beat and feet ; but in Fr., before r final they 

tR either separately pronounced (= d-ft), or nearly coalesce, as in Eng., to 
lem a diphthong (^ fh or 'ft), dianging in many Fr. substantives to -ire 

£h^ 1^ ia the Ckmanic languages are somewhat like the Fr. * eu *, or the 'e ' in her, 
ecoiDiBf the sound of the short guttural 'u' in titb^ and the ^e' in met, 
vok a d^t aooent or stress on the first element or tk ; in Fr., oe is nearly 
" " r to the 'a' in day. 

ill or waJift, or more correctly comes 
ed to the like sound in wob (wds) or 
its sound resembles the Fr. at, or the 

, in its shorter form, like *oo* in foot 
word or syllable, when immediately 
leraUy closely resembles that of our 

V ; but are sometimes Hilent. 
end of a word or syllable, sounds as 


he Eng. p; in mod. Gr. and Bus., and 

called a * voooKied whi9tle\ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ixxviii Literal Equimlmts ofEwropean Langvages. [§ 99. 

Cf It., before e and i. Bounds like the ch in chiH; in the same position, in Sp., like 
a, or like the t^ in tiiin (but in the ' Ofttalan dialect ' like <). In Qer^ 
Jwefore e, «, and y, it sounds like the Ger. z, or the Eng. ta ; in Polish, in all 
positions, like ts. 

D, Butch, QtT.y at the end of words, sounds like t ; in Ban. and Sp., when oceurring 
between two Towels, or at the end of words, like th in tJua. 

0, is always * hard ', as in ^old, before a, o, and u ; in Ban., Gfer., Norw., and 
Poluh, it is *hard' in aU positions and combinations, sometimes with » 
guttural sound. In Fr., Port., Sp., and Swed., before e, t, and y, it is like 
the j of these languages (q. v.) ; in ItaL, in the same position, it is like the 
Sag. j or soft g. In Butch, in all positions, it sounds like a strongly 
aspira^ A. 

guj Fr^ Port, and Sp., eren before e, t, and y, sounds like g hard. 

J£, Fr., It^ Port, and Sp., is either wholly silent^ or is veiy feebly aspirated. In 
the other continental Bur. languages it sounds as in Esg. It Is silent in all 
of them, wh«n following a Towel in the same syllable, its office being merely 
to shew that the preceding vowel is * long * ; as in Bohn (b5ne). 

/, Fr., Port, has the sound of M, equiv. to the « in pleasure, and tiie s in acure. 
In Sp., like x, it resembles a strongly aspirated h; in Ban., Butch, Ger., It, 
Polidi, Swed., and Norw., it is pronounced like the Eng. initial y. 

M or Nf Fr. and Port, when final in a word or qrllable, and not douUed, or 
foUowed by a vowel, has a feeble * nasal ' sound, or more accurately, imparts 
• nasal sound to the immediately prooeding Towel, with a sort ol aspirate 
or breathing, whidi in the * notation ' of words in which it ooours, is oom- 
monly represented by appending ^; but in pronouncing these sounds, 
particularly in Fr. woids, care must be taken that the nasal tone resfo tn, 
and does not pass through the noa^ and that the Umgue be kept qmetcentj 
and not carried back or preaed against tiie palate, as is done in articnlatuig 
the Bng. -m^, which is mudiL more stronj^y 'nasal' than the Fr. sounds 
referred to^ 

fi, Sp., is similar to the Fr. gn (q. v.). 

QfUL, Fr,, Port, and Sp., followed by any other vowel, has the sound of 2;; in tbe 
termination -que (Fr.), the e final is also aknt See Seetiona 24, 83, 45. 

J2, in all podtions, is trilled like the initial r in Eng., but when initial, much 
more strongly. 

S, between two vowds, has generally ^ke sound of z; in Get., it is also often so 
^dien initial; in Hung., it soimds like the Qer, sdL 

F, Ger., sounds like the Eng./. 

W, in the Germanic languages, is nearly identical with Uie Eng. v. 

X, "Pt, and Belg., has often ike sound of s, as in JBruxellei (btoo-M' ; BrvuteU^ 
Eng.), Avxerre (o-aftre), &c. ; but in Fr., more genevaUy that of ib, subject 
to the same enpnonic changes, as in EngUsh. Li Port, it has the sound of 
«4; in Spw, generally that ^ a strongly aspirated A. 

Z, Ger. and Swed., has the sound of ts; in It, that of <2s. 

Cornhmed and DovhUi Conaonantt. 

Chy Ifez., Bus., Sp. {except in the dialect of * Catalonia', where it sounds h), has 
the sound of the Eng. ch (tsh) in diurcA. In Gelt and It, it sounds 
like h ; in Ger., Polieii, and some other allied languages, like a strongly 

«The use of ^ final, or -fi^, in the 'notation' of Fr. words, ia adopted aa the only available 
means of indicating, to the mere English acholar, that the preceding consonant, or rather 
the preoeding vowel, ia 'nasal '. In these cases the ^ is printed in Italic type, to remind the 
reader that, though aignifleant, it is itself silent 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ 9a] Frmttk lFard$'^LMnr--(huk^H$bnw, Ixxa 

■i p irate i l, gsttnnl ky for wliieb, in Eng. prommdation of these «Ofdi» k is 
wuJly Mfaatiteted. la Fr. and Port^ H has the sond of a4; the exoep- 
Aam ia Fr^ being eoD&ied to -pstds in which il oooun hsiore { or r, and 
in a few- words from the Qr^ wha« it sonnds hard, lik» h. 

&^ hM imnally the aonnd of g hard, as in ghAMX, In (Ml, i^en final, it nsnallj 
•oonda Jakjbh, 

fl, JLf m a peenUar li^dd aoimd, oxganioaUy produced hj putting the tongue in 
thfi pmakiatL lor 2, aiid simuhaneonriy xmiaing the hack part <rf it afanost 
into the position for 9 or initial y, bef (»e spealdng. The eifeot is neariy the 
•oond of 4-y-, with the I faintiy given ; and th^ sound is oonunonly sub* 
■tttnted for it by the Bo^lish, as in iniagiio (-tti'-yo), o^ (fli^-yo), &a 

511, Fr. and It^ is a peooHar liquid sound formed from n, in precisely the same 
SHBDMr as the It ^ is formed fimn L The resnltiag sound is nearly that 
of -»-f , or of the -nie- in oonTeiuent ; and this sound is usually substituted 
for the former one in Baf^Ush moutiis ; as in Cognac (kflne'-yftk, or -y'&k), 

Lhy Port, is identical with the It gl (q. t.). 

U^ Fk, whnpnettkdlj i, nAfoUowtd hj a rowel either aoeented, or not mute^ 
has when pr a periiy and ekgaatly pronounced, preoiaely the sound of tibe It 
gi; hvt eofloqaiaUy, Hie greater number of I^. speakers, and foreigners who 
Isltow tikSB, aubstitttte a sort of *wfaiqier* or 'breathing* for the fint 
elefmen1» and instead of movilU (mSo^yft, with ^ I faint, but sounded) 
lor iastaoe^ say momlU (aooik-yft, ia whidi the k represents the 'whisper* 
or * breathing * just notioed ; or even mSo-yft, without it). The true Sp. Uf 
the It glf and the Port Ik, are never thus corrupted by educated natives. — 
Re trae Welsh K is a peculiar sound ' produced by placing tiie tongue in 
the poBtioa lor 2, and fordag a strong whisper, wiAout any voice, out at 
ikm aides «f the tongue, thus causing them to vilnrate '*. For this sound the 
Ba|^id,and other people eatof Wiles, oonuDonly substitute a sin^ Bug. l; 
but in a few proper names, a kind of compromise is made, as in Llandl/gj 
UarngMm, kxi^ whidi are generally pronounced lia-£th'-le, lin-g6th'-ldn. 

^ot, €kK, Boaais nearly like the same combination in EnglidL 

Nh^ hA, Port^ is identical ia sound with the Fr. aad It ^ and the Bp. S. 

8ek^ Dutch, resembles the Eng. ih ; in Ger., it is Uke our a4. 

Mf in Gee: and the allied languages, has the same sharp sound as in Rnglish. 

se, Ger. and Hung., sounds 1^ s sharp or sa. 

1% in aU the continental languages, except Gr., is pronounced like simple U In 

Gr., it resembles the Eng. th, 
Ueh^ Baa, is like ek (tsh) in c&ardL 
Zf,s3,It, usually sounds Uke te. 

Fiendi worda^ unlike the English, have no *■ dedded ' accent In pronouncing 
them, Uie syllables should be uttered with a nearly equal smoothness and fluency ; 
merely observing to give a long, or semi-long quantity to the vowel of the last 
syllable when a previous one is accented, in all such words as require it 

h. — Ikksa ; Grsju ; Hbbbiw. — The prowwnciatUm of these languages adopted 
in Bn^and, as far as the toundt of the UtUrt are concerned, and subject to the 
few ezceptbns notioed below, it the same as that of the modem English. These 
exceptions consist chiefly in the uniformity of sound given to the vowels, diphthongs, 
aad wwet-digr^ths, which are not liable to vary their sounds as in our own 
language — ' s * and ' os ' being almost always sounded as d, — * d ', as I, and — ' i * 
final, in wordi^ thou^ unaccented, uniformly as long i (I) : — * eu ' sounds like 

• * Ethnical Orthography*, by A. J. EUis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ixxx Latin, Qreek, Heibreio^Aeeent, Quaiitity, dtc, [\ 99. 

Q ; as does also ' ae \ except in certain positions in which it follows «, or another 
consonant, and is follow^ by a vowel, as in Sii«tonias, where it aasomes the souod 
of V : — « oi * and * oy', when the Towels do not belong to separate syllables, hare 
their nsoal diphthongal sound, as in Knglish. 

In respect to the ContonarUt in cUmical words, the English analogy is almost 
always followed : — C and g (except in Hebrew) are either toft or haird according to 
the Yowels that follow them ; and c, with s and <, are liable, in nearly all cases, to 
the same changes and aspiration, when preceded by the accent^ and followed by 
» or e, and another yowel, as in English words' : — 0, in Hebrew, with a very few 
txcepHont^ is always * hard* :— PA sounds as/; and, like lA, if the first letter be 
doubled, the p (or t) either loses its distinctness, or coalesces with the ph (or th) in 
utterance, as in Sappho, JiaMhew, kc^ :^Ck (except in cherub, cherubim, cherubic, 
and Raehd, where it sounds like the Eng. ch. ; i. e., tsh), has cUi0ay« the sound 

-a, at the end of a word, sounds like -^u ; as in ig'net (-nds). 

-Of, at the end of plural cases, is pronounced like oee, with the s sharp ; as in 
not (ndse), illot {-Gse), 

The Accent in Latin words of two syllables, is uniformly <« the Jirtt syllable. 
In words of tnore than two tyUablee, if the * penultima ' or Towel of the last 
syllable but one, is long, it is accented ; but if it b short, the * antepenultima * or 
last syllable but two, is accented. When the * penultima ' is cownmon, the accent, 
in prose, ii upon the * antepenultima \ 

Hebrew words being chiefly received through the Ghreek of the ' Septuagint *, like 
Oreek words, usually follow the analogy of the Latin. 

In reference to * quantiijf *, it may be observed that — 1. A vowel before another 
vowel, in the same word, is short: — 2. IKphUiongs, not beginning with u, are 
long: — 8. A vowel before j, ae, or z, a doubled consonant, or any two consonants 
exe^t a * mute ' and a * liquid *, is loTig by * position * : — i, A vowel before a 
* mute * and a ' liquid ', as in cerebrum, tenebne, kc, is * common* (i. e^ either long 
or short). 

Every Greek and Latin word has as many svUabUs as there are separate vowels 
and diphthongs. — i? final is always sounded^®: — The excqttions sue — ScriptwrtU 
names with a * gentile' termination purely English, follow ike English analogy : 
thus, in 'GireadltM*, *HiU'ites\ 'BssSna'*, 'Ondannn", *itM and -enea are 
pronounced in one syllable ^^ 

• See SeeHmu S8, US, te. 
7 See aeetion 80. 

• See Seetian M, ftc 

» See 8$et$otu IS, Sft, te. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



01 ' 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


a, ti, ay, 




= {: 




1. le, y, 

o, oa, oe, on, ) 



(a. He, «i« 


oi, oy, 
ou, ow. 

mote, paper, potn, ray. 
mar, fother, Brahma. 

fall, awl, law, water; 
nor, order. 

bat, fat, rap, accept. 

abacus, papa, America. 


hot, on, octangular. 

mete, peace, BvretL 

met, pet, sentry, object 

pine, recite, finite, tried, dye, defy. 

bit, pity, pontile, lyric 

mote, shoal, tot, soul, below. 

plot, lot, prognostic; 

what, wallow, (see IL) 

for, nor, former, orchard, (eee i.) 

mvUt wbe, due, htie, SMt; 

few, yew. 

btit, cup, mtat, ptdmonic, mtrr (T) ; 

dove, lore, stomach, hillock. 

do, moTf, prove, moon, platoon. 

t«, foot, hood; 

bidl, fidl, quit ; 

wood, wonder (89). 

boil, foil, toilsome; boy, toy, employ, 
fotffld, noun, pronota ; oow, foicl, town, 

= 11 



ng, n, 



eUll, ehufch, sU/eA, witek. 

oap, peu yold. ^n. 

jewel, >bg, jury; 

oem, 0a, yelatine, homaye. 

Aand, Aome, TeAement, &o. 

brifty, sifiy, thony, brifik, think. 

ghe, wisA, Ticioos, miirion, preeeure. 

azure, evaeion, vision, &c 

tAin, <Aigh, pi<A, breaiA, wrea^A. 

then, ihy, mth, breafAe, wreaMe. 

a, e, i, o, n (84), are Alphabetic Towels. 

«, A, w (skeleton), are silent, though generally significant. 

( ' ), marks the sound as of a * partially ' suppressed e. (97.) 


, denotes the aeemted vowel or tpUoble. (46) 

that the following consonant coaleeoes with the preceding letter in ntteranoa. (4^ 

t ), denotes that a word, phrase, or meaning, is *ob$oleU\ pedantic, or ill-formed. 
• ), * ' r ft *o&«o2eeoen<', little naed, or objectiimable. 

X), ' ' ' ' ' *oo/to9iiia<*, or employed only in coDTersa- 

/ tion, or in familiar discourse or writing. 

!),-#.'. ' .' 9 ' * vulgar *, or used only by the lower olsssoa. 

\ S, • » point or statement is * <2otii</W * or * vMettl^ *. 
b), means 'e^uira/efit'or 'ejua/ to'. 


%* When more than one pronunciation follow a word, onless when otherwise indicated* 
^ermee is to be given to the^Sre^ as the one analogically correct, or as sanctioned by the 
; usage; and the others follow in authority according to the order of their occurrence. 
Single inverted commas (* ') are f^e^uently used to distinguish or give prominence to 

a word or phrase, when Italic letters would be inconvenient, or would produce confusion. 

1 Tli» J lf "" ' * wttMa 'pwiflwtet ', refer to Ihm mmlxwd a uMm $ of th» pi«e«dIaK*Iiitroda«tlMi*. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The mhk iwma li m u , MoHb, and ctder qf iha wordt adopted in the fBllowing pagoa, an 
explaiiMd in the Tabus opposite. Tb» /lfun$ oo iio a po n d to ttwo of the I«T«ODCcnoM. 

The n^dtmf of a wtrd tar prommteUaiim, when a namber of related worda foUow, 
appHBB to aU or them, tamfit when otherwise indleated. O&mpomtd wonlf whieh are not 
r e a pa i l e d, or remn m t t d , are proaoonoed like the simple words of which the^ are formed. 

The / I fmru and mH miaHon a mlj only to the words between the $emteolom immediately 
eonaeeted with theas, naless they follow a JM step, when they refer to the whole of the 
praeeding aeateDee or paragraph. 

J,L The lint letter of the alphabet tamest 
lanfoages ; a teet probably arising from ite 
being the ftrst aoand naturally formed by the 
organ* of apeedi, without restraint or eflbrt, 
beyond that of mere TocaUaatten. 6-11. 

^, i or a, art. A oontr. of on, empkrfed, 
for the sake of eapbony, before snbs. of the 
aing. nnmh. begfaming with all the oonso- 
aante csn^ afljeat h, and h aonnded when 
the aeeent is on the eeeond syllable ; also 
before long «^ and before o aoandinglike to; 
as— a shipv a watch, a year, a nni^ sndi a 
OBB. See Ja. 

^ a or ^ prp. la Sa^om words it is eqniT. to 
at,lijftinjtm,mto: a»— I am a walking: onoe 
ayear; aboard, ashore, aside; gone ahnnt- 
In words tram the Greek. «, or on. 

e xprcesse al 

loss, w negaUon: 
y. In/ • 

i Lmtitn words fl 


aban*donU aban'donert a. ; (an) n^mm 'dtm m f , 
aban'domiuiU, a. 89. 

Akm'dontdf -dOnd, a. K. Extremely pro- 
fligate or oorrapt. 

^loiMHeJdn*, ftb-«n-lBh -On, s. Banishment 
for manalanghter. [of bone, (anat.) 

Ahartictii4irHon, s. M. A morable oonneetlDn 

^test, Jkbas/, Tt. To east down, deprees, 
hnmble, degrade, reduee low. H., aWktg, 


• , Tk. To eonfhae with i 
gaUt iL, 

pp. ; abath'mmt, s. i 
AJbaU, ar\M^, y/i. To beat or poll down; to 

destroy, lesna, mMgate^ remoTe :— vi. To . 

grow less, fail, subside. H., abOfma, p. ; 

oMTstf, pp. ; «MC«r, s. ; akoeabU, -Kbl, a. ; 

abaUfwieiU, a. 89. 
AhaWmtni, s. The aom, &0., abated, (t. t.) 
Abatis, ib'-^tXs, «-bftt^— Fr., a. Trees Uid 

as a defonoe for troops, (mil.) 
Abator, ^b&ttf'-ar, s. 85. One who enters a 

freehold before the heir or denisee. (leg.) 
AbaMoir, fl-bitrwor', s. 86. A pabUc slanghter- 

house. (Fr.) .... - 

Abatud^, &V-^tad^, s. Anything 
Aib, W, a. Tarn for the warp, (teoh.) 
Abbacwt Kb'-A-se, s. The offloe and riighte of 

an abbot. [an abbey. 91. 

Abbatial, ftb-b&'-eh*U. a. 37. s altbarieal. Of 
AbbS, W-9L a. Ut., fothert ; an abbot* ; it is 

now the mm. title of every Fr. olergyman. 
AMtesa, VlV-^ s. The superior of a nunnery. 
^M«y, Kb'-e, s. (pL, abVeyi.) A monastery of 

eitner sex ; also the churoh attached to it. 
Abbot, ib'-ttt, s. 35. (f., oM'esf.) The chief 

of sn abbey, or of a soelety of monks. EL, 

aWotihip, s. 90. [ment. 

Aibreviat^, ih-br6T«'-yttc, a. An abrklg- 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Ahbrtwiaie, ib-teT-Tv-iU, vt. To abndgv; 

to ■horten ; to rednoe to a onaUor oompo n . 

H., dbhnfvimimg, n. ; ahh r /vimt^ pm a. ; 

(Mr^viatoTt S5, i. : tMrtviartion, 8^ t. 89. 
jiMrwfoMoM, -&'-«hdii, a. A port of a vord 


pat tot the whole. (▼. ▼.) 
AiinfviaUiy, -t-tflr^ a. 25. 



jiMrvcM/Mrc, -brtT^-yA-tOr^ ■. An 

.iMioimr, ftl/-de-k&at, a. Abdicating. 

Jbdieat4^ &b'-de-kit«, rt. To glTO np or 
Tacato an offloe or right:— tL To resign 
InfonnaUj. BL, aVtUeaimf, p, ; aVdieaUd, 


AMiotMot, ab-dlk'-a-tlT. UZ-^e-kH-tXr, a. 

Ceneing or implTing abdioatlon. 
jlM<Me«*, IV-dIt4T, a. That ooooeels. 
.ii'iMory*, -«r-e, ■. 15. A eeoret repository. 
JJUomm, ibHdfi^-mte, ■. That part of the 

belly boow the naTcl. 
Jbdomimml,-diimf4]t4LtL Of the ebdomea. 
.iMoM'imwiL -de, a. Abdominal ;ftill-beUied. 
^Mifof^ Xb-d<la«'^Tt. To draw IhMn or apart; 

avwtmvmf avmuac |T1w aw uniw uvin wr mym 

to eepe rato . tL, ohin^'ektm, p. : oMmm 
pp.; tikdmftor^ ^ e.; MMttoti, S^ 
(anat) 89. [rating, (anat) 

^WM0Mi<,-daa^-«nt,a. Drawiiur beek ; eepa- 

Ahdmctiimj ib-dOk'-^hOn, e. The owrTliig 
away or a child, wife, or ward, by f 
enoe. (leg.) 


Ahdrnftor, -tttr,i. Anabdooentmnede. (enat) 
AhedX,MA\wL In bed. 
Ahtrrmi^ ib-i^-rint, a. = abtr^rinf, p., a. 

M. Wandering. (▼. a.) H., aktr'rmci, 

-rina«. oftcr'nin^, -ee, a. 91. 
AhtmUHM, -ri'-ahdn, e. A wandering firom 

the right path (ast.) ; h., a derlatlon from ree- 

titode or reaaon; an error, miatake, or fanlt 
Ahet, a>b«f . Tt. To anpport, incite, aesiit 

H., ahetfm0t p.; abettftd, pp.; obeUftr, 

aktttar, 16. a. ; abttmmt^, a. 89. 
Aht^n et, AAA'-tMUt •• A state of aoapen- 

aton or temporary extinction, (leg.) 
.AMor, ftb-hor^, n. S6. TohatoeztremelT; to 

hate with diagost; to loathe or abominato. 

H., ahhor'ting, p. ; thkorr t tf pp., a. ; ob- 

hoi'rtr^ a. 8ft 
AlbhurrmU, -hSr'-rtet, a. M. Loathaome; 
extremely incooaiatent with; re- 

pugnant to. H.. abkor'rmUlyt ad. j « 
-rtea<^ oMor'rmflf*, -ee, a. 91. 

Ahiie, JMAd/, Tt. To wait or prepare for; 
to anpport or cndnre:— ri. To dwell or 
atay; to be Arm. H^ akMim§, p.; dkddtf, 
prt. and pp. ; abt^tr, a. : (an) aiutmaf a. 89. 

Abidm9,Aaa^',tu Fbud. K, oiUtinglp, tA. 

(T. T.) 91. 

AUlitif, d-bll'-Xt-e, a. Power, aptitode, skill ; 
right; meana ; wealth :— pL, abifUi^ -«x, 
mental endowments 

AbmU»taU,Vb4A-iitr-me,u. Dying without 
a wUl ; inheriting the eetoto so left (leg.) 

AhmtM^tate, s. One who inherito the estate 
of an intestate. (leg.) 

Ayeet, MV-i&LU a. Mean, worthlesa, hope- 
less. H., dIfjtoUf, ad.; (sa) aVjeet^^ a.; 
atytcfufii, a. 91. 

AkfHiU ftb-JOf, Tt. To throw down: to 
eaat away. H., a^^oTma*, p. ; a^f*er*d*, 
pp^ a.; a^feottim^ a^tton, 88, a. 89. 

AkfudieaU*, &b-J'SO'- 
to deny ; to rcjjeot. 
oMf'im^cdL pp. ; 


To award; 

rtum, 86, s. 89.^ 
i renounce upon < 

or with solemnity. H., aInQr'mg, pw ; afr- 
; akfir'art S5, a.; a^m^Hon, 

Jwed'f pp, . ^ 

9$, alifm^wmifj a. 89. 


il^'rotorv, -^Ml^ a. 95. Containing al^n- 
^Mocte^f*, ib-UUc'-t&t^ n. To wean. Kmed.) 
.iMoetoMon, -tft'-ehOn, a. A weaning (med.) ; 

inarohtng (hort). 
^MolJOM, ib-UL'-ehOn, a. A taking away. 
JMolMM^ Ib'-U-tiT, a. That takea away. H., 

aVlaUot^ a. (gram.) 91. 
jlUoael, MiUm', ad. In a blaze. 
AhUt & -bl, a. Equal to, oompetent, powerfhl, 

OuaUfled, aUlfal. H., o^, 48, ad. ; a'kU- 

fMM, 8. ; a'bte-boditd, a. ; «d. 91. 
^6l0f»iy, ilb'-iep-ee, a Wantofaia^t 
^Mmo^, Ib'-lo-kit/!, Tt. To h&e out; to 

leaae. IL, Moeartion\9$, b, B9. 
AikmU,WA*S^-ikit,9u Oeanainf.byliiinids. 
AVUmU, a. An attennant or poriner. (med.) 
AbUitum, ftb4*S0'-shan, a. A deanaing with 

water or other liquidj a purification (reL); 

a lotion or waahing (med.). C*^"«y> 

uiMiiM0fi*,ftb-l'«0t'-Tfln,a.S5. Matter waahed 
AhugaUt ib'-no-fffit«, Tt To denv ; to ro- 

nounoe. H.. avntgatmgt p. ; a¥n*gaUd^ 

pp. ; akfn»gaiorf 95, s. ; oon^po'ftofi, 86, s. 89. 
Aimormdl^ &b-narm'-ftl, a. 26. es cbnorm^em, 

-Oa. Contrary to rule; irregular. H., 

abnorm^Um, s. 91. 
Aboard, A-bSnT, ad. In a ship. H., oftoonT 

(in, with, Acl), pr. 92. 
ii£M& JMiW, a. A habitation; a atay. See 

AJiii; laML^mmt^, abdtFim^, a. ; fto. 89. 
Aiod^, iUu^, Tt. To foretoken. U., 
.A5oM«t> UZ-o-Mt^ a. Obeolete. 
AboUMk, A-bSl'-Xid). Tt. To annul, repeal, or 

make Toid; to oestroy or put an end to*. 

H., oAofisMfv, p.; aboritka, pp.; abof- 

iMhmr, a.; aS^iskable, -Sbl, a.; aboTiak- 

wuni, abOf'tiom, a. (t. i.) 89. 
AboUtioH, ftb-o-nah'-On, a. EmandpatioQ ; 

putting an end to slaTcry. H., (an) aboU^" 

iiom$tf B. ; 4Aoli*tioHi$m, -iam (tenata, ftc), 

s. (t. t.) 90. 
Abaii^iuMe, ^bSm'-ln-Ud, a. Petestoblo; 

odious to the mind or aenaea. U., abom'- 

idoMif, ad. ; abon^ituAlmttt. a. 91. 
Ahom'maUf -ftt^ Tt To abhor; to detest 

extremely. H., abom'inaimff, p.; tibom'^ 
; abowtmc^lionf 86, a. (t. L) 89. 
, -&'-ahQn. a. Extreme hatred ; 

the otjfeet hated ; eril dootrinea or praetioea. 

(t. t.) C(«PPU^ to people) . 

Aiorigmal, Uno-rU'-In-U, a.^ Firat, primlttTC 
Abortffinea. -Sx, a. pi. b aiorig'maia. Th« 

first inhabitante of a oonntry. 
uiftor^, A-borf , Ti. To miscarry. U,, aborf- 

mmU^t abor^tkm, 86, a 89. 
.iftorlioM,ii-bor'-«hfln,a.96. Amiaearriage:th( 

product of an untimdy birth ; fig., anythin( 

that doea not reach maturity, (t. a.) 
Ahordte, -bort'-Iv, a. 4b. Born untimely 

fig., nnsuooeaafU, ending in nothing. U. 

abor'twH^, ad.; («) obor'tkeU ••; abor' 

.A5owul, d-bownd', ri. To be, or to poascfl 

in great plenty. H., abomUPmff^ p., a. 

a5oiM4f ad, pp. ; abotmSinff, a. 89. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


^ Aba^ Msvtr, ad. Vemrlj; here and there; 

dxcBMialr. [e —ploy ed upon. 

• Akmtt,^ iMreIiB9;ii«wrw;ooooeniipff; 

J.^^M^ ad. 17. OmhMd; in a 

^*«; pc Osfacr fat ptece, rank, pom, or 

^ acihM;«vv.inexfiCM; toowoodfart. 

H, dkm^-^ mb9m€f-*aard (opealy ), «*««'- 

i^-r^Ukdibr-ra, a. A word 
BMii iiTly aaed m a Amrm^ 
Unrik i-krtd^'. Tt. To rab or ww off. 

ir2r*rai»vf^; -ir*rarf, pp.; •f;:^'^ 

jMhM^ fi-te J-bimMk, a. Of Abraha m or 
ifaraM, iL 3& A aoparftcial ii^vy fran 

feMia.ters.) 8e« .^Arwdc. 
J^w^UKftr/ad. ttdebr^Ute. 
ft II iirr r. a. Banimniatfcm (q. ▼.)• 
M«a.OH«p^-ehfin.a. _ A «rryi^ away. 

JM^aa^aCl. An a j i a to m * or aununary. 
ntWcaeoHCrj; pablielr; widely. 

ibT^ibil^Ua. a. ViotoBt Md wMlden 


Aktohdorp, Xb-BSl'-a-tflr.e» a. 9S. That ab- 

Ahmhataiy,'Wo\y'-i^tuU, PaMoniof. 
AAaofor, ib-sav, rt. Tojpardon or releaae 

AiaofMHit, afr-ao-nint, a. a oyaam m, -<l«, 
Abanrd; Inappropriate; unmnaiaaL 91. 

Ateor*,ib-eorV,Tt.9e. ToBaeklnjtoawaUow 
up: to engroaa or annn wholly. H., a^ 
90fvm§^ p., a. ; alaorKnr or atoorpl'tt PP> • 
abmtrVabU^ -ftbl, a.: ahtorp'iioH, S6, a. M. 

AteorMiU<^, -»w4tre, a. State or quality 
of beinff aoaorbable. 

Ahtork^mi, -«Bt, a. Imbibtaif ; neiitrallaing 
addity (med.). 

AbmrVtiU, a. A Teaael whldi imbibea or 
takea up (anat.) ; an antaeid (med.). 

AAfOfy'tofs-ahfin.a. SeeAftMfft. 

AbtoryUoe, -tlv, a. 4i. HaTing power to 

.dAataia.Xh«tln«',TL Torefrainfrom. H.,a^. 
«tom'tiy,p. : 0Ma<n«ir , pp. ; oAatela'ar, a. 89. 

AMaaNMf*» )[b-atem«'-y'fla. a. a. TemM- 
rate : aparlaf in diet, eigmienta, Ae. H., 
ab§t9m*untthf, ad. ; oMHnptimeii, a. 9L 

AMM/tan*. U^^tfiB'.ahan, a. A holding ofll 

AMirpif»,B!b^tfiij«',n. Tooleanbywipbigor 
lotiooa. H., oMry'fNf*, p. ; aM«r^«d*, pp. 

AbtUr^mt*, -tat, a. Detergent H., a«. 
atoymr, a. (med.) 90. 

AM^rat/^, tb-at«ra<', Tt. To abaterge. H., 
abaUr^ing»f p.; aktUraed*, pp.; aM«r'- 
•Am, M, a. 89. [(med.) 

Abttm-^io*, -It, a. 40. Oeenalng ; detergent. 

AMmmum, ttMr-te-nte8«, a. a abitkume^^ 
-ee. A refraining from; appr., either a 
total or nnnaoal mrbearanee f^om indnl- 
genee of the appetite or the animal pro- 

Ah^SimU -ntet, a. Tliat oaea abatinenee: 
tenperata. H., a MUmnt lg, ad.; (an) 
tMHiutUt e. 91. I>way. 

AUiortei^, U>^tort'-«L pp., a. 17. Forced 

Ahtiraet, ibi'-trikt,nih4tr«kt'— Wa., a. 
Separate ; dietinot from anything elae ; 
dittealt;abatniae. H., aft«'<rai0<^ (-trftktS 
— K., 8., Wa.), ad. ; aUtraetnem^ a. 91. 

AJUtraet, a. A aommary or epitome (leg.) ; 
an eztraetf. (▼. ▼.) 

AMrotff, ibe-tr&kt', Tt. Tb take one thing 
from another; to aeparate ideaa; to epito- 
aiae, eliminate, purloin. H., abtUraet^ing, 
p.; abttraettdf pp., a.; abtiraeter, a.; 
abtin&tion, 88, a. &. 

Ah&krmertd^%. Abetraet; abeentinmind. H., 
dhtiraclfedty, ad.; ab$lnefediu$i, a. (t. t.)89. 

AAflrao'Kofi,-ahfin,a. Abaeneeofmlnd.(T.T.) 

^ft«fr«MMio«f»,-titah'-'a8,a.8«. Abetraetire. 

AMraetivtf -It, a. 48. That abetraoU ; 
abatneted. H., aai^<Mf te^^, ad. 91. 

AMriaead, Ih-etrikt-U, pp., a. Unbound. 

Abttrmoi, &b-etrlBj^, n. To nnbind. H., 
abttrdtff'ing, p^ abttrwgedf. pp. 

Abttnutf iU>-atrQ6a«', a. Hiddini; obeeare; 
diflkmlt to be nnderatood. H., obftruat^ly, 
ad. ; ab$inue'ne9$t a. 91. [by waste. 

AhntmptitmU Sb-ailm'-ahlin, a. Deatniotion 

AUmrd, &b-a«rd\ a. Obrioualy onreaaon- 
ableor&lae. H., oteMrtfly, ad. ; a8ff«rd'%, 
-Xt^ dtearvrfMCt, a. 91. [denor. 

Ahmdance, »-band'-«na«, a. Ample 8nj&- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


MrndfaM, -Snt, a. PlMtlftil ; tdq^lt; ooirfow. 

H., abtrnd'anii^, ad. 91. 
Ahutt^ d-be^. s. lU Vie: nlnppUoatioa ; 

nide raproMA. H., a&«s<M a. (r. t.) 90. 
AhU0, 4-Mu'. Tt To make an iU naa of; 

to Tiolate, dedla, daaiiTa; to rvftlo: to 

Impoae OB, parrert, mteapnly. H.,oterwi^, 

p.; a6aM#, pp., a.; mbWer, a.; oftn'aJMit, 

JikMiM, A-bOaZ-lT, a. 4ft. Of)taiiring or 

pnMttog abase; rerUtiig. H., aM««ive^, 

ad. ; aHt fm m tm , s. 91. 
AJbmittii'Ws^^yL To be a* flia end ar border. 

H., aMftinff, p. ; abutUd, pp. 
.dftMtownl^ Attf-Bint, a. Tkat n 

dera upon; the solid eapport of a 

Ahvolat^, &V-vo-lSt«, Tt Toflyfroak H^ 

I bridge or 

'Uom, 39, a. 89. 

^iMmo^sll-Ux'-mftl, a. Of ^aa abyee; 

Ahyu,ii^m,%,r^9k9n^\,-\»wm. Abetfa»- 
tea golf; aay^bag inuneasarable or aU- 
oooaamlBg. ttOi [sMa. 

AMMumktn, ib-li-ebi'-yiii. a. 4ft. Of Abya- 

^»>ik,pte. Oak (api^ to towna). (Sax.) 

goBi arablo. (L.) [de^T* 

' ' - Mfc^t-dfimZ-ytt, a. 4ft. Ofasaea- 

demlal. H., a<»dM»S0a%, ad. 91. 
Ad tt^tm i eit m , ^do4nIsy-ylta, a. « t e m i mr i^; 

nmkUtn'iam, -y'Sa; «ea^«aiut A nnaiber 

of aa academy or anlTeraity. 90. 
AsaOm^ Mcir.«»^ a. Orig., Ike ediool 

of Plato; a plaea of edaealkin between a 

oommoneebeolBniannifenitgr: anaaeem- 

lOf or aooiely tar tke proniodon of art, 

e«eneek or phboeophT. 
Aetmthaeeouif &k-&n-m&'-sh'tt8, a. StL k mta- 

futmam, Amed with prl^lee. 91. 
AMKAtne, {(-kSn'-tUn, a. 4B. Of cr Itte the 

AMie^tM, -tiills, a. neberbbeat*abffeeeik 
.ieanM,Sk'-«^rtt^a.(IiL,«e^w^Hl.) Atiek 

ermtin (Or.) 
jMtelwMn ft-klM-Uk'-tik, a. MM halting 

abort: withent iMbet H., maatmUtfth, a. 

Acmiimu, a^kftto'-Uia, a. s mootiflim, ynXb.- 

AtMJB, Sk-eH/, ^ lb be atfad to»; to 

oomply, aseert, or aecfalBeea. H., mctkfwtff. 

AoeeleraU, ftk-i 

I'-flr-Blc, Tl. f fatiken 

gresa. **»t tuotrti^tutitf^ p^ ; a^M^dviaRMi, 
Pl>. ; aaoMnr noii^ 96, e^ 99. 
AtOOimWtUW€^ ft UN, a. ^ aOMrMVtN^ 9^ 

O a ieke n inr : haateaing. (▼.t.) 
JiNMfMif-, iMad*, vt. T» kindle erinAai 

Hn a0OM#<Utf*, -M, a. ; aaem^Mn, 80, a 99k. 
.iM0fuNNMy^-l^n'.lt^a Ckpaeitf ofbefag 

.AaeMl^ak'-e9Bl,a. The lyllable teaaeratvees 
in qMsiag^; tka narfee indioattag the 
; poet., worda or espv. la genarak 
ahetef,TL TOi 

nti. H., a c flea f i' iy , p. ; o oie » <* irf, 
pp., a. 89. 
AMtmtor^ a. 35. (^la who laaAa Cnaa.) 
^AMmfifoi; -a-iO, a. M. Selating to aeeent 


.iMMfaofe, m-&t<, Tt. To make or pro- 
ee widi aoeent. H., aceentuatrng^ p. ; 

aceM^iiatei,pp.,a.; aeenilaa'tiofi, 86, a. 69. 
Aootptf ik«eipC, vt To reoeire or regard 

with pleasure ; toagreeto; to aaknowledge 

orpromiBetopay(eooua.). 'B.^meetp1fing^^.\ 

atmpftdt pp., a. ; meetf^tr^ ttoMftfat, ii 88. 
Aootptfakle, -ibl, ftk'-Wa., a. Gratetel, 

pleasing. wdeooM. H., m t ce pf tthlij f , ad.; 

aeetptaUttuatf aempia h if Ufff s. 91. 
Aeeeptanee, -&ii8«, s. A ftivoaiaUe reeep- 

tloa; an agreeiag to terma; aa aoeepted 

bttloraote(«oiBm.). [meairiag of a word. 
A tetp tat itmt -ta'-ehOn, s. Keceptloa*: osaal 
itoasM, ftk-afa', tkf— J., K., a. Addltioo. 

aesession*; approasb; adayaskm; sexoaL 

Aeoatarfft Mk ^ e gs e C r c, a. 99. (prat, as'osa- 

jofy.) AdditkMua; eentrlbatte. H., oe"- 

•s saiWfy , ad.: oc^aa s a iiw i tf M, s. 91. 
A^tmmr]^ s. (praf., OA'csssory, 96.) Any^ 

tUag additleaal; oae who aids or gi^ 
toac ■ 

AtemtHle, -eie'-Xbl, a. Easy of appreaiA; 

aftOile^ EL.aassis'ili^ad.; aeemNhlmt$^, 

aoeestibil'Ujft 9, 9L 
AMtmm, -eMi'-tta, a. An aorrMng at; 

inereasa by additkia ; ^at wkieh is added ; 

the retara of a fit or parezyam (saed.). 
A Bcmf9 i M tm t , -shttn-4U, a. AdditioBaL 
Aooe»$orialt -aQr^-^^k, a. Belating to an 

aoeeesary. [graoe-aote. (mna.) 

^eeJoMatera, Sr-ebe4ik-Ui-toai'-r^ si A 
Aem imct , ik'-BenlSnatf^ s. That part of 

gram, which relatea to the variettea and 

uiflexiaDS of words. 
A^^idmt, -dfiat, s. An nnssssntial qaattty; 

an onibrtonato event, unaaaal and nnloia- 

seen; aoasoaltr. 
AceUbntal, a. Casan?, nnoaaal, non-esaen* 

a. 91. 

AceidrnVal^ s. AnyOfog non ssesntisl. 
.deeMm^t, ik-flltp^-y«at, s. AreeeiTer. 
Aee^itrme, ik-alp'-lfr^ a. Hawk-Mke; 
rapasftoaa. [joy; hmd s p p l a a ae > 

Ao0Mia», lk-klim«', s. A Aoat of praise or 
Aoetaim-t n. To a^land loodly. H., ae- 

86,8.89.' ' ' rpressingaedaBa-^'— 
Amlmnatoty, ik-kUUa^tfii^ a. 96. 
AmiimmU, ak-klT-mftttf, Tt. 6. Tb 
planta or animals to a Ibreign Hiiate H., 
ac9ihmalm§, p. : tueUfwtaUd, pp^ a. ; aa " 
ffMfisM, 86^ aaoffsMtarf, -tflri^ 18, a. 99. 
Aeclfmai(i$^ -m^tBu, n. To " 

aeel ^mMti t inf t p. ; mocUfmatued^ pp., a. 99. 
r«y, ak-kHK'-tt-s^ s. "^ ' 

A s e/i eaa % -ktT-vis, a. Riaingaaabffl. 
AcOovi, tt-Uoy'. Tt. 22: Tb olay. 
Ae^, ik-koyK tI. 99. Ta eoil; tof 
.dsea«m<», ftk'-o-tfnt, s. A bordsrev. [rooad. 
ABsawMdaa / g*,ftk»kaaK^MttM,a. That au^ba 

made e alta bk. H., aaasm'aiQrtstfaasi^, a. 91. 
AMsat aiadiay, -yg,^. SmMMe^Aa (t. t.) 

aesf, s. ai. 
jiaswa *« Bdhiii | Tt To ft, adapt, er makn 
sailable; to acUast or reeeaeile; to aapplw 
or Amah (foL hy ««*); to lead. &, 
aeeom*modaimfft p., a. ; OMOM^iiodiatod; pp.. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


uiMVH^flMdatiMj-^, a. FondahiBf Mton- 

additkm by vmj of t 

Atttmrmp, ik-Ute'-vA-iM, ▼! S9. Tto go 

witik m • twn>— inn; to tMort m tMmad 

tmi—mi. To b» Mi aandAttwUh; toeoto- 
. ^^, . 

H., aetom^panfimg, p^ a.; me$imt^i 

ov lUfil ; Id obtain oj cxortloA s to Mora. 

Hflu Cormiad,bodl7,ov 

iUwiftf', vLli^'Tb make 

•aaMd»:~tL To agnaTto ba MhaMe. 

K. MainNaf^ p^.; fl <at r# <j; m. ; Mwr#- 

«iii^-afel*».: MMr#ar»B.89. [■ntwllk. 

.itfoor^oMM^ -ua^ a. siaooor#aiMf*. Agfaa- 

" ' ». WWag, aoMMBf . B-, 


t BiL Djr ii^ etT. aaHaA a fnp. ; tnit 

>> fl t<M,fPH«- UaRai. 
vt To apaab flni to; to 

M^Qfr.) J— -. 

aB0MapiW« ^fcHcD&^Bwr f d^ NL A MHpMH 

iibiti iMihfcibflihtrtb> (yr.) ^ 
ivaaiAaiM^ ^0f9t^f a; A iBMwUbr (V^«]l 

;^ l^aKe J^jE al, 

"tobalabla. H^ ISSpoSJ^S^ ^} 
alK 4M, a. UaMa; 

Aaoiai r aw ^ a .70Ma^ 

" " **f •iMHt* 8» lAilaB ni pain* 
sr-tfr, ^ #7. To *•« 



jMradM.Xk-krM'-ltiYt To gfvt benoBr Ibr; 
to gira or raeogniaa aathorltj. B., aoera^- 
•MifvP*; MorWiMi pp., iL ; aMraifta'MnH 

^«er«Mmf>, Xk-krV-ttit, a. iMraaatog. H^ 

M0 m W§mm, itmtt a. 91. 
Ate rwttM, Ik-kfr-flY, a. Orowteg W aeoas- 

•ionofaztoraalpartBL R.,MNVM0f»,W,iL9L 
-r-abttB, tr 

^Mri^ Xk-krOb', 

to^ artto 

<n^*i#,p. } 0eenu«Fj ppb ; Mam^aMN^ a. S9. 
MMnSfil Ilt%ttar44t, a. Baal^if at 
■aaaiaf Hh auNNi* aanMf, at vi« 
^aiiwMlali, Ik-M'^toA-au, tt TO 
Ijli qp; toiaijMi :>-tL To kMraaaa 

^i iWw i> r a < i, a! \i ktfapai: aoDaatod 
A ea^mu Ut tim, - ^b 'g^ •» ™T^ ^^!L1^ 
party of aooairalaClBg. Hm mmt fMMlMHVt 

Ammrnm, IT-MhnMa, a. I>» 4>w StaetnaM; 

.A^^Mntb, -ffM«, a. f « Traa; a»ot : witkoat 

dafcat air arrof . 1*^ t^tfwmMjff aoL ; a^At- 

JIM!1M^^^|lk(ta^•/, tt TV doOM to itot rw - 
tlwi totovakaniienrapaa. &,«a0«ranl', 
aVMadrvft.PP- (Wteked. 

Aemmti, -k&a^ a. BaawabT ^ 

Aemumrt ik4ite?-Xkt. a. Aai 

liming; h^ m Mf (graok). H., tfcot/*- 
lifi^, ai.; CMflt'ddiM, a. {gnmXn, [ntkn. 
MM^'Mtorv, -tii^ a. 99. OtanWitag aasn- 

^MM^'Mtory, •tir^ a. 91 
•,ik4rte/,Yt T« 

aJiion, 89, a. 10. 

or orlflM* R.y aaffl^Mijft v»| 



WlMM, 89, a. 99. r«7 oaa. (▼. r.) 

JaaHMTMonL ■• ^m dUiya tooogM i«al>at 
.AMWtoa^ Ik'Mi'-dbk, Tt 99. Vo maka 

CuriUar b^ai a ? tohaWta ato t-^ft To be 

ppwi a. 89* 
Aeetu^UmMT^, -Cr-a, a. 9. a oMM'feaMiMr*. 
Proa^^ •aateto iry. B., aasaalCfaMHi^, 

J<aiirfaaial» iAb9, a. F rtH ia H ? 

H., mmi ^i9m i i 4ni M^ f a. n. 
ii«,ii<,ac AnnttjapaHltfaartill 

aaa mmariiB <^ Aw. 
lAolMM, fl-afif -^lOa, «. HaadlaM. 
f^A-aW.a. BMraodroogli ' 
yjijr, -»^ a. * a uwr ifc rf i , ML _. 

with Mttarnaw aX a<i!f i uay ; j., 

MM or asvafltf Of toaipcr af namn. 
ilMTfiv tf^lr'-lL iL OTAatoqpla. 
^MTMa, ia-ir-Me', a. m Mtmu, M'-^r-Oi* 

Clkafflfta; aarroir, prMkly (boi). 
^jTwri; I a lK -H, a. labaapa. 
Amnut ^ , » aiir -At<, tl Ta biap no. K, 

dwri'ate^, pp., a. ; a tw r w ^lt to iy •^-AHa, 

Ji)^MMi^JI-ate'-«Bt»a. Sll gk Cly atf «r;tondfag 
toaeknty. IL, om/omm, anai'MiMp, a. 9L 

AottoHous.U-^VU/'^^M, fitlbraalad. 

J iiijanCT yHMflr^ a> g Aa aaM palp of 
cat tan 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ActMs,W'9^MIU,M,»a0tHUtSar'. A salt of 
•oetio aoid. 

ActtaM^ Id-, •, Oombiaed with Tiaegmr. 

AoHic, A-rt'-tIk, A-dH'-Ik, ft. Of vlnegw; 
■oar. H., •ertie meid, •. 5& 

Acetify, S-dH/'%-n, *^t'-«-a Tt; ▼!• To 
eoDTert or change Into aottio acid or Tine- 
gar. H., mdfifihta, p. ; aeifi/Ud, pp., a. ; 
aeifi^,§,; •aetljipi/tiom, M, a. 89. 

AtttctUt la'-o-tte«, a. PTro-aoatie apirlt 

AotUttt fta-«-tAa^, a. b ae^ftom^ -tOa. Soar, 
aharp, aeetie. H., M«to«<ty, -tte'-)M> •• 91. 

jMrwn, A-ar-tam, a. Vinagar. (L) 

^0A«, lk«, a. A oontinaed pain. 

uAdU, Ti. To ba in oontinaed pain; to be 
d irtr aaaad or grierad. H^ aeh^ittfi, Pn »• i 
mehe^t pp. ; (an) MA'tn^, ii 89. 

Aekiev§^ A-eh8T«', n. To perform or iinlah 
(aooeeaafhlly) ; to gain bj exertion. H^ 
meki0fim§t p. : adUfv^, pp. ; oeMcr'ar, ii ; 
MMff^oMc, -m, a.; ackUn^mc^, achUc^- 

Aekor, Vkm\ a. 17. A apeelaa of aeald-head, 
marked by branny lealea. (path.) 

Aehromatic, ik-ro-mit'-Ik, a. Ooloorleaa; 
prerentive of eokmr. (opt) 

AeknTmrntitm, -m^tXam, a. b aehromtUkfiiih 
-tk'-e-te. 8tateofbeingaehromatlc.(opt)90. 

Aeitmiar, a-aOc'^-llr, a. Fbrmed like a 
needle. U., ackfutarlv, tA. 91, 

Acid, ia'-Id, a. Soar, aharp, biting; capable 
of ferming aalta (chem.). H., a'*eidiu$»l, 
meUtUu, a. 91. [pertiea. 

AeULUr^M, That which Doaaeaaea add pio- 
•^ dont^iingaflidr 


Arid^if^, -e-fl, Tt. To make add; to chance 
into an add. H., aoM'^^yin^, p., a. ; od^i- 
fiedy pp., a. ; aeidriUr, a. ; tuUtifkAU^ 
-fT-iU, a.; aeidi^tkm, M, ii 88. 

.Ac<iKNMetfr,-Im'-e-ter,a. An Inatrument need 
In teating the atrength of adda. 57. 

^oMMte^^-aU'-a-l«. a. pU Mineral apringa 
rich in carbonic add. (mcd.) 

Add^iiUa*, -a-l&t<, Tt To make aUghtty 
add. H., acUtukUmc, p. ; aeid^uiated, pp., a. 

Acid'uknu, -a-lOa, a. Sooriah; rab-add. 

^ei^bnn, ia'-e-fonn, a. 96. Ncedle-ahapcd. 

AeinaetoM, ia-In-i'-ah*aa, a. 28. FoU of 

Admowltdgc, Xk-nSl'^tf, Tt To own 

a any- 

tiling or peraon ; to notice, appn 

* aent to. H., aekmowFi ^ ^, . 

\gedy pp., a.; odmowl^edgery a. 
\gminit a. 61, 89. See KtutwUdae. 
AdcnowUdfmtiU, a. Concwalon; gratitnae; 

Aewtet ik'-me, a. The height, aammlt, oriala. 
Am*t Ui'-ne, a. A amall liard pimple chiefly 

Ing the Ibreheadjpath.) 
AeomiU, u'-o-nlt^ a. Tm lierb wolTa-bane ; 

poet., polaon in generaL [of aconite. 58. 
ABomitmet A-kdn'-e-t&i, a. The poia. alkaloid 
Aeomt r-kom, a. 17. The fhiit of the oak. 
A'c9nt0d%, -komd, a. Fed with aooma. 
Aeorm, Kk'-^-Oa, a. 95. The aweet flag. (L.) 
Aeot^ttdon, A-ko-tn-^-dfln, ii 25. A plant 

wboae acwda haTc no aeed-Iobea. H., ac<h- 

tfU^domom, -fla, a. (bot) 90. 
Aeoui$i0, /i-kow'-atxk, a. ss acotafiieek Be- 

lating to hearing or loand. 
AoomittM, 4-kow'-«tXka, a. pL The adence of 

■oond ; rcmediea for deaftaeaa (med.). 

H^ mtffiuimfittfi, p. ; 

Ae qua i ntj Ak-kwft«nt', Tt To inlbrm; io 
make nmiUar with. ' "' 

aemmiitftd, pp., a.; 

deqtiaimfmwt,-4n»et9. Funfliar knowledge; 

a peraon or peraona well known. SL, ac- 

quMn ft me t «*y> a. 90. 
AeqtiUteif ik-kwe-Ca', tI. To reat or appear 

aatbfled with ; to comply ; to aaaent qoletly. 

H., aetmt^cmf, p. ; • - 

Aeqyietfemt, -tat, a. 

acqoiaadng. a. 

cMMy, a. 91. 
ilcfHJrc, llk-kwl^^, Tt Tb gain aomethlnir in 

a degree permanent, or inreated or inherent 

in the poiaaaaor; to earn or attain. H., 

ac^mk^mf, p. : memtired^, pp., a. ; aegm^cr, 

a.; ooMMr'aMa, -ibL a.; aefmirefmmtf ac- 

«iirW;iiML [(T.T.) 

Acf^ind, -kwird', a. CMncd, not natvraU 
AetmmUm, Xk-kwft-olah'-an, ai Something 

AcommHpe, -kwls'-It-Yr, a. Acqaired*; de- 

dring poaaeailon. H., aegvUUheiff^ ad. ; 

oMiMrtnMfMtM, a. 9L 
ilcfwtt, ik-kwif , Tt To rdeaae, diadiare«» 

exonerate. H., aofrnttrng, p^ ; oofintt'ad; 

pp. ; ocfiMf BMiilt, a. 88. 
Jofujff •£ -U, a. Ajudidaldlaaharge. 
Aoiwitt^tmo9t -i^ ■• A written acqvittal; 

a reodpt (comm.). [("Md.) 

Aara»f^, Xk'-rA-ee, a. Exoeaa; irregnlarltT. 
ulcrViV-kCr, a. A meaaore oflaad eont. 4840 

aq. yarda. 57. 
^'cratfl, -kird, a. Poaaeaaing land. 
Aeridy ik'-rld, a. Hot, aharp-taated, pnn^ 

gent bitter, corrodTe. H., (an) atfrid 

(med.); at^ridmm, aeridfity, tuTHirndt, 

tufriM, a. 91. 
Aenmomwu$, Itk-n-vOn^-ftut, a. Aerid; 

flg., aerere, bitter, aareaadci H., ocrlMtfM - 

iomlf, ad. ; aarimdn'itnane$i, a. 01. 
Ae^rimoitf, -mOn-e, a. 17. AaridncM; flg., 

aharpneaa or wTerity of temperor expreedon. 
AenammtU^t UL-nH»-mir-&, a. 

wtatficoL acroafie. Abatnu 
il0ro5a<, Xk'-r«b-«t, a. A 

tumbler: aTaolter. 
Aero^m, ik'-ro-Jta, a. A plant whidi i 

in growth chieAT at ita extremitlea. (hot) 
Aenmie,i^nm'-jkfti»oaeroti^ioaL AppHed 

to atara which riae at aaneet, ot eat at aon- 

riae. Hi. ocroM'ioally, ad. (aat) 91. 
Jcropo2M-krOp'-o-lX8, a. Adtadd. 

Acro$ p ir et ftk'-ro-aBiIr^ a. The 

epront at the end of a germ 

H., o&ro$piredf pp., a. (mdt) 
jlcroia, Mirte', pr., ad. fVom aide to aide; 

athwart; interaeettng. 
^crcM'fic", A-krOa'<4Ik, a. soflTot'tieal*. Of on 

aeroatic H., oorortiealUf, ad. (t. a.) 91. 
Aoro^tiOy a. A poem of whkh the flrat letten 

of the linea ndl aome name, 
.ict, Uct, a. Something done, or dolnrs the 

exertion of power, or ita efteot; a dead oi 

exploit; an edict, decree, or law; port oi 

Aety Tt To perform, repreaent, imitate : — ^ri 

To exert power, foUU, behaTc. H., aoti$^, 

p. ; oefMl, pp., a. ; adfott 25, a.; aetmbivi, 

4ft, a.; ac'MofS 86, a. 89. 
AjBlfmgt%, Perfbrminganaaramedpart(T.T.; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


A^tkm, Ik'-ilhflB, s. A rait tt law : t battle ; 

g«flttaa]alkB.(T.T.) SL, oe'fMNMMt, 45, a. ; 

m&iiomM0, ml 90. 
Aef ti o nmryf -4r-«, s. = tufHomtL In F^., one 

vte holdt Joi&t-ftoek aharw. 
Vte«^ ak'-Ur, a. That which aete; bn^r, 

agfli^ upew ui fa. H., atfthti^^ ad. 48 ; a^- 

«MMW*, «efiv%, -ttT-» t. 91. 

«flMf>, -Ui, a. SpiritiflH. [player, (r. t.) 

Jeter, liK'-tOr, t. S6. (fl, M'frwn.)' A ttafe^ 

JbUmak ikr-O-il, a. 9, IS. Beal or exiating. 

H., aef— y<^, ad. ; oetudlmMifl, tufkuPihi^ 

JefMiiMb -He, tL ToreaUee. [•. 91. 

-«-erA n IB, SB. A registrar or 

■fy*; the maiiagiiig direetor of an 

i»,-lt«^a. Aetoated. [aas.offloe. 

J>fae<t, Tt. U. To pot into, or indte to 

■BliaD. H^ mfwmtm§^ Pb ; mfuattd^ pp., 

Aumi^^ ir-tt-ate^ Yt To ■banen ; to ren- 
\ ot acrid. H^ ae^Noter, 

pp., a. ; MwT'liM*, -bh'-ttB, a. 89. 
Warily. MB'-ft^s. Sharpaeee. 
jMnMla,-l»lt£^a.l8. Shan-pointed (bot); 

faaviBf a ittif or ptlekke laool.). 
JaMMM,J-fcr-aiB,s.l8. lit,aiharppQiat; 

Ig^^fBlifcniw of perecpCkm, niee duerimi- 

1 to a point H., 

Sharp; ■6an 
'<m, M, ■. 91. 

ik-A-pilBikf-arc •. = MM- 
M. FuBtnre with a needl*. 

Jial<^4-lEflt<,a.lS. Shan; ending tai a point ; 
tg^ BieataBy peaelntuig, shrewd, ingeni- 
oos: hIgUj ssaslttf II ; serere and speedy 
fpalk). Hn MMle'ly, ad. ; amO^nsn, s. 91. 
ila,ld,pr. To. In oooip^.it OS. denotes near- 
BB»; fa eofsL, taweeee. Itehanaesltstf 
iBtothatrattoCMrof the simple, when the 
rbegiwwWie^i;g,l,ii,p,r,s,ort. (L.) 
id^Aik'^a. Without Angers. 
. . idV^K s. ««riwt, -*-je. An old 
•nlac^ repvlsd to be wise nom long use. 
Jiiiy^,iMI^-y'lI,a.4& PrortrbiaL 
" * - -r-fa^ sd. Slowly :-e. Slow 
H., atkm^ie, lu 90. 
• e hi 

iifanffif III 


fol the 


A£td0r-fiif^ s. s a^dtr-hdU, The drsgon-#y. 
Adfd«r*9-gra$$t OiTder'B-Umgu*, adder' M-^gort^ 

ftc, s. NasMB of plants. 
JddMS*, id'-ls, s. An ads. 
Addict, id-dlkf , Tt. To devote by eastomarr 

vractfoe (com., in a bad tense). H., oddut- 

vta, p. ; addiet'ed, pp. ; addi&tediuu, ad- 

M&tCtm, M, s. 89. 
Add Hammt ^t id-dlt^-Jl-mtot, s. Ansddltlon; 

snything added to or inolnded in another. 
..idMioisXd-dlsh'-an, s. 96. A rule in srith- 

metie. (r. r.) 
Addrtitmal, -U, s. U. That which is sdded. 

H., addfHomaU^, ed. 91. 
AddrHimaff*, -ftr-e, a. 25. = add^Uio^, -It. 

That may be added. [aathovitr. 

Additi^'tym^, -tlsh'-*lls, a. Added without'-dl, a. Unimpregnated* ; h., pu- 
trid, Darren, empty (ch. app. to eggs). 
Addict id'-dl, irt, «i. 1^ make or grow 

eovTupt, fte. H., ad'dledt, pp., a. 
Jitfoomt, Xd-dSDm^ Tt. To adjudge. 
Addrt$$, id-dr«e', s. Appliestioni s 

tact, skill, dexterity; direction 

of a letter :— pU, addrtt$m, courtship. 
Iddrsst', Tt. To mske sniUble dispositiona 
for ; to Applyt "f^*^ ^ etnut : to direct a 
letter. H^ «tddrt$ifm0, p. ; adimutg, \ 

addre^ter^, s. 80. 
Adduce, id-dOstf', tL 18. 

To bring forward. 

cite, quota. H., mMm^cm^, p. ; addmeed^, 

pp. ; mMm^sst, s. ; oddireAU, -lU, a. ; 

addvdtum. S6, s. 89. [together, (snst) 

JdAiMaC, -dOsf'-tet, a. Bringing forward or 
Additeiioe, -dOktr-lT, a. That adduces. H., 

addmtivdv, ad. (t. t.) 91. [parts, (anat.) 
Adductor, -nr, 9, to. A muscle that oontrscts 
Jii«n0Mo»*,a-dtei'-shdn,s.45. ArcTocation. 
J<imoMl, id'-«n-oyd, a. Glandiform, [(leg.) 
Adcnolcgu, -^'-o-Je, s. A discourse on the 

glandi. nike. 

AdcnoMT, -nfis«', a. 45. s adTcnouc GUnd- 
AdcpcUf'^M,*, Fkt;Uurd. (L.) 
Adept, ^NUp, s. s adeplfictu A complete 

master of his art. E,, adept' (iniH-tkmKA), 

a. 90. 
Adequate, lld'-e-kwfttf, a. Fully sufficient 

H., adfcquatel^, 48, ad.; ad^equaqf, -e6, 

ad'«guatme$$, adequtftiom}, s. 91. 
Adfeeted, id-^f -M, a. Oomponnded ; cont 

(Uf. powers of the unknown quant (alg) 
Adjielated», ti. Affiliated (q. t.). 
Adhere, id-h«r^, tI. To sdok or clcaTe to; 

to be loined to; flg., to remsin fixed, 

attached, or fUthAil to. H., adkir'mf, p. ; 

adhered', pp. ; adMr'er, s. 89. 
Adherent, 'hhr-iat, •- Sticking to, ftc. H., 

adhiT'enti^, ad. ; (an) adhSr'eat, s. ; adhir^- 

etiee, -tos«, adliMrenoy, -se, s. 9L 
Adherent, s. A follower or partisan, (t. a.) 
A^theekm, Xd-hS'-shdn, s. A sticking to; 

adherence, steady sttacb m ent 
Adh^eme, -At, a. 4S. SUcky ; tenadoos. H., 

adh^ehelu, sd. ; adheftiveneee, s. 91. 
AdhibUUM-hW-lt, ft. To use or spplv. H., 

adhO'lted^, pp. : adhibi'tion*, 86, & ^. 
Adhortathni, M-hdr-tft'-shOn, s. Advice. 

H., adhor'tatonrt ^^> ^ 90. 
Adieu, a^H', ad. 18. FareweU; God bless 

yod. H., (an) adieuf, s. 93. 
Adipocere, idf-^-vo-ttref, s. An unctuous 

matter sometimes formed from flesh ; grsTC- 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


i^id'-l^t. A]iopeiiinforpMM«e.(BL) 

A4facmdd'fV-^6ni, lu iLyinf 
agiMMS. Hi, tkU^emcf, -m, s. 91. 

Ai^, U-ySktr, n. To add or pot to. H.. 
m^$ctfinf, p.: MiM'«^PP*; Oi^timt, 96 
(ttM Mt, the tbiac), •. 89. 

Aiftctitiov^, .^^V >. Added- •'M--'^ 

Adfjtethe, -«t, m. QiuUIViiig ; de 

If on 

Ai^itetiM. s. A word wUefa qotUilee « noon. 
^A4iU^ id-lojn% Tt. ToiotetooraBtta*:— 

vL 1V> Ue next to: to be eloee to. H., 

•4M*'*Vt p^ •• f •«M««d'» pp. 

4*Mirin, la-jttrB% ft. To put off; to poetpone. 

H., a ywn' ii^ p. ; e ^^ fl ww i d, pp. ; ad- 

A^fomn *mmt, -mgnt, ■. The time or iaterral 

miriiig wUdi boiliieei ie mS^cnneA. (▼.▼.) 

.d^M^f, id^MI/, n. To <I«erf^««vJt 

pp. : mik t if wMmt^ 61, s. A. 
J Jr Md< w%r iH'gy-de-kftt^ Tt 19. To try 

or^drtawaia e JvdieiaJly ^to adjudge. H., 

tH^pifdmtMn§^ p.: tt^^dictfl^if pp. j mI^ii- 

dwa'fiofi, 98, a. 89. 
A iiv § mt^ , »d^-J'q6-gtt<. ft. To yoke to. 
^^MiMn^.id'-j'0»-nAtet,8. Help. 
Ji^MNcf.Xd'-Jttiiffkta. Added to; e4Joiaed; 

aaataUy. H., Mf^MiaCVjor-inef-), ad. 

(aa) tuTJwMHf a* j o^fMiv ImIi 9o (tlM aa( 

tbiac joined), a. 91. 


.d^^aa/tfM, ^ff^a. 45. 

JOIB* tuf aMM^MMNf, M 

itfhw/Wi>,a. Thatwbidiiaifllaed. 

Afmi.JU^ - - • 

laand oa 


IdfQOr' Yt 18. T^ abaiie or eoaa- 
OB oath, or with aobmmtj. IL, 

a^^MiK* flef^ 

J4/M«',Tt. TbTefn]8te,aatfle,MkB 

a. ; a<^Mf M«»^ a. M. 
AH^HmU, id'-jTR^-tint, n 18. Aa Malilaal; 
an oAeer aest below a B^|er. H., a#>i»- 

J^rfer, »d^ycy■tar^ a. 18. (f^ a^t^) A 

AtfjmSa^ -TiBt» 

aaalatlBf. H., «#; 
J#>Mtet,n. Tol 
. d ^iitaiTi , Id-flUteh'-linv -^»r-8., vt 18, 

97. TomeaesreorapMrtiao. JL^mimmiif' 

«?wf»g-; ■ rf w Mw rgPP.; aAaaWirer.a.; 

adai wiif^ iiBi tfirf, a> 89L 
J^mmMiraKlcM*. n Maaaarattoa (q. r.). 


V Kd-mnnr-to-tir, n. Tofhe^d^ 

briaf aid; toaetaeaa 

-ft To 


Admktittrator, -vaSn'-, -ti«'-tttr— We., a. 98 
{U mdmii^ittratris.) He who auai«ea th< 
eatato of aa Inteatate. (w, t.) O, adMn- 
i«<ra'tor^«Me, e. 99. 

AdmirabU, Kd'-BM-ribl, a. Worthf of b^ 

admired. H., tutwtiriMv, -rib4e, ad. 
Admiral, Kd'-me-ril, 

U, a. rtie « 

of I 


fleet;allat-offloer. H., at w m ral a i^pl , a. 9C 
Adfmirattu, He, ai The anpreme eKeontfri 
ia naval afldra; the boOdlBf Im whtab tb 
latter are traaaaeted. 

Ad^mkraUo^.-^r.t, TbenotoofadndrattoBO) 
Admk% id-mlr/, rt To fecard " 
• ■ ■ wfthan 

prlae or wonder, laiagliil i 

oreateeai; to love or eateant freatlj»— tI 

To fmk ag r eea bl e anrprlae or wonder. B. 

aaiawriaaf p. j aaatlnmf pp. ; adatfrt^f a. 

adatira^hon, 96, a. 89. 
AdrnTrMg, tdL 49, WHb admlraltoB. 
Admimafi, ■d-«y4bL a. That mi^ ba ad 

mitted. H., a d m iM fy, U, oL, mi 

AdaMmi, U-aMiMlaLa. Leacve to < 

lb aaftr or flva rteht c 
amoDvi to anew, eonoede^ or raoeivv a 
tme: to oe capable ot H., ad m itf imm, p. 
ad mitetd^ n", adiajty ia, a.; mdSBtm 

Adi^ kd-nSSa^ rt. liTSitagie.'' H., md 

wtis'img, p. ; a im i a tdt, -uSaeet'm, ; 
ara^ -vtif ada&i^ioitf -ytta, a. fla. 
Admomi$h, id-m5a'-Iah, vt. To 
■AMW ^ to eantto a, waw w advii 

^ft^W^aSW^^ 4Pi^M9W vP^r p 9^ ft* m 4MHMVlpvft/ 

aianl*, adbtflwrffa^ -iMi'-«n, a. 89. 
Ad mo ar ma a, -It- fr, a. « •dbioii'Mpry, SI 

OoBtaialaa admcaMiHib 91. 
Jdewaat, mmbOOt^, vt. To nwva tow 
.Idaeaair, U-ndaC-tat. a. OrowfeMr ta, c 
Adnata, tdr-nau, a. Adaaaaeat (boi.) r«pa 
Adimm,}Uf'mowa,a. Aaa^eeOvak 
AdmtiSaUd^, hd-Bif-barat^Sd, I 

Adai,a^dSV,a, BnatK traaMa, dMWter, 
J d o lM aw >, id-o^ga^-it, a. Gnmt^r ; ^wti 

.d4ioii<e, -dte'-lk, a. Aaala^vavaa. ta.s 

^doorat, d-d6m, ad. AtUiedoor; avtaAAe 

iblif<,]^dipf,vt. T»takeoraaaamaaaoM 

owB that whkh ia aaaChea'a, M a ehOd^ bal 

^M^^laar., Aa.; tochooaeor e^a^ i 

adaprMB.; ado»tad,f^m.} a^f€mr,$ 

adorrti<m,U,»,99, {md^i 

Adopftd.'tA,^. ChoeeB,te B.,a*Mra« 

.ddopT^^.a. Thatadopto,orlaai^ 

AdtnA h , Jt-dgr^'-ibl, a. Worfc fl€a»tow^ 

.idefVL d-dir^ vt. T^ re ia teau a er -mw^ 
aa dhlae; to bve in the higkaet aatw 

a.] ada r^ iSari^^rr-ahBr J i m^ S SHm 

Adam^^SanF, vt. 98. TW draae, mrtellU 
or aet off; to dinky: to exalt 

Adamrim^^hr.r.) B^admif^aplp, m^ 

A 4 9am daH on,\9rii^l£3af-^b(ta^TrZd 
of prqpagatinf planta. (hort) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



A i» wm \ t a-^omif, ad^ pr. Doim; dowaward. 
J4r«A i-diflr, a, ftdL Brtvea; lk»tui« at 

ilikw<; »4ioytr, IL. Attin lA tlM on of fhe 
* ' ; ir^ridlftd, dntenwi. £L,«irMriy, 

JJryff» *.dir, a. «L lUxsty :--«d. Athint 
Jrfnihtfiiin>, M^«-titah'-^ a. SoppUaaen- 

tal; MoeiaenUaL [cooadMtion. (BMd.) 
AdBtrieHai^ id-trik'-^hto. a. I hhwihitftar; 
JdMNMary*, -tito^ a. Sft. AaMa^nt. 
Jdidaifiii, U-A-H'-akttB, a. Id. T 

aniia; acrvito iaKtarr. [1 

jfmimiar, -tftr, a. S9w (C mTmUanm,) A 
Jir«Mary^ -ttfr^ a. as. fUttcrlBC. 
Jdaii; i-dfllf, «. Matnn; grawn np. H^ 

(m) odbir. a.; admitnmt, a. 9L 
4*iriirMf, i-dtitr-^r-fat, a. Tkapcnonfcr 


DebMad ty ateixten» ; 
Bt^t Ump mmim aiiaiaiyi 

Jd«ir«r(ito,n. TodebaaabytedfBadmiz- 

tniaL H„adMifa rrt ii y, p>,; adtrffarttted, pp^ 

a.: MMfi^«tav9i,a.; odnMmi'lMfsM.a. W. 

JiinfrMai.ddUffrgr, ii Sft. (L, adaft'crMa^ 

H aiMi yttlii itf arfnUiciT. 
^dMr«nhv%a^4i. BaaidtiBg from adal- 

lRT;iparioM. H^fldidf ariM, a. ^L 
AdJttntm, -^ ATTriBtad witk adidfeary. 

a., 4idWr«ro«afay WfL M. 
jMr«rp»-ir^a^ TlotettoBofUManrriage- 
bcd; liiadaaai, Vkiatajt apaateoj (aeriik). 

•kitttf, Tt. To ciTa a faint 
~ ' BL. aikmbrJtim, a<> a. 8t. 
- ~ t.9. 










Hn ad9mtwvmlf, iS, ad.; 

fldwn* ttroMMMM, a. 91. 
^daw4, id'-TSrlH a. A word and to qoalUy 

a vcrhi portklple, a4)eetlm, or olhar 

adwbi (gr.) [H., «da«ri'M% ad. «L 

AivtH^iai, -ftL a. Oi; or liko aa adrerbu 
jidvarMry*. id^>^r«r-aKr-e, a. 9. s adaaraa'- 

rioMf*. AdTorae. [or rniaaay. 

Ad^9tr$myt a. li. An antafoaiat, opponaat, 
^dawaolw^ Id-Tba'-iMXT, a. Kodag eon- 

daerae, idr-Tentf; a. Oppoaad to» oawBkt- 
ing^ ao aat at act iaf ; oalamtloaa, " ^ 
Bate. H., aif v m rm f f f 4B» ad. ; orai 
a. 91. [ti 

Admrmi^, -Tba'-Ifr-^ a. AflU ' 
AdMH, Sd-T^f » tL To tarn to; to < 
H.. adMT* MM^ p. ; oMMrfMi pp. 
dMrfMt, -«it, a. AtlMtiipe;^aadfU. H., 

acrf auw, -aa^ a. 9L 

Adoertim, M-Hs-tiM*, tL To lafiHrm; to 
fira pabUa nottee. H., od'aarflainf, p.; 
od'aarOaML pn.. a. ; aifntart^mr^ a. ; tiUmt- 
titUng^ a. 89. [aimrtiaeBeataor ii 

.d#«a»fwiiu^ ^Bf, a. OiTing or 

^d»«^«M«NaalL Id-Tfe'-tla-aBeBt, a. 
tkat* ; palriio aotiee^ BMra eap. that givan 
to Bt> ap apara aad pariodiaab. {mkmiU^- 

AdaimhUt ftd-tia^-iU. a. Pradaat or ena- 
dicBt. H., adali^, 4B» aiL ; adaJg'afif 
a^ai^ a. 91. {opialoiia 

.ddrior, Bd-TTa«', a. Oooaaal; intemfCBaa; 

AAmm^ Sd-na«', Tt. To iaCaim: t^ gftre ad- 
▼feoto:~^ToooD8«ltor deilbarate. H., 
odoif'tn^, p. ; adniteft pp., a. ; adMtr, a.; 
cdviai'fMn/t, a. 89. 

^daiaad.-vtad', a. Ctetkma, pradani. (t. r.) 
BiyadtMtdig, iS, ad. ; otUUtAum, a. 9L 

.idnaary» -^i1a/-arA a. Coatafaiag adrlaa. 

jidvoeaM, Xd'-^o-kftae-o, a. A piaadSaf fivr. 

Aifvocaie. -lOte, a. {t, MTaoaataau) Ha who 
plaada tM aanaa of another, or eapooaa a or 
dafanda aa optnion ar poaitioB av argn- 
BMBt; aaoonaalorplaadar Qag.). lSL,mt' 

A ^ m mtt, ft. To dated, aapport, or TiaO- 
oata : — tL Tb aot aa aa advoaata. H.» 
o#|wo ar< w f »^; advoeatadt pf^; attftoeaegf 

ildroMiryt, id-vow'-tra, a. Adoltary. 
JdPMoaois Id-T0w'-a4n, a. 17. A rifl^t to 
preaent ta a banafice. H., adaota'or, ad- 
.ddMiMiio, ft-de-nttm'-O^ a. 'WUhoatatraagth. 
^ds, Sda", a. A oooper'a axe. [onder J?. 

.A For wardi oobl with a^ aot below, look 
•d, eadt pfk. Happy : proaparooa. (Sax^ 
S^-ila, a. A ahiald. CL.) [oaqnaeL 

~ltH^^-^^-<^^s« Aoniffeoiia 
7in»a. Of irolQa,ar thewind. 
jSoliot fi-dT-lk, a. Of iEoUa. 
.darate,r-te-rftt«, rt Tto oomUna wUh air ; 
to arterialiae (pbya.). H^ a' orating, p.; 
o'arated^ pp.» a. : dcrw'Man, 88, a. 89. 
AMriat^ Ir^-a-U, a. Of or belonging to 
the ahr; hlgh» loftj, etorated. [hawk. 

Atrie^ 6'-re, i'-re, a. The neat of aa eagle or 
.dar^/bnM,rec-oJbi3B,a.l7. Bcaem M lng air; 

A^S^i^n, Tb aSiata; to fill with air. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


H., aferifying, p. ; aftrified, pp. ; Verified' 

Hon^ 86, •. 89. [stone. 

A'eroUte, -o-lIt& s. = a'eroKth, A meteoric 
Aerology t -dl'-o-je, s. A disoonrse on the air. 
A'eromancyt -man-se, t. Divination by air. 
Aerometer , -dm'-e-t&', s. An instrument tat 

measuring gases. H., derom'etry, 43 (the 

art, &0.), s. 90i 
A'eronautf -o-nant, a. An aSrial navigator. 

H., a'eronauHe, a. ; aferonoutice (art, 8so.), 

A'erophyie, -f Tte, s. An aSrial plant. 
AeroetaHe, -st&f-Ik, a. Suspending in air. 
AeroMtationt -^tft'-shiin, a. = a'eroetatiee, 

a'erotuuft^ s. pi. ASrial narigation. 
ifilr«ytnottf, S-rG&'-JIn-Os, a. Of or like asrugo. 
jBru^ffo, -gS, 8. Copper rust. (L.) 
^ethetio, ez-tdifif-Ik, te-. a. ^^tetthefieai. Per. 

taining to the peroeption of the beautiftd. 
JBttheticMt -Iks, si pi. The scienee of taste. 
jBtiies, fi-tr-t§z, 8. Eagle stone. Tabeent. 
Afatt &-far', ad. At or to a great distance ; 
Ajffbble, &r-abl, a. Of eamr manners and ao- 

oess : oondesoending- H., qff'aMyt 48, ad. ; 

^tMeneeet, qfftMbifUv, -ItpC, s. 91. 
Ajairt &f-fftr«', a. A business matter ; a prirate 

dispute ; a mil. engagement : — pi., trans. 

in general; public ooncems ; gorehunent 
AJ^t ftf-fSkt , n. To act upon or produce a 

change ; to more the pasaiona or fbeUngs ; 

to influence or imprees: to aspire to; to 

assume or pretend to. H., qffeU'ing, p., a. ; 

offMfed^ pp., a. : affisetfert cfffeetor, S6, a. : 

^ecTtumU 8«, e.^- i-) 89. 
4ffMtftion, -&'-«h(in, a. The assumption of 

that which ia not natural or reel; lUse 

fed,-6dit^ Inclined ; unnatural ; &e. (r. ▼.) 
H., qffketfedhf, 46, ad.; t^Mfednme, s. 91. 

Affect^, -Ingt ft- = afeefiv^. -Yv. Pathetic ; 
tender; feeling. H., t^ecVmgly, ad. 91. 

Affection^ ftf-fSk'-ehfln, s. Passion, lore, kind- 
ness : zealous attachment. 

Affe&iumatej -At^^ a. Fond, tender, kind. 
H., t^Mtionateiy, 48, ad. ; affetftionateneee^ a. 

j|/«!'<«m«dt,-fih(ind,a. Dispoeed ; aflTected. [91. 

4^{rMt(oao,&f-fet-tS&-d'-xo^ad. Tenderl7.(mus.) 

4tflanM,&f-fI'4Uis«,s. Marriage-contract (r.y.) 

AJB/Vaneef vt. To betroth or pledge faith : — 
▼L To confide in. H., nffifanemg, p. ; t^- 
anoetL pp. ; qffif oncer, a. ; nMimemg, a. 89. 

Affidavit &f-fe-dft'-Tlt, s. A dedaratton upon 
oath ; a deposition. 

Affledi, ftf-flde', pp., a. Affianced. 

Affiliate, ftf-f Yl'-e-&t«, Tt. To adopt : to reoeiye 
as an aasodate or member; toaBsign an ille- 
gitimate child to iU father (leg.).* H., affilT- 
'-^y, p. ; i^iated,2P' > c^ffUiafUon, 86, a.89. 

y, Kf-fln'-Xt-e, s. Relation by marriage; 
connection, resemblance ; the peculiar pro- 


affirms; oonfirmative. H., e^ffirm'aticely, 

48, ad. ; affirm'atioe, s. 91. [of a word, (gr.) 

Affix, &f '-f Ix, s. Something added to the end 

Affix, &f-f Ix', Tt. To add at the end or close; 

to attach, append, subjoin. H., affixfmg, p. ; 


nant or confer ; to be able to seUt expoMi, 
«c. H., mffbrd^ing, p. ; offivrdted, pp. 
Affifreetj Sf-ior'-^ rt. To turn umd into 
forest. H., affitreetafiicm, 86, s. 89. 


'•chXs, Tt Tb make flree. 

H., affirem'eVUment^, a. 89. 
Affirau, 8f-fHL', si A brawl or petty fight 
Affi-nghU TU-fAUf, Tt To hire a ship Ibr 
freighting. H^ qffreight'er*, s.: t^ireigMf' 
--'• - «« rand their c 


sudden fear; 
ilarm or terrify. 
^ffhted, pd, a.; 
ent*, a. w. See 

en Insult; alight 

A > ftuse ; to opeolr 

, „ „JTt; H., <^^rof»r- 

ing, p. ; affironifed, pp., a. xaffirc/ttUrX, a.; af- 
frwiffment*^ s. 89. {effinmVii^ly, ad. 91. 

AffironXing,Axi%,%. AbusiTe; oontnm^ons. H., 

Affironfine^ -It, a. AbusiTe; trading to 
afflront H., t^hmtfioely, 48, ad. ; (^font- 
Ip^imm*, s. 91. 

Affiue, Ikt-tOxef, Tt 18. To pour upon; to 
sprinkle. H., aff^ing, p.; affiuedf, pp.; 
^ ^'eion, 86, s. 89. 

t, A-f5«Id', ad. To the field. 
-eX, H-tlxe^, ad. On fire. 
at, d-A^t^, tu, nd. Floating, &e. 

xv<^tt> &-tSbtf, ad. On fbut ; in action. 

AforeU lt-t6ref, ad. In time past; anterior 
to ; further forward (naut) :— pr. Before ; 
sooner or nearer in time or plaoe. H., 
qforefhandt, aforefnamedX, and other like 
compounds. [tangled. 

Afout*%, A-tawV. a. or ad. Not ftree; en- 

Afraia, H^trJuA/, a. (pp. of t^ffhtgU Tt) 
Impressed with fear ; timid. 

Afireeht, d-frteh', ad. Anew ; again ; recently. 

A^ican, ftf-re-kfin, a. = A/no. Of AiHea. 
H., (an) African, s. 91. 

^ront*, a-f^tlntf, ad. 17. In fhmt 

4/t, attf, a., ad., pr. Behind, backward* 
astern, (naut) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


4/l«r, Uff-iT-^^ W«. ; dff^r— K, We., a. 9. 
(eonp. of ^) lit!, more aft; tg^ ma. 

Apfmr^tA. Later in ttme ; sabseqiiently.fT.e.) 
AStmr^ pr. BehSad, later, IbUowinf .— 4/t«r 
it frcq. oomp. with a. and a. ; bot retaina 
it! orir. aig. : aa, apftrad^ a^trmoont a. ; 
TjftmngUt^ a. ; ttfCenom^ ad. (t. a.) 
Verbirth, a. The plaeenta ana memhranca 


awfl^ after dellTery. 

. Uaexpeeted or dieagrceal 

ag after the principal aflktr. 

4fteHumn, a. pL Hoora following boainefa. 

'" -mKfa, a. The leoond crop of 

I lamn eeaeon. (agr.) 

I. (rep. of ^fi), Hindmoat; 

stem (nant.). [ereaing. 

AfT^mocm^ a. The time b e t wee n noon and 

, JUrtrpaim M ^ & pL Thoee foUowhig childbirth. 

Jtffmrjitn^ a. A ahort piece or ikrce per- 

tinned after the pUy. (thea.) 

AJVtnaiUt a. pL Thoee on the mlsen-maat 

and ata^B. [anoeeeding time. 

4/r«nMrd» -w«rd, ad. 9. = if/KariMn£t- In 

^li)air-gj|» a. A Tnrkiah military title, [more. 

^ Jitaim^ d-flte', ad. 6. A aeoond time; once 

^ JLgmimd, J-gdnaf, pr. «. In oppoaition to; 

X afereaal; doeeto; inproriaion. 

Ammu$iU ig'-^MnM, a. One unmarried. 
J^mm^n, ^-d-mOa, a. Without Tiaible 

organs of froetifleatloiL (hot) 
.d^^pa, d-fAptf'— 8., K., <^gdp«'— Wa., We., 
, adL Gaping; staring with eagemeaa or 

imm in, Ig^-^gHft, a. Agennsofihngi. 
4#i<a. V-ltf. ig'-HS. a. A rare rarlety of 

oBartz; a tool need by gold-wire drawers. 
.d/afiR«.-«-11te, Of agate. 
Jl/aliaai,-tlad,a.«0. Marked like an agate. 
^arfwft» •■0«/-hifc ad. Lookhigon. 
Ji09,%e,%. The "Me period of life or ezist- 
CM^ersasMpartoTit; the decline of life ; 
lignlHisliiirry; a pcrtienlar period of time; 
nesntlon; a aqitttry, date, era, epoch. 
i^)U: IUd% a. Old; baring llred. 
s. OUpasBona. [H., o'^MUy, ad. 91. 
f^lte^e, 8. Ix^uenoe, operation. 
le^aK^; the oflloe or bnaineaa of 
,r-itet,a. AetiTe. [an agent. 

s. He or that which acta or exerta 
n deputy or betor. H., afgenUMp^t 



Xg'-r/^T&t^, Tt. To make beavyf ; 
. . to fliake worae; to make lea* tolerable; 

to exaggerate; to proToke or irrlutct H^ 

ag/ravatinf, p. ; agg'ravated, pp., a. ; 

o^y'rava^, a. ; oggrava^tiant 8(B, a. 89. 
A^ynya^a, Ic'-re-gtt^, a. In aaaemblage. H., 

agarregdUly, ad. 91. 
AgjrrtgaU, a. A collection of partioolara or 

parte ; the anm or maaa ; the whole. 
Ag/regatt, Tt. To rather into one aom or 

maaa; to accamolate. H., agg'rtMUmg, 

p. ; ag^TtgaUd, pp. ; agffrtgator, 2d, a. ; 

uggrtgttiMm, 86, a. 89. 
Aggfngaimt, -tlv, a. 4fi. OoUeetire. H., 

og^rtgtModg, 4S, ad. 91. 
Aggrtu, iff-gics', ri. To commit the ilrat 

act of Tidence or hoetility . H., aggmtfmg, 

p. ; aggr9$ut, pp. ; aggrmfmrr, 17, e. ; 

aggr^iion^ -grfiah -On, a. 89. 
Aggrmfine, -Iv, a. tf . Tending to, or relating 

to the flrat attack. 
Aggrievtt ig-gr«T«', it. To griere: to preaa 

hard upon; to injure In one*8 right:— Ti. 

To mouxnf, in. H.^ «yyH«Vm^, p. ; ag- 

gritved't pp.; Munav'aNaa, a. 80. See 
Aggrmip^t Tt See Orovp, [Oritv* Ae. 

AgKaat, 4-gist, -gdSt-K., We., a., ad. 9. 

Htarilled ; paxalyaed with andden terror. 
AgiU, id'-jn, a. 46. AcUtc, nimUe. H., 

cfgUOg, 48, ad.; o'>i^«ftl, agiVity^ 

«-jIl'-It^ a. 91. 
Agio, i'-Jfr-o, IU'-y*6— It, a. Premium on 

money, (oomm.) 
A^ioto^idJ-y'o-t!(J,a. Stock-Jobbing, (comm.) 
Agin, d-J1at', Tt. To take In the eatUe of 

othera to grase. H.. agi^or, ag%$U^tor, 

25, a. ; agitfmml, a. (leg.) 89. 
AgitaU, l^^^tat^ rt. To put in motion; to 

ahake or atir Tiolently ; to diatnrb or ex- 
cite; to diacnaa, canraaa, or deliberate on. 

H., a^'giiaHng. p. ; aTgiiaUd, pp. ; af'gUator, 

S5, a. ; o^tfiteM^iA, a. ; agitaftiom, 88, a. 89. 
Agitative, IJ'-, a. Haring power or tendency 

to agitate. H., orgita h v inuit , a. 91. 
J^,kg'-iet.a. = a&Ki'-. A figured tag; 

a pendant (bot) 
Agmimat», ig'-mlk-U, a. 

Agnail, Xg'-nale, a 
AgnaU, Ig'-nAt^, i 
aooiding in the male line. 

Of a troop or army. 
A whitlow. 

. (an)'*!/- 
)9L a\tg.) 

Paternally related ; de- 
le line. H., f • • 
note. a. ; agiuiftion, 86, a. (leg.) 91. 

Agnatie, Ig-n&t'-Ik, a. Belating to agniatioii. 

Agmtion, Ag-nlah'-ttn, a. Acknowledgment 

A^osMfi, ftg-4id -mta, a. An additional name; 
a aumame. [since. 

Ago, A-gd', ad. = agonH, -ffin'. Past : gone; 

AgiigX , o-fdg't "d. Highly excited and eager. 

Ajfowu/X, akgb'-Ing, ad. In motion. 

A^fontam*, ftg'-o-ninn, a. Contention for a 
prise in pubUc games. 

Ag'ontM, -nlze, vt 60. To torture* : — ri. To 
writhe with or auflSer exceaaire pAin or an- 
guish. H., a^omamg, p. ; offoniMcd, pp. 

Ag^ommng, -nlx«-In^, a. Cauaing extreme 
pain. H., ag'onittngly, ad. 91. 

Aj^onitt*, -nXat, a. == agonitta*, -vXaf-tH. A 
priso-fighter. H., ogomtfHe, agoiritftieal, 
a. ; ogomaftiedU9, 43, ad. 90. 

il^ony, ag'-o-ne, a. Pain caoaing writhing or 
contornona; h., any riolent pain or an- 
guish either of body or mind; the panga of 
death ; Tialent contention*. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Jgrmrian, H'p§xe''9 
or to afraruadsB. 

e' 9 in, a. Bdttliigtolandi, 

Afrar'nimmt -fan, ■. The tqiul diTMon of 
land or prt^er^ ; also tbe prindplM, fto. 

-lfr««.Sp«r^"SiSiDitt: — tL Tobaof 
one mind ; to live in bamumy; to graat or 
aaaent to; to reae m bla^ aait, bargain, eon- 
traet; to be oonatrtwit, BL, dffWiRyt P-; 
^yvMr, pp. ; ofire^mMt, §. 80. 

Jgr^mbU, -iU, a. SoltaMe to: pleaaiiu; 
in jNUsaaaoe ot EL am^mUtf, U, ad.; 
agryM^abUnett. agreettbirU^, a. 91. 


A bargain, eon- 
,); oonoord (gr.). 

tract, or Btipiilation (< 
Jire$tkf, A.gHlt'-tXk, a. 

thefieUa: roral; rostie. 
Ag'riemUorf,».». A hoabaadman. (t. i.) 
J^riettirimna, -Ortf-U, a. Bdating to agri- 

onltore. (▼• L) 
j£ricMlter«,ig'-re-kmt-ar«,i^ ^agneokiftkm: 

The art or praoOoe of onltiTating land on the 

large aoale; boabandry; tillage. 
J#rie«ir«rife,-Or04st,a. One skilled in agrio. 
J/rteMNw, ag'-reHmOiH8, a. 17. A plant 
Agnmtii A-grownd\ ad. Stranded (aaut) ; 

stopped, blnderedl. 
Agm, i'-gd* a. 18. An intermittent fever; 

A0mdX,V-9^A».%, Having ague. 

OrgUtMmUiWlt S. VI. 

shivering. H., 

Ah, SK, int. Denoting surprise, pity, dis- 
like, joy, Ae., aea to ue man. of utterance. 

.^Ao, JMid;^', int. Expressing triumph, plea- 
sure, eontempC, or sorprisa. (t. s.) 

Akaadu d-hfid', ad. nirther on; onward: 
headlong, preeipitantly. • [(nant) 

ulAoy, ^^hoyV int. or imp. ^pUa I attend yel 


^<(f,''lds,s.'eai(r<mM»: Help, i 

sistsnoe ; a hdpert ; a subsidy (leg.). 
^id. Ids, Tt. To help, aaslBt, sustaJn. H., 

tfir^v* P- ; oid's^ 
iUdon^, fldZ-fait, a. 
Aid-d^-caww, id^r'-iVkSn^, a. (prop., oMs-.) 

A mil. omoer who ocmveys orders. (Fr.) 
AUrUm,%. Helpless. 
Aigrt\, &'-gfir, a. 57. Sour. 

i'-go-lM. a. The point or tag on 
• ; a small skewer. 
^•Lftl«,vt To give pain or make sicUyt: — 

▼L^loftoloafii; tobeslekly. n^tM'ing, 

^a. ; oOeff, pp. rtkm, diaease. 

_ Mfi<, -mtet, s. s oOf. Pifiii, indisposi- 
^<Bi.Sm^,s. A directing towards; a purpose, 

sooeme. object ; endeavour. 
^isi,vt. Todireetorpr^ectamiasile: — Ti. 
To point or level at; toolreot the intention ; 
to tend towar^ endeavour, or design. H., 
tntn'ingf p. ; oimt^t pp. ; okKfer, s. 89. 

' s. The 
. _ , ali^t 
its Isading parta; mien, look, gesture; 




Without aim. 

Hie fluid we breathe, the 
i agas; a lifrt brecse ; a tu ne, 
vs A«« aoauuig partB. nucn, look, gesture; 
afllBoted manner : —pL, ailbotation, haughti- 
ness. H., akr'-baUooii, air^-bladder, ak'-fivn, 
te., ten in sU of which it pres. its orig. sig. 
Air, rU To expose to the air ; to ventilate ; 

to dry and warm 

rm bythe 
; oiKsr.s. 


p. : aJrMT, pp. ; otKsr, s. 89. ii<. *.; 

^trta^, s._Exponffe to air ; a short journey. 

H., ak'mff 

Ak'lm, -Us, a. 

Yotd €t, or wanting air. 


Air'Und*, -Ung, a. A thoughtless penon. 

Ak* tight, tu Imperm e able to air. 

An'y, -e, a. Of air: well ventilated; a&ia] 

light, unsubstantial, gay, sprightly. BE 

mr*uy, 48» ad. : ak'wum^u 91. 
.iisis, Ik, s. =3 oOs*, He. The side-walks of 

church ; pop. the open parts nnenanectc 
^ui«ft,11d\a. Having aisles, [with tbe servlo 
AiLVU,%. A small ialand in a river or lak« 

' •, a-jAr'.ad. A little opened. 

"^V.a. BeUtedbyblood;a]Uedl 

naoire; ekwsly resembUng. 
Ai-,ftl,pfiE. The. (Ar.) See .id-. 
AUkuUr, U'-A-b«s-ter, s. A line oompa^ 

variety of gypsum. 
AFabatUr, tu sx olabtu'trian. Of or like alt 

Aladet,dr\Xkf,iaL^al4Kt-a-ia^, Alas, 
^toflrimtf*, 4-Uk'-re-«e, a. CbeerfU;r«a4 

H., aIat^riou$l9*, ad. ; •tec'rioMnsM*, a. 9 
AUufrUff, -rifr-e, s. Cheerful readiaeac 

Akmo40, Al-d-m5d/, ad. After tiie fsshicw 
.dtefi^, MAnd' ad. At or on land. ((Fx 
.dionKiM, ^linMIki, a. InuUn. 
.dAir*, r-Ubr, a. M. Of or having v 
Alanm,mdtrm\%, A cry or sound of a 

sudden surprise with fesr ; sn alaramt. 
Alarm', vt. To give notice of danger; k> dj 

turb or surprise with apprdiennon of daj 

ger. Hn tuarmlifig, p. ; olorsKd, pp. ; (ai 

(Uarm'iti, a. 89. 
Aimrmfima, -Ing, a. Exciting alarm. 1^ 

alarm'wglify 48, ad. (v. v.) 91. 
Alarum, i-W'^im, s. S8. Alarm*; u do 

that rings a bsU at any given time, 
^lory, al^«r-e, a. Wmg^like. 
Ala», aAigf, int. Expressing sorrow. 
Alb, Alb^ s. A speetes of surplice. 
^J&a<ros^Ar-bai-tr«s,s. A very large aea-bU 
ulOsi^, lurr-bMt, ad. r= UOiet. Altboud 

be it so. (wblOi 

AUmemU, U-bSs'-^nt, n. Growlag wbi^ 
AUtmiam, Al'-bln-Xsm, s. = aSbifimmm, St^ 

of being sn slUno. 
Albmo, u-bf-no,s. A white negro; a per< 

ununiaUy pale or cadavenms. (of an ei 
iUfrv<MS(Wf,A14>a-jIn'-y'as,a. Like the wh 
AUmgo, Al-ba'-gd, Sb The white of the «ye 
AUmm, U'-bflm, s. A bhmk book in whj 

friends insert autographs or short pieoes, 

memorials for each otner ; a ornnmompUi 

AUmmm, Al-bd'-mte, a. The white of en 

also a like substance ibund in animal bod 

Aan^rnkwuB, -ds, a. Of or like albumen. 
Albmrnum, u-bdm'-llm, s. The whlta, t 

wood, next below the inner bark ; the » 

AUahetL fll'-Ui-hfist. s. = oXkahaaL A p 

tended universal solvent, (alch.) 
.lloa^Al-kA'-Dca. Belating toAkaeos, oi 

a verse invented by him. 
Alcaid, Al-kBdtf', s. A governor (Bnrbi) i 

muHstrate (Port) ; a Jailer (Sp.) 
Alcalde, -kal^-dft, a. A magistrate or Jtid 
Aletdo, -se'-do, s. The Un^i^her. (L.) f (S 
.dtoA<mio,ll-kIm'-Ik,a.Bs«dUm'ioa/. R^ 

tteg to alchemy. H., aiehem'iMM^, 48, ad, 
^f eAsenss*. -mlx«, vt. 60. To transorate. 
Akhemitt, U'-^e-mlst, s. One who pructi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


a. ; cJtoM'lMM, M, ft 88. 
JImim», ab-7<n/, Tt. = o^ISn*. Tb attaaate. 
^/mmm^ -Tte-S", t. Om to wbom a thing to 

^li/SrrMi«» d-nr-Sr-Oa, a. Baying wingi. 
''-'— U'-a-form, a. M. Wing^ped. 

j^lU'-«r-(U, a. HaTioff winga. 

^llMJUl, Mittf'. ad. Oni^ 

AlSgW^ tL To dcMead : to iUl opon. H., 

luighlfimQ, p. ; aiiakftd, pp. 
^Mw, ^Uk/I a. Without diiKiBrniee; ■imi- 

lar:— ad. Eqvallj; dmIlailT. 
AUmmi, iy-^vaitnt, •* Nooriahment; food. 
Aimtmfal,-id,tL^aiimo'niout». Supplying 

food; nutritiooa. H., aimtntaUv, ad. 91. 
AUmmWmrv^'ir-^M.iS. Pertaining to food; 

aUMntaL K^ alimeiUfoHiusi, b. 9L 
Ah m m tati im, -T-ahttn, ■. The aet, power, 

or alate of noorisliing or being nourished. 
MiwimtivMeu, -Yr-nte. a. The organ which 

fltrea a dedre for food and drink, (phren.) 
JM mon if, il'-»«idn-«. •. 17. The sum set 

apart for the nae of the wifo on Mparation 

from her husband, (leg.) [ezactW. 

.Hiftiant, ftl'-o-kwftnt, a. That doea not dirida 
Al'touot, -kw5t, a. That meaanres or dirides 

without a remainder. 
AU^, air-lah^ 9, Like ale. 
AKve, S^VtfSf a. Lining, existing; aetive, 

sprightly, susceptible. [dple in madder. 
^HsffrwMiA-as'-a-rln, &0& A colouring prifr- 
Afkahsttf s. See Aleahett. 
AlkaUMnty U-kZt-Us'-«nt, a. Tending to be, 

or slightly alkaline. H., aOtaJUifeence^ alka- 

lea^oeney, -^n-ae, s. 91. 
Alkali, ftP-UMe, -11, s. (pi., atkaliei, -Uz.) A 

substance capable ox neutralising addlty. 

and of turning veg. blues into green, and 

veg. yellows, brown ; potaasa, soda, or 

ammonia. (In this word, and its oomp., o 

is now oceasionally substituted for k.) 
Alkali/^, &l-kAr-o-fI, &l'-Uf-le-fT~We., vt. 

To conrert into an alkali :—yL To beooma 

alkaline. H., aUcaPifffing, p.; alka^i/Udf 

pp. I atiati/UUfl^ a. 89. 
AUtaiLmoM, -Oi'-m-iiM, 9u Producing alkalL 
Alkahmstar, -Ilm'-e-t&r. s. 57. An inttr. used 

in tasting the strength of alkaliea. 
Alkdlmfetry. -tre, a. The art of finding tha 

strength of aUuuiea. 
Alkaline, al'-kA-Un, -lTn«, a. 58 >= dOufWm^, 

HaTing the qualitiea of an alkaU. H., aUta- 

tm*iijf, 4i, K 91. 
ArkiUue,-llze,yU = alkaruaU\.eQ. To make 

alkaline.^., atkalimng, p. ; oTkaUud, pp. -y 

dekaUaahU, 45, a. ; aUtatUofHoit, 86, a. 89. 
.d23i(aMd.U'-k/^loyd,B.39. The basic or alka- 
line principle of a TSgetable ; a Tegeto-alkall. 
^£lEaiM^ AT-k^nfit, a. A plant yielding a red 
Alkenna, U-kbi'-^ a. See Htma. [dye. 
AUtermetf AMUhr'-m^ a. A eonfbetion; a 

compound cordiBl. 
Atkoran, a. See Aleoron. [of. 

AUy ill or ltd, a. 8. The whole of ; every one 
AU, ad. whoUy ; completely ; by aU. 
AUj a. Tha whole; erery one. {AU (a. and 

ad.) ia f^. oomp., but atOl retaina ita oris. 

aig. ; aa, aUrmban'domd, aUr^wnftrful, oO- 

AU-foob-day,'iSSh^',B, PirttofApriL 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



AW-^m^t t. A guM at eaidi:— ad. On 
^U-AoO, -hal/« Int AU beidtb. [four knf. 
AU-haUowt, 'hiX'-Qu, s. » ott-hathm. All- 

Mint>'-d«T. H., a^/-*arA>MHiMM» oU-Aoi'. 
AH-MmUtf-ia^, a. Pint of Nor. [<o«KtMit, Ac. 
^//^umif'wiay', -aOUs-, t. SeoondofNoT. 
^/{ofitoie, U-lto-tA'-Ik, a. Of tbe olton'toif, a 

nMmbrane eoTak^iiiiff tha foBiaa. 
AlloMt Al-li\ Tt To alloyt ; to r«pr«M. quiet* 

redaoe. H., aUof^ingt p. : dUoytdrt PP^ » 

allay'trt, t. : aUa^ingX^ aUotf'mmtXt s. 89. 
AOeffokom, fil-b-gt'-ahOn, a. PoattiTe aaaar- 

tion. (T. 1.) 

', Tt. »2. (prof- «IWi»,— W«.) To 
tee, elt«i declare, affirm, tt.. oXUdma^ 

p.; aU<y«(i', pa; M^er, a.; aUiff^iM^, 

45» a. ; aUM&on^ alUg^wuntf, a. 88. 
AlUaiamee, U-Wc'-ytaa^, a. tf . The dn^ of 

•abjecta to Um gor. or atata ; fidelity ; 
^U/'^MMUf. -Tint, a. LojaL [loyalty. 

Allegoric, il-e-gdr'-Xk, a. a MMtn^ical. M. 

Like an allefory : flgnratiTe. IL, aUtgor'ia- 

ally, iS, ad. ; <Meior^icalum$, a. 9L 
^/<«yiorJM, U'-«-g(MlK, Tt, rl. 60. To tarn 

into, or nae allegory. H., otUgoriMed, pp. ; 

arUfforiser*, t^Ugoritt, a. 88. 
ASUgvry, &l'-c^^-e, a. 17. A flgnratiTe aan- 

tenoe or diaeoorae. 
^U^yrv, U46'-gro, ad. Merrily; eheerftilly:— 

K cheerAilnesa ; a brisk morement (mua.). 
AM^iak, S^eSalMmah, 
Allewumd*^ U-le-mihid', a. A Qer. daneeu 
.i/Jmo^ U-ir-Te-ftt^i Tt. To make light : to 

allay, ease, aoften; to extenoata. H.| alU- 

^U/vio^e, -Ur, a. PalliatiTe. 
AlUy, U'-e, a. (pL, ol'^a) A narrow walk 
: a eboioe taw QnT.). 

a. The ; 

of aeTeral 

Amial, ftui'-hSU, 

planta and noatru 
AlHacmnu, U-o-a'-ah'tla, a. 37. Like garlie. 
AUUmcCf u-U-ttnatf, a. A league ; onion hy 

treaty or marriage. See ul%. 
AUUa, ftl-llz^, a. pL States kagoed for Joint 

defence or attadu See AlUf, 
AUipat^, 9l'-9-gnxe, ru Tottetcwether. 
AJl%(fa H o n t -gft'-ahttn, a. Amleofarlthmetio. 

(t. t.) [erooodile. 

AJtUaaior, U'-^^-tOr, a. 25. The American 
AUlfatur^,Vi'W-VU4}xeyUl&. A ligature. 
.i/^moMt. il-Uxh^On, a. 8Jk OoUition. 
AUUeraAM, U4If -4hM-tlT, a. Containing two 

or more worda doee to eaeh other which 

begin with the aame letter. U,, aUiUr^tion, 

^UoeaiMw*, il-o^'-ebftn, a. An allowance 

made upon an aoooont. (leg.) 
.dUodM/.UrUSd^-y'fil.a.i^.sa^iJNm*. Not 

held or a auperior (app. to lands). 
AUapathie, U-lo-pKthMk, a. Pertaining to 

allopathy. B^ altopath'ieaU^, nA. 91. 
Ailopothv, U-ltfp'-^the, a. Lit, another dis- 
ease ; ordinary medical practice as opposed 

to bonuDopathy. H., (an) aiMatkitt, a 90. 
AUot,ia-W,n. To grant, diTide, distribute, 

^portion. H., mllotfing, p. ; aUoWcd, pp. ; 

AllofmmLB, That which ia alloOed. (t. t.) 
AUow, U-Uw', Tt. S3. To admit, aanotioo, 

grant, yield, abate, permit IL, allm^mf, 

p. ; aUmew, ~ 




AlUm^aih, -ibl, a. That may be alknnd 
H., alioN^oMy, 48, ad. ; aliotifabknM$t a. 81 

AUovfartM, -take, a. The act of allowing 
that which ia allowod. 

AUo^ To limit to a certain quantity 

AUo^, il-loy'i a. ». A mixtare of diflbrea 
melala (ezc mereury) ; the baaer meta 
mixed with a finer one ; llg., anything whid 
leaaena or debaaes. 

Alio/, Tt To cheapen or mix metala; t* 
debaae by admixture. H.. aUo/m§, p. 
tMo/ed, pp. ; oMytn^, aUoi^a^ a. 80. 

.iUsMos, iun'-apiB«, a. flmento. 

AUwU, U-l'«MVvL r . T^ hint at : to refM 
to Indirect^. IL, aiU^mg, p. ; allied, pr 

AUyr», U-mr', Tt 97. To attract by ( 
thing flattering or acceptable; to « 
decoy, aednee. H., aiHtr'mf, p., a. ; m U ftrg d 
pp.; allOr^tr, a. ; mllmr^mmtt a. 88. 

Am^rmp^ InTtting; attxaeaTU, templing. H 
aiU^kul^M. ad.) atfflr^ii y waa*, n (t. t.)9] 

iiMi«<(M,il-l'SO'-shCln,B. Indireeti 

AIMMV0, -elT, a. = alMtory, 8A. Hiattac a 
aomething. H., olMtMf, ad.; •UWsm 

AUmM, il-l*Q9V-T'il, a. 45. «= alh^viotu* 

Waahed down and depcalted by water. 

AlMvimn, -l*0&T'-ytim, a. a aUt^viom, 13 

AUuTlal matter. (geoL) [AUm 

^%,U-ir,a.48. AMendoreonfederata. 8e 

AJIf', Tt To unite by kindred, friendahii 

oonfiDderaoy, or reeemblaniw. u- olly'ifii 

p. ; aUiett, pp. : mlU^mtec, a. (t. a.) 88. 

iiAnafMM,ii0l'-mdHkik, a. 8. A yearly oatondai 

Almightv, iwl-mlU'^tu Of unlimited powe« 

omnipotent H., almiffkfilf, 48. ad. ( (Uu 

Almufhf^, a. 91. (almond-tro 

Almond, d^'-mttnd, a. 7, 17. The fruit of tb 

Almonor, il'-mflft^, a. 17. A diatrUmtar < 

Afmomy, -re, a. The place fbr atana. (aim 

iNos^ HvA'-n 

^/iiMM^¥wl'-mdat,ad.8. Neariy. 


Alm$^4PimM', a. pL,7. , Anything gtvaa to tl 

, a. Buildings for the r _ 
decayed tradera, ftc, on priTate char, foni 
dationa. (Bag.) [hug a amnU wld 

Almfhi, iid'-nlt«, a. Acakeof wax, *«., bea 

Ahe, U'-o, a. A auceulent plant; a trea yieL 
ing an odoroua wood. 

Aloi$» U'-ds«, a. A purgatlTe drug. 

Alo^,}^'-^^'tk,u,^mto0fieaL 01 area 
talnlng aloea. H., (an) olootie, a. (mad.) fl 

.d^m7*.l«t',ad. On high; I 

Akms, a-lta^, a. Singte; aolitary; ^tho 

company:— ad. Separately; aiagly. 
.ilon^, tf-Ung', ad. » olsfMsrt. Lengthwia 

onward: in company. H., ^hn/^mide, i 

(naat) 93. Atadi8taaoe.H.,«foq 

fue«t*i ■. 99. [Fox-acarf ; baldne 

Alopeotf, il'-o-pS-se^ a. cs tOoptTeia^ ^ 
.AlMi^ d-lowd', ad. 98. Loudly. 
Aip«tea, 41-p4k'-d, a. The PeruTian ahee 

alao a fUnio prof, woren from ita hair. 
A^hOf il'-fd. a. The Or. a; h., tha lln^ 

the beginning. Icimm 

AMmbtt, «l'-f«-bet, a. Thelattara of aTS 
AVph&beLyL To arrange alphalMrticaUT*^ 
AlphahiUc, -bfif-Ik, a. » ^fMtt^ieal. . 

the order of the alph. ; poaaeaaing an tfl 

H., alphabefieaUp, 48, ad. 9L . 

AMne, U'-pIn; -pins— K., Ja.. a. 45^ 

from, or like the Alpe; Tary eteratad. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

AlM^bM, ilr-kMB^ 1^ AnoreoTtotd. 
wlfc^Mlt^Mfl«f-«,ad.8. Nov, or before tlM 

^ .^Um, tef-M^ •<. 8. In Uke nwniMr. 
^ ^ ftwyto f-tir, ■■ a,Jg. A ne^ >pl>ce on which 

lian-tahto; iV^nplMeorwonhip. [ttons. 
jf IfarMV, -1^ a. Emotemoit from obto- 
J h rn y t K i t, -pgoe, ». A printing, or doeora- 

tlonst pl>ffil ow sn altar. 
JUar, fti^-ier, n. 8. Ibokangn, cIUmt whoUy 

vinpnrt:— tL Tofarjorbeoomediflirait. 

H- mttwimm, n.; mfUred, •pp.x dUmraftion^ 

If (Blw tC^mngn nuule), t. 8d. 
JlHwaUi^ -CM, IL. That may tutt or be 

^■fedL H..anir«Mr, iS, ed.; oftovMf- 

S6. s aTUrmU*, 
Hatter pomnr to altar, (med.) 
jrtmSm,m. A aed. whidk hidncea healthj 

JHmmtB, ir-««r-klU, tL To dtapnto or 
■ lamlB ^^H., BtUrcatimg, p.; ayUrc^Ud, 

^&Bm\ ir-tfn, il-tten% 'n. s aj'timan^ 
AflOwbgrtaM. H., att«ni'«w», 48, •. n. 

Aritnumt,4at,». In alternating l«7era.(geol.) 

.dflamuli, iUicn'-ito, a. Bytnma: redpro- 
mL H, mUtm'mUfy, ad. ; (an) aUsm'oU^, 
M, ; ntemfafBMBi^ a. 91. 

Jlfiroafi, ir^lirB-tttf-^a., We.. -tem'-K., 
&, WaLt Tt. To parfinn, plaoe, or ebange 
by tnma:— ^ To htBoen, aet, or follow 
by tana. H., atttr mai m f , p. ; afUmattd, 
pp.; jlfariM^llww, 88, a» 89. 

JJBmaraUB^ •*4i9,m. 45. Olteing a diolee 
oTtwothbvk CL,aitow'aiMy, 48, ad.; 
iMiy aK ar n^tt ii i m , a.; atttm 'afw w wtt, a. 91. 

it R ai y b, JMt j MT, e on, or imp, 8. Grant; 

AWterwit?5 tagrldtf, n. Bialng on high. 
:iliflagMWiii*,lW^4cwenagba.a. Poqwwm 
laV*<VB> (taking haighti. 

, a. 67; Anlnatr. ibr 
JUiw^afty, -tn, a. Art of meMoring altitadaa. 
AMmmI», A-OTHMitat, n. » 



AhmOar, il'^-oAir, a. IB. a mh^Umy, 

Containing aoekela. (anal.) 
AhtfolaU^Alkie^*. DlTlded into eella or pita. 
AtveoU, -^ a. s oUt^olm, The aooket of a 

AMns^U'-y^tuiS. Of or Ihxn tha beilj. 
Ahoatu, fttof-wixtf, a. =s oftvoyf. 8. Ferpe- 

tnaUy; conatantiV; f^nently; fDrerer. 
.i«S&in,Tl. Seelir. 

AMoMMy, &>nul-ba'-It-«, a. Seo^aiteMf. 
AuMi^Qii, Am'-d-dJRV, n A apeelaa of 1 

reeemh. doo-akln leather, need for 

and plaatera. (Fr.) 
Amm^I, d-mln^, ad. With foree; Tiolently. 
A malg mm, d-nUU'-gftm, a. A eomp. of i 

enijwithanoth«rnietal(ehem.); amiztnret. 

Awta rg mm att , -gd-Blttf, Tt. s ammTgamia^, 
amtu'gawui, M. To eomhina nare nr y with 
ooo or more meCala (ehem.) ; to blend intl- 
mat^t* H., mmafgtmuUtmf, p. ; mmaXftk' 
maUOf pp. ; o ma lp awui^iitm, 88, a. 89. 

Am anum m B. d-min-<t-fafc*-eto, a. 18. One who 
writes under diotatlon, or oopies for anoUier. 

Amtaranth, im'-^rinth, a. « omm r am t k ' mt 
L. Aflower; aeolonrindlningtovarplei 
poeL, a flower which nerar tedea. [ranths. 

AMartmtk'me, -In, a. 45. Of or like ama> 

AflMfifwif*, d-mftr'-o-tOdtf, a. Bitterncaa. 

AffMirylKt, tai-A-rn'-la, a. The UlT^^aphodel. 

Ama99, a-uM, Tt Td eoUeet together; to 
heap npL H., amoa^mg, p. ; oaiMaHf , pp. ; 
oauM/Ma*^ a. 89. 

AmaUm-t Am'-d-tSr/, a. 99. One who enltlTatea 
a study or art from taate, not for gain. (FrO 

Amatio^t Am'-4-tlT, a. 45. Amatory. H., 
otN'olnwftf*, 48, ad. ; am'oMwnasf, a. 91. 

Amatorial. -tOrf'-o-U, a. s oaMto^riowtf, 
amoM'ntmf^, Amatory. H^ amaUf'riaUy, 
ad. 9L [eanaing lore. 

- fttingto, 

Am'atoryf -tfir-^ a. 17. Relating to, or 
Aflumrosuk ftm-at^rO'-ela, a. Decay or loaa of 

eight, without Tialble defset in the eye. 
AsmioM^ d-mls«', tL To confbae with audden 

fear; to aatonish or sorprise. U^amOafingt 

p. I oaMiid# , pp., a. ; onMBM't, mmm e 'mmt^ 

a. 89. [ad. ; Mnds'adlnMiL a. 91. 

.iflMusd, -m&sd'. a. (T. T.) H., Mnds'MUy, 48, 
Amal'wma^ a. very wonoerAU or perpUndng. 

H., amMii^, ad. 91. 
AMnaon, im'-d-sOn, a. 17. A female warrior; 

h., n maaenline w<Mnan> 
AmoMoman. -ate^-yin, a. Of the rirer 

Amaxon (geog.) ; warilka, maaenline. 
Amh^ pte. Both ; abont (L.) 
AfN^^if*, lm-bft'-J8e, a. pL Clreomlocntion. 
Ambauadort Am-bAa'-4-d(ir, a. S5 (f ., ambaufcH 

dru$), A public minlater at a foreign court. 

(prof., §miaa$ader,\ See Emlbuaay, 
AfiStr, Im'-Mhr, a. 25. A hard foaaU rcain. 

Hn amfbtr (made of), a. 90. 
Aai^6ar»,Tt. Toacentwith 

AM'darym, -gxla, -grCs^, a. A coatly per- 
Am'bef^SHd, B. Muak-seed. 
AmMfattor, im-bo-dfik«'-t«r, a. One who 

naca both handa alike. 
AmbkUaiflrou»t -trtta, a. HaTing equal use 

of either hand ; fig., double-dealing. H., 

amhideaftrotuiyt 48, ad.; amhitUx'trou^ 

fMSS», amUde^ttritytt «• 91. 
AfliNint, im'-be-tet, a. Burrounding. 
AmUamUy, Am-be-ga'-It^ si 18. Obeenreneaa ; 

double meaning, (t. a.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jmhi§tt§u9t -Ug'-a-«s, a. Obteore: ^yfng 

two or more meaaiagB. H^ m m U ^ poiu ly , 

4S, ad. ; am big' m mm e § t t t. 9L [toft haadt. 

Amba09tmtl*t ftm-be-lT-Tfia. a. HaTiag both 

AmbUoMMxk-MBL'-oAej^ AmUgoooadiaooime. 

Amhiyopm, -kwe, a. St. Aabigolty of 

enreaaoB. [oonipaM or cirenlt 

Amtkf', ia'4»It, t. b m^hiimd^, 18. The 

Ambition, ftm-b9(th'-tin, a. The dcelre of ex- 

oeUenea, mpertoritj, prefernMnt, honovr, 

fMna^ or powv. H^ ambe ' thn lmi (vitiumt 

Ad.), a. 90. 

amU'iioutlp, ad.; ambeuitmnn^, s. 91. 
Ambkt tak*-Vk, n A peeoUar paea between a 

.Afli^ ^. To pace eadly or datotily. H.. 

Mi'MMMupu a.: Mi'MftiypBt; Mi'Mer«8. 89. 
Ambrei4, iA-MMQc, a. oTamteeine. H., 

ambrtrie meidf u, 9U (ambergris. 

AmbrMm,'W^». The aotiTe priaeiiSB of 
.Am&rW «m4}rO^^'2l, a. li, S7. Theima- 

gtaarrfbodofthegoda. (mrth.) 
Amkrt^tiait -ih'il, a. 85. Of ambroaia; de- 

leetabto. U^ mmMtfiaO^, mdu 91, [broee. 
.AMAfViiaiH-Kh'iBta. Ambrosial ; of St Am- 
Ambry, im'-bra, a. Almoory. 
Ambuimndt, ba'-hOrUaMt, •.IB. TbeaoTable 

hospital of aa army. [am'btflanfiif; s. 91. 
Ain^mtmL-lAalt^tk. WaOdag; flM>vlnff. H., 
Am'btaaUi,4Mte, jL To walk; to more hither 

and thither. H., amftwM'Kim, s. 89. 
Am'MilMtorvt -tAr-«, a. 3ft. Amhnlant; — s. 

A place for walhing. [To ambosh. 

Amb u i md », fai'-btta-kid<, a. Ambush: —n. 
An^tuk, ftm'-bdteh, s.21. AlyiDgiBwaltfor; 

a eonesaled post where troorn I ' 

watt to trap or sarprlse their yi _ 
Am'bmh, tL To sorprise. Ac : — tL To lie 

in ambosh. H., am'bmhimf, p. ; am bm sht^f , 

pp. : oeiftMA'nMfi^, s. 88. 
AvMlioraU, A-ma/-70-rit«» Tt. To Imp cofe ; 

tomakabetlsr: — vL Togrowbetter. H., 

mMfioraUngt P«» tmi ^ k rat t i , pp^ a.; 

mmtfiaraiort a. 30 ; MairioraMc, 45, a. : 

.AaMN, tmJkk' — J., K., P., WOn t'-mSii'— 8., 

Wa.; J'-mte,lnohBat.}ad.orimp. Traly; 
Amm\%. Pachangeahienses (scrip.) [be it so. 
il«iaV/s, J^mW-aa, a, LlaUe; aeeoant- 

ahle. H., amtn'abiy, a, ad.; mmem'able- 

mt^j Mmmabii^itff; a. 9L 
Amend, ^Mnind', n. To eorreet» improrc^ or 

reform:— tL To crovr better. H., awiw#- 

ittf, p. ; mmenttm, pp., a. ; mnmt t w*, a. ; 

" ' ri^-«4Sr4,aa7. OorrecdTe. (b.89. 
~ V a. 99. Baparathm ; retiaeta- 
, a. AnaddWon 
oc alteration proposed to be made iaablll 
or motton. (parL ; y. T^ 
Ammdi, -mfinda', s. pL Bee ompea s e [era. 
ul«iM%, d-m6n'-»4e» a. Plesaantaasa to die 
Amtree, droXn/, rt To ponieh with a flae. 
ILt mmtr^imm, p. : omtr et d^ , pp. ; mntr^mr, 
' , a. ; flmir af^s i W , a. 89. 
Ua» a. 38. Ofarlhan 
Amtfioa. For peouUaritar. 

^wsr^fiawfi, -tea, a. An American Sdhan 
Amttk^, Jbn'-«h^lrt, a. A pradoos atone; 
a de^ -violet colour, 


Ame t k mf in e, -to, a. 

AmMU, ti'-^BB-m^ imZ-Tifal, a. 


D waning 

AmimUh'oid, -oj^ M, Formed Ukei 
AmieMe, Am'-«-kibL a. Friendly, 

peaaeaUe. H., mnrieabljf, 48, ad. ; 

abl m §ti, e. 91. [a 

JaiM»,dHmId',pr.-iaaiid»t'. bthamiddla; 
jlaitf<^am'4d,s.(pi«f.,aNi'iiiid«.)58. Aaom- 

pound of amidogcs. 
.dm'idwM, -»^Dbii,a.58. A aabstaaee foraed 

by the action ef hat water on starch. 
Amidogmy -id'-o^fo, a. A diem, prinaiple 

oont. NiBf rranltlly ; aicngly. 

Amt»$, 4-nlB', a. Wrong: fiulty: — ad. 
Amit^, ftm'-e-te, a. flood-will ; friendship. 
ilaMWMiM,iaa-mftu'-y*d,B. VolatMeaftali ^the 

pongeat matter of aBMDincaatta.(«M|F ^ 
Ammmiaeal, -mona^-^kil, a. ■ ' 


lamumia; pnnceat. 
\ Hir-«HNS( a. B ai 
A compoond of ammonia and a 


.^aMHOMiMNiLimHn0n«-y'ttm,Sb Thet h ee t eCi- 
eal metiaUe base of ammonia. (> H|H«.) 

AmmmmUion, im-O-aUi'-ttn, a. 18. lifillary 
atores or prorisions, mora en. fanpewder* 
ahot^ Ac [polit. iifta s 

AmmMtjf, ftm'-Bfis4s^ a. A gen. pardon for 

Amnion, iMafH»-6a^ 9, ra am*mi0$. Thai 
membraae corcriag tha fastaai (•>■(>) 

^mnio^io, -^-Ik, a. Oforflromtaei 

Among, A-miiag', pr. s 
with; aasoelated wtth. 

AmoH$t*, SaB'-»-rlBt, a. A jmllaal; a low. 

AmorouM, Amf-o-rts, a. Bdatiaa to hiva; 
inclined to lore; enaaamred*. H., aai^si 
omiif, 43, ad. ; ns i ' oro OTa« i | s. 9L 

JbMfyJboM, d-morf-Os, a. Shapelssa; devoid 
ofrsgolariam. H., ame r p Vowwesi*, a. 9L 

Amor^mkifit'te,*. eaamor'pMa, Ohsailsssnias 

.daior^ A-XB^-^ -tXs«, Tt dgTTo aUanate 
in awrlawia H^ •mor'iiotd, pp. ; amertf- 
ao'lion, 86, omor^Hifsiair, .41s-v a 89. 

Amom U , d^nowaf , s. The whaleoam orresnlL 

Ammmft fi, Ta rlaa or reach to; toxasnlt. 
H., amountfina, p.; m momt f od, pp. 

^monr, dHB60r% s. Alorei"' ' 

Amovin0%, d-mSW-Xn^ p.* 

Amphi-, pfx. Both ; about 

A M vbOim, im-fXh'-y'd, n pL i 
aaw*^<»M.45. Aiaphibioua aaimAk hr. i.) 

land and In water ; posasMBff ^a 
mongrslt. H., 
-o-je, a. A phrase cr diaeoarse 

a. A poettealfcot 
Aw^Md, taa'-m. a. Qmsktlaff af add and 

base ; not haloid, (ehem.) 
.datpMiCM, 8m-f1dir-y% n pL ts aavMs^eiaM. 

ParacM Ilriaa between & troptos. (geas.) 
ibapJUMMlrMn-fe-^hr-d-tir, s. 67. A «liw 

enlar or otsI bnikUaf hariaji an araan fea 

the middle. See 31bM«r«. 
Jmpjs, «m'-i>l, fimpO, a. Large, (Ul, lih«aL 

H^ omp'lg, ad. ; om'pimottt, >• 91. 

BOCu OP flUlA flllCl uk ^VttttV a DO 

and Inags eoidciatly CnoL] ; a 

mmh ib'louriu, ifl, ad. i ampskn'i 
jtaytooK<r%Zn-8»-baf-ft, a. 1 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Awphirttt iB'-pl»-U^ Tt. To 

iii^hVh— *, M» a. 89. 
'AMijpX49* -a ▼t. » oiiylirinKf*. 

' pe^ ingMwit, inerMMw or « 
To wte ^ 


nta. H., 

•.88." (taSov! 

tMe, t. U. Extant; larfneas; 

.AiwMtafa,1taL'-fArtit«, n. To pnmo or ent 

* H-ai<|Nrtrt»y,p.; ««>rtrti^ TO.; 

MHMte^boA, 88, s. (bort. ; MHg.) 88. 

liifa, taiT'flhML a. 1& Anythtoff tron to 

pcevc&t eril or ai a B M». 

BelonfiBg to awtrts. 
a. Full of Itti or 
MOTv, v-wiHw, Tt. 18. To occupy tkc utod 
agrecahly; tobcgBltoirtth wipwilatfaia H., 
- '«^ PL ; mmneg^ pp. ; mm^mr^ %, ; 

«-fldr-dM8t«, a. 16. Ifade^r 
^Mfy'iialato (silk of), a. 81. 

«aUL81. ** 

or alBODda. H., 
[or like ahMtida. 

adftm afanondlk [doM^ul, a^ (miik) 90. 

fat: alaiiiliy. 
Aiiwfc, dMtfMbi 

I'-phMla, a. 97. 

S^ Miyte'MOMIMMt, Ck 91. 

f a. 18. or or from akardi. 
. 91. [atar^ («•>«»') 

1, a^ Tha laadlaMe part of 
.AiObi^aat. OBo,brt kaa awpWHetlH. nottog 
^ aRl&dl«UiiBl;iMdba8oreaidw.ortbealsg. 
nmkar ^. vftii all tiwTOWtla asoapt kmg 
«K aaAo aaoitot like w ; alao Mora dlant A, 
aad&aonadiAidMBllie Meant flJla on the 
«B«Hiday|]Bihie: aa, an appi% an konr. an 
Materia «> Jftiwa ane jontty need before both 

fillet* i»'.«»B."5""" 


f repetition; 

, aCK. Daiodng a eoUedkn of 
aaajlnia : aa, SotUJttifa'na, Jolm- 

An*a§9pht -gUf, ii U. Am engraved oriealp- 

AM^I|!pA't0, -Ik, a. BelatlBgtoanaglypka. 
.AiMfiir'Hc -tXk, a. Bakiting to the arte of 

eludig^ angraTing, aonlptiire. te. 
ii«M$«f<«il, -ge^l'-^lil, a. Re^toody aocalt- 

ing. H., aMM^etoUr, adrnu 
^iMyiwn, in'HKgrim, a. The trannoiltion 

of the lettera of a wwd : ao, QMemu = 

anrnhia. BL, awa yraw eia f fc , aiiaf i twmat- 

*eo2, a^; tuMgrmmmatfietMfft 48, ad. 90. 
An^grnmm'oHmj -dMlM, Tt. 8a To make 

anagmna. BL, tmmgramimfaUtlt a. 89. 
Anofframk, in'-d-grftf; a. A eo m Mc n tary. 
^fMil, i'-nU, a. Oforneartkeanna. 
^liuita)li8,<n-44acr-&, a. Selceting; eolleeted. 
An'alteta, -VSkU, a. pi. b t mml t & ti, L. lltfnga 

gatkerad op ; collectod fragaMnta of antboaa. 
Ana t m ma , Sn-d-Mm'-d, a. A proJeoCion of 

tke meridian. (geoM.) [ (med.) 

