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Full text of "Dictionary of the foot"

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DICTIONARY 

OF THE FOOT 



GIVING 

A COMPLETE DEFINITION OF THE WORDS AND TERMS USED 

IN ANATOMY, PHySIOLGY, NORMAL AND ABNORMAL 

CONDITIONS AND MECHANICAL TREATMENT 

OF THE HUMAN FOOT, WITH 

PRONUNCIATION. 



DR. WM. M. SCHOLL 

AUTHOR OP "the HUMAN FOOT ANATOMY, DBPORMITIBS 
AND TREATMENT." 



CHICAGO 

The Foot Specialist Publishing Co. 

1915 klOgk- 



^oiizccb, Google 



PREFACE 



Realizing tKe necessi^ of a dictionary tkat xOill clearly 
and concisely! expound the tecKnkal terminologoy associated 
■»3ith chiropody and orthopedics; I ha-Se compiled what wlill 
be recognized, by those interested in the studj) of the human 
foot and its treatment as a valuable aid. 

I ha^e conscientiously? stri'^ed to emulate the purpose of 
a text book, eliminating the perusal of cumbersome -Oolumes 
^ such as medical text books require. 

In compiling this dictionary, access has been made to 
all the modern "tforks, eliminating that which would be 
unnecessarj? to the student and those terms which are now 
obsolete. Illustrations have been added to further elucidate 
and render clearer the definitions. 

QUe Author. 



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DICTIONARY OF THE FOOT 



ABDUCENT 



ADDUCTOR 



abducent (ab-du'sent). Abduct- 
ing; drawing from the center. 

abdnct (ab-dukt'). To draw 
from the median line. 

abduction (ab-dulc'ahun) (L. ab 
from + du'eere, to lead). The 
withdrawal of a part from the 
axis of the body; the act of 
turning outward; the act of 
abducting or state of being 
abducted. 

abductor (ab-duk'tor) (L.). A 
muscle or nerve which with- 
draws from the center of the 
body. 

abnormal (ab-nor'mal) (L. ab. 
from -|- nor'ma, rule). Not 
normal; any deviation from 
■ the usual structure or condi- 
tion. 
' abnormality, abnormi^ (a b- 
normal'ity, abnorm'ity). A 
malformation, an irregularity. 

abraaion (abra'sion). An ex- 
coriation of the akin or mu- 
cous membrane. 

abruption (abrup'tion), A tear- 
ing asunder. The transverse 
fracture of a bone. 

absceaa (ab'ses). A circum- 
scribed cavity containing pus. 

abaorbo pads. A series of pro- 
tecting pads made of rubber 
for enlarged toe joints, corns, 
bunions, callouses; pads to re- 
lieve pressure on sensitive 
spots of the feet, size and 
shape for every toe. Made 
by the SchoU Mfg. Company, 



achiUobaraitiB (ak-il'-o-bur-si'- 
tis). Inflammation of the 
bursa lying over the achilles 
tendon. 

achillodynia (ak-il-o-din'e-ab). 
Neuralgia of the achilles ten- 

acUllotoray (ak-il-ot'o-me). Di- 
vision of the achilles tendon. 

acroeadiesia, acraeathesia (ak- 
ro-es-the'ze-ah). 1. Hyper- 
sensitiveness. 2. Fain in the 
extreme ties. 

acromegaly (ak-ro-meg'al-e). 
An abnormal development of 
the extremities, 

Bcrotraphoneurosla (acrotropho- 
neuro'sis). Tropic disturb- 
ance of the extremities. 

BcroparestheBia (ak-ro-par-es- 
the'ze-ah). 1. Extreme altered 
sensation. 2. Altered sensa- 
tion of the extremities. 



actton (ak'shun) (L. ac'tio). 

Any function or movement 
either of any part or organ or 
of the whole body. 
addnct (ad-ukt') (L. addu'cere, 
to draw toward). To draw 
toward a center or toward a 

addurtor (ad-uk'tor) (L.). A 
muscle which draws toward 
the center of the body. 



ADHESION 

adhesion (ad-he'zhun) (L. ad- 
hae'aio, from adhae'rere tc 

stick to). The abnormal join- 
ing of parts to each other 
Band of fibrous tissue by 
which parts abnormally 

adhesive (ad-he|siv). 1. Stick- 
ing or adhering closely. 
Characterized by adhesion of 
contiguous parts. 

adipose (ad ' ip-os) (L. adipo' - 
sus, fatty). 1. Of a fatty na- 
ture; fatty; fat. 2. The fat 
present in the cells of adipose 



algid (al'jid). Cold, chilly. A 
state; the cold stage of a dis- 
ease. 

ambulant, ambulatory (am'bu- 
lant, am'bu-la-to-re (L. am'- 
bu-lans, walking). Walking 
or able to walk; not confining 

the patient to bed. 

amputation (am-pu-ta'shun). The 
surgical cutting ofT of a limb 
or other part. Chopart's a., 
medio-tarsal a., amputation of 
the foot, the calcaneum as- 
tragalus and a part of the tar- 
sus being retained. 

In- 



ANESTHESIA 



anastomosis (anastomo'sis). The 
junction of vessels or hollow 
organs. 

anatomical (an'a-tom'i-cal; see 
anatomy). Of or relating to 
,3 the 



anatomical charts. A series of 
charts made for the chiropody 
profession, consisting of one 
chart on Osteology, showing 
the bones; one on muscles 
and tendons, and one chart 
arteries and nerves. Litho- 
graphed in colors with refer- 
ences. Published by the 
Scholl Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

anatomist (a-nat'o-mist). A per- 
son skilled in anatomy. 

anatomy (an-at'o-me). 1. The 
science of the structure of or- 
ganized bodies. 2. Dissec- 
tion of an organized body, ap- 
plied a., anatomy as applied 
to diagnosis and treatment; 
artificial a., the study of arti- 
ficial dissection made in wax; 
comparative a., a comparative 
view of the structure of dif- 
ferent animals and plants, one 
with another. 



andrology (an-drol'o-je). The 



-- _ (a-ne'me-ah). 

A deficiency of blood or of 
red corpuscles. 



ANESTHETIC 

anesthetic (an-es-thet'ik). 1. 
Without the sense of touch or 
pain. 2. A substance pro- 
ducing anesthesia. 

aneaT7Bm (an'u-rizm). A dil- 
atation of an artery. 

ansiOKraphy (an-je-og'ra-fe). A 
description of the blood ves- 
sels. 



ankle supporters. An anklet 
made of leather or sateen, to 
be laced about the ankle to 
provide stiffening and sup- 
port. 

ankylosed (ang'kil-ozd). Af- 
fected with ankylosis, abnor- 
mal or limited motion of a 

ankylosis (ang-kil-o'sts). Ab- 
normal immobility and consol- 
idation of a joint, artificial a., 
the surgical fixation ofajoint; 
arthrodesis bony a., the ab- 
normal union of the bones of 
a joint; called also true a., ex- 



ANTEFLEXION 

tracapsular a., that caused by 
rigidity of parts outside a 
joint; false a., spurious a., 
ankylosis due to rigidity of 
the surrounding parts; fibrous 
a., that due to the formation 
of fibrous bands within a 
joint; intracapsular a., anky- 
losis due to the undue rigidity 
of structures within a joint; 
ligamentous a., ankylosis by 
ligaments or fibrous struc- 
tures; true a., same as bony 
a.; resulting in a stiS joint. 

annular (an'u-lar). Ring-like. A 
lig'a-ment — the ligament 
around the wrist and ankle. 

anodyne (an'o-din). A medicine 
relieving pain. 

anomaloiis (an-om'al-us). Devi- 
ating from the ordinary, 

anomaly (an-om'a-le). That 
which is anomalous. 



anostosis (an-os-to'sis). A de- 
fective development of the 



antagonism 

Opposition, 



antecurvature (an-te-kur'vat- 
ur). A slight bending for- 

anteflexion (an-te-flex'shun) (L, 
an'te, before + flex'io, bend). 
An abnormal forward curva- 
ture; a form of displacement 
in which the upper part of an 
organ is bent forward. 



ANTELOCATION 



■ (an-te're-or). Situated 
in front of or in the forward 
part of; affecting the forward 
part of an organ. 

anterior metatanal, Scholl's. A 
patent arch support for the 
feet, to give support to the 
transverse anterior arch; a 
support especially designed 
and shaped for the elevation 
of the depressed metatarsal 
bones, where they articulate 
with the phalanges. For 
metatarsal gia, callouses on 
the ball of the toot, for pain- 
ful Morten's Toe, for flat- 
foot. Anterior Metatarsal No. 
i general use. Anterior 
Metatarsal No. 2, without 
flange for inner border of 
longitudinal arch. Anterior 
Metatarsal No. 3— with ex- 
tended forward tongue to 
give special support to the 
head of the third and fourth 
metatarsals. Made by The 
Scholl Mfg. Co., Chicago, 
New York, Toronto and 
London. 



ANTISUDORAL 

antcvcrsion (an-te-ver'shun) (L. 
an'te, before, + ver'sio, a 

turning). The forward tip- 
ping or tilting of an organ; 
displacement in which the or- 
gan is tipped forward, but is 
not bent at an angle as in 



anthroposomatology (anthro- 
posomatol'ogy). The science 
of human structure. 

anthropotomy (an-thro-pot'o- 
me). Human anatomy. 

anti (Gr. avri, against). A 
prefix signifying against. 

anticus (an-titcus). Anterior; 

in front of. 
antibidrotic (an-te-hi-drot'ik). 

Lessening of secretion of 

antineuralgic (an-te-nu-ral'jik). 
Relieving neuralgia. 

antirheumatic (an-te-ru-mat'ik). 
Correcting rheumatism. 

antiseptic (an-te-sep'tik). 1. 
Preventing decay or putre- 
faction. 2. A substance de- 
structive to poisonous germs. 
Some of the chief antisep- 
tics are alcohol, boric acid, 
phenol creosote, corrosive 
sublimate, common salt, char- 
coal chlorin, tannic acid, su- 
gar and vinegar. 

antispoBniodic (antispasmod'ic). 
Counteracting or curing 



APONEUROSIS 

aponcBTOHS (ap-on-u-ro'siB), A 
fibrinous expansion of a ten- 
don. 

^toneiirotomy (ap-on-u-rot'o- 
me). The division of an 
aponeurosis. 

appoaition (ap-o-zish'un). The 
act of fitting together; the 
state of being fitted together. 

arch (artsh) (L. ar'cua, bow). 
Any structure of a curved or 
bowlike outline. As the arch 
formed by the bones of the 
foot. Plantar a., the arch 
formed by the external plan- 
tar artery and the dorsalis 
pedis artery of the foot. An- 
terior metatarsal arch formed 
by the heads of the meta- 
tarsal bones, where they ar- 
ticulate with phalanges. 




arch fitter. Scholl's. A pat- 
ented machine used in fitting 
and adjusting arch supports 
to the exact requirements of 
the human foot. A machine 
consisting of a forming block 
or anvil, wood pressure block 
and a leverage means of 
holding the appliance firmly 
in position while adjustment 



ARTHRITIS 



arena (ar'kus). A bow, arch, 

or ring, 
area (a're-ah). Any space with 

boundaries, 
arteriole (ar-te're-ol). A small 

arteriology (ar-te-re-ol'o-je). 
The science of the arteries. 

arteriopathy (arteriop'athy). 

Any disease of an artery. 

arteriostcnoslB (arteriosteno'- 
sis). Contraction of the lu- 
men of an artery. 

arterioTCnoua (arteriove'nous). 
Pertaining to both 



arWy (ar'ter-e). A vessel car- 
rying blood from the heart 
to all parts of the body. 

arthralgia (ar-thral'je-ah). Pain 
in a joint; gout; arthritis. 

arthrectomy (ar-threk'to-me). 
The excision of a joint. 

arthric (ar'thrik). Pertaining 
to a joint. 

arthritic (ar-thrit'ik). Pertaining 
to arthritis or gout. 

arthritia (ar-thri'tis). Inflam- 
mation of a joint, acute a.. 
arthritis marked by pain, 
heat, redness and swelling 
due to gout rheumatism, 
gonorrhea i 



ARTHRITIS DEFORMANS 

arthritis deformans (ar-thri-tis 
de-for-mans). Chronic in- 
flammation of a joint, with 
deformity. 

arthrocele (ar'thro-sel). A 
swelling of a joint. 

arthrodasia (ar-thro-kla'se-ah). 
An operation for breaking up 
ankylosed joint to produce 
free movement. 

arthrodesis (ar-thro-de'sis). The 
surgical fixation of a joint. 

arthrotogy {ar-throl'o-ie). The 
anatomy of the joints. 



arthrosis (ar-thro'sis). A joint 

or articulation. 
arthropathy (ar-throp'ath-e). 

Any disease of a joint. 

arthroplasty (ar'throplasty). 

The formation of an arti- 
ficial joint. 

arthrotomy (ar-throt'o-me). An 

articular (ar-tik'u-lar). Pertain- 
ing to a joint. 

articnlate (ar-tik'u-lat) (L. ar- 
ticula'tus, jointed). 1. Di- 
vided into or united by 
joints. 2. Enunciated in 
words and sentences. 3. To 
divide into joints. 

articulation (ar-tik-u-la'shun) 
<L, articula'tio). 1. A joint 

arthrosis. 



ATHETOSIS 

articnUtions. Structures enter- 
ing into formation of a mov- 
able and some fixed joints, 
are: bone, cartilage and lig- 
aments, synovial sac, fluid 
and capsule. Structures sur- 
rounding joints of extrem- 
ities and some other joints 
are : tendons, muscles, arte- 
ries, veins, lymphatics, nerves, 
fascia and skin. Movements 
in joints are gliding, angular, 
circumduction and rotation. 

aseptic (ah-sep'tik). Free from 
septic matter. 

astasia (as-ta'ze-ah). Motor 
inco-ordi nation for standing. 

astragalectoniy (as-trag-al-ek'- 
to-me). Excision of the as- 
tragalus. 

astragalus (astrag'alus). The 
anlde-bone. The key bone of 
the arch. 

a^mmetry (ah-sim'et-re). A 
want of symmetry or pro- 
portion. 

ataxia (ah-tak'se-ah). Failure 
of muscular co-ordination; 
irregularity of muscular ac- 
tion, acute a., an ataxic con- 
dition due to a general my- 
elitis characterized by mi- 
nute foci throughout all the 
nerve-centers from the pons 
downward. It follows mea- 
sles, smallpox and other in- 
fectious diseases. Alcoholic 
a., a condition resembling lo- 
comotor ataxia, due to chron- 
ic alcoholism. 

athetosis (atheto'sis). A dis- 
ease in which there is an in- 
ability to maintain one po- 
sition of the finders and 
toes. Posthemiplegic chorea. 



atrophy (at'ro-fe). A wasting 
or diminution in the size of 
a part, defect or failure of 
nutrition. 

attitude (at'e-tud). A posture 
or position of the body. 

avasctilar (ah-vas'ku-lar). Not 
vascular; bloodless. 

axis (ak'sis) (L. for "axle"), A 
line about which any revolv- 
ing body turns; an imagin- 
ary line through the center 
of a body. 

band (band). Any part, struc- 
ture, or appliance that binds. 

bandage (ban'daj). A strip 
of muslin or other material 
for binding wounds, fractures 
and dislocations. 

bandy-leg (ban'dy-leg'). Bow- 
leg. 

base (has). The lowest part or 
foundation of anything. 

basic (ba'sik). Pertaining to or 
having the properties of a 

bayonet-leg (ba-un-et-leg). An- 
kylosis of the knee, which 
follows an uncorrected back- 
ward displacement of the 
tibia and fibula. 

belly (bel'e). A colloquial term 
for the abdomen; fleshy part 
of muscle. 

bi. A prefix signifying "twice" 



bilateral (bi-lat'er-al). Two- 
sided; pertaining to two 
sides; having equal sides. 

biology (bi-ol'o-je). The sci- 
ence of life and living things. 

blister (blis'ter). A vesicle 
containing serum. An agent 
producing a bleb. 

blood (blud). The fluid that 
circulates through the hear I, 
arteries, veins, carrying nu- 
triment and oxygen to the 
body tissues. 

. lo- 
st" 

bone (bon). Th.e hard tissue 
of the skeleton of most ver- 
tebrate animals. 

BONES 

Total in Body— Two Hundred, 

Lower Extremeties 
Os innominatum 2 

Femur 2 

Patella 2 



Tibia 



Os Calcis 
Astragalus 
Cuboid 
Scaphoid 



Total in lower extr. 



2 10 



Femur (thigh). Longest and 
strongest in the body, ex- 
tending from hip to knee 
joint. 

Patella (a small pan) or knee 
cap. Flat and trian^lar. 
Anterior part of knee joint. 

Tibia (flute or pipe). Large 
bone of leg, transmits weight 
into foot. 

Lower extremity, 
Internal malleolus (ankle 

bone). 



Inferior surface articulates 

with astragalus. 

Articulation ; three bones. 

Femur (condyles) superior 

Fibula, outer side of exter- 
nal tuberosity and outer 
side of lower end. 

Astragalus, lower extremity. 

Fibula (a clasp). Outer bone 
of leg. Most slender of 
all long bones. Points tor 
study. 



Head, irregular quadrate. 
Internal surface; articulation 
for tibia. 

Lower extremity. 

Forms external malleolus. 

Internal surface; articular, 

with tibia. 

Articulation; two bones. Tibia 

at both ends; Astragalus at 

lower end. 



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Tarsal bones, seven; namely; 
Os calcts, astragalus, cu- 
boid scaphoid, internal, 
middle and external cunei- 

Five metataraal, 1-2-3-4-5. 
Fourteen phalanges, three for 

each toe except great toe, 

which has two. 

Os c ale is, calcaneus, heel. 
Largest and strongest, ir- 
re^lar cuboid, receives 
weight of body; also tendo 
achillis is attached to this 

Astragalus (a die). Next in 

faces. Position, middle up- 
per part of tarsus. Be- 
tween malleoli, under tibia. 
Articulates with four bones, 
namely: Tibia, fibula, os 
calcis and navicular. No 

muscles attached. 

Cuboid (cube). Outside of 
foot, forming lower chain. 
Articulates with four bones, 
namely: Os calcis, exter- 
nal cuneiform, fourth and 
fifth metatarsal. 



Scaphoid (navicular). Forms 
inner prominence of in- 
step. Articulates with four 
bones, namely: Astragalus, 
three cuneiform and occa- 
si or ally cuboid. 

Cuneiform (wedge like). 
Internal, middle and ex- 
ternal with cuboid form 
anterior row of tarsal 
bones. Articulates with 
first and second meta- 
tarsal and scaphoid and 
middle cuneiform. 

Middle; smallest or tarsal. 
Articulates with four bones 
as above. 



namely: Scaphoid, middle 
cuneiform, cuboid and sec- 
ond, third and fourth meta- 

Metatarsal; five (long bones). 
Have for study, shaft, post 
and or base, anterior end 
or head, 

Prismoid, tapering toward 
phalanges ; slightly curved 
upward in the center. Ar- 
ticulates with second row 
of tarsal bones and their 
fellows. 



Articulation; tarsophalangeal. 
With the tarsal bones at 
the bases. 



BUNION REDUCER 



Phalanges; bones of toes; 
three each, except great 
toe, which has but two. 



(bon'set-er). An 
zed person who 

skill in treating 
and dislocations. 



bow-leg (bo-leg). An outward 
curve of one or both legs at 
or below the knee; genu 

branch 1. A division of the 
main stem, as of blood-ves- 
sel. 2. One of the primary 
divisions of the animal king- 
dom. 

breviductor (bre-vid-uk'tor) (L. 
bre'vis, short, -|- ductor, lead- 
er). The adductor brevis 
muscle. 

breviflexor (bre-vif-Ieks'or) (L. 
bre'vis, + flexor, bender). 
any short flexor muscle. 

bundle (bun'dl). A fasciculus, 
filament or band composed 
of fibrous, muscular or nerve- 
bunion (bun'yon), A swelling 
of the bursa of the ball of 
the great toe, with thicken- 
ing of the overlying skin and 
forcing of the toe inward. 

bunion reducer SchoU's. A pat- 
ented shield made of rubber to 
conform to the figuration 
of the metatarsal -phalangeal 
joint. A shield moulded of 
rubber to remove pressure 
on the enlarged, tender joint 
to hold the shoe in shape 
and by excluding the : ' 
retaining the natural ' 
and moisture will reduce the 
superfluous and unhealthy 
tissue growth. Made by the 
Scholl Mfg. Co., Chicago. 
New York, Toronto and 
London. -. . 

L „„,„C.ooglf 






BUNION RIGHT 

bunion riKht Scholl'a. A pat< 
ented device designed to be 
worn between the great and 

crooked toes and bunions. A 
device made of rubber and 
two posts to cause pressure 
to the toe and straightening 
it to a corrected position. 
A device used by persons 
suffering with bunions and 
crooked toes. 




bupion spring. Sc holt's Im- 
proved. An apparatus to act 
as a lever in drawing the 
^eat toe to a normal posi- 
tion. A special appliance to 
be worn by those suffering 
with bunions, Hallux Valgus 
and crooked toes. Acts as 
a lever in drawing the toe 
straight. 

buna (bur'sah) (PI. bur'sae). A 
sac or pouch often lined with 
a membrane, interposed be- 
tween movable parts. 



calcaneo-aatragaloid (kal-ka'ne- 
o-as-trag'a!-oid). Pertaining 
to the calcaneum and astrag- 



CALCULOUS 

calcancocavus (kal-ka'ne-o-ka'- 
vus). Club-foot, in which 
calcaneus is combined with 

calcaneocuboid (kal-ka"ne-o- 
ku'boid). Pertaining to the 
calcaneum and cuboid bone. 

calcaneofibular (ka1-ka"ne-o- 
fib'u-lar). Pertaining to the 
calcaneum and the fibula. 

calcaneonavicular, calcaneoscB' 
phoid (kal-ka"ne-o-nav-ik'u- 
IB r, kal-ka"ne-o-ska'foid). 

Pertaining to the calcaneum 
and scaphoid bone. 

calcaneoplantar (kal-ka'ne-o- 
p Ian' tar). Pertaining to the 
calcaneum and the sole of 
the foot. 

calcaneotibial (kal-ka"ne-o-tib'- 
e-al). Pertaining to the cal- 
and tibia. 



calcaneovalgocavus (kal-ka'ne- 
o-vargo-ka'vus). Club-foot, 
in which calcaneus valgus 
and cavus are combined. 

calcaneum (kal-ka'ne-um) (PI. 
calca'nea) (L.). The heel- 
bone or OS calcis; the ir- 
regular quadrangular bone at 
the back of the tarsus. 

calcaneus (kal-ka'ne-us) (L.), 
Club-foot, in which the heel 
only touches the ground. 



is). The heel- 



calculouB (kal'ku-lus). Of the 
nature of strong concretions 
formed in the body. 



CALLOSITY 

caU0Ht7 (kal-os'it-e) (L. cal- 
los'itas from cal'lus). A cir- 
cumscribed thickening of the 
skin, and hypertrophy of the 
horny layer, due to friction, 
pressure, or other irritation. 

callons (kal'us). Hard; like 

callaa (kal'us) (L.). A cal- 
losity. 

canal (ka-nal') (L. cana'lis). 
Any tubular and relatively 
narrow passage or channel. 

capUlary (kap'il-a-re) (L. capil- 
la'ris, hair-like). 1. Pertain- 
ing- to or resembling a hair. 
2. Any one of the minute 
vessels which connect the 
arterioles and the venules 
forming- a network in nearly 
all parts of the body. 

carbuncle, carbunculus (kar'- 
bung-kl, kar-bunK'ku-lus). A 
large circumscribed inflam- 
mation of the subcutaneous 

caries (ka'rez). Ulcerous in- 
flammation of bone. 

carpopedal (k a r-o p-p e'd a I) 
(car'pal + pedal). Affecting 
the carpus and the foot. 

cartilage (kar'til-aj) (L. car- 
lila'go, cartila'gines). The 
gristle or white elastic sub- 
stance attached to articular 
bone surfaces and forming 
certain parts of the skeleton; 
is softer than bone. 

cast 1. A mass of plastic 
matter having the form of 
the cavity in which it has 
been molded, and it is 
named, according to its 
source, plaster of paris cast. 



CHOPART'S AMPUTATION 

cavihr (kav'it-e) (L. ca'vus, 
hollow). Any hollow place 

caviia (ka'vus). Same as talipes 

ceU (sel) (L. cel'lula, dim. of 
cel'la). Any one of the mi- 
nute protoplasmic masses 
which makes up organized 

charleyhorse (c h a r'l e-h o r s). 

Stiffness of the right arm 
and leg in base-ball players. 

cbeiropodist See chiropodist. 

chilblain (chil'blan) (L. per'- 
nio). Inflammation and swell- 
ing of the toes, feet or fin- 
gers, due to the influence of 
cold. 



chiropodist (ki-rop'o-dist). One 

who treats corns, bunions and 
other aCFections of the hands 
and feet. 

chiropody (ki-rop'o-de). The 
art, business or prvjfession of 
a chiropodist. 

chondral (kon'dral). Pertaining 
to cartilage. 

chondritis (kon-dri'tis). In- 
flammation of cartilage. 

chondroma (kon-dro'mah). A 
rtilaginous tumor. 

chopart's amputation, etc. (sho- 
parz') (Francois Ch opart, 
French surgeon, 1743-1795). 
Sec Aoiputation, etc., amputa- 
tion of the foot, 

■ OOglf 



chorea (ko-re'ah). St. Vitus' 
dance; involuntary muscular 
twitch! ngs. 



circulaiion (ser-ku-la'shun) (L. 
ctrcula'tio). Movement in a 
regular or circuitous course, 
as the circulation of the blood. 



CLUB-FOOT 

THE VEINS 

There arc two systems. 1. Pul- 
monary, from liin^s to left 
auricle. 2. Systemic or gen- 
eral. From entire body t« 
right auricle. 

Pulmonary. Formed by four 
veins, two from the right and 
two from the left lung. All 
terminate in the left auricle. 
They carry arterial blood. 
They have no valves. 

Systemic or general veins con- 
duct the blood from the cap- 
illaries in every part of the 
body back to the right auricle 
of the heart. Divided into 
three sets. 1. Superficial; un- 
der skin. 2. Deep; with ar- 
tery of same name. 3. Si- 
nuses; found within the skull. 



THE VASCULAR SYSTEM 

The Blood Vascular System, 
composed 'oi (1) the heart; 
(2) arteries; (3) capillaries; 
(4) veins, which make the 
complete circuit of blood 
from the heart back to this 
organ. There are two circuits, 
or systems. (1) The general 
circulation from the heart to 
all parts of the body and back 
again, and (2) the pulmonic, 
from the heart to the lungs 
and back to the heart again. 
The general circulation takes 
a short cut from the abdom- 
inal aorta to the inferior vena 
cava through the stomach, in- 
testines, spleen, and liver, 
known as the portal circula- 
tion. 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. 

This system includes all the 
vessels, glands and lacteal or 

chyliferous vessels. Is ab- 
sorbent system. Begins by 

parts of the body (except 
nails, hair and cuticle) and 
empties into the veins. 

circumscribed (ser'kum-skribd). 
Clearly deiined, as an abscess. 

davuB (kla'vus) (L. "nail"). A 
corn or horny tubercle of the 
skin. See corn. C. syphilit'- 
icus, a fiat horny growth on 
the hand nar the foot believed 
to be due to syphilis. 



club-foot (klub'fut). See talipes. 



COAPTATION 



f the leg. 

collapse (kol-aps') (L. coUap'- 
sus). 1. A state of extrettie 
prostration and depression, 
with failure of circulation or 
of the vital power. 



compensation (k o m-p e n-s a'- 
shun). The state of counter- 
balancing a defect of struc- 



compressor (com-prcs'sor). 1, 
An instrument for compress- 
ing a vessel. 2. See Muscles, 
Table of. 

concave (kon'kav) (L. conca'- 
vus). Presenting a depressed 
or hollow surface. 

concavity (kon-kav'il-e) (L. 
concav'itas, from con, togeth- 
er + ca'vus, hollow). A hol- 
lowed-out space on the sur- 
face of an organ— the hollow 
side or inside of a curved sur- 
face, organ or line. 



concretion (kon-kre'shun). 1, A 
calculus; an osseous deposit. 
2. Abnormal union of adjacent 
parts. 



CONTRACTION 

condyle (kon'dile). The rounded 
eminence at the articular end 
of a bone. 

condylcctomy (k o n-d i I-e k't o- 
me). Excision of a condyle. 

congestion (kon-jest'yun) (L. 
conges'tio, from con-ge'rere, 
to heap together). Excessive 
or abnormal accumulation of 
blood in a part, active c, de- 
termination of blood to a part 
on account of the dilatation 
of Ihe lumen of its blood-ves- 

connective (kon-ek'tiv). Con- 
necting, binding C. Tissue, 
the binding tissue of the body. 

consistence (kon-sis'tens). The 
degree of density or hardness. 

consolidation (consolida'tion). 
Process of becoming solid. 

contiguity (kon-tig-u'ite) (L. 
contig'uus, in contact). 1. 
Contact or close proximity. 2. 
A joint as contrasted with a 
continuous bone. 3. Continu- 
ity, solution of c, separation 
of parts which are normally 
in contact; dislocation. 

continuity (kon-tin-u'it-e). Un- 
interrupted connection. 

contorted (kon-tor'ted). Twist- 
ed. 

contraction (kon-trak'shun) (L. 
contrac'tio). 1. A shorten- 
ing, as of a muscle in the nor- 
mal response to a nervous 
stimulus. 2. An abnormal 
shortening or shrinkage. 



CONTRALATERAL 

contralateral (con-trah-lat'er-al). 
Opposite. C. Mus'cle, one 
acting in unison with another 
on the opposite side of the 
body. 

contre-cotqi (k o n g't r-k o o). 
Fracture due to counter- 
stroke. 

contuse (kon-tui') (L. contun'- 
dere, to bruise).^ To bruise or 
wound by bruising. 

contu»on (kon-tu'zhun). A 
bruise from a blow by a blunt 
body, 

convex (konVeks) (L. convex'- 
us). Having a rounded ap- 
pearance; curved outward on 
the outer surface. 

convexity (kon-veks'it-e) (L. 
convex'itas). 1. The condi- 
tion of being convex. 2. The 
outer or convex part of a 
curved surface. 




CREPITATION, CREPITUS 

tion and thickening of the 
skin, produced by friction and 
pressure. It forms a conic 
mass extending down into the 
derma and producing pain 
and irritation. 2. A swelling 
on the foot, soft c, a soft 
thickening of the epidermis 
between the toes, which ia 
kept softened by moisture, 
and often leads to painful in- 
" ■' beneath the corn. 



correctant, corrective (kor-ek'- 
tant, kor-ek'tiv). Modifying 
favorably. 

cosmetic (cosmet'ic). 1. Mak- 
ing beautiful. 2. A remedy 
tor beautifying the skin, C. 
Operation, an operation for 
lessening unsightliness. 

counterextension ( counter ex- 
ten'sion). The opposing trac- 
tion upon the proximal ex- 
tremity of a fractured limb 
to hold the ends in place. 

coimterirritatlon ( counter irr it a'- 
tion). The superficial irrita- 
tion of a part of the body to 
produce a good effect on an- 
other diseased part. 

court plaster (court plas'ter). 
Silk varnished with isinglass 
for surgical dressing. 

cramp (kramp). A spasmodic 
muscular contraction with 

crepitation, crepitus (krep-it-a'- 
shun. krep'it-us). The grating 
of fractured bones. 



crest (krest). The surmounting 
part of an organ or process. 
C. of tibia, the prominent 
ridge on the front of the tibia. 



crywtheua (kri-es-the'ze-ah) . 

Abnormal sensitiveness to 
cold. 

crymothenip^ (crymother'apy). 
Therapeutic use of cold. 

GuboliL cuboldal (ku'boid, ku- 
boid al). 1. Resembling a 
cube. 2. The cuboid bone on 
the outer side of the tarsus, 
between the calcaneum and 
the fourth and fifth metatar- 
sal bones. 

cuneiform (ku'ne-if-orm) (L. 
cu'neus, wedge + for'ma, 
form). 1. Shaped like a 
wedge, 2. A cuneiform bone; 
there are three in the fool 
and one in the wrist. 

cuneocubold (ku'ne-o-ku'boid). 
Pertaining to the cuneiform 
and cuboid bone. 

cure (kur) (L. cura'tio, from 
cu'ra care). 1. The course 
of treatment of any disease 
or of a special case. 2. The 
successful treatment of a dis- 

cushion (koosh'un). An ana- 
tomic structure resembling a 

cutaneons (ku-ta'ne-us). Per- 
taining to the skin. 

:uticle I 
dermis 



DEPRESSION 



dactjrlitiB (dak-til-i'tis). In- 
flammation of a finger or toe. 

decalcification (decalcifica'tion). 
The removal of calcareous 
matter from bone. 

defadgation (de-fat-i{;-a'shun). 
Overstrain or fatigue of 



defect (de-fekt'). An imper- 
fection; an absence of a 
part or organ. 



denudation (de-nu-da'shun). A 
laying bare or stripping. 

detection (de-ple'tion). The 
diminishing of a fluid of the 
body, as the blood. 

deposit (de-poa'it). A sedi- 
ment; a collection of morbid 
particles in a body. 

depressed (de-prest'). 1. Flat- 
tened from above. 2. De- 
jected. 

depression (de-pres'sion). 1. 
A hollow or fossa. 2. A de- 
pressed condition. ; \iji,i|r 



DERMA, DERM 



dennalgia (der-marje-ah). Neu- 
ralgia of the skin. 

dermatitis (der-mat-i'tis). In- 
flammation of the skin. 



dennatorrhca (dermatorrhe'a). 
A morbidly increased secre- 
tion from the skin. 



desmoETaphy (des-mog'ra-fe). 
A description of the liga- 
ments. 



deviation (de-ve-a'shun> (L. 
devia're, to turn aside). A 
turning away from the reg- 
ular standard or course. 