Anai«p»it,-VBfr-iaBt%. Beeoferr; ooBTaleaoenoe. 
Anakfrtie^ -tOc, a. BeetoratiTe; comforting. 

H. (an) aw rfyO w , a. 91. 
Analofieal, -Uy'-e-kfil, a. Bating anatogy or 

relaUon. Hi, mimkfgieattft 48, ad.; oiae- 

JnmSS!!!ta^''<hSlM£,yLSO. Toezplalnby 
analogy. H^ mnitofittmfl, p.; attdtoffut, 
a. 88. [aoAMgy ; * priori reeaoiUng. 

Anmifofimn, -jtaitt, e. InToa ti gat i on from 

.diM<09«ti«,4(.n81'-o-gttB,a.(foLby«9.) Hav- 
ing analogy. H., mtmFoMm^ ad. 9L 

AnmUgm, «i'-*48g, a. 46. An analogena 
wora, animal, or thing. 

Anahfih d-nti'-e-|e, a. SImilltnde of rda- 
tiona, qnalittea, or meaning; oonfoimlty of 
atruoture (gram.^. 

Anaiif$$f in'Hftp-n 
poond into Ua 

Tt 80. To leeolve a oom- 

»Mnti or porta. H., an'- 

p» ; ^H^Mfttdf pp. ; iM^MwMf*. onf- 

a. I aw avj^papvv, aoi a. , i^ao^ravwOA , 

a.' (t. L) 89. 

^iM^ d-nil'-e-*. a. (pL, etMryeiik) A 

reaolntum of a bod^ or m^Ht Into ita 

ea mpoM nt parte; a oomaientary, ayHaboa, 

ayBopala. See AwiMaalk 
.^iialy&rftn-d-m'%a.«>dfM^iMlL Of or 

by anaiyaiaL H., ciMlyf Ma%, ad. 91. 
^McJ^ffif, -Ika, a. pi. TneaeleneeofanalyBia.^ 
jliMMMMfif*, in-inMie'-aiB, ii A reealling to 

mind, (rkat.) [ory. 

AnamnmHc, -ageT-lk, a. That kelpa tke mem- 
A mtmo i- pk o t i t, in-d-mttrf '-o-ab, a. Tbe eor- 

reotion or a diatorted pietore by reflection. 
^ (draw.) [(»v-). H., onepaf^ a. 9a 

^fMtfMor, in'-d^ert, a. A metrlMd foot 
^noroMeL fta-Arr-u, a. s mtar^icoL on- 

areh'iar, -yQ, Oonftiaed : without role. 
Afi^mvkut, -lat, a. s an'ank^. An aathor of 

oonfaafon or rerolt. 
Jb»or«A|^in'-4brk-e,«i'flreiMMit* Abaenoe 

of govemBent ; poUtleal ednAiakm. 
Aftaiaroa, 8n-d-atfr'-k4, ■. General dropey 

of the aurfoee of the body. 
Aiuum^eotUy 'kOa, a. DropetaaL 
JjuutoMc, ftn-d^t&tr-Ik, a. Appttedtoanew 

method of printing tnm sine platoa. 
Ana«e0eMM«,4a-ia'-to-mQa^-Tl. Toinoaeulato. 
Amulomo9k, -my-4k> a. The inoaoolation of 

TCiaelB. (anat) [ezoommunloation. 

Anathmui, te-atii'-eHDA, a. An ecel. ourae; 
Ajnath'emali$«, -tlMt, tt 80. TO pronounce 


by Google 

tiaedf pp. ; anath'ematiser, 8. : anatkemati- 
ta'tion, M, 8. (T. 9.] 89. [dnokB. 

^Anaiiferous, Aa-&4Ii'-(r-fis, a. Producing 

AnatomieaL-tiOm*-e4LiXf a. BeUting to dift- 
eeetton. H., anaUm'icaUy, ftd. 91. 

Anatomus, &nrW-o~m\xe, Tt. 60. To diaseet 
an animal far the examinatiOA of its strno- 
tore. H., anafomiiing, p.; anafomised, 
pp.; anafomiMar^ anatomist, a.: aruUom- 
iM'tioH, 86, a. 89. 

^aton^j d-n&f-o-me, a. Tlie art of dissec- 
tion ; the Btmotnre of the body learned by 
diaiection; aakeletonf. 

Ancestor, An'-aSs-ttLr, a. 86* {L.anees'tres^.) 
One ftrom whom a person has descended ; an 
andent member of a fiunUy. 

AifoKstra^ -trSI, -efia'— We., a. = anxotstd- 
riaf*. Of or desoending from ancestors. 

Anfees(fy,-tie,s, Pedigree; lineage; descent 

Anehmtry*, Bn^'-sh&it-re, a. Ancientry. 

Anchor, Snfkf-Hr, a. 35. A heavy Iron instr. to 
hold a Bhq> or Tessel ; flg., that which giree 
security or repose. 

Anch'or, vt. lo place at anchor : — vL To 

cast anchor; to stop or rest on; to longl 

' ^ ^ qfter), H., anch'oHnf, p. ; andfored, 

anchfcrabU^, a. ; (an) cmch'oring 

{fi)rmqfter), H., anch'oHnf,p.; andfor» 
pp. ; anchfcrabU^^ a. ; (an) cmch'orii 
(longlngt, ftc), s. 89. [a local tax. 

Aneh'oroffe, -Bje, s. 6. Groimd for anchoring ; 

Attchortt, isi^'-o-tiit, 8. n anch'orUe. (r., 
aneh'0rss^4 A rcdigions recluse ; a hermit. 

Anckovff, AQ-cn5'-Te, a. Aamall itsh used as 

iiiieAyA>Ml,8Dgk'-e-10sd',a. Fixed, rr.s.) 
Anehfhsis, -Ur-tfto, a. Immobility of a Joint 

naturally flexible. H.» anchylotfic, a. 90. 
Andent, &n/-eb'fint, a. 01d» long existent ; 

long known ; past: helonging to a remote 

age; antique. Bu, dn'oenUif, ad.; (an) 

Meient, a. ; dn'dentness, s. 91. 
A^ndent, s. A flag or banner (naut.) ; the 

ootoura (mil.) : — pL, thoae who lived in 

remote times, (r. a.) 
A"ncientrjf, -re, e. Andent lineage. 
.^inciUarv, an'-flU-^-e, a. 25. Aa a handmaid; 

snbonfinate; subaenrient. 
Andpital, An-<p'-e-tU, a. Donbtftal ; double 

fiwed, or doable fanned, (bot) [tences. 

, And, tod, con. Used to join words and aen- 

Andante, to-dto'-tB, a. EzpressiTe; mod. 

alow. (It) [ports a spit or ftieL 

Andiron, tod'-T-fim, 8. The iron which aup- 
Androfvnal, to-dr&j'-In-AI« z^saandroffynous, 

Qf both sexes. H., androffynally, ad. 91. 
Andro^ynns, -Ha, s. = androgi'M, -In-€. An 

hermaphrodite, [automaton In human form. 
AndroUl, to'-droyd, s. s= android^es, -6z. An 
Androphayi^, to-drdf '-d-J^ a. pL Cannibals. 
Anecdote, to'-6k-d0t«, 8. Secret hlBtorv or 

fscts* : a biographical firagment or inddent 
AneedoHcaJ,^^'t^Vl^%,=>an'eeddtal. In 

the form of anecdote. 
Anemone f d-nftn'-o-ne, a. The wind-flower. 
Anem'omne, -nXn, a. 58. A sube. obtained 

fkrom the anemone. 
^nem'o«o(>pe, -akdp#, a. An instr. to ahew the 

oourse of the wind. (Other like eomp. are 
«r, anmotfogy, anesMm'eter, 
m^etru, «c.) 
Anemimn, toMt-rlsm, s. 18. A morUd dila- 
tion or mptnre of an artery. 


Aneurismal, -rlz'-mal, a. Of an aneurism. 
Anew, fl-na\ ad. 18. Again ; newly. 
Anfiraduowi*, to-frAkt'-a-Os, a. e anfra^ 

tuosi*,l%. Winding; maxy. 'B.^anfratf^ 

tuoumess*, anfracttios'ity*, s. 91. 
Angel, fin^-J^ e. A divine messenger; a 

spiritual being; flg., a Tery beautiAil, ami- 
able, or chaste person. 
AngeltCf to-JSl'-u, a. s= dn'gelU angeVkckl. 

An^l-like. TSL, angef^ieally, 4S, ad.; om- 

yel'tcalnessl, oMeUcfity, a. 91. 
Angelica, -A, ^ The name of a plant [aagela. 
ulfl^«/o2<vy*,ilnH^-^l'-o-i«ia. A discoorse oti 
Anger, tog'-gdr, s. 25. A paaaloa exdted by 

i^Ju^y, with (usually) a present porpoae of 

revenge ; pain or smarting*. 
An"ger, vt. To make angry or painfuL H., 

an"gering, p. ; anf'gred er an"gertd, i^ 
A»gwa, torjX'HMi, s. Applied to quinsy and 

some other inflam. and suffocative diseaaea. 
.^M^ioffriqa^y, to-je-iSg'-rii-fe, 8. A descriptton 

w the vessels of the human body, 
^n^ioraann, &n'-je-o-sperm, 8. A plant which 

haa its seeds endoaed in a pericarp. H., 

«Mto«p«rm'ottt, -Os, a. 90. 
AngU, ang'-gl« n The point where two Unas 

meet; a comer; the inclination to eaeli 

other of two Unea or planea whidi meet, or 

the space between tnem (geom.); a rod, 

line, and hodc, forilshing*. 
AnffU, vt To entice :— vi. To fish with aa 

aiigle. H., ttn"gling, p.; an^gUd, pp,i 

Qw'aler, a. ; asiTgltng, s. 89. 
Ajsgncan, tog'-«le-kfin, a. English. 
AngUoe, fing'-gle-se, ad. In English. 
Anylieise, -axa«, vt 6a To make Engliali. 

H., on"gUeising, p. ; an"glioised, pp. 
Anf'glidsm, -alxm, a. An English idiom or 

peenliariQr. [fishing with a rod and Uae. 
Angling, &ag'-gfi!tag, ; The art or praotloe of 
Anglo-Saxon, tog'-gld-a&ka-tin, a. Of the 

English Saxons. [pain. 56. 

AngotM*, tog'-gjir, a. (pref., -or). Intenat 
Angry, tog'-gre, a. Exdted with ang«r; 

inflamed; tumultuoua.. H., an"grHy, 4Z, 

ad. : an^grinessl, s. 91. 
.ifi^iit2/(/brm, to-gwH'-e-fonn, a. 26. Withoat 

scales; formed Uke on eel or serptt^ 
Angtdneal, ^-gwln'-y'&l, a. Of or like a snake. 
As»mrieh, tog'-gwish, a. Excesdve pain, 

dther of body or mind. 
Anf'^m^*,yt, To inflict anonish. H.,«»"- 

guishing, p., a. ; an"gmshed, m. 89. 
Angular, tog'-ga-l&r, a. s aav'guleiut', 18. 

Having an angle or comer. H., aw'^utorfy, 

48, ad. ; an"(mlame»s\, anguhr'Hy, a. 91. 
An"guiated^,-\BU-I^9i. Formed with anglea. 
Anhelation*, to-he-la'-shtin, a. Shortneaa of 

breath ; panting* [dry. (chenu) 

AtihydrouMj to-hr-drtis, a. Free from water ; 
AnightU <l-nlt«, ad. In the night-time; — 

pi., anightaf^, fluently, customarily. 
Anilfinf^B. The indigo plant 
AniU, to'-n^-S., Wiu, to'-n—We., t'-^ilU— 

E., a. 45. Old-womanish; aged; imbeoUe. 

H., anilefnessf, aniPity, d-nDMt-e, a. 91. 
Animadversalf, to-e-mfld-T6r8'-&I, s. Thftt 

which can porodve and Judge. 
Jlfwnadiwn'tvf*, -Yv, a. 45. Having peroeptioii 

and judgment H.,anuiMidf)«rs'ni8nesf*,a.91. 
Animadvert, -vfirf , vi. To turn the mind to i 

to critidse or censure. H., animadvertfing^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



AMimua, iB'-^^Ml, a. Of or like aa animal ; 
tevMQn; aaaaaaL H., Mi'tMalfMntf, a. 91. 
ilii'MHri;a. AliTbisbodjtiidowedwiUitai- 
1 fte power of Tolimtary motloii; 
yftatapUpenoii: a lepanaliat. 

r-kO-lar, a. = omiiim^- 
. 18. BeUting to anlTnalmla, 

_ -kil!£^ a. B oRMaa/'etiliiM, L. 

(pi, ii wof ^enfea, E. ; oimnai'eaf/a, -Id, L. ; 
f toare ii toH .) Abj mieroMoplo animaL 
Jii%i alJMj "lag, n. •>. TbeoDTert into animal 
; to aaalinilafe. H^ mH'i$naRaing, p. ; 
. ; cnMMifiM'tibM, S6, a. ~" 

Animal exiatenee. 
Animated, (poet) 

_ »Tt. Tof^Tolifeto; toenliTen; to 

inplxlt or OMOvrafe. H., atif mating, p., 
^; oi^iiaiofarf, pn. : onfimtatoTy a. S5 ; an'tm- 
Mt\y -m, a.; tmtmaftiom, 86, a. 89. 
jtnriinola^ -N, a. Lively, ilsoroaa. (y. t.) 
Annmutimf^ o. fr. t.) R, aM'una<itt^<tf, ad. 91. 
.^juVoMftei^ -It, a. 45. Capable of giiinglifB. 
AiiWj to'-lB»^ a^ A reainooa drof . (Sp.) 
Amimm^, ja-e-mflag^, a. 45. Spirited; reio- 
Inte. [tending to aedre Koatility. 

AmimttU^, -oriM'-f^e, a. Violent hi^ed, 
JuTmrn,*, The fceUnff that promptBt.(L.) 
J«MM,in'-7'an— Br.,We.,d-nr-iin— &,a. An 
e te e tr o nega t i ve body, or that evolTed at the 
azMMle. lam *i$e t d , tm'ue-teed, a. 90. 

Jmlm, Uf-U, n An aromatie plant H., 
.iMMCfe, te-l»«lf , a. Aniaecd oordkL [rare. 
AmitTj tegk'-er, a. S& A Dnteh liquid mea- 
jMftla^ toif-kl, a. The Joint between the foot 

and leg. 
ibiftlei; -Ut, a. An onamentibr the ankle. 
wiiMMli< An'-iMrt, a. A writer of annala. 
jUmmU, iaMiMf a. pL Erenta recorded in 


by ftro(iaant acta. H^ «nn^wm, p.; of*- 
^ nojf'ed, pp. ; atmoi^er, a. ; ammo/Miee, a. 89. 
Amwf'anee, >ina<^ a. es mmo^i. Thatwhieh 

annora. (r. r.) 
Atmmu, Ka'-O^ a. 18. TearlT; returning or 


'nai, a. 

H., atm'uaUf/, ad. 91. 
A plant whleh liTea but one 

a book pobllahed yearly. 
Annwtamij ftn-na'-It-«nt» a. 18. One who 

reeelraa an annuity. 
Aumt^Uff -It-ew a. A yearly rant or Ineome. 
Aaniii, in-nfll , Tt To make roid or aboliah. 

Hn amtmtfmg, p.; tmtwlUi^t pp.; a wwaN 

iliifiiitor, Xn'-a-Vfa>,a.ssoiiMrttlary.l8,25. Of 

or like a ring. H., owi'iitarlH, ad. 91« 
AatmaaUdy -Itt^'-U, a. = tmn'ttlaU. For- 

niahed with ringa. 
^fumla^ton, -A'-ahOn, a A ring or belt 
Ann'iiUt,-iX')Xi,9, AUttlering: afiUet(aroh.). 
^MMiloa»,Xn-d-lda«',a.l8,4S. Fumiahedwith, 

or Ibrmed of rinfa. (sooL) 
A nmmm eratg*, to-nfl'-mftr-itg, vt 18. To add 

to a ftirmer nnmber. 
An n tm eiafe, An-nfin'-eft-8t«, -nOn'-ihe— S., 

Wa., Tt TO bring tidinga; to make known. 

H., aiMmi^eiaHttaj p.; tmnun'dtUed, pp.; 

anmm'eiatar, a. 25: amtwteia'tion, 36, a. 89. 
jMod«t ta'-ide, a. The way in; the poaitiTO 

pole, (galr.) 
Anodmte^ ftn'-o-dXne, a. s am*odifHoug*, 14* 

So(^dng; aasoaglng pain. H., (an) tm'o- 

dyrU^ a. (med.) 91. 
^noinf, dHBoynt , Tt TopooroUnpon; toiet 

apart; to eonaeerate by nnekkm; to amear 

or daub. H., antrint^img^ p. ; onomf «d, pp., 

a.; anomter, a.: ono wruiinU, antrinffmg^ 
Asuinifed,-^%. TheMeaaiah. [a. S. 

AnomaUnu, d-n&n'-^lda, a. b emomoMtU^, 

Irregular ; abnormaL H., <ifiofli'aloiM/y,ad.91. 

Irregiuarity ; deriatlon from rule. 

.AfioM*, d-nfin', ad. Soon : qniekly ; now and 
[H., onofiVaioM^. 48, ad. 91. 
-non'-e-fflOa. a. Wltnont a name, 
iillirer, a. Not the aame; any 
other ; one more. 

.diMatMP, Sn'-afttiMM, a. Having handlea. 

^liMeriM, ln'-eCr-in«, -In— K.. au 45. Of the 
gooie tribe ; like a gooao-ekm ; nneyen. 

AMwer, ftn'-e<h:, a. 9. A reply ; a ooonter-atate- 
ment ; a aolntion or result H., an'iwtrleu, 
a. 90. 

An'noer, rU To apeak, write, or act in reply 
to a can, queatioii, argument, allegation, or 
addreaa; to oonfiite, Jnatlfy. reapond t(^ 
aatiafy, or soIto :— t1. To reply, correspond 
with, or oome at call ; to succeed ; to be 
accountable fior. H., an'awtring, p.; an*' 
'uw^PP*; an'atMrfr,8.; an'«u»rao/«, a. 89. 

Atimioerabhy -&bl. a. Accountable; corre- 
sponding; suitable, (t. t.) H., an'twerablyf 
48, ad. ; an'noerableneitf s. 91. 

Ant-,jptx^ SeeAnti-. 

Ant, imt, dnts, a. 9. An emmet or pismire. 
H., ant-hill (nest), s. 90. 

AnHf, Snt, con. An it ; if it 

A*n?t%, &'nt, dnt, Ti. Am, are, or is not 

Antagoni$e, ftn-tag^-o-mae^ Tt 60. To contend 
against H., antaa'onismfi, p., a. ; (an) an- 
toff'onist, B. 89. [teat ; opposition of action. 

Antag'oTum, -nizm, s. = antag'ony^. COn- 

Another, in-i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

temliiiff agiinit ; oppodng ; oounteraetliig. 

H^ mUaamUfticaUy, iS, ad. 91. 

ntalgie, In-tiU'-JXk. iu Anodyne. H., (an) 

Aniilgic, . . 

mUatgie, s. (nMd.[ ' [south' poleC 

AMareSe, Int4brk'-ti(k, a. B«Uting to the 
Ante-t &a'-te,pfo. Beflore, either in time or plaee. 
irona: aa-^M'te- 
. U^room, te.J[L.) 
To precede or go belore. 
tmtteid'^ pp.; (an) 

Ita oompoonda arc nomerona: aa-^M^te- 
chamhtr, amfU-m^tial, an'U-ro 

AnUokU.'ML^tft, ' 

H., <uiJUeUFim0, p., 

AMUoeimU, Kii-t»^«MU'-<Bt. a. = trnteeadtf- 
napMf*. Going before in tam& B^anteced^- 
«!%, 48, ad. ; mUmii^ence, -ena«, mUeeStt- 
mcy, -ae, a. (r. ▼.) 9L [refera. (gram.) 

JnUet^*dmLu. Itie noon to whioh the relative 

.^iKaoaitor, in -ta^ -^, a. 18. Onewholired 
or poaaeaaed before another. 

iljUieian^in-ti'-ah*ina, a. pL S8. = antwei, 
-tl'-tf. Tboae irho lire on eorreqponding apota 

nmvtK ftiul MuitK Af MtM «nnafiir. fm»ntt\ 


before the proper time j to pre-ooonsT} fofi- 
taste, expect, or foresee. H.. anHcatttinff^ 

wrtpofK*, a. ; <Mmtetp(ftkmt so, a. W. 
.ifiM0Vie<tw,-lT,a.45.iBaviei0'^M^. An- 

tietpating; taking beforehand. 
.ifi<idoto^ta'-te-dOte-ia,a.«=an'<Mfolary. Good 

againat poison. H., OHtidSfaOift ad. (r. a.) 
jMMoUfiof'^it-dfUetB* A ooBnter-pdaoii ; flg., 

anything that hinders or preventa erfl. 
Ji^Oo^Moai, -!k-«l, a. AntidotaL H., ontf- 
JbtHmi*. SneAneietU, [dtrUcaOsf, tA, VU 
AMtiloffi^, ftn-tJO'-o-je, a. QmtradiotloD bo- 

tweenirords or passagea. 
AtuHmonUU, An-te-mGn^-o-U. a. Of or eon- 

talning antimony. H., (an) onH H u /'nial, ai 

(medJ91. [aoid. 

AsUimarnkiU, -y'lte, a. A aalt of antfanonlo 
JnUmtf'niaied, -Sd, a. Mixed ivlth or made 

of antimony. 
AfUimoniet -TMn'4k,tm ti mon io ¥i, -mte/-i 

a. Of antimony :appllad to two adds. 4 
An'timoniie, -mO-oRe, a. Aaatt of a 

iii»ennofiy.Sn'-tB-m«B-e,B.17. A brittle daik- 

ooloored metal ; natire anlphnret of dot. 
Antimmkm, in-te-nOm^-y'ta. a. 40. One 

•who holda that foith alone la neeeasary to 

aalTatioo. H.,aiiefn0*ai<«i(relattaigto},n.; 

aniino'*mkmia%, -lam (teneta ftc.), a. 90. 
JsU^^athg, an-tXp'-d-the, a. Natural flUtOob 

to anyrning: aTorsion; repngnanoe; con- 

trailety. [pnona :— a. Bdadng to te. (r. L) 
jbtt^honal, b-tif-o-nil, a. A book of antl- 
Amgth'onu,-n6f a. s tm'Uphon, ant^eme^ 

-o-ne. The aMemate singing of two cholra. 
thratU, An-tlf '-rdMs, s. Irony. 
>Araffioai;-frfi8'-te-kfl,a. IrooloaL H., 

mHphrturUeaUy, ad. 91. 
Antipodal, birl^'O-iiL a. = (mtlfc^dBm, 

Rdating to tlie antipocns: antagoniatio. 
AMtipode, in'-tei>6d«, a. (pL. mM^o4m, 

-o-dCz; anfUpdaet We.) One ttThig on 

tlie other aide of the glolw^ and whoae foet 

arethns opposite to onia. (na. oh. in the id.) 
.4iKi9MarMM,«n-te-kwlr«'-«^a. Pertahdng 

to antiquity or antiqturiea. ^^ 

ninUf -Inn, a. liore of antiiiQltlea. 
-^wa^re, a a mUifmfrkm, Oat 

who Btafflea or eolleota antiqmtiee. 
iljif»0iiato(l,-kwtt«-M,pp.,a. Madeor grown 

old; oM: ofaaolete. H., m^UiwaimUp, 4t, 

ad. ; tm'tteuatednett, mrtStnatmumt, a. 91. 
Jii<foif0, lii4Bdc', a. 99. Andent; t^iaolflto; 

old-iinhioned. H., (mHqmtp, -tMC-^ ad.; 

mHqu^nm, ^tlA'-, a. 91. 
AnHqm, -VUkT, a. Anyttlng Twy old ; n- 

dent remaina or eoriosltlca. 
AfMquUv, fliHftf ^we-te, a U. OMen 

or their people; 

relic of pMtagea. 
Anti$eUm9, fln-tldi'-y'taa, a. pL a tmOteKf 
^"^' - 45. People whoae ahadowa ml 
in contrary direotioDa. (geog.) 
-tik, a. Oonnf 

old age; a 

tlah'-y»I. 45. 


potrefoetion. H.,(an) mUiMtftte, a. (med.) 91. 

.4ntfnMM!^.ap«a'-tXk,a. An(lBMnMdie.rmed.) 

AsttiOieaiM, fin-tlth'-^^Ia, a. ^, antf^'Maaw 

-aes.) Contrast of worda or 

(rhet.) ; oppoalBkm ; controvarsy. 
^fi«M€Me,in4»4iiitf-Ik,a.aaiiMA«f <<Na. Oon- 
traating; opposed. n,,maUhtticaUfy,mau%U 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


. MMbofMlig'ftbm. l(L) 

ftPBM> rfa J Bd •fco«t^«MP»ft ita » or TO" 
^MMV i^fc'-A'ttH «.«)»». DMnM 

^ Jq«iM|» Cir-»-«toa^ ad. e. In nv wtj. 
^ Ams fr^tf'.jiB. a. 4fi. rnlihiW to «ha 
— ^qrl^J^<l^k (bUb. (arm.) 

^«^ i^bir^. a. M. Th* nurfa aitvT tkat 
ovftsM&kft iiMUlilii rf <h(th— rt 


; tf^iir-thrd^a, a. Ai 

Moee o# pMrion or 









r»T or 



49o«!P«, d-pfir-o-pa, a. OwlMtM af tka iMt 

lattar or ajUaUa. f (aai.) 

^^m«N^, ip^HkrtMMk, a. AacA^J^ 

wSaCSad ; aop, baota arSwbfc 
ritr or inaplratbai. 

^INNial, ip'-o^il, a. WMiovt fcaC or W 

4p«fa«» ip^-o-j«, a. Tba point fn (be hoo^ 

ofUtaMatranolafroaitbaaarth. (aat) 

Exobaiiic^fta H.,ivoioyiiriaalV,ad.(T.T.)n. 

Afofofiu, -JiaCTlTab. if^Bd fM> or in 

•Migaof: to dated. BL, apoTopkhf, p. ; 

Aft orofjh - 0"J ^ f» An a iaaaa; aa ytMiif ooft- 

.^^oAmNL i»'.«4te, a!tf . AmonlMlfi 

J to gp igay ip-o^l&t'-lk. a. *^ mopUtfieai. 
Of or dlqioMd to apoplazy. K, Myliar- 
laa%, 4MJL: (an) <WrfMr<<b n ST^ 

Af opl t m, -pMka^-a, a. AaaddMloaaafaoMa 
and wintary modoB. (path.) 

Afottacif, d-p0^-td-aa, a. ^mfo^tmif, A da- 

9 HKif a. rmiaoii nramw'imaj wun. 
iMfiM^-tfffiM^ ii.«. To awMdi apoataar. 
^lwfM»»i^.«Q,a. A 

'■1,-poatl— K.,8. Amiaiaiigetor 
) of ttatwfdra dmtad I7 GMI. 

JipotloUt§, S^-U^AMU, a. i^poallaaldp; tba 

4pMSii^-tSr-lk,a.s4»i«»^to^ BalatiK 

f iaalaaM, a. 91. 


addnaB (rhat) ; tha eduBM wtttelT narka 

an abawt IMer (gnm.). 
Jpottnpkit, lp-»4*rOpliMac, a. Partatainf to 

an apoafervpha. H., ofo&t ropl i fieal hf, ad. 91. 
Apottn^ldm, d-^fa'^ro^IS*^ Tt. 6a To ad- 
" "■" '^ " :— tL To 

with an 
nu^ an apoatrapbie 

4pS££^i.pE£SESrra.'%. AMmbar 
of tha apotheoarloiP 00., U e aa iia to dInaBia 
bmA* andtoaotaaaffan. nedlaalpraetitMacr. 

Afeih9§m, ip'-o-thte, a. a afopkOt^tm^^ 
ip'-(K A I MaatloTili aaytog; anapbonam. 

AfoUmtji, j9<)^(Ulf-o^bk, n Onuaaratimi; 
^aaan iMK^y a. wk 

Amm&I^% ip^-o-aCDL. a. A deaa atlo n. Hm o^ 

aaddan faar : to dtani^ ^— tL To grow or 

ba dliai^ra& H^ WaWb^ ^, a. ; ly 

jNdlMf , pp. : ojRparaMiiIti a. 99. 
Appanage, lllpr-to4|^ a. landa aat apart by 

prlnoea Ibr tbair tvonger aona. 
JffwroliM, I^Hw-ida, a. (pL, ivpara^tai, L.; 
^W«^:SyMrE.)lSa nMnTaTtbiagi to 

an end; a eomplete eet of toola, Inatr., or 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



inr an nt, tjcade^ or ez^ 

A^^§1, Tt To drete; to deoonte. B^ 

ApparmurS^^/^STi-pdr'-U vhea app. to 

an hair), a. vkflde; idain, erident, certain. 

H.y Mpd»^«n</tf, 48. ad. ; appOir'enimtii, n 91. 
4|MartM0f^ ip-d-ilNi'-an, a. An^ipearanoe*; 

tna thing appaaring* ; a neotre or ghoaL 
4f)pariter, ipi)dr'-It-6r, 8. 3d-6. AmwMnger 

or baadle in an aod. ooort or a nniveraltj. 
4efMai» ip-p61^, a. The act or tight of remor* 

uig^ or raferring a eanae to a higher eonrt; 

an aeenaatioi or aaeua> pwceaa; arcCeraiea 

for proofs retort or reooona* 
4M«ar,Tt T«>eaUorramoTeaoaaM^fto.:— 

tL To nte^ te. H., afptafimg, p. 

peakdfp^; meaftrt.afpeatfaiU^^ 

tmt, a. ; agpMtablt, 4L a. (t. a.) 

Jpmmr, iii^ieit/, tL Tb be, or to beeoaie 
^rttfbla^orpreatDt; tobeoMdeolea^obivioQa, 
orMrta&i;toaeem,althoii|^nnraal. H^<^ 
MorWp.; mearea\pp.i ^qmor'art.a.ik 

J/^ffaoKiNMi^ -tee«, 8. The act oi; or the thing 
appearing ; preianea : mien ; outward ahow. 

4ltp«aa0, ftp-pls«', Tt. To qniat or paeilV. H., 
appeatfhM, p.; orngMmd, pp.; appea^mr, a.; 

%tpMM/«Mllt, a. 9. 

Awa^cMet -iU, au That aiay be appeaaed. 

U^ a mm i fMtnnt t a. $1. [pmufivtipt ad. 9L 
4f)pMrAM^-lT,a. Allaying, qotetinir. B^^f 
AppfOmt, *p-p«l'-tnt, a. Appealing. &, 

appeffmtvf,».91. SMApptal. [toappaala. 
AMiifaU, -4U, a. a apptUiUMy, Partuning 
3S«««<<«H-S-«hfln,a. Name. 
AppeWaUvt, -Ht, a. Conunon. H.^ mmZTo- 

1C»f^ -^rw-- 

AppwaUv$^ B. 45. A eonunon name, aa that 

of a olaia, genna, or apecieB. 
uljptUM, ip*pa-fi', a. One appealed againat. 
Appddor^ -^f a. 85. One who appeala. 
Aj^mtdf ap-pend', Tt To hang one thing to 

another ; to add aaaoeeaeory. H., aMMfNTN^ 

p.;m«Mi'Mi,pp. (added aaaabordinate. 
Appmimget -U^ a. sr ^yipMd'an^ Something 
AM^omt, 4nt, a. Attaohed; IneidentaL 

H., mm^tnmf, mtnd'meif*, a. «L 
>4 AP«ur Mii^ -Ykl, a. A amall appanda 

jMfuf t«M^ E.) An appendage; a anpBlement. 
4|)MrtalfH ip^pfir-tla^, ri. To belong to. 

Hn appmrtamfimgt p.; ^(spariaiiMd'; pp.; 

ofyMrtOMi'mMi^ a. 89. 
Apptimct, Ap'-e-ttea«, a. s apff§Unep* Deaire ; 
'dettre; natural fltnaea. 

4f!f»'««m^, -ttet, a. Deeirona. [hU'itp, a. 91. 
2^«<IU«, -tXU, a. Deairable. H.7« 
Matoral desire ; 

AppetUsj fo'-e-tlt^, b. Matoral 
Ing ; deiire for food : hunger. 
74|^«tft<o«tf», -titoh'-'tla, aTsS. 
^flp'«<MM,-tI-tir,a.45^ Deriringcratlflcation. 
AppUuidt &p-pURMl',Tt. To praise by n^ 


to eoEtol or eommand. H.,._,, -,, r-, 

appkm^td, m,; appimud'mr, a. 89. 
4ppMiif#, ip-piitz', a. Approbatton suddenly 

expressed 1^ olapping the hands, shouts, or 

husaaa; aoolamanon; plaudit. 
Applawfvoe^ -It, 46, a. Applauding. 
4]D>p2e, to'l, a. A well-known flralL 
AppUabU, Ap-ptr-AbU a. That may be applied. 




•ddngappUar*- ^^'^'«^^i^ • 
4|plMaMr>Ap'-le-UQd»a. AppUableianitableu # 
n£, tm/Hh(M^, 48, ad.; Wl^NibiMM*, 
itoMmM'^. opp'ltanuy^ [petitioiia. 

ilfylMMit, ^-Mctet, a. One who appttea or • 
Aji^icathn, -k&'-ahftn, si An appl i anc e ; la^ • 
tenae thou^t or atudy; emplormant rar % 
special purpose; a result or iinnrtton Jnm 
precepts or prindplss. (▼. t.) 
Ap!fUcatimf^au-lf,h.i6» ThatappUas. . • 
Aijn'^lioaiorp, -^Sr-e^ a. 3S. Including the net « 

of appMiw. H., cpp'ZiccUorify, ad. 91* 
Apply, ap-plf, Tt. !D) lay on or pat to; t& • 
employ or refer to Ibr a special pai9oaa;.ta 
hafo raoourae to ; to address to; to studjv 
suit to, busy, or ply :— vL To sulk agr«e» 
aoUeit, or make request U.,applf/i^,p.i 
appUedf, pp.; wjf'sr, opp^kwtmt, a.; «««- 
coTmh, a. (▼. s.) 89. [note. (mua4 

tate, allot, reaolve, purpose; to eqnlp :— vL 
To decree or determine. 'B,,oppcimtmp.Tp»i 
Mfpointtd, pp., a. ; appoint er. a. ; appome" 
ablt, 4S, a.; oppoiiUfwimU, a. nr. a.) 89. 

Appomtet, •«', a. One appdntcd. 

AMomtwmU, -mAnt a. Direatiaii; order; 
decree; situation ; salary; equipment;— pL* 
accoutrements. (▼. t.) 

iln»or<Mm.«p-p«r<'-ahfin,TtS<. Todiridacr 
distilbntobijustsharea. H., typer'tiomimg, 
2^2££2S'^aP*' ; appOr'tioi»tr, a. ; ap* 

Appetite, Apf-o-alt, a. 4& Proper; suitabte; 
very wpUcable. H., app^onUly, 48, ad. ; 
apfo$Um«$if s. 91. 

4l>po«MoM,-sah-an,a. The aot of adding to | 
me state of being placed together or acauiat 

Aimrai$(U, Ap-prw-Al, a. s (tppraufmg*. 

4osmsc, Ap^ax^, Tt To act a price upo^ 
n^ appraufmp, p.; qpprai$ed, pp.; ig»- 
praultr, a. ; ^iiprtiisf'ffunt, a. 89. 

Appr^eiabU, ApHMTA'-ah'Abl, a. That may ba 
appreciated. H., <u«rs'M(iMy, ad. 91. 

if!preoi(rtv Ap-pi^'-ah^ -ehaA U 6., Wa., 
-ad-At#— IL, Tt 88. To eatimata; to set • 
JustTaluaon. B^appr^ dating, 'D.\appr^^ 
daUd, pp. ; approdafUon, -ae-A'-ebOn, s. 89^ 

Apprehend, &p-pra^i(Bnd', Tt To talce or 
seize; to oonodTe or suspect; to under- 
stand ; to fear or dread. YLtOpprthen/dfinp^ 
p.; apprtkmd^td, pp. ; apprektnd'mr, a. ; tuh- 
prM«n'stfr2s,-8Kbl, a. ; tmnrehm'tion, 86, a. 89» 

Apprthm'dve, -sIt, a. Shrewdf ; fearfU ; in 
expectation of; snspidoua. H., onpreAoi.'* 

■ dvelp, 48, ad. ; amphhm*»ivm0i$, s. 91. 

Apprmtiee, Ap-ptttr-tXs, a. 46. One bonnd 
uy indenture to a master for a term off 
years, to learn an art or trade. B.^appnH^^ 
ueMhip, apprtn^tieehoodU s. 90. 

ApproH'Uieo, Tt To bind as an appmtice^ 
H., apprmfMno, p. ; apprenfHud, pp, 

Appris*, Ap^rls/, Tt To inform. H., ap^ 
^piUing, p.; appri$ed',jfp. 

Appri$tf^,kp-^ptluf, yt,9(i. To appraise. H., 
^W'^Mif, p. ; orprif^aMnt, a. ; &e. 89. 

4pproae^ Ap-praoh^, a. 29. A drawing near to; 
acosss ; a path or avenue :— pL, appnaek'e^^ 

Approach', tl To advance or draw near to ; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


toTCHBMiT^-'vL Vb draw MAT J tosppmod* 
mate. H., a mu t Mk 'mf^ p,; maprooM', 
pp.; »rMcV«-, ■.: m^naek'Mf^4i,tL; 
^rna^lma, a.; (i 

" oc« 




f', s. = oppid'fiofi, Sff. 




H., o'MfMNiMMW, aotiM'M^ir** •. 91. 
-tta, -nB^-J., a. Of the caflt; 

•.M. AnaliTaofAnMa. 
. f-d-M^ a. AraMaa-like :~ 

8. A ptetare or ornaneiit. eona. of iaac. 

Miaga, *e., wfthoat anlnali . [ Arabia. 

Arabian, d-rlbe'-yin, a. 4«. = or'flNtf. Of 
^roMe, dr'-d-bKk, 1. 36. Lasnag^ of Arabia. 
.^oMK; -Ust, s. OMTanadin Arable. 
^r'oMc, -AbL a. M. Fit for tlUam ; ploiurbed. 
Araehtioid, d-rik'-noyd, a. S9. fWmed uka a 

qiid«^s wab. [Chaldaana. 

ulraaMrie^ dr^ml'-Dt, i. Of the Sjrro- 
ArmtmtUj d-ria^'-Vat, a. Like a oobweb. 
ulrdAer,A^.bltr«r,s. (ll.iWMrM^. OnewlK^ 

baa the power of deekkm or deetioy; a 

judge: ib arUtralor. 
ilr'MniMr, HriU, a. Detemdiiable. 
AfhUrm^-HltK, Of arbltratioiL 
A rbifr a m a U, -rd-m lat, e. Wni; deterari- 

Ba ti o n ; eonproMtee ; the award of arbiters. 
.drMrwry. dr'-be-trdr^ a. f6-d. Dependiiif on 

wlU: absolute, despotle, trranaleal. H., 

or'UlraHi^t 4S» ad. ; ar'hitrwmetg, s. 91. 
ilr^i6w^ -trite, n. To dedde: to jndffe 

of:— t1. To bear and ahre judfmeiit, a» 

an arbitrator. H., at'biUraHng, p.; or'M- 

tmt^a, pp.: erswre'nofif 96. s. 89. 
^r'NfnKor, -MMr, s. 96 {t^arytrtUnx,) 

A Judge between parties, chosen bj their 

mntasl eonsuit ; sa arbiter. [ipindle. 

Arb&r, dr'-Mr, n 96k A treet; an axis or 
^rfofwy*, dr'-bo-rdr-e, s. 9. Arboroos. 
jly^6orator,-rlb-t6r,s.95. One who grows trees, 
Arhon a o mt , 'rCs'4at, s. Growing, or fomed 

like a tree. H., (an) oriorsc'sene^, s. 91. 
Air'honi, -rCt, s. A small tree ; a shrubbery. 
Arhmrttam^ -rS'-tflm, s. A place In which 

hot epeetmens of trees ere cultivated. (L.) 
ilr'torieifMiir«^-kfilt-Qre,s.l8. TheenltiTstlon 

of trees and shrubs. [ (mln.) 

Ar^eriKfHoHf -T-shttn, s. 00. Ar bo reeeenoe. 
Ar'boritt, -bt, s. One who stndlss trees. 
ArtanmM, -<ls, a. 96 = mho ' rtom t *. Oforbe- 
^r6eiir,dr'-b<lr,s. Abower. [longiar to trees. 
Ar'hoarviite, -tme, B, A species of bird-weed. 
ilr6iMcfe,dr'-bfls-sl,s. A dwarf tree. 
^rlM'Mfiar.-ka-Ur. a.18. Shrub-like, 
ilrftfifo, dr'-Ut^ s. 18. The strawberry tree. 
ilrftw^MM, -bOtZ-yla, a. 46. Ofarbots. 
Are, drk, s. An arch; a enrre; a segment 

of a oirde (geom.). [orer. 

Arcade, dr-UUk', s. A walk or street arched 
^yvodion, -kBdZ-TSn, a. 46. OfAresdia. 
Areanmi^, dr-kl'-nOm, n A seeret; a my»- 

tmry :— pL, areefna*, the secrets of any art 

or soienfle. (L.) 
Areh, drch or dTtah, a. 99. Cunning ; shrewd ; 

waggish. H., areh'9ff, sd. : oreA'fWtf, s. 91. 
Arehj drch or drk, pfic 99. Chief; principal; 

oee., andent. 
Ar^ drch, s. Fart of a clrde or elHpse; a 

ooncaTC struclur e of masonxy s u pport e d 

by its own eur?e; an arc H., armUke, 

arehfwiee, a. 99. 
Areh, drch, Tt. To corer with arches ; to 

curve; todrawwittiaeurTe:>-Ti. Tobulld 

arches. H., orcA'wi^, p. ; arched', pp. 
AreJueologieal, <rr-ke-o-16j'-e-k&U a. ReUting 

to srchKology. H., archaoio^icaVju sd. 91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


tlie Blnor bnaflhtt of antiqni- 

tiM not boL in menlbSst.; atmannen, 
enstoms. national arclritaatw% 4m. H., 
ankmaotkL a. M. [obaotetc 


j|r«iUrf0,Jk^UMk,a.B«rBUi'iMl. Ancient; 
.ir'dUiiM, -lam, a. An ancknt phr a ae . 
Jrtkmgef, drk-9n^-m, a. One of tho higfaaat 

ordaraofangala. IL, a nhmgt f u, JA-ia^ 

ArMMi^M, Ath-, a. A ehiaf Ualwp; tba 
Uahop or a pramee aairaU aa of ma own 
diooeaa. R^ tmMUhfcpHs, •. 90, 

Jr0kdtaf§om, Jteli-» a. Ona nazt in rank 
balow a Utto^ in Ilia wlMla ornartofft dio- 

AftkSvk/,Mnh-^M. Hm tttfa of aona aoT»- 
raifnprboaa. K^ archd§utfm§t ankthM- 
Som,i», [powerM; op«raltnf flhantea. 

JrelUai, JMcrMI, a. b mrckmfoL HMfin; 

ArdUtf, Jtohi, a. Ottrrad. 

2raA«% Jt^hr, a. (t, «ra»'araat.) Oneivlio 
ahoota airowa flroin a bow* ■ fanbar. 

Jrakftrp, -Ir-e, a. Ilia art and praetua of tm 

Arthitw^Mf-^npt^B. OrlfinaL 

Jrckfttipt, a. Tba orifiikal flroin wUah aay 
aopf la made. 

AtoMmJ; Mc'-a-Ul, a. Ghlaf; primarj. 

^ ^ tiiku f on mL drk-e-» a. Ofaaarahdaaoon. 

Af«Mgii/fffaI 4A-a-k a. Of an arehUahop. 
H^ «raMfir«yaMf. 41, a. 9L 

MM, JMS41, orkqAfc a. A Uahan: n rieli 
Holat or pnrpla dya-atoff praparad Iran it 

ArwtfaiidMii. «r-l£n-«Hir-«n, a. Of Afohi- 

Ar«Mii#, dM^^ng, IL. Oarring; [r ' 


Ar^i»ifi^, dlrk-»iria'-«-ffO, a. 

Arckkmi, drk^^^tfkt a. (t, arSlfiUclrtm,) 

Ona who daaigna boudinga and anperinlnda 

loB ■ a ountrlw or oricinatar. 
AnVUmtim, -It, a. 46w Uaad in, or praj 

iMballdinff. rinart^" ' 

Arekittetamtet -tttaf-lk, a. SIdUed 
AfwMtaM^-tdn'-Ika, a. pL Hm 

of ardilfeaatnro. rarrihltaatiu ai 

Jrd ^it tal wu k -^ra^ a. U. Balating to 
J r tk ih timn a, 4rk'-o^b-«r^ a. 18. Hm art 

ArdMtr ay^ J^fr^-ti tTi^ a. Th^partoftha 

antablatnra wliiab raata insadiatalT vpon 

Jr okt rnJ , dar-»Hl-Wa, dMtf ^vil-K., 8^ 

a. Of or containing arefalvaa. 
AnkiwM, Mt-iOfm, & pi. Polilla or amiant 

raoorda; alao tba plaoawliarttlMjara kept 
Ardk'Mit^ -tirt, -G^-A., a. A kaapar of 

'- — - - kobiafiMMlaliJai 

AreAoMSriiE'-Sn,aJ6. Ad 


Ar««a, drk'-Ok, a. M^rtham. 
AtmmUom, ' ■ " 


' ^'^ ■fctt-y -^'flPt ■• ^K Iba aat of 
banding; inonrration; 

Af'iiiialMrtta-tflrit^ a. Ig* Tba eurfaUm of an 
-^vt^ 4M| as. T im p at' ; dtapoattlon* [arab. 
Ji ri m$i f , gy-dfa-aa, a. Ardoar; aagamam; 
warmtb of paaiion or fbaUnc 



Ar4 m m, Ay-<MK a. 1». Lolly*; dttonlt; 


laboriooa. H., nrdW w/y ^ ad.; ar^noai 

wIrt, dr, tL Saa Jif . 

Af^ lr«, a. Amananra s 100 aq. mdCraa. (Pi 
Arao, r-ro-d, IrZ-a-dL a. Anj plain aarfl» 

ora n o l oaadapaoa; tba aonkan apaaa aroaa 

tiw baaamant of ft building. 
Ar^f^t dr'-a-fl, Tt. To dir. H., ar'ffyin 

p. ; oK^^bd, pp.; anflmftkm^ 86, a. 80. 
Aranc, 4krB'-na, a. Tim mea Ibr oonbtta • 

boraa m a n a hfp in an a ra pb lt baatra ; flg, w 

piMaofpobUoaontaat. [aBnd7;lHat>l 
A r m *u»mn dr-«-ni'-«b*fla, a. m «ranatVioc 
Anfi^«on\ -abUn, a. Aaandbatb, (mod.) 
ArmMSHe, d-HEn-^-Df 4k, a. (prat, -WA^ 

Of or UlDa aandatona. 
A r anaai , -nfia«', a. b aKanoni^ -da. flandr. 
AfWirfoM*, -t-Ma, a. 16. FnUofinaaand 
Arao2a,d-rr-o-ld,a.aar'aaX<». Thaaoloon 

olrola ronnd tbe nippla or a pnatsla. 
Ar/otm-, ^4r, a. U. Oforlftanazai 

iMb or diaeolontioo. (M. 

H0m'-a-t8r, ir»--S., a. 17. 1 

b y d roaaater iq^ fX H., o iaam ' aii f, 48, a 

w r mmw e rJMUf a. 90. [araopagra 

Ami|Nif««, dr-a-Sp'-Mta, a. AindgaoTtl 

Armtfomm^ -gfla, a. Tba aotanign ti 

in anmant Atbena. 
Analb*, A-ra-Sf -De, a. AttmmatiBC. 
Afpmid;dl'-giad,a.OflLAr«nd. fflmnii 
Aryami, dr4r-ia, a. Partainhg to Jno, \ 
Afy««f2,dr9tet,ft. Brlgbt7«uVarT; irhit 
Ar^matA.'A^^^mrfmiio. OforttaalM 
A rg m im , -lit, a. Gorman alhnr. 
Ar'^witelatftiti^a. Aaaltofflryin < toaifci(1 
ArgmUMm^ -tft'-«hfln, a. An orariajb 


; to pro^ 

^ir-8r-«a,a. 0(mtainta«aaiw 
,-li,-Tna y ,'Wiai,a.46. Sonndii 
aimr; argantaL (atamia 

AfyO*, Ar'-jll, a. Pottaeaalay; poia etoft 

day; al^pay. 
Afy«a6brow,-nf-«r-«a,a. Aboandtaglnela 
Afy<i•^dk'-|^ra— Wa.,-g!nw— CvB^a. Qraa 
A >y> d*^-gMf a. c oKpafc '^ ' 

Affpay, dl'-go-aa, a. A mar 
Arf m, dr^-JB, tI 18. T o < 

cnr paiauada by argnmaBC ^ 

Ty> cdkr raaaaaa; to diMOta (M. b7 aoM 

H, orVaifHr, p.; ar^tta^ P^; •r'fiiar, d 

mrgwktg, n 80. 
Ar'ponafit, -mfint, a. A raaaon aUagad; t 

aaldaat of aay dimo nr ao or wiBtar; 

anmmary or baada of a aal^aott a aarl 

af r aaa oni ; adiaaaaiiDn. 
Afyaawif ffftig, -ibi, a. Tbatmaybaavgnn 
A r ftmmi i a li om , -I'-abin, a. Wmmtii raaariala 
A j piawwi f a tf aa , -tfr, a. » mu mmmi t B^* Od 

atottog 0^^ ail rtlaf d to argnmat. I 

iMM^ B._n, ^ [aym; a rmj ^ 

fatMgf tf, ad. ; aiiiaiiiiwr« 


Afwai; Ar'-flla; a A flddad baing wte t 
A»«a, irZ-vi, a. 00. Anaferort 

, . ortnna. fit) 

rtoa,ir«'^*An,-y'in,a.d8. AmltarfBB. I 
yffliiiaw,-laaa,a UigariaalanL r«r<tan,a.l 
r«0«M,d^«a74n-d,-arHBA-Br^a.86. TI 

alkaloid of Arioabaik. 


by Google 

Jno, IB^'-*^^ 1. tIm nmi ft riga of tlw 

JKrfl^iiir-4.ft^ AlittltairortaBe. (It) 

JrMK'^'fiMi' X>l^l^ [iMo'ftMed. 

lr£r-ll&Jl«ariirML Ae cxtarior eovcr- 

.*dK*'-iMla^««r'iIate^ HftvlactaftxiL 

Ji^ J^ftr; Ti T» ■wiwiil; to g«t np; to 

4P«r; tD kofia or vdac firam; to swell 

m te «iatHl; to ta^Tboitmty (ML bj 

i p rwO H^ arfi'Hv, p.; «r0Of', pnt; 

flPi/flL -«lz*]mip. 8iL 

tW^— , [ftVIM- 

J«M^ A-rtf-titf^ ft. BMwhxg an^ta, or 
i ii i MiiM » ,i li fc rftt '- rf oo,« .AgoTerMft—tof 
~ ■offtfttftte. 

mn ftciftlooncy. H.t 
rt^ioM^ fta t Anttoflror ■" 

«r-Is-«»«^-lkp ftL Of Artalo- 

■.17. Obo ikUtod in 

iMTftldry. [ftrnsftrvBadoordopodtod. 

Arm^onh -fir-e, ■• 17. Tho plaee la which 

.im'oMr, -«r, ft. SS. M. Defeiwho 0«M or drat. 

ArmfpUf 8. Tho hoUow undor tho ann. 

Anm, ftms, 8. pL Wempont of olteM or 

defcaoe; war; hostflitj; anaisM mmorUa 

(bar.). [undor ft ffbirftl ; ft moltitndftt. 

Armify dr'-me, ■. A largo body of nldlerft 

Anma , d-ry-md, ■• Tho odorooa prtaoiplo 


Jromaih, diH>.iBMr4k, ft. a mtmm f ieal», 
8w i o t ■yn t ed, ipiey, odoriteooa. &, (an) 

Arematim, ^krO'-ad-tlM^-J., 8^ Wo., ir'-o- 
— K., Wt., Tt. 60. To rondor aromfttlo ; to 
•OMit or poxftunt. H., or^w art iin f , p.; 
ar«^N«MMd; pp. ; oro^ w o Ht ar, t 

wlro^fturtoM*, -tOa, ft. Aromatle. 
.droM. SmAritt. 
Ar0umL d-rownd', ad. S8. 
Armm^t Vr» About ; on all aldoa. 

In ft ainua; ( 

Ar^uekuSde, -Id/, a. 

4krowa/, Tt To call into aetloA ^to 
or aniflMta:— tL To awako. jS., 

, , A TolMvanr diatllled 

(t. L) fnand-ffon. 

ArffMfli«M4r'-WbA>a, 8.91. An oM-teahionad 

ArfuAmin', -tCr/, a. A aoldiar armad with 

an aninaboaa. [liquor. 

Arratk, dr'-rik, r&ekL ft SB. A aplrUiMfaa 

Arrmign, di^^intf', Tt. To aatft priaooar at the 

bar ; to pnbUely impaaeh or aenanra. H., 

'"*'•»» P' » flrroi^iwd', pp.; arraign'' 

ArramM,dT-Ttai\^,yt.». TOafd^)iiat,prapara,or 

pntlA order. H., arram^img. p. ; mrmmt^dt^ 

pp. ; mran^tTt a.; mi m na gmmU^ a. W. 
Arrm^mmU, a. nnal aacUamant; olaaalfl- 

JmMi<,dr'-riBt,ft.M. Notorfooa; impodent; 

Inikmooa. H., oKrwi^ ad. 9L 
^liTM*, dr'-rfla, a. 8C Taportry. [ihow. 

.imiy,ar-ri%s.M. Diapodtkm; order; drcea; 
Arrajf ^yt. To diapoae in order ; to envelop ; 

to drcea or adorn. SL, •rray'ifi^, p. ; at' 

ramti^^ pp. ; mrrmftr^ 8. M. 
iirreor, dr-rir«', a. St. That whieh reaBftbia 

onpakl, or oBdono, alter the pioper tiiM. 
Jrraar'Mi*, -U«^ e. 6. Arreara. 
JmytfiStf*, £r-r«p-titoh'.'aa, a. M. Snatched 

•wmt; erept in prlTily. 
Arr9d,to-S^, a. M. i _ ._ 

any aaiinie, hlnderaoee, or TeetzainL 
Arrmff Tt. To apprehend under leml pn>> 
, fix, hinder, restrain. ~ 

p. ; Af 'filled, pp. ; nfTtttftr^ ot- 

rut^oTt lC» e. '; mnrmttf^lmi, H, arrettwurUf 

ArHSiar^tt-wil, e. Theaet oTarriTing or at- 
talning; persons or thinn whidi arriTe.(T.T.) 

Jrriae, dr-rtv^, tL 96. TO eoBM to or readh 
any plaee (IbL by a<) ; to attain by labour or 
atudy ; to happen or ooonr. H., orrlif tn^, 
p. ; emo«f , pp. 

.dmif«i<,dr'-r(Hrtnt,a.f6. Hanghty, proud, 
orerbsaring. H., ar'rogantly, 48, ad. ; or^- 
royewfiiewt, ar^roganct^ ar'rogancif^, •. 91. 

Af^rogoU, -gtt«, n. To claim proudly or 
OMiuly; to aeenme. H., ar^rogmtrng, p.; 
or'ro^ed, pp.; mrogc^Uott^ M* •• 89. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1. 99. 


Ar^roftiht, -tff %. Ctoimfcig nadnly. 

TlMmbdiTlaioa<tfad«partnent. (R.) 
jlrrvMOfV*. Ar^iO^-tlittii, t. 96. Agnaiwing. 
jlrrotp, dr-ro^ t. 98. Hie pointed wetpo&diot 

ftom A 1)0W. [arMM4iffMMM. 

Jr'roi^-fvoc, -root, t. The meml of iw i i a ntfl 
Arrowiff dr'-ro-«, a. 96. Of or like arrows. 
Anmai, dnf-tn^ •• ▲ magaxine or mean- 

ftelorT of military ftores. [oeitf. 

AnmiiUiL dt'tBuZ-^BXe, f. ▲ lalt of anmic 
ArMenie, OT-eta'4k, a. ■> orM^iMoni^ -iSiw'-y'te. 

Of acMBie (anpUed reepu to two aelds). 
Anenis^-§Mi!aL,an^-iaa,M. A brittle gray- 

ookxured metal; aiSMUOiia aeid or white 

An m i c at t ar-een'-Xk-fi, a. Of or wwitaJnlnf 

anenie. [arewle. H., armR^iomUd, pp., a. 
ArmnfieaU, -e-kit«, vt. To eomblne with 
Ar'tm itt, -JU, a. AaaltofarMuoMaetf. 
.^Irfk, 4r-«lB. a. The aocented part of a met. 

foot, (pioa.) [hmnea, Ao. 

wiri0fs dt'-Wk, a. 9S. Hie erime of bondaff 
Art, At, a. The power of doing aneBething 

nottaaghibynaciwe; prae^eaTaUU guided 

by mlea ; a protaiion or trade ; eontriTBBee, 

dezteritr ; artftihiaaa, earning. 
Art, li. See Bt. 
^irtertol, «r-(fire'-«-«l, a. Of or oontained in 

thearteriea. [toletblood. 

Arte^riotomjft -Of -o-me, a. Opening an artery 
Artt^HaUtt, 'Izt, fU 90, To make arterial; 

to afcate. H^ artSr'iaiiBtd, pp., a.; mU- 

nai{Mi'K0M, 96, a. 89. 
Art4r^ d^-tCr-e^ a. One of the polaatlajg 

tnbca or eanala through whieh the Uood la 

propdled by^the heart. 
Ar t tm an , dt 

Ji4«"-fh'to,-teM'-yfa,a. Applied 

to wella or lifwintalna made by boring into 
the earth until a head of water ia reaehed. 

^fl/W, Art'-fd&l, a. Artifleiali conning; de- 
oeitfhL H.,«rrA<%,ad.;«rr/«ifo«f,8.91. 

Arthritie, Ar-thrttr-Uc, a. « arVirUfieal. Be- 
lating to or afllsi^ing the Jointa; goaty. 
A*> AneeouleBtp 

Artichoke, dr'-f-6bSka, . 

ArtieU, Ar'-tlkl, a. A partioolar anbatanoe ; a 
ain^ danae, term, or item; a point of 
faith ; an eamy or leader ; a part of veeeh. 69. 

AyiicU,n, Todrawoporbindbyartieleaor 
partioolara:— Ti. Toatipalate. lL,av'tided, 
pp., a. [Jointa. H., orlMT'iitoriif, ad. 9L 

^r<Mtflar,<fr-tIk'-aU&r,a.l8. Bdoni^totiie 

ArtUfukOe, AiXe, a. Jointed; formed by tiie 
organa of apeeeh ; dear, distinet. H., or- 
tiefulaUl^, ad. ittrtkfuUOmem, a. 91. 

Ariiifulaf,yi. To form into distinct aonnda, 
8yllablea,orworda; toJoint:^Ti. Tospeak 
distinotly. H., artitfuUrtmg, p. ; artkftOattd, 
pp., a.; arti4mlartkm, 86, s. (t. a.) 89. 

ArtieHlaftiom,M,96^ A joint; a conaonant. (▼.▼.) 

Ariiftet, drf -e-fb, a. An ingeniooa oontriT- 
anoe; a trick or flraod. [mechanic. 

Artifieer, tfr-txf4a-fir, s. A oontriTer; a 

Arttfit4a\ drt^e-ltth'-^U, a. Hade by art; 
feigned : foctltioaa. H., artifiTeiaUy, ad. ; 
artifi^'cwlMu, ariifieimFUv*, s. 91. 

Artmei,af'm-lze,n,eO. fo give the appear- 
ance of art [gunnery. 

ArtiUeritt, Jr-tll'-&r-1st, n One akUled to 

ArtUlfery, -it^ a. Cannon, ordnance: also 
the men and stores connected with tnem ; 
gunnery. H., mrtUF t ry shwi, Ae. 


.irMMm Af -e-iia, a. OnetndMdto 
dcjrtarity; amedianic 

Artitt, drf-tot, a. One who profaaata 
pramaes an art in whieh acfisnee or i 
directa tiie manual execution ; appr., a per- 
trait painter, [fhl in any art or trade. {FnJh. 

Artitte, dr-t8st/, a. One oezteroas and fair 

Artkth, -tiEst'-Xk, a. « artistieal. Of an artiat^ 
accor.toart. H., orfiff ies%, 48, nd. 

Artkm, Jrt'-Ma, a. Void of guile or fhuid^ 
natural; sincere. IL, orf ititfi^ ad. ; 4wf «• 

ArtmitMm, 4r-fla-d61/-yin» a. AnpUed 

certain anc marblea. [Uketead 

Armdinmceom, d-r(ln-de-Br-ib»«s, a. Of i 
AnmdinBotu, -dXn'-y'Oa, a. " 

J«,«s,ad. (fr«q.calledaeoiO.) 8iBilarly;Sa ^ 
like manner: for example; whiles dunig^ 
Somet, by elUpsia, ciiuIt. to a rsL pro. 

A$,igf,B, The ana. Roman pound. 

^aat, iC-d, a. A gum. IL, aa^wCidm, -^t-^ 

^UarwftMea,H(d*bik'-d,a. Naaseof aplaaL 

ilsorMM, ia'-d-rlh, a. M. A anba. obtatned 
frpffi sHunft osocft* 

ilj6MlafM,8a-bte'-tIn,a.46. Oforllkeasbeetoe. 

.ds»eries,-t«s,s.l7. Anincombostibto,flhtoo»> 
mineral, aomewhat reaembting flaau H.* 
osUf'l^/bnn, 86, a. 90. 

AaeaHdm, Mcdr'-Id-es, a. pL (sia^ mTcmU^ 
Thread-worma in tiie reetmn. 

.dacmd, footed', vt. To cli mb j—H . Tortw; 
flg., to proceed from one degree of good t^ 
another ; or from the preeent to former asea* 
or through iwoestiy upwaida. Hm mmmI'*^ 
ittff p. ; oMtndfei, pp., a. ; mmmToU^ 46^ 
a. ; oaotn'siofi, 88, s. 89. 

AMoengmU, -Ani a. Superior; predominant; 
controlling ; above the horiaon (aetr.). 

JsoMMfont, a. Superiority; enmmaadiny 
power or influence; helgfat*, eleration*; a& 
a nee a t o r . [Ung inflMBce. 

AMoen^enof, -te-se^ a. Goreming or control- 

.^aowMfas^M sBn'-slT, a. Bising; tendingtoriee:^ 

AtemU, 8e-etef , a. The act, atate^ or waj of 
rising; an wninenee, hilL acaliTlty. 

.^«o0rta<n, te-fir-tan^', Tt. To make certain by 
trial or examfaMtkm; toeatabUah: todatnak 
H., MMTtoM'Jp^ p,; m$oniaiiui, pp.; «»- 
ctrtam'tTf s.; OMsrtote'aMf, 46, a.; «Ba«r^- 
tain'wuHtt, •. 89. 

AMttic fie-eW-Ik, -Uf-^ a. 98. One who 
praeaaea undue rigour and adf-deniai in 
reUgioua matters; a reduae; a hermit. B^ 
mtottfie, a$e$t^ieal (of or like), a. ; moirWiBi, 
-aism (teneta. praetiocy, s. 90. 

Jasionc, ith'-fixm, a. pi 28. = mom, 8ah'-yl.. 
Inhafaitanta of the torild sooe, fkom bdn^ 
ahadowlesa at noon, (geog.) [bellgr. 

AuUea, fle^-tea, -kT— K., s. Dropsy of tt* 

uij0<tM,is-ait'-!k,-kIf— K.,a.»a«MrMai. Off 
aadtcs; dropdeal. H., oM^TiMiJ/^ ad. 91. 

AseHUhtu, «a-e-tlsh'-»fl8, a — - • 



fia4alb^,n. To attribute or 
as a cauae or quality. H., a$erib'mp, 
asenbed*, pp. ; aierWabIs, 45, a. ; 

AjeriptUioui*, -tish -*tt8, a. That la aecrfiied. 

^amtol, &-seks'-11-41, a. 18. Without aeau 

JM, fish, a. = ofA'm. Oforlikeaah. 

A$h,». A tree; also its wood; oceL,aaheik 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


iiMi M i M w r,w i, 

H^niiirw%*,a<Laa. fpocuh li made. 
■i«»iAMM,& AAsalipit;Bplaflewliti« 
aite^-^&«L Vh« TonaiBs of anytiiiag 

. T*-^ a. Flrat daj of LMit. 

JdKMT-^a. ororHheaakca; aah-eoloiired. 

Jtm^ hA ^^tr^tk, a. or AmkM. BUJmi] 
^riri1■■■^•^-A■^ a. Xiiitfttioii of oricBtat 

Jia«4^di;ad. OB «r toon* aide; frrivatalr. 
J^ai^ iriB Ifc^, a. 4ft. = a^wtary* , ft. Of 

Ml*i ^i^g ^ We, Tt. •. T Pteyd aimto, 

■t aadea as; t» taiqaira (JbL^ <?n :— ^i- 
TbicE^istBalm after (ffDL by >br}. H., 

^taaiT^-kiM'. gMawaji. (aU t or |.) 

iahn,*ir-ar, & A water-nafirt. (▼. %.) 

with ( 

To p«iit after ; to datire 
eagerneM ; to aim at aomethiiif ele- 
. H., oitOf^inff, p. ; a«ptrr<f , pp. ; as- 
flf'tr^f Mfir^atU, a.; (an) a9f^mg,a$pi- 
ni'Koi^ M, oiiNrv'aMMlt, a. se. 

AnTrhtf, a. Ambitioaa, Ac H..aMlr'«n^, 
4i, ad. : oitpfy^AyiMaif*, t. (r. r.) 91. 

.i^arfoniafi, da-port-A'-MOa, a. A oanying 
away ; tbaMoBioDa roDoral of gooda nag.). 

Aafumttt ia^wlnf , ad. ObUqualy. [fellow. 

Am, fli', a. A weU-known animal ; a atapid 

JjmO. i»«|]/, Tt. IbattaakhoaCflely. H., <w- 
aotf Mf, p. ; aaaaOMT, pp.; atamtn*, attair- 
mU, a. ; amaifakU, 45, a. ; a$9aifmmt^, a. 89. 

jlaaatfafil,-Aat,a. Aaaalltog, attadting. (r. ▼.) 

.iaaoaim, ia-ate'-In, a. One who a aaaaa ina taa. 

J«aaa^<nafo,-l]|.ftt«,n. Teklll,orattampt to 
kiU hf aaaret aamolt; to murder. H., <u$- 
mt^mmi^f p.; ofamfmaUdf pp.; caaa/- 
tmrntuTf S^ a. : aaaoafinil'tjoii, M» a. 89. 

wl««n^«iewf», -fta, a. Mnrderoaa. 

^Otoiift, ii^^trnvlXU Aa-a61t't, ». 8. A Tieleat and 
•adden onaet or attack, either hj worda or 
miimuiw; an attaek, eharge, alorm: an 
attempt or threat to baat aaother withoot 
aetaaUT doing it (leg.). 

Ajumdf, Tt. To attaek hj eamolt H., oa- 
majr^.; aaja«|^«/.pp.; oaamiirT. a. ; 

A trial or ezaminatioa ; the 



aaved. (ehcm. : min.) 

. Tb make trtei of ; to teator anal^: 


— Ti. To trj or endeamr. H., ama^tngt 
p. iostayed, pp. ; acMy'«r, a. (r. L) 89. 

Aaa/ iny, -Ing, a. Aaaaj, more eap. applied 
to the exam, of aUoja of gold and ailTer by 
the cupel. 

A99miMa9*^ aa-ataV-UO^, a. 6. A ooUeetian 
of indiridnala or partieolara ; the atate of 
belnr aaaembled. 

AttembU, ia-a«m'-bi, rt To bring or eall to- 
gether a ntunber of indlT. or partic. into one 
place; to eoUeet; to eonTene:— vi. To 
meet together. H., msstrn'Mng, p. ; as- 
wmfkied, m. ; MaemVkr, a. 89. 

AMum^biff, -bie, a. A eoUeetion of peraona met 
togalher fbr amvaementt or oonfencd on po- 
Ilueal or reliffiooa mattera : an aaaemUage*. 

AtMtU, U-^iaVt B, An admitting or agreeing 
to; eoaearrenee: eonaentt. 

AM9eiU^, Ti. To amnit or agree to ; to yield 
eonaent. H., aaaaiiriN^, p. ; a$$*nf§d, pp. ; 
antn ttrj, a. ; nBtnfmeni^, a. 89. 

Jmafila<Mm*.-ft'-ehttn,a. Aaaent Cram flattery 
or diaalmnjation. 

uiyamtaeor»,*'&-tflr,e. 17. AiUtterer. 

A»$mttimg^%. Expreaaing aaaent H.,a«amf> 
4ngl^, 48, ad. (▼. ▼.) 91. 

jiaMTt, te-afirr, Tt. To declare poaitMy ; to 
maintain, aflbrm, Tindieate, claim. H., at- 
»ertim§, p. ; oaaarf a^ pp. ; oaacrf or, S5, a. : 
aum'Uim, a. 89. [ (t. t. ) 

Atttr'tior^ -ahftn, a. A poaition advanced. 

Amrt¥oe, -It, a. 88. a atterfmy, 28. Poei- 
tiTe ; aiHrming: H., atttrtfivefy, ad. 91. 

.iaaiaa. fta a fla\ Tt. 9. To rate or tax ; toTalne 
for uepuMee of taxation. H., oafaaa'ifi^, 
p. : m$i§tea, pp. ; a»$e$^or, 26, a. ; oMaai'- 
oMa, 48. a. : oaaeav'aMfif, a. 89. 

Att$$^aMy, -ab^le, ad. By aaaeaament. 

^laaaanpfiary, 8a-e«ah'-tkn-dr-^ a. S8. s ones- 
m/'rial. Pertaining to a a aea e ora. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


AMtit^mmtt 8. The ■nm leTitd on proptrty. 

Anii Is'-dMi, n pL Goodf, ofaattol^ *e^ 
anmnUe to a ufal otaim ; th« ooUtati?e 
propertr of a dMMMd or iBMlYvnt POTMO. 

affirm aolanialy. H^MMv^croKN^p.; m- 
M^mrattdf pp.; aw aBni^f i w i. M, •- «k 

.AmMiiM^ iiiU^'AXr^ a. 18. DiUfanee; 
oooatant or oloao attaatkA. 

Amidimm, ia-tftf-tt-fta, a. 18. AttaatiTa ; dfli- 
gantj pvaaveriBf* H, aMWiia * " 
aaitf ^ iiii iw mb taUMH^t »> (▼• ■•] 

^4*4^ ia^Ui/, a. Ona to wfiOM 

T. a.) •£; 

■7 pro- 

par^ or intareit la aMigaad. (lag:) 
AnJjtf, rU To allot or apportion; to fix or 

toalkffa; to 
tor. h; amWW* p.; o i M fii f , to.; «*- 

a.; auf^eTtim, U, amign^mmt, a. (t. i.)89. 

Auifimi, «a-4l]i-y#, a. AaoCa or MUof tha 
FnmA gor. darlitf tiia rarolntioiiu [(▼. t.) 

Auimati§H, -m^-ahttn, a. Alora-appointaMiit. 

Atmjmit, Aa-a-aC, a. Ona to whooi aa anlgn- 
BMBt la made in tmst (lag.) ; an aMiga. (T. T.) 

A m im iiatt, te-alm'-ll-at«, Tt. To tebg to a 
Ukoieat; to oonvart Into a Uka aabataoaa^ as 
twd Into oar own bodlaa :--Ti. TObaooma 
aimllar ; to aniliBr oc n Tarifcm. "B^mmim^i- 

AMt Mif a t iif t, 'lf,tLm, umi m fiht mr^,2&, HaTiag 
powar or tending to amimUata. 

JjeM,ia-ito^Tt To halp^ raUava, bafriflsd, 
ald:^vL Tokndaid. H., Mner«Vf P- S 
MtMfa^pp.; (an) auit t tm U •Mtmemr^ a.; 

Jlwiirwat,^iaa<,'a. Halp» aid, rallat 

.iai<ifMi^-4nt. a. Helping. [paL(T.T.) 

AMaUeatU^u, One who aariala nndar a prlnd- 
'B-eia/, a. Lit., • altdngt i on ordi- 
or atatata ragaktfing tha waight, 

N^ and ptka of oommodtttoa ;--pL, 

oMl^aa^a ooort bald la arwy ooaatj abont 
twioa a year, at wfaloh aaaaea ara triad by 
a Jidga of tba aaparior aoarta aad a jary. 

^■rfi/, Tt Toflz tiiaqaaatity or priia; to 
amam. H., mmUW, p. ; ««iw^, pp. ; «- 
«i/ar, OMir ar, a. 80. 

.AaM'a<aMi^-ah'ibl,a.i7. SodaUa; aompaa- 
ionabla. H, aam/cUUmmt, amodMU^, 
a. (T. L) 9L [a.S7-8. Ooafiidwate: aaeooiatad. 

AMtomati, «a^-ah*it«» -di»-S., Wa., -aa-IL, 

AjmftiaU, a. A oompantna, partaar. aoa4|n- 
tor, or aooomj^iaa. H., a»»t f t iwi mki^ a. 90. 

.AMD'aiad^ Tt. Tojotaiaaompaayaaaakad, 
partaar, 9m, >-^ To kaap aompaay; to 
naite la action. H.* lumfom^mg^ p. ; omr'- 
atalMl^pp.; aM0>'«ialert,17,a.i iimftiMe^ 
a. ; nmurfa^Kon (t. L), a. 89. 

ijatoaiartoa, ia-ao-M-V-ihOa, -die-A'-ahOn— 
8., Wa., a. 98, S6. A portaarabip* aoaiedar- 
•ey, or aooioty; naion, aoanaatJon, or ^po- 
aiuoa ofldaaa or thinga. (▼. t.) [alatian. 

AM09kfUm§it4^%, PertafaOngtoaaaMO- 

.Aanr«M^.ili»4t^lT,a.S8,46. Tandlngto 
amoiiitB. \M^ •^ mn m m, -ninM, a. 9L 

^iioaflwf.ia'-aoHMnt, a. BaaambUnginioand. 

.Aaw<, in o r t r ,n.98. Toarraaga 6a nliwii ; 
•~tL Toagraaoraeaordwilh. B^mtmt- 
int^f p. y a WW f$Af pp.t '^ S afear^aTf a. ; aa- 
aorfaMniL a. 89. 


Ajmrttmrntt-miait*, A qaaatity ornan 

properly ealactad. (▼. t.) h 

AMiMM,ia-awi^,^18. Toaoftan;to4 

aooUia, B^tigata^ traaq^UlM :— vL Tq 4 

or aabiida. H., a e wa/ tiM, p. ; aiawM 

pp. ; a m in/ «r, a. ; OMaofr auni, a. SOL , 

Jaiiiniiiii, -awiaf'4T, a. 18. SoAadBg. 


(ii'imrfiirff, -tOd«, a. CiMlom ; babftL ^ 

.A«a«BM» ia^Onw', Tt. 18. Totakaipa 

aalf; to aeixe nt^oatly ; to 

lorgraatad; to a p pwp i lata; to i 

TO be arrogaat; to alalm 
to nadtrtaka or promiaa. K. niigai 
am ii rf *, 1^ { fl w fl ai ^ ar^ mJw) mNI 

Attt^'wtima, a. Hangfaty; arrogaat 3 
Amm^U ia^attmp'-alt, -aOair-^ Wa., i^ 

A vMaatary promiaa to pay or p a iHuaaa l 

aaochar. (log.) 
Anumi^tim, -Ato, -attm'-fl.. Wa., a. 4». ' 

aotofaeaomiag; aiappoaltkm;adoptloi 
Awm^Um, -tiv, -attm^—Sn Wa., a. T1h| 

oramybaaii nw ii l H., nii iwip 'f i ' a iip^ Mj 

'^'""^'*^ ^'jy"*"* ^*^^ Ovtala 
peetatioa; eonfldaaea; freedom flraaa ^kM 
waat of modaaty: lauradanaa; oonvloCit 
teatiaaony of orMlt; maQraaae^ an ayp, 
liTBiw (▼. ▼.) 

^lanrib4-eh'S0r',Ttia To make oirtaia 
give oonfidenea by promiaa s to imiBi m 
oeelarato; tolnaara;toaakaaaaam im 
</btf.tha01i|.). H.,«Mflr'^pu; m^ 
pp. ; aafflKar. a. ; aeiflr'nMML a. 89. 

.Ammvv^ i^*obrd^ a. Oertaln: indalaital 
boldlo azaeaa. BL, am i K a i» , •«. ; 
aOf^aAMOi^ a. (r. VodL 

.ia^yKan, ia-tfr'-e-Aa.a.l^dft. Of «r ft 
Aaerrla. (li 

.iaterM<Mi» ia-t8r/-e-«4U,«- Badiatod; ai 

.ialarWk» tar-Mr^lak» i. A flaall otar <«L 

.i/tertea*, 4am, & A aoMtaUatioa. 

iU^«nH 4-atera% ad. la, towaidi^ or Wti 
tiiaatarB;aft.(anit) Ddam 

jlaUrotfiia'-iftr-oyd.a.SS. OnaofttamU 

AMtni^^-VL^x. OforUkaanaotarold. 

wiaaanie,ia^iite'-1k,a. TOebIa; debOitmt 

A Mt k m 0lont -^'^>-ie> •• A iHifiiiaimi 
dlaeaam aoMMotadirith debility. 

.iaaaM,ial'-md,iath'^o4-K.,a. A^kio 
" • o# tt 

JbfJtomi<o,-mir-!k,a.»aifibwiaftoay. Ofoi 

feetadwUhaathma. B^Vu)adkmmrim^m 

ilatoaM, AMte'-ioh, Tt 17. Toataaor^ 



AMUmfi»kin0^ • 

ad.; mWOMmmmm*. a. 9L ^ 

JJ^teMMd, Aa-towad'.Tt S9. TOatiikednmb > 
aaMaemont; to aatoniah. H., < 

.i«lrma,ia^fi'^a. Oaaof the minor plu 
.dJ«rayoi,ia'-tnl-gU,a. Dm linHSkia^D 

ing vkUk aarroonda Iha top aad teMM 

A$tna, te'-MO, a. 9. JM thaattta^^tarrg 

* ^ to 

ul«lr^p,«^tii%ad. Ontoftliei 
.4iM(K^,A'atrlkr,n. To Mad i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

.4iCrid«, «^tald«', ad. WIUi tte legs omil 

. Jja^ w j w , ! ■ um^ , It. f. Tobtodtonlbnr; 
to WMepM to MBtmet a, okHb^iNy, 

jJLWmI; -IB^\ Biadia y, eort rMtlBfc 

/«M|r, L (umI) 91. [Tttt ttan! 
Ji>Mi^af, fe.txta'-itf-lb, a. A dMsriptton 
AI»iTeli, ^-UO-Hbc, B. Aa iMtr. wed to 
ir, 1. B mUnkTakm, 
k, e. a mMofioQl 

HttOlVgy. ipMafSQBg CTQ 

Ji fce fuf f , -Jeb lb Hm preftwdeJ eelwee of 
r» ie-tv5n'-o-Bfir, a. Om Tweed 

Its W the 

f. &,«elitf/J!r,«d.; oiM 
y, i rthwr-fr, ed. Apwt; 


4^-Mbh iL Aplteeo#ratreeiaBd 
; ID toerHnttf isr the rapport or 
efthemfurtimato; aeuMtiuuy. 
; drtw^etffe, 0. Di^pn^ortiMi 


or or Itte AgM, or to the Me AtUmtisf 

,&A£?^,«rtet.) Flfve» 
o#meB emplojtd ae eoiiumi or pIlMtori. 
uttfentio, itrUBf-Ik, a. OftbeAtlaBtleoeeaa. 
jieiM^ ltr-UB» a. AeoUeottonefaBapaortoblaa. 
A 1m o m § i ar , i t w d w ' a Wr ,E. AneimraMter. 
Aim ttf k mr^, Mf-mOa^t, a. 4fl. lie ab that 

uMuuiMy— w the ear^; ilg^ any sanwaa- 

lag Medina or MrradiBg inftaeaee. 
.dtoM^Uric, 4lfr^4k, a. » otampAar'iaAL 

or or dependiBf en the atoBoaphere. E^ 

.itooH ttr-^fm, a. 17. A partlele or matter too 

■■aDtobediTidid; amoleenleoreonweie; 


Atomic, Or^M'tk, %. a mitm^imL Oratoou; 
eztmelj mlmte. m, mtmKfiemify, Md. 91, 

Afomkm, 'htm,*. Thedoetrliiewfaiehteaehca 
that a t fla B aarraatetheB Be e l ?e a by their own 
WFiPar. &, mfmmtA (a beUerer As.), a. 90. 

Aiomg^j -aaa. n An atoai : a akeletoa. 

Atontf d-iOnf, Tt. To expfato; to appeeeef : 
— tL To atand ae an egotr. ; to make re- 
paration. H.V MMimg, p., a. ; o/Lomai^ pp. ; 
atBH^er, a. : otoM^aMnt a. 89. 

Atonic d4«n'-Ik, a. WanliM tone; deUU- 
tated. (path.) [laxationTdeUlitj. (path.) 

jileiw, liP-OH 

Loaa oT Tital energy ; r»- 

Atopf , d-tSpr, ad Atoronthetop. 
Airml i Umr f , it-rd-W-y«r-«b a. S5. b dra- 
• •• tjjhypoefaondriaeal. 

IL, atfraeiMrrHnwMeti a 91. 
Atrammtalt -«nintr-41, a. e 

Black, like ink ; inky. [make tok. 

Atrammtarioti^, -tir^-e-Oa, a. Inky ; it to 
Ainteioui, «-tr<ir-«h*<K a. 98. Extremely 

wiaked or emel; helBoaa: horrible. H.» 

aira^e<a«ahf, 49, ad. ; fl<n o ^ fligi< a nea i, a. 91. 
^*noeil|r, dNW-tt-e, a. Atnetooaneea. 
Airopk^, W-r o-tt^B . A wasting away wttl^ 

AinpkL A4r«p/.y'd, •.^mL&ftme, mtrtpfna, 
Tbe^oOold of deedly aightahade. ig. 

AMa«*,«t-tMeh',Tt99. To aeixe or aneat ; to 
win or gain awBr; to eaoae to adhere; to 
teten to or aal^oin. R, ottadk'inf. n. ; 
atttukei^f PPlx aUaeh'm*^ a.: attmmtikp 
-dbLa.; attMk'mmU, %. m. 

Atimafmmt,^a^^A,B, Adherenee; aAetkn; 
fldelily; a eeiznra oT pereoo, goods, or 
eetata, under a writ or preeept (legi) : an 
a^Jnaet (▼. ▼.) f nate or attanduit (Ft.) 

^MmM, JlV^Mir, a. 99. A aapertor eabordi- 

AMaak, it-tiftf, a An ^' 

aaaanit; ai 

ealanmy, aatire, ee?ai 

ilttaer, irt. TO Ml upon with Jioree or Tto- 

lanee ; to aaaaJl with unfriendly worde or 

^Main, it-tftn^, Tt To reaeh or oompaaa by 
eflms or progreaaton; to aahioTe; to ao- 
qidra :— id. To leeeh or arri?e aL H., m^ 
toint'ifMup.; oftoiMMf , pp. ; atiainfmmt,9.8ii, 

AMU Ma, -Al, a. That may be attained. 
H., atUMMmnt, aUaktrnMitf, a 91. 

JttalNrdir. -dir, a. The aet or attainting; the 
kisacrfeMlrightaL {AUmkn. 

Attali^mmt, -mfat, a. An aoqoijltlon. See 

IttoM*, i^intf . a. ABpotortaintt;awiit 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Attakif, vt To taint, oorrapt, diagnoe, or 
render Influnoaa ; to extingmldi oiill riglite 
on aooount of felony or treaMin (le^.)* H^ 

attamfvrt, -an% a. 89. 
jitteMiMr, it-tftn'-pAr, Tt To aofton or inode- 

ntte ; to mix in Just proportion* EL, ttttmt- 

periitfff p. ; atUm^pered, pp. ; att em^p enmn t *, 

a. 89. (An iaffort or aHav. 

Attempt, ftt-t&ntr-^., Wa., -tttmpf— K^ a. 45. 
Atttmpf, Tt. To make an affsrt to aflsot any 

ol^eotorparpoee; to try or endeaTOor; to 

attack. H., atttmj»finff,n.; ottMnpt'a^pp.; 

attmnpter, a. ; atUmpfabie, 45, a. 89. 
^ttMui, «t-tted^ Tt Togoirith;towaiton; 

toaooonpany; to be preaant on bnainaaa; 

to await; to regard or aaalBt; to mind:— 

▼i. To yield attention (foLbyto); io wait 

on or be preient, in aertiee, wordii^ or 

datj ; to atay, wait, remain. H.* attmamff, 

pi ; attmtd^ed, pp. ; attm»tFtrf,atimtFaiU, a.89. 
Attmufatice, -Aum, a. A waitingon ; a being 

p r eaen t on boainefla, fte. ; aerriBe^ attention, 

regard. (▼. t.) 
AUMtTant, -ftnt, a. Aeoomnanying (gen., as 

subordinate or oooaequential)* 
Attendant, %. One wbo attends or aeoom- 

paniea ; a anitor, agent, or serrant ; a oon- 

oomitant or eooseqvent. (r. t.) 
Attention, itX^ttan'-tititn, 9. HeedftOness, dTi- 

lity, eoortesy ; applioaticm, atndy. 
Attenfne,-lv,u,45. Heedful, obaervant,mlnd- 

tal. H.,a<lmrf«e/^.ad.;atf<Mrti)MM«»,a.91. 
Attenuant,U4&i^^0riAU9i'l^ Making thin; 

diluting. H., (an) atten^uont, a. (med.) 
Atten'uate*, ^AU, u, IB. Attenuated. 
Atten'uate, n. TO reduce in conaistenoe, den- 

aity, or thioknees ; to make tbln or alendar ; 

toeommtnuteorpulTtriae. "B^ atten^vmiinff, 

p. ; attenf Hated, pp., a.; (an) atttn'tMMi;a.; 

attemtettion, 86, s. 89.~ [sway by water. 

Atieixaion*, At-tfir-a'-abOn, a. A wearing 

AUett, At-tdaf, vt. To bear witneas; to eer- 

tify; to solemnly affirm: to call to witneas. 

H., atteefmff, p. ; atteated, pp. ; atteeter, 

4Mtte$ter, 35, s. ; atteetoTtion, 38, ^, 89. 
^Me,ir-Ik,a.i-afttoa^. Of Attica or Athena; 
Atfie, a. A garret. (duate ; elaawJcal. 

AtticUm, Atr-e-fllam, a. An Attio idiom; a 

obaate or elegant expression. 
^Mn^, ftt-tlngtf', Tt. To touch ligfatty. 
Attire, flt-txr«', a. Dress ; ornamental dreas. 
At^,n. To dress, array, adorn. H^attSr'' 

ing, p. ; attired^, pp. : atfk*er, s. 89. 
.^/(^iM^ ftf -e-t1id«, a. 18. Posture or position. 
AftUti'dinal, -Irt-BA, a. s atttmainout, -Oil 

Pertaining to attitude. 
Attorney, At-tdr'-ne, s. 17. (pi, 4Utor'nem.) 

^' another 

Is legally quaUfled to act for 

t of law ; one who is autliorised by 

One who is li 

in a court ol 

letter, power, or WMrrtmt of attorney, to act 

in business for another, as hk tgent, feotor, 

or substitute. H., a«or'fMy«AH»t, s. 90. 

Attor'ney-general, s. The head ww-offloer of 
theerown. (Eng.) 

Attract, ftt-trutr, Tt To draw to or oaosa to 
approach; to engage^ or Invite; to allure or 
entice. H., attraaing, p. : attraOfed, w- i 
attraefor, S5, «. ; ottracftM^Hi^ a. ; attroi/' 
Hon, attraot^i, 86, s. 89. Jjngattraetable. 

AttraetabUity, -irW-^lt^ a. Thequalityolbe- 

Attraetile,-%9L Having power to attract. 


Attraction, -ahOn, s. The Ibrce or law which 
draws bodies and their partlelea towardi 
each other, and which icaiata thrir diimnimi 
(phy&} ; aliuxement, &o. (t. t.) 

Attraofne, -!▼, a. s attraotiny. Invitlns ; 
alluring. H., attraetively, attraetfinytjh 
is, ad. ; attrattiveiuee, s. 91. 

Attrahent, &tr-r<l-h«nt, -trft'— We., a. Draw- 
ing or attracting. IL,att^rmhent,9, (med.) 91. 

AjUribute, &f-r»^t^ a. 18. That which ia 
attributed ; a p ro p erty, quality* or eharao* 
teristic disposition. 

AttHbute,-tta/^UtVtlB. To attach or allot 
in contemplation ; to ascribe, impute, assim. 
H., attrmainy, p. zattrUftUed, pp. ; atlnt'- 
KtoMc, 45, a. ; odrWKBM, 86, a. 89. 

AttHMtion,».99. Oommendation. (t. ▼.) 

AttrO^utiffe, -tlT, a. Thatattrlbutea. H., (an) 
attrOfutioe, B. ignm.) [attrUfneee*, ». 9\. 

AtiriteUf^tnt/,eL Worn trrubUag. H., 

Attrition, At-triah'-«n, s. A wearing by fric- 
tion; abraaion. 

Attune, At-tOner, rt. 18. To tune; to make 
accordant or mualeal ; to arrange fltiy. IL, 
attSn'i$ty,p.; attmned, pp.; •ttwi«'in«it*,a.89. 
- ' • In t • 

Atwaini, <»-twAn^, ad. 

.iti^Mm, KK-Mm, a. Beddish brown. 

Auction, Mrk'-ahan, Ok-sht&nt» s. 8. A pnbUe 

sale of property to the faJgheat bidder. (S.) 
AudUonary, -ftr-e, a. 9. Belonging to an 

aaetiMi. [anetkMk 

AMCtionoer, -itC, s. One licensed to seU at 
AuetioneerX, n. To act or eell at aaction. 

H., amotioneer'inff, p., a. 89. 
.inciipa/ioM*, itHr-ka-pa'-shOn, s. 18. F^Unff. 
Audadoue, AX^-dA'-sh^Os, a. Bold, daring, Im* 

pudent H., aude^oioueiy, 48, ad. j midof- 

doueneas, a. 9L [denoe, cAroatery. 

Audacity, -dAs'-ltAS. Bdldiiess,daring ; impo- 
^tMN»^AX^d'-Ibl,a. PercdTablebytheewrH., 

augiMy, ad. ; oudiMeneee. aud&ifity, a. 91. 
Audience, mrdf-^-ioae, Wun'-j'ioaet, s. Tbn 

aet of hearing; a ceremonial hearing or 

intenriew; an auditory. , 
Au dU,tmd f 'It, a. The settUn« or passing of 

accounts by refiBrenco to vonchersOT witneaa-- 

es ; the accounts so settled ; a final aooount. 
Aud^it, Tt. To aettle 1^ audit:— vi To sum 

upf. H., a^ditiny, p. ; aufdited, pp. 
AudUion*, tftir-dlsh'-On, s. 37. Hearing. [Ing. 
.iiMTttiiM*, -It-lT, a. Having the power of hear* 
Auditor, AWd'-lt-5r, a. 17. (f., auditreee.) A 

hearer ; one who andlu aooounts. H., aiMf~ 

^tori^,s.90. [port, to the sense of hearinip. 
Auditory, -Or-e, a. 17. Having the power, or 
Auditory, a. An assembly of hearers; an 

audience ; a place where lectures are heard. 
Auyer, AW-gftr, s. 19. A boring tooL 
Auyht,9ltn,%, Anything; a lot or UtUe. *«^ 

Augment, CRrg-mter, vt. To make larger bj 

addition ; to increase, enlarge, multiply :^ 

vL To grow larger. H., auymenfiny, p. ; 

auowt^ntted, pp. ; atumcntfer, s. ; acutncnt^^ 

aM«,4(,a. : au^mcntf, augments tien,^, mMi 
Augmentation, -i'-shOn, s. That l^ whh^ 

anything is Milarged ; aooesaion ; addition ; ^^ 

an eq)i mark of honourjher.). (v. v.) 
Augmentative, -tiv, a. Tnat augments. 
Augur, Olr^'^r, s. 8. One who preteDda (a- 

foretell eventa by omens, cap. ttom. ihm' 

flight, Ae., of bir<b. H., Wm^ a. 99. v ) 
Afj/gur, vt. To predict 1^ ngns:— vL ^ i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


86, •. 89. [an^rr, or an aagur. 

A^amrmi, -fd-ril, a. r= amgw'tai*, -»4l. Of 
jlt^firvM^ -rta, a. Forefaoding 
jl iy g y, <lr'-ga-ra, a. A 

tta; aofnntMa. (▼. r.) 
^i«M^ J^-gOMT, A. ft. Impnninf ava or 

111 I mail ; dl^iuAffi, grand, aolemn, ma- 

jHliB. H., MVMTiMSt, a. 90. [ycv* 

.daywtf, flr-tlkst, a. The ftth moaOi of tha 
I'oMy -to* a. Of Aognatna or hto age ; 


a. pL Monka vho fallow 
t AagiMtfn (oft. aaoU. into Au$tiM/rmrM,) 
Auk, 91c a. Tha aaoM of Tariow aea-birda. 
Amimrimif i»-lir«'-»4iU 'T^Qf •• A aMmter 

<#a Ball at Ozford, aa opp. to PolUpiau. 
Awkk AM, a. Old. (E.n Soot.) 
AaH^mt-iSktm.^ OforxcLtoarojalcoart. 
ifada, Aa^, a. = MOW, dntf. A Fr. aU-aiaaaore. 
Amai^^Bmtt,^, A flOhcr or laothar** tlatar. 
Jara, flV-iii» a. ft. A breath or rerj gentle 

Inm; aay aabtile tfmanation Ikom a 

bote, aa aAafia, aroma, Ac 
Amrml, flT-cO, a. Of the ear or hearing: 
^araft^ «r-stt^ a. Aaaltof anrioaeid. 
Js'nriM^-Mtn. OforUkegold. 
iliry«aik*»-«»4tc, a. Golden; gUded. 
Am'9tim» m-HiZ-fA, a. The nymph or 

•hnaalia. (ortom.} 
JMn/lm, -T'iB, a. 45. Of or reL to lurelia. 
jftar^ttw, a. Aa aaHttcnr ooL, fto^ of iaaeetB. 
Jaraaia* m-t9r-o4a, a. The eirde of rayi, 

AmUm^'ta^ a. bf'ffrid. H., ai^rie add, 

.larMt^ «r.flkl, 8. 4». The external ear; 
t«a ev-ttkeaBMBdagea to the heart (anat.) 
A^fkUd,^kkA,m. Sared. [ixmo. 

Awrigmlm, m-tikt-^A^ a. 8. A apeelea of pria- 
.^tari^«lar,-«.)dr.a.l8L Of or reUtlag to the 
aean of hearing ; told in or reeog- 
r tha ear; leeret; tradlUoaal. H., 
b ad. 91. — Amit^Mknr oM/aiMon, 
petiL eoBt ta a prieat. 
il»y«JMt^-]ite,a. Ear-flhaped. (bot.) 
AmH^:Mimi0^-€d^tL AnzJeolate; having Urge 

or tag eaia <sooL). 
Am^^knmp Jt^-rlf-er-fla, a. a ornVgerotu, 


propitioQs. H., oiopfdeatJ^, 49, ad. ; 
'aov«fi«i«, 8. 9L 

ilai^M-, Mra'-tAr, a. The Miith wind. (L.) 

Amtere^Ohh'XSrc'ftL.S. Bough and astringvKt 
to the taste; flg.. serere, hanh, rigid (up- 
toBUBUMfaorlife). H.. muters'V, 4S, ad. ; 
awti€refnt9$, atuUr'itjf, ». 91. 

^aaten^f -tte'-It^ >• Harsh diaeipUne ; 
rigour; striotoMa. (T.a.) 

Au$tral, ilrg'-tril, a. sa au^triwf. Southern. 

jl«f<raia«ton, -&'-«fa'An, a. 36. Of Anatralaaia. 

Auatralitm, -iriky-jAn, a. 45. Of or from 
Anstralla. [Aoatria. 

^afCriow, Olrg'-tre-Aa, te-i, a. Of or from 

Au^trowMmett, -tro-B)An««e, a. Prediotlon 
from the oot. of winds. 

AiUMtntie, £ir-tfaen'-tlk, a. s autkm'tieal. 8. 
HaTing authoritr ; genuine, true, original, 
correct H.. authm'ti^fy*, amthm^tiettlfy, 48, 
ad. ; aa^Asa'f icN«s«*, muthm'tieohustt, s. 91. 

^«a«»'<ieal«, -At^ n. ToproTebyaathoritr; 
to shew to be genoiaa or true. B., aa/At-n- 
iieaimfftp.i mMtmif Heated, pp., *, ; aaiheit- 
Uca'tiuH, 86, a. 89. 

AMthentieitg, -tia'-ltre, a. 48. The qaalitj of 
being anthantie ; avthenticalness. 

Author, ir-Chdr, -tlidr— a, Wa.,a. 17, SA. (L, 
a^thortu.) One who prodoees, ernOea, or 
brings into being : aa originator : the writer 
or oomposw of a nook. H., a^thonhip^ s. ; 
a^tkorU9$, a. ; An. 90. [authorship. 

Auikotriat^, -ChdrZ-e-il, a. Of an author or 

At^thoriMe, -Ise, Tt 60. To giro power, right, 
or aathwity to. H., a^tkonamg, p. ; au- 
thorited, pp. ; cafAonao'rioa, 86, s. 89. 

.lafAoritolw*, -thte'-It^tttf-lT. a. Having due 
aathority; poaitiTa; peremptory. K.,autKar^- 
UatwOy, 48, ad. ; omtkoir'UaHctnewi, s. 91. 

Anthoritw, Olr-thdr'-It-e, s. 96. Legal power 
or right; asoendenOT,* contrd, inflneaee; 
taatimony; weight of character or of testi- 
mony; credibility, respectability, dignity; 
warraatt permisskm ; rule, praoedent :— 
pL, books of authority ; persona ia power ; 

^atoWflfropVfoai^ il^-to-, a. OforreLtoauto- 
biogTaphy. H., oatoMoyra^A^iea^, ad. 91. 

Autobiography, a. A man's life or memoirs 
written by himself. [nal or natiye. 

.iutocAMoff^, flir-tfik'-thfln, s. If. Anaborigi- 

^tttoeArOenat*, -&1, a. Indigenoua. 

Autoeraey, Bk-M^-tdrta, s. 8. An absolute 
goremment by one man ; despotism. 

Autocrat, Or'-io^U, a. s autoe'raior*, {(,, 
amto4frairix,A)Ski-,) An absolute sovereii^; 

A utoaraKio,-\k, a. =s autoorafieal, autoeratoi^i- 
so/*. Of an autocrat; absolute; dcepotio. H., 
autocrat^iealty, ad. ; autocratfieatnms, s. 91. 

Autoaomeal, iRrHo^i^-ne-Al, a. s= autef'fenous, 
-tjy'-. Self-generating or eflbeting; acting 
without addition of foreign matter. 

Auiofrapk, fi^-to-grftf, s. A person's own 
handwriting ; a ngnatnre ; an orig. MS. 

Autofraakie, -tk, a. a autograpKioal, auto^- 
raphat\, a. Of or reL to aatognaha or 
autography. H.. amtograpk'ioalhi, ad. 91. 

Autogr^, ak-^'tOrtt, s. 8. A discourse 
on autographs ; an autograph ; a method of 
printing flrom a direct tranafor of a writing 
or drawing. [m», 

Automath, fllt'-to-m&th, s. A self-taught per- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Automatic, fe^-to-nUU^-Ik, s. ss aHdomatHemU 
Self-acting or nuyving ; acting from concealed 
maoUnery ; involoatary (pnya.) ; aelf-rwiip 
lating (mech.). EL, oiitoMaf toa%, ad. 91. 

Autofmkont 4^-ttei'-^t0o» a. (pL, amtomlaUmi. 
£. ; Mitom'ata, Gr.) An antomatio model 
or machine. [matte. 

AtUom^aUm^, -tfla, a. = autam^tUalf, Anto- 

Autonomou^t Si^-t5n'-o-m0a, a. Self-named ; 

AMitoptsf, flt'-tdp-ae, a. 8. Ocniar obserratkni 
(eh. 1^. to post-mortem examlnationa). 

AtOor^ncaK -te-oSl, a. = autojftical. Seefaig 
with one's own ejea. H.,aiftop'e<M%,ad.9L 

Atttmm, a^-tOm, s. = matmrnU^fi. The sear 
son between sammer and wintw. [tomn. 

Avhm'naL -n&l, a. Of or peooUar to the aa- 

AuaMlii^^m^t6tf'Xk,tu 40. AmpUMng; in- 
creasing. B., ttuaufnt, a. (rhet) 91. 

AvxtUar, S^g-fXl'-ydTf a. = awntimy, 40-3. 
Aflsisttng, helping; salMidiary. 

AnatXimry, -e, a. s= amiliai*. An aMistant, 
helper, or confederate; a Terb naed to oon- 
Jogate other verbs (gram.) :— pL, amsV- 
umm, 'tlx, foreign troopa emplogwa in war. 

Avail, d-nX/t a. Benefit, proAt, aenrioei^- 
pL. proceeds, assets, ftc 

Amnf, Tt. To profit or tnm to ad' 
to assist :—ii. TO be nsefhl or suitable. 
ttvaifing, p. ; tmdUd, pp. 

wdMiToi^ -»)L a. Profitable; suitable. H., 
avaUaiNy, wi, lavaifaUeneti, avaUabUrUiff 

AvaifnmuU s. rroflt, efficacy, &e. [s. 91. 

Avaiatteht, W-^lfinpsh, s. 99. A now-sUp ; 
flg., any sodden or vlolettt Impnlse of the hu- 
man masses. (Fr.) [for wealth ; oovetovsness. 

^tMwies, Av'Hl-rls. s. 4*. An inordinate deiire 

Avarioioat, -clsh-tla, a. a mtfaromi. Ex- 
tremelycoTetons. H., OMrT^ioiMlif, 48, ad.: 
a9arf'eioumu$»t a. 91. [enoogh! (naut) 

Avatt, &-yM!t int. or ad. 9. Hold, star, 

Avmmt, d-rSt^if, int. or imp. Begone (!), 
impl. contempt w aUMrronoe. 

Av«f r-ve, s. s i^vt Marf<h L. 99. An 
address to the Yirgin. (Bo. Cath.) 

Avtnac emmt ftv-^-ny-syos, a. Of or like oats. 

Aunagt, ly-te-^Ji, a. 8. A certain qoantity 
of oats paid as rent. 

^fSM^ d-ftej^', Tt. To take for reoelTe) 
saasfaetlon for an it^nry by inmeting ade- 
qoate punishment on the '^ * 
▼engii*. H., aven^mg, p.. . , . 
avenger, s. ; aimtg^wmU, avmg^an^, a. «,«. 

Ai)en$f &V-tea, s. Ihe herb beoneu 

ulnmf uHfM, -It-rta^ -Tttn^-tO&— K., 9., s. = 
avanifurine. 99. A variety of quarts oont. 
spanglea: a bright brown ceioor (dye.). 45. 

AvennSf ftr-e-nfl, a. 18. A passage: a way of 
entrance; an alley of trees leading to an 
entrance ; a wide street or roadwsj. 

Aver, Hr-rSr'f vt To affirm or declare posi- 
tively ; to vevUV. H» averr^mg, p. ; mtmrretF, 
pp. ; tiwj^sujif- B. 89. 

^O0r«^ftt'-4r-aj«,s. 8. A mean proportion ; 
the mean of any eoUeotlve sum. number, or 
qusBitity, found by dividiiftg it by the num- 
ber ef itsparta; a sum paid towarda losses, 

ofltoder; to re- 

. (oomm.) [averOg^mg, p. ; ovtrM^^ pp. 
Atferag9, vt To fix or east an averaga* H., 
Attr'wtent, a. An ofltar to Justify that which 

ia alleged, (leg.) See Aver. 
Avemmmi^, aT-4r-ear-ahfin, a. Arcnfoo. 


Ajm'at, d-vSn^, a. Disindined, nnfaveunble, 

hostile ; mentally repugnant. (It is us. fol. 

by te.) H., averse^ly, ad. ; avers^ntit, s. 91. 
^versiofs -vfir'-shfin, s. Bepugnaneeofmlndi 

hatred,dis»ke,antipaaiy; alsothecaase.(v.a.) 
AvtrL i^rirtf vt. To turn adds; toputaway: 

— vi To turn away. BL^ avt rf i n g, p.; 

overfed, pp.: aeerfer, a. 89. [biraak 

AokuTh W-f-at-e, B, 9. An enclosed space for 
Amdioue,aryW'ftiM,%. Eager: greedy. 
AoitFUUt -Itr^ s. Ea«mess; gnedlness. 
Avoeation, ftv-o-kft'-mfin, s. A calUng aside 

or away firomaome usual empkmnent; the 

business which calls away (i^. to smaUer 

or oco. aifoirs). [We., a. 46. Calling oft 
AvoeaUwf*, d-vfik'-d-tXT, i;T'-o-8., d-yV^ 
Avo^aiM^ (r. ti.), e. That which calls tiaide; 

diasnaalon; deoortation. 
Avoid, d-voy d', vt. To keep at a dirtance from ; 

to endeavour to shnn or escape:— vi. Ta 

become void or empty*. Hn aivoid^img, p. ; 

aw9id^ed,v9-i avoidant.; avoida6ie,4t,tk.99. 
Avoidance, -ftns«, s. The aet of avoiding; fb» 

state of becoming vacant, the aet of anml- 
Avoid leee, 'lie, ^ Inevitable^ ribig(leg.). 
Avoirdtqpoie, ftv-dr-dtHpoiM't •> 83- The coaun. 

weight of England, each lb. of which eoiH 

tains 18 OS., or 7000 gr. H.,a«MniHpo«f',a.9IK 
Avolate^t&r-o-VHUtyli. ToeaEhaleorflyaway. 

H., awlatiom, a. 89. 
Avouch, ae-vowch', vt. 28. Tb affirm, deelar& 

or vindicate. U.,avoveh'ing,p.; afVoueked% 

pp.; avouek'er, s.; ammeh'abie*, 46» a.; 

avovek^meHt*, a. 89. 
Avow, A-Yoir', vt. 28. To dedaio openly ; to 

own or eonfess ; to admit and Justt^y (M). 

H., avoufing, p. ; avowed, pp., a. : avomrer, 

a. ; avoHfmenti, s. 89. laieot^ailp, ad. 91. 
..iww'oMs, -Cbl, a. That may be avowed. H., 
AvoufaL -Al, s. An open declaration or ooih 

fission. (V. V.) r.Tow'-^d-^ ad. 91. 

Avowed, A-vowd', a. (v. v.) H., awmfedij^ 
jlsafMofi*, A^rU'-shttn, s. A polling asunder. 
Await, dPwAt/, vt To wait for, look for, or 

be rcMly for; to expect; to attend. H., 

awaiting, p. : awaited, pp. 
Awake, Orwmks, a., ad. Not sleeping; vigilant. 
Awaiuf, vt To rouse lh>m sleep, or ftmn In- 
action:— vL To cease to sleep; to be^r; 

to revive from inaction, or frtmi apattay. 

H., awdXing, p.; aw&se or awaked, prl ; 

awaked, pp. 
Awaken, d-wSk/n, vt, vi. To awake (<|. v.). 

H., eieSkemng, p.; awdJ^ened, pp.; tnpdkr- 

ener, s. ; (an) awMfening, s. 89. 
wiioara, d-wSftmrd', s. 8. Judgment ; final deei- 

aton : the decision of arbitrators. 
Award, vt To a^Mge:— vi- To mate an 

award. H.y awarding, p. ; awarded, pp. ; 

awarder, s. 88. 
AiMr«, d-wtr/, a. TlgHant*; i^prlsed; in> 

formed of : excited to castion. 
^lears't*^ To be wary or cautious. [Begosel 
Away, d-wlf, ad. Absent from :— int or imp. v 
Awe, fttff or Mr, s. 8. Beverential fear: drwiMl ^ 

inn)ired by something great or terriao. H^ 

ampd, amfUee, aw^etntck, ftc, a. 90. 
.iap«,vt To imprcas with fosr mingled wi^ re- 
verence or respect ]L,<Mo'iN^,p.;a«mf,pp. 


; d-wir<'-«, a. Weary, (poet) 
flr-tSbl, a. 21. Inspiring awe ;solennk 

H., aeeffiMg, 48, ad. ; amff^Xineee, a. 91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

AwhOtti A^wllf', sd. 3L For flonne tiitte; 

for A Mart ttmek 
Atokward^Mt -milt^ a . 8ft. U nhandy, d mny, 

JfwatUg, 48, ad. ; awJ^waHnm, t. 91. 

I with awns. 
A alight eoff i ng , 
r of aanraa, liar shade. 

" - Atwok. 

Turned or twisted to one 

A ehopping tool. H., 

^fil,8.4b. Of or reL to an axis. 
'-4,a40. The armpit, [the armpit. 
"• r,25. bf or reL to 

itft^Ofar, -Ur, a. » M' Jllory, 

est. ]rt&» in sn art or 

K., ftk'-ahttai— 
propositiein ; an 

Ijioiatfe, -se-itan-Af-lk, a. = awhmatinl. 
QforSkasnazlDin;selPerident;tnie. H., 

r^ bT The Uno, real or hnac., on 
wli^ SBTlidnf roTohrcs ; a straight line in 
a plsae iL aboot which it rorolras to pro- 

At^iralorsEl%s. = a3^2e-«rM. Thapimor 
niiB thaasveofawheel, on whithittoms. 
AflM^i^ttsMkilf.s.aMPMw'mL. Fat; lard. 
.^M^J1s^ad.^te; flsrtainlT:— int. Ah! 

irfwirfl,i«'-litt-«h,a. ATarttBaldrele;ti»e 

aa^ mte ai the aenith hr the n 
sow Che iratieal aircla in woloh a star or 
hady to ■*»— t*^ (ml) 
4aa^d^*^^a. VhoU/ dastitnta of life. 

E'-«il% ia'-a^ a. likrogcn. 
4Mtt'-ik» a. Of or like aaote. 
' ' 'i}a«id,te.91. 

Jdw^, Tt. To eoloor hhia. H., tui\ 








J?alc.hlh^8. An intent of cither seac. 

ma>a, br-bei, s. Oonfoaion ; disorder. 

AiMi*t> bih/-ldi, a. Lika a baby; childish. 
H., ua^iMMt, 49, ad. ; ftdft'tsAiMM, s. M. 

BafoeM, M^-hoon', s. A name app. to ssfreral 
of the larger monkers. 

jRaftv, bir-be, a. Of or like a baby. 

BdbM, s. An infent; a babe; a deQt. H., 
hefkvhcod, n, AartysA^, 4m., s. 90. 

^a'ft«M4, -Ish, a. BabHuce; dilldish. H., 
».-^^Ai^ ad. ; fta'Syimt, -Ism, a. 9L 

bdb^ldn^-TdB, a. 97. => Arty- 
. ^Utnfic Of orreLtoBabThm; 
mixed, ooDloMd, disordsrlT. 

iroMetii bXk'-katiMd, a. Beeet with pearls ; 
baring many berries (bot). 

BacchmMi, bdk'-il-nftl, a. = UtecKamfUm^ 
-nalf'-yftn. Of or reL to drink or rerefaj. 

Baeckmal, s. v kKoJkem^Mcm. A reveliier ; 

Baeehtmattot -lOH/'j'd, s. pL 45. Dmnken 
rerela; sno., feasts in honour of BaoehnsL 

BaetMio, -Ik, a. Jorial; drunken. 


Baeavorom, -siv'-o-rds, a. Berry-eating. 

BacJUlor, b&toh'-e-iar. a. S&. An unmarried 
man ; aperson who nss taken the irst de- 
gree at a uniTeraity. H., iadlfdorMp, a 90. 

Baekf bSk, a. That is situate or app. Mind ; 
prerions; that has been passed by. 

Joe*, ad. Totheplaeefhmiwhiohathingor 
person eame: fi^, to a fennar stale, eoodi- 
tlon, or station; towards times or things 
past; behhid, not adraneing; again, in re- 
turn or a seoond time. 

Sadfc,bttk,s. The hinder part of the body; the 
outer part ; the part opposed to, or the most 
remote flrom the firant ; the rear ; the part 
out of sight. 

Back, s. B iac A large tub or open t esss i 
for holding Uquor (brew., dist) ; a Ibrry- 
boat or praam (nauL). 

Baek, wL Tto mount, get on, or place upon the 
back; to put or feroe baokward; to main- 
tain, Justfly. support ; to bet oof:— Ti. To 
more or ao bsek. H., hadimg, p. ; hatHKd, 
pp. ; toercrt, s.; Ao. 80. 

AMiMtttf^ bAk'-bIt«, Tt. To rewoaeh or slander 
tbeabsnt. H., fteoTKlfr. a 80. See.9il». 

BoekhiUmih -blttf4ng, a The act of eaUim- 
niatiiwtteabeent; eeeret detraction. 

jAOnoani; -bOr«d, s. A flat slick or board, 
used te remove ronndnese of the shouldem. 

Baekaammm, bdk-gdm'-On, a. 17, 8ft. A game 
played wiOi a box ond dftoe. 

fookfluit, -elxd/, tL To degenerate In morals 
orreUgiooedaty; to spoitatise. E^ iodk- 
tkSma^ p., a., s.: itukiM^er, a. 89. See 
dUtbT '^* ' ' [altitudea. 

ikMfafti^ bik'-atftf, 8. 9. Am taistr. for taking 

Jleok'Msord; -sOr«d, s. A sword with only one 
edge; asttefc with a guard of baskei-work. 

Baekwmri, bik^-wtird, a. 2ft. Unwilling, hesi- 
tating, tardy, sluggish; dnlL stupid; be- 
hind: tale. H., hSfwatJ^r»,i^l ^•^' 

Buekward,tL'slackw€Kr49. With the bMik 
in adtance; towards the bask; in a back 
direction; towards past time or stents; in 
time past ; ptorene^ri coBtrailly. 

J}adkioood;f,bAk'-w«ids,a.pl8L Thepartsof 
a country not reg. eettled, or only inhab. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

V the aWigines. H, back'tcoodtman, t. 

. (Amer.) 90. 

Bacan^ b&'-kn, 1. 17. The flash of swine salted, 
and dried. [Baoon, or his philosophy. 

fiactmian, b&-kdii£'-Vftn, a. 25. Of or ref. to 

Baeulometry, h&k-aASm'-e-tre, s. 18. The art 

- of measariog distances bj means of staTea. 

Beidt b&d, a. (oomp., idorte; so., toortt,) 111, 
vicious, hnrtfol, defective, eyil: the oppo- 
site of good or right. H., baSif, 43, ad. ; 
had'neaat S- 91, 

i)a4^, b&d, prt See ^Mf. 
' Sadptf My, 8. SS. A mark or token by which 
one is known or dist H., hadg^leu^ a. 90. 

Badfit*, Tt. To gire or mark with a badge. 


, 8. 83. 'A wfla quadruped. 

^MU/er, Tt. To pursue, pester, worry. 

Baatmu, bfid'-«-iln«, s. Star-anise seed. 

Bodigmm^ b&d'-e-zhtln, s. A speoies of 
cement or stopping. 

. f», b«n, -fl, % 4^. A defeat by artifloe. 

jJU^ Tt To mook, elude, or defeat by 

artifloe, shifts, or turns :— vl. To practise 

deceit*. M^.haff^. p.;bqrjled, pp.; 

^,-flIng, a. Eluding, Ac. U., U^fJUnplff, 
, L ; haffimgntnX, s. (v. t.) 91. 

Ba§t bAg, 8. A sack or pouch; a measure of 
goods (eomm.). 

Ba§, Tt. To put into a bag :~tL To swell 
out. E., hagffing, p. ; ba^edt pp,'fS. Eeftise pressed sngar-«ane. 

Bag<UM€, b&g-d-t61', s. 99. A trifle ; a game 
played with 9 balls and a cue or mace, on 
a board or Uble. (FrO 
' ^^WV^ bfig'-iU^, a. The furniture, utensils, 
and domestic necessaries of an army ; lug- 
gage ; a low or lewd woman. 
'wm'mf, -lag, s. The coarse material of 
which oagB u« made. [a brothel. 

fBi^^fMO, b&n'-To, s. 45. Orig., a bathing-house ; 

'Mrpipe, bAg'-plp^ s. A musical wind instr. 
Bu, bop'piptr, s. (Sco., Ir.) 90. 

Bail, bAU, s. A sure^ or sureties for the 
reappearance of a prisoner at court; the 
security or sum in which they are bound. 
U.. bmtboHd, s. ; &o. 90. 

Bail, fU To set free by boooming bail for 
tnothor; to delirer goods in trust, upon 
oontraot ; to lave ouk or free flrom water 
(oom., but imp. spellea hale), H., baitittf, 
p.; bailed, pp.; baiFtr, btufor, a.; baif- 
<M4,ib,tL;bairmmi,B.B0, [onbaiL 

Bailee, bfil^-T, s. He to whom goods are deL 

Baihe, bftlf'-e, s. An alderman. (Scot.) 

BtUlif, hH^-U, s. 3= (otTyf. Orig., a lessee 
or aeputy ; an agent or acting steward of a 
manor : a sheriff's oflioer. [a bailiff. 

BatttwUk, -o-wlk, s. 14. The jnrlsdiotion of 

BaU^j^eee, -'fkUfU AsUpof paper, fto.,reGog. 

ira<r^bam^s.akln•.Aohild.(proT.) [baiL 

Bait, \au, b. Food used to snare fish, fto. ; 
refreshment takm or giren on a Journey ; 
aUnremwit; temptation* 

BaU, Tt To set food as a lure ; to give food 
and drink to animals on a Journey :~Ti. 
To stop and refresh with food, Ac H., 
baifing, p. ; baiUd, pp,i (a) baHfimg, s. 89. 

BaU, Tt (pret, ftote*.) 0^ atlhok and harass 
with dogs; to harass with the help of 
others:— Ti. To flap the wings, flutter, 


hoTer. or menaee. U.. bailing, p. ; baited, 
pp. ; baitfiiikg, a. (t. su.) 89. 

Batae, bOxtf, s. A coarse woollen doth. 

Bake, b&ktf, Tt To cook in an oTen ; to heat, 
dry, and harden in an oven or kiln, or by 
the solar rays:— ri. To do work at baik> 
ing; to be baked. H., baking, p. ; baked, 
bdken*, pp. [coits. Ac, for sale. (v. r.) 

Baker, bik^'-6r, s. One who makes bread, Ms- 

Be^'kery, -te-e, s. ss bakefhcmee. A plaoe used 
for baking; the trade of a baker. 

Baf'kkka, s. The act stete, &o.; the quan. 
baked at once. (t. t.) 

Balmnee, bftl'-«ns«, a. 28. One of the simple 
mech. powers: a pair of seales; equlpotse ; 
equality of weight, sum, TOiume, or power ; 
lu, the weight sum, or quant nciesssry 
to est this condition; the sum due on an 
account ; the remainder§ ; the beating part 
of a watch. 

Bal'anee, Tt. To weigh; to equlpolw; to 
regulate or adjust; to pay an account; to 
weigh by reason and comparison :— tI. Tt> be 
in, or to preserTe an equilibrium ;>to beei> 
tate or fluctuate. H., oatametnif, p. ; bt^- 
OMMiLpp.; baPanoer,%.\ {%)baVa»»cmfX,%t9i* 

Baiaee, b&l'-As, s. A Tar. of ruby. 

BaUtmlme, bd-Ulrs'-tin, s. The wild pome- 

Bakoteg, bal'-ko-ne, -kd'— P., Wa., a. A 
prqleotion or platform before the windows 
of ahouie. 

Bald, \MnM, a. 8. Without hair; destitute 
of the natural coTering; naked, unadorned, 
mean, inelegant ; bold, aodaolons ; without 
beard or awn (hot). H., fta^cr^, ad.; 
baUfneu, a. 9L [pidly Jumbled together. 

BcMstAmA, bftwl'-dte-dish, s. 8. Words •!«- 

Bafderdaek*, Tt To mix or adult Uquora. 

Baldriek, bftv^F-drik, s. 8. A girdle; the 
sodiao*. [ooTST. 

Bale, bilf, s. A bundle of goods tn a oloth 

Bale,n, To form into a bale; to bail or IftTO 
out H.. bdTmg, p. ; bakd, pp. See BaU. 

Balearic, bU-»^-Ik, a. 26. Of or ret to 
Majorca and Minorca. 

Balifir<^,\al^-trxe,$. Asignal-flre. 

itote^ bia^-M&l, a. 91. Rife with mischief, 
miserT, or sorrow; destructlTe. H., bal^- 
fuU^, ad. ; bal^pdneee, s. 91. 

BaU»^\arW-v(k,Zi.^baiMtie, Oforrd. 
to missiTe weapons or englaea. 

BaJk, bitok, s. 8. A ridge of land left un- 

, a sudden dimppointment (t. ▼.) 
Batk, Tt To disappoint frustrate, or end- 

danly check : to heap in ridgesf. H., bmOf^ 

imft P*f ai* ; oalked, pp. ; balker, s. 89. 
BaU^er, -«r, s. A watcher who sigiiala the 

flsherroen of the course of the herring'^hoale. 
BaUf faftwl, a 8. Any spherical body ; aglobe ; 

a bullet; a Csm. toy and game. 
Ball,^ A fash, entertainment of dancing. 
Ballad,\aX''^B, Asong,ns.simpleorhistorle. 
Batladnf,'Te,u. The subject or style of ballade. 
BaUaet, b&l'-Ast s. = baTUuHng^. Heery 

matter put into the hold of ships, to steedjr 

them, in the abs. of reg. fMght 
BaPlast, Tt To supply, or plaoe ballast : to 
[terbaianei " - — . 

coonterbalahoe. IL, bartatmpt 
la9ted,pp^ a. r 

Ballet, bU'-a, bAT-Ut •• W. 

itsady or 

p. ; bat lotted, pp., a. 89. 
Beltotoofi, bti'-JM^', a. Alumge-boet 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


lodt, ■wniflitfd. with moue, csMUtlaf 
story or history: a kind of drsmstio poem. 

BaUiMim,ha4ld'*d,9. An sao. mlL esghie. 

Botl9om, hB-lgaa\ n 10. Any hoUow, spheri- 
cal bo4y; a thin glass reeeivor (ehem.); a 

bar, auido ot oaetTsUk or other light mate- 
lU. iBiated with g» (oir'-MiooiO, or with 
heated air jfir/ ^affoetT), so as to rise end 

BmUoanfk^t -lag, a. = tollooii'fy*,'48. Thesrt, 

te^ofaseendinginbykxNM; afiioelstion. 
Ja/<swi*iit,-Ist,s. OnewhoprsetJsesbsUooD- 

iBMJ&i MT-llt. a. S5. A hsU or tidcet ued in 
' If: tho aei or systesa of voClaf hy tiie 

BmFiai,yiL To ^roCa hy ballot. n.,batriatmp, 
pi; hmTMad, pp.; (a) haTlotinf, baUoU^- 
tiu^j U» a. ». 

^ a. 7. Anything whieh hesls, or 
in; a balsam; snsromafiie 
ptaoit. [orsssusge. 

itaiMP, n. To snoint with bahn; to soothe 

itolay, hiknf-^ a. 7. Of or like batata ; 
mild; soothlsf ; odoriferous. H., balw^ihi, 
4I,ad.;iata^«MSi,a.91. [or reL to a bath. 

Botend; Ur-BB^ a. s tel'fMotery*, 17. Of 

JsdewrteaK -T-shiln, a. The set of lia^dng. 

Balmm, bitcT-sim, HiQmlh-K., Wa., s. 8. Any 
warm au s tBUM s snbs. supposed to possess 
ssaallve prop.; a ilaid, or semi-fluid resin 
eont. bcBsoie sdd (ehem.). [sarnie. 

JBelsaaMtfow** -AT-ehta, s. A rendering bal- 

Jeih— lis, Mleim^-nc, s. 9. a> baltam'iml. 
Oforlikeaholmm; babny. U^haimmfio- 
a|%, ad.; (a) haimm'ic, a. (med.) 9L 

JalsusiiftrwMs, -tf-Ar-tts, s. ^^iaJftam mMO t - 
^^~bMr-w Yielding balsam. [Baltio. 

BoUie, Wiol'-llk, a. 8. Of or reL to the 

.Batealsr,hir-a»4te, s. AsauUeolnmnorpi- 

JBW«i<sr«d,-tard,a. Earing balnsters. [luster. 

Baf mhnda, -trid^^ a A row of bslosters 
joinodhyaloparhandraiL [towns). 

J?em » hsaiw , pis. Wood or grore (app. to 

BrnmUa, bjanbgy, s. A large Tar. of reed. 

Brnmh^oaitj, Aitff-ai, Tt. To deeeiTCL or im- 
pose on; to coaiiwmd by low tricks. H., 
bsiiss'jiie^:, pu ; hambo&MUiX, pp. 

Asa, hilly s. A proclamation; an ediet; a 
p rce e r i p ti an, eorse, exeommnnieation, or 
wkm of privileges. 
Yhsenn; or Lord l ieat ffl la.) 
, vt>« ria 1*0 cane or proscribe. 
iM^ WB#^Bd, a. A kind of plantain; 
alao lie frail. 

BMflo. hiag'-tav a. tf . A bench; a bank. 

)ldiers^ • 

nttr, s.; 

1.6. The 
lind up a 

lage. H., 



h^HddgkM, p. : hmnd'ofed, pp. ; (a) bamtt' 
agituff s. (snrg.) 89. 
AnMtoM,bfia-dAn'-d.s. Ahsadkeiehief^orig. 
from the E. L,hanng white spota on a dark 
groond ; a style of oslieo-printing. 
BmtdiL bto'-«t, s. = handkU>~^, hmmrUs, 
E.:»mM»rti,-te,It) An ontlaw ; a robber 
or blghwayauui. 99. 
BoMUet, bAndM«t, s. = landeUt, -o-let. A 
tut mooldiag or fUleC. (arch.) 
^_,j-^ - * 'rge, fieree dog. 

-lirtf'ts. The leather shonl- 

r ane. musketeers. 

e,s. Aspeeiesoflnta. 

e,u.=batifnerOl. The little 

I trumpet. (mlL) 

L Crooked ; distorted. H., < 

ftonrdSy-lMMdt, a. ; *c 91. 

I, bent at toe end, for strik- 
] game of btmdf. 

Bti at to and fro ; to agitate ito 

\ To contend or strive. H., 

I ury; ruin; toe rot la sheen. 

Bt on* ; fig., any fiital misohlef; 

Ba le herb Christopher. 

Be I, a. 21. Poiscmoos ; pemi- 

< re. H., batufMty, 48> «>• i 

\ 1. 

Ba S.35. Deadly nightshade. 

Jlafip|,bAng,s. A bsrd blow ; a blow with a dub. 
•S^ff I ^ To beat with a cudgel ; to thump 

or handle roughly. 
Banff ini^ -big, a. Large; great; unusual. 
Banffle, bftng'-irl, s. 45. An om. for the arms 

iway; to squander. 
. The prepared leaf 

BoM^ bfeyin', a. 40. App. to those days or 
which butcher's meat is not scnred up. (naut. ) 

Banfitm, a. A Hindoo tradesman ; a morning- 
gown ; the Ind. fig-tree. 

itomcA, h&n'-Ish, Tt. To ooademn to exile ; to 
expel or drive awajr ; to Ibmke. H., haiiif- 
ithifts. p. ; banfithed, yp. ; ban'isher, s. ; 
han^uhiiunt, a. 89. 

Banitter, bia'-Is-t£r, s. A corr. of baluster. 

Bank, bang^, a. 45. A mound or ridge of 
earth ; the margin of a river or lake ; a flat 
or shoal ; a bench ; a plaoe where money is 
deposited ; also the penons concerned in the 
same. H., h€mk, a. 90. 

Bankf Tt To raise a mound or bank ; to de- 
poeit money in a bank. H.,ftan4^tfi^,p., a.; 
battketFf pp. ; bather, s. : bankable, a. 89. 