DISPLACEMENT 



dcxtropedal deks-trop'e-dal) 

(L. dex'ter, right + pes, foot). 
Using the right leg in pref- 
erence to the left. 

di&EnoBis (di-ag-no'sis). 1. The 
art of distinguishing one 
condition from another. 

diameter (d i-a m'e t-e r). A 
straight line passing through 
the center of a body or 
figure. 

diaphoresis (di-af-or-e'sis). The 
production of perspiration. 

diaphyais (d i-a t'i s-i s). The 
shaft of a long cylindric 

diaplasis (di-ap'las-is). Reduc- 
tion, as of dislocation or 
fracture. 



digit (dij'it). A finger or toe. 

digitation (dtj-it-a'shun). A 
finger-like process, as of a 

direct (di-rekf) (L. direc'tus). 

1. Straight, in a straight line. 

2. Performed immediately and 
without the intervention of 
subsidiary means. 

disarticulation (dis-ar-tik-u-la'- 
shun). Amputation of limb 

dislocation (dis-Io-ka'shun) (L. 
dis, apart + loca're, to place). 
The displacement of any 
part, more especially of a 

displacement (dis-plas'ment). A 
putting out of pl^<^^.,^,| , 



dissect (dis-sekf) (L. dtsseca'- 
re, to cut up). To cut apart, 
as tissues for ana.toinic study. 



dorsal (dor 'sal) (L. dorsa'lis, 
from dor'sam, back). Per- 
taining to the back or to any 
dorsum, as the dorsal aspect 
of the foot. 

dorsum (dor'sum) (PI. dor'sa) 
(L,). The back, also any 
part corresponding 
back, in position a: 
foot, hand, tongue, 
back of the foot. 



of the 



dressing (dres'sing). Applica- 
tion of bandage or other 
substance to a wound. 

dusting-powder (dust'ing-pow- 
der), A fine powder for 
dusting affected surfaces. 

dysuthrous (dysarthro'sis). 1. 

Dysarthria. 2. A deformed 

joint. 
ecchTmosis (ecchymo'sis). An 

extravasation of blood into 

areolar tissue. 

ectosteal (ectos'teal). Related 
to or situated on the outside 
of a bone. 

ectostosis (ectosto'sis). Ossi- 
fying of cartilage beginning 
under perichondrium. 

ectrodactylia (ectrodactyl'ia). 
Congenital absence of one or 
more fingers or toes. 



edenuitoas (e-dem'at-us). Re- 
lating to or marked by 

effusion (effu'sion). Extrava- 
sation of fluid into the body. 

elastic (e-las'tik) (L, elas-ticus). 
Susceptible of being stretched, 
compressed, or distorted and 
then tending to assume its 
original shape, as elastic tis- 



cnqilastrum (em-plas'trum). A 



endernutic, endermic (en-der- 
mat'ik, ender'mik). Relating 
to a method of administering 
medicines through the skin 
by rubbing. 



u-kle-a'shun), A 



epidemiologr (ep-e-dem-e-ol'o- 
je). The science of epidemic 
diseases and of epidemics. 



epiphysis (e-pifis-is). A proc- 
ess of bone attached to an- 
other by cartilage. 



EPITHELIUM 

epithelium (ep-ith-e'le-um). The 
covering of the skin and mu- 
cous membranes, consisting 
wholly of cells of varying 
form and arrangement. 

equilibrium (e-kwe'lib're-um). A 
state of balance or equipoise, 
a condition in which oppos- 
ing forces exactly counteract 
each other. 

erjrthromelalgia (er-ith-ro-mel- 
al'je-ah). A painful affection 
of the extremities with pur- 
phsh discoloration of the 



ethiCB (eth'iks). The science of 
right conduct; also a system 
of rules regulating conduct. 

etiology (e-te-ol'o-je. The 
study or theory of the causa- 
tion of any disease; the sum 
of knowledge regarding 

everaion (e-ver'shun) (L. ever'- 

sio). A turning outward or 

evert {e-vcrt'> (L. e, out -|- ver'- 
tere, to turn). To turn inside 
out; to torn out. 

exacerbation (eks-as-er-ba'- 

shun). Increased severity of 

exarticulation (eks-ar-tik-u-la'- 
shun). Luxation; disarticula- 
tion. 

excinon (ek-sizh'un). The act 
of cutting away. 

excitation (ex-si-ta'shun) (L. 
excita'tio; ex out -)- cita're, 
to call). An act of ■ ■ " 



EXTERNAL 



or stimulation; a condition of 

being excited, 
excitomotor (eks-si-to-mo'tor). 

Arousing muscular action. 
excoriation (eks-ko-re-a'shun). 

An abrasion of the epider- 



expert (eks-pert). One skilled 
in a science or an art. 

extension (exten'sion). Traction 
upon a fractured or dislo- 
cated limb. 

extension ^oe. An appliance 
to be worn in the shoe to 
make up deficiency in cases 
of shortened limbs due to 
congenital hip disease or 
fractures. 




extensor (ex-ten'sor) (L.). Any 
muscle which stretches; a 
part of the body. 

exterior (ex-te're-or) (L.). Sit- 
uated on or near the outside; 

external (exter'nal) (L, exter'- 
nus, outside). Situated or 
occurring on the outside. 



EXTIRPATION 

extirpation (ex-tir-pa'shun) (L. 
extirpa're, to root out, from 
ex, out + shirps, root). Com- 
plete removal or eradication 
of a part. 



extrapUntar (ex-trah-plan'tar). 
On the outside of the sole of 
the foot. 



exudate (ex'u-dat) (L. ex, out 
-f- auda're, to sweat). A sub- 
stance thrown out by exuda- 
tion; any adventitious sub- 
stance deposited in or on a 
tissue by a vital process or 
a disease. A morbid oozing 
out of fluids. 

fabdla (fa-bel'ah) pi. fabeHae 
fL. "little bean"). A ses- 
amoid fibro cartilage on the 
gastrocnemius muscle. 

facet (fas'et) (Fr. facetto). Any 
small plane surface on a hard 
body, such as an articulating 
surface of a bone. 

faacia (fash'e-ah) (L. "band") 
A sheet or band of tissue 
which invests and connects 
the muscles, and other tis- 
sues. 



FLAIL-JOINT 

(fas-ik'u-lus). A fas- 



fatigue (tah-teg') (Fr. L. fati- 
ga'tio). Weariness, usually 
from overexertion. 

femoral (fem'or-al) (L. fem- 
ora'lis). Pertaining to the 
femur. 

femur (fe'mur) (L. "thigh"). 1. 
The thigh bone. 2. The 

thigh. 

fiber (fi'ber) (L. fi'bra). An 
elongated, thread-like struc- 
ture of organic tissue. 

fibrous (fi'brus). Consisting of 
or pertaining to libers. 

fibula (fib'u-Iah). The small, 
outer bone of the leg. 

fissure (fish'ur). A groove or 
cleft. 

fixation (fiks-a'shun). A mak- 
ing firm or rigid. 

fixo. A medicated corn plaster 
consisting of felt ring, ad- 
hesive strip and center med- 
ication of salicylic acid and 
cannabis indica. 



flail-joint (flal'joint). A joint 
which after resection shows 
abnormal mobility. ( 'i^.^nlc 



FLAT-FOOT 

flat-foot (flat'tut). A foot with 
a flat sole and sunken tar- 
sus, where the arch of the 
foot is sunken. 




flexed (flekst). Bent, 
flexibility (fieks-ib-il'it-e) (L. 
flexibil'itas). The quality of 



(I-)- 
muscle that '* 
a joint. 

flexrite. Scholl's; a flexible, 
cushioned arch support for 
treatment of weak feet and 
depressed arches. A flexible 
arch which bends with the 
foot, giving support to the 
longitudinal arch. 

follicle (fol'ik-1) (L. follic'ulus, 
little bag). A very small ex- 
cretory or secretory sac or 

foot (foot). The organ at the 
extremity of the leg. The 
terminal part of the leg of a 
man or of an animal. That 
part o( an animal upon 
which it rests when standing 
or upon which it moves. In 
man, the foot is the pes, or 
part of the le^ below the 
ankle joint or tibiotarsal ar- 
ticulation; in four-footed ver- 
tebrates, it is extended also 



POOT-EAZER 

to the corresponding division 
of the fore limb. In digtti- 
grade animals the term is re- 
stricted in common usage to 
the part of the limb which 
rests on the ground in walk- 
ing, the remainder of the 
manus or pes being consid- 
ered part of the leg. In in- 
vertebrates, the word desig- 
nates any of various organs 
of locomotion or attachment, 
as the limb of an arthropod 
(in insects often restricted to 
the terminal, part or tarsus), 
and in mollusks, the ventral 
muscular surface or a more 
or less distinct ventral mus- 
cular process, usually disk- 
like and serving for creeping 
in the gastropods, but nar- 
row and adapted for burrow- 
ing in most bivalves. 

footdok. A proprietary treat- 
ment for tender feet, hot, 
swollen feet in the form of a 
foot bath tablet. An anti- 
septic bath for the feet. 

foot-eazer. Scholl's; an appli- 
ance to ease the feet by giv- 
ing support to the arch, 
equalizing the body's weight. 
A device to be worn inside 
the shoe to hold up the bone 
structure of the foot and to 
strain and pressure. 




footsore (foot'sor). Having 
sore or tender feet; as by 
reason of much walking. 

footstep (foot'step')- 1- A step- 
ping; footfall; tread; distance 
covered by a step. 2. The 
mark or impression of the 
foot; a track, hence visible 
sign of a. course pursued; 
token; mark; as. the foot- 
steps of divine wisdom. 

footworn (foot worn'). Worn 
by, or wearied in, the feet. 

foot wanner. A contrivance to 
keep the feet warm. 

foot way. A way for persons 
traveling or going on foot. 

foot wear. Clothing for the 
feet, as shoes and stockings. 

foot work. The management of 

the feet, and work done with 
them in such sports as foot- 
ball, boxing, etc. 

force (fors) (L. for't is. strong). 
That which originates or ar- 

fracture (frakt'ur) (L. fractu'- 
ra; from fran'gere, to break). 
1. Breaking of a part, espec- 
ially of a bone. 2. A break 
or rupture in a bone. 

friction (frik'shun). The act of 
rubbing; attrition. 

frost-bite (frawst'bit). The le- 
sion produced by the freez- 
ing of a part. 



GLAND 

fuiKtion (funk'shun) (L. func'- 
tio). The special normal, or 
proper action of any part or 

functionatinc (funk'shu n-a- 
ting). A condition of per- 
forming the proper function. 

furuncular (fu-rung'ku-lar). Per- 
taining to a furuncle. 

gait (gat). A mode of walking 
or running. 

gait steppage (gat step'page). 
That in which the toes are 
lifted high and the heel 
brought down first. 

gangrene (gan'gren). The mor- 
tification or non-molecular 
death of a part; due to di- 
rect destruction of a part by 
burns, etc., to interference 
with the circulation or to in- 
sufficient blood supply. 

gathering (gath'er-ing). An ab- 
scess; a suppurating sore. 

gauze (gaws). A thin, light 
cloth used in antiseptic dress- 
ings. 

gena (je'nu). Knee. 

gland (gland) (L. glans, acorn). 
A secretory organ that sep- 
arates any fluid from the 
blood, such ductless bodies 
as the spleen, the lymphatic 
organs, etc., which do not 
appear to secrete anything 
are also called glands.^ j^i| . 



GOUT 

gont (gowt). A painful con- 
stitutional or diathetic dis- 
ease, acute or chronic, with 
joint inflammation and chalky 
deposits and an increase of 
uric acid in the blood. An 
attack of gout usually comes 
on suddenly in the night, 
and is marked by severe pain 
and inflammation of the 
great toe and by febrile 
symptoms, the symptoms 
tending to disappear in the 
morning, but returning at 
night. Other joints may be- 
come involved, especially the 
small joints of the extrem- 
ities. The causation of gout 
is attributed to excess of uric 
acid and urates in the blood. 
It is brought on by excess in 
food and sweet wines. 



granulation (granula'tion). For- 
mation of small elevations 
on a healing surface. 

gravity (grav'it-e). The prop- 
erty of possessing weight. 

gutta (jrufah), A drop. 
gyvatOMtica (jim-nas'tiks). Sys- 
tematic bodily exercise. 

gypsum (jip'sum). Calcium 
sulphate; when calcined it 
becomes plaster-of-paris, 
much used in making perma- 
nent dressings for frs ' 

or fornns for feet 



HEEL 

hair (hare) (L. capil'lus). A 
filamentous outgrowth of the 
body, consisting of modified 
epidemic tissue; also the ag- 
gregate of small filaments, 
especially that of the scalp. 

haUui. hallux (hal'us, hal'uks) 
(L.). The great toe, h, dolo- 
rosa h. rig'idus, a painful dis- 
ease of the great toe, usually 
associated with flat-foot, h. 
flexus, hammer-toe, h. val'- 
gus, displacement of the 
great toe toward the other 
toes, h. va'rus, displacement 
of the great toe away from 
the other toes. 



hangnail (hang'nal). Agnail; a 
splitting of the epidermis at 
the side of a finger nail. 

healing (het'ing). A process of 
cure; the restoration of 
wounded parts. 

heel (hel) (L. calx). The hind- 
most part of the foot, an- 
terior h., a triangular shaped 
piece of leather fastened ob- 
liquely across the ball of the 
shoe, just behind the heads 
of the metatarsal bones, the 
object being to support the 
heads, equalize the pressure 
and support the anterior 
arch. H. bone, the calca- 
neum. H. jar, a feeling of 
pain experienced by a pa- 
tient on raising on the toes 
and suddenly bringing the 
heels to the ground. Painful 
h., a condition in which pain 
is caused by pressure on the 
heel. , . I 

, ._. , Cooylc 



HEHATOCLE 



hemiparaplcKia (hemiparaple'- 
gia). Paralysis of the lower 

hemostatic (hem-o-stat'ik). 1. 
Checking the flow of blood. 
2. An agent that arrests the 
flow of blood. 

heredity (her-ed'it-e). The in- 
fluence of parents upon off- 
spring. 

herpes (her'pez), A skin-dis- 
ease with patches of distinct 



hidrosadenitia (hi"dro-sad-en-i'- 
tis). Inflaniniation of the 
sweat-glands. 

hidroBchesis (h i d-r o s'k e s-is). 
Suppression of the perspira- 



hidroais (hid-ro'sis). 1. The 
secretion and excretion of 
the sweat. 2. Any skin dis- 
ease affecting primarily the 
sweat-glands. 3. Too pro- 
fuse sweating. 

hip (hip). The region of each 
side of the pelvis. H. bone, 
the OS innominatum; h, joint, 



HYDRODERHA 



histol<^;y (his-tol'o-je). The 
sum of knowledge regarding 
the minute structure and 
composition of the tissues, 
normal h., the histolo^ of 
normal and healthy tissues, 
pathologic h.p the histology 
of diseased tissues. 

histophynology (his-to-tiz-e-ol'- 
e-je). The science of the 
functional activity of tissues. 

hoof (hoof). The hard, horny 
casing of the foot or ends of 
the digits of many animals. 

hollow foot. A condition of 
contraction of the plantar 
arch upwards. Pes c 




horn (horn) (L. cor'nu). A 
cutaneous horny outgrowth. 

hydrartlhroais, hydrarthnis (hi- 
drar-thro'sis, hi-drar'thrus), 
White swelling; a serous effu- 



bydroadenitis (hi-dro-ad-en-i'- 
tis). Inflammation of sweat- 

hjrdroderma (hi-dro-der'roah). 
Dropsy of the skin. 



HYDROTHERAPY 

hrdrothcrapy, bydrotherapeu- 
ticB (hi-dro-ther'ap-e, hi-dro- 
thcr-ap-u'tiks). The use of 
water as a therapeutic agent. 

hyeenic vent A ventilated 
foot support, made of silver- 
oid metal, covered with lea- 
ther, to be worn in low cut 
shoes to act as a support to 
the foot and ventilator to 
the shoe. 

hygiene (hi-jen'). The science 
of health and of its preserva- 
tion. 



hyperalgeua (hi"per-al-je'ze- 
ah). Excessive sensitiveness 
or sensibility to pain. 



hyt>erliidroais (hi-per-hid-ro'- 
sis). Excessive sweating. 

hyperoBtosis (hi-per-os-to'sis). 
A hypertrophy of bony tis- 



... , li-per-por-o sis). 

An excessive formation of 

hjrperseiuitive (hi-per-sen'sit- 
tv). Abnormally sensitive, 

hypertrophy (hype r'trophy). 
Abnormal increase in the size 
of a part or an organ. 

immobili^ (im-o-birit-e). The 
state of being fixed. 



impact (im'pakt) (L. impac'- 
tus). A sudden and forcible 
collision; wedged in. 

inarticulate (in-ar-tik'u-lat). Not 
jointed or articulated. 

incipient (in-stp'e-ent). Begin- 
ning to exist; coming into 



inco-ordination (in''ko-or-din-a'- 
shun) (L. in, not +co-ordin- ' 
ation). Lack of the normal 
adjustment of muscular mo- 
tions, failure of muscles. 



incurable (in-ku'rab-l). 
susceptible of being ci 



Not 



indication (in-dik-a'shun) (L. 
indica'tio). A sign or circum- 
stance which points to or 
shows the cause, pathology, 
treatment or issue of an at- 
tack of disease, that which 
points out, that which serves 
as a guide or warning. 

indirect (in-dir-ekt') (L. indi- 
rec'fus). 1. Not immediate 
or straight. 2, Acting through 
an intermediary agent. 

induradon (in-du-ra'shun). The 
hardening of a tissue or part. 

inferior (in-fe're-or) (L. "low- 
er" neut. infer'ius). Situated 
or directed below. 



IMFLAMMATION 

inflammatioa (inflam-a's h « n > 
(L. inflamma'tio, inflamma're, 
to set on fire). The condi- 
tion into which tissues enter 
as a reaction to irritation 
(adami). Inflammation is 
characterized by pain, heat, 
redness, and swelling and 
histologically by hyperemia. 
Stasis, changes in the blood 
and walla o£ the small ves- 
sels and by various exuda- 

inflamniBtory (in-flam'at-o-re). 
Pertaining to or character- 
ized by inflammation. 

infooted (in'foot-ed). Turning 
in the toes. 

infraction (in-frak'shun). In- 
complete fracture of a bone. 

insrowing nail (in'gro-ing nail). 
Thickening and curvature of 
the nails. 

ingrowing nail treatment. 

Scholl's; a treatment for in- 
growing toe nails, consisting 
of a Sterling Silver Nail 
Spring Bottle of Ingrowing 
Toe Nail Remedy, bandages 
and applicators for home 
treatment of ingrowing toe 

inheritance (in-her'it-ans). The 
act of inheriting or the thing 
inherited; amphigonous i., in- 
heritance of characteristics 
from both parents. 

initial (in-ish'al). Beginning. 



INTEGUMENTARY 

insertion (in-ser'shun) (L. in- 
ser'tio, from in, into -j- aer'ere, 
to plant). 1. The act of im- 
planting or the condition of 
being implanted. 2. The 
place of attachment of a 
muscle to the bone which it 

inspection (in-spek'shun). An 
examination of the body or 
a part. 

instep (in'step). The dorsal 
part of the arch of the foot. 

instrument (in'stru-ment') (L. 
instrumen'tum, instru'ere, to 
furnish). Any mechanical 
tool, appliance or apparatus. 

instruments (chiropody). 
Scholl's; a series of finely 
made operating knives, chis- 
els, scissors, etc., made ex- 
clusively for the practice of 
surgical chiropody. 

insufficiency (in-suf-ish'en-se) 
(L. insufficien'tia, from in, not, 
suffic'iens, sufficient). The 
condition of being insuffi- 
cient or inadequate to the 
performance of an allotted 
duty. 

integument (in-teg'u-ment) (L. 
integumen'tum, from in, on -f- 
teg'ere, to cover). The skin 
or covering of the body. 



composed of skin. 2. Serv- 
ing as a covering, like the 



t, Google 



INTENSITY 

intensity (in-ten'sit-e) (L. in- 
ten'sus, intense; in, on 4- ten'- 
dere, to stretch). The condi- 
tion or quality of being in- 
tense; a high degree of ten- 
sion, activity or energy, 

intcrarticular (in"ter-ar-tik'u- 
larj (L. in'ter, between + 
artic'ulus, joint). Situated 
between articular surfaces, or 

intercartilaginouB (in"ter-kar- 
til-aj'tn-us). Between carti- 



intercellular (in-ter-sel'u-lar). 
Situated between the cells of 
any structure. 

intercentral (in-ter-sen't r a 1 ). 
Situated between or connect- 
ing two or more nerve-cen- 
ters. 

interfascicular (in"ter-{as-ik'ii- 
lar) (L. in'ter, between + 
fascic'ulus, bundle). Situated 
between fasciculi. 



intermeuiarsal (in'ter-met-at- 
ar'sal). Situated or occur- 
ring between the metatarsal 

intermittent (in-ter-mit'ent) (L. 
intermit'tens, in'ter, between 
^ mit'tere, to send). I. Hav- 
ing periods of cessation of 
activity. 2. An intermittent 
fever, postponing i., intermit- 
tent fever in which the par- 
oxysms come on at a later 
hour each day. 



IRREDUCIBLE 

intennuBCular (in-ter-mus'ku- 
lar). Situated between mus- 
cles. 

internal (in-ter'naO (L. inter'- 
nus). Situated or occurring 
within or on the inside. 



interosseal (in-ter-os'e-al) (L. 
in'ter, between -\- as, bone). 

1. Situated between bones. 

2. Pertaining to the inter- 

intcrosseouB (in-ter-os'a-us) (L. 
interos'seus, in'ter, between 
-|- as, bone). Situated or oc- 
curring between bones. 

interosseus (in-ter-os'e-us; pi., 
interoa'sei (L,), See mus- 
cles, table of. 

interstitial (in-ter-stish'al). Ly- 
ing or placed between. 

intracapsular ( in-t rah -leap's u- 
lar),_ Within the capsule of 



inversion (in-ver'shun) (L. in- 
ver'sio or into + ver'tere, to 
turn). A turning inward, in- 
side out, upside down or 
other reversal of the normal 
relation of a part. 

involuntary (in-vol'un-ta-re) (L. 
involunta'rius, in against -|- 
volun'tas, will). Performed 
independently of the will, 

irreducible (irredu'cible). In- 
capable of restoration to a 
normal condition. (\i,),i|r 



IRREGULAR 

irregular (ir-eg'u-lar) (L. i 
not + reg'ula, rule). Not i 
conformity with the rule of 
nature; not recurring at reg- 
ular intervals. 

isotonic (i-so-ton'ik). Having 

jacket, plaster-of-paris (jak'et). 
A casing of plaster-of-paris, 
enveloping the body for the 
purpose of correcting de- 
joint (joint) (L. articula'tio). 
An articulation between two 
bones, more especially one 
which admits of more or less 
motion in one or both bones, 
as the joints of the foot. 
joint-capBule. The capsular lig- 
ament of a joint, 
joint-muscle. A muscle which 

juztaarticulftr (juxtaartic'ular). 
Near a joint. 

keratosis (ker-at-o'ais). Any 
horny growth, such as a 
wart or callosity; any disease 
attended by horny growths. 

kiro pads. Felt pads skived by 
patent machine, in various 
shapes and sizes used in 




practice of Chiropody. Es- 
pecially skived pads of live 
wool felt for padding over 



corns, tender joints, bunions 
and displaced, depressed 
bones. Made by the SchoU 



Mfg. Co., New York, Chica- 
go, Toronto and London. 

knee (ne) (L. ge'nu). The an- 
terior aspect of the leg at 
the articulation of the femur 
and tibia, also the articula- 
tion itself. 

knee joint. Bones: femur, tibia 
and patella. 

knittinK (nit'ing). The repair 
of a fractured bone. 

knock-knee (nok'ne). Genu 
valgum, knee distorted inside 
of normal line. 

knuckle (nuk'l). The dorsal 
aspect of any phalangeal 

korrecto. SchoU's; a plate of 
silveroid metal covered with 
leather, to be worn inside 
the shoe. An arch support 
for weak instep and "flat- 
foot." 

lacerated (las'er-a-ted). Torn. 

lameness (lam'nes). Limping; 
weakness of a limb. 

lancinating (lan'sin-a-ting). 
Piercing; darting, as a pain. 

landmarks (land marx). Means 
of determining the location of 
bones, muscles, arteries, veins, 
or nerves from the outside sur- 
face. Frequently used as meth- 
od of diagnosis. 

lateral (L. latera'lis). Pertaining 
to a side, as the side of a 



LANDMARKS OF THE FOOT 



LAITDIUBKS OF FOOT (Inteinal Surface) 



I. Tibialis Posticus. 

^. Anterior border of lower end 
of tibia. 

3. Line of ankle joint. 

4. Tibialis Aniicus. 

5. Head of astragalus. 

6. Tubercle of scaphoid. 

7. Tarso-melatarsai articulation. 



8. First meiatarso-phalangeal ai 

ticulation, 

(I. Posterior tibial artery. 

10. Flexor tongus haliucis. 

11. Internal malleolus. 

12. Tendo Achillis. 

13. Plexor longus digitorum. 

14. Sustentaculum tali. 



:!,a,l,zc.bvG00gIe 



LANDMARKS OF THE FOOT 



LAUDKAKES op foot (External Surface) 

7. Fifth metatarso-phalangeal 

S. Base of fifth melalarsal. 

g. Peroiieus brevis. 

w. Greater process of Oscalcis. 

u. Peroneus longus. 

'2. Peroneal tubercle. 

rj. External malleolus. 



1. Fibula, 

2. Line of ankle joint. 

3. Peroneus lerluts. 

4. Extensor brevis digitorum. 

5. Tendon of flexor longus dig- 

itorum to fifth toe. 

6. Second metatarso-phalangeal 



:!,a,l,zc.bvG00gIe 



LANDHARKS OF THE FOOT 



LAHDHAKKS OP FOOT (Plantar Snrfaca) 



First metatarsal phalangeal 

joint. 
Second metatarsal phalangeal 

Third metatarsal phalangeal 

joint. 
Fourth metatarsal phalangeal 

joint. 



j. Fifth metatarsal phalangeal 

6. Cuboid and oscalsis. 

7. Center point of oscalsis. 

8. The scaphoid. 

9. Astragaloid region of inner 

longitudinal arch. 



LANDMARKS OF THE FOOT 



LANDMARKS OF LEG (Gztenul Surface) liter Cauiliieluun 

11. Tip of external maiteolus. 

12. Vastus externus. 

13. Quadriceps extensor tendon. 

14. Patells. 

15. External tuberosity of tibia. 

16. Ligamentum patellae. 

17. Tubercle of tibia. 

18. Tibialis anticus, 
ig. Peroneus terttus. ~,qqq[^ 

88 



llio-libial band. 
Biceps tendon. 
External condyle. 
Head of fibula. 
Gastrocn emius. 

Peroneus longus. 
Peroneus brevis. 
Tendo achiHis. 
External malleolus. 



LATERO FLEXION 

lateroflezion ( 1 a t-e r-o-fl e k' - 
shun). A bending to one 

latere wstoa (lat'er-o-ver'shun) 
(L. la'tus, side + version). 
A turning to one side. 



'c? (Isg). The lower extrem- 
ity, especially the part be- 
tween the knee and the ankle. 

lesion (Ic'zhun). Structural 
tissue — change from injury or 
disease. 

ligament (lie'ara-ent) (L. lig- 
amen'tum ; lig'are, to bind). 
Any tough fibrous band which 
bones or supports 



ligtone. A proprietary remedy 
or liniment used for sprains 
and strains, especially used 
in cases of weak instep, 
arches or flat -foot, 

limb (lim) (L. lim'bus, border). 
1. An arm or a leg with its 
appendages; an extremity. 2. 
Anything resembling an arm 
or a leg. A leg or lower 
extremity. 

limp (limp). A halting gait. 



LUXATION 

localized (lo'kal-izd). Not gen- 
eral; restricted to a limited 
region or to one or more 
spots. 

locomotion (lo-ko-mo'shun) (L. 
lo'cus, place + mov're, to 
move). Movement from one 
place to another. 

locomotive (lo-ko-mo'tiv). Per- 
taining to locomotion. 

locomotor (lo-ko-mo'tor). Or 
pertaining to locomotion. 

longitudinal arch (long-i-tud'i- 
nal). The long plantar arch 
of the foot from os calcis to 
first metatarsal. 




lubricate (lu^rik-ate). To 
make smooth or slippery, 

lumbrlcalia (lum-brik-a'lis) (L. 
lum'bus, loin). See muscles, 
table of. 



luxation (luks-a'shun) (L. luxa'- 
tio). Same as dislocation. 



LYMPHATIC 

lymphatic (lim-fat'Jk) (L. lym- 
phat'icus). 1. Pertaining to 
or containing lymph. 2. A 
vessel conveying lymph. 3. 
Of a sluggish or phlegmatic 
temperament; afferent I., a 
lymphatic vessel which en- 



roacroscelia (mak-ro-se'le-ah). 
Excessive development of the 
legs. 

malformation ( m a l-f o r-m a'- 
shun). An abnormal shape 
or structure. 

malleolus (mal-e'o-lus). A ham- 
mer-head-shaped process of 
bone of the ankle joint. 

malpoBititm (mal-po-zish'un) 
(L. ma'lua, bad + posit'io, 
placement). Abnormal or 
anomalous position. 

malpractice (mal-prak'tis) (L. 
mal, bad -f- practice). Im- 
proper or injurious practice, 
unskilful and faulty medical 
or surgical treatment. 



manipulation ( m a n-i p-u-1 a'- 
shun). Manual treatment; 

handling. 

masBa{e (mas-azh). The sys- 
tematic therapeutic friction 
stroking and kneading of the 
body; manipulation or meth- 
odic pressure. 



MICRODISSECTION 

mechanics (mek-an'iks). The 
science of matter and force, 
statics and dynamics; animal 



mechanotherapy ( m e - k a n-o- 
ther'ap-e). The application 
of mechanical means to the 
treatment of injury or dis- 



megalonycho^ (meg"al-o-nik- 

osis). Hypertrophy of the 
nails and their matrices. 

membranous (mem'b r a n - u s). 
Having the nature of a mem- 
brane. 



meutarsoplialangeal (m e t-a h- 
tar'so-fal-an'je-al). Pertain- 
ing to the metatarsus and 
phalanges. 

metatarmis ( m e t-a h-t a r'sus) . 
The part of the foot between 
the tarsus and the toes. 

method (meth'ud). The man- 
ner of performing any act 
or operation. 

microdissection (m^'kro-dis-ek'- 
shun). Dissection of tissue 
under the microscope, . 



MICROGRAPHY 

micrography (m i-k r o g'ra[-e). 
An account of microscopic 
objects. 

microscope (mi'kro-skope). An 
instrument wliich magnilies 
minute objects for visual in- 
spection. 

midtarsal (mid-tar'sal). Be 
tween the two rows of bones 
of the tarsus. 

miBpIaced (mis-plast')- Out of 
proper position. 

mobility (mo-bil'it-e) (L. mo- 
bil'itas). Susceptibility o f 
' being moved. 

mobilization (mob''il-iz-a'shun). 
The rendering of a fixed or 
ankylosed part movable. 

mock-knee (mok'ne). A large 
swelling on the knee of 
horses and cattle, caused usu- 
ally by repeated injury, 

modus operandi (mo'dus op-er- 
an'di). The method of per- 
forming an operation or ac- 
tion; the Steps of an oper- 



molecular (mo-lek'u-Iar). Of, 
pertaining to, or composed 



(mol'e-kul). The 
smallest quantity of a sub- 
stance that may exist and 
preserve the characteristic 
qualities. 



monarticular (m< 
Pertaining to c 



i-ar-tik'u-lar). 



monoparesiB (mon-o-par'es-is). 
Paralysis of a single part of 
the body. 

monoparesthesia (mon"o-par- 
es-the'ze-ah). Paralysis of a 
single part or limb. 

monopus (mon'o-pus). A fetus 
having but a single foot or 
leg; congenital absence of 
one lower limb. 

morbid (mor'bid) (L. mor'bid- 
us, sick). Pertaining to or 
affected with disease; dis- 
eased. 

morpholep (mor-foro-je). The 
science of the forms and 
structure of organized beings. 

motUe (mo'til). Capable o f 
spontaneous motion. 

motion (mo'shun). Changing 
or moving about. 

motor (mo'tor). Applied to 
muscles and nerves moving a 
part. 



mull (mul). A variety of thin, 
soft muslin used in surgery; 
plaster m., a sheet of mull 
coated with gutta-percha; 
used in surgery as a dress- 
ing; and in skip -diseases. 



muscle (tnus'el) (L. mus'culus). 
Organic contractile tissue. 



animal organism. Muscles 
are composed of a fibrous 
tissue, chemically character- 
ized by the presence of syn- 
tonin, or muscular fibrin, and 
endowed with the property 
of contractility. 

Abbreviations used to de* 
scribe muscles: 
Or. Origin of the muscle. 
In. Insertion of the muscle. 
Ac. Action of muscles. 

Fascia. Superficial fascia are 
found immediately beneath 
the skin. 



MUSCLES OF THE LEO. 
(See Illustration od nsxt pass) 
Tibia'lis anti'cus. 



In. Internal cuneiform and 

first metatarsal. 
Ac. Flexes tarsus and elevates 

inner border of foot. 

Exter'sor pro'prius hallucis. 
Or. Middle of fibula. 
In. Base of last phalanx of 

great toe. 
Ac. Extends toe. 

Exten'sor lon'gus digito'rum. 
Or. Outer tuberosity of tibia 
and shaft of fibula. 



MUSCLES OF THE LEO 

In. Second and third pha- 
langes of toes. 
Ac. Attends toes. 

Perone'us ter'tius. 
Or. Lower fourth of fibula. 
In. Fifth metatarsal bone. 
Ac. Flexes tarsus. 

Gastrocne'mius (2 heads). 
Or. Condyle of femur. 
In. Os cafcis by tendo achillis. 
Ac. Extends foot. 

Or. Shaft of fibula, oblique 

line of tibia. 
In. Os c ale is by tendo achillis. 
Ac. Extends foot. 

Planta'ris. 

Or. Outer bifurcation of linea 
aspera and posterior liga- 
ment of knee. 

In. Os calcis tendo achillis. 

Ac. Extends foot. 

Poplite'us. 
Or. External condyle of fe- 

In. Shaft of tibia above ob- 
lique line. 
Ac. Flexes leg. 

Flex'or lon'gus hallu'cis. 
Or. Lower two-thirds of shaft 

of fibula. 
In. Last phalanx of great toe. 

Ac. Flexes great toe. 