Bank-biUtB, A note or bill issued by a bank, 
paTable at some specified time after date. 

Bank-note, s. A promissory-note, pajableoi 
demand, issued oy a bank. [tal of a bank. 

Bank-Mtock, a. A shsre or shares in the eapi- 

J3afiiiwr,b&ngk'-£r,s.45. One who keeps a bank. 

Banking, -Ing, a. Of or rel. to a bank. 

Banking, s. The business of a banker. 

Bankrupt, bftngk'-rttpt, a. 45. Unable to pay 
Just debts; insotrent. 

Bankrupt, s. An insolvent ; one whose aflkirs 
are before, or haTe been settled by, the com- 
mittionerM in banknipUy (leg.). 

Banknmt, vt. To make msolvent H., bank- 
rupted*, pp., a. ; bankruptcy, 43 (sUtc or 
aot of), s. 89. 


and ankles. (E. L) 
J^oN^Jil, Tt. Tofrlttsra^ 
Bdngve, htag, a. = bang. 

of Ind. hemp. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


► ^■■iiiir,bfa'-er,i. Aflac,eiuiffn,orttandanL 
^^ Bmfntnd, -iaedt u, Havlag baanert. 
^ Jton^iwrwL «. A UtUe bUBOT ;« knight nade 
y^ Mtb(Bldd(ohiT.). I^Bam4roi. 

M-Hk, •. 17. A toaad eake of 

_ _ J or tarlay mmL (8ooC) 

aiiT rteh treat or «&tertalMMBt; anything 

Banr^ytt^yt TotreaiwithaflBatt:-^TL To 
fluradaintaj;tolaznriate. K.^bm^'cmlmfft 

3£M,binma.BL Notka il intandad matri- 

monj ftwnin a ahnxah. 
JBflfMiUa, bM'-ahi, a. Anirlahfidry. 
Amlofls bfa'-Um, a. AanallTar.afdomea- 

tlotewl. H9 taM'toNH a. 90. 
AmiM*, bin'-ttr, a. JaaOng; raiUary. 
SoH^tmr, Tt To flay mn worda; to rally, 



«• aa a 


Bra ba»- 

_ me who 

_^ only af adalt baptlam by total 

tnunersion: ananabaptlat 
JBi«^«Miry,-*^aL Aplaaaforbntlalag. 

maLBU ftopeiff iea%, ad. 0L 
Jtar, b*r. a. 7, S6. A Iflaf piaoa of any 
aaba.oroaMv^8BMaidinMt«r; ahindti 

&; aboU; aatofngata: aroak, 
bank, or aboal, at the antraaaa of a nacbonr ; 
tha piaaa whan aaaaaa am tslad, or whaca 
otimiMla an 

jnad; 11. flg., tha not 
or tha law, and any tritaaal; the anakiaad 
apaoe of a taTem whenaa U^non »• dla- 

lina on 

damand or plaa (lag.)* ^ ^^imh bir'-o, 

Bmr, Tt To ibaten or aaik with a bar ; to 
htadw, obolmet, «Mpt| laafe out, azdoda, 
frohibk»xwtnlB. H.J«rKifM,^; hmrad,vp. 

Bar'-«M,a. Donblaahot, joSad by a bar. 

Bar*, b«rb,aL 7. Baaid, 
Uhib or in tha tflaoe of j 
atnamworahook; a 
Barbacy: ai 

Sm^'^L To 

Aarft, bArb, ai 7. Board, or'that wHleh growa 
* ^laoeoifit; liiaftnkadpartof 

hdraa or pigeon from 

^m^yt ToahMFOtstocrmwithb 

hm4'ia§t P' ; ^a n t a , pp., a. 89. 
B^wioMM*, hir'-bd-kin, a Ainrti 

walla of a town, or at Iha end of a 
Bmr^m i om, hdr-bT-dflafc a. Oforfi 
Barharitmt bdr-bAr/-^-te, a. M, 46. Of or 

roL to aaTagea: nndiiUBad: barbanw. 

a. (a) terM^MM, a. 9L 
BmiM, -bte'-Ik, a.98. ItedTiliaed; Ibniga 
jBor^larrfai^ -bdr4M^ yt 90. To rednoe to bar- 

bariaaaj to naha barbarooa. EL* htu'hcit- 

Sarage lift 
y, barbtrf 



Bmiaritm, bdr'-bdr-Izm, a. 99. 
lanaia of manners; onieltyi 
miiu. or Tiilg. form of apeeeb. 
Bmhar'itj/, -It-e, a. Inhmnanity, enicltj 

litroelty; barbariam. 
JtaKkwviM, -Ob; V ?" * "^"^ ^ baftarlain 

Artaie, bdr'-bltc; a. e Um'htML BearAM 

J^ertiMM, bAr'-be-kfl, a. 16. Any large anlmi 

diaandwhola. H., (to) ftor^MMc. Tt 99. 

iflKkwviM, -O a^^a. I n a atate of baitarlt 
rada^ uBOolUvalad { tia mannerly ; en 
fBTodooa, Inhnman. H., ftoKtanwal^, 
ad. ; har h a rmu mtM, a. 9L CQ) 

BarVeA, -*&,%, Bearded, «». (t.t.) (fla 
AorKbftbri, ^— K., S., We., a. 46. A tW« 
jMrtw-, bArV-«r, a. 95. One whoae trade la ^ 

ahave,ortodraaB<hekair. H., (to) loiter, ^ 
Bar»irrv,bAr'-Mr-e,a. Awlldbaih,orltiftnri 
BmULW-h&t, a. A worm that fbeda c 

aphidei; a climbing bird. 
BananlU, b*^kMl, a 99. Tlw aong of 

JariL bdrd, a. Apoet; anc, aminatrol. 
Bmriie, -S, a^ haraiOfi, Of or rrt. 

bards or mlnstrnsy. 
^ortrtan*, -Ism, a. The lore, fto., of bardti 
Ban, bare, a. Naked, na ' — " 

nnadomed; expoeed, laid < 

red; pM 

49, ad. ; barg^waii, a. 91. 
Bora^ Tt To atrip or naeover. S^ MKwi 

p. ; ftarvd; pp. See Bmr, 
Bm^/taetdX,-a»A,tu Undiagoiaad; 

91. (Other like oomp. are name ro na .) 

Bargain, bdl'-gBni^ -glnt, a. 45. A oontn 

or atipalatkm; a porehnaa; the tht 

BaKfaK Tt T to aell apeea latiTdly t->-^. I 

inf*T a oontraot. H., M^^^aMtM', p. ^ ooi 

galmd, pp. ; hm^pamtrtf •• (•) fc^r 

a. 99. 

AaryotaM, -r, a He wfaoaaoaptaal 

iiarpe, hAj^a. 99. Apleaanreorala 

a flat-bottomed vaaael ftn: goods ; a ISgixt 

H.. tarfer or Aary/aum, hyy/aiaifai', A 

a.M. [marine phnrta. (8 

Jtaritta, bd^n'4d, a. Tha alkaUne adi of • 

An-Aan, bBr/'^.ttm, a. 45. ThameUdllo bi 

of baxTta. (oham.) 
2torft^b«rfc,a. The rind or okL eovBrfnr c 
tree ; appr.,einoAo^fia taHI(ned.) ; it^bi 

JMn^Tt. TO peel; to atrip Oh toe oarK. j 
^""^^"Vi P* f karlsMl^ PP«» ^ > ^loHl^sry a. 

ITorft, bdrk, s. The noise made by a tejg. 

B ark,n , Toerylikeadog; toolaaourat 
reproaoh. BL, teric'tn^. p. ; hoHlfe^ PP< 

.BoriMrv, bArk'-Ar-e, s. A tan-hooaa. 

BaHm, bdr"-!^ a. Aptamt; a apeelea of bt 
naad for food, and eap. Ibrmanag maOt. 
la^im^Mtt (a matiegame), tor^lty lt» t 
(bear), ftoKliy-oam, Sm'ki^mow, hmr^i 
mtgmr (a eweetmeat), 9a Kw a w al ai' f Am 

£ar»i,bdrm,a. Teaat. [tion of), te!, a. 

Bmwfpt -tf <^ Oontalniagyeaat. 

Bora, Mm, a. AlbrmbailinngforstanupB. 

3ama0lt,b*'-B4MEl,a.45. Aahell-ai^^ 
adheres to ridpa* bottoma: a aaa-bM. 

JtaKaoate, 4cla, a. pL An iaatr. osed to 1 
a horae by the noae (pat,) ; apeetaBlaa§. 

Baroewter, bd-rfai'-e-w, a. An inatr. 'Wi 

I Indleatea tiie weight and prea suw off 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


I or VMttfaar, altitiidab *e. H.* 
Mads lif «r vd. to a taraaetar. EL, lar»- 

]Mrfi«a%, ad. 91. 

, t'^tar'MMHL) TlM 
tifle of a peer of the loweet rank, fun. 
caUad a lord; a judge of the exaheqiier; 
a he e b and niw.) ; two airloliia not out 
4MBider (aoalcj. rtMurana; abarwy*. 

JlaKoMM, -9ie, a. 6. llie ^Akokt body of 
JMM<;h4h'-o-iiet,8.9,9e. The toweat here- 
ditary ti^ in Eag. SeeiKr. [hwoMti. 
3m'mtta§^ 4ie, a. «. The odO. bodr of 
JlaKiMrtif,-ace. Tte title and eatate of aW- 
3arMMiAhiA-rOn/^fl,a. Ofa baron, [onet. 
Mmimif^ vti'-o-'OB, a. ag. Ihelordflfatp,honoiir, 
orfteaCabaipn. [of barometer. 

.BenaaeoM, hSin«-Aflp^ a. M. An oba. apeeiee 
Jlaawfi. bd-rCBah^ a. 99. A donbie-aeated, 

iBHHneel earriafa, -with a fUUng ton. 
Jton«dLbdr'-rik,8.M,M. A hot or building 
in^ieh aoidiera are lodged (ML and In 
Itept). BU&or'rodk-Ma/far.fte^a.M. 
fiwTweaiHbdr'-nl.lBSta,!. AlQrt.(Ait.) 
BarwM^ hAr'-xii^ a. The iMinona condatian 
oflr-4raaB. [anegolltyof banstrr. 

M mrw tm ; bd r^nriMttr, K9i,». A wraa^r ; 
Mtw'TMtfv&Bm ^rttai a. OQ&fer of baixatij. 

H., tm'naromfy, ad. 91. 
Brn'tmltf, -tw ^ a. Fo ol pno^ In law; a 
tendf te a tbipaittttatf againat the owaera 


s 96 galL); alao 

tBbriar or ejUjidrleaL 
Mmf'n^yL Topntinto 

too ila cc 

AamaUoaak (na. 

To pot into barrela. M^lai^rel- 

i^p-fcj iorraied; pp., a. 89. ___^ 
3evTaii,Mbr*4ftuii 39, vtL UnproUfle; lUiAruUr 

fbl ; aaprodBeBva ; aeantji wlihoQt meaning ; 

fnawnalWiisininTentiTe; wittumt piakUaftotO. 

BL, liaKMW 4^8d^|ior'nmMif, a 9L 
.SarVaa^ a. AJVf lUiuroduethre land. 
A» rfaad% hfr«»-bld/, a. 39. = banrimfdo^, 

A ahoal voik, haatilj tiirown i^ Jor mil. 

pnpoaaa ; any bar or obatmctioa. 
BarHMdi^TL To obatruetj toatopmk. H., 

l a ii i mf/ ay, p^; iorriedirad; pp.; harri- 

jyvHar/hir'-«-ar,a.a9,94. AwaUorwork 


Bon^ -^If -Ik, a. or or eoat baryta. 

BmyUHu, bdr'-e-«aM^ a. 98. A mate 

inoL the ocoa. baae and tanar; a term to 

Or. gram. H., t«r'y«0iK(oror]lk^, a.99. 

Boasj, bl'-aU, a. Bormtaig Ilia baae. j^ham.) 

BoMift. bd^Uf , -fl«r~We., a. If . s AiMlfai, 

HriOr-tia. Anwkorigneonaerigto; aTar. 

of pottery. 

BMaVie, 4k, a. = teaatt'iae, -te. OfbanlL 

Baa0,b9K,a. Low in Yalna, eatimatfon, nn^ 

poattlon, apfrit, or prinelple: mean, vHe, 

worthlem, degraded; illSenS, d" 

able: deep, grave (app. to aoondi); . 

lUegklmate. H., Wly, 49, ad. ; »i« 

a.; a aa^-&om, fioar'-Aaartei^ 4to., a.; ftaa^'- 

affMy, Jto., a* 91. 

^IM, a* The bottOtai, ivmiasuii 

Am Ibot or pedealal; the low 

Inmna.; theprindpallngredieiit; thejeo- 
tro-poaitiTe Ingr. of a aak, eacide, te., aa an 
alkdi, earth, or metal (obem.). H^ kmsef- 

leMi, a. ; fto. 90. See Boa*. 
BsM^irt To da b aeef ; to tomd or 



I, pp. 

BoaMMat, blae'-i 

floor of a bonding. 
Bo ih rn o, bd-ahif , a. A paahaw; a proad, 

tyranwlflal man. 
Bkaaj^^ biah'-fWl, a. 91. Shy; dtOdwt; eeaUy 

ooni h aed; modeet to exeeaa S., kath'hiUy, 

ad.; AaaJkTWftMO, a. 91. 
Bmtie, bOs'-Ik, a Aeting aa a baae; baring 

the baae to exeeaa. (ebon.) 
Ba»ifkff blT-ae-fl, Tt. To oonTert into a baae. 

H.. UMMng, p. ; Mt^fitr, -tl^, a. 99. 
BojiL bfta?^ a Hie dope of the edge ef a 

tod. H., (to) frar^O, Tt. 99. [tamed. 

BatiL bda'-O, a. A pot^wrb; a ehaep-akin 
BiufiUmd^lL Wild baiiL [prlneipaL ^t) 
BMilerrW-e-Ur, a. s fto/Oavy. Chief; 
Baailj«», bdP«n'-4k. a. = ftoMriaof*. Oforrel. 

to the middle Tern of the ana, or to a pnblio 

edifieas reaaL Tarr er* 
BadTi ^ 

magnfnewit ehnrah ; the 
BonruNNiP, -e-kfln, a. 96. Reato ointment. 
BtufUukt -ittk, a. An imag. oraated aerpent 
Batftn, bft'-«n, a. 15. Adiah or hoUowToaael 

for domeatle nae; a pond, dook, reaerroir, 

or olatem; any hollow plaae; a oiraalar or 

open Talley drained by a river (geog.). H., 

hktin-thapedf ftc, a. 90. 
Bdtkudt -and, a Enoloaed, aa in a baaln. 
BMii;bir-aa(a,a.(pl.,&(i'Ma.) The gromidwork 

or nrat prinelple. a baae. 
BftaM, bjp-alat, a. Aatogerofbaae. 
Baak, bdak, bdak— K.7WeH Tt. 9. To warm 

by espoanre to a genial heat :-^. To He in 

the warmth or aozMhiBe; to Innriato under 

benign inflnenoea. H., haaXing, p.; Uuked, 

A regal or pobUo haU; a 
' baailla^fein. 


bas'-Mt,bilg'~K.,We.,a.9. Aveeeel 

ef wlthee. or other flea, matariala, inter- 

ren; alao, ita eontenta. H., heufket^-§aU, 

htufke i ipeBi a ii, Inufhet^waHc^ In., a. 90, 
Basket, n. To pot into beaketa. 
Bo/Ammm, -Ing, a. Baaket^woriL 
BiM^MMiC bddP-Iah, a. Of or i«L to Biaoay, 

or the Biaoayana. 
Boaiybte, a. 9. A haaiock or mat made oiUaL 
Bom, bfia, bdto. a. (no pi.) Sev. ilah of the 

perch kind. U'^'Ot. ) 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Sat$, bate, a. Low, deep, ipm?«. H^ bmu'-cltf, 

betif-tmgtr, bcMf-viol, fte. 91. [part in moa. 

Ba$t, bls^ •. = bd^ao. It. Hie low or grave 

Bmat^aUf, bfe-ra-lMs', s. = h»^nlitf, btf-re- 

Uft', Fr. ; ha^to reUdto^ It 99. Low nUef; 

the ftate of bflinff Uttle elerated. (Miito.) 
AMMtMe'-M.a. Inclined npwarde. H.,(to) 

ha^H, tL: bcMfettinf, p. (mL) 89, 9L 
BaiftH, t. A game at earda. 
Bai$$Uo,Umilf-o, 9. 99. A imall baae-TloL 
AuMOA, bia-i90n', a. A baas mns. instr. H^ 

boMaootiia (a player on), a. 9a 
BoMorftM, Ma'-ao-rin, a. M. Inaofaible gun. 
Aut, biatr, •. 9. = &aM, bde. The Inner bark 

of the lima-tree; matting, fto., made of it. 
iltoatanL b&a'-tSrd, a. 9, 36. False; norioos; 

lUegi&nate. H.. W(an%t. a., ad. 91. 
Baftwrd, a. An illegitimate dkUd; anything 

BatftardUe, -U%,yt, 90, = bMrtard\. To pro- 
claim or prove illegitimacy. U^thgt^tarditrng, 
p. ; htuftardised, pp. 

Bastardy, -e, s. =. AM'terdiiM*, -im. The 
state of being a bastard. 

BasU. bOst^ Tt. To beat with a stidcft; to 
apply melted hotter or ftt (cook.) ; to eew 
S^. H., bOttim,, pw: boJed, pp.; 
batter, a. ; fa) bOsCma, a. 89. 

ira«ei<«, bia-teV, •. a oaatle; a atate-priaon 
in Paria, deat. 1789. 

£a«<uuufo, bft»-te-nld^, n. = toaOn^do. To 
beat with a stiek or codgel on the aolea of 
the feet H., (a) baUinad^, ba$tiiM^do, or 
basUmdd^imf, a. 89. 

BatUoH, bAar-yHn, a. S5. A maas of earth 
thrown ap in front of a rampart 

BatyU, bia'-n, a. 58. Any eleetro-poaitfve 
ingr., either aimple or eomp., aeting aa an 
element or radical, (ohem.) 

Bat^ b&t a. A flat dnb need at cricket ; a 
aheet of ootton prep, for quilting; a apedea 
of winged monae. 

Bat, yi. To play with a bat H., fto/f tn^, p. ; 
batCed. pjk ; batfmr*, batsman, a. 89. 

Bat-ffwimg, a. A method of catching birda 
at night H., (a) ftof-fowto-. a. 90. 

Botofti^, biU'-ftbk* a. Dlapntable. 

Batavitmf bd-t&T/-yAn, a. Dutch. 

AatcA, btteh, a. Theonant of anything made 
atonee; a baking of bread. 

Batg*, haXi, Tt :ft> abate :— vL To become 
leaa. H., bOfinf, p. ; bdfed, pp. See BaU, 

Bath, bJth', a 87. (pi., bath*, bAhz. 88.) A 
Teaael containing water for bathing; the 
veaael itaeU^or the fluid it oontaina; immer- 
sion Inabath; a honae for bathing; aveaael 
of hot water, aand, &c., used aa a source of 
heat (ohem.). It au numerous cnnp. 90. 

Bath, a. An order of British knighthood. 

Bathe, hattu, vt 88. To waah or immerse the 
bodv, or part of it, in a bath : to moisten or 
sufluse with water or other liquid :— ti. To 

. be or lie in a bath. H., bath'ku. p. ; bathed, 
pp. ; bath'er. a. ; (a) bathe, bOWing, a. 89. 

Batharu, bEw'-hora? , a. A batman's horse. 

Bathos, b&'-thfii, a The reverse of climax. 

BatUt, b&f -I«t, a. A laundress's beater. 

BatoMm,bii^-m&n,s. He who has chai^ of the 
cooking utensils, fte., of a company, (mil.) 

J9aCofH bd-tdn^^, a 99. = 5«toon. bAt-tsin'. A 
tmndieon; a marshal's staff; a mark of 
inegitimate descent (her.) 


Bto<raeMM,b(Mr&'-ke-ta,a.S9. OforvaLta 
the flcof tribe. (xooL) [a froc. 

BofrocA^nd; bftt'-rd-koyd, a. 23. Formed UhJc; 

Batta, b&f '^ a. An allow, to oi&oen in add^ 
to their pay. (E J.CS.) 

Battalia, bdt-ok-y'd, s. The ofder of battle ; 
the main body in amy. rtry,6to800strans^. 

Battaiio«,bftt*tAl'-y«n,s.45. Abodyofinten^ 

Bottof ioM^ -yOnd, a. Formed into battaUoas. 

Bottm, b&trn, a. Apieoeof boardoracantUaff 

Bairtfn,Ttl8. TolaatenorformwithbatttBft. 
bL bait citing, p.; battened, pp.: (a) hmtt- 
emmg, a. 89. [grow fot (r. an.] 

Battem\, Vt To &tten or fertUiae :-<-vL X^ 

Batter, bAT-ir, B. Ingredients beaten togetkea 
to a aemi-fl^ maaa. 

Baiter, rt To beat down; to damage wUl] 
to wear out with^Mnrice :— tL Tc; 


slope gently iHnn the observer (app. tc 
walla). H., batterm§, p.; battered, pp^j 
batterer, s. ; (a) baJttermg, a. (v. i.) tt. 

Batterma^ram, a. An anc mil. engna. 

Bo^^, utr-«r-«, a. The act of batteria 
beating down ; a line of cannon, or the . 
on whudi tliey are mounted; an assault wiQ 
violenoe, however slight (leg.); a ~* 
Leydenjard (elec); a pair, or 
pana, of excited metallic platea (galv.). 

Batting, bAf -Ing, a. The managing of a bat.| 
ootton prep, in sheets for quilong. 

Batt2s,b&tl,a.45. An encounter betwoaa cb*i 
mice ; a iUlit or cooteat; a body of toaWi 
UJbaitl^Htrra^, battle-axa, battle-JIdd^ibc^ 

BattU, vt To cover with armed foroea; « 
fight:— vL To Join or eontend in fight 
S, battUng, i^.i battled, pp.; battler^ ^ 
(v. i.) 89. [of more than two neraaa^ 

BattU^ro^aL a. A eonftiaed fist or club Ugli 

Batt'2«dor«,-ddrf, s.(oft.sp.,-4loofi.) Asaaal 
instr. to strike a ball or shuttle-ooek ; a bom 
book|. [emhraaiisaa 

Battkmentt b&f l-m£nt, s. 4^. A wall via 

Battiwiy, bAtr-Ung, a. Conflict 

Batto2^,bAt-tS'-o-Jefa. Tautology. UFr« 

BattiM, bftf -t5^ a. 99. A beating up of gaafte 

Batty*, bif-e, a. = M/rifikt. Of or like a bat 

Botiftee, baw-bS', a. A halH>eninr. (Scot.) 

Borin, b&v'-In, a. A waate stick ; fagota d 
brushwood fmlL). [of finery ; a gewgaw 

Baio6^ b«rbX s. = 6aii'6&;. A trifl&g iileJ 

BawVUng*, -ling, m. Trifling. 

Ba«M2, b£»d, a. 8. A procurer or proGnma. 

BomnL vL To procure, Ac (v. s. ) 

Baw^ti, bfiWd'-e, a. 8. Filthy, obaeou 
unSaste. H., bawdifyt, ad.; teio^Ss^ 
6ai«r»y», a. 9i. * 

Batol,hm\,vU6, To proclaim^ :— vL To cri 
out loudly; to shout; to hoot U.,ba»otiHg 
p. ; bawled, pp. ; batoter, s. ; (a) bawtin^^/^j^ 

Boioftii*, bflRr'-sIn, a A badger. [Baatei 

Baxterian, baks-tfir<;'-e-An, a. 45. Of or reL i 

Boff, bo, a. Beddish brown, appro, to oImbI 
nut (app. to horses) ; bent or curved <m^ 
ward. H., bap-win'dino, &e. 91. 

Bay, s. An arm of the sea running inland ; t 
opening in a wall; the laurel-tre~ 

bojf, is a keeping or warding off an i 

or an assailant H., boff'-berry (the laarali 
baj/-rum (from bay-leaves), bof^saU (fi 
sea-water), ftc. Sec, s. 90. 

Boy, vt. Tobarkat:— vi. Tobarkasado^i^ 
his game; to embay*. H.^a^M^.p.; bajfc4^p^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

. A-'^**''^ « 

; ^ ♦ A vf /• < 

/v'^-<'A tl\*^ 



-J^Pft^.W-AAfc BUnd; stupid. H.,»a, 

gwfwBt^ tr-^<^ ». A dasger at tbe end of 
J.^tat H, a^.^i-ctoft (iStttontng), 

»., «B. tC 

A^aM^ Tt Tb stab or IdH wfth a baronet 
^if -^ !»• J *^«««eJ^ pp. 
•«5^«fc^«.pL Aa h cMoi ai 5 aarland or crown 
^«wt; k, Clemy exoeileaee, fte. 
-■J^t »*«*', *=»«tfr'. An eastern mar- 
m«rcxBhaaf«; a ball or larga room for 
^fteateotfgno^ fZnr.). 
J2^»*r^^ Afineaponeotton. 
WbaLda'-7ttB,a.4S. An £. L gun rerfn. 
/'^Mtfrfaf, •«,•%««, la; pL,»rft«r.) 
neUtf; fta b«^ a eertain state, condition, 
Vfiator; tobKOBBe; toreanm. H.,*ic 
'^ ^; «*■?., wa*w irB«,— pL, «wre, w«r, 

^po. la n iBii j worda it ia eqalr. to 
*, a*wd; or «*/ in otbera, H imparts 
Moam, or an intoiafve effect, and tbiw, 
fc— tflf tboa e «ed eoHoguially, it ex- 
P— MMCfoior cuutemptBooa ezanera- 
^^ym-heeaaat, bc*re^ bewt; beHcknid, 
•Mi^ le-andaaB, fte. ; which are telf-ezp. 

^■<*>ti9^ s. St. Tbe ahore of a aea or lake. 

***< hUbd, b&geik'-M--S., Wa., a. 18. 

JteMltofbevaiTes; atraaded. 

»fttedr-e,a. OaTta^nbeadi. 

^*Hir-lB..fcflB—K.,c 17,49. Asignal- 
"»; stiiBai; cr a land-nuo'lc, to direct naTi- 
y—; « lefaMuMiae; iSff., anjthinff that 





tnj brntal or lll-behaYed penoo : a Jobber 
j^tneetodeprtaetheprioeofstW H., 
Aw'-AmI or heav'ward, bear'-akin, b«a?' 

rh4l», hear'^-grea$e^ Ac., a. 90. 
IT, bar^, Tt To lap 






'^ ytae^ c^Tbe name of eev. li^omiiunu 
*sii; afao of tlacir aeeda (fteofut). H., 

^^ hsam-iremet (ptonts) ; heanf-fty, 

-*'.^', a. A ronsb, furragv animal ; fig., 

— , --, -^ aapport, sustain, carrr. 

/; to contain; to auifer or undergo; 
to Bufltar quJeUy; to keep or matetain; to 
behayeor act ; to sheir or exhibit ; to bring 
lorth ftmit; to give birth to, aa a native 

P"S[i'~:!?* 7® ■^®'"J ^ P»"«^ to 'elalo 
to (tol. bv on) ; to be sltoate, &c. H.. htat'^ 
^9*V'\hSre, bOre^, prt : Wm^, pp. ; bWgr, 
*. ; Um'able, a-tt : (aj hea^ulg^i 89. * 

^T» S?^ ^*- «J*> ™» forth chUdren :- 
rL TobeproBfloorflmitftU. n..btar'mg, 

BtfBT'-ftsrry.a. UranraL Other Mke-tormed 
nnaee of planta are-ft«or'-*lW, hear»^- 
hrnO^ Ua^e-w, ft«rr»f-;bo<, fteor's'-icort, 

*w^-^orrf««,a. Aplaceforbean; arode, tnr- 
bnlentMeemMT. H.. *«i,'^ard«.% a. 

J^WHTd, b6«rd, 8. pe hair that grows on the 
upe and chm ; the awn of com ; the barb off 
an arrow; the gilla of oystera and other 
MralTce; ilg., the whole Cace:. 
-Beard, n. Tb take or puU by the beard ; to 
da^ or oppose openly. H., 5«ir«ri»^, p. ; 
oMnrso, Y9* * 

l^ar4f-gran,%. The plant oadropoww. 
i?««rd'«^ -«, a. HaTinc a beard ; prickly, 
barbed, Jamd. {IBi^^tariUMmuM*, b. 91. 
Beard leu, -l*e, a. Without a beard ; yoong. 
£aorcr,bftr^-ihr,B. A carrier, messenger, sup- 
porter, (y. ▼.) » » *- 
Bearing, b&r«'-ing, s. The carriage or beha- 
Tioar ; the nlace or relation of one thing to 
another ; the portion on which anytUng 
rests: the rel. situation of a distant olHect 
fnar.i ; the charges or flg. on an escntchaoo 
(her.). See Bear, 
Beatt, Uml s. 12. Any Ibnr-footed animal 
wed for labour, ibod, or sport; an irra- 
tional animal; flg., a brutal or beastiy 
pOTspn. H., fteoafttA, ftMff ttjto, &c., a. 90. 
Beattffy, -le, a. Like a beast, in guise, 
actions, or behayiour ; coane, brutal, filthy, 
sensual. H., beast lit*, ad. : beast line$9, s. 91 . 
Beat, bet«, a. A stroke or blow ; a recurring 
stroke, a pulsaUon ; the tick of a watch or 
dock; a round or course freq. trodden; a 
haunt or place of habitual resort; the rise 
or fidl of the hand or foot to reg. time (mus.). 
J*<rt. b€t«, yt. To strike repeatedly; to bruise, 
pulyerlse, or extend, by beating, pounding, 
or hammering; to strike or dash back; to 
tread, as a path ; to yanquish or conquer : 
— vi. To strike at intcnrals; to pulsate or 
throb; to fluctuate, as with agltaUon; to 
dash, as a flood or storm. H., beatina' p. ; 
J«rf, jnt. ; beat, beaten, pp. ; beater, s. ; (a) 
beattng, s. 89.— To beat about, is to search 
fiff ;~to beat down, to lower the price ;— to 
beat the hoof, to go on foot;— to beat off, to 
repel;— to beat m, to attack, disturb, or 
make known suddenly and noisily. 
Beaten, -en, a. Harked, tracked, (v. r.) 
Beater, -%r, s. A crushing instrument, (y. y.) 
Beater-vp, s. One who beats for game. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ \. 


powertobeatuy. H^&a^^S«0y,4S,ad.91. 

3M^,lM-if-»-fI,Tt4S. TbUeMwithflter- 

aaf iiappliMis in heftTen. H., heafifl/mg, 

p.; bed/^VPf^; bMii^tkm, b.«9. 

pope, that a penon is battifled. (t. t.) 
Be^ityd»,'me,%.l%. iBflaitefelidtr, tliaJoyB 

of heavoa :— pL, theTirtoea blMied dj CSuist. 
Beam, bO, a. (pL, ftaotu;. hSte,) 99. A man of 

dreas : a lorert. (Fr.) 
Bmm idSah^'-ii, it. Ideal exotfenoe; 

beautv vaed fton natoral deftmnltr or 

e fHhionable 

hemfi^. To 
dLpp.; bern^' 


hingi^ irldeh 

but ddigbts 

e 1 * ^ 

gracdti]neii&^ harmonr, jnatna* of oompb- 

aition. EL, lem^MM hmnfUUi^, Umft^ 

wfl^nfnftt •• ; Umitif^tpotX, fte., a. 90. 
Btaver, W-ftg, a. A amall animal ; also its 

tar, or a bat made of Itt ; pari of a hebnet; 

% Tar. of -wooUen dotb. [besrar. 

Bec^vered^, -vfird, a. C9oy. with or 'wearing a 
BmifverUtn, Atmt, B, A kind of taatian. 
JMmHiul b6b^-«r-ln, a. 68. ss MNrf MO. An 

alkaloid, [motion. EL, (adoiaM^. pp., a. 89. 
Btoakn, be-kAim'. rU To keep atuf or from 
Btommm, be-kXirr, con. Bj oenae; on tiila 

aoooimt; for. [eanee. 

Be^amel, bteh'-^mfil, s. A Tar. of white 
JiMMe, be'-kXk, a. Pectoral. BL, (a) i/oMo, 

a. (med.) 90. i»,^2^t. 

Jtaiiy bflCf a. A dgn of command ; abeekopi 
Bta^,yi^iL IVbeokon. H., beeXrifi^, p j; 

&aa«ed;np. [motion of the hand. 

Beekon, Mrn, 17, a. A rigniflaant nod or 
Bea^9n,'ft To call or algnalirtththeiiead 

or huid:--M. To nod or algnal, te. H.« 

heel^onimff. p. ; UetoHdd,m, 
BtoowtB, be-kttm', Tt 17. To b e aoitable to; 

to brats—^. To paiB fttnn one atate to 
ither. H., (aooai'liy, p.*, a.; h team/ , 
;.; Ueem^, pp. 89.— 2b heoeme of (prec. 

v/ wAo^}, is egiuT. to thi 
BtMmmg, be-knm'-Inf , a. 

fMWt, 8. 91. 

^ tR&a«}^is egnlT. to the end nr^eejAT. 

~i. Fit, aiKiropriate, 
fijf, ad.; omnfinff- 

^ graeefoL H., beeomrmgi 

£«2,Md,a. A oonoh, or thing to sleep on; a 
lodging; that onirhidi anythmg is generated, 
depoaited.or reata: a lajrer or etratnm. H^i«f - 

Bed, Tt To place in beo* ; to sow, plant, 
atratUy, orencioee:— Tl. To oohabltf . H., 
bnUtimfi, p.; bedd^ed, pp., a. 89. [abed. 

BMUting,-lhg,: Thenu&vlalsanddotheaof 

JM^riddM^jAd-dn, a. 45. = be^riO^, Con- 
fined to bed bj age or inflrmitTrf 

Bed^ritet-rtketB, IhepriTilegeaofisatrlmaBT. 

3Mr«ML .«k, a. The aaaa for holding the 

mtrtalalaofabed. ratoMefantia-milL 

Bedder, bfid'-jr, a. = hedetfer. The j 

Bedegnar, bM'-^-gSr, a. A spongyaaba. foond 

Beda, W€k a. An offleer in the : 

nnlTenitlei. See Beadle, (ei 

B^detrv, -re, a. The extent of a beadle's 
J}<deo<(be-d«T'l,Tttf. To throw Into ntter 

disorder and conthalon. H., hede¥ikdp 

-dcTld, pp., a. 89. 
Bedew, be-dfl', Tt 18. To i 

dew; to molaten gently. JL, 

p.; MshmT. hedeit^ed, vPt •*> ^edemfer, 

a. ; (a) hedee^mgl, s. 88. 
BedHa^, be-dxt<7a. Adorned. [decked. 

BsdtoMMdl, be-dr-cnd, -dls'—Wa., ppn a. Be- 
J?«dlMit,Vsd'-Um, s. (corr. of hih'ldma,) 

A lonatic as^mn ; amadman*; ilg.»nplaee 

of uproar. H., fta^loai*, a. 90. 
Bed^kmdUX, -Ite, a. s heOflemUe. A Inntie. 
Bs Jowfci, bW-g^-Bn^ a. 98. An An* oT an 

nnsetHed tribe. 
Jiae, b6, s. The insect that pradneea hsTy 

and wax; an taidost and careltal p swen; 

a meeting of neiahbenrs to aid a iJriaBd ta 

his woric, or of ladles to sew for the boot 

Be^-iread,*, PcUen ooDaeted bf haea. 

Bet^-^aier, 9, AbfardtiiatflBeteonhaea. 

Bei^-mmter, §. One who keeps bees. 

Beeeh, bCtfdb, s. 99. A well-hBtown tree. H., ^ 

Bs0O»sn,b60di'n,a.l8. Ofthebeeoh. (s.80.^ 

2r«^,bSb,a. OonaMfaigcrheefl 

Be^, bUe, a. The flesh of the ok, hidl, cr 
cow, or other borine animaL gee J siw ai . 

Begf-^atetf a. A a tont fleshy peraoirt; «n 
Al^. Urd ; a yawiwaii ef liie gvaxds| (Big^» 

Been, Un, pp. See JBc [hemf^-ektm, so. 

Beer, hbe, s. Malt-Uqnor. H., Issf^VsMMb 

J^MtiMW, beztf'-wlks, s. ThewazcoUeefeedby 

Beeswing, -wing, a. A Tar. of wine. fbasa. 

J9Mt,bBt<^a. Asacehariaeroot )beet 

Beetrave, -r&Ttf, s, sa be ef raHA . A fv. of 

J sitfs, b rtl, s. tf. AhsKfTmaUet; as 
terons ineeet ; a eoekNaetal* 

Beetle. tL To jnt out; to orerhang. H., 
beefmg, p.: beetled, pp. (mowa. 

Bee tl e browed, -browd, a. BntDg ptoeaiatnt 

Be^tU-^^eaded,^ I>iA; stopid. 

BeetUn^j bBts'-Uhg, a. Jnttiof ; prsmlBent 

Jiisi»t,bBT«,,&«^) Uaek-cattle. 

Befall, be-Ov^, Tt 8. To lumpen to^-TL 

• To come tt^paas. See fatl» 

B^UHnf, be-fi^-taig, p., a. SnitaUe; appro- 
priate; becoming. [i 

3«flwMt, be-fBgd^, a. InrolTed In ' 

B^fre, be46r0', a d.^ 
mrther than; in i^ont 

Bifer^, pr. In front of; frnrther onward; in 
the preeenee or eight of; prior to; in pre- 
ference to ; sQperior to. 

^ '\and,wL Ini 

' like comp. i 
vned, Ac, a*; 

B^frimd, be-flrted^ Tt To i»T»um, «;- 
beneflt H., b^firimuFieig, p. ; 

> mmano; 

Bitf^nfhand, ad.' In antieipatlon; pivTwmj. 
Other like comp. ue b^br^eUed, hgbref- 
netUiomed, Ac, a* ; o^for^Mme, Ac, aiL 82. 

befriend'ed, pp. 
Beg, b<^, Tt To ask eameetlyiorhnmtdy ; to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

orin^iMite; to taka te pinted : 

"^f vt> Tb fSBcrate ; to jpcodiioe 
v aedde&lB. H^ ht§airm§, p. ; 
_ or *HfB^,lgt. ; ttgat* cr t iyo ft' m, pp^ ; 
iiyi rtf gr, fc Mi. 

teM'»b8g'-«r,a.S5. OneirholiTCil^lMgliBg. 

V Tt. 81. To xedooe to b eggiy; to 

*»J; to ctiiMUt. H^ Ug^mring, 

, ,/ary« -4r-«^ t. S5. JExtnnie iodigvBoe. 
, JH^ba-glB'.irtSO. TDMtaboat^flonmmMe* 
a rjll i M i li^ >-^ T» eoBM toto w Jrtwe ; 
ranr; todo the first 

- — ^; J;- 



m on oy 
nw. H^ 

diidinf ; 



fUTvnt ; 

(IbL bgraredp. 
Mt BL, WkJr'iifcp.; 

[nera, CQBdnot 

-7flr,fl. DeB«m0iiE,BM»- 

ft To eat off the head : to 

W><wr«V, p.; hdktadtd, 

a.ssl«H. nMepaftUBff poppy. 

Hon; mandate ; inlL 

Oot of iriew^in the 

p [after: lufeiJerto. 

Atoroatha hiekef ; rawafa tog 
Baekwardj taxdy; in 

Bf2«^Mi',Tt Toblookap; toteitn. H., 

Belch, Tt, tL To eject iriad fton the 

i; to throw out tieleatlj. U., 

gf p. : h^chedf pp. 

30/iaBi»,W-dto,a. AnoUwomaa; ahafr. 

^«<MfiMr,he-Ucr-er,Tt.SO. Tomirroiiadwith 

an army ; to kiTeat or eneaaspaflB. H^ he- 

, Mr-ja-ia, a. 4ft. b laT^ 


fiNaaBakiBnL &^ (a) Bffpiaa; i. 91. 
JBelM, b»4r, Tt TogiTethallBtostoooBnter- 

Mtitoedmanlate. H., M^<^ P- ; MM'. 

.SelSfr. be-ISb", a. A pemuMien oT the truth ; 
er•dflno^OIrtnkm; oltfeot or artldee of be- 
lief ; aread, faith, rellgkik. 

BOieve, be-levf', n. Toeradit; to oonAdein: 
-^▼L To have aredit or tmat in. JL, h^ 

JMrnMr^h^r^-lit,: A|!!rolGMstian.(y.T.) 
BeUe^ima, -Ing, p., a. Orediting, fte. H., 
heMMglu, «,lid. (▼. ▼.) wT^ 

JM2,bll,e. A lionofnrend ef metal, which 
ealta eoonda when rtnuk; aBything bell' 
shaped, _or with a mouth aipandiag oat- 
.; mtkelf-^MmdeTf 

wards. H^Qomeroos oomp.j 

heir-^netai, hed rimaer, te., s.: VeU- 

fiuMaiud, heU-Uke, Zo^ a. 68, 90. 
.BcU; Tt. To aaeaolt and cripple ones 

— ^ To grow in the nrm of bells. 

bejO'inffX, p., a. ; heOei, pp., a. 88. 
Beir^wum, •, z= heeman*.n. Atown-oriar. 
SeUatUmna, bd-Ukdon'-a, s. Deadly iM- 

BelUf bO, s. 99. A smart or handsome woman. 

BeUe^-Uttree, bfiUMftr. btt4i'tff, a. pi. 99. 
Foitts Ittenitiire. (Ft.) 

JSatftaeae*, bO-e^Qs/, a. InaliBed to war. 

^ "' wt, hS^-^btJlaA, a. = keUiffenv^, 
In a state of war. 
'gerent, a A atate or nation at war. 

B e U^ fet emt ^, bfl-iy -o^tftnt, a. Migfa^inwar. 

Settow, var-ki, a s hdrUmmg. A food and 
sadden outcry. 

Beyiew,yL To roar aa a bull, or as billows: to 
makealoodoatery. H^ftef toieino,p., a.; oeN 
htoed, pp. : heflomfer, s. ; (a) betumna, e. 89. 
" W-(See, bfl'-list, s., sing, andpl. A 
maiiMwa to blow wtth. [onitaL 

.Be0«iM»,ba'-1l-ln«,-I»— Wca. Beast-Uke; 

SeUjf, hSl'-e, a The part of the body between 
the breast and tixigha; fig., that which re- 
qiibres or r eee i ^es food; anything which 
swvUs out or encloses : csmai lasts (serto.). 
B.,heei^-aehe, hel'l^-baitd, beFfy-cheer, 
b^Tif/fulf fte., s. 90. 

BtVlff, Tt To iUlorswenonts— Ti. To be- 



nie protaberantj to strut. H., beTlytngf 
; herHed, -Ud, pp., a. 88. 
Kwrf , s. Food: bread* 
BeFtji^Xt >• ^* A salneiency. [arrows. 
Behmanoy, h6V -o-min-ee, s. Dirination by 
Belima, Mtag", ri. 80. TV) be the pro- 
perfy or baslneBs; to appertain; to be 
ooBneeted. related, or referable; to have 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fettlement or residence. U^btlon^mg, p.; 
helonacd't pp. [loved ; dear to. 

BeloveL be-fttrd', pp. ; -IttV-W, a. 18. GreaUy 

£ehw, be-IO', ad. In a lower place. 

Belou/,-pT, Under: inferior to; nnworthy of; 

Belt, bat, ■. A ffirdle ; a circlet. [unbeflttiBg. 

Belt*t vt. To encircle ; to pat on a belt. H.. 
beWina, p. ; belfed, pp., a. 89. [ (Soo. Hi.) 

Beltane^'-tUu^BMtij-^jBnd Its ceremonies. 

^«%a, be-rc&'-gd, s. 18. A oetaoeoas fish. 

Belvedtre^ b£l'-Te-d6rf, s. Iit» a fine view; 
a pavilion on the top of an edifice : a ' look- 
oat' place in a sardkHi, or on a hill. (It.) 

BemtHMt be-mdn/, vt. To bewail ; to express 
Dorrow for. See Moan, 

Bemoan'inif, -Ing, s. Lamentation. 

Brn, bfin, s. A purgative nnt ; behen. 

Betiehj bteoh, s. 3l. A long seat, aform ; a seat 
of Jostice ; the magistrates or Judges on it. 

Beneh'er, -fir. s. A senior member of an inn 
of court, wno has been reader. 
^^ Bend, bSod, s. A curve* turn, or flexure ; a 
^ diagonal belt (her.). 

Send, vt. To make crooked; to divert ftrom 
^ the natural fSorm; to curve or inflect; to 
incline or tend to ; to subdue :— vL To be 
crooked or curving; to incline; to Jut over; 
to be submissive. H., bmd'ing, p. ; bend'ed*, 
benff prt.; bended, bent, pp., a.; bend^er, 
s.; »sfMfa6/e»,45, a.; (a) hmdfing, s. 89. 
^ Bend^let, -16t, s. A Uttle bend (her.). 
^ Beneath, l»-ne^\ -nCtti/— K., Wa., We., ad. 
37-8. In a lower place ; below. 

Beneath', pr. Under or lower in place, rank, 
orexeeuence; below. [man. 

Beuediet, bte'-e-dlkt, s. A newly married 

^ii«(i»eftnef,-Ins,s.pL Followers of St Bene- 
dict ; black-friars. [the act of blessing. 

Benediction, b§n-e-dlk'-shan, s. A blessing; 

Benediction, -Iv, a. 45. Tending to bless. 

Ben^action, bte-e-fak'-shtin, s. Doing ffood 
to another; the beneflt conferred; a char, 
donation. [who conifers a benefit. 

Benefactor, -ttlr. s. 25. (f., benefa&trett.) He 

y}eA</il0e, bfin'-e-flB, s. An eccleslastioal 11 ving. 

Ben'^fieid, -fhd, a. 45. Holding a benefice. 

Beneficence, be-ndf-Is-dns^s. —ben^dcncu*, 
-frsh'-.98. Active goodness,kindnes8,charit]r. 

Beneficent, -dnt, a. = ben^''cient*, 38. Doing 
good; kind; charitable. B.,beneficenttjf,ndM, 

Beneificial, bSn-«-fIsh'-'41, a. 27, 28. Confer- 
ring bttiefit; advantageous; receiving or 
entitled to use or benefit H., beneJC'cially, 
43, ad. ; ben^^daineu, s. 91. 

Beneficiary, bdn-e-ftoh'-rdr-e, s. 9. One who 
holds a benefice ; a sub-holder ; one who 
rt'ceives a boiefit 

Benefit, b£n'-e-fXt, s. A kindness; a favour 
conferred; anything tending to the good 
of another ; a performance for the profit of 
an actor, or for char, purposes (thea.). 

Ben'efit, vt. To do good to :— vi. To jrain ; to 
Improve. H., ben'tfittny, p. ; ben'efited, pp. 

Beneoolenee, be-n^-o-ltas«, s. The natural 
disposition to do good ; the good done; the 
chari^ given. 

BeftetfoienLjlSiQt, a. Of or disposed to benev- 
olenoe. H., hMeifolently, ad.; benet^olent- 
nesti, s. 91. 

Bciiffol, b£n-gi^r,'S. 8. A thin fabri^ of silk 
nnd hmi.—Ben'gal-lifiht, is a firework used 
for signals i—Ben'aal-str^s, a cotton doth. 

Ben0aUc,\ang-tf!i'W, M. The laog. ofBcnglO.. 
Bemlcec -USz^, s., sing, and pU A native 

of BengaL 
Benighted, be-nltf'-M, pp., a. 80. Overtaken 

by night; involved in darkness, ignoraaee^ 

or superstitlona 
Benign, be-nln«', a. 80. Exerting a salntan 

Influence. H., benignlly, 48, ad«; b en igK- 

neu\, s. 91. 
Benignant, be^g'-nAnt, a. Kind; graeiooa^ 

benign. H., benigfnamUy, 48, ad. ; hmniff^ 

nity, s. 91. 
Benicon*, bSn'-e-sn, a. 17. Benediction. 
Bei^jamiih bdn'-jd-min, s. Bensein* 
Bemut, b£n'-^s. The herb avens. 
Bent, bent, a. Crookedness: ourvature; deeli- 

vl^ ; Mas, tendency, inclination; fixed par- 
pose: a kind of gnsa. H.,5cn<,a.90. See JBemi. 
Betmmb, be-nfim , yt. To numb (q. ▼.). 
JBsnaoate, bfin'-xo4lt«, s. Asaltof Dsnaoioaeid. 
Hcnsote^ -isd'-Ik, a. Of or firom bensoin. " 

benao'ic add, 91. [firagrant rt 

.Bansom, ben-zO'-4n, -zoyn', a. = &«fi'>inNM. A 
Ben'xole, -xSie, s. = ben'zine, -sin. 58. Tike 

lighter and more vol portion of ooal-ter oiL 
Bet^zyU,-tn,B, = baa<^yU,-n; benfmU*,». 

Theassumed radical of tne beni^l-comp ouHde* 
.B«9ueaa,be-kwethe',vt.88. To leave by wiU; 

to hand down to posterity. IL, beq ueat h ' im g , 

p.; bequeatheiPt'fip.; beqtuath'eriw >•; ^ 

queath^mcnt*, s. 89. [a legacy. 

Bequett, be-kwM', a. Something beoueatbed; 
Berbcrine, b&r'-WSr-In, s. 68. A yellow sabs. 

in the barberry shrub. 
Bere, \&rc, s. A var. of barley. (Scot) 
ITereaoe, be-rfiv^»vt To strip, deprive, make 

destitute (foU hj of), H., bereaving, p. ; 

bereaced or berejft!, urt and pp. ; bereaoer^ 

s. ; bcreawlmeni, s. 89. 
Berg*, b6rg, s. A boibugh ; a castle. 
Jl^amo^ bfirg'-d-mttt, s. A flmit : an e s s e n ce 

or perfume. [of the Derbysnire mineta. 

2)0»yvMutor, b&rg'-mds-t^, s. The chief oOoer 
Bergmote, bdrg'-mdtf, s. A miner's court 
BerUn,\i6t'-Un, -Un'— Wa., s. A kind of chariot. 
Berried, b^-rid, a. 36. Having berries. 
Beny, Mr'-re, a. 36. Any small firolt oont 

naked seeds or stones; amoand*. H.,5sKrw- 

bearing, ber^ry-formed, ber'ry-Wce, fte., a. Ml 
.90r^ bfirt, pfk., atx. Brtj^t (Sax.) 
Berth,hfirlii,%. 37. A ship^s station at anchor; 

a room, or a sleeping-place in a ship ; a olaoe 

of profit or employmentt . [ish coumr. 

i?«m,ber'-rn, s. 36. A precious stone of a green- 
Be/ymae, -In, -In«— K., S., a. Like the beryL 
BeryfUum, -yfim, s. 45. Gludnum. 
jBewfdi, be-sSdu', vt Teaskor pray with «r- 

gency ; to entreat or implore. H., beeeeeking^ 

p., a.: beeought, -%SSk%, prt and pp.; he- 

eeeoKer, s.; fressM^'msn^f, s. 89. Tad. 9L 
Beseeeh'ing, -Ing, a. (v. v.) H., beseech'iitflff 
Beeeem. be-s6m^, vt. To become ; to befit 
Beueming, -Ing, p., a. = beseem ly*; a. Fife . 

for; becoming. H., beeeem'imgly, 48, ad.; 

beteem'ingneeif*, s. 91. 
Beset, be-sef , rt To set upon ; to surround { 

fig., to perplex, entangle, habitually attend. 

H., besettina, p., a. ; bes^, prt and pp. 89. , 
Beside, be-sW, ad. = besides, -sidtfz'. Hoz^ 

over ; distinct ih)m ; more than that 
Besidif,m. = besides^*. At the aide of; near; OT«r 

and above; s^arate; distinct from; «>ut<nl. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ifeMBg roo^ ar pnw upon. H., ien^'itif, 

mmr, B.9. Sw&yr. Iberie^tmify, ad. 91 . 

■^ -fef; a. Of or l&e a ttege. IL, 

, br-sAB, s. 17. Abroonaftwigt. 

be^Sr-U, pip., a. liad« mttiBh; 

iateaated. H., heaotfedhf, 4S, ad. ; 

^a»L (ad. 91. 

ir« ^ -1^. P^ «u (▼. ▼■ ) n^h€$otfinglj^, 
^■ni|^H « pp. Sgc .SOMCon. 

I, be-ipSLr , & A plar beapokea. (tliea.) 
r, vt. lb ncak ftkr, order, engafe, or 
a&c: >i ill f hand : to forebode; to abcrw; 
to letakies. H., faaneoirMf^, p. ; hetpOk/^ 
pt : ieqpofe', fav^T^ 18, PP ? ft«!P«*«-, 
. ^) ; (a) j5f«**V^89- , 
Ai^kM. a. n. The xaoat adraaeed, accurate^ 
^ oraeeDeBt. H^ fteariMS^, 8. 91. 
.M«l b fliebagftcst decree, ftc.(r. a.) 
^ A< I. The vcaaoeft in one's power ; the 
/ HiMKoidfa^nMr; the moatt. fThe eomp. 
tf lot (a., a&, a.), and the elUp. ezp. in 
ali^ii te oaed, ere muDeroaa.] 
iiiiM».beiiCdr,vt. ToproflL T^^he$tead\ 

«iittB#t. prtawipp. 
JM4 IMT-^il, biatf— K., a. 45. Of or 
■Itoatart: rcBSABaat to humanity. H., 
hir«a%.43, ad. ; hatia/ity, -ye-W-lt-c, a. 91. 
fcrJ?,Se.TC,TL». =ft<<r^<a<et. >6. To 
■tear act like a beaat. 
Jairfil^ a Ab oBimtaral erxme. (v. a.) 
A«ir, Vitfi", Tt. 15. To put Into brisk or 


aecorate, excellent, or adrantageoos, when 

two onl}' are ref. to, 65 :— «d. In a higher 

degree, or more excellent manner. 91. 
BetterX^ a. A anperlor (gen., in the pl). 
Better I, rt. To improve, advance, meliorate. 

H., betterinfflt p. ; bet fer edit pp. 
Between, be-twGn^, pr. In ihe intermediate 

apace; from one to another; belonging or 

rel. to two or more ; noting difference of 

one from another. 
BetuHxt*, be-twlksst', pr. 40. Between. 
Betfel, b6V-€U hCvl— S., s. = beifU. 13. A tool . 

a kind of square ; any alope or inclination 

not a right angle, (tech.) 
Bethel, vt. To cut to a bevel :— vl. To slant 

aa a bevel H., beifeling, p., a. ; beveht/, 

pp.. a. ; (a) IWe/tn^jsaid of hewing timber), 

hetelment (min.), a. 89. [between meals. 

Sever*, b§'-vCr, a. A drinkingf ; a light repa*t 
Beverage, bev'-^r-iy*, a. 45. Drink (ch. app. to 

agreeable liquors), [bly (of femalet> ; . 

Bevy, bdV-e, a. A dock of birds ; h., an asscui- 
BewaU, be-wftl/, vt. To lament or bemoan : 

— vi To ezpreaa grief. H., bewaifing, 

p.: oeycailetf, pp; Uwaiter*, s. ; bewail - 

able; 45, a. ; {ti)bewttiring, bewaiFnmU, a. 89. 
Bewaiiing, -Ing, p., a. (v. t.) H., hewait- 

wgly, ad. 91. [to avoid. 

Beware, be-wftr^, vl. To regard with caution ; 
Bewilder, be-wXl'-d6r, vt. To lose in mazes ; 

to perplex, eonftiae, puzzle, or lead astrav. 

H., bewifderment, s. 89. 
Bewildered, -ddrd, pp., a. Lost in mazes, 

&c. H., bewiTderedniss, a (v. t.) 91. 
BewUderinf, -d6r>lne, p., a. Confnaing. H., 

bewiydertngiy, ad. (v. v.) 91. 
.S«imtoAttbfr-wItGh',Tt.39. Towitoh,faioinate, 

charm. H., bewUeh'if%g, p. ; bewitched^, pp. ; 

bewitch' er*, s. ; bewiieh'meKt, a. 88. 
BewUch'ery, -£r-e, a. Fasdnatlon ; charm. 
Bewiteh'ing, -Ing, a. Having power to charm 

or faacinate. H., bewUcbfmgly, ad. : be- 

wUeA'ingnestX,»,9l. [town or distriat. (Tur. ) 
Bey, hBLM.ssbegcv begh, bO. 99. The gov. of u 
Bej^ma, be-y6nd', ad. At a distance; yonder. 
Beyond, pr. On the farther aide of; further 

lorward than ; out of reach ; remote ftom ; 

before ; above ; superior to. 
Bezel, bfisl. a. 13. The part of a ring which 

holda and faatena the stone. (Jew.) 
Bezoar, yS-iSxe, t. An antidote*; a chalky 

organic ocmeretion. 
Beaoardie, -zo- Jr'-dlk, a. Of or like bezoar. H ., 

(a) bezoat'die*, a. (med.) 91. 
Btsooff^tieal*, -tIk-U, a. AnUdotal. 
Bi-, Uf-k pfx. Two; twice; twofold; double. 

(L.) ita comp. are nnmerona. A few are 

given below :->for othera aee the prln. word. 
Biangulate, bi-ing'-a-Ult^, a. = bianfftdoue, 

-tie. 18. Having two angles. 
IKorlMf M/Mtf, a. 18. Double-Jointed. 
Bia^ br-Sa, a., ad. Sloping; croaawist. H., 

bfamuMi, a. 91. 
Biaa, a. The weight put on one aide of a 

bowl; inclination, tendency, disposition, 

prepoasessloD. prejudice. 
Bta$, vt Tb uicline to one aide ; to warp, 

nrepoaaesB, prdudioe. H., biasemg, p.; 

Biaxal,\ASSi^tiiO. Having two axes. 
2r»&t» bib, a. A cloth used for cleanliness in 
Ibedlng infiwto; a fish. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Sa^, tL To tipple. H., hOtVing, p. ; Vbhed, 
pp. : UWer, hWI^, §. 89. [dibikhxg. 

Btbainous, bi-lA'-ah'tla* a. 97. Addicted to 

2?i»a«i^,-M«'-Xtre,a. Love of drinidng. 

3ibia,Wif''jo,u. The wine-fty. 

£ibls, bru, B. 45. The book; app., the toI. 
cont. the holy s^riptiiree. 

SibliaU, bXb'-Ie-k&L a. Of or rel. to the 
bible. B^bafUcaav,^d.9l. 

JBiblioarapMe. -o-gr&f -Ik, a. = kibUograph'ieal. 
BeL to bibliofn^y. 

BibHoaraphv, -og'-rdkfe, a. literary history ; 
the knowMge of books, their dfcf. editions, 
fto. H., UJUblios^ri^her, i. 90. 

BihlioUiinf,-<a^'4rttt,B. Book-worship. 

SibUomaneyf UCb'-le-o-mAn-se, s. DiTlnatlon 
by the bible. 

MUittomtmia, -mSn^-y'dL s. 4S. Book-madnees ; 
the rage Cor possesamg rare and corioos 
workib H., (aj bibUomOnfiae, e. 90. 

JMofMfie, -pQ/-Ik. a. Bel. to book-Unding. 

Sa^Mdlitt, -ttp'-o-Ust, a. = bOfUopnl^. 

SibUothMt^[ bCb-le-o-thr-kat, 
BaUotMeJ^.-^kSUn. BeL to a library. 
J»lM)aseaiy»,-fi&'.e-k&n-e.a.26. AUbrazian. 
B(bUiL W/^lSMt, 8. = WHeiit, One Teraed 

in ubUcal learning ; one who makes soclp. 

the sole role of fUth. 
Pihftow. bXbr-ll-lfls, a. la. Spongy. 
BiaafTnuar, a. Haying two seed-capeoles to 

eaeh flower, (bot) 
Bieof^honatef s. A salt having 9 emiiT. of 

carbonic and to 1 eq. of buB.—BwupMate, 

bitm'iratt, fte.. are sim. eonstitnted. 
Biee. hlu, s. A Une or green pigment. 
Bieephalom, U-efif -d-lSe, a. s hUif^Uai, 

^p'-: Mm/«toiii^45. Donblfr-heeded. 
BiekiTt oO^-er, yl To skirmish* ; to contend 
"^ • • * 'o shake 





.; to pro- 

e. Wliotheke*. 

pose; to ofiBonspiiM. d., bUdrng, p. : bid 

or ftokc, bftd. prt ; fruit MM^M. pp. ; fiirsr, 

a.; (a)ftS?ffV,s.89. 
Bidal^,lHdt-ile^B. An inviUtion to drink at 

a poor man's honse, end there to oontzib. 
Bid^,hjat,n^rl Toabide. [charity. 

BidmgaL%.=xlridmlfmU, Two-toothed. 
JMttUd-ttr,be-dft',s.99. Asmallhoiee; an 

artlele of bedroom ftamitnre. 
BUrmUdt bi-«n'-y'IU« a. Ooc once in, or last- 

JBmt, b8r«,s. Afirameor carriage to lM»r the 
BUr'-iaUe^t -^b&uik, a. The ehureh-read for 

bmrials. [from a eow sfter calving, (agr.) 
Smtinai. b&str-Ings, s. pi. The first milk 
BM'cuu, a. 98w Having two like fusee. 
JMiiHoiiiL-ar/-e-fls,a. TwoA>ld. [jeer. 
IwivviM, W-Ar-tb, a. Beering flroit twiee a 
jBdKUf'-In^s. A baked i9pb, flattened by 

.B^M, -Id, a. = friTutotel. deft in two. (bot.) 


BMsrotit, bi-flS'-rfis, a. Bearing two flowersi 

Btfiir'eattd, a. = b^^eoua, -kOs. Forked ; 
having two heeds. [brandies, (bot.) 

BifUrceftioH, s. 36. A forking, or having two 

Btffl, big. a. Lit, swelled oat; great in bidk, 
ain mien, or spirit; pregnant; distended, 
inflated : fkill, fraogfat (inlat. senses ftL b^ 
with), k^WhfU^^i ii^n^,^9l. (It 
hss num. comp. ; nearly all of which are 

B^, s. A var. of barley. [either I or t.) 

Bt^amii<, Mg'-d-mXst, s. One goilty of bigamy. 

Btffomy^ -me, s. Ttib crime of naving two 
wives or hnsbands at a time. 

B^oroofi, Ug-d-rOQn', s. A var. of cherry. 

Btggin. bXg'-In, s. A child's c^ ; a can or 
small wooden vessel. 

J9^JU, blt«, s. 80. A bend, or small bay, between 
two heedlands ; a ooU of rope (nant). 

Biaot, big'-flt, s. 17. One obetinately and 
blindly devoted to a pertioolar ereed, perty, 
or opinion. H., bigotry (blind seal), s. 90. 

Bigoted, -fit-U, a. = bi^ot*. Irradflnally 
zealons. H., U^oUdlyt 43, ad. 91. 

^(fbtt, b6-sh59', M'-ahiRi— 8., s. 99. (pL, M- 
ima^.) Atrlnket; ajeweL (Fr.) 

BuVm<«ritf,-shQ&tr-re, s. Jewelry; trinkets. (Fr.) 

BWbiaU,%. HavingtwoUps. 

BiXanitr. bll'-in-dfir, s. A Dntdi coaster, or 

JOorsrola. Hav. two sides. 

BiBmryjmAAt-%,%. Thewh> 

Bilfro, ui'-bo, s. A rniier, etig. fjrom 1 

iNT&oef, -bfias, s. pi. uonstodbsndshaeklea 
for the fset (nant) 

BiOootM^ ba'-bo-lOl, B. 99. AeapandbaU. 

Biht DIU, s. The flnid secreted by the liver; 
gall; fig., iU-hnmoor. H., ftOf'Aic^, Mis'- 
stofis^ 6a,, s. ; b%Uf-lik», a. 90. 

~" UQ), s.t9. Thebolgingpartofaeaeks 
breadth of a ship's bottom. H., bU^ 
mmpt bilgf -water, &., s. 90. 

Btlfft, vL To soffer fractnre in the bOge ; to 
spring a leak. H., bUgetf, pp., a. 89. 

B»iSaar,bXl'-y«r^a.9S. Of or rd. to the bflft. 

BiUnTfual, a. s biUnfguar, In two langnagea. 

Bilitif^fwmi, -fwfls, a. Speakingtwo tongnse. 

BOioM, bn'-ytts, a. 4«. Cansed byi oonsisttaig 
of; or bar. excess of bfle. H., bU'ioumuau 

SiUtftroLu, Of two letters. [s. (med.) 91. 

jat«, Ulk, vt To cheat, deceive, frnatnte^ 
ordtappolnt IL, MOft (a cheat, 4to.), s. 89. 

BiU. bO, s. The besk of a bird ; a hatdket 
with a hooked point; an aeoonat of moaey, 
or of goods sold ; a printed advertiseaMnt 
or pkieard; a declvatlon, in writiaft of 
some Italt or vrrong (legO ; a fonn or mtb 
of law (parL).— Bttf qf Jbreham^B, an order 
reqnestag snother to pay money, and ac- 
cepted by him :—biU offarw, a list of art of 
food ready or fit for table;— Mtf </ htmUk, 
a certif. of the health of a ship's orew;-* 
biU tff ladiiiff, sn aoeonnt of goods shipped; 
—Mtf o/mortotf<y, the oir. return of deatiis ; 
—bill ofrigKUj a summary of the rl^ts and 
priv. claimed by a people i—biUatidBtr, one 
who posts plaeards, Ac. SeeBeidk. 

Bia,bU,vL To caress fondly. 

BOK bir-et & AsmaUnote; aticketfi. 
reettng soldiers where to lodge; a berth «r 
pkeel; asssalllogofwood. 

BOTs^vt Tb quarter soldkrs. U^biXktmg^ 

A hrre-letter. 

p.; Mr2ete2,pp.89. 
Bmetrdowe, ba^yaniS^, s. 99. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


-with two bua and a eo* or maoe, on akvge 
tmtMOgaStt table, ftirnlabed with poeketa. 

JWIf fcijaiwHi, MT-laga^glt^, a. ro«l language. 

iKIIm^Ur-Tlin, a. 17. A mflUon mffliona. 

.BiZZM»,Mr-At,a. Bollkm. [»«itm,a.90. 

Jimtm, lOr-o, a. A gnat mcf, H., MTIoio- 

Mtitm, tL 1\» iwell and rod, aa wmvea. K, 
KrXMDAiy, p. ; MTIami, pp. 

.SCrtov, -o-Op a. SwelUng with UUowa. 

JNhkJi\g^lSbd,m.BhkrlaU. Ihtwotobea. 

.BBai«lflr,-VSh:'-(k-Utr,a.lft,S5. Hav. two eella. 

^* ; -aiir-attB» a. HaTing two banda. 

bte'-«|], a. Oo& onee m two BMMiClia. 
,9. A wooden tax or eheat, nacd for 
peom, wine, ftc; aeompartoMnt in 

Mi->pAL DooUe; bytwoa; oftwo. (L.) 

JfmmMf tf-nd-re, a. Iff. Gaaa.of two parte; 

. dML H^ (•) VMry, a. 91. 

JPaote, -nlt^ a. Qrowing in pairs ; donble. 

JHMLMlBd,a. neatemoftbebop. 
» BImm, n. To foeten together ; to oonflne with 
banda: to netrain ; to oblige bf a^wktlon 
or een ; to eonpel to aerre by oontraot : to 
aew on a border ; to render bud or eoetrve : 
—^ Tb eontraet together; to harden; to 
be obUflntory. H., MMTlNf , p. ; ftewid, 
Unrmi, prt ; hommd, kmuFmf, pp. ; Under, 



(flighty, inattenttre), *e.. a. 90. 
^irri, bted, n. 16. To catch birda. 
iNnr«r«,4r,a.=:»tfYrMMm*. Abftrd-aataher. 
Birdim^,Jla^,%. Fowling. [birda. 

Sinf^iffM^ a. A ^tinona aoba. naed to eateh 
^irrfaKyf, berdz'-K, a. Seen from above ; aeen 

at a glance. H., hirMtyt wkm^ a. 91. 
Birdi§M, a. A Tar. of cut tobacco; a plant. 
Birgamder, MrT-ind-fr, a. A var. of wild- 
JNTB^Arota, bi-» a. Doable-beaked. [gooee. 
JNr^A, bMt, a. U, 91. Tbe act of coming into 

life; lineage, funilj, rank by descent; the 

coadttSon m which one ia bom; the thinjir 

produced; origin: beginning. H., hirth'^ 

riaht, birtkpimee, birWtomfiko^ a. 90. 
JMriMay, blrth'-d&, a The day on whic h ona 

ia born, and its anniversary aflerwarda. 
.Krtt'dbm*, -dOm, a. 17. PriTilegeorbirth. 
BirUfrigkt, 'trte, M. Tbe righta to which man 
Jirtik'«N»rf,-wtirt,8.3S.Acertplant [iabom. 
J<ie»tlm,btar-ko-tIn,a. Aapeeleaorconfwtion. 
JJieiii<,bIa'-kIt,B. = K/ft«<*,-kIt Acakeof 

nuleavened bread, baked bard for keepinir; 

earthenware, d»^partlybaked,preDaratory to 

glaiing; avar. of miglaaed porselaln (aeolpj. 
^iMC^ bl-e&tr, Tt To oat into two parte. H., 

fruecrwy.p.; bmefed^po.; hi$e&tion,W,».9», 
.Btsa^sMMi, a. Theexaetbalf of aline. 
BieK^wU, a. = Nmt'mom, KMx'oai*, 4ft. Of 

both aexes : taermapbrodito. (bot) 
Bi$kop, blar-dp, s. 17. Lit., an orerseer; 

the clerical head of a d i ocese ; a spedee of 

puncbf. H., biih'opiUMt hiih'oply, &o., a. 90. 
Buh'opi, Tt TO cenlirm; to make an oM 

horse look yoaag (fbr.}. 

ish'oprie, -ru, s. = hitAc pd tm^. A i 

the office and Jarisdietlon ofa Uabop. [n 
BUk, blak, s. Soap made from a mix. of Tar. 
BUimah, W-mftth, a. A hard, brittle, red- 

diah-whlto metal [biam " 

Biifmuthai, -dl, a. = hitmrntVU. Of or i 
iK^sNctJUne, -la, a 58. A rare ore of biam 
INson, br-efin, biz'— S, a. A kind of wild-ox. 
Bisaexme, hlB^SIaf-m, a 40, 4ft. Leap-year. 

Distort, bbT-tort, a 99. Snakeweed. 
2»tto«ify,bIs'-t0O-re,-tar— SnS. Asarg.lnatr. 

for making jncisintis. [from wood-eoot. 

Bi^n,\M-UT,B.67. A brown pigment ir ' 
IKni/coiM, U-sOl'-kOa, a. Ooren-footad. 
Bimirpkuni, a. A salph. baring a 

propottSon of solphor. (ohem.) 
.Bi<;blt,a Theironmoathpiece of a brlAe; 

a Mto or morsel : a small piece of anytiiing; 

a boring tool k, Mftes^ Ac, a. 90. Sea 

Bite*. [Bite. 

Bit, n. To pot a bridle upon a horae. See 
BUehf bitch, a 99. The female of the dog, 

wolf, and fox; a word of reproaebf. 
Bite, hJU, a. A seLcnre by the teeth ; tbe 

woimd so made; a bit or morsel ; a mooth- 

ftal; a ebeat, trick, fraodt ; a sharper}. 
Bite, Yt To tear, emah, or aeise with the 

teeth ; to woond. ating, or pain; to hart 

by reproach ; to cheat or tricky. H., MTIaf, 
••' W* or bUtm, Mfn, pp.; 


p., a.; tit, nrt: M or 1 
Mfsr,a; (a) IVtiv, a 89. 
i^ng, bite'-ing, a. Sbarp, 


, sareastis; 

aTwrAif Jif, ad. (T. ▼.) 91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


MUter, bur-«c a. Tasting like wormivood; 
shAHs painftel, indemttnt; MroMtio, nitt- 
liciout, reproftohftil. H., biUtr/nt*, a. ; 
bitt^^, 43, ad. ; bUeemes*^ a. 91. 

Bitter^ a. A UUer plant, bark, or root.— 
BiUtr-MUtf is £pMm salt ;— WM'er-MOMf, 
woody nightshade;— Mf«npor/. gentian. 

Bitt:eri$h, -Ish* a. Somewhat bitter. H., 
MreruAnm, s. 91. [of salt-works. 

Bittern, bif -dm, s. A bird ; the bitter liquor 

Bitttn, blt^-dnt, s. pi. A Uqaor rendered 
■tmnachio with bitter herbs. 

BkU, bitz, 8. pi. = hk». Two main timbers 
to which the cable is faatened. (naut.) 

Bitumen, bit-a'-mftn, s. 18. = hUtm^f. A 
name loosely aop. to varions inflammaMe 
mineral subs., oi which <unAaMiim, nmphtha, 
and petroleum, are the principal. 

at^wmal«|^-mln-&te, Tt. 18. = Ht^mmiit, 
-U^60. To impregnate with bitomen. H., 
bUuwnnatinp, p. ; hUvfminaUd^ pp., a. ; 
bitummim^iwn, 86. s. ; fto. 89. [men. 

IKfummiAeroiit, -If -«r-Qs, a. Producing bitu- 

J^'<t('mMON«,-mIn-<i8,a.46. Of, like, or cont 

Bhalve, bf-vUv, s. An animal having two 
valres, or a shrtl in two parts, lUu the 
oyster (sooL.) : or a eeed-Teseel of like liind 
(bot). H., Hvaive, bkaWular, Hvah'oue, 

Bivm'tral, a. Hav. two bellies. [waya. 

BMoHf, blT'-y'Oa, a. 37. Hat. or leading two 

Bioouae, blT-wflk, -SO-«k— 8^ s. The watch 
of a whole army ; said of an armed force 
OB march, or in exo. of an attack, remainliig 
all night (ontented) in the open air. 

Biifouac, Tt. To watch in biTonac, Ac. 

fftsarra, be-xJi^ a. 99. Odd; fimtastical; 
eactravagant (rr.) 

BiaH, bUb, B. A tatUer : a teU-tale. (▼. r.) 

Bka%, Yt. To ntter indiscreetly; to pnblish 
aeereta or trifles:— tL To tattle or tell 
tales. H.. hUM'ingi, p.; hkMed§, pp.; 
(a) WoW*n, a 89. 

.Bfacft, bUk, a. Devoid of light ; dark, doodj, 
dismal: wicked, horrible, atrocioos. H., 
hlad^uk, 8. ; blaeklf, 48, ad. ; hUuXneu, 8.91. 

Blaek, s. The darkest of coloors, or rather, 
the total destitution of eolonr ; a negro ; a 
particle of soott. The camp, of Madk (a., s.) 
are Tary numerous. See hehw. 

Biadt, ft To blacken. H., Uaek'mg, p.; 
hlaeked, pp.; (a) bhckmff, s. 89. 

Blaek-Qet,B. A statute which makes it fUony 
to amiear armed, with the fsoe blacked, or 

BUi€k^art*,B. OoiUuratioii. [disgnlsed. 

BlaeM-haU^yx, To reject, in Toting^lMUot. 

BlaeX-berr^, B, The firuit of the bramble. 

.MMir-Mrrf, 8. A species of thrush. 

Btaei^'koard, s. A large board used in 
schools, Ac, Ibr ocular instmetion. 

BlaeK-ho9k,t. AnoldbookoftheBzchsquer; 
a work on necromancy. 

BUKti-^ap,*. A bird: an apple highly roasted. 

Blaek-^attUf a. Bolls, ojun, and cows. 

.Btoeir-cMrfl, 8. Aelergyman. 

BImK-eoek, a. The haiSieoek; black-groosa. 

BUuk death, a. The Uaek plague. 

Blad^'dnp, a. A strong U<tiiid prep, d opium. 

BlaeV-JHir, s. A DeminleBB. 

Shai-Mi,B. Alcatbcraenp»;blende(min.). 

.BTodir^Mig -Ud, 8. nnmbaio. 



Blaek''leffer,s. TheoldEng.alphabetleebar 

H., Uaek-Mt^r, a. 90. 
Bla^-mail, -miie, n. Money formerly pale 

to robbers for protection; h., any impo»i 

or demand unfsurly levied or enforced. 
Black -pudima, s. Blood, thickened witt 

meal or grain. [ Garter, and of parliament 
Black -rod, s. The uaher of the order ot tb^ 
Black-sheep, s. An outcast; one marked A>i 
trsecntion ; a low or wicked person. 
ik-strap%, a. A coarse intox. liqaor. 
Black-thorn, 9, The sloe. [yellow feveii 

Btack-wmit,K One of the fatal attendante o 
Black-wadd, •wfid, s. An ore of mangsaaaiL i 
£la0ijir-«oo«&, 8. A lotion of calomel and liiasvi 
i9iadfcaMoor,bUk'-^m0Or,8. Anegro. [wvfeei* 
Blacken, bUk'n, vt. TO make btaok; ti 

darken, doud, or soil ; to sully or deftmrao 

— Ti. To grow black. H., blackmmg, n. 

blackened, pp., a. ; black ener, a. ; Im 

blackeminf, a. 89. 
l^/aotyMarrft, bUg'-gtfrd, a. Low; acnrrlloiLH 
Black guar dX,n. A low, abusiTC, illr-ccnd«et4N 
Blad/auardH^yi, Torerilcftc [feUow 
Blathmg, bUk^-Ing, s. A sabs, used to poU»| 

leath«; See Bla^ 
Blackleg, s. A common gambler ; a cheat. 
Black§mith,K An ironsmlth. 
Bladder, bUd'-ir, 8. A thin sac or bag ia aa 

animal ; appr., that for the urine ; a rmkfAc 

blister, or pustule. [into blMUM^ 

Bladd^ered, -«rd, pp., a. Swelled Uke^ or oqi 
.SlmWary, -«r-e, a. Like a bladder. 
Blade, JaOde, a. The leaf or apire of grawi« 

the sharp part of a weapon ; a gay, bold 

rakidi feUowf. 
Blade. yU To furnish with a blade. ». 

hUUPimg, p. ; bldd^ed, pp., a. 89. [shoulder 
Bladef-btme, s. The upper, flat bone of tkn 
Blade^mith, u, A swoiA-smith. 
BlaiH*. \tane, s. A pustule ; a eore. 
BImmMs, blamAftbl, a. 46. Faulty, colpabU^ 

censurable. H., 6^'a6/y, 48» ad. ;Mfo8' 

oMsncM, 8. 91. 
Blame, bl&mc, s. Impntation of a tisolt 

disapprobation, censure, reproach. H.; 

blame'M, blam^worihg,%,; Uim^fuimammA 

btam/worthhiees*, ftc, a. 90. 
Blaaie,rt. To And ikult with; to censure, nj 

btdm'mg, p. ; blamed, m., a. ; bldat^er, a. Sii 
Blame^leu, -Ite, a. Oniltiess ; innocent ; limltl 
H., blam^leaelg, 48, ad.; blamteTtamal 




^bUneh.bknieh— We.,Tt.9. Towki>^u| 
or decolour; to obliterate:— ri. To gco-vi 
white; to CTade*. H., blanckiag, p., i^i 

blanched, pp., a. ; bUmcheTf s. ; (a) bla$^M4m^ 

a. 89. [meaa. the power of Meanb WS 

Blanchimetcr*, 4m'*e-t6r, 8. An inatr. ftj 
Blanemanae, bio-mKnywhr', s. ssblnnti mama^Bl 

bl6n^^min^-ih8.99. Aconfeotedwhi8o|oa^ 
Bland, bUnd, a. Soft; mild; gentlo. fT 

blamdly, a, ad. ; bknutneee, s. 9L | 

Blandation\, -di'-shOn, s. Gross flattetx. 
^<aiuiMo7iMiMe*,-dll'-o-kwtes«,s. Flntt«rla^ 

Blandieh, blttnd'-Ish. Tt To softan : to «n««J 
or flatter. H., btandiehittf, p.: blan^4akaci 
pp. ; bland Uhcr, s. ; blondiehiagt hkmd^imH 

Blank,. bUngk, a. Toid, empty: firao fro,^ 
writing, stain, or mark; TaloMcsr' — ~ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



tit dii|6tt0d f pnrSi mtin, 

comptetet ; wiUxnit vkyine. H^ blankly^ 

ad.; M — rwm, %, 91. 
Mbmk,9. AiiyeiiiptyfpaMoriaiikM;alokor 

tidMtvichiratTalQe; a paper onwrtttm on. 

tw. a.) (HL. UojUTinf", p. ; hUmka^, pp. 
Jlifc% rt To aflhat, eonhie, dispirit, aaaoL 
JttnM»Ui]irkr-«t,t. A'irooUeiicoverfDrabed. 
Jitair^Tt. To toH in, or eoTer with a blaii- 

kst. H., Wmir«<My, p. ; hlmXtltd, pp. 
ffadri<Hv»-Iii«^a. Ootiiforblnketa. 
J h w ffl fl, Uiiy-kflr, a. A pear; a rar. of 

Bfarctk Mire, a. s M*/iMf|. Boar; mise; 
Mm^yiL TabcUov; to flare or AMlt awvr*. 
JBlMMyt. UA'-^u, a. SanwO^ daecitftd talk. 
Jtoy*iw>,blia4Bm^^,vt.9.ToBpeak impjooriy 
«rGod:~TL To utter blaaphem/ ; toearae 
H^ hiaapkimfing, p. ; 

^•«A«ai^«rf)i,pp.'; bkuMmfarj 
Bti^pktmmu, -Ib-mila^a. CoDt. ttla 


JMiifplfcfliy, -me, •. Gontempk or indlgiiity 
cflBred to God ; proftme language. (▼. t.) 

J»m$L bUM, kUrt-K, We., s. 9. A ffiut or 
mik of irind : a fiireibla eorreat of ur ; the 
aovBd of a vmd inetr. ; any pemidoua or 
deftr.laflaeBee ;ittliDeticmoCpeatllflnoe,bUght, 
mUdev; an expk»laD of annpovdcr, to. 

£i0tig wL To eauae to winer by pemieioQa 
iaiaanee; to bilcht; to aflbetwith sodden 
iloieneeor catamity ; to oonfoand or destroy ; 
to strike with saddem disnmtioii or explo- 
sion. H.» Uosfma, p^ a.; MuTed, pp., a. ; 
Mmtftr*,WL ; klaaCm§tfia$tmeniU s.(r. s.) 89. 
'" -in^, S.9. The disn^don of roeks, 


BlmUm% blitr-fir. tL Tb make a i 

nolsa. H^ Uflflara'fMmt. S«, s. 89. 
may, bli, s. A bbmU river-fish. 
Blmt^\MMe,B. The stream of light and heat 

from a bnrniBgbody; flame ; a whUe, Uaxe- 

like mark. (r. ▼.) 
Biaae, rt, Tbiaflama; to poUish widely; to 

est a widta mark on :— yL Toflameoremit 

Si^smf, -iDg, a. (T.T.) H., hUb^mgljf*t td. 91. 

JlaiMB, faUT-an, a. = hki^aoiuy, -zn-re. H. 
flMtioal haraldry. (r. ▼.) 

BItfmn, tL To dseoribe, in proper terms, the 
l^prea* to., on ensigns armonal ; to dedc, 
eiafceTWih, adorn; to display; to publish 
wididy. H., hUwmmg, -zn-, p. ; bla^mmedt 


Bkar%, ft To make sore, to. H., lUaredX, 
yp^ a. ; hl^ar'tdnettt, s. (▼. a.) 89. 

BUiu^ }Mie, s. The cry of a sheep. 

BUat, Ti. To ory as a sheca H., hUaffmg, 
p. ; MMfmi, pp. ; (a) bUai^, s. 89. 
I, blSb, s. A IHUe resiele or tomoor. H., 

'yt. -e, a. 90. 

3U§d, bWdtf, Tt To draw blood :— rl. To 

looee, run, or drop like blood: todie br Tio- 

lenee or slaughter ; to issue hnth, as blood 

or sap from a wound. H., hUnPina. p., i 
hled^ prt. and pp. : hUetter, s. ; (a) oteti^w 
s. 89. {Bhod^ed, for bled, is somet. heard!) 


Bletd^mff. -fng, s. Hamorrhage ; Tenesection. 

Blemitht bltei'-lsb, s. Any mark, sear, or de- 
feet, that dimintohcs beauty : discredit ; re- 
proaeh ; taint. H., Umi'itJUnt, to., a. 90. 

BUm'ish, rt. To mark with a blemish; to 
lessen beauty ; to tarnish, sully, deflone. H., 
bUmfiMngt p. ; bUm'taked, pp. ; bitm'uher, 
s. ; bUm'iahabie, a. ; bUm'ukment*, s. 89. 

Bknehi, Ufoch, s. = bUMh'itu*, A start ; a 
shrinking back. H., (to) bUnehf, tI. 89. 

Bfeful, bltad. Tt. To mingle together; to eon- 
found :— tL To be mixed or united. H., 
MffuTtn^, p. ; biendftd or blent^, pp. ; 
MsiuTsr, s. ; (a) bUndri$tf, s. 89. 

JMmd'HMrf «r, s. A disease among eattle. 

£toui«, blted, 8. Natfresnlphuretofxine. 

Blm^oui, -Os, a. 46. Belating to blende. 

BlmnorrkefOt bMn-^hr-rS'-a, a. 81. A i 
discharge of muous. 

Bteimf^ Mfin'-e, s. The name of sev. small flsh. 

Bie99t bifis, Tt To make, or esteem, happy ; to 
eonseerate by prayer; to praise or glorify. H., 

BleM^edf -U, a. Hi4;>py ; prospercNis ; enjoying 
or relating to spiritual felicity. H., btenf" 
edly, 48, ad. ; bUn^ediutB, s. ; (the) ble$^ed 
or bIsatU a pi. (▼. ▼.) 91. 

BUu^htf, -Ing, s. BenedietioB : a prayer for 
happiness to another; happmeas; dirine 
favour ; gift, benefit, adrantage. (t. v.) 

BleUmiit, blS'-tfin-Ist. s. 17. One who pretends 
to possess the fkoulty of pereeiving subter- 
raneous springs, to., by seasatioD. H., blf- 
toniawu-Um, s. 90. [horse. 

BUifmti blSme, s. An Inflam. in the foot of a 

BUahtt bUte, s. 80-1. A diseaee Inddent to 
plants ; ndldew; anythingnipplngor Masting. 

BHffkt, Yt. To affect with blight : to prevent 
fertility or retard growth; to blast or frus> 
trate. H., bUahtflng, p., a. ; bUgMedt pp., 
a. : (a) bHaMing, s. 89. 

BUoMmft -bg, a. (V. v.) H., bUghtringfy, ad. 91. 

Btutd, bund, a. Without the sense of sight ; 
without disoemment or Judgment ; ignor- 
ant ; unseen ; prlvste, dark, obscure : heed- 
less, inconsiderate, reckless. H., brnd^fy, 
48, ad. ; Uinttnesa, s. 91. 

Blind, s. Something to obsonre tiie light, or to 
mislead the eye or understanding ; a screen 
or shade. 

BUnd, vt. To deprive of sight: to darken, 
obscure, deceive. H., btrnd^m^t p., a.; 
bUruPedf pp., a. 89. [thooghtlees ; reoklees. 

BlmdflokL bllnd'-fSld, a. Hav. the eyea covered : 

Blind'fold, vt. TO cover the eyes ; to mislead 
or deceive, (v.s.) 

Blmd'man*9-bitff -mfoz-bttf, s. A play or sport 

BiiMtfne$$t -nfis, s. Want of bodUy sight, or 
mental discenuDent. (v. a.) 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1^ 1illB«i, «. «L <M«iorbnMkM.Mt 
up to d«lNkd wwUnrfMllM. (BlLTlftttle. 
Blmut$id0t, & Th« wMk rid*; vmJomw; 

irMnJkt.Tt Toavoidor«T»d*:-ii.T«vtek: 
to M0 okMonlf ; to gue with th* •yas half 
«loMd. H^Miidk'ifi^ttP^ft.; MMMttpp.; 
MMk'Ml. t. M. (badvvM. 

5iM^«nl|,-aHUa.S». OMvhoUlaktwVtf 

wBMiik'«f^-inifc»L 8id»-UiMl» for a bone's 

91m, not, fl> UBAUmd hinptim; blMMd- 
mh; bMtitnda. hLm^AmTac^ a.Mi 

JMte'M -Iff)!, a. SL lUlofbUH. R^httmf" 
/WV, 4S, ad. ; AMMyWiutf, a. 91. 

m^ir, bUt'-tir, a. ▲ variola or bladdar on 
the ridB oont vaitry mattar ; a Torii i a tgry 
oraninaotia; tha loalao on ataaL 

BU^UTtWU TaralaaMiatara:-*vi.TV>rlaain 


BWiiry,-9,9u FoUafbUriara. [pp.e». 

£Ut«, wUf a. ▲ apaaias of amaranth; a 

nmia of blaniL 
^l^bm£«,a.ia. OaT;o|yriabt]7;MirtbftiL 

JWa«'«NiM, -riUn, a. 17. BUtba. H^bUth€^' 

mmtelfft 4S, ad. ; hUik/m mt me m, a. 9L 
32Mnt, bl<M<, n. ToawaUormakativgld; to 

Inllato or puff np: to biota :*tL To frow 

tarfid;todUato. lL,U0tttfiiu,^;U<mt*d, 

Jjloafaimm, -M>naa, a. TorgidBiai; Borbid 
dilation; pnflaoai; obaritj. (t.t.) 

31oUirf , bUi^STa. Abobba. H., Mf6*'<r- 
ttMiJk (tbiak-Uppad), a. M. 

bSKSljuu,*. AWb. 

^M^bltt,t.lT. AbaarjplMaoftimberor 
~ any matar body: tha irood on wbieh 

erininala ara 

orbindwanoat a blookbaad ; aoolid woodan 
monld; a pnllay (oast) : a eontiiiiiona row 
of boUdiog* Umar.). H., blockith, btoel^' 

Bioekf-wt. To aloaa or riiat apt toobotmet 

Biock, Tt. To aloaa or riiat apt 

H.. Mool^M^, p.; hhdud, pp. (timbar. 

BiA-htmrn, a. A fort eonatr. ^iafly of 
Bloeie-H^u, Pvab vnwrootbt tin; thioiE, 

Blodtadt, bltfk-kid«', a. Buroondinff^ or 
abutting np a plaoa with boriila riiipa or 
troopa. (mil) 

Blodtad^r, Tt. Tb aat or maintain bloekadci 
H., biocUdfM p.; hhekd^§d, pp. (r.a.) 

Bhekkmd,h^'i£(L»,$l. A stopid fallow. 

Bloel^i9k*,'Utu aTl^aU; otopid. H., blod^- 
isUv*. 9i&.iihekfi$htu$^, a. 91. 

J»cmdl<bUind,bl0n^a 89. Afairwonum; 
rilk or 6<on«-teMr (Fr.) 

Btoodf blOd, •. Tho elrcalating ftiid of ani- 
mala; kindrad, oooaangninity ; bonoorabla 
birth or axtraetion ; mvdar, Woodritad; 
tamparamant ; a panon of hot ipiritf ; tha 
ioiea of anythingt. H., Uoo^-^oUmred, 
M»Mr-«Ml (radTInflamad, targid), UmmT- 
ti, l^hodf-iMrtty (omal), fto., a.:- 
(baptiim by martyrdom), 
(crima of thadding blood), 
-JUw^ope ihU brad), UooS'-root (a 

of thadding 
, MOOS'' 
- „ )f Ufa), 

atomo (an om. atoaa}, hloot t oid ttr t (a 
\), MPMf-aMtf/ (a Tain 


of Ufa), htood'- 

leeeh; a omal man), 

«r arlNT). Mm#.4pM (n «M. . 
nmrdar),Woa#«MMl (logwaod), fta.,«e.,a. i 
lood,Tt. To atain with blaod; to innre 
btoad; toblaad*; toasanarataf:— Ti. 1 
bafbUof blood. B., WoMfSif*, pu ; MnnT* 

JMSS3'M*,lld.a. FnUofMoadiBMidaMa^ri 
Blood^Un, -Ua, a. DanHd of Iteodj wilted 

loM of Hilt; inaattfOb Uttitm* hI, MaM 

^fooM», bUkf-IM, Tt. ToUaad. H.,NaM 

^ioMiy,bld7-a,a. Stalnad with bload( ohm 
mnnianMa. H^ Moo#<ly, 4S, ad. ; Maari 
fiaia, a. 9L (n baa many aoan., all 
wfataharaailharfort.) Md,pp..4te.l 

£<oa#y.Tt. Tbatoiawl^ blood. H.,MMiii^ 

.0iooa^blOSaii,a. Abloaiomorflowar; tbaato 
of btoMomlng; flg., tha atato of yotath, Hi 
beanty,andTtfonr; thablnaaoloarorphD 
an nawly gatbarad frnlt. H., hloomfw, a. fl 

Bktom, Tt To pot fttrtb blo«oma>-TL 1 
ftowar ; to ba in a itato of yonth, baant^, ai 

IT . , h lo om ' m §, p., a. ; h U omt d, pp.C 
^loMMTV, Uinm'-A-ra, a. 99. TbairatlWi 
_tliroagn wbirii iron pmei.^ (taob.) 

jaa* B*f wtootKrw^^i^ff afl. ; avoMN^HMviMti 

^Miaai'ytt-^ ft* (▼•«•) H^ Maoai'tiy*, at. « 

JloMoas UBir.«BB, a. 17. Tba flower or aerol 
ofaplant. H., Maia'oailtsi^ Maia'oaiyt* a. S 

Jf ao if aaiyTi To pat fbrth flowan; to floark 
or pnopar. H., Moai^oarin#, p. ; Meai'oflM! 
-amd,pp.; (a)ltoi >^ oa d» y,a.89. 

BlH^W^u AopotorriaintanobUtantloi 
a diagraoa, rasroaeh, bkmiih. "H^hioU 
fte^a. (t.t.)M. 

JUe^LTt Tbapotarbaopattar; toobtttora 
with ink : flg., to aflbaa, anoa, or inrolra 
obUTion (foL by a«t) ; todaatroy ; to napan 
to drikma. H., hUtfimf. p., a.; Ue<r« 
pp. : UotTer, a.; (a) Uott^bM, a. 99. 

^MoA, bldtoh, a. 29. A pnatnla or spot on tl 
ddn. HM^'oteA'y, a. 90. 

^Mdk^,Tt Toipotorblaokan. H., MaCd 
ia^, p. : MotdUiL pp., a. 89. 

BloUif biota, Tt To oora or dry bf amot 
atp. app.tofirii. H., MffTMat, p. ; MfTc 
pp., a. 99. [uotcd henrix 

Btotor, blO'-t£r, a. (freq. qn, Hootor.) 

B<ottir, blOf-ar, a. A waata-book. (t. t.) 

BUnm, Miinut a. 99. •> WowMf, btownus. 
amook-froek ; a looae firook-ooat aanda 
tome Ught material. (Fr.) 

BUnD^ bl6, a. A atroke; tha etroke of deat 
an aot of hoetiUty; a radden oalamity; 
flower or blowomt ; a flTblow* ; ontdc 
ezereiaat t a gala of wind (nant). 

Blowt Tt To throw a oorrent <d air vnpon ; 
driTo, impri, inHame, or aoimd by the wt 
or brmth ; to breatM upon ; to spread 
reportf; to deporit eggs, as flies; to ma 
stalet ; to form melted glass into abai 
with tha breath ; to pat ont of brantbt : 
Ti. To prodnoa a draught of air ; to pai 
pair, or breathe hard or quieklT: to bli 
aomt. H., hlomfimm, p. ; aine, bl*9Qu pri 
hlown, blte«, pp. ; H^tr (agent or ixitat 
a. ; (a) hUufmg^ s. 89. (Uc 

Bh^-^iUj s, Ae downy head of tha danc 

Blotcf-Jljf, s. The oarrion fly. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


WMt, fc AsfaMlr. lordifviarAOTTTCnt 
of att UttOQgk die flasM of a endle or iHDp. 
Bfa««'<iMi<s.Ap)B7olohiUUMod. [(dMM.) 
Jfa i w i^ , biy-^ a. = kh m ' m ^ A prottitote. 
£imi^m; 'ir, a, Atin^iMttar; aplaieof toon 

toteerM8ettedni«gkt«raehiBUMT. (t.t.) 

JWiMi W^ Mo wi^ a ML 


fkt of vteks end otiber lano ten 

tn^z^vL To weep m as Ae. 

fl^M* vl : •wop'icwaL pp^ s ompo crcr* a 8P. 
Jlid^Mw, Uttd'-fttB, a. i7. A aikort aClok 

loMod, or hMi^aat* al oaoaad ; a tnuMkaon. 
BhM^WQ&.a.l& BaaiMbllnf Woo; d^eeted. 

H^ Ma/**, od.; MofMa, a. n. 
Stmt, n One af ttio prim, aoloora; axwt. 

H^ Mw>*, Uv'M, a. M. 
mmtU^ To ^ or colour litoa. H^hh^kig^, 

p. ; himtiu VPn ^ W> ABOof oUiar eovip. 

of Mm (a., a.), ara hk t^ -ioimH (a plant), 

Uii^-Mk (ono oooL an o£ raCnm or raport), 

H n / littl r (a plaat; a hkrw4kj; a poUeo- 
4), hk/tinrntl or MM'-Ormil (a Mrd), 
" ' ' afiak),M«i^.^««f|, 


-otip(awnaii —■!■.« •■■■■ !•»•«»•'««< 
-Tls (tho ^UnM*), Mm^-;^oAm, jte (floor aaar, 
-ML). hk^-HalU (a atgnal roeket). »W- 
0iter (a amaU flag naod aa a aifnal lor aall- 
1^r)» \lm^ tfrkim^ (a Utcrarylad^), Mm'- 
- Un^-oO^iial (crade anlpbate of 

bUiLa. Biff;aariT;binatariaf: 
U^fa, 48» ad.; M^imw, a. 91. 

a. A li^bli, ataab bank or pfoaontorr. 

UnTr. Mr.*«oriM^ fto^ a. 90. 

b, broy-l2, a. 18. SUgbtlyblae. H., 

BftMdar, bUiB'-dir, a. A groaa nlrtaka or 

error; abnn. m bim^dtrJksmd, •, 90, 
Blm^dar, vt. lb aottAmnd tofether :— tL To 

» groaah^ ar Btnpidl J ; to : 

R. H., ikm 'i mr mg , p., a. : bkm'tbrtd, 

vp, ; hhmfdertr^ a. ; (a) Umfiermg, a. 89. 
jttrd^riMM, «»aa, a. A abort bandgu, irlth 

avidabore; abtnadorer*. 
Skmfiarimm, -Ing, a. Stopid; floundaring. 

H^ Maa^braay^, ad. (r. r.) 91. 
J<im4 bUmt, a. Doll or tUok In tke adgo or 

point; flg~ atnpid, ahnipc, nndTil, mala- 

cant. U^hkmfii^4^9A,',Umifnemy%,%l. 
Bhmtt^tt, TothWcn the odge or point; to 

I iipi aaa or weaken any appetite, deaira^ or 

n any appetite, 
IbealtT. H., bhmfmf, p. ; bkmtf&d, pp., a. 
Bter^tUr,a. A dark apot ; a atafai, diagraoa, 

Sl«r,n. TO aaot or 
dte^aae. A,Um 


; HurretL, 

pp., a. 89, 

KurtXt bUIrt, yi. To throw at rand 
raeak aoddtBalr or Inadyertently. 
««rt'*ift? p.; Wfadl, pp. 

Jkn*. hlttah, a. Ihe red gkrw on the 
or Uo^ exdted hw oooAialon, modetty, ear- 
prlae^ or ahamet'any reddiah ecdoor. H., 
Maaft^l", Uma'h$§, hltuk'ytf -o, ». M. 
' ' Ti. TO redden witii a bloah ; to bear a 
tt, IfUah'iM, p., a.; 

Hashed, pp. ; (a) bhak'iM, a. 88. 
Jiw<«rv wSPtfir, a. M. The roar of a 

tii oaa t ; if., any irroff. boIn or tSMdti 
eooAialon, boaattaiff , awafgwteff, tarbolaBoci 

SkufUtt tL To roar aa a atom ; to bally or 
Bwagftr. H., hkafUri0Ȥ,^i \(m t UnA,in.x 
hkafUrtr, a.; (a) Mm^ShS^, a. (t. a.) sT 

MnWtof,.|ng.a.r.Mif'limN*,.aa. ifoiay; 
ta nwHn ona; boaatfhl; windy. H., M^- 
terio#%<, ad. 91. [children. 

Sa,bfi,int A word of tenor or fvrpriae ta 

jBoo.bO'-d.alO. AfannaoTaarpanta; aUnd 
of roond tax tippet.—^ o^a ooiwCHcf or, S8| a 
gigantie aarpant oftroptaal eoantrfea. 

Baor, bOr«,a. ThoaBaleorewtneonffeided;a 
rnde,bratlihfbUow. H., Imm^M*. ai 90. 

Bomrd, MIr«l, a. A thin flat place of wood or 
timber; a table : antartainment, food, diet; 
a table at which a coort or connofl rtt; a 
qoonunin aeaalon: a eonrt or conncil ; tho 
dedi, aide, or Interior part of a ahip. 

Board, Tt To lay, apiread, or comr with 
boarda; toenteraahipbyibrce; toattack; 
to pteoo ^ or to fhralah board to^ aa a 

To racdTa feed or diet Ibr a 
. H., fte«r#<Nf , p. ; ioor^ad; 
pp. ; Aeord'cr, a.; Aeord'aMf*, 46, a.; ioord'- 
•i^B.89. [of board. 

Joart f laayia , -Jgt, a pt Extra wagee in lieu 

Boar41mg~9eho0l^ a. A adMol fbr boardera. 

£oM<, boat, a. Anezpr. ofoatentation, pride, 
or canity; the canae of boaating. H.,ioMC- 
IcM^ Ao., a. rr.L) 90. 

Boawtjit, TodiaplayinoalntatlonakngQago: 
to brag of, magnify, exalt :— Ti To talk 
boaatfoUy ; to exalt one^a arif (na. fbL by of 
or iti). H., hoatfmg, p., a. : %oa$lfed, pp. ; 
hoatVert a. ; (a) ftooifiNf , a. 89. 

Boa$lffta,'fSb\tuti. Qtven to boaatfaig. S., 
hoMtjidtf, 48, ad.; hoatefiOmtm, a. (▼. r.) 91. 

BoaatittCt -ing, a. <= ftoMf^M*. -Ir. Oatenta- 
tkma ; boaatfUl. H., boattiufy, ad. (▼. T.) 9L 

BoatfUiU, B. AamaUopenTeeaelemplOTedin 
navigation. H., hotttfakmped^ a ; tear immh 
&c., a. 90. [to propel or guide a boat. 

Bot^'hook, -hd6k, 8. 31. A long, hooked poto^ 

Boatiii§, -Ing, a. Sailing or rowing in boata ; 
yaehttng. [oflleeronboardof ahipa. 

Boaimoain, hUt^-nrine, bO'-ant, a. A petty 

Jk>»^b6b,a. Aahortjerkhigmotkm;aaliffht 
blow or Jog ; any amall appandaee which 
movea with a bob or awing; a pendant; tho 
ball of a pendolom ; tho choma of a aongft ; 
leat or 3eerf ; a mode of ringing ; a handle 

To 1 


ofn .„. 

Bobt, Tt. To moTa with a bob or jerk ; to 
beat; to cheat or gain by fhiodf; to mock 
or delndc§:— Ti. To play backward and 
forward; to play looacly: to flah with a 
bob. H., teWwyt, p. ; MbedU pp. 

Bof-cherrVf a. A play of childhood. 

Bobbkh bftV-In, a. Bonnd tape; a amall pin 
or cylinder of wood on which thread, Ac., ia 
wonnd ; a apooL [macbinee. 

Bobbitut, -«r, a. A kind of lace wroogbt by 

BoVtailU^ A short, clipped taU; the rabUel. 

Bodthtfit bfik'-Ing, a. A kind of baiae or dnigget. 

fodktond*, bdkM&nd, a. m teoA'tofMi*. Land 

held by writlnga or dnrtcr. (leg.) 
■ - fbreahew: 

Bode, bdd«, rt. To portend or 
To be ominous. H., bOd'ing, p. 
pp. ; Udfingt bod^mentU s. 89. 

Bodaei, bftj, Tt 83. To boggle or botch. 
(a) bod^, a. 89. ^^ 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


SodioB, Md'-Xs, •, A quilted body or wfti«tooat 

worn by fenialas. [oomp.) 

> Bodied, W-U, a. Har. abody. (It Is cb. us. in 

~ "* , bM'-e-ie«, a. Inooiporeal. 

diff.: to diaaemblcL he8itat& 
WW. P- ; hoa&UdX, pp. ; fto 
Boal^, bff-gl. a. ^Wgl^- A bug' 
Bohea, bo-hfi*, 8. A low-priced bla 

^oaUy, -e-le, a. Har. a body ; eorporeal ; real, 

' . actail,oomplete.H..(o<ft/y,ad.:&o(fi/tnesv*, 

8. 91 . [a Bpeciea of large, blant needle. 

Bodkin, bSd'-kIn, s. An instr. to pieroe holes ; 

Body, b$d'-e, a. The material snbs. of an 
animal ; ^e trunk or main part of an ani- 
mal ; matter, as opp. to spirit ; a person ; a 
snbstanoe ; a oolIectiTe mass, or number of 
peracms or particulars ; a corporation ; the 
main part or balk; substance, matter, 
strength. It has many comip,—Bod^p-poi^- 
iUe, Is a nation in its political capacity ;— 
hoSy-guard. a life-guard, and h., securi^ ; 
— 6o<f ihsnateA^rf, one who robs graves. 

Bog, bdg, s. A quagmire, marsh, or morass. 
H.. ftpW'y. a. (ir) 90. 

Bog'-troUerX, s. One who lives among bogs. 

BofffleX, b5gl, vt. 45. TO embarrass with dif- 
flcultlesS :— tI. To be impeded by nnforeseoi 
diif.; to dissemblcL hesitate, waver. H., 
l black tea. [tre. 

Boiar, boy'-^, s. = boy'ar, 33. A nobleman. 
(Rus. and Trans.) 

Boi'arin, -A-rIn, s. A gentleman. (Rus.) 

Boil, boyl, s. 23. A tumour which usually 
terminates by suppuration. 

itoi^vt. To heat to ebullition ; to dress, cook, 
or seethe in boiling water or other liquid :— 
vL To be in a state of ebullition ; to be agi- 
tated like to boiling; to be hot, fervid, vigor- 
ous ; to bubble or effervesoe|. H., hoiFmg, 
p., a. ; hoiitd, pp., a. ; hotter (the agent ; the 
oont vessel), s.; (a) hoiTing (^bnllition), s.89. 

Boilery,-J6x^%, The boiler-house,in salt-works. 

Boiling, -Ing, s. The act of dressing food by 
boiling water ; evaporation eflbcted by ebul- 
lition. (V. V.) 

BoiPing-^oint, s. The temperature at which a 
liquid flies off in vapour, with ebullition. 

Boikerous, boys'-tSr-Os, a. 23, 46. Roaring, 
stormy, turbulent, noisy; impetuous. H., 
loitfteromly, ad. ; boie'teroumeu, s. 91. 

Bolary, bO'-lar-e, a. 35. Of or like bole ; clayey. 

BoM, D51d, a. Courageous, Intrepid, daring; 
requiring, or executed with, courage or 
spirit; rude, forward, impudent; striking 
to the sight ; steep, abrupt, prominent. H., 
loldly, 43, ad. ; hold'neee, s. 91. 

Bole^ bol^ a. The stem of a tree ; a 6-bushel 
measure : a reddish earth. 

Bolero, bo-ls'-ro, s. A Spanish dance. 

Boletie, bo-l«f-Ik. a. 68. Of or from mush- 
rooms. H., hoietie acid. 91. 

BolLySU, s. A pod or capsule ; a bole rocas. 

Bolr, vi. To grow into seed-vessels. 

BoUingi, b61/-lngz, s. Pollard-trees, topped 
and stripped. FBologna. 

Bolognian, bo-ldn^-yiln, a. 45. Of or trcm 

Bomer. bol^-stAr, s. 36. A long round pillow ; 
a pad; a compress. 

Bolster, \)6W-, vt To support with a bolster ; 
to swell out : to hold up or maintain :— vi. To 
lie together^. n.,bOl'»termg,p.; hiiVetered, 
pp. ; Waterer*, a. ; (a) bSPtteringl, s. 89. 

Bolt, Wtt, s. Anything thrown or cast ; an 
arrow or dart; a bar or phi of metal used 


to fasten a door, plank, &c. ; a sievet ; the 
fastening of a fetter. 

Bolt, vt. To fasten with a bolt ; to ^row, or 
to utter precipitately^ ; to swallow without 
chewingt ; to siflt, examine*, fetter :— vL 
To shoot forth suddenly; to flee}. H., 
hoWing, p. ; bolted, pp., a. ; bolfer, s. ; holf- 
ing, s. 89. [formed of boWing-chth, (v. v.) 

Bolfer, -&r, s. A sieve, or sifting apparatus, 

BoWhead, -hdd, s. A matrass or reoinver. 

Bohu, bO'-lfis. s. A very large pill. 

Bomb, bOm, bttm— K., s. = bomV-ehell, 17. 
A hoUow iron ball, or sheU, filled wUh 
gunpowder, &c 

Bombtwd, bdm-lMfrd', vt. 26. To throw bombs 
at. H., hombartPing, p.; bombartted, pp.; 
hombard^menL s. 89. [firoe mortars. 

Bombardier, -har-d^ref, s. One who serves or 

Bombaaii$, bfim-bd-zSn^, s. = bombaMku^, A 
twilled stuff, formed of silk and worsted. 

Bombast, biim-Wlsf, bOm'— Wa,, We., -btfet 
— K., Wo., s. 17. 9. A stuff used to swell 
garmentsf; h.,high-floanding words or lang. 

Bombastfic, -Ik, a. = bombastf*. Inflated; 
high-eounding. H., bombastically, ad.; 
bom'bastry*, s. (v. s.y91. 

Bombie, bfim'-blk, a. Bel. to ^e silk-worm. 

2}omiy«mot«,b9m-bIs'-in-as,a.l6. Silken; of 
or Uke the silk-worm. 

Bonassus, bo-n2is'-tls, s. A species of bufGalo. 

Bonbon, bdn^-bonp, s. 99. A sugar-plum. (Ft.) 

Bond, Mnd, a. in a state of servitude or 
slavery; bound; captive. K.fbond'-maid*, 
bon^-man*, &c., s. 91. 

Bond, s. Anything that binds; a band, 
ligament, union, connection; the cause of 
union; an obligation, vow, or promise; a 
written agreement to pay mone}', or to 
perf. a contract (leg.); a gov. store for 
goods on which the du^ is unpaid (oomm.) : 
—pi., bonds, bondz, imprisonment, captivity ; 
chains. H., bond^-stores, s. pL ; &c. 90. 

Bond, vt. To place in bond; to give bond 
for*^. H., bond'ii^f, p. ; bond^ed, pp., a. 89. 

Bondage, b5nd'-Bj«, s. 45. Slavery ; involun- 
tary scnrvitude ; bnprisonment*. 

Bond^ed, -M, a. App. to goods left in bond- 
stores, (comm.) 

Bondsmati, btodz'-m&n, s. A slavef ; a surety. 

Bone, bdn«, a. Made of bone. 

Bone, 8. The hard subs, forming the akele- 
ton of animals ; also any single part of the 
same :— pl.» boneaii, scruples. H., bone'lest^ 
bOn'y, dec, a. ; bon^-blaek {charred bone), 
bon^-duat (ground bones), bone'-earth (tri- 
phosphate M lime), ftc, s. 90. 

Bone, vt. To stifltm wiUi whalebone ; to take 
out the bones (cook.) ; to Bteal% :— vi. To 
have bones. H., bSn'ino,^.; boned, pp., a. 89. 

Bofu^set, -sSt, s. The plant thoroughwort. 

Bone'setterf, s. A quack who sets broken bones. 

Bonfire, bdn'-fTr«, s. A fire made in the open 
air, for joy or display. 

Bonnet, bOn-£t, s. A woman's hat ; a Scotch 
cap; a kind of ravelin (mil.) ; a small sail 
attached to another (naut). 

Bonn'et, vt. To beat the hat down over the 
eyesj :— vL To uncover the hcadt. 

Sonn'eted, -iA, a. Wearing a bonnet. 

Bonny, bfin'-e, a. Handsome*; gay, merry, 
cheerfhl ; plumpt. H.. bonn'ily, ad. ; bonn'^ 

Bonn'y, a. A bed of ore. (ml.) [tn«M*, s. 91 . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Bmmm,'hff'9i% t, A boon* ; a ptremiinn le- 
7«adttc«MliBt.iBraloai: an extra di-ri- 
iimd ta A iirh i hln* ; a periodical dlTiakm 

^^iaa/-t,». Fffi^ofboaM; large boooii. 

jMKVU^-ae,b&B— S^a. A BoodliSrt priest. 

Jbd^keo'-ft^a Adonee; acillTorstiipidfel- 
k*;a«aler.ib«L H.^M/iv.Aoa'fty-tiib.a.dO. 

iirfiiwi. hAd'-ma, a. SI. = ^uddh'ttm, 
-dB. The wonihip of Boodk or Buddk'a, 
ILtUaik'ut or MA'tM; s. 90. 

Jial»UBk,flLlL A nambcr of sheets of paper 
loBsd tsfctbcr; a Tohnne ; the literary 
mttmiM of tfaa aasM ; alao a chapter or 
SnamaiH; any pdnited literary matter!. 
E^itiatUn, *e^ a.; boot^-aeoMmty book- 
iiidhr, booi^-^tU, bornkT-ieeper (an acoonnt- 
■^ ftaafc^- Aa i SpMy (aeooantancy), &ooft'- 
liiiij' (that denrcd only from books), 
lariTMMv ftMrsMfar, 6ooA;'je<:er, book'ttand 
or >— yafar? (eae in th« street), bookworm 
^vem or Bite; a atadioiia peraon), &&, 
fe,a.ML [knowledge. 

Foil of undigested 
I reading; bookftil. 
: 6oo4;'iaA««s«. s. 9L 

. MW, bd&li'-fi&l, a. n. 1 

JiiiM,-kh, a. Given to ] 

^ B, \m^iMklm. 4S. ^. : 6m 


to; tobea4facent(ft>l.hyMior«poii). H., 
bor^dermg, p.; bot'dtred^ pp.. a. ; bor'itrtr, 
s. 89. [or frontier, (t. t.) 

3or'irr«r, -Ar, s. One who dwells on a border 

Bord-Muut*, bdr^'-lttnd, i^ Demain land re- 
tained by a k>rd for the support of Ids board 
or table, (leg .j 

Sore^ bfire, s. The hole made by boring ; the 
dimensions of any hole or cavity ; a person 
or thing that annoys by iteration { ; a borer*; 
a oonfllet of the tide and land current in 
narrow estuaries, fte. 

Bor», Tt. To make a round hole ; to perforate, 
eat away, or make hoUow ; to pierce the 
earth with boring tools ; to snnoT br itera- 
tiont :— Ti. To enter or pierce oy boring. 
H., bOr'ing, p. ; Uired, pp. ; ft^«r, s. ; (s) 
bdr^iiu, s. 89. See (to) Bear. 

BdreoAMre'-e-U, a.4fi. Northern. 

Boreas, bdr^'-e-ia, s. The north wind. (L.) 

A>r«eolc bdr^-kSle, a A kind of cabbage. 

Borer, bOr^-er, s. A genus of worms, (v. s.) 

Bef'ringt s. A perforation :—pL, the ehlps 
produced by boring, (r. t.) 

Bom, bdnrrn. pp. See Bear. [add. 

Boron, bd'-ron, s. Tbe elenu base of borado 

Borough, bOr'-ro, s. 17, 36. A oorporate town ; 
a town that sends burgesaei to parliament ; 
a body oorporate (Soot). 

Jpr'oayA-flMm^er. -mfing-#r, s. Onewho1mj» 
or sells borongn patronage. 

Borrow, bor'-ro, rt. 26. To take from another 
on loan or credit ; to use as one*s own that 
which belongs to another ; to assume, copy,, 
or imitate. H., bor'rowing. p.; bor^rowai, 
pp., a. ; bor'rotoer, a ; (a) bor'rowing, 6or- 
row\, s. 8a 

Boruret, bfl'-r5&-r^ s. 18. A eomp. of boron* 

Bowaae, b0s'-k8J«, a Underwood ; woodlands. 

£o«A,bd8h,s. Outline, figure*; trashy Terblsge|. 

i7o«k0<,b5sk'-et,a = lotquet A grore ; a bowefr. 

Botkif*, bJJsk'-e, a. Bushy; wooded ; shady. 

Boeom, bdtw'-Om, bSO'-sflm— Wa., We., thea., 
baz'-amf,a.30-I,35. Intimate; confidential. 

^o"«Mi, a llie human breast and parts adja- 
cent ; fig., the heart, the seat of the passions, 
tenderness, and confidence ; the part of the 
dress about the breast; the embrace; en- 
closure, compass ; any receptacle or positioQ 
tender, cloee, or secret. 

Bo"$omi, Tt To place in the bosom* ; to con- 
ceal, cherish, or nreserre with care. H., 
U/'tommg, p. ; b&'»omed, pp. 89. 

itospoms, bor-po-rtis, s. (freq. sp. bo^phona.) 
A narrow sea ; a strait H.,6Mp^ian,46,a. 90. 

Boss, bte, s. A prominence or protuberance ; a 
stud or Imob ; a small whed or runner(tec^; 
a master or superintendent (U. 8.). H., 

A)s««dLbSsd,pp.,a. Studded. [fro«f^,a.90. 

Botame, bo-tftn'-ik, a. = boton'ieal. Or or rel. 
to botany, or plants. H., botan'iealiv, ad. 91. 

BoUmise, bSt'-Kn-Iz^, it 60. TO seek for, or to 
study plants fbr bot purposes. H., bofanis- 
ing, p. ; bofamtedf pp. 

Bofamst, -Ut, B, One skUIed In botany. 

Botany, -A-ne, s. That branch of natural 
history which embraces plants. 

BotehU btttch, s. 39. Work Ul or dumsDy 
performed ; a blotch. H., botekytt «• ^' 

Boteht, Tt. To mend or patch awkwardly. H^ 
botch'ingU p. ; botehedX, FP- i f>oteh'erX, a ; 
boteh^ingX, boteh'ery*, a 89. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jhih, both, «., pro., eon. S7. Tbetwo; the 
one and uie outer; on the one ride; u well. 

£othert,hlML'-^,B,d8, Baatle;tamnlt; ftiss. 

Both'erl, Tt. To teeae, eonfhae, perplex. H., 
both'tnmfit V'l bolh'tredlf pp.; bothera^- 
ikm*, 3«, 8. 89. 

Jtot«, bttt^ ■. pL Small woxme, the larm of the 
gadflT, natoned In the Intestinee of horaesjfte. 

BotttSjWVltB. A Teonl with a narrow month 
for holdlnff llqulda ; the eontenta of abottle; 
a bundle of hay. 

- ■ - intobotUes. H., ftoCflw^, 

jm^ aj (a) boU*Un§, s. 89. 

JBoMmi, b5f -dm, 8. is. The lowest part of any- 
thing; the fbmdation, gronndwonc, or haae ; 
thaton whieh anything rests ; a dale, Talley, 
or Hat : atamina, nattre BtrengthI ; a ball of 
thread*: a ship or TeaBel(nant.). H.,6o<r- 
omleitf «e., a. 90. 

JMCom, Tt To foond or build npon* ; to ftir- 
nish with a leat. or bottom ; to wind nraad 
aomethin^ :— tL To hare or rcet npoa a 

^UU^yL TOootintc 

p.; hateUd, A6^vo^ 


bottom. H., botf om tkt f , p. ; Mtouud, -fimd, 

pp., a. (t. 8.) 89. [ahip. 

Baaomryt bttr-Om-rt, a. l%e morteage of a 
J^udi, bowd,a. A weeril. [room or eaunet.(Fr.) 
3o«itfo<r,b2^-4wor,a.l7,99. Amallprhate 
.Boa^, bOOJtf, tL tl. To bulge. 
Bouffh, boar. a. SS. The branoh of a tree. 
£mt0ie^ bO&^-thS, -shTt, a. A wax-taper : an 

inatr. need to remove obatr. in the nrenra, 

*o. (anrg.). [(FrT) 

Bo«iiU(bON^-ye,a.99. Bonedoratow^meat. 
tomSeUmf "jotka, a. 99. Broth ; aonp. (Fr.) 
BmOder. b&e'-dfir, a. =. bowCder, me-. A 

TOQBdiah Btoae ftnind on the aea-ahore; a 

rounded masa of roek (geoL). 
Jkamee, bowna^, a. St. The rebo«nd from a 

aoddenbloworlhll; aloud aoond or reptnt; 

a boast or threat! ; aboldlle*. 
Botmet, Ti. To leap or spring suddenly; to 

atrlke against so as to rebound : toboaat, lie, 

or bullyg. H., bamTomf, p. : bomteid, pp. ; 
3eMi"c«r,s.Aboldlief.(Y.T.) [botM''c«r,8.89. 
JBomm^^nfl, -lag, a. Stout, largsu heary; 

boaating. (T.T.) H^ bamFtinalft, mi. 91. 
JB(n«uLbownd,a.SS. Destined: going. StMind. 
JkunOfB, Altmlt or reatraint; a boundary; 

a le^i, spring, rebound. 
BorndfTL To limit, reetraln, eireamearibe. sur- 
round:— tI. Toleaporflpiing. H.^homutimmf 

p. ; honnJted, nt. fbotmtPtr, s. 89. See Bind. 
Boi/tniary. bown<r-«r-«, a. SS. A limit, or mark 

of a limit ; a preeinet, barrier, termination. 
Bomtdemt bown'-dte, -dn— 8., Wa,, a. IS. 

Moral ; pere m p to ry. H., bomfdmOi^. ad. 91. 
BaMmtta8a,bownd'4«s.a. UUImltsd; iniidte. 

H., teMfuTfeifty*, ad. ; bmrndflMtntn^ s. 91. 
JoMitoOM, bowar-y'fla, bownT-te-tta, a. 96. 

Liberal; bountUU. H., 6oMiri8e«f^, 4S, 

ad.: homT im m w rn i ^ si 91. 
Bcmii^iA, bown'-te-ftKri, a. 91. Liberal ; free to 

giiFO. n.JkomfHMiVt ad. : bomn'tifutntuA 91. 
B(»m'tiAoMf»,-hd&d, s. SI. Liberality; goodness. 
5o«f^||i,bown'-ta,iiS8. Liberality in bestowing 

gifta and fltveura ; a gov. premium on ex- 

porta ; a gift on enllatment (mil.). [(Fr.) 
BlMftM<, bMcT, b00'-a.,a.9». Anoaegay. 
3o«ryMii,bir-iep<,8.SS. AsmaU Undeftype. 
Bmtns Mira«, mm— K., P., ii A bound, limit, 

eeiittM:—«(k.Abraok or rivulet. H.Je«m'- 



Bowm, bSOrsf, a. 99. The exchange. (Fr.) 

Btnue. fietbBo—e, 

Bouitt bowt, 8. 2S. As much as ean be done at 
onee ; a turn, essay, attempt, debauch. 

.BMmm, bo'-vlne^ -Tin— K., a. 45. Oforrel. to 
animals of the ox kind. 

Bow, bow, 8. 2S. An aet of aalutatlan, reve- 
renoe, or submission ; the forepart of a Teasel. 

J^otp, Tt. Tobendorinfleet; tobendorineline 
towards; to depreas, enish, aubdue:— tL 
To bend; to bend in aalntatkm, *o. ; toanh- 
mit, atoop, aink under. H., bon^imf, p.; 
(oiptfd, pp., a. 89. 

jBoio,b5,a. An instr. for ahooting arrows; an 
instr. need to sound the rloUn, tux. ; any- 
tidng eurred or arched; a rainbow. H.* 
bO¥f-f€m. h«Mf -window, ko. 90. 

BMa,Tt,Ti To arch, or to be eurred. H.,&ei^' 
4not p. ; bowed, pp., a. ; bov/dbU*, a. M. 

BoMitf{», bow'-«, Tt. 28. To erleoerate. 

.8M0'eI«,-a8,a.pL Hie intestines or entrails ; 
tlie interior psirt of anything ; flg., the heart ; 
pity, tenderness, compassion. 

Bower, bow'-^r, s. 28. A shadyreoesB inn gar- 
den ; a country retreat ; a retired ehambw* ; 
the andior at the bowa (naut.). 

Bow'erv, -e, a. Shady ; cont. bowara. 

Bowie4mifb,W-o^lU,». A dagger-knifo (VJS.) 

Bowl,h6\e,B. A baain: the hf^ow port of any- 
thing; a wooden ball need for ptey in a 
bovbmo-frotn or h%w f\ m $ mUeff (Tolg. 
proo., Dotd). 

Boi0i,Tt TorcAasnbowl:— tL To play at 
bowla, or bowling ; to move along amoottily 
and rapddly. fiL, bowVing^ p., a.: bowUi, 
pp. ; 6oiol'er, a. ; (a) bowcm^ i. 88. 

BowUno, by-On, a. 45. A amaU rope to keep 
a sail doee to the wind. [part of a ah^ 

^oiot, bows, a. pi. S8. The two sidea of the fore- 

Bowee, bom, Ti. 28. To pull hard, (nam) 

Bowtprit, by-epfft, a. The boom whieh j>ro- 
JeetBOTcraMlp*sbow. [Btrangulation.(Tur.) 

BowttHn§, W-, a. An instr. <^ execution by 

2)oc^ bttka, a. 40. Acaee of woodormelal; a 
sUgfatly made chest; also their ooatents; a 
eompartment in a ti»eatre, &e. ; a money- 
eheat; atree; adira. ahrub; apreaentt; a 
Uow on the head with the open handi. 

Box, Tt To put into, or Auntfah with boxes ; 
to sMke wiUk the handt : to rehearae pmti- 
culars (naut.) :— tL To fight with the fiats ; 
to eolicit presentst. H., bo*'in§, p. ; bomed, 
pp.; bo^er {% pogUiat, Ac), a.: box'imf 
(pngilisp, Ac), s. 89. [bo&-like. 

AsMhbaksCn.a.iaaSoar. Made of boxwood; 

Bof, boy, a. SS. Amale child ; a male daiteg 
adotoaaence. H., boyhood, -hObd, bo^wm, 
-Inn (pneriUty), fte., a. 90. 

.•oy^A, -Ish, a. Bekmging to a boy : pwrile. 
H.,»ey'WWy,ad.; bo^itkfuee,M.U. 

Brnee, hn»e, s. Anything whieh beaeas; a 
pair or couple ; a mark in printing ( } ) :— 
pi., fixe aidfr-strapa of a drum ; trouaer 8u»- 
penders ; ropes whl^ regulate the angle of 
the yards (naut.) ; fto. (t. t.) 

Braee, Tt. To tighten, bind, support, or 
strdigthen ; to bind, hold, or draw togetiber ; 
to strain up. H., brareino, p., autbraesd, 
pp. ; broTeert, s. ; (a) bre^^eing, a. 89. 

J'tomM, brSsZ-liC, 8. An om. for the wrfat. 

Bnf*oert, s. A tonie or astringent (t. t.) 

A«c*», br«k, britoh-K., a. A bMeb houd. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

A^Mftiol, ter-hMII^Mk'-yU-K^ Wan «. tf. 
J)rmimft, fcw-hg. «. acrcAcUMniBf; 

>•; teik^tTa bnfkm^, Ftrn. [(t. t.) 
JlrwM, brik'-«t, s. A flOFpart fljwd afaintt 

A«nA; the muter ]• 
JiFMifHTt. TopiaMwitkln,oroii1)ndktte. 

&, bradireHmf, p. ; hrmdftUd, pp. 
Aarihil, krtk'-bk, «. a krmd^^. Somevhat 

mtL B^krmd^iAm§m,*. [imtCbot.) 

Bnui, brUEl, a. « trn/laa. Ab Irr. dertlopad 
Aia«'faali^-te-itc,a. Havtev braata. 
3 nd i pAc Broad (oaa. in Bamaa). 
J^vd^ferid^a. A MiliPith little oma Wad. 
J»»a,ttM.Theaiopeafahm.(8eet) [carda. 

Amytf ^rSf* *- Afeoaat; keaatinf : agaiMof 

Arayf«daai^-My-ahe-e,a.Abn«g«rt. TaM. 
JlTiWrarf, -Jrt, a. f . Boaatftd ; oatentetloaa. 

JNj^arfAATalfipHnaBttiigiBUoir. H.,6riVf'- 
ariteaii^,-<na,8hW. [aadmcad. 

J>nrtwa, toA'-Mi, a. 7. The areator; tlie 

firoot ale-wort 

I oCthe HiBdoo trtaiity. 
S-Biif-lk,a. BcLtothebrahaUn. 
"^, a. « hrmeh'aum, brdfc'-. 

B,a. TheffHifiattoftliebrah- 
MmU, hMtf a. A flat aw^ er trlnuBftDg, 

temaihybraidiaf: aknot; a deceit*. 

^ '%Tt. TewaOTebyiaMdlDf thestnoda 

ter;tDtrtt»ataiBaU4Bid(oook.). BL, 


JtaOa^Mla^a^ aBaUropeawadtotnMa 

■plhaaatiB, HlTCto) ima or brmU m, vt. 90. 

Sr mim , \Ktaae, a. a i r a iwi t , ■> f>^ tlie aoft, 

"^ ' I mmL to fhe dmll, asp. to be 

■iHa^MK • lae ■■MMiaBkiBiMTt niwiginw" . 

Jt n ai B^, n, To ondentaDdt ; to daak oat» or to 
naof* thabniM. H.>ra*irA^ P4 iratead, 
a ^j — fc a. llaakvIL [pp. 

^- awft, a , Diwrda wd to Mto d. £L, 

;brtti^a. Ara«giidiama»L(teah.) 
■nML balk^v a. Fan; athiaket; aearrlaKe 
■oai fv ttafaiiBg boraaa; a h e av y harrow 
m *av; a.hakar'a kseadtef tnmgh; aa 
bate. teWaak flax, fte.; an Isatr. to retaid 
araBaaiiiMBOttaaafawhaal. H^hrmk^- 


Brm»tehkt,briht;kf'\€t, : A lltfla brtBeh.(T.a«.) 
Mrmeh'v, -e, a. Fall of bcaAohca. H.» 

ftroiMA'JMM, a. 90. 
Jrand, brind, 8. A baratoff plaae of wood; 
a nark made by bomiBg; a atlfma, or 
mark of tnfbmr ; a drawn aword, a tanadar- 
bolt (poet). H., »r«Mr4r0fi or Arand'tef- 
woa. fte. a. 9 0. 
AwiMf, Tt. To bvniy or 
aUgmatiae aa infiuDona. H.^, . 

hran^tedt pp., a. ; ^ond'tn^, a. 89. TneWc 
Aia«id''<Miat,-Bfl,a.B:&ra<i'-iMi0|. AbaofatelT 
Jrandtod; brin'-did, a. StrtngthaBed with 
brandy, (tech.) 

Tt TdwSTeorflovrlah 

by bomiBg; to 
.| orofMr MMf p. ; 

randiM, brtn'HUih, Tt To ware or flovriah 
aa a weraon or brand. H.. dnm^ditkinf, 
p. ; brmnUtkedt pp. ; (raw'ditAar, a. 89. 

J»wmUMtf, brind'-ftng, a. A kind of worm. 

Brandv, brto^-de, a. « ftraw^dy w ii uj. Splzit 
distilled Arom wine ; any atrong nnrltf. 

Brwtk, brtagk, a. Bnokwiieat [aeanthna. 

i?raiir<«ritfn«,-ar-alB,a.4ft. Beai'a-breeehor 

BrtmUn,hr§af^an,§. Aklndof aahnoB. 

BrmUf brint, a. The hrttU, or 6roii # -yoaar. 

Brms$, bi^ brdO— 8^ We., b r i e Wa^ a. 9. 
A yellow alloy of eopfw and ainc ; fig., 
impndeneet. H., bnu^f, bnu^-Uhtf a.; 
hramf-band (one of boma), bnutf-faiL Ac, 

D>wj^Mf,-ing,a. Goattagwlthbram. {8.90. 

r8ar«,-«,a. Of or like braaa; Impntatt. 

E., oroarliMii^ a. (t. 8.) 91. 
Jhrtt>hrit,a. A child (In eontampt). 
Jfwaodo, brd-Tt'-dok -Td'-*, a. Aboaat,bng, 

BrafM, briT^ a. Fearlaea of danger: eoora- 
geoiiB, gauant, intrepid; noblcu dlgniflad, 
ezodfent* ; nMyrifleent, grand, nowyf. H., 

brav/lf, ad. ; tewM'iMaf*, brOt/eryt a. 91. 
iiraoi^ a. One indiaereetly daring; a boaat, 

a challenge*; an Indian warrior. 
.nrwM^Tt Todefy; toaneoonterwifli eoQT- 

age. H., hrdi^inft £• ; ^raMiL pp. (r. a.) 
Bravo, brd'-To^ int well donei (hire. 

J^ao, brlf-To^ brd'— We., a. An amiaani Ibr 
ihwurn, br^T<sy-ri, 8. 99. Aaairofdlir.exe- 
J!r0iaLbrawl,a. AqaarraL(T.T.) [etttlo«.(maB.) 
Brmof, Tt 8. To driTe away Inr notoef :— tC 

To anarrd or diacoarae nolnly and inde- 
cently. H., hrmofinf, p., a. ; brmoUd, pp. ; 

brrngftr, a. ; (a) brawfwf, a. 89. 
Brmofing^AngttL. Noisy : qnarrelaoma. H., 

^oiofi, britn, ii 8. A boar, or itaflaah; flf., 

bolk, nrosealar atra^th ; the ierii of Ae 

boar, or of swtaM, collared or pickled (eook.). 
.BrMPw'ar, -«r, 8. A boar kllledfor the taUe. 
Br€Mon'f,'9,9L.^trMmet^. Mdaea]ar;hard; 

balky. H., brawn'mtm, a. 91. 
^■ay^b ra,8. The eryof the aaa; anyhanb, 

grnlng auund ; a brae. 
Broff, Tt To poand or frind aaMll :— tL To 

cry like an aaa. H., broi^iitg, p. } bra^eiL 

pp., a. ; trtyff- (ako a paatle), a. j (a) 

Irti^iHf, 8. (t. a.) 89. 
Bnutt ime, Tt To solder with bram; to 

make impudent H., brO^mg, p.; iraaad; 

pa ; hrMkUf a. (t. L) 89. 
.BrwaM, brir-an, a. a Wmih -an. Made of 

bran : impudent, shameleaa. H., 8r«^am^, 

ad. ; on fM tm emX t •» 91. 
Braf»m\,fL To be impadant, Ac 
3^s«n-/aMi% -Oad, a. Impadcnt 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Brwmtr, WT-di^, •. = brtfakr. -W^. ST. 
A worker in braat; % pm for boldinff 
bamiof eoato. [stuff; braxO-woodl 

Brwk bra-iSU', i^ » AnMi/'. A red Af- 

JNvaitfM, -in'-jiii, a. 40. Of or from BrasU. 

A-McA, brCeoli, «. 29. The Mt of breddDC, or 
•tote of being broken; a gap or opedng; 
a Holatioa or law, contraol, or amity: be- 
2«avoBieat; qnarrel; inftaetion; uunry. 
Hn brtaeh'J^ -fdJbl, irmek'Um, a. ; te. 91. 

Brtieh, rt. To make a lap or opening: to 
batter down. H^ hnaekmg, p.; bnaehed, 

BrtackY*-^^ Unmljr. [pp. (miL)8a. 

Bread, brSd, n LoaTce or eakee prepared 
from gronnd eom; fig^ food In geiieral; 
•Mtenanot; ttrelihood. It hae many eomp. 
— kwMTm* (of broad), brmdfUm, *e., a. :- 
t r e e d" - c kip mr (a baker's eerrant), breatt- 
com^ brmtr-Jndi, bnad^-th^ (eom, meal, 
or floar), ke^ a. 90. 

Btmitk, brWtii, ». »7. The meat, of anrteee 
from aide to iUe. IL, ftrMA4'<M>*. a. 90. 

^rfoJk, brik«, •. The state of being broken ; 
aa opening; a rent, tear, iereraaee; a 
panae or intermption; a line in printing or 
writing (— ). 

Jr«Ue,n. Tbpart or diTftdebyTidlenoe; to 
trar^ eroflh, rend, ehatter, or di m i p e te ; to 
tame, anbdve, or train; to make banknpC; 
todieeard,diBmiaa,oreaaUer; toTiolatoor 
infringe; to intareept, interrapt, or ^eek ; 
to leaeen or impair; to feparat^ to dimolTo 
anion (ftd. by €f) :~tL To part or lepa- 
rate; to borst; to burst fortli; to iarae 
with Tiolenoe or soddcnnem; to oome to 
vk explanation: to fUl ont; to ialnt, flag, 
or deeUne; to beoome banlonpt; te., *o. 
Hn bnakimf, p.; braktU oroke, prt. 


ftrolctf*, ftro'lim, -Im, pp., a.; brmtt^M^, 
a. ; 6rMJfc'«r (agent or thing), s. ; (a) fc 
iM, s. 89. (There are nnm. oomp., in 


of^whieh the Terb retains its orig. sig. of 

parting, severing, reodiog, te.) 
Snmkofi^ brtk^'-tje, s. 46. A breaking; an 

allowanee fior things broken in transport. 
Sr^aker, -€r, s. A wave broken by rooks. 
.ft-MJ^AM^ brac'-Oat, a. The first meal of the 

day, or the food serred at it. 

To take breakfast. 

k A breaklkst-party. 
arcummtm, armmg tn^, s. Bankruptcy i taming 

or trabing horses, = brmk^inf^m. (▼. ▼.) 
JlrsflJI^iMokt, -n<k, a. Steep; dangeroas. 
Jfrrnkwrntn-, brtt/-wit», s. A mole or other 

obstade to protect a harboor fhmi the force 
J il re esi , brtm<,s. Ai^esh-waterflsh. (ofthesea. 
JBrsaai, Tt. To bom off the fllth, dw., firom a 

^p>s bottom, (tech.) 
. J lr t a t i, brCet, s. The forepart of the body 

between the neek and boly; the part in 

females which fhmlshes milk ; fig., the dls- 

oay, or uw won wgrw 
Srtatfiut,^ Totsh 
BrmOt/as^, -Ing, s. 
MreaUnf, brik/'-fig, i 

position of min^ eonscienoe, affections, ftc 
H., breoiC-imp, br m uf -kight Ac., s. ; breeut' 
hoiUt b r em at Imo t, brwoir-pm, brmtif-ptaU 

( breast armonr), brnut-work (ma), ftc, 

cc, s. 90. [p. ; hr0a9red, pp. 

JBrtaaft ti. To meet in fhnit. H., breasf$nfft 

J^is jr srf, -M, a. Haring a broad breast, or 

a fine voloe*. 
BnmM, brfth, s. 17. The air Inhaled and ex- 
pelled in respiration ; the state or power of 
breathing; a single respiration, or the time 

itoeeopisa; fig'.* a gentta bnese; Kfr; ■ 
pito; panae; an instent,aword (poet.). I 
WwwMMbrAtht ( hav.b. ),ftr«sa>l«,*e.4 

BrmOtfku, -Ite, a. Ont cf breath; d^ 
breath-sttspending. Intense. H., brem 
U$$lv,4$,ud.;br9&th'le$$nm9fM,n, ^ 

SrHUiU, breth^ vt. 38w To exhale; to ntl 
prlTatdy; to giro vent to :~ii. Torespli 
to take breath; to pass In as air: fig., 
lire; to reatfhnn action. H., 6fwi<Vli^M 
a. ; br0athtd, pp. ; breatk'er, s.; (a)6rMm 

BruUh'mtt -Ing, a. Warm ; liring. (W, s. i 

Brmtk'mg, s. Bespiration ; a brcaOi; fig., 
gentle inflnenceor operation; an ardent d^ 
or longing after; upiratlon or accent, (t.v 

Ar•fd^ brMi«, s. Ilie battock; the hind 
part of anything, espedallT of a gnn. 

Brenh, britch, Tt To pot into breeches ; 
whip on the breech. H., brteeh^imp, p 
breeched, pp., a. ; (a) breetk'imgt s. 89. 

ArsMft'tft, -Is, s. pL A man's garment. 

BrMohing, brteh^'-Ing, •. The breech-bai 
(In harness} ; the ropes with which oannc 
are lashed (nant.) ; a whipping, (r. r.) 

Breed, brM^, s. Race, ofBipring, progeny 
cast, kind, variety; a hatch, a brood. 

Breed, n. To procreate; to engender; ^ 
prodnce, contriTe, hatch; to giro birth tc 
to edncate, train, or bring np :— ti To I 
with and prodnce yonng; tonformedwltl 
before birth. U., breed^me, p., a.; bre^ 
prt, pp. ; breed^er, s. ; (a) htid^mg, a. 89 

Breed'-bateU''^ie,9. Onewhobreedsqnarrei 

Breed^htg, -Ing, s. Edncation; deportmeni 
manners, (t. t.) 

Breeae, hrbte, s. A gentle gale; the gadt 
(sftriMse). H., ftreestf'Jett, ireeo'ir, a. 90. 

Breth'ren*, s. pi. See Brother. 

Avr«,br8T«,s. Thelarge8tnote.(mos.) [tarer« 

Brevet, brir'-et, brCTMi, a. Taking rank I 

.0r»r«<, bre-TSf . s. A commission oonliBrriz 
honorary rank, abore that Ibr which pay 
recelTed. (mil.) 

Breviary, brCre'-yte-e, briHr'— K., s. 25. i 
epitome; the book cont. the daily aerrio 
or the Soman Gstholie chorch. 

Breviate, hrer ef-jKte, a. A compendlOBi. 

^rc^ria/Mr»«,-yJ-tar<,s.l8. An abbrerintSo 

Brevier, bre-T8r«', s. A smaU type. 

BrevML br^-o4>M, a. Having short Uigt 

BrevQv, brtr'-It-e, s. Shortness ; condaoaei 

Brew,vt(H^, Tt. 20. To boil or mix ; appr.* 
prepare malt liqnor; to mingle, plot, 
contrire :— Ti. To be maUnc beer* «c 
to be mixing, forming, collecting, «• I 
bremfina, p.{ brewed, pp.; breu/er, ••; ( 
brew*, hrew'mg, s. 80. 

BrwiKfage, -^t, s. 4S. Beer*; any mlxtoro. 

Breufery, -&•«, s. s bretifkotm, A plnee I 

Brewing, -Ing, s. The art of making bnc 
the onantity made at one time. (t. tT) 

Bribe, brlb^ , s. Something given or oonltorr 
to pervert the lodgment or to cormpt t 
eoBdnct of another. H., ftnbe'fsst. a. 80. 

Br(be, vt To give or promise a bribe to ; 

or gain by a bribel. H., ftri^Mw, i 

• - r.s.:ftr»'«fy,s.89.7fr.* 

Giving or receiving nrlbi 

6rAed;pp.; bt^'er,ui brWerif,t 

BHfbery, -€r-e, i 

Briek, brik, s. A squared maas of 
cUy; a loaft. H., brid^y, a.; brid^bat 
piece of a brick), briekT-ehy, brid^-du 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

A:e^8.90. [bt^v«e& timber framiar. (ftrch.) 

JMdk'HMMfiM.HiSt-Inf^ Briakiforkittedlii 

SHdaltef<^a. Of a brid^ or a weddinf . 

.Bt^Ht, Awaidfaw. 

JHidf, teTd4^ f. A wooian espofotedf; a 
voaan aawlj Barrled, or on the point of 
Muff ao. U^ briitfmtam or irid<'«-mafi, 
MtWmmd or tridt^^-maid (attcodanta at a 
^wMlag), Ae^ i. 90. 

JMd/t,Tt. To marry. H., Mifdrftt PP^t «. B9. 

JH^r'-cdfcc.a. A waddiaff-oak& 

/ h tf / ar »— H -gr<Som, a. (prop., brid< ffm 
"Wa.} A man newly married, or on the 
point of being eo. 

BriifwUt brld^-ir«« a. A bonae of oorreetlon. 

JHU^ b^, a. 32. A building or ttmetare car- 
ried aeroea a riTer, te., tot the eooTenienoe 
of paenge ; an arch ; anything bridge-like^. 
R^ hndi^Uu, irid^y*, a. 90. 

JSrid^e^n. To boUd a bridge orer ; toitretch 
aeroeit- H.» ^rid^img, p. ; bridged, pp. 

JBH<B«.brr-dl,8.45. nle instr. nitb wbieh a 
horae ia diecked and guided; flg., any curb 
or rcatriint. 

BH^dU,^ To pot on, or guide with a bridle; to 
dieckoreoBtrol:— tL To bold up the bead. 
H.. bredimg, p. ; brTdUd^ pp. ; hn'dler, s. 89. 

firf dU UMUf, a. A horae-traek. 

JBHif, bm, a. Short, conoiee. H., Wufljft 
ad. ; krUfueu, a. 90. 

JH(f, a. A condeneed writing; a speeiee of 
vrit or precept (Ice.); an epitome of a 
fllent^a caae banded, as instructions, to 
eouneel (teg.}. H., brief Un, &c., a. 90. 

Avr, brr-fo, a. = drTor. The«icee^&ri(rand 





JKimM", brln'-d«d, a. = Mn'df j#>. 
with spots or atrcaks. 

Brim'dU*, -d], a. Spottedness. 

jSrwM^ fariae, s. A strong solution of salt ;flf., 
the sea; tearst. H., Mn'f, a.; ftrin/fjtt, 
brm/'tfHmf, *0n s. 90. [ftrwMd*, pp. 

JBHMe*,Tt. To steep in brine. H., &ri«'tfi^, p. ; 

AS"fMfAt,-ieh,a. Salt H.» irfn'JsAiMSi, s. 9L 

.BrM^, bring, Tt. To fleteh IWm ; toeonTey,leed, 
carry to; to prodnoe or procure, as a cause; 
to induce, attract, draw along. (It implies 
leading, drawing, or causing to come, or mo- 
tion, real or met., inwards.) H., brmf'imf, p.; 
brouphi, brMrt, prt, pp. ; brhif^er, s. 89. 
Among its no. app. era— to driii^ otewC, to 
efliMt;— /o brm§ bmdt, to recall;— <e hring 
forth, to produce:— to brm§ out, to expose, 
to publish ;— to bnnff to, to arrest progress ; 
—to bring up, to educate ; te., te. 

J^rinA:, brlngk, s. 46. The edge or margin. 

JSKak, brfek, a. FuU of life and spirit ;TiT<ri7; 
agile; tivid; sparkling, efllnmeing. H., 
britktf, ad. ; bruknut, s. 91. 

Bruk-¥ffX,y%, Tb make Uvely* :— ri. Torlee 
briskly ; to assume spirit. (meat. 

Bridut, brlsk'-«t, s. A part of the breast of 

BrittaiH, brief -«1, s. (prop., breatt-aU.) Sore 
breast or nipplee. 

Britae^\$A%Xu Thettiirhairofswine,*e. H., 
bri^ae4iJUj bruftly, -le, ad. 90. 

BritlU, brlsa, rt To erect as bristlee :— tI. 
To be erect: to raise the head and strut in 
anger or deiianeet. VL.,brUtling,^.\br%tftled^ 

^ri<brlt,8.s &re<. A smaU fish. i-ld,pp.,a.89. 

5rttoNn»a,bnt-dn'-y4,a. App. to a white metal. 

Britann'ie, -Ik, a. British. [ripe, (agr.) 

BriU, \xtiu, Ti. « brigkL To be,or to grow OTcr- 

BrUuh, bnf -Ish, a. Bel. to O. B^ or ita people. 

BriUU, bntO, a. tf. Baaily broken. H^ 
britfUl^, ad. ; bn(rUme$$, s. 91. 

Britakm, brls'-kd, s. An open carriage that 
may be oloecd at will, with reclining spece for 
Jonm^s. [ueedasfoelforbriek-kunSfAc. 

Aristf, bres£,s.r=6rMae. Thegadily;ash-eifting8 

Broach, brOch«, a. = bnchc, 20. A spitf ; a 
candle-rod ; a brooch*. 

Broaehfjt, To spitf ; toupor open, aaa eaak; 
to utter, giro out, or bring forward. H., 
brotteh'ttip, p. ; broached, pp. ; broaeh'cr, e. ; 
broaeh'mcnt*, s. 89.— 7b6roaeA ro, is to turn 
suddenly to windward (nant.). 

Broad, hrSUrd, a. 8. Extended in breadth; 
wide ; vast, extenaiTe, comprehensiTc ; gross, 
coarse, indelicate, obeeene. H., bro(ueitht, 
a. ; broad>ly, ad. ; broadfneu, s. 91. 

Broad'ooit, -kdat, a. Scattered by the hand(app. 
to seed). H., broad'catt, ad., s. (agr.) 

Broad' eloth,%,Y\nt cloth of double the na. width. 

Broaden*, IffiEt^d'n, ▼. To make or grow broad, 

Broadfpiece\,t, An old gold-ooin. [or broader. 

BroadTeetOf s. The great seal of England. 

BroadTeide, a. The side of a ship ; also the dis- 
chsrge of all ito guns at once (naut.) ; a sheet 
of paper with one large page (typ.). 

Broad'tword, a. One with a wide blade. 

Broad^wieeX, ad. From side to side. 

Brocade, \a^'kXA^,%, An om. silken stuff. 

Broea"ded, -fid, a. Worked or figured like 
brocade; wearing brocade. [flower. 

Broccoli, br6k'-o-le, s. A sub-yariety of cauU- 

i7rocAtir0,bri^shCSr%B. 99. A pamphlet. (Fr.) 

JBrodb'e^, -et, s. A a-year-old red deer. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Brofmu,hr9f'^taz,B,tL Stent. ooarM ehoct. 
Brogutf brte , •. 80. A oowm aoM ; a Tolffar 

or proT. dlaleott :-^L, br oc oi>M|i 
.Brvi#<r*, Ac See JSMnrid^r. [diaeord. 

^yvi(, broyh a. 23. A noliy quarrel; a brawl; 
Brml,n. To oook by direet ezpoeore over the 

Are :— tL To be dreeMd bj brotUag ; toaweat 

with heatt. H., hroaimf, p^ a.; WiOtd^ pp., 

a. : broifmr, a. 89. 
2}y«My brOlu, tL To be broker for another*; 

to be diamiaaed in diacraeet. SeeiJ^wi*. 
.Br0*m,brOk'n,Dp.,a. Bentaaoadar: nneren; 

infirm; fte. H.,»raJk'«nVi«l*;»rtfV«mMv», 

a.n. SmBtmU, rbreaUied.(to.) 

Br^'km^wM^ -wlnd-M, a. WbidljalMrtr 
Mroker, InrO'-klr, a. A Ueenaed agent or neffo- 

dator; a faotor; a dealer inaeeoad>band goedfl. 
Bn^ktra^ -^ a. ss hr&ema^. hn/kmr^. 

The boaineaa of abroker; thanaa 


\ oharged by brokoni. 
Br om Ml t br<y«mU, a. A oomp. of bromine and 
Bn/maUt -mlU, a. A aalt of bramle acid. 
Bn/miCf -mTk, a. Of or from brome. 
Bnmide, brd'-mid, a. 58. A direot eomp. of 

bromine with a metaL te. 
Arv'flMM, -mln,a. M. = droivM*. An elem.bed; 

000. aa a deep-red floid with a very off. amei 
Srtmefua, brimg'-ke-i, 8.pL xsl»vneh*ia. The 
" T raminoafelooa ' "*^ 

I of the wind-pipe. 
Sronehial,ht6agkf'yU,m,4S.»br9»di*ia. Of 

or relating to the orontiila. 
J»«iioM^,-kr-tIs,8. Inflam.oftbebc«BeUn, 

or tho bronohial membrane, (path.) 
Jtronekoeekt brtag'-ko-aSl^ a. A tamonr In 

tha forepart of toe neok, oaaaad by a morbid 

enlargement of the thyroid ^and. (path.) 
Br0neMomf, -ktff-o-me^ a. Traoheotomy. 

(aarg.) (trachea. 

Sronfekm, -ktta» a. The tq^er part of the 
JBronMtf brOna, br0Bs«— J., wa., a. An alloy 

ofbraaaandtin; a metalUo pigment; any- 

thing in bronze; aeopper 
JSroaaa, Tt To eolonr like bronze ; to 

H., hraiufinfff p. ; bromudf pp., a. 89. 
Brtmtfma, -Ing, a. Tho art of imitating or 

oolonrmg bronzes. 
JKrooeA,broeh«.a. Anorn.fkateningorbaakle; 

a Jewelf; a painting in onl^ one eolonr (toeh.). 
Brooek^, Tt To adorn with jewda, fte. 
JtomI; brSOd, a. 30. Kept for breeding. 
Broodt%. OiBq>ring;prog«ny; anything bred; 

the nomber hatehed at onoe. 
Broodfyt. To eherlah with eare :— tI To ait 

on, asafowlon eggs ; to apread orer, aa with 

wings; to think on with long aa^ety; to 

mature with oare. H.,irQo^JMf,p.;(rM^a^ 
JhvotFytt -e, a. Anxioos to ait. [pp. 

J^voik, brAk, brSOk-K., Wa., a. 31. AamaU 

aataral atream of water. H., brookf*, a. ; 

brootr-Ume, brook-miml, &«. faames of 

plants), a. 80. {brooketL pp. 89. 

Brook^ft. Tobearoreniare. M^hnokm^,p4 
Bn^Utl^,-m,9, AamaUbrook. 
J»t>offi,br05m,a.80. A wild er erg ree n ahmb ; 

abeeom;anybrQ8hwtthaloaghandIe. H., 

6room'«», -ew fto, a. ; (to) ftroomt, t. 89, 90. 
J^M, brtdL a. 87. Liquor in whioh flaah has 

beenboOed. [AoiMf.Ahooaeforprootitation. 
JraMW; brMi'-«l, brttOir-a-S., a. » imKeln 
Breaker, brttth'^, a (pL, bntk'at, brttkfrmt^, 

brCI^.) A eon of the aamepareata; te., any 

one ekMly nnltad; an aaaooiato; aaUarw- 

dy raaembliiig anoflMtf . 
H., hrctkferU$$, hr9tKtrHk§, fte., a. ; broM^er- 
AomI, fte., a. 86.90.~.gfe<yai^ i ^a n ai t , laaftdl 
brother ; br9tk $r m i m i mt, one on themother's 
aide only ; &roM'«r^ii4aio, aalatar'a hasbaad, 
or the brother of a hnaband or wUSe. 

BnHkerkood, brOth'-er-ha&d, a. 31, 88. An 
aa aoe iat ion or fraternity: peraooa of the 
tiHH§ trade or prolBaalon. f ▼• an.) 

l^retA'ff'^, -le, a. BeI.tobrothera;kiBd,aflb»- 
tionateu K,,intkftri^,mi.; knUiftrimm^U 

Brought, prt., pp. See Bring, 

Brmo, brow, a. 38. The pramiaent ridge oftt 
the eye; the eyebrow; the iwehead; tbm 
oountenanoe; tne edge or top of a atee^ 
irfaee or ekfrattoa. SL, hrowmt/* 14 
leaa), irmo'-aMi* (d^eeted), ' 
(orowned), 4to.| a. 90. 

BrowbtoL brow'-bit^^ Tt. To bear down wfth 
aerere looka, or with arrogant apeedi end 
dogmatio aaaertkme. H., brow'bemtitig, p» s 
6roif'&«0toi, pp., a. ; 0^) brote^UMtmgt a. ; 19. 

BrtiMd,browd,a.38. Bordered; formed Into 

Brown, brown, a. 38. Dnaky; brewn-likeu 
H., brown'i$k, hrown^'p, a. ; ftroiaa'iMaK, a. 91» 

BrowH, a. A dnaky ookmr ineUntng to («d- 
ne«; a pennyf. H.. (to) irman, Tt. 9(^ 
It haa num. oomn. :— erviDn'-8e<ft (aa Ba^ 
mnaket);— irvwi'-MM; aa obs. Inf. weapoa}— 
brown'-coal, lignite ;— ftronmC-atowi; a atr« 
kind of porter:— ftrmofi'-eiwl^. thoogMAiP 
neea,roTerie i^-^rownf'^oort, apiant : cOnAa. 

Browms, brown'-a^ a. 38. A good-aalared 
spirit (Soot) riUTOored. (eook.) 

Brownfmc, -log, a. Llq. Vnrnt angar. Tar. 

Jrmoof, browa^ a. 38. Teadar branehea aad 
twiga eaten by cattle. 

Jrmoof, browse, Tt 38. ax krutUf, brfRVt T» 
gather and eat brows^ aa cattle :—tL To feed 
on brewae. H., ftrowi'M^, p. ; 8ro«ieed, pp. 

Bmemt, brOy-aXn, a. 18. »Moi0»Hih'4.». 
A poiMmona alkaloid. d8. 

^iwmt, brSO'-In, a. 81 A bear. 

Bndte, brSQs^ a. 18, 84. An injury lh»B abtoir 
withaometUngblttntaadheery; aoontaatoa. 

JEin«»«,Tt To eruah by beating orponnding. H., 
brvk^ing, p. ; brmieif pp., a. ; brm^sr, a. 89. 

BntUr^r.-ix,*. A tooiTar.ahaped; aboxaii. 

BruU\, br^t, Tt 18. To noiae abroad. H., 

'k»f,ja. ; bntUr^d, pp. 
AriMiai, broy-mi), a. 18. Of or rel. to winter. 


BrmutU, br9&-n«tr, a. 98. 
ioned woman. (Fr.) [peach i 

Bnmiom, brdtm-ytln, a. A fruit b e t w caa a 

Brunt, brttnt, a. The ahock or Tiolaaee af aa 
onaet, contention, or Uow; aaaddea eflbrt*. 

SniiA. brOah, a. An instr. of hair or brftaliea 
naed for cleaning, pataiting, fto. ; a tfaieket; 
the lopplnga of treea ; bmahwoed : a akir- 
miah or enooonter : me taU of a fox. H» 
knukf-Uke^bnttk'f (rongh) , a. 90. See P)meiL 

Bruik, Tt To aweep or munt with a brash; 
to remore aa by awecping :— tL To boto 
haatilyandligfatlT;toakimoTer. H.,8nH*'- 
^f P't n. ; brusked, pp^ brutk*er. a. 69. 

Bnuk-iokoels, a. pi. wneela whkh mofre 
each other by friction, without cogs, (mesh.) 

^maA'ioood, -wd6d, a. Ckiae thickets. 

.BmagiM, brdbak', a. 99. =E frTMa**. Abraptim 
manner: seareely dTiL (Ft,) 

Bnutle*, brtiaa, tL To ofaekla or nmde; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


- -.«ii,a.ig. Pert to ft brute ;im- 

tellBg;cnari,Mrag^iiibQBni. B.M^taUp, 

4a, ad.; br^takmm*, knOaiHg, 4^«. •. 81. 

^ini'telMi^-lH^n.tO.c.ftfVfeyy*. To degrade 

or neke bratel:— H. To grow brutal or 

tahmnMi JL^hnt tMlkk^ p.; hn^tmHted, 

pp. J ersteneirnen, 34^ n W. 

JH*, br^tM^ IS, M. ' 

ova: tanafeieoal: beetita ^ nrngii, vinbtuj 

H., inrtf'V*, ^ ed.; Intff'iMM*, i^ 91. 

Mna0,%. Aain«tloMlsiiliaia;flc.,abff«Clih 

m biBliI ftiei 
AVlnft,-l£r«. lik»abrate;brBlal;beitlaL 

■., Irflr^My, 4S, ad. ; »r«rteA«eji, f. 91. 
AvMK brT-na. 8. Tbe aaaee of aer. plaata. 
bJ M, bttbO, a. 45. A bladder or Tealela of 
MlBld tiled vitk air ; tg., anTfU^ enptj, 
wiitabla> or deeeitfaL IL, M»'lyt, a. 90. 
JlMTIe, Tt. To ebeatF:~TL To rlee in 
Irtblw; tormiHtiiagurgMagBotoe. H., 
teUrifM,p.,a.: taM'M^pp.; »iiU''lir, a.; 
(a) t Mb rhaf, a. 89. 
Mftff^V<0/-«,a Av«MDaB*abreaat. 
BmU, br-ba. a. 18. (pL, ktfUu, -bte«.) A 
riBttegioiiior azina. [tore. 

I'-o-eeU, a. iBfvhud mp- 
itrtf, a. One who prts. 
by bwanlBg; appr^ a ^rato 
I Sow Aaner*. [drytng . 

dB-lBs^a. AradektBdoramoke- 
(Mr-Ova. RelatiBg to tbe ebeek. 
' ~ -eO-Br-abOB, a. A breaklBg 

Jh^omI, -elB-il, a. Tniinpefe-Uke. 

MKk, b«k, a. Tba aaale of tbe deer, goat, 
abaep, ban^ and rabbtt ; a daaUiig yoang 
Mtovt; We iBirbieh ekrtbee are bleared 
or iBiliLi (to^). H., kidfc'jMM (leather), 
kmif^hmn, bmdf-thmrm, hid^-bean, Vmk- 

mwkmi, Ae. (wBMa of plaBla), a. 90. 

BudLrL IbaoakerateepiBiTe; towaehin 
aadBZ—fL To covor, aa a buck. H^ kmif- 

dM^ p.; faiafad, pp., a,; (a) froct^Mf , a. 89. 
MU, bdk'-^t, a. A TCMel in irbi& water 

ii &awB or earrled ; pwt of a water-vhe^ 

mdofapuap. &, toelf«Mi<, a. ; fte. 90. 
JtedM*:, btUC-iih, a. fiop^; annrt. U., 

tmONtUfX^ ad. ; tadk^uinciat, a. 91. 
JiaifB, bU^ a. 4ft. A link of netal witb a 


AMldZ«,b<id'l,a.4ft. Avoodeafhunenfled for 

waahlag ore. (mi.) 
Bvd^ei, bflj, Ti. To stir or moft off; to wag. H., 

bud/ingt, p. ; ImdgaH, pp. ; ftM^erf , a. 89. 
Bwdai^'bmrrHja. A Teaael for carrTlng powder. 
Btubit, b«f-«t, a. SS. A bag; a amah sack, 

wuh ita oontents ; h., a store or stock : tbe 

flnaaeial aebemce prop o ee d to aa aaaenwlT. 
AaiUt, bOd'-Kt, s. A small bud. 

T, bOi; 8. A soft leather prep, from boAlo- 
: a mil. eoatmadeof it ; a ookmr appro. 

to yellow ; ayellow, Tiseid eabs. wUdi fbrma 

on the sorf. of bkiod daring inilam. diicieni. 
ihe^bie, bUf '-d-lo, a. A specice of wild ox. 
3 *^|tr, bttr-ft r, a. A eaahion-like inetr. to 

lefaen nie fcree 

bmaone. rfpnlai^Fe persont. 

1!^ bttf'-«C, a. A blow with the flat 


h., any 

jrwiffv*^ w«ju -««, •. JOL viww wiui ui« usk • a dap. 

MtOTett n. To atrike or beat with the band or 
wt :— tL To plaT at boxing. H., ba^etmg, 
p.; 6Nf aiMiiPp.; oufeter,:; (n)btt^etmg^.%9. 

^•iMbaf'-«t,bd&r-A,a.99. A&nd of eup- 
boord or aideboard. (Fr.) 

Bt^ttiHf, -Ing, 8. Boxing; oontentfon. 

BtjfU*, bdf 1, Tt To puasle :— ri. To be at a lose. 

Bt^l4-h0adei^, -b«d-«d, a. HaT. a large head : 
stapld. [opera. (It.) 

A#», bd&f -ib, B. 99. The eomie actor in an 

IN^PbeiH bttf-fCRM', a. SO. A jester, antic, or 
clown ;onewhoiiaes indecent raHlery*. H., 
iw^bofVisA, k^foot^'Uke, a. 90. 

Bu0wni*t Tt To make ridicnloaa. 

m^omif§nu -€r-e, s. = In^wm'img^ hMtoriiam^ 
-lam. Ine practices ofa baffoon ; ladicroos 
or Tulgar Jnts, an ties, or poeturee. [ (path.) 

Bvffg, bdf'-e, a. Of or like the buff on blood. 

Bm§, bflg, a. A name looedy epp. to a rar. of 
inaeeta; appr., the bed-bog. H., hugifjfX, a. 

Av^eor, bflg'-btr^ 8. = ftiy*. Anything that 
aearea; aomething imag. or exag. that raisea 
absord IHght Ttoma, &c. 

^t/lfhtar^y^ To alarm or scare with idle phan- 

Ay]r'y,-e,8. A light gig seated for one person. 

BugU^ bQ'-gl, 8. 18, 45. Orig., a hondng-hom* ; 
a kn'ed horn of rich tone; an defeated glaaa 
bead; aplant: agennsofdo.; a8p.of wHdox. 

IhMeoBS, ba'-gllto, s. 18. A niant used in dydng. 

.01^ bOl^ MS91— K^ 8. Dead gold, brass. &C., 
for om. inlaying. [with bohl. 

BuM'-work, -wUrk, s. Wood, fto., inlayed 

ihiAr>Mle,b(lr'-atdn«.s. = fti(rr^stonf. A hard 
sittcions stone need ra miHs. [ and Hgore. 

BwWt, bUd,s. = 6w0(*,bnt Oen. appearance 

Bmitdt Tt To raise, as a fabric or eoiflce ; to 
flrame or shape anything into a partic. form ; 
to rest or foond (upon) ; to increase, estab- 
lish, pre s e rre (scrip.) :— ri. To exercise the 
art or trade of boildiBg; to depend, &o. H., 
bmUfing, p. ; bwU, bllt, prt., pp. ; btUTder. 
8. 89. [buildings, tto. (t. t.) 

BmiUter, -^r, a. Onewlio constructs or erects 

iMid'm^,-Ittg,s. Anything bum, ofa fixedkind. 

.0110^ bOlb, 8. A spherical protoberanee; a 
roond body, formed of fleehy scales or layers, 
emitting Abrous roots from its base, and a 
stem from its centre, as tbe onion (bot.). 

2M5, Tl. To bulge* ; to form bulbst. 

iMfroceoiM*, -bft'-sh'fis, a. S8. Bulbous. 

BtObTed, -«d, bOlbd, a. Round-headed ; bulbooa 

BuBt^f^nm, -If '-«r-tka, a. Prod, bulbs, [ant. 

2hdyet(*,-(lfl,a. Cent, bulbs ; ronad,protuber- 

Ail6«i,bd01'-btU,8. The nightingaleorthe Pem 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


JuZciiUii*, bd6r-ehln, t. A yoonff lynn-ealf. 

matt bQ\>, 8. S3. The bilge or broadest pert 
oreeaek; a protabennoe. 

Ai^Ti. To swell ont; to be protnberant ; to 
bilge. H., hdff'infft p., a. ; btdfodt PP* 89. 

Sulmy. bQ'-Um-e, s. = bulim'imp -y'^ L. 
Horbid Torad^. 

JMk, bfllk, s. MagnitQde of material, whole 
dimensioa, size ; the gross, minority, mala 
part, or body; a part of a bnUding, Ac* 
which Jats ont.— in butk. Is in the mass ; to 
break Sulk, to onload (naut). 

Bulk-head, s. A wooden partition, (nant) 

Biiky^ -e, a. Large. H., buXkinest, s. 91. 

i^ttU, bAl, 8. 18, 21. The male of bovine ani- 
male ; a sign of the zodiac ; a letter or edict of 
the pope : a rerbal blander or incongruity ; a 
jobber who tries to raise the price of stocks 
froon.}. H.,6ttU, buUith^bulV^headed, buW- 
Uke, kc., a.; btOf-bttUmff, htOf-dog, bull'- 
fight, bull'-fineh (% song-biitl), btdV-fy (gad'- 
fly), buPnuh (a large nuh), ftc, s. 90. 

BuW^-eye, -T, s. A small round window or 
opening, (nant) [or vesicle. 

BtdUi^ bfll'-<l, s. A genos of moUusca ; a bleb 

BuUaee, ba&l'-ft8«, s. SI . A var. of wild plom. 

J9t<^ary*, -tfr-e, s. 2ff. A col. of papal bolls. 

BuOaU, hUX'-tXt, a. Har. bulla, or little elcTS- 

3tiae<,b(K>r-«t,s.AsmaUbaUofmetaL [tions. 

BmeHn. bd&r-e-tSn^ bde>r-t<In^, s. 99. An 
oflkial report; a public announcement of 
recent news. 

Bumim, b(K>l'-yttn, s. 25, 45. Uncoined gold 
or silver ; gold or siWer regarded simply by 
weight, as merchandise (pol. eo.). 

BuWiragi, -e-rtgf vt To abuse or bolly. 

.BttiZoeft, bd^r-Ok, s. 26. An ox ; a gelded bull. 

BuUv, bd&l'-e^ s. 21. An abusive, quarrelsome 
feuow, more diet for menaces than coorage. 

BvAl'y,yl, To overbear with bluster and men- 
aces :~vi. To bluster and threaten. H., 
btdVying, p. ; bulVied, -Id, pp. ; buU'ymg. a. 89. 

Bulwark, b^l'-wtlrk, s. 21. 25. A bastion or 
rampart (miL); a fortification: fig., any 
defence or security. [to protect. 

Bul'%Dark*,fX, To strengthen with bulwarks; 

Bim^ bfim, s. The part on which we sit 

BunUtail^, -bftlf'-Yf, s. An under-bailiff. 

BumbaUX, bOm'-b&st, s. Patdiwork ; stuffing ; 
wadding. See Bombast. 

Bumpt, bfimp, s. A protuberance; a thump. 

Bump%, vt To strike against :— vi. To sound 
or boomf. [a crowded house (thea.). 

Bttmper, bflmp'-£r, s. A cup or glass brimfUl ; 

BwnpkUt, bfim'-kln, bfimp'—K., s. 45. An 
awkward rustio. [cake. 

Bun, bfin, s. = btmn*. A kind of light sweet- 

Brnwh, bflnch. s. 29. A protuberance, a lump ; 
a cluster, a knot. 

Bxtneht, Tt To form into bunches :— vL To 
swell out or grow into a bunch. [fMtst>B.91. 

Bmch'y,-e, a. Growing in bunches. H., buHeh'i- 

. 3tind/«. bOn'-dl, s. 45. A number of things put 

together; apackageofthingslooselymadeup. 

BwvdleX, vt To form into a bundle (com. fol. 
by ty ) : — vi. To prepare for depar ture§ ; to 
departs. Um ^uniriMMt, p. ; fttoMr/Afl, pp.— 
To bmiile offX, to send away in a pet or hurry. 

AM^,bang,s. A large cork or wooden stopper. 

Bung, vt To stop op with a bung. H., 

" ^p.;&MV^P£- [or barrel. 

bmg%» The opening in a cask 



Btm^-9tarttr, s. k hm^-4raMet, A kinAiiC 
flatbat for * starting* shires or wooden bongs, 

Bmtg'ahw, -d-lo, s. A eoontry villa. (Benr-) 

BtmgUt, bfing'-gi, s. 45. Anything ctOBsUy 
done; a botch; a blunder. 

Bm"glet, yt. To botch (fol. l^ «ip) :->vL To 
perform clumsily. H.. hmrglmtgt, p.* *.; 

Buniom, !__ ,_, , _ . 

Bunk, btlngk. s. 45. A bedpkoe formed oC 
boards ; a sleeping berth (naut). [(nent.) 

Bunker, -«r, s. A large bin or i 
Btmt,bants. The cavity or belly of a saiL 
BuHt*,y\, Toswelloot; tobnttf. [lowwosBaii. 
Bunter%, bfint-fir, a. A female rag-picker { a 
Btaveing, -Xng, s. A thin woollen cloth oseA 
for flags. [the sails to the yards. 

.ffimfUfut, -Una, -nnzt* •• pi- Hopes to dr«w 
Buoy, bwoy, boyf, s. 22. A float; a floating 
mark, to point oot shoals, an anchorage, or 
the place of a ship's anchor. 
Buoy, vt To keep afloat; to bear up or 
Kustain; to fix booys or Mioal-marks :— tL 
To float H., huoymg^y* ; huoyed, ppi 
.BwoyoM^, bwoy'-^nt s. Floating; light; tend- 
ing to rise. H., buoyantly, 4S, ad. ; huo^- 
aney, §, 91. [certain plants. SemBmr. 

Bur, bOr, s. The prickly seed-ease or head of 
Buiiot, bfir'-bQt •- 17. A fish called the •eU 
iriir<iciaM,bar'-de-la,s. Akindofgrape. [pent 
.ffMnkn, bfir'-dn, s. 45. The verse repeated in 
a song; the bob or chorus; anythmg often 
repeal or on which a man dwells; a 
borthen (q. v.). 
Bw'den, vt To borthen. H., bur^dening, p.; 

bur^dmed, -dnd, pp., a. ; burdener, s. 80. 
Bur'denaome. -dn-siUn, a. 25. = bm'denom^, 
-fis. Borthensome. H., bufdenoomelu, 4S» 
ad. ; bur'deneomause, s. 91. See Buruieet^ 
.Burtiodk, bfir'-dSk, s. A cert wild plant 
Bureau, bo-rfl', ba'-We., Wo., s. 99. (pL, *«*- 
reottx'.) A chest of drawers with oonv. tar 
writing ; an ofllce for either poblio or privott 
bosiness. (Fr.) 
Bureat^eraqf, -krd-se, -r5kS s. A gor. 
administered In departments, each onder 
the distinct control of a ohiet 
Burette, bA^rfit', st A pouret or aUcaUmeter. 
Burgh, bfirg, s. = burg*. A berg : a boroogh. 
Bur^-mot^, -nAte, s. A borough court. 
Burg^age, -^e, s. 45. A var. of tenure in dttet 

and towns, (leg.) 
BiirMss,bar^-Jfis,s.82. A citizen or freeman; 
a M.P. for a boroogh ; a magistrate in cer- 
tain towns. H., bur'gi 

enjoysthepriv. c ,. ,. 

a. 90. [ion*, -yAn. One guilty of burglary. 
Burglar, bOrg'-UIr, s. = burg'larer*, burgim*- 
J^MTfftm'ioia, bfir-f^^-e-Os, a. ReLtooroon* 
stituting burglary. U., frirtfltlr^tofaty, ad. 91. 
Burglary, burg^-Ulr-e, s. 25. The breaUng into 
the dwelling-house of another, at night, vrith 
the intent to commit a felony, (leg.) 
Burg'o-wuuter, s. = burah'-maiUr. One em« 
ployed in the gov. or a burgh or d^; an 
aquatic fowL (v. so.) 
Burgout, bttr'-g^^t, s. Thick groel. (nantl) 
Bur^grave, -grav«, s. The hered. gov. or m 
burgh or castle. (Qer.) 

H., k<rVat»^tAtf», s. 90. 

-^, s. An inh. of a boroogh who 

riv. of a place. H., buraherthittt 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


f-p4k, m. The aet of bazying; 
MBt. Sm Jhiry* 
',l»ir-4ta^s. A gravw (eDgr. tool). 
Av-ivl, bOrk/, t1 T6 ranrder a person, and 
altaeU ttebo^ fardbaaetioiL R^buHtf- 

3mH, bftrf, ^ To jpM the ftorb or knobs, 
^ftMl doOi, te^ imh dMrftn^-trofM^ in fUl- 
- tft. H.,(a)*i»V;«r,i.8e. 

" ~ * ' A sort of grapo. 

^ Oont. bnricsqne; 

jMi-faMi Mr'-ISs^; a. 28. A 
J fmimfm , bflr-liik', a. 99. 
' tBH&al : joanlar. (Fr.) 

, a. Lndienms eontraat between a 
8iA)eel aad AfesMBBer of treating it, tend- 
ings to cxelfee fangfater or ridicule ; a eom- 
poincNi MBtaining bnrlcaqoe. 
■" * i^, Tt To turn into burlesque or 
le. H., hmrietqtu'imft p. ; bm-tetgtiett', 
; TO. ; tarte^fHer, -kfr, s. 89. 
mtrttttm, bAr-lM'-tf, s. 99. A eomie opera ; a 
' mna. teen. (It.) [H., ftwr'ftnesf, s. 91. 

A«iy,bar'-le, a. Large; bulky; boisterous. 
Bmrm, bAm, a. S4 A iround or injury caused 

by lire I ailiulet (Scot.). 
Bmny vt To eonsnmft, reduee to ashes, 
voud, or i]|]nre irith Are; to inflame, 
aeotch, bake, ealehie:— rl. To be on Are; 
to net as Are; to flame, shine, or sparkle; 
tobeafteted or inflamed, as with passion, 
^kslre, Ike. ; to rage with destr. Tlolence ; 
to glow o r fcei Ink, fte. H., hmmfiyt p. ; 
"hgrnei er barwt, prt., pp., a. ; Jmrn'tr, s. ; 
fcrnToMr*, n. ; (a) 6«m|, hum'inp, s. 89. 
Jtanscr, bflraT-^, a. The part of a lamp imm. 

eoaneaCed with the flame. (▼.▼.) 
Jai nit, bdnf-Ct, a. A plant, garden-bnmet. 
"Bmnen-m^iftroft -tt^t^ is the plant 
~ 'atfln. 

r,baxB'4ng,a. Tery hot; heated; flg., 

Bsni silt, Tdiement It has many 
— w m n'mffiuu ^ a double -eouTez 

w Bt wm f w min w y — y »t', aconcaTC mirroT. 91. 
BmMk, Mbn'-tth, a. Gloea; histre. 
t^nrm^n. To yoUsh by frtctUm :-t1. To 
briffhk by frietion. B.burrfUhmg, 
^islUdt pp., a. ; Vmn'uher (the per- 

aatt; flie inatr.), s. ; (a) hmn'uking, s. 89. 

BmiO-mrt bflnf-ire, a. A disease in grain. 

JtoT, bOr, a. The lobe or tip of the ear ; the 
■weelbusil ; a triangular enisel ; the sound 
ef «■ wlMD atroDgtr fbrmed in the throat 

ir or 
g or 


of a 

;e or 


n aj 
: to 


break away; to fUl upon, issue, break 
forth, or oome in, suddenly or with riolence ; 
to open snontaneously. H., bttnfmgt P*; 
bunfmit ourtt, prt., pp. ; bunttr^ t. 89. 

Bmrthm^ bflxtii'n, s. 88, 45. Anything borne 
or carried ; a load ; that which is gricTons, 
wearisome, or oppresaiTe; the quanL a ship, 
fte., will carry ; a cargo; a burden, (t. L) 

Jhirth'm, Tt To load, encumber, opp re s s , sur- 
charge. H.,&ifrtA'mtii^,p.; 6t«^A'mal,-nd,pp. 

BurthentotM^ bdrth'n-sam, a. 25. = fMtrtk'm- 
OMS, -Os. Heary: grierons to be borne; 
o p pr es si ve; aflUetiTe. H., lmrth'en»omehf^ 
4a, ad.; burth'mtomauiM, a. 91. (• AU the 
words of the pres. class are found more com. 
with d than th, though lese prop.*— Smart.) 
See Burden. [blocks, (naut.) 

Burton^ bAr'-tn, m. A small tackle with two 

Bury, bfe'-re, s. 26. A dwelling-place :— afk., 
poL A burg or borough. 

Bwy, ber'-re, vL 36. To deposit a deceased 
person in a grare ; to corer with earth ; to 
place one thmg within another; to with- 
draw; to oonceal; to IbralTe and fin^ett. 
H., bur^yinfft -re-Ing, p. : bur'itd, -rid. pp., 
a. ; burying (burial, ftoOi a. 89. [pear. 

Bury, b£r^, bd— S., s. Tne bnrrd or butter- 

BwA, hdbah, s. 21. A shrub ftill of, or thick 
with branchea; a thicket; an uncleared 
tract of oountiy; a fox's taO: the box, or 
cylinder of metal let into bearings to lessen 
Iriction (mach.). 

Bu$h, Tt. To line an oriflce with metal :— vi. 
To grow bushy. H., buthed, pp., a. ; &c. 89. 

Buih-num, bdOeV-m&n, s. 31. A woodsman ; 

one of a race of sarages. (Cape of O. H.) 

Bidhel, b<56sh'-«, a 31. A 

fig., a large quantity. 

A meas. of 8 gall. ; 

BvA'eloffe, -t^ie, a 45. Duty or toll per bushel. 

.ffusAet, M6sh'-et, i. 31. A wood. 

Bu»hy, bdbsh'-f, a. 21. Bush-like; ftOl of 
bushes. H., buBh^intu, s. 91. 

dimness, blz'-nte,s. 15. Employment, occnpa- * 
tion, duty, ofllce ; anything to be transacted, 
or which demands attention ; the subject of 
business ; concern, right of action, matter 
of question or of examination. U.,bus'me9i- 
like, Ac., a. 90. ' 

BuA, bOsk, s. A flat piece of steel, wood, 
ftc, worn in the front of sUya H., buaked 
(wearing &e.), a. 90. 

BtaJk«^,b(isk'-dt,s. A small bush; ashrubbery. 

Buikm, bfls'-kin, s A kind of half-boot worn 
by anc. tragedians; flv., tragedy, [tragic. 

Butfkined, -kind, a. Wearing buskins ; fig., 

Bun, bOs, s. A kissf ; an omnibust ; a her- 
ring-fisher's boat; a small ressel (Hoi.). 

Bua/i,n. To kiss. 

Butt, bdst, s. A statue, or fig. in relief, as far 
down as the breast; the same part of the 
liv. body ; the chest or thorax ; the trunk. 

Bustard, bfls'-tdrd, s. 35. A spe. of wild turkey. 

Bu$tU, bttsa, bflsflfi— K., s. Hurry, stir, 
tumult: a pad to expand the petticoats. 

Bmftle, Tl. To stir quickly ; to be rery actire. 
H., bui'tlma, -ling, p., a. ; bustled, -Id, pp. ; 
bui^tUr, -ler, 8. 89. 

Bu»y, biz'-e, a. 19. Employed constantly, ear-r* 
neatly, or actirely; engaged or occupied; 
bustling, meddling, troublesome. H., &tm- 
Us9, bias »•; bwrHy, 43, ad.; butineu, 
bIz'-nSs, s. (v. su.) 91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Aa|hUk'-«kTt. To employ MtiTdy; to cngaM; 

to keep busy. H^ btujfm^ UsS P- ; btubi, 

\A^m.^k buifp-boiilu, it » meddling 

penoB ; Mf-mmditd, e., mentally aottfe^. 

^M. bdt, oon^ ad. More, AirUier, nottnf 

^ addition ; yet, howerer, nerertheleM ; now ; 

otherwiee than that; only : no mort than. 
^^ Sut^ int Expr. eQiprtM or rtt m en t 
^^ MvLv, (Coa^tetmoor.,e]aaeedwithepi».or 
^ pr^Wt.) &oept.beaidia,imleae,wUlKmt. 
But,h(li,», An end, limit, bonndary. 
JBwtt^vL To be bounded 1^; to abnt. 
But-md, a. The blnnt or larger end. 
.BwteA«r,b(J6toh'-«r,s.31,M. Ctee whose trade 
la to Idll domeetie animal* for ftod, or to oell 

thelrlleih; flg^anyonewhodelightsinblood. 

Buleh'sr, Tt To slanghter for food er aale; 
llg., to mnrder, to idll barbarooaly. H., 
buteh'trimf^ p. ; buteh'tred, pp^ a. ; butek'er- 
infftf huUh'myt a. 89. 

Butek'trtf, 'Id, a. Bvteher-Uke ; emd, mnr- 
derona. H^ b¥U^trim*$t^ 0. 91. 

JMeA'tfr^a-^rpofN, •^n-, s. The knee-liolly. 

JhUUr, bttf -Ite, a. A aerrant or officer who 
has the charge and man. of the plate, liqaors, 
&0. BL, ^llrIfni^p, a. 9a 8ee3Ntt<ry. 

Bytlttap0i, -^ a. tf. A toU on wine tar- 
marly paid to the king's batler. 

l^Mteim^, bOtr-mtat, ii Abutment 

Ai«,bOt,s. Lit. the end or ftirthest point*; 
a mark to be ahot at; the point to which 
endeaTOor tends; the oUeet aimed at; a 
person made the ol^eot of Jest, ridicule, or 
contempt; a sudden push er thrust with 
the head; a cask oont 106 gall.; the end 
of a ship's plank (nait). 

J^uM, Tt, tL To strike with the head or hocpa. 
IL., bvttfmg, p.; butted, p^ S^MmL 

Sutter, hUtf-tr, a. The unctuous subs, ob- 
tained from cream by churning: h., any 
soil fat Among ita cooqi. are— frNnTsr^yrr, 
htatfer-a^j butfer-Jlower, butter^wort, ftc 
(names of plants); hutifer-Jlu (a beaut 
winged insect): 6«M'erHn<M( (that left from 
churning); butrar-moHger,'mmkg-ir,hftf€r' 
vfife, Ac. (sellers of butter) ; fto^ a. 89, 90. 

Butver, Tt To spread or smear with butter : 
to progreesively increase stakesl; to add 
something adTsntageons or relitblngf . 

BufUerit, baf-er-Is,B. A steel paring tooL (ikr.) 

Bv^fory, bttt'-^re, a. like butter. 

Buttferp. s. a butUrv: A storeroom for 
provisions, ftc ; the butler's pantry. 

Buttoek, bUf -Ok, s. 25. (com. us. in the pi.) The 
rump : part of a ship under the stem (nant). 

Button, hhtfn^B. lit is. A catch or fastening 
for the dress ; any small knob, ball, or protu- 
berance ; a piece of wood or metal, turning 
on a centre, used to fasten doors, &e. ; a bud ; 
the sea-urchin. H., butt^on-U$i, butfony, 
a. ; butfoH-hoU, butt^<m-maker, &e. s. 90. 

ButfoH, Tt To fasten with buttons ; to dressf- 
H., butftminff^ p. ; buttoned, -nd, pp. 

Buttrtu, bttf-res, s. A prop or support; an 
outlying wall or mass of masonry built to 
resist tne hor. thrust of another mass, and 
when open, called zjlj^uuhbuttfrese (arch.). 

Buttreu, Tt To prop, &o. H., buttfrtued,^^., 

JBttttc,b(its,s.pL An archery ground. [a.89. 

AifvlnJfc, bOt-wlnk, s. A bird. 

Butf/raceow, bd-te-rft'-sh'tls, b<lt-ttr|— E., a. 
=: hutyrou^, ba'-te-rtis, 18, 28. Buttery. 


3iilMric, bfi-tXr'-lk, a. 1& Oforf 

Bt^iyrim, -In, a. M. An oily prin. in 1 

BucDtous, bOks'-e-aa, a. EeL to the box-tree. 

Buxoen, bOks'-ttm, a. 17, 25. Obediaiit, flex- 

iUef ; gay, lirely, brisk, JoUy ; wanton*, 

H., bua^omUf, 48, ad. ; duc'oaifMat, a. 91. 

Buy,\H,yi,\i. To purchase, in cxch. for cote; 

to procure for a consideration: to bribe; te 

pay dear forf:—TL To treat abont <nr be In 

the habitof buying. H., ftvy^Mf , p. ; ftoiyH 

\aSIH, prt, ppj b¥^mr, s. 89. f wM^cr. 

11mm, Ms, s. The noise of bees and fliea : a 

.Buss,Tt To whisper about; to tattle seeretly: 

— tL To make a boas or hum. H., hmfi^ 

BuxfeurdfS. Aalnggishtpecofhawk; abloek- 
BMflS'arM,-«t,s. Avar, of hawk. [headt. 
uBu8^tof,a.(T.T.) H.,5iflia'M^^,ad.8U 
2^, bl, ad. 15, a. Near; beside; passing; ofer 

or nea lectin^ : askle; away. 
^, bl, bet, pr- ^ Near, doee to, at hand; 
throo^ dwMHing the agent cause, meana^ 
or instr. : after, following, noting passtay 
or IndlTidual regard, aa--day by day, one by 
one; tiirough, during, at rel to tame; not 
later than; aceording to; on, orer, near 
to, noting passage or motion; with,BOtfftg 
poss. or custody. Its prim, sense is that off 
existence and proximity, and when plaoed 
before a auba. or pro. 01 apeeifleatinn, eap. 
after er in coo. with some Tvrb, it tertlwr 
assumes the meanbig of the context; a Ihet 
which expt the num. deflnltiona com. glvvn 
By-, bi, pfbL Obaeore, retired, sednded; ia- * 
terested, secret aside; irrefular, Indireett 
ineidental; oTer, past: aa-W-^onMr, ftf'- 
drinking, l^-Ume, if'-^^kTV-rearf, h/- 
view, by'-ioay, to., a.; bf^-enf 

B., s. ; bif-hlow, bjf- 

h^-pioy, W-punO$t, to.. *, vy-irpirw, -,- 

matter, bj^-etroke, to., a.; bj^-gone, b^-patt^ 

to, a. 91-3. 
^y^«ofi^ bf-gtf n, s. A past ittddent or erent. 

(Scot) [corporatfosk 

Bit-iono, AMm, a. The law of a town, eit|^ or 
Bif-naime,9, A nickname ; an inc. appellatton. 
Sv-pUty* •• ^ Mene oar. on subordinata to» 

tmt apart from the main action, (tbea.) 
By'-ttanderj s. A looker-on ; a spectator. 
By-west, ma, Weatward. (nant) 
^-word. -wttrd, a. 25. A com. saying; a 

word of reproadu 
By-emd-bj^X* *A, Soon ; preeently. 
By-tke-^l, Bd. By the way ; in passinf. 
Byard, bT-Ard, a. 25. A breast strap to mw 

with, (mi.) [goal in cert games. 

Bye*, bl, s. A dwelling; away ; a statkm or 
Byre, hire, s. A cow-house, (soot) 
Byemne, bis'-ln, a. Of or like rilk. [fine doth. 
Bystfue, -Os, s. A genus of fungi; anc, aTery 
B y a annn ' t , bls-4n'-an, a. Bd. to Byzantium. 
BytTantme, -Qae, a. = be^anL A large gold 

coin of Byzantium. 

C^ se. The third letter, and the s 

of the Bug. alphabet Its sound Is eittuNr 

thatofiborf. 28. 
Cab, k&b^ a. An anc dry meas. ; a cabriolett ; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


QiM^U^Br.ik AauUptftjMcnClyvBitod 

hafUf*f 9m oft. 


Oiir^JbL ^DiL s. Om ikUkd Sa the MbiOa. 
CWajlgf, -gr-flL a. =g eakmlittieaL EeLto 

1ki» «teU; teTOg a lUddn UMaisf. IL, 

mtimUifiedOm^ ad. 91* 
Chl«aM^uQ»ku,a.45. PerttoliMraM. 
CW«v«^U^-drri, -KSt^JL, Wa^ We., a. 99. 

Ammtantni, (Fr.) 
CwCaTMy-^Afc^ AeertflollaanrTas.; 

doSflUiad bj taiU>n4 H^ caiVugt-tui 

MTitfJ^ Tt. ^'ito eribV rarlflin. 
OiMii, Ufi'-lii, a. A amall roon or aneloaed 
MMce; aeottafaorhnt; abarthorapartmant 

OiTK irt. T^aniBa la a eaUn ; to MitrM 

«raUaiidiiaa:--tL Tolote,Aa,laaeabln. 


,. .. apiaoaof 

•" or 

YalaaUaa; diagoT.aoanailof aaation (pol., 

tLfttH^mk, a.: oaVmH^^amtmlt fte., a. 90. 
OMM^-Mtflwr.a. One who makaa tika better 

kiad aC y^ ff^*** fumttyTa. fohaia. 

(Ufa, kr-U, a. 45. A large, atroaf rope or 
CMM,-bld,a. FeateaediHthaeabtoi bar. 

•dri^lika noaiaiBga (anb.). 
CVUi<,-blSt,a. A8niaUeabie;atowHcope. 
a*At,kA-b8far,Tt. To roaat meat ia a eort 

saflaaaaaar. H., oiteft^AMt, p., a. 89. 
lc4-b9BB/,a.20. A^p'ar ' 
r atofa. (aaat.) 







nwfMfclrtt^-Ktoia. AganBaefiowiriBfvlaBfei, 
OaauHmaU^ k«-kft'HaIa-«t^ Tt U. T» anke 

aban or pjrraaiidaL B., 

a.«. [■ 

Cbdl, kid, a. A eoaeh- 
OuiaiwrmM, UM&t'-«i^ a. Oorpaa U ka; 

pala^ waa, ghaatly. H., aarfav'irMifJy, tf» 

ad. : MMtev'«rMfmM%> 9L 
OuUik kid'-la, a.^Worated faUoo 

«i4r Hoarta, or grab of the Maj-Aj. 
OMidMP, kid'-o, a. A aboogb ; e Jackdaw. 
Oul^, Ud'-e, a. AaoMUboxforboldiBftaa. 
Cbifai, kldi^ a. Taaie; aofl,daUaate; reared 
aMl«*,irAberreL [bybaad. 

CUc^yTt. Tobriacaptndarlj; todooMeti- 

eate. H., eATiNf , p. ; dUfid, pp., a. 99. 
auiifM^k&'HUaa«,a.Baa'4liiMy*,a. Attn 

or aiiAi]«« ; the IkU of the Toiee towarda tbe 

eloeeofaieateaee; the flow of Terete or pe- 

rioda; toDa,eoaod,Biodaktkm: repoee^Maa.). 
OufaiM, kd-dfo^, a. laferior Torkey «up^ 
0Mtoa«,U'-dtetML8iaklac. feeleedeaea.Ut) 
aidMaa,UMIa'-ad,^dte^^ad--8.,aJ9. Maai- 
CMft, kd-dfttr, a. 99. A atodeat ia a mU. 

•ehool ; a Tolnnteer who aenree la ezp. of a 

eoanaieikia. (Fr.) H., Mufaf «*^ a. 90. 
Q i rf f i r |>kA|'-ir,kM^-)ttr-WanarAaidaeraat 

backater; aead: oaawboakalkaforaliTlaf. 
Cbdi, k&'-da, a. A maciatrata. (Tar.) 
Oidkneon, kid-mV-ia, a. s OuraMan*. Of or 

it\. to Oadmoa, who tutro. 16 lattara of the 

alph. iato Oreeee. 
Oufatia, kidr-ne-d, a. Grade ffidde of itae. 
aMTflMan, -OiB, a A aaetal reeembUnf tia. 
Outocioa, kd-da'-eb*Aa, -^^Juf-jixk-lL^ a. 18, 

3a KeLtotheOoiii'MitforMercarT'awaad. 
OMfoai^, kJ-dfi'-elt.e, a U. Frailty; 1«i» 

aNii<'oo««,_ -kfla, a. FaUlBgei 

rly. (bot) 
Cmcum, ai'-kdm, a 99. The flrat or upper 

portioa of the large iateetiaea. (M 
OmtarUm, ee-alr<'-e-dB, a. 4S s Ona^'Han. 

Mottag a cart, operation. Cairg.) 
OaMMv, te-ca'-rd, a. >■ euteru, 18. A ila. Ia 

poetry; the aataral paaaa or mat of the 

Toiae ia reeitbig a Tcrsa. • 
OBaaral, HEar«^4l, a. Bel. to the eMnra. 
Cqfi* Ur-i, a 99. A ooffoe-hoaae. (Fr.) 
Oii^-ff^a. Of or from oolliee. 
aiMiM,-f8^-Ia,aM. AeryBtBabe.obtaiaed 

fromooffee; theine.. 
Oi^an, k&r-tAa, a. A Peraian Tcat. 
avl.kfts^a. Akag. 
Owe, kiy«^ a. SO. AaeaokMoreofwIreortwige 

for birda; a den for wild beaata; a priaoa 

for petty offeaderat. 
Cage, Tt TO pat iato a cage; to ehat ap or 

ooaflae. H., eOg^mf, p. : eaggd^ pp., a. 89. 
Oaginagt, kftg'-mig, a. Toogh, old, or an- 

wboletome pooltry or meat [crooodile. 
Caiinanf kA'-mAa, a. a aay'aiafi. The Aaier. 
Omuom^ kJ-Ia'-^ a. App. to aa add obt. 

from eaim'ea (-kA) root. [(Fr.) 

CUSftie, YA'-Qu, a 99. The akiir of a gaOey. 
Oairn, kA«rB, a A heap of stonea to make a 
Oa<mWa»,-gorm,s.36.Thefalaetopax. [graTO. 
Omam, kW-terkfta-a{R)n'--S., a 35, 99. A 

cheat filled witn bombe and powder (ailL) ; 

a wooden caae in which the piera of bridgei 

are built (civ. eng.). 
CaUi/ir, k&'-tif: a. Base; aerrile; deepieable. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


99. An cw. oil from the East Indies. 
Cta^ltf, kA-jdU'. Tt To deoeire or delude by 

luttery ; to wheedle or ooex. H., ce^^inf, 

p. ; eqjoled^, pp. ; eaf^eer, 8. 89. 
ClOt/'lety, -6t-t, s. nattenr, to. (t. ▼.) 
Quct, kU«, s. A email flattened maas of 

doagh, or paste, haked; any mass or snhe. 

Oak*, Tt To form into a cake or mass:— ▼!. 

To eonorete or harden. H., eSl^mg, p.; 

eaked^ pp. ; (a) eShftngX, a. 89. 
Cbfa&ofA, kil'-d-bUh, 8. The mrd-plant; 

also a Teasel made from its dried shdL 
CMom^tromt -mlf-^^r-Os. a. Harlng a long, 

stem, (hot.) 

hcdlow, knotted 

CdlamiM, kU'-A-mln, -mln«^K., Wa., s. 58. 
ts Uffit eaiammef'rU, L. Kative carixmate 

Oif OMM^ -mint, 8. A eert aromatle plant. 

Oakmitom^ kd-UmMt^Os, a. Inyolving ca- 
lamity; haleAil, miseralde, diaastroos. H., 
eaiam'ttovt^f 43, ad. ; ealam'itomne$$t s. 91. 

Oakm'Uy. -Itr«, s. Anj great misfortone or 
caose or misery. 

aUaimit,UU'-d-mfia,8. A reed; the Ind. cane 
or rotang : the sweet-flag, or its root. (L.) 

CWaM, k^Uah', 8. = M/^dktf, -lAsh^, Fr. A 
light, low-wheeled carriage, with a folding 
top; a kind of hood worn by ladies, [one. 

Gs^oar(i<«,kAlk'-dr-it^,a. Hav. a spur, or like 

OalcttrtouM. kU-kBr^-e-Os, a. Kes. or oont. 
chalk or lime. H., ealcdr*eoMnu$, s. 91. 

CalcavaUa, -kd-vAl'-d, s. A sweet wine ih>m 
Portugal [Shod; wearing shoes. 

OalemUd»t kil'-se-ft-tM, -she-Wa., a. 28. 

OahtferouM, -slf-lhr-as, a. Containing lime 

Cayci/bnft, -tana. a. 26. In form of calx. 

OoMru, kAl-ein7, Tt = oat^okuUeU -aln-ftttf. 
To reduce to powder, or to a fHable state, by 
heat:— vL To grow friaMe by being heated. 

SL, mMm'^m, p. ; ealcined^I pp. ; eaktSn' 
mbk, 45, a. ; eahma'tion, -iln-ft^-shttn, s. 89. 

Cakinatoiy*, -ein'-d-tdr-e, s^ 25. A calcining 
Teasel or amtaratos. [lie base of lime. 

Oaldtunt kAl'-ee-Ckm, -sh'Om, s. 28. The metal- 

Oalcographv, -kdg'-rif-e, s. A s^le of engr. 
reeemb. chalk. [emus or stonei 

QWeulary, -ka-ldi^, a. 18, 25. Bel. to the cal- 

CateuUayt 8. The oongenes of little stony 
knots in certain firnits. 

CbtoM/a<«^ kAT-ka-UU^, Tt 18. Tooompnteor 
reckon; to determine or a^jnst by oompn- 
tation or reason :— tL To make compata- 
tions ; to intend or porposef ; to suppose or 
presumef. H., etU'cuUMng, p. ; eofeulattd, 
pp. ; cafculaUfr, s. : catculable, 45, a. ; eal^ 
euUfiitm, 86, 8. 89. 

CaUmla^tion, -ahfln, a. = eoFeukf. CompuU- 
tion; reckoning; a mental estimation formed 
by comparing related (keta. (t. t.) 

CafeuUU^ -Ut^lT, a. = caTouiatory, 25. 
BeUting or tending to calculation. 

OaUmlom, kU'-kQ-lOs, a. = ealeulois, -lOs^. 
18,45. Stony; gritty; calculary. 

Oateulva, -lOs, s. (pL, eaTeuU, -It) Stone in 
the bladder or kidneys; also app. to Tar. 
branchee of the higher math. (L.) [boiler. 

aiMrMi,kJk£i'-dr<ln,8.8.25. A large kettle or 

CbMbtriam, kil-e-ddn^-yftn, a. 45. Scotch. 
H., OaMdn'ian (a Scotchman), s. 91. 

Cat^flmmt, UU-e-A'-ah'tet, a. 37-6. = m/«- 


faeHce, •iXk'-UT; eaMlatftor^, 25. Warn 
ing; glTing heat H., (a) eal^afeimt, i 
(med.) 91. [ing : the state of bcdng heated 

OaUfaetion*, -fU^-ehOn, a The act of warm 

Cal^, k&r-e-fl, Tt 48. To make warm :- 
Ti. To grow warm or hot H., oar^^yin^ 
p. ; etWtfied^, pp. 

Calendar, kU'^-dilr. a 25. A yearly regii 
ter, an almanac ; a formal list of persmw c 
things: a list of criminal causes for tria 
H., (to) calendar, Tt 89, 90. [doth, Jb 

Cktfender, -dte, s. 25. A hot^press for wmoothia 

Oaftndtr, Tt To dress or press with a ca 
ender. H., eaTendermp, p.; eafmtdarei 
pp., a. : catendrtr (he who), a 89. 

CuUndneal, -re-kiU, a. Bel. to a calendar. 

Oi/tnA, k&l'-dndz. 8. pL Thefirst dayof eac 
month, among the ancient Bomana 

Oale§eeHe€, kd-U^-^nse, s. A growing wan 

(W, kOht, a (pL, ealvei, kdhvx.) 7. TI 
young of the oow; a dolt or stupid lisllowi 
the fleshy part of flie leg b^iind. H., «a{| 
itht ea^-Uke, to., a. ; eoJf -«ftm, to., a. OC 

Caliber, k«l'-Ib-«r, a = cdKhr^. 57. Diametei 
the bore of a gun ; callbref :— pL, caUpersi 

CaWn-t, ka-lSb^r, a 99. Compass of mlxid 
sort; kind. (Fr.) 

<]Mi«o, kU'-e-ko, 8. White cotton-doth. B 
eatieo-frintittg (art of dyeing patterns on 
eafieo-prmter, Ac, a 90. 

Oi/Mf*, kUMd, a. Hot; burning: ardftn 
H., eaUdit^, k^MId'-It^ s. 91. 

ail^MO«is,kd-m'-In-a8,a.S2. Dim;obfleiui 
H., eali/tfumm^e*, s. 9L 

CaUffraph^t kd-Ug'-rftf-e, s. = eamifraph\ 
Ele^t nenmanship. H., eol^^n^'to, m 

CdNpaehj kAl-e-pAsh', a. 99. The part of 
turtle Dd. to rae ig)per shell :— «oftpe«. -pj 
that bdonging to the under shell (oook.) 

Calipers, kAr-«-p£n, a pi s oatypth. Con 
passes for meas. the diam. of round bodie« 

CaHph, kft'-Uf. 8. = eafltf. 45. TIm U1 
aasumed by the successors of Mahomet. 

CaUplMte, kftl'-If-tte, s. The office, dfcni£ 
or goremment of a caliph. 

OaHtthmne, -Is-tfate'-Ik, a. = camtOmtri 
Rd. to cahMthen^iei (s. pi), or exeraiaea d 
signed to promote grace and strength of bo4 

ai«^ kSK;k, Tt 8. ToBtoptheseamsorahij 
to., with oakum: to point or roogh C 
shoes of horses. tL, ealxmff, p., 9Li e»2fcj 
pp., a. ; eaWer. a ; eaWmf-iroH, ixu^ a. i 

OaOem, kftl'-kin, kii^-lnt, a = ealkt^ co^ 
«r}. 9. The part of a horse's shoe mm 
prom, or pointed, to prerent Its sUpplaR. 

OaU, kfnoi, s. 8. The act of calling: a -^ 
address of summons or iuTitation ; impol^ 
diTine Tocation : a naming or nominatuml 
abort Tidt ; a shrill pipe or whistla (▼. v 

Oall, Tt To name or draominate; to ecj 
Toke or summons; to iuTlta or cdlaet ; 
proclaim ; to exhort inToke^ or a p pea l tj 
to ^>point or dedgnate; to aocoont' 
esteem : to inspire with rdig. ardoor : — i 
To speak loudly : to utter the name ; to m^ 
a short Tldt H.. eaUing, p. ; mUmI, |n 
eaVfer, s. ; (a) etuVing, s. 89. [craftiiie 

aiOJii^, k&l-Dd'-It-e, a Skill; shrewdne^ 

Calling, Ub&r-Ing, s. 8. Usual prof., oeeun 
or employment; a dais of persons ainiiliS 

' (T.T.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


^,k»»fii^^4, a. 4S. A 

filvntoiT ((«pp.toth«alda). 

€kBMtilf, kll4V-»«. a. Boraj hardacM 
CMbM,kir-l%a.4&. Hardened, iadnntod ; 

fr* bmhMi^ vnfBeUsf . obdonte. H., 

«^M|^ A id-: €^l0«ncai, a. 91. 
OAa^Afi'-M. Uidtodgwl: Mked. 
€UB,Ul^a.i. AtTeaft; 4vfet,aenDCi,ini- 

agtMad; caHeeted, imdiatarbedy anexeited. 

S, mia^tf, dt, ad. ; aUm^nma, a. 9L 
flsi^ lb ScnEBttjr V uuiaC^ 'cpoaa j Baiiwuw. 

(efe. apyu ta tfagVL) H., cAlai'y*, m. 90. 
ChHn. Toicdacato a attte of calnmeai; 

!• Vrirt, apyaaae, traaqinilUae. H., eolav'in^p 

^, a. ; aatead; vp. ; aala^rr (he or that), a. 89. 
0*M<kdr-»>Ba,8. TteiaaoluUaehlacida 

(ymie, kd4Br^-Ik, -ISr'— K.. We., a. 16-7. 
~ MerorcaaaeoTheat. 

mting heat, (bort.) 

rthiiifcarraii, U-ier#-«4lfr-kir-aha]i, a. The 

liiiinkiaafhcat (cap. animal heat). 
Ik bilu , ka-a -flar-e-tfa, a. W. A^eelea 

oifaf^pc ksr-o-€4»cv «. A var. ofphotographj. 

ihi|M,fcift.vlL9«.s«a2](*. Tooop]rdraiv> 
lap bf aena of powdered ehalk and a Unnt 
c^; fi» eoBBtar-4bav. H^ (a) caique 

A bitter, tonle root 
, a. 13. A North Aourl- 


Chai'MMrir, -blat4% a. Thaeelaai^ore 

exehangaa, weighta, mtaa., ka. H., (a) cam'- 
C3m'ftr«j;8. BamOwHbrU, [hUt,:90, 

(hmtrie, kame'-brXk, ii A Tar. of tna white 

linen. H., cdm'ftrifl, a. 90. 
Came, prt. Sea Otme, 
Onm0l,kim'-&.n» A larse animal need in the 

Beat for harthen and rldinf . 
ClMnel/ia,kA-mAl'-y'd,8.45. Agenoaof plants. 
Oamtlqpard, ki(-m61'-o-pdrd, kAm— Br., K^ 

S., a. 7. The giraflb. 
Oiaiao, kXm'-o-o. a. A atone (ooyx, agate, fte.) 

earred in relief; a monoohrome repreaenting 

baae-reUef (pa.). 
Otmera, kim'-^-d, a. 99. A chamber. H., 

0aM'«ra-/Metda, -rC5'-4e-dd, an opt. hutr. 

foraketehing; eam'era-ob$eura^ -tfb-aka'-rd. 

a darkened ohambcr, in whieh the imagea or 

external objects are exhibited on a aorcen, 

by meana of a lens or lensea. (L.) 
(hmermUttie*, -Qst'-Ik, a. Rel. to finanee or 

pnblio revenne. H., oaaMrolMftes* (science 

of; dec), a. 91. 
CamfmraUdy •ft-tid, pp., a. Arched ; raalted. 
OamUt^ k&m'-let, s. A stnff, orig. nuule of 

camel's hair and ailk; bat now, chiefly ol 

wool w goafs hair. 
Cam'l€Ud\. -M, a. (Coloured or Telned. 
Oammoeky kim'-dk, a. The plant rest-harrow. 
Campy kiinp, s. The station of an annj, with 

its tenta, baggage, Ac, after it baa taken the 

Add. H., aomp'-tey, eaaiy-«too<, d»., a. 90. 
Oseip*, Tt., tL To encamp, u., eoa^tn^, p. ; 

Oawtmaign^ k£i-pAn^, s. SO, 45. Lit, an open 

field ; h., an unintermpted series of mit 

operatlona in the field. 
(ktmpoign't ri. To serre In a campaign. H., 

campaignlinff p. ; campaigned, pp. ; cam- 

paign'cr, a. 80. 
Cantpaniform, kim-pXa'-e-form, a. 26. = ca$n- 

paneulatc, -a-l&t«, 18. Bell-ahaped. (bot) 
Campanalogyt -pd-ndr-o-je, a. The science, 

fte^ of bell-ringing. 
Can^panuia, -p&n -Q-Iil, s. 18. The bell-flower. 
Campeciraly kilm-pte'-triU, a. s campc^trian, 

46. Growing in, or relating to fields. 
Oamphcnc, kAm'-f§n«, s^ Bectiflsd oil of tur- 
pentine ; alao a chem. prin. [phor. 
GMi>Ac9«N,-fo-Jte,s.Tbe hypo, radical <tf eamr 
C^aipAor, kim'-for, s. S6. =s eam'pMre^. -ftr. 

A frag., ToL, inflam. snbs.,used In med., te. 
Oomphoraccout, -ft'-sh'Os, a. 38. Of or like 

C!am'phormte,-%U,%. AaaHioteamphor'ieaeid. 
Oam'phoraU^ vt To impreg. with camphor. 

H., camfpKoratedf pp., a. ; ftc 89. 
Oamphorie. -fSr'-Ik, a. 36. Of or ttom camphor. 
Oa mpmg , kimp'-Ing, a Playing at footbalL 

Camp^ton, -yfln, s. 45. The plant lychnis. 
Can, k&n, s. A metal cup or veasel. 
am,rt Toknowf:— Ti. To be able, to have >. 

anffldent power, &0. H.,eoifM;kot>d,prt89. 
Omadiafi^ k^nft'-de-&n, a. 46. Of or firom 

Canada. H., (a) Cantfdian, a. 91. 
QmaiUe, kd-nais'-Wa., We., kA-nd'-U—K., 

a, a 99. The rabble. (Fr.) 
CkmeiM, kin'-a-kin, a. AUtUeoan. 
(kmaly k4-nil', s. Any water<conrse made by 

art, eep. one soitable to inland navig. ; a duct 

or passage in the body for floids (anat). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


vlated. 18. Hade like a pipe or gotter ; 

channeled. [from the CutaryiaLet. 

Ckmary, kd-nftrZ-e^ a. A wlne,al80 a song-faird, 
^ - ' ' To dance or frolic. 

CtofwTryt, ti 

Ccmetlt kAn'-flSI, a The part of 

aoppreeMd, or altered, (trp.) 
Cnveel, rt To oroea or Uot oat; to erase 

* expunge ; to annul, loppMai, or render 
tralid. H., etrnfeetUng, p. ; ean'eeUsd, 
; cat^oeUer^f s. ; eaictUa^tiont 86, a. 

Qm'ctUaUdt -ULt^-M, a. Croaa-barred; har. 

Oaneer. kin'-e&, a. S8. A 'vimkini eeirrboiu, 
glandular tomonr, which nsnallj nlceratea 
(path.) ; the orab» a signof the aodiao (aet). 

CtmetraU, -&t«, tL Growing caneerooa. H., 

Oan'eerouM, -Oa, a. Of or like a eaaeer. H., 
cam'certmiUf, 48j ad. ; eanreerotmusM, a. 91. 

Cbiwrif<mn,Ung^-kr»-forni,a.26. GAneerooa; 
crab-like. Jj^^ ^' * *'*^' 

Cbn"0rifM,-krXn,-kiln«—S.,'wa., a. Hav. the 

Omdelabrum, ki&n-de-ir-hrtim, a. (pL, cm- 
delcfhra.) A candleetlek with hranohea. (L.) 

amifen^,Un'-dfint,a. Glowing witli heat or 

Oan'tUamtU -de-kSnt, a. Growing whita. 

aMiwf,kin'-dId,a. Lit^ white, fSidr.ahinlngt; 
frank, ingennooe, nnWiiiwd, aincere; free 
from concealment, prejndioe^ or malice. H., 
coH'iidlVf 48, ad. ; eoH'dovr (▼. i), cam! did- 

IMM*. 8. 91. 

CMdidaU, -da-dftt«, s. One who lecka^ 

aq)ire8 to, or competea for an oflh)ek priTi- 
lege, or position. 

0andl8, kia'-^ a. 46. A cjUnder of taUow, 
wax, Ac., bearing a wick. H., cttn'dle $ti e k , 
can'dUmoit (feast of the pniit, 3 Feb^), ftc, 

Om'dock, -dfik, a. A rirer-weed. [a. 90. 

Candour, kAn'-dSr, a. 86, 56. Ftankaces ; in- 
genooasnees ; candidness. See Candid, 

Candy t kSn'-de, a. Crystallised sogar; any 
attbttaaoa preeerred in sngar. 

CbM'Af,Tt. TocoQaerreordreiawithangar; 
to form Into or oorar with eongelationa or 
crystals :—tL To become congealed or can- 
dled, like sugar. H., ean'dymg, 43, p. ; eon - 
<{^ -did, pp., a.; con'd^iV (urt or act), aJ8. 

Ccm'df-i^fU, %, KameofaplJuU. 

QmefkBOUfS. A strong reed ; a walking atJck , 
H., eOa^f, -e, a. 90. 

Oane^n. To beat with a cane. K^tdmfmff, 
p. ; aofMd, pp.; (a) cOn'ma, a. 89. 
Mt, UPnfia'-^t, a. Tendingto 
.; growing white or hoary. £L, 
«MMM*, -ioMi, coMM^cifMytf -•a, a. 9L [atar. 

aH»MiMter*,HiXk'-a-ldr,a. 18. Pert, to the dog- 

Omine, kil-nln^, a. 45. Of or reL to a dog. 

OanisUr, kta'-to-tAr, a. A small baaketf ; a 
box or case, as. of tin, fiw hcdding tea, fte. 

aMaMr,king'-k£r,8.46. A dissMS In trees ; a 
corroding uloer; fig., anything that cankers. 
Hn ean''ktri»k*, m^'ker-Uk^, emif'ker-*U, 
a. : ean"kmr-M]h caal'kar^^oarm, ftc, a. 90. 

Oan"ker, rt To eat away, corrode, corrupt, 
or destroy; to Infect or poUnte:— tL To 
grow oormpt, *o. H., emfhtrimfh Vn ^$ 
eaarktred, ppw, a. 89. 

Oan('ker<mi,-iSk,tu Corroding like a canker. 

Can''kerjfX, -% au Buety. 



OmmiMm, kHi^-a-bm^ a. 45. 

CbfMt'oMM, -bin, a. 58. Purified reria ai Ind. 

hemp. [black, hard, fossil ooai. 

Oamul^oal, ItM-SL-lOSU, a. A rery t * 
amnOaj; kta'-e-btt, a. 35. A hnman 

who eats hnman flash. H» canm'ibalt, a. ; 

Cbnn'^pcrt*, -Ip4rs, a. pL Cslipera. 
Oamtan, kXn'-dn, a. 38. A large gun ; a piece 

of ordnance. H^ tatm'otirbail^ 

msCalf oaum'tm-fn^ te. 90. 
GMMoncdt, -Odi:', Tt. To attack or batter with 

•tL To diedmrge canncn. H.. 

oannondd^ing, p.; camumOd^ V9-} (*) 

eannonad^, mnmomddfmgt s. 89. fman. 

Cbnnofiisr.-Crtf', s» xs ooimopMn^. An artulery- 
Can' not, Ti. To be unable; (not na., taU pcei:, 

written aep.— tfon noL) 
Canmdmr, kta'-a-Ubr.a. 18^ 36. Tidmlar : eoM- 

like. [wary: plausible, (pvor.) 

CaamiffXj Idln'-e, a. bs oamn'te, Sco. Caatioaa : 
Omim, kd-nS5', a. xs eonea*. A rude Uad «r 

boat naed ^ savagea. 
CbMOfi, kin'-mi, a. 17. 36. Alawormla^BOie 

esp. in mattera eeclea. ; a dignitary in aatke- 

dral churchea; a list of saints eanonlBad; 

a large var. of type : envy last atsp ol aa 

equatioa {alg.) ; a kind of Ineeesant fofprn 

{mxxB,).'^(Mom4an la ecdea. law ;— ae'erstf 

ean'on, the received hooka of the Holy 

Scriptures, 90. 
Om'Mt^s. The part cf the bit put Into flM 

horse's month. . [prebend. 

Oaalonomf -^a. A lay-female who e^lova a 
Canome, U-non'-Ik, a. = catton'ioal, KcL or 

acoor. to the canon. BL, mn 

eanoH'ieaima$$Xt a. 91. [the « ., 

Omof^tea^ -Ik-ila, a. pL l%e ftiU dreaa of 
Canon'ioaUt -Us, u, TheolBoeofa« 
OmoiMMty.-Is'-lt^s. Theatateoft 

to the canon or genuine Scrtotnre. 
Canonue, kia'-<ln-lfe«, vt. 36, 60. To enrol an 

asaint H., eoM'oitMMf , p. ; eon'emswi; n^ 

a. : canonitaftiim, 86, s. (Bo. Oath.) 89. 
CWoMst, -Isl^ a. A prof, of eanon-lasr. Bu« 

eononist'te, a. 90. [neflceei^joTed by ■ aanan . 
Oaidomryf -re^ a. sr eon'ooa^*. The eeelea. be- 
(toM>py, Un'-o-pe. a. A eorering of static or 

deeo ra tlen , oteAead. 
Can'o]^ Tt. To eorer witli a eanopy . H.» 

CanorS*i3l-iiif*'rfamf a. Musical; tnnefriL 
H., camtfrmuim, 9tL\ ean^rmantoi, a. 91. 

aM»f.kAnt,8. Llt.,atoaa,Jerk,or8add«iliD- 
pnlse; an IncHnatfcm from the horiz. Una; 
an angle or comer ; a whining^ singing atyln 
of speech; ph ra ses often repeated or not well 
anthcriaed; prcrf. teduOcaUtieat ; a whining 
pretenaion to goodnsast. (▼. ▼.) 

Cant, Tt. To glie a sudden toaa, impolaa^ ar 

, to aeU or bid at anetient :—▼!. 

To speak m a whining or aiheted manner. 

H., cantfintf, pu, a.; oonftd, pp.; oamtotp 

s.: (a) eanTi^, a. (r. i ' '^ 
OanUti, kdnt. = eamui 
OamtabX, kta'-tib, a. « Ckitabnaiam, -brlT* 

e-4n» 83, 46. A man or student of Am 

UnlTcraity of Cambridge. 
OMitakvNk -ti'-bre-in, a. Fart toOsntabrla. 
Oantata, kXa-tJ'-td, -If— S., a. 99. 

settomusie. (It.) 
OaniatiomU -ti'-ehtfn, a. 



« QmtairQiam, ' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Guileoh liixb-t£B«', s. A tin vhmI tot tmtr- 
ing vBter or Iqoor ; s sHttliiif-hoiiM; the 
tsvera ftttadb«d to bamMsks. (mil.) 

Ommtgr, kSa'-tdr, i. An casj kind of gaDop. 
H^ (to) eaHfUr, -rt., tL ; eon'terMf, p.; 
««i'<erad;p^89,ID. SeeGMK: [foriB]i2e,te. 

Gm'te^tcriiv -Mr-€v «• A itnkd or reooptadt 

Om/^larMfea. kSn-diAr'-Yd-^z, ii pL 99. Span. 
fliea. (liO fin flantharidas. 

OmOm-'idSmg, 'la, B. S». Tha blisteriaff pria. 

Cntfhm, kta'-tiiia, a. Tha angle or eonter of 
tha efc. [The song of Soloaoon. 

» a. tf . A lOBf ; a oantof :— pL 
i»t,Un-tn-lft'-ahlkn,a. ChaatiuE. 
tmf, -lag, a. (Saa OmL) H^ etmti$My^ 
4S, aoL; trnttitttntttlt a. 9L [of aaaddle. 

antfa*,lctetl,a.4S. Afragmentf; ttiehindbow 

CtoTM*. -Kt» a. A Uttta earner. 

amov Ua'-to, i. 99. AdiT. of apoem; tha 
tVBlila» or leading melody (maa.). 

OirtMs Un'-tBB, a. 17. A oaBall dlatriet or 
eaBBiaoitj; a anall dhr. of territory under 
a aap. gov., alao ite inhaK : a comer of a 
sidald(WrO; adlBtinetpartor<fiTieioii(pa.). 

O wirtBW, y j. = em^Um uf, 60l Todhidainto 
aartona; to aUot qnartera to Croopa. H.) 
c&Hflo9iH0mp. I fiun^totudf pp. 


Qm^hmmnt t, -mfa ^ a, Tha aep. qoartera of 
tnMpa in tow^ As* 

Ctaaaai^ Ub'-H% a. A eoaxaa hempen-doth* 
■md te aafla, teata, *e.; eloth in laila, ar 
Hdla In 0BB. CnaoL) ; an exam, or cloee in- 
aaeelkm ; a dl a r i i mii on or debate : a eoBoita- 
taoa^ eap. ftir 'volea (elect). IL, cartas 

Gn^casi^TL To diaenB» examine, or aeroSin- 
iaac toaolMiiorpiakoat(aaTote8):— tL Tb 
aaako»ic»lielt.fta. H., oan'racfwij^ p» ; ean'- 
<awrf, pf». ; (a) con'aaMer, a. 89. 

Oamum§t^iamHB>4aif, •, AUttleeong. 

Oiafniwir, kdy-ebdbk, a. i9-l. ladU robber. 

cUkM. Av<oLU<|.<^mtodfromInd.mbber. 
Ot^ hMpt a. A eo^Mring ftir tha head; a oor. 

gUiiaiallT; thacoiignof a eardlnalate; the 

f^ ar hUle* past.— Qq>-»iN0, -*-pr, ad., 

tern hcadto foot (Fr.) 
On, ▼! To co^cr the top, end, or oriflea :— 

H, Tovnearmr tfa« headf. H^ cttpgfktg, 



CbMT, kr-pfe. a. Aleaisakip,o 
dandnff or frolic :— pi., ea'pt 
flower-bnda of the «<fMr-4iM^ 

. . ea'ptrt, tha piekkd 

Cetper, tL To leap or eklp. K, ottfmii^, 
p., a. ; eeipered^ pp. ; edptrtr, a. 99. 

aipiaa,kA'-po-K8,kap«'-jfist.4«. A wzitof arrait 
before, or of ezacntioii after, jndgmant (L.) 

a>pafaMOMLkAp-n-Ul'-«h*(lB,a.38. CapUlarr. 

Oopmmkrt,-)kri,%.W. Orig.. symp of maidaar 
hair; now, simple irmp, flaTourad. (1>.) 

OuN/temeii^, -lA-mtet, a. A fine libra or lUa- 
ment (anat : bot.) ftlon. (▼. L) 

CbpO/anty, -Ub<-It^ ■. 26. CapfllarT attrao- 

OagiUatrv, kip'-Il-Ur-a, -pIl'-Br., iC, a. 96. 
Kea. a Aair ; eztr. fine or minata j it daaotea 
the Tar. of attraeUon or ngMiMofi I9 which 
floida aaeend or are repdled in tha porea of 
bodies. H.^capOtef'i/y (state of behigAo.), 
8. 91. 

or ca 

tram, of the arteriea and otl>ar vpeselaf east.). 
Ctopi^onN,k2i-pa'-a-form,a.S6. Hair-ahapad. 
OvU^ klp'-It-il, a. 9. BeL to tha head; 

afltoting the head or lift; first, ohlaL prln- 

atoalihirge; fanportant U., eagrUmU^, H, 

Cap'itml, s. nie nppermoet part of a enhmin, 
pillar. Ac. ; whatcTer ia eUef, largest, or 

^t^far^ -pll'— Br., P., SL A miaato vessel 
• canal :— pL, eaf%Uari»$, the minnto ezr 

or mannH, Ju carried on (eomm.). [stock. 
Cap'iialisL-iBt, s. One who po s ssss w can. or 
CVi^7aee,kap'-tt-it^a. Growiagtoabead.(bet.) 
CapUtUUm, 4L'-ahO]i» s. A nvmbsKlBg of p«w 

us: apoU-taaL. 

A building in Bome ; 

an edifice used far leglslatiTa purposes (U J.). 
QnWoUme, -o4]ta«, a. = d^fiUfiam, -yin. iL 

jrertaiaing to tha capltoL 
CapUtdar, id-pItT-a-l^, s. » eapifvlmy. 1% 

95. The laws or statutea of a chapter or 

aoeL oooncil; a member of a chapter. 
Capitvlmry, -t, a. BeL to tha chaptar of a 

cathedniL H.. M!p«r«lar^. ad. 91. 
OuMtMto^ kXrpBr-ft-UU«, Ti. 18. To draw np 

in heads or artlsleB*; to set forth, as a 

summary; to sorrenider en sUpolatlona 

(mil.). H., eapifuiatwuf, p.: eqpitulatsd, 

pp.; capitulator, 26,:; eapUuU'twn,9^.i9. 
Oapivi, kd-pT-Tc, s. See Oopaika, (Fr.) 
OywoiiuM^y, kAp^-no-mftnHM^ a. DiTiaation 

by smoke. [beech-tar. 

Oap^nonmr, -mto, s. 17. An oily snba. obL from 
Oapoeh, kd^pOOoh', a. = eaptmeh'. 38. A 

monk's hood; the hood of a cloak. 
Oapofh k&pe'n, cft'-pOn— K., s. 17. A yoang 

cock, castrated. H., (to) «(lj>'efiii«,90,^99. 
Cktpoi,kli-'p6V,». Atarm in piquet, [tha East 
Oapoie, k«-pdt/, s. An outer garm. worn in 
Caprate, k^i'-rftt^. s. A salt oleaafrU add. 
O^rtniaUt -rs-o-Utt«, a. HaT. tandrila. (bot) 
(kifrioti k^prSs«', s. A sodden start or change 

of mind, humour, or opinion ; a freaky whim, 

or fknoy. 
OaprieiouM, -prfsh'-'da, a. 97-8. Prone to ea- 

prioe : whimsical ; chaaoeable H., eapri'- 

dmmy^ 48, ad. ; eaprf'wmuugi^ a. 91. 
OiprMom, kip'-re-kora, s. 86. The wild goat; 

one of the signs of the sodlae. 
O^priff , kAp'-rld, a. Bel. to the goat-tribe. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Cbpr^haHon, -ka'-thOn, t. A cert mode of 

ripeninfr figs. [dinooa :— pftc Wild. 

OapritM, u'-pime, a. 45. Like a goat; libi- 
Cajpritu, "kUff-tln, cap^rone, -r5n«, i. 58. Snlv- 

•tanoes fcnnd In batter. 
Onriolet kip'-re-iJIe, kft'— S., s. A eaper; a 

leap, without adraneing (man.). 
Oap'roaUt -ro-Bt«, a. A aalt of eapnfie acid, 
OqMienw, kip'-achsln, a. 58. The aorid prin. 

of capttenm. 
•Oap'sictmt -ktim, a. Gajeime or red pepper. 
•Cbpttstffy kftp-«Iz^^, Tt. 60. To opaet H., cap- 

iltfing, p. ; eaptHaed^, pp. (naut.) [wlndlasa. 
CaptUm^ k&p'-^in« a. A la^ kind of rertieal 
OiMular, kApa'-a-Idr, a. = eap^ttkuy, 18, S5. 

Hollow; cellular. T a capsule. 

<ktpfiikU«t -lftt«, a. =3 eapifulated, Ineloaed in 
Ciyma4, kApa'-Ok, a. = eap^vla, L. A Uttle 

cheatf ; a Talralar seed-Teaael (bot.) ; a 

email, aballow diah or baain (ehem.). 
■CmtaiH. k&iy-tlnf, -tinf— K., Wa., We., a. 45. 

Lit, diief offleer ; appr., the ecnnmander of a 

frocy of horoe, aootfiMMqf of (bot, or a tA^ of a 

certain aixe; h^aleader or chief generally; the 

head or prin. of a amall party or gang of ment . 
Oajftamoift -ae, a. = captamUhip*, The rank, 

poat, or cominiieion of a captain. 90. 
Oaptumt, kftp'-ah'aa, a. 86. Diapoaed to find 

fault, caTil, or critidae. H., ea^(iow/y, 48, 

ad. : ag/tunmu$$, a. 91. 
CagftwaU, -te-Ttt^ rt. To make capttTcf ; to 

charm or anbdne with excellence or beau^; 

to engage the friendahip or affsetiimB. H., 

cap'ttvatingf p., a. ; em>'twated, pp. ; eapti' 

M'(i0»« (a capturing, Ac.), 86, a. 89. 
•Captioey kan'-tiT, a. 45. Maoe or held prisoner 

in war ; fig., charmed or aubdned bjr beauty 

or excellence. H., (a) eqt^tive, a. ; eaptkr- 

%, -Tt« (state of bebig ftc). a. 91. 
Cbpfwra, kapf -are, a. 18. The act of taking 

or aeixing ; the thing or things ao taken.(v.T.) 
<€bpf tira, Tt. To take or aeixe aa a prize ; to 

take by force. H«»eiwf firing, p. ; eopf fired; 

pp., a. ; eapfor, 25 (one who), s. (v. s.) 89. 
'CMveMn,kkp-n'thinr,s. Aclcwkandhoodfor 

femalea; a Tar. ofpigeon : a Frandacan monk. 
<Cbipi(<,ka'-pfit,a. Thehead. (L.)-Oafpta-mor*- 

tuum*, -tn-ttm, a. Leea ; drega ; residuum. 
Car-, eatr; pfk. Town or dty.fCelt ) [ (chem.) 
Car, k4r or k'Jr, a. 7, 27. A light carriage of 

burthen ; poet., a chariot, &c E.,eai^maH 

(a driTcr of), a. 90. 
Cbra5jn«,kdr'>^^blne, a. 26-7. = ear^Unej kA'-. 

45. A abort, light musket H., MraMfiieK, 

carbinier', -laT/ (one who carries ftc.), & 90. 
Oar'acotet -o-kdle, a. 26. An oblique tread or 

half turn (man.) : a winding atairoase (arch.). 

H., (to) car'aooU, Tt.; &e. 90. 
Oaramel, kdr'-d-ma, a. 26. = car'omcl, 

Roaated angar, or ita aolntion. 
Oar'aty -&L s. 25-6. = caf^aek*, A weight of 4 

gr. (jew.): the l-24th part, in pure gold (aas.). 
CbroiNNi, kor'-d-Tin, a. 26. A large, doae car- 
riage; acomp. oftravellera, aaao. together 

for mutual security, in the East 
Oaracanftarjf, -sifa^ s. 25. = earavan'sera. An 

inn. (Tur., Ac) [of ship ; a herring-Teaael. 
€braM<,kar'-<f-T«l,a.26.=aif^M/t. An old kind 
Oar^awajf, -4-wl, a. 26. An arom. biennial 

plant; alao ita aeed. [add. (chem.) 

Cbrftoso^ ktfr-bfl-sttf -Ik, a. 27. Noting a oert 
OarkoUc, 'hiSlf4kt %, Noting a certain add. 


ObrftoM, kJr'-bSn, -bOn-K., S., a. 17, 27. An 
elem.subs.exi8ting pure only in the diamond, 
and form, the bada of charcoal, coke. Arc 

OarbonaceouM, -ft'-«h*fla, a. 37. Of or cent 
charcoal. [acroea and broiled. 

Cbr'donaiie*, -bo^n&de, a. Meat or poultry cot 

Carbonate, k<lr'-bfin-&te, a. 27, 25. A aalt of 
carbcme acid, [earb. add. 

Oar'bcnated, -ft-ted, a. Comb, or aaturated with 

Oarbomcy kJr-b6n'-Ik, a, = carVonou^, -Oa. 
Of or from carbon. H., carbon'ie acid, ftc, 
s. 91. [carbon. 

CarboniflerouM, -If-fir-da, a. Cont or prod. 

Oarbomee, kJ^-bfin-Ize, Tt 60. To couTert 
into carbon or charcoal ; to char. H., ern^" 
boniemfft p. ; car^bonieed, pp., a. ; carboniet^- 
turn, 86, a. 89. [of green glaas^ 

Oar^bow, -b(^, a. 22, 27. A large globnOar boUle 

Oirbuncle, kJr'-bang-kl, s. 45. A deep red- 
coloured gem : an inflam. boil or tumour. 

Oar'btmcled, -kid, a. Set with carbuncles; 
apotted. [carbundet. 

aBrftt4fuw{ar,-bangk'-a-klr, a. Of or like a 

Oarbvret, kAr'-bu-rdt, a. 18, 27. A comb, of 
carbon with another aubs. [with carbon. 

Om'bwreUed, -Sd, a. a car'UmetUd, Comb. 

Careaee, kdr'-kXa, a. 27. The dead body of an 
animal : the frame or main parte of anything ; 
the shell of a building; a kind of bomb. 

Cbr^omO, -ate-U, a. Belonging to a priaoa. 


Card, kiSrd or k'tfrd, a. 7, 27. A email square 
of paateboard, dther plain or otherwise ; a 
written note or message ; a large comb uaed 
to dreaa woolz^pl., pieoee of pasteboard 
with figures and points used in play. H., 
eardl'tdhU, cord-maker, ftc, s. 90. 

Card, Tt To gamef ; to comb wool, flax, fte. 
H., eardina, p. ; carded, pp., a. ; card'er, 
a. : (a) eardma, a. 89. [planta. 

Cardamme, km-H-mme, a. 45. A genua of 

Oantanum, -mtim, a. 17, 25. A medidna! 
aromatic plant ; also its seed. 

Qxrdiae, ktlr'-de-ftk, a. 7, 27. a cordffaeai. 
Pert to the heart; cordial; inrigorating. 
H., (a) cdf'diac, a. (med.) 91. [Heartburn. 

Car'dialgv, -U-Je, a. = cardiafgia, -je-4, L. 

Cbril^, ktfr'-dln-fti, a. 27. Chief, prindpal, 

€af*dinal, a. A dignity of the Rom. di. next 
in rank to the pope ; a spec of short cloak. 

Caf'dinalate,'^i!U, s. = oar^dinalehip. The offloe, 
rank, ftc, of a cardinaL [curTC. (alg.) 

Car^Md, kJr'-de-oyd, a. 22. A heart4Uce 

Oardoon, -dSOn', a. A Tar. of wild artichoke. 

Care, klre, s. 6. Solidtude; anxiety; caution; 
charge at oTcrdght; the object of regard 
or attention. H., car^ftd, car^leae, cttr€- 
oroaedtt core'-worM, Ac, a. 90. 

Care, tL To be anxioua or aoUdtous ; to be 
inclined or disposed ; to heed or haTo re- 
gard. H., cdrina, p. ; cdred, pp. 

Cireen, kii-^Cne', Tt To beaTC a ahip on her 
dde,forthepiu:p.ofrq;Mdr:— tL To incline 
to one dde, se. H., careen'ing, p.; careened^ ^ 
pp. ; (a) eareenfing, a. 89. 

Career, k«-r8re',s. 84. A course ; a raee; q>eed ; 
procedure ; course of action ; life, progreee. 

Career', tL To moTC or run rapidly. H.* 
career^inff, p. ; careered^, pp. 

Carifia, kAr/-fd61, a. 91. Heedfol ; soUdtona. 
n.,car//uUp, 48, ad.; car^/tdne9$,B, (t. a.) 9U 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


MM^ I. (V. a.) n. 
Ovo^UHi^.iLn. ABjaetofcadtaraiaitor 

Ckn^^fLT^ tedto ; to cBfanee taadcrlf. 

Q r w i ^ wj ^ ^E ad. & a eucwtBff miuMr, 
£ hna;tfc /^ i. A auxk ( a ) in writisf , 

<kPF^kAr'-«g^a.7. TbebidlnfferfMflitofa 
CWii>i^, tar<^-»*^M. a, Ckrioiw. 
( b iM i i i B M, kb^^-^S-tOr^, lu 18. A npr. or 

4BEC. » csacfanied m to be ridkiUoni, 

tonj^jat lo— <f ifwmhlinf f . 
ftniwto /, Tt. Tb bmIw ortoni into eiricft- 

Arw^ kk£'-«-ea, a. St. Decay or nUteuiCM 
iCaleHL (L.) [eliaped. (bot.) 

-'%a.= i!«r^«MM.S6.Keel- 

A Msall open earriagVi 

< yn wii , '-fle,"«." Dcemd or rotten (at a bone). 
Mi><.hir'-ttoc^ -Bb— We., a. tf. AeUver 

mm^-<3m'lmf ttittlt, ibUX a plant. 

C^toiyrin,-k>-'nB'-i*-in«a. Pert-toOiarle- 

CWaM, ■. See Oar. [magne. 

a^mSU, ^dg'-mO-lU, a. 7. 37. A monk of 

teeedver Menat Oannei ; a kind of pear.'adac.a.m. 

45. Warming; 

at. H., (a) ear- 


I, hiir'-flilB^— A^ Br., Jo. We., -min«' 

Lriea and eoitlT 


, _ Of or flrom carmine or 

Gi»wiB,b«:'.«ij«,a.7,4ft. Great destr. of liJb 

brnr ««ter«folenoe; batdierj; elansbter. 

ChrM;k«r-efl,a.7,f7. Fleshly, uupiritnal, 

««■*; ■r^nmrarw H., w'niUjf, 4S, 

-t,,P,l,Wa,a.«. A I 



dvvMf^Tl. TodrlnkliimiyerMii^. H., 
€tttmmm§f p. ; camuMtm^ Pd* oerMircr, a { 
(a) tmtm^ or caroui'mg^ w. [ad. 91. 

OwvaiTAiy, -lag, a (▼. ▼.) H^ oerMt'tNfly, 41, 

Ctary,k4rpork'4rrp,a7,fl7. Apondorrlrerllih. 

Cho^ t1. To eeaanre, eaTil^ Undftwlt, petu- 
lantlyornnrcaMoably. H^ ewytn^, p^ a ; 
cmptd, pp. ; Mfp'T, a ; (a) cmy^mgt a SQ. 

a»yw. -iBr.«. (▼.▼.) H^«wy*if^ad.»i. 

Cbryel.kft'-pU.a?. Ftort. to the wriit. 

CtanM/Jbien, S-pft'-the-*a, a. 49. Pert to 
the OarpiUt (a range of monBtaina). 

Cbry0<, kAr'-pO, •• 7. Oneof agroapof imall 
•eed-TeMds prod, by a tingle flower, (bot) 

Onr'pmUr, -pte-tir. a Sft. A worker in tim- 
ber, at employed in the eonttraetioB of 
edlioct, thipa Ike. H^ Mr>M/ry, -tre (the 
art or work of fte.), a 90. 

Ciaryee, kifr'-^rfSt, a 7, 27. The woven or fStlted 

Cof'petXt tL To eorer with earpet. 
ear'peted, pp. 

^pitmi[, p» ; ear'peUd, pp. " f ?or do. 

Oar'pdmgt'lDg, a. Ouptto in general ; ttoif 

aw7o<o«y, kJr-pfir-o-je, a 7, Ml Atreatiteon 
flrnlt H., earpotogtst (one TerMd in), a 90. 

Cbmoye^ Ur'-itf, a 38, 4ff. Theaetof oarry- 
ing, bearing, or oonTtjing; that wUeh 
carriet ; any Tehiele on wheelt, partienlarly 
a coach ; the diarge for, or eoet of eonrey- 
anee ; behaTioor, condnet, deportment. 

CbrrMM, k^r'-re-an, a 38, 45. Tleth vnflt for 
food. H., eer'noM (reL to), a. 90. 

Oammade, k4r-an-Bd«', a 35^ A abort 
cannon of large bore. 

Chrroew, kdr-r<wn', a 34. A rar. of cherry. 

Omr'rot, -rflt, a 25-8. An eeeulent root. H., 
eer'rofyt* ^ (carrot-eokmred), a. 90. 

Carry, kar'-re, Tt 7, 38. To rattain and con- 
▼ey, or trantport.>VoM aplaoe: to bear, con- 
TOT, or condnet unciasf) ; to eflwot or aceom- 
pliMi; to lead, draw, or trantport (either 
phyt. or ment.); to imply, comprite, exhi- 
bit; to extend or contlnoe; to anpport or 
turtain ; to behave or deport (foL by a redp. 
pro.} ; to trantact or conduct IM, by <mU 
to ootain pota of by force (miL) :—rl. To 
deport (the body) ; to conrmr or propel. H., 
cor'rytN^i P* • ettr'rud, -rla, pp. ; eer'rMr, 
•re-«r, a ; (a) car'ryimgt a 89. 

Oartt kJn or Vtfrt, a 7, 37. A carriage gen. ; 
appr.,onewithtwowheda for burthen. H., 
carf-hone^earf-UMd, emrfwrl^ht, &o.,a90. 

CbrtfTt. TooarryorconTcyinacart:— tL To 
nae cartt fbr carriage. EL, earfin^tp. ; carC- 
ed^ pp. ; etnrfeTt s. ; la) cmrtmg, cartagi. a 89. 

CbrCo^, -l^«, a 45. Charge for carting. (▼. ▼.) 

Cbr^e, kAt, a 7, 37. A card : a UU of Cure.— 
atrU-htaneM (-blinah or bknuah), a tlgned 
paper, unfilled op ; h., nnconditioBud tenni, 
power, fte. (Fr.) 99. See Cart, 

Cartel, k JT-tM", a 99. An agreementfor exch. of 
priaonert ; a Tcaael empl. Ibr that purp. (Fr.) 

Oarteman, -te"-sh'in, -tes'-yin-K., a. 45. Of 
or relating to Dca Gartet, or hit phlloaopby. 
H., (a) Cart^'akm, a 91. 

Carihamman, -thd-JIn'-yto, a 45. Pert, to 
ana CUthage. H., (a) Carthagin'ian, a 91. 

Oarthamua, kJr'-tfad-mda, a Safflower. 

Carthutimi, -<A«'-sb'&n, -thCU'-y&n— K., t. 45. 
A numk of ChartreH$§, 

CartUage, kJr'-tXl-l^^ a 7, 45. A white, clat- 
tie anbe., bet bone and Ugament; griatlet. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


{btHMmmtf-W't^^^ OritOy; hsviaff 
etf^kgM in Um of bonet (lohth.). 

Cbr/iofrafiAy*, -<iIf^-Tlf-e, 8. The art «r prep, 
maptandeliarts. H^cttrto^ri^kut,B.; Sn.w. 

CtarfooN, lUIMQOif , e. 7, M. A large ibewimg 
oa paper. OMre pertf eolarly for eabeeqiMBt 
traosftr wr ft«Beoee» tapeetrj, ftc. 

OwfeMoA, -tOOebC, 8. A eaztrtdget; a portable 
box ftr do. (ariL); a roll or aerolf on tbe 
oomiee of a eotamm (arcb.). 

CMridge, Mr'-trQ, •. S8. The charfe for a 
gun made late a paeket. H^ tmr^tridf^ 
box, cm'triig* f o p mr^ to., e. 90. 

Obf^tulary, -to-U&-e, e. S5. Aregkter-book; 
alee one who keepe reeorda, Ae. 

Cbrwwie, kAr'-ttaff-kl, a. M, 4A. A B»aU 
fleefayexcreeeenee. H.,MrMM'«lar(iBfcrm 
of), canmtf mated (havinff a &o.), 2ft, a. 90. 

Cbrve, fcArv^ vt. T. TO out Into fornw, de- 
Tioefly fto. ; to Boalptare or engrare; to eat 
food Into pleeee or elieee; to appertkm or 
distrib.:— Ti Toeat«pnwat,fto.; toaetaa 
a Boolpter, fto. H., ear^m§, p. ; cmved, 
pp. X crn^eTt e. ; (%) oatnfimg^ e. 89. 

OnW, kAr'-vil, 8. Sea-Mabber. 

€tarra<mEdr-«-&f -{k, a. Pert to Garyatei. 

OtK^iim, edea,«e<»ya'lei,^g«,99. Fe- 
male flgvee need instead of eolnmoB. (ardi.) 

CarnophmUatMni^ kdr-o^-fl-U'-eh'tte, a. 96. 
Of or like eloTee ; harina ^myepMfUom 
flowers, Uke tbe pink (botf . 

Caryoph'yttint, -On, s. 68. CloTe-oainphor. 

CbMaif«,kae-kld«', 8. Awaterfoll. 

OuooriUo, -kd-rU'-d, 8. An erom., tonic bark. 

OiM, kastf, 8. Lit, that whioh fiOls, eomee, 
or happens ; an ereat ; h., partletgdar state, 
eonditioii,oretream8tanoes; hist, of disease: 
sabfeetoriiaeBCionorinqniry; statementor 
related foots; eontingeaoe; IwflfHinn of 
enbe. and adJ. (gram.). 

Ca$e,B, AnytUag which iaoloees or contains ; 
a ooverlng, bocL sheath, reeeptade; outer 
part of a boHttng; reeeptaole for types 
fprin.). H., MMf-^AeC, MMfHoona (oaddk), 

Cto«e,Tt. Top«tiata,oreoTer,wlthaease. H., 
eiUmg^ p. ; etued, pp. ; (a) cMing, s. 89. 

Oaa^-kardem, -hdrd'n, Tt. To eonrert tiie 
exterior of iron into steeL H., toB^kardm- 
ktft p., 8. ; eat/kardemedt pp., a. 89. 

CSuMe, Ul-ey-Ik, a. Of or from cheese. 

CSuMfie, Ur-ee-In, e. 68. The card of milk. 

(Matmtmt kls^-mSn, b. A oompositor. (typ.) 

CoMfmate, -mat«, s. A battery in fbrm of a 
vault in the flank of a bastion, (fort.) 

Ctu^wwUdt -U, a. Having casemates. 

Ommm U , Us«'-m«nt, kas/— P., We., s. A 
window opening on hingee. 

Ca$«oma, kft'-ee-Os, -sh*«8, a. 86. Like cheese. 

Casern, kft'-xlm, s. 8maU barradis near the 

C%iM, kish, 8. Money ; appr., money in hand 
orateommand; ready money; specie or car- 
rent do. 'a.,oash''-aeeomt,ca$k-bookfSct.,B.90. 

Guh, Tt. To tarn into or exchange for money. 
H., eash'ing^ p. ; emthed, pp. 

Oa$hew, kd-ehW, kMi'-We., a. 27. The 
anaeardiom or eoiheuf-mU tree, [keeper. 

OuHer, kil-ebflr^, kftsh— We., a. A cash- 

GuAmt', Tt. To dismiss or disttrd; to break, 
as tfxr mal-condaet. H., cashier^mg, p.; 
eaehiered^, pp. 

. CAS 

OssJUasrs^ kKsh'*m9r«, s. A rich shawl tnm 
Cashmere; a var. of woollen sta& [Ae. (It.) 

OatmOf kJt-eS'-no, b. 99. A ealoon for damng, 

OmIc, kfak. kiS8k--4L, We., 8. 9. Aveeselfbr 
holding liqaora, fbrmed of staves and hoops. 

Oadfelf'^fB. A Jewel ease; a gasket (naot.). 

OMfue*, klsk, s. 99. A helmet: (Fr.) 

OMSitfon, kto^r-ehfln, a. The aet of an- 
nnUlng.— Oiwrt e/ oossolfofH the highest 
eonrt of appeal in France. 

OssMtw, kitf-^va, -a— Br., K., a. A kisd 
of starch ttam. the etu^ada pkmt. 

CiMfte, klsh'-'a, -yd, ai A genus of plants; a 
weU-knewB splee and arematlo. 

Quemere, He e mBra^, s. 

Cbe/oeik, -8k, 8. 17. A ves 
tiie gown or sorpUoe. (eeeL) [bird of prey. 

Q sseos w w y, kSs'-o-wdr-e, s. 95. A large S. jL 

OmC, kdst^ kXst-S., Wa.,kdSt-K., W&, s. 9. 
The act of casting, or Its prod, er reenit; « 
throw, the thing thrown, or the distaaoe 
passed over; aventofie or haxard; a tnm, 
ability, or sqnint: form, ahapcu air, mios; 
tinse, or slight tendeneyto; an tmaresriOB» 
or figiire formed by eaedng ; the aadgnment 
of pots to actors, (v. v.) 

Out, vt Orig., to throw, ffing, er send, aa 
flrom tile hand, or manage; asensewhleh, 
eitlier lit. or fig., it carries Into all iti appL: 
as— tosoworseatter: toemHortkrowovt; ta 
thrast; to drive or nnpel ; to throw, as dice 
or lots; to condemn or eooviot ; to defeat or 
overcome ; to ehed or ^row off; to rctieet» 
discard, or lay aelde; to«(jeet; tomonlt; to 
caase preponderance; to ^axkoe or tnm flie 
eye: tomea]d,ehape,ormodel; toooDtrtre 
or plan ; te threw together, eompofte^ er reek- 
on ; to form by pouring sabs, mto moulda; 
to assign the puts of a play ; ftc fte. :— vi. 
To reoeive shape or form ; to contrive, re- 
volve, ponder on; fte. H., ca$t^in§, p» a. ; 
cost, oasfMltt pit., pp., a. ; caefer, s. ; (a or 
the) ea$t or caetfmfff s. (v. s^ 89. (Its oompu 
^otutasidet catCowtif, eatt-down, &»., are 
gen. setf-exp.) [Muses' ftvnt 

Owtofton, kAs-tale^-yfia, a. 46. Pert, to Che 

(MtcmeU, -td-n«ta, s. pL Batttee need by 
dancers. [neglected; a reprob at e. 

Osstoiniy, kdst'-d-wi, 8. 97 One abandoned or 

Oa$te, kAst, s. 9. Tribe or class. (Hind.) See 
cm, [and battlementa. 

Qutellated, kfts'-t^I-A-tCd, a. Har. tunvta 

Oattellation*, -W-Oiiin, u. The fortifying of a 

Ocuter, k&st'-er, s. 9. One who casts ; a smaU 
spice bottle or eruet (gen. In pL) ; a snoaU 
wheel or roller attached to fumitttre. 

Oaatifote, k&s'-te-gftt^, vt. 9. To correet or 
chastise; to punish with stripes; fig., to 
animadvert or criticise eevoely. EL, otu^ti- 
gating, p. ; efuftigated, pp. ; etu^tigdtor, s. : 
CMtiga'Uofi, 86, s. 89. 

Oa^tigaiofy, -t5r-e, a. Corrective, *c. (v. v.) 

OattUian, kfis-Ol'-yin, a. 9, 46. Of or from 
Castile. H., (a) OattiFian, a. 91. 

OuOe, kfisO, 8. 9, 46. A fortified house; a 
fortress. H., eaetled, kasld (hnv. eastlee)» 
etuftk-erownedy a.; ea^tk-btdldert (a vi- 
sionary schemer), ea^tU-gmard* (a feudal 
tenure), ea^tleagef, eafth^tcard* (a toll 
or tax to maintain fte.). M.—Oa^ttaM fAa 
airX, are groundless projeots, 90. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Oasflwv* Hre, f. Tlie gov. of a cMCie. m. 

Oiirtiwf*, Mitr-af , ». 9. An aboitkm. 

Culor, kfa'-tdr, a. f, S5. Tbe beaver; aIm 
SB «dor. drvf (cmto^rw— , L.} taken from 
ft; a beaver ban. ffroin caator. 

Ot^imrme, -to-rln, i. 5S. A anfai. extraeted 

Onti^mt <lll f^el»^ 't i*-Hifr^*-ahtn, i. Tbewt 
or act of eneanpinif . 

Cbiirifa, kW-trUe, ^'M^o geld o r ema a- 
flalB ; to render InperfBot. a.^ cu^ttiMn^ 
Pl; «as'lr«fed;pfpb,a.; aaeCra^ttoii, 80, a 89. 

ChaM<\ -trr-%0, a. 99. An emaaeolated 
afaiffer. (It.) 

Oaeft^Ua'^ti«i,a.9.Akindorbawk. feanp. 

Oil imiaH*, -trte'-ah'ftn, a. Of or beL to a 

OMmai, Uah'-Q-a, -'00-il— 8., a. 18. Aed- 
dnial, fortoiton. Incidental ; undesigned, 
aaezp., or nnlbreseen. H., cmfwutty, 48, 
a& ; eae^iiflJbtfW*, eov'iMMy, a. 91. 

Clka'Ml^ -«l-te, a. An ii^nry to the body by 
naaident or war ; h., death, or other mialnr^ 
toBOb firom W» oaoaea. (v. a.) 

Oiiwafia, klah-a-Xaf-lk, -*oo-8., a. 18. » 
lie— iiff<Bl,«. Bdattngtoeaaoiatry. 

Chf'nHinri -re^ a. The aeience or doetdne of 
liiaiBBlinin^ or of the Iswftifaieaa or nnL of 
aetloM. H.,<a)«a/tiM(anewbo),8.90. 

CM^m^a. A veU-knowB dom. animal; a 
v«m1 cnpL in the eoal trade; the ont-o*- 
alBa-«d]8|. Ithaainun.eomp.:— «ar-^^|, 
aafiiAt, eaf-WUf fre., a.; cat^-mnmmUaim 
(a vfld-cat), mT-UocA (tadde naed to raiae 
Cha VBf^^at — nant.), oat-<aU or eafcml^ 
•kiM (a aooealdnir «»tr. need in theatrea}, 
€ag-ktad{9L eert I ' 

at a ahip'a bows), 

mW-fMit^ tat-imuU, mi^*taa, Ae. (planta), 

" Mtt (oM. ftoB hittem), eaC^^fmo (the 

» or taol of another ; a light h r ec ae 

nasL), te, a. 80.~-artH» ^ wi ne <aff> , ia a 

^' Tth9* • 


cWo-tp kit^-a, p£c Noting opuoaltten, donn- 
waraa, \ MaltHg bain, eonpteteneaa, in ten* 
_.^ ^ -^ , r . . -ectlon. 

L trope 
Ling to 

id. H^ 

Ml. 91. 

of refl. 
nly, aa 

'iit, L. 


To pat 


^l,,e^.l^_^,p^^^ lit. 

p.; ewra wy n gii , ' 

Ortaiyiu, kd-tftTH 

dlaaolatSoB ; appr., the deeomp. of a eonnit* 
and the rearrangement of tta elam., br me 
p r a e e nee of a anba. -whkh doeo net ttMlf 

aafRsT change, (chem.) 

CWo^ytfe, -If-Dc, a. Relating to eatalyata. 

CWoaMrtm, kiit-d-iB<!l^rin', a. A raft. 

axamaiM, kAft-^-nteZ-y'd, a. pi. The mcBaea. 

OatmmtrnM, .y*U, a. 4ft. Fertatoinf to th« 
menaca: monthly. 

Oatapkoniet. -IBn'>Ika, a. pL O 

OMopfmrn, ldUr-«-pUam, a. Aponltiee. 

CatapuU^ -pOlt, a. An ane. military engine. 

Cb<arao<,kAr-d-rikt,a. Araahtaigrofwatorover 
a prectoSee; a gigantio caaoade ; an opadty 
of the lena of the eye, or Ita oapaole (path.). 

CWonMf OM*, -Oa, a. Like a oataraot (aorg.) 

OaUmrh, kd-tOr', a. 9, 84. The * oold in Uia 
head* of domeetlo med. 

CMorrAoi, -il, a. 86. Pertataitaig to eatarrh. 

Obia$inpke, kd-tto'-tro-fe, a 99L The great 
final event of a drama or romanoe ; an vak- 
fMtnnate eondnaton; a ealamity or dia- 
aatar; tho violent eonvnlakma of natvre 
which have prodnoed aea and land (geoU. 

Oatck, kAteh, a. 89. Seixnre; anythteg that 
aeixeaorhokla; thethinrorthingaoaiight; 
a andden advantage taien; a anatdi or 
riicrt interval of action ; a aong, in parta, 
which one eatohea np after the other ; a ketch 
(nant). H., eateh'yX, a. Among ita oomp. 
are— eoteA'-arain.oatcA'-jify (plant campion), 
catch'-ptOA (a bdUff'a anSaU}, &o. a. 90. 

Cateht vt To aeiae or lay hold on aoddenly ; 
to enanare, trap, or entangle ; to overtake ; 
to engage and attach : to eommnnioate to (aa 
lire) ; to intercept falling; to receive aomo- 
thing preaent, paaaing, or thrown (aa a ball, 
infbction, d».) :— vL To commmucate ; to 
aelae ; to be eontagiona : te. H., cateh'ingf 
p., a. ; eatehedj, caught, klirt, prt, pp. ; 
eat^'er, & ; catekabUX , a. 89. Tpanqihlet. 

Caick-pim^X, a. Anything worthleaa, cap. a 

Catchf-icorax, -wttrd, a. Laat word, or cne, of 
a speaker (thea.) ; the key-word at the loot 

Ctttehtip, k&tSr-ap, a. 29. = eof rap*. The li- 
quor extr. firom mnahrooma, &o., flavonred. 

CaUeketie, kAt-e-k«f -tk, a. = eaUehetrieal, 39. 
Oonaiating of qoeationa and antwera. B.» 
eateehetficalfy, 43, ad. 91. 

Oateekiaet kfitf-e^kls^ vt. 99, 60. To Inatract 
or exam, by 'qoeationa and anawera;' to 
queation or tnterrogatei H., eafeekUingt 
p.; eafeehiud, pp.; eafe^Oaer, cafeehutt 
a. ; caCeehitimg, eaUehUefUoi^, 86, a. 89. 

CbteeAimi, kAf -e-kizm, a. 39, 35. Inatmction 
by * qoeationa and anawera;' abook or com- 
position 80 arranged. 

CiateM9tie,'^Mf'Tk,h.TscaUehi»tieal, Ott*- 
ohetioal. H.,ca<m;Ai0fiea//^,43,ad.9O. [euba. 