Flex'or lon'gus digito'rum. 
Or. Shaft of tibia. 
Jn. Last phalanges of toes. 
Ac. Flexes phalanges and ex- 
l,nd, toe,. ^y^,g[^. 



HUSCLES OF THE LEG 
MOSCLBS OF THB LB6 (Atte^Oray) 



1. 


Clutetit medius. 


2. 


Aponeurosis of glu 




imut. 


3- 


Biceps. Flexor en 


4- 


Vasius externus. 


5- 


Plantaris. 


6. 


Gastrocnemius. 


7- 


Solevs. 


8. 


Peroneus Longus. 


9- 


Gluteus maximus. 


w. 




II. 


Semilendinoses. 


IS. 


Gracilis. 


13- 


Tendon of Sem. 



14. Sariorious. 

15. Flexor longus digtioT 
j6. Tendo acliillis. 



:!,a,l,zc.bvG00gIe 



MUSCLES 

Tibia' lis posti'cus. 
Or. Shaft of fibula and tibia. 
In. Tuberosity navicular and 

internal cuneiform. 
Ac. Extends tarsus and 

verts foot. 

Perone'us b re' via. 
Or. Middle third of shaft of 

fibula, externally. 
In. Base of fifth metatarsal. 
Ac. Extends foot. 

Perone'us lon'gus. 
Or. Head and shaft of fibula. 
In. First metatarsal of great 

toe. 
Ac. Extends and everts foot. 

MUSCLES OF THE FOOT. 
Dorul Region. 

Exten'sor bre'vis digito'rum. 
Or. Os calcis, externally. 
In. First phalanx of great toe 

and tendons of extensor 

longus. 
Ac. Extends toes. 

Plantar Region. 
FIRST LAYER. 



In. Base of first phalanx of 

great toe. 
Ac. Abducts great toe. 

Flex' or bre'vis digito'rum. 
Or, Inner tuberosity of os 

calcis and plantar fascia. 
In. Second phalanges of lesser 

Ac. Flexes lesser toes. 



MUSCLES 

Abduc'tor min'imi di'giti. 
Or. Outer tuberosity os cal- 
cis. and plantar fascia. 
In. First phalanx of little toe. 
Ac. Abducts little toe. 



mrsciAS OF the sole or rooT 

(First Layer) j 



SECOND LAYER. 



Flex' or accesso'riua (2 heads). 

Or. 1, Inner, and 2, outer sur- 
face of OS calcis. 

In. Tendon of flexor longus 
digitorum. 

Ac, Accessory flexor of toes. 

Lumbrica'les, 4, 

Or. Tendons of flexor longus 
dig. 

In. Second phalanges of les- 
ser toes. 

Ac. Accessory flexors. 

THIRD LAYER. 

Flex'or bre'vis hallucis. 
Or. Cuboid and external cune- 
iform bones. 
In. First phalanx of great toe. 
Ac, Flexes great toe, 

Transver'sus pe'dis. 
Or. Head of fifth metatarsal. 
In, First phalanx of great toe. 
Ac, Adducts great toe. 



MUSCLES 



NAVICULAR 



Adduc'tor obli'quus hallu'cis. 
Or. Tarsal end of three mid- 
dle metatarsal bones. 
In. First phalanx of great toe. 
Ac. Adducts great toe. 

Flex'or bre'vis min'imi di'giti. 
Or. Base of fifth meUitarsal. 
In. Base of hrst phalanx of 

little toe. 
Ac. Flexes little toe. 



FOURTH LAYER. 

Dorsal interos'sei. 
Or. Sides of metatarsals. 
In. Base of first phalanx of 

corresponding toe. 
Ac. Adduct toes. 

Planta'ris interos'sei. 

Or. Shafts of third, fourth and 

fifth metatarsals. 
In. Base of first phalanges of 

Ac. Adducts toes, 

muBcle-attmcbmcnts. Bones to 
which muscles and tendons are 
attached for performing their 
function in moving the parts. 

muscular (mus'ku-Iar]) (L. mus- 
cula'ris). 1. Pertaining to a 
muscle. 2. Having well-de- 
veloped muscles. 

myalgia (mi-al'je-ah). Pain in 



myectopy (mi-ek'to-pe). Ab- 
normal displacement of a 

myokerous ( m i ' o - ke-ro'sis). 
Waxy degeneration of mus- 
cle tissue. 



myology (mi-ol'o-je). The sci- 
ence of the nature, function, 
structure, and diseases of 
muscles. 



:). Any 



myotatic (mi-o-tat'ik). Per- 
formed or induced by stretch- 
ing or extending a muscle. 

myotenotomy (myotcnot'omy). 
The division of muscles and 

tendons. 

nail (nal). The horny dorsal 
plate on the distal phalanx 
of a finger or toe. The nail 
is made up of flattened epithe- 
lial scales developed from 
the stratum lucidum of the 
skin; nail-bed, the surface 
covered by a nail. 



napropatby (nap-rop'ath-e). A 
system of medicine which at- 
tributes all disease to disor- 
der in the ligaments andcon- 

navicnlar (na-vik'u-lar) (L. na- 
vic'ula, boat). 1. Boat-shaped. 
2. The scaphoid bone of the 
tarsus. 



MUSCLES OF THE LEG 



1. Biceps. 

2. Peroneus longtis. 

3. Extensor lotigus digitorum. 

4. Peroneus brevis. 

5. Extensor longus digitorum, 

6. Extensor proprius haltucis. 

7. Peroneus tertius. 

8. Extensor brevis digitorum. 

9. Peroneus brevis. 

10. Peroneus tertius. 

11. Abductor minimi digili. 
1^. Extensores longus. 

13. Extensores longus et brevis. 

14. Crureus. 

15. Subcrureus. 

16. Quadriceps extensor. 

17. Lig. patellae. 
iS. Sarlorius. 
ig. Gracilis. 

so. Semitendinosus. 

21. Tibialis anticus. 

22. Extensor brevis digitorum. 

23. Extensor proprius hallueis. 



Figure 5. Diagram showing the 
attachments of the muscles of 
the leg. Anterior (after Gray). 



:!,a,l,zc.bvG00gIe 



MUSCLES OF THE LEO 



ATTACHMENTS OF THX HnSCLBS OF THB LB6 <An«OniT> 



Inner head of gaslrocnfmius. 
Semimem brauons. 
Popliteus. 

Flexor longus dtgitorum. 

Ptantaris. 

Outer head of gastrocnemius. 



Popliteus. 
Biceps. 

Tibialis porticus. 
Flexor longus kaliucis. 
Peroneus brevis. 



t,CoogIc 



MUSCLES OF THE THIGH 



DIAOKAH SHOWING ATTACHMBIfTS OF THE HV8CLBS 
OF THE IHIOH unerany) 

10. Gluteus medius. 

11. Gluteus maximus. 

12. Abductor magnus. 

13. Vastus externus. 

14. Short head oj biceps. 
IS- Plan tarts, 

16. Outer head of gastrocnemius. 
77. PopHteus. 
iS. PopHteus. 



Gluteus 1.. 
Pyriformis. 
Gluteus maxi... _. 
Abductor brevis. 

Adductor longus. 

Adductor magnus. 

Inner head of gastrocnemius. 

Semimembranosus. 



t,CoogIf 



NEARTHROSIS 

nearthroBis (ne-ar-thro'sia). Ab- 
normal articulation; a false- 

necro^ (ne-kro'sia). Molar or 
non-molecular death of a tis- 
sue, especially of a bone; a 
condition in bone which cor- 
responds to gangrene in the 
soft parts and which arises 
like the latter, from interfer- 
ence with the blood supply. 
Its most common causes are 
injury, acute inflammation, 
and chemic poisons, as phos- 
phorus and mercury. 

nerve (nerv). A cord-like 
structure which conveys im- 
pulses from one part of the 
body to another, A nerve 
consists of a connective-tis- 
sue sheath (epineurium), in- 
closing bundles (funiculi) of 
nerve fibers, each bundle be- 
ina: surrounded by its own 
sheath of perineurium, the 
various bundles being sep- 
arated by septa of connec- 
tive tissue, known as the en- 
doneurium. 

Cutaneous Nerves of Outer 
Side of Leg and Foot. 1; ex- 
ternal popliteal nerve, 2; its 
lateral cutaneous branch, 3; 
peroneal communicating 
branch which unites with 
the tibial communicating, in 
the external saphenous 
nerve, 4; calcaneal branch of 
external saphenous, 5; exter- 
nal dorsal digital branch of 
fifth toe, 6; dorsal digital 



1 with external sap he- 



branches, 11; anterior tibial 
nerve, 12; its inner terminal 
branch. 13; recurrent anticular 



Distribution of Branches of Ex- 
ternal Popliteal Nerves of 
Front of Leg and Dorsum of 
Foot, 1; external popliteal or 
peroneal nerve, 2; its recur- 
rent articular branches, 3; 
musculocutaneous nerve, 
4; twigs to long and short 
peroneal muscles, 5; inter- 
nal branch of musculocutane- 
ous nerve, 6; its external 
branch, 7; external saphenous 
nerve, uniting at two places 
with outer branch of musculo- 
cutaneous, 8; its branch to 
the outer side of the fifth toe, 
9; anterior tibial nerve, 10; 
its muscular branches in the 
leg, of the anterior tibial 
nerve after it has passed into 
the foot, 11; its inner branch 
uniting with a twig of the 
musculocutaneous and giving 
the dorsal digital nerves, 
distribution of its outer 
branch to extensor brevis 
digitorura and tarsal articu- 
lations. 

nervous (ner'vus) (L. nervo'- 
sus). 1. Pertaining to a 
nerve or to the nerves. 2. 
Unduly excitable^ 



NEURALGIA 

nenralgU (nu-ral'je-ab). Pain 
in a nerve or in nerves, or 

radiating along the course of 
a nerve, a name applied to 
pain, which may result from 
any one or more of a ^reat 
variety of morbid conditions. 
Neuralgic pain is of a severe 
darting or throbbing charac- 
ter, intermittent, and is at- 
tended by sensitiveness of the 
skin and by the presence of 
tender points (punc'tadoloro'- 
sa) where the cutaneous 
branches of the nerve are 
given off from the deeper 
parts. Morton's neuralgia in 
the metatarsophalangeal joint 
of the third and fourth toes. 
It is caused by slight disloca- 
tion producing pressure on 
the digital branch of the ex- 
ternal plantar nerve. 

neuralgic (i 
ing to o 
neuralgia. 

nemitis (nu-n'tis). 



ONYCHOMA 



1 of i 



Tnflamma- 
'he condi' 

ded by pain and 



anesthesia, disturbances o f 
sensation, paralysis, wasting 
and disappearance of the re- 
flexes. 



node (nod) (L. no'dus, knot). 
A swelling or protuberance, 
generally on a tendon or 

normal (nor'mal). I. Agreeing 
with the regular and estab- 
lished type. 

nucleus (nu'kle-us) (Fl. nu'clei) 
(L.). 1. A spheroid body 
within a cell, forming the es- 
sential and vital part of the 
cell. 

nu-pips. A patented device to 
be placed in the heel part of 
low shoes or shppers to pre- 
vent slipping. Made of solt, 
velvety rubber. 

is). Ex- 



■ 


onychia (o-nik'e-ah). Chronic 


neurology (nu-rol'o-je). Science 




of nervous structure and 


nail. 


function. 


onjrchold (on'ik-oid). Resem- 


neuroma (nu-ro'mab). 1. A 


bling a finger nail. 


nerve-tumor. 2. A fibroma on 






onycholy»» (o-n ik-o I'i s-i s). 




Loosening of the nails. 


neuromuscular (neuromus'cu- 




lar). Pertaining to both 
nerves and muscles. 


onychoma (o-nik-o'mah). A tu- 


mor of the nail or nail-bed. 


b» 


B klOglf 



ONYCHOMYCOSIS 

onychomjrcosis (on"ik-o-mi-ko'- 
sis). A disease of the nails due 
to the presence of a fungus, 
A c h o'r i o n keratoph'agus, 
called also o. favo'sa o. ton- 
Bu'rans, a disease produced by 
the growth of Trichoph'yton 
tonsu'rans in the nails. 



onychophOBis (on'tk-o-fo'si! 
horny growth beneath 
toe nails. 



i). A 



onychosis (on-ikna'sts). Dis- 
ease or deformity of a nail 
or of the nails. 



finger or toe. 
onyxis (o-niks'is). Ingrowing 

operation (op-er-a'shun) (L. 
opera'tio). 1. Any act per- 
formed with instruments or 
by the hands of a surgeon. 

organ (or'gan). Any part of 
the body with a special func- 

organopathy (or-gan-op'ath-e). 
1. Diseases of an organ. 2. 
The local action of drugs. 



OSTEARTHRITIS 

oTthosrade (or'tho-grad). Car- 
rying the body upright in 
walkmg. 

orthopedia (or-tho-pe'de-ah). 

The surgical and mechanic 
correction of deformities, as 
of the foot 

orthopedics (or-tho-pe'diks). 
Correction or prevention of 
deformities. 

orthopedist (or-tho-pe'dist). 

One who practices ortho- 
pedic surgery. 

orthosis (or-tho'sis). The 
straightening of a distorted 

OS. PI., ossa, a bone. 



osnfication (os"if-ik-a'shuo) (L. 
ossilica'tio). I. The forma- 
tion of bone or of a bony 
substance. 2. Conversion 
into bone or a bony sub- 
stance; metaplastic o., the de- 
velopment of bone matter in 



>saif]r (os'if-i). To change into 
bone. 

tstalgia (os-tal'je-ah). Pain in 
a bone or in the bones. 

ostearthritiB (os"le-ar-thri'tis). 
ifiammation of the bones 
id joints. 



OSTEARTHROTOMY 

ottearthrotomy (ostearthrot'- 
omy). Excision of an artic- 
ular end of a bone. 



OBtcitis (os-te-i'tis). Inflam- 
mation of the bone, inflam- 
mation of the haversian 

spaces, canals, and their 
branches, and generally of 
the medullary cavity. The 
disease is marked by enlarge- 
ment of the bone, tenderness 
and a dull, aching pain. 

osteoarthritu os-te-o-arth-ri'- 
tis). Chronic rheumatoid in- 
flammation of a joint. 

osteoarthropathy (osteoar- 
throp'athy). Any disease of 

bony articulations. 

OBteogcncBis (osteogen'esis). 

The development and forma- 



asteology (os-te-olo-je), Sci- 
lion of Ihe study of the 



OBteonecroBiB (os-te-o-ne-kro'- 

sis). Necrosis of bone. 
OBteoneuralKia (os-te-o-nu-ral'- 
je-ah). Neuralgia of bones. 



overriding (o-ver-ri'ding). The 
slipping of an end of a frac- 
tured bone over the other 
fragment. 

oTerstrain (o'ver-stran). An ab- 
normal degree of fati^e 
brought about by activity. 
It is intermediate between 
fatigue and actual exhaustion. 

pachydermic (pak-e-der'mik). 

Characterized by abnormal 
thickness of the skin. 

pachyloBis (pak-il-o'sis). A 
chronic disease in which the 
skin, particularly that of the 
leg, becomes dry, thick and 

harsh. 



pad (pad). In general, a cush- 
ion; a mass of anything soft; 
stuffing. 2. A cushion used 
as a saddle, without a tree 
or (rarrfe; a cushion used on 
an elephant's back, esp. un- 
der the howdah. 3. A har- 
ness saddle. 4. Something 
of the nature of a cushion, 
used to lessen or prevent the 
effect of jarring, impact, 
pressure, or friction; stuffing 
used to fill out, to increase 
the size or height, to alter 
Ihe natural form, etc., as a 
cushion or stuffing used un- 
der a saddle or gigtree or at 
the top of a surcingle to pre- 
vent galling, b, A stuffed 
guard for a bodily part, as 
the leg. c. A protective cap 
for the leg of a horse; a 
booL d. Med., a soft bag 
or cushion to relieve pres- 
sure, support a part, etc , 
■ OOglf 



PAGOPLEXIA 



pagoplexia (pa-go-pleks' 
Frost-bite or chilbisin. 



pain (pan) (L. pae'roa; do'lor). 
1. Distress or suffering. 

palliative (pal'e-a-tiv) (L. pal- 
lia'tus, cloaked). 1. Afford- 
ing relief, but no cure. 2, 
An alleviating medicine. 

palpate (pal-pate'). 1. To ex- 
plore with the hand 2. 
Having a palpus. 



inanimation of a finger 



gnartbritiB 


fpanar 

nflammatio 


hr 


lis) 


General 


n f>l 


the 


joint-stru 


tures. 







papilloma (pap-il-o'mah). A 
benign tumor made up ofhy- 
pertrophied papillae of the 

parallM^ma (par-al-a^'mah). A 
change in the situation of 
bones. 

paralyris (par-al'is-is). A loss 
of motion or sensation in a 
living part or member. 

paramyotonia (par'ah-mi-o-to'- 

ne-ah). A disease marked by 
tonic spasms due to disorder 
of muscular tonicity, espec- 
ially a hereditary and con- 
genital affection. Symptom- 
atic p., temporary stiffness on 
startm^ to walk, seen in 
paralysis agitans. 