Cbf«0Ati,k&f-e-k{l,a.l8,29. Abrownaatringent 

OateehuiCf -kO'-Xk, a. 18. Of or from catechn. 

OatechuwMnf kftt-e-kd'-men, a. 18. = eaUohv^- 
menist. One yet in the radimenta (par. app. 
to reUg. prepi). 

a>ifiVo»<»^ k&t-e-gtfr'-Ik-aL a. 17, 36. Abso* 
iate, expreae, direct ; not hypothetical. H.« 
eaUgm^ieaUy, 48, ad. (v. a.j 91. 

Cbf'ayory, -^-e, -gOr-S, a. 17, 99. Something 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


>fBna<d,orietagiiMfMwthertfnnnatiaB; « 

daM, rank, or order of ideas; apredloament. 
OitefMry,k4t'-fo-dr-«,kd-ten'— Br..a. Bel. 

toaehain:— a. AoertkindofeiiryeCmath.). 
OaCmat^, -ftU, Tt. To oonneot by links ; to 

chain, or form into ohsins. H.,caf«fia<tiM*, 

p. ; oattntUttt*, pp. icaUna^tum, 8d, s. 89. 
Otttert kftU'-^r, ▼£ To proTlde food. H., 

edfermg, p. ; edferetL pp. ; edfer*. edterer 

{Ueat'ere»8),B,; (a)afrcrifi^»B.89. [anddioe. 
CM«r, k&f-6r, kft'— K., Wa., s. The 4 at oards 
OaferoUlar, -pil-dr, a. 86. The lanra of bat- 

teruies and moths. 
CatencatUt, -wfitTL Tt 8. To make a noiae like 

cats at nijriit £l« etU'enoatUmp, p., s. 88. 
QUery*t kftV-tr-e, s. ProTision room. 
Output, kAt^-gttt, s. The intestines of sheep, 

Ac, eat, twisted, and dried. 
aiaar9i>,kd-thdr'-sls,s.87. Purgation, (med.) 
Caihat^tie, -tik, a. b eathar^tieoL Stronglj 

purgatira. H., eathar^tieaUif, iS, ad.; e»- 

thar'tiealmtu*, s. 91. [senna. 

CkUkar'tine, -tin, a. 58. The purg. prln. of 
Cathedra, lul-tiie'-drd, s. 87. The sent of one 

in anthoritj; a pnlpit; a professor's chair. 

H., ex caiMdrdt with anthoritT. (L.) 
CatMdral.'^xil^t. The see of a bishop* ; the 

prtaLdmrehinadiooese. H.,ca<A«'4ira/,a.90. 
Cuth/drated, -dr&t«-M, a. Pertaining to the 

authorltr or office of a teacher. 
OatheUr, kftth'-e-t6r, s. 37. A small tube 

employed to draw off the urine, &c (surg.) 
Cathode, k&t'-dd«, k&th'-dd«— S., s. 99. The 

wajr downwards or out; theeleotro-negatlTe 

pola (galT.) See Cation, 
CbMotic, kfttii'-o-IIk, a. 87. General, uniTcrsal, 

Uberal,nnbigoted. H.,MtA'oiM/^,ad.;fte.91. 
Cath'olie, s. A papist. 
aKAo/Miai,k<l-th51^Ik-4l,a.87. General ;Ube- 

raL U.^eathoirieaUp,tid.',eathofiealne$$*,a.91. 
Oathotfiemn, -e-tfsm, s. Uniyersalitv ; liber- 
alism ; appr., papistry. [itv ; catholidsnL 
Cb<Ao/iot<y, k&tfa-o-lIa'-It-^ s. 87. Universal- 
O atholic on, kd-thfil'-o-kfin, a. 17, 26. A oni- 

Cation, k&tr-y'an, kil-tT-fin, a. = eathion. 99. 
An electro-positlTe body, or one evolTcd at 
the cathode. See Anion. 

Catkin, k&t^-kln, s. A species of imperfect 
flower; a doae spike, composed of scales 
overlapping each other, (bot.) 

Cat^Ung, -Ung, s. The down or moes of wal- 
nut-trees ; a kind of knife (surg.). 

CaUmian, kd-tdn^-ySn, a. 45. ScTere, inflex- 
ible, like Gato. [to catoptrics. 

Catoptrie,)Ut'\JM'ti!Vk^^eaU»iftrieal. Pert. 

CaU^Urioe, s. pi. 61 ilie doctrine of reflected 

Catnip, kAf -^dp, s. See Catchup, [light. 

CattU, kATl, s. (sing, and pL) 45. Beasts of 
pasture serving for labour or food : h., human 
Deings (in reproach).— ^/oeft cattle are bulls, 
oxen,and cows; amaU cattle.thnm and goats. 

ai^,klf-e,s.Aweight = lilb.(GhL) |^(agr.) 

Catua ei an, kflW-kish -yln, a. 8, 85. = CSauea- 
e^an*. Of or relating to the Cauoasus. 

Cbttdol, kCH^-d&l, a. Pertaining to the UiL 

Cat^dmte, -taXe, a. = emt/dated, Hav. a tail 

Caudle, IlSMX 9,46, Omel enriched with beer 
or wine^ and spices. 

Caud^k,yU To treat ten^ly. 

Cbtf/; k«»f; a. 8. A diest for holding UTeflsh. 

Caught, kjan,vrU,VP. SeeCbtM, 


aNfi;kfll^I,s.8. A nH for the hair; any kind 
of net; a eert. membrane (the n ami w i^, wbeD 
it oomea away with the head in ehiUMrth. 

Cautdron, a. See Caldron, 

Cauleeeent, luNr-lte'-tot, a. ss eoulif*eroui, -Oa. 
Haring a eat^lie, or herbaceous steoa, whidi 
bears both leaves and frnctiflcation. (boL) 

Caulijhwor, kdlir'-le-flow-«r, kttl'-|, a. 8. A 
Tegetable of the cabbage flunily. 

Caul^orm, kiT-le-form, a. 86. Canleeeent. 

Caukne, kin^-Un, -lin«, a. 45. Growing on n 

ONitt, kSRrk, Tt SaaOak, [caulls.( 

ObmmI, kiWz'-Al, a. 8. Belating to, or ex-* 
pressing cause. H., cau^allff*, 48, ad. 9U 

OsMsaM^ -il'-It-e, s. The agency of a cause ; 
the ornn or focultr which traoea the rein- 
tion of cause and effect (phren.). 

Coui'altp, -il-te, s. The parts of ore removed 
by wsshing. (mi.) 

Cauaaiion, klllrs-&'-«hfin, a. 8, 86. The act or 
agencj by which an effect is produced. 

Oau^attce, -^tLr, a. 45. Expressing a canae 
orresson; that effects, as agent H., eau^a- 
tivelu, ad. 91. 

Cau$e^uS»t, a. 8, 85. That which operatest 
changes, or effects, or by which anything Is 
jnvduoed or done; the reason, inducement, 
or m(^Te which urges or impels ; sake, ae- 
eount ; party ; pvsult, or prosecution of an 
o^ect ; a suit or action at law ; any legal 
process to enforoe a demand ; the purpoaa^ 
or ot^eot sought (final eauee). 

CbtMS,Tt To produce or originate; to occa- 
sion or efliect as an agent U., eaua^ing, n, ; 
oamed, pp. ; eau^er, eau$(^tor, s. ; eauifaoU^ 
45, a.; eauaa'tkm, 36, s. (r. s.) 89. 

Cauaeleet, killrsM«s, a. 8. Without causa. H., 
cam^leatiiy, 48, ad. ; eaus/l e ien e u, s. 9L 

Caue^uHtjf, -wft, s. = eautfejf*, -e. A portkm 
of a road raised aboTc the rest, and paved. 

Cautidical, WR^s-Id'-e-kftL k£»-sld'— K., a. 86. 
Pert, to pleading, or thedefence of suits, (le^.) 

Cauttiot kin^-stlk, a. = eaut^tieat*. 8. Burn- 
ing, corroding, eacharotie ; fig., serere, sar- 
eastic; noting a certain curve (gsom.). 
IL.eoatf'^ieai/y*, ad. ; eaui^ticneu*, eau a ti e it Wp 
•tli'-n-e, s. 91. [living textures, (med.) 

CMttie, s. Any subs, which corrodes or deatr. 

Oau»tiefittf,u Theqaal.of beiagcaustic(v.a.) 

Cauteriee, kiR^-tAr-Us, vt 6a To appljr n 
cautery. H., ea^terinng, p.; ctt^teriied^ 
pp., a.; ottuterita'Uon, 86, s. 89. 

Cavfterimm, -bm, s. 8. Cauterisation. 

Osirfsrv, kiW^-tdr-e, s. 8. A burning or s ea r in g 
with, a heated iron (aet'ual eauftery), or with 
a caustic or escharotic (poten'tial do,). 

Caution, kfl^-shOn, s. 8, 36. Prudence, fore- 
thou^t; care, circumspection; prorfskm, 
security ; exhortation, warning. 

Cau^tion, vt To warn or exhort H., mtw'- 
tionutg, p. ; cat/tiotidl, pp. ; (a) cauftioningtf. 
a. 89. [tion ; given as plcdgn, 

Cbw^MMMtry, ki)l^-shtin-4r-e, a. 85. Contean- 

CW<tofMr,-£r.s. One bound for another.(Soo.> 

Cautioui, kSlr'th*HB, a. 8, 45. Poss. caution ; 
discreet, prudent, vigilant H., can^tiou^, 
48, ad.; eeuitiouaneee, s. 91. [horsebaok. 

Caoaloade, k&v'-U-^id^ s. A procession ota. 

CBaalMr,kftv-^l€rc',a.99. Gay, brave, no«r- 
oust ; haughty, disdainfoU H., ewoMfr'^^ 
48, ad. ; cavaUer^neaa, a. 9L 

Oaoalier',a, A knight; a gay, sprightly soldier ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


M.I.: flB« ikflled in hone- 
■mBililp: anlMd cartliwork befsre a bMtkm 
Owlristlf'.n-ra, •, Horae waiditn. [(fbrt). 
CKvmtima, -4-W-Di. a. M. A abort air, with- 


out a ratnni or aaeoDd part, (moa.) 
,a.44i. Exea^ 


ImdatiQoa. (arch.) 
A hoUow place In the earth ; a 
Imwm. [(feLW*i). 

i*,Tt. IbaaakehoOoirt'TL TDeoUapae 
OtMrnt, kft'-TO^ klT^-ylt-K., a. A notlee 

or eaation to acay proeeedlBga. (lef .) 
Of aeator, -*-4gr, a. U. HewhoeateraaeaTWt 
Oaaini, kftV-ta, a. A aabterraneona eeU, 

Ch ^u ■ a m, -<ia, a, ss M¥enud. LIkeaeaTem; 

itaU or caTlttea ; hoUow. [tiea. 

ebaen«'«lo«a» -«4ftB, a. 16. FW of little eaTf- 
Cfcafart L ki^-ylr/,ka-re<r^~Wa., We^ a. The 

roe of the auifg eoa, fte., aalted. 
OmB, kftV-n, a. U. Frivotooa drfeetiona. 
Oi^ff, tL To reoeiTe with caTil* :— tL To 

vaiae eapkiooa or frhrokraa ol^eetkme : to 

fraaaa aophlaaM in arfmnent H., ooe'MMf , 

pL, a.; aaiiWfrf, pp. ; efli<«/far, a. ; coo'iJJMVi 

o oaai rt wa, 16» a. 48, 89. 
Ob^jMm^ 4l«, a. (T. V.) H.,eap'«aM#l|f,ad.; 

cm^migmm/^, a. 48, 91. 
Ob^ iiln $ », -Urn, a. Captioaa; earllllnf. H., 

<MWwi^.4S»ad.; ea^iUoum€$f, a. 48, 91. 
CMlipb kftvMt-e, a. A hoUow place ; hollow- 

Maa; anapertnre. 
OM^kiir.TLS. Tocrjaaarookorraren. H., 

u aia ^ o f , p. ; emeed, pp. ; (a) catering, a. 89. 
Chii*^ ki»k. a. = Ml!*. 8. NatiTO anlphate of 
H^ emek^V, 43, a. (mL) 90. 
ikirii, a. A wig ; a fk'OBt. 
kI-§B', ki-7€a'— K., S., a. Ecd pepper. 
Chif^aw, flewfi^a. See Caiman, Outfu^. 
Cemae, a&K, n. Th pot a atop or end to :— tL 

Tbalap; tolcawoff; to abatain flrom : to be 

act an cod. H., aeoa'tR^, p. ; eeated, pp. ; 

caw'AV (ocaHtion), a. 88. [Xmr^, ad. 91. 
Choai'laii; -U», a. mthoot oeaalng. H., eeas^- 
flMi»*, ar-alt^ ay— P., Wa^ a. Blindnen. 
<Mar, a8^-d<r, a. tf . An erergreen tree ; alao 
~ H^e^tbyt e^dor-Wt*, c^ dared* 









OMriiir, 4ArHlt^ a. Hon. paUf e diatiBetlon 
or notorietT, alao ita ofejcet; Amm; renown. 

CWcrtfcr, -lAr^-It^ a. M. Raptdttyofmottan; 
qnleaneaa, ewlftneia, teloeity. 

Cbfary, Btt'-4(r-e, a. IS. A cert, caenlent plant. 

OeU$tUly ie-l«af-T'Al, a. S7, 86. Of or tnm 
hearen ; hcoTenly. H., eeintuMy, 43, ad. ; 
(a) c$iatua (betef ), a. 91. 

aWlalif«,.lEtf,Tt60.ToniakeeeL [mineraL 

Ckfaa'Mn^, -line, aSr-Ca-ttn— We. a. 48. AMne 

OrfealNU, ail'-«a-tlna, a. pL Anorderofmoaka. 

COiac, ar-le-Ak, B61«'-jik-K., a. = et^Kae, 
45. RalaUna to the lower belly. 

Oelibaey, ae-Ub'-*-ae-We., a«'-e-b»-a^Br., 
K., 8., Wa., a. U. Shiflellfe. 

0»U,afl,a. A aflMll or cloae apartaaent, aa in 
a priaon. &o.; a eave; my email eavltyor 
hollow place; a reUgkma honae ; a primary 
m ic roaeo p ic vealele (anat). 

CM'Ior, -lir, a. 95. A plaee onder a boiUinff, 
where atorca are depoaited. H., afUHrwum 
(In a atore), eeflarUt (In a reL bonae), cef- 
Urer*, ito^ a. 90. [eellar-room. 

CWiomfc, •^«, a. 45. CUlara gen.; ehargefor 

CManL aSl-d-rW, a. An ornamental reeep- 
taele for bottlea, ke, 

CeU^ieram, -llf-ihr-Aa, a. HaT. or prod, eella. 

OMtOar, ati'-Q-UIr, a. = etlFiOaUd*, 18, 35. 
Gonaiatinf of eella or mlnote caTitiea. 

eWTtfla, -Oli;, a. 18. AUttleeelU [eenoka. 

CdMiftroui, -a-Uf -fir-da, a^ Hay. or prod. 

CbUMfaM, -d-lfia^, a. 18, 45. OeUnlar. 

OrllM/oie', i. 58. Ugnine. (ehem.) 

CUftfwir*, aei'-ae-tad«. a. 18. Height 

OtMc, a§r-tXk, a. (pref. ap. and pron. Xettic^ 
-Ik.) 38. Of or rel. to the OeUs (afilta ; pref. 
Kelts), orprim. Inhab. of Qaal, Brit., ftc. 

Oel'tica. The lang. of the Celto or Kelta. H., 
Oeftieitm, -Ixm, fte. a. (r. aO 90. 

Oment, ae-m«nf , aem'-tat*— &., Wa.,We., a. 64. 
The matter with whieh two bodies are eanaed 
to adhere ; flg., anv bond of nnlon. 

CkmetW, Tt. To unite with oement; i!g., to 
nnlte eloeely (aa by friendahip) ; to prep, by 
eementation :— ri. To cohere; to unite or 
beoome aolid. H., ceaMn^mf , p. ; eemenfsdf 
pp.; cement tTf a.; eBnenUiUin, 86, a. (t. I.) 89. 

Canentmtion^ afim-te-t&'-^dn, a. The proeeaa 
by which Iron ia eonterted Into ateei, glaaa 
Into porcelain, fte. (v. t.) 

Cementatory, ae-mtef-d-tSr-e, a. 85. s 
cMMM/MoMt, atai-fin-tlah'-'aa, 86. Having 
the quality of cementing. 

CetMUry, aem'-e-tte-e, a. 95. A place where 
the dead are repoeited or borled. [anpper. 

Omatofy*, ifin'-(Mttr-e,ar— 8.,a.l7. Pert, to 

Oen'obite, -o-blt«, afl'— S., a. A monk : a reolnae. 

CenobUie, -bltT-Ik, iC-B., a. = cmobWieal, 45. 
Living in eommnnlty, aa a monk. 

Omote}M,8ta'-o-tif, 8.9,4& An empty or hon. 
tomb, or a monument, erected to one who la 
buried elaewhere. [arom. auba. 

Gmae*, atea^, vt. To perfhme by burning 

Oemfert -dr, a. The pan or Tcieel in which 
incense is burned. 

aniaor,aen'-ettr,-e(lr§,B.17,95. One empower- 
ed to exam. MSS., booka, kn^ before they are 
aent to preaa; a oenaorioua peraont. H.* 
ten'eor-ltket ftc, a. ; om'aerjAf^, a. 90. 

CSMJorMmf,-tOr^-e-aa,a.=.MfMo''Ha/. Prone 
to, implving. or expr. censure. H., omadr- 
ioutly, 48, ad. ; eeneSr^ioHtiuett a. 91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


oentora. H^ cmfmmxMfh ^ «d*i mw'mt- 
iWfiwfii- 1. 91. 
OMMMrt,ste'-sh'09r,i.l8,tft. BImb^ rapvooi; 
diMvinrobatioa, animadTwiioa: coimUbuui- 
tkm; JDdieUl Mntoaoe (moL). 

M wrong: to Uuna; to <mdcm («mL) : 

Vp., a. ; eem'iunr, cm'aor, ■. (t. so.) 89. 
0»MH«» tte'-ttU, - * — .-^-. 

. ,«. Apwiodicid 

<if the people. 
Cm<, efint, s. ▲ hundred; a eopper ooln = 

t4, dolkr (U. S.).-iVr «m<. is bj the 109. 
Oig|^-ftK».«. =l»«-««if<V». B«tBby 

Gwtowr, W-t«rr, -«r-8., •. A Ihbitfou 
bdngv half men, half bon& (myth.) 

OM'teMir, -t*fr-re, a. Tbenaaeof eer.planti. 

Omimmitm, ete.ten-ar/-«.«B, a.4S. Aper- 
eon 109 years old. fberoflOO. 

Omltmarji, -*r-e, -Un'-K., 1.36. 1^ sun. 

nwrsu m nf, -tfa'-a-il, -t«n'-y»«, a. 4A.^^mt^ 
Unmy. Bel. to, or oona.of 100; oeo. ooee 
ererr 100 jears. [whioh m areh is built. 

aw^BrW ein'-UWnfte. The temp, frame on 

OtnUtimat, s«n-tee'-Im-«], a. H«n£^dth. R.. 
f»SS*?^%. ^ "^J (a) «ii^*iMrf {thi 
1-lOOth). •.91. [In the 100. (mlL) 

Cim<MMMlMMi*,-A'-ehan,a. Anezeootkaof 1 

Cm'Utm*, -tten, s. The 1-lOOth part, [heada. 

OmtMWitoMf, Bte-t»-«Ip'-It«s, a. HavfafflOO 

OmtUOout, -^if-iOrim, tL DIt. into lOOparto. 

awg^^«^He-«^-y»tts,».45. Hi^ 

Cmtiffrade,wigi''U-gs§de,tu Ear. 100 degraa. 
Cm'tifirammt, -ftim, s. The l-lOOth of a 

r«mme. [«. 99. The 1-lOOth of a Utre. 
Otoi«»K<r«, e*o-tU'-lt-fe, ste'Ha-lfctr-ft^ s. 
OwUiaw, sfin-tfm^, a llie 1-lOOth of a frano. 
Gm/MM^ -tlm'-e-t«r, afin'-te-mAtr—Vt., s. 

•7,99. Thel-lOOthofametre. 
a»^»«fa, ste'-to-pCd, -pM^K., s. = «»f|i. 

jMil. An insect reputed to have 109 ton. 

oee Quodniptd, "" 

emtrml,aM'ttil,^ Plaoed in, ooDt, reL to. 

or dtoated neer the emitea. £: «m'£^ « 

ad. ; cen^traineMi, eeiUraUi^ -tril'-tt^' 9l! 
am'<r»to«, -u«, vt. 60. To draw to a eentrv. 

H^ ««»:<»»f»«n^» Pv cmfina$ed, pp., a.; 

umA^ ete'-t&r, a. = «0ii'<tr. 87. The middle 

um'trc, Tt. a «fi'<tr. 87. To place or ooUeot 
?^^t •"^•f P***»' '-—"^ To beplaeed cen- 
to^; to reeton. H.,«>ii.'lr*v,p^. ««,'««r««,pp. 
Om'in-Ht,t, ▲ borer tar^r «> a ewteir 
Owrfrfe, .trik, ^steei^tHaU. PUused in the 

Omir^fMtef, .til p'-e-^ a. Tendtog towoni^ 
Omimmr, a6B-tilm'-^v«r, s. 18. (pL, etnim^- 

eW. -Ta-n. 99.) Oneof lOOJoSg;. toiSc. 

Bome.(l4 H..a«rt«ai'«<r«* (<fio?of a),s. 90. 
^*!S?^ ■S^"**?*' •: M» «t Of ahnidred- 

told. 11, (to) Wli«pfe« (to molt. Ac), n. 91. 


O mh irf U emitk -fMat«, vt 48. Ta make 
InmaredfoM. ftur 

am4MHa{,B«B-tOr<'-«^a.U. Fttrttoaeei 
aNiterMM,-«ar/-a-an, s. 18, 38. The eaptai 
oflOOmen. [a handred noeraliy 

ataf -a-ra, s. 18. A period cIlOO year 
><o,e«f4U-U'^]lE,a.48. BeLtoeq>A 
(•^ ; cmAiaBrfJa, LO or the heedaeh 
— ,ae^ai^Ik,a.48. the heal 
, (a) etphmtie, •» (med.) 9L fwasel 
OraoNNM, -r&'-eh'da, a. 97-8. Of or like va] 
OirariiM, eCc'-a-«lB, a. 96, 68. ATar.affU 
Chrate, ar-rttc, & 84k 48. Aattff^eetoii 

ototamat anatohiing wax, 
t^ro^te^^e. Ooiwrad wltt wax. 
a»is,s6r«,Tt TowaXfOrcorerwIthwas. fi 

Utomea, with which the dead were cnfeMc 
Orsol, ser-ra^ a. s eeraa^tfeitf*. 48. P« 

to the ctrmriU {-il^^'i) or adiUa graiai 
OartM^, sBr'-a-ba, a. = ai^tf'iwH L. l1 

hinder and lower of the mamue knaiaff tl 

bnOn. (orraLtotheoeTahnu 

ar'e8ra4-bria,a.sMr'«iHM,-4)rlB,48. I 
Ovrtftrie, •e-r«b'-rlk, a. OforfrtwittMhraj 
Ov-aftraaH a«r'-a-brfim, B. 99. The brain, M 

per; or the front and largw of the oerehi 

maaBea.(L.) [graTa clothe 

OmummL •irtf'-nUSnt, s. A oer»Hdoth^-I 
Oa^mmmial, •er-a^afinu'-yil, a. 48. BeL 

owemony ; Ibrmal*. fiL, emrmtMiaO^, \ 

ad. ; MrMN^talMwf, s. 91. 
ar«»o"irfoi, s. Outward fonn; a ^alam 

rolea and eereaoniaa e^laiiied Vy anthorii 

Oemoniom^ 8&va-man«'-T»ttB, -«^ a. \ 

FuU of osremony ; too otaaerVant of fbns 

clTil,preaiBe, exact.. H., eermmMiotul^, i 

ad.; eenmen'um»ne$a, e. 91. 
G»'MMNw,8fir'-e-nuMM,-m1l]i^,B.38. Q 

ward fonn or rite, whether of aUta, r| 

ffioo, olTility, or etiquatta ; oeremoolaL 

^trmtf -* — '»-- '* 


'-tH^bM, One of tha minor plaBetB.(| 
■*lii, s. 88. The part afbaai> ^ 

Omw, sC-nMlsl a.' 

'rim, -rtu 

JoluUe in boiling alcohoL 
2»nM»i,8r-r©-ttm,8. One of the rarer met 
Otrograpkjh'rii^-tit-^*. The art of engr; 

awaxedccwcr-plata. fmeltedw 

aroaiaiMy,s£f-o-m&n-se,e.2<. DirinaUoo 
Ceroonf le-rS&n', s. 90. A bale or iMokAM 

Ain. or hides. JSp^ '^ST^ 

Oww Jartic^ro^»Uerl|k, e. Artofiidall 
Onvtint, B«r'-o-sIn, s. 96, 88. A waxy s 

■tanoe tnm the sogar-eane. 
CertaiH, sfir'-t8n<, -tlnf— K., Wa^ a. 48. J 

isting in £ut and troth ; sure, indixblta:^ 

fixed; resolTed: nnfklling: not doobU 

regular; assured (toL by of) ; mamm or I 

a»;'te»t, -tSs, -tIz-Wa.. ad. Certainly. 
Certificat0, sfir-tlT-a-kate, -k«tfr— K^ wL a 

A written declaration to estab. aoine iSet 
OrfiCwfl^vt TogiTeork)d«eacertlf.T 

Tohold,ortobeTerUled^aoerti£. H i 
•^flTMSff/eiLpp a.89. "^ 

a»t(/y, 8«r'-t^i, n. 42. To declare in M 

mg; to inlbrm, declare, or aaanre poaitl^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

aKdSb^-ai.a.9l,6flL A prap. of indiga 
anMM, aM^y-Mta, 1. U. Si. £«r-^rax. 
Otmm^ ar-f«9u, a. 18. WkJto-ted. 
^>i MimU ■yH>».ktf, •. OTorraLtotibeaMk. 
Or'vfaMb -i^te«, ^vte— Wa, a. 4k Pwtaiatnff 
totkaatecrdav. [(bat.) 

a«MteM;aS-9»«Iar',a.U. Orawtav in tafts. 
O^piUim, fli,a. s ai9Mli0Mi^-W'-*tla. 27. 

OmTmU*, -dot, a. Gnalag; iBtanoBifttiBg. 
" r-iUn^a. tapsBBknofope 

CMT-^aaJ^a. A 

i<if opaia 

I for liquid 

■f a. M> A otdias* TacaCtna. 
OTTlddlBgiVy BwCW*. [• " ' 

C Wj i u wari fc •^O'^ a. 9. Barinf 

CM^,ai«»t. Alady^fiirdla. 

Chn/ra»a. Sm Obmoio. 

fliaeMiM^ aMT-th'tki. a. S8. Pvtainiaf to 
dM Mtea« fli'-alt% or vkale kind. 

CktoM^-liM^a. AaartidaekamfeaiUtiiid. 

OrfKaC-tlk,a. OTlhawkBle. 

Criinr, -Ov a. M. Para aperiBMrti. 

CMflimr,-toy-o^i> ]lathiiit.ofthe0ataaHu 

AaaCa a. M. 8aa Cftaat. 

aM;dy^a. Ibaihad. 

C9^R^ aiiMf. s. It. Heat or infbaDonatkii 


€9 kMk * m m ^ , t. Tha prMMIaf oAmt of an as- 

■amkly; a akaii^^iortart. wL.^6kmkr'm m$hi p^ 

*D^ a. 90. [>'iaf^ ^tk two irkaeiik 

CMw» iklae, ■• S». A u)At, o t h anw ear- 

CkmlcOmm, UU-««d'-o-ii^ur— L, Wa., ■. b 

^^i^.^^!-... _-tv- M A faM Tar. of agate. 



, a. ra CkofAf. 99. Part. 

to GkaMiTa. H., OUOdafie or Ckaf itt^ (tha 

laag. oO, COka/Arim, -Im (aa Idktt of tba 

Chald^oM), B. 9L 
OaM^wmoliW-draB, obr-Wa.,(MI'- 


A eap or 

OoliM, ekir-Ia, kVl'*— P., 8. 99. 

bowl I appr.( a ooiwnnioB-cnp. 
CkafMM, 4id, a. HaTliia a oap, as a flawer. 
Outlk, tMkok, s. 8» 99. Earthy carbonate of 

Uma; aaj ailnwal that nunr be asad as a 

crajronl. H., atai y w rft w (difver), ehan^- 

witjohmUf-§Um» (a gouty ooMrstkm),fte.,&90. 
Chalk, Tt. To rub^ nark, or manure witk 

ehalk; to design or reiolTe oat (&>!• by oitf). 

IL, ehalkiag, p. ; chalked, pp., a. 89. 
CMTy, -e, a. & or Uka ohalk. H., ehaUf- 

CftollMp^ okil'-C^J, B. 99, 4iw ABBonaonsto 
aombat; aa iuTitetSon to a eoatast of any 
kkid; iJbo the letter or messege eentatning 
It; an exeeptioa to a Juror or Toter (leg.) ; 
the dwand of a sentry (miL). 
Chafknfft,ri. To give, send, or oflbr a chal. ; 
to aoeuae, dalm, ezoept, or ol^ect to. H., 
* "Iktpmft P- 'i chatltnfftd, ]»., a. ; chat" 
er, B.; chafimfeabkL a. (t. 8.)89. [fkbric. 


I'^s. 99. A fUMttweded woollen 
, k^W-e-ftttf, 99, 18. Oforoottt. 
., (a) ehal^emte, a. (med.) 91. 

Chmmbmr, di8m/-bir, a. 99, M. Anapart. or 
room up stairs ; a piivate do. , a bedroom^ ; 
a han of lustioe or legto. ; that part of the 
bore of a gun whieh contains tna charge. 
H., ehdm'bermuUd, ftc, s. 91. 

Oha^wtber*, ▼!. To reside in or oeeupy ch. ; 
to intrlgnel. (t. •.) [te. (oonch.) 

Cft«f'aiW«d.-berd,pp.,a. Har.oompartments, 

au^mhmiiin, -18m, -Unt|— K., Wa., We., ■. 6, 
45. An ofloer or oTcrseer of the priv. apart- 
ments of a monarek or noble: a serrant who 
haa fka eara of ehaabers ; the treasurer ot 
a mnn. oerporatian. B., eham'b«rlamihipt 

CkanMi<OM,k2Mn81<'-7fin,B.95,4fi. A kind of 

lizard, of ckangeabM hue. H., (to) ehamif- 

eoniteX, -Is«, 80, Tt. 89, 9a 
Chamftr, ohim'-ftr, s. 29. = eham'fret, A 

snuul gutter or ehaand ; a slope or berel. 
, (arch.) [eAom'/woi, pp., a. (t. 8.) 88. 

Chamfnr,yrt, TochaimeLflute,orbeTel. H., 
OhamAB, shim'^A, sh«m^-et, shA^or— Wa., 

S.99. A kind of goat; also a soft TarietT of 
Jcather orifl|lnaUy prm. from ita skin. (Fr.) 
I'-o-mlU, s. a 

, kftm'-o-mlU, s. a cam'omUe*. 
A medloinsl plant ; also its dried flowers. 
Ckmap, chimp, Tt. 29. To Ute with freq. 
audible action of the teedi ; to chew :— ti. 
To bite frequently ; ftc H., ehamjfingt p« { 
champed, pp. ; ehamtfer, s. 89. 
Champaone, sMm^pOn^, s. 99. A deL Fr. wine. 
Oh a m pmp n, -pin/, shim'— Ja., K., a. Open, 
flat countiy. (t. su.) 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Champe9fv,Aim'-fit4B,B. Tb* 
of s suit on ooodltioii of dir. proOts. U.. 
ehamfpmrtor (one who), %, 90. [room. (Fr.) 

CkampCfwmf -pfn'-yfln, ■. 99. A kind of math- 

CkanupSon, uUun'-pe-On, ■. 17. (f^ chamfpion- 
eu.) A tinffle combaUnt; one who under- 
takes or eipoaiet the eante of another; a 
hero; the euooesafhl eompetitor for a prize, 
or fior raperiorlty. H., cham'pionthipt a. 90. 

Cham'pionf, Tt. To ehallenge to eomoat 

CftaMoe.chiii8«,chAi8<— We.,a.9,39. Caaoal; 

Chtmee, a. A fortnitona or vnezpeeted event, 
or its cause ; fortune, or what fortune brings ; 
an erent, good or evil ; lock ; risk ; oppor^ 
tunity ; possibilitj of an ooeurrenoe. 

CAofiM. Tt To risk:— tL To happen or occur. 
H., ehanl'dnaf p. ; ehamoed, pp. ; ehari'oerX, 
s. ; ehtmaabU*i, ehmteef^, a. 89. 

C%anc^-^omerX, -kOm-^, s. One unexpected. 

Chanel -medley, B. Alegal kind ofmanslanghter. 

Chmeel, chAn'-a^ s. 9, 99. The part of a 
church where the altar stands. 

Chancellor, ehAn'-e61-<ir, ehtfn'— We., s.9, f6. 
Anoflker of the highest power and diniiij 
in the oonrt In whldi he presides. H.,mW- 
eeUonihip, s. 90.— 2;or<i {Hi^h) Oumeellar, 
the highest officer of the crown, and of the 
Court ef Chancery. [equit j. (Eng.) 

Chan' eery, -e6r-e, a. (▼. su.) The high court of 

C%aPi«re, shtog'-kSr, s. 99. Asyph.ulcer.(Fr.) 

Chantfrmu, •rfis, a. Of or like a chanera 

Chandelier, sh&n-de-lSr«', s. 99. A hanging 
frame with branchea for lights. 

Chandler, chAnd'-ier, chJnd'— We^ •• 9. Orlg., 
a maker of candles; now, a dealer gm. H., 
eomrchandler, iMp-doJtaeicw-^.,&/^, a. 90. 

Chandlery, -er-e, s. Goods sold by a chandler. 

Change, chSq)«, Sw 39, 83. Alteration or Tar. of 
any char, or kind ; passage flrom one state, 
condition, or place, to another ; mutation, 
Tieissitude, Tariety, novel^; small money t; 
exohanget (^7 •bbr.). BL, ehangtffui, 45, 
ehang/tete^jL. 90. 

Change, Tt To alter, vary, or make diff. ; to 
put or give one thing in place oi another ; 
to shift, veer, quit, transfer; to give and take 
redp. :— Ti. To suffer change. H., chOng^- 
ing, p.; changed, pp., a.; ohdng'er, a.; 
changeable, a. ; (a) ehanae, chdn^mg, s. 89. 

Chang^ablefjVbL a. 45. Liable or prone to 
change. Ji., chang^ably, 48, ad. ; « ' 
ableneee, ohangeabtrUy*, -Yt-e, s. 91. 

Cha$tgeUng, -Ing, s. A child left in place of 
another ; a person apt to change. 

Channel, ch&n'-^ a. 89. The boUow bed ot 
running waters; the deeper part of a strait, 
bay, or narbonr ; a long oavl^ ; a gutter ; a 

Chann^el,rt To cut or finrn into channels ; to 
groove. U^ohann*elinp,p.; ehann^eled,vPt^ 
69. [9,45. Song; melody; sacred recitative. 

Chant, chdnt, ehint— S., wa., chdnt— We., a. 

Chant, vt, vl. To sing; tooelebr. in song; to 
intone or perform m recitative; to fUsely 
assign good quaL to a horse. R., chanlfing, 
p., a. ; chanted, pp. ; ehanfer (f., ehaeUf- 
reee), s. ; (a) ehant^mg, s. 89. 

Oumiieleer, -e-kl€r«, s. A cock, (poet) [Ac. 

Chantry,-t9,%. An endowed chapelformsssss, 

C^os,k&'-8a,s.29. Matterasitexistedbeforethe 
creation; absolute oonfttflon; indistinotnew. 


(l4wi£^ -dtf 4k, a. Besemb.diaoa; ecaAued, 

CS^iif, diAp, s. Aperson; afelkiw. 

Chap, chAp, <dU(pt, s. A deft, gap, or eradc 
in the akin, fixNn coMj te. H., cA^ftp'y, a. 90. 

CStap, vt, vL To crack or break into chops. 
(v. s.) H., chaptfing, p.; chapped, chapt^ 
pp., a. 89. See Chop. 

dap, ch5p, a. The Jaw (app. to animals) :-^ 
pL, chape, the monthf ; any entrance (naut). 
H., chap^leee (skinny, Ac), a. 90. 

Chapel, chkp'-ei, s. 1 8^ Orig., a private chordi ; 
now, a building fSor religious service, dther 
attached to a church, or nnatt but subord. to 
it {oht^Ml of MM) ; a dissenter's meeting* 
house; uiaaso.of^rorlaneninaptinting-aK 

C^M^«/fw, -re, s. s= cA<^sKafiy*. The bounds 
or Jurisdiction of a cupel. 

Chaperon, shAp'-te-do£, -On/— IL, 8., •SSn'— - 
Wa., ship'-ron^— ft., s. 99. A hood or cap 
of knightbood; an eld. female who aocom. a 
young lady in public as protector and guide; 
h., any person acting similarly. 

(^kojferon, vt To attend aa chaperon. 

Chmfallent, diSp'-ISv^ln, a. Dispirited: 
silraced. [column, (arch.) 

Chapiter,, chXp'-Yt-Sr, s. The capital of a 

Cft49fam, chAp'-lAnc, -Untf , s. e, 45. A priest 
attadied to an episcopal chapel; a ship of 
war, a regiment, or a femily. H., ckc^'- 
lamcy, -se, chaff lamekip, Ae., s. 90. 

Chaplei, ehi^'Uit, B, A wreath or garland fbr 
the head ; a little moulding (arch.) ; a small 
chapel or shrine ; a rosary or string of beads. 

Chajfman, -min, s. 35. {rlL, cht^men.) 
; a dealer, sdler, o 

or maiket-man. 

ChMt^r, ehfip'-t&r, a. ' Lit, a head ; h., a div. 
of a book or treatise; the corporate clergy, 
or officers, of a cathedral, &c; a decretal 
epistle. H., chajfter-hoaee, ftc 90. 

Chofltrel, -trfil, s. A capital or impost (sroh.) 

Char, chAr, s. 98. A delicious lake-fish. 

CSuur, vt. To roast or bum until carbonised ; 
to reduce to mere carbon or black cinder. 
tL, changing, p. ; charred, pp., a. 89. 

Char, titaxe,%.^Mr'i$tg, Mire. Work(eiB. 
domestic w.) done by the day; a Job. Hi, 
(to) char, ob8r£, vi.; ehOr'-wowum, Ac, a. 
89, 90. See Chore. 

Character, kilr'-Uc-tfir, s. 99, 36. A mark, 
letter, or iig., used to ftnrm words or to 
convey idess; the style or man. of writing, 
speaking, or acting; the peculiar qnalitic* 
(nat or acq.) whidi distinguish one person, 
nom another ; the stamp of mind, morals, 
orbehavionr; an account, descr., or repr., of 
the quaL. Ac., of a person or thing; a per- 
-"ittmply, orbywar" ■ 

. . way of eminence or c 

tridty: the pec. or distinctive prop, or qnaL 

of anything. H., char'aoterlee^, a. ; &o. 90. 

Chm/^aeieriee, -Jze, vt 80. To assign a char, 
to; to describe by peculiar qual.; to exh. 
the peculiar prop, or qual. of a person or 
thing; to distlng. or designate. H.,dk^ae« 
terismg, p. ; ehar'acterieed, pp. 

Charaeterieitic, -Is'-tik, a. = eharaeterUfticaU 
Marking the char. H., characteriiHeeiUy, 
48, ad. ; chara^erufticalneeM, a. 91. 

Choraeteri»'Hc,%, That which eharaeteriaee ; 
an exponent 

Oharadk sUi-rid^', s. 99. A sort of riddle. (Fr.) 

CAorooal, chtfr'-odU, s. Wood charred oat eC 
contact with the air. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

peewiarty enttfratcd. 

Ckargg, mtf*, 8. 32. That whiefa is laid on, 
npoo, or in; h^ care, eoatody; eommiaaioii, 
tnut c u u iam l ; the penm, thing, or Irasi- 
XMM» to lodged or oonferred; preeept, man- 
date^ order given; exhortatioB; tnotmetiaii, 
aa of a judge to a rary, a biahop to his elergy, 
Ao. ; aeeuatkiD, nnpntation ; mshingonan 
enemy, or the aignal to do lo (mil.) : assault, 
enaet; cost, prfeie, expense; load, onrthen; 
eontent; lostd of poiraer, te^ for a gun; 
iasposta on land, estate, fto. (leg.); that 
irhkh ia borne on the eokmr (her.)* H.t 
eft«sy</W*, eharpe^Un, Ac., a. 90. 

Ckarae^ri. To lay on or load ; h., to Intrust 
(fbL by wUk) ; to oommbslon ; to impute to, 
ooMire, aocttse; to eommand; to enjoin, 
exhort, inatmet; to impute or assign, as a 
debt • to ikil upon, to attack ; to load, bur- 
thoD, fanpoae; *c. :— tL To make an onset. 

. H^ eharfmft p. ; dkarped, pp. ; ehmftr 
(heortfast),s. (T.s.)89. 

CftMWMM^ ehAj^'-Abl, a. 32, 4C. Snljeet or 
Bahie to be charged; impotable, eensuraUe, 
blamabie: ezpensire*. H., e^korg^ably, 43, 
ad. ; ekmrg^Memeu, s. (r. ▼.) 91. (▼. t.) 

Ckar0»t -fr, s. A irar-horse ; a large dish. 

CM'rikh ekar^'mMB. See Ckary. 

Ghv«<ehdr'-e-tit,s.S5-«. A wheel carriage 
of pleaaare^ state, or irar; appr., a lighter 
kind ofeoachvith only one seat. (chariot 

Otariotmr, -«r/, s. The drirer or eond. of a 

Ckanetta'^rL To drtre or use a chariot ; to 
esncr wildly. H.^ charioUa^ing, p., a.; 
tkmitUendt •4Sr«d', p» 

CkaritmUt, dMfr'-lt4lbl, a. 86, 45. Prone to 
cha>ity;flrcrreLtoeharity. H., cAor^tteft^, 
43, ad.; dbor'ftaUmcas, s. 91. 

Cfterte, ehdir-It«, s. 29, 26. Teodemeas, 
kinrtwss, good-win, benerolenee; that dis- 
poatttflB of die heart which inclines men to 
tUnk wen of their fsllows, and to do them 

lo^(theoL); liberaUty; can- 

dosr; alms-giTing; atan^ a char, institution. 

Charf^ ebJtk, Tt Tt> bum or char. 

aflrfaftM,didr'-b»-tftD,s.99. Apratingpre- 

qsaek.(Fr.) [to skill; quackery. 

y.-TetS- Unidne or noisy pretension 

ChaHMk,€bg^'lSk,%. AeerUlnweed. 
fllari, ebdrm, s. 7, 84. Words, eharaeters, 
«r etknr 1ida|88, iBiag. to possess some occult 
: anytEing that eharms. H., charm'' 

IU», AatrwfU$8, Ae., a. (▼. ▼.) 90. 

CTbaiai, ^ To subdue or control bj inoant- 

t Inflnenee; to suodue the 

with irresistible plessure, or 

to dtflght and attract the heart; to allay, 
appease^ captivate, allnre. H., charmfmg, 
p., au : f ta n s jd (-M, aa an a.), p., a. ; 
< J l tf i ar sr,a9B^89. 
Okarm^mf, -iK s. Pkaaing in the highest 

HnSkdrai'w^ly, 43, ad.; «Aarm'- 

.s.(t.t091. [oasses. 

AOt'-am, a. 84. Omt flesh or car- 

a. Tbe bonfr-house attached 

OMvyyv ehA'-e, a. 96. Of or like charcoal. 

«Mr«fc«, kJrf»— Wa., s. 29. 99. Lit, a 
awer; a nattea m«P for navigators; any 
■an ar tabidar flew|. H., eharfU$$, Ac, 


Clkartfai, kJr'-td, s. 99. Paper; a charter. H., 
Mafna cksi^Ut, a. (L.llo: 

Ckmiaettm$t chdr-tI'-«h^<Ss, a. Papery. 

Charter, chdrf -far, s. 29. Any wrttten paper 
beatowing prlvilegea, or confirming rights; 
nriTilege,immnni^.ezemptioo. B^harfrr- 
land (held by ch.), ohartfer-forty (the agree., 
in dnpl., for the hire of a uiip), cc, si 90. 

(Marter, Tt. To est by charter; to let or to 
hire a vessel on contract H., ehart^trmg, 
p. ; eharftndf pp., a. ; (a) chart tring^ s. 89. 

Chartitwk, -Izm, s. The doctrines of a cert 
ultra-radical party composed ^ of the die- 
eontented port of the woridng-nlsssss of £ng. 
H.,(a) chart i$t, s. 90. [records; an archivist 

Chart ular^, -d-ldr-e, s. 18, 2&. A place for 

Ckovy, ehlrr-e, a. Careftil; wary; cautious; 
firugaL H.,eMK«i^,43,ad.; ch&r^mc$$X,%,9\. 

Cham, cbisf, s. = chace. 69. Eagm: or vehe- 
ment pursuit; huntinff; fitness for do. ; tbe 
ofejeet or thing pursued; open ground stared 
with game, so. ; a case in which type is 
confined; a term at tennis. 

CSkacct Tt To pursue or fol. eagerlr ; to hunt; 
to drive away ; to endisse. H., ehUmg, p. ; 
eAos^ pp., a. ; chMcr, s. ; ehactlakU, a. ; 
chMing (also enchatmg\ s. 89. 

Cftosm, k&zm, s. 29. A nreach i 
defl, fissure, gan, Tscuity. H., chacm'jff -e 
(abounding with), chaamed (haT. dk.), a. 90. 

ChaueUUf shfis'-e-Us, s. 29. A kind of grape. 

Chaueur, 8hds'-si«r, s. 99. A horae-soldler 
trained ibr rapid moTements. (Fr.) 

Chaste^ ch8st«, a. Untainted by lewdness ; fig., 
pure, uncorrupt refined ; pure in taste or 
style. H., chOtUly, 43, ad. ; chdcWnecc, & 91. 

ChoMUn, ehss'n, diW-tSnf— K.. vt IS, 45. To 
purify by expunging error or mults ; tocor- 
reot; to punish. K.. chatteitmg, chMt^n-lngt 
p.; chaHmedf chirnd, pp., a.; chastcncr, 
chik8'n-&-, a.; (a) chatmng, chia'n-Ing, 

ChactitCf chXa-tb^, Tt Tto correct, purify, 
chasten ; to correct by punishing; to reduce 

to order,' or to obedience. H.,eMs^wM.p.; 
chattUed^, pp.; chacMer, s.; ehattUabteX, 
a.; chatMinaX, cha^tUemeni, -tlx-, s. r^ 

ChasUtyy chlsT-It-e, chfts'-te-te, s. Purity of 
body and manner ; personal chasteness. 

Chatt, chit «. FUnlUar talk; idle do.; a 
tirlg*. H., chaityX (talkative), a. 90. 

Chatt, tL To cooTerse at esse; to talk idly. 
H., chattmgt, p. ; chattcdU PP. 1(1^) 

Chateau^ Bhd-to\ s. 99. A castle; aeountry-eeat 

Chattel, chitO, -A*— K., s. 13. Any moTable 
property or possession, (leg.) [pratet. 

CSiatter, eUtf-er, s. Noise of a pie or monkey ; 

C%a^«r, Tt To utter sounds rapidly and indls- 
tinetly ; to clatter the teeth; to talk idly or 
rapidly. H., ehattfcrmg, p., a.^ chattered^ 
pp. ; chatterer, s. ; (a) chatt ertng, s. 89. 

Chatter-hosBl, s. An incessant talker. 

ChatwoodX, chftf-wdbd, s. Little sUcks ; fUel. 

01kai^br,ch6f-^,s. AsmallAimaoe; aohafinff- 

Cftawf,ohiw.s.8. A cud; a mouthful, [dish. 

C9bato|,vt To chew. E,^chawd%wchawen%, 
pp., a. 89. 

C9(«af», cb6p<, a. 12. Low in price at the (jusl.; 
of email Talue; easy to t>e had: common, 
not respected^. H., eheap'la, ad.; cA^flJP'- 

Cheap, alk., pfx. Market (S&xO [ne$$, s. 91. 

CheapenXt chip'n, Tt 13, 43. Tb cha«M*; to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

enedU -nd, pp. ; dUa^Mtfr, ■. 89. 
C%«a^ota«te,8. AftMiMoimittodbjrAnep- 

tfao ; on* who diMts. (▼. ▼.) 
dUotn. TodMalT»«ad4afrMid; to dtee tv e, 

triek, or fcnpof on, (Mitwrn^nly. H.,dbar- 

Aiy, p.; «A«grW, pp^ a.: «*«a4 oAMT^rt, 
■.; «lU0r«Mit,a.; oAMTMf (ait, At.), •. 89. 

. ^ nw_ ^- » *^*nirorp«i — "^ ' 


IM or d 

aMl^eUk^i:4S: ABytUmrorponoBttot 
dMoks; A ohoqno; a pMi-tMuC or token: 
a t«rai in ohon; a «b|B^ or ohoa k t ro d 

ChtektJt. To flop, ratralB, 
orenrb; toroboka 


oroiaM.: tooonliolkf oouter-VMkoninf ; 
to titk or onrk in a yjM . bfoj^ d., 

S. 89. MM A tfl M. 

ttio kinf, tad wioo the nne; If^ diiBat, 
overthrow. U., (to) dUdf-oMlc vt. 89. 

C9h«dk«r, ohflC-^r. ^ a dW fner. ohfik'-^r, 88. 
To fbroi tato little eqnaree or diff. eolonrt 
(dUdl^«n^ db<^; [tieret, o fc#ciy< ryr*) ;^ to 
▼arlesate: to dhrenify. H., thttmtHitgf 
l>. ; €mt€m9rtd% pp., a. 89. 

OKmt en^ -€rs, ■. pL » 9k»^mr$, I>raaghli. 

Ob«dk,ebik<,e.S9. The ride of the Im Mow 
ttie ejee:— pi., aav oliiJeota that are donMa 
and eorreepondentl (maeh.). H., •kmUfjfi 
(impadant), a. ; e k»e k bm t. tAMl^-lboM, 
«e., 8. 99.— ClUeft^>Wf|v ilda hw aide. 

Chmr, eh&A ■• Wt. A i hCTBt, appwnee; Jmr, 
inlrth,galetj} entertataunant,proTielons: ear 
ofoooiiceiiaiica. H., c h tm 'jf | , -a, a. (t. t.) 90. 

OkMT. Tt TbappUmd; toeneoonm^commrt, 
cladden ; to tasplHt or enliven. H., cketf^- 
«if, p., a. ; dUimi, pp. ; ffAaer'ert, a. (t. L) 89. 

CkSf/H 6b»r-f9f>U difii'-* or thea., a. 13. 
UrelT, gay, animated; fbll of life. H., 
eAMrifUb, 48, ad.; ekett^/khum, a. 91. 
* ■'^ * ,ad.l8. HV 


leai or eplrit. 


. Wlthehaer- 

autrlmf, ehBrc'-lBf^ p., a. Enttreninf ; aai- 

matiBff: aneonragiBf. BL, aleer^flr, ad. 

(▼. T.) 91. 

Ckm'Utt, -Ue, a. WIChonI ekeer; aeld. 

dtopMting. H., eheer'h$$fy, 48, 


a««y^J^,-la,a. GhaarftiL m.,ahm'lfti»d.n. 
Ow K-fyt, -fli^ Tt, tL To make or be eome 

eheernil; to bear «p. 
Cftaiec, ehisj^ e. 8S. llw card <tf milk preaeed 

into a maee, and evftred to drj er harden. 

vat* oaeME aiofi^fff*, 
ale mor8eUe),te.,a.90. 

A BMMtar- 

tXf 0AMv y, eAascc "^MSf, a. ; oaaBfe **oiMe, 

-mttng^^hr (one' 
CM-^mmn, ih«f-d05yr, & 99. 

pieoe. (Fr.j 
CM^^roin, ko-nf -lr-<li, a. Bar. ehwe, m a 

•hett-lteh. (sool.) [of a daw. 

Oketiftrm^ kH'-o-nrm, a. S6. Bar. the fSarm 
CHehmany ko-lta«'-Tfo, a. 49. Pert, to the 

tortolae kind. (kooL) [theU-«eh. 

CkOj^, kr-le, ehr-lel, a. 29. The claw of a 
ChtmUml, Mm'-lk-iL a. « dbjNi'Mal, ckmfi^, 

4!A«iiM«rt0slt. 19, 68. OTorperttoehi ' 

dy. H., dUR'<0nl%r. 48, ad. (T. e.) 91. 
a«miM^eha-nKs/,s.99. Aladfemdes 

ment; awaUthatlineeabMtion. (Fr.) 


Oiwfartf, drtn>-e-aa<r, a. 99. A]adj*ii^ 
waistooat (Fr.) [tnr. 

Chnmaty klu'-Iat, & 99. OneTeraed in dkamii- 

OftMN^Mry, -re, a. » ehfmfit^, U, 88. The 
adanee whioh deter min ea the eonttltoMen 
of bodleo, and i n vee tf g a tee the lawi whieh 
regnlata tha comWnetiona and mntnal 
aedona of thair elementa. 

Omom, ehik, e. 88. a dkMk. A draft on fl 
b«ihar,payaMaatilght; dieek,orehedMr«d 
Unan. £,(to)dWnM^T.; dUffiM'-^odii^te., 
a. 90. See ( Mmk, te. 

CSMriO, iMr'4dk, Tt. 99b Tb treat with tn- 
i idt; 1 

enoooraga in tha'mind. H^ dWr MteA p. ; 
dbw^iMMl pp., n.; thtr^itktr. e. ; (a) «A«»'- 
M«M~8.M. Cad.; aW^iaTaigir, ■> M 

OIUrooe^eLa-r^,n. Akindafdgar. 
C»erry^ ehlt'-riL a. 99^ M. A weB-kwwx 

fttdt. B., dkeKry or thm^rif-^^trnmi, 
ekm^ff ehmked (raiddjr}, a. : ^kmr^rjHaw^ 
cher*rf-*rtf ehtr' rw w mt^ «., b>9p. 

dttfif ehCrt, a. 89* Bomatoneb B.^ dhw^pj 

(flinty), a. 90. 
Ckm-ub, diAK-Oh, a. 98. (pL, dbeKnfte; E. 

dUr'MMn, Beb.) An angel abonsdlnr h 

aflbction; flg., a beant. ehild. See gar^ 
ChamMe, ehe-rOO'-Mk» a. s aten/Maai^ U 

AngaUeaL (r. it) 
dWretf, eh«r^-vfl, n A eertain plant. 
C9k<ee, ohia, a. An ingaBione game piayad » 

a cheooered board. B., eA«M'-6eond; dUe^ 

aMM,fta.,a.90. (aeertqaan.ofgoodeCoonmft.} 
ChetL ehtet, ■. Alargaatrongbox; thethooA 
CSb«ara^-«d,a. BaT.aeheet; plaeediaaeheat 
Cktthmt, ehi^-Bttt, a. 99. Of or Uka th 

eheetnnt; reddiih brown. [abo ita findt 
OkM'tmd.e.sdkef'fNK. Akindof b ee ch tr ee 
ChetaJLdie'-d^ i. TheI.LhBnlin«laoBavii 
CfttfMdLr, dU^NMir/, -dl'-yir-Fr., aiMi ^ 

knight. riem 

CheverU, d«r'-8r41, a. 99. A Ud; kU 
C»e^K -«■>•- Thaehnb. 
Chevron^ ■hir'-rOn, a. 99. A repr. af tn 

rdlera meeting at top (h«.) ; tke dIaL bad| 

OB tha deeve of ano n eo m . cOeer. (FK.) ■ 

o*«^rmw4(haT.,*e.),a.90. [telaanUBi 
CftMrTeta^s-ro-can^,!. TheenMUeatoitlMal 
akM«,eh7RV,&99. That which iaehawnd; new 
OUie^ Tt Tb bite and grhid with tkn taetl 

to maatieato; to meditate opon} :—^ 1 

champ npon; to ramiBata. B» aihei^Mi 

>, a. ; ehtmidf pp., a. 89. 
Obr^d*, -St, 0. Mt nee dm eat 
OMon, kr-dn, a. 99. Oforfkom OUaa. 
CMoro-oeeMro, ke-tf'-ro-^b-ksy-ro. a. 9iL Dl 

poeitloB of light and ehade. (pa.) 
CMM«/t, ehlbr-dl, a. A small, yonny onion 
OMeatu, she-kin^, tL 99. To bo cwaty 

ehicanery. B., MeSm'imff, p. ; eiieJmi 

pp. ; ekiidti'er, i. 89. 
Chkmwy, -kfln«'-«r-e, n a ehMki/. Ma 

er BBlBir arttfloe to perplex a cauaa^ or 

obeeore the trBth; ihift, qaibtale, trld 

eophistrj; wrangling. 

C We r ci, -^D, e. The'rooBgaf lbwh^ par. 
tiie dpni. hcB ; a ehftdi or dd. yoan^ pent 

B., ekiMm-htarteA (timofoiw), m. , »mo 
pea (a small pea), cMcil^HMed; *oi, a. m. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


A Bfld ernlhw diiMML 

peftor^oCdL [Its root, dried a&droMted. 
Chimrjft chttr«o-g^fc aa. WOd-ciMMry; alio 
Cfttfib chid«, Tt ni To npra«» tar 1^ ' 

to MBns«» tooli, Tt1nilEe>-<TL To 


CUrHmm, -tar, «. (▼. ▼.)&, dU^iiwIr. ad. 91. 

QA^TSOt^ a. St. Prindpa], UdiMC. sort 
anliMit; tnt; eapiUL H., dU</; cm^T J^ 
(priBflipallT, *».)* ad. 9L 

CSbi^a. AkaderoreomaMadv; tbaprlMipai 
aenoB; thaleadiu or pita, part; dio top 
ofamrthiDf. (ItafteB expr. ploxaUtv wUb- 
Wfa^ mad i« tta^*-} H^ cAnTiMk 

a^iein, -JOmi -tlaA-K., Wa., a. tf. A 
iMdar; appr^ tba bead of a elaiu BL, 
aM^CMbcM, dbtftafaaip, a. Ml 
CMMM^^irt'-dMi^ a. TnOe la wkkh 

aMsay ia ax t or te d aa diwwiwt. (l«f .) 
'""^^^amtr^ lUH-^SmrU^^ & 98i lit, a feaapi. 
rraa: akfadof mov., onLauAoard. 
Ua»,ehn'-ttiiM,t.». An fnfliiiMiitnry 
awtlUac or aon prodMed by aold. 
CM^wU or efe'fld, a. M, S7. (pL, aUTdrwi.) 
AaoBordaagfatar; an iaJtot, a wy fo ii y 
a; a ffU*|; if.* one nvak in kaoiw- 
,a^m paa%,i% tjm, a novloa; a 
■ ** ... jjj^ 















kannony:— Tl TDaovdin)iar.;tottB^; 
to eomapoBd, agree, iUl In («ilA). H., 
oMai'av, pi ; c Aiii urf, pf.: •ktrnfmr, a. It. 
CftMMra, ke-aOrZ-d, -Skr-td—Wa., a. S8^ 
^ AftOdadaMNHtwof 

(Mftk.) : kn any Tain Md kUa flMay. 

CftMierioalrinlr'-o-Utt.a. WikUyerTdnlyaen- 

eeimd; vild; imag. fLtMmtr'ieM^mLn, 

Cl iaiai j f, cklnt^-ne, a^ (pL,<*tBi^iMya.) Atnba 

or paiHte ftr tka aoeape of naoke or kaated 

air; tke fliepkMt. &, cMmfm^ Imri 

(dre-boarl), c kMm m ea nM r (tr«Mt)» 

eAtai'Mp-MM0 (mantle piaeeV oM ' 

w pe q g or ek.-mmi^m'f ikai, a. M. [oi 

€% Mm p w mmtt ektai-pin'-ai^ a. Tke AAr. 4 

CMS eUn, a. ». & part of tke fboa kekm 

tkonaderUp. [orig. flroni Gkina. 

CMiM,okf-nd,ekirHMi"f-Wa.,a. Poreakdn, 

Ckimihm; okhHokir-^ a. ». AanaOaniMl 

ofSontkAmariea; alaoitaftir. 

«MMA*,4BN;a. Tkakooptng-oongk. 
i^ eolBi^ a. 

Tbe opina or kaokko— e# a 

CWmw. ekl^iisf', a. Of China :-& (rfnr- 

andpL) TkeknfoiteorinhabftMtaordo. 

nMa»,<iMnyk,s.4g. Atatt narrow apcrtnra; a 

orcraek. M., ekimlfp, a. ; riMwA* 

(to eraak, de.), vt., t1 (▼. U 89. [■ 
CftM«» a. Xonayf ; tke rattle (e*mJ^Mi9)'of 
Chmktt rU To rattle eoina, do., tofetker :— 

tL To eait a ekinktnf eoand when ekaken 

C niwfln e » kl-nfiiM'* ■. S9. A pee. aoba. obi. by 
C%mm, ohinai^Tt. To ealk aeaau or ekinka. 

(naot.) (elatk. 

C»fnA» okliat% i. 4A A var. of printed eoMen 
CMp^ iklp^ a. A ■nail piaee ehopped off a 

la^seroBo; afracwant. (▼.▼.) 
Ckipt ft. To dlM., or to radoee to pleee% by 

tapping or enttinv off a little at a ttane :— 

▼L To fly off in amall pieee% aa pettar'a 

CMrofraph, -rohgri^ a. An aneiant ionn 

ofwritanf MdopUeota^ oladlar toanodem 
or diarter-perty. 
. . Jf kX-r«g'-r»^e» •. ». Hand- 

vritina. H., cMrofropA^M (reL to). 

ekinpn^ktr, ehtn^rofkitt (also a ^ 

manoer). a. 99l 
Ckinlogy^ -ftt'-o-Je, a. Art of taDdar witk 

thekandb. H., dhtrafofMi, s. : dee. M. 
Chitromtmeih kT-ro-min ee, kir-ro— Wa., a. 

Pataaiitry. H., ekI nmmW ie (reL to), a.; 

(a) eki n mmi M r, ekifnmmti$t, a. 99. 
Ch inmci mf*, kl-rOn'-o-me, a. 39. Art of aMT- 

invtkakMid.(orat) [gerinf. (umm.) 

CkHpofiMt, »ro pi ia t, e. Aninatr.toteaekfln- 
GbtnyodM, -r6p'-o-dIat, a. A com er wart 

doctor. [fbrtano-teller. 

CMrae^AM, -rBe'-o-flat, ■. A efairoBUUieer or 
OUry, ohtep, a. t9, l&. Tke partlenkur yoIoo 

of oartain small Mrda and ta a eo ta . 
C%ar7, tL To make tke noise of certain birds, 

de. H., OmTifima, p., a.; c* iry< rf, pp.; 

ekirj^er^u,; (a) dS^tn^, s. 89L 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

OUqi*,TtscsMm9^cli«r'-lli»,88. To 

«p; to ani^te.* 
C9WruraMMt«kT-raif--Mlii,0.29,3S. Aanrgeon. 
OUrurWy*, -Jftr-e, 8. Snnreiy. 
Ckina/gunl, 'ilk'Sl, 9^. Sargloal. 
CMm<, cfaXs'-«( 8. 86, It. An iiutr. ft>r ptting 

or hoUowlnr oat wood, •tone, fto. 
CMt^sl, ft. To work upon with a ehiwl. H., 

ckUelmgt pi; ekUiUd, pp., a.; ckUtkr 

(also, a ohaatS), a. ; ^MmiH§ (alao, oheat- 

iDgf).8.8». [yoong ohlldl. £L,e*«rf3n,a.9a 
Ck/U, ehlt, a. ▲ aboot or aprout: a llTdy 
C9Uf», tL To ahoot or apnrat. (v. a.) 
OdgehatX.'^UX.t, PratUe. 
€SWe^«, kr-tin, a. M. The bard, InsoL aaba. 

forming the shells and elytra of inseeta. 
C7MM«rMfiftt,ehXtr-te-lInn,apL The smaller 

inteetlnea of « pig^ *«. (oo(A.) 
CBuvabrWf she-rai'-rlk, a. = cAteolroNS, shlV- 

il-rOs. ReL to ebivalry ; knighUr, warlike, 

gaUant. H., dMv'alroiisiy, 43, ad ; Ao. 91. 
CMtMiify,afaXy-il-ra,ehIt'— Wa.,s.99. Knight- 

kood, or its qoalifloatloas ; the STstem of 

knigtathood; knight-errantry; a knightly 

adTantore ; tennre br knight's serrioe (leff.). 
CMw,chXT«,s. A Una of small onion growmg 

in tnfta. [rising in flowers. 

CMms, eblTM, a. pi. The threads or illamenta 
OUoro^ kld'-rfll, s. S9. A Uqtdd ftyrmed from 

ehlortne and alcohol. [of chkirie add. 

Chlorate, klO'-rftttf or klOrtf'-ftt^ a. 89. A salt 
Ckkfrict >nk, a. Of or Ihnn ehlorine. U., 

ekUfie aeid^ a. 90. 
Chkfrid«t -rid, a. 68. A direet eompoond of 

dilorine; a eomm. hypooldorltet. 
^TAIoricNo, -ridr-lk, a. Pert, to a chloride. 
O^JoHfM, kld'-rln or chlOn'-ln, a. 99, 68. An 

elem. subs., occ. as a greenish-jcUow gas, 

poss. great energy, par. aa a bleacher. 
Cwrite, -nt«, a. Aaaltofdkloronaadd. 
<7»iorMe, -rif -Ik, a. Pert, to a chlorite. 
CIMroformt -ro-form or klOre'-o-fonn, a. 17, 

96. A heary, highly ToLUqold, beat known 
/ fDritsprop.ofpn>d.afMes<A^s<a,orinsenai- 

UUty to pain, and lu, called an ofMet^Aet'te. 
OUoroaMlcr, kto-rfim'-e-tSr, si An instr. or 

^par. to teat the strength of chloride of 

lime, fte. [bleaohing ohloridee. 

Chhromfttrpf -tre, a. Art of testing the 
Okhropkpie, kld'-ro-fH, s. 99, 66. The green 

matter of Tegetable laaTca. 
(JSUoro'sis, -ala, a. A disease of 

sickness; etlolatioa (hot). 
OlUorotM, -r«f -Oc a. Pert, to, or 
CMorom, kldr^-Cis. a. 29. Of or rdating to 

chlorine. H., ekhf'raui acid, 
ChUfrmct*. -r95-ri^ s. A chloride. (▼. an.) 
C&odfcf, chok, yL 99. To choke or fill np. H., 

«Aodk| (a wedge, fte.), a. 90. Sm Choke. 
ClbM'eto to,-o-lite, a. The chocolate not roaated, 

ground, and flaToared; also a bcTerage 

CMet, choyag, a. 29. Worthy of prefbrenoe ; 

highly pmed; select: nrecaooa : rerr good, 

or bMt; chary, careral. H., ehoieeljf, 43, 

ad. ; eAMd^iwas, a. 91. 
Choki, a. The act or power of ehooeing or 

aeleeting ; option ; preference ; election ; 

thing or person ohoaen; the pretorable or 

beet part H.,ehoiee'tes$,tL.90. 
OMr, kwlrtf, s. 29. An jtfaembly or band of 

aingera, mora par. tboie eng. in a ehnroh ; 



the part of the church In which tiiey are 
plaoed; the part of a cathedral eastward of 
the nave or screen. [artidMAe, Ac 

Ckoke, chOk^ a. 29. The filamentous part of the 
C^kit Yt. c= ehoaifi. To smother or suifooate; 
to stop or block np; to hinder ; to snnpresa: 
— Ti. To be choked ; to be highly onended. 
H., cMlfMf , p. ; a. ; choked^ pp. ; e^6keri 
(alBO, a nedielothl; anything nnanswer- 
aUef), a. %9.—Chok^ftMX or chod^/Olt, is 

ftill to choking. 
Ck4M-damp,9. The carbonic acid gaa ol 
Chakff, cbdK«'-e, a. Tending to choke. 

e carbonic acid gaa of mines. 

CholagogtUf k^-d-ffttg, s. A medicine which 
escpels excess of bile. [bllity. 

Ckofer, >«r, s. 29. The bHe ; fig., angef, iraed- 

Cholerot kfil'-^r-JS, s. s JSitaliMh do. ; ekoftrm 
moKfttft, L. Bilions fomlting and pnrging. 
(Adatio^ maUg.,m pett. ekokra is a distinct 
ntsease.) TH., ehoferieneu, a. 91. 

Choferie, -ft, a. Irasdble ; petulant ; angry. 

Choleatermtf ko-lte'-ter-bi, s. 68. A futy snba. 
found in bile. [cartilage. 

OJkMMiniM, kfin'-drin, s. 68. Gelatine obt. frran 

Cftofulro<ofy, -drOr-o-Je, a. Deecr.,fto.,of the 

Choost, chOOB«, Yt 90. To seleet by way of 
preference; to make oholee of; to elect ; to 
take, select, adopt, follow; not to refhae| : 
— -t1. To will or ju^fer ; to have power oC 
choice. H., ekoofmg, p. ; dkoss, ehos^, prt. ; 
dbostf, dkmwfi, diOx^ P?t^$ chooser, a. ; 
(a) ehooifm^t s. 69. 

Cliopt chOp, a. A piece chopped oiT (par. oC 
meat) ; a chap or deftf ; the chap or jawf. 
H., ehoffkouM (dining-hoose), ftc, a. 90. 

ChopfVt. Tooutorsepantewitnaqniekblofw; 
to minoe (fol. by ifO ; to ebap ; to exchange 
or barter :— ri. To ught or fall on suddenly^ ; 

perf, pp., a.; ehop&er [•8*^ or 
; (a) ehopp'tMf s. 89. See CA«f». 
b'-In— we., cho-p«n/— Wa- a. A 

to varr or ahift suddenly. H., ekopffingy p.^ 

a. ; ekoppedf pp., a. : e}u ' ' 

instr.), B. ; (a) ehopp'wf^ s 
Chopi$i^ ohfip'-In— We., cho-p«n/— Wa., i 

liquid measure (= about 1 quart) 
Ohcp]^in^t -Ing, a. Stout; lusty. 
Choral^ kOr^-U, a. 26. Of or bet to a drarna» 

oonoert or choir. H., cMKolly, ad. 91. 
Chords Uknrd or kord, s. 17, 26. The string of 

a mns. iiwtr. ; an aooord or harmony (moa.) ; 

a right line which Joins the two ends of an 
Ctbona*, Tt. To string, (mus.) [are(geoBu). 
CSbonlM. kfir-dS', s. Painfol erection, (path.) 
CkorOt cndrtf, a. See Okar. ((pn».) 

dborse, ko-rfi', a. 29. as ehonfmt. A trodice. 
C^ rtnit co paU k6rg-e-pls'-ko-pftl, a. Pert to a 

aullragan bishop. [inTestingtheftBtus.(anat.) 
C%or<oM,k0r«'-e-on,a.26. The est membraiM 
Ckon$Ur^ kfir'-Is-ter. kOrs'— K., kwlr'— Wa^ 

s. 29. 96. = chdr^ut^. A singer; appr., a 

member of a choir. [used in sunmny. 
Chorograph^ ko'-ro-gr&f, a. 29, 46. An instr. 
CKorofTKwAy, -rte'-rftf-e, s. Descriptive i 

ping. H., (a) ekoro^raphor^ a. ; ftc 90. 

Chormt kdrZ-Os or ko'-rOs, s. 99, 26. Ori^^ 
a band of dancers or aingera ; a oorap. oC 
pars, sin^ng in concert, or this |rfeoe pefr« 
formed by them ; Terses of a song in whidi 
the eompanv join ; a piece in two or more 
parte (raus.). [See nftcwaa. 

Cfhooent chfia'n, a. Select; eminent; fhyonred. 

Chottgh, char, a. 29, 46. A kind of jackdaw 
fonnd OB the aea-coaat 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ObroMMilwR, kre-Buf-l 


CVi— ,krl«B, s. 99. OonKcnted oU; vnetloii. 
OkTMBM^krU'-Bil,*. Piert.tochrlMn. [dirinn. 
Clfjwufwf, -fliir-tttr-«, a. tt. A ranel fSor 
^SrliC, krtrt, & S9, 14. The aaotntod ; sppr., 
' tiM MtmUh. H^ Chrisfleu (heathen, im- 

Ugioas), «. 90. 
Cknatm, kriCn, Tt 45. To hsptbe and name; 

to naBct ; to nScknametl. H., ekH$tminf, 

krtK^inf,p.; eMWoKri, krli'nd, pp.; (a) 

ektritifmmg, krls^Xng, a. 89. 
ChriaUmiotm, knarn-dOm, a. S9, 95. The Ghrlat- 

iattirotM; Chr. eomtriea eoUeethreljr ; the 

vhote body or Cfaxiatiana. 
dnWioiB, kzlatr-j'fln, m. 99, 95. Oforpertto 

CtoM or his rciif.; prof. GhriattanitT.— 

C Viaf M l ntm u, ia the name giv. In bapttnn. 

S^ OkKaTMNly, ad. ; CftrisfuHMMMi*, a. 91. 
OKiftasi, a. A foDower of Chriat; gen^aU 

^ite axe bora la a Chr. eoimtrjr, or of Chr. 

paorcBta. H^ Cftrwf ta»-l|jfc«, a. ; &o. 90. 
Ckrittimmhef-ls/t,rt.90. ToeooTeirt toChrla- 

tlaBitx. iL, CkntTianUint, p. : Chriaeimn- 

uedL ppi, m. : dbirtiomao'fitM, M, a. 89. 
" • '" • ^ krla-te-fa'-It-e, a. =» Chn$tim^ 

The Chrlatiaa reliclffli. 

ChntJmn, kzla'Hnia, a. The flBetiTalo?Chrlat'a 
SMtrttj; abriirmiu^iay (95 Dee.). H., 
CkrStrm n ho x (a gift), CftnfffMM-eaaaofi 
(S Dee. to 6 Jan.), fte., a. 90. [on Chriat. 

Ctriaiatofy, krti^-o^ a. 80-9. Adiaooone 

CknmmU^m-uiau^tM. Aaalt of chromic add. 

Cknmatio, -skAir-Ik, a. Relating to oolonra; 
cdonred; proeecding bjr aemi-tonea |mna.}. 
B.» tiroweftQeffy, 43, ad. ; «ArMui^i0-«eoi« 

'fee, -tts, a. pi. The aeience of eolonra. 


Ore— e f o y r ep Jfce, -md-tSg'-r&f-e, a. A treatiae 

flaeotovra: the art of printing in eolonra ; 

CTn aw a, krUme, a 99. Oneoftbemetala. 
Clrwaf , togi/4k, a. Of or from chrome. H., 

CTrt^mli— , -me-fim, a. Chrome. 
CKfWife kritar-Oc, a. = eJkrwi'ieal, -«L S9. 

Salntnc to time or dnration ; continuing a 

InV time (path.); periodical. 
Clmifili , fcrfe^-ftU a. », 46. Anhiatregiater 

of •fCBta in the order of time ; in a gen. 


kro-atai'-e-ar, i. 
Any inatr. for meeM. time; appr., 
one that doea ao with cxtreoM exaetneaa. 
H., dinmcmefrie, ehronomtfritul (pert, to, 
or meea. by te.), a. 90. 

^^'^^"^'^^'''^'^nft^^-^J^^*^ of meaa. time, or 
of eonatr. chronometera. f chryaallaL 

CkrfmUA, krlC-d-Od, a. 99, 15. I'<ert. to a 

Orya'alif, -Us, a. «■ cAr^a'aiMl*. The eeeead 
atato of a changeable inaeet (batterfly, moth, 
Ac), in whieh it beemnea Inactive, and It 
e n c i oee d In a tranaparant eoTerlag, fnm 
whieh it nltimatelyemergee winged, [beryl. 

CkrytobwyU krla'-o-Ur-n, a. 15, 96. The goltei 

dby/aljfa, -nte, a. A greeniah atone with a 

Chrfftohn^ -^r-o-je, a. 10. Thm doetrfae of 
the prodnction en wealth, (pol. econ.) 

fSbiA. chdb, a. 29. A aasaU rhrer-llah. 

CkMyX, -e, a. Chnb-Uke: plump, abort, 
thick. -R^eMU^mot^ot Mk-fiteeiX, 
a. ; mmM tfieavj, OMwir ewmaj, a. 91. 

Clkfdk, chlik, a. The noiae of a hen or part- 
ridge (prop.,eliMk) ; a word of eade a r m entt; 
a alight blowt ; part of a lathe (meeh.). 

Ckttekt Tt. To doec or call, aa a hen, Ao. ; to 
hit gentlyt ; to throw or pitch a abort di»- 
taaocf :— Ti. To make the aoiae of a hen. 
fto. ; to diuckle*. (t. a.) [(proT.) 

Chtel^'hol^ -bOU, a. A hole ia a cart-rat. 

CkudtUt, ch<lk% a. 45. ■> chttOfUna, A abort, 
broken, half-anppraaaed laugh ; inward ex- 
ultation. H.,dhM*'<a-A«i»rMl (thick-headed, 
stupid), a. 90. 

ChueKUf Tt To call, or to fondle, aa a hen doee 
her ehickena :— ri. To laush in a fte. (t. a.)t ; 
to inwardly ezultt. H., ekmd^Knft-p., a., a. ; 
ckme^ltd^ pp. 89. 
IbM^t, chiti; a. Adown ; a aurly Una 

Ckt^gX.-^ti.'^chUfl. Oiubby*; 

Cfhtiff, chiii; a. A down ; a aurly blunt fellow. 

~k»^ft, -«! ft- *= ch^fX. Chubby* ; eoarae, 
aurly, bruaque. B., ehtifilffU ad. ; e*t(f*- 
ine9sX, a. 91. [m intim. aaeoeiate. 

Ckitmti ehOm, a. A chambei^fdlow at edlege ; 

CJbMm», chOmp, a. 45. A abort, heary piece of 
wood, leaa than a block. 

Ohmit* ohOnsk, a. 45. A chump of anything. 

Church, ohtircli, a. 29. A building oonaecratcd 
to divine worahlp; the ooUeetiTe body of 
Chrlatiana ; the clergy or eedealaatica, aa a 
body ; appr^ the epiacopal eh. of Eng. ; anv 
par. body of Chrlatiana bar. a com. creed, 
and under ecd. gor. H., ehureh'-UketChmrch*' 
leta, a. ; ekureh'dtm, ehureh'Mhm, chureh'- 
warden (a oert. pariah ofBeer), ehureh*fmrd, 
fto., Ac., a. 90. 

Chureh^yt. To perl with any one the office of 
reUthanka after any aignalddlTeranoe. H., 
ehmrch'ing, p., a. ; ehwrehed, pp. 89. 

Chmreh'wum, a. An epiaoopalian. (Eng.) H., 
chmreh'mamkm^ a. 90. [man : a miser*. 

CSwrU chflrl, a. 29. A rastic ; a aurly, ill-bred 

Chmrriiih, -lah, a. = eAio-ryf. Bade, rarlv, 
auatere : obetinate ; aTarldona*. IL, ehurV- 
i$htp, 48, ad. ; ehterfiahneaB, a. 91. 

Chum, ehfirn, a. 29, 84. An agitating Tcaael or 
apperatua, used in making butter. H., 
<Murf^-^afft Ae., a. 90. 

Churth Tt. To agttote cream In a chura \ to 
ahake or agiute TtolenUy. H., ehum'wg, 
p. ; ehmmed, pp., a. ; &c. 89. 

Chwm'mf, -Ing, a. The operation of making 
butter ; or the quantity made at once. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Gkm i^uiw, AfaMrttm» •. TheiaMtAni- 
oriikei. fooDs.ofdi^. 

CftylMMMi, IMl'-di'aa, «. S8-ft. Bd to. «r 

C)kyte^klhkt.M,»l TIM white «raUkTflMd 
formed Rom the ohyme» and tmUbad hy the 
ImCmOs, t» te oontneied by tl)e tirorMie to 
tiMTtiNMu fTfltenuMihemeeiieof xHitcitten. 

O if Uf at t itn, lO-leNflUc^-elian, kIl-We,i. ¥0r- 
in«tk««rohjto. (ferai«c> 

aMatram, -^r, lak-^m^^ t. 41. Ohyle- 

aSS^i-mm, -W*-fav<K •. Chyle-beaiiDg. 

ai9*)peieNe» kl-kHMfMlt^ t. tt. 88. Oon- 
«enied Ibl «r hunog power to fma ohyi*. 

tik9iiierfcMMLa.MkM. Th^p^iy UTerofdt- 
seeted food which adheres to uw e«rf. of the 
£rtMdM^«idyieMi ehytokgradmixtnrewith 
thebH*. IpTehTMe. 

C%M'i«^*D. See ttiw Jfr, Aa. 
»y we nt , k>p/-<ta, >. BertalaingtoehTMa. 
Ogar><wMi,ea hlf^ a fla,i.«. BaLtofood;«d[Ue. 
C faqinw, ^tT'jM rta, a. 4*. The aaar or aaam 

wMah THMteaaAaf Iha aUMtkif iww of a 

Oeairitt, alT^MilM, n. 60. To heal bf, or 

totniwaethaform.ofaeiaatrbc:— *ri. Tobe 

healed bj4m, H.. oi^alrfsw^ p.; oic^ 
• * p., a.; piifmt9i$mU (-toT— Wa.; 

ronodr M.), a. ; titatrita^tim, M, a. 8i. 
(X&m$rmm, -tit-d[T. -trr-^Wa^ «. 4i. VMdiag 

to p r om o te etoatr l M l iwi. [40. ▲ cio«triee. 
OkmtHt, ao^t'-titka. A'-4~K^ S., Wa.»a. M, 
Ot0e/tf,«v-o-le,d8'-lo— Wa.,8. Nam* of o plant. 
OocreiM, <B-aH«a/-e, ehe-ehirr9'-»&— iu, a. 

to. A Mraon who polnteooto^leela at loeal 

InteraattotrBveUen; agoida. ^ 
Oieer&*nian^ - jko, s. Like Cioaro ; eloq«Hrt» 4to. 
OMortfOMNtt A-o-ft'-^'ttfl, a. S7>8. KoOaf 

plants lOce fooeonr. 
CIoMm, ao-ili'-hfrKt, ohoK«iIa-br-o~It. a. 89. 

The profeased gallant of a married woman; 

• earalter eervenito; • dangler. U^ ^iai^- 

• ' - ,it88. U»i«. 

OU^, «r-d6r. a. s tfiTilir*. Ftrmented ipple- 
' -kin, a. ^ ▲ poor liipwr sade tkm 


,a»-do-Toiw',ad.89. Foraerly. (Pr.) 
' ' oMaUroUoflaafto- 

OSfmr, sa g i ir ^, lu 7. At 

aaoeOi foremoldag. 
OWft, •n'-y'a» aTpL 88. 

The eyelida ; long 
haira on • ■nrgta (hot.) ; wfaint^ pndoet- 
Ing, Tibratary fUaiienti (aool.). [to oUia. 

(Viarir, -7*^ a. 85. Pert, to the eg^rildHor 

OficMntf*, le-nsh'-'aa, a. Madeofhahr. 

CUiograSt, Ok' t o gi'idi, a. Swfaamfaig by 
neana of oWa. (soot.) [Ombri. 

(Smbrict tfm'-brfk, a. Of or pert to the 

Ofmeter^ tfm'^-tte, a. The corred aword of 

C fmmtrumt -aafirZ-o-in. a. 41. Pert, to CSm< 
meriosB ; h., extremely dark ; benightod. 

dmehoHu, sin-ko'-nd, s. 88-8. Atree or trees 
of many speeies, growing in Pern, Ao. ; also 
their bark ; appr., eindiona or Perny. bark. 

CfMAoWe, -nlk, or -k6nMk, a. Ofcinohona. 

dn'ehoHine, -nin, s. 68. e eiucho'nia, -ne-d, 45. 
One of the alkal<rfda obuflrom cinchona-bark. 

Ometw*, tiTngk'-tOrc, stog'-'S., a. 45 A belt 
or girdle; an enoloeure; the ring at each 
extremity of the shaft of a eoiamn (arch.). 

Cmcftund, -tOrd, a. Baring a einetnre; 


dmitfi, tfB'-ilr, s. Matter ehanwd Vf imp 

• hot ooal that has oeascd to iame:~pl., 

embers, orate-waste, Ae. H., eim'denh 4S») 

a.;fto.83r [Ukeoiiidaie. 

Ow'^rsiis** -drds, a. « eiietUmit, Of «n 

Cmmrmeomt sln<-4r>rt^<eh*as, a. 87-8. OUmt- 

aifi'arory,-dr-e,a.95. Perttoashea. [itieea.. 

OfMration* -er-4'-shttn, a. s ciH^tufti»i^ B•-^ 

duothm to ashes or a atader. 
dneritiouit sXn-^r-Ish'-'Os, a. s wM >'aen» * » 

8 rr* a tta . likoadiea: nmr. 
Okm'vlmU, -CbA^tL Fonofashee* 
C&i^aisse, slnc'-gd-^iai^ a. Oforft^OBsOeyloiu 
(Snfui5or, sln^-d-bjfr, s. Natiye ycrasUkm. 
O iim 'mim i m, -to, a. 4&. Of or oenL eiwnabag., 
CSimawtiiitAn nam^4k,a. OforfroaMdanainen. 
Ckm^ainon. -dnnOn, a. 17. 2%e aNMatto hark 

of a speana of kmrms. 
OENtt'oaipfa^ HBlU e. 88. A oheasie radioaL 
Omff«s,«Iagk,a.88. AtTe,aMrdiea,te. W^ 
MNffMf'Vbtf (a kind of etoverLelnffMs'-/K»«a 
(cert haTsna that lie towardsTr^, te., s. 88l, 
O^fter, sf -Or, a. 41. An arlth. fifnre ; ear., 
the «har. 0; h., eny body «r thing of Uttie 
aeeoQDl^r vateet ; a sin or ohar. in gea. ;, 
an Intertoxtoreof the initialB of a naaa^tew ; 
a aeoret man. of wrtOng, or the key to it. 
C7j*«r,et,< TowritolasipberitopraotSaei 
arifhmerta. H.,or#A«r%,p.; ef>A«ra<gp. 
Oeplmin0t% •** aTAriaMietie. , 

CBmaffioM* e^r-Uih'-yda, a. Of or from Or- 

o asil m {nating bat Tcnoau 

C Sn ss ea , sCr-sS'-iB, a. rert to Circe; fai 
CMMO.aer'-slB-Alt.oir^etealf. Fi 

as to be spiral downwarda. (bot.) 
(^reJMrttofit, -t'-ohttn, 8. Orbiotilari 
Ob^ sArkO, sAr'-^l, a. U» 45. A earned lino 
endttg where it begins, and having all its 
parts equidistant fk-om a common centra; 
the plana fig. oomprehended by eadi a Una 
(geooL) ; popn either of the preo. ; a riaf^ 
aa orK ue earth : eompass, enolosure, olr- 
cnlt ; drcnmloentlon ; a territorial dir. ; an 
assembly sorronnding the prineipal peraon ^ 
a sertes ending where It begins. 
Clr&l«t rt To moTO ronnd anything; to en- 
circle or enoloaa :— ▼!. To more wrenlarly> 

CfrcoetU, ste'-ko-sSU, s. Varioeeele. 

OrcMtt.sflr'-klt.stf. Theaetofmor. orHM»- 
Ing roond, or the space so meas. ; the Jour- 
ney of aJndge of assise, or the tract of country 
▼isited by him ; a long deduction of reason. 

CXKoutt*, Tt, vL To mo^ in a drole; to go 
ronnd. H.,e»r<wifiMitt-ka-Ish'-an,s.; fto.89. 

Cirettiteertt-ir/,%, One who travels a olrenit. 

OSroMifons, adr-kQ'-It-lis, a. 18. Xndireet; 
round abooL H., m^iUmsI^, 43, ad. ; 
eirct^Umim*9^, owWify, -It-e, a. 88. 

dt^eular^ -4Ar, a. = Mr^MZaryf, -e. la the 
form o^ or peri to a eirole; ronnd: ana- 
oesaiTe; ending in itself; addressed to m 
elrde of peraons. Hn oir'cularim, 4^ ad. z 

Okr^cmUr, a. A drcnlar letter. 

dreulaUt sCr'-kfl-lau, rt 18. To pnt aVmt ; 
to spread :--Ti. To more or flow round ; t« 
pass from one person, or plaoe, to aaothier ; 
to be dispersed or ^read about. H., ctr'oat^ 
latktfft p., a.; oir^culaUd, pp.; cir'eulatot'^ 
a.; eimMtioH, 86, a. 88. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


tbt act Bffnf and rctonrfof, «i tte Mood, 
«B9£pd.aBB.); a letandng wiIm. {t. ▼.) 

Aw, ai^-tm, flir'-kflm, pAu Aboat: 
JHBd abaaC; aniixBd| to •onymr. (L.) 
im hAm, cr n£a am Uie Bria. mrd fbim- 

ffroMaai'lafele, iL Tb walk XMuik ak 

I'tiM. js, a. aa. 

n irBiiiii, s6ritr-ftm Matw ^t. TOMtofftiM 
vaaee (aa to tba mL lite aftiM Jews Md 
ji&nMdaaa}; fi»^ to partly tbekMitt 
Mp-J. BL, drr^toMSM^ p.; mr^ m t 

ai^ -S^-fia ftto MIL Cha riuj, a. 69. 

^a£r-Wtarflr fcw, a. Thaltoa 

laaacarele or apbaae; tha Itoo 

i n ai j aai pw any flcorol ; a pvi- 

:Ihaq»«iBctedad. fai 




.#» A Ttoa and AH of tba 
» vowel or ajA.; tlMMark 

-L air'kttB''A*9»-i&t, a. IS. = «ir< 
A -te. nowtoff raand, aa with 
jmtit. O, AraM</CMM% -tatf. a. 9L 

— <. TL W. To aour 

_ __ . mom, -shfla. a. W. 

^ •fi'-al^ a. Tbat may oe poacad 

^iV"l. aiik-^a»Jft'-«fat, a. Ljtog 


af vorda; ladircet or draai- 

tar^a.l8,SS. 1 
,^^, peripbraatieal 
, B6rk-<lJn-nAV-«-gau, Tt. 
SmJfmmifmU. [simgtaaai, 
Mrf", ^le^'-okfiiL a. A wngr 
rwia|iTar,a, Bound the poto. 
Or^^oM^ba, -dah'-^ln* •- A plaetof at 
liiiCftoaed drcatoriy. 
"- - -~ - , jbotttSon; etreoroiTototioa. 
jL Whixitaf rooad. 
fcjy flm nlTTTV , Tt. To wxlta 
naa^; lo mcliwr wiUUn a oartato Umk; 
»to«|.l»it,raBtrict. U^einf um iaf f hima, 

a. • 1b*7 te oireamiorfbcd. 

.akrlp'-tHd. a. 4ft. Thai 

.'-dULv, a. Limttatiom ; tha 

Jhe :tot fa*^« ; a airentor inacription*. 
ftiawBiJLii, U»." 'T Definiair exteraal 
tea: fafcttas; marklar or eacl o a i n g the 

^■■ii«j>f- agry.flin-^><art, a. 4l Watchful 
m iD Mea; anenUve, eautiooa, diaereet, 
-nrj, H., eb-^nmapfcO^, 48, ad. ; drc'aai- 
*«ten,a.9L [c«itkm; dlacraatnajMy-*.) 
-ap^-abOn, a. Atteatkm; 


g h il aa» w ^tfi!te,JlT, «■ «. T^adtog c 

gn an^ w^fi a a l ^ 49, ad^TaT)^ 
€ti i i aaii f aa w, ■h r -^ia^i UMi. a . Hiaai^lvMl 

of a toots aeaidMt, taoidMi^ aaait v^vL. 

nrmHrtf at a^tt irf rfHiit 
Or^aavtoMC, «t. *o ptow fdtoltYalsr, or in 

a yartiaalar podHan. a« ■irVawi rii n- 

aiiv*, pu; -(i<i"i'i— ijaamd, pyi, a. 99. 



Ci>iaiiaiiiiM; tfidi. a. yt 

Toptaiatopor.abBaa ^ 

C?b'oiMnl«rra"«MOM*, a. dik 

OraMMwUalc*, -irU'^lta, Tt Btaaaloaa wHft 
ravyarti. E., rfwiinnialfa^<fa» (alao the 
waU, trwMhea. *a.), 98» a. <iBn.) 99! 

Circtmvmt, iJIrk tai^ril*, aii'--6^ Tt. To 
gataaaadw ntaf a kj retialii i aaord M i ptk ia} 
to deae i ^ ontirtt, c ^aaL B^^oiraMmMMr- 
oy, p. { aiMMaMivadi ppi | avvaaiMN'MaK, 
86, a. 9a 

arvH0MMaria<v-lT,a.49. Daatfrtn krartlfleat 
■ " "If, •ii'-i^ 14. To 

Gir0iaMPai^ a£tk*^ 

ar eow raoad. aa wMk a aaroMft. 

( Xr emm ml t tU tm, ^ AsTtyw vaoed rooad 
MMthar; OMtwrnoTajiMMiia. (▼.▼.) 

dreumvokfe, -TfilV, Tt^ ^ To roll rooad ; 
tOMvolve. H^ •iraaa w o f g'iiML p. ; wrwiwi 

(Xnma, t&¥-«^ «. «a<rviM, aAik. ^, abV- 
tMct.) A clroolar ancloaed apaoa ter ( 
httittac faato of karn«ianiklR *b. 

OrrvaroMi, HJ9'-dr-«a, a. Hat. aartod ktoka. 

Cirrotu, ilr'-rtta, a. 16, 99. TMB. fa a oarlor 

taadrlL (boO [ddaolAaAlpa. SaaA^Mc 

CUoMiu.aaii^'ln^tUr-Bnm. OatboBoauta 

C«Ma^^-a^aLl9. A aarl on^ toaaM.) 

0l«^alat,a. A ehaat or hMiwt. 6oa ^^ 

dtttru, tfa'-tirB, a. A meptada of a ixad 

diar. for water or other Ufaid; a reaenroir; 

tho eacloaare of a foantato. [tampt). 

out, elt, a. A eitiaaa or townMuui (to eon- 

OUadal, dC-A-dCl, a. Ika prtadpal fortnai 


ato2», cr-tti, a. atatkn.(T.L) 

C?tator$i,Aik-€,^M, Hav. power of «itatl«L 

Citte, alt^ Tt. TooaUapoaodiaiaUTaraBllMr- 

itativeiy; toaaauDealoaBawarkeoBrt; to 

quote; to addoea aa anthority or prooC S., 

afi'av. p. ; Of ad, pp., a.: •W'«t. • 

fion, 96, a. 99. nkueitiaaofa 

C^uMKi, ilf -o-elBiB, a. AMmaaaeraarpeeiH 

Oriaaa, -s9iL a. Afraemaoofaaity; anatlTa, 

oraatohab.ofadt7; a trader, or a towaa-* 

laaa aotageat: to gan., aaTooa poaa. l(«al 

ri^ta. H^ airiMN, a. ; deiaatukip {ncnSL 

or rigfata of 4e.), n 90. 

(XtraU, df -rfite, a. A salt of oitrio add. [add^ 

OTHe, -rik, a. Of or froai lemona. E^eitfria 

Cttr-MM, rtt'-ria, a. 4ft. Like a dtroa ; lemoor 

ooloored. {frolt, a ktod of leaaaau 

dfron, -rOn, a. 17. 25. A eert. tree ; alao tta 

OU^t slf-e, ■. A large town : appr., a town 

corporate, whiah ia, or baa beea, Uic seat of 

a buhop ; the dtUena ooU. B., cU'yU a. 90. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mt. jHt.;rel.toeiTflaflUrforlM»oan. 

CMOf alT'-XSyft. Llttptrt. to « dty oritoiiiba- 
asn, •Iy'-I!» a. U. KbL to tiM oommiiiiitjr, or 
to intenMl poUty tad gor.: nranieipal; rwL 
to order, nue, uid gor.; tmUMd, not aar. 
or wild; poUtieal, at oppoaad to erim. ; in- 
taatiiie, aa opp. to fordgn ; lay, aa opp. to 
eeoL; aoouMrolal, lefiilatorial. Ice., aa opp. 
to mU.; cott r tao ns , aonphdaant, oblictng, 
iraU-liradt. H, aiv'ttty, 41, ad.; dfO^^, 
a. (t. i.) 91.— CN^ti Mm or Mitt, la any 
nit not erimiMl: «<vaibaa, baniihmant 
oroatlawry; 0<i<M<MO,RflfnaiioreocLlaw: 
ekfU U*L aspenaea iwnirrtd for Vbtt rorai 
hooaebold: tMUttmtt^iht dtiaana or laity 
aolL; cUU war, IntaitiBa war ; eUfUytor, 
the QMud or lag. year. 

C M Ka m, aa^rlT-yiii, a. 45. Aprot orttodeat 
of dvUlaw; one Tetaed in elr. law or g07. ; 
geun one engaged In eiril aa oppoaed to 
nlUtary or eiarfeal porsolti. 

CMUmUim, tfT-Il-«-aa'-eh(ln. -Ka-ft'—K., a. 
60. The aet. the state of Aa. (t. ▼.) ; the 
xegiooi oee. by dTillsed natkma; also their 
inbab. eoU. : the whole eirilUed world. 

OaOiit, AY-Mu, n. 6a To reclaim from 
aarage life. H., ekfiRtk^^ p., a. ; ek^Uited, 
pp., a.; difmttr (he or that), a.; ekfUU- 
iiN^, a.; eMKMifHom (t. an.), a. 89. 

OMUtv, ■e-Tll'-lt-e, a. ComplalMnoe; ^ood- 
broMUng; obliging behaTkmr;~pL, ewifi- 
Us$, acta of poUteneea. (r. a.) 

CWiam, -lam, a. atlaenship; patriotiem. 

aaU«rt,kUbr-«r,8.£rte»iiiV<toU'«rt- Sour 
batter-milk (Ir.) ; milk tamed or inipls- 
aated (U. 8.). 

CUuk, UAk, a. e 9UuXk^. A aharp, abropt 
aoand, frequently repeated : alio the inatm- 
ment that makea it; the cUuHmr of a mill; 
eontinnal chatter|. 

OUukf vi. To make a claok-Uke nolae; to let 
the tongue runt. H., daetiiu, p., a. ; 
tiacked, pp. ; ctaektr (he or that), a. 89. 

CW, kUd, pp. SeedoOa. 

CMtm, kllme, §. A demand, as of right; a 
title to any debt, adrantage, or priTilege, 
' ' the thing 

In the poee e e ri on of 

daimed. H., eMai'tos, a. 90. 
CMm, Tt To prodaimt : to caU for, aak, 

see)^ or demand, as of right, or with author- 

i^; to haTO rlgnt or title to. H., ctoun'tN^, 

p. ! claimed, pp. ; daim'er*, claimfant, Sw ; 

elmm'akkt, a. (t. a) 89. 
CMr-vojfonee, klftr^•▼oy'-taae, -rwi'-vlna^— 

Fir., a. 99. The pretended power of seeing 

things not present to the eenses. H., (a) 

eMrHNyofii, a (mea.) 90. 
CCoai, klim, a. A eertain dkell-ilBh. 
Cfoflit*, Tt To dog :— tL To be moistf. 
Oan^, kUm'-bdr, tL To dimb with diff. 

H., ekm'bermp, p., s. ; ohm'hered, pp. 89. 
dmmmpt klAm'-e, a. Tliidc, stldnr; riaooua, 

tenadous, glutinooa. H., etoarai^MMM, a 91. 
damonmt, kUm'-te-tts, a. 17, S0. NoIst; 

Todferoua; boisterous. H., elam'ormmy, 

48, ad. ; OMai'oroiitMM, a. 91. 
Ckm&ur, klfim'-te, a. 2ft, 66. Ontcry ; noiae ; 

oontlnaed Todferation. 
Clam'omr, Jt To nnite sounds in boll-ringing: 

— tL To be elamoroua ; to rooiferate ; to 

eomplatn ; to make Importunate demands. 


H., elam^amrinff, p., a. ; ekm'cured, pp. ; 
olam'ovnr, a. 89. 

OUmf, klAmp, a. 45. Something that ftatena 
or bbds ; a piece of wood or iron used to 
strengthen oomers; akindoftool(earp., Ac); 
a pile of bricka laid up for bumlna (teeh.). 

CUmpt -Tt TO strengthen with dampa ; to 
join ooarda in a paraeular manner (carp.) : 
— tL To tread heavily*. H., clamfring, 
p. ; tramped, pp., a. 89. 

Oma, kl&n, a. A race, fSunily, or tribe; s 
numb, of families, of like descent and name^ 
under one chieftdn (Seo.) ; a sect, sodety, 
or cabalt (in contempt). H., elmeMMp^ a. 9Qi. 

CkmdsHine, klin-dis'-tln, a. 45. Withdrawn 
from pubUo Tiew ; prirate, concealed, scoretv 
undernand. H., eiande^Unely, 48^ ad. ; 
damdeittnenmi, a. 91. 

CSofMr, kUag, a. Tlie sound or reeonance of me- 
tallic bodlea atriking together, or one like it. 

CUm§, Tt. TO cause met bodies to sound : — 
tL To sound resonantly. H., clam^ing^ 
p. ; eUmged, pp. [harah metsilic sounda. 

CumMwr, kUng'-gtlr, a. 25, 45. Beaonaaee of 

ChNrfoiur*,-gfi»,a.sefafS"poroia*,-aa. HaT. 
or making a clanging aound. 

(7ZafiJk,klAngk.a.46. A metallic sound, as of ar- 
mour or chaina. [clanking, p. ; cUmked, pp. 

CZofdk, Tt., tL To make or cause a dank. a.» 

ClomiuA, klfia'-Ish, a. Closdy united, aa the 
membera of a dan. H., etaim'itAIy, ad. ; 

CU^, klip, a. A lo»d ndse made by sudden 
eoUldon, or the action itself; a hurst of 
sound, an ezplodon; any sudden act or 
motion; applause by striking of hands; a 
sudden misfortunet ; gooorrhoeal. 

Clap, Tt To strike together with a quick 
motion, so as to make a noise: to appland 
with the hands; to thrust together hastily; 
to thrust, put, place, or send suddenly; to 
Infect in a certem mannerf :— tI. To more 
together briskly with noise ; to strike the 
hands together in applause ; Ac. H., elappf- 
ing, p.; dapped, pp., a.; elapifmr (he or 
that), a. ; (a) elappfmg, a. 89. 

dajf-trap, s. Orig^ an instr. for dapping 
in theatrea; h., any trick or derlce to gain 
applause. [a bell, Ac 

CUipptr, kU4>'-dr, s. The tongue or striker of 

Clcmf^«r-etei0§, Tt To fight and scratch; to 
abuse or rcTUe. [oacuro. 

Clarc-cbceurc^ kUlrf-tfb-sk{lr«', s. Chiaro- 

Oarci. kldr'-^t, a. S6. A^ench red wine. 

aarifUr, kUh<-e-f 1-€r, a. A subs, which darifrea 
liquors ; the Tea. used in the operation, (t. t.) 

OtfyVVt kldr^-e-fl, Tt 26. To make dear; to 
brighten or purify by caudng defecation, or 
br chem. means :— tL To grow dear. H., 
elar^ifginq^ p.. a. ; clar'ified, pp., a. ; eteK»- 
Jler, s. ; darifiec^tion, -fe-kft'-anOn, s. 89. 

ClmioH, kiar'-«^an, kHlr<r'-yOn— Wa., s. 26-6. 
A war-trumpet 

dar^iontt, -e-o-n<^ s. 36. i= dar'inet, -In-^ 
A wooden mudcal wind instnmkent, of the 
hautboy daas. [sounding. 

Olarimmow, kU-rls'-o-nfis, a. 36. Clear 

Clary, klA'-re, a. A plant of the sage kind. 

CUuh, kUah, a. The noisy collision of bodlea ; 
oppoaition; contradiction. 

CUukj ft To strike one thing against another 
witn sound :~Ti. To strike together with 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


foTMaadioiie; tometC or Mt in oppoiltkm 
(lit. or flg.)- H^ «lat4'Mf, p^ a. ; eiasMed, 
vp.% (ft)eiaaW(eoUi»lan; oppoiitlon),t.89. 

Cfa«\U9>U«V-KMWo^8.9. Ahookor 
ertsh; ft dose tmbnce,—Cimi^'kntfe, on* 
vbich folds into the handle. 

Gaap, Tt. To doae or iiuten with e elasp ; to 
MurroaBdaadclinf Co; to eneloae or hold in 
the head; toemliraoeoloMly. H^ttkuf^mf, 
p., «.; oltt t mil , pp. ; cteq^cr, t. 89. 

Oiow, kUBTkU^-We., s. «. = eloM'u, L. An 
ofderornnk of cither perwDs or things; a 
aek of stndents parsning the same stodiss ; 
a set of heings or things of allied ehar. or 
dMcriptlon; arrange- 


lA-AL Bel 

dsM^Tt. To range in olss sc s ; to 

trih^ daaaUV. H., eUut^mg^ p.; eOicfMf, pp. 

aaane.kUs'-ac.a.SisdkMff'JeeA-AL BeL to 

or like Uw ane. Greek or Reman ; of the first 

chaste, eorreet, refined; pert, to a 

. H^ eUMtfieaU^ 41, ad. ; elaufictO- 

•SSL Hmmkmri^, s. 9L 

GSesif'M,s. A Gr. or Rom. author or his work; 

any first-elan litsrary work. 
Ctos^^,Hlf '-Ik, a. Const or noting clas s es or 

C&usMealsr«,.kr-tfir-«.a.35. BeT. to elaaslf. 
aaitfl^ kU&-e-f1, Tt. 9. To distritnite into 

etaesM. U^dmmfyinM^^'f eteas'iM.PP-iC; 

daa^tJUr, sl ; cUuBUiet^twm, 10, s. 89. 
Osftcr, kUt'-«r, 8. A rattling noise made by 

the fk«qocnt eoQlslon of bard bqdles ; any 

conlksed tomnltaona noise ; rapid noisy 

taOct; elaasoart. 
CWTer, n. To canse a clatter ; to dispnte, 

Ae. :— tL Td make a rattle or clatter; to 

ratHs witk the tongue; to elamonr. H., 

doCfcriae^^a.; claU^ered, pp.; eUM'ertrX, 

a. ; t>) eikfa - mg, s. 89. 
CUmm, kumte, s. 8. Lit., an endosarc; b., 

that whiflh is indndcd ; a memb. or snbdiY. 

of a srwfsHBi or parted; a partienlar artiele 

or stipnlation in a dogwnwit. 
rfnanfwsr, kM»s^-tria, a, to. BeL to a doister. 
Cfansafar, kUti'-a-ldr, a. 18, 35. Gone, of or 

hnr. clansss, [an imperforate canal (anat). 

OaaMrvL kUr-sk'SOr, s. 18. Confinement*; 

OmtU^-me, a. = OtifvaUd, anb-shaped; 
_^_^., ..__ .__,, 











land, daj^'muurlt etoy'-jMf, eU^-sUUtf kt., 
Ac. 8. [elaj^ing, p. ; e^eyerf, pn., a. 88. 

CXo3f,Tt To manure or to bleach with oii^. HL« 

Ooyaiorc, klA'-uOret s. A large, heary swordf. 

Ofeon, kl£n«, a. Ftce from dirt, filth, or soU : 
Aree from or clear of. noting the absoMc of 

, for. or inj. matter or mfluenoe; whoUeame^ 
fit for food; fig., innocent, pare, chaste; 
neat, elegant ; dexterous, not bungUngt ; 
entiret. H., tktm'Ipf ad. ; cle€m'tu$$, s. 91. 

CUan, ad. Qoite, whoUy, dexterously ; with- 
out misoarrisge. 

CUan, Tt. To free firom dirt, fto. ; to cleanse. 
HL, timHlw§, p. ; g fs aiiw f, pp. ; eJcon'cr, s. ; 
(a) cUanfmg, a. 88. [(for.) 

CUotiUmg, -Ing, s. The after-birth of cattle. 

aeofUff, kl£n'-lc, a. liree firom dirtiness; dean 
in habits, actioos, or person; pure, neat, 
derer*. H^ eUanU^, klftn'-U-le, ad.; 
eUan'lin0»8, klteS •• 91. 

Clraner, kl&u, Tt. 8A. To make dean; to 

purify by cleaning ; to purify firom pollu- 
tion, gnUt, or crime. H., cJsaiw'tN^, m a. ; 

deonsed; kltead, pp., a. ; dMfuTsr, 

e^sofM^afr^c, a. ; (a) ciemu^ing, a. 89. 

CZrar, kl€r«, a. Open ; firec firom obstruotioDr 

obsude, interruption, or foreign matter; 

nnentang^; bright, serene, unclouded, 

pellucid; pure; conspknoos, apparent, ma- 

nifsst ; perspicuous ; distinct : plain, honest, 

erldent ; innocent, guiltless, f^. Hi, cUor'' 

^, 43, ad.; •Uar'n$a$, a. 9L 

CUar^ uL Plainly ; dsan ; whdly ; quitcu 

Cteort, s. Open q»ce; net dist. between two 

bodies or pdnU (tech.). 
(Mart Tt. To make dear (t. a.) ; to firee^ li- 
berate, exonerate: to acquit; toYindloate; 
to deonse or clarify; to remoTc fhna; to 
leap orer :— tL To grow or become free^ 
dear, bright, or transparent; Aa. H., 
tlmr'mg, p.; eimred, pp., a.; cUar'$r, s.; 
(a) cUar'mgt s. 881 [cl»ar'-§iahtedtu$i, a. 91. 
CUof^-mfkUd, a. Acute; disceming. H., 
CUmr'-starwh, n. To stiilm with starch, and 
then dear by clapping in the hands. EL, 
eltar'-itarehm^, p., a. ; cUar'-itarthtd, pp., 
a. ; (a) eUar'-^tarthtr^ s. ; 88. [ance. 

OKtorof c, klfire'-iU<» •• ^ A remoTcl or dear- 
Claat'amctf -Anse, s. The set of dearing; a 
custom-oousc certificate or permission to 
saU (comm.). [oultiratlon. (v. t.) 

Clear'utf, -Ing, s. A tract of land cleared for 
Cleat, kl6t«, s. Anar. strip of wood used as a 
stopper on ta^le, or, naiiled to the deck, to 
prcT. things slipping, (nant.) [s]ditthig. 
C3iaeo^kl8T«'-40«,s.45. The actor manner of 
Cfeaoe, kl^c, Ti. To stielc, adhere, or hold to ; 
to unite aptly; fig*, to adhere with strong 
affection or attachment H., eleatfing, p. ; 
elav^, eleavtd, prt ; duned, pp. 89. 
ClwfBe, kl8T<^ Tt To dlTide with violence ; to 
split or riTc :— Ti. To crack ; to suifer diTi- 
aion. H., dvc^ti cldt^, eU/i, prt ; cUHfm 
(* "IFJ^* ^^^ elmoed, pp., a. ; eltojfer, s. | 

tUa^abU, a. 
CUatftr, -£r, 

eleav'tftp, s. (t. L) 89. 
A batcher'B chopper, (t. t.) 
Cledgy, kl£J'-e, a. Sti& tenadoua, clayey. (agr.> 
Ckr. kl6f. kllfJ-sTwa., s. The key-mark 

at the beginning of each line of music 
Cl«^ kl£ft, a A space formed by dearing; a 

cniek, cranny, or fissure). 
CUgt)Mgt%, Tbehorssfiy. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

eiv^^ • 


The viiffBi't bow«r, a 
MBdf leniraty mcvtU 

Ct*iit m 4 , IdBmMtait, a. 

Ocryy, kKr^-J*, c iiU M. 'Vko iPhoto bod j of 
•MleiiBflttM; «ra«an«»te4l«Lflroma*laitr» 
apor., those of the eet. or i f i hiwt ehTah. 

«br^ym4isi.l&BdferH0». Amaainholy 
e«au»: apfr^ a Mlility ■ ef the ert. ehnrch. 

dmieah Udi^-Ik-Al, a. =^ Het'i^. Fert t9 the 
«toifT or the ehnroh : of tnr br a ekrk or 

Cbrfaf*. kUhMto^ c 9he Uleratl [«mykt. 

^^IMk, kUdc, UMfr-J. AtH., We., e. 18. A 
•lersyman er eeeL*; s man of lettany a 
eehcdarf ; alaynuBwholMidBtiureaiMnaes 
id ttwebimlMert. ; • writer, emifiiti or ao- 
ntant in a» oflMe «r eovituup-hDMe; a 
An, Ao. (as.) H., claSlmtf (an- 
i>, a. ; €i»rJ^kf^ (eebelar-Iike^ leam- 
edly), aL ad.; eAirrMWi te^ a. 9t. 

€lliif«?«li*» -Otf, a. Vadab-fllerk'sfnat 

CbrMMmey^kMe-o-fliiA^akfciS^ DiTteation 
hf boDeaovcttM. ^ _ {side, or prad^dee. 


DfiE. Oiiorii«ra«IU!;UU- 
fiexteMMM, iB^BOioaa, ekU- 
) ; ezeented wUh aUll or 

dezteri^r ; soedHuitiured, agreeable (New 
B&t-)' HJ,«lM^«ri!ak4S»ad.;el«/«nMaf,a.n. 

Cbm, U'OOv a. ST. A bell of tteeaA, or the 
thread in it; the thread vmd to gnide one 
is a labjrrhUhr ta» anythlaf that gnideaov 
direeti in an wtvloate eaM (more a& ep. 
efti^; oaeof theeonaenof aaeil(aaat.). 

Cfaw^ft. To>trMBnptheiailatetiBefMtd*tTa.) 

OlM/'Umn, -llnia, a. pL a eJen^^foKnela. A 
aortof taeUeto < olew' theMdlat»the7ar4fl. 

OKfik, klAc, e, A oeriain aniaH, sharp aound, 
louder thanntlek: ItaatwhiehoUoke; apaUor 
y torn w heel ; adoor«-lateht (peer.)* 
' ft sneeesalon of 

eMfc'ir, '" "'•" '^ ^^' 


ashop lo catch eosComere; ftdoor knocfcer|« 
CUmU, W-4Bt, a. ». Orif., one who had a 

patnMVt ; one who emploTt a lawver or coon- 

iel; a depeMlaBt. fL^clumtM^, a. 80. 
CKfn«'a«»r*tt«>- Dependent 
OJ^enM*, -U, a. Haying rlirti. 
(WUlf,B. A hifh,ste» banker rook, par. 

one seaward; n olnl| (mas.)* H., ci^f 

(broken, steep, erafgy), a. M. 
cm, kUft, ft. A<fliff*t : ndeft*. H., d^td* 
^waken), eimyX itHSOfh •- ^• 
(Mmaetmic, kUnHUb-Ulr'-Ik, kle-n&k'-We., 

a. M. s eUwmmr'itttl, -&L Noting a eO* 


"EB. m.,aUltma, p^ a.; 
e'er, s. ; (a) tiimnmg^ %, 89. 
IT, -^br, a. A perfton :adK> a 


. S^ Wa, a ^cUmatntf, One of the steps 
or eritlBal perioda in Ufb, In which eome 
great bodttr change ia assumed to ocenr. 

cSmata^kk^, ktt-eMl-tJKk'-Ih, a. St. Pre- 
elding OTcr climate. 

CJMmKs, kir-mitf . s.<,4&nflU'aHi<ur»t,lfi; 

Oktu (poet). Ibe eonditlon of a place or 

oonntr J, as to tcmpei stave, m ote tope , ftc ; 

also the place or segion Itself; » certain 



dUbnnce In latltade, refozriog to the 
lengeat day e= ^ hoar ef tbne (goeg.)* 
GWmat^'t "^ To dwcH in *a (t. s.) 
C2i8MtM,k]i^«f4k,a.sdMMirteat. BeLto 
or dep. on climate. H., eUawricnUy*, a«. 91. 
CVmntttef*. -<lz^ Tt, Tfi. M. ToacoUmate* 
OUtHotohgy, -tfil'-o^Je, s. The edenee, ^t^ of 

OAmkt, kir-mlka, 8. 4a Gradatlcn; aeeent; 
aflv.of speeebwhichrlsca, asitwnee, step 
hv 9tep, in impovtance or intensity to its 

aisSf ldim«, Vt 4iw To MBcnd br mcM» of 
the hamls and feet ; to aeoend Witt lahonr or 
dlft; to mennt Inr meeM «f tandrilac— ri. 
To ascend, creep, oo. (t. en.) K.. dlm^MV* 
p., a.; eUmbifkLOme, ^mSeif kumd, prt, 

dSt^, kltauf-itr, s. A<£mbfaig pkat; an 
order of blrda. (t. t.) i 

CStedkt, kUnob, s. S9i Anything wUeh hoMs 
both wcQrs; h., a pun, a double entendre. 

CUmkt Tt. Ta grasp tightly ; to contract or 
doable the fingers ; to bend or colarga the 
Mint of a driven nail et a tirct (tech.) ; to 
fix or confirm stren^yt :— tI. To hoM test 
open. E., t Ut it h rimjff p.»a,; ttkifohtd, pp. ; 
(ft) ^Umch'tr, %, 89. 

ClmoA'«v -^i •• Orerlayfaig^ appUed to 
the edgea of pUmka H., tHimeh'er-hmU or 
dmlfm^iuiiU^ dn. a (nn*. archw) 

€Kmkfm% a. One wfaoes reply ailcnees; also 
the reply itself. (r.vO 

OiiM, Utog, Tt. 4ft. To withert :~vL To 
adhere or stick olocely ;. to hang npcR faj 
cMwtning or embracittff. H., elm^uifi 

jx, ft. f eJonft, olMi^ prt, pp. 89. 

CMua'^y -a, a. Sticky, fta (r. ssl) 

aM>» klln'-Xk, s. A patient who keens Us bed. 

Clin'ieml, -ftl, a. Pert, to n bed; beobride. tf., 
sliHfUmU^ (by the bedside), ad. «.— CWnieol 
faotaras are bedside Icetarsa en discaea. 



CMmkfXt, TooaaeeftcUakjtoring'orJimda:-* 
tL To emit Ac H., «lml^M& p.,ft.,ft ; Ac. Sft 

OUmifir, -Ibr, a The semi-vitreana euder or 
(^.%) rthedipofmin.8lraCiu 

C9Mo«ifflir,klT-n5m'-e-t«,s. Aninatr. tomans. 

OKo, kir-o,a. Thejnneeof hietory. Imytb.1 

aiip,klfa,s. AblowarotrolMwiththeJwadls 
anything which clipa or hold*; the act or 
the prodnct of shcep^eartng (tech.). 

G%t,Tt. To embrace erhngt; to ceniae,hidd« 
or prew cat ; to cut off of ecp. snddcnly, ns 
with shears or scissors ; to evtatt or dimtn> 
lib (af coin) :~Ti. To move fMt* (lUs.). U^ 
d^ma, p. ; dipped, eUpti, pp., a ; dipp'gr^ 

a^ la)o^^ppf^ay(tbeaet; the part cot oOKcBSy 
CSfafP^,^^ a A light faaMaiUBg 
C%«e, kl«M^ a 99. A smaU drotod 

I ship. 

ft gang, eet, er coterie. (Fr.) 
CT iic rs, kir-vCra, s. A certain wfld ^ant 
CUe^*, kSv'-XtHi, a lacUnatlcnof snxfiice. 
C!tsa*, kldke, s. s= etolv*. A wdb-knewn, loose 

outer garment; a concealment; ft cofnr, 

dlagniee^ pretence. 
CloaJLTt TOcowerwIthftcloek; tohlda,een> 

eeeU aereen. H., domtmm, p.; ebafad, pp. 
Cfeofc, klOk, a A mach. wUch diewe and eti^es 

the houcn of the day; the fignred work on 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fUe •M» «ff ft tlockiof. 



tamofMrtb; tg., the 
a ujjb h U flltoreftrtky; 

B., Wprfifif, ft. M 
Cte^n. V»peltwitkck>dB»:-^ T^gaOMr 

ar«oiMi«l» fts ft oWmL 
Ob^AMsp<rt, -bflf-dr, ». AmstSo; ftMSMmt 
^M>0£r|^p«M-"«<M'Mttf». Aitapidfellvw. 

<tf S Ihft, ytr twt, iCtar tat* aad tr«t lutre 

aH,^iH^JL Am 

mjibiag nUeh clogs; ft 

Ck^:, ft. Tio loftdy tarUe* to «• to iBq^ede 

eatbtma•r«rr••tniiB^— ^ To ooft l eftw ; to 
to ■■■— iliw I il, to. H., etogfimft p., ft., 8. ; 

OoMte-, klofft*^, ft. 2S. An 
»0f pftT. 0— fpriftL ntk ei iiut ; ft 

iHBOTy :— yL, «Mirtara» tbft perhlTle 
i o« Ihft side «r tht offoftre ihat in DT 
ftftkavrii, &«. (arah.). 
€fe*r«g^ To l —Wft inft cMaltr^ fton- 

9M ftMBftiy. Ii.« MOW* Cf^lW, p. J Mftli* Cfmf| 

pfb,s.80. E«todii;M(nlMitoftelaliler. 
Mitrmi, klojMf-^r-il, ft. >■ •MfTnil. flS. 8e- 

CWi^«rw*. -^f t. A TMtaM : ft 

OMTM^a^ .«•, ■• * «MM>«M». Anna. 

^ T b w > f, kWBMk,ft. Stoikln9;6MiTiiMvft;con- 

tMtt. «»d relax. ftli«B. in qnltk BDce.fpfttlk.). 

€1mi^ UCae, ft. SSh Sbat oriMidellMC; 

wk or iftlM; eoatetd, •tagiiftnt, vntvntl- 

. of aiiHir limits; oempaet, scdid, 

»; )QliM4-«HfaoBt spaee to t m icn ; Mm- 

aMotatef : apfrasUBg Marty; strleUy 
adharing {U^ as ttearlg.) ; bav. pr sas art or 
vsyMcy f VBfdHaoTava^ oidMBy sMrot ; 
aBHtlMH^ laavraA j HtMtw ; sanMsl) warm ; 
ftift^aVarj^ilf ;sotlnd6aiTatirsd; coratons, 
psnMiuw ; Mta lUl ; dnU, warn, opprea- 
al«» (app. to lia vcftlber)7H^ dta/fy, ad. ; 

a. 91. 

itaw' tfl djsd(«tfan tlM body elo^f Wot^- 

^flWjPPWFWOii, s. ; was* "♦aaC" 
«tr« An ibast aontaot), s. ^L ; c f o i^ A a l t, 
ai ; te, *a. (T. a.)] 

€lM«»s. AasDslaaare; a mnU enelosed llald. 

gf aa t, klBai^ s. ». Hm manoar or ttaa of 

gri ppis In wrastUng. 
Tsstatortnakafest; t* aonetada 

s; t* in MOBS or anoompass; to 
4rafW tsgaftor or laMa; to nnlta saparata 
paito>-^ t\»ooalessa: to tarMlnali H^ 
alM'VVbP^ft.l olsssrfjjdaad, pp., ft> tUBtftftf 
" ^ ' icmtwiihti to 

a. ; Wns, e i $t ri H0i, a. 8^— Tb ( 
aecMie to : alao t» grapple^ 


ar s paas tft ft rasas lor rapo- 

^ np In a slossi; to ooncaal ; 


to taba Into a prtYata apartment tot oon- 
anltotioBt. H., eMetrng, p. ; oto^tUS^ pa 

Clss^UJMi,s. A<nsaaminthefeatorcat3a. 

CT ssiw f , klOstf^-Inr, a. That ends; ocsiehadlng. 

OoMTSk UO'-ch'flSr, s. aft» 18. Tbs aot of shoE- 
^g «p; that wkkh olosas, or which en- 
slosaa or oooflnea. 

doi; kl5t, s. A small mass or hnnp, fhiHMwl 
from soft or ftnid matter bjr eimeretlon or 
ooagalalion. H., cMfy, a. (r. t.) 91. 

Clot^yi, = eUMftr\, To (brm ar torn into rtots 
or doda ; to aoncie t aw eoagidata, or oardle. 
K, sW<Nf , p. ; eM/«< pp., a. 89. 

C«ir-4tni,s. The lagUsh ortolan. 

CUrhvv -bOr, s. Bordoek. 

doth, klOth, U«Hht. kl a itbt-K^ a. 17, 87. 
(pL, atsOs, kHtehs-J Any woiran fabric; 
appr., oaa of wool mr garments; the moT. 
aovarbgoT a table (toftfo-cioM), or anj other 
teztnreorcoT.pattoaaar.use; tba clergy 

ar the darical pt o ft ssl uB t ; ' 

H., dMA (made of), a. ; efolV- 
worktr^ mc, s. 99. 

CMhe, klMM^ n. Tb inrest or eoverwitb rai- 
ment ; to adorn with dress ; to fbrnish with 
oloihaa; to taiTcet, eoter, or aorroond (as 
onr thonafata, fte) ; to iavaat or give to (an 
with authority) ; to aorer, spread orer, or 
adorn :^tL Ts wear dothea. H., etHOring, 
p., a. } dad or cMkml, pri, pp. (t. L) 89. 

OMkm, kXMtos, kMcs^-Wft., s. nl. Qar- 
menU; dress; thaeor.of abedrM-«Jo£JUf]. 
H., cUiht^-hiukti, eMketr-hrmk, fto., s. 99. 

CMkitr, kWtlu'-yer, s. A wnar ef elotbes ; an 
oQtitter ; a maker ar dresser of woeUen cloth. 

CMMiff. kUMlM'-lng, s. Qarmants In generaL 

Cloudi kiowd, a. 18k A eoDeetlon of visible ta- 
ponr floating In the sir at somehftght sbofe 
Oie aorfMe of the earth'; s eoll. m smoke, 
dost, fte., of ft Stan. q>paaraneet ; tba dan 
spots, retos, or streaks In stones, fte. ; flg., 
ftgrefttmnhitiideoreollaelkm; any state of 
ebseorlty, darknsw^ danger, or drarcesioa. 
n% has nam. eomp., nearly aH of whidi, 
h ew tiver, are selfexplanatorT. ) 

dbiaf, Tt Tts orarspread witn ekmda; to 
darken or obseera; to Tarlegato; to aUke 
gloomy, saBy, tamlsh I'-M, To grow sloady 
or oteresst H., daaiTAif, p., a. ; dvud^m, 
pp., a. ; eJand'iN^, s. (t. s.) 89; 

CfotMrfrsmr, s. A spec; of rabas ; knel-bsny. 

C tsw # oa i ii , -kipt, a. Entremely lofty. 

Chtut-^ffrapt^ -r&pt, a. Misty; obscnra. 

C To n jy ss t , klowd'-MS, ft. UMModed (in anrof 
Itossnses). H.. sloa^lsstV. ad. (v. bii.)#1. 

dsMf p, -e, ft. 88. CDaa. ar elaods or Hka 
tham; orsreast, dark, ebaoore; gkiony ; dls- 

rdag; streaked, variegated, semi-oifaqQe. 
ehmfify, 48, ad.: otoiNlSaMS, s. 91. 

CfoayA, klQf, s. The olsft of a hilL SeeCM 

Osi^ hlewt, s. 33. Apat<^: apieeaof do& 
Ikir any mean nset ; a metal plato attached 
to an axle-tree (meeb.) ; a small flat-headed 
natt (earp.,te.); a rengn blow with thehand|. 

Ctomi, Tt To patohif*; to Mn damaUy: to 
beat or strike:— n. To slot or eosgniatst. 
B^ slsa rtay, p. ; ehuttdt pp., a. (r. s.) 89. 

CloM, klOT«, a. A part separated fhnn the 
reat, par. app. to garlio; a flssaia^ gap^ or 
ravine*; ft vftk B. I. sptea and arom.; a 
eert.weight(=7or81b.1. (eamalkm pink. 

Cliie ' p >w » ,-ptnk, s. Tto i m m § QMf-ftowmr^ or 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Cloven, kUWOi kW''n,pjf.*,tu Dhrlded; parted 
H^ €lUiifmfaoted, eWp^en-koofed, fto., a. 91. 

Clover, kl9'-Ter. a. s= cUfver-erau, A spec of 
trefoil : llg., laxQnr, abnnduioet. H., eW- 
vertd (eorered with or abounding in), a. 90. 

CUnon, klown, a.* 38. A peaaant; a rnatie; 
h., a ooarae or ill-bred man ; a buflbon or 

CUnm'uht -1th, a. Of or like a down ; coarse, 
nutic, boorish. H., cUnrntfithly, 43, ad.; 
clown'iihneee, s. 91. 

Cfoir,kl07,Tt2f. To fill*; toflUtoloathtng ; to 
glit or aatlate; to clawf : to nail* ; to spike 
a gvB <ttil.). H., elojf'mf, p., a. ; elojfed, 

Gejfleee, -Uto, ». That cannot olor. [pp^ a. 89. 

C7o|rMM<t. -ment, a. SaUetr. 

a«^,kiab,a. AheaTyitlek,«Undgeon; the 
name of one of the taita of enda; the dlTi- 
dend of eaeh person to & common flind or 
atook ; also the subsor. thereto ; an assoda- 
tion of persons meeting for some common 
porpose^ under self-imposed reg. or rules; 
Joint charge or effort H.,(^(tii;/b/«l (large), 
duV'footed (oontr. or deformed), ehib^'head- 
ed (stupid), dt/y-BhapeO, Ac, a.; eluf-Jist, 
cM'-faot, elub'-hotuet clid/-room, ftc, a. 90. 