PATHOLOGY 



parasynovitii ( par -ah -si -no- vi'- 
tis). Inflammation around a 

bursa. 

parataraium { par -ah- tar's e-um). 
The aide of the tarsus of 
the foot. 



paronjrcbia (par-o-nik'e-ah). A 
felon or whitlow; abscess 

and suppuration of the ter- 
minal phalanx of the finger. 
It may be superficial and 
confined to the structures 
about the nails, or deep- 
seated, in which case the 
periosteum and bone are af- 
fected and there is pain, ne- 
crosis and marked Constitu- 
tional disturbance. 

passive (pas'iv) (L. passi'vus). 
Neither spontaneous nor act- 
ive; not produced by active 
efforts < 



The knee-cap ( 
lens-shaped sesamoid bone, 
situated in the front of the 
knee, in the tendon of the 
quadriceps extensor femoris 
muscle, riders' painful p., ten- 
derness and pain in the pa- 
tella of horseback riders. 

pathology (path-ol'o-je). That 
branch of medicine which 
treats of the essential nature 
of disease, especially of the 
structural and functiona' 
changes caused by disease. 



PEP 

ped (ped) (L. ped, pedis, fr. 
pes, pedis, foot; cf. F. pede). 
A suffix denoting foot, 
footed; as biped, centipede, 
velocipede. 

pedialEia (pe-de-al'je-ah). Neu- 
ralgic pain in the foot 

pedic. Arch support, A sup- 
port designed lo be placed 
inside of the shoe for cases 
of flat-foot, weak arches and 
rotating ankles. 

pedico. Foot soap. A pro- 
prietary soap made in gran- 
ular form for the feet. A 
soap comprising an antisep- 
tic and deodorizer. It con- 
sists of granulations that re- 
quire rubbing before lather 
is produced. A soap to stim- 
circulation, thor- 
,_„hly cle 
the 



pedico. Foot Balm. An oint- 
ment or cream to be rubbed 
on the feet to remove burn- 
ing, tenderness, itching and 
irritation. A proprietary 
remedy for aching, painful 
feet. 

pedicure (ped'ik-ur) (L. pes, 
, foot + cu'ra care). A chir- 
opodist or corn-doctor. The 
care of the feet and nails. 
One who cares for the feet 
and nails; a chiropodist. 



pediluvium (ped-il-u'v< 
pes, foot + lu'ere, t 
A foot-bath. 



■u) (L. 



PERICHONDRIUM 



peditiB (pe-di-tis) (L, pes, foot 
4- -itis). Inflammation of 
the pedal. 

pedolizerB, Scholl's; consisting 
of a means of spraying anti- 
septic liquids to various parts 
of the foot to be operated 
upon by the chiropodist. An 
atomizer or spray especially 
constructed for foot work. 



percussion (per-kush'un) (L. 
percus'sio). The act of 
striking a part with short, 
sharp blows as an aid in 
diagnosing the condition of 
the parts beneath by the 
sound obtained. 

perforate (per'fo-rat) (L. per- 
fora're, lo pierce through}. 1. 
The act of boring or pierc- 
ing through a part. 

perforation (per-fo-ra'shun). An 
opening or penetration. 

perfrication (per-frik-a'shun) 
(L. perfriea're, to rub). In- 
unction. Rubbing with an 
ointment or embrocation. 



perichondrium (per-e-kon'dre- 
um). The membrane which 
covers the surface of a car- 
tilage. It is a layer of white 
fibrous tissue prolonged over 
the cartilage from neighbor- 
ing parts. .OOglf 



PERILIGAMENTOUS 



perionychium (per"e-o-nik'e- 
om). The epidermis border- 
ing a nail. 

perionyx (pcr-e-o'niks). A rel- 
ic of the eponychium per- 
sisting as a band across the 
root of the nail, seen in the 
eighth month of fetal life. 

perionyxis (per"e-o-niks'is). 

Inflammation of the skin sur- 
rounding a finger or toe-nail. 

periosteoma, peTiostonu (per"- 
e-os-te-o'mali, pcr"e-os-to'- 
mah). A morbid bony growth 
surrounding a bone. 

periosteum (per-e-os'te-um). 

The tough fibrous membrane 
surrounding a bone. It ad- 
heres to the surface of the 



erally chronic and is marked 
by tenderness and swelling 
of the bone, and an aching 
pain. 

perioBtoBu (per"e-os-to'8is>. An 
inflammatory bony growth 
formed about a bone. 

periphery (per-i£'er-e). The 
circumference or bounding 
line. 



PES CAVUS 

peritendinenm (per"e-ten-din'e- 
um). The sheath of a ten- 



perttbelium (per-e-the'le-um). 
The layer of cells and fibrils 
that surrounds the capillaries 

and smaller vessels. Eberth's 
p., a partial layer of cells 
on the external surface of 
the capillaries. 

as'ku-lar). 



(per-o-ne'um). The 



perapiration (per-spir-a'shun) 
(L. pcrspira're, to breathe 
through). 1. Sweating the 
functional excretion of sweat. 
2. Sweat. 

pes (pez) PI. pe'des. I. Latin 
for foot. 2. The lower or 
anterior part of the crus 
cerebri; p. ca'vus, hollow 
foot, excessive curvature or 
hollowness of the sole of the 
foot; p. pla'nus, flat-foot, un- 
due flatness of the sole and 
arch of the foot. 

pea csvus (pes ca'vus). Hollow 
foot ; excessive curvature or 
hollowness of the sole of the 
foot 



PES PLANUS 

pes [danus (pes pla'nus). Flat 
foot; undue flatness of the sole 
and arch of the foot 



phalanges (fa-lan'jez). Plural 
of phalanx, bones of fingers 
and toea. 

phalaneette (fal-an-jet'). The 
distal phalanx drop p., drop- 
ping of the distal phalanx 
and loss of power to extend 
it when the hand is prone. 

phalangitis (fal-an-ji'tis). In- 
flammation of one or more 
phalanges. 

phalanx (fa'lanks) PI. Pha- 
langes. 1. The bones, the 
fingers or toes. 2. Any one 
of a set of plates disposed 
in rows which makes up the 
lamina reticularis; ungual p., 
the terminal phalanx of a 



phatmacologiBt (far-mak-oI'D- 
j ist) . One who makes a 
study of drugs, their nature 
and action. 



phlegmon (Aeg'mon). Sup- 
purative inflammation of ar- 



physical (fiz'ik-al). Pertaining 
to nature or to the body. 

physics (fiz'iks). The science 
of the laws and phenomena 
of nature, but especially of 
the forces and general prop- 
erties of matter. 

physioloj^, phyaiolo^ical, (liz"- 

Pertaining to physiology or 
the functions of the body 
and organs. 2. Normal, not 
pathologic. 

phydotogico-anstomic (fiz-e-o- 
lof ik-o-an-at-om'ik), P e r- 
taming to physiology and 
anatomy. 

physiolo^st (fiz-e-ol'o-jist). A 
specialist in the study of 
physiology. 

phyuology (fiz-e-ol'o-je). The 
science which treats of the 
functions of the living or- 
ganism and its parts. 



phyuopathologic (Az'e-o-path- 
o-loj ik). Pertaining to both 
the physiologic and patho- 
logic conditions. 

phytopathology (fiz"e-o-path- 

ol'o-je) (physiology -|- path- 
ology). The science of func- 
tions in disease, or as mod- 
ified by disease, 

physique (fiz-ek'). Bodily struc- 
ture, organization and devel- 
opment. 



•e). Pertaining to 



pillar (pil'ar) (L. pHa). A 
supporting structure mostly 
occurrtne in pairs, as the 
pillars of the abdominal rin^, 
fauces, diaphragm and fornix 
p's. of the abdominal ring, 
the columns on each side of 
the abdominal ring. 



planttir (plan'tar) (L. planta'- 
ris). Pertaining to the sole 
of the foot. 



plaiter (plas'ter) (L. emplas'- 
trum). A tenacious prepara- 
tion for spreading upon the 
surface of the body. 

plastic (plas'tik). Capable of 
being molded. P. operation, 
an operation restoring a lost 
part. 



pliM (pU'kab). A fold of t 



PODOLOOY 

pnenmarthroBiB (nu-mar-thro'- 
sis). An efiusion of air into 
a joint. 

pneumatic (nu-mat'ik). Of or 
pertaining to air or gaseous 

podagra (pod-ag'rah, pod'ag- 
rah). Gout, more especially 
gout in the feet. 



podBgroua (pod'ag-rus) (L. 
podagro'sus). Pertaining to 
gouty feet. 

podalgia (po-dal'je-ah). Pain 
in the foot, as from gout or 
rheumatism. 

podatic (po-dal'ik). Accom- 
plished by means of the feet; 

footling. 

podarthritis (pod-ar-thri'tis). 
Inflammation of a joint of 
the feet. 

podasteroid (pod-as'ter-oid). 
Having a stellate foot or 
pedicle. 



podelkotna (pod-el-ko'mah). My- 
cetoma; actinomycosis of the 
foot. Endemic disease of 
India, with pustules on the 
foot. 



POLYARTHRITIS 

poj^'arthritis (polyarthri'tis), 
Simuttatieous inflammation of 
several joints. 

polfdac^limi (polydac'tylism). 
Having Bupernumerary fin' 
gers or toes. 

polyplegia (pol-ip-1e'je-ah). Si- 
multaneous paralysis of sev- 
eral muscles. 



popliteal (pop-lit-e'al) (L. pop- 
htae'us; pop'les ham). Per- 
taining to the posterior sur- 
face of the knee. 



porosity (po-ros'il-e). 1. The 
condition of being porous. 2. 



poution (po-zish'un) (L. posi'- 
tio). 1. The attitude or 
posture of a patient. 

poaterior (pos-te're-or) (L. 
neut. poste'rius). Situated 
behind or toward tfie rear. 

postero-inferior (pos'ter-o-in- 

fe're-or). Situated behind 
and below. 



PREPARATION 



poBtero-intemal (pos"te-ro-in- 
il)_(L. ^os'terus, behind 



posterolateral (pos"ter-ro-lat'- 

er-al) (L. pos terua, behind 
+ lateralis, lateral). Sit- 
uated behind and on one side. 

poBteromedian (pos"te-ro-me'- 
de-an) (L. pos terus, behind 
+ me'dius. middle). Sit- 
uated on the middle of a 
posterior aspect. 



, . all). Situated 

at the back part of the pari- 
etal pone. 

posterosuperior (po3''te-ro-su- 
pe're-or) (L. pos taus, behind 
pe're-or) (L. pos'terus, behind 
-|- supe'rior, upper). Sit- 



poultice (pol'tis) (L. puis pap; 
calaplas ma). Any soft and 
moist pultaceous mass ap- 
plied hot to the surface of 

a part for the purpose of 
supplying heat and moisture. 

practitioner (prak-tish'un-er). A 
physician surgeon, bachelor 
of medicine, apothecary, or 
licentiate. 



preparation (prep-ar-a'shun) (L. 
praepara'tio). 1. The act or 
process of making ready. 2. 
A medicine made ready for 



■ OOglf 



prescribe (pre-skrib) (L. prae- 
scrib'ere, to write before). 
To designate in writing a 
remedy for administration. 

prescription (pre-skrip'shun) 
(L. praescrip'tio), A writ- 
ten direction for the prepar- 
ation and administration of 
a remedy. 

pressure (presh'ur) (L. pressu'- 
ra). Stress or strain, whether 
by compression, pull, thrust 



pretiMal (pre-tib'e-al), 
rior to the tibia. 



process (proses) (L. proces'- 
sus). A slender projecting 
point. A prolongation or 
prominence of a part. 

productive (pro-duk'tiv). Pro- 
ducing or forming, especially 
producing new tissue. 

proEessional (pro-fesh'un-al). 
Pertaining to one's profes- 
sion or occupation. 



prognose (prog-n 
cast the course 
of a disease. 



prognostic (prop-nos'tik) (L.). 
Affording an indication as to 
prognosis may be based. 
Conditions which indicate the 
course of a disease. 



PROUD-FLESH 

progression (pro-gresh'un). The 
act of moving or walking 
forward. 

pronation (pro-na'sbun) (L. 

prona'tio). The act of turn- 

mg the palm of the band 
downward. 



proiutoflexor 
sor). Both 



prophylaxis (pro-fil-aks'is). The 
prevention of a disease. 

prosector (pro-sek'tor) (L.) 
One who dissects anatomic 
subjects for demonstration 
and prepares subjects for a 
lecture. 

protective (pro-tek'tiv). 1. 
That which covers or pro- 
tects. 2. An antiseptic dress- 
ing for wounds. 



prond-fleah (proud'flesh). E 
cessive granulations; a fu 
gous growth. CiOOi'lc 



PROXIMAL 

proximal (prok'sim-al) (L. 
prox'imus, next). Nearest 
the trunk center or median 
line opposed to distal. 

proximate (prok'sim-at) (L. 
proxima'tus, draw near). Im- 
mediate or nearest. 

pseudarthrosia (sud-ar-thro'sis). 
Condition of having a false 
joint 

paendoluxatioa (su-do-luk-sa'- 
shun). Partial dislocation of 
a bone. 



REFLEX 

ramify (ram'if-i) (L. ra'mus, 
branch + fa'cere, to make). 
To branch; to diverge in va- 
rious directions as branch- 
ing of a part. 



ity. 

recDTTent (re-kur'ent) (L. re- 
cur'rens, returning). 1. Run- 
ning back, or toward the 
source. 2. Returning after 
intermissions. 

at 



pulsation (pul-sa'shun) (L. 
pulsa'tio). A throb or rhyth- 
mic beat as of the heart. 

puB (pus) pi, pu'ra (L. gen. 
pu'ris), A liquid inflamma- 
tory product made up of 
cells (leukocytes and a thin 
fluid called liquid puris). 

pustule (pus'tui) (L. pus'tula). 
A small elevation of the cuti- 
cle, filled with pus or lymph. 



quadrate (kwod'ral) (L. quad- 
ra'tus, squared). Square or 
squared; four-sided. 

quadriceps (kwod'ris-eps) (L. 
quadri, four + ca'put, head). 
Four-headed; a large muscle 
of the thigh. 

radioscopy (ra-de-os'ko-pe). 

The examination of the deep 
structures of the body by 
means of Roentgen rays. 



. to lead). _ _ . 
store to the normal place ( 
relation of parts, as to re- 
duce a fracture, 

reduction (re-duk'shun). 1, 
Restoration to a normal sit- 
uation. 2. Separation of a 
melal from substances com- 
bined with it, 

reflex (re'fleks) (L. reflex'us). 
Reflected; a reflected action 
or movement; plantar. Plan- 
tar flexion of the foot or tap- 
ping' the dorsum said in 
certain organic nervous affec- 
tions. Deep; passively flex- 
ing the toes and foot in a 
plantar direction is followed 
by flexion in a dorsal direc- 
tion and by flexive move- 
ments of the knee and hip. 
A reflex elicited by percuss- 
ing the dorsum of the foot. 
In normal persons, it causes 
dorsal flexion of the second 
to fifth toes, in certain or- 
ganic nervous conditions, 
there is plantar flexion of 
the toes. 



reform. Scholl's; a foot arch 
made of silveroid metal and 
leather, having side cuts to 
allow easy adjustment. 

re£ractur« (r«-frak'chur). The 
operation of breaking over 
again a bone which has been 
fractured and has united with 
a deformity. 

refreab (re-fresh'). To restore 
the character of a fresh 

wound. 

region (re'jun) (L. re'gio). Any 
particular part of the body, 
usually one marked out by 
arbitrary boundary. 

regular (reg'u-Iar (L. regula'ris, 
reg'ula, rule). Normal or con- 
forming to rule. 

relaxation (re-laks-a'shun). A 
lessening of tension. 2. A 
mitigation of pain. 

relief (re-lef) (L. releva'tio). 
The mitigation or removal of 
pain or distress. 

relieve (re-lev') (L. releva're, to 
lighten). To mitigate or re- 
move pain or distress, to give 
relief to. 

remedial (re-me'de-al {L. reme- 
dia'lis). Curative acting as a 

remedy. 

remedy (rem'ed-e) (L. reme'di- 
um). Anything that cures, 
palliates, or prevents disease. 



RHEUMATALGIA 

remittent (rc-mit'ent) (L. re- 
mit'tere, to send back). 1, 
Having periods of abatement 
and of exacerbation. 



resection (re-sek'shun) (L. re- 
sec'tio). Excision of a part 
of an organ; especially, excis- 
ion of the ends of bones and 
other structures forming a 

resistance (re-zis'tans) (L. re- 
sis ten'tia). The opposition by 

a conductor to the passage of 
an electric current. 



rete (re'te (L. "net"). A net or 
mesh work of nerve-fibers, 
and especially of vessels. 



retrograde (re'tro-grad) (L. re'- 
tro, backward + gra di, to 
go). Going backward; re- 
tracing a former course. 

retropulrion (re-tro-pul'shun). 
Driving or turning back. 

reunion (re-un'yun). The join- 
ing of several parts. 

rheumarthrosis (rum-arth-ro'- 
sis). Rheumatism of the 



rhetmutic (ru-mat'ik). Pertain* 
ing to or affected with rheu- 
matism. 



rheumatitm (ru'mat-ism). A 
constituional disease marked 
by inflammation of the con- 
nective-tissue structures of 
the body, especially the mus- 
cles and joints, and attended 
by pain in the joints or mus- 
cles. It is usually recurrent 
and is often due to exposure. 



ricket* (rik'eta) (L. rachi'tis) 
(g. v.). A constitutional dis- 
ease of childhood in which 
the bones become soft and 
flexible from retarded ossifica- 
tion due to deficiency of the 
earthy salts. The disease is 
marked by bending and dis- 
tortion of the bones, under 
muscular action, by the form- 
ation of nodular enlargements 
on the ends and sides of the 
bones, by delayed closure of 
the fontanels, pain in the mus- 
cles, sweating of the head and 
degeneration of the liver and 



rider's bone (ri'derz-bon). A 
bony formation in the muscles 
of the legs from riding. 

rider's lee (ri'derz-leg). A strain 
of the adductor muscles of 
the thigh. 