Cftfft, Tt. To raise by proportional assessment ; 
to unite for some common purp. :— yI. To 
pay in eq. proportion to a com. mud or redc- 
onmg ; to join in expense or eflbrt ; to unite 
to form a club. H., chM/ingt p. ; dubbed, 
pp. ; diiW'w*, elvbb'ist, s. 89. 

Cwcy-AotiM, s. A place of rendezTons, refresh- 
ment, ftc, for a eiub, or its members, at 
which the meals, &c., are charged at cost 
price, in return for an annual subseriptioiL 

CuiV'law, s. Brute force ; anarchr. 

Ctub'-moee, s. Lroopodium. [ens. (r. t.) 

Cfueft, klfik, s. The call of a hen to her chiek- 

Cluck, Tt., Ti. To call chickens, or make a 
noise as a hen does. H., cUteXmg, p., a. 

eUiekedt pp. ; (a) eluekfma, s. 89. See 

Clue, kl*00, s. A key, guide, or clew (q. t.). 

Clump, klOmp, s. A thick, short, shapeless 
piece of wood, or other matter ; a duster of 
trees or shrube. H., elump^ or elum'per\ 
(to form into dumps, Ac), vt. 89, 90. 

Chimp^ klflmps, s. A nunukulL 

CTuffuy, klOm'-se, a. Orig., short and thick ; 
awkward, ungainly, heary, ill-made. H., 
elum'eHu, ad. ; cUmrineet, s. 91. 

CfuneA, klfinch, s. 29. The indurated day of 
coal-pits. (miO 

Cluster, klOs'-ter, a. A number of the same 
things growing (aa fhiit, leavea, Ac.), Joined 
(as flowers), or gatheredjas animals) toge- 
ther ; a bunch ; a bery. H., dwltery, a. 90. 

duster, Tt. To collect or form into bunches : 
— Ti. To grow in bunches. U., eUa^terinif, 
&, a., s. ; elwftered, p., a. 89. [43, ad. 91. 

Cwterittff, 'Jng, a. (r. t.) H., ehafteringly, 

dutch, klfitoh, 8. 39. Gripe: seizure ; grasp ; a 
proj. tooth or stop to a wned fmech.) :— pi., 
eXMtek'ee, -£k, paws or talons ; n., the hamls. 
as instr. of rapadty, cruelty, or power, (t. t.) 

Cluiek, Tt. To clindi the fingers; to sdse, 
or gripe^ as with the hand. H., 

dasp, c 

eUUekUta, p. ; wUehed, pp. 89. 

ClMa<rt,kl1ir-er,s. A confused noise; bustle; 
datter. H., (toj diOVerX, rt, tL ; dutter- 
imgX, p., a., s. 89, 90. [buckler. 

CfKpcata,kIIp'-MM«,a.39,46. Shaped like a 


C^emie, UXs'-mXk, a. Washing; deanatng; 

Cfyeter, klfs'-tSr, gUs'— K., s. An injectton 
peranum; an enema. "B^dy^ter-pipefn^ 
dy^terwiee, ad. 90. 

Ctptfteriee*, -Tze, Tt. 60. To apply a dyster. 

Cb-, pfz. s oofi- (by oontr.), ong. used only 
bef. Towels and the let. A; but now often, 
though inoor., before other cons. It is f<^ 
by a hyphen whenever the new comp^ 
would be obscure witiiout it: tm—eoaefp 
copartner, co-^Uj/, eo-op^erale, &c 

Codoer'vat^,ri, To heap up or tog. H.,ci>awr- 
veftion*, -&»-ir-, s. ; eoacer*vaU\, a. 69, 90. 

Cboc^ kSch^ s. 38-9. A close, double-seated, 
four-wheeled Tehicle for state, pleasure, or 
truT. BU ooach'hox (drlTcr's seat), coaHf" 
fUl, coaeh'-kire, eoadi'-houae, &c s. 90. 

Coach, Tt. To carry in a coach* :— tL To 
ride in or go by a coadit. H., eoaeh'ingXt 
p., a., s. ; eoaehcdX, pp. 89. 

Ooaeh'man, s. The drlTcr of a coach. 11^ 
ceaeh'moHMhip (skill ftc), a. 90. 

Cba4jutor, -J'C9'-, s. 18, 35. (f., eoa^j^irig,) 
One who aids or co-operates with another ; 
one appointed to perl the duties of another 

gcd.); an assistant, assoc, or coUeagoe. 
., coa^fVtonMp (joint aid or co-op.), a. 90i 

ONu/tMote^, ko-A^-a-nlu, a. 1& United at 
thebaacfbot) H.,eoa^iiiiri«bnt, 36 (union 
of diff. subs.), 8. 91. . ^together. 

Coagutentedi, -ag-mtef-^ pp., a. Be^wd 

Cotufutable, ko-Ag'-Q-Ubl, a. 18, 46. O^yaMa 
of coagulating: that may be coagulated. H.» 
em]^afrtft/y,-bn'-It-e,s.91. [agulation. 

CoaifulatU, -lant, s. A subs, which prod, oo- 

OoagvkUe, ko-dg'-Q-lit^ Tt. 18. To change 
ttom. a fluid into a solid mass ; to concrete, 
curdle, congeal :— vi. To run or turn into 
clots or coagulum. H., eoafi'vlatku, p., a. ; 
eoa^ulated, pp.. a. ; eoa^ulator*, 2», coagfu- 
lant, s. : eoapdefUon, 86, s. 89. 

Coa^ulatufe, -it, a. 45. HaT. power to coagr* 

Ooai/ulum,A^m,%. Acoag.masa; the clot of 

CbaA^ s.,Tt. See Obifce. [blood; thecnrd of milk. 

Coalf^Xe,; Prim., any combus. subs., ignited, 
burning, or chaired: any perf. carbonised 
aubs. (chem.) ; the black, fossil subs, bomt 
in grates, pit-coalt (p eoaUX, s. pL). H., 
ooarift, eoaV-Hacki, &c, a. ; coaV-box, toaX' 
field (a large nat bed of coal), ooa!^-Mh (a 
ooarse Tarlety of cod), eoaf-heaver (one who 
oarriea ftc), eoaf-hou$e, eoaf-mine, coat" 
pit, eoaF-scuttle. coa^-whipper (one of a 
gang who unloads colliers), eoaP-vord, ftc* 
oc, a 90. [coal'ing, p., s. ; coaled, to. 89* 

Coal,xt, To char*; to take in coal (naT.). H.» 

Coat-formation, a = eoaf m e t uur ee, a. jpL 
The strata, inwup of rocks, ftc, in whu^ 
coal is found. roTerlookthemeaa.of coals. 

Coat-meter, -m6t^^. s. An ofll appointed U» 

Ooater}^, -te-e, a. A colliery. 

Cbaleece, ko-4-lte', Ti. 46. To unite or grow 
tog. ; to unite or adhere in masses ; to aaai- 
muate inhabits, man., int, feelings, Ac. H.» 
eoaletfeing, p. ; eoaleieed^ -ISsd', pp., a. 89. 

Coaletfcent, -tot, a. Joined ; united ; growing' 
tog. ; uniting or united by nat. aflinity, Ae. 
H., eoaie^eenee, -&ise, a. (t. t.) 91. 

Coalition, ko-A-IUh'-fin, s. 86. Union, whe* 
ther of body or mass, or of interests, indiT.^ 
parties, or states: alliance, oonfodL, league. 
U., coaW'tioniat (one who Ac), s. 90. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


dnm or cdfM oC tK« hatdicB. (naot.) 
CiMne,kfirworkte«, ••M. TUek; larg«or 

groMlaba]k;lwrd; rough; mmdmotocmno 
thread or tbib; erude^ wiacp. from the 
noaeerpertifllee; fanpore; ic., rade, wire- 
iaed, oadTll; luspoUehed; melegaiit; in- 
expert, ■BMeoeBpL,nnediMated; rade,eom^ 
Me— ; DOt niee or attr. to the palate ; low, 
iiielkate. H^ nmn^lf, 4S, ad.; coan^- 

Omti^ USele, a. 45. The aide or edge of aaj- 
ddact ; App^t the lea-ahore, or the ooontrj 
■ear U ; the border or frontier of a eoontrjr*. 
— Thm eeoit i$ ricart ss Ute danger ia over, 
€r ^bm mtmj haa retired. 

Chsif, Tt. To Mil hy or near tot :*—▼<• To 
aail near the eoeet, or in right of land ; to 
nft finaD port to port in the tame ooontrj. 
H^ eoattmp, p., a. ; eoattedj pp. ; eoaater 
(a eoaaring Tceael], a. ; eoaatimg, a. 89. 

€MnC«it% -vli«, ad. s toastwtip^. By or 
along the eoait. 

OM<,ktte.a. A eert. vpper outer garment; 
the hahit er teatore ; h., alto the order or 
ojBee*; cxlMnal eorering gen. ; the ftar or 

hair of a beaat; a tonie, membranei teou- 

' rJajvCmmt.); thegroondonwhieh 

armenal are porbayed, oaually 

I a aaaC 4/ orau (her.). 
(hmtt'wL Tooorer or ■prcadoTcr; topaton 
seo^H.,«Mrt^#,p.; cwrt'ejL pp., a. : (aj 

fliafH^ -id, a. HaTlng ooaeentrie coata or 
aMCi%-r,a. Ahalf-eoat; ayeryahortdo. 
OoBtmff -kf, a. A eoTwing; any niba. 


. eoQBtry of id ka ane, Iwrary, aad 
delist ; h., abMirdly applied to London 
and ita raharba. (Fr.) 

Cbeeifnrmi, -alf-^r-ttt, a. Bcarlog berrict. 

Cber'u/iia-iA'dtfliM^ a. 99. Ind. berry, a deadly 
nareotio poleon, eh. need to adalt beer. JL.) 

OmMmo/, katch'-In-«l«, kOteh'-Ja., S., We^ 
a. 99. A small inMot {eoe&m ca^ti) from 
Mextoo; eolleotiTely ther form the eo#A*- 
neal of the ehope, a Taloable dye-etaff. 

CbdUiory, k5k'-le^-e, a. 95, 39. Formed like a 
nail'fehell;eochloate. [spiral; tarbinated. 

CbcV/rate, -At^ s coekUoUd, Serew^Ilke ; 

Cbcfc, k^ s. The male of birds, par. of dom. 
fowls; h., a strutting ehiei; leader, or prin.t; 
anything perched or setup prom.t « » ^m- 

thcr-rane ; a tap for liqufiw ; the prcd. 
of a halt ; a eop, or aniall oooieal pile of hay 
(ap.) ; the gnomon of a dial) ; the needle of 
a balaaeet ; the hammer of a ilrearmt. It 
.; but they are nearly all M, 
-AroiiMdl (giddy, rash), mil?-. 
<y«d| (squint-eyed), codc-horuX (on horse 
back; exalting). oscArjurtfl (saucily certain). 
Ice., a., ad. ; eoevboat (a small boat— nant.), 
eoetf^ht, eockjighiingt coetipmr (a plant ; 
the Virginian hawthorn), eod^wted {wfvgtt- 
wort), fto., ftc, s. 90.— Ootk-and-hMU app. ^ 
to tedious stories or rigmarole; eedk'-«> 
Aoopl denotes triumph or exultation. (▼. i.) 
Cbdk, Tt To set erect or uprightt ; to set up 
(as the hat) with an air of pertnesa or d^* 
nanoet ; to set up in beape (as hay) ; to set 
or draw back (as the oock of a gun) :— tL 
To hold up the head* ; to strut* ; to look 
big or menaoingt ; to train or use fighting- 

ooclut. K.,eoekmfff p.; 6«mw«, ippw, a.i 
oodk'^ (also a oook-fighterf), s.; eoetiH§ 
(also cock-flghtingt), a. 89. 

Onek-crcm, s. s eod^-enwmg. Early dawn. 

Obek'lofL 8. A room or loft next to the roof. 

Id/, s. A knot of ribbons worn 
in the hat. 

Obekaioo. -d-tSO^, s. A kind of tufted parrot. 

Cbdk'afrtos, -d-trU^ -tris— K., s. 45. A ser. 
pent imagined to rlae fhnn a cook's egg. 

Oiel^ekafer, s. The chafer or dorr-beetle. 

OMOMd, kfikt, a. Turned up at the sides. H., 
eoelud^'hat, Ac. s. (r. t.) 90. [coax. 

Cbeker^ k6k'-4r, Tt. To fondle, pemper, or 

Cbd^erelf -te-£l, s. Ayoung cock. 

Cbetetf -et, s. An ofllcial seal ; a document 
delivered by the oflleMs of the eustomsi as 
a warrant tnat goods are duly entered. 

CbckU, kfik'I, s. 45. A field-weed, the oor»- 
oockle ; also a small bivalTc shell-fish. 

Oockfl^t Tt., Ti. To shrink or pucker ; to contr. 
into fdlda or wrinkles. H., eoei^led*,pp^ a.89i 

CbcAoMyt, kttkf-ne, s. A native of London (in 
contempt); strictly, one bom within the 
sound of * Bow bells;' any effeminate eiti- 
sen|. H., codfc'iMyt, codirfwyMcsl, a. 90. 

Oockfne]fi$ml, -Ism, s. The peculiar dialect, 
pronunciation, manner, ftc, of a cockney. 

Oodfpil, -pit, s. A pit or area for cock-fight- 
ing ; a room in a ship of war appr. to the 
use of the wounded during action [naut.]. 

CbcJb'roadk, -rfichf, i. The blatta, or oommom 
black beetle. 

CbdfcsoMi5, k{Sks'-kOm<, s. 45. The caruncle 
or comb of a oock ; the pUnt lobeswort; a 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Cbdfc'fMMH •«iNtai» kflksrat, a. 4i. QM^ho 
bM the care oCa bMt and ita crew. ItLK.) 

O>eoa,k5'-ko,s. sscoco'a Thfteaoa^or eboeolate 
BOt roMtod and groond, aa wdi aa • beverage 
prep, firom it ; alao a apealeftAf eo^eae or pakD- 
tree^ yielding a vary larm bbI (w ' oa n mrf ). 

CboooiH ko-kOin', n 30. Theegg^ehaped eaie 
in vfaiek the iiUc-verm {md otbar Uke 
larra) imoivee itaelt H.y eeaaori'iry (plftoe 
for), ^ Mk See Okrymlm. 




the aerotuDiB; tke oiid-4riu IL, mdd 

(bMkr), mdi^d* (keir. a afaeU orpod),a. i 

»ide» kU«, a. s «^4iai^ L. Oriff..aMS. 

^kfik'-tn,a.45c Madel^kakiager 
* " a. TheMtoftnlttiigieai 

Cotf MM»r^T» «• EMily boaed ; mim. ripe. 
<b^fcSd»a. Any hnakoroaseomt; theaeeds 
^aplanftt; *P^> (^ F™T.v) V^i 


"r; aft a book of laws of the Boman 
now app. to any orderly ooU. or 
digtetmfUwa, par. ene awde by anthority. 
^Mi^M, ko-dr-!n« a. a eoolf^ -yd. 4ft» 68. 

A« alkalnid obtained ffom flpi^iiiK 
<MMrf»k«r-«r,iL Aatingy, elownishfeUew. 
OdM^ Uhf-Mll, a. Am addition or snpple- 

.dHMZTory, .4-re, a. Qfor UkenoodioU. 
€lNli^,kM^-e*^Tt.42. To redaoe to a eede 
or aystem. H., cO^^i^, p. ; olcr^W, pp., 
; 0tfd'i^«A^8.; ee«fSl00'lfon,a^a.«8i 

€bdl«, kfldl, Tt ,. , . 

boll* or aoften'by the heat' of water; ; to 
keep warn, to OMke mneh oP. BL, cecf- 
Mmf^ p. ; 0oineit pp., a. W. (young eod. 
TO»amtf, -Hag, a. A hard kind of apple: a 
^b^tfbwni, ko^.fl8h'.>tot, a. li. That which 
nnitee or co-op. in action : a llg. or known 

Sin. plaeed, as a mnkipher, before a ▼»- 
ble or an unknown one (alg.). See Om^ 

flax or dlarrhoBa of undigested I ,, ,. 

Cbiw ip fi cw*, ko.«m'-«htin. -fimp^— K., a. «. 

A baying up of the wb(ue qaantity. 
Cbcwf^ ko-teae', rt. To reetrain by fnnee ; to 

repreea, compel, eonetrain. £., eefr^'eiN^ 
. p., a.* ; oetfTMd, -^rMf, pp., a. ; m§r"4ti^t a.; 

^tm'eion, -ehdn (cemnuaion, Ao.}, e. 88. 
€Wr«eiW»» -lU, a. tf . That may, or onght to 

be coerced. H., O0«r*rt&^, 43, ad. ; coer^'- 

eAftneM^, a. 91. 
<!b0r^ci»0t 'It, a. 4ffb Btov. power to reelndn, 

par. bf moral foree er law; eoaecraining; 

eompmaorf . B., ooer"riw^, ad. 91. 
OMtamtou^, ko-e>tftn<'<y^ a. 37, 4S. Agree- 
■ Ing mutually in age. 
Cheeo^ ko-«^-TU, a. = eo/eeurf. Offlheaame 

age; of equal am; cotemfporaneeua. H., 

4o^9alfg, tt, ad. 91. [ootempetary. 

€beVaf*, a. One who is both eoetaneona and 
Cb^, kir-e, a. 17. The berrlee of the ei#<a 
. anmfum, an evergreen ahnib growing in 

Azabia, Peraia, fte. ; alao the same roaeted 

and ground, and the wen-known drink pre- 
pared from it. H., co^9&-ct^t te ff m m il l, 

^jf mp t i , Aa., tei, a. 90. 
C y ie J fceK t e, a. A houae where eciibe and 

other refireshments are eoU, and boarders 

or tateers aoooeunodated. 
C y eis»fl yt ,e. A meaner sort of ooAse-home. 
Cqftr^Vir-^, a. 17. A chest or tmk, par. 

€WMi^ ko-ddr, 8. 99. Atermatoi 
4Mk,\1»f\, rt. (proL, to^dh). 4S. To par- 

te fMunsn, lea 
1 ibod (path.). 


onefarmoney ; Ireaaare; h I . 

sion bet. the OMdiUioaa of a esraioe (areh.) ; 

a hoUow trench or lodgment aerees n dr|r 

Ocff'n^, Tt. Tto repoait or trtasnre npw H.« 

aqfmtr (also an offieer of the royal ho na e 

holdf), s. 80. 
t^^sr^on, -dim, 8. The wntae^tight ominff 

or bonder of piles, «>nBed in the bed eC n 

river, for boOdiAg piers, bridffea, Ae., dry. 
Coffin, kSf-In, s. 17. The coffer or cheoi in 

wlildiaoorpselaplaeed; thoheUew m in W 

of paste for a pie (oook.>; paper ftddcd in a 

oonfaal form lor gniceriea(teM.}; thehollDw 

part, or tiw whole of a hoase ^ hoof above 

the coronet (far.) ; a woodett ^amo eadoriDK 

the innKtrtng-etene (typ4. H.* d^^inim^ 

a. ; n^m-m»ihmt, te., a. 99. 
O^M, vt. ToeneloeeinaeeAn. H.,cq^bi- 

iN#> P- r •t^'^Md, pp., a. 99. 
Cog-, nbu See Gsis-. 
Cb^.kbg,e.99. Thetoothofnwheel when not 

of the same piece as the body of k< m is h .) ; 

n cheat or triefct. H., oa^-*Aee(, Aa., a 90i 
O^vt. TbdeeeiTeorwiMedlet; to^matat 

dtee*; to ftimiahwith oofits—^ T»de- 

oetve^ lie, or eheattf* 
Ctyewf, kV-jtet, a. 80. Firelhla; not wily 

reeiated; wgiBat, eenvineing, eonel n i lv e. 

H., co'gently, 48, nd. ; mfftm^ - J in ae ^ a. 91. 
OogiUtf, kOJMt-ittf^ vi. 80, 4». T^J^J^** 

p.; ctij^itsted, pp.; eosTHaM', « i, . 

O^SSift, -lT,'a. 48. Thinking; givmi to 
eumae, k5a/-yiic, s. 99. x= Oifn'iMi An 

beet kind of Freneh brandy. 

OMMte, k8g''«8ti^ n. Lit^ bomvtth: allaA 

by blood; znlated In mrlgin, fonDallea» or 

nttsrahoe. H., eogtuOt^^ 48, ad.; esf'- 

n m t m a^ , •. 91. [mother. (Sao. law.) 

Cbp^iMrfe, a. A male ndatian through thn 

Cbgma tim , -nV-ehlkn, a. Deaamt flmm the 

emno origin ; relation l a t pai n matoa and 

fom., both dese. from the same fatbor (Itf.). 

aw<MMiM.fc«g-ttMi'-8n,a. Kno^irtedgoanMm 

faapeetion or experienoe ; abaetnto ea mlo - 

ay<inliar»,-nll-lv,a.4ft. Knowing Iqrthovn- 

OmitoMr, kdg'-ne-«ibl, kte'-e-aibi, a^ oidfr. 
That falla, or may foU nador Mlalal no«bn; 
that may be known, perceived, or a pye - 
hended. H., eo^maalVi ad. (▼. L)9L 

Oog'HiammM, -dboes^ httn'-e^lnei^ a. 69. Indl- 
eial notice or knowL; trial teeeort;)m!ia., 
or right to try ; an aeknowL or oaawtilmt 
(legj ; et badge worn by a tetalner or de- 
pendent* ; knowl., peroepClim, obeer. : knowl. 
by resoUeetien. (v. i.) [at (v. I.) 

Cb^iMsont, -z&nt, kdn'-o-v a. 80. Hav.kne«rl. 

OogniMe^ ^%V, kte-^K, a. » eepidMtf'. 69i An 
plaintiff, or be to whom a Ana In lande or 
tenemeata to acknowledged, (len. ; ▼. i.) 

OmuIbot, -e5r', a. -s M^ntserf. 17, 8^ The 
delbndant, or be who aeknowL the rightof 
the eogniaee In a flnok (the seciwd pren* nf 
this, and tbe pree. related worda, waa Ibnm. 
eh. eoaiaed to the bar; bat la aov ft«q. 
heard elaewfaere. Wa., wa^ and Wa prefer 
the Jlnl'-H^ K., P., and &, tbe mind. 
Careful speakers now gen. reetrlot the hot- 
ter to tha forensic appw of theae wordBi^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

an1<-tew)l9. A mmmohmar. (It.) 
O^iiiiifllt*, HAr-«l» a. 45. Aat IM7 be 

taim^m, ■■^■iriiiWftrt,».9L (kMiriiiff. 
fiV«Mre»ltNe%-lt-Sr^a. a»iaff the pmrw of 
ftftwi^ lDBr-Bi^«^t, K. 9». A kg. Mknvwl. 

flf apWuiirb dain, k; vUak jvdgmnt is 

«id«cd wilhoat Iriia. (L> 
CbteMv k»4ttr-lt, tL T» 4ipen with*; to 

flwUe in tte MDM piM» vr MNUiCiT*; to Itw 

«B^a*teAk aai vifct O, mkmfiimf:, p. ; 

^&rift< pp.; eoht^b^iimtt* (co-nMleBt), 

; tobeweDoooaettad: t 

oradliere; to w w^u «wiiumv««u± •»«■ 
•a; toMdfc or ogi cy; to bo oaaoMeat. ~ H., 


CMmtmC, -bfet'-tet^ a. Stkkiny lor. ; Mn- 
Mitoil or rL Ib Weak or oricr ; wiuble ; 

Chifoa^ii,-hg^3Ro.4i. GanMsororteBd. 

t»Mfciiiiin Hn ooAMiMNIf, -M'-lt^ •. 91. 

ChioiM^ ka-bC^-iMB, a. St. Thoforceorot- 

. Iincli I by trfckii <ho oottgiHaeDt ptrtictee 

of hoaufanoao boitao vaito !■!» a imms, 

bipBaii i iil toniwoy ;_ala» Iha rtoto oT bant 

Ai«W««k -fir< a. 40^ Bar. power or tead. to 
«iH%acta«BltelHl»aaMMi. B., wJke'- 
WKaiff 4Si ad. J coh* jtocnMCi a> U. 

CMWMif , id»Mkr-1t, i«. TK^roitnin. 

" - , ^ ^ NditCU a Hq. 

ftaaa iWea— mm lUlii. B., co'iMatffMr*, 
pb^ «D^*elM«i^, Ipk, a.; ooAote'lipw*, M, 

» a bod y of iaia i llj^ pwwto 
■ of warnoaa (pon.). 
i»ft BxboflatlMi. 
; Ik SS^' A «Bnl or oap^ H., ttifcd 

^ "iAriv -rsap— n., a. 99. a he al d r ew . 




Wm'eidmt, -oo-dtat, a. FAlUnf on or mttHkig 
at the same point ; meetinf or happ. at the 
■aaa tine: eoncarront; eoBehteait,afiTceable 
ta^ e^alfTiMtt B., ^oittTnimtlf, 4S, ad.; 
0m^mdem«tf -d0BW» foia'cMfriwy*, -4e, s. 
(▼.T.)91. [{y.x.) 

C bi—r, koyn'-^r, a. A audcer of baee money. 

CMnW, -iBf, s. OelBage, fto. (r. t.) 

OMrii*, ko^-trll« •. s opy^lrdL 93. A kes- 
trel ; h., a eowari ; a yovatg or ttmid lad. 

CbU, B, 8oe Qfioii, reoagrcaa of the aesef. 

CbM>fSko4BhMta»8.M: A eeaolBg toffefher ; 

Ctt^ror.a. On* who aweara to aaother'a cre- 
dibility, flco/iror. [oTOBa or retorts. 

CMKUk«,a.3«M*. Pli-eoaleharredlBdora 

a>^. n. SB MtOt, To eonvert iato oolca. H., 
0W4ng, p. ; 09*mI, pp., a. 99. 

CbH pAc< &•• Cbf»-. 

CbioMlar, kttl'-Aa-dCr, a. 96. A Tea. of tin or 
eertbeaware with a bottoai perf. wHh email 
holea (dom. eeon.) ; aayeaarae atratoert. 

Qflmf, ko-ltre'-€a, a The ecaolBO wine of 

Cbfatiant»,^'-ebttB,a.Astraiiitnff. [Portttgal. 

CWMara*, k«l'-«-tQr;, a. 18. F&atk«: alao 
the matter strained. naee. 

CbMerMM, -ben-ea^, haK— We., a. A Mad of 

Cblekteine. kdl'-ke-sla, a. M. a eoiekleia, 
•kXah'-yMt. 98, 45. The idkaMd of oolohieom. 

Cttthieumt -hOm, a. Meadow eaflhm ; alao its 
eorma or bnlba (pharm.). 

Wcotkar, kdV-ko-thAr, a. 81. Bed oxide of 
iroa obtained br cahsiniBr the aolphate. 

CbW, kOld, a. Gelid, chih, bleak, frigid; 
neither warm nor hott (• r«<. term) ; of the 
oam. nat. temperatoret i l^^^* the sensation 
ofeold; oUlly; aUrering; bar. cold qnali- 
tioa ; without paaaion, seal, or ardour ; not 
animated, spirnleaa, nnexdting ; not aflbc- 
ttoaate^oOTaial, or Mendlr; dettrid of sen- 
anal deaire or feettag; nnhnpassioned ; not 
haaCyorTioient; IndUrerent; reaenred: cor. 
H., 40Utishlf a. ; eoUfig, 48, ad. ; eoltrn&Sf 
a. 91. Jit lias many t eorap.) 

Ocfld, a. llie peculiar aenaation prod, tn animal 
bodiea by tlur loea ofheat; also, the came of 
that oens., and ita phys. eflbcta ; shirering j 
difllfneaa ; catanh or btouehitlBt. 

CoUy-Hooded, 9L. Est. eold blood (as a fish) ; 
flo., emel, hard-hearted. 

OpAT-AMrtMft. o. Void of Ibeling : in«ff. H., 
eokt-hMrUalfX, 43, ad. : eoUt-htartednetSt 

ObUP-thert, a. BritUe when oold. (met.) [s. 91. 

0Mt-9hoidder\t a. Cool negleot 

<M0, kine,a. A gen. name for all aorta of eab- 

it ia dHefly need eompoonded : as— 

rl, ^oltf'-aasd (rape-seed), " 

CoU-ptrehf a. A amafl river-Hah. 


I), ftc, B. 90. 

CeAtopiterM, ko-le-9p'-tfr-H, a. =seoUop^erouSf 

-tta. Ffertatning to or like the eoleoptera. 
Cb9Mffteran^ -te, a Cpl't coteej^era^ or -dfis.) 

An inaeet har. elytra, or ootaide homy wtng- 

rtieatha, like fhe tme beeClee. (entom.) 
(Mh^ kflf-lk, a. s eofuiai, Aff. the bowela. 
(k^ a. Severe pain, fto., in the Iwwels fns. 

ref. to the colon}. Iliere are ser. Tarieties. 

fpath.) H., eofwAy, a. 90-1. 
CMlMam, kSt-e-efi'-flm, a. ss tolon^wn. 99. 

The amphitheatre of Teapaaiaa, at Rome ; 

iteo a large bolld. fbr exh. in London. (L.) 
Cbtiaboraior, -Ikb'-o-rft-tSr, a. 17, 35. Au 

associate In hrbonr (par. liter, or soL). 
CoUapae, kfil-l&ps', s. A ftdllng In or tog. ; a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Rddsa or extrtOM depKMlon of the bodily 
enttTfiM* (▼• V.) 
CbUapi^, tL To fmll iawardt or tof . (Ǥ the 
•idee na e hollow res. or esTity) ; to oioee br 
fiUlingtog. U,teolUm^mgj,p.,tL.;eoW^it$kr, 
pp., «. ; eollapi^f eoUt^'doH^t S6, e. 89. 

, k51'-ilr, 8. Sft. SometMng worn or 
pUoed rooiid the ne«k ; a nedc-band ; the 
pert of a garment about the neek; the like 
pert of htmeea ; anjthlnff like a eoUar in 
iqipeeranoe or eflTectt ; a ring, cincture, or 
aafiragal (aroh.)^— To $lip ths eoUar, ie to 
escape, or to dieentangle on^e lelf. Among 
its comp. Mxe—eoU^ar k tam (areh.)» eoU'ar- 
botu (the clariele), cMar-iay (one on which 
knighta wear their ooUare), Ac., ■. 90. 

ColVatt Tt To eeise by the throat or oollar ; 
to put a collar on : to roll up meat with pree- 
•nre, or else to form it in moulde, aoer a 
certain preparation (eook.). H., eoiTarin^, 
p. ; eoU'ar&i, pp., a. 89. (hones. 

Oalfaraae, -9j«, s. SO. A toU on wine-drawing 

CbUa/«, kfil-lit/, Tt. To bring or lay tog., and 
compare (par. vpa, to things of a sim. kind* 
as data, books, MSS., Ac) ; to bestow or eon- 
ier a benefice (eccL) : to gather and arrange 
for binding, «o. :— tL To piece in a bene- 
fice. H., collatm§^ p. ; eoikUfed^ pp., a. ; 
coUdeor, Sff, a.; eolUfMe, 46, a.; 0000"- 
tion, 86, s. 89. 

aUateral, kdl-Uf-«r-U, a. Side by side; 
running parallel or tog. ; diffused on either 
side ; not direct or imm. ; concurrent ; 
^;»ringing fkom relations; desc from the 
same stock or ancestor, but not lineally; 
additional (as app. to securities, evid., Ac.). 
U^eolUU'traUf,i\MA,i coUaftralM0$i,t,9L 

CoUateraL su A collateral relation. 

QMatiom, kol-lft'-shOn, s. The compar. of one 
copy or thing with another of like kind; a 
glit* ; the preeen. to a benefice by a bishop 
who has it in his own gift or patronage 
(ecd.) ; a repast of several things set out 
between toll meals, (t. t.) 

Cbtta<«<MNtf*,-tIsh'-'(is,a.27, 86. Done by the 
contribution of many parts or persons. 

ObUo'^tM, -tiT. a. 46. App. to advowsons of 
which the bishop is the patron, (ecd.) 

ColUague, ktfl'-U^g, s. 80, 46. A partner, as- 
sociate, or coadjutor ; an ally. fL^coUtague- 
9hipt s. (T. ▼.) 90. 

CbMi^tfitf, -ISrg', Tt., Ti. To Join or unite with 
in the same office or for the same purpose. 
H., eottemgmnft -le«g'-Xng, p.; eomofftud, 
-18«gd', pp., a. 89. 

O9/2«0<, koi'-ekt, s. A short, oompreh. prayer, 
or one adapted for a par. day or occasion. 

Oolhet, k«l-fekt', kttl-J-K., Tt. 17, 25. To 
bring or draw tos. (app. to persons, par., or 
things) ; to gain by obeerTn Ac ; to gather 
ftom premises; to infer as a conseq.; to 
gather (as debts, rcT., ftc) ; to reap, mow, 
pick, Ac; to compile; to obt. tnm oontri- 
Dution ; to recoTer ttom surprise or discom- 
fiture (foL by a recip. pro.) :— Ti. To accu- 
mulate ; to come or run tog. H., coUeefmg, 
p. ; eolleei'ed^ pp., a. ; collect or^ ^« •• ! eo<- 
lectikU, 46, a.; coiUtftion, 36, c 89. 

a»/(«;toMea,-I«k-a'-ne^s.pL99. Ut,things 
coUeeted; appr., literary selections. (L.) 

CbJJMtoiMMM, -tine'-y'fis, a. 27. Gathered to- 
gether; collected. 

, c82,45. Prim., any eoUoetton 


CbffsflfaJ, kSl-yait'-«d, -kU-t-lC a. 17, », 
Cool, calm, undisturbed; not d is eones rt ed y 
reeor. fimn surprise^ fte. H., coU»e€cMifg 
4S, ad. ; colleet'drnm^ c (t. tO 91. 

CbUes'lMn, -ehttn, s. The net of gathering «r 
ssssmbling; an aseemblage; contribathm; 
a sum coUeoted ; deduetion, InfMonee, eon- 
seq.* ; a compHstion or book o# selsnrinnei 

a»/(eo<i<Jbti»t,-tIsh'-'as,a. Oatheredup. {(t.t.) 

OoUtdwe, kO-iau'-lT, kOl-t-K., a. 17, 4& 
Gathered into one body, sum, or mace ; eon« 
gregated : aggregate ; ezpr. a mult, thoach 
prec the form of the sing. nOb(gr.). H.,eo;- 
Ueticelg, 48, ad. ; coUtet^itmm, s. 9L 

CbUseTor, -dr, s. 96. One whoeoHedsorim- 
there; an off. appointed to eoU. and i u ee l Te 
duties, taxes, or toll. H., cclUctrnvtCt ml^ 
IcoHonkip (office or Jnric), s. (r. t.) 90. 

OMegaUtrg, kdl-lCr-At-dr-e, e. 21. A jotaift- 

CW<49«, k«^', a 
or soc of men, bound tos. by the same lava 
or customs, or engsged in some com. empl. 
or pursuit ; appr., a society eet. under royal 
or priT. foundation for academie, relig.« or 
proLpurp. ; also the house or bnlldinfs eon- 
oemed; an endowed or chartered aoadeivy; 
a unirersity; a community*. Hn ecV P cgc 
like, fte., a. 90. [ret to a po ll i i e. 

€bUMial,kfil-ie'-Je-dl,-ll9«'-7^ilt,a.4i. or4Br 

QMd'gim^ -Je-ta. -Ttot, c 46. s eeHWfiaU, 
A member or inhabitant of a coUapa. 

OoUeTfiate, -Je-ftt«, -ylt^f •• 4i. OoUaginI: 
cont. a college : instituted after the man. of 
a coU.~A cMtrgmtc chmxk is one wUch 
has cenons, prebends, serriees, Ac, likn a 

a>^k81'-et,c AbandoreoUarf; thafnrt 
of a ring in which the stone is set (Jew.); 
the neck or part of the axle of a plant Tvhemea 
the root and stem diverge (hot), [a. 90-L 

Cblletic,-]»t''1k, a. Agglutinant. H.,(a) ccUetiCf 

Cbllide*, -lid/, tL Toatrike or dash aasinat 
eech other. Hi^ coIOirtfi^, p^; coiU^eth^^p, 

CblUer, kSl'-yte, s. 45. (me who digs eoel; s 
coal-merchant; a coaster employed in tlM 
coal-trade. [the coal-trade (tech.). 

(hlFierv, -ydT-^^ A place where eoaltatf 

CblUfat^, kSp-e-gite, Tt. To bind 
together. H., eo/TM^nMr*, p. ; eo</'^al«r. 


pp. ; coM^'Mon, 86, a. 89. 
OM/«iMaliofi,-m&'-shfin,s. Aiming at a mark*; 

aim*; the line of sight in a telnMope (opC). 
OMimaftor, -tttr, s. 26. An instr. lor dclean. 

the horixontal or xenith point. 
Cb/ZwiptM^, kdl-Ung'-gw&l, a. 18. HaTfaif or 

pertaining to the same language. 
Cb/MffMaaim^ -nk'-wd-mtet. s. 88. The prod. 

of liquefsction* ; the festal part of an ag;^ ; 

the first rudimoits of an embryo (phyo.). 
Colliqwmf, kftl'-e-kwftnt, a. 88. HaTinff Hia 

power of diisolring or melting; 
Cblfifuate*. -kwiU, Tt 88. Tb melt or dia- 

solTe:~Ti. To be dissolTcd; to bffpsnn 

liquid. Tl,,coU'iqttating^,p,i coltiguaUd*^ 

pp.; ceU^fiwMe*, -nk'-wiU, 45, a.; eofU- 

qucMoiu -kwft'-shfin, s. 89. 
ColKrmoCi kfil-nk'-w«-tlT, a. 88. a. Meit- 

ing, dissolTent, debilitating, app. to exeec, 

evacuations, Ac (med.) 
(hUiquefacticH, -we-Ok'-shfin, c A i 

togiether ; reducing to one masa by f 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'-i% a^ M. Tke at! or state 


CUTMrt^ ft ft fteaa, act* or alatkm. H., 

W^MT-fllrflB, a. 1ft. Odbtw- 

a^kv. (thUkorflMhyloBip; aehildl. 

Mil£iUa49'-kw»^ a. »» 15. Pert, to 
ata amMUu a, H-, eoU^gmmiip, ad. 91. 
QAterfHau -taoRL a. A ooilcwmlar fvm of 
iSm^ [dialogiit. 


^ff,-kw9,%, MBlMliliiMaiii 

aai{.-4^a,T. SatCWlr. (aa«fcm;^lo«aa. 

^rH<£[f> im Tilt' !■■ ■ij a. T^ndencT to 
■aa^vi^ aat flfv^^ (contrariety. 

''itim«% -a%«kaa, a. B a alafawnp , opp., 

^WkM^fiMc'.^lA. To play into caeh 
<ifta*ihMl; teactJaianiiMt; toeoMaire 
mafeiii. H.,Ma«^M^pL,a.| eolUUted, 


iahab. la a MkHdMd territorr, Inel. flM dMe. 
orthsflratplanterB; aeolLortribeoraniarnkt. 
'''^*"* **- - •■ Tba eoaehMkm of a 


Cbftfkm ; -fBa. a. 8ft. Tba wm 
book wbcn it boars any dtrieo, 

Aa. (Mbi.) iiuwa. 

CMop*ony, ko-Uf-o-iia, kSK~S.. We., §. Blaek 
0»lMie<i»,km'-flr-at«,a.8ff. Tinged; eokmnd. 
Cbtoratfen, -r-abttn, e. Tbe aet or praet. of 

eolaarinf ( tbe state of betng oolonred. 
CWorsteTf, AOn, a. 18. Oraees, rarUtloas, 

Aa.(iBas.) ^ ^ [e^o7. 

CWori^ -ir-lk, a. OiThif, eont, or |»rod. 
CbbmtU, ko-UtaC-Al. a. = eoKutan, kM-KsHr- 
CWdos^Mm s. 8aa OoH$ttm, [to. OfgaatSe. 
Cbtoa/vi^ -OS, 8. e M/MS^, -ISs'. A^utio 

CWoar,kfll'-«r,s.l7,28. TbatqaaLoTabodr 
wbldi aflliete oar sensatloii la regard to iu 
baa, or Ite appear, to tbe eye, dep. on ite ao- 
tion OB tbe rays of Ugbt; a flnsb or abew of 
blood in tbe Cue : bve, dya, tiaga : snytbing 
osod to iaipart eokmr: the tint of tbe painter : 
a palBt, ptomeat, state, fte. ; flg., saperftdai 
eovw. palUattoB, telse sbew; ktad, speetos, 
eoeBpiezioBt :— pL, sof oars, a flag, eaalgB, 
or standard (mil ; aar.).— Tbe priammric 
totomnmn r e d , orange, yellow, green, Mas, 
indiga, and Tiolat; tba frfmary eofoart-- 
blaa, red, and yellow. 

Cbf oar, Tt. To mark witb some tint or baa ; 
todye, tiage, patot, or stain ; flg., topalllate 
ortzeose; to make jptensiUe ; toezaggerate 
larcpresan.:— ^ Tablosb. U^eofomimgt 
pi, a. ; eoVoured, pp., a. ; totmtnr^ eofouH$t, 
s. ; sofoaraMtf, a. ; (a) oof curing, s. (t. i.) 89. 

OoUmnMe, ktir-dr-Abl, a. 36. 4A. SMofcms, 
plaaaiUe, fto. H., eoroMroMy, 48, ad. ; eot^ 
oaraMmMf*. s. (t. so.) 91. 

Cofomndt -drd, a. Bar. eoloar; Tariegated; 
of Afrleaa deacent (t. s.) 

Ovf oaring, -flr-Inar, s. Any sabs, ased to give 
; oaramel (liq.; eocdi.); a speeioos 

of aapl. coUmrs (pa.), 
rbo ' *~ ^ 

ooloor; oaramel (liq.j 
appearaBCOj uMBner o 

Cbroarig^ -1st. s. Ona w¥o ezoels in'app. 
eotoors. (pa.) [transparent, (r. s.) 

Cbrour<M8,-lte,a. Destitnte of eoloar : wbito: 

Cb^N^rte^ k01'-pflrt4U«, -dtb/— Fr., s. 99. 
lit., bawUng aboat : tbe system of distri- 
bation adopted by oolporteors. (t. I.) 

CMporteur, kfil-pOrt-icr', s. 99. = wTporter, 
Ut., a pedler ; ree. app. to persons wbo travel 
fbr Uie parp. of selling and distr. relig. books, 
fte. H., (to) ooFporUr (or -pOr-tl), Tt. (Fr.) 

Cbtt, kdlt, s. Tha young of the horse Und : 
a silly yonng fellowt. H., oolfish (frisky, 
fto.), a. ; eoif^'tooth (an imperf. tooth in 
yooag horses), eoWtT-jfoot or eolti^foot (a 
med. nerb), Aa, s. 90. [frolic. 

Cb/t», Tt. To bsfbolf :— Tl. To fHsk, riot, or 

ObUtr, kSlt-Cr, a The ftre-iron or eatter of 
a ploQgli. [pento ; euanteg, crafty*. 

CWtMM, k51'-a-bilD^ a. 18, 46. BeLtoser- 

C&rumhary*t -Qm-bdr-«, s. 95. A doTfr-eoto. 

OoltmbaU, ko-lOm'-bftttf, s. A salt of eohtm'- 
Ho acid. [V. S., or America. 

Oolumfbian, -be-in, a. 46. Of or fh>m the 

CblaaiMas, kfil'-(lm-bln«, a. Of or like adore; 

Cbtmnbmo, s. Tbe namaof a plant ; a kind of 
Tiolet cokrar ; the heroine of a pantomime. 

Oohmbium, ko-lam'-be-fim, s. One of the 
rarer metols. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

aimml, iXX-tt-uO, ■. » eokmtnth i^ A 
little floUam; the MBtml oahmMi ki a «p- 
sale(bot); the nprigbt pfllar in the ^eatre 
of univalve eheUe (evieh.)* 

CbUimm,tJSL'-am,; 11,45. A cylindciMa pilUr 
Med to Mqiport or adem a hniMinf ^aieh.) ; 
ear flceot or derated etraotare, cr joqr naM 
(U«. or eoUd) ree. a colnam^ei pieeriag wc 
ticaUyeaitahaie: abedyeftro mi id— e a ap 
in deey glee (mU.) ; aTerVeeetioaafafege 
(typ-); Av^rtlineofflgareSffto. [eahuaat. 

OaUmnar, lio4an -s4v, a. 21. Fonaed In 

Oibin; te-rSBf, a. 16. Oae or two mat 
aap. to Inteneot eaeh ether, at light I 

lnthejMae«ertheirarld.(aet; gtn^ 
CoUot kJSl'-sd, a. A Tarie^ of rape greini for 

ite eeed, which jieldfl n^uaoiL 
" ,aft(. SeeOM^N 

t,ha^ind,e. Lethargy ;aMrhiddrewBi- 
hidrr neboleilty (aet) ; a eenate 

Dit<,a. Haiif ia ejMMianfie 

Weu, a. as »o*wn<giii, ^fle. -tf. PveteiMitar- 
allvdrew^j; tolhartic. 
fteg, h»nf, e. A vattey het hille M. aeml 
aa an aftu); the eeUa f o r»ed hy aeei; an 
iaetr. vith teeth ter ea^ aad anaaa.lhe 
hair; any like instr. (v. L) ; tte CHanHe^ or 
red Jeefay taft oa a oaek's headi a oeeaib 
(aMaaJ. JL, mmklma, a.; ^m^^Uni (of 

Gmk, n. To adOwft with a oooih; te mf^ 
dliMtaagla, 4ie^ hy draatec threagh nanvw 
interetieee (as in Area, wool, flax, ina ^—▼i. 
To rail oTer and hreah, aa a vaae (naat.)« 
U^§omk'mgt9.; etmbtd, pp. a^^ a9ei&Vr<par., 
one who dreeeea wool), a. : (a) o iii ^ ie j i , mM. 

OMateL ktea'-htt, kOm'-Ut*-^ Wa^ e. 17. 
A flgnt or fiffhtinff; conteet \iy fwee; an 
c&gageaMnt, 'irfittitt coaflic' 
oonater or dueL 

Oom'iat, n. 17, M. T9 «enl 
oppoee er reelet^— «i To fl^j te aec m 
opp. ; to atrag^ or contend {tmh penoo, 
OT/w- tUage^TH., mm'b« ^y,f .i jatmt" 

MMtiJki^), a. 89*. 'IcThie a., oaoe ouK 



pkm ; a eontrerereiaUet. (t. ▼.) 
Cbai'to«Me,-lv,-4)lf— We.,a.l7.4ft. Diepoaed 
toeomtaat. [oontead; a piven. organ. 

amnMaiimtmt, -n€e, -hdf—We., a. Di« 
a>in6«r, kOia'-her, a A fleh^Jriaad inCotawalL 
Qmbmatum, kfim-Un-a'-ehOn, a. Catoa; 
xntiauUeankm; coouaixtare; obem.anioa; 
an aeeoc. of perecoe or thinga to aeeempMA 
BOBie oiyeot; an aeeemb. op union of par- 
ticnlare; aUianee, confed., eoalltioa, con- 
spiracy; the union of numb, or quaa. in 
every poeeible manner (math.). 
CombiM, kfim-bm^', kOm-t, rt 17, ». To 
unite or Join tog. ; to link tog. doeely ; to 
unite ohem.; to settle by compact; to cenM 
union or confed. :— vi. To unit^ Mree, or 
eoaleeoe: to league tog.; to confederate. 
H., eowMn'mfit p., a.; roeiAtwerf', pp., a.; 
combin'n't s.; oombin'obU, 46, a.; cemH- 
no'/toa, •. (t. eu.) 89. 


ft w lMf <i , ktm-Mer-lM, UaH> •• !'• *»i 
Diip oeed<et rtcelia ;eep ablecrert <ftti^ Ih u 
and bandng* IL, fa) <Mn6aatSN& a. ; eeiN- 
buitibtataB*, e om km$ » mtm, Agl'A!^ a. 1, 

Oomh m t im ^ 4)CelHrthi, a. IT, »6. TbeaofleS 

afllr^oainflua.anhi.; a vamiBff; wnrfla-^ 

fig., Camallt, cnnftMlon, i 

C b aiftai f <ee»,-4T,a.4g. Dbpoeed ta tttke in. 

CbeM^ kttm. vL 17. Te awvatowarde, adtanee n. 

aearea, draw nigh (ae app. to f(^; to ap- ^' 

areaeh, artliva^ «r reeA ; toBroeeedoraiw 

UIvm); te be^preeeat: to inppen or AkH 

'; to appear in elglit; *o l^Mone; 

Bwt, earing', or laaturef (aa ]denlB) ; 



b?fcnbe^ ^hattar). Inthevavkitd'olt 
aeedUkeantMt.,t»eBcoBraga,or la endta 
attantien, and ia then a eC H., eoiifittf, p.» 

evaiecBpr. var. eeneea, d«p. as that eMM 

added panicle: batiaaBorttaMHfetalBa 

ita eem auMiag. either lit. or «f . IRui 

eapr. ^eeaie, come,' either ezheiti to hael^ 

arimiMeBatbraatO [— vt. Toti^plaoe. 

C baw ^ ^,-^e.45. iM c ape ; eraaiea; eaecaaet < 

O ww rfi aw, ko-mfi^-de^iOtttn-iBM^^yiBf , 8. 

17^d>. Onewhaaitherplayain,erwrilea 

eooMdy ^ a coofo actor. 

OMNMbf, kdm'-e-de, c 17. A draiaatie ror. of 

Hm fighter paarions and aetfcma of BMOddttd; 

, , , eeaiviiHieMa a. «9« 
OMMctiM^, k(Haiee'-ti(U, a. U, BataUas— 

a. pi. ctmmftsa9$t eataUea. (Fr.) 
OwM^ ktai'-et, a. Lit.,ahairyetar;aeatai^ 
tial body revdv. in a very eeceatrie ortdt, hi 
the disu partior which it eeaeee tahe vMUq, 
and cem. cane, af a aacleaB, end diher af 

earelope, «r a tdl (aet) ; a I 
atari; aganeateank. B^ mm'H Uk t ^^Bo^ 
a. ; ciaii i iif^rayAy, -rl^(adeeflr.«r IxvaUce' 
of ooaMta), ap aKU feyf^ -o^ (adieeuareean 
de.),c«; {the«Mt,*o.,ofaecMt. 

ft I iiiii i , -ar/^e-aat, a. Asiaelr.teeKpL' 

Cb ai *rt aiy, -db^a, a. Jj g aoaiirfe^ 'ft. Ofor a ccnMt. [diyeonfcotienoreweetiaeat. 
OmJU, kAwe-tk. %.^09m'fkm^ -Whw. 17-«. A 
aM|A>r<, kOm'-fttrt, a. 17, k. BMeeTadBder 
body; eoppert, coaateaaaeeb eeneol., en-' 
eeurag. ; nMid. e n ii jm e nt with eaee ; that 
wliieh caucee or afforde eoanCnt. H., onn'- 
/brflcM, coaC/br^t, Ae., a. (▼. L) 90. 

Cbm^brt, n. Toctreagttiea, eaooarafe, eefaaxv 
enliven, er aoneole. H., om»^^" 
com7ofl!«d; pp. ; eom*f9rier, e. ; 
"" a. 89. 

kiai'-Ait-iail, a. 4& Beta* iaa 
atke ef eiaee or nod. e^Joym. : reomng, 
adaitt., ar diapena.* comfort ; placed abore 
want}. H., mmffirttMw, 4S, ad. ; eom'/arf- 
aAI«Mai,e.91. l<nlltedc 

Coni'fcrt€UtU^%. A warm neck w iapp e i ; a n 
ami7er<«r, -er, c Ttte Holy Spirit (scrip.) ; a ' 

long knit wooUea tippet}. 
OHM'/crflaBi, 46b, a. (V. B.) H., eMt/brftaeJy, 

ad. ; oom'fortlettnesa^ s. 9L 
Oomflreif, kOm'-f^, a. 17. A cert wild plaat ' 
Cbane, kAm'-Ik, a. ss comlicaL 17. ReL to 
comedy : exciting mirth ; droll, direrttaiK, 
Uofl^k. IL, com'UaUf, 4S, ad. ; ccrmfcal- 
iMU, cot$neaUtyt -k&l'-It-e, a. 91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

, •• 17. FMmb; fet- to 
• ; raTMMM; jkkL 

^■■■■■ry VHWM^T) dviUtTf 

CbwM, Um'-J, a. 17, 10. The shortest Hop 

IMP Mtat (, ) and to tip. •Qbar<L 

olVIMODi (nraiMCMk 
(hwmmi, Mm ■ini'; lEi»^, .«itor-&, 

^4Bj»d' g, Wft., Wfc. a. 17, >. Ikoaetor 
tht vMit «r o »i H ii w<iiag ; ■ mji OMo y trg 
or amnorlty ; the mandate iaaoad or ^avder 
giVfc;tl i a Mwai «f it wt aai rtng oriMry.fnitfa 
Moye; mm p omt M of gor.,or oodCvoL; a 
Bar. or aUL itrm vadar tho oaa. of a par. 
oAoart oAoadar-or vaaaaffe; anik, OMor, 
falJaMdaB» akargai dtvactlen. (r. wJi 
tbmmwm^fyU To# m aim toordartoMd«»; 
O hold m pgwar ; to wei pin aaptoia awth. 
«f«r; toThold ia cheek ; to ovMFkMk witk tin 
Ofo; to kave or to aaar. a ooatveL lafl. over } 
to lead, oa a fia. or uMallaln i-M. Vohare 
or exereiae sapnaw aatk. ; lo fovara. H., 
m mm M n Hn^ , p^ a.: ^mmmfml, py.} 
mmmmmtm-^ iinaiaa tfa a f (¥. L), a. ; mm- 
flMaMftfifc, 4IL a. («. a.) to. 
ftiiiiiiiiiiiif, hto-iain-ddnt^, MaHMtad'- 
tet~K.,o.f». OMtaeenaiaadof afcrt, 
orofahe^yortroopa. (ffc.) 
ftwwowJrtify, kgai-aidar-^>t«t^ a. S5. 

Ha«iB«tiio Iwao of a oavaMid. (^ a.) 
CtaHaaa#er» -li^ a. (f., oaiaaMnd'rMi*.) One 
who ooaoMada; tkt oaplBia of a ahiporwar 
dAv a ecrL ric^ tB^aet yet pooied.(T. T.) 
iBiiai#inr*.-<^a. A dblrlet MouiDg 
> s«IL erdK, aaid jofveraed ^ • kidtit 
-liV.'OiCiik Ontvolllaff hj laflaeaee.^UiBlty ; aa th e c l t a M ea, iaipmu, 
«« &, eoaMnon^tnflp, ad. (r. ▼.) 9L 
tkmm m k tw iw i^ naCat, a. A ooMw i aw d , oaior, 
; mm^^mm of tte p c e c e p la of the 
wlnm " 

eMBt flWMSf ppw f ooaiawiiief^flr iMiif •«, a. v9a 

OMaewM'ef'aliec, -rit^T, a. tf . ^ ooMiMMinMio- 
lerp,«Mr^S5. TendiBf to oowinemo catt^ 
or to prceenre the OMaorr oL (t. ▼.) 

Cb a i wtfa c e, kAat-aenaf', klta-t* ^t. 17, 95. 
T6 heiibi, odg., or eater apon ; to perl the 
teat aet :— rl. To ariae or haw first exlat- 
aaee; to hegia to he H., «MMw»i''0My, p., 
a.*; OMRaMNOMT, pp. ; e0iMfn«aee'm«»/, a. 89. 

CbflMMMe'eMnf, -Mat, a. The day on which 
rtagraaa are eoo lwre d In ooUegea or oaiTer- 

ftaiii III A kdnupgnd^ fctei-t, Tt. 17, at. To 
te prweu t aa worthy or saiteble; to recoai. ; 
to eommit, latniat, or give hi charge ; to 
prdse, extol, or applaud; to make aecept- 
aUe ; to produce or present to Aiv. notice. 
H., cowmmtmtdhmg^ pw ; commend^m^ ppk ; 
wtuiMKH^ftt^ %m \ cKijammdliiYiuny M| a< 80* 


OaaauMtfMfe.^iU.kte'o-l^ Laad- 
aUo,*o. H^«aanPMMroMp,<tt»«d.;eoa»- 
iiw#aWiaaii^ a. (v. t.) 91. 

CJMPMaoNsaappp!^ "t^^ac'^^ a. saw JBavinag «o 

afory*,«« tl. 

ate— 8., 1^ a^ 17-8^ di. Harlag a oooa. 
) or eaclaat, «r redaaible to oae. M ., 

wiaMltt|r, -hfl'-ttMe, a. fL 

tional; oommensorable. BT., •eanMnt^- 
r««d^, 4S,ad. ; wma i ii wi ' ira<a a<aa,a. (T.y.)Mj 

ChaMaan* arate, vt* To ra dae o to a *"**^*t*^ 
fltaaMHre ar ptapowioftb h.^ aaiiiaMNaHMa^' 
tioa, 86, a. ; te. 89. 

(hmmmi, hBrn^-Jnt^ a. 17. An anaota ttaaerfl* 
tnatr. note \ eocpl., aslilalaui, obeerr., iwaik . 

C baiaiaaf,h flBf4at, -aitet'-^K., P., ^j». To 
eipiata* z-^iri. To mrtto or malw acAsa on % 
to ■iiiiiitatii, espoaad, er eoqplala | to aaiia 
oaaMMSm. M.,e0MaNraaiaM^a>f OTana^ 
pp. ; eeaaw'ffitor <«r •eawr-], a. 88. 

a book of eommeniie 
', oraaaileaofa 

▼t., ^i^ Tte wilto 
lie or aat iB apca \ to aBnatoto. B*, 

\ -tiah'-*ai, a. 

Omromvw, h»m'8ia», a. 17. latmhanfa of 

prapartf or aerrioa af an y Mad^ and al l 

aBa9lanaon.wttktt; trade, traflfe, aaataHto) 



GlMaoMroatt kom n 8as<^« -M., Wa 

"^K.* a.f ^. To iiaAa ■ to koM h ^ wh^ ^m ^. * 
CboMMroM, k»iiMB«r'-ak*iL kttm-t. a. 17, 98. 

OforraL toeoBiaMne. H., oo i aa wf ai affy y 

ad. M. [keaotyi 

CbmaMN^. HaSt-Uc, a. lip a iUag gleea or 
amnaiMtfaa,ktai-I»4ir-ah«n,a. Atfareatea^ 

ing or denonoiatlon ; a recital of dMae 

threats on sUtad days (aed.). 
Cbaiaitnaterp, -nte'-A-tn^ a. 2&. Th r e ato n- 

ing; denundatorr. 
09mmM*gUy n. ^ mix to g o th c i - into oaa 

maas; to Mead :— t1. To ran into a aUx- 

Ob wa iaw rtr , ktai'-e-ntt<^ Tt a uw wai fi i * a ali| » 

17-a. To atteaaato er aoake sbmU ; to re- 

doee to a fiaepowder; to palvcriae, grtad, 

ortritnrate. H., asmai^uMif , p. ; 

atiiacl, op., a. ; mmmMvJ^X^i a. ; 

Cioa, So, a. 89. 
am»Nii««rak, ktai-mIi'-4r-U«, rt 26. 86. To 

pity, coropsssionate, or ^ra|Mthl8e with. 

EL, eomwt u mratingf p. ; eowmmferateii^ pp. ; 

eommUmrmtitr^ i(S a.; umv m u 'tnMe*, a.; 

emmmdMra^Uon, 86, a. 88. 
O o mm it f «r0Hc0, -Ir, a. 46. Compasslonato. 

U., c^mrnit^erativilu, ad. 91. 
OMuaisMTial, kdm-ml^^ar^-e-il, a. 17, 45. 

Pertaining to a conmlssarr. 
Oommi9$g"riat, -At, •adr'-e-d— Fr. The ofBoe 

and duties or a oommisMry ; a1«o the whole 

body of officers in his departakent 
Cbmn'tssar^i -Is-sdr-e, a. 25. = eommi$$airef 

-sAtfr'— Fr. A commissioner or rtel^gate; 

an oiBeer who acts for the bishop in the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


rMBote p«Ht of a Aoe. f MoL) : SB oflleer who 
bM tb* charge of jyroT. food, eioChinf, fto.,ftMr 
an armj (mlL). H., oommfiatoryMipy u 90. 

OMMNiMioN, kfim-mbh'-On, kOm-t, ■. 25, 85. 
The aet of committinf , dolnf , perftnrming, 
intnuUog, fte. ; a written warrant or an- 
thoritj ; the thing oommitted, or power and 
•nth.KlTen; ehuYe, offlce, emid. ; the state 
of aeting by aatb. tot another, either in 
pnrch. or ■dllnf , also tbo fee or allow, paid 
for the tame (oomm.) ; one or more persons 
appointed to per f oim certain dnties. H., 
commUnont a. 90. 

Oomtm^tUm^ rt. = eommUaioiMUi, To give 
aoommisdonto; to empower or appoint; to 
dqrate. H., eommitfmmimg, p.; oommU- 
ttonedt -nlsh'-ttnd, pp., a. M. 

Cbmmi$$ionat^, -mish'-an-U, a. = eommUaion' 
ory*, -4r-e, 35. Appointed bj warrant. 

C9mmt^»ioHer, -«r, & One who holds a com- 
mission or warrant to perform some oflloe or 
bosiness; amemberofacommiaBi<m. 

CbeMMUfMrw, kflm-mlsh'-Qre, -^SOr— 8., k0m'— 
We., s. 18. A Joint, seam, or interstice ; the 
Joint between two stones (arch.) ; a suture or 
artieolation, the comers of the lips (anat.). 

CbmsHt, k5m-mlt', kttm-t, rt, 17, Sfi. Lit, to 
send or thmst tog., to throw or lay upon ; 
flg., to intrust (fol. by to)jto depositffmr 
prcs.) { to put or send to prison j to do, effect, 
or perpetrate; to ezpoee or endanger; to 
engage or pledge ; to refer to a ocHnmittee 
(kigis.). H., commitflmg, p.; eomwriifedt 
im. ; cemenM'tfr, s. : cawHttiUfahlet eowtmUf- 
WMtr*. 45, a. ; eowtmUtal, eommUfmeiU, s. 89. 

Cbmmttmentt -mfot, s. An order ibr sending 
to prison : a mittimus (leg.). See Commit, 

QmmitUe, kfiro-mttr-e, kflm-ti s. 35. A body 
of persons chosen to examine or manage any 

a colleetiTe bodir of men acting 
togethCT. H., eommttf MM^, s. 90. 

OmimmMm, kOm-It-tr. s. A person appolntad to 
take charge of an ioloC or lunatic (leg.) 

CbmmtMor, -t0r', s. The lord-chaneeUor, in 
respect to lunatics, (t. su.) 

Cbmmix*, kSm-mHEs', rt 35. To mingle or 
blend:— tl. To unite. H., commixtw*^ 
-ar«, s. ; Ac. 89. See Mix, 

Commodt, kSm-rndd^, s. 99. Lit, any conr. 
article ; h., a kind of chest of drawers ; an 
obs. kind of female head-dress ; fto. (Fr.) 

OMMMf'tfiotfs, -e-Os, kOm-mOdtf'-y'ast— K., a. 
17, 45. Adapted to its use or purpose ^ con- 
Tenient, suitable, usefbl. H., eofmN^«w«ty, 
48, ad. ; 0ommM'MmsiM»»,'«. 91. 

Gmmoditv, kttm-mMMt-e, k1im-t. s. 17, 25. 
Prim., interest, advantage, profit, oonre- 
nienoe*; h., anything which vieldb them; 
appr., goods, wares, merchandise. 

Cbsffnociore, kihn'-o-d0r^ s. The commander 
of a squadron or detachment of ships ; the 
senior captain when two or more ships of 
war are in 00. ; the Irading ship of a convoy. 

Common^ kfim'-tin, a. 17, 35. Bel. eq. to more 
than one, or to the public ; baring no sep. 
owner; public, gen., universal; serving for 
the use of all ; ftreq., usual, ordinary ; cus- 
tomary, habitual ; without rank or sup. ex- 
cellence ; vulg., mean, trite ; lewd, obscene ; 
of both numb, or genders (gr.) . H., comm'on, 
eommfimiif, 48. ad. ; comm'onnestf s. 91.— /n 
commfoH sx joint poss. or use ; indlscrlmin- 


ately. pther eonp. are oo mm ' o n c wr fer, 
comrn'om-anmeil (thatof a city or corp. town), 
eomm'on-erier (town bell-roan). ooMm'on- 
law (unwritten law, or that valid only firom 
usage), comm'cn-tenit (sound prac. Judg.) ; 
Omm^on Pleat (one of the high courts of 
law), &e., s. 

Oommfoih s. A tract of ppen land used In 
common by the Inhabitants of a town, 
parish, Ac SeeCbeunofW. 

CbiiMi'<m,vL To havejoint right In com. land; 
to board tog. H., oomm'im^Al^t a. ; dec 89. 

Oommonape, kSm'-On-iU^ s. 17, 80. Bight of 
pasturage, &o. 

CkmWonal^, -ftl-te. s. The com. people, the 
vulg. ; alfdasses below the rank of nobility 
(leg.) ; in gen., the bulk of mankind. 

(hmmfoner, -«r, s. One of the commonalty; 
a member of the Bouse of Commons; ooo 
having joint right in common ground ; a 
student of the sec rank (Oxt). [known. 

Cbmrn^oH-placet-piSMt a. Oommon; trite; vreU- 

C&mnifonptacef s. A memo. ; a common topic 


H., eomm'onplaee-book (one for memo., or 
literary extracts, Ac), s. 90. 
»o»M, kom'-ttnz, s. pi. 85. The common 

people, the vulg. ; the lower house of parlia- 
ment (Eng.) ; food provided at a oommon 
Uble. (V. su.) (public good. 

CbMOTOfNosff^ k0m-an-w61<^ 17, 35. The 

Cbnum'omoeolth, 'W&thf M. liie commonweal; 
an est form cfgar. or dvil polity; the nub- 
ile; the territory of a state; a republic or 
democracy; the ftorm of gov. under Oliver 
Cromvrell and his son (Eng. hist). 

Qmmotion, kttm-mO'-ehan, Idim-t, s. 17, 35. 
A state of excited and tiuiultuous action 
(elem., poL, phys., or ment.) : perturbation 
of mind ; agitation, tumult disorder. 

Qmmove, -mS^re'^ vt 16. To put in motion ; 
to agitate, (poet) [to a commune. 

CbOTMtma/, kttm-mOn^-Sl, a. 35. Pertaining 

Commtmt, kSm'-On;, -iln— J. it M., s. 17, 99. 
A small territorial district in France ; also a 
municipal division. 

CbmmwM, kSm-mOn^, kOm-t, vi. 17-8. To 
converse, confer, or talk tog. fiun. ; to have 
intercourse in oontempl. or meditation ; to 
receive the eommunion (U. S.}. H., eom- 
mUn'ing, p. ; commOnedf, pp. ; (a) comwHin'- 
tn^, cosMiM^fiion (v. i.), s. 89. 

OommunieabUf k5m-ma'-ne-kftbl, kfim-t, a. 
18, 45. That may be communicated. H., 
commt¥fnieabl^, ad. ; oommvfnieaklmeult 
eommmtieabifiiyt -bU'-tt-e, s. 91. 

Cbmmt^meant, -ki&nt, s. One who partakes of 
the Holy Communion, (v. v.) 

Commurnieatt, -kfttf , vt. To impart ; to re- 
veal ; to participate ; to impart redpr. or 
mut ; to impart (as disease, Ac) ; to dis- 
close or make known ; to beitow, confer, or 
deliver :— vi. To have a oommu. or passage ; 
to have intercourse bywords, let, messages, 
or signs ; to interchanee thoughts, words, or 
opin. ; to have something in com. ; to par- 
take of the Communion. H., eommt^ntcdi- 
ing^ p. ; ecmmt^nicaUd^ pp. ; eommt/nieator, 
25, s. ; eommwtiea'tion, 86, s. (v. i.J 89. 

Cbsifmimca'fiofi, -shfin, s. The act of commu- 
nicating; the thing communicated; inter- 
course,, conference, correspondence, (v. r.) 

Otmmifnieative, -kat«-lv, a. 45. Disposed to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


communicate ; maemtrtd. H^ 
nieatio€nus^ b. 91. {knowledge. 

Cbimmt/nica/ory, -kft-t5r-e, a. 35. Imparting 

Cammmtiont um-mOn^'-jiln, •. 18, S5u Fel- 
lovahip, ocaeord, unity; com. powewian ; 
mnL Interoonne or union ; faiterebange of 
tnu)Mctlona» or of oAom ; union in divine 
worship, alao the body of ChristlanB who fo 
miite ; the oelebraftioD of the IxnrdU Sapper, 
abo pertieipating in it. (▼. ▼.) [ mumon. 

Cboun^'imoMMe*, >lBt, 8. One of the same com- 

Omwumitmt kSm'-O-nlrm, a. Community of 
property ; eoelalism. Hi, comm'wiiat^ a. 90. 
See CbatMSMM (a.). 

C a mm m u ig, Um-n>a'-Qlt-e, ktkm-t, ■. 17-8. 
lit., com. pow. or eojoym. ; a aoe. of people 
bar. oom. rigbta, prir., or interests ; the body 
politic ; aoeiety at large ; the commonwealth. 

OfmmutabU, -mQttf'-ibl, a. 4& That may 
be ezehanfcd or fommnted. H., commmta- 
HHfy, -bn^-lt-e. 8. 91. 

<^mMiiutMtion, kfim-mO-tft'-shdn, s. 17-8. A 
giTing one thing for another (as money in 
ueu ^ tithes) ; the change of a penalty or 
pun. from a greater to a less. (leg. i ▼• i«) 
-matf'-d-UT, a. 45. ReLtof 

change. EL, comwtUi'utwety, ad. (t. ▼.) 91. 
dmm t it t, k$m-mat«', kOm-t, vt. T6 ex- 
change : to buy oAL or to ransom one obUg. 
by another ; to miOgate :— Tt. To atone ; to 
eompensate ; to stand in place ; to bargain 
for exemption. H., comwHWimft P»l com- 
wtQted, pp., a. ; eomHmtttt^HoH. 36, a. (t. s.) 89. 
C a mm t^*tua^f a. Mutual ; reciprooaL (poet.) 
Comtote, ko-mfise', a. Ending in a tuft (hot) 
€bMfMK<,kttm-pikt',k«m-t,a.l7,35. Closely 
and fixmly united; firm, dose, solid, dense; 
«OD*i«^K (<>/)*• H.t cmmpaefljf, 43, ad.; 

eOMfOCf IMSS, 8. 91. 

Cbm^aet^ kSm'-pikt, 8. 17. An agreement; a 
mut. contract ; a treaty or confed. (poL). 

Comwiet (▼. a.}, Tt. To press closely tog. : to 
Join flrmly ; to conaoUdate ; to league witn* ; 
ID compose*. H., oompaeCmg^ p. ; wm- 
paefed, pp., a. ; vtmpa^ert s. ; nmpa&Honf 
M, eomtpaet^e (also structure), s. 89. 

C bm paef id, -4A, i^., a. (t. ▼.) B., eompaet- 
emjf, 48, ad. ; eompaeftdnest^ s. 91. 

Companion^ kom-p&n'-yOn, kftm-t, a. 17, 46. 
One who accompanies, or who keeps comp. 
-with another; an associa t e, comrade, or 
partner. H., cempcM'umiess, a. ; eompan'ion' 
«Mp (fellowship ; company), s. 90. 

Cbmpm'uMMiMs. -ftU, a. 45. Fit for good-fel- 
lowship; sociable; agreeable. H., eomptrnf- 
ionmbtif, 48, ad. ; com^tm'ioiKMmm', s. 91. 

Cbatpany, kanf-pAn-e, s. 17. Prim., the sol- 
diers under the command of a captun; h.,an 
assemblage of perstms, or any cmL of men or 
animals ; a party coll. for festirity, conrers., 
or pleas. ; state of being a comps«^n ; the 
net of aoeomp. ; assemMage, fellowship, so- 
ciety ; persons united tar the same purp., or 
In a joint concern ; a snb-dir. of a regiment 
(miL) ; the crew and off. of a ship (naut). 
—To Aeer comfpmtp is to attend or go with : 
—to Jtsfp e^m'panjf, to associate or be with 
habitually; to pay court tot. 

Ona'pflMwt, vt., Tt To accompany. 

OmparakU, kSm'-pdr-ibl, a. 17, 48. That may 
be compared ; worthy of ocmipar. ; being ot 
ttgud regard. H.« com'parabtjf, 48, ad. 91. 


Cbm' parous, -it<s, -pdr'-d-tta, a. pL Two 
things compared to one another, (log.) 

Oomparatw, kdm-pdr'-d-tiT, kOm-t, a. 17. 28. 
£sUm. by comparison; not positlTc or abso- 
lute ; having the power of comparing ; expr. 
more or less (gr.). H.,0OMj»ar'aMrdty,ad.9I. 

Cbmparg*, kfim-pir<', kOm-t, s^ 17, 38. Com- 

Cbmpar^t Tt To set or bring things tog. 
(^ther in fact or ocmtemiA.), in oraer to 
ascer. how tkr thcT agree or disagree; to 
make one thing toe meas. of t£b oual., 
prop., ftc, of another ; to liken, to rewr to 
as Sim., for the purp. of illustr.; to inflect 
an adj. (gr.); to procure or obtt:—Ti. To 
hold comparisoiit ; to be like or equal*. H., 
eompdr'mg, p.; eomporMf, ppk ; coaqNfKsr, 
a. ; eomp«Hr*i$OH (t. L), s. 89. 

CbrnpoTMon, •pdr'-is-an, s. 35-6. ComparatiTe 
estimate; proportion; formation of an adJ. 
in its seTsral oegresa (gr.) ; a simile (rhet ). 
See Ommmts. 

OM^Mrl*, kdm-ptfrtr, Tt To diTide; to nark 
out into parte or sub-divisions. H., mm- 
partiTtion; 88, s. 89. 

Oimparfmmt, -mdnt, s. A diTiaion or sep. 
part of a general design, groond-plot, or 
structure; one of the snb-diTisloDs of a 
large carriage, apartment, Ac. 

Oampaa, kflm'-pte, s. 17. Stretch, graap, 
reach; space, extent; enclosure; Umit or 
boundary, also the space or ol^Jccts ind. ; 
a passing round, a ctrcnit; drde, circum- 
ference; mod. bounds, due limits; ext or 
limit of the Toioe, or of sound (mus.) ; the 
magnetic needle, or wMr^m0r$ etm'pam 
(naT.) ; wh. ilg., due, guide, direc. :— pi., 
com'pasmt, -te. an Instr. for deeer. ciroes, 
ftc. (pr. geom.j. H., etm'pa mlen , a. 90. 

Cbm'jMst, Tt To stretch round ; to enclose, 
encirele, environ ; to go or walk round ; to 
bcdege or beleaguer ; toobt or procure ; to 
grasp or emtoace ; to accompl. ; to purpose, 
intend, imag., plot, contrive. H., comfpa»9- 
ing, p. : com jnusoI, ppi ; oom'pataaUi*, a. 89. 

CbMfMssMn, kflm-pftsb^-On, kCkm-t, s. 17, 85. 
Sorrow exdted 1^ the distress or misfortunes 
of another; sympathy, commiseration, fd- 
low-feeling. H., eomptuT ti o ml tu, a.; (to) 
<»mpat^*rionU vt 89, 90. 

OampoMSHmaU, -pAsh'-tin-it«, a. Disposed to 
compassion; tender. merciftal,ind8Sgent H., 
eompai'nomaUly, 48, ad.; oimpiuf'tionoU' 
ne$s*, 8. 91. 

OimtpatrtioiuUej vt To have oompasdon for. 

,, e om pa^ $wnaHnf, 
».; eomptuTnonaMU^. 

\ p. ; wmptTmonaUd, 

a. 89. 

pp. , cvHHPiw 9wnumt9-m a. o*. 

CbmpatikU, kfim-p&t'-Ibl, kOm-t, a. 17, 45. 
That may exist with ; not incouf^uons ; suit- 
able, consistent agreeable. H., etmpatibUf, 
48, ad.; eompafiblmet^, eompatibU^, -blT- 


Cbmpu'triottM, Ofthe same country; of like int 
and ftelings. H., (a) eompa^triot, Ac, s. 9L 

CbMpesr, kan-pSrt', kflm-t. a. 17. An equd ; a 
Mnnpanion, anoc, or colleague, [appearf. 

Ckmpur'K vt. To equd ; to match :— tI. To 

Cbmptl, kOm-pa', kOm-t, Tt. 17, 28. To fovea 
to some act; to oblige: to constrain. H., 
eowtpelfma^ p. ; eompelUtt, pp. ; comptlftr, 
8. ; ctmpelVabU^ a. 89. [style of address. 

OomiptUatum; -ai'-ehOn, a. A ceremonious 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ck«|M2F«fary*, -d(-tSi^ a. as. Oomolforj. 
CbmptniiouB, ketai-pjMF-«-aa, a. 17, tf. Short, 

■muury, oompraa. ; direet, not dre&itooB. 

H^ Mwmmi'i/mtfy, 4t^ ad.; eam p m ^ iim^ 

IM«% •. (T. t.) 9L 
ObfRiwmf MMN, -a-tUn, a. = 0mi>mnI*. A work 

ooat.tbeaiiM.or I - - 

atnmmaryor . 
Oim p mt att t ktai-pta'-alb, (pi 
iml) kW— K^ n. 17, S5. «: eompmt^i 
To fivo equal value to; to reoompenae; to 
aakeameadafor; toreotify:— ^. Toaaake 
, to aapply aa tqair, H^ e o m p m* - 

tatinf, pk,a.; t6mjpen'$aim^ pp.,a. ; 
aoMr, a. ; «MN|»«na0'<M» (t. i.), a. 

-atr-ahfla, a. Am efolr. gtren 

iVBam; a 

aet-off (lef .). [Ifakinf auenda, fto. (t. t.) 
\' imiu, -Ht, a. 45c 

eb««N^ kAm-ptt«', kflflH. ^ 17, U. To aaek 
or atrive for the aaaa thing or poaitioa aa 
another; to atrlre in riral^ or cpp. H. 

dor (f., cemgHtitnm, or 
— 'Kofi, a. ' ' * *" 

'lOm'-ne-tenaCi a. 17. _ 


STJ^ M«ipir«r«N, or -<Hi;),^ 
flb w pi r w MH, kOm'-pe-ttea^; a. 17. s com'pt- 
toMy,-ae. Snfldeney ; if 

Oon^petmt, -tte^ a: Fit, 
a deqnate, anffla; aMe, qnalit 

light, or ^UtT. (T. a.) 
"•■ aoitabla, < 


WW^UStB^ ■UUIh , ■ t o, ^UHU. I lUBMMUli, 

hakwging; having power or right (leg.). 
IL, «Mn><M%, ad. (T. a.) 91. 
imp e t Ui o n , -fiUk^^ a. 17, 96. Strift for 

I'-dn. a. 1 
superiorly; dlT. eudm; ritalrj, eonten., 
tmnlatloa, oppoa. (t. t.) (eompeting. 

OmfHUon, ^AtrSr^ a. SS. BtrdllBg; 

OmpiU, kSm-^, kOm-t, vt 17, Sft. To draw 
«p or form a liter, work from exla. anthora ; 
to eoU., rearrange^ in,, Ucta or mattora 
already known: to write or eom p oee (eh. 
aoD. to iMta, pvu«<f erenta, fte.). H^tfem- 

«MJi&&4, u!^,eoiJS?miiu; eompiS'- 
lioii (abo the book, to^ eompUed), 96, a. 89. 

Ctn^laemL kfim^'-atat, kOnHU a. 17, 99. 
OtII; alhbla; eompUiaant. BL, tompUf' 
§mt§, ainar, eom ph 'emaf, a. 91. 

ampimetnUttl, -afa^'Al, a. 17, 17. Harked 
hyoomplaeeBoa. H.MmptoMii'CMi<l|f,ad.91. 

Cba^tom, kdm-pUn/, kAm-ti Tt 17, 46w To 
lament, to bewa U f:--^ Tb nttar txpt. 

pain; to lament; to marmnr; to ^arge, 
or to aconae of an oAlenoe ; to preaent an 
aoeniLagalnift(leg.). H..owip«ii^,P7«.; 

(a proeeeator or plaiiittff— W.), a. ; mm- 
flmHftM^, a. ; complamf (t. £), eenyfam^- 

aaS^flfaf, -plftAf , a. S6. The aot of eom- 
plaiaing: the mnaa or anltfeet eomplalned 
of; a booUj aliment or maladj; aeonmtion, 
ehargeu remonatranee, fte. (t. t.) 

OmnMaimt, kfim-pUrKlar, kilm'-We., a. 
17l 9i. Deairoua to pleaae ; eo n r te on% af- 
teU^ aoUte^ aoeommod. H., opi p/ o ia aw f fy 
(or^kon^-), ad.: coeqpMMMffMas*, oom- 
Woitanpf, -ainar, a. 91. 

CbnTplMato*, -pid-nitc, a. FM; laminate. 

Ckmmltmmt, k£n'-i>1e-mtet a. 17. lit., a 
fllUng np or completing; n., that wh. eomr- 
pletee aomething elaa; the ftiU or proper 


qani.oranmber,orthatwhMiwillmakeit ^ 
aojuytiilng added byway of ornament or 

O mplt meniaL -mint*^ a. ae o t m t pl tmm f m p, 
-S^U, SoppLadeilcieney; eompleting. 
-^OampUwrnWarv 00V wn are tboee, which 
by blending, prodoee whitenem (opt.). 

a^mpUu, k^-pl6t/, kttm-:, a. 17, tt. «lth- 
ont defleiency; brooght to a ooneL; Adl* 
Mr£, entire, flniahed, ended. H^eoevM/- 
V> 49, ad.; e a a y /rt/ nwfc a. 91. 

OomphUf, Tt To fiU np, flnl^ er perf . ; t6 
fblfll, acecinpL, eonaommirte j to perfurm. 

■U4U1, l yw iMiy i ., owiwiuuaHniv. mi |icrH 

H., eompiifmg, p. ; eompUted, pp., il ; t 
pkUfmmt*, nmmUUim, 96, a. 89. 
(WMmc. -plil/-fT, a. 46. B Mm«20f ery, 
U, Making eemplete:aeeompliafaing. 


OomfUrUir$, a. The erening eanriee; the 
eompUne. (Bom. Oath.) 

O ba Ml § x, kgm*pl6ka, a. 17. s> mw^ltxe^, • 
-pieksf. Intricate jeompoaed of many parts 
or thlnga j notalmple; diiitealt, oompUDated. 

edneai*!, comM$afkif, -m, a. 9L 
Oom'pk^r^u AaeemUage; ocmpUeatloB. * 
OwMtariMs kOm-pU^-ahOn, -pMca'-ytts- . 
We., kOm-t, a. 96, 40. lit, eonmUeatkm, 
eoaopaaa; appr., the hoe of the aun: alB» 
temperament, diapoaitien of body, maa par- 
tiealarly phyaioal eharaoCer, fte. 

Qwiyfar ^i o i ie / , 4U, a. b oompMiommnh, Dep. 

on or pert to the oomplezlon. Hi, e0«»- 

aNi||>2eir'40fM^-ehand,-yttnd— We^a. BaTing 

a certain temperament or atatec 
OHMteEMrv*, -pUyu'-Ara, -pUk'-«h*C9r*-8., a. 

40,18. Infobtlon; eompHeetlon. 
OompMiU, Ukn-ptr-iUrkflm-t, a. 96, 46. 

According; complying; pliable*. H.,eom- 

OM^ft'oM/, -dnt, a. Bending: yielding; fig., 

* " >bli^ng, ( 

diapoaed to yield; eiril, obi _ _ 

aant H., eoii^mkUp, 49, ad. ; opei pfi* a m», 

esmWreiMye, a. 91. 

OtmpkcaU^ kSm'-iOe-kU^^ a. «= mmfjMttM. 
17. Complex; taedtof. (hot). &,Ma^- 
plimtttjf, 49, u. ; comfpUeaepf -a% a. 91. 

CbM^JiMrfi^n. lit, to taterwecre, to Inlbhi 
or twlit tog.; fig., to oonftiae^ iwrolr^ en- 
tangle; tonnlte or eonneetmnt: tomakn 
oomplac or Intrieate (fol. by wUh), H., 
oampUe&tmp, p., a. : comfpUiaUi^ np^ a. ; 
coMiciftiim. 96, a. 89. [to inTolTew 

OmfpHMoHw, -JT, a. 46. XnTohring, or teodiag 

C bi > <fo e t|» -pBa, a. An aeeompUoe. 

O&w^Mif, iam-v!atf4ir^ kOm-t. a. 17, 96. 
The ataie or condition of being an a eeaaaory 

aaw«flwn<, kSm'-pla-mtet, a. 17. Aneacpr. 
or dTility, reapeet, or regard; a preaent or 
fliTonr beatowed. (r. t.) 

Omf pU m m t, Tt Tb addraea with enr. of 
app(oh.,eateam,orreepeet; topraiie^ilatter, 
eongrat; tobeatowapree.:— tL To employ 
or paaa oompUmanto. iLteom'pUmmUmp, p. ; 
CMiifpHwtmittLv^ ; comfplimmUer,B^ dee. 89. 

C&wtp Umn t f tU, hQ, il « eo wipl imm f aiy, -dr-e^ 
96. Oont or eznr. compUment H., mmptt- 

CbaqiMnOwm'-plIn, a. 46. llielaBtdiT.of tim 
breriary; the prayer to be recited aft snnaet 
09mpMr^,jU To wmsBUn, [(Ba Gattu) « 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

to; toTtoldftOMvi or Bertenwaiw ; to Ail- 
m or ejMWito (fcL by i^^.^ H^ Tgyjflg' 

Cbflvo^ Ua'-pOk ■. AoompoBt 

To boar, 
• prow) ;— 
agree, eott, or aoeovd {UL by ««•<*). 
BLf Mititfttifwtff p. ; oM^ipefTMi pp. ; mm 

MMMTta^litttt. •• SSi 

lNiVW% kflm-pdM', kftm-tt vt. 17, U. Lit, 
to put too.; to lbra*«o«p^«r one enttre 
body^orttliig,l7fhe saioii of partt or is- 
dir.; to iavenL or to join part to pari (as a 
1lt.erawi.aatiM)r, a priatar, fto.} : to oonit 
pttti of airhole ; to oaun, aUas^ 
MOk tranq. ; to aetfle or iOjim ; 
toeeitleltotoaqBietor MiBjitato; to dia- 
poee or pn^*; toaet«ptm(teoh.). H., 
t au^^ mf, Pb,e. ; commimdr, pp., a. ; eaei- 
jOger^mt, a akm. astaor), a. i cmtf ^mg , 

Ct^mmid,-fMl%!u, Oata^aedato, traBfoQ. 
^ mmfWtUlf, -M4a^ ad.; eompUtimmt, 
a. 91. [typaa are aet. 

ONiy^aiwy itf rf, a. ▲amaU iaatr. in whkh 

fteygrffa, Uaa-9Sa'4t, kfim'— Br., a. 17, S5. 
Made op of parte I eoMpoanded. H., oaai- 
#ee'«t erdlcr (anh.); oMipo«^ Maaier. one 
that oan be toiaa. eaae. by a«y other abore 

Cba^peatfi, -alt. a. A eompwarttole. [nity. 

a»vMJei(M,kin-i»«W-fta,8.17,aB4. The 
aei of oonpoiiBC ; alao that wh. ia ooBBpoaed ; 
k., the aot oTbdi^iBg auaple ideaa iato 
oompUeatiflB, anion, or rational Ibna; ayn- 
tbeaifl (aa opp. to analyria): oonatitatlon; 

anion, ea^)ue., eaaiUn. : adljaeCniant, 

tnal agreenu; orderly dlipoe^ ceng ' 
n maaa fermed by laingllng difr, ingr. 
or nma. -vock; JodieloBa infaa. and eoaun. 
(fine arte) ; a eomb. by affinity (ohen.) ; the 
iMtoent of a part onlyof adebt in Meaer 
S irhola, alK> the anm ao paid (leg.) ; eet- 
tlng np and err. type (teah.). See oba ip ee g. 

(hmrmUoe, kte-piflMr, a. tS. 41. Able 
ortend.toconiponnd;eoaa p o ua ded. (type. 

Cb«apo#<tor,>llr,a.SS. OnairboaetaQpandarr. 

Qi ai |>a ei * a fa |,a. Ahletoeo-ei[kt:oaMiatent 

0»a9aa<,Ufan'-pfiat,a.l7.seain>o^. AnynriK- 
taret; 8ppr.,arleheomb.ofiaanQriBgBahB. 
(agr.): a kind of plaator or caa 

Cbn^aa^.Tt. Teaaanamwith 

i^kfim-par-ih*SOr, kOn-t* •• M> Oamr 
\\ ^i fi«T iri iW t * ^ffr i * ; aateneaa, 

a>Mi0«Mi; UoT-pownd, a. 17, at. Ooaaaoaed 
Mmon Oan ana part or ingr. : not ttnpla 
or iMMageneoae; eoBBpoondad; Ib nnedof 
two ornaom ekaa. anltod by afinity (eheaa^): 
eonaL of two or moea vocda (gr.)« H., (a) 
«Mi>o«n< a. 91. 
Cba^pennd; a. Any mlxtaret. (▼. a.) 
niiifiMiif, k<5ro<9ovMft', kttm-t> n. tf. ». 
Toaaingle Ingr. or parto; toaniteL btend, 
earnkTiD oooBpoae or oomL* ; to eettlo aaato- 
aUy; toa^lnat; to diaoharae, as a debt, by 
(tog.);— ^ Toforaieooipoaiida; 




toeoaaatotonaa; tobatgala lathe tanpj t» 
agree. H., M wt po m i' m g, p. ; aaai a a u ii rf W, 

a. ; (a) oMaaMMi^ii^ a. (v. a^ 80. 

Cb ay r a A> w^kttm-p»»-htnd', n, Ut^toky 
hold o<; or to embraea irithto the graapl 
if., to embraee withto UaOto (aant ar BMn- 
^); tooompri8eorinelBda;toeont.lntha 
miadj to nn daratand ; to oonoetfo , laip^ , 
appreh. H., ara^pfWMPNriag^ p. ; ommw* 
hmtdml, pa : e t mpf wkm ' tmn, w, a. (t. L) 19. 

QmfrtkmuMt, -Mn'-albl, a. 4». Ilat aaay 
beeomprah.; iatoUigibto. H., oaayrdbm^ 
wSUmt 4S, ad. ; anaMiri* tn'nblmwm, eMnar»* 
ktnmkm^ .«a'-tt^a. (▼. t.) 91. 

Cbay ra ftw rrt oa, -ohttnt a. The aetorqaaLof 
.- laiowledge: ^ 



of niand or imdaratandlng^<T. y. 
ObntprthmfMivt, -alr-a. dfi. 
extenaiTe, large, fldl; 
prtktn'tioeljf, ad. ; 
Xr. ▼.) 9L 

■a,hBm'-iMr«a,a.l7. HoUaefeeaikMn. 
to oorer dreeainga or aup. porta, (aarg. J 
OMvrtai', n. 17, Si. To inae into a I 


S., MMMvaianwnf*, ad. ; eeaipfiMi''* 
- 11. [prato. 

iT,a.40w A]«^ 
-«M'-«ra, -^sar—S^ a. la. The 
of bodiaa p r aea b i g tog.; 

Ck m prm t, ktex'-print, a. 17. 
also the worlc eoatalniag It H.,(to)Ma»- 
pnmt^^ tL, il 90. 

bcnoeor eont. H«, eaaipffa^ww, p.; eea^prnavy 
Pf4 ooaifwiiM'toMi^,ooa^prfrM(aette.),aJ9. 

a<ai#i'i>taN'awYby-ohttn,aCOneor. teetlaMny. 

Cbaijauarfai, kMn^pro-nOae, a. 17, tl. A nn^ 
teal pi nailifi of parttea to ttNt titoir dUkr- 
eaya to arbJteatora; an a^jnataaait of 

(Wprvaiiai, rt. To a4|aat or aetde dUt by 
nuat. egiaeat or eoneeaalona; to oeaapRH 
nit :— «i. To agree or aeeordf. H., eeoH 
frvmMtkift p., a., a. ; «aeiprioriB«#, pj^, a.; 
flt a yi^ai li ^T, a. (v. a.) 19^ (eoaaoraariBe. 

C iai p rtaiiiairiaJ*, -efor-e-dl, a. di. BaL to a 

aaipraarf<, kfiaa'-fro-aolt. Hnltf— X., &, Tt 17. 
To pledge or ong., Inmreelly, by aoow aet 
or ajjmiaaieii ; thoa, alee to oananlt, pot to 
haaard, or je^m beyond reaoL H., mr'ih'v- 
omMmm, 4S, p., a., a* ; auatjwvninai^ 4B, pp<t 

aMB^t*n«Bt,a.,T. SeaAwit [a. 89. 

CboMirW, kte-trQle', a., r. See O b ntn C 

Outmufmtiwt*, Mm-piiy-edMilT, 
artofv*. 9S, 4iw Oompniaory. 

OompJmon, ktai-pdl'-ahto, kttm-t, a. 17, 95. 
The aet of oompdliag, or of drtrtng or nrg, 
bvforoe(phYa. or moral); aleethoreaaltiBg 
atotoor eomUor thelbree ar agency eo enpL; 
eonatratntofthewilloraetion. SeeCbaipel. 

CbmjMil^eioi^ •^It, a. 41^ Bar. power or toad, 
to eooapel ; compokory. H., o a ayaf a<0e<iy» 
49, ad. ; com pm tim mmt, a. ttl. 

CiM|p«r«ory, •oar-o,a.l6. Uadoroompaaaion; 
not Tohmtary; hav.the power or (piel. of oom- 
peUing ; eompuisiTe. H., eom^torOm. ad.91. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Cbwtpwtetiont kSm-pOngkr-ahtttt, kttm-t, ■. 17, 
46. Lit., a prioUng or ttiiniilationt ; fig., 

Sief or fungmsh flrom oonaotonCT e wof guilt; 
e stingof oonadeBoe;rraeiitaiioe: remorse. 
H., cot/^nuif'e H o n lti t, a. 90. (morseftO. 

'Oimpun''etunu, -eh'tfa, a. 97. Bepentant ; re- 

aMi^>Mn"e(nw, -tiT, a.4(. Oaoaiiig oompanc 

QMMMirya'ftMt, a. Swearing to another's vera- 
cify. H., (a) eom'pm-gatoTt 25, S..90. 

Computet k5in-pat^,lc<im-t, rt. = eom^pviai^, 
17-6. To throw or oast tog. ser. ioma or 
partiealars, in order to aseer.their e6U.Talae ; 
to estlm. or dednce a result firom real or 
aianmed data ; to calonlate, count, enumer., 
redion. H., compating, p. ; oompWftd^ pp., 
a. ; eotnpWer, compSUri^, s. ; cofnpfi^aM^, 
4ft, a. ; eomptiUft compukftion, kjhn- (act ; 
also the sum, quan., or result of), s. 89. 

Qmrade, k5m'-nd«, kam'«— K., P., Wa., s. 
17. A mate, companion, or associate. H., 
com'radtthip*i a. 90. 

Om, ad. 17. = €on'irti (by eontr.), denoting the 
negatire side of a qneetion, (See iVv.) It 
is also used as a pfx. (r. L) 

'Om-, pCz. (L.) Usually equiv. to eum (with), 
ezpr. together, union, assoa. or joint action 
^ In other caesa it is eq. to «a/'dd 

(^^ <muah, greatly, rerj much), and then 

merelj acts as an intenslTe parade. Somet. 
it stands, by eontr., for eoritr^ (t. su.). 
When used in the firrt of these senses, and 
Joined to com. words, the new comp. is aelf- 
expL, and gen. retains the aoo. and pron. of 
the inrim. word (q. ▼.). Such comp. (esp. 
with CO-) are const. *eoined' in conr., and 
UMd for current purp^, at will. The n of 
this pte. {pon-) is changed into I before 1 ; 
into r before r ; and into m before b and p, 
and somet, also bel f and T. Beforeaveicwl 
and ht and (t) in cert other comb., it drops 
its final letter. In a rerj hm cases the » is 
dL into g. Thus, the omu. pfza— «0", coo-, 
tot-, eom-f eon-t cors ere mmij Tar. of the 
aame partieie.17. 35, 68. See Cb-^ Omeeal, ftc. 
^ (km, kim, Tt Toknowf ; to stnuT*; to fix in 
the memory by ikeq. nmetitioii|. H., comn'- 
in^, p. jcoimed, pp., a. 89. [denoy;aim.(L.) 

CbnotiM*, ko-ttft'-ttts, s. E£RDrt;atteinpt; ten- 

OMMom'erated; pp., a. ArdkedorTanltedorer. 

OoHMfetuOe. Tt. To link tog.; to unite in a 
aeries or chain (app. to things, or ideas, haT. 
mutdepen.orteiuk). S.,cimtaf mating, p.; 
eoneatmrnUdt-aa^ a. ; cottwtmufHonf 86 (con. 
by links ; a series of mut dep. parts), s. 89. 

OMiMief, kteg'-k&T^ kikL'4cftT0~]L, Wc, a. 
17, 45. HbUow, and arched or curred, as 
the inner snrfoce of aspherloalbody;hoUow, 

SVL.X, H., ooM'^MMnetf, oofieowly, ken- 
V-It-e, s. 91. [hollow without MMleet. 
Con"taw^: An arch or vault ; any caTit^ or 
Oim"eav^» Tt To make cooeaTC or hoUow. 

H., eonf^eavin^t p.; eonfcaoaf, pp., a.; 

eotutavaftioH; 86, s. 89. 
Oimetfvo-«m'*eavet a. OoneaTe on both sidee. 
Qmat'vo-eon'vtXf a. GoncaTe on one aide, and 

convex on the otiier. (opt.) 
" " kfln4c&'-Tas, a. CioneaTe. H., 

eonot^vouOv, 48, ad. : eonet^votmmt/*^ s. 91. 
Oimeeal, kSi^sSl/, kto-tl* vt 17. To keep 
secret; to withhold trom utteranoe, dedar., 
or obeer. ; to hide, secrete, coTer, disguise, 
dlssemUe. H., coiMMf tngr, p. ; coneeaUd', 


ppi, a. : eoneeaFer, s. ; eoneeaftMe, 45, a. ; 
e(meeaf0dMst^, coneeaymgX, coneeafnunt^ 
S.88. (The sec pron., wh. we have marked 
t or f , app. to all like words beg. with etm- 
unacc ; and, therefore, need not be repeated 
with each. It is that ezdus. giren by K.) 

Oomede. ktfn-eM^, Tt 17, 25. To admit aa 
true, just, or proper ; to yield, grant admit. 
glTc up, surrender :—Ti. To admit gtant, 
Ac. H., eoncSd^ing^ p. ; eoneid^tdf pp., a. ; 
eonef^erl, s. ; fto. 89. 

Cbneeit, kfin-eSte', s. 25. Conception, thought^ 
idea ; Imagination ; opinum ; pleaasnt 
fkncy; fontastic notion; gaiety of imag.; 
aifocted or forced allusion ; undue self-pride, 

. sdf-flattery, or self-esteem. H.,oofie«l7W*, 
CMiMif JSM*. a. ; Ac. 90. 

OfMnt, Tt To conoeiTe, imag., fuiey :— rl. 
To ibrm a notion* ; to conoeiTe*. u., con-' 
e^Ufmg, p. ; eomoeittd, pp., a. ; ftc 89. 

Concmeid, -M, a. Endowed with fluioy or 
imag.* ; Tain, opinionated, egotiBtioal. H., 
conetiftdhtt 48, ad. ; coneeU^ed9U$$t s. 91. 

CbfUMteoMo, kfo-8eT«'-&bl, a. 25. That may be 
oonodTed, understood, or beUered. H.,4»n- 
ctp/abl^t 48, ad. ; eoneei^abUnsm, s. 91. 

Omimvw, fcSn-sST/, Tt 17, 25. Lit, to reoeiTe 
into, to take and retain ; appr., to reoeiTe 
into and form in the womb ; fig., to ibrm in 
the mind ; to imag. ; to comprdi. ; to bold 
an opinion or belief; to think :~Ti. To be- 
oome pregnant, to breed ; to think ; to hare 
an idea or conceit; fto. H., conontfiitg. 

p. ; oomcewedF, pp. ; amcwfer, s. , wi«<w»v 
MMt, eonem/ing, coneep^thm (t. i.), a. 69. 

(kneentU kte-staf , s. Oonsisteney ; harmony. 

OmcmttraU, kttn-ete'^rtt£, Tt 17, 25. To 
bring to a com. centre ; to bring into doeer 
union, or into a narrower compass; to in- 
crease; to condense, or fkee firom 
extraneous matter (ehem. ; pharm.). "B^ 
eonem'irdUn§t p.; conetn'trdted, pp., a.; 
coneentrcfHtm^ 86. s. (t. i.) 89. 

Oomem'trated, -M, kSn'-f , pp., ft. Condensed ; 
strengthened by expdUng part of the men- 
struum or liquid, (t. t.) 

OomcHftrutiott -tra-tiT, a. 45. Tending to 
or hold together. H., eotuen'tra-' 

Homtn (a phrenolo^cal organ), s. 91. 
OonmUf, iaik'§6oHf'^, Tt 25, 57. To draw 

or direct to a com. centre; to bring to a 

pdnt :— Ti. To tend to^ or to meet in a point 

or com. centre. H., conctnt^tinff p. ; com* 

cmfred, -Srd, ememtered^ pp. 
Cfommtrie, -ete'-trlk, a. ss oomem'trieal. 25. 

HaTlng a com. centre. H., eomcm'trietMjf, 

48, ad.; eonem'trioakuii, concmtridtVt 

-trlsT-Xt-e, s. 91. 
OniMnlMa^, -sfinf -fl-fil, a. 1& Harmonious. 
Cbnoeptaelet kSn-s«ptf-&kl, a 45. A receptsde ; 

a fidlide, or a pericarp of one Tulve (liot). 
Qmctp t im, kto-sflp'-dittn, s. 25. The act or 

state of ooncdTing, or being concdTed; 

also the thing cone. ; mental image ; notion, 

Tiew, purpoee. eentiment thought See Om^- 
am«!p'&wtt,-8h*tl8,a. ApttoconceiTe. [eewe, 
Ooneei/tk^t -tlT« a. 45. Capable of conodTing. 
Omcep^iwiiimn. -td-ftMsm, s. The doctrine 

that conoepuons are the only uniTcrsals. 

(men.phil.). H., (a) coMMp'teoHst a. 90. 
Omcem, kte-B&m' s. 17, 25. That whldi rel. 

or beL to one; business; interest, impor.. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ • J- 

on; MnWniard, aolleitadfl^ audctj; a 
tariMM, «daM eoBBeetod vttb it (t. ▼.) 
flawy, fL ftfii.crb» Lti>(ctfl xrKH.or 
CBpfeiL) J t9 tfbcit Off Intuut { to m of 
tBpr.t»£t» a<«rt or m afco nncaajt » to 

yma.; tnoanirM^t, 4lill^ai^l^Wal^^ s. 89. 
Otmmrmi, •ofend', pip^ a. latcntted; en- 
liprf; hr. ■wiaai ■ m ; •olldtoiB; anziooi. 

■.ll,«. (tetteeor^o^lodapr.— W^ 
fti'iw^.'^ifey. Pwt. to;wg«i^. (<»U, 
Ctav^ k£r-om, a. 17. OonMVBlon dT 4o- 


Mi;knMy; a^iiipiioa7orai».]Mrla, 

Aawft^SS. LiL,tosKri^iBimifliil 


of oviB. 

M^ii a viev to banaoay (nwa.) :— li. 

maeerf^ ppu, a.; 0O«eir<^lioH*» 86 
•rtfla^ifcopp.), a* 89. 

It., a. 99. A pieee 
^«a.a.l7,M. Tlwaetof 

r.;toekMa,tiL»ortMmliata; t» 
train n«f.) .-— vL To and ; to iafer 
; to Ibrm an onia., fta. K., mm- 

•top w raatrain f 

eltfHam (t. L), s. 89. 

OiMfirilmlt, -tet, a. EndlBff; eonelodra. H., 
eoneht^dmO* (inferanoa, to.), a. 91. 

Omdl^'dNM, -Ing, a. ^ Mnoh^aUmal*, 85. 
Final: dMing. B., t^mcHUtimglf*, ad. 80. 

CbfMfMiiofs -Uw-abOn, a Tlia«oa,eloM,or 
last part; intenea* coniaqiiaBoa, final r»- 
aalt; jodgmcnt; atant of axperimaat*; 
■eelnslon of thoogktt. Saa CbaWtafa. 

Cdmeh^the, -tlr, a. 4ff. ss eomcMtorf^t 95. 
Final, dadiiTa, Mtltt; reg. ooaMqiMntlaL 
H.,oon0li^«<««l|f,48, ad. : c»meb^9ivmm$, •. 91 . 

Omeoef, kte-k&tr, vt. 8$. To digaat (aa 
Ibod); toraflnaorpor.bjliaat*; toripan*; 
fig., to tern and matara in tba mind. H., 
eoncoefittff,^', aoiMO0rMi.pp.,a.; eoneooftrp 
a. ; eoneoetrngti eotuotfnon, SA, a. 89. 

OMMoefipc^ -In a. 4ft. DigoaCiTa. 

Cbnooawtani, kOn-kSm'-a-tint, a. 17, S8b Ao- 
oonpanTingj aoojolned with; oonoorrant 
B., ameomttamilf, 48, ad.; oonaaai'itafMr, 
-ttaa<^ cmcom'Umey, a 91. [panlaa. 

CbiMoai'iton^ a. Ha or that which aaeon- 

Ommot^ kteg'-kord, kttn'— K., Wa., a. 46» 86. 
Agracment, anion, harmony (app. to par- 
aona. opin., int, An.); paaoa: ooBMMCt, 
trtaty; anitaWanaaa; agraam. of worda in 
ooaatr. (gr.) ; aeoord of aonnd (mna.). 

C)bnooni*,kfo-kord', ▼1.36-6. Tbagraa. H.* 
eoneortfaHe*,M,i etmeor^tMff*, ad. 89. 

Qmeardanet, kon-kord'-4na«, a. 26, Agraa- 
mant ; appr., an indaz or diet of tha leading 
worda and paaaagaa of the UUa. 

Cbnoortf omC, -Ant, a. Agraeing; oorreap. H., 
eofioord'amf,48,ad.; emunvamee, coneorf^ 
cmoff^ a. ; (a) aofMartTafiC*, a. (▼. an.) 90-1. 

OMMmo/, Um-kord'-it, a. m amcordfaie. 86. 
A oompaet or aonrention ; appr., ona bat. 
a temporal aoTwal gn and thapopa. [anee. 

Cbnoorvirt*,-Iat,a. ThaoompilarofaconooTd- 

Om«0r>orat«*, -?! To Inoorporate. H.,eofi- 
eorpor^tion*, 86, a 88. 

Qmeount, kteg'-kOra^ kSn'— K., Wa., a 45. 
Anumiagto^; ooailaenoa; aaaaaambljof 
peraona ; a eoU. of thinga^ ; tha plaoa of maet- 
bg, the point of Jnnetion. 

OMUTMMnC*, ktea<-kra-nitat, kttn'— K., We., 
a 45. A maaa formed hj ooneration. 

OMMTcaoMOi^ kto-kr«ir-teiu^ a. 17. Growth or 
increaaa (par, ly the ooaleae. ofaep. particlea). 

CbfuraaeiMf, -kreC-Ibl, a. 45. Capable of oon- 
eretingor congealing. 

Omerete. kfin-krCtf', kte'- or kOng'-Jo., S., 
Sh., Wa, a. 17, 4ft. United in growth; 
formed hr concretion; conaiatent; aoUd; 
eziating in a anbjeet, not abatract nog.) ; 
rising or fall, by a oontin. alide (phon.). H., 
eoncret/lVf 43, ad. ; conertt^na$, a. 9L 

QmereU, kOng'-krM^, kfin'— We.,— kret«'— 
K.,8. Aoomp.: amaaa formed byoonoretion: 
a mixture of lima, aand, pebblea, &a, naed 
tefoandation8(arch.); aoonareteterm (log.). 

Qmerete, kOn-krM/, yt, 25. To form by con- 
cretion :— ▼!. To onlto or coaleeee ; to form 
a maaa or aolid body ; to congeal or grow 
hard. H., eonentin0, p., a.: eonerit^ed, 
pp., a. ; eonor^Utm, 86, a. (▼. i.) 89. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

iiiiM !■ Wirt 111 iwwr (t t ) [«ooer. 

aMMr«WM,-«hr.fu ChMtefortMuLtOMBer. 

Utstkmwithoatiiianiaft. [teeo n e rtfai g. 

CbiKwifcti , Ui<-kl-%nM. lL«B<.k, 1. 18. 
▲m., a vUTtf inJMor oood. aad Mtef; 

_ B'whoVvwiKAatateof 

lU; liUdiBoas. H^ aMiMi>iMiiM». -^ioM 
(lwt,«Blsw£plMi.)>j8L (•qJogr.orplBMwe. 
aMM>MUi»,-iIbMu4i. Kzittiiir«>rW«L to 
aiM«r,kte-kt(',^». Ut,loruit«t.> to 
MMt te «ht MM* fstet ; flf ^ to Jolii wimlte 
te mUm orofMM; to ooatrib. witk Joint 
powof J to ■ftoi^ twiiMH^ oolaiMs. H^i mm^ 

CNmr? ^ ;4iit; t. y ABltiiftaK 

tiOBJ OZMteC ttfOfhV I OOMWRtel^ , 

olstcdf oo^JooMdt vrttodL EL* ^tttctKr^tttt- 

Ifff 4V( 9Am J fMMHinr MM^i *4B8C| CtttttHTr^ 

or liiiUiV^ 

n, S6. The wt of I 

, or ttM otate 

<f j^ rtaky (pwp., by >jJBi 

tMyoiM^ or f i oi oD oo} j ft smck { ai^ 
OnwiMw, -ktlir-fT, •. 40. Hot. the povor or 

qwd. of iteklw. [mmder, t. (aavt.) «•. 
Cknd; kted, ^ K^ ooiidaet a aMp. H., (a) 
OMMlMM.Un-dltt'.^SSitf. Topi 



«M or ••rri6o;Jo order to ke forfeltod.H» 

amimmmHm, -ar-oklte, t. Tbe Mt, the 

etate (t. t.) ; the eeoae or reeoon (eerlp.). 
Cbw rf w / we f or f ^ -^d^tgr-e, a. ». OOiiLorteBa. 

O wNiffw rt fce^ IrBii « m^ Mttr,9L.U, HftTfaf 

power or teMMBer to ooii4flBee« 
C^mSmm, h6a-4taotf' a. a eomSmtfrnttf, SI. 

Thick ; deaee ; eo n ie M e rt * . H., w ii rf w u/ ly, 

ad. ; comhmt^kp, Atrm, a fl. 

AMHIiev f Vt. ^ 9tMMmMwWM*» TO MMBe MBee 

bjpreeMre; to eo MMM i or rednte iato a 
maUer eoapait; to koplnate (pham.) :— 
tL To now thiek or Aeaee. BL, w wrf i mr - 

«Mr«iMr,vp.,a.; m 
ihe or thatia a. s mmmh* 0Mf, a. ■ eefMciiMr^ 
ilMi,M,e.(T.a.)8t. [pOot. SeeOmA 
ChiMi«r, Ukur-^r, a A wlihar or helker; a 
C^^ nmmd^ h fl a de e i ad^ tj IT. Todeeeead 
wBllafly to e««al terns with isieriari: to 
yldd, oteofL Mteit H., wwitm m ^ mg^ 
p.t a. t tfVMMeoMwM^ pp 

vM^ pp^ } OefMseMMfONi 



, .»iBfBrien^ H.,«eii- 

Cbntf^ kOa-dnu', a. M. DMrred; veriled 

r, -Af'-aA-e, i. MerH; deeeit. 
; \M' de Miat, e. « et arftfr'e ww r t. 

€MMo%kte-«UhMta,a.ti. Staft^orna^ 
of beiiiff er OKie. (epf. to kodf. -tod, < 
thtafB); qaaiitir: ra^ jfcftym^ ^iiif^ 

ffhwi^ or provided, M the Kvood of eoaii 
SS^oIm: a iLUui Mwj a^ioMt. 
OMMi^^toft. ^ To free apoa:-^ 1 

ol!%£lMi, kBii^dlih'-«a-«» a. = oM^rVM) 

•rrf. U. Ooat or dep. o« 

abeotate. H.« eoM4r(tMM% ad. ; OMd 

"^^ *% a. AUaltidlim. 

, .«ah<-«nd, pp., a. 

• er«iaUt7;Suta. [Utor 

aM<iitory«,kia'-^tM«r«,a. AToeep-wiep 

OM^eJa^-dr^A-tttTAa. Ezpr.eoadetoBC 

ONMole, kSi-^a/, Tt. ». To hewaii wfc 

aM)lh«r«:-TL Tolamet; to uinjl i j' 

HL, mmMfim§, p. j wmd t ltJ , pp.; awaJW^ 

Oonion^, ^Mbm^^ Tt 9i. To pwte; 
raepltialelbrclT.hvfk'eeclflB. H^osimmi^ 
«tii^,id(fcrfy?eaeBe,Ae.T,e.<>. [viitn 
ONulor, k0ii'-«lr, a. 17, ». Agi taaU tif Wf 
OwdiMe, kte-daw^, H. S8. TeoeadMfet>-' 
Toleed,tead,eroeittrlh. H^eonATii^f^i 
floii Ja ge d, -dorir, pp>. ; iniidim'Biii'Ve.a 


Ai«ei%,4a,ad.; cMuhfVMeMH, «. tt. 

OmdM'^M^^hr, a. 4S. =0011 
■ay eeMoee, fto. Hm ooimI 
flMiiK ktaVdOkt* a. 17. 

■■UMV Of Bit • wiMTVT, « 

O^ m ^m t , kfla-iflktr, 1 it. Lit., to leiri, W 
aloBff, or s«ide; to direet or poiat 

w^j to atteDd. ceeoi 

tesaaage; toiead, gor^oreo«ttaaad(Bil 
t»eair7ortrmeartt(eleetr..teO; tow 
(IhL by a reeipr. prow) :— vL n hihaw 
mn 499ti m f t p^ a.; MntfaerMLiip.; e 



ChMhur^et, -It, a. 'LmOkn^, dbaa., tMi 

H., OMMfaefteV. -tlT'-It^ a. fl, 
ft waai ^ or, -<r, a. 16. A laader, guMi^ ori 
•fwjv. ▼•) ; fW-. t*» ■Mmar. atteadM 
a redwaj tnia, aa oamihae, 4be.t ; * « 
soiw. iaetr. ; that whieh traaeByia{aa«M 
do £Mt, eleetr^ dn.) ; a MQ-^leatria; a 14 
CbfMhfprerif, -ftva, a. X. Uaoila 
CMvtt, kla'^ s. lit.. 

leadioreoadoeli; •ppr^aalpa era 
for water; aa eqatdoet; a temtaJB. 

or folded together. 
aM4plt,kaa'-da.a.l7,4i. Tha 

of a boae: a jolat. a kaaokJa. HL. cmi 

eW»<«7d (reMaihteaa), a. M-k 
amc,kte^s. AeottdbodTofwhAekttw^ 

li a eirele, and the eaoMBlfe apateti mal 

0N«M«Mirkfla4ttr-«-lit#, ▼!. la. Tie 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Ows/M, k gp-iar,; fi IS. TofBrm; appr^to 
prvp. or picMi'TS with fo^sr ; to farm tato 

tlunf ooofteted ^AfWMbBMt or wadjj^a 
■olt deetoary (p«anB.)» [swcataMKa. 

€ta|/li^fMiMr, -Cr, & Om irbo anakea or aeUa 

CbMfh^KofMry, -«r^ a. SwaetMeata to faa. ; 
alio the art of prap* thaaa ; a aaa gwt toaa r t. 

Cbi^a^tory, -tBTHB^ a. Pert tothaartoToon- 
fea. :— a. Aplaea Wh. ■■waetiniiata are Mada 

ai|^Mr«M!r,lte-M-Ml^; XMoaby 


L or BatSoBB nattad hj leaffiie; a 
ion for aa vnlaiwM pvrpaae (lef .)• 
€bi«/k^ar«fe, -ftt«b a. Uaitad b7 • iMgM. 
Ckf|jffararo«», a. ▲ paraon or oatkm aaMtd 

In a eoa J Macaay; an aDj ; an aeeompOaa. 
Cb^fuTervU, yL,yL T9 ukj; to leatae toff. ; 

to VDlta tan a leagna. H^ «0^/li#«r(Miy, p. ; 

ooff/W«rcte^ pp^y a. ; m^ /M tn f mm, a. 

(t. L)89. 
Owi^Mam lfaii, -y -ehto, a. ▲ eo-poat far 

nuiLual supports afflaiiiw (par* of prlneeai 

natfoML or atataa) ; * eoBfederaer. (V.t.) 
<Wr, kite-fir', Tt ». To hrtaif toff.f ; to 

gfre or bcatow :— tL Tbdiaeoorae m»on a 

abated aatjcet; to eoMw KtogcAir. B^ooii- 

/wr'tM, p. I eomflmredj pp.. a. ; OM|f«rKar*, 

•^ (») e^^&p, a. (▼.I) M. 
Cbw/waiiw, -ena^^ a. 17. 

cnnanltatlnn ; 



aakgatta. (▼. t.) 
Cbn/SenM, kfin-Oc^rJ, a. (pL, an|/9n^V0^ -^.) 

Jointed tmbolar water-weed. (L.) 
Cbf^«MkhSn-air,Tt.i5. ToadndtorownO 

opp. to OM^ int, ahar., or rep.f; 
~ aiaa and ftalta^ or to hear toe 



3 a 









4S, adL; ano^inmit, eoi»'>UfMi^ -dlH«, 

a. 91. 
OKifJUmi,%. Qoelntraalad wtthaemli;a 

oonfldentlal Mend er aerraat ((iMiHj a|H 

plied to bMloew or ecriooa ai&iirk) 
Cbi|/U«»tial» -4ta'-ih*il, a. M. 97. flpokanc 

written in eonfldenoe ; enf ojinf eoo' * 



09i^fUrimftf, ad. 91. 


9iMwrt,yt, To dinoeeer tarn with tea raL 
of parte. H., eot^wim§. p. ; mi^mnd, 
pp., a. ; eof t /tor^dew, M (fbni dep. on the 
TeLordiatinotperta).a.M. 8eeJV«r«- 

Cbfi/lMu kte-fliut, a. 


H., 09iObiiUj^, -flnf-ft-a (a 

naighbooriiood), a. n. 
Cbiokk a. A joint Uait; haidar; ed«e; 

boiuia ; exterior part (pan. naed la the pL) 
Cbi</liM, -ftn^— K., Wa., Ti. To border upon 

(foLbje«»). B^em'Jlmmt(^p.,K;c9m''Jmd, 

pp. ; con'imtr (e boitleref), a. 89. 
Cbf^/bM^ iKte-On/, Tt 25. T^reatrain within 
Hmita: to boond, Unit, ahnt np; to limit or 
natram (rolnn. or by moral mree): to ao- 
ohUto, to ke^ indoora or at home (m. by a 
reetpr. pro.): to tie, bind, or meke ibat; to 
"^priaoai. H., tamfWtmq^ p. : ttm^mit^jf^ 

mt, a. (T.i.'S 89. [Boradleaa. 

CbiejfiUUu, 4ea, -nn/— S., Wa., Wa^ a. 

ai|ibMraMi»<,-mtet,a. Bcetraint; aeehMton, 
appr. that dnrinf ehildbirfh. (t. ▼.) 

Cb^jmrn, kte-48rm', a. Sft-C Ta make Ann or 
iirmer ; to fix, aettliL or est ; to atren^tkai, 

^ratiff; to atmit to ftiU Chriat com- 

a (t. l). H., eoidlirai'te^, p., a. ; oan- 

MtM § t t , pp., a. { eoiinrai^cr, a* j cemMrwfaMc^ 
^\%.lSijkmt^titm, a. (r.L) 89. 

kttn,i.l7. Aetofaatab.; 
; iidinia.tof ' * 

fkill Chrlatlan 
eommnaion by ttie impoaltioa of a biahop'a 
hand (eecL). ^^ 

-^Mfir^ Able, tend., or aerrtng to eat or 
eonflrm. H., o0fi/lnH'«lipel|r, ad. 91. 

(WAwMftir, -ft-tflr, -IBr'— K., a. 39. Be that 
aillrma or attceta. ^tig,) 

aM/iHN'«*Ma»», -M-nla, e. Aflxedakate. 

Omfirmt^^ -T, a. One to whom a thinf ia 
eonflrmed. __ (ad. 91. 

Om/boa^^W-fla'-ktt^^ con'-fto-kit«, a. ^, 
dTAdjudged m forfeited. (▼. t.) 

Obi^eaU (r.a.), Tt To a4)ndge t " ' 
fUted to the atateor pah. treeenry. 

oon^aoa^nifi, 96, a. 89. 
Ondufcatoryt -kd-t0r-e, a. 35. 
ebfi/Miii<*, kte'-fo-ttet, a. One who 

Cbn/lefraliim,kte-fld-frtr-flhfin,a.l7. Am. 

baming ; a greet fire; the final deetr. efthe 

world hf ftre (theo.). _ [graHen. 


0bi^^je<,kta'-«Ikt,8. ThevlalaDt 

COoainf ooniU 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fobs. { h^ S COnlNlty O0Bt6tt( 

iting: strife, contention, opp.; astrof- 
If with (mentally, morallT, or phyaieiKl- 
Ir); distrets, anxie^, ttrngg le, agonj. 
ON(/Ke<,kSn-fflkt',Ti.35. Lit., to strike or dash 
against, to meet in opp. ; flf ., to strive or 
atnanle tog. ; to oppose, oontend, flf ht. H., 
eonflk^ia%0t p., a. ; cm^fUeged, pp. ; eon'ftiei 
(t. sa.}, a. S9. 
0»i\^Ueewej -Tt, a. 45. Tending to eonfUot 
Oon/UmUt kSn'-fl'QCMhit, a. 18. Flowing tog.; 
Joining, meeting ; eonenrrent;- nmnlng tog, 

(as people, fto.) ; nnited at the base (Sot.) ; 

— ning together and extending (path.). 

eon'JUmioe, -inu (jnnetion or piaoe of 

ranning togethi 

H., eon'JIumeet 

meeting; a crowdina to; a erowd, oon- 

oonrse, assemblage ; «e.), a 91. 

Cbn'/ltix, -flCLks, a. Oonflaence. H.,oo«i/f«xi- 
hititu* (tendency to run together), a 90. 

Cbnybnn*, kSn-form', a. 26. Resembling. 

Ot»ifbrmFt Tt. To reduce to like appearance, 
man., opin., or moral qual. ; to make agree- 
able to :— n. To comply with or yield to ; 
to assume a suitable form, fte. H., conform' - 
in^, p.; conformed , pp.; eo^form'er^ eon- 
form^ s.; conformation, s. (t. i.) 89. 

Ooi^fbrm'able, -&bl, a. 45. Agreeable, suitable, 
corresp., resemb. ; compliant ; obedient. H., 
conform'ablp^iS, ad. ; conform'ity, s. (t. i.)91. 

Oimfirmaiion, k5n-(5r-m&'-6hiin, s. 17. Form ; 
structure; rclatiTC or par. form, struc, or 
texture. (▼. t.) [the est church of E^g. 

ClMifonRut, kdn-form'-Ist, s. 25-6. Amemhof 

€bnironfi'«(y,-It-e,s. Similitude resemb ; com- 
pliance with est. forms and doctrines (theo.). 

CbVotHuL k5n-fownd', Tt 25, 28. To mingle 
or blend, so that the diff. things or parts are 
no lonaer dieting. ; to throw into oisorder ; 
to confuse, perplex, mistake (app. to ideas, 
words, or things); to astonish, amaze, stn- 
pify ; to oast down, to perplex with terror ; 
to terriiyj to overthrow or desuroyj H., 
oonfountttng^ p., a.; confounded, pp., a.; 
confoundcr, s. ; (a) eonfotmdmg, s. 89. 

Oom^mkdcd, -M, a. Confkised, &c. ; enormous, 
being in hateful excesslf. H.,oon/btffur«i</yf, 
ad. ; comfwmdciiM*^, s. (v. v.) 91. 

OoK^rcAei'nity, s. A society or brotherhood. 

Cbf|/hm<, kdn-frfinf, Tt. 17, 25. To stand tece 
to fluML or front to fjront; to face; to oppose; 
to set noe to fsoe (foL by «oi<A) ; to compare. 
H., conftcneimg, p. ; oot^firontcd, pp. ; mm- 
fironftncnt*, confrotUa'tion*, 86, s. 89. 

Ou^iuc*, kdn-fOs^', a. 17-8. Oonfhsed. H., 
oonAisff'^, ad. 91. 

(hr^ue, -diu', vt. 8& To disorder or render 
indistinot (app. to pera, ideas, or things) ; to 
throw into disorder ; to agitato by surprise 
or shame; to derange, disconcert, con- 
found, perplex, obscure. H.. cot\fa^inf, p., 
a. ; confuaei. pp., a. ; confUwm, -zhfln, a 89. 

Ob^/ki«rd;-fllzd'.pp.,a. Mixed, disordered, *c. 
H., cot^fiWediff, -«d-le, ad.; confOt^cdncst, 


Cbt^Oe, kttn-fllt«', Tt 18. To proTe to be 
wrong, fitlse, or invalid; to reftito or dis- 
prove. H., confuting, p. ; eonfWfcd, pp., a. ; 
confiUftr, eonfWant, s. ; confute tMe, 45, a. ; 
coiM^mcntU cot^fUtdtion. 86, s. 89. 

Qmgi, k5n'.j€, kOn^-ahft~Fr. s. 99. Bow, 
leave, brewell ; partingoeremony; furlough. 


90. aMvli'««rw(kte#'-xhi-dft-18rOiathe 
king's permission to choose a bishop (eool.). 

CbngCf konezh, s. 99. A quarter-round mould* 
ing. (areh.) 

OongctU^ kte-Jfl^, Tt 95, 80. To change ft^em 
a fluid to a solid stato by abstracting heat; 
to render eolid by cold ; flg., to fix or sta^* 
nate, as byeold :— ri. To conoreto •by, or aa 
by c^ H., congcafing, p., a. ; congeml4d, 
pp., a.; congcMtcMe, 45, a.; eongcaPmcnt* . 
(also a clotor concre.), congealdtim, 86, s. 8a, 

Oong€aVedne$t/^, -M-nte, s. SUto of being 

Congener, kttn'-Je-nSr, -jT-nflr— Wa., s. 17. % 
Anything haVhig a common origin:-^). 
Species of the same genus (sooL). 

Oongener<m», -ifin'-*r-tt8, a. = oon'gmer\, eon- • 
gener'ie. Of allied orig. or cause. H., con- 
gen'erovoneu*, eongtn%traey, s. 90-1. 

Qmgemal, kfin-J^-ne-Al, -j6n^-y'ftlt, «• S9, 45. e 
sBcong^'niouei, -ffiB. Congeneric; cognate; 
natural, or agree, to the nature : adapted, 
suitable. H., conp^niaily, 48, ad.: eongf- 
niaUitttX, eongenialHg, -U'-It4, s. 91. 

Oong^nialiaei, -Ixe, vt 60. To make congenial. ^ 

Omqenital, kon-Jta'-It-Al, a. = eongen'iU^, -Tt .. 
Or the same birth ; begotten tog. [sea-eel . 

Conger, kSng'-g^, s. 80. = cotf'ger-eel. The 

Omgeriee, k5ii-j6r<r'-e-€x, s. 99. A coll. of ftmall 
particles or bodies forming one mass. (L.) 

Congest!^, kSn-JSsf , Tt. 17, 80. To accumulate, 
or gather into a mass or aggregate. H.,con- 
geeXed, pp.. a. ; congestion, -ytin, a (t. i.) 89. 

Congee f ion (v. t.), g. A morbid accum. of 
blood in any part of the body, (path.) 

Oongettive, -It, a. Indie, or tend, to congestion. 

Conglobate, k5n-glfi'-but£, kdng"— S., a. 17, 45. 
Formed or gathered into a flnn baU. H., 
conpl&haUlg, ad. 91. 

Congufhate, Tt, tL = eongl6h^\. To collect 
or gather into a ball H., cottglobatio$^ 
k9ng-glo-b&'-sh(in, s. (r. a.) 89. 

a>n^to5uto(«*,-gl5b'-a-lit«,Ti.I8. To gather - 
into small masses or globules. 

Cbfi^2om«roto,k5n-glSm -^-2U«,a.25. GatbereA 
tog. or twisted, as a ball of thread ; app. to 
glands formed of many smaller ones (anat). 

Ckm^tom'erate, Tt . To gather into a baU. H., 
conglom' crating, p. ; conglom' crated, pp., a.; 
conalomerdtion{Mo the mass formed), a 89. 