Roentgen raya (Rent'gen). The 
peculiar ether-rays or waves 
discovered by Prof. Roentgen 
of Wursburg. See X-rays. 

roller (ro'ler). A long muslin 
or flannel atrip for bandaging. 

rotation (ro-ta'shun) (L. rota'- 
tio, ro'tare, to turn). The 
process of turning around an 
axis; movement of a body 



salicylate (sal'ia-il-at). Any salt 
of salicylic acid. The salicy- 
lates are used like salicylic 
acid in rheumatism. 

salicylic (sal-is-il'ik). Pertain- 
ing to the radical salicyl. 



salve (sahv). A thick ointment 



sanitary {san'it-a-re} (L. sani- 
ta'rius). Promotmg or per- 
taining to health. 

saphenous (saf'e-nus). Pertain- 
ing to or associated with the 
saphena; applied to certain 
arteries, nerves, veins, etc. 



scaphoid (ska'foid). Shaped like 
a boat; navicular. The sca- 
phoid bone, the outer bone of 
the first row of the carpal 
bones. A bone on the inner 
side of the tarsus before the 
astragalus and behind the 



scarificadon (skar-if-ik-a'shun). 
Making small incisions in a 

Bchopedic insoles. Trade mark 
line of insoles made of cork, 
cork and hair and non-crum- 
pling goat hair. 



skeleton that are formed by 
the ossification of ligaments, 
tendons or fasciae, or bony 
deposits in these structures. 

Bcolions (sko-Ie-o'sis). Abnor- 
mal curvature of the vertebral 
column, especially a lateral 
' — of the spine. 



seborrhea (seborrhea). An ab- 
normal secretion of the seba- 
ceous glanda. 

secrete (se'krete) (L. secer'nere, 
secre'tum, to separate). To 
separate or elaborate from the 

section (sek'shun) (L. sec'tio). 
An act of cutting, a division 

BetnicattUaginoua (sem'e-kar- 
til-aj'in-us). Partly composed 
of cartilage. 

semlflezion (sem-e-fiek'shun). 
The position of a limb mid- 
way between flexion and ex- 
tension. 

seminormal (sem-e-nor'mal). Of 
one-half the normal or stand- 
ard strength. 

sensation (sen-sa'shun) (L. sen- 
sa'tio). An impression con- 
veyed by an afferent nerve to 



SENSIBILITY 

Benaibtlity (sen-sib-il'it-e) (L, 
senaibirilas). Susceptibility 
of feeling, ability to feel or 
perceive. 



separator, separatory (sep'ar-a- 
to-re) (L. separa'tor). A de- 
vice for effecting- a separa- 



tion due to the presence of 
non-specific pathogenic bac- 
teria and their associated 
poisons (toxins and toxal bu- 
mins) in the blood. 



fragment of a necrosed bone. 

series (se're-ez) (L. "row"). A 
group of succession of objects 
or substances arranged in 
regular order forming a kind 
of chain. 



serositis (se-ro-si'tis). Inflam* 
mation of a serous membrane. 

seroaity (se-roa'it-e). The qual- 
ity possessed by serous fluids. 

serosynovitis {se"ro-sin-o-vi'- 
tis). Inflammation of a syno- 
vial membrane with effusion 



SKIAGRAPHY 



sesamoid (ses'am-oid). Resem- 
bling a grain of sesame, per- 
taining to small bones devel- 
oped in tendons. 



shellac (shel-ak', shell-lac). A 
variety of lac from India, 
produced on various plants 
by an insect. 



shock (shok). Sudden vital de- 
pression due to an injury or 
emotion which makes an out- 
ward impression upon the 



sign (sin). 1. Any diagnostic 
sympton. 2. A conventional 
character used in pharmacy 
or otherwise. 

skeleton (skel'et-on). The hard 
framework of the animal 
body; especially the bony 
framework of the higher ver- 
tebrate animals; the bones of 
the body collectively. 

skiaKram, sUagraph (ski'ag-ram, 
ski'ag-raf). ne finished 
printed X-Ray picture. 

skiagraphy (ski-as'raf-e) . The 
art or process of making skia- 
graphs or photographs by 
means of the Roentgen rays. 



SKIASCOPY 

Bkiascopjr (ski-as'ko-pe). Ex- 
amination by either skiagraph 
or fluoro scope. 

skin (skin). The outer integu- 
ment or covering of the body. 
It is made up of an epithelial 
layer, the epidermis cuticle, 
or scarf-skin and the true s., 
(corium, derma or cutis vera). 
The epidermis (cuticle or 
scarf-skin) is made up of sev- 
eral layers, from without in- 
ward as follows; The horny 
layer (stra'tum cor'neum) 
which consists of layers of 
flattened horny cells; the 
stra'tum lu'cidum (OhI'a lay- 
er), consisting of transparent 
nucleated cells; the stra'tum 
granulo'sum, granular layer, 
Langerhans' layer), consisting 
of flattened granular cells, the 
stra'tum muco'sum (mucous 
layer, malpighian layer, rete 
mucosum), consisting of pig- 
mented columnar cells, the 
outer part of which is cov- 
ered with prickles, forming 
the prickle layer. The true s., 
(cormm, derma, cutis vera), is 
divided from the epidermis by 
a basement-membrane, and 
consists of an outer or papil- 
lary layer, containing the 
nerve-endings and capillaries 
and a deeper reticular layer, 
largely made up of fibrous 
bundles. Beneath the skin is 
the subcutaneous connective 
tissue, consisting of oblique 
elastic fibers extending be- 
tween the corium and fasciae 
or deeper tissues and con- 
taining lymphatics, vessels, 
nerves and generally fat. 



SPECIALIST 

sling (sling), A bandage or 
suspensory for supporting a 



solace. Foot Support; a light, 
one-piece support for the in- 
step arch. Made without. 
flange in men's and women's 



solution ( s 0-1 u' shun (L. solu'- 
tio). The process of dissolv- 
ing. A liquid containing dis- 
solved matter. A loosening or 
separation. 



Borbefacient (sor-be-fa'she-ent). 
An agent producing absorp- 
tion. 

sore (sor). A lesion of the in- 
tegument, such as an ulcer or 
abscess, less frequently a 

space (spas) (L. spa'tium). Any 
area or cavity of the body. 

spasm (spazm). A convulsive 
muscular contraction. 

spasmodic, spasmatic (spaz- 
mod'ik, spaz-mat'ik). P e r- 
taining to spasm. 

■pecialiBt (s p e s h'a l-i s t). A 
practitioner who treats a spe- 
cial class of diseases. 



^>eci£c (spe-sit'ik (L. spectf'i- 
cus). Pertaining lo a species, 
special, peculiar. 



splint (splint). A rigid or flex- 
ible appliance for the fixation 
of displaced or movable parts. 



sprain (spran). The wrenching 
of 3 joint, with partial rup- 
ture or other injury of its at- 
tachments and without luxa- 
tion of bones. The signs of 
a sprain are rapid swelling, 
heat and disablement of the 
joint. The pain is usually 
great, and is much increased 
by moving. The treatment is 
by hot or cold applications 
and bandaging; if recovery be 
too slow, immobilization of 
the joint is indicated. 

spray (spra). A liquid minutely 
divided, as by a jet of air or 



Btandardization (stan"dard-iz-a'- 
shun). The bringing of any 
preparation to a reco ' 

standard as to quality 
gredients. 
standardize (stan'dard-ize). To 
compare with or conform to 
a standard. 



BUte (stat) (L. sta'tus). Con- 
dition or situation status; also 
the crisis or turning-point of 
an attack of disease. 

static (stat'ik). At rest; in 
equilibrium not in motion. 2. 

Not dynamic. 

■taticB (stat'iks). That depart- 
ment of mechanics which 
treats of matter in a state of 
rest or equilibration. 



steppage (step'aj). The pecu- 
liar gait characteristic of pe- 
ripheral neuritis with dia- 
betic tabes. 

■terilizerv. Scholl's. A cabinet 
sterilizer for use in chiropody 
practice; cabinet with trays 
and means of holding solu- 
tions and sterilizing instru- 

stigma (stig'mah) (PI. stig'ma- 
ta). 1. A spot, dot or impres- 
sion upon the skin. 

stimulant (s t i m'u-1 ant) (L. 
stim'ulans). Producing stimu- 
lation. 2. An agent or remedy 
that produces increased func- 
tional activity. 

strain (stran). 1. To overexer- 
cise, to use to an extreme and 
harmful degree. 2. To filter 
or subject to eolation. 3. In- 
jury due to exercise or over- 
use. 4, Excessive effort or 
undue exercise. 

strap (strap). 1. A band or 
slip, as of adhesive plaster, 
used in attaching parts to 
each other. 



STRAPPING 

strapping (strap'ing). The ap- 
plication of strips by adhesive 
plaster, one overlapping the 
other, so as to cover a part 
and make pressure upon it. 

■tratmn (stra'tum) (PI. stra'ta) 
(L.). A layer or set of lay- 
ers, as in the epidermis. 

stroke (strok). A sudden and 
severe attack, as of apoplexy 

or paralysis. 



SUBSTITUTIVE 



structure (struk'chur). 1. An 
organ. 2. The composition of 

an organ. 

stump (stump). The distal end 
of the part of the limb left 
in amputation. 

styptic fstip'tik). 1. Astringent 
arresting hemorrhage by 
means of an astringent qual- 
ity. The chief styptics are 
alum, tannic acid, copper, 
and zinc sulphates, iron chlor- 
ide and zinc oxide. 

sub (L. sub, under). A prefix 
signifying "under," beneath, 
"near," "almost" or moderate- 

ly. 

subastragalar (sub-as-trag'al- 

ar). Situated or occurring 
under the astragalus. 

subcartilaginous (suh"kar-til- 
aj'in-us). 1. Situated beneath 
a cartilage. 2. Partly cartil- 
aginous. 



subextensibility (sub-eks-ten- 
sib-il'it-e). Decreased exten- 
sibility. 

subtnflanunation (sub"in-flam- 
a'shun). Slight or mild in- 
flammation. 

subject (sub'jekt) (L, subjec'- 
tus, east under). 1. A person 
or animal subjected to treat- 
ment, observation or experi- 
ment. 2. A body for dissec- 

Bubluxatiou (sub-luks-a'shun) 
(L. sub, under -\- luxa'tio, dis- 
location). An incomplete or 
partial dislocation. 



subsidence (sub-sid'ens). The 

fradual disappearance of a 
isease. 



substitutive (sub'stit-u-tiv). Ef- 
fecting a change or substitu- 
tion of symptoms. 



SUSTENTACULUM 



sudor (su'dor). Sweat. 



Buper (L. super, above). A 
prefix signifying upon, above 
or implying excess. 

superabduction {su"per-ab-duk'- 
shun). Extreme or excessive 
abduction. 

superactivity (s u-p e r-a k-t i v'- 
it-e). Activity greater than 
normal. 

■uperdistention. (su"per-di8-ten'- 
shun). Extreme or excessive 
distention. 

sup«rduct (su"per-dukt') (L. 
su'per, over + du'cerc, to 
draw). To carry up or ele- 
vate. 

superextendcd (su-per-eks-ten'- 
ded). Distended beyond the 
normal. 

■uperextension (su'pcr-eks-ten'- 
shun). Excessive or undue 

extension. 

superficial (su-per-fish'al) (L. 
superfieia'Iis). Pertaining to 
or situated near the surface. 



superior (su-pe're-or) (L. neut. 
Bupe'rius). Higher; having a 
highf 



uperten 



siqtinate (au'pin-at). To turn 
the arm or hand so that the 
palm faces to the front, also 
to rotate the leg outward. 



the palm upward. 



surface (ser'fas) (L, fa'cies). 
The outer part of a solid 

surgery (sur'jer-e). That branch 
of medicine which treats dis- 
eases, wholly or in part, by 
manual and operative proce- 
dures. 



surgical insole. An appliance 
made of German silver to be 
worn inside shoes For treat- 
ment of flat-foot. 

susceptible (sus-sep'tib-1). Sen- 
sitive to an influence ; liable 
to become affected with a dis- 

sustcntaciilum (sus-ten-tak'u- 
lum) (PI. sustentac'ula) (L.). 
A support s. tali — the process 
of the calcaneum supporting 
the astragalus. 



SWEAT 

sweat (swet). The perspiration, 
the clear liquid exuded from 
or excreted by the sudoripar- 
ous glands. It possesses a 
characteristic odor and a salty 
taste; its reaction is normally 
alkaline, but when mixed with 
sebum it ts acid. 



Bymmetiy (sim'et-re). The reg- 
ular harmonious correspond- 
ence of parts around a com- 
mon axis, or on each side of 
any plane of the body. 

qnnpatbetic (sim-path-et'ik). 1. 
Pertaining to, caused by or 
exhibiting sympathy. 2. The 
sympathetic nerve or system 
of nerves. 

symptom (simp'tum). Any evi- 
dence of disease, or of a pa- 
tient's condition; a change in 
a patient's condition indica- 
tive of some bodily or mental 



^malfpa {sin-al'je-ah). Pain ex- 
perienced in one place, but 
caused by lesion in another. 

synarthrosis, synarthrodia 

(synarthro'sis, synarthro'dia). 
An immovable articulation. 

syndestnitii (sin-des-mi'tis). 1. 
Inflammation of a ligament or 
ligaments, s. metatar'sea, in- 
flammation of the metatarsal 
ligaments. 



syndesmology (sin-dcs-mol'o- 
je). That branch of anato- 
my which treats of the liga- 



■ynergetic (sin-er-jet'ik). Work- 
ing together; said of muscles 
which co-operate in perform- 



Bjrnonym (sin'o-i 
which has the 
ly the same, 
other word. 



). A word 
ne ,or near- 
meaning as an- 



synosteotomy (sin''os-te-ot'o- 
me). The dissection of the 

synostosis (sin-os-to'sis). Ab- 
normal 



_ _ .. _ .ill proportion of 
mineral salts. It is a trans- 
parent, alkaline secretion re- 
sembling the white of an 
egg, and is contained in a 
joint cavity, bursa or tendon- 

aynovial (sin-o've-al) (L, syno- 
via'Iis). Of or pertaining to 
or secreting synovia. 



SYNOVITIS 

synovitis (sin-o-vi'tis). Inflam- 
mation of a synovial mem- 
brane. It is usually painful, 
particularly on motion, and 
IS characterized by a fluctu- 
ating swelling due to effu- 
sion within a synovial sac. 
It may be caused by septic 
poisonmg, an exanthematous 
disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, 
rheumatism or other causes. 
It is treated by rest and 



syntropic (sin-trop'ik). Similar 
and turned in the same di- 
rection. 

system (sia'tem). The whole 
bodily organism, 2. A set 
or series of parts or organs 

function. 3. A school or 
method of practice, as the 
Brunonian, Galenic, Eclectic 
or Paracelsian system. 

systematic (sis-tem-at'ik). Per- 
taining or according to a 
system; methodic. 

tabes (ta'bcz). 1. Any wasting 
of the body; progressive 
atrophy of the body or a 
part of it 2. Locomotor 

tabetic (tab-et'ik). Pertaining 

to or affected with tabes, t. 

foot, 3 foot that is distorted 

by tabes dor sails, 
tactile (tak'til). Pertaining to 

the sense of touch. 

Pain in 



TALIPES 

talipes (tal'ip-ez) (L. for club- 
foot). Clubfoot, a deformity 
of the foot in which it is 
twisted out of shape or posi- 
tion; t. arcua'tus, a foot with 
an abnormally high arch; t. 
calcaneoval'gus, a form of 
talipes combining talipes cal- 
caneus and talipes valgus; t. 
calcaneus, club-toot in which 
the patient walks on the 
heel, the toes being elevated. 
It is frequently caused by 
infantile paralysis of the 
muscles of the tendo achillis; 
t. ca'vus, exaggeration of the 
plantar arch of the foot due 
to contraction of the plantar 
fascia; t. equinova'rus, a va- 
riety combining the features 
of talipes varus and talipes 
equinua; t., equi'nus, that in 
which the patient walks on 



the t 



■ the 



both of ; 
It is due to elevation of the 
heel by contraction of the 
tendo achillis; t. percavus, 
extreme plantar curvature; t. 
planovalguSj valgus combined 
with fiattemng of the plantar 
arch and of the instep; t. 
pla'nus, flat-floot or splay- 
foot, a condition in which 
the arch of the instep is de- 
creased or wanting. It is due 
to long continued standing; 
spasmodic t., talipes pro- 
duced by sprain, of the 
muscles; t., vat'gus, club-foot, 
in which the patient walks 
on the inner border of the 
foot, the sole being turned 
outward; t. va'rus, that in 
which the patient walks on 
the outer border of the foot, 
the sole being turned inward. 