Obngminant, -gVw-Vln-6xkt, a. Agglutinant 
H., (a) conglu^tinant, s. (t. i.) 9L 

CongMtinaU, Tt To glue tog. ; to heal, as a 
wound :— vi. To coalesce ; to unite. H., coii- 
gk^tinating, p., a. ; congh^tinated, pp., a. ; 
conahOindtion, 86, a. 89. [tinate. 

Congwtinatioe, -It, a. HaT. power to conglu- 

Oongo, kfing'-go^ s. 80. One of the finer sorto 
of black tea. [Joioing in partidpatioa. 

OongratuUmi, kttn-grftt'-Q-Unt, a. 25, 18. Be- 

Congratidate, -Vkie, Tt To compliment or to 
express one's Joy to another, on any happy 
or tort cTcnt :--Ti. To rejoice in participa- 
tion t. H., congrattUating, p.: eongrafu- 
lated. pp. ; eongratuldtion, 36 (com. us. in 
the pi.), 8. 89. [gregated. 

Congregate\, kSng'-gre-g&t^, a. 80, 45. Con- 

Con" gregate, Tt To collect sep. persons or 
things tog.; to aiwemble:— vi. To meet 
tog. H., cotfgrtgating, p. ; eon"gregated^ 
pp., a. ; conorega^tion, «. (t. L) 89. 

Cby^f^af toil, kdog-gre-g&'-shan, s. 80, 45. An 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

mmeuMf of fcraona ; appr^ om for dMa» 

ironhipw (t. t.) [to congngatioiiftlinii. 

ObmgragidtimtU^ -U, %, Fttt. to a cmgng^ot 

Ooitjfn^iimaUtm, -Izm, •. Tha tenets tnd 

■jite« of eborok gov. adopted bj the Inde- 

H., (a) em g r egm ' t kmi li t t t a. 90. 

Cbmfrtat, kfeg'-frta, a. SO. A Bieetiiif ; an 
My for tiM a ~" 

I aattlament of aflkira bet. 
dtC ilateBoriiatioaa; the federal leglalatvra 
of ttie U. S. ; a aho^ eaiiilkt,or enooonter ; 
aexaal bitenoana. [to a ooogrew. 

Ompntmional, k«ii-gr«alir-dii-U, aa7, S5. Pert. 

CbMr«niM,-«ris'-lT,a.46. Coming^tofather. 

aMfrM«M<~k2S^.fi0&-tet,a.8O,4». Soitahla; 

flbaf>r M ii ii, -4to,a. Agreealila to : aocordaat, 

suitable, aonsiataBt ; fit, ratbMul, pertiiient ; 

eoiacident (geom.). Bu,can"aniou»lp,wLi 

imt§t uity, fni-groO'-Itre, s. 91. 
Cbmot kiMir-4, a. s eom^hUtOtm^hM^eoni^na, 
sis'-. M. 99. The poia. alkaloid of hemlock. 
QfHie, k6ii -Ik, a. s= con^ieaL 17. Pert, to or 

formed like a oose. H., MM'teo/ly, 4S, ad. ; 

oflw'icithnw, camotty*, -nIsMt-e, s. 91. 
QmficM, -SkM, s. pL a eoH'io tHftitmt, The 

doetrlne of the eone, and the cnrres arising 

llpoin ita aect i ooa. (geom.) [foroas tree.(L.) 
OBMtAv.kd'-BlMr.s. (pL,eofHr'<ra) Aooni- 
Omtf*er9UM, -Os, a. Bearing ooaea. (bot) 
€faMM»^ kd'-oe-^im, a. 26. OoaioaL 
On^eetmraK kfin-J«kf -ar»-ftL a. 25, 1& Dep. 

on ein ^l ee lm e . H., eot^fteturaUy, ad. 
CbMMcCvre, -ar«, s. 18. Goess, aappoaltion ; 

btta of opinion withont proof ; idea, notion* 
Cbi^ftHTure, Tt. To gneas or snrmise. H., 

eot ^fm m^, p.| eoiv^atwred, pp.; ant- 

jteCurtr^ s. ; canMef ww^ a. C^. 
CbivMiskfin-jo7nr,Ttl7,23. To Join tog. ; to 

imita; to aasoe. :— tL To Join w league. 

H., emvok^mg, p. ; flo^fniKir, pp., a. 89. 
Cbfvomt, 'iojalf, a. S3. Joint; united. H., 

ooivMsf'nr, ad. ; coi^iomtfns$$y s. 91. 
Cbwfayai; ]uiii'-j'5&-gii, a. 17-8. Pert, to mar- 

rtega; ooBnnbiaL fiL, eon^n$goUyt ad. 91. 
OMTjwgaU, -gite, a. United by some principle 

or part; agree, in deriT. (gr.) H., (a) eon'- 
Jufate, a. 9L—Qm'jMffate diam'eter, that 

bisecting the tranayerse or jffim. one(geoin.). 
Ootif/ufate, Tt. To Toka tog.f: to pnt a Terb 

thnmghaUltainifeetioBa. a.^ eon'Jugatku, 

p., a.; am'juaaied, pp.; eonjufa'tioHf 88 

(also tiie ooO. inflee. of a Terb), s. 89. 
Cbi^aReC*, kfin-Wngkf , a. 2ft, 45. Oo^Joined ; 

eon cnr re n t. EL, eo t i jmwf lft ad. 91. 
Ott^funetiaitf -)<faiigk''Ailn, t. Union ; assoc ; 

eoogress ; stat e irf h av. the same longitade 

(aat.) ; a eonucctlfa, or word wh. comb, pro- 

po s ioo as orjndgmentsinto sentenees(gram.). 
CbiwmtfUfe. -tl?, a. 45. Serving to nnite; 

eloaelj nnited ; dependent ; Bn)]!)nnctiTe(gr.) . 

H.. e oi v t m &imlff, ad. ; eof^yun^Hvmegs, 91. 
Cbitftmeitire, -Jftiifl^-artf, s. 18. A joining 

tog'. ; the mode of union ; union of causes, 

emia, or dronmataneea ; occasion, criais, 

erftioal time. 
Om^fmre, kdn-j*55r', rt. 17-8. To call on or 

aammon in a aaered name; to enjoin or 

lasplore irith great solemnity : to bind by 

oath to a com. design* :— Ti. To oon8]>iret. 

H., sanMr'My, p. ; ctmjure^^ pp. ; 

(one who o " ' 

» eooj.), eang%ai'9r (par. one bound 


kg oatth with others), s. ; ooi^ifmmnl, dom" 
/my^Hon, s. (t. L) «k 

Cbf^Nra, kfinMOr, vt. 17-8. To act upon by 
sopemat. influence; to raise or ftrarae un- 
nat or absurdly :— vl. To prsctise the arte 
of a oonjurer. H., co njur w^, kttn'-jOr-Ing, 
p^ a.t, a. ; eon^/Ored, pp., a.t ; emjinflioH, 
s. 89. [a lugger ; a shrewd feUowf. 

Cbnymrer, -&r, s. One who prae. conjuration ; 

Qmmuotmce, kte-nto'-tos«, s. Com. birth; 
joint prodnotion or growth. 

OMMte, kfin-nit/, W'-Wa^ a. 17, 25. 
Bom with another ; united in orlgin,growth, 
or body (hot). Jnaihiral union. 

Cbim ati oH, -nft -ahtin, s. Conntttkm br birth : 

Oommafural, a. Oon. by nature or bmh ; of 
like nature. H., eoimatHralljf, 4S, ad.; 
eo tmaf unUnaM, eotmatmrtWity, s. 91. 

CbfWMif'«ral«M*, -lie, Tt. 60. To oon. by nature. 

Qmneet, kfin-niktT, Tt 35. Lit, to knit or link 
tog. ; to conjoin ; to unite. Join, comb., or 
asaoc (in any of their senses) ; to Join in a 
Just series (as thoughts or reasons) :— tI. Ta 
cohere ; to haTt a dose relation. H., con- 
nt^inft p., a. ; eoimeotulf pp., a. ; connee- 
(i(M,-n«k'-shan,s.(T.U89. See Om-. 

CbfNMefMi, -M, a. HaT.reu H., oiMifi«et'«^y, 
ad. 91. [to connect H.,eMin«eftv«^,ad. 91. 

CbfMMcf we, -It, a. ss ooiMtae'tM*. Able or tend. 

OomuetitM^ s. A conjunction, (gr.) 

Cbnnext, kdn-nSks', Tt., Ti. To conn 

Gttmextm. -nfii'-shdn, a. 40. =3 eimnt&tion 
(the pref., and now the more ns. orthog.) . 61. 
iJnkm or junction by an interTcning subs, 
or medium, by Just depen. or reL, or by 
order in a series ; rdatioa by blood or mar- 
riage ; a relig. sect or common. ; continuity, 
intercourse, commerce, relationship. Ac :— 
pU Acqnain., busineas fHends, ftc IT. T.) 

Cbnnitw, kfin-nlTtf', tL 25. Lit, to wlnkf ; iSg., 
to aUow by pretoiding ignorance or blind- 
ness of the mults or asta of others (foL by 
at). H., eoruav'itifft P*; eonmvMF, pp.; 
eomOv'ert s. 88. See Ctomteal. 

Obnni^'vmt*, -«nt, a. Forbearing to sea. H., 
oomiiv'anctt-taue, oofii>ici'«iM3f*(Tolnn.blind< 
ness or ignorOt >• (▼• ▼•) 91, 

Cbnnoii$§m', kon-Ia-saa', k6n-naia-aur'— S., 
ko-nte-sara'— Wa., s. 99. A Judge or critic 
in the iine arts. (Fr.) H.,coMfM>i*Mur'«Mp,s.90. 

Qmnmbial, kfln-nfl'-be-&L-nab«'-y'ftlt, a. 25,45. 
Matrimonial; nuptUl. H.,0Mnfl5'M%,ad.91. 

Ommmma^f ke(n'-a-sAnse, s. 17. Cognisance. 

Omn^ffMm^*, -sAnt, a. Cognisant 

CbfNiiMM, -s8', oMNttwor', B. See a^nisis, fte. 

CbMOtd, kd'-noyd, s. 23. That wh. rea. a cone ; 
a solid formed by the rerol. of a conio seo- 
tion about its axis (geom.). 

Qmmd'alf -U, a. = et/noid. Pert to a conoid ; 
nearly conical (bot). [like a conoid. 

Omokne, -Ik, a. = oonoid'ieal. Pert, to or 

Qmqutr, kdng'-k^, kfingk'-wUx^-K., vt 45, 
88. To subdue or OTercome by phys. force 
or Tiolence ; to obt poss. of; or dominion 
OTer, by conquest or success of arms; to 
Tanquish, defeat, subjugate ; fig., to OTer- 
eome, subdue, or surmount, by persuasion, 
argnm., or moral infl. ; to gain by effort or 
irsaT. :— tL To OTeroome : to obt Tictory. 
oonf'quermfff p., a. ; conr'qtund^ pp., a. ; 
e<m"qutror (f., eonf'queresti*), s. ; eon 'quer- 
attests. ,0» 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


qoertnt (in anj of fts r 
-whieh to obt or dt by it 

qoertnt (in anj of fts 

-whieh to obt or dt by H: avpr., 

anna, mil. trinmph, aoqoisidoa bj Tietory ; 

ThtMiof eon- 
i) ; alw that 

icqowt, or the aooolreineot of , 
otherwtoe than bv tnheritaneet (leg.), 

CbuMNfiiiiMOM^ kSn-elng^fwln'-e-t^ a. 45. 
Belated by Uood or birth. H^ t> om » m 
gmb^U^, AUt (rebtfon by tnX a. 9L 

CbMoiffice, kttn'-ah'tes«, a. 17, St. Prim., eon- 
aciousneeBt: appr.,aeHiiowlaigeorjod«- 
ment of rifiit and wrong; the moral aenae, 
or the pee. flMolty or power within «8 which 
rereala to the mind the lawfiilneia or vn- 
lawf . of our inteatjoni, thooghta^ and ao- 
tiaofl, and at onee approrea or oondemna 
them ; alao the estimate or determ. ao fonaed ; 
Jnatiee. equity, honeety ; real lentiment, pri- 
Tate ttOQgfat, truth, eandour; aonipie; 


moral difflcnltr s reaeon 

H.^ eoiif$otmcea (har. a), gew ^ — fawo rfgw, 

aoiMt'e pi'ocft AOT acMBiM-Mivlffi, sOm a. SOi 

Omteieitikmt, hfe-ahe^'-flh*1taL Un-ae^-K., 
a. 17, S6. OoMeioast ; regulated by eon- 
Bdenoe; acnuMlow; ezaot H^ eomtchn'- 
Uornkft 4S, ad. ; emaeim' H awm tu, a. fL 

OM'MionaMs, -eh'On-ibl, a. tf. Aeoordi^to 
eonaetenee; reaaonabla; enot R, cm'- 
aeioMoMy, 48, ad. ; confaotonmUenmt, §, f 1. 

Cbn'aoMWi, -ahNIa, a. S7. Lit, knowing Joint- 
brt ; appr.. holding adf-ooBTerae ; poaa. the 
nenlty of knowing oaa^ own Uioighti and 
aetkma : knowteg fhim reaaea, memory, or 
Sntemal pereeptlon or perenaaioa ; hmvig 
knowl. of anything, awaroi aanalMa. H., 

OMuerM. kSn'- 
enrolled.— Om'i 

of anything, aware| aanaJMa. 

ad. ; ww ^ iaiiMi wim, a. 9L 

^a. 17. "WHttendown 

(aerlption Uat 

Om'ter^ a. One taken by lot fhNU the oen- 
Cbm$ar^^hem, -^ifp'-dian, a. A ooaapvlaory 
enrohnent of indUT. for mlL or nar. aerrioe, 
adopted in ftanoe. (deroted. 

QmseoraU*, kflB'-ea^rttf, a. 17. Saarad; 
Om'90ermte, n. To make or deelare aaered; 
to appro, to laered uaea; to dedleate to the 
aenr. of God; toeaaeoiae; to aak i^iart; to 
hleea or aaaietiiy; to reader venerable or 
Taapected. H«, oM^aiaraflM^, p^ a. j oon't^ 
cfwtttL pp., a. ■ 0OW aNiralor, S8, b, t tott t^ - 
0r^iiim. H a. b. [ntm, a. 91. 

€biifmerwied, -id, a. (▼. t.) H^ eotiTmcrmUd- 
CbiMMmfioM, -krft'-ahttn, a. Tbeaetofdeirot- 
Ing and dedie. a peraoa, thiag, or pfawe^ to 
the eerriee of God, by oertaia ritae or ao- 
leranltiea ; eaaoniaatloB ; bcaedletlon. (t. t.) 
CbMf'aMratofw, -t0r-e, a. SSw Making aaered. 
Cbfi«Mton<otif*,kte-a&mntf'-yaB,a.4S. Fol- 
lowing of oouree. [iagi eoaaiqpwt 
C^teeUar^, -t^-e, -a»r— 9., a. SS. Folk»w- 
CbufweeUarft -eCk'— B^ a. Dedoetion from pr»- 

■itoea; eoroUary; eonflemcnoa. 
Cb aag ew tf oa, kte-ee-k(r-ek«n, a. 17-8. Trdn 
groooaeouenoes from premtora ; enoneerinn ; 
oo n eecutive seneeL 
Cbwa ewi K o a, kfln-enf -l^ly, a. SS, 45. FoUow- 
Ingin trato : aneeea riT o; eoneegnentiaL H., 
eonttt^titMif, 48, ad. ; oom BM'utk tmt m, a. f 1. 
ONMMwieN*, -ate'-aMla, a. Agraemeat 
Omam'tmL a. Prodadag a Uke aetfen «m- 

trary to the will, or invohmtarlly. (phya.) 
awMMLUft.aBar,a.SS. Lit,fealiagorfUnk- 


iBgwMiaaothar; h..ayMdbigor«hamiad 

or wiU to a propooal or ( " "* " 


cord, agreeak ; unity of opin. ; c 

Joint operatioa; tendeaoy to one point ; aa- 

aentt; aequicaeeBod ; aamma ^a^pattiy 

Om$mtf,yL Togiveory4eldooaaeat:tobeof 
the aame mind : to oo-operata to no aamo 
and; ta aeeed% permit, allowt; to yield. 
H., em uaW infi, p., a.; aoaaMf«i; pp.; 
c o t umf ar, a. (▼. a.) St. [mmL 

Ommmitmrilf, -een-4a-ar-lt^ a. Xatam^ 

OmmitmMmt, -tSa^-yia, il 4i. Awwiaat; 
eoadatent with. E., cofumicfUiumlift 4S^ 
ad. : 0on««Mto"fMOtt«Mat, a. ft. 

Cbaaa»'«toK,-aVtet,a.S7. AgradaglBiDted. 

Obn a tfmm e i t, kfia'-ae-kwteadL a. 17, SS. That 

wfaidi follows Ihmi anr ae^ eaaai^ or pKirt ; 
an efliect, result, or uaaa; an ersM: ra- 
tional deduetion or iaftar. ; eoaeatanathm of 
eaaaea and efll ; Inihieaea, Impartaaae^ mo- 
ment avail ; the taat prop, ef a ayllogiam 
(jog.j^fr cim f §$ fntn e4 ma hf maaaa of ; as 

ONi'MfiMNt -itwtot a. FoL as a aat dBw^ 
or by ratloaai Innr. or dadae. JSL^ osa^aa- 
f w a rt Jjy, ad. ; con ^unui t frn tm U «• Si. (eaaa. 
Cbfi'asManiL a. Aaaawt; aswaejiia orlai»^ 
Qmmtmmtia, kte-aa-kwlar-eh1L a. SB^ St. 
FbL as aftd fkram oaoaa; raaoiadye ? ia^ 
portaat j eeaodted^ poaspoaa, aaaaadac* 
u., tom m fm rn'MMllp i 4S, ad. ; eaaessaialml 

OMMirMMd, kfln-aerv'-int, a. SI. Preaarfiag; 

tending tooonaenr. BL.ooaMrt'afUK-ae^a.n. 
CbfUMVofioa, -d-tiT, a. 40. AUa or tend, to 

pr e ee i - te from toai, deeay, or i^ury. H.,aaM- 

m i /ad m ij ff ad. ; iw asa V a th m § m, a. 91. 
O m§ ei x ' m t i M, a. That whieh preaenrea ; one 

oapoaed to ohaagea in the state, altary (paL). 

a., <o w eir tt* a f<i iii ^ ^-Iam (pria^ I toy ot ), >• it. 
CbfiasTMrtsr, kte'-sei^-Tiriir, kiooaaV Km a. 

17, St. Ut.,i 

ia to praserva from hdaiy, 
of ad 

▼ioktioiL the righto or prltflegea 
eorporatwn, te. 


Omamy ^ atmy, -JMir-iL a. SS. 

Omtmr¥mimrpt a. A ptaee whara aaythiag ia 

kept la a man. adapted to Ito pea. natnra; 

appr., aa era. graea^hooaa Ibr eaotie plaato ; 

a a odety for tiie proBotloa of masio. 
C bH$ervf , kfia'-afrr^ a. 17. AaytMng mm- 

aerved j appr., ttmti tnit heatea lata a aal^ 

form amm wtth pe^wdered augai 

like p r e p a r ation of fresh mad. 

( phin a.): a eoaaen , . 

Cbfitfi'ae, kou aAi v**, Tt SS. Topraaarvana.; 
ta aafa or daf. from lajaryi^par., ta mrm 
fraita, frs., intac •• 

p.,a.; asiiMrasif, pp.,a.; , _ 

aa i/ al fa, 46, a.; etmarnnM^Um^ S^ a. 69. 
aMM<*r,kte-«Id'>«r,TtSI. TaUktakupoa; to 
Tta w attea ttvaly ; to hai>a regard to ; to take 
lato Haw or azaadnetiea ; to re^ilta or re- 
ward; to ponder, wdgh, 
aadna;— vi. To think 

or earafhUy ; to daliberate with ioS"a^ 
da» n i # artny, p. ; a *" * 
sf^, a. ! aaiMM* av^M 

contmftnnfff p. J aaafM'4fai^ pp. j conntFtr^ 
m*f a. ; trnmeTmringt iiaadda aTiiiai S 

I, St, a St. 
Worthy afeeadd.* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


iMCftb BUMMctf'Mio^, 41, ad.; tomUTtr- 

Cotmi4Mme9\» -tear « i. OonaidCTstioB. 

pcudflufc} uiiT.r6>yi.tOkTCgaidM ; modsntoy 
iili iiMiuiiil, tto^^tftd, rtfltctjyt. H.,om- 
Mtf^^roMb^ ad.; a>iiwy<nii/nmt, i. 0L 

<hMMraM,-«r-ahfta,a. ThanaaoBproBpt- 
Jog an agNaBMBt; the price, nothnu or 
aaatarial eaoaa cra^ooBtnct (kf. ; y. t.) 

ChiMi<r«ra«ta««,-tlT,a.4S. TaUaf iatoaoMid. 

Cbn«^«iiiy,-]ai^a.(TiT.) H^on n jfa f ariiy/y, 
ad. 91. 

CbM^kte-attM'.TtSS^ao. TDgiTaliDnnny 
to aaodiar; to aaod, traaafMr, dattrcr, aet 
ow, oomnlt, introat; to dalir. goodB, fte^ 
fa traat to another for aak. (aoBUft.) >-il To 
jkM, aicB, ooBaentt. H.» vmOpifimg^ p. ; 

aMTcmMMoM*. .«Ir«^-^aa, ai wC 
CiMM^MrfMTi*, a. fkn or Joiat aigaatora. 

^•^ Ma^ kfia-ee-ar,^ 17. One to whom 

larodeitT. totmatCoraala; abator. 

-aSf',a. Ha who oonaigm. (t. aa.) 
. »4lrtf,TLS5. Llt^toataadto«.t; 
tocxMf; toaobaiat^ to aontiiraa flzad ; to 

" \{ftiL\^9f\\ to ataad, reat, or 

rt. (loL " ' ' 

. . »LlrF«*i); to 

m ha wiwgatiWa(faLW<i>aA); to coasiat 
(tt. 1^ «v.; tha aanacbk thaaa and other 
<waaB> hang mod. hr the prcp.V. H^ «aii- 
■iif Mij, p. ; oawiiif ^ pp> 89i. JSaa Om-. 
bAMTaiK. -^it, IL Ibad;llm;]i«tiUdd; 
ataadfaic or agvaainff tog. ; ooaD p atl Ma ^ ooa- 
gnoaa, vBltem; sat coatradlotorT. £L, 
«0M^aMl%, 4S, ad. ; ooiwiirMM^ -inae, 

Mwwirqmiu -aa, a. tt. 

ofy, -tttr-«k 17, 15. Pert to a oonalatory. 
OwMMiaf' rey, -e- fa, a. Belating to an order 

CmmgUnh hte-dMr-5r<«^ hSb'-ak-^Ja^ P., 
Wa.,a. AAaaMBBhlTofaeolaa.peraoBa: the 
apiritaal aourt heldby a Uahop lA hla dio- 

oaae; amj aoloan aaiamblr. ~ [to 

aMM»2alory, kfift-afit'-tf-tflr-a, a. SS. Ttadlng 

Cfenaa^ kanr-aO^ a. A Iraeket or aolgne (oft. 

8-ahaped) : aa CKaam. ent la the kej oi an 

«reh» Ae. (arah.; aaUnet-irork.) 

Omaole, kte-aSU', rt. =» eo»*9oiaU^. 9S. Tb 

cheer the Hdad la Aatrcaa or depreaii to 

aOevtato grief or mkL ; to aootha, oomnrt,. 

aolaeab aoatoln. H., wt$itiiWt P*» a.; eon- 

mtef, pp. J temMSttr, cotiftomM*, a. : «o»- 

aaraN«,4La.; cMwole'fian, 98, a. St. 

C h aap hd a w t ^ W-aiy-ld-int, a. 17, ». a ran- 

aor<dMipe*,45. Abtoortend.tooon8olidato: 

tia«—Hu. B., (a) MfMaTidofif, fc 91. 

ClNMpI'Mef^ -ite, a. Focaied into a aolid maaa. 

CbMaoft^a, TtToJbrmfa^a oompaot bmjb; 

to herdeiu araulte deaaa and flna \ to itDlto 

or eorah. mto onamaaa or bodj: to ooaapraaa 

or omHtmafi :— tL To grow arm, hara, or 

aottd; tonrftoaaia^idUy. H.,«Maar^«^ 

v^, p. { eniawlCdata^ PV*> ^ t OBnaoMiar- 

aMali!^kBf-45tai,.««3r->&,a.pL ObaMoHdated 
'c: arar^ a oertote large porttoa ol Hie 
Inda or Eag;, heariaf t p. & iateraat 
"^ a. 17. LitnaoaadlBg 
aaStoblflk ]L,«anf9o- 


a eaf ^ f t tt, ad. ; eea'aaneMM^ avn'Mfwawiri 

-a% awra w ie wft i tf» t, a. M. 
Cbn'aoaont, a. An artlaalatioB irh. rcq. to be 

ao«aded with a Towel for diathiot tttteranee : 

alao the letter or character wh. rapr. IL (p.) 
Cbn'aonoML -nfia, a. STttBhoniotBa. 
€^mort^ hOa'-aort, a. 17, 96. A eoamalon or 

partner, par. a witB or haab. (ohkafly in anti- 
^ naicn, cotgnac, conearreace; aa 

iaaa mo| yf> a ooaeertf ; a Toeael f 

(nanr.). H., aon'aorifMia, a. 99. 

' WSa-eorf, Tt t»-«. To joia; to 

Burrr: toaait*; to aaeompany*:-^ Tt» 

aaaodate. H., aonaorf tpy, p.; waaerfad; 
" *•" ' • , W 

,tlk'-<|.ia,a.lS,lft. Ohrtooa 
to the ejpa or mind; dea rly or axtaaalvaly 
'ved, or aadaratood: endaeat. 

PV^ta^ ; otmnrtoM^, a. ; oMjarfioat, 

anewn, pcrociv^Ht wk — ■i»nmui cw 
diattocnlBhad, iUaatrioaa; preeifaieBt. H.; 
eatmaa'aaiia^. 49, ad.; oaiw<^aowaian, 
0OfUM0Mi<|f*.-W-4^ a. 91. 

C to i yre <y,MnHq)y-<t-aa, a. Ig, 99. Aploter 
aahal ; a eomh. of two ar BMra peraana for 
an illag. para. (oar. to eooBadt treawm, ex- 
oito aattftfnB,>a); ooaearraaae : a gea. taad- 
eaay of caaaaa to one evant*. SaeCbaignra. 

aMmMran<»,-9lr«'-ABtajOoBaplriag; plotting. 

Oavtmtor, -apIr'-A^fr, a. U, 91. Ooa who 
eonapi r aa or engagea in a eoaapbaey. (t. i.) 

ft iMpr a , kfla-apir?, vi. 95. Ut., to braathef 
ortobaadtog.; aaprHtoooocartooaaaBd; 
to tend; to plot, hatch traaaoa, ar eonoart 
aeriBM; toaombineforaaaalawMpwp.: 
to agree tog. to indict aa ianeoeat peraoa ox 
faloaT, or to aoUort money (lag.). H., aan- 
tgik'm§t P^t <4 aw M^a d", pp.,a. ; w aai lr 'ar*, 
a. ; opN^piratMa*, -eae-w -ahOa. a 89. 

Cbn^prrHw,a.(T.'?.] fc, coayi K iw e fa, ad. 91. 

aMMtoMa,kiin'-attbl,al7,4fi. AlShaOoer 
In the monarchical eatalh of the middk agaa; 
BowaMjiedtoapaacc nfllawrgan.; apouce* 
man. H., amfttaklmkif (the oOea), con'- 
ataMMTidfc (the diatriot oO, a 90.~7b Mi<rM» 
Oa MfutaMftlk to to Uve bayoad oaa^a in* 
eome or maana [Jaria. of ooaatabke. 

CbnTataMary, -ati^blfir-a, a. Hie body or the 

OmateMifp, •etib'-O-Utr-e, a. 18, 25. Par- 
^^iiit»t£ to or conaiating of conatablca. 

Omato^ kte'-atin^aTu. Firm, not fioid* ; 
flza^ anTaried, unchansed, immutable; 
flrm,atead<bat,anchangaable (in miad, para., 
aflbo.,orprin.); determined; certain; wlu- 
Ottt intermiaaion ; oontinnal. H>, wa ' a l eaf ^, 
49. ad. ; coa'afenoy, -aa (pacmanene^ laatiag 
alnction, ftoj. a. 9L 

Cba'atoN^ a. That which remaina anehaagad 
or inTanable. (math. ; pbyaica.} 

OuuUiUaU*, kfin^-aUa-IftU, -atfiT— K., Wa., tL 
Tomiitoinoneaplandov. U^ton'ttdlatpd*, 
pp., a. (T. i) 89. 

CbiuUnauon, -W-AHn, ^ A daater or gronp 
of flzed Btara (aat) ; h. ilg., aa aaaemUage 
of beantlea er ezceuenoea. 

OmstemaH^ii, kdn-attr-nflT-abiia, a. 17. A atate 
of terror prod, mental coofiMlon and incapft- 
atty ; deep aatonisbaient, amaaemcBt, horror. 

Cba»ate^ kttn'-«ta-plt«, n. Tb crowd; to 
tUokea or condense; to atop (by filling ap); 
to make hard or eoatlTc. H., ooa'a^^MtftfW, 
p., a. ; otM^Mt^poM^ pp., a. ; ooiutiptttiont 39 
(par., obatipation; coBtiTanaaa}» a 89. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


B. 18. The act of oonstitutiiig ; the whole 
bodr of oonstitnenti or eleotort (poL). 

Oim$i%twHtt -iat, a. Neeeanrj, cotential; 
elemental; forfning.conpoe^orooiutitating. 

Om$tifumtt a. He or that whloh eompoaes or 
oooatitotea ; an elem. or component part ; he 
who dq^tee another ; an elector, (t. ao.) 

QmstihiU, k8n'-ete-tflt«, vt. 17-8. Lit., to pat 
t0£.*; to aet np, flx, or eat ; to give formal 
exutenoe to; to form or oompoee; to ap- 
polntidepite, or empower. H., ton't H Mmg, 
p. ; mn^tHtrnted, pp., a. ; eondtUMer, a. ; 
ooimM^Cmm, 8. 89. 

OotutUutionf -ta'-ahOn. a. The act of eoBStl- 
toting; alao the atate, prod., or resalt (t. t.) ; 
amr., the partioalar fnme or temperament 
or body, or of the mind, affee., or paaaiona ; 
the eatab. form of gor. (par. one, or any part 
of one, eonatitated by the people); aayrtem 
of lawa or enatoma ; a neeial law, ordinance, 
or regulation; an eata&Uahed neage. 

CbntHMtioiuU, 4U, a. ss eonttiMtionaiy*, 26. 
Bred or inherent in; natural; oonsie. with, 
antiKnr. hy, or reU to, the oooatitatton. H., 

0»nitiMtionali$t, -let, a. A framer or fHend 

of either a new or old constitntion. [const. 

Ccm$Hh^iionitt, a. One who adherea to the 

Om'stUvUve, -tO-tlT. a. 18. That eonatitntea 

or campoeea ; havnig power to enact, ettab- 

Om9trai$i, kdn-etrin«', Tt 36. To urge with 
irreaia. or aafll power ; to force or comprt ; 
to confine or hold by force* ; to hinder or 
TMtrain*; to preia, oonatringe, bind; to 
neeeaeitate ; to prod, in opp. to natnre. 
H^ constraiit^mgt p., a. ; conttraitutt, pp., a. ; 
eoiutram'tr*, a. ; conttrainfabUt 46, a. 89. 

Omstram'edtf, -M-le, ad. By constraint. 

Omttroint, -atrimt', a. IrreaUt or solT. force 
(phya. or mor.), or its effoct; oompnlsion, 
confinement, nrgenoy. (▼. t.) [compeL 

Omttramt^ivel*, -It, a. 45. Able or tend, to 

OmttHO, kdn-etrlkf, Tt 35. To draw tog. ; 
to bind, cramp, to constringe. E^contiriee' 
M^, p.; eon$trietf*dt pp., a.; eotutrictor, 
86, a.; cotutHetion, -atrlk'-ehiln, a. 89. 

Oimitrmg$t kfln-strloj/, Tt. To draw tog. ; to 
oontraot ; to caose ahrinking or self-contrac- 
tion. B.,0OfM<rifi'Vw>p,p.; Mnsfrm'V^Pp.BSL 

Gmstrin^'gentt-iiat,^ Having the qoiOity of 

(hiutruei, k6n-atriikf , Tt 25. Prim., to 
tog. parte ao as to form a whole; to 
ereet; to devise or compose; to compile; 
to constitute; to interpret or construe; to 
make, originate, or invent B., construetf- 
ing, p.; eomtrueftd^ pp.; eotutruetfer, a.; 
oorurt^WHon, 86. s. (v. i.) 88. 

Omitmetitmt -strfik'-sniin, s. The act of build- 
ing, or of devising and forming ; fabrication ; 
the fbrm of; or man. of forming ; structure ; 
eoaformation ; theactof formUigsentencea, 
or the form itself; alao the sense, meaning, 
or interpretation (gr.); the man. of descr. 
aehemea, figures, or problems (geom.).— The 
coMtnte^tion of equatiM$ is reducing tham 
to a geometrical form (alg.). 

Oonatrutftionalt -A), a. Pert to constmetion. 

Conwtruetioey -strfikt'-Iv, a. 45. By construe- 
tion ; not direct, but inferred. H., construetf - 


iMiff ad. ; eomtruetfivrntss (alao a phren. 
organ), s. 91. [edifice. 

OmutrmeCmrei, -fir;, a. 18. A atmcture; an 
CbHttrue^ k6n'-strG0, -etfir*!, vt 17. To put 
into intelligible order in another lang. (grj; 
to translate; to interpret or explain. H.» 
eorutru'imf^ p., eotutrtud, pp., a. ; eonttrvt" 
imp (conatmctjon— gr.), a (v. su.) 89. 
(WWifpnito, -eta-prftt^, Tt To violate, de- 

1, defile. H.,em«fiipm'<«on,86,s. ; dbc.88. 
QmmAttantial, kttn-sfib-etta'-sh'U, a. 17, 86. 
Hav. the aame natnre, eesence, or subs. H.* 
C0HnAtUmtiatUytJX'-it^B.9l. [stantiatloo. 
CbnsiiMan'«a^,^lst,8. A believer in consub- 
CbfiMAKoM'tiate, -she-ftt«, -se-ftte— K., vt 86. 
To unite in one com. natnre :— vL To pro- 
leas cbnaubstantiatian. H» 

tioru 8. (v. i.) 89. 

Cbtuw st m ti a t ioH, -she-A'-shfin, -ee— K^ a. The 
substantial union of the body and blood of 
Chriat in the aaeramental bread and wine, 
according to the Lutherans [habit ; usage. 

CbruuetutU, k6n'-awe-tad«, a. 17-8. Custom; 

CbfMtMM^iNfiai, -Xn-ftl, a. = eotuueU^marp*, 
Coatomary ; usual, (t. L) [arr devotiona. 

Om$uet9^'dmary,'dr-%t*- A ritual of custom- 

Omuul, kSn'-sfil, a. One of the two chief ma- 
gf stratee of Um anc Soman republic invested 
with regal authoritr for one year; anofl&cer 
appointed to reaide in foreign ports to protect 
the rights and commerce of his nation ; aa 
adviserf. H., eon'itUthip (office or term of 
office), eonr$Mdte (office, juris., reald.), s. 90. 

Cbm'$ul4»p€, -^e, a. A certain toll or duly. 

Oon'miar, -afil-dr, kSa'-elhi*— Wa., a. Per- 
taining to a consul. 

QmniU, kttn-attir, k6n'-K., Wa., s. 35. The 
act, or the efliect of consulting; a council, 
(t or poet) Bee Qmceal. 

Qmndtr, vt To ask adrice of; to seek for In- 
formation in ; to regard ; to have refer, to ; 
to act in fkvour of :— vi. To seek the opinion 
or advice of another; to take counsel. H., 
consuming, p., a. ; comult^ed, pp. ; con^ 
tulVer, a. ; eonsuiUi'tion, s. (v. i.) 89. 

OantultatUm, -t&'-shfin, s. A meeting of two 
or more peracma to consult tog., par. of counsel 
or phrsidana. (v. v.) [prlv. of consulting. 

aMUtt/ra<tM,-tIv,a.45. Relating to or hav. the 

Oontmne, kfin-sOffltf', vt 86, 18. To destroy by 
decomposition (aa by fire, ftc); to eat or 
devour (aa food] ; to dissipate, squander, or 
waste by use (aa an estate, fto.) ; to spcoidt 
waste, or employ idly (aa time) : to cause the 
lessor disappear, of (aa the fieso) ; to abswh^ 
ingulf, or swallow up :— vi. To waste away; 
to become exhausted. H., eonsfim'wi^, p., a. ; 
MMMMiatf , pp. ; eons&m'er, a. ; conwmp'tiem 
(v. i.), 8. 89. See Conceal, 

Oontummaie, kSn-aOm'-Ate, a. 36. 46. Com- 
plete; perfect; in the highcat degree. H.* 
contumm'atelv, ad. 91. 

Cbn$umwuUe, k6n-aam'-&t«, k6n'~K., vt To 
end ; to finish by abeol. completing the orig. 
idea or intention ; to perfect ; to carry to the 
highest point or degree. H., eonaumm'atingi, 
p.; eomumm'aUd, pp., a.; comumm'ator*, 
25, a. ; consummation, -m&'-sbfin (alao death, 
the end of life ; the end of the world), s. 89. 

Consumption, -sfimp'-shttn, -sfim'— S., Wa.,8. 

A waiting away, par. app. to pulmonary dia- 
B or ^thiaia (path.). " ' 

See Consume. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CbtummffUwAt -ttr, a. 45. Wasting; ezhaQnt- 
ins ; pertaiahif to, aflieeted wltb, or inolined 
tooonaamptkm. H^«ofiJMMy/<fM/y,ad.;e«fH 
sump'ihenetB, s. (v. tj 91. [or Jonotore. 

OMtaci. kte'-tut, 8. 17. Toneli; close onion 

€biite«#*Mt,-tSk'-sbfl]i,i. Tbaaetof tonohing. 

Contagion, kdn-tft'-j'<in, a. S6, 80. The eommu- 
nicatSoo of diaeaae by actual contact, or from 
peraon to person; also the matter so ctnnmo.; 
pestilentSal or ▼enomoas emanation ; Infeo- 
tio«t : fig., anything which propag. mischief 
or e^ H^ eontttffioHedl (aft. by), a. 80. 

OmU^fioniti, -bt, a One who beUeres in the 
eonta^iooa character of certain diseaacii. 

Ooniefptnttt -J'ttSt a. S7. Canght l^ contact or 
near approadi ; pectHential ; mfectionst ; 
catcfaingt. H., eonUi§uimly, iS| ad. ; cc»- 
U^fiouantaa, a. 91. 

Centain, kdn-tan/, rt. Sft. To hold, or be able 
to hdd ; to have eapadty : to compreh. ; to 
oomprlse, embrace, indade ; to enclose ; to 
hold or restrain :~tL To live continentlyf. 
H., eontam'tng, ^; eotUmned, pp.; «o»- 
tom'er*, a. ;contoifi'aUf, a. 89. [ed;comipt. 

<;bMteMiMi<e*, k6n-tftm'-In-at£, a. 2d. Polhit- 

Oontam'imaU, tL To cormpt the purity or 
cxcdlenoe of (phya^ ment, or mor.); to 
tiolhite^ defile, snuy, taint. "H^wiUam'inat- 
M|r, p., a. ; ctmlamJiHaUdt pp., a. : eontami- 
n^tion, 8«, a. 88. [taminate. 

Qmtam'maiiMj -tiT, a. 45. Tending to con- 

Cbni^am, kdn-tfim', Tt. 35, 45. To regard and 
treat as mean and despicable; to despise, 
apom, neglect. R.,eoHtem'mM{-t6m'-Xngt), 
jx; contemned, -timd^, pp.; oonUmfner (-tena:- 
ert), s. ; (a) amtem'mnf, s. 89. (The m In the 
p. ai^ s. ia only heard m solemn discoorse.) 

OtntemplaU, kte-t&n'-pUU«, kSn'^-K., vt 35. 
To flew or consider with continued atten- 
tion ; to atndy or ponder over ; to intend, 
design, or porposet :—Ti. To think seriously 
and stodiooaly; to muse or meditate. H., 
eonUn^pUUmg, p. ; eomtem'^Ucttd^ pp. ; ooti- 
<<at'|)/iitor(eoii'<«ii^JJtor— S.,We.), oonton'- 
platmL, %. ; eonien^l^tion, 86, s. 89. 

CbN<«M>to4ir«^-pla-tlT,a.45. OiTentocontem- 
plation; stodions. U^eotUem'pkUivelVtMd.9i, 

Contemporoneomo, kdn-tfim-po-rftn^-y^, a. = 
cot omp o r af'neomo. 35, 45. Liv&g or being 
at the same time. H., e<mtempw6n'eou$lyt 
48,ad.; conten^ordn'mmtnoeM, s. 91. See Con-. 

CatdemlforearTf, -rdr-e, a. s= eotem'porarp, 35. 
Coatemporaneoas;coetaneou8. U.,eofitaw'- 
poronaesf*, a. ; (a) eontem'poraty, s. 91. 

OMtaR'peries*, -c^ vt = ootem'porue^. 60. 
To place ia the same age or time. • 

Omtemrt, Uki-t«mtr— S., Wa., We., -tfimptf— 
' IL, a 35, 43. The act of contemaina or 
despising; the state of being despised or 
Begiected as mean. Tile, or worthleas; 
diiidain, neglect, contumely; diiobedience 
or disreqiect to a court or authority (leg.) ; 
ahame^ disoraee (lerip.). 

Contempt ibim, -IM (▼. au.), a. 45. Worthy of 
contempt; paltiy; deaplcable. H., oon- 
iewtpfiihf, ad. ; oontem^ibUnset, a. 91. 

OM/mpftMiia, -a-fis (▼. au.), a. 18, 45. Gont, 
ezpr., or prone to contempt; disdainftil, 
haughty, insolent. H., conten^uously, 48, 
ad. ; AMttanpf tMNcsiMSS, s. 91. 

CbalcMd; kfin-ttad', Tt. 35. To dispute or coo- 

. test* :— tL To strive ; to struggle, labour, 


or endeavour (klL by afomtt^ wUh^for, Ae.) ; 
to diffpote earnestly: to debate; to reprove 
or chide ; to quarrel or wrangle ; to vie or 
act in emulation. H., eontmim^ p., u. ; 
oontenetedt pp. : om toMfcr, oontenaent^, s. ; 
eonion'tion (v. {.), s. 89. See Conceal, 

Content^ kto-ttet', a. 35. Quiet ; easy in mind ; 
pleasted, satisfied, contented. H., eontenflg*, 
ad. 91. 

Oontenif, s. Best or quietness of mind ; mod. 
happiness; acquiescence; satisfse. without 
exam.; that wh. is contained*; extent, meas., 
capacity ; an aye or assent (Ho. of Lu). H., 
coHten^JStli, content leet^,%.90. SttOontenU. 

Content, vt. To render content ; to satisfy tha 
mind ; to appease^ without complete gratiH ; 
to make eainr, please, gratify. Hn contenting^ 
p.; contented, pp., a.; eontenteftion, 86, 
contentment (state or condition), a 89. 

Contented, -«, a. (v. v.) H., contentedly, 48, 
ad. ; content edneu, s. 91. 

Contention, kte-tta'-shOn, s. Strife ; struggle ; • 
contest; controversy; discord, f^ Contend, 

Qmten'tiotu, -sh'Os, a. 37. Prone to contend ; • 
quarrelsome; Utigions. H., contend tiondif, 
ad. ; conten'ttouaneae, s. 91. 

Qmtente, kfln-ttots', kttn'— We., s. pL That 
which is contained; that which U held, 
ind., or compreh. within a limit ; the heads 
of a book, index: area or solidity (geom.) ; 
ayes or assenu collectively (Ho. of L.). 

Oonter'minout^, a. siconter'wnnai. Contignoos. 

Oontett, k5n'-t£st, s. 17. Act or state of con- 
testing; struggle, oonfiict, dispute. H., 
con'teetleee, a. (v. v.) 90. 

Contett, k5n-teet', vt 35. To strive earnestly 
in action or argument ; to contend, dilute, 
litigate :— vi. To strive, contend, vie. H., 
contesting, p., a. ; oonteeted, pp., a. ; con- 
teatable, 45, a. ; eonteeialtion, 86, s. 89. 

Cb»<efrtn^,-Ing,a.(v.v.) ILtContoetingly,wSL.9\, 

Context, kfin-t«ks', vt s context^. 35. To « 
weave tog. H.,Mnterf Mwoven tog.),pp.,a.89. 

CbneMr(,kdn'-tttst,s.40. Tne series of sentences • 
finrming a discourse ; appr., the parts imm. 
preceding or following a nasssge or text, 
which determine or aflect the sense of it 

Contexture, -Ore, a. 18. The diqiositlon of a 
parts one among another; oomposlUon of 
parts; system; eonstitoticn. / 

a?nl«;rriiraL-Al, a. Pertaining to contexture. V 

Contiguity, kdn-te-gA'-l^ s. 18. Actual 
contact of bodies. 

Contigtiout, -tlg'-A-fis, a. 18, 45. Touching; 
closely bordering upon; near or a^jactott. 
H., conti^aouely, 48, ad.; conH^mueneu, 

contigQfi^, a (v su.) 91, 
Contitient, kon'-an-^nt, a. 

, a. Abstemious in the 
indulgeaee of lawful pleasure (par. sexual en- 
Joym.); chaste (ss app. to men); temperate; 
eontiitttous,eonnecteclt. H.,con'tinenthf,mii4 
eon'tinence, -^aae, con'tinency, -mo, s. 91. 

Cbfttinent, s. The main land ; appr., a con- 
nected tract of land, of great extent, con- 
taining many countriea. 

Continental, -tof -Al, a. Pert to a eontinent 

Continge^, k5n-tli\)«', vL To touch; to happen. 

Contingent, -tlnj^-tat, a. 35, 80. Dependent 
on something else; fortuitous, uncertain, 
incidental, caauaL H., eontin** gently, ad. ; 
con^"^«n<n«si*, contnt'genee, -iiau, oon- 
tin"gency, -ae, s. 91. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


OMUynrgmlt a. A fcrtaltOM etwt; a quota, 
proportion, or ahare (pardeolarlj of troopa 
xxf oonfaderated ttataa.— poLJ. 

ConiiMial, kSa-tXn'-a-il, a. i^ U. Without 
intermptton or ocasatkm: eonstant, perpe- 
tual, onoeaaiBg^ aniitarmittad. JL^contin*' 
tuUlff, 48, ad. ; eomtm*ualn$»t, a. f 1. 

Omtkifwm ee , -taMe, a. DoratSon; abode; 
imlnterrapted sncoeaalon; prolongatton ; 
progreeaion of time: peraeTenuioe (aorip.) ; 
defcrrinf a adt or trial (leff.); oonti&aify, 
darablU^ (aa of porta or anba.}. 

Chntiaifwat^,'4Xi^ a. CloielTunited : unbroken. 

OmUn'mMm, -iU-lr, tL K. Oonttnuing :— a. 
A word that oontinnea (irr.)* 

OmMmm, k&Htln'-a, tL ^ U. Toprotiaot; 
to repeat, or to p e ia ey er e in, without inter- 
mpCMB ; to unite without ohaam or intar- 
Teolng anba. ; to extend duration, exiatenee, 
raea, or apedea : to extend or inoreaae in 
length, auperfieiM. fto. ; to earrr ftirther ; 
to cnlwfai to agam proceed with or cany 
on:~Ti. To remain in the aame place, cond., 
oratate; to abide; to laat or endure ; to be 
permanent or durable; to peraerwe; to be 
ateadftwt, eonatant, unehangeable (aerip.). 
fiU, oon^'if^i^ pw, a. ; eoiUmfwd, pp., a. ; 
oontiii'iiar (one wno), totUiH'fumt (that wh.), 
WKMuttor^ 10 (one who keepa up a aeriea 
or Buoceadon), a.; oonMn^uaU^, 4ft, a.; mm- 
Mmmi'Imm, M (txtenaion, te.), a. 88. See 

OcaOwewdt -Odf, a. 18. TTnlnterrupted : nn- 
Oeaalttg;Ae. BL, MH^^n'iMUy, -u-M-to. ad. 
(T. ▼.) fL [H., oonlfoiMifly, ad. (t. tO tl. 

OmJMfik^^ -tl-Ing, a. Permanent, enduring. 

Om^M^ Ukmo-ntl'-Xta, a. 17-8. Unin- 
termptod oonneetion; unbroken texture; 

Om^mm^ -ttn'-«-ava^otaied tog. ; unin- 
tmrupted. H., aoirifa^iie w i^, ad. ; oomIjh'' 
woiMMM*, oonnntf'fly, a. (r. au.) 91. 

Cbfitorf, kte-tortf , H. 85-8. Totwiattov.; to 
writbA. H^ aofilOrf Im, p. ; aoiiterf ao^ pp., 
a. ; Mfitor'nofi, 86, a. (r. i.) 89. 

ObM^orKoM, -tor'-ahfln, a. S6. A twiat; wry 

, a twiating or wreating of alimh, 

ten out of itniatoral poattlon. (V. t.) 

CbntoMr, Uin-tSOr', a. 99. 
Cbfier«,kte'-Crd,ad. On 


. OntUne. (FT.) 
the e ontraty ; en fl>e 

Againatj tn oppoiMon; oontrarj to. 

,L.) [See below, or refer to the prinoipal 

word forming the compound.] 
OMUro-44mc$f kte'-lrdhddttaa, a. e emUrt- 

danttVt.1 comiftrjfSmuA Adaneelnwhioh 

the partnera are arranged in oppodle linea. 
(bnira^'dmmL a. A ay mpto m that eontra- 

Omin-mfditmU, n. To forbid the empt of 

the uanal, or anj par. treatment or remedy. 

Hn cominhm'diitUmf, p. ; aaiiffw <w " <i «rt t ri, 

np.; €imira^diM f Hom, 86 (an indie, whieh 

forbtda Ac), a. 89. 
Obfi«r0-<an'or, a. Oonnter-tenor. 
Omt n Aamdt kdn'-trd-Wnd, -bind'— S., a. 

Ut, eontrary to ban or edict; prohibited. 
Cbi^irtAamd, a. Prohibition; U^ trafic 

H^ eom'irahattd (to smnggle), tt. ; eom'tro' 

landut (a amnggler), a. M. 
Oaniraeit kte'-trikt, a. 17. An agrcem., oow- 

nant, or mutual promiae^ upon lawful ooosid. 


or eanae^ Ending partiea to perl eert. con- 
ditiona; alao the writing cont. the terma or 
cottdltiQna; a bargain; a oon^paat; act of 

OmA^uif, kAn-trOcf.TtiS. lit, to draw tog., 
nearer, or doaer ; to draw Into a lem oom> 
paaa; to reduce^ ahorten, abridge, epito- 
mise^ abbreriate: to draw parte tof., to 
wrinkle ; to aoqpiire (aa a habit) ; to mour 
(aa debt, Ac;) ; to bargain fbr, or oorenant to 
perform ; to afllanoe or betroth :— vL To 
•brink or wrinkle ; to bargain or ooiwunt; 
to bind by betrothing ; &c B^e^ntrtietimfft 
p., a. ; oontraet^ulf pp., a. ; cmUracfor, 88. 
a. : aontroe'iion, 88, a. (t.L) 88. SeeCbnoeoJ. 

Cfimtraeted,-i4, a. Drawn tog. ; narrow, mean, 
adflsh. Hm oonfrocfad^, 48,ad.; comtrmef- 
adnatt, a. 91. 

Cbfi<raefA2a,-Ibl,a.49. Cq>abIaofcontr.; that 
may be contracted. R^ contract ibkmmi,c<m- 
trttctmUy, -Ib-O'-tt^ (<iual. oQ, a. 9L 

OantraefiU, -0, a. 45. Tend, to oontraet; bar. 

-Ing, I 

-trar-ahfin, a. The act or atate 
of contr. (t. t.1 ; alao the thing, Ao., oontr. 
or reduced ; atoreriation ; the sbortraing of 
a word by rMccting a part of it, alao tiie word 
00 reduced (gr.) ; a contraetf. 
Otmtractcrf -^r, a. 98. One who contneta; 
appTn one who engacea to fiimiah anppliea, 
or to perform any pubUo work or aerrice^ at 

a oerttdn price or rate, (t.t.) 
Cb«i^vMfi0(,^ta-trdHBkt, Tt 17. 

Tb oppoae 

bvworda; to aaaert the contrary; to deny 
tnat wh. baa been afflrmed or adTanced ; to 
be oppoe e d or contrary to ; to retract an 

irMierta^ p., a.* ; cofuraaicrfv, pp. ; coiv> 

CrtuKef«r,a.; oontradi^tUm, 86, a. (r. i.)88. 
OmiradictioH, -dOt'-efaftn, a. Denial ; verbal 

oppoattion; Ineongndty of worda or Ideaa; 

contrariety; Inconilrtenee. (t. t.) 
Om«r«i«0'lfoiMP, -U, a. laoonalatant 
CbiOm^c'Wew, -ah'Oa, a. 88. FnUofcoatm- 

dietkna|prawtoeontradiet; incon aiat eut. 

H., conCraov CTOwnm^ a. 81. 
CbwirwJicffaf, kte-thUBkf-lT, a. 17, 45. Con- 

tradietory. H^ contrmiie t i Mig , ad. 91. 
Cb nUvMtr prf, -or-e^ a. 85. Affirming the eon« 

trary ; cant, or implying denial, Ac ; Inoon- 

alatent, epp., contrary, inym ipatiMo. HL , 

a. (▼. jO 81. j[to ughont. (tog!) 

OMilnNNM ary, a. Aproncattlanopp. to another 
Obntrmi utm o t *, kan-trrfnila-ttogke, c Martod 

byoppoattoquaBtiea. K^t 

(SaSaSmTy Ac), c <0-I 
mtrmditHngimBh, -tteg^-fwh 

'•^wlahfTt. Todiatlngty 

not ontyby dilforentlal, but by ope quaL' 
aN»lraito,kAn-trU'-to, c9li Oounte^tenor.C' 

Bel. to 

Ck ttl nmi tertqf^, a. Eeaettan. . rcoonlapolnt. 
O m l rapia if t, -pOnf-tt, kte'^-S., a. "^ * 
Oontrminmtm, -let, kte'— ft., a. ^ 

in coonterpoinit. 
CWi<rarin,kon'-4rd-rIa,a.pL OpMai8ee;pro- 

poeitiona which deatroy eaeh otter (log.). 
CbtUrarict^, -tV-lXr^ a. Qppoaitioa jba fbot. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CMIrmnh*. AtkiDffofoppoaittqaalltlfls. SL, 
eonlrariwte, -^flEt, td. 90.— 0* tht conf- 
s la opp. ; «■ tlM oChsr ddt :— to tib 
A to m omiM iU wanom or ftot 
- - — ■, 17. OiipotUIOD and 

t cMf ootliM or colour t» 

aHiy«i«;Uii-triM',Tt T^oppoMdittidilgB, 
vbbL, or doad., to oaeh otber (dtbtr mate- 
Ally, or in dessip. or ooBtonpL), in order 
tontogthewpL excene ne e ofone;— vL T» 
■lM>d te eoolnMt*. H^ AwtrMriNf^ p. ; 
eomirmte^ FP^ (▼- ••) &•• Omeeal, 

OuUrmig,VM-MX£,», Apptted to wIumIi, the 
toedind hoopoT irbkbOt aoBtnry tottiow 
of oilwr wheui^ or pmlkl to tiie azia, 

CUnljiwffg'<»wi,a« A treoah guarded byapara- 

O m mn m t, kfin-tril-^Cii/, ft. 17. To onoaa 
fta priBc^leorcflbet; toobatnwtinoper.: to 
aoutraaBt, Madar, nnMtfy. B^emirtmm*' 
4mff p. ; «M*naM«Af , pn. ; ifnU'mlm'er, a. ; 
tn«6 aiiiiMy ii> -fCn'-ehto, il 89. (opp.Blda. 

ftiifcaeyrfiii, -^fa'-eWto, a. AtondDgtotha 

OMrtnMarva,-j<r'-vidLii Aaertaiaaiad.plaiit. 

€toiMirfarf,k6a-ti&-<l-Mir-a»a.l9,tf. Pajw 
ktf or ifWdlar ttibata, M to a aoT. or eUet 

OMUHbMla, Un^tilV-Qti^ Tt 9B» 18. To gftve 
' aiwithathen; tofireto 

> uurpw I— ^i. To 

«WiiT%arl«dapart. _, 

jLy f,^ €amfWmtti, p^; aoniri^irfer, i 

flwftflrtiM, ■4r^!ir-Bhfa, a. 18. Tbi^whiA 
ia gtvca to a eanu ata^ or te a aoHL pwp. : 
tepo^oaapaidbjaflmtier wooaqiiarad 

CUrtyartw^-<i-ttT,a.'i5. Ttaid. to aonMh.; 

aiii«r«'«brp^-ft6iv«.a.l6,». OoD«riI».tothe 

iBiiaitoiilrorptp.; promottortkaanBacad. 

OMlHKkflar-^ilfeftoai:, Vat leea aa.), -trtt/— 


OmiHea^ kda-to^Tt. Si. TbfhnBa,deTiBa, 
pbaioiil; toaoBairt^pro4aet,iavartstowear 
wAfz— fL Tofon aordeiiga. B.., comirf&- 
in§t p. f contnoMtf Vp»} coiUfWtff a. j a w i 
w'iaMaMv% a. J coairiairaMMy liONif'ii'flNai^ 
-«Ba«(aatof; ttategaoBtrifed),a. 89, 91. 

OiKrH kte-«r0l«'t & S5. = eomptntru Un-. 
Orl^., a ehaak-bookor eoanter-roll; h^obaek; 
ivatraiatj power, a o th .^ aupai'lutendiwo^ 
eeianwiBB; oa or wat Wtd<di leitrelM*. 

Cbatraf, Tt. Toaheaklijeoimter-reckoiiiBg; 
to laaCnda : to hyra a adar direetkm or 
eoBuaaad^ to eowrtaraat or oferpower ; to 
OTamile and gor. Sa oppualUun. (leg.). iL| 

AMlrffirft^Pbya.: MtUroOtd, -irSUr, pp.; 

eentroiter, b. ; tontr6ttmbU, 46^ a.; eoniiif^ 

eomtr(Xw%tn1^t fc 89, 48. 

Cbnirofftr, -Cr, a. s Mniplr^cr*, kte-. Aa 

oAeer antointad to control or aoperTiae tlia 

awwoatiL to. of aoma pablie oAea or de- 

partmeai u^ omtriU^enh^, a. 98. 

Contr<fver$iml, kte-tro-Tfir'-ah% a. 17, M. 

Belatinatodispatea; diapntattoos. H^aoa- 

(r»Mr<Ma%, ad. 91. \jenj; a diapntant. 

CbiUrofMr'tiaHtt, -Im^ a. One eng. in ooatro- 

OMtrovertiom, -T&^-ahfia, a. See CbnttvmrL 

OoHtro9m^, kfln'-tro-T<isa& a. 17. Dlepota- 

tioB, debate (par. in writtog); agitation oC 

opin.; litcrarjwar&re; stnib, o aarrd ; aa 

aotioB or anit Qitg.) ; appoaitkm in oatwarA 

aeta. (aorip.) 

Ooti^trovert, -ffgL ft. To efnoee bj argoai. ; 

to lontead agaiait in irarda or wrttiag; to 

debate in opp.: todlqMite,eoafetc^diip^vTe. 

^ y''*' ^ "*' .fa i >» p- 1 cm'tromrUd, pp., a. ; 

CMirm)trfiU\ 4hL a. 45. Dl^atabla. H., 

aoNiroMrf «%, ad. (t. t.) 91. 
OfKNaMdMff, \dB-t4-nft'-ah'«a, a. 17, 88. 

lit, awelliBg agaiaat; flg^ oppoeing lawftil 
aotboritj with oontempt and atobbornaeaa $ 
obetinate^ pervencL iniezlble; wilAQ dia- 
obedieaeatotheorderaof aeoort(leg.). H.» 
<*tnfMiM^fffffMriyi 48, ad- 1 coftUnKHtu^tHmut^tt^^ 
ePHkmuuift kte^-tft-mia-e^ a. 91. 

Obmimmilwm^ kte^a-mT-le-dib •mSZ-jila— 
K.,a.l8,40w Haughtily raproadiftil;radel7 
iareaatio; oanteaqjitaooi ; insolent: igno- 
■kiaioaat; iheaafalt. B^^comitmurliomlf^ 
ad. ; emUumtf'hotumtsi^t a. (r. L) 9L 

0»«lMaMJ!p,kte'-tft-nifla-a,a.l7-8. OonteMiH 
taonilaagaage: coatnmrilonenoai. 

CbfiteM,kdn-t{ta/.ft. TObeattag.; tobrolBe 
orcmihbybeatmg. tL,eontuim§,-p,; oot^- 
tmutf pp., a. : cotMmm^ -chOn, a. 89. 

Chn«i^4na(T.T.),a. Anii^nryfromabtowor 
iiidl wItiMNiibreaehorwaQad; abniiia.(earg.) 

Cb a iw MJn aa, koHida^-drflai, a. Aaortof riddle; 
a qoibUe or low Jest. Cflee ftpwiiiiai, daa. 

Om mmnMt kanf- « el n i tfi a.; oaa'ttiaN^, a. ; dsa^ 

Omvalmeg, kte-f4-Ue', ft 17.^ To gradaa^ 

reeorer health after 


«in^ -Ing^ p. : ODneakeoA^-Metf, pp. 89. 

OtmvmlMemL -fta'-fat, a. BeeoT. health aad 
atreagth after riekiKpaa, H., eomtalti^emce, 
-6n8^voo««a2ef'aaMy*,-ae(atateofbelng),a. 91. 

CbfMM0<»of»*,-f<Sk'-ahttn,a. AeanrTingoroonr. 

C bw ww u, k0n-v8a<', ft 25. To eanaa to ae- 
acMble; to eall tog. ; to aommon jndlo. :— 
fL ToaeetintheMoneplaoe; toaaeeaible 
ftir a pobfie pnrpow. H., comitifina, n. ; 
aanvifMff , pp. ; 0Dnain^«i% a ; etrnvSn aMff» 
a. 80. Sea OMieenliMi, OmcmI, te. 

Cb a > « i tfga <,k0n-T8n/-ygnt,a. M, 4S. Adapted 
to nee or wanta; appr. in time or plaee; fit» 
anitahl^ooBUBodkroa. H., ooaoAt'taiif ^, 48, 
ad.; ooinitifi£nm,'ji!nae,eon99nfieneif,B. 91. 

Ompmt, kfia'-ftet, a. An aaeembly of relig. 
peraoM ; abo the noaee, fto., deyoted to their 
nee; amoautery ; a nunnery. 

CbfiMiifiei0,kfin-ftef-Ik],8.46. Anafloembly; 
appr., one of diweBtera for wonhip: any 
aecret aseemblr. [oonTenadea. 

Cbareaf tcl«r, -Ik-Ur, s. One who fkvqnento 

(hmetdkm, kfln-Tla'-ehan, a 26. The act of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


eoming iog.i a meeting or uatmlAj (pir. one 
for settL poL or relig. qaet.) ; also the oon- 
treot or agreem. there made ; an agreement 
preceding a regnlar treaty (mil. ; poU. 
Oinvm'Uomal, -U, a. Stipulated ; tacitly un- 
derstood; cuttmnary. H^ coHven'tionattjf, 
43, ad.; (a) emvtHtiotuMlif, -AlMt-e (app. 
chiefly to living and aettaff), s. 91. 

Cbmwii'tMmalimi, -Izm, a. Thatwh.iareoeiyed 
or eet by o ' 
phrase, m.) 

or est by oostom or tadt agreement (as a 

phrase, fto.) . [traet ; settled by stipulation. 

€b»wM'<iofiory,-ar-e,8.S5. Acting under oon- 

Cbi»vm'<iofMr,-fe,s. AmemberofaoonTention. 

Omvm'tiottitt, -1st, s. One who makes a 
oontraet. [to a eonTent; monastic 

€bfiiwnfiHi{.kdtt-Tfotf-a-ftl,a.l7-8. OforbeL 

Oottvenfuat*, s. One who lires in a convent 

Oanverget kAn-T^ij^, Ti. 80. Lit, to bend tog. ; 
to inoUne or tend to one point (as two 
continually approaehlng lines or rays). H., 
eoHver^'f^p, p., a. ; eonvtrged, pp., a. 89. 

Comferfent, -Tfiije'-ent, a. SO, 32. Tending to 
one point; couTerging. H., eomver^ genet, 
-tes«, eoHver^'geneyt -se, s. (r. t.) 91. 

Cbfiwr«(i6{e,kdn-ver8'-&bl,a.ift,45. Beady or 

free to converse ; sociable. H., convert mly, 

43, ad.; eonverioMeneu, s. 91. 

OmveruuUt kdn'-vftr-etat, -vftrs'— A., Ba., Jo. 
„ . . ^\ 

K, P., a. 17, S5. Hav. acquaintance by stud v, 
nverse, or interoourse ; aoonaintea ; 
(in each foL by wiik) ; relating to, 

prae., converse, or interoourse ; aoouainted ; 
nmiUar (in each foL by wiik) ; relating ' 
eoDceming* (foL by about), H., eoKt 

HmUf, 48. ad. ; eomtenanet^ eenfvertane^ 
(also, habit or tend, to assoc. or be ikm.),B.91. 

€b«V0rsa/<of»,kdn-ver-6&'-shan,s. Oen. course 
of mannerst : familiar discourse; easy, un- 
restricted talk ; par. act or part of discourse; 
fun. intercourse, social commerce ; intimate 
aoquaintanoet (foL by im) ; talk, dialogue^ 
oouoquy; dtizenshipt (serip.). 

Concereaftiond^ -Al, a. Pert to conversation. 

Gmverm'Honalitt, -Ist, s. One who excels in 
conversation. [Chatty; sociable. 

OmvenatiVt -vArs'-^tlv, a. = eonver^ive* 45. 

Omveneuiime, kdn-vSr-adt-ae-o'-nH, -«&'— 
K., s. (pL, eomeeraem&Mt -nS.) 99. A meeting 
ofcompany, par. for literary chat (It) 

Convene, kon'-vdrs«, a. 17. Opposite; red- 
procaL lL,oof»'Mr«^y(-ver8'— K., Wa.),ad.91. 

Oan'vene, s. Fam. acquaintance ; conversation ; 
cohabitation* ; an opp. redpr. propodtion, 
or that which arises fh>ro intercnanging the 
terms of a proposition (log.). 
^Converee, kttn-vers^, vi. 25. Orig., to keep 
' oompanv* ; to assoc. or commune* {with) ; 
to talk famlL ; to hold oonversatlcm ; to co- 
babitf. H., eonvenfinm.^. ; eonvened^, pp. ; 
eomven^able, a. (v. su.) 89. See ConeeaL 

Omvertion, kfin-vt^r'-shOn, s. Change from 
one state to another; transmutation; h., 
change from one dde, party, or religion to 
another ; appropriation to private, or to any 
par. use ; interchange of terms in an argu- 
ment (log.) ; change or reduction of a tnc, 
•ouation to an integral one (math.) ; change 
of heart or dispoe., fbl. by reformanmi of life 

CbfiMKs<of*,-sI ve,a.45k Conversable. [ (reliff .) . 

Oonoert, kttn-vert, s. 17. = eoinlverfiie\» One 
converted ; appr., one turned fh>m sin, or 
disbelief, to hoUness. 

Convertt kttn-vSrt'. vt 25. To change or turn 
to^ or into another substance, form, state, 


or cond. ; to transmute ; to approp. to one*s 
own use ; to spply to a specific purpose ; to 
change or turn from one relig. sect or party 
to anotho* ; to turn from a bad to a good 
life ; to change into gold or a current me- 
dium (comm.) :— vi. To undergo a change, 
&c. H., eonverfiniff p., a. : convert ed, pp., 
a. ; eonverCer, s. ; eonver'aum, s. (v. eu.) 89. 

Gmvertfiblet -Ibl, a. 45. That may be con- 
verted ; that may be changed or used for one 
another. H., eonvertOtly, ad. ; conoertibU" 
net9*, eonvertHnlity^ -bll -It-e, s. 9L 

Cbntwx, kdn'-v£ks, a. 17, 40. Ridng in a circu- 
lar form towards the middle, the reverse ot 
concave. H., eon'vexlv(-rtx*—K.,"WmX ad.; 
eonfvexneeef (-vex'—wa,), s. n.—DombU 
eon'vexor eonvexfo-eon'vex, is hav. both sides 
convex :-'eonveafo-con"eave = eoncavo-con- 

Cbn'vex, s. A convex body. [vex (q. v.). 

Oonvexed, kdn-vdksf, kon'— We., pp., a. 
Made convex. H., eonvexedlf, -r&ar-idrlt, 
ad. ; eonveafity, -It-e, s. 91. 

ONiwy, kdn-vft , vt 25. To carry, bear, or 
transport (in any man.) ; to pass or cause 
to pass; to transmit (as a right, ftc); to 
transfer (as a title to) : to impart, deliv., or 
oommun. (as ideas, ftc.j; to remove secretly f: 
— vi. To play the thieif* H., eonvey'ing, p. ; 
conveyetTf pp.; oofiMy'«r, s.; ooMwy'aMd, 

Oonvej^imce, -Anse, s. The act of conv. or re- 
moving; the instr., way, or means by wh. 
anything is removed: the aetoftransf. pro- 
perty, also the deed wnich transfers it (leg.). 

Oonvei'ttncer, -&n-8£r, s. One whose oceup. 
is to draw the writings (conveifimoee) by 
which property is transf. (leg.), [vevanoor. 

Oonvey'anangt -^g, s. The business of a oon- 

Oonviet, k5n'-vlkt, a. 17. A person leg. proved 
guilty of crime ; a felon. 

Oonviet, kdn-vlkt^, vt 25. TO prove or And 
guilty ; to shew by proof or evidence ; to 
confutet, oonvince*, oonfound*. H., con- 
viet^tng, p., a.; convicted leonviet\t a.), 
pp., a. ; convieVer*, s. ; convitfHont s.(v. L) 89. 

a>Mrtft«on,-vIk'-dian,s. Oonfhtation*; stxtmg 
belief grounded on evidence, (v. v.) 

Oonviet' tve, -!▼, a. Able to convince or ecnvlet 
H.,oofiv»e<'tr«/y,48,ad.; conviefivenemf^, s. 91. 

Convinee, kOn-vins^, vt 25. To subdue the 
opp. of the mind to truth, or to an allegation ; 
to compel assent by argum. ; to subdue or 
vanqpishf ; to con^et, evince, prove*. H., 
eoniom"emg, p., a. ; ooneifuxi', pp., a. ; ooft- 
vin''cer, s. ; eonvin"eihU, 46, a. ; convinci' 
menf (oonvietion), s. 89. See OoneeeU. 

Oonvin'*emg, -Ing, a. Persuading bv evidence; 
compelling assent H., conmn'^einglg, 45, 
ad. ; eon9m"eineneut, s. 91. 

Convivial, k6n-vl/.y*U, a. 25, 45. = convd/alf. 
Festive; social; Jovial. H., eonvii^iaUy, 
ad. ; eonvvridlity, -&l'-Yt-e, s. 91. 

Oonvoeate, kdn'-vo-k&t<, vt To convoke. H^ 
convoeaftwn, 86, s. ; &0. 89. 

Cbfuweo^ion, -kft'-shOn, 8. An assembly (par. 
one on colleg. or ecd. aflUrs) ; a conven- 
tion, synod, or councU. 

Convoke, kdn-vdk^', vt 25. To call tog. ; to 
convene. H., eonvdking, p.; eoneoibNr, 
pp. (v. su.) [Twisted ; rolled upon itaelt 

Convolute, kdn'-vo>rS0t «u = con*voluted. 17-8. 

Omtw^u^JMi, -I'SO'-shOn, B. 17-8. Oncrevolu- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


tfonofasplnlUiM:— pL nMniadiiif ibids 
of tlie OQter layer of the brain, also toe ooUs 
and tarns of the intestinee (anat). 

OmmwIm, kda-TdlT«', Tt. iS. To tviat or wind 
tor. ; to ndl one part on another. H., wm- 
wVm0, p. ; eonwohetPt pp., a. ; cotteoohition^ 
a. (r. i.) 89. [of plants ; Undweed. 

GKwimihu^ -Tdh'-d-lOa, a. 25, 18. A gmna 

Cbftfloy, kdn'-Toy, a. 23. A protee. attendant 
ibrce (nar. or mfl.) ; the art of conToying ; 
alao that whioh ia protected ; conveTanoei*. 

Cbiieoy,k&n-Tov',Tt.83-5. To aceomp., eillier 
by sea or lano, for the parpoee of proteetlon 
(ai^ to merchantmen— nar. ; prorialons, 
atorea, Ae^-miL). H., eimvoffwa, p., a. ; 
camoyttF, pp., a. ; eomncyimg, a. 89. 

CbnrutM, lUm-TtUa/, Tt. 25. Tb eaoae eonvol- 
dona or qMsma ; fig., to agitate or affect by 
any etroog irreg. action (oIy., poU, <a ment.). 
H., tommufiMf^ p. ; vmmdstm^ pp., a. ; cmi- 
vfamon^ a. (t. L) 89. 

MWon.-nU'-«hfln,a. A pretemat,Tiolent, 

I inYotontavy contraction of a maade or 

ipaam. (▼. v.) [aions. 

OmmTaMMMwy*, -dr-e, a. 25. Pert to oonTol- 

Conmdnet^ -TOT-tf t, a. 45. That raoduoea or 
la attended wltii eonrolaiona. £L, comiw^- 
avsd^, ad. ; coiwiif meiMaiv a. 91. 

€W*, kd'-ae. hOi^-etf-K., Wa., a. A rab- 
bK. H., aff'fiff-tarroifft, a.; oo'tiy-oatoAfl 
(to cheat), tL; Ab. 90. 

Cto, k0O, fi. 20. Tocry aaapigeonordoTe; 
fig., to Invite}, to careaa fbnd^t- H., eoo'- 
«M, p., a., a. ; cooed^ kCOd, pp^ 89. 

Cboi^ kd6k, a. 21. One whoeeoocap.l8tocook 
food. H., coofc'-ffUMtf, cook-room^ Ac, a. 90. 

Cbek, yi. To prep, and dress food for the 

taUe; to concoct, botch uj 



, kSw^Ti. To cry as a cnckoo. 



Omftcry, kM'-^r^ a.' The art or practice of 
dressing food ; a kitchen*. 

Cbo^ kSO^ a. 20. Approaching to cold ; tem- 
p«ato; notseakmsor ardent; not angry; 
not fond ; indiflbrent ; deliberate ; Impndent 
in a high decree; calm, composed, sdf- 
poasesaea; diqwastenate ; repolsiYe. H., 
eoo^Tjf, ad. ; eool'tun, a. 91. 

Cbo^ a. IVeedom firom heat or irarmth ; a 
teaaperatnre approadiing to cold. H., cooj'- 
itk, eoof-hMdea (nneizoitable), Ac, a. ; eooT- 
eiip, cool-tanJKard (a kind of weaJt pnnch 
onntainlng bOTage, Ac), s. 90. 

Cbol,n. ToaUayheat; to make cool or cold; 
to aDay, appease, or leaaen (as anger, paas., 
desire, seal, Ac): to render calm or indlf.: 
— yi. To become less hot; to grow cool, in- 
diilbrent, Ac H., eool^in^, p., a.; eooUi, 
pn. ; eooFer, c 89. 

CM^, -<r, s. Anything which cools ; areiH- 
genmt; a refki^erator (brew. ; diet.). 

6W/NL -e^ & = coa'fte. A mral inhab. of the 
Western Ohaats; h.,aporterorcarrier(E.L). 

CboMi, kS&m, & Soot nrom the month of an 
oven; alao matter firom the narea of whe^. 

CboiMe^kd0m,c45. Adrymeaa.(=4bash.). 

Coop, kSOp, a. 22. A box or pen for fowla, Ac, 
grated or barred on the one side ; a cask or 
oarrdt ; a tnmbrel or doae cart*. 

Cbop, Tt. To pat or confine in a coop ; to con- 
ime in a nar. oompaaa gen. 13L,eoop'm^, p. ; 


Cbtp$t, kOS-pT, B. n eoo'pit, -pe. 
motion in dancing. 

Cboper, kCOpT-ftr, c One who makaa {coopi ; 
i.c) caaka, barrela, Ac H., (to) eocf^irt, 
Tt.; coofffHngXt p. (also trade or occop.), 
c ; Ac 89, 90. 

CbM'MV^ -i^e, s. 45. A cooper's workshop ; 
also his bosincas, and chargea for work done 

Ghop^eratt, tI. To act or work tog. See Om-. 

Co-mr^MU, ko-or'HiIn-ittf, a. 26. Of cqnal 
rank or degree H., eo-or^iinatelpt ad. : co- 
or'dmatmtMi or eo-oftttfMi'Hon (state of in.), 

aio<,kS&t,cA8maUblackwater-fowL [c9i. 

Oopi, kOp, c The head or top of anytiUng ; a 
conical pile or heap ; the conical ball of 
thread on a spindle 

Oopaiba, ko-pft'-bd. c =s cojMffa, et^'i 
{q. r.), UtTtam of d9, A liq. terebinthinons 
aobatance naed in medicine, Ac 

Oopal, kd'-pU, -P&11, s. Llt,clear gam ; appr., 
a pale and Tcry hard resln used in Tamiahes. 

Ooparemtmy, ko-pdrs^-te-dr-a, c 25. Joint- 

Oopar^ettur, -fe, c AJolnt-hdr. [heirahip. 

Oopar'*emp^ -e, c Eqoal ahare of an inber. 

O^^artntr, ko-pdrtf-ner, c A Joint holder or 
partoker; a partner. H., eoparfn«nkip 
(chiefly reatr. to trade, boaiiieea, Ac), c 90. 

Copartnery, -nfir-e, s. 25. State of bdng co- 
partners (in any sense). 

(%^kdp«^c AcoT. ibrthehead; akind of 
aaoerdotol cloak ; anything apnad or ex- 
tended overhead ; a coping. 

Cope, Tt To coTcr with a cope; to meet or 
enoonnterf :— tI. To striTc or ccmtend on 
eqnal terma, or with equal atrength: to 
deal emalatlTelT (foL by i0iM). B^dtping, 
p. ; eopei, pp. (r. L) 

Oopernieim, ko-p«r'-nXk-^ c Of or relating 
to Coper'nieue or his system, (ast) 

CopTiea, Ac See Cop^. [tion of a wall. 

Cluing, kdptf'-Ing, a. The top or sloping por- 

Cbptows, kv-pe-tta, kdptf'-Tiial, a. 45. Abond- 
ant in qoan. or In anppUea; ample, jplentifol, 
exaberant ; not concise. H., oi/'ptouMlff, 48, 
ad.; co^pJOMifMsa, c 91. 

OopUmdf kdo'-Und, c A pleee of ground ter- 
minating in a cop or angle ( 

. . >*r.) 

Copped, k6pt, c =■ eopp'Ud, Bising conically. 

Copper, kdp'-to, a. A well-known metal; any 
Tessd made of it, par. a large boiler :— pi., 
copper coinj. H^ coppfer (made of), com'- 
erwA, wpflery (cent, tasting, smd. of, Ac), 
e ; eopprer-hottemed{ilbMAXMai with), eopfer' 
faeUmed, Ac, c ; eoppfer-plaU (one engr. 
on: alao a print hrom it on paper), eopfer- 
mnO, Acc9a 

CopperaaX, -Aa, s. sagreem eoppTermXi, Grade 
sulphate of iron.— iflue eopperast. is crade 
sali^ of craper; white da.,cr.ralpli.of sine 

Coppice, kdp'-is, c 45. A wood of small growth 
(par. one abound, in ondcrwood fit for fbel). 

Comle, kdpl, c a eopp'h-eUme, 45. See 
Cobie, Cop, Copped, Ac 

Oom/t^kdp'-ro-lTt^kG'— &,s. The petrified 
dang of camiToroos reptiles : fossil mannre 

a>|iro&ur, -Uf -Ik, c Of or like coprdite. 

CbpropAa^otM,ko-prdr-d-gtts,a. 45. Feeding 
on excrement [ Ac ), a. 90. 

Co!|Me,k9ps«,s.85. A coppice. H^ MifW'y (haT. 

Cvpe«/*, Tt To preserTe underwood. 

C^He, kfip'-tik, a. Pertaining to the Copts, 
or to their language. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


(kfiittM. THa lMi» of the Oopte w»g i ptl—. 

Go^ttte, k5p'-a-l<l, •. 18, 9. lit, a iood or 
tte: appr., the trord (I.e.— » or <»-mo<) 
wliteh imltei the subject and pre<Neate (lo^.)* 

Cbpuiate*. k«p'-a>ltt«, a. 18. Joined. 

Ovulate, Tt To unite* ; to join In palrt^ :— 
"H. Tounltaiaeexaalembraoe. H.,Mf^vUU- 

^* Pi ^niaUd, pp. ; e(>pi(to'«Jon,S6,a. 89. 

CbfnitoMpe, -It, a. 46. Thatniiitesoreooplet; 
that eonneetB sabjeets or predieatea (aa a 
oop.opnj.). H.,(a)«»p'«itf««,a.(gr.). 

Cw>k^-«i«* An arehetype, ay t oyr ., or orig. 
work ; Biore eom. an imitation or tranaerfpt 
firooi me eane; any ImtL or likeneee, or any- 
thing Ibmed after a pattern ; MibjeetHBat- 
ter or MS. (typ) H., eofff-kook, toffyriffht 
(exolns. prep, in a literary work), &c., a. 90. 

CbpV, H. To write, print, draw, engr., or form 
after or like an orig. or patten; to tnowerlhe, 
transfer, imitate ; to imit or fbl. in manners, 
haUti, ibe. :— tL To imit. or try to be like ; 
to do or aet In fanit H., Wj^fimg, p., a. ; 
eof^isd; -Id (oflf^yarf— Wo.), pp., a. ; w^igr 
(Mp'yer— We.), coffyiat, s. 89.--A cofryhiff- 
ia a nnok. for oop. letters by pressnre. 

O^yAoM, -hAd, a. Tenure 1^ eopy of (n 

rial) eonrt-roU. (teg.) H., oep'yAolder, e. 90. 
Cbp^yM^i HM, s. A eopier or transcriber ; appr., 

a eerrile imitator m Uter. or the fine arts. 
a»9iie<, k<HUf , n. TbJUt:-Ti. Totriiein 

lore, in order to deoelre and disappobit, or 

to gratify ranity. H., eogt$etfmff^ p., a., a. ; 

eogutttM, pp.; eoqutfty (aetor state dn.s. 89. 
CbffMtte, ko-kftf, k6k-«^-J., a. 99. A girl 

whoeeqnets; a jilt. 
CbqueU'i^,'Uik,%. Ooqncttf-tike ; iitf tlogly 

pretty. H., ooquetfiMift ad.; mtqwteith- 
Cbfs kOr, pfx. See CbM-. [Mewt, s. 91. 

a>rae2«, kdr'-ai, a. 96, 40. A boat formed of 

wicker-work oor. with leather or oil-oloth. 
Cbruoo^d, kdr'-«-koyd, a. 20, 22. Shaped like 

a erow's beak. 
Cbrol, kflr'-il, a. aa Ahard sobs. (ofTarlou 

sbadca of red and wliite), ibrmed by polyps 
intheooean; also a toy made of it. H.,e0ra^ 
(made of)^ a. 90.— Obrol-riy is a limeatono 

oont. coral (gaol.) ; eor'ml-wortt tooCh-wert 
(hrmllMeom, -Tr-eh'tts, a. 86. => cor'0Um4, An. 

Of or like ooraL 
CbraU(Avieiii^-IIf-4!r-(la,a. Oomtainlng eoril 
Cbf^oM^bm. -e4onn, a. 9& BesembUng coral. 
Cbr'alma, -un, s. 45. Goral-Uke snba. gen. ; 

small moes-Uke corala. [like coral. 

Cbr'mlMd, -loyd, a. s eoralMa^ 22. Formed 
Orft, korb, a. 96. AbaaketosedincolUerlea; 

a certain ornament (arch.). 
Obrft'an,-in,s. AUtlng8acrlflee(ane.JewB): 

an alms-basket; a gift, alms. [(fort) 

aM^«ti,-«,s. A little basketflUed with earth. 
0(n¥a^ s. The rrar. of a basket ; the Taae or 

tambour of the (3orinthian ootnmn; a niehe 

in a waU. (arch.) 
CbreifJe, kdr'-kOle, a. = eoKevlNm, L. ; Mf^efe*. 

17. The heart of a seed, or the embiTo. (hot) 
Ctr4, kord or Mkord, s. 17, 96. A smaU rope 

or thicker kind of string; a pile of wood 

(a 8 X 4 X 4 feet = 128 enb. f.) ; anare, 

wika (Scrip.). H., wrdf-maktr, eenf-wood 

{tot Am), oe.. s. 90. 
Cord, n. To bind or fasten with a eord : to 

pae wood, fto. H., eordittgi p.; aprtted, 

pp., a^T. 6.) 89. 

aNi^iVV,-l|«,s.45. OordandropeBcaL(nnt). 

CbnFmU, -tt«, a. aE= cordfated. Heart-shaped, 
(bnt) H., wrdledeiy, ad. 91. [fHar. (Fr.) 

OordtUtr, kor-de-lfr^', s. 26. A Franeiaean 

Oordmly kord'-y'fil, kor'-je-ti— Wa., a. Proc 
tn>m the heart ; affec, heartfelt hearty, sin- 
cere ; cheering the heart or spirits ; inrig., 
rertvlag. H., eord^iallf, 43, ad.; PoHtialr^ 
fMast, eordiaUty, -y'AT-ftpe, s. 9L 

Cbrtf'fw, s. Anythii^ wh. otnnforts or exhfl. ; 
dilute spirit aromatised and sweetened, osed 
aa a beverage ; a warm stimntant (med.). 

Cbr^Mil«se, -^me^ Tt 60. To render oovdIaL 

Oordi^arm, konf-e-fonn, a. 26. €k)rdate. 

Cordon^ kor'-dOny, s. 99. A band, a wreath ; 
a row of juttinf stones bef. the parapet (fort); 
a Hne or series of military poitts. (F^.) 

Cbntoeiofi, kor-do-TAn', s. ae eortfiecMi*, -wtne. 
26. Goatskin leather, orig. from Oordom. 

(3>niiMiArMr. kord'-wSn^-dr, sl m l ei' rf 'ii Mi *. 96. 
A shoemaker. 

Gbfv, k<h>#, a. Tlie heart or Inner part of anv- 
thing (par. of fruit); a disease of ehect(fiMPO. 

Oortd^ k5CTd, a. Salted, ready for Arvtay. 
(herring-fishery.) [or mlnerala. (ad.) 

Onfy kort s. 26. A iNuftet for tai ly in g eoaln 

Coriaetoif, kdre-o-ft'-eh'tts, ko-re— K^ Wa.> 
We., a. 85, 27. Of or reeembUng leather. 

CbWis»Mi«r, -te'-dar (T. su.), s. 25. Theanm* 
seeds of a plant of the same nasM. 

Corinthian, Ko-rlntii'-yAn, a. 87, 45. ee Cb- 
ritUi^ia^, -e-ftk. Of or rel. to Opr'mth ; H- 
oenttons. £L, CbrinlA'iafi ordsr (aroh.). See 
Currant, [licentious peraont. 

ObrintH^ian, a. An Inhab. of Ooilnth ; a gay, 

OBTimn, kar/-e-«m, t. The ^oe skin. (L.) 

ObrJk, kork or kiwrk, s. 96. The outer bark of 
a cert tree ; also anything formed of it par. 
a stopple for a bottle or Jar. H.,oorJfc(made 
of), oorl^y (made of, res., tastlnff of, fte.), a. ; 
oeirl^-tttUer, torf^-jmekH (a float), certf^^ermf 
(an instrument to draw corks), fto., a. 90. 

0^ Tt To doee with a cork; to stop up or 
confine. IL, corkittf, p. ; corked, pp. 

Cbnn, korm, a. 26. = tar'mm, L. A Aert 
roundish rhisoma. (hot) [fig., a glntten. 

CbrmoraiK,kor'-rao-rflnt8.26. Theeea-raven: 

Com, korn or ki«n-n, s. 8, 96. A single seed 
or grain of any of Che cereal grasses, or snelk 
as crow in ears ; In a gen. sense, the eame 
in bulk or (|nan. (no plu.): appr., wheat 
rye, barley, oats (Eng.), matae (U. S.) ; also 
tne plants wh. prod, thorn ; grain onreaped 
(par. wheat) ; any small hard partldet ; a 
homy induration, eom. on the toes (snrg.). 
H., wTf^Un, oorri^ (hard ; eom-Uke, 4nu» 
a. ; vmi-^Aidty con^-brash (a coarse sheuy 
llBMatone), eom'-ehmndler, oom^-crmk$ (the 
oom-orow), com'-eutUr (a reaper; a 
chiropodist), mmf-jidd, eom'-JUor (ham- 
floor), Mrn-land (appro, to or tt for), eom'- 
laios(thoseair. theimportatkmof eora),eeni^- 
lofi (a granary), eoni-mettr (an offlasr who 
superintends the mcas. of com), eoml m dU ^ 
eom'-stalk, tom'-ttone (red limestone), te., 
a. I oem'-MfNl, csm^-flag, atn^-fiowtr, wn^- 
rou, oom^-rodkfl, Ac.(names of plants), a. 90. 

Com, kora or k&um, Tt 26. To granulate; 
to cure meat with aalt in grains. H.,eerfi'- 
iin§, p. \^^^ PP<) A* 89.— Cbm'-M^ e= 
corned beef. 

Cbm'o^, -ajf, s. An ancient kind of teovre. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


],%, 8riftBd(v. 

•. » iwi w't—flfg. A 
itiilliiiliiBi; antdeWniiM. [bonur. 
efarwM^lBaR'-e-fli.a.ML Ofor like hora ; 
<k — , Is'-airv c IS. TIm «xt«nMl point 
- ilfoO) 


' (ek. «ra.), eof'- 

) «nM and the 

I. ML ABolM.«K.ofoboe; 
vet; tkeeCvhobeen 
«i MiBaee ef a tioop ef eemlry; aa ear- 
feaiBit; tteavt of a kone'a boef iaua. be- 
kv Hi yalva (iv.) ; a little eap «r paper 
fchifl M Jl ■ M BB {>Mh-)^A MTt^tt-m^puT- 
ta> (T^O ]■ e MA-taneA ten ftmSahed 
t €QnCiaL Ose i^o plaje 


Oir'eM^ -att,4. Tlie era va won lij the no- 
bOltjr; aa orn. head-dreat, or anythiaf like 
it(peet.). H«, A)!^^!^/ «< (weairiBff, or entlt. 
to ivear ke.), a. 90. (akaped. 

(hrott^fifrm, ko-rdn'-e-form, a. 96. Crown- 

arMk»a^kdr'H>-oo7d,a.96,22. Notlngoert. 
praeenek (anat) (toft oa •eeda. 

Cbr^oMiI*, -aaU; B. la. The eoronet or downj 

Oorporal, kor'-po-rftl, a. S6. Of or reUtiag to 
tke body ; eorporeal*. H., cor^j^oraltjh ad. ; 
corporaVttif*, -It«, a. 8L 

Cbr^poraltU The loweet nan-eoMialaB. oft of 
a oompaoj of foot (miU ; an off. under tke 
niaater-at-anna(BJ4.). aJ^porml$kiptM.90. 

Chr^poroL a. - wt'fmrml^ ; eonordTU, L. A 
linen eioth need to eorer t&e dementa of 
the eadiariat (Bo. Cath.)« H., eat^porul- 
oalh, ko^ a. ML #- i ^ 

(hrporaU, k^r'-po-rlU, a. S6. United In a bo«r 
or commanlt7, and legally empowered to act 
aa a aingle peraon ; naited, feneral, eolleo- 
tive*. H., cor^paratthh ad. ; ca/'poraUttom^ 

Cbr^poratei, yL To nnlte. (a. 91. 

ObrporatioH, -r&'-ehdn, a. a eor'^oraZftv*. A 
body politic or corporate, created by charter 
or iMvinff a eommon teal ; appr., the ousni- 
dpal anuoritiea of a town or dty. 

Obr'porator, -rftt«-dr, a. 2tff. A menibar of a 

Cbrportal, kOi^-ie-ia, -pOr/-e-}, a. s eor- 
po'r§ou$, -Oa. 35, Ear. a body ; material ( aa 
opp. to Rpiritoal). H., corpcf really^ 4i» ad. ; 
eorportatitUt -It^ corporBiiif, -rr-lt-«u a. 91. 

OiHN/VM/i^, -1st, &. A materialiat. 

Oarporifu\t -pdi^-e-fl, a. St. To embodj. H., 
corpvnMtMii^^ M, a. 89. 

Oorpt, korc, a. (pL, oor^, kdro.) 99. A I 

a oompaay ; appr., a body of troops ; a diri- 
alonoianarmy. (Ft.) (of ahumanbeinc. 

a>ff7M,korpetforkJU0rpe,a.26. The dead body 

Cby^MAm^ W-pQ-l«ht, a. 90. 18. Having aa 
ezceee of flesh or flU ; bulky, fleshy, robust. 
H., eor^pulentiy, ad.; «oKjM(Icnci^ -Ifins^ 
eor^ptdmetft -ee, a. 91. 

Oorpiuole, kox'-pfia^ -poskl*— K., a. 96, fS. 
s= eorpu^cuie, -kOk. A minute partide ; a 
phyaical atom or mdcenle. 

(»rpu^eular, -kd-Utr, a. 18, 95. s earpuaeu- 
M'rioH^, Of or pert to corpuadea : notlng 
a cert system of phydee {corpwfeuiar phU- 
mfopky), [for the cmrpns. phOoeoiihy. 

Cbf7«fciMarum,-lire'-e-ttn,s.45. Anadrocate 

Cbrroctet, ki&r-rftd«', Tt. ToraboiT; to hoard; 
to serue together. 

Oorreet, k6r-<«kt\ kftrti~K. (and ao la all 
other like words fol.,— -K.), a. 95. FMe from 
fault or error; right, aeoorate^ precise^ 
exact. SU eorreettyt 42L ad. ; eorreetnsu, 
a. (v. V.) 91. See CbtietaL 

Otrreef. n. UL, to make or set rig^t or 
straight; appr., to bring to the com. stan- 
dard of truth, jnstice, proprietr, taste, or 
morals; to remove or retrench faults or 
errors ; to reclaim or attempt to reclaim br 
punishm. ; to obviate the quaL of one ingred. 
or subs, by another; to rectify, amend, ehas- 
tiae, punish, remove, chasten ; to mark the 
errozB on a proof-sheet (typ.)» H., eorreet'- 
inf, p., a. ; eorreefed. pp., a. ; eorreetor, a.; 
eorree^tUm, 86, s. (v. l] 89. 

Oorreeikm, -rSk'-shiln,a. The act of correcting, 
tco.i also that which rectlflee or correcU; 
' 118 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ponSdunent, aBlmftdTonloD, eritieal notice, 
sc (t. t.) fto oorreot. 

CbrrW^Jmoi, -U, ft. Able, tend^ or intended 

CbrretfUve, -Ut, a. 45. HaTing power to oor- 
reot H^ (a) eorrHfHve,B,9l. [magistrate. 

CbTTMuior, kdr-r^'-e-ddr^ s. 99. A Spanish 

Cbrrf2at«*,kdr'-re-l&ttf,B.17,26. AcorrelaUTe. 

On'reUOe, -lat*'— Wa^ We^ ri. To hare re- 
eipr. rel. (as fltther and son, prin., sciences, 
Ac). H.,MKrtl0(iNtf,p. ; eofrelated, pp., a. ; 
eorrelaftton, 86 (recipr. reL), s. 89. 

CbrrvtoMw, kdP-r«'Hf-UY, a. 25, 46. Having 
reoiprooal relations. H^ eorrelfaiivefy, 43, 
ad. ; eorrdfatweneia, s. (r. t.) 9L 

•CbfTiqMfMi, kSr-res-pdnd', Ti 17, 36. Lit, to 
answer or be adapted one to another, as purts 
of a whole ; to be congmons or suitable ; to 
be equal, adequate, or proportioned ; to fit 
or suit; to answer or reply ; to interchange 
letters. H., corretpoiurmff, p., a. ; comt- 
pontTedf pp. ; fto. 89. 

Onretponamee, -iate, s. Fitness, congmlty ; 
friendly intercourse ; interchange of letters, 
also the letters themselTes; in the>l»M orts, 
proportion of parts. (▼. i^ 

"OorraporuF^iU, tat, a. Sulteble; adapted; 
ocmgruoQs; answerable. H., eomapontf- 
Mtily, ad. ; correspotufmee, wrretponatney^ 
-se, B. (▼. so.) 91. [letters. 

Corrkpcndfrnt, B» One who communicates by 

Vorrtnondfingt -Ing, a. (r. t.) H., wrrea- 
pontringly, ad. 91. 

Cbrrapotmve, -pSn'-siT, a. 45. Adapted; an- 
swerable. H.,MrrMpoff'«<e«^,ad.(T.T.)91. 

Corridor, k6r'-re-d0r«, s. 36, 99. An open 
gallery or aisle round a building leading 
to several chambers (arch.); the exterior 
coTered-way of a fintincation. (Fr.) 

Cttrrigmdot -Jfin'-d^ s. pL 99. Things to be 
corrected. (L.) 

Cbrrv>^>kdr'-r»-jlbl,a.36,46. That may be 
corrected or reformed ; punishable. CL, eor*- 
riaUdff, ad. 91. 

CbrYieatet.-Yftte,vt To draw water out of ser. 
streams into one. H., eorrivaftion*, 36, s. 89. 

CbrroboratU, kdr-r6b'-o-rint, a. 17, 35. 
Strengthening: confirming. H.,(a) corrob'- 
onmt, s. (med.) 91. 

OorroVoraU*, -riU, a. Oorroborated. 

CbrroVoraU, vt. To strengthen or make 
strong; to confirm ; to estab. H., eorrot/o- 
raUmg, p., a. ; corrw'oraUd^ pp., a. ; eorrob'' 
orant, s. ; corroboraftion, 86, s. (v. su.) 89. 

Ourob'oraHve, -Iv, a. 45. Able or tend, to cor- 
roborate, strengthen, or confirm. H., (a) 
eorrob'orative (med.), s. (t. ▼.) 91. 

Corrode, kfir-rOd^, n. « oorrSdiate^, -e-Rt*. 
25. To eataway by degrees; to prey upon; to 
Impair, waste, or consume graouaUy (app. to 
mat, body, or mind). H.,corrff(ft»^,p.,a.; 
corrOd^ed, pp., a. (t. i.) 89. 

Cbrr&*dmt,-«a!t,tL, Having power to corrode. 
H., Meorrifdent, s. 91. 

Corr«r^dibk,-XtLtuU. That may be corroded. 
H., eorrodmittv, -bll'-It^ s. 91. 

Cbrrodif, kdc'-ro-de, s. s oor'odjf. 36. A cert, 
allowance to the kingfirom an abbey or relig. 
housef. [H., eorrotibifitv*, -It-e, s. 91. 

CbrrotibU*, kdr-rO'-tfU, a. 45. Oorrodible. 

Oorro'tion, ndittn, s. 35, 85. The action of 
corroding or consuming by slow degrees. 

Comftive, -slv, a. 45. Eating, consuming, 


erosive ; hav. the quality of corroding. H^ 
eorro^twelff, ad. ; eorr&nveneUt s. 91. 

Oom/oive, s. That which corrodss. (med.) 

Oarmfiontt kdr'-rOO-gftnt, a. 36, 18. a eom^- 
9m^,-j#nt84. Having power to corrugate. 

Qn'ruffate, -g&te, u. Wrinkled. 

Oor'ruffate, vt To wrinkle or purse up; to 
contract or fSorm into little foMs, ridges, or 
rucks. H., oor'rvgating, p.; eor^rvgatod, 
pp., a.; eot'rugdior, s.; oormgaftioH, 86 
(act, state ; also a ftold or wrinkle), s. (y. i.) 89. 

Corrupt, kfir-rfipf , ktLr-t|-K., a. 35. . 
tainted, putrid, unsound ; depraved, vitiated, 
debased; without integrity; not genuine; 
perverted, fklsified; infected with errora, 
mistakes, or vulgarisms. H., oomipl'ljf, 48, 
ad. ; eomipeneit^ s. 91. See Correct. 

Cbrrvpe, vt To change fnmi a sound to a 
putrescent stete ; to render corrupt (in any 
of the prev. senses) ; to waste, spoil, or con- 
sume; to defile or pollute; to dmrave by 
allurement; to bribe; to debase, iSdsify, or 
render impure (as lang., fto.) :— vi. To be- 
come putrid or vitiated ; to lose purity. H.« 
oorrvptfmg, p., a. ; eorruptfed, pp., a. ; eoT" 
rvpter{t.,oorruptfroit),B,i eomqftfible,n.i 
eormp'tUm, 86, s. (v. i.) 89. 

Cbrnipfi6/e,-Ibl,a.45. That may be corrupted; 
liable or subject to corruption or decay. H., 
comnCMv, 48, ad.; eorrtgft^ibkntis, eor- 

. r^pttbUity, -bU'-ItH), s. 9L 

Corngttfible, B, The human bodv. (scrip.) 

Oom^Uon, kdr-rfip'-sh(ln, s. The act or stete 
im. (v. V.) : the prin. by which animal bodies 
tend to dissidution; putreseenoy: putrid 
matter ; loss, perversion, deterioration (as of 
monds, integrity, ftc); wickedness; poUn- 
tion; bribery. [of tainting. 

Cbm9rf»ffc,-rfipf-Iv,a.45. Having the quality 

" * -les, a. Incorruptible. 

Coramr, kor'-aftr«. -nir^'— K., s. 36. A pirate : 

a piratical vessd. (So. Eur.) foorpse. (poet) 

CoroOf Tul9nte, kdrs£-Ja.. P., Wa^ n 36. A 

Coro^lH, -let, s. A small light cuirass; the 
part to which the wings and legs of insecte 
are attached (entom.). 

a)rset,kor'-sdt,s.36. A bodice; ladies' steysj. 

Obr'teot, tftzhf, s. 99. A train of attendante. 
(Fr.) [ (parltoment) of Sp. and Port. 

Oor^teo, -t«c, -t«x— J. ft M., s. pt 99. The stetea 

Cbr<0x,kor'-tfiks,s.36. Bark, rind, or peel. (L.) 

Cor'tical, -te-kAl, a. Of or relating to bark ; 
barky; external. (bark; res. bark. 

Cor'tieaU, -late, a. = eoi'tie&tod, -«d. Having 

Cortinferouo, -slf-^hvfis, a. Producing bark. 

Cbr<tc(fbrm,-«to'-e-form,a.38,36. Like bark. 

Cortioo9e, -te-kSs^', a. 45. = cor'ticous, -kfis. 
FuU of baik; barky. 

Corundum, ko-rOn'-dtim, s. Adamantine spar. 

OoruscarU, ko-rfis'-kfint, a. Flashing, (v. i.) 

Oonufeate. -kftt«, kor*— We., vL To throw 
ott vivid fiashes of light; to fiash, glitter, 
sparkle. H., conufeaUng, p., a.; corutf^ 
eated, pp. ; eoruMoa'tion, s. (v. i.) 89. 

Oonueatwn, kdr-fis-kH'-Shfin, s. 36. A flash 
or sudden burst of light ; gutter, blase ; in- 
tellectual brilUancy. (v. v.) 

Corvetto, kor-v^f , s. 99. A sloop of war ; a ship 
of war carrying not more tfaan 30 guns. (Fr.) 

Corvine, kor^-vin£, a. 36, 46. Pertaining to 
the crow or raven. 

Corymb, k&r'-Im, s. 36, 45. s oorpnbut, ko- 



. MHL,ahfladordiHt«;aelBilflr 

of bertiai*; a tamp, diMw flow, at the 
&Kbf (tat). H^ mr^mthimUd (nnidMd 
yKlA\9orwmV t ^ 'm m CpttidoeiByorbeartofy, 
r feoBiL of eor. ; Id dwten), e»- 
f (eoK oTHttla eor.), *«., a. 90-1. 
r*,fcfr-»4r-«a,a.98. Tbe loader of 

IH V^ kOa:. a. Ftam the Ue of Ow or 
ikaasL B^ Cha-Mteee, fte^ a. ; lualaofaft. 
tt»kL),4»i^a^oUoaff,ti0Bfated, poddodt. 

icipce.of the oom- 
oT ia are or angle of 90*. (geom.) 
kOe'-lB-Ue. a. 90. A eertalii irrit 
pBwjMinn of lead, (leff.) 

See riMi tnmt 
kflaarft^-lfc, a. IS. That 

iMr ; haaatifria*. H., cotmeCi^iy, ad. 91. 
tt— pc^a. Aay exttTaalappMeatkmfarpre- 

ttFttoK, rartoT— or proaaotlBs pera. bean^. 
OHfa^Us'-aift, a.seoe'anMl.W. BeL to 

^ ■ ■M , or tPT i a ihle nature: rieliigoreet. 

^ttfteaaafaaL). H., ee^anea/Zy. ad. 91. 
fllMenn, -siaf'-o-Be, a. 90. The oreatkm or 

HhVcbevorkI; the eeienee of the origin 

orAoaatieB of the oniTcne (phyaiee). H., 

^tmma^omM (one Teracd in), ■. 90. 
^ammtfiie, haa-BBO-«rftr-Ik, a. = commo- 

mmtieaL SS. 45. Pert, to coemography. 

1, I J iirwwflla, ad. 91. 

AtaMp^, •aSg'-rif^ a. A dcaer. of the 

«Hl ar anivcne ; the idenee which in- 
I the eonatitatlon and rel. 


OMta^k&r-tlti^t.Keif'tetal. Bibhcd. 

QmHm, kte'-tlr, a. 17, 49. Ut, omrded, 
•tnflM ; Ik, hound or eonflned (app. tq ioae- 
tkm or ohaCni^ of the bowdi) : eoBitlpatvd; 
tHom, hard, Impenncable*. H., eo/U^d^, 
ad. ■ Mf'lMWfwai^ a* 91. 

Outlf, kSaf-le, a. 17. Of high priee; ezpen- 
aNe, ^nable^ preelon. H., ooffMneM, a. 91. 

Qtatman, -DAr-e, a. The herb aleeoet. 

OMdiaM, kte-tflm^', a. 17-8. The atyle of draif; 
the charaeterlstie dreip of any par. ace, 
plaoe, pereoo, natloB, fto.; eorreip. of all the 
detaila to the eharaotera and einmflBib (pa.). 

CbMft, U/-ie, a. sr oo'evt. Snuf, oomfor.; 
onatty; cng. in faok and UTely eooTertatioB. 

CbCfkAis. AamaUeoCtafe,ahat; aoote: a 
amall had* ; a swinging oed-fhune or eradie: 
a Uttle boat* ; a eotqueanf. 

Cbt-Umd^B. Landattaehcdtoaoottage. 

CMam'gtnt, a. See CbMeanl. 

(hte^ hOttf, a. A ootf; a bo«, ihed, or phMe of 
shelter for email aninuda ; a dote-hoose, 
•heepfold, fte. [Umponrntoutj to, 

OoUmporaf'mouM, wUwfpormnit fte. See Om- 

CoUne, kO-ter-6'. kdt-S., kdi-rT— Fr., s. 99. 
A eirole or olno of fluniliar friends (par. of 
feahionable buUea). [whetstones. 

Cotiadai*, -tlk'-O-Ur, a. 18. Pert, to or fit for 

CbMUofi, ko-m'-yfln, -yOn/— Fr., s. m cofW- 
ion. 99. The name of a danee. 

Ootquttm*^ kdt'-kwene, a. A hnsy-bodr in 
feminine aAdra. [oonntry (as downs, ftc.)- 

Ootnoold, kdts'-wfild, a Sheepeotes in an open 

CbUagtt k6tr-aj8, s. 46. Orlg.. a cot ; now, any 
small boose (par^ if suborban or mstle) : a 
small Tilla (= cottagt omio, or'-nft.— Fr.). 

OoWageTt -fir, a. One who Urea in a cot; one 
who Uvea on a oomnon rent ttt% (leg.). 

OotteTt k6t'-«r, s. = eotfier*, -y«r. A cottager. 

Cotton^ kdt'n, a. 46. Of or pert, to cotton. 

CbWon, a. A species of reg. wool obt from the 
pods of the eotfon-fUmt ; also cloth made of 
it H., cottfon-mui, eottoitrprtm^ eotfon- 
graag, eoWon-^hrub^ Ac, Ac, s. 90. 

OoU'on^ Tt To floff or beatf :-t1. To rise with 
a napt ; to nnito or Join {wUh)%, 

CMfonf, -e, a. =s eoWonout, -Os, a. Soft, like 
cotton; downy; pubescent 

axy2a,kfif-e-UI, s. « <»fy<ere-ie,Or. A oaTlty; 
appr., that of a bone wnleh recelTea the end 
of another. (L.) 

Cb^y/tfdon, kdtre-lfi'-ddn, ko— We., s. 99. The 
seminal leaf or seed-lobe of a plant, which 
nourishes the germinating embiTO, and then 
perishes (bot) ; a genus of certain plants. 

Cotyl^daiunUf -fls, a. Bar. or pert to cotyle- 

'Jflg-t "With au erect limb, (snat) 

CbtyU/ortHt -Ir-e-form, a. 96. Har. a rotate 

Ooueh, kowch, s. 33. A seat or place of repose ; 

a bed ; a layer or stratum (as of barley), slno 

the nuUt-floor on which it is spread. H., 

eoueh'ksi. Sec, a.; eoueh'-fMmo*, eoueh'- 

ffrass, Ac, s. 90. 

Onteh, Tt To lay down or repose on a bed, 

Ac ; to lay down in a bed or stratum ; to 

place dose to or within ; to conceal,or express 

obeeurely ; to inTolre, include, comprise ; to 

fix (aa a spear) in the rest* ; to deprees or 

remove a cataract (surg.) :—tL To lie down 

(as on a bed or couch) ; to lie down or re> 

dine on the knees ; to lie in a bed or stratum; 

to lie dose, concealed, or in ambush ; to 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


-stoop or beo'd down; to erouch. H^eowcft'- 
<fM, p. ; eovehid, pp.: etmchfer (iIms a bed- 
fellow: ULoeoUit) a fMtort)» s. ; (a) eouoV- 
iang (depreadag or Ttttotiog oataraot; 
■preading malt; Ac), 8. 89. [ndaed—her.). 

CoueKcuU, -4nt, a* I^g down 7 wttli the head 

Oomkm^ltXStM'%t ■• M. Bedttme; h., late 

Oom§at, ao^-gdr, a. The American pinther. 

Oomghf \6U •• 17. ▲ aonTnlslTe action of the 
hiaga, oeeas. a ■onorooB expulsion of air 
throogh the glottii: the morUd habit of 
do. (path.). 

OtmgK ^ To expectorate (foL by vp) :— ▼!. 

To hava. or to make the noiae of a coogh. 
»<wvV»a#, p.,a.; eoivAf* Pjw; 
; eough'tng (act or fit of), a. 89. 

Cbuik^prt. SeeCtaM. 

Owttar, kOle'-tSr, a. See CUf<r. 

Ooumarmti kSO'-m^rla, a. SS. The fragrant 

principle of Tonquin beans. 
Ommcilt kown'-all, a. 28. An oaaembly met 

Ibr eonaaltation, or oonrened to glye odvioe ; 

mbly of prelates and ditiaes to r^. 
I of doctrine, &c (eocL); aa act of 
deliberation or eonsnltatton. H^ coun'eU- 
hoardj coim'cU-iablt, ice., s. 90. 

CbMi'dMor,-ltlr,s.35. Amemberof acoondl. 
H., eotm'eiUorsh^ a. 90. 

€bmi$el, kewn'-eSl, a. 28. AdYice ; direction ; 
deliberation ; oooaaltation ; interchange of 
opinioa ; prnidenoe^ deliberate opinion ; evil 
adrioe or desigaa ; aeereoyi aeoret opm. or 
pnrp. ; porp., design, will, decree (scrip.) ; 
one (or naora) who advises in matters of 
law or eqnity, or who pleads the dausea of 
olients, a counsellor or advocate (leg.). 

Otnm'ael, vt To give advice: to advise; to 
exhort, warn, aamonish, or iastmot; to re- 
commcnd*. BL o<mn'$$Umg, p. ; eaun'uiUd, 
pp. ; eoun'uUabk*, a. (v. L) 89. 

(Mm'tailor, -lir. s. 2S. Oae who advises 
aaother ; an advocate, barrister, or counsel. 
H., ooun'saaorsA^, s. (v. sn.) 90. 

Count, kowat, a. 28. Number ; reckoning, or 
act of numb.; total amount; a par. ehurge 
in an indictm.,or a dedar. in pleading (U^.) ; 
a foreign title (equiv. to earlT; an earlf. 

OomU, vt. To number ; to tell or name one 
by one ; to reckon or compute ; to place to 
account; to ascribe or impute to; to consider 
or regard as beL : to account, esteem, think, 
or judge:— vL To swell the number; to 
reckon, acheme, or rely on (fol. by ii/km). 
Hn counting, p.; couMtd, pp.; counter, 
a. ; countable, 45, a. ; (a) countina, a. ( v. L) 89. 

CbunUnanee, kown'-t£n-aDS«, a. 23, 46. Lit., 
the oontimta of a body, or the whole parts 
wh. eonstUute the fig. and ext appearance ; 
appr., the form of the face, or system of 
features; the visage; air, look, aii>ect, ap- 
pearance ; favour, good-will, patronage, sup- 
port ; show,resemblance; credit, estim.(l^.). 

Coun'tenanct, vt To favour, enoonr., support 
H., eoun'tenancina. p. ; coun'tenanced, pp. ; 
coun'tenancer, s. 89. 

Counttr, kown'-ter,ad. 23. Contrary ; in oppo- 
sition ; contrariwise ; the wrong way. 

Coun'Ur, pfiL s contrli, expr. opposition, con- 
trariety. See, Host of its comp. are with v. 
and «., aad are aelf-expl. (See Wow, or re- 
fer to the principal word.) 


Obmter, kown'-tfir, a. 28. A coin, medal, or 
token, used to keep the acore at games; the 
fixed table or beard in a shop, fte,, on whldi 
bna. ia trans. ; an auditor* ; a cert metrop. 
prison* ; counter-tenor (mns.). See Onmt, 

Oountend, kown-tfir-flkf, vt 28. To aet in 
opp.; to oppose, hinder, defisat H.,fte.89. 

Cbtm^srocf tof, -Tv, a. 46. Tend.teeounteraet 

CounUrhatanee, vt To weia h againat H., 
(a) coun'terhaUmee, s. 89, 90. 

CbiNifarfrH^, vt To repel or strike back. H., 
(a) aoun'tertt^, a. 89. 

Cbunterchanfftf, vt To exdiange or rae^ro- 
eate. H., (a) eomiftsrehanfo, a 89. 

CbmUercharm'f'ft. Todiaaotveordeetroythe 
efRectof enchantment H.,(a) eomf tmvk i uw t, 
a. 89. [H., (a) eoun'tm-ckcek, a. 88. 

OowtUrehedf, vt To oroose, rebuke, cheek. 

Gnm'terd$-ain, s. A dnon parallel to a canal, 
Ac, to oolleet the leakage. 

Oinmterdraw',rt To copy a design by tracing 
the lines urongh transparent paper; to 
ealqne. H., (a) eoun'terdrawing, a 89. 

OnaUerfdt, kown'-ti^fft, a. 28, 45. Fabri- 
cated illegally ; forged, flotlttous ; deoeitftd, 
hypocritloaL H.. ooun'Urfeitly*, ad. 91. 

ChwfUrfeU,^ A cheat or impostor; anything 
wh. is counterfeit; abasecoin,d:e.; aforgery. 

OotM'ttnfeit, vt To fSorge ; to copy or instate 
with intent to deceive or defhind; to ftign 
or imitate :— vt To Mgn ; to dieiemble. H., 
oomfterfeUing, p. ; cowtterfeitti, pp., a. ; 
coun'terjdter, %.icomn*terfeaing, s. 891 

Cou»Uerfe$aneo\, -ie'-sfins^ s. ragery. 

Ooun'UrfoU. The correep. part of a tally or 
check. (Exoheq.) [joiata. foarp.) 

Coun'Urgage, -gfljs, a. 46. A method of meas. 

Onmtermana, kown'-tfir-mdnd, a. 28, 9. A 
revocation of a ibrmer order. See Cbaimafui. 

Countermand!, vt To revoke an order or 
command. H., ftc 89. 

Countermarch', vi. To march back. H., (a) 
eoun'termarch, eountermarch'ing, a. 89. 

Ooun'termark, %. An additioaal or par. marie : 
an artiH cavi^ made in the comer teeth of 
a horse to disguise his age. H., (to) oomi- 
tmrmark, vt 89, 90. 

CountermiiMf, vt To mine in opp. (odL) ; fig., 
to finstrate secretly. H., eounUrwnn'ing, 
p., a., s. ; (a) coun'termins, s. : &e. 89. 

Ooun'termure. -mOr^, s. 18. A wall raised 
behind anouer. (fort) 

Counterpane, kown'-tCr-pIn^ 8. 28. 46. The 
upper cov. of a bed (ong., formed or woven 
in squares) ; a quilt or coverlet 

Ooun'ierpart, s. The corresponding part; a 
copy or duplicate J a key or cipher. 

Counterplot', vt. To oppose one plot by an- 
other. EL, (a) eoun'terpkit, s. ; drc 89. 

Coun'terpoint, s. An opp. point ; a coverletf ; 
the setting of notes so as to indie, the har- 
monyof puis; the artorscience of harmony. 

Ontn'terpoise, -poyz/;, s. 22. An equal weight; 
eqoalitv of 6pp. wdght fbroe, or power ; a 
mass of metal to give steadiness and balance 
(meoh.). [counierpoiting, p., a., s. ; See, 89. 

Oounterpoistr, vt To counterbalance. H., 

Coun'terpoiton, s. An antidote. 

Coun'tet^actiee, a. Practice in oppotfitian; 
prescribing over the counter (drug tr.). 

Cbun'tenroqf, a. A reversed copy taken ttom. 
a still wet print by means of the rolling- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


k ocmr ot a dciig*. Id Imd tr 
dttlk, ofaUined bj Mlqataf aad fMMue. 
H^ (to) com'tarfrom, ^ ; As. 89. 

CMMtw^vO, s. ▲ooimtarpvtorMpj. (Icf.) 

ifci— HtwMiy, t. M*€mmeUfnomrf, Thoastorior 
jtopt •# the dito)^ «r tlMil next tW «MBj*« 
em^; alw oAca, the vhole eevwedpway 

Oj ie tfim> », komi'-tftr i^t, §. SS, 80. Apriv. 
fll^al, VMtekwerd, er peee wurd (mIL); a 
eooatei^^igMtsre. H^ (to) •oMntervfan', n. 

ComlUrn§mmL^%. AreappB. ilgiMd. (oftv.) (89. 

JhrmUvmifwUmt^ a. The lif . of a eeevetery, 
or otter aaberdineSe oAoer, te that which 
hie he« ahraady rigoed by a ioyerkr. 

CameUrmmK^^ To driU eoeieai depraMfamB 
toreeeifetheheedaofeef««e» fte. 

CmttUr-Umor^ %, The higher tenor, (aie.) 

OMoi'tarfuM, e. Beaietanee of a hocee to hie 
imer peeee (Bum.} ; h., reeielaiice ec eno- 
eltioB fCBerally. [of a play. 

OamtUirtmnX^ a. The height or denoaeinent 

Oww'/w'eei7,-^1g^a. Eqoal wight, etw^th, 

, It. To aet againet eovaSr; to 
oanpeneate. O^ 4ke.89. 

OMinletf, kownr-te, a. 28. The oenaert of an 
carl (O. A.), or ef a eoant (Cent. Enr.). 

Owf«y,-lBg;a. The aet ef ennaiaf arif , Ac 
H., mum Vi m f hot rn or eo m mfi m f n a m * (the 
vooM er roone apfr. to the hooka, aeeoonta, 
fte.,iBatred.erBBere.eet.),a.90i S e eChw ar . 

Ommtit$8, a* Inni f M r a h l e> 

OmmtrifitdU kta'-tre-fii«^ a. 88. Baatfe; 
roatie in air and mien. 

Chitalry.ktiB'-tre.a. P«rt.tothecowtr3r,erto 
|roT«diatrieta ; niatie,nual ; rttde^aataaght. 

Ctm^lrfh a. Orlg., the kuHl about or near a 
city; iL, a ivhole territory (aa opp. to Marely 
awy);anyregioBortraot<tf land: akiog- 
4aa,atate,artarritary; alaoitainhek; ene'a 

(aa opp. to 
water); mral parte (aa opp. to torn or city); 
proTineee (aaopp. to a metrop.); ajuiT or 
JBrocaOeg.). It hae nnin, oemp. ; eaw w^y 

r (eoi^ra-daaee), cmm'trf-tttd (a eonn. 
xaald.), mmn*irymka» (a metie} a dweller in 
the e.: one born in the aame c), fte., a. 80. 

aNeU!p,kowB'-te^a.S8. Oforperitoaeoon^. 

CbMi'Hf, a. Oriff., an earldom; BOW, a elronit, 
diatnet, or bubot territorial dir., maint. for 
dr. or jadL pnrp. ; aahlre; aconnt, earl, or 
lordt. H., eom!ty-co%irU eouaftiy-iown (one 
where the eewta are held), &e., a. Com'tff- 
p0irmttme, ia one hairii« par. priTilegce. 

CNffMi^^t a. 08. Om ' 


rdaneing; a.?o«P|^< 

Om^m, k«-p8', -fA'-E.^ 8., a. A motioB in 

aM«rfe,kapa.a.l8,43. Prim.,attnfcorehain; 
III, two <tf the aame apedea or kind, taken or 
legarded together; a pair; a braee; the 
BMle and iMule ; appr., a man and hia wife. 

OMtpri^'vU Tojoinor linktog.; tomarrr:— 
tL To join in mnt. embraae. H., eoiq/Mn^, 
p., a. ; coupled^ kOpId, pp., a. ; (a) eamffHiig 
(also, that wb. nniiaa)« ci%tsflemml^ (onion), 
a. 88. [a pur*. 

CbiQiM. kiip'-4et, a. Two linea wU^ rbyme ; 

CbiqMB, kS5'-pdn#, a. 99. An intereat oertlil- 
cato attached to transferable boBda. (Fr.) 

Omrmgt, k«r'-fij«, -)9*ft-K., Wa.,a. 86, 8i, 45. 
That %BaL of mind wh* beatowa indiC to daa- 

lea w — ' le. Aeartakn 


geraaddifBenltiea; aetHtiortitBae; opirit 
ofenterpriae; brarery, fearkaaaeea, ▼aleor. 

ObBrdpi0«a,k«iHr^-y'te,a.8f,4S. Kadewed 
with eoBraga ; brare, daring, in t re p i d . H., 
eMM^jeiiH|i^d8,ad.; eoMrdreawiMaft (eenr- 
age),s.91. [daneeorjif;i 

€b«raiil, k6&^ria^,.a. » ea 

CburftorO, kAr'-bd-m, a. 

Otmitr, k6&r'-»4r or kOO'Hre-ir, k»-ff8flr'— 
Ja.,Wa.,kffyHr»«— P.,nr.,a.99. Aapedal 
BMaaaBger; aa ezpreaa; K, alee a nawa- 
peper: a liaielllng altaiirtant, 

Onirft, kdra^^ a. K, 88. Prim., a BiOThit or 
BWtioB iM w ar d a or onwarda, wlthlB Haalla, 
a aeiMe which U fetaiB% either lit. erig<« in 
all its nnm. appL : aa— « raes, cereer, paae- 
ing, paaaega, m. ; theaetofmBniBghathe 
Uate,ertimng; direcefmotlea; way,iBBta, 
Toyage, traefc of aaOiBg; land, water, air, 
i p aea^ or aaba., paaeed orer or throBgh; a 

raee eonrae or raeo'^roand ; a ] 
proaaaa, er peog r ea a m ef ttfe^ bi 
fta); order or gradanoa ; ord. efpffoeeeding, 
diaewt, &e. ; order, torn, asBo e aaio n j bs., 
reg., er ord. made of procedure (ea of law, 
dee.) ; aariea of proc. er of acta or appL (aa 
in BMd. treatBi., An.); BMthodleal eenea or 

Siaa (aa of leatBrea, iaetr., *o.); career, 
wayof lilt; ceadBCt, behar., aeriee of 
mas maBBcr of proc, Ihie of coBduut; 
BBtbcBt, propeBcity, InaiiBeticB ; crdfaMry 
atmstors, agwtem: any rag. aeriee; eB4>ty 
formt ; a serrice of dianee, or thoae eetvpon 
the Uble at one time; aleTelharl8.1ayerof 
atonea. brioka, *o. (arch.) :— pL Tlie lower 
aq.aaila(nant.); theealaaieniat.— iSfeoMrtat 
= by natural oonaeq., or by eettled rale. 

Cbiraa,n. TOhuntorparane; tornnthroagh 
ororer:— ▼!. Tonm; tonmormoreabent; 
to prac eonraing. H., mm € m m ^ p. ; cpwraed. 
pp. : (a) eomnftr, a. (▼. L) 88. (fpoet.) 

Oamiltr^ -«r, a. A awift herae; awar-herae. 

OraraW, -Ing, a. TheaetorpraetioeofhaQt- 
ing> with greyhonnda^ 

CbMr<,k5rt«,a.S8. An BBcerared area attached 
to a hooee, a ooort-yard; a reoeae tnm a 
atrset, or a email paved apaoe anrr. br honaea ; 
the palaee or reaidenoe of a aor. prlnee, alao 
the penona who form hia retinae or conndl ; 
a hall or plaee of f notice, alao the indgce or 
ofRcera who preaide there ; eny jnriedaotion 
(ciTll, mil., or eocL) ; the art of pkaaing; 
civility, addreaa, flattery; fbah. diplomaey. 
It bee many oomp. :—oottrf -trails, oourr- 
Mw, ten a.; oonrtM^ (r. L), e.; cowri- 
har'on (the oonrt ineidant to a maBor), 
eemrf-breeimffX* emrt-mrd (s eota-^attd^ 
one having a coated flg.). eowl^tk^ktm, 
eomrf-daif (a day on which a conn aita; a 
day of atate at conrt). «mrf-drai (that al- 
lowed at conrt or levee), ^onrt-faxtow^ eourt- 
kmtd (engroaeing), anirf-homt, nurt-lady, 
Mwt-Uet (aeeX«fO> amrt-pku'Ur (toilet or 
aticking pi.), couirH-yard (v. aa.)» te, a. 80. 

Omt^ kdrt«, vt 16. To pay conrt to; to aoli- 
cit,aaak>ver; to flatter, aeek, aolioit, woo : 
— vL To act or play the coimier*. H., 
coMrftfV, p.; eourVidy ppu, a.; tmirVm^^ 
evurtier (fT, courr«tan\\ e. ; evmifing (act 
of paying addreaeee, te.), a. (v. L) 89. 

a>urt-«ar<»aZ,-mdr'-^'Al, a. (pi., eeimrt9'mm*' 
tmi.) AcoorteonCofQav.ormiLoffleera, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


aMemUad forflko trial of oOnden in tbdr 
mu6ctt^ aarrlOM. 

kftr'-eh»-tts— WA.. a. Of elegant mannera ; 
allUde; polite. H^ MMrfeotit^, 48, ad.; 
comfMrnneu, a. 91. 

QmrUaonf kflr'-ta-xte, a. ts eourtmmt kdr*-, 
A ftfhiooable proatitate. (r. an.) 

Cbirfe^. kflr'-te-ae, a. ElepmoeofmaiiiMra, 
par. wnen oomb, with kindneia and beoom- 
ug dignitj; poUteneia, ciTllitj, oomplala- 
anoa; an act of elrility or reapeet; fiiToar 
(aa in tmmrg fly eourtfety—ltgX 

Cbirleay, kdrf -ML a. The act oTaalntatioa or 
xereraikoa perf. hj women. H., (to) courts- 
^, tI.; wutUftyimg, p.; eovrUitedt -aid, 
pp. 89, 90. [of oonrtly mannera. (r. au.) 

CbtirtMr, kdrt^-yfir, a. A fbq. of ooorta; one 

Oourtflag*X%.%, BetCurtU^. 

Gnarftina, -ung, a. A hangeiMm at eonrt. 

Obmilf, k0rtf-le, a. Belating to, reaembling, 
orworthyof aeoort: elegant; refined. IL, 
etmrt^ht, ad. ; cMrf mmol a. 91. 

Onirf «^, -ahip, a. Ooartmg or wooing by a 
proftaeed lover, aolidtation, Ac See Omrt 

Omtm, kftz'n or kOz'-xn, a. 85, 46. A kina- 
mant : aayoollat. relation more remote than 
a brother or aiater : appr., the ion or daogh. 
of an nnde or annt (ss eou/m,Jlrgt-etn$^m, or 
cotafkhfferman; the next reap, generations, 
httog Meond-Mtafitu, third do.. ice,)i a title 
of addreai Aroma king to a noble. iL^eowf- 
inUt (oooain-like), a. 90. 

OnoSj kdfy-m^, kd6-tS'— Fr., a. 99. A fine 
Tarletr of oanyaa ticking. 

Cbvtf me, a. A small inlet, ereek, or bay 
on a rooky ooaat; a fellow^. 

CbM, Tt. To arch over. H., oStfingt p., a., a. ; 
ooT^d, pp., a. (teoh.) 89. 

Cbtwnan^kflT'-e-n&ntyS. 17. An agreem. bet. 
partiea to do or not to do aome direct act or 
thing ; a compact, oontr., or stipalation ; an 
engagem. nnder aeal, as above (leg.) ; a ao- 
lemn leagne or compact (eocU) ; a promise 
made by God to man (theo.). 

OmfMontf Tt. To oontract; to stipolate :— tL 
To bargain; to agree ; ftc H., oot^MumttM, 
p. ; emfmtmUedt jq^, a. ; cotfetumUr, a. (v. C) 
89. [made. 

Ooveiumieet -V, a. One to whom a covenant is 

Ow^eiumterf -^, s. (v. v.) Appr^ one who 
Joined in the great Scottish religioas league 

Omw, kdv'-fr, a. 17. Anything which Is laid, 
aet, or apread over aomething elae; a con- 
cealment: a aereen, veil, dlsgnise; a lid; 
anperfloial appearance; shdter, defence, 
uotection ; the retreat of a fox or hare 
(hunt) ; woods, oopee, ftc, which ahelter 
and conceal game (sport). 

Cb'MT.vt To overapread the aorf. of anything 
with another snbs. ; to lay or aet over; to 
hide or conceal from view by something over- 
apread or intervening; to dothe ; to wrap or 
infold; to overwhelm ; to conceal or aoreen 
itom notice, pnnlshm., or disctosore ; to shel- 
ter, protect, defend ; to disguise; to engen- 
der or copulate with; to equal, meet, or 
be eqniv. to (comm.); to purdon or remit 
(acrlp.). H., cot^€rk%g, p. ; twftrtdj pp., a. ; 
ooa'arwt***; (a) aWflrwv, a. (v. a) 89. 

CbMr«Ii^kiiy-okl,a.4ft. Aamalllidorcover. 


Cba'aKa^, 4tag; a. Anything whiA cowra, 
wrapa, conceals, Ac (v. v.) 

Cbr'm^ -1st, a. The outer covering of a bed. 

CboerC, ktlv'-firt, a. 17. Concealed ; priv. ; In- 
sldlooa : under cover or protec, aa a married 
woman C/«MM-ooe<r<or/«»MM-«otMwrf— leg.). 
H.,0ov'ertfif(aecretlv),ad.; 0oe'«r<iMaii^a.9i. 

(Mert^ a. A place which aiforda ahelter and 
defence; a thicket or cover. 

(Meri^wnfft -wi, a. s ecnfered^waig. A level 
road or space on the outer edge of the ditch, 
commanded by the glada. (fort.) 

Oovertwre, ktiy-4rt^r«, a. 17-8. Shelter ; the , 
atate of being a married woman (leg.; v. au.). 

OowL kttv'-St, vt 17. To desire or wish for 
with eagemesa ; to desire inord. or unlawf . : 
— vi. To have an eameat desire for. H.» 
Cfnfetmgt p., a. ; eovfeted, pp., a. ; ecnfeUTf 
a.; oo&etabU^ 45, a.; eov^etmg, a. 89. 

Cbe'a(<(v,-lng,a.(v.v.) H.,oo^<rtNv)y,ad.91. 

09vetou$, k<iv'-«t-<is, -fr-chas»f-Sh., a. 17, 45. 
Eager to obtain; inord. deorous after (aa 
money or goods): avaricious; greedy. H.» 
eoifttomly, 43, ao. ; cov*et4num$m, s. 91. 

Cbtwy, kttr-e, SL 17. A brood or hatch of birds; 
h., a email flock of birds (ch. app. to game); 
a email comp. or assemblyt ; abevy^. 

Cavity kttv'-Xn, a. A fraud, agreem. or com- 
pact to the prejudice of a third party, (leg.) 

Oomnfff kdvtf'-Ing, a. The projection of the 
upper atoriea of a house over the ground- 
plot, also a par. form of ceiling (arch.) :— pL 
UMTt. parte of a flr^lace or atove. SeeCbve. 

OavmmtSj kflv'-ln-tta, a. s coifmou^, CoUu- 
dlve; fraudulent. 

Ono, kow, a. S3. The female of bovine ani- 
mal (appr., of the buU) ; a cowlf. H., couf- 
i$h (also timorous*), a.; eovf-h*rd, wmf- 
houUi co¥f-ke^0r, eouf -leech (a cow-doctor), 
Ac, a.; eM0'-5<me, eovf-paranin, covf-qwAe$f 
cow'-weed.eoitf^wheat, &c. (planta), s. 90. 

Cbiot, vt. To depress with fear; to dispirit; 
to dishearten. H., eott/mgi, p.; cowedU 
pp., a. 89. 

CbM^-Alcle, -hld«, a. Cow-akin, or leather made 
trom it ; also a coarse riding-whip. H., amf- 
hidet (to whip roughly), vt. ; confhidmgXf 
p., a., a.; Ac 89. [by vaceination. 

Cfow-pox. a. The mild pustular disease prod. 

Coward, kow'-^lrd, a. = coufardly. S3, 35. De- 
void of courage; timid, fearful, daatardly, 
base. H., ooio'arif/y, 43, ad. ; eotff'arcttmeu, 
a. (v. i) 91. 

CoH/ard,%. A timid or puslHanimoua person ; 
a poltroon ; adastard. H., ctmfardUkeX, a. 90. 

Cbio'an<<0e,-dls,8.46. Ignoble fear or tinddity. 

Cbtasr, kow'-^, vt S3. To cherish with caret : 
— vL To aink )>y bending the knee ; to shrink 
throng fear. H., eimfering, p., a. ; oovi/- 
«rMf,pp. 89. [on the pods of a cert plant 

(bu/hoffe, -Qj«, 8. 45. = cou/iteht. The down ^ 

Onol, kowl, a. S8. A monk's hood ; the cover 
of a chimnev which turns with the wind ; a 
water-vessel carried on a pole borne 1^ two 
men. H., ootolerf (hooded), a. ; oomiv-eiaff 
or cor«tq/r(pole), a. 90. 

Cbiory,kow'-re,8.S3. A small shell wh. passes 
aa money in the £. I^ Afr., fte. (100 s= Id) 

Oovf^Xip, -flUp, a. A species of primrose. 

Coxcomb, kttks'-kfim^, s. 40, 45. Something 
like a cockscomb wh. licensed fbols formerfy 
wore in their oapsi or the cap itself; h., a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ibPf UBOft€0t*HWWyT<6linOW» £U|MC^ 
CMBBOMT Wvl|» •• f UUWlU Z ▼Snl. I nflli)* R. VV. 

ay,koT,a.lS. Hoc Msearibto; iMMhAU, re- 

MM^ & SL [eoy*. 

Om; Tt Tb ■nvrtt :— tL To bo l oo m ed or 

OfT'Mfti-Ml.o. SooMwkateoj. H^osy'UUIr, 

^od. ; co^itJiw oio, o. 91. [howk;aeolotrU. 

€^pttnlf mojm'-tnif 0. S3. A opo. of defoooroto 

Cbofk kok, 8. B com i w {Jbj eoatr.). 

Ouem, kt^ n. 4A. 1>» eheot; to deeetro. 
fi^ mitm rnf , p. ; ooo'ened) pp.; cnfmer (o 
ohcot), t. ; ooo' CT ia ft, -l^« (proe. offeheotlBf ), 

IVnr, a. Soo Obtf, [o. M. 

Onai^krOvo. Sow; rongli; ooflcro. 

Orm^ «. A vdl-tooirn oheU-floh; a wild 

applet (e>v^-«PV^ • • orabbod peroont 
'1 kind of boiolbf naeh. ; a aifn or too 
. H..era»'like,oraM'y(a]K>difflciiIt«), 

enVaf'tfeg, -Im (eon cr e ti ono ftmnd in 

iriMk), cniy |miio» ortA^-Unug (a titmb. 

Uidy4oMe)» etmV-4rtt (wild-apple}, erat/- 

yoiot, -70^ (a oertaln dieeaii), dre., o* 90. 

OraWtd, -M. a. Awtere^ peoriMi, moroee (oo 

the tcoqMr) ; roagb, banh (app. to tbingt) ; 

d(app. tobuM- 
H., enoM'MU^, ad. ; 

<Wdl|, krik, OkTery ■nperior ; flTitrato. 

ClveA» 0. A dlmiptioii ; a ddnk, llMnre, or 
ererioo: a law ; a partial separation of tbe 
porta 01 a nba^ dtbor witb or witbont an 
opening; tbe noioe of oraektag, or the time 
oeeopled br itt ; an instantf; any sudden, 
sharp, qoftck oonndt ; a smtrt qniek blowf ; 
any porMn or thing eraeked, ebanged, ot 
Impsircdl; a boast or boasterf: snytbing 
dlBiinntit«|. H., axtOf-brmneit (erued), 
a. ; trmdif-itmpH or erael^-rop^^ (one fitted 
to the gaDows), tt^ s. 90. 

Qraek, wU T6 mud, break, or borst into 

eldnka; to break cither partially (as a cbina 
OQp), or eonpletely (as a nntsbell) ; to flaw: 
to split; llg., to braak or rend (as with grief, 
pain, Ac), to disorder or destroy (as the in- 
teOeet) ; to prod, a sadden sharp noise (as of 
craeUng, or of a whip); to snap; to open and 
Mnhf : to tiurow oot smartly, to perpe t rator 
(ataJoKo):— tL Tbsplit;tobaT8tnitoohinks; 
to beeome flawed ; to tell to min* ; to giro 
oat a eraeUng or napping sound; to boast 
or bragf. H., ettumtitff pi, a. ; cradudf 
pp.. a. ; (a) 0rmdfim§ (aet, state, sonnd),8. 89. 
OtMM, krikt, a. SpUt, flawed, broken; 

O-odka^, krik'-lr, s. A boast*; a boaster*; a 
Bolrrflrework; abardbisenit; aninstr.ilor 
craeidng nnts, Ac (▼. t.) 

OmdkU, krikO, tL 28, 4ft. To give out sUgbt 
eradcs or sn^is, nmidly or repeatedly ; to 
crep ltote . H., ermdkUmi^ pw, a. : era/OiUd, 
pp. ; (a) enekfUmi (also the rind of roosted 
pork|).B.89. [biscuit. 

OradinuL -nil, c A smalL brittle cake or 

Orwrfb, krr-dl, s. 46. Tbe monUtle bed or 
■Meune in wh. eiiildrcn are rocked ; h. flg., 
infaaey; a ftame of wood used for many 
purpi ; an iartr. need in forming roessotintos 
I engr.) ; a ease lor a broken limb (surg.). 
H., ^MfHU-ML, 9niile<Mke», Ac., s. 90. 

Chi'^Tt. To place or rock to a cradle; to 


tBcam toiderly x-^ii. To He or lodce, as in a 
cradiet. H., «r«#«iMVP.; trw^MtA, pp.; 
(a) crACliM, s. (r. L) 89. 

aiadiMV,knd<'-niig,a. TbetSabensTlbt,4a.« 
of a vanlted ceilteg. (areb. ; t. t.) 

CK^ krift, krdfl^K., We., s. 9. Mamml 
art, skill, dexterity; trade, baadicraftj 
firaod, cumiiag (at qip. to bad pnrpi) ; small 
sailing-Teasels, par. coasters (nant.). B.* 
etttfUrwtam fan artiflcer, a mechanic), enfld^ 
nuuter (a skilled workman), fte., s. 90. 

CKl/f«, -e,a. Artftd; conntog; deodtlbl. H.* 
c»^iib,48,ad.; en — 

erqffUw, 41, ad. ; en(jfr«MSf, a. 91. 
Ora^, krig, a 8a A steep, rugged rock, or 
rodty pout: the neckf ; a deposit of grairelt 
' mixed with shells (geoL). H., 
a.; ftc(T.L)90. 

or sand, n 

Orrngfy^ -e, a. = eraiftdt -M. Full of craca 
or broken rocks; rugged; unequal. u.» 
erafg^inet$, erng&jtimtn^ s. 91. 

OoAw, krik^ a The corncrake (a bird). 

OramX^ krftm,Tt To preoa or drlre to (as one 
thtog <m anuother) ; to crowd : to All to ex- 
cess, or beyond satiety fas with food, Ac.) ; 
to stuir or thrust to by force \—yfL To eat 
greedily, or beyond satiety; to stuff: Ac. 
H., erammiingX^ p., s. ; enmmtdX^ pp. (r. L) 
89.— A emml &s a hoax or lie. 

Crom^X^ krftm'-bo, s. A rhyme ; a play at 
which one gtres a word to which another 
finds a rhjrme. 

O-ammm^ krim'-Iag. 8. Prep, a stadent fior 
exam., and ftim. mm with the requlsito 
answers to the questions wh. will be asked 

a'amp*,kr&mp,a.49. Difficult; knotty, [him. 

Owfip,s. Patofbl spasmodic or tovolun.contr. 
of a muscle, par. of the leg or foot ; ilg., re- 
straint, htoderance ; a piece of iron bent at 
the ends, used to hold tog. pieces of timber, 
stone& &c (eng.). H., eran^yXt •• i cramp'' 
fifh (the torpedo), croffip'-wtMi, d:c., s. 90. 

Cramp, Tt. To pain or aireet with cramp ; to 
confine or restrain ; to hinder fhmi actfcm 
or expansion ; to Ihsten with a cramp-iron. 
H., cnnM'wt^.p., a. ; crampedM.,*^ (▼. s.)89. 

Cramvit, kr&m'-pTt, a The piece of metal 
at tne bottom of a scabbard. 

Crampoom, kr&m-irfR>nz', s. pi. 30. Hooked iron 
dippers used to hoisttog (eng.) ; irons tuX- 
ened to the shoes of a stormfng-party (mil.). 

Cranage, krin^-^^ s. 46. Liberty to fix or 
use a crane ; also ^e toll paid for ito use. 

CratiJberrjf, krftn'-ber-e, s. The small red fkult 
of a shrub of this name ; the mosa-berry or 
moor-berry (Eng., Ross., Amer.), the red 
whortleberry (Sco.). 

CraneK, krdnch, yt. See Orameh, 

Crane, kritof, s. A migratory water-fowl with 
a long beak : a machine for raising and mor. 
heavy weijthte; a siphon. H., eran^-Jl^t 
eran^^-Mu (the geranium), Ac., s. 90. 

Cramognomy, Kr&-ne-^-no-me, s. 80. Prac- 
tical phrenology. 

CraMogg, -dl'-o-Je, s. A discourse or treatise 
on toe skull ; phrenology. H., eraniohg'ieal 
(pertto),a.; eramorogi»t{<me rersed to),s.90. 

Craniomder, -Om'-e-ter.s. An instr.tor mess, 
the skulls of animals. H., eranum'etry, -tre 
fart of), s. ; eraniometriedl^ -m6f-rtk-«l 
(pert, to), a. 90. 

Cranioeoopy, -^C-ko-pe, s. The sdentf flc exam. 
of the skull for phrenological purposes. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

CraiMtm. bft'-ne-ttiB, ktSntf^-jiiml, «. 99. The 

OhxniL IcrAngk, a. e Mvmft'y. 45. Stoat, bold, 
•piritedt ; liable to be uptet, iBflnaon ked, 
top-beeTj (nant.); rlcketji. ISL, oranX- 

Cranky s. lit, a bead or turn ; a eontrir. for 
iiif«ll<n|r a rotary motion into an alternate 
one, or ue rererae (medu) ; also to continue 
a motion or power into and out of, or loond a 
oomer (bell-lL : fte.) ; a metal braoe; fig., a 
■portiTe twitting, taming, or ooneeit In 

(VanJti>,Tt.,TL=scrafa^29.Tooria]de. fepeeoh. 

CratUck, lo^agkX a. 45. ▲ crinkle:—^ 
Small angular prominenoea. 

Oarmf*, krta'-e, a. Pleasant; agr e ea bl e. 

CrawKft 8. Orig., a reotf ; a diink. erevice, 
flnore : Ag., a aetret or Mcladed plaee. IL, 
cromf^ed, -Id, -ne-U— Wa. (bar. or ftill of)» 
a. 90. [erialded aoiiaoe. 

OnofM, kripe, s. A kind of silk game witli a 

Cra^f Tt. To earl or form into ringleta. 

OrapuUntt krftp'-a-lfint, a. s erc^mou^t -lis. 
IS. Drank; sick or forfeited vitli liquor. 
H., eraffulmeet -lfina«, a. 91. 

ChMA, krfiah, b. 9. A sodden, load, eonfased 
noise, as of many things, or parte, ailing and 
breaking at onoe; also the aoUon which 
intidaoes itt ; coarse cloth*. 

Croih, Tt. To oraA* :— -tL To fl^ve oot the 
noise of a crash, (t. s.) H., enuA'M^, p., a. ; 
eroMkedt pp. ; (a) craikliMf, s. 89. 

Oraau^ kr&^-^Is, s. Healthy constitotian of the 
Uood : temperament ; synssresis (gr.). 

Chias*, krfts, a. Qross ; coarseu H., craa^- 
ntt^, erat^immt*, oras^UutU. -e-tOd^^ s. 9L 

Chut'oaisn^, -d-mfint, s. The dot of blood. 

Oraatmation*. -te-nft'-shOn, s. Delay. 

(hvtek^ kr&toh. s. 29. The palisaded or open 
frame in which hay is pat for cattle. £L, 
eratck'-aradUt (of childhood), a. 90. 

CraUt krftttf, a. A kind of cratch or open case, 
formed of bars of wood, in wh. glass, china, 
ftc,are packed ; a pannier or coarse hamper t . 

CMtr, kiil'-tdr, s. lit., a large ci^) or bowl ; 
anpr., the month or apertare of a Tolcano. 
H., craUr^ifbrm* or era^ttroid, 22, a. 90. 

Oramekt krMeh,krtfnch— K., S^ vt. = ermnek 
(q. T.). To crash with the teeth; to chew 
with Tiolence epd noise. H., eramwk'm^, 
p., a. ; eratmehed, pp. 89. 

Chieo/, kr A-T&tr, s. Aneckdoth. 

0*090, Icr&T^ vt. To ask earnestly or ImnortB- 
nately ; to ask humbly or sobmissively ; to 
ask insatiably ; to call or long for; to re- 
quire or demand ; to beg, beseech, entreat, 
implore :— tI. To ask, long, ftc| (fiol. by/or). 
H^ crdtf'tfM, p., a. ; eraved, pp. ; erdv^a-X, s. ; 
crdi/ing (also vehem. or argent desire), s. 89. 

Chiwn, krftv'n or krr-m, s. 45. >= erafvetUU 
Orig., one who did homage to another as his 
enperior, and so yielded bis cause (anc trial 
by battle) ; h., a coward, a recreant ; a ran- 
quished. dispirited cock (gam.). H., eravTm, 
a. : er&v'enly, ad. ; erdtfenneMMt s. 90-1. 

Cfra'^veni, vt To make recreant (v. a.) 

Crafting^ -Ing, a. (v. v.) H., erdtfiuglp, ad. ; 
erdifingneMt, s. 9L [of a fowl. 

CVmo, krAI^, s. 8. The crop, or first atomaoh 

Cravffi$k^ s. = arayrfitk. The rirer lobster. 

CVoto^ krjWl, s. 8. A pen or enclosure on the 
coast for fish; the weU of a fish-boat. 

€NnoI,tL Tomeivaakag aaftwOTBoraer- 
pent; to creep ; to mom xm the haidi and 
knee^ ; to B(»M or wtfk weakjf er alBwlyt; 

to carry Isfovt. H., 

«W p^fc; 

(MNS^Mf , a. (v. T.) 


H., erMcMyfa, ad. 9L 
_ a. SeeCwMjps* 

{>wyoM, kzft'-<in, s^ 25. A small c e to or ed cj- 
liiidar,nsed aa ajwMn; akoadgaw' 
with crayons, (nr.) M., trwffvm j 
*a.,s.90. (skflteh or plsB g 

Ch^odiTt Toaketehwithaerayoa; h.,to 

Craic, krfis«.Tt Prim., to bteak or emsh ; 
fig., to weaken, impair, or shatter the mat. 
force or energy of (aaef the limbs, latsilaot, 
Ac.) ; to crosk or grind (aiL}. SL, 9rmtm§% 
p. ; e rogfo , pp., a. ; 4be. 80. 

OwMd, krixd, a. 45. («, t.) H., erg^^dlw, 
-«d4e. ad.; trdtftdnau, a. gl.— (»wW-anfl 
or crdiim^4iMl, teone for giindiag tin, Ac. 

Ormmi. krft'-se or krfia^-CL a. Brokan, weak, 
feeble; dlsordacad or shaHsred in mind. 
H.. er^wi^h ^ * ad. ; erfl^afaeai^ a. 9L 

Ortak, ki&Le, tI. To gire onta aharp, gialliig 
aoond, of some eoatinaanee, as by tia fHo- 
tion af hard sabs, (par., of a door, or Idnge). 
H., myakmg, p., a^; mmktd^ pp.; (a) 
ereakmg (sound), s. 89. 

Crmm, kxfm^, s. The aemi-ihiid un etneni 
matter which gathen on mflk ; the besfe part 
of anythingl. H.. treamff, trtmt/'fmed 
(pale; ^ward-looUag), ten a.; m twm * - 
ecwf, ttfom i gA »< s y , m., a. 90.— Annas qf 
tof'Uar is bitartrate of potash. 

Onmm, vt To skim off the cream :— «L To 
gather en thesurt; to flower or mantle; 
to grow stiir or formal* ; to fM a creep- 
ing chilUnesst. H., frsaw'iwf, p., a., a. ; 
orvaaitfd, pp. 80. 

aiMm>, -e, a. Full of or like orsaai ; gathering 
like cream ; smooth-taslad, Insdoast. BL, 
crmei^ffi <cf , s. 91. 

Cb-sones, krC-inec, s. The smaU line fiwisned 
to a hawk's leash whsn first lared. (tela.) 

areaav,kr6B«,a The mark left by a foU. 

CWast,'ft To BMrtc or farrow by folding or 
doubling. H.,cnNi/«^,p.;craaseil,pa.,a.; 
(a) ereos'M^, a. 89. [made np. 

Grsa<«*, kre-it^, a. Begotten; oompeeed; 

CNoC/.Tt. Toformootofnottlng, tobrlng 
Into being or esieteaee by orig. power; to 
make or reprodooe foem existiiaig elem. or 
materiala, by iaTcstingthemwidi new forms, 
oonetttutions, and qoaU; to eaase by tim 
agency of deputed power ; to beget, gener- 
ate, or bring forth; to form anew; to r»- 
new ; to make by iBTCStiag with a neweh a r. 
or dignity (as a peerage) ; to prod, or eanse 
(as a sensatkm). H., ertdVing^ p., a. ; o iaJ f - 
cd, np., a. ; eredtor, s. ; cnto'tioa, s. (▼. i.) 89. 

{Vm^mmi. kre-&'-sbfin, s. The act of ersatittg, 
inTcsting, Sec. ; created tUngs; the wotu; 
the oniTcrse. (y. ▼.) 

Ck-eaftummii -41, a. Fertainkig to creation. 

OretifiiM^ -Ut, a. 45. That cceetes, or has 
power or tendency to create. U^mrwalthOy, 
ad. ; er§afUeene$^ a 91. 

Crteftor^ -t6r, s. 25. (f., c»W4r«sa) (r. t.) 
Appr., Qod. H., «rmif t a rMp% s. 90. 

CretUural^, krit^^rt^ a. s tK^t^fwrO^^ 
48. Of or bekmging to a crea toi a. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'Wa^sl la^^M. a— «^ wwmj h>ing tacept 
Q«i the Gteiff; evcwy aiteirted btlng; 
liwpa^ a niBni; • tente (m dktinet 
taMi); nc^Mu; ahauBbilBffCln 
ii i ilii n' ; «- k Mttjr tw i inm i ) ; my- 

■■■B'vkMiwUfenM^ ■mIubsi or poMtiuu 

wQm 1— iiipi), • dependnt, tool, 

p. BL, cr«ar«r«ift»t, 8. Ml 

iT an ■!,>.<§. UMf;c*Mitt;cai- 

* lirti. giw >clai«t»tliqB. 

BrtiefiDff ; CM7 of Mief; 


» kn-tfor-fih'il, «. OHIiig tkto to 

"-1i4 a. pL »-«. (raraly oMd in 

ivki^ Klvaa emttt,«r a title 

: appr., tka letters, 


. . (poi.) ^ 

^a.4&. WortkyofordMWT. 
H^ AvTAJy, a, ad. ; emr- 
, arwdnffrty, -Wy-tt^ a. »L 
CWa; keUr-B, a. AeUaaee on the tnrth or 
iawilrj af aiWMifliliig aald or done; good 
qiB^aBthi^ar *-'*»^-** dvived from eoar., 
imOm, Jk&, or tnm the eonfidenee of 
iftBi; lapyta thill ; kigii ataading or eati- 


aanot JB vB.pB]raMBl8 or 

I.) ; truat xepoaed j 

, alao the time al- 

,) ; the aide of an 

eipla inwards 

l) ; moie» or biU$ «f 

A^Hn4;aaaey or gooda dne(eomm.); 

faB;teadier ; teatxmony; power,infiiieBoe. 
4Mli,n. labdlave^ tmat, or ooaflde in; 

^' — '— " ' — '- •- let to 

o; to 





to of 

Id by 
1; to 

a tick 
» iron 

dlde or radc of gratoa; a aort of grapad 
•aed at sea. [a anbterlkge. 

Oreep'hole, -hdk, e. A retreat ; flg., an ezenee, 

Oeip'Mp, -lag, a. (v. t.) B^ereeg^^f, ad. 91. 

CreMtf iriae. a. A Maiiqr dagger. 

Qrematign^, kre-ni'-ahfia, a. A banting (par. 
the andent praetiee of baming tlie dno}. 

OmiMfM, kra^D0'-iMl, a. A superior Una of 
Tlolia« BMide or inren. at Cremona. 8ee0h»- 
aionM. [Notahed ; indented, (bot) 

annds^ Icrr-Mtf, a. a m^nditd, -ML 

OntuUmn, IcrtaT-dMOrc, a. 18. A aooOop or 
noteh in a leaf or atyle. (bot) 

e>wi'«late.-a-lltc, a. ik Ha7. tbaedga di^tly 
aooUoped. (bot.) 

C^mfU, kiV-oUt a. A native of 8p. Aner. or 
the W. I., deae. firom Baropean aaceetors. 

CnomUt krr-a-eOte, a. ss enuvte, kre'-d-aot«. 
Lit, fleab-preserver; utpr.. a n^bly anti- 
septic, oolonrtesik oily luinid, bar. a strong 
amoky odour and flaToor. fin fleefa. 

Oif'afiiM, -tin, a. ftS. Apee. eryat aaba. floond 

Onpmu^ kr^^-pdn^, a. An nicer in the Ibre- 
pcrt of a horae'e foot : alae a diop or Borateh 
ofthelegcanaedbyOieBboa (fkr.) 

QrepUale, krep'-e-ttt/, tL To make a email 
eraekling noiae, aa tliat of eert saHs when 
and. heated ; to crackle or anap; to break 
wind. H^ ayf^itatmf,p^ a.; ert^iUtttd, 
pp. ; onptttfttoti, M, a. 88. 

Crqpt^ prt^ pp. See Ortep, [-ptWl. TwIHght 

OrepudeuUf lu'C-pfia'-kAi^, e. 18. » erirptiiiel«, 

C Vejm/ oiitor, -kQ-ldr, a. n crv^iii/cHlMi^ -iis ; 
ortmafcudin^, -Bn. 49. Of or pertaining to 
twilight; gUmmeriag. 

Ornundo^ kr§e-e«n'-do, ad. 99. With an 
inereaaing 'volnme of sonnd. (mna.) 

Oasemi, krte'-tet, a. Inereasing; growing; 
crest int-like. 

Crt^cmL s. The new or iner. moon, abo the 
flg. or likenees of it; the national standard 
of Turkey, and h. Sg.. the Tarkiah power or 
empire; the fig. of a half-DKxm (her.). H., 
trttfcenttd (adorned with), ert^em^^aht^ed, 
ifc.t a. 90. [to increase. 

OSr^csn^, rt To fbrm into a ereeeent; fig., 

Oeaairc, krte'-lT, a. 45. Increasing. 

Crm^ kris, a. The name of ser. small, warn 
salad-planta. [watch-tower; alamp or torch. 

Omtf0tl*, -«t,s. The light set upon abeaeon or 

Onst, krfiat, a. Theplnme of feathers, or other 
om., on the top of the ano. helmet : also the 
helmet Itself; the oomb or head-phune of a 
bird ; pride, apirit, ecorage : a lofty mien ; the 
fig.wh.8unaoimt8acoatofarmanier.). H., 
crmfed (bar. or adorned with a toft or crest), 
erunen, ertse-faUm (diapirited), ftc, a. 90. 

Ch^est, Tt To ftamish win, orserve as a crest; 
to mark with long hair>Uke streaks. H., 
eresfinfi, p. ; eretfedf pp., a. 89. 

Cfreat-mariMt -m^rCn/, a. Rodi aamphlre. 

Ofttaetom, kr»-t&'-«h'fls, a. 37, 85. Composed 
of or like chalk ; chalky. [chalk. 

a-etaua^, krr-tBt«^ -ta'— S., a. Bnbbed with 

CWtWj-tlk.a. OfCrete:— e. Apros. foot (-»/-). 

O'c'^w, -tin, a. One of the deformed idiota of 
thcAlpa. H., erf'^imi, -lam (condition^, 

Oe'««n, -fltsm, a. A Cretan practice; a false- 
0«tose»,kre-tas«',kre'— S.,We.,a. CreUceoos. 
Orevasae, krfir-fts', s. 99. A deep crcTice; a 
breadh or raptare. {Fr.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Or€9^ kWlT'-lky ». 46. A narrow openlnf 
isrmed by the lep. of the sabs, ofbodiee; » 
deft, eraok, or flnnre. 

Crt&iei/^, Tt. To creek or flaw. H., ermf' 
Mn^, p. ; cre&iectt*, -lad, pp., a. 9B. 

Cr&w, m^ a. 80, S6b A company of persona 
aawc; a low oomp.; a band or gang: the 
comp. ot a ahip or Ycaael (nant). See Ohno. 

OM0'«(,-a,a. Yam, ilaekly twiated. 

Cnb,ktfb,B, The rack or manger of a stable; 
a stall for oxen; anj small endoanre; a 
small cottage; a cot or child's bed. 

CHb, tL To cabin or confine; to pilferf :— ▼!• 
To be caged or cooped np*|. H., cniibfing, 
p.: erikhed, pp., a. 89. [cards. 

Criihage^ krlV-^tf, s. 46. A certain game of 

O-jUJ^ krlb% s. 46. A coarse aiere or screen 
nsed for sand, gravd, or com; coarse floor 
or meal, also bread made of it. 

CrWU^yt, To sift or riddle. (T. 8.) 

OHbratum\ kre-bra'-shfln, kri— &, Wa., a. 
The act of sifting. Ojiharm.) [(anat. ) 

CH6n>brm, krXb -re-form, a. 36. Res. a sieve. 

Crick, kilk, s. The creaking of a door, &c.*; 
local spasm or orampt (par. of the neck). 
H., (to)cr^, Tt. 89, 90. 

Critkit, -JkXt •. The nimble chirping insect of 
onr kitchens; a game played with bats, 
wickets, and ball; a low stooL 

Crid^et^yL To play at cricket. 'E.^aruAfei- 
Mf , p., a., s. ; criekHer (one who plays at}, 

Oriedt prt, pp. See Oy. [s. ; &c. 89. 

Oriwt krx'-te, s. An officer whose business is 
to make public proclamation. See Crv» 

Crime, krime, s. An infraction of law» oiTlne 
orhnman; an act contrary to riffht ; appr., 
a breach or violation of pabUc or hnman law 
(aa sin is of divine law) ; any great wicked- 
ness or fault; a serious offence; vice; ini- 
quity. H,, erimeffUlU crimeless*, ti.90» 

CnnUnal, krlm'-In-al, a. Violating law ; guilty 
of, involv., tainted with, or pert, to crime ; 
not civil, or between indiv. citizens ; guilty, 
wicked, abandoned, iniquitous; felonious. 
H^ erim'kiaUy, 48, ad. ; erim'indlnMtl*, eri- 
mmaUty, -AlMt-e, a. 91. {crime. 

Crim'inal, a. One guilty (convicted— leg.) of 

Criminate, krXm'-In-&t«, vt. To accuse; to 

charge with crime ; to involve in eriminali^ 
or its conseq. H., eritnTmating, p., a. ; erim'^- 
inaUd, pp.; enm'mdtor, s.: crimmuftion, 
86, s. 89. [volving accusation. 

Crim'inatory, -A-tSr-e, a. 25. Accusing; in- 

Crim'%fum»\, -tts, a. Criminal. H., crtm'm- 
outly\, ad. ; erim'inau»neu\, s. 91. 

Ci-imp*^ krimp, a. 45. Easily crumbled, tri- 
able, brittle; inconsistent, nncertainf. 

Crimp, s. A low kind of agent ; one who de- 
coys another into the nav. or mlL service ; 
one who decoys sailors for the sake of ftum. 
crews at a profit (naut) ; a game at cardsf. 

Crimp, vt. To pinch up m amall ridges (as a 
mme tx the hair); to catch, seizc^ or decoy; 
to crimple. or cause to crimple, oy gashing 
with a knife, aa the flesh of a live fish (cook.). 
H., eriw^/ing, p.; crimped, pp.,a.; (a) erin^'" 
ing, erimp'oge. -8J«. a. 89. 

Crimple, krimp'l, krim'-pU vt. 45. To contr. 
or draw tog.; to cause to shrink ; tooorra- 
gate or curL H., eritnp^ling, p. ; crimp^led, 
pp.; Ac. 89. [colour of crimson. 

Otflwon, knm'-zn, -afin— IL, a. Having the 


CHat'soM, -in, a. A deep red cokmclaellnlBr 
towards irarple; deep red in gen.) E»t 
crimfrnm-luted, &c, a. 90. 

Crim'een^yiU TodyeorooloBrwIfherimaoii; 
tomakered:— vC To be tinged with red; 
to become deep red; to bloahf. "SLtcrimf" 
aomng, p. ; cnm'mtnei, -and, pp., a. 89. 

CHnol, krr-nU, a. Of or beL to the hair. 

CVMMMii|,kiliig'-kfim,s.45. A torn or bend; 
a whim or caprice. [dvili^. 

Cringe, krlnje, a. 45. A low bow; aervlia 

Crinife, vt. To contr. or draw tog. :— vi^ To 
bow ; to fown or act with aervility. H., 
erinffmg, p., a.; cringed^ pp.; erifngcTp 
armgeflmg, a. 89. 

Ow^, kring'-gl, s. 80, 45. AwiOieforfoa- 
tening a gate rprov.); a ring^hole in the bdt- 
rope of a aail (nant.). 

CrimeuUure, kn-ne-kfilf -Ore, a. 18. Cnlt. or 
growth of hair. H., crin^ditt'iiraJ (ret to). 

Cnmaannu, -nU'-Cr-fls, a. 80. Hairy, [a. 99. 

CHntU, -nlt^ a. Res. a tiift of hair, (bot.) 

Crinkle, krlngk'l, a. 45. A wrinkle; a email 

Crinkle, vt. To form with short tnma or 
wrinUes ; to mould into small inequalitiee t 
— vL To run in and out in little tuma or 
bends ; to wrinkle. H., erittkling, p. ; 
crinkled, pp. ; (a) erinkUng, a. 89. 

Oino^intf, krIn-o-l5n£', 8. 99. Borsebair stuff : 
anything aimilar used to atiffen ladiea' 

(MnoM*, lal-nfle^, a. Hairy, [dresaea. (Fr.) 

Crinotiig*, -nSs'-It-e, s. Hairiness. [s. 911 

Cripple\,kti^%.45, Lame. 'EL,er^lenetBU 

Criii/le, a. Prim., one who has lost or never 
enjoyed the use of his limbe ; h., any lame 

Cripfle, vt. To lame, or make lame ; to dis- 
able fappl. to both pers. and thinga). H.» 
criwlmg, p. ; crytg^led, pp., a. 89. 

OipprUngt,-u.xkgt,Kp\. Thecrutcbesorpropa 
set np against the aide of a building, (arch.) 

Qrieit, Ic^-Ob, s. ^1., eri'ees, -sCs.) 99. Lit., 
the formation of a Judgment or determ.; 
arar., the decisive point in any important 
ulair ; the point at wh. any aflkir or condis. 
is at its hdght ; the point at which a disease 
either kills or gives way (med.). 

CVu!p, krisp, a. Curled; indented; brittle, fri- 
able, easily broken short; brisk*. H.iCrt^y* 
(crisp), a. J criep'ly, ad. ; eriepneu, a. 91. 

Cn^, vt To curl or twist ; to contract into 
curls; to wreath or interweave ; to indoit; 
to render wavy or undulating. H., eriep^ing, 
p., a.; eriaped, pp., a.: crupo'ttbii*, 86, 
criu/atHrei, 18, s. 89. [ance : wavy, (bot.) 

CH^ate, •4,U, a. Having a crisped appear- 

Cri^nnX, kris'-pin, a. A shoemaker. 

CHQ>in«toant,-pe-etU'-k&nt,a. Waved (as light- 
nfiig). [tnfted. (bot.) 

Crietate, krtst'-fttf, a. b eriafated. Created; 

Criterion, krl-tere'-e-fln, -te'-re—S., Wa^ s. 
fpL, erittf'ria.) 25, 99. A mark or rule of 
judging; a standard by which a judgment 
or estimate may be formed. (Or.) 

Ottte,krIf-Ik,a. A Judge ofmerit in literature, 
or in the fine arts ; an examiner or Judge* ; 
a carper or Csnlt-finder. See Criiieiam. 

MfictU, -&1, a. =s critfie*. Pert to, prod., or 
noting a crisis; fiwight with weighty con- 
seq., highly impor., momentous ; of or rel. to 
critidsm; nicely exacts Judicious, or aceu- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


nta ; akflkd or tsMt iB diwrlm. ttteraryuid 
artlstlQ merU ; prone to Judge with WT«rity ; 
cepttons, eerplng^ eeneorioniy Ikolt-fliidiBg. 
H^ crUfiealljf, 4S, ad. ; crif teslMM, f. 91. 

Oritiem, krlf-e-tfie, vt. 60. To oeiware; to 
peaBjiidgm.aa:— tL To ezaiiw,jadge, write 
on, or notice critioeny; to plaT the eritio. 
H^ erifiOjrinfi, p^ u, ; erificuedf -eisd, ppw, 
m. ; (a) mTtonrt, ervf ie, a. (t. a.) 89. 

<kitieum,-^xm,9, inagea.aenae,t]ieaeieiice 
or art or Jndi^Bg well: leaa gen., the art of 
dlsbrim. bean^ or tmtn in liter., phUologj, 
and the line arta; appr., eritieal obaer. or 
lei tlewi ^ TCTbttl or written ; animadreraion ; 

OrUiqm,kN^er,»,9B.^eHrief, A eritieal 
examination or easaj; eritidam. (Ft.) 

CritMle, kilsl, a. 45. = crtM^eL A ronghneae 
on the aorfiaee of glaaa rendering it eloody. 

C^vdk, krfik«, %, Tbe cry of a frog or raren. 

Cht&kf'tL X^ make a low boarae noiae in the 
tloroat, aa thatof a frog or rayen; to caw; 
to ntt^ any oAaatTe or diaoontented mnr- 
mora; fig., to forebode eril; to grumble. H., 
4jro9kfma^ p., a.; croaked^ pp. ; eroaktr, a. { 
<a) canaoTMf , a. 89. 

€ral«^kid'-MB,apL NatiTetroopa of Croatia. 

Croeeom, krO'-eb^Oa, a. 85. Of or rea. aaUhm. 

Ch>'cJl««,-tiite— We.,-abfti— K.,8.pL Tbebnda 
or kncte at the top of a deer'a bom. 

a«eA«L krdr.«la, a. M^ Ymy mk pof . with 


H., (to) m/ehet, tL 90. 
OrocA^ krSk, a. A Teaael or pot of earthenware; 

a amall iron boiler : the aoot oo pots, kettlea, 

Ae.*. H., «roeifctl (to amnt or uacken), n., 
Onoeirery, -4i^ a. Earthenware. [fU 89. 90. 
Ctod^H, -H, a. The onrred and bent ikmage 

on the edge of gablea, pfanaolf, fte. (arch.) 
Orodfc'alk -«» &• Smatty. 
Ch>aoJ&. briSk'.o-dllc, hU-P., Sb., Wa., a. =: 

tfroeodtiian, -dU'-yte. 45. Pertaining to the 

eroeodile; fig., bypoeritieaL 
'Oro^oeUe, a. A glgantie aemi-ampbibiona 

reptile of Africa and Aaia; a oaptioiia 

aopMatlral argoaiAt (rbet). 
Orocus, krO'-Ma, a. Saifron ; abo an early 

qnring-flower; any orangeorreddlah powder, 

pear, one obtamed by caklnation* (eMm.). 
(kt^ kriSft, a. 17. A amaU field or eloae 

attadied toe or near a dwdling-bonae. 
atnmleeh,lBAa^^Uk,9.», Gbrtain Dmidlcal 

femainai [certain atop in the organ. 

Onmama, kro4nor-nil, a. == crano'fuif . A 
OnmmmfHm, targm-wa^-yan, a. 45. Oforrd. 

to OUtct GramweU. [(in contempt). 

O'WML krtec, a. Anoldewet;«ioldwoman^ 

^^. , - old and Tory 

av«l^kh»k,krQOk-K.,Wa.,a.»0-l. Any- 



fliinig bent or booiwd (par. at the end): a 
abepBard'a atalT: a trick or artifioet ; a gib- 
be^ B., croer-tedted; erootf-JlaM, itc^ 
n. ; (n) enoH^adt, Ac, a. 90. 

Cmkg -rt. To band; to torn or form into a 
book ; fig., to torn firom reetitade, to per- 
terti z^rL To bend or be bent : Ac H., 
erook'img, p. ; erooktd, pp. ; Ac. (V. i.) 89. 

Qr9oted, -«, a. Bent, conre d; w indiny, 
obttsne ; deformed ; ueiveiae, firoward. H., 
erookedljf, mSL\ erookednnt, a. (r. t.) 90. 

ChMikrJ^a. The craw of a fowl; the top or 
bSghaat pait* (aa aaear of ooni); the barreat 

or that wbicb la gathered, or to be gathered ; 
growing com, fte. ; anything which baa been 
catcloae,ororoppedt (aathehair); thebeUyf. 

H., erop'fidX 

ormmedt (aal 

ttfVff-toredf '%ttA, 

(having cropped eara), erotf-mtk (aiok with 
exceaa), fte., a. ; erogf ii e mett (that from 
repletSon), ftc, a. 90. 
Ovpfft. Toent,plQck,oreatofftheeBdaof; 
to eat alMVt or doee; to mow or reap ; to 
gather before it fldla; to eoltlYato, to take 
oropa fhNn (agr.) :->Ti. To yield barreatf. 
H., eropfmg, p.; cropped^ croptU 65, pp.. 

; trapp^tr, a. ; (a) eropjfmg, a. 89. 

%jr9fl-md^ Ti. To ripen to a crop (agr.) ; ro 
come oat or ahew on the anrface (geol.). 

C^ropffer^ -i^r, a. A pigeon with a large cro^ 
(r. an.) [paatoral atafll 

Oroaier^ ki<^-xb'fo, a. A biahop*a crook or 

CVot{e«,krte'-l«»i'~S.,a. AUttlecroaa. 

Cm»t krte, a. 17. TranaTcne, obliqoe, late- 
ral; adrerae, <q)podto; perrerae, untract- 
able, obatinate; peerlah, firetflil, ill-tom- 
pered; ecmtrary, contradictory, perplexing; 
adTcne, nnfartanato; interohajiged; bd. to 
or perfoirmed by an advevae party (leg.). H., 
ero$tfl}f, 48, ad. ; croci'fMtt, a. 91. 

Ohm, pr. Athwart, ao aa to interaect; over; 
firom aide to aide. 

Cn9»t%, A atraigbt body laid at right anglea 
over another (+); u ancient form of gibbet 
(t or X) ; eppr., the croea on which Christ 
anfliBred, and h., the ensign of the Christian 
reUg. ; alao fig., the relig. itadf ; whatever ia 
drawn or formed like a eroaa, or beara its 
image; anything wb. thwarta, obstructs, or 
perplexea; binderanoe, vexation, miafor., 
trial of patience: a mixing or admixture or 
breeds; the mark (in lieu of a aig.) of the 
ilUterato; ttie euif. of Christ by orudflxion, 
alao the doctrine of the aame, and of the 
atonement (theo.). H., eross'-Uib, a. ; orosc'- 
•oise, -wbtf, or cro uf w€ ty tti, -wSx«, ad. 90. 
It baa many comp. :~croMi'-arai«(l (with 
anna aerooa; brachiate, deenaaated— bot.), 
oroti'-5arr«d (fast bytransv. bars), erou- 
5rMi(ofacroaB-breed; mongrel), «rosi'-«yeit 
(squintinf), ero$^-ffroinea (hav. the fibrea 
aerooa or irreg.; fig., perverse, untractablet ), 
croi^-mit, fto., a.; eromf-har (a sort of lever), 
eroM^-Uarer (the chaplain of a Bo. Catbolio 
archbishop), croM^-MU (an original bUl In 
chancery filed by a defendant; alao a bird), 
cro9^-Uu% (a trick: a cheat), eromf-icm (a 
weapon formed of a bow fostened to a stock). 
croa^-hntd (the progeny of parento of diff. 
-var. or breeds), a^-bm (one marked with 
a +)» eromf-^ut (a cut acroaa; a abort road), 
arosr-exmnina^ium (that of a witncaa by the 
opp. party), ero$$-Jaek, krO'-jAk (a certain 
ill-natured person), aro$^-pieee, cuMf-pm^ 
fWM (an enigmatical game; a contrary pur- 
poee; contradictory conductor syatem),erw«i'- 
reading (one ri^t aerooa a page of columns). 
erot^'Toad (one that crosses the chief road; 
a by-path), erosf'-rfftir* (the alphabet), erouf' 
row, 28 (one arising out of another), erouf' 
tk^Vk instr.for taking altitudes),crasf'-<r»«s 
(eert. pieoea of timber— nant.), croM^-wajf (tk 
crosring; a croaa-road), ftc, a. ; (to) croU' 
examXne (v. so.), entr-Jhw, erou-queiftwn 
(to cross-examine), oron'-cii/, ftc, vt. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


r«B ft Um atlTMrt MoUcr; to sign vitk a 
«roM(tto.Citk.); to tnm orMRcel bf HMrk- 
kif wttk erow-UMs (freq. ibl. Vy oM< or ^ ; 
topaMorBioveoTenorironaiMtoiide; to 
tbwait, otetroflt, or Uadcr ; to ycrplwr, em- 
Imutots, or annoT: to eoanterMt, ooatrsvene, 
or hinder by uu. ; to oloob or ko inooBoio. 
•with; to ooBtnuUet; to bor poynoat to 
boortrbytpdoroiniont(M aohotiio nnaw.); 
to orow the brood (v. oo.):— vL lb lio or bo 
■Mkwort; to novo or poM loteroUj, or from 
plooe topkoe; to bo iaoonaia.*; Ao. H., 
orow'ifVtf.; sroMo^pp^a.; {•,)eroat^m0,BM, 

Oroufmm, -laf , a. A ploee of paaoiiif . (r. ▼.) 

Qrwieh, MtSi^ o. S9. A book or orook; a 
lark or fNkiBg ; the parting of two logo or 
WonakM. H.,«roto»e((kr8oht(«orkMl),a.M. 

(Motdifet, -M, a. An eoeentrie torn of orind, 
a whia or fiuwjt ; a iorked woodM aapport 
nwOd.) ; anote ( f ) s two qoaven (mm.) ; 
abratiketerkook( Ut^lM^eroUh'M, 
(marked with), orH(M'«^(wMaMtoal)«a.M>. 

CMm, krOr-tte, a. Of or fiKMathaaro'ton %'- 
NMn. H., enft o m ci l,*. 9h 

Ooifdk,kroweh,Tti8. IbaignwithtbeenMf; 
tobkiBt:-Ti. Tobond: toitooplow; toUe 
oloee to the ground; flg^ to itooy or act 
aeaaljroracrTilelj; tobwBorerinfo. H^ 
mvmkffmg, p^ a.: eroueksd (-M— a^. iiw). 
pp^a.89. (oftbokrTnxandtraehoa. (path.) 

{)hM4i^ krCta, a. s oroM*. SO. laiai ' 

Ohrnp, B. The lUBf or a fowl; the 
of a bovae (above tko UpaL 

Ohmpadt, kxC^^Md/, iTm, A evtafai Inch 
higher thon a ewret (maa.) 

CKwpiw, hrSV-pe^, -pir«-K., a. M. The 
I the eanto aad ooL the 


Crami,; SeeJ3no«e. 

C¥m9,krQ,B. Alargobkok^>ii4tfaitfMdaMi 
eanton ; the Totoe or ooag of a ooek ; an iron 


k tm er 

( OTMCr •^toiaiff* « ttOm-^Mit €t$9tr- 

§ak, fte. (Bamoo of phmta), e. : €rme ^ k m 
(alao aaoare-ocowK «mw'«r.M< (a Uadef 
eepa-ewrg.), ovwV-^WC* (wriakka «i 
the eyoi), ca^ Ae., a. M. 
Om0^tL Orlg^ to oroakf ; to «7 or ihiff, as 
a eeok to Jot or deflanoe; tg.,l» hoMt in 
triamphftobaUfOrvapoart, Hn«r«ii<aay, 

p.f a.: ^rrnm-f 

pp. ; W^'vir'*"f« *• ^* 

M'eiMli krowdf a. Mm ^nm.^ 
a nmnbor of pevnM eoL and ooBtoMdly 
umn i tog.; a thtwng, ooneoBrae, maltf- 
tnde; a mob; a amber of thtnga tegn or 
near tog.; tg., the vulgar, the popnlaee; a 
prea w icmoa o medley; aMltipUoltr wkh eon- 
Moa (aoof ideaa,4to.); afiadof ▼ioUnt. 

Obww^TC Topremormietog.; toflUwtth 
a oonftawd moH.; to ill to ezeem; to en- 
arn i hw by aambota ; to prem oa, to dan ; to 
earrytotheat8keitextaat(Mat.):— «L To 
awarm, or be aaai. ; topreet; to urge Cpr- 
ward. H.. emoif MS, p. ; utotuTtdm pp^. a. ; 

OwMr«rt,^,a.Ailddler. r(a)or«»^fbi^,a.89. 

ChfMM, krowB, a. St. Tim dtodem or rt a t e e a p 
of a Mag or oor. prlaoe; flg^ ns^i P^ver, 
tayaltj, eseeotive gar. ; a wreath or garlaad ; 
hoaorarjdiatiaefcion, reward: thetopof any- 
thing, par. of the head, alee the part of a hat, 

Aa., whM 

pliahment; a ««. silver pieee ; thecoroaaer 
larmier (areh.); the long doway sppgadage 
to a seed (bot.). H., ermonflem, a. Aoioag 
its oomp. a n e o r motif'gUm (ue best ordi- 
nary wtodow-fflaae), troum'-moe (one boL to 
the eoart of Qaeea'a Beach), «r»taa'-#oi< 
(that etondlag beC S prin. raftera-^roh.), 
orotoa'-wAeaf (one with teeth at right anglca 
with ito plane; the wheel which drivea the 
balance of a watdh), €rmn^'Work§ (advaneed 
bnlwarks— Aat.), die., a.; cro wm' mf^ 'rim^ 
erotom'-thUUe, irn. (names of plaata), e. 90. 

Ortwm, Tt To intest with a crowa, or with 
regal power; to oorer, as with a erewa; to 
hooooxv digi^, adorn; to amke Ulnatrieoa; 
to reward or reoompenee; to complete, fla- 
iBh,perfiBat; to terminate and reward. H^ 
eroien'NV, p., a. ; croMuid. pp^ a. ; enoipn'er, 

Cn^'Mlone, a. 3S. CrysL oaok. (min.) [a. Bt, 

Oweia^ kr«>'-eh'iU, -ehe4U--&., Wa.. a. U^ S7. 
Tnmoverse; eroiswiae; infinaoC aoroos: 
flg., oofere*. (ciaiag pot. (ehem.) 

CHica4«,kp5y-tfbl,a.ia,tf. Amelttogoreal- 

CHfoMvaai^ -elf-^-tts, a. Bearing or aMrked 
with a eroes; having foar petab enuifbnn 
fboL). H., ameif^romi plmtU or trwifmrm 
(bot ; embr. most of oar enUnary teg.), a. pL 
M. [oraeiied; flg..tbeairi8tkBrel(koB^ 

(>Vc(^, -ee-llks, s. Afig.orpietareofGhcirt 

Oi^et/bnn, -f»na, a. 16. Crnm shaped shaa. 
tear petals disposed in form of a worn (bet). 

CWisiiy, krS9'-ee-n, n. It, 4S. Toexeontobr 
aafiiagtoaerow; H^, to mortify, to sabdae 
by the iaflaeaeeof aObHstiaa apirit (sori^); 
to 5Fex or tormentt. H., «rac(^V*<V> 9*% 
m^eifltd, pp..*.; em'^i^isr, s.; m m t ^M m p 
-flk'-shllB (appr^ thatof Christ), a. tt. 

Crudgenm*^ -slj'-dr-tts, a. SO. Oneitawm. 

Owd^ kr60d«, a. la. SO. Baw. aaprsa, la a 
aat stato; not altered er changed^ aay 
artificial proeem; rough, harsh, unripe; not 
w^ difoited (as food) ; nnfln., 1mmstm% 
inoompleto (as a seheme); rough, isiperf.^ 
clumsy, unsuo. (as an attempt); not amtared, 
act weU fMinded, testy (as opiau, ftc); la 
ikele>o a or oatline ; hav. or eoat. nad ig e sted 
notioaa, errors, or defionaitioa (as a s p ee ch 
or book): raddylaidon, iaharmoaioas (pa.). 
H., enidtflif, 4^ ad.; enMnsu, wudit^, 
ktCb'-Ht^ a. U, [or caadfe (pror.). 

atMUe^k*05d%vt.,vL To curdle; ton 

(H<4 krO'^H, a. 18. Disp. to inflict paia or 
auaartag ea others, er pteased at their top- 
msnta or effliotions ; caasiag paia, safll« or 
iaiary (app. to both pemi and things) ; la« 
hamaa ; hard-heartod, void of pity ; bratd* 
ferocious, mereOem, savage, barharoua. H., 
era'tf^ad.; ciV«<MSff».«ra'W<y,-a-te, 

OnaC, kri0'-«t, a la A phial for aauoes sad 
eondimeato; acrose. [a erase*. 

OaiM^ krO&s«, s. 18, tS. A eraising vovage; 

Cntue,H. To sail to and Are, or abont, without 
any cert eoarsi^ Cor the parp. of war or pr»- 
tec commerce, or for pleas, or plunder. H., 
eruUimg^ Pn a. ; oruMt pp. ; enmitr (pma. 
or ship; par, an armed ship), s. 89. 

CHim,kr<lm,ancnflN*,45. AsmaIlftag.or 
piece (par. of bread or other food) ; the soft 
pert of bread (as distlag. from the crust). 
H., cnonev'if, -e (coae. of cram, soft; fht or 
Ptampti), a. 90. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


oHmu i^t* C9 cirHM» Tb tmk Into cnniB s Id 
into emiM or mail pfteoes; flg^ to fUl lo 

into I 

Q — j i ffc kr— ^•.tf. CnMked. 

'it.krttM^^tf. Toflurkwithor 
into foMi or witakkt; t» amm or 

. B»— ^ To — ptoact or okrlak; to 
1*0001110 croooed^ &Cm H«( cnrnj/Mi^f pb i 

OrmXii^Saih'*. A hmU oovw ^^tab 
CkviS*, krtagk, tL « flHMiJfcTct. 4ft. Tooiy 

OtW^f KXftof ■• jHM Omp Off O aOIMw 

CHfM^«r, -Ir, kvMv'— We, o. Tho ■!»» irb. 
I tai tte ooddlo to tke l«IL 
krtO'-rtl, *. It. Beloofingtotholcv; 
, d Hko «l09 or a root (aaot. ; bot.). 

CHiMcie, kr6&-tfd/, f. 18. A mO. eapodMon 
mder the Waior of tbo oroto: appr., ono 
of Ihow of tbo vUUBo ages for ttM reoov. of 
Ite H0I7 Land from tho Torka; h., any 
fowaatlB or hofekao mdortakiag; a oort. 
Port, ooin stamped wtth a orosa* 

Chm^*Strj-9r, a„ O— ofagsd In a iii iiaadt. 

(3HiaODOO^ s. tr. A aaaall eop; aMMlI 
boldo flsr ott or ^insgar. 

awt<, krilS'-aiC* a. A goMsmHh^ onMlUok 

CHm^ krteh, a. A ftolent ooMsion ; apiow 
tagorTMllfag tBgo d Mi . (▼. T.) 

CHm, li. UL, to pNBB or sfseeso lato a 
naaa or Into franMrts; tf^ to boat dofwn, 
mrwiiela, Bobdne; to oomnier beyond re- 
aManoOf tooppraa: irl. TV> bo pressed into 

inff p., a.; e n uk$i, pp., a.; lii -a A' sr (bo 
orttM(t),a.». ^_^ 

CWM^krftstiS. Ant oAtemsl ooatoi' oar. baKhji 
tlian the body ot the mass; a deposit or In- 
o tuatatlon ; die baked eaao or paste of a pie; 
tiMbnrdcster.partorbrcad; apleoeoferast: 
thosnperfldal portion of tke earth (gocd.). 

OrmtfWt^ T\poot<arw i t k aorast,oraninomst- 
ntiBB:— ^ Togatterorfmrmlatoaomst; 
to eenoscte or harden, as soperftdal matter. 

_^H., ermtiM^jeru^ed, pp., a. (t. i.) 89. 

f-sh'in, a. s ermt^eettu, 
•4fa^Sft,S7. Porttothoenistaeea; baT. 

Jointed BheUa. H., miKiresownss^ s. »1. 

OrnsCirssan, s. (jiL, enaUicemu. -sh'ins, S.; 
tmauetta, hV« or -^ha-d, L) An art!- 
colatoaafaBal eoT. with a smst-Uke, jolntad 
atea(aa tho Mater). 

CHis<atsd,kr«sC.M4»«- Oor. irift a omst 

CHisy rtoju -shaa, s. An adherent cmst; an 

Ormtjh krflst^o, a. B ert to or res, a omst ; 

bara; fl y . , abrupt in speech or msDner, 

snapphh, bnsque. H., onuf tly, ad. ; enat- 

imeu, a. flOL [bark. 

CHrf^krtltyS. IbaRNigh, shaggy iMfft of oak- 

Ontei, krtttdi, a. 19. Tte snnwrt wed by 


To suuuuti on emtehes ; to mark 
viCh'a erossf. A., enUetfktfh P* • ervtched 
{■4A—m^W), pp., a. 99.— Vrutckfei^fHari or 
svmisft'Ml-yHan^ were Iboeo who irore a 
cross. See Cluwufl- 
C^, krl, s. (pL, erfes.) 48. Tho set or soimd 


•f erring; any bmd sond ntlsred by fta 
month of an animal; elamoor, outcry; ax- 
slsm of titemph, wonder, or other ] 

of hawksrs, Ae. ; laoMntatkm ; sereasa, yaU, 
shrisk; weeping: popular fiiTonr; imp 

Its ; the yelping of 1 
pask(asofhoQads); fte. 

Orjf, Tt. To proolaim or make pnbUo :~M. To 
speak or eall loudly, Tohem., or importo- 
natelv; to utter lamentations, to weep; to 
exclaim (foL by out) ; to proclaim ; to bawl, 
squall (as a child), yelp (aa a dog), fto^ 
fta H., erYtn^f p., a. ; cried, prt, pp. ; 
erf^tr, a. ; (ai enfwg, s. (r. s.) 89.— To cry 
o«< is to esclaim ; to ery down, to deery or 
depreciate; to ery«^, to praise or applMd; 
to cry out agauui, to complain of, or oen- 
sure strongly. See CHer. 

O Tfophonu, krt-W-o-rtts, s. Lit, ih)etrbearer; 
an instrument for freesing water by ita own 

,. , krlpt, 8. 15. A subterranean oeB or 
oaTB (par. one under a church) for se pulUu e ; 
a so Mer. chapel or oratory ; the grsTo of a 
martyr ; the under or bidden part ^rdi.). 

Orypfie, -Ik, a. =3 erypfieal, -Al. Hidden; 
secret; ooeult. H., crTfptfieaUjf, ad. 91. 

Qyptogamie, krYp-to-gftm -Ik, a. == ayptofo- 
mo«s,-t6g'-d-mas. Fert.totheorwp/o^a'siui 
or flowerless plants, (hot) U., (a) crupioff' 
ami$t, -mist (one skilled in ftc), s. 96-1. 

CHyptoampkUt-Vit^-HS-t, s. The art of secret 
writing; ano^e char, or cipher so employed. 

Ch|pto2My,-t01'-o-Je,s. Enigmatioal language. 

CMol, krlS'-tU, a. 15. Of or like oystal; 
bright, transparent. 

Cfn^tal, s. Lit, anrthing congedad or lee* 
uke; appr., a aoUo body, of regular figure, 
formed, under certain cvcumsbmoes, ly the 
power of afllnlty, during tlie passage mnn 
the liquid to the solid sute, or by sep. from 
its solution (chem. ; min.) ; a heavy lustrous 
Tar. of giam : pop., anyniing lustrous or 
crystalline. H., erwtaOifyrm, 38 (shracd 
Uke Ac), a. 9L 

^s'talZ^-tln^-Qn— P..S.,Sh.,a.45,68. Cons, 
of or res. crystal ; bright, peilueid, traniM- 
rent Oryrtaiiino Wmour or erytftatUme 
Irns, ia a lentifknin, peUudd body, in fttA 
ftxmt part of the vitreous humour of the eye. 

CryHdllw, krts'-tftl-lTz^, rt 60. To cause to 
form into or sep. in crystals :—Ti. Tbbeeonr 
verted into oryBtals ; to assume a crvstalUne 
form. H., enf^tcUOHruj, p. ; cry/taia$ed, 
pp.- a. ; eryitattUer (appr., a vessel for 
fro.), s. : cry^iallitabU^ a. ; eryttaUiaatUm, 
-le-sa'-Biitin, s. 89. 

CryHalloifraphie, -lo-gritf '-tk, a. = ermtoOo- 
graph'teakiS, Pert to crystallograpny. H., 
erystalhynmh'ieatty, ad. 91. 

Gykatloyraphy. -Ufg^-r&f-e,8. 45. The selenee 
of erystalfisatton, or a treatise on It H., 
eryttatto^rapher or eryitaUof^raphitt (one 
versed in), s. 90. 

Cub, kiib, s. The young of certain animals 
(par. of the bear, fox, and whale) ; a young 
boy or ffirl (in contempt) ; a stall for eattlef. 
H., eufflesgy a. 90. 

ai6, vt TO brtoff forth a cub or young. H., 
ouhViny, p. ; oMed, pp. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CkAoltoN, ka-bi'-dttta, f. 18. Theaotofljrtaig 
down. [reeamoeiit. 

CMolory, kd'-bd-tfir-e, a. 25. Lying down ; 

Ck^teterc, -tdr^, 1. 18. The dettrm. of the eoli- 
dityor caUc content of a body; tlaofhe resolt. 

Cuk9, kabr, 1. 18. A toUd body bounded by 6 
equal aquares, arr. at equal anglea (geom.) ; 
the third power or prod, of a number mult 
twice into itMlf (S X 3 X S s 8.— arith.).— 
CiAtf-rooi ia the mult which prod, a eube 
(^ 27 s 8.— arith.). [oOfing, p. ; ctAed, pp. 

Chib€t Tt To raiae to the third power. H., 

Cli&cft«,ka'-bdbe,a.pL A spec of med. pepper. 

OiUe^ ka'-bYk, a. 18. s m^hunU, Having the 
ficnrm or pnm. of a cube ; solid, not superfl- 
daL H.,M^£M»Atf,48,ad.;cti'&u:aifiCM,a.91. 

OAicHlat*. ka-blk^-a-ldr, a. 18, 25. Belong- 
ing to a oedroom. 

<VM''^t -be-form, a. 36. Cnbo4hH)ed. 

OMt, kd'-blt, a. The forearmf ; alao an anc 
measure of length (= 17^ to 33 inches). 

(VftitoA -U« a. Cont a cubit; relating to the 

CWUtod*, -M, a. Equal to a cubit [forearm*. 

Oiboid, ka'-boyd, a. s oubouPaL 18, 33. Cubi- 
form, or nearly ao. 

CWdboitl, kOk'-^d, a. 35. The husband of an 
adulteress (in contempt). H., atekoWv* (of 
or like), a.; euckoUPmakn% euekfoUtom*, 
•dOm (act or state), a. 9a 

Ciiek^old, Tt To wrong a husband by unohas- 
tity. U., eueliolding^ p.; cuckolded, pp^ a. 89. 

CWcJwo, kd&k'-dO, 8. 21. A cert bird of pas- 
aage, named fhmi ita note in apring; a sly 
knaTctf. Among ita comp. are— oidb'oo- 
hudt euokoo-fiowMTt eueto(>-pifU (names of 
planta); emoo-tpiUle (the frothy matter 
— * nta cont a email insect), &a, s. 90. 
, kO-kW'-««, ka'~We., a. = euetdr- 
looded, oowled: having the shape of 
a hood, (hot) 

Clu««w6<r,W-kflm-bfir, kow'-«»-P.,Wa.. 8.18. 
The name of a certain plant and its fruit 

Oueyrhit, ka'-kOr-blt, s. 18. A certchem. veesd. 

CueurbUaeeoutt-^'-th*iiB, a. Bee. a gourd. 

Aid;kad,s. The Ibod which ruminating ani- 
mals return from the first stomach into the 
month, to chew again ; also the inside of the 
mouth and throat of a ruminant ; a ouidft. 

CM^ear,-bftre,s. AdTe-stuirprep.fromlicl>en. 

CkddUtt kiid'l, Tt 45. To hug or embrace so 
as to keep warm ; to fondle :—\L To retire 
from eight; to lie dose and snug. H., 
cuddlmat p. ; ciuUfUd, pp. 

Cfuddy, kad'-e, a. A small room or cabin 
(naut) ; h., any very small apartment; a 
olown or dolt (pror.) ; the cod-fish (loc.). 

CkM^i, ktU'-ei, -jn-Wa., kiiJ'l-K., s. 83, 25. 
A stick suited to strilce with, lighter than a 
dub, and thicker than a rod. 

Oidfi'M, Tt To beat with a stick or cudgel. 
H., eiid^dHng, p., a. ; eud^ tiled, pp. : cuajf- 
€tter, s. 89. [locks or everlasting. 

(Sidweed, kfid'-wM«, a. The plant goldy- 

aM,ka,8.18. The tail or end ;h.,the end of any- 
thing ; the last words of a speech wh. an actor 
< eatohea ' and begins after, alao the part wh. 
follows (thea.) ; a catch-word, hint intim., or 
abort direction ; humour, temper of mindt ; 
the straight rod used at billiards ; afarthingf. 

Off, kfif; a. Ablow with the fist or hand; the 
lower part of a deeve when folded back. 


a^, Tt To strike with the fista or hands; to 
atrike with the talona or wings (as a bird) : 
~tL To fight; to aouffle. H., «*(f *iVt P>; 

Oifie, kQ^-%k, a. 18. Applied to the Arabio 
character used in the time of Mohammed. 

CkMru^s, kwln'-fij«, a. 45. The oiBdd stamp- 
ing of pigs of tin with the anna of the Duchy 
ofOomwaU. [8.99. Ametbrea8trplate.(Fr.) 

Cuiran, kwe-riU', kw«'— P., S., kfl'-K.. Sh.. 

Cmrat9Ur, -s6r^, s. A soldier who wears a 

Cmth, kwXs, kwlsh— P., kfish— K.', Sh., b. (prop, 
orthog., CTM««, Fr.) Armour Cor the thighs. 

OMm, kwe-sin/!', s. 99. The kitchen; the 
cooking department (Fr.) [a gnat or a flea. 

ai«ei/bm,kan8'-e-form,a.l8.36. Shapedlike 

Ckffmory, ka'-UrwIr-e, a. 18, 35. BeUudng to 
or nsed in the kitchen or in cookery. 

CiM, kOU vt To pick out or select from others. 
H^etdfmg, p.; cMed, PP^».; orfTtfr, a.; (a) 
etufuUm a. 89. 

CkiUefui«r, kai'-«n-d«r, a. Acdander. 

Cultet, -^ a. Broken glass fior remdting. 

CuUion, kOl'-yfin, s. 45. A mean wretch ; a 
cully; abulbouaroot n^euirwiU]f*(mtMnf 
base), a. 90. [(oook.j 

CuUis, -Is, s. Broth strdned or gdattnised. 

ChMy*i, kal'-e, b. One meanly deceived, cheat- 
ed, or jilted (as by a aharper or strumpet). 
H., ^'vim* (state of being a), a. ; (to) 
ctuF^i, vt 00-1. 

Oidtn, kfihn, a. The atraw or dry atdka of 
com and greases (agr.); the stems of fl 


grasses, „ ,. 
(hot) ; anthradte (prov.). 

rerouM, kai-^nlf-fir-Os, a. Bearing 
IS ; cont anthradte. [warda. (hot) 
Culmiitats, kttl'-mln-it«, a. Growing np- 
OittwnnaU, vi. To be vertiod; to be in or 

come to the meridian or senith. H., tmt- 

mindtma, p» a. ; cufminated,^. ; ctUmmaf- 

Hon, a. (v.!) 89. 
Culmination, -a'-shOn, s. The trandt of a 

cdestid body over the meri dia n ; fig., tqp» 

crown, acme. (v. v.) 

OulvobU, kor-pAbl, a. 46. Deserving censure ; 
blamable; oriminal, immoral, dnful; guilty 
of*. H., euTpablv, 48, ad.; eufpabkneta, 
odpalnHtv, -bQ'-It-e, a. 9L 

Culprit, kU'-prIt s. A person arraigned in 
court for a crime; h. alao, <mm connoted of 
crime, a criminaL 

Cultioate, kfll'-te-vftt^ vt To tUl ; to prepare 
the soil for crops ; to improve by husbandry ; 
to raise by tUhige; fig., to fbeter (as the af- 
fections) ; to improve or enlarge by labour 
and study (as the mind); to correct by Judg- 
ment or ameliorate by tuition (as errors, 
inclinations, vices, Ac, dther in oursdvea 
or others). H., eulftivating, p. ; euftivattd, 
pp., a. ; euTHadlor (alao a aort of harrow), 
a.; eia doable*. euTtitdtabk, 45, a.; eulH- 
mftion, 8. (V. i.) 89. 

OOttwiiMm, -v&'-shfin, 8. Husbandrr, tillage; 
culture: dvilisation, refinement om* fv. v.) 

Cuiirate, kttl'-trat«, a. = eul'trated. Sharp- 
edged and pointed, (hot) 

OiilKre, ktUt^-Or^, 8. 18. Cultivation; tillage; 
any act labour, or means, employed for 
improvement correction, or growth (phya., 
mor., or mentd). H., eulfHreksi, a. 9a 

Cultfure, vt To cultivate or improve. H.» 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

*».*/. r- 


CMlfflriiif, p.; miflkred, pm a.; enft'flriil, 


CkiAwr, kar-T<r, 1. A pigeon or dove; awood- 
plgcon. H^ n^v^r-taiUd (dore-taikd— 
carp.}, a. ; eutfftf^otue (a doTe-«ote), enf - 
earskvy (a plant), fte., a. 90. [oaniKm. 

^MmHr, kftr-TSr-In, a. A k»g (IS-ponnder) 

Chif MT^ -Tfrt, a. A tunnel or archway under 
a road, bridge, or eanal, either for oie aa a 
road or aa a water-conrae. 

-Ctanftcr, kflm'-bir, Tt. To load or erowd with 
aomeUilnf natleai ; to eheck or retard | to 
perplex, eanbarraaa, obatmet, involTe. ' H., 
cmm'htrmfy p. ; emm^htrtd^ pp. 

Qwrtgrapwf , -aflm, a. i6. Tronbleaome ; bor- 
denaome; embarraaaing ; unwieldy. H., 
cwm^htnima^t ad. ; ewn'icrmnffMn, 91. 

OMirovt, kOm'-brtta, a. Combersome ; vexa- 
tkma; oonftiaed. H., mm'hmia^f, 43, ad. ; 
€ mm *h- mum em, a. 9L 

CWaitfn, kttro'-In, a. The bitter aromatio aeed 
or ftnit of an annnal plant of like name. 

M, ka'-mo-lA-tlr, a. 18, 45. That 
Bta br additioo : eompoeed 0^ parte in 
r*,-»ae',a.46. FnUofheapa. [aheap. 

CmmmiwM, ky-nw-UJa, a. 18. A ekHid formed of 
convex miw piled together, (meteo.) 

Ctaied; hfi'-oe^ a. 18. Of or like a wedge. 

C^neaU^ -at«, a. = cUmeaUd. Wedge-ahaped. 

Omei^trm, -ne'-e-form, a. = admf&nu 26. 

Cmmrngt kfln'-lBg, a. Aente, ahrewd, wily; 
artftiLaabUle, crafty; deoeitfol,trieki8h. H., 
eww'M^ly, ad. ; cuim'hune$s, a. (r. a.) 91. 

Ckatnfiitg, •. Orig., art, ikiU, knowLf ; shrewd- 
neaa ; artiflee, deceit, alyneae, trwA. dexter- 
ity; duplicity, atratagem.~A euiMfinf-wuuti 
ia a fortone-teller, dm. 

€tep,kflp,B. A small drinking Teasel, alee ita 
oontents; anything hollow, like a cop; the 
bdl of a flower, a calyx ; flg., anythmg re- 
eeiTed or endored (either of good or evil) ; 
A draught, a portion; safTerings, afflictions 
(scrip.) :—pl., ci^pt, aodal entertainment, 
drinking, u., oy'-aAope^ *c, a. Thecay*'- 
roar is the poppy.— (Vp o'm' <^ = pot-com- 
panions :—m otu^s etQM s dmnk^. 

Chipv Tt. To draw blood fhnn, l^ meana of 
aoariflcatfonandmip'p'tfif-^toaiet. H.,cimtf'- 
iaj#, p., a., 8. ; ««»«^ pp. ; (a) «qw'«r, a. 89. 

Cvf-iettrtrf -bftr^-tr, a. An attendant on a 
prince; a certain officer 6f state. 

(Vp&oord, kab'-Ord, -bOrd— P., S, s. A case 
with ihielTee fcnr china, crockery, and other 
things in fireq. nae. [treasnre or hoard up. 

Oip'teardtf, n. To place in a cupboard ; to 

€Mpel, kO'-pdl, B. 18. A kind of small porona 
erodble , used in cnpellation. H., ct^pe^ 

CiqMrtvmt -UL'-shOn, a. The process of 
•asaying gold and stiver, and their alloys, 
b^ the enpeU [h. flg., love itself. 

€Jupid^ kd'-pld, 18. The god of love (myth.) ; 

Ciqrid^itf, -It-e, s. Morbid or unlawftil longing 
(eq>. after wealth or power) ; avarice, oovet- 
onaness, greedineas. 

Gnola, kfl'-po-li^ a. A hemispherical dome, 
(arch.) H., a^pola^d* (bar.), a. 90. [coppery. 

CupreouM, kQ'-pre-da, a. 18. Of or like copper ; 

Cfapny«roMf, -prlf-te-tta, a. Cont copper. 

CljraAp, ka'-^Ole, a. s= ei<0tfto, L. 18. The cup 
or husk of the meom, ehestnat, Ac (hot.) 


•nr-^r-Oa, a. Bctrlng emmlea. 
A degener ate or mongrel dog; 
, anarllng fellow. H~ marr^iik, 

Chpiflf/lnioMf, -nf-^^Oa, a. 

(Mt, kttr, a. A degener ate 
a worthless, snarling fellow. H~ c 
mar'-tike, a. ; oir'si^pt* s.jrv. L) 90. 

CWraM«,kare'-ftbl,a.l8,45. That may beeored. 
H., eur/abienmi^ cQrubUUp, -bU'-It-«k a. 91. 

daraeooy kn^rd-sO', s. = eurMoo. k<kr4M-o, 
Fr. A cordial Uq., orig. firom Coracoa. 

CWrocy, ka'-rd-se, a. 18. The oOee^ employ- 
ment, or benefloe of a curate. 

CfMfrattt -rftttf, a. Prim., an ineunbent who 
baa the cure of aouls; appr., the atlpendiary 
aasistant or deputy of a rector or Tiear in 
hie clerical duttea. A ftrptCmi tvfraU la 
one appointed by the oishop, and paid by 
foes or a portion of the tithea. H., evfraU- 
•kip*, a. ; Ac. (v. au.) 90. 

Ckir«NM:kfl'-rd-tIv,a.l8,45. Belating to the 
cure of disease; tending to cure. 

CSm^oTt -rlT-tdr, s. (f., evro'lrir^ 40.) One 
who la appointed to ti>e care or superlnt of 
anything (aa a library, museum, 4c.); a 
guardian or trustee officially appointed (leg.). 

(Airfr, kflrb, a. 84. Tbeflatirott-chain,«enOf 
a bridle ; flg., restraint, check, Underance ; 
a hard tumour on a horae's hock (ihr.) ; 
th» row of stones (e«ri^-«lofi«s) at the edge 
of a pavement or the mouth of a Weill . U., 
ourVleUt ^.—CwV-roof = gambrel roof. 

Curt, Tt. To guide or restrain with a curb: 
fig., to check or reetrain, to control or hold 
back, to subdue (app. to vieea, pass., Ac.) : 
to bcndf. H., eurvmg, p. ; eurhid, pp. ; (a) 
ettrk'mg, s. 89. 

Ourdf kCkrd, s. The coagolum or caseoua part 
of milk; also a like coneretioD flmn other 
liquorat. H., ernxfy, a. ; eurU (to coagu- 
late), vt. 90-1. 

Or^, kflrd'l, Tt. 45. To turn Into eurd; flg., 
to congeal, thicken, or stagnate, or to cause 
a sensation of the same :—vi. To coagulate, 
to change into curd. U., ewrdUttg, p., a. ; 
eurdfUd, pp^ a. 89. 

Curt, kar«, s. 98, 18. lit, care or tendance ; 
appr., the act of healing, restoration to health 
or aoundnese <tf body ; also the remedy or 
treatment, or that which effocta the change : 
the tendance or care of souls, spiritual 
charge; also the district of such t en dan ce ; 
a beneflce. H., eure'Uss, fta, a. 90. 

CWre,vt To reatore to health or aonndness; to 
subdue or heal ; flg., to remedy or remove 
(aa an evil) ; to prep, for prcaervation (as 
food) ; to dry, salt, or pIcUe. H., cSr^mg, 

&; eured, pp., a.; cOrsr, s. ; cSi^abU, a. ; 
) cOr^itig, s. (t. s.) 89. 

Ovrfew^ kdr'-fQ, s. 89. Lit, coTcr the flre ; an 
evening bell or chime, oriir. intended as a 
signal iror exting. flrea and lights, and going 
to bed ; a flre-pUtef. [or a ward. 

Ourialistie, ka-re-d-UstT-Ik, a. Pert to a court, 

Curumtff, kd-re-ISs'-It-e, n InquisitiTeness ; 
exaotnees; singnlari^; anything rare, 
curious, or unusual; an act of eurloaity; 
cnriousness. (v. i.) 

envious, kO'-re-fls, a. 18. Desirous of informa- 
tion ; solicitous to see or know ; inquisitive ; 
attentlTc to, diligent about ; accurate ; care- 
ful in selection; difficult to please; nice, 
exact, elegant subtile, ingenious; artfol, 
elaborate, laboured ; req. care and nloetv ; 
rare, singular, unexpected ; eocentric| | 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


rigid, Wfwe». H.,ffr>4M«V»'48,«a.', «^- 

rimmm$, Mr<oi'% (t. n.), •. 9L 

ClMTJ; kflrl, t. A rlBfflflt of bair, or tiqrtSiing 

like It ; fts nndnkUoD, wcfing, simoiHgr, or 

flMtare; a oertain disMie in potetMt. 

Cbr^n. To tam, bend, or fDrm into singlets 

or ewria ; to dren with onria ; to writhe, twkt, 

or eoU:— tL To ahrlnk intoringletB ; toriae 

In nndidatloQa: to r^ple; to writhe ; totviat 

itaelf ; to reeoU or ahrink beak; to play at 

eorUagffleo.). H^aurt^.p^ a. ; ourM, pp^ 

a. : miner, a. 88. [tnSe, of ler. speolea. 

OtrUw, kflr'^'n, a. 37. A bird of the nipe 

OurUttg, kflrf-bv.a. A eert winter gaiBe.(aeo.) 

Curfp. -e^ a. Ha?ing eorla ; Aill of eork or 

ripplei. H., aMrCMMM, a. 8L 
CamiidlfMfil, kOr-ntU'-^ttn, a. 89. Anavari- 
eiooiu ^nrUah Mlow. VL, wa wi rf^ eniy*, 

<AmM^kllr'-riBt,a.S4,96. The fhrit of a 
waU-knowngardaiiahnib; alto a awril var. 
of dried grape from the Lersnt (prepw, Oor*- 
imHK^, Bold wj groeva. 

Ckartuney, kttr'-iito-ee, a. 88. The quit of 
being eorrent; floeney; gon. eatiokatlaa; 
the ofareolating medinm or BMO^ of a ooon- 
trr, whether eoin or paper (poL ee. ; t. L). 

Chr^nm^ •rent, a. Oboolating (ae ooin, opin^ 
Ae.); eonu, gen., CMh., popolar; aohnow- 
ledged; gen. rtodTod, paiBabte; now pate- 
ing, preaeiit. H., oMKran^y, 48, ad. ; mt'- 
rm ft ia w, oMKrwMy, -ae, s. (r. a.) 81. 

Om *fmiy a. Ut, progrettiTe moveoMot; a 
flowing or paasing (par. app. to flnida) ; a 
atreaan, a running atrean j ooorae, progrea- 
8lon,eontinBatkm; aeenneotedaariaa; gen. 
or aain oooiae or taodency (as of iMaght, 
action, &o.). 

aimofe,kai^rnd,-re-kl--8.,s.9e,45. Atwo- 
wheeled open ohalae, drawn by two hotaea 
abreast; aooorsef; acharieif. 

CWtioithiai, -rIk'-a-l<in^ a. 18, 68. Lit, a 
raooHooane; uypr., the ooniaa of atndy in 


CWrri^ kHr'-re, a. e cmK^v. 88, 84. ' Aitew, 
in wnieh rloe aboonda, mglily asaaaaed, and 
prin. so with CMKri^-^owrfer. (Ind. eook.) 
See Qmvy. [tanned leather. (▼. L) 

Cyr'ri0r,-re-Cr,a. One whoee trade is to drees 

Oo-KmA, -Xsh, a. Car-like ; sonr ; qnarrelaome. 
H., cMrKtsiUy, ad. : tmrr^uiknim, s. 81. 

Cmry, kOr'-re, Tt. 86. To dress or jirepare 
tanned leather; to mb and dean with a 
oomb (as a hcsrae) ; to soratch or claw* : to 
- - " * * into 

smooth, flatter, or hnmoar|; to make ii 
a onrrie (cook.). R, em*rwmg, p. ; em'ried^ 
-rid, pp., a. : em*riar, s. ; (a)cu/^rymff,a. 88i 
—To ounyfammr is to seek it by omeioaa- 
ness and flattery ; em*fy com b, an iron instr. 
for carrying horses. See CmrU. 

Om'fymg, -Ing. s. e mm^riery, -<ir-e. The art 
or practice « dressing tanned skins. 

Cmrae, \Ane, a. Malediction; exeoration; 
eondemnaaon; affliction ; torment (r. r.) 

Cur$»^ Yt To aolemnly utter a wish of eril 
against; to imprecato evil upon: to eze- 
orato; to devote to evil or to perdition ; to 
vex or afflict aerioaaly; totorment :— vi. To 
utter imprecations or corses ; to execrate ; 
dee. H., mtnfimg, p., a. ; mitted or euntX, 
prt, pp., 86 ; mtritr, s. : cmrOng, s. (v. i.) 88. 

CvHid, -«d, a. Execvable, hatef ol, abomin- 


aMe; mdignsiit; irexatiovsl. H., mHtHif^, 
ad. ; oMyMtnastt, a. 91. 

Cbr«<tor,kar'.slt4r,a.£8. A cleric of the wrtt- 
ofllee in Chanosry. (Eng.) icur'sivaly, ad.8L 

Our'ahe, -alv, a. 45. Bunn&g; fluent H., 

OlurMfy, kttr'HBO're, ^adr-*— K;., a. as mtr'mh- 
fioryf. Running*; haaty, quick, aUght, 
anperfldal ; oareleas, InattantiTe, desultory. 
H., mn^aorikf, ad. ; mar'mfrmmi, s. 8L 

OurtU kdrt, a. 84. Short; brief; taoonia, eon- 
eiae (aa in reply). H., mirCly*, ad. ; mtrf- 
nem^, 9,91. 

Ourtail, kttr-tal^, vt To eut off the and or 
a part; fig., to shorten in any manner; to 
abridge, dim., oontraot H., mtt t m ^ m$^ 
p.; ewrtaiUg, pp.*. a.; eurtmtterX, sl; (a) 
emtmenufl, m^rMwtent, a. 89.— A mm^iaU 
or oir'tea-tfM,is one wlthaelipttail ; «iK- 
eai^«0,the lowest in a soroU-lligfat (ardi.). 

Curtain, ktlr'-tin, s. 45. A mov. banging dota 
or pieoe of drapery, wh. may be oontraeted, 
npread, or drawn up or aside, at will ; the 
ooth-hanghig uaed to oonoeal the atage 
bef. and after the play (thea.); Oie part of a 
rampart lying bet two bastions (fort). H.« 
OMT'teMes*, a.— To drop the emr'tain la to 
close the eoene, to end; to rails <A« ^MKtoiRy 
to oonamenoe ;— gtiKtet r i l eo htree are thoee 
given by a wife in bed. [tains. 

Owr'tamX, vt To enclose or ftim. with eur- 

CurtaU, kOr'-t&t^ a. Noting the diat of a 
planetfaplaoe from the sun, red. to the eclip- 
tic. H., ewrtaftkm, 88 (curtate dist), s. 90-1. 

OmiUeue, kOr'-tll-lUc, s. 45. The oourt-yard 
of a dwelling-house, (leg.) 

CmiU-<ts^, kttrtn-dks, s. A sort of eutlaM. 

aini(«»,k(r-r0Ole,a.l8. Senatorial; 
Ourvated, kOr'-vft-tM, a. Curved ; bent [riaL 
Om^wUmre, -tare, s. 18, The continual flex- 
ure of aline from a rectilineal direetion; 

Omr^e, k1irv«, a. Crooked ; bent; curved. 

Omnae, a. An arched line; anything bent; a 
flexnre, a curving; a line in which no three 
oonoeentive points are in the same direction, 
or in a atrai^t line (geom.). 

Ckrec, vt To ibrm into a curve ; to bend, in- 
flect inoorvate. EL, cun/inp, p., a. ; eurved^ 
pp., a. ; (a) tmn^mg (also a curve or flexure), 
a. (v. s.) 89. [frolic or prank. 

Cmrvet, kfirv'-IH, a. A cert leap (man.) ; h., n 

Ounfet, vi. To leap in curves or curveto; to 
leap, frisk, bound. H., emmfeUng, p. ; eir'- 

(htrviform, kttrv' a form, a. 18. Curve-ahaned. 

CbreMiiMor, -Dn'-e-dr, a. 35. = ettmilmfeml. 
Cons, oi, pert to, or bounded by carved 
Unes. H., eunrilin'earhf, sd. ; ettrvilm- 
em'itp*, s. ; &c. 91. [crookedness. See Omve. 

OmnfUy, -It-e. s. A bending without angles ; 

CiukeAy kdbsh'-At, s. 31. The ring-dove or 

Cuekion, k<J&sh'-tin, -In— Wa^s. 31.45. Apillow 
oraoftpsd to sit on ; any soft stufibd bag or 
easet ; a leather bag filled with sand (engr.W 

Cuih'iofh, vt To seat on a cushion ; to furnish 
with do. H.,o«»A'to«itii^,p.,s.;ou«A'*ofiMi,pp., 

CMh'ionet*, -«t, s. A little cushion. [a. 69. 

Omp, kOsp. s. A point or horn of the moon, 
or other luminary. 

Cutp'ated, -ft-tM, a. e emj^idoL ^d-dl. 
j^ointed ; ending in a point (bot., «e.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


a sharp ead, or a brfatly poiztt. (bot) 

Ctatord, kfi^'-tdrd, •. 25. A mixture of ollk. 
eggs, snd sogsr, llaToared sad heated ontu 
it thiekeos. IL, em^iard^a^U (the zioh 
pnlw fruit of a W. L tree), t. 90. 

Cmtodual, kfls-tff-de-41, -tOd^-jll-K^ a. 
BeZatlsg to eastody or guardianship. 

QaUTdim, -ia, s. One who hss the oare or 
custody cfKune pahlio building. 

Gutoim^ Us'-to-de^ s. Print., a Iceqiing or 
gusxdisg: h^ goardtmahip. inspeeuon, 
uiuBGiiatimi security » mti siwi of liberty 
impxiaaimient; defense from a foe. 

Cu$tim, k&^-tflm, s. SS. Areq. repetition of 
Hie seme aet; freq., nsuel, or esL mode; 
liab. prsetioe; hahu, man., ftuh., preserip- 
tion ; a boyinff of good^giT. orders, Ae^ reg. 

trade or bn oui Mi (asofaahop); est. praot. 
«r nnge (leg.) ; tribute, toU, or tax :— pi. 
Duties impoeed on imports and esqports; 
also the ofileers and aothorities eon. -with 
the eeOee., te., of the same. H., mt£ torn- 
home (the plaoe where Tsssels are entered 
and dcared, duties paid, &o.)* ^ M. 

Oatomuurfh kOa'-tOm-dr-e, a. 25. Aoeor. to 
cnatom. hafaltBa], naaal; iM>l^»tg or held by 
enatom. IL, aaftoman^i, 4S, ad.; ctufto- 
flMriMS^ s. 99. 

Gaftomer, -£r, s. A buyer; an aeeustomed 
buyer or Tisitor; a person) (in eontempt) ; a 
toU-gatherert ; a prostitutef. 

OuftoM, -ta8,s.09. A keeper lappTn the keeper 
of a seal or documents.— c^tof rotuk^rum 
is the keeper of the rolls or records of a 

atf,klU,a. Tlwaet,state,orefliMtofentting 
(in any of Ita senses) ; a stroke or Uow, as 
idth an az& sword, or whip ; a gash or in- 
cised wound; a chamifil made br outtinff or 
digging; a near passage to STda an an^t> 
a part eat off item the reat; any small piece 
or ahrcd; a earring or an enp., alsoaprint 
tsom it : the fuhlon, form, shape ; dir. of a 
paek or cards at {day; a fool or cnllyt; a 
geldingi. It has many comp.: ss— cu^- 
throat (murderous), a. ; em^-purao (a pick- 
pocket), emt'throat (an assassin), otUf-^oaUr 
prepoxt of a Tessel's prow), eut^-work^ 


(embroidery), out-wont, Ac, s. (t. ▼.) 90. 
Cw, Tt. To peiuBtrate^ divide, or sep. the parte 
of a body with a flat, aharp-edged Instr. : to 
gash or inclBe ; fig., to serer or dlride into 
two or more parts; to hew (as timber) ; to 
earre (as meat); to shape, form, or IhauiOQ ; 
to engrave cr sculpture; to deare or pass 
through (as the air or wares); to divide (as 
a padc of cards): to intersect or cross (as 
two lines); to aobr.; to geld or castrate; 
to avoid or aspects ; to bite by satire : to 
pierce^ injure, or «^ct deeply (as the foel- 
mgs) :— vL To make way by oividing; to 
be severed; to operate witn the knife (surg.); 
ftc. H., iM(tt'«ytp.,a.; ctf^ prt., pp., a.; 
(a) aUtor, s. ; (a) euUing, s. 89. [The rad. 
ini^irfng of this v, is carried, either lit. or 
flg., into all its num. appl., though mod. by 
the context. When entire sep. of parts is 
IBL it la us. f ol. by astmdor, down, mpiooet, 
ta two, off, f^—To atU <# also means to 
destroy, extirpate, intercept, abbr., &c. ;— 
to cut cxif^ to hasten ;— to ctf^ (m<t, to shape, 



form, or adapt; to debar; to excel orsaxH 
plant;— to cut thortu to check, hinder, 
abridge;— to mtf lip, to carve; to eradicate, 
Scc-^OiU tmd thvX or rtadtf eiUX s ready 
for xuoi—ctd ami Umg taul s men of i^ 
kinds;— to draw eutu ae todraw lota, aa of 
pieces of paper of unequal lengths. ] [skin. 

Cutanoom, ka-tftn^-y'fis, a. BeL to or aff . the 

CuUL kat«, a. 18. Acute ; sharp ; clever. 

OiUiao, ka'-tlkl, a. 18, 45. The thin exteriar 
oov. of thebody, Ivin^r on the derm or eorium; 
the acarf^kin ; the thin external membrane 
of plants (hot) ; the peOiole on liquor, (tech.) 

(^M:taar,-tIk'Mi-Ulr,a2f. Ferttothecatkle. 

CkittoM, ktttr-Us, s. A broad, curved sword. 

Cutler,-]6r,%. One who makes or sells cutlery. 

Oaitry, -l&r^ s. Edged instr. of steel g«. 
(par. knives, sdasors, rascra, ftc). 

a«<^ kfltr-Ut, a. AsUeeof meat ent off for 
dreadng (par. ^^Ued to veal). 

CWft>f7-&, a. He or that which cats (v. v.); 
appr., a light, swift var. of sloopt which has 
no stay to support its jib (naat): a small 
boat carried \ry ships ofwar (&.li.j ; aikoiit 
cutting tootht. 

Cutting, -Ing, s. A piece cut off; an exoavatkm 
throiuh a hilL&c. (eng.); a twig or scion foe 
planttTig(h<M't.); theoper.ofUthotomy(8urg.). 

Cuttle, kUtl, a. = eutth-fiah. 45. A mollnsk of 
sev. spec, yielding seplaand mUtk-fiah homn ; 
a font-mouthed fNlow|. 
lOMoU, sr-Aa-Bttf,s. 48. A salt of cyow'M; adL 
fanido, -Id, a. 58. A direct comp. of cyano- 
gen with a metal. 

Oi/'anUe, -lU, s. A certain Uue miaeraL 

Cyanogtn, aI-&n'-o-jto, a. SO-2. A pee. gaaeooa 
substance (a N] Gs), so named from being 
an esscmtial ingredient in Prussian blue. 

Qfonometer,-6m'-^-ti6r,B, Axiinstr.toaacer.the 
Intensi^of the blueness of theiky or ocean. 

Ofon'wer, -O-rdt, a 18. A cyanide. 

C^fanurie, -O'-rlk, a. Noting a peculiar add 
obtained from urea, Ac. 

^a<A^onn,sI-&ch'-e-form,a26. Cup-shaped. 

Qfelamtn,ak-]A-m6a^. Ihe plant sow-bread. 

Cycfs, sr-kl, s. 45. Lit, a ||rcle or round ; the 
revolution of a certain pittiod of time, whi^ 
finishes and recommencea in a perpetual 
circle (chron.) ; aa imag. celeatial circlet*—' 
Cj^ck of indu/tion = 15 years ;^cy'eU qf the 
moon (golden number) ss 19 yeara;— ^ei« 
qftheeun (solar cycle) ss 38 years. 

(^clie, ar-kllk, sik'— We., a. ^ eytflieid, -SI, 
a. Pertaining to a oyde. [arcs and curves. 

Cm* olograph, -Jdo-gr Af, s. An instr. for descr. 

C^c/oui, sr-klovd, sIkf-Sh., s. 22. Acertahi 
curve. (geouL) 

^oloid'al, -U, *. 43, Pertaining to a OTolold. 

djfclomeiry, -kldm'-e-tre^ a. The art of mea- 
suring cycles or drdes. 

—Jo., Sh., a = cyeloptfdia. A circle of the 
sciences ; a book of universal knowledge ; a 
oompreh. dictionary embr. an entire subject 

Cyclopean, -p«'-ftn, a. = Oyeldp'ic. Pert to 
the cydops ; gigantic, massy, vast; terriflc. 

Okynst, sig'-net, s. A young swan. 

q/lmder, sll'-In-der, s. 41. A drenlar soUd 
body of uniform diameter, with parallel 
circnlar ends or bases (aeom.). 

C^lMdrie, -drik, a. s= cyUn'dncal, 

ceous*, -sh'Os. 

, cylmdraf' 
Hav. Che form or prop, of a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


oyliBder. H., epNH'dHeaUu, 43, ad. ; evKn- 

drieiiVf -dilf-lt-e, s. 91. [thaped. 

'^tin'dr^fi>rmt -dre-form, a. 36. Cyllnder- 

jfmdroidt -droyd, t. A bodv diff. from a 

eylinder by baTlnv its ends eliiptieal. 
C^Of OL-mA, B. 99. An ogee monldlng or 

eoraioe (arch.); a cyme (bot). 
^f*or. se-mtf r', s. A simar or aearf. 
Cymbal, rim'-bAlf s. 15. A mnsieal Instr. of 

brass or bronze, beaten together in pairs. 
Cifm'bifiHin, -fi>nn, a. 26. Boat-shaped. 
C^pnCf Blm«, s = cw^mat L. A sprout or shoot* ; 

a lund of jpanlcle having the appearance of 

an nmbel (not.). See C^ma, 
Cymoid, -moyd, a. 29. lonned like a evme. 
QfwtophaiUt sIm'-o-f!ln«, s. The ohrysoberyl. 
(^finophon<m$t se-mttf-d-nOs, s. Emitting 

rays; opaleeeent [res. a cyme. 

Opmof, tH-uOtef^ a. = ej^wums, -as. Coat, or 
Cjfnanehe, se-n&ng'-ke, s. 99. InflaoL of the 

throat or trachea. [honting with d<^. 

Ofneggtin^t sln-e-j£t'-lks, s. pi. 43. The art of 
Cymo^ sin'-lk, a. =s eyn'ioal, -&l. Dog-like; 

surly, snarling, satirieal; austere; misan- 

thropio. H., eyn'ieoltjff ad. ; eyn'ieatneu or 

Cjfn'tdam, -sizm, si 91. 
Cifn'ieg. -Iks, s. pL Dogs; a sect of andent 

Grecian phUoeophers, characterised by their 

contempt of riches, arts, sdenoes, plea- 
sures, Ac, and love <tf rigid Tirtuck 
C^fnoitiret sln'-o-shOr;, sX'— Ja., P., &, Sh., 

-xh'SOr— S., s. The oonstdlation wh. eont. 

the north star ; h., anything which strongly 
Qf'oH*. See Anon, [attraeu attention (poet). 
<ffpre98f%V-Tpr1i»,B, A tree, of several spedes, 

vdiose branches were anc used at ftmerals ; 

h^asymbolofdeath or mourning. [oiC^pnu. 
f^ffrian, sIp'-re-Sn, a. Of or firom the Island 
Gg/rioHt >• A lewd woman. 
C^rtne, -rin, a. 46. Made <tf cypress wood ; 

pertaining to iish of the carp family. 
" ' ' »f, -re-ttt, s. 25. An inbab. of Cyprus. 
^sr-pr1l8,s. A thin, transp., black staff. 
' , sir-e-nft'-lk, a. 15. Pert to Cyrene. 
<«, -o-WJ'-Xk, sl-re— S., a. Pert to 
1 letters. • [bid matter. 

vyoy slat, s. = qnfUi. A bag containing mor- 
Qfttfie, -Ik, a. Pert to or contained in a cyst. 
Cytf MS, -In, s. 58. A kind of cakulus formed 

of etftfie oxide. 
QfitUitf -tr-tlx, *. Inflam. of the bladder. 
€ystocel«,sls'-ti>-8^s. Hernia of the bladder. 
^sUm^ -tit^tjh. 45. Containing cysts. 
C%stotomp, -tof -o-me, s. The act or art of 

opening encysted tumours; lithotomy, (sarg.) 
Cythtrean^ slth-e-r5'-&n, a. Of or belonging 

to Yenus, or to love. 
(bar, zdtt s. (prop, orthog. and pronun., tzar. 

—We.; f.,csaHna, z<i-r8'-nA.) An emperor; 

appr., the Emperor of Russia. 
C^t^iMh, -Ish, a. Pertaining to a czar. 
Qm'owUz, -o-wltz, s. The eldest son of a czar. 

D, de. The fourth letter in the Hebrew alph., 
and those der. from it It has only one sound, 
which is formed by pressing the tip of the 
tongue against the upper gums. It is nerer 
silent When foL a sharp cons., in the same 
syl., it assumes the sound of t 7L 


2>ai|, dih, a. A small lump of anything soft or 
moist, or a blow with ic ; something moist 
or slimy thrown on one; a gentle blow; a 
dabster; a small flat fisht. 

2>a5t, Tt To strike gently with something 
soft or moist, or with the hand; to mark 
with, or suek or bale up, by dabbing. H.^ 
ddWinffX, pi ; dabhedX, pp. 

2>aU^, dMO, Tt 45. To wet by UtUe dips or 
strokes ; to smear, spatter, or sprinkle :-> 
vl. To play in water; to do anything in a 
alight or sunerfidal manner ; to tamper ; to 
meddle. H., daWlmgX, n., a.; daWUdU 
pp. : daWlert, a. ; {ufdabyiinal, s. 89. 

2>a^eAtdk,-diIk,s. Asmallwater-fovl. [thing. 

DaV$tert%, -st£r, s. One who is expert at any- 

Dac^ d&s^, s. 85. A certain small river-flsh. 

i?-- ^* ""' *" " V poetical foot (-vv). 

L fUir, 85. Bel. to or 

to the Angers. H., 

L iter of flowing Terse. 

JD 45. Theinscr. ofthe 

r ring or gem. [engr. 

J) e, s. The art of gem 

D 80. The art of talking 

I. of the hist and qua], 
rs, or by flnger-rinss. 

D e,s. Dirinatlonbythe 

D , -e. Father, (chi.) 

D Td dawdle; to totter 

DadOfdd'-dOt*, The die, or the square part of 
a pedestal or column bet the base and cornice. 

DtBdalian, de-d&U'-y&n, a. 45. Formed with 
art; intricate; maze-like, [margin, (bot) 

Dmfolout, dCd'-tf-lds, a. Having a maize-like 

Z>q^bda, dtf-o-dn, a. A cert yellow flower. 

Dqfl^ d&ft, a. Weak-minded ; silly, (prov.) 

Doff*, d&g, s. A loose end of something ; a 
leathern latehet (prov.) 

Dagger^ dig'-ftr, s. 25. A short-pointed sword 
for stabbing ; a mark (t) used in printing. 
H., dag&er* (to stab), vt 90. 

Dagglel, digl, vt, vi. To draggle (q. v.). 

Daguarrtotype, dd-gSr'-ro-tlpf (g hard), -re-o- 
tlp^— J. & M., S., s. 99. The method of sun- 
painting on metal, inv. bv Daguerre. (Fr.) 
H., Dagutrrtfian^ -re-fin (pert to), a. ; (a) 
Doffttemfoiyper at Daguemfotypiit, s. 90. 

DahUa, daltf'-y'd, s. A certain showy flower. 

Daily, da'-le, a. (pref., cfay'fy— We.) Occ, 
giv., enj.,or penormed every day ; diurnal : 
—ad. Every day; dav by day; diumally; 
fljf., very often. H., aai'lint$g*, s. 91. 

Damty, d&ne'-te, a. Pleaa to the palate, deli- 
cious; delicate, nice, squeamish; scrup. in 
manners, ceremonious, fastidious; elegant, 
soft, tender; effem. beautiful; aifectedlf 
fine. H., dam'tUy, 48, ad. ; dain'tint$»^ s. 91. 

Dain'ty, s. A ddiotcy. (v. a.) 

Dairy, dfir^-e, s. 36, The place where milk ia 
kept, and dieese and butter mfde ; also the 
business or oocup. in resp. of the same ; a 
dairy-farm. H., datr'y-kotue, dair'y-room, 
dair^yHnaid,dau^yman,Sco.,B.dO. [of a dairy. 

Iktir'ymg, -Ing, s. The trade, bus., or manag. 

Dait, dfi -Is, s. The rsised floor at the upper 
end of a dining-hall, where the high table 
stood ; also the canopied seat there, (arch.) 

Daisy, du'-ze, s. 85. A well-known roring 
flower. }Lt dai'iied, -sId (ftiU of), a. 90l 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Dah, WU, t. A Ttle or ^nUtj, (poet) 

DttlUonee. tfT-e^aif, dU'-yinaet. •. Lit, 
lincerinf , or dda jt ; «ppr^ Mts of trifling, 
tojiiig,orfioiidne»; interehttgeoCcftreMM; 
oopjoRsl cmbnen. 

iMJy, dAf-e, Tt To delay or defer* :—Ti. To 
peae tbo thne in dalUaaee; to lote time in 
ldlene« or trifles : to play, iport, or trifle. 
H^ilall'yiiV.p.; iCe^ j^ -Id, pp. ; dtUVier, 
•e-Sr. e. ; dalViamce^ %, (▼. m.) M. 

2>0m, dflm, ■. A mother (epplied ehleflj to 
4|i»dnipeds) ; a mole or bank to eonflne 
water ; a crowned mant (drangbte). 

Dam, Tt To eonflne or shot op with a dam ; 
fig^ to eonflne or reitrain gnierallyt. K., 
damm'mg, p. ; dammed, pp. 

Damage, ^im'-*^ t. 46. Miaehlef, hart, de- 
triment, kne; aleotheTalneof themiaohief 
done; any hurt, loae, or hindrance to one'i 
estate or ^rop. (leg.) :— pi., dam'ape*, -H, 
twn awarded by a Jury (leg.). 

JkMfigt, Tt To harm, injure, or impair :— 
tL To ree. harm or damage. H., dam'agmpt 
p., a. ; damfoftd, pp., a. ; dam'ajfeablet a. 89. 

Iktmaaeene, dim'-d-aene, dflm'-rat, e. The 

J)am^atk,-4tk,M, Flgnrcd Unen or aUk, orig. 
ftomDamaaeua; alao a red eolonr, aa of the 
damfoA rote. U., damfaak (of or like), a. 90. 

Dam'atk,yU To farm flowers on Btuflh,fte.; to 
Tarlcsate. 1i.tdam'atkinf,f^ dam'askedfpp, 

Dtmfween, -ine, Tt = damtukm*. To inlay 
iron, steel. Ice., with gold or ailTer wire. H., 
damfa9kiemit^,}^u\ i(am'a<ltlo>ecl,pp.,a.89. 

Ulam'aafcm, -In, a. A aahre^ originally ftom 
Damaa e oa . [or silver. 

J>am*€uain, -sin, a. Cloth damaaked in gold 

Itame, dftBM^ a. Orig., a title of honour; now, 
a matron, or the mistreaa of an hnmUe 
family; tJie wife of a knight or baronet 
(leg.) ; a lady (poet). [Eaat Indiea. 

Jkummar. dam'-Ar, a. 25. A renn feom the 

Daman, aim, a 45. A cnrae ; an oath. 

Jkmm, Tt To sentence to eternal torments 
in a Art. stato; to condemn ; to procure or 
eaose to be eter. condemned ; to condemn, 
eensorcv or reprobate (aerip.) ; to cause the 

Cdtvre or miscarriage of { ; to hiss or hoot 
down a play, &e.t H., damning, d&m -, p. : 
daamid, d&nd, pp.; fto. (t.L)89. 

DamauMe, d&m'-nfthl, a. 45. Deserr. or lead- 
ing to damnation ; odious, ezecr., pernicious. 
H., doat'iiaUy, 49, ad. ; daa^nahleM$»,;9i, 

Daamatkm, -n&'-shfin, s. Exclusion from 
divine merey; sentence to eternal punish- 
ment; condcmnatton, censure (scrip.). 

DamfmOmy, -nd-t5r-e, a. 35. Tend, to eon- 
dema : coot a sentence of condemnation. 

Doomed, dfla'-a£d, a. 65. Sentenced to eter. 
pu ni s hmen t! condemned ; hateftil, abomin., 
ezecrablel. H., (the) dam'ned, s. pi. (t. t.) 9L 

Dammjfie,-hW'tktti. Causing loss; mischicTous. 

DoBt'mfy*, -ne-fl, Tt To cause loss or da- 
mage to; to hurt or injure U., dan^ntfg- 
wg, p, ; damfmJUd, pp. 

Demttmg, ditan'-mng, a. That condmnns; 
» to damnation. H., dam'ning- 
ftttngntH*, s. 91, 

__„_, ,, a. 46. Moist; h 

dejected, rank, depressed*. H., 


Damp, dfimp, a. 46. Moist; humid; foggy; 
' ted, sunk, depressed*. H., dan^Iy, 
daau^ne8$j s. 91. 
s. Moist air; humidity, vapour, fog; 



mental dcprcasioo, diillt :— pL, dampe, 
nooioas eschalations from mineral stiata. 
H., dampt^X, a. 90. 

Damp, vt =3 damp^m\. To moisten, to wet 
slightly; flg., to chill, depress, or discourage; 
to abate, deaden, or weaken (aa a aouad). 
tt, dampriMg,j^x ^^"fP^ ^*»*» PP^ »•; 
damp'er, a. ; Ae. (v. L) 89. 

DoMp^MJ^t, -feh. a. Rather damp. IS^dampr- 
i»M^, ad. ; damp^ithneeal, a. 9L 

Itesisel, d&m'-s^ a. Ayonnggentlewomaat; 
any young femalet ; a country laaa. 

Itomson, dim'-sn, a. 46. A small black plum. 

Dance, dAns«, ddns<^We., a. 9, 38. Prim., a 
leaping or fHaking about ; appr^ a move- 
ment of one, or of many, in concert, with 
meaaared atepe, refnilated by music; also 
any tune by which dancing is regulated. 

Danet, vt To make to dance; to dandlet :— 
vL To leap and friak about ; to move nim* 
Uy; ^>pr., to move with meaa. atopa, Ac., 
in accord with muaie. U., dtm"emg, p., a. ; 
datteed, pp. ; donjon', a. ; (a) dan"emg, a. 
(v. 8.) 89.-TO daaee aUenSameeX ia to wait 
on ouequionaly and assiduously. 

Dmif'emg, -Ing, a The act and art of mov. in 
the dance. U., daa" cmg m m *t tr, dattTomg- 
«eAoo/,Ae.,a.90. [lion'atoothortaraxacum. 

Dandelion, dAii-do4i'-(in, a. 26. The plant 

Dan'diprat^, -prftt >• An obaoleto coin; a 
ninny; a little feUow. 

2>aiNttst> din'-dl, vt 45. To ahake or Jolt oai 
the knee or hand (aa an infent); to amuse 
by play or fondling ; to toy or dally withf. 
K., dand^Ungt, p., s.; dan'dUdt, pp.; (a)/ 
dand'lei*, s. ft^. 

Dandrtfif, dtod'-rtti; s. Seurf in the head. 

DandgX, d&a'-de, s. One who dresses to ex- 
cess; a fop; a coxcomb. H^ dan'dyithXt 
dan^difiedX, a. ; dan^dgitmX, -Ism (manner 
and dress of)» •• 00. 

Itefte, diln«, s. A native of Denmark, [wort 

Dantfwort, -wttrt, a Dwarf-elder or wall- 

Danger, dan^^-jfir, s. 80. lUsk, haaard, peril ; 
a state of exposure or insecurity. H., dSnf- 
gerleti/*, fto., a. 90. 

DofMvroiis, dAne'-J^r-fis, a. Has., perilous, un- 
safe, insecure; full of dsnger. H., ddn'ger' 
ouuy, 48, ad. ; lidnVeroumeu* (danger), a. 91. 

Dangle, ding'-gl, vl. 45. To hang loose, flow- 
ing, or waving; to hang on sny one; tobe 
an humble, omoious follower. H., dan"gHng, 
p., a., s. ; danCgled, pp. ; (a) dan''gler (par. 
after women), s. 89. [Denmark. 

DcmiiA, dOuf'-Ish, a. Oforbcl.totheDancaor 

Dafni^ a. The language of the Danes. 

2>aiiJk*, oflnek, a. Damp; humid. [Danube. 

DanidMan, dd-nab^-yfin, a. Pert to the river 

Dap, dip, vi. = ddpe. To raiae, sink, or drop 
the bait gently, (ang.) 

DapperXi, dftp'-dr, a. Active, nimble; little 
and active; neat and brisk. 

Dapp^erliftg*. -ling, s. A dwarf. 

Dapple, dap% a. = dapp'Ud, 45. Spotted ;» 
marked with spots of oif. colours or shades. 

DampTle, vt. To variegate with spots, &c. (v. a.) • ■ 
H., dappTling, p., a. ; dapp'ltd, pp., a. 89. 

Dar, ddr, s. = dart, A fish found in the 
Severn. [H., dar^fitli, a. 90. 

Dare, d&te, s. Defiance, chnllenget ; thedacet. 

Dare, vL To have auff. courage, strength of 
mind, or hardihood : to be adventurous ; not 

Digitized'by VjOOQ IC 


to be afraid. H., dSr'ing, p., a. ; dUntt prt. ; 

4ared^ pp. 89. 
2>ar9t Tt. To challenge, proroke, or defy; to 

terrify and amaeet (as in catching larks). 

H., ddt'wg^ p., a. ; dared^ prt., pp. 89. 
Darmg, dar/-Xng, a. Bold, coarageons. intre- 

})id; adTentnrons; andadons. H.i ddr^kng- 
y, ad. ; d^ingnesMf s. (v. y.) 91. 

jDm% dJrk, a. 7. Without light, obaonre; 
irhoUy or partially black ; opaque; blind*; 
flg:, i^omny, dlsmaL depressing; ofaecorc, 
mysterioos ; unenlightened, mde, ignorant ; 
ieeiet, concealed; clandestine. u^derJ^hf, 
ad. ; dat^ntsi, s. 91. [Its oomp. are nam., 
bat aelf-explanatory.l 

Dark, s. Darkness: obsoority; state of ig- 
norance. H., darkish, a. (r. a.) 90. 

Darken, ddtk'n, tt. 46. = darkf. To make 
dark ; to clood or obseare ; to render Ignor. 
or stapid; to perplex; to soUy, foal, or 
blacken :— ▼!. To grow dark or darker ; to 
become sallied or opaqne. 'B..,darkemng,'^, 
a. : darkened, -nd, pp., a. ; darkenert, s. 89. 

DarhMng, diirk'-ling, a. Being in the dark; 
darksome, (poet) [rity(T.T.). 

Darkwn, -nee, s. Absence of light; obscn- 

Darkiome, -stlm, a. Oloomy : obsrare. (poet.) 

Darimg,ddif-\ixtg,Vi,rsdMu'ling\. Taroarlte; 
dear; dearly betored. 

Dar'Ung, s. One mach belored. 

DamX, Adm, s. A place mended \n darning. 

Dam, Tt To mend holes by imit the texture 
of the stuff H., dam'ina, p. ; darned, pp., 
a. ; dam'er, s. ; dam'ing (the act, &o.), s. 89. 

DamtU dAr'-nCl, s. A certain fleld-weed. 

Dari, dArt. s. A pointed weapon thrown by 
the hand; fig., anything wmeh pierces and 

Dart, Tt. To throw sod., ofliens., or rapldlv; 
to send; to emit; to send or shoot (foL by 
forth) :— Ti. To fly as a dart; to fly, nm, or 
eprin^ rapidly (as with hostile purpose). H., 
darfmff, p.; darted, pp.; dartdr (also a 
Brazilian bird), s. 89. 

DoKHmg, -Ing, a. (t. t.) H^ dartingly, ad. 91. 

JDorfroto*, dJr^-trds, a. Noting oertain vague 
cutaneous diseases. 

i^sft,diflib,s. GollisioB;infti8ion; slight add. 
or admixture; something thrown Into an- 
other subs, to giTO it piquancy or char. ; a 
sad. stroke, blow, or act ; a rushing or onset 
with Tiolence; flourish, parade; the sound of 
dashing water ; a mark in writing and print- 
ing (—); a mark over a note in music (i = 
distinctly). T 

Daeh, Tt T6 throw or strike sud. ; to break 
by collision (us. foL by in fieeee) ; to throw 
inflashes; to sprinkle or bespatter; tostrike 
and break or disperse (as waves) ; to mix, 
reduce, or adult ; to form or sketdi has- 
tily ; to strike or blot out, or obUterate; to 
destrov or frustrate (as hopes or schemes); 
to confuse or put to shame ; to confound with 
shame or fear :— ri. To strike, ^., and fly 
off; to rush, strike, or scatter ; to fly in 
flasbes with a loud noise ; to rm^ and break 
throagh (as a ship). H., da$h'ing, p., a.; 
doAtM, pp. ; dath'er (uso one ahowily 
dressed], s. 89. [the forepart of a Tehicle. 

Daith'-hoard, -bdrd, s. The screen or board on 

Da$h'ing, -Ing, a. Precipitate ; rushing care- 
lesslT on; marked by finery of dress or 


assumption of mannert; ^. (r. ▼.) H., 

daekmptH, ad. 91. 
Dastard, d^-tdrd, a. = daftardl^, -le. Vean- 

l7 timid; cowardly. H., dartardlp, ad.; 

aatftardneu, daiftardliM$e, s. 91. 
Das'tard, s. A coward ; a poltroon. H., dat^- 

tardg* (dastardness), a. 90. [intimidate. 
Datftardieef*, -lz«,Tt 60. To midce cowardly ; to 
Data, dft'-ta, a. pi. Things giren^ admitted, 

known, or aadgnabte; known or admitted 

truthSL (log.; geom.) 
Daiaria, dart&rr-e-d, s. 

The papal ehai 

^ ^ lanoery 

at Borne. H., da'torv (prin. oflicer of), s. 90. 

DaU, date, 9> The addition to a writing, ftc, 
wh.shewsthetimewhenitwasexeeuted; also 
the words, flg., &c., which expr. the same: 
the time of any erent or trans. ; a stipulated 
time; oontinuanee, duration; period, era, 
age, epoch; copclus., end*; the Ihilt of 
tiiadat^-tree, H., cte/e'Iect, a. 90. 

Date, Tt To write, note, or afllx the date to 
orof:— Ti. To reckon; to haTC origin. H.* 
dating, p. ; ddtfed, pp. ; ddfer, s.^~8.) 89. 

DaUo0,W-ttY.tL That is given or appointed. 

D(^tit>e, s. = di^Uve ease. That inflexion of a 
noun wh. den. participation in the action of 
ite Tcrb, in Eng. expressed l^ towjbr. (gr.) 

Datwn, d&'-tOm, s. TpL. da'ta.) A thing or 
proposition cir. and admitted.— /^dim-lnitf 
Is the base une fhmi which sorfaee-lerels 
are reckoned (dv. eng.). See Data* 

Dateria,dil-tO'-rfr^,s.l8,58. An alkalokt obt^ 
teom the thorn-apple {oaMra ttramo'mvm). 

Daub, dSRrb, s. 8. A coarse painting. 

Daub,yt, To smear with soft adhes. matter; 
to paint coarsely; to lay on gaudily or osten- 
tatiously ; to flatter grossly tj—vL To play 
the hypocrite or fiatterer). H., dsiift'lttf , p. ; 
daiAea, pp. ; daiMer, s. ; danlbfing, daw/ery, 

Ddu&yt, -e, a. Viscous; glutinous, rs.89. 

Dttu^MfT, di^-ter, s. 8, 90. A female child ; 
any fern, descendant ; a term of tateli^ vt 
kindness; the fem. penitent of a eonfSessor: 
—pi. Fem. lnhab.,deecettdants gen. (poet; 
scrip.).— A daugkter^-iaw is a son's wifie. 

Dottgkterly, -le, a. Like a daughter; datiftal. 
H., dough' terUnen, s. 91. 

Daunt, dint, dcn^nt*— K., Fe.. Tt 8, 9. To dis- 
courage; to intimidate, dismay, fHghten. 
H., daunting, p. ; dawttfed, pp., a. 89. 

DauntfUat, a. Not to be discouraged ; fearless. 
H., daunfUuly, 43, ad. ; dauntleeanees, s. 91. 

Damhm, dflT-nn, d5'-faB^K., s. 99. The 
title of the eldest son of the king of Itancek 
H.J davph'inen (wifb or widow of), & 90. 

DamtM, d&y-rts, s. pL Prq). beams or props 
used in hoisting boats, manag. the andiof, 
&c. (nant) [dav/i^* (sly), a. 9a 

Doio, 0^, s. 8. The name of ser. birds. H.t 

Dawdlet, dStT-dl, t1. 45. To waste time ; to 
trifle; to act or moTc slowly. H., dawd'' 
Ungt, p., a.; daWdlsH,/pp.', (a) daw'dUt 
or dawdlerX, s. 89. 

Dawk, dsark, s. A rupture, defbet, or inelBion 
in timber ]toch.) ; the roaU-poet (E. L). 

Dawk, Tt To cut or mark wHh an inciston : 
— Ti. To moTe about slowly and idlT*^. 

2)aicn, d£l^, s. 8. The break of day; tne time 
bet the first sppearance of light and sun- 
rise; fig., b( ginning; first rise; tiie first 
beams, appea.-anoe, opening^ or expansion. 
H., dawn' ten, a. 90. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Dmmh tL To begin to grair light fai the 
nontaig; flg;,tobegiAto opan, ezpuid, or 
aspeu* (iMt.« anr., or ineiit.) ; to gUnroer 
•bMBTBly; to giM proodae of tatur* laBtMk 
H^ dmoKfim^,^ A.j^4iamMi^ W.; (the) 



131(1% di» i^ The tOM ooomiitd hf one iwoL 
of tho orth o» its axit (snorurai Aiy); 
th9 time from iBMiiighl to nidnight (= 
mi/U <faf>; 2i hoon^ pop„ the time het 

TCt to (gen. in the pl^ Aift) ; the oontMt of 
Adey, bottle; enaiveraerr; time or seoeon 
in gen.; Ufo, printe of life. It bee many 
eoniffu <e»*iwei.*iy-deo*(> deily reeovd 
of debto and endito aa thej oeear), <fa^- 

rf«l^ire— () 

dtaf-Jlotmr, ia^-p9 (the e^MiDera) 
fatov, te-Jtf'ieiiirvr, d;ey'-llly (the 
^, day%A<» te'Hnotf f or ia^'wmtak\ 
(dairT-aeid), jWatar (morning etmr), il^«- 
mmrK dktf'-wttrk (that of one dav), dof^- 
sMitf («n naapire or Indge), AmTimm 
(dsvn). ifa^<JaM» dm^-wrU or ifa^-niifo 
Aig.)»Ae^ fa.r-vOa^SNto!r=»d^y:-to- 
mift ad. zs on tfaie day:— tfey of ffran^ 
tine vhen merej ie omred (tfaeo.) i-^ia^ 
4Kf§raet = a dsfi allowed fbr the paym. of 
a note or bill of ezohangev after being die 
f to ito date (eoram.). 
>8. ▲ guttering stone. (mL> 
ff%. To danlob (poet) 
itanBte»diBlordte'-zl,Tt.45. To overpower 
witfi Ught; to render the sight unsMady; 
to eirikeor sarprisewithbrilUaneyorapun- 
dooT (either lit. or fig.) :— tL To have the 
aigfaft wm a o a wed irith light; fte. (t. an.) 
H., ilaai'Av, p., a.; daaikd^ pp., a.; 
dkanrtet,a; daaHkng^ dtuafUmmt*, s. 89. 
" "^ , a. (». T.) tt, dm^lm^Hh 

iJI»>dl%pfiL It nt. escpr. motion downwards, 
n moir. iranH awparatton, or taking away; 
and h.a]a% oft. a negative, with a foree like 
noi or tm^ rerersing the raeentng of tiie 
ovig. word. Intheeesensaamostefitsoom. 
eanp. «e eetf-enpL 8omet» it angm. or 
d imfalahi n; and at others^ it is merely in- 
tonstve, imp. oat ftiUy, thoroogfaly, Ae. 
CL.) See Om-t Dt*-, fte. 
2>me9n. dV-kn, -k&n*— K.. s. (f., d^eonem^,) 
n, 4ft. A pcnon in the lowest of the three 
otdaaof dergy (Eng^ ; an oreraeer of the 

^fflee or mtaia. of}, a. 90. 

itamt^dU,*- Deprived of U 
fimet: withont life, inanimate; that nrrer 
had life (airim. or reg.); whenee a rar. of 
meanittga^ Itt^ilg;, and anaL : aa— deathUhe, 
deep, sound; senadeas; inaotive; per- 
Ibedy atill, mettonless, breathless; nnempl., 
vnpBoC, naaleas; empty, roid; doll, nn- 
cnnvened, nnTaried; deiqi, ofaaeare; fHgid, 
oold, UMeas: withoot warmth or ardoor ; 
taataiaii. Tapld, apirttleaa; without natoral 
ftree^ effleaey, spirit, fte. ; nnlnbab. ; wtthoat 
vegetation : perf. or oomplate (gnn. ; sorr.; 
d(Bi); deprived: of the rights of oitisenship 

Of.) ; Oder the power of sin (thee.). H., 
•Minf)f,a.,ad.; dMMfiMSf,s.( ' 

MSf,s.(T.L)tt. Among 
-^aim^ (daatnetivej; 
Bly so), te., a.; Semd- 


ito eomp. are t kad '- 

ima-drmk (haplessly 

cotomrmg (Hmt rough layer— pa.] 

Uml'guagB (one no longer spohsn] 

Utter (one ondeL and nnrtaimed) 

IM (a heavy weight ; a ho p e l eaa eilgenay), 

imd4i§iU (a storm^ottar fcr a oaUn 

window— nant), dead-manh (a pleee of 
solemn f^meral nmsie), d m iT i m ttU (a phart), 
datu tn ek o rnkt a (sst^ of n ship*a plaee 
simply by the kig-Wik-nnvig:), dmd-mOtr 
(ed^waterataahip^e atarg, dmdT wafyHf 
ja heavy or oppreea. bnrAsn), daad^ lasr Ai 
(the parte of a ship above har wnter^llwe 
nantJ), Ae^ fte^ n 

Dmd, M. The d^tth or midit; the tfane of 
greatest stUInea or gloom :— s. pi. (the dmd) 
dead men. H., daod'icA* (flat, dnht), a. 90. 

Jla adiw , dJMTn, vt 4ft. « dnnlt. Tedspriveof 
or lessen vinmr, foroe, asttott, or ssnsation ; 
to blnnt^ to lessen ssnsAility; to retard; to 
render vapid or spiritlsos: to Isssen or 
smother (as aoond) ; to oload or dtaaeore (aa 
gloas or brillhmey). H^ dm d mi m ff , p., a.; 
dtodemd, -nd, pp., a. 89. 

i>sMO|r, did'-le^ a. Brtagiiui death: fatal; 
destrootive; implaoable. S., dsotflr (also 
very, estremelyl), ad.; dtod^MMis^ a. dLr— 
Jkadl^ nifkiahade le belladonna. 

Dm^, dCf (orig., dfibt, and still pron. so in 
Amer.), a. without the aanae of hearing ; 
hearing impert ; flg., inattentive, regard- 
leaa, aneonmmed ; miwilUng to himr ; mi- 
profitable. H^ d«0r^, 48, ad.; dmrTntm, 
a. 91.— A drnf-wmU ia one deaf and mmUk. 

l>M|^)m, dif 'n, vt 45. To make deaf (whoUy» 
partially, or tmnpor.); to stun. Vi,^dMftm» 
^itft 1^ ^ » dn^tnedf Hid, pp. 89. 

i>sai^ dSU, B. UUf a div., portion, or part; h» 
an indef. qnan., degree, or extent; agrees 
part: the aet of dealing eards; aflrorpine 
Doard or plank. 

i>sa^ vt. Prim., to divide or aep. ; to divide 
into portions, to distrtbato (oft;, fol. by tnU) ; 
to give gradoolly ; to eeatter or throw about : 
— vL lb traffie or trans, baaineaa; to nego- 
tiate: to aot (in any man.); todi8trib.oard8. 
H., dtafmg, p. ; deaUd or dmOt, dOt, prt, 
pp.: deotmrt s. ; deuttng, s. (v. s.) 89.— Tb 
deal iy ia to treat (wdl or HI) ; to deml in, 
to have to do with, to trade to, to praetiae ; 
to deal with, to treat in any num., toeon- 
tend with. [dsdOa'^iofi^, 88, a. 89. 

DeaOotef, de^U'-bltc, vt To whiten. H., 

Deaier, dftU'-fir, s. One who deals; a trader, 
shopkeeper, broker, merchant, Ae. (v. v.)