TALOCALCANEAN 

talocalcanean (ta"lo-kal-ka'ne- 
an) (L. ta'lus, ankle + cal- 
ca'neum, heel-bone). Per- 
taining to the astragalus and 
the calcaneum. 



tarsal (tahr'sal) (L. tarsa'lis). 
Pertaining to the tarsus or 
to the instep. 

taraale (tahr-sa'le) (PI. tarsa'- 
lia), 1. Any bone of the 
tarsus, especially one belong- 
ing to the distal row. 

tanalgui (tahr-sat'je-ah). Neu- 
ralgia of the foot, with flat- 
tening of the arch. 



tBTKctomy (tahr-sek'to-me). 1. 
Excision of the tarsus, or a 
part of it. 2. Excision of a 
tarsal cartilage. 



tarsometatarBal (tahr"! 
ah-tar'sal). Pertaining 
tarsus and the 

tanoptoris (t a r-s o p-t o's i s). 
Fafling of the tarsus; flat- 
foot. 

tarutartat (tar-so-tahr'sal). Be- 
tween two rows of tarsal 



TENDINOUS 

tarsotibial (tab r-s o-t i b'e-a 1), 
Pertaining to the tarsus and 
the tibia. 

Ursus (tahr'sus). 1. The in- 
step proper with its seven 
bones, the proximal segment 
of the foot; the hones are 
the astragalus (or knuckle- 
bone), the calcaneum (or 
heel-hone), and the scaphoid, 
forming the proximal row; 
the cuboid and the internal, 
middle and external cunei- 
form bones, forming the dis- 
tal row or tarsalis. The as- 
tragalus articulates with the 

ib(a — 

,al bi 
sals. 

technic, or technique (tek'nek). 
The method of procedure of 
operation. 

temperature (tem'per-a-ture). 
The degree of intensity of 
heat or molecular vibration. 

temporization (tem-por-iz-a'- 
shun). The expectant form 
of treatment of disease, 

tenacity (te-nas'it-e). Tough- 
ness: the condition of being 
tough; cellular t., the inher- 
ent tendency of all cells to 
persist in a given form or 
direction of activity. 

tenderness (ten'der-nes). Ab- 
normal cutaneous sensitive- 
ness to the touch. 
tendinosuB (ten-din-o'sus). The 
semitendinosus muscle. 

(ten'din-us) (L. ten- 
losus). Pertaining to, re- 
mbling or of the nature of 
tendon. 



Undo (ten'do). Latin for ten- 
don. 2. Achil'lis, the tendon 
of the soleus and gastrocne- 
{ muscles, at the back of 



:n'do). 



the heel. 



tendon (ten'dun) (L. 
The fibrous cord of .. 
tive tissue in which the fibers 
of the muscle end, and by 
which a muscle is attached 
to a bone or other structure. 
Achilles t., the tendo achil- 
lis. 

tendoplasty (t e n'd o p 1 a s t y). 
Plastic operation on tendons. 



tendosynontu (ten-do-si-no- 
tis). Inflammation of a t 
don and its sheath. See t 

oaynovitis. 






, (ten-ot'o-me). The 

cutting of a tendon, as for 
club'fooL Graduated t.. the 
incomplete division of a ten- 
don. 

tension (len'shun). 1. The act 
of stretching; the state of 
being stretched. 2. In elec- 
tricity, the power of over- 
coming 



A muscle 



tenninal (ter'n 



TIBIA 

(tct'er). I. A fiopular 
ie for various skm dis- 
cs. 2. A akin disease of 
imals communicable to 
1 and characterized by in- 



thenar (the'n 


r). The palm of 






foot. 





theory (the'o-re). 1. The doc- 
trine of the principles under- 
lying the art of healing as 
distinguished from the prac- 
tice of that art. 

therapeatica (ther-ap-u'tiks). 1. 
The science and art con- 
cerned with the application 

of remedies and the treat- 
ment of disease. 

thigh (thi). The portion of 
the leg above the knee; t. 
bone, the femur. 



thrombua (throm'bus). A blood- 
clot in a vessel at the point 
of obstruction. 

tibia (tib'e-ah) (L.). The in- 
ner and larger bone of the 
leg below the knee. It ar- 
ticulates with the knee above 
and with the astragalus be- 
I o w. Lannelongue's t., a 
tibia deformed by inherited 
syphilis; tibia, saber shaped; 
a deformity of the tibia due 
to gummatous periostitis, i , 



tibials (tib-e-a'te). A bone on 
the tibial side of the tarsus 
of thf embryo partly repre- 
sented in the adult by the 

astragalus. 



tibiocalcanean (tib"c-o-ka1-ka'- 
ne-an). Pertaining to the 
tibia and the calcaneus. 

tibtofemoral {tib"e-o-fem'or-a1). 
Pertaining to the tibia and 
the femur. 

tlWofibular (tib"e-o-fib'u-lar). 
Pertaining to the tibia and 
the fibula. 

tibionavicular (ttb"e-o-naV'ik'u- 

lar). Pertaining to the tibia 
and the navicular or scaphoid 
bone. 



tissue (tis'su) (Fr. tis'u). An 
aggregation of cells, fibers 
and various cell-products 
forming a structural element. 

toe (to). A digit or dactyl of 
[he foot, t., drop, inability 
to raise or extend the toes. 



due to paralysis more or less 
complete; hammer t., a con- 
dition in which the proximal 
phalanx of the toe — oftenest 
that of the second toe — is 
extended and the second and 
distal phalanges are flexed, 
causing a ctaw-Iike appear- 
ance; Morton's t., painful af- 
fection of the metatarsopha- 
langeal joint of the fourth 
toe; t. phenomenon. 



toe-drop. Dropping of toe. 

toe-flex. A device for straight- 
ening crooked great toes and 
correcting bunions and en- 
larged jomts. Flexes or bend 
and helps to straighten the 
deformed toe. 



n 



toe right, Scholl'a. A device 
to separate the toes. A de- 
vice to relieve soft corns be- 
tween the toes, contracted 
and overlapping and under- 
lapping toes. 

tonicity (to-nis'it-e). The nor- 
mal condition of tone or ten- 
sion; the quality of muscular 
fibre under < — """" — 



topbut (to'fns). A calcareous 
deposit in gout,^-cJ<j^j^,| 



torn on (tor'shun) (L. tor'sio; 
torque're, to twist). 1. The 
act of twisting; the condition 
of being twisted 

touch (tutsh) (L. tac'tus). I. 
The sense by which contact 
with objects gives evidence 
as to be certain of their 
qualities. 2. Palpation or ex- 
ploration with the finger. 

toxic (toks'ik). Poisonous. 

toxidcmiitiB (toks"e-der-mi'tis). 
Any skin inflammation due 
to a poison. 

traction (trak'shun). A draw- 
ing or pulling. 

transplantation (trans-plan-ta'- 
ghun) (L. trans, across + plan- 
ta're, to plant). The graft- 
ing of tissues taken from the 
same body or from another; 
see graft; tenson t., the op- 
eration of inserting a piece 
from the tendon of a sound 
muscle into the tendon of a 
paralized muscle. 

transpoBition (trans-po-zish'un). 
An interchange of position, 

transudation (transuda'tion). 
An oQzing of a fluid through 
the pores of the skin. 

transverse (trans-vers'). Lying 



TRI-SPRING, SCROLL'S 

trauma <traw'mah) (PI, trau'- 
mata). A wound or injury; 

shock that makes a lasting 
impression on the mind, es- 
pecially t h e subconscious 

traumatic (traw-mat'ik). Of or 
pertaining to or caused by 



(tri.w'm.t-isni). 1. 

A condition of the system 
due to an injury or wound. 
2. A wound. 

treatment (tret'raent). The 
management and care of a 
patient or the combating of 
his disorder, to effect a cure. 

tremor (tre'mor). fnvoluntary 

trembling of the body, 
tri. A prefix denoting three. 

triangular (tri-ang'u-lar) (L. 
triangularis). Having three 

angles 



tii-spring, SchoU'a. A scientific 
arch support for the feet. A 
support with a main plate 
and an under spring making 
three springs to give up- 
ward pressure to flat feet, 
and broken down arches. 
Made of Silveroid and covered 
with leather. 



TROCHANTER 

trochanter (tro-kan'ter). Eith- 
er of the two processes be- 
low the reck of the femur. 
The greater t„ is located at 
the outer side; the lesser t., 
at the inner. 

trophic (tro'fik). Pertaining to 



tni-span, Scholl's. A support 
for the arch of the foot. 
Double plate constructed ap- 
pliance covered with leather 
for severe cases of flat foot, 
rotated ankle, weak arches 
and other foot deformities. 

tubercle (tulier-kl) (L. tuber'- 
culum). 1. A nodule or small 
eminence, especially a solid 
. elevation of the skin larger 
' : than a papule. 2. A 






inded 



umor (tu'mor) (L, from tu'- 
mere, to swell.) 1. Swelling; 
morbid enlargement. 2. A 
neoplasm; a mass of new tis- 
sues which persists and 
^ows independently of its 



turgid (ter'jid). Swollen. 

twitch (twitsh). A short, sud- 
den pull or jerk of a muscle. 

tyloBii (ti-lo'sis). 1. The for- 
mation of callouses upon the 
skin. 2. A callous or cal- 

type (tip). The general or 
prevailing characteristic form 
of any particular case of dis- 



uarthritis (u-ar-thri'tis). Gout 
due to excess of uric acid in 
the system. 

nicer (ul'ser) (L. ul'cus). An 
open sore other than a 
wound; a loss of substance 



tubercular (tu-ber'ku-lar). Of 
or pertaining to or resem- 
bling a tubercle. 

tuberculofibroBis <tu-ber'ku-lo- 
fi-bro'sis). Fibroid, tubercu- 
losis. 

tuberculosis (tu-ber-ku-lo'sis). -.. _ 

An infectious disease caused surface causing gradual i 
by bacil'lus tuberculo'sis and integration and 
characterized by the forma- the tissues; gouty 

of tubercles in the tis- perficial ulcer occurring over 
a gouty joint, 

tnbetosi^ (tu-ber-os'it-e) (L. ulcerate (ul'ser-at) (L. ulcer- 

tuberositas). A broad emi- a're, ulcera'tus). To become 

; situated on a bone. affected with ulceration. 



ULCERATION 

iilceratioii (ul-ser-a'shun) (L. 
ulcera'tio). 1. The formation 
of an ulcer; a., ulcer of the 

ulcerative (ul'ser-ativ). Per- 
taining to or of the nature 

ulcerous (ul'ser-us) (L. ulcero'- 
sus). 1. Of the nature of an 
ulcer. 2. Aflfected with ul- 
ceration. 

uloid (u'loid). Scar-like. 

unbalance (un-bal'ans). Lack 
or loss of the normal bal- 
ance between paired parts 

and organs. 



unconsciouB (un-kon'shus). In' 
sensible; not receiving 
sensory impressions and 
having any subjective experi- 






unction (unk'shun) (L. unc'- 
tio). An ointment; the ap- 
plication of an ointment; in- 
unction, 

undertoc (un'der-to). A con- 
dition in which the great toe 
is displaced under the others. 

unequal (un-e'kwal). Having 
different dimensions or qual- 

ungual (un'gual). Pertaining 



uni (u'ni). A Latin prefix de- 
noting one. 



uniceps (u'nis-eps) (L. u'nus. 
one + ca'pot, head). Having 
one head or organ; said of 
a muscle. 



fecting but one side. 

union (un'yun (L. u'nio). The 
process of healing; the re- 
newal of continuity in a 
broken bone or between the 
lips of a wound; see healin?; 

of a fractured bone so as to 
produce deformity. 

uplift, Scboll's. A foot arch 
supporting appliance which. 
when worn inside the shoe, 

gives firm pressure and up- 
lift to the weight carrying 
points of the arch. A sup- 
port designed to relieve 
symptoms of fiat-foot, fa- 
tigue, inability to walk or 
Stand much, rheumatism in 
the feet and limbs, etc. 

valgus (val'gus) <L.). 1. Same 
as talipes valgus. 2. A club- 
foot with e vers ion; spurious 
v.. splay-foot a flat, broad 
foot. 

valve (valv). A fold across a 
canal obstructing passage in 



-anw (va'rus) (L.). 
ing the legs bent ii 
as talipes varus. 



1. Hav- 
. 2. Same 
club-foot 



va> (vas), A vessel. 



VASOMOTOR 

vasomotor (va-so-mo'tor) (L, 
vas, vessel + mo'tor, mover). 
1. Presiding over the move- 
ments of the walls of blood- 
vessels; that is their expan- 
sion (vasodilatation)^ or con- 
traction (vasoconstriction). 2. 
Any agent or nerve that reg- 
ulates the tension of the 
blood vessels. 

vdn (van) (L. ve'na). A ves- 
sel which conveys the blood 
to or toward the heart. All 
veins except the pulmonary 
carry dark, venous blood. 
Veins, like arteries, have 
three coats, an inner, middle 
and outer, but the coats are 
not so thick and they col- 
lapse when the vessel is 
cut. Many veins, especially 
the superncial, have valves 
formed of reduplications of 
their lining membrane. The 
larger arteries have deep 
veins, generally included in 
the same sheath, while such 
vessels as. the brachial and 
radial have 



the < 



The 



Derficial veins, which 
usually unaccompanied by ar- 
teries, run between the layers 
of the superficial fascia and 
' I the deep veins. 



▼ersion (ver'shun) (L. ver'sio). 
The act of turning; podalic 
v., version which causes the 
feet to present. 



vibration (vi-bra'shun) (L. vi- 
bra'tio, from vibra're, to 
shake). I. A rapid move- 
ment to and fro; oscillation. 
2. The shaking of the body 
as a therapeutic measure. 3. 
A form of massage. 

vola (volah) (L.). The sole 
or palm; v. ma'nus, the palm 
of the hand; v., pe'dis, the 
sole of the foot. 

volar (vo'lar) (L. vola'ris, from 
vo'Ia, palm or sole). Per- 
taining to the palm or sole. 



vulcanite (vul'kan-it). Vulcan- 
ized caoutchouc or India-rub- 
ber. 

walk Btrate. A heel cushion 
or pad to be placed inside 
the shoe, to orevent running 
over of the heels on one side. 
A wedge shaped pad of 
sponge rubber, covered with 
leather, to be placed inside 
the shoe to change the bal- 
ance of the wearer's foot in 
the shoe. 



rarely of the mucous mem- 
brane, formed by hypertro- 
phy of the papillae of the 
skin. 



ilit^~ wartSL , 



eVa). A 
of plaa 



weak (wek). Not stro 
wcskness (weak'ness). 
strength. 



wound (woond) (L. vul'nus). 
Any break in the continuity 
of an interna) or external 
surface by violence; a trau- 
matism. 



ZINOX PADS 

discovered by Prof, Roentgen, 
of Wurzburg, who found that 
the kathode (kathode rays) 
of a Geissler or vacuum tube 
had peculiar penetrative pow- 
ers through matter opaqne 
to other ether-rays, and by 
means of these rays photo- 
graphs ("shadowgrams," 
skiagrams," etc.), may be 
taken of bones, metallic sub' 
, etc., situated 



the 



Zinoz Pads. An antiseptic wa- 
ter-proof pad cut in various 
shapes for chiropody work. 
A self-adhering pad to pro- 
tect from pressure the part of 
foot operated upon. Made 
by the Scholl Mtg. Co., Chi- 
cago, New York and Toronto. 



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Scientific Foot Appliances to Correct Weaknesses 
and Discomforts of tKe Feet and Lower Limbs 

For fifteen ^ears past, tke name SchoU has been closely 
identifieJ as a leader, always originatii^ end constructing tKe 
most practical foot appliances based on Anatoniical and Ortho- 
pedic principles, approved h^ leading physicians and Surgeons. 

In tKe selection of correcti'^e appliances and treatment of foot 
ailments it is necessary to secure the '^ei^ best the market affords. 
There will be no disappointments if you specify Scholl's. 



ScKoll's Foot-Eazer 

Quick tditf for dnd, aiJung feet, 



ScKoll's Tri-Spring Arch 
Support 



most stOtrt cm 



Scholl's AnteriorMetatBTsal Arch Support 

Mad* to nipport the dvpretlva 
nutatsnili. For aUeuttt on tht loli 
caused try tli* breaking of tKe trenr^c 



flrcK end prenure on the Heeds of tKe 
■infill Morten's To* end cnmped toee, 
BtcK. Meds in four ftyUi' 



Scholl's Bunion Reducer 

lUiev** ell pain and tendemcsi in 
Bunion or enlarged jant. Taket ai'ti^ 
preenue, keeps sKoe in iKape. 



ScKoU's Toe Fl« 

Exerts csrreclion h} a soft, oor 
thet itnightei 



Scholl's Absorbo Pads 



^^i-^ .ii.iiwnuDu i*..*! -^ ^^'ft uu»'f-w wi.' sender joints. Made of pure, peia 
rubter, rvtain mmsture, keep out air and separate iKe com or chIIoua from iK* 
true skin undenwatK, vKilc protecting tlie growth from cKe irritation of tKe sKo*. 
A size end stjlle for eveijl onn, callous or tender joint. 



THE SCHOLL MFG. CO. 



1-4 Giltspur St. 
London, Eng. 



